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Volumes VII -- VIII 

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W len County W* library 
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On Certain Obscurities Therein. — The Quarrel between the Governor-in-Chief and 
the Lieutenant-Governor. — Disagreement as to Their Powers and Unsuccessful 
Attempt of the Foreign Secretary to Reconcile Them. — Resignation of Both 
Governors and What May Have Caused it. — Important Historical Documents 
Now First Published. 5004SS1 

By Avern Pardoe, Librarian to the Legislative Assembly.* 

Brief as has been the separate existence of Upper Canada, the 
student who attempts to trace the early history of the Province finds 
almost insurmountable obstacles in his path. At the very outset of his 
task he is confronted with difficulties which his guides, the historians, 
have found it impossible to solve, and therefore have simply dodged 
cr ignored. 

For instance, the very first thing of which the student would wish 
to assure himself would be the extent of the autonomy conceded by the 
Act which set apart Upper from Lower Canada. He would refer to 
the creating Act, 31 Geo. III., c. 31, 1791, the " Act making further 
provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec." This is 
generally cited as the Act dividing the Province of Quebec into two 
Provinces. It is in reality nothing of the kind. It recites that — not 
Parliament, but — His Majesty (acting, of course, under advice) has 
teen pleased to signify his Royal Intention to divide the Province of 
Quebec into two Provinces to be called Upper and Lower Canada. 
Whereupon Parliament enacts that in each of the new Provinces to be 
created by the King there shall be a Legislative Council and an 
Assembly; and that the laws to be passed by these bodies and assented 
to in the name of His Majesty by such person as shall be appointed 
Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, shall be good laws. Other clauses 
authorize the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor to district the Pro- 
vince, call the Legislature together, and so on. But not one word can be 
iound in the Act authorizing the appointment of a Governor or a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, and not one word as to where the authority of each of 
these high officials begins or ends. If we go back to the earlier legisla- 
tion, we get no more light. The first document issued after the cession 
of Canada to Britain, the Proclamation of 1763, mentions the Governor 
as being already in esse, and as having had certain duties cast upon 

•Toronto, January, 1906. 


him. And in the Quebec Act, 1774, there is mention of an already 
existing Governor. 

It is clear that the Governor does not receive his powers from 
Parliament, for Parliament does not create him nor attempt to define 
his powers and duties, but from the Crown, which does. It appears, 
then, that the Crown, immediately on the cession, appointed an official 
whom it called " Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over 
Our Province of Quebec in America and of all our Territories depend- 
ent thereupon," and under him created a Lieutenant-Governor who was 
simply the deputy of the Governor-in-Chief, to assume the duties of 
the latter on his incapacity or in his absence. When the Province 
was divided, these same offices were continued, except that there were 
two Lieutenant-Governors appointed, one for each Province. Of 
course there must have been some change in the duties of all of them 
consequent on the division of the Province, but search will be made 
in vain through all the ordinary sources in the endeavor to find out 
what those changes were. Not from any printed document can it be 
found to what extent the powers of the Crown were delegated to the 
Governor-in-Chief, to what extent to the Lieutenant-Governor, or to 
what extent they Avere not delegated at all. The powers conferred on 
the respective officers will be what are to be found in the documents 
appointing them, and the appointing power in those days was under 
very few restraints, and those not statutory, as to what powers might 
be conferred and what retained. The powers of the Governor-in-Chief 
and Lieutenant-Governor might vary greatly not only as between dif- 
ferent times and places, but as between different individuals, and these 
powers may be in process of extension at one time and place and in 
process of limitation at another. The powers of each official will be 
ascertainable only from his Commission, and these may not be the 
same as those of his predecessor or of his successor. And even more 
important than the powers given in the Commission will be the powers 
conferred in the instructions which accompany the Commission or 
which may follow and modify it at any time. A '''-' 

In order to get a fair start in our history we need at the very first 
to examine the powers of the Governor-in-Chief and Lieutenant- 
Governor, and this has hitherto been impossible. Very few of the 
Upper Canadian Commissions can be found in print, and as to the 
Instructions, it was formerly the practice to keep them as profoundly 
confidential documents. It is difficult to imagine what would have 
happened if a member of the Family Compact had been asked in the 
House to bring down a copy of His Excellency's Instructions. As to 


Lower Canada, the darkness is not so dense, for some of the early Com- 
missions are to be found in a Collection printed by Baron Maseres, once 
Attorney-General of the Province, in 1772 ; and, besides, much more 
printed material for the early history of the Lower Province exists 
than for that of Upper Canada. Because of this lack of foundation 
material, the inner history of the most important events in the first 
years of Upper Canada has yet to be written. Why did this Province 
lose the services of Gen. Simcoe, who was an ideal man for the place, 
and was at first extremely well pleased with his duties ? It was from 
his suddenly throwing up his office and leaving a land-jobbing successor 
behind him that some of the bitterest controversies arose which beset 
the Province's early years. 

When Simcoe took office in 1791, Major-Gen. Sir Alured Clark 

.. was administering the Governorship-in-Chief, in the absence of Lord 

Dorchester, Governor-in-Chief (formerly Guy Carleton), who had 
gone to England. It is probable that Sir Alured, being only locum 
tenens, would not care to meddle with so efficient and positive an officer 
as Gen. Simcoe ; so these two got along not merely without clashing 
but to the perfect satisfaction of both. In Sept, 1793, Lord Dorchester 

\ returned and resumed office. He proceeded almost immediately to 

reconstruct Simcoe. He publicly mortified the Lieutenant-Governor 
by compelling him to change the system of contracting for supplies; 

• eent him against his wish and judgment with the Upper Canadian 

Militia to establish a fort on the Maumee* River, in what is now the 
State of Ohio, but was then Indian Territory; overruled Simcoe's 
} choice of a site near London as the Provincial capital ; threw upon 

him the ungracious task of refusing entrance to the Province to its 
first distinguished foreign visitor, the Duke de la Rochefoucauld-Li an - 
court ; and so on. 

Sometimes, in his despatches, Dorchester flung sarcasms at Simcoe, 
such as, that he will consult the latter whenever he feels himself in 
need of his advice; and sometimes he snubs him unmercifully, as, for 
instance, when Simcoe remonstrated against Dorchester's policy of 
denuding the Upper Province of troops and massing them in Quebec, 
Dorchester says he is sorry the disposition of the troops does not suit 
the Lieutenant-Governor, but as long as he, Dorchester, is Commander- 
in-Chief, he will act on his own judgment. 

Passages at arms of this character were followed by letters from 

* There is a general misapprehension as to the situation of the Fort which Simcoe 
built in the Indian Territory. Because it was called Fort Miami some have supposed it 
was on that Miami River which is a tributary of the Ohio. The fort was situated on the 
Maumee River, not far from Lake Erie, into which the river flows. The Maumee is called 
the Miami on some maps of date subsequent to Simcoe's operations. 


both of the Governors to the Duke of Portland, who was then Foreign 
Secretary and charged with Colonial affairs, in which letters each of 
the officers complains bitterly of the other's trying to wrest his authority 
from him. Dorchester says that for him the future depends on whether 
he is to receive orders from Simcoe, or Simcoe from him. He speaks 
of the expectations Simcoe must have had of " an independent com- 
mand in the upper country " — of which statement more anon. Dor- 
chester also complains that he had been slighted by the Duke of Port- 
land, that communications have passed over his head directly between 
the Government and his inferior officers, and vice versa, instead of 
through him ; that power has been withdrawn from him, and his 
authority weakened, in fact, virtually superseded. 

Simcoe, in his letters, states that Dorchester's actions have blighted 
all his hopes and defeated all his measures — measures which had 
received the approval of His Majesty's Ministers. Had he known these 
were to be checked, counteracted and annihilated he would have been 
positively dishonest not to have resigned. Simcoe also blurted out 
his dissatisfaction with the Indian Department, which was under Dor- 
chester, and charged it with corruption and incapacity, and declared 
that his authority had been so weakened by Dorchester that he declined 
to hold himself responsible for the maintenance of peace. 

Both Dorchester and Simcoe asked the Duke to define their powers. 
In reply to Lord Dorchester, the Duke of Portland wrote a very im- 
portant letter, a brief summary of which appeared in the volume of the 
Canadian Archives for 1891. Thanks to the courtesy of Dr. Doughty, 
Dominion Archivist, I am able to give below the full text of this docu- 
ment, to which I refer the reader. It will be seen to be written in a 
pacificatory strain, and to bear the interpretation that the Duke is 
seeking to limit Dorchester's powers to strictly military matters, and 
to justify his own direct communicating with Simcoe whenever it 
was on a matter which could be called a civil one. 

Now, Dorchester appears to have taken a far more comprehensive 
view of the powers and authorities entrusted to him, or at least to 
have assumed that it was his privilege to decide whether a certain 
matter was a military or a civil one, and as these were war times he 
seems to have so construed his military powers as to put in his hands 
the power to decide such purely domestic questions as the location of 
settlements. He would, in fact, have made Upper Canada a military 
colony, planting settlers nowhere except in places where they could be 
defended against the United States, which was not at all Simcoe's idea, 
as is evidenced by the fact that one of Simcoe's first official acts was to 
issue a cordial invitation to settlers from the United States, though 


between that country and Britain the angriest of feelings still prevailed. 
The Duke's letter finished the business. Instead of satisfying his 
prancing proconsuls, he added to their exasperation. Dorchester 
peremptorily resigned ; on account of old age, he said ; and went back 
to England, where he afterwards held several important military com- 
mands, living for twelve years, and then succumbing to an apoplectic 
attack. And Simcoe obtained leave of absence " on account of ill- 
health," and immediately took employment in an inferior position at 
a less salary in that most unhealthy island, San Domingo. 

It is quite in accord with the fine traditions of the British Civil 
Service that not a word of this unpleasantness should have been 
allowed to become public so long as harm could be done or suscepti- 
bilities hurt by the disclosure. Ninety-five years after the resignation 
of the Governors, Mr. D. B. Read wrote his " Life and Times of Gen. 
John Graves Simcoe." In it there cannot be found the remotest allu- 
sion to the disagreements between the two Governors. At that time 
nothing had become public on the subject. Soon after, in 1891, a vol- 
ume of the Canadian Archives was published containing a very con- 
densed account of the correspondence from which I have made the fore- 
going quotations. Luckily for Kingsford, the volume of his monu- 
mental History treating of that period was still on the stocks, and he 
was able to get in a few pages showing that all was not harmonious 
between the two Governors. Mr. Duncan Campbell Scott, in his 
recently published " John Graves Simcoe," in the " Makers of 
Canada " series, mentions briefly the facts of the quarrel. But neither 
Scott nor Kingsford. to my mind, attaches sufficient importance to the 
personal side of the disagreement. They prefer to ascribe Dorchester's 
resignation to mortification at the Home Government's interference 
with his Indian policy and Simeoe's to ill-health. But this does not 
consort with Dorchester's immediate acceptance of other employment 
under the same Government, nor with his own plea of old age, no more 
than does Simeoe's pleading ill-health and then going off to San 
Domingo. As a matter of fact, Simcoe went so far in some of his 
letters to England as to make it utterly impossible for Dorchester and 
himself to work together again, and Dorchester's actions towards 
Simcoe were even more eloquent than his words in expressing his 
reciprocation of Simeoe's opinion of him. It really seems as if the 
personal quarrel brought about what was substantially hara-kiri on 
the part of both contestants. 

What was the underlying cause of all this quarrelling? We have 
seen that there was none of it between Clarke and Simcoe. Their 
official correspondence ends with the heartiest expressions of esteem and 


confidence. The quarrel could not have occurred at a period nor with 
consequences more unfortunate for the country. Dorchester was by 
far the ablest of the British generals who went through the Revolu- 
tionary War. Some military men have said that if he had been in 
supreme command he would probably have succeeded in postponing 
American independence. Simcoe was equally well fitted for the 
Lieutenant-Governorship. Here were two very able men and honor- 
able men, patriots both, if ever there was patriotism, and both 
thoroughly imbued with a sense of their responsibility. Was it all 
due to the fact that they were too much alike in disposition and ability 
to be the one subordinated to the other % .Did Simcoe know the extent 
to which he was subordinated to Dorchester ( Had, in fact, either of 
these satraps a true idea of the extent of his involvement with the 
other ? Simcoe seems to have had the idea that except in actual mili- 
tary operations he was responsible to Great Britain alone ; in fact, Dor- 
chester wrote that Simcoe " seemed to think he had an independent 
command." Dorchester, on the other hand, was quite convinced that 
Simcoe was his inferior officer. 

How did they get these ideas ? Plainly from the only proper source 
for such information to come ; from the official source which was open 
to them, but to no one else on this side of the water ; from their Com- 
missions and Instructions. And upon this matter I am able to throw 
some light. 

A short time ago a visitor to the Legislative Library asked me to 
explain the status of the Lieutenant-Governor in the Province of Upper 
Canada. I gave him an answer in line with the first part of what I 
have written above, viz., that there were no printed documents from 
which he could get the information, but I inferred that the Governor- 
in-Chief was Commander of the Forces and that the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor had the civil authority. As I could not give chapter and verse 
in support of my opinion, I began looking for the text of the Commis- 
sions. I wrote to Dr. Doughty, Dominion Archivist, asking if Simcoe's 
Commission was among the Canadian Archives. He replied that he 
had ascertained it was among the Archives still in the custody of the 
Secretary of State. An application to the latter official brought 
Simcoe's Commission to daylight for the first time in about a cen- 
tury. Soon afterward, Dr. Doughty's first Report on the Archives 
appeared. Singularly, he had been working on similar lines. The 
volume contained the text of the Commissions and Instructions of 
several of the Governors-in-Chief before the division of the Province. 
It did not contain, however, the very documents I wanted, which were 
the Instructions to Simcoe on his first appointment and the Instructions 


to Dorchester on his reappointment consequent on the division of the 
Province. Another application to the Secretary of State's office elicited 
a copy of Dorchester's Commission and Instructions, and a courteous 
offer to set on foot an enquiry which will probably result in the cor- 
responding Instructions to Simeoe being found. 

Sufficient can be learned from the Instructions to Dorchester wholly 
to justify his attitude towards Simeoe, however unfortunate may have 
been the results flowing therefrom. It will be seen from the text 
printed below that the Instructions — which had the force of law, mind 
— give him absolute authority over the Lieutenant-Governor, whom he 
could even dismiss from office without assigning any reason. They 
give him power to call the Provincial Parliament, to prorogue it or to 
dissolve it at will: in a word, they enable him at will to convert the 
Lieutenant-Governor into a simple head-clerk. It is true that some 
of the powers conferred on Dorchester were latent as to Upper Canada 
as long as he remained outside the Province. But how as to Lower 
Canada ? Was the Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada a nullity 
as long as the Governor-in-Chief was in Quebec? Or was there a kind 
of extra-territorial fiction with regard to the presence of the Governor- 
in-Chief in Quebec \ In any event, Dorchester could have reduced 
Simcoe's civil powers to nought by simply stepping across the border 
line; and, that being so, he probably felt that he, Dorchester, was in 
reality responsible for the conduct of affairs in this Province, and 
so was morally bound to keep a tight rein on his " inferior officer." 

It is not to be thought for a minute that a soldier of Simcoe's 
standing would knowingly have accepted an office placing him in this 
degree of subordination. The wording of his Commission, printed 
below, throws no light on the extent of his power. For that we must 
look to his Instructions, and we are justified in concluding that when 
they do turn id they will prove to be wholly inconsistent with the 
Instructions given to Lord Dorchester. The tenor of Simcoe's letters, 
and the fact that he sent communications directly to England without 
telling Dorchester anything about them, shows that he had no reason 
to consider himself ' ; inferior officer " to Lord Dorchester except in 
strictly military affairs; and even in military matters it appears from 
Dorchester's letters that Simeoe thought his independence to be much 
greater than it. really was. 

I append Simcoe's Commission as first Lieutenant-Governor of 
Upper Canada ; the Commission of and Instructions to Lord Dor- 
chester on the division of the Province in 1791; and the letter of the 
Duke of Portland, Foreign Secretary, in reply to Dorchester's asking 
for a definition of his powers. All of these documents appear in print 

John G. Simeoe 
to be Lieut. 
Governor of 
U. Canada. 


for the first time. A perusal of them will, I think, convince any one 
that North America lost the services of Lord Dorchester, and Upper 
Canada lost the services of Gen. Simeoe, in consequence of the irrecon- 
cilability of the duties assigned to each of them by the British Govern- 
ment. In a word, it was one of those cases of paralysis of the local 
functions, caused by confusion of the head, of which our early history 
furnishes any number of examples. 

Commission of Gen. John Graves Simcoe as First Lieutenant- 

Govpjrnor of Upper Canada. 
George, R. 

George the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France 
and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc., To Our Trusty 
and Well-beloved John Graves Simcoe, Esquire, Greeting. 

We, reposing especial trust and confidence in 
your loyalty, integrity and ability, do by these 
presents constitute and appoint you to be Our 
Lieutenant Governor of Our Province of Upper 
Canada in America. To have hold exercise and 
enjoy the said place and office during our Pleasure, with all rights 
Privileges, profits, perquisites and advantages to the same belonging 
or appertaining, and further in case of his death or during the absence 
of Our Captain General and Governor in Chief of Our said Province 
of Upper Canada now and for the time being We do hereby authorize 
and require you to exercise and perform all and singular the powers 
and directions contained in Our Commission to Our said Captain 
General and Governor in Chief according to such Instructions as he 
hath already received from Us and such further Orders and Instruc- 
tions as he or you shall hereafter receive from Us and we do hereby 
command all and singular Our Officers, Ministers and loving subjects 
in Our said Province and all others whom it may concern to take due 
notice hereof and to give their ready obedience accordingly. Given at 
Our Court of St. James's the twelfth day of September, 1791, in the 
thirty first year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command. 

(Signed) Henry Dundas. 

Endorsed — 

" Department of the Secretary of State of 
" Canada, Registrar's Branch, 
" 10 Nov., 1905. 
" I certify the within to be a true and faithful copy of the Record 
of the original Commission as entered in Lib. A (Commissions) Fol. 6. 

(Signed) " Joseph Pope, 

" Dep. Registrar-General of Canada." 

the first chapter ok upper canadian history. 13 

Commission of, and Instructions to, Guv, Lord Dorchester, as 
Governor-in-Chief over Upper and Lower Canada, Issued 
on the Division of the Province. 
Fiat George the Third, by the Grace of God, of 

Recorded in the Office Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, 
of Enrollment at Quebec Defender of the Faith and so forth, To Our 
the 20th day of January, Right Trusty and Well-beloved Guy, Lord 
1 792, in the first Regis- Dorchester, Knight of the Most Honourable 
ter of Commissions from Order of the Bath, Greeting, Whereas Wee 
His Majesty, folio 1. did by Our Letters Patent, under Our 

Hugh Finlay, Great Seal of Great Britain, bearing date 

Acting Registrar, the twenty second day of April, in the 
twenty sixth year of Our Reign, constitute 
and appoint you Guy Lord Dorchester, (then Sir Guy Carleton) to be 
our Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over Our Province 
of Quebec in America, comprehending all Our Territories, Islands and 
countries in North America, then bounded as in Our said recited 
Letters Patent was mentioned and expressed. Now know ye, that Wee 
have revoked and determined and by these presents Do revoke and 
determine the said recited Letters Patent and every clause, article or 
thing therein contained. And whereas We have thought fit by Our 
Order made in our Privy Council on the Nineteenth day of August, 
One thousand seven hundred and Ninety one to divide Our said Pro- 
vince of Quebec, into two separate Provinces to be called the Province 
of Upper Canada and the Province of Lower Canada, by a line to 
commence at a stone Boundary on the North Bank of the Lake Saint 
Francis at the cove west of Point au Baudet, in the limit between the 
Township of Lancaster and the Seigneurie of New Longueuil, run- 
ning along the said limit in the direction of North thirty four degrees 
west to the Westermost angle of the said Seigneurie of New Longueuil, 
thence along the North Western Boundary of the Seigneurie of Vaud- 
reuil, running North twenty five degrees East, until it strikes the 
Ottawa River to ascend the said River into the Lake Tommiscanning 
and from the head of the said Lake, by a line drawn due North until 
it strikes the Boundary Line of Hudson's Bay the Province of Upper 
Canada to comprehend all such lands, Territories and Islands lying to 
the westward of the said line of division as were part of Our said 
Province of Quebec and the Province of Lower Canada, to comprehend 
all such Lands, Territories and Islands lying to the Eastward of the 
said line of division as were part of Our said Province of Quebec. 

And Whereas, by an Act in the present year of Our Reign, intituled 
an Act to repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the fourteenth year 
of His Majesty's Reign intituled " An Act for making more effectual 
provision for the Government of Quebec in North America and to 
make further provision for the Government of the said Province," 


further provision is thereby made for the Good Government and pros- 
perity of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. 

Further, Know Ye, that Wee reposing especial Trust and confi- 
dence in the prudence, courage and Loyalty of you, the said Guy Lord 
Dorchester of our especial Grace, certain Knowledge and mere motion 
have thought fit to constitute and appoint you the said Guy Lord 
Dorchester to be Our Captain General and Governor in Chief of Our 
said Province of Upper Canada and of Our Said Province of Lower 
Canada respectively, bounded as hereinbefore described, And Wee do 
hereby require and command you to do and execute all things in due 
manner, that shall belong to your said command and the trust We have 
reposed in you according to the several powers, provisions and direc- 
tions granted or appointed you by virtue of this present commission 
and by virtue of the above recited Act, passed in the present year of 
Our Reign and of such Instructions and Authorities herewith given 
unto you or which may from time to time be given you in respect to 
the said Provinces or either of them under Our Signet or Sign Manual 
as by Our Order in Our Privy Council and according to such laws as 
shall hereafter be made and established within Our said Provinces of 
Upper Canada and Lower Canada, under and by virtue of such powei^ 
provisions and directions as aforesaid, And Our Will and pleasure is 
that you, the said Guy Lord Dorchester as soon as may be after the 
publication of these Our Letters Patent do take the oaths appointed 
to be taken by an Act passed in the first year of the reign of King 
George the First, intituled " An Act for the further security of His 
" Majesty's person and Government and the Succession of the Crown 
" in the Heirs of the Late Princess Sophia, being Protestants and for 
" extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales and his 
" open and secret Abettors," as altered and explained by an Act passed 
in the sixth year of Our reign intituled " An Act for altering the Oath 
of Abjuration and the assurance and for amending so much of Act 
of the seventh year of her late Majesty Queen Anne intituled, An Act 
for the improvement of the Union of the two Kingdoms as after the 
time therein limited requires the delivery of certain Lists and Copies 
therein mentioned to persons indicted of Treason or misprision of 
Treason," as also that you make and subscribe the Declaration men- 
tioned in an Act of Parliament made in the Twenty fifth year of the 
reign of King Charles the Second, intituled " An Act for preventing 
dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants," and likewise that 
you take the usual Oath for the due Execution of the Office and trust 
of our Captain General and Governor in Chief of Our said Province 
of Upper Canada and our said Province of Lower Canada and for the 
due and impartial administration of Justice. And further, that you 
take the Oath required to be taken by Governors of Plantations to do 
their utmost that the several Laws relating to Trade and the Planta- 


tions be observed, all wbicb said Oaths and Declarations the Executive 
Councils of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada 
respectively or any three or more of the members of either of them 
have hereby full power and Authority and are required to tender and 
Administer unto you and in your absence to Our Lieutenant Governor 
if there be any upon the place, all of which being duly performed, You 
the said Guy Lord Dorchester, or in your absence Our Lieutenant Gov- 
ernors of the said Provinces or persons administering the Respective 
Governments therein shall administer unto each of the Members of 
such Executive Councils as aforesaid, the Oaths mentioned in the said 
first recited Act of Parliament altered as above, as also cause them 
to make and subscribe the afore mentioned Declaration and administer 
to them the Oath for the due execution of their places and trusts, and 
you shall also administer the above mentioned Oaths and Declarations 
to Our Lieutenant Governor if there be any within the said provinces 
wherein you shall reside. And Whereas, Wee may find it convenient 
for Our Service that, certain Offices or places within Our said Pro- 
vinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, should be filled by Our 
Subjects who may have become such by being naturalized by Act of 
the British Parliament or by the conquest and cession of the Prbvince 
of Canada and who may profess the religion of the Church of Rome. 
It is therefore Our will and Pleasure, that in all cases where such 
persons shall or may be admitted into any such office or place, the 
Oath prescribed in and by an Act of Parliament, passed in the four- 
teenth year of Our Reign, intituled " An Act for making more efficient 
provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in North 
America," and also the usual Oath, for the due Execution of their 
places and Trusts respectively shall be duly administered to them. 
And Wee do further give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord Dor- 
chester, full Authority from time to time hereafter by yourself or by 
any other to be authorized by you in that behalf to administer and 
give the Oaths mentioned in the aforesaid Acts to all and every such 
person and persons as shall at any time or times, pass into Our said 
provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, or shall be resident 
or abiding there. And Wee do hereby Authorize and empower you to 
keep and use the publick Seals of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada 
and Lower Canada for sealing all things whatsoever that shall pass 
the Seal of our said Provinces respectively and in case of your absence 
from either of Our said Provinces to deliver the same into the charge 
and custody of Our Lieutenant Governor or person administering the 
Government there for the purposes above mentioned until Wee shall 
think fit to authorize you by an Instrument under Our Royal sign 
Manual to commit the custody thereof to such person or persons as 
may be appointed by us for that purpose. And Whereas, by the said 
recited Act passed in the present year of Our Reign it is enacted that 


there shall be within each of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada 
and Lower Canada respectively a Legislative Council and an Assembly 
to be composed and constituted in the manner in the said Act described 
and that in the said Provinces Wee, Our Heirs, and Successors shall 
have a power during the continuance of the said Act by and with the 
advice and consent of the Legislative Councils and Assemblies to make 
laws for the peace, Welfare and good Government of the said Pro- 
vinces respectively, such Laws not being repugnant to the said Act and 
that all such laws being passed by the said Legislation Councils and 
Assemblies and being assented to by us, Our Heirs and Successors, or 
assented to in Our name by such person as Wee Our Heirs or Suc- 
cessors shall from time to time appoint to be Governor or Lieutenant 
Governor of the said Provinces respectively or by such person as Wee, 
Our Heirs or Successors shall from time to time appoint to administer 
the Government within the same are by the said Act declared to be by 
virtue of and under the Authority of the said Act valid and binding 
to all intents and purposes whatever within the said Provinces. 

Wee do hereby give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord Dor- 
chester, full power and Authority to issue writs of Summons and Elec- 
tion and to call together the Legislative Councils and Assemblies of 
Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, in such 
manner as is in the said Act authorized and directed, subject to the 
provisions and regulations therein contained in that behalf and to 
such Instructions and Authorities as shall herewith or at any time 
hereafter be given unto you by us, in that behalf under Our Signet and 
sign manual or by Our Order in Our Privy Council. 

And further for the purpose of electing the Members of the Assem- 
blies of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, Wee 
do hereby give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord Dorchester' full 
power and Authority to issue a Proclamation dividing Our said Pro- 
vinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada into Districts or Countries 
or Circles and Towns or Townships and appointing the limits thereof 
and declaring and appointing the number of Representatives to be 
chosen by each of such Districts or Countries or Circles and Towns or 
Townships respectively within Our said Provinces of Upper Canada 
and Lower Canada, and from time to time to nominate and appoint 
nroper persons to execute the officer of Returning Officer in each of 
the said Districts or Countries or Circles and Towns or Townships 
respectively subject to the provisions, directions and regulations of 
the said last mentioned Act in that behalf and to such Instructions and 
Authorities as shall be herewith or at any time hereafter given by ua 
unto you in that behalf under Our Signet and Sign Manual or by Our 
Order in Our Privy Council. And Wee do hereby give and grant unto 
you the said Guy Lord Dorchester full power and authority to fix the 
time and place of holding the said Elections for the said Districts or 
Countries or Circles and Towns or Townships within Our said Pro- 
vinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and the times and places 


of holding the first and every other Session of the Legislative Councils 
and Assemblies of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada and to prorogue the same from time to time, and to dissolve 
the same by Proclamation or otherwise, subject nevertheless to the 
Regulations, provisions and directions of the said last mentioned Act 
and to such Instructions and Authorities as in respect of the premises 
may be herewith or at any time hereafter given by us unto you under 
Our Signet and Sign Manual or by Our Order in Our Privy Council. 

Wee do by these presents authorize and empower you from time 
to time, with the Advice of the Executive Councils appointed by us 
for the Affairs of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada respectively from time to time to form, constitute and erect 
Townships or Parishes within Our said Provinces and also to constitute 
and erect within every Township or Parish which now or hereafter may 
be formed constituted or Erected within Our said Provinces one or 
more Parsonage or Rectory or Parsonages or Rectories according to 
the Establishment of the Church of England and from time to time 
by an Instrument under the Seal of Our said Provinces respectively 
to endow every such Parsonage or Rectory with so much or such part 
of the Lands so allotted and appropriated as by the said last recited 
Act is in that behalf mentioned in respect of any Lands within such 
Township or Parish which shall have been granted subsequent to the 
commencement of the same Act or of such Lands as may have been 
allotted and appropriated for the same purpose by or in virtue of any 
Instruction which may be given by us in respect of any Lands granted 
by us before the commencement of the last mentioned Act, as you with 
the advice of Our said Executive Council of such Province shall judge 
to be expedient under the then existing circumstances of such Town- 
ship -or Parish subject nevertheless to such Instructions touching the 
premises as shall or may be given you by us under Our Signet and 
Sign Manual or by Our Order in Our Privy Council. And Wee do also 
by these Presents authorize and empower you to present, subject to 
the Provisions in the above mentioned Act in that behalf, to every 
such Parsonage or Rectory and to every Church, Chapel or other 
Ecclesiastical Benefice, according to the Establishment of the Church 
of England within either of Our said Provinces an Incumbent or 
Minister of the Church of England, who shall have been duly ordained 
according to the rites of the said Church and to supply from time to 
time such vacancies as may happen of Incumbents or Ministers of the 
said Parsonages, Rectories, Churches, Chapels or Benefices or any of 
them respectively. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord 
Dorchester by yourself or by your Captains and Commanders by you 
to be authorized full power and authority to levy, arm, muster, com- 
mand and employ all persons whatsoever residing within Our said 



Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and as occasion shall 
serve to march from one place to another or to embark them for the 
resisting and withstanding of all enemies, pirates and rebels both at 
Land and at Sea and to transport such forces to any of Our Planta- 
tions in America, if necessity shall require for the defence of the same, 
against the invasion or attempts of any of Our enemies and such 
enemies, pirates and rebels, (if there shall be occasion) to pursue and 
prosecute in or out of the limits of Our said Provinces and Plantations 
or any of them and if it shall so please God, to vanquish, apprehend 
and take them and being taken according to Law, put to death or keep 
and preserve them alive at your discretion and to execute martial law 
in time of Invasion or at other times when by law, it may be executed 
and to do and execute all and every other thing or things which to Our 
Captain General and Governor in Chief doth or ought of right to belong. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you full power and 
authority, subject, nevertheless to such instructions as Wee may at any 
time be pleased to give unto you under Our Signet and Sign Manual,, 
or by Our Order in Our Privy Council with the advice of the Execu- 
tive Councils appointed by us for Our Provinces of Upper Canada 
and Lower Canada respectively to erect, raise and build in Our said 
Provinces such and so many forts and platforms, castles and fortifica- 
tions as you, by the advice aforesaid shall judge necessary and the same 
or any of them to fortify and furnish with Ordnance ammunition and 
all sorts of Arms fit and necessary for the security and defence of Our 
said Provinces and by the advice aforesaid, the same again or any of 
them to demolish or dismantle as may be most convenient. 

And for as much as divers mutinies and disorders may happen by 
persons shipped and employed at sea, during the time of war 
and to the end that such shall be shipped and employed at Sea, 
during the time of war may be better Governed and Ordered, 
Wee do hereby give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord Dorchester, 
full power and authority to constitute and appoint Captains, Lieuten- 
ants, Masters of Ships and other Commanders and Officers and to Grant 
unto such Captains, Lieutenants, Masters of Ships and other Com- 
manders and Officers, commissions to execute the Law-Martial during 
the time of war, according to the direction of an Act passed in the 
twenty-second year of the Reign of Our late Royal Grand Father, 
intituled " An Act for Amending, explaining and reducing into one 
Act of Parliament, the Laws relating to the Government of His 
Majesty's Ships, Vessels and forces by Sea," as the same is altered 
by an Act passed in the Nineteenth year of Our Reign, intituled " An 
Act to explain and amend An Act made in the twenty second year of 
the Reign of His Late Majesty King George the Second, intituled 
1 An Act for amending, explaining and reducing into one Act of Par- 
liament the Laws relating to the Government of His Majesty's Ships, 


vessels and forces by Sea,' " and to use such proceedings, authorities, 
punishments and executions upon any offender or offenders who shall 
be mutinous, seditious, disorderly or any way unruly either at sea or 
during the time of their abode or residence in any of the ports, har- 
bours or bays of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada, as the case shall be found to require, according to tne Martial 
Law and the said directions during the time of war as aforesaid. 

Provided, that nothing herein contained 6hall be construed to the 
enabling you or any by your authority to hold, plea or have any juris- 
diction of any offence, cause, matter or thing committed or done upon 
the high sea or within any of the Havens, Rivers or Creeks of either of 
Our said Provinces, under your Government by any Captain, Com- 
mander, Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, Soldier or person what- 
soever who shall be in Our actual service and pay, in or on board any of 
Our Ships of War or other Vessels acting by immediate Commission or 
Warrant from our Commissioners for executing the Office of High Ad- 
miral or from Our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time being 
under the seal of Our Admiralty, but that such Captain, Commander, 
Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, Soldier or other person so 
offending, shall be left to be proceeded against and tried as their 
offences shall require, either by commission under Our Great Seal of 
Great Britain, as the statute of the Twenty-eighth of Henry the Eighth 
directs or by commission from Our said Commissioner for executing the 
office of Our High Admiral or from Our High Admiral of Great Britain 
for the time being, according to the aforementioned Act intituled " An 
Act for explaining, amending, and reducing into one Act of Parlia- 
ment the Laws relating to the Government of His Majesty's Ships, 
Vessels and forces by Sea," As the same is altered by An Act passed in 
the rsineteenth year of Our Reign intituled " An Act to explain and 
amend An Act made in the Twenty-second year of His late Majesty 
King George the Second, intituled, An Act for amending, explaining 
and reducing into one Act of Parliament the Laws relating to the Gov- 
ernment of His Majesty's Ships, Vessels and forces by Sea " ; 

Provided, nevertheless, that all disorders and misdemeanors com- 
mitted on shore by any Captain, Commander, Lieutenant, Master, Offi- 
cer, Seaman, Soldier or other person whatsoever belonging to any of 
Our Ships of War or other vessels acting by immediate Commission or 
Warrant from Our said Commissioners for executing the office of Our 
High Admiral or from Our High Admiral of Great Britain for the 
time being under the Seal of Our Admiralty may be tried and punished 
according to the laws of the place where any such disorders, offences 
or misdemeanors shall be committed on shore, notwithstanding such 
offender be in Our actual service and borne on Our pay on board 
any such our ships of war or other vessels acting by immediate 


Commission or warrant from Our said Commissioners for executing 
the office of High Admiral or Our High Admiral of Great Britain for 
the time being aforesaid, so as he shall not receive any protection for 
the avoiding of Justice for such offences committed on shore from 
any pretence of his being employed in Our service at Sea. 

You are to give warrants under your hand for the issuing of public 
monies for all public services, and Wee particularly require you to 
take care that regular accounts of all receipts and payments be duly 
kept, and that there be transmitted, every half year- or oftener, copies 
thereof, properly audited, to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, or 
to Our High Treasurer for the time being, to the end that we may be 
satisfied of the right and due application of the Revenue of Our said 
Provinces, with the probability of the increase or diminution of it 
under every head and article thereof. 

And Wee do further give to you, the said Guy, Lord Dorchester, 
full power and authority when and so often as any Bill which has been 
passed by the Legislative Council and by the House of Assembly of 
either of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada or Lower Canada shall 
be presented unto you for Our Royal Assent, to declare according to 
vour discretion (but subject, nevertheless, to the provisions contained 
in the said recited Act, passed in the present year of Our Reign, and 
subject also to such instructions, directions and authorities as Wee shall 
herewith or at any time hereafter give unto you in that behalf, under 
Our Signet and Sign Manual or by Our Order in Our Privy Council) 
that you assent to such Bill in Our Name, or that you withhold Our 
Assent from such Bill, or that you reserve such Bill for the significa- 
tion of Our Royal pleasure thereon. 

And we do by these presents give and grant unto you, the said 
Guy, Lord Dorchester, full power and Authority, with the advice of 
the Executive Councils appointed by Us, for the affairs of Our said 
Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, but subject, neverthe- 
less, to the provisions of the said Act, and to such further powers, 
Authorities, and instructions as Wee may herewith or at any time here- 
after give to you in that behalf, under Our Signet and Sign Manual, 
or by Our Order in Our Privy Council, to erect, constitute, 
and establish such court or courts of Judicature and public jus- 
tice within Our said Provinces as you and they shall think fit 
and necessary for the hearing and determining of all causes, as well 
Criminal as Civil, according to Law and Equity, and for awarding 
execution thereupon with all reasonable and necessary powers, author- 
ities, fees and privileges belonging thereunto, as also to appoint and 
commission fit persons in the several parts of your said Government to 
administer the several Oaths hereinbefore mentioned, as also to tender 
and administer the aforesaid Declaration unto such persons belonging 
to the said Courts as shall be obliged to take the same. And Wee do 


hereby authorize and empower you to constitute and appoint Judges, 
and in cases requisite, Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, Justices 
of the Peace, and other necessary Officers and Ministers in Our said 
Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, for the better adminis- 
tration of Justice and putting the Laws into execution, and to adminis- 
ter, or cause to be administered, unto them such Oath or Oaths as are 
usually taken for the execution and performance of offices and places 
and for the clearing of Truth in Judicial causes. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you full power and 
Authority, where you shall see cause, or shall judge any offender or 
offenders in Criminal matters, or for any fines or forfeitures due unto 
Us, fit objects of Our Mercy, to pardon all such offenders, and to remit 
all such offences, fines and forfeitures, Treason and wilful murder only 
excepted, in which cases you shall likewise have power upon extra- 
ordinary occasions to grant reprieves to the offenders until and to the 
intent that Our Royal pleasure may be known therein. 

And Wee do likewise give and grant unto you full power and 
authority, with the advice of Our Executive Councils for the affairs 
of Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, to grant 
Lands within the said Provinces respectively, which said grants are 
to pass and be sealed with Our Seal of such Province, and being 
entered upon Record by such officer or officers as shall be appointed 
thereunto, shall be good and effectual in Law against Us, Our Heirs 
and Successors. Provided, nevertheless, that no grants or Leases of 
any of the Trading ports in Our said Provinces shall, under colour 
of this authority, be made to any person or persons whatsoever until 
Our pleasure therein, shall be signified to you. 

And Wee do hereby give you, the said Guy, Lord Dorchester, full 
power to order and appoint Fairs, Marts and Markets, as also such and 
so many Ports, Harbours, Bays, Havens and other places for the con- 
venience and security of shipping, and for the better Loading and 
unloading of Goods and Merchandize within Our said Provinces of 
Upper Canada and Lower Canada as by you, with the advice of Our 
Executive Council for Our said Provinces respectively, shall be thought 
fit and necessary for the same. 

And Wee do hereby require and command all Our Officers and 
Ministers, Civil and Military, and all other Inhabitants of Our said 
Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada to be obedient, aiding 
and assisting unto you, the said Guy, Lord Dorchester, in the execution of 
this Our commission, and of the powers and authorities herein contained, 
and in case of your death or absence out of Our said Province of Upper 
Canada or Our Province of Lower Canada, to be obedient, aiding and 
assisting unto such persons as shall be appointed by us to be Our Lieu- 
tenant Governor or Commander in Chief of such Province respectively, 
to whom Wee do therefore by these Presents, in case of your death or 


absence from such Province, give and grant all and singular the powers 
and Authorities herein granted to be by him executed and enjoyed 
during Our pleasure or until your arrival within such Province 

And if, upon your death or absence out of Our said Provinces of 
Upper Canada or Lower Canada, or either of them, there be no person 
upon the place commissioned and appointed by Us to be our Lieutenant 
Governor or appointed by Us to administer Our Government within the 
said Province in case of the death or absence of you and of Our Lieu- 
tenant Governor of the said Province, Our Will and Pleasure is that the 
oldest member of Our Executive Council for Our said Province of 
Upper Canada or Our said Province of Lower Canada, being a 
Natural born subject of Great Britain, Ireland or Our Colonies 
and Plantations and professing the Protestant Religion who shall 
then be residing within such of Our said Provinces, shall take upon 
him the Administration of the Government and Execute Our said Com- 
mission and Instructions and the several powers and Authorities there- 
in contained and to all intents and purposes as other Our Governors, 
Lieutenant Governors or persons administering Our Governments un- 
til Our further pleasure be known therein. 

Nevertheless, as it may happen in case of the death, absence or re- 
moval or suspension of Our Lieutenant Governor of either of the Prov- 
inces above mentioned, that the succession of such oldest Member as 
aforesaid to the Administration of the Government may not be for the 
good of Our Service and the welfare of such Province, We do hereby 
authorize and empower you in case of such death, absence or removal if 
it shall appear to you, that it would not be expedient for such oldest 
Councillor in succession to administer the Government, to nominate 
and appoint by a commission under the Seal of such Province, you be- 
ing yourself at the time of such appointment personally resident in it, 
any member of the Executive Council by Us appointed for Our said 
Province of Upper Canada or Our Province of Lower Canada respect- 
ively, whom you shall judge the most proper and fitting to be Our Lieu- 
tenant Governor thereof, such person being a Natural born subject of 
Great Britain, Ireland or of Our Colonies and Plantations and profess- 
ing the Protestant Religion until Our pleasure thereupon shall be 
known, and you are to transmit to us by the first opportunity through 
one of Our Principal Secretaries of State your reasons for such Ap- 

And We do hereby give and grant unto you the said Guy Lord Dor- 
chester, full power and Authority in case any person or persons com- 
missioned or appointed by Us to any Office or Offices within Our said 
Provinces of Upper Canada or Lower Canada from which they may be 
liable to be removed by Us, shall in your opinion be unfit to continue in 
Our Service to suspend or remove such person or persons from their 


several employments, without stating to him or them your reasons for 
such suspension or removal and We do hereby declare, Ordain and ap- 
point that you the said Guy Lord Dorchester, shall and may hold, exe- 
cute and enjoy the office and Place of Our Captain General and Gover- 
nor in Chief in and over Our said Provinces of Upper Canada and 
Lower Canada, with all its rights, members and appurtenances whatso- 
ever, together with all and singular the Powers and Authorities hereby 
granted unto you for and during Our Will and Pleasure. 

In Witness Whereof, We have caused these Our Letters to be made 
Patent, Witness : 

Ourself at Westminster the Twelfth day 
of September, in the Thirty-first year of 
Our Reign. 

By the King Himself 

(Signed) Yorke. 
Endorsed — 

FIAT. — Recorded in the office of Enrollments at Quebec the 20th day 
of January, 1192, in the first Register of Commissions from His 
Majesty, folio A. Dated 12th September. 

" Department of the Secretary of State, of 
" Canada, Registrar's Branch 

" Ottawa, 3rd January, 1906. 

" I hereby certify the within to be a true and faithful copy of the 
Record of the Original Commission as entered in Liber E Folio 1. 

" Dep. Registrar General of Canada." 

Letter from the Duke of Portland, Foreign Secretary, to Lord 
DoRcaiESTER, Concerning Differences Between 
; ' Dorchester and Simcoe. 

Whitehall, 27 May, 1795. 
Right Hon'ble Lord Dorchester. 

My Lord, — 
No. 15. I have had the honor of laying before the King your 

Lordship's Letter numbered 22 and 23. 

I can assure your Lordship that I felt great concern at reading your 
letter No. 22 and the more so because from the general terms in which 
your dissatisfaction is expressed, it is not in my power to take those 
means of removing it, which a specification of the particular causes to 
which it is owing, would have enabled me to do and which my know- 
ledge of the sentiments of all the King's confidential servants with 


respect to your Lordship authorises rne to answer for their desire and 
endeavors jointly with mine to have seen accomplished. 

Coinciding in opinion with your Lordship upon the principle of 
consolidating as much as possible the strength and interest of His Majes- 
ty's North American Provinces, I must notwithstanding avow, that I 
should have believed, on a fair and candid reference to the correspond- 
ence of this Department with those Provinces and to the various cir- 
cumstances many of them of an urgent and extraordinary nature — 
under which it has been necessarily carried on, that your Lordship 
could not have thought — it " A measure of this Office to withdraw all 
Power from the Person with whom the King's Commissioners have 
placed it." And indeed I am most certain, that it never was for a 
moment in the contemplation of my Predecessors to diminish a particle 
of that Power in any degree, in which the application of it was 

With respect to your Lordship's Military Authority, which is the 
first and most important consideration as being most capable of 
being applied to all the Provinces with a view to their defence 
and protection, taken separately or jointly, I have only to refer 
your Lordship to my last Letter on this subject, a Triplicate of which I 
enclose, — In this capacity your Lordship has ever been considered, as 
corresponding; with, and directing the Commanders in Chief of the Dis- 
tricts or the Lieutenant Governors, as the case may be, in all matters of 
a military nature in such manner as you shall judge necessary; and I 
should be sorry to understand that your directions or representations 
to them, in any case have not been attended to — with respect to such di- 
rections of a military nature, as, from the pressure of the occasion, and 
to avoid circuity, have been sent , from hence to the Commanders in 
Chief of Districts, or the Lieutenant Governors, it has from the nature 
of your command, been invariably understood and generally expressed 
to be communicated by them to your Lordship. 

With respect to your Civil Authority as Governor General, I have 
only to observe, that as by His Majesty's Instructions, the Lieutenant 
Governor of each Province is vested therewith, except where you are 
present, it follows, of course, that such Lieutenant Governor must re- 
ceive his directions from hence, respecting the various concerns of his 
Civil Government. 

At the same time whenever and as often as your Lordship shall re- 
quire information from any, or all of the Provinces, touching such mat- 
ters as you shall judge proper to represent to His Majesty, I must take 
it for granted that the Lieutenant Governors do, as it is their duty, 
most readily communicate such information to you ; and I hope it is un- 
necessary to add that any representation from you in consequence there- 
of will always meet with due attention from His Majesty's Confidential 


I have been induced to enter rather more at large into the present 
subject, from the great respect I bear to your . Lordship, and from a 
wish that you should not continue to entertain an idea so contrary to my 
sentiments, as that it would ever have passed thro' my mind to embar- 
rass or diminish your authority. From the same respect, I wish to 
forbear giving an answer to the conclusion of your letter, as I hope mine 
of the 25th December last, which I observe you have not yet received, 
will render it unnecessary. 

Having already, in several of my letters, expressed my sense of 
the attention of your Lordship's Government to the Revenue of the 
Province, I shall not trouble you with a repetition of it, in answer to 
your letter inclosing the Council minutes on matters of State, from 
the 18th January to the 14th February last. 

The diminution of 38 p. cent, on the collection, by Licenses under 
the Act of the 14th of His present Majesty demonstrates the expensive 
system on which this duty is collected, and the saving which may be made 
by the amount of the Duties being collected under Acts of the Legis- 
lature, in effecting which the frequent instances I have had of your 
Lordship's zeal on similar occasions, assure me of your successfull, as 
well as your best exertions. 

I am, etc., 

Endorsed — Drafted, 

To Lord Dorchester, 
27 May, 1795. 


By Margaret Claire Kilroy.* 

Copy of the names of the contracting parties and of the dates of 
the marriages celebrated at the Church of the Assumption, " La 
Pointe de Montreal du Detroit" (Sandwich), 1760-1781. 

The priest who received the nuptial vows of the first settlers on 
the south shore of the Detroit River, was Father Peter Potier, the 
last of the Jesuit missionaries to the Huron Indians, 1744-1781. 
Father Potier survived the French Govermnent in Canada, and under 
British rule exercised the functions of the first pastor of the parish of 
Our Lady of the Assumption, Sandwich. 

The good priest died on July 16, 1781. " The body was interred 
in the choir of the church of this parish, on the Gospel side. The cere- 
mony was witnessed by a very large concourse of people." In these 
words the funeral is described in the ancient records written by Rev. 
John Francis Hubert, pastor of Ste. Anne's Church, Detroit, and later 
the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Quebec, who sung the requiem mass over the 
venerable missionary of the Huron Indians of the Detroit. In 1846 
Father Potier's remains were transferred from " the old church of the 
Hurons " to the final resting-place under the nave of the present church 
of the Assumption, Sandwich. 

L'an de N. S. mil septcent soixante et le . . . . de May apres la 
publication des Bans .... entre Franc. Morin, dit Valcour fils 

de d'une part, et de M. Magdelene 

Bouron, fille de d'autre part; 

et ne s'etant trouve aucun empechement; Je susigne, prete, M.S.S. 
de la Comp. de Jesus, certifie avoir recu leur mutuel consentement 
et leur ai donne la benediction nuptiale, et ce en presence de J. B. 
Rau, de Pierre DesNoyers, de J. B. Giron, de Charl. La Mare, et de 
J. B. LaPointe, qui ont signe. pj ^otisr, -^ j 

J. B. Rau. 
Pierre DesNoyers. 
J. B. Giron. 
Charles LaMare. 
J. B. LaPointe. 

May .... 1760. Franc. Morin dit Valcour and M. Magdelene 

* Miss Kilroy died at Windsor July 16th, 1906, while this paper vras in type. 



'Nov. 19th, 1764. Charles Bernier and Marie Louise Gaudet,* 

Jan. 7th, 1765. Charles Domnique Janson and Marie Anne Binau. 
Jan. 7th, 1765. Jean Baptiste Giolettef and Suzanne Patene. 
June 24th, 1765. Jean Baptiste, R.O., and Marie Jeanne Prud'- 

July 15th, 1765. Charles Gravelle and Marie Joseph Dutau. 

^ Jan. 7th, 1766. Claude Reaume and Genevieve Janis. 

Jan. 13th, 1766. Francois de Rouillard and Marie Anne Villers. 
Feh. 3rd, 1766. Etienne La Violette and Judith Prud'homme. 
April 8th, 1766. Louis Susor aud Marie Joseph Le Beau. 
May 26th, 1766. Francois Le Beau and Marie Joseph Amable Binau. 
June 7th, 1766. Simon Gendron and Genevieve Vanier. 

Jan 7th, 1767. Bonaventure Reaume and Jeanne Deshetres. 
May 11th, 1767. Thomas Pajot and Marie Louise Villers. 
July 8th, 1767. Antoine Rivard and Felicite Sainte Marie. 

Jan. 23rd, 1768. Jacques Charron and Jeanne Belle-Perche. 
Feb. 9th, 1768. Jean Saliot and Magedilene Jourdaine. 
Feb. 15th, 1768. Charles Fontaine and Elizabeth Godefroi. 
Feb. 15th, 1768. Louis Montmeni and Agathe Prud'homme. 
June 16th, 1768. Guillaume Duperon and A. . . . Clairmont. 
August 31st, 1768. Pierre Tamisier and Marie Jos. Morin. 
Nov 2nd, 1768. Michel Vaudri and Marie Joseph Tourangeau. 

Jan. 2nd, 1769. Etien Jacob and Marie Magdelene Godet. 
Jan. 7th, 1769. Louis Charles Brugiere and Mary MaSrons. 

Feb. 5th, 1770. Francois Langlois and Marie Magdelene Prud'- 

Feb. 12th, 1770. Jean B. Pare and Marguerita Le Beau. 

Feb. 12th, 1770. Francois Choisi and Marie Joseph Revau. 

Mar. 19th, 1770. Jean Baptiste Cuillerier Beaubien and Genevieve 

July 16th, 1770. Alexis Cuillerier and Louise Reaume. 

July 22nd, 1770. Rene Theodore Du Roseau and Jeanne Villers. 

Sep. 5th, 1770. Jean Baptiste Durand and Marie Crepeau. 

MaT. 2nd, 1771. Joseph Mainville and Charlotte Le Due. 

Sep. 25th, 1771. Joseph de Rouillard and Josette Godefroi. 

Nov. 25th, 1771. Joseph Valade and Therese Binau. 

Nov. 28th, 1771. Laurent Parent and Marie Magdelene Janis. 

Oct. 31st, 1772. Pierre Becquet and Catherine Potier dit L'ardoile. 

* Gode, called Marentette. + Giolette or Ouellotte, pronounced Willette. 


Mar. 14th, 1773. Antoine L'Aiiglois and Marie des Auges Rochelot. 
Mar. 17th, 1773. Joseph Valcour and Josette MaSrons. 
June 14th, 1773. Louis Brouiller and Marie Louisa Des Noyers. 
June 30th, 1773. Alexis L'Orange Maisonville and Marguerite Jon- 

July 12th, 1773. Charles Renaud and Marie Magdelene Bertrand. 
Sep. 5th, 1773. Jean Baptiste La Pointe and Catherine Goiau. 
Oct. 23rd, 1773. Joseph La Pointe and Marie Louise Panisse. 
Nov. 22nd, 1773. Vital Du Mouchelle and Marie Magdelene Goiau. 

Jan. 10th, 1774. Jean Bapt. L'Antailla and Marie Catherine Ber- 
Feh. 7th- 1774. Antoine Boufar and Angelique Boimie. 
May 2nd, 1774. Zacharie Cloutier and Therese Campeau. 
Oct. 20th, 1774. Claude Saint Aubin and Marie Jann. 
Nov. 21st, 1774. Michel Catin and Marie Louise Goiau. 

Jan 9th, 1775. Louis Viller dit St. Louis and Charlotte Auriendo dit 

Feb. 13th, 1775. Michel Vaudri and Elizabeth Drouillard. 
Feb. 19th, 1775. Joseph Godet and Jeanne Pelette. 
Feb. 20th, 1775. Jacques Bezer dit L'evielle and Catherine Mete. 
Nov. 21st, 1.775. Charles Domnique Janson dit La Palme and Marie 

Jan. 8th, 1776. Pierre Campeau and M. Magdelene Godefroi. 
Jan. 15th, 1776. Ignace Juste and Lisette Le Beau. 
Jan. 27th, 1776. Francois Pratt and Elizabeth Parent. 
Mar. 19th, 1776. Jacques St. Aubin and Charlote Belair. 
May 6th, 1776. J. Baptiste Le Beau and Suzanne Chauvin. 
May 16th, 1776. Francois Berthelot and M. Louise Godet. 
July 8th, 1776. Joseph Bertiome and Catherine Pilette. 

Jan. 8th, 1777. Louis Goiau and Therese Janis. 

Feb. 20th, 1777}. Victor Morisseau and Charlote Bergeron. 

Mar. 10th, 177* Pierre Charon and Charlote Campeau. 

Aug. 4th,. 1777. Antoine Robert and Theresa Drouillar. 

Sep. 15th, 1777. Jean Baptiste Rasieau and Appolina Des Lieres. 

Sep. 22nd, 1777. Jean Bapt. Gignac and Catherine Le Beau. 

Sep. 24th, 1777. Michel Roy and Marie Jeanne Villers dit St. Louis. 

Oct. 19th, 1778. Charles Drouillar and Marie Louise Quenel. 
Nov. 9th, 1778. Pierre le Vasseur and Marie Anne Le Sueur. 

Jan. 25th, 1779. Pierre Proue and Marie Joseph Amable Binau. 
Jan. 30th, 1779. Antoine Rousseau and Mary Joseph Morin. 
Dec. 20th, 1779. Paul Marsac and Mary Anne Chene. 


Jan. 10th, 1780. Louis Trudelle and Susanne Des Loyers. 

Jan. 17th, 1780. Jean Baptist Gignac ad Charlote Bertrand. 
Aug. 11th, 1780. Jos. Vermet and Josette Campeau. 

Sep. 21st, 1780. Pierre Reaume and Jeanne Campeau. 

Nov. 6th, 1780. Jean Bapt Drouillar and Marie Charlote Drouin. 

Nov. 18th, 1780. Charles Fontenai de Quindre and Mary Catherine 

Jan. 8th, 1781. Joseph de Ganne and M. Magdelene Prud'homme. 
Feb. 27th, 1781. Jacques Godreau and Therese Bertrand. 

The records of the Church of the Assumption are written in 
French ; they are consecutive for nearly one hundred and fifty years, 
commencing in the month of May, when Father Potier wrote, " The 
year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty, and eroes on 
to record the marriage of Frank. Morin called Valcour and M. Magde- 
lene Bouron in the presence of five witnesses, who are named in the 
entry and who also sign the register after the officiating priest. A 
faithful copy of the entry of this first marriage celebrated at the 
Church of the Assumption is given the reader on the second page of 
this manuscript. 

The lover of history will have noticed the interval of time which 
intervenes between the date of the first marriage and the date of the 
second marriage entry. Let him pause to remember that in 1760 the 
flag of France still floated over Fort Pontchartrain (Detroit) ; that 
in 1763, the south shore of the Detroit River was the storm centre J.l 
the great Indian conspiracy of Pontiac, having for its object the over- 
throw of British supremacy in Canada. 

During these fateful years, although marriages were rare at the 
Church of the Assumption, the records were kept, but they were of 
baptisms. In 1761 there were seven baptized; irf 1762 there were 
sixteen baptized; in 1763 there were twenty-eight baptized, or a total 
of fifty-one in the three years. 

Father Potier wrote in microscopic round hand ; every letter was 
perfectly formed with ink true to its color; each marriage entry occu- 
pied about a dozen lines of space and was a fine record of family his- 
tory. There is the date, the publication of banns, the ecclesiastical dis- 
pensation if there is one (usually for consanguinity), the name of the 
groom and of his father and of his mother and from whence they came 
(frequently from some parish .in France), the same of the bride and 
of her ancestry; the priest who officiated is described, as well as the 
church where the ceremony was celebrated ; the names of the witnesses, 


who also sign the register, sometimes with the mark in legal form. la 
nearly every case the witness is a man, there is no bridesmaid. 

Many of the names written in the old records are well known in his- 
tory, as in a marriage celebrated on November 18th, 1780, between 
Charles Fontenai de Quindre, son of Antoine Cesar de Quindr^, 
" ecuyer " (he was colonel of Militia under French rule), and of Fran- 
cis Marie Anne Piquote de Bellestre (sister of the last French Com- 
mandant at Detroit), daughter of Francois Piquote, Sieur de Bellestre, 
and of Dame Catherine Trotier, and Catherine Chene, daughter of 
Pierre Chene and Mary Anne Cuillerier. Witness, Jean B. Le Due, 
Madame Trotier La Morandiere, Antoine de Quindre, Charles de 
Quindre, Joseph Gouin, Jean Louis de Quindre, Madame La Moran- 
diere de Quindre, Mary Catherine Chene, Charles Gerin. 

Father Potier was a Belgian ; he was not familiar with the orthog- 
raphy of French names, and in his register, which I faithfully copied 
in this manuscript, there are many mistakes in spelling names, such as : 
"Morin" for Morand; "Gaudet" for Gode; " Ro " for Rau; 
" Janis " for Janisse ; " Saliot " for Saliotte ; " Goiau " for Goyeau ; 
" Boimie " for Boismere ; " Godefroi " for Godef roy ; " Fontenai " 
for Fontenoy; "Rochelot" for Rocheleau ; " Des Hetres " for Dea 
Hestres; " Du Roseau" for Du Rocher; " L'antailla " for Antaya; 
"Giolette" for Ouellette; "Etien" for Etienne (Stephen); " L'An- 
glois " for Langlois, etc. 

The descendants of these first settlers in the parish of the Assump- 
tion are numerous in Essex of to-day ; they retain the land and the lan- 
guage of their fathers. French sermons are preached on Sunday in 
many of the churches throughout the county, but in local life the lan- 
guage of the school playground is the language of the people, and that is 

Maegabet Claire Kilroy. 

Windsor, Ont., Feb. 1, 1906. 

BAPTISMS (1761 TO 1786), MARRIAGES (1782 TO 1786), AND 



The Essex Historical Society, believing that a perusal of the above 
would possess more than local interest, applied to the proper authority 
and were kindly permitted to copy from the parish registers the baptisms, 
marriages and deaths as therein recorded, and now present a portion for 
a period of about twenty-five years as above. 

Much might be written about this old and historic parish, but a few 
facts will have to suffice here. Its history is certainly unique, dating 
back to 17(37, and being for many years under the jurisdiction of the 
Bishop of Quebec. It is one of the earliest parishes of the many estab- 
lished by the Jesuit missionaries in the old Province of Canada. 

Its origin is connected with a mission of Hurons or Wyandottes 
which was founded in 1728 by Father Armand de la Richardie, a Jesuit, 
who had previously started a mission of the Hurons at Detroit to the 
number of six hundred, all of whom he had converted. 

In 1803 the parish was called the Assumption of La Pointe-de- 
Montreal or L'Assumption du Detroit. 

In 1742 the Huron village was removed to Bois Blanc Island, 
opposite Amherstburg, and in 1744 an assistant was given to Father 
Richardie in the person of Father Pierre Potier. Father Richardie 
remained between Detroit and Pointe-de-Montreal until about 1751. It 
is believed that about this time the first mission house or chapel was 
erected at the latter place. 

In 1767 the mission, including both French and Indians, was erected 
into a parish under the name of L'Assomption de la Pointe de Montreal 
or L'Assomption du Detroit. Father Potier remained in charge until 
his death in 1781. He was succeeded by Rev. M. Jean Francois Hubert 
who was sent by the Bishop of Quebec. Shortly after his arrival a new 
church was built on the land given by the Hurons. On his departure 
for Quebec in 1788 the parish was under the care of Rev. M. Frechette, 
parish priest of St. Anne's, Detroit, for a short time, when Rev. F. M. X. 
Dufaux was appointed and remained for ten years. The present hand- 
some church was commenced during the pastorate of the Rev. Angus 
McDonell in 1843, and finished a few years afterwards. 

The marriages recorded in this parish from 1761 to 1782, during the 
pastorate of Rev. Father Potier, are not included here, as the same form 
a portion of a paper read by Miss Margaret Claire Kilroy, at the annual 
meeting of the Ontario Historical Society at Niagara, 1905, and are 
given at page 28. 

Francis Cleary, 
President Essex Historical Society. 











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By Rev. A. B. Sherk. 

The historic sense of the people of Ontario has heen slowly awaken- 
ing, and is keener now than ever before. It is only when this sense 
becomes active that a people will begin to inquire for the facts on which 
the history of their country is based. It will prompt them to ask: 
Who were the fathers of the country ? Whence did they come ? Why 
did they come ? When did they come ? In what sections of the coun- 
try did they first locate? What was the condition of the country at 
diat time ? What do we find as to their industrial, social and religious 
life ? What traditions have been handed down from them ? What 
material have they left in written records, letters, accounts, notes, con- 
tracts, pamphlets, books, newspapers, implements, etc. ? To get a satis- 
factory answer to the questions proposed it will be necessary to make 
A special study of the separate settlements of the country. Each settle- 
ment has an individuality all its own, and the particular features of 
that individuality we need to know. The material we thus gather from 
the settlements will be the fibre out of which to weave a correct narra- 
tive of the whole country. 

Our Province of Ontario is full of historic interest, and rich iu 
historic material ; and it is a pleasure to know that much is being done 
to gather and preserve this material. The future historian and archae- 
ologist will need all we can treasure up and leave behind. Add to 
this the fact that we still have persons in our country whose fathers and 
mothers were brought here when the first settlements were being 
formed. These persons are living links between the original pioneers 
and the present generation, and are prepared to help us to correct data 
on many things that relate to the early past. 

When the War of the American Revolution ended and the revolting 
colonies got their independence, the exodus of the U. E. Loyalists at 
once began. The beginning of this exodus is the beginning of tho 
history of our Province. A little later in the closing years of the same 
century another class of refugees came to seek shelter and a home under 
the folds of the Union Jack. These refugees were the Pennsylvania 
Germans, commonly known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." 

The Pennsylvania Germans who settled in Canada at an early day 
were mostly of the Mennonite faith. They were called Mennonites 



because they adhered to the doctrinal teachings and discipline of Men no 
Simons, a Holland Reformer and cotemporary of Martin Luther. The 
sect spread rapidly through Holland, Germany, Switzerland and other 
districts of Europe. Many, on account of their unswerving fidelity to 
the principles they had espoused, suffered martyrdom. The Mennon- 
ites, like the Friends, refuse to bear arms, to take an oath at law, or to 
engage in litigation under any circumstances. Their ethical system 
is found in the fifth, sixth and seventh chapters of St. Matthew's Gos- 
pel, called the " Sermon on the Mount." 

These peace-loving people suffered persecution in all the countries 
of Europe to which they had gone; and were long sighing for a spot 
where they could live unmolested in the exercise of their peculiar opin- 
ions. In the course of years the way opened. William Penn, the 
eminent Quaker, and founder of the colony of Pennsylvania, invited 
them to join his colony. Many gladly accepted the invitation. The 
first company crossed the Atlantic in 1683, and settled near Philadel- 
phia. The place, because of the nationality of the first settlers, was 
called Germantown, and is now a suburb of the city. The migration 
■of this people from Germany to Pennsylvania continued till after the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Here they were under British rule, 
and enjoyed the freedom for which they had been sighing. They 
loved the soil, were quiet and industrious, and occupying the rich val- 
leys of Southern Pennsylvania, many of them became wealthy. The 
Mennonite Church grew rapidly in numbers, and in time became i 
ruling element in the rural districts of the colony. But the War of the 
Revolution unsettled everything, and at its close there was universal 
unrest, and no one knew what next to expect. The thirteen colonies 
were so many disconnected states whose future was as yet in the bal- 
ance. It seems to have been at this juncture of things that the Mennon- 
ites began to think of seeking a home in Upper Canada. Three causes 
have been suggested as influencing their decision. 

First, the report that there was plenty of good land ; secondly, the 
the assurance that they would have religious freedom ; and thirdly, 
the exodus of the U. E. Loyalists. It is not probable that they were 
greatly influenced by the first consideration, for Ohio was then in the 
market with plenty of good land, and could be more easily reached than 
Canada. Religious freedom, however, they prized very highly, and 
knew it would not be endangered under British rule ; but they were not 
so sure what the new Republic might do. The settlement of the U. E.'s 
in the wilderness of the north opened the way for others, and the Men- 
nonites, who had no sympathy with their expulsion, took advantage of 


the opening and followed their steps. Some class them with U. E.'s, 
others speak of them as late U. E.'s, since they did not come to Canada 
till some years after the great U. E. exodus. These people were in 
full sympathy with British institutions, and came here to enjoy their 
benefit. We must also keep in mind that many of the Pennsylvanians 
who settled here were British by birth, being born before the revolt of 
the colonies. They and their families were Britons, and came here to 
claim their rights as Britons. 

The beginning of the migration of the Pennsylvania Germans to 
Upper Canada dates from the closing years of the eighteenth century, 
some say as late as 1798. It is difficult to settle on the year when the 
first ones came, neither are we able to ascertain how many came; but 
the number was large enough to form three good-sized colonies or settle- 

First, the Niagara colony. The settlers of this colony were scat- 
tered along the Upper Niagara; along Black Creek, an affluent of the 
Niagara ; along Lake Erie, and near " Sugar Loaf," in the vicinity of 
Port Colborne. There were also a few small groups of families in the 
" Short Hills," south of St. Catharines, and a large settlement on the 
Twenty-mile Creek, west of St. Catharines. The second was the 
Markham colony. This colony had its beginning about the time of 
the Niagara colony. It was called Markham after the township in 
which the first settlers located. As the settlers multiplied they spread 
into Whitchurch, Vaughan, etc., so that this became a large and influen- 
tial colony. The third was the Waterloo colony. The township again 
suggested the name. Besides the families in these colonies there were 
others scattered in small groups throughout the country, but in the 
course of years they were absorbed by other nationalities, and are 
mostly forgotten. It is the larger groups that retained and developed 
distinct peculiarities, and call for attention as noticeable factors in the 
making of our country. 

The Waterloo colony, to which we are now to give our thoughts, 
had its beginning in a small way. The colony took its start with the 
century. In the fall of 1799, Samuel Betzncr and Joseph Sherk 
crossed the Niagara River at Black Rock and entered the new Province 
of Upper Canada. They were brothers-in-law, and came from Cham- 
bersburg, Franklin County, Pennsylvania. There was no Buffalo then, 
not even the sign of a village. J. Sherk and his family found winter 
quarters in the vacant house of another Pennsylvanian who had pre- 
ceded them and taken up land on the Niagara River, a few miles from 
the International Bridge. S. Betzner pushed on to Ancaster and win- 


tered there. The site of the city of Hamilton was at that time .1 
dismal swamp, covered with heavy timber; Dundas had a small mill 
and one dwelling; Ancaster had a few houses, and was considered to 
be on the outermost limits of civilization. These two simple-minded 
Pennsylvanians came to this new country with their wives and little 
ones on a venture; apparently they had no definite idea where they 
would find a suitable spot to locate. But the report had gone abroad 
that there was a fine tract of land about thirty miles beyond Ancaster, 
in the valley of the Grand River. There was, however, an almost 
impenetrable wilderness to pass through to reach this land of promiss. 
Early in the spring of 1800, Betzner and Sherk went in search of the 
far-off country. They found it, were greatly pleased with it, and 
selected lots for future homes. Betzner chose a lot on the west side of 
the Grand River, four miles from Gait, where the village of Blair is 
located. Sherk chose a lot on the east side of the river, directly oppo- 
site the village of Doon, and within two miles of Preston. The two 
pioneers then returned to Ancaster, settled for their lots, and got their 
papers. The land they bought was a part of what was known as the 
" Beasley Tract," but originally belonged to Joseph Brant, the great 
Mohawk chief, and was deeded by him to Richard Beasley, James Wil- 
son and John B. Rosseau. The whole tract comprised 94,012 acres. 

J. Sherk bought a yoke of oxen and a sled, and with this convey- 
ance took the women and children, and a few household goods and other 
necessaries, through thirty miles of forest to their new home in the 
" Bush." When these two families settled on their lots they were 
two miles apart, and shut out from the rest of the world. Waterloo 
was at that time further from the frontier than any other settlement; 
it was the first colony in the interior of the country. The Markham 
colony was only twelve or fifteen miles from the lake, with Yonge 
Street on the west as a way out. All the other colonies bordered on 
the great lakes and rivers and had ready access to the outside. It is 
true the Waterloo pioneers had the Grand River, along whose banks 
they planted their homes, but they were seventy-five miles from its 
mouth, and could not use it as a way to the front. Their natural and 
direct line to the front was Lake Ontario, and to it they had to make a 
way, at least as far as Dundas or Ancaster. 

The two families who first took peaceful possession of Waterloo 
Township were just the vanguard of a great army of invasion; the 
main body soon followed, and kept up the march for half a century 
Late in the season of 1S00 three more families came from Pennsyl- 
vania, which brought the number up to five the first year. Let us 
follow the fortunes of this little settlement for the 


First Twenty-five Years. 

The later history of a people is often full of interest, but usually 
the greater interest centres in pioneer life and deeds. This applies to the 
Waterloo colony — we want to know somthing about its pioneer days. 
A few led the way, numbers soon followed. In 1801 seven new fam- 
ilies were added, which brought the number up to twelve the second 
year of the colony's history. In this company was Jacob Bechtel, the 
first Mennonite preacher of Waterloo. The pioneers at this time had 
close living, and they well knew that there were no reserve resotirces 
on which to depend. In the winter of this year they saved even thy 
potato peelings so as to have seed for spring planting. In 1802 there 
was a still larger accession of families. E. Eby, in his " Biograph- 
ical History of Waterloo," says: " This year a little school was startei 
near where the village of Blair is now situated, a person by the name 
of Rittenhouse being the first teacher in the county of Waterloo." The 
name Rittenhouse holds a high place in the annals of the Pennsylvania 
Germans. William Rittenhouse was the first Mennonite preacher in 
Pennsylvania, and built the first paper-mill in the United States ; and 
David Rittenhouse was a distinguished mathematician and astronomer, 
an intimate friend of Benjamin Franklin, and his successor in the 
presidency of the American Philosophical Society. Waterloo was 
honored in having a Rittenhouse for its first school-teacher, and so 
helped to perpetuate the memory of the name. The opening of a 
school in the third year of the colony's history is quite significant; it 
shows that these plain country people did not wish their children to 
grow up in ignorance. Can any of the pioneer districts of our Prov- 
ince show a better record than this ? Another much-needed boon came 
to them this year in the shape of a small grist mill. The mill was 
built at Gait by one John Miller, of Niagara. One by one the bless- 
ings of civilization were added. 

But early in the year 1803 a dark cloud came over the young 
colony, and put a check to its growth and prosperity for a few years. 
The settlers learned that the land they had bought, and for which they 
held deeds, was encumbered by mortgage. The mortgage covered a 
large area of land, and amounted to $20,000. To meet the difficulty 
a Joint Stock Company was suggested. The suggestion met with 
favor, and two of the settlers were appointed to visit the Mennonite 
churches of Pennsylvania and ask their help to lift them out of their 
difneullty. The effort met with success, $20,000 was subscribed, and 
a company, called the German Company, was formed. The $20,000, 


all in one-dollar silver coin, was packed in boxes and placed on a light 
waggon furnished by the stockholders. The money was entrusted io 
two men, one from Waterloo, Canada, and the other from Pennsyl- 
vania. These two men carried this immense sum of money (for that 
day) five hundred miles, most of the way through " bush " roads, and 
made the journey unarmed. It was a big undertaking, full of 
risks, but it illustrates the pluck and determination so characteristic 
of these people. The Hon. Win. Dickson, of Niagara, prepared the 
necessary papers, the money was paid over, the mortgage cancelled, and 
the German Company came into possession of 60,000 acres of land in. 
the township of Waterloo. 

The German Company soon made some needed changes. They 
called for a new survey of the land they had taken over and introduced 
a new order of things. As for the roads of the township, they seem* 
to have been run to suit the wishes or whims of the settlers. Very 
likely the settlers brought their ideas of roads from Pennsylvania, for 
they certainly resemble the serpentine roads of the old Keystone State. 
The legal difficulties now being removed, immigration set in afresh r 
and the Company's lands found a ready market. Every year added 
new settlers in increasing numbers. 

The War of 1812 greatly interfered with the growth of the Waterloo* 
colony, as it did with every other section of the country. Many of the? 
Waterloo young men were pressed into service. Those who were not 
church-members were called out with the militia; but those who were 
bona fide members of the Mennonite Church were asked to do duty as 
teamsters. To this they made no objection. As soon as matters were 
adjusted between the two countries the stream of immigration from 
Pennslyvania again commenced, and kept up for years; and when land 
in Waterloo became scarce, or too high in price, newcomers pushed 
into the border townships and extended the boundaries of the Penn- 
sylvania German colony. 

Up to 1816 all within the sphere of the influence of the Waterloo 
colony were Pennsylvania Germans except a few families of other 
nationalities who had settled among them. By this time they were a 
strong, vigorous and influential settlement, just beginning to reap the 
fruit of their toils and sacrifices. But in the year 1816 the Scotch 
formed a settlement in the township of Dumfries, the township that 
borders Waterloo on the south. The moving spirit in this settlement 
was Absalom Shade, also a Pennsylvania German. This brought a 
fresh element into close touch with the Waterloo Germans and German 
and Scotch have been the ruling elements in the county of Waterloo- 


ever since. The two have given a prominence and prosperity to Water- 
loo that is probably not excelled by any other section of Ontario. 

Here we must make a pause and take a backward glance in the his- 
tory of this colony, so as to get a clear view of all the phases in the life 
of this peculiar people. The pioneers of Waterloo had large families, 
and this suggests the question: What was done to meet the mental, 
moral and other needs of the youth of that day ? The first school, as 
we have already learned, was formed in 1802, when the colony was 
but two years old. In 180S another school was opened, a little south of 
Berlin. This school was taken to the very edge of Berlin a year or two 
later, and the Mennonite church, the best place available, was used for 
a schoolroom for some years. The schools were all voluntary, and new 
schools were formed as the people of the different localities saw they 
needed them. German and English were usually taught in the schools, 
the German at first taking the lead. This practice continued for half 
a century, although in time the English gained the first place. Defec- 
tive as these schools were, they did much for the pioneer families of 
Waterloo, and kept the people from relapsing into absolute ignorance, 
as was feared by Governor Simcoe might be the case in the early settle- 
ments of Upper Canada. We are prepared to say for the people oi 
Waterloo that there was scarcely any illiteracy in the generation that 
came up then. With few exceptions they could read and write, and 
some of them could do so in two languages. 

The pioneers of Waterloo were men of thought as well as action, 
and were a good deal given to reading. This remark especially applies 
to the leaders among them. Their reading was mostly that of standard 
German books on the practical phases of the Christian life. Some had 
a large stock of books that they brought with them from Pennsylvania, 
and occasionally there was one that had come from the " Fatherland." 
These books were freely loaned, passed from one to another, so that 
large numbers got the benefit of a few books. The intelligence of these 
people was of a much higher order than has commonly been assumed. 
Their simple life, unpretentious appearance, industrious habits and 
close economy, has led many to suppose that their mental horizon had a 
very limited range. This is a misjudgment. 

The language of the Waterloo pioneers is known as " Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch." We cannot find much fault with the use of the word 
" Dutch," for it comes from the German word " Deutsch," and 
applies to all branches of the great Teutonic family. The Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch is German, but it has dialectic peculiarities, just as the 
spoken language of the shires of England is English, but differs from 


the language of the schools. The Pennsylvania Dutch was at first 
brought from Europe, but some new words were incorporated with it 
both in Pennsylvania and in Canada. (Properly speaking it is just as 
much Canadian Dutch as Pennsylvania Dutch). It is not the Germaa 
of literature, but those who use it understand the proper German. 
The Pensylvania Germans were proud of their distinctive dialect, just 
as the Scothch are proud of their broad Doric accent. Who will blame 
them ? The thing is bred in the bones. 

A noticeable characteristic of this people was their cheerfulness, 
we may say they were eminently social. Being full of life and energy 
they gave free expression to their social natures. Their meetings for 
worship were great social occasions. The families living in the 
vicinity of the churches always prepared royal entertainment for the 
throngs of friends that looked for refreshment after the morning ser- 
vice. This might not accord with our view of Sabbath propriety, but 
they thought otherwise. Indeed, there was a constant intermingling 
of the people, and social culture was promoted. 

The Waterloo Germans excelled in the domestic virtues. Pamily 
life was free and easy, and characterized by what we might call patri- 
archal simplicity. Even domestics were treated, not as siibordinates, 
but as members of the household, and were expected to join in its 
councils when found worthy of confidence. 

Here we must emphasize the fact that the early history of Waterloo 
is essentially linked with the history of the Mennonites. The Men- 
nonite Church was at first and for many years the supreme power in 
the colony. All were not members of the church, but as a rule those 
who were not members were adherents, and under the influence of the 
church. We might call the colony a moderate theocracy, but not like 
the theocracy of the Puritans in the early days of New England, when 
" the ministers were in reality the chief officials of State " (Art. 
Theocracy, in Standard Diet.). Parkman says this was " one of the 
most detestable theocracies on record." We have called the Mennonite 
Church of the early days of the Waterloo colony a moderate theocracy, 
for everything on which the people differed or needed advice was 
referred to the church for counsel, adjustment, or adjudication. And 
yet nothing was done to interfere with individual rights or private 
judgment. It was an admirably conducted community, and if we are 
right in calling it a theocracy, it was a theocracy to which there could 
be no reasonable objection. 

The life and manners of such a community are deserving of study. 


Their very dress was intended to distinguish them from the outside. 
The men dressed in uniform style, and so did the women; and both 
men and women appeared very much like the old-time Friends. This 
uniformity in dress was especially noticeable at church, where the men 
■and women sat apart. Let us bear in mind that back of this plain- 
ness, this severe uniformity, there was conscience — they did all from a 
sense of Christian duty. This loyalty to conscience, in what most 
regard as a matter of indifference, characterized the whole life of this 
people, and did much to foster and develop those high moral qualities 
which they were known to possess. There was no section of the coun- 
try where the morals ranked higher than in the Waterloo colony, but 
there were many places where the morals were much lower. Eve a 
petty offences were rare, magistrates had little to do, and lawyers would 
have starved in the community. 

At this point we will introduce the most prominent personality in 
the early history of Waterloo, viz. : 

Bishop Benjamin Eby. 

The Bishop was identified with Waterloo nearly half a century. 
He came here in 1806, and settled on a farm on the south side of Ber- 
lin. In 1809 he was made a preacher of the Mennonite body, and three 
years later, in 1812, he became bishop of the Waterloo churches. 
When he became bishop there were no church buildings in the town- 
ship, all the meetings were held in private houses. The shrewd bishop 
saw that the time had come when churches were necessary to the per- 
manency of the cause. Through his influence and energy a log church 
was built on his farm in 1813. This was the first church in the town- 
ship, and the third church, a fine brick building, is now standing on 
the same lot. 

The Bishop was a great friend of the public school. For some 
years the school of the district was held in the church on his farm, and 
for a number of winters in succession he did the teaching. The 
Bishop was also greatly interested in the industrial prosperity of the 
place, and was always ready to help those who wished to open up new 
lines of activity. 

Bishop Eby did much for the Mennonite denomination, not only in 
Waterloo, but in Canada. He compiled a hymn-book, which was uni- 
versally adopted by the churches. The hymns of the Eby collection 
were selected from the best German composers. He also prepared a 
church directory. The Bishop exercised a wide influence, not alone in 
his own communion, but in others as well, and was highly esteemed for 


his many noble qualities. He was so intimately associated with the 
Waterloo colony, almost from its beginning, that we might speak of him 
as the father of the colony. He was to the pioneers of Waterloo what 
Addison was to the pioneers of Niagara. I am sure it is not too much 
to claim Bishop Eby as one of the historic figures in the early history 
of our Province. We have now come to the 

Transition Period 

in the history of the Waterloo colony, and will not need to make any 
further reference to the Mennonite Church. About the close of the 
first quarter of the century there was a large influx of Pennsylvanians 
to Waterloo, but soon the tide ebbed, and after this now and then a 
family came. A new element, however, was introduced by the incom- 
ing of European G-ermans. These had their measure of influence even 
on the conservative Pennsylvanians, and no doubt helped' them to a 
broader outlook, in some respects at least. 

A new phase in the life of Waterloo at this period was 

The Advent of the Press. 

The first newspaper in Waterloo Township was issued at Berlin, 
August 27, 1835. It was printed in German, and called " Der Canada 
Museum." The editor was H. W. Peterson. Fortunately, a few 
years ago, in looking over a large collection of newspapers of an early 
date, at the house of a friend, I found a copy of the " Museum." It is 
No. 36 of the first year's issue^ and the day of issue was Thursday, 
June 23. Peterson was a Pennsylvanian German, educated as a cler- 
gyman, and entered the ministry of the Lutheran Church. He drifted 
into politics, was elected to a seat in the Upper Canada Assembly, and 
took an active part in the debates of the House. Later he received the 
appointment of Registrar of the County of Wellington, and lived many 
years in Guelph. 

The "Museum " was the pioneer newspaper of Waterloo, and the 
pioneer German newspaper of our Provinc. It had a short history, 
but had as its successor a German paper called " Der Deutscher Cana- 
dier." The proprietor and publisher of the " Canadicr " was Henry 
Eby, a son of Bishop Eby. The paper was well patronized, had a 
large circulation, and did good pioneer service among the German- 
speaking population, and was for years the only paper that entered 
many homes. Eby was an enterprising publisher.* The historian 

* Lately, through H. M. Bowman, of Berlin, I have learned of another early German 
paper called "Der Morgenstern ." Its life covered a period of two years, from September, 
1839, to September, 1841. It waa published at Waterloo village. The proprietor and 
editor waa Benjamin Burkholder. 


Eby says, Henry Eby " published many books and all kinds of Eng- 
lish and German literature." The writer can well remember when a 
German spelling-book, from the Eby press, Berlin, was used in the pub- 
lic schools of the township of Waterloo. Here we have one of the 
proofs that the Waterloo people had some enterprise at an early period 
in their history. This brings us to what I shall call the 

Intellectual Awakening 

of the Waterloo Germans. The press was, no doubt, one of the factors 
in this awakening, and so was the increased industrial activity, and the 
gradual opening and outlook for a larger life in the country, but to my 
mind the chief factor was improved schools and better qualified 
teachers. These teachers inspired the young with ambition for wider 
culture. The influence touched the parents, and soon young men began 
to push to the schools for advanced education. This awakening came 
in the closing period of the second quarter of the last century, and 
to-day no people in our Province take a deeper interest in educational 
matters than the people of Waterloo. 

The Waterloo pioneers laid an enduring foundation. Many of the 
old peculiarities are passing away, a thing that was to be expected ; but 
the lofty ideal they sought after and taught in regard to life and morals 
has left an influence that will be felt by generations to come. Rural 
Waterloo is still mostly in the hands of the descendants of'the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. The villages and towns have a large foreign popula- 
tion, but the Germans continue t© hold the chief place. Everywhere, 
whether in town or country, you can see the impress of the old Pennsyl- 
vania German characteristics. And these people have always been 
loyal to the country of their adoption ; sedition has never had a breed- 
ing-place among them. 

In studying the early history of this Province we need to take 
account of the German element. Let us not stop with the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans, but in our estimate take in the Germans of the other 
settlements. When the canvass is finished we will be surprised to find 
how large a proportion of the early settlers of Upper Canada were Ger- 
mans. ISTo nationality was more largely represented than they. In the 
wonderful social evolution of our Province many elements have been at 
work, and in making reckoning with these elements we must not forgit 
that one of the most potent elements that entered into its life at the 
very start, was good, wholesome German blood. 

One of the publishing firms of this city (Toronto) is issuing a series 
of volumes on the " Makers of Canada," Some numbers of this series 


have already been given to the public. We cannot overestimate the work 
of the men whose history is reviewed in these volumes. They helped 
to solve the problems that agitated and vexed the country ; in many 
cases they brought order out of confusion and put the affairs of the 
country on a secure basis. But the men who went into the forest and 
turned the wilderness into fruitful fields, and opened new avenues for 
trade, did just as great and important a work as the champions of 
political, social, educational and religious reform. They, too, were 
" makers of Canada," and in this category we include the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans of Waterloo. 


A list of those Tories 
who took part with Great Britain 

In the Revolutionary War 
and were attainted of 


Commonly called the 


to which is prefixed the legal 
opinions of 



printed for the proprietor. 


Copyright secured according to Law. 
Contributed by Mrs. J. Rose Holden, of HamiUon. 


The Legal Qualifications of Voters. 

See Read's Digest, page 100, sect. I. See also the act of February 
15th, 1799. (Vol. IV., page 332.) 
First, that he is a natural-born citizen of this state, or was settled 
therein on the 28th day of September, one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-six; or, having been a foreigner, who since that time came to 
settle therein, he had taken an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the 
same, on or before the twenty-sixth day of March, one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety, agreeably to the then existing constitution and 
laws; or, secondly, that he is a natural-born citizen of some other of 
the United States, or had been lawfully admitted or recognized as a 
citizen of some one of the said states, on or before the twenty-sixth day 
of March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety ; or, thirdly, 
that having been a foreigner or alien he hath been natural- 
ized conformably to the laws of the United States. That 
as evidence of his being naturalized agreeably to the laws of the United 
States, he shall produce a certificate thereof, under the seal of the court 
wherein such naturalization took place; that as evidence of his being a 
natural-born citizen of this state, or resident therein, on the twenty- 
eighth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, 
or a natural-born citizen of some other of the United States, if required 
by any Inspector or Judge of the election, he shall be examined on his 
oath of animation ; that as evidence of his having taken an oath or affir- 
mation of allegiance to this state, on or before the twenty-sixth day of 
March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety; or, of having been 
lawfully admitted, or recognized as a citizen of some other of the United 
States, on or before the said day, if required by an Inspector or Judge 
of the election, he shall produce a certificate in due form, from somej' 
Judge, Prothonotary, or Clerk of a court, Mayor, Alderman, Recorder 
or Justice of the Peace ; or shall be examined on his oath or affirmation ; 
and if by such certificate or examination as aforesaid, it shall appear 
that he is a citizen of this state, qualified to elect, agreeably to the pro- 
visions of this act, his vote shall be received by the Inspector of the 
Township, Ward, or District in which he resides. 

The Legal Opinion of Messrs. Dallas and McKean, on the Duty of 
Inspectors of Elections, and Qualifications of Voters. 

We are of opinion, that the officers of the Election have a right, and 
are in duty bound, to ascertain by every legal test, the qualification of 
the Electors ; and that the vote of an Elector, who refuses to depose, or 
affirm, to his qualifications, upon a question that does not tend to crim- 
inate himself, may be, and ought to be, rejected. 


We are of opinion, any inhabitant of Pennsylvania (whether a 
native or not,) who made his choice to the British cause at the com- 
mencement of the Revolution, thereby became a British subject, and 
that such choice might be manifested by joining the British forces, or 
taking an oath of allegiance to the king of Great Britain. 

We are of opinion, that in order to ascertain, whether an Elector is 
a British subject, or an American citizen, upon the principle above 
stated, the officers of the Election may, and if they doubt, must ask him, 
whether, during the Revolution, he joined the British forces, or took 
the oath of allegiance, to the king of Great Britain, and at what period ? 
Nor can such a question tend, in our opinion, to criminate him. 

We are of opinion, that no man who has been attainted during the 
American Revolution can be entitled to vote at an election, unless the 
attainder has been reversed, or a pardon has been granted, by the 
proper authority of the government. 

J. B. McKean. 
A. J. Dallas. 

Philadelphia, October, 12th, 1801. 


Are those persons who took the Oath or Affirmation of allegiance, 
or joined or adhered to the King of Great Britain, after the 4th day of 
July, 1776, and now resident in Pennsylvania, to be considered as 
citizens of Pennsylvania, and entitled to elect or be elected members of 
Assembly, etc. ? 


Upon every change of government by a majority of the citizens, 
either by the formation of a new system of government, or the resolution 
of the citizens, to submit to a foreign power, or no longer to be subject 
to a monarch, those who are averse to the change or disapprove the 
system adopted by the majority, have a right to leave the society and 
settle elsewhere. The election to expatriate must, however, be made 
within a reasonable time, and, once made, the party cannot regain the 
rights of a citizen, without complying with the forms prescribed for the 
naturalization of foreigners, by the society which he has deserted. The 
election may be evinced, by the declaration of the party, by an act of 
the party, or by a departure and joining another State, by taking an 
oath of allegiance to, or aiding, or assisting another State, at war with 
the State or society be has left ; but those who continue to reside and 
exercise the rights and privileges of a citizen, after a reasonable time 
allowed for their departure, are considered as having made their 


election to submit, and owe allegiance, to the government in which they 
reside, and cannot afterwards expatriate themselves, flagrante hello, by 
taking an oath of allegiance to or joining the enemy. 

Previous to the Declaration of Independence, we were in a state of 
civil war, then each individual had a right to choose his side ; after that 
Act we assumed the character of an independent nation, the majority 
of the people refusing longer to be subject to a monarchical government, 
till the formation and organization of the State governments, any 
individual was at liberty to make his election. The Government of 
Pennsylvania may be considered as completely organized on the 11th 
February, 1777, when an Act passed, declaring who should owe 
allegiance to Pennsylvania, and what should be treason. If may, there- 
fore, be proper to subdivide the question and consider, 

1. The situation of those who, previous to the 11th February, 1777, 
adhered to the King of Great Britain. 

2. The situation of those who, after that time, took the oath of 
allegiance, or joined the British and have been attainted of high 

3. Of those who, after 11th February, 1777, took the oath of 
allegiance to, or joined the British armies, and were not attainted of 

1. With respect to those who, previous to Feb. 11th, 1777, made 
their election, and adhered to the British, I conceive there can be no 
doubt, they became British subjects, and could not afterwards become 
citizens of Pennsylvania, but by complying with the forms, etc., pre- 
scribed in the Acts for the naturalization of foreigners. This principle 
seems to be settled by the case of the Commonwealth against Chapman, 
determined in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in April, 1781. 

2. With regard to those who, after February, 1777, joined the 
British, and were attainted of treason, where the attainder has not been 
reversed or a pardon procured, they cannot be considered as restored to 
the rights of citizenship. The treaty of peace did not operate as a 
reversal of the attainder nor as a pardon, but only protects the persons 
from further prosecution or punishment. 

3. As to the third class, who, after the 11th February, 1777, took 
the oath of allegiance to the King of Great Britain, or joined the 
British armies, and were not attainted, they cannot be considered as 
expatriated ; though such acts might be deemed overt acts of treason, 
they must still be considered as citizens, and entitled to the rights of 
citizenship. Till attainder, their rights were not forfeited. The test 



laws have now no operation on the question, unless to show the sense 
of the Legislature in support of the above principle. By the eleventh 
section of the Act of 5th December, 1778, it is enacted that those who 
had taken the oath or affirmation of allegiance to the State, and after- 
wards to the King of Great Britain, should be incapable of election, 
etc., until they should take the oath therein prescribed by the Act of 
13th March, 1789> all the test laws were repealed, and the oath of 
allegiance, etc., rendered unnecessary. So that those who took an oath 
of allegiance to the King of Great Britain, joined his banner, or com- 
mitted any other treasonable act, are not disfranchised unless attainted. 



Of All Persons Atta'mted of 


Allen, John, died before the da} 7 
limited for the surrender. 

Allen, Andrew. 

Allen, William, Junr. 

Austin, William. 

Armstrong, Francis. 

Armstrong, William. 

Airey, John. 

Allen, James, surrendered and 

Allen, Isaac. 

Adams, John. 

Arthur, Peter. 

Apfden, Matthias. 

Arnold, Benedict. 

Anderson, Stephen. 

Adams, Jonathan. 

Ashbridge, Aaron, 
Sup. Court. 

Andrews, William. 

Adams, Susanna. 

discharged by 

Anderson, William. 

Biddle, John. 

Bartram, Alexander. 

Biles, Samuel. 

Bulla, Thomas. 

Braken, James. 

Brooks, Boyer, surrendered and 

Badge, Thomas. 

Bulla, John. 

Bray, John. 

Bramhall, Thomas. 

Brown, John, surrendered and 

Buckingham, John. 

Bolton, Joseph, tried and ac- 

Barton, Thomas, do. 

Bean, Jesse, do. 

Butcher, John. 



Buffington, Jacob. 

Bullock, Isaac. 

Burnet, John, surrendered and 

Bell, Samuel, do. 

Burk, Isaac. 

Burns, Thomas. 

Bell, William. 

Brown, James. 

Burr, Hudson. 

Burd, John. 

Burkett, John. 

Burk, John. 

Burge, David. 

Barrow, Samuel. 

Bryan, Joel, surrendered. 

Burns, George. 

Balderstone, Mordecai. 

Bartlett, John. 

Booth, Benjamin. 

Bond, Phineas. 

Brown, William. 

Burrows, Samuel. 

Boatman, George. 

Brown, Benjamin, carpenter, sur- 
dered and discharged. 

Briggs, George, do. 

Brown, George. 

Boyer, Jacob. 

Bare, Abraham. 

Buffington, Joshua, tried and ac- 

Buffington, Richard. 

Blackford, Martin. 

Carlisle, Abraham. 

Clifton, Alfred. 

Clifton, William, surrendered and 

Compton, William, do. 
Corry, Robert, do. 
Christy, William. 
Carver, Nathan. 
Cunrad, Robert. 

Coxe, Daniel. 

Chalmers, J anies. 

Couper, Robert. 

Chevalier, John, surrendered and 

Club, James. 

Cunningham, John, surrendered 
and discharged. 

Curry, Ross. 

Craig, James, surrendered and 

Connor, Michael. 

Coley, Robert, Junr. 

Cable, John, surrendered and 

Canby, Joseph. 

Canby, Thomas. 

Campbell, Arthur. 

Chapman, Samuel, tried and ac- 

Chapman, Amos. 

Chapman, Abraham. 

Chapman, David. 

Clark, Abraham, surrendered and 

Chapter, Jacob. 

Caldwell, William. 

Clark, William. 

Crickley, Michael. 

Curlain, William. 

Croghan, George, surrendered and 

Colston, John. 

Comely, Joseph. 

Campbel, Jchn. 

Campbel, William. 

Campbel, Peter. 

Clark, John. 

Crochson, Dennis. 

Corker, William. 

Corbet, Alexander. 

Deshong, Peter, tried and ac- 

BLA.UK list. 


Dawson, David. 

Deleplain, James, surrendered and 

De Normandie, William. 

Davis, William, tried and ac- 

Davis, George. 

Duche, Jacob, Junr. 

Dunn, William. 

Dunn, Malin. 

Davis, James, do. 

Davis, Benjamin. 

Dcve, Robert, surrendered and 

Doan, Joseph. 

Dennis, Henry. 

Dennis, John. 

Doble, Joseph. 

De Normandie, Andrew. 

Dunn, George, surrendered and 

Dennis, John. 

De Long, James. 

Dolston, Isaac. 

Dolston, Matthew. 

Dolston, Isaac, Junr. 

Dunn, George. 

Evans, Able. 

Eve, Oswald. 

Evans, Israel. 

Evans, William. 

Evans, Joel. 

Easton, Dennis. 

Elwood, John, tried, convicted 

and pardoned. 
Edwards, Joseph, surrendered and 

Effinger, Henry, Junr. 
Elliot, Matthew. 
Evans, William. 
Evans, John. 
Elliott, Andrew. 
Ensor, George. 

Eddy, Charles. 
Eddy, Thomas. 
Erwin, Edward. 

Fouts, Christian. 

Ferguson, Hugh Henry. 

Fisher, Coleman. 

Fisher, James, surrendered and 

Fogan, Lawrence. 
Fell, William. 
Featherly, Thomas. 
Falkenstone, Abraham. 
Fursuer, Andrew. 
Fields, George. 
Fields, Daniel. 
Fields, Gilbert 
Furner, Morris. 
Furner, Edward. 
Falkenstine, Jacob. 
Fleming, Law. 
Fox, John. 
Fairlamb, Samuel. 
Fincher, Benjamin. 
Fox, Joseph. 

Galloway, Joseph. 

Garrigues, Samuel, the elder, tried 

and acquitted. 
Gregson, James, do. 
Gregory, David. 
Gelmore, James. 
Gofling, John, surrendered and 

Griffiths, Evan. 
Green, Isaac, Junr. 
Gibbs, Benjamin, surrendered and 

Gorman, Enoch, do. 
Girty, Simon. 
Green, Thomas. 
Gibson, Edward. 
Good, George. 
Gill, Joseph. 



Grissel, Edward, surrendered and 

■Gordon, Henry. 
Gorman, James, surrendered and 

Greswold, Joseph. 
Gordon, Thomas. 
Givin, Hugh. 

Hicks, Gilhert. 

Hook, Christian. 

Hanlon, Edward. 

Hovendon, Richard. 

Holden, John, tried and acquitted. 

Holder, Jacob. 

Holder, George. 

Holtzinger, Ingelholt. 

Humphreys, James, Senr., sur- 
rendered and discharged. 

Hart, John, do. 

Hart, Ohamless, do. 

Howard, Peter, do. 

Hathe, Andrew, tried and ac- 
quitted. ' 

Huntsman, John. 

Hurst, Timothy. 

Hales, John. 

Henderson, John. 

Hill, John, surrendered and dis- 

Howell, John. 

Hendrickson, Jeremiah. 

Harvey, John. 

Hill, Henry. 

Haines, Caleb. 

Hart, Samuel. 

Harnet, James, tried and ac- 

Henry, William. 

Hardy, Peter. 

Hughes, Uriah, surrendered and 

Hutchinson, Isaac. 

Hutchinson, Thomas. 

Hutchinson, Marmaduke. 
Hare, Jacob. 
Hare, Michael. 
Hill, Patrick. 
Hutchinson, John. 
Harvey, Samuel. 
Housecker, Nicholas. 
Hughes, Thomas. 
Humphries, James, Junr. 

Iredale, Robert, Junr. 
Iredale, Thomas. 
Irwin, Dunning. 
Iredale, Abraham. 
Irwin, Alexander. 
Inglis, James. 
Ink, John. 
Irwin, Francis. 

James, Jacob. 

James, Abel, surrendered and 

Johnston, John. 
Jefferies, Samuel, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Jounkin, Henry. 
James, Benjamin. 
Jones, David, surrendered. 
Jones, Edward. 
Jones, Joathan. 
Jones, Jesse. 
Jones, Daniel. 
Jones, Holton. 
Jones, Hugh. 

James, Daniel. 
Jackson, John. 

Keen, Reynold, pardoned by Act 

of Assembly. 
Kucker, Ludwick, surrendered and 

Knight, Joshua. 



Knight, John. 

Knight, Isaac, surrendered and 

Koster, John. 
Koster, Samuel. 
Knight, Nicholas. 
Kennett, Levy. 
Kennedy, William. 
Kissack, Robert. 
Kilby, Lawrence. 
Kennard, Joseph. 
King, Joseph. 
Kesselmun, Frederick, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Knapper, George. 
Kearsly, John. 
Kennard, Joseph. 

Leveisly, Thomas, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Love, William. 
Lisle, Henry, surrendered and 

Lifle, John, do. 
Lisle, Robert, surrendered and 

Lewis, Curtis. 
Loosley, Robert. 
Linden, Hugh. 
Lindy, Uriah. 
Long, Abraham. 
Lawson, James. 
Loughborough, John. 
Little, James. 
Land, Robert. 
Land, John. 
Lightfoot, Thomas, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Lindsey, Samuel. 

Miller, Peter, tried and acquitted. 
Marchenton, Phillip. 
Moland, William, surrendered. 
McCollouffh, Kenneth. 

McHugh, Matthew, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Meng, Melchoir, surrendered and 

Meng, Jacob, tried and acquitted. 
McMutrie, William, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Morris, William. 
Millson, John. 
Madock, William. 
Malin, James, surrendered and 

Miller, Benjamin, do. 
McClarin, James. 
Maris, David. 
Morgan, Moses. 
Marr, Lawrence. 
McMichael, Edward. 
McCart, John. 
McKee, Alexander. 
Marshall, William, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Myaer, Jacob, surrendered and 

Moran, Charles. 
Michenor, Isaac. 
McMullan, James. 
Martin, Thomas. 
Moulder, John. 
Malin, Joseph, surrendered and 

Malin, Elisha, pardoned. 
Musgrove, John. 
Morris, Enoch. 

Masee, Henry, surrendered and 
discharged by the name of 
Henry Maag. 
McNeal, Dominick. 
Mackinett, John. 
Mackness, Thomas. 
Meredith, John. 
McDonald, Alexander. 
McHensie, Kenneth. 
Mcpherson, Will in in. 



Nixon, Robert. 

Oswalt, Henry. 
O'Kain, Hugh, 
O'Kain, Darby. 
Overholt, John. 

Potts, John. 

Pugh, James. 

Pugh, Hugh. 

Price, William. 

Parrock, John. 

Potts, David, surrendered and 

Pastorious, Abraham. 

Parker, John. 

Pyle, Caleb, surrendered and dis- 

Pike, John, do. 

Palmer, John, do. 

Price, Peter. 

Poor, John, tried and acquitted. 

Park, Abijah. 

Proctor, Joshua. 

Palmer, Richard, surrendered and 

Perlie, Peter.. 

Patterson, John, surrendered and 

Piles, William. 

Proctor, Joshua. 

Rankin, James. 

Roberts, John. 

Rankin, John. 

Roberts, Owen. 

Reine, George. 

Reine, John. 

Ross, Malcolm. 

Roker, Thomas. 

Riddle, James, surrendered and 

Robeson, Peter, do. 

Romigh, Jacob. 

Rodgers, John. 

Rickey, Alexander. 

Register, Daniel, surrendered and 

Rymel, John. 
Ross, William. 
Russel, Matthew. 
Rhoden, William. 
Roberts, Nathan. 
Robeson, John. 
Robeson, Jonathan, Junr. 
Roberts, John (Laborer). 
Roberts, John (Smith). 
Richardson, Jacob, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Rundle, Daniel, surrendered and 

Reid, John. 
Ross, Alexander. 
Rankin, William. 

Story, Enoch. 

Stephenson, James. 

Smith, John. 

Skyles, Henry. 

Swanwick, John. 

Sutton, Joseph. 

Sanderson, Francis, surrendered 
and discharged. 

Sproat, David. 

Story, Thomas, surrendered and 

Stephens, James, tried and ac- 

Stedman, Charles, Junr. 

Shepherd, John. 

Sutter, Peter, surrendered and 

Saur, Christopher, Junr. 

Saur, Christopher, Senr. 

Shoemaker, Joseph, surrendered 
and discharged. 

Supplce, Enoch. 



Spangler, George. 

Thomas, Joshua. 

Saur, Peter. 

Thomas, Joshua. 

Styer, Stephen, surrendered 


Tittly, Benjamin. 


Town, Benjamin, 

Skelton, William. 

Taylor, William. 

Stackhouse, John. 

Taylor, William. 

Stackhouse, John. 

Tolly, John. 

Swift, Joseph. 

Thomson, David. 

Stroud, William, surrendered 


Taylor, John. 


Taylor, John. 

Supplee, John, do.. 


Thomas, Arthur. 


Todd, Cortland. 

Smith, William, do. 

Taylor, Isaac. 

Spering, John. 

Talbert, James. 

Stackhouse, John. 

Thomas, Evans. 

Stackhouse, Robert. 

Turner, John. 



Snyder, Peter. 

Smith, Alexander. 

Smith, William Drewett. 

Stedman, Alexander. 

Silkod, Thomas. 

Shaw, Jonathan. 

Styger, Stephen, surrendered and 

Stiles, Edward, do. 
Swanwick, Richard. 
Skyles, Henry. 
Smither, James. 
Stansbury, Joseph, surrendered 

and discharged. 
Smith, Andrew, surrendered and 

Stillwell, John. 
Staulks, Henry. 
Strininger, Henry. 
Sinclair, George. 
Simpson, William. 
Shoemaker, Samuel. 

Thomas, Arthur. 
Thomas, Joseph. 
Thomas, William. 
Talbot, John. 
Trcjjo, Jacob. 

Vernon, Nathaniel, Junr. 
Vernon, Nathaniel. 
Verner, Frederick. 
Vernon, Gideon. 
Vernor, Eli as. 
Vaughan, John. 
Voght, Christian. 

Walton, Allinson. 
Willet, Walter. 
Wilson, John. 
Welflang, Henry. 
Whitman, Michael. 
Wharton, Carpenter. 
Wharton, Isaac. 
Williams, William. 
William, Ephraim. 
Wilson, Christopher. 
Worrall, Isaiah. 
Wood, Moses. 
Willis. William. 
Willis, Richard. 
Wilson, John. 
White, Robert. 
Warrel, James. 
Wright, William. 
Weston, Richard. 


Weitner, George. Wright, John. 

Wertman, Philip George. Wright, Joathan. 
Williams, Daniel. 

Walker, Isaac. Young, John. 

Warder, John. Yeldall, Anthony. 

Wain, James. York, Thomas. 

Worthington, Joseph. Young, David. 

West, William, Junr. Yeldall, Anthony. 

Secretary's Office, Lancaster. 

September 18th, 1802. 

I do certify to all whom it may concern, that the foregoing is a 
true copy of the Original, remaining on file, in the said Office. Wit- 
ness my hand and seal the day and year aforesaid. 

(Sgd.) T. M. Thompson, Sec. 


(With an Introduction and Explanatory Notes, by Michael 
Gonder Sherk.) 

The following accounts were taken from an old account book of 
Michael and Jacob Gander,* two of the pioneer settlers in Wil- 
loughby Township, Welland County (at that time part of Lincoln), 
Ontario. The account book was opened in 1802, and has an entry 
as late as 1837. Michael Gander, a U.E. Loyalist, came to Canada 
from Pennsylvania in 1789, when his son, Jacob, was a boy nearly 
thirteen years of age. He lived for a few years in the town of Niagara. 
In 1796 he settled on the Niagara River, six miles above Chippawa. 
The farm he settled on is still owned and occupied by some of his 
descendants. He died in 1813, and was buried in a family cemetery, 
on what is now known as the Stoner farm, in the suburbs of the town 
of Welland. His son, Jacob, was born in 1776, and lived from 1796 
till 1846, the time of his death, on the farm first above mentioned, 
and is buried in the family cemetery. He served as ensign in the 
War of 1812, and was appointed captain in the 3rd Lincoln Militia 

* In the German the name Gander is pronounced Gonder. For half a century or more 
the descendants of Michael Gander, sr., have been spelling the name that way. 


in 1824. His son, Michael Dunn Gander, served in the Mackenzie 
Rebellion, and succeeded to the command of Captain Edgworth 
Ussher's company, after the latter 's assassination, in 1840. He lived 
all his life (1804-1886) on the old homestead, and is buried in the 
family cemetery on the farm. He had a numerous family — eight 
sons and seven daughters — nine of whom are still living. The writer 
of this sketch is a son of his oldest daughter. 

Michael and Jacob Gander, being Pennsylvania Germans, we 
commence the copy of the account book with one in that language 
(the only one in the book). With the exception of those from 1802-08 
the accounts all belong to Jacob Gander. They show that he was very 
particular in business matters, as well as very exact in his dealings. 
The accounts Avere simple memoranda for private use, and were not 
intended for the public eye. We give them as nearly as possible in 
their original form, and have made no change in spelling and punctua- 
tion. To the student of Canadian history they should be valuable, as 
they will help to illustrate the character of the times, as well as of the 
currency, which at that period was varied. Halifax currency* was the 
" Provincial " currency, but the ISfew York currency! (N.Y.C.) seems 
to have been the one in common use — particularly so before 1820. It 
was no doubt introduced into Canada by the settlers from the United 
States, who came largely from New York and Pennsylvania. It was 
a modified currency, however, dollars and cents being frequently made 
use of. The Halifax currency was employed in public and school 
accounts. In the accounts we have given, it may be taken for granted 
by the reader that the currency used is the New York currency, unless 
otherwise specified. 

In conclusion, the writer would say that he has, from his know- 
ledge of the locality in which his great-grandfather lived, and with 
the aid of his aged father and mother, endeavored to make the copy 
of the old account book as clear as possible, and he trusts that it may 
give assistance to future historians in studying the early history of 
our country. 

* In Halifax currency the pound was equivalent to $4.00, and the shilling to 20 cents. 

tin New York currency the pound wai equivalent to $2.50, and the shilling to 12} 
cents. Eight shillings (York) equalled a dollar. 


£ s. d. 
1802 Michael Gander schuldner zu David Preisz. 

Im Abrill Hab David Preisz bezahltfor ein Died in Willobby 

Thaunschieb : 18 Doller 7 4 

Zu Peter Rossel. 
October 4th Mer bezahlt for zwehn died zu Peter Rossel die 

1804 sum 41 doller 2 shilling und 6 Bensz ]6 10 6 

1804 bin ich noch schuldich blieben auf ein Halb berl 


10 doller 4 

October 20th empfangen von David Preisz in gelt 25 doller .... 10 

October 15th empfangen in gelt von Preisz 25 



1802 Michael Gander debtor to David Price.* 
In April Paid David Price for a Deed in Willoughby Town- 
ship 18 Dollars 7 4 

To Peter Russel.f 
October 4th paid for second Deed to Peter Russel the sum of 

41 dollars 2 shillings and 6 pence 16 10 6 

1804 I am still in his debt for half a barrel of sugar. 

10 Dollars 4 

October 20th Received from David Price in cash 25 Dollars. . . 10 

October 15 Received in cash from David Price 25 


1806 John Wright account with Michael Gander. 

May the 1st To 196 lb. flour 7 Dollars 2 16 

June the 1st To 195 lb. flour 8 Do 3 4 

To 12 lb. Pork at 1/3 . . 15 

6 15 

April the 26th To 5 Bushells oats 4/- 1 n n 

To 4 Bushells Potatoes 4/- . . — 16 — 

To \ Bushell flax Seed 8/- 8 

2 4 

£ s. d. 

Cr. By 3 pair Boot legs 1 10 — 

by Chopping 3} Cords firewood 3/ 10 6 

2 ii 6 

* David Price was an Indian captive for seven years. After his release he came to 
Niagara, and was for some years employed by the Indian Department. His knowledge 
of the language fitted him for this work. He married Michael Gander's daughter 
Margaret (Peggy). 

t Peter Russell, Auditor-General of the Province of Upper Canada. His signature is 
to be found on many of the old Crown Land's deeds. 







£ s. d. 

Credit to David Price by \ Bushell Buckwheat. . . — 4 — 

To 6 Bushell Potatoes 4/- 1 4 — 

To to Street & Clark* for Glass & Pottie 5 15 — 

To Do James Macklemf for Nails 3 2 6 

To paid 4/- in Baccon — 4 — 

To paid |lb Tobacco — 4 — 

To 1 Rule for Carpenters 8/- — 8 — 

To 1 Mare 50 Dollars 20 

To Interest for 50 Dollars 5 years it 9 months. ... 6 18 — 

James Cummings Esqr Dr to 

John Byers+ & Jacob Gander 

To a pump auger & apparatus you Borrowed Several 
years ago and has not been returned. Said 
auger Cost when made twelve and a half Dollars 
Currency 3 2 6 

Willoughby April the 10th 1837 

1817 My account with B. Hardison.§ 

by 3900 Brick at 4 Dollars per thousand 

To 11 fruit trees 4/- 2 4 

To 6 by your son 1 4 

To 4 Bushells Barley 16/- 3 4 

6 12 
1814 Christian Shoup account 

October To 9 head of Cattle turned in my meadow and kept 

in untill the grass was all destroyed Likewise 
horses was shut up in my fields 

1813 David Price account with Jacob Gander. £, s. d. 

March To Cash Lent 17 Dollars 6 16 

To paid Thomas & James Cummings || 9 

To paid Clark & Street 3 

To Cash paid for Liquer 8/- to 8 

* Street & Clark, merchants at Niagara Falls. The Streets were among the earliest 
settlers at the Falls. Street's mill at Bridgewater, about a mile above the Falls, was a 
first-class water power mill, and was patronized by settlers from long distances ; people 
coming from the Long Point country, 75 or 80 miles away, and also from the American 
side. The islands in the vicinity, at one time called Street's islands, were bought from 
the Street family by the Provincial Government at the time of the setting apart of the 
Queen Victoria Park, and renamed Dufferin Islands. 

t James Macklem was for many years one of the prominent men of Chippawa. 

% Byers, one of the Crown Land settlers of Willoughby township. 

§ Captain Benjamin Hardison came from the U. S. after the Revolutionary War, and 
settled on the Niagara. He was a member of the Second Parliament of Upper Canada — 
served in the War of 1812 — died about 1823, and is buried on his farm at Fort Erie. — See 
"The Second Legislature of Upper Canada," by C. C. James. 

I; James Cummings, a son of Thomas Cummings, one of the first settlers of Chippawa. 
He was for many years a prominent public man in the place. 


July the 27 


January the 8 

March the 9 
April the 13th 

October the 16 


April 7th 


£ s. d. 

To 1 Sheep of Phillip Dunn* 112 

To paid to the estate John Fanningf 13 

To 1 Box Glass 5 

To 61b Pottie 2/6 15 

To 301b Bacon 1/6 2 5 

To 251b nails 2/6 3 2 6 

To 1 sheep 32/- Phillip Dunn 112 

To 13 flour Barrells 5/- 3 5 

To Cash by Dunn for Coffin} 2 8 

To Cash paid Doctor flint for medison 10 

To 2 Barrells flour 64/- 6 8 

To 2 Barrells flour 64/- 6 8 

To 1 Barrell Beef 6 8 

To paid Bitner^ for Shewing your horse 16 

To 2 Barrells flour 64/- 6 8 

To 2 pair Corse Shews 114 

To 61b Tobacco 8/- 2 8 

To 3 Barrells flour 64/- 9 12 

To 16 Barrells flour 96/- 76 16 

To 411b Fry Bacon 1 

To 301b Beef / 4H 6 

To 31b Tobacco 8/- , 1 4 

To 1 Side Upper Leather 2 

To 1 Side Soal Leather or llf lb 3/- 1 15 3 

Setled with David Price all the above account 
except 16 Barrells flour which belonged to the 
Estate of Michael Gander Deceased and was 
willed to Michael Gander Junr which is to be 
accounted for when the heir Come of age, the 1 6 
Barrells of flour mentioned above were Delivered 
to David Price between the 1st May and 1st 
July in the year 1813. 

1813 Christian Shoup|| account Cr. 

To 1 side uper Leather 32/- 112 

To 101b Soal Leather 3/- per lb 30/- 110 

To \ Bushel Buckwheat 4/- 4 

To making 1 pair slippers and found Soal Leather 

* Phillip Dunn was a brother-in-law of Jacob Gander. 

t John Fanning one of the first settlers in Willou^hby township. 

% In the early days, when anyone died, a carpenter or handy man in the neighborhood 
was employed to make the coffin. 

§ Christian Bitner, a son of Mr. Bitner, the blacksmith, is still liring in Bertie town- 
ship, Welland county. 

II Mr. Shoup was one of the first settlers in Willoughby township. He was a farmer, 
but owned a small saw-mill, aad did tanning for the community as well. A great deal of 
sawing of lumber and the tanning in the early days was done on shares. 

Octr the 16 
Febru the 2d 


Apr 21 






£ s. d. 
To Side Upper Leather 1 pair Shoes taken out 

To 1 Side Upper Leather 2 8 

TolCalfSkinn 3 4 

To Cash Paid for weaving 16 

To more Cash for weaving 2 1 

To received 2 Calf skins Tanned on Shares 112 

To 14£lb Soal Leather in Lew of some in the Shares 

To 1437 feet weather Boards 

To 1327 feet h Inch Boards on Shares 

To 839^ feet Inch Boards on Shares 

To 2 Inch Plank 

To 1 Inch Board 

1 1083 

I feet ' 

7 11 


To 8 Bushells Potatoes 2/6 

To for Diging a ditch and the Priviledge which Mr. 
Shoup was to saw 12 hundred feet of Boards for 

Account* against David Price for 16 Barrells flour 

at 12 Dollars 48 



July 14 

December 7 th 

April the 25 
May the 1st 

the 30 

Christian Shoup account 
To 1 Calf Skin to tan on, shares paid 
To 1 yearling skin paid 
To 1 Calf Skin paid 

To 1 Cow hide 2 

To 1 Calf Skin paid 
To 1 Sheep Skin paid 

To Cash to Palmer for Rum 8/- 

To Cash to Elisabeth Blair for weaving 16/- ... . 

To 1 ox hide 75 lb 1 Steer Hide 55 lb 4 

To 1 Sheep Skin paid 

To Paid Betsy for weaving 2 

To Brass nob lockf 32/- paid 1 

To 1 1 lights Glass 2/6 1 

To 3 J- Barrells lime 16/- 2 

To 1 hog Skin | to Tann 

To 1 Cord Tann Bark 1 

To 1 horse hide and 3 Sheep Skins 

To 1 three year old Steer hide to Tan on Shares 55 1 

To 1 Calf Skin k Sheep Skin 
To 1 ox hide 80 lb 
To 4 Bushells oats at 30 per 
To mare to horse 














2 12 10 

* The amount of this account is carried but in Halifax Currency. 

t Brass knob locks are to be seen yet in some of the old houses. They are considered 
valuable as relics. 

X Hog skins, being thick, were tanned and made into leather for saddles. 



the 25th 

Jan 1st 






To 1 Side Soal Leather in Lew of ox hides above 

75 (k 55 
To 1 Cow hide to tan of the Black Cow 60 lb 
October the 28th Reed 1 Side upper 
To 1 Lam Skin for Elias paid 
To 2 Sheep Skins the wolfe killed paid 

To the large Bull hide 80 lb 

To had of you 1 Side upper Leather of share 

To Sheep Skins all paid previous to this Date 

To paid your Tax for the year 1 8 1 8 1.16. 9 Can Cy 

To 1 Steer hide that Broke his neck 


To 18 Large pine trees 16/ 14 

To 1 Day's work making coffin 6/- — 

To 1 Day going to Fort George for witness — 


2 8 

2 18 10 

6 — 

Oct the 10th 

the 6th 

Jan the 15 

Phillip Dunn account with Jacob Gander Dr 

To by 10 Bushell Wheat 10/- 

To for Mr Askins 

To 1\ lb Tallow 2/- 

To 1 hankerchief 14/- 

To 1 pair Corse Shoes 18/- 

To 1 lb Tobacco 8 

To cash ten Dollars u- 








To 20 lb Salt 16 

To 2£ lb Tallow 2/6 per 6 3 

To by Cash 6 18 

1813 Phillip Dunn account Cr 

To by 1 sheep 32/- 

1814 To had Share of Pasture <o\% 

December To 20 Bushells Wheat 20/- 

the 3rd To Cash 10/- 

To for Spinning 16 Run 1/- per run 








1820 John Hardy account 

July To 1 Cow hide to Tan of Spoted Cow paid 

December the 10th 
December To 1 Calf Skin to Tann of Black Calf 

To 1 ox hide 

To 1\\ lb Beef 6d 

1821 by 1 Side upper Leather 40/ 

1822 To 1 Sheep Skin by John Mocklehoon 
June To 1 hog skin 

2 1 
— 10 


Julv the 12th To 1 Cow hide thatdied in the Sugar Bush paid 
Decern 13, 1822 

15 To 16} lb veal 4d 


Novem To 1 ox hide 81 lb 6d 


Septr By 6| lb Soal Leather 3/ 


Jan the 4th Settlement with Mr Hardy and Balance due me. . 



s. d. 

5 5 



2 19 5£ 

Abraham Hershey* account. 

To 1 green ox hide 70 to Tan paid 
To 1 Dry ox hide weight not known paid 
Nov the 13th To 1 Calf Skin — paid and Due Mr. Hershey 7/ paid 

1822 To 2 Sheep Skins 

July 13 To 2 Calf Skins to tann paid Decemr 29th 

Septr 3d To hide of Price heffer 43 lb to tann paid 

To 1 Sheep Skin paid 
Nov By 1 Side of Upper Leather 28/ paid 

1824 To 1 Cow hide 57 lb 6d 28/6 paid 

May 7th To 1 Cow hide & Calf skin to tann paid 

July 28th To 1 Calf skin to Tan on shares k 1 sheepskin paid 

Oct the 20th To 1 yearling & — — all — 1 side October the 

12th 1826 
Dec the 18 To 2 Cow hides to tann paid 

April 9th To Steer hide & 1 Cow hide &, Colt skin to Tann 

June 22d To paid Cash for Dressing 3 Calf skins 1 5/- N. Y.C. 

by 1 Side Bridle Leather £1—6—0 N.YiC. 
August 1st To 1 Calf skin & Sheep skin to Tann 

To 1 Calf skin to tann 

the 12th received by 18£ lb Soal Leather 2/6 2 5 7| 

October To paid you Cash 1 Dollar 8/ 

the 5th To 1 Cow-hide that died Red cow 

April 27th To 1 Calf skin to tan 

August the 12th To 2 sheep skins <fc 1 Calf skin to tann 

To paid you 6ve Dollars Cash 2 n m 

December the 8 To 1 hide of spotted steer Beef 

June 27 To 6 small hides Different siezes to tan 

Nover the 28th To 1 side upper Leather. 

Novemr 28th To 1 Beef & 1 Cow hide 110 lb 6d 2 15 — 


April 29th To 1 Cow hide to tann on Shares 

October To Ballance on Pears n 6 m 

Decemr by small Skins tanned 4 in number 

* Mr. Hershey, farmer and tanner. His farm was situated on the river road about 
three miles above Chippawa. 


1827 Abraham Hershey account for Tanning £ s. 

Noverar 28th received 1 Side Upper Leather for Share 
Decemr 12th received ] Side Upper Leather & 1 Calf Skin by 
J. Byers 

1828 by Kip Skins & 3 Calf Skins & Ballance 

October 5 Due Mr. Hershey on the same N. Y. C 12 

1820 David Demute Credit 

July the 1st by 6£ Days work 8/- ) a. a 

Sept the 6th by 4£ Days work 8/- / 


July 4 by 3| Days work 8/- ^ „ .. 

the 14 by 5 Days work 8/- j 

July the 3 by making — Smoothing Plains m 16 

by 5 days work you and John 


Septer the 6 To 3 Bushells wheat 6/- 18 

Octobr the 19th To 8 Gallons Cider 1/- „ 8 

Decembr To 1 Bushell apples & Pears — 6 

the 11th To 1 Barrell cider 32/- 112 


Jan the 2d To 1 Barrell cider Racked 32/- 1 12 

March To 1 Barrel cider 32/- 113 

To 12f lb ham lOd & Small pice veal 12 

November To | lb nails for Mr House's Coffin 1 

To 19f lb ham lOd 16 

To 1\ Gallons vinegar 4/- „ 10 

1813 John Hurst account Dr 

Septr the 2d To 3 Bushels wheat 16/- 2 


April the 6th Sold John Hurst 1 mare at twenty Dollars 8 n 

and providing she shold bring a colt he is to 
allow ten Dollars more 
July the 27 To 8 Plugs Tobacco with Samuel Hoover 6d.... n 4 

August 27 To 2 orders on McMicking* to the amount of ... . 3 6 

1822 To 1 Smoothing Plaine ., 16 

To 2 Dozen Buttons 4/- . . , 8 

July To 1 lb Tobacco by Mr Hoover 1/6 

1821 Archabald Thompson account 

July the 1st To for three months use of house Settled up to the 

31st September 3 12 

by order on Mr. Mickmicking 14/- 
Decemr the 31st To three months use of house 24/- 3 12 

* Mr. McMicking, a ttorekeeper of Chippana. 


March 14th 

June the 4th 


To two <fc half months use of house 20/- 

by order on Mr. McMicking £2-12-6 
by Cash 10/6 

Settlement with A. Thompson and Bal lance Due 
me 30 Dollars & 3s. 


£ s. d. 
2 10 — 

1829 Account of hides to Silas Cortin 

March 1 Calf & 2 Sheep Skins. Sheep Skins returned 

Septr 17 To 1 ox hide — received side Soal Leather in 

place of same all returned 

1815 Joel Skinner, Dr. 

Jan To by Cash 1 2 Dollars 4 16 

April the 2d To by more Cash 17| Dollars 6 18 

Settlement Joel Skinner and all accounts Paid. 

1815 Joel Skinner account Cr 

October 21 To 189 feet inch Boards 16/- 110 

To 464 feet -*- Inch Boards 16/- j , 

To 657 feet ± Inch Boards 16,- ....(,_ „ iv 
23d To 552 feet j Inch Boards 16/- .... ( l0 U * 

To 203 feet | Inch Hoards 16/- ) 

To 373 feet f Boards Rufedge 12/- 

To 1 fourth of the above Boards is to be Delivered 

as my own share. 
Settlement this 24th April 1820 in full of all 
Book accounts. 

Jacob Gander 
Joel Skinner 

1816 Cr. Jacob Horn. 

June by 820 feet refuse Boards 

Decern by 332 feet Do Do 

the 2d by 888 Do Do Do 


1810 Jacob Haun* account. Dr. 

March the 24th To 2 Bushells Potatoes 4/- m 8 „ 

April To 8 lb. flax 2/6 1 ,. „ 

the 20 To \ Bushell flaxseed 16/- .. 8 .■ 

May the 5 To i Bushells Potatoes 4/- ,16 .. 

To 1 quart Tarr n 3 m 

2 15 

1819 May the 7 To 6 years and 2 months Interest on £2. 15 n . . . 1 n n 

1822 To 5 Bushells wheat at 10/- 2 10 r. 

May To paid your ordr to Mr. Sage 43/- 2 3 n 

* Members of the Haun family still reside in Wclland county. 



£ s. d. 

1825 Mr. Howley account on account of J. Warren* Pro Currf 

April 28th To 4 Bushclls Spring Wheat 5/6 N. Y. C 13 9 

1817 John Atwood} account with Province C. 

Aprill 7 To 1 Penknife§ 1/10J 1 10 

To Quills 1 3 

To 1 quire Paper 2/6 2 6 

To 1 pair Corse Shoes 10/- n 10 « 

To 1 lb Tobacco 3/1J „ 3 1£ 

July the 11 To Paid William Brizzy 4 Dollars 4 Shillings 1 9 „ 

29 To by Cash 2/6 2 6 

August 2d To order on Millmyne Store 1 10 

3 To Cash 11 1 U 

4 12 2i 

To board 2 weeks at 10/- 1 6 

To 1 quire paper 2/- n 2 3 

Sept the 1st To Leather <fe thread n 3 m 

To lib Tobacco 3/* 3 0| 

the 8th To by Cash 6/3d" , 6 3 

26 To board 3 weeks to the first Sept @ 10/- 1 10 — 

To \ Tobacco 2/9| m 2 9f 

Dec 1st To Goods from Mr. Cumming's store n 18 9| 

To board from first Sept to last Dec, 4 

13th To 1 pair pantaloons 1 12 6 

To 2 twists of tobacco 1 3 

1818 14 12 2 

January the 4th To \\ yards Cambric 3/9 Skeine Silk 6 3 

To Sundries from Mr. Maclam 12 9} 

to cash 5/- ... ii 5 it 

To 1 Murrey's Spelling book 2 9| 

To 1 lock k, 1 pair of H hinges 3 9 

March the 1st To 13 week Board 10/- 6 10 .. 

To order on Mrs. Berjjar Six Dollars 110 it 

12 To 1 pair of Corse Shows 7 G 

30 To by Sundries pr. Kirkpatrick 4 n 7 

To Seven week Board 10/- 3 10 „ 

To 17} yards Cotton 110 ,. 

To 1 hatt Case 5/- n 5 n 

To 1 ham 9 J & 81b 1/- 17 6 

35 3 4 

* J. Warren, a prominent resident of Fort Erie, and at one time Colonel of the 3d 
Regiment Lincoln Militia. 

t Pro. Curr. means Provincial (Halifax) Currency. 

X Mr. Atwood, on coming to the country, taught schools in the 'ocality. The account 
is a teacher's account. He married Polly Miller, daughter of John Miller, who lived on 
the river road two miles above Black Creek. Descendants of Atwood still live in the 

§ Penknives were very necessary for teachers, they using them specially for making 
and sharpening quill pens, the only pen then in use. 


£ 8. d. 

1817 Credit John Atwood Province Cur. 

July the 11 To for teaching my children 1 qr. . . 2 5 9 

12 By a power for receiving of the District Treasurer 3 12 8 

5 18 5 

August 8 By School bill 10 

Dec 1st By instructing 4 scholars one quarter 2 

8 8 5 

By Cash 5/- 5 M 

17 By Cash 5/- „ 5 „ 

By Cash 5/- n 5 n 

by Cash 3§ Dollars ,17 6 

by Wals worth order M 12 6 

by School Bill 2 10 „ 

by Tanner 10/- n 10 n 

by Sale 5/- M 5 n 

March 9 by Cash 8 Dollars 2 .. .. 

14 by Cash 4 Dollars 1 n m 

April By tuition 4 pupils 7 weeks 1 3 3^r 

May by Cash of G. Yong 8 6 8 

26 8 4£ 

August the 3d by 1 watch 24 Dollars 6 m n 

by Instructing Jacob* 3 months & Board 216 6 

1821 James Noist account N. Y. C. 

May the 9 To 4 J lb Soap 1/6 .. 6 9 

To 15 Gallons Soap 1/6 1 2 6 

To Tub with Soap to be returned 

To 33| yards flannel to full 

by fulling 24 yards 3/6 £L 4— 

March the 13 To 61b Tallow 1/- & 61b Soap 1/- „ 12 „ 

To 6 lb hard Soap 1/- 6 

Octr To 27£ gallons Soft Soap 36/- per Barrell 116 — 

4 3 3 

To 16 Do Do Do 36/- 18 

To 36 Do Do Do 36/- 2 ,, „ 

7 1 3 

by Dying 31 yards Cloth 

To 2 Press Board 3/- — 6 — 

by 16| yards Cloth Dress'd lOd 
May 6 by your rent to Adam Beam £1. 16. u 

14 Settlement with James Nois 

* Jacob was the original Jacob's son. 

t We judge that Mr. Nois must have kept a fulling mill, and the soap he bought wa« 
probably used in the fulling process. 




the 28th 

the 29th 


the 27th 

June the lGth 
the 1st 

May the 4th 
Septr 11 

October the 3d 

April 15 

the 20th 
May the 4th 

the 2d 





William Smith account N. Y. 0. 

by 1 lb Tobacco 4/- £ s. d. 

To took house at Waterloo* at three dollars p 

To \2{ lb Beef Borroghed 
To took the upper house at Waterloo at 3 Dollars 

a month 
Settlement with Mr W. Smith and Ballance due 

him 1 10 m 

To rent for two houses at Waterloo at 3 Dollars 

per month from the 1st January 1820 
the upper house Surrendered 5 J- months 24/- .... 612 6 

Lower house Surrendered 13 14 n 

Deduction of 1 month rent 24/- 

To 1 Cow & Calf omitted 8 „ .. 

took the upper house again at 3 Dollars per month 
To by 6 Gallons whiskey 2/6 
To 12£ lb ham 8d 

To George, 7 fresh Pork 2 6 

by one Barrell Salt 
Left the upper house 

Settlement with William Smith and Ballance due 

me according to Settlement 2 17 1 

Interest omitted in the Settlement for 1 year on 

=£34- 1-5 which would amount to 2 1 2 1 n 

and likewise the use of the upper house from May 
the 4th 1821 till about the last of September 
or after about five months 24/ 6 n n 

To 4£ Bushells spring wheat 41- n 18 n 

by your order to Mr. Warren for 18/ 

by the old Scow for Seven Dollars 2 16 n 

To Bo Mr. 2 Dollars _ ] 6 _ 

To H Bushell Potatoes 2/6 — 3 9 

To 2 Bushells apples 4/- 

Levin Levington account 

To 5 Bushells Buckwheat 2/6 — 12 6 

To 29 lb Pork 8d per lb 19 4 

To 3£ Bushell wheat 4/6 15 3 

To 1 fanning mill 10 8 — 

Decemr Richard Pendergast Came here to teach School 

the 1st keep 1 month on trial and then Continued till 

26 March 

To had 1 Cotton Shirt 8/ 

To 4 months Board 8/ per week 

by teaching 3 pupills 20/ £3 n n 

* Fort Erie village was at one time called Waterloo. 

Prov. Cur. 

6 8 


1823 May Balance account £ s. d. 

June To 1 lb Tobaco 1/3 & £ quire Paper 1/6| 2 n 

the 24 To Cash half a Dollar 2 6 

2 To yards Rusia Sheeting 2/6 5 n 

To 1 yard Cotton n 2 n 

July To 2J yards Cotton 2/- 5 

2 skanes thread & 2 Sticks twist 

Septr the 20 To Stick twist 6 

Settlement in full of all accounts up to this Date 17 

N. Y. C. 
1823 Settlement Elisabeth Lee and Ballance Due her 

Feb the 21 £0.8.9 

March To weed for fulling 6, — 6 — 

To 1 flannel gown for three weeks work 
the 26 To 1 day to Buffalo 

To 1 day to Mr Millers 
To 1 pair fine Shoes 16/- 

April 28 To Leather for 1 pair shoes & making — 6 — 

To 1 Bible 12/6 — 12 6 

cfc 1 Dollar lost — 8 — 
June 6 Settlement with Elisabeth Lee and paid her in full 

for all her work 

1826 Robert Treffry* account 

Sept 20th To order for two Dollars on Martin Lewis Buchner 

1821 Adam Beamf account 

June the 12 Settled upaccounts to this date and Ballance Due me 1 19 1| 

& likewise 311b Salt Lent to be returned paid 

& uper and Soal Leather for 2 pair shoes 

To 1851b Peas weighed 

To Cash four Doilars 112 h 

June the 12 by Cash 16/- 

Novem 12th by 141b lleef Bouroughed 

Aprill 10 by 6| lb Iron at Bitners 

June the 4th by (.'ash 7/- 
Decem 9 by upper Leather for 1 Pair Shoes 

by 23ib Salt with a small bag 
May the 10 Settlement with Adam Beam and Ballance Due me 3 3 \ 

by Cash £1 12 ,. 

the 22 by 7 Bushells Oats 2/6 „ 17 6 

by i Busheil hemp seed 24/- n 12 n 

by Cash — 1 6 

3 3 „ 

* Treffry was another school teacher. 

t Adam Beam, a son-in-law of Jacob Gander. Descendants of his still own and occupv 
the Beam homestead on Black Creek. 



£ s. d. 

Settlement and Ballanced all accounts accepting 
some Borroughed articles of Adam Beam 

by 231b Salt Paid 

<t 33 Skanes yarn 10 not each 71b 
Lent Sole leather for 2 pair shoes and upper Leather 
for 1 pair 

To 2 quarts Port Wine ,16 „ 

June 28 by 5 Dollars Cash 40/ 

To 3|lb Pork Lent 

To 3 Dollars Cash 1 4 — 

To making Tub ) R , 

To Rimming 1 Riddle / °' — 8 ~ 

Octoberthel9thTo 2 Gallons whisky returned to him 

Settlement in full of all acconnts up to the 19 th 
October 1824 
the 19th To 1051b flour lent 

To 100 feet Inch Board & 14£ 2 Inch Plank 

1821 John Brown account 

July 14th To 1 Bushell Potatoes 3/- & some onions &, Latiss. 

To 47}lb veal 6d 

To 2l|lb ham lOd 

To 19|lb ham lOd 

To 11 fowls 1/- 

the 17 To Some Cherries & onions 

To 2 Bushells Potatoes 3/- 

the 26 To 104jb ham lOd 

To 4 Doz onions 

August the 10 To 201b ham lOd & 1 Bushell apples 8/- 

the 27 To a quantity of Plums 8/- Some apples & Pears . . 

To Some Beats 4/- 

29 To 2 Bushells Plums 16/- 

To 12|lb Bacon 1/- 

Septr 15 To apples and Peaches 

To Beates <fe onions 

17 To 2 Bushells Peaches &, necterine by Mr. Brooks. 

To 1 Bushell Pears 8/- and £ Bushell Apples 

the 26 To H Bushell apples &, 1£ Bushell Pears 

To 10 Gallons Perries Cordial 1/6 

To Pears & apples by Mrs. Gander 

October the 6 To onions <fe Beats 4/- Some Peaches 4/- 

the 13 To 3 Bushells wheat or 162 4/- 

16 To 3 quarters Beef weighing 141-145-144, 430 . . . . 

To 3 Bushells Potatoes 2/- 

X^yembthe 3d To 531b Pig 4d & 2 B Potatoes 2/ 

To 2 Bushells Indian in the Ear 1/6 

the 30th To 4 Bushells Potatoes 2/- 

To 8 Do Indian Corn in the oar 1/6 

To 5|lb venison & 4£lb Lard 1/- 


1 3 8 
17 6 
15 5 

- 11 — 

ii 6 

,i 3 

1 4 

.. 14 

,. 4 

1 12 

ii 12 

.. 8 

.. 6 

.. 12 

.. 10 

ii 16 

ii 15 

ii 12 

.. 8 

ii 12 

n 6 

ii 19 

ii 3 

n 8 

n 12 

i. 7 

Decern the 19th 


January the 2d 

the 14 

Februr 14 
the 4 
the G 
March 12 
April 12 
June the 1 3 
July the Sth 



August 17 


May 21st 

August 9 
Septr 9 

June 29th 

July the 5th 
the 10th 


£ g. d. 

To 4061b Pork 4d 6 2 „ 

To 12 Bushells oats 1/6 ,,18 ,, 

To 2 Bushells Potatoes 2/- and 19flb Sausages ... 1 13 9 

To Sundries as by your receit 5 „ 7 

To 7341b Pork 5d as by your receit £9. 3. 6 P. C. . 14 17 1 

Settlement with John Brown of all the above 
account up to this date January 14th 1822 

To 2 Bushells Potatoes 2/- „ 4 ,- 

To Indian Corn & Some Peas 1 17 ,, 

To 2 Bushells Potatoes 2/- „ 4 >, 

To 5 Bushells apples 3/- ,, 15 „ 

To 5h Bushells apples 3/- 16 6 

To 2 Bushells oats 1/6 „ 3 ,, 

To 6 Bushells oats 1/6 „ 9 >> 

To 5 Bushells oats 1/6 ,, 7 6 

To 20£ lb veal 5d „ 8 6 

To 1 & Bushells oats to your Driver , . . „ 2 6 

To 2 Bushells oats to your Self ,, 3 „ 

To 3 Bushells oats to Thomas ,, 4 6 

To | Bushel! Plums 12/ — & h Bushell Potatoes. . , ,, 8 „ 

To Plums <fc Pears ,, 8 „ 

To Early Peaches „ 4 ,, 

To 6 Bushells Potatoes 4/- 1 4 „ 

To 5 Cwt & 10 lb hay 5/- 1 5 6 

To £ Bushell early apples 16/- 8 

To 1 quarter of veal 16 1b 8 

the above account is all Settled 

Left a note against Archabold Thompson with Mr. 

S. Street amount .£7-11-10^ Currency 

Dated 27 January 1823 
C. R. note Payable six months after Date 
S. C. note Payable 12 D after Date 

March 27 

Decemr 4 



Clover Seed left with Mr. Duff 

To 2£ Bushells at 7 Dollars per Bushell 

by Cash from Mr. Duff 8 Dollars Balance due 9i 

To left 55 lb Clover Seed with Mr. Duff to Sell 


Settlement with Henr} 7 Shalline and Ballance 

Due Jacob Gander by settlement 5 \ Dollars 

by Cash of him 10 - 

by making 1 Sleigh 5 

by making ox sled 

by 72 lb Iron per Simson 2-16 


the 31 

February 27th 
March the 4th 

the 29th 

Novem the 6 


by 1 lb Tea 75 

To 8 weeks Uoard from the 4th December. . . . 

By 1 lb Tea 6/- per Simson 

To 6 weeks Board 

by Spoking and rimming wheel 10/- 

by Cash 4 Dollars and Due me yet 14 Dollars 

£ s. d. 
4 ii H 
<3 n H 

March the 19 
June the 28 

August 20 

Septr 17 

David Berger account 

To 861b Beef 5d 1 15 10 

To Tallow Supposed to be %i,\b 1/- ,, 8 G 

by 1 furr Bonnett 28/- 1 8 

by 1 D D 28/- 1 8 

2 16 

To 81b Butter 1/- 8 „ 

To lib Butter 1/- 1 „ 

To 5|lb Butter 1/- 5 3 

To 3£lb Butter 1/- 3 6 

Ballance Due me 6 1 

by Cash Six Shillings 6/- 6 

which closes all accounts up to this Date 

Silas Cortin account 
To 1 Calf Skin «fc 2 Sheep Skins to tan 

2 Tame Deer Skins & other Small hides 
received 1 Calf Skin of Mr. Cortin 

To 1 ox hide received 1 Side Soal Leather in place 

of the same 
To 1 Bull hide omitted above 

1830 Silas Cortin account 

October the 2d To in Cash 2 Dollars 16 


April the 7th To Paid Mrs. White 1 Do 8 

To 2 Bushells Spring wheat 8/- 16 

May 22nd To Ballance on my note paid in full of all accounts 

up to this Date 3 3 n 

1830 account of hides to Reuben Wait's* to tann 

May To 1 large ox hide 881b paid by 1 Side Soal 


* Reuben Wait came from Vermont early in the century. He married a daughter of 
Benjamin Baker, a Pennsylvania German setter, &nd settled on a farm in Markh^m town- 
ship, York Count} 7 . He shortly aftorwards e> changed farms with his fa', her- in-law, and 
came to live on the Niagara, at the mouth of Black Creek, where he also carried on the 
business of tanning. He, as well as his father Jonathan Wait, was buried in a family 
cemetery on this farm ; his oldest daughter mai ried Jacob Gander's son Michael; his son 
Benjamin espoused the cause of rTm. Lynn Mackenzie, was taken prisoner and sentenced 
to be hanged at Niagara, but, through the efforts of his wife, his sentence was commuted to 
banishment to Van Diemen's Land, from which place he escaped several years later. A 
book called "Wait's Narratives" was published by him on his return to America, and is 
extremely interesting. 


June the 12 To 1 Cow hide & 2 Calf Skins to tann 

had paid Febru the 25th 1831 
Septr 15 To 4 Sheep Skins & 1 small Calf Skin 

Paid August the 10th 1831 
To 3 Damaged Sheep Skins 
Novr 6 To 1 Steer hide which died with murren 1 side 

Jan 27 To 2 Calf Skins that Died to Tan onShare 

August To 1 Sheep Skin & Colt Skin to Tan 

Septr To 1 Cow hide Murren to tann 

To 1 Calf Skin to tann 
October the 15 To 1 Heiffer Skin to tann 

the 22 To 1 Hide of white heiffer to tann 
June the 9th 1 Side of heiffer 



May the 15 

to Ruben Wait himself 

1 Cow hide 511b at 5d ) . ,. . . ^ „ 

i n -a- ooil Amounting to 4 Dollars 

1 Heiffer 331b - „ cn ,° 
a r, ■» o, . (95 Cents 

2 Calf Skins ) 

by one side of upper Leather 2 &. 25 

2 — 70 paid 1 Dollar 
To 1 heiffer & 1 Calf Skin 16/- Ballance due me 
$3.70 to pay in 2 months 

1831 Barnard Roper account 

March the 24th To let you a house at Waterloo at 15 Dollars for 
one year said Roper to Do all repairs During 

1832 Prov. Cur. 

Octr by Cash of Mr. Roper 3 Dollars — 15 — 

Janu 3d by Cash four Dollars 1 — — 

the 13 by Seven Dollars Ballance of rent for 1 year 1 15 — 

Feb by 1 2 Hour Barrels 2/6 York ... 18 9 

September 15 by agreement made between Barnard Roper & 
Harris, Said Harris agrees to pay 3 quarters rent 
beginning from the 24th June last 
Harris has paid 1 quarter rent by Shingling house 

June the 24 To 9 months rent from 24 June to 24 March 4 13 9 

March 24 To rent from the 14 May to the 14th August 3 

months 1 11 7i- 


To from the 14 August to the 14 November 3 

months rendered 1 11 7£ 

To from the 14 November to the 14 December 3 

months . 1 11 7| 


1831 £ s. d. 

May the Hth Mintortook house at the Ferry 25 Dollars per year 

May the 14 To 1 years rent G 5 


March 14 To 9 months rent 4 13 3 

rendered account for £10 — 19 — 3 

May the Hth To 2 months house rent 1 1 3 

August 14 To 3 months house rent 1 11 1\ 

To from the 14 August to the 14 November 3 

months 1 11 1\ 

1833 Richard Gositch account Pro v. Our. 

August 24 To 1 Calf Skin and 1 Sheep Skin to tann 

Janry To 1 Cow hide valued three Dollars 15 15 n 

To 2 French Crowns 10 11 n 

April the 16 To 1 Cow hide to tann to be done next fall 

To two poor Sheep Skins 
June the 18th To 1 ox hide 601b to tan on shares 

May 27 To Cow bide of Black Cow & 2 Sheep Skins to tan 

June 26 To 1 ox hide 84lb to tan 

Nov or Dec To 1 Calf Skin & 1 Sheep Skin to tann on Shares 

August the 5 

Nov. the 17 

June the 18th 


December 26 

January the 9 

July 9th 


the 13 

Erastus Parsons account Dr N. Y. C. 

To Some Pears — 6 

by 1 Plough 1 1 Dollars Payable in Trade 

To Some Pears n 1 6 

To 65 lb Pork 3 per lb 16 ., 

1 3 6 
Settlement with E. Parsons and Ballance Due him 

two Pounds and 3£ 

Paid by note 

To 1st Load of Plough handles — 10 — 

To 2d Load 30 Beam handles & 27 Moled ) redeemed my note 

handles • of hand and paid 

To 3d Load 54 Beam & 31 Mold handles j the same 

Richard Gossitch account of Tanning Prov. Cur. 

To 1 Large Cow hide by George to tann 

To 1 Calf Skin by George 

by 1 Side harness Leather paid by George 

To 1 large Calf Skinn ) , 

To 1 veal Skin & Small Colt Skin j to tan ' 

by 1 Calf Skin two and half Dollars 12/6 

by Calf Skin tand on Shares his part 3/9 

To 2 Sheep Skins to tann with wool on 


Febr the 14 To 1 heiffer hide 4 Sheep Skins by George 

by 1 Side of upper Leather tanned on Shares 
Aug. the 13th To 1 large ox hide & good Call Skin to tann 

Settlement this day 13 August and due of the old 

account 2 Calf Skins 
paid Cash for Dressing Skins 3/- N. Y. C. 
Ballance Due on same 7/- N. Y. C. 

1827 Christian Shoup agreed to Saw twelve yearly for 

Beneiit of Cannals Cat through my land to let 
the water off freely from his Sawmill, for which 
he done some Sawing while he owned the mill or 

1835 March until he sold it to his [Jrother Martin Shoup who 

in 1835 Sawed eleven logs on account of Said 

1S37 March Martin Shoup Sawed 24 logs for 1830 & 1837 



By Janet Caenochan. 

How many things we take for granted without inquiry, accept with- 
out question, never asking the reason. The subject of this short paper 
is an example in point. Why was the maple leaf taken as the emblem 
of Canada % When was it so accepted \ I confess I had never thought 
seriously of this till after reading the article by David Boyle, and the 
newspaper extracts in the fifth volume of the Ontario Historical pub- 
lications, 1904. This gives extracts from the Globe and Empire, the 
first giving an account of the meeting in Toronto, August 21st, 1860, 
to arrange the manner of processions, when some demanded that native 
Canadians should take part with distinctive badges, on the arrival of 
the Prince of Wales, now our King, and it was proposed by Mr. Rich- 
ardson that they should wear the maple leaf. This was carried out, 
the native Canadians wore maple leaves on their breasts and carried 
branches of the tree in their hands, and took the place in the procession 
allotted to them, while the societies of St. George, St. Andrew and St. 
Patrick carried their distinctive badges and banners. As showing how 
opposition often arises against the most reasonable proposal, it was 


feared by some that the formation of a society of native Canadians 
might be found disloyal to Britain. An article in the Empire in 1875 
again relates the event of 1860, and another in 1890 also refers to the 
subject. All this set me thinking and wondering if there had been 
no mention of the maple leaf emblem previous to 1860, and at the 
Council meeting of the Ontario Historical Society in April, 1905, I 
asked for information, and to my dismay was appointed to write a 
paper on the subject. I had always previously selected as the subject 
of a paper something of which I had at least some knowledge, but here 
my material was scanty. However, from various sources I have cnllcd 
information, a little here and a little there, and this slight paper is 
written hoping that still further light may be thrown on the subject, 
and that the inquiry may elicit clear and definite statements. 

One beam of light had come from an unexpected source. In an 
old newspaper I had learned of the existence of a Loyal Canadian 
Society in Grimsby in 1846. I took some trouble to obtain the secre- 
tary's book. Meanwhile a banner belonging to the society was dis- 
covered having on one side the British coat of arms and on the other 
the words " Loyal Canadian Society," and painted on the banner were 
large maple autumn leaves. The next question was, When was the 
banner made ' Calling on a gentleman who had belonged to the Society 
he pointed to a mantel drapo, " There is my silver maple-leaf, which 
we all wore,'' but he could not tell me the date. Next the secretary's 
book arrived, and there I found that in 1853 the president and vice- 
president were appointed to make a design for a banner to be carried 
in the procession at the inauguration of the present Brock's Monument, 
October 13th, 1853, and that fifty badges were to be procured. Whether 
the silver maple-leaf was such badge, or whether it was a ribbon, 1 
know not. It might, at a future time, be a matter of interest to trace 
the history of this organization in Grimsby, its aims and object, what 
it accomplished, but this is an aside. 

Many ladies still possess the silver maple-leaf worn by them or 
their mothers at the balls given in different places in honor of the 
present King in 1860 when as Prince of Wales he visited Canada. 

An earlier date is given me by Mr. II. H. Robertson, of Hamilton, 
in a letter just received: " I have in my possession a large qtiartk 
volume entitled 'The Maple Leaf or Canadian Annual: A Literary 
Souvenir for 1848, with a view of London, C.W. Published by Henry 
Rowsell, King St. W., Toronto.' The opening words are: 'When we 
launched our tiny bark last year and called it by the name of the chosen 
emblem of Canada.' " 


I next visited our own litterateur, who we are all sorry to know is 
now ill. When in doubt on any disputed point of Canadian history, 
Mr. Kirby is a never-failing source of information. Answering the 
question, " Can you tell me when the maple leaf was first used as the 
emblem of Canada ?" " Yes, it was used in Lower Canada long before 
it was used here. On the Festival of St. John the habitants cut down 
branches of the maple tree and decorate their houses and carry the 
leaves. When it was proposed to use it in this Province, I wrote an 
article in the Niagara Mail, opposing this as being a purely Lower 
Canadian emblem, urging that we should have something distinctive 
of Canada West." Curiously enough Mr. Kirby has himself used the 
maple leaf as the emblem of Canada. I had a recollection that long ago 
the Niagara Mail had an ornamental heading with maple leaves in pro- 
fusion; and this morning I examined a Mail of 1S53 and found that 
with Mr. Kirby's well-known loyalty, that besides the maple leaves 
there are emblems galore, St. George's Cross, St. Andrew's Cross, the 
beaver, the rose, thistle and shamrock. 

I next wrote to Sir James Le Moine, who has given us his " Maple 
Leaves," written in such easy, graceful, flowing style, certain that he 
must be an authority, having made the name so famous. Unfortunately, 
he was too ill to hunt up his notes, but said the maple leaf was adopted 
in Quebec at the Festival of St. John in 1835 or 1842, and referred 
me for further information to Benjamin Suite, the President of the 
Royal Society at Ottawa, who has very courteously and kindly given 
me a number of interesting facts bearing on the subject, taking us back 
two centuries, both as regards the beaver and the maple leaf. He says : 
" The beaver is the mark of the staple trade of New France, and in 
1673 Fronlenac suggested to Colbert the advisability of placing a 
beaver on the coat-of-arms of Quebec. The medal of 1090, Quebec 
liberated, has a beaver, and after this the precious animal was often 
represented as the emblem of Canada. Previous to 1690 writers who 
visited Canada mention with admiration the maple leaf, and I could 
venture to think that the maple leaf was looked upon as a fit emblem 
for the Canadians as early as 1700, if not before. The celebration of 
the 24th June, St. Jean Baptiste, was brought from France, and in 
1636 we have the first mention of it in Canada as a popular festival. 
In 1834 the emblems of St. Jean Baptiste Day were the beaver and 
the maple leaf. The discovery of the value of the sap of the maple 
was a great advantage. Dr. Michael Sarrazin showed the people how 
to make sugar and syrup. Le Caniadien, 26th Nov., 1806, has five lines 


of verse showing that the maple leaf was considered as the mark of the 
Canadians (French) and the thistle of the Canadians (Scottish). In 
1831 Le Canadien, enlarged, shows a heading of maple leaves." 

Dr. Johnson, the statistician of Canada, who is an authority safe 
to follow, says, in a memorandum to my friend, Mr. D. Matheson, 
Ottawa: " Le Canadien in 1806 referred to the maple leaf as a suitable 
emblem for Canada, and in 1834 the St. Jean Baptiste Society adopted 
it as their chief decoration. ]n 1826 Hon. D. B. Viger proposes it as 
the emblem of the Society. It was first formally adopted as the emblem 
of Canada on the 21st Aug., 1860, at a meeting called in Toronto to 
arrange for a procession of national societies in honor of the Prince of 
Wales, now King Edward VII. Dr. J as. II. Richardson moved a 
resolution which was carried." 

It has been brought to my notice that the china used by the Prince 
of Wales and his suite on his visit to Canada in 1860 had a mark con- 
sisting of a wreath of maple leaves surmounted by a crown and the 
Prince of Wales' feathers. The china was from the Royal Worcester 
factory. When this design was made is yet to be learned, and whether 
it was selected as appropriate to his visit to Canada. Many articles of 
this set are to be found in Ontario in possession of Mrs. Calderwood, 
daughter of Chief Justice Harrison, and also Senator Vidal, Sarnia. 
It is remarkable how almost all these statements from so many differ- 
ent sources agree. 

The maple is found in Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, British Colum- 
bia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, so that it may well occupy the position it does. On the 
coinage of Prince Edward Island is seen not the leaf alone, but a whole 
maple tree, and this before Confederation. The maple tree is remark- 
able for its beauty, whether the tender green of its leaves in spring, its 
graceful shape and grateful shade in summer, or the glory of its 
autumn tints of gold and pink and crimson, then in spring the 
delicious maple syrup and sugar, in early times so useful to the 
pioneers. Thus the tree was endeared to the people by the sweets 
drawn from it at a time when their poverty prevented the purchase of 
sugar. Travellers have described in glowing colors the trees in 
autumn ; artists have placed on their canvas its varied beauties ; poets 
have paid their tribute ; so that it is no wonder that the maple leaf has 
been adopted as the emblem of Canada. Alexander Muir has written 
a song, which has been sung across the continent, accompanying the 
Duke and Duchess of Cornwall no doubt in tiresome iteration and 
reiteration, so that their ears must have wearied of the sound of " The 


Maple Leaf Forever " ; and our brave Canadian youths, no doubt, when 
far from the land of the maple leaf made the arid African veldt ring 
with the sound. 

Of the many varieties of the maple order, Aceracese, the sugar 
maple, perhaps is the most beautiful. Acer Saccharinum, with its long, 
hairy, thread-like filaments, giving a peculiar graceful appearance; 
another, Acer Rubrum, with its short, red blossoms appearing before 
the leaves in spring. 

In " The Story of the Union Jack," by Barlow Cumberland, may 
be found some interesting information as to the use of the maple leaf 
on flags and on military buttons. It is placed on the Governor-General's 
flag and on that of the Lieutenant-Governor of each Province, on the 
colors of the 100th Regiment, on the uniforms of the North- West 
Mounted Police and Canadian Militia, North- West medals and Canada 
Service, on the helmets of our South African volunteers also. The 
author relates a pathetic circumstance. A wounded Canadian at 
Paardeburg said as he touched the maple leaf on his helmet, " If I die, 
it may help this to live." 

Instead of the heterogeneous mixture of emblems on the Canadian 
coat-of-arms placed on the flag, a single large maple leaf would be much 

The early poets of Canada, as well as those of a later period, have 
referred to the maple. Mrs. Moodie, in " Roughing It In the Bush," 
in 1832, has a poem called " The Maple Tree, a Canadian Song " : 

' Hail to the pride of the forest, hail 

To the maple tall and green, 
It yields a treasure which never shall fail 

While leaves on its boughs are seen. 
When the snows of winter are melting fast, 

And the sap begins to rise, 
And the biting breath of the frozen blast 

Yields to the spring's soft sighs. 

Then away to the wood, for the maple good 
Shall unlock its honied store ; 
And boys and girls, 
With their sunny curls, 
Bring their vessels brimming o'er 
With the luscious flood 
Of the brave tree's blood 
Into caldrons deep to pour." 


And our own Roberts speaks of 

" Maple forests all aflame," 

and again 

" But the tree I love, all the green wood above, 

Is the maple of sunny branches ; 
But the maple it glows with the tint of the rose, 

When pale are the spring time regions ; 
And its towers of flame afar proclaim 

The advance of winter's legions, 
And a greener shade there never was made 

Than its summer canopy sifted ; 
And many a day, as beneath it I lay, 

Has my memory backward drifted 
To a pleasant lane, I may walk not again, 

Leading over a fresh green hill 
Where a maple btcod just clear of the wood, 

And, oh ! to be near it still." 

And yet again in his "Canadian Streams": 

" Oh, rivers rolling to the sea 
From lands that bear the maple tree." 

Isodore Asoher thus speaks of the maple : 

" And grand old maples upward gaze 
Like sentinels upon the road. 
As if they mused of nature's God 
Who crowned them with a myriad rays." 

Miss Machar, from her island in the St. Lawrence: 

" The maple glows with dyes, 
Of scarlet, rose and amber." 

William Wilfrid Campbell, who describes the varied aspects of 
nature in Canadian lakes and streams so sympathetically: 

" Along the line of smoky hills 

The crimson forest stands ; 
And all the day the blue-jay calls 

Throughout the autumn lands. 
Now by the brook the maple leans 

With all its glory spread ; 
And all the sumachs on the hills 

Have turned their green to red." 

Evan McColl, the bard, sings thus: 

" Of all the fair lands you can name 

There's one we may all rank the chief — 
This, thnt we our cwn proudly claim, 
The land of the green :.':••■>,? leaf." 


Mr. Kirby, in his national song, " Canadians Forever " : 

" And jovial fill the barley mow ; 

With sturdy toil 

They till the soil, 
And rest beneath the maple bough, 

Canadians forever. 
Then deck Victoria's regal throne 
With May flowers and the maple tree." 

Sangster no doubt refers to the maple tree: 

" As Autumn, the rich fancy dyer, comes, 
Puts on his motley Joseph coat of leaves 
And steeps them all in hues of gold and brown 
And glowing scarlet, yellow, green and dun." 

Lowell says : 
and Emerson : 

" The maple crimsons to a coral reef." 

" The scarlet maple keys betray 
What potent blood hath modest May." 

And in poetical prose two writers thus discourse, Thoreau first: 

"Runs up its scarlet flag on that hillside, flashes out conspicuous with all 
the beauty of a maple." 

And Mrs. Keeler, in "Our Native Trees": 

" Its first blossom flushes red in the April sunlight, its keys ripen scarlet 
in early May, all summer long its leaves swing on crimson stems, and later 
amid all the brilliancy of the autumnal forest it stands pre-eminent and un- 

G. W. Johnson, a poet little known, says : 

" And when its leaves, all crimson, 

Droop silently and fall, 
Like drops of life blood welling 

From a warrior brave and tall, 
It tells how fast and freely 

Would her children's blood be shed 
Ere the soil of our faith and freedom 

Should echo a foeman's tread." 

" The Khan " in his " Canticles " : 

" Brown is the hill where the maple grows." 

Lampman's sonnet must be quoted more fully in speaking of maple 
leaves : 

" Some have fired the hills with beaconing clouds of flame, 
Some all their cheeks have turned to tremulous rose, 
Others for wrath have turned a rusty red ; 
Some have gathered down the sun's last smiles a cold 
Deep, deep into their luminous hearts of gold." 


And a humbler versifier in a sonnet: 

" Our beautiful Canadian maple tree, 
In varying pomp of rich and rare attire, 
Autumnal tints in turn the forest fire, 
Or summer's glow of quivering leaves we see, 
Or tender vernal green. Thou art to me 
A constant joy. In spring who may aspire 
To paint thy fairy feathery bloom, or hire 
Carmine to give thy hidden tracery ? 
As from thy wounds ambrosial sweetness drew 
Our sires, or hewed thee down, we plant once more 
And twine a wreath, beyond Olympian bay 
Prized far, and emulate each day anew 
In our northland, of grace and strength thy store, 
Light, sweetness, help to give like thee we pray." 




Our family came originally from Yorkshire, in England. They 
were of the old-fashioned Tory or Conservative school, who looked 
upon no form of government equal to the British Constitution, founded 
on the principles laid down by the English barons at Runnymede, 
when they compelled King John to sign the great charter of liberty. 

To the present day all the Bates family follow in the footsteps of 
their ancestors. As encouragement was held out for loyal British 
settlers to locate in America, my grandfather turned his attention to 
the Western hemisphere, and having satisfied his mind that his pos- 
terity might become considerable land-owners, he sailed for the New 
World, and arrived in Boston between the years 1760 and 1770, when 
he commenced farming, lands at that period being obtained at a very 
low price to actual settlers. 

The troubles commenced in 1774, when all who were loyal to the 
House of Hanover took up arms in defence of their sovereign. In 
this conflict my grandfather took a conspicuous part. My grand- 
mother was an active, intelligent woman, wonderfully industrious, 

* The three papers, "Testimonial of Mr. Roger Bates," "Reminiscence of Mrs. 
White," and "Memoirs of Colonel John Clark," are contained in a collection known as 
"The Coventry Papers." This collection is in the Parliamentary Library, Ottawa. These 
three papers are from copies obtained some years ago by the undersigned through the 
kindness of Mr. L. P. Sylvain.— C. C. James. 


■who attended to the farming affairs till they were compelled to quit 
the United States territory, being determined never to side with the 

Liberal offers were made to the U. E. Loyalists, so the family 
removed their effects to Upper Canada, where, for their services, the 
Governor granted them 1,200 acres of land, and 200 acres for each of 
the children. To the best of my knowledge it "was about the year 1780 
when they came into the country. My father was then a boy of about 
thirteen years of age. Before they finally settled down they looked 
about to ascertain the most favorable location. A vast number went 
to Prince Edward district, in the Bay of Quinte, and there my grand- 
father and grandmother, with their young family, went also. 

At first they all had to experience great privations, but being pos- 
sessed of indomitable courage and love for the British Constitution, 
they soon set to work with the materials they brought with them, and 
erected a log house, after clearing a few trees, and thus got a shelter 
from the storms and winds of heaven. 

From, over-exertion and exposure my grandfather had a very severe 
attack of ague. It is a most trying complaint, and at that period there 
seemed to be no cure. It was with great reluctance that he made up 
his mind to leave this fine locality. 

The waters teemed with fish, the air with birds, no end to ducks, 
the woods filled with deer, beaver, wolves, martens, squirrels and 

Implements were very scarce, so that at first they adopted many 
ingenious contrivances of the Indians for procuring food. Not the 
least simple and handy was a crotched pole, with which they secured 
salmon in any quantity, the creeks and rivers being full of them. 

Skins of animals they obtained from the Indians, who at that 
period were very numerous throughout the country. With those skins 
my grandmother made all sorts of useful and last dresses, which were 
most comfortable for a country life and for going through the bush; 
made leather petticoats for herself and girls, as they could not be torn 
by the brambles; they made capital dresses; made some for the boys, 
and at night were extremely comfortable bed-covers. 

There were no tanners in those days. Shoes and boots were made 
of the same useful material. 

Finding the ague still troublesome, a batteau was built, with the 
assistance of the Indians, and one general moving, the whole family 
departed with their effects, coasting along the shores of Ontario until 
they reached the present township of Clarke, in Durham County. 


The change of air and locality operated favorably, and there they 
drew their lands and settled. 

My grandfather often remarked that for six months he never saw 
a white person. Their only visitors were Indians, with whom they got 
along well, and in process of time learned a smattering of their lan- 
guage. Those real owners of the soil being then under British protec- 
tion were well treated and became firm and loyal to the British cause. 
In exchange for little presents given to them, they reciprocated by 
bringing skins of animals, and frequently a deer, so that they got along 
capitally. Could they rise from their ashes they would be astonished 
at the flourishing condition of Clarke now. 

In process of time other settlers came along. Not the least con- 
spicuous in aftertimes were the Baldwins and the Beards. Robert 
Baldwin, who was my grandfather's intimate friend afterwards, was a 
gentleman of good family, the owner of a small property called Knock- 
more, in the County of Cork, Ireland. He emigrated to Canada at the 
early period of 1798, in all probability in consequence of the rebellion 
in that distracted country. From the liberality of Governor Simcoe's 
proclamation, inviting settlers into the country, he drew lands near my 
grandfather's and located — calling his clearing Annarva — in the town- 
ship of Clarke. A stream ran through the property which to this day 
is called Baldwin's Creek. 

A grandfather of the Beards, of Toronto, was also one of my 
father's neighbors. 

As the girls grew up they married. I had five aunts, Betsy, Sally, 
Huldah, Polly, and Theodosia. The three first married Thomas 
Barrett, Amos Gills and Joseph Selden, from the United States, where 
they joined their husbands, who were well-to-do, having good property 
there, and, though adherents to the new republic, were highly respect- 
able. Sally and Huldah married Stephen Conger, of Prince Edward, 
and Richard Lovekin, of Newcastle, both staunch Government men, 
and have remained so, with their families. My grandmother remained 
on the farm until her death, which took place in 1838, at the advanced 
age of 96. 

My grandfather's death was caused by fright in consequence of a 
fire, which took place in 1819. He was then a hearty old man, but tbe 
above calamity hastened his death, at the premature age of 84. Had it 
not been for this dire event in all probability he would have reached 
100, possessing a wonderful athletic constitution. He was a terrible 
aristocrat — a regular John Bull to the backbone. 

As our family grew up in the Clarke settlement, my grandfather 


parts. Time was too valuable to make a fuss about such matters ; they 
depended upon their own industry, and got along wonderfully well. 

John McCarty was also married by a magistrate; he was an old 

For a long time my grandfather had to go, with some of the neigh- 
bors, all the way from Clarke to Kingston, 125 miles, with their wheat 
to be ground there. They had no other conveyance than batteaux, 
which were commodious, as the journey would sometimes occupy five 
or six weeks. 

Of an evening, putting up some creek, they obtained their 
salmon with ease, using a forked stick, that passed over the fishes' 
backs and held them tight as with a spring. 

I have often heard my grandfather say that after a few trees were 
felled they burnt the brushwood and planted the seed between the 
stumps, which, being planted on virgin soil, turned out most prolific. 

Sometimes they were so long gone for grist, in consequence of bad 
weather setting in, that the women would collect together and have a 
good cry, thinking the batteaux had foundered. They, however, always 
turned up in time, taking the precaution to make tents of poles and 
brush to keep out the bad weather and wolves, which were wonderfully 
plentiful. When they were gone on these provision journeys the dogs 
were very useful in finding game. One old dog, in particular, was "Very 
smart, evidently having an eye to his own bill of fare. You had 
nothing to do but tell him you had nothing to eat, and off he would go, 
driving the deer into the lake, where the youngsters could easily shoot 
them with an old Queen Anne's musket, the principal fire-arms in use. 

The privations they underwent at times will scarce bear mentioning 
when compared with the early settlers at Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, after the taking of Quebec. From the best authority we have 
accounts of the privations which the early colonists endured were severe 
to a degree, of which those who afterwards, and now, plant themselves 
in a Canadian woods have scarcely a conception. They had not only to 
suffer the miseries of hunger and the want of almost every convenience 
of life to which they had been accustomed, but they could scarcely 
enjoy that relief from toil which sleep usually affords from the dread 
of being burnt in their habitations by the Indians, or of becoming vic- 
tims to the tomahawk, so that it required more than ordinary resolution 
and fortitude to establish themselves in defiance of immense difficulties. 

My father said that some of the U. E. Loyalists brought their spin- 
ning-wheels and looms with them. All the youngsters learned to weave 
and to do a bit of sewing. In the back country, out at Keene, there is 


parts. Time was too valuable to make a fuss about such matters ; they 
depended upon their own industry, and got along wonderfully well. 

John McCarty was also married by a magistrate; he was an old 

For a long time my grandfather had to go, with some of the neigh- 
bors, all the way from Clarke to Kingston, 125 miles, with their wheat 
to be ground there. They had no other conveyance than batteaux, 
which were commodious, as the journey would sometimes occupy five 
or six weeks. 

Of an evening, putting up some creek, they obtained their 
salmon with ease, using a forked stick, that passed over the fishes' 
backs and held them tight as with a spring. 

I have often heard my grandfather say that after a few trees were 
felled they burnt the brushwood and planted the seed between the 
stumps, which, being planted on virgin soil, turned out most prolific. 

Sometimes they were so long gone for grist, in consequence of bad 
weather setting in, that the women would collect together and have a 
good cry, thinking the batteaux had foundered. They, however, always 
turned up in time, taking the precaution to make tents of poles and 
brush to keep out the bad weather and wolves, which were wonderfully 
plentiful. When they were gone on these provision journeys the dogs 
were very useful in finding game. One old dog, in particular, was"very 
smart, evidently having an eye to his own bill of fare. You had 
nothing to do but tell him you had nothing to eat, and off he would go, 
driving the deer into the lake, where the youngsters could easily shoot 
them with an old Queen Anne's musket, the principal fire-arms in use. 

The privations they underwent at times will scarce bear mentioning 
when compared with the early settlers at Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, after the taking of Quebec. From the best authority we have 
accounts of the privations which the early colonists endured were severe 
to a degree, of which those who afterwards, and now, plant themselves 
in a Canadian woods have scarcely a conception. They had not only to 
suffer the miseries of hunger and the want of almost every convenience 
of life to which they had been accustomed, but they could scarcely 
enjoy that relief from toil which sleep usually affords from the dread 
of being burnt in their habitations by the Indians, or of becoming vic- 
tims to the tomahawk, so that it required more than ordinary resolution 
and fortitude to establish themselves in defiance of immense difficulties. 

My father said that some of the U. E. Loyalists brought their spin- 
ning-wheels and looms with them. All the youngsters learned to weave 
and to do a bit of sewing. In the back country, out at Keene, there in 


an old loom now extant which was in use by my mother fifty years ago, 
which I have often worked. 

Every settlement for years was a 6ort of Robinson Crusoe life, very 
healthy. None seemed to suffer from accidents. If they met with any 
they had many simple remedies that performed many wonderful cures, 
far more efficacious than the art and mystery of quack doctors, located 
through the country. 

People lived in those days to a good old age. There was no fuss 
about religion in those days. The families would assemble together on 
the Sunday, or any evening, to read the Scriptures and sing a psalm 
or hymn — often found more solid consolation than in our crowded 
churches now-a-days, fully verifying the truth of the Scriptures, " that 
when two or three are gathered together." Preachers were rare, and 
very thinly scattered. The Rev. Mr. Stuart was, I believe, the first 
Church missionary. He was driven out of the United States after the 
Declaration of Independence, most cruelly treated, but found a hos- 
pitable asylum under British supremacy, which he originally enjoyed. 
He was recommended to the Mission Society by Sir William Johnson, 
and arrived at the Mohawk Village in 1770, but had to leave in 1780, 
and became chaplain to the Royal Yorkers, from which date his field 
of labor in Canada commences. 

The Rev. John Doty, four years before, in 1777, escaped with his 
family into Canada, and was appointed by Sir John Johnson to a mili- 
tary chaplaincy; but the earliest, I believe, of all was the Rev. John 
Ogilvie, who attended the Royal Regiment upon the expedition to 
Port Niagara in 1759. 

The principal settlers being Prench, of course those rev. gentlemen 
were not patronized, nor did their labors really commence until the 
first settlement of Upper Canada by the U. E. Loyalists. 

My mother remembers a Mr. Langhorne, an eccentric, good old 
man, who never would marry any one after 11 o'clock a.m., much to 
the disappointment of lovers who travelled through the woods on horse- 
back or boat expeditions. 

As such occasions were generally holidays, they furnished them- 
selves with tomahawks and implements in case of emergency, so as to 
camp out if required. 

The ladies had no white dresses to spoil, or fancy bonnets. With 
deer-skin petticoats, home-spun gowns, and perhaps a squirrel-skin 
bonnet, they looked charming in the eyes of their lovers, who were 
rigged out in similar materials. 

How they managed for rings I know not, but presume the mission- 


ary or magistrate was furnished with them as part of their labors of 
love. Now I think of it, I have heard my mother say that Uncle Fer- 
guson, a magistrate, rather than disappoint a happy couple who had 
walked twenty miles, made search throughout the house and luckily 
found an old pair of skates to which a ring was attached. Seizing the 
glorious prize he went on with the ceremony and fixed the ring on the 
young woman's finger, reminding her that though a homely substitute, 
she must continue to wear it, otherwise the ceremony would be dissolved. 
That curious token was greatly cherished and is still among the family 

Before the country was properly settled the marriage ceremony was 
performed sometimes by magistrates or a stray missionary, an adjutant 
or surgeon of the regiment, who officiated as chaplain. There were no 
registry offices, and as the documents were often lost by fires or other 
contingencies, and as families grew up and increased, there was some 
demur as to the legality of those marriages. In 1793, therefore, while 
the Parliament was held at Niagara, in Governor Simcoe's time, an Act 
was passed legalizing all those marriages, that no demur should here- 
after arise to posterity, as to validity of titles to lands and the occupants 

The war with the United States broke out in 1812, which was a 
source of great consternation to the country at first, a great hindrance 
to those engaged in clearing their lands. The determined loyalty of 
the settlers, however, soon changed the gloomy aspect of affairs. 

My father at that time had a good team and horses, and as such 
appendages to a farm were rare, he was employed by the Government 
in teaming ammunition and provisions to the scene of action, for which 
he was afterwards liberally remunerated by the Government. 

There was but one regular road through the country, called the 
Danford Road, which led from Kingston to Toronto, and continued 
thence to Hamilton and Niagara. It was, on a rough scale, similar to 
the Watling Street road, constructed by the Romans through England. 
In this vicinity it is still known by the original name. 

When we look back and contemplate the last fifty years, it is won- 
derful to notice the extraordinary change that has taken place in the 
general aspect of the country. We have now good roads through every 
part of the Province, comfortable farm-houses, first-rate implements 
of agriculture, orchards in full bearing, the finest wheat in the world, 
with the exception of Australia, improved breeds of cattle, fine teams', 
good oxen, superior sheep, excellent wool, esculants of every descrip- 
tion, cider presses, in short, everything that would do credit to the 


Mother-country, whose bosom our ancestors left for the wilds of Upper 
Canada, and with indomitable courage, persevering industry and great 
labor have now the unbounded pleasure of viewing farms that are a 
credit to the present generation, who, I trust, will pursue the old beaten 
path of their forefathers, and forever remain faithful and loyal in 
defence of those institutions that stand pre-eminent in the annals of 

Witness: (Signed) Roger Bates. 

Geo. Coventry. 





My father and mother came from England, settled in the United 
States, in St. Lawrence Co., upon a farm which they purchased there, 
planted some trees, and were beginning to prosper when the Revolution- 
ary War broke out in 1774. 

Hearing that sugar was made from trees in Canada, and being 
thorough Loyalists, and not wishing to be mixed up with the contest 
about to be carried on, they packed up their effects and came over to 
Canada. Arrived at Sorel, they stayed some time, but a fire happen- 
ing at the house they occupied, in which the deed of our land in the 
United States was destroyed, Guy Carleton, Lord Dorchester, granted 
them eight hundred acres of land, with some implements to clear away 
the trees and settle on lands called Sidney, near Belleville. 

The country at that time was a complete wilderness, but by energy 
and perseverance, for a long time, we got on very happily. Many 
years afterwards my father tried to regain our farm (Chrysler's) in 
St. Lawrence Co., but the deeds being burned at Sorel he could not do 
anything, although the American Government would have put him in 
possession if the deeds had been forthcoming. 

In those secluded wilds their trust was in Providence, who blessed 
their endeavors. They had two sons and five daughters; one of the 
boys was drowned. 

* See foot not*, page 146. 


Mother used to help to chop down the trees, attended the household 
duties, and, as the children grew up, they were trained to industrious 
habits. We were very useful to her, attended the cattle, churned the 
butter, making cheese, dressing the flax, spinning — in those days the 
spinning-wheel looked cheerful — made our own cloth and stockings. I 
have a gown now in my possession that I made of homespun sixty 
years ago. 

We had no neighbors but an old Englishman, who lived at some dis- 
tance off, who was an occasional visitor. 

Before our crops came around, having brought seed with us, sup- 
plied by Government, we had rations from the military posts ; also, 
when these were nearly exhausted, father collected our butter, cheese 
and spinning, taking them in a batteau to Kingston, which he traded 
off for salt, tea, and flour. 

We had no grist-mill at that time nearer than Kingston. The first 
mill at Napanee was put up afterwards. 

The Bay of Quinte was covered with ducks, of which we could 
obtain any quantity from the Indians. As to fish, they could be had 
by fishing with a scoop. I have often speared large salmon with a 
pitchfork. ]STow and then provisions ran very scant, but there being 
plenty of bull-frogs, we fared sumptuously. This was the time of the 
famine. I think in 1788 we were obliged to dig up our potatoes, after 
planting them, to eat. 

We never thought of these privations, but we were always happy 
and cheerful ; no unsettled minds, no political strife about church, gov- 
ernment, or squabbling municipal councils. We left everything to our 
faithful Governor. I have often heard my father and mother say that 
they had no cause of complaint in any shape, and were always thankful 
to the Government for their kind assistance in hour of need. Of an 
evening my father would make shoes of deerskins for the children, and 
mother homespun dresses. 

We had no doctors, no lawyers, no stated clergy; we had prayers 
at home, and put our trust in Providence. 

An old woman in the next clearing was the chief physician to the 
surrounding country, as it gradually settled. A tree fell one day and 
hurt mother's back very much. We sent for the old woman, who came, 
steeped some wheat, made lye, applied it very hot, in a flannel, and in 
a very short time she was well as ever. 

Flax was cultivated in those halcyon days. One year we grew 
700 cwt. We spun and wove it into table linen, wearing apparel ; it 


lasted a long time. A handy fellow came along and made us our cham- 
ber looms, so that we could work away and have no occasion for 
imported finery, nor, if we had, we could not have procured any. 

As the girls grew up, and settlers came round, a wedding occasion- 
ally took place. There was but one minister, a Presbyterian, named 
Robert McDowall, a kind, warm-hearted man, who came on horseback 
through the woods from Kingston, and where he saw smoke from a 
house he always made up to the residence, where he was always wel- 
come, lie had a most powerful voice ; when he became excited he 
could be heard a mile off. All who were inclined to marry he spliced, 
with many a kind word to the young folks to be sure to be prosperous 
by industry and perseverance. He married Mr. White and myself. I 
have the certificate yet. When the other girls would smirk and look 
pleasant at him, think he was a great benefactor to the race, he would 
chuck them under the chin and say, " It will soon be your turn. I am 
going to Clarke, a long way off, through the woods, with very few 
settlements on the way, and when I come back, mind and be ready." 
There was not much trouble in that, for the girls had no dresses but 
what they spun and made for themselves. 

We got along first-rate, so that when any of the girls married after- 
wards, they each had a portion of one hundred acres, one colt, four 
cows, a yoke of steers, twenty sheep, and linen which they had spun 
and wove, some furniture which they made, suited to their log-house. 
Carpets were not known then, nor were they wanted, as the floors of 
a farm-house were always scoured by their own industry. 

My mother died in 1834. She was blind for several years previous 
to her death. She was in the 104th year of her age. My father was 
killed by the raising of a barn. 

I was married to Mr. White in 1812, and came to Cobourg in 1813. 
It was quite a wilderness, but a few small clearings, and only three 
houses in the place, a rough corduroy road that led to the lake. 

We took a clearing made by Mark Burnham, brother to Zaccheus 
Burnham. We did very well, and as my husband used to go to Mont- 
real in a batteau, which took him three weeks, to buy goods for Burn- 
ham's store, which he had opened near the Courthouse, he had many 
ways, independent of the farm, which he left me to manage. 

Mr. Mark Burnham soon became rich, for, as settlers came in, they 
had plenty of money, which they had earned of the Government, they 
never cared what they gave for anything so long as they got what they 


During our residence upon the farm the quantity of game was 
astonishing, rabbits, squirrels, ducks, partridges, woodcocks without 
end. The brooks were full of fish ; if we wanted a salmon for break- 
fast we had only to go to the brook, and in a minute caught all you 
wanted. Sometimes we caught a large quantity to dry and smoke. Old 
Fisher one afternoon speared seventy in the mill stream at Burnham's 

After a time my husband got up a small distillery which proved, at 
last, to be a curse to the neighborhood. It drew a vast number of 
Indians, who became very troublesome, who would throw logs of wood 
at our door to obtain more firewater. It was very profitable, so we 
managed to put up with this Indian annoyance. Mr. Mark Burnham 
used to help at the distillery in those days, when my husband went to 
Montreal. He would be gone some five or six weeks. It was a hard, 
fatiguing journey. My husband being a thorough Government man, 
one of the old school, he was well protected and cared for, and was 
much respected by the Indians, whom he managed very well. The 
country was full of Indians. 

My husband used to bring seeds from Montreal. Here the soil was 
very rich, and soon we had a very fine garden, which in those days was 
quite a curiosity. In May we had fine lettuce, and as to onions, they 
were as big as turnips. 

After staying at Burnham's clearing for four or five years, by that 
time Mr. White had saved enough to buy a farm we have lived upon 
ever since. I do not know who made the first clearing, but some of the 
fruit trees were planted when we came to it. 

Here we succeeded well, had to work early and late, cared not how 
the work went. We continued to thrive, and brought up our children 

Land at that time about Cobourg was of very little value. A good- 
sized block, leading from Smith's building to the English church, could 
have been bought for a saddle. By degrees others came in, so as to 
make a snug little community. 

My husband, in hopes to benefit himself and family, bought land 
at Rice Lake, some twenty miles in the back country. Here he built a 
mill, so that all we gained by farming was lost in this speculation. I did 
not approve of this speculation, and would not go there to live. The 
old minister used to say, " Attend diligently to what you once under- 
take, and do not run from post to pillar." 

About fifteen ' or twenty years ago the country began to be better 


known ; a great many settlers came with money, which greatly improved 
the state of things. I never expected to see steamboats to run to and 
fro to the States, nor railroads to run through our farm. A great many 
improvements have taken place, both in roads and implements. Yet, I 
do not think all these tend to make people contented and happy, for 
the rising generation are not so much so as their forefathers ; they have 
ideas that can never be realized. Give me the social spinning wheel 
days, when girls were proud to wear a homespun dress of their own 
spinning and weaving, not thinking of high-heeled boots and thin shoes, 
nor rigged out in hoops and crinoline ; salt-cellar bonnets, which have 
occasioned a great demand for doctors, which were almost unknown in 
my young days. 

(Signed) Catherine White, 
Witness: Aged 79 years. 

J. Coventry, 

J. C. White. 


I like to look back on the past; it refreshes the mind, and recalls 
scenes that once gave me great pleasure, and which formed an interest- 
ing epoch in the annals of existence. 

To trace the gradual change of the wilderness into a comparative 
cultivated garden, to contrast the native hunters of the forest with 
the result of the plough and industry, is a pleasing feature in the rise 
and progress of a new country. When our family first came to the 
New World they found an immense forest, with a few Indian trails 
through the bush, here and there a log hut, an endless number of 
canoes, and around Quebec and Montreal a few small vessels and 
batteaux to carry merchandise. 

From Quebec to Niagara was a fearful journey, almost impossible 
by land. No towns, no villages, here and there a fort, with a few fur 
traders around. No steamers, no railroads, no nothing. The only 

*These Memoirs were written in 1860 when the writer was in his seventy-eighth 
year. They are the Memoirs of an old man and in places appear to be somewhat indefinite 
and disconnected. (See foot note, page 146) 


accommodation for travellers was confined to the old French settle- 
ments around Quebec. 

Those who wished to penetrate the country to the Upper Province 
had to supply themselves with a month's provisions, a tent, a camp 
kettle, fishing apparatus and a gun, and either hire an Indian with 
his canoe, or have recourse to rough-built batteaux. 

The more commodious and comfortable for a family. 

The noble River St. Lawrence, 'tis true, was the great highway, 
along the margin of which the hardy settler coasted during the day, 
and at night sought shelter in the woods. 

It was a sort of Robinson Crusoe life, providing daily for their 
sustenance from the woods and waters, which furnished an abundant 

There were several old French forts on the route — but no Upper 
Canada — then all was comprised under one military province, the 
Province of Quebec. This was the state of things in which my father 
found it. 

My father was born in Somersetshire, England, in the year 1737, 
of respectable parentage. 

At the years of maturity, on leaving England, he married Jemima 
Mason. They had three children — Peter, Mary and Eliza. 

He joined the British Army and came to Quebec, attached to the 
8th, or King's Own, Regiment, 1768. 

From a non-commissioned officer he was appointed sergeant-major. 
On their arrival at the station at Three Rivers my mother had an- 
other daughter, and, in due time, three other sons, of whom I was the 

All but myself were educated at a French and English Seminary 
at Quebec, and became good scholars for that period. 

In 1776, my father was released from the army movements, and 
appointed clerk and naval storekeeper at Carleton Island, on the River 
St. Lawrence, where Government vessels were built for the navigation 
of Lake Ontario. My sister Sarah and my brother William were 
born here, and occasionally the other children from Quebec Seminary 
came home on a visit. 

My elder brothers, Peter and James, through my father's interest, 
turned merchants, having been supplied with an assortment of goods 
from Montreal, then a rising place. 

In 1790, they went into the Indian trade at Kingston, which had 
a great communication with the back lakes. Soon after this my father 
removed to the same locality. 


I was born at Frontenac, now Kingston, in 1783, and was bap- 
tized by the Rev. Mr. Stuart, the earliest church missionary in Upper 
Canada. He was originally missionary to the Six Nation Indians in 
the time of Sir William Johnston, Bart. 

In 1785, a new settlement sprung up at Fredericksburg, in the 
Bay of Quinte, where the Government erected a mill for the use of 
the settlers. 

My father removed there, having been appointed to take charge of 
it in addition to his other appointments. 

This mill was erected on the Napanee River, which was a great 
boon to the people, as vast many U.E. Loyalists drew their lands in 
this vicinity. 

Here my brother, George, was born at Fredericksburg in 1787 ; at 
which period I was in the fourth year of my age. Soon after this my 
affectionate mother breathed her last, and was buried here. 

I recollect that event well. The family sleigh was painted black 
and drawn by our two favorite horses, Jolly and Bonny; the negro, 
Joe, driving. 

She was a great loss to us all, particularly my father. 

Our eldest sister, Mary, who was born in England, became to us 
a mother and housekeeper. 

In after years she married Mr. Davidson, of Quebec, but is now 

Government Mill at Napanee. 

I think it was in the year 1785 that this Government mill was 
erected for the accommodation of the Indians and settlers. 

At that period there was no mill nearer than Cataraqua Creek, 
Kingston, which, as the settlers increased, was very inconvenient. 

This accommodation, therefore, by the Government was hailed as 
a great boon, for the location was about three miles from my father's 
residence at Fredericksburg, and having charge of the same, it gave 
him. a good opportunity of noticing the industry of the settlers, who 
were constantly going and bringing their grist, chiefly Indian corn, 
and as the clearances increased, wheat became more plentiful. 

Previously the settlers were supplied from the neighboring States 
with flour, tea and other articles of household necessity. 

A small toll was exacted to pay for the daily expenses of the mill; 
but this was a mere trifle considering the advantages the settlers derived 
from loss of time in proceeding to Kingston. 


When my father was ordered to Niagara, the mill was delivered 
up to Surveyor Collins, under whose directions it was continued in 
operation for many years; and then the mill-site became the property 
of the Hon.~R.. Cartwright, of Kingston. 

This place, Fredericksburg, appeared to my father very lonely 
after my mother's death, and on representation to headquarters he 
gained the appointment from the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Dor- 
chester, of Barrack-master at Fort Niagara, then a British possession, 
contiguous to the United States. 

This we all found a more lively situation, as the officers stationed 
here drew around them all the best society of the neighborhood. 

Here my sister Eliza married Francis Crooks, a highly respectable 
merchant of the firm of Hamilton-Crooks. 

No clergymen were stationed in that vicinity at this early period, 
so the ceremony was performed by the Hon. Robt. Hamilton, a magis- 
trate of the county, at my father's house, authorized by an ordinance 
of the then Province of Quebec. 

In 1796, the frontier adjacent to the present town of Niagara con- 
tained a fort, which was occupied by our troops previous to that period. 

There were forts also at Oswegatchie, Oswego, Detroit, all the way 
to Michillimackinac ; these, by treaty carried out at that period, were 
given up, and all our forces removed to the Canadian side. 

The town of Newark had gradually increased, it having become 
the seat of the Upper Canadian Government, so that when my father 
removed his family over, it had become a considerable place of note. 

My father continued at his new post as Barrack-master of the 24th 
Regiment, under Colonel Peter Hunter, until his death, which took 
place in 1810, in the 73rd year of his age. 

The locality was pleasantly situated and the principal place of 
intercourse with the United States, and being but a few miles from the 
whirlpool and falls, rendering the rides and rivers extremely delight- 

"When we would occasionally stroll over to Queenston Heights, and 
look around at the magnificent prospect, little did I contemplate that 
a battle would ever be fought on that pleasant spot, or that a magnifi- 
cent monument to a British hero would ever crown those heights. 

When we would go on the opposite direction to see the mighty Falls 
of Water that force their way from the back lakes, we could never 
contemplate that the two countries would ever be bound together by 
the tie of the now grand Suspension Bridge that soars above the 
stupendous chasm beneath. 


But time works wonders, and through the short period of one 
human being's existence what wonderful events have taken place. 

Newark, now Niagara, having become a place of British resi- 
dence, a great change was soon apparent in its general aspect, which 
is always the case when a place is selected for the seat of Government. 

Previous to my father's death, my sister married Surgeon David- 
son, of the Canadian Volunteers, stationed at Fort George garri- 
son, Niagara. She died at Three Kivers, Lower Canada, leaving a 
large family— Henry, the eldest, and two sisters, now residing at Point 
Levi, Quebec. 

On the Constitutional Charter, 31st of the King, granted to Upper 
Canada, and administered by Governor Simcoe, in 1792, my brother 
was appointed Chief Clerk of the Legislative Council. He was killed 
in a duel with Capt. Sutherland, of the 24th Regiment, in the winter 
of 1795, at Kingston. 

My brother, James Clark, was appointed to succeed him by Gov- 
ernor Simcoe. This situation he held for several years, which he 
afterwards had to relinquish, from habits of indulgence, to the great 
regret of his family. His son, James W. O. Clark, and two daughters, 
are still living on a good homestead a few miles from my residence. 

He has lately made a tour to Europe and highly delighted with 
his trip. 

In addition to the Barrack-mastership, 1803, my father also held 
the Sheriffalty of Niagara district for some years, and was succeeded 
therein by Thomas Merrit, Esq., father of my friend, the Hon. Wm, 
Hamilton Merrit, in 1803. 

My sister Eliza, by her first husband, Francis Crooks, had two 
daughters — Jane and Mary. 

Jane married Lieut.-Col. Short, of the 41st, by whom she had a 
son, who went to India. 

Mary married Thomas Arnold, Esq., of the Commissariat Depart- 
ment. Their son, Charles Arnold, is cashier of the Niagara District 

My brothers, William and George, are dead, leaving me the only 
survivor of my father's family, now in the 78th year of my age, soon 
expecting to be called hence. 

I frequently recur to my early days with wonder and astonish- 
ment, when we were located at the old mill at Napanee. 

Those unacquainted with the first settlements in the bush would 
naturally imagine that the settlers would be extremely dull, particu- 
larly of an evening. Far from it. 

There were always large open-fire places, built up with stones, 


found about the fields, where good blazing fires were always kept, to 
make the inmates cheerful. 

Logs two feet thick, and from four to five feet long, piled up with 
branches of smaller dimensions, lasted till morning. Here the little 
party would congregate and chat over the various romantic events 
incident on leaving the Old Country, not even envying the more refined 
homes, there being an air of Robinson Crusoe independence that at 
times was truly delightful. 

Here all the little plans of future settlement for the children were 
discussed, whilst various domestic affairs were going on, as there were 
no tradesmen at hand to mend a shoe or coat, or even needle-woman. 
Everything was performed by a division of labor, so that all performed 
their parts, and imbibed a spirit of industry that, in after time, proved 
extremely useful, where money was extremely scarce. 

It was wonderful to see how fast the work rose into Niagara when 
our troops shifted their quarters. Under the Fort, along the river, 
were buildings for the accommodation of those belonging to the several 
Government departments. 

My father, the Barrack-master, occupied one of these houses. 

The Commissary, McNabb ; the Superintendent of the Indian 
Department, Walter Butler Sheehan and Clerk; Johnson Chew, the 
Indian blacksmith ; Barnabus Cain, boat builder ; Crooks & Hamilton, 
John McFarlane, George Forsyth & Co., Street & Butler were mer- 
chants and traders. 

On certain days the Indians in the vicinity, I presume of the Six 
Nations, would flock to the Fort for presents from the Indian store. 
- Then mothers kept the little children in-doors, lest they should be 
carried off by the squaws. 

On the lake adjacent to the Fort was a fine fishing ground for 
black bass, and innumerable were the whitefish in the Niagara River; 
flocks of wild pigeons flying to and fro, besides great abundance of wild 
fowl in the woods and creeks around. 

I recollect that my father employed an Indian hunter to supply 
his table with wild fowl, which was a great addition to the rations of 
bread, pease, butter and pork from the King's store. 

The chief society for the ladies in those days were the officers in 
garrison, and I recollect there were dinner parties, tea parties, balls 
and weddings long gone by never to return. 

When the settlers used to assemble at each other's houses to enjoy 
their social evenings, the greatest hospitality and good humor pre- 


Before parting a circle was formed of the young men, and the 
girls were furnished with knee cushions, which they laid down before 
the young men they wished for partners at the dance, thus betokening 
their choice. 

If agreeable to both parties they would clasp their arms around 
each other's necks and give a kiss. It was then considered a match. 

In the general way they remained together for that evening as a 
preliminary to future acquaintance, which commonly ended in a 
marriage when the young man was old enough to have land of his 

The marriages thus formed generally turned out happy, as all 
parties were trained and brought up to habits of industry. 

Another great meeting used to take place early in the spring, when 
the sap ascended the trees, with which large quantities of sugar was 

In a community where it was next to impossible to obtain sugar, 
being a very bulky luxury and very difficult of access, nature had pro- 
vided a substitute in the rich sap of the maple tree, generally found 
on each farm. 

The trees were tapped by the young men, and troughs made with 
the axe to hold the sap. 

Fires were then kindled in the bush, over which hung the camp 
kettles ready to receive the sap. 

This was a busy time and required constant watching and atten- 
tion during the day. 

On these occasions they would assist one another, so that a large 
quantity of sugar was laid up in store sufficient for use until next 
season. Many had a surplus, which the young people could convey to 
a store in exchange for some domestic requirement. 

At first these wants were few, but if the merchant brought along 
some dandy bonnets the young girls were not slow in obtaining them, 
and as fashion is catching almost all the farms obtained surplus sup- 
plies, which soon cleared off the enterprising merchant's stock. 

In process of time these good old days of Adam and Eve vanished, 
so that nowadays farmers' daughters are scarcely known from the 
fashionable ladies of large towns or cities. 

Their parents nevertheless refer back to former days with pleasure, 
and speak of them with delight as the happiest hours of existence, there 
being no anxiety of mind to obtain money for the new notions of 
society, which formerly had no existence. 

The growth of flax was much attended to, as soon as lands were 
cleared and put in order. 


Then spinning wheels were all the go, and home-made linen, the 
pride of all families, manufactured substantial articles that would last 
almost a lifetime. 

The young men would know that wherever the spinning-wheel and 
loom were at work, that family was industrious and prosperous. 

A young farmer would often be astonished to find, on his mar- 
riage, that his fair partner bad got a good supply of linen for her 
marriage portion. 

I have known as much as 60 yards spun and manufactured at one 
bee, or gathering, without any pav but a simple supper and dance. 

The young men would bring tbe musicians, and then — hurrah for 
the bush. 

The lakes were at tbat time navigated by Government vessels, 
which carried troops, supplies and passengers, and merchandise for 
the posts. 

One vessel, the Ontario, Captain Andrews master, carrying troops 
from Fort Niagara to Oswego, was lost on Lake Ontario. Every soul 
perished. Colonel Burton, of the 8th, or King's Own, commanded the 

Captain Andrews, the master, was the grandfather of Walter B. 
Sheehan, Collector of Dunnville, who married into the family. 

My father used frequently to relate to us the particulars of this 
melancholy event. 

It was commanded by Commodore Andrews, of the Royal Navy. 
The vessel was going from Fort Niagara to Oswego with a detach- 
ment of the 8th Regiment, to which my father belonged. A storm 
arose which disabled the vessel, and all were lost, from some unto- 
ward circumstance that was never ascertained. 

Colonel Burton, of the 8th Regiment, was on board with other 
officers and men, who were never heard of. 
I think it was in 1780 or 1781. 

There were no newspapers in Upper Canada at that period ; it 
was then a military colony, consequently there is no document extant 
of this unfortunate circumstance. 

Commodore Andrews left a nice family — a widow, one son, Colin 
Andrews, who returned to Scotland, and three daughters, who all 
married and settled in Canada. 

Eliza married Walter Butler Sheehan, of the Indian Department. 
Ellen married Lieut, and Adjutant Hill, of the 5th Regiment of 
the line, garrisoned at Fort Niagara. 

Angelique, the youngest, married Ensign James Grivins, of the 
Queen's Rangers, whose descendants are still living in Canada. 


Walter Butler Sheehan, now Collector of Dunnville, is the surviv- 
ing son of Eliza. 

To the present hour no one knows how the disastrous affair hap- 
pened, as not a soul survived the calamity. 

Colonel Burton was a fine, noble character, much regretted by his 
brother officers and the regiment. 

The Warrens, of Fort Erie, are descended from John Warren, of 
the 8th Regiment, or King's Own, who was one of the unfortunates 
then on board. 

Captain John Turney, who was transferred from the 8th Regi- 
ment to Butler's Rangers, settled on the 12-mile creek, Grantham. 
At the close of the Revolutionary War the remainder of this once 
splendid regiment returned to Great Britain, leaving a number behind 
as early settlers in the country. 

Captain Coote, from whom Coote's Paradise in Burlington Bay 
took its name, being a favorite resort for sportsmen, formerly be- 
longed to the 8th Regiment. 

Barrack-master Clark, my father, also of the 8th, kept an Indian 
hunter to supply himself and friends with game. 

At that day butchers were unknown. By way of compliment my 
father sent over a pair of very large, fine wild geese, addressed on 
cards : 

Chief Justice Osgoode, Newark; 

Mr. Secretary Littlehales, Newark ; 
to no small astonishment of those who read the addresses, and even the 
Chief Justice himself laughed immoderately. 

I recollect the loss of the schooner Speedy, which happened in 

To the best of my recollection there were on board Judge Cochrane, 
who was sent out from England the year before ; Solicitor-General 
Gray, a noble character, noted for his sympathy on behalf of abolish- 
ing slavery. 

A number were brought over and allowed to be kept in this coun- 
try, but by a law brought in by Governor Simcoe slavery was abolished, 
and my father, who, with others, had negro servants, emancipated 

Angus MacDonald, Superintendent of the Salt Works in Louth, 
was one of the ill-fated passengers. 

Jacob Herkimer, a merchant of Toronto, then York, was on board. 
His family were early settlers. 

Thomas Paxton was the Captain. 


There were upwards of twenty others, whose names I do not recol- 
lect. They were all going to attend the court in the Midland District, 
and not one of the unfortunate crew or passengers were saved, being 
lost off Presqu' Isle. 

Our nearest settlement in the United States at this time was the 
Genesee River, from whence drovers used to bring in cattle and horses 
for the use of the settlers, as well as fat cattle for the use of the troops 
in garrison. Among those drovers was the father of the late Samuel 
Street, and another in company. When they had sold their cattle and 
received the gold for the same they returned homeward. Alighting 
from their horses at the cold springs to drink, some distance from the 
Fort, Mr. Street was robbed and murdered by his partner, whose name 
I do not now recollect. 

The first settlement made on the Niagara west side was along the 
River Road to Queenston. The names of the first settlers there were : 
Martin McClelland, John Wilson, John McFarland, father to Dun- 
can McFarland, of Port Robertson; Isaac Sweazy, Walter Butler 
Sheehan, George Adams, John Johnson, Gilbert Field, Joseph Brown, 
Archibald Cunningham, Isaac Vrooman, Adam Vrooman, James Dur- 
ham, John Scott (nurseryman), Robert Hamilton, Esq., Elijah 
Phelps (farmer), William Wynn (ferryman), John Woolman. 

The settlers around Niagara and the Four-mile Creek were : Streets, 
Butlers, Balls, Servos, Pickards, Markles, Lawrences, Youngs, Frys, 
Thomas, Coxes, Bellinger, de Cows, Clements, Stephens, Smith, 

The Province of Quebec having been divided into Upper and 
Lower Canada in the year 1791, under the charter 31st, George the 
3rd, General Sir John Graves Simcoe was appointed Governor of 
Upper Canada to administer its government. 

His Military Secretary was Major Littlehales. 

Provincial Aide-de-Camp — Thomas Tabbot (sic). 

Chief Justice — William Osgood. 

Attorney-General — John White. 

Solicitor-General — Mr. Gray. 

Clerk of Executive Council — Mr. Small. 

Civil Secretary — William Jarvis, Esq. 

Receiver-General — Peter Russell. 

Surveyor-General — D. W. Smith. 

Asst. Surveyor-General — Thomas Ridout, 

William Chewett, Esquires. 

The Governor's residence was at Navy Hall, below old Fort 


George, where there was a dock at which the shipping was moored 
when in port. The Council Chamber was a building near to Butler's 
Barracks, on the hill by the cherry trees, where the Episcopal and 
Catholic Churches assembled occasionally and alternately. Those 
were the days of the lion and the lamb associating together. 

At this time we had but four Episcopal clergymen in the Province 
of Upper Canada: 

1st. The Rev. Mr. Bethune, father of the Archdeacon Bethune, of 
Cobourg, for the Eastern District, Cornwall. 

2nd. The Rev. John Stuart, Kingston, Midland District. 

3rd. The Rev. Richard Pollard, Sandwich, Western District. 

4th. The Rev. Mr. Addison, Niagara. 

Our first lawyers were authorized by statute of Provincial Legis- 
lature. I recollect William Dickson, Esq., Niagara. 

Angus McDonell, Esq., Cornwall. 

James Clark, Junr., Esq., Niagara. A 

Allan McLean, Esq., Kingston. 

Our first Parliament assembled at Niagara in marquee tents. 

Chief Justice Osgoode, Speaker. 

Hon. Robt. Hamilton, Home. 

Hon. Archibald Grant, Western. 

Hon. Richard Cartwright, Midland. 

Hon. Richard Duncan, Eastern. 

Peter Clark, Esq., C.E.C. 

Usher of the Black Rod — George Law. 

Speaker of the House of Assembly — John McDonnell, Esq., of 
Cornwall, father of the late Tates McDonnell, Esq., a Director of the 
Welland Canal Co. 

First Sheriff of Niagara District: Alexander McDonnell, Esq. 
Second, James Clark, my brother. Third, Thomas Merritt, Esq. 
Then a division of the Province into blocks, townships, lots and con- 
cessions was provided for, and judiciously so, was done and settlement 
united thereto. 

The present town of Niagara was then named Newark by Governor 
Simcoe. Toronto, altered to York, in compliment to the Duke of 

The Honorable Robert Hamilton, of Queenston, was ex-offido on 
all occasions at this time, Chairman of Quarter Sessions of the Peace; 
Lieutenant of the County. He died in 1811, leaving an estate said 
to be worth £200,000. I believe there is only one survivor of that 
familv at this time — the Hon. John Hamilton. 


It was in 179G that all the frontier posts on the South Side of 
the lakes were given up to the United States, and occupied by their 

Governor Simcoe not desiring his seat of government to be imme- 
diately under the guns of the Americans, removed to Toronto, which, I 
understand to be an Indian name for trees growing out of the water, 
it being nearly on a level with the lake. 

The Governor had explored the western country ; set his troops to 
work to cut a road to the Thames; called Dundas Street after the 
Home Minister, intending to make the capital at London on the 
Thames, but it was overruled, although since it has been deemed a 
highly judicious measure. 

After the Governor left Navy Hall for Toronto, my father and 
family occupied the late residence of the Governor until he provided 
himself with a new residence in Niagara. 

The first rudiments of my humble education I acquired at the 
Garrison School at Old Fort Niagara. 

When we came to the British side of the river in 1796 I went to 
various schools. The best among them was that of Rich'd Cockerell, 
an Englishman, from the United States, who left the country during 
the Rebellion. 

I was off and on at these schools until 1800, when a school was 
established at Kingston by the Honorable Richard Cartwright and 
Honorable Robert Hamilton, for the education of their sons, with 
authority to the teacher to take ten additional scholars at £10 each 
per annum. I happened to be one of those lucky boys, and have 
since been sorry that I did not stay longer to have completed my studies. 

The present Lord Bishop of Toronto was sent from Scotland by a 
brother of the late Honorable R. Hamilton as the teacher of the school 
at Kingston. It was the principal seminary of learning in Upper 

The present Chief Justice Robinson was one of my school-fellows, 
with many others, who have since filled offices of distinction in the Pro- 
vince, some of whom have been gathered to their fathers. 

The school was removed from Kingston to Cornwall when I left, 
and was patronized by other sections of the Province. The Lord 
Bishop having visited this neighborhood in 1860 kindly called to see 
me, and before leaving said : " You did not remain long enough at my 
school." I replied: "I have experienced that, my Lord, to my 

In the year 1802 I was placed with George Forsyth & Co., of 


Niagara, merchants, to learn the art and mystery of commerce. I 
was then in the nineteenth year of my age. I continued in that 
capacity for seven years, nothing to complain of, but too indulgent a 
master for my ultimate benefit. 

At this early period all the young men in stores were crazy to 
become merchants. I, with the late William Johnson, then obtained 
a letter of credit, furnished with which I proceeded to Montreal, was 
successfully furnished with goods to open a store ; and on my return 
commenced housekeeping in Niagara, from which I did not get extri- 
cated without a considerable sacrifice. 

The War of 1812 broke out, when I fortunately was placed on 
active service, and remained so until the peace of 1815. I was with 
General Brock when he was killed, and being an eye-witness of the 
remarkable events of that period shall have occasion to note down my 
experience hereafter. 

After the war I deemed it time to settle down in the world by 
taking a wife. Most fortunately for myself I was accepted by my 
present wife, then Miss Sarah Adams, who was a charming girl, and 
has since proved to me a most excellent wife. We were married in 
December, 1815, for better or worse. 

We have had nine children, all living but one son, William, who 
died at St Catharines in the eighth year of his age. 

On referring to the past, in our social evening chats, we often 
recurred to events in the early progress of the country. I am aware 
that our mails were for many years carried by footmen from post to 
post, and in winter by small sleighs. 

The settlers had only communication with England twice a year, 
and those periods were hailed with great delight. 

I was six years of age when the scarce year of famine, 1789 or 
'90, took place in Canada, when the inhabitants resorted to the woods 
for roots and greens for their subsistence. They made their tea from 
sheerwood, sassafras and hemlock. 

I have been informed by old people that this disastrous year was 
1789, which has since been corroborated by many. I was then very 
young, and was doubtless cared for by my kind parents. Since then, 
in my own experience, T have never known want in my native land — 
Canada — which T would not exchange for another, except one. 

I recollect, before mills were much in vogue, that the settlers 
pounded their corn and wild-rice in the stump of hardwood trees in 
order to obtain bread, and the Indians brought us cranberries and 
maple sugar in barter for other commodities. 


Just before the War of 1812 was proclaimed a singular circum- 
stance occurred at Queenston, as if in anticipation of that event 
Mr. Phelps, a large farmer at Queenston, sold a cow to Mr. Fair- 
banks over the river at Lewiston, on the American side, which was 
sent over in the ferry-boat. The next day cowey, as if not liking her 
quarters, or preferring the loyalty of the British Government for her 
headquarters, strolled down to the waterside, and although the current 
is very swift there, she plunged into the stream and swam over to her 
old quarters, where she remained until the war was over, being well 
taken care of by her old master. 

It was often a source of great merriment to both parties — bulletins 
passing to and fro occasionally that her ladyship was in excellent 
health, and enjoying herself, notwithstanding the roar of cannon and 
musket balls that kept flying at times over her head. Here she 
remained until the war was over, then was honorably restored to her 

But what was equally singular and curious — an immense emigra- 
tion of squirrels took place, and so numerous were they that the people 
stood with sticks to destroy them as they landed on the British shore, 
which, by many, was considered a breach of good faith on the part of 
John Bull, who is always ready to grant an asylum to fugitives of 
whatever nation they may belong to. 

Having omitted some memoranda relative to the early settlers, I 
now with pleasure recur to them. 

The first settlers of Niagara District previous to Governor Simcoe's 
arrival were along the banks of the lake and rivers, those of Niagara 
and 4-Mile Creek, I have already mentioned. 

Next is 12-Mile Creek, from Lake Ontario upwards — Benjamin 
Pauling, William May, Geo. Read, Jessie Pauling, Peter May, Peter 
Ten Brock, Nicholas Smith, Jacob Ten Brock, John Hainer, Jacob 
Dittrick, Robert Campbell, Adam Brown, John De Cow. 

Fifteen-Mile Creek — Frederick Schram, Joseph Smith, James 
Gregory, Phillip Smith, I. Beamer. 

Twenty-Mile Creek — Andrew Butler, Peter Hare, William Hare. 
Thirty-Mile Creek — The Simmermans, the Petitts, the Conkles, 
the Henrys. 

Forty-Mile Creek — The Nelles, , the Andrews, the Wolvertons, the 
Greens, the Beamers. 

Fifty-Mile Creek — The Willsons, the Petitts, and many others, 
after the division of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791. 

Governor Simcoe's enlightened administration of the Government 


drew many Loyalists from the United States and British Isles, so 
that Upper Canada rapidly prospered. 

Capt. Peter Hare was one of those who settled near my present 
residence of Port Dalhousie. 

On the 16th of March, 1849, I attended the funeral of Mrs. Mary 
Brown, relict of Mr. Robert Brown, and daughter of Colonel Peter 
Hare, who formerly was a Captain in Butler's Rangers, on the half-pay 
list of Great Britain. 

Capt. Hare was in the Provincial service at the time of the Revolu- 
tionary War in the British-American colonies, now the United States 
of America. 

Capt. Peter Hare stands favorably reputed as an excellent man and 
officer, fully entitled to the badge of the unity of the Empire Loyalists. 
Of modest demeanor, of honorable character, . and of true and ardent 
devotion to his King and country. Had we amongst us more that we 
can boast of of the real stamp and character of Capt. Peter Hare, Can- 
ada might not at this day be engaged in party strife and the passing 
of rebellion losses bills. 

I Avas among others present at Mrs. Brown's interment to-day. 
She was buried in the Episcopal Churchyard, Louth, near the resi- 
dence of Mr. George Reid, U.E.L., on land at one time owned by her 
husband, Robert Brown, a U.E. Loyalist. They raised a large family 
between them. 

Born to use their energies for their support, their father appears 
at this time devoid of much worldly property; so it with us poor 
mortals of this world. 

Rich to-day and poor to-morrow, such is the uncertainty of human 
life. My thoughts recurring to our old settlers, what numerous priva- 
tions were endured among them, with scanty subsistance, in addition to 
that torment, fever and ague. 

Nevertheless, their determined praiseworthy exertions in sub- 
duing the boundless forests of themselves, few are left to witness the 
benefits derived from their exertions to our common country. Some of 
their descendants are here yet, among them the present writer. To 
emulate the sterling character of their fathers in devotion and 
faithful allegiance to Britain's Crown, and to behold a country owing 
so much to the industry of their fathers and the unity of the Empire 

The breadstuff of the early settlers was chiefly maize, or 
Indian corn, until they produced other from their clearings. 
In some instances they obtained a supply from the settlements in the 


United States, and without mills to grind their wheat or corn they 
crushed it by a mortar and lever made in the stump of a tree. 

Then there was the scarce summer of 1789, when all were put to 
their shifts for want of food. They had to resort to the woods in 
search of roots to sustain nature, although there were plenty of fish 
in our waters ; pigeons and wild fowl in abundance, but these seemed 
to keep away when most wanted. 

When the first settlers began to harvest the wheat crop a paternal 
and beneficial Government furnished the mill-stones and all necessary 
machinery, the inhabitants erecting the mill-house of round logs or 
squared timber. Some of these mills were first occupied by the 
Secords, 4-Mile Creek; Burch's at the Falls, since belonging to the 
Streets ; the Indian mill at the Mohawk village, Grand River ; the 
Kingston mill on the River Cataraqui ; the Fort Erie mill ; the 
Napanee mill, now owned by the estate of the Hon. Richard Cart- 
wright; also the Hamilton mill on the 12-Mile Creek, now owned by 
the Thomases, Quakers, of Philadelphia from an early period. As 
the settlement progressed there were many other mills, as the country 
possessed a good soil and air salubrious. Wheat became our staple 

The Six Nation Indians may be found safely ranked among the 
United Empire Loyalists. On the separation of the American Colonies 
from Great Britain in 1775 they left their lands on the Mohawk 
Valley and followed the British to their new settlement in Upper 
Canada, where they were amply provided for by a grant of lands on 
the Grand River, by promise of General Haldimand, afterwards by 
Lord Dorchester confirmed. Had they preferred it those loyal and 
faithful red men of the forest could have remained in their posses- 
sion under the United States Government in the enjoyment of their 
first homes; but their choice was the Government of their good father, 
King George the 3rd, of glorious memory, and so it was they followed 
Britain's standard to the wilds of Canada, and ever manifested them- 
selves faithful and devout subjects. 

They well earned the protection of a parental Government, though 
it is said they occasionally were neglected. They helped us to fight 
our battles, although not a stone marks the spot where Tecumseh was 
slain in our cause. 

The late Colonel Joseph Brant was their principal chief or sachem. 
The Mohawks have been a noble race. Sir William Johnson's second 
family was by a sister of Joseph Brant's, named Miss Molly, who fol- 
lowed the Six Nations into Canada, the family being endowed with 


some patrimony from their father's estate, Johnson Castle, on the 
Mohawk River, in the United States, in addition to large grants of 
lands from the Government of Canada. 

The ladies soon obtained respectable husbands: Captain Farley, 
of the 60th Regiment; Lieut. Lemoine, of the 24th Regiment; John 
Ferguson, Esq., Indian Stores; Capt. Earle, of the Provincial Navy; 
Dr. Kerr, an eminent surgeon. These five daughters all dressed in 
the costume of the white ladies, and were tolerably well educated. 

Miss Molly died at her daughter's, Mrs. Ferguson, of Kingston, 

I recollect my brother, Peter Clark, then in the Xaval Depart- 
ment at Kingston in 1793, accompanied Prince Edward, Duke of 
Kent, and father to our present Queen Victoria, across Lake Ontario 
on his way to the Falls. They sailed in his boat, fitted up a little 
extra for the purpose, from the Government stores. They arrived safe 
at Niagara and were welcomed by Governor Simcoe, who paid the 
Prince every attention his limited accommodation would allow. 

From thence the party proceeded on horseback by the River Road, 
then partly opened by the troops. I understood it was the inten- 
tion of His Royal Highness to visit Brant and the Six Nations on 
the Grand River, which I think he did, accompanied by Governor 
Simcoe and suite. 

After the Prince had completed his visit my brother Peter accom- 
panied him on his return to his regiment at Quebec. On referring 
to my memorandum I find a further account of the Duke of Kent's 
visit to Upper Canada. 

A Royal Visit to Falls of Niagara. 

Our beloved Queen Victoria's father, and grandfather to the 
Prince of Wales, who paid us a visit in 1860, arrived from England 
at Quebec in the year 1791, a short time before the division of the 
Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. The Prince was 
received in due form by the civil and military authorities. In those 
early days the land carriage between Quebec and Montreal was by 
Canadian calashe, drawn by a compact French pony, with Jean 
Baptiste on the box, whip and reins in hand and pipe in his mouth. 

His Royal Highness gladly accepted such humble conveyance for 
himself and suite in preference to going by the more tedious river 
route; arriving in due time at Mouireal — a journey at that period of 
no small moment; thence to Lachine, 12 miles, where the junction of 
the Ottawa and Saint Lawrence takes place. 


At Lachine he took a Canadian batteaux, manned by hardy voy- 
ageurs, to stem the rapids of the mighty Saint Lawrence. 

After a strong pull and a pull altogether, they reached still water 
at Oswegatchie, now Ogdensburg, opposite Prescott, named after 
General Prescott. 

Leaving the delightful scenery of Saint Ann's, commemorated by 
Moore, the poet, who wrote his Canadian boat song on that lovely spot. 

At Oswegatchie the Royal party was met by a pleasure barge from 
Kingston, manned by seamen and military, accompanied by my 
brother, Peter Clark, then Clerk of the Legislative Council. From 
thence they were speedily rowed to Kingston, where the King's 
schooner, the Mohawk, Commodore Bouchette, was in waiting to 
receive him. 

The Commodore was grandfather to the present Commissioner of 
Customs at Quebec. 

The Prince went on board, and after a tedious passage, safely 
reached Navy Hall, the headquarters of Governor Simcoe. The civil 
and military authorities, then few in number, courteously received him 
under fire from the guns at the Port. As soon as horses, with saddles 
and bridles, could be mustered, the Royal party wended their way, by 
narrow river road, on the high banks of the Niagara to the Falls. 

The only tavern, or place of accommodation, was a log-hut for 
travellers of that day to refresh themselves. There the Royal party 
alighted, and partaking of such refreshments as the house afforded, 
followed an Indian path through the woods to the Table Rock over- 
looking the Falls. 

There was a rude Indian ladder to descend to the rocks below — 
160 feet — which our traveller availed himself of, and after having 
satisfied his curiosity, the party again remounted their steeds and 
pursued their course back to Niagara. 

They stopped at Queenston on their way back, at the Hon. 
Robert Hamilton's, our greatest man in those days, except Governor 

After lunch proceeded to Navy Hall, to be entertained by His 
Excellency Governor Simcoe; had game and all the dainties of the 
season that the wilderness could furnish, such as whitefish, trout, 
game, roast beef, ale, old port and Maderia, of which none can be 
obtained of so good a quality, in the year 1860. 

In the evening the Royal party were wonderfully amused by the 
young warriors and chiefs of the Six Nations, headed by Brant him- 
self in the war dance. Next day the most youthful Indians enter- 


tained His Royal Highness and suite with a game of bandy ball and 
foot races, on the common of Niagara, after which the Prince crossed 
the Niagara to the Fort, then occupied by our troops; after which 
His Royal Highness embarked on board the vessel for his return to 
Quebec, descended the Saint Lawrence more quickly than when 
-ascending. He was soon after in command at Halifax and Quebec. 

The late visit of his grandson, the Prince of Wales, contrasts 
strangely with the simple, unostentatious way in which his grandfather 
visited Upper Canada in 1793 ; showing the wonderful progress the 
country has made in that short period of 70 years. At this period there 
were no churches or chapels in Upper Canada. Governor Simcoe was 
most anxious to extend religious knowledge among the people, but this 
was a work of time. 

In the interim the people performed their devotion in their own 
quiet way. Each family possessed a Bible, which they read and 
explained to the best of their ability to their children. They had then 
more faith in an Omnipotent and Omnipresent power than in the 
present day. Located in such isolated places they never saw a clergy- 
man, and scarcely knew that such people were in existence. 

The prophet Isaiah censured a waste of money on priests and 
formalities, calling the people's attention to the fountain of living 
waters, and here in the wilderness his injunctions were strictly carried 
out. There were then no squabbles about church-wardens or decora- 
tions, formalities, divisions of seats, fasts, holidays or particular days. 
Those residing within a short distance of each other would meet once 
a week to hold social converse, read the Scriptures, and instil into the 
minds of the children the principle of dependence upon God. 

When a wedding took place they formed a little party and would 
travel to the nearest Justice of the Peace, who quietly performed the 
ceremony according to law. Before justices were appointed the Chap- 
lain of the garrison was authorized to tie the nuptial knot. All was 
primitive simplicity, and in the aggregate such marriages were happy. 

When any member of the family died a corner of the farm was 
selected for interment ; a few remarks from the parents completed the 
ceremony, and man)- a tear was dropped in silence upon traversing the 
farm over the remains of one who was once held dear to them all. 
An ejaculation of " There lies poor Bobby," and the labors of the farm 
went on again as usual. There were no headstones, no inscriptions ; 
the memory of the deceased was engraven upon the heart. 

Such were the movements of our ancestors, but as society in- 
creased it was found suitable and proper to erect places of worship 


where those of different denominations might worship God in their 
own peculiar way. 

At first a room in the barracks was appropriated for this purpose, 
but by degrees buildings were erected in locations that had become 
considerable towns. The Rev. Mr. Addison was the first clergy (sic) 
in our district who officiated in a room in the barracks. 

It was not until the year 1802 that there was a church in the 
whole extensive district of Niagara. 

In 1802, a few years after the removal of the Government to 
Toronto, a liberal subscription was entered into and a church erected. 

This was the first English Church built in the Province, except at 
Kingston, 1793. Society has since so wonderfully increased and riches 
so abundant that the original building has terminated in a cathedral 
without a spire. 

I have lived to see one very important change in our church arrange- 
ments — burying grounds around the churches have given place to 
cemeteries situated at some little distance out of town, which adds 
much to the health of the congregation. 

The first settlement in and around Niagara commenced about 
1783, by discharged soldiers and pensioned officers, after the Revolu- 
tionary War, and was continued by the United Empire Loyalists when 
the war was over. 

The following list shows the origin of many of the families now 
provided with commodious and comfortable homesteads in the Niagara 

Wm. May, U.E., Grantham. A. Stull, U.E., Grantham. 

Adam Bowman, U.E., Grantham. I. Clement, U.E., Grantham. 
N. Smith, U.E., Grantham. I. Dettricksen, U.E., Grantham, 

B. Smith, U.E., Grantham. R. Campbell, U.E., Grantham. 

Wm. Read, U.E., Grantham. I. Hainer, U.E., Grantham. 

Geo. Read, U.E., Grantham. Grapes, U.E., Grantham. 

I. Valantine, U.E., Grantham. Badts, U.E., Grantham. 

Jas. Secord, Sen., U.E., Gran- A. Stevens, U.E., Niagara. 
tham. I. Clement, U.E., Niagara. 

D. Secord, U.E., Grantham. Jas. Clement, U.E., Niagara. 
S. Secord, U.E., Grantham. D. Hainer, U.E., Niagara. 
Jas. Secord, Jr., U.E., Grantham. Balls, Niagara. 

E. Smith, U.E., Grantham. Edwards, U.E., Niagara. 
E. Phelps, U.E., Grantham. Clause, U.E., Niagara. 

W. Osterhout, U.E., Grantham. Streets, U.E., Niagara. / 

John Bessy, U.E., Grantham. Hitchcocks, U.E., Niagara. 

R. Bessy, U.E., Grantham. McMichaels, U.E., Niagara. 




Herons, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Reefers, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Iealers, U.E., Niagara. 
I. Muirhead, U.E., Niagara. 
Rev. Addison, U.E., Niagara. 
Rev. I. Danel, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Cassadys, U.E., Niagara. 
Pickards, U.E., Niagara. 
Stevens, U.E., Niagara. 
Woodruff, U.E., Niagara. 
Ienelds, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Sweazys, TJ.E., Niagara. 
•Clenches, U.E., Niagara. 
Vanevery, U.E., Niagara. 
Terney, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Sheehans, U.E., Niagara. 
Burns, U.E., Niagara. \ 

McKays, U.E., Niagara. 
Kerrs, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Stewarts, UE., Niagara. 
Thompsons, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Lamberts, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Steadmans, TJ.E., Falls. 
Thos. Clark, TJ.E., Falls. 
R. Meads, TIE., Falls. 
I. Burtch, TJ.E., Falls. 
H. Wenham, TJ.E., Falls. 
Cummings, Chippawa. 
Muirhead, Chippawa. 
Macklems, Chippawa. 
Mclntees, TJ.E., South. 
Crumbes, TJ.E., South. 
Pierce, TJ.E., South. 
Coles, TJ.E., South. 
Pierce, TJ.E., South. 
Coats, TJ.E., South. 
TIaines, TJ.E., South. 
Pattersons, TJ.E., South. 
Pauldings, TJ.E., South. 
Iabecus, TJ.E., South. 
Gregorys, TJ.E., South. 
Pirews, TJ.E., South. 
Balers, TJ.E., South. 
Butlers, TJ.E., South. 


John Clement, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Clarks, U.E., Niagara. 
Lamberts, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Woodmans, TJ.E., Niagara. ' 
Vroomans, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Johnsons, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Browns, TJ.E., Niagara. 
McFarlans, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Coons, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Cams, TJ.E., Niagara. 
Forsyths, U.E., Niagara. 
Hamiltons, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Wynes, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Clendenings, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Nelles, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Hicksons, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Nixons, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Carpenters, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Ieromds, U.E., Queenston. 
Crooks, TJ.E., Queenston. 
Wainens, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Powells, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Palmers, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Heidersons, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Thomsons, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Forsyth, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Wintermatt, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Mabees, TJ.E., Bertie. 
Petits, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Williams, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Carpenters, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Greens, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Gildersleeve, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Showens, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Westacooks, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Spencers, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Frys, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Sweethorns, TJ.E., Grimsby. 
Havens, TJ.E., Thorold. 
Rows, TJ.E., Stamford. 
McMickings, TJ.E., Stamford. 
Bastedos, TJ.E., Stamford. 
Rowbacks, TJ.E., Stamford. 

John Clark, 

Col. L. Militia. 


Having given a general outline of the state of my country since my 
birth in 1783, containing many remarkable events of its rise and 
progress, I now enter a wide field of the War of 1812, which aroused 
the energies of the people, and terminated in the overthrow of an 
invasion from the United States, which was a source of great annoy- 
ance at the time. 

The address of the Canadian Legislature on that memorable 
occasion, and the celebrated letter of the Rev. Dr. Strachan, now the 
venerable Bishop of Toronto, should be reprinted and widely circulated 
for the general information of the rising generation. They are docu- 
ments worthy of the most renowned British statesman. 

I have also received a very interesting letter from my friend,. 
James Cummings, Esq., of Chippawa, a native-born Canadian like 
myself. It is so full of interest and so graphically written that I am 
desirous it should be handed down to posterity, as it contains some 
minutiae of the war at Stoney Creek and elsewhere that belongs to 
the records of the country. My friend is a true blue in every sense of 
the word, as the letter itself proves on perusal. 

' I regret he has not time, with his talent, to give us a longer journal 
of his experience, but even this I consider valuable : 

Chippewa, 11th May, 1860. 
My Dear Colonel — 

Your esteemed favor of the 7th inst. (as the Montreal merchants- 
used to say when they received a remittance from their Upper Can- 
ada pack-horses for peddling out their goods for them.) It gives me 
pleasure to see you write so good a hand, particularly when you say 
that you use no glasses. I can neither read nor write without them. 
You mention the death of your friend, John Kirkpatrick, Esq., as one 
of the veterans of 1812. It was his brother Robert, now in Scotland, 
that was the man who had a ball put through his lungs at the Battle 
of Chippawa. He, however, survived, and was much healthier after- 
wards than before ; at last accounts he was alive and well. 

John did not come out until the close of the war. He has now run 
his race, and carried to his long home, to which you and I are fast 
approaching to our journey's end, and many soon be 'borne to our last 
resting-place, numbered with those veterans who have preceded us. 

There are very few left to tell what transpired during that event- 
ful period. The old cock'd hat and feathers are still in good preserva- 
tion. It now hangs up in the office I am now writing in. You are a 
native-born as well as myself, only four years difference. 


You nor me have never aspired to any Order of Knighthood, but 
have often been benighted, lying on the cold ground, or on the safest 
plank that we could find, while others reposed on beds of down. What 
did we ever get for defending our native soil, when I reflect and think 
of the hardships we had to undergo, and see people come to this once 
happy country, and immediately placed in some situation of profit 
and emolument, and the veterans of 1812 looked over and neglected. 
Nevertheless, our allegiance and devotedness to our country has in 
no way shaken our faith, and we stand as firm and true to our sovereign 
until we draw the last breath of life. 

You mention the names of some of the persons of that period. I 
knew them all well ; they have long since finished their course, and rest 
from the troubles and vexations of this world. 

I remember Hegs's well on the mountain, back of Hamilton, the 
night of the Stony Creek battle; I was with a party of dragoons at 
Secord's Mills to keep a lookout in case the enemy took that road from 
Stony Creek to gain the position we held at the cross-roads. When the 
firing commenced my little party were on the watch, and so soon as 
light appeared we went to the scene of action, where many of our gal- 
lant and noble red-coats lay sleeping in death. 

I never boasted (as many have done) of the valiant deeds per- 
formed at that time. I shall merely mention a few of the scenes I 
witnessed, and was personally engaged in: 

The Beaver Dam, where Col. Chapin gave me his sword. 

The Battle of Chippawa and Lundy's Lane. 

The taking of Fort Schlosser, a daring and bold adventure, with 
the 24th Militia, and six of the 49th, where we took 14 regulars and 
two officers, with four civilians, one brass six-pounder and three boat 
loads of stores. 

Afterwards, the taking of Black Rock, where Col. Bishop received 
his wounds, close by where I was. 

The only one I now recollect of being there was William Kerby, of 

I could sit down and give a long and true history of what tran- 
spired in those days. 

Had Col. Bishop listened to me, as he did -when I managed to get 
the boats for crossing all safely moored on Frenchman's Creek, he 
would not have lost his life on that occasion. 

Had I the time I would relate many circumstances which took 
place which might amuse you. 


The leaves are coming out, and as you remark, we may live to see 
them wither and fall, and return to Mother Earth, for but " Dust we 
are, and to dust we must return." 

The Prince of Wales, and heir to that great and glorious throne to 
which we form a link, is to pay Canada a visit. He, no doubt, will 
visit that wonder of the world, our famous Falls of Niagara, where 
you may have a chance of seeing the future King of Great Britain. 
Should he prove as popular in the hearts of his subjects as his mother 
does, what a blessing it will be to those who may live under his reign. 

The County Council in Welland, in session last week, passed an 
address to His Royal Highness, to be presented by me as Warden, 
accompanied by the Council, should he visit the Falls of Niagara. 

You go too far back for me in 1791, referring to Prince Edward, 
Duke of Kent, when he visited the Falls of Niagara. 

I, however, remember the Indian Ladder (so-called), having often. 
gone down on it, being only a long pine-tree, with the branches cut off, 
leaving only enough to place your foot on, to hold to, when ascending 
or "descending. 

Afterwards, a lady from Boston, visiting the Falls, gave the guide 
money to get a long ladder made to take the place of the Indian ladder, 
which lasted for many years. 

Look now at the convenience of getting to the Falls, or to the water's 
edge, not only a tolerable carriage road, but several spiral or winding 
stairs, with many other attractions for visitors. 

Many and many a time I went down the old ladder fly fishing, and 
fine sport it was. Had I the time I would go on and recount many an 
occurrence which took place in those primitive days, but I find my 
sheet is about filled, and must wind up by wishing you may still live 
to see many happy days. 

With kind regards to Mrs. Clark, 
Believe me, 

My clear Colonel, 
Yours most truly, 

James Cummings. 

I have previously given a statement of the loss of the Ontario, 
commanded by Commodore Andrews, and the date given as men- 
tioned by my father, 1780. 

Rev. Mr. Givins, of Yorkville, whose father married a daughter 
of the Commodore, thinks it was 1780 or 1781. 


Mr. Sheehau says in his note, 1783: There were no newspapers 
then, so they date from family tradition. I subjoin the note, as it 
fully corroborates the melancholy event: 

Dunnville, Apl. 30th, 1860. 
Col. Clark— 

Dear Sir, — 

My grandfather, the late Commodore James Andrews, of the Eoyal 
Navy, was born in the County of Tyrone, Ireland. 

He went to Portsmouth, in England, and entered the Royal Navy. 
He was appointed a first lieutenant in the Eoyal Navy. He was soon 
after sent out to Canada, at first Commissioner of the dockyard at 

A large vessel for him was built, called the Ontario. She carried 
22 guns. He was appointed Commodore of Lakes Erie and Ontario. 
On the 23rd day of November, 1783, he took on board Colonel Burton, 
and a portion of . the 8th Regiment, at Navy Hall ; also Lieut. 
Douglas and a company of the Royal Artillery. That night there 
arose a violent snowstorm, attended with a dreadful hurricane, and 
that ill-fated vessel was lost, never having been heard of since. A 
drum and gold-laced hat of the Commodore was washed ashore. 
I remain, 

Dr. Colonel, 

Yours very truly, 

W. B. Sheehan, 

I certify to the correctness of this narrative. 

Jno. Clarke. 

I have been thinking this morning of old times and the many odd 
occurrences that took place in my early days, so have noted them down 
for the benefit of the curious. 

Some account of our present worthy member, Thomas Street, Esq.'s, 
grandfather, and the melancholy end that he came to after receiving 
a large sum of money from the Commissariat for cattle brought over 
from the United States. 

Previous to the division of Upper and Lower Canada the father 
of the late Samuel Street, of Niagara Falls, came to Niagara with a 
drove of cattle from the old colonies, now the United States, for the 
use of the troops or settlers on the frontier. Having obtained their 


value in cash, and returning for another drove for the new settlement 
of Canada between Fort Niagara and what is, at this time, called 
Batavia, U.S.A., Mr. Street was murdered and robbed by another 
drover, who had accompanied him to Canada. 

Indian Canoes. 

Fleets of Indian birch-bark canoes appeared on our waters emerg- 
ing from the interior creeks emptying into the broad Ontario, propelled 
by the Indian paddle and blanket sail, making for Niagara River with 
game and fish for the settlers and troops. 

As also clouds of the wild pigeons passing from east to west in the 
warm spring months could be knocked down in abundance with clubs 
in the hands of the boys. And when powder and shot could be ex- 
pended, there were regular field days with our shooting irons in the 
hands of the shooting or sporting gentry. In those days we had also 
the amusement of horse racing, got up by the military gentlemen, and 
when arrived, a King or Queen's birthday night. The ladies' head- 
dresses used to exhibit the motto in silver or gold thread, " God Save 
the ' Queen or King,' " as the occasion might call for. 

Those days were in the reign of George the 3rd, and of the illus- 
trious Queen Charlotte, of glorious memory. 

Those were the days of firm loyalty. No George Brown or William 
Lyon Mackenzie from Scotland to sever us from our allegiance, to suit 
their own ends ; no division of parties hostile to Britain's rule. 

In those days the officers and governors had fishing and hunting 
excursions about Lake Ontario. 

There was Johnson's Landing on the east, and Coote's Paradise on 
the west; the first of which took its name from Sir William's first 
landing to capture Fort Niagara in 1759, and the second, Coote's 
Paradise, acquired its name from Capt. Coote, of the 8th Regiment, 
as his shooting rendezvous, which original name is retained to this 

In the marsh, near the now Desjardins Canal, between Hamilton 
and Dundas, fine fishing and shooting in those early days, also on the 
bay and marsh of Toronto. 

Another of our amusements in those bygone days was a match of 
bandy ball by the Indian tribes (resembling cricket), one against the 
other — that is, Mohawk vs. Tuscarora. At these games there was a 
deal of animation and dexterity displayed on both sides. 

Our garrison offered ample scope to contend with each other. 


The war dance was wonderfully enjoyed by the natives, at which 
assembled many spectators. Although the gestures hideous in appear- 
ance to a civilized community. 

All these amusements are now singularly exploded from our land. 

The Indian foot-races were a wonderful matter with the youthful 

On the removal of the seat of government from Niagara to Toronto 
(then York), the Governor caused to be built on the Don River, about 
three miles up on a fine eminence, a frame building, which was 
named Castle Frank, after his son. 

When I last visited that castle, in 1829, it was through a delightful 
road, and was in a most desirable spot for the humming mosquito ; and, 
no doubt, it is at this time within the boundary of the City of Toronto. 
I recollect a cherrying excursion that all the youngsters from my 
father's house went to in 1793 or 1794, at Fort Schlosser, about fourteen 
miles from Niagara, to an old French fortress, then in the hands of an 
Englishman, named Philip Steadman, on the American side, above the 
Falls. We went in a waggon, driven by our black man. 

On the journey we perceived an immense rattlesnake crossing the 
road. He looked as if to dispute our right of progress. We all made 
for the tail of the waggon, and cleared out, leaving Joe to battle with 
his snakeship the right-of-way. He crossed the road, and we pursued 
our journey with no further molestation. 

Our first clergyman was the Rev. Robt. Addison. He was sent 
out by the Society in England for the Propagating Christian Know- 
ledge in unknown parts. 

He arrived in Niagara 1791, with a sister and two daughters, 
who married officers in the army in Canada, and died in this country 
leaving descendants. My father being a Churchman, the Addison 
family frequently visited at our house. 

I recollect dining with Mr. Addison and family at my father's 
upon wild goose and rice pudding. 

The rice was procured from the King's store, the relish of the 
goose I have not yet forgotten. 

The Rev. Mr. Addison visited the Grand River Indians once a 
year, for the purpose of baptizing them and their children, and 
solemnizing matrimony by an interpreter. 

It was said of the Rev. Mr. Addison that he would make one of a 
whist table. But this I do not believe. He was a speculator in wild 


Our first courthouse and jail was built at Newark, .Niagara, in 
the year 1794 or 1795. 

Our first Chairman of the Session was the Hon. Robt. Hamilton; 
and our first Sheriff, Alexander McDonell, from Cornwall, succeeded 
by Clark and Merritt. 

Our barristers were appointed by statute. 

First Clerk of the Peace for Lincoln was Ralph Clench, who 
remained in this place until his death, 1820. 

Some of his children are still living in their native place, Niagara. 
His youngest son is presiding Mayor of Niagara. 

Our first courthouse in Lincoln served for several purposes — a 
church, etc. Then it might be said of Niagara: "That it was a town 
without a steeple, boxing magistrates and quiet people," for in reality 
one of our squires, Dr. Kerr, was a boxing magistrate. 

Besides the family of Sir William Johnson, who followed the Six 
Nation Indians into Upper Canada, there was a family of the Cognac 
Johnson (an Indian who espoused a white woman) came in at the 
same time with the Mohawks, and obtained possession of lands on the 
Grand River, were soon well married (there being a scarcity of ladies in 
those days), to 

Ralph Clench, Dr. Lafferty, Alex. Stewart, an attorney, and Mr. 
Ruggles, a farmer. 

Some of their descendants are still living. 

Colonel Brant, the renowned Indian chieftain,/ had a wicked and 
dissipated son, Isaac, who made an attempt on his father's life, and in 
defence the old man shot the son dead. It was considered so well- 
merited that no notice was taken of it by the authorities. 

Our society in early days was much enlivened by the military in 
garrison mixing with the civilians. 

And after the stations on the American U.S. side of the line came 
in, their sociality was extended to the American officers by British 
frequenting each other's mess-table and amusements in general, par- 
ticularly the ball on the King's or Queen's birth-night; that was as it 
ought to be. 

Once a member of the Provincial Legislature, I luckily liad the 
temerity to vote with those wise ones who obtained the first charter 
for the Welland Canal, which was unpopular at the outset: " Said to 
be bringing a heavy taxation on the country," by which at the ensuing 
election, I lost my seat in Parliament, but its effects were so predom- 
inant, before another election, by money being then in the country from 
the canal, that I was again installed in my seat; but for that of the 


Welland Canal at that day, few among us having one dollar to rub 
against another, a ready cash market was found for every article the 
farm could produce, and it gave to labor its real value. 

The farmer redoubled his exertions, and the artisan was not with- 
out work or money. 

I never did fail in my support of that work, as far as my own 
humble votes went, and I have no cause to look back with regret with 
the course I was instigated to pursue in my behalf of my native land. 

From 1791 to 1800 our schools were but few and far between; 
what few were in existence they were confined to the village or town 

My recollections of the schoolmaster are D'Anovan, of Kingston ; 
Myers and Cockerel, Englishmen; Blany and McMichael, Irish, and 
Arthur, a Scotchman. Those that were of the town of Newark are 

In the year, 1799, Mr. Strachan, the present Lord Bishop of 
Toronto, arrived at Kingston, from Scotland, as teacher for the Hon. 
Richard Cartwright's family, and he was allowed to take 10 boys be- 
sides. I had the good fortune to be one of these boys, and among 
them was the present Chief Justice Robinson, Chief Justice Macaulay, 
the Hon. Geo. Markland, late Inspector-General ; Archdeacon Bethune, 
Cobourg; Rev. W. Macaulay, Picton; Capt. England, Royal Engineer, 
Woolwich, England; James and Samuel Hamilton, sons of the late 
Robt. Hamilton; Mr. Justice McLean, and the writer, John Clark. 

Hon. Robt. Hamilton had previously sent some of his elder sons 
to Scotland for their education, and other parents who could afford it 
sent their children to schools in Lower Canada, where they acquired 
the French language and manners. 

Mr. Strachan soon after removed from Kingston to take a more 
extended school at Cornwall. The Kingston boys followed him, except- 
ing myself, which accounts for my present deficiency. 

Many of the scholars from Mr. Strachan's have filled some of the 
most prominent places in the Province, and some are still living. 

Mr. Strachan married a lady at Cornwall — Miss Woods — who is 
still alive, and had a numerous family. 

From this time forward the benefits of education began to dawn 
in Canada, and for which we are mainly indebted to the Lord Bishop 
of Toronto, for whom I shall ever entertain respect. 

When we meet the Bishop does not forget the days gone by. 

Our present enlarged system of education is owing, in a great 
measure, to the Lord Bishop and Dr. Ryerson. 


Education was beyond the reach of our early settlers, but their 
descendants are now making up for it with very great facilities to 
acquire knowledge. 

The magistrates were allowed to perform the marriage ceremony in 
early days. 

One of them, a wag, being about to marry a couple, assembled some 
of his young friends, for the fun of the thing; when after getting 
through the ceremony the groom was told to salute his bride, he said 
he did not like to do that in the presence of so many. " But you must," 
the squire says. " But I can't," the groom says. " Only kiss her this 
time, John, that will do." 

I think we wanted schoolmasters in those days. 
We were not entirely deficient of politeness in those days. 
There were two worthies amongst us equal, if not superior, to beau 
Nash in olden times. 

These were Capt. Cowan, of the Navy, and Staff-Surgeon Fleming, 

of the Army. They, in every particular, were the essence of politeness. 

The Chippawa Bridge in that day was nearer the mouth of the 

Chippawa River than the present bridge, consequently was of greater 


One fine morning these two gents, being at Chippawa, were cross- 
ing the bridge at opposite ends, and both being somewhat halt in their 
legs, when they stepped on the bridge, commenced to bow to each other, 
and did not stop bowing till they met each other in the centre, when 
they took a most cordial grip and passed on. So much for Capt Cowan 
and Doctor Fleming, of bygone days' politeness. 

Vessels being scarce for carrying on trade on Lake Ontario, they 
were more plentiful on Lake Erie. A schooner of about 75 or 100 
tons was brought to Chippawa in the fall of 1800, and during the 
winter of 1801 crossed the portage road on immense runners to Queen- 
ston, where she again found her native element in the Niagara River. 
This vessel was unfortunate in bringing up a cargo of merchandise 
to Niagara in the autumn of 1804. She was lost on the lake and all 
on board perished. 

In 1824 an old vessel, the Michigan, from Buffalo, came down the 
Niagara River in full sail, with the intention of passing the Falls, with 
an immense North-west bear on board for pilot; the vessel struck a 
rock above the Falls, and bruin, being lonely, leaped in the rapids, and 
struggled for the Canadian shore, which he at length attained, amid 
the shouts of the numerous spectators that lined the banks. 


Early Shipbuilding in Canada. 

I recollect a Capt. Murney building a schooner in the County of 
Prince Edward, of red cedar, in the year 1800 or 1801, which vessel 
was named the Prince Edward. 

I was on board the following year, and crossed from Kingston to 
Niagara. He was a noble captain of a staunch, good ship. 

I believe Captain Murney married a Miss Smith, of Kingston. 

The captain was father of the late Hon. Mr. Murney, of Belleville, 
showing the rise and progress of the families by industry and persever- 

In the year 1812, this schooner was in good condition, and was 
employed as a Government armed vessel on Lake Ontario. 


My father's wench, Sue, I have a perfect recollection of, and of 
her leaving us. After the declaration of the United States' independ- 
ence, drovers used to come in with droves of horses, cattle, sheep and 
negroes, for the use of the troops, forts and settlers in Canada, and 
my father, with others, purchased 4 negroes — 3 males and 1 female, 
Sue, who in the American War of 1812 gladly returned to our family, 
having become old and indigent. 

She died in our house at 15-Mile Creek in 1814, and was buried 
in the church-yard, near my brother George's residence. 

Under the first Constitutional Charter in Canada in 1791, slaves 
were not tolerated, and those who had payed their golden guineas with 
the impression of George the 3rd thereon, lost their slaves as well as 
their money, there being no law to retain them in slavery in the British 
Province of Upper Canada. 

Robert Gray, Esq., then Solicitor-General for Upper Canada, was 
a great friend of the African race, and was the primary cause of a bill 
being brought into Parliament and passed into law, to prevent any 
further importation. 

That lamented gentleman was one of those who, with Judge 
Cockrane, and 20 or 30 others, in the Speedy, Capt. Paxton, perished 
in a storm off Presqu' Isle in ISO 2. Not a soul was saved.* 

Sheriff of Niagara District. 

My father was appointed to the sheriffalty of the Niagara Dis- 
trict, under the Administration of Governor Hunter, in 1800. 

* See article on Speedy in Papers and Records, Vol. V. 


In 1803, he resigned in favor of Thomas Merritt, Esq., father of 
the Hon. William Hamilton Merritt. 

My father continued in the post of Barrack-master to the forces at 
Niagara, Queenston, Chippawa and Fort Erie, and until his decease in 

In those days barristers were appointed by statute, amongst whom 
was my brother James, who succeeded my brother Peter in the 
Clerkship of the Legislative Council. 

The business and litigation of the county has so wonderfully in- 
creased since those halcyon days, that lawyers are as thick as inkle- 
weavers, and some are now emigrating for want of employment. 

In Peter the Great's time the whole business of Russia was 
managed by two lawyers, which the great Monarch considered one 
too many, wishing his subjects to confine themselves tb^ industry and 
the progress of the Province. 

The Six Nation Indians. 

Among the sufferers by the American Revolution, we must never 
forget the Indians, who proved their loyalty to George by following 
the fortunes of the exiled U. E.'s into Canada, where a wise and 
beneficent government provided them with a large tract of land on 
the Grand River. 

The Mohawks, Delawares, Senecas, Onondagas, might not be 
properly called savages, as they had fixed habitations, cultivated fields, 
planted with beans, corn, etc. They conducted their wars, treaties 
and alliances, with deep and sound policy. They had wise, though 
unwritten laws. In council they were nervous, animated, sonorous, 
musical and expressive, who possessed generous and elevated senti- 
ments, heroism and unstained probity. 

May they never be neglected! 

Niagara Assemblies and Amusements in the Olden Time. 

Those were the days of enjoyment to my young mind, springing 
up into manhood. The officers of the garrison at Niagara gave a tone 
to society. 

The amusements in winter were, assemblies, billiards, dinner 
parties, sleighing parties — all were wrapped up in furs. 

In the more genial season, fishing, fowling, horse and foot races, 
bandy ball on the common — Indian dances, pic-nics, boating, etc., etc. 


On the King's Birthday night, at the assembly in the evening, the 
mammas would appear with a gorgeous head-dress, encircled with the 
words in gold leaf, " God Save the King." And when Lord Nelson's 
victory was celebrated, the motto in gold leaf was, " England expects 
every man to do his duty." 

This was highly prized by the young belles in search of husbands. 
Such was the loyalty of' those days in the County of Lincoln. 

The belles of that day were: 2 Miss Kerrs, 3 Miss Clenches, 2 
Miss Claus, 2 Miss Merritts, 1 Miss Prendergast, 3 Miss McNabbs, 

2 Miss Balls, 2 Miss Tenbrooks, 1 Miss Clement, 3 Miss Symingtons, 

3 Miss Secords, 1 Miss Wright, 3 Miss Crooks, 1 Miss Butler, 2 Miss 
Addisons, 1 Miss Fry, 1 Miss Cummings, 1 Miss Adams, 1 Miss Mur- 
ray, 1 Miss Ingersoll, 1 Miss Homer, 1 Miss Street, 1 Miss Holt, 
1 Miss Tompson. 

The above-mentioned young ladies, with their ma's and pa's, 
brothers, cousins, aided by the garrison, made a pretty large assemblage 
at their friendly balls. 


The recollection of early days are as vivid as ever in my memory, 
the scenes of which are always pleasing to me. 

The proud development of my native country at this day are far 
beyond my humble conception in earlier life, and the most prominent 
of her sciences, to my view, is that of her educational system, from 
which the early settlers and their descendants were doomed to forego 
for want of time, from their settlement avocations, and competent 
teachers amongst them. 

My father being in a Government situation at Carleton Island, in 
the River St Lawrence (then belonging to Great Britain), my senior 
brothers and sisters say Mary Eliza, Peter, James and William, were 
sent to the seminaries at Quebec and Montreal, and there acquired 
their education, both French and English. Sarah, George, and the 
writer had the benefit of the schools then existing in the town of 
Newark, now Niagara. My recollections best serve me from the year 
1791, when we derived from Great Britain our constitutional charter, 
under the administration of Sir John Graves Simcoe, the Lieut. -Gov- 
ernor of Upper Canada. The first school of any character that I 
received any instruction at was Kingston, under the supervision of 
Mr. Strachan (now the present Bishop of Toronto). He came from 
Scotland in the year 1799, by authority of the Hon. Richard Cart- 


wright, of Kingston, and the Hon. Robert Hamilton, of Queenston, 
as teacher for their sons. 

In addition, Mr. Strachan was allowed to take ten other boys, at 
£10 a year each, and I had the good fortune to be one among the num- 
ber. I was, however, compelled to leave school and return home before 
I had completed my education. 

It is to the present Lord Bishop of Toronto that Upper Canada 
owes a deep debt of gratitude for having engendered to her sons the 
first rudiments of solid education. And to him is materially owing 
our present system of education. Our first legislative endowment to 
schools was £100 yearly to each district, there being then eleven dis- 
tricts, which paid the head-master of the district school. 

In a later day I think the Duke of Portland's fund was made avail- 
able to schools in Upper Canada, through the influence of Sir John 
Colborne. At this moment I feel a proud sensation in contrasting the 
year of my remembrance, 1791, with the present day, having grown 
up with the destinies of my native land, Canada. Conceiving in value 
and improvements which seems beyond the power of human nature to 
exhibit in so short a period, may this country ever be entitled to the pro- 
tection of Great Britain, and we sustain the right of British subjects, 
without that vulgar appellation of " Grit " amongst us, is the fervent 

Governor Simcoe was the first pioneer Governor of Upper Canada, 
to whose memory Upper Canada is greatly indebted. 

I have a perfect remembrance of the first Agricultural Society 
patronized by Governor Simcoe, who subscribed his ten guineas a year 
cheerfully. My father was a member, and the monthly dinners given 
by the members during the season, with the great silver snuff-box, 
ornamented with the horn of plenty on its lid. I wonder what has 
become of that box ? It most deservedly ought to be kept among the 
early archives of Canada West. It always remained with the house- 
keeper who had to supply the next monthly dinner to the Agricultural 
Society. It was the property of the President pi'o tern, for the year, 
and at the annual meeting, when a new one was chosen, it passed into 
his hands. It was a piece of fine workmanship, and I trust it will yet 
turn up and be handed to the present Society, that it may remain as 
an heirloom to tell posterity at what an early period the progress of 
agriculture was followed up and brought to its present high state of 
perfection. What a comparison between these and our provincial shows 
at this period. 


My wife's father, George Adams, Esq., was a man beloved and 
respected by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance. He was a 
strict U. E. Loyalist and an ornament to the British Crown. 

On first coming into the country he settled at Queenston, and in 
1793 established a tannery, which I believe was the first in Upper 

The Gazette was published at Newark this year under the auspices 
of General Simcoe, and there we have an account of the first merchants 
and traders, in which Mr. Adams stands conspicuous. 

In process of time he amassed considerable property, so leaving 
this lucrative business to others, he purchased two hundred acres of 
land close by the present town of St. Catharines, which is retained in 
the family to this day. 

Having built a house as the homestead for his rising family, and 
planted a large orchard, they soon had everything desirable to make 
life comfortable, and passed a quiet, useful life free from the turmoil 
and disorder then prevalent in the States, which he had taken leave of 

Throughout the Niagara District the farms are proverbial for fine 
orchards and abundance of fruit. No farm should be without them, 
for, when settlers get old and unable to work much, there is always a 
comfortable livelihood from the sale of fruit, not only at home but at 
Montreal and Quebec. 

Here in his hospitable homestead did this fine old Canadian gentle- 
man entertain his friends, and was ever ready to lend a helping-hand 
to those who occasionally swam in troubled waters. His old friend 
and companion, the ex-Sheriff Merritt, glided down the stream of time 
together and quitted this stage of existence, however pleasant at times, 
in hopes of a brighter existence in eternity. 

They had a short way of clearing the land in consequence of the 
scarcity of laborers, and that was by fire, which at times required 
great attention. The ashes from the mighty trees of the forest were 
excellent fertilizers and in a measure accounts for the richness of the 
soil, which has continued to this day. 

Ploughing was at first difficult from the long fibrous roots that 
extended a considerable distance around the stumps, and many years 
elapsed ere these hindrances to cultivation were eradicated; but time 
performs wonders, and the present generation will reap the fruits of 
their ancestors' perseverance and industry. 

Erom small beginnings this location has gradually increased and 


become a large and handsome town, in consequence of the Welland 
Canal running through it, its great water power for machinery, a 
central depot for wheat and grain, its extensive mills and manufactures, 
its foundries and ship-building and, above all, its noble hotels for 
strangers who come from all parts for the benefit of its mineral waters 
and springs. 

And all accomplished in a life-time. Here the old people of an 
evening would talk over the wonderful changes that had taken place 
around them. All this was foreseen by our first able and judicious 
Governor Simcoe who, when he commenced his government at 
Newark, made the following speech, which will ever be admired for 
its perspicuity, liberality, good judgment and remarkable foresight: 

H. E. Lieut.-Governor Slmcoe's Speech at the Opening of the First 
Parliament of Upper Canada. Met at Niagara 17th Sept., 1792. 

Gentlemen, — I have summoned you together under the authority 
of an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, passed in the last year, 
and which has established the British Constitution and all the forms 
thereof, which secure and maintain it in this distant country. 

The wisdom and beneficence of our most gracious Sovereign and 
the British Parliament have been eminently proved, not only in impart- 
ing to us the same form of government, but also in securing the benefit 
by the many provisions that guard this memorable Act, so that the 
blessings of an invaluable Constitution, thus protected and amplified, 
we may hope will be extended to the remotest posterity. 

The great and momentous trusts and duties which have been com- 
mitted to the representative of this Province, have originated from the 
British nation upon a just consideration of the energy with which the 
settlers of this Province have so conspicuously maintained and 
defended the British Constitution. It is from the same patriotism 
now called upon to exercise with due deliberation and foresight the 
various offices of civil superintendency, that your fellow-subjects of 
the British Empire expect the foundations of that union of industry 
and wealth, of commerce and power, which may last through all 
succeeding ages. 

The national advantages of the Province of Upper Canada are 
inferior to none on this side of the Atlantic ! There can be no separate 
interests through its whole extent. 

The British Constitution has prepared the way for its speedy 
colonization, and I trust that your fostering care will improve the 


favorable situation and that a numerous and agricultural people will 
speedily take possession of a soil and climate which, under the British 
laws and the munificent offers with which His Majesty has granted 
lands of the Crown, promises such superior advantages to all who shall 
live under its Governors. 

■Copy certified true to the Original M.S. in the 
Library of Parliament. 

L. P. Sylvain, Asst. Librarian. 
21 Feb., 1903. 



By David Williams. 

The sources of the names of places are almost unlimited. Some 
arc named after their founder or after some place or circumstance 
germane to him or bis associates. Thus, England is the land of the 
Angles ; Nova Scotia is a new Scotland to home-seekers from across the 
ocean; St. Lawrence commemorates the day of the river's discovery; 
London, Thames, Stratford, Avon, were named in loving memory of 
the Home-land. Others are named after some physical feature, as 
Montreal, the royal mountain; or some incident in their history may 
have suggested a name that appealed to all and became at once and 
forever adopted, as Pennsylvania. In Canada many places are named 
after the original inhabitants, or have retained the name they gave it; 
as Huron, Penetanguishene. 

So, to compare smaller things with greater, we find that all these 
cases, as well as others of a more official character, have operated in 
giving names to the one hundred and seventy-three or four mail- 
distributing centres of the County of Simcoe, the largest county in the 
Province of Ontario. Many of them are named after the first settlers 
nf the immediate locality, as Fennells, Guthrie, and it is thus that the 
memory of those who were first to brave the hardships of life in the 
wilderness is perpetuated; some fi'om the towns or boroughs these 
settlers had left beyond the seas, as Hampshire Mills, Dalston ; others 
from local peculiarities or incidents, as Glen Huron, Anten Mills; while 



not a few were officially named after distinguished men or noted places, 
as Gowan, Angus; others again from Indian words, as Nottawa, 

The purpose of this paper is to trace the name of each individual 
place to its original source in such a way as to present as far as possible 
a view, disconnected though it may be, of the history of the early life 
of the county. This is no easy task. Though not more than sixty or 
seventy years have elapsed since the first settlers ventured into the 
unbroken forests of the county, yet that generation of bold and hardy 
pioneers who led the van in making this country what it is has passed 
away and their descendants have in many cases forgotten or neglected 
to cherish the recollection of the early backwood life of their ancestors, 
and not unfrequently the first families have become extinct, or their 
offspring have moved to parts unknown, so that the origin of the names 
is in some cases clouded in some uncertainty. 

One noticeable feature is, that where the original names remain, 
they are a pretty safe indication of the nationality of the pioneers. 
Where the names are of Scottish origin, it goes without saying that 
the locality was first settled by immigrants from Scotland. The same 
is true of the English, Irish and French names. 

It is impossible to return thanks to all who have assisted in this 
work, either by correspondence or the loan of volumes, but it would be 
most ungrateful not to mention Simcoe's Grand Old Man, Senator J. 
R. Gowan, Barrie; H. Robertson, K.C., and F. T. Hodgson, Colling- 
wood ; George Hale, Orillia ; Rev. Canon Craig of Petrolia, a former 
resident of the county ; A. C. Osborne, of Penetang, and H. F. Gardiner, 
Principal of the Institute for the Blind, Brantford, and author of 
" Nothing but Names." 

ACIIILL. — This name was given by the Irish settlers in the 
vicinity who came from Achill, or Eagle Island, in Connaught, on 
the west coast of Ireland. The island is small, containing about 2,300 
acres, and rises to a height of 1,530 feet above the sea. 

ALLANDALE. — Upon the completion of the Huron, Ontario and 
Simcoe Railway — later the Northern Railway, now the Northern 
Division of the Grand Trunk Railway — to this point in 1854, it was 
named Barrie Station, a name it retained until the spur was built to 
the county town. In 1858 the post office was established. The present 
name was given in honor of Hon. G. W. Allan, who owned land in 
the vicinity and who was an intimate friend of those engaged in the 


promotion and, construction of the railway. Mr. Allan was a lawyer. 
He was born in Toronto in 1822, and was Mayor of his native city 
in 1865. In 1858 he was elected a member of the Legislature for the 
York Division, and in 1867, at Confederation, was called to the Senate, 
where he was Speaker from 1888 to 1891. He gave the Allan Gardens 
to Toronto. 

ALLENWOOD. — The name of this post office, which is one of 
the pioneer offices of the northern section of the County of Simcoe, was 
arrived at by combining the surnames of the first and second settlers 
in the vicinity, William Wood and Thomas Allen. The object was 
obviously to honor the two pioneers. 

ALLISTON. — An early settler and mill owner, William Fletcher, 
named this place after his native town in Yorkshire, England. The 
post office is one of the oldest in the south-west part of the county, having 
been established in 1857. The local poet, Colgan, in an epic thus ex- 
presses his admiration of the town: , 

Kail ! Alliston, centre of commerce and trade, 
Young men of Tecumseh, here fortunes are made. 

ANGUS. — This is one of the early post offices of the northern 
section of the county and owes its existence to the extension of the 
Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railway (named after the three lakes on 
which were its chief objective points) into what was then the wilds 
of the North. It was established in 1856, the name being given in 
honor of the late Angus Morrison, who was member of the Parliament 
of Upper and Lower Canada from 1854 to 1863. Mr. Morrison was 
born in Edinburgh in 1822, and came to Canada in 1834, settling in 
Toronto. In 1846 he was called to the bar and was first elected to 
Parliament in 1854 as a Liberal, defeating the Conservative candidate, 
James Sanson, of Orillia, by 44 votes. In 1857 he Avas again elected 
as a Liberal, this time by acclamation, but before the next geueral 
election, which occurred in 1861, he had gone over to the Conservative 
ranks, largely owing, it. is said, to the persuasive influence of the late 
Sir John A. Macdonald. His change of politics, however, did not 
keep him out of Parliament, as he was again elected, this time defeating 
two opponents, the late Thomas D. McConkey, afterwards a member 
of the Legislature and yet later Sheriff of the County, and Mr. D'Arcy 
Boulton, a barrister of Toronto. In 1863 he was defeated, Mr. 
McConkey being elected. At the general election following Confederal 


tion, Mr. Morrison again sought re-election. Those were the days of 
dual representation and Mr. Morrison was one of those who endeavored 
to capture two seats, North Simcoe for the newly-formed Legislative 
Assembly, and Niagara for the newly-formed House of Commons. In 
North Simcoe he went down before William Lount, afterwards member 
of the House of Commons for one of the Toronto Divisions, and later 
Judge, but in Niagara he Avas successful. After the change in his 
political views, Mr. Morrison was a faithful follower of Sir John A. 
Macdonald, though he styled himself a " Baldwin Reformer." He 
was President of the Dominion Express Co., a director of the Northern 
Railway, and Mayor of Toronto in 1876-7-8. He died in Toronto. 

ANTEN MILLS. — The origin of this name is unique. Anderson 
and Tennant were mill owners at Hendrie, as the village was called 
before an office was established. To arrive at a name for the post 
office, and to do honor to both members of the firm, the first syllable 
of each man's name was taken, thus, " an " and " ten " — Anten. This 
may not be the only Avord of its kind in Canadian geography, but it 
is one of a very few. The village was originally named after Mr. 
Hendrie, a contractor who built a section of the railway which passes 
through the place. 

APTO. — It was in 1857 that this office was established, but the 
village came into existence the year before, being founded by a pensioned 
soldier named Dennis Gallagher, who had served with Wellington 
during the Peninsular War. He named it after a town in Spain. For 
some time after its opening the post office was kept by Charles Stewart, 
about a mile from the village, but in 1859 it was moved to the then 
centre of civilization and Mr. Gallagher became postmaster. The 
name is probably from the Latin meaning, " I fit." 

ARDTREA. — W. W. Blair, an early postmaster, named this office 
after his native town in Tyrone, Ireland. The derivation of the name 
is " ard," high or height, and " trea," after St. Trea, a virgin saint 
who is said to have flourished in the fifth century, — " Trea's height" 
In Irish the " d " is omitted. Some credit the name as an honor to 
the late Sheriff Thomas D. McConkey, who also came from Ardtrea, in 
Tyrone, but the first origin given has a greater semblance of being the 
correct one, the authority for it being the present postmaster. The 
office was established in 1864. 


ARLINGTON. — Since its establishment in 1853 this has becix 
a sort of a perambulatory office, being first on one corner and then ore 
another. It was named by a Mr. Kidd, who kept store at the place 
for some years. After he retired from business the office was moved 
to a neighboring corner locally known as Sisterville, the old name, 
however, being retained. Lately it has taken another move and is» 
now situated a short distance from Sisterville. The office was named 
after Lord Arlington, a leading Minister of the Crown, and a member 
of the " Cabal " during the reign of Charles II., 1660-1685. 

ATHLONE.— Named by Irish settlers from Athlone, West Meath, 
Ireland, and established in 1853. The name is derived from the Irish 
ford across the River Shannon, " ath," a ford, and " Luan," a man'? 
name — " Luan's ford." The original town is at present chiefly noted 
for its horse fair, but its past history is worthy of notice, as it and 
its castle, the latter founded in the reign of King John, figured in the 
war between William III., King of England, and his father-in-law, 
the deposed James II. After the battle of the Boyne, William returned 
to England, leaving his military affairs in Ireland in charge of a Dutch 
general named Genkill. In June, 1691, General Genkill besieged 
Athlone, which was thought to be impregnable, yet he carried it 
in face of James' General St- Ruth, who felt so confident of his position 
of safety that he said, " His (Genkill's) master should have hanged 
him for attempting to take Athlone and my master can do the same if 
I lose it" After his services at Athlone, General Genkill won the 
battle of Aughrim and was rewarded with the title of Earl of Athlone 
and Aughrim. 

AVENING. — This office was named about 1860 after a town in 
Gloucestershire, England, the native place of E. C. Thornbury, an 
early settler Avho built a sawmill and flour mill here. The post office, 
however, Avas not established until February 1st, 1864, a son of the 
founder of the village being largely instrumental in securing it, 

BALLYCROY. — This is plainly of Irish origin, the name being 
given to the post office when established, in 1859, by natives of a village 
of the same name in the county of Mayo, Ireland. In the Irish 
language the word signifies "The town of the Cross." "Bally," a 
corruption of the Celtic word " baile," a town, and " croy," or " crois," 
pronounced " krus," a cross. The original town may have had some 
specific reason to be designated " the town of the cross," but that does- 


not appear to have been the case so far as the office under consideration 
is concerned. It was simply love for the old home. 

BAND A. — The story of the selection of this name as given by an 
old settler is, that John Clemenger, the first postmaster, in seeking 
for a name, visited the schoolhouse of the section to inspect the maps 
therein. In looking them over he came across the Band's Islands, a 
small group of the East Indies, in the Pacific Ocean, and remarked, 
" there is the name, Banda it shall be." There is also a sea of the same 
name near the Islands. The office was established in the early sixties and 
since has been, to a certain extent, a wanderer. It was now in Mulmur, 
now in Nottawasaga, again in the former township, but to-day it is 
credited in the official guide as being again in Nottawasaga, hence in 
this county. 

BARCLAY. — Named after George Barclay, the present post- 
master. (See Innisfil). 

BARBIE. — A Muskoka rhymester, who evidently knew of the 
troubles of the early travellers through the northern part, of the Pro- 
vince, forewarned them of a place to rest thus: 

" To the west of Lake Simcoe, a good place to tarry, 
On Kempenfelt Bay, is the nice town of Barrie." 

3But Barrie was not there until about 1830-31, and the post office 
did not come into existence until October 6th, 1835. The first settle- 
ment was a short distance east of the county town along the shore of 
the bay, known as early as 1797 as Kempenfelt, a name for which 
Governor Simcoe is responsible, he having given it in honor of Admiral 
Kempenfelt, who perished on board the English gunboat, Royal George, 
when it sank at Portsmouth Harbor, in the south of England. Upon 
visiting the settlement in 1797, Governor Simcoe determined to discard 
the military route between Lake Simcoe and the Georgian Bay via the 
Coldwater trail and have a new road cut from Kempenfelt, as the settle- 
ment was called, across to Penetanguishene. Upon the Governor 
announcing his decision the place was given some semblance of import- 
ance, and shortly a number of settlers came in, among others one Mann, 
a tavernkeeper, whose name soon overshadowed that of the Admiral, 
and after whom the village became known as Mann's Point. The 
Government about this time threw all its influence into making the 
/.outhern terminus of the new route between the lakes the popular point 


of settlement and trans-shipment, and went so far in its efforts in this 
direction as to issue in 1813 a fiat, "this is a town." The place, how- 
ever, did not grow very rapidly until after the war of 1812-14, when 
many half-pay English officers were located by the Government in the 
vicinity. Among others who came was a Captain Oliver, K.JST., who 
purchased a portion of the Government reserve at the western side of 
the supposed town. Later, seeing the dissatisfaction in regard to the 
situation at Kempenfelt, Captain Oliver resold his land to the Govern- 
ment and purchased a greater part of the reserve at the head of the bay 
and had it surveyed into town lots. For the new town, which was 
then simply imaginary, Captain Oliver looked about for a name and 
adopted Barry. This was after a Captain Barry, who was in com- 
mand of the 15th Kegiinent of York, while engaged in transporting 
stores to Penetanguishene, and is not, as generally supposed, after 
Captain Robert Barrie, who was prominent in the War of 1812-14, and 
who had command of the British squadron at Kingston at that time. 
Some good Scot evidently took a hand in the matter later, thus the 
ending " ie " now in use. 

BATTEAU. — The time of the first application of this name to 
the post office, or rather to the village, will probably never be definitely 
known. In its plural form, " Batteaux," it was in use upon the arrival 
of the oldest inhabitant of the present day. Officially the post office 
should be spelled in the singular, the change having been effected by 
the family of William Bourchier, one of the earliest settlers, and at 
one time owner of a large part of the surrounding land. What appears 
to be the most reasonable history of the origin of the name, beyond 
the fact that it is the French word meaning " boat," is that in early 
days, when the creek which flows through the village was of greater 
volume than at present, its outlet at Nottawasaga Bay was a good 
anchorage for the batteaux of the Indians, but more particularly for 
those of the soldiers who passed to and fro between Fort Nottawasaga 
and Michillimackinac before and during the War of 1812. It might 
be noticed that the outlet of the creek is about half way between 
the Fort and the Hen-and-Chickens Islands, another point where pro- 
tection could be procured against the storms of the bay, hence it was 
in all probability used as a place of safety. 

BAXTER. — The location of this post office was first known by the 
settlers as Cob Coy, from the following circumstances: Before the day 
of barns the settlers erected a kind of building on posts with a roof, but 


no siding, which was called a cab-rec-ho, no doubt, a corruption of the 
French cabaret haut, " a high cabin." Two visitors came to the settle- 
ment, one of whom remarked to the other that he had not previously 
been in a place where there were so many " cob coys," misunderstanding 
the right name. The newly-coined expression was thought to be a 
joke, and was repeated so often that it became the name of the settle- 
ment. When the time came for selecting a name to be officially recog- 
nized, the majority of the people in the vicinity objected to Cob Coy 
and agreed upon Essa Centre, on account of the office being located 
near the centre of the Township of Essa. This name " Essa " is 
generally credited to have been that of a favorite squaw of Tecumseh, 
and means " shame on you." Gardiner says that since writing " Xoth- 
ing but Names " he has obtained evidence that, convinces him that 
it was the name of a city in Syria, not now on the map, but mentioned 
by Josephus in " Antiquities of the Jews," Book xiii., Chap. 15, Para- 
graph 3. Owing to the frequency with which the office was confused 
with Essex Centre, a new name was sought, and Baxter was selected 
by the postmaster, Jeremiah Baxter Coulson, after his mother's 
maiden name. 

BEETOJS". — As this office came into existence upon the comple- 
tion of the Hamilton and jMorth-Western Railway, in 1878, to what 
was then known as Clarksville, its name is comparatively modern. For 
many years the post office was three miles from its present location 
and was called Tecumseth, taken from the township of that name, the 
origin of which is generally supposed to be from Tecumseth or Tecum- 
tha, the Shawnee chief, who was born in Ohio in 176D, and who allied 
himself with the British and was killed at the Battle of Moraviantown 
in 1814. In the Indian language the word signifies " a tiger crouch- 
ing for its prey " ; others say it means " crossing over." Gardiner, in 
" Nothing but Names," says, " Two vessels built at Chippewa, and 
called the Nawash and Tecumseth, were brought to Penetanguishene in 
1819 and sunk in the harbor there. Occurring just when it did, this 
incident may have had something to do with the selection of the town- 
ship name, for there is no probability that Chief Tecumseth ever visited 
Simcoe County." Although the post office was moved in 1860 to the 
village of Clarksville, called after Robert Clark, an early settler, the 
old name of Tecumseth was retained, and it was not until 1878 when, 
through Mr. D. A. Jones, who conducted a large apiary there, that 
a change was effected and the present name adopted. The reason of 
the name is obvious. 


BELL EWART. — There are many theories as to the origin of this 
name, but investigation has made it clear that it was given by one 
James Bell Ewart, a bank agent who lived in Dundas, but who owned 
considerable land in this vicinity. The name is commonly spelled 
" Belle," note the last " e," but sometimes it receives another twist, 
making it one word, " Bellewart." Both of these are incorrect, as 
has been proven by a deed held by Mr. H. Bobertson, K.C., Colling- 
wood, by which " James Bell Ewart," of the village of " Bell Ewart," 
transfers two lots in the village of " Bell Ewart " to one Isabella John- 
son. Here it might not be out of place to state that one of the theories 
regarding the name is that Mr. Ewart named the place in honor of Mrs. 
Johnson and himself, but this is disposed of by the foregoing and also 
by the fact that Mrs. Johnson's name is perpetuated by one of the 
streets of the village. The post office came into existence about 1853 
with the extension of the railway to Lake Simcoe at that point. For 
some years it was an important trans-shipping point and bore in rail- 
way circles the euphonious title of " The Port of Bell Ewart." 
Steamers plied between this point and Barrie, Shingle Bay, Orillia 
and other small places around Lake Simcoe, and did an extensive 
business while the settlers were going in to take up the country north 
of the lake. Large sawmills were operated at the village ; there were 
several goodly-sized stores, besides other places of business, and it had 
every prospect of becoming " a port," but the extension of the railway 
to Allandale, and later to Barrie and Collingwood, cut short its life 
and in a few years its greatness had fallen away until it became an 
almost deserted village. Of late years it has taken on a more lively 
appearance, especially in the summer months, when it is visited by 
tourists who spend the heated term on the shores of Lake Simcoe. 

BOND HEAD. — One of the early governors of Canada, Sir 
Francis Bond Head, is recalled by the name of this office It was 
established in 1837 and named by Joel Flesher Robinson in honor of 
the Governor. Mr. Robinson was the first postmaster and for some 
years clerk of the Division Court, being superseded by Thomas D. 
McConkey, who was appointed by His Honor Judge Gowan. He was, 
to quote his son, " a Tory of the Tories," which accounts in a measure 
for the admiration which led him to perpetuate the name of Sir Francis 
Bond Head, whose friendship for the Family Compact is so well known 
to readers of Canadian history. Sir Francis was appointed by the 
Imperial Government in 1836 to succeed Sir John Colborne. Upon 
his arrival the country was on the verge of rebellion, and his action, 


instead of assisting to quiet the people, had a directly opposite effect. 
He opened the two years in which he occupied the gubernatorial chair 
by appointing three prominent Reformers to the Executive, but at 
the same time telling them that they were in no way responsible to the 
people, but to him only, and that he would not accept their advice 
except when he should chance to feel that he needed it. The appointees 
resigned and the Governor at once fell in with the Family Compact, 
contrary to the desires and instructions of the Colonial Office, which 
was bent on limiting the tyranny of the Compact and securing for 
the people some rights. A new Council was formed exclusively Tory 
and the Assembly passed a vote of censure on the Governor and for 
the first time in the history of Upper Canada refused to vote supplies. 
An election followed the dissolution of the House, Sir Francis taking 
the stump and haranguing as a violent partisan. The supporters 
of the Compact were returned with a majority and soon the country 
was in open rebellion. In Roberts' History of Canada, Sir Francis 
is styled " self-confident and blundering," and in the Life of Sir John 
A. Macdonald by Mr. Mercer Adam he is described as a " political 
adventurer," " an autocrat," and a " blockhead." The latter says 
the qualifications which appear to have commended him to Downing 
Street as fit to rule a colony were, " he had written several pamphlets, 
extraordinary for their style, and instinct with fine frenzy," and 
" twice had he dashed across the South American pampas, from Buenos 
Ayres to the Andes, on the back of a mustang." Sanderson, in his 
" British Empire in the Nineteenth Century," says, " Sir Francis was 
admired for his reliance on the spirit of loyalty in the Province." 
Having persisted in supporting the Compact in its suppression of the 
liberties of the people until arms were resorted to and blood shed, 
Sir Francis Bond Head laid down the mantle which had evidently 
never fitted him and returned to England, taking his departure without 
the beating o'f drums or the splendor of an Alexander with which he 
had been received only two years before. He was succeeded by Sir 
George Arthur, who also fell in with the Family Compact and who 
hanged Lount and Matthews, to the horror of not only all opposed to 
those in power but of many Tories. 

BRADFORD. — This recalls one of the large manufacturing towns 
of Yorkshire, England, and it was from it the name was taken, by Joel 
Flesher Robinson, one of the earliest settlers and a storekeeper who came 
from the English city or its vicinity. The name was given early in the 
thirties, hence it. is found on some of the early maps, yet it was not 


until 1853 that it became officially recognized by the Post Office De- 
partment. There is in Wiltshire, England, another city named Brad- 
ford, of considerable importance as a manufacturing centre, which 
some have thought to be the original of the Simcoe town, but in doing 
so they are mistaken. 

BRENTWOOD. — In the early days the location of the post office of 
to-day was known to the settlers as Wiggins' Crossing, a farmer named 
Wiggins owning a farm at the intersection of the concession line and 
the railway. More settlers coming in, a well-directed effort was made 
to have a post office, and " Wilmott " was selected as the name by the 
railway company, presumably after a local lumberman. This name 
was in use but a short time, when the Post Office Department dis- 
covered another place of the same name already in Canada, and raised 
objection to its use in this instance. Feeling that Mr. E. W. Cumber- 
land, managing director of the Northern Railway, had been a bene- 
factor to the settlers of the district, he was asked to allow the Govern- 
ment to give his name to the office. He very politely declined the 
proffered honor and to bring matters to a satisfactory conclusion sug- 
gested Brentwood, either taking the name from a suburb of London, 
England, or adopting it from that of a bondholder or an English 
director of the Company. Wilmott appears on some early maps. The 
office was commissioned in the early sixties. 

BTTRNSIDE. — This office came into existence on August 1st, 1905. 
The name indicates " beside a small river," " burn " being Scotch for 
" small river or creek." Its name was taken from that of a farmer, 
John Burnside, who lives in the vicinity. 

CARLYON. — North River, from the little river nearby, was pro- 
posed as the name for this office upon its establishment in April, 1895. 
Owing to there already being two offices bearing that name in the 
Dominion it was not available, and the Secretary of the Post Office 
Department, of which Sir Adolphe Caron was the head, gave the 
present name. It is doubtless a modification of " Caerleon," a place 
of much historic interest in Monmouthshire, Wales. The name 
" Caerleon " is believed to be a corruption of " Castrum Legionis," 
meaning " Camp of the (Roman) Legion." 

CASHTOWN. — This is a modern name, and is said to have orig- 
inated from the opening announcement of one Elias Leonard, a tavern- 
keeper of the place, that he would dispense liquors for cash only. 


CHRISTIAN ISLAND.— There are several theories as to the 
origin of this name. By some it is credited to the early missionaries, 
who, with a desire to honor the King of France, applied part of his title, 
" Most Christian," to what they believed was the doorway to a newly- 
found country, which they would devote to Roman Catholicism. Others 
regard it as quite a modern appellation, this view being held to be sub- 
stantiated in a degree by the fact that the name does not appear on any 
of the early maps, namely, Sanson's, published in 1056; Galinee's, pub- 
lished in 1670, from information gathered twenty or twenty-five years 
before; the Ducreux map, drawn in 1040 and printed in Paris in 1660; 
La Hontan's, issued in 1687, or that of Upper Canada, made in 1793 
for Governor Simcoe. This view is further supported by Parkman, 
who in 1867, when writing his history, " The Jesuits in North 
America," speaking of the island, says: " It is one of these now known 
as Faith, Hope and Charity, or Christian." Rev. Father Jones, S.J., 
of Loyola College, Montreal, who has made a close study of the history 
of the Indians of this Province, connects the name of the island with 
the escape in 1649 of the panic-stricken Hurons from the warlike 
Iroquois after the massacres of Ste. Marie, St. Ignace, St. Louis and 
other villages, and believes it was adapted from the " Jesuit Relations." 
In support of his way of thinking he says: " The twelve Huron chiefs 
who pleaded so eloquently with the missionaries not to abandon, but 
to follow them to St. Joseph's Island, as it was commonly called by the 
Fathers, after the patron saint chosen for the country by Father Le 
Caron, assured them (here he quotes from the "Jesuit Relations") 
" That all the unbelievers among them who had survived had resolved to 
embrace the Faith, and that they, the Fathers, would make of this island 
an island of Christians." The names Faith, Hope and Charity are un- 
doubtedly modern, as they appear only on late maps, and are unques- 
tionably the workings of some intuitive mind who wished to show an 
acquaintance with the names, at least, of the three Christian virtues. 
The Hurons knew the island as " Gahoendoe," as it is found on the 
Ducreux map ; " Ohouendoe," as La Hontan makes it, or " Ahoendoe," 
as given in the " Jesuit Relations." This word, which is Huron, i& 
pronounced ya-when-doe, and by some is translated to mean, " to move 
from one place to another because of its advantage," and by others " an 
island." The post office has been in existence only a few years, mail 
for the inhabitants being previously sent to Penetanguishene and Lafon- 
taine in the winter, and to Collingwood during the season of navigation. 

CHURCHILL.— Although this post office, established about 1860, 
has had but the present name, the village wherein it is situated has 


been known by two others. In 1833 John Gimby, an English immi- 
grant, settled at the corner, and thus began the village which was known 
for some years as Gimby's Corners. In 1842 Churchill was selected, 
it is said, from the fact that religious services were held at the home of 
one Sloan, who lived upon a hill nearby. Instead of being a place where 
quiet and peace reigned, the village was for a time the point of congre- 
gation of so great a number of rough characters as to earn the sobriquet 
of " Bully's Acre." The more refined name, however, has outlived the 

CLOVER HILL. — So named from a beautiful field of clover on 
a hill a short distance from what was then, in 1850, the village. The 
field was then part of the farm of Mr. John Duff, and at the present 
is the home of Mr. James Stoddart Duff, M.P.P. for West Simcoe. 

COLD WATER. — In January, 1830, tihe Government established 
this office for the convenience of the military department. The name 
was first intended to be Colewater, in honor of John Colborne, Gov- 
ernor-General, 1829-1836, but the present name, taken from the river 
which flows through the village, known by the Indians as " Gis-si-nan- 
se-bing," meaning " cold river " or " cold water," soon overshadowed 
the former in the minds of the settlers and it was never revived. The 
village was on the trail between Lake Simcoe and Gloucester Bay and 
was therefore in early days quite a busy place. To facilitate their 
military operations, and also as a convenience to the settlers, the Gov- 
ernment built a grist-mill at this point in 1828, the first in that section 
of the province and probably the first north of Lake Simcoe. Upon 
the opening of the Penetanguishene Road and the one across the Nine 
Mile Portage from Barrie to the Old Fort at the head of Willow 
Creek, the business soon fell away from Coldwater and it became a 
mere rural hamlet. Within the past decade, however, it has seen a 
change for the better. The first postmaster was a Captain James 
Hamilton, of His Majesty's (George IV.) 5th Regiment of Eoot, known 
as the Fighting Fifth. 

COLGAN. — The name of a local poet, John Colgan. a native of 
the place or corners, is perpetuated by this office. Colgan, who wrote 
under the nom de plume of Fagan, had some reputation as a writer 
among the people of the southern parts of the county. No subject 
was too difficult for him and as a result skits appeared on various local 
happenings. Before his death he collected his verses and issued them 


in a volume. The word " colgan " is of Irish origin and is thought to 
be a corruption of Clogan (a little gap), a town in King's County, 

COLWELL. — Previous to the building of the railway from this 
point to Penetang, this place was known as Harrison's Crossing, after 
the owner of the sawmill. The name was later changed to that now in 
use, after William W. Colwell, who succeeded Mr. Harrison as owner 
of the mill and who also owned land at the place. Mr. Colwell was 
well known throughout the northern part of the county, as he had real 
estate in Collingwood, Nottawasaga and other municipalities. He 
lived in Toronto, where he died a few years ago. 


But Nelson, Howe and Collingwood, they held dominion on the seas, 
The sons of the Shamrock, the Thistle and the Rose. — Old Song. 

This office is believed to have been originally named after Lord 
Collingwood, Lord Nelson's chief officer at the Battle of Trafalgar, 
October 21st, 1805. This is true in a sense, but in reality the name 
was taken from the neighboring township, in the County of Grey. 
This township, which was first named Alta, Alba or Atlas, as it appeared 
on a map printed in 1836, was afterwards re-named Collingwood 
upon the setting apart of several hundred acres for soldiers of the 
Peninsular War. According to tradition the Indians who inhabited 
the section of country in and about the present town of Collingwood 
before and for many years after the arrival of the white man in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, knew the shore of Iroquois Bay 
(See map of Upper Canada, made for Governor Simcoe, 1793), now 
ISTottawasaga Bay, as " Qua-sing-wissin," the place of eating. This 
is said to be accounted for owing to the quantities of fish, no doubt 
bass, which were known by the Indians to flourish along the shore 
inside of the islands. Another story regarding the Indians' knowledge 
of the shore, which appears more authentic, and which has been verified 
by two of the most intelligent Indians of the Rama Band of Ojibwas, 
is that the Indians knew the shore as " Qua-sah-qna-ning," in English, 
" ice-driven shore and piled upon the shore in a heap." In the Ojibwa 
language the meaning is even more extensive, " qua-sah," " getting in 
with great difficulty through the water to the land, just getting to the 
shore," " qua-ning," " getting into the land over a heap from the water," 
doubtless alluding to the pulling of the canoe up out of the water over 
heaps of ice. 


Over 150 years elapsed after the Huron tribes were driven out of 
this section by the implacable Iroquois before settlers arrived to hew 
homes out of the forest which covered the site of the present town of 
Collingwood and the surrounding country. At first they came very 
slowly, and it was not until the opening years of the last century that 
there was any great movement to the northern part of the present county 
of Simcoe. About the early thirties the township was surveyed and 
the site of Collingwood was named Hen-and-Chickens, on account of 
the number of small islands off the shore. The largest of the group was 
named White Spruce, which appears on maps as late as 1851. This 
name was little used and soon lost sight of. In 1904 this island was 
re-christened Birnie Island, after John Eirnie, K.C., who secured a 
patent for it from the Department of Crown Lands, at Toronto. 
Between 1848 and 1852 a little settlement had formed on the shore, 
at a most exposed point, to the east of the business centre of the town 
of to-day, and took upon itself the name of Hurontario, from the main 
or Hurontario Street (Huron, name applied to Indians by the French 
owing to their unkempt hair and o-no-ta-ri-io, Indian meaning " hand- 
some lake "), which extends from the Georgian Bay, in a sense part of 
Lake Huron, to Lake Ontario. During the next two years the pro- 
position to build a railway from Toronto to Collingwood assumed 
definite form, and Mr. F. W. Cumberland, Sheriff B. W. Smith, and 
others interested in the construction of the Northern Railway, came 
north to locate a terminus for the new line. Upon reaching here in 
January, 1852, by way of the Scotch Corners, now Duntroon, they 
were met by the residents of the village of Hurontario, among others 
Mr. D. E. Buist, and made an inspection of the Hen-and-Chickens 
Harbor. Upon returning from the trip of inspection they drove across 
the ice on Sheephead Bay, so known in early days on account of the 
great quantities of sheephead variety of fish caught there, now com- 
monly called " tlhe Bend." While stopping at a rock which peered 
above the deep snow, the discussion turned to the name of the new 
town, for it was to be a town within a few weeks owing to its being 
selected as a terminus of the contemplated railway. Mr. Cumberland 
suggested Victoria in honor of our late lamented Queen, others advo- 
cated retaining the name Hen-and-Chickens, which met with little 
favor, while Mr. Buist offered the name Collingwood Harbor, which, 
in view of the township of that name being so close by, was thought 
to be fitting and was thereupon selected, Mr. Cumberland withdrawing 
his suggestion. The word " Harbor " was used more or less until the 
incorporation of the town on January 1st, 1858, when it was dropped. 
Turning briefly to Lord Collingwood, we find that he was born in 1750 


and died in 1810. He went to sea at the early age of eleven years, 
served during the revolution of the American colonies, and was at the 
naval battles of Cape St. Vincent and Trafalgar. At the latter he 
assumed command upon the death of Nelson and finished the victory 
over the French fleet. For his services on that occasion he was re- 
warded with a peerage and a pension of two thousand pounds. 

The post office was established in 1853, but even before that there 
was an irregular office kept in a store at the village of Hurontario, the 
mail being brought in by way of the Scotch Corners. 

COOKSTOWK— Perry's Corners, after John Perry, a settler 
who came in 1826, was the first name applied to this place. A few 
years later a tavern was opened by one Dixon, and the early name was 
discarded for that of the dispenser of leverages. This continued until 
1847, when the present name was given by Hon. W. B. Robinson, 
M.P., in honor of a settler, Thomas Cooke, who was born in the County 
of Cavan, Ireland, and who moved to Perry's Corners in 1831. On 
Henry Creswicke's map of 1856 the name appears as two distinct 
words, thus, Cooks Town. 

COXNOR. — Irish settlers from Connor, in Antrim, Ireland, named 
this office. In Irish this name is written Condeire, or Condaire, mean- 
ing "the oak wood in which dogs and she wolves used to dwell." The 
office was established February 1st, 1865. 

COULSOiSr. — The name of this office is adapted from that of 
James Coulson, who owned and operated mills in the village for some 

CRAIGHURST. — This was originally known as Morrison's Cor- 
ners, after a tavern-keeper, John Morrison, who conducted a hotel 
known as " Ordnance Arms " on the Penetanguishene Road. Upon 
rising to the dignity of a post office, about 1834, the name was changed 
to that of one of the nearby townships, namely Flos, a name which is 
said to have been adapted from that of one of three lap-dogs belonging 
to Lady Sarah Maitland, wife of Peregrine Maitland, Governor-General 
of Canada, 1818-1828. This office was some distance from the present 
village, being about a quarter of a mile from Hillsdale of to-day. Some 
years later another change was made, when the name now in use came 
into existence. This was given by Hon. James Patton, who, owned a 
hundred acres of land, south half of Lot 40, on the south-east side of 


the settlement, a part of which he laid out in village lots. The name 
of Mr. Patton's planned village was given in honor of Squire John 
Craig, the first postmaster. Hon. James Patton was born in Prescott, 
in 1824, and practised law in Barrie for some years. In 1852 he 
founded the Barrie Herald, and in 1855 the Upper Canada Law 
Journal. When the Legislative Council, now the Senate, was made an 
elective body in 1856, and Upper and Lower Canada mapped out into 
forty-eight electoral divisions with twelve members elected every two 
years, Mr. Patton was one of the six returned that year for what 
is now Ontario, and the first representative of the group of counties 
consisting of Grey, Bruce and North Simcoe, known as the Saugeen 
Division. In 1862 he became a member of the Cartier-Macdcnnld 
Ministry, with a seat in the Executive Council as Solicitor-General for 
Upper Canada, but upon seeking re-election was defeated by Hon. John 
McMurrich, and with the fall of the Government, a few weeks later, 
retired to private life. In 1860 he was Chancellor of the Toronto 
University, and in 1881 was appointed Collector of Customs at Toronto. 
Mr. Craig settled at Craighurst in 1821. 

CREIGHTON". — Capt. Creighton, who lived in the neighborhood 
for many years, is supposed to be honored by this office being named 
after him. It was commissioned in 1868. 

. ! 

CRAIGVALE. — Since its inception in 1860 this office has been 
known as at present, the name being given in honor of John Craig, an 
early settler and saw-mill owner, who was Justice of the Peace and also 
Clerk of the Division Court which sat there. His son, Arthur Craig, 
was prominent in municipal circles for some years, being Warden of 
the County, and later Treasurer of the same, holding the latter office 
at the time of his death in June, 1905. 

CREEMORE. — Upon a request of a resident of the village, 
Senator J. R. Gowan, Simcoe's Grand Old Man, as he is often rightly 
termed, selected this name. Knowing the love of the sons of Auld 
Scotia for their ain, he selected two words of their language, " cree 
mohr," meaning a " big heart." The office was established in 1854, 
but the village was founded some years before. 

CROSSLAND. — In this office the name of the first postmaster, 
Henry Crossland, is placed in the official category of the Postal Depart- 
ment at Ottawa. 


CROWN HILL. — The location is responsible for the name of this 
post office. It is situated on a range of hills which extend for a dis- 
tance of two or three miles across the Township of Oro, and has the 
appearance of being on the crown or top of the same. The name was 
suggested by a debating society, and agreed to by those living in the 
neighborhood, among whom were the late Sheriff Drury, his brothers 
William and Thomas, and Jonathan Sissons, county jailer at Barrie. 

CUNDLES. — Before the establishment of this post office the place 
was known as Cundle's School, one Thomas Cundle, a resident and 
land-owner, having largely interested himself in securing the educa- 
tional institution. In 1904, when the office was commissioned, Mr. 
Cundle was again honored by the adoption of his name. 

DALSTON. — This office took its name from Dalston, a suburb 
of London, England, the native town of Henry Augustus Clifford, the . 
first postmaster. Mr. Clifford was prominent in educational matters 
in the county for some years, being Superintendent of Schools for Oro 
Township until 1846, and occupying the position of District Superinten- 
dent of Common Schools until 1849. For many years prior to the 
issuing of the commission, in 1885, the village was known as White's 
Corners, after Peter White, J.P., an early settler. | 

DEERHUBST. — The first postmaster of this office, who was 
named Walker, desired to have it known as Walkerville, but objections 
being raised, the present name was adopted. It probably alludes to 
the habitation of deer in the nearby woods.. 

DE GRASSI POINT.— Several theories as to the origin of this 
name are more or less credited, but only two have any semblance of 
being correct. One of these is to the effect that the point was originally 
known as " Grassy Point," because of there being four or five acres 
of ground covered with grass extending to the water's edge. In sup- 
port of this it is said, ' and history corroborates the statement, that 
this special feature of the place was well known, as it was 
the rendezvous of fur traders and voyageurs passing up and 
down Lake Simcoe, this being then the chief route to the almost un- 
known and impenetrable North-West Proceeding from this point to 
the head of Kempenfelt Bay (see Barrie), the travellers went on by 
the Nine-mile Portage, Willow Creek and Nottawasaga River to the 


Upper Lakes. The other theory credits the origin of the name, at 
least that now in nse, to a family named De Grassi who resided in 
Toronto about the time of the Mackenzie Kebellion. One of the family, 
. Alfio, was more or less identified with municipal politics, and was also 
active in Masonic circles. In 1865 he was District Deputy for the 
Toronto Masonic district, which at that time included the County of 
Simcoe. The De Grassi family never lived at the place that now bears 
their name, but members of it, particularly Alfio, visited thereabouts, 
for hunting and fishing. The most reasonable conclusion is that the 
present name is the outcome of a combination of the above circum- 


Till the oak that fell last winter, ; 

Shall uprear its shattered stem, ' j ' 

Wives and mothers of Dunedin, ; J 

Ye may look in vain for them. 

— Lord Ayton. 

In this we have the early name of Edinboro' inscribed upon the 
postal list of the County of Simcoe. In early days the site of the 
present village was known as Bowerman's Hollow or Settlement, after 
a family of that name, one of whom built the first grist-mill in the 
Township of Nottawasaga. When official recognition was taken of the 
settlement, Mr. John J. Carruthers, the first postmaster, suggested 
Dunedin, which was agreed to by the residents and accepted by the 
postal authorities. Mr. Carruthers adopted the name from that of a 
town in New Zealand which he had visited, 'and which in turn was, 
doubtless, named by sons of Auld Scotia after their capital city. Trans- 
lated into English the name means " Edward's fortress," " dun," a 
fortified rock or hill, and " Edin," a corruption of Edward. i 

DUNTROON. — This name is a combination of two Gaelic words, 
" dun," a hill, and " troon," a promontory. The country surrounding 
this post office was settled in the thirties of last century by immigrants 
from Islay and Argyleshire. For a few years it was known simply 
as the " Corners," but as the settlers came in in large numbers the word 
" Scotch " was soon added. It was later known as McNab's Corners, 
after a tavern-keeper who followed the settlers. Yet later the name 
was changed by John Livingstone to Bomore, meaning " Big Cow," 
after his native village in Islay. Upon the arrival of the late Rev. 
John Campbell, the first Presbvterian minister stationed in the Town- 


ship of Nottawasaga, the name underwent another change, this time 
to the present appellation, Duntroon, after his native village in 
. Argyleshire, Scotland. The first office, Scotch Corners, was officially 
..opened in 1836, when Mr. Angus Campbell was appointed postmaster. 
He was a Highland Scotchman who was well versed in Gaelic but could 
.speak little English, and it is said any mail matter not addressed in 
his native language was left in a small box to be hunted out by the 
owners when called for, Mr. Campbell's only directions being, " Noo, 
just help yersel', and dinna tak' mair nor ye can read." 

DUTSTKERROJSr. — This is named after a town in King's County, 
Ireland, and was adopted upon the suggestion of the late Col. Tyrwhitt, 
M.P. for South Simcoe, who is credited with selecting it to please an 
Irish settler, a native of the Irish town of the same name. It is more 
probable that it was named in honor of the Governor-General at the 
time the office was opened, Lord Lansdowne, Baron of t)unkerron. 

EADY. — The name of this office was given in honor of Miss Edith 
Kent, now Mrs. John Walker, the first maiden lady of the place. She 
is now in her eightieth year and still resides in the village. The office 
was established in 1884. 

EDGAR. — The name of this office is by some derived from that of 
an early King of England, by others it is said the name was given 
arbitrarily by the Government, as the people had no special choice; 
but the correct origin is the name of an early settler, John Edgar. It 
was established in 1832. Richardson's Corners, also after an early 
settler, was the first name of the place. The first office in the town- 
ship of Oro was named Oro after the township, and was situated almost 
exactly in its centre. This office was later moved a mile west, retain- 
ing the old name. Yet later it was again moved, this time two miles 
further west, when the name was discarded, Edgar being substituted 

EGBERT. — Owing to the physical conditions this place was for 
many years known locally as Mudtown, but upon assuming the dignity 
of a place in the postal list of the county a more polished name was 
thought to be required. At this juncture the loyalty of the settlers 
to an old line of English kings prevailed and the name of King Egbert 
was selected. Egbert was of the House of Cedric and ascended the 
throne of Wessex in A.D. 802, and reigned for thirty-five years. 


During Egbert's time Wessex rose to power, the King bringing all 
the English kingdoms, together with the Welsh, both of Cornwall and 
what is now called Wales, more or less under subjection. He became 
King of all the Saxons and Jutes and Lord of the East Angles, Mercians 
and Northumbrians and by some historians is said to have been the 
first King who was able to call himself King of the English. He died 
in 837 A.D. 

ELLIOTT'S CORNERS.— This office takes its name from the 
first postmaster, James Elliott. 

ELMGROVE. — Like Elmvale, this place was locally 7 known as 
Elm Flats for some years, owing to the land being largely timbered 
with elm. As in the case of the former village, the word " flats " proved 
objectionable to the aesthetic taste of the people, and the word " grove " 
was substituted. 

ELMVALE. — For many years the country surrounding this place 
was known as the Elm Flats on account of the low-lying land, which 
was largely timbered with elm. The village took the same name, but 
the more euphonistic word " vale " took the fancy of the people and 
it was substituted for " Flats." An attempt was made to change the 
name to Saurin by a constructing engineer on the Penetang Railway,. 
James Saurin Murray, but the villagers objected to the proposition. 
On Dickenson's map of the county, 1878, Saurin appears for this place, 
but it was never adopted for the post office. 

ENNIS. — This name is taken from a town in Clare County, Ire- 
land, and was given to this office by early settlers after their home 
in the Emerald Isle. In the Irish language the word " inis," or 
" ennis," has two meanings, " an island " and " a meadow along a 
river." The original town is situated upon the bank of the River 


EVERETT. — This office was named by Thomas Gordon, a store- 
keeper, after his father's native place in England. It was at first 
situated on lot 10, Con. 7, Township of Tossorontio, but upon the arrival 
of the railway in 1878 it was moved about two miles west to its pre- 
sent location. 

FAIR VALLEY.— In 1879 this office was named by R. C. Hip- 
well, from the physical conditions surrounding. Previous to being estab- 


lished a post office under the present name, the place had several appel- 
lations. Captain Elmer Steele, who settled in Medonte in 1832, and 
who sat for Simcoe in the old Canadian Assembly, 1841-44, named the 
corner a short distance from the post office of to-day Purbrook, after 
his native place in Gloucestershire, England. It was later known as 
St. George's, from the church situated there. 

FENNELLS. — This office recalls an early settler, Joseph Fennell, 
a native of Conva, Kilkenny, Ireland, after whom it was named. Mr. 
Fennell was prominent in municipal affairs, being Reeve of West 
Gwillimbury and a member of the County Council. 

FERGUSONVALE.— This settlement was first known as Cum- 
ming's Corners after John Cumming, who settled there in 1843. In 
1868 it was thought desirable that a post office should be established 
at the corners. John W. Ferguson interested himself in circulating a 
petition asking the Government for the office and was rewarded by its 
being named after him, 

FESSERTOIST. — Named after a friend by Baron von Hugel, who 
was born in Mayence, Germany, and who at one time was President of 
the Midland Railway. The locality was long known, before the days 
of the Midland Railway, as Rush's Point, after a settler of that name. 

FINTONA. — This office is another of those in the southern part 
of the county which owe their name to the Irish settlers. It is called 
after a village in Tyrone, Ireland. In Irish it is called, Fionn- 
Tamhuach, pronounced Fintowna, meaning " a fair colored field." 

FOXMEAD. — This name is the result of a combination of the 
names of two early settlers, John Fox and J. Mead, the object evidently 
being to please the most interested ones. 

GIBSOIST. — This name is that of the first postmaster, William 

GILCHRIST. — A family of early settlers, one of whom, Henry 
Gilchrist, was the first postmaster, is credited with having given the 
name to this office. Some of his descendants live in the vicinity at 
the present day. 


GILFORD.— This office was named in 1863 by an early settler, 
Thomas MacConchy, after the town of Gilford, County of Down, Ire- 
land. Mr. MacConchy had mills and other business interests at the 
village he named. 


The bridegroom may forget the bride, 

Was made his wife yestreen ; 
The monarch may forget the crown 

That on his head an hour has been ; 
The mother may forget the child 

That smiles sae sweetly on her knee ; 
But I'll remember thee, Glencairn, 

And a' that thou hast done for me.— Burns. 

Upon reaching the site of this village, about the middle years of 
last century, Mr. Marshall N. Stephens found it known as " the hog's 
back," from a nearby hill thought to have a porcine resemblance, lying 
between two streams, the Mad River and Walker's Creek, flowing side 
by side, one being twenty feet higher than the other. He disliked 
the appellation and re-named the locality, which is hilly, Engedi (the 
fountain of the kid), taking the name from the fortress in the wilder- 
ness in which David sought safety from Saul and in which he after- 
wards had Saul at his mercy, but permitted him to leave unharmed. 
In 1865, when the office was established, it was desired to have a more 
popular name, and Mr. Stephens suggested Marshalltown, but owing 
to there being already such a place in the list of Canadian post offices, 
the Department raised objections and it was discarded. Mr. Angus 
Morrison (see Angus), stepped into the breach and named the office 
Glencairn (glen, a space between hills, and cairn, a monumental pile 
of stones generally of conical shape), after James, Earl of Glencairn, 
a benefactor of Scotland's bard, Burns. The Earl of Glencairn takes 
his title from the parish of Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. 

GLEN" HURON". — This is one of the early names of the northern 
part of the county. Its origin is obvious, being from the glen through 
which the Mad River rushes on its way to Nottawasaga Bay, some 
twenty miles further east, and an adaptation of the name of a tribe of 
Indians who in early days occupied the greater part of the County of 
Simcoe. The name is believed to have been given by Mr. Hugh M. 
Frame, an uncle of the late W. J. Fram;', Police Magistrate of the 
Town of Collingwood, a graduate of a Scotch University and a lover 
of Indian folk lore. 


GOWAN. — The name was given to this office hy the late F. \V. 
Cumberland, Managing Director of the Northern Railway, as 
a compliment to his friend Judge (now Hon. Senator) James 
Robert Gowan, who now resides in Barrie. Senator Gowan 
was born in Cahore, Wexford County, Ireland, in 1815. 
He was called to the Bar in Toronto in 1839, and in 1S43 
appointed Judge of the Judicial District of Simcoe, the largest 
in Upper Canada. In 1851 he was appointed one of three judges 
necessary under " the act for assimilating the Canadian Law of Pro- 
bate and Administration to that of England." In 1858 he assisted 
in the consolidation of the Statutes, in 1869 in the consolidation of 
the Criminal Law, and in 1876 in the consolidation of the Statute Law 
of Ontario. In 1871 he was a member of a commission to inquire 
into the constitution and jurisdiction of the several Courts of Law and 
Equity, and in 1873 was appointed on the commission to investigate 
the Huntingdon charges, otherwise known as the Canadian Pacific 
Scandal. In 1883 he retired from the Bench after forty years' ser- 
vice and in 1885 was called to the Senate by Sir John A. Macdonald. 
In the Senate he occupied the position of Chairman of the Divorce 
Committee for many years. In 1905 Senator Gowan was included 
in King Edward's birthday honor list, being made a Knight Com- 
mander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (K.C.M.G.). 

GRENFEL — In response to a petition circulated by the village 
schoolmaster, a Mr. Mcintosh, this office was opened in the early seven- 
ties. Mr. Mcintosh suggested the name now in use, after a place in 
Scotland. He was the first postmaster. 

GUTHRIE. — In this office the name of Duncan Guthrie, an early 
settler, is handed down to posterity. 

HAMLET. — "When a post office was about to be commissioned here 
this name was suggested by a resident and recommended to the postal 
authorities by W. H. Bennett, M.P. for East Simcoe. It is named 
after Shakespeare's well-known character, Hamlet, a Prince of Den- 
mark, nephew of King Claudius, who loved Ophelia, but feeling it his 
duty to avenge his father's death, abandoned the idea of marriage. He 
treated Ophelia so strangely that she went mad and while picking 
flowers from a brook fell into the water and was drowned. Hamlet 
afterwards died from a stab by a poisoned rapier received in a friendly 
contest with foils. 


HAMPSHIRE MILLS.— The name of this office was taken from 
Hampshire, England, whence came William Lecf, a pensioner of the 
British Army and the first postmaster of this place. 

HA WEE STONE. — In early days the site of the present village 
was known as Hodge's Landing, one Richard Hodge owning land in 
the vicinity. At that time the place was one of the competing points 
for the trade in and out of the country now known as the Town- 
ships of Oro and Medonte. Owing to the large numbers of immigrants 
who went " up country " at that time, the " Landing " was a lively 
place, but its glory soon faded, Barrie and Orillia securing the busi- 
ness. In 1846 a post office was commissioned and the present name 
adopted on the suggestion of Hon. James Patton, of Barrie (see 
Craighurst), in honor of A. B. Hawke, Chief Immigrant Agent for 
Upper Canada. Mr. Patton was a prominent Conservative of the 
early sixties. He represented the Saugeen Division, which included 
the counties of Bruce and Grey and the North Riding of Simcoe, in 
the Legislative Council prior to 1862, when, although appointed 
Solicitor-General, he was defeated in a three-cornered contest by Hon. 
John McMurrich by a majority of 750. 

HILLSDALE. — A tavernkeeper, Alexander Hill, was prominent 
at this place at the time the office was established, and his name was 
adopted, the affix being simply to make it more euphonistic It is near 
the site of the early post office, Elos, which, after being moved several 
miles, was finally blotted from the map, Craighurst taking its place. 

HOLLY.— Named by the late W. C. Little, M.P., for South 
Simcoe, after a village in Gloucestershire, England, of which shire he 
was a native. 

HOBART. — Alexander Fowler, a farmer and also a storekeeper 
on a small scale, was the most active spirit in securing the establishment 
of the original office bearing this name. Being three miles from a mail 
distributing centre, he fyled an application with the Post Office Depart- 
ment at Ottawa for a new office, suggesting Fowler's Corners as a name 
for the same. The request for the office was complied with, but the 
suggested name was passed over, Hobart being substituted therefor. 
No explanation of the origin of the name was given, but it was probably 
in honor of Lord Hobart, Colonial Secretary of the Imperial Govern- 
ment in the early years of the nineteenth century. Some years prior 


to the commission of this office, issued in 1878, a little settlement had 
formed two miles distant around a grist-mill built by one Langman. 
This was known as Langman's Mills, and in later years became of 
greater importance than Hobart, and upon the application of a Mr. 
Kennedy, who purchased the mills after Mr. Langman's death, the Post 
Office Department moved the office thereto, but retained the original 

LNNISFIL. — This office takes its name from the township in 
which it is situated and comes from Innisfail, a poetical name for 
Ireland. The name is doubtless a corruption of Innis-fallen, from 
Inis-Faith-lenn (Fahlen), the island of Faithlenn, a man's name. This 
was the first post office in the township, and served the settlers for miles 
around for many years. In 1834 some land-owners attempted to 
establish a town named Innisfallen on Shingle Bay, Lake Simcoe, but 
the project failed. On February 1st, 1906, the name of this office 
was changed to Barclay, after George Barclay, the present post-master. 
This change was made owing to the similarity of Innisfil with Innis- 
fail, a town in Alberta. 

IVY. — Upon petition of the people of the vicinity this office was 
established in 1858. It was suggested that it be named Lakeview, 
from its situation near a little lake on the farm of one of the pioneers 
and petitioners, but there already being an office of that name the postal 
authorities declined the suggestion and gave the name now in use, 
apparently for no other reason than that it fits in with Holly and Vine, 
two neighboring post offices. 

JACK'S LAKE. — This place was originally known as " Jacques " 
Lake, but by common use the French word, meaning James, was trans- 
formed into the Anglo-Saxon, Jack. The name was that of an aged 
Indian, John Jacques, who lived on the shores of the lake for many 
years, and was adopted for the post office by an informal vote of the 

JARRATT'S CORNERS.— This office takes its name from an 
early settler, Charles Jarratt, a native of Kent County, England. Mr. 
Jarratt settled there in 1831 and was a general merchant in later years. 
He was also a member of the council of the Township of Oro for several 
years and a Justice of the Peace. The office was established in the 
early fifties. 


KEEN ANTILLE. — This was named after an early settler, Robert 
Keenan, a native of Ireland, and was established in 1855. Mr. Keenan 
was prominent in municipal affairs. In 1846 he was elected a member 
■oi the County Council, in which he served for several years. 

KILLYLEAGH. — A pioneer of the Township of Innisfil, James 
Scroggie, named this office after his native village, Killyleigh, County 
of Down, Ireland. It was proposed by tbe people of the vicinity that 
the office should be named Scroggietown or Scroggieville, but Mr. 
Scroggie thought the name too cumbersome and suggested Killyleigh. 
In Irish its meaning is, kill-church, leigh-field, " the church of the 

LAFONTAINE. — On the migration of the French from Quebec, 
1837-40, to Tiny Township, this place came into existence and was 
known as St Croix, from the numerous crosses erected here and there 
throughout the township by Rev. Father Hennepin. A few years later 
this name was discarded, and that now in use adopted in honor of 
Hon. Louis Hypolite Lafontaine, a man who was prominent in the 
years preceding and following the Rebellion of 1837. Mr. Lafontaine 
was a son of Antoine Menard Lafontaine, who had been a member of 
the Parliament of Lower Canada from 1796 to 1804, and was born 
.at Boucherville in 1807. He early achieved distinction at the bar. 
Upon entering politics he was a follower of Papineau, but soon became 
his rival. During the troubles of 1837 they both fled the country to 
escape warrants of high treason, but Lafontaine soon returned, hav- 
ing committed no overt act. He soon became the leader of the Reform 
party, and in 1842 reached the goal of his political ambition by being 
ealled to the Cabinet as Attorney-General, East, but with his colleague 
in the leadership of the Government, Hon. Robert Baldwin, resigned 
the following year, owing to the Governor-General, Sir Charles Met- 
calfe, violating what they believed to be a fundamental principle of 
responsible government, by making appointments to office without the 
eonsent of his Ministers. Mr. Lafontaine remained in opposition 
until 1848, when the Reformers swept the country, the issue being the 
Rebellion Losses Bill. Upon the defeat of the Tories he was, with 
Mr. Baldwin, called upon to lead the Government forces, which posi- 
tion he held until 1851. In 1853 he was elevated to the Chief Justice- 
ship of Lower Canada. In 1854 he was created a baronet of the United 
Kingdom. Mr. Lafontaine is described as a man of commanding 
appearance, not an eloquent speaker, but a close and cogent reasoner. 


He obtained many of his ideas from books, and frequently showed a 
passion for the impracticable in politics. He was an honorable oppon- 
ent, but his resentments were as undying as his attachments. While 
on the bench he lent lustre and efficiency to the judiciary. 

LANGMAN. — After Richard Langman, an early settler and first 

LAWSON. — After Walter Lawson, the first postmaster. 

LEFAIVE'S CORNERS.— This office was named after a family 
who resided in the vicinity. 

LEFROY. — This office is one of those which came into existence 
with the building of the Northern Railway. It was named after 
General Sir John Henry Lefroy, who had charge of the magnetical 
observatory at Toronto in 1851-53. He afterwards served in Tasmania 
and Bermuda. The office was commissioned early in 1854. 

LISLE. — Before the present name was adopted this place was first 
locally known as Forestlea, a name given by a Mr. Thomas Crosbie, 
who owned land in the vicinity. After the railway was built, in 1878 r 
the name was changed to New Airlie, but this was soon found confusing 
owing to the village of Airlie being only a short distance away. About 
this time it was thought desirable to have a post office, and Messrs. 
Wilmott, Harrison & Hatton, lumbermen, moved in that direction with 
success. Again a name was wanted, when a Miss Wilmott came to 
the rescue with " Lisle," taken from a popular song of the day, " Annie 
Lisle," the chorus of which is as follows: 

" Wave willows, murmur waters, 
Gentle sunbeams smile, 
Earthly music cannot waken 
Lovely Annie Lisle." 

LOVERING. — This office got its name from W. D. Lovering, a 
farmer on whose farm the first office was located. He now resides in 

LORETTO.— The name of this office recalls " Our Lady of 
Loretto," in honor of whom the office was designated. The original 
name is that of an Italian town, a mecca for Roman Catholic pilgrims, 


famous for its Holy House. According to the legend the Holy House 
is the identical house in which our Saviour was born, having been 
carried from Nazareth by angels upon being threatened with destruc- 
tion by the Turks. It contains the shrine of Loreto (only one " t " in 
original spelling), and is noted for its miraculous cures. The post 
office was named by a shoemaker, P. D. Kelly, and was commissioned 
in 1864. 

MAIR'S MILLS.— With this office there has been a case of " off 
agin, on agin, gone agin," there being a commissioned office, then it 
was closed, and again re-opened. For many years the village was 
known as Kirkville, after the late Robert Kirk, who operated a flour 
and saw mill on the bank of Silver Creek, which flows through the 
hamlet on its way to the Georgian Bay, a few miles distant. The first 
and second established offices bore that name, but the third was given 
the present name after John Mair, son-in-law of Mr. Kirk, who was 
largely instrumental in having it re-opened, and who operated a flour 
mill there for several years, conducting the duties of postmaster in 
conjunction therewith. 

MAPLE VALLEY. — This office has had several locations, but all 
within a small radius. It was first in the Township of Osprey, County 
of Grey, being established in 1850 under the name of that township, 
so called after a ship of the British Navy in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century. At that time it was the only office between Melancthon 
Station and Duntroon and served the people of Dunedin, Honeywood, 
and for miles around. After being moved to and fro among the farmers 
for some time, the office became located finally in the Township of 
Nbttawasaga, County of Simcoe, Joseph Dick being appointed post- 
master. Mr. Dick had moved from Maple, York County, and upon 
his request the name " Osprey " was discarded and that of his old home 
adopted. The word " Valley " was added simply to distinguish this 
office from the former. 

MAECHMONT.— Between 1833 and 1836 one W. O. Hume 
settled at this place and gave it the name of his ancestral home in the 
Emerald Isle. The office was commissioned on October 1st, 1861. 

MIDHHRST. — In 1830 one George Oliver received from the 
Government a free grant of two hundred acres, Lot 12, Con. 4, Town- 


ship of Vespra, including a water power, on condition that he would 
build a grist-mill and a sawmill. In conjunction with a Thomas Hairs 
he did so, and the place became known as Oliver's Mills. It was also 
known as Vespra Mills from the township in which it was situated, 
the name of which is presumably from the Latin vesper, "evening." 
In 1841, Mr. H. R. A. Boys, late Treasurer of the County of Simcoe, 
purchased the property from Mr. Oliver, who had been conducting 
the mills alone for some time, Mr. Mairs having retired. Mr. Boys 
continued the milling business, and in addition erected a distillery, at 
which whiskey was dispensed at the moderate figure of twenty-five cents 
per gallon. He suggested naming the place Muggleton, probably having 
in mind the " corporate town " referred to in the annals of the Pick- 
wick Club as " an ancient and loyal borough, mingling a zealous advo- 
cacy of Christian principles with a devoted attachment to commercial 
rights." The people objected to the proposed change and continued to 
use Oliver's Mills until 1864, when the post office was opened as Mid- 
hurst, after a small town in England, the name being given by the 
postal authorities, probably the inspector of the division, at that time 
the late Mr. Sweatman. 


MIDLAND. — Munday's Bay, so called after two landowners, Israel 
and Asher Munday, who lived in the vicinity, was the first name 
applied to the site of the town of to-day. Some years after this name 
had become of general use one of the great family of Smiths, John by 
name, a commissariat of the garrison stationed at Penetanguishene, 
referred to the place as Midland, meaning that it was about half way 
between Penetanguishene and Victoria Harbor, the two principal 
places on the bay at that time. In 1872 the Midland Railway arrived, 
when Heydale, one of the builders of that road, with several others 
formally named the town Midland, painting the words " Midland 
Harbor " on a large boulder at the west side of the bay in the hope of 
giving it permanency. The painted sign has since been obliterated, but 
the name Midland yet stands. An attempt was made by some to call 
the place Midland City, but the unfitness of the latter part of the name 
was so obvious that it was dropped. 

MLNTSSLNX*. — This name is generally supposed to be of Ojibwa 
origin and to mean " Happy Water," but upon consultation with some 
intellectual members of that tribe it has been learned that they know 
it as meaning " an island." The story of the application of the name 
to the post office under consideration, as told by one of the oldest 


settlers, is interesting. An earlier settler than our informant, Colin 
McDougall, brother of the Rev. John McDougall, the pioneer mission- 
ary of the Methodist Church in the North- West, made frequent visits 
to the Indians who lived on the banks of the Nottawasaga River. By 
them he was told that the place at which he lived was Min-is-sing, in 
English " an island," and that it was at one time surrounded by water. 
Mr. McDougall accepted the statements of his dusky friends, and 
applied the name to the settlement, and it was continued until the 
establishment of the post office, about 1864, when it became the official 
name. The physical features of the village would strongly indicate 
that the Indians were correct in regard thereto. It is situated about 
the centre of a hill, several miles in circumference, surrounded by what 
is locally known as Minesing Flats, the soil of which is composed 
largely of shells, and having many indications of at one time having 
been the bottom of a lake. The original spelling was " Minising," but 
the postal authorities changed it to " Minesing." 

MINNICOGANASHENE.— The association of the Indians with 
this part of the Province, and the pleasing intonation of their language, 
is shown by this name. Originally it was " Min-nie-kaig-nan-shene," 
meaning " the place of the blueberry." It is a summer office and is 
locally known as Minnacog. 

MITCHELL SQUARE.— The history of this office is brief. The 
name was given by the first postmaster, William Mitchell, a native of 
Scotland, who was born in 1832 and came to the County of Simcoe in 
1865. The affix was given to distinguish it from the town of Mitchell 
in the County of Perth. 

MOONSTONE. — Early settlers knew this place for years as 
Medonte, the name having been taken from the township in which it 
is situated, the word being from the Delaware language, meaning 
" evil spirit." In Ojibwa the word " Madonon " means " I carry 
on my back," which Mr. H. E. Gardiner, in " Nothing but Names," says 
he thinks connects the name with an old portage, which is quite prob- 
able, as a trail between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay passed through 
the township. In the eighties the present name was substituted for 
that which had served so long. The new appellation was adopted in 
honor of Edmund Moon, an old settler, and the first postmaster, the 
affix alluding to the stony nature of the country surrounding. Mr, 
Moon was a Justice of the Peace until his death. 


MT. ST. LOUIS. — This name is one of the earliest in the County 
of Simcoe, dating from the arrival of the French in the early years of 
the seventeenth century. In the village of to-day the name is perpetu- 
ated, but the site of the place under consideration is not that of the 
early St. Louis, as was supposed by the French missionaries who gave 
the name. That of to-day is situated on the St Louis ridge, at an 
elevation of about five hundred feet above the Georgian Bay, hence the 
addition of the word " Mount." The original St. Louis was nearer 
the shores of the Georgian Bay and not far from the site of the present 
town of Midland. It was a palisaded village of the Hurons which 
in March, 1649, was attacked by the Iroquois. After being twice 
repulsed the besiegers returned to the attack and succeeded in cutting 
the defences. Upon entering they captured the survivors, including 
the two Jesuit priests, Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant. The 
village was recaptured by the Hurons and again taken by the Iroquois, 
who took summary vengeance on the prisoners captured in the raid. 
Brebeuf and Lalemant were horribly tortured, the former being finally 
placed beyond misery by a blow from a hatchet, while the latter 
succumbed to the most brutal treatment after seventeen hours' suffer- 
ing. The name was originally given in honor of the French King, 
Louis XIII. 

NANTYR. — This is one of the few Welsh names in the County of 
"Simcoe. It is taken from the family home of the Tyrwhitts of Nantyr 
Hall, Denbighshire, Wales. The name was applied to the post office in 
question by the late Col. Richard Tyrwhitt, who was born in the County 
of Simcoe in 1844, and who as a Conservative represented South Simcoe 
in the House of Commons continuously from 1882 until his death on 
June 22nd, 1900. Col. Tyrwhitt saw active service on the Niagara 
frontier in 1866 and in the North-West in 1885. In 1886 he was in 
command of the Canadian Wimbledon team, and in 1897 was present 
at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, on the invitation of the Depart- 
ment of Militia. In politics he gained prominence by being one of the 
" noble thirteen " who in 1889 voted against the Jesuits Estate Bill 
and by his strong opposition to interference by the Dominion Govern- 
ment with the Manitoba School Act of 1890. He was an advocate of 
secular schools, and was an Imperial Federationist. 

NEW FLOS. — Before the establishment of a post office this place 
was known as Briggs' Corners, after a family of settlers who still reside 
there. The present name was taken from the township, which is said 


to have been named after one of three pet dogs, Flos, Tiny and Tay, 
belonging to Lady Sarah Maitland, wife of Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
Governor-General of Canada, 1818-1828. He died in 1854 and his 
wife in 1873. 

NEW LOWELL. — This village is a monument in a degree to the 
blighted hopes of some of the early men of its commercial life. It was 
first called Kinburn during the years of the Crimean War, 1854-56, 
after a Russian citadel near the mouth of the Dnieper River, taken by 
the allied English and French armies on October 15th, 1855. In 1858 
Jacques, Hay & Co. built a turning factory at the place. To purchase 
machinery for this three men were sent to Lowell, Mass. These were 
so taken with the New England town that they decided to perpetuate its 
name by giving it to their new home in Ontario, believing it was the 
nucleus of another Lowell. That it was not has been amply demon- 
strated, as it is but little larger to-day than it was half a century ago. 

NEWTON ROBINSON.— Names have been bountifully bestowed 
upon this village. Commencing with Latimer's Corners, after a family 
of settlers, it soon took on Springville, no particular reason being 
assigned for the new appellation. Later it was changed to Newtown 
Robinson, after a town in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, and the 
family of Hon. William Benjamin Robinson. Mr. Robinson was prom- 
inent in the political affairs of the County of Simcoe from 1828 until 
about 1858. At the first election after Simcoe had been set apart as a 
separate constituency for Parliamentary purposes, held in July, 1828, 
he was the candidate of the Family Compact, and was opposed and 
defeated by John Cawthra, of Newmarket, by nine votes. In 1830 he 
defeated Mr. Cawthra, and in 1834, with Samuel Lount as his colleague, 
was again elected. In 1836 Mr. Robinson was once more returned, with 
a Mr. Wickens as his colleague, Mr. Lount being defeated upon this 
occasion. At the first election for the united provinces, in 1841, Mr. 
Robinson was defeated by Capt. Elmer Steele, of Medonte. At the 
general election in 1844 he was again successful, defeating Mr. Wel- 
lesley Ritchie, as he was also at a bye-election shortly after, made neces- 
sary owing to his acceptance of the Inspector-Generalship in the new 
Cabinet. This time he was opposed by William Hume Blake, father 
of Hon. Edward Blake. In 1848 he was returned by "^clamation, and 
in 1851 was opposed by an old-time ally, one Alfred Willson, of Bell 
Ewart, but was elected by a majority of 759. Before the next general 
election, which took place in 1854, thi* county was divided into the 


north and south ridings for electoral purposes. Mr. Robinson remained 
with the southern riding, in which he was elected by acclamation. In 
1857 he made his last appeal to the electors of the south riding of this 
county, when he suffered defeat by Thomas R. Ferguson, who continued 
as representative until after the general election in 1863. In 1873 Mr. 
Ferguson was appointed Collector of Customs at Collingwood, and was 
removed from the office in 1875. Upon his defeat Mr. Robinson retired 
into private life. Modern spelling has shortened the name by omitting 
the " w " from Newtown. 

NICOLSTON. — In the early days of settlement this place was 
locally known as Underhill, from its situation in the shadow of two 
hills. It was then changed to Carluke, after a town in Lanarkshire, 
Scotland, the birthplace of John Nicol, an old settler. As there was 
already a post office named Carluke, the postal authorities raised ob- 
jections to the name and that now in use was substituted, this also 
being in honor of Mr. Nicol. Mr. Nicol was born in 1820 and came 
to the County of Simcoe in 1853. 

NOTTAWA. — The naming of this village took place in 1853, a 
year before the establishment of the official post office. The occasion 
was the erection of the frame work of the first grist-mill, a building 
that stood for over fifty years, till destroyed by fire in 1904. With 
an event of such importance, and it was important in those days, came 
the necessity for a name by which the settlement would become known 
to the outside world. Several were suggested, one being Melville, 
after an early settler, but all were discarded for Nottawa Mills, a 
contraction of Nottawasaga, the name of the township in which the 
village is situated. The name having been agreed upon, a fitting 
christening followed, Mr. John Currie — at present, 1906, a storekeeper 
in the village — being chosen as director of ceremonies. At the appointed 
time a gale was blowing, but nothing daunted, Mr. Currie in his de- 
termination to carry out the pre-arrangements mounted to the highest 
beam of the mill and there pronounced the name and broke the bottle 
of whiskey which had been provided for the occasion. When the office 
was established, the word " Mills " was dropped by the postal authori- 
ties. For origin of Nottawasaga see Stayner. 

ORILLIA. — The vicinity of this town is historic ground which 
stands out prominently in the history of the Huron Indians and the 
missionaries to them in the early part of the seventeenth century.. It 


is a much disputed question among archaeologists whether or not Orillia 
and Mount Slaven, which is close by, occupy the site of Cahiague or 
Contarea, the metropolis of the Indians when visited by Champlain in 
1615. It, however, is unquestioned that the Indians knew the location 
of Orillia as Michikaning, or Me-ehe-kuh-neeng, or Mitchekun, meaning 
" The place of the fence," the connecting link between Lakes Contarea 
( Couchiching) and Oentaron (Simcoe), as named on Sanson's map of 
1656, or Lacus Ouentaronious, the Latinized form of Ouentaron, Ouen- 
taronck and Oentaronk, used by Ducreux on his map of 1660. Lake 
Simcoe was also known as Lac Tarontha by Raffeix (see map, 1688), 
Toronto by Hontan, and by the early French as Lac aux Claies ("Hur- 
dle Lake," or, as translated by some, " The lake of the fish weirs "). 
The allusions are to the fish fence or weir, composed of small sharpened 
stakes from six to ten feet in length, which were driven into the bottom 
of the channel now known as " The Narrows," with twigs woven in back 
and forth in the form of what is called " wattling," and used by the 
Indians in catching fish when passing from one lake to the other. Pass- 
ing from the days of the Indians to a more modern time, it is found that 
the name " The Narrows " was generally used by the missionaries of 
the Christian churches and also by the early settlers, mail being directed 
" The Narrows, Lake Simcoe," the unofficial post office being conducted 
for some years in connection with the Methodist mission. With the 
organization of a regularly commissioned office by the Imperial Postal 
Department, Mr. Gerald Alley was appointed postmaster, and Newtown 
selected as the name from the fact of its being the newest office in this 
part of the country. Newtown was used but a few years when the 
present name, taken from the adjacent township, was adopted. As to 
the origin of the name Orillia, there is much difference of opinion 
among the students of onomatology. It is credited with being an Indian 
word, while it is also said to be a corruption of Orillion, a technical 
engineering term chiefly used by military engineering corps, referring 
to a certain class of fortification which the general outline of the shore 
of the township, viewed from the water, strongly resembles. Another 
theory advanced is that the name was taken from a plant known to 
botanists as aureula, a beautiful rose; and yet another is that it was 
formerly Aurelia, the name of the mother of Julius Caesar, as in the 
Act of 1821 naming the townships in the then northern district there 
is a township named Aurelia, and as in many of the land grants issued in 
the early days of the nineteenth century the name appears. It is also 
said that the name was that of Orillo, a magician and robber who lived 
at the mouth of the Nile, a son of an imp and a fairy, who, when any 


of his limbs were lopped off, had the power of restoring it, and when 
his head was cut off could take it up and replace it. His life lay in 
a magic hair, which was cut off by an adversary, when Orillo fell dead. 
Others have it that the name was given in honor of the wife of an officer 
of distinction connected with British colonial affairs. A more generally 
credited origin, however, is that it is from the Spanish, meaning a 
margin or border, and was given by early settlers who were time-expired 
soldiers from the army of Wellington in the Peninsular War. These 
men were more or less conversant with the Spanish language, and upon 
seeing the position of the place between two shores named the greater 
shore Oro, now the township of that name, and the lesser Orillia. A 
still further theory is that the name was derived from that of Miss 
Aurelia Alley, a wealthy sister of the first postmaster, Gerald Alley, 
who furnished that gentleman with money to settle Orillia. 

ORO STATION.— The name of this office was taken from the Town- 
ship of Oro, the word Station being added because of its being on the 
railway. The office was established in 1870, when the railway was 
built from Barrie to Orillia. Oro is the Spanish for gold. Gardiner 
says " it was first applied to Rio del Oro, a river and settlement on the 
north coast of Africa celebrated for its trade in slaves and gold, and as 
it was first intended to set apart this township, or a portion of it, for 
liberated slaves, the African name of Oro was selected." Before the 
establishment of this office there was a post office a few miles distant 
bearing the name of Oro, also another, East Oro, but both have been 

ORR LAKE. — Upon the establishment of a comparatively large 
sawmill on the shores of what was locally known as Little Lake, a settle- 
ment was formed. Soon the inconvenience of having no regular mail 
service was felt, and an effort was made to improve matters in this 
direction. The result was the establishment of a post office, for which 
the name at present in use Tas adopted, after a lumberman and mill- 
owner named Orr. The colloquial term for the lake was later discarded, 
the name of the post office taking its place. 

PAINSWIOK. — The name of this office was adopted as a com- 
pliment to Charles Palling, the veteran clerk of the Township of Innis- 
fil. Mr. Palling was born at Edge, two miles from the town of Pains- 
wick, Gloucestershire, England. 


PENETANGUISHENE.— The euphony and sweetness of the 
Indian language is illustrated in the name of this place. It is an 
abbreviation of the Ojibwa expression " pen-e-tang-cog-na-shene," 
meaning " the place of rolling sand down a high bank to the shore or 
water's edge," or, more briefly, " rolling or shining sands or shore." 
The European settlers of the province first became acquainted with 
this place upon the occasion of the visit of Governor Simcoe there in 
1797, when it was designated as the terminus of His Honor's proposed 
road from Lake Simcoe to the Georgian Bay. Little progress was made 
by the place until 1818, when it was made the only military and naval 
depot on the Georgian Bay, the authorities abandoning Fort Nottawa- 
saga, established during the War of 1812-14, and centring there. Even 
the change did not prove a sufficient incentive to induce settlers to come, 
consequently the population grew very slowly. In 1828, however, 
there was a large increase, owing to the transfer of the occupants of 
Drummond Island thereto upon the cession of that island to the United 
States. In 1832 it was abandoned as a naval port and shortly after 
the rebellion of 1837-38 it was turned over by the Imperial authorities 
to the Canadian Government, which did not continue it as a military 
centre, evidently concluding that it had outlived its usefulness. The 
office was commissioned in 1830. 

PENINSULA PARK.— The origin of this name is obvious, the 
office being in a park situated on a peninsula which extends into Lake 
Simcoe. At the present it is only a summer office. It is quite modern, 
having come into existence upon the recent development of the point 
as a summer resort. 

PENVILLE.— The family of Lloyd Penfield, a pioneer of Tecum- 
seth, is honored by the name of this post office. 

PHELPSTOK— This village was the centre of the lumbering 
operations of the late O. J. Phelps, M.P.P., and was named after him. 
Mr. Phelps was born in Onondaga, N.Y., in 1820, and came to Canada 
in 1832. After spending several years in the employ of the Dominion 
Government in different positions on the Welland Canal, he entered 
the lumber business, coming to Phelpston in 1870. In 1872 he was 
elected Reeve of Flos Township, a position he held for nine years. In 
1879 he was a candidate in West Simcoe in the Liberal interests for the 
Legislative Assembly, but was defeated by Thomas Long, of Colling- 
wood. In February, 1883, he was elected over George Moberly, of 


. Colling wood, and in December of the same year, in a bye-election, 
rendered necessary by his being unseated, defeated Dr. Thomas Wylie. 
In 1886, after the re-distribution, he engaged in his last political fight, 
contesting Centre Simcoe successfully, defeating William Harvey. 

PORT SEVERN". — The name of this office is taken from the River 
Severn, at the mouth of which it is situated. That of the river was 
originally adapted from the Severn River in the West of England. La 
Hontan, who was in the country from 1684-1691, gives the name 
Toronto to the river as well as to Lake Simcoe. He also calls Matche- 
dash Bay, into which the Severn River empties, " The Bay of To- 
ronto " (Arch. Report 1899). The Ojibwa Indians knew the river 
as " Wa-nant-git-che-ang," " crooked or circuitous river," alluding to 
its serpentine course from Lake Couchiching — in Ojibwa, couch-i- 
ching, " the lake source of a river." 

PRICE'S CORNER.— The first postmaster, Thomas Price, Sr., 
is honored by the name of this post office. The family is yet largely 
represented in the vicinity. 

RANDALL. — Rev. A. C. Watt, rector of the Episcopal church at 
this place, who was largely instrumental in securing the establishment 
of this office, suggested the name to the postal authorities. It is the 
Christian name of Rev. Randall Thomas Davidson, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Dr. Davidson became Dean of Windsor in 1883, and 
advancing through the bishoprics of Rochester and Winchester, be- 
came, in 1903, Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of all England. 
The office was established on August 1st, 1905. 

RANDOLPH. — Years before the establishment of this post office 
the village was known as King's Mills, after the owner of a small saw- 
mill. This name was also applied to the portage from the head of 
Penetanguishene Bay to Nottawasaga Bay, traversed by Sir Richard 
Bonnycastle in 1832, and mentioned in his " History of Travels through 
Canada." Later the mill was purchased by three brothers, Royal, Oscar 
and John Randolph, and the village was given their name, which, upon 
the establishment of the post office, was adopted officially. 


ROMILLY. — This office was established in 1875. It was named 

by a settler in honor of Sir Samuel Romilly, an eminent English 
lawyer, born in London, March 1st, 1757, died November 2nd, 1818. 
Sir Samuel was called to the bar in 1783 and rose to distinction in the 
Court of Chancery, and in the last administration of Mr. Fox was made 
Solicitor-General. He exerted himself in endeavoring to effect a revi- 


sion of the criminal code, with a view to the limitation of capital pun- 
ishment to a few heinous offences. The post office was first in Adjala 
Township, but is now in Tecumseth Township. 

EUGBY. — The English city in Warwickshire, famous for its public 
school, of which the noted Dr. Thomas Arnold was headmaster from 
1828-1842, is recalled by this post office. It was named by an ex- 
resident of the city in England, and established in 1860. 

BUSSELLTON. — The first postmaster, James Eussell, is honored 
by the name of this post office. 

SAUBIN. — James Saurin Murray, a director of the North Simcoe 
Eailway, named this office after himself. It is said that he desired to 
have Elmvale called Saurin, but the residents of that village withheld 
their consent to the proposed change. Being determined to have his 
name inscribed in the history of this county, he named the next station 
in accord with his wish. 

SHANTY BAY. — Many years before 1858, the year in which a 
post office was established in this place, Col. E. G. O'Brien, father of 
Col. W. E. O'Brien, ex-M.P. for Muskoka, and a leader of the Equal 
Eights party in days gone by, had given the name now in use to this 
village. He is said to have named it from the bay and the number of 
shanties of the pioneers there. 

SHELDON. — George Parker, who operated a grist-mill at this 
place for some years, was the prime mover in securing the post office, 
which was established in 1867. It was first known as Alexander, after 
a pioneer, Joseph Alexander, who built the grist-mill. Later it was 
proposed to name the office Newell, after Samuel Newell, who also 
owned the mill for a short time, but this did not take place, owing to 
a difference of opinion among the villagers. The present appellation 
was given by the Post Office Department without explanation. Locally 
it bore the name of " Pigtown " for many years from the number of 
those animals in the village. 

SINGHAMPTON.— In 1852, Cyrus Sing, with his brother, Josiah 
E. Sing, settled at the site of the village of to-day. At that time the 
country surrounding was a forest, sparsely settled. He built a saw- 
mill, grist-mill and carding-mill on the banks of the Mad Liver, and 


laid out the village which is called after him. Locally the place was 
called Mad River Mills as well as Sing's Mills, but the official adoption 
of the name now in use soon caused the others to be lost sight of. Mr. 
C. E. Sing died in Meaford on April 25th, 1904. 

SMITHDALE. — Upon the construction of the Hamilton and 
^North-Western Railway, in 1878, this place was named Glen Huron 
Station, after the village of that name, a mile west. Later the post 
office was established under the name of Smithdale, after a villager, 
Charles Smith. 

STAYNER — The extension of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 
Railway to the Georgian Bay brought the original of this town into 
existence. An attempt had been made by some interested ones to have 
a town to be known as Warrington, about a mile from the Stayner of 
to-day, but their efforts were brought to naught by the railway officials 
locating at what they pleased to term Nottawasaga Station. This name 
was adopted from a nearby township, which in turn was taken from 
the Algonquin words, ISTahdoway or Nahdowa, " the Iroquois," and 
Saga, or Saghi, " outlet of river." Nottawasaga Station was used about 
two years, when about the time of the establishment of the post office 
it was changed to Stayner, after Sutherland Stayner, son of Mr. T. A~ 
Stayner, deputy postmaster-general, 1848-49. Mr. Sutherland Stayner 
owned a large amount of land in the vicinity. 

STRONGVILLE— Until August 1st, 1904, this office was known 
as Sunnidale, but owing to the confusion caused by the similarity of 
the name and that of Sunnidale Corners, a change was made. The 
present name was given in honor of the Strong family, old and well 
known residents of the locality. 

STROUD. — When opened this office was named Victoria, after 
our late lamented and greatly beloved Queen. There being several 
offices of that name already established, a change was later decided 
upon, and the late W. C. Little, M.P., suggested the name of his native 
town in Gloucestershire, England, which was accepted and which has 
since been in use. Mr. Little was born in 1820 and settled in the 
Township of Innisfil in 1847. In 1853 he was elected to the township 
council, in which he served as councillor, deputy-reeve and reeve until 
1879. In 1867 he was elected member of the Dominion Parliament 
for South Simcoe, which he continuously represented until 1881. 


ST. PATRICK.— Situated in the little village of Perkinsfield, 
named after U. A. Perkins, a lumberman, is a Roman Catholic church 
bearing the name of Ireland's patron saint, St Patrick. From this 
church was the name taken for the post office. St. Patrick is said to 
have been born in France, 372 A.D., and in early years arrived in Ire- 
land. Returning to France he completed his education and again 
went to the Emerald Isle to enter upon his life's work of lighting the 
sacred beacon of Christianity. He died, according to Tillemont, in 
455 A.D., and according to Nennius in 464 A.D., and was buried at 
Dun-Patrick, Dun-da-lath-glas, or " the dun of the broken fetters." 

STURGEON BAY.— Captain William Laughton, a member and 
manager of the North- West Navigation Co., named this office about 
1832 after the bay upon which it is situated, in which the large fish 
known as sturgeon abounded. The bay was the northern terminus of 
the Coldwater trail, the connecting link between Lake Simcoe and 
Georgian Bay, and for many years enjoyed a large trade owing to the 
transfer of furs and supplies to and from the Upper Lakes and later the 
North- West. 

SUNNIDALE CORNERS.— Situated in Sunnidale Township, the 
origin of the name of this post office is obvious. That of the township 
is said to be from " sunny dale." The story, as given by Gardiner in 
" Nothing but Names," is that " a member of the staff of Peregrine 
Maitland got lost in the woods, and coming to an inhabited shanty in 
a sunny dale was impressed with the surroundings as well as overjoyed 
at his deliverance from danger and possible death." 

TIOGA. — Prior to the construction of the Hamilton and North- 
Western Railway from Beeton to Collingwood, in 1878, this' place, or 
rather the sawmill, was known as Poda Mills, said to have been so called 
after a popular Yankee employed in the mill owned by one Paul 
Gallaugher. About that time a lumber firm, DePuy & Co., moved from 
Tioga, New York State, and shortly after secured a post office, which 
Mr. Ten Eyck DePuy, one of the firm, named after their native town 
and county. The original town, which is near the southern border of 
the State of New York, figured in the American Revolution to a small 
degree, being in 1779 the base of operations for General Sullivan's 
reprisals on the Iroquois. The name " Pody " appears in Dickenson's 
map of the County of Simcoe published in 1878, where it was evidently 
mis-spelled. Poda was one of three mills, the others being locally 


known as Port Misery, the allusion said to have been to the unsatisfac- 
tory quantity of food furnished the workmen, and Catawampus, from 
the number of felines in the neighborhood. 

THOMPSONVILLE.— This office was named after a pioneer 
family. Besides owning lands they built and operated mills. 

THORNTON. — The early name of the locality in which this office 
is situated was Henry's Corners, or Henryville, after a pioneer family. 
Upon rising to the dignity of a post office the authorities objected to the- 
local name on the ground that there was already an office of that name, 
and gave Thornton instead, probably after Sir Edward Thornton, later 
British Ambassador at Washington. The office was established in 1854. 


Of all the happy hamlets here below. 
Where peace and plenty in abundance flow, 

None can compare with famous Tottenham.— Go Igan. 

An Irishman, Alexander Totten, a native of the County of Armagh, 
settled at this place in the closing twenties of the nineteenth century, 
long years before the establishment of the post office, which did not come 
until May 1st, 1858. It was in his honor that the name was given. 

TUAM. — Patrick Derham named this office after the place of his 
birth, a market and episcopal city of Galway, Ireland. The city dates 
from the fifth century, when an abbey was founded there. In the 
beginning of the sixth century it was raised to a see, and about 1152 
to an archbishopric. In 1839, under the Church Temporalities Act, it 
was reduced to a bishopric, but is yet the seat of a Roman Catholic 
bishop. The see received its charter about 1616, the eleventh year of 
the reign of James I., King of England. Tuam-in-Galway, as it is 
known in the Emerald Isle, in Irish is Tuaim-da-ghualann (Tuam-a- 
woolan), meaning " the tumulus of the two shoulders," from the shape 
of the old sepulchral mound that gave the name to the place. The post 
office of the Simcoe village was established on February 3rd, 1863. 

UHTHOEF. — Baron Adolphe von Hugel, a former president of 
the Midland Railway, is credited with having named this office after a 
place in Germany. He was born in Mayence, Germany, and died in 
Port Hope, Ontario, in 1901. His connection with the Midland Rail- 
way proved very unfortunate, causing him a loss of $400,000. 


UTOPIA. — The union of the two Greek words, " ou," not, and 
" topos," place, and the application of the outcome " Utopia " by Sir 
Thomas Moore to an imaginary island where everything is perfect, the 
law, the politics, the institutions, etc., was clever and apt. The adop- 
tion of such a term for a post office in the wilds of the County of Simcoe 
can scarcely be credited to cleverness, but possibly to sarcasm on the 
part of those who applied it to what was for some years known as Essa 
Crossing, from the township surrounding. The story told is that a 
family named Smith left Barrie to go north to seek a home. After 
travelling a few miles, for this post office is not far from the county 
town, they came across what they thought to be a good place to live, 
and believing they had found a land of perfection, one of the party, 
who, doubtless, was a reader of Sir Thomas Moore's political novel, 
suggested the name which was adopted and has since been used. 

VAN VLACK. — An early settler, storekeeper, fisherman and mill- 
owner, John Van Vlack, named this office. He was also the first post- 

VASEY. — The first postmaster of this office was one of the early 
settlers, Mark Vasey, and it is his name which is perpetuated by it. 
The office is situated in the midst of historic ground, being near, if 
not upon, the site of the Huron village of St. Ignace, at which the 
Iroquois massacred the Hurons on March 16th, 1649. 

. VICTORIA HARBOR.— Until the construction of the Midland 
Railway, in 1871, the location of this office went by the name of Hogg's 
Bay, the name applied to the harbor after an early Methodist minister. 
The present name was selected as a mark of loyalty to our late beloved 
sovereign, Queen Victoria. 

VIGO. — A Peninsular War veteran, who served in Spain under 
Wellesley, named this office after a gulf and town on the west coast of 
Spain. The office was established about 1866. 

VINE.— The late William C. Little, M.P., is responsible for the 
name of this post office. He took it from a small town of the same 
name in Gloucestershire, England, in which shire he was born. The 
office was established in 1865. 

WARMINSTER.— The love of his native town in Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, prompted one William G. Deacon to name this office after it. 
No objections being raised, the postal authorities accepted the sugges- 


WASHAGO. — Wash-a-go-min, meaning " sparkling waters," was a 

a term applied to Lake Couchiching by the Indians. In the course of 
time the name in an Anglicized form became associated with the village 
locally known as Severn Landing, after the river of that name ; finally 
it was adopted for the post office. It is pronounced Washawgo. 


WAUBAUSHENE.— The Indians of the early part of the nine- g 

teenth century knew this place as Wau-bau-shene, meaning " the rocky 
shore," or " the meeting of the rocks." The first is an allusion to the 
physical conditions surrounding the village, and the latter to two rocks 
which occupied prominent positions at the mouth of the North River, 
on the western bank of which it is situated. In referring to the place 
many Indians spoke of it as Baushene. The office was first established « 

in 1840, but went out of existence in a few years. In 1851 it was 
resuscitated upon the erection of a sawmill by William Hall. 

WAVERLEY. — After being known for many years as Bannister's 
Corners, after a pioneer, John Bannister, this place assumed the dig- 
nity of a post office. The old name was then discarded, the postal 
authorities substituting Waverley, taken from Sir Walter Scott's first 
historical novel, published in 1814. The office was established on 
October 1st, 1858. 

WEST ESSA. — The origin of this name is obvious, the post office 
being situated in the western part of the Township of Essa. For the 
origin of Essa see Baxter P. O. 

WYEBRIDGE.— In 1859 this place, which is on the River Wye, 
was named Macville by one Angus Grant from Glengarry, in honor of 
his father-in-law, Michael Macdonell, a retired Hudson's Bay officer, 
who owned a large tract of land in the vicinity. In 1859 it was 
changed to the present name from the fact of a bridge being built 
across the river at the village. 

W Y E VALE. — This post office takes its name from the Wye River, 
which flows through the village. The river was named after the River 
Wye, in the west of England, which empties into the Severn River at 
Chepstow. The village came into existence upon the construction of the 
North Simcoe Railway to Penetanguishene, about 1871. 

Collingwood, Ont. 


The following address, beautifully illuminated, was read and pre- 
sented to Col. Cruikshank at the annual meeting of the Ontario 
Historical Society in Collingwood, July 20th, 1906, pursuant to a 
resolution passed at the annual meeting held at Niagara the preceding 

The appearance of the address was unfortunately omitted from 
the Annual Report, but it is hoped that its publication here will fully 
compensate for the inadvertence. 

To Lieut. -Col. Ernest Cruikshank, 
Niagara Falls, Ont 
Dear Sir, — The Ontario Historical Society takes advantage of its 
meeting on the Niagara frontier to place on record its high apprecia- 
tion of the invaluable services you have rendered as the historian of 
the Niagara Peninsula. This portion of the Province of Ontario is 
of particular interest to the student of our early history, and in your 
person has been found one who, with the love of a patriot, the skill of 
an investigator, and the knowledge of a soldier, has made research into 
its early annals the subject of devotion and untiring efforts, with the 
enrichment of our historical literature as a happy result. In this con- 
nection your " Documentary History of Niagara " stands as a monu- 
ment of patient research and discriminating judgment, furnishing 
material of incalculable value to the present and future reader of the 
military annals of our past. Your many other publications, forming 
a long list of original titles, are an evidence of your industry in the 
field of labor you have made peculiarly your own. 

It is gratifying to us that some of this work has been accomplished 
in connection with the O. H. S., whose objects have had in you an able 
and constant friend from its inception until now. 

For these reasons, and in order to testify to the high position you 
occupy among the students of the history of this Province, the O. H. S. 
places this special minute of acknowledgment on the record of its 

David Boyle, George R. Pattullo, 

Secretary. President. 

Toronto, July 20th, 1906. 


The following address, beautifully illuminated, was read and pre- 
sented to Col. Cruikshank at the annual meeting of the Ontario 
Historical Society in Collingwood, July 20th, 1906, pursuant to a 
resolution passed at the annual meeting held at Niagara the preceding 

The appearance of the address was unfortunately omitted from 
the Annual Report, but it is hoped that its publication here will fully 
compensate for the inadvertence. 

To Lieut.-Col. Eenest Cbttikshank, 
Niagara Falls, Ont 

Dear Sir, — The Ontario Historical Society takes advantage of its 
meeting on the Niagara frontier to place on record its high apprecia- 
tion of the invaluable services you have rendered as the historian of 
the Niagara Peninsula. This portion of the Province of Ontario is 
of particular interest to the student of our early history, and in your 
person has been found one who, with the love of a patriot, the skill of 
an investigator, and the knowledge of a soldier, has made research into 
its early annals the subject of devotion and untiring efforts, with the 
enrichment of our historical literature as a happy result. In this con- 
nection your " Documentary History of Niagara " stands as a monu- 
ment of patient research and discriminating judgment, furnishing 
material of incalculable value to the present and future reader of the 
military annals of our past. Your many other publications, forming 
a long list of original titles, are an evidence of your industry in the 
field of labor you have made peculiarly your own. 

It is gratifying to us that some of this work has been accomplished 
in connection with the O. H. S., whose objects have had in you an able 
and constant friend from its inception until now. 

For these reasons, and in order to testify to the high position you 
occupy among the students of the history of this Province, the O. H. S. 
places this special minute of acknowledgment on the record of its 

David Boyle, Geobge R. Pattttllo, 

Secretary. President. 

Toronto, July 20th, 1906. 

©ntario IDistorical Society 






I. The Insurrection in the Short Hills in 1838. Lt.-Col K Criikshank - 5 

II. The Hamiltons of Queenston, Kingston and Hamilton H K. Gardiner 24 

III. The Petuns. Lt.-Col. G. W. Bruce - 34 

IV. The Nottawasaga River Route. G. K. Mills, B.A. - - - - 40 

V. The First Commission of the Peace for the Dirtriet of Mecklenburg. 

R. V. Rogers, LL.D. - 49 

VI. Some Events in the History of Kingston. W. S. Kixus. B.A. - - 78 

VII. Early History of the Anglican Church in Kingston. Rev. Archdeacon 

McMorine, D.D. 90 

VIII. Some Epochs in the Story of Old Kingston. Miss Agnes Maule 

Machar ("Fidelis") - 102 

IX. The Navies on Lake Ontario in the War of 1812. Notes from the Papers 
of a Naval Officer then serving on His Majesty's Ships. Barlow 
Cumberland, M.A. 124 

X. Cataraqui. Charles MacKenzie 142 

XI. Captain William Gilkison. Notes from a Paper prepared by Miss 

Augusta Isabella Grant Gilkison 147 

"S- XII. Early Churches in the Niagara Peninsula, Stamford and Chippewa, with 
Marriage Records of Thomas and James Cummings, J. P., and 
Extracts from the Cummings Papers. Miss Janet Carnochan - 149 


The Great Seal of the Province of Quebec attached to "The First Commission 

of the Peace for the District of Mecklenburg " - - - - Frontispiece 

La Salle - - 81 

Within Fort Henry - 81 

An Ancient Plan Indeed ..--.. ..... 82 

A Plan 140 Years Old 85 

Kingston in 1796 - 87 

The Original St. George's Church, Kingston 90 

Archdeacon Stuart's Tomb 101 

Governor Simcoe's Council House, Queen Street, Kingston, 1792 - - - 118 

Shoal Tower, Kingston - - - - - -- - - - - 120 

Kingston in 1819 124 

A Scene on Lake Ontario. United States Sloop of War Gen. Pike, Commodore 
Chauncey, and the British Sloop of War Wolfe, Sir James Yeo, preparing 

for action, September 28th, 1813 -------- 130 

Kingston from Fort Henery ---------- 140 


By Lieut.-Col. E. Ckuikshank. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Niagara-on-the-Lake, June 8th, 1905.) 

The unsuccessful attempt to organize an insurrection at the Short 
Hills, in the Township of Pelham, in June 1838 is an interesting epi- 
sode which has received but scant consideration from most historians 
of that troubled time. Read's account is grotesquely inaccurate while 
Dent and Lindsay barely refer to it. Kingsford gives it a couple of 
pages, which it seems scarcely necessary to remark are disfigured by 
several grievous misprints and errors. Two of the leaders, Benjamin 
Wait and Linus Wilson Miller, wrote accounts of their captivity, but 
have little to say about the rising itself, and their statements, for 
obvious reasons, cannot as a rule be accepted without corroboration. 

Navy Island had been evacuated by Mackenzie and his followers 
on the 16th of January, and although public meetings were subse- 
quently assembled at intervals in most of the American towns and 
cities near the Canadian frontier to express sympathy and raise money 
for the refugees, and small bodies of men were reported to be drilling 
for their service at various places, no further attempt to make an inva- 
sion took place for several months. Meanwhile a considerable force of 
Incorporated Militia was organized for the defence of the Province of 
Upper Canada by voluntary enlistment, and the First Frontier Light 
Infantry, composed of ten companies, enrolled in the Niagara Distriet 
and commanded by Lieut. -Colonel John Clark, was stationed along the 
Niagara River, in conjunction with some small detachments of regular 
troops, which had arrived from Montreal. Colonel Hughes, of the 
24th Regiment, assumed the command of the frontier, which he retained 
until May, when he was relieved by Colonel H. D. Townsend, of 
the 32nd. 

On April 4th sentence of death was pronounced at Hamilton upon 
nine prisoners who had been aoncerned in Dr. Duncombe's rising near 
Brantford, three of whom were recommended for mercy and respited. 
The date of execution of the sentence upon Horatio Hill, Stephen 
Smith, Charles Walworth, Ephraim Cook, John Tufford and Nathan 
Town was fixed for the 20th of April. On the 13th of that month 



Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews were hung at Toronto. The exe- 
cution of these unfortunate men naturally excited bitter resentment, 
not unmingled with apprehensions for the lives of other prisoners, 
among their friends and sympathizers, both in Canada and the United 
States. On the following day the Executive Committee of the Cana- 
dian Refugee Republican Association met at Lockport, N.Y., where 
they ihad established their headquarters, to consider the situation and 
make arrangements for the forcible liberation of the prisoners at Ham- 
ilton. A body of volunteers wa3 easily enrolled for an attack upon 
the gaol on the night of April 19th, which Dr. J. T. Wilson and Linus 
Wilson Miller, a hare-brained young law student from Rochester, 
offered to lead. Upon arriving in Hamilton on the 18th they learned 
that the prisoners had been reprieved, and found the place thronged 
with militia, who had been called out to guard the gaol. Reports of 
preparations for an invasion and of the gathering of bodies of 
" patriots," as the American newspapers styled the refugees and their 
sympathizers in Buffalo, Lewiston, Lockport and Rochester, continued 
to keep the troops on the frontier on the alert. In the beginning cf 
May one small party from Buffalo landed on Point Abino, but hastily 
re-embarked after remaining there a few hours. On the 12th of that 
month Charles Durand was formally sentenced at Toronto to be hanged 
on the 24th and the remainder of the political prisoners awaiting trial 
were ordered to be discharged upon furnishing sureties for their good 
behavior for three years. Durand was reprieved, and three months 
later his sentence was commuted to banishment, upon which he went 
to join the refugees in Buffalo. On May 30th the steamboat Sir 
Robert Peel was captured and burnt by a party of " patriots " near 
the mouth of French Creek, in the St. Lawrence, in consequence of 
which Governor Marcy, of New York, was induced to offer a reward 
of $500 for the apprehension of William Johnson, late of French Creek, 
and $250 each for the arrest of Daniel McLeod, Samuel C. Frey and 
Robert Smith, refugees from Upper Canada. Sir George Arthur, the 
Lieutenant-Governor of that Province, also issued a proclamation, 
offering a reward for the capture of the offenders, but strictly for- 
bidding any acts of retaliation upon the persons or property of citizens 
of the United States, of which indiscreet threats had been publicly 
made. The statutory annual muster of the militia of Upper Canada 
took place, as usual, on the 4th of June. Colonel James Kerby's report 
to Colonel Townsend of his inspection of the 2nd Lincoln Regiment 
has been preserved and has more than ordinary interest from subse- 
quent events. 


" Drummondville, 5th June, 1838. 

" Sir, — I beg leave to report for the information of His Excellency 
the Major-General Commanding, that I went to review the Second 
Lincoln Regiment of Militia at Allanburgh yesterday, the usual place 
of rendezvous, a regiment I have had the honor of commanding for 
many years. 

" I regret to remark that a rumor of disaffection had prevailed 
amongst some of the companies residing at Short Hills and on that 
account I felt anxious to see the regiment and ascertain, if possible, if 
such a feeling was manifest on their part. I have, however, to assure 
you that I discovered nothing of the kind. Lieut.-Colonel Rorback, in 
command, received me at 1 o'clock in a manner most gratifying to my 
feelings. Every attention was paid me during the time I read the 
Governor's proclamation relative to the recent acts of outrage, and 
entreated their forbearance against any act of retaliation being com- 
mitted by any. I continued in offering a few further remarks and 
proposed to close the duties of the day by giving three cheers for the 
Queen and Governor, which was with enthusiasm responded to. 

" I have it upon paper that the strength of the regiment was nearly 
one thousand men— very few guns — and the two companies alluded 
to were far the strongest. A troop of dragoons, consisting of upwards 
of fifty, added much to our appearance. 

" The utmost good order prevailed during my presence and at 
5 o'clock I left the grounds and every person had gone home."* 

Colonel Samuel Street's regiment, the 3rd Lincoln, was inspected 
at Chippawa, where it turned out in nearly equal strength. 

The refugees on the American side, however, were still active and 
undismayed by the preparations for repelling them. They openly 
boasted that they could assemble five hundred well-armed men at any 
point on the frontier in a few hours, and that they had secreted more 
than twelve hundred stands of arms and six pieces of cannon. At this 
time the entire force of United States troops available to maintain the 
neutrality laws on this frontier did not exceed ninety men. 

On the night of the 17th of -Time a body of more than two hun- 
dred armed men marched through Lewiston on their way to Clark's 
Point, on the river, two or throe miles below where a small schooner 
and two scows were moored in readiness to convey them across the 
river for the attack of Queenston, which was garrisoned by a single 
company of the First Frontier Light Infantry, under Captain Lewis 

* "Canndian Arol.ives," C. 609-2, p-. 41, 42. 


Palmer. In anticipation of success, the " patriots " had provided 
themselves with printed proclamations announcing the capture of the 
two forts at Niagara. When the order to embark was given to this dis- 
orderly rabble only twenty-three persons obeyed, and an alarm being 
spread soon after that the United States troops were marching against 
them, the whole party dispersed before daybreak. Next day fifty reg- 
ular infantry and the crew of a revenue cutter arrived from Buffalo and 
took up their quarters near the landing. Shortly after this a depot of 
a hundred stand of arms was seized by these troops at Dickenson's 
tavern, on the Lockport road, and their determination to maintain the 
neutrality of the country was firmly declared. On the Canadian side 
William Woodruff, an influential and respected citizen of St. David's, 
was arrested on suspicion of complicity in this affair, but soon released. 
Disconcerting as these events must have been to the refugees, the 
mo3t sanguine and resolute among them did not abandon their design 
of entering Canada, and on the 10th of June they reassembled at 
Schlosser and crossed to Grand Island, where they were supplied with 
arms and ammunition. That night twenty-six of them, among whom 
were Alexander McLeod and John James McNulty, who had been con- 
cerned in the insurrection at Montgomery's tavern ; Jacob Beemer, 
who had been indicted for participation in Duncombe's rising, and 
Samuel Chandler, of Pelham, and Benjamin Wait, of Willoughby, 
who had joined Mackenzie on Navy Island, landed a few miles above 
Chippawa and encamped for a day or two in a large and dense tamarac 
swamp, in the Township of Willoughby, where they endeavored to 
remain concealed until they could make their way further inland. 
Chandler, who was born in Connecticut, but had been domiciled in Can- 
ada for many years as a wagon-maker, and had acquired sufficient in- 
fluence to be appointed a justice of the peace, seems to have planned the 
expedition. He possessed a wide acquaintance, and not a little influ- 
ence among the inhabitants of the Township of Pelham, many of whom, 
he believed, were ready to co-operate with them, and in evidence of 
this he displayed a list of not less than five hundred and twenty-six 
persons whose names had already been enrolled. Wait was quite as 
hopeful and enthusiastic, and between them they had succeeded in 
inducing James Morrow, a tanner from Pennsylvania, to join the 
party. He was a Roman Catholic, of Irish parentage, who possessed 
some means and had received some military training. It is stated that 
he was assured that three thousand men were ready to assist in an 
insurrection. After securing a supply of bread from a baker in 
Chippawa, who appears to have been a sympathizer, they divided into 


several parties and commenced their march for the Short Hills, about 
fifteen miles distant, which they had selected as their base of opera- 
tions. They reassembled on June 12th at the barn of Lewis Wilson, 
Avbo was then a refugee in Buffalo, but soon removed to a commanding 
position in the woods on the farm of Aaron Winchester, another sym- 
pathizer, about three miles from the hamlet of St. John's, and seven 
miles from St. Catharines, whence they possessed a wide view of the 
surrounding country in all directions, and a perfect labyrinth of 
ravines, thickets, and winding roads would favor their operations and 
render it difficult to take them by surprise. On the same day they 
notified Major-General Daniel MeLeod, the recently-appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Patriot army, who was at Lockport, by special 
messenger, that they were encamped among the Short Hills, awaiting 
orders from the " Provisional Government." It was decided that their 
movement was premature, and might imperil the success of the general 
insurrection, which was being planned to take place upon " Inde- 
pendence Day," and Linus Wilson Miller, who had been appointed 
an aide-de-camp to MeLeod, with the rank of Colonel, was detailed to 
proceed to their camp and instruct them to return to the United States. 
He succeeded in joining them undiscovered, with two companions, 
when their number was increased to thirty, but although some of the 
neighboring inhabitants visited them daily and even supplied them 
with provisions, they resolutely refused to assist them until they were 
joined by a reinforcement of five hundred men from the American 
side, of which they had spoken. They had elected Morrow as their 
commander, with the rank of Colonel, while Wait had been made 
Major, Beemer and MeLeod, Captains, and Chandler, Commissary. 

By this time a report that a number of suspicious persons had been 
seen in the vicinity of Chippawa had reached the ears of James Cum- 
mings, a vigilant magistrate at that place, who sent out some men to 
investigate. Their deserted encampment in the swamp was discovered 
and the number of its occupants was closely estimated from traces they 
had left behind. Information was also obtained that their destination 
Avas some part of the Township of Pclham, where Mackenzie himself 
had found shelter and assistance during his flight to Buffalo, and he 
was still supposed to have numerous wellwishers and adherents. 

On the 8th of June a 3mall troop of Provincial cavalry from 
Toronto, known as the Queen's Lancers and commanded by Lieut. 
Magrath, had arrived at Queenston for the special duty of patrolling 
the river more effectively, and now a sergeant's party was detailed to 


proceed to Pelham to gain intelligence of the appearance of any sus- 
picious persons. 

Meanwhile, Morrow's followers had absolutely refused to obey the 
militia order from McLeod to return, which Miller read to them, before 
they had succeeded in " striking a blow," and he had attempted to 
return to Lockport with this answer, but found the river bank so closely 
watched that he went back to their camp in the hope of persuading 
them at least to remain quiet until the fourth of July, when they could 
join in the general movement arranged for that date. They still 
remained undisturbed in their encampment and had enlisted a number 
of new recruits, mostly very young men or persons of no position. 
Jacob Beemer, for whom Miller had conceived a great dislike, seemed 
to have gained the ascendant in their councils and directed their opera- 
tions. On the 20th they were joined by five or six persons from the 
United States, who confidently assured them that they would soon be 
folloAved by Major-General McLeod and three hundred men from Lock- 
port. Encouraged by this information and finding that they numbered 
forty-nine men, they determined to attack the little party of Lancers 
which ihad lately taken up its quarters at Osterhout's tavern in St. 
John's. This consisted of a corporal and twelve men, commanded by 
Sergeant Robert Bailey, who, notwithstanding their designation as 
lancers, were only armed with swords and pistols. 

In order to surround the village and prevent the escape of any of 
this outpost, it was determined to advance in three divisions. At nine 
o'clock the first of these, headed by Beemer, marched off and on their 
way broke into the house of Overholt, a very old man, who was 
obnoxious to some of them, not only because politically he was a Tory, 
but also because he had served in the Hessian contingent of Burgoyne's 
army and afterwards in Butler's Rangers during the American Revo- 
lution. This man was robbed by them of $1,000 and his son of $300 
in gold and silver coin. The second band, led by Morrow himself, left 
camp two hours later, uniting with Beemcr's party on the road, but 
did not arrive at St. John's until about two o'clock in the morning, by 
which time the third division also came up. A sentry who was posted 
outside the tavern challenged upon their approach, when he was fired 
at. He discharged his pistol and ran into the house, alarming Ser- 
geant Bailey, who was in bed. The doors and windows were barri- 
caded and the house was soon surrounded by the insurgents, shouting 
and discharging their firearms, with which they seem to have been 
well provided. The Lancers replied with their pistols from the win- 
dows of the upper story. About fifty shots are said to have penetrated 


the roof and walls, but only one of the defenders was wounded, while 
they succeeded in shooting two of their assailants and kept them at 
bay for half an hour when they began to bring bundles of straw, with 
the avowed intention of burning the building, at the same time raising 
fierce cries of " No quarter." To avoid this horrible fate, Bailey agreed 
to surrender. When day broke the prisoners were marched away some 
distance into the woods and their captors discussed the question what 
should be done with them in their presence. Beemer and Chandler 
warmly urged that they should be hung and seven were actually selected 
for execution. Morrow and Miller, on the other hand, protested 
against this cruel decision and advised that they should be released 
after taking an oath not to bear arm3 again during the contest. Their 
opinion finally prevailed and the prisoners were formally paroled and 
released. The number of the insurgents seen by them was roughly 
estimated to exceed one hundred, and the most exaggerated accounts 
spread rapidly and created a great sensation on both sides of the 

A correspondent of the New York Journal of Commerce, writing 
from Chippawa that day, June 21st, said: 

" I arrived here to-day and found this place- in a great excitement, 
owing to a battle which took place last night at Short Hills, about 
twelve miles hence, between a mounted troop of 100 British lancers 
and about 2,000 patriots. 

" It resulted in the loss of four lancers and the capture of nearly 
all the rest. The patriots are fast gaining ground, and will not recede 
until they succeed or are exterminated. This place is garrisoned with 
five hundred regulars, the 24th Regiment, and the lancers, besides 
volunteers. Every person is thoroughly searched before he can leave 
the place. 

" The steamboat which lands the passengers from Buffalo is 
searched. They very much fear an eruption in this place, and for this 
reason every hotel is under guard and every passenger searched by 
armed men." 

The editor of the Lewiston Telegraph, a pronounced and ardent 
partisan of the revolutionary movements, furnished his readers on the 
same day with this account: 

" An engagement took place last night at the Short Hills, Niagara 
District, U.O., between the patriots and a company of the Queen's 
Lancers . The Short Hills are thirteen miles from Niagara Falls and 
comprise a district of uneven surface, covered with thick woods and 
swamps, and admirably adapted to that species of warfare that the 


patriots appear to have adopted. It is inhabited by men of a deter- 
mined character and liberal principles and we have long expected an 
outbreak in that quarter. 

" A company of the Queen's Lancers were sent into that quarter 
a week ago to put down any demonstration of patriotism. This morn- 
ing at ten o'clock an express arrived at Niagara, who stated that the 
Whole Company had been surprised and after the loss of a few 
killed, all who survived were taken prisoners. 

" The report was at first doubted and a gentleman of the highest 
respectability went over to Queenston to ascertain the truth. Captain 
Palmer, the Commandant at that place, admitted that, there had been 
a skirmish between ten of the lancers and two hundred patriots, in 
which the former lost their horses and equipments and were all taken 
prisoners, but were afterwards released. 

" The leader of the patriots is said to be Samuel Chandler. 
" We believe the whole company of lancers have been taken pris- 
oners and are still retained as such. Philip Bender was the only man 
who escaped, and he was wounded in the leg. McLeod is supposed to 
be one of the patriot leaders and Samuel C. Frey is also supposed to 
be among them. For the last ten days the Canadian refugees have 
been returning by night in small parties, and we have understood their 
rendezvous to be in the Short Hills. 

" This morning 110 regulars and 3ome volunteers were ordered 
from Chippawa and Drummondville into that district, but as the 
patriots have now commenced the war, the woods are alive with them 
and the regulars will probably be all cut to pieces within twenty-four 

The Daily Buffalonian, another enthusiastic supporter of the 
" patriot " movement, announced a few days later that : 

" The war in Canada will soon commence in earnest. There is 
little doubt that the whole London District is in arms. We predicted 
this when Lount and Matthews fell. That event produced a change in 
the feelings of the people of Canada, at which the Loyalists trembled. 
Thousands who before had been moderate or constitutional reformers 
then became radicals of the deepest dye. 

" The silent preparations for the movement have been going on for 
three months. Arms have been collected and buried at different points, 
both in Canada and the United States. Several thousands of Cana- 
dians on either side of the line have signed the oath of freedom." 

These extravagant expectations were, however, doomed to speedy 
and complete disappointment. The prompt advance of another detach- 


inent of the lancers, acting in conjunction with several companies of 
the Second Lincoln Militia and a troop of local dragoons, upon the 
21st of June, caused the insurgents to abandon their camp and disperse 
in. great baste. Several prisoners were taken, among them Samuel 
Chandler, who was captured single-handed by Cornet Heath of the 
lancers, while on his way to purchase provisions. He was formidably 
armed and on his person was found one of the proclamations of June 
7th, announcing the capture of Forts George and Missassauga. Lieut. - 
Colonel Rorback's letter describing the movements of his regiment has 
never been published. 

" Stamford, 23rd June, 1838. 

" Sir, — On hearing the report of the attack on the men stationed 
at St. John's, I felt it my duty to wait on you to receive instructions 
relative to the muster of the men of the 2nd Lincoln Militia for duty 
should you deem it necessary, and to endeavor to obtain an order for 
arms. As you directed me to give such directions as might be requi- 
site, I ordered out four companies of the regiment, stationed since on 
the line between Queenston and Chippawa, and at the different cross 
roads, and went myself to St. John's, taking Captain McMicking, Cap- 
tain and Adjutant Gordon, and 44 dragoons, where we remained the 
night of the 21st, having piquets out in different directions and also 
a patrol of six dragoons the whole night. Yesterday we proceeded to 
Rice's, at the Short Hills, near which I met Captain Hepburne with 
his company, who came to meet me there, as also Captain Bradshaw 
and his company and some volunteers. We then proceeded on the 
Canboro road, about four miles, with sixty mounted men and the 
infantry, about sixty. We took a cross road, about two miles, to where 
it was said was the encampment of the rebels. I then extended the 
two companies and went through the bush, directing the cavalry to keep 
a good lookout at the different cross roads and meet us at Rice's. We 
made no discovery on going through there, but on coming out got infor- 
mation of another place. We then proceeded to the cross roads and 
divided. I went to where I had information of some of the arms, etc., 
taken from our men at St. John's, placing the other party under charge 
of Captain Gordon, to proceed to the other encampment ground, 
where they made such discoveries as I presume he reported to you. We 
then went through the Short Hills generally and returned again to St. 
John's at 5 o'clock, where we found all quiet. 

" The company under command of Captain Amos Bradshaw pro- 
ceeded from Rice's to Misener's Bridge, on the Chippawa River, for 


the purpose of cutting off the communication between the rebels and the 
Short Hills. The company under the command of Lieut. John Thomp- 
son were ordered to remain at Rice's until the morning. 

" It gives me much satisfaction to state to you that the whole of 
the officers and men behaved in the most orderly manner and seemed 
determined to do their duty. 

I have the honor to be, 

Sir, etc., etc., 


Lt.-Col. 2d Lincoln."* 
Colonel Towxsexd, 

Commanding the Niagara Frontier, etc., etc. 

The systematic way in which all roads leading to the frontier were 
guarded and the woods scoured in the vicinity of their late encamp- 
ment, convinced the insurgents that there was little prospect of escap- 
ing across the Niagara and most of them fled westward, with the 
intention of reassembling at Sloat's tavern, fourteen miles from Ham- 
ilton, on the road to Grand River, with the purpose of entering the 
London District, in the hope of inciting a rising there. This news 
reached Hamilton on the morning of Sunday, the 24th, when Colonel 
Allan MacNab instantly ordered out four militia regiments from the 
Gore District, the 3d Gore, the Beverley regiment, the Queen's Own 
and the Queen's Rangers, to intercept them. Finding their retreat 
in that direction cut off, many of them turned back and were captured 
in detail. Sir George Arthur at once issued a proclamation forbidding 
all persons from leaving or entering the Province, unless provided with 
passports, and offered a reward of £250 for the apprehension of 
Morrow, who was soon after given up to the militia by a Scotch 
farmer, whojxmnd him hiding in the Avoods. Miller, Wait, Beemer, 
McLeod and McNulty, were all taken. Six of the insurgents were 
captured by the Gainsborough militia and some were even found lurk- 
ing on Gull Island, in Mohawk Bay, near the mouth of Grand River, 
in the vain hope of getting across Lake Erie. In all, thirty-one per- 
sons, including two women, were arrested. Dr. J. T. Wilson was the 
only person of consequence who escaped. In Wait's possession was 
found a flag with two stars and the word " Liberty " embroidered upon 
it. Morrow had some maps and plans, and letters were taken, reveal- 
ing the existence of a widespread plot. 

* Canadian Archives, Series C, Vol. 610, p. 201. 


The Daily Buffalonian, of July 2nd, relates that : 

" The most extensive conspiracy has been going forward for the 
last three months, from one end of Canada to the other, from 
the Thousand Islands, the Pirate Johnson's fastnesses, to 
Maiden. Lines of secret posts have been run and until the skirmish 
at the Short Hills all was secret. Papers were taken there which let 
the matter out. The general movement was to have been on the 

The exasperation of the refugees and their sympathizers in the 
United States at the mass of the Canadian population, because they 
refused to be drawn into a revolutionary movement, knew no bounds. 
The editor of the Lewiston Telegraph, in relating the arrest of Morrow, 
vented his disappointment in these terms: 

" Brave and chivalrous himself, he believed the Canadians would 
rally to the standard the moment it was raised, but he was doomed, and 
we hope it will be a lesson to Americans not to embark in any similar 
enterprise for the assistance of that cowardly people. They have shown 
themselves an inert, stupid mass, without a spark of the fire of 
seventy-six. A people whom neither the murder of their leaders, the 
imprisonment of their friends, the loss of their property or the tyran- 
nical acts of a foreign despotism can arouse to resistance, deserve to be 
slaves, and sympathy and assistance for such a people is utterly thrown 
away. There are some to whom these remarks do not apply, some who 
would gladly peril everything for the redemption of their country, but 
the great mass of the people, who alone can effect a revolution, are 
stupid and indifferent." 

Morrow seems to have maintained a thoroughly defiant attitude for 
some time after being taken. It is related that on being conducted 
through Queenston on his way to Niagara gaol, he was offered a glass 
of wine, which he accepted, and proposed the toast " May Canlida 
never become quiet until the American eagle floats on the Heights of 

Three of the prisoners, Doan, Hart and Simpson, were admitted 
as Queen's evidence, and Morrow, Wait, and Chandler were tried at 
Niagara before Justice Jones, on July 21st. They were convicted and 
sentenced to be hung on the .'30th. Wait and Chandler were 
recommended for mercy by the jury, the latter particularly, because 
of " his previous good character and his good feeling and humanity 
towards his neighbors," and from consideration for his large family. 
Morrow was duly executed on the day named, but the other two were 
respited and their sentence was ultimately commuted to one of trans- 


portation for life. George Cooley, of New York, was tried and con- 
victed on the day of Morrow's execution, and upon the 1st, 2d and 3d 
of August Linus Wilson Miller, of New York; William Reynolds, of 
Pennsylvania; Norman Mallory, of Chicago, and James Gemmill, 
John Grant, Murdoch McFadden, John James McNulty, Alexander 
McLeod, David Taylor James Waggoner, Garret Van Camp, John 
Vernon, George Buck, Jacob Beemer, Erastus Warren and John "\\ . 
Brown, British subjects by birth or naturalization, were put upon trial. 
Reynolds, Mallory and Warren pleaded guilty and prayed for mercy. 
Miller's attorney set up a plea of insanity on behalf of his client, but 
all were convicted and sentenced to death on the 25th of August. The 
jury strongly recommended Miller and others for mercy on account 
of their youth. Miller was only twenty years of age, Reynolds and 
Buck were eighteen, McFadden but seventeen. Several prisoners were 
then acquitted. Petitions for clemency for the condemned men were 
signed by Alexander Hamilton, Sheriff of the Niagara District, and 
other influential residents of the vicinity, as well as by many inhabi- 
tants of the State of New York. The wives of Wait and Chandler 
made a personal and effective appeal to Lord Durham, who instantly 
instructed Sir George Arthur to respite all the prisoners under sen- 
tence and send him a full report of their cases, at the same time call- 
ing his attention to a despatch from Lord Glenelg, the Colonial Sec- 
retary, dated the 21st of April, 1838, announcing " the earnest desire 
of the Government that the utmost lenity compatible with public 
safety should be exercised towards the insurgents." In reply, Arthur 
recommended that the worst offender among the British subjects should 
be executed and the remainder transported or confined in the [peni- 
tentiary for a term of years. The Governor-General declined to 
concur, and reiterated his request for a report, with full information. 
Accordingly, on the 27th and 28th of August, Arthur convened the 
Executive Council, of whom Robert Baldwin Sullivan, William Allan, 
Augustus Baldwin and William Henry Draper attended. They 
reaffirmed their previous opinion that " prompt and exemplary punish- 
ment of the criminals implicated in the late excursion is necessary for 
the public safety," and recommended that Jacob Beemer should be exe- 
cuted, that Samuel Chandler, Benjamin Wait and Alexander McLeod 
should be transported for life, and that Erastus Warren should be com- 
mitted to the penitentiary for fourteen years, and John W. Brown for 
three years. The Council declined to recommend any of these prisoners 
for unconditional pardon, and stated " their opinion that the punish- 
ment of all these criminals is essentially necessary for the preservation 


of the colony and for the purpose of deterring those inclined to enmity 
with the Province from further reiteration of hostile attempts against 
it." In respect to Beemer, however, the Governor-General overruled 
the recommendation of the Executive Council and commuted his sen- 
tence to transportation for life. 

Hon. W. H. Draper to James Cummings, at Chippawa. 

Hamilton, 4th March, 1838. 

My Dear Sir, — I have heard that you are conducting an inquiry 
into the conduct and proceedings of some of the people of Pelham, who 
are suspected of being no better than they ought to be. The enclosed 
papers may be useful to you. They were taken among those of 
McKenzie after our skirmish at Montgomery's on the 7th Dec. last. 

Be careful of them and return them at some convenient opportunity. 

(From original letter in my possession.) 

Proclamation by His Excellency Sir George Arthur, Knight Com- 
mander of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province of Upper Canada, Major-General 
Commanding Her Majesty's Forces therein, etc., etc. 

Whereas, on the morning of the 21st of the present month of June 
a large body of armed men assembled in the Township of Pelham in 
the Niagara District and attacked and plundered a house in that neigh- 
borhood of a large sum of money and other property and fired upon and 
overpowered a small detachment of the embodied militia there 

And whereas, information has been received by me that certain 
evil-disposed persons connected with the brigands who have of late 
molested and disturbed the peace of the American and British fron- 
tiers have crossed the Niagara River and lurk and secrete themselves 
in parts of the District of Niagara with the knowledge and conniv- 
ance of 3ome of the disaffected resident inhabitants. 

And whereas, it is necessary for the peace and security of the Dis- 
trict of Niagara that the ingress and egress of idle and evil-minded 


persons should be restrained and prevented and that the perpetrators 
of the above outrage should be brought to condign punishment. 

I do therefore strictly order and command all officers, magistrates, 
and others whom it may concern, that no person should be permitted to 
land upon or leave the shore on the British side of the Niagara River 
coming from or going to the United States territory, unless he can give 
a full and reasonable account of himself and show that he is coming 
or going in the prosecution of his lawful affairs and business, which 
person shall be furnished with a passport to secure him from further 
hindrance or molestation. 

And I do hereby earnestly call upon all magistrates, officers, and 
other loyal subjects of the Queen for their best and united exertions in 
restoring the peace and tranquillity of the Province, in the prevention 
of crime and disorder and in the apprehension of the guilty, and I 
assure them of every support and assistance which may be required 
for these purposes to the utmost extent of the civil and military power 
which Her Majesty has been pleased to place in my hands. 

Given under my hand and seal at arms at Toronto this 22nd day of 
June in the year of our Lord 1838, of Her Majesty's reign the second. 

By command of His Excellency, 

Geo. Arthur. 
C. A. Hagerman, Atty.-Gen. 

D. Cameron, Secy. 

(From the Buffalo Daily Star, June 27th, 1838.) 

Upper Canada. 

By His Excellency Sir George Arthur, Knight Commander of the 
Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Province of Upper Canada, Major-General Commanding Her 
Majesty's Forces, therein. 

Whereas, the body of armed rebels under the command of one 
Jambs Morreau who, on the morning of the 21st of this present month, 
attacked a small advanced post of the Queen's Lancers by whom they 
were most gallantly resisted, have already fled from the Militia Forces 
sent in pursuit of them and are seeking to escape the consequences of 


disturbing the peace and tranquillity of this Province and of their 
infatuated and futile attempt to subvert our institutions. 

And whereas, these parties have held out expectations of aid and 
reinforcements from the inhabitants of the United States, not reflect- 
ing that there are thousands of British-born subjects who, though emi- 
grants to that country, preserve their attachment to their native land 
and to their sovereign and who are ready, should occasion require them, 
to rush forward to support the Government and put down any insur- 
rection here. 

And whereas, some of these insurgents have already been taken and 
from the arrangements now made and from the spirit and zeal dis- 
played in their pursuit by the loyal inhabitants of the country, their 
escape is rendered almost impossible. 

And whereas, there is reason to fear that some persons through 
ignorance and others from disaffection may harbor, conceal, or assist 
these fugitives in their endeavors to escape from justice, 

Now, I do hereby offer a reward of Five Hundred Pounds to any 
person or persons who shall apprehend the said James Morreau 
and cause him to be brought to justice, and a free pardon will be given 
to any of his followers, not being ringleaders or having committed any 
murder, who shall arrest and deliver up the said James Morreau. 

And I do caution all persons not to harbor, conceal, or in any 
manner to assist these rebels and fugitives, since by so doing they will 
commit a high crime involving consequences of the most severe and 
penal character. 

And I do further express my warmest thanks and acknowledgments 
to Her Majesty's loyal and faithful subjects whose exertions against 
these criminals have rendered their efforts vain and have compelled 
them to flight and dispersion, hereby assuring them that I am using 
every power at my command for their safeguard and protection and 
for the bringing to immediate justice the invaders of their country. 

Given under my hand and seal at arms at Drummondville this 
twenty-third day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-eight and of Her Majesty's reign, the second. 

, George Arthur. 

By His Excellency's command, 

W. H. Draper, Solicitor-General. 
Printed by T. Sewell, Reporter office, Niagara. 
(From handbill in possession of the Niagara Historical Society.) 

20 ontario historical society. 

Confidential Circular. 

Government House, 20th June, 1838. 

Sib, — In consequence of the various and often contradictory 
reports of assemblages and meetings of disaffected and evil-disposed 
persons within the Province, acting in supposed concert with refugees 
and vagabond foreigners beyond its limits, it has occurred to the 
Lieutenant-Governor that the sheriffs in their several districts may 
have it in their power by the exercise of due activity and discretion to 
obtain extensive and correct information on this subject which might 
be of great use to the Government. 

I am therefore commanded by His Excellency to request that you 
will, by means of your deputies and by communication with such loyal 
subjects within your district as you may see fit to consult with, en- 
deavor to gain correct intelligence of any seditious and traitorous pro- 
jects or designs which may be agitated or discussed by ill-disposed 
individuals and that from time to time, as occasion may warrant you, 
report thereupon to me for His Excellency's information. 

I beg to add that the Lt.-Governor anticipates very great advantage 
from your exertions at the present moment. 

I have the honor to be, 

Your obedient servant, 

John Macauley. 
To the Sheriff of the Niagara District. 

Circular letter from Alexander Hamilton, Sheriff of the Niagara 
District, to certain Magistrates of that District. 

Queenston, 27th June, 1838. 

Sir, — In furtherance of the within communication from the Gov- 
ernment House, I take the liberty of calling upon you to assist me in 
carrying into effect the views of the Lt.-^rovernor therein expressed 
and have to request that you will take every means in your power to 
discover any such traitorous correspondences or meetings in your 
vicinity and take such measures in conjunction with any other magis- 
trate or magistrates as you may deem meet or as circumstances may 
warrant, immediately reporting to me what may have been done. 

I would also observe that your assistance is particularly requested 


in discovering and apprehending any persons who may have been 
engaged in the late insurrection at St. John's either directly or indi- 
rectly by furnishing the insurgents with provisions, arms, etc., or aid- 
ing or abetting them in any way ; at the same time I would recommend 
that great caution may be used in the apprehension of any person 
without direct or at least very strong presumptive proof of their guilt 
being adduced. 

I note below the names of other magistrates to whom I have also 
written that all may act in concert as also with the commanding officer 
of the station in your respective neighborhoods to whom the produc- 
tion of this will be a sufficient authority for furnishing such military 
assistance as may be required. 

Alexander Hamilton, 


P.S. — Please acknowledge receipt of this by return mail communi- 
cating with me by the same channel once or twice a week while the 
present excitement prevails. 

George Rykert, Esq., St. Catharines. 
Henry Nelles, Esq., Grimsby. 
David Thompson, Esq., York. 

A. S. St. John, Esq., Dunnville. 

B. Tench, Esq., Port Colborne. 
J. Johnston, Esq., Humberstone. 
William Smith, Esq., Fort Erie. 
James Cummings, Esq., Chippawa. 
John Davis, Esq., St. John's. 

Duncan McFarland, Esq., Port Robinson. 

The Toronto Patriot of July 2nd, 1838, contains a list of twenty- 
four persons taken at or near the Short Hills and sent to that city. 

From Connecticut. 

Samuel Chandler, aged 48, wagonmaker. 

From Pennsylvania. 

James Morreau, aged 38, tanner. 
William Reynolds, aged 18, saddler. 


From New York. 

Garret Van Camp, aged 28, laborer. 
Linus W. Miller, aged 20, student^at-law. 
George Cooley, aged 29, farmer. 
Norman Mallory, aged 23, laborer. 
Loren Hedger, aged 27, blacksmith. 
Solomon Kemp, aged 37, shoemaker. 

From Scotland. 

George Buck, aged 18, farmer. 
James Gemmill, aged 22, laborer. 
Murdoch McFadden, aged 19, farmer. 


Freeman Brady, aged 21, farmer. 
Robert Kelly, aged 30, blacksmith. 
Ebenezer Rice, aged 48, innkeeper. 
David Taylor, aged 24, farmer. 
Abraham Clarke, aged 33, blacksmith. 
John J. McNulty, aged 30, carpenter. 
John Grant, aged 34, wheelwright. 
Street Chase, aged 33, wagonmaker. 
James Waggoner, aged 38, farmer. 
Edward Seymour, aged 26, laborer. 
Alexander McLeod. 
Benjamin Wait. 

Hon. W. H. Draper to James Cummings at Chippawa. 

Toronto, 14th July, 1838. 

My Dear Sir, — As the court for the trial of the Short Hills pris- 
oners opens on Wednesday I am anxious to save time by having the 
witnesses ready on the first day. Will you do me the favor to request 
the officer in command to direct the attendance of Cornet Heath, Ser- 
geant Bailey and such of the Lancers as have been used as witnesses 
in the affair already ? Also two of the magistrates taking the examin- 
ation should be in attendance. Such other witnesess as may be within 
your reach should be notified. And if Hart and Warren are in a con- 
dition to admit of their being removed they should be sent down in 


custody to Niagara gaol. You can send a mittimus founded on their 
own examinations. 

I shall endeavor to have the indictment ready on the first day to 
go before the grand jury. 

(From original letter in my possession.) 

Hon. W. H. Draper to James Cummings at Chippawa. 

Toronto, 27th July, 1838. 

My Dear Sie, — May I beg you will see that the rifle, etc., taken 
from Benjamin Wait are brought down on Wednesday. I shall also 
require the presence of Richard Savage and generally of all the wit- 
nesses in the different cases. Any steps you can take to ensure their 
punctual attendance will greatly facilitate the proceedings. 

Morrow's execution will take place on Monday and I have no doubt 
the example will be beneficial. I sincerely hope it may prevent a 
recurrence of these mad attempts and give peace to the country. Most 
sincerely do I trust that we shall not have any more prisoners to take 
for new offences but that the punishment of those now in custody will 
be the last that will be necessary. 

(From original letter in my possession.) 

Brooke Young to James Cummings. 

Culdaff Cottage, Guelph, 
12th Nov., 1838. 

You have been misinformed in the statement that " the property 
of James Brown was left in my office at the Ontario House during the 
examination of the Short Hills prisoners/' It was a considerable time 
previous to the attack upon the Lancers that James Brown was appre- 
hended at the Ferry in the act of smuggling across to this side the 
rifle-barrels, etc., which you have detailed in your letter. He was 
brought up to Colonel Townsend and the articles taken from him in my 
presence, and he was distinctly told by Colonel Townsend that they 
should not be restored to him again as there was but little doubt from 
his ascertained character and the illegality and suspicious nature of 
the whole transaction that the implements were intended to be manu- 
factured by him into arms for the use of the banditti then known to be 
collecting in the immediate vicinity of Brown's residence. 

(From original letter in my possession.) 




By H. F. Gaedinee, Beantfoed. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the O. H. S. at Niagara-on-the-Lake, June 8th, 1905.) 

A prominent man in Queenston a century ago was Hon. Robert 
Hamilton, descended from Alexander Hamilton, of Silverton Hill, 
whose brother James, of Cadyow, having been created a Lord of Par- 
liament 28th June, 1445, married Mary, eldest daughter of James the 
Second, King of Scotland, and became the ancestor, through his daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, of Henry Stuart, Earl of Darnley, husband of Mary 
Queen of Scots, and through his son James, Earl of Arran, the ancestor 
of the Dukes of Hamilton and Abercorn. The brothers, James and 
Alexander Hamilton, traced their origin to Gilbert de Hameldun, 
whose name occurs in the Chartulary of Paisley, 1272, and who was 
the father of 

Walter, who swore fealty to King Edward I. of England, 1292, 
and had two sons, 

1. David, ancestor of the Dukes of Hamilton. 

2. John, ancestor of the Earls of Haddington. 

Fifth in descent from David were Sir James of Cadyow and Alex- 
ander of Silverton Hill, above mentioned. 

Tenth in descent from Alexander Hamilton of Silverton Hill was 
John Hamilton, Minister of Bolton, born 1714, died 1797, who mar- 
ried 'Jane Wright, and had by her three sons and one daughter. 

The eldest son of the Minister of Bolton was Hon. Robert Hamil- 
ton, of Queenston, Upper Canada, who died in 1809. He is described 
as a merchant of Niagara, a member of the Land Board at that place, 
a member of the first Executive Council of Upper Canada in 1791, and 
first Judge of the District of Nassau, which extended from the River 
Trent on Bay Quinte to Long Point on Lake Erie. During the 
American Revolution Mr. Hamilton, in partnership with Richard 
Cartwright, established a store on Carlton Island, near the military 
post which was known as Fort Haldimand, and carried on an extensive 
trade with the Indians. Soon after the close of the war Mr. Hamilton 



.removed to Qneenston, and was appointed one of the local judges, 
having Lieut. -Colonel John Butler as his colleague ou the bench. 

Captain Patrick Campbell, who visited Niagara in December, 
1790, wrote: "Mr. Robert Hamilton, a gentleman of the first rank 
and property in the neighborhood, and one of the Governor's Council, 
came also to wait on me and invite me to his house, an honor 1 readily 
embraced. He and Mrs. Hamilton were so very obliging as to go along 
with me in their oak sled to see the grand Falls of Niagara." 

When the Duke of Kent, grandfather of our present King, visited 
Niagara Falls in 1791, he and his party lunched at Mr. Hamilton's 
on their way back. 

The Due de la Rochefoucault-Liancourt wrote in 1795 : " Mr. 
Hamilton, an opulent merchant, who is concerned in the whole inland 
trade of this part of America, possesses in Queen's Town a very fine 
house, built in the English style ; he has also a farm, a distillery and a 
tan-yard. This merchant bears an excellent character ; he is at present 
in England." 

The following entry is found in Mrs. Simcoe's diary, dated at 
Niagara, 30th July, 1792 : " We stopped and breakfasted at Mr. Ham- 
ilton's, a merchant who lives two miles from here at the landing, where 
the cargoes going to Detroit are landed and sent nine miles to Fort 
Chippewa. Mr. Hamilton has a very good stone house, the back rooms 
looking on the river. A gallery, the length of the house, is a delight- 
ful covered walk, both below and above, in all weather." 

J. Ross Robertson writes : " Hamilton built a large stone residence 
at Queenston, a brewery and a warehouse. In 1791 he was appointed 
a member of the Legislative Council, an office he retained until his 
death. For some time he distinguished himself, in connection with 
Mr. Cartwright, his old partner, also a member, by opposing Govern- 
ment measures, thereby incurring Lieut. -Governor Simcoe's lively dis- 
pleasure. In one of the Governor's despatches he denounces Hamilton 
as an avowed Republican, but when it was hinted that certain privileges 
would be taken away from them, the opposition ceased. Governor 
Simcoe acknowledged that he had received much valuable information 
respecting the commerce of the country, and particularly the Indian 
trade of the far West, from Mr. Hamilton." 

John Radenhurst, who was chief clerk in the office of the Surveyor- 
General for many years, states, in his evidence taken before Lord 
Durham's C omm ission in 1838, that the general price paid by specu- 
lators for the two-hundred-acre lots granted to the sons and daughters 
of TJ. E. Loyalists was from a gallon of rum up to perhaps six pounds, 


and he mentions Hon. Robert Hamilton as among the largest pur- 
chasers of these lands. Mr. Hamilton's acquisitions amounted to 
about one hundred thousand acres. 

Dr. William Canniff says, in his " Settlement of Upper Canada," 
page 335, that when Governor Simcoe's scheme for the promotion of 
higher education was under consideration the Hon. Robert Hamilton, 
of Queenston, had a brother living in Scotland, and it was through him 
that an offer was made first to the celebrated Dr. Chalmers. Not desir- 
ing to come, he mentioned the name of his friend Strachan, to whom 
the offer was then made. Mr. Strachan decided to come. Thus it was 
the veteran school teacher, the divine, the founder of universities was 
led to Canada to become the occupant of one of the most conspicuous 
places in the Province of Upper Canada. He arrived at Kingston the 
last day of the^year 1799, having been over four months on the way, 
but when Strachan arrived Simcoe had been recalled, and his scheme 
was at least in abeyance. A school was established at Kingston in 
1800 by the Hon. R. Gartwright for his sons, having Mr. Strachan for 
teacher, and among the other pupils were two eons of Hon. Robert 
Hamilton, James and Samuel. 

Hon. Robert Hamilton married, first, Mrs. Robertson, and sec- 
ondly, Mra. Catharine McLean, in whose honor the name of the Village 
of Shipman's Corners was changed to St. Catharines in 1809. (See 
Biography of Hon. W. H. Merritt, page 49.) By his first wife he had 
five sons, 

1. Robert, who married Mary Biggar and died in 1856, leaving 

2. George, of whom hereafter. 

3. James, who married Catharine Warren, and had a son Henry 
and a daughter Catherine. 

4. Alexander, who married Hannah Owen Jarvis, and died in 
1839, leaving isaue. 

5. Samuel. 

By his second wife Hon. Robert Hamilton had three sons and one 

6. Joseph. 

7. Peter Hunter, of whom hereafter. 

8. John, of whom hereafter. 

9. Mary. 


George Hamilton, who died in 1836, married Maria Lavinia 
Jarvis, who was born 31st December, 1788, and died 13th May, 1829. 
She was the eldest daughter of William Jarvis, Provincial Secretary 
of Upper Canada under Governor Simcoe, born 1756, died 1817, a 
native of Stamford, Connecticut, the fifth son of Samuel Jarvis and 
his wife Martha Seymour. William Jarvis rose from Ensign to 
Colonel in the Queen's Rangers, or First American Regiment, that 
commanded by John Graves Simcoe. He married December 12th, 
1785, Miss Hannah Owen Peters, daughter of Dr. Peters, an Epis- 
copal clergyman of Hebron, Conn. The children of George Hamilton 

1. Robert Jarvis, born 1812, died 1892. 

2. Catharine Hannah. 

3. Samuel Askin. 

4. Maria, who married W. H. Fitzgerald and had issue. 

5. George. 

6. Augusta Hannah. 

7. Catharine, who married Samuel Black Freeman and had issue. 

8. Caroline Augusta, who married Alfred Boultbee and had issue. 

A paper written by one of George Hamilton's granddaughters 
states that when the war of 1812 broke out he was living at Niagara-on- 
the- Lake with his wife, and deeming the frontier town an unsafe place 
of residence, they moved to the head of Lake Ontario. " The young 
mother, with her baby boy (Robert Jarvis Hamilton) in her arms, 
rode on horseback all through the bridle paths, till they reached the 
haven of refuge on the mountain side above the beautiful waters of 
Burlington Bay, and on the spot now occupied by the handsome resi- 
dence of Samuel Barker, Esq. (M.P.), the young couple built their 
log house, a house long famed for its generous hospitality, where even 
the red men of the forest were welcome guests. George Hamilton was 
what we would call to-day a public-spirited man, and took a deep 
interest in those about him. He laid out a number of streets in the 
town and presented to that corporation the Court House Square, the 
Wood Market (on John street), and our pretty little Gore Park on 
Xing street. He was for a number of years the Treasurer of the Coun- 
ties of Wentworth and Halton and took an active part in the politics 
of the day, being for a long period a member of the Parliament of 
Upper Canada. He served in the militia in the war of 1812, holding 
the rank of Captain." 


Tihe reference to the log house is a bit of poetic license. Mr. 
Durand occupied a house on that site before Mr. Hamilton's arrival. 

Charles Durand, who was born in that house in 1811, and who 
knew Mr. Hamilton well, writes: " No account of the early settlers of 
Hamilton would be complete without the mention of George Hamilton, 
who for over a quarter of a century was the best known man in 

His townspeople have not been unmindful of his services. In 
Hamilton cemetery, that beautiful City of the Dead, situated where 
Harvey and Vincent had their camp on Burlington Heights when the 
decisive battle of Stoney Creek was fought, June 5th, 1813, there stands 
in the vicinity of the chapel a handsome monument of polished granite, 
erected to his memory in 1894 by the Corporation of the City of Ham- 
ilton. What his descendants love best to remember of him was his 
kindness to the poor and needy. No suppliant was ever turned from 
his door. The late Major Glasgow told the following story about him: 

" In the year 1832 a party of immigrants sailed slowly up the Bay, 
tired and worn by their long voyage from the Old Land and longing to 
set their feet once more on the green grass, dreading a longer stay on 
their infected vessel, for the deadly cholera had sadly thinned their 
numbers ; but as they near the desired haven a new difficulty confronts 
them. A crowd of townspeople opposed their landing for fear of the 
dreadful scourge. In this dilemma, a Christian gentleman stepped 
forth with, ' Friends, we cannot leave these women and children cooped 
up in yonder boat to die ; let us go to work and build them a shelter, 
and supply their necessities.' That man was George Hamilton. Many 
hands made light work, and temporary houses were soon erected for 
the grateful strangers." 

George Hamilton had not been long the owner of property in 
Barton Township before the Gore District was formed, with the Town 
of Hamilton as its capital. His own residence was close to the base of 
the " Mountain," on what is now called John street. Then the high- 
way from Niagara to Ancaster followed the line of King street (called 
the Kidge Road, because it kept to the driest ground) and thence along 
John street up the Mountain. There was a road allowance, but no 
road, on James street. The first village lots sold by Mr. Hamilton 
were on John street, south of King. They belonged to farm lot No. 
14, 3rd concession of Barton Township. 

The writer has seen a memorandum, in George Hamilton's hand- 
writing, relating to the transfers and titles of the property he acquired 


on the site of the present City of Hamilton, from which the following 
items (without the explanatory notes) are taken: 

" Transfer part Lot 11, 4th concession, Barton, 24 acres, 2 roods, 14 
perches, John Wedge to James Durand, dower barred, not registered, 
wife not party." (John Wedge patented 200 acres on the Mountain, 
south of the Land and Aikman properties, the patents being dated 
May "17, 1802.) 

" Transfer of Lot No. 12, 4th concession, Barton, 100 acres land, 
Philip and Ann Kribbs to James Durand, dower barred, registered, 
King's deed wanted." 

" King's deed for Lot No. 14, 3rd concession, Barton, 100 acres, 
to Daniel Springer." (That is the farm bounded by the following 
streets in Hamilton: Main, James, Aberdeen avenue and the line 
Mary street would cover if it were extended south of King street to 
the Mountain.) 

" Transfer of Lot No. 14, 3rd concession, no receipt, Daniel 
Springer to John Springer, registered, dower not barred, wife not 
party except signature." (The Crown patent for Lot No. 14, 3rd 
concession, to Daniel Springer, is dated May 17, 1802.) 

" Transfer of part Lot No. 14, 27 acres, no receipt, John Springer 
to Thomas Dexter." (It would appear as if this land was transferred 
from owner to owner before the issue of the Crown patent, for " The 
History of Barton Lodge" says, page 127, that "meetings were held 
at Brother Aikman's until the 12th of March, 1802, at which time 
the lodge was removed to the house of Brother Dexter, at the forks 
made by the old road, which turns to the right shortly after the ascent 
of the Mountain is begun, and the new road, which turns to the left." 
Robertson's " History of Freemasonry " says, page 665, that the house 
of Mr. Dexter was on the site of Barker's residence, on upper John 
street, Hamilton.) 

72 Transfer of part Lot No. 14, 3rd concession, Barton, 27 acres, 
Thomas Dexter to James Durand." 

" Transfer of the above lots of land (and others not here men- 
tioned), in all 257 acres, 2 roods, 14 perches, James Durand to George 
Hamilton, not registered, wife not party, nor dower barred." (It 
would appear that Hamilton bought out all Durand's belongings in 
that neighborhood.) 


Samuel Barker, Esq., M.P., lias kindly supplied the following 
abstract from the papers in his possession : 

Lot lJf., 3rd concession, Barton, 100 acres. 

1. The Crown to Daniel Springer, 17th May, 1802. 

Daniel Springer, son of a U. E. Loyalist, was grantee of the Crown 
of 100 acres, being Lot No. 14, 3rd concession, Barton, then in the 
County of Lincoln, later in the County of Wentworth. 

2. Daniel Springer to John Springer, 2nd April, 1803. 
Daniel Springer, of Delaware, London District, to John Springer, 

of Barton, County of Lincoln, in consideration of £50, grants and 
conveys 100 acres, more or less, composed of Lot 14, in the 3rd con- 
cession of Barton. 

3. John Springer to Thomas Dexter, 10th November, 1803, two 
portions of Lot 14. 

John_Springer, of Barton, husbandman, to Thomas Dexter, of 
Barton, innkeeper, in consideration of £120, grants two parcels of 
land, part of the 100-acre lot 14, in the 3rd concession of Barton. 

First parcel, 13 ac, lr., 5p., more or less, commencing at a post 
marked R S over T S planted at the foot of the Mountain and about 
fifty links on the east side of the old road leading to Niagara, thence 

to the corner of the said Thomas Dexter's fence, near his 

dwelling house, etc. 

Second parcel, 14 acres, more or less, beginning at a stake marked 
W W over T D, planted near a white oak tree, about three rods north- 
erly of a cluster of basswood trees, growing'on the western limits of the 

said Lot 14, thence along the said to a post planted in the 

western side of a spring run, which passes by the still house, thence 
to a stake in the lane passing by the said dwelling-house, etc. 

4. Thomas Dexter to James Durand, 7th April, 1806, the same 
two portions of Lot 14. 

Thomas Dexter, late of the Township of Barton, husbandman, to 
James Durand, of the Township of Woodhouse, County of Norfolk 
and District of London, merchant, in consideration of £312 10s., 
grants the same two parcels of land as mentioned above. 

5. John Springer to James Durand, 28th Dec, 1803, 8 acres, 
part of Lot 14. 

John Springer, of Barton, yeoman, to James Durand, of the 


Township of Stamford, County of Lincoln, merchant, in considera- 
tion of £40 5s., grants eight acres, etc. 

6. John Springer to James Durand, 24th Jan., 1815, Lot 14, 3rd 
concession, Barton, in consideration of £1 5s. and of facts recited. 

John Springer to James Durand, after reciting, " Whereas a deed 
of B and S for Lot No. 14, in the 3rd concession of Barton, in the 
District of Niagara, Province of Upper Canada, was entered into 
between me, J. S., of, etc., yeoman, and Sarah, my wife, of the one 
part, and James Durand, of the same place, gentleman, of the other 
part, the full consideration money for which parcel or tract of land I, 
the said John Springer, and Sarah, my wife, acknowledge to have 
received from the said J. D., and whereas in consequence of the state 
of warfare between Great Britain and the United States of America 
the deed from me, the said John Springer, and Sarah, my wife, to the 
said James Durand, for the said Lot No. 14, in the 3rd concession of 
the Township of Barton, is supposed to be lost and the office of enreg- 
istration destroyed, and I, the said John Springer, and Sarah, my wife, 
being called upon to secure the title of the said premises to the said 
James Durand, by reconveying the said premises," therefore, the said 
Springer and wife, in consideration of the further sum of 25 shillings, 
grant and confirm unto the said James Durand, his heirs and assigns 
forever, all that parcel (the land described and conveyed is the same 
as that in above memo). Note. — The destruction of the Lincoln 
County Registry Office during the war doubtless gave a deal of trouble 
to land-owners. 

7. James Durand and Keziah, his wife, to George Hamilton, 25th 
January, 1815. 

James Durand, of Barton, and wife, to George Hamilton, late of 
the town of Queenston, but now of Barton, gentleman, in considera- 
tion of £1,750, grant 257 acres, 2 roods, 14 perches, being composed of: 

1st — 100 acres, being Lot 12 in 4th concession, Barton. (Philip 
Crips, or Kribbs, was patentee of Lots 12 and 13, 4th concession, Bar- 
ton, August 10th, 1801.) 

2nd — 100 acres, being — here follows description of Lot 14 in 3rd 
concession, Barton, as above. 

3rd — Also one other parcel, 19 acres, being part of Lot No. 13 in 
3rd concession, Barton. 

4th — Also part of Lot 11 in 4th concession, Barton. 


The records of the purchases hy George Hamilton will give an idea 
of land values ninety years ago. 

George Hamilton lived to see the village which he had founded 
become quite a flourishing and important town, doing a large trade 
with the interior in goods brought to the head of the lake by boat- 
On his death, Robert Jarvis Hamilton became head of the family. He 
married, first, Catharine Robertson, and, secondly, Mary Wright. His 
children by his first wife were: 

1. William, who married Mary Myles. 

2. Catharine, who married Dr. Charles Donnelly. 

3. Agnes, who married Charles Lemon. 

4. Henry. 

5. Jessie, who married Dr. James Alway. 

The children by his second wife were: 

6. George, who married Anna Hunter. 

7. Maria, who married F. S. O'Connor. 

8. Caroline. 

9. John Harvey, who married Annie Farmer. 

10. Jean Chalmers, who married Charles Wellesley Ricketts. 

11. Augusta Mary. 

12. May. 

Robert Jarvis Hamilton was a prominent and influential citizen 
of Hamilton, but he did not, like his father, aspire to Parliamentary 
honors. George Hamilton represented Wentworth in the Upper Cana- 
dian Legislature from 1821 to 1830, when he was succeeded by Allan 
Napier MacNab. 

Peter Hunter Hamilton, a half-brother of George, acquired Lot 
No. 15 in the 3rd concession of Barton, which had been patented from 
the Crown by Lieut. Caleb Reynolds, March 19th, 1798. The pro- 
perty is now included by James, Main, Bay and Aberdeen Streets in 
the City of Hamilton. This farm was mortgaged to the Government 
as collateral security for a lean to the Desjardins Canal Company, in 
the thirties, and nearly seventy years later a cloud was cast upon the 
titles of a lot of valuable property, the loan having never been repaid- 
Peter H. Hamilton's house was on the site of the residence of William 
Hendrie, senior, on Bold Street. He married, in 1824, Harriett 
Durand, daughter of James Durand, and sister of Charles Durand, 
Esq., barrister, who is still living in Toronto, aged 94. He had eleven 


A full brother of Peter Hunter Hamilton was Hon. John Hamil- 
ton, of Kingston, born at Queenston, 1802, died 1882. He was the 
youngest son of Hon. Robert Hamilton. After a short time at school 
at Queenston, he was sent to Edinburgh, where he received a classical 
training at the Academy. At the age of sixteen he was back in 
Canada. He served an apprenticeship in the wholesale warehouse of 
DeRiver, Blackwood & Co., Montreal, and returned to Queenston, 
where he entered upon the business of building and running steam- 
boats. He owned, though he did not build, the Frontenac, the first 
steamer that plied on the waters of Lake Ontario. The fare from 
Kingston to York (Toronto) was £3, with £1 more to Queenston, and 
an extra charge of five shillings was made for a dog. Mr. Hamilton 
built the Queenston, the Great Britain, the Lord Sydenham (which 
was the first large boat that ever ran the rapids), the Passport, Canada, 
Kingston, and Sovereign; and he chartered many others. For a long 
time he even made a determined fight against the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, which became a competitor for the carrying trade of Upper 
Canada- John Hamilton also maintained a line of stage coaches. He 
was called to the Legislative Council in 1831, and served continuously 
in the Upper House for more than fifty years. In 1881 his colleagues 
in the Senate of Canada presented him with a complimentary address, 
which was read by Sir Alexander Campbell. He was chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of Queen's College from its incorporation in 1841 
until his death. Senator Hamilton's figure was large and well knit; 
his countenance was marked by singular dignity and benevolence. 
Intelligence and refinement shone there, and were characteristic also 
of his manners and conversation. He married in early life Frances 
Pasia, daughter of David Macpherson, of Inverness, Scotland, by 
whom he had ten children, several of whom lived to occupy influential 

Thus we see that the history of the Canadian branch of the noble 
family of Hamilton began before the organization of Upper Canada 
as a separate province, and its members had much to do with the devel- 
opment and progress of the country. The living descendants of Hon. 
Robert Hamilton are very numerous, and at the meeting of the Ontario 
Historical Society in this place it is appropriate that a word should 
be spoken concerning them and their achievements. 


Br Lieut.-Coeonel G. W. Bruce, President Huron Institute. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Collingwood, July 20th, 1906.) 

Much of the scant material from which the story of the Petun 
Indians may be drawn has already been utilized by Mr. Connolly, Mr. 
Boyle, Dean Harris and others who have contributed to the Archaeo- 
logical Reports for Ontario. All, therefore, that I propose to do, in 
the present paper, is to give a short outline of the history and national 
life of the Tobacco Nation, compiled from the stray references of the 
Jesuit missionaries, the few essays of recent writers, and the traditions 
of the scattered remnants of the Petuns themselves, and of their suc- 
cessors in the Blue Mountain country, the Ojibways, verified by very 
incomplete explorations made on the ground where they had attained 
their highest civilization. 

According to the earliest traditions of the Petuns, they came orig- 
inally from the region known to us as Ungava. They seem to have a 
hazy national sub-consciousness of long journeys by land and sea, and 
of intercourse with the little Arctic people, which may point to an 
early migration from the old world by way of the Aleutian Islands 
and Alaska. It was not, however, until the time of their residence in 
Ungava that, as part of the great Huron-Iroquois group of nations, 
they attained to anything like a settled national life. They called 
themselves, then and ever after, the Turtle People, and claimed 
descent from the great turtle on whose back Ataensic obtained a van- 
tage point from which to make the earth. 

Long before the white man came to the continent, the whole group 
of nations had migrated southward and taken possession of the banks 
of the St. Lawrence. The Senecas occupied the South bank and the 
Island of Montreal ; the Turtle People held the North bank, from the 
Ottawa to the Manicougan River ; while the closely allied Algonquin 
nations settled on either side of them — the Ottawas to the Westward, 
along the Ottawa River, and the Delewares to the Eastward, as far as 
the mouth of the St. Lawrence. Here the Turtle People were known 
as Tionontates or Kionontates, the name meaning " The waters rush- 
ing by," or " The country of the rushing waters." The Indians 
who met Carticr at Ilochelaga were Senecas and Tionontates. 



Here they had dwelt together in peace for sonic hundreds of yearn, 
but soon after the visit of Cartier trouble began. As sometimes hap- 
pens, a woman was at the bottem of it. A Kionoulu brave fell in love 
with a Seneca woman, and, as a slight token of his affection, murdered 
some Senecas against whom his sweetheart had a clan feud. Thin 
brought on a war which lasted for more than a generation and in- 
volved not only the Tionontates, but their allies, the Ottawas, as well. 
A few of the Tionontates, however, refused to take part in the quarrel 
and migrated westward to the Niagara Peninsula, whence they 
extended northward and westward, and were afterwards known as the 
Neutrals. The war went hard against the Northern allies, and first 
the Ottawas, and then a large part of the Tionontates were driven out. 
The Ottawas found a home in Northern Michigan ; the Tionontates 
settled in the district between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay and 
became afterwards known as the Ilurons. The remainder of the 
Tionontates carried on the war with varying success for many years, 
but at last, wearied of the strife, decided to join their kinsmen, the 
Neutrals. They crossed the river at Kingston, and, following the- 
southern shore of Lake Ontario, reached the Niagara River. Here 
they remained in peace for some length of time, for the Senecas, who 
had followed them, had found attractive hunting grounds on the banks 
of the Hudson River. However, as these latter spread throughout the 
State of New York they began to press upon the Neutral country, and 
the Neutrals, true to their policy of peace, urged the Tionontates fo 
move on. They therefore crossed the Niagara and travelled around 
the head of Lake Ontario eastward to Toronto, where they spent five 
or ten years of the greatest prosperity, and gave the name Toronto, or 
Land of Plenty, to their new home. They did not remain long unmo- 
lested. Their active foes across the lake soon compelled them to make 
another migration northward and westward, where they came in con- 
tact with the Hurons and Algonquins, from whom they finally wrested 
the eastern slopes of the Blue Mountains, in the prasent Counties of 
Grey and Simcoe. 

After the war of conquest they lived at peace with their Huron and 
Algonquin neighbors and cultivated the arts of peace so assiduously 
that by the middle of the seventeenth century they had attained a much 
higher point of wealth, prosperity and civilization than any of their 
kindred people. They found their new country particularly adapted 
for growing and curing tobacco and made this, after the raising of 
Indian corn, their chief industry. Hence, they became known to the 
Jesuit missionaries and to the Hurons as the Tobacco or Petun Nation. 

When they came to the Mountains the Turtle People were divided 


into nine clans, or, more correctly speaking, gentes, taking their 
totems from the animals from whom they claimed descent, namely, the 
Big Turtle, the Little Turtle, the Mud Turtle, the Beaver and the 
Porcupine, which formed one division or brotherhood of clans; the 
Deer, the Bear, the Snake, and the Hawk, which formed another 
brotherhood ; and the Wolf, which formed a brotherhood of itself, and 
bore the relation of cousinship with each of the others. 

Marriages never took place between members of the same brother- 
hood, but a Turtle might marry a Wolf, or a Porcupine marry a Bear. 
The children were of the clan of their mother. As I have said, they 
all called themselves the Turtle People and the Turtle clans were con- 
sidered the most ancient and honorable of all. The head chiefship was 
originally held by the Turtles, but before the nation came to the St. 
Lawrence this distinction had passed to the Deer clan, who were by 
far the most populous and powerful of all the elans. The Wolf clan 
held the position of mediator or advisers between the others and took 
direction of affairs of state. They were the politicians and great exec- 
utive officers. The Deer People were the warriors of the nation par 
excellence, and with the Porcupines and Hawks bore the brunt of 
battle. The Bear clan were famous hunters and the Beavers claimed 
superiority as builders. Two other clans, the Striped Turtle and the 
Highland Turtle, afterwards grew out of the Big Turtle and Mud 
Turtle clans, respectively. A subdivision of the Deer family took the 
Snake as its totem and formed a new clan, thus bringing the total 
number of clans up to twelve. When the nation was on the move from 
one place to another they always moved under the direction of the 
Wolf clan and encamped in the form of a Turtle, the Wolfs reserving 
to themselves the place of the head of the Turtle, or the centre of the 
place of encampment, the others being arranged from right to left 
looking outwards in the following order — Big Turtle, Little Turtle, 
Mud Turtle, Bear, Beaver, Deer, Porcupine, Striped Turtle, High- 
land Turtle, Snake, Hawk. When they reached the Mountains the 
Wolfs, being directors, and at the same time good politicians, chose 
for themselves the valley where Creemore now rests and the slope of 
the hills which encircle it on the south, west and north. They 
assigned to the aristocratic Turtles the place of honor towards the 
south, the direction from which they had come, and laid out the tradi- 
tional encampment as much as possible in the shape of a Turtle, send- 
ing the Bear and the Beaver to the west and bringing the Deer and 
Porcupine round to their left flank, facing their most recent enemies, 
the Hurons. 

The western clans, not finding the country allotted to them the 


most suitable, nearly all moved northwards and took up their encamp- 
ments along the shore of Georgian Bay amongst the Algonquin vil- 
lages, as far northwards as the Bruce Peninsula, thus gradually chang- 
ing the form of the national encampment from that of a turtle to that 
of a snake. Thereafter, in all their migrations they moved, as they 
said, " on the trail of the snake." 

When they first settled on the Mountains, they were formed into 
villages according to their clans and naming the villages after the totem 
of the clan. In process of time, however, it is evident that through 
inter-marriages there would be perhaps as many of Turtle and 
Wolf clans in the Deer village as there would be of the Deer 
clan itself, and the name of the village, therefore, would be no 
indication of the clans residing within its limits — each village 
might have members of all the clans. At the head of each clan was 
a chief. He was, however, merely princeps inter pares, for all 
questions of importance were decided in village council, to which 
even the women were admitted. There was also a war chief appointed 
in council as occasion arose. In times of peace this position was 
assumed by the heir presumptive or probable successor of the clan 
chief, an arrangement which generally secured a smooth succession. 
A sort of national unity was attempted to be preserved by occasional 
conferences of all the chiefs, which were held at the headquarters of 
the Deer clan. But these conferences were probably nothing more 
than visits of ceremony, for there is no record or tradition of any 
national question being decided or even discussed at any of these 

At the time the Petuns became known to the Jesuit missionaries 
there were nine villages, to which the missionaries gave names as fol- 
lows: St. Pierre and St. Paul, St. Simon and St. Jude, St. Andre, 
St. Jucques, St. Thomas, St. Jean, St. Jacques et St. Philippe, St. 
Bartholomew, St. Matthias. At the Wolf village at Creemore was 
established the Mission of St. Jean, called by the Hurons, Etherita, 
meaning, " the ever principal drying place." The slopes of the hills 
about Creemore were especially adapted to the curing of tobacco, and 
this industry was undertaken by them to a larger extent than by any 
of the other villages. In the Deer village was established the Mission of 

* On Lot 33, Concession 11, of the Township of Nottawasaga, now owned by Mr. 
Alexander Currie, when the land was first cleared, were found twenty-four stones of nearly 
equal size, about sixteen inches high, placed at regular intervals in the form of an ellipse 
about thirty feet in length from east to west. On the stones were rudely carved figures of 
animals. Unfortunately the stones were built into a river embankment and cannot be 
identified or examined. Might it be possible that these stones, adorned with the totems 
of the twelve clans, represented the twenty-four chiefs of the nation, and were used as 
ceremonial seats in the national conference ? 




St. Matthias, known to the Hurons as Ekarrenniondi.* These were 
the only important missions of the Jesuits among the Petuns. 

In December, 1649, the Wolf People at Creemore heard that the 
Iroquois were on the war path and about to attack them. The Ir,o- f 

quois had burnt several of the Huron villages and their custom had 
been to raid the Huron country and fall back southwards towards 
their base. The Petuns therefore expected that they would make the 
raid into their country also from the south, and on hearing news of 
the expedition, sent word to the Deer and Northern clans, and them- 
selves gathered all their warriors and set out southward by the Turtle , 
villages at Gleucairn and Alliston, to meet the foe. Their scouting 
sendee and their intelligence department must have been very bad, 
however, for the Iroquois came from the direction of Orillia and 
made their attack from the east. Having learned from some captives 
that the Wolf warriors had gone off to the south, they raided the vil- 
lage, massacred all the inhabitants, and destroyed the immense grain 

* I am unable to agree with the learned Father Jones who, in a well-reasoned article 
in the Archaeological Report of Ontario for 1902, has identified the Ekarrenniondi of 
the Hurons with the rock on the townline between Nottawasaga and Osprey, for the 
following reasons: (1) The rock in question, although perhaps forty feet high and 
fifteen feet square, is not a striking object among its surroundings and being only a 
detail amongst a mass of rocks of greater proportions would not strike the imagination 
of the Indians so as to induce them to call it particularly "the rock that stands out." 
(2) It is too far away from the site of the village which is located beyond all conjecture 
on Lot 33 in the 11th Concession of Nottawa6aga on the banks of Pretty River. (3) The 
arguments by which the rock is identified apply equally as well to a number of rocks all 
along the brow of the mountain from Lot 27 to the lake shore. At first I was inclined 
to agree with Mr. Birch (who contributes a paper to the Archaeological Report for 1903) 
that Ekarrenniondi is to be found on Lot 14, Concession 2, Collingwood, where there 
are remains of an important Indian village and where there is a rock of more massive and 
striking proportions immediately dominating the village. Then, from where we stand in 
the town of Collingwood it would seem natural to suppose that the bluff of the mountain 
range which runs out into the lake might well be called by the Hurons "the rock that 
stands out," and be a more striking object from a distance than any single rock of forty 
feet high. There has been discovered, too, near Craigleith, beneath this point the remains 
of a large Indian village of which no detailed explorations have yet been made. But these 
latter points would not agree with the distances given by the early writers, nor does their 
location fit in with the details of the journeys undertaken by the missionaries. But 
neither of these latter villages, from their location or from their remains which have been 
found, can compare in importance with the village on the banks of the Pretty river. 
Besides, there are strongly defined marks of a great trail eastward from the Pretty river 
towards the land of the Hurons. This trail was well known to the white settlers as 
recently as fifty years a^o for several miles. I have no doubt that it can still be traced 
across the Nottawasaga into Huronia. Now, from Ossossane, and indeed from every part 
of the Tiny shore and far inland, there is one point of the Blue Mountains that can be seen 
distinctly ; even when the bluff end of the mountains fades into mist and flatness, this 
point is clearly defined. It is a white limestone escarpment, free of vegetation, at the 
very highest point of the hills. This point is immediately to the west and overlooks the 
village on Lot 33. A person leaving Ossossane. and heading for this point, would, without 
any trail, reach the village at its foot. It is mnch more striking forty miles away than 
near at hand. What more natural than that the Hurons should have called this village 
by the name of the landmark by which it was reached — " Ekarrenniondi " (" the rock that 
stands out") ? 


pits of corn and storehouses of tobacco, leaving the entire village a 
smoking desolation.* 

from Etherita the Iroquois moved northward along the mountain 
slope as far as Ekarrenniondi, which they found deserted, and, fear- 
ing an ambuscade, they set their faces towards the Huron country. 

We do not read of any further molestations of the Petuns by the 
Iroquois, who thereafter directed their attention solely to the Hurons, 
but they never recovered from the crushing effect of the Iroquois raid. 
The head of the snake had been crushed, and though the tail was yet 
alive and nearly the whole nation remained intact, yet such was the 
moral influence of the Iroquois terror that, shortly after, the nation, 
joined by a few of the Huron refugees, set forth again on the " trail 
of the snake " and reached Detroit. After some time they went down 
into the Ohio country and there remained until the advancing white 
civilization again drove them westward to Kansas, where the remnant 
of the once great Tobacco Nation now awaits, under the name of 
Wyandots, its certain, if deferred, extinction. 

Even from the history of an obscure tribe of Indians mankind may 
learn the lesson that the Arts of Peace alone will not preserve a nation. 
The Petuns had been so long untroubled by foreign wars, had grown 
so wealthy and comparatively luxurious, and had attained such heights 
of civilization, as to consider war unnecessary, useless and improb- 
able, so that when the first hostile breath of the more barbarous 
Iroquois touched them, the whole fabric of their nation seemed to 
collapse. If all mankind advanced equally along the paths of peace 
and civilization, there would be no need of preparation for war, but 
as the world now is, those who most desire peace and most appreciate 
its blessings must remember to guard well what they have achieved, 
and must stay their progress, even in civilization, to protect themselves 
from the blood lust of those not so far advanced ; otherwise the fruit 
of centuries may be lost in a day, and human progress blocked by the 
recurring night of barbarism. 

* On Lot 5, Concessien 4, and on Lot 8, Concession 5, of the Township of Nottawas&ga 
have been found immense ossuaries, consisting mostly of the bones of women and children, 
where must have been buried by the returning warriors of the Wolf clan the unfortunate 
victims of the Iroquois madness. On Lot 10, Concession 5, has been found an immense 
ash heap about four feet deep containing great quantities of charred Indian corn, no doubt 
the remains of one of the vast communal granaries. 



By G. K. Mills, B.A., School Inspector, Noeth Simcoe. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Collingwood, July 20th, 1906.) 

From the earliest times of which we have any record in Canada 
there have been four great highways leading from the great West to 
the early settlement at Montreal. 

The first of these led from the great hunting grounds of the coun- 
try which is now Michigan and the plains of the West by way of 
Machilimacinac and Detroit, through Lakes Erie and Ontario, and 
down the St. Lawrence River. 

The second in importance was by way of Sault Ste- Marie and 
Machilimacinac along the north-eastern shore of Lake Huron and 
the Georgian Bay, up the Erench River to Lake Nipissing, by a 
portage to the Mattawa, and thence down the Ottawa River over 
numerous portages to Montreal. 

The third was from the Georgian Bay to Lake Simcoe by the 
Severn River, and thence by numerous portages, through the chain of 
lakes to the Trent River and the Bay of Quinte. 

The last was from the Georgian Bay by the Nottawasaga River, 
over what was known later as the Nine Mile Portage, across Lake 
Simcoe to the Holland River, then by a long portage to the Humber 
River, from which Lake Ontario was reached, near where Toronto now 
stands. It is with this last route that we are particularly interested. 

About 1672, De Courcelles established a trading post at Cataracoui 
(afterwards Frontenac), and in 1679 La Salle established another 
at the mouth of the Niagara River, called Fort Niagara. These 
trading posts were shortly afterwards strongly fortified, and enabled 
the French to withstand the efforts of the Iroquois to drive them out 
of the country. 

In 1722 Governor Burnett, of the Province of New York, estab- 
lished a trading post on the west side of the entrance to the Oswego 
River, and, following the example of the French, he afterwards trans- 
formed the trading post into a strong fortress. As was to be expected, 
there was a keen competition for the Indian trade, but as the English 
gave a better price for furs, many of the Indians passed by Fort 
Niagara and Fort Frontenac to trade with the English at Choueguen 



(Oswego). The effect of this English trading post was felt to such 
an extent at Forts Niagara and Frontenac that an effort was made 
to destroy its trade. The Governor of New France at that time, Count 
de la Galissoniere, on being informed that the Indians of the north 
made their way to Choueguen by way of Toronto, twenty-five leagues 
from Niagara and seventy-five from Frontenac, thought it advisable to 
establish a trading post at that point. This was done in 1749, and 
instructions were issued to the commandants at Detroit, Niagara and 
Frontenac to furnish goods for two or three years to come at the same 
rate as the English. By this means it was thought that the Indians 
would abandon the English trading post, since it necessitated a further 
journey of at least twenty-five leagues to reach it. 

The trading post established at the " Toronto Pass "* in 1749 was 
named Fort Rouille, after Antoine Louis Rouille, Colonial Minister 
of France, 1749-1754. It was commonly referred to as " the fort at 
Toronto," and was situated close to the lake shore, about two and a 
half miles east of the mouth of the Toronto River (Humber River), 
which river was said to communicate with Lake Huron by a portage of 
fifteen leagues. 

This trading post was burned in 175.9 by the French to prevent 
its falling into the hands of the English. Its site is now the Industrial 
Exhibition Grounds, and the exact location of the trading post is 
marked by a monument in the form of a plain, rounded shaft of Credit 
Valley sandstone about thirty feet high, erected in 1887 and unveiled 
on the 6th of September, on the opening day of the combined Domin- 
ion and Local Industrial Exhibition at Toronto by the Marquis of 
Lansdowne, Governor-General of Canada. On the north side of the 
pedestal appears the following inscription : 






r"T"i* The Indian term "Taronto" denotes "the place of meeting'' or "the populous 
region," and refers to the thickly populated region lying between Lake Simcoe and the 
Georgian Bay, the great rendezvous of the Huron or Wyandot tribes down to the time 
of their destruction by the Iroquois in 1649. The Humber was known as the "Taronto 
River," Lake Simcoe as " Lake Taronto," the chain of lakes lying between the River 
Trent and Lake Simcoe as the "Taronto Lakes," Matchedash Bay, at the mouth of the 
Severn River, was known as "Taronto Bay," and the Severn River itself as "Taronto 
River," indicating that they were all of them highways to the great internal central 
rendezvous or "place of meeting" of the Huron tribes. 


Government posts of the Upper Lakes. It was about nine miles in 
length and came to be familiarly known as the Nine Mile Portage. 

There is mention of the route by the Nottawasaga River, across 
the Nine Mile Portage and Lake Simcoe to the Holland River, and 
thence overland to near the mouth of the Humber, in records dating 
back more than two centuries and a half. This was one of the routes 
by which the Iroquois in 1648-49 invaded the territory of the Hurons, 
which lay north and west between Lake Simcoe and the Georgian Bay. 
La Salle, with twenty men, passed over this route in 1680 on his way 
from Fort Frontenac to Machilimacinac. But it is only from the war 
of 1812-15 that we have any connected account of it. 

On July 17th, 1812, Machilimacinac was taken from the Americans 
by the British, and realizing that it was the key to the upper lakes they 
made preparations to recapture it. When information regarding these 
preparations reached the small British garrison at Machilimacinac, 
word was at once sent to Kingston for assistance. A relief expedition 
consisting of ten officers and two hundred picked men, twenty artillery- 
men, a lieutenant and twenty men of the Royal Navy, all under the 
command of Lieut.-Col. Robert McDowall, of the Glengarry Light 
Infantry, left Kingston in February, 1814. They made their way 
through what was yet almost a wilderness to Toronto, and from there 
marched north along Yonge Street, which had been opened about 1795, 
to Holland Landing. They crossed Lake Simcoe on the ice and halted 
on the banks of the Nottawasaga River a short distance below where 
Marl Creek flows into it. Here they built for themselves a number 
of wooden huts, and spent the time until the ice on the river broke up 
in constructing twenty-nine bateaux, the timber for which they found 
growing abundantly in the surrounding pine forest. The clearing they 
made was for many years a landmark known as the " Glengarry Land- 
ing," but a second growth of trees now covers the spot so completely 
as to make it almost indistinguishable from the surrounding forest. 

The expedition left here on the 22nd day of April, and descending 
the river they reached the mouth, a distance of about thirty miles, on 
the afternoon of the 24th. They left next morning to cross the lake 
covered with fields of ice as far as the eye could reach, and arrived 
at Machilimacinac on the 18th of May with the loss of only one bateau. 
After such a hazardous journey of about three hundred miles in open 
boats, in the early spring, across a lake covered with masses of float- 
ing ice and swept by storms, it is comforting to know that they arrived 
in time to hold the place against an attack made on it by the Americans 
under Captain Sinclair on the 28th of July of that year. 


Perhaps the most interesting occurrence during the war of 1812-15 
which is connected with the Nottawasaga River was the sinking of the 
North- West Company's schooner, Nancy, in 1814. The following brief 
account of it is given by James in his " Naval History of Great 
Britain " : 

" The Nancy was lying about two miles up the Nottawasaga, under 
the protection of a blockhouse situated on the south-east side of the 
river, which here runs parallel to and forms a narrow peninsula with 
the shore of Gloucester Bay (Nottawasaga Bay). This enabled Captain 
Sinclair to anchor his vessels within good battering distance of the 
blockhouse. A spirited cannonade was kept up between them and the 
blockhouse, where, besides two 24-pounder carronades on the ground, 
a 6-pounder was mounted. The three American vessels outside, the 
Niagara, Tigress, and Scorpion, mounted between them eighteen car- 
ronades (32-pounders) ; the Niagara had also two long 12-pounders, 
and the Tigress and Scorpion between them one long 12 -pounder and 
two long 24-pounders. In addition to this a five-and-a-half-inch 
howitzer, with a suitable detachment of artillerymen, had been landed 
on the peninsula. Against these twenty-four pieces of cannon and 
upwards of five hundred men were opposed one piece of cannon and 
twenty-three officers and seamen. Resistance was in vain, and just 
as Lieut. Worsley had prepared a train leading from the blockhouse 
to the Nancy, one of the enemy's shells burst in the former, and both 
the blockhouse and vessel were presently blown up. Lieut. Worsley 
and his men escaped in their boat up the river." 

Captain Sinclair departed for Lake Erie, leaving the Tigress and 
Scorpion to blockade the Nottawasaga, intending to starve out the 
garrison at Machilimacinac, as this was the only route by which sup- 
plies could be readily forwarded to that post. These two vessels, after 
remaining there for a few days, took a trip to St. 'Joseph's Island, 
where they were captured by the English, and all the men on board 
were taken prisoners to Kingston by the Nottawasaga River route.* 

After the close of the war the British officers, recognizing the im- 
portance of the route, gave orders for the erection of a fort on the 
Nottawasaga River. This was built in 1816, at a bend in the river 
about four miles from its mouth. It was intended to protect the store- 
houses established there, from which supplies were forwarded to the 

* Since only about 60 men were captured with the Tigress and Scorpion it is not 
probable that there were 500 men in the attack on the Nancy. The capture of these two 
vessels at St. Joseph's Island and the sending of the prisoners to Kingston by this route 
is probably the basis of a story frequently told of the capture by night of two American 
Tessels at the mouth of the Nottawasaga. 


military posts maintained at Machilimacinac, Drummond Island and 
Penetanguishene. The garrison of the fort was withdrawn in 1818 
and sent to Penetanguishene. 

The Government also, in 1819, erected storehouses at both ends of 
the Nine Mile Portage, Barrie and Willow Creek. Besides being used 
for military purposes, this route was the great highway over which 
passed traders, Indians and settlers with their merchandise, furs and 
supplies. Provisions and supplies for settlers who had settled along 
the Bay as far west as Meaford were brought from the mouth of the 
Nottawasaga River, by boat in summer and by teams over the ice in 
winter. Much had to be transported over the Nine Mile Portage at all 
seasons of the year, and the settlers of the surrounding district often 
found employment in this way. 

The Rev. Thos. Williams, who as a lad of fourteen spent several 
months of the summer of 1824 teaming supplies over this portage, says, 
amongst other things, in his " Pioneer Memories," which appeared in 
the Barrie Examiner of 1890: " On some of the days when it fell to 
my lot to be home I have often counted between twenty and thirty 
canoes coming stealthily up the north side of the Bay — each canoe 
bearing an Indian family — and in a little as many little blue smokes 
"under the spreading branches of the pine trees, which stood somewhat 
wide apart where the houses of Barrie now stand, would tell where 
each family had erected its temporary dwelling." He further says: 
" Besides the supplies for the naval and military establishment at 
Penetaaguishene going by this portage, there were two great trading 
companies which took most of their goods by this route. The name of 
one was P. and W. Robinson. Their monogram or mark was made 
like this — WR. The other company was called Borland and Roe, and 
their mark was made this way — 9R. These large companies had 
absorbed most of the small traders by employing them as branch posts." 

In consequence of the great amount of traffic, quite a little village 
arose at the northern terminus of the portage on Willow Creek. This 
portage continued to be the highway over which supplies for the mili- 
tary posts, traders and settlers were teamed until the Northern Rail- 
way was built to Collingwood in 1855. After this the little hamlet 
on Willow Creek rapidly passed out of existence, until at present the 
only traces left to mark the spot where it stood are the outlines of the 
foundations of a few buildings. The old portage can still be traced 
across the country from Barrie to Willow Creek, except in places 
where improved farms have blotted it out for ever. 

Among the distinguished travellers who have passed over this 


route in the early days* may be mentioned the deserters from Lord 
Selkirk's Red River Colony in 1815. After traversing five hundred 
miles of rocky wilderness between Fort Garry and Fort William the 
fugitives reached the latter place. Here the North-West Company, in 
order to promote their removal from the country, fitted out a fleet of 
small boats to transport them down the lakes. In this fleet they arrived 
at the outlet of the Nottawasaga River, which they ascended, as well 
as its tributary, Willow Creek, then crossed the Nine Mile Portage to 
the head of Kempenfeldt Bay. Passing across Lake Simcoe they 
reached the Holland River, up which they went as far as the third 
concession of West Gwillimbury, where they landed and made a settle- 
ment in the peninsula formed between the Holland River and its north 

As far as can be ascertained the fugitives consisted of the following 
seventeen men, some of whom had wives and families : 

Sutherlands (6), Donald, Haman, William, Robert, James and 
Angus; McKays (4), James, Robert, Roderick and Angus; McBeths 
(3), Andrew, Charles and William; Matthewsons (2), "Black" John 
and " Red " John ; Geo. Ross and Arthur Campbell. 

These were the pioneers of what is known to this day as the " Scotch 
Settlement " of West Gwillimbury. It is also related that they did not» 
all arrive at the same time, but that they came in two parties, and that 
the second party, which came after the final destruction of the colony, 
consisted of Robert and Roderick McKay, two McBeths and one Suth- 
erland — five men in all. These are said to have come by Parry Sound 
and Orillia in 1816. 

Sir George Head crossed the Nine Mile Portage in 1815 and has 
left an account of his travels from York to Penetanguishene and the 
Nottawasaga in his " Forest Scenes." 

The commissioners appointed to mark the boundary between the 
Columbia River territory and British Columbia returned by this route 
in 1824. They had crossed the entire continent from the Columbia 
River, and went east from Lake Simcoe by the canoe route through the 
chain of lakes and the Trent River. 

Sir John Franklin took this route in April, 1825, on his second 
overland expedition to the Arctic Seas. 

Commodore Barrie, who was commander of the British war vessels 
at Kingston for some time, passed over it in June, 1828. while on a 
tour of inspection of the naval depots of the upper lakes. 

On the occasion of a trip up the river early in June of this year, in 

* See page 43. 


company with Mr. Freer, manager of the Bank of Montreal, we were 
shown the location of the schooner Nancy. An island has been formed 
because of the sediment collected, and only a small portion of the stern 
of the vessel is visible. We were also shown the location of the block- 
house, in the neighborhood of which numerous grape shot and a few 
cannon balls have been picked up. About two miles further up the 
river we were shown the location of Fort Nottawasaga, the storehouses 
and living houses of the garrison and those employed. This site is at 
a point where, by a portage of a quarter of a mile, the route by the 
river is shortened by about four miles. Canoes going up the river 
heavily laden used this portage, as by so doing they shortened the route 
and escaped two short rapids. On the way down the boats went the 
whole way around after lightening at the other end of the portage. 

The only traces of the fort and the surrounding houses were the 
vague outlines of three or four buildings. We crossed the portage, 
and at the other end were shown the old Indian burying ground. Many 
skeletons have been found there, but it is reported that they were all 
those of women and children. Numerous pieces of pottery and other 
indications of Indian encampment were noticed. Our guide told us 
that he knew of the location of a cannon in the river, and we are 
negotiating with him to raise it with the object of obtaining it for the 
Huron Institute. There seems to be no doubt but the gun is there, as 
several report having seen it. It appears, according to reports, to have 
been hurriedly tumbled down the bank into the river, and is probably 
one of the guns reported by James as having been in the possession >f 
Lieut. Worsley's men at the time of the sinking of the schooner Nancy. 
Our guide was dumb as to the actual location, but from the accounts of 
others it is in the river below the location of the blockhouse. 

Another matter of interest, which indicates the importance of this 
]Nottawasaga River route, was the proposal in the early days of the 
settlement of this district to build a railway from Toronto to Barrie and 
from there to the mouth of the ISTottawasaga. Surveys were made, and in 
1836 the plan of a town at the mouth of the river was drawn out, which 
shows the railway station, freight sheds, streets, avenues, parks, and 
everything that goes to make a town on paper. The agitation culminat- 
ing in the rebellion of 1837 turned the attention of the authorities in 
other directions for some time. In the meantime strong opposition arose 
against the location of a town so close to Barrie. It was pointed out that a 
railway from the mouth of the Nottawasaga would pass far to the west 
of Barrie, and the first town of importance on it would probably be 
Holland Landing. It was also argued that if the terminus were at 


Penetanguishene the road would probably pass through Barrie, and 
as this was thirty-five miles from Penetanguishene, the danger to 
Barrie would be little as compared with that arising from a large 
town at the mouth of the Nottawasaga. Numerous letters were pub- 
lished referring to the " storm shifting sands " of this part of Notta- 
wasaga Bay, and about this time a large schooner was wrecked at the 
mouth of the river, purposely, it is claimed by some, in order to destroy 
confidence in the safety of the harbor. The outcome of the agitation 
was that the railway was in 1855 built to Collingwood, then known as 
" Hens and Chickens." When it is remembered that this was the first 
railway of importance built in Canada, and that it was built to take 
the place of the Nottawasaga River route, an idea may be formed of 
the great importance of this old highway. 

To any one acquainted with both locations it is hard to understand 
why the present terminus was selected. If a small part of the money 
had been expended on the mouth of the Nottawasaga that has been 
expended on Collingwood harbor, a much better and safer harbor would 
have resulted. In case of a storm on the lake from the north or north- 
west, the only direction that could make a rough lake for the lower 
portion of the bay, it would be a home run for boats, with plenty of 
room for five miles up the Nottawasaga River for all the shipping on 
the lakes, sheltered from every a n gry wind by the long peninsula 
formed between the river and the lake. 

Such is the buffeting of fate, but there are many who yet hope to 
see this ancient route once more made famous as a part of the Huron- 
tario Ship Canal, first advocated about 1836, yet talked of, and its 
possibility as a profitable enterprise persistently believed in. 

References. — Smith's "Gazetteer"; Head's " Forest Scenes"; Robertson's "Land- 
marks of Toronto"; Dr. Scadding's "Toronto of Old"; "History of the County of 
Simcoe," published in the Barrie Examiner, 1890 ; " Travels and Adventures in Canada," 
Alexander Henry. 


By R. V. Rogers, LL.D. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the O. H. S. at Kingston, July 19th, 1907.) 

My paper, like many an old-fashioned sermon, is divided into four 
parts: First, the Commission itself, this is the text; second, the persons 
mentioned in the Commission; third, explanations and descriptions, 
and, lastly, the seal or conclusion. 


General Commission of the Peace for the District of 
Mecklenburg in the Province of Quebec. 


Recorded in the office of Enrollments at Quebec the 28th day of 
July, 1788, in the third Register of Letters Patent & Commissions, 
folio 253. 

(sgd.) Geo. Pownall, Sec. & Reg. 

/cc , s Commission. 


Dorchester., G. 

George the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, King. Defender of the faith &c. To Our Trusty and Well 
beloved Henry Hope Lieutenant Governor, William Smith Chief Jus- 
tice, Hugh Finlay, Thomas Dunn, Edward Harrison, John Collins, 
Adam Mabane, Joseph Gaspard Chaussegros Delory, George Pownall, 
Picotte de Bellestre, John Eraser, Henry Caldwell, William Grant, 
Paul Rock St. Ours, Francis Baby, Joseph de Longueuil, Samuel Hol- 
land, George Davison, Sir John Johnson Bart, Charles de Lanaudiere, 
Rene Amable Boucherville, and Le comte Dupre, Members of Our 
Council of Our Province of Quebec, and to Our loving subjects Robert 
Clark and Ephraim Washburn of Ernest Town, George Singleton and 
Robert Kerr of Fredericksburg, Peter Vanalstin and Nicholas Hager- 
4 49 


man of Adolphus Town, Daniel Wright, Archibald McDonell and 
Joseph Sherwood of Marysburg, William Marst, Joseph W. Meyers 
and Stephen Gilbert of Sydney, and William Bowen of Richmond, 
Esquires, Greeting. Know Ye that We have assigned you jointly and 
severally and every one of you, Our Justices to keep Our Peace in Our 
District of Mecklenburg in Our said Province of Quebec, and to keep 
and cause to be kept, all Ordinances, Statutes and Laws for the good 
of the peace, and for preservation of the same ; and for the quiet Rule 
and Government of Our people made in all and singular their articles 
in Our said District of Mecklenburg (as well within liberties as with- 
out) according to the force, form and effect of the same; and to chastise 
and punish all persons that offend against the form of those Ordinances, 
Statutes and Laws, or any of them, in the District aforesaid, as it 
ought to be done, according to the form and purpose of those Laws, 
Ordinances and Statutes and to cause to come before you or any of 
you, all those who to any one or more of Our people concerning their 
bodies, or the firing of their houses, have used threats ; to find sufficient 
security for the peace for their good behaviour, towards Us and Our 
people, and if they shall refuse to find such security, then to cause 
them to be safely kept in Our prisons until they shall find such security. 
We have also assigned you and every two or more of you, of whom any 
one of you the aforesaid Henry Hope, William Smith, Hugh Finlay, 
Thomas Dunn, Edward Harrison, John Collins, Adam Mabane, Joseph 
Gaspard Chaussegros Delory, George Pownall, Picotte de Bellestre, 
John Fraser, Henry Caldwell, William Grant, Paul Rock St. Ours, 
Francis Baby, Joseph de Longueuil, Samuel Holland, George Davison, 
Sir John Johnson, Bart., Charles de Lanaudiere, Rene Amable Bou- 
cherville and Le Comte Dupre, Members of Our Council for our said 
Province, & Robert Clark, & Ephraim Washburn of Earnest Town & 
George Singleton; (We will Shall be one) Our Justices to enquire 
the truth more fully, by the oath of good and lawful men of the Dis- 
trict aforesaid ; by whom the truth of the matter may be better kuown, 
of all and all manner of Felonies, Poisonings, Enchantments, Sorceries, 
Arts Magick, Trespasses, Forestallings, Regratings, Ingrossings and 
Extortions, whatsoever ; and all and singular other crimes and offences, 
of which the Justices of Our peace may or ought lawfully to enquire, 
by whomsoever and after what manner soever in the said District done 
or perpetrated, or which shall happen to be there done or attempted; 
And also all those who in the aforesaid District, in companies against 
Our peace, in disturbance of Our people, with armed force have gone 
or rode or hereafter shall presume to go or ride ; And also of all those 


who have there lain in wait, or hereafter shall presume to lie in wait, 
to maim, or cut, or kill Our people; And also of all Victuallers, and 
all and singular other persons who in the abuse of weights or measures, 
or in selling Victuals against the form of the Ordinances, Statutes and 
Laws of Our said Province, or any of them in that behalf made, for the 
common benefit of Our said Province, and Our people thereof, have 
offended, or attempted, or hereafter shall presume in the said District 
to offend or attempt ; And also of all Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Stewards, Con- 
stables, Keepers of Gaols and other officers who in the execution of 
their offices, about the premises or any of them, have unduly behaved 
themselves; or hereafter shall presume to behave themselves unduly, or 
have been or shall happen hereafter to be careless, remiss or negligent 
in Our District aforesaid; and of all and singular articles and cir- 
cumstances, and all other things whatsoever that concern the premises 
or any of them, by whomsoever, and after what manner soever in Our 
aforesaid District done or perpetrated, or which hereafter shall there 
happen to be done or attempted in what manner soever : And to inspect 
all Indictments whatsoever, so before you or any of you taken or to be 
taken before others late Our jxistices of the peace in the aforesaid Dis- 
trict, made or taken and not yet determined, and to make and continue 
processes thereupon against all and singular the person so indicted, or 
who before you hereafter shall happen to be indicted, until they can be 
taken, surrender themselves or be outlawed ; And to hear and deter- 
mine all and singular the felonies, Poisonings, Inchantments, Sorceries, 
Arts magick, trespasses, forestallings, regratings, engrossings, extor- 
tions, unlawful assemblies, Indictments aforesaid, and all and singular 
other the premises, according to the Laws and Statutes of England, and 
the laws of our said Province, as in the like cases it has been accus- 
tomed, or ought to be done ; and the same offenders and every of them, 
for their offences, by fines, ransoms, amerciaments, forfeitures, and 
other means as according to the Law and Custom of England or form 
of the Ordinances and Statutes aforesaid, and the Laws of the said Pro- 
vince it has been accustomed or ought to be done, to chastise and pun- 
ish, Provided Always that if a case of difficulty upon the determina- 
tion of any of the premises before you, or any two or more of you, shall 
happen to arise ; then let Judgment in no wise be thereon given before 
you, or any two or more of you, unless in the presence of Our Chief 
Justice of Our Court of King's Bench of Our Province aforesaid, or 
of one or more of Our Justices specially appointed to hold the assizes in 
the aforesaid District ; and therefore We command you and every of you 
that to keeping the peace, Ordinances, Statutes, and all and singular the 


premises, you diligently apply yourselves and that certain days and 
places, which you, or any such two or more of you as is aforesaid, shall 
for these purposes appoint, into the premises ye make enquires, and all 
and singular the premises hear and determine, and perform and fulfil 
them, in the aforesaid form, doing therein what to Justices appertains 
according to the Law and Custom of England and the ordinances as 
above mentioned, Saving to Us the amerciaments and other things to 
Us therefrom belonging. And We command by the tenor of these pre- 
sents, Ouk Sheriff of the District of Mecklenburg that at certain days 
and places, which you or any such two or more of you as is aforesaid, 
shall make known to him, lie cause to come before you, or such two or 
more of you as aforesaid, so many and such good and lawful men of 
his District and Bailiwick (as well within the liberties as without) by 
whom the truth of the matter in the premises shall be the better known 
and enquired into, and lastly We Command the keeper of the Rolls of 
Our Peace of the said District, that he brings before you and your 
said Fellows, at the days and places aforesaid, the writs, precepts, pro- 
cesses and Indictments aforesaid, that they may be inspected and by a 
due course determined as is aforesaid. 

In testimony whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be 
made Patent and the Great Seal of Our Province of Quebec to be 
thereunto affixed, and the same to be recorded in one of the books of 
Patents in Our Registers office remaining: Witness Our Trusty and 
Well-loved Guy Lord Dorchester, Our Captain General and Gover- 
nor in Chief of Our said Province, at Our Castle of St. Lewis in Our 
City of Quebec, this twenty- fourth day of July in the year of Our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight, and of Our reign 
the twenty-eighth. 

(sgd) D. G. 

(sgd) Geo. Pownale, Secry. 

Persons Mentioned. 

Dorchester (Guy Carleton), born at Strabane, Ireland, Sept. 
3, 1724, was appointed Lieut. -Colonel in 1757; took part in the siege 
of Louisbourg; was wounded at the taking of Quebec in 1759; served 
at the siege of Belleisle in 1761, and at that of Havana in 1762 ; was 
appointed Lieut-Governor of Quebec in 1766 and Governor in 1768 ; 
was in command of the British troops in Canada ; successfully de- 
fended Quebec against the American forces under Montgomery and 
Arnold, December 1775, to May 1776; captured Crown Point in 


October, 1776; was made Lieut. -General in 1777; in 1782 he suc- 
ceeded Sir Henry Clinton as Commander-in-Chief of the British 
forces in America, and took command in New York in May and evac- 
uated that city in November of the following year. He was appointed 
Governor-in-Chief of Canada again in 1786, and also of Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, and held that office until 1796. He died in 
Berkshire in 1808, aged 83. Kingsford says of him: "His military 
success is written in his services with AVolfe ; in the pregnant sentence 
that he saved Quebec in 177.") and that in 1776 he drove before him 
from Canadian soil the Congress forces like a flock of sheep. In his 
political career, his moderation, justice, prudence and genius can 
everywhere be recognized. He had the keenest sense of what was due 
to the dignity and character of Great Britain. In his private life 
there was ever apparent a chivalrous sense of honor, truth and self- 
sacrifice." His name in this part of Canada is kept fresh by that of 
the neighboring island, which was once a British post, but which 
boundary commissioners gave to the Bepublic to our south. 

Heney Hope was sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor on 2nd Nov- 
ember 1785, and acted as such until Dorchester arrived in Canada in 
October 1786. He died in April 17S9, and was buried in Quebec 
with military honors. Hope Gate was called after him. He was very 
considerate of the U. E. Loyalists and did much to further their 

William Smith, Chief Justice, was born in the City of New York 
in 1728, the son of a successful lawyer who became one of the Asso- 
ciate Judges of the Province of New York. He entered the profession 
of the law and in 1765 became Chief Justice of New York. He is not 
a favorite with United States critics ; they say that when the revolu- 
tionary movement was approaching its final development he was un- 
certain which side he should take and so retired to his country house 
on the North River for five months, as if waiting to see on which 
banner victory would perch. However, he was suspected of leaning to 
the royal cause and was confined on parol ; as his property was not con- 
fiscated, it is evident that he was not altogether unfriendly to the revo- 
lutionary party. In 177S he returned to New York and openly took 
the British side; he remained in that city, thoroughly enjoying 
Carleton's confidence, until the evacuation after the peace; then he 
accompanied Carleton to England. When Carleton returned to Canada 
as Lord Dorchester and Governor-General Smith came with him as 
Chief Justice ; in December, 1792, he was nominated by the Crown as 
Speaker of the Legislative Council. Smith believed in the supremacy 


of English law and stoutly advocated the establishment of the jury 
system in Canada in disputes between merchants and traders, and in 
actions for personal injuries. He submitted to Dorchester a scheme 
which foreshadowed the confederation of the Dominion ; he suggested 
a Legislative Assembly for the whole of British America south of 
Hudson's Bay and north of Bermuda, which should make laws for all 
the Provinces ; Dorchester thought so well of the plan that he for- 
warded the communication to the Home Government, but the time for 
such a great union was not yet fully come and the idea slept. He died 
in December, 1793, and among those who attended his funeral was 
H.R.H. Prince Edward, the father of her gracious Majesty Queen 

Hugh Finlay was the Postmaster-General of that day; appar- 
ently his labors as such could not have been very onerous, as the only 
places between which correspondence was then regularly carried on were 
Montreal, Quebec, Three Rivers and Sorel, and the post went only twice 
a week ; there was an occasional mail to Chambly. In 1799 he was 
behind in his accounts with the Imperial Government to the extent of 
some £1,500 (these were the days of small things), and in August, 
1802, he was removed from his position. He appears to have specu- 
lated in lands with the Government moneys. Dorchester arranged for 
a monthly mail to England, from Halifax and St. John, the letters to 
be carried thither by a man on foot. Postage was heavy — a package 
containing a petition, sent from Montreal in a box to the Governor at 
Quebec, cost £2 16s. 

John Fraser was one of the judges at Montreal. 

Thomas Dunn was a native of Durham, in England, and was 
born in 1731. He came to Canada shortly after the conquest and 
engaged in mercantile life. Subsequently, he became one of the judges 
of the Court of King's Bench (common sense, not common law, was 
needed in those days). Dorchester appointed him to the Legislative 
Council in 1775 ; by the way, the first meeting of that Council was 
disturbed by the news of Montgomery's invasion. When Sir Robert 
S. Milner left Quebec in 1805 Mr. Dunn, as senior Executive Coun- 
cillor, was appointed Administrator of the Government. In his first 
opening speech to the Assembly he had the pleasing duty of congratu- 
lating the members on the glorious victory of Trafalgar. Kingsford 
calls this naval action unparalleled in history — but, then, Kingsford 
wrote before the exploits of Dewey, Schley and Sampson. 

John Collins was Deputy Surveyor-General and laid out the 
Township of Fredericksburgh in 1783 and afterwards Marysburgh. 


His name is perpetuated in this region by a lake, a stream and a bay, 
not to speak of a village. 

Adam Mabajste, a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, although 
at an earlier period he had been Staff-Surgeon of the Quebec garrison, 
was appointed to the Council by General Murray when Governor. 
Carleton, shortly after his arrival, dismissed him, because of his 
action in the Walker matter. Carleton had previously snubbed him 
because Mabane, with others, had objected to the Governor consulting 
with members of the Council individually. He was appointed a judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas by Carleton in 1755, and Dorchester, 
after the Quebec Act, kept him on the bench. 

Joseph Chaussegros de Leby, born in Canada, was the son of 
the French King's chief engineer, who came to this country in 1717 
obtained a seigniory in 1732, and prepared the plans for the for- 
tifications of Quebec. Our justice entered the army in 1742 and held 
the position of captain in Montcalm's command at the time of \he 
capture of Quebec. He had previously drawn the designs for forti- 
fying Quebec and built Fort Beausejour, in Acadia. In 1761 he, with 
his family, went to France, to solicit a place and the favors to which 
he thought his services to his country entitled him. But, being unsuc- 
cessful with the French, he turned to the English king. When he and 
his wife, Louise de Brouages, were presented at Court, the youthful 
George III. was so struck with the lady's beauty that he exclaimed, 
" Madame, if all the ladies of Canada resemble you, we may indeed 
boast of our beautiful conquest." De Lery returned to his native land 
in September, 1764. General Murray — the then Governor — did 
nothing for him, however. But when Carleton recommended the 
appointment of French-Canadians to the Legislative Council in 1769, 
de Lery's name was the first on the list. He received the appointment 
in time, and held it from 1775 until his death in December, 1797, 
drawing, besides £100 a year as Councillor, £200 as a pension from 
the Government. One of his sons became Lieutenant-General and 
Engineer-in-Chief of the Imperial Army, and was made a Baron by 

Francois Mabie Picotte de Belestre, Chevalier de St. Louis, 
was the grandson of the first nobleman who came to Canada in the 
time of De Maisonneuve, Madlle. Mance and Marguerite Bourgeois. 
He distinguished hjjnself at Detroit, of which place he became Gov- 
ernor in 1756. At the cession of jSTew France he most reluctantly 
made over this post to the British, being almost unable to believe that 
the French had capitulated at Montreal in 1760. Having retired to 



this place, he became a devoted subject to the British Crown and his 
zeal in defending its honor, both in public and in private, was well 
known. In 1775 he retook the Fort of St. John from the Americans, 
defeated Schuyler, and defended Chambly forty-five days against 
Montgomery, but he had to succumb for want of relief. He was first 
called to the Council in 1775. 

Henry Caldwell was at one time Receiver-General. He was 
Deputy Quartermaster-General under Wolfe and settled in the Pro- 
vince after the conquest. When Montgomery besieged Quebec, he was 
in command of the English-speaking militia in that fortress, with the 
provincial rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He was an energetic and effi- 
cient officer. He had a special cause for disliking the rebels that came 
to try and win Quebec under Arnold and Montgomery, for they occu- 
pied and pillaged his fine country house. The very day that Benedict 
Arnold and his ragged, way-worn followers had landed at Wolfe's Cove 
and scaled the heights of Abraham, they marched to " Sans Bruit," 
the manor house of Colonel Caldwell, which was situated half-way 
between the Cove and Quebec, near the St. Charles River. The 
mansion house became the headquarters of the Continentals and the 
rank and file were comfortably quartered in the adjacent buildings; 
greatly the Americans relished feasting on Caldwell's fat bullocks after 
their terrible journey up the Kennebec and down the Chaudiere, when 1 

"they had to eat dogs — entrails, skin and all — moose hide, moccasin soup, 
shaving soap, pomatum and lip salve, and gnawed ravenously but in 
vain at the leather of their shoes, cartridge boxes, shot pouches and | 


William Grant was the Receiver-General of the Province of 
Quebec. In 1770, fifteen years after her first husband's death, he 
married the widow of the third Baron de Longueuil, who had been killed 
in Dieskau's defeat at Lake George, and was supposed to have been 
eaten by the drunken and infuriated Indians, who fought on the side 
of the English, de Longueuil having been in command of the French 
braves. The lady was a Delle. Fleury Deschambault, and had no chil- 
dren by her second husband. The Grants Avere of the nobility in 
Scotland, as well as in France; the Grants, of Blairfindie, were of an 
illustrious race. William Grant had a nephew, David Alexander 
Grant, a Captain in the 94th Regiment, whose marriage with his 
wife's only daughter, Marie Charles Josephe LeMoyne, he greatly 
encouraged; the happy event took place on the 7th May, 1781. The 
son of this marriage, the Hon. Charles William Grant, on the death of 
his mother, became the Baron de Longueuil. He was largely inter- 



ested in lands on Wolfe Island, once part of La Salle's seigniory of 

Saint Roche de St. Ours was of noble origin and a descendant 
of an officer of the Carignan-Salieres Regiment, which came to New 
France in 1665, of a family distinguished for its bravery and interpid- 
ity in the field. Quinson, one brother, fought at Monongahela, where 
Braddock suffered, and at St. John, then became Commandant at Saint 
Domingo. A second brother was killed in the service of his king in 
1757. Pierre Roche, a third, distinguished himself considerably at 
Carillon, was made a Knight of St. Louis, commanded as a Brigadier 
on the Plains of Abraham, where he was mortally wounded. The 
member of the Council, who was known by the name of d'Eschaillons, 
was born in 1730 ; married Mile. Josephe G-odfroy de Tormaneour, of 
Three Rivers, by whom he had three children, who survived him. lie 
died in 1814, at the age of 78, a member of the Executive and Legis- 
lative Councils. 

Francis Baby was a grandson of Jacques Baby, seigneur of Ran- 
ville and an officer of the famous regiment of Carignan, and the young- 
est son of Raymond Baby and Therese Lecompte Dupre. He served 
in the army during the Seven Years' War and went to France with the 
remnant of the troops in the autumn of 1760. Three years later he 
returned to Canada, with a number of other famous Canadians, re- 
solved to accept British domination. Charter de Lotbiniere helped 
him to enter the fur trade, in which in a few years, while still young, 
he acquired a fine fortune. In 1772 he was sent to London by his 
fellow-countrymen, and did much to enlighten the minister of the day 
on the state of the country and to prepare for the Quebec Act. In 
1775 he urged General Carleton to place the country in a state of 
defence, in view of the dark clouds gathering in the south, and he him- 
self was appointed Major in the militia. Afterwards, he held many 
important offices ; twice he was at the point of being made Adminis- 
trator of the Province, but his religion prevented it. He was made 
Adjutant of the Militia by Haldimand in 1780 and continued such 
until 1812. Suite says he was called to the Executive Council in 
1791 and to the Legislative Council in 1792. He died in 1820, 
aged 87. 

Joseph Lemotne de Longueuil. Joseph Dominique Emmanuel 
was the son of Paul Joseph de Longueuil and Marie Genevieve Joy- 
bert de Soulanges ; born, May 2nd, 1738. Early in life he entered the 
French Army and rose to the rank of Captain. He married the widow 
of De Bonne de Lesdigineres, who was killed at the siege of Quebec. 


She was the daughter of Colonel Prudhomme, Commander of the Mont- 
real Militia on the Plains of Abraham, and at the affair at Ste. Foye. 
He tendered his services to King George after the peace. Carleton 
appointed him Inspector-General of Militia, and in 1796 he became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Koyal Canadian Volunteers. He contrib- 
uted considerably of his private means to the keeping up of this corps, 
at the head of which he remained six years. In that regiment, which 
bore on its colors the words, " Try Us," were many of the leading 
French-Canadians. His fortune was a considerable one for those days. 
He was Seignior of Soulanges, Nouvelle Longueuil and Pointe 

Samuel Holland was Surveyor-General of Canada. He sur- 
veyed x\dolphustown in 1783. 

Le Compte Dupke originally served under the Marquis Duquesne, 
the French Governor-General of Canada, and then on to the sur- 
render of Canada to the British. He then entered the army of the 
conquerors, and in consequence of his bravery and skill during the 
siege of Quebec by Montgomery he was appointed Commandant of 
that city and the surrounding district by Sir Guy Carleton. He con- 
tinued in this important position for over twenty years. The Ameri- 
cans, under Montgomery, burnt his property. Some 400 of them were 
quartered on his estate near the city. 

Sir John Johnson was a son of the celebrated Sir William 
Johnson. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, Sir John, who 
had already succeeded to his father's title and to his influence over 
the Indians, exerted that influence to the utmost in the royal 
cause. Although only 18 he served as a volunteer under Bur- 
goyne. He thus rendered himself particularly obnoxious to the Con- 
tinentals, as the Americans were then called. In 1776 Colonel 
Dayton, with a strong force, was sent to arrest him. and put it out of 
his power to do further mischief to the Revolutionists. Receiving 
timely notice of this move from his Tory friends in Albany he hastily 
assembled a large number of his tenants and others and made arrange- 
ments for a retreat to Canada, and this he safely accomplished. 
Avoiding the route by Lake Champlain, from fear of falling into the 
hands of the enemy, who were supposed to be assembled in that direc- 
tion, he struck deep into the woods by way of the head-waters of the 
Hudson, and descended the Raquette River to the St Lawrence and 
then crossed over to Canada. Their store of provisions failed soon 
after they left home. Weary and footsore numbers of them sank by 
the way and had to be left behind, but were shortly after relieved by a 


party of Indians, who were sent from Caughnawaga in search of them. 
After nineteen days of hardships, which have had few parallels in our 
history, they reached Montreal. So hasty had been the flight that the 
family papers had to be buried in the garden at Johnson Hall, nothing 
being taken with them but articles of prime necessity. The Americans 
made nothing by this move, for Sir John soon after his arrival in Mont- 
real was commissioned a Colonel and raised two battalions of loyalists, 
who were called the Royal Greens. A large number of the Mohawks, 
and the settlers on his New York lands, some seven hundred in number, 
by his persuasion came over to Canada. He was one of the most active 
and bitterest foes that the Whigs encountered during the contest, and 
many an inroad did his Indians make across the line. In August, 1777, 
he, with Colonel St. Ledger and Brant, invested Fort Stanwix. Their 
operations being threatened by the brave old hero General Nicholas 
Herkimer, Commander of the Tryon County Militia, the British moved 
out to meet him, and while they successfully ambuscaded Herkimer 
and his men, they were finally defeated and completely routed by a 
brilliant sortie of the garrison. Sir John Johnson's camp was pillaged 
and five British Standards captured ; these the American Colonel hung 
up in the fort, beneath the Stars and Stripes, hastily extemporized out 
of a white shirt, an old blue jacket and some strips of cloth from the 
petticoat of a soldier's wife. This flag, says Fiske, was the first 
American flag with stars and stripes ever hoisted, and it was flung to 
the breeze on the memorable day of Oriskany, August 6, 1777, and 
these captured banners of Johnson's Royal Greens were, as Bancroft 
says, the first flags that had ever floated under the Stars and Stripes 
of the young Republic. Johnson was knighted at St. James' Palace. 
After the war lie was appointed Superintendent-General of Indian 
Affairs of British North America, also Colonel-in-Chief of six regi- 
ments of militia in the Eastern Townships, and a member of the 
Legislature. He lived in Montreal and died there. His exten- 
sive family estates on the Mohawk were, of course, confiscated, but 
the Crown compensated him with large grants of land in different 
parts of Canada and a considerable sum of money. His only son 
became a Colonel in the British Army and was killed at Waterloo. 
Dorchester, in 1790, had strongly recommended that Sir John should 
be made the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. How- 
ever, Simcoe was appointed. He owned Lot 1, adjoining the 
Town of Kingston. Being in this old City of Kingston, I 
may say that Sir John Johnson's five half-sisters, in whose veins 
coursed the brave and duskv blood of the Mohawks — their mother 


being Miss Molly, a sister of Tyandinagea, Joseph Brant — lived here. 
These ladies were fairly well educated and married well — one, Cap- 
tain Farley, of the 60th Regiment; another, Lieutenant Lemoine, of 
the 24th; the third, John Ferguson, she was the Magdalen Fer- 
guson whom all conveyancers in Kingsters know well by name as the 
patentee of 116 acres " adjoining the northernmost limits of the Town 
of Kingston." A fourth daughter married Dr. Kerr, a well-known 
surgeon of the day, who eventually settled near Hamilton. The fifth, 
Ann, was the wife of Captain Earl, of the Provincial Navy. He has 
given us the name of one of our streets and his Indian beauty owned 
some town lots, as well as Lot 2, adjoining Kingston. Their daughter 
married Colin Miller, the first Manager of the Bank of Montreal in 
this city. 

Charles Tariex de Laxaudiere was the son of Charles Xavier 
Tarien de Lanaudiere, and, serving as a Lieutenant in the French 
army, was wounded at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. He went 
back with his regiment — that of La Sarre — to France, but the spirit 
of the New World soon drew him again to Canada. However, before 
returning, he travelled a good deal over Europe, and had the good for- 
tune of being presented, with Mons. de St. Ours, to the great Fred- 
erick of Prussia, at Potsdam, during the celebrated manoeuvres there. 
In Canada he became Aide-de-camp to General Carleton and greatly 
assisted him in avoiding falling into the hands of the invading Amer- 
icans on his rapid trip from Montreal to Quebec in the fall of 1775. 
The Governor had abandoned Montreal to Montgomery and his forces, 
and was hurrying to Quebec with men, munitions and provisions and, 
fearful of being stopped at Sorel by the Americans under Easton, he, 
Lanaudiere and one or two others entered the boat of a trader, and — 
the crew quietly paddling only with their hands — managed to slip 
safely by the hostile camp — iand so to save Quebec and Canada. When 
Montgomery fell and his body was placed in its temporary resting- 
place under the Avails of Quebec, his faithful spaniel lay mourning for 
eight days, without food, on its master's grave, in that fearful January 
weather, until Lanaudiere coaxed the poor creature away. He had raised 
a company of his censitaires to help repel the invasion. Consequently, 
the Continentals completely sacked his manor house at St. Anne's. He 
took a vigorous part in the defence of Chambly. In 1778 he followed 
Carleton to England, and, together with his father-in-law, Lacorne St. 
Luc, he appeared as a witness before the Burgoyne Committee of the 
House of Commons. On his return to Canada he was appointed Grand 
Voyer. He died in 1811, leaving one daughter. He had been called 


to the Legislative Council in 1792. He was Seignior of St. Anne de 
la Parade. The late Judge Baby (to whom I am much indebted for 
information about these French-Canadians), said that the De Lanau- 
diere family was of ancient noblesse and was closely connected with 
the Dukes of Mortimore. 

Rene Amable Boucher de Bouchervlle was a descendant of 
Pierre Boucher, Governor of Three Rivers, who was ennobled by 
Louie XIV. in 1661, and the son of Francois Pierre Boucher de 
Boucherville and Marguerite Bianbault de St. Blin. He was born at 
Cataraqui (now Kingston), the 12th February, 1735, and married at 
Montreal, in 1770, his cousin, Madelaine de St. Blin. He took a dis- 
tinguished part in the defence of Chambly against the Americans in 
1775, when they made their raid into Quebec, before the Declaration 
of Independence. He filled the office of Grand Voyer in Lower Canada 
for many years. He died at Boucherville on 2nd September, 1812. 

Robert Clark was born in Dutchess County, N".Y., in 1774. By 
trade he was a carpenter and millwright, and he owned two farms 
near his birthplace. He was married and had two children when the 
American Revolution broke out, but he at once volunteered and joined 
the British army. This loyal act destroyed his home, his family were 
driven out, his property confiscated, warrants were issued against him 
and a reward offered for his apprehension. He was with Burgoyne 
when that unfortunate general decided to surrender to the Americans 
at Saratoga. He, with other volunteers, were told of what was coming 
and advised to leave the camp and make their way to some place of 
safety, unless they desired to fall into the enemy's hands and taste his 
tender mercies. Many of them disappeared by night and reached 
Canada after weeks of sufferings and privations. Clark then volun- 
teered into the Loyal Rangers, under Major Jessop. He received his 
discharge in December, 1783, when the cruel war was practically over. 
In 1783 he was employed by the Government to erect a grist mill at 
what is now called Kingston Mills, the first mill in this section of the 
Province. In 1784 he was happily re-united to his wife and family 
at Cataraqui, whither they had wended their way with the Loyalists ; 
the separation had lasted seven years. Clark located in the front of 
Ernestown, midway between Collins Bay and Mill Haven, where some 
of his descendants lived until a year or so ago. He was the patentee 
of Lots 30 and 31 and the east half of 33, in the first concession of 
that township. In 1785 and 1786 he built a sawmill and a grist mill 
at Appanea Falls (now called Napanee). For many years he was an 
active member of the Court of Requests. He was prominent in the 


Militia Force and as such served his country in the troublous times of 
1812-14. A member of the first Methodist class founded in the town- 
ship, he died in 1823. A sketch of his old mill on the Appanae 
River, Bay of Quinte, may yet be seen in the British Museum, done 
by the pencil of no less an artist than the wife of Governor Simcoe. 
(Papers and Records, O. H. S., Vol. VI., p. 50.) 

Epheaim Washburn was also a volunteer during the Revolution, 
a Sergeant in the Royal Rangers. He settled on the Bay front, west 
of Bath. He was a commissary for the giving out of the Government 
food supplies during the hard times of 1786. He was the father of 
the Hon. Simeon Washburn, of Picton, at one time a leading business 
man in the County of Prince Edward, and the father-in-law of the 
Rev. Robert McDowall, that well-remembered pioneer Presbj'terian 
missionary in the Bay counties, who lived and died in Fredericks- 
burgh. So said Mr. Casey. He was the first grantee of parts of 
Lots 4, 5 and 6 in the first concession of Frederioksburgh, although in 
this patent he was referred to as of Adolphustown. He also had about 
1,200 acres in the Township of Hallowell, in the eleventh concession, 
north-east of the Carrying Place, and some town lots in Kingston. For 
many years he was member of Parliament for Prince Edward County, 
and his sessional allowance varied from £22 10s. to £29 10s., as 
appears by Records of the Quarter Sessions. 

George Singleton, who had been a Captain in the Royal Regi- 
ment of New York, does not seem to have obtained any land in Fred- 
ericksburgh, but over 2,300 acres were granted to his heirs in the 
second concession of Huntingdon. 

Robert Kerr appears to have been a surgeon in the Royal Regi- 
ment of New York during the Revolution, but I cannot find out where 
he located. His name does not appear as patentee for any lands in 

Peter Vanalstine was born at Kinderhook, Albany County, 
N.Y. From the earliest period he resolved to support the British 
Government in the impending struggle. In 1776 he was arrested and 
sent to gaol for seventeen days as a friend of the king. Early in 1777 
he had to leave home, and in September of that year joined General 
Burgoyne's army. After the Convention of Saratoga he came to 
Canada. Afterwards, he brought thirty men into the King's army. 
In 1778 he went to New York and served as Captain of Bateaux-men. 
Afterwards, he did duty as Major of Associated Loyalists and at 
Smith Town, Long Island. He seems to have owned considerable real 
estate in Albanv Countv — this was all seized and declared forfeited. 


Among his farm stock, he enumerated three negroes when making his 
claim before the Royalist Commission. He was elected to represent 
Lennox and Prince Edward in the First Parliament of Upper Canada. 
- Philip Dorland had been chosen member, but, being a Quaker, he 
declined to take the oaths, and so the seat was declared vacant. By 
Lieutenant-Governor Simeoe's proclamation, given at Kingston, 16th 
July, 1792, the County of Prince Edward and the Township of 
Adolphustown together sent one representative to Parliament. The 
rest of Lennox was joined with the Counties of Hastings and North- 
umberland, while Addington and the long since abolished County of 
Ontario sent another. The members received ten shillings each day 
for their services and this was paid by their constituents. Vanalstine 
let his remuneration accumulate and the minutes of the Quarter Ses- 
sions, held in October, 1795, record that he was then voted £28i for 
his " member's wages " for 1793, and £26 for 1794 and £26 for 1795. 
Vanalstine settled on the Bay shore on Lot 27, just east of the Dor- 
lands. In addition to his land in Adolphustown, he was granted a 
large tract in the opposite Township of Marysburgh, some 437 acres. 
This included the mountain on which is the well-known, very inter- 
esting and somewhat mysterious, lake. The Major utilized the stream 
that tumbles over the rock, and erected there the first grist mill in the 
township. He died in 1811 and a son of his lived many years at the 
Stone Mills, Glenora, and also died there. The lake was for a time 
called Vanalstine' s Lake. Canniff tells us that in the year 1783 a party 
of Loyalists sailed from the Port of New York (they were under the 
command of Captain Vanalstine) with a fleet of seven sail and pro- 
tected by the Brig Hope, of 40 guns. Some of this band had served in 
the army in an irregular manner ; more had been in New York as 
refugees. Vanalstine, although commissioned to lead this company, 
it would seem, had not been in the service, was not a military man, 
but a prominent Loyalist of the Knickerbockers. These refugees, in 
setting out for the unknown wilderness, were provided with camp 
tents and provisions, to be continued for three years, and with such 
implements as were given to the disbanded soldiers, as well as a bateau 
to every four families, after arriving at their place of destina- 
tion. They sailed from New York on the 8th of September and 
arrived in Quebec on the 8th of October. Many were undecided whe- 
ther to go to the Lower Provinces or on to Canada. A shark followed 
the vessel for many days, causing no little consternation. At last a 
child died and was consigned to the deep, after which this grim visitor 
was seen no more. The Government rations with which they were 


supplied consisted of pork and peas for breakfast, peas and pork for 
dinner, and for supper one or the other. The party proceeded from 
Quebec to Sorel, where they spent the winter, living in their linen tents, 
which afforded but little protection against the intense cold. While 
they were staying there it was determined to grant them a township on 
the Bay of Quinte. The first township had been granted to Captain 
Grass and his party; the second and third were to be taken by John- 
son's Second Battalion; so Vanalstine's corps were to have the next. 
Surveyor Holland was at that time engaged in completing the survey, 
with his tent pitched on the shores of the fourth township. The party 
left Sorel on the 21st of May, 1784, in a brigade of bateaux and 
reached the fourth township on the 16th of the following month. The 
travellers passed along where now stands the Adolphustown wharf, 
westward nearly half a mile, and rounded a point known as Hager- 
man's Point. Here a small, but deep, stream empties itself, having 
coursed along through a small valley. They ascended this creek for 
nearly a quarter of a mile and then landed upon its south side. Be- 
tween the creek and the bay is a small eminence; it was on its slopes 
that the settlers under Vanalstine pitched their tents. Thus housed, 
and far removed from the busy haunts of men, this community con- 
tinued to live for many days. Steps were speedily taken to divide the 
land by lots. Each drew his 200 acres. Besides this, there was laid 
out a town plot of 300 acres, regularly divided into town lots of one 
acre each, and each settler obtained one of these. Alas, the town has 
not thriven as these early arrivals expected. Canniff tells us that after 
the magistrates were appointed, Vanalstine claimed the pre-eminence, 
because he had been the military leader of the company in their jour- 
neyings, hut one Ruttan donned the uniform that he had worn as an 
officer of the regular army and attended the meeting of the bench, 
declaring that no one was his superior. Vanalstine submitted. Dr. 
Smythe told us, in his interesting' paper on " Early Law Courts," that 
Peter Vanalstine and Gilbert Sharp Avere each fined 30 shillings for 
absenting themselves, being Grand Jurors, from the Court of Quarter 
Sessions at Kingston, held on 14th April, 1789. Dr. Smythe says 
that this was the first court of which he could find any record. 

Nicholas Hagerman was one of those who followed Vanalstine's 
lead into Canada. He settled on the lot on which the refugee party 
landed, and on which the United Empire burial ground is now located 
in front of the Village of Adolphustown. Canniff says that the spot 
where his house stood has been washed away. He was a man of much 
energy and shrewdness ; as to his education, Canniff remarks that " he 


was a man of some education," but Mr. T. W. Casey says, " of not 
much." Read says positively, " he was a man of educatiota." 
Canniff suggests that he studied law before he left New York. Be 
that so or no, he was one of the first legally authorized to practice in 
the new Province, and Adolphustown was his headquarters. By a 
statute passed in the 34th year of the reign of George III. it was 
stated that great inconvenience might ensue from the want of persons 
duly authorized to practice the profession of law in this Province, and 
then enacted that the Governor might authorize by license under his 
hand and seal so many of His Majesty's liege subjects (not exceeding 
sixteen in number) as he might deem, from their probity, education 
and condition in life, best qualified to act as advocates and attorneys 
in the conduct of all legal proceedings, and that upon producing such 
license their names should be inscribed on the proper roll, to be 
kept among the records of the Court of King's Bench. Nicholas 
Hagerman was so licensed. He was called to the bar in Trinity Term, 
1797, and was one of those who assembled on July 17 at Wilson's 
Hotel, Newark, for the purpose of organizing the Law Society of 
Upper .Canada; he became a bencher thereof in Michaelmas term, 
1799. The Honorable Richard Cartwright, who was at the time a 
member of the Legislative Council, thus wrote of the sixteen gentle- 
men made lawyers by the hand and seal of the Governor, Simcoe: 
" Certain persons who without any previous study or training, and 
by the mere magic of the privy seal, are at once to start up adepts in 
the science of the law and proficients in the intricate practice of West- 
minster Hall. This bill," he continues," was hurried through in a 
manner not very decent. My proposal to have it printed previous to 
discussion was overruled with some warmth and blustering, and you 
will be astonished to hear that a law of such importance, and in con- 
versation at least disapproved by several members of the lower house, 
should be pressed through that House without debate and in a single 
day." (""Life and Letters of Hon. Richard Cartwright," p. 60.) I 
may add that all the fees these fortunate men had to pay were forty 
shillings to the Governor's Secretary for the license, and thirteen shil- 
lings and four pence to the Clerk of the King's Bench when inscrib- 
ing their names on the list of practitioners. One of Nicholas Hager- 
man's sons, Christopher, was aide-de-camp to the Governor-General 
during the war of 1812-14. He studied law and practiced in Kings- 
ton, was collector of customs here, and for years the member of the 
city; in 1840 he was appointed Judge of the Queen's Bench, after 
being both solicitor and attorney-general. His portrait has adorned our 


city hall for many a year, except when it paid a visit to Government 
House, Toronto, while the original's daughter, the wife of the late 
Hon. J. Beverley Robinson, presided there. Another son, Daniel, prac- 
ticed law in Bath, was elected member for the county, and his widow 
was well known to many Kingstonians. For a time Adolphu9town 
was almost the hub of the Upper Canada universe; the Court of the 
early days alternated between this village and Kingston, being holden 
twice a year in each place. The Statute 33 Geo. III., Chap. 6, said on 
the second Tuesdays of July and January in Adolphustown, and 
second Tuesdays of April and October in Kingston. The fir9t sittings 
was held in the barn of Paul Huff; this airy and well ventilated build- 
ing answered beautifully for the summer term, but when the wintei 
court drew nigh application was made for the use of the Methodist 
chapel, after some hesitation and some cynical remarks anent turning 
a house of prayer into a den of thieves the use of that building was 
granted and there the Court was held. But this was years after the 
date of our commission. Dr. Smythe found the name of Mr. Nicholas 
Hagerman often appearing as counsel at the Quarter Sessions. He 
says (Queen's Quarterly, 1896, p. 121) that Nicholas and his more 
famous son, Christopher, were often employed as opposing counsel. 

Daniel Weight. — Mr. Casey said he was an early settler of 
Marysburgh ; he was a sergeant in the 53rd Regiment; was granted 
750 acres of land, having nine children born to him prior to 1791. 
The descendants of that family are numerous and respectable both in 
Marysburgh and Fredericksburgh. The old man lived and died near 
Cressy. He was a very influential man in that neighborhood for many 
a day. 

Archibald Macdoxxell led the Foreign Legion, composed of 
Hessians and a few Irish and Scotch, up in bateaux from Lower 
Canada to the Township of Marysburgh that had just been laid out 
on the south side of the bay and named after the Duchess of Glouces- 
ter, the eleventh child of the king; this was in 1785. There were 
probably about forty Hessians who settled here ; unacquainted with the 
English language and unaccustomed to the profound solitude of the 
forest and the fittings of the dark-skinned Indian often in a state of 
semi-nudity, it is no reason for wonder if the Hessian felt otherwise 
than contented in their wilderness home. They knew neither how to 
fish nor to farm, so that when the government supplies were with- 
drawn, after the usual three years, starvation began to stare them in 
the face. All who could escaped to the more settled part of the coun- 
try, some even finding their weary way back to the Fatherland. Cap- 


tain Archibald Macdonnell, who had served in the 84th Regiment, 
landed at the cove that now bears his name, and there pitched his tent 
until he could build his log cabin. He was granted over one thousand 
acres of land along the bay shore. 

William Marst. — I think that the gentleman who so beautifully 
engrossed the patent that we are considering nodded just here, and 
that the name should have been written Marsh- — I can find no trace 
of a Marst; but I do find that in the list of Justices in the Dominion 
Archives at Ottawa the name of William Marsh, and that a William 
Marsh was the grantee on a hundred acre lot in Sydney. Judge 
Fralick, of Belleville, kindly tells me that William Marsh was the 
second son of the twenty-four olive branches that clustered round the 
table of Matthias Marsh, who took up a thousand acres in the town- 
ship of Sidney, near Trenton, and another thousand near Consecon. 
Matthias Marsh was the son of one Colonel William Marsh, of the 
British army, who lost his all in the Revolution, came over to Canada, 
but returning to Vermont — then an independent republic — died there. 
Mr. A. H. Marsh, K.C., of Toronto, is — I am informed — a descend- 

J. W. Meyers. — The commission has it Joseph W. Meyers; the 
list in the Dominion Archives, John William Meyers; Sabine has it 
John Waltermeyer (one word); 'Canniff, John Walter Meyers; but 
Judge Fralick — an old Belleville boy — assures me that the correct 
name was John Walden — pronounced Walten, meaning Woods — and 
that the Walten by degrees became Walter, which name in one form or 
the other has passed from children to grandchildren, boys and girls. 
At the beginning of the Revolution, John W. was farming with his 
father near Albany, and though father and brother identified them- 
selves (according to Canniff) with the Continental, or Rebel, party, 
John remained true to the old flag; but it was not until 1782 that 
he received his commission as captain from Governor Haldimand. 
During the war he, with ten men, made a bold attempt to capture 
General Schuyler in Albany. One night they peered through the 
windows and saw the General within, but when they got within he 
had vanished and they found no trace of him although they searched 
from cellar to attic. In the garret were a number of puncheons 
turned upside down; many of these were examined by the hunters, 
but not all; when the cruel war was over Schuyler called on Meyers 
and explained that he had been quietly curled up under one which 
the searchers had not touched — so says Canniff. Sabine says that 
when Meyers and his party entered tlio dwelling they began securing 


the General's plate before they had his person ; that he, opening a win- 
dow, cried out to imaginary partisans, " Come on, my brave fellows, 
surround the house and seize the villains who are plundering," and 
that this ruse seared away the Tories. On one occasion, in one of his 
expeditions, he nearly perished from hunger, yet for days he carried 
in his arms a favorite dog that had fallen sick for lack of food. This 
he did — oh, tell it not in Gath — not because of his tender heart, but 
because he knew not when he might want to kill and eat him. He 
was often employed during the early days of the war in carrying 
despatches from Canada to New York. Once, when in a friend's 
house, he was nearly taken prisoner by the rebels ; however, jumping 
out of a window, he rushed for the woods; he was seen and the enemy 
on horseback gave chase ; to make their way more easily through the 
underbrush they dismounted and tied their horses and scattered. 
Meyers crawled out of his near-by hiding place, picked out the best 
horse, mounted and hied him on his way to New York. He went up 
the Bay of Quinte about 1787, settled near where Belleville now is, 
and built the first brick house erected there. The place was called 
Meyersville, and the river was not then the Moira, but Meyers Creek. 
He afterwards moved up to Sidney, where he had some three thousand 
acres of land ; however, he returned to Meyersville later. He was a 
pioneer in mill building, in trading, and in sailing bateaux and 
schooners up and down the bay. 

Stephen Gilbert was a prominent and wealthy farmer, and 
resided west of Belleville, where descendants of the family have ever 
since lived. His name frequently appears in the records of the early 
Quarter Sessions held in Kingston and Adolphustown. 

William Bowen lived and died on the most westerly lot in the 
township of Richmond fronting on the Bay, just adjoining where the 
flourishing town of Deseronto now stands. He kept a large tavern 
there for years. He was fortunate enough to get lot one in the first, 
second, third and fourth concessions, as well as two in the third, thus 
forming a nice little farm of 1,150 acres. There are still numerous 
descendants of his residing in that locality (says Casey). He was of 
Irish descent; a lieutenant in the Indian Department, and was a 
prominent government official among the Mohawks of Tyendinaga for 
years; he was popularly known as Captain Bowen — no doubt a militia 
title. He passed away some fifty years ago. 

first commission of peace for district of mecklenburg. 69 

Explanations and Descriptions. 

The District of Mecklenburg was so called after Queen Charlotte 
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. On the 24th July, 1778, Guy, Lord Dorches- 
ter, issued a proclamation, pursuant to two ordinances passed by the 
Province of Quebec, establishing four districts in what is now known 
as Ontario — Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nassau and Hesse, and one in 
the eastern part of old Canada, called Gaspe. Lunenburg, called after 
the grand-ducal family of Brunswick-Lunenburg (a branch of the 
House of Hanover) extending from what is now the western limits of 
Quebec, to a north and south line intersecting the mouth of the river 
Gananoque. (then called the Thames) above the rifts of the St. 
Lawrence; secondly, Mecklenburg, extending from Lunenburg to a 
north and south line intersecting the mo\ith of the river Trent, and 
including the several towns or tracts called or known by the names of 
Pittsburg, Kingstown, Ernestown, Fredericksburg, Adolphustown, 
Marysburg, Sophiasburg, Ameliasburg, Sydney, Thurlow, Richmond 
and Camden, and extending to the north bounds of the Province; 
thirdly, Nassau (called after the family of William III., of great, 
pious and immortal memory) extending westerly to a north and south 
line intersecting the extreme projection of Long Point on Lake Erie; 
and Hesse (so named after the principality that furnished so many 
mercenaries for the royal cause during the American Revolutionary 
war), which district included all the residue of the province in the 
western or inland parts thereof. 

On the same day as this proclamation is dated was the General 
Commission of Peace for the District of Mecklenburg issued. In the 
first session of the U. C. House the names of the districts were changed 
to Eastern, Midland, Home and Western. 

" Council." — Under the Quebec Act, 1774, a Council was appointed 
by the Crown consisting of from seventeen to twenty-three residents 
of the province, and the members were empowered to make ordinances 
for the peace, welfare and good government of the province, with the 
consent of His Majesty or his representative. 

" Our Peace." — The peace of the king is that peace and security 
for life and goods which the king promises to all people under his pro- 
tection, and for which he is responsible. Originally it meant the im- 
munity (secured by severe penalties) to all within the king's house, in 
attendance upon him, or employed in his business, and gradually it has 
been extended to all within the realm who are not outlaws. 



' Within liberties as without." — A liberty is a place or district 
within which certain special privileges may be exercised. In " The 
Princess " we read : 

We dropt with evening on a rustic town, 
Set in a gleaming river's crescent curve, 
Close to the boundary of the liberties. 

"Threats." — By 27 Geo. II., c. 15, any person sending a letter 
threatening to kill or murder any of His Majesty's servants, or to 
burn their houses, barns or grain, was to suffer death without benefit 
of clergy. By 30 Geo. c. 24, any one sending a letter threatening to 
accuse any person of any crime punishable by death, or other infamous 
punishment, with the object of extorting money, etc., was to be put in 
the pillory, publicly whipped, or fined, or imprisoned, or transported 
for not more than seven years, in the discretion of the court. 

" Of whom any one of you the aforesaid Henry Pope, &c, we will 
shall be one." — These words designate those justices who were of the 
quorum, i.e., those whose presence is necessary to constitute a bench. 
Among the Justices of the Peace it was formerly customary to name 
some eminent for knowledge or prudence to be " of the quorum." The 
distinction is now practically obsolete, and all justices are generally 
" of the quorum." 

Addison, in the Spectator, remarks, " I must not omit that Sir Roger 
is a justice of the quorum." Beaumont and Fletcher, in the " Scorn- 
ful Lady," spell it " coruni." 

Of the thirteen esquires named in our commission residing within 
the district only three were of the quorum, Clark, Washburn and 

By the way, who can explain why Lord Dorchester did not name 
any one residing in either village or town of Kingstown (as he calls it 
in his proclamation) on this commission. 

" Security for the peace." — When one makes oath before a Justice 
of the Peace that he has been assaulted, or that he stand? in fear of 
his life, or some bodily hurt, or that he fears his house will be burnt 
and that he doth not demand the peace from any malice or revenge but 
for his own safety, the J. P. grants his warrant to bring the accused 
before him, and then security is to be given by recognizance for good 
behaviour; or in default the party is to be committed to gaol. 

" Felonies " are all offences which occasioned in old times a total 
forfeiture of lands or goods, or both, at common law, and to which capi- 
tal or other punishment may be superadded according to the degree of 


guilt Old Coke says, of all felonies, murder is the most heinous. 
Bringing " Buls " into the kingdom was a felony under a statute of 
Richard II. ; or receiving a Jesuit under an act of Elizabeth. 

" Poisonings." — Of all kinds of murder poisoning is the most 
detestable, says Coke, because it is most horrible and fearful to the 
nature of man, and of all others can be least prevented, either by man- 
hood or providence. This offence was so odious that by Act of Parlia- 
ment it was made high treason, and the statute inflicted a more grievous 
and lingering death than the common law prescribed, viz., that the 
offender be boiled to death in hot water ; under which statute Margaret 
Davy, (anno 33 Henry VIII.) a young woman, was attainted of high 
treason for poisoning her mistress and some others, was boiled to death 
in Smithfield the 17th day of March in the same year. But this act 
was too severe to live long and was therefore repealed by 1 Edw. VI., 
chap. 12, and 1 Mary, chap. 1. 

Old Coke tells us a man may be poisoned in four manner of ways, 
" gustu, by taste, that is, by eating or drinking, being infused into his 
meat or drink ; two, anhelitu, by taking in of breath, as by a poysonous 
perfume in a chamber, or other room; three, contactu, by touching, 
and four, suppositu, as by a glyster or the like. Now, for the better 
finding out of this horrible offence, there be divers of kinds of poysons, 
as the powder of diamonds, the powder of spiders, lapis causticus (the 
chief ingredient whereof is soap), cantharides mercury sublimate, 
arsenick, rosea ere, &c." 

" Enchantments, sorceries, arts magick." — Witchcraft, enchant- 
ment, sorcery and the practice of magical arts generally went together 
in the minds of our ancestors. Dorchester says nothing of witchcraft, 
which is the bargaining with the devil by friendly conference to do 
whatever was desired by him. He still seemed, however, to fear the 
other offences. An enchanter was one who by songs or rhymes demonem 
adjuvat; a conjurer was he who by the holy and powerful name of the 
Almighty invoked and conjured the devil to consult with him or to do 
some act; a sorcerer was one who used lots in his intercourse with the 

According to the act passed in the first year of King James I. — 
who was an expert and specialist in the matter of witchcraft — if any 
person or persons should use, practice or exercise any invocation or 
conjuration of any evil or wicked spirit, or should consult, covenant with, 
pntertain, employ, feed or reward any evil or wicked spirit, to or for any 
intent or purpose, or take up any dead man, woman or child out of his, 



her or their grave, ©r any other place where the dead body rested, or 

the skin, bone, or any part of a dead person, to be employed or used in 

any manner of witchcraft, sorcery, charm or enchantment; or should 

use, exercise or practice any witchcraft, enchantment, charm or sorcery, 

whereby any person shall be killed, destroyed, wasted, consumed, pined 

or lamed in his or her body or any part thereof; that then every such 

offender ot offenders, their aiders, abettors and counsellors, being of any 

of said offences duly and lawfully convicted and attainted, should suffer 

pains of death as a felon or felons, and should lose the privilege of 

clergy and sanctuary. If any person or persons took upon him or them 

by witchcraft, charm or sorcery to tell or declare in what place any 

treasure of gold or silver should or might be found, or had, in the earth, 

or other secret places, or where goods or other things lost or stolen should 

be found or become, or to the intent to provoke any person to unlawful 

love, or whereby any cattle or goods of any person should be destroyed, 

OF to hurt or destroy any person in his or her body, although the same 

be not affected or done, being therefor lawfully convicted should for 

the said offence suffer imprisonment for a whole year without bail or 

mainprize, and once in every quarter of said year he should stand in the 

pillory upon some market day or fair day and there confess his or her 

error and offence; for the second offence it was death. 

The statute of James was repealed by 9 George II., chap. 5, which 
enacted that no proceedings should be had against any person for witch- 
craft, sorcery, enchantment, or conjuration, or for charging another 
with such crimes, and that whoever should pretend to exercise such 
arts, or should undertake to tell fortunes or pretend by crafty science 
to discover stolen goods should be imprisoned for one year, stand four 
times in the pillory, and find sureties as the court should think fit. 

It is strange that after the act of George II., Dorchester should have 
spoken of " enchantments, sorceries and arts magick." 

" Trespasses." — A trespass is an injury committed by one on the 
person or property of another, with violence, actual or implied; a kiss 
snatched from an unwilling kissee, an entry on another's land, are 

" Forestalling " is any attempt to enhance the common price of any 
commodity, or any kind of an act that has an apparent tendency 
thereto, whether by spreading false rumors, or by buying things in a 
market before the accustomed hour, or by buying and selling the same 
thing in the same market, or by any such like device ; and all such acts 
are highly criminal at common law. Any such attempt was an offence 


against the public, inasmuch as it apparently tended to put a check on 
trade, to the general inconvenience of the people, by putting it out of 
their power to provide themselves with a commodity without an un- 
reasonable expense. 

In 1778 speculators in Canada had run the price of wheat from 
four shillings a bushel up to ten shillings— equal to about four dollars 
of our present money. There was plenty of wheat in the country. In 
Montreal and Quebec it was hard to make bakers carry on business, 
because the price of bread was fixed. This state of things continued 
for a couple of years ; the export of wheat was forbidden and Haldi- 
mand issued a proclamation against forestallers. 

" Regrating." — According to 5 and 6 Edw. VI., chap. 2, a regrater 
is one who obtains in any fair or market any corn, wine, fish, butter, 
cheese, candles, tallow, sheep, lambs, calves, swine, pigs, geese, capons, 
hens, chickens, pigeons, conies or other dead victual whatsoever, and 
sells them again in any fair or market in the same place or within four 
miles. Salt is a victual within that statute, for it seasoneth and 
maketh wholesome beef, pork and other victual. Apples and cherries 
and such like fruit are not within the purview of the statute, because 
they are not necessary for the food of man. 

" Ingrossings." — By the same statute of Edw. VI., whosoever shall 
ingross or get into his hands by buying, contracting or promise taking 
(other than by obtaining land or tithes) any corn growing in the fields 
or any other corn or grain, cheese, butter, fish, or other dead victual 
whatsoever, to the intent to sell the same again, shall be reputed an 
unlawful ingrosser. 

" Extortions " refers to the taking of money by any officer by color 
of his office either when none at all is due or not so much is due, or 
when it is not yet due; originally it was considered extortion for any 
sheriff or other officer concerned in the administration of justice to 
take any fee or reward for doing his office, except what he received 
from the King. The excessive costs of law had become so great in 
Canada as to demand the interference of the Government to restrain 
and adjust it. Carleton had made several efforts <to regulate the fees, 
but with very inadequate success. 

" Riding With Force."— By 2 Edw. III. it was enacted that no 
one (unless lawfully authorized) was to go or ride armed by day or by 
night, in fair, market, nor in any place elsewhere, upon pain to for- 
feit their armour to the King, and their bodies to prison at the King's 


" Lying in Wait." — Lie in wait — formerly also " lie in await " — 
as Chaucer hath it: 

' ' These homicides alle 
That in awayte lyggen to mordre men." 

means to lie in ambush. 

" Victuallers." — If the newly-made magistrates had desired to 
know the law as to victuals and victuallers, they would have had to 
read over forty pages of Hawkins' Pleas of the Crown. Hawkins says 
that the intention of the Legislature, both in enacting and in repeal- 
ing the various and numerous statutes on these subjects, in accommo- 
dation to the exigencies of various periods of time, was to regulate the 
price of victuals, and to prevent them being constantly raised upon, or 
improperly introduced to, the public by the respective dealers thereof. 
He deals with the laws as to the measure of corn, as to the making, 
size and price of bread, as to beer, butter and cheeses, cattle and 
butchers, fish, bacon and pork, hay and straw, fruit, honey and wax, 
coal, etc. Some of the statutes then in force went back to the days of 
Elizabeth. We find the following entry, made at a Special Session, 
held in Kingston, Monday, 12th September, 1796: " The average price 
of bread being twenty shillings, it is ordered that the assize of bread 
for a four-pound loaf of fine wheaten flour be 9 pence, and that a 
brown loaf, weighing six pounds, be 9 pence currency. The bakers are 
ordered to mark their loaves with the initial letters of their names." 

The assize of bread is the settling the weight and price thereof. 

" Weight and Measure." — We may note that apples and pears had 
to be sold by water measure and by no other measure, and the meas- 
ure had to be heaped. In London every barrel of beer had to contain 
36 gallons, ale, 32 gallons, while in other places either ale or beer was 
to be 34 gallons; hay and straw had to be sold in trusses of certain 
weight, varying according to its being old or new. An Act of 1792 
provided that in Upper Canada, after May 1st, 1793, " There should 
be one just beam or balance, one certain weight and measure, and one 
yard, according to the standard of his Majesty's Exchequer in 

" Officials." — Sheriffs, bailiffs, stewards, constables, gaolers and 
other officers. This sentence had a populous ring about it, but in those 
days there were none of them round Kingston, save perchance a con- 
stable and sheriff. 

" Indictments." These are written accusations against one or 
more persons of a crime or misdemeanor, preferred to and presented 
upon oath by a grand jury. 


" Laws of England."— By 14 Geo. III., ch. 83 (the Quebec Act), 
all of New France and Newfoundland was during his Majesty's 
pleasure annexed to and made part and parcel of the Province of 
Quebec; and as the certainty and lenity of the criminal law of Eng- 
land and the benefits and advantages resulting from the use of it had 
been sensibly felt by the inhabitants from an experience of more than 
nine years, it was enacted that the same should be administered and 
observed as law in the Province of Quebec, as well in the description 
and quality of the offence, as in the method of prosecution and trial, 
and the punishments and forfeitures thereby inflicted, to the exclusion 
of every other rule of criminal law or mode of proceeding therein; 
subject, however, to any alterations or amendments, as might be made 
by the Governor and Legislative Council. 

The first statute of Simcoe's first Parliament introduced into 
Upper Canada the English law in all matters of controversy relative 
to property and civil rights. 

" Fines " are money payments exacted as a punishment of an 
offence or a dereliction of duty. Shakespeare says: 

" My blood for your rude brawls doth lie a-bleeding, 
But I'll amerce you with so strong a fine 
That you shall all repent the loss of same." 

Doubtless the immortal William had experienced both fines and 

" Ransoms " are payments for liberation from restraint or pun- 

" Amerciaments " are pecuniary penalties inflicted upon an 
offender at the discretion of the Court. They differ from fines, in 
that the latter are fixed and certain sums prescribed by statute, while 
amerciaments are arbitrary. 

" Forfeitures " are the divesting of property, or the termination of 
a right, by or in consequence of a wrong, default or breach of a condi- 
tion ; also the things forfeited. 

" Other Means." — The records in the office of the Clerk of the 
Peace in this city show that some of the other means xised in those 
good old days were floggings with forty stripes save one, imprison- 
ments, the stocks, and labelling a man as a thief, or other transgressor, 
somewhat after the manner of " The Scarlet Letter." 

" Late our Justices of the Peace in the aforesaid District." — We 
find that Neil McLean, W. R. Crawford, James Parrot, Jeptha 
Hawley, Peter Vanalstine, and Michael Grass were among those jus- 


tices who signed the letter from the magistrates at Cataraqui, dated 
22nd December, 1786, to Sir John Johnston, Bart., in reply to his 
circular, requesting suggestions as to the best ways of improving the 
population, the state of agriculture and the settlement of the King's 

"Our Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench."— William 
Smith, to whom we will presently refer, was the Chief Justice. 
William Osgoode was the first Chief Justice of Upper Canada, and, 
appears to have been appointed in 1792. 

The first Justices of the Court of Common Pleas, nominated for 
the District of Mecklenburg, were John Stuart, ISTeil McLean and 
James Clark; but John Stuart being a divine and chiefly concerned 
about settling the spiritual concerns of the people of the district, at 
once declined to attend to the arranging of their temporal difficulties. 
" Our Justices Specially Appointed to Hold the Assizes in the 
Aforesaid District." — The Records of the Quarter Sessions, under 
date of 12th October, 1789, show that an Assize was held in that year. 
It reads as follows : " A Court of Oyer and Terminer having been held 
for the District of Mecklenburg on the 28th September last, at which 
all business for this district was settled, the Justices having taken into 
consideration the great inconvenience that would arise to the good 
people of the district on being again called together at this time, and 
the little necessity there was for calling them, as no new business 
appeared to require it, they therefore declined issuing any precept to 
summon any jury to attend at this session." Who presided at that 
Court of Assize ? According to Mr. D. B. Read's " Lives of the 
Judges," the first Court held by Osgoode, C.J., was in Kingston on 
23rd August, 1792. 

William Redford Crawford was immediately after the issue of the 
commission we are considering appointed ' Our Sheriff of the said 
District of Mecklenburg." He does not appear to have long held the 
office. Dr. Symthe speaks of one Philip Lansing being sheriff in 
1790. He owned land to the north of the city, towards Kingston 

The first " Keeper of the Rolls of Our Peace " of this District was 
Peter Clark, who held the offices of Clerk of the Court of Common 
Pleas, of the Peace, and of the Sessions of the Peace. We find from 
" The Memoirs of Colonel John Clark " (0. H. S. Papers, Vol. VII.) 
that this worthy was the son of a soldier, and began life in the Indian 
trade at Kingston; afterwards, when Governor Simcoe in 1792 inaug- 
urated the Government of Upper Canada, Peter was appointed Chief 


Clerk of the Legislative Council. He also was connected with the naval 
establishment in some way, for as such he accompanied the Duke of 
Kent (the late Queen's father) across Lake Ontario on his way to 
visit Simcoe at Niagara in 1795. He was the patentee of Lot 3, west 
of the great River Cataraqui. Clark became involved rn a quarrel 
with one Captain Sutherland, of the 4th Regiment, and was killed by 
him in a duel at Kingston in 1795. 

This would be a good place to apologize to his Excellency the 
British Ambassador at Washington for our using the name Kingston. 
We should doubtless have kept to the old Indian word Cataraqui, 
especially as it is, like the immortal Shakespeare's, a very easy name 
to spell, there being authority for over fifty ways of writing it. Here 
are the variations — Cataraqui, Cadarachqui, Cadarachquin, Cadarac- 
qui, Cadaracquy, Cadarackque, Cadaraggue, Cadaraghie, Cadaragh- 
qui, Cadaraggqua, Cadaragque, Cadaragquet, Caradague, Cadarake, 
Cadarakue, Cadaraqua, Cadaraqui, Cadaraquin, Cadaraquy, Cadar- 
achqui, Cadarogque, Gadarakoui, Cadararuchque, Cadaraque, Cad- 
arachqui, Cadaracqui, Caderaqui, Caderaquy, Cadraqua, Cadraqui, 
Catarachqua, Catarachqui, Cataracoui, Cataracouy, Cataracque, Cat- 
aracqui, Cataract, Cataracwa, Cataragque, Cataraque, Cataroque, Cat- 
taraque, Chadarachqui, Kadaraghue, Kadaraghkie, Kadarachque, 
Kadraghkie, Kalaroque, Quadarachqui, Quadraqui, Catarakwee, 
Cadarakin. And, doubtless, there are others. 

" Castle of St. Louis."— From " The Picture of Quebec " (pub- 
lished in 1829) I quote as follows: "The Castle of St. Lewis is the 
residence of the Governor, and from its peculiar situation it consti- 
tutes one of the principal objects of notice, in all views of the city, 
from Beauport easterly to the Chaudiere. At its base the rock is 
nearly 200 feet in perpendicular height, and the building on the east 
is sustained by strong stone buttresses, on which is laid a wide bal- 
cony, extending along the whole length, and whence the beauties of the 
northern and eastern landscapes are beheld. The building is of three 
stories, about fifty-four yards in length and fifteen yards deep, with 
small wings. Since the last repairs in 1809 its interior is conveniently 
arranged, and in its superior apartments are tastefully decorated. To 
it are attached all the buildings suitable and convenient to the digni- 
fied station of the Provincial Executive Chief. The garden is on the 
south-west of the castle — in length nearly thirty poles and in breadth 
from the wall to the Rue des Carrieres about seventy yards. On the 
opposite side of the street, in front of which stands the monument to 
Wolfe and Montcalm, is a lot, 100 yards long by 84 broad, which, 


having been designed as a public walk, was formally planted with 
trees to shade the pedestrians ; at present, however, it is appropriated 
as an additional garden for the service of the Governor. The Castle, 
by its partial exclusion from sight by the gloomy walls of the buildings 
in front, loses much of its impressiveness and attraction." 

Sir Frederick Haldimand built the Castle; fire destroyed it in 

(Note. — The reader will please look at the Great Seal of the 
Province of Quebec (ante) and imagine " the conclusion " of this 


By W. S. Ellis, B.A. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Kingston, July 18th, 1907.) 

To-morrow, when you have looked over the parapet of Fort Henry, 
and have enjoyed the view up the river and down; when the actual 
landscape is spread before you, or, at least, still fresh in memory; 
when there is the stimulation of new scenes and the buoyancy that 
comes with fresh breezes and bright sunshine, I shall ask you, in 
imagination, to view the first water parade on the St. Lawrence. To 
do so you will have to suppose that Time has rolled back his scroll for 
two and a third centuries, to a time when Charles II. was still upon 
the throne of England, when men were flocking to hear Bunyan preach, 
when Milton was revising his " Paradise Lost " for the publisher, 
when Pepys and Evelyn were gathering the gossip and sentiment of 
London taverns to amuse and instruct the twentieth century, when 
men were yet living on the shore of Massachusetts Bay who had come 
over in the Mayflower, when Boyle had not yet found that air had 
weight, or Newton discovered the law of gravitation. You will have 
to suppose also that the fort has utterly vanished ; that the glacis has 
reverted to the original rocky promontory with front battle scarred by 
storm and war, thrust defiantlv out into the current; that the height 


is again thickly wooded, and that everywhere in sight there are only 
the greens of the forest and the blue of the sparkling waters. 

If, then, on the morning of July 12th, 1673, we had been per- 
mitted, amid such surroundings, to join a group of Iroquois warriors 
who were lurking behind tree trunks and boulders upon the hill top 
and peering down the river, we would have witnessed a display unique 
even on the St Lawrence, where water carnivals abound, and one that 
if it could be repeated would bring joy to any canoe club, for even 
amid our spectacular excitements it would draw admiring crowds from 
city streets to watch it. Interesting, too, as the event would be to-day 
it was much more so then, for it took place amid the stillness of the 
vast wilderness, 150 miles beyond the nearest straggling settlement 
at Lachine ; but it was chiefly significant in that it marked the advent 
of the white man as a conqueror and a power on the great inland 
waters of the continent. 

On watch that morning, we would have seen emerge from the 
island passages a great flotilla of canoes, said to have been 120 in num- 
ber, that convoyed two brightly painted barges, above which floated 
the Lilies of France, the symbol of sovereignty wherever they were set 
up in this New World. There, too, was the Governor from Quebec and 
all the chief men of the colony, clad in the brilliant vestments charac- 
teristic of their time and nation, and surrounded by their retinues. 

As the pageant drew near we watchers would have noticed, just 
as the savages did note, the ordered regularity with which the proces- 
sion came on. First, an advance guard of canoes in double rank and 
in squadrons at regular distances apart; right and left of the bateaux 
flanking divisions were ranged at equal intervals ; then the 
Governor and his staff, while behind was a rear guard again 
in double rank. This ordered advance was for the purpose of 
impressing those unseen spectators who the Governor knew were 
watching his approach from every point of vantage along the shore that 
they might decide whether he was a power to be taken seriously or to 
be met with the contumely that had been the lot of his predecessors. 
He well understood the awesome effect of great and machine-like 
regularity of movement on those whose whole experience had been of 
individual action and of consequent disorder; he well knew the bar- 
baric love of brilliant coloring and the savage delight in rhythmic 
noise and rhythmic motion; hence, the oncoming of the fleet in war 
array, regular of alignment, even of movement, irresistible in its pro- 
gress, with banners and uniforms and trumpet notes, all designed to 
make deep the impress that reached the savage mind. 


As the fleet swept up past Cedar Island and Point Frederick it 
swung to the right until it reached a point just beyond the present 
Cataraqui Bridge; here was a little sheltered bay, the mouth of an 
outflowing creek, with a low, shelving rocky shore, where canoes were 
pulled up and the weary journey of fourteen days from Lachine came 
to an end. Last Friday was the two hundred and thirty-fourth anni- 
versary of that landing; and to-morrow, when you are passing the 
barrack gate and see the sentry walking his beat, it may not be out 
of place to recall the fact that 234 years ago the tread of the guard of 
Frontenac's camp at this place first mingled with the sound of lapping 
waves, and nightly since that time, with but two brief interruptions, 
marching footsteps have echoed back from sounding waters. You will 
then be standing on a few square yards of ground round which clus- 
ters a fair share of the history, of the romance, and of the final tragedy 
of New France. Such was the impressive, even if somewhat grim and 
ominous preliminary to the building of Fort Frontenac and the found- 
ing of Kingston. Grim and ominous, however, were not wholly out 
of keeping either with the origin or later history of a place that until 
a few years ago ranked as one of the three strongest military posts in 
British America. 


After the arrival of the French a meeting was arranged with the 
Iroquois delegation that was encamped on a rocky ledge where the 
Locomotive Works and Dry Dock are now situated. From the back- 
ground of flickering shadows about that council fire two figures stand 
out distinct and large as leaders among men and builders amid the 
chaotic elements of empire that lay around them. One was the Count 
of Frontenac, a nobleman of long descent, quick to fight and strong 
to hate. Among his peers the high bred dignitary, the Governor of 
New France, the representative of the most powerful king in Europe; 
on the journey, a voyageur ready to shoulder a pack at the portage 
or to push a canoe up the rapids. Endowed with boundless energy 
he had the capacity for inspiring others, and could get even Indians 
to work. As a clear-headed, vigorous administrator, he easily takes 
first place among French governors, and his reputation was such that 
even the truculent Iroquois dreaded him, for they never raised a fin- 
ger to disturb the colony during his whole period of office ; yet he was 
engaged in constant bickerings with his associates, and kept king and 
council busy arranging his unseemly disputes. He could outdo Big- 
mouth, the Indian orator, in the bombastic puerilities that passed for 


He produced by the kindness of the " British Whig," Kingston. 

Iteprodvced '/.</ the kindness of the " British Whig," Kiiujttun 


eloquence, and at dance and feast could set a pace that only the most 
agile and enduring could support. He twice rescued the colony from 
the destruction that seemed inevitable and changed the course of New 
World history by stemming the hostile tide that threatened to sweep 
French settlers and French influence alike out of the St. Lawrence 

The other of the two was Robert Cavelier, better known as the 
Sieur de la Salle, from the family estate at Rouen, a man who ranks 
high among the world's great explorers, yet a taciturn, determined 
man, whom neither the embarrassments of financial reverses, nor the 
intrigues of jealous superiors, nor the treachery of plotting rivals, nor 
the hostility of warring savages could turn from his purpose. Driven 
on by one supreme impulse that France should dominate the continent, 
he followed the great central basin from Lake Erie to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and took possession of it all, so that at his death in 1687, a 
traveller might have journeyed from the tides of the St. Lawrence to 
the tides of the Mississippi either by a short portage south of Lake 
Erie or by another west of Lake Michigan, and all the land by which 
he passed would have been the land of France, so far as exploration 
and claims based thereon could give title. A strange ill fortune dogged 
his footsteps, however, and hindered him from reaping either reputa- 
tion or reward from his great achievement. Finally misfortune grew 
into disaster, then a murderer's hand pulled down the curtain on his 
adventurous life while yet he was in the early vigor of matured man- 
hood. His body lay unburied in a Louisiana swamp, but the story of 
his struggles and his successes found safe sepulchre amid the oblivion 
of official records until rescued and made public by a member of that 
alien race whose expansion he had so vigorously combatted throughout 
his whole life. 

We are standing to-night on ground that formed part of La Salle's 
seigneury, adjoining Fort Frontenac, which was granted to him by the 
King of France, the first of the kind made in what is now Ontario. 
To-morrow you will pass over the site of the fort which he built and 
which stood from 1677 until 1820. This city is more intimately asso- 
ciated with the career of the great explorer than any other place except 
one, his headquarters site beyond Lake Michigan; yet it is hardly 
credible, and certainly is not creditable, that neither in this city or 
neighborhood is there land or building or street or square or any thing 



or place, that bears a name in commemoration of the man whose career 
has given added honor to the city through his connection with it. 


Of all the scenes that passed before the men of the fleet that day as 
they paddled round Point Henry, possibly that which set pulses beat- 




Reproduced by the kindness of the "British Whig," Kingston, 

Here is a plan of Fort Frontenac in 1787, taken from Abbe Foillion's 
"History of Ville Marie (Montreal)." The fort building, and the storehouse, 
stable and garden in front, were the only signs of habitation of the place, save 
the Recollet church, a small wooden structure, standing two hundred yards 
west, between the present Princess and Queen Streets, about the location of 
Andrew Maclean's store. The fort here shown was evacuated and destroyed by 
Governor Denonville in 1689, and restored by Count de Frontenac on his 
return in 1695. 

ing most quickly and thoughts running most rapidly was the glimpse 
between the islands toward the western horizon as they came up the 
river. It might well have called up visions of that fabled West whence 


strange stories bad already begun to filter out tbrougb tbe medium of 
the bushranger and the fur trader. Priest and explorer had already 
begun to go that way, and La Salle, Frontenac's envoy to the Iroquois 
to-day, had four years since gone far beyond that horizon's rim to 
where lands slope down the other way and waters run toward a west- 
ern sea. For two years he had paddled those streams and roamed those 
forests, led on by that lure which the wilderness has ever had for men 
of adventurous mind. And this very day on which Count Frontenac 
is getting his first glimpse of the great lakes, Pere Marquette and his 
fellow voyager, Joliet, are fifteen hundred miles beyond, paddling 
down the Mississippi below the present city of Memphis, and two days 
later, when the Governor will be holding his Indian pow-wow down 
on the river bank, the good priest will be turning the bow of his canoe 
up stream to escape the hostile tribes that dwelt where the Arkansas 
joins the Father of Waters. Some dim realization, then, of the possi- 
bilities for France that lay beyond that gap may well have set pulses 
beating and thoughts running in the brain of the Governor. 

The immediate founding of the fort, however, was due partly to a 
splendid dream of empire that had its nesting place in the brain of 
La Salle, partly to the prudent generalship and statesmanship of 
Count Frontenac, and altogether, so the Montreal fur traders alleged, 
to the Governor's desire to make illicit gain by abusing the king's 
prerogative and degrading the high office which he held. Be that as it 
may, the dream that dwelt in the brain of La Salle was this: That 
there should be a New France, a mighty empire, embracing all that 
westward country whose fringe he already knew slightly by explora- 
tion, dimly by tales that reached him concerning it, and still more 
vaguely by conjecture. Westward it should extend along the great 
waterways into that far unknown concerning whose limits neither 
wood runner nor missionary enthusiast had yet brought word. South- 
ward, too, it should sweep over the great plains whose wonderful rich- 
ness the Indians had told of, and through which flowed that mighty 
river so great that whence it came none knew, and none knew whither 
it flowed. By thus pre-empting the whole interior of the continent 
with its two great waterways, the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi, 
he hoped to shut the enemies of France, the Saxon and the Spaniard, 
into the narrow strip of seaboard plain that lay between the moun- 
tains and the Atlantic coast, and which stretched from the Bay of 


Fundy to the Florida Straits. He proposed, also, to make provision 
so that if at any time in the future a wave of hostile population should 
overtop the enclosing barrier and flow downward toward the plains it 
would encounter forts and armed garrisons ready to drive it back into 
its own preserves again. Such was the plan submitted to Count 
Frontenac, and the Governor was wise to see its significance and quick 
to take action to carry it into effect. Manifestly the preliminary work 
of this empire building would be the establishment of strongholds at 
strategic points on the great waterways to control traffic, to become 
supply depots and centres for barter, to offer protection in case it 
should be necessary to stand at bay, and to serve as bases from which 
aggressive expeditions might be launched at suitable times against 
hostile tribes or trespassing neighbors. So a fort for each end of 
Lake Ontario was decided on. 

A second factor, though, that had to be dealt with was the Iroquois' 
ascendancy and their hostility to the French. It is customary to refer 
the former to the position which their country occupied as the border- 
land of two warring nations who were contending for the possession 
of a continent, and each for the dominancy of a principle to which 
the other was hostile, so that the Indian alliance would be the deter- 
mining element in the struggle. But the Iroquois had another advan- 
tage that is not so generally noted. I think it was Justin Winsor who 
pointed out that they occupied a country from which the streams 
flowed outward in all directions, so that they controlled the communi- 
cations and the trade outlet of the St. Lawrence and the Mohawk, the 
only two feasible routes of the time. They held the former from the 
Niagara to the Richelieu, and its tributaries were the by-ways through 
their country. The Mohawk valley was the common highway through 
their land from Lake Erie to the Hudson. At the doors of their vil- 
lages they could launch their canoes upon streams that would carry 
them by the St. Lawrence to Montreal or Quebec, by the Hudson to 
New York, by the Susquehanna to the Delaware bays, by the Alle- 
ghany and Ohio to the prairies of the central basin, and by the great 
lakes to the Huron villages on Georgian Bay or the country of the 
Illinois beyond Lake Michigan. They thus held control of the traffic 
of the whole lake basin and of the upper Mississippi valley, except 
the driblet that found its way from Mackinac by the Ottawa route, 



and they turned that trade over to the French at Montreal or the 

English at Albany, as they chose, and generally they chose the latter. 

Even in those days when the birch bark was the only freighter, 




Reproduced by the kindness of the " British Whig," Kingston. 

This is a reproduction of a plan of Fort Frontenac in 1754, given by the 
writer of the memoirs of the French occupation from 1750 to 1760, supposed 
to be Captain Vanquelin, of the navy of France. The plan was evidently made 
from memory by a poor draftsman, as the representation is far from perfect 
as to ground lines. But it is quite interesting as showing the character of the 
fort and buildings. It will be noticed that the great Cataraqui originally bore 
the name of the River Frontenac. 

when the paddle had not yet been supplanted even by the sail, and 
when the cargo was always a pack of dried skins in the bow of the 
canoe, the problem of rival routes to the coast was pressing for solu- 


tion. Then, as now, opposing nations held the outlets ; and ports on the 
Atlantic seaboard and ports in the St. Lawrence valley were striving 
to control the output of the lake basin and tributary districts. Through 
all the changes of time and circumstance the struggle for the export 
carrying trade is the same as it was when Count Frontenac settled the 
matter for fifty years by permitting no rivals to enter his field of 
supply. The reason for the persistence of this problem is that from 
Hudson Bay to Georgia there are but two natural inlets to the central 
part of the continent One of these is the St. Lawrence, which needs 
no further mention. The other is due to the fact that in some past 
geologic age a mighty river flowed southward through Xew York State 
and cut a great chasm in the rocky crust Later the whole area sank 
until that river bed is below tide level, and for 150 miles from New 
York Bay to Albany this would be an arm of the sea if it were not a 
part of the continental drainage system, so kept filled with fresh water. 
This would be of no interest in itself, but from the head of this ravine 
a great level valley stretches for four hundred miles to Lake Erie, and 
in all that distance there is a rise of scarcely five hundred feet. Here 
in the old days of Iroquois supremacy was the land of the Mohawks, 
and the river of the Mohawks still flows in its bottom lands. Here of 
old the trapper coming down the lake with his beaver skins either took 
the St. Lawrence to Montreal or turned the head of his canoe up the 
river of the Onondagas, portaged over to the Mohawk, and thus 
reached the seaboard ; and the price received determined the route. 
To-day the point of divergence has been shifted to Lake Erie, but the 
ways are the same as when Fort Frontenac was built to control the 
inland traffic and secure it for French merchants. 


Over on the south shore an Englishman had established a trading 
post at the mouth of the river of the Onondagas in 1722. About the 
middle of the century this had grown into the formidable Fort 
Oswego, a rival of the one on the Cataraqui, and peltries again went 
to Albany to the chagrin of French fur traders. In these days, how- 
ever, great events were rapidly chasing one another. In 1751 the first 
armed vessel on Lake Ontario was built at Fort Frontenac, a three- 
masted ship equipped with heavy cannon ; and the fort became a very 
important supply depot for the western posts, both as a storage place 



for materials and as a garrison reserve quarters. In 1756 Montcalm 
fitted out here an expedition of 3,000 men for the capture of Fort 
Oewego. This force was conveyed in boats over past the head of 



D- SchdolHouse 
E- • - Mastchs 

G- - - --Quarry 




Reproduced by the kindness 0/ the " Netrt," Kingston. 

Wolfe Island to the south shore, thence along the coast to its destina- 
tion. Without much difficulty the stronghold was captured, and the 
French secured 1,400 prisoners, together with a great quantity of sup- 


plies, thus wiping out every vestige of English power on Lake Ontario. 
Then La Salle's empire seemed nearest its realization, for French posts 
dominated alike the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. But " the 
ancient game of war " was being played on the borders of French 
Canada with a vigor that had not hitherto characterized it; and one 
of the moves that counted much in the final reckoning was made by a 
certain Colonel Bradstreet, a New England militia officer, who had 
transported a great convoy of stores to Oswego shortly before its cap- 
ture, and had fought his way through an intercepting French force 
that had attempted to bar his return. Montcalm got the provisions, 
and Bradstreet gained an experience which enabled him to form a 
plan for the capture of Fort Frontenac ; but for two years interest 
was centred on the events by Lake George and on the Atlantic coast. 
Montcalm, hard pressed for soldiers, had drafted off the garrison until 
scarcely a hundred men were left to guard the fortress, which con- 
tained a very large quantity of supplies, and had nine armed vessels 
anchored under its walls. In 1758 Abercrombie, who commanded the 
English army on the Hudson, gave Bradstreet 3,000 men and the 
necessary equipment to carry out his plan. On August 22nd they 
launched their boats at the mouth of the Oswego River, where black- 
ened ruins marked the position of the British stronghold that had been 
blown up two years before. Three days later a landing was made 
within a mile of Fort Frontenac. Next day a breastwork was thrown 
up which ran from the water's edge east of the C.P.R. station, across 
the site of the city hall and westward through the market square to 
the corner of Brock and King Streets. Here guns were mounted, and 
at the short range of a couple of city blocks, the English began to 
knock Fort Frontenac to pieces. The French commander decided that 
the contest was hopeless and surrendered everything on August 27th, 
1758. Then the Lilies of France ran down from the flagstaff where 
eighty-five years before Count Frontenac had hoisted them on that 
July day when his fleet of canoes rounded into the little wooded bay 
on the " Kataracoi." Henceforth another symbol of sovereignty will 
float above the post. 

Then the first chapter in the history of Kingston was closed. The 
wilderness again resumed its own, and green woods grew down to the 
margin of the blue waters ; but the record of the post on the Cataraqui 
was written large in the annals of French Canada, so that neither 


wilderness nor foe could obliterate the memory of a fortress that 
Frontenac had founded, that La Salle had owned, that Denonville had 
wrecked, that Shirley had threatened, that Montcalm had commanded, 
that Bradstreet had captured. Soon the name New France was wiped 
from the map, and the empire that La Salle dreamed of passed to 
those Saxon foes that refused to be shut between the Adirondacks and 
the sea. To me a man of that alien race, reared amid other teachings, 
there is something extremely pathetic in the outcome of the long 
struggle that was carried on for France in the New World. However 
much we may rejoice that fate rung down the curtain of national life 
upon the St. Lawrence rather than upon the Hudson, we cannot but 
feel regret that the splendid courage, the brilliant daring, the initia- 
tive and the perseverance of those who bore the brunt of that struggle 
should have been doomed to final disaster. Probably only in Montreal 
and Quebec is the pathos of the tragedy of the St. Lawrence valley 
more pronounced than it is on this spot where we are assembled 



By Rev. Aeohdeacon McMorine, D.D. 

(Bead at the Annual Meeting of the O. H. S. at Kingston, July 19th, 1907.) 

Although at the time of the Revolutionary War nearly two and a 
half centuries had elapsed since Europeans first set foot in Canada, 
yet the present Province of Ontario may be said to have been unin- 
habited. Only after peace had been concluded did the great north- 
ward movement of the United Empire Loyalists begin. A consider- 


Reproduced by the kindneiM 0/ the " Newt," Kingston, 

able number of refugees, it is true, had ere this found shelter in Nova 
Scotia and Quebec, but, the men who first peopled the banks of the 
Upper St. Lawrence, the Bay of Quinte, and the Niagara District, 
came over during the decade beginning with 17S3. It is supposed that 
about 10,000 of these sturdy patriots found asylum in what is now the 
Province of Ontario. Ecclesiastically, a very small proportion of them 
were members of the Church of England. 



The Hon. Richard Cartwright, who knew whereof he affirmed, con- 
sidered himself warranted in asserting, in a statement made in the 
year 1792, that in all the Province of Upper Canada, there were not 
one hundred families who had been educated in this persuasion. Again, 
writing from Kingston two years later, he estimated that only one- 
tenth of the people of the Province were Anglicans. The Rev. John 
Langhorn, also, who was missionary at Ernestown and parts adjacent, 
from 1787 to 1813, declared that four-fifths of the settlers on the Bay of 
Quinte, then one of the most thickly peopled parts of the Province, 
were of persuasions different from the Church of England. Many of 
the Loyalists were of Dutch descent, and these were mostly Presby- 
terians. No inconsiderable contingent were Quakers from Pennsyl- 
vania, while those of British origin were in many cases Methodists and 
(in the Eastern Lake Erie District) Baptists. Nowhere, however, 
were the adherents of the Church of England so numerous as at the 
military station, first known as Fort Frontenac. Here, in 1792, the 
first missionary reported thirty communicants, while at Toronto, over 
a decade later, there were but ten. In truth, of the one hundred families 
credited to the Church of England in Upper Canada by Mr. Cart- 
wright, no less than thirty were to be found at Kingston. So, at least, 
it appears from a letter written by the infant congregation to the S. P. 
G. in 1791. Some of these were Loyalist refugees. Some were soldiers 
of Sir John Johnson's battalion of the Royal Regiment of New York, 
which had come from Oswego to Kingston during the summer of 1783, 
and a year later had been disbanded there; and, as the Fort seems to 
have been well garrisoned, the officers and soldiers, together with the 
permanent inhabitants, of what in 1784 was laid out as the Town Plot 
of Kingston, sufficed to form a considerable congregation. 

During the summer of the year I have just mentioned (1784), 
there came to this promising settlement Dr. John Stuart, nomen clarum 
et venerabile, a man whom all Canadian Anglicans regard with reverent 
affection. May I briefly sketch the story of his life. He was born in 
1740, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, where it is said the family mansion 
was still standing in 1836. His father, Andrew Stuart, was a worthy 
and attached Presbyterian, of good North of Ireland stock, and sent his 
son for education to Philadelphia. Here his religious convictions 
underwent so serious a change that he determined to seek for ordination 
in the Church of England. Not, however, till the lapse of several years 
had convinced his father of the sincerity of his motives, and the tender- 
ness of his filial consideration. To receive the laying on of the hands 
of a Bishop involved, in those days, a journey across the Atlantic, but 


this he undertook, and in 1770 he was admitted to Holy Orders by 
Dr. Terrick, Bishop of London. Immediately thereafter, he returned 
to America and was appointed to Fort Hunter, an Indian mission, 
where fortifications and a chapel had been erected by Queen Anne in 
1712. He preached his first sermon at Canajoharie, on Christmas Day. 
Fort Hunter was situated on the southern bank of the Mohawk River, 
at the point where the Schoharie enters it, or, if you choose, it was 38 
miles northwest of Albany, or 4 miles east of Fonda, a modern station 
of the New York Central R.R. The stone church, which, indeed, re- 
sembled a fort more than a place of worship, is thus described in a con- 
tract for the building of the Fort : " Also a Chaple, in the midle of 
the Ffort of 24 foot square, one storye ten foot high, with a garet over 
it, well covered with Boards, and shingled, and well flowrd. A Seller 
of 15 foot square under it, covered with Loggs, and then with Earth, 
The whole Chaple to be well floured." After long disuse as a place of 
worship, this historic building was demolished in 1820, to make way 
for the Erie Canal, which passed through its centre. The parsonage, 
however, remains, and, having been modernized, is still occupied. At 
Fort Hunter Dr. Stuart remained for eight years, faithfully and suc- 
cessfully ministering to his Indian congregation, as well as to the Eng- 
lish and Dutch residents, and holding a fortnightly service at what is 
still known as Johnstown. With the aid of Brant, the well-known 
Indian Chief, he also translated a considerable part of the New Testa- 
ment and of the Book of Common Prayer into the language of the 
Mohawks. But in the meantime the War of Independence began, and 
Dr. Stuart was as unflinchingly attached to the Royal Standards as his 
brothers, Andrew and Charles, were to the cause of the Revolution. 
He was therefore obliged to abandon his post, but not until the greater 
part of his Indian converts had joined the Royal forces. We are not 
specially concerned to enlarge upon the treatment which he afterwards 
received from the Revolutionists and which is incident upon times of 
war. Suffice it to say, that after having been obliged to suspend his 
ministerial functions for over two years he was at last permitted to 
remove to Canada, and reached St. John's, in the Province of Quebec, 
on October 9th, 1781. A few weeks later we find him at Montreal, 
where he opened a Public School, with a considerable attendance, and 
acted as Deputy Chaplain to the 60th Regiment. He had also fre- 
quent opportunities to visit the Indians at Lachine and elsewhere, for 
many of his converts, like himself, had found their way into Canada. 
Montreal, however, he felt was not his appropriate centre, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1784, he requested the appointment of Chaplain to the garrison 


of Kingston. Having received a favorable reply from the authorities, 
as well as discretionary power from the S. P. G. to settle in any part 
of Canada, he resolved to remove to what was then the most important 
point in the Upper Province. But first he undertook a visitation of 
the great district which he was to oversee. Setting out from Montreal 
on June 2nd, he reached Niagara on the 18th, having visited all the 
new settlements of Loyalists on the way, and baptized all the children 
presented to him for that purpose. " On my return " (I now quote his 
own words) " having determined to visit every settlement of Loyalists, 
I came by way of Cataraqui, remained there some days, baptized sev- 
eral children and buried one." He was, however, unable to take up 
his permanent residence in Kingston till the summer of the following 
year, but in August, 1785, when he was in his forty-sixth year, he 
settled down to what was the chief work of his life. Kingston was then 
a town of about fifty houses, some of which he describes as very ele- 
gant, and immediately on his arrival there he established religious ser- 
vices in a large room in the garrison, in proximity to the present Tete 
du Pont Barracks, and soon after an academy for general education, 
the earliest in Ontario. The people he describss as a class " not the 
most favorable to morality and industry." Again, he speaks of the 
need of teaching them the first principles of religion and morality before 
persuading them to become actual members of the Church. He was, 
however, supported by a little band of loyal and earnest men, and in 
1792, his communicants, as we have seen, numbered thirty-four. His 
stipend amounted to £150 (sterling), two-thirds of which was derived 
from the Crown and one-third from the S. P. G. 

The first Vestry of which we have record was held upon Easter 
Monday, April 25th, 1791, at which there were present Dr. John Stuart, 
Richard Cartwright, Sr., Richard Cartwright, Jr., Capt. James Rich- 
ardson, Joseph Anderson, and Christopher Georgen. Georgen and 
Richardson were appointed Wardens, and Archibald Thompson and 
Capt. William Atkinson, Vestrymen. The duties of the Clerk and 
Sexton were also defined. The latter was to " make fires and sweep 
the Church regularly, for which he was to be paid one shilling per week 
during the season when it was necessary to have fires, and sixpence per 
week when no fire was necessary. He was also to furnish water for the 
christenings." The little congregation, the majority of -whom are 
described as depending upon manual labor for their subsistence, con- 
sidered themselves taxed to the utmost in providing benches for the 
room in the barrack, raising the salary of the Clerk ($18), enclosing 
the burial ground ($27.60), providing a surplice ($9.15), as well as 


a cloth and napkin for the decent administration of the Sacrament 
($4.15). Nevertheless, the S. P. G. thought to lay upon them the duty 
of contributing to the salary of their clergyman as well, and in July, 
1790, addressed a remonstrance to them to that effect. They therefore 
felt it necessary to bestir themselves, and probably conceived that by 
taking steps to erect a church they would satisfy the Society of their 
activity. A subscription list was set in motion, and the fifty-four 
names which appeared upon it gave promises to the extent of about 
$450, in sums varying from one dollar to forty. Richard CaTtwright, 
Neil Maclean, Robert Macaulay, Joseph Herchmer, Michael Grass, 
Joseph Forsythe, Thomas Markland, Peter Smith, and David Brass, 
were among those who undertook the erection of this, the second church 
in Upper Canada. The building decided upon was a weather-boarded 
structure forty feet long, thirty wide, and twelve high. The burial 
ground, to which reference has just been made, and in the centre of 
which St. Paul's Church was built more than half a century later, had 
been placed by the Crown in the custody of the Clergyman and Wardens 
as early as 1784, although the patent was not issued until July 16th, 
1827. That valuable block known as " G," and now bounded by King, 
Brock, Wellington and Clarence Streets, was probably given at the 
same time, as the site of a church, although in this case also the patent 
was delayed till January 19th, 1824, when the purposes of the grant 
were specified. Here, therefore, with a feeling of perfect security as 
to title, and upon a site a little to the rear of the lot upon which the 
office of the British Whig now stands, building operations were begun 
in February, 1792, the contractor being Archibald Thompson. Dur- 
ing the summer of this year, an epoch-making event took place at 
Kingston. The Province of Upper Canada had been formed in 1791, 
but Sir John Graves Simcoe, its first Governor, was not proclaimed 
until July 8th of the following year, and the proclamation is said to 
have been made in the Protestant church at Kingston, and upon a 
Sunday. I find some difficulty in reconciling this statement with the 
fact that the church at the date mentioned must have been very incom- 
plete, and possibly the term " church " may be used to designate the 
building used as a church, viz., the room in the Barracks already men- 
tioned. In October, however, says Dr. Stuart, the building was 
glazed and plastered, and the interior furnishings were probably ex- 
temporized by the use of the benches already supplied for the Bar- 
racks. But on the 1st of April, 1793, we read of a Vestry meeting 
held in " the Church," when Captain Robert Macaulay and Peter 
Smith were appointed its first Wardens, and Lieutenant James Robbins 


and James Russell, Vestrymen. Early in the following year a proper 
pulpit, desk, Communion table, pews, cupola, and bell were added, 
and the material equipment was completed. The source whence the 
bell was procured, I am unable to discover, but venture to suggest that 
it may have been presented by the Commandant or some officer of the 
Garrison. It was cast in Bristol, England, by one John Baker, in 
1690, and weighed no more than 60 lbs. Afterwards discarded by 
the congregation of St. George's for a worthier instrument, it was 
presented by the Archdeacon to the Rev. Job Deacon, of Adolphus- 
town, and to-day it hangs in the tower of the pretty Memorial Churchy 
lately erected there. Unfortunately, however, it is no more than a 
relic, for it is cracked and cannot be used. The completed structure 
cost about $800, and the entire expense was borne by the congregation. 
On the 17th March, 1794, thirty-one pews were sold at prices varying 
from $25.00 to $6.50, being, at the same time, subject to a rental of 
$4.00 per annum. In the following August the congregation received 
its first Episcopal visitation. Dr. Jacob Mountain had, in 1793, been 
consecrated Bishop of the great district extending from Gaspe to 
Lake Huron. Facing- westward in the following year, he reached 
Kingston at the date mentioned, and from him fifty-five persons 
received Confirmation there. 

Even in these early days, when one might suppose that the little 
flock would feel themselves but one united family, affairs did not 
always move without the occasional intrusion of that element which, 
in this age of disguising phraseology, we term " friction." At the 
Easter Vestry, April 6th, 1795-, it was unanimously resolved that the 
ground rent should cease, and that the expenses of the church should 
be raised by assessment. But, on the following Monday, another 
Vestry was held, for the purpose of upsetting the action of the former 
one. Oaths were administered, and then they tried it again. Captain 
Richardson, as was to be expected from a member of the Garrison, 
stood to his colors, and voted " no," but the other three voted " yes," 
and so the pew rent was restored for the ensuing year. Two years 
after the completion of the structure, it was found necessary to erect 
a gallery, the builders being Messrs. Wycott and Ellerbeck. A further 
enlargement was effected in 1802, which consisted of a lengthening of 
the building to the extent of 25 feet, and the erection of the second 
gallery, the cost of which enlargement was nearly $S0O. From that 
time onward the building seems to have continued unchanged, until 
it was supplanted by the finer structure of 1827. Here then we may 
appropriately pause and endeavor to transport ourselves back to one 


of the first years of the century. Let us suppose it to be Easter Day, 
April 18th, 1802. King Street, or, more strictly, Church Street, as 
that part of it was then called, is mud almost to the ankles, and there 
are as yet no sidewalks, but it is Easter and we must go to church. The 
little bell, which quite suffices for a town of 500 or 600 souls, has 
ceased ringing, and we may enter from the side, or the end, as we 
will. We are attracted by the stately, well-proportioned figure of Dr. 
Stuart, for he is full six feet four inches in height (the " little gen- 
tleman," as his friends used to call him), and his reverent, sympathetic 
voice is reading the opening address to worshippers. Just a little 
below him is Mr. John Cannon who, for the annual sum of $44.00 and 
fees, discharges the duties of clerk, sexton and bell-ringer. Of con- 
gregational responding, I am afraid there is none. Mr. John Cannon, 
who, by the way, is quite a consequential individual, is paid to 
respond. Why should the congregation interfere with his preroga- 
tive ? And so, after each collect, we hear the sharp " A-a-men " of 
the clerk. The only musical instrument is a barrel organ of limiited 
scope, and the congregation do not, and cannot, complain that too many 
of the tunes are new. The Psalms usually sung are those of Tate 
and Brady, but the closing pages of the Prayer Book contain a few 
hymns for the chief festivals, and one of these, we may conjecture, 
is sung upon Easter. If during the service we could, without impro- 
priety, stand at the entrance to the chancel, and look down the nave, 
we should probably see a congregation of between 100 and 200 per- 
sons, for, although Sunday is not very well observed in Kingston, and 
the noise of axes and hammers may be heard all day long, this one 
church does duty for all the inhabitants. Immediately in front of 
us, then, are Mr. Richard Cartwright and Mr. Christopher Hagar- 
man. Beside Mr. Cartwright is the diminutive figure of a young man 
of 24, but already his features give indications of that strength of will 
which gave him such marvellous determining power in the life of 
Canada, when in after years he became Bishop of Toronto. Across 
the aisle from Mr. Cartwright is the military figure of Captain Rich- 
ardson. On one side of the pulpit is the " Government pew," in 
which may probably be seen Commandant Spencer — at least, if he was 
as faithfully devoted to the duties of worship as his grandson, the 
late Clerical Secretary of the Diocese of Ontario. On the other side 
of the pulpit, which seems to have been against the wall, and midway 
down the church, is the clergyman's pew. Across another narrow 
aisle we can discern the 6trong Flemish features of Lawrence 
Herchmer. Just behind him sits Mrs. Macaulay, still clad in the 


garb of widowhood, for Captain Robert Macaulay had died in the fall 
of 1800. To the left is Michael Grass, well known to history, whose 
blood courses in the veins of Kingston's energetic representative in 
the Legislative Council of Ontario. Captain Murney is there, whose 
name still lives in the tower at the foot of Barrie Street, and Jermyn 
Patrick, and many others, whose descendants are worshipping in St. 
George's to-day. Mr. John Corby and Lieutenant Robbins are the 
Wardens, and as the Holy Communion is to be celebrated, offerings 
are taken up (probably in long-handled boxes, or bags), to be devoted 
to the relief of the poor. The sermon is somewhat longer than that to 
which modern ears are accustomed, but it is imbued with the spirit 
of one who seldom clothed religion in its terrors, and whose word ever 
made for righteousness of living. The " Holy Table " is decently 
habited and the bending figure of the Rector administers the conse- 
crated elements to thirty or forty communicants. 

From this date onward there is little specially eventful to record, 
save the gradual upbuilding of the Church. Bishop Mountain's pur- 
pose was to pay triennial visits to every congregation in his vast Dio- 
cese, and Confirmations were administered by him in Kingston in 
1800, 1803, 1809, and onwards. Dr. Stuart died on the 15th day of 
August, 1811, at the age of 71. In these early days it was not unusual 
to subject the missionaries sent from England to unfavorable criti- 
cism, and to describe them as totally unfit for the situations in which 
they were placed. Concerning Dr. Stuart, however, no word of censure 
was ever breathed. Affectionate testimony was borne to his usefulness 
and activity, as well as that high moral character and these educa- 
tional abilities, which, it was said, would make him an ornament to any 
society. All that the grave can claim of this honored servant of the 
Lord lies in the burying ground surrrounding St. Paul's Church, and 
it is sheltered from the world's intrusion by a high and massive stone 
wall. A tablet to his memory was placed on the wall of the United 
Empire Loyalist Memorial Church, Adolphustown. A Vestry meeting 
was held a fortnight later, when it was ordered that the announcement 
of his death should be made to the Lieutenant-Governor and to the 
Bishop, and the hope was expressed that Rev. George O'Kill Stuart, 
then missionary at Toronto, might become his father's successor at 
Kingston. Ilore let mo introduce all that I have to say concerning the 
first Dean of Ontario. He was born at Fort Hunter, June 29th, 1776, 
and educated at Schenectady, Windsor, KS., and Harvard. In June, 
1800, he was ordained by the Bishop of Quebec, and sent in the fol- 
lowing year to Toronto, as a missionary of the S. P. G. Here he 


remained eleven years, during which time the church, afterwards rifled 
by the Americans in the War of 1812, was built. He entered upon 
his duties in Kingston in the summer of that year; was made the 
Bishop of Quebec's " official " in Upper Canada, and later, Archdeacon 
of York. Upon the subdivision of that ecclesiastical district in 1827 
he was appointed to the Archdeaconry of Kingston, a position he held 
until the establishment of the See of Ontario, of which he became the 
first Dean. He died in October, 1862, having attained the patriarchal 
age of 86, and his mortal remains were laid to rest beneath the 
shadow of St. Paul's Church. After him have been named five streets 
lying near the Archaic residence, which he erected for himself, and 
which in 1854 became the property of Queen's University. We retain 
deligtful memories of it as the place where we trudged wearily over 
the 2^ons asinorum, and where the humanity professor, after one of 
our crude translations, asked us, with a smile of the utmost tenderness 
and benignity, whether we thought that Horace and Plato wrote non- 
sense. To-day this same building suffices to shelter the households of 
three of the professors of the University. 

The War of 1812 followed hard upon the Stuarts' arrival in 
Kingston, but operations were carried on, as we know, mainly east and 
west of the Limestone City, which, for the time, benefited rather than 
suffered during these trying years. The dockyard, which had been 
established in 1789, was now the scene of a busy industry, between 
1,000 and 2,000 men being steadily employed, and $100,000 of Gov- 
ernment money expended annually. Under the impetus thus received, 
Kingston continued to grow and was still the premier town of the Pro- 
vince. Anglicans, too, began to realize the value of their Government 
land grant, and in 1818 the system of leasing their land, with building 
privileges, began. The section facing upon Brock Street was divided 
into five blocks, of which the annual rental was $297. 

The Princess Charlotte died on the 6th November, 1817. No 
event caused a sharper pang throughout the British Empire. The 
sad news could not in those day have reached Canada in less than six 
weeks, but the loyal members of St. George's immediately thereafter, 
put their church into mourning. The cost of the funeral drapery was 
$88, but the material was afterwards sold by auction, and the church 
recouped to the extent of $57. 

In the beginning of August, 1820, Bishop Mountain paid his last 
visit to Kingston, and administered Confirmation on the third day of 
the month. His son, Rev. G. J. Mountain, afterwards Bishop of 
Quebec, who accompanied him, describes the church as " long, low, 


blue wooden building, with square windows, and a little cupola, or 
steeple for the bell, like the thing on a brewery, placed at the wrong 
end of the building. They are taking steps, however," he adds, " to 
build a new one." 

In addition to the block known as "G," to which allusion has been 
made, a grant of the block of land upon which St. George's Cathedral 
now stands had been made subsequently, and after plans and eleva- 
tions had been sought from various sources, the work of constructing 
the new building upon this site began in earnest in 1825. On April 
9th a building committee was appointed, consisting of Hon. G. .H. 
Markland, Thomas Markland, C. A. Hagarman, Hon. John Macaulay 
and John Kirby. Mr. Thomas Rogers, whose plans had been accepted, 
was appointed architect, and the contractors for the masonry were 
Matthews and Lauder ; for the. carpentry, John Corrie ; and for the 
plastering, Thomas Brickwood. The corner-stone was laid by Sir 
Peregrine Maitland, with impressive ceremonies, on June 25th. We 
learn from the Kingston Chronicle that the procession left Walker's 
Hotel, which stood facing the Market Square, at 11 a.m. It consisted 
of the band of the 37th Hampshire Regiment, playing appropriate 
music; then the architect, the builders, the sexton, the clerk, the 
church wardens (Messrs. Henry Smith and Thomas Askew), the 
rector, the Building Committee, the staff of the garrison, visiting clergy, 
barristers, physicians, the sheriff, the magistrates, members of Par- 
liament, military and naval officers, and gentlemen. Two members of 
the Building Committee then met his Excellency at the Government 
wharf and conducted him to the platform, when prayers were offered 
by the Archdeacon, and the stone was duly laid. The cavity contained 
the usual newspapers, coins, etc., and a scroll which bore these words: 
" By the favor of Almighty God, on the 12th day of June, in the year 
of our Lord, 1825, and the sixth year of the reign of our most gracious 
sovereign, George IV., by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, King', Defender of the Faith, etc., etc, 
etc., the corner-stone of this Protestant Episcopal Church of St. 
George, dedicated to Divine Worship, according to the doctrines, rites 
and ceremonies of the United Church of England and Ireland, in the 
Town of Kingston, was laid by his Excellency, Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
Knight, Commander of the most Honorable Military Order of the 
Bath, Knight of the Russian Order of St. George, and of the Order 
of William in the Netherlands, etc., etc., etc., Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Province of Upper Canada, the Venerable George O'Kill Stuart 
being Rector." On October 10th of the following year, the contractor 


for the carpentry having failed to fulfil his agreement, the Committee 
themselves undertook the work, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Rogers, and the finishing touch was not given until the close of the 
summer of 1827, when a steeple, a bell-chamber and a substantial plat- 
form were added to the original contracts. As most of those now liv- 
ing have been familiar with the stately portico, erected in the fifth 
decade of the century, we should probably have regarded the completed 
structure of 1827 very bald, for the pillars and the dome which now 
surmounts the steeple were then wanting, but the church was probably 
little less worthy than any then standing in Canada. The " elegant 
and commodious " structure, as an epitomizer of the day describes it, 
was opened for service upon Sunday, November 25th. " Prayers were 
read by Rev. William Macaulay, then Rector of Picton. Rev. R. W. 
Tunny, Chaplain to the forces (who died in the first year of the 
cholera, aged 55), officiated at the communion table, and Dr. Stuart, 
the Rector, preached an appropriate sermon from 1st Samuel, 12. 24." 
The cost of the structure seems to have been about $25,000. Of this 
amount the congregation subscribed $5,600. The Lieutenant-Governor 
obtained, as a grant from the military chest, the large sum of $7,500. 
From the Bishop of Quebec came $400, and the balance was raised by 
a loan. I find the following interesting entries in the accounts of that 
date, and they help to explain the manner in which the congregation 
was accommodated while suffering the vexatious delays to which allu- 
sion has been made: "Jan. 6th, 1826; paid Stephen Wood for 
work done at the Wesleyan Chapel, £0, 5, 2." "March 27th, 1826; 
from Henry Smith for rent of pew 12, Wesleyan Chapel, one year to 
Easter, £1." It appears, therefore, that to the courtesy of the Wes- 
leyans, the Anglican congregation were indebted for housing, while 
their church was in building, and from another source (the late Sheriff 
Fergusson) I have learned that they were permitted to hold one ser- 
vice each Sunday during the interval in which they received this grate- 
ful accommodation. 

In the summer of 1826 the congregation saw the face of Dr. 
Charles James Stuart, then Bishop of Quebec. Six years had elapsed 
since the final visitation of Bishop Mountain, and we are not surprised 
to learn that 115 candidates for confirmation were presented by the 
Archdeacon. From this time forward, too, the exigencies of parochial 
work seem to have overtaxed the powers of the Rector, and he associated 
with him a succession of curates, the earliest of whom was the Rev. 
Thos. Handcock, who served from 1825 to 1830. The Rev. R. D. Cart- 
wright, universally beloved, dying in his prime, aged 37, and bequeath- 



ing to Canada distinguished sons, succeeded him in 1831, and during 
the sad summers of 1832 and 1834 both the Rector and his assistant 
must have been sorely tried and overworked. The burial register of a 
few weeks, which contains a list of interments from cholera number- 
ing 171 persons, young men and maidens, old men and children, gives 
some slight indication of the amount of faithful and exhausting duty 
performed by men who knew what it was to stand between the plough 
and the altar. Mr. Cartwright resigned, on account of ill-health, in 
April, 1843, and was succeeded by Rev. Wm, Macaulay Herchmer, 

Jieproduced Inj the kindness of the "News," Kingnton. 

who was associated with the Archdeacon at the date which limits this 

Just a word may be added as to the fate of the old building which 
did reverent service for over thirty years. It was advertised for sale, 
perhaps in the early months of 1826, for we read that in March of 
that year Mr. Macfarlane and Mr. Thompson received £0, 4, 7 each 
for advertising the sale. It is also added that the removal of the 
church was considered desirable, for the accommodation of those who 
had erected buildings on Brock Street. Unfortunately, the Vestry 
records from 1827 to 1835 have been lost. But tradition sayeth that 
old St. George's was removed to the corner of Wellington and Clar- 


ence Streets, used for a time as the Lancasterian schoolhouse, and 
afterwards sold to Adam Main and removed to the corner of Union 
and Wellington Streets, where it still stands. This is possible, as 
balloon frames were unknown in these early days. Nevertheless, we 
have been unable to verify the tradition. Enough, that in the humble 
structure was nurtured the faith and life of men who helped*to lay 
broad and deep the foundations of our Canadian polity, who gave not 
to Kingston only, but to Canada, many worthy sons, and whose 
example, laymen and clergymen of the present generation may rever- 
ently emulate. 


By Miss Agnes Maule Machar (" Fidelis "). 


For the first and most romantic epoch we have to go back, in 
imagination, just two hundred and thirty-four years, to the July days 
of 1673. The " Glorious Twelfth " deserves special commemoration 
by all classes of Kingstonians, for it was on that day that Frontenac 
landed his expedition on the lonely shore of Cataracqui — or Katara- 
koui — till then the undisturbed home of the wild denizens of the 
forest. On that morning the observant crow, hovering over the bine 
St. Lawrence, a few miles below Kingston, or the contemplative crane, 
fishing solitary on some tufted rock, beheld a long and strange flotilla 
making its way out of the mazes of the Thousand Isles, unlike any- 
thing that had before been seen floating amid these sylvan solitudes. 
Canoes manned by French soldiers and gaily painted bateaux led the 
way; then came large "war canoes," filled with imposing figures in 
glittering French uniforms, amid whom might easilv have been dis- 
tinguished the stately figure and dark clear-cut face of the " Great 
Ononthio," Count Frontenac himself. On cither side came another 
squadron of canoes, French and Indian, while two others, following as 
a rearguard, closed the martial procession. The Governor, we are 
expressly told in the Journal of the Expedition, written by the Abbe 
D'Urfe, had carefully arranged this order of approach with a view, 
undoubtedly, to the impression he hoped to make on the savage mind. 


But why had the dignified French Viceroy undertaken, with 
such a retinue, an expensive and tedious voyage from the rock of 
Quebec to the junction of the St Lawrence with the little River Catax- 
aqui, at the entrance to Lake Ontario, a hitherto unknown point in 
the midst of unbroken wilderness? And why was he so desirous of 
impressing a gathering of roaming Indians with the power and pres- 
tige of his country ? For the answer we need only cast our thoughts 
back to the circumstances under which the gallant " Pioneers of France 
in the New World " had been, for more than a century, struggling 
with the adverse forces of Nature and human savagery, in order to 
establish the colony of New France on a stable foundation. 

As we all know, the supremacy on the continent of North 
America was then actively contested by the three great powers which 
had shared the honors of its discovery. Spain had early pre-empted 
a vast southern region under the general name of " Florida " ; the Fleur- 
de-lis floated over an extensive northern area; while Great Britain, 
with adventurous Dutchmen by her side, had established a line of 
settlements along the eastern seaboard. Competition was keen for the 
" sinews of war," i.e., the beaver trade, then the mainstay of any 
colony in this part of North America. 

The fierce Iroquois, or Five Nations, who had so long been the 
scourge and terror of New France, were then the chief purveyors of 
the fur trade, which the English and Dutch settlers naturally sought 
to draw to the southward of lake and river. The shrewd Intendent 
Talon had, in 1670, suggested to Louis XIV. the expediency of plant- 
ing two outposts, one on the north and one on the south shore of Lake 
Ontario, which might serve at once as a check on the Iroquois raids 
and as depots for fur trading, and also the building of a small vessel 
to cruise between them and intercept the Indians on their way to the 
rival settlements. In the following year the then Governor, De Cour- 
celles, made a canoe voyage up the St. Lawrence and. as the memoir 
of the expedition informs us, arrived at the mouth of Lake Ontario, 
which appeared " as an open sea without bounds." Apparently lie 
reached the vicinity of Kingston, if we may judge from the following 
observation in the memoir: " The Governor remarked at this place a 
stream bordered by fine land, where there is sufficient water to float a 
large bark. This remark will be of use hereafter." adds the writer, a 
remark that was justified by the result. 

If we may venture, in a historical paper, on what seems at least 
a probable hypothesis, we might plausibly connect this first visit to the 
site of the future Fort Frontenac with the remarkable personality 
who was to be for manv years to come its commander and animating 


spirit, as well as the Seignior of the surrounding country. Robert 
Cavelier de La Salle is the figure that most strongly impresses our 
i m a gin ation when we study the early history of Cataraqui or that of 
the discovery of the Great West. This young Norman, who had 
arrived in New France animated by the passion for discovery and the 
enthusiasm of the explorer, had become possessed with the desire to find 
the long-dreamed-of waterway through the continent to the treasures 
of the Orient. He had, furthermore, been led by the accounts he had 
received from wandering Indians of the course of the Mississippi, 
and the rich regions through which it flowed, to concentrate his aims 
and ambitions on seeking to trace its course, colonize its banks, and 
•add a territory of fabulous riches to the realms of France. He had 
been a companion of the friars, Galinee and Dollier de Casson, on the 
exploring tour of the lakes, from which De Courcelles had derived the 
information that led to his own voyage, and it is quite possible that 
the suggestion of a fortified fur depot at the eastern end of Lake 
Ontario had originated with him. It was certainly a much more fav- 
orable base for his projected voyage of discovery than his first Seign- 
iory of Lachine, so called, we are told, in derision of its master's dream 
of discovering a short cut to China. 

When the energetic Frontenac succeeded De Courcelles in the gov- 
ernment of Canada, he had been attracted by the enterprise and 
enthusiasm of the young Norman, whose nature was in many ways 
akin to his own, and had lent a favoring ear to the far-reaching pro- 
jects which had already taken definite shape in the mind of Cavelier. 
He was, indeed, quite ready to consider any proposals likely to extend 
the power of France in the New World, and to fulfil, as soon as pos- 
sible, the, recommendation of his successor concerning the new outpost. 
Knowing that La Salle had already explored much of the region about 
the Great Lakes, he sent him on in advance, to make a final reconnais- 
sance of the site for the new depot, as well as to conciliate the sur- 
rounding Iroquois, and thus prepare the way for its establishment. 
Meantime, he began to muster men and canoes for his intended expe- 
dition, and as he could not command adequate funds, and would not 
rim the risk of awaiting the result of an application to the king, which 
might quite possibly have proved unfavorable, he had recourse to the 
Seigniors settled on both sides of the St. Lawrence, whom he invited 
to form part of his retinue, supplying, of course, a contingent of men 
and canoes. At Montreal he made a halt long enough to provide him 
with four gaily painted bateaux and other necessary supplies, which 
were portaged to La Salle's old settlement of Lachine, from whence 
he set out at the head of a train of one hundred and twenty canoes, 


carrying a martial force of four hundred men, a friendly contingent of 
Indians, and the bateaux, laden with supplies of food and requisites 
for the building of the proposed fort. 

The season was the loveliest of the Canadian year, when the sum- 
mer is at its prime, the forest gay with fresh verdure, the coverts 
vocal with the joyous songs of birds and the air filled with delightful 
floating fragrance. But the expedition was no holiday affair. Though 
we may not stop to trace the long succession of toilsome portages, as 
one snowy rapid after another impeded their progress, dashing its 
silvery wave crests against the dark rocks that bristled with interlac- 
ing hemlock and pine. When the mighty surges of the Long Sault 
blocked their course the men were often obliged to wade waist deep in 
the water, pushing the bateaux against the strong sweep of the current. 
It was an arduous undertaking, but the energetic Governor knew how 
to encourage and spur on his men to success, and did not disdain, at 
times, to share in the toil, standing knee deep in the rushing stream. 
Heavy rains came on, causing vexatious delays, and Frontenac, who 
bivouacked with his men on the shore, passed sleepless nights, from 
anxiety lest the water which found its way into the bateaux should 
have wet and spoiled the biscuit which formed the staple of the food 
of his men. 

At length, however, the laborious ascent was completed and at the 
head of the rapids Frontenac received a message from La Salle, 
appointing the mouth of the Cataraqui as the place of the intended 
conference. From thence the flotilla glided, under a cloudless July 
sun, over calm waters and through the mazes of what seemed a fairy 
archipelago, studded with rocky wooded islets, clustering thickly on a 
sapphire lake, some rising like weather-beaten fortresses out of the 
water, others luxuriant bowers of foliage, seeming to nestle in the 
placid stream, mirrored in the still waters that lapped their shores. 
After passing through a seemingly endless succession of these fairy 
isles the expedition at length reached the end of the " Lac des lies des 
Eochers," and at length came out in view of the blue expanse of the 
apparently shoreless lake. The Abbe D'Urfe had been sent on in 
advance, to notify the assembled Indians of the approach of the expe- 
dition, now arranged by Frontenac in the order which has been 
described. As they drew nearer to the wooded promontory, now 
crowned by our fast-vanishing Fort Henry, a canoe was seen advanc- 
ing, containing a number of the Iroquois Chiefs, accompanied by the 
Abbe, to escort the expedition to the place of meeting, a site which 
impressed the voyagers with its advantageous position and its pictur- 
esque surroundings of summer verdure and sapphire lake and stream. 



Around them stretched a spacious harbor, cut off from the broad breast 
of Lake Ontario by a chain of large islands, as the lake narrows into 
the river, and is joined by the narrower stream of the Cataraqui, 
winding its way out from a succession of lakes, cascades and still 
river-reaches, now connected by the Rideau Canal, and forming here, 
by its wide embouchure, a quiet bay and well-sheltered port. The 
sylvan monotony of the scene was as yet unbroken by any artificial 
feature, and the deep green woods that clothed the gently sloping shore 
were still undisturbed, save by the temporary Indian encampment. 
But the strange flotilla now approaching was the harbinger of inevit- 
able change. 

The meeting which now took place between the great Ononthio, as 
the Governor was styled by the Iroquois, and the representatives of that 
tribe and the " civilities " which then took place are thus quaintly 
described in the memoir already quoted: 

" They saluted the Admiral (Governor) and paid their respects 
to him with evidence of much joy and confidence, testifying to him 
the obligation they were under to him for sparing them the trouble of 
going further, and for receiving their submissions at the River Katar- 
akoui, as they were about signifying to him. 

" After Count Frontenac had replied to their civilities, they pre- 
ceded him as guides and conducted him into a bay about a eannon-shot 
from the entrance, which forms one of the most beautiful and agree- 
able harbors in the world, capable of holding a hundred of the largest 
ships, with sufficient water at the mouth and in the harbor, with a mud 
bottom, and so sheltered from every wind, that a cable is scarcely 
necessarv for mooring;." 

The disembarkation was soon effected, while the Indians, encamped 
close at hand, looked on, with characteristic passivity, the more vener- 
able Sachems approaching to do homage to the august " Ononthio," 
whose position and power La Salle had taken every opportunity to mag- 
nify. Notwithstanding fatigue, Frontenac spent the afternoon and 
evening in exploring the vicinity, not returning till dusk. The French 
encampment was by that time completed, guards being, of course, set 
with punctilious formality, while the Fleur-de-lis floated proudly above 
the Governor's tent and martial music for the first time awoke the 
slumbering echoes of the place. 

On the following morning, the 13th of July, 1673, the reveille, 
with the beating of drums, aroused the French camp to the important 
work of the day, for Iroquois Councils were early " functions." A 
double line of soldiers under arms formed a living lane from the Gov- 
ernor's tent to the Iroquois Camp, to impress the deputies who 


marched, with slow gait and dignified mien, to the place of confer- 
ence — an area, carpeted with sail-cloth, in front of Frontenac's tent, 
where the orthodox camp-fire kept off insect intruders, and made a 
centre for the meeting. Here the Indian envoys were duly presented 
to the Governor and his suite, imposing, with their gold-laced uni- 
forms and aristocratic bearing, Frontenac himself hardly needing any 
accessories to enhance the native dignity of his commanding face and 

After the first salutations there followed, according to Indian cus- 
tom, a period of silence, while the Chiefs squatted on the canvas 
carpet, smoking their pipes with imperturbable gravity. At length the 
proceedings were opened by a speech from the Chief Garakontie, well 
known as a tried friend of the French, expressing, with profuse com- 
pliments, the pleasure and respect with which the great " Ononthio " 
was welcomed among them. At the close of his harangue, Frontenac, 
with the paternal air so well adapted to impress the Indian nature, 
began his own address, as follows : 

" Children ! Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, 
I am glad to meet you here, where I have had a fire lighted for you to 
smoke by, and for me to talk to you. You have done well, my chil- 
dren, to obey the command of your Father. Take courage ! You will 
hear his word, which is full of peace and tenderness, for do not think 
that I have come for war. My mind is full of peace, and she walks by 
my side. Courage, then, children, and take rest!" 

Then followed a generous gift of tobacco, more promises to be a 
kind father to them, as obedient children, and another presentation, 
this time of guns to the men, and of prunes and raisins to the women 
and children. This closed what was but a preliminary conference. The 
great Council was to meet on a future day. 

It would be interesting to know the exact spot where this memor- 
able meeting took place, but we may not be far wrong in supposing it 
to have been what was afterwards, and perhaps then, called Mississauga 
Point, near the foot of Earl Street. It certainly could not have been 
very near the site of old Fort Frontenac, because, even while the con- 
ference was proceeding, and the savages were entertained with speeches 
and gifts, Frontenac, with characteristic promptness, had ordered his 
engineer, M. Baudin, to trace out the ground plan of the projected 
fort; and as the men of the expedition, under the directing officers, 
were speedily set to cut down trees, hew palisades and dig trenches, 
the work of construction was soon rapidly proceeding before the eyes 
of the astonished Indians. Frontenac, meantime, spared no trouble to 
gain their favor, and seems to have amused his suite by caressing the 



little brown dusky children, feasting them with bread and sweetmeats, 
and ordering an evening banquet for the squaws, that they might enter- 
tain the strangers by their native dances, which they were nothing 
loth to do. In these ways he managed somewhat to divert the atten- 
tion of the savages from his military designs, and made himself most 
popular among them. Four days of hard work passed before the Grand 
Council was ait length summoned, with due state and ceremony, on the 
19th of July, 1673. Then, after a repetition of the former ceremon- 
ious preliminaries, the Ononthio, in his grand manner, again addressed 
his " Indian children." 

Expressing his satisfaction that they had obeyed their Father's 
command in repairing to this rendezvous, to hear what he had to say, 
he briefly exhorted them to become Christians, which he doubtless sin- 
cerely desired, and not solely on account of the spiritual interests of 
his hearers. Then, after calling their attention to the strength and 
power of his armed escort, and the guns on the bateaux moored close 
by, he continued his oration in the grandiloquent terms congenial both 
to speaker and hearer: 

" If your Father can come so far, with so great a force, through 
such dangerous rapids, merely to make you a visit of pleasure and 
friendship, what would he do, if you should awaken his anger, and 
make it necessary for him to punish his disobedient children? He is 
the arbiter of peace and war. Beware how you offend him!" Fur- 
thermore, he warned them strongly against molesting the Indian allies 
of the French, any attempt at which would draw upon them swift 

He then, with cautious diplomacy, proceeded to the matter in hand, 
explaining, with many expressions of regard, that he was about to build 
a storehouse or depot there, at which they would be able to barter their 
furs for the things they required without being obliged to undertake a 
long and dangerous journey. They must not, however, listen to the 
misrepresentations of bad men who, for their own interests, would 
delude and deceive them, but should give heed only to men of char- 
acter, like the Sieur de La Salle, who would remain with them for the 
present. He closed his harangue by asking that they should entrust 
him with a number of their children to be educated at Quebec, so that, 
in time, they and his French " nephews " might " grow into one 

Tha profusion of gifts which accompanied this oration, along with 
its f.-iendly tone of paternal consideration, secured for it a good recep- 
tion, though the Indians expressed a natural desire to know what prices 
would be given for the furs in goods at the new depot. They prom- 


ised to consider, on their return to their villages, the proposal concern- 
ing their children, and a few of these were eventually sent to Quebec 
to be educated — the girls in the Ursuline Convent, the boys in the 
household of the Governor himself. 

After three days more of feasting and friendly intercourse, the 
Iroquois broke up their camp, and the great majority of them re-em- 
barked in their canoes, and disappeared beyond the point of land which 
projected into the St. Lawrence, on their way to their villages to the 
southward. By the time that the primitive palisades of the fort were 
set up, and the barracks of rough logs were well advanced towards com- 
pletion, another band of Iroquois, from the north of the Great Lakes, 
arrived to hold a similar pow-wow with the Ononthio. He had already 
despatched a large part of his men in detachments, and when the 
second division of Indians had departed, propitiated by presents and 
belles paroles, and Frontenac had established a garrison in the new 
fort, and had arranged for their winter supplies, as well as for the 
building of a small vessel, he, with the remainder of his retinue, set 
out on his return to Montreal. 

As he retraced his course down the St. Lawrence — much more 
swiftly and easily than he had ascended — Frontenac felt that he had 
every reason to congratulate himself on the success of his venture. He 
had accomplished a dangerous voyage without the loss of a single 
canoe, and, owing to the aid he had enlisted from his Seigniors, the 
whole work had been accomplished at a cost of only ten thousand 
francs, advanced by himself on behalf of the King. He had procured 
from the Iroquois all the concessions he had asked, and wrote to 
Colbert that he might boast of having impressed them at once with 
respect, fear and good-will, and that, by means of the new post and 
the vessel on the stocks, with another fort he contemplated building at 
the mouth of the Niagara, the French would hold the command of the 
Upper Lakes, always an important point for the would-be masters of 
Canada. And however opinions in the colony might differ as to the 
commercial usefulness of the new outpost, however much the Montreal 
merchants might look askance at it from their own point of view* 
there could be no doubt that in it New France would possess an effec- 
tual barrier against incursions by the Iroquois for years to come. As 
our present subject is the founding of Fort Frontenac, we must not 
linger over its varied and interesting history. As we all know, La 
Salle went to France in the following year, and obtained from the King 
the command of the fort and the Seigniory of the adjacent country. 
In accordance with the conditions of his grant, he rebuilt the palisaded 
log fort in stone, repaid the ten or eleven thousand francs of Fron- 


tenac's outlay, cleared land for farming, built several small vessels, 
maintained a garrison and chapel for French and Indians, a number 
of whom settled near the fort, and spent there, we may well believe, 
some of the happiest, and certainly the most peaceful, years of his 
strenuous and tragic life. From it, again and again, he set out on the 
toilsome expeditions to explore and colonize the " Great West," and 
to it he repeatedly returned, with even his great strength, almost ex- 
hausted, from the long 'and perilous journeys on foot, such as very few 
white men have equalled on this continent. Towards it he was, for 
the last time, bending his steps from the wilds of Texas, after the fatal 
mistake which had landed him on Matagorda Bay instead of the 
embouchure of the Mississippi, when he was finally laid to rest by the 
bullet of a treacherous follower. His name must ever be inscribed on 
America's honor roll of heroes, for he was one, says Margry, quoting 
Polybius in regard to Hannibal, whom " fate alone was able to 

For eighty-five years the new outpost of Fort Frontenae fulfilled 
its destined purpose as a bulwark of ISJew France. The scenes it wit- 
nessed were varied enough, at one time peaceful conferences like that 
we have described, at another warlike demonstrations, when Peace did 
not walk by the Ononthio's side. It witnessed the cruel and dastardly 
treachery practised by Denonville on the Iroquois, when, having lured 
some of the most peaceful of their bands within the precincts of the 
fort on pretence of a conference, he put the men in chains, let many 
of the women and children die of want, and sent most of his prisoners 
to the French galleys, a piece of cruel perfidy that naturally awoke in 
the Iroquois a thirst for vengeance, which ultimately found vent in 
the massacre of Laehine. Denonville further displayed his cowardice 
and folly in ordering the demolition of the fort, which Frontenae, on 
his return to the rescue of New France, found in ruins, and which he 
rebuilt within a few years, notwithstanding the determined opposition 
of his Intendent, De Champigny. As this was the fort whose remains 
were actually existing for some time after the British settlement, a 
little detailed description of its character and site will not be out of 

In its restored condition, the fort had four curtains of stone, each 
a hundred and twenty feet long, with four square bastions at the 
angles, the north and south bastions standing almost on the present 
line of Ontario Street, the eastern one on the present barrack square, 
and the western one on what is now called the " Haymarket." On the 
west side were an embankment and ditch, the gate being on or arxmt 
the site of the present barrack wharf, the bastions being sunk on 


wooden piles, and the curtains loop-holed for musketry, the water side 
being, as before, defended by palisades and barracks, a well, mill and 
bakery occupying the interior. 

Frontenac, septuagenarian as he was, soon made his strong hand 
felt on the reins, saving the existence of New France for a time and, 
in spite of repeated directions from home, firmly refusing to abandon 
its bulwark of Fort Frontenac. Hither, again, in the month of July, 
some twenty-five years after his first expedition, he brought the fight- 
ing force of the colony on an errand of war, to subdue and intimidate 
the again aggressive Iroquois, and rested here a few days before 
invading their strongholds on the other side of the lake. 

But Frontenac's life and rule, as well as the French hold on 
Canada, were almost over. A few years later came the last hour of 
Fort Frontenac, which had survived some of the other outposts. Louis- 
bourg was already in ruins, and the English were well aware of the 
importance of capturing the fort and garrison at Cataraqui. On an 
August morning, in 1758, the small, inadequate garrison of little more 
than a hundred men, exclusive of a few Indians, commanded by the 
gallant and chivalrous veteran de Noyau, surrendered, with the 
honors of war, to Colonel Bradstreet's greatly superior force of 3,000 
men, after a bombardment at. short range, from no greater distance 
than the market square. With the fort, the English force captured 
sixty cannon and sixteen mortars, which were used in battering down 
the walls they were meant to defend, nine armed vessels, and large 
supplies of munitions of war. The fort was dismantled, all the build- 
ings in and about it burned, along with most of the vessels, and, 
except for a few French and Indian families who may have remained 
in the vicinity, Cataraqui was left once more to silence and solitude. 
When we next hear of the place, to which the name of Fort Frontenac 
still clung, it is in the report of a British surveyor to a British 
General ; #nd when the ruined walls were again used for military pur- 
poses the Union Jack floated over them instead of the Fleur-de-lis. 


About a quarter of a century of silent summers had passed away 
before the blue waters of the St. Lawrence once more bore a small 
flotilla to Cataraqui in the early spring, carrying a party to inspect 
the land about Fort Frontenac, with a view, not to building a fort, but 
a new and peaceful settlement. The passing years had brought changes 
which could hardly have been contemplated in 1758. Britain reigned, 
indeed, supreme over what had been New France; but the thirteen 


colonies to the southward had renounced her sway, and were now 
known as the United States of America. We must be content to accept 
the verdict of impartial history that this unfortunate denouement was 
due to " faults on both sides," and we need not now revive the memory 
of " old, unhappy things, and battles long ago." Yet we can hardly 
refer to the coming of the Loyalists without remarking that the revolu- 
tionary party made no greater mistake, in days when the conflict of 
feeling and opinion was sharp and bitter, than in the rigor with which 
they treated those of their fellow-countrymen who maintained their old 
allegiance to the British flag, and the animosity with which they drove 
out some of their best citizens from a republic constituted in the 
sacred name of freedom ! As loyal subjects of the British Empire, we 
can never cease to honor the high-minded men and women who left 
their pleasant homes and fertile farms, and in many oases, their all, 
rather than sacrifice the principles in which they believed. Like 
Abraham of old, they went out into the wilderness, scarcely knowing 
whither, to become, like him, the founders of a nation ; and it is gen- 
erally of such material that the best foundations of a nation are built. 
Their long and weary journeyings over the snow-clad wilderness that 
separated them from their promised land, or by the still longer and 
more circuitous route of sea and river, recall the spirit and the faith 
of the Israelites of old, and their faith was justified by its ultimate 
reward. Amid all the noble traditions to which Canada is heir, that 
of the genuine United Empire Loyalists is one of the noblest, and 
should be one of the most imperishable. 

The flotilla that now appeared had no external pomp or circum- 
stance, no martial music or brilliant uniforms gleaming in the sun- 
shine. A few bateaux carried a number of weather-beaten men, in 
weather-worn garments, weary with the toil of a long voyage. They 
were the husbands and fathers — the pioneers of a band of refugees, led 
by Captain Michael Grass — the founders of Kingston and its adjacent 
townships. The circumstances under which they came are so inter- 
esting, and so typical of many similar cases, that they may be glanced 
at somewhat in detail. Captain Grass, who had owned a farm some 
thirty miles from New York, had once been for a short time a British 
prisoner of war with the French at Fort Frontenac. When he refused 
to enter the American service, and took refuge with his family within 
New York under British protection, the Commander (Sir Guy Carle- 
ton, afterwards Lord Dorchester), much perplexed concerning the 
future of the numerous Loyalists in the city, sent for Captain Grass 
to obtain information as to the country about Cataraqui. Finding 
that he gave a good report of it, the General asked whether he would 


undertake to conduct to the place as many Loyalist emigrants as might 
be willing to accompany him. After three days' consideration he 
agreed to become the leader of such a band; whereupon, notices were 
at once posted, inviting all who desired to go to enroll their names. A 
company of women and children was soon enrolled, and in vessels pro- 
vided by the Government they set out by sea. Their little fleet of 
seven ships was nearly wrecked by the way, and they got no farther 
than Sorel that season, being obliged to live there through the winter, 
which, in such circumstances, must have been dreary enough. 

And now the men of the party had come to behold their promised 
land, and pitched their tents at Indian or Mississauga Point, already 
referred to as the site of an old Indian burying-ground, and of Fron- 
tenac's Conference. They surveyed the fair landscape about them, as 
Frontenac had done more than a century before ; and Captain Grass 
tells us " there was no building to be seen, save the bark-thatched wig- 
wam of the savage or the newly-erected tent of the hardy Loyalist " ; 
for the ruined walls of Fort Frontenac, and its still standing tower 
would hardly count for much in the distance. Captain Grass, at least, 
was satisfied, and in language whose spirit recalls that of the men of 
the Mayflower, he tells us that he pointed out to his companions their 
future metropolis, " and gained for persecuted principles a sanctuary, 
and for myself and my followers a home." 

The wives and families soon followed the prospectors, and the 
green slopes that rose so gently from the water, and the fair shores of 
the Bay of Quinte were soon dotted with families engaged in selecting 
their future homes, while the forest solitudes again echoed human 
voices and human wit. The eager settlers had to remain for some 
time, awaiting the surveying and numbering of the townships, which 
were not allotted till July. Meantime other companies of refugees 
had arrived on a similar errand, and the Governor paid the place a 
visit, and, after enjoying a ride along the lake shore on a fine day, 
expressed his satisfaction with the " fine country " he saw around 
him. When the time arrived for allocating the townships surveyed, 
the Governor gave Captain Grass the first choice for himself and the 
company he had led. He at once chose the first township, that of 
Kingston. Sir John Johnston, who had the second choice, took the 
second township, now Ernesttown; Colonel Rogers, the third, that of 
Fredericksburgh ; and Major Vanalstine, the fourth — Adolphustown ; 
while Colonel Macdonell, with his company, took the fifth, that of 

The townships, being thus appropriated to the various bands of 
immigrants, farms dfrere soon laid out and work began in earnest. 


Trees were felled, seed (given by the Governor) was sowed, and primi- 
tive homesteads begun. The settlers received from the Government, 
besides seed, provisions to last three years, consisting chiefly of flour, 
pork, beef, and a little butter and salt, distributed in a rather 
promiscuous fashion, and also some necessary implements, including 
an axe, hoe and spade, a plough and one cow for each two families, a 
whip and cross-cut saw for each four families, while boats and port- 
able mills were provided at convenient points for common use. Some 
of the implements were not of the most suitable kind, the axe in par- 
ticular being too short and heavy for their needs. Clothing was also 
supplied, intended to last until they should be able to provide it for 
themselves, consisting chiefly of shoes, Indian blankets and coarse 
cloth, so that the men were at least decently clad, though in a rather 
primitive fashion. The women probably had to make their old clothes 
look as well as new, a business that must have taxed their ingenuity, 
though they doubtless had their share of the shoes and blanketing for 
outer wraps. 

The settler's first and heaviest piece of work was, of course, the 
felling of trees and the building of the log cabin. In order to lighten, 
as far as possible, the severe toil to which many of the new-comers 
were unaccustomed, they frequently combined forces, each helping the 
others, and being helped in his turn. The busy scene presented when 
a band of stalwart pioneers were hard at work, felling the great trees, 
trimming off the branches, squaring the trunks or piling up the refuse 
logs for burning, or fitting together those which were to form the 
settler's home, seems to have suggested the appellation of " bee," 
which has clung to such gatherings ever since. The settler's first cabin 
was necessarily most primitive in style, being often built of the rough 
round logs, rudely notched together at the corners, and piled some 
seven or eight feet high, with openings cut out for a door and small 
window. The openings between the logs were filled in with wooden 
chips and clay for mortar. The roof was composed of slabs of elm 
or other bark, in overlapping layers, laid on a support of poles. The 
chimney was formed of round poles, plastered over with mud. The 
floor was made of split logs, flattened enough to present a fairly even 
surface, and the ample hearth was built of flat stones, while smaller 
stones, packed together, composed its back and sides. A suspended 
blanket frequently did duty for a door until sawn boards could be 
fashioned for the purpose. 

The log " shanty " built, it was soon furnished with home-made 
necessaries. The bedsteads were built with the cabin itself, poles 
being inserted securely between the logs of the walls, forming a shelf 


on which a comfortable bed could be laid. Any carpenters among the 
pioneers were turned to good account, and the benches, tables and 
bureaus manufactured out of split basswood, were probably surveyed 
with more pride than the connoisseur of to-day feels in his " Chippen- 
dale " or " Louis Seize " acquisitions. Hard as was the toil, many as 
were the privations they necessarily endured, the brave Loyalists were 
happy enough in their " simple life," which braced their energies and 
cheered their spirits as they began to reap the reward of their honest 

Their faith and endurance, however, were tried by the " famine 
year " of 1788, when the crops failed, and with all their added re- 
sources in fish, game and wild fruit, much distress ensued, when a 
cow was sometimes sold for a barrel of flour or a few bushels of pota- 
toes, and whole farms were sacrificed for the necessaries of life. Nor 
was this the only trouble, for wild animals still roamed the forest in 
large numbers, and, as the settlers were scantily supplied with fire- 
arms, bears and wolves were a constant source of alarm. The latter 
often howled dismally round the settlements on winter nights, not sel- 
dom carrying off salted provisions, poultry and even cattle, while a 
single mink would carry off in one night all the fowls of a farm, and 
the fatted pig would sometimes fall a victim to the hug of a bear. 
Tragic tales are still told of human lives sacrificed to the rapacity of 
the wolves, and it was found necessary to pass an Act offering a 
premium of four dollars for every wolf's head brought in, with two 
dollars for those of bears. Some forty years later, when wolves were 
growing scarce, we are told that a man who lived in Kingston bred 
them privately in order to secure the reward. 

The privations of the Loyalists can, of course, be paralleled in 
many parts of our Dominion to-day, the difference, however, being that 
the ordinary emigrant submits to them from motives of self-interest, 
while the IT. E. Loyalist voluntarily sacrificed to his principles the 
goods of which he was already possessed, with only the remote chance 
of future compensation. 

The U. E. Loyalists, however, were not the only settlers of Upper 
Canada at that period. Many officers and soldiers who had fought for 
the British flag also received liberal grants of land from the Govern- 
ment, some of these being in the vicinity of Cataraqui. A number of 
emigrants from the United States, who were not of the same sterling 
stock as the original Loyalists, but came for speculative ends, also 
received grants on too lavish a scale, so that Lord Durham stated in 
his report that more than three millions of acres had been granted to 
these refugees and their children, of which a very small proportion, 


perhaps less than a tenth, had been occupied by settlers, much less re- 
claimed and cultivated. This abuse, of course, arose from a lack of 
discrimination; but in bestowing on the genuine Loyalists grants pro- 
portioned to their losses, the British Government supplied to the 
virgin Province a worthy body of patriotic settlers, who had proved 
their loyalty by personal sacrifice; and the wisdom of this generous 
policy has been amply justified by the tenacious adherence of their 
descendants, ever since, through all varying fortunes and vicissitudes, 
to the British Empire and the old flag. 


A decade has passed away before we again look in on the new 
settlement on the banks of the Cataraqui, beside the ruins of Fort 
Frontenac. The name of the spot has been changed to " Kingstown," 
that being the name bestowed by the enthusiastic Loyalists on both the 
township and the village which has sprung into being. The latter has 
now a population of between three and four hundred, dwelling in some 
hundred houses built of logs or clap-boarded, scattered along the 
nor shore of the Cataraqui, while behind these the ground slopes 
gently upward in a sort of amphitheatre of cleared, but only partially 
cultivated, land. La Rochefoucauld tells us that none of the houses 
are distinguished by a more handsome appearance than the rest, the 
only conspicuous structure being the barracks, a stone building sur- 
rounded with palisades, erected on the ruins of Fort Frontenac. On 
the southern bank a busy dockyard, filled with workmen engaged in 
building the king's ships, occupies Point Frederick, named in compli- 
ment to General Haldimand. There stand also the residence of the 
Commodore and other officials, and a large stone building named the 
Stone Frigate, built for training purposes, on the model of a man-of-war. 
Close by the King's ships lie at anchor, in a harbor all their own. 

The stimulus which had promoted the growth of the primitive 
settlement, and brought so much life and animation into the scene, was 
its early selection by the British authorities as a naval and military 
centre. Tn 1788 Lord Dorchester, formerly Sir Guy Carleton, then 
Governor of Canada, instructed Surveyor John Collins to make a 
survey of forts and harbors, from Carleton Island to Michillimackinac, 
and more particularly with regard to the question whether Carleton 
Island or Kingston were the more eligible station for the King's ships 
of war, in order to protect the navigation of Lake Ontario and the 
upper part of the River St. Lawrence. The report was not favorable 


to Kingston, the surveyor's preference leaning to Carleton Island, as 
on the whole affording the best shelter, while he declared the ruins of 
Fort Frontenac to be in a hopeless state of dilapidation, although the 
barracks, partly dismantled, might still be repaired. 

Despite Collins' adverse report, Lord Dorchester held to his own 
views in favor of Kingston, and as Carleton Island was shortly after 
found within the boundary line of the United States, there was no 
further question as to where the naval depf;t should be. The dock- 
yard and stores were begun in 1789, the year after the survey, while 
barracks were erected on the ruins of the old fort. The " Stone 
Frigate," too, was built, the dockyard was soon bustling with the 
important work of shipbuilding, and the residences of the Commo- 
dore and other officials imparted some dignity to the spot. 

Upper Canada was now, for the first time, to be constituted as a 
Province, ruled by its own governor, instead of being governed from 
Quebec. General Simcoe was appointed Governor, and his inaugura- 
tion naturally took place at Kingston, which, half a century later, was 
to be the scene of the first Parliament of a reunited Canada, under 
Lord Sydenham. 

We are told that this interesting ceremony took place in St. 
George's Church, but it seems uncertain whether by this is to be under- 
stood the small, unpretending building which had just been erected by 
the generous contributions of its little congregation, and which had not 
yet been completed, or in the room in the barracks which had been 
hitherto used for religious services. 

In whichever place the event took place, it is not difficult to call up 
the scene, on or about the 15th of July, 1792. The otherwise bare and 
unadorned apartment was sure to be draped with all the bunting at 
command, while above it waved proudly the old flag that had already 
braved so long the battle and the breeze, and was soon to see some of 
its severest fighting and win its Waterloo. The assemblage was a 
notable one, for some of the leading men of the young Province were 
citizens of Kingston, and others must have assembled there from their 
distant homes. There, as one of the most striking figures, stood the 
stalwart form of the Curate of St. George's, first minister and first 
teacher, the Rev. John Stuart, six feet four inches, and therefore play- 
fully called by his friends " the little gentleman." There was the 
energetic, somewhat arbitrary, martial-looking Governor, attired in the 
elaborate official dress of the period, surrounded, of course, by his 
military staff, as well as by Commodore Bouchette and his official 
entourage. There was Major Peter Vanalstine and Messrs. Cart- 
wright, Macaulay, Markland, Kirby, Deacon, the McLeans, Dr. 



Dougall, and others, well known in the early history of Kingston, who 
doubtless appeared correctly attired in the small-clothes or tight knee- 
breeches, with silver-buckled shoes, which had been brought by their 
wearers from scenes of more fashionable life, and carefully reserved 
for occasions of ceremony. In the background, we may be sure, were 


Reproduced by the kindness of the "yews," Kingston. 

gathered all the other citizens who could crowd into the room. We 
may, perhaps, believe that Mrs. Simcoe was there — a worthy helpmeet 
to her husband, whom she was able to assist with her skilful pencil in 
drawing plans, etc., and with that same pencil has left us interesting 
sketches of Kingston in its then embryo condition. If she was 
present, the wives and daughters of other citizens were probably in 


attendance, dressed in the best finery they could produce from their 
stores and remodel for the occasion, for it is not probable that there 
were as yet anything but " general stores " at hand. Doubtless it 
was a great day for little Kingston, and cherished in memory for many 
a future year, in circumstances where such " functions " were few and 
far between. 

Immediately after his inauguration, Governor Simcoe issued his 
proclamation, dated July 16, 1792, dividing the Province of Upper 
Canada into nineteen counties, Leeds and Frontenac being joined 
together for purposes of representation. This proclamation is said to 
have been issued from a small frame building, which still stands on 
Queen Street, and which did duty as Government offices for the time. 
He also appointed his first Councillors, among them several Kingston 
men. Kingston had naturally cherished the hope of becoming the per- 
manent seat of government, as Lord Dorchester had recommended; 
but it was a hope destined to disappointment, for Governor Simcoe 
did not share the views of Lord Dorchester, but was then bent on 
making Newark his capital, and there Parliament met on the 17th of 
September following, in a camp tent. As Governor Simcoe was at that 
time desirous of opening up to settlement the still unsettled west, he 
had thoughts of making London, by the River " Trancke," his capital, 
but eventually yielded to local influence in favor of what was then and 
afterwards called " Muddy Little York," but was finally reinstated in 
its fine old Indian name of Toronto. 

Kingston at this time was, as a town, in what might be called 
a very elementary condition, for most of its streets were only a trail 
through the woods. It had a wooden gaol and courthouse, surrounded 
by a palisaded wall, but as yet no market, and but one small church. 
But its citizens were staunch, loyal and public-spirited ; and it had, as 
yet behind it, scarce ten years of existence. 


Kingston had made rapid and substantial progress during the half 
century which elapsed before we again look in upon it at an inter- 
esting and important crisis of our national history — the reunion of 
Upper and Lower Canada, under the name of United Canada, an 
event which we may consider the first step towards the consolidation 
of our wide Dominion. 

Stirring events and troublous times had marked that half century 
in the young Province. The harassing war of 1812 had for three 
years kept its loyal people on the qui vive against the invader, yet 



Kingston, notwithstanding its exposed position and its strategic import- 
ance, had come out unscathed by the hostilities which destroyed York 
and Newark, doubtless because its position and importance had led to 
its being so well fortified and garrisoned that the enemy was afraid to 
put his fate to the touch in attacking it. It had also been almost un- 
touched by the unfortunate conflict between fellow-citizens, in the 
rising of Canadian yeomen against persistent mis-government, which 
has been somewhat grandiloquently styled the " Rebellion," and a 
rising terminating in a fiasco, but bringing in its train a series of 
guerilla demonstrations from " the other side,'' still more mis-named 


»Sv. : >v;!*s , „, 


Reproduced by the kindness of the " British Whig," Kingston. 

the " Patriot War." The battle for Responsible Government had been 
practically fought, Lord Durham's memorable " Report " had been 
submitted to the British Parliament, and the Committee appointed to 
consider and report, feeling that further information was needed, par- 
ticularly as to the willingness of the two Provinces to concur in the 
proposed constitutional changes, selected Mr. Charles Poulett Thomson, 
President of the Board of Trade, as the man best qualified for such a 
mission. He came to Canada as Governor-General in 1839, and, throw- 
ing himself into his appointed task, lie soon won his spurs, and as 
Lord Sydenham, won also the respect and gratitude of the colony he 
had been sent to govern. It was mainly through his unceasing efforts 
that a Bill for the union of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada 
was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and reluctantly agreed to by 
the Conservatives of Upper Canada, hitherto strongly opposed to the 
measure. In Lower Canada the opposition was stronger still, but as 


there existed at that time no popular Legislature, the Union was car- 
ried through by a council specially appointed for that purpose, and the 
Act of Union came into force by Royal proclamation on February 
10th, 1841. 

The changes in the Constitution of Canada brought to Kingston 
the prize she had long coveted, through Lord Sydenham's selection of 
it as the capital of the United Provinces, a proviso to this effect being, 
indeed, inserted in the contract of the union. Its population was now 
between five and six thousand, and though that was less than half of 
the number Toronto had already attained, it was now, of course, a 
much more central point, and had a traditionary claim in its previous 
selection by Lord Dorchester as the capital of Upper Canada. 

The advancement of the little town to such an exalted position 
caused, naturally enough, much elation among its citizens, as well as 
what we should now call a " boom " in real estate ; and high hopes of 
civic prosperity were raised, only to be dashed by subsequent events. 
In the absence of any suitable Government buildings, temporary sub- 
stitutes were found. The central portion of our now spacious hospital 
had just l>een completed, and became for a time the House of Parlia- 
ment. A tine new residence, shortly before built by Archdeacon 
Stuart, now part of the equipment of Queen's University, was turned 
to account as lodgings for the members ; both of these buildings being 
commodious and pleasantly situated, commanding a fine view of the 
lake and opposite islands. Alwington House, a little way out of town 
on the lake shore, the residence of the then Baron de Longueuil, be- 
came the Viceregal abode, and, with some temporary additions, the 
scene of much official hospitality under three successive Governors. 

The 15th of June, 1841, was a day long remembered in Kingston, 
the Limestone City, for on the afternoon of that day Lord Sj'denham, 
attended by a large official staff and by all the dignitaries of the place, 
proceeded in state to open the first Parliament of United Canada. We 
have still among us a lady well known and much respected by her 
fellow citizens for her many estimable qualities and not least for her 
public spirit, who still cherishes pleasant memories of that epoch- 
making function. She could, of course, describe, from the standpoint 
of an eye-witness, the brilliant scene, and the joy diffused throughout 
the city at its elevation to the honors of the capital of United Canada. 
The session which followed was an important and busy one. It 
lasted but three months, but in that short period one hundred and two 
bills were passed, all tending towards the progress of Canada, and 
some of the very greatest consequence to its well-being, as, for instance, 
the Bill for the establishment and support of elementary schools, and 


that which, for the time at least, settled the vexed question of the dis- 
posal of the Clergy Keserves. But its closing days were tragic enough. 
Lord Sydenham's unremitting labors during the hottest weather of the 
summer undermined his already failing health, and a fall from his 
horse early in September induced a fatal complication. He bore up 
until his prorogation speech had been prepared and corrected, and, 
almost simultaneously with the ceremony of prorogation, the first and 
last Lord Sydenham passed peacefully away from this earthly scene, 
having, at least, faithfully accomplished the task committed to his 

Lord Sydenham had desired to be buried beneath St. George's 
Church, whither his remains were followed by a large concourse of 
real mourners, for the death of the Governor was felt as a heavy loss 
to the country. The Kingston Herald expressed the general sentiment 
when it said : " All is finished. Parliament is prorogued, and the 
Governor-General is no more. 'Sic transit gloria mundi.' The First 
Parliament of United Canada has ended well, well beyond expecta- 
tion, and much good has been achieved. The main positions of the 
new Government have been sustained, and some of the essential meas- 
ures of reform effected. Conflicting opinions have not been carried 
out to any injurious extent in any way, and the members have all 
parted in good humor." 

Side by side with this local comment may be placed another con- 
temporary tribute of esteem for the dead Governor, who had worn out 
his life in the service of Canada — an extract from a published letter, 
written at the time by the late Dr. Kyerson, then stationed at Kingston : 

" To lay the foundations of public liberty and, at the same time, to 
strengthen the prerogative; to promote vast improvements and not 
increase the public burdens; to promote a comprehensive system of 
education upon Christian principles, without interfering with religious 
scruples ; to promote the influence and security of the Government by 
teaching the people to govern themselves ; to destroy party faction by 
promoting the general good; to invest a bankrupt country with both 
credit and resources, are conceptions and achievements which render 
Lord Sydenham the first benefactor of Canada and place him in the 
first rank of statesmen. His Lordship found a country divided, he 
left it united ; he found it prostrate and paralytic, he left it erect and 
vigorous; he found it mantled with despair, he left it blooming with 
hope. Lord Sydenham has done more in two years to strengthen and 
consolidate British power in Canada by his matchless industry and 
truly Liberal-Conservative policy, than has been done during the ten 
previous years by the increase of a standing army, and the erection of 


military fortifications. His Lordship has solved the difficult problem 
that a people may be colonists and yet be free ; and in the solution of 
that problem he has gained a triumph less imposing, but not less sub- 
lime and scarcely less important, than the victory of Waterloo. He 
has saved millions for England and secured the affections of Canada." 

Lord Sydenham was buried, with all possible honors, under St. 
George's Church, which has thus been associated with leading events 
in Kingston's history. His name and important services were com- 
memorated on a tablet erected to his memory by his family, which 
remained on the walls of the enlarged church till it became a cathedral. 
Being unfortunately destroyed when the church was burned down on 
January 1st, 1899, a movement was made in 1901 to provide a new 
one, bv the Kingston branch of the Woman's National Council. 
Endorsed by the whole of the National Council and by the principal 
historical societies of Ontario, they petitioned the Ontario Government 
to supply the means for this object, which that Government gracefully 
and generously did. The new tablet, a satisfactory one in all respects, 
was duly placed on the walls of the restored church, which, it may be 
hoped, it will long adorn. 

Kingston enjoyed her metropolitan position only for some three 
years, and during that short period Government House was again dark- 
ened by the shadow of death. Sir Charles Bagot, also an excellent 
Governor, discharged the duties of his office for less than fifteen 
months, and in the spring of 1843 Alwington House was, a second 
time, the scene of a Viceregal funeral. Sir Charles Metcalfe, who 
succeeded him, was a sufferer from an insidious disease during his 
administration in Canada, and resided in Kingston for only about a 
year. The third session of Parliament held in Kingston under his 
regime, was an exciting one in political matters, but to Kingstonians 
it was chiefly and sadly remarkable for the passing of a resolution that 
the seat of Government should be transferred from Kingston to Mont- 
real, a decision which, of course, brought a severe disappointment to its 
citizens generally, and almost ruinous loss to those who had built and 
speculated with very different expectations. Whether the transfer at 
that time was best for the peace of the country is open to doubt, but 
the hope of a return of the seat of Government to Kingston was long 
cherished, and did not entirely die out until the Queen's selection of 
Ottawa finally settled the question. If our good city was not destined 
to beconse the permanent seat of our National Government, she has, 
at least, achieved for herself the not less useful distinction of becoming 
a well-equipped educational centre, moulding to no small extent the 
intellectual progress and character of this fast growing " Canada of 


Reproduced by the kindness of Vie " British Whig," Kingston. 

This faithful sketch, recognized of late years by many old residents, was 
from the pencil of Cadet Bayfield, R.N., afterwards Admiral Bayfield. It came 
into possession of Major-General Cameron, R.M.C., and was reproduced by Prof. 
Forshaw Day for the Whig and afterwards engraved as above. The village, 
for it did not attain the dignity of a town until 1838, is seen to skirt the 
harbor for about ten blocks, with fringe of trees reaching down to the summit 
of the hill that now marks the centre of the city. The time honored Cataraqui 
bridge was yet undreamt of, but Navy Bay had a pontoon bridge, to connect 
the military and naval settlements. At the dockyard several frigates, active 
In the War of 1812, are shown in permanent quarters out of commission, housed 
in under wooden roofs. One was the Princess Charlotte, 42 guns. The forti- 
fication shown is the first Fort Henry, built in 1818 by the Koyal Engineers 
on the site of the present costly stone pile, erected in 1832. In 1820 barracks 
were added to the old fort, which led to its enlargement and to its more formid- 
able appearance. The two trees on the right of the foreground can be seen 
still on Barriefield Heights, sturdy trunKs truly. 




By Barlow Cumberland, M.A. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Kingston, July 19th, 1907.) 

Sheltered on. one side by the ramparts of Fort Henry and under 
the lee of Point Frederic, now occupied by the buildings and estab- 
lishment of the Royal Military College, Kingston, lies a little bay, re- 
poseful and placid, as indeed befits its present service, for it is the 
graveyard of His Majesty's fleet of the War of 1812. 

Once the shores were busy with the hauling of huge oaken tim- 
bers and resounded to the clank of massive chains, and munitions of 



war, the strokes of hammer and calking irons, and cheers rose 
exultant as ship after ship was launched upon the waters to add 
strength to the defence and carry defiance to the opposing foe. 

Upon the Point had been erected the Royal Naval Dockyards, for 
the construction and repair of the British Navy upon the Inland 
Lakes. The ranges of barracks, some of which still remain, were 
erected for the artificers and workmen. The large stone building 
alongside the anchorage, now occupied by the cadets of the College, 
formed the shore quarters for the sailors, and from the then upper 
three floors being left open for the full length like the decks of a ship 
and fitted with hammocks, was known as the " Stone Frigate." 

Upon this adjacent bay, known as " Navy Bay," the warships then 
lay at their moorings in all the bravery of their rigging and colors ; 
now all that is left of them is buried deep in the dark waters and re- 
membered only in tradition. 

We are so accustomed to seeing great steamers in active passage 
between the ocean and the far Upper Lakes, and fast express trains 
speeding by on our railways, that it is difficult for us to comprehend 
the conditions of land and water transport as it existed nigh 100 years 
ago. Still more so the character of the armaments which then sailed 
the lakes when the first war navies made their appearance upon them. 
A slight excursion into some contemporaneous records may not be 
without interest. 

War between the United States and Great Britain had been de- 
clared at Washington on 19th June, 1812, and under the then slow- 
going methods of communication the news only reached Sir Geo. 
Prevost at Kingston on the 27'th. 

Both sides, the American and the British, were equally unpre- 
pared for naval operations on the Inland Lakes. There were some 
local shipyards on the shores when war was announced, but they were 
of no magnitude, nor were they provided with the necessary naval 
supplies for construction or equipment. The bases for obtaining these 
were at the ocean and far removed by tedious and expensive communi- 
cation— on the Canadian side by bateaux from Montreal, slowly sur- 
mounting the dangers of the St. Lawrence ; and on the American side 
from Albany, by the mixed transport of road and river along the 
courses of the Mohawk and the Oneida Valleys. 

There were then no canals by which vessels already constructed 
could be introduced, no naval stores, except such as were to be brought 
from the seaboard ; no inland depots of seamen trained for gunnery 
or for discipline on warships in active service. The Navies for the 
lakes had to be constructed and created. 


The garrisons and important centres of population of the belliger- 
ents on Lake Ontario were far divided and situated at the far ends of 
the lakes — on the American side, Sackett's Harbor and Ogdensburg 
on the east, Lewiston and Fort Niagara to the west ; on the Canadian 
side, Kingston on the east and Fort George (Newark) and York 
(Toronto) to the west. 

On both sides of the lake single roads of primitive and bush-mean- 
dering character followed the shores, forming slow and difficult means 
of communication, particularly for the transport of heavy supplies and 
war material. 

The command of Lake Ontario was, therefore, of supreme import- 
ance to whoever could obtain and hold it. 

The local coasting shipping was immediately brought into service 
with such crews and material as were to hand, some of the small sloops 
and schooners being fitted to carry guns. 

In the winter of 1812-13 strenuous activity reigned along the lines 
of communication from the sea and in the United States dockyards 
at Sackett's Harbor, and the Royal Naval Dockyard at Kingston and 
Point Frederic. 

An item in the Kingston Gazette of December 19th, 1812, evi- 
dences these activities and records: 

" We are happy to announce that 120 ship carpenters have arrived 
at this place; more are expected." In the same issue quotation is 
made from a private letter from the American side, dated Sackett's 
Harbor, October 10th, 1812, stating, " Every exertion is being made 
by the Government to get command of the lake. We have a fine ship 
on the stocks, which will be finished in the last of November, which 
will mount thirty-six 32-pounders, with the Brig Oneida, mounting 
twenty 32-pounders and five merchant vessels, which are to be con- 
verted into gunboats." 

Another ship, afterwards named the Pike, was also being laid down. 

On the Canadian side preparations continued in progress. On 
March 18th, 1813, the Kingston Gazette says: 

" We are happy to announce the arrival at this place of several 
distinguished naval officers, together with 400 or 500 seamen, as fine 
looking fellows as were ever beheld." 

These were the men of the Royal Navy who had been sent through 
overland from Halifax to man the warships on the lakes, which it 
was expected would be ready for them on their arrival. 

In the race for the supremacy by the building of new ships the 
Americans in this winter surpassed the British. 

Sir George Prevost, the Governor-General of Canada and " Com- 


mander-in-Ghief of the Forces," was in headquarters at Kingston. Of 
courteous and conciliating disposition, his lack of boldness and deci- 
sion much hampered, and in some instances afterwards destroyed, the 
more ardent action of his subordinate commanders. It had been 
arranged that there should be two new 24^n warships built during 
this winter on the Canadian side ; one of these it had been arranged 
should be built at Kingston, the other at York. From a naval point 
of view the separation was indefensible — Kingston was amply forti- 
fied and garrisoned, while York was short of guns and naval stores, 
weakly garrisoned and without any reasonable defences , and, yet worse 
for expeditious construction, was farther from the base of naval sup- 
plies. It may be that in response to representations from the west- 
ern Constituencies for a granting to them of a share in the Govern- 
ment Expenditures Governor Prevost, as a politician, had acquiesced 
in a cry for local winter work, which, as a military commander, did 
not justify his approval. 

The result was disastrous. 

While the British fleet in Kingston was still unprepared and the 
new ship still in the stocks, the spring of 1813 found the " fine new 
ship " at Sackett's Harbor ready for service as the Madison and sail- 
ing with thirteen other vessels on 25th of April as flagship of 
Chauncey's fleet for the attack on York. 

York was attacked by the Americans and taken on the 27th, the 
new 24-gun ship being built there, but unfinished, was burned on the 
stocks and the 10-gun brig Gloucester, which had wintered in the port, 
was captured. 

This was a hard blow against the British naval supremacy on the 
lake and thus early did the yielding of military requirements to polit- 
ical influences reap its usual reward. 

While this disaster was in progress and not until the 1st of March, 
after General Sheaffe had retreated from York, where he left on 27th 
April, was the other new ship launched at Kingston and named the 

The naval operations during the autumn and winter had not been 
expeditiously or satisfactorily conducted and a change was made in 
the command, Commodore Earle being superseded by Sir James Lucas 

Sir James arrived at Kingston from the Atlantic squadron about 
11th May and was appointed as Commodore, to take full " command of 
His Majesty's ships and vessels on the Lakes of Canada." 

Additional batches of seamen had been received from the seaboard 
and with Sir James another draft of naval officers for service in the 
Royal ships. 


Among these was Lieut. John Tucker Williams, R.N., who had 
served as a midshipman under Nelson at the Battle of Copenhagen in 
1801, and from whose papers, among which are his copies of the naval 
Orders which had been from time to time issued to the ships on which 
he served, information is obtained and the extracts from the Orders 
are made. 

The season of 1813 for active operations on the lakes had opened, 
the Americans had made their first successful foray on York, their 
fleet had remained at that end of the lake, actively occupied in carry- 
ing and convoying troops and supplies for General Dearborn's army 
for the attack on Fort George which, as at York, mainly by the sup- 
port and covering fire from the guns of the ships, was successfully 
attacked and taken on 27th May. 

Sir James Yeo, immediately on his arrival, had spurred up the 
energies of the dilatory preparations. The Wolfe was pressed forward 
to readiness for action and on 27th May he sailed out from port in 
her as flagship of his squadron to deliver a counter-attack on Sackett's 
Harbor and by destroying the shipping there mate a bold stroke for 
the supremacy of the lake. 

Arriving next day off the south shore, the boats from his ships 
captured a brigade of bateaux bringing reinforcements to the Ameri- 
cans, but by hesitating orders from Sir George Prevost, who was 
present and in supreme command, the troops on board the squadron 
which had been embarked in the boats and lay alongside for immed- 
iate landing, were by his orders re-embarked and were not landed until 
the 29th. Again indecision interfered, the attack was not pushed 
home, and after setting fire to the new ship Pike on the stocks and 
the Gloucester, which after her capture at York had been sent here by 
Chauncey to be refitted and rearmed, her guns having been taken out 
for the defence of the old fort at York, the troops were recalled and re- 
embarked and the expedition returned to Kingston. 

Commodore Yeo's object had been only partially obtained, for the 
fire on the two ships was extinguished, they were immediately re- 
paired and ready for action again in the end of July. 

In the meantime Yeo was energetically active, his ships scoured 
the late, intercepting supplies, conducting cutting-out expeditions, and 
supporting the British land forces. By his timely and spirited attack 
on the American encampment on the shore at Forty Mile Creek on 
8th June he dispersed their reinforcements and completed the rout so 
successfully effected by Colonel Harvey and FitzGibbon on the pre- 
vious day at Stony Creek. Afterwards, off Niagara and Burlington, 
he conducted able lake engagements. 



But what manner of ships were these in which the rival contestants 
were sailing? We learn that they consisted of coasting schooners, 
altered to carry guns, and of specially constructed warships. 

The records given for 1813 are: 

American — Chauncet's Squadron, 1813* 

Name. Rig- Tonnage. Crew. Guns. Ocmmander. 

Madison Ship 593 200 24 Com. Chauncey. 

Oneida Brig 243 100 16 Lieut. Woolsley. 

Hamiltonf Schooner.. 112 50 10 Lieut. McPhernon. 

Scourgef Schooner 110 50 9 Mr. Osgood. 

Conquest Schooner 82 40 6 Lieut. Pettigrew. 

Tomkins Schooner 96 30 8 Lieut. Brown. 

Julia Schooner 82 35 2 Mr. Trant. 

Ontario Schooner 53 35 2 Mr. Stevens. 

Fair American .... Schooner 53 35 2 Lieut. Chauncey 

Pert Schooner 50 25 1 Lieut. Adams. 

Asp Schooner 57 25 1 Lieut. Smith. 

PikeJ Ship 875 300 28 Flagship. 

British — Yeo's Squadron. § 

Name. Rig. Tonnage. Crew. Quns. Commander. 

Wolfe Ship 637 220 23 Sir Jas. L Yeo. 

Royal George Ship 510 200 22 Oapt. W. H. Mulcaster. 

Melville Brig 279 200 14 Com. E. Spilsbury. 

Earl Moira Brig 262 100 14 Mr. H. Hobbs. 

Sir Sidney Smith .. Schooner . . 216 80 12 Lt. and Com. H. C. Owen. 

Beresford Schooner .187 70 12 Mr. H. Radcliffe. 

The ships were " three-masters," for naval reports are given of the 
Pike losing her fore top-gallant mast and of the foretop, maintop and 
mizzentop masts of other ships being carried away. The warships are 
stated to have had regular quarters for their seamen, as, indeed, the 
numbers of their crews would indicate. The schooners were cranky 
and unweatherly, the guns on their decks making it difficult to pre- 
vent their upsetting, as several of them in the course of the operations 
did. In numbers of vessels the Americans exceeded, but they were 
unequal in size and in their sailing qualities. Yeo's ships, though 
fewer in number, were more equal in character and therefore better 
capable of combined evolutions. In number and range of guns and 
weight of metal the Americans also had greatly tho superiority, the 

* Roosevelt, "The Naval War of 1812."' 
t Upset off Niagara August 8th. 
t Added to fleet July 31st. 

§ Kingston Gazette, September 7th, 1813. (Tonnage and crews are as given by Roosevelt.) 



long 3'2*s, which were mounted on all of them, being heavier and more 
effective than the long 24's and short 32's in Yeo's squadron. 

By the courtesy of Dr. Jas. Bain, Public Librarian, copy has been 
made of a rare print, "A Scene on Lake Ontario," published by 
Shelton & Kensitt, Chesire, Conn., November, 1813, now preserved 
in the Public Library, Toronto. The size of the sailors has been some- 
what exaggerated by the draughtsman, making it difficult to estimate 
the exact proportions of the ships, but the general contour is well 
given and the figureheads and stern lanthorns are interesting. 


United States Sloop of War "Gen. Pike," Commodore Chahncey, and thl 

British Sloop of War " Wolfe," Sir James Yeo, preparing 

for action, September 28th, 1813. 

Published and eold by Shelton & Kensett, Cheshire, Con., Novem'r. 1st. ISIS. 

The American ensign on the Pike shows sixteen stars, being the 
three added to the original thirteen of the flag of 1777, to represent 
the additional states subsequently admitted to the Union — Vermont 
in 1791, Kentucky in 1792 and Tennessee in 1796. 

The flag on the Wolfe is the three-crossed Union Ensign of George 
III., 1801. 

The incident referred to is an indecisive meeting of the squadrons 
off Burlington Heights, when no captures were effected, but the main 


topmast and mainyard of the Wolfe being carried away, congratula- 
tory report was made to headquarters by Commodore Chauncey, 
hence, no doubt, the issue of the print. 

Both sides seem to have been equally well served by their crews. 
Being largely manned by officers and seamen of the Royal Navy, strict 
discipline was maintained on the British ships, as indicated in the 
report of a court-martial at Portsmouth.* The proprieties were also 
observed. One of the Orders issued for the guidance of midshipmen 
states, " the gentlemen of the quarter-deck are always to wear a uni- 
form dress appropriate to their stations, and on no account to appear 
without stockings, but at all times to go on deck with brushed clothes 
and shoes and be very attentive to cleanliness." 

Although rivals at war, the old-time courtesies, which iu those 
early days were exhibited to one another by belligerents, evidently 
existed between the fleets. After the capture of Fort George by the 
Americans on 27th May. 1813, the Kingston Gazette records, " Arrived 
on Thursday evening, 3rd June, from Sackett's Harbor, with a flag 
of truce, the American schooner Lady of the Lake, bringing the ladies 
of Major Dennis and Mr. Paymaster Brock, of the 49th Regiment, 
who were politely accommodated with a passage from Fort George in 
the Madison by Commodore Chauncey." The American ships were also 
officered and manned largely by drafts from their regular navy on the 
Atlantic. We may be sure, therefore, that the ladies received every 
attention and were given pleasant passage, for a woman in distress 
always appeals to a sailor's feelings and he dearly loves a petticoat. 

With the close of the season of navigation for 1813, the contest 
for the supremacy, by the building of new and Larger ships, was ener- 
getically continued. 

The Americans laid down at Sackett's Harbor two 22-gun brigs, 
which were launched in 1814, at end of April and May, as the Jeffer- 
son and the Jones, and another ship, the Mohawk, 42 guns, was also 
under construction. 

At Kingston similar activity prevailed. The advertisements of the 
Kingston Gazette evidence the call for men and the prices for timber. 

" All artificers wanting employment will have literal encourage- 
ment on application at the Commandant Office at Point Frederic." 

" Merchantable timber will be received at His Majesty's Naval 

" Oak, squaring not less than 14 per cubic ft., Is. 6d. 

" Rock Elm, squaring not less than 14 per cubic ft., Is. 6d. 

" Red Pine, not less than 45 ft. long and in. square, per cubie 
ft,, 2s. 6d." 

* Robertson's "Landmarks," Vol. II. 


















On the British side two frigates had been laid down at Kingston, 
the Prince Regent, 58 guns, and Princess Charlotte, 42 guns, and 
launched early in April, this time due, no doubt, to Sir James Yeo's 
energy, in advance of their rivals. 

The additions of the winter of 1813 and 1814 to the fleets were: 

American — Chauncev's Squadron. 

Name. Rig. Tonnage. 

Superior Ship 1580 

Mohawk Ship 1350 

Jefferson Brig 500 

Jones Y Brig 500 

British — Yeo's Squadron. 

Name. Rig. Tonnage. 

Prince Regent Ship 1450 

Princesi Charlotte Ship , 1215 

In reading the accounts of this period it is well to remember that 
the names of some of the British vessels of the previous year were 
changed, the Wolfe to Montreal, Royal George to Niagara, Beresford 
to Netley. 

Another large ship, the St. Lawrence, 100 guns, was also laid down, 
at Kingston, but was not launched until September, 1814, and, on 
Peace being declared, was never sailed. 

The advance in the sizes of the ships constructed on both sides in 
the winter of 1813-14 over those of the previous years is most notice- 
able, and indicates increased ability on the part of the ship-builders. 

It is Dot within the scope of this paper to enter into or explain the 
operations of the fleets during 1814. In the race for ship-building the 
British had this year made earlier gains, but the superior numbers of 
guns and range still remained with the Americans. 

Previously it would almost appear that each fleet in turn, as addi- 
tions had been made to the strength of the other, had been held in 
harbor until, by the completion of another ship, the balance of sea 
power had been more equalized. This year, the fleets, meeting on the 
open lake, manoeuvred to obtain the advantage of position, the Ameri- 
cans, under Chauncey, with their long-range guns, to engage at long 
distance in calm weather; the British, under Yeo, being better sailers, 
but with shorter guns, for the weather-gauge, and to engage at closer 
quarters. The reports of the Commanders, particularly those of 
Chauncey, vary considerably in the motives assigned for the indecisive 
meetings, which may reasonably be accounted for by the disparity in 


armament, but Yeo certainly surpassed in keeping open the communi- 
cations on the lake, and acting in consort with his land forces. 

With much fairness Roosevelt (" Naval War of 1812 ") sums up 
the year 1814 on Lake Ontario: " The success of the season was with 
the British, as they held command over the lake for more than four 
months, during which time they could co-operate with their army, 
while the Americans held it for barely two months and a half." 

With the conclusion of the war the fleets faded out of existence, 
a few ships only having been kept in service. The dismantled ships 
were laid up in port and, having been built of unseasoned timber, cut 
fresh from the forests, either became victims in two or three years to 
decay and dry rot, or were sunk to preserve their timbers, so thus their 
form and appearance were soon forgotten. The illustration of " Kings- 
ton in 1819 " shows the little bay, the lofty derrick in the shipyard 
for raising the masts, and warships, dismantled and housed in. If 
there are any records of the working plans of the ships, it would be 
of much interest that they should be brought to light 

Mr. Justice John Hamilton (born 1833, died 1907), eldest son of 
the Hon. Senator John Hamilton, of Kingston, said that he remem- 
bered as a boy fishing from a boat around the hulls of the old sunken 
war vessels in the anchorage of Point Frederic, some of the timbers 
still projected and the shape of the hulls could be seen under water, in 
form very much like half a walnut shell. 

The fine ship Madison, at Sackett's Harbor, is described in the 
Kingston Gazette, February 16th, 1813, as " A corvette-built ship of 
the dimensions — 112 ft. keel, 32 1-2 ft. beam, 11 1-2 ft. hold; she 
carried 24 32-pound guns and a crew of 200." This would be a very 
round-shaped vessel, with a beam almost a third of her length, and 
approximates closely with Judge Hamilton's description of the shape 
of the British ships. 

The Superior, of 1814, carried 62 guns, with a crew of 500; the 
Prince Regent, 58 guns, and a crew of 435, and the St. Lawrence, 
which never sailed, was a two-decker, to carry 100 guns, which makes 
one wonder where they placed such guns and stowed such crews upon 
a draught which could not, for utility, have exceeded 11 or 12 feet. 

Much has been written about the movements of the land forces in 
the war, but there is here infinite opportunity and an untouched 
chivalrous field for the historic novelist who will revive these ships, 
man them again with their gallant crews, place his characters on board 
them and sail them over the lakes in the stirring attacks and adven- 
tures, midnight landings and lake engagements, with which the sea 
story of the War of 1812 abounds. 


News of the Treaty of Peace conducted at Ghent on December 
24th, 1814, having found its belated way across the ocean and been 
declared in America on February 15th, 1815, Sir James Yeo and most 
of his men returned to the sea. Lieut. Williams, then serving on the 
sloop Netley, remained with others to man the few vessels retained in 
service on Lake Ontario and Lake Huron. 

The energies of the neighboring peoples were now devoted to re- 
pairing the ravages of the Avar and the period of reconciliation had 
come. The policy of the British was in this direction, and seeing that 
at the conclusion of the contest, notwithstanding the immense numeri- 
cal superiority of the United States invading- forces, they had been 
driven back across the frontier, the Canadians had good reasons to be 
gratified with the results. 

That there was dissatisfaction and animosity still existing and 
being fomented on the southern shores is evidenced by one of the 

Commodore Sir E. C. R. Owen, K.C.B., had, in succession to Sir 
James Yeo, been appointed " Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's 
ships and vessels on the lakes of Canada." 

In aa,-ain transferring his command, he issued a confidential order 
to his respective officers on the lakes, dated " On board His Majesty's 
Ship Prince Regent at Kingston, Upper Canada, 5th day November, 

"In turning over to another Officer the conduct of the naval ser- 
vice upon the lakes I feel it necessary to apprise the Captains and 
Commanders of the several ships and vessels of His Majesty's, that 
acts of vexatious aggression have been committed by some of the Civil 
Authorities under the Government of the United States, which cannot 
fail to give great height to the acrimonious publications abounding in 
their public papers, and made solely with a view to keep alive that 
spirit of rancorous animosity which it was hoped would have subsided 
with the war. 

" Considering- these acts as originating with individuals ignorant 
of the real British character and with passions euflamod by the calum- 
nies and falsehood, which are so boldly fabricated, they may be led to 
practise further on a forbearance which their arrogance has been too 
apt to attribute to wrong motives. It is my duty to caution the sev- 
eral Captains and Commanders to continually be upon their guard, 
and that, whilst they meet every disposition which may l>e manifested 
by our neighbors with a liberal frankness and endeavor to promote 
reciprocal good-will bv every means within their power, they hold 


themselves in readiness on all occasions to repel any act of insult or 
(aggression which may be offered them, remembering that the honor of 
the British character, as well as of its flag is in their hands, and it is 
to be maintained with firmness. 

" -The day I hope is far distant when it will be needful to main- 
tain by other means the respect and courtesy which is its due." 

As between the regular forces of the navy on both sides we have 
seen that courtesy, honorable emulation and a seaman's comradeship 
existed, that those should not be interrupted by the acrimonious publi- 
cations of a rabid press or the truculence of wordy individuals made 
this call for forbearance a reasonable act on the part of the retiring 
Commodore, and one which was entirely in consonance with the high- 
minded British policy. 

With the reduced number of ships the rank of the Naval Com- 
mand appears to have been reduced. After the retirement of the Com- 
modore, all the subsequ3nt orders to the respective " Captains and Com- 
manders of His Majesty's ships and vessels on the lakes " are signed 
in succession by the " Senior Captain Commanding " on the flagship 
stationed at Kingston, at first by Captain W. F. \Vm. Owen, from the 
Prince Regent, and afterwards by Captain Robert Hall, from the 

There being no aggressive naval operations in progress, the subse- 
quent orders are mainly directed to internal matters of economy, issue 
of 6tores, purchase of ship clothing, bedding, allowances to pursers, 
reports of expenditures, etc., etc. . , 

Extra allowance of pay is announced by the order dated 20th Sept., 
1816, as having been approved by the " Lords' Commissioners of the 
Admiralty to the Officers, seamen and marines serving on the lakes of 
Canada during the time they may serve thereon." 

The schedule of rates given gives evidence of the completeness of 
the manning of the crews and makes one still more wonder how the 
various rankings were accommodated on board the vessels. 

Per diem. 

Commodore €1 

Post Captain, three years 7 

Post Captain, under three years 5 

Lieutenants, Masters, Pursers, Surgeons, and Secretary . . 3 6 

Assistant Surgeon . 1 ,0 

Officers of Marines according to their respective ranks. 






13 6 


13 6 









Masters, mates, Mids and Clerks 

Armourers and Masters-at-arms 1 

Carpenters mates, Caulkers, Rope-makers, Qr. Masters, 

Gunsmiths, Sail-makers & Gunners mates 15 9 

Yeomen of the Powder-room, Corporals, Coxswains, 

Gunners, Masters mates and Captain Forecastle .... 15 9 

Armourers, Mates, Yeomen of the sheets, Captains Fore- 
top, Maintop, Mizzen top, After guard, Trumpeters. . 14 

Sail makers, mates, Quarter Gunners, Carpenters crew, 
Sail makers crew, stewards, Cooks, Cooks' mates, 
Coopers, Ah. Seamen, Ordy Seamen, Landsmen, Boys 
and Marines 12 

It has been stated by some writers on the period of the War of 
1812-1815 that the British Government had given higher pay from 
the beginning and throughout the war, in order to get selected men. 
•This order states that the extra pay accorded is to commence on " 16th, 
Sept. inst.," which indicates that the pay up to that time had been the 
same as on the ocean ; and further, it concludes, " as this extra allow- 
ance of pay does not extend to any other Foreign Station, I am in 
hopes that Officers, seamen and marines will fully appreciate the indul- 
gence their Lordships have been pleased to grant them." 

The advance of pay was evidently made at this time with the inten- 
sion of inducing the officers and crews, as subsequent events proved it 
did, to remain in service on the lakes, and eventually become residents 
in Canada. 

The expenditures of the war period must have been enormous, not 
so much perhaps in maintenance as in the cost of transport and bring- 
ing in naval armament and supplies. 

A period of strictest scrutiny into every expenditure appears now 
to have been initiated. 

The accounts were ordered to be sent in more frequently and with 
" fullest particulars." A perquisite of the captains ceased and they 
were not to expect " Freight " for carrying " public money or specie," 
which was in future to be " carried free, in charge of a Commissary." 
Allowances for pilotage were to cease and masters were given " six 
navigable months on the lakes " in which to qualify themselves as 
pilots. The ships' clerks were not any longer to advance cash to offi- 


cers, but bills could be drawn on the Deputy Commissioners, who were 
to be stationed inland, one at Holland Landing and one at the Niagara 
Frontier, as well as at Montreal. 

Increased restrictions were placed upon the carriage of passengers 
on Government ships. 

It is recorded* that the steamer Bella Gore, Capt. Sandars, plied 
in 1810 between Niagara, York and Kingston, and another steamer, 
jocularly nicknamed " Con's Coffin," between York and Niagara, 
under the command of Captain Con. During the hostilities, these 
first steamboats had disappeared and the sailing packets left on the 
lakes had no doubt deteriorated. The vessels of the navy passing to 
and fro between the ports on the lakes formed a convenient and, no 
doubt, favorite method of conveyance, but differences had arisen in the 
amounts of the vouchers for the expenses of naval officers and men 
passing from one station to another, so an order was issued in 1815 
for a scale of allowances per day " which was not to be exceeded." 

■• Captains and Commanders, per day. One Pound, one shilling. 

" Lieutenants. Masters & Captains of Marines, One Pound, fifteen 

" Surgeons, Pursers, Second Masters, Mates, Gunners, Boatswains, 
Carpenters and subalterns of marines, per day, 10 shs. 

" Midshipmen, Assistant Surgeons & Captains Clerks, per day, 
Seven and Sixpence. 

" Other petty Officers and Non. Com. Officers & Marines, per day, 
Five Shillings. 

" Seamen and Private Marines, per day, Two Sh. & Sixpence." 

(It will be noted that in this and the previous order surgeons were 
not given very high relative rank.) 

This allowance was to be " in lieu of rations and lodgings " and 
'■ not to be construed into compensation for carriage hire, but that 
mode of conveyance which is mostly used in the country and which is 
not expensive will only be allowed, unless particularly ordered." 

No longer could the vouchers for travelling vary in detail, for they 
were to be limited to an amount per diem. 

In the conveyance of military officers, the officers of the navy had 
hitherto been allowed to put in accounts for " expense incurred in 
entertaining the officers of the land forces on board the ships." With 
the proverbial hospitality of the sailor, what jolly conviviality must 
have accompanied these interchanges of acquaintance between the 

* Robertson's " Landmarks," Vol. II. 


brother officers of 'the sister services ? But, alas, the period of close 
scrutiny of accounts interfered. The Admiralty objected to their 
Department being charged with expenses which they considered should 
be borne by the Military Departments and at length the privilege was 
stopped by a general order, dated Quebec, 9th April, 1816, issued by 
the " Lieut-General Commanding the Forces," directing that " when 
Military Officers are ordered to embark on board ships of War on duty 
they must bring on their own mess or make their own private arrange- 
ments with the officers of the vessels for the accommodation during 
their passage." 

What chaff there may have l>een when first the gallant soldiers 
came alongside, what kindly enquiries as to where is your lunch bas- 
ket? Have you forgotten your bed and bedding? Have you brought 
your boot blacking? etc., etc., to be followed by a cheery greeting and 
a hearty welcome. 

Lieut. Williams had up to this time been serving on the Lower 
Lakes and was now transferred from the sloop Netley to the Upper 
Lakes. His appointment as " Commander of His Majesty's Schooner 
Surprise (via Clapperton)" was issued 26th October. 1816, by Capt 
Sir Robert Hall, Knight and C.B., " Commander of His Majesty's 
Ships on the Lakes of Canada," and is dated from " His Majesty's 
Naval Establishment, Lake Huron." 

This was from the then Naval Station at Penetanguishene. Capt 
Bonnycastle, who visited the place in 1841, says in a letter, " The 
Garrison is three miles from the village and is always called the 
Establishment." At the present day the skeletons of some of the old 
warships are to be seen sunken beneath the waters in the harbor and 
the tombstones in the churchyard preserve the names of not a few of 
the crews who manned them. In the Park at Holland Landing is 
a huge Ship's Anchor which, having been drawn by eighteen yoke of 
oxen this far on its journey up " Yonge Street " from York, was 
dropped there on the " Declaration of Peace." 

This visit of the Naval Commander-in-Chief to the interior may 
have been provocative of a further order recorded, or perhaps it was the 
increasing activity of scrutinizing auditors. 

The order restricting the expenses for travelling had been based 
on an allowance per diem. Some of the officers may have moved more 
expeditiously, some perchance had a larger list of friendly acquaint- 
ances and dallied by the way in visiting them or in enjoying the hos- 
pitalities of their military brothers in return for hospitalities once 
given on board the ships. A new order (20th November, 1816) was 
now issued, stating the 


" Previous order is liable to misconstruction as far as relates to 
the time occupied in travelling," and a time limit between the stations 
was set, " which is never to be exceeded, nor can any Officer expect to 
be paid for a longer period than is herein specified." 

Between Quebec and Montreal, when passage in steamboat is found 

by Government no allowance 

Quebec and Montreal, by land 2 days 

Montreal and Isle Aux Noix 2 days 

Montreal and Lachine 1 day 

Montreal to Kingston, by bateaux 7 days 

Montreal to Kingston, by land during winter 4 days 

Kingston to Montreal, summer and winter 4 days 

Kingston and York, by land 4 days 

York and iSIottawasaga 4 days 

York and Burlington, by land 2 days 

Burlington and Naval Establishment, Grand River 2 days 

Burlington and Fort George, by land 1 day 

Fort George and Fort Erie 1 day 

Fort Erie and the Grand River 1 day 

Grand River and Amherstburg 4 days 

But even this limitation was not considered sufficient, for the 
merciless order goes on to say: 

" As such service will frequently be performed in a shorter period 
than is presented by the said scale, the vouchers are to be made out 
accordingly." No matter what, then, were the difficulties, or delays 
by head winds or of muddy roads, it was a case with the auditor of 
" Heads 1 win, tails you lose," while as for a fast team in a sleigh or 
a speedy sail with a fairwind, such frivolities were not to be per- 
mitted, except upon penalty of a reduction of allowance. 

The times allowed for expeditious travel bring vividly before us 
the wonderful contrast between these early days and ours, and the 
different conditions under which we live in comparison with the early 

In 18J7 an arrangement or " convention " was arrived at as to the 
naval force to be maintained by the respective Governments upon the 
Inland Lakes. This was effected in the simple manner of the exchange 
of identical letters, or diplomatic notes, on 28th April, 1817, between 
Sir Charles Bagot, British Plenipotentiary at Washington, and 
Richard Rush, Secretary of State for the United States. The naval 
force on either side was to be restricted to one vessel each on Lake 


Champlain and Lake Ontario, aud two vessels each on the Upper 
Lakes, comprising Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior; each 
vessel to be " not exceeding 100 tons burthen and armed with one 18- 
pound cannon," and their employment to be " restricted to such ser- 
vices as will in no respect interfere with the proper duties of the 
armed vessels of the other party." All other armed vessels on these 
lakes were forthwith to be " dismantled and no other vessels of war 
shall ba there built or armed."* Orders bringing' it into effect were 
to be forthwith issued, and the convention was to remain in force sub- 
ject to six months' notice, to be given by either party desiring to 
annul it. 

The disarmament and dispersion of both the Lake Navies immedi- 
ately followed. 

The result of this disarmament is very clearly to be seen in the 
interesting print of Kingston in 1828, drawn by James Gray and pub- 
lished by Wickett & Stanford, London, 1828, copy of which is in the 
Archives at Ottawa, and by kind permission of Dr. Doughty, Dominion 
Archivist, is here reproduced. 

The view is taken from the parapet of the roadway leading up to 
Fort Henry. In front, on Navy Bay, are lying, to the right, three 
dismantled warships, the masts taken out and the decks housed over ; 
one of these, on the side visible, is pierced on the main deck for fifteen 
portholes ; the portholes on the other vessels are not distinguishable. 
In the centre are the shear legs of the derrick for lifting the masts out 
of the ships, and close beside the four-storied building of the " Stone 
Frigate." To the left is a two-decker, housed in and pierced on main 
deck for eleven and on upper deck for twelve portholes, possibly either 
the Prince Regent or the Princess Charlotte. Further behind is the 
largest of all, an unfinished ship, pierced on upper deck for twenty- 
two guns ; the lower deck cannot be seen, as it is hidden behind the 
other ships ; this is probably the St. Lawrence. In the distance, on 
the other side of Point Frederic, is the old town of Kingston. This 
print gives a. fuller idea of the old ships, their huge and unwieldy 
size, planned more for ocean than for lake service, and approximating 
to the shape accorded them by tradition. 

Many of the men of the British crews took their discharges and 
settled in the country on Free Grant Lands in Canada, which were 
given them by the Government Around the shores of the lakes, par- 


* These armed vessels of the agreed number have been since employed as revenue c»- 
fishery protection gunboats. In 1905 the Americans introduced another, a small gunboat 
captured from the Spaniards, which is stationed at Duluth and used by the local naval 
volunteer company. 


ticularly of Lake Simcoe aud Lake Ontario, are to be found the 
descendants of the retired naval officers, who had applied their land 
grants where in the autumn of their days they could still wateh the 
movements of the waves and be reminded of the oceans on which they 
had attained their careers. 

When the naval establishment on the lakes was discontinued Com- 
mander Williams had returned to England and, having retired from 
the service on half-pay, returned to Canada in 1818, bearing with him 
a despatch from the Earl of Bathurst to the Duke of Richmond, author- 
izing a grant of land to be made him in proportion to his rank. He 
received as his grant by patent from the crown a number of properties 
in the County of Durham and established for himself a homestead 
near Port Hope and comprising one hundred acres on the shore of 
Lake Ontario (which he named " Penrhyn Park," after his Welsh 
associations). Here he settled down and, becoming a large landowner 
in the district, became quite a personage in the County. 

Of good height, portly presence, clad in the breeches, top boots and 
many folded neck-kerchief of the period, he was familiarly known as 
"The Squire." He was appointed a magistrate, and from the list of 
books in his library evidently took his position seriously and had 
versed himself in the study of law. Subsequently he represented, from 
1841 to 1848, the United Counties of Durham and Northumberland 
in the Parliament of Upper Canada, giving particular attention to the 
agricultural interests of his constituency. In the hotly contested elec- 
tion in 1843 between himself and Mr. G. S. Boulton the polling place 
for the county was at Newtonville and, under the then system of politi- 
cal elections, was kept open for six days. Excitement ran high, there 
was much turmoil and many personal encounters, in which the 
Williams' rallying motto, " New measures, new men, my colors are 
Naval blue," showed that the Commander had not forgotten the 
stirring naval service of his early days. He died at " Penrhyn Park " 
in 1854. His eldest son, Lieut-Colonel Arthur Williams, M.P., was 
one of the notable figures in the North- West Rebellion of 1885 where, 
after taking part with his regiment, the Midland Battalion, in the 
engagement at Batoche, he contracted an illness and died while on 
service on the banks of the Saskatchewan. A national monument 
has been erected at Port Hope to his memory in the Town Square of 
his birthplace. Two grandsons of the Commander are in His Majesty's 
service — Lieut-Colonel Victor Williams, of the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons, who served in South Africa, and Lieut. Stanhope Williams, 
of the Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry. 

Since 1817 the convention, subject to revocation on six months' 


notice, has remained continuously in force for well nigh ninety years. 
Long may it so continue for the peace of the adjoining nations and an 
example to the world of the best way of avoiding causes of mistaken 
or party offence, particularly in these more modern days, when a wide- 
spread yellow press and inflammatory speaking individuals have even 
more power to do damage and arouse animosities than in the days 
when the restriction was first instituted. 

The old vessels and their gallant crews have long been laid at rest, 
respected in their history, beloved in their memories, each with their 
record, on both sides, of duty ably done for the Nations then engaged 
in warring strife, but now only rivals in the arts of promoting the wel- 
fare of their peoples and the preservation of peace throughout the 

By Charles MacKenzie. 

(Read at the Annual Meeting of the 0. H. S. at Kingston, July 18th, 1907.) 

Cataraqui primarily derived from the aboriginal language spoken 
by the Six Nations, Hurons and other tribes of that lingual group, has 
descended to us as a corruption of the French rendering of the aborig- 
inal designation of the old "Kanata " (gaw-naw-daw) of the Confed- 
eracy. The name of the " Kanata " was variously rendered by the 

Cataraqui, in its present corrupt pronunciation, possesses a re- 
semblance to " Kanyatarake " (Gaw-nyaw-daw-raw-gay), signifying 
" on the lake," an apparent proper designation of the " Kanata," and 
many of aboriginal descent would translate it as such. 

Cataraqui also resembles " Kayantarakwi " (Gaw-yawn-daw-raw- 
gwee), the name of the Nannie berry in that language. But there need 
be no speculation regarding its true meaning, for at the Onondaga and 
Cattaragus Reserves in New York State, at the Grand River, Tyen- 
danaga and St. Regis Reserves in Ontario, and at the Caughnawaga 
and Two Mountain Reserves in Quebec, the residents, when using the 
aboriginal tongue and speaking of Kingston, call the city " Katarokon " 
(Gaw-daw-roh-gohn). This designation is a composite word, having 


for its base " otara " clay (oh-daw-raw), changing to " otaro " (oh-daw- 
roh), " clay in the water," not necessarily clay submerged, but also 
clay that stands in the water, or that has its base in the water. In 
the composite word " otaro " changes from the neuter to the feminine, 
the feminine " ka " (gaw) replacing the neuter " o " ; it then signifies 
" she is clay in the water." This form of the feminine usually denotes 
activity and importance. There is yet a particle to be added that will 
give the name its full form; that particle is " kon " (Gohn), particle 
of " onakon " (oh-naw-gohn), signifying "in." The name will then 
appear as " Katarokon " (Gaw-daw-roh-gohn), meaning " in she is 
clay in the water." In the alphabet usually chosen to represent the 
sounds in the language of the Confederacy the " a " is, as in French, 
like "a" in hall, raw, caught; the " e," as in French, like "a" in 
may, rail, fair; the " i," as in French like "e" in seal, knee, heal; 
the " o " always as in oat, coal, hole, but it must never be corrupted 
like the " o " in dog, hog, frog; the " t " is sounded as a " d " ; the 
" k " like " g." If the name or word is rendered by French spelling 
this rule holds good, with these additions, the French " y " being 
different from the English when at the beginning of a syllable. If the 
syllable is " yaw " or " ya " in English, the French rendering will be 
" ia " ; if in English two syllables were " ree yaw " or " re ya " the 
French word would be " ri ia." In French the English " w " is ren- 
dered by " ou," and the syllable " ken " at the end of an aboriginal 
word spelt by the French should be pronounced " gaw." The place 
name " Katarokon," like all aboriginal designations, requires proper 
tonguing to make its meaning plain, the aboriginal method having a 
tendency to pronounce " ka " (gaw) distinctly, " taro " (daw-roh) in 
one section giving a full sound to the " o," the voice usually softening 
on the last syllable, " kon," so that the sound of " n " is only apparent 
on the closest observation, though the sound of " n " becomes very 
plain if " haka " (haw-gaw), particle, signifying " dwellers," is 
added. Those at the present day who use the language of the Con- 
federacy, when speaking of the citizens of Kingston, call them 
" Katarokonhaka " (Gaw-daw-roh-gohn-haw-gaw), signifying " dwell- 
ers in she is clay in the water," and this designation closely resembles 
the name of the swallow that is variously called the eve, cliff and 
mason swallow. It is called in the same language " Katarakonhaka " 
(Gaw-daw-raw-gohn-haw-gaw), signifying " she dwells in the clay," 
receiving this name from the fact that this swallow builds a casing or 
hut for her nest of an inverted cone-like shape, constructed of clay. 
The name of this swallow is frequently used by aborigines as a family 
name for the swallows. A similar curiosity of that language is that 


the name of the City of Hamilton is " Orowakon " (Oh-roh-waw-gohn), 
signifying " in the gully.' The land in the vicinity of the original 
part of Hamilton or near it was gullied land. This aboriginal name 
is frequently translated " in a ditch " or " in the valley," and the 
name of the residents of Hamilton is " Orowakonhaka " (Oh-roh-waw- 
gohn-haw-gaw), signifying " dwellers in the gully," and this is the 
precise designation of the sand martin or sand swallow that excavates 
the tunnels for its nest in a side hill or slope that is gullied, and the 
soil bare, without a covering of vegetation. 

Katarokon took its name, according to aboriginal methods of nam- 
ing places, from the clay in its immediate vicinity, and not from this 
natural feature at a distance. It is probable the " kanata " was sur- 
rounded by water, while the huts were on clay ground or the clay sloped 
into the water at the " kanata " side ; or the village was on an islet, or 
clay point of from four to ten acres. If on a point, the land side may 
have had an excavated moat or trench filled with water. The shores at 
the chief part of the site of Kingston are of limestone rock, so the " kan- 
ata " must have been situated north of the Cataraqui bridge, probably 
at or near that place where the whitish clay that the Kingston Boys 
call " lady clay " can be found. Fragments of articles, such as pipes, 
etc., made of a similar clay, can be found at the village sites of 
" Wanat " (waw-nawd), or Hurons, and of those bands whom the 
French called the Northern Iroquois, in the County of Prince Edward 
and along the Bay of Quinte. These fragments possess no reddish 
tint, and appear like dried unburnt clay. " Katarokon " is said to 
have been inhabited by Senecas and Oneidas when Champlain first 
visited the " kanata." The proper designation of the Senecas is 
" Katarakarashaka " (Gaw-daw-raw-gaw-raws-haw-gaw), signifying 
" stinking clay dwellers," and their original territory was named 
" Katarakaras" (Gaw-daw-raw-gaw-raws), " stinking clay," it probably 
receiving this name from the condition of the clay in the vicinity of 
their original village. Such clay is found in the Lake of the Moun- 
tain, at Glenora, and at different places; it usually possesses a sul- 
phurated, hydrogen like smell. Cattaragarus, in New York State, is 
derived from " Gatarakaras," and it resembles Cataraqui, both orig- 
inals having " otara," clay, as their basic word. When Cartier came 
to Canada the " Wanat " were in possession of the land about Kat- 
arokon. Later, after hostilities broke out between them and the Con- 
federacy, they moved further west, and when Champlain came to Kat- 
arokon there were " Wanat " at the vicinity of the head of the Bay 
of Quinte. 

" Wanat " (waw-nawd), corrupted into " Wyandotte," in literature 


is the proper designation of the Hurons. The people of the lingual 
group of the Confederacy and of the Hurons were corn growers who 
lived in villages, going on distant hunting expeditions, returning with 
the preserved products of the chase. In this respect they differed from 
the Missasauga tribes, who built few villages and grew little or no grain, 
though all the aborigines raised tobacco in favored localities. The 
aborigines, only possessing stone tools, were unable to clear the forest 
for agricultural purposes, and had to clear the land with fire or take 
possession of the site of a forest fire, or build their " kanata ' near a 
beaver meadow. My archaeological research shows their favorite site 
for a village was along or near a creek or small river in the vicinity 
of a beaver dam. In such localities they would find from a few to 
hundreds of acres of flooded land well cleared, so that they, by destroy- 
ing the dam, could drain and prepare to plant their corn, beans, sun- 
flowers, tobacco, etc., which they cultivated when the Europeans first 
visited this locality. At such village sites are found hollowed stones, 
usually granite boulders, on which they crushed or ground their grain. 
These stones originally had a convenient hollow that got worn smooth 
and farther depressed from frequent use. Sometimes a small slab of 
limestone or other rock will be found with a polished hollow that was 
probably kept in the hut. The larger boulders were embedded in the soil 
and were the public mills of the " kanata." The pestles or mullers 
used were stones of a natural rounded form and of a size to conveni- 
ently fit the hand. Such stones are numerous at village sites and can 
be easily recognized by their having a smooth surface, acquired 
through use. The village sites of the Missisauga tribes are usually near 
the mouths of rivers. In such localities we do not usually find these 
primitive mills, though there will be found the usual granite boulders, 
with smooth, worn surfaces, that all aborigines used as grindstones to 
sharpen their stone tools and weapons on. ISTow, Katarokon not occu- 
pying a .typical site of a "kanata " of the Confederacy (the locality 
not being suitable for agriculture), it can have been erected for no 
other purpose than a fort or resting place, or capital, or place of com- 
munication for the northern and southern bands of the Confederacy — 
a place where they rested after crossing the St. Lawrence, called by 
them the Kayonhakowa (Gaw-vohn-haw-goh-waw), meaning " the 
mighty river." The favorite crossing places were at the vicinity of 
Cape Vincent and Ogdensburg. The actual site of a " kanata " of the 
Confederacy and " wanat " was usually a barren knoll or elevated spot 
on sandy, gravelly or sbaly ground, this position apparently being 
chosen so that the floor of the huts (which was the ground), sometimes 
partially covered with rush mats, would be easilv drained and firm in 


wet weather. It was from Katarokon or its vicinity that the raid was 
made on the Wanat or Huron missions in 1649, the reason for this 
raid, according to traditions of the Kanyankehaka (Gawn-yawn-gay- 
haw-gaw), or Mohawks, was that the Hurons decoyed a party of 
Mohawks to go on a hunting expedition, then waylaid them and killed 
and eat them. The Wanat were inveterate cannibals. Human bones 
mixed with animal bones can be found at their village sites and in 
their ash heaps. Those missions were probably located near the 
vicinity of the upper part of the Bay of Quinte. The people of this 
lingual group usually built " kanatas " containing from six to forty 
" kanonsa " (gaw-nohn-saw), huts or houses, of an oblong form, 
occupied by a number of families, and there would be a large council 
or storehouse, a larger building than those inhabited. Each tribe 
would have a number of " kanata " along a small river or creek ; these 
would be a comparatively short distance apart, the remainder of their 
recognized territory being unoccupied and used as a hunting ground. 
Much has been written by the French about Katarokon which requires 
careful scrutiny. One account states the inhabitants or those congre- 
gated there called the Trench Governor, " Onontiio," or, in aboriginal 
style, " Onontiyo " (Oh-nohn-dee-yoh), " good mountain," because the 
Governor protected them from the Confederacy, in other words, from 
themselves. The aborigines would not have practically called a man 
God ; they would have considered that blasphemous. It would have been 
used in the form signifying that he was like a good spirit to them. If 
this actually occurred, then at that time the Senecas and Oneidas were 
expelled, and the Hurons occupied Katarokon ; or the old Kanata was 
destroyed and the French settlement retained its name or it was used 
as a place of rendezvous by the Wanat or Hurons. In the language of 
the Missisauga tribes, God is called " Manito " (Maw-nee-doh), a town 
is " otana " (oh-daw-naw) and a house " wikiwam " (wee-gee-wawm). 



(The following notes on the life of Captain William Gilkison are taken from a paper 
prepared by Miss Augusta Isabella Grant Gilkison, of Brantford, daughter of Jasper Tough 
Gilkison, and granddaughter of Captain William Gilkison.) 

William Gilkison was born at Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland, on the 
9th of March, 1777. His parents were David Gilkison and Mary 
Walker. The celebrated Scottish novelist John. Gait was his cousin. 
John Gait, the Manager of the Canada Company, was the founder of 
Guelph, and in 1832 Captain Gilkison founded the settlement which 
he named Elora. After some years as a sailor and having been pris- 
oner in France for some months, he escaped in a small boat. He had 
tired of the sea, so he crossed the ocean and arrived in New York in 
1796, having letters of introduction to John Jacob Astor and many 
others. He was given command of a schooner on Lake Erie, owned 
by Astor, and employed in the service of the Northwest Company. 
For six years he remained in command. On the 13th of June, 1803, 
he was married at Amherstburg to Isabella, the sixth daughter of Com- 
modore the Hon. Alexander Grant. His business carried him from 
place to place. His eldest son was born at Amherstburg, the second 
at Sandwich, the third at Detroit, the fourth at Queenston, the fifth 
at Prescott and the sixth, Jasper Tough Gilkison, at Johnston (13th 
March, 1814). After this he went to Glasgow, in order to allow his 
boys to be educated, and while residing there five more sons were 
added to his family, making eleven in all. It might be mentioned 
here that the family of his father-in-law, Commodore Grant, consisted 
of eleven daughters and one son. Captain Gilkison lived in Brock- 
ville in 1810 and in 1811 built the first house in Prescott. At this 
latter place his fifth son, Archibald, was born. He studied law and 
in the fifties was a judge at Picton. During the War of IS 12 Sir 
Isaac Brock appointed William Gilkison Field Quarter-master Gen- 
eral, with the rank of Captain. He was present at the Battle of 
Chrysler's Farm, under the command of Colonel Morrison, and carried 
off the field Major Duncan Fraser. Two bateaux which had been 
landed at Mrs. Stewart's on Hoopler's Creek were plundered and 
destroyed. He applied to Sir George Prevost' for compensation but 



got no redress. Again, in 1825, through Mr. Allan, of York, he filed 
a claim with Mr. MacAulay, but with the same result. 

In 1828 Jasper Tough Gilkison had returned from Glasgow and 
was engaged in the service of Mr. Morris, who carried on then a for- 
warding business. His father, Captain Gilkison, was still at Glasgow, 
but a letter from the son to the father indicates that the latter contem- 
plated soon returning to Canada after his fifteen years' residence 
abroad. Jasper Tough Gilkison married Mary E., the third daughter 
of Thomas McCormick, of Niagara, whose wife was Augusta, the 
second daughter of Captain William Jarvis, first Secretary of Upper 

Captain William Gilkison returned to Canada in April, 1832. In 
September of that year he bought a farm at Brantford and settled 
there. In November of the same year he began the settlement at Elora. 
He did not long survive his return to Upper Canada. While on his 
way home from Hamilton (to Brantford he took ill and died of 
apoplexy, April 23rd, 1S33, at Tuscarora Parsonage, Onondaga. The 
Rev. Abraham Nelles was missionary then. Captain Gilkison was 
buried at the old Mohawk Church, Brantford. 

Children of Captain Gilkison. 

1. David, the eldest son, was at the founding of Guelph, assisting 

John Gait. He died at Toronto in 1854. 

2. William Gait died in India in 1830. 

3. Alexander Grant lived and died in Glasgow. 

4. Robert was a shipbuilder at Glasgow. He came out to Niagara 

in 1834 and up to 1840 he built the steamers for the Niagara 
Dock Company — the Traveller, Transit, Queen Victoria, Gore, 
Niagara and others. He died in Scotland in 1845. 

5. Archibald studied law and was Judge at Picton. 

6. Jasper Tough was the first Secretary of the Great Western Railway 

in 1836. In 1860 he was Assistant Adjutant-General of 
Canada. Prom 1862 to 1891 he was Superintendent of the Six 
Nations of the Grand River. He died 16th November, 1906, 
aged 93 years. 

7. Daniel Mercer was a lawver in Brantford, where he died in 1861. 







Edited by Janet Carnochan. 

The following records were obtained from various sources and 
relate to three early churches of the Niagara Peninsula and^to a noted, 
merchant of Chippawa, 

The records of the Stamford Church were kindly loaned by Mr. 
McMicking, and it is told with pardonable pride were once produced 
in a court of justice to decide a lawsuit. 

Those relating to Chippawa were rescued by Colonel Cruikshank 
from an old building where old account books were found, some of 
them almost undecipherable from the effects of rain and damp, some 
mildewed and decayed, and now recopied by kind permission from that 
gentleman's first copy. 

Stamford Church was probably the first in Upper Canada, with 
perhaps the exception of the Mohawk Church, near Brantford. It is 
supposed to have been built in 1786 or 1787, but the earliest records 
are unfortunately lost. The oldest record in the graveyard is 1793. 
In the session book the name is the Associate Presbyterian Society, 
and the congregation is still in connection with the churches of the 
United States. The faithful pastor, who for nearly thirty years kept 
the records here printed, is thus commemorated in the graveyard : 

" In memory of the Rev. John Russell, D.D., Pastor of the Asso- 
ciate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford, who died March 3rd, 
1854, in the 5Sth year of his age and 2Sth of his ministry. After be 
had served this generation, by the will of God he fell on sleep. ' Be 
tbou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown of life.' Requies- 
' cat in Pace." 

"The" marriages performed by Thomas Cummings, of which the 
record is? so quaintly expressed, " Be it remembered," were legal by 
Act of Parliament, as if no clergyman were nearer than eighteen miles 
the ceremony could be performed by a justice of the peace. The Rev. 



R. Leerning did not arrive till 1820, and it is likely there was not 
always a resident minister in Stamford, and Niagara, where congre- 
gations dated from 1792, was distant eighteen miles. Thomas Cum- 
mings was the first settler, coming in 1784, and did an extensive busi- 
ness as a merchant. The books kept by him are models of neatness, 
dating from 1796, and the same methodical habits are shown in the 
records of his son, James Cummings. 

The records of the building of the Lundy's Lane Church are inter- 
esting, as Drummond Hill, where the present church stands, as did also 
that which preceded it, was the scene of the Battle of Lundy's Lane, 
the hill alternately held on that night of 25th July by foemen using 
the bayonet, that hill where the next day the bodies of the slain were 
consumed to ashes after a battle the most stubbornly contested of any 
in the War of 1812, in which each side claims" the victory, the loss on 
each side nearly equal, about 900 in killed, wounded and missing, but 
our forces remaining in possession of the field and the enemy retreat- 
ing, it is with reason that we claim that Lundy's Lane was ours. 




Note. — The book is dated Forres, October 30th, 1820/ then Stamford, U.C., 
1827, and is in very small, fine writing. 

1827. Married. 

April 12. In the Township of Pelham, Jas. Watson, of Thorold, to 

Eleanor McGinnis, of Pelham, by special license from 

E. Grant, Esq. 
19. In the Township of Stamford, John Tharson to Naomi 

Clow, both of the Township of Stamford, by special 

license from R. Grant, Esq. 
23. -Jas. Smith, of Stamford, to Janet McCradie, by special 

license from R. Grant, Esq. 
May 17. In the Township of Stamford, Wm. Hickson to May 

McLellan, both of the Township of Stamford, by 

special license from R. Grant, Esq. 
In the Township of Niagara, Daniel Cooper to Catherine 

Armstrong, both of the said township, by license. 
June 27. In the Township of Niagara, Jacob Putman, of Bertie, to 

Rebecca Young, of Niagara, by special license. 


Aug. 17. In the Village of Stamford, David Ostrander, of Stam- 
ford, to Lucy Young, of Niagara, by license from 
E. Grant. 

Sept. 13. In the Village of Stamford, John Bastedo, of Dundas, to 
Susan Ayton, of Stamford, per license from R. Grant. 

Ocit 4. In the Village of Stamford, Robert Thorn, of Thorold, to 

Phebe Heinor, per special license from R. Grant, Esq. 

9. Christopher Beamer to Esther Man, by Rev. Mr. Eastman. 

10. Jas. Everingsham, of Crowland, to Nancy Mathews, of 

Thorold, by special license from R. Grant, Esq. 

22. Alpha H. Shaw, of Tomkins County, N.Y., to Almira 
Phelps, of Grantham, by special license from R. 
Grant, Esq. 
Nov. 8. Thos. Cartwright to Catherine Thompson, both of the 
Township of Stamford, by special license from R. 
Grant, Esq. 
Dec. 22. Colin Mathews to Abigail Hagar, both of the Township 
oi Thorold, by special license from R. Grant, Esq. 

24. Alexander Depese, of Bain, to Flizzia Strawberge, of Gran- 
tham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian con- 
gregation of Stamford and Thorold. 


Jan. 24. Peter Lessing to Elizabeth McLellan, both of the Township 
of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
31. William McLellan to Emeline Useyen, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

March 4. Jas. Goring Paruall to Elizabeth Seed, both of the Town- 
ship of Grantham, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

5. Daniel S. Brown to Maria Ann Groff, both of the Town- 

ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

6. Alexander McKerlie to Mary Ann Bender, both of the 

Township of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

11. Ira Needs to Mary Morris, both of the Township of Gran- 

tham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian con- 
gregation of Stamford and Thorold. 

22. Jas. Duff to Jane McKerlie, both of the Township of 
Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

31. Moses Cook to Sarah May, both of the Township of 
Grantham, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
April 3. Alexander Rogers to Delilah Markle, both of the Town- 
ship of Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 


April 10. John Gillis, of Thorold, to Sarah Newkirk, of Grantham, 
by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
21. Samuel Rice to Rebecca Forrester, both of the Township 
o.T Thorold. Published in the Associate congregation 
of Stamford and Thorold. 
Jos. Thorn, of Stamford, to Sarah Rice, of Thorold. Pub- 
lished in the Associate Presbyterian congregation of 
Stamford and Thorold. 
29. Richard Thomson to Sarah Hardison, both of the Township 
of Bertie, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
May 10. James Field, of the Townsbip of Niagara, to Maria Mid- 
daugh, of the Township of Stamford, by license from 
R. Grant, Esq. 

13. Jas. MaOwen, of Grantham, to Sophia McKinley, of 

Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
June 16. David Kemp, of the Township of Niagara, to Mary Tuttle, 

of the Township of Stamford, by license from R. 

Grant, Esq. 
July 8. Jos. Vanevery, of the Township of Stamford, to Mary 

Hyslop, of Thorold, per license from R. Grant. 

10. Isaac Clark, of Thorold, to Margaret Cavers, of Grantham. 

Published in the Associate Presbyterian congregation 

of Stamford and Thorold. 
16. John Beamer, in the Township of Louth, to Maria Jane 

May, of the Township of Grantham. Published in the 

Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford and 

Sept. 24. John Corwine, of Stamford, to Catharine Upper, of 

Thorold, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
25. Zechariah Cole to Sarah Shulties, both of the Township 

of Grantham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 

congregation of Stamford. 
Oct. 6. Joseph Wynn to Mary McCabc, both of the Township of 

Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

14. Henry May, of the Village of Dundas, to Maria Sweazy, 

of the Township of Thorold, by license from R. 
Grant, Esq. 
Nov. 6. John Kilman to Margaret McKerlie, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

11. Benjamin Cherrier to Eliza Hudson, both of the Town- 

ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 


Dec. 2. Henry Sitzer, of Stamford, to Mary Ann Renen, of 
Thorold. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford. 
10. Luther Dunn (to Mary Miller, both of St. David's, by 

25. Jacob E. Terry to Catherine Brown, both of the Township 
of Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
Jan. 22. Simon Kemp to Deborah Freel, both of the Township of 
Niagara, by license. 

27. William Upper to Ann Sidey, both of the Township of 

Thorold. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford and Thorold. 
Jacob Kerr, of the Township of Grantham, to Isabel 
Sidey, of the Township of Thorold. Published in the 
Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford and 
Feb. 5. George Hutt, of the Township of Stamford, to Susannah 
McKinley, of the Township of Niagara, by license 
from R. Grant, Esq. 
12. Gilbert E. Fields to Rebecca Froman,* both of the Town- 
ship of Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
March 10. Jacob Hill, of Thorold, to Sarah Dunham, of Stamford. 
Published in the Associate Presbyterian congregation of 
19. Abraham Markle to Hannah Crysler, both of the Town- 
ship of Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
April 16. Robert Garner, of Stamford to Lydia Spencer, of Thorold, 
by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
22. Stephen Parnall to Eliza Kip, both of the Township of 
Grantham, by license from R. Grant. 
May 8. Henry Elingal Lossem to Sally Ellsworth, both of the 
Township of Grantham, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
14. William Bender to Rebecca Green, both of the Township 
of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

28. Jonas Fortner to Mary M. Neville, both of the Township 

of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
June 10. Daniel Cooper to Jane Cooper, both of the Township of 
Niagara, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
18. Samuel Hatch to Margaret Hardy, botli of the Township 
of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. Esq. 



June 24. John C. Banks, of the Township of Thorold, to Henny 
Ann Shultes, of the Township of Niagara. Published 
in the Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stam- 
ford and Thorold. 
26. James Brown Jones, of the Township of Niagara, to Mary 
Bessey, of the Township of Grantham, by license from 
R. Grant, Esq. 

July 2. Francis Bogarders* to Catherine DeWilt, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

Aug. 2. Sidney Robert Squire to Susan Hoover, both of the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

Sept. 22. Charles McKenzie to Jane Pitkaithley, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
29. William Warner, of the Township of Niagara, to Isabella 
Orr, of the Township of Thorold, by license from R. 
Grant, Esq. 

Oct. 1. Mathew Thomas, of the Township of Thorold, to Eliza- 

beth Lampman, of the Township of Stamford, by 
license from R. Grant, Esq. 

Nov. 9. Hiram Lafleur, of Chinquacousy, to Martha Ostrander, of 
Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 

Dec. 29. Wm. L. Peterson to Susanna McMicking, both of the 
Township of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 


Jan. 5. -Usher Goldsmith to Am y Smith, both of the Township of 
Louth. Published in the Associate congregation of 
19. Conrad Shoock to Mary McDonald, both of the Township 

of Grantham, by license from R. Grant. 
21. -Jacob Hainer, of the Township of Grantham, to Parmela 
Smith, of the Township of Thorold, by special license. 
Feb. 18. Hugh McKerrall to Emily Dawson, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
March 10. Richard Clement to Deborah Medachj both of the Town- 
ship of Niagara, by license from R. Grant. 
24. Philip Wilson to Sally Kelly, both of the Township of 
Grantham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford, etc. 



March 24. AVilliam Eead to Sally Hike, both of the Township of 
Grantham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford. 
30. George Coulter to Ann Vanderburgh, both of the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant. 

May 5. Joseph Upper .to Charlotte Mathews, both of the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
12. Reuben Biggar to Elizabeth Bender, both of the Township 

of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. 
19. George Cook, of St. David's, to Sally Coos, both of the 
Township of Stamford. Published in the Associate 
Presb3 r terian congregation of Stamford and Thorold. 

June 30. Lewis Jackson rto Sally Boston, both of St. David's. Pub- 
lished in the Associate Presbyterian congregation of 

July 13. Martin Sitzer to Anna Margaret Shriver, both of the 
Township of Thorold. Published in the Associate 
Presbyterian congregation of Stamford and Thorold. 

Sept. 21. George Upper, of the Township of Thorold, to Phebe 
Cook, of the Township of Crowland, by license from 
R, Grant. 
30. Joseph Midach,* of the Township of Niagara, to Susan 
Johnson, of the Township of Stamford, by license 
from R. Grant. 

Oct. 25. Joseph J. Upper, in the Township of Thorold, to Mary 
Ann Here, in the Township of Stamford. Published 
in the Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford. 

Dec. 15. Robert Loree, of the Township of Stamford, to Rhoda 
Williams, of the Township of Thorold, by license from 
R. Grant. 
23. John Lennox to Frances Pew, both of the Township of 

Stamford, by license from R. Grant. 
29. Theophilus Brundage, of the Township of Grantham, to 
Jane Badgeley, of the Township of Thorold, by license 
from R. Grant. 


Jan. 6. James Neville, of the Township of Stamford, to Mary 
Wilkison, of the Township of Thorold, by license 
from R. Grant. 

*Probably Middaugh. 


Jan. 6. Obadiah Hopkins to Ann Swayzie, both of the Township of 
Thorold, by license from R. Grant. 

19. John Hawkins, of Pendleton, County of Niagara, State 

of K York, to Nelly Burch, of Stamford, U. Canada, 
by license from R. Grant. 

20. JRichard Smith to Phebe Street, both of St. John's, Town- 

ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant, Esq. 
Feb. 2. George Bender, of the Township of Stamford, to Hester 
Doan, of the Township of Thorold, by license from 
R. Grant. 
11. Abram Secord to Charlotte Vansickle, both of the Township 

of Grantham, by license issued at Niagara. 
15. Enos Shrigley, of the Township of Pelham, to Eliza 
Brown, of the Township of Thorold. Published in the 
Associate Presbyterian congregation of Stamford. 
March 1. John Vanderburg to Abigail Spesnor, both of the Town- 
ship of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. 
3. Christian Warner, junior, to Margaret Precure, both of 
the Township of Niagara, by license from R. Grant. 
John Mitchell, Alexander Miller, witnesses. 
11. William Little, of York, to Isabella Thomson, of Niagara. 
Published in the Associate Presbyterian congregation 
of Stamford and Thorold. John Eaglesum, James 
Francis, witnesses. 
29. Amos Bradshaw, of Thorold, to Susannah Misner, of 
Crowland. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford. John Misner and Elisha 
Misner, witnesses. 
April 28. Hiram McDowal to Margaret Upper, both in the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant. Anthony 
Upper and David McDowal, witnesses. 
May 2. William Smith, of Pelham, to Mary Cof, of Stamford. 
Published in the x^ssociate Presbyterian congregation 
of Stamford and Thorold. Ezeldel Rice and William 
Rice, witnesses. 
10."" Elijah Gleason to Rachel Smith, both in the Township of 
Pelham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian con- 
gregation of Stamford and Thorold. Daniel Stump 
and Catherine Smith, witnesses. 
12. David Lynch to Elizabeth Spencer, both in the Township 
of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. William 
Hepburn and Benjamin Cormine, witnesses. 


May 18. William B. O. Riley, of Wainsfleet, to Eliza Chapman, of 
Pelham. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford. Enos Sprigley and Alex. 
Brown, witnesses. 
25. William McCracken, of Crowland, to Maria Emerick, of 
Thorold, by license from R. Grant. Andrew Nevils, 
David Snively, witnesses. 

June 16. Samuel Darling, of Thorold, to Charlotte Celia Wilson, of 
Pelham, by license from E. Grant. Lewis Wilson and 
Andrew More, witnesses. 
22. David McDowal to Elizabeth Upper, both of the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license from R. Grant. Antony 
Upper and Hiram McDowal, witnesses. 
29. John Johnson to Ann Iloswell, both of the Township of 
Stamford, by license from R. Grant. Henry Hoswel 
and William Everingbam, witnesses. 

July 1. John Blanchard to Jane Hartswell, both of the Township 
of Stamford. Published in the Associate Presbyterian 
congregation of Stamford. James Hyat and Joseph 
Medach,* witnesses. 

13. Henry Howal to Catherine Ann Garrison, both in the 

Township of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. 
David Close and John McKinley, witnesses. 

14. James Emerick, of Thorold, to Catherine McCracken, of 

Crowland, by license from R. Grant. James Mc- 
Cracken and John Emerick, witnesses. 
Aug. 22. Nicolas Potts, of Crowland, to Charity Warner, of 
Niagara, by license. Christian Warner, Sr., and Thos. 
J. Nevills, witnesses. 
Sept. 1. Philip Wilson to Jemima Merithew, both of the Township 
of Grantham. Published in the Associate Presby- 
terian congregation of Stamford and Thorold. Jona- 
than Merithew and John Lampman, witnesses. 
James Hulbert, of Stamford, to Salesdon Cook, of Crow- 
land. Published in the Associate Presbyterian con- 
gregation of Stamford. Elijah Cooper and Mary 
Misner, witnesses. 
William Fram to Jane Boyd, both of the Township of 
Stamford, by license from R. Grant. Stephen Peer 
and Ann Bell, witnesses. 

♦Probably Middaugh. 


Sept. 5. William Rice to Eebecca Brooks, both of the Township of 

Stamford, by license from R. Grant. John Wilson 

and Alfred W. Allen, witnesses. 
Oct. 12. Reuben Goodman, of Grantham, to Hannah Midaugh, of 

Niagara, by license from R. Grant. John Midaugh 

and Smith Midaugh, witnesses. 
13. William Johnson to Ann Margaret Lampman, both of the 

Township of Stamford, by license from R. Grant. 

William Lampman, George Shaw, witnesses. 
Nov. 16. Ephraim Hopkins to Mary Willson, both of the Township 

of Thorold, by license. George Shaw and Hetty Hop- 
kins, witnesses. 
22. Henry Hoover, of Thorold, to Catherine Jane Pew, of 

Stamford, by license from R. Grant. George Hoover 

and John Crawford, witnesses. 
Dec. 15. Alonzo Young to Ann McCredie, both of the Township 

of Willoughby, by license. James Smith, Janet 

Smith, witnesses. 


Jan. 11. George Shaw to Mehitabel Hopkins, both of the Township 
of Thorold, by license. Ephraim Hopkins and Mary 
Hopkins, witnesses. 

19. Robert Campbell to Margaret McLeod, both of the Town- 
ship of Thorold, by license. Thos. Bald and William 
Orr, witnesses. 

25. William Davis, of the Township of Niagara, to Hellen 
Bender, of the Township of Stamford, by license. 
John Davis and John Hawkins, witnesses. 
Feb. 2. Robert Wilkinson to Rebecca Vanderburgh, both of the 
Township of Thorold, by license. Jacob Vanderburgh 
and William Selewin, witnesses. 

7. William Coughell to Jane Merethew, Niagara Township, by 

license. John Coughell, Aaron Allen, witnesses. 

8. George Hoover, of the Township of Thorold, to Wilhain 

Jackson Falconbridge, of the Township of Stamford, 
by license. Samuel Falconbridge and Henry Hoover, 
16. Thomas Clark, of Thorold, to Isabella Cavers, of Gran- 
tham. Published. Blateley Robinson and James Rob- 
inson, witnesses. 


Feb. 23. Elijah W. Devaurex to Catherine Nhier, both of the Town- 
ship of Grantham. Lewis Travers and George Aire, 

April 5. By license, Samuel Conger to Maria Weiner, both of the 
Township of Niagara. Richard H. Secord and Samuel 
R. Secord, witnesses. 
16. By license, John Mitchell to Mary Henderson, both of the 
Township of Stamford. Joseph Caleff and Alexander 
Wallace, witnesses. 
18. By license, George Coon, of the Township of Stamford, to 
Dradama Collard, of the Township of Niagara. 
.Elijah Collard and Peter Hoover, witnesses. 

May 23. Peter Lampman, of Stamford, to Catherine Cole, of 
Grantham, by license. John Cole and William 
Seburn, witnesses. 

June 21. By license, Robert Kelly to Caroline Kerr, of the Town- 
ship of Thorold. Aaron Theal and Hannah Ann 
Kelly, witnesses. 

July 31. By license, Alexander Page, of Thorold, to Edith Young, 
of Crowland. Jonathan Page and Mary Ann Young, 

Oct. 11. By license, Lewis Robinson to Mary Ann Stuart, both of 
the Township of Niagara. Richard Boltemore and 
Isaac Boltemore, witnesses. 
22. By publishing of banns, Robert Cruikshank, of Stamford, 
to Catherine Wright, of Crowland. Thomas Wright 
and Jacob Young, witnesses. 
25. By publishing, William Mclntyre to Elizabeth Falkner, 
both of St. David's. George Cook, Isaac Baltimore, 

Nov. 15. By publishing, Bletchly Robins, of Thorold, to Amy 
Cavers. Grant Walter Cavers, Deborah Cohoe, wit- 
By license, Joseph Gable, of Stamford, to Susan Southand, 
of Niagara. George Cheshale.* 
29. By license, Nathanael Pozy to Melinda Stuart, both of 
Niagara. Lewis Robinson and Mary Robinson, wit- 
By license, Thomas Neville, of the Township of Crow- 
land, to Nancy Hesmell, of the Township of Stam- 
ford. John Kamsdem and Peter Misner, witnesses. 

•Witness, probably. 



Jan. 2. By license, Jacob Young to Susan Wiley, of the Township 

of Crowland. John Misner and Crowell Wilson, 

March 13. By license, John Wilson, of Gainsboro', to Margaret 

Wires, of Wainfleet. Joseph Hyslop and George Hill, 

14. By license, Robert Gilchrist to Jane Collard, both of the 

Township of Stamford. Hiram Van Wike 1 and Elijah 

Collard, witnesses. 

19. By license, Russell A. Wells to Anne Defields, both of 

Queenston. Edward Defields and William Defields. 

June 12. By license, Samuel Haux, of Toronto, to Lydia Hopkins, 

of the Township of Thorold. Samuel Smith and Jane 

Hopkins, witnesses. 
Aug. 15. By publication, John Coulson to Charlotte Griffith, both , 

of the Township of Stamford. Thomas Coulson and 

Elizabeth Coulson, witnesses. 

20. By publication, "William Smith to Catherine Anger, both 

of the Township of Louth. Benjamin Noble and Julia 

Hall, witnesses. 
Sept. 26. By publication of banns, George Galloway to Rosanna . 

Lucas, both of St. David's. Andrew Lucas and Samuel 

Peterson, witnesses. 
By license, John Thomson to Amelia McMicking, both of 

the Township of Stamford. John McMicking and 

Archibald Thomson, witnesses. 
Oct. 22. By license, Rev. James Strong, of Dumfries, Zorra Dis- 
trict, to Ann Sanderson, of Stamford. Thomas Hugo, 

Sr., and Thomas Hugo, Jr., witnesses. 
23. By license, John Row, of Stamford, to Mary Ann Fitch, of 

Willoughby. William Davis, Sr., and Henry Eitch, 

Nov. 17. By publication, Thomas Daniel and Mary , both 

of the Township of Stamford. David Walter and 

John Coulson, witnesses. 
19. By license, William Bank to Deborah St. John, both of the 

Township of Thorold. Frederick Bank and James 

Upper, witnesses. 



Nov. ."27. By license, Robert Wallace, junior, of Stamford, to Susan 
Delila Mat — , of Thorold. Robert Wallace, senioT, 
and John Watson, witnesses. 

1834. , 

Jan. 23. Thomas McCredie, of Willoughby, to Nancy Wallace, of 
Stamford. Robert Wallace, Sr., and William Mc- 
Credie, witnesses. 
30. By publication, Isaac Morris to Lydia Miller, both of the 
Township of Stamford. Thomas and Isaac Battemen, 

Feb. 18. By publication, Robert Shrigley to Nancy W , both 

of the Township of Felham. George Shrigley and 
Joseph Thorn, witnesses. 

Note. — The Robert Grant, Esq., so frequently referred to, is buried in the 
Lutheran graveyard near Thorold, as there recorded: 

" Sacred to the memory of Robert Grant, Esq., born at Inverness, Scot- 
land, 16th Nov., 1776, died at Queenston, U.C., 16th May, 1838. This monument 
is«erected by his daughter Christina, wife of Jacob Keefer, Esq., of Thorold." 

1820 TO 1837, BY REV. WM. LEEMING. 

Note. — The original register is kept by the Rector of Trinity Church, 
Chippawa, from which register I have written this copy of records. February, 
1893. Geo. A. Bull, M.A., Rector of Stamford. 

Burials in ye Chapelry of Chippewa,* in ye Townships of Stam- 
ford and Willoughby, in ye County of Lincoln and Dis- 
trict of Niagara, in ye Year of Our Lord One Thousand 
Eight Hundred and Twenty. 


Sarah Glasgow, Stamford, Sept. 8, aged 5 years. 
Barak Dawn, Niagara Falls, Oct. 4, aged 1 month. 
Henrietta Archange Smith, Chippewa, Oct. 5, aged 2 years. 
— Warren, Waterloo, Dec. 10, aged 30 years. 

•In the manuscript sometimes " Chippewa," sometimes " Chippawa." The 
proper spelling is "Chippawa," but the manuscript is followed closely. 



Jane dimming, Chippewa, Feb. 17, aged 66. 

Margaret Stuart Lefferty, Lundy's Lane. March 1, aged 9 months. 

James Marshman, Stamford, March 21, aged, supposed about 45 years 

George Rohrback,* Stamford, May 31, aged 22 years. 

John McDonald, Stamford, Oct. 12. 

John Jay, Lundy's Lane, Stamford, Oct. 17, aged 73 years. 


Huldy Cook, Lundy's Lane, Stamford, March 10, aged about 30 years. 

R. Yale, Willoughby, April 19, aged 47 years. 

Rev. William Sampsonj Grimsby, April 30, aged 34 years. 

Mary Scott, Stamford, Aug. 11, aged 70 years. 

Jobn Anderson, from Seapatrick, County Down, Ireland, Aug. 13, 

aged 25 years. 
John Burch,$ Stamford, Aug. 16, aged 38 years. 
rz — Shaw, St. David's, Sept. 5, aged 9 years. 

— McClive, Stamford, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 8. 

— Metlar, Thorold, Sept. 14, aged 30 or SO ( ?). 
James Clark, 15-Mile Creek, aged about 60. 

— Hull, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 3. 

Alexander McPherson, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 8, aged 68. 
Diademia Jay, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 25. 


— Forsyth, Falls of Niagara, Jan. 16, infant. 

Sidney Secord Lampman, interred En. Church, Thorold, Feb. 28, 

aged 2 years. 
Thomas Cummings,§ Chippewa, March 5, aged about 65 years. 
Silvia Cook, Stamford, June 21, aged 17 years. 

* The son of Lt.-Col. Andrew Rorback, of 2nd Lincoln Regiment, who was 
born in New Jersey, died in 1843. 

f The first missionary of Grimsby, sent out by S. P. G. in 1817. His 
records of births, deaths, marriages are printed in Vol. III. A native of 
Surrey, England. His death was accidental. 

tA son of the John Burch, whose was the first interment in Lundy's Lane, 
in 1797. 

§The first settler in Chippawa, coming in 1784; was Town Clerk, Justice 
of the Peace, performed many marriages in that capacity, all beginning with 
the words " Be it remembered." The books kept from 1796 by him and his 
son James are models of neatness and methodical habits. 


Benjamin Hardison,* Bertie, July 28, aged about 70 years. 

Mrs. Aiglor, Stamford, Aug. 18, aged about 70 years. 

Widow Archibald Thompson, Stamford, Aug. 22. 

Mrs. Warner, Thorold, Aug. 29, aged about 70 years. 

— Buchner, Stamford, Sept. 4, aged 16 months. 

Seth Cook, Crowland, Sept. 21, aged about 36 years. 

Mrs. Warren, Bertie, Sept. 22, aged 83 years. 

Infant daughter of Mr. Wait,f Falls of Niagara, Oct. 2, aged 2 weeks. 

Infant daughter of Mr. Crysler, Falls of Niagara, Oct. 5, aged 9 weeks. 

Haggai Skinner, Falls, Stamford, Oct. 8, aged 73 years. 

Charles Rogers, Stamford, Nov. 15, aged 2 weeks. 

Eliza Ball, near St. David's, Dec. 5, aged 13 years. 

Mrs. Shaw, St. David's, Dec. 8. 


Mrs. Gordon, interred at St. Catharines, Stamford, Feb. 10, aged 

33 years. 
Mrs. Sutton, Stamford, Feb. 26, aged about 35 years. 
Geo. Milmine McMicking,t Chippewa, April 1, infant. 
William Warner Cummings, Chippewa, April 6, aged 1 year and 11 

Margaret Kerby, Head of Lake, interred at Chippewa, April 15, aged 

22 years. 
Infant daughter of W. Hebburne, Chippewa, July 13. 
Caroline Thomas, Lundy's Lane, July 16, infant. 
Mrs. Miller, Black Creek, Aug. 2. 
Infant daughter of Isaac and Anna Thomas, Aug. 17. 
Priscilla Cummings, Chippewa, Aug. 30. 
John McKarlay, Stamford, Sept. 3, aged 24 years. 
Christopher Buchner, Falls, Stamford, Sept. 9, aged 57 years. 
Patrick Wilson, Bertie, interred in Stamford, Oct. 23, aged about 35. 
John Brown. Chippewa, from Birmingham, England, Nov. 11, aged 

37 years. 
Samuel Woodruff, surgeon, St. David's, Nov. IS. 

*Benjamin Hardison, the member for 4th Lincoln and Norfolk, 1796-1800. 

^Related to Benjamin Wait, banished to Van Dieman's Land for his share 
in Rebellion 1838. 

tThe mortality among infants seems remarkable to us at this day, as the 
phrase infant daughter or infant son occurs so often. 



Thomas Dickson, Esq.,* Queenston, Jan. 26, aged 49 years. 

Amy Silverthorn, Thorold, Jan. 27, aged 8 years. 

William Goodman, Thorold, from England, Jan. 31, aged about 45 

Matthias Haun, Bertie, Feb. 4, aged 58 years. 
Patrick Blunt, Stamford, July 24. 

Mrs. Stephen Haggarty, Stamford, Feb. 19, aged about 22 years. 
Mr. Anderson, Stamford, April 19, aged 90 years. 
John Metlar, Stamford, May 9, aged 5 years. 
Sally Grant (negress), St. David's, May 31. 
Mrs. Hoover, Stamford, June 3, aged 74 1-2 years. 
Mr. Gould, near St. Catharines, June 28, aged 65 years. 
Margaret Muirhead,t Niagara, interred at Mr. Butler's private burial 

place, July 9, aged 25 years. 
Rebecca Shaver, Stamford, July 22, aged about 30 years. 
Louisa Lee, Stamford, July 25, aged 2 years. 

— Dodson, Falls, Stamford, from Winchester, Virginia, July 29, aged 

about 55 years. 

— Davis, Falls' Mills, Aug. 15. 

— Stronger, Stamford, Aug. 17. 

Mrs. Moore, St Catharines, Aug. 18, aged 47 years. 

Mrs. Chisholm, Stamford, Aug. 21, aged 66 years. 

Wellington Forsyth, Falls, Stamford, Aug. 24, aged 8 years. 

Hugh Alexander Thompson,! Whirlpool, Stamford, Aug. 25, aged 17 

Nelson Pew, Beechwood, Stamford, Aug. 25, aged 9 years. 
Infant daughter of Samuel Pew, Beechwood, interred Lundy's Lane, 

Aug. 30, aged 6 months. 
George Sutton, interred Lundy's Lane, Beechwood, Sept. 23, aged 5 

Rebecca Dawn, Thorold, Oct 1, aged 18 months. 
William Burnetsteen, Sept. 27. 
Mr. Sowersby, Chippewa, Sept. 28. 

* A large altar tomb in the Hamilton family burying ground at Queenston 
states that he came from Dumfries, Scotland, in 1789 ; was colonel of Militia, 
member of Legislature and a magistrate. He was also a merchant In 

fA daughter of Dr. Muirhead and Deborah Butler. James Butler Muir- 
head, barrister, is also buried in Butler's family burial place. 

tin the Presbyterian graveyard, Stamford, in one enclosure are buried 
eight Thompsons, all born at the Whirlpool, the eldest in 1819. 


William Maclem,* Chippawa, Oct. 17, aged 22 years. 

Infant son of — Johnson, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 20, aged 1 year. 

Robt. Davis, Stamford, Oct. 20. 

Geo. Sowersby, Ohippawa, Nov. 23, aged 7 months. 

Mrs. Fletcher, Thorold Canal, Nov. 30, aged 65 years. 

Joseph Blackstock, Thorold Canal, Dec. 2, aged about 25 years. 


Joseph Rice, Chippawa, Jan. 28. 

Infant daughter of Dr. Bedale.f St. Catharines, Feb. 12, aged 14 months. 

Infant daughter of — Moore, Stamford, Feb. 19. 

Infant daughter of Mr. Tisdale, Ancaster, Feb. 26. 

— McKinney, St. Catharines, aged 8 years. 
Thomas Huff, Chippawa, April 18, aged 11 months. 
Mrs. Chase, St. Catharines, April 27, aged 21 years. 
Minerva Johnson, Stamford, May 8, aged about 25 years. 

— Hainer, St. Catharines, June 7, aged 15 years. 
Geo. Rose, Stamford, June, aged 30 years. 

Geo. England Leonard,? Stamford, July 9, aged 11 years. 

Infant son of Philip Metlar, Stamford, July 10. 

Marsh Raymond Otley, Stamford, July 15. 

Wm. Silverthorn, Stamford, July 20, aged 3 years. 

Samuel Layton, St. Catharines, Aug. 2, aged about 40 years. 

Samuel Jackson, Thorold Canal, Aug. 16, aged 1 year. 

John Hoover, Thorold, Aug. 19, aged 19 years. 

Elizabeth Hoover, Thorold, Aug. 19, aged 63 years. 

Augustavius Sikes, Thorold, Aug. 24, aged 19 years. 

George Miller, Thorold, Sept, 30, aged 75 or 78 years. 

Wm. Alexander Ball, Thorold, Oct. 19, infant. 

Mrs. Hodgkinson, Niagara, Nov. 2, aged. 

Price Christie, Niagara Falls, Dec. 2, aged. 

Alexander Rapp, Stamford, Dec. 4, aged 3 years. 


Mrs. Wright, Stamford, Jan. 10, aged 42 years. 
John Upper, Stamford, Feb. 9, aged about 65 years. 



JSon of Major Richard Leonard, of 104th Light Infantry, buried at 
Lundy's Lane in 1833. 


Mr. Hoover, Stamford, Feb. 17, aged 80 or 90 years. 

Mr. Bowman, Thorold, June 9, aged 90 years. 

Keziah Stack, Stamford, July 20, aged 3 years. 

Robi Carr, Thorold, Aug. 8, aged 22 years. 

James Brown, Thorold, Aug. 8, aged 22 years. 

Geo. Crawford, Thorold, Aug. 20, aged 22 years. 

Erastus Parsons, Chippawa, Sept. 3. 

Maria McClive, Stamford, Sept. 15, aged 19 years. 

Sophia Upper, Thorold, Oct. 1, \a^ed 1 1-2 years. 

Mrs. Bl — , Falls, Oct. 2, aged 23 years. 

Elizabeth Wurman, Thorold, Oct. 15, aged 1 year. 

Infant son of Mr. Johnson, Stamford, Nov. 13, aged 2 years 3 months. 

Infant son of — Ainsley, Chippawa, Nov. 12. 

Mrs. Brackbill, Stamford, Dec. 13, aged 63 years. 


Infant son of Mr. Marlatt, Beaverdam, Jan. 10, aged 1 year. 

Philander Howard Keelar, St. John's, Jan. 12, aged 2 years. 

Geo. Milmine, Chippawa, Jan. 14, aged 52 years. 

Infant son of W. Forsyth, Falls, Jan. 20, aged 1 year. 

Maria Ellison, Stamford, Feb. 8, aged 4 years. 

Wm. Davenport, Stamford, Feb. 12, aged 4 months. 

Philip Melancthon Keelar, St. John's, Feb. 19, aged 1 month. 

Mrs. Ussher,* Willoughby, Feb. 29, aged 50 years. 

Margaret Berrvman, Stamford, March 3, aged 9 months. 

Infant son of P. Morse, Stamford, April 10, aged 7 months. 

Sarah Rogers, Stamford, April 11, aged 6 years. 

John Buchner, Stamford, April 16, aged 34 years. 

Remanilla Cusack, Stamford, May 10, aged 2 years and 4 months. 

— Culp, Stamford, May 11. 

Francis McCrackan, Chippawa, May 19, aged 18 years. 

Michael Dian, Stamford, June 14, aged about 40 years. 

Elizabeth Prisoilla Nelles, Chippawa, June 16, aged 11 months. 

i — Coady, Chippawa, July 14, aged 65 years. 

Bridget Wallans, Thorold, July 19, aged 27 years. 

Olivia Galbraith, Thorold, Lundy's Lane, July 26, aged 15 years. 

James Boyle, from Canal, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 2, aged 40 years. 

George Sheldenburg, Chippawa Creek, Aug. 8, aged 2 years. 

* Probably the mother of Edgeworth Usher, assassinated at his own door 
in Chippawa, Nov., 1838, during the Rebellion; was buried at Lundy's Lane. 


Andrew Brown, Niagara, Aug. 19, aged 27 years. 

Andrew Morrow, Thorold, Aug. 23, aged 37 years. 

Mrs. Nevil, Stamford, interred at Lundy's Lane, Sept. 2. 

Mrs. Sebum, Stamford, interred at Beaverdam, Sept. 3, aged 70 years. 

Mrs. John Willson, Stamford, interred at Lundy's Lane, Sept. 3, aged 

26 years. 
Oliver Strong, Deepcut, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 11, aged 19 years. 
Wm. Moright (Italian), Lundy's Lane, Sept. 17, aged 25 years. 
Wm. Tillot, Lundy's Lane, from England, Sept. 18, aged about 40 

Henry Brodock, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 23, aged 40 years. 
Mr. Hoard, Falls, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 24, aged about 40 years. 
Robert Few, Stamford, Oct. 4, aged 44 years. 
Catherine Booth, interred at St. Catharines, Oct. 7. 
Ann Lynch, Chippawa, Oct 13, aged 24 years. 
Infant daughter of Haggai Skinner, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 16, aged 14 

months, transmitted. 

— Irvine, from Ireland, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 25, aged 37 years. 

— Buck, Limestone Ridge, Nov. 2, aged 5 years. 
Stephen Paine, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 21, aged 36 years. 

Infant son of — Chambers, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 22, aged 1 year. 


Charlotte Macklem, Lundy's Lane, Jan. 31, aged 10 years. 

— Brisson. 

M. S. Webber, Queenston, March 23, aged about 42 years. 

Philip Host, Lundy's Lane, May 6, aged 67 years. 

Stephen Lancaster (colored man), Lundy's Lane, May 18, age not 

Mary Smith, Stamford, April 14, aged 17 years. 
Georgiana England Leonard, Lundy's Lane, May 25, aged 3 years. 
Hayzen Jacobs, Chippawa, June 11, aged 15 years. 
Joel Westbrook, Lundy's Lane, July 2, aged 78 years. 
James Saunders, Beaverdam, July 30. 
Robert Whitney, Queenston, Aug. 17, aged 10 months. 
Wm. George, Beaverdam, Aug. 18, young man. 
Mrs. Hansel, Beaverdam, Aug. 25, aged 76 years. 
Nicholas Smith, Bridgewater,* Aug. 30, aged 30 years. 
Margaret Elizabeth Nelles, Chippawa, Sept. 4, aged 7 weeks. 

♦The battle of Lundy's Lane is often spoken of in American histories as 


Wm. Lundy,* Lundy's Lane, Sept. 13, aged 88 years and 9 months. 

Francis Morelle, St. David's, Nov. 8, aged 25 years. 

Margaret Davies Cockroft, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 24, aged 3 days. 

Thomas Cotton, Chippawa, Dec. 30, aged 68 years. 

Wm. Moffatt, Lundy's Lane, drowned in Deepcut, Jan. 6. 


— Marsh, Chippawa, Jan. 27. 

John Hobson, St. David's, Feb. 7, aged 26 years. 
Hitobelf Street, Falls, Feb. 12, aged 90 years. 
Dr. Skinner, Stamford, Feb. 16, aged 86 years. 
Mrs. Ball, 10-Mile Creek, Feb. 20, aged 70 years. 
Daniel Shriner, Beaverdam, Feb. 24, aged 60 years. 
John Sharp, Lundy's Lane, March 3, aged about 35 years. 
Charles Dancer, Lundy's Lane, March 19, aged 48 years. 
Mrs. Sebum, Stamford, interred at Beaverdam, May 17. 
Garret Vanderburg, Thorold, June 22, aged 47 years. 
John Hinch, Queenston, June 27, aged 18 years. 
Mrs. Samuel Dill, Chippawa Creek, Aug. 15, aged 42 years. 

— Jennings, Chippawa, Aug. 17, aged 21 years. 
Infant son of Mr. Biggar, Stamford, Aug. 20. 

Francis Oliver, from Canal to Lundy's Lane, Aug. 23, aged 30 years. 

Infant son of — Mitchell, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 24. 

Mary Haggarty, interred Lundy's Lane Aug. 26, aged 2 years. 

— Mitchell, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 29, aged 24 years. 
Thaddeus Davis, St. John's, Aug. 31, aged 56 years. 
Joseph Huffman, Stamford, Sept. 7, aged 30 years. 
Wilfrid Burns, interred at Beaverdam Sept. 12, infant. 
Mary Ann Brown, Lundy's Lane, Sept 14, aged 25 years. 
James Mills, Deepcut, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 25, aged 85 years. 
Matthias Kerns, Stamford, Oct. 25, aged 70 years. 

Mrs. Ann Cook, Beaverdam, Nov. 2, aged 48 years. 
Richard Pedon, Chippawa, Nov. 24, aged 63 years. 
Daughter of P. Metlar, Beaverdam, Nov. 30, aged 3 years. 
James Boyle, Lundy's Lane, from Deepcut, Dec. 7, aged 8 years. 

* From whom comes the name Lundy's Lane. Descendants still live near 
the scene of the battle. 

-Probably Mehitabel, the mother of Samuel Street, the wealthiest man in 
the district. 



Mrs. Couts, Deepcut, Jan. 5, aged about 30 years. 
John Meiklehorn, Lundy's Lane, Jan. 25, aged 85 years. 
Infant daughter of — Squires, Beaverdam, Feb. 2. 

— Hunt, Stamford, Feb. 6, aged 07 years. 
Infant son of John Madden, St. David's, Feb. 6. 
Mrs. Bailey, Niagara, Feb. 7. 

Win. Wrishun, Stamford, May 30. 
James Cockroft, Lundy's Lane, July 27. 

— Coglan, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 10. 

John Dunn, Beaverdam, Sept. 5, aged 45 years. 

Strange woman, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 18. 

Leonard Fawell, St. David's, Oct. 10, aged about 40 years. 

Mrs. Fawell, St. David's, Oct. 14, aged about 40 years. 

Morgan George, Falls, Dec. 7, aged 30 years. 

— Leach, Chippawa, Dec. 26. 

Wm. Kelsey, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 26, infant. 
Infant son of Mr. Mead, Falls, Dec. 26. 


— Ward. Stamford. Tan. 7, aged 2 years. 
Mrs. John Thomas, Stamford, Jan. 9. 

Dr. L. Cockroft, Lundy's Lane, Jan. 9, aged 39 years. 

— Creen, Niagara, Jan. 17. 
Mrs. Thomas, Thorold, Jan. 22. 

Jane Boyle, Gravelley Bay, interred at Lundy's Lane, Feb. 5, aged 
12 years. 
-Child of Louis Smith, St. David's, March 4, aged 3 years. 
Cynthia Jane Conklin, Bridgewater, March 21, infant. 
Jonathan James Conklin, Bridgewater, March 23, aged 6 years. 
Cynthia Conklin, Bridgewater, March 25, aged 12 years. 
Walter Willson, Drummondville, March 31, aged about 30 years. 
Jonathan Potter, Chippawa, April 1, aged 21 years. 
Geo. Shaw, St. David's, April 2. 

— Smith, Chippawa, April 3, aged 13 years. 
Infant son of Mr. Darby, St. David's, April 3. 
Mary Smith, Bridgewater, April 4, aged 4 years. 

— Mede, Falls, April 8. 

— Chambers, Chippawa, April 10. 

Edward Chrysler, Drummondville, April 11, aged 6 years. 


— Hepburne, Chippawa, April 13, aged 4 years. 
John Kitchie, Falls, April 20. 

Enom Moses, Chippawa, May 7, aged 35 years. 
Wm. Stickles, Lundy's Lane, May 14, aged 23 yeaTs. 

— Strickland, Chippawa, May 15. 
David Fawkes, Dnimmondville, May 21. 

Infant daughter of Wm. and Mary Garner, Drummondville, May 30. 

— Vantassel, Drummondville, June 28. 
-Geo. Smith, Bridgewater, July 4, aged 2 years. 

Infant daughter of John Shannon, Stamford, July 2. 

John Garner, Drummondville, July 13, aged 6 years. 

Elizabeth Colwell, Chippawa, Aug. 5, aged 70 years. 

Eli Keeney, Drummondville, Aug. 7, aged 27 years. 

Francis Galbraith, Aug. 7, aged 45 years. 

Nancy Upper, Thorold, Aug. 9, aged 30 years. 

Infant son of — Hudson, Drummondville, Aug. 9. 

Crowell Wilson, Crowland, Aug. 13, aged 70 years. 

G. Jenkins, Drummondville, Aug. 15. 

Infant son of — Wright, Drummondville, Aug. 15. 

Wm. Wright, Chippawa, Aug. 11, aged 1 year and 4 months. 

Emigrant,* died at Chippawa of cholera, interred on the Point, Aug. 

Geo. Smith, died of cholera at Chippawa, Aug. 18, aged 16 years. 
-Mrs. Smith, died of cholera at Chippawa, Aug. 19. 
Valancey Leonard, Drummond Hill, Aug. 20, aged 10 or 11 months. 

— Cammel, Deepcut, Aug. 24, aged 11 years. 
W. D. Wright, Falls, Aug. 24. 

W. Leeming,! Officiating Minister. 

John Brooks, Falls, Aug. 27. 

-, Stamford, Sept. 3. 

J. Anderson, Off. Min. 

Beuben Biggar, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 16. 

— Moore, St. David's, Sept. 30, aged 2 years. 

*Feb. 14th, 1833, was a day of public thanksgiving after the visitation of 
cholera. In a sermon given in St. Mark's Church, Niagara, mention was 
thankfully made that only one of that congregation had suffered from the 
dread disease. 

fRev. Wm. Leeming was appointed missionary in 1820 by the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and became Rector of Trinity 
Church, Chippawa. Born in 1787, died in 1863; was also the minister of 


Margaret Thomas, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 3, aged 22 months. 

John Lamont, Chippawa, Sept. 9, aged 27 years. 

Sergeant John Huff, Chippawa, Sept. 10, aged about 60 years. 

John Rees, Stamford, Oct. 11, infant. 

Abraham Chrysler, Lundy's Lane, Nov. 20, aged 11 years. 

Lieut. John Stephenson,* Niagara, Nov. 21. 

Infant son of Mr. Fairfield, Thorold, Dec. 21, aged 6 months. 

Harry Woodruff, St. David's, Dec. 8, aged 3 years. 


Jane Keefer, Thorold, Jan. 8, aged 47 years. 

Georgiana Thorold Wellsted, Stamford, Feb. 7, aged 3 months. 

Geo. Thorold Wellsted, Stamford, Feb. 19, aged 3 months. 

Infant daughter of — Fortner, Thorold, interred at Lundy's Lane 

Feb. 24. 
Infant son of Joseph Clement, St. David's, March 9, aged 2 years. 

— Donaldson, Lundy's Lane, April 8, aged 17 years. 

— Graham, Lundy's Lane, April 8, aged 17 years. 

Infant son of Thaddeus Conklin, Bridgewater, April 14, aged 

6 months. 
Sarah Kidson, Stamford, May. 
Son of John Clement, St. David's, June 12. 

— Wilson, Chippawa, June 24. 

Infant daughter of Wm. Aiglor, Stamford, July 15. 
Infant son of A. Upper, Thorold, July 19, agad 18 months. 
Infant daughter of Mr. , Thorold, July 19. 

— Chase, St. David's, Aug. 13, aged 13 years. 

— Wilson, Chippawa, Aug. 13. 

Infant daughter of — Latshaw, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 22. 
Admiral Joseph Kidson, Stamford, Aug. 19, infant. 
'Mary Smith, from Scotland, Stamford, Aug. 28, aged 26 years. 

— Fuller, Dominionville, Sept. 1, infant. 

John Thomas Reddet, Stamford, Sept. 2. infant. 

Wm. Taylor, Grand Island, interred Lundy's Lane Sept. 2, aged 57 

Infant daughter of Samuel Pew, interred at Lundy's Lane Oct. 11, 

aged 3 years. 
Wm. B-eemon, Chippawa, Oct. 13, aged 3 years. 

* Son-in-law of Rev. R. Addison, of Niagara, to whom he wrote after the 
Battle of Chippawa, naming the wounded. (Stevenson properly.) 


John Thomas, Stamford, Oct. 14, aged 80 years. 

Thos. Anderson, Chippawa, Oct. 23, aged 8 years. ] 

T. Fralick, Beaverdam, Oct 25, aged 15 years. 

W. Leeming, Off. Min. 

lid. Leonard, Lundy's Lane, Nov. 3, aged 59 years. 

J. Anderson, Off. Min. 

Robert H. Dee, Stamford, Xov. 11), aged 40 years. 
Luoinda Ball, German Church, Xov. 21, aged 3 years. 

— Upper, son of Jno. Upper, scarlet fever, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 12, 

aged 3 years. 


Mary Slater, Drummondville, Jan. 25, aged 18 years. 
Margaret Keefer, Thorold, Feb. 4, aged 3 years. 
Christopher Birt, Stamford, Feb. 9, aged 89 years. 

— Swan, St. David's, Feb. 11. 

Martha Green, Stamford, Feb. 22, aged 57 years. 

Infant daughter of James Thomas, Lundy's Lane. 

Rd. Thomas Dixie, Stamford, April G, aged 51 years. 

Frances Dorothea Marsh, Stamford, April 24, infant. 

Mrs. Hudson, Short-hills, May 6. 

Robt. Randall,* Lundy's Lane, May 4. 

Mrs. Brooks, Lundy's Lane, June 20. 

John Slinger, infant, Clifton, Aug. 8. 

Infant son of Daniel Jones, interred at the Falls, from Brockville, 

Aug. 10. 
Infant daughter of — Frances, Chippawa, Aug. 14. 

— Clark, Falls, Sept 2. 

Infant son of Wm. Lampman, interred at Beaverdam Sept. 10. 

- — Glasgow, Lundy's Lane, Sept. 12, aged 25 years. l 

Infant son of R. Hall, Lundy's Lane, Sept. IT. 

— Reddet, Stamford, Sept. 22, infant. 
Capt.t Willson, R.X., Stamford, Oct. 15. 

Thos. Whitemarsh, Chippawa, Xov. 7, aged 27 years. 
John Smith Maclem, Chippawa. Xov. 23, aged 2 years. 

* On the stone to his memory he is called " a victim to colonial misrule." 
He had been an M.P.P. for some years and was delegate to England to have 
abuses rectified. 

fin the tablet in the graveyard he is called Commander Wilson, R.N. 


— Glinn, Grove, Dec. 18, aged 60 years. 

Helen Kirkpatrick, Chippawa, Dec. 31, aged 8 years. 
Peter Lampman,* German church, Dec. 28, aged 86 years. 


Charlotte Cummings, Chippawa, Jan. 16. 

— Conklin, Bridgewater, Jan. 19, aged 2 years. 

W. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Jas. Braybrook, Lundy's Lane, Jan. 19, infant. 

T. B. Fuller, Off. Min, 

Jane Cockroft Kirkpatrick, Chippawa, Jan. 27, aged 1 year. 
Infant son of A. Conklin, Bridgewater, Jan. 29. 
Infant son of Erastus and Jemima Moses, Lundy's Lane, Feb. 5. 
Samuel Street Maclem, Chippawa, Feb. 10, aged 4 years. 
Elizabeth Macklehone, Lundy's Lane, Feb. 12. 
David Clow, Stamford, March 100. 

Wm. Brown, from Coventry, England, interred at Lundy's Lane 
April 3, aged 26 years. 

— Skinner, from Gravelley bay, Lundy's Lane, April 3, aged 21 years. 
John Jacobs, Thorold, April 28, aged 90 years. 

— King, Stamford, May 8. 

W. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Chas, Brundage, Chippawa, May 12, aged 6 years. 

Thos. B. Fuller, Off. Min. 

Susan Hepburne, Chippawa. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

— Farrel, Chippawa, Oct. 8. 

Thos. Clark, Falls, Oct. 10, aged 63 years. 

John Clement, St. David's, Oct. 13. 

Mary Teeter, German church, Oct. 19. 

Major Ormsby, Chippawa, Oct. 21. 

Eliza Tyrrel, Lundy's Lane, Nov. 9, aged 28 years. 

Wm. Thorne, Stamford, Dec. 18. 

♦One of the earliest settlers near Thorold. Came from New York in 1783. 
His tombstone in the graveyard of the old Lutheran Church describes him as 
"a pious, faithful member of the German Lutheran Church." He resided fifty 
years in the Township of Niagara. 


Wm. Chadwell, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 19, aged 03 years. 
Mrs. Willson, Stamford, Dec. 31. 


Ward Vanderburg, Allanburgh, Jan. 29, aged 23 years. 

Norman Ensign, Lundy's Lane, Feb. 1. 

Charles McCrea, Thorold, March 6, infant. 

Luke Carrol, Thorold, March 15, aged 65 years. 

Infant son of Cornelius and Keziah Foster, Lundy's Lane, March 26. 

Mary Ann Jennings, Cbippawa, June 28, aged 15 months. 

— Wilkinson, interred Beaverdam July 4, aged 25 years. 
Mrs. B. Fralick, Beaverdam, July 14. , 

— Thorn, Stamford, Aug. 7, aged 7 years. 

— Ness, Stamford, Aug. 7. 

Eliza Russel, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 7, aged 5 months. 
Harmanus Fletcher, Chippawa, Sept. 22, infant. 

— Tyson, Stamford, Sept. 23, infant. 

Infant twins of Philander Rump and Phoebe, his wife, AllanbuTgh, 
Oct. 11. 

— McCree, Thorold, Oct. 13. 

Mrs. Woodruff, St. David's, Oct. 17. 

— Ellice, Lundy's Lane, Oct. 22. 

Trevor Murray, Port Colborne, Oct. 24, aged 40 years. 

Mr. Woodruff, St David's, Dec. 1. 

Dan Moses, Lundy's Lane, Dec. 19, infant. 

Mary Keefer, Thorold, Dec. 21, infant. 


Infant son of John Keelar, St. John's Jan. 20. 
Mrs. Abel, St. David's, Jan. 28. 
John Pulley, Lundy's Lane, Feb. 1, aged 60 years. 
Interred, a son of Stephen Conklin and Jane, his wife, Chippawa, 
Jan. 5. 

Infant son of Jas. Nevils and , his wife, Thorold. Jan. 7. 

Mary Margaret Clark,* Chippawa, March 7, aged 45 years. 
Infant daughter of John and Mary Lampman, Thorold, March 16. 

* Wife of Hon. Thos. Clark and daughter of Robert Kerr, surgeon, and 
thus granddaughter of Sir Wm. Johnson and Molly Brant. Hon. Thomas 
Clark, M.P.P., a native of Dumfries, Scotland, for twenty years a member of 
Legislative Council; in partnership with Street; we often see the phrase 
" Clark's Mills." 


— Anderson, Chippawa, March 28, aged 7 years. 

— Waring, German church May 7. 

Andrew Goodwander ( ?), Chippawa, May 19, aged 34 years. 

— Amm, Chippawa, May 24, aged 20 years. 

Margaret McDonald, Lundy's Lane, May 31, aged 5 years. 
Thomas Reaveley, Chippawa Creek, July 6. 
Lucy Jeffreys, Lundy's Lane, July 30, infant. 
Henry Jenkins, from Buffalo, Aug. 5, aged 18 years. 
Eliza Paine, Chippawa, Aug, 7, aged 18 months. 
John Green, Lundy's Lane, Aug. 24, aged 19 years. 
Mary Spence, Dominionville, Aug. 26, aged 20 years. 
, Chippawa, Sept. 6, infant. 

— Cleveland, Thorold, Sept. 8. 
Elizabeth Mary Sawbridge, Falls, Sept. 8. 
David Newton, Thorold, Sept. 12, aged 30 years. 

Harriet Julia Hickman (colored), Chippawa, Sept. 15, infant. 
Sarah Harriet Duff, Chippawa, Sept. 25, aged 4 years. 

W. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Note. — The foregoing pages of burial are copied from an old, worn-out 
register (written by Rev. Wm. Leeming, from 1820 to 1837), as correctly as 
possible, by Geo. A. Bull, M.A., Rector of Stamford, Feb. 28th, 1892. 

Baptisms Solemnized in ye Chapeley of Chippawa, in ye Town- 
ships of Stamford and Willoughby, in ye County of Lin- 
coln and District of Niagara, in ye Year of Our Lord One 
Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy. 


Aug. 31. James Henry, son James* and Priscilla Cummings, 
Chippawa, merchant. 
Mary, dau. James and — Coady, Chippawa, cooper. 

Sept. 14. William Lampman, son James and Hannah Aiglor, Stam- 
ford, farmer. 

Oct. 3. Barak, son Thomas and — Dawn, Falls of Niagara, miller. 

Jan. -18. Mary Ann Jane, dau. William and Mary Smith, Chippawa, 

* James Cummings, born, 1789; died, 1878; a merchant, millowntr, etc.; one 
of the earliest settlers in Chippawa. 


Jan. 18. -Louisa Lavinia, dau. Jacob and Mary Smith, of Detroit. 

(bap. at Chippawa), Indian Interpreter. 
Feb. 18. Carrol Samuel, son — Evans, Bridgewater, shoemaker. 
Catherine Elizabeth, dau. — Stull, Stamford, farmer. 
27. Margaret Stuart, dau. John and Mary Lefferty, Lundy*s 
Lane, surgeon. 
May 7. John, son James and Jane Ruthven, Stamford, hatter. 

Adam Bowman, son James and Jane Ruthven, Stamford, 

Elizabeth, dau. Adam and Mary Bowman, Stamford, 

Alexander, son Archibald and Mary McArthur, Stamford, 

Lucine, dau. Peter and Christine Kelly. 

20. John Warren, son John and Mary Waddel. 

July 22. Sidney Secord, son John and Mary Lampman, farmer. 
Aug. 12. David, son Benjamin and Jane Hardison, Fort Erie, 
Jane, dau. Isaac and Magdalen Johnson, Fort Erie, farmer. 
Mary, dau. Nicholas and Catherine Near, Fort Erie, 

Barbara, dau. Jacob and Margaret Near, Fort Erie, 
Sept. 23. Catherine, dau. Henry and Anna Teal, Bertie, farmer. 
Lydia, dau. Henry and Anna Teal, Bertie, farmer. 
Eliza Jane, dau. Conrad and Charity Johnson, Bertie, 

Jehoiakim, son Conrad and Charity Johnson, Bertie, 
Oct. 10. John, son Malcolm and Janet Morrison. 

— , son — McKellar, Stamford, immigrant laborer. 
sDuncan, son John and Isabel Smith McDonald, Stamford, 
immigrant labourer. 

21. Robt. Carr Addison, son Edward Robert and Theresa 

Nichol, Stamford, gentleman. 
Dec. 30. Thomas Coulton,* son George and Jane Keefer, merchant. 

* T. C. Keefer, C.E., C.M.G., of Ottawa, the son of George Keefer, the 
founder of Thorold. George Keefer came to Canada in 1790; was the first 
President of the Welland Canal Company, and of many societies. His tomb 
bears inscriptions to his four wives. He was born in New Jersey, 1773; died, 
1858. There were ten sons and four daughters. 


Jan. 13. William, son Mary Stickles, Stamford. 
Timothy, son Mary Stickles, Stamford.. 
Matilda (Foster), adult, Stamford. 

Baptized at Waterloo. 

20. Eliza Arm, dau. Benjamin Prescott and Bridget Hall, 
Willoughby, surgeon. 

Cyrenius, son Benjamin Prescott and Bridget Hall, Wil- 
loughby, surgeon. 

Wm. Henry, son Benjamin Prescott and Bridget Hall, 
Willoughby, surgeon. 

Robt. Prescott, son Benjamin Prescott and Bridget Hall, 
Willoughby, surgeon. 

Maria Vrooman, Willougbby. 

Joseph, son Henry and Eve Near, farmer. 

William, son Henry and Eve Near. 

Peter, son Peter and Elizabeth Near, farmer. 

Leo, son Peter and Elizabeth Near, farmer. 

John, son John and Betsie Near, farmer. 

Lydia, dau. John and Betsie Near, farmer. 

Alexander, son Capt. Donald Chas. and Ann McLean, 
Eeb. 3. William, son Nicholas and Cath. Michael, Humberstone, 
farmer. At Fort Erie. 

Baptized at Fort Erie. 

Mary, dau. Henry and Betsie Near, Ancaster Township, 

Joseph, son Joseph and Christiana Shewet, Dumfries, 

Jacob, son John and Mary McKoy, Humberstone, farmer. 

Juliana, dau. Wm. and Christina Carter, Bertie, farmer. 

Wm. Henry, son Wm. and Christina Carter, Bertie, farmer. 

Sophia Caroline, dau. Wm. and Christina Carter, Bertie, 

Anna Margaret, dau. Wm. and Christina Carter, Bertie, 

Margaret Ezilphy, dau. Thomas and Mary Ashley, Wil- 
loughby, farmer. 



Feb. 3. John Millmine, son John and Kachel Huff, Chippawa, 
Sergeant 68th Regt. foot. 

Ann Mary, dau. John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa, Ser- 
geant 68 th Regt. foot. 

Elizabeth, dau. John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa, Ser- 
geant 68th Regt. foot. 

Martha Jane, dau. Michael and Esther Pearson, Chippawa. 

John, son Leo and Maragaret Steinhoff, Chippawa. 

William, son Leo and Margaret Steinhoff, Chippawa. 

Baptized at Waterloo. 

17. Betsy, dau. Zecharias and Anna Teal, Bertie, farmer. 
Charity, dau. Zecharias and Anna Teal, Bertie, farmer. 
Henry, son Zecharias and Anna Teal, Bertie, farmer. 
James, son James and Amelia Jackson, at ye Grand River 
Station, Lieut, in British Navy. 
March 31. -Henrietta Amelia, dau. Wm. and Mary Smith, Bertie, 

April 28. Sophia Regina, dau. Edmund and Elizabeth Sophia 

Riselay, Bertie, farmer. 
May 5. Margaret Jane, dau. Daniel Stewart and Anne Maria 
Grenville, Thorold, farmer. 
15. Robert Land, son Braithwaite and Phoebe Leeming, Glan- 
ford, farmer. 
June 30. Mary Ann Margaret, dau. Jacob H. and Catherine Ball, 

Aug. 11. Wm. Warner, son James and Priscilla Cummings, Esq., 

Chippawa-Willoughby, Esquire. 
Sept. 15. Jas. Robt. Nichol, son James and Jane Kerby, Fort Erie, 
George, son Wm. and Christine Cregar, Bertie, farmer. 
29. James Maclem, son Andrew Todd and Margaret Kirby, 
Canboro', bap. at Chippawa. 
Oct. 6. Walter Henry, son Henry Clement and Mary Ball, 

Thorold, farmer, bap. at German church.* 
John and Christine (twins), son and dau. Philip and 
Catherine Metlar, born April 11, bap. at German 
13. Robert, son George and Elijah McKie, Niagara Falls. 

♦Sometimes called German Church, sometimes Lutheran Church, in one 
case, Eng. Church ; built in 1795 ; the prime mover, George Keefer. 


Oct. 23. Charlotte Fitzgerald, dau. Col. Richard and Frances 
Leonard, Drummond Hill. 

Nov. 17. Archibald, son Peter and Agnes Ann Lampman, Town- 
ship of Niagara, bap. at German church, Thorold. 


Jan. 22. Alexander Merrill, son John and Hannah Shannon, Stam- 
Feb. 2. Christine, dau. Benjamin and Elizabeth Taylor, Humber- 
stone, farmer, bap. at Fort Erie. 
Nancy, dau. Geo. and Catherine Huffman, Humberstone, 

Catherine, dau. Henry and Eve Near, Humberstone, 

farmer, bap. at Fort Erie. 
Catherine, dau. John and Eliz. Near, Humberstone, 
farmer, bap. at Fort Erie. 
4. Agnes, dau. George and Eliza Gillies, bap. at Niagara 

14. Rebecca, dau. T. and Elizabeth Casey, Township Walpole, 

London District, bap. in Stamford. 
Mary, dau. T. and Elizabeth Casey, Township Walpole, 

London District, bap. in Stamford. 
Martha, dau. T. and Elizabeth Casey, Township Walpole, 
London District, bap. in Stamford. 
23. James Henry, son Samuel and Elizabeth Darragh, Town- 
ship Wainfleet, bap. at German church, Thorold. 
James Cummings, son Wm. Nelles and his wife, Grand 
River, bap. at Chippawa. 
March 2. Andrew, son Peter and Deborah Miller, Bertie, farmer, 

bap. at Waterloo. 
June 8. Susan, dau. Benjamin and Jane Hardison, in Bertie. 

15. John Hutt, son Jacob J. and Catharine Ball, Grantham, 

bap. at German church, Thorold. 
James, son Elias and Ann Mary Durham, Grantham, bap. 
at German church, Thorold. 
July 20. Lauretta, dau. Thomas and Mary Ashley, bap. at Waterloo. 
Aug. 3. Mary (Johnson), adult, bap. at Waterloo church. 

William, son Peter and Mary Johnson, Bertie, bap. at 
10. Samuel, son Jacob and Margaret Stull, Grantham, bap. 
at German church. 


Nov. 14. Charles Rogers, son J. L. and — Rogers, Stam- 
ford, bap. at Chippawa church. 
Dec. 28. Julia Ann, dau. Paul and Nancy Sowersby, bap. at Ger- 
man church, Thorold. 

Feb. 22. Charles Henry, son George and Jane Keefer. 
April 1. George Millmine, son Gilbert L. and — McMicking, 
Chippawa, bap. at Chippawa. 
4. John Wartman, son John and Mary Lampman, Grantham, 

bap. at German church. 
7. Thomas Wright, son Robert* and Theresa Nichol, Stam- 
ford, bap. at Stamford. 
. 18. John, son Andrew Todd and Margaret Kerby, bap. at 
May 16. Adam Spencer, son Nathaniel and Sarah Wilson, Stam- 
ford, bap. at German church. 
30. Frederic Ferdinand, son Jacob and Catherine Ball, Gran- 
tham, bap. at German church. 
July 4. Mary Howit, dau. Robert and Margaretf Kirkpatrick, 
Chippawa, bap. at Chippawa. 
Eliza Jane, dau. Robert and Susan Akins, Bertie, bap. at 

Wm. Henry Bowden, son John and Charlotte Warren, 
Bertie, bap. at Waterloo church. 
25. Jane, dau. John and Phebe Cole, Thorold, bap. at Ger- 
man church. 
Mary Ann, dau. Henry Clement and Mary Ball, Thorold, 
bap. at German church. 
Aug. 8. Amelia Lavinia, dau. Frederick and Mary Hutt, Stam- 
ford, bap. at German church. 
25. Robert, son James and Prdscilla Cummings, Chippawa, 
bap. at Chippawa. 
Oct. 3. Mary Ann, dau. William and Frances Riley, Thorold, 
bap. at German church. 
Vilette, dau. William and Frances Riley, Thorold, bap. at 
German church. 

* Col. Robert Niohol, M.P.P. for Norfolk for many years; fought at 
Detroit; rewarded with a gold medal by the Duke of York for gallant conduct; 
was killed from falling over Queenston Heights on a dark night when driving 
from Niagara, May, 1824. 

f Mrs. Kirkpatrick, n6e Stevenson, the last living grandchild of Rev. R. 
Addison ; died, June 24th, 1906 ; was buried in Niagara. 


Oct. 31. Sarah Evanson, dau. Col. Richard and Frances Leonard, 

Nov. 2. William Henry, son James and Amelia Jackson, Fort 
Erie, bap. at Fort Erie. 
28. Elizabeth, dau. Peter and Agnes Ann Lampman, of ye 
Township of Niagara, bap. at German church. 

Wm. Leeming, Officiating Minister, Chippawa. 
Jan. 20. Harriet Ann, dau. David and Phebe Grass, Grantham, 

bap. in Grantham. 
April 3. Margaret, dau. John and Mary Lee, Thorold, bap. at 

Port. Short, Off. 

March 27. Gerald England, son Thomas and Sophia Fitzgerald, 

Bertie, bap. in Bertie. 
John Edmund, son William and Christiana Carter, Bertie, 

bap. in Bertie. 
William, son, Abraham and Mary Wintermute, Bertie, bap. 

in Bertie. 
Catherine Mary, dau. Abraham and Mary Wintermute, of 

Bertie, bap. in Bertie. 
Abraham, adult son of Abraham and Mary Wintermute, 

of Bertie, bap. in Bertie. 
Christiana, dau. John and Charlotte Harp, of Bertie, bap. 

in Bertie. 
Gerald, adult son of James and Abigail Bailey, of Bertie, 

bap. in Bertie. 
William, adult son of Henry and Hannah Putman, of 

Bertie, bap. in Bertie. 
April 3. (See second name in 1825.) 

8. Jane, dau. Hugh and Martha Collum, of Thorold, from 

Ireland, bap. in Stamford. 
18. Mary Elizabeth, dau. William and Hannah Aiglor, Stam- 
ford, bap. in Stamford. 
John, son William and Hannah Aiglor. Stamford, bap. in 

May 22. Rachel Penel, dau. John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa, 

bap. in Chippawa. 
Thomas, son Sergt. John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa, 

hap. in Chippawa. 


May 29. Caroline Sophia, dau. Valentine and Margaret Ward, 
Thorold, bap. at ye Grennan church. 

June 26. John Henry, son Henry and Hannah Pawling, St. Cath- 
arines, bap. at St. Catharines. 

July 31. Mary, dau. John and — Eogers, Stamford. 

Aug. 23. Walter, son James and Janet Thompson, Stamford, bap. 
in Stamford. 
Hugh Alexander, son James and Janet Thompson, Whirl- 
pool, Stamford, bap. in Stamford. 

Sept. 4. Caroline, dau. Samuel and Abigail H. Street, Falls Mills, 
bap. at Chippawa church.* 
John Crysler, son Samuel and Abigail H. Street, Falls 

Mills, bap. at Chippawa church. 
Jane Cementhe, dau. Samuel and Abigail H. Street, Falls 
Mills, bap. at Chippawa church. 

12. William, son William and Jane Blain, bap. at Queenston. 
Eliza, dau. John and Sarah McGowan, bap. at Queenston. 

19. Mary Ann, dau. Alexander and Esther McKabe, Thorold, 

bap. at Stamford. 
15. Martha, dau. John and Elizabeth O'Brien, Thorold, bap. 
in Stamford. 
Caroline Elizabeth, dau. John and Elizabeth O'Brien, 
Thorold, bap. in Stamford. 
27. William Burnetstein, son William Burnetstein, bap. in 
Nov. 3. Margaret Ann, dau. Adam and Mary Stull, Esquesing, 
bap. at Mr. Lampman's, Niagara. 
6. Mary, dau. John and Margaret Ryan, Thorold, bap. at 
Thomas, son George and Mary Reid, St. Catharines, bap. 
at St. Catharines. 

13. Wm., son John and Mary Latimer, Stamford, bap. at 

Francis, son John and Mary Latimer, Stamford, bap. at 

30. Andrew, son James and Louisa Morrow, Thorold, bap. at 

James, son James and Mary Kerr, Thorold, bap. at 


•Trinity Church, built, it is supposed, in 1825 ; burned down in 1839 ; re- 
built in 1841. 



Jan. 1. Alexander, son George and Jane Keefer, Thorold, bap. at 
German church, Thcrold. 
Peter, son Thomas and Ann McBride, Township of 

Thorold, bap. at German church, Thorold. 
Elizabeth, dau. Thomas and Ann McBride, Township of 
Thorold, bap. at German church, Thorold. 
22. Agnes, dau. David and Nancy Agnes McKaye, Thorold 
Canal, bap. at Chippawa. 
Margaret, dau. Samuel and Rachel Cams, Thorold Canal, 

bap. at Chippawa. 
James, son John and Margaret Haun, Willoughby, bap. at 
German church, Thorold. 
Feb. 13. Sarah Ann, dau. Stewart and Mary Thompson, Thorold 
Canal, bap. at Stamford. 
16. Sarah Jane, dau. George and Jane Jameson, ThoTold 
Canal, bap. at Stamford. 

27. Mrs. Tisdale and her three children; by me, bap. at 


28. David, son Jacob and Charity Smith, bap. in Glanford. 
Henry, son Jacob and Charity Smith, bap. in Glanford. 

April 8. Martha Raymond, dau. Benjamin and Mrs. — Otley, 

Stamford, bap. privately in Stamford. 
Maria, no names, bap. at Chippawa. 

June — . Mary, dau. John and Mary Lampman, bap. at German 
7. Margaret, dau. Robt. and Margaret Kirkpatrick, bap. at 

July 12. Elizabeth, dau. Hugh and Martha Collum, bap. at Stam- 
Eliza, dau. John and Mary Little, Thorold, bap. at Stam- 
17. John, son Thomas and Isabella Ostfield, Thorold, bap. at 

23. Isabella, dau. John and Margaret Lee, Thorold, bap. at 

30. John, son James and Eliza Gambel, Thorold, bap. at 
Mary, dau. Win. and Mary Hamilton, Thorold, bap. at 


Aug. 13. Thomas, son Thomas and Mary Johnston, Thorold, bap. 

at Chippawa. 
John, son John and Jane Pile, Thorold, bap. at Chippawa. 
Thomas, son John and Bridget McGee, Thorold, bap. at 

Maria, dau. James and Mary Symes, Thorold, bap. at 

Mary Jane, dau. James and Elizabeth Armstrong, Thorold, 

bap. at Chippawa. 
Georgiana England, dau. Richard and Frances Leonard, 

Stamford, bap. at Chippawa. 
; 20. Jacob Augustus, son Jacob H. and Catharine Ball, Gran- 

tham, bap. at German church. 
Sept. 7. Mary, dau. Wm. and Bridget Wallans, Thorold, bap. at 

24. Lonsdale Maving, son Doctor Lonsdale L. and Eliza 

Cockroft, bap. at Chippawa. 
Eliza, dau. Thomas and Jane Bennet, Thorold, bap. at 

Oct. 15. Wm. Alexander, son Henry and Mary Ball, bap. at Ger- 
man church. 
Margaret Elizabeth, dau. James and Mary Carr, bap. at 

German church. 
Nov. 5. Nathaniel, son Peter and Nancy Upper, Thorold, bap. at 

Mr. Upper's. 
Catherine Jane, dau. Peter and Nancy Upper, Thorold, bap. 

at Thorold. 
Mary, dau. Peter and Nancy Upper, Thorold, bap. at 

John, son Wm. and Anna Garner, Stamford, bap. at 

29. Ellinor, dau. Wm. and Anna Colby, Wainfleet, bap. at 

Charity Anna, dau. Wm. and Anna Colby, Wainfleet, bap. 

at Stamford. 
William, son Wm. and Anna Colby, Wainfleet, bap. at 

John William, son Wm. and Anna Colby, Wainfleet, bap. 

at Stamford. 


Jan. 7. James, son John and Elizabeth Tate, Thorold, bap. at 
11. Margaret, dau. John and Frances Kaynes, Thorold, bap. 
at Thorold. 
March 4. John, son, Thomas and Margaret Coutratt,* Grantham, 
bap. at German church. 

11. Eliza Ann Jay (adult), bap. at Chippawa. 

April 29. Ann Jane, dau. Hugh and Eliza McCutcheon, Thorold, 

bap. at Chippawa. 
May 1. William Stephen, son James and Margaret Tinlin, Louth, 
bap. at Louth. 
13. Joseph, eon Peter and Agnes Lampman, bap at German 
June 10. John, son John and Phebe Cole, bap. at German church. 

28. John, son Peter and Keziah Slack, Wainfleet, bap. at 
Keziah, dau. Peter and Keziah Slack, Wainfleet, bap. at 

Peter, son Peter and Keziah Slack, Wainfleet, bap. at 

Nelson and Robert, sons Isaac and Anna Chambers, Stam- 
ford, bap. at Stamford. 
July 22. Margaret, dau. Edgar and Rachel Berryman, bap. at 

Aug. 6. William, son Edward and Allivia Fletcher, bap. at 
James, son John and Mary Little, bap. at Thorold. 
7. Margaret, dau. James and Rebecca Allen, bap. at Thorold. 
26. Elizabeth Priscilla, dau. John and Rachel Elizabeth Nelles, 
bap. at Chippawa. 
Sept 2. Thomas Francis, sou Henry and Mary Rail, bap. at Ger- 
man church. 

12. Susanna, dau. Sergeant John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa, 

bap. at Chippawa. 
23. Robert, son Robert and Catherine Wilson, Deep cut, bap. 
at Stamford. , 

•In some places the writing is so small and in others so indistinct that 
a few of the names may he printed incorrectly, but great care has been taken 
to give the spelling as in the manuscript. 


Sept. 30. Margaret, dau. James and Mary Darragh, Deep cut, bap. 

at Stamford. 
Oct 8. Jonathan James, son Abraham and Jane Concklin, bap. 
at Mrs. Smith's, Stamford. 
21. James Thomas, son James and Margaret Scott, bap. at 

St. Catharines, private. 
28. Mary Jane, dau. John and Mary Lee, Thorold, bap. at 
Nov. 10. Arthur Wellington, son John and Ann Gordon, bap. at 
Mary Maria, dau. John and Ann Gordon, bap. at Thorold. 
Charles, son James and Louisa Morrow, bap. at Thorold. 
Mary Ann, dau. James and Mary Reid, bap. at Thorold. 
John Whiteside, son Robt. and Elizabeth Fletcher, bap. at 

Robert, son Robt. and Mary Patterson, bap. at Thorold. 
Margaret, dau. James and Mary Kerr, bap. at Thorold. 
Jane, dau. Alexander and Esther McCabe, bap. at Thorold. 
Robert, son Robt. and Nancy Carr, widow, bap. at Thorold. 
Dec. 23. George, son John and Mary Latimer, Stamford. 

26. Willoby,* son Wm. and Mary Hamilton, Thorold, bap. at 

Jan. 30. Hannah, dau. Samuel and Rachel Cams, bap. at Stamford. 
Feb. 7. Francis, son Joseph and Ann Lundy, Thorold, bap. at 
John, son Joseph and Ann Lundy, Deep cut, bap. at 

William, son John and Susan McLean, Thorold, bap. at 
10. Martha Stevens, dau. Jas. William and Maria Glenny, 
Thorold, bap. at Thorold. 
William, son Samuel and — Davenport, Stamford, bap. 
at Stamford. 
15. George, son George and Jane Jamieson, Deep cut, Thorold, 
bap. at Thorold. 
Robert, son Robt. and Martha McKee, Thorold, bap. at 

♦Willoughby ?— G. A. B. 


Feb. 15. Sarah Ann, dau. John and Margaret Walker, Deep cut, 
bap. at Thorold. 

21. William, son William and Ann Birch, bap. privately in 

22. -Margaret, dau. Margaret Smith, Stamford, bap. at Major 
March 2. Caroline Rebecca, dau. Henry and Margaret Hoover, 
Thorold, bap. at Thorold. 
16. Margaret Rebecca, dau. James and Jane Milligan, Thorold, 

bap. at German church. 
23. Robt. Alexander, son Francis ?nd Susan Galbraith, bap. 
at Thorold. 
April 10. Catherine Margaret, dau. John and Mary Lampman, bap. 
at Mr. Lampman's, sen'r. 
13. Carolina, dau. James and Elizabeth Landers, bap. at Ger- 
man church. 
May 4. 'Susanna, dau. George and Mary Reid, bap. at St. 
Eliza, dau. John and Mary Gibson, bap. at St. Catharines. 
11. James Skinner, son Nancy Skinner, bap. at the Falls. 
June 22. John, son John and Ellinor McGuire, Thorold, bap. at 
Maria, dau. James and Mary Simms, bap. at Thorold. 
Letitia, dau. James and Mary Simms, bap. at Thorold. 
29. Francis, son John and Bridget McGee, bap. at Stamford. 
George, son Richard and Jane Hanna, Thorold, bap. at 
July 10. William, son William and Bridget Wallans, Thorold, bap. 
at Thorold. 
13. Frances, dau. Charles* and Ann Rolls, St. Catharines, 
bap. at St. Catharines. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Ann Jane, dau. John and Isabella Walker, Thorold, born 
24th June, bap. at Chippawa. 

Thomas Ckeen, Off. Min. 

22. John Marcus, son Andrew and Matilda Brown, Thorold, 

(bap. in Thorold), born 13th June, 1827. 

♦Charles Rolls, born in England, 1785, died in 1867; was the father of 
Henry Rolls, M.D., 1814-1887. 


Aug. 1. William, son James and Elizabeth Gamble, bap. in 
Mary Ann, dan. James and Ann Trotter, bap. in Thorold, 

Deep out. 
Ann, dau. John and Ellen Blevins, Thorold, bap. in Deep 

Mary Jane, dau. Alexander and Jane Allen, Thorold, bap. 

in Deep cut. 
James, son James and Sarah Dohar, Thorold, bap. in 

Deep cut. 
Samuel, son Robt. and Matilda McKee, Thorold, bap. in 

Deep cut. 
John, son John and Mary Meynes, Thorold, bap. in Deep 
26. John, son John and Sarah Lee, Thorold, bap. in Deep cut. 
William, son Robt. and Ann Boyle, bap. in Deep cut 
Catherine, dau. Win. and Sarah Scot, Thorold, bap. in 
Deep cut. 
31. Mary Jane, dau. Peter and Deborah Miller, Bertie, bap. 
in Waterloo church. 
Sept. 13. Thomas, son Robt. and Sarah Brown, bap. in Deep cut, 
Esther, dau. Georga and Jane Sides, bap. at Deep cut. 
Oct. 7. Jane, dau. William and Elizabeth Hand, Deep cut, bap. 
at St. Catharines. 
18. Luke, son Herman and Catherine Hosteder, bap. at 
Thorold, near Beaverdam. 
John, son John and Margaret Major, bap. at Chippawa. 
26. Hannah, dau. Robt. and Betsie Irvine, bap. at Chippawa. 
Nov. 2. Mary, dau. Joseph and Mary Smith, bap. at Chippawa. 
Mr. and Mrs. Clark, sponsors. 
21. Stewart, son Thomas and Jane Brown, Deep cut, bap. at 
Deep cut. 
Martha, dau. William and Elizabeth Davis, Deep cut, bap. 
at Deep cut. 
30. Elizabeth, dau. Samuelf and Abigail Street, Falls' Mills, 
bap. at Chippawa. Tom Street, Hannah Maclem and 
Harriet Ransom, sponsors. 

♦This surely does not mean by immersion, as we find at Deep Cut, at ye 
Deep Cut, as well as in Deep Cut. 

fSamuel Street, the wealthy merchant and mill-owner; his name is found 
in many different capacities; born in Connecticut, 1775; died, 1844. 



Jan. 25. -Thomas, son James and Janet Smith, baip. at Stamford 
Eliza Ann, dau. John and Sarah Green, bap. at Stamford 
Feb. 8. Robt. Henry, son Edgar and Rachel Barryman, bap. at 

Stamford church. 
Miarch 30. Sarah, dau. George and Ann Graham, Thorold, bap. at 

Lundy's Lane. 
April 5. Sophia Louisa, dau. John and Mary Garden, bap. at Stam- 
Mary Caroline, dau. John and Mary Garden, bap. at 
July 26. Charles Maitland, son Richard and Frances Leonard, bap. 

at Chippawa. 
Sept. 1. Margaret Elizabeth, dau. John and Rachel Nelles, bap. at 
12. Jane, dau. James and Louisa Morrow, Thorold, bap. at ye 
Deep cut. 
William, son William and Jane Moffatt, bap. at ye Deep 

out, Thorold. 
Elizabeth, dau. George and Sarah Lovell, bap. at ye Deep 

cut, Thorold. 
Mary Ann, dau. Thomas and Isabella Horsfield, bap. at 

ye Deep cut, Thorold. 
James, son Joseph and Ann Lundy, bap. at ye Deep cut, 
Oct. 8. Robert Hill, son Robt. Henry and Elizabeth Dee, Stam- 
ford, bap. at Stamford. 
Nov. 29. George, son Francis and Elizabeth Humphries, bap. at 

Chippawa church. 
Dec. 22. Margaret Frances, dau. Lonsdale and Eliza Cockroft. 

24. Edward, son Robert and Eliza Fletcher, bap. at Deep cut. 
George, son John and Ann Malton, bap. at Deep out. 
John Alexander, son James and Ann Trotter, bap. at Deep 

Thomas, son Robt. and Ellen Armstrong, bap. at Deep cut 

*St. John's Church, Stamford, built, 1825, Sir Peregrine Maitland, the 
Governor, who had a fine residence in Stamford, being one of the chief movers. 


Jan. 26. John E/ichardson McGregor, son George and Susanna 
Hutt, bap. at Lundy's Lane. 
31, Thomas, son Michael and Esther Pearson, born June 4, 
Elizabeth, dau. Michael and Esther Pearson, born June 

1, 1827. 
Pamela Ann, dau. Michael and Esther Pearson, born Sept. 
17, 1829. 
March 16. Margaret Ellen, dau. Joseph and Sarah Johnston, bap. in 
James Gordon, son Joseph and Sarah Johnston, bap. in 
April 4. Mary, dau. Peter and Agnes Lampinan, bap. in Stamford 
4. Eliza Ann, dau. Susan Dell, bap. at Lundy's Lane. 
May 9. Harriet, dau. John and Sarah Gurr, born 6th April, 1830, 
bap. at Chippawa church. 
>Tane, dau. George and Ann Smith, born 12th Aug., 1828, 
bap. at Chippawa church. 
13. Robert Grant, son George and Susan Kirkland, Queens- 
ton, bap. at Queenston. 
18. Nancy Ann, dau. Henry and Elizabeth Spincks, bap. in 

Stamford township. 
24. Richard, son John and Mary Silverthorn. 
July 11. -Ann Eliza, dau. Joseph and Mary Smith, Falls, bap. at 

Chippawa church. 
Aug. 23. Eliza Jane, dau. Alexander and Elizabeth Cammell, Deep 
cut, Thorold, bap. at Lundy's Lane. 
Wilfred, son Hugh and Ann Burns, Chippawa creek. 
29. Robert Grant, son Jacob Keefer and Christiana, his wife, 
bap. at Queenston church. 
Joseph Alexander, son Alexander* and Hannah Hamilton, 
bap. at Queenston church. 
Sept. 12. William Jacob, son — and — Dittrick, St. Cath- 
arines, bap. at St. Catharines. 
Caroline Amelia, dau. Jacob II. and Catherine Ball, bap. 
at German church. 

* Sheriff Alexander Hamilton (son of Hon. Robert Hamilton), who died in 
1839, never having recovered from the shock sustained in having to execute 
Morreau in Niagara for his part in the Rebellion, as no executioner could be 
found. Hannah Owen Jarvis, nis wife, the daughter of Wm. Jarvis, Provincial 


Oct. 13. Eliza Catherine, dau. John and Sarah Ann Decoe, bap. 

at Mr. Lacy's, Thorold. 
Frederick, son John and Sarah Ann Decoe, bap. at Mr. 

Lacy's, Thorold. 
24. Samuel Street, son James and Harriet Maclem, bap. at 

Chippawa church. 
Nov. 8. David, son David and Nancy McCaig, bap. at Deep cut, 

Robert, son Robt. and Mary Coutes, bap. at Deep cut, 

10. Joseph, son George and Ann Shaw, St. David's, bap. at 

St. David's. 
Sarah, dau. Richard and Mary Smith, Queenston, bap. at 

St. David's. 
-Elizabeth, dau. Richard and Mary Smith, Queenston, bap. 

at St. David's. 
Sarah, dau. Arthur and Jane Shaw, bap. at St. David's. 
Dec. 9. Lydia, dau. Stephen and Patience Paine, Stamford, bap. 

Dec. 9, 1830. 
Roxalana, dau. Stephen and Patience Paine, Stamford, 

bap. Dec. 9, 1830. 
Julius Francis, son Stephen and Patience Paine, bap. Dec. 

9, 1830. 
Stephen, son Stephen and Patience Paine, bap. Dec. 9, 

Sarah, dau. Stephen and Patience Paine, bap. Dec. 9, 

Benjamin, son Stephen and Patience Paine, bap. Dec. 9, 

Hiram, son Stephen and Patience Paine, Stamford, bap. 

Dec. 9, 1830. 
Alexander, son Stephen and Patience Paine, Stamford, 

bap. Dec. 9, 1830. 
Julia Maria, dau. Stephen and Patience Paine, Stamford, 

bap. Dec. 9, 1830. 
David Burbee, son Dominique and Patience Labourier,* 

Stamford, bap. at Stamford. 

Jan. 23. Lewis Hughs, son Richard and Elizabeth Martin, Lundy's 

*Sabourier ? 


Feb. 21. Mary Ann, dau. Alexander and Esther McCaig or Cabe, 
Ellen, dau. Wm. and Catherine Hodgson, Canal, Thorold. 
March 12. Susan Hepburne, Chippawa. 

June 9. James, son Dr. and Elizabeth Cookroft, Dundy's Lane. 
Aug. 21. Margaret Maria, dau. James and Margaret Gordon, Stam- 
Abigail, dau. John and Mary Willson, Stamford, bap. in 
Stamford church. 
Sept. 8. Hannah, dau. John and Sarah Hirst, Thorold. 

10. Eliza, dau. Thomas and Ann Jane Brady, Humberstone. 
Oct. 18. Margaret, dau. Jacob and Christiana Keefer, Thorold, 
bap. in Thorold. 
Valancey, dau. Richard Leonard and Frances, his wife, 
Lundy's Lane. 
Dec. 14. -George, son George and Ann Smith, Bridgewater. 
James, son Joseph and Mary Smith, Bridgewater. 
Date forgotten. Robert, son Robert and — Brown, Wainfleet. 

Feb. 11. James, son James and Elizabeth Gamble, Trafalgar, was 
baptized Feb. 11. 
Ann Jane, dau. James and Sarah Dougher, Humberstone, 
was baptized Feb. 11. 
29. Reuben, son Robt. and Margaret Pew, Stamford, was bap- 
tized Feb. 29. 
Pamelia or Parmelia, dau. Thomas and Elizabeth Brooks, 

Stamford, was baptized Feb. 29. 
Abigail, dau. Thomas and Elizabeth Brooks, Stamford, was 

baptized Feb. 29. 
Maria, dau. Thomas and Elizabeth Brooks, Stamford, was 

baptized Feb. 29. 
Alfred, son Thomas and Elizabeth Brooks, Stamford, was 

baptized Feb. 29. 
Susan, dau. John and Mary Wilson, Stamford, was bap- 
tized Feb. 29. 
Sarah, dau. John and Eliza Thomas, Thorold, was bap- 
tized Feb. 29. 
March 1. George, son George and Susan Kirkland, Queenston. 
18. Elizabeth, dau. Robt. and Margaret Kirkpatrick. 
31. Edward, son Harmonius and Edna Crysler, Drummond- 


April 7. Mary Moses, Chippawa. 

May 9. Kobert McKinley, son George and Susanna Hutt. 

13. Thomas, son Peter and Agnes Ann Lampman, Niagara, 
bap. at Stamford church. 
June 7. Harriet Martha, dau. Robt. and Elizabeth Dee, Stamford. 
10. Samuel, son John and Jane Pile, Gravelley bay. 

Richard, son Richard and Margaret Hannah, Gravelley 
July 31. William, son John and Mary Orr, Canal, near Brown's 
David, son David and Ann Frazer, Canal, near Brown's 
Aug. 6. Ann Elizabeth, dau. George and Ann Smith, Bridgewater. 
George, son John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa. 
William, son John and Rachel Huff, Chippawa. 
7. George Jacob, son Francis and Susan Galbraith. 
Anthony Upper, son Francis and Susan Galbraith. 

25. Joseph, son Patrick and Elizabeth Maloy, Thorold. 

26. Christiana, dau. Nicholas and Catherine Near, Bertie. 
Sept. 25. John, son Wm. and Ann Rees, Queenston. 

27. Margaret, dau. Isaac and Anna Thomas, Lundy's Lane. 
30. Lonsdale Warner, son John and Rachael Welles, Chippawa. 

Oct. 14. William, son John and Ellinor Wilson, was baptized at 
Stamford church. 
19. John, son Richard and Mary Rodd, was baptized at 

Jan. 1. Walter Umfraville, son John Cleveland Green, Esq., and 

, his wife, Stamford park. 

Feb. 2. Eleanor Theresa, dau. — and — Wellstead, Stamford 
George Thorold, son — and — Wellstead, Stamford park. 
Georgiana Thorold, dau. — and — Wellstead, Stamford 
3. , — Malcolm and Laura Laing, Stamford Park. 

28. Octavia Murray Sandys, son Philip Percival Graham, 

R.N., and Mary, his wife, Niagara Falls. 
March 12. William, son Thomas and Elizabeth Coulson. 
May 1. Admiral Joseph, son — Kidson and , his wife, Stam- 

5. Eliza, dau. and , Chippawa church. 



May 26. Mary Ann, dau. Kichard and Eliza Sharp, Chippawa. 
June 16. William Jarvis, son Alexander and Hannah Owen Hamil- 
ton, Queenston. 
Baptized a stranger's child at Chippawa church. 
18. Susanna Jane, dau. George and Jane Jamieson, Humber- 
Robert, son George and Jane Jamieson, Humberstone. 
30. Sarah, dau. John and Marianne Arbut, Queenston. 
Sept. 22. Jane, dau. James and Jane Bird, Stamford. 

29. Phebe Booth, dau. George and Phebe Upper, Talbot street. 
John, son Joseph and Charlotte Upper, Thorold. 
James, son Joseph and Charlotte Upper, Thorold. 
Susanna, dau. Jacob and Jane Upper, Thorold. 
Aug. 3. Ann, dau. Moses and Christina Marsh, Chippawa. 
Mary, dau. Moses and Christina Marsh, Chippawa. 
Shadrach, son Moses and Christina Marsh, Chippawa. 
Oct. 13. Elizabeth Mary, dau. James and Margaret Gordon, Stam- 
Jan. 19. Jane Cockroft, dau. Bobt. and Margaret Kirkpatriek, 

21. Sarah Harriet, dau. Wm. and Angel Duff, Chippawa. 

23. Mary Ann, dau. Bobt. and Elizabeth Hannah, Stamford. 
Wm. Alexander, son Bobt. and Elizabeth Hannah, Stam- 

Feb. 23. Maria, dau. Charles Chard (painter) and Sophia, his wife, 

March 16. Thomas Stamford, son and — Wellstead, 


April 20. Frederic Straith, son Bev. Fred'k William Miller* and 
Anna Isabella, his wife, was born Nov. 1, 1833, bap- 
tized Chippawa, Apr. 20, 1834. Sponsors: General 
Murray, Wm. Mitchell and Mrs. Mary Straith. 

22. Frances Dorothea, dau. Mr. and Mrs. Marsh, Queenston. 
May 18. George, son Edw. and Mary Ann Laughton, Stamford, 

was born 21st Feb., bap. May 18. 

June 22. George, son John and Charlotte Coulson, Stamford. 

July 31. -Thomas Shepherd, son Thomas Shepherd Smythe and 
Harriet, his wife. Sponsors: John Vere Smythe, 
Samuel Braybroke and Mary Anne Braybroke. 

* Rev. F. W. Miller, took Mr. Leeming's place when in England, succeeded 
him in 1830. This is the first reference to sponsors. 


July 9. John Matthew, son Eobt. Dee, Esq., and Elizabeth, his 
wife, Stamford, was baptized July 9. 
27. Charles Forsyth,* son Charles and Margaret Secord, 
Aug. 4. John, son Thomas and Mary Ann Slinger, Clifton. 
5. Sally Steele, dau. Richard and Jane Steele. 
10. Mary Ann Slinger, adult dau. Moses and Christine Marsh, 
Clifton. (See 1833, owing to W. L.'s omission. — 
G. A. B.) 
14. Ann, Phebe, and two others, dau. Andrew and Lucy 
Dowler, Queenston, privately baptized at Queenston 
Sept. 21. Maria, dau. James and Rebecca Williams. 
Oct. 12. Wm. Gillespie, son Dr. Slade Robinson and Mary, his 

wife, Falls of Niagara. 
Nov. 25. Emma, dau. John and Louisa Marks, Stamford, was born 
Sept. 5. 

27. Thos. Blackmore, son — and — Arkinton, Lundy's Lane. 
30. William, son George and Rosanna Dresser, bap. at Stam- 
ford church. 

Dec. 3. Sally Ann, dau. Richard and Mary Rodd, Stamford, was 
born Oct. 4. 
16. Susanna, dau. Martin and Margaret Hayes, Stamford. 
21. Charles Cowell (adult), Stamford, was baptized at Stam- 
ford church. 
Sarah Cowell (adult), Stamford, was baptized at Stamford 

William, son George, Jr. and Margaret Reefer, Thorold, 
was baptized at German church. 

28. Thomas, son Thomas and Elizabeth Coulson, Thorold. 


Jan. 14. Charles Francis, son John Cleveland Green and , his 

wife, Stamford. 
15. James, son Samuel and Mary Ann Braybrook, Stamford. 
Feb. 12. Edward Herbert, son Robert and Emma Delatre, Stam- 
ford, private, born Feb. 11. 

* Grandson of James Secord and Laura Ingersoll; taught school in Drum- 
mondville; went to United States. His children are the only descendants In 
the male line bearing the name, as James B. Secord, his brother, died without 
issue in Niagara. 


March 8. Caroline Emily,* dau. Alexander and Hannah Owen 
Hamilton, Queenston, was born 4th Jan. Sponsors, 
Fred- B. Tench, Cath. Eobertson and Catherine 
15. Samuel Cuthbert, son Jacob and Christine Keefer, Thorold. 
Frederic Augustus, son George and Susanna Hutt, Stam- 
ford, bap. at German church. 
April 7. Priscilla, dau. Erastus and Jemima Moses, Willoughby. 
Elizabeth, dau. Erastus and Jemima Moses, Willoughby. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

19.- Sarah, dau. George and Ann Smith, Bridgewater. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

21. George Leonard, son Isaac and Anna Thomas, Stamford. 
Sarah Elizabeth, dau. Isaac and Anna Thomas, Stamford. 
Martha Ann, dau. Isaac and Anna Thomas, Stamford. 
26. Ellen Shipton (adult), Drummondville, bap. at Chippawa 
Ellen Maria, dau. John Smith Maclem and Susan Maria, 
his wife, Chippawa. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Feb. 22. -Emily Evans, dau. Wm. Russell and Elizabeth, his wife, 

was born 17th Jan. 
May 3. William Henry, son Wm. Henry Pirn and Hannah, his 

wife, was born Jan. 26, 1834. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

11. Mary Maria, dau. George Wallis and Juliette, his wife, 
Nelson, born March 20, privately baptized. 

T. B. Fuller, Off. Min. 

18. Frances Ann, dau. John Wilson and Eleanor, his wife. 
25. John Asa, son Benjamin Draper and Ann, his wife. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

June 7. Mary, dau. Joseph Hamilton, M.D.,f and Ann, his wife, 
Queenston, was born March 15. 

A. Nelles, Off. Min. 

* Daughter of Sheriff Hamilton; married George Durand, River Road, 

fAnother son of Hon. Robert Hamilton, lived above the mountain. 


June 25. Ellen Eliza, dau. Ogden Creighton, Esq., and Eleanor 
Eliza, his wife. 

July 5. , Mr. Gordon's child, Stamford church. (Written 

memoir on a slip of paper, without signature. — 
G. A. B.) 
Aug. 30. Sarah Jane, dau. Henry and Elizabeth Marshall. 
David, son Henry and Elizabeth Marshall. 

F. W. Millek, Off. Min. 

Robert, son Robt. and Mary Lawson, bap. at Chippawa 

Oct. 18. Evelina, dau. John and Mary Lampman, Thorold. 
Nov. 1. Robert, (Parents' names omitted), bap. at Chippawa 


3. Mary Elizabeth Croft, dau. Frederic Huddlestone and 

Mary, his wife. 

4. Thomas, son — Tyrrel and Eliza, his wife. 

8. Sophia Frances, dau. James Cummings and Sophia, his 
Samuel Street, son James Maclem and Harriet, his wife. 
Dec. 22. Charles Albert, son John Whiteford Morrison and Mar- 
garet Douglas, his wife, Stamford. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Jan. 6. Wm. Joseph Alexander, son Wm. Alexander Campbell, 
Esq., and Harriet Grace, his wife, was born 30th 
Nov., 1835. 
Feb. 7. Mary, dau. John G. Stockly and Catherine, his wife, was 
born 18th Aug., 1834. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

28. Charles, son Robert and Isabella McCue, bap. at Thorold. 

April 24. Arthur Thorold, son ■ — ■ Wellstead and , his wife. 

May 1.- Eliza, dau. Wm. Russell and Elizabeth, his wife, Drum- 
Charles Leeming, son Henry Ball and Mary, his wife, 
15. Samuel Charles, son Edward and Mary Ann Lawton. 


June 5. Mary, dau. Jacob Aemilius Irving* and Catherine Diana, 
his wife. 
26. Louisa, dau. John and Charlotte Coulson, Stamford. 
James Eastham, son Thomas and Ann Humphrey. 
July 3. Euphemia Ann, dau. William and Mary Ann Wells. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

17. Cordelia Melvina, dau. Jacob J. Ball and Catherine, his 

wife, of Grantham, was baptized at Grantham church. 

Margaret, dau. Richard and Jane Steele, City of the Falls, 

born May 28. 

30. Mary Ann, dau. William and Ellen Hope, born May 21st, 

bap. at Chippawa. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

Aug. 7. Herbert, son Robert Sparrow Delatre, Esq.,f and Emma 
Mary, his wife. Received into ye congregation, with 
sponsors, having been previously baptized, Feb. 14th, 
Francis, son Robert Sparrow Delatre, Esq., and Emma 
Mary, his wife. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

16. William Cawthorne, son William Duff, Esq., and Angel, 
his wife, was born 6th Aug. 
William Henry, son Wm. George Mitchell and Harriet, his 
wife, was born 3rd October, 1835. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

28. Cicely, dau. Richard Savage and Georgiana, his wife, Stam- 
Georgiana, dau. Richard Savage and Georgiana, his wife, 
Sept. 22. Hermannus, son Samuel Fletcher and Hannah, his wife, 
bap. at Chippawa. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

*Hon. Jacob Aemilius Irving, native of Jamaica, of the 13th Light 
Dragoons; buried at Stamford, 1797-1856. 

fSon of Col. Delatre, who was born 1777; died, 1848; President of Niagara 
Harbor and Dock Company; died suddenly on steamer between Niagara and 
Toronto. A house in Niagara is still called Delatre Lodge and there is a 
Delatre Street. 


Oct. 9. Mary, dau. Jacob Keefer and Christine, his wife, Thorold, 

was born Aug. 28. 

Thos. B. Fuller, Off. Min. 

14. Matilda, dau. Francis VanAssche and Jane, his wife, was 
born Sept. 21. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

7. Mary Fuller. (Parents' names omitted. — G. A. B.) No 
Nov. 6. Charles William, son Charles Chard and Sophia, his wife, 
was born March 8. 

F. W. Miller, Off. Min. 

9. George, son John Darker and Bridget, his wife, Thorold. 
Deborah, dau. John and Bridget Darker, Thorold. 
Emily, dau. John and Bridget Darker, Thorold. 
John, son John and Bridget Darker, Thorold. 
Jane, dau. John and Bridget Darker, Thorold. 
James, son John and Bridget Darker, Thorold. 
13. Elizabeth, dau. Thomas Jory and Mary Jane, his wife,- 

27. George Truscot, son John Cleveland Green, Esq., and Eliza, 
his wife, Stamford Park. 
Jan. 6. James, son Peter Husted and Sarah, his wife, Stamford. 
Mary Ann, dau. Joseph Strong and Maria, his wife, 
7. Emma, dau. John Marks and Louisa, his wife, Clifton. 
John, son John Marks and Louisa, his wife, Clifton. 
Feb. 6. Margaret Ann Harriet, dau. Samuel Ussher and Harriet 
Rebecca, his wife, Bertie. 
Cynthia Jane, dau. Stephen Conklin and Jane, his wife, 
13. George, son George Dennis and Jane, his wife, Stamford. 
March 4. Arthur, son John Garden, Esq., and Mary, his wife, Stam- 
ford Township. 
Feb. 13. John, son George Potter and Catherine, his wife, Stam- 
ford Township. 

22. Eliza, dau. — Orme and , his wife, Drummondvilla 

24. Mary Patterson, dau. Dr. Slade Robinson and Mary, his 
wife, City of the Falls, was baptized privately. 


March 28. Elizabeth, dau. George Dalby and Christiana, his wife, 

Stamford, born 29th April, 1833. (See below.) 
April 9. Robert, son William McDonald and Isabella, his wife, 

Stamford Township. 
June 17. Catherine, dau. William Burleigh and Mary, his wife, 

July 2. Martha Margaret, dau. Peter Lampman and Agnes Ann, 

his wife, baptized at German church. 
March 28. George, son George Dalby and Christiana, his wife, Stam- 
ford, born 12th Feb., 1835. 
Matthew, son George Dalby and Christiana, his wife, born 
5th Feb., 1837. 
July 17. Sarah, dau. James Maclem, Jr., and Harriet, his wife, 
Chippawa, baptized privately. 
26. Thomas, son Herbert Tyson and Elizabeth, his wife, Stam- 
ford, was born April 2. 
28. Amelia, da\i. John Evans and Mary, his wife, Clifton. 
Lucy, dau. William Jeffrys and Ann, his wife, Falls. 

Wm. Deeming, Off. Min. 

Marriages solemnized by me, W. Deeming, Minister of Chip- 
pawa, in ye year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hun- 
dred and Twenty. 


By license, by and with consent of parents, Captain Donald 
Charles McLean and Ann Warren, the 23rd day of August, 1820. 

By banns, by and with ye consent of parents, William Lambert 
and Mary Otley, of Short-hills, the twenty-fourth day of October, 1820. 


By license, according to ye due and prescribed forms of ye Church 
of England, William MacKenzic and Margaret Packard's, Niagara 
Falls, the eighteenth day of January, One Thousand Eight Hundred 
and Twenty-one. 


By banns, Isaac Dawn and Mary Clark, of ye Township of Crow- 
land, the 22nd day of January, 1821. 

By banns, Benjamin Shrigley and Martha Ward, the 23rd day of 
January, 1821. 

— ^By banns, Jacob Smith and Betsey Sniveley, Township of Wil- 
loughby, 19th of February, 1821. 

By banns, Frederic Almas, of Barton, and Elizabeth Campbell, of 
Stamford, the 9th April, 1821. (Returned to ye Society.) 

By license, John Almas, of Barton, and Jane Campbell, of Stam- 
ford, the seventh day of May, 1821. 

By banns, Thomas Wilson, of ye Township of Thorold, and Mary 
Wright, of Stamford, the 23rd day of May, 1821. 

By banns, Philip Carl and Amanda Chamberlain, of Thorold, ye 
29th May, 1821. 

By banns, Henry Miller and Elizabeth Byer, both of Willoughby, 
ye 25th of September, 1821. 

By banns, Matthew Thomas and Elizabeth Bellinger, of Pelham, 
ye 26th of September, 1821. 

By banns, Thomas Dell, of Crowland, and Anna Rice Tinney, of 
Willoughby, the fourth day of October, 1821. 

By license, Andrew Todd Kerby, of Canboro', and Margaret 
Maclem, of Chippawa, ye fifth day of October, 1821. 

By banns, Jacob Davis and Rosanna Fletcher, of the Township of 
Thorold, the eight day of October, 1821. 

By banns, John Perry, of ye Township of Stamford, and Eliza- 
beth Ridley, of ye Township of Niagara, the twenty-second day of 
October, 1821. 

By license, Abraham Bowman, widower, of Stamford, and Mary 
Sniveley, widow, of Willoughby, the seventh day of November, 1821. 


By license, George Gillies and Elizabeth McKettrick, both of 
Niagara Falls, Stamford, the seventh day of February, 1822. 

By banns, Peter Miller and Deborah Spedding, both of Bertie, the 
18th March, 1822. 

By banns, William Stringer and Helen Burns, both of Crowland, 
the 19th of March, 1822. 

By banns, Robert Feers, of ye Township of Thorold, and Melinda 
Burgher, of Wainfleet, the 28th day of March. 1822. 

(Robt. Fero, March 28.) 


By license, Colonel John Warren* and Charlotte Stanton,t both 
of Fort Erie, Bertie, ye 1st May, 1822. 

By banns, MatthiasJ Haun, bachelor, and Lucinda Cook, spinster, 
both of ye Township of Crowland, ye 8th May, 1822. 

By banns, John Haun and Lucy Cook, both of ye Township of 
Crowland, the 2nd day of July, 1822. 

By banns, Peter Foreman, of Bertie, and Anna Byer, of Wil- 
loughby, the 12th day of August, 1822. 

By banns, John Wurmer,§ of the Township of Bertie, and Cath- 
erine Bouk, of Thorold, the 4th of August, 1822. 

By license, John Darling and Agnes Terry, of ye Township of 
Thorold, the 26th day of October, 1822. 

By license, John Wilson, || of Niagara, and Mary Lee, of the Town- 
ship of Bertie, married in Bertie, the 28th November, 1822. 

By license, Lewis Traver and Charlotte Hosteter, both of the 
Township of Grantham, married in Grantham, the 11th of December, 


By banns, Aaron Parse and Mary Hunt, of Grantham, married in 
ye German church, Thorold, the 12th January, 1S23. 

Wm. Deeming. 

By license, Rev. Wm. Leeming and Margaret H. Shaw, both of 
Stamford, married in Stamford, the 13th of January, 1823. 

Ralph LeemingJ Min. of Ancaster. 

* In St. Paul's graveyard, Fort Erie, he is styled J.P. and M.P.P. for 
Haldimand, died in 1832. At one time he was defeated in a Parliamentary 
election by John Brant, who, however, was unseated, being an Indian. 

t Charlotte Stanton was the daughter of Wm. Stanton, Deputy Assistant 
Commissary-General, who was buried in Fort Erie, 1833 ; the monument was 
erected by the thirteen surviving children. 



!|In the list of United Empire Loyalists is called " Irish John." He was for 
many years church warden in St. Marie's, Niagara. His will leaves property 
to thirteen children and two stepdaughters, children of Mary Lee, by a former 

ftRev. Ralph Leeming, the brother of Rev. Wm. Leeming, was sent out as 
missionary to the Gore District by the S.P.G., and was the first rector of 
Ancaster, where he is buried. He was born in Yorkshire, England in 1789 and 
died in 1872. One of the lost registers, containing baptisms and marriages 
from 181C to 1827. was lately found in Buffalo and has been printed by the 
Hamilton branch of the U.E.L. Society. 


By banns, Martin Shoup and Magdalene Miller, of Willoughby, 
married in Stamford, the 14th January, 1823. 

By license, David Lynch and Ann Shannon,* both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, the 22nd January, 1823. 

By banns, Matthew McKinney and Phebe Brayley, of Crowland, 
married in Stamford, the 6th of February, 1823. 

By banns, Jacob Nunnymaker and Catherine Wedge, of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, the 18th of February, 1823. 

By license, William Anthony, of Grand Biver, and Sarah Winter- 
mute, of Bertie, married in Bertie, the 22nd of Feb. 

By banns, James Sypes and Pamela Fearo, of Crowland, married 
in Stamford, the 3rd day of March, 1823. 

By banns, John Stringer and Euphemia Dawdy,f of Pelham, mar- 
ried in Stamford, the 11th day of March, 1823. 

By banns, Christian Platts and Mary Benner, of the Township of 
Bertie, married in Bertie, the 16th day of March, 1823. 

By banns, Henry Dell, of Willoughby, and Anna Abbett, of Pel- 
ham, married in Stamford, the 17th day of March, 1823. 

Jacob Brookfield, of Crowland, and Mary Winters, of Humber- 
stone, married by banns in Humberstone, the 21th day of March, 1823. 

By banns, Asa Strauder and Mary Buckner, both of Crowland, 
married in Crowland, the 25th day of March, 1823. 

By banns, Samuel Wait and Ann Shoup, both of Willoughby, mar- 
ried in Stamford, the 25th day of March, 1823. 

By license, Peter T. Pawling,! bachelor, and Catherine Cameron, 
widow, both of the Township of Niagara, married in Niagara, the 
7th day of April, 1823. 

By license, Thomas McBride, of Thorold. and Ann Lampman, of 
Niagara, married in ye Township of Niagara, the 24th day of April, 

By banns, Jacob Foreman, of Bertie, and Elizabeth Miller, of 
Willoughby, married in Stamford, the 6th day of May, 1823. 

By license, Jacob Near and Mary Reevs, both of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, the 14th day of May, 1823. 

By banns, Christian Shoup, of the Township of Willoughby, and 
Abigail Bernhart, of the Township of Bertie, married in Stamford, 
the 20th day of May, 1823. 

♦The name of Lanty Shannon occurs in Free Mason lore, as the lodge met 
at his house in Stamford. 

fDowdy ? 

JA remarkable inscription to Nanna Pawling is in the Bellinger family 
burying ground near Niagara. 


By license, Frederick Hutt and Mary Lemon, both of Stamford, 
married at Mr. Lemon's* house, the 28th day of Sept., 1823. 

By license, Erastus Moses, widower, and Jemima Merrit, spinster, 
both of Stamford, married in Stamford, the 7th day of October, 1823. 

By banns, Jacob Miller and Sophia Riselay, both of ye Township 
of Bertie, married in Bertie on Thursday, the 20th day of November, 

By license, Thomas Creen,f Clerk of Niagara, and Ann Ball,t of 
Grantham (or Thorold), spinster, married in Grantham, the 25th day 
of December, 1823. 


By banns, Joseph Brooks, of Pelham, and Margaret Carr, of 
Crowland, married in Stamford, the 29th day of January, 1824. 

By banns, David Hodkins, of Gainsboro,' and Jemima Ball, of 
Crowland, married in Crowland, the 28th day of February, 1824. 

By banns, John Slack and Phebe Bercham,§ of Stamford, married 
in Stamford, ye 1st of April, 1824. 

John Rian, of Crowland, and Mary Ann Ward, of Thorold, mar- 
ried by banns in Stamford, the 5th day of April, 1824. 

John Watson and Susannah Guilsharp, of Thorold. married by 
banns in Stamford, ye 11th day of April, 1824. 

Hugh Vanderlip, of Niagara, and Phebe Laraway, of Grantham, 
married by license at Chippawa, the 1st August, 1824. 

George Rose, bachelor, and Lucy G. Parnell, spinster, both of 
Grantham, were married in Grantham, by license, the 19th day of 
August, 1824. 

William Mann, bachelor, and Elizabeth Soper, spinster, both of 
Grantham, were married in Stamford, by license, on Sunday, the 12th 
of September, 1824. 

John Knisely, of Sherbrook Forest, and Susannah Hershy,|| of 
Chippawa, were married by banns, in Stamford, the 5th day of 
October, 1S24. 

*Commonly called Squire Lemon. 

fRev Thos. Creen, who was the successor of Rev. R. Addison, born, 1799; 
died, 1864; Rector of St. Marks, 1829 to 1S5G; also taught the Grammar School. 

JAnn Ball, daughter of Jacob Ball, one of the three sons of Jacob Ball, 
who, with his sons, came in 1780 with Butler's Rangers. A muster roll of one 
company is in existence, signed Jacob Ball, Lieutenant, in 1782. 

§Beecham ? 

IINear Fort Erie is the Hershy family burying ground; the family came 
from Pennsylvania to Canada in 1795, Old Benjamin Hersche living to the age 
of 90 and others of the name attaining great age. 


Lewis Lambert, of Township of Niagara, and Ann Secord, of 
Grantham, were married, by license, the 24th of October, 1824, in 

James Hamilton, Esq., of Southold, bachelor, and Catherine Jane 
Warren, of Bertie, spinster, were married, by license, at Fort Erie, 
the first day of November, 1824. 

James Hogg, of the Township of York, and Elizabeth Orr, of ye 
Township of Thorold, were married, by license, in Thorold, on Tues- 
day, ye 23rd day of November, 1824. 

. Isaac Hoshel,* bachelor, and Cloe Everingham, spinster, both of 
Crowland, were married, by license, in Stamford, the first day of 
December, 1824. 

By banns, Samuel Shenk,f of Amherst, Erie Co., U.S., and Mag- 
dalen Boyer, of Chippawa, married in Chippawa, the twenty-first day 
of December, 1824. 

By license, Richard Bulcock and Susan Durham, both of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, the 22nd day of December, 1824. 

By license, Samuel Clement and Martha Porter, both of ye Town- 
ship of Niagara, married in Township of Niagara, the 23rd December, 

By license, John Stull and Maria Trevor, both of Grantham, mar- 
ried in Grantham, the 23rd day of December, 1824. 

By license, Samuel Minard, of ye Township of Stamford, and 
Rebecca Moore, of ye Township of Pelham, married in Stamford, the 
25th day of December, 1824. 


By license, William Robertson (alias Durham), bachelor, and 
Martha Green, spinster, both of Stamford, married in Stamford, on 
Wednesday, the 5th day of January, 1825. 

\By license, Abraham Conklin, bachelor, and Jane Smith, spinster, 
both of Stamford, married in Stamford, the sixth day of January, 

By license, John Ball Lawrence, widower, of the Township of 
Niagara, and Catherine Burch, spinster, of Louth, married at Niagara, 
the sixth day of January (6th Jan.), 1825. 

By banns, John Haney and Margaret Martin, both of Pelham, 
married in Stamford, the 16th day of January, 1825. 




By license, James William Osgood Clark, of Louth, and Mary 
Turney,* of Thorold, married in Thorold, on Tuesday, the 18th day 
of January, 1825. 

By license, Joshua Cudney and Margaret Grass, both of ye Town- 
ship of Grantham, married on Thursday, the 20th day of January, 

By banns, Isaac Misener and Susan Kilts, both of ye Township of 
Crowland, married in Crowland, the 27th day of January, 1825. 

By banns, John Johnson, of ye Township of Clinton, and Phebe 
Lampman, of Stamford, married in Stamford, the first day of Feb- 
ruary, 1825. 

By banns, Alexander Robinson and Mary McMicking,! both of 
Stamford, married in Stamford, the 15th day of February, 1825. 

By license, Austin Morse and Mira Cook, of Stamford, married in 
Stamford, the 23rd day of March, 1825. 

By license, Cornelius VanWyck and Matilda Forsyth, both of 
Stamford, married in Stamford, the 18th day of May, 1825. 

By license, John Lemon, bachelor, and Martha Haton, spinster, 
both of Stamford, married in Stamford, the 22nd day of August, 1825 

By license, David Thompson, of Wainfleet, and Sarah Ann Wilson, 
of Pelham, married in Pelham, the 15th September, 1825. 

By license, Harmonius Chrysler and Edna Cook, both of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, the 5th October, 1825. 

By license, Hugh Creen, Erin, County of Halton, Gore District, 
and Catherine Ferguson, of Barton, married at Hamilton, 31st 
October, 1825. 

By banns, Bejamin Moote, of Clinton, and Penelope Wright, of 
Stamford, married in Stamford, 15th November, 1S25. 

By license, David Wood, of Crowland, and Jane Emerick, of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, 17th November, 1825. 

By banns, Abraham Glimanhaga, of Willoughby, and Mary Sim- 
merraan,| of Bertie, married in Stamford, the 22nd November, 1825. 

* In the Turney graveyard, near St. Catharines, is a stone commemorating 
John Turney, of the King's 8th, Lieutenant in Butler's Rangers. 

fin the Stamford Presbyterian burying-ground are records of burials as 
far back as 1793, and settlements in 1785. Except perhaps the Mohawk 
Church near Brantford, that erected here in 1787 was the earliest in Upper 
Canada. Thomas McMicking is recorded as dying in the 80th year of his age. 
Captain John McMicking fought at Queenston Heights. There are many of 
the name buried at Chippawa; one branch came with the Loyalists, another 
from Scotland; Gilbert McMicking, of Queenston, was an M.P.P. 

JThe name is spelled with " Z " by some branches of the family, by others 
with " S." 



By banns, Martin Buchner and Sarah Current, both of Crowland, 
married in Stamford, the 15th January, 1826. 

By banns, Henry Glimanhaga and Susan Bickard, of Bertie, mar- 
ried in Stamford, the 23rd January, 1826. 

By license, Wm. Richardson, of Grand River, Gore District, and 
Jane Cameron Grant, of Queenston, married, the 11th of February, 

By license, Arthur Lambert and Ann Durham, both of Niagara, 
married in Stamford, the 12th of February, 1826. 

By banns, John Arthur Tidey and Dorothy Hellems, of Crowland, 
were married in Crowland, the 16th of February, 1826. 

By license, Patrick Corbett and Armamilla Falconbridge, both of 
Stamford, married in Stamford, the 18th of April, 1826. 

By license, Angus McLeod and Margaret McAlpine, both of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, 14th March, 1826. 

By license, Peter Morse, Stamford, and MargaTet Young, of 
Crowland, married in Crowland, the 29th March, 1826. 

By license, Matthew Camp and Catherine Killman, both of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, the 13th April, 1826. 

By banns, David Miller and Eve Shoup, of Willoughby, married 
in Willoughby, the 18th day of April, 1826. 

By banns, Ambrose Patterson, of Pelham, and Mary Buckner, of 
Crowland, on the 18th April, 1826. 

By license, John Nelles, of Grand River, and Rachel Elizabeth 
Cockroft, of Chippawa, married at Chippawa, the 7th of June, 1S26. 

By license, Robert Fleming, of Lewiston, State of New York, and 
Sarah Farris, of Niagara, married in ye Township of Niagara, the 
8th day of June, 1826. 

William Dell, of Crowland, and Luoretia Martin, of same place, 
were married by banns, in Crowland, the 3rd May, 1826. 

By banns, David Brown and Matilda Pell, both of Thorold, were 
married in Thorold, 29th June, 1826. 

By license, Alfred McCarty, Gainsborough, and Anna Miller, of 
Bertie, married in Bertie, the 2nd of September, 1826. 

By banns, Benjamin Overholser, of Markham, and Elizabeth 
Miller, of Willoughby, married, in Stamford, 11th of September, 1826. 

By banns, Charles Scott and Elizabeth Thompson, of Thorold, 
married in Stamford, the 18th day of September, 1826. 


By banns, John Upper, Stamford, and Elizabeth Coughell, Niagara, 
married in Township of Niagara, October, 24th, 1826. 

By license, Samuel Pew and Mary Ann Kelly, both of Stamford, 
in Stamford, October 26th, 1826. 

By license, Francis Galbraith and Susan Upper, both of Thorold, 
married in Thorold, October 29th, 1826. 

By license, Samuel Forsyth and Sarah Defield, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, November 14th, 1826. 

By license, James Davis, of Pelham, and Alice Park, of Wain- 
fleet, married in Wainfleet, on the 23rd November, 1826. 

By banns, David Skinner and Catherine Potts, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, 21st December, 1826. 

By license, Joseph Maloy and Mary Watson, both of Thorold, mar- 
ried, 27th December, 1826. 

By license, Ira Cook and Ann Green, both of Stamford, married 
in Stamford, 28th or 29th December, 1826. 


By license, Caleb Swayzie,* and Lydia Hopkins, married in Stam- 
ford, 16th of January, 1827. 

By banns, David Moore, of Esquesing, and Joanna Silverthorn, of 
Thorold, married in Stamford, January 22nd, 1827. 

By banns, Jonah Howey and Phebe Vanatter, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, January 30th, 1827. 

By banns, George Shrigley and Anna Weir, both of Pelham, mar- 
ried in Pelham, February 7th, 1827. 

By banns, Myrick Curtis and Hannah Johnson, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, February 19th, 1827. 

By license, Philip Bender, of Stamford, and Elizabeth Misener, 
of Crowland, married in Crowland, February 27, 1827. 

By banns, Isaac Haney and Sarah Cottington, of Pelham, married 
in Stamford, March 4th,- 1827. 

By banns, Richard C. Griffin, of Grimsby, and Mahetabel Accer, 
of Louth, married in Louth, May 1st, 1827. 

By license, Sinclair Holden, of Markham, Home District, and 
Abigail Lowdy, of Stamford, in Stamford, May 25, 1827. 

♦The most noted member of the family was Col. Isaac Swayzie, the member 
for Lincoln ; lived on a farm near Niagara, which gave the name to the famous 
apple called the Swayzie Pomme Grise. 


By license, Michael Gonder and Sarah Ann Wait,t both of Wil- 
loughby, married in Willoughby, June 26, 1827. 

By banns, Joseph W. Clark and Elizabeth Slack, both of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, June 28th, 1827. 

By license, Henry Keph, Niagara, and Ann Wintermute, of Gran- 
tham, married in Stamford, July 25th, 1827. 

By banns, William McKey and Sarah Acres, of Thorold, married 
in Thorold, Aug. 14, 1827. 

By license, Henry Spinckes, of Cavan, Newcastle District, and 
Elizabeth Haslop, of Stamford, married in Stamford, Aug. 20, 1827. 

By license, Robert Wilson, of Gainsborough, and Mary Hill, of 
Thorold, married in Stamford, September 12, 1827. 

By license, William Kelly, of Erie, State of Pennsylvania, and 
Eliza Jane Emory, of Thorold, married in Thorold, Sept. 13, 1827. 

By banns, Luke Lee, of Crowland, and Nancy Overholser, of Wil- 
loughby, married in Stamford, Sept. 25th, 1827. 

-By license, "Joseph Smith and Mary Blackstock, October 8th, 1827, 
in Stamford. 

By license, Alexander Young and Sarah Everitt, of Willoughby, 
married in Stamford, Oct. 25, 1827. 

(Inserted slip.) 

John Moore, of the Incorporated Militia at Gravelley Bay, and 
Mary Fortier, Stamford, Oct. 13. (No signature to slip. — G. A. B.) 

By banns, Henry Taylor and Ellen Bouls, of Crowland, married 
in Stamford, November 1st, 1827. 

By license, George Smith and Ann Blackstock, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, November 6th, 1S27. 

By license, Walter Fletcher and Patience Appleby, both of Tborold, 
married in Thorold, November 10, 1827. 

By license, Francis Goring, of Niagara, and Ann Mann, of Gran- 
tham, married in Stamford, November 13, 1827. 

By license, William Darby and Louisa Godfrey, of Grantham, 
married in Stamford, November IS, 1827. 

By license, Jobn Coughell and Elizabeth Stevons, both of Niagara, 
married in Niagara, December 6, 1827. 

*The grandparents of Mr. Michael Gonder Seherck, the author of 
" Pioneer Life," a hook for young Canucks. Jacob Gonder, from Pennsylvania, 
died in 1846, aged 71. Michael Gonder died, 1886, aged 82. The Gonder farm 
is near Black Creek. The name was originally Gander. 

f Sarah Ann Wait, related to Benjamin, who was condemned to be hanged 
at Niagara in 1838, but was reprieved and sent to Van Dieman's Land. 


By license, Leonard M. Matthews and Anne Vanderburg, of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, Nov. 21, 1827. 

By license, James McNabb and Margaret Fletcher, both of Gran- 
tham, married in Stamford, December 16, 1827. 


By banns, William Fier and Nancy Taylor, of Grantham, married 
in Stamford, January 15, 1828. 

By license, James Cummings and Sophia Maclem,* both of Chip- 
pawa, married at Chippawa, February 4th, 1828. 

By banns, John B. Buckner, of CrowLand, and Jane Larner, of 
Bertie, married in Bertie, February 5, 1828. 

By banns, Jacob Silverthorne and Catharine Vanalstine, both of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, February 13, 1828. 

By license, Abansing F. Ross and Rachel Wilson, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, March 4th, 1828. 

By license, Jacob Upper and Penelope Jane Chase, married at 
Anthony Upper's, Thorold, March 23, 1828. 

By license, Charles Armstrong, of Oxford, Western District, and 
Sarah McNeil, of Niagara, married at Mr. Lampman's, April 10, 1828. 

By license, George Shaw and Ann Stoats, both of St. David's, mar- 
ried at St. David's, May 4, 1828. 

By license, James Wilson, Saltfleet, and Mary Coowine, Stamford, 
married in Stamford, May 28, 1828. 

By license, John R. Berger, of Pelhara, and Mary Hoover, of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, the 18th day of June, 1828. 

By license, Louis Britten and Elizabeth Durham, of Grantham, 
married in Stamford, July 13, 1828. 

By banns, Peter Bernhart and Mary Fretz, both of Bertie, married 
in Stamford, July 29, 1828. 

By banns, Obed Dell and Elizabeth Lemon, both of Willoughby, 
married in Stamford, August 12, 1S28. 

By banns, Herbert Lee and Mary Bier, both of Willoughby, mar- 
ried in Stamford, September 0, 182S. 

By license, Andrew Hansel and Margaret Carrol, of Thorold, mar- 
ried in Thorold, Oct. IS, 1828. 

♦James Macklem came to Chippawa. in 1790 ; was. a miller, distiller, mer- 
chant. Provost Macklem, of Trinity College, is a descendant. 


By banns, John Lemon and Laura Dell, married in Stamford, 21st 
October, 1828. 

By license, Alexander Emmons and Sophia M. Moore, of Chip- 
pawa, married at Chippawa, 22nd October, 1828. 

By banns, Thomas Dressel and Mary Thomas, of Thorold, mar- 
ried in Stamford, the 3rd November, 1828. 

By banns, Amos Bradshaw, of Pelham, and Mary McCormick, of 
Thorold, married in Stamford, Nov. 5, 1828. 

By license, Dr. David J. Bowman and Jane Warren, Fort Erie, 
married at Fort Erie, Nov. 6, 1828. 

By banns, Jacob Miller, Willoughby, and Susanna Fariss, of 
Wainfleet, married in Wainfteet, Nov. 11, 1828. 

By license, John Ladshaw and Mary Durham, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, December 11, 1828. 

By banns)* Thomas Smith and Mary Welburn, Stamford, married in 
Stamford, December 31st, 1828. 


By banns, James Garnet and Elizabeth Hays, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, January 19th, 1829. 

By license, Francis Gore Swayzie, of Niagara, and Frances 
Cowel, Thorold, married in Thorold, on Wednesday, the 4th February, 

By banns, Leonard Loucks and Elizabeth Winchester, both of 
Queenston, married at Queenston, on the 7th February, 1829. 

By license, James Stone and Barbara Ott, both of Wainfleet, mar- 
ried in Stamford, February 12th, 1829. 

By banns, Henry Zimmerman and Begina Sherk, of Bertie, mar- 
ried in Stamford, February 24th, 1829. 

By license, John Hamilton, Esq.,* and Frances Pacia McPherson, f 
of Queenston, married at Queenston, April 7, 1829. 

By banns, Robi Treffry, of St. David's, and Sarah Law, of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, April 13th, 1829. 

By license, Jacob Keefer, of Thorold, and Christina Grant,t 
Queenston, married at Queenston, June 8th, 1829. 

* Hon. John Hamilton, called the father of Marine on Lakf Ontario, son of 
Judge Hamilton ; died in Kingston, born 1802. 

fFrancis Pacia McPherson, sister of Hon. D. L. McPherson. 

JChristina Grant, the daughter of Robert Grant, from Inverness, Scot- 
land, the issuer of marriage licenses at Queenston. He is buried in the 
Lutheran graveyard, Thorold. 


By license, Joseph Doan, of Thorold, and Susan Clarke, of Stam- 
ford, married in Stamford, June 25th, 1829. 

By banns, Henry Wright and Elizabeth Curtis, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, July 9th, 1829. 

-By license, Cyrus Smith and Jemima Dittrick, of Grantham, mar- 
ried in Grantham, July 12, 1829. 

By license, Kobert Ingraham and Susan Douner,* of Willoughby, 
married in Stamford, August 13th, 1829. 

By banns, Thomas Lambert and Elizabeth Acre, both of Gains- 
borough, were married in Stamford, July 16th, 1829. 

By license, George Shafer, of Stamford, and Susanna Steinhoff, 
Crowland, married in Crowland, August 20, 1829. 

By banns, Christian Horst, Kainham, and Elizabeth Shoup, mar- 
ried at Mrs. Shoup's, Sept. 1st, 1829. 

By license, Archibald Irvine and Jane Lindsay, of Thorold, mar- 
ried 17th October, 1829 

By license, Christopher Warner Jones and Lucretia Caroline 
Goring, of Niagara, married in Stamford, October 21st, 1829. 

By license, James Maclem and Harriet Maria Ransom, married 
on the 4th November, 1829. 

By license, John McKinley, of Niagara Township, and Ann Law- 
rence Clow, of Stamford, married November 26th, 1829. 

By banns, Joseph Lemon and Sarah Misener, Crowland, married 
December 1st, 1829. 

By license, John McBride and Jane Morrow, married at Deep-cut, 
Decembr 24, 1829. 


By license, Samuel Woodward and Sarah Mead, of Grantham, 
married in Stamford, January 24th, 1830. 

By license, William Stull and Ann Secord, of Grantham, married 
in Grantham, January 31st, 1830. 

By license, Dominique Sabourier and Patience Paine, of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, February 4th, 1830. 

By banns, Jacob Lern, of Willoughby, and Penelope Buckbcc, of 
Crowland, married in Stamford, February 10th, 1830. 

By banns, Andrew Vanderburgh, of Burford, and Mary Ker, of 
Grantham, married in Grantham, Feb. 11, 1830. 



By license, James Mann, Grantham, and Ann Goring, of Niagara, 
married February 21, 1830. 

Isaac Teller and Ann Upper, of Thorold, married by license, in 
Ike-Told, February 21, 1830. 

By license, James Mitchell and Elizabeth Sproll, married in 
Thorold, March 17, 1830. 

By banns, Adam Vanalstine and Elizabeth Conger, of Crowland, 
married in Crowland, March 25th, 1830. 

By license, Leonard Griffiths and Catherine Rouse, Stamford, mar- 
ried at Lundy's Lane, April 4, 1830. 

By license, James Gordon and Margaret Mylne, both of Stamford, 
married in Stamford, the 16th (or 18th) April. 

By banns, Samuel Hoton and Elizabeth Heslop, Gainsborough, 
married in Stamford, April 29th, 1830. 

By banns, James Thomas, Humberstone, and Elizabeth McDonald, 
of Wainfleet, married in Stamford, May 10th, 1830. 

By banns, Christian Sherk and Anna Bork,* of Bertie, married in 
Stamford, May 11th, 1830. 

By license, Sayer Beach and Caroline Merriam, of Drummond- 
ville, Stamford, married July 5th, 1830. 

By license, John Parr and Margaret McCutcheon, Thorold, mar- 
ried in Thorold, July 22nd, 1830. 

By license, William Current and Cynthia Wilson, both of Crow- 
land," married in Crowland, Sept. 7th, 1830. 

By license, William Griffiths and Mary Brando, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, September 16th, 1830. 

By license, Frederick DeCoe and Elizabeth Lacy, both of Thorold, 
married in Thorold, October 13th, 1830. 

By license, James Durham, widower, and Ann Humphrey, both 
of Niagara, married in Stamford, October 17th, 1830. 

By license, James McNicoll and Sarah Street, married in Chip- 
pawa church, November 10th, 1930. 

By license, John VanWyck and Jane Shaw, Queenston, married 
at Queenston, November 3rd, 1830. 

By license, John Wright and Eliza Emmet. Grantham, married 
in Stamford, November 14th, 1830. 

By banns, John Bernhart and Susannah Winger, of Willoughby, 
married in Stamford, November 23rd, 1830. 

By license, James Kirk and Sarah Foster, of Chippawa, married 
in Lundy's Lane, November 25th, 1830. 




By banns, Francis Hunch and Catharine Campbell, of Gains- 
borough, married in Lundy's Lane, February 9th, 1831. 

By banns, Seth Tripp and Mary Conger, Willoughby, married in 
Lundy's Lane, February 27, 1831. " 

By banns, Aaron Stringer and Mary Hunt, married in Pelbam, 
March 15th, 1831. 

By banns, Robert Dell and Mary Ammerman, Willoughby, married 
Lm Stamford, 22nd March, 1831. 

By license, Rev'd Abraham belles,* Grand River, and Hannah 
Maclem, Chippawa, married in Chippawa church, May 3rd, 1831. 

By license, Wm. Ardilly and Mary Stuart, Crowland, married 
August 2nd, 1831. 

By license, Jesse H. Lacy, Thorold, and Susan Cook, of Crowland, 
married August 4th, 1831. 

By banns, Wm. Silverthorne, Willoughby, and Catherine Bucker, 
of Crowland, married August 9th, 1831. 

By banns, Silas Bark and Susan Burns, Willoughby, married Aug. 
11th, 1831. 

By banns, Cornelius Acker and Mary Hull, Pelham, married 
Aug. 2st, 1831. 

By banns, George Bush and Eliza Ann Williams, Stamford, mar- 
ried Aug. 25th, 1831. 

By banns, Samuel Vanalstine and Mary Ann Buckner, Crowland, 
married Sept. 6th, 1831. 

By banns, Uriah Bernhart and Susanna Winger, Bertie, married 
Sept. 13th, 1831. 

By banns, Chester Kinnard, Wainfleet, and — Burns, Stamford, mar- 
ried Oct. 25th, 1831. 

By license, Leo Doolittle, Thorold, and Jane Lucinda Colten, 
Stamford, married Nov. 5, 1831. 

By banns, Peter Shislerf and Sarah Bernhart, both of Bertie, mar- 
ried Nov. 22nd, 1831. 

By license, David Hotchkiss to Ann Vanalstine, Thorold, married 
Novr. 29th, 1831. 

By banns, Elijah Yokam, Crowland, to Catherine Lemon, Wil- 
loughby, married in Stamford, Deer. 13, 1831. 

* The Nelles family settled at Grimsby and near the Grand River. Colonel 
Robert Nelles and Hon. Abraham Nelles are buried at Grimsby. 



By license, John Blackstock to Ann Grant, Stamford, married 
Dec 14th, 1831. 

By banns, Christian Nisely to Emma Winters, both of Humber- 
stone, married in Humberstone, December 21st, 1831. 


By banns, John Brayley to Hannah Current, both of Crowland, 
married January 10th, 1832. 

By license, George Hill to Ann Vanalstine, Thorold, married in 
Thorold, January 10th, 1832. 

By license, Adam Fralick, of Stamford, to Catharine Finnimore, 
of Queenston, married in Queenston, February 7th, 1832. 

By license, Joseph Woodruff,* to Sarah Shaw, St. David's, married 
at St. David's, February 9th, 1832. 

J3y license, Stephen Conklin and Sarah Smith, of Bridgewater, 
married at Bridgewater, February 23rd, 1832. 

By banns, Andrew Vanalstine and Mary Robins, Crowland, mar- 
ried in Crowland, February 28th, 1832. 

By license, William Robinson, of Lewiston, U.S., and Sarah Will- 
son, of Stamford, married in Stamford, Feb. 29th, 1832. 

By license, Thomas Coulson and Elizabeth Griffiths, of Queenston, 
married in Queenston church, March 1st, 1832. 

By banns, Henry Acker and Charity Overholt, Thorold, married 
in Thorold, March 6th, 1832. 

By banns, Owen Fares and Christiana Winters, Humberstone, 
married in Humberstone, March 19th, 1832. 

By license, Frederick Lewis Converse, of Grantham, and Ann 
Keefer, Thorold, married May 28th, 1832. 

By license, James Little, Grantham, and Ann Youall, Thorold, 
married May 28th, 1832. 

By banns, James Bird and Jane Smart, Stamford, married June 
9th, 1832. 

By license, Patrick Elliot aud Naomi Cronk, of Chippawa, mar- 
ried July 8th, 1832. 

By license, Alfred Wattles Allen, of Buffalo, U.S., and Sophia 
Maclem Rice, married August 29th, 1832. 

* The Woodruff family settled early in St. David's. Ezekiel, the first to 
come, died in 1837, aged 73. Richard was a member of Parliament. His 
daughter married Samuel Zimmerman. William Woodruff was also an M.P.P. 


By license, George Bouck and Ann Eliza Shaver, of Thorold, mar- 
ried Sept. 4th, 1832. 

By banns, Joseph Springsteen* and Mary Gee, of Gainsborough, 
married October 3rd, 1832. 

By banns, John Sloat and Nancy Rogers, of Gainsborough, mar- 
ried October 3rd, 1832. 


By banns, Joseph Willick and Esther Boyer, Willoughby, married 
Jan. 8th, 1833. 

By license, Peter Upper and Margaret Vanalstine, of Thorold, 
married Jan. 10th, 1833. 

By banns, George Hedgers and Mary Robins, of Thorold, married 
February 12th, 1833. 

By license, Cornelius Bowen and Catherine Mettler, of Stamford, 
married Feb. 19th, 1833. 

By license, William Vanderburgh and Janet Church, of Thorold, 
married in Thorold, February 20th, 1833. 

-By license, James Williams and Rebecca Smith, of Stamford, mar- 
ried in Stamford, Feb. 21st, 1833. 

By license, Robert Lockey Floreyf and Margaret Courtney, of 
Queenston, married in Stamford church, March 17th, 1833. 

By banns, James Conger and Reety Mitchell, of Pelham, married 
April 29th, 1833. 

-By banns, Reuben Reid and Marilla Cook, Stamford, married 
June 5th, 1833. 

By license, Abner Cook and jSTancy Brookfield, married July 3rd, 

By license, Isaiah Starkey and Elizabeth Riall, Stamford, married 
July 6th, 1833. 

By banns, John Shirk, of Humberstone, and Mary House, of 
Bertie, married in Bertie, July 9th, 1833. 

By license, Alexander Ross and Lucy Kerry, of Stamford, married 
in Stamford, August 3rd, 1833. 

By license, Howley Williams, of Guelph. and Hannah Cartwright 
Secord,$ Queenston, married in Queenston church, August 22nd, 1833. 



JHannah Cartwright Secord, fourth daughter of James Secord and Laura 
Ingersoll. Her first husband was Hawley Williams, her second, Edward 


By license, John Milton, Niagara, and Eliza Baker, married in 
Stamford, September 1st, 1833. 

By banns, Hiram Forsyth and Jane Oswald, of Stamford, married 
September 3rd, 1833. 

By license, Matthew Thomas and Nancy Ann Darling, both of 
Thorold, married in Thorold, Sept. 5th, 1833. 

George Reefer, Jr., and Margaret McGregor, Thorold, married by 
license in Thorold, Sept. 10th, 1833. 

By license, Robert Sparrow Delatre and Emma Mary Alder, of 
Stamford, married in Chippawa church, Sept. 26th, 1833. 

By license, John Poore,* of Guelph, Gore District, and Laura 
Secord,f of Queenston, married at Queenston, Oct. 17th, 1833. 

By license, James Tidot and Jane Cathcart, both of Stamford, mar- 
ried Oct. 19th, 1833. 

By license, Dilly Coleman and Sarah Sproule, of Thorold, married 
in Stamford, Novr. 25th, 1833. 

By license, Abraham Wartman Secord and Ann Shaw, Township 
of Niagara, married Nov. 28th, 1833. 

By license, Henry Dell, Willoughby, and Catherine Shafer, of 
Stamford, were married December 3rd, 1833. 

-By license, William Russell and Elizabeth Evans, of Stamford, 
were married December 25th, 1833. 

By license, Robert Baldwin Sullivan and Louisa Emma Delatre 
were married in Stamford church, December 26th, 1833. 


Thomas Crane and Eliza McGarvey were married by license, 
January 13th, 1834. 

John Smith Maclem and Susan Maria Hepburne, of Chippawa, 
were married by license, January 13th, 1834. 

Benjamin Winger and Barbara Gromiller, of Bertie, were married 
(by publication of banns), Feb. 4th, 1834. 

Jacob Nisely, of Humberstone, and Elizabeth Danner, of Wil- 
loughby, were married by publication of banns, April 15th, 1834. 

*Capt. and Mrs. Poore (1st Incorporated Batt. of Militia at Hamilton) once 
stayed at my father's house, in 1838 or '39. I remember them and their little 
son John. — Geo. A. Bull, March, 1893. 

tLaura Secord, the fifth daughter of James Secord and Laura Ingersoll. 
Her second husband was Dr. Wm. Clarke, her first, Captain Poore. 

JFido ? 


Adam Duff and Jane Hopkins, Stamford, were married by license, 
April 23rd, 1834. 

Matthew Overholt, of Pelham, and Elizabeth Winger, of Wil- 
loughby, were married by publication of banns, May 18th, 1834. 

James Fell and Rachel Skinner, both of Stamford, were married 
by license, May 29th, 1834. 

George M. Nelles, of Nelson, and Julia Lafferty, Stamford, were 
married by license, June 11th, 1834. 

William Armstrong and Julian Burger, both of Thorold, were mar- 
ried by license, June 22nd, 1834. 

James Burger and Ruth Crafford, of Thorold, were married by 
license, June 22nd, 1834. 

Edward Lee and Mary Grabiel, both of Wainfleet, were married 
by license, Aug. 4th, 1834. 

Thomas C. Kendrick and Ellinor Clarke, of Stamford, were mar- 
ried by license, Aug. 6th, 1834. 

Thomas Keating and Mary Ann Richardson, of Guelph, were mar- 
ried by license at Queenston, August 16th, 1834. 

John Laing, Esq., of Stamford, and Caroline Margaret Tench, of 
Niagara, were married by license at Queenston church on the 25th 
August, 1834. 

Christopher Armstrong and — Farrel were married by license, 
October 26th, 1834. 

Cornelius Eoster and Keziah Whatley, of Stamford, were married 
by license, November 9th, 1834. 

George Todd and Ann Hodgson, both of Thorold, were married by 
banns in Stamford, December 17th, 1834. 

Job Stevens and Sarah Cox, both of the Township of Niagara, 
were married by license, December 25th, 1834. 


Philander Bamp and Phebe Upper, of Thorold, were married by 
license, January 7th, 1835. , 

Duncan M. Campbell, of Vaughan, and Eliza Jane Thompson were 
married by license at Chippawa church by W. F. Miller, January 25th, 

William Townsend and Ann Maria Bouk, of Thorold, were mar- 
ried by license in Thorold, February 8th, 1835. 

Andrew Allen and Ann Shipton, both of Drummondville, were 
married by license, February 14th, 1835. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 


Avery Gould and Mary McGarvey, both of Chippawa, were mar- 
ried at Chippawa church, February 15th, 1835. 

Agnew Patrick Farrell, of the Township of Dunn, imd Catherine 
Parnell, Stamford, were married by license in Chippawa church, 
March 10th, 1835. 

W. F. Miller, Off. Min. 

George Vanderburgh and Betsey Ann Church, of the Township 
of Thorold, were married by license, March 26th, 1835. 

Jacob Harp and Mary Moses were married by banns, April 7th, 

Joseph Anthony and Catherine Upper, Haldimand and Thorold, 
were married April 7th, 1835, by license. 

Thomas Humphries and Anne Riley, of Queenston, were married 
at Stamford church, April 14th, 1835, by license. 

Wm. Leeming, Off. Min. 

Note. — The baptisms, marriages and burials seem to have taken place in 
the Queenston Church, Stamford, Chippawa and Lutheran or German church 
at Thorold or in private houses, or in case of some burials in family burial plots. 


Note. — Each notice is signed, " Thos. Cummings, J.P.," but this has been 
omitted as unnecessary. 

Married by me, Thos. Cummings, Esquire, one of His Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace for the District of Niagara, John Shaver and 
Eve Muma, both of Township of Crowland, agreeable to an Act of the 
Legislature of this Province, passed in the thirty-third year of His 
Majesty's reign, done at Chippawa this 24th of March, 1801. 

Be it remembered, that Wm. Stephens and Susanna Morningstar 
came this 19th day of April and intermarried together according to 
law, and they are legally contracted to each other in marriage. 

Be it remembered, that Peter Lourson, of the 2nd Batt. Rx>yal 
Canadian Volunteers, and Margaret Brown, of the Township of Wil- 
loughby, was married together by me, this thirtieth day of May, 1801, 
by lawful permission. 

Be it remembered, that Leo Stenhoof, of Stamford, and Margaret 
Wier, of the Township of Willoughbv, were married by me at Chip- 



pawa, on Monday, third day of August, 1801, being regularly pub- 
lished according to law, by Rev. Robt. Addison, as appears by his note. 

Be it remembered, that William Roberts and Elizabeth Moore, of 
the Township of Willoughby, in the District of Niagara, were married 
on Tuesday, 26th day of January, in the year of Our Lord One thou- 
sand eight hundred and two, agreeable to the statute on such cases, 
made and provided, by me. 

Be it remembered, that Levi Cassaday and Johana Waterhouse, of 
the Township of Thorold, in the District of Niagara, were married 
1st March, 1802, agreeable to an Act of the Legislature of this Pro- 
vince, by me. 

Be it remembered, that John Pettit and Catharine Buchner, of 
the Township of Crowland, in the District of Niagara, were married 
this 25 th day of March, 1802, agreeable to an Act of the Legislature 
of this Province, by me. 

Be it remembered, that Samuel Beckett and Minas Bradshaw, of 
the Township of Pelham, in the District of Niagara, were married 
this 31st day of May, 1802, agreeable to. 

Be it remembered, that Thos. Cooper and Ann Conkle, of the 
Township of Stamford and Thorold, in the District of Niagara, were 
married the 6th day of July, 1802, by license for that purpose, made 
and promoted by an Act of Parliament of Great Britain. 

Be it remembered, that Nathan Strong and Mary Long, of the 
Township of Grantham, in the District of Niagara, were married this 
15 th day of August, in the year of Our Lord One thousand eight hun- 
dred and two, according to an Act of Parliament. 

Be it remembered, that Donald Robins and Mary Dun, of the 
Township of Thorold, in the District of Niagara, were married the 
23rd day of Nov., 1802, according to an Act of the Legislature. 

Be it remembered, that Benoni Wheeler and Elizabeth Chambers, 
of the Township of Stamford, in the District of Niagara, were mar- 
ried this 27th day of Nov., 1802, according to an Act. 

Be it remembered, that Christopher Burt and Mary Oldfield, of 
the Township of Stamford, in the District of Niagara, were married 
by me, the 1st day of March, 1803, accordincg to an Act. 

Be it remembered, that Peter Sinon and Agnes Silverthorn have 
this day become lawfully married to each other, the 27th day of April, 
1803, by 

Be it remembered, that Joseph Rice and Mary Steel have this day 
become lawfully married to each other, according to law, Chippawa, 
14th Aug., 1803. 


Be it remembered, that Samuel Dill and Sarah Wilkins were law- 
fully married to each other, according to an Act of the Legislature of 
this Province, Chippawa, 19th May, 1806. 

Be it memembered, that John Wilkins and Pamelia Caul, of the 
Township of Crowland, were lawfully married to each other, accord- 
ingn to an Act of the Legislature, Chippawa, 27th July, 1807. 

Be it remembered, that Bersnolt Dill and Elizabeth Mackinter were 
legally married this day, according to law, by me, Chippawa, 18th 
May, 1808. 

Be it remembered, that John Amnum and Abigail Vincent were 
married this day, according to the laws of this Province, Willoughby, 
10th Apr., 1809. 

Be it remembered, that Arran Dain and Bibia Cronk were mar- 
ried this day, according to the laws of the Province, Willoughby, 6th 
Aug., 1809. 

Be it remembered, that James Dille and Mary Ancybaugh did 
intermarry together this eleventh day of November, 1810, in the 
County of Haldimand, by me, the subscriber. 

Be it remembered, that James Heanslip, Sr., of Thorold, and Elima 
Stevenson, of same place, were married by me, the subscriber, this 
12th day of April, 1812, according to the law of this Province. 

CHIPPAWA, 1816 TO 1832. 

- Be it remembered, that Thomas Smith and Margaret McCradie, 
both of the Township of Willoughby, in the District of Niagara, were 
married this twentieth day of April, 1S18, according to an Act of the 
Legislature of the Province, by me. 

Be it remembered, that Thomas C. Vincent and Cloe Dell, both of 
the Township of Willoughby, in the District of Niagara, were mar- 
ried this seventeenth day of September, 1818, according to an Act of 
the Legislature of the Province, by me. 

Be it remembered, that John Clemens and Ann Crane, both of the 
Township of Willoughby, in the District of Niagara, were married 
this 26th day of November, 1818, according to an Act of the Legis- 
lature of this Province. 


Be it remembered, that Paul Sans and Nancy Robinson, both of 
the Township of Willoughby, were married by me, 29th Apr., 1819, 
according to an Act of the Legislature of the Province. 

Be it remembered, that James McCradie and — Willson, of the 
Township of Crowland, were legally married this — day of October, 

-Be it remembered, that Henry Smith and — Colton, both of Chip- 
pawa, were legally married by me, this — day of — , 1820. 

Thomas Rock, Crowland, and — Lutz, of Humberstone, were mar- 
ried legally, — day of April, 1820. 

Michael and Isabella , both of Chippawa, 7th May, 1820. 


"Township of Willoughby, 

Chippawa, 7th March, 1796. 

At a town meeting the following persons were elected to serve in 
their respective offices. 

Thos. Cummings, Town Clerk. 

Jos. Price, Jacob Lemon, Assessors. 

Joseph Pill, Esq., Poundkeeper. 

Michael Gonder, Thos. Cummings, Philip Forn, Pathmasters. 

Mathew Buchner, Abraham Beam, Church or Town Wardens." 

In the record for 1797 the new names are Jas. Macklem, Henry 
Wierhuhm, Geo. Young, Christian Boughner, Christian Venegar, Enos 
Doan, John Maby, Peter Cobrick, J. Wilson. 

In 1798 the new names are John Garner, Elijah Vincent, George 
House. In 1800, Christiau Hearshey, John Fanning, John Petty. 
In 1801, John Byers, Samuel Street. 

Gordon Dudley was fined two pounds for not sitting as assessor. 

All these years Thos. Cummings was Town Clerk. 

Saturday, 9th May, 1801, Court held at John Fanning's. Present: 
Samuel Street, John Ruby, Thos. Cummings, Esq. ; various persons 
were fined ten shillings for not appearing at Militia duty, 13th Apr. 
last. Sergeant Wm. Cook did not warn some to appear and was fined 


forty shillings ; John Garner also fined 40s. for same, but pleaded that 
he had sent a corporal to warn them and the fine was remitted. 

At Town meeting, 1802, new names are Jesse Yoksin, Jno. Brealy, 
Nicholas Misener. Fences are to be five ft. six inches high, 4 in. apart 
for 4 rails high. Hogs under a year old to be yoked, over a year with- 
out yokes. 

Various persons were summoned for neglect of duty on 4th June, 
some were fined, some excused for various reasons, as being sick, arm 
put out of joint, cut foot; one had attended on the Plains in Capt. 
Herron's Co., where he formerly belonged. 

The fines are £0 10 

Mileage and serving summons 4 8 

Oath 1 

Judgment 2 6 

Two witnesses 5 

Summons 6 

£14 8 

Execution 2 

Paid suit and costs. 

The Town meetings go on in 1803 till 1812, when James Cummings 
is Town Clerk till 1823. In 1824, James Ramsay; in 1828, Michael 
Gonder. Two pages are devoted to marks on ears of pigs, etc., in 
Crowland and Willoughby as a crop on the right ear, a half -penny out 
of the left ear, a swallow for in the left ear, a half -moon out of the 
under side of the ear, etc. 

Another page has a list of men fined in the 3rd Regt. of Militia 
in 1801. In 1810, cash paid for cleaning 40 stand of arms, £3 ; to 
drum £3 12s. ; to freight of ditto from Albany, 8s. ; 3rd Battalion Lin- 
coln Militia. 

On last page — Niagara, 24th Apr., 1801. At the Court of Quarter 
Sessions, 1801, rules for poundkeepers, signed R. Clench. Account 
for making a list of inhabitants, list of town officers and the returns 
to Quarter Sessions in April annually, each 100 names, £5 H.* Cy. 
For turning the key on receiving a delivery, 7^d. For every 24 
hours after the first 24 for food, Is. 3d., at Niagara Jail. 

A number of letters appear, signed by Commissioners of Highways 
Samuel Street, Thos. Cummings, Crowell Wilson, directing work to 



be done. Many pages are filled with names of men to perform statute 
labor. Two pages are filled with the census returns for 1823 ; number 
of males and females in each; total, 280 males, 261 females; signed, 
Jas. Cummings, Clerk. 

An interesting account of sales of effects of late Henry Weishuln 
at Public Vendue on Saturday, 21st Apr., 1804. An appraisement had 
been made by Peter McMicking, John Row, Jno. Hardy, of £275 10s. 
The articles at sale amounted to £278 10s., but some things sold for 
much more than appraisement, others for almost the exact amount, but 
a few other articles were added. One sorrel horse, £12 ; black colt, £12 
4s. ; two mares, £9 and £8 ; Napper Tandy colt, £12 4s. ; yoke of oxen, 
£16 4s., another, £19 4s. ; old cow, £4 4s. ; pleasure slay, £1 12s. ; 
waggon, £16 8s., another, £13 4s.; plough, £3 5s.; six sheep, £10; 
windmill, £2 8s. ; six sheep, £9 4s. ; ten sheep, £12 4s. ; one bay colt, 
£17 12s. ; sorrel horse, £21 4s. ; ox chain, 2s. 3d. ; heifer, £5 ; desk, 
£1 14s.; table, 16s.; half of the hogs, £7 12s 10^d., other half the 
same ; waggon, £20 ; books, 7s. ; Mohawk Testament, 3s. ; Telemachus, 
lis. 6d. ; book, 2s. 7d. The 20 pigs had been valued at £13 and were 
sold for £15, while 36 sheep were valued at £46 and sold for £40. 

A letter from Queenston to Jas. Cummings, 21st May, 1816, advis- 
ing him of arrival of the schooner General Brock, from Kingston, 
with goods — 22 casks, 2 chests, 13 cases, signed, Thomas Dickson; also 
a letter from Grant Kirby. 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Chippawa and Lundy's Lane, 
held at the schoolhouse at Drummond Hill, pursuant to a public notice, 
to consult for the appropriation of a certain sum of money granted by 
the Lord Bishop of Quebec towards erecting a church either at Chip- 
pawa or Lundy's Lane, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Crowell Wilson, Chairman. 
James Cummings, Clerk. 

Copy of letter from Major Leonard to Col. Harvey and answer 
being read, also a letter from the Lord Bishop of Quebec, stating that 
when a church at Chippawa or Lundy's Lane is raised and covered in, 
he (the Bishop of Quebec) will give from a fund entrusted to him by 
the S. P. G. £100, and that a decent residence be also provided for 
the clergyman. 

Resolved, That two churches be built, one at Chippawa and the 
other at Lundy's Lane, the one to be an Episcopal church and the other 
for all denominations of Christians. 


Resolved, That the church for all denominations be built at Lundy's 

Resolved, That the subscription list for building church for all 
denominations at Lundy's Lane, dated at Stamford, 30th Apr., 1819, 
be read. 

Read accordingly, and it was found that the amount still due and 
to be collected on said subscriptions to be 230 dollars, 88 brs. lime, 
shingles sufficient to cover the same, and subscriptions of 20 bushels of 
wheat, besides the materials already collected on the spot. 

Resolved, That it shall be left to the Trustees to regulate at what 
time and to sanction what clergyman may preach in same church. To 
meet on 22nd inst. 

Drummond Hill School House, 13th June, 1821. 

At a meeting at Stamford, 22nd inst., at the house of Hugh 
McClive, pursuant to adjournment, Crowell Wilson, Chairman, Jas. 
Cummings, Clerk ; Resolved, That Thomas Clark, Thomas Street, John 
Lifferty, Jno. Hardy and Jas. Macklem are appointed Trustees for 
the superintendence of the church for all denominations of Christians ;* 
Resolved, That Thomas Clark, Richard Leonard, Thos. Cummings, 
Jas. Macklem and George Mulmine are appointed Trustees for the 
Episcopal church to be built at Chippawa. 

Stamford, 22nd June, 1821. 

Thomas Wilson, the granter of an acre of land on Drummond Hill, 
granted to him in trust for church for all denominations. 

A meeting on 29th Jan., 1821, at Chippawa, for fixing on plan of 

Plan drawn by Col. Clark was approved of, deed to be given before 
the church be built. 

An agreement to furnish lumber was submitted by Wm. McDonell, 
Stephen Farr, Shubail Parks, of Wainfleet, at 14 shillings, K Y. cur- 
rency, per hundred feet. 

20th March, 1821. Proposals were received from Andrew Kirby, 
Canboro, and John Lymburner, Caistor, for furnishing boards. 
George Mulmine appointed Treasurer. 

♦This became the Presbyterian Church, and the Drummond Hill Presby- 
terian Church, donated by Wm. Lowell, now stands on the same spot next 
the Lundy's Lane graveyard on the hill, the scene of the battle, 25th July, 1814. 

Publications of the Ontario Historical Society. 

Vol. I.— pp. 140. Royal 8vo. (Out of print.) 

Rev. John Langhorn — Personal Note. 

Marriage Record of Rev. John Langhorn, No. 1. 

Rev. G. O'Kill Stuart's Register at St. John's Church, Bath. 

Marriage Register of St. John's Church, Ernest Town, No. 2. 

Langhorn'e Book No. 3. 

In the Parish Register of St. George, Kingston. 

A Register of Baptisms for the Township of Fredericksburgh. 

Rev. John Langhorn's Records, 1787-1813 — Burials. 

Rev. John Langhorn's Register of St. Paul's Church, Fredericksburgh. 

Rev. Robert McDowall — Personal Note. 

McDowall Marriage Register. 

A Register of Baptisms by the Rev. Robert McDowall. 

Marriage Register of Stephen Conger, J.P., Hallowell. 

Some Descendants of Joseph Brant. 

Remarks on the Maps from St. Regis to Sault Ste. Marie. 

Sketch of Peter Teeple, Loyalist and Pioneer, 1762-1847. 

The Cameron Rolls, 1812. 

The Talbot Settlement and Buffalo in 1816. 

Vol. II.— pp. 128. Royal 8vo. $1.00. 

The United Empire Loyalist Settlement at Long Point, Lake Erie 

Vol. III.— pp. 199. Royal 8vo. $1.00. 

Early Records of St. Mark 's and St. Andrew's Churches, Niagara By 
Janet Carnochan. 

Baptisms in Niagara by Rev. Robert Addison. 

Weddings at Niagara, 1792. 

Burials, Niagara, 1792. 

Register of Baptisms, commencing 29th June, 1817, Township 

of Grimsby. 
Register of Marriages, Township of Grimsby, U.C., commencing 

August, 1817. 
Register of Burials in the Township of Grimsby. 
Register of Christenings in the Presbyterian Congregation, 

Township of Newark, Upper Canada. 
Register of Births and Baptisms, St. Andrew's Church, Niagara. 
Marriages celebrated by Rev. Robert McGill. 




Vol. III. — Continued. 

German-Canadian Folk Lore. By W. J. Wintemberg. 
The Settlers of March Township. By Mrs. M. H. Ahearn. 
The Settlement of the County of Grenville. By Mrs. Burritt. 
Recollections of Mary Warren Breckenridge, of Clarke Township. By 

Catherine F. Lefroy. 
A Relic of Thayendanegea (Capt. Joseph Brant). By Mrs. M. E. Rose 

Some Presbyterian U. E. Loyalists. By D. W. Clendennan. 
The Migration of Voyageurs from Drummond Island to Penetanguishene 

in 1828. By A. C. Osborne. 
List of the Drummond Island Voyageurs. 
Portrait of Father Marquette. 
A Brief History of David Barker, a United Empire Loyalist. By J. S. 

The Old " Bragh," or Hand Mill. By Sheriff McKellar. 

The Ethnographical Elements of Ontario. By A. F. Hunter, M.A 

Vol. IV.— pp. 115. Royal 8vo. $1.00. 

Exploration of the Great Lakes, 1669-1670. By Dollier de Casson and 

de Brehant de Galinee. 
Galinee's Narrative and Map, with an English Version, including all the 

Map Legends. Translator and Editor, James H. Coyne. 

Vol. V.— pp. 236. Royal 8vo. $1.00. 

Discovery and Exploration of the Bay of Quinte. James H. 

Coyne, B.A. 
The Origin of our Maple Leaf Emblem. The Editor. 
The Count de Puisaye. A Forgotten Page of Canadian History. 

Miss Janet Carnochan. 
Historical Notes on Yonge Street. Miss L. Teefy. 
V. Presqu'isle. I. M. Wellington, with Notes by C. C. James. 
VI. Genealogical List of the Bull Family. Dr. A. C. Bowerman. 

A Record of Marriages and Baptisms in the Gore and London 

Districts, by the Rev. Ralph Leeming, from 1816-1827. With 

Introduction by H. H. Robertson, Barrister, Hamilton, Ont. 
Ancaster Parish Records, 1830-1838, from the Register of the 

Rev. John Miller, MA. 
Sketch of the Rev. William Smart, Presbyterian Minister of 

Elizabethtown, Holly S. Seaman. 
X. Record of Marriages and Baptisms from the Registers of the Rev. 

William Smart, Elizabethtown, 1812-1842. 









Vol. VI.— pp. 170. Royal 8vo. $1.00. 

I. The Coming of the Mississagas. J. Hampden Burnham. 
II. The First Indian Land Grant in Maiden. C. W. Martin. 

III. Journal of a Journey from Sandwich to York in 1806. Charles 


IV. The John Richardson Letters. Col. E. Cruikshank. 

V. Ontario Onomatology and British Biography. H. F. Gardiner. ■ 
VI. The Origin of " Napanee." C. C. James. 
VII. Napanee's First Mills and their Builder. Thomas W. Casey. 
VIII. Local Historic Places in Essex County. Miss Margaret Claire 
IX. Notes on the Early History of the County of Essex. Francis 

X. Battle of Queenston Heights. Editor. 
XI. Battle of Windsor. John McCrae. 

XII. The Western District Literary and Agricultural Association. 
Rev. Thomas Nattress. 

XIII. Battle of Goose Creek. John S. Barker. 

XIV. McCollom Memoirs. W. A. McCollom. 

XV. Brief Sketch of a Canadian Pioneer. (Reprint.) 
XVI. The Switzers of the Bay of Quinte. E. E. Switzer. 
XVII. The State Historian of New York and the Clinton Papers — A 

Criticism. H. H. Robertson. 
XVIII. Anderson Record from 1699 to 1896. Mrs. S. Rowe. 
XIX. Lutheran Church Record, 1793-1832. 
XX. Assessment of the Township of Hallowell for 1808. 

Vol. VII.— pp. 236. Royar8vo. $1.00. 

The First Chapter of Upper Canadian History. By Avern Pardoe. 

In the Footsteps of the Habitant on the South Shore of the Detroit 

River. B}' Margaret Claire Kilroy. 
Births, Marriages and Deaths recorded in the Parish Registers of 

Assumption, Sandwich. By Francis Cleary. 
The Pennsylvania Germans of Waterloo County, Ontario. By Rev. 

A. B. Sherk. 
Black List. 

An Old Family Account Book. By Michael G. Sherk. 
The Origin of the Maple Leaf as the Emblem of Canada. By Miss 

Janet Carnochan 
Testimonial of Mr. Roger Bates, of the Township of Hamilton, District 

of Newcastle, now living' on his farm near Coboum. 
Reminiscences of Mrs. White, of White's Mills, near Cobourg, Upper 

Canada, formerly Miss Catherine Chrysler, of Sydney, near Belle- 
ville, aged 79. 
Memoirs of Colonel John Clark, of Port Dalhousie, C.W. 
The Origin of the Names of the Post Offices in Simcoe County. By 

David Williams, B.A.