Skip to main content

Full text of "Paradise Lost: A Poem, in Twelve Books. The Author John Milton"


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 

6000771 15R 

...,.■■ /,. 

,/;,„,_ ^i;x/,y..'?- 

6000771 15R 

^ * 





I N 





With Notes of various Authors, 

Volume the 

F I R s X, 

L O N D N: 

Mntel fbr 7. anil R. Teufan and & Draper i and for 5. A'r/, 

C. SBtebt y.Hu^tit B. Dad^ Mi fflcified, J. Of-mU^ 

7, Ward, J. Brindley, C. Ceriet, and J. Ntw. 


/•^ X ? 

- cv 6- • /- • 


:' c 

■-• ■*T Q '^ ■' 'T '/ ' •■ 

i.a M TJixKi-i'it .j.htrt-vi ft iv-t I » 

>M 'If 'Wti^iTT-'r' frtc •.rnr "Srti •^■ 

To the Right Hono&ablx the 


Mr Lord, 

MILTON himfeir prefixed no De- 
dicatioa to the Paradise Lost; 
for he dcfigned it, not iov a fingle patron9 
but for the wife and learned of all ages. 
However ieveral of the later editions have 
been inferibed to Lord Sommers, as a great 
admirer and encourager of this work : and 
indeed flich a poem fhould be addreiled 
only to the moft worthy, to Lord Sommers, 
or One like Him a judge and patron of art^ 
and illuftrious both in the commonwealth of 
men and the commonwealth of letters. 

A 8 



every body's hands, and tead with uni- 
verfal delight and admiration: but Your 
verfes are made only for the amufement 
of Your leifiirc hours, and the entertain- 
ment of Your friends j and it is not eafy 
fcr others, who have not had the plea- 
sure of feeing fome of them, to con- 
ceive the fpirit, and eafe, and elegance, 
and happinefs, with which they are writ- 
ten. They, who remember the pieces by 
Lord Dofiet, may have the beft notion 
of them. 

And if I may prefume to know any 
thing of the fpirit or mind of Milton by a 
diligent perufal of his works, he would be 
pleafed with the ofiering of any of his 
tirritings to Your Lordihip, for the iake of 
thofe principles of liberty which You have 
always profeiled. He would have rejoiced 


I ««f*ll 

D E D I-G AT I O N» 

ia Your long, and glorious ftrnggle in ^ 
caufe of liberty, in tbe caufe of Your 
country: and if all the good eSc&s have 
not followed &om it> which might have 
been ez|)ed!ed, though it may not 
me to &y where the blame ought to be 
laid, yet it cannot misbecome me to fay 
that it ought by no means to be laid, at 
it has been, upon Your Lordihip. It is not 
my bufinefi to give any oi^le, and I in- 
tend nixie. I abhor defamation, and I fcors 

as much to flatter your Lordfliip or any 
man. But it may be (aid, I hope without 
oflenfey I am fure without flattetyj that iA 
is in Your Lordfhip's power to (et all theie 
tranladions in a clear Hght, and You have 
iuffident materials hy You for this purpoi^ 
and have often been fblicited by You# 
fiiendi to do it: but Your Lordihip'^ 

A 4 anfwer 


aiofweir always was, that You would leave it 
to Time and Truth to vindicate Your cha- 
rafter. And the event has fucceeded ac- 
cording to Your Lordfhip's wifdom and 
forefight; prejudice is dying away; truth 
is gaining ground daily ; add the more the 
truth is uaderftood, the mote it redounds 
to Your Loidihip*s honor: and Youe ene- 
mies themielves, and thoie who not know- 
ing Your purpofes will ilot allow You to 
have a^ed a wife, muft yet be forced to 
acknowledge that you ai^^d a mod di£n- 
terefted part. For it is very well known, 
that you weic even courted to accept the 
place of the greatefl power and confi- 
dence J or if You had forefe^ any difficulty 
of maintaining Yourielf in power, as that 
18 a flippery and uncertain fltuation. You 
might have fccured Yourfelf in the pof- 



fdSion of aoy of the moft lucrative employ- 
ments, and might have enjoyed it with a 
patent for life. But Your Lordfhip was 
content to leave others in place and power, 
who You thought were moft able and beft 
(qualified for the adminiftration of public 
iSm^ and retired Yourfelf with only a 
dignity, which had been o flei 'e d You &- 
reral times before. Such inftances of 
magnamnttty and -difintereftednels have not 
been common in any age, and are very un- 
common in the prefent. 

Thus much the love of truth and virtue, 
which is in%>arable from the love of 
Your Lordfhip, has obliged me to fay: 
and if I am partial to Your Lord{hip*s 
charader, there are other reafbns which 
have made me fb, beddes'the friendfhip 
and kindneis which You have (hown to 



me open all occafions. Your love of re- 
ligion and virtue, which You exprefi in 
dl Your difcourfts and anions ; Your re- 
verence for the holy Scriptures, and how 
Uniafliionable Ibever it may be, Your open 
[aofeflion of the truth of the Chriftian 
levelation ; Your regard for our eftablifli'd 
Church, and regular attendence upon the 
public worlhip; Your conftant and in- 
violable afledion to the conftitution and 
liberties of Your country; Your ading 
always upon the true Whig principles, and 
afierting equally the prerogatives of the 
crown and the privileges of the people; 
Your fteddy and fincere attachment, tho' 
not always to the miniflers,. yet always to 
the perlbn of our moft gracious King, 
aod the true intetefts of his royal family, 
who next under God are the great bulwark 


and defenle of our religioa and libtrtks ; 
Your readinefs at all times to maintain the 
liberty of the prefi, tho' no man ever firf- 
fered more by the abufe of it than Yowr- 
ielf; Your humane and compaffionate 
temper; Your uncommon know]edge> and 
eztenfive genius for litterature or bu^nefs; 
Your eafy wit, and flowing converfation, 
often inflrudive, always agreeable and en- 
tertaining ; Your fbcial and convivial fpi- 
rft> that it is a happinefs to live or con- 
verle with You ; thefe, thefe are the good 
qualities, which have gained my afieftion, 
and mufl gain every one's who hath equal 
opportunities of obferving them. If I 
knew any man, who pofleiled and ex« 
erted them all in a greater and more emi- 
nent degree than Your Lordfhip, I fhould 

love him and admire him more : but till then 

■ • 


I muft have tke higheft honor for Yoqr 
Lord(hip> and cannot help profefCng my- 
fiblf without reierve, and with all pofllble 

My Lorq, 

Your Lords H I p's ever obliged. 

^ • J 

and devoted Servant, 

IdgfSLo^ 1749. 


Thomas Newton. 


TO publUh new wd corred editbnd o^ die 
wc^ks of approved authors has eyqr been 
ellcemed a fervice to learning, and ih em- 
ployment worthy of nien of learning. It is not ma* 
terial whether the author is ancient or modem. 
Good criticifm is the fame in all languages* Nay I 
know not whether there is not greater merit in cul« 
tivatihg our own language than any other. And cer« 
tainly next to a good writer, a good critic holds the 
fecond rank in the republic of letters. And if the 
pious and learned Bifhop of Theflalonica has gained 
immortal honor by his notes upon Homer, if can be 
nc difcredit to a graver Divine than myfelf to com- 
ment upon iiich a divine poem as the Paradife Lo(^ 
efpecially after fome great men, who have gone be- 
fore me in this exercife, and whofe example is fanftion 

My defign in the prefent edition is to publifh the 
Paradife Loft, as the work of a clailic author cum 
not is variorum. And in order to this end the firft 
care has been to print the text corredly according to 
Milton*s own editions. And herein the editors of 
Milton have a confiderable advantage over the editors 
of Shakefpear. For the firft editions of Shakeipear's 
works being printed from the incorreft copies of the 
flyers, there is more room left for conjectures and 
emendations ; and as according to the old proverb. 

Bene qui conjiciet vatem hunc perbibebo optimum, 

the beft guefier was the beft diviner, fo he may be 
£iidinfbme meafiire too to be the beft editor of 
Shakefpear, as Mr. Warbucton hath proved himfelf 



by variety of conjedhires, and many of them veiy 
liappy ones, upon the moft difficult paffages. But 
we who undertake to publifli Milton's Paradife Loft 
are not reduced to that uncertainty ; we are not left 
floting in the wide ocean of conjedure, but have a 
chart and cofnpafs to fteer by; wc have an authentic 
copy to follow in the two editions printed in his 
own lifc-fimc, and have only to corredt what may 
be fuppofed to be the errors of the prefs, or miftakes 
occanoned by the author's blindnefs. Thefe two 
editions then, the firft in ten books printed ina fmall 
quarto^ and the fecond in twelve books printed in a 
finall o<5tavo, are propofed as our ftandard : the va- 
riations in each are noted ; and we never deviate from 
them both without afligning, as we think, a fub- 
ftantial reafon for it. Some alterations indeed are 
neceflary to be made in confequence of the late im- 
provements in printing, with regard to the ufe of 
capital letters, Italic characters, and the fpelling of 
fome words : but to Milton's own fpelling (for we 
muft diftinguifti between his and that of his times) 
we pay all proper regard, and commonly note where 
it is right, and where it is wrong; and follow it or 
not accordingly. His pointing too we generally ob- 
ferve, becaufe it is generally right; fuch was the 
care, that Milton himfelf took in having the proof- 
Iheets read to him, or his friends took for him : and 
changes of confequence we make none without figni- 
fyihg the reafons ; in Icfler inftances there is no oc- 
caBon to be particular. In a word we approve of 
the two ftrit editions in the main, tho' we cannot 
think that they ought to be followed (as fome have 
advifcd) letter for letter, and point fw point. We 



defire to tranfcribe all their excellences, but have no 
notion of perpetuating their faults and errors. 

When the text was fettled, the notes came next 
under confideration. P. H. or Patrick Hume, as he 
was the firfl, fo is the mofl: copious annotator. He 
laid the foandation, but he laid it among infinite 
heapG of rubbiA). The greater part of bis work is 
a dull dkfHomry of the moft common words, a te« 
dious fardel of the mod trivial obfervations, explain- 
ing what requires no explanation: but take away 
what is fuperfluons, and there will ftill remain a 
great deal that is ufefuls there is gold among his 
drofs^ and I have been careful to Separate the one 
from the other. It vns recommendol to me indeed 
to print intire Mr. Addifon's Spedators upon the 
Paradife Loft, as ingenious^ ellays which had con- 
tributed greatly to the reputation of the poem, and 
having been added to fetteral editions they could not 
well be omitted in this edition: and accordingly 
thoie papers, which treat of the poem in general, 
are pcefired in the nature of a preliminary difcourfe ; 
and thofe, which are written upon each book fepA- 
rately, arc infcrted under each book, and interwoven 
in their proper places. Dr. Bentley's is a great name 
in criticifm. But he has not acquired any additional 
honor by his new edition of the Paradife Loft. Nay 
{oaic have been fo iar prejudiced as to think, that 
he could not be a good critic in any language, who 
had (hown himielf fo injudicious an one in his own 
mother-tongue. But prejudice apart, he was a very 
great man, of parts interior to few, of learning fupe- 
rior to moft men 3 and he has made fome very judi- 
cious and iifefiii remarks upon the Paradife Loft, 



though in the general they may rather be called the 
dotages of Dr. Bentley. He was more fagacious in 
finding faults, than happy in mending them ; and if 
he had confined himfelf only to the former, he 
might have had better fuccefs; but when he at- 
tempted the latter, and fubftituted verfes of his own 
in the room of Milton's, he commonly made mod 
miferable bungling work, being no poet himfelf, 
and having Utile or no tafte of poetry. Dr. Pearce, 
the prefent Lord Bifliop of Bangor, has diflinguifhed 
his tafte and judgment in choofing always the beft 
authors for the fubjeds of his criticifm, as Cicero 
and Longinus among the Ancients, and Milton 
ambng the Moderns. His Review of the Text of 
the Paradife Loft is not only a moft complete anfwer 
to Dr. Bentley, but may ferve as a pattern to all 
fiiture critics, of found learning and juft reafoning 
joined with the greateft pandor and gentlenefs of 
manners. Th? whqle is very well worthy of the 
perufal of every lover and admirer of Milton, but 
llich parts only are ingrafFcd into this work as are 
more immediately proper for our defign, and explain 
fpme difficulty, or illuftrate fqme beauty of our 
author. His Lordftiip together with my Lord Bath 
firft engaged me in tjiis undertaking, and he has 
kindly affifted me in it from the beginning to the 
end; and I cannot but entertain the better hopes of 
tjie public approbation, as thefe ftieets, long before 
they wpnt to thp prefs, were perufed and correfted 
by his Lordftiip. Of Mr. Richardfon's notes it muft 
be faid that there arp ft range inequalities in them, 
fome extravagances, and nwny excellences ; there is 
often better fenfe th^fi grammar or Englifli ; and 




^ he fometimes hits the trae meaning of the author 
fiirprifingly, and explams it properly. He had good 
natural parts but without erudition or learning, in 
which he was aflifted by his fon, who is a man of 
tafte and litterature, as well as of the greatell bene- 
volence and good-nature. Mr. Warburton likewiie 
has publiihed fome remarks upon the Paradife Loft, 
occafioned chiefly by Dr. Bentley's edition. They 
were printed fome years ago in the Hiftory of the 
works of the Learned, and he allowed me the free 
ufe of them : but upon looking into the Hiftory of 
the works of the L^rned, to my regret I found that 
his remarks were continued no farther than the three 
firft books, and what is become of his other papers, 
and how they were miflaid and loft, neither he nor 
I can apprehend ; but the excellence of thofe which 
remain lufticiently evinces the great lofs that we have 
fuftained in the others, whicn cannot now be re- 
covered. He has done me the honor too of recom- 
mending this edition to the public in the preface to 
his Shakefpear, but nothing could have recommended 
it more effedually than if it had been adorned by 
fome more of his notes and obfervations. There is 
a pamphlet intitled An Eftay upon Milton's imita- 
tions or the Ancients, faid to be written by a Gentle- 
man of North Britain ; and there is another intided 
Letters concerning poetical tranflations, and Virgil's 
and Milton's arts of verfe, commonly afcribed to 
Mr. Auditor Bcnfon: and of both thefe I have 
made fome ufe, as I have likewife of the learned 
Mr. Upton's Critical Obfervations on Shakefpear, 
wherein he has occafionally interfperfed fome remarks 
upon Milton 3 and in fhort, like the bee, I have been 
Vol. L B ftudious 

fttidious of gathering fwcets wherever I could iind 
them growing. 

But befides the flower of thofe which have been 
already pqblifhed, here are feveral new obfervatiOTis 
offered to (he world, both of others and my own. 
Dr. Heylia lent me the ufe of his manulcript re- 
marks, but much the greater part of them had been 
rifled before by Dr. Bcnt^ey. It fecms Dr. Hcylin 
had once an intentioa of publlihing a new edition 
of the Paradife Loft, and mentioned his defign to 
Dr. Bentley : but Dr. Bentley declaring at the fame 
time h» cefolujtjon of doing it, Dr. Hcylin modeftly 
deiifted, and freely communicated what obferva- 
tioos he had made to Dr. Bentley. And what does 
Dr. Bentley do ? Why, be borrows the beft and 
moft plaufiblcof his notes from Dr. Heylin, publifhes 
them as his own>. and never has the gratitude to 
make any acknowledgment, or fo much as any men- 
tion of his benciadbEJT. I am obliged too to Mr. Jortin 
for ibme remarks, which he conveyed to me by the 
hands of Dr. Pearce. They are chiefly upon Milton's 
imitations of the Ancients j but every thing that pro- 
ceeds from him is of value, whether in poetry, cri- 
ticifm, or divinity; as appears from his Lufus Poe- 
tic!, his MifceUancous Obfervations upon authors, 
and his Difcourfes concerning the truth of the Chri- 
ftian Religion. Befides thofe ah-eady mentioned, 
Mr. Warburton has fevoted me with a few other 
notes in manufcript ; I wifli there had been more of 
them for the fake of the reader, for the loofe hints 
of fuch writers, like the flight sketches of great 
mafters in painting, are worth more than the labor'd 
pieces of othera, Aad be very kindly lent me 


r, ?<^'i Milton of Beotley's editioD, whcfcin 
r. Fope had all along with his own hand fet foaw 
lit of approbation, retfte, bend, pulchri &c/'in 

margin over-againft fuch emendations of the 
dor's, as feemed to him juil and rcafonable. It 
t a fatis&dion to fee what Jo great a genius thought 
ticularlj of that edition, and he appears through- 
: die whole to have been a very candid reader, 
1 to have approved of more than really merits ap- 
ibation. Mr. Richardfon the &ther has iaid u^ 
pre&ce, that his fon had a very copious colteftioix 
fine parages out of ancient and modem authors^ 
which Milton had profited; and this colledion, 
lich is written in the margin and between the lines 
Mr. Hume's annotations, Mr, Richardfon the fon 
: put into my hands. Some little ufe I have made 
it; and it might have been of greater iervice, ani| 
re laved me fome trouble, if I bad not then almoft 
npletcd this work. Mr. Thyer, the Librarian at 
mcheAer, I have not the pleaiiire of knovnng 
fiinally, but by his writings I am convinced that 
moil be a man of great learning, and as great 
nanity. It was late before I was informed that he 
L written any remarks upon the Faradife Loft, 
he was very ready to communicate them, and 
the greater difpatch fent me his interleav'd Milton, 
erein his remarks were written : but unluckily for 
I, for me, and for the public, the book thro* the 
ligence of the carrier was dropt upon the road, 

cannot iince be found. Mr. Thyer however 

!i had the goodne^ to endevor to repair the lofi 

ne and to the public by writing what he could 

tUedt, and fending me a iheet or two &11 of re- 

B 2 marks 

P RE F A' C E. 

marks almoft every poft for fevcral weeks together : 
and tho' fevcral of them came too late to be infcrtcd 
into the body of the work, yet they will be found 
in the * Appendix, which is made for the fake of 
them principally. It is unncceflary to fay any thing 
in their commendation ; they will fufficiently recom- 
mend themfclves. Some other afliftance too I have 
received from perfons, whofc names are unknown, 
and others, whofe names I am not at liberty to men- 
tion : but I hope the Speaker of the Houfe of Com- 
mons will pardon my ambition to have it known, 
that he has been pleafed to fuggeft fomc ufefiil hints 
and obfervations, when I have been admitted to the 
honor of his converfation. 

And as the notes are of various authors, fo they 
are of various kinds, critical and explanatory j fome 
to correfl; the errors of former editions, to difcufs 
the various readings, and to eftablilh the true genuin 
tract of Milton ; fome to illuftratc the fcnfe and 
meaning, to point out the beauties and defeats of 
fentiment and charafter, and to commend or cenfure 
the conduft of the poem ; fome to remark the pe- 
culiarities of ftile ana language, to clear the fyntax, 
^d to explain the uncommon words, or 'common 
words ufed in an uncommon fignlfication ; fome to 
tonflder and examin the numbers, and to difplay our 
author's great arts of verfification, the variety of the 
paufes, and the adaptnefs of the found to the fenfe ; 
fome to Ihow his imirations and alluiions to other 
authors, whether facred or profane, ancient or mo- 
dern. We might have been much larger and more 
copious under each of thcfe heads, and efpecially 

* In this editioa tbe; ue-iitlerted in tbdr prcper ^ces. 


under the lad : but I would not produce every thing 

that hath any fimilitude and refemblance, but only 

fuch pailages as we may fuppofe the author really 

alluded to, and had in mind at the time of writing. 

It was once my intention to prefix fome eflays to 

tins work, one upon Milton's iiile^ another upon his 

verfification, a third upon his imitations &c ; but 

upon more mature deliberation I concluded that the 

fame diings would have a better eifed in the form 

of ihcnt notes, when the particular pafTages referred 

to came, immediately under confidcration, and the 

context lay before the reader. There would have 

been more of the pomp and oftentation of criticifin 

in the firmer, but I conceive there is more real ufe 

and advantage in the latter. It is the great fault of 

commentators, that they are apt to be filent or at 

moft very concife where there is any difficulty, and 

to be very prolix and tedious where there is none : 

but it is hoped that the contrary method has been 

taken here ; and tho' more may be faid than is re- 

r'^ite for critics and fcholars, yet it may be no more 
is neceflary or proper for other readers of 
Milton. For thefe notes are intended for general 
ufe, and if they are received with general approba- 
tion, that will be fufficient. I can hardly expert 
that any body (hould approve them all, and I may 
be certain that no body can condemn them all. 

The life of the author it is almofl become a 
cuftom to prefix to a new edition of his works ; for 
when we admire the writer, we are curious alfo to 
know fomething of the man : and the life of Milton 
is not barely a hiftory of his works, but is fo much 
the more interefling, as he was more engaged in 

B 3 public 


public affairs than poets ufually are. And it has 
happened that more accounts have been written of 
his life, than of almoft any author's, particularly by 
Antony Wood in his Fafti Oxonienfes, by our au- 
thor's nephew Mr. Edward Philips before the Englifli 
tranflation of Milton's State-letters printed in 1694, 
by Mr. Toland before the edition of our author's 
profe works in three volumes fctio printed in 1698, 
by Monfieur Eayle in his Hiftorical and Critical 
DiifVionary, by Mr. Fcnton before the edition of 
our author's poetical works printed in 1725, by 
Mr. Richardfon in the preface to his Explanatory 
Notes and Remarks upon Milton's Paradife Lofl, 
and by the reverend and ingenious Mr. Thomas 
Birch in the General Diftionary, and more largely 
before the edition of our author's prole works ii 


The man, who is at the pains of making indexes, 
is really to be pitied j but of their great utility there 
ii no need to iay any thing, when feveral peifons, 
who pafs in the world for profound fcholare, know 
little more of books than title-pages and indexes, 
ijut never catch the fpirit of an author, which is iiire 
always to evaporate or die in fuch hands. The fer^er 
f£ thefe indexes, if not drawn up by Mr, Hckell, 
mi I think firft inferted in his quarto edition of 
ACkon's poetical works [mnted in 1720; and for the 
latter, which was much more laborious, it was com- 
poled at the defire and encouragement of Mr. Auditor 
Benfon by Mr. Cruden, who hath alfo published a 
fcry nicliU Concordance to the Bible. 





% • 

is agreed among aU writers, that the femUy of 
idilton came originally from Milton in Oxford- 
[lure ; but from whioi of the Miltons is not al- 
ther fo certain. Some iay, and particularly 

Hiilips, that the family was of Milton near 

igton m Oxfordfhire, where it had been a long 

\ ieated, as appears by the monuments ftill to be 

in Milton-oiurch. But that Milton is not in 

brdlhire, but in Barkfhire ; and upon inquiry I 

» that there are no fuch monuments m that 

"ch, nor any remains of them. It is more pro- 

z therefore that the &mily came, as Mr. Wood 

, from Milton near Halton and Thame in Ox- 

Ifbire : where it florifhed feveral years, till at laft 

eAate was fequefrer'd, one of the &mily having 

n the unfortunate fide in the civil wars between 

houfes of York and Lancafter. John Milton, 

poet's grand'&ther, was, according to Mr. Wood, 

mder-ranger or keeper of the foreft of Shotover 

' Halton in Oxfordfhire ; he was of the religion 

ilome, and fuch a bigot that he difinherited his 

only for being a proteftant. Upon this the fon, 

poet's father, named likewife John Milton, fettled 

«ondon, and became a fcrivener by the advice of 

end eminent in that profeflion : but he was not 

evoted to gain and to bufinefs, as to lofe all tafte 

he politer arts^ and was particularly ikilled in 

ic« in which he was not only a fine poformer, 


iv The LIFE o^ MILTON. 

and there he excelled more and more, and dillin- 
guifhcd hinifelf by fevcral copies of verfes upon oc- 
cafional iubje<Ss, as well as by all his academical cx- 
crcifes, many of which are printed among his other 
works^ and ihow liim to have had a capacity above 
his years : and by his obliging behaviour added to his 
great learning and ingenuity he defcrvedly gained the 
afie£lion of many, and admiration of all. We do 
not find however that he obcained any preferment in 
the univerfity, or a fellowlhip in his own college ; 
■ which feemeth the more extraordinary, as that fo- 
dety has always encouraged lejjuing and learned 
men, had the moft excellent Mr. Mtde at tliat time 
a fellow, and afterwards boafteth the great names of 
Cudworth, and Burnet author of the Theory of the 
Earth, and feveral others. And this together with 
Ibme Latin verfes of his to a friend, reflefling upon 
the univerfity fecmingly on this account, might pro- 
bably have given occafion to the reproach which was 
afterwards caft upon him by his adverfaries, that he 
was expelled from the univerfity for irregularities 
committed there, and forced to fly to Italy : but he 
fufficiently refutes this calumny in more places than 
one of his works ; and indeed it is no wonder, that 
a perfon fo engaged in religious and political contro- 
verfies, as he was, fliould be calumniated and abufed 
by the contr.iry party. 

He was defigned by his parents for holy orders j 
and among the manufcripcs of Trinity College in 
Cambridge there arc two draughts in Milton's own 
band of a letter to a friend, who had importuned 
him to take orders, when he bad attained the age of 
twenty three: but the truth is, be had conceived 



In his ftadies at home, he was fent to St. Paul's 
School, to be fitted for die univerfity under the care 
of Mr. Gill, who was the mafter at that time, and 
to whofe fon are addrefled fome of his familiar 
cpifties. In this early time of his life fuch was his 
love of learning, and fo great was his amlMtion to 
fbrpafs his equals, that fixmi his twelfth year he 
commonly continued his ftudies till midnight, vdiich 
(as he &ys himfelf in his fecond Defenfe) was the 
firft ruin of his eyes, to whofe natural debility were 
added too fi^uent head-akes : but all could not ex- 
tinguifh or abate his laudable paflion for letters. It 
is very feldom feen, that fudi applicaticHi and fbch a 
pnius meet in .the fame perfen. The force of eidier 
B ffcsLtj but both together mufl perform wonders. 

He was now in the i ^^tfa year of his age, and was 
a very good claffical fcnolar and mafler of feveral 
language when he was fent to the univerfity of 
Cambridge, and admitted at Chrift's College (as ap- 
pears from the rcgifler) on the 1 2th of February 
1624-5, under the tuition of Mr. William Chappel, 
afterwards Biihop of Cork and Rofs in Ireland. He con- 
tinued above feven years at the univerfity, and took 
two degrees, diat of Bachelor of Arts in 1628-9, and 
that of Matter in 1632. It is fomewhat remarkable, 
that tho' die merits of both our univerfities are per- 
haps equally great, and tho' poetical exercifes are 
rather more encouraged at Oxiord, yet moft of our 
greatefl poets have been bred at Cambridge, as 
Spenfer, Cowley, Waller, Dryden, Prior, not to 
mention any of the leflfcr ones, when there is a 
greater than all, Mihon. He had given early proofs 
of his poetic genius before he went to the univerfity, 


w The LIFE of Jlf/irO//. 

the Lord hackly and Mr. Thomas Egerton, and that 
of the lady by his Lordfhip's daughter die Lady- 
AUce Egerton. The occafion of this poem fcemem 
to have been merely an accident of the two brothu^ 
and the lady having loft one another in their way to 
the caiUe : and it is written very much in imitation 
of Shakefoear's Tempeft, and the Faithfiil Shcp- 
herdefs of Beaumont and Fletcher j and though one 
of the iiritj is yet one of the moft beautiful of 
Milton's compolition&. It was for fome time handed 
about only in manulcript } but afterwards to fatisfy 
the importunhy of friends and to fave the trouble of 
tranfcnbing, it was priutcd at London, though with- 
out the author's name, in 1637, with a dedication 
to the Lord Brackly by Mr. H. Lawes, who com- 
pos'd the mufic, and played the part of the atten- 
dent Spirit. It was printed likewife at Oxford at the 
end of Mr. K's poems, as we learn frcHn a letter o( 
Sir Henry Wotton to our author; but who that 
Mr. R. was, whetho' Randolph the poet or who 
dfe, is uncertain. It has lately, tbo' with additions 
and alterationSi been exhibited on the ftage feveral 
times ; and we hope the fine poetry and morality 
have recommended it to the audience, and not barely 
the authority of Milton's name ; and we wifli for 
the honor of the nation, that the like good taile pr&- 
vailed Jn every thing. 

In 1637 ^^ wrote another excellent piece, his 
Lyctdas, wherein he laments the untimely htc of a 
friend, who was unfortunately drowned that fame 
year in the month of Auguft, on the Irifh feas, in 
his paOage from Cheflcr. This fi-iend was Mr. Edr* 
ward King, fon of Sir John King, Secretaiy of 


ThcI^IFE of MILTON. vil 

Kid DOfdcr Qiicen EUaabeth^ King James I, and 
r Charles I ; and was a fellow of Chrift's CoU 
aad was fo well beloved and cfteemed at Gun* 
;e, that fome of the greateft naaies in the uni^ 
y have united in cele&ating his dbfequies, and 
ihed a coUed^ion of poems, Greek and. Latin 
goglifl). iacred to his memory. The Greek by 
^e &c ; the Latin by T« Farnaby, J. Pear- 
ieci the Endifh by H. King, J. Beaumont, 
^veland with fcveral others; and judicioufly 
iSt of all, as the beft of all, is Milton's LycidaL 
1 iiich facrifices the Gods themfelves ftrow in* 
die;" and one would almoft wi(h fo to have 
for the fake of having been fo lamented. But 
poem is not all made up of forrow and tender- 
there is a mixture of fatir and indignation ; for 
ut of it the poet taketh occalion to inveigh 
\SL the corruptions of the clergy, and feemeth to 
firft difcovered his zcximony againft Archbifhop 
[, and to have threaten'd hun with the loTs of 
ead, which afterwards happened to him thro' 
iiry of his enemies. At leaft I can think of no 
fo proper to be given to the following verfes 

fides what the grim wolf with privy paw 
uly devours apace, and nothing iaid ; 
It that two-handed engin at the door 
mds ready to fmite once, and finite no more. 

IxHit this time, as we learn from one of his fa-* 
r cpiftlcs, he had fome thoughts of taking 
ibcrs at one of t^ Inns of Court, for be was 


yiii The LIFE of M/LrOiST. 

not very well pleafed with living fo obfcorcly in the 
country: but his mother dying, he prevailed wiA, 
his £ither to let him indulge a defire, which he had 
long entertained, of feeing foreign countries, and 
particularly Italy : and having conununicated his de- 
fign to Sir Henry Wotton, who had formerly been 
embaflador at Venice, and was then Provoft of Eton 
College, and having alfo fent him his Maik of which 
he had not yet publicly acknowledged himfelf the 
author, he received from him the following friendly 
letter dated from the College the loth of April 1638, 


It was a fpecial favor, when You lately beftowed 
upon me here the firft tafte of Your acquaintance, 
tno' no longer than to make me know, that I 
wanted more time to value it, and to enjoy it 
rightly. And in truth, if I could then have ima- 
gined Your ferther ftay in thefe parts, which I 
underftood afterwards by Mr. H., I would have 
been bold, in our vulgar phrafe, to mend my 
draught, for You left me with an extreme thirft, 
and to have begged your converfation again joindy 
" with Your faid learned friend, at a poor meal or 
" two, that we might have banded together fome 
'^ good authors of the ancient time, among which I 
" obferved You to have been femiliar. 

Since Your going. You have charged me with 
new obligations, both for a very kind letter from 
You, dated the fixth of this month, and for a 
dainty piece of entertainment, that came there- 
** with ; wherein I fhould much commend the tra- 
gical part, . if the lyrical did not ravifh with a 





The LIFE o£ MILTON: ix 

'' certain Doric delicacy in Your fongs and odes, 
*' wliercin I muft plainly confefs to have fecn yet 
. '- nothing parallel in our language, Ipfa moUities. 
I ** But I muft not omit to tell You, that I now only 
I " owe You thanks for intimating unto me, how 
i " modeftly ibever, the true artificer. For the work 
: " itfilf I had view'd fome good while before with 
. ^' fingolar delight, having received it from our com-- 
'^ mon friend Mr. R. in the very clofe of the late 
" R's poems printed at Oxford; whereunto it is 
'' addea, as I now fuppofe, that the acceiTory might 
'' help out the principal, according to the art of 
, " Aationers, and leave the reader con la bocca dolce. 
'^ " Now, Sir, concerning Your travels, wherein I 
*' may challenge a little more privilege of diicourfe 
** with You ; I fuppofe, You will not blanch Paris 
" in Your way. Therefore I have been bold to 
'' trouble You with a few lines to Mr. M. B. whom 
" You ihall eafily find attending the young Lord S. 
" as his governor; and You may furely receive firom 
^* him good directions for ihaping of Your farther 
" journey into Italy, where he did refide by my 
" choice fome time for the king, after mine own re- 
" ccfs fi-om Venice, 

* " I fliould think, that Your beft line will be 
" thro* the whole length of France to Marfcilles, 
" and thence by fea to Genoa, whence the paflagc 
" into Tufcany is as diurnal as a Gravcfend barge. I 
" haften, as You do, to Florence or Sienna, the ra- 
" ther to tell You a (hort ftory, from the intereft 
" You have given me in Your fafety. 

" At Sienna I was tabled in the houfe of one Alberto 

** Scipione, an old Roman courtier in dangerous 

Vol. L C *• times^ 



** times, having been fteward to die Daca di Pstg- 
*^ liano, who with all his family were ftrangUd, 
*' iave this only man, that efcaped by foreiight of 
*^ the tempeft. Widi him I had often mach chat 
*^ of thofe afiairs s into which he took pleafore to' 
look back from his native harbour $ and at my de- 
parture toward Rome, which had been the oeater 
of his experience, I had won confidence enoogb 
^ to beg his advice, how I might carry myfidf fe^ 
^ corely there, without ofienfe of others, or of my 
^ own confcience: Signor Arrigo meo, fays hCy i 
*' pcnficri flretti, & il vifo fcblto, that is, Your 
<< thoughts clofe, and Your countenance loofe, 
^ will go fa&ly over the whole world. Of which 
^^ Delphian oracle (for fo I have found it) Your 
^ judgment dodi need no commentiary } wd there- 
^ fore. Sir, I will commit You with k to the beft 
*^ of all fecurities, Cod*s dear love, remaining Your 
** friend, as much at conmand as any of longer 
•* date. H.Wo«son. 

P. S. « Sir, I have cxprcfsly fent thishy my foot- 
boy to prevent Yoiir departure, without (bme Jic- 
knowledgment from me of the receipt of Your 
obliging letter, having myfelf thro* fome bufinefs, 
•* I know not how, neglefted the ordinary convey- 
♦• ance. In anv oirt Wli6te I (hall underfland You 
** fixed, I (hall be glad and diligent to entertain 
^ You with honie-novelties, even for fome fomen- 
•• tation of our ifriend(hip, too fobh interhipted in 
^* the cradle/' 

Soon after this be feit ottt upon his tcavels, being 
4>f an age to make the proper improvements, *nd 





The LIFE of Jf/iTOiVl xi 

cdy to fee fights and to learn the languages^ 
ooft of our modem travelers^ who go out 
md return fuch m we fee, but foch as I do 
loofe to name. He was attended by only one 
:, who accompanied him through all his tra-» 
uid he went firft to France, where he had re- 
cndations to the Lord Scudamore, die Englifh 
fiulor there at that time ; and as foon as he came 
is, he waited upon his Lordfhip, and was re« 
with wonderml civility; and having an eameft 
to vifit the learned Hugo Grotius, he was by 
ndfhip-s means introduced to that great man, 
ras then emhaflador at the French court from 
mooQs ChrUlina Queen of Sweeten ; and the 
raa to their mutual iatisfiidion ; they were each 
m plcailed to (ee a perfon, of whom they had 
^icn conmiendadons. But at Paris he flaved 
ng^ Us thois^hts and lus wifhes haftened mtQ 
; and £o after a few days he took leave of the 
Scudamore, who very kindly gave him letters 
t Engliih merchants in the &veral .jdaces thro' 
I he .was to travel, requefking them to do him 
3 good.afRces which lay: in their .power. 
3m Paris he went diredUy to Nice, where he 
(hipping for Genoa^ from whence he vrent to 
jm, and thence to PiEt^ and £0 to Florence, in 
i city he found fufficient inducements to make 
' of two mcHiths. For beiides the curiofities 
ither beauties of die place, he took great de- 
in the company and converfation there, and 
ented their academies as they are called, the 
ings of the moft polite and ingenious perfons, 
b they bwe in teds, as well as in the other 

C 2 principal 

xtt The LIFE oi MILTON. 

pcJncipal cities of Italy, for the exercife and im-> 
provement of wit and learning among diem. And 
in thefe converiations he b«% fo good a part, and 
produced fo many excellent compofitionsi that ho 
was foon taken notice of, and was very much cpurted 
and careHed by ieveral of the nobility and prime wits 
of Plorence. For the manner is, as he fays himfelf 
in the prefece to his fecond book of the Reafon of 
Church-government, that every one muft give fpmc 
poof of his wit and reading there, and his produc- ' 
tions were received with written encomiums which 
the Italian is not forward to beftow on men of this 
iide the Alps. Jacomo Gaddi, Antonio Francini, 
Carlo Dati, Bencditto Bonmatthci, CultelHno, Fref- 
cobaldi, Oementilli arc reckoned among his particu- 
lar friends. At Gaddi's houfe the academies were 
held, which he conAantly ifi-equented. Antonio 
Francini compofed an Italian ode in his commenda- 
tion. Carlo Dati wrote a Latin eulogium of him, 
and correiponded with him after his .return to Eng- 
land. Bonmatthei was at that time about publifhing 
an Italian grammar; and the eighth of our author's 
familiar epiftles, dated at Florence Sept, lo. 1638,, 
is addrclTed to him upon that occafion, commending 
bis de£gn, and adviiing him to add fome obferva- 
tions concerning the tme pronunciation of that lan- 
guage for the uie of foreigners. 

So much good acquaintance would pobably have 
detained him longer at Florence, if he had not been 
going to Rome, which to a curious traveler is cer-. 
tainly the place the moft worth feeing of any in the 
world. And ib he took leave of his fiiends at Flo-, 
rence, and went fixun thence to Sieona, and irom 


ThcLIFE of ilf/LroM iiii 

oa to Rome, where he ftayed much about the 
t time that he had continued at Florence, feaft- 
both his eyes and his mind, and delighted with 
fine paintings, and fculptures, and other rarities 
antiquities of the city, as well as with the con- 
tion of feveral learned and ingenious men^ and 
cularly of Lucas Holftenius, keeper of the Va- 
i library, who received him with the greateft 
lanity, and fhowed him all the Greek authors, 
ther in print or in manufcript, which had pafled 
* his correction ; and alfo prefented him to Car* 
I Barberini, who at an entertainment of mufic, 
)rmed at his own expenfe, waited for him at 
loor, and taking him by the hand brought him 
the ailembly. The next morning he waited 
I the Cardinal to return him thanks for his civi- 
., and by the means of Holftenius was again in- 
aced to his Eminence, and fpent fome time in 
/eriation with him. It feems that Holftenius 
ihidied three years at Oxford, and this might 
>/e him to be more friendly to the Englifh, but 
x)k a particular liking and afFedtion to Milton ; 
Milton, to thank him for all his favors, wtote 
lim afterwards from Florence the ninth of his 
liar epiftles. At Rome too Selvaggi made a 
1 diftich in honor of Milton, and Salfilli a 
a tetraftich, celebrating him for his Greek and 
1 and Italian poetry ; and he in return prefented 
Jfilli in his ficknefs thofe fine Scazons, or Iambic 
« having a fpondee in the laft foot, which are 
ted among his juvenile poems. 
."om Rome he went to Naples, in company with 
rtain hermit 3 and by his means was introduced 

C 3 to 


to the acquaHitaiice of Giovanai Btpdita Maiifi]» 
Marquis of VUla^ a Neapolitan nobleiBan> of fianh 
lar merit and virtiie, to wlioai Taflb addreifes liis 
dlblogue of fricadfbip» and wlKiin he meDbooa Uko- 
wife io faifi Gierufalemme Liifaiecattt with great honor. 
This nobleman was particularly dvil to Milton» fie^ 
^qoendy vifited him at his lod^gs, and went with 
))im to £bow him the Viceroy's palace^ and what*- 
ever was curious or worth notice in the city ; and 
iQOceover he honored him ib fitr as to make a Latin 
4liiUch in his praife, which is printed before our anr* 
thor's Latin poems, as is likewife the other of Sd- 
vaggi, and tii^ Lajtin tetraflich of SalfiUi together 
wifh the Jt^B ode and the Latin eulogiupa befon: 
loentioned, We may furaoie that Milton was not 
« little pl^ed with the honors conferred upon him 
by fo many pfxibns of diftiui^ion, and efpecially by 
one of fuch quality and eminence as the Marquia ctf 
ViUai and as a teftimony of his gratitiftde he pcOi> 
fented to the Marquis at hv cfeparture from Naples 
his eclogue intitled Manfiis^ woich is well wcctfa 
ff»ding among hia Latin poems, $o that it may be 
feckoned a peculiar felicity of the Marquis of ViUa's 
life, to have been celebrated both by Ta£b and 
Milton, the one the greateft modern poet of his own, 
and the other the greateft of foreign natioos. 

Having feen the iinefl parts of Italy» Mihon was 
now thinking of paifing over into SkUy and Greece, 
when he was diverted from his purpofe by the news 
fi^m England, that, things were tending to a dvil 
war between the King and Parlamcnt; for he 
thought it unworthy of himiclf to be taking his 
|>leafure ahroodi whtk his (:ountiymcn were ccmtend^ 

The L I F E of MILTO N. ^ 

fer Ebeity at home. He refolved thertSxc to re* 
d by the way of Rome, tho' he was adviftd to 
contrary by the merchants, who had received in* 
igence from their corrtfpondents, that the Engli^ 
lifts there were forming plots againft him, in cdk^ 
[hoald retmn thither, by reafon of the great free* 
a which he had uled in all his difcourfes of ro* 
on. For he had by no means obferved the rale, 
ommended to him by Sir Henry Wotton, of 
jnn£t his dioughts clofe and his countenance open i 
had vifited Galileo, a prifoner to the Inqiiifit}oo» 

averting the motion of the earth, and thinking 
erwife In aftrononiy than the Dominicans and 
tncifcans thought : And tho' the Marquis of VilU 
1 fhown him fuch diflinguiihing marks of favor 
.Vaplei, yet he told him at his departure that ha 
old' have (hown him much greater, if he ha4 
m more referved in matters of religion. But h« 
i a foul above diflimulation and dt^uife > he wa« 
ther afiiaid, nor afliamed to vindicate the truth % 
I if any man had, he kid in him the fpirit of an 

martyr. He was fo prudent indeed, that he 
uld not of his own accord begin any difcourfe of 
gion; but at the fame time he was fo honeft, that 
M was quefUoned at all about hb faith, he would 
: diflemble his fentiments, whatever was the coUf 
uence. And with this refolution he went to 
me the fecond time, and fbycd there two montha 
ire, neither concealing his nanae, nor declining 
mfy to defend the tratb, if any thought proper 
attack him: and yet, God's good providence 
ttdting him, he came fafe to his kind friends at 
srience, where he was received with as much 

c 4 py 


in TbeLIFE of iif/JLTON: 

joy and afic6tion» as if he had returned into his own 

' Here likewife he ftayed two months, as he had 
done before, excepting only an excuriion of a few 
days to Lucca : and then croifing the Apennine, and 
pafling|thro' Bologna and Ferrara, he came to Venice, 
m which city he fpent a month; and having fhipped 
off the books^ which he had collected in his tn* 
vels, and particularly a cheft or two of choice muiic 
books of the bed maflers florifhing about that time 
in Italy, he took his couriib thro' Verona, Milan, 
and along the lake Leman to Geneva. In this city 
he tarried fonie dme, meeting here with people of 
his own principles, and contracted an intimatQ 
£riend{hip with Giovanni Deodati, the moft learned 
profeilbr of divinity, whofe annotations upon dio 
Bible are publifhed in Englifh. And from thence 
returning thro' France, the fame way that he had 
gone before, he arrived fafe in England, after at 

Eregrination of one year and about three monthly 
ving feen more, and learned more, and converfed 
with more &mous men, and made more real im- 
provements, than moft others in double the time. 

His firfl bufinefs after his return was to pay hift 
duty to his &ther, and to viiit his other friends; but 
this pleafure was much diminifhed by the lofs of hia 
dear friend and fchoolfellow Charles Deodajti in his 
abfence. While he was abroad, he heard it reported 
that he was dead ; and upon his coming home he 
found it but too trae, and lamented his death in an 
excellent Latin eclogue intided Epitaphium Damonis. 
This Deodati had a father originally of Lucca, but 
his mother was EngliAi^ and he was bom ^nd bred 


Thc'LIFE of Af/irOiV, xvii 

England, and ftodied phyfic, and was vi ad^ 
able fcholar, and no Ids remarkable for his fb- 
itf and other virtues than £>r his great learning 
! ingenuity. One or two of Milton's £uniliar 
Ues are addrefied to him ; and Mr* Toland fky9^ 
: he had in his hands two Greek letters of Deo^ 
to Milton, very handfomely written. It may be 
It for fcholars now and then to exerciie themfelves 
jccck and Latin; but we have much more fi^ 
nt occafion to write letters in our own nativo 
;ui^e, and in that therefore we ihoold principally 
svor to excel. 

iikon, fbon after his return, had taken a lodging 
me Ruflel's, a taylor, in St. Bride's Church^ 
I; but he continued not long there, having not 
dent room for his library and furniture ; and 
«fi>re determined to take a houfe, and accordinglj 
L a handfome garden-houfe in Alderfgate-ftreet» 
ated at the end of an entry, which was the more 
seabie to a fhidious man for its privacy and free- 
I from noiie and diibirbance. And in this houfe 
x>ntinued feveral years, and his fifter's two font 
e put to board with him, iirft the younger and 
-wards the elder : and fbme other of his intimate 
ids requeued of him the fame favor for their 
, efpecially fince there was litde more trouble in 
lifting half a dozen than two or three : and he, 
> could not eaiily deny any thing to his friends, 
who knew that the greateft men in all ages had 
ghted in teaching others the principles of know- 
^ and virtue, undertook the office, not out of 
fordid and mercenary views, but merely from a 
nrolent difpofition, and a defire to do good. 


ftiifi The LIFE of MILTON. 
And hk method of edncatitn was as much abon 
Att pedantry aod jargon of the comiQoa fchools, m 
|us geniuB was fiiperior to that of a commoa Ichool* 
mafler. One of his nephews has given us an a& 
Couat of the many authors both Latin and Gieel^ 
which (befides tboie ufually read in the fchools) din? 
his excellent judgment and way of teaching wen 
, run over within no greater compa& of dmc, than 
from ten to fifteen or fixteen years of age. Of tht 
Latin the four authors concerning huftnndry, Cat(\ 
Varro, ColucneUa, and Palladios, Cornelius Celiiii 
the phyfician, a great part of Pliny's Natural Hiftoij, 
^e AfchhcSure of Vitruvius, the Stratagems c^ 
FVontinus, and the phik>rcphicd poets Lucretioi and 
Manillas. Of the Greek Hefiod, Arams's Fhxno- 
mena and Diofemeia, Dionyfius Afer de fito wbi^ 
Oppian's Cynegctics and Halieutics, Quintus Oda^ 
ber's poem of &s Trc^ war continued from Ho- 
IBer» ApoHoniusRhDdius's Argonantics, and in poft 
Plutarch's Placita philoronhorum, and of the edncv' 
tion of children, Xcnopbon's Cyropxdia and Ana* 
bafis, Elian's Tafiics, and the Stratagems of Po- 
lysenus. Nor did this application to the Greek and 
Latin tongues hinder the attaining to the chief 
oriental languages, the Hebrew, Ch^dce and Sytiai:; 
fo far as to go thro* the Pentateuch or five books ef 
Mofes in Hebrew, to make a good entrance into 
the Targum or Chaldee paraphrafe, and to under- 
ftand feveral chapters of St. Matthew in the Syriac 
Teftament} befides the modern languages^ I^iaft 
and French, and a competent knowledge of the ma- 
thematics and aAronomy. The Sunday's cxercift 
for his pupils was for the moll part to read a chapter 


The t IF E of JIf IXaro 2VL 

be Gfieek Teftsuneot, add to hew: his lo^racd 
ifitiaa of it The next work after this was t^ 
c froox his^ dilution foope part of a fyfien cf 
ijty, which hQ had coUeded from the abkft dir 
t, who had wrtttCD upon that fubjeft $uch 
r his academic inftitution$; and thus by teachiog 
ra he in foose mcafure inlarged his own koow«- 
6 1 and having the readioe of ig many authoi;s 
t were by proxy, he might poflibly have pre- 
J his fight^ if he had not moreover been perpe- 
7 bufied in reading or writing ibmething hiiu- 

It was certainly a very rocbie and ftudioqs 
that both he and his pnpils leds but the young 
i.of that age were of a difiereot turn from thofe 
be prefent i and he hioifelf gave an example to 
t under him of hard frudy and fpare diet; only 
'.and then^ once in three weeks or a month, he 
le a g^wdy day with fome young gentlemen qf 
loquaintance, the chief of whom, &y8 Mr. PhV* 

woe Mr. Alphry and Mr. Miller, both of 
jrVInn, and two of the greateft beaus of thoS: 

lit he was not fo food of this academical life* 
} be an indifferent fpeftator of whaf was a6ted 
I the public flage of the world. The nation w<^ 
in a great ferment in 1641, and the clamor run 
i agai^ the bi/hops, when he joined loudly Ui 
:Ty, to help the puritan miniilers, (as he fays 
felf in his fecond Defenfe) they being inferior 
le biihops in learning and eloquence ; and pub- 
d his two books. Of Reformation in England, 
ten to a frknd. About the fame time certain 
fiers having pi^bliiboi a treatife againfi epifcopacy, 



joc The LIFE o£ MILTON. 

in anfwer to the Humble Remonftnuice of Dr. J»^ 
,'ftph Hall Biihop of Norwich, under the title of 
Smediymnuus, a word confifting of the initial letters 
-pf their names, Stephen MarOial, Edmund Calamy» 
Thomas Young, Matthew Newcomen, and William 
Spurftow.} and Afchbilhop Uflier having published 
at Oxford a refutation of Sme£tymnuus, in a trad 
concerning the Original of Bifhops and Metropoli- 
tans} Mitton wrote his little piece Of Prelatical 
BpifcOpacy, in oppoiition chiefly to Ufber, for he 
was for contending with the moft powerful adver- 
&ryi there would be either leis difgrace in the de- 
feat, or more glory in the vLftory. He handled the 
fubjed more at large in his next performance, which 
was liie Reafon of Church Government urged 
againft Frela^, in two books. And Bifhop Hal! 
luving publiflied a Defenfe of the Humble Re- 
monilrance, he wrote Animadverjions upon it All 
thcfe treatifes he published within the courfe of one 
vear, 1641, which ihow how very diligent he was 
la the caufe that he h^d undertaken. And the next 
year he fet forth his Apology for Smeftymnuus, in 
anfwer to the Confutation of his Animadverfions, 
written as he thought himfelf by BiAop Hall or his 
Ton. And here very luckily ended a controverfy, 
which detamed him from greater and better writings 
which he was meditating, more ufefiil to the public^ 
as well as more fuitable to his own genius and incli- 
nation : but he thought all this while that he was 
vindicating eccleliafUcal liberty. 

In the year 1643, ^^^ ^^ 35^ of his age, he 
married } and indeed his £miily was now growing fo 
numerous, that it wanted a miftreis at the head of 


The LIFE oi MILTON, in 

His father, who had lived with his younger fbn 
Reading, was, upon the taking of that place by 
: forces under the Earl of Eilex, necefmated to 
me and live in London with this his elder ion, 
di whom he continued in tranquillity and devotion 
his dying day. Some addition too was to be 
de to the number of his pupils. But before his 
her or his new pupils were come, he took a 
tmey in the Whitfuntide vacation, and after a 
inth's abfence returned with a wife, Mary the 
eft daughter of Mr. Richard PoweU, of ForeflhiH 
ir Shotover in Oxfordshire, a juflice of the peace, 
I a gentlenun of good repute and figure in that 
intry. But ihe had not cohabited with her hus- 
id above a month, before fhe was earneflly foil- 
ed by her relations to come and fpend the remain- 
; part of the fummer with them in the country, 
it was not at her inftigation that her friends made 
s requeft^ yet at leaft it was agreeable to her in- 
ladon; and fhe obtained her hufband*s confent 
>n a promife of returning at Michaelmas. And 
the mean while his fludies went on very vigo- 
ily ; and his chief diverfion, after the bufinefs of 
day, was now and then in an evening to vifit the 
Ly Margaret Lee, daughter of the Earl of Marl- 
ough. Lord High Treafurer of England, and 
fident of the Privy Council to King James L 
is Lady, being a woman of excellent wit and 
lerftanding, had a particular honor for our au- 
r, and took great delight in his converfation ; 
like wife did her hufband Captain Hobfon, a 
7 accomplifhed gentleman. And what a re* 
d Milton agvn had fbr her, he has left upon 


zsxi The LIFE o( MILTON. 

record in a (bnnet to her praiie^ extant among hu 
other poems. 

Michaelmas was now come, hot he heard nothing 
of his i^afe's return. He wrote to her, but received 
no anfwer. He wrote again letter after letter, but 
received no anfwer to any of them. He then di£* 
patched a meflenger with a letter, defiring her to 
returti ; but (he pofitively refufed, and difmifled the 
mefienger with contempt. Whether it was, that 
(he had conceived any diflike to her hu(band*s per- 
ibn or humor ; or whether (he could not conform 
to his retired aiffl philofophical manner of life, 
having been accuftomed to a houfe of much gaiety 
and company; or whether being of a family ftroMly 
attached to the royal caufe, (he could not bear bar 
hufband's republican principles ; or whether fhe was 
overperfnoded by her relations, who poflibly mig|ht 
repent of having matched the eldeft daughter of the 
£imily to a man fo diftinguifhed for taking the con- 
trary party, the King's head-quarters being in thdr 
neighbourhood at Oxford, and his Majefty haviif 
now fome fairer profpeA of fuccefs ; whether any 
or all of thefe were the reafons of this extraoxdinafV 
behaviour; hovraver it was, it fo highly incenfea 
her hulhand, that he thought it would be diC* 
honorable ever to receive her again after fuch a re- 
pul(e, and he detamined to repudiate her as (he had 
ID tfkSt repudiated him, and to confider her no 
longer ds his v^. And to fortify this his refolu- 
ticta, aifd at the fame time to jufUfy it to the world, 
be wrote the DoQrin and Diiciplin of Divorce, 
wherein he endevcx^ to prcyve, that indifpofition, fui- 
ikaefi, or contrariety ot mind, proceeding frcnn Mf 



The LIFEi>{ MILTON. x£ik 

jeable caafe in natore, hinderii^ and evtr 
hinder the main benefits of conjugal focietf » 
ire folace and peace^ are greater reafontof 
than adultery or natural firigidity, efpedally 
be no children, and there be mutual confent 
ration. He publiflied it at firft without hia 
9ut the ftile eafily betrayed the author ; and 
rds a fecond edition, much augmented, with 
ics and he dedicated it to the Farlameiit . <^ 
i with the A£cmbly of Divines, that as thof 
len confulting about the .general rdbnnaticn 
kmgdom, ttey might aifo take this jparticukr 
* dk>meftic liberty into their conuderation. 
en, as it was objeded, that his dodrio was a 
Micm, and a paradox that no body had ever 
before, lie endevored to confirm his own 
.b)r the authority of others, and publUhed in 
be Judgment of Martin JBuoer &x: Andas it 
UobjeAed, that his. do£fain could not be re* 
d to Scripture, he pubiifhed in 164 c his Te- 
don or £xpoiidons upon the four chief places 
sture, which treat ot nsarrage, or nuliities in 
^. . At the firft appeariag of the Dodlrin and 
in of Divorce the clergy raifed a heavy outcry 
it, and daily folidted the Parlament to pds 
CQJfure imon it; and at laft one of themi in 
on preached before the Lords and Commons 
lay of humiliation in Anguft 1^644, nHuidhf 
lem, that there was a book almad wiuch 
ad to be bomt, and diat among tfadr other 
ley ought to repent, that they had not yM 
id it with fome mark of their difpleafure, AbA 
iood informs us, that upon Milton's publiihing 


nir The LIFE of MlLfOJN". 

his three books of Divorce, the Aflembly of DiviiKii' 
that was then fitting at Weftminfter, took fpecial 
notice of them; and notwithftanding his former 
iervices in writing againft the Bifhops, caufed him 
to be fummoned before the Houfe of Lords : but 
thatHoufe, whether approving his dodhin, or noC- 
&voring his accufers, foon difmiiled him* He was^ 
attacked too from the prefs as well as from the pul- 
pit, in a pamphlet intitled Divorce at pleafare, and 
m another intitled an Anfwer to the Dodrin and 
Difciplin of Divorce, which was licenced and recom- 
mended by Mr. Jofeph Caryl, a famous Presbyterian* 
Divine, and author of a voluminous conunentary on 
the book of Job : and Milton in his Colafterioa or. 
Reply publifhed in 1645 expofhilates fmardy withi 
the licencer, as well as handles very tougmy the 
namelefs author. And thefe provocations, I fuppofe^» 
contributed, not a little to make him fuch an enemy 
to the Presbyterians, to whom he had before dn 
fiinguifhed himfelf a friend. He compofed likewifc" 
two of his fbnnets on the reception his book of Di« 
vorce met with, but the latter is much the better o£ 
the two. To this account it may be added from 
Antony Wood, that after the King's refloration, 
when the fubjedfc of divorce was under confideration 
with the Lords upon the account of John Lord Ros. 
or Roos his reparation from his wife Anne Pierpoint 
ddeft daughter to Henry Marquis of Dorchefter, he 
was confulted by an eminent member of that Houfe, 
and about the fame time by a chief officer of fbte, 
as being the prime perfon who was knowing in 
that affair. 


The LIFE of M/ZrOM xw 

fiot ^vbile he was engaged in this controverfy o( 
dborae, he was not fo totally engaged in it, but he 
Uteaded to other things ; and about this time pub* 
Uflied has letter of Education to Mr. Samuel Hartlib, 
lAo wroie ibme things about hufbandry, and was a 
mi of confiderable learning, as appears from the letters 
which pafled between him and tne famous Mr. Mede, 
Vii, from Sir William Petty 's and Pell the mathemati* 
du's writing to fairn^ the former his treatife for the 
Admnoemeat oi fome particular parts of learning, 
aarf the latter his Idea of the Mathematics, as well as 
fiom this letter of our author. This letter of our 
author has irifuaUy been printed at the end of his 
poecasp ftad is as I may Ly the theory of his own 
mdice ; and by the rules which he has laid down 
for education we fee in fome meafure the method 
that he pirfiied in educating his own pupils. And 
in I6i^. ht pttbUKhed his Areopagitica or Speech for 
the lihaty ef unlicenced printing to the Parlament 
of £iigknd4 It was written at the deiire of feveral 
learned men, and is perhaps the beil vindication, 
that has been puUifhed at any time or in any lan- 
guage^ 6[ that liberty which is the bails and fupport 
of idl ether liberties, the liberty of the prefs : but 
alas it had not the defu-ed efFed; for the Prelbytc- 
rians were as fond of exercifing the liccnfing power^ 
when they got it into their own hands, as they had 
becti damorous before in inveighing againft it, 
while it was in the hands of the Prelates. And 
Mr. Toland is miftaken in faying, " that fuch was 
" the cflfea of this piece, that the following year 
" Mabol a licencer offered reafons againft licencing ; 

" and at his own rcqueft was difcharged that office." 
Vol. I. D F<>^ 


xxvi the L I F E of MILTO N. 

For neither was the licencer*s name Mabol, But 
Cilbcrt Mabbotj neither was he difcharged from his 
oHice till May 1649, about five years afterwards, 
tho* probably he might be fwayed by Milton's argu- 
ments, as every ingenuous perfon muft, who perufes 
andconfiders them. And in 1645 ^^^ published a 
collediion of his poems, Latin and Englim, the prin- 
cipal of which are On the morning of Chrift*s nativity, 
L'Allcgro, II Penferofo, Lycidas, the Mafk &c &c: 
and if he had left no other monuments of his poeti- 
cal genius behind him, thefe would have been fufli- 
cicnt to have rendered his name immortal. 

But without doubt his Dddrin of Divorce and 
the maintenance of it principally engaged his thoughts 
at this period ; and whether others were convinced 
or not by his arguments, he was certainly convinced 
himfelf that he was in the right ; and as a proof of 
it he determined to marry again, and miade his ad- 
drcfles to a young lady of great wit and beauty, one 
of the daughters of Dr. Davis. But intelligence of 
this coming to his wife, and the then declining ftate 
of the King's caufe, and confequently of t^ cir- 
cumftances of Juftice Powell's family, caufed them 
to fet all engins on work to reftore the wife again to 
her hufband. And his friends too for different rca- 
fons fcem to have been as defirous of bringing about 
a reconciliation as her's, and this method of cfFefting ! 
it was concerted between them. He had a relation, ^ 
one Blackborough, living in the lane of St. Martin's 
Le Grand, whom he often vifitedj and one day 
when he was vifiting there, it was contrived that the 
wife fliould be ready in another room ; and as he ' 

was thinking of nothing Icis, he was furprifed to 


The LIFE ofMLLTON. xxvii 

her, whom he had cxpeded never to have fecn 
r more, falling down upon her knees at his feet, 
I imploring his forgivenefs with tears. At firft he 
>wed fome figns of averfion, but he continued not 
I inexorable ; his wife's intreaties, and the inter- 
ion of friends on both fides foon wrought upon 
gpierous nature, and procured a happy reconci- 
ion with an a£t of oblivion of all that was pafl. 
: he did not take his wife home immediately ; it 
; agreed that fhe fhould remain at a friend's till 
houfe, that he had newly taken, was fitted for 
r reception; for fome other gentlemen of his ac- 
intance, having obferved the great fuccefs of his 
hod of education, had recommended their fons 
is care; and his houfe in Alder (gate- flreet not 
g large enough, he had taken a larger in Barbi- 
: and till, this could be got ready, the place 
hed upon for his wife's abode was the widow 
bber's houfe in St. Clement's Churchyard, whofc 
nd daughter had been married to the other bro- 
many years before. The part, that Milton 
1 in this whole affair, fhowed plainly that he had 
irit capable of the frrongefl refentment, but yet 
e inclinable to pity and forgivenefs : and neither 
lis was any injury done to the other lady, whom 
;as courting, for fhe is faid to have been always 
fc from the motion, not daring I fuppofe to ven- 
in marriage with a man who was known to have 
fc ilill living. He might not think himfelf too at 
ty as before, while his wife continued obflinate; 
lis moft plaufible argument for divorce proceeds 
1 a fuppofition, that the thing be done with mu- 

D 2 After 

»viu Tht LIVE of MI LrON. 

After his wife's return his family was incrcafcd 
not only with children, bat aUb with his wife's rclar 
tions, her &thcr and mother, her brothers and fiftert, 
coming to live with him in the general diftixfe and 
ruin of the royal party : and he was fo far from rcr 
ientiog their former ill treatment of him, that hs 
generoufly protected them, and entertained them 
very hofjtitably, till their affairs were accommodated 
thro' his intereft with the prevaiHng &d!kffi. And 
then upon their remoral, and the death of his own 
fether, his boufe looked again like the houlis of the 
-Mufts : but his ftudies had like to hare been intsr- 
mpted by a call to pnblic baiinefa; for about this 
time there was a de^n of conftituting him AdjutanC 
General in the army under Sir William Waller j bat 
ihe new nKxleling of the army ^n following, thit 
^fign was laid alide. And not long after. Ins great 
iionfe in Barbican being now too large for his &mi}y, 
he quitted it for a finaUer in High Holbom, whioi 
-opened backward into Linccdn's Inn Fkdds, where 
he profecuted his ihidies till the King's trial and 
tdeatb, when the Prefbytcrians declaming tragicaUy 
ftgainil the King's cxecntion, and al&rting that hu 
iperibn was facred and invi(^ble, provoked him to 
Write the Tenure of Kings and Magiftrates, [H-oting 
. that it is lawful to call a tyrant to account and to i 
ilepofe and put him to deadi, and that thoy who of I 
kte fo much blame dcpoiing are the men who (tid it 
themfelves : and he publiibcd it at the begmning of 
the year 1649, to iatisfy and compofe the minds of . 
die people. Not loi^ after this he wrote his Gk^ 
fervations <hi the articles of peace between the Earl 
of Ormond and the IrKh rebels. And in theie ud 



The LIFEof JIf/LTOiV: xrijc 

is tmting$^ whatever others of different parties 
tfakik, be thought himfelf an advocate for true. 
ty, for ccclefiaftical liberty in his treatifes againft 
hilhops, for domeftic liberty in his books of 
ice, and for dvil liberty in his virritings againfl 
Ling in defonfo of the parlament and people of 

iter this he retired, again to his private ftudies ; 
thinking that he had leifure enough for fuch a 
i^ he applied hunfelf to the writing of a Hiftory 
England, which he intended to deduce from the 
eft albcounts down to his own times : and he had 
lied four books of it, when neither courting nor 
tding any fuch preferment, he was invited by 
Conncil o£ State to be their Latin Secretary for 
[go , affairs. And he ferved in the fame capacity 
er Oliver, and Richard, and the Rump, till the 
bora^n i and without doubt a better Latin pen 
Id oot have been found in the kmgdom. For 
Republic and Cromwell fcorned to pay that tri^ 
: to any foreign prince, which is ufually paid to 
French kiiig^ of managing their affairs in his 
;uage ; they thought it an indignity and mean- 
9 to which this'or any free nation ought not to fub- 
I and took a noble refolution neither to write any 
n to any foreign ftates, nor to receive any 
wcrs from them, but in the Latin tongue, which 
common to them all. And it would have been 
1, if fucceeding princes had followed their ex- 
ile; for in the opinion of very wife men, the 
reiiality of the French language will make way 
the univec&iity of the French monarchy. 

D 3 But 

XXX The L I F^E of MILTO N. 

But it was not only in foreign difpatches that the 
government made ufe of his pen.' He had difcharged 
the bufinefs of his office a very little time, before he 
was called to a work of another kind. For foon af- 
ter the King's death was publiftied a book under his 
name intiried Eixoov BaenA/x)?, or the royal .image: 
and this book, like Caelar's laft will, making a 
deeper impreffion, and exciting greater commifera- 
tion in the minds of the people, than the King him- 
felf did while alive, Milton was ordered to prepare 
an anfwer to it, which was published by authority, 
and in titled Eixoi'oxAa^pjs or the image-breaker, the 
famous furname of many Greek emperors, who in 
their zeal againft idolatry broke all fuoerftitious 
images to pieces. This piece was tranflated into 
French ; and two replies to it were publiflied, one in 
1651, and the other in 1692^ upon the reprinting of 
Milton's book j^t Amfterdam. In this controvcrfy a 
heavy charge hath been alleged againft Milton. 
Some editions of the King's book have certain prayers 
added at the end, and among them a prayer in time 
of captivity, which is taken from that of Pamela in 
Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia: and it is faid, that this 
prayer was added by the contrivance and artifice of 
Milton, who together with BradHiaw prevailed upon 
the printer to infert it, that from thence he might 
take occafion to bring a fcandal upon the King, and 
to blaft the reputation of his book, as he hath at- 
tempted to do in the firft fedion of his anfwer. This 
fadt is related chiefly upon the authority of Henry 
Hills the printer, who had frequently affirmed it to 
Dr. Gill and Dr. Bernard his phyficians, as they 
tli^mfelvcs have teftified. But Hills was not himfelf 
/' the 

The LIFE oi MILTON. xxxi 

printer, who was dealt with in this manner, and 
feqaently he could have the ftory only from hcar- 
: and tho' he was Cromwell's printer, yet after- 
:6s he turned papift in the reign of James II, in 
cr to be that king's printer, and it was at thai 
c that he ufed to relate this ftoryj fo that, I 
ik, little credit is due to his teftimony. And in-^ 
i I cannot but hope and believe, that Milton 
I a foul above being guilty of fo mean an aft ion 
erve /b mean a purpofe ; and there is as little rca- 
for fixing it upon nim, as he had to traduce the 
ig for profaning the duty of prayer " with the 
K>lluted trafh of romances." For there arc not 
ly finer prayers in the befl: books of devotion \ 
tlie King might as lawfully borrow and apply it 
lis own occafions, as the Apoftle might make 
stations firom Heathen poems and plays : and it 
ame Milton the leaft of all men to bring fuch an 
ulation againfl: the King, as he was himfelf parti- 
vrly fond of reading romances, and has made ufe of 
m m fome of the beft and latcft of his writings. 
Jut his moft celebrated work in profe is his Defenfc 
he people of England againft Salmafius, Defenfio 
populo Anglicano contra Claudii Anonymi, alias 
nafii, Defenfionem Regiam. Salmafius, by birth a 
ichman, fucceeded the famous Scaligcr as honorary 
fcflbr of the univerfity of Leyden, and had gained 
It reputation by his Plinian Exercitations on So- 
is, and by his critical remarks on fcveral Latin 
Greek authors, and was generally efteemed one 
he greatcft and moft confummate fcholars of that 
: and is commended by Milton himfelf in his 
ifon of Church Government, and called the 

D 4 learned 

texii The LIFBof AffLra 

ft ■ 

learned Salmaiius. And befides his great iearnhig life 
had extraordinary talents in railing. " This prince 
•* of fcholars, as fome body (aid of him, feemcd to 
^* have ereded his throne upon a heap of ftones, 
** that he might have them at hand to throw at every 
•' one's head who pafled by." He was thercfoft 
courted by Charles II, as the moft able man to write 
a defenfe of the late King his father and to traduce 
his advcrfaries, and a hundred Jacobufes were given 
him for that purpofe, and the book was publiflied 
in 1649 with this title Defenfio Regia pro CaroloL 
ad Carolum 11. No fooner did this book appear in 
England, but the Council of State unanimoufly ap- 
pointed Milton, who was then prefent, to anfWfer k : 
and he performed the tafk with amazing fpirit ai^ 
vigor, tho' his health at that time was fuch, that he 
could hardly indure the fatigue of v^iting, and beioe 
weak in body he was forced to write by piece-meal, 
and to break off almoft every hour, as he fays Wm- 
felf in the introduction. This neceflarily occafioned 
fome delay, fo that his Defenfe of the people of 
England was not made public till the beginning of 
the year 1651 : and they who cannot read the origi- 
nal, may yet have the pleafure of reading the EnglUh 
. tranflation by Mr. Wafhington of the Temple, 
which was printed in 1692, and is inferted amoi^ 
Milton's works in the two laft editions. It wa? 
fomewhat extraordinary, that Salmafius, a penfioncr 
to a republic, fliould pretend to write a defenle of 
monarchy ; but the States fhowed their difapproba-^ 
tion by publicly condemning his book, and ordering 
it to be fuppreffed. And on the other hand Milton's 
book was burnt at Paris, and at Toloufe by the 


Thfc LIPfi of MrLTON: xxzifi 

b of the common hangman ; but dils ferved 
r to procure it the more readers : it was read and 
ed cdT every where, atid even they who were of 
trent principles, yet could not but acknowledge 

he was a good defender of a bad caufe ; and 
lafios's book underwent only one impreflion, 
Le this of Milton pafled thro* feveral edidons^ 
the firft appearance of it, he was viiitcd or in* 
d by all die foreign minifters at London, not ex^ 
ing even thc^e of crowned heads ; and was par^ 
larly honored and efteemed by Adrian Paaw^ 
laflador from the States of Holland. He was 
mCc highly complimented by letters from the 
fc learned and ingenious perfons in France and 
many; and Leonard Philaras, an Athenian born, 

emba£ador from the Duke of Parma to the 
nch king, wrote a fine encomium of his Defenfr , 
. lent him his pi£hire, as appears from Milton's 
cr to Philaras dated at London in June 165a. 
1 what gave him the greateft fatisfadtion, the 
'k was highly applauded by thofe, who had de- 
i him to undertake it ; and they made him a pre- 
: of a thoufand pounds, which in thofe days of 
;ality was reckoned no inconfiderable reward for 
performance. But the cafe was far otherwife 
b Salmafius. He was then in high favor at the 
rt of Chriftina Queen of Sweden, who had in- 
d thither feveral of the mofl: learned men of all 
ntries : but when Milton's Defenle of the people 
England vn% brought to Sweden, and was read 
the Queen at her own defire, he funk imme* 
tcly in her cftcem and the opinion of every body j 
[ tho' he talked big at mA, ^ and vowed the 


prefs, that it may in a manner be called his oWii. It 
came fc^th in 1652 under this tide, Jofaannis Philippi 
Angli Refpontio ad Apblogiam anbnymi cujufdam 
tendirionis pro rege 6c pofxilo Anglicano infantiffi- 
mam) and it is printed with Milton's works; and 
tiifottghout die whole Mr. Philips treats Bifliop Bramr 
hall with great feverity as the author of the Apology^ 
thinking probably that £> confiderable an adverj^y 
Would nuke the anfwer more confiderable. 

Sir Robert Fihner likewife publifhed fome ani- 
madverfions upon Milton's Defenfe of die people^ iii 
% piece printed in 1652, and intided Obferva- 
ttons concerning the original of government, upon 
Mn Hobbes's Leviathan, Mr. Milton againft Salma^ 
fius, and Hugo Grotius de Jure belU : but I do not 
find that Milton or any of his friends took any no» 
tice of it ; but Milton's quarrel was afterwards fuf- 
ficiendy avenged by Mr. Locke, who wrote agsunft 
Sir Robert Filmer's principles of government, mart 
I fuppoTe in ccmdelcenfion to the prejudices of tiie 
age, than out of any regard to the weight or impof'- 
tanoe of Filmer's arguments. 

It is probable that Milton, when he was firfi 
made Latin Secretary, removed from his houfe in 
High Holbom to be nearer Whitehall: and £x 
feme time he had lodgings at one Thomfon's nest 
door to the Bull-head tavern at Charing-^Croft, open* 
ing into Spring-Garden, till the apartment, appointed 
ibr him in Scotland- Yard, could be got ready for 
fait reception. He then removed thither ; and theie 
his third child, a fon was born and named Jc^ 
who thro' the ill ufage or bad conftitution of the 
finfe died an in£wtr His own health too wu 


TheLlFEof MILTON, xxxm 
g^dy knpfiured; and 6x the benefit of the air, he 
removed from his apartment in Scotland* Yard to a 
hooie in Petty-France Weftminfter, which was next 
doorloLord Scodamore's, and opened into St. Jamet's 
Park; and there he remained eight years^ from the 
year 1652 tilt within a few weeks of the King's r&- 
ibration. In this hoiiie he had not been fettled long^ 
before his firfl wifi^ died in childbed; and his coodi* 
tion requiring fome care and attendence, he was 
caiily induced after a proper interval of time to marry 
a iecond, who was Catharine daughter of Oiptaia 
Woodcock of Hackney: and (he too died in cnild* 
bed within a year after their marriage, and her 
child, who was a daughter, died in a month after 
her; and her hufband has done honor to her memory 
in one of his fonnets. 

. Two or three years befcve this fecond marriage he 
bad totally loft his fight. And his enemies trif- 
umpbed in his blindnefs, and imputed it as a yidg^ 
nent upon him for writing againft the King: but his 
/^^ had been decaying ieveral years before^ thro' 
his doie application to flody, and the frequent head* 
gkes to which he had been fubje A from his child- 
hood, and his continual tampering witli phyiic, 
which perhaps was more pernicious than all the refl: 
and he himfelf has informed us in his fecond De- 
lenfe, that when he was appointed by authority to 
write his Defenfe of the people againft Salmafius, he 
had almoft loft the fight of one eye, and the phyfi- 
ewis declared to him, that if he undertook that 
work, he would alio lofe the fight of the other: bat 
he was nothmg difcouraged, ai^ chofc ratlier to lofe 
iMMh his eyes than defert what he thought his da^r. 

ixxviii The LIFE of MILT Off. 

It was the fight of his left eye that he loft firft: and 
at the defire of his friend Leonard Philaras the 
Duke of Parma's minifter at Paris he fcnt him a 
particular account of his cafe, and of the manner of 
his growing blind, for him to confult Thevenot the 
•phyfician, who was reckoned famous in cafes of the 
eyes. The letter is the fifteenth of his familiar 
epifties, and is dated Septemb. 28. 1654: but it does 
not appear what anfwer he received; we may prc^ 
fume, none that adminiftered any relief. His blind- 
iiefs however did not difable him entirely from per- 
forming the bufinefs of his ofiice. An affiftant was 
allowed him, and his falary as fecretary ftill con<* 
tinued to him. 

And there was farther occafion for his fervicc be- 
fides diftating of letters. For the controverfy witk 
Salmafius did not die with him, and there was pub- 
•li/hed at the Hague in 1652 a book intitled the Cry 
of the King's blood &c, Regii fanguinis Clamor ad 
(Tcclum adverfus Parricidas Anglicanos. The true 
author of this book was Peter du Moulin the 
younger, who was afterwards prebendary of Canter- 
bury: and he tranfmitted his papers to Salmafius; 
and Salmafius intrufted them to the care of Alexan- 
der Moras, a French minifter ; and Moras publiftied 
them with a dedication to King Charles 11. in the 
name of Adrian Ulac the printer, from whence he 
came to be reputed the author of the whole. This 
•Moras was the fon of a learned Scotfman, who was 
prefident of the college, which the proteftants had 
formerly at Caftres in Languedoc ; and he is faid to 
have been a man of a moft haughty difpofition, and 
immoderately addiftcd to women, hafty, ambitious^ 


The LIFE o( MILTON, xxxix 

ill of himfelf and his own performances, and fati- 
ical upon all others. He was however eftecmcd 
ne or the mofl eminent preachers of that age 
mong the proteflants ; but as Monfieur Bayle ob* 
Tves, his chief talent mufl: have confifted in the 
'acefulnefs of his delivery, or in thofe Tallies of 
nagination and quaint turns and allufions, whereof 
IS fermons are full -, for they retain not thofe charms 
I reading, which they were faid to have formerly 
I the pulpit. Againft this man therefore, as the 
iputcd author of Regii fanguinis Clamor &c, MiU 
•n publi(hed by authority his Second Defenie of the 
^ople of England, Defenfio Secunda pro populo 
nglicano, in 1 654, and treats Morus with fuch fe- 
:rity as nothing could have excufed, if he had not 
7en provoked to it by fo much abufe poured upon 
imfdf. There is one piece of his* wit, which had 
een publiQied before in the news-papers at London, 
diftich upon Morus for getting Pontia the rnaid* 
rnrant of his firiend Salmaiius with child. 

Galli ex concubitu gravidam te, Pontia, Mori 
Quis bene moratam morigeramque neget ? 

rpon this Morus publKhcd his Fides Publica in 
ifwer to Milton, in which he inferted feveral teflii- 
lonies of his orthodoxy and morals iigned by the 
mfiftories, academies, fynods, and magiftrates of 
le places where he had lived ; and difowned his 
eing the author of the book imputed to him, and 
ppealed to two gentlemen of great credit with the 
^arlament party, who knew the real author. This 
Htnight Du Moulin, who was then in England, 


The LIFE of Jf JZrOlC 

«cn Sw^ — ^^ , 

pifei'xtv o-: 

- ' 

in be oeccted ro c 
Mhcr ztAisDcrJei 

in his ycitonrn, and CBdnroiii 

pobli^hcd la 1 655, 
ceftxinoGKs in fi[vor qk IMoffiii 
him; and Moras icptkd 00 

Aiber dm cortrovcrfjr wu ended, hcwasmt lofist 
tsain to parfoc hhk own privsate thrdJCT, whkh licn 
the H&acf of England facfere mentkncd, and t 
MW Triciacrcs of the Latin toogoe^ infiendDl as aE 
fn i pr o f cmen t upon that by Robeirc Stephens; a work, 
which he had been long coUeding from die heft and 
poieft Latin aothors, and contimicd at times alaoft 
to his dying day : hot Ids papers were kit ib ceo* 
feied and imparfed, that they cook! not be fitted fcr 
the preis, tho* great a(e was made of them by the com* 
pilers of the Cambridge Didionary printed in 1 69]^ 
Thtfe papers are iaid to have confifted of three la^ 
volumes in felio ; and it is a great pity diat they are 
loft^ and no accoont is given what is become of the 
manuscript It is commcmly faid too that at this 
time he began his famous poem of Paradife ldA\ 
and it is certain, that he was glad to be releafed from 
thofc controverfieSy which detained him fo long from 
following things more agreeable to his natural genius 
and inclinatbn, tho' hfe was far from ever repenting 
of his writings in defenfc of liberty^ but gloried ill 
them to the laft. 

The only btcrruption now of his private ftudiet 
WAS the bufinefi of his office. In 1655 there was 


* <it:* 

The LIFE of MILT N. Ai 

publilhed in Latin a writing in tJic name of the 
Lacd ProDedtor, fetting forth the reafons of the war 
Spun : and this piece is rightly adjudged to bur 
both on account of the peculiar elegance of 
the Aile, and becaufe it was his province to write 
fuch diings as Latin Secretary; and it is printed 
among his other profe-works in the laft edition. 
And tor the fame reafons I am inclined to think, 
that the &mous Latin verfes to Chi iftina Queen of 
Sweden in the name of Cromwell were made by our 
author rather than Andrew Marvel. In thofe days 
they had admirable intelligence in the Secretary's 
office ; and Mr. Philips relates a memorable inftance 
or two upon his own knowledge. The Dutch were 
fending a plenipotentiary to England to treat of 
peace ; but the emiflaries of the government had the 
art to procure a copy of his inftrudlions in Holland, 
which were delivered by Milton to his kinfman who 
was then with him, to tranflate them for the ufe of 
the Council, before the faid plenipotentiary had 
taken ihipping for England ; and an anfwer to all 
that he had in charge was prepared, and lay ready 
ibr him before he made his public entry into London, 
Another time a perfon came to London with a very 
fumptuous train, pretending himfelf an agent from 
the Prince of Conde, who was then in arms againfl 
Cardinal Mazarine : but the government fufpe(fting 
bim fet their inftruments to work fo fuccefsfuUy, 
that in a few days they received intelligence from 
Paris, that he was a fpy employed by Charles II : 
ivhereupon the very next morning Milton's kinfman 
Was fcnt to him with an order of Council, com- 
Qianding him to depart the kingdom within three 
Vol. I. E days, 

^ The LIFE of MILrOff. 

&ys, or exped the punifhment of a fey. Tl 

kiniman was in all probability Mr. Philips or^ 1 

brother, who were Milton's nephews, and Uvi 

very mach with him, and one or both of them wc 

afliibnt to him in his office. His blindnefs no doo 

was a great hindrance and inconvenience to him 

his buunefs, tho' fometimes a political ufe might 1 

made of it; as men's natural infirmities are ofii 

pleaded in excufe for not doing what they have j 

great inclination to do. Thus when Cromwell, 

we may coUedt from Whitlock, for fome reafons I 

layed artfully to fign the treaty concluded with S^ 

den, and the Swedifh emba^dor made frequ( 

complaints of it, it was excufed to him, beca< 

Mr. Milton on account of his blindnefs proceed 

flower in bufinefs, and had not yet put the ardc 

of the treaty into Latin. Upon whrch the emb 

iador was gready furprifed, that things of fuch d 

iequence fhould be intrufled to a blind man^ for 

muft neceiiarily employ an amanueniis, and Hi 

amanuenfis might divulge the ardcles; and faid 

was very wonderfiil, that there fhould be only it 

man in England who could write Latin, and h 

blind one. But his blindnefs had not diminiih 

but rather increafed the vigor of his mind : and 

ftate-letters will remain as authentic memorials 

thofe times, to be admired equally by critics and | 

lidcians ; and thofe particularly about the fufferi 

i)f the poor proteflants in Piedmont, who can r 

without fenfible emotion ? This was a fubjedt I 

lie had very much at heart, as he was an utter ene 

to all forts of perfecudon; and among his fonnets it 

U a moil excellent one upon the fame occafion. 


The LIFE of MILTON.. xliii. 

But Oliver Cromwell being dead, and the govern- 
nent weak and unfettled in the hands of Richard 
ind the Parlament, he thought it a feafonable time 
o offer his advice again to the public ; and in 1 659 
published a Treatife of civil power in ecclefiaftical 
;:aufes; and another tradt intitled Confiderations 
touching the likelieft means to remove hirelings out 
Df the church; both addreflcd to the Parlament of 
he commonwealth of England. And after the Par* 
lament was difTolved, he wrote a Letter to fomc 
Statefman^ with whom he had a ferious difcourfe 
the night before, concerning the ruptures of the 
commonwealth; and another, as it is fuppofed, to 
General Monk, being a brief Delineation of a free 
commonwealth, eafy to be put in praAice, and 
without delay. Thefc two pieces were communi- 
cated in manufcript to Mr. Toland by a friend, who 
a little after Milton's death had them from his ne- 
phew; and Mr. Toland gave them to be printed in 
the edition of our author's profe- works in i6gS» 
But Milton, ftill finding that affairs were every aay 
tending more and more to the fubverfion of the 
commonwealth and the refloration of the royal fa-^ 
oiily, publiftied his Ready and eafy way to eflablifh 
L free commonwealth, and the excellence thereof, 
:ompared with the inconveniences and dangers or 
eadmitting kingfhip in this nation. We are in- 
brmed by Mr. Wood, that he publiQied this piece 
n February 1659-60; and after this he pubhftied 
Jricf notes upon a late fermon intided, the Fear of 
jod and the King, preached by Dr. Matthew Grif- 
ith at Mercers Chapel March 25, 1660: fo bold 
Lad refolute was he in declaring h}% fentiments to 

R z the 

xliv The LIFE oi MILTOtf. 

the laft, thinking that his voice was the voice of ejE^ 
piring liberty. 

A little before the King's landing he was dif- 1 
charged from hi& office of Latin Secretary, and wil 
forced to leave his houfe in iPetty France, where he 
had lived eight years with great reputation^ and had 
been vifited by all foreigners of note, who could net 
go out of the country without feeing a man who did! 
fo much honor to it by his writings, and whdb 
name was as well known and as famous abroad ai 
in his own nation -, and by feveral perfons of quali^ 
of both fexes, particularly the pious and virtuoiii 
Lady Ranclagh, whofe fon for fome time he in- 
ftrudted, the fame who was Paymafter of the forces 
in King William's time; and by many learned and 
ingenious friends and acquaintance, particularly An- 
drew Marvel, and young Laurence, fon to the Pxc- 
iident of Oliver's Council, to whom he has infcribed 
, one of his fonnets, and Marchamont Needham the 
writer of Politicus, and above all Cyriac Skinner, 
whom he has honored with two fonnets. But now 
it was not fafe for him to appear any longer in 
public, fo that by the advice oi fome who wifhed 
him well and were concerned for his prefervadoo, 
he fled for fhelter to a friend's houfe in Bartholo- 
mew Clofe near Weft Smithfield, where he lay con- 
cealed till the worft of the ftorm was blown over. 
The firft notice that we find taken of him was OD 
Saturday the 1 6th of June 1 660, when it was or- 
dered by the Houfe of Commons, that his Majcfly 
^ould be humbly moved to iffue his proclamatioa 
for the calling in of Milton's two books, his Dcfenfc 
of the people and Iconoclaftes^ and alfo Goodwyn's | 





■Hic L I F E of Af / 1, ro iV: xlr 

intitled the Obftrudors of juftice^ written in 
nation of the murder of the late King, and to 
them to be burnt by the hands of the common 
[lan. At the fame time it was ordered, that 
ttorney General ihould proceed by way of in- 
ent or information againft Milton and Good*- 
n refpedt of their books, and that they them- 
(hould be fent for in cuftody of the Serjeant 
OS attending the Houfe. On Wednefday June 
an order of Council was made agreeable to the 
of the Houfe of Commons for a proclamation 
\ Milton's and Goodwyn's books; and the pro- 
tion was iffued the 1 3th of Auguft following, 
zm it was faid that the authors had fled or did 
id: and on Monday Auguft 27th Milton's 
joodwin's books were burnt according to the 
un^tioii at the Old Baily by the hands of the 
non hangman. On Wednefday Auguft 29th 
61 of indemnity was pafled, which proved more 
able to Milton than could well have been ex- 
d; for tho* John Goodwyn Clerk w^s excepted 
ig the twenty perfons, who were to have pe- 
s infli£ted upon them, not extending to life, 
lilton was not excepted at all, and confequently 
included in the general pardon. We find in- 
that afterwards be was in cuftody of the Ser- 
at arms ; but the time, when he was taken in- 
iftody, is not certain. He was not in cuftody 
le 1 2 th of September, for that day a lift of the 
ners in cuftody of the Serjeant at arms was 
in the Houfe, and Milton is not among them ; 
on the 1 3th of September the Houfe adjourned 
le 6th of November. It is moft probable there- 

E 3 foftj 

^vi The LIFE of MILTON. 

fore, that after the a£t of indemnity was pafTed, and 
after the Houfe had adjourned, he came out of hit 
concealment, and was afterwards taken into cuftocfy 
of the Serjeant at arms by virtue of the former or- 
der of the Houfe of Commons : but we cannot 
find that he was profecuted by the Attorney General, 
nor was he continued in cuftody very long : for on 
Saturday the 15th of December 1660, it was or- 
dered by the Houfe of Commons, that Mr. Milton 
now in cuflody of the Serjeant at arms fhould be 
forthwith releafed, paying his fees ; and on Monday 
the 1 7th of December, a complaint being inade that 
the Serjeant at arms had demanded exceifive fees for 
his imprifonment, it was referred to the Committee 
of privileges and eleftions to examin this bufinefi; 
and to call Mr. Milton and the Serjeant befere theOi f 
and to determin what was fit to be given to the Ser- 
jeant for his fees in this cafe -, fo courageous was he 
at all times in defenfe of liberty againfl all the en- 
croachments of power, and tho' a prifoner, would 
yet be treated like a freeborn Englifhman. This 
appears to be the matter of faft, as it may be col- 
le(4ed partly from the Journals of the Houfe of 
Commons, and partly fi-om Kenneths Hiflorical Ro- 
gifler : and the clemency of the government vm 
furely very great towards him, confidering the na- 
ture of his ofFenfes -, for tho' he was not one of the 
King*s judges and murderers, yet he contribute 
more to murder his charadler and reputation than 
any of them all : and to what therefore could it be fc 
owing, that he was treated with fuch lenity, and ^ 
Was fo eafily pardoned ? It is certain, there was not "i 
3vanting powerful interccifion for him both in 


The LIFE o£ MILTON. il?ii 

Council and in Parlament. It is faid that Secretaiy 
Moirice and Sir Thomas Clargis greatly favored him, 
md exerted their intereft in his behalf 3 and his old 
fiiend Andrew Marvel, member of Parlament for 
Hull, formed a coniiderabie party for him in the 
Houfe of Commons 1 and neither was Charles the 
Second (as Toland fays) fuch an enemy to the Mafe$, 
IS to require his deflmdiion. But the principal in- 
Irument in obtaining Milton's pardon was Sir Wil- 
iam Davenant, out of gratitude for Milton*s having 
irocured his releafe, when he was taken prifonner 
n 1 650. It was life for life. Davenant had beea 
aved by Milton's intereft^ and in return Milton was 
aved at Davenant's interceflion. This flory Mr. Rj- 
iiardfon relates upon the authority of Mr. Pope ; 
nd Mr. Pope had it from Bctterton the famous 
jftor, who was firft brought upon the ftage and pa- 
ronized by Sir William Davenant, and might there- 
bre derive the knowledge of this tranfadtion from the 

Milton having thus obtained his pardon, and bc-^ 
ag fet at liberty again, took a houfe in Holbom near 
Led Lion Fields; but he removed foon into Jewca 
!treet near Alderfgate Street: and while he lived 
here, being in his 53d or 54th year, and blind and 
3firm» and wanting fome body better than fcrvants 
3 tend and look after him, he employed his friend 
)r. Paget to choofe a proper confort for him ; and 
t his recommendation married his third wife, Eli- 
abeth Minfhul, of a gentleman's femily in Chefhire, 
nd related to Dr. Paget. It is faid that an offer was 
lade to Milton, as well as to Thurloe, of hold- 
ag the lame place of Secretary under the King, 

"" I which 

rivui The L I F E of MILTO N. 

which he had difcharged with fo much integri^ and 
ability under Cromwell ; but he perfiftcd in rdbfing 
it, tho* the wife preflcd his compliance; " Thou 
*^ art in the right, fays he; you, as other women, 
*' would ride in your coach ; for me, my aim is to 
** live and die an honeft man." What is more cer- 
tain is, . that in 1 66 1 he published his Accedence 
commenced Grammar, and a traft of Sir Walter 
Raleigh intitlcd Aphorifms of State ; as in 1 658 he 
had publifiied another piece of Sir Walter Raleigh 
intided the Cabinet Council difcabinated, which he 
printed from a manufcript, that had lain many years 
m his hands, and was given him for a true copy by 
a learned man at his death, who had collected feve- 
ral fuch pieces : an evident fign, that he thought it 
UP mean employment, nor unworthy of a man of 
genius, to be an editor of the works of great au- 
thors. It was while he lived in Jewen Street, that 
Elwood the quaker (as we learn from the hiftory 
of his life written by his own hand) was fir ft intro- 
duced to read to him; for having wholly loft his 
fight, he kept always fome body or other to perform 
that office, and ufually the fon of fome gentleman 
of his acquaintance, whom he took in kindneis, 
that he might at the fame time improve him in his 
learning, EKvood was recommended to him by 
Dr. Paget, and went to his houfe every afternoon 
except Sunday, and read to him fuch books in the 
Latin tongue, as Milton thought proper. And Mil- 
ton told him, that if he would have the benefit of 
the Latin tongue, not only to read and underfbnd 
Latin authors, but to converfc with foreigners either 
abroad or at home, he muft learn the foreign pro- 
nunciation i 


The LIFE o£ MILTON. xlir 

ncktion ; and he inftrudlcd him how to read ac« 
r&iglj. And having a curious ear, he underflood 
r my tone, fays Eiwood, when I underftood what 
read, and when I did not ; and he would flop me, 
d examin me, and open the moft difficult paflages 
me. But \t was not long after his third marriage. 
It he left Jewen Street, and removed to a houfe in 
e Artillery Walk leading to Bunhill Fields : and 
18 was his laft ftage in this world ; he continued 
9ger in this houfe than he had done in any other, 
d lived here to his dying day: only when the 
igue began to rage in London in 1665, he re- 
vved to a fmall houfe at St. Giles Chalfont in 
ickinghamfhire, which Elwood had taken for 
n and his family; and there he remained dur- 
l that dreadful calamity; but after the ficknefs 
IS over, and the city was cleanfed and made 
iely habitable again, he returned to his houfe in 

His great work of Paradife Loft had principally 
gaged his thoughts for fome years paft, and was 
w completed. It is probable, that his firft defign 
writing an epic poem was owing to his converfa- 
ns at Naples with the Marquis of Villa about 
iflb and his &mous poem of the delivery of Je- 
lalem; and in a copy of verfes prefented to that 
bleman before he left Naples, he intimated his in- 
ition of fixing upon King Arthur for his hero, 
id in an eclogue, made foon after his return to 
igland upon the death of his firiend and fchooU 
low Deodati, he propofed the fame defign 
d the fame fubjed, and declared his ambition 
writing fomething in hi$ native language, 


1 ThcLIFE of ilf/LrOJV. 

which might render his name illuftrioua in thefe 
Hands, though he (hould be obfcure and inglorioas 
to the reft of the world. And in other parts of hk 
works, after he had engaged in the controverfies of 
the times, he ftill promiied to produce ibme noble 
poem or other at a fitter feafon ; but it doth not ap- 
pear that he had then determined upon the fubjed; 
and King Arthur had another fate, being refervcd 
for the pen of Sir Richard Blackmore. The firft 
hint of Puradife Loft is faid to have been taken from 
an Italian tragedy ; and it is certain, that he firft de* 
iigned it a tragedy himfelf, and there arc fcveral 
plans of it in the form of a tragedy (till to be feen in 
the author's own manufcript preferved in the library 
of Trinity College Cambridge. And it is probable» 
that he did not barely fketch out the plans, but alio 
wrote fome parts of the drama itfelf. His nephew 
Philips informs us, that fome of the verfes at the 
beginning of Satan's fpeech, addrefted to the fun sa 
the fourth book, were fhown to him and fome 
others as defigned for the beginning of the tragedy^ 
ieveral years before the poem was begun : and many 
other paffages might be produced, which plainly ap^ 
pear to have been originally intended for the fcene, 
and are not fo properly of the epic, as of the tragic 
ftrain. It was not till after he was diiengaged 6x)m 
die Salmaiian controverfy, which ended in 16559 
that he began to mold the Paradife Loft in its pre- 
fent form ; but after the Reftoration, when he was 
difmifted ftom public buiinefs, and freed from con- 
troverfy of every kind, he profecuted the work 
with clofer application. Mr. Philips relates a very 
cemarkable circumftance in the compofure of this 



in, which he fays he had reafon to remember^ 
it was told him by Milton himfelf, that his 
a never happily flowed but from the autumnal 
lioox to the vernal^ and that what he attempted 
other times was not to his fatis&dion^ tho' he 
rted his fancy never fo much. Mr. Toland 
Lgins that Philips might be miftaken as to the 
le, becaufe our author^ in his Latin elegy^ writ* 

in his twentieth year, upon the approach of the 
ing, feemeth to fay juft the contrary, as if he 
lid not make any verfes to his fatisfadlion till the 
ing begun : and he fays farther that a judicious 
nd of Milton's informed him, that he could ne« 

compofe well but in fpring and autumn. But 
. Richardfon cannot comprehend, that either of 
fe accounts is exadtly true, or that a man widi 
h a work in his head can fufpend it for fix 
inths together, or only for one; it may go on 
>re ilowly, but it muft go on : and this laying it 
le is contrary to that eagernefs to finifli what was 
;un, which he fays was his temper in his epiftle 
Deodati dated Sept. 2. 1637. After ali Mr, Phi- 
;, who had die perufal of the poem from the be*- 
ning, by twenty or thirty verfes at a time, as it 
% compofed, and having not been fhown any for 
onfiderable while as the fummer came on, Hi- 
red of the author the reafon of k, could hardly 
miftaken with regard to the time : and it is eafy 
conceive, that the poem might go on much 
re flowly in fummer than in other parts of the 
r ; for notwithfhnding all that poets may fey of 

pleafures of that feafon, I imagin mofl perfons 
i by experience^ that they can compofe better at 


lii The LIFE oi MILTON. 

any other time, with more facility and with more; 
fpirit, than during the heat and languor of fummer^ 
.Whenever the poem was wrote, it was finiflied ia 
1 66;, and as Elwood fays was fluown to him that 
^mc year at St. Giles Chalfont, whither Milton had 
retired to. avoid the plague, and it was lent to him 
to perufe it and give his judgment of it : and con- 
lidering the difficulties which the author lay under^ 
his uneafinefs on account of the public affairs and 
his own, his age and infirmities, his gout and blind- 
nefs, his not being in circumftances to maintain an 
amanuenfis, but obliged to make ufe of any hand 
that came next to write his verfes as he made them, 
it is really wonderful, that he fhould have the fpirit 
to undertake fuch a work, and much more, that he 
fliould ever bring it to perfeftion. And after the 
poem was finiftied, ftill new difficulties retarded the 
publication of it It was in danger of being fup- 
preffed thro' the malice or ignorance of the licencer, 
who took exception at fome pafTages, and partiqu- 
larly at that noble iimile, in the firft book, of the 
fun in an eclipfe^ in which he fancied that he had 
difcovered treafon. It was with difficulty too that 
the author could fell the copy ; and he fold it at 
laft only for five pounds, but was to receive five 
pounds more after the fale of 1300 of the firft im- 
preffion, and five pounds more after the fale of as 
many of the fecon4 impreffion, ^d five more after 
the iale of as many of the third, and the number 
of each impreffion was not to exceed 1500. And 
what a poor confideration was this for fuch an in- 
cftimable performance ! and how much more do 
others get by the works of great authors^ than 


The LIFE of M/LrOiST. Kii 

the ' authors themfelves ! This original contrad 
with Samuel Simmons the printer is dated April 
27. 1667, and is in the hands of Mr. Tonfon the 
bookfeller^ as is likewife the manufcript of the 
firft book copied fair for the prefs, with the Impri- 
matur by Thomas Tomkyns chaplain to the Arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury : fo that tho' Milton was forced 
to make ufe of different hands to write his verfes 
from time to time as he had occafion, yet we mav 
fuppofe that the copy for the prcfs was written all, 
or at leail each book by the fame hand. The iirft 
edition in ten books was printed in a fmall quarto; 
and before it could be difpofed of, had three or 
more different title pages of the years 1667, 16689 

and 1669. '^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ without the name 
of Simmons the printer, and began with the poem 
immediately following the title page, without any 
argument, or preface, or table ot errata : to others 
was prefixed a fliort advertifement of the printer to 
the reader concerning the argument and tne reafon 
why the poem rimes not ; and then followed the 
argument of the feveral books, and the preface con- 
cerning the kind of verfe, and the table of errata : 
others again had the argument, and the preface, 
and the table of errata, without that fhort adver- 
tifement of the printer to the reader : and this was 
all the difference between them, except now and 
then of a point or a letter, which were altered as 
ihc fheets were printing off. So that, notwith- 
flanding thefe variations, there was flill only one ini- 
prefHon in quarto; and two years almoft elapfed, 
Dcfbre 1300 copies could be fold, or before the 
author was intitled to his fecond five pounds, for 



which his receipt is flill in being, and is dated 
April 26. 1669. And this was probably all that he 
received; for he lived not to enjoy the benefits of 
the fecond edition, which was not publilhed dll 
the year 1674, and that fame year he died. The 
fecond edition was printed in a fmall odavo, and 
was corre(fted by the author himfelf, and .the num- 
ber of books was augmented from ten to twelve^ 
with the addition of fome few verfes : and this al- 
teration was made with great judgment, not for the 
iake of fuch a fanciful beauty as refembling the; 
number of books in the iEneid, but for the more 
regular difpofition of the poem, becaufe the feventb 
and tenth books were before too long, and are more 
fitly divided each into two. The third edition wa9 

!)ubli(hed in 1678 -, and it appears that Milton ha^ 
eft his remaining right in the copy to his widoWj 
and fhe agreed with Simmons the printer to acce{^ 
eight pounds in fiiU of all demands, and her receipt 
for the money is dated December 21. 1680. But 
a little before this Simmons had covenanted to afikp 
the whole right of copy to Brabazon Aylmer w 
bookfeller for twenty five pounds ; and Aylmer aC-? 
terwards fold it to old Jacob Tonfon at two diSc;- 
rent times, one half on the 17th q£ Augufl 1683, 
and the other half on the 24th of March 1 69Q, 
with a confiderable adyance of the price ; and (^ic- 
cept one fourth of it which has been aflign'd to Jfe- 
veral perfons, his family have enjoyed the right pf 
copy ever iince. By the laft afiignment it appearSp 
that the book was growing into repute and riling io 
valuation; and to what perverfeneis be ow- 
ing that it was not better received at firft ? We con* 



::eive there were principally two reafbns ; the pre- 
judtoes againft the author on account of his prinF- 
ctples and party; and many no doubt were offended 
with the novelty of a poem tihat was not in rime. 
Rymer, who was a redoubted critic in thofe days, 
vroold not fb much as allow it to be a pocmr on this 
iccoant ; and declared war againft Milton as well as 
stg^nft Shakefpear; and threatened that he would 
write reflexions upon the Paradife Loft, which fome 
[fays he *) are pleafed to call a poem, and would 
iflot rime againft the ilender fophifbry wherewith 
the author attacks it. And fuch a man as Bifhop 
Buraet maketh it a fort of objedtion to Milton, that 
be affe£ted to write in blank verfe without rime, 
find the fame reafon induced Dryden to turn the 
[^ncipal pstrts of Paradife Loft into rime in his 
Opera caAed the State of innocence and Fall of 
tnan ; to tag his lines, as Milton ^himfelf exprefled 
it, alluding to the fafliion then of wearing tags of 
metal at the end of their ribbons. We are told in- 
ieed by Mr. Richardfon, that Sir George Hunger- 
brd, an ancient member of parlament, told him, 
fhat Sir Johii Deiiham came into the Houie one 
moraing with a fheet of Paradife Loft wet from the 
prefi in his hand ; and being aifked what he had 
thoe, faid that he had part of the nobleft poem that 
srer was written in any language or in any age. 
However it is certain that the book was unknown 
dll about two years after, when the Earl of Dorfet 
produced it, as Mr. Richardfon was informed by 
Dr. Tancred Robinfon the phyfician, who had heard 
the ftory often from Fleetwood Shephard himfelf, 


^ Ste Rymer*t Trs^tdiis tf the lafi age c9nJM^i. p. 14s. 

Ivi The LIFE oiMILtOK. 

that the Earl, in company with Mr. Shephard^ look^ 
ing about for , books in Little Britain, accidentally 
met with Paradife Loft ; and being furfx'ifcd at fome 
paflages in dipping here and there, he bought it 
The bookfeller begged his Lordfhip to fpeak in it» 
favor if he liked it, for the impreilion lay on lui 
hands as wafte paper. The Earl having read it fent 
it to Dryden, who in a (hort time returned it with 
this anfwer, '^ This man cuts us all out and die 
" Ancients too." Dryden*s epigram upon Milton 
is too well known to be repeated ; and thofe Latin 
verfes by Dr. Barrow the phyiician, and the Eng^ifli 
ones by Andrew Marvel Efq; , nfually prefixed to 
the Paradife Loft, were written before the (econd 
edition, and were publifhed with it. But ftill the 
poem was not generally known and efteemed, nor 
met with the deferved applaufe, till after the edition 
in folio, which was publifhed in i 688 by fubicrip- 
tion. The Duke of Buckingham in his Eilay m 
poetry prefers Taffo and Spenfer to Milton : and- it is 
related in the life of the witty Earl of Rochefter, 
tlxat he had no notion of a better poet than ComXej. 
In 1 686 or thereabout Sir William Temple publifhed 
the fecond part of his Mifcellanies, and it may fur- 
prife any reader, that in his EfTay on poetry he taketh 
no notice at all of Milton; nay he faith exprefsly 
that after Ariofto, TalTo, and Spenfer, he knoweth 
none of the Moderns who have made any achieve- 
ments in heroic poetry worth recording. And what 
can we think, that he had not read or heard of 
the Paradife Loft, or that .the author's politics had 
prejudiced him againft his poetry? It was happy 
that all great men were not of his mind. The 


The LIFE of MILTON. Ivii 

kieller was advifed and encouraged to undertake 
folio edition by Mr. Sommers, afterwards Lord 
merSy who not only fubfcribed himfelf, but was 
ms in promoting the fubfcrlption : and in the lift 
ibfcribers we find fome of the mod: eminent 
» of that time, as the Earl of Dorfet, Waller, 
Icn, Dr. Aldrich, Mr. Atterbury, and among 
reft Sir Roger Leftrange, tho* he liad formerly 
ten a piece intitled No blind guides &c againfl 
an's Notes upon Dr. Griffith's fermon. There 
; two editions more in folio, one I think in 
:, the other in 1695 which was the fixth edi- 
for the poem was now fo well received, that 
ithllanding the price of it was four times greater 
before, the fale increafed double the number 
' year; as the bookfeller, who (hould beft 
r, has informed us in his dedication of the 
\a e^doDS to Lord Sommers. Since that time 
inly various editions have been printed, but alfo 
us notes and tranflations. The firfl perfon who 
» annotations upon Paradife Lofl: was P. H. or 
Jl Hume, of whom we know nothing, unlefs 
lame may lead us to fome knowledge of his 
ty, but ne has the merit of being the firft (as 
I who wrote notes upon Paradife Loft, and his 
were printed at the end of the folio edition in 
. Mr. Addifon's Spedlators upon the fubjedt 
buted not a litde to eftablifhing the charafiber, 
lufhating the beauties of the poem. In 1732 
red Dr. Bentlcy's new edition with notes : and 
ar following Dr. Pearce publiftied his Review 
5 text, in which the chief of Dr. Bentley's 
iations arc confidered, and feveral other emenda- 
L. I. F tions 

Iviii The LIFE of Jtf J£rOW. 
tions and obicrvations are c^ered to the public. A 
the year after that MeCkurs Richardfon, iather i 
ion, publiihed their Explanatory notes and remai 
The poem has alfo been tranflated into fen 
languages, Latin, Italian, French, and Dutch ; a 
propolis have been made for tranllating it i 
Greek. The Dutch tranflation is in blank verfc, t 
printed at Harlem. The French have a tranflat 
by Monf. Dupre dc S. Maur ; but nothing fliow 
the weaknefs and imperfeiSiion of their lango 
more, than that they have few or no good poet 
verlions of the greatell poets; they are ftHtrd 
trahflate Homer, Virgil, and Milton into profe : j 
blank verfe their language has not harmony i 
dignity enough to fupport; their tragedies, : 
many of their comedies are in rime. RolU, the 
mous Italian mailer here in England, made an J 
lian tranflation ; and Mr. Richardfon the fon : 
another at Florence in manufcript by the leaf 
Abb^ Saivini, the fame who tranflated Addifi 
Cato into Italian. One William Hog or Hcg 
tranflated Paradife Loft, Paradife Regain'd, i 
Samfon ^onifles into Latin verfe in 1 690 j bat ' 
verfion is vo-y unwOTthy of the originals. Tbe( 
a better tranflation of the Paradife Lofl: by Mn f 
mas Power Fellow of Trinity College in Camlnti 
the fir A book of which was printed in 1691, 1 
the reft in manufcript is in the library of thatC 
lege. The learned Dr, Trap has alfo publifhe 
tranflation into Latin verfe j and the world is in ' 
pe^tion of another, that will furpafs all the r 
by Mr. William Dobfon of New College in Oaft 
So that by one means or other Milton is now 


TbtLtFEdf MILTON. Ibt 

idered as an EnglHh claffic ; and the Paradife Loft 
5 generally efteemed the noblefl: and moft fublime of 
nodern poems, and eqnal at leaft to the beft of tbe 
ncient; the honor of this country, and the envy and 
dmiration of all others I 

In 1670 he publifhed his Hiftory of Britain, that 
art cfpecially now called England. He began it 
bov€ twenty years before, but was frequently in- 
emipted byodier avocations; and he deiigned to 
lave brought it down to his own times, but (lopped 
t the Norman conqueft ; for indeed he was not well 
ble to purfue it any fiir^er by reafon of his blind* 
ie&, and he was (engaged in other more delightful 
hidies, having a genius turned for poetry rather 
ban hiftory. When his Hiftory was printed, it was 
lot printed perfeft and entire ; for the licencer ex-* 
mnged fcvml pafiages, which refle£Ung upon the 
>ride and foperitition of the Monks in the Saxon 
imes^ were uitderflood as a concealed latir upon the 
HOhm in Charles the fecond's reign. But the au- 
hot nimfelf gave a copy of his unlicenced papers to 
he Earl of Anglefea, who, as well as feveral of the 
lobility and gentry, conibntly vifited him : and in 
t68i a confiderable paflagc, which had been fun- 
Kctt^ at the beginning of the third book, was pub- 
iflied, containing a c^rader of the Long Parian- 
nent and Aflembly of Divines in 1641, which was 
nferted in its proper place in the laft edition of 
^738. Bifhop Kennct begins his (jomplete Hiftory 
Jt England with this work of Milton, as being the 
bcfl draught, the cleared and moft authentic ao- 
oouftt of thofe early times: and his ftilc is freer and 
ttfier than in moft of his other works, more plain 

F 2 ^d 

The LIFE o{ MIL TO N. 


and fimple, lefs figurative and metaphorical, and 
^tter fuited to the nature of hiftory, has enough of 
the Latin turn and idiom to give it an air of anti* 
quity, and fometimes rifes to a furprifing dignity and 

In 1670 like wife his Paradife Regained and Sam- 
fon Agoniftes were licenced together, but were not 
publifhed till the year following. It is fomewhat 
remarkable, that thefe two poems were not printed 
by Simmons, the fame Wno printed the Paradife 
Lofl, but by J. M. for one Starkey in Flectflrcct: 
and what could induce Milton to have recourfe to 
another printer ? was it becaufe the former was not 
enough encouraged by the fale of Paradiffe Loft to 
become a purchafer of the other copies ? The firft 
thought or Paradife Regaiu'd was owing to Elwood 
the quaker, as he himfelf relates the occafion in the 
hiflory of his life. When Milton had lent him the 
manufcript of Paradife Lofl at St. Giles Chaifont, as 
we faid before, and he returned it, Milton afked 
him how he liked it, and what he thought of it: 
*' Which I modeflly, but freely told him, fiiys EI- 
** wood ; and after fome further difcourfe about it, 
** I pleafantly faid to him, Thou hafl faid much of 
** Paradife Lofl, but what hafl thou to fay of Paradife 
** Found? He made me no anfwer, but fat ibmc 
^' time in a mufe; then broke off that difcoorfc, 
*' and fell upon another ful^e<a." When Elwood I 
afterwards waited upon him in London, Mil^n § 
fhowed him his Paradife Regained, and in a pleafant | 
tone faid to him, " This is owing to You, tor Yoa 
put it into my head by the queflion You put mc 
at Chaifont, which before I had not thought of" 



The LIFE of MI LTON: Ixi 

It is commonly reported, that Milton himfelf pre- 
ferred this poem to the Paradife Loft : but all that 
we can ailcrt upon good authority is, that he could 
not indure to hear this poem cried down fo much as 
it was, in comparifon with the other. For certainly 
it is very worthy of the author, and contrary to 
what Mr. Toland relates, Milton may be feen in 
paradife Regained as well as in Paradife Loft 5 if it 
is inferior in poetry, I know not whether it is not 
fuperior in ientiment ; if it is lefs defcriptive, it is 
more argumentative ; if it doth not fometimes rife fo 
high, neither doth it ever fink fo low 3 and it has 
not met with the approbation it deferves, only be- 
cauie it has not been more read and confidered. 
His fubjecS: indeed is confined, and he has a narrow 
foundation to build upon ; but he has raifed as noble 
a fuperftrudture, as fuch little room and fuch fcanty 
materials would allow. The great beauty of it is 
the contraft between the two charafters of the 
Tempter and our Saviour, the artful fophiftry and 
fpecious infinuations of the one refiited by the ftrong 
fenfe and manly eloquence of the other. This poeni 
has alfo been tranflated into French together with 
fomc other pieces of Milton, Lycidas, L* Allegro, II 
Penferofo, and the Ode on Chrift's nativity : and in 
1732 was printed a Critical Diftertation with notes 
upon Paradife Regain'd, pointing out the beauties of 
i^ and written by Mr. Meadowcourt, Canon of 
Worccfter: and the very learned and ingenioua 
Mr. Jortin has added fome obfervations upon this 
work at the end of his excellent Remarks upon 
Spenier, publifhed in 1 734 : and indeed this poem 
w Milton^ to be nK)re admired, needs only to bci 

F 3 better 

kii The LIFE o( MILrON. 

better known. His Samfon Agoniftes is the ody 
tragedy that he has finifhcd, 3io* he has (ketched 
out the plans of feveril, and propofcd the fulijeds 
of more, in his manufcript prcfervcd in Trinity 
College library : and we may fuppofc that he was 
determined to the choice of this particular ful]3ed 
by the fimilitude of his own circumftances to tnofe 
of Samfon blind and among the Philiftins. This I 
conceive to be the laft of his poetical pieces ; *and it 
is written in the very fpirit of the Ancients, and 
equals, if not exceeds, any of the moft pcifed tra- 
gedies, which were ever exhibited on the Athenian 
ftage, when Greece was in its glory. As this W(»ic 
was never intended for the ftage, the divifion into 
ads and fcenes is omitted. Bifhop Attetbury had 
an intention of getting Mr. Pope to divide it into 
afts and fcenes, and of having it afted by the King's 
Scholars at Weftminfter: but his commitment to 
the Tower put an end to that defign. It has fince 
been brought upon the ftage in the form of an Ora- 
torio ; and Mr. Handel's mufic is never employed to 
greater advantage, than when it is adapted to Mil- 
ton's words. That great artift has done equal jufticc 
to our author's L' Allegro and II Penfcrofo, as if the 
fame fpirit pofleflcd both mafters, and as if the God 
of mufic and of verfe w^s ftill one and the fame. 

There are alfo fome other pieces of Milton, for 
he continued publifliing to the laft. In i 672 he 
publifhed Artis Logicae plenior Inftitutio ad Petri 
Rami methodum concinnata, an Inftitution of Logic 
after the method of Petrus Ramus ; and the yciar 
following, a trcatife of true Religion and the bcft 
means to prevent the growth of popery, which had 



The L I F E of MILTO N. Ixiii 

tlv increafed thro' the connivance of the King, 
the more open encouragement of the Duke of 
k; and the fame year his poems, which had 
1 printed in 1645, were reprinted with the addi- 
of feveral others^ His familiar epiflles and 
: academical exercifes, Epiftolarum umiliarium 

1. et Prolufiones qusedam Oratoris in Collcgio 
iftihabltse, were printed in 1674^ as was alfo 
ixaDilation out of Latin into Englifh of the Pole's 
laration 'concerning the election of their king 
1 Illy ietting forth the virtues and merits of 
prince. He wrote alfo a brief Hiftory of Muf- 
, CQllefled from the relations of feveral tra- 
:% I but it was not printed till after his death in 

2. He had like wife his flate-^letters tranfcribed 
[le requefl of the Danifh refident, but neither 
:they orinted till after his death in 1676, and 
z traxmated into Englifh in 1694; and to that 
flation a life of Milton was prefixed by his ne- 
w Mr. Edward Philips, and at the end of that 
his excellent fonnets to Fairfax, Cromwell, Sir 
ry Vane, and Cyriac Skinner on his blindnefs 
t firft printed. Befides thefe works which were 
ifhed, he wrote a fyftem of divinity, which 
Toland fays was in the hands of nis friend 
ac Skinner, but where at prefent is uncertain. 
. Mr. Philips lays, that he had prepared for the 
; an anfwer to fome little fcribbling quack in 
don, who had written a fcurrilous libel againfl 
3 but whether by the difTuafion of friends, as 
king him a fellow not worth his notice, or for 
I other caufe Mr. Philips knoweth not, this an- 
r was never publifhcd. And indeed the beft 

F 4 vindicator 

Jiiv ThchlYE of MILTON. 

vindicator of him and his writings hath been Time, 
Fofteri'ty hath univerfally paid that honor to his mc- 
rits» which was denied him by great part of his con- 

After a life thns fpent in ftudy and labors fw the 
public he died of the gout at his houfe in Bunhill 
Row on or about the loth of November 1674, 
when he had within a month completed tlie lix^ 
iixth year of his age. It is not known when he was 
firA attacked by the gout, but he was grievouily 
afflided with it feveral of the lafl years of his li^ 
and was weakened to fuch a degree, that he died 
without a groan, and thofe in the room perceived 
not when he expired. His body vfus decently in- 
terred near that of his father (who had died very 
^d about the year 1647) in the chancel of the 
Oiurch of St. Giles's Cripplegate ; and all his great 
and learned friends in London^, not without a 
friendly concourfe of the common people, paid their 
laft relpeffb in attending it to the grave. Mr. Fentcm 
in his (hort but elegant account of the life of Mil- 
ton, fpeaking of our author's having no monument, 
iays that " he defired a friend to inquire at St. Giles'i 
*' Church; where the fcxton (bowed him a iinall 
*' monument, which he did was fuppofed to be 
" Milton's ; but the infcriptjon had never been le- 
" gible fince he was employed in that office, 
" which he has pofieflcd about forty years. This 
*' fure could never have happened in fo fhort a 
" fpace of time, unlefs the epitaph had been in- 
" duftrioufly erafed : and that fuppofition, iays 
*' Mr. Fcnton, carries with it fo much inhumanity, 
•' that I think we ought to believe it was not ercAed 

Tliel>ire oiMilLTON: Izy 

) b» niemory." It is evideiiti tJM iH Una not 
ted to his memocy, and that, tho. ioxvoi^ fnu 
akcn. Fat Mr. ToUnd in-bit. accottOtjir.the 
of Milton iky 5, that he was buried in tbe.-cba^ 
if St. Gila's Cfaurcfa. ** wbcte tb^ pie^iof liifr 
ilnirers will ihortly end a moniiiDeDt^beGOiibT 
tg bis worth and tfaie eacaan^iemmt of Iqt^. ia 
JB^ William's reign.'* This .plaialy iinfd^.t}w( 
BtaaiuiieDt was ere£bcd to bim at ttut tiqv^ 
diis was wrkten in 1608: ahdMr, Feptop'saot 
It was firfi publJihed, I thii^ ,in 1 745 s fo.tlMJB 
ibdvc twenty ieven years intervCQcd ftoqi the 
looQuac to die others and confequeiuly ^A^ 
mho it is laid had been po&^ed, of his, p^ce 
t factf years, muft havo ib^ai.PuAaken, and 
Donmnent muft have been idefi^ed £s Ssaa^ 
svttCoa, and not 1^ MiltDO. ^ naonufficnt in- 
.•anbeen ereded to his memoy io Weftmidfter 
grby Auditor Bcnfoa in the yew 17371 Init 
xft monument c^ him is his writioga. 
1 his youth he was cfteeoied eattrmicly h^d? 
t, fo that while he was a fludent at Cambridge^ 
tas called the Lady of Chrift's College. He^ 
7 fine ikin and fi-cib complexion^ his bajr waa 
light brown, and parted on 1 the foretop hung 
lio curls. waving upcn his ihouldersj his ica- 
werd exad: ' and regular j bis voice agreeable 
nofieal j his habit dam aad neat; his datport- 
tereftajad manly. He was middle-fized ^nd 
proportioned, neither tall nor ihgrt, neitha toa 
nor too corpulent, ftrong and adiye in his 
geri years, and though affiided with fivquent 
iikesh bUndnefi, tand gADt* ^m y^ ^ l^m^i 

]rn ThtLlFBof MI LTOir. 
and weU-kMkiBg man to the laft. His eyes were of 
a light blue color, and firom the IvA are ^id to have 
berai none of the brighteA ; but after he loft tho 
fight of them, (which happened about the 43d 
year of his age) they ftill appeared without fpot or 
folemiOi, and at firil view and at a little diftance it 
was not eafjr to know that he was blind. Mr. Ri- 
chardfon liad an account of him irom an ancient 
clogyman in Dorfetfhire, Dr. Wright, who found 
him in a fmall houfe, which had (he thinks) but 
one room on a floor ; in that, up one pair of ftairs, 
which was hung with a nifty green, he faw John 
Milton fitting in an elbow chair, with black clothes, 
and neat enough, pale but not cadaverous, his hands 
and fingers gouty, and with chalk Clones j among 
other difcourfe he exprc£*ed himfelf to this purpofe, 
diat was he free from the pain of the gout, his 
btindnefs would be tolerable. But there is the lefa 
need to be particular in the defcription of his perfon, 
as the idea of his &ce and countenance is pretty 
well known from the nnmerous prints, pictures, 
faufts, medals, and other rcprcfentations which have 
been made of him. There arc two piftures of 
greater value than the reft, as they are undoubted 
originals, and were in the poileffion of Milton's 
widow: the firft was drawn when he was about 
twenty one, and is at prefent in the colledion of the 
Right Honorable Arthur Onflow Efq; Speaker of 
the Houfe of Commons ; the other in crayons was 
drawn when he was about fixty two, and was io 
the colledion of Mr. Richardfon, but has lince 
been purchafed by Mr. Tonfon. Several prints have 
been made from both thcfe pu^ures ; and there is a 


The LIFE of JIf JLTOiV: Ixvu 


print done, when be was about fixty two or fbcty 
three, zher the life by F^thorn, which tho' not. fo 
bandfome, may yet perhaps be as true a reiemblancc» 
IS any of them. It is pefixed to fome of our an* 
iior's pieces, and to the folio edition of his proie 
ivorks in three volumes printed in 1698. 

In his way of living he was an example of fo** 
briety and temperance. He was very fparing in the 
ufe of wine or ftrong liquors of any kind. Let 
meaner poets make ufe of fuch expedients to raiie 
their fancy and kindle their imagination. He wanted 
lot any artificial fpirits ; he had a natural fire, and 
poetic warmth enough of his own. He was like* 
wife very abflemious in his diet, not faftidioufly nice 
>r delicate in the choice of his difhes, but content 
mdi any thing that was moil in feafon, or eaiiefl to 
3e procured, eating and drinking, (according to the 
iiilin^on of the philofopher) that he might livc^ 
md not living that he might eat and drink. So 
:hat probably his gout defcended by inheritance from 
)ne or other of his parents ; or if it was of his own 
icquiring, it mufl have been owing to his fludiout 
md fedentary life. And yet he delighted fome^ 
imes in walking and ufing exercife, but we hear no- 
hing of his riding or hunting; and having early 
earned to fence, he was fuch a mailer of his fword^ 
hat he was not afraid of refenting an affront fi'om 
iny man ; and before he lofl his fight, his principal 
ecreation was the exercife of his arms ; but after he 
was confined by age and blindnefs, he had a mai- 
:hine to fwing in for the prefervation of his health, 
[n his youth be was accuilomed to fit up late at his 
Indies, and feldom went to bed before midnight ^ 


Ixviii The LIFE o£ MILTON. 
but aAerwards, finding \t to be the ruin of his eyes^ 
and 'Jookbg on this.cuflom as very pernicious to 
iiealth at any time, he ufed to go to reft early, fel- 
dom later than nine, and would be ftirring in the 
fummcr at four, and in the winter at five in the 
morning } but if he was not difpofed to rife at his 
ufud hours, he ilill did not lie ileeping, but had 
feme body or other by his bed fide to read to him. 
At his.firft rifing he had ufually a chapter read to 
liim out of the Hebrew Bible, and he commonly 
ihidied all the morning till twelve, then ufed fome 
Gterciie for an . hour, afterwards dined, and after 
dinner played on the organ, and either fung himfcif 
or made his wiie fing, who (he faid) had a good 
iroice but no ear ; and then he went up to fludy 
again till fix, when his friends came to vifit hiqi 
and iat with him perhaps till eightj then he went 
down to fupper, which was ufually olives or fomc 
light things and after fupper he fmoked his pipe, 
and drank a glafs of water, and went to bed. He 
loved the country, and commends it, as poets ufually 
do ; but after his return from his travels, he was 
very little there, except during the time of the 
plague in London. The civil war might at firft de- 
tain htm in townj and the pleafure^ of the country 
were in a great meafure loil to him, as they dc* 
pend moilly upon fight, whereas a blind man 
wantcth company and converfation, which is to be 
had better in populous cities. But he was led out 
£nnetimes for the benefit of the frefii air, and in 
warm funny weather he ufed to fit at the door of 
his houfe near Bunhill Fields, and there as well as 
in the houfe received the vifits of perfons of 


The LIFE of MILTON. lajk 

quality and diftindion ; for he was no lefs vifited to 
the laft both by his own countrymen and foreigners, 
ihan he had been in his fiorifhing condition before 
Jie Reftoration. 

Some objed:ions indeed have been made to his 
temper; and I remember there was a tradition in 
:hc univerfity of Cambridge, that he and Mr. King 
[whofe death he laments in his Lycidas) were com* 
petitors for a fellowfhip, and when they were both 
^ual in point of learning, Mr. King was pre&rred 
3/ the college for his charader of good nature; 
i^hich was wanting in the other; and this was by 
Vlilton grievoufly refented* But the difference of 
heir ages, Milton being at leaft four years elder, 
enders this flory not very probable; and befides 
At. King was not elected by the college, but was 
nade fellow by a royal mandate, fo that there can 
>e no truth in the tradition ; but if there was any, it 
5 no iign of Milton's refentment, but a proof of 
lis generofity, that he could live in fuch friendfhip 
vith a fuccefsfiil rival, and afterwards fo pailionately 
unent his deceafe. His method of writing con* 
roveriy is urged a& another argument of his want of 
emper : but fome allowance muft be made for the 
ruftoms and manners of the time. Controverfy, as 
veil as war, was rougher and more barbarous in 
hofe da]^, than it is in thefe. And it is to be con-> 
idered too, that his adverfaries firft began the at- 
ack; they loaded him with much more perfonal 
bufe, only they had not the advantage of fo much 
nt to feafon it. If he had engaged with more can« 
id and ingenuous difputants, he would have pro- 
nred civility and £ur argument to wit and iatir: 

•* to 

Ixx The LIFE t£ MILTON. 

•* to do fo was my choke, and to have done thus 
" was my chance," as he cxprelles himfelf in the 
€onchifion of one of his controvcrflal pieces. All 
who have written any accounts of his lire agree, that 
be was affable and inftrudive in converfation, of an 
«quftl and chearful temper; and yet I can eafily 
believe, that he had a fufficient fenfe of his own 
merits, and contempt enough for his adverfaries. 

His merits indeed were Angular ; for he was a 
man not only of wonderfiil genius, but of immenfe 
learning and erudition; not only an incomparable 
poet, but a great mathematician, logician, hiftorian, 
and divine. He was a mafter not only of the Greek 
and Latin, but likewife of the Hebrew, Chaldee, 
uid Syriac, as wdl as of the modem languages, 
Italian, French, and Spaniih. He was particulariy 
{killed in the Italian, which he always preferred to 
the French language, as all the men of letters did at 
that rime in England; and he not only wrote ele- 
gantly in it, but is highly commended for his writ- 
ings by the moft learned of the Italians themfelves, 
and efpecially by the members of that celebrated 
academy called della Crufca, which was efbiblifhed 
at Florence for the refining and perfefting of the 
Tufcan language. He had read almt^ all authors, 
and improved by all, even by romances, of which 
he had been ftmd in his younger years ; and as the 
bee can extrafl honey out of weeds, fo (to u(e his 
own words in his Apology for SmeAymnuus) 
" tfaofe books, which to many others have been the 
'* fttcl of wantonnefs and loofe living, proved to 
" him fo many incitements to the love and ob- 
** ferratioR of virtue." His &Toritc author alter 


The LIFE of MILTON. Ixxi 

the Holy Scriptures was Homer, Homer he could 
repeat almoft all without book; and he was advifed 
to undertake a tranilation of his works, which oo 
doubt he would have executed to admiration. But 
(as he fays of himfelf in his pofticript to the Judg- 
ment of Martin Bucer) ^^ he never could delight ki 
^^ long citations, much lefs in whole tiadu^on&r*' 
And accordingly there are few things, and thoie of 
no great length, which he has ever trandated. He 
was poflefled too much of an original genius to be 
a mere copyer. '^ Whether it be natural difpofition, 
£iys he, or education in me, or tliat my mother 
bore me a fpeaker of what God made my owB, 
^^ and not a tranflator/' And it is fomewbat re- 
markable, that there is fcarce any author, who has 
written £> much, and upon fuch various (ubjeds^ 
and yet quotes fo little firom his contemporary au- 
thors, or fo feldom mentions any of them. He 
praifes Selden indeed in more places than one, but 
£oic the reft he appears difpofed to cenfure rather 
than commend* After his ieverer ftudies, and after 
dinner as we oUerved before, he ufod to divert aad 
Bnbend his mind with playing upon the organ or 
baft-vid, which was a great relief to him after he 
bad loft his fight ; for he was a mafter of mafic as 
was his father, and he could perform both vocally 
and infhnmentally, and it is laid that he compoled 
very well, tho' nothing of this kind is handed 
down to us. It is alfo £tid that he had fome Hull 
in painting as well as in mufic, and that fomewhere 
or other there is a head of Milton drawn by him- 
felf: but he was MelTed with fo many real excel- 
fences, that there is ao want of fiSitious ones to 


toil The LIFE 6£ MILTON. 
raiie and adom his charaflcr. He had a quick ap^ 
prehenfion, a fuhlime im^ination, a ftrong me- 
mory, a piercing judgment, a wit always ready, 
and &cetious or grave as the occafion required ; and 
- 1 know not whether the lofs of his fight did not 
add vigor to the faculties of his mind. He at leaft 
thought fo, and often comforted himfelf with that 

But his great parts and learning tiave fcarcely gain* 
cd him more admirers, than his* pohtical principles 
have raifed him enemies. And yet the darling paf- 
iion of his foul was the love of liberty j this was his 
conAant aim and end, however he might be miilaken 
in the means. He was indeed very zealous in what 
was called the good old caufe, and with his fpirit 
and his refolution it is fomewhat wonderful, that 
. he never ventured his perfon in the civil war ; but 
the' he was not in arms, he was not unaAive, and 
thought, I fuppofe, that he could be of more fer- 
vice to ^e caufe by his pen than by his fword. He 
was a thorough republican, and in this he thought 
like a Greek or Roman, as he was very converfant 
with their writings. And one day Sir Robert 
Howard, who was a friend to Milton as well as to 
the liberties of his country, and was one of his con- 
ftant vifitors to the lall, inquired of him how he 
came to iide with the republicans. Mikon an- 
fwered among other reafons, becaufe theirs was the 
moil finigal government, for the trappings of a mo- 
narchy might fet up an ordinary commonwealth. 
But then hu attachment to Cromwell muft be con- 
demned, as being neither confifient with his re- 
pubUcan principles, nor with his love of liberty. 


The LIFE o£ MILTOK Ixxlu 

id I know no other way of accounting for his 
idudt, but by prefuming (as I think we may rea- 
lably prefume) that he was far from entirely ap*- 
)ving of Cromwell's proceedings, but confidercd 
n as the only perfon who could refcue the na- 
a from the tyranny of the Prcfbyterians, who 

(aw were eredting a worfc dominion of their 
^n upon the ruins of prelatical epifcopacy ; and of 

things he dreaded fpiritual flavcry, and therefore 
>fcd with Cromwell and the Independents, as he 
pedted under them greater liberty of confciencc. 
id tho' he ferved Cromwell, yet it muft be faid 

him, that he ferved a great maftcr, and ferved 
n ably, and was not wanting from time to time 

giving him excellent good advice, efpecially in 
I fecond Defenfe : and fo litde being faid of him 

all Secretary Thurloe's ftate-papers, it appears 
It he had no great fliare in the fecrets and in- 
gues of government; what he difoatched was 
5c more than matters of neceflary rorm, letters 
i anfwers to foreign ftates ; and he may be jufti- 
d for a£ting in fuch a ftation, upon the fame 
Inciple as Sir Matthew Hale for holding a Judge^s 
tnmiflion under the ufurper: and in the latter 
rt of his life he frequentl;^ exprefled to his friends 
; entire iatisfadtion ot mind, that he had conftantly 
iployed his fbength and faculties in the defenfe of 
erty, and in oppofition to flavery. 
In matters of religion too he has given as great 
cnfc, or even greater, than by his political prin- 
>Ics. But flill let not the infidel glory : no fuch 
m was ever of that party. He md the advan- 
^ of a pious education, and ever exprefled the 
Vol.!. G pro^ 

telv The LIFE o£ MILT'ON. 

profoundeft reverence of the Deity in his words and 
aftions, was both a Chriftian and a Protcftant, and 
ftudied and admired the Holy Scriptures above aH 
other books whatfoever j and in all his writings he 
plainly fhoweth a religious turn of mmd, as well in 
Verfe as in profe, as well in his works of an earlier 
date as in thofe of later compofition. When hc 
wrote the Doftrin and Difciplin of Divorce, he ap- 
pears to have been a Calvinift; but afterwards he 
entertained a more fevorable opinion of Arminius. 
Some have inclined to believe, that he was an Arian; 
but there are more exprefs paflages in his works to 
Overthrow this opinion, than any there are to con- 
firm it. For in the conclufion of his treatife of Re*- 
formation he thus folemnly invokes the Trinity; 
*• Thou therefore that fitteft in light and glrtf 
*• unapproachable, Parent of Angels and Mcoi 
** next thee I implore Omnipotent King, Re* 
" decmer of that loft remnant whofe nature thott 
** didft afliime, ineffable and everlafting Lovcl 
** And thou the third fubfiftence of divine infim^ 
"* tude, illumining Spirit, the joy and folacc of 
** created things ! one Tri-perfonal Godhead ! locS: 
" upon this diy poor, and ahnoft fpent and ex- 
*' pirin^ Church &c." And in his tradt bf Prela- 
tical Epifcopacy he endevors to prove the ^urioirf- 
nefs of^ feme epiftles attributed to Ignatius, becaoft 
they contained in them herefies, one of which b«^ 
refies is, that " he condemns rfiem for miriifters rf 
** Satan, who fay that Chrift is God above all* 
And a litde after in the fame trafl: he objects to ite 
authority of Tertullian, becauie he went abodt tb 
•* prove an imparity between God the Father, and 
^ ^ ■ « God 

The LIFE of MILTON. hat 

' God the Son/' And in Paradifc Loft we fliaH 
ind nothing upon this head, that is not perfedUy 
igrceable to Scripture. The learned Dr. Trap, whi> 
vas as likely to cry out upon hcrefy as any man, af^ 
crts that the poem is orthodox in every part of k j 
>r otherwife he would not have been at the .paint 
)f tranflating it. Neque alienum videtur a Audits 
^iri theologi poema magna ex parte theologicum ; 
)mni ex parte (rideant, per me licet, atque ringan* 
ur athei et infideles) orthodoxum. Milton was inr 
lecd a diiienter from the Church of England^ in 
vhich he had been educated, and was by his pa« 
ents deiigned for holy orders, as we related before ; 
mt he was led away by early prejudices againft .the 
oGtrln and difciplin of the Church; and in his 
ounger years was a favorer of the Prefbyterians ; io 
is middle age he was beft pleafed with the Indep- 
endents and Anabaptiils, as allowing greater liberty 
f conicience than others, and coming neareft in his 
pinion to the primitive pradlice; and in the latter 
art of his life he was not a profeflcd meniber of 
ny particular feft of Chriftians, he frequented n© 
ublic wcMrfhip, nor ufcd any religious rite in his 
kmily* Whether fo many different forms of worftiip 
? he had feen, had made him indifferent to aU 
»rms; or whether he thought that all Chrifliaos 
ad in fome things corrupted the purity and iim?^ 
licity of the Gofpel ; or whether he diflikcd their 
idlefs and uncharitable difputes, and that love o£ 
>minion and inclination to perfccution, which hm 
id was a piece of Popery infeparablc from all 
hurches; or whether he believed, that a maa 
tig^t be a good Chriflian without joining in anjf 

G 2 com-? 

Ixxvi The LIFE oi MILTON. 
communion ; or whether he did not look upon himfelf 
as infpired, as wrapt up in God, and above all forms 
and ceremonies, it is not cafy to determin : to his own 
majicr he fiandetb or falleth : but if he was of any 
denomination, he was a fort of a Quietift, and was 
full of the interior of religion tho' he fo little re- 
garded the exterior ; and it is certain was to the laft 
an enthufiaft rather than an infidel. As enthufiafm 
made Norris a poet, fo poetry might make Milton 
an enthufiafl. 

His circumftanccs were never very mean, nor very 
great; for he lived above want, and was not intent 
upon accumulating wealth ; his ambition was more 
to enrich and adorn his mind. His father fupported 
him in his travels, and for fome time after. Then 
his pupils muft have been of fome advantage tti 
him, and brought him either a certain ftipend or 
confiderable prefents at leaft> and he had fcarcely 
any other method of improving his fortune, as he 
was of no profeifion. When his father died, he in- 
herited an elder fon's fhare of his eftate, the prin- 
cipal part of which I believe was his houfc in 
Bread ftreet : And not long after, he was appointed 
Latin Secretary with a falary of ^oo/. a year; fo 
that he was now in opulent ctrcumllances for a man, 
who had always led a frugal and temperate Ufc, 
and was at little unneceflary expenfe befidcs buying 
of books. Tho' he was of the viftorious party, yet 
he was hr from fharing in the fpoils of his country. 
On the contrary (as we learn from his fccond Dc- 
fenfe) he fuftained great lofles during the civil war, 
and was not at all favored in the impolition of 
taxes, but fometimes paid beyond his due propor- 


The LIFE o£ MILTON. Ixxvii 

ion. And upon a turn of affairs he was not only 
ieprived of his place, but alfo loft 2000 /. which 
le had for fccurity and improvement put into the 
ixcife Office. He loft likewife another coniider-f 
ible fum for want of proper care and management, 
s perfons of Milton's genius are feldom expert in 
noney matters. And in the fire of London hi^ 
loufe in Bread ftreet was burnt, before which acci* 
lent foreigners have gone out of devotion (fay* 
Wood) to fee the houfe and chamber where he was 
lorn. His gains were inconfiderable in proportion 
his lofles; for excepting the thoufand pounds, 
(rhich were given him by the government for writn 
ng his Defenfe of the people againft Salmafius, we 
lay conclude that he got very little by the copies 
f his works, when it doth not appear that he re^ 
eived any more than ten pounds for Paradife Loft, 
iome time before he died he fold the greateft part 
f his library, as his heirs were not qualified to 
lake a proper ufe of it, and as he thought that he 
3uld difpoic of it to greater advantage than they 
3uld after his deccafe. And finally by one means 
r other he died worth one thoufand five hundred 
ounds befides his houfhold goods, which was no 
icompetent fubfiftence for him, who was as great 
philofopher as a poet. 

To this account of Milton it may be proper to add 
imething concerning his family. We faid before, 
lat he had a younger brother and a iifter. His 
rother Chriftopher Milton was a man of totally 
spoilt principles ; was a ftrong royalift, and after 
le civil war made his compofition thro* his bro- 
icr's intereft ; had been entered young a ftudent in 

G 3 th^ 


Irxritt Tha LIFE of MILTON. 
die Inner Temj:^, of which houie he lived to be 
an ancient bencher; and being a profeHed papifl^ 
was in the reign of James II. made a judge and 
knighted ; but foon obtained his qnietus by reafoa 
of his age and infirmities, and retired to Ipfwidi, 
where he lived all the latter part of his life, tbs 
fifter Anne Milton had a confiderable fortune, given 
her by her father in marriage with Mr. Edward 
Philips (Ion of Mr. Edward Philips of Shrewsbuiy) 
who coming young to London was bred up in the 
Crown Office in Clmncery, and at length became 
fecondary of the office under Mr. Bembo. By him 
£be had, belides other children who died infants, 
two fons Edward and John, whom we have bad 
frequent occafion to mention before. Among pur 
«ithor's juvenile poems there is a copy of verfes op 
the death of a hit infant, a nephew, cw rather niece 
of his, dying of a cough ; and this being written in 
bis 17th year, as it is faid in the tide, it may na^ 
tnrally be inferred that Mrs. Philips was elder than 
either of her brothers. She had likewife two daugh- 
ters, Mary who died very young, and Anne who 
was living in 1694, by a fccond hufband Mr. Tho- 
mas Agar, who fuccceded his intimate friend 
Mr. Philips in his place in the Crown Office, which 
he enjoyed many years, and left to Mr. Thomai 
Milton, fon of Sir Chriftopher before mentioned. 
As for Milton himfelf he appears to have been no 
enemy to the fair fex by having had three wives. 
What fortune he had with any ^ them is no where 
Jkid, but they were gentlemen's daughters ; and It 
is remarkable that he married them all maidens, for 
(as he fays in his Apology for Sraedjmnuus, whidi 


The hlFE o{ MUrON. Ixzbf 

written before be married at all) he '^ thought 
ith them^ ^^o both in prudence and elegance 
* fpirit would choofe a virgin of mean fortunes 
meftly bred before the wealthieft widow/' But 
le ieemeth not to have been very happy in any 
s marriages; for his firft wife had juftly oBfendea 
by her long abfcnce and ieparation from him ; 
econd, whofe love, fweetnefs^ and goodnefs he 
mends, lived not a twelvemonth with him; and 
liird wife is faid to have been a woman of a 
violent fpirit, and a hard mother in law to hi9 
ren. She died very old, about* twenty years 
at Nantwich in Cbefhire: and from the ac- 
ts of thofe who had feen her, I have learned^ 
(he confirmed feveral things which have been 
:d before; and particularly that her hufband 
to con^fb his poetry chiefly in winter, and on 
Tifaking in a morning would make her write 
n ibmetimes twenty or thirty verfes : and being 
1 whether he did not often read Homer nn4 
'd, fhe underflood it as an imputation upon himt 
lealing from thofe authors, and anfwered with 
■nefs that he flole from no body but the Mufc 
infpired him ; and being aiked by a lady prefeni: 
the Mufe was, replied it was God's grace, and 
fioly Spirit that viJfited him nighdy. She was 
irife afked whom he approved mofl; of our 
i(h poets, and anfwered Spenfer, Shakefpear, 
Cowley: and being afked what he thought of 
Icn, fhe faid Dryden ufed fometimes to vifit 
but he thought him no poet, but a good 
I : but this was before Dryden had compofed 
i)efl poems, which made his name fo famous 

A after- 

Uxx The LIFE of MlLfON. 
afterwards. She was wont moreover to fay, that her 
hufband was applied to by meflagei^iToin tlie King, 
and invited to write for the Court, but his anfwcr 
was, that fuch a behaviour would be very incon- 
iiftent with his former conduift, for he haid never 
yet employed his pen againft his confciencc. By his 
lirfl wife he had four children, a fon who died an 
infant, and three daughters who furvived himj bjr 
his fecond wife he had only one daughter, wlw 
died foon after her mother, who died in childbed j 
and by his laft wife he had no children at all. Hii 
daughters were not fent to fchool, but were in- 
ftruffted by a miftrefs kept at home for that pur- 
pofe : and he himfelf, excufing the eldeft on ac- 
count of an impediment in her fpeech, taught the 
two others to read and pronounce Greek and Latin 
and fcveral other languages, without undcrftanding 
any but EngU(h, for he ufed to fay that one tongue 
■was enough for a woman : but this employment 
■Was very irkfome to them, and this together with 
the iharpnefs and fevertty of their mother in law 
made them very uneafy at home ; and therc£»e 
they were all fent abroad to learn things more proper 
for them, and particularly imbroidery in gold and 
Silver. As Milton at his death left his afuirs veiy 
much in the power of his widow, tho' (he acknow- 
ledged that he died worth one thoufand five hundred 
pounds, yet flic allowed but one hundred pounds 
to each of his three daughters. Anne the eldeft was 
decrepit and deformed, but had a very handlbme 
face; fhe married a mafter-builder, and died in 
childbed of her firft child, who died with her. 
Mary the fecond lived and died finglc. Deborah the 

youngeft , 

The LIFE oi MILTON. Ixxxi 

youngeft in her fether's life time went over to Ire- 
land with a lady, and afterwards was married to 
Mr. Abraham Clarke, a weaver in Spittle Fields, 
and died in Auguft 1727 in the 76th year of her 
age. She is faid to have been a woman of good un- 
derftanding and genteel behaviour, though in low 
circumftances. As fhe had been often c^ed upon 
to read Homer and Ovid's Metamorphofis to her fa- 
ther, fhe could have repeated a confiderablc number 
of verfes firom the beginning of both thefe poets, as 
Mr. Ward, Profeffor of Rhetoric in Grefham Col- 
lege, relates upon his own knowledge : and another 
Gentleman has informed me, that he has heard her 
repeat feveral verfes likewife out of Euripides. 
Mr. Addifon, and the other gendemen, who had. 
opportunities of feeing her, knew her immediately 
to be Milton's daughter by the fimilitude of her 
countenance to her father's pidure : and Mr. Addifon 
made her a handfome prefent of a purfe of guineas 
with a promife of procuring for her fome annual 
provifion for her life; but his death happening foon 
after, fhe lofl the benefit of his generous defigii. 
She received prefents likewife from feveral other gen- 
tlemen, and Queen Caroline fent her fifty pounds by 
the hands of Dr. Freind the phyfician. She had ten 
children, feven fons and three daughters ; but none 
of them had any children, except one of her fons 
named Caleb, and one of her daughters named Eli- 
zabeth. Caleb went to Fort St. George in the Eafl 
Indies, where he married, and had two fons, Abra- 
ham and Ifaac ; the elder of whom came to England 
with the late governor Harrifon, but returned upon 
^dviQp of bis father's deaths ^d whether he or his 


tocxii The LITE of MILT N. 

brother be now living is uncertain. Elizabeth, the 
youngeft cliild of Mrs. Clarke, was married to 
Mr. Thomas Fofter a weaver in Spittle Fidds, 
and bad ievcn children who are all dead; and flie 
^felf is aged about &tty, and weak and infirm. 
She leemeth to be a good plain fenfible woman, and 
lias conBrmed fevcral particulars related above, and 
wformed me of Tome others, which (he had oAeo 
fceard irom her mother : that her grandfather loil two 
thou&nd pounds by a money-fcrivener, whom he 
1m^ intniited with that fum, and likewife an eilate 
at Weftminfter of fixty pounds a year, which be- 
longed t!o the Dean and Chapter, and was reftored to 
them at the Restoration : that he was very temperate 
in his eating and drinking, but what he had he at 
ways loved to have of the bcft : that he ieldom went 
abroad in the latter part of his life, but was vifiied 
even then by perfons of diflinftion, both fereignets 
and others : that he kept his daughters at a great 
^tftance, and would not allow them to learn to write, 
Which he thought unnecelTary for a woman : that 
lier mother was his greateft ^vorite, and could 
read in feven or eight languages, tho' fhe underflood 
Bone but Englilh: that her mother inherited his 
head-akes and difordcrs, and had fuch a weaknefi 
ifl her eyes, that Hie was fcxccd to make ufe oi 
fpeiftacfes from the age of eighteen j and fhe herfelf, 
.ihe fays, has not been able to read a chapter in the 
Bible thefe twenty years : that fhe was milUken io 
informing Mr. Birch, what he had printed upcMi her 
aoAority, that Milton's father was hcM-n in France; 
and a brother of hers who was then living was Twy 
«n^ with her ibr it, and like a true-born English- 


The LIFE c^ MILTON. bcMiS 
man refented it highly, that the family ftiould be 
thought to bear any relation to France : that Milton's 
fecond wife did not die in childbed, as Mr. Philips 
and Toland relate, but above three months after or a 
confumption ; and this too Mr. Birch relates upon her 
authority; but in this particular fhe muft be miftaken 
as well as in the other, for our author's fonnet on bis 
deceafed wife plainly implies, that fhe did die in child^ 
bed* She knows notning of her aunt Philips or 
Agar's deicendents, but believes that they are all cxi^ 
imO, : as is like wife Sir Chriftopher Milton's family^ 
the laft of which, (he fays, were two maiden fifters^ 
Mrs. Mary and Mrs. Catharine Milton, who lived and 
died at Highgate; but unknown to her, there is a 
Mrs. Milton living in Grofvenor ftreet, the gran- 
daughter of Sir Chriftopher, and the daughter of 
Mr. Thomas Milton before mentioned : and fhe her- 
felf is the only furvivor of Milton's own family, un<^ 
lefs there be feme in the Eaft Indies, which fhe very 
much queftions, for fhe ufed to hear firom them 
fometimes, but has heard nothing now for feveral 
years ; fo that in all probability Milton's whole family 
will be extin(% with her, and he can live only in hif 
writings. And fuch is the caprice of fortune, this 
grandaughter of a man, who will be an everlafting 
;lory to the nation, has now for fome years with her 
lufband kept a little chandler's or grocer's fhop for 
their fubfiftence, lately at the lower HoUoway in the 
road between Highgate and London, and at prefent 
in Cock Lane not far from Shoreditch Church* Ano« 
ther thing let me mention, that is equally to the ho« 
DOT of the prefent age. Tho' Milton received not 
above ten pouixis at two different payments for the 


Ixxxiv The L I F E of MILTO N. 

copy of Paradife Loft, yet Mr. Hoyle author of the 
treatife on the Game of Whift, after having difpofed 
of all the firft impreflion, fold the copy to the book- 
feller, as I have been informed, for two hundred 

As we have had occafion to mention more than 
once Milton's manufcripts preferved in the library of 
Trinity College in Cambridge, it may not be un- 
grateful to the reader, if we give a more particular 
account of them, before we conclude. There are, as 
we faid, two draughts of a letter to a firiend who had 
importuned him to take orders, together with a fon- 
net on his being arrived to the age of twenty three: 
and by there being two draughts of this letter with 
.feveral alterations and additions, it appears to have 
been written with great care and deUbcration ; and 
both the draughts have been published by Mr. Birch 
in his Hiftorical and Critical Account of the life and 
writings of Milton. There are alfo feveral of his 
poems, Arcades, At a folemn mufic. On time, Upon 
the circumcifion, the Mafk, Lycidas, with five or fix 
of his fonncts, all in his own hand- writing : and there 
are fome others of his fonnets written by diflferent 
hands, being moft of them compofed after he had loft 
his fight. It is curious to fee the firft thoughts and 
fabfcqucnt correftions of fo great a poet as Milton : 
but it is remarkable in ihefe manufcript poems, that 
he doth not often make his ftops, or begin his lines 
with great letters. There are likewife in his own 
hand-writing different plans of Paradife Loft in the 
form of a tragedy : and it is an agreeable amufement 
to trace the gradual progrefs and improvement of fuch 
a work from its fiift dawnings in the plan of a tragedy 


The LIFE of MILTON. Ixxxv 

ts full luftre in an epic poem. And together with 
he plans of Paradife Loft there are the plans or fub- 
t&s of feveral other intended tragedies, fome taken 
rom the Scripture, others from the Britifh or Scotifli 
liflories: and of the latter the laft mentioned is Mac- 
)eth, as if he had an inclination to try his ftrength 
^ith Shakefpear; and to reduce the play more to the 
inities, he propofes '^ beginning at the arrival of 
* Malcolm at Macduff; the matter of Duncan may 
'^ be exprefled by the appearing of his ghoft." Thcte 
nanufcripts of Milton were found by the learned 
VIr. Profeflbr Mafon among fome other old papers, 
ivhich, he fays, belonged to Sir Henry Newton Pucker- 
ng, who was a confiderable benefactor to the library : 
md for the better prefervation of fuch truly valuable 
"eliques, they were colledled together, and handfomelj^ 
XMind in a thin folio by the care and at the charge of 
i perfon, who is now very eminent in his profeffioOj, 
md was always a lover of the Mufes, and at that 
ime a fellow of Trinity College, Mr. Clarke, one 
)f his Majefty's counfel. ^ 


I H 




OU I legis AmiiTatn Paradifum, grandia magni 
Carmina MUtoni, quid lufi cun^ Itps { 
Res cun£tas, Sc cundlarom [uimordia remm, 

Et SatsL, 6c fines continet ifle liber. 
Intiim pandiintur magni penetralia mundi, 

^cribitur & toto quicquid in orbe latet: 
Terrsque, traAufque maris, coetumque proftindum, 

Sulphureumque Erebi, flammivomumqae ijpecus: 
Qnxque colunt terras, pontumque, & Tartara cxca, 

Qiueque colunt fummi lucida regna poli : 
Et quodcunque ullls conclufum eft finibus olqaani, 

Et fine fine Chaos, & fine fine Deus : 
Et fine fine magis, fi quid magis ell fine fine, 

In Chrifto erga homines condliatus amor, 
Hxc qui fperaret quis crederet efle fiitura ? 

Et tamen hsc hodie terra Britanna legit. 
O quantos in belk duces ! quae protulit arma { 

Que canit, & quanta prxlia dim tuba ! 
Coelcftes acics ! atque in certamine ccelum 1 

Et quse cceleftes pugna decerct agros I 


Quantus in rthereis tolUt fe Lucifer atfnis I 

Atquc ipfo graditur vix Michaele minor I 
Quantis^ & quam fbneftis co&curritar Ixis, 

Dum fbnis hie Aelks protegit> iitle rafsSt ! 
Dum vulfos montes cea tela reciprooa torqaent, 

Et non mortaH defuper igne jpluiint : 
Stat dnbios cui fe parti concedat Olympus^ 

£t metuit pugas non fuperefle fust. 
At fimul in ccelis McBm infignia fulgent, 

Et cumis animes, armaque digna Deo^ 
Horrendumque rots Arident^ & fdsva fotaruni 

Enimpont tonds folgura himinibus^ 
Et flamms vibrant^ & vera tonitrtia rauco 

AdmifUs flammis infonuere polo : 

Excidit attonitis mens omnis, & impetus onHus, 

Et cafHs dextris irrita tela cadunt ; 
Ad poenas fogiunt, & cfeu foret Orcus afylum^ 

Infcrnis certant condere fe tenebris. 
Cedite Romani Scriptorcs, Cedite Graii, 

Et quos fama rccens vel cekbmvit anus. 
Haec quicunquc Icget tantum ceciniffe potablt 

Maeonidem ranas, Virgiliiun culices. 

Samuel Barrow, M.D. 


'J, pM 


On Paradise Lost. 

TTTHEN I beheld the Poet blind, yet bold, 

' ' In flendpr book his vaft defign unfold, 
Meiliah crown'd, God's rcconcil'd decree. 
Rebelling Angels, the forbidden tree, 
Hcav'n, Hell, Earth, Chaos, all; the argument 
Held me a wlule mifdoubting his intent. 
That he would ruin (for I ikw him flrong) 
The facred truths to £ible and old ibng, 
(So Sampfon grop'd the temple's pofls in fpite) 
The world o'erwhclming to revenge his fight. 

Yet as I read, foon growing lefs fevere, 
I lik'd his projeA, the fuccefs did fear ; 
Through that wide field how he his way fliould find 
O'er which lame faith leads underllanding blind; 
Left he perplex'd the things he would explain. 
And what yns eafy he fliould render vain. 

Or if a work fo infinite he Jpann'd, 
Jealous I was that fome le(s fkilful hand 
(Such as difquiet always what is well. 
And by ill imitating would excel) 
M^ht hence prefume the whole creation's day 
To change in fcenes, ^d Ihow it in a play. 


Pank» me^^ mighty Poet^ nor ddpife 
My cauielefs^ yet not impious, furmife. 
But I am now convinc'd, and none will dare 
Within thy labors to pretend a (hare. 
Thou haft not mifs'd one thought that could be fit. 
And all that was improper doft omit : 
So that no room is here for writers left. 
But to dete£t their ignorance or theft. 

That majefty which through thy work doth reign,^ 
Draws the devout, deterring the profane. 
And things divine thou treat'ft of in fuch flate 
As them preferves, and thee, inviolate. 
At once delight and horror on us feife. 
Thou fing'ft with fo much gravity and eafe ; 
And above human flight doft foar aloft 
With plume fb ftrong, fo equal, and fo foft. 
The bird nam'd from that Paradife you fing 
So never flags, but always keeps on wing. 

Where couldft thou words of fuch a compafs find? 
Whence furnifh fuch a vaft expenfe of mind ? 
Juft Heav'n thee like Tirefias to requite 
Rewards with prophecy thy lofs of fight. 

Well might'ft thou fcorn thy readers to allure 
With tinkling rime, of thy own fenfe fecure ; 

V o L. I. H While 

While the Town-Bays write? all the wUle wl fp«11t, 

And like a. pack-horfe tires without his bells : 

Their fancies like our bu/hy-points appear. 

The poets tag them> we for fafhion wear. 

I too tranfported by the mode offend. 

And while I meant to Praise thee rauft Commend. 

Thy verfe created like thy theme fublime. 

In number, weight, and meafure, needs not rime. 

Andrew Marvel 



HE meafurc is Englifh heroic verfe without 
rime, as that of Homer in Sitck,; and of Virgil 
tin; rime being no neccflary adjundl or trae 
lent of poem or good verfe, in longer works 
ally, but the invention of a barbarous age, to 
F wretched matter and lame meter ; grac*d in- 
(ince by the ufe of fome famous modem poets» 
d away by cuftom, but much to their own 
ion, hindrance, and conftraint to exprefs many 
; otherwife, and for the moft part worfe than 
ley would have exprefs'd them. Not without 
therefore fome both Italian and Spaniih poetd 
ime note have rejeded rime both in longer and 
T works, as have alfo long flnce our beft Englifh 
lies, as a thing of itfelf, to all judicious ears, 

I and of no true mufical delight ; which confifte 
Ji apt numbers, fit quantity of fyllables, and the 
varioufly drawn out from one verfe into ano* 
not in the jingling found of like endings, a 
ivoidcd by the learned Ancients both in poetry 

II good oratory. This negleft then of rime fo 
s to be taken for a defeA, though it may feem 
haps to vulgar readers, that it rather is to be 
led an example fet, the firfl in Englifh, of an- 
liberty recovered to heroic poem, from the 
efome and modern bondage ot riming. 

H 2 


Critiqjje upon the Paradise Lost. 
By Mj. ADD J SON. 

Ctdite Romani Scriptores, ccdite Graii. Propert. 


"HERE ii notbing in nature Paradire Loft, in thefe three fevt- 
■ more irkfome thin general ral lights. Homer lo prcfcrvc the 
difcoorfes. cfpecially when they unity of his ^ion haftcns into the 
turn chiefly upon words. For this midli of things, as Horace hasob- 
reafonl (hall wave thedifculTionof fej-ved: Had he gone up to Ledi'i 
that point which was flaricd fome egg, or begun much taier, even »l 
yeara fincc. Whether Milton's Pa- the rape of Helen, or the invcIUng 
jadife Loft may be called an Heroic of Troy, it is manifeft that the 
Poem ? Thofe who will not give Jtery of the poem would have been 
it that title, may call it (if Siey a feriei of feveral aftionj. H« 
pleaXe) a Divine Poem. It will be therefore opens hia poem with die 
fuKcient to its perfefUon. if it ha> difcord of his princes, and anfiill/ 
in it all the beauties of the higheft intenveaves, m the feveral fitc 
kind of poetry ; and as for thofe ceeding parts of it, an account of 
who allege it is not an heroic every thing material which rclatei 
poem, they advance no more to to them, and had pafled before thii 
the diminution of it, than if they fatal diffenlion. After the bmt 
Ihould fay Adam is not i£ncat, nor manner, JEnc»% makes his firll ap- 
Eve Helen, pearance in the Tyrrhene fcai, and 

I ftiall therefore evamin it by within fight of Italy, becaufe tht 
the rules of epic poetry, and fee aAion propofed to be celebrated 
whether it falls ihort of the Iliad was that of his fettling himldf in 
or JEneii, in the beaotiei which Latijm. But becaufe it was necef- 
»rccffential to that kind of writing, fary for the reader to know what 
Tiie lirlt thing to be confider'd m had happened to him in the taking 
an epic poem, is the fable, which of Troy, and in the preceding 
M perfect or imperfefl, according parts of hii vo)-age, Virgil make) 
as the aftion which it relates is his hero relate it by way of epifodt 
more or let fo. This aftion ftiould in the fecond and third books of 
have three qualifications in it. Firft, the j^neid : the contents of both 
it ftiould be but One aflion. Se- which books come before thofe of 
condly, It fhould be an Entire ac- the lirll book in the thred of the 
tfon; and Thirdly, It ihould be a llory, tho' for prefcrving of this 
Great afUon. To conGdcr the unity of aflion, they follow it in the 
aflion of the Iliad, j£neid, and difpofition of the poem. MUlon. 

A Cridque on the Paradise Lost. 

oitadoa of thefe two great like art in his poem on the fall of 

, opens his Paradife Loft with Man, has related the fdl of thofe 

femal council plotting the fall Angels who are his profeiTed ene- 

Tan, which is the adion he mies. Befide the many other beau- 

>red to celebrate ; and as for ties in fach an epifode, its ran- 

great adions, the battle' of ning parallel with the great adioa 

Lngels, and the creation of the of Sic poem, hinders it from break- 

[, (which preceded in point in^ the unity fo much ^ another 

le, and which» in my opinion, epifode woiud have done, diat had 

i have entirely deftroyed the not fo great an affinity with the 

of hb principal adion, had principal fubjed. In (hort, thb it 

dated them in the fame order the fame kind of beauty which the 

they happened) he caft them critics admire in the Spanifh Fnrar» 

the fifth, fixth and feventh or the Double Dlfcoverv, where 

s, by way of epifode to this the two different plots look like 

! poem. counterparts and copies of one ano* 

nftotle himfelf allows, that ther. 

er has nochinjg to boaft of as The fecond qualification required 
€ unity of his fable, tho' at in the adion of an epic poem is, 
ame time that great critic and that it ihould be an entire adion : 
fopher endevors to palliate An adion is entire when it is com- 
mperfedion in the Greek poet plete in all its parts i or as Ariftotle 
aputing it in fome meafure to defcribes it, when it confifts of « 
rery nature of an epic poem, beginning, a middle, and an end. 
s have been of opinion, that Nothine fhould go before it, be in« 
Eneid alfo labon m this parti- termix'd with it, or follow after it, 
', and has epifodes which may that is not related to it. As on the 
Doked upon as excrefcencies contrary, no iingle ftep (hould bo 
f than as parts of the adUon. omitted in that jiSl and regular oro- 
he contrary, the poem, which grefs which it muft be fuppofed to 
ave now under our confidera- take from its original to its con- 
hath no other epifodes than fummation. Thus we fee the anger 
as naturally arife from the of Achilles in its birth, its conti- 
ft, and yet is filled with fuch nuance, and effeds ; and i£neas*a 
lokitode of aftoniihing inci- fettlement in Italy, carried on 
I, that it gives us at the fame through all the oppofitions in his 
a pleafure of the greateft va- way to it both by fea and land. 
, and of the greateft fimpli- The adion in Milton excels (I 

uniform in its nature, tho* think) both the fonper in this par- 

£fied in the execution. ticular ; we fee it contrived in Hell, 

muft obferve alfo, that, as Vir- executed upon Earth, and punifhed 

i the poem which was defigned by Heaven. The parts of it are 

lebrate the original of the Ro* told in the moft diftind manner, 

empire, has ddcribed the birth and grow out of one anQther in thp 

i great rival, the Carthaginian moft natural order, 
inon-weakb : Milton, wuh the 

H 3 Th* 

A Critique on the Ta R a d 1 6 E Lo « T. 

The tliinl qualification of an > 'much greater than coold hm 

epic poem ii its greatnefs. The been formed upon any P^n 

■ngcrof Achilles was of fuch con- fyllcm. 

fequence, that it embroiled the ButAiiftotle, by the greatnefi rf 

kings of Greece, deiboyed the He- the afiion, does not only mean ditt 

rodOfAlla, and engaged all the itftould be great in iti nature, brt 

Gods in fa£Uons. ^eas's fettle- alfo in its duration; or in other 

nent in Italy produced the Cxfars, words, that it (hould have a dot 

and gave birth to the Roman length in it, as well as what M 

cminre. Milton's fnbjeft was ftill properly call greatnefs. The jil 

greater than either of the former; meafureof thb kind of magnitnd^ 

It does not determih the fate of he explains by the following fimili* 

fingle perfons or nations, but of a tude. An animal, no bigger thu 

whole fpecies. TTic united Powers a mite, cannot appear perfeA te 

of Hell arc joined toeethcr for the the eye, becaufc the fight takes il 

deftnifUon of mankind, which they in at once, and has only a confided 

elTefted in part, and would have ideaof the whole, andnot adiftinft 

completed, had not Omnipotence idea of all its parts; Ifonthecon- 

itfelF interpofcd. The principal trary you fhould fuppofe an au- 

mRon are Man in his greated per- mal of ten thoofand fiirimn ia 

IcOion, and Woman in her higheft length, the eye would be lb filled 

beauty. Their enemies are the with a fin^e part of it, tiitt it 

fallen Angels: The McHiah their could not give the mind an idea of 

friend, and the Almighty their pro- the whole. What tbefe amaili 

teAor. In Ihort, everjr thing that are to the eye, a reiy Ibott or i 

Is great in the whole circle of be- very long aAion would be lo the 

ing, whether within the verge of memory. ThefirftwouM be, ask 

nature, or out of it, hai a proper were, loft and fwallowed an by t^ 

part ailigned it In this admirable and the other diScult to be cn- 

poem. tained in it. Homer and Vii^ 

In poetry, as in architecture, not have fhown their principal ait m 

only the whole, but the principal this particular; the adton of tha 

nembcn, and cveiy part of them, Iliad, and that of the jEneid, woe 

Ihould be great. I will not pre- in themfelves exceeding flioft, bat 

fume to fuy, that the book of games are fo beantifiilly extemed uid di- 

in the ^neid, or that in the Iliad, vcrfified by the invcntMM cf oi- 

are not of this nature, nor to re- fodes, and the machinery of Gooi, 

prehend Virgil's limile of the top, with the like poetical omaiaaiti, 

and many other of the fame kind that they make up an ameihle 

in the Iliad, as liable to any cen- ftory fuffident to employ me mc- 

fure in this particular ; but I think mory without orerchvgine it. Mil- 

we may lay, without derogating ton's afiion is enriched with fuck i 

from thofe wonderful performances, vartetyofcircumfiances, thatlharc 

that there it an indifputable and taken as much pleafure in reading 

nnqueftioncd magnificence in every the contents of his books, aa in the 

pan of Paradife Lof^ and indeed bell invented ftory I ever met with- 


A Cridque on the Paradise Lost. 

poffible, tbat the tradicioiu, H A V I N G examined the aaioa 

tuch the niad and 2Eneid were of ParadHe Loft, let us in the next 

had more circumflances in place confider the adors. This is 

than the hiftoxy of the fidl Ariftotle*8 method of coniiderine ; 

an, as it it related in Scrijp- fiift the fable, and fecondly me 

fiefides it was eafier for manners, or as we eenerally cadi 

rr and Virgil to daih the troth them in Englifli, the nble and the 

fiction, as they were in no characters. 

rr of offendine the religion of Homer has excelled all the he- 

coontry by iL Bot as for roic poets that ever wrote, in the 

»n, he had not only a very mnlcitude and variety of his dia- 

orcumftances apon which to rapiers. Every God that is admit- 

his poem, bat was alfo obliged ted into hit poem, a£b a part whidi 

xeed with the greateft cau- would have been fidtaDle to no 

n every thing that he added other Deity. His princes are at 

»f his own mvention. And, much difBngniihed by dieir maa- 

d, notwitfaftanding all the re- ners as by their dondnions; and 

tt he was under, he has filled even thole among them, whofe 

ory with ib man^ fuiprifing characters Teem wholly made up of 

mti, which bear (o dole ana- courage, di^r from one another 

wbk what is delivered in holy as to l^eparticularkiads of courage 

that it is ciq[»ble of pleaiing in which they excel. In (hort# 

noft delicate reader, without there is icarce a fpeech or aCUon 

g offiesfe to the moil fcra- in the Iliad, which the reader voMf 

It. not afcribe to the perfon that fpeakt 

ie modem ciitict have col- or a6b, wi^out feeing his name at 

1 fiom feveral hints in the the head of it. 

aad ^Sneid the fpace of time, Homer does not only out-ilune 

i it taken up l^ the aCtion all other poets in the variety, bat 

ich of tkofe poems ; but as alfo in die novelty of his cha^ 

eat part of Milton*s ftory radters. He has introduced among 

traUded in re^ons that lie his Grecian princes a perfon, who 

f the reach of the fun and the had lived in three ages of men» 

e of day, it it impoffible to and converfed with Tmrfeus, Her- 

ff the reader wim fuch a cules, Polyphemus, and the firft 

ladon, which indeed would race of heroes. His principal ador 

lore cnrious dian inftradive; it the fon of a Goddefs, not to 

of the cridcs, either an- mention the oftpring of other Dei- 
or modem, having laid down ties, who have likewife a place in 
to circumfcribe the adion of his poem, and the venerable Tro- 
pic poem within any deter- jan prince who was the father of 
d number of years, days, or fo many kings and heroes. There 
I. is in thefe feveral charaders c£ 

Homer, a certain dignity as well 

tt of this more particularly as novelty, which adapts diem in 

ificr. a more peculiar manner to the 

H4 nature 

A Critique on the Par adtse Lost** 

ralure of an heroic poem. Tho' charafterj in thcfe two pcrfons.We 
at the fame tune, to give them the fee Mail and Wpman ia the bighd 
greater varietx, he hlu defcribed a. innocence and perfedion, ai^ k 
Vulcan, that U, a bufibon among the mofl abjefl Hate of guilt aai 
hii Godf, and a TheHites among infirmicy. The two lall chxniden 
hi* monal*. are, indeed, very common. and ob- 

Vu^il falls infinitely fliort of vious, but the two firfi aic not onlf 
Homer in the charaflen of his more magnificent, but more new 
poem, both ai to their variety and than any chara^rs either in Vii^ 
novelty. jEneas is indeed a perfeft or Homer, or indeed In the wbde 
chancer, but aa for Achates, tho' circle of nature, 
he is filled the hetoe'a friend, he Milton was fo fenfible of this 
. doet nothing in the whole poem defeft in the fubjefl of hia poem, 
which may delcrve that title. Gyas, and of the few chara£Urt it would 
Mneilheus, Sergellus, and Cloan- ajford him, that he has brought in- 
thus, are all of them men of the to it two affcors of a (hadowy aui 
iarne ftamp and cbaiafter, fiAitious nature, in the pcHbni of 

— fortemqueGyan, fortemque Sin and Death, by which means fce 
Cloanthom. Vii^. has wrought into the body of Iw 

" fable a very beautifiil and wtH- 
There are indeed feveral vety na- invented allegory. Bui nocwtth- 
tnral incidents in the part of Afca- (landing the finenefs of this aUegDiy 
nius; as that of Dido cannot be may atone for it in fome mealure; 
fufficiencly admired. I do not fee I cannot thinlc that perfons of foch 
any thing new or particular in Tut- a chimerical exigence are proper 
nus. P£la3 and Evander are re* aftors in an epic poem; becaule 
mote copies of Heflor and Priam, there ij not that meafure of profaa- 
as Laufus and Mesentius are almoA bility annexed to them, which is 
wallels to Pallas and Evander. requifiic in writings of this kind. 
The charafters of Nifus and Euri- aj I (hall fliow more at large here 
alus are beautiful, but common, after. 

Wc muil not forget the parts of Si- Virgil has, indeed, admitted 

non, Camilla, and fome few others. Fame as an aftrefs in the jEneid, 
which are line improvements on the but the pan fhe afts is very fliort, 
Greek poet. In ftiort, there is nei- and none of the moft admired cir- 
ther that variety nor novelty in the cumftances in that divine work, 
perfont of the ^neid, which we We iind in mock-heroic poeiu. 
meet with in thofe of the Iliad. particularly in the Difpenfary and 
If we look into the charaflers the Lutrin, feveral allegorical per- 
bf Milton, we Aiall find that he has Tons of this nature, which are very 
introduced aU the variety his fable beautiful in thofe compofitioni, and 
was capable of receivinc- The may, perhaps, be ufed as an argu- 
whole fpeciei of mankind was in ment, thnt the authors of them 
two perTons at the time to which were of opinion, fiich choraflere 
theiubjeAof his poem is confined, might have a place in an epic work. 
Wc have, however, four diiliiift For my own part, I ihould be glad 


A Critujoe on the PAR aoiss Lo si*. 

eader would think fo, for the Angels are indeed as mnch diver' 
of the poem I am now exa- fified in Milton, and diftinguifhed 
ng, and muft farther add, that by their proper parts, as dio Gods 
ch empty unfubffamtial beings are in Homer or Virgil. The reader 
be ever made ufe of on this will find nothing afcribed to Uriel* 
ion, never were any more Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael* 
J imagined* and employed in which is not in a particular man- 
proper actions, than thofe of ner iuitable to their refpe^Uve cha- 
h I am now fp^iking. rafters. 

lother principal a£U>r in this There is another drtumftance in 

1 is the great enemy of man- the principal adU>rs of the Hiad 

. Thepart of UlyiTes in Ho- and i£neid, which gives a peculiar 

s Odyfley is ytrf much ad- beauty to thofe two poems, and 

d by Ariflotle, as perplexing was therefore contrived with very 

fable with very agreeable plots great judgment. I mean die au- 

intricacies* not only by the thors having chofen for- their he- 

f adventures in his voyage, roes perfons who were fo nearly 

the fubtlety of hb behaviour, relatcxi to the people for whom 

by the various concealments they wrote. Achilles was a Greek, 

difcoveries of his perfon in fe- and iEneas the remote founder of 

I parts of that poem. But the Rome. By this means their country- 

y being I have now mentioned* men (whom they principally propo* 

es a much longer voyage than fed to themfdves for their readers) 

Fes, puts in praftice many more were particularly attentive to all 

\ and ftratagems, and hides the parts of their flory, and fym- 

elf under a greater variety of pathized with their heroes in idl 

es and appearances, all of their adventures. A Roman could 

h are fevenJly detected, to the not but rejoice in the efcapes, fuc- 

: delight and furprifc of the ceiTes, and vidlories of ^neas, and 

;r. be grieved at any defeats, misfbr- 

e may likewife obferve with tunes, or difappointments that be* 

much art the poet has varied fel him ; as a Greek muft have had 

al characters of the perfons the fame reeard for Achilles. And 

fpeak in his infernal affembly. it is plain, that each of thofe poemi 

hie contrary, how has he reprc- have loft this great advantage* 

d the whole Godhead exert- among thofe readers to whom their 

tfelf towards Man in its full heroes are as fbangers, or indifte- 

rc^ence under the three-fold rent perfons. 

ftion of a Creator, a Re- Milton's poem is admirable in 

ter, and a Comforter! this refpedt, fmce it is impoffiUo 

9r muft we omit the perfon of for any of its readers, whatever 

lael, who* amidft his tender- nation, country or people he may 

ind friendfliip for Man, (hows belong to, not to be related to the 

a dignity and condefcenfion in perfons who are the principal adori 

is fpeech and behaviour, as are m it ; but what is ftill infinitely 

i}lc to a fuperior nature. The more to iti advantage* jthe principal 


A Critiqaeon che Paradise Lost. 

aBon in this poem are not only be Toppofed to fquare exaftly with 

cur progenitor!, bui our reprefeii' the heroic poems which have bea 

tidves. We have an aCtual iniereft made bnce bis time; fiDce it is evi- 

in every thing they do, and no lefs dent to every impartial judge hii 

than our uEinoft happinefs is con- rules would llill have been more 

ceraed, and lies at Aake in all their perfed, could he have perufcd tbt 

behaviour. j£neid which wat made Ibme huK- 

1 fliall fubjtnn as a corollary to dred years after hii death, 

theforegoingremark, an admirable In my next, I fhall go throogk 

obfervation out of AiiAode, which other parts of Milton') poem ; au 

bath been very much mifreprcfent- hope that what I Hiall there a^ 

cd in the qootations of fome mo- vance, as well as what I have a!- 

dem critics. ' If a man of perfeft ready written, will not only ferw 

* and ctmTumtnate virtue falls into as a, comment upon Miltoa, hot 
' a misfortune, it raifet our piiy, upon Arifiotle. 

* but not our terror, becaufe wc do 

* not fear that it may be our own W E have already taken a ge- 

* cafe, who do not refcmble the neral furvey of the fable and ^*- 

* fuffering perfon. But as that great rafters in Milton's Paradife Loll; 
philofopher adds, ' If wc lee a The parts which remain to be cob- 

* mBn of vinue, mixt with infir- fidcr'd, accoiding to Anftotlc*s me- 

* mities, fall into any misfortune, thod, are the fcntimentB and At 
' it docs not only raife our pity but languace. Before I enter upon 

* our terror ; becaufe we arc afraid the firtt of thefe, 1 muft adverttfc 

* that the like misfornines may my reader, that It Is my defign u 

* happen to onrfetves, who re- foon as I have finifhed my general 
' femble the charader of the fuf- reflexions on thefe four feveitl 

* ferii^ perfon. - heads, to give particular iaKanca 
I fhall oidy remark in this place, out of the poem now before oi of 

that the foregoing obfervation of beauties and imperfeflions which 

Aril^e, tho' it may be true in may be obferved under each of 

other occafioos, does not hold in them, as alfo of fuch other parti- 

diis i becaufe in the prefent cafe, culan as may not properly fall un- 

though the perfons who fall into der any of dtem. This I tbou^ 

inisfbrtune are of the moft perfed fit to premife, that the reader niiy 

and confummate virtue, it is not not judge too haflily of this pcce 

to be confidered as what may pof- of criticism, or look upon it as im- 

fibty be, but what aftually is our perfet,l, before he has feen did 

own cafe; fince we arc embark 'd whole extent of it. 

with them on the fame bottom, and The fcntiments in an epic poeiD 

mull be partakers of their happincfs are the thoughts and behaviour 

or mifery. which the author afcnbes to tke 

In this, and fome other very few perfons whom he introduces, and 

inflancei, AriAotle'i rules for epic are jiril when they are confbnn- 

poetry (which he had drawn from able to the charaAers of the feveial 

nkrcfieawiuiipoa Homer) cannot perfon;. The fcntimcDta hare liko- 



ACritiqae on the Paradise Lost. 

1 relation to things ta well u veo'ma in Slukdpear » have dnwn 

19, and are then perfeft when His Calyban, than his Hot^r or 

ire fuch as are adapted to the Julius Cxfar : The one wm to be 

i. If in either of thefe cafes fupplied out of his own imanna- 

xtendevon to argue or ex- tion, whereas the oAermi^t have 

to mi^;air/ or diminilh, to been formed upon tradition, hiflory 
love or hatred, pity or ter- and obfervation. It was much e>- 
r any other paflion, we ought fier therefore for Hmner to find 
i&der whether the fentiments proper fenoments for an aflunblj 
takes ufe of are proper for of Grecian Kenerals, than lor Mil- 
ends. Homer nccDfurcd by ton to diverfify his infilnial conndl 
Titics for his defcA as to this with proper charafieti, ind inrpire 
zolar in feveral parts of the them with a vinety of fentiments. 
and Odyfley, tho' at the fame The loves of Dido and ^neas are 
thofe who have treated this only copies of what has paJTed be- 
poet with candor, have attri- tween other pcrfons. Adun and 
I this defe& to the times in Eve before the fall, are a different 
It he lived. It was the &ult fpecies from that of mankind, who 
e age, and not of Homer, if are defcended from them ; and 

wants thai delicacy ia fome none but a poet of the mdt nn- 

j fentiinents, which now ap- boonded invention, and the moft 

in the works of men of a exquifite judgment, coa'd have fil- 

I iiferior genios. Bclides, if led their converfation and beha- 

: are blemiflies in any partica' vioar with fo many apt circnm- 

hooghtt, there is an infinite fiances daring their fiate of inno- 

tyin the gieateft part of them, cence. 

lort, if there are many poets Nor ts it fufficient for an epic 

would not have &Ilen into the poem to be filled with fach thooghti 

inefs of fome of his fenti- as are natural, unlefs it aboond aUi> 

X, there are none who could with fuch as are fublime. VimI 
rifen np to the greatnefs of in this particnlar &Ils ffaort of I& 
fs. Virgil has excelled all mer. He has not indeed fo many 

1 the propriety of hb len- thoughts that are low and vulgar i 

Bts. Milton fhines likewifc but at the fame time has not fo 

noch in this particular : Nor many thoughts that are foblimc 

we omit one conlideration and nohle. The tmth of it u, 

Ji adds to his honor and re* Vir^ feldom rifei into very alto- 

tion. Homer and Virgil in- nilhing fentiments, where he is not 

iced perfons whofe chaJrafters tired by the Iliad. He eveiy when 

xnomonly known amon^ men, charms and pleafes us by the force 

fncb as are to be met with ei- of his own genius ; but feldom ele- 

in hiflory, or in ordinary con- vates and tranfp<nti us where he 

ilion. Milton's charaflers, moft does not fetch hii hints from Homer. 

icm. lie out of nature, and Milton's chief talent, and indeed 

: to be formed purely by his his diffingiiiflunK excelience lies in 

tnvenlioii. It Otoin a gittter thcfiAltw7«fbiathoagto.TlMn 

A Critique on the Pa R A D i s E L o s T. 

are others of the Moderns who ri- 
val him in every other part of poe- 
try i bjt in tbegreacncliof hislen- 
timenls he triumphs over all the 
foea both modern and ancient, 
lomer only excepted, 
pollible for the imaeina 
o diftend itfelf 

into human nature, and that ht 
knew every thing which was ihi 
mod proper to affed it. 

Mr. Dryden has in fome places, 
uicicnt, which I may hereafter tiiKe no- 
ils ira- ticc of, mifreprcfenied Virgil's way 
naLionof man of thinking as to thi« particular, 
greater ideas, in the tranflation he has given 

than thofe which he has laid togc- of the vEneid. I do not remeroba 
ther in bis firA, fecond and fixth that Hornet any where falls into 
books. The fevenih, which de- the faults aboveroentioncd, which 
fcribes the creation of the world, were indeed the falfe rcfinememt 
is likewife wonderfully fublime, of later ages. Miiton, it muft be 
tho' not fo apt to flur up emotion confeft, has fometimes erred in thii 
in the mind of the reader, nor rcfpefl, as I fhall fhew more at 
confequently fo perfeA in the epic large in another paper i tho' coo- 
way of writing, bccaufe it is filled Adering all the poets of the age in 
with lefs a&ion. Let the judicious which he writ, were infcfted witb 
reader compare what Longinu:, has this wrong way of thinldng, he it 

obferved on feveral pallages 
Homer, and he will hnd paral- 
kls for moH of them in the i'ara- 
dife Loft. 

From what has been faid we 
may infer, as there arc two 
kinds of fentimert5, the natural 
and the fublime, which are always 
D be purfucd in an heroic poem, 

rather to be admired that~he did 
not give more into it, than that he 
did lumetimes comply with the vi- 
cious taAe which full prevails fa 
much among modem writers. 

But fmce feveral thoughts tasj 
be natural which are Tow and 
groveling, an epic poet {hould d« 
only avoid fuch fentimeots as an 
there are alfo two kinds of thoughts unnatural or alfefled, but alfo fuch 
which are carefully to be avoided, as are mean and vulgar. Homer 
The firll are fuch ai arc afFeited has opened a great field of ral- 
and unn.itural; the fecond fuch av lery to men of more delicacy thu 
arc mean and vulgar. Ai for the ^rcatneis of genius, by the hone* 
£rA kind of thoughts we meet with Imcfs of fome of his fentimcnCi. 
little or nothing that is like them But, as I have before faid, ihefe 
in Virgil ; He has none of ihofc arc rather to be imputed to the 
trifling points and puedlines that fiirpliciiy of the age io which he 
arc io often to be mtt with in Vwxd, to wbich I may alfo add, 
Ovid, none of the epigrammatic of that wiiich he defcribed, than 
turns of Lucan, none of thofc to any iniperfeflion in that divine 
fwclling fcntimcnts which are fo poet. Zoilus, among the Ancients, 
frequently in Siaiius and Claudian, and Monfieur Pcrraulc, among the 
none of thofe mixed cnibellilh- Moderns, puihed their ridicule very 
ricnts of Taflb. Every thing ii far upon him, on account of fome 
jiift and natural. His feniimenti fudi fen time nts. There is no blc. 
fliow that he had a perfcEt inlight Jftilh to be obferved in Vireil, 


Cridqae on the Paradise Lost. 

head, and but a voiy 

ve bui one inftance of 
riety of thought in Ho- 
lt the fame dme com- 

an inflance of the fame 
h in Virgil uid Milton. 

which raife laughter, 
eldom be admitted with 
ry into an heroic poemi 
inefs is to exciie paffions 

nobler nature. Homer, 
n his charaflerg of Vul- 
lieriitcs, in his flory of 
I'enus, in his behaviour 
A in other palTagcs, has 
red to have lapfed into 
que charafter, and lo 
ited from that ferious 

feemt eflential to tiie 
;e of an epic poem, I 
but one faugh in the 
tcid, which rifcs in the 

upon Moncctes, where 
fented as thiown over' 
i drying himfcif upon a 
t this piece of mirth is fo 
I, that the feveieft critic 
oihing to fay againA it, 
the book of games and 
where the reader's mind 
ippofed to be fulRciently 
' (uch an entertainment. 
nece of pleafantry inPa- 
, is where the evil fpirits 
ed as rallying the Angels 
fuccefs of their new in- 
JHery. This paflage I 

to be the moft excep- 

the whole poem, as be- 
g elfe but a tbing of puns, 
too very indifferent. 

O Friends, why come noton thefc 
viftors proud ! 
Ere while they fierce were coming 

and when we. 
To entertain them fair with afen 

And breafl, (what could we more) 
propounded Icrmi 

Ofmnpiifi/hii; ftrwt theychang'd 
their minds, 

Flt^ off, and into ftranee vaga- 
ries fell, ' 

As they would dance, yet for z 
dance they feem'd 

Somewhat extravagant and wild, 

For joy of offer'd peace j but I fup- 

If our propofals once again were 

We fhould compel them b) a quick 

To whom thus Belial in like 

gamefome mood. 
Leader, the terms we fent, were 

terms of nueight, 
Oi harJ tonletiti, and full of force 

urg'd home. 
Such as we might perceive amm'd 

ihem all, 
And/anJ^i/inanyi who receives 

them right. 
Had need, from head to foot, well 

VtuUr fiend \ 

Not unitrfiatd, this nft they have 

They ihow us when our foes nxalk 

ml upright. 
Thus they among therofelves in 

pleafint veb 
Stood fcofiing — 

HAVING already treated of 
an beheld their plight, the fable, the charafleri and fenti- 
lis matci thus in dcriiton ments in the Para^ilc Loft, we are 
d, in the laft place to confider the 

A Critique on the Paradise Lost, 

language ; and as (he leani^ world tend Co each minute particular, m! 

i* very much divided upon Milton gi*'e the laft finiiliing to every cir- 

as to this point, I hop* they will cmnftance in folongawork. The 

excufc me if I appear particular in ancient critics therefore, who were 

any of my opinions, and incline afled by a fpirit of candor, rather 

lo thofe who judge the moft ad- than that of cavilling, imrented 

vancaeeoufly of the author. certain figures of fpeecli, on pnr- 

It IS requifite that the language pole to palliate licdc errors ofiiai 

of an heroic poem fhould be both nature in the writings of thofe lo- 

pcrTpicuoua and fublime. In pro- thon who had fo many greattr 

portion as either of thefc two qua- beauties to atone for them. 
lilies are wanting, the language is If cleamefsandperfpicuityirae 

imperfeft. Peripicuity is the firil only to be confdted, the pod 

and moft neceffary qualification; in- would have nothmg elfc tadoM 

fomuch that agood-natur'd reader Co clothe his thoughts in the nwA 

fomeiimes overlooks a little flip plain and natural exprellions. 

even in the grammar or fynt 

where it is impoffible for him 

miftake the poet's fenfc. Of this are ufed 

fiDCc it often happens that the moS 
obvious phrafes, and thofe which 
irdinary converfai 

kind is that paflage in Milton, become coo familiar to the ear, aid 
wherein be fpeaks of Satan. conaaft a kind of meaiinc& bf 

paffing through the mouths of du 
jxcept, vulgar, a poet Ihould take 

- God and his Son 

A Critique oo the Paradisb Lost. 

I of all ages to fucceed, but thefe authon *)ia aficfiatioii of 

feeling greatoers ofte^*j^iuta tlw peripi- 

evil on him brougUt by me, cuicy of the ftiUTai in many othen 

will carfe the enderor after perfpiciuty pie- 

head, HI fare our ance&u- judicesidgreamels. 

impure, Ariftole hu obferved. that the 

btj •v.-e mef thaai Adam ■■ ■ idionutic llile may be avoided, and 
the fublime (bmiH, by die feDow- 

^eat maften in compofition ing methodi. Fitfi, by the u& of 

very well that many an ele- metaphon: focharethoIeinMilton. 

>hT^ become* improper for f_»_ j.i.- _^i._. 

. _, ._ „, _t. -,1.. /wto-fltfirfmoneaoother'ianiu. 

Sir!?k^^* r £ --1-Aiidinhi.handatwd 
dAafed by common ufe. For g^ ^ 

"eafon the works of ancient -r., «-. Pi' , ,, 

,, which ^ WTUttn i„ dad I'^S*..?"?;.?™ "*■'• 

ages, have a ^at advan- 

SftmgUd with eyei — 

over thofe whidi are writ- In thefe and innumerable odier 
languages that are now fpo- inftances, the raetsphors tie very 
Were tneie any mean phnfes bold but juft ; I rauft however ob- 
iomi in Viivil and Homer, fervc, that the metaphon are not 
would not Ihock the ear of thick fown in Milton, trtuch al- 
oft delicate modern reader, fo wayi favors too much of wit i that 
■ " idi one another, 
B obfcrves, turns 
we never hear them pro- afentenceinto a kindof anenigmx 
:ed in oar ftreeti, or in ordi- or riddle ; and that he feldom has 
canvciiktka. recourfe to them where the proper 

it not thercfbn fii£cient, that and natural words will do ai well, 
inguagc of an epc poem be Another way of raifii^ the Ian- 
icuous.unleliitbeallbfublime. guage, and giving it a poetical 
bit end it oudu to deviate turn, is to m^e uM of the idioms 
the common Ainoa and or- of other tonnes. Virgil is full of 
1 phrafes of fpecch. The the Greek forms of fpeech, which 
acnl of a poet very much the critics call Hellemfini, as Ho- 
rcR itfelf in munning die com- race io hit odct abounds with them 
roadi of expreSion, without moch more than Virgil. I need not 
g into fuch ways of fpecch as mention the feveral dialejts which 
fcem iliff and unnatural ; he Homer hat made nfe of for tbit 
not fwell into a falfe fublime, enl. Milton in conformity with 
idcvoring to avoid the other the prafUce of the ancient poetit 
me. Among the Greeks, XX- and with Ariftotle't rule, hat in- 
J, and fometimet Sd^hocles fufed a great many La t i n j fm s as 
guilty of this fault i among well at GiKcifmi, and fometimes 
atim, Claudian and Statiui ; Hehrailinf, into the language of 
among our own Country- hie poem i u towaidt the bcgia- 
ShalKfpear- and Lee. la ning of 'vt. 

A Critique on the Paradise Lost. 

^f^r did thejr n« rerceive the evil you obrervc the meafure of hii 

plight -° vcrfe, he has with grtat judemeal 

In which 'they were, CT- the fierce fupprelTed a fyllaile in l^vera! 

nain5 no/ /"«/. uords, and ftiorined thofe of two 

Yet tt their general's voice they ly'^aWes into one, by which me- 

foDD obey'd. thod, befideg the above-ntentwned 

— Who fliall tempt with wand'ring advantage, he haj given a greater 

feet variety to his numbers. Bui this 

Tbe'diark unbottom'il infinite a- praflice is more particularly re- 

byfs, invtcable in the names of perfom 

And t{iroiq[h the folfiAk lifcm-t and of countries, u SfeJztimi, Hrf- 

find out /f^t and in many other oaiticv- 

Hb uncouth way, or Ipread his Ian,whereinhehudtfaercb>iiMd 

airy flight 'he name, or made ufe of Mt 

Upbonie with indefatigable wings which ts not the moft commonljr 

Over tiie-'vej! abrupt ! known, that he mi{^t tiio better 

So both afcend ^^ *■""" ** l«>g«>*ge <rf the 

Inthevi&onsofGod— B.,t. ' C" f^, „^™ ,^^,^ 
Under this head may be reckoned to him fcveral old words, which 
the placing the adjeftive after the alfo makes hi* poem appear the 
fubftantive, the tranrpofition of more venerable, and gives it a 
word), the taming the adjeftive greater air of antiquity, 
into a fubltantive, with fcveral I muft tikewife bJce notice, that 
Other foreign modes of fpeech, there arc in Milton fevetal woidi 
which this poet has naturalized to of his own coining, as Ctrhtrtn, 
^ve his verTe the greater found, rmfirtattd, HeU-JovmJ, t m h y i m a- 
and throwit out of profe. toms, and many olhera. If the 

The third method mentioned by reader is offended at this libei^ 
Aridoile, ii what agrees with the in our Englilh poet, I would i«- 
genius of the Greek language more commend him to a difcoorfe ia 
than with that of any other tongue, Plutarch, which fliowi us how b^ 
and is therefore more ufed by Ho- quently Homer has made nfe of 
mer than by any other poet. I the fame liberty, 
mean the lengthning of a phrafe Milton by the above-mentionBi 
by the addition of words, which helps, and by the choice of the 
may either be inferted or omitted, noblefl words and phrafes whidi 
as alfo by the extending or con- our tongne would afford him, has 
trafting of particular words by the carried our language to a ereater 
infertion or omiflion of certain fyl- highth than any of the Englilh 
tables. Milton has put in praAice poets have ever done before or 
this method of raifing his language, after him, and made the fublimiqr 
as far as the nature of our tongue of his llile equal to that of hu 
will permit, as in the paJTage above- fentimend. 

mentioned, trrmite, for what is I have been the more pardcolar 
hennitc, in common difcourfc. If in diefc obfcrvaciont on Milion's 


A CridqaeoD thePAKADisE Lost, 

, becmoie it is thtt put of him leTenl eli&oiu, that ue not ca 
'hichheaiqtcan themoft fingu- Aomtrj unoog other Englilbpoei>i 
The noMiki I hare here as ma^ be paracalarix oETerred ia 
!e upoa the mOice of other hii cutting off the letter T", whe> 
f, with mj OMcrvadons act of it precedes a vowel. Thii, and 
totle, will perhaps alleviate the fome other innovatioiu in the mea- 
ndice whidi fbme hare taken fure of his verle, has Taned hii 
lis poena upon this account) numbers, in fuch a manner, aa 
after all, I muft cooMs, that makes them incapable of latiating 
ii^ his ftile, tho* aJmirahlr in the ear and cloyinE die reatders 
-ral, is in fiime jdacet (oo much which the lame uniform meaTure 
med and obfcnred bjr the Ire- would certainly have dcme, and 
at ufe of thofe methods, which which the perpetual returns of rime 
loclehatpidcribedfbitfacnif' never 1^ to do in long oarrauve 
3f it. poems. I Ihall ctoTe diefe re- 

his rednadancy q£ thofe &ve^ fiedions upon the langu^e of Fa- 
rm of Ipeech wUdi Ariftotle radile Laft, with obfervins; that 
nvdn langnasci and with Milton has copied after HomeTt 
:h hfiuoB has m very much rather than Virgil, in the length of 
Jicd, and in fime |4acesdaHc- his periods, the copion&els of hii 
the laagoagc of hJi poemi wai pbnfes. and the ninnii^ of hia 
more proper for hu ofe, be- verles into one another, 
e lus poem is written in Uank 

;. Rime without auj other af- I HAVE now confider'd Miltm's 
ice, dirawi the language off Pandife Loll under thoTe four great 
I proTc) aad very eAen makes heads of the bble, the charaften, 
indiftreiu nhiaft pafi nnre- the fentiments, and the lai^^ > 
ed; hot where ^ verfe is and have fhown that he ex«b, in 
built upon rime^ there pomp general, under each of thefe heads. 
mad, and energy of expret I hope that I hare made ievcral 
are indifpen&bly fwceflaiY to difcoveries vdiich may appear new* 
art the flile, and ktep it from even xo thofe who are verCed ia 
]g into the flataeTs cf profe. critical teaniing. Were I indeed 
hole who have not a UiAe for to choofe my readers, by whofo 
devatiOD of ftile, and ate apt judgment I would ftand or &U, 
dicnle a poet when he goes out they Ihould not be fuch as are ac- 
ta common forms of exprcf' quaintcd only with the French and 
would do well CO fee how Italian critics, but alfo with the an- 
ntle has treated an andent aa- cieut and modern who have written 
, called Endid, for his iofipid in either of the learned lai^ages. 
othisoccafion. Mr. Diy- Above all, I would have than wall 
"Dcall this fon of men his verfed in the Greek andLiUin poets* 
^<mics. wichoot which a man very often 

Ihould. under this head of the fandet that he nnderftands a ciitic* 
lage, confider Milton's num- when in realigr he does not con- 
in which he has made ufe of prchend hit meaning. 

• 1.1. *^I is . 



A Critique on the Par ad tsE t-osTi 

It is ID ciiddfin, u in all other Greek or Latin critic who fau net 
fcienccs and fpecutaiions; one who Ihown, even in the fttle of his cri- 
bringi with him any implicit no- tidfms, that he waa x maAerof all 
twos and obfervations which he has the elegance anddelicacjr of hisu- 
made in his reading of the poets, tive tongue. 

will find his own rcHeftions me- The truth of it is, there is ntv 
thodized and explained, and per- thing more abfurd than for a mai 
baps feveral little hints that had to fet up for a critic, without a 
paiTed in his mind, perfe^ed and good infight into all die paiO of 
improved in the works of a good learning : whereas many of ihefe 
critic; whereas one who has not who have endevored to fipnltB 
thcfe prerious lights, is very often themfelres by works of this natm 
an utter ftranger to what he reads, among our Engli(h writcn, are not 
and apt to put a wrong interprets- only defective in the aboi emw - 
tion upon it. tioned pitrticiilars, but plainly dif- 

Nor b it fufficient, that a man cover by the phrafes whidi ibfj 
who fets up for a judge in criti- make tife of, and by their confiifcl i 
o&n, (honldhave peruTed the au- way of thinking matdnejueM I 
timn above-mentioned, onlefs he acquainted with the moft cobibkb I 
faas alio a dear and logical head, and ordinary fyftema of urs nd 
WithoutthistalcMheisperpetually fctencei. A few gcnend nla er 
puzzled and perplexed amidft his traOed out of the French nthoni 
own blunders, miilakes the fenfe of with a. certain cant of words, k> 
thofa he would confute, or if he femedmes fet up an 31ttn«tB hcoT 
dances to think right, doe* not writer for a moft jitdidaoi v 
know how to convey hts thoughts feimidable critic. 
to anotlier with cleatnefs and per- One great made, faj wUck wt 
Quality. Ariftotle, who wai the may diTcover a critic wko Ml 
Dcft critic, was alfo one of the beft neither tafte nor leantn^ n Ah 
logicians that evcf appeared in the that he feldom Tcnnms to jaA 
worid. any paflage in an antlitir wfcid 

Mr. Lock's Eflay on Human Un- has not been before m^i TP J wt 
dtrftaading would he thought a very applauded by the puUic, and ifeM 
oddbooknif a man tomake him> his critidfrn turns wholly opa 
fijf maAer of, who would get a re- little faults and errors. Thb prt 
putadon by critical writings ; tho* of a critic is To veiy mfy ts » 
M die IJUBe time it is very certain, cecd in, that wc find every oidmaf 
Aat an author, who has not learn- reader, upon the pnUifhing of I 
•d^aMofdiAinguiflung between new poem, has wit aod ill-«aM 
words and things, and ^ ranging enough to turn feveral pafT^et d 
lui dionghts, and fetting them in it into ridicule, and rary oAv 
pit^cr lights, whatever notions he in the right place. ThisMr.DiJ^ 
aay have, will lofe himfelf in con- den has very agreeably rem """* 
fiifioD and obfcurity. I might fur- in diofc two cctebraced line^ 
A«r obfvrvcj that chcre is not a 


m, like ftniwii npon the for- but one nho fliowi it in an impra- 

6cefiow; per^ace,ii aiimpenineBt andkb- 

who wooM Jeudt for pearl* furd. Befidu, a man who ha* the 

mult dive below. gift of lidicole, ie apt to find fault 
with any thing that gives him aa 

tnie critic ouglu to dwell ra- opportsniiy of exerang his beloved 

ipon excellencies than imper- talent, and very often cciifure* a 

m, CO difoTver the concealed palliate, not becaufe there u any 

ie* of a writer, and commu- fault in it, but becaufe be can be 

£ to the world foch Aing* at merry apon it. Such kind* of plea- 

nmh their ofafervadoa. The fantry are very unfair and dl&ige- 

exquilte word* and £nefl mums in worics of criitciim, ia 

es of aa author are thofe whidi the greueft maften, boik 

b vciy oAtn appor the moft ancient and modern, have alwaya 

Al and exceptionable to a appeared wish a ferioui and in- 

wbo nau a relifb fat polite fouOive air. 

B^ i and thn are tlido, which As I intend in my next paper to 

r ludiftmgnilhing critic gene- Ihow the defefb in MUton't Para- 

atacks mth the greatcft vio- difc Loft, I thought fit to prcmifit 

. ToUy <diAr*«t. that it is &de few paniculars, to uie end 

tafy to Draad or fix a mark that the leader may know I enter 

init he calif vobiun ardenii upon it, at on a very ungrateful 

I it ma^ be nadeied into Eng- work, and that I fhxU juft point at 

a Showing bold expreffioo. and the imperfcfUoni, without endo> 

mttintoii^GoleoyacoldiU- voring to inflame them with ridt- 

*ed criticifffl, A littlo wit ia cole. I moft aUb oUerre with 

llyapaUeafacpflfiogabeau- Longinus, tliat the produSioas of 

lad of aegimvatiac ■ fault j a great genius, with many lapfes 

Juog^ fii^a treatment of aa and inadvertencies, are infiutely 

naturally produces indigna< preferable to the worits of an inf»- 
ia the Bind of anundcrftand- lior kind of aothor, which are fcru- 
eader, it has however its ef- puloully exaCt and conformable to 
BBoag the peacrali^ of thofe all the rules of conc& writing. 
m hud* n filb into, the I Ihall conclude tajr p^er with a 
Ie of twiViinl being very apt &>ry out of Boocalini, which fa£- 
link Aat every thing which is ciently Ibowt us the opinion that, 
tad at with any mixture of wit, judidoui author entertamcd of the 
Ikalon* in itfelf. fort of critics I have been here 

icb a mirth as this, is always mentioning A famous critic, laya 
fi'i^iHr in a oicic, as it rv he, having gathered together all 
pnjudice* the reader than con- the faults of an eminent poet, mad* 
a hun, and is capable of mak- a prcfent of them to Aj^llo, who 
t bcH^, a* well a* a blt:milh, received them very gracionfly. and 
dhjeft of deriiion. A man, relblved to make the author a fuit< 
caimot write with wit on a able return for the trouble he had 
CI IbUca, it doll and Ihind, been at in colleOing them. I» 
1 1 oratf 

of the rnder, and to farpnfe him it ia ddcribed in tt beantifiil m^ 

With abetter variety of accidents, fa^ of the tenth book j and luv 

The implex fable ig therefore of wife by the vijjon, whertio Adaa 

two kind) : In the firft the chief at the clofe of the poem feei hii 

tCtor makei hu way through a long ofapring triumphing orer hit pal 

feriei of dangers and difficulcin, till enemy, and himfuf re ft ored to ■ 

lie arrives at nonor and pro^rity, hajipier Paradife than thu fiia 

la we fee in the ftory of Ulyflca. In which he fell. 

the fecond, the chief aftor in the There ii another oljeftionigtidl 

poem falli from Ibme eminent pitch Milton's fable, which is indeed ll- 

of honor and profpericy into mi- moll the fame with the former, AcT 

fciy and difgnce. Thm we fee placed io a different light, nandy* 


A Cririque on the Paradise Lost^ 

order to this, he fet before him & Adam and Eve finking frotii a ftitt 

fack c^ wheat as it had been jn& of innocence and hajipincA iim 

ifarelhedoQiof thelheaf. He then the moft abje^ condition of £b 

bid him pick out the chaff from and foirow. 

amoHE the corn, and lay it alide The moll taking tragediea amofS 

by itieif. The critic applied him- the Andents were buiu on thu lai 

lelf CD the taOc with great indulby fort of implex fable, paRiculaifr 

and nleafure, and after having made the tragedy of (Edijnu, which pn- 

the ouefeparadon.wasprcfented by ceeda upon a llory, if we may be- 

Apollowith thechaffrarhiapaiiu. lieve Atifiotle, the moft proper fo 
tragedy that could be invented b^ 

AFTER what I havefaid, I the wit of man. I have takci 
fliall enter on the fubjeCl withont fome pains in a former paper to 
farther preface, and remark the fe- fhow, that thiskind of impfez fahic, 
reral defeCtt which appear in the wherein the event is unh^ipy, it 
fable, tlie characters, the fenti- more apt to affeA an audience that 
menta, and the language of Mil- thu of^thelirftkbd;notwithAaBd- 
ton's Paradife Lofij not doubting ing many excellent jriecn imau 
but the reader will pardon me, if I the Ancienti, as well u moA H 
allege at the fame lime whatever tboTe which have been wiitta of 
may be faid for the cxtennation of late yesia in our own conntlY, Iff 
fuchdc&fta. Thefiiftimperfeftion raifea opon contrary {dam. inirf 
whichllhallobrerveintliefableis, however own, that I think tUi 
that the event of it u unhappy. kind of fable, which is Ae aMi 

The fable of every poem ia ac- perfcft in tragedy, ia not fo fnfB 
cordingto Ariftotle's divifion ehher for an heroic poem, 
fimple or implex. It ia called fimple Milton feems to have been let- 
when there la no change of fortune fible of this inperfc^oa in iii 
in it, implex when the fortune of fable, and has therefore andevanl 
the chief^aflor changea frombadto to cure it Inr feveral upediotfi; 
good, or from good to bad. The particularly by the mortifiGatica 
nnplex fable is thought the moft which the great adverfary of am- 
perfcAj I fuppofe, oecaufe it ii kind meets with upon his tEtunie 
more proper to llir up the pafEons the aflembly of infEmal Spirits, n 

A Critique on the Paradise Lost. 

That the hero in the Paradife Loft Ariftode, that the author of an he* 
it unfuccefifbly and by no means a roic poem (hould feldom fpeak 
match for his enemies. This gave himfelf, but throw as much of his 
occafion to Mr. Dryden's refledion, work as he can into the months of 
diat the Devil was in reality MU- thofe who are his principal adlors. 
tt»i*s hero. I think I have obviated Ariftotle has eiven no reafon for 
diisobjedioninmyfirftpaper. The this precept; but I prefume it it 
Paradife Loft is an epic» or a nar- becaufe the mind of the reader it 
rative poem, and he that looks for more awed and elevated when he 
in hero in it, fearches for that hears ^neas or Achilles fpeak, 
vhich Milton never intended ; but than when Virgil or Homer talk in 
if he will needs ix the name of an their own perfons. Befides that af- 
hero upon any perfon in it, *tis cer- faming the charaAer of an eminent 
tainly me MdEah is the hero, bodi man u apt to fire the imag^tion, 
in tbe pfindpal afiion, and in the and raife the ideas of the author. 
diief e|iifi»es. Paganifoi could Tnlly tells us, mentioning his dia- 
aoc fbinuh ont a real adion for a logue of old age, in whidi Cato is 
fable greater than that of the Iliad the chief fpeaker, that upon a re- 
n JBfi^ig and therefore an hea- view of it he was agreeably impo* 
^len cookL not form a higher no- fed upon, and fancied that it was 
km of a noem than one of that Cato, and not he himfelf, who ut- 
und which they call an heroic, tered his thoughts on that fufajed. 
Kfhecher Milton's is not of a fub- If the reader would be at the 
imer nature I will not prefume to pains to fee how the ftory of the 
letermin: It is fufficient that I Iliad and ^neid is delivered bv 
how there is in die Paradife Loft thofe perfons who a6b in it, he will 
ill the greatnefi of plan, regula- be furprifed to find how little in ei- 
ity of defign, and nuifterly beau- ther of thefe poems proceeds from 
let which we difcover in Homer the authors. Milton has, in the 
ndVinril. general difpofition of his fable, 

I mnft m the next place obferve, very finely obfen'ed this great rule ; 
hat Milton has interwoven in the infomuch, that there is fcarce n 
extiue of his fable fome particu- third part of it which comes €rom 
art which do not feem to have the poet; the reft is fpoken either 
probability enough for an epic byAdamandEve, or byfome^^ood 
loem, particularly in the afUons or evil Spirit who is engaged either 
rhich he afcribes to Sin and Death, in their deftruflion or defenfe. 
ad the pifture which he draws of From what has been here ob- 
be Limbo of Vanity, with other ferved, it appears, that digrefiiont 
ttflagesin ' 
' ;s ri 
ier «u<A J 
.^.^-w und Virgil. < »»w.., u.««...^ • ww.^ ^ ».*.^ — r — 

In the ftrufture of this poem he Able, he (houki certainlv never let 
IS likewifc admitted of too many his narration deep for the fake of 
pcffiont. It it findy obfervod by any refledUont of hisown. I have 

I ^ often 

A Q-idque <m the Paradise Lost. 

often obTerred, with a (ecret admi- beauty in thefe very digrefisM rilK 

rwioD, thai the longell refledion I would not wiih then out of Ul 

in the ^neid is in that pal&ge of poem. 

tiic cectb book, where Turnut is l titve, in a rormer paper, ^ 

rcprefcDted as dtcBatg himi'elf in ken of the characters of MillM^ 

the fpoila of Pallas, whom he had Paxadile Lott, and decUrtd i^ 

ilain. Viigil here lets his fable (knd opmion, as to the allegorical ptt 

ftiU for tlie fake of the following fom who arc introduced in it. 

remark. " How is the mind of If we lootc into the rcMitncnU,! 

" man ignorant of futurity, and think they are fometime* de&fttn 

" unable lo bear profpcroLis for- under the fallowing hod* i Filfi, 

" tunc with moderation ? The time as there are feveral of them «» 

■' will come when Tumm Ihall much pointed, and fomc that it- 

" wilh ihai he had left tlie body of generate even into punni. Of dis 

*' Pallas untouched, and curfe the lail kind, I am afraid is that u tke 

" day on which he dreiTcd himfclf £rfi book, where fpcakiog of Alt 

*' in thefe fpoils." As the great pigmies, he calls them 

event of the jEneid, and the death , , ii . /. 

of Tumus, whom v£neas (Jew, be- -j^— '^Xv™*" '"■^'"^ 

caufe he faw him adorned with the ^ ^" ^ *"» T <:'"<^' 

iboib of Pallas, turns upon this in' Another blcmifh that appcanii 

Qdcnt, Virgil went out of his wiy loinc of hi) thoughu, b hit 6t- 

to make tus reile^lion upon it, ^venl allufion ta heathtn IiUr, 

•vkhotii which fo iinall a ciicuxi- which are not CccttiBly of I pMV 

A Critiqtte m the FAKAsitB LelT. 

tt^ot, and fcii aany gbacct of it, uid diu Ariftotle himUSthaa 

. htftwy, aftittiOBix, g«ogn- given it a place in hi) Rhetoric a- 

and the fik«, » well ai bjr mon^ the beiattes of that art. But 

eriM and pbraTti he jonetmei u it & in idclf poor aad triAine^ it 

» v£t at, that he wai ac- ■ I think at prefent luuTciiSlly 

Mad wkh the whole dnJe of exploded bjr all the maften of ^ 

ud Ssaemca. Utc wiidng. 

io the hi place, wo confider The lail fault which I Ihall taks 

UfiMge af thia grou poet, wo notice of in Milcon'i ftilc, ii tho 

allow what I have hinted in a Sm^xot ufe of what the leamed 

er paper, that it it often too aH technical wtxdi, or tenni of 

h labored, and fometime* ob- arf. It it one of the great beautica 

id b^ old won]), traolpolitioDi, of poetry, to make hard thingi in- 

fbreign idiomi. Seneca's ob- telligible, and to deliver what it 

in to die ftile of a great an- abftrafe of itfelf in fach eafy lan- 

, Riget ejn* oratio, nihil in ea guage at mxj be underltood by ot- 

dirni, nihil lene, i* what many oinary reader) : Beiidet that the 

3 mdce to Milton : Ai I can- knowledge of a poet Ihould rather 

vhoUy refute it, fo I have al- feem bom mth him, or iafpired, 

y apolMjixed for it in another thandrawnfrombooki andfynemi. 

n to i£ch I may further add, I have often wondered, how Mr. 

Milton'i (entimenis and idcai Drydcn could tranllate a paflage 

; (b wonderfully fablime, that out of Virgil, after the IbUowing 

suldhare been impoffible Air nuaner, 

him, and wat oneqnal to that Milton makes ufe of iW^mit^ in the 

tndt of fool, which fiimilfacd lame manner. When he it upon 

with foch gltnioui conception*, building he mentioni Daric fittert, 

. fecond fault in hi; language ^lafiin, nnici, fretKt, arebitrav*. 

Itat he often affcfls a kind of W^n he talka of heavenly bodiett 

le in hii wordi, m in the fol- you meet with idiptk, and fren- 

log paflagei, and nuny others : trie, ,the trt^Jatitn, fiart inffing 

lat brooght into thb wW a -^ /*' =«-''*' :JP' J^**^? 

-Begirt th- almighty throne ^ ^¥. T"^ ?*?"" "^ *! 

ftwiSTor hJU^g— ^ii^ " ^'"^ other artj and 

:one(lightfo«»^higbOTer.leapt ' **" » "? «« I«P«". «"* 
an teanJ *^ an account of the many patacolar 

beaudet in Milton, which would 
know there are figures for this have been too long to infeit under 
1 of fpeech, that fome of the thofe general keadi I hare al- 
Ittfi Ancienti have been guilty ready ttcatsd of, and with which 

I* I 

A Critique on the Pa R a d i s z L o s t. 

I intend to conclude thi* piece of 

I HAVE ften in the works of 

a modern pbilofophcr, i map of 
the fpots in the fun. My Istt pa- 
per of the fauks and blemifhet in 
Milton's Paradire Loft, may be con- 
fidercd aj a piece of the fame na- 
ture. To purfue the allulion ; As 
it is obferved, that among [he brif^ht 

parts of the lumiaoas boiy ahon- 
mentioned, there are fome which 
glow more intenfeiy, and Ant t 
ftronger tight than others ; fo, not- 
wtthftanding I have already fhcnm 
Milton's poem to be very beanti- 
ful in general, I ihall now proceed 
to take notice of fuch beanties v 
appear lo me more exqoiiitc thin 
the reft. 


First Book 



THE argument: 

This firft book propofes, firft in brief, the whole fub* 
jed, Man's difobedience, and the lofs thereupon of 
Paradife wherein he was plac'd : Then touches the 
prime caufe of his fall, the Serpent, or rather Satan 
in the ferpent ; who revolting from God, and draw^ 
ing to his fide many legions of Angels, was by the 
command of God driven out of Heaven with all 
his crew into the great deep. Which adtion pafs*d 
over, the poem haftes into me midft of things, prc- 
fenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into Hell, 
defcrib'd here, not in the center (for Heaven and 
Earth may be fuppos'd as yet not made, certainly 
not yet accurs'd) but in a place of utter darknefs, 
fitlieft call'd Chaos : Here Satan with his Angels 
lying on the burning lake, thunder-ftruck and ajfto* 
nifh'd, after a certain fpace recovers, as from con* 
fiifion, calls up him who next in order and dignity 
lay by him; they confer of their miferable fall 
Satan awakens all bis legions, who lay till then in 
die (ame manner confounded ; They rife, their 
numbers, array of battel, their chief leaders nam'd, 
according to the idols known afterwards in Canaan 
and the countries adjoining. To thefe Satan direds 
his fpeech, comforts them with hope yet of regain* 
ing Heaven, but tells them laftly of a new world 
and new kind of creature to be created, according to 
an ancient prophecy or report in Heaven ; for that 
Angels were long before this vifible creation, was 
the opinion of many ancient Fathers, To find out 
the truth of this prophecy, and what to determin 
thereon he refers to a full council. What his aflb- 
ciates thence attempt. Pandemonium the palace 
of Satan rifes, fuddenly built out of the deep ; 
The infernal peers there fit in council. 

•^t - 



rxi. •• 



» . ^ Bi^mm 



^tf V M|^i«i 


^^^^ttJiVA^' ' V 1 


■ . ^"^i -^■\; 





Man's firft difobedience, and the fruit 
r cfaat ibrbidden tree, whofe mortal tafte 

ropolea the fiibjcA of 
due foUowiDg vcHes. 
uc perhapi u plain, 
nadorned u any of the 
, in which partacular 
lai confimnM himfelf 
ik of Homer and the 
nonce. Hii invoca- 
orlc, «4iicb tanu in a 
X apon the creatioa of 
> way ptopcrly made 
who ianired Mofei in 
(ram whence our au* 
u fubjcA, and to the 
who 13 therein rcpre- 
sating after a paracu- 
in the firft produfUon 
Thii whole ezonlium 
p^y into noble Ian- 
lentimcnt, ai I think 
n to the fahle i* exqui< 
ill and natural. AJ£ft». 
£ jAainned and fimpU- 
: lines, there it a lat- 
in the vatiety of the 
vhich of themlelves 
r ruder without any 
' thought or pomp of 
and dut Ttrtc7 of die 

• Brought 

natnben tonfifts chiefiy in the paule 
being fo artfully varied, that U fall* 
upon a different fyllable in ainwft 
every line, u it may eafily be per- 
ceiTcd by diftinguilhiag the Tcrfei 

Of Man's £rft difobediencc, ] and 

the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, ] whole 

mortal tafte 
Brought death into the WOrU, | and 

ail our woe, 
\^ith loli of Edenj I dll one neater 

Rcfiore ut, I and neain the blili- 

ful feat. 
Sing heav'nly Mofe, | 
Mr. Pope, in a letter to Mr. Wallh 
containing fome critical obleiva- 
tioni on Englilh verfification, re- 
marks dut in any finooth Englifh 
verfe of ten lyllables, there is na- 
tuially a paule at the fourth, fifth, 
or fixth fyllable, and upon die ju- 
dicious change and management of 
thefe depends the variety of verfi- 
ficatioa. But Milton variet the 
pauic accoidiag to die teaA, ud 
varia it diroi>gl> all die tea W- 


hb\a, by which means he is a 
maAer of greater harmony than 
any other Englifh poet: and he is 
continually varying the paufc, and 
Icarcc crcr fulTci's it lo rclt upon 
the (ame fyllable in more than two, 
and feldom In fo many a> two, 
verfes together. Here it is npon 
(he firft f/Uablc of the verfe, 

^^ odiers on the zrafs 
Couch'd, I and now filT'd with pa- 
fture gazing fat, IV. 351. 
— — fuch aj in their fouls iniix'd 
f lagues 1 I they aftonilli'd all rc- 
fillanccloft. VI. 83?. 

Upon the fecond, 

--— tbde to their nefb 
Were flunk, I all but the wakeful 

nightingale IV. 602. 
<~— Down thitherprone in flight 
He fpeed*, | and through the vaA 
ethereal flcy V. 267. 
Upon the third, 

what in me is dailc 

niumin, I what ii low raife and 
fapporti I. 23. 

— as the wakefQl bird 
Sings darkling, | and in Ihadieft 

covert hid III. 39- 

Upon the fourth, 

— ^on he led his radiant files, 
Dasling the moon; | thefe to the 
bow'r direft IV. 798. 

— at his right hand vidory 
Sat eagle- wing'd ; | befide him 

hung his bow, VI. 763, 

Vpca die lifth, 

— bean, tigen, ounces, pards, 
Gambol'd before diem ; | th'un- 

wiiydegiaat IV. m- 

—— and in the air 
Made horrid circles; | two broad 
{am iheii fliieldt VI. foy 

Upon the lixth, 

His ftatnrc reach'4 the fky, | and 
on his creft IV. 988. 

Girt with omnipoteace, | nith ra- 
diance cTown'd. VII. 194. 
Upon the fevcnth, 

Majeftic though in rain: | r^he 

flood II. 30;. 
Birds on the branches warUingi I 
all diings finil'd VIU. 26s. 
Upon die eighth. 
Hung on hit thaulden like &t 

moon, I whofe orb I. 2S7. 
A fairer penon loft not HexT'ui \ 
he feem'd II. 1 lo. 
Upon the ninth, 
Jehovah thundiing out of Sion, I 

Between the Cherubim I. 3S6. 
And bulh with frizled hair ia- 

pliciti I lafl 
Role as in dance the ftately tiee^ 
VU. 313. 
And here upon the end, 
— — thou that day 
Thy Father's dre^ot thnndtt 

didft not fpare | III. J93. 
Attended with ten thoafand ^ou- 
fand faints | VI. 767. 

And fometimes to give the grate' 
variety to the veife, there are twn 
or more paufcs in the lame line; ■> 

^^ on the ground 
OutftretchM he lay, | on the ciAl 

ground, | and oft 
Cun^ Us creation X. 8; t. 



ia», t or finks, ) or wades 
reept, | or fliu: | II. q$o. 
xd, I fpirittcfi, I affiOcd,! 
n.\ Vl.Ssi. 

del this variety of tfie 
leie are other excellencies 
I'a rerMcadon. The Eng- 
ic verie approaches neareft 
imbic of the Ancients, of 
t want! ody x foot ; but 
i to be meafur'd by the tone 
at, at well ai bj the time 
itity. An Iambic foot is 
:aiKl one long fyllable" ", 
iich iett conftitute an lam- 
: bat the Ancientilcldom 
! of the pure lamluc, efpe- 
woriu of any confiderable 
but oftner of the miz'd 
that is with a proper in- 
n of other meafurcsi and 
: perhaps Milton has cx- 
is happy a variety as any 
atever, or indeed as the na- 
1 verie will admit, that con- 
r of five feet, and ten fyl- 
ir the noQ part. Sometimes 
us almofl pnrc Iambics, ai 

I'd lo loud, that all the hoi- 


n tefofiuded. 

Ki he iotennixn the Tro- 
fine of one long and one 
table " " , ai ia V. 49. 
mfl defy tb' OnnlpoKnt to 


ws the Spondee or foot of 
[fyllablet " "jaiinv. at. 
ike satft brooding on the 
inbyU. . 

Id th« Pfi^^Uoi or foot 

of two fbort fyQablcs "^ " , « in 

V. 6+. 
Serv'd only to difcovei fighti of 

Sometimes the DaAyle or foot of 
one long and two Ihoit fyllablei 

Hurl'd headloag flaming from th'c- 
theteal Ocy. 
Sometimes the Aoapseft or foot of 
two Ihort and one long fyUable 
" " "■ , as in V. 87. 
Myriads though bright I If he 
whom mutual league 

Sometimes the Tribrachns or foot 
of three fliort fyllablcs " '' ^ , as 
in T. 709. 

And fometime* there is variety of 
thefe raeafurei in the liune verfe, 
and fetdom or never the fame raea- 
fures ■■ two vetfes together. And 
thefe changei are not only rung fi» 
the fake of die greater variety, but 
are fo ctmcriv'd as to make the 
fbnnd more exprcflire of tbe fenfe. 
And this is another great art of ver- 
fiiication, the adapung of the very 
founds, at "well u worda, to the 
fut^ea matter, the Kile of fi»itd, 
as Mr. Pope call* it: and in chb 
Milton ii excellent as in all the 
reft, and we fliall ^ve feveral in- 
ftances of it in the couife of thefe 
remarkj. So that he has abun- 
dantly exemplified IB his own 
tra£tice the rules laid down bjr 
imlelf in his preface, his verfia- 
catioa having all the requifitei of 
mu wnjical tUi^, labieh ai he 
f*7» ai^ Hy « <*» «■*"-», > 


Of 6reb, or of Sinai, didfl infpire 

That ihephcrd, who firft taught the chofen feed. 

In the beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth 

Rofe out of Chaos: Or if Sion hill lo 

Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flow'd 


Dr. Bentley fliows that facred hill proach, and not to afcend it, not 

is common among [he poets in fe- pafs the bounds fee for them DpOD 

Tcral lan^ages; from whence I pain of death. Exod. XIX. Soth« 

ihould conclude 1)0.1 faired ii a ge- upon all accounts ycrrf^ is the mofi 

neral epithet: whereas ynrrf, in proper epithet, that could hi» 

the fcnie which I have gi'.cn it, \i been choTcn. 

the moll peculiar one that can be: 8. That JhcphcrJ, tvha firfi tec] 

and therefore (lo ufe Dr.Bentley's For Mafii kept tht Jloik if JtAn 

ytorii) if, at the htft pceli ha-ut Bd- hii fathtr-ir-latu. Exod. III. 1. 

jiid£d, a froftr rpilhei ii la bt pre- And he is very properly faid U 

ftrr'dte a gentral me, I barjt fuch \ia.vefrji taught ibt thtfin fttd, be- 

«ii tfitimfer ma- pet, that lubieh of ing the moH ancient writer amoif 

the /WW taardr ii iht better. That I the Jews, and indeed the inoft 10- 

fof (iAk. fieret) was dieialtd fj cicnt that 11 now ^extant in the 

' JIdiltmt, Pearce. world. 

We have given this excellent g. In the itgiitmiig btvj tie Htav'Mi 

note at leneth, as we have met ond Earth'] Alluding to tlia 

with (ereral pedbns who have ap. £rft wordt of Gene£s. 

firoved of Dr. Beudey'i emcnda- 11. and Sila^i Jrmt] Siloawil 

tion. It may be too [hat the poet a Onall river that flowM Dear tha 

had a farther meaning in the uTe of temple at Jeriilalcm. It ii in»- 

^ii^thetin this place; for beiitg tion'd Ifai. VIII. 6. So that in cf- 

accullomed to make ufe of worda fed he invoke* the hcaraily lAA, 

in the lignification that they bear that infpir'd David and the Ft» 

in the leaned languaees, he may phets on mount Sion, and at Jen- 

very well be fuppofed to ufe the falem, as well as Mc^ei on nonM 

wordynrtf in the fame fenfe as the Sinai. 

Latin /Mrrnu, fit apart ta fiparati, i^, Ab»v* ih' A$mai ■»«/,] A 

like the fientefpu piai in Virgil, poetical ezpreffion for foaring to a 

JEm. VIII. 670. and it appears highth ^ve other poet*. Ike 

from Scripture, diac while Mofo moontains of ficeotia, udotly 

was with God in the mount, the called Aonia, were the haunt of 

people were not to come near it or the Mufes, and thua Vir^l, Ed. 

toach it, dll after a fignal giren, Vi. 6{. 
and thm they wen only 10 ap- 


the oracle of God; I thence 

thy aid to my adventrous fong, 

ith no middle flight intends to ibar 

h' Aonian mount, while it purfues i j 

anattempted yet in profe or rhime. 


wttda at ducerit luu fo- It ii eridcnt enongh that br 
I, rbimt in this place is meant Tcrfc 

P jjj in general ; but I Tuppofe Miltoa 

beorg. u . II. thought it would fontid too low 

etu dedacMi virtiet Mu- and familiar to the ear to fay w 

frti/e tr •orrfi, and therefore chofe 
trwards Ikoownotby 1?;*" ~A '• ^> •^ ^^'^' 
t», that country wai fa- ^5^" •>« ^\ " ^/' ,"■ T-'L'" 
tht didneb of iu inha- »^'** «" «?'*« » ^' off from 

the commoimeii of the cxpreffion, 

a« in V. 1 JO. 

fl m^tmfttJjtl infr^ f^,^ ^ eloquence 

*.] Mdton ap«ar. to pj^.j from their V'"^-'/' «■ 
M a difierent tUg by ,^„„ ,^/,. *^ 

I nam nmt m nu pre- 

re it ii fix timei mcD- It is faid that Milton took the ftift 
I ahn^t fpell'd without hint of this poem from an Italian 
reas in all the editions, tragedy called Z/Paraa^^r/f; and 
Btley'i appear'd, rhiai it i9 pretended that he has hor- 
ace of ine poem was row'd largely from Mafcnius, x 
h ah b. Milton pro- German Jefuit, and other modem 
sit a difference in the authors ; but it is all a pretence, 
oakiDefoconftant a dif- he made ufe of all authors, fucb 
the Tpellingi and in- was his learning; but fuch is hii 
t we Ihould here under- genius, he is no copyer, his poem 
rbimt, not the jitgiing is plaialy an original, if ever there 
b tuAift, bat verl'e in was one. His fubjefl indeed of 
be word being deriv'd the iall of Man together with ths 
mus, 'fuifitt. Atioflo principal cpifodes may be faid to 

be as old as Scripture, but his man- 

idettain em/omai, ne "" of handling them is entirely 

' ^ new, with new illuftrations and new 

beauties of his own ; and he may 
tifd (or word the fiunc u juOly boafl of the novelty of b» 
KfUloo byi here. Ptara. poem, at any of the aodeut po«ta 


And chiefly Thou, O Spl'rit, that doft prefer 
Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, 
Inflruft me, for Thou know'ft; Thou from the firft 
Waft prefent, and with mighty wings outfpread 20 
Dove-like f,uft brooding on the vaft abyfs. 
And mad'ft it pregnant: what in me is dark 


beflow that recommendation upon This addrefs therefore is no nwrs 

thtir works; ai Lucretius I. 915. tbrmalitj'. Yet fome may chist 

chat he incurj a worfe chirge of 

AviaPieridumpcragrotoca, nol- erithufiafm, or evea profanen^ i 

lim ante vouching inrpiration for hi* po- 

Trita fob : ie. formance : but the Scripwiei »■ 

and Virgil Georg. III. 3. T"'"^"' infpiration « of » »d 

t> i> i larger extent than u commonlyip- 

Cxtera (juz; vacuai tenuiiTenc car- prefiended, teaching that evtrypd 

mina mentes gi/i, in naturals as well as in n4- 

Omnia jam vulgata. - ral, itfinittbfnm tbt great f^fcr 

Primus ego in patriam &c. tf light 1, Jam. I. 1 7. And an a- 

2i)t. — Juvat ire jugis, qua nul- traordinary Ikill even in mcchim- 

la priorum eal arts is there afcnbed to dke il- 

Ctftaliam moUi diverdior orbJia lumination of the Holy GhofL It 

clivo. i> faid of Bezalccl who wss n 

.- ji.j rU:,e. Tl,„ n t*,v.v '""■^^ ^^^ furniture of tJie tala- 

«»mo»ly . n.«=, of ™=,. fom, ?""."', *"' '/ °/.' « "'ft 
wh.rem iht poet. i,.i.h.r ma^ •' •■•^rfa.Jl.g. W „ W**» 
»or drfm 10 t. Aoughi 10 mcmi "^ '" "? "«"", *' "»*~1«» 

...n.0 10 be ufcd inlignaia.1l;.; ;.'»"yl>=«bferved»o„jnil,fa. 

onningof bi. next work P^idifc f"' T""' >'« »« witbonl ihe bki'd, fcrnplt. noi to f.y lo the "".""■™'. "d Particularly Sjo- 

lime divine pertbn le. > H,n,n. of H^ivedy £«« 

■^ _ and Heavenly Beauty, u wcU 11 

• ' Infpire. fonie modem Latin poems. Bat I 

As thon arc wont, my prompted conceive that Milton intend 

long, elfc mute. Ibmeching more, for I have bea 



,n, Mhat is low railb and fuppoit} 
to the highth of this great argument 

aflcrt eternal Pron<ience, 25 

iiltify die ways of God to Men. 

firft, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view, 
he deep traft of Hell, fay firft what caufe 


I by tliole, ftlio had oppor- bird, becaare the ddcent of die 
of converllng widi hii wi- Holy Ghoft ii compared to a dove 
It Ihc was wont to fay that in Scripiure, Luke III. ii. A* 
eaQy look upon himreir as Milton fiudied the Scripturet in 

and I dunlc hia works are the original languages, Im linages 

lont a fptric of enthuTiafm. and expreflioD* are oftner copied 

b^niuDg of hb 2d book from them, chin from out tranfls- 

Riofim tfCturcbgpvtmmtmt, tion. 

E of Ui defign of writing 26. A»d jmfiify ihi vmi tf GcJ 

m the Engjlilh language, lie '« Mai.'l A verie, which 

' It was not to be obtained Mr. Pope has thought fit to bor- 

le invocation e/[ Dame Me- row with fame Ihue variation, in 

' and ^er Siren daughters, the beginning of his Eflay on Man* 

bv deroot prayer to that ^^ vindicate the ways of God to 

II Spirit who can ennch Man. 
all utterance and know- 

■f and fends out his Sera- It it not eafy to conceive say good 
, trith tlie hallow'd £ie of wafon for Mr. Pope's preferring 
Itar, to tench and purify die die word vinificaie, bat Milton 
■ whom hepleafcs, p. 61. makes nfe of the word /«^, aiit 
11%. is the Scripture word, 7hai tteu 

UrmamtyflrTBtabmij'gtl tmghejl bt iufiifitd in thy fmngs, 
tt. Idyl. XXII. 1 16. Rom. III. ^ . And ti* w^i <,/ G^ 

*&** mtt/MhuAa /• Jtfor arc juftified in the many ar- 

• ■«•, OK y»f ««■«. jramentative difcouries diroughout 

Otvt-Uh fiiijl hreaSM"] Al- die poem, and paRjcularly in the 
tD Gen. I. I. tbt Sfirii »f conferences between God the Fa- 
Mim thtfaet tfihe vmUti; ther and the Son. 
word that we tranflate mkW 27. Sayfirjl, fer Hiaa'n biiii so- 
prtmrly brmdiJ, as a bird tbinejrem ttj vie-w, 

Nm ner eggs; and be fayi Kir ibt £rf trmB *f Hill,— 1 The 
Aw« rather dian any other poets attribute a lund of omni- 
K 2 fciencQ 

la PARADISE lost: ioott 

Mov'd our grand parents, in that happy ftate, 

Favor'd of Heav'n fo highly, to fall ofF 31 

From their Creator, and tranfgrefs his will 

For one reftraint, lords of the world befides ? 

Who firft feduc'd them to that foul revolt ? 

Th' infernal Serpent; he it was, whofe guile, 

Stirr'd up with envy and revenge, deceiv'd jj 

The mother of mankind, what time his pride 


fcience lo the Mufc, and very Tb' in/tma! Srrfinti] An imia- 

rightly, as it enables them ro fpeak tion of Homer, Iliad. I- 9. vhet 

of thuigs which could not other- the queftion is aft'd, and the tt- 

wife be fappofed to come to their fwer return'd mach in tks bttc 

knowledge. Thus Homer, Iliad, manner. 

"■48J. ^ . 

Tif T d.f e^ut iuit tei/l ^mur 
Tfieif y^f 5f« Kl, «*p(S-. TU „ ju^^^a^,, 


AtlT« ly A(®- u(©-. 

And Virgil JEa. VII. 6+;. 
El meminilUs enim, Div*, et me- 3^' — h '^'^fi ■"•' "pritg 
morale potellis. 3"" A W<^ " ^"r* aitv Ml 

,, , /i(rf, J Here Dr. Bender* 

Milton s Mufe, being the Holy Spi- jeds, that Satan's cri^ mta Mt, 

nt, mull of courfc be onuufcient. his aiming aisw U, ftn*: h««» 

And the mention of tt^™ and /, f,lac, Bigb ai^, thtm beftn, » 

&//u¥«r>- proper in this place, as the Doflor proves from V. 8i». 

the fcene of fo great a part of the But tho' chh be true, yet MOua 

poem a laid fometimes in Hell, and may be right here; for thcfaraof 

fometuncs in Heaven. t),e ^^lii feems, not that SiM 

3J. For M< r,RrBhi,1 For one "'pi'-'^ '"fit timfelf Mvt iit fan, 

diing that waa reftiain-d, every iMtxh^itt aj^ird f fit iu^k 

thing elfe being freely indulged to ^'"7- *^ ^'^ '" '" '^'"^'^ ^' 

them, and only the tree of know- "* '"^'' 8'<»7 "" ^°^ ■'"1 i^'** S<« 

Jedge forbidden. were fet in. Here was his cra>e: 

and thin it what God chatm til 

33. Wkofirjlfidi^'dtbtm u ;bat with '- " -- v f, 



caft him out from Heav'n, with all his hoft 

ebel Angels^ by whoie aid aiplring 

bt himfelf in glory' above his peers, 

rufled to have equal'd the mod High, 40 

t opposed; and with ambitious aim 

nft the throne and monarchy of God 

'd impious war in Heav'n and battel proud 

L vain attempt. Him the almighty Power 


—who intends to* eit&, his often cuts off the vowel at the end 

thnme- of a w<ml, when the next word 

Itooun,— — • begins with a yowel; though he 

does not like the Greeks whol^ 
VI. 88. Milton fays that the drop the vowel, but dill retaius it 
Li^;^ hop*d in writing like the Latins. Ano- 

• •!. ^ . r r^^ A ^^^^ liberty, that he takes likewifo 
ui the BMmnt of God. and r ^i. ^ * T 

wu«^»nfUM% w WW*., ««i £q^ ^^ greater improvement and 

I nis tbroae variety ot his veriincadon, is pro- 

tAe enner of his ftate, the „^^„^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ fome/mes 

'*^*"* as two fyllables, and fomctimes as 

'* only one fyllable or two (hort ones, 

b to the fame porpofe VII. ^« *^*^« frequent inftanccs in>*- 
rr: From thefe paffages it r!^* T"'^"'' reafin^hiMji^ 
. tiat there is no ocSifion fcveral other wojis But then thefe 
ti^ey*s alteration, which eaceUocies m MiltonVi verfc are 
■'^^^ ' attended with this inconvenience, 

that his numben ieem embarafs^d 

■ .1 alpiring to ^och readers, as know not, or 

Sm and g^iy above iJbe Sob kniOw not readily, where fuch eli- 

G§d. Pearce. fion or abbreviation of vowels is 

to take place; and therefore for 
Ae other methods which their fakes we ihall take care 
lutt employed to diverfify throughout this edition to mark 
mre his numbers, he takes fuch vowels as are to be cut off, 
le liberties as Shakefpear and fuch as are to be contraded and 
Cfs of our old poets, and in abbreviated, thus *. 
a of the Gxeokt and Latins 

K 3 45. HitrN 


Hurl'd headlong flaming from th' ethereal: (ky^ 4J 
With hideous ruin and combuftion, down ■ 
To bottomlefs perdition, there to dwell 
In adamantin chains and penal fire. 
Who durfl defy th' Omnipotent to arms^ 
Nine times the fpace that meafures day and night 50 
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew 
Lay vanquifti'd, rolling in the fiery gulf, 
Confounded though immortal : But his doom 
Referv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought 


45. Httrrii hiadlong flaming from 48. Tn adamantin th^ns ] JEfcbj- 
W ethereal Jkyy] Horn. Iliad, las Prometh. 6. 

I. J91. . ^ 

^.tc^^tc^/c«. j^^,^ aftonifhmcnt, in whkh the 

Hurrd headlong downward from Angels lay intranccd after didr 

th' ethereal height. Pope. dreadful overthrow and faB boat 

Heaven, before they could reoorer 

46. IFitb htdfooj ruin and com- fither the ufe of thought or ftmch, 
hnfiion,'] Ruin k derived ftom ^' ^ noble circumjfanctp aad fsy 

ruo, and includes the idea of fal- ^"ely imagined. The dlviftn tf 

ling with violence and precipita- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ of £re, aad JrtD 

tion, and combuftion is more than ^"^ ground impregnant wi& tke 

flaming in the fbrefi;oing verfe, it is ^^^™f furious element, with dnt 

Duming in a dreacUul manner. So P^cular dmimftancc of die er- 

that he was not only hurTd bead- clu£on of hope from thofe infanl 

l^ng flamingo but he was hurPd regions, are in ftaa c cs of the * 

headlonjg flanung nmth hidnus nun V^'^ <^ fruitful inventioii. 
and combuftion \ and what occa£on ^^^ 

is there then for reading with 63. d^kneft nnfiUA WSa^k 

l)r. Bentley cvffufin inftcad of ««r- feems to have ufed thefe WoiA O 

^""P"^^ figaify ^iMni Abfblttte dvknefi 



I of loft hflppinefs lind lalling pain 55 

mentshim; round he throws his bale&l eyes, 
t witnefs'd huge affiiAion and difmay 
'd with obdurate pride and fted£ill bate : 
mcc, as fer as Angels ken, he views 
difmal lituation VfzRe and wild; 60 

ungcon horrible on all lides round 
ine great furnace flam'd, yet from thofe flames 
light, but rather darknefs vifible 
'd oqly to difcover fights of woe. 


.'dly fpealung invifible i but " when fome difmal tapers af- 
t there is a ewiii onl^, there " forded jult light enougk to fee 

much li^t remaining as " the obfcurity." Sec his Eflay 
) to {how tbat there are ob- on Epic I'oeay, p. a±. Euripidei 

and jct thai thofe objcAs too cxpiefles himfelf in the fame 
)t be difiindly feen: In ihib poetical manner. Bac. ;io. 
Milton feems to ufe the Rrong 
oU cxpreiEon, d^rW *'/*/'■ ~** *' """'"■ """ff *'"**' 

' There ii much the fame image in 

rahatalikeexprelSon, (peak- Spen£er, bot not fo bold. Fairy 
if the Grotta of Paufilypo, (^cen, B. i. Cut. i. St. 14. 
c.Epift.LVII. Nihil illo car- 

longius, nihil iUij faucibus ob- A llnle glooming light, much like 
u, qtue nobit prxftant, nonut a Ihade. 

EM^M Tideamui, fed ut (//». *. r n .t .1. ■ 1.. 

a. Monf. Voltaire obfe?ies, ?' ^"'^ »"• *"";^" f'.'g'j'f'r- 
niodeSolis, in his excellent hfPJ take the Jimt from hunfcff a 
WT of Mexico hath ventar'd 1"' « P^ftrofo. 
M fame thought, when fpeak- Where glowing cmben thraagh 
of the place wherein Monte- the room 

I was wont to confult his Teach light t» counterfeit a 
e>i " 'Twu a large dark gloom. 

vaate, uy* kc. 

K 4 7s. A 


Regions of farrow, doleliil ffiadM, Wbttft p^ace '6j 

And reft can never dwell, hope never comes 

That comes to all; but torture without end 

Still urges, and a fiery deluge, jfed 

With ever-burning fulphur unconfum'd : 

&ich place eternal Juftite had prepar'd 70 

For thofe rebellious, here their pris'on ordain *d 

In utter darknefs, and their portion fet 

As for rcmov'd from God and light of Heaveo, 

As from the center thrice to th' utmoft pole. 

72. b lattr Jerkufi,"] Dr. Bent- Till to the bridge's lOta- gati I 

ley mda euUr here and in many CUne. Tijtr. 
odier placu of cku poem, bccAule 

it i« in Scripture, ? k- tfy- :■■ ;?- 7+. Ai from tht enter tbr/re t§ 

4iiTtf--. ■■ But my didUoiuries tell <i' «/•»/? /v^.] Thiiceu&r 

me thUt utur and autrr are both as it is from the center of tbe 

the fame word, tlifferently fpell'd earth (which u the center of di» 

and pronounc'd. Mihon, in the world according to Milton's lyfiem, 

argument of this book, fay; ;« n IX. 103. and X. 6^t.] to the fxrfe 

flau afuutr darksift, and no where of the world ; for it is the pole xt 

throughout the poem docs the poet the univerfe, far beyond the pals 

ufe mttir. Ytaitit. of the earth, which is here falTd 

»e by (rcq.™jy ufmg ihc won! „,„ „ f„ ^^ j^ ^ ^^ 

B. .. Caul. J. Si, jt. ^^ ^^ „^^ 

Alrfilj gricv.. .. dolh » hidto r„,^ .„,(• ^ V.., i™ ,„^ 

The inotr guinait frel, nol /4'.<. "' «»• >""■ "'»'• Vni it 

trr toufa. Virgil makes il fmct as fiir, 

Andasaiii,B.4.Caiit. 10.SL II. -^ l^un Tirtania ipfe 


O how luilibe the place from whence they fell I_ ,^^ 
There the companions of his fall, o'er whelm'd .. 
With fioodaand whirlwinds of tempefhious fire. 
He foon difccrns, and welt'ring by his fide 
One next himfelf in powV, and next in crime. 
Long after known in Paleftine, and nam'd 80 

Beelzet»2b« To whom th' Arch-Enemy, 
And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words 
Breaking the horrid filence thus began. 
If thoubeefthc; but O how fallen! how chang'd. 


Bis patet in pnecejpf tantam texu fema turrist and borrtTono flridntes 
ditque fao umfarasy cardine fort^ of yirgili in compa- 

Quantus adaethefeam coeli fofpe- rifon with this defcnpdon by Mil- 
diu Olympcun. JEn. VI. 577. ton, condoding with that artful 


And Miltoo /i^rr as far, n *k t il-. 

O how unlike the place from 

kt far remov'd from God and whence they fell ! 

light of Heaven, 

Ai fitun the center thrict to th' ut- 81. BeelzeBut.'] The lord of ffiei* 

noBtv^: ^^ ^^^^ woHhipped at Ecron, k 

city of the Philifanes, 2 Kings I. 2. 

At if thefii three great poets had He is called fruta of the Dm/s, 

fbtuhed dieir utmoft genius, and Mat. XII. 24. therefore defenredly 

ncd with each other, who fhould Here made fecond to Satan him&lf. 

dtand.kis idea of the depth of Hfime. 

Hdl faitheft. But MUton's whole g,, jf^ ^jj^, /, ^a^', csWii 

delcriptioii of Hell as much ex- SatM,] For the woid Satam 

cecds dicirs. as in this fingle ar- j^ Hebrew fimifies an enemy : he 

cnmaanoe of the depth of it. And j, ^jj^ enemy by way of eminence* 

how cod and unatteding is the the chief enemy of God and Man.. 
TCfTM^fr Vft^rltf* the fftJ^n^^ 

«iT« «t;Attr £ vciAX€or uJ"®- of 84. If thou heefi hti Uz^ The 

Homer, aBddi«Ar|nr«fM/^/i the thoughts in the fiift fpoech uid 


1 8 PA R A D I S E LOS TI flbdki 

From him, who in the happy realms of light 85 

Cloth'd with traniccndent brightnds ^idft outAiine 

Myriads though bright ! If he whoiit mutual league, 

United thoughts and counfels^ equal hope 

And hazard in the glorious enterprife, 

Join'd with, me once, now mifety hath joined 90 

In equal ru'in : into what pit thou feed 


defcription of Satan, who if one whom he fpeaks, and goes oit to 

of the principal adlon in this declare his proud unrelenting Miiid. 
poemt are wonderfully proper to ^cbar^. 

give OS a full idea of him. His , _ , ^ •»» . , 

pride envy and revenge, obftinacy 84- — *«f ^ ^wv falTm ! bovt 
defpair and impenitence, are all of changd . . 

diem very artfully interwoven. In ^''J^ ?«'J ™ imitated I6j« 


feveral other of his Ijpceches in Hei mihi qualis erat ! qoantum 

the poem, AdSfm. mutatus ab illo f 

The change and confidbn of thefe gg ^^^^^ ^^y trarfoMitM 

enemies of God is moft artfuUy ex- hrigbtnefi Hifi autJ^Mi 

prefs d m the abruptnefs of the be- MynadstlHmgb bHgbin ImitaKd 

gmnmg of this fpecch : If thou art from Homer, (Xiyff. VL no. where 

Ec diat Beelzebub -He ftops, j^^^^ ^^^^ ^ j^ p,^ ^ 

and fells into a bitter refleOion on y^ ^^^^ ^ of di^bc 

their prefent condia<m, compared b-gntiful 
with that in which they lately 

were. He attempts again to open *p^A /* iteiyVMrn 'VtAtrar, i«Mf 

his mind ; cannot proceed on what j\| ^^ imaffajt. Bendqr. 
he intends to fay, but returns to 

thofe fad thougl^s; ftill doubting 9i.^«9iM/rw«:]Soitist&attdie 

whedier^ reuly his aflbtiate in editions. And tqmal ruin nl^.Bat^' 

the revolt, as now in m^ery and ley*8 emendation, which Dr. Peaice 

ruin; by that time he had expa- allows (and I believe every body 

tiated on diis (his heart was op- muft allow) to be juft and proper} 

prefs*d with it) be is aiTored to itbeingveryeafytomifiikeoBeof 




From what higbth &ll'n, fo much the ftronger pcov'd 
He with his thunder : and till then who knew 
The force of thofe dire arms ? yet not for thofe. 
Nor what the potent vi£tor in his lage gg 

Can elfe infii^, do I repent or change. 
Though chaog'd in outward luftre, that fix'd mind. 
And high difdain from fenfe of injur'd merit. 


thefe wonli for the odier ; tnd Other 
inllancM perhapt may occur in the 
courieof thiiwoik. Ejnalruiah^lh 
join'd now, a; rqaal iapt join'd be- 
fore; Ibmewhat like that \a Ovid's 
Metunorpholls, J. j^i. 

O loror, O conjox, O focmina fola 

Quam commune iiuhi geniu, et pa- 
ir ueljs ori^, 

Deinde torus junxit, nunc ipfa pe- 
ricula juDgunt. 

A fjaal ruin cannot anfwer to in tit 
ghriuti tntirfrifi, becaufc Milton 
places a comma after mtirprift, and 
in conftniftion it followi after ha- 
xarJ, and not a&etjnn'J. 

93; He -with hi: lbiaii!er: ] There 
is am uncommon beauty in this ex- 
pieffioo. Satan difdains to utter the 
name of God, tho' he cannot but 
acknowledge hit fuperioriiy. So 
again Ter.£ 57- 

— all but left than he 
Whom thunder hath made greater. 

AV vihml tht fetint « 



— ^ Mf Jm- itftfi. 

Cam lift iMfiH, th I rifmtw 
rkaitgt, &c.] Milton in thjl 
and other paflages, where he ii d** 
Tcribing the fierce and unrelenci&g 
fpirit of Satan, feemi very plun^ 
to have copied aficr the piftura 
that].£fchylui giveiof PTomedien*. 
Thus Promethcu* fpcaking of Jtt> 
piter. Prom. Vinfl. ggi. 

^Utiw Kuna/im «ar7it) xoi t*' 

rra/i^M y^t xAr tav /« /I'l Jn 

KM fes^m. X. r. \. Thyer. 

9S. And ligb iS/daiii] This i) a 

favorite cxprdSon of SpeoTer*!. 

Thuj in the Faity Qaeen, &. i. 

Cant. I. St. 19. 

Ha gall did grate for grkf mml 
high difiedn. 
Thij it the o/r* fttpa of the Ita- 
Uans, from whom no doubt he 
had it. 7ly*r. 

105. — vAttt 


That with the Mighticft rais'd me » contend. 

And to the fierce contention brought along loo 

Innumerable force of Spirits arm'd. 

That durft diflike his reign, and me preferring. 

His utmofl pow'r with adverfc pow'r oppos'd 

In dubious battel on the plains of Heaven, 

And (hook his throne. What though the field be lofl? 

AU is not loft; th' unconquerable will, 106 

And ftudy of revenge, immortal hate. 

And courage never to fubmit or yield. 

And what is clfc not to be overcome ; 

That glory never fhall his wrath or might no 

Extort fi'om me. To bow and fue for grace 

With fuppliant knee, and deify his power. 


lo;. — WAj/ tlMmgb tktfild It and if there be any thing elfe (be- 

hfi? fides ihe particdare tnendon'd} 

AU is net kft ; 6:c.] This palTage which ii not to be overcome. 

Is an excellent improvement upon pMnr. 

Satan'i fpeech to the infernal Spl- no. That glory &c. ] fhrnitt' 

riu in TaJTo. Cant. 4. St. 1 5. but fers to what went before ; hb *>- 

fMms to be exprefs'd from Fairfax tenqairabli •will anJftud) afrevitp, 

bis traniUtion rather than from the his immDrial halt and amragt mtir 

original. to fubmit or yield, and tubtit itfb 

We loft the field, yet loft we not ''"" '" t- "^f""^' *^^ ^jW 

our heart. f^?"^ his glory, and tiat fhj 

he fays God never mould eztcrt 

109. Jad vibat ii el/e nel la be from him. And then bMpns a new 

rvtretmi\\ Here fliould be fcntencc according to afl the bdl 

no note of interrogation, but only editions, te btrui and fui far ^Mt, 

a femi-colon. The words A'tdivhat &c — that •wn-i Imu indeed. Sec /te 

fl/iMti be rvenvmt iignify Et ft Hill referring to what went beforei 

fmdjil aiiud jiud Jkftrari aepieat, and by obfcrving this puaaiittkaii 


Who from the terror of this arm fo late 

Doubted his empire; that were low indeed^ 

That were an ignominy' and (hame beneath 1 1 ^' 

This downfall; fince by late the ftrength of Godg r . f 

And this empyreal fubftance cannot fail. 

Since through experience of this great event 

In arms not worfe, in forelight much advanced. 

We may with more fuccefsful hope refolve 2 ad 

To wage by force or guile eternal war, * 

Irreconcileable to our grand foe. 

Who now triumphs, and in th' excefs of joy 

Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven, 

So fpake th' apoilate Angel, though in pain, 125 

Vaunting aloud, but rack'd with deep defpair : 


this whole paflage, which has per- fucceTsfuIlyt notwithilanding the 
plex'd and confounded fo many prefent triumph of their adverfiuy 
readen and writers, is rendered in Heaven, 
plain and eafy to be underftood. 1 24. — the tjranny of Hwwar.] 
1 16. ^- hnci hi fate &c. ] For The poet (peakmg in his own per- 
Satan fappofes the Angels to fub- fon at ver. 42. of the fupremacy 
£ft by nte and neceifit)', and he of the Deity calls it tht tbr^ki mid 
reprcients them of an cmpyreaif that monarchy of God i but here very ait« 
is a fen fubftance, as the Scrip- fully alters it to the tyranftf of Htm* 
tare it£e\£ doih; He mah/h his Jft' len, Thyer. 
Zii* JfiritSt and his mnifters aflame 125. ^0 ffake tlj afofiate Jngtl, 
^ffat, Pfal. CIV. 4. Hcb. I. 7. tho' in pain, 
Satan difdains to fubmic, fmce the Vaunting cloud, hni rack'd \^afiih 
Angels (as he fays) are necefTarily deep dejhair :] The ienfe of 
immortal and cannot be dellroy*d, the lafl verfe nfes finely above that 
and fince too they are now im- of the former : In the firft verfe it- 
proved in experience, and may is only faid»' that he fp^'ih tbougf? im 
nope to carry on the war more faifi : In tbe left the poet exprefln 

2t PA RAD I S E L'O S T. ^o6kt 

And him thus anfwer'd foon hid bold compeer. 
O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers, 
Thtt led th' imbatterd Seraphim to war 
Under thy condiidt, and in dreadful deeds 130 

Fcarlefs, indanger'd Heav'n's perpetual king. 
And put to proof his high fupremacy , 
Whether upheld by ftrength, or chance, or fete ; 
Too well I fee and rue the dire event. 
That with fad overthrow and foul defeat 135 

Hath loft us Heav'ni and all this mighty hoft 
In horrible deftroftion laid thus low. 
As far as Gods and heav'nly eflences 
Can perifli : for the mind and fpi'rit remains 
Invincible, and vigor foon returns, 140 

Though all our glory* extinfl:, and happy ftate 


a great deal more; for Satan not ihould remark here die pr w ir i cty 

oSf Jj^e bat he njamaed aloud^ of the word perpituaL Bmedd 

and yet at the fame time he was doth not fay eternal king, for tkei 

not only » fan, bat was racked he could not have boafted of ii- 

nMth deep dej^r. Pearce. dangering his kingdom : but he en- 

The poet had probably in view devon to detract as much as Itt 

ihis-pailage of Virgil, ^n. I. 208. can from God*s everlafting doni- 

Talia voce rcfert; curifque in- n^n, and calls him oxAy perprtmi 

gentibus «gcr ^^«^» /V"S fr^°* ^"« "nmcmow^ 

SpeSi vnlttt fimulat, piemit altum ?' ^'^^^^ mtcrrupuon, as OfA 

COide dolorem. i%y%perpetuum carmen, Uct, I. ^ 

«-* primaque ab orinne maaii 
131. «— indmngii^d Himv^n^ per- Ad mea perpetuom aedodte tat 
petmal king, ] The reader pora carmen. 


Bookl. PA R A D i S E LO S T. 23 

Here fwallow'd up in endlefs mifcry. 
But what if he our conqu'ror (whom I now 
Of force believe almighty, fince no lefs 
Than fuch could have o*cr-pow'r'd fuch force asour^ 
Have left us this our fpiVit and ftrength entire 146 
Strongly to fofifer and fupport our pains, 
That we may (6 fuffice his vengeful ire. 
Or do him mightier fervice as his thralls 
By right of war, whatever his bufincfs be i ro 

Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire. 
Or do his errands in the gloomy deep ; 
What can it then avail, though yet we &el 
Strength undiminifh'd, or eternal being 
To undergo eternal punifhment ? I j;;^ 

Whereto with fpeedy words th' Arch-Fiend reply'd. , 


Wkak Btelzebub means here u ex- His torments are the torments which 

prefk'd more ac large afierwards by he hath aopointed for us to fuiSer. 

Satan, ?er. 637. Many initances of this way of 

fpeaking may be found in this 

— But he who reigns poem* Feara. 
MoBJirch in Heaven, till then as 

one fecurc , .5^ Whereto — ] Tv ulutt I10 

Sat on his throne, upheld by old y,^ f^id laft, which had fiaricd 

repute, Satan, and to which he thibkf k 

Confcnt or cuflom, tt'r, p^p^r to make a >r^ K^y. 

Speedy fwords are better applied 

1 50. — — njiihatitr his huRnefs he'\ here than vje%A 'ulfc^ii^ct are al- 

The bufinefs which God hath ap- ways in Homer, 
poiotod for us to do. So in II. 70. 

I C9. — /f 


Back to the gates of Heav'n : the JulpburoDS hail 

Shot after us in florm, o'erblown hath laid 

The fiery furgc, that from the precipice 

Of Heav'n receiv'd us falling ; and the thunder, 

Wing'd with red lightning and impetuous rage, 175 

Perhaps hath fpcnt his fliafts, and ccafcs now 

To bellow through the vaft and boundlefs deep. 

Let us not flip th' occafion, whether fcorn. 

Or fatiate fury yield it from our foe, 

Secft thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, i8» 

The feat of defolation, void of light. 

Save what the glimmering of thefe livid 6ames 

Cafls pale and dreadful ? Thither let us tend 

From off the tofling of thefe fiery waves. 


could not all be effefled by a finglc 1 9 1 . ^ n»f vihut nfilutiml Wid. 

Jiand: and what a fublime idea reinforcement ; to which k n- 

mutt it give us of ihe temin of turn'd If aat: ^ ndom iytsnx 

the Meffiafa. that he alone thoold but the poet gave it jf mm. 
be a; formidable a^ if the whole BeatlEy. 

holl of Heaven were purfuing ! So 
that this feeniing contradiflion, Mtjy With btaJ up-hfi aitvi ii 

upon examination, proves rather a ouotj/, ami tju 

txautythananyblemtlhtothcpoein. Thai J^arkiing biased, hii tAi 

li6.— Mr affiacJPtw'ri.} The parti btfiJti . 

word affiaid here is intended to Tnnt e« tbt ./iW,] SofDewM; 

be underjlood in the Latin fenfc, like thofe lines in Virgil of »« , 

pjuted, piin'd, utterly broken. monfttoui ferpent*, /Ea, II. »6lS. • 


reft, if any reft can harbour there, iSc 

e-ailembling our afflifted Powers, 
[t how wc may henceforth moft offend 
lemy, oor own lofs how repair, 
overcome this dire calamity, 
rmnlbi^eement we may gain from hope, 190 
what refolution from defpair. 
u Satan talldng to his neareft mate 
head up-lift above the wave, and eyes 
parkling blaz'd, his other parts befides 
ofl the flood, extended long and large 195 
>ting many a rood, in bulk as huge 
lom the £ibles name of iQonftrous fize, 
an, a Earth-born, that warr'd on Jove, 


qnomm inter flu6ius ar- Per tota novem cuiytf^/r^ oorpus 
1^ jnbasqae Porrigitor. 

n ezuperant undas ; pan ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^f ^^ ^1^ ^ 

HBpoiitiixii j^ Spcnfcr. Fairy Queen B. i. 

P^ Cant. II. St. 8. 

That with his largenefi meafured 

Uf^ Jbtittg manf a nod;\ ^^ch land. 
it the fourth part of an 

Aat the bulk of Sa- g y,v^-^ ^ Eartb^Um,^ 

qpgcisd by the fame fort ^ 

•ic» as that of one of Genus antiquum terrs, Titania 

tt in Viqsa, iEn. VI, pubes. ^n. VI. 580. 

L a I99' iW(H 



Briarcos or Typhon, whom the den 

By ancient Tarfus held, or that fea-beaft 2oo 

Leviathan, which God of all his werks 

Created hugeft that fwitn th' ocean ftream i 

Him haply flumb'ring on the Norway foam 

The pilot of fome fmall night-founder'd IkifF 


199 B'/arcoj] So Milton writes 
jt, tlvaC it may be pronounced as 
four fylhhles; and not Brianui, 
which 19 pronounced 21 ihne. 
Et centiunge minus Briareus. 

Virg.^En.VI. 287. 
Aad Briareus with al! his hundred 
hands. Dry den. 

igg. — or Typhon, '■j:hom tht dtn 
Bj avcitni Tarfui btU.'] Typhon 

ii the feme with Typhoeus. That 
the den of Typhoeui was in Cili- 
cia, of which Tarfus was a cele- 
brated city, we arc told by Pindar 
and Pomponius Mela. I am much 
milbiken, if Mikondid not make 
life of Famaby's note on Ovid 
Met. V. 347. to which 1 refer the 
nader. He took anciiut Tarfus 
perhaps from Nonnus : 

which is quoted in Lloyd's Diftio- 
nary. Jurth. 

2CO. thai fttt-htafi 

LevittihaH,'\ The bell critics feera 
now to be agreed, that the author 
of the book of Job by the levia- 
than meant the frwD./j/r! and Mil- 
ton defcribes it iu the fame inaa- 
ncr panly as z.f.p and partly as a 

bcafi, and attributes fcaltt to it; 
and yet by fome things one wonl' 
think thai he took it rather In 
a ivkah (as was the general mi- 
nion) thqre being no crocodila 
upon the coafts of Norway, and 
what follows being related of tk 
whale, but never, as 1 have hori 
of the crocodile. 

102. Crialti hugtfi See. ] TUi 
'verfe is found fault with at bdpg 
too rough and abfonous, bat thu 
is not a fault but a beauty here, u 
it better expreffcs the hugeodi 
and unwieldinefs of the creatme, 
and no doubt was defign'd hf the 

104, mgbtfotttidir'd ^f] 

Some little boat, whafe pilot dira 
not proceed in his courfe for fttf 
of the dark night; a melspbac 
taken from a foundcr'd boric ikR 
can go no farther. &a>. j 

Dr. Benlley reads nigh-foumdtr^i 
but the common reading n htm, 
becaufe if (as the Dodor ixfi 
foundering is finking by a letkn 
in the fhip, it would be of Etw 
ufe to the pilot to fix his andnr <■ 
an itand, the &iiF would tink Ml- 
wiihftanding, if leaky. By w>J(- 
fluBdtr'd MiltOD means ovetaa 

Ut PARADlSfi Lost. ^9 

ning fome iland, oft, as fca-men tell, io^ 

I fixed anchor in his fkaly rind 

rs by his fide under the lee,, while night 

b the fea, and wifhed morn delays: 

retch'd out huge in length the Ar'ch-Fiend lay 

n*d on the burning lak^, nor ever thence 210 


ni^it, And thence at a lois preilion tha9 umiris noxoperit terras 
w^y to iiul. That the poet of Vir^ Mn, IV. 3C2. But our 
of what befel the pilot by author in this (as Mr. Thyer re- 
appears from vcr. 207. avin/e marks) alludes to the figurative de- 
vw^i thifea, Milton, in his fcriptioii of night afed by the poet*» 
odTd the Mafk, ufes the fame particularly Spenfer. Fairy Queen. 
: the two brothers having B. i. Cant, ii; St. 49. 
BIT way in the wood, ono of ^ ^^ ^^e drooping day-Ught Van 
l*y»' to fade, 

• ■ for certain And yield his room to fad fuc- 

er fomc one, like us, mght- cccding nighty 

hmder'iihm i^c. Pearce. ^^ w'>^ ^^ M^ «^«''^ 'g^ ^ 


:• ^^asfia-mtn tell,'] Words <rbe face of eartb\ 

dded to obviate the incredi- -.., ,- . - -_ . « ^ . 

of cafting anchor in tWs ?*»'«? "^ " the fame taftc fpeak- 

ST Emm ^'^^ moon, IV. 609. 

r. hUorihy Ins fide under the And o'er the dark her filvermantltf 

Im^ .Anchors by his fide threw. 

mid. Mooring at fea is the 209. Sofiretch'd.out huge in l^tb 

g out of anchors in a proper the Arch-Fiend lay^ } The 

fiir die fecure riding of a length of this verfe, conMing of 

Thtleeox lee-(hore is that fo many Inonofyllables, and pro- 

bich the wind blows, fo that hounc'd fo flowly, is excellently 

wider the lee of the (hore is to adapted to the fubjed that it 

ofe under the weather-fhore would defcribe. The tone is upon 

ider wind. See Chambdh's the firft fyllable in this line, the 

An inftance this among Arcb-Fiend1ay\ whereas it was up- 

I cS oar .author's affedUdon on the laft fyllable of the word m 

\ ofe of technical terms. ver. 156. tb' Arch-fiend replfd; a 

7. ^-*-> while night liberty that Milton fomedmes takes 

^s ihifiay] A much finer ex« to prononnc? the (ame word with 

L 3 a 


Had ris'n or heav'd his head, but that the wiU 

And high permiffion of all-ruUng Heaven 

Left him at large to his own dark dcfigos, 

That with reiterated crimes he might 

Heap on himfelf damnation, while he fought 21} 

Evil to others, and enrag'd might fee 

How all his malice ferv'd but to bring forth 

Infinite goodnefs, grace and mercy fiiown 

On Man by him feduc'd, but on himfelf 

Treble confufion, wrath and vengeance pour'd. 220 

Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool 

His mighty ftature; on each hand the flames 


cm^ feave iW midft a horrid vale. 

with expanded wiogs he fteers his flight a 25 

incumbent on the duiky air 

bit unufual weighty till on dry land 

hts, if it were land that ever bum'd 

folid^ as the lake with liquid fire 1 

ich appeared in hue, as when the force 830 

iterranean wind tranfports a hill 

rom Pelorus, or the fhatter^d fide 

uid'ring -^tna, whofe combuflible 

lel'd entrails thence conceiving fire, 

i*d with mineral fury, aid the winds, £35 

save a finged bottom all involv'd 


f Ac mr't feeling wmjuat ±2^. — Ufuidfa-i i ] Virg. Ed, 

I borrowed from Spen&r, VI. 33* 

aking of the old dragon £t llquidi fimul ignis^ 

e lines, B. 1. Cant. ii. £\r rt. • j-x 

231. Of fubterraneam nMnd\ 

Dr.Pearce conjectures that it fhoold 
nA lu. waviDg wings dif- .^ .^ Q'^.^ ^^ ^.^^ afterwards. 

r «p hi^ he lifted from ^"^ *« «!"J«^« feems probable 
^f ,^ and ingenious : the fuefa entrails^ 

Xa^^J^ a\^v*> A\A f^^^\\s\» fuhlimd nmtb ndneral furj^ aid and 
iflrong flight did forcibly i^^eafe M. ^^Vi^ which firft blew 

dding air, which nigh too *^P ^' 

lie found 232. Pelonts,} A promontory of 

ttiBg parts, and element Sicily, now Cape di faro, about a 

>iiiud, mile and half trom Italy, whence 

ir fo great a weight. Virgil aa^iffla a fedt Pelori^ Msu 

Thnr. 111.687. Mum. 

L 4 i3«. Of 


With ftench and Tmoke: Such refting found the fid* 

Of unbleft feet. Him foUow'd his next mate. 
Both glorying to have 'fcap'd the Stygian flood 
As Gods, and by their own recovcr'd ftrength, tj^ 
Not by the fufferance of fupernal Power. 

Is this the region, this the foil, the clime. 
Said tlien the loft Arch-Angel, this the feat 
That we muft change for Heav'n, this mournful gloom 
For that celeftial light ? Be' it fo, fincc he 245 


238. Of u^hji ftii-l Dr. Bent- it is likewife in VIII. jji.andlX. 
ley 10 make the accent faioother jjq. See the n 



K) now is Sovran can difpofe and bid 

lat (hall be right: fartheft from him is beft, 

lom reas^on hath equaPd, force hath made fupreme 

>ve his equals. Farewel happy fields, 

lere joy for ever dwells: Hail horrors, hail 250 

smal world, and thou profoundeft Hell 

:eive thy new poflcflbr ; one who brings 

nind not to be changed by place or time* 

; mind is its own place^ and in itfelf 


ng his adverfary to be al- 
ty. Whatever perverfe inter- 
tion he pats on the juilicey 
Y and other attributes of the 
me Beine, he frequently con- 

his omnipotence, that being 
)eifedion he was forced to 

him, and the only confident 
irhich could fupport his pride 
' the (hame of his defeat, 
noft I omit that beautiful cir- 
ance of his burfling out into 

upon his furvey of tbofe in- 
rable Spirits whom he had in- 
i in the fame guilt and ruin 
iimfelf. Addifon. 

!. R£€ei*ve tky new foffejpn' ; ] 
paflage feems to be an im- 
Dnent upon Sophocles, Ajax 
where Ajax, before he kills 
If^ cries out much in the fame 

ROT©-, ftfor ^aQ'» ?ff/<C®- 
uror «f ffif 's 

253. — ly place or time,] NfUton 
is excellent in placing his words : 
invert them only, and fay ly time 
or flace^ and if the reader has anv 
ear, he will perceive how macn 
the alteration is for the worfe. For 
the paufe falling upon flace in the 
firft line hy time or place^ and again 
upon place in the next line The 
mind is its vwn place^ would of- 
fend the ear, and therefore is art* 
fully varied. 

A mind not to be chang*d by place 

or time. 
The mind is its own place. 

254. ^be mind is its own place,'] 
Thcic are fomc of the extrava- 
gances of the Stoics, and could 
not be better ridiculed than they 
are here by being put in the moudi 
of Satan in his prefent iituation. 


2^7.-^ all 

34 PARADISE LOST. fiookl^ 

Can make a Heav'n c«f Hell, a Hell of Heav'o. 2gf 
What matter where, if I be fUll the iame. 
And what I Ibould be, all but leTs than he 
Whom thunder bath made greater f Here at lea& 
We fhall be froej th' Almighty hath not built 
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence : 260 

Here we may reign fecure, and in my choice 
To reign is worth amibitlon though in Hell : 
Better to reign in Hell, than fcrw in Heaven. 
But wherefore let we then our feithful friends, 
Th' aflbciates and copartners of our lofs, 265 

Lie thus aftoniih'd on th' oblivious pool. 


z;7. ^—alibm'] I have heard Stcfw; tv-trocr'. vKcrcMcfavt' 

it propos'd to read aiiiii, that Is iyu' 

■Jthougb ; but prefer the common K^tvan yap ti/uU TfJ't SUBSflv 

reading. etf -unfo,, 

^^tj.—lh'Almlghy hath mt built « •^*-^^ P'"'*' ZJW' «r*» «^ 

Hirtfir hh oNy,] This b not a '^•>'- 

place that God (hoiUd envy us or r^ ^^ ^ memorable faying of Jo- 

thrnk It too good for us; and in j;^, c«far, that he had rttW 1m 

Ais fenfe the word .My w ufed in ^1,^(5,^ ^^ -^ acoundy-Tilto 

feveral p ac« of the poem, and (^an the fecond at Romi. Tfc 

pamcularlym;. VUI.49+. ^^a^er will obferve how propoiy 

and IX. 770. jjjg crying is here appUed and «■ 

463. Btller la reigir in fit!!, than commodated to the Ipe^er. Ili 

fir'vi in Hca'uoi.'] This is a here made a fentimeat wortl^ i 

wonderfully fine improvemeDt upon Saian, and of him only; 

Prometheus's anfwer to Mercury in - ,„ , 

jHch,la,. Prom. Vina. 96s. — nm. « mc fpocntTtm 

Tit< fi\( xa/Tftnti Tiir i/*t)r S'lit- Nee tifai r^nandi veniat tam din 
Vf^^ixt, cupido. Vitg. Gcorg. I. }6- 



all them not to ihare with us theo- put 

1 unhappy manfioa, or once more 

rallied anns to try what may be yet 

t'd in Heav'n, or what more loft in Hell J 270 

Satan fpake, and him Bcelzcbnb 

anfwer'd. Leader df thoie armies bright, 

1 but th'Oomipotoit none could have Aal'd, 

e they hear that voice, their livelicft fdedge 

pe in fears and dangerfi, heard £> oft 37$ 

:ft extremes, and on the perilous edge 

ttel when it rag'd, in all afiaults 

fureft lignal, they will foon refume 


bodi iloibed die fame fen- It hu been oUcrr'd to me I:^ a 

) Satan in his Aiamia Exul, perfon of Teiy fine tafte, that 

I whick OUT author feema %^)u£ytax iiai an exprcflioB vei|r 

mitated inrome fewplaces, like thu in 2 Hen. IV. A&l. 

tnnHated the following you knew, he walk'd o'er perib. 

It flow mucfl better is the ^^ ^^ ^j^ 

he two hA Tcrfea CJtpre&'d ^j^^^ j^^^, ^ f^^ ■ ^aatava. 

K Milton I ^,^.' 

^siDt VIC judicc, 

e diEnam eft ambitu, etfi "^ fomething Ulce it in i Hni.lV. 

rJSo, Aft I. 

aeflc Tartaro fiqitideni ju- 111 read yon matter, deep and din- 

gerous i 

quaiD in ipfii ferri obire Ai nill of peril and idvcntroiu 

tia. fpirit, 

— tntht perllciu tjgf A$ to o'erwalk a current, roanng 

ttti] Periiaps he had in loud, 

■pl, JEa.iX.^ii. OntheunftedfaftfoMiiigofaf^etr. 

:uin ingeatci tim cvolviie H»t. If he 6U in, good ni^t, 

i. 7«f/«. or fmk or fwim. 


New courage and revive, though now they lie 
Groveling and proftrate on yon lake of fire, eScv 

As we ere while, aftoundcd and amaz'd. 
No wonder, ftll'n inch a pernicious highth. 

He fcarce had ceas'd when the fupcrior Fiend 
Was moving tow'ard the fhorc j his pond'rous {hield, 
Ethereal temper, mafTy, la%e and round, 28^ 

Behind him caft; the broad circumference 
Hung on his Ihoulders like the moon, whofe orb 
Through optic glafe the Tufcan artift views 


Or ^Kt all mar nut iLfeilges/lial- 287, Jiit the maem, ic*^ 

ft/be exprcTi'd from the humaciti, orb ice.'] Homer compira 

which ligniiies both the cdi^ of a the fplendor of Achillet (hiod l> 

weapon, and alfo an army m battel the moon, Iliad. XIX. 3^3. 
amy i The author himfelf would 

incline oBe to think fo by hia ufe _ tumtf i-rfrra, cajt©- iuy4 

of this metaphor in another place, _, _,^_„, -, 

VI. 108. ^ "' '^^*f ■ . 

On the rouzb edec of battel ere it > ■ ., 

281. faltnfiuh a ptmitioai ''"' ** '^'^''^ *f Satan was latp n 

higbtb-l Dr. Bentley reads '*'* •"O"" '^^n through a teldnft, 
faltn from fiuh prodigious hithh .- "" mftrument firft applied to cde- 
but the epithet penidnt is much ^'^ obfervationi by Galileo, a *■ 
fironger, and as for the want of a ""« "^ Tufcaoy. whom he meaa 
Jtrarofition, that is common in this '•ef^ l)y iht fujian artift, and after- 
poem; for thm in I. 723. wardi mentions by name in V. 161. 
c jc-jL a iL-LL * letbmony of his honor for S) 
Stood £ji d her ftately highth, g^at a man. whom he had koomi 
And la U. 409. and vifited in Italy, as himfelf in- 
'-e he arriTc forms uf in his Artapagitka. 

Tht happy ilc/ pta 

S89. F^ 



At evening from the top of Fcfolc, 

Or in Valdamo, to defcry new lands, 299 

Rivers or mountains in her fpotty globe. 

His rpear, to equal which the talleft pine 

Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the maft 

Of feme great ammlral, were but a wand. 

He walk'd vnth to fupport uneafy fteps; 29^ 

Over the burning marie, not like thofe ileps 

On Heaven's azure, and the torrid clime 

Smote on him fcve befideSj vaulted with fire : 


jSg, Fiji/i,'] ti » city in Tuf- Thcfc fans of Mavon bore (m- 
csmyi Valiarm, or the valiey of ftead of fpean) 

Amo, a valley dure. Richta-J/m. Ttua knatiy m^s which none bu 
diey could lift. Fairftx. 

l.i.rpci,?n comj^ibr of which mud. largo to & f.poK. .l«nj, 
the IilUl pine ™ hot ■ wand. For Jfo,™;^, «/,,] The hilli 

who. HomeiOdyir IX. ,!!. jo^e. „f ^ i,J„„ mj'rocW. hot 

the dob of Polypheioui a. big >i ^^j ' j, .^ ,„^,, 'ft^ 

the ouaof i Ihip, ,i„„ ,„ |,„gii, ,„^ rf a,j 

Orvtr ^' <nr ra@--^^ lugell fixe. Hamt. 

«id Vireil ej'f ki" • p™ to wilk 5„. _ „„-„f| Accordiog to 

with, ^a.m.6s9. iu fieirom exuailion amirJ or 

Tranca muo pinoi regit et velli- tuurael, faya Home ; from the Itl- 

gialinnat. Uan Mmmraglu, fays RichaidloB 

.nj T,iT« ,™.. T.nrwJ .-.» a. moTc probably. Oarauthormad* 

and Taffo anoa Tancred a>d Ar- ,i^,, ,|j,; „ .i^kkg it of • 

ganle. with mro fpean a. big aa .^^ ^^ ^ ^^J, ^ ;, 

malb.Cant.6. St.40. Latin he write. .~™ia« aarifc 

Pofeni in rcfla, e dirizzaro in alto the conn of adiairaity. 

j duoguerrier lie ooderofe antenw, 

S99. JtaA-^ 



Nathlcfs he fo indur'd, till on the beach 
Of that inflamed fca he flood, and calFd 
His legions, Angel forms, who lay intranc'd 
Thick as autumnal leaves that ftrow the brooks 
In Vallombrofa, where th* Etrurian (hades 
High over-arch'd imbow't; or fcatter'd fedgc 
Aflote, when with fierce winds Orion arm'd 



299. Natble/s] Ncvcitlidcfi, of 
which it feenu Co be a contradcd 
diminutive. Hmme, 

This word is frequently ufcd by 
Spenfer, and the old poets. 

302. ThicJ^ as autumnal Uavts ] 
Virg- ^n. VI. 309. 

Qaam mulu in fylvis autumni fri- 

fiore primo 
Lapfa cadunt folia. 

TUck as the leaves in autumn 
ftroiv the woods. . Dryden. 

But Milton^s comparifon is by far 
ihe exadeft; for it not onlv ex- 
pr^SM a multitude^ but alfe the 
poftnxe and fitnadon of the Angels. 
Their lying confufedly in heaps, 
covering the lake, is nnely repre- 
fimted uv this image of the leaves 
in the brooks. And befides the 
propriety of the application, if we 
compare die fimiles themfelves, 
Minon*s is by far fuperior to the 
other, as it exhibits a real land- 
&q>. See Ah Effky upon Mihotis 
imfmti9iu 9f thf jhamtSf p. 23. 

%Oi, VaiUmbrrfa^^ A famous 
YMuicy in Etruria or Tufcany, fo 

named of FaiUs and Umtrot re- 
markable for the continual oool 
(hades, which the vaft number of 
trees that overfpread it aflRmL 


305. — • nuhen nmthfiercg wuk 
Orion armi &c.f Qrim is a 

conflellation reprefented in the fi« 
gure of an armed man^ amd fiip- 
pofed to be attended with flonay 
weather, afurgens fluOm niadapu 
Orion. Vitg. ^n. I. C39. And die 
Red-Sea abounds U> much widi 
fedge, that in the Hebrew Sa^ 
ture it is called the ^A^ ^M. And 
he (ays ffoth niox'i the lUd^m 
coafi particularly, becaoie tiie wU 
ufually drives the fedge in gittt 
quantities towards the more. 

306. — « *whofe ivaves o^er thrww 
Bufris and his MmfkiamcJU^miy,] 

Dr. Bentley throws out fix lines 
here, as the Editor^s, not Btfilton*s: 
His chief reafon is. That that fing^ 
event of Mofes*s paffing the Red- 
Sea has no relation to a confiant 
ouality of it, that in fiormy wea- 
ther it is ftrow'd widi fedge. But 
it is very ufual with Homer and 



Hath vex'd the Red-Sea coaft, whofb waves o^thrcw 

Bufiris and his Memphian chivalry. 

While with perfidious hatred they purfued 

The fojoiirners of Goihen, who beheld 

From the iafe fhore their floting carcafes 3 10 

And brdsAQ chariot wheels : fo thick beftrown 

AbjeA and loft lay thefe, covering the flood. 



Virnl (and therefore may be al- In the fenfe of riding and fighting 

low\i to Bdilton) in a compaiifon, on hor&back this wmd cUvJrj n ^ 

after they have (hown the refem- nfed in ver. 76;. and in many 

blance, to g^ off from the main places of Faimx's Taflb, as in 

porpole and tiniih with feme other Cant. 5. 8^9. Cant 8. St. 67. Cant. 

image, which was occafionM by 20. St 61. In the fenie of riding 

the compariibn, but is itfelf very and fighting in chariots drawn by 

different from it. Milton has dmie horfes, Milton ufes the word tU* 

thus in almoft all his finulitudes; 'valry in Parad. Reg. III. ver. 343. 

and cherefbn nAat he does ib fie- compared with ver. 328. Pearct. 

qnentlVf cannot be allowM to be 308. — perfidiws hatred] Becanfe 

an olgedion to the genoinnefs of niaraohy after leave given to fSko 

this paiSage before us. As to Mil- liraelites to depart, fbUow*d after 

ton^s maJung Pharaoh to be Bmfiris them like fu^tives. Humt. 

(which is another of the Dodor^s 310. From the fafe Jbore ihiir 

objedions to the pafiSige) there is Jffiit^ carcafe$ Ac] Miieh 

anthority enough for to juftify a has been faid of the long fimili- 

po^ in doing fo, tho' not an hi- tudes of Homer, VirgiU.and our 

ftorian : It has been fuppos'd by author, wherein they fetch a com- 

fame, and therefore Milton might pafs as it were to draw in new 

foOoiir ^at opinion. Chinialry for images, befides thofe in which the 

^mtthjy and cwwdry (fays Dr. Bent- dire6l point of likenefs confiils. I 

ley) tor €bari§irj^ is twice wrong, think they have been fufiiciently 

But k is rather t^ice right : for ehi- iaflify*d in the general : but in this 

M/7 (from the French chevaierie) before us, while the poet is dijgiref- 

fignifies not only knighthoods but fing, he raifes a new fimilitudo 

t£)fe who ufe horfes in fight, both from the floting carcafes of the 

^ as ride on horfies and fuch as. Egyptiws. Uijfiim. 

lit in chariots drawn by thfm : 

328. — m/ift 

40 PA-RADISE^fegiSffik 


Under amazement of their hideous change^ -.'. - - • 

He caird fo loud« that all the hoB6w deepr 

Of Hell refotind^d. . Priaceg, Potentates, «.. 315 

Warriors, the floyif'r of Heav'n> once yoorSy now loft. 

If fuch afioniflunent as this can feife 

Eternal Spirits ; or have ye chos'n this plaoe^ . . . 

After the toil of battel to repofe 

Your wearied virtue, for the eafe you find 32^ 

To flumber here, as in the vales of Heaven i 

Or in this abje^ pofture have ye fworn 

To* adore the conqueror? virho now beholds .. - 

Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood 

With fcatter'd arms and enfigns, till anon . 

His fwift purfuSBts frcnn Heav'n gates difcern .;-'.■.- n 

Th' advantage, and defcending tread us dovm m r 

Thus drooping^ or with linked thuhderboUsi .. r 

Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf* ' •• -^^ 

Awake, arife, or be for ever fell'n. 3 jo^ 

They heard, and were aba(h*d, and up^hey iprdng^^ 


328. — nvith linked tbiauUrMts Turbine corripuit, fcopoloqiie uh 

'frausfix us to the boitgm tf tins fixh acuto. - 

gulf J] This alludes to the Vi«r. ^n. I. aju Afcr 

fate of Ajax Oileus, ^ . v^*^r^ 

Who pleafeth to raad the DmTiv. 
Ilium expirantem transfixo pc£U>re fpeech to his damned afleaably ii. 
flammaa , Taflob Cant. 4, {ran Stanza 9 WU.' 

- StMM 


xm the wing, as when Men wont to watch 
I duty, Hecfnng found by whom they drvad, 
niie and beflir tfacmlelves ere well awake. 
n* did they not perceive the evil jdight 335 

which thty were, or the fierce pains not &el } 
t to their genend's voice they foon obey'd 
luraerable. As when the potent rod 

Amram's Ion, in Egypt's evil day, 
iv'd round the coaft, up call'd a pitel^ cloud 340 

locufts, warping on the eafton wind, 
at o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung 
:e night, and darken'd all the land of Nile : 
iMunberle£t were thoie bad Angels leen 
veriog on wing under the cope of Hell 345 

vixt upper, nether, and furrounding fires j 
I, as a fignal giv'n, th' up-lifted fpear 
their great Sultan waving to direct 
sir courfc, in even balance down they light 
die firm brimftone, and fill all the plain j 350 


uil, witlCBdonraatliorliu i^ it* l^d, aai the tnjl-wnd 
iam, tho' bonow'd little of Immgln tie Jeea^t: amJ ihe ktrnfti 
HMme. miel ^ «fm- mU the Umd tf^jft-' 
\j divittm thipeteia re^&c. ] Ja that tbe Umd ^m»> Jarhn'i. 
iM^ X. 13. t^iifirtuhtd 341.— wMf^] Wflrkiogthna- 
biirtdtveriheUmltf EeyU, fclvn fbminL * fet cem. 

L. I. ^ ^ M iix-4 

4a PA R A DI« Bi L O ST. 

A muUitude, like which the populous aorth> •" # 
Pour'd never from her frozen loins, W piifs ' ' 
Rhcne or the Danaw, when her barbarous Ions 
Came like a deluge on the fouth, and fpread 
Beneath Gibraltar to the Lybian fands. 355 

Forthwith from every fi^adron and each band 
The heads and leaders thither hafte where flood 
Their great commander; GodUke ihapes and fomw 
Excelling haman, princely Dignities, 
And Pow'rs that erft in Heaven fat on thrones ■ 360 
Though of their names io heav'nly records now 

a' _3qi. A imtltitait, Hii luhUi &c.^ count of the coldnds ttf*|^^| 

ooIdS. P^KADIS-B LOST. 43 

le no memorial^ blotted ont and ras'd "" 

y tfaetr rebellion froui the books of life. 

Tor had they jet among the font of Eve 34^4 

rot them new namea^ €31 wand'riog o'er the earthy 

'hrough God's high fufierance for the ti^'al of mani ' 

ly falfities and lies the greateft part 

>f maalrind diey corrupted tx> ibriake 

Sod their Creatv^ and th' iavifibk 

rlory of him that nude them to tcaosform 370 

)ft to the iowge of a brute, adorfi'd- 

Vith gay religions full of pomp and gold^ 


nd Vtadila* .wbo overruii all the is» as Mr. Uptoii obfcrres, by falif 

ittdiiem nravincii of EiiTope» and idol$» under a carporeal reprefen- 

IOCb^ w Mfditerrsutfan ktuatb tatiQii» iehing the true Godp The 

'ilfsiiStr hwM ui Afiica* uod poet jiainly alludes to Rom. I. 22, 

Wtml Aemfdrci as far as the &c. frhcm fli£jf bu^w Gojy thn g/o-' 

ply OOqntry «f Libya. Berumtb Gi- rified him not ai Qcd — - and tlantvid 

nebor dM is more fputbwardy die tie glory tf the unco'rruftihli Gid 

jMdlkWiQC MoperHioft in the dobe. iato an iaagi >— who ebangtd tkt 

■ gS^.-^^lmbtflifi.^ Dr.Iknt- trmi ^ Gad iota a lie. So Ajnoa 

tf itada-^fc M rfUfij thau being II. 4. ^htir lies ta^edibtm to err. 

be Scri^cive eiweffioA. ^d Jerem. XVI. 19. &rfv^ »ur/athr$ 

^^^'^^rirtlT fays ukewife Uot/rd Iwvfi/iieritgdUtsi^c, 

\tmdaM,lfli,% Kichardll. 369. -^ and tV in^fikU 

bfikJ. Glory §f bun that made tbem h 

Mr ame be blotted from the rsr^^^'^ ^ . ^ *i 
^ ^^^Q 1^- Oft to the tmm of a bnteA Al- 

•** " "*• luding to Rom..!. 23. And ckamd 

\al the author might write hooh in the glory of the, MmcrrvftihU God, 

he plaral as well as records juft into an inuige made Hie tp eormftiUe 

HfoKc; and the plural agrees bee- man, and to birds^ and four-faoui 

cr with the idea Uiat he would give hiafi$^ and creefu^ tlnngs. f'.". 

^ the great number of AngeL. -372. jyhb gay re^jiont full §f 

^%^.Bj/iiifki9iandJiff1 Tbat trnfaadfOdfJ ByreHHMu 

M 2 Mil ton 

44 PARADISE tOST. Bobtl 

And Devils to adore for Deities : 
Then were tfacj known to men by various names. 
And various idols through the Heathen world, 37J 
Say,Mufc,theirniunesthenknown,whofirft, who laft, 
Rous'd from the flumber, on that fiery couch. 
At their great empe'ror's call, as next in worth 
Came fingly where he ftood on the bare ftrand. 
While the promifcuous croud flood yet aloof. 380 
The chief were thofe who from the pit of Hell 
Roaming to feek their prey on earth, dtirft fix 


MUCon nteuis reliristu ritit, u Ci' foperftidon. This ^vct it afm 
eera uTm the word, whea he joint sdrantage over the caabguo-W 
nliffatu ti ceremiuai. De Lcgib. hu imicated, for MIIiod'i bccww 
lib. I.e. i{. and eliewbcte. thereby a netcflkry part of At 
Ptarct. wofki u the original of iiipaft* 
376. Sat, Muft, &c.] The ca- tios, an effendal part of a rcl^iau 
tatogue of evil Spirits has abun- ejnc, could not have beon Otowi 
dance of learning in it, and a very without it. Had Vi[£;il> oc He- 
agreeable turn of poetry, which mer's been omitted, tbeir peoH 
r)fe» m a great meafurc from its would not have luffisredmaMriillyi 
defcribing the placet where they becaafe in their relati^M of Ik* 
were worfluppeo, by thofe beauti- following atUont we fini the U- 
fill marks of rivers, fo frequent dicn, woo were before r m^^IMiJ' 
among the ancient poeu. The au- bjt by no fbUowiog hifioty of W 
thor had doubtlefs in this place perdition that Miltoa could hot 
Homer's catalogue of Ihipi, and brought in, could we find oatlU 
VirgU'i lilt of warrion in his view. DeviU agency, it was therefimM' 
AMfan. ccfTary he fliould inform ni of At 
Dr. Benilcy fays that this is not fa£t. Wmrimtm. 
the liaeft part of the poem : but I Sof, Mu/e, tcz. Homer at the b^ 
think ic is, in the defign and draw- ginning of his catalogue in*^ 
ing, if not ia the coloring ; for his Mufe afrelh in a very pom|iffi" 
the Paradile Loil being a religious manner. Virgil does the like^l 
epic, nothing could be more artful MiJtoo follows both fo far as M 
than thus deoudng the original of make t frclh invocation, riioagb 



heir ieats long after next the feat of God, 

beir aitan l^ his altar^ Gods ador'd 

nong the nations round, and durft abide 3S5 

hovah thund'ring oat of Sion, thron'd 

tween the Cherubim; yea, often plac'd r 

''ichln his lanfhiary itfelf their flirines, .; 

bominatioQS ; and with curled things 

is holy rites and folcmn iealts pro£in'd, 390 

id with their darkne^ durft aflront his light. 

rft Moloch, horrid king, belinear'd with bkx}d 


rtibecauTeltehsdalnadjrinBde i Kings Vl.zt. i Eingi VIII. 6 

im i>d CDltmn ad<lre& in thit and 7. See alfo a Kinei XIX. t;^ 

ylxwk, ■ttkcbeghmingofkii O UtiQ^l^ IfrmlvMA a*utUtfi 

-m. httifirtm tbt CinvUm. Hesckiih'* 

■ 76. — tUr w^ni ihem imw w m,'] pntjrer. Humr, 

hen Huj hid cM then bbw 387. — ye», tfitaflafi 

IM9. MkM Mwly conliilei'd Within hii ftmaumrj iifilf ihcir 

A the asnn kc (wh obliged to ^tMi, 

Af t» tbtlb cril Angelt carir ■ ^bimim^im 1 1 Thii ii ccn- 

1 flpufiwion, and therefore plaia'd of by ine prophet jero* 

lid Mt be Aofe thejr had in their tniah VII. 30. Ft the daUren »f 

ee oJF iamccBce and ^kuy 1 h« JaJab havi imt rvil in mf Mft, 

■ Awefefc faid their nrmer faith tht I^d; tbtj bafd§ fit Atir 
aa AM now loft) m'd from aitrnjuatitnt in tht b»fi mhlei it 
loagB iWe of their old illb- raiteJ ly my mamt, u ftilnit it, 
iKi M^ retain their purity and And we re^ of ManaSeh, 3 Kingi 
pinaefi. S^thtr^fim. XXI. 4 and ;. that Ht inili alitrt 
376. wfc Jirp, nsbt Ufi, ] in tk Aw> ^ iht Urd, »f •«ibiei 

ttumtSc. Virg.^.XI.66+. '^2* b,fi ff H»«^, in ihi t^ 

JB6. thnm-J ttnrtt */ tit bm/i tf tbt Urd. See 

ttnumi th* Citmiim ;] Thii rc- ^o Ezck. VII. 10. nid VIII. j. 6. 

d to t^ ark being placed be- wt. Tirfl Mtiath, btrrid inrO 

cen ibc tW9 gidden Chenibim, firf after Satu ajid Bei^zcbnb. 



Of human facriiicc, and parents teara, 

Though for the noiie of dnuna tnd timbrels loud 

Their childrens cries unheard, that paft'd throi^ fin 

To his grim idol. Him the Ammcmits ^^ 

Worlhipt in Rabba and her watry plain. 

In Argob and in Balao> to the Arcam 

Of utmoil Amon. Nor content with fuch 


The mmeMfhtb a ffli^tjug.xiiA Awmm, ( Kingi XI. 7. tiid «l 

lie K caird hart-id king, becaaTe «f worlhipped in RaUm, tke taau 

the human ficrifices which wefc cicyof the Anumnltn, wKidkn 

Made to him. Thii idot ii fup- vid conqucr'd, and took fni 

poTed by Ibmc to be the fame u thence the crown ef thdr Ol 

Samm, to whoAi the Heathens fa- Milmn as Tome render die md 

crificcd^eirchildreniandbyothtn 9 Sam. Xll. 30. and dtb ibH 


Audacioiis neighbouiiiodd) the wiieft heart 406 
Of Sdomon he led by fhattid to build i 

His temple ri^ i^lEunfttfae temple' o£ Ood 
On. that oppfObrioiM faiU^ and made his groire 
The pleafant valley' of Hionomy Tophet tfaeiKe \ 
And black Gehemu c^'d^ the type of Hell. 40 J 
Next Chemos^ th' obfcene ditad of Moab's fons^ 


N««r Teflamevit, imi by our Sir dwyoF their covttry to die noidi; 
mar Umlelf nuide the nrnrng mud mfcerwardt belonging to the tribt 
Mr 9f Bdl^ \Kf MMfen cF the fire of Gi4» H AU«b % dty caftvardL 
thtt was kept op there to Uol^cb^ afterwards belonging to the tribe 
ttA of the horrid noans and out- of Reaben» mid the 'wild •ffimtb' 
cries of human ucrifices. We nuft Abarim^ a ridge of mountains 
aUt lalatOT arach l^ore upon iht boutidary of tMr coiuitnr to 
M& cf AcfeUoliw nd produce n the foiiths in Hrfebm or Hefliboii» 
hUBf rf Warned .anthondei and smUhrwrnimt Sim'jrtaimf Cwod* 
^witiiTi I heft we endevor xe be ties of the Moabites, taken horn 
m fliOit as wmcmit wA&y niaincce them by Sihon kaigof the Aaso- 
Aen majrianre:a»ii (hfficicat com- rites. Numb. XXI. a6. igymtd tki 
mi^liT ^ -caqplein and ilkfaate JUviry daU •/ SUma clad wM 
oerandior. . tiwwf, a fJace famous for vine- 

406. Ntxt Chemast &€.] He is yards, aa appears fioajer. XL VIA. 
n^dj mcMiAi'd next after Mh- 3s. O tfiwe rf Sihnah I m// «m^ 
Mk aa teir mmns «ie joia'd to- fir ibf. and EitmUt another ci^ of 
' Ih Scripmr e 1 Kiim XL 7. the Moahkes not far from Hm- 

God of the AmaMmibes te the Sea (b aU*d from the jiffbaliws or 

i of their Beighbean die Mo- bitumen abounding ia it; the xnrcr 

St. Jerom aid feveral Jordan empties ittclf into it, and 

katacd mendbrtOboMsandAM/ that river and this fea were the 

Aar to be ealy diilei«Dt namea lor boundary of the Moabitei to the 

Ihe lame idol, aad luppoie him to weft. It was this God under d|e 

he the £uBe with Pmu^us or the name of Baal Fimr^ that the If- 

idel of turpiaide, and .tfa er efcre raelites were induced to worihipin 


>*f >lar, frim Jnar^ a dty with the daughters of Moab, for 

apm m over Aoae, the bomi- which thne died of the plague 

M 4 ' twenty 

^8 TPAILADtJB 0)«^T. .Boofcl 

From Aroar to Ncbo,-aiKiithft(inld--'.-» n r&toM tu 

Of fouthmoft-Abarim; in Hefebon- - " ■ -.- -■ " t 

And Horonaim, Seon'8 realm, beyond 

The flow'ry dale o( Sibma clad with vines, 410 

And EJealc to th' Afphaliic pool. 

Peor his other name, when he entic'd 

Ifrael in Sittira on their march from Nile 

To do him wanton rites, which coft them woe. 

Yet thence his luftfal orgies he inlarg'd ^]^ 

Ev'n to that hill of fcandal, by the grove 


nvcnt^ 'tnd fenr thoufand, u m kiiae mondfcntiauAt lUft^ggrm. 

BdoIcII. PA*ADrSB l*OiS^. f^ 

Of Moloch hofliicide^liift hard by bate}: >:-[ i 
Till good Jofiah drove them thcDcetiyHell. ^ O 
With thcTe cdOfediey, who from the berd'riii^fl«^ 
Of old Euphrates to the hnck that patts ' :: ^ 4^0 
Egypt from Syrian ground, had genera] jnmes 
Of Baalim and Afhtaroth, tbofeoiale, ~ 

Thefe feminine. For Spirits when theypleoie -■yyi: 
Can either fex aflame, or both; foibft T 

And uncomponnded is thur ef3enoe pure, k-^ 

Not ty'd or manacled with joint or ilimb^. - 1 


ttr imq^f MM tie fia, m»d ier ibool A» Openiietl of 'Dcnmi, 
/rMr£«i *M« df mwp, tbit ii fiWR friurea Aoiyii nte»d«f aObl 
rim MeditanBcn to the river nun^ x^peaifogift the Ihm of t 
EwfkiUei: H tit Imi limt fKTfi wobm; knd upon tkUrdonbt'ii 
Bgftjhm ffrumpm i iJ, noftpro- nus'd whether foma Deawiu ve 
mUv dtt MD^ BeTer mcmian'd mslei, and ochen faiuim ; and it 
nr wfaSiie, near Rhinoadnni, u ifleited dui they on a^nnc d^ 
which an is ■fip'd Ibmeames ra ther fex; end take what Diape and 
SytlaaBalbaetiiiieit»Bg)rpt. coloi diey pkafe, and amtraQ or 

*J*K2?^SS^eitr.a. they ^ of «» aery nature. J^,.«* 

•Wt then were many 5«tt- ini *»' * *' «0'" 5:««« /ttwi,. 
Sir^Withtyw^the^ «^«.^XfM»^©^ r^O- «- 

ftm«Xioftof Heav«. fx"*- "*'";l**««tf>-< 

iim sn uiG HUH ui nc«Ycn. f^ifutmr J^tAtyQ-. p- 70.— 77. 

^1 J. Ftr Sfiriti ivifM thy fbafi Edit. Lutet. Paiir..i6i{. Such aa 

&c.} Thefe nations abou extraonUnuy fcholar wu Milton, 

%irili fteiB to have been bonowM and fuch ufe he made of aU lorn 

MB Blkhad Pfidlna.hii Aalofw of 'Uthon. 

•^ ♦37- 'R'* 

Nor founded on the brittle ilrcngth.of bones. 

Like cumbrous ReChi but in what fliape they choofe 

Dil^£d ot t»ndais'd, bright or obJ£ur«. 

Can execute their aery purpoTeS, 436 

And works of love or enmity fiilfil. 

For thofe the race of I&ael oft fbrfook 

Their livii^ Arength, toA unfrequented left 

His righteous altar, bowing lowly down 

TobeftialGodsj for which their heads as low 435 

Bow'd down in battel, funk before the fpear 


4;7. jyitb thefi ut m^ ftc ] murnhdn »f ecmftim, i -iiap 

J^trtth or Aflarit was the God- XXIII. 13. u here l^ the po« 

dcfi of tfac Pb^niciani, and the tlf affeiifpL-i tmrnntmr, UuL boon 

noon WM adored under this naoie. rtct opfnbrkKj biU, and <W Hi 

&e h rigfatly faid to nmt m Iretp rf fcaUai. 

widi Aibtaroth, as flic wai one of 44b. thoBaoK tmtm mtt tK. ] 

litem, the moon with iha ftan. Thx txcomt of TiMm/mm.* -f^ 

SonetincB fhe » called fwm «^ romantic, and fvit^de la wKk •* 

ttiMM, Jer.VIf. 18. and XLIV. read among tbe AucMBts flC.lkt 

17, 18. She is likewile called f;b worihipwhich was paid to thK 

GtiJtfi <f tht ZiJoKMia, 1 Kuws idol. The reader wiQ patdtm ac 

XI. J. mmJ lit Bbemnation of iht if I infett as a DOte OB &ii beV- 

Ziimiau, 2 Rings XXlil. 13. u tiful palTagc, the account, g^rca* 

fiw wat worfhippfld very much in hy the late ingenious Mr. titm- 

Ziitu or 5/yM, a famom city of diel of thii andent piece of WW 

die PitnieMut, fituated upon the Ihip, and probably the fliA 4tti- 

MeditBRineBn. Solomon, who had Jion of fudi a fupeilUtion. " Wc 

many wiret that were foreigners, " came to X fair lai^ rirer — 

was prenil'd upon by thrat to in- " doubtlefi the ancient river JUi- 

trodnce the worihip of this God- " nis, fo famous for the iddlMMM 

defs mto Ifrael. ■ Kings XI. $. " rites parfbnaed hcRMLatfa* 

and built her temple on the mount " tion of Adonn. We had it 

of OKrcs, which on account of ' ' ' ' " ' 

■hti and odier idob is called fh 

" fortune to fee what mayfaiJi^ 

" poMcobedw oocafimofiM 


defincable feetf. With 'tIi6Je &t uuop 

ne AAoretfa,- whom the Flittnkfens call'd 

arte, queen 4if Hav'n, Widicr^oit hcnu( 

whofe bri^ image nightly by the moon 4^1^ 

Oman Tirg'ins pud their tows' and fbngs, ' 

Sion alfo not wifinig, vhere'ftood 

:r temple on tk* ofienlin mountKio> buSc 

that uzDrian king, vha&heaitAoa^hr^ ' 

^il'd by &ir idolatrefles, itM- xit 

idols foul. Tfaammuz tame next behind, 


pinion which Lndan nUtei, KCOrding to the tnididmu died 
nc thw diii ftruin it cenain emy ftax ftud reriv'd Bgaiii. H« 
!)^faM of the year, eTpedaO^ wu ftnn 17 a wiU boar in smum 
boat tht feat of Aihmil, ii of Ltbamn, Rom wluaca the rircr 
bltwdjr colari wbich^cHea- Adonis dHceulj'; iu«t tiriiea Ait 
KM hMked urn u proceed- Ant bwia ta be of « nddHh 
i^ftlnakiMOf ^matbf in hoe, ac it did n a cendn feste 
Mrrinrftir'As deadi of Adonis, of die yv^, this ww Aoir fignfel 
kto iMlldU'd by^ k wild boar for cclefatadbg their Adtxda or 
I di4liioantal&S eoc of lAich AiAs of ftto t is, and the wosKa 
tk Ibeam rUk*. Somedting made bad laaaiiiiaibiiii fiir Ua, 
fcb tfiia «t ftw iftiafly cbnc fapporuig the rim vm ditolor'd 
tJiAi'fer'Ae Water wulbdn'd with hu blood. Tha like idtda- 
> • AtifriSBtt redaefi ; and as trooi rites were tiaiufinred to Jeru- 
M.'obAvfed In tntcIfnE, bid itSem, where Exckid law thewo- 
UbOttMM ihe ftt a great war men lamcntiBK Timmke, Bade, 
tto a itddilh bae, occafion^d VIII. 1-3, 14. HtJaJM^m*^, 
ttddtft by a Ion of -mininm fxnt i^ jtt ^pcnt, wJ^mfmb 
r'fil feardi, walkM mto die ^ jmitr mUtam ai m that tlif A. 
Mrbytherioleacesf therain, fhtm it imfit wa h tit Jitt »r 
tittotbf my ttsin ftom Ado- tAt ntr if (ft £«nrr b^, «^ 
is'k Uood." .M^. vu Tfumfc nb Mt^ aaif MiU 

MMSE«rU AeGodof riw Sf- ti^n fit vme* ■wBMpiag Jir^ Ttm- 
i, llieiaflft1i1tk-Ad«Bf»,ino mmi. - l>r, fW ben oft'ate Qb- 


52 P'ARADISE l«O.ST. ^oedd 

Whole annual vroimd ia Lebaoon^aUor'd 

The Syrjaa dunfij) to lament hi&.&te 

In amorous ditties all a iummer's d^y* , 

While fmooth Adonis £-am his native rock 450 

Ran purpl? to the iea, Tuppos'd with blood 

Of Thammuz yearly wounded : tl«e. love-talc 

Infected Sion's darters with like hieat, 

WhoTe wanton pafiions in ifae ijuxed porch . : 

Ezekiel Taw, when by the rifi(Hi.led . 455 

His eye-fiirvey'd the dark idolatries 

Of alienated Judah. Next came one 


ftnatiawvpm poetry qaottiToine Hi. fact, u th* pmatd t^firf df vl 

of tbdit vena upon T^miaiMc u ef thiLtrii.»»iiht head b/'u^ 

diftbiniOuUyineiodioiui andthcT aid hib ibt f^ilms ^ hii h^i£ ■».■/» 

m werwed to be not ludike thole cU iff. ufim lb§ thrrJiclJ {upa* rk 

bMutifiilUiiesmSbakefpeariHtn. jno^/ or ^uudlil ei/gt, asMHtco 

IV. Ad ni. wid pviicuUrly in the expreflea it, on the edge of At 

firectneft of the niunbcn t fbotpofl of bii temple gate) «aA f^ 

At (mm. ts dtttiet higWy pem'd, -^"^ t ^'ff' •-^" ^^ '' *« ■' 

$on£ by > fitir qneef i^ ITftm- *' «"* ' Swn. V. +. Lonat 

a^t bower, """ "* ''')' "^ *"**■" "F*«* 3 

W14 nnflung diri&m to her ?«^ »^«»" »' *" i^^t. SaJ 

jgf^ " denvc the nunc cram Da^aH mUI 

liguies corn, uif he wta the^S 

^^. , ._^_ /iTiTj./ (Mjif f M^ vcntor of it ; ahers from Ak 

m» awntV n Mm^. &c.]The which £gnifiH i Efh, and reptdbl 

liBmtMiontior Adonii were with- him accordiogly with the vfgB 

out rcafin, but there mu retl oc- part of a man, and the lown Jf4 

cafioa ibr O^fta'a monmin^ when of a fifli. Our author foUowi d* 

the irk of God wu taken 1^ the latter oinnioii, which it that cos- 

Plriliftinca. and bong placed io the monly reccir'd, and hai befidaibe 

teaiplo of Dmpn, the next mom- authority of the learned ScUok 

UK itbM Dtfim wm /tUa V" Thii Dt^m U called is ScrlfUR 

1 ■* 

ftdtirf. l*AftAl>1[1Ste LdsY. jj 

Who moum'dtti'eahiell, itrbentlMfi captive ark' 
dVf aim'd his brute linage, head atid hands lopt off . : • 
In his ovm temple, on the gmnfel edge, * ' 460 
Where he fell flat, tmd iham'd his wwfhippers : A 
Dagon his name; fea monfler, upward man ' '. j . > 
And dowhvirurd fi{h : yet had his temple high 
Rear'd in Azotos, dreaded through the coail :; 
Of JRalefUne, in Gath and Afcaioo, - 4^5 

And Accacon and Gaza's frontier bounds. . :> . 
Him fbUow'd Rimnndn, whofe delightful feat 
Was £iir Damafcus, on the fertil banks 


die God of Chc^ Philifliiies» ind bam muf Pharfhar^ rnmii,f^.B^ 
wau woHhipped in the five jMin- wmfcmt; t» tbcf «ra olkd ».Kbij|p 
cipal dda ofdiePliiliftines, men- V. t^i A kftr mn be kiiHwrntm 
lionU-i Sam. VL 17. Azttut or the Syrite who was can<of Jui k* 
AQidod where he had a temple as proT/by^BlMha, and whoibrthac 
«c icad ki I Sam. V. GM^ and xeafon mMv*d dieacofeidi tt^^^ 
4fM^^ wad AitMrmi^ or Ekrtm^ ntitber b mtmi't j/ Mmi wNr.ftas^w 

gGmui whose the/ had facri- «w Wi&rr . GM ^ m/v W^ /(w^ 
^aS. fcaffinp in honor of him. a Kmn V. 17. .^Ai^ ^V^ f .^rmw 
Indgr- Xn. Gtxat frffditr boumts. Abax bis fittiflf cMqmrpfr^ W^jLwim 
fi^iihe joet, as it was* the (outhefn the affiftance of the king .Qti^fly- 
otRmcj'of the promisVl land to- ria having taken bamafcqif * Taw 
wasf^gSfpt. It b mentioned by there an altar, and fent a 'pattern 
UofetM.ue feuthem point of the of it to Jerufalem to have another 
hadof Canaan. Gen. X. 19. made by it; dife6t]y co u n a t y to 

467. Btm/oIimPdRimmtitiUc.'] die command of- Gad. who. had 
WmmM was a God of the Syrians, appointed What k&d of abar h« 
bat it ii not certain what he was, wvmid have (Eaod. XXVIf. i» 8» 
' wwhyfocaird. We only know fre.) and hod ordered that noothcr 
[ Atthe had a temple at Damajau, Ihonld be made of any matter or 
I lEnn V. 18. the mod celebrated figure whatfeever. Ahaz howcvar 
! «jiy «? Syria, M thi bwih rf Ab- upon hit Miuni removed the ^Itaa 




Of Abbana and Pharj^iar, lucid ftreama. 

He alfo' againft the houfe of God was bold: 4^0 

A leper once he loft, and gain'd a king, 

Ahaz his fottifh conqu'ror^ whom he drew 

God's altar to difparage and difplace 

For one of Syrian modc> whereon to burn 

His odious offerings, and adore the Gods 4^5 

Whom he had vanquifh'd. After thefe appeared 

A crew who under names of old renown^ 

Ofiris, Ifis, Qrus» and their train^ 


of the Loid from its phce, and fet 
up diit new altar in its ftead» and 
^fr^d tbinmi^ 2 Kings XVI. lo. 
Ac. and thenceforth gave hsmfeif 
ap to idolatiy» and inftcad of the 
God of Ifrael ift faaijicd unto tin 
Gm& ofDamaJcms, x ChroD.XXVUI. 
33. whom he had fubdned. 

^jS.Ofirisy hitt Ortitj and their 
trahj &€.] Ofins and I/b 
were the princijud deities of me 
Egyptians, oy which it is moft pro- 
bi^le they originally meant the fun 
And moon. Onrj was the foB of 
Ofirifl and Ifis» frequently con- 
fimnded with Apollo: and thefe 
and As other cSods of the Egyp- 
tians wcra worihipp^ m nm- 
/nmj^afa, bolls, cats, dm, bfe. 
iMd ' the reafim alleged for this 
-^—^ worfliip is derivM from 
H tradition, that when 
iBTadcd Heaven, the 
tfii|^ilBd th 

fled into Egypt, and there 
cealed themfelves in the fluipei of 
various animals; and the £(1^ 
tians afterwards out of gradnav 
worihipped the creatures» whfift 
fliapes the Gods had aflam*d. Oiril 
Met. V. 319. &c. where is an ifr 
coant of their transformatioat : Mi 
therefore Milton here calls 

Their nvamTrifrg Gods diJ^idU 

hrutijb firms 
Rather than human, 

482. Nor did I'roii ^c^ 

Th' infeaion, &c.] The IfilcfilV 
by dwelling lb long in Egypt «mr 
infedled with the fupentanom 4 
the Egyptians, and in all prabahi- 
lity made the golden cal^ oi il 
(for (b it is difTerendy caU'd, Ffii 
CVI. 19, 20.) in imitation of llfK 
which reprefented OiirisB and Ml 
of the Bciden earing^, which ^ jl 
molt likely they boriow*d cf jM 



nonftrous ihapes and forceries abus'd 

; Egypt and her prieASy to feck 480 

vand'ring Gods difguis'd in bruti(h forms 

than human. Nor did Ifrael 'fcape 

eaion, when their borrowed gold composed 

ilf in Orcb; and the rebel king 

;d that iin in Bethel and in Dan, 485 

ng his Maker to the grazed ox, 

h, who in one night when he pafs'd 

5)gypt marching, equaPd with one ftroke 


S, Exod. XII. 35. The th:4 eatclbfrcfi: Jehy.-J;, ^^hiU 

Ittkt ^ fo the Pfalmift, onenigki rjjoen ht fa/id fr%m hj-jjH 

ii M calf h HtfTthj Pial. marcbing^ for the chiliiren of Llaei 

), while Nfofes was upon not 0&I7 pa/id f:oa E^/F^ ^^ 

It with God. And thi Tied «tfr.-^V ia a wai;i#:t xeir^rr. srid 

-oboam made king by tnc tiie Lord bro^zbt iberfi ^^ t;.t 

inimiutionof thcLgyp- Lord flMr di :&€ Ln-U^. - .c? 
h whom he hiii converted, lami ^ hnH tK:c mus: t^.: :-; . 
\ a couple of ox-rri wikic'n «iii irpM i^'' ''.§&: c.-. i.<i \ *: 
rihippsd, ORC cailtd Ap-li f *#r»f £^ f^rm. •„•; . i^i:*:. /... _ 
phis the metropolis of tr.e N«ab XXXIil t.. a:.; y. - • 
gypt, andtheoiherMce-tii rrf^.'.* il iul* Ovc, -i. t -•.♦:.-. 
ipolb the chief dry of t:be t«c ae». s-i^-?--; '-•i.' .1 :,. - 
gypt: and he fet th^m .p ^^^r.. ar^T ',*!»••/ 'j.t a.!:^.v 
r/tfii^ w D«r, tiie tfco ex- froci fi«:p. ^.liC -i.-<r :. T'-- 
I of the kingdom of irra£. tr» */. zsy vjr. 'x 'j*:j^ .> s , 
ner in the fouth, tAe lr'.er **r» {t.. :*c»:tn •.•.;: i^t '.y v *a 
orth. UUmftt kitltUtkf^ K c.^ v-r •..- !l:. : ^t?^; r ^ 
«i/ «c, alluding to Pk.. Kifai-r c f -:•:!. -sir •-:?'• rr. 1 

a$ ikt fimbude t/ c« iar tsr /'sT^^wu uvf^..^^^ ^ ^^^. " 


Both her firft-born and all her bleating Gods. 
Belial came laft, than whom a SpiVit more lewd 490 
Fell not from Heaven, or more gro& to love 
Y'vx for itfelf : to him no temple fiood 
Or altar fmok'dj yet who more oft than he 
In temples and at altars^ when the prieft 
Turns atheift, as did Eli's fons, who fill'd ^^f 

With luft and violence the houfe of God > 

niDt licnce etrmpr AmmmF C)e- tndt the Mflkge U he begU b 

ineM Alexandnmu telli lu that with the Gtid) of Egypt. 
the people of Sau ud Thebes 

wofuipped Iheep; and R. Jarchi 490. BelimI tiam UK, Jtc] Tbc 

npoa Gen. XLVI. ;4.. fa/i that a charaaen of AMfc* and AW 

Jhipherd was therefore an abo- prepare the reader'* mind tot Am 

' D to die Egyptian!, becinfe lefpeflive fpcecha and hafc ~ 

the Bgypunt worshipped Iheep as in the (ccond and &ali book. 

Godi. We may farther add, that US^ 

Onkclm, Jonathan, and fevcral And they are very propcriy nMb 

othcri arc of die fame opinim, one the firft, and the other ^ lA 

and fay that (hephenl* were ati in thU catalogue, a> they balk 

aboiniiiBtion to the Egyptians, be- make fb great a figure nftenniAil 

caufe they had no greater regard the poem. MiUtb the firfl, as k 

10 thofe creatures which the Bgyp- was ibt firmfi Spirit thmt Jii^m 

tians woHhipped, than to breed Hca-z-en, II. 44. and Be&a/At fa4 

them up to be eaten. Thefe au- ai he is reprelcntcd as the mot t- 

ihoriiie) arefufiicient tojuftifyour manMi anJfethfiiUll. 117. Itiak 

poet for calling them hUmting not appear that he was ever w» 

CtJi; he might make ufe of that fhippcdt but lewd profl^ae fA- 

cjathet ai one of the moft inAgni- lows, fuch as regard ariwat Gti 

ficant and contenpiible, with the nor Man, an called in Scriptaa 

fame air of difilain as Virgil lays thi dulA-n «/ BiHal, Dcut. JtllL 

^n.VIII.69S. 13. So the fons of Eli are caffd 

Omnigenbnqiie de&m mooflra & ' S*»; "■ '»■ ^7 '*^^T<*; 

the Lard. So [he men of GibeA 

and fe returns to hi; fubjeA, and who abus'd the Lcviw'i wife. Judb 

bit pxiuxDEastUEL'Sjr: 5^ 

i'ot iiftepds ftliof&4^:]oftHAit^ci9r« '. .t: - ;^ T 
injury and pu^rages..^^ ^)^MEa;4ii^^0- --^^ j|^* 
Eenst]»ikee^.4hf^waadjQr^yth4%.^ps,^:: r^ -^v 
Selial> fknvowitlLin&jence-^^^iae,. .■,:-r'.. -^ 
Deis the^rcetsof Sodom, andth^ n%^t- ,; r,- 
ribeah, when ^lelio^it^I^ 491^. i.. .— rVw 


I wmckareuic p^iTCCulir la*. axfuJ ^ Motrti jb^m^J "u^w 
I here sjrcn by our anther. ' —, .-.'■^•XSp-K^^iTniqiiu'.J'it. 
■■•" ' ^]iMpriii(e<riniefc'wa3l,t4l8<»4. 

Jit fiiu raa_t3iufc ',- ,^.- ,^... 
i-irteii' holjptnble )dwv '-^'^T r-? 

^;^t^4i<l WfJLIa ■Itering tiM . 

0, Umt aay aw/rn* Wis yieUoS. . 
ire ; the women iiui rat lunfuat 
«. Goi. XIX. B. and w ihey.wwe 
iy o|ler]d nOI acpepicd^ it u not 
Dperioiay.ihat they.were_>;V//ft/, 
II obfuvc thai Milcps id the fcr 
.^. Bui coml eiliuoii changed yUldid laio 
. . ^ .. . . Oc u fijaiV, betlufe in whju wis tlooB 
^^ , . ii JQay |)c,a puti- at Gibcah, Judg. XIX. .7j. ths 
piSL^ verb .^yirui, u t/vtr-^ Lcviu's wife wa^ doc QtAy j-UUiJ, 
jftamtaatsf ufe^.for .qvccr but pui out cf dwu-^ auJ exfm'j 
^ "AnJ the iBC*cii)g m. the to the. mcDi ^ewdojjj^ _ Why ihea 
U Jbyit'J-vniii inibleoce auf does Dr.'Bentley' pntfe Milcpny 
•Aa cxpfefficn very common £rit reading to his fecdnd, when he 
4(;. vciV jh«. . In the funs alter'4^-^die»WAMk«it moc« 
nw^ijA^Vwithfiicadi; m, sgreekblc W theiSoripMrat-terf f 

V^ *> -' >■':<•] J' ii'cici LUC Hiuiiii-il iiui rat lunfuat 

f£wi/iAit ii .« pQOqjpIe f^'M. Gui. XIX. t<. and u ihey.wete 

|fi!Kf))iJ^ l^^jBcanit^ only o|ler]d not acpepicd^ it ii hot 

^^ — T railed 'iJ ' higJu- proper lo iay.ihat they .weiejicyaL 

iiCB ^ ^djjMi'inJQ- Bui obfuvc thai Milcps id the fe,- 

1 wine nads aSiJi an coml edition changed ^I'.-Uv/ li 

»Jjy»'..:J .«•■.■ 




Expos'd a matron to avoid worfc rape. 50J 

Thefe were the prime in order and in might > 
The reft were long to tell, though far rcnown'd, ' 
Th' Ionian Gods, of Javan's ifluc held -a 

Gods, yet confefs'd later than Heav'n and Earth, • 
Their boafted parents : Titan Heav'n's firfl-born, J|4 
With his enormous brood, and birthright fcis'd 
By younger Saturn ; he from mightier Jove 
His own and Rhea's fon like raeafure found; 
So Jove ufurping reign'd : thefe firft in Crete 
And Ida known, thence on the ihowy top 


lookf. PARADISE LOST. 59 

)f cold Olympus mrd the middle air, 

rheir higheft Heav'n; or on the Delphian clifF, 

3r i^n Dbdona, and through all the bounds 

3f Doric land; or who with Saturn old 

Fled over Adria to th' Hefperian fields, 520 

find o'er iht Celtic roamM the utmoft lies. 

AH theie and more came flocking; but with looks 
Down caft and damp, yet fuch wherein appear'd 
Dbfcure fome glimpfe of joy, to* have found their chief 
Nfot in dieipair, to' have found themielves not loft 525 
[n lofs itfelf; which on his countenance caft 


tbohy is fuppofed to have fettled terwards became the name of Hea* 

a the ibath-weft part of Afia Mi- ven among their worihippers ; er 

lOTy abont bmaf which contains en the Delphian cliffy Pamafliis, 

he radical letters of his name. His whereon was feated the city Delphi 

IdcendentB were the lotnam and famous for the temple and oracle 

]redans; and the principal of of Apollo; or in Dodona^ a cit/ 

hcirGods were Heaven and Earth; and wood adjoining facredtoju- 

3ta« was their ddeft fon, he was piter ; and through all the bounds ^ 

kAier of the riants, and his em- Doric kmdy that is of Greece, Do- 

pie was fdiod by his younger bro- ris being a part of Greece ; orfoi 

her Smtwn^ as Satum^s was by Ju- over jSia^ the Adriatic, to th^ H./- 

ktr fim of Saturn and Rhea, perian /elds, to Italy; and «Vr th 

nide firft were known in the iland Celtic, France and the other coun- 

jtte, now Candia, in which is tries overrun by the Celtes, roamd 

aoont Idm^ where Jupiter is faid the utmoft iles. Great Britain, Ire- 

oi hare' been bom; thence pafled land, the Orkneys, Thule or Jce« 

rer into Greece, and refided on land, UltimaThuli, as it is call'd, 

Mimt Ofympiu in Theflfaiy ; the the utmoil boundary of the world. 

wwy M rf cold Olympus, as Ho- Such explications are needlefs to 

ler calls it, Oav/u'toi' tsy^rn^of^ thofe who are converfant with the 

led. 1. 420. and XVIII. 61$. Ov- claffic authors ; they are written for 

M4nriewlH*i<Auchnioantainaf. thofe who arc not 
^ N 2 519. 5i 


Like doubtful hue : but he his wonted pride 
Soon recollefting, with high words, that bore 
Semblance of worth not iubftance, gently rais'd 
Their fainting courage, and difpell'd their fears. 535 
Then ftrait commands that at the warlike found 
Of trumpets loud and clarions be uprear'd 
His mighty ftandard ; that proud honor clam'd 
Azazel as his right, a Cherub tall j 
Who forthwith from the glittering ftaff unfurl'd 535 
Th' imperial enlign, which full high advanc'd 


529. Semllaaci sf •mirth not fith- Demon, as the learned Dr. Spam 
fianrt, 1 An cjcprellion of hath abundanilv proved in his il£ 


ne like a meteor ftreaming to the wind, 

h gems and golden luftre rich imblaz'd, 

phic arms and trophies ; all the while 

^ous metal blowing martial founds : 

which die univerlal hod: up fent 

houtj that tore Hell's concave, and beyond 

;hted the reign of Chaos and old Night. 

in a moment through the gloom were feen 

L thouiand banners rife into the air 

h orient colors waving: with them rofe 



h; u alfi) of that ghalU/ 
, by vbidx the fiends appear 
oe another in their p\}xt of 
cnti : the Jfaont ttf the whole 
sf hilea Angel* when drawn 
a battel array: the review 
h the leader makes of his in- 
1 Army-, the flafh of li|bc 
h appear'd npon the drawing 
leir iWords: the fudden pro- 
on of the Pandemonium : and 
wuficial ilium in atiom made 

3. FrigiltJ lie rfin ef Chim> 
omJ eU Night.'] Rtign is ufed 
die Latin rtnam for kingdom : 
Jo in SpenTcr's Fairy Qneen, 
. Cant. 7. St 21. 
It ttiait did lead toPlnto'i gtilly 

5. Ttm tbtafndhBmri rifi m- 

With critnl calori ttiaving: taitb 
ibtm r»fi 

A ftriji bugt offitari ;] So Taflo 
defbibiog the Chnftian and Pagan 
Annies preparing to engage, CanC 
zo. St. zS. 

Sparfe al renco on deg^ando ir la 

£ Tcntolar fii i gran cimier la 

Habiti, fregi. imprefe, anne, e 

D'oro, e di ferro al fol, lampi, e 



Sembra d'alberi denfi alta ferefta 

L'an campo, e I'altro, di taoi' 



Loofe in the wind waved their en* 

figni tigh^ 
Trembled the pliunei th« on Aeir 
crefls were iex; 
N 3 Thci 


A foreft huge of fpcars j and throning hdms 
Appeared, and ferried (hields in thick array 
Of depth immcafurable : anon they move 
In perfeft phalanx to the Dorian mood 559 

Of flutes and foft recorders 5 fuch as rais'd 
To highth of nobleft temper heroes old 
Arming to battel, and inftead of rage 
Deliberate valor breath'd, firm and tmmov'd. 
With dread of death to flight cm: foul retreat ( 555 
Nor wanting pow'r to mitigate and fwage 
With folemn touches troubled thoughts, and chafe 
Anguiih and doubt and fear and forrow* and pain 
From mortal or immortal minds. Thus they 
Breathing united force with fixed thought 560 


Their arms, imprcflcs, colors, gold C50. to the Dorian mmd Ac] 

and ftone, All accounts of the mufic of tte 

*Gainft the fun beams fmil'd, fia- Ancients are very uncertain aaci 

mcd, fparklcd, (hone. confus'd. There feem to have beet 

20 three principal modes or meafinci 

Of dry topt oaks' they feemM two LTLft n "" -^^^^^Jt!^,^ 
forefts thick • ^^^' ^^^ ^^^ Donan. The Ljtim 

So did each hoft with fpears and ^'i^^ J?/'^"'' *1 ^^ 
pikes abound. Fairfax. J^ Z^l r^^\ "'^- ^ ^ 

^' ' Milton in another part of his wocb 

5 48. — - ferriedJhieUi] Lock'd ufes gra^e and Doric almoft ai fya- 

©nc within another, link'd and onymous terms. " If we thiik 

clafp'd together, from the French " to regulate printing, thereby » 

/fTTir, to lock, tQ ihut dofe. " rc^fy manners, we mnft rego- 

Hum. *J Jatc aJl recreations and pafHmes» 

•* an 


Mov'd on in fileoce to foft pipes, that charni'd 

Their painfiil ftcps o'er the burnt foil j and now 

Advanc'd in view they ftand, a horrid front 

Of dreadful length and dazling arms, in guife 

Of warriors old with order'd [pear and Ihield, 565 

Awaiting what command their migh^ chief 

Had to impoie : He throi^h the armed files 

Darts his experienc'd eycj and foon traverie 

The whole battalion views, their order due. 

Their vilages and flature as of Gods, $ya 

Their number laft he fums. And now his heart 

Diftends with pride, and hard'ning in his Arength 

Glories : for never fincc created man. 

Met fuch imbodied force, as nam'd with thefe 


" all that is delightful to man. pets and other martial mufic is- 

** No mafic nail be heard, no fong cited and inflam'd them more to 

** be (et orfung, but what u grave rage. See Aalia GeUiiu, Lib. I. 

" mtdDtrU." (See hie Speech for cap. ii. and Thucyd. L. ;. 

the Iibcrt]r of onliccnc'd Printing. 

VoLI. p. 149. Edit. 1738.) ,Thi» S^O- BrealUiig laatiJ firct vali 

dierefone wu the meafure' heft fxei thought 

adttted to the fall'n Angela at this JMiwVm. injiltncil Thus Homer 

]uaaim;uidthcirinflrumentswere n»ak" the Gredatu march on in 

^ff ^lyl fifti jiv^fd/l rrnrr/feri for fileace breathing force, Iliad. III. S. 

Sat the Lacedemoniaas makiDg ufc -a, y^uJ^l ', 
•f thefe inftniments, becaufe they fun. . . 

■Ipir'd them with a more cool and 567. — H* thrtugh tht armifittt 
WHiertte cotinige, whcrcu ttata- hantimt»fm*i^d*jt,~-'\ Not 
N 4 onfiki 


Could merit more than that finall infantry ^y^ 

Warr'd on by cranes; though all the giant brood 
Of Phlegra with th* heroic race were joined 
That fought at Thebes and Ilium, on each fide 
Mix'd with auxiliar Gods ; and what refottnds 
In fable or romance of Uther's fon rgo 

Birgirt with Britifli and Armoric knights ; 
And all who fince, baptiz'd or infidel, 
Joufted in Afpramont or Montalban, 
Damafco, or Marocco, or Trebifond, 

Or whom Biferta fent from Afric fhore, ^8j 


unlike that in Shakefpear, Anth. jUe the heroes were affifiedbyde 

& Cleop. A£l I. Gods, therefore called oMxiiuirGtiii 

- thofe his goodly eyes ^ nvbatrefoimM even » A&ir r 

That o'er the files and mufters of ^^^^'Jf ^>^^'^i>J ^""8 AiAor, 
jl^g ^^ ion of Uther Pendragon, whofe 

Have glow'd like plated Mars. ^^P^^*^ are romanticly extoIlM bf 

^ ^ Geoitry of Monmouth, i^{vf«tf 

575. ^— that fmallinfantry Brit ijb ami Armoric hiightt, fu hs 

iVarrd on by cranes ;] All the he- was often in alliance with the luf 

roes and armies that ever were af- of Armorica, fmce called BretagK^ 

fembled were no more than pyg- of the Britons who fettled dieici 

mies in comparifon with thefe An- and all who fince jomfied im JU^ 

gels ; though all the giant brood of mont or Montalban^ romantic naOKI 

Phlegray a city of Macedonia, of places mentioned in Orlando Fa- 

where the giants fought with the riolb, the latter perhaps Mootifr 

Godsy 'luith ty heroic race nvcre ban in France, Damafc9 #r Mmmmt 

joined that fought at Thebes, a city Damafcus or Morocco, butheciBi 

in Bcrotia, famous for the war be- them as they are call*d in ramancBb 

tween the fons of CEdipus, cele- or Tnbifond, a city of Cappadoda 

brated by Statius in his Thebaid, in the lefler Afia» all thefepbco 

mnd IliuiH made flill more famous are famous in romances, for jooA- 

by Hoiher's Iliad, where on each ings bctw^n the hapthCd and h^ 



Vhen Charlemain with all his peerage fell 

;y Fontarabbia. Thus fer thefe beyond 

;omparc of mortal prowcfs, yet obferv'd 

Their dread conunander: he above die reft 

n fliape and gefture proudly eminent roo 

Itood like a tow'rj his form had yet not loft 

K\\ her original brightneft, nor appear'd 

leCs than Arch-Angel niin'd, and th' excefs 

X glory* oblcQr*d ; as when the fun new rifen 

Looks through the hc»-izontal mifty air 59^ 

shorn of his beams, or from behind the moon 


Ub i w •wbtm Blfiria, (ormeAy cannot agree with Dr. Bentl^ in 
:xll'd Utica, _^«f fnm JJHe ftstn, rcjefling foroe of thefe lines a> 
Jilt is the Saraceni who pafs'd lourious, yet it ismuchtobewifh'd 
Tom Biferta in Africa to Spain, that our poet had not fo far in- 
vAtaCharltmmit vnlb ail bii peer- dulged his taftc (or romances, of 
*g'fill bj FsMteraitia, Charlemain which he profeffei himfelf to haTo 
lung af Prance and emperor of been fond in his younger yearir 
Gennany alxKit the year 800 un- aitd had not been oftentatious of 
ixnoA a war againft the Saracens fiich reading, as perhaps had better 
in Spain, jtnd Mariana and the never have Been read. 
Spuufli hifiorians are Milton's au- 589. ^^ bt abavi ihi rift 4c. ] 
dton for laying that he and his What a noble defcription is here of 
uniy were routed in this manner at Satan's perfon! and how different 
Fontarabbia [which is a (irong from the common and lidiculous- 
town in Bifcay at the very en- reprcfentations of him, with honu 
trance into Spain, and efteem'd and a tail and cloven feet ! and 
Iba key of tne kingdom) : but yet TaiTo hath fo defcrib'd him, 
hfezeray and the French writers Cant. IV. The greatell maflen 
nva I quite different and more pro- in painting had not fuch fubline 
bable Recount of him, that he was ideas as Milton, and among all 
tt laft viQoriouf over hi* enemict their Devils have drawn no por- 
fnd died in peace, And tbo* w« trait comparable to thii; a> everjr 



In dim eclipfe difaftrous twilight iheds 

On half the nations^ and with fear of change 

Perplexes monarchs. Darkened fo^ yet (hone 

Above them all th' Arch- Angel: but his &ce 6oQ 

Deep fears of thunder had intrench'd, and care 

Sat on his faded cheeky but under brows 

Of dauntlefs courage^ and confiderate prido 

Waiting revenge : cruel his eye^ but caft 

Signs of remorfe and paflion to behold 605 

The fellows of his crime, the followers rather 

(Far other once beheld in blifs) condemn'd 

For ever now to have their lot in pain, 


body muft allow who hath feen the 600. " ' ■ hh /me§ 

pidures or the prints of Michael Deep fears of tbutuier had m* 
and the Devil by Raphael, and of ireneFd,'] Had cot intOyhad 

the fame by Guido, and of the lafl made trenches there> of the F^mch 

judgment by Michael Angelo. treneber to cut. Shakefpear Bfitt 

the fame word fpeaking of a kvt 

598. — and miithfear of change It <was this 'veryfword intrcncll^d fif» 

Perplexes monarchs,'] It is faid that AIPs well that ends well. Aft II. 
this noble poem was in danger of 609. — amerc'd] Thia wQid it 

being fupprefs'd by the Licencer on not ufed here in its proper liw- 

account of this fimile, as if it con- fenfe, of muld'd, fin*a» GTc bul 

tain'd fome latent treafon in it : as Mr. Hume righdy obftnrei hat 

but it is faying little more than a ftrange affinity with the Giedb 

poets have faid under the mod ab- afxipJ'v, to deprive, to takeawi^» 

folute monarchies ; as Virgil Georg. as Homer has ufed it mach to our 

1. 464. purpofe. 

-lUccdamc^osinfUrctumulta. ^'JjX^/w.r'"". ^ 
Saepe monet, fraudemque^ et oper- 

U tumefcere bdila. The Mufe amerc'd him of hii eyvb 



iilions of Spirits for his &ult anterc'd 
' Heav'n, and from etenial Iplendors flung 6l0 
r his revolt, yet ^thful how they ilood, 
leir glory wither'd : as when Heaven's fire 
th fcath'd the fbreft oaks, or mountain pine^* 
ith finged top their ibtely growth though bare 
jids on the blafled heath. He now [uvpar'd 6x5 
> {peak} whereat their doubled rank$ they bend 
)m wing to wing, and half inclo& hi m round 
th all his peers: attention held them mute, 
rice he al&y'd, and thrice in fpite of fcom 
irs, fuch as Angels weep, burft forth : at Uil 620 


rave him the ^nlty of fiDgiag wither'd ^lory of the Angelii anil 
tly. OdylT. VIll. 64. And I the laft with great propriety, fince 
well remember to hare read their luftre wat unpair'd by than- 
word ufed in the fame fenfe der, as well as that of die trcei id 
where in Spcnfcr, but cannot the fimile ; and befidea, the blaAed 
Tfcnt turn to the phce. heath gives us Ibme idea of that 

W.'-jftfmtbfitlbvviihtyfiiioi^ finged bununi; foil, on which the 
l<lc the true conftruOion of this Angels were uandin?. Homer and 
Baft go baclE to ver. 6o; for Virgil frequently ufe comparironi 
rerb. The fenfe then is this, from ire», to exprels the flature 
SnUthe fellowg of bis crime, or falling of a hero, but none of 
emixd &c, yet how they Aood them are apply'd with fuch variety 
FuL SitbmrMiM. and propriety of drcamftanccs as 

z. ^— at lAihtn Heavtit'i/rt this of Milton. See A Effaj afm 
J/c^i'Jtcc.] Hath hurt, hath Miitami imitaliMu ef ibt JiKieti, 
ig'd; a word frcquendy ufed p. 24. 

bucer, Spenfer, Shakefpear, (i\^.7hrictbteffrj'i,Badthntt— 
■oroldwnten. This is a very Ttnn burjl farib] He had 

iful and dofe fimile ; it re- Ovid in his thought. Metaio. XI. 
It! the majeffic ftantrci ud 419. 


6^ l^ARADISE LOST. Bookl 

Words interwove with fighs found out their way. 

O Myriads of immortal SpiVits, O Powers 
Matchlefs, but with th' Almighty, and that ftrifc 
Was not inglorious, though th* event was dire. 
As this place teftifics, and this dire change 625 

Hateflil to niter : but what pow'r of mind 
Forefeeing or prcfaging, from the depth 
Of knowledge paft or prefent, could have fear'd. 
How fuch united force of Gods, how fuch 
As ftood like thefe, could ever know repulfe ? 630 
For who can yet believe, though after lofs. 
That all thefe puiflant legions, whofe exile 
Hath emptied Heav'n, (hall fail to re-afcend 
Self-rais*d, and repoflefs their native feat ? 

For me be witnefs all the hoft of Heaven, 635 


Ter sonata loqui, ter fictibus ora and to the intended deftradion of 
rigavlt. Beniley, the greateft people in the world, to 

gratify his own vain gloiy. 
Ttars/ucb as Angels iveep. Like Ho- 623. — and thai firifi 

jner^s Ichor of the Gods which Was not inglorious,'] Ovid. Jiict 
was different from the blood of IX. 6. 

mortab. This weeping of Satan ^^ ^.^ 

r • L« '^ * 1. n ■ nee tam , 

on furveying his numerous holt, Turpc fuit vind quam ooiiteB- 

and the dioughts of their wretched ^^ deconun'e£ 
ftate^ puts one in mind of the ftory 

of Xerxes weeping on feeing his 633. Hath emptied Heaven,'] It k 

vaft army» and reflecting that they conceived that a third part of the 

were mortal, at the time that he Angels fell with Satan, accofdia| 

was haft'nbg them to their fate, to Rev. XII. 4. Jnd bis iaii dnw 



f coun&ls dl^rent, or danger fliunn'd 
iy me, have loft our hopes. But he who teign» 
Monarch ia Heav*n> till then as one fccun 
at on his throne, upheld by old repute, 
^oofent or cuftom, and his regal ftate ^jq 

'ut forth at full, but ftill his ftrength conceal'dy 
AHiich tempted our attempt, and wrought our £J1. 
ience&rth his might we know, and know our own,' 
o as DOC either to provoke, or dread 
7cw war, provok'd j our better part remains 645 
^o work in clofe defign, by fraud or guile, 
Vhat force ci^ded not : that he no lels 
it length from us may find, who overcomes 
ly force, hath overcome but half his foe. 
pace mayproduce new worlds; whereof fo rife 650 


( ihiril fart »f lit flart of Uta- \j ttiou^t tn elegtnce hy Hilton,* 

r», mad caft tbtm la til earib ; and and many inllance* of it may be 

h optnion Milron hath cxpreft'd fhown not only in hii works, but 

(cTcral placn, II. 692. V. 710. I believe in dl the beft poeb both 

[. i{6: but Satan here talks big ancient and modenii tho the latter 

id magnifies their number, as S t am iftaid hxve been Ibmetimca 

eir exi/e had emflitd Heaven. too liberal of them. 

6^i. ft^tb lemf ted mr attempt,'] 6x7. that bt »« left Scz.'\ Sa^ 

ordf tho' well chofen and figni&- tan had own'd juft before. 

pleafant foimd, and like mar- by God'i concealing hii Oxea^i 
ma between perfoni too near He now fays. He alio Ihall ind 
Kin. to be avoided. Jlant, himlelf milUken ia hb tnra; He 

lU Undof jinzle wu udoubttd* flull God our couiiiig fiiA ii Att 



There went a fame in Heav'n that' he ere long^ 

Intended to create, and therem plaiit 

A generation, whom his choice regard 

Should favor equal to the fons of Heaven : 

Thither, if but to pry, fhall be perhaps 6ec 

Our firft eruption, thither or elfewhere: 

For this infernal pit fliall never hold 

Celeftial Spi'rits in bondage, nor th' abyfs ^^3 

Long under darknefs cover. But thefe thoughts ^^P 

Full counfel muft mature : Peace is defpair*d, 6fid 

For who can think fubmiflion ? War then. Wa r 

Orvn or imdprftnnH mnft- Up reUuM. 4Hi 


He fpake : and to confirm his words, oiit-flew 
jUions of flaming fwords, drawn from the thighs 
f mighty Cherabim > the fudden blaze 665 

ir round illumin'd Hell : highly they rag*d 
^inft the HigUeft, and fierce with grai^ «rmt 
afh'd on their founding (hields the din of war^ 
iirling defiance tow'ard the vaolt c^ Heaven. 
There flood a hill not ^, whole grifly top 670 
Ich'd fire and rolling fixLoke > the reft entire 
tone with a glofiy fcurf, undoubted fign 
liat in his womb was hid metallic ore, 

iie work of fulphur. Thither wing'd with fpeed 


fixed But above which God Virgil apjdies to a flag, JBil VII. 
^Aogeb inhabit? Hurling de- 490. 

^^^,^'^}^t^^^^^''!l nieinaniimpatiens,mcnfequcaf. 

rfeahorlmg defiance toward fuetus hcrili, ^ 

mviSUt Heavenj the feat of 

liodAngeb. but afterwards Afcanios wounds 

171. Belch' d\ So Virgil, i£n. ID. him, ver. 499. 

i. fcys m^mis of iEtoa, ftom p^^^ ^^^^ f^^^ p^,^^^ j^^ 

Kb, or from mount Vcfuvius, or \^^^ arundo. 
fik^ our poet took the idea of 

I fliountain. Vir^ makes afe of the fame word 

73* 7bat in bis woomS] A very again in fpeaking of a wolf, i£n. 

•t flum was obferving one day Xf . 809* 

tdc inaccuracy of expreffion in Acvelutifle 

Boees makmg this mountain a q^^^ ^^^ 1 

bn and a mdc pcrfon, and at JTcaodamque rcmulcena 

fiunetimeattnbutmgaacwM^to Sabjecit pavitantem -tf/r^, f/lvat 

And perhaps it would have ^ L^^^ 

m better if he had written /// ^ '^ 

■(;lmt wMi^isvfiKlinaslafge 674* ^be mmtk ef fij^lmr^ Fot 

mku die Litia MUnu, wUch aetab ai^ (bppofed m confift of 



A numerous brigad hdlen'dt- as mbcn bands 67; 
Of pioneers with ipadc and -pidcax arm'd 
Forerun the rpyal camp, to trench a field. 
Or caft a rampart. Mammoa kd them on, 
ItfammcMii the leail credcd Spi'ritthat fell 
From Heav*n,for e'en In Heav'n bis looks and cbooghts 
Were always downward bent, admiring more 681 
The riches of Heav'n's pavement, trodden gold. 
Than ought divine or holy elfe ciijoy'd 
In vifion beatific : by him firft 
Men aUb, and by his fuggeftion tau^it, 69^ 

1^ , Ran&ck'd 


ick'd the center, and with imjMous hands 
[ die bowels of diea: mother earth 
nafores better hid. Soon had his crew 
'd into the hill a ipacious wound^ 
ligg'd out ribs of gold. Let none admire 69^ 
riches grow in Hell; diat foil may bed 
ve the precious bane. And here let thoie 
boaft in mortal things, and wondering tell 
abel, and the works of Memphian king^, 
I how their greateft monuments of &me, 695 
ftrength and art are eafily out-done 


I £uDt lliiig. Tliiidifir* ^tumeftinvilcesateme. 

kii due i^ptftnnce of ae- Qgafinu icoondidarat, StygufqiM 

lot IfBmn is eoA; uid moMyrcnt 

Ir a bMudfol nuuuier to % ESbdauiAir 

k • 

. geacrallybe- Ov.Met.1. I38,&r» 

Che minen : That Humi. 

m rfat of Devils which 68g, ^^ ^j^, ^^ ^/] 

g mA m minerals, where Hor. Od. lU. jfi. 49, 

m seqacndx feen to bufy ^^ 

ifky memfelves in all die Aamm irrepertiiiii» et fie me&bs 

Opi of the wofknen ; they Stam. 

t deanie, melt, and fcpa- 694- — '«•/ thi wri/ »/ Mem- 

I metals. See G. Agricola fH^M Hufi,'] He feems to 

Maadbus fabcemaeis. So alliide pardcabuly to die famous 

Glnn poedcally fuppofes Pyramidi of Egypt, which were 

■ aid his dan to have uught near Memphis. 

laoialfuggdtioa. *^ la Memphis. Mm. 

Wwimrtmu 69$. Leam baw tbtir grtatefi m^ 

Mijkd ihi itmotlt rfthm wm» mmmtnts •/ famtt 

AitmM\ jM JtrfM^ib and ^i kc.'\ This 

u L O paflage 

74 PA&ADI36 L6$t. ^CKki. 

By Spirits reprobate, and m an hour 

What in an age diey with ihceflaflt toil 

And hands innumerable fcarce perform. 

Nigh on the plain in many cells propar'd, ycD 

That underneath had vtins of li(^uid fire 

Sluc'd from the lake, a fecond multieadc 

With wondrous arl founded the maiTy orfe. 

Severing each kind, and fcumtn*d the bullion dtd!$: 

A third as foon had formed within the grotind 70J 


Si&ge has been ffiifandcrftood by 704. «u^ anifiunmfd 4fcldb 

F. Sentley and othen. Stnngtb drofs .-] Dr. Bendcy fays dtf 

hud ia-t are not to be conftrued in bullion drofi is a ftrange Umerli 

the genitive cafe with fame^ but in pafs thro' all editions : He fanpib 

the nominative with monunuuts. thnT fht nnrhnl ftm ji^ naj^JMillf 

AM th'eta the mekrilifkg 1^ {iihdnly fimhJ&^dnfi. BstrlMMtllt 

thus. Learn bonv 'thi& ^re'afeft monu- th6 cOHayicnA teadinc^ nay It ik* 

menu offume^ and how Uticafltinph fended. The woxd StJUm d0Ml 

tmd art art eafify outdone Sec, ^gnify ftiriffd dtre^ 'MB Idle IMll 

II! ™ lli^!?!L*^^ then it ii pnrierM mu AMT 

5^- "^P- ' ?• ent of ihe dfoWiiaS^ ^ ji# 

702. ^-^aficond^mdtitude jme. And Muton JbdfC^s MbMl 

W/^ nwmdrous art fianda the adjediye hefe, th6? 'tootloMM^d 

maffyoro,'\ The firft band a fubOantive ; juft ea hi V. MA* 

dug the metal out of the mountain, have ocetin W*, ttnd fai IBrdb* 

nficoind multitude on tho plain hard ndrgik ficd. ksA fe MtarAP 

ty founded or melted it ; tox founded may fignify ffe i^ /jtor <a«[j|» 

it fliould be read as in the firft edi. tbt metai, as Spenfer tlUMUut 

tioh, and not found out as it is in or the drofs that fwam e^ A^Slt 

the fubfequent ones ; founded from face of the bdK^g offe. ItBih^ 

Ikndere, to mel^ to caft metal. of the pailageii ttUi | TimJ^ 


i. various pwld, «nd firom the boding cells 

\y flrange convepncc iUl'd each hoUow nook, 

Ls in an orgaa ^m one blaftof vind 

I'd many a row of pipes die found-board breathes. 

Lnon out of dae«arlii a i&bric huge yt9 

toTc like an exhalation, with the found 

)f dulcet fym^ionieB and voices IWeet, 

iuilt like Ji temple, whore pilafters round 

Veie iatf aoA Doac pillars overlaid 


melted the tn th&t wu in the 711. (^ Juket fimfbtinii] Thii 

^ itj fifTiUMi; KjtvtTiMi ock mnl i* bM Ukewiie hjr Sbakft- 

ind, Am J*, ihe fubhar, «Mth. fpext, MidrnttBn Ni^t'i Drou^ 

fc. -JTMi 4w HMtaf; ud after A&il. 

m, Axjji^mid ^ *jr^ *« Uttering fBch A/a» >nd \amO' 

■Kd OR tkpwp-afihe boibiig ore. nioMbreaa. 

bKH>9(,<»«M«rog1dIa)'2old- ^i-^—vJttn^Jlirtramdlxil 

nft or filnr-drols, the dtoT) which One of the giesttft faults of Mu- 

lala lioai th> Mclnd metal in re- ton b hi» a&fUtion of ftiowing hi> 

UBg-it. ithkw^. IcantDg aad Jcuowledge apon«m]r 

■70S. j/i «> <««i;(«B ice,} Xhu oeat&BD. He could net St wwk 

wc ii M ooftf u it it new. And ■■ dofcribe du( .ftrofiure wttbeiC 

« -mtf flMenre, that «nr author bringiQe in I know not how niaar 

itmwiif fewilMi to iimgM-frem terms c? archiceaure, whicfaifw 

BMcnOR^nnufothor Eng^ be pmpcr for the fake of maiq' 

M^ ai he wai very fend of it, readen to explain. PiU/tritaimH 

■d-WwUtaCBlf ■ pcmAner upon siUanjuttingoutof the wall, wnv 

ie«tg»aaiid«dMriiiftTUsaRt(. fit, jmJ D«riefiUafi, pitlan of tlw 

7II. ^tft Uh am ^KhaUtitm,'\ JDoric order; asAeirmufic w«s.1» 

%« •fiNlden lifiBg of Prndcmo- f Af iVuB nW, .Ter. c 90, fo tb^ 

inn H fuppofed, ud witli great vcbiiefture wai of the Doric iiB< 

idbMlitf, to be ■ hint taken ider; ttxriaU -uiifb gaUtn anii- 

abi lottc of the mbving fceilci :rr»oe, thatpart of acoliuruL^kM 

it mfTh«— iarenied ftir ihe Sgfje Ac jopial t "f *&'^ ^^"^ 

— ^- ■"- "-'— "" a»,'.ae onpcnBctt.«ieirf»etitf -*• 

O s inUk' 


ifARADlij'r'ioST. .kiiki 



-Wi'Ti golden architrave} nor di3 tliere want' 
Cornice or freeze, with boffy fculptures graven ; 
The roof was fretted gold. Not Babylon, 
Nor great Alcairo fuch magnificence 
Equal'd in all their glories, to inflirinc 
Belus or Serapis thcJr Gods, or feat 
"their kings, when Egypt with Aifyria nrovc 
In wealth and luxury. Th' alcending pile 
Stood fix'd her (lately highth, and ftrait the doors 


thai iMribf' the" Entablature of bo- Alodro ii the modern lunA of 



Opening their brazen folds difcover wide 
Within,, her ample fpaces, o'er the fmooth 
And level paveoient : from the arched roof 
Pendent by fubde magic many a row 
Of ftarry lamp8 and blazing creflets fed 
With Naphtha and Afphaltus yielded light 

As from a iky. The hafty multitude 
Admiring entered, and the work fome praife 
And fome the architect : his hand was known 




riiere are other anthoridesy whkh 

Slerve to jdtify Milam i for we 
m Mardinns Capella, 7> Si- 
jpJint Nrhu kc. and in Prodendat 
^ tidm ft Strifif &C. PAlrrf. 

72;/^^Mi»] An adverb heke 
ana not a-ynepofidon: aaddiere- 
fbie Milton puts a comma after it» 
*diat~it ma^ not be joined in con- 
ItniBS^iMiSerMfkJ^ctj, So 
Vsrnl .An. II; 483. 

Apimcdomua imhUf^ atria looga 

ytcji^^^b^ MK/^tJ^amy] A bean- 
tiraTLatinifin this. So Seneca de- 
• fcri b iB g Hereales't defceat into 
HUl. Heic. Fur. III. 673. 

: Ifinc-jwitfitt Tacois Jpatia lazantiir 
tbcis. Tlyer. 

' y^A^'^'fitm iAi MTchid ntf, ftp.] 
How mnch fuperior is thii tf> that 
j^ Virgil i£n. I. 726, 


** dependent lychni laqnearibas 
Incenfiy «c nodem flammis fnna- 
lia vxncunt. 

From gilded roofs depending lamps 

Ncfbmal beams, thftt emidate the 

day. Dryden, 

728. — -« Mui lUxmg eriffiit/kd 
Wiib Nafbtia md JMmfimsl A 
€r»fii is any great blaang light, aa 
a beacon. Ni^ba is of lo unSaous 
and fieiy a m^ore, that it kindles 
at approaching the fire, or die fun* 
beams. A^hmltui or bitusoien, ano- 
ther pitchy fttbftance, lUclimrMti. 
And the word atfitlBad ufed Iike- 
wiic in Shakefpear, i Hen. IV, 
Aa III. Glendonrer fpeak^ 

•— «at mynatiTity 
The front or Heav*n was foil of 

fiery ihapet. 
Of hinwig infiU. 

. O.J :. . . 738. -Sir 


In Hcav'n by many a toifred ftruclure high. 
Where fcepter'd Angels held their refideiKe, 
And fat as princes, whom the fiipreme King 735 
Exalted to fuch pow'r, aod gave to rule. 
Each in his hierarchy, the ordera bright. 
Nor was his naoie unheard or unador"d 
In ancient Greece ; and in Aofonian land 
Men call'd him Mulciber i and bow be itU ^^9 


.•J^S.Nfrnvsi ihnawKimli^aniScc.] Uity /' itftaf fi^tfiw, dfUtJ' t^ 
Dr. Bcntley fjys, " ThU is care- x,u K<ti<xS'<u,'\, 

? Wix^m^s^m^^t. 


fj^^n, ^qpftWf^thrpwnby^igryJavQ - 
►•cr tho cryftal l»t|lfixj»nt«i from mfm 
^Tthtf^Hi^ from pppq tp dewy «vf, • 

acr's day j and witJi <hp fc«ipg fm 

Brom the ^eoith like a hJXmz ^> 745 

miioi th' iE'gean ile: t}iu« tbey rebte^^ 

3 for ho with thk Ml>eUk>i» root 
Dg before; npr ought fivaU'd lum now 



And Fair&x kd the way to this 
xoaOBfT' of ^rpA9»^Q|; the jvq^xlt 
Of rather td^ii ppetic^ li!>«rty| 
fQr 19 ]xi9 toivUtioE gf Taflb, Cl ^ 
$(. 60. &e jfa^rt 

O'er Xpan feas fhip* flttif « 
OteeMh holds 

adin C* ts.jSt 6|t 
At Mgtan leas &C V^(arti^ 

748. ' u iwr ii|fil# mMuN Urn 

*A^X* V {/ TOTi yi XtP^V^ M* 
Tf/HII /e^Mp«» 

Nee tibi dcfertM ia doaut cpluiflle 

Dianaia ■ - 

'p and this afumMurs day, 
a £iinilar paflkge in the 
where UlyfTes defcribes 

a twenty four hour$ to* 
to make the time feem 
tr, dfvid^ it into frvcral 
1 points them oat diftindUy 
m^ YU. a89. 

rir^ «f A/@-» ipci fif >^(^» 

Oir Lemtns fV M^an %U : ] 
Ky reads, 0» LimMttthencg 
and c^lls i( 4 (candalous 
write JBfean with a wrong 
it ^giam. But Milton in 
; manner pronomices TbyS* 
"^njiftian in X. 688. and 
ift RecainM, IV. 2381 we 
th^ nrft edition, wUch 
dejr ei^Qoiiii^ IQp 



4b ^AftACrrffRLOST. BooW, 

B;A"n'^'h8 (jn^ihs, but was headlong ftmt' '-"^ 'U'^ 

'■^khhfsinduftrious crew to build in HelL '"i-si'A 

Mean while the winged heralds by command 

Of Tovran pow'r, with awful ceremony 

And trumpet's found; throughout the hoft proclam« 

A folemn council forthwith to be held 'f^ 

At Pandemonium, the high capital ''■■ "'» '-'•r 

Of Satan and his peers : their fummons CalPtt'^"' I 

FrdSi''ev*ry battd and' i^ared regiment 

fitetf. YAAAiafI>9IrJL#«r 



cWith hundreds andw^t^b thouiiusds trqopbg came q 
Attended ral) acpefif waf thiong'd^ - th^g/atcs . y^i 
And porches widc».'1mfc chief the f^ hall >;' 
(Though like a cover- difield^ where ehampiona ^v^ 
Wont, ride in arm^d^ and at the Soldaq's chair 
Defy'd the beft of P^nim chivalry ^65 

To mortal combat^ or carreer with lance) 
Thick fwarqi'dj both on the ground and in the air ^ > 
Brufh'd with the \n& of ruiliqg wings. As bees...- 


riiTf lie fJi yXetpvpnf omh rtov ff- 

Ddky they fpread«. a dojTe im- 

body*d aoudy 
Ani o'er the vale dcfcefidi'tl^ 

living cloud. 

Milton has very well cxpre&*d t^ 
fosce of $irtfJi'm by in clafiirtjfj^ 
^ppe hasdone hy cLfiring^ t|^ iii 
;he fdl of hia tranfladon ne luRf I)X 
jgbO means eqoal'd the huuttiipa of 

There are fuch fimiles likewjfe Jii 
Viml* ^h.I.430« 

Qualis apes state novi per toee 

mra ^ •• • .^" -jiifi ■ 

Exercet fub fole labor} 

Educuot ic^^us^ ISc. 

jA$ from (bme rocky difl the fhep- 

' herd fees 
Ctofi^ring in heaps On heaps the 

driviag bees 
Rollmg, uid blackening, fvvanas 

^ focceding fwarmst 
With deeper mormiirs and nuvf 
boarle alaims; 

Su^i is fiidr toil^ and' OOi dieir 

As aSeroRi x^ bees in ntpfi^ 

tiliins; '^' ;' 
Wheif '^Rrfnter ]paft, and lottmer 

Invites themSvi^ (q lai»r in.tfae 

■fiin: .. . r .'» 

■■« -. ^ •' 



In fpring time, when the fun with Tannis ridcf,v . • 
Pour forth their populous youth about the hifc 770 
Jn clutters J they among freih dews and flQWCni 
Fly to and fro, or on the finoothcd plank,- 
The fuburb of their ftraw-buik citadel^ 


Mi again, JEn. VI. 707, — 9"* P"^ ^^ ^««« «* 

^^ mina rcges 

Ac vcluti in pratis, uWapcsaeftate ycrcf fuQ, Tu4etqa« fi^m c^ita 

ferena javeatas, 

Floribus infidunt variis (sfc j^y^ £^^^ ^ «i4«i«Ar / *€.] Tkt 

But our poet carries the fimilitucle paflUgc in the catalogae, e^qilaii- 
fartto than either of his great ing th^ ^nanncr how Spifita Vuf- 
a^afters, and mentions the bees co/t- form themfelvcs by contraAioaior 
firring their ftate affairs, as he is inlargement of their dimeafioMk ■ 
goiM to give an account of the introduced with great judynoil^ » 
<opmttti^» of tb« Devils. make w^ for fcveral fumift^V' 

cidents in the fequd of ik^ poeBL 

^i^hAriwgtim.'wbtntbifun There foUows OAP. at *c very «rf 

nuitb Tanrm ritfti,] o£ the firft book, wluch » wta 

^ ... the French critics c^ a^irwkfk 

Candidut auratis apent cum cor- ^ut at tho fame time trwiM hf 

mbtts annum ^ ^ ^ reafon of the paflage iaft mfe^ 

Taurus. Georg.I. xi^InAprfl. ^^„,^ As fo«i ai thS infa^ fi. 

HMme. laceisfiniihM.weaivtolddMnri- 
Dr. Bentley reads in Taurus ridesy titude and rabble of Spiiita iB«i|r 
and fays. Does Taurus ride too, a diately ihnink themleiTes on a 
conftellation fix*d? Yes, or elfe fmall compafs* that thiHC n^ 
Ovid is wrong throughout his whole be room for fuch a nQmb^els ^ 
Faiti, where he dclcribes the rifing fembly in this capacious hall, te 
smd fetting of the iigns of the zo- it is the poet's rcnnemept irpcmdiii 
diac : Sec what he fays of the rifing thought which I moft admin, aal 
of Taurus, V. 6ov and our author whi(^ is indeed veiy poU^ H k- 
in X. 663, fpeaking of the fix*d felf. For he tells us, thai notvidlh- 
ftars, fays, Which of them rifing landing the vulgar, among >^ 
wtbthi fun or fallings &iQ* Ptane. fallen Spirits, contra^Slicd Am 

forms, thole of the lirft rank mi 

770. Pour forth thir populous dignity (till prefcrved (hnr pfod 

youth about the hive} dimenfions. Adf/t^ 

Tirg. Georg. IV. 21. Moniieur Voltaire is of a difin* 



obb'd with balm, expitiate and coigjbr 
ftate a&ks. So thick the urj firood ^^j 
I'd and were ftraiten'dj till the £gnal giren, 
1 a woodex ! they but now who leem'd 
ads to forpa^ earth's giant font. 


With regard to the contri' thing would not fit enAly th6 
)f PudcflKMiiiiin and the mock-herotc. Hien I due £9 
■aw» sf the Cevili into that BOthni; m {a adapted U tkat 

tad po&hty nore may liidicroas wsy of writiiiE, u the 
nth Ma than with Mr. Ad- metamorphofis 11 of the Devils in- 
I djve Mm, Ciyi he, that to dwarfi. See hii ElTay oa epic 
vimicc of the Pandeiiio> poetry, p. 1 1 j, 1 14. J have bcea 
Mid have been entirtly dif- favorad with ■ letter Snm WiUiuB 
d «f by Clitics like Ben- Duscombe Bfq; juftifyiog Miltoa 
KIM, fkt. That Icit built againft MoBfienr V(dtaiK°i dbjce- 

pariametit or the Derili tioni. As to the comrivuce itf 
try pitpaAerOus 1 fince Sa- Paitdcinoiiiain, he thiaki it agre»- 
h Jlmaoa'd them altop- able 10 the r«le« of deceocy and 
id hamg^'d them juft be- deconun to prorlds a fidoon te 
an ample fiold. The conn* his Satanic ni^e% and hii mighty 
Qcccfikiy ; but whete it wu compeen (the jvognqr of Heaven) 
irid, Wn very indifferent, in fome meafore adapted to die 
It when aAerwudi the De- dignity of their chanKtcr* i and 
I dwarfi to fiU their place* the defcriptioa ii not infierior to 
KRifa, as if it wu impracii- any thing in Homer or Vtt^ of 
I boiU a room large enough the liice kind. We may farther 
ain them in their natural add, that as Satan had hii palace 
t if an idle floty, which in Heaven, it was more likely that 
match the moft extravagant he ihould have one in HcU like- 
And 10 crown all, Satan wife; and as he had befbre h»- 
chiefLordsprefcrvingtheir rangacd the fallen Angels in the 
Kmftrou forms, whiTs the open field, it wu proper for the 
of the Devils Cuitik into fake of variety ai well as for other 
•, hightcni tlie ridicule of reafons that the council fhould be 
^ contrivance to an unex- held in Pasdemonium. As to die 
£ degree. Methinlcs the fallen Angels contrafling their 
iterion for dil'cerning what fha^es white their chic6 prcTerved 
\y ridiculous in an ejuc their natural dimenfions, Mr. Ouo- 
u t» cumin if the lane combe ob&rrei with Mr. AdtUfoa, 


;^ PARADISE tOST. Bodkl 

Now Ids than fmalleft dwarfs, in narrow room 

^rong numberkfs, like that pygmean race 780 

Beyond the Indian mount, or faery elves, 

Whofe midnight revels by a foreft fide 

Or fountain fome bekted peafant fees, 

• .i ■: Or 

that Mtlron had ' utfntljr prrpared the hint till b« hu nifed aatalii 
ths mder for Aii iiiadent by fome gloriou* image or fnuiiDCK 
marhing their power to contraA or pro^r to inilaine the nitad of tlw 
itilargethdrfufaflancc) and Milton reader, and to give it thai ihUiiK 
feemi to have inteodcd hereby to Idnd of entertainment, which ■< 
dlQinguilh and aggirandiza the idea fuitable to the nature of an htnk 
•f Ae chieftami, and to delcrib« poem. Thofc, who »ic acq^naiand 
Aa more probable nanner the with Honter'tand Virnl'i wi^af 
niJniberUf* myriads of £i11en An- uritin^, cannoi butbe^ealeJi^ 

Eb contmn'd in one i:apacious th'u kind of finiAure in Sfi^Epak 
II. If Milton, had reptelentcd fimilitudcs. I am the. man pin- 
the whole hofl in their cnormoug cular on this head, becaaie. ipfr 
itct, croaded in one rotnn, the rant raadan, twbo h^ve tcmi 
j£lioBWOuldhavebccnmorelhock' thar tafte epon the quaint £mld 
ing and more unnatural than ai it and little tura» of wit, which &* 
Itandt at prcfcnt, Thefe argu- io much in vogat among moded 
aienu fcem to carry fome weight poeti, cannot rchlh thefe beavtia 
with them, ar.d upon thefe we which are of a much lugher ni- 
ranft rcfl A'^iUon'i defenfi:, and ture, and are therefore apt lo u>- 
leave the determination to th« furc Miltgn't comparifons Id viiks 
jtaior. they do not fee any furpiifaf 

yio,~~iiie that fygm/a«riuri(e. } point! of likencTt- Moolieui^- 
There are alfo fereral noble fimiles rault wa> a man of thii vicinJ 
and aHufioni in the firll book of relilh, and for that very rcaJbakB 
Paradife Loll. And here I muft endevor'd to turn imo ridiodc fe' 
obferve, that when Milton alludei veral of Homer's limi!itades,wlud 
either to thingi or perfoni, he ne- he calU mHjvrai/etij a /wnw hm 
ver quil) his funile till it rifes lo itng-taiPd ctn^ari/tai, I SuSa*' 
fome very great tdea, which ii of- elude thit paper on the firiE bi^ 
ten foreign to the occaiion that of ^lilton with the anlwer, wUA 

favebinlitoit. I'hc reCmiblance Monficur Boileau makes to ?■■ 
oes not, pcrbapSf lafl aitove aline rault oa chit occafion, *■ Con> 
or two, b;;[ the poet runs on with " lifou , fays hci in odea and efk 

•• potos 

Or Jifeams he fees, \«rhfle over-lb^ "die mbttti' '"^^ 
Sits arbitrefs, and hearer to the eiftfi " ^ /-"'y^ 
Wheels her pale courfe, ihey oh their Mkth Mi4lltjag)^ 
Intent, withjdcondiniuficcharm'hi^tjaf'i'*' "<>!!// 
At once with joy and fear his heart icfaoundAi^ifoi 


^ poerasp ire not intibdu<!d ofefy Variecj^-tkitr'epifddes m!|^'fi|M# 

«< to illiiflrafe and ciBbdIifh'thfe ihortiUskt, and iheir. fimikt^i^ 

«* diicoorfe, battoamtfe md f«i^ manyfl wii <pifij dMrt»if»Mefcynp 

^* lax the mind of the reader^ by may add^ if jrao pkafc^ Aar thiir 

** frequenter difeiigks^ldlnfitai anetapliar&'iira ib aiaiif-.fl)Srt'4h 

^' toopaiiinil an attenoon to fhe miles. M dis reader coiifid^lliute 

«* principal Tdiljed, akidbjr Idtding oompariibtts >iB die ML' teok ^ 

** him into other agreeaMe itaiages. Mikon^ of ^ the fan in aA.iecSp^ 

^ Honief ; (ays he, excdfl'diathis of the fldeping leviadi«W':^'tb^ 

**"p a i &u far/ whofe cotnpirifeii^ bees fwarnung about their hive» i^ 

widi foch imaged Iftf na^ die fiMrydancc^ in dietiew whm^ 

^ tirre as 'afe proper to relieve in I haveJiere placed |liKm» hf 

^ and* (fiirerfi^liis fobieas. He will eaflly difisover dwjpnit }mft- 

** contmnafly mfthias 'the' reader, ties thacare.ia each or tbo^l ^^ 

"^'aiftt ftakes him take notice^ fiiges. AdSfim^ : rc^ ;:n:: 

•^ day bdfbrt oor tyes, of fuch cir^ 6r>/«i/ irA'J Vtij; *& V» 

•• cuniinBces as we ftiould not ... , . • »j o ..^ ^ 

^ odiemffe hare obfcrvcd.** To ^^** 

rids lie adds as a maxim nniter- Autvide^ ant vidiffe pipat-.-?. 

II ^^ %u *^P«™2.^ ^- So Ho^pod. V. 49. ^ ■ ^ 

«• refpond with one another ex- *^ y 

«» aftly, but that a general refem- O rebos meb 

«« blance is fuffidcnt, and diat too Non infideltt arhitrm 

<<*ttnch Aicety in diis pardcular NoxetDtamu B^^ 

*• faton of the ritetonctan and . 

«• ejMgrammatifL" In (hort, if we 78 5. — md nmnr ia Un ioriki 

fade mto die conduft of Homer, This is (aid in allofion to die frw^r 

Vibnpl/ and Milton, as die great iUdoas notion. of wifiche« 

fkble is die foul of each poem, fo ries hanag great power o?^ A^ 

to ghre their wodcs an agreeable moon. ,* 


Thus incorpoFeal Spi'riU to fizuJleil hems 
•Rjcduc'd their (hapes immenfe^ tod Wtxc at htr^ 799 
TiKxigh without number ftiill acnidft iSkic hall 
Of that inknoA court. But £0* ^tiun^ 
And in their own dimenfions lilce them{cttes> 
The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim 
la clofb rece& and fecfet conclave fat jg^ 

A thousand Demi-gods on golden feats^ 
Frcquexit and fiiU., J After fhgrt fiience tficn 
Andlummons'^read) die great confdt b^sm. 

-CanmnavdccelopoIIuiitdedacere bable tWt the poet au^t dbcb 
lanam. Y'lrg. Ed. VIII. 62. here to what i» irMy aad prapo* 

wmbCTfafs t]»ey had fo contrafted other of thcfc affemblios. 
iBeir fliiiiennOmy as to 'iiaye rooni «,-^ «* « ^ £ yy^ « 

'* ^»or/ according to fuaiiiioDs.S« ■ 

. 79S* ^'^ ^kf' ^'^^fi and/ecret cm- his HiEcuy of Cogland in tlK6 mv I 

^iUpiuJiml it is iSDt impro- of Edward the ConTeSor. I 

The end of the Fkft Book. 


S s c 6 R ]> B o b k 

o f 



The confultatlcHi began, Satan debates whether ano- 
ther battel be to be hazarded for the recovery d 
Heaven : fome advife h, others diflbade : A third 
propoial is prcSsrfd^ mention'd hcbxc by Satao, 
to fcarch tb^ troth of that ]Hx>phecy or traditbi 
in Heaven concerning another world, and anodier 
kind of creature equal or not much inferior to 
diemlelves, about this.dme to be created : Thar 
doubt who (hall be lent on this difficult ieaidi: 
Satan their chief undertakes alone the voyage i 
honor'd and applauded. The council thus endci 
the reft betake diem ieveral ways, and to &venl 
employments, as their inclinations lead them, tb 
entertain the time till Satan return. He paflci oi 
his journey to Hell gates, finds them ihiil^ wA 
who iat there to guard them, by whom at kn^jdi 
they are open'd, and difcover to him the ffOt 
gulf between Hell and Heaven ; with what diffi- 
culty he pafTes through, direded by Chaos^ tbe 
Power of that place, to the fight of this new 
world which he fought. 




tlGH on a throne of royal flate» which £ai 
OatflKUK the wealth of Ormus and of Ind, 
1^^ the gorgeous eafl: with richci^ hand 
' Show'rs 



'«i « rlrMw &C.1 I have 
'— ■ ■ rd, that 

1 gesenl, 

> SlUton 

&'Vt Bonu ahnijn <tir- 
ftMimeon ud bdia- 
4t m in 1 peculur mumer 
AAU to their refpeOiTccha- 
k EwTdraunfiance in their 
mimmBSoBt is widi ptat 
i^ ^licKjr atUpttd to the 
ijt;^ beak aad ad. Aithe 
igqr aau exceli is dkis cm* 
^•r U chaniOen, I fliaU 
mm M cnB&JCT fevcnl paf- 
Vdw faond book in this 
:^Vklt ibpBior grettneif and 

fitr, whkh It aCcribed to 
of the bllen Angel*, is 
pcCuved in the Mgin- 
If Au book. Hit opening 
iftw the debate; hii uking 
kplTthat peat enterpriTe at 
of which the whole in> 
biy trembled; his cn- 
lihg Ae hidaoiu phantom, 
pnded the gates of Hell and 
Ri^to him u all his terroH, 
miGCi of that prond and 
^iWb ^licb niBld not bnx^ 

fuboiiffion even t 
The fame boldnefs and intre^ity 
of behaviouT difcovers itfelf in the 
feveni adventures which he meets 
with daring hit paflage thnragh the 
regioni of unfonned matter, and 
pudculaily in hii addre{s to thole 
tremendoui Powers who are de- 
fcribed as prefiding over it. 


X. — iht VMmllt »f OrmMi anJ rf 
bdi\ That u dia^lOi>d^ a 
principal part of the wealth of Jb- 
£» whete diey are found, aad of 
the iltnd Orawi (in the Pcrfian 
gulf) which is the mart for them. 

3. Or -ahtrtlhitcrgimi toft SiZ.I 
Not that Onoaj xaalnJ-nvre. in the 
weft, but the fenfe n that the 
throne of Satan outlhone diamonds, 
or pearl and gold, the choicell 
whereof are ptodflced in the eiit. 
Spenftr expitflca the fame thought 
thus. Fairy Qaeen, B. 3. (-'. 4. 
St. 13. 

-^ that it did pa& 
The wealth of th' eid, aad pomp 
of P«i£an Itinn. 

P And 




Show'rs on her kings barbaric pearl and gpld, - 

Satan exafted fat, by mcrrt rais'd 

To that bad eminence; and from defpair 

Thus liigh nplifrcd beyond hope, afpires 

Beyond thus high, infatiate to purfue 

Vain war with Hcav'n, ahd by fuccefs untatJghl 

His proud imaginations thus difplay'd. 

Pow'rs and Dominions, Deities of Heaven, 
For fince no deep within her gulf can hold 
Immortal vigor, though opprefs'd and fdll'n, 
I give not Heav'n for loft. From this defccnt 
Celedial virtues rinn^, williappear 


tlxwgfa jttft fight, and the fix'd laws of Heavcii 

firft create your leader, next free choioe, 

1 what befides, in couniei or in fight, ao 

I been achiev'd of merit, yet this lofs 

> far at leaft recovered, hath nouch mpre 

>liih'd in a fa& nnenvied throne 

led with fall confent. The happier ftate 

'eav'n, which follows dignity, might draw 25 

from each inferior^ but who here 
envy whom the higheft place expofi:s 
taok to ftand againft the Tfaund'rer's ^m 

bulwark, and condemns to greateft ihare 
idleis pain? where there is then no good 30 

^hicb fio ftrive, np ftrife can gjrow up there 


lopti dMs word into the Ita- leader, yet thb lofs Bath mnch 
guage in a defcription fimi- more eda&IUhM itt af fde imennd 
Mj Cant 17. St. iQ. diroae^ 

> di k^laric, omimtnto, *»• - -^^'<I ^^^ JP? "f.^ 

to regal fplender fi vcde. ^ pronounce « «fr^*^^5 but Mil- 

^ '^ MR writes iC adnriii^ Kke ^e 

^KvVi and Domm9iiis,1 As French iujkvir, fiott whence it it 

calls the Angels, Tbroan derived. 

imms or Principalities or ^4. fbe baHier fiaie 

Col. I. 16. lHHfav\ nvBich Jw/ows £ffuiff 

eing the emphatical word the ha|^er hfe MSe wa^ 
accufative cafe gQfrdlfd thereibre inferiors might there envy 
two verbs which fbllow, fuperiors, becaufe they were hap* 
A iftabUJh'd, Me ^oogh pier too. Fiarcs. 
« &c did ficft create ycfur 

Pa 33 — *»», 



From fadion> for none fure will clame ia HcU -^Q 

Precedence, none, whofe portion is fo fmall ■ 'iT 
Of prefent pain, that with ambitious mind . iH 
Will covet more. With this adrantage then ^.tigi 
To union, and firm faith, and firm accord, 'i^' 
More than can be in Heav'n, we now r^drt^ ' 
To dame our juft inheritance of old. 
Surer to profper than profperity ■ Vi 

Could have ailur'd us ; and by what beil way^-'ctlA 
Whether of open war or covert guile, -■- jvrtnoO 
We now debate j who can advife, may fpekkj^ lol 
He ceas'd ; and next him IVIoloch, fcepter'd k^g, 

ttokfli BAKAmi^K LOftlP. 9$ 

Stood fi|s the ftron^ft and the fierceft Spirit • ^ 
That fodghtki Heav'n, now fiercer by defpair: 4^ 
His tnift.Hms^withth' Eternal to be deem'd 
Equal inrilrength, and rather than be lefs >" 

Car'd not jtQ be at all ; with that care loft 
Went attfab fear: of God, or Hell, or wcaie 
He reck'd not, and thefe words thereafter fpake. 50 

My ientence is for c^n war: of wiles. 
More onexpert, I boaft not : them let thofe ."^ 

Contrive who need» or when they need, not now. 
For while they fit eontrivjog, ftiall the reft. 

Millions that ftaUd in aroua^ and longing wait gg 


dedbues UdUT ibrnpdy ibr wt^ 47^ ^-^ ami nuhertham ie M 
smd appall mtaSn at hb com- .Car'dna to Be at alli\ Dr. Bent- 
p^fiiTT, far lofing 6 mich time as ky reads He rather than ice, be- 

evcB to defibci it e upon it AH liis caufe at prefent the conftni£Uoa ia 
fani m en ta ave mflu aadadoDt and and his trail card not &c. Bot bdk 
defpcnee. Sndiisi 
t hcmftl ff * wMi: their tortures, 

defpcnee. Sadi is that of arming fmall faults are not only to be par- 
t hcaftl ff s irilii; their tortures^ and don*d but overlooked in great «- 
temiiig Adr panilhmentt upon him niufes. Fabias Vllh %. fays of Ci« 
who jniliAed than. His prefieoTing cero, In vitium iaspe inddit fecnrut 
andhiladoa to ihame or mUery is tarn parvae obfervationis : and in 
alio highly finttble to hif chancer; X. i. Neqne id iUtim legenti p^- 
as thd oomlbrt be^diaws 6om their fuafum fit omnia, quae magni auc- 
^ifarbin^ ^ peace of Heaven, tores dixerint, dk perfe6ta; nam 
idiac if It bo not viOory it is re- et labeator atiqnando, etonerici- 
¥enge^ is a-feodmtnt truly diabo- dunt iSc Pearce. 
Iku, and beoominff the bittemefs 50. Hi recFdmt,'] He made no 
cf this implacable Spirit* . AU^. account of. To reck much the 

fame as to reckon. AndJ^e there* 
4^ i' ftj ■ feefier!d king^ Ai Hp- after f that is accordingly, as one 
^ &)^rSMv7vxO-. fUriAfvi* tvho made no account of God ^r 
"li.J»J9«^ ... •< Hell or any thing. 


The fignal to afccnd, fit ling'ring here 
Heav'n's fugitives, and for their dwelling place 
Accept this dark opprobrious dcti of ihame. 
The prifon of his tyranny who reigns 
By our delay ? no, let us rather choofe, 60 

Arm'd with Hell flames and fury, all at once 
O'er Heav'n's high tow'rs to force refiftlefs way. 
Turning our tortures into horrid arms 
Againft the torturer; when to meet the noife 
Of his almighty engin he fhall hear ij 

Infernal thimder, and for lightning fee 
Black fire and horror {hot with equal rage 
Among his Angels, and his throne itfelf 
Mix'd with Tartarean fulphur, and ftrange fire. 
His own invented torments. But perhaps 70 

The way feems difficult and fteep to fcalc 
With upright wing againft a higher foe. 


j6. —ft /i«g'riMg iert'] Dr. Bent- were repentaDt ; for a Bnje bcfat 

ley reads fej lingering kert, be- it is faid that they pnfirMt JH. 

nuife we have before /end in arms : That Jit is right here, mmj appor 

but ftaaJ does not always fieciR' from ver. 164., ^20,^"}^. Ptma- 

the pofture; fee an iaflance of this Sit lin^rixg to anfwer 16 tm Utivi^ 

in John I. 26. yaftmul in arnu is before. While ihey fit cODtriricg. 

no more than to *. in . -mi. So in fliall the reft fit ling'riog f 
XI. I. it is faid or Adam and Eve 

Uw <^y jlatd rifaavtt, thai (9 tg.Mix'J'aiilbTartartanfiifl^.] 


et fuch bethink them, if the ileepy drench 

f that forgetful lake benumm not ilill. 

hat in our proper motion we afcend 75 

p to our native &3t: defcent and fall 

o us is adverfe. Who but felt of late, 

fhen the fierce &)e huog on our broken rear 

ifulting, and purfued us through the deep^ 

h^ith what compulfion and laborioos flight 8« 

ic funk thus low? Th'afcent is eafy then; 

'h' event is fear'd} ihould we again prpvoke 

'ur ftronger, fome worfe way his wrath may find 

our deftniiaioni if there be in Hell 

ear to be worfe deftroy'd: what can be worfe 8^ 
'ban to dwell here, driv'o out from blils, condemn'd 

1 this abhorred deep to utter woe } 
Vhere pain of unextinguiihable fire 
fuft exercife us without hope of end 


Sx'Jtffa&eiJUrJwiibi it ii an die word like tiw Ladn fxtr- 

litttioa of what Virgil la/i in eu, wfatdi fimifin to > vex umI 

Id. II. 487. trouble u wefl is re praftice and 
enpioy: as 'n Virg. Geoi;g. IV. 

ftt duDu iDterior gemitu mife- 4^3. 

requc tumuln 

i^rtiwr. Pearce. Km te nnlliui txirctnt noinuila 


to. ISmP ixtrai »] He Itfel 

f 4 90.0* 

PZbc vaflals of hisi anger, whea ^efconi^ ^ 

Inexorably, and the torturing hour 

Calls us to pens^ei More ndeftnog^'d. than tirat 

We (hould be qtiitCi aboliih'd and expire. 

What fear we theni what doubt we to iocenfe 

His utmoft ire ? which to the highth cnrag*d, 95 

Will either quite cohfume us, and reduce 

To nothing this cflbntial, happier fer 

Thaa mifembie to have eternal being: 

Or if our fubflaoce be indeed divine»> 


. ^.TJbivaJ^also/iisiMjgn'jil'Thc /^ iconree inezoraUe or ioo- 

Devils arc the v^ij^cisot the Al- oraBIy calk 

^ migfity, tl^eace Marqmon iays^ II. 92. Callj us tofeiuaut?^ Topi- 

a52t Our ftate. ofj^iudidvajjral'ige, nifhment. Our poet keccfoopdci 

; And 4h€ cf et^ir is an ex the AifFerings of the damnedSjurki 

preiion coniirm'd by Spfflfer inius not to be always alike intenfe, iHt 

Tewj if the yiufis^ that they have fome intennxffiom. 

flives of fin. to be than to be etemaUy oife- 

Bat yet wh»a» I remember St Paul's ""'.' ®" ?*"?°^^^e'*" "* *' 

words. Rom. IX. 22. Iht wffth of ij™" ^' »*atth. XXVI. 24. M>k 

nwmth jbttd to MrmOim, S«ti>» ^^'-^t- 

•p>w. I fufpea that MUton here, . '°o- — «* «« f ««Dfl ^e « 

« perpetnaOy, kept cIoTe to the >» *« »<»« co«l»uon we <m be. 

Scrmtuvfiae\ andleaveittothe . ?04.-^j/«'«//Arwr.l Ttat 

reader's choice, mtjabmwfftls. " i^ fjfiu, as he eUnitee 

BMder. «?»«&» It. T » 33- 

^^' 108. r» i%/f tbtm GUt.1 HeoR 

91. iiTMnii^,] Ik tlte fijft edi- it TV i^ than God. For it was un- 

tiions h is Utxonihlj, vt others h- geroui to the Angels. Bailb}. 

extrabk: and it ougr 1;^ cither. This emendation appt^n twy pn- 



-And cannot wafc t6 be; we are arwbrft joa 

On this lidc nothing; and by proof we feel 

Our povr'r Sufficient ta difturb his Heaven, 

And with perpetual. inroads to alarm. 

Though inacceffiblc, his fatal throne : 

Which if not viftory is yet revenge, lor 

He ended frowning, and his look denoonc'd 
Defp'rate revenge, and battel dangerous 
To lefs than Gods. On th* other fide up roie 
Belial, in oEt more graceful and homane ; 

baUe U firft view: but the Angeli and therefbre the prefent reading 

though often called Gmi^, yet fome' %» Itfi tiaitGatli may he ^vRify'd, 
time* are onljr oom^'d or (aid to 109. StSm/, ia ea mart gr^ifij 
be lih tb* GtJi, at u I. j 70. ^d bumtMt ;] BeiioT ij de- 

Their vilasej and JlaWre « .f l^'f*,'" ^ ^J* *»<* " *e idol 

GaA- """" " w rf the lewd and IiKunoiu. Hci« 

in the Iccond boolc, pnribut to 

2nd of the two chief, Michael and »^»' defcriptiDn. charaflcrized aa 

Satan, it ufaid VI 301, that nmorou* and flothfijl; and if wo 

, , „ , , , , , look into the fixih book, we find 

hk,fiG*d,thfifitmd: i^j„ celebrated in the Uttel of 

and of two otheri wc lead. VI. ^■'2«l^*■°' "whing but thkt fcof- 

,5g. fing^fp(ttch:whKkbeiD»ke) tq Sa- 

^ ' tanj M their, fuppofed advutwe 

Two potent Thionet, duU to be over the •qsnij. . Aa Us ^pear> 

l^ih«nG»A anCc ia umfoTQ and of a piece in 

JMflMn'd; theietht* fcvcfaj views, we find 

*A. PJ7. ... hoifon of andwafiW; his pitftr- 

. But to be Godi, pr Anceb D(U- rii^' to be uiferabte rather than 

fio*w,- T.,-rT jw^v; 'OFticai««oWaTe,th« 


PA R A D I S £ LOS T. ^^Jl 

A fairer perfon loft not Heav'n ; he ieem'd 1 1§ 

For dignity compos'd and high exploit t 

But all was falfe and hollow; though his tongue 

Dropt Manna^ and could make the wodb appear 

The better reafon, to perplex and dafli 

Matureft counfeis: for his thougltts were low ; 115 

To vice induftrious, but to nobler deeds 

Timorous and flothfiil : yet he pleas'd the ear^ 

And with perfuafive accent thus began. 

I fhould be much for open war, O Peers^ 
As not behind in hate; if what was urg'd 120 

Main reafon to perfuade immediate war^ 
Did not difiuade me mod, and feem to caft 
Ominous conjedure on the whole fuccefs : 
When he who moft excels in fad of arms» 

In what he counfeis and in what excels 125 


the contrail of thought in this 113. Drwfi Mmmm^l Th« fint 

^cech, and that which precedes, expreifion, but applyM diiEereaAr# 

Sives an agiceable variety to the in Shakefpear. Merdont of Vt- 

ebate. Aidifom, nice, A£l V. 

The £ne contrail, which Mr. Ad- 
difon obferves there is betwixt the 
characters of Moloch and fidial, 
Slight probably be ict^ fuggefted to 
our poet by a contrad of the fame 
kind betwixt Argantes and Aletes 
in the fecond Canto of Tafib^s Je« 
rufalcm* 7hyer. 

Fair ladies, yon dr^ hUama in Ab 

Of Hanred people. 

1 1 3. ^^and c9uU malt tii vmfi 

7 be hetttr ren/99,'] Word ibr word, 




Mifhuftful, grounds his courage on ddpair "" 

And utter diilblution, as the Icope { 

Of all his aim, after Came dire revenge, 

Firft, what revenge? the tow'rs of Heav'n are fill'd - 

With armed watch, that render ail accefs i9« 

Impregnable} oft on the bord'ring deep 

Incamp their legions, or with ^bfeure wing 

Scout iar and wide into the realm of night. 

Scorning furprlie. Or could we break our way 

By force, and at our heels all Hell Ihould rile loe 

With blackeft infurredtion, -to confound 

Heav'n's pureft light, yet our great enemy 

All incorruptible would on his throne 

Sit unpolluted, and th' ethereal mold 

Incapable of ftain would foon expel i^O 

Her mifchief, and purge oif the bafer fire 


ffOB the ksowa profcfion of the Or poinbl}r the tuthw jsi^t have 
ancieat Sophifti, Tw A*yw T«r given k h fmBi *f ttmi, fuck cr« 
%t\i iLptfiJm vtietr. Bentlc/. ton of the prcG wing Tcrjr con- 

Ha fays u i) from the ItWiao Fmu „g^ vMiU-hiithnm 

r-f-« > battel i or elfc we flmld git up^U^U.} Tu a TtpXy tm 

read hmfi^stftrm., u la tct. thaipirtofMoJoch'»f(«ch.wlKni 

537- he ud dtreaieii'd to muc the throne 

-'— trAi/t^ii ^ mnm iiUf of God with inflEnul Itdphur 

from cither cad of Hmt'h tbc and finagc £re. 

iji. Otvii 

leo FAR AiyrS^E LO ST. IfoakR 

Viftorious. Thm repuls'd, oiir final hope 
Is flat defpair : we muft exafperate : 
Th' almighty vnaor to.fpcnd all his rage/ . 
And that mufl: end usy that muft be our cure, 145 
To be no more; fad cure; for who would loic. 
Though full of pain^ this intelledual being, 
Thofe thoughts that wander through eterai^. 
To periQi rather^ fwallow'd up and Idt 
In the wide womb of uncreated night, . 150 

Devoid of fenfe and motion ? and who knows. 
Let this be good, whether our angiy foe 
^ Can give it, or will ever? how ihe can. 
I»-doubtful ; that he never will is fure. 
Will he, fo wife, let loofe at once his ire^ i ^j 

Belike through impotence, or unaware, 
,To give his enemies their wifh, and end 


I CI. "Diwli 9f fenjk and matin f^ all motion, not ooly of aU the iittd- 

Dr.Bcndey reads Dtvnd of fenfi ledual but of all vital fundioiii. 
mud aSin: but motion includes 

m^ion. Mr. Warburton is of opi- 156, — MB5f«/fl»f^,] Tis hoe 

■iooy and fo likewife is ihe learned meant for tbe oppofit to wMflfy 

Mr. Upton in his Critical Obferva- and is ufed frequently by the Lata 

'dona upon Shakefpcar, that it authors to iignify a wcakneis of 

Ihoald be read Devoid of fenfe and mind, an umteddineb in the M- 

99tion : but the common reading vernment of our paffions, or ne 

Bookll. PARADISE LOST. joi 

Them in his anger, whom his anger faves 
To panHh endlefs? Wherefore ceafe we then ? ^ 
Say they who counfel war, we are decreed, i6b 
Referv'd^ and deflin'd to eternal woe; 
Whatever doing, what can we fufFer more, • 

What can we fuflSa- worfc ? Is this then worft. 
Thus fitting thus confuldng, thus in arms P f' 

What when we fled amain, purfued and (buck i6t^ 
Widi Heav'n's affli(fting thunder, and besought ^ 
The deep to (belter us? this Hell then feem'd 
A refuge from thofe wounds : or when We lay 
Chain'd on the burning lake ? that fure was wcnrfe. ' 
What if the breath that kindled thofe gtim fires, i/6 
Awak'd fhodd blow them into fev'nfdd rage. 
And plunge us in the flames ? or from above ' '^- 
Should inteitnitted vengeance arm igain ^ • 


fffteitddidit. and in Tufc. DiTp. been in t worfe eonditfaii^ 16;-— 

IV. 23. we read Imfotentia dido- 169. tUt/krt ^m "^^hrfti alMl 

mm ec fiidonun : hence we often might be io again ijo-^lS&'vMr 

meet wkh fii^/fff/ animi, iracy do- niomd bi 'worfe, • « 

lorfs tfr. and Horace in Od. I. 170. What if the h^ttib thm 
XXXVn. 10. has Qmdlibet impo- khiMed tiofijnmfi^,] -'1 

terns fperare. Patrcg, If. XXX. 33. F$r Tfphti is eriMt 

i^t^.lVber^eceafi'Witbenfkt.'] of oU^ tbi piU thererf is frt ^^J M 

Bebal is here propofing what is muchnvoodt thi breafb of th§ Imi^ 

urged by thofe nxho ewnftl ntmri Ukt a firtoM rf brimjletit A§ 

and then repfies to it, Is tbis then khuBi it. " * * 

««wr/? &c. and fhbws thirt thqr had ' ^ * J 

174- » 

X02 PARADISE LO»T. Botiliff. 

His red right hand to plague os? vAaat if all 
Her Aores were opcn'd, and this ^nnaffleac nc 
Of Hell fhould fpouc her catarafta of fee. 
Impendent horrors, threatning hideoas fall 
One day upon our heads; while we perhaps 
Defigning or exhorting glorious war. 
Caught in a fiery tempcft fliall be hurl'd iSo 

Each on his rock transfix'd, the fport and prey 
Of wracking whirlwinds, or for ercr funk 
Under yon boiling ocean, wrapt in chains; 
There to converfe with everlaftlng groans, 
Unrefpited, unpidcd, unreprlev'd, i8j 

Ages of hopelcfs end? this would be worfc. 
War therefore, open or conceal'd, alike 


174. H!i reJ right hai,^ SoHfr- fSo. Ctmght m m fimj ta^f ^ 

Taix fays of Jupiter ruhenle dex- btburtd 

term. But being fpoken of Vik- Eath m bii rcci tramjix'j^ B(»- 

mtamet, it muK be btr right hand, u row'd of Vireil in his dcftriptigB 

ID die next line j&(r/»-». Bentley. of the ftteoT AjuOQcB^ j£i 

There is fomeching plaufible and 44, 45. 

ingenioM in this obfcivarion : bnt j^^^ expirantem uasifixD petel 

hy^u feems to have been meant £... ^^ 

G</^ who it meniion'd fo often in Turbino conipuit, fctmulome k- 

lh« courfc of the debate, that he ^^ ^„f ^^^^Huoqae > 
aught veiv well be uodeiftooa 

friuoU being nam'df and by btr 181. —~ tht fptrt ami frm 

fittts in the next line, I fu^pofe, Of viraddiigniMnhtn»di^ Vif 

— . //(//-j^ as mention is J£n. VI. 75. 

nude afterwards of Ivr catarea* 

-~— npidit Indibiu tcntii. 

185. tt 



My voice diflbades; for what can force or guile 
With him, or who deceiTC his mind, whofe eye 
Views all things at one view ? he fixwiHeav'n.'s hightfa 
All thefe our motions vain fees and derides; igt 
Not more almighty to refift our might 
Than wife to fruilrate all our pbts and wiies. 
Shall we then Uve thus vile, the race of Heaven 
Thus trampled, thus expell'd to liiffer here i^r 
Chains and tbele brments? better theie than worfe 
By my advice; fince fate inevi^le 
Subdues us, and omnipotent decree. 
The vigor's will. To fufier, at to do. 
Our ftiength is equal, nw the law unjuft 200 

That fo ordains : this was at firfl refolv'd. 


■Sj. Uatt^H^^ w^iitJ, mrf fcrred dut this ii coaflndy AG]* 
frirvJ,'] TUs way of in- ton's way, and the tnic way of 
troducmg fevcral adjeftivca begin- fpelling bigbih, and not as com- 
BUtg wnh the lame letter widiout monly hri^, where what the i hai 
■■7 sn^mifiian ii irry lircqueai to da or how it comes ia it u noC 
with the Greek tragediaiUi whom eify to apprehend. 
our aathi»r I Isncy tmitatcd. What 

ftrength and beauty it adds needs 199. Ta fiifftr, m ta d&,] Et fii- 

•K be mentkm'd. Tijir, cere, et paiL So ScKtoia boafted 

that he wa* a Roman, and kaew 

\qo. — btfiwm Hetrv'ti'i ii^tb a) well how to fuffer a* to aS . Bf 

AUtbifi mr aw/iMi vaim/tti mud &cere ct |KUi fbitia Romaaoni eft. 

^r>T<&j;] Alludine to Plal. Liv.II. 13. Soin Horace, 

It 4. Hr tbafitttib in tht Hrtvem XXfV. f). Qoidvit « Ivcere ot 

ftmUl^, thtLtdfoaUbm^Mtbim -jmA. 

hJtr^^ Nw ht it ^ aaob. 



If we were wife, againft fo great a foe 
Contending, and fo doubtful what m^t &1L 
I laughy- when jthofe who at the fpear are b(^ 
And ventrous^ if that fail them, (hrink and fear 20; 
What yet they k;nQW muft follow, to indure 
Exile, or ignominy^ or bonds, or pain. 
The fentence of their conqu'ror : this is now 
Our doom ; which if we can fuAain and bear. 
Our fupreme foe in time may much remit 210 

His anger, and perhaps thus far removed 
Not mind us not oiSending, fatisfy'd 
With what is punifli'd; whence thefe ra^g fim 
Will ilacken, if his breath ilir not their flames. 
Our purer eiience then will overcome . 215 

Their noxious vapor, or inur'd not feel. 

Or chang'd at length, and to the place confecm'd 


220. Tiu bomr nuiU grvui mld^ 227. Crn^td igmhU a||&»] Ma 

ihis darhufi light ^ Tis . quite 9tium am £gmtai€ M GSoero ijpedb. 

too much as Dr. Bentky fays, that but as Virpl igmhik uimmL S» 

the darknefs Ihould turn into light : diis igmMu 9fi, Geoig. I V« j6^ 
but Ughtf I conceiFe, is an ad- 

jedive here as well as miUi and 228. Mammm^^mktJ] Mmtmh 

the meaning is. This darkneft will charaAer is fii My dnwn ia At 

in time become eafy, u this hor- firll book, that the pott adds M* 

Torwill^rowmild;orasMr.T1iyer thing to it in the (econd^.WrnfM 

^inks. It is an adjedive ufed in before told» that he W98 the .fill 

tl|e fame fenfe as when we fay It who taught mankind to 

u a light night. It b not well ex- the earth for gold and fii w» 
prefs'd, and the worfe as it rimes that ho was the arckkeft'Of 
with the following lino. 


t ' 

[n temper and ia fiafHNI^ ^91 Wft*iv^«'^ "'^' *^" ^ 

Pamiliar'tlie'fiertt iMtti; «Mir£^>iSf^j^fi^^"''''^^('<^-^ 

rhis hdrtor v^m^gNTlr-fi^Id, diK dMCHeOfl^ht^ ' 'U^ 

Befides wlial hope thfe nevd^«niliig»f!%ht ''^' ■ ' ' * -^ 

Of futunrdayi may brln^, whkt cbsttMe, ^at eluMjgb'^ 

Worth Waiting, itnot otir pftlbnt Ibt ff|^M9M * ' 

For happf AougK-bufm, for lUhol ^MUk, '" •"" 

If we ptoektt not io onffelni Ynim-'iroe, 2i'$ 

.13ius Befialwith words' clothed ih itaftfnVgWb^'' 

Counfel'd ignoble cafe, and peadeftllHoth, . '^^ -'^ 

Not peace : and aft^ him thus Maniiftbn fpaktf. ■ 

Ekher to difinthrbne the king of BtaVen ' "' '' 

We war^ ifwarbebeft, cirtofeg^n' ' 'i^if 

Our.own right loft: him to nnthi^nift #e'then '^ 

May hope, when everliidling Fate fliall yield 

To fidde Chance, and Chaos judge the fhife: ' '' ' 


ieaiuiatt^ mt rii* infintial palaoi, parahentt than on the bettific ti- 

wfe«e At «vll-^piriu wore B> vBitlX fioD t I flull aUb leave the reader . 

in cbancS.- Hit Ipeedi ini thit bbdc to Jodge how agreeable the' fol* ; 

is evoty lAjr fiiltwle to fo dephnred lowing fimtinieDts are to die fione 

a duiaAer. How proper u that character, 

l2S!fh*^?S'rfHl;^'J^ ^Thi. deep world 

"■"* "^ Mppineis Of neiven were q£ Jarkn^ do we diesd ? How 

is Aid ttTliSre b*d hit miiiddasled lifr^atuiajmsjtufri *^fi^fi'\ 
wte^'oatwafd pomps and ^o- Between lAe ftfogof itotwh ^od 
ria^teflat»« ttd to lliiveBeeii lu, not between Fate ud CUnce^'. 
warn i^mm-^^yk^ikMt dFM^ zsmtl Bbiftf Yappofes. ?rmy. 


PARA1>1>9B JLO^T. 

The former vain to hope argues as vain 
The latter : for what place can be for us ^ 

Within Heav'n's bound, unlefs Hcav'n'sJUatl Cif^fmt 
We overpow'r? Suppofe he 4iovild relept, , ^( 
And pubiilTi grace to all, on promife qiade . ^ 
Of new fubjetflion ; with what eyes could we 
Stand in his prefence humble, and receive 240 

Stridl laws impos'd, to celebrate his throne 
With warbled hymns, and to his Godhea^ fine 
Forc'd Halleluiali's i while he lordly fits 
Our envied fovran, and his altar breathes 
Ambrofial odors and ambrofial flowers, f^j 

ibMfcX. PAftADrSE LOST. 


By fixce impoffible, by kave obtaia'd 350 

Uflaoceptable^ thoii^ ia Heav'n, our date 

Of ^kkidid vaflalage ; but rather feek 

Our own good from ourfelves, and from our own ' 

JLive to oorfelVeSy thoogh in this vaft recefs, 

Free, tuid to none accountable, preferring 2^^ 

Hard libeetf before the eafy yoke 

Of fcrrUe pomp. Our greatnefs will tppear 

Then mofl confpicuous, when great things of fmall,' ' 

Uiefiil of hnrtful, profpVous of adverfe 

We can create, and in what place fo e'er 260 

Thrive under evil, and work eafe odt of pain 

■ I 

Through labor andindurance. This deep world 
Of darknefs do we dread ? How oft amidft 
Thick clouds and dark doth Heaven's all-ruling Sire 
Chooie to refide, his glory unobfcuf'd, 265 


OtfvH fte^Vm. $17. Nociittlike 
b n^iat we read in FairfiucV Taflb, 
C. i8. St. 2a 

SC4. Ihfi H mrfiha^'X Hor. 
K|iLlXVtU. 107. 

, . ■■ ■ Utmihi mam 
Qood Ibpevefi aeri. 

Teca baliita. 

263. — — Haw 9ft Mmifi 
Tbici ckmb atk/ Jark &c.] 
ted from Pfal. XVIII. 11,13. ^' 
made darkmfs Hsfecret flace \ bis fa* 
nfiiiw r^tmd about Inm mten dark 
waters, amitbiek deuds cf tbe Jkite 
— ^be herd aifi tbmidred in At 
Heavems, and tbe Uigbtft gave bit 
veicPf bmiftemt and faU ef fite. 
Aad from Plal. XCVII. a. Chadi 
md drnkaefi-m 1 % mwd nbmt bemt Ac 


374. Ow 


And with the majcfty of darknefs round ' " ' 
Covers his throne ; from whence deep thanders row 
Muft'ring their rage, and Heav'n refembles Hell? 
As he our darknefs, cannot we his light 
Imitate when we plcafe? This defert foil 270 

Wants not her hidden luftre, gems and gold j 
Nor want we Ikill or art, from whence to raife 
Magnificence; and what can Heav'n Ihow more? 
Our torments alfo may in length of time 
Become our elements, thefe piercing fires 275 


— «74.- 0»ir fermenti otfo wflji in — Peace if dcTpair'^ 

« length af tiau For who can Lhlttk fuhmiffi(»i? 


^s /oft as now fevcre, oar temper chang'd 

[nta their temper; which muft needs remove 

rhe ienfibk of pain« All things invite 

To peaceful counfels^ and the fettled ftate 

Of order, how in fafety beft we may 280 

Compoii^ our prefent evils, with regard 

Of what we are and where, difmilfing quite 

All thoughts of war: ye have what I advife. 

He fcarce had fini(h*d, when fuch murmur fiird 

rVaiTembly, as when hollow rocks retain 285 


War dieidbn, open or concealed, wbtrt^ the fenfe is, with regard to 

. alike our prefent condition and the place 

MyToicedilTaades; for what can where we are; which latter ieema 

force or guile &r. much better. 

Mammon carries on the fame ar- ^ ^^.^ ^^ 1 yiml compares 

mnn^ b for di/mifm fmii ^^ ^^^^ • „ . ^^ aflcmbW 

'"j^aa^J^J^' ^ ^/^% '^^ Gods to Juno's fpeech. in. 

tedebnte, whether Aro the mat- ^^ ^^^j^^, affimilates to its do- 

ntxm or mcention of the author ^^ munnurs, 

c ss not eafy to lay. ^ ' 

^e, -. *sL ^^^^ — cundlique fremebant 

O/Jlir::.":^'^^,] U C»licoI« afle.Su vano: ceu fl- 

s tku in the fiift edition: in the ^, ""?* P"?**, . r i • . 

MOBd edition it i., -Witt regard »f ^""li?'^l!?"°"* *j'**"' ** 

raried ibmetime. the one and fome- Munnura, ventuiw nautw pro- 
iBfla the other in the fubfequent "*"'•• '«"*»• **"• 

iditioM. If we TtaA ninti regarJ Thecondu£lofbothpoets it equally 
fvu/iatnt»wtaiid'wert,thit(mSe juft and proper. The intent of 
J, with reganl to oar prefent and Juno's fpeech wa* to roufe and in- 
Mr paft condition; If we read ilame the afienUjr of the Godi, 
with ngKd •/ v*at mi* mn md andtheeScaofitutherefbiepro. 

QL3 p">y 


The found of bluA'ring winds, which all night bog 

Had rous'd the fea, now with hoarfe cidenco lull 

Sea-faring men o'erwatch'd, whofe bark by chanco 

Or pinnace anchors in a craggy bay 

After the tempeft: Such applaufe was htard 190 

As Mammon ended, and his fcntencc pleas'd, 

Advifing peace: for fuch another field 

They dreaded worfe than Hell: fo much the fear 

Of thunder and the fword of Michael 

Wrought ftill within themj and no lefs defire agj 

To found this nether empire, which might rife 

By policy, and long procels of time> ^t^^^M 


WMinn oppofit to Heanren. 

h when Bcehsebob pecceiv'd, dun whom, 

tiBOBftf none higher &t^ with grave 300 

fc he rofe, and in hb rifii^ &em*d 

*ar of ftatc; deep on his front ingraven 

sratkn fat and public care; 

srincdy coiiniel in his face yet fbone» 

Be diOD^ in rain: fstge, he flood 305 

Adantean (houlders fit to bear 

rei^ of mightiefl monarchies; his look 

audience and attention ftill as night 

nmer's noon-tide lur, while thus he fpake. 


aM ?eter« attd John are Thtf whole pidurc from ver. 290.. 

Bkn in Gal. il. 9. And we to the end ofthe paragraph is ad* 

Pffne expeffion in Shake- mirabkl Ridnari/om. 
lUa. VI. Ad I. 309. Or /Mmmer's moom-tiik m/r,} 

»em of England, ^7!&l^/«r ^r-'f^.» ^« fame « «««./£«,. 
w. ui *-uguuiu, j»**Mfr^ wj ^j^^ ^ j^ countries there is hard- 

^^'^ ly a bre^ of wind ftining, and 

^ajifik tbwgh in nam:'] It men and beafts, hy reafon of the 

iglMw even the greateft intenfe heat, retire to fliade and 

in as Dr. Bentley, can reft. This is the cuftom of Italy '. 

fli Biiftake the moft obvious particularly, where our author liv*d 

Thefe words are to be ibrne time. 
ConftmAion with his fact^ ^09. — ^ ^nlnU thus hej)take, ] 

irhh frimelf Mmjii, as the Betlzibmh^ who is reckoned the fe« 

Dagm*d. cond in'dienity tha; fell, and is, in 

W^ib Atlmftemn JbnUen ] the firft mk, the fecond that 

Itor to exprefs his vaft ca* awakens out of the trance, and 

Ulas was to great an aftro* confers with Satan upon the fitua* 

dial he is faid to have tion of their ali^urs, maintains hu. 

learen on his flioulden. rank in the bocric now before ui. 

0^4 There 


Thrones and Imperial Powers, Q&pring of Heaves, 

Ethereal Virtuea; or thefe titles now . 311 

Muft we renoance, and changing fiile. be call'd 

Prmces of Hell? for fo the popular vote 

Inclines, here to continue', and build up here 

A growing empire i doubtleisi while we dream, 31J 

And know not that the king of. Heav'n hath doom'd 

This place our dungeon^ not our fafe retreat 

Beyond his potent arm, to live exempt 

From Heav'n's high jurildiftion, in new league 

Banded agajnft his throne, but to remain 320 

In fbideft bondage,, though thus £u; remov'd. 


Thm h a wmderful majefty dc- it wu not to ofnit- in tbs fiiftbnii 

fcribed in hii rtfing up to Ipe^. the projed upon which iha vUt 

Me a£U ai a kind of moderator poem turni : m alfbthutkcfnM 

betMreen the two oppolit pardeit of the falkn Ai^cli .wa* tW.H^ 

ani vtopofa R third ondenikiog, proper perTon to ^irc it biid^ ■! 

which the whok al^emUy gircb in- that the next to hun in digoi^ mi 

to. Tile notion he makei of dc- the fitiefi to fccoud aaa fuppGR 

tKhingoneofthetr body infearch it. There i» bcGd«t, f think, Iok- 

of a new worid ii grounded upon thing wonderfully beauti&l, ud 

a pro j eft devifed ay Satan, and very apt to tSe& the rcndft'i ■■■ 

cunbnly propofed by him in the ginatioa in this ancient ftvs^ 

following linei of the iirft book, or report in Heaven, iiiiiunin 

Sp«C»«yproducenewworlds,e^r, the crcarion of Man. Modnf 

ver 6co *^'*^° '^^^ "^^^ ^e d^ni^ |f 

tt j> on this projeft that B^fciui thef«cie,,th«thist«iditio«wfci4 

gn»nd> hU propofd, "" "^ '^^ ^f^^^r^^Tl 

r,X -l , . They are leprcrcntcd to lun bm 

Some altr mtrpih! IS,. „,„ „^. VirgiJ, ii^JIS 

Tlw ictdor auy obfeive how juA menttotlteRoiaaocoiiuiioawcSi 

skIL PAKAjDISE Z^QB.^ 113 

der di' ineTittbk cnrbr' tcicrv'd .. : 
i captive muldtude» £]r he, be furo, \' >' ':^ -r ./T 
highdi or depth, iliU firft aQd kft wUreigR' <.' 
e king, and of his.kingdom lofe tijo^ire 32^ 

our rorolt, but ova Hdl extsiid ^ • 
s erof»re, and with iron ibepter rule 

here, as wkh his golden thofe in Heaveo.,.. .^ ^ 
hat fit we then prc^efting peace -and vrar?. . 
ar hath determb'd us, and foil'd withio& . 330 
cforable; terms of peace yet ncme 
uchlaf'd or fought} for what'peace will be gjvea . 
I us inllav'd, but cuftody ievere,- 


(« die hcroet of it appear in tiore like. the LMin ^J, wUA 

r fiate of prceziftcDce ; but figiri6« bath wlut and ^^ly. 

ton doei a fix neater honor to ^jz. Vvid^afd'\ Hilton, ooih 

ilcM IB cenetu, n he givei oa ftaattywiiMi uu ymv^ji^taaA 

impfe ofthcm eren before they thn i> nAcr of a fofter Iqiwi but 

Inbeiiig. AUJiM. theodiBlcenii BiOR^agraeaUa to 

ay.' -ni vAth irtm ftt^tr nh the etynuriogy ef "dicwDnL . 

h htrr, 01 viith bii gtldtn lie/e in 3 p.— j6r •ai b a t fi^twHUpvn 

IfiMo.] The irM fcepter it wi^^ro'd, imt eMfia^Jnm* t. ■ 

I alldwn toPfal. II. 9. as that —tmdwtttftatiraMiairttmii 

[wVto EAker V. t. Hamt. BMittaarffvi'rbtJIiBlyndiattfi 

.XQ. JFifrar Jit iM tin fn/tltiKg In both thefe piJE^ei there u an 

•mm m/ war/] Dr. Bent- anafual conArwlioa of th^ particle 

nae»*€»rt f lior: Dr. Pearce bitfi it fcemi to pat cuftttf ftvtrt 

S pahapi better ftmei in viar: &c in tiie one, and bafiiHiy ani 

. mere feems to be no neceflity h^t &c iii the other on the fbtit 

an dteratioQ. It wai a debate of peace. There are fome very 

pcaoeandwar. Peace as well few inflancciWhera'theL«|ini hare 

var wi> Ibe fabjeA of their de- nfed mji (except, or bail! in a like 

:. Aad tu^if ttCBU to be dM omftruaion, Ou fa la nwm'i 


PARAl^ISl^ tO^t. BddkBf 

And (Iripes, and arbitrary puni(htnent 

Inflicted ? and what peace caii we ittum, 23S 

But to our pow'r hoftility and hate, 

Untam'd rebdance, add revenge though flow. 

Yet ever plotting how the conqu'ror leaft 

May reap his conqueft, and may leaft rejoice 

In doing ^what we moft in fufieririg fbel ? 340 

Nor will occafion want, nor (hall we need 

With dangVous expedition to invade 

Heav'n, whofe high walls fear no aflault or fiege. 

Or ambufh from the deep. What if we find 

Some eaficr enterprife ? Thefe is a place, 34^ 

(If ancient and prophetic fame in Heaven 


Memtthmi Prol. 59. Ei liberoniiii» 
mfi dividae, nihil erat. Lambinus 
fays this expreflion feems too unu- 
faal, for the particle nrfi can except 
none hot things like, or of a like 
kind. Ricbardfon, 

«C2. ■■ and ly an oath, 
^thatfiotk Hean^^s ^whoU ciratm- 
finac€f cvnfirtnd.l Hi cen- 
frwti it hj an oath are the very 
words of St. Paul, Heb. VI. 17. 
and this oadi is (aid to/baki Heaw'us 
tvJfole drcumferenci in allufion to 
Jupiter's oath in Virgil^iGn. IX. 1 04. 

! idaae ratom Stygii per 
flomina fratrisy 

Per pic€ tOrrentcs itraooflf von> 

Annuit, et totum nata t wr ii HVfSt 

To feal his facred voir» hf Sltpi 

he fwore. 
The lake with liquid pitck» Ae 

dreary fhore» 
And Phlegethon's iuuiTig^Ale^ 

flood, / 

And the blade regions of Us V 

brother God: / 

He faid; and (hook the tm\ 

with his imperul nod. J 



IT not) another world, the happy feat 

if fome new race call'd Man, about this time 

be created like to us, though le& 

1 pow'r and eiccellencc, but favor'd moM 55a 
if him who rules above ; fo was his will 
ronounc'd amc»g the Gods, and by an oath, 

!'hat ihook Heav'n's whole circumio-ence, confimi'd. 
^'hither let us bend all our thoughts, to learn 
V^hat creatures there inhabit of what mold 35^ 
)r fabfluKe, how indued, and what their powier; 
ind where their wcaknefs, how attempted beft,. 
ty force or fabtlety. Though Heav'n be Ihii^ 
Lnd Heav'n's h^ arbitrator fit iecure 


.1 Vir^ had ■'nSntiij Homa, High Hesv'n \iith trembltag tb* 
iiad, I. ja8. dfnd £giul nioki 

And all Cu/aipa* to A» cater 
Hi tm KU^Hfn *ir iff vri nvn fliook. Pope. 

AfCa^tMi r*f v«T« mppw- *y *" tl«e pott^ we ftt. mca. 

—.1. ^....'TA. '»<"> ">* lhalung of Heaven, oalv 

. tT* ^'Z T Mil*<» .ttribw« that dfea to d^ 

%C^T^ -V «9««re»- fttyu „,i_ ^hkh HoiMf and Viigil 

/*fAiA/£fr OAu^vir. afcribc to the Wof Jajawt: but 

the dicomftance o( ^ md fccaa 

He fpoke, and awful bendt hit to be rightly omitted in Ai* place, 

. £iUefarow>; becaufcGod ii not hOTaffnacM 

Shakca hU ambrefial curli, and iflent to anv one'a petition, whick 

prci the nod, i* the cafe in Honer and Vhgll, 

Tbc fiamp of liu^ and lan&ioa buoolTpuaoiiKiaEkilwUIaBaM 

oT'ttcGod, theAngSr ^^ 

360, — Ms 


In his own ftitngth, this place may lie apos^d^ 36a 

The utmoft border of his kiDgdom, kit 

To their defenfe who hold it : here perhaps 

Some advantageous adt may be achieved 

By fudden onfet, either with Hell fire 

To wade his whole creation, or pofleis 365 

All as our own, and drive, as we were driven. 

The puny habitants, or if not drive, 

Seduce them to our party, that their God 

May prove their, foe, and with repenting hand 

Abolifli his own works. This would furpaft 37O 

Common revenge, and interrupt his joy 

In our confufion, and our joy upraifc 

In his difturbance; when his darling fons, 


36Q. — ihis fUci mey Ut ixpoiJ^ Of Ang^ watching itMmd) 


T9 tbiir defmft who hold it : ] It How can tku earth he UA n>Bl 

has been obje£ted, that there is a expofi'd &c, and yet to be tMf 

contnuli£Uon between thb part of guarded hj ftation*d Angekf The 

Beelaebub*s fpeech, and what he objefbon » veiyingenioiia: but it 

fayi afterwards, fpeaking of the is not faid, that the earth dak Ik 

fame thing and of a meflenger pro- exposed, but only that it ma lie 

per to be ient in fearch of Uiis new exposed : and it may be ooBMer'ii 

woiUi ver. 410. that the dcfign of Beelaebub ii ^r 

ferent in theie different (peechni 

—what ftrength* what art can then in the former, where he » cBCoa- 

SnAce, or ¥^t evaiion bear him raging the'aflembljf to uBdonhc 

&fe. an expedition againft thb worid^ 

Through the ftrift fenteries and he faya things to Itffem the dif- 

fiationi thick culty and djuiger j bat in the lu* 


It PA R>ATD1 S E taffT. 1 17 

d headlong to partake widi ns, Dnll carfe ' 

' frail original, and £ided bli&t 3^^ 

1 Jo foon. Advifc if this be worth 

ipting, or to fit in darknefs here 

ning vun emfmcs. Thus Beelzebub 

led his devililh counfel, &'ft dens'd 

itan> and in part propoe'd: for whence, 3:80 

Torn the author of all ill, could Ipring 

:ep a malice, to confound the race >•. ^ 

lankind in one root, and Earth with H^ ''' 

aingle and involve, done all to fpite 

great Creator? But their fpite ftitl ferfcs <38^ 

glory to augment. The bold defign 

i'd highly tho& in&rnal States^ and joy - 


rimr tkef ban detennin'd Tpeakm aJm tlier uc <pealing 1 

lie expedition, and are con- but that time aod uiat ^lee, irtlicli 

lofapTopcr perfoD ro em- he a/ they arefpeakiDgtrf'. 

a it, tnen he fayi things to Ptgnt, 

y the difficulty and danger, ^. 71h fu^ M<r«p(T,] It is 

ikc them more cautioui in poffitrie that the aathor Of pay 

Aoicc. mieht mean M more AMll'MaK or 

I, — irri ftriafi] Dr. Bent- little t b« ywt if we rtfeA 'him 

xdutMiltonmafthavegjiTen frequentlf he iifei woflb'in tbdr 

tftrhafi: but I thiaknoi: prMer and primary fignlfcMfDti, 

r. 360 it i* ttii fhet, and it lecmi probable that he might in- 

61C Milton gare it htrt, that dude hKewifB the 'ftnfe a tke 

Su fiace which t Mti Tpcik - French (fram whence it is derir'd) 

'. Mlton frequently afeaaMv fnij ni, bora fiacc, en$Xt4 long 

wn, not meaning I thru or after u.^'' 

tim mSm M piM or Ui 

406.- «<« 


Sparkled in all tbdr eyes; with full afleat 
They vote : whereat his fpeecb he dms renews. 

Well have ye judg'd, well ended long debate, 390 
Synod of Gods, and like to what ye are. 
Great things refolv'd, which from the loweft deep 
Will once more lift us up, in fpite of fate. 
Nearer our ancient feat ; perhaps in view 
Of thofe bright confines, whence with neighb'ringanns 
And opportune excurfion we may chance 396 

Re-enter Heav'n; or elfe in fbme mild zone 
Dwell not unvifited of Heav'n's fiur light 
Secure, and at the brightning orient beam 
Purge off this gloom ; the foft delicbus air, 400 
To heal the fear of thefe corrofive fires^ 
Shall breathe her balm. But firft whom (hall we fend 
In fearch of this new world? whom ihall we find 
Sufficient? who fliall tempt with wand'ring feet 


406. -— tbi palfiAli obfcure] It jedUve, ^ the oecm Jhnmm^ L m. 

is remarkable in our author's llile, tb^ M/ien drofif I. 704. MilcoBof- 

that )ie often ufes adjedives as fub- ten enriches his laDgoago ia A9 

fiantives, and fubftantives agai:i as znaoner. 
adje£Uves. Here are two adj^ives, 

the latter of which is uled for a 409. »** en be mrri^ff 
&iblhuicive» as ag;un in ver. 409, ?i&/ i&/^^ /& f] The cairtii» half* 

tbt vafi abrupt. And fonietimes ing in the lea of ur« like a hmf* 

there are two fubftantiTes, the or forhmaie ilaod, as the name k 

fonner of which is ufcd for an ad- And fy Cicero X>e Nat. 3car. H. 



icx&X. PARADISE L0S7. 119 

The dark imbottom'd infinite abyfi, ^oe 

ind dirough the palpable oblcure find out 
{is uncouth way, or Ipread his aeiy ^^t 
rpborne with indefatigable wings 
tver the vafl alvupt, ere he arrive 
'he happy lie ? what ftrengtfa, what art can dien 410 
uffice, or what evafion bear him iafe 
'hrough the firi^ ienteries and ftations thidc 
'£ Angels watching round ? Here he had need 
11 circumfpe^tion, and we now no leis 
hoicc in our fuffiiagej for on whom wc fend, ,415 
he weight of all and our laft hope relies. 
This faid, he fat ; and cxpofbtion held 
is look fufpcnle, awaiting who appear'd 

leccHxl, or oppole, or undertake 

he perilous attempt: but all lat mute, 490 

md'ring the danger with deep thou^ts; and each 

callt the Ctrth qiufi magntm in KeUfiaJUcal cmi^t, p. 5 jj, " Let 

^J^^^wl ^nfiilatfi ^ flujUQ nos 01- ** hun 2iib forbetr force left % 

1 Moot rocamus. En bt or- " worie woe arrivi bia" And 
ttbrba^iU; lb the word «r- Slukefpear expreUes himfeirutbe 
f is nled by OUT ■uthor in the fame nunner sHea. VLAdV. 
lace W tht jHjpmmt ef Martin 

w. p. 276. Edit. 1718. "And — thofe pcwen, dut the Qu«ed 
e, if our ihinn here below Hath nii'd inGalliSfAMWArnvV 
rmw^ where tie is f^<.-''utd mr tttjfi, 

in in Ui Tn/ui& tf avU fawir 

420. — Jaf 


In others counfnancc read his own uifmay 
Aftoniih'd: none attiong the choice and prime ' 
Of thofe Heav'n- warring champions could be found' 
So hardy as to proffer or accept 425 

Alone the dreadful voyage; till at Uft 
Satan, whom now tranfcendent glory rais'd 
Above his fellows, with monarchal pride 
Confcious of higheft wortli, iinmov'd thus ff 

O Progeny of Heav'n* empyreal Thrones* 430 
With reafon hath deep fildncc and demur 
Scis'd us, though undifmay'd: long is the way 
And hard, that out of Hdl leads up to light; *^h 


I^indblit «^ gljtcsL^ twcoiiig adMpaat- :^:iU,-.u 
BinM qpier jOAfpohibk ^cgrefi.; - ' *, 

Tlii||Bfi'4, if «q(jr fii6, the void ptoknad 

■f ^ • r*-,"' 


I • J 

- * 1 


Wide giipng, and with Utter lofs of ' being • 444K: 
Thxealai Jum, pliwg'd lothAt aboruve gulEr .< .?}.;^' 
If dienoe ]ieica{ie,. 
Or aQ^Bfvwn, region, .wjiat. seoaaioa him lefg 
13bwunkapiindai^ec9^,iandasharddica|>e?. ': . 

BittI(hoDUiU;hQ$Pinpt]49it)u^^ 44f 

AiA €ak moM {mJmty» iil^lVP^'d 

With fplcMbif^ lirm'4 wilb P9w'r> if oqght prcfKK'd j 
And judg'd.of fMi)lk iiy>ixie^ in the ihape . . 
Of illfficulty oc danger could deter 


mwag A«» roond ate^^ and the interior Aufke whiA k 1ml- 

«f tke gmNs §f imrni^ mdimumi, he low : bat the poeti do net ilwagw 

aUodci to WiuttViipl fays m the fpeak thus cxaftly, but «fe*^thao 

Ikme bookj cf Styx flowing nine promifciioufly ; and hence iAyii|fl 

tiiBei sound the damn'dy and of caji tmtotxm 2iaA/ufira emvaea m 

die gates of HelL feveral placet. AikI what ia hero 

— MWi Styx interfnra coercet; ^« f^'* */A' ^* ^^fward. caU'd 

Poftm ndTerfa ingens folidoqiil^ ^^^\ — ^^ "f^t^^fi^ J!^. 
iai«ifrcdamn«.m.cca. ^>^' " Lncrctifli hv it m 

^^ feveral places. 
4)1. •— ^ this Imp comHxrffiri^ ' 430. Of mmfi&tial Nighty IfH^ 
Thu hnge vault of fire* lieading finkj^ y^ .of. lyipgi. iMrlrty y 
AfMionallfides round us. Cmw* approaching ncareft to, and otjng 
it feoken properly of the exterior the heft ^meaUanc^cfiion-enlky. 
firtee of a ttAe^ and vOMow of • . .Him, 

3fmh.L » 450.-ir»irrr 

122 PARADISE LOST. Boak«(, 

Me from attempting. WliCrefore -Ao' I -aflame -4^ 
Thefe royalties, and not rtfirfe toTCtgn, --^ 

Refufing to accept as grcirt a fliafc ' 

Of hazard as of honor, diie alike 
To him who reigns, and fo ittudi to Wm doe 
Of hazard more, as he abdve the reft ^^J 

High honor'd fits? Go therefore mighty Powers, 
Terror of Hcav'n, though fall'nj intend at home, 
While here ihall be our lidme, what beft may eafft 
The prcfent mlfery, and render Hell 
More tolerable) if thefe be cure or chafm 
To refpit, or deceive, or flick the 

VaA y»y4Tr^3: l^^t 

I nTOBBC ^^tt. 

£ miSSJL 

n zsffd^ 

^ » 



Tlie fm ia TaSor^ as die firC in 
place, ffe. Pope. 

^u is one of die iibb!eft tnd beft- 
witedTpeeches in the whde IHad : 
ut (as Mr. Hume (ays) is as much 
altcii ia the imitationj - as a Sera- 

15% ce>» direct 


V^MO > 

46;. f*w mff*i9i^ 

abrnptncff of SaianN ctmvhiw^Mii W 
«iy weD exprctU by i\\P HvsKjK 
breaking off in the ml*U# «*• *"• 

R 2 470. fkh 



Their rifing all at once was as the found- , . i^ :„oj 
Of thunder heard remote. Tow'ards him they,^ffi^ 

Witli awful reverence pronej and as a God ^, _ .(-^ 
Extol him equal to the Hig'heft in Heaven : 
Nor fail'd they to exprefs how much they prais'd. 
That for the general fafety he defpls'd 4S1 

His own : for ncitlier do the Spirits damn'd 


4-^6. Tb/ir r:/:nfr ell at and iVas 

0/ Ibimrf.r harJ remotf.] The 
rifiTig of liii' great alTeinbly is de- 
fCnbcJ in a vi:ry fublime and poeci- 

that; and miide thai remark 10 pre- 
vent their hapmg. Pearw. 
As our author has drawn Saon 
With fome remalnt of the beautj, 
fo he reorefents him Ukewife witb 
fame of the oUier perTeflioiii of 
Arch-Angch and herein he V 

^hoofcfl. PARADISE LOST. is; 

Lofc all their virtucj left bad men fliould boaft 
Their fpcdcFOs deeds on earth, which glory' excites, 
Or clofe ambition vamifh'd o'er with zeal. 48^ 

Thus they their doubtful confultations dark 
Ended rejoicing in their matchlefs diief : 
As when from mountain tops the dufky clouds 
Afcending, while the north-wind fleeps, o'er-fprcad 


fif /* Jt^ (t** u4RAMf safVfnt t- Homer Ikyi ottly ttu he remoT'd 
mA- Moahtn ^' ibidt douds froca the mountain 

; -K-.™ «..u, „.^ ,^,. 2; ■:? 14J: "j^ tkS 

•* '■ yttvTA Ziw, fliowi that the tranfladon and notei' 

- Sk y l^«nr ««<-(ti tiuviMi, x*l were not always made by the fame 
** «r^fflf **efi, perfon. We have a fimile Mo, 

»i..^.«Xa.^.A.« n«of Spenfer. a» Mr. Thycr hath 

9>«MF*T»A/Sflp. obferYBir Sonnet 40. 
So when diick ekmdi Inwrap di« 

' 'shead, Mark when fflte (biles with amiaU* 

O'er Heav'n'i cxpanfe like ons chear, 

: "niund'rer with a 

black cieliu; iprcad ) - AndtMlmcwheretocaoyoitlikca 

' SBodeti. the "niund'rer with a it: 

"flaffaiiig ny. When on each eye-lid fweedy do 

Bub through the darkaefi, and >PP'>^ 

te down che day : An hundred Graces as in fludc 

The lulls fhine out, the rocks in t» fit. 

ptO^cArife, Ukeft itfeemedi, inmyfimplewi^ 

And fircams, and yales, and fb- Unto the fair fun-flunc in fum- 

reft* ftrike the eyet, mer's day ; 

* ' The finiling fcene wide opens to That when a dicadiul doaa away 

the fight, u flit. 

An) all th' unmeafui'd xther Through the broad world dod> 

*' flamci with light. ^read hii goodly ray : 

' At fijht whereof each bird that fitf 

llir. Fine tranOatet it at if Jnintcr on fpny, 

. ^kg^tenVl, which makes it a hotrid And every beaft that to hit d«i 

,,iubcr tbn a plcafine fcene; bat wu fle^ 

'■• R 3 Como 

iifl m1C& Dri S S'l^O^S-r. l^tfokflt 

Heav'h*? chearful £ice, the roaring element ^ga 
Scowls o'er the darkened landikip fhow^ or ffaowcr; 
If chance the radiant fun with fiuvwd (Weet 
Extend his evening beam, the fields revive^ 

The birds their notes renew., and bleating herds 
Atteft their joy, that hill and valiey rings. 49; 

C (hamc to men ! Devil with Devil damn'd 
Firm concord holds, men only difagree 
Of creatures rational, thou^ under hope 
Of heav'nly grace : and God prockming peace^ 
Yet live in hatred, enmity, and ftrife 500 

Among themfelves, and levy cruel wars^ 
Wafting the earth, each other to deftroy : 

As if (which might induce us to accord) 


Come fbrdi afrefli ontof didr late 494. — Uemiiwg AinA]: Dr. Bok- 

difmay» ley raads Jkcis^ and iays tluK M 

And to the light lift op their is a word proper to oittd* tte h 

drooping head. nathltai. But Arn/is orinalhriB 

9o<iay ftonn- beaten heart likewife common name for a nuaStfdT aj 

^ is cheared, fort o£ cattel : Hence Zktfkri 

Witb that fun-fhine^ when doady that is Sheefberdfmmm^ fee VIL45X. 

looks are cleared. 

See alfo a fimUe of the fame kind — 5//^/»^>'^wmadi&cfciBa. 

ik BOethius Dc Conf. L, i. and in Pf^^oj?, « Spenfer s Jk^ oMd ■ 

Dante's^Inferno. C. 24. ^^'« p«f 'f^ '^'^ **««• ^_. 

If^'- T^riJ^''''^c r reflexion wiU appear the moitjw^ 
Hio^ H s chtarfuiface. ] Sj^nfei. ^nent and natural, when one mi- 
Fairy Queen, B. 2. Cant ta. St. 34. g^j^ the oontendonfi agp«.»«kkft 
And Hmwmts cbearfid fma nrnt- Milton li?*d and wrote. 7iyf» 
loped. fbym>. 

512. i 


Vlan had no^ lif Uifli. foes; enpvr be£des, 

That do^ 9ad nigbt foi his deftrai^n wait. epe 

The Stygiaa cot^icU thu& diilblv'dj^ aad forth 
in order caqw the grand iniernai peers: 
Vlidft came their mighty paramount, and feem'd 
\lone th' antagoniil of Heav'n, nor lefs 
Than HeU'sdrcadempero^ wthpojpiipfifpreme, ei^ 
%nd God-like iixutated ffa.^; hxco, ro^nd 
fi globe of &ery Serapluni lodos'd 
A'^ith lu-jght ioablazoory, and horrent arms. 
Ct(n of their feilion ended they bid cry 
iVith trumpets regal found the great refult: ^rr 
row'ards the four winds four fpeedy Cherubim 
!^ut to their n^ouths the founding alchemy 

fit. jI tbie if ^ery Sfr^^m} A Dr. Bemlcy rcviimtAa^.-butfinc* 

bit fininet here a h^ttalion in he sJtowi chat gtU anJ. Jikitr Mnh 

ildt iurroundiilg him, V Virgil at •wU *s hrafi andffwtrr, art «A 

'Vf*m jEo. X. 373- <h*m, tiin^ W*V mrtah, for th«t 

— qu tUm. iUc viriim dcDfiS- '^n^ u^^"^ '^i!, '''' *"!" * -'P^ 

JTf^ ««-»» cially being lomd to the epithet 

^ "^8"- jfa*^. wCct deteimim it lo meui 

eia. hirrent armsA Htrriml a tftuDpet, made perhapi of th* 

Wndei the idea both of terrible pix'd n«tab of biu, filrer, £^(. 

nd prickly, let up like the biiftles Ptartt- 

f I wiU boor. Alchemy, the Bune of that «C 

fimr«^ Mirtb inn*. '^^^ " *" *''''»«' P^ "', «^ 

y- F^ T ■uv]', thf tnnlmutadon of ib^ 

-^— MMO. KM «*^*^"«' metal, but toavet the imagjutioii 

517. ~~~. thi fiKi£»g aidttmf'l prodwcd bf that nyfanani cni 
R 4 •* 

^flS P AR A D I S E' flfrOtS-T. TUokM. 

By heralds voice explain'd; the hollow' aby&: ■> '.hT 

Heard far and wide, and all the hoft of HcU 
With deafning (hout return'd them loud acclamc. J2e 
jrhence more at eafe their minds, and fomewhat 

By falfe prefumptuous hope, the ranged Powers s*/ 
Difband, and wand'ring, each his feveral way -■ *H 
Purfiics, as inclination or fad choice " 

Leads him perplex'd, where he maylikelicft find ^ae 
^ruce to his reftlcfs thoughts, and entertain 


.'m a metonymy, the efficient for «rnw_. with their eDtenainmeiui ib 

(xJcffi PA*R>AiDi fi RXXyBT/ i^ 

'he irfefome hours, dll his great chief cettim. 

art ort die plain, or in die dr fubUme, '< f 

'pon die wing, or in fwift race contend, 

s at th' Olympian games or Pythian fields ; g^ 

art curb their fiery fteeds, or Hiun the goal 

Vith rapid wheels, or fi-ontcd brigads ibrm. v! 

.s when to warn proud cities war appears 

/ag'd in the troubled iky, and armies ntfh 

'o battel in the clouds, before each van g^i 

rick forth the aery knights, and coudt their fpears 


e iraaga m rait'd in propoitiaa HTfir^^voJuAJPlaulyuka^ 

the natun of the beiags who are from Horace, Od, L I. 4. 

sre defbifaad. We may fuppoTe ,, , ... . 

o that die aodnr had aa eye to Metaque fcrrtdi* cntattrem. 

Ij-fiom. «i.VL6+a. HeU-gaow both tke whodi ml 

*»a in pamhiei) ezercou mem* the burning naile Aey imve dk 

bra palidbii, wtnfirvid ncn before die nee. 

^omenmut Indo. ctfiilva lufian- Btmtln, 

or «eni : $34- ^'£^ » '■k trmAU Jfyy 

Pan pediboi plandunt choreai, et So ^akefpear in 1 Hen IV. Aal. 

Omiiff^ ucunt, i^e. C^ thele appearances 

rheir aenr limbs in fports they "the meteor* of a fr»MJV.tanM, 

(nd on the green contend d»e „M^-—r^"^'^^^f"Z 

wTtSier'B wiae ^" ^«" " *•" «*»• Cw* *«« 

kwne in heroic verii divinely fingi ««*«■ (F««*) » plf«- A reft 

3ther> in artfol mcafnre* lead tfe *" ■"•*^"' the bre^ of the ■«- 

531... -—•-.^Mr/iriW „. 

539. Oriiin 

,,, rARAI>ISELOyrt lOokB 

z jrpos ck^; vkii fais of arai9 

Fr:c: f-'"^- n.^ of Hc&t a the wdkio burw, 

Oih-TTr ^'liij v^c Tyj:crz;idi r^ more Icli 

Jiccd ^7. t^o'ji rocks aad hu^ aad ride ifac air 540 

Li wbL^TiAd; Hc.i icixcc holds the wild oproar. 

As whtn Akkks. L-om Oechalia aowa'd 

\V:ui c:c:]iKtt, liek ih* cnTcnam'd robe» and toit 

Thrcuzik iKun up by the roots Theffidim pine^ 

And Licius 6oci the top of Oeta direw 54$ 


539. 0:heri ^.ith K-ai Trt^-^^r the king's daughter, ^^/f tir tmtf 
r0fi &c.] Oihen uizn r«ge mmJrahi^ u-hich was ient hinby 

cbi: ox' Typhcr^ of Tr^hoo. Deiviin in jc^lputy of his Mf 

«ee of t'.'.e gianis who warred mitfaieU» and flack io clofe R> ^ 

agiir.fl Heaves, of whczi iVe be- &in that ke coiUd noc puli off ^ 

fore I. IC9. The coccad rere is ooe wiihoot pulliqg otf die ^ckii 

▼ery rein«:*icab!e. Some are em- mmd twre ibrmwh pmm mp hf th§ tm 

rcry rein«:*icab!e. Some are em- mmd twre ibrmgh fmm w^ iy 

ploy'd in fpordve games aod ex- 7htfs£am fimsy a^d Liehms y§A»\tk 

crciics, while oihers rend up botk broagh: him die poifanM nhb 

loekft and hills, and make wild up- fi'9m tkf tvf vf Oam^ a BMMBttflUi 

foar. Some again arc Ung^ng in a the borders of TkdEdy, tbrrxi^ 

TaUej^, while others are uiicourf- /9 r^* Euhic fim^ die lea a^ar Ea- 

ing and arguing on a hill ; and bma an ilaaid ia die Archipchpi 

dicie are repreienced as JUting^ The madnefs of Hescule^ vas \ 

Whije others march different ways iubjeft for tragedy *wao-£ the A9* 

to difcover that infernal world, cients (H«i«ieAa« •A««fc»iiA^3' Af 

Every company b drawn in con- Euripides, Hercules furois bjSe* 

traft both to that which goes be- neca/ but our author has coBfriU 

fore, and that which follows. the principal circumftances ia thh 

J42, Aa lihen AUidcs^ &:c. ] As fimilitode, and feema more pva- 

when Hercules named Alnda from cularly to have copied Ovid, AlcL 

his grandfather Alc^us, fr9m Oc- IX. 1 36. 

ibmlui crr^.vn\l nvitb con^ueft, after yidor ah OechaEa &c. 

Ills return from the conqueft of 

Oechalia a city of Eksotia, having But as Mr. Thyer righdy obfemii 

brought with him from thence lole Milton in this fimSe falls vallf 


BoofclK Fi^HiAtDrl 5 & iLaST. 



Into thr' Buboiciiau Othen mfimtmUdi^ 
Retreated in< a iikat valleys fing 
With notes angelical to many a harp 
Their own heroic deedsr and hapkls^ &U 
By doomp of faattel) ^<^ complaia ^t &ta 
Free virbie fhould indarall to force or chanco. 
Their foag waa par^> but the haBmapny 
(What could it leia whea^ Spirits imnnortal iing2) 
Sufpended Hell, and took with WfUkmmt 


fliort of Us ufual. fiibliinity and j|<4. Snfiemki E^K^, The^qflB^ 

propriety. How macb dbes the of uieir £i^;mg is fomcf^iat like 

3mge of Alddes tearing up Thef- that ;of Orpheus in Hell, 

faHan piaes &c fink below that of Georg. IV. 481. 

the- Aofld* rciuiing up botb rocks 

and hi^ and nniDg; the air in 

whxdwind! a»i how faindy aod 

atfigni&caiitljr does, the allnfion end 

WW the kiw dsnunftaoce of Li* 

chas bcag duDwn. into .the Eaboie 

c 5;o. — *^ ^ad am]^U»n tbatfaU 

Fne mrtutfifvM iniBrmll Ufirc$ 

mr ebsaui. ] This is taken 

£tMii ihe teiODa difiiob of £nii- 

aides, iRhich Brutus ufed, whenhe 


Q TAvusr itptn^ My©- «f * ir j^> 

Infome places far fiukfifxt k is 

S'l^^ 7(/x,s^')**^ Milton has 
wen comprebcndQd bQCht.falfaeB 
tifirm tr dan, JImiisf.. 

Quin ipfie ftqpuere domvv, ^tfsa 

Tkrtaraj^cerqleofqtte jivptexii 
nibui angues 

EUmenidcsy teniut^ucjiiiMiiV.tx^ 

Cerberus ora, 
Atque Ixionii vento rota conftitft 


E*en from the depA^ 9S lioll tha 

Th* infernal manfions nodding 

ieemto dtaice; 
The gaping three-moiitit*d dog 

fcmts to fiiari^ 
The Furies hearkefl|» and their 

bakes oncuri; 
Uen fisems no smmtc his pain m 

fintlcaot aKWive oi^htf fludMig 
wheeL PiydcHi 

iii PA RAD I S E tfisT. 

The throngis? audience. In dxfcoarfe more fwect 555 

(For clDqumcc the foal, fong dianns Ac fenic, ) 

Others apart Ikt on a hill rctir*d. 

In thoughts more elevate, and rcalbo'd high 

©f 'providence, foreknowledge, will, and firtc, 

Fix*d fate, free will, foreknowledge abfblute, 561 

And found no end, in wand'ring nuuses loft. 

Of good and enl much they argued tfaen^ 

Of happinels and final mifery, 

^aflion and apathy, and glory' and (hame. 

Vain wifdom all^ and falfe philofophy: ' ^65 



fit kirmm fuj^-^dtd HiUi butisit Fix'J fate^ firet nuU!^ Jmdmm 

pot much' bcncr with the paren- It/gf c^JoJaue.^Thc tun of Ae 

thfifa cooaing berwcea ? which words here is adminble, anl lor 

fiifpeacis as ic were the event, well ezpiefles the waod'riifi ^ 

jwaics the rcader*s attention, and maaes of their dHcoorfie. Aid Ac 

g^vct a greater force to the fen- turn of the words is matlT i» 

ICBCC pro?*d, and rendered £11 uKt 

^ . . beautiful by the aaaitionoraaeflh 

But the harmony thet to each of them 
(What could it left when Spirits 

Sdpended Hell. ^c. pSiUfifkr} CW^^S 

555. In Jtfiour/e fTMrefiveei] *°^ dc £nibus bononim et ado- 

rn hill as high and elevated as their ^ frwi^nct^ free mvili^ &c. wet 

eir humble valley. «/«w. ?^ ^*5"„V"«^ rfpeoaUy luon ik 

inttoduaiOA of the free nc^Ons of 

559- —firehmwU^t vnU^ ami Arminius npon thefe fubjeds: ifl 

/^h our author fliowt licrein what' a 


kjokJJ, PAR.ADIS^I.OS'i; 


Tct with a pleafing fisrccry coiUd charm ..,.. r 

'ain Hat & while or angui/h, and excite 

'allacious hope, or ami th' obdured breaft 

Vith ftubbom. patience as with triple fleel. 

inodier part in fquadrons and grofs bands, jjt| 

>n bold adventure to difcover wide 

That diiinal world, i£ any clime perhaps 

4ight yield them eafier habitation, bend 

bur ways their flying march, along the banks 

){ four infernal rivers, that dlfgorge (74 

ito the burning lake their baleAil ftreams ; 


Mnioa he hkd of in boolu and 571. Tha £/mm/ wwjU;] Tte 

aituti^ of tlui kind. fercnl dreumftuKet la llie ddcf^ 
tioa of HeU ire findjr ima^M r A 

'j68. — iff tUgnJ hrtaf^ Sowe riir tniir lirrri > hii li itiPjiiij^i ihmi 

ad in KGhon't own editioiu, and fdves into the fea of £e, dw <■• 

K (Mrd/f, a* it u in Dr. BeM- ttmo of cold aad hiat, and tht 

y't, Mr. Fcnton't, and others : rim <tf oblivioa. Tbe nwoAraqt 

he limic word it ufed again in animaU produced is that inftrail 

[. 78;. world are reprefenled hf a Gn^ 

[Tii. faw his haplefi foes, but iT" ^J*^ 8"^ " * "^f J««* 

AmmI ^Jar'd. "^ *" """' "*" • """^ long" 

™^^^ defcriptioii oif them would hara 

c6o. •» 'udih tHfUfittl. ] An done. This epifede of die fillea 

ilutiia of Horace, Od. I. UI. Spiiitt and their place of babitatiM 

,0, comes in verv happily to unbead 

„ , , , the mind of toe roder from its a^ 

Jill lobor, et » tnplcz ^(jon to the debate. An onU> 

CiECapeaujerat, lie. nary po« would iodecd have fpn 

is breaft was armed wiA die jmKo many dreomftances to a gHat 

mgdi of direefold bnfi, only ^^^•^^ ^ ,^y,!^^*}*f^ 

r^nfedidiehaideftmebliJf '™ {'t^'^i^"*""^' ** 

fjif. PARADTSB LOST. .fibM. 

Abhorred Styx^ the flood of doA^ haie ; 

Sad Acheron ^f forrow^ black 4nid deep ; 

Cocytus, nam'd of lamentation loud 

Heard onthe rnefal ftream; "fierce Phlegedion, 580 

Whofe waves xtf torrent ifire inflame 'with rage. 

Far off fi-om thefe a flow and filent ftream, 

Lethe the river of obKvion rolls 

Her watry labyrinth, whereof who drinks. 

^yj. Abhorred Stfx, ice.'] The Kunvt^ fignifyinf; to mm^ ttd ir 

Greeks reckon up five riven in mmi: MpJUegifhm ja from JsaoAm 

Hell, and call them after the names Greek word ^Kiyy 'jigoU^nt • 

of the noxfons fpringt and rivers in htmi and theitfbre rightly dcnt- 

their own country. Our poet fel- cd here force Pbieggihtm^ mk/k 

lows their example both as to^he wmtis p/ Hntm foe iffo^ ^^ 

iiiiinber«iid the names of thefe in- rage^ as it is by Vugily^Bn.^ 

fcmal rivers, and exceUendyde- 550. 

Icrte their nature and froperties ,, ^ ^ 

irith the explanation of theirnames. "T^^*^^^^™*" nBmM» 
£tfx fo named of a Greek word w^^I^^^.p^,,^,,^^,^ 
wrvy^ that ignite to bmtt and Tartareus Fmegeflioii. 

ioMfr, and therefore called here i#^ iWe-knsw not what'to ftMrlottl 

^'"^ ^?!*» . '^'>*^ */ ^'^ ^^* fituation of thcfc riren/i»«9, 

mnd by Vngi /if/w iVr«if«*iy«, ^n. ^^ ^^^ ^amsax poct» ^rnfnr 

Vi. 438. Acherm has ite name from Cocytus as branciliine out oTte 

wxpi dofor and p«« fluo, fowng awl both Cocytus andPhlefete 

2«/A m#/; «ndj^^ ae- (^r PyripMi««thto).aa JU>i25ii. 

nidingly ^adAcbirm, the nver ^ to AcheSn/b^yiT. X.-ST^ 
forow as Styx was of hate, i^ui ^ ^ 

^trnddftft agreeable to Viigil's dun ErSet^ fiw m€ Ax^eP"!^ IIcWM- 
•Mtafteraf it yt^ 'tf* pfiir/ 

and perhaps he defcribes tkciflv- 

CoTfius^ nam"^ jof lammtatioth b^* ation as it really was in-GlHflf: 

came derived mm a Greek wonl bat Virgil and tke nthcx fSM^f- 

3ktt. i»AltADJSE LOST. 13^ 

rthwicb his £orma 'fiaXe snd be'tng £>rgefs, t$g 
rgcts both joy and grirf, pl<raf(ire atod pain, 
^ond this flood a Jroecn continent 
:s dark and wild, beat with perpetaal ftofftA 
whirlwind and dire hai], which en Ann knd 
xzvfs not, but gb&ers -heap, and mih ieedis jo^ 
' ancient pile; aH «lfe deep friOw «Rd fee, 
gulf profennd as ^at Serboniitn bc% 


nij codftMind them, and men- Quaoi jnxta Ztf^t tnitm pndibi- 

neir onrii'inil placn wklf tiu- ohw/, 

{aOdint diflcmwevf diUnc- . 

. Om »aet thtrefcre ww « Th« nver of obhvioii ii n^rify 

rty to -inw'fM I may fay) a P'"^'* /^ •/" *"i» f** "*"» «* 

MaboffteftTiKni and he l»»n^. <"">*. taftnitatioii, .id 

wfo » i>m» /.fc BgrceaWy ragej and dindw the fmm-c 

' it<»tenineDtioiufj« 'I"". "B™ *''^ region of fire. 

kriipture that oU^» » ^ ,, , , », j_i^^ 

^>ri aad be makes thefe theitijy completei the map of Hctt 
■ nv«i toBoir from four diffe- "wUi i" goniral divlficni. 

xTLi^ffi^'ll;!; „?,»9— *."«] H.r. <M. 1 

much creater idch than any Bf . * , . ... 
Heathupom. Bc6dei thefe Jam Cwii tenia irf»bjmie<firw 
c it a fifth river caUad i*rf», 'Gr«flflii/*c 

U^fi, and it. «aten are fiud to ^Jf/lTl'lf J^t.Z?-!^ 

»'d that qoaliqr, ^. ,^pfc and looo fa. oropa)? „ 

^'^ twecn the a&ciau metmtain CafiA 

XeduBi ad florainii mtdtm *>id Damltta a city of Egypt dh 

curbs laiice*, « bnga obUvia ™c of the more eaftcrn moutfas «if 

potint - ^' ^'■''- '' was rumnnided ota 

'^ ill fides 'br ftillt of loofe Oud, 

Milton aitribates the fame ef- which earned into the -water by 

to It, and defcribci it aa «/hv high windi -To thidcen'ddte lakS. 

JBiwrirtaH,-aM Lnca had'dotte ^lut ttrbe diflingiilflrd frotn:]^ 

9Wlrat'^IX<'^^> W'ttif'CdUSifti^^vhkftrABle ar- 

I36 PAR ADISE LOST, Bookll. 

Betwixt Damiata and mount Callus old. 
Where armies whole liave funk: the parching air 
Burns frore, and cold performs th'effe<S of fire. ^^^ 
Thither by harpy-footed furies hal'd u. .„ ,1^^ 

At certain revolutions all the damn'd . ^Uify ^a 

Are brought; and feel by turns the bitter duuogl .(O 
Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more fiero^^f 
From beds of raging fire to ftarve in ice 60ff 

Their foft ethereal warmth, and there to pine 


nies have b«en fwallow'd up. Read : thii line is derir'd from the Btl|pc 
HenxlotDs, L. 3. and Luc. Phai. helm or the French i>*lir,, m 

(ii p^^i'A t) I a £ ' L O S T. 


■** i 

♦ — /•. 

yvesLolCy infix d^ and frozed xound^ ' 
fa of tim9) thence Jiurricd hack to fircw: - ..^ */ 
fary over this Lethean found 
to and fro, their forrow to augment^* ; v. ■ 60^ 
frUh and ftruggle, as th^ pais/ tovtea^b.; 
!«lq>ting ftream, with one fmail drop to lofe , 
eet fiygetfiilnefs ail pain and woe« 
I one moment, and fo near the brinks 

■ ■ 

te withftandfi^ and to oppofe .th' attempt 6 1 <y 

r« fine paCage likewife ia 
mAg where the puiiif)niieiit 
itk fafoppofed to confift in 
hetk dt extreme cold; but 
Icmei are not made alter- 
fl to be fnffer'd both in 
lit as Milton has defcrib'd 
ii thereby has greatly re- 
i inprov*d the thought. 
^Meafurey Adtlll. 


t todie. and go we know 

H cold obfbudion, and to 

ifiUe warm motion to be- 


led clod; and the delight- 


ie in fiery floods, or to 


ng reg;ions of thick-ribbed 

— i^nd fo near the hrinh ; ] 
ddcd as a farther aggra- 
' dicir mifenr. that tho* 



they #ere> «Mr the hrink, fy near 
the brim add /oKface of the water, ^ 
yet they could not taAe qne dropt* 
of it.. ^ d^e reafons folio Wy^:^/^ 
'witbjiimdsy ^hxz obftant as it is in 
Virgil, iGn. IV. 440. emd Medujk 
wii G^omiau terror fuurds tb9 
ford. Medaia was one of the Gor- 
gon monilcn, whofe locks were 
icrpenc£ fo ^tenible that. they turn-., 
cd the beholders into ficme. Uly^I 
in Homer was defiroua of feeing* 
more of the departed heroes^ bat 
I was ftftakl, fays he, Gkiyfl: Xf: 

Left Gomn rifing ftom thMnfer"' . 

nal laxes. 
With horrors ann*d, and carls of •> 

hiffiDgihakes» . . ^^\ 

S ^ ShonU 


PARADISE Lost. Bookit 

Medufi with Gorgonian terror guards 
The ford, and of itfelf the water flies -, .*f 

All talle of living wight, as once it fled .,wj|| 

The lip of Tantalus. Thus roring on * i 

In confus'd march forlorn, th' adventrous bonds 6|J 
With (hudd'ring horror pale, and eyes aghaft, ; t 
View'd firfl their lamentable lot, and found .,!»' 
No reft : through many a dark and dreary rale , ^ 
They pafs'd, and many a region dolorous, ",.* 
O'er many a frozen, many a fiery Alp, 620 

Rocks, caves, lakes, fens, bog8,dens, and ihades of death, 
A univerfe of death, which God by curfe 

ifv fARADISH LOST. tjy 

re all ^ dl», death Kves, and nature breeds, 
rfe, all monftraus, all prodigions things, 62'^ 
linable, imittcrable, and worfe 

&bles yet Have fcjgn'd, or fear conceiv'd, 
3ns, and Hydra's, and Chimanri's dire. 
:an while the Adversary* of God and Man, 

with thoughts inflam'd of higlieft defign, 630 
on fwift wings, and towards the gates erf Hell 
ires Ms folitary flight; fomedmes 
:ours the right hand coaift, fometimeB die left, 

Oia^s with level wing the d«ep, then fbars 
5 the fierjr concave towring high* 6f.^ 

hen £ir off at fea a fleet dcfcry'd 


I wtre Cehnrt's foul ud S)6. Ai vtttn fir ^ ^Jta ScJ 
athlbiiie nut, Satan ttwru^' £hi ii here cam- 

; Sphhign, Gcntftiin, there fat'd t»M. fleet oi Indiznicn dK:o- 
eie Gofgoni fdl, ftr'i at ■ diftuice, u it were, 

c holding Scylla'if Tawling hMgfag i» tbt tleadi, ai a fleet at a 
Hnid about, diiuace {ecnu to do. Thii it tlie 

E ferpenti hiTt, ther« fer'a- whole of t&e companlbn ; but (a< 
looth'd Hydnt't jkW, Dr. Pearce oblervn] Milton in his 

zra there fpnes fire and finulitndes jju is. the praflice of 
rimftone out. Fairf^jt. no|acr and \api too) after he hu 

_ .«..k \,^„^ u.. u:u». fliow'd the oiminoti reTcmbUnce, 
Eiiciiucu man in UBC unc I .^^ jj^^^^ wuefembhiig circum- 
. Vrvsjkmjn itnlhlfott^xg ftancesj which hare do other rela- 
\€dttp:\ Virg.yEn.V. 117. twn to the comparifon, than AaC 
titvl4iiduin-,Gder*tB(^Bf * gaw him die bint, it 
munovct alai. i**" let be to tbcimn of Ua 

8 2 imigiaatiQnr 


Hangs in the clouds, by equinoAial winds 
Clofe failing from Bengala, or the iles 
Of TeriiLLte and Tidore, whence merchants bring 
Thtir fpicy drugs: they on the trading flood 640 
Tlirough the wide Ethiopian to the Cape 
Ply ftemming nightly tow'ard the pole. So fccm'i! 


irnAgiiiatian- But Dr. CenOq' a&s, thzt is by night they ful noiA- 
whj a _,fr..'whcn a Ciil rate man ward, and yet {as Dr. Pearce &ji) 
of wr.r wo jI- do ? And Dr. Pea[ee by day their fleet ni«jr be ^71*' 
anfutrf, Beca n'c a flt^t give: a h.npitg in ihf clauJtl Sofrrm'd/B 
nobler image than a fiogle (hip. eff ihe fjing Tiend : Dr. BccJef 
And it is a fleet of Indiamen, be- alks, whom Sstan appcar'd la Ar 
caufe coming from fo long % ^ff, in this his fvVuarj fUgblt Ht 
voyage it is the litter to be com- what a cold phlegmatic paect of 
jiar'd [o Satan in. this expedition ; criticiTci a this t Xt may be tf- 
andtheri: exotic names (as Dr. Bent- fwcc'd, that he was feeii by ik 
ley calls them] give a lefs vulgar Mufc, and would have feeai'd fa 
cail to the fimiliiude than places in to any one who had Teen \ml 
our own channel and in our own Poets often fpeak in this m »im*r , 
feas would have done. This deeC and make theinfelvcs and ths 
ii dcfcrib'd, bj tquimBiul 'v.iadi, readers prcfcnc Eo the moft ictvH 
llie trade-winds blowing about the fccnes ot aftiou. 
equinofiial, tiefi failini, and there' 

fere more proper to be compar'd «+S- ■*« '*^< ihrufiU * 
to B ficgle perlon. frotx Bengala, a , „ ?"'"' ] Tne gates hadmne 
tingdom and city in the Ball Indies ">«"• nine platea, Dinelimags)* 
fubjeft to the great Mogul, er tbt "omer and the other poeb niLc 
iks if -Ttnmti and TiJote, two of ^'" J''™" &addi, to have knml 
the Molucca ilands in the Eaft In- coverings of vanou« muetiab 6r 
dian fea. •wbtnti mcr<hani! bring the greater ftrength : Ovii Met. 
thiir fiicj drugs, the moft famous '^'■"- '■ 

fpices are brought from thence by ^j^ j^.^ f^^g„^ 

the Dutch into Europe: tbefeetie Aiar SrarJt. * ^ 

tmJing fifKd, as the winds are call'd ^ ' '*'"**3' 

tradi-uj'mil, fo he calls tlie flood 647. — impuFJ'witb rireli^^ 
trading, thrwgb tbe -widt Eibiapiaa Incloicd. paJed in ai it were. S* 
fea tn t)jt Cajv of Good Hope, plj the word u u^ in Spcnftr'l iUt 
Jtmmiig id-itfy taviard iIh ftlt, fetmi, 


ookHs PARADISEXdST, i^t 

ar off the flying Picnd : at laft appear 

{ell bounds high reaching to the horrid roof, 

ind thrice threefold the gates } three folds were brafi, 

'hree iron, three of adamantin rock, 646 

npenetrable, impal'd with circling iire, 

'et uQConfum'd. Before the gates there fat 


(nd round about, her work (he of the allnory fays only, that Sao 

did iB^U Un'i intcDoed voyage was dai^- 

Virh a fair border wrought of rous to hu being, and that he re- 

fundry flowen, folved liowercr to venture. 

a commoaly applied to that kind 

' cxccDtiMi, when a pale or ftske The flight of Satan to the gates of 
drove through a malefaflor'i Hell is finely imaged. I have ^- 
idy. And perhaps Milton (u ready decUted my opinioij o^ t)t«. 
!r. Thyer addi) might take the allegory coDCeming Sin and Dca4^: 
nt of thii circiunAance from hit which u however a very fituih'd 
voiTte nxnaacct, where 002 fre- piece in it* kind, when it it not 
lenily meen with the gatei of conGdered ai a part of an epic 
chanted calUes t\v.t iptpoTd 'wiib poem. The genealogy of the le- 
•climg frt. Speoler alfo in his veral peKoiu is contrived widi' 
:icription of tue houfc of fiofy- great delicacy; Sin i* the daughter 
ne. Fairy Qneen, B. }. CanL 11. of Satan, and Death the ofspring 
. 21. Qf Sin. The ioceftuoa* mijrtai« 

between Sin and Death produce* 
lot in the porch that did them thofe moo&ers and Hcll-boandii, 

iait amate which froip time to time enter into 

\ flaning fire, ymixt with fmoul- dieir mother, and tear the bowela 

dry fiioice ite. 9f her who gave them births 

Thefe are the terrors of on evil 
6^i. -^ Btfir* iht gatii tbin fai confcience, and the proper fmita 
:,] Here begins the famous al- gf Sin, which naturally rife front 
^my of Mitton, which is a fort the apprehenfions of Death. This 
paraphrafe on that text of the laft DMutiful moral is, I thinlc; 
9oAle St. James, I. 1 ;. Then dearly ifltimated in the fpcech of 
im Lkfi bath tcmeiiiid it hringiib Sin, where complaining of this her 
lb Sim, tud Sin •a.-btn it it finfiitd dieadfhl ifliic, £be adds, 
iugttbftrtb Dtatb. The firli |«rt 

S J Befori 

On either fide a ibrmidable ihape ; 

Tbc one fcein'd woman to the wafte, iii4 fitir« 6jD 

But eiuLd Ibul in many a fcaly fold 

Voluminous an4 vaft, a ferpent arm'd 

With mortal fUng: about her middle TOfjxjA 


Before mine eyes in oppofition fitt 
Grim Death my fon »ad I'oe, who 

feti them on. 
And me his parent would full foon 

For want of ether prey, but that 

he Inwwi 
Hi) end with mine inrtdr'd. 

I need not ireiuion to the reader 
the beautiful circumftance in the 
lafl pan of this quotation. He 
will likcwife obrerve how oatorall^ 
the three perfoni concerned in thu 
allegory are tempted by one com- 
mon intcrtft to enter into a confe- 
deracy to"ethcr, and how properly 
Sin it maae the portrefi of He!I, 
and the only being that can open 
the gates to that world of torturet. 
The Jefcriptive part of this alle- 
Cory it likewife rery ftrong, and 
All of fubhme ideas. The ligure 
of Death, the regal crown upon 
his head, his menace of Satsn, his 
advancirg to the combat, the out- 
cry at his birth, are circumHances 
too noble to be mA over In filence, 
and exiremelj fuitable to this hwg 
»f rtrrari. I need not mention the 
juRnefs of thojglit which is ob- 
fr-vicJ in the veneration of thefe 
fcvcral fymboiitil peribns ; that 
Sin was produced upon the firft 

revolt of Satan, that Death tp> 

S:ar'd foon after he was cafi iit> 
di, and that the terion of cea- 
fcience were conceived at the rae 
of thu [dace of tomentt. Tht 
defcription of the gate* ia *ay poe- 
tical, as the openiflg of them bM 
of Miltao'i tptii. Jd^. 

But tho' Mr. Addifon ceefam tiw 
famoui allegory, at imp ny cr (cc 
an epic poem; yet Biifaep Aatr- 
bury, whofe taAe in |ioUm Uocia* 
aire wa* never qucAuaa'd, btm 
to be mndi more aSe&ed wak Ait 
than any part of the ■qim, a> f 
think we may colleft nomflK*C 
his letters to Mr. Pope. ** 1 1^ 
" turn you your Milton, iap ^ 
" and •^— I pnxeft cs ym, ik> 
" laft pcrufal of him liai giiet 
" me fuch new degree^ I wiB 
" not fay of pleasure, bnt of 4- 
" miration and aftoaiftauat, tka 
<< I look upon the fuUimity if 
" If omer and the lujelfy of 1^ 
" gil with fomewhat lefs l ewfcaa 
" than 1 us'd to do. I chaBap 
" you, with all your MUtial^, 
" to Ihow me in theSruoftkft 
" any thing equal to thr aUegm 
" of Sin and Death, cither m m 
" the greatneft and juflnelsoflkt 
" invention, or ihe highth wi 
• bmuty of the oohwiie. W]t«I 



A cry of Hell hounds never ceafing bark'd 
With wideCerberean mouths fiill loud, and rai^ ii^ 
A hideow peal; yet, when they lift, would creep, -- 
If ought diftarb'd their aoi£e, into her womb, 
And kennel there, yet there ftill bark'd and howl'd, ' 


" looked BpoB tt t nnt of Bar- 
** row"*, I now begin to think a 
■' Jeriooi Cntk, uid could aliMft 
** r«atiue to fet my band to a, 

Hxc ^mcnoqiie leget, tantiun cc- 
cuifle p>tiliit> 
Meomdem laau, Vir^Iium en- 

^^ OttMn- fid* M fiirmiMt 

><^;] Ttw £Eui«orZ}ra/» 

It JOBtqr wdix'd iwragiccd upon 

by poeti aad pnoten : bac die de- 

fcripMaaf Sh feenu to be to isi- 

«iu upoQ that tkooght io 

\ DeAn. Poet. 4. 

Definit is pifcem nuilier farmols 

And it b not unprobable, that the 
vnthor might tave in mind too 
Spenfer's ifcripdon of Error in 
toe aix'd Ihape of a woman and 
H finpent. Fairy Queen, B, \. C. 1, 

Half like a fefpent horribly dif- 

Bat th' other half did woman's 

ihape retain, £^r, 

And aUb the image of Echidns, 

woreoitnt I 

Yet did ker ftcc a»d finwr 

s profef) 
comely glci . 
But all her hinder parti did 
plain exprefa 
A monftroos dragoa, fidl of fear- 
ful Dglinef*. 
The addition of the Hell houndi 
abont her middle ia plainly copied 
from Scylla, as. appcan from th« 
foDowing limilc. I had ^moft 
foi%ot that Heiiod's Echidna ii d«- 
fcribed half-woman and half-A^ 
pent ai well as Spenfer's. Tbeog. 

lAftitti i'mm viAwgfv •f"'*^*' 

in n fityatli. 
654. A tTj tf BtU-hiiKit Mntt 
etmjoig bark' J] Dr. Bendcy 
reads A mu tf BtU-botmii, tic 
but Mikon'i try of Hell-hoimdt b 
of much the fame poetical &amp » 
Virgil's mart flpditi tl »Jerit etamm 
•viit JE.n. IV. iji. where what h 
proper to the canti u faid of the 
'oit; a» here what i) proper to tfa^ 
HiU-himJt is faid cf tSe cry. We 
hare the fame way of fpeaking ia 
VI. aiz. VII.66. andcllewhere. 

s 4 660. r»v 


rAftXdr&'fiTtfl&T. BoAkff. 

Wfttth unfccn. *'Tar left ablflftT*d-(l»n tfiefe 
VA'dBcyHa bathirig in the fea' that partg • 660 

Calabria from the hoarfe Triifecifeft fhore : 
NcMT Uglier fblldw the nigh&-htig,"'whcn catl'd 
In fecret, riding^ through the air fhe comas, 
Lui'il with the fmelt of infimt blood, to dance 
With Lapland witches, while thciabVing moon 665 
Eclipfes at their dbarms. The other fhape. 
If fhape it might be call'd that ftape had none 
Diftinguifhable-in member, joint, or limb. 


660. Vcx'i S.ylh lathing hi ibt 
/Jir] For C'lrce having poi- 
fon'd that part of (he fca where 
Scylla nfed to ba:bi:. the next time 
Scj'IIb bathed, her Itrwer parts 
were chaiiged into dogs, in iht fia 
that fnrti CJniria, ihe fanhcft 
part of Italy, towards the Mediter- 
ranean, fr-m ibt te.'iTf Triiian-ian 

fiwe, that \i from bicily. which 
wu fonnerly called Triaacria from 
its three proinonrori. :> lying in the 
form of ;l tTjniiL,Ic: and thi> (liure 
may weU be called hierfe not only 
by redfon of a Icnipellu()iis Tea 
breaking i:pon it, but likcwife on 
account of the fioifcs oceafion'd 
by the trLptioiw of mount vEtna ; 
sAd the r.uinber of r'a in [his vcrfe 
very well exprefj ihc hoarfncfs of 
it. You have the floryof Srylb 
in t'.e begiiining of the 14th book 
of Orias MctamDrpbolii, ver. 
S9- a,. 

Bcylhi venit, nieditqtie teaa ^ 

fcenderat «1to ; 
Cum fua foHlari latnntilM ■• 

guina mCRiAtis 
Afpicit: ac primo aoa atiem 

corporis illu 
EUe fill partes, refiigitqoe^ <bin& 

ijiie, timcique 
Ora protcrva caniun; fed qintiii- 

git, atirahit una. 
Et corpui quxrenr femoniiB, ctv 

Tiunque, pedLimqae, 
Cerbereos riflu^ pro jKUtibui in- 

venit illis. 
Stat<]ue caDUffl rabio 1 Mije&- 

que terga ferarutn 
Ing'^inibui truneis uteroqse d- 

iianie cohxreot. 
The Ctfhcreim raeuitj in Mihoo » 
plainly after the Ctriercai riSm a 

66^. — ■■ thi lah-rimg mtnl Tin 

Ancients believed ;he noon grea^ 


r fubftance might be call'd that fliado^rHNn''^ ' 

H- each feem'd either i black at ilood as Ni^^^- -d^s 

erce as ten Furies, terrible as Hel^ 

idilu}ok atkeadful dartj whac-ieem^dhisbead ■■ 

le llkenefs of a kingly crown Jiwl oik: . „.. 

tan was now at hand, and jfrosn his (cat . 

JK monfter 0«>ving onward came as &fl: . ^g 

ith horrid ilridcs, Hdl trembled as he ftrode. 

i' undaunted Elend what this m^ht be admir'd, i 

Inur'd, iiotfear'di God gnd h^ &}^ except) . 


8iti by nu^al pn<Uc|u, and ejo.—JJatiitJlafJMlfiglt.tK.'i 

Ladn p«MU call tnc edipfes of Like the gfcofi defchbcd in Homer» 

mocm Mtrti ItPite. Tht three OdjC ^H. 605. , 

;gcang lines, and the former — j /■> im/wj reifl/ iwxiK, ' 

1 of iliii cort»n a fliorc acc^unc j:„^„, ^„ ,j^,, , ^^ ^^ ^.j^ 

what wa> once believ'd, and in 

ton's rime not fo ridiculous m i^„^;, »,^«i,^, gJm (i«A«rf7i 

p>^r ueer. 



66. Th* Btbcr fix^ tc] This Gloom)- as night he ftands, m sfi 

:ical defcription of Death our to throw 

lor has preay evidently bof- Th'aereal arrow from the twsnj^ 

edlrom Spenfer. Fairy Queen, ing bow. Broome. 

• ^""- 7- ^'- ■»^- 678, — G*J^hi, Sn txttfl, 

t after all came Lifp, and laOIy Crtatid tlnng ttaaght •;iaiiadbim0 

Death, flmnadi), *rhi» appears at 

:ath with moS grim and grifl/ £rA £ght to reckon God and hia 

vifage fccn. Son among created things, but mt 

t is he nought but parting of (tft is nfca here with tlic fame li- 
the breath, beny as ha vcr. 333 and 336, and 

! ought to fee, but like a lliade MilWn has a like paifage in hit 

to ween, profa works, p. 277. £^c. lU. 

ibodied, unfool'd, onhcaid, vii' li* fiace m HeavtM asJ Earth, tx- 

ita. fij^, trftHfH—'^ 8>chaidf^ 

683.— «i^ 

V46 PARADISET LbST. tiodtV. 

Crdated dibg nought valued he nor ihiinn*id $ 
Afki with difHainfid look thus firft began. 6So 

Whence and what art thoo, execrable ihs^ 
That dar'ft, though grim and terribie, advance 
Thy mifcreated front athwart my way 
To yonder gates? through them I mean to pais» 
That be aflur'd, without leave afl^'d of diee: i8; 
Retire, or tafle thy folly', and learn by proof. 
Hell-bom, not to contend with Spi'rits of Heaven. 

To whoni the goblin fiill of wrath reply'd. 

Art thou that traitor Angel, art thou He, 

Who firft broke peace in Heav'n and £uth, till then 

Unbroken, and In proud rebellious arms 69 1 

Drew after him the third part of Heav'n*8 Ions 

Conjured againft the Hig'hcft, for which both thoo 


683. — • mi/create/] Wc have I mean not thee intiat 

been told that Milton firft coin'd To pafs; but mauger tbce wl 

the word mifcreutedy but Spenfer pafs, or die. jm^, 

iifed it before him, as Fairy Queen. , •! ^ • . . .. * ^ ^^*^.^'^/^'^^.V^'t' 

Eftfoons he took that m/areattd opinion, as we opted befbie, nott- 

»'^- dcd on Rev. XXL 3, 4. bSMb 

tnd B. 2. Cant. 7. St. 4a. great rediragm — mmdbisimliim 

NcMT mortal ftcel cmpicrce his «(/: the third fart rf tbti fiiors ^ Bmm 

created mold. Bentley, oad cafi them to the eariJ^, 

6S4. — through them I mean t$ 6^^, Conjur'd agahrfi tJbe Hifhiit] 

pajs, &c. ] Spenier, Fairy Banded and leagued to^mer a* 

Queen, B. 3. Cant. 4. St. 1 5. ^ainft the moft High« Of die Lint 

■» r 

ley, Qotcaft from God, ar^t Jh^e coo49qM)!4. • > 
fte et<;niaJi:cUy$ in wop 1^4 pain? ... . (^ 

$:kan'i^ thot) thyfelf jarith SpiVitsiof j^yett, 
ooin'4, and breath'ft defiaaoe iicav aad^iboco 
I reigD Jung, and to emagf^ thee more, ,. 
ii^ tod lord? Back to tl^y pnniflmipifti , 
iigitife, ««4 to thy fpecd.add wjng^ 9^ 
itfa a w^ of ioorpiooslpiirilie . 
}gr)ng, pr with one %okc of. this dart 
: horror iei^ thee', and {^gs ao£dt bc^^ 
mke thq griily terror^ and io ihape. 
Icing and fo threatning, grew tenfold ^05 
Ireadful and deform : op th' other fidp 
d with indignation Satan ftood ^ - 

i^d, and like a comet biim'd, 


to bind one axiother by bifflfdf ^.S^rii ^ Bimfm. Qpu 
^ true and faithful in a de- pare vec. I687 widi ver. 696. 
itikeny Peant^ 

«ftii«rlainrefcind«refra- ^^^''^^T^^^^^l 

Virg. Gcorg. I. 280. The ttacnt pojte %aemly com. 

r^^dcf?cndcns!)acu»ab pwt » li«o in his fhimng armour 

.Gcorg.U.497. H««r. t9 • cornel aiViig..«n.X.«7«. 

W/.iii«..V,J As Satan had ^"^J^^J^"^^ "^""^^ 

»th Hrll4mi,yei.6Sj. Saiwdiiieiluettbrerabent- — 

tarns it by calling Satan « .■ ^ 

^, Bot this comet is fo large at »jP» 

ii]^/«f^iV/vf,] He b here tbela^b e^the cmi«rilatio nQy «- 

ibccaufe he had called <^tf or Aiffi9iteneo0» or Scr;^^ 



That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge 
In th' arflic iky, and from his horrid hair yio 

Shakes peftilence and war. Each at the head 
Level'd his deadly aim; their fatal hands ,i 

No fecond ftroke intend, and fuch a frown ■ -> I* 
Each cift at th' other, as when two black clouds; ^ 
With Heav'n's artillery fraught, come rattling on 
Over the Cafpirin, then ftand front to front 716 

Hovering a fpace, till winds the lignal blow , ^V-^- 
To join their dark encounter in mid air: r -hrf^ 

So frown'd the mighty combatants, that HeHi-ifj^iA 


Tfic^^ PA^ A© I s E ia>*t; 14^ 

Grew darker at their frown, fa mdtcb'd tbey.fh^i ^ 
For never but oboe more was ekhcr like . . ,^^it 
To meet fo great a foe: and aqw great deeds *.. 'v^. 
Had been achieved, whereof all Hdl had rung, . i 
Had not the fnaky farcereis jdiat fat - 
Faft by Hell gate, and kept the fatal kcy^ yzg 

Ris'n, and with hidcous.outay ruih'd between. . 

O Father, what intends thy hand, ibe cry'd, - ^ 
Againft thy only Son ? What fury', O San, t 

Poileiles thee to bend that mor^ dart . ^ - ; 72^ 
Againft thy Father's head? and know'ft for whom; - 


Se Tedifte mfteme mai feootrtr Or as when doodi together oufli'dL 
dua toni and bitiifed. 

Da Leraate a Fonence al ciel di- Pour down a tempeft hy die 

verfoy fuof fliore. 

Cofi proprio s*urtar qaei dua ha- - . >. -i r *- * 

-^ Chrift who (as it follows Yor. 7J4.) 

71C. — Stmv^r^s 4urtilliry\ Thim- will one day deftroy both' Death 

der. JUT. Sat. XIII. 9. and him that bat the power tf detub^ 

^ . .« 1 t f that ii ibe Devilf Heb.H. 14.. 

Qakqaid habent tdorom anna- * ^ 

flBeataiia cceli. Htme. 750. * — ohd kno^*^fir ^hem; ] 

716. Over the Cm/pidn,} That Thefe words arc read with a fcmi- 

Ibi being particularly noted for co'on ^^ Milton's own editions, 

ibrms and tcmpefts. So Horace, ^"^ «ot with a note of inierro«- 

Od. II. IX. 2. ^®"» ^ *"* ^^wne others : .^and the 

_. -, ^ meaning is, at the fame time that 

„ — : NonmareC^^ ^^ hmutftfirmebmi Cum noris 

Vexant ina^uales procelte j^„^ cui fadas hoc j as Dp, IVapp 

Uique tranflates it. If this is not Ae 

And lb Fairfax* inTaflo» Caiit.& fenfe of the woxds, they ouift be 

St 38. .. iwd widi a note of intgrrogadoii. 

737- * 

tso PARADISE Losr, SoolEdrj 

For him who fits above and laughs the white j 

At thee ordam'd his drudge, to execute 
Whate'er his wrath, which he calls jaftice, bi(fc; 
His wrath, which one day will deftroy yc both. 

She ipake, and at her words the hellidi peft 73J 
Forbore, then thefe to her Satan refurn'd. ' 

So ftrange thy outcry, and thy words fo ftrtngB | 
Thou interpofefV, that my fudden hand j 

Prevented fpares to tell thee yet by deeds 
What it intends; till firft I know of thee, ^jfl 

What thing thou art, thus double-form'd, and*hy' 
In this infernal vale firft met thou call'll: 
Me Father, and tliat phantafea cafl'ft my Sonj 1 • 
1 know thee not, nor ever faw tilt now 
Sight more deteftable tlian him 4nd thee. ^^5 

T'Wliom thus the Dortrefs of Hell fxate reolv'd. 

' all the JSeraphinL with thee coinbhi'4 : ^750 
bold confpiracy againft Keayn's king, 

1 on a fttdden miferable pun 
rpm'd thee, dim thine eyes, ajBd dizzy fwDM 
darknefsy while thy head ^Saraes thick and lad 
irew forth, till on the left iide opening wide, 75^ 
keft to thee in ihape and countenance bright^ 
hen fhining heav'nly fair, a Goddeis ami'd 
It of thy head I fprang: amazement feis'd 
1 th'hoft of Heav'n^ back they recoil'd afraid 
: firft, and call'd me Sin, and for a figa ySd 

Htentous held me ; but £tmiltar grown, 
pleased, and with attradive graces won 
he moft averfe, thee chiefly, who full oA 
hyfelf in me thy perfedt image viewing 
xam'il enamour'd, and fuck joy thou Cook'ft 76 j 
rith me in fecret, that my womb conceived 
. growing burden. Mean while war aroic, 

nd fields were fought in Heav'n } wherein reidain'd 


d&e bead of Satan, as Wifilom ntrva vulgatly atcribod to Hoottr. 

Minerva did out of Ja^ter*s : And what followt fecont to be aa 

d Milton defcribes the birth of lint improved upon Minerva*s bo* 

s one very much in' the fame iog rsviih*d ibon after htr fairtb 

nner, as the ancient poets have by Vukmn, aft we fliajr lean fnm 

It of the other, and paiticularlpr Ladan. DiaL Vokam Sc Jofia^ 41 

t aothor of the byauir to Mi* Dt D^aob - 


(For what could elfc?) to our ahnighty foe 
Clear \ idlory, to our part lofs and rout 770 

Throu^ h all the empyrean : down they fell 
Driv'n headlong from the pitch of Heaven, down 
Into tPi's deep, and in the general fall 
I alfo; at which time this powerful key 
Into my hand was giv'n, with charge to keep 775 
Thefe gates for ever fhut, which none can pais 
Without my opening. Penfive here I lat 
Alone, but long I fat not, till my womb 
Jfregnant by thee, and now exceilivc grown 
Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes. 788 

At lafl this odious ofspring whom thou feeft 
Thine own begotten, breaking violent way 


771. «-<*- tbe emfifrian:'\ It is There is no way of fblTiiig At 

fomewhat remarkable that tho' the difficulty, unlefs we foppofe vtt 

words imt^real and emfjrean are Dr. Heylin that the wont tmffd 

both fpelt in the fame manner, yet is falfe fpelt, and that it ongki » 

Milton conilantly pronounces em- be written emfyriai •uT^ei:^ ia 

tyrfal with the accent upon the Greek* and the otier tmfyit^ 

third fyllable from the end, and ifjfjrufiai®',' 

4mfyrian with the accent upon the jZS.—^rantlJ&ing bisfatiddtA 

fecond. I once imagined that he So Virgil of JEneas going to kii 

did it to diftinguifh thie fubftantive Tumus, ^n. XII. 919. 

from the adjective ; but I find one Cundtanti tihm iEiie» fiuJi ^ 

uiftance where he ufes the word rufcat 

imfyream as an adje&ive, and yet ^^ 

fives it the fame accent as whefl 789. From mil btrtmvtSt^i^ 

e makes it a fubilantivey X. 3ZI. re/oMnded] An 'p^^***** d 

The confines met of empyrean Virgil, JEo. II. 53. 

Heaven. Infcoacif 

BookU.- PARADISE LQST.' i«k 

Tore through my entrails, that with fear aiid pain-., e 
Diflortcd, all my nether Ihapc thus grew 
Transform 'd: but he my inbred enemy yBe • 

Forth iffiied, bra&diftuug his fatal dart 
Made to deftroy : I fled, and cry'd out Death j : 
Hell trembled at the hideous name, and figh'd 
From all her caves, and back refounded Death, 
f fled, but he purfued, (though more, it feems, 790 • 
Jiflam'd with luft than rage) and fwiflcr fer^ 
de overtook his mother ail difmay'd, 
k.nd in embraces fcffcible and foul 
ngendring with me, of that rape begot 
['hefe yelling monfters, that with ceafelefs cry 7g$:- 
urround me, as thou law'A, hourly conceiv'd ' 


[itJbnuere cxvz, gemitumqae de- Only Dttai a tnade the laJt word in 

dere cavcnuc. Hunu. the rentence, and EarjiiUe for the 

fake of ihe verie the lirll. Then 

JleJ mud cTjd tut Dtaib aU is the like repetition in Ed, VI. 43. 

on of ««,* her. « :. beauty of ^J^ ^P,.^^-^ ^ 

» fame m that of the name ciamalTcnt ; m Ihtus, Hjla, Hyh, 
f E^J.» in Virgil Georg. IV. „^„^ c^„„„ ■ ^ . .T . 

7«)6. ^-^ ai ihoufa-uift, ] On* 

Fw^Anvoxipfcetfrigidalingua, would think it fhould b« 01 (<iw« 

Ah mireram Eutydhin, anima fa- fitfi; but we muft fuppofc that 

gicnte, voc^t ; now at this lime thefe monllers 

Sia^rem toto rdcrebant Aumuic were crept into her womb, and U/ , 

' lips ; there untccn. 

Vol, I, T to^.^-^fi 



And hourly bora, with forrow infinite ^| 

To me ; for when they lift, into the womb 
That bred them they return, and howl and gnaw 
My bowels, their repaftj then burftlng forth 800 
Afrefli with confcious terrors vex me round. 
That reft or intermiffion none 1 find. 
Before mine eyes in oppofition fits 
Grim Death my fon and foe, who fets them on. 
And me his parent would fiill foon devour 805 

For want of other prey, but that he knows 
His end with mine inrolv'd; and knows that I .| 
Should prove a bitter morfel, and his banc. 




teatf Tkatghtor, fince thoa chun'ft me for thy fire, 
nd my ftir fcxi here fhow'ft me^ the dear pledge 
f diitliuice had with thee in Heav'n^ and joys 
'hmhrttit,oaw lad to mentioii, through dire change 
^all'n ot imfbreieeD^ trnthougbt of; know 82 x 
come no enemy, but to fet free 
rom out this dark and difmal houfe of pain 
^th him and thee, and all the heav'nly hoft 
f Spirits, that in our juft pretences arm'd 82 j[ 
dl with us frrai on high: from them I go 
his uncouth errand fole, and one for aM 
[yfelf expofe, with lonely fteps to tread 

h' unfounded deep, and through [the yoid immenfe 
fearch with wand'ring qucft a place foretold 830 
lould be, and, by concurring figns, ere now 
leated vail and round, a place of blifs 

the pourlieus of Heav'n, and therein plac'd 

race of upftart creatures, to fupply 
Thaps our vacant room, though more remov'd, 83 $ 
:ft Heav'n furcharg'd with potent multitude 


^ Bat Milton with great pro- 817. £V«r DoMghttr,'] SattnhaA 

stT makcB the fallen Angels and now learned his Ion or lef{bn» and 

oere attribute events to fate, the reader wiil obierve how art* 

lioat any mention of the 8a- fully he changes hii laogoagt; he 

Me Being* T % had 



Might hap to move new broils: Be this or ou^t 
Than this more fecret now defign'd, I hafte 
To know, and this once known, fliall foon rebiro, 
And bring ye to the place where Thou and Death 
Shall dwelt at eafe, and up and down unfeen 841 
Wing filently the buxom air, imbalm'd 
With odors; there ye (hall be fed and fill'd 
Immcafurably, all things fliall be your prey. 
He ceas'd, for both feem'd highly pleas'd, and Death 
Grinn'd horrible a ghaftly fmile, to hear 846 

His famin fliould be iill'd, and bleft his maw 
Deftin'd to that good hour : no lefs rejoiced 
His mother bad, and thus befpake her fire. 

The key of this infernal pit by due, 850 


had faid before, ver. 745. that he And he fliows plainly how he a* 

had never fccn Jight more deteftahle; derflood the word by his ofc of k 

but now it is dear daughter, and in his View of the ftaie rf Md^ 

my fair fan. " Thinking thereby to mAfff<»^ 

o rrr- cr .r .L 1^ • 1 " ^'^^ tradUble and tmx9mt»)k 

ii^z.W.ngfilently the buxom atr,-] u ^nment." ™ ^**~«' 

Buxomy as when we lay a buxom ^ 

lafsy is vulgarly underftood for «,• n^^tj i. »r» t ml 

merry, wanTonI but it properly ^*^- ,^7? i ^"''t^ ' ^ 

fignifies flexible, yielding, from a ^„A.JZh I P*^.^ 

sLon word flgnifying tl bend. It ^^^ITr^!!, "'tk ^'w "^ J 

is likewife made the epithet of the 5^^ 'S' vTr "' """"^Jirf 

air by Spenfer, Fairy Queen, B. i. ^J"' ^^ ^^- =*"• 

And therewith fconrg« the hucim 9*91. 

mr^Ca fore. 



And by cominand of Heav'a's all-pow'rfbl king 

I keepy by him forbidden to unlock 

Thefe adamantin gates; againft all force 

Death ready Aands to interpofe his dart, 

Fcarlefs to be o'ermatch'd by living might. 855 

But what owe I to his commands above 

Who hates me, and hath hither thruft me down 

Into this gloom of Tartarus profound. 

To fit in hateful office here confin'd. 

Inhabitant of Heav'n, and heav'nly-born> 860 

Here in perpetual agony and pain. 

With terrors and with clamors compafs'd round 

Of mine own brood, that on my bowels feed ? 

Thou art my father, thou my author, thou 


And Stadu of Tydeus, Thebaid. 855. Fearlefs to hi^nmafcVdly 
VIII. ^%z* lining ndgbt^ In fome edi- 

tions it is living 'wigbt^ thatis crcJU 
formidabile ndcns. ture, and wc have li'ving nrnght be- 

ik J r»-.-j ^r /-• !• 1- T> 'J • fore ver. 613 : and this is likewife 
And Cowley of Gohah. Dandeis, jj, ^^^^^.^ ^^ f^^ ^^ 

migifty fays he, woulcT not excqpt 

Th' uncircumcis^d finil'd grimly even God hixnfelf, the ever-living 

with difdain. And the almighty. But God hin\. 

felf muft necefTarily be excepted 
And as Mr. Thyer obferves, Ariodo here ; for it was by his conunand 
and Taflb exprefs it very prettily that Sin and Des^th fat to guard 
thus, Afyramenti forrife zxASmrnfe the gates, and therefore /f<cw»^Mj(Ar 
awutramentt^ Bat I believe it will cannot poilibly be underftood ^ 
be readily allowed, that Milton hai God, but of any one elfe who 
greatly exceeded them all. Jhoold endeYor to force a paflagQ^ 

Tj 868. Wf 

,58 PARADISE LOST. Bookll 

My being gav'fl me; whom (hould I obey 865 

But thee, whom follow ? thou wilt bring me foon 
To that new world of light and blifs, among 
The Gods who live at eafe, where I (hall reign 
At thy right hand voluptuous, as befeems 
Thy daughter and thy darling, without end. 870 

Thus faying, from her fide the fatal key. 
Sad inftrument of all our woe, Ihe took; 
And towards the gate rolling her beftial train. 
Forthwith the huge portcullis high up drew. 
Which but herfelf, not all the Stygian Powers 875 
Could once have mov'd; then in the key-hole turns 
^Th' intricate wards, and every bolt and bar 


868. The GaJi txiha live al eafe,'\ \y ai highly gratified hy iktm- 
Wonl for word from Homer, Ocm nuie dciail of particuUn our u- 


kkd. PARADISE LOST. 159 

maily Iron or fdlid rdcfk with cafe 
aftens: on a fudden open fly 
Ji imp6ttioa8 recoil and jarring found 880 

infernal dodrs^ and on their hinges grate 
(h thunder, that the lowed bottom fhook 
Erebus. She open'd, but to (hut 
eird her pow'rj the gates wide open ftood, 
t with cJ^tended wings a banner 'd hoft 88^ 
er fpread enfigns marching might pafs through 
h hbtft land chariots rank'd in loofe array; 
^ide they flood, and like a furnace mouth 
forth redounding fmoke and mddy flame, 
re their eyes in fudden view appear 890 


> ind Hne neither : but ^ow of Macbeth remarks that this ex- 
better doth Milton*8 exprefs preilion is copded from the Hiftory 
Umg of her ferpentine train, of Don Bellianis, where^ when 
>w well the found agrees with one of the knights approaches the 
ife ! cafUe of Brandezar^ the gates are 
. '^ and on their binges gratt faid to open grating barfi thunder 
(b thunder^ ] How much npmt their brascen hinges* And it ik 
It and more poetical is this not improbable that Milton might 
'^irg^'s, i£n. 1. 449. take it from thence» as he was a 

ribiis caido ftridebat aenis : ^^^' ^^ ^ ^"^^ ^^ romances. 

YI -^- 882. i~ the hweft bottom Jhook 

' '.y^' ., Of Erebus A The moft profound 

homfono flndentes cardine depth of Hell. 

mtur portse ? ErfeU de fedibus inus. 

. r V .^. Virg.Georg.IV.471. 

igemoos author of the Mf- Hum. 

^usOh/ervatiom on (be Tragnff 

T 4 894. — wbert 

i6o PARADISE LOST. Botkll. 

The fecrets of the hoary deep, a dark * 

Illimitable ocean, without bound». 

Without dimcnfion, where length, breadth, andhightfa, 

And time, and place are loft; where ddeft Night 

And Chaos, anceAors of nature, hold So: 

Eternal anarchy, amidft the noife 

Of endlefs wars, and by confiiiion ftand. 

For hot, cold, moift, and dry, four champions fierce | 

Strive here for maft'ry, and to battel bring 

Their embryon atoms ) they around the flag 900 


894. — iJL'irfre tldtjl Nighi O thou moft ancient Grtndinotkc: 

And O^aoiy &c.] All the ancient of all, 
naturalifb, philofophers, and poets, More old than Jove> &c. 
hold that Chaos was the firft prin- 
ciple of all things; and the poets ^'l^ ^"r. a«™or's fjftem of dK 
particularly make mght a Goddefs, un^vcrfe is in ftioit, that the cb- 
and rcprefent l^i9ht or darkneis and P^^^"^ Heaven, and Chaos vk 
Chaos or confufion as exercifing un- oarknefs were before the crcatioi, 
controlled dominion from the be- ™aven above and Chaos beae«li; 
ginning. Thus Orpheus in the ^"° ^^"^ "P®" ^^e rebellion of ^ 
beginning of his hymn to Night ^"ge's/r/ //r// was formed oat of 
addreffcs her as the mother of the ^^^^^ Jlretchlng far and iiiii k- 
Gods and Men, and origin of all ^^''^^'^ ^^ afterwards Ileaww sd 
things. Earthy another iMtrld^ ^f^onging §tr 

the realm of Cha9s, awi njom fim 

HuKlA Cie^^v ytviTei^v Aei7oyitu his ehmsmon^ See vcr. looi, kit* 

n/s juei AyJ^pw, ^d 978. 

898. For hot, ciJd, ^fi^ ai 
So alfo Spcnfer in imitation of the ^' *^-] ^^i<i- Met. 1. 19. 

Ancients, Faiiy Qupcn, B. i . C. 5. Frigida pugnabant calidis, homei- 
^^' ^^' tia iicaj. 

ookn. PARADISE LOST. 161 

)( each his fadion, in their feverai clans^ 

right-arin'd or heavy, (harp, fmooth, fwift or flow, 

warm populous, un-number'd ^ the fands 

)f Barca or Cjn'cne's torrid foil, 

evied to fide with warring winds, and poife 905 

'heir lighter wings. To whom thefe moft adhere, 

le rules a moment 3 Chaos umpire fitSy 

ind by decision more embroils the fray 

y which he reigns : next him high arbiter 

hance governs all. Into this wild abyfs, 910 


Vlollia cum duris, fine pondcrc 905. ^-^^atui foife] Give wdght 

habenda pondus. or ballaft to. Pliny fpeaks of cer- 

, , ,. tain birds, who when a flonn ariiei 

he reader may compare this .^^ themfelves with little Hones. 

hole defcnouon of CKaos with £. „. c. 10. VirgU has the (ame 

vids, and lie will eafily fee how ^^^ j^^ ^^ ^;, ^^ Georg. IV. 

e Roman ipoet has Icflend the ^ ^ Richard f^n. ^ 

andcur of his by puerile conceits ^'^ ^ ^^ ^j^^ ^y^j.^ ^ . ^ j 

d^quamtanuthdcs: everything ^^^ gentley reads the Joft iMerl. 
Mihon IS great and mafterly. ^^^ .^ j^/^, ^^j ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

902. Ught'ttrm'dorhe(tvy,'\ He rul«, while he has the majority, 
ntinues the warlike metaphor ; But thb is not Milton's fenfc ; for 
me of them are light-arm d §r according to him no atcms adhere 
»^t levis or gravis armaturac. to moifi, but fuch as belong to his 

Hume. fadUon, and the fame is to be (aid 

004. 0/ Barea or Cyrene's torrid ®/ ^^' f''^' ?°^ "h- Therefore 

>/,] A city and province of ?« ^^^""'^ ^^X any one of thefc 

|rfandyLibya,Virg. JEn.IV.42. ^o"' champions nUfs (tho but for 

' ^ o ^ a moment) is becauie the atoms 

line deferta fiti regio, la(eque of his fadion adhere moft to him. 

forentes Firm dependence indeed (fays the 

a^capi. Oo^or) aad worthy the fupcria* 




The womb of nature and perhaps her grave, 

Of neither fea, nor fhore, nor air, nor fire. 

But all thefe in their pregnant caufes mix'd 

Confiis'dly, and which thus muft ever fight, 

Unlefs th' almighty Maker them ordain 915 

His dark materials to create more worids; 

Into this wild abyfs the wary Fiend 

Stood on the brink of Hell and look'd a while, 

Pond'ring his voyage ; for no narrow frith 

He had to crofs. Nor was his ear lels peal'd 9I0 

With noiCes loud and ruinous (to compare 


Bookfl. PARADISE LOST. ^3 

Great things with finoll) than when Bcllona ftorm*. 

With all her battering engins bent to rafc 

Some capital city*; or lefs than if this frame 

Of Heav'n were fidling, and thefe elements gae 

In mutiny had from her axle torn 

The fted&ft earth. At laft his fail-broad vans 

He fpreads £x flight, and in the furging fmokc 

Uplifted fpums the ground; thence many a feagae. 

As in a cloudy chair, afcending rides q^^ 

Audacious; but that feat foon £iiling, meets 

A vaft vacuity : all unawares 


idea or OuM before he nters are often »pplW to the other. »d 

Mto It Tu rerr artful! If his flymg h compar'd to fiulinfe aail 

llile u nawwhat aunpt, after fach failing to flvinc. 

pondcriui. it better paints the ... 

mage he intended to gi»e. Vdorum pandimns alas, 

«)... — r/. a^arf''^^- !^„' JJ^ ^^ ^' S^o. And 

Grtai things luitb Jmall)'] An ex- • • 3 • 

preffion inVirg^d.1. 24.parvis com- — volat ille per aera maginiai 
ponere magna. And wnat an idea Kemigio alarum. 

doth this ave «t of the noifes of r«ic r «• <- t . • 

Ckaoi, that eiren thofe of a dty ^^ f^^ "*^«^ ^^ fpeaking has 

Mkged, and of Heaven and Earth prevail d hkcwifc ^onj^ the mo- 

suimng fiom each odier are but dem poets, «id mSpenfcr, asweU 

finall in comparifon ? And tho' as in the paflagc lujfore us, wings 

both the fimiHtudes aie truly ex- a^ «fnd to fails, Fauy Queen, 

ceUent and foblime, yet how fw- ^' *' ^^' "• S^- '^• 
prifingly doth the latter rife aborc His flaggy wings when forth he 
^^ fonacr ! did Wplay, 

927. — Ins/mi'Sroad awjti] As Were like two fails. 
the air mid water are both flnids, 

the actaphon taken frooi the one And «Asswiids, St. i8. 



Fluttering his pennons vain plumb down he drops ' 
Ten thoufand fathom deep, and to this hour 
Down had been falling, had not by ill chance 03? 
The ftrong rebuff of fome tumultuous cloud, 
Inftinft with fire and nitre, hurried him 
As many miles aloft : that fury flay'd, 
Quench'd in a boggy Syrtis, neither fca, 939 

Nor good dry land: nigh foundcr'd on he fares. 


— he cutting way Half flying, and half footing in 

With his broad fails, about liim his hafte. 

foared round. « . ^ . . 

Oor author fcems to hive boiTOw'd 

933- fm'iini] This word is fevcral images from the old drigm 

vui^ly fpelt pinions, and fo Dr. defcrib"d by Spenfer. 


t PA RAD 1 S E LOST. 165 

ng the erode confiflsnoe, half on foot, 
lying ; behoves him now both oar and fail, 
en a gryphon through the wHdemeis 
mnged coorfe, o*er hill or moory dale, 
s the Arimafpian, who by ftealth 94.5 

rom his wakeful cuftody purloin'd 
;uarded gold : So eagerly the Fiend 

x)g, or fteep, through ftratt, rough, denf^'or rare,* 


t Sithttiiae gentes, aoroqoe Witli fi«qtient paolb. There is a 
tas meaumUe inlomce of the roagh- 

igens Arimafpe comas. nefs.of a road admirably deiowd 

» »>d other «,th«» re. fen? fe"^' " """"' ^* 
C diere were continual wars 

the gryphons and An- noM«/ «r«i7«» Mr«r7tf> «flt- 

I aboot gold, the gryphons ew* ti , J'^Xl^* r\ vaOnt, 

Arinwfpi, quos dijimns, numbers, andhehas made ufe of 

brnfronte media mfignes:. ^^^ monofyllables, as Miltcn 

iffidue bellnm efTe area me- has done, 
n gryphisy ferafum volu- 

HTC, quale vulgo traditur. O'er hills, o*er dales, o'er crags, 

ex cunicuKs aurum, mira <>'«' socles they go; 

te et fcris cuftodientibus, et Jwnpwg* high o'er the ihmbs of 

as rapicntibus, multi, fed «ie rough ground, 

moftres Herodotus et An- R^^c the datt ring cars, and the 

Konnefitts fcribunt. ^ockt axles boui^L 

G*ir hog, 9r fteep, kc. ] And as Mr. Tliyer adds. So aUb 

idey's reaiding is not amifs Spenfer in the fame manner repre- 

, o^tr Jttepf &c. Thediffi- fents the diftrefs of his Redcroffi^ 

f Satan's voyage is very Knight in his encounter with the 

prels'd by fo many mono- old dragon. Fairy Queen, B. i. 

I as follow, which cannot Cant. ii» St aS. 
looaced but flowly> and 



With head, hands, wings, or feet purfucs his way. 
And fwims, or finks, or wades, or creeps, or flics: 
At length a univerfal hubbub wild 051 

Of ftunning founds and voices all confbs'd, 
Borne through the hollow dark, alTaiilts his ear Vl 
With loudefl vehemence : thither he plies. 
Undaunted to meet there whatever Power 95^ 

Or Spirit of the nethcrmoft abyfs 


Feline, w«nry, fnro, embroiled, there was no occaiion for Dr. Bent- 

fric\eiJ, brent, ley to read here ibii vafi Mnimtnet 

he^I, coil, wounds, artlu, abyfi, In&ead of iIm Hrtiberm*fi «ljfi, 
finwt, and inward fire, nor in ver, 969. rtgnmt v'tr ttU 

■uajl abyfs inAead of of ibii mllnr- 
956. ihe ntlhimojl ahyfi^ majl ahyfi. Pcarce. 


that noift rcgde, of whom to <i& 
ay the neaicfl coafi of darkncfs Uia 
oa light; when flnit behold tbs tbions 
I, and his dark pavilion fpread 960 

ifao wafieiid deep; with hint enthron'd 
refted Night, eldeft of tUng^ 
bit of his reign; and hjr tjbcat ftood 
I Ades, and the diqadcd anne 


^ tht thiatUd MMmi 
wgm{\ There wa» > 
g the Andenti of % 
r, wboTe vety name 
iid capable of yiO' 
aoft tcnible effc£ti, 
Hf ikeieforc dreaded 
>, Tbia deity is inen- 

At wkofe-dieadiuuiia Ae Q 

line fiirics quk^ 
lUl^nd* abiih'd. aorf e 

Who viewatite Gorgoiu with in- 
trepid eyei. 
And your inviolable flood defic* I 

ii introdoced And likmJc Tirefiaa by Staiiu, 

• tn&mal Powers for Tb^aid. IV. 514. 

CM in their obcdienco 

bar VI 744. Sdmos enim et qnicqnid did aoT- 

■»■- - /TT- TTHIIkTtlPW'ti 

rncds? anille Et t^«Hecaten,ni t^llmn. 

lwent.qiionunq.Uin. b«fc Teawft. 

Et tri^idt mandi fusaum qncm 
ibre ncfiibun ef^ 
.- „. ntem fed tacco. 

pefina treiodaaB calb- 

ggaym. And ITmen threatena in dio fane 

tenet Totut qd Tar- flnJniaTaflb, Cant. 13. St. 10. 

s Imwo diTu&r rail non fi fcor- 

Ik treniit, qni Gogont 

peri; Stypatqpip^ 
jtt, ye fuUm findi. 

I ham aot.yK fiusiM ftr 1 





Of Demogorgon ; Rumor next and Chance, 965 

And Tumult and Confiifion all cmbroil'd. 

And Difcord with a thoufand various mouths. 


My tongue (if (till your ftubbom 

hearts refufe) 
That fo much dreaded name can 

well repeat, 
Which heard great Dis cannot 

himfelf excufe. 
But hither run from his eternal 

feat. Fairfax. 

The name of this deity is Demo" 
gcrgofty which feme think u cor- 
ruption of Demiurgus ; others ima- 
gin him to be fo caird, as being 
able to look upon the Gorgon, 
that turned all other fpe£tators to 
Hone, and to this Lucan feems to 
allude> when he*fays 

-^ qui Gorgona cemit apertam. 

Spenfer too mentions this infernal 
deity. Fairy Queen, B. i. Cant. 5. 

St, 22. 

Which waft begot in Demogorgon'q 

And faw'ft the fecrets of the world 


jmd places him likewife in the 
immenfe abyfs with Chaos, B. 4. 
Cant. 2. St. 47. 

Down in the bottom of the deep 

Where Demogorgon in dull dark- 

nefs pent. 
Far from the view of Gods and 

Heaven^s blifs, 
The hideous Chaos keeps, their 

dreadful dwelling is : 

and takes nodce alfoof tbcdiead' 
ful effeds of his nanie> B. 1. Cant i. 

St. 37. 

A bold bad man, thatdar^dtocill 

by name 
Great Gorgon, prince of daifawfc 

and dead night. 
At which Cocy tus quakes, and Styx 

is put to flight. 

Well therefore might MiltOD di- 
ftingniih him by iSe ttrradnJ wtm 
of Uemogorgon: and the mmm t[ 
Demogorgon is as much as to w 
Demoforpn himfelf, as in Vnp 
.£n. VL 763. Jlbanmm mmamui 
man of Alba, JExt, XILci c. ft- 
men Eehioninm, id eft Tac ninM% 
is a Theban ; and we have t ■^ 
morable inftance of this wajit. 
fpeakine in Rev. XL 13. Am*. 
the earth f stake luere JUdn m%pjM 
Ap6p»cr«;F namet of mem fevem dah 
yW> that is feven thonfand nOi, 
And befides thefe authorities • 
juftify our author, let me fiute 
add what the learned Mr. Jorta 
hath fuggefted, that this name "■ 
** to be found in Laflannus, As 
<' Scholiaft of Statins on Thdwi 
IV. 516. Dicit Deum De» 
gorgona fummum. It is lift 
to hi found in Hyginos, pig. lb 
** Edit. Hamburg. Oa. 1674. El 
" Demogorgone et Terra Fjikai 
** draco divinus, if the place Iv 
'^ not comqpced. See Muncktf 
«' there." And Mr. Thyer jofr 




cH. paradise lost. 


'whom Satan turning boldly, thus. Ye Powers 
Spirits of this ncthcrmoft abyfs, 
s and ancient Night, I come no fpy. 

e nfe of the word againfl 
attley b^ utother poflige in 
tboi'5 Luin works, p. 340. 
vctifliffimot iuqoc mythok>- 
ripuvct mcmorix datum re- 
VnmfrffmM Dcomm om- 
atlnst- (qaem euDdem et 
ab Mdf nit oancupatum ba- 
inter abot libcros, qoos fuf- 
phirimos. Ten am ^jaaaSk. 

. — JlHKr MX/ m/ Om», ] 
tan's ^ojas/i through the 
tbenare ievera] iniaei 

1 ddbibcd, aa rtfidmg iii 
imncnre wajle of matter, 
■ay perhaps be conformable 
r Mi <^ thoTe critict who 
■ftd ii4th Bothing in a pact 

ha* not life and maonos 
d to it; but for my own 
['am pleafed moft with thoCe 
Bi im thif defcription which 
ia Aon a greater meaiiire of 
H&t^, and art fuch as ibight 
J bare bappen'd. Of Uiis 
K hb fitfi mounting in the 

diat ril<< ftom the infernal 
in Ailing into a cloud of 
ad the like cotnbullibie ma- 

that by their exploTion fiill 
1 him forward in hit voyage ; 
ingiag upward like a pyia- 
' nre, with bis laborious paf- 
irongh that confufion of ek- 
which the poet calls 
wo&b of nature, and perbapi 
er pave. JdJi/en. 



Mr. Addifon ieemsto difapprove of 
Acfe fiflitions bdngt, uiinking 
them I fu[mofe {like Sin and Deatb^ 
inpiopcr lor so epic poem : but I 
fee no reaftm why Muton may not 
be ailowM to place fiich imaginajy 
beings in the reoions of Chaos, ai 
weU as Vifp] d^ribe the like be- 
ing^. Grief, and Fear, and Want, 
atid Sleep, awl DeaA, and Kf- 
cord likewtfe within the con£ne> 
oT Hell; and why what is ac- 
counted a beangr in one flundd be 
deemed a fault In the other. Sea 
JE.a.Wl.fjy ijc. 

Veftibulum ante ipfom, primifque 

in fiudbni Onj, 
LuAus, ct ultticcs pofoere.cubilia 

Pallentefqnc habitant Morbi, tti- 

ftifqne Sene&u, 
£t Uetui, et '"«<»f"r'' Famesi et 

tnrpit Egefias, 
Terribdes vifu forme : Letamque, 

Laborque : 
Turn confanguineus Leti Sopor, 

et mala mentis 
Gandia, roonifemmque adrerfo 

in limine Bellum, 
Ferreique Bumenidum thalami, et 

DiTcordia demens 
Vipereura crinem vittis inncjca 


Tuft in the rate, and in the ia** 

Revengefiil Cares, and fnlkn Sor- 
mwi dwell ; 
U And 



With purpofe to explore or tO'dUfairb • ' 
The fccrcts of your realm, bet byconftraint 
■Wand'ring this darkfomc dfcfcft, as my way 
Lies through your fpacious empire up to light. 
Alone, and without guide, Inlf loft, I Ccek ^: 
What readicft path leads where your gloomy booidl ' 
Confine with Heav'n > or if fooie other place. 
From your dominion won, th' ethereal king 
FofleOes lately, thither to arrive 
1 travel this profound ; direct my courfe> 980 

PireCted no mean rccon^«Die k bfiu£t 


> your belKx>9iie;l,teixgioI^;(;il^, i>eq7ua riiiW 
1 ufuriHioi/lhnwe a|E)Vdt lediM^'V ,-?-j:~) srlT 
>heroi;igui>ldaiikq«fipai>dy«aC'.f\i!iijr.. ,.,, ■;. , vv 

eft thcniUBfafA.than^f :4iiciei>t Nij^t; _.^ 

rhu;'S<tgn<r«)d'r]ii9li>a>tlic-^c(ach.i)l(U ' ; 
th faUHiig fpen&'iai-vi&ge incooipot'd. 

It migbljl tedillg, Ag^ly ',«|Iiff:Sl(i j«Po,r ' 
dc head i^i^til iie>v!id»jusg,.4)ie«ghqy(p^wi|;. 


| '| « |W J ) »|«>*«*)-«<*|» u in r. 167. 
iMv-n«W'Fncn( nm «* Hit inmoft cmnfdi mup Adr 
mVij(i»: anddw worf*rtA« wi» b» T«y 

Gooi^IV. 4P3, .^niy.we. out ayu^mt Ac Cl- 

•»"=**}»* B««*/M" 0fSn»n»tni¥ii.. 

nn i.«i»..ii«!r: „ j^, tc.] M coub 

JXtwiU ln'Sp«(ilr(' Hutf t"" "r* aJy„. jje to jo* it I 

SlR* OftiiS^lHi^' ,rio« LhiLM r•l,o,^ ^ ofe™. 

■^,. , _ . non being chence expeird, to her 

&tfaeit-««li««iid oiiginal tlaxkot^i and jour fin/ 

;, '.^ , . {iwjijch is the purport ctf jny prc- 

font journey) aii-i ^opec mote 

^^■Jr*,k c,r.imt;»ii«l|ir4tjwrt of indent 

ln»Mion»tta W«*5-i,„_Lj , , iV ., 

tJ. > 9»-'/ 


^^KAdtSfi LOST. BoDkH. 

If that Way be your wtlkv'you bare not fcri;- oiftf 

■Stf much tliciiea>er dinger; go ^and fpccd ; -'^ iG 
H..VOC and f(xin and ruin .ire my gain. 

H:^tc-a%*dVafTd Sitan ftay'd not to wplfy WIO 
But gild ^Tiat flow his •fca OifwM find a ihoce. 
With frtfh a:lacrity and Ibicc rencw'd 
fip^thgs^ti^^Mkc'a'mraitiidof fire .:( ; 


ttat'Mnel ur ^di to ham Jw«m 
crof:. il. Bcn:ixl titfmJI&Mg fKh, 

■-"^ ■■■ /rt«n'jo!iA This U very c 

^ ■-_, ._" j - -^^ - ■ niitarr-iM ftfef,- Bat. .^V. 



That little which is left fo to defend, i ooo 

Encroached on flill through your inteilin broils 
Weakning the fcepter of old Night : firft Hell 
.Your dungeon ftretching fiir and wide beneath j 
Now lately Heav'n and Earthy another world, 
Hung o'er my i^ealm, link'4 in a golden (hain 1095 

To that fide H?av'n firom whence your legions fell : 


}rtxkf but' they cannot draw hun 
down. Yoa may fe^ the paflage 
a( large in die beginning of the 8th 
imk of the UiaS. 

£i/* ctytt meifjn^it&t «^fo/t hit 
■ AAA* mt «r f ft/croiT* t^ «^$m9ir 

^•A^ IMt/MI7t' 
: AAA* in JN JMU f^ ^off^ ft" 
llAMflf if C/«CI, 

S^ifbtf fiir xtr ft7«rr4 via fsop 

p« 4r<er7« >tra/To. 

- l^cagpe all yoar forces thai,, yc 
row*rs above. 
Join all, and try th* omnipoteacQ 
of JOYC : 

Let down our golden, everlafting 

Whofe ftrong embrace holds 

Heaven, ai^ earth and main : 
Strive all of mortal or immortal 

To drag by this the Thund'rcr 

down to earth : 
Ye ftrive in vain ! If I but ftretch 

this hand, 
I heave the Gods, the ocean, and 

the land, 
I fix the chain to. great Ol3rmpiii* 

And the vaft world hangs tremlv 

ling iin my fight. P^pe, 

It b moft piobajbly and ingentoufly 
conjeftar*d, that by this gdden 
chsun mgy be underftood £e fu« 
perior attradivc force of the fun, 
whereby he continues unmoved, 
and draws all the reft of t^e pla- 
nets toward him. But whatever 
is meant by it, it is certain diat 
our poet took firom hence the 
thought of han^g the world by a 
golden chain. 


1009. Hmfo^ 


So he with difficulty and labor hard 
Mov'd on, with difficulty and labor hc; 
But hc once part:, foon after when man fell, 
Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain 
Following his track, fuch was the will of Heaven, 
Piit'd after him a broad and beaten way 1026 

Over the dark abyfs, whofe boiling gulf 
Tamely indur'd a bridge of wondrous length 
From Hell continued reaching ih' utmofl orb ' 
Of this frail world; by which the Spi'rits pcrverfi 
"With eafy intercourfc pafs to and fro 1031 

To tempt or punifli mortals, ' except whom 

•Sodklt, FARADISE LOST. 177 

But now at lafl the &cred influence 

Of light appears, and from the walls of Heaven 

Shoots 6r into the bofom of dim Night 1036 

A glimmering dawn ; here Nature firft beg^ 

Her fartheft verge, and Chaos to retire 

As from her outmoft works a broken foe 

"With tumult lefs and with lefs hoftile din, IO40 

That Satan with lefs toll, and now with eaie 

Wafts on the calmer waye by dubious lights 

And like a weather-beaten veflel holds 

Gladly the port, though fhrouds and tackle torn; 

Or in the emptier walle, refembling air, ^°^5 ■ 

Weighs his fpread wingSj at Icifurc to behold 


and therefore the poet Ihoutd not mQft works of Nature mentioiicd 

Ktre ancidpated it here. Let the before. 

linet ibemlelves be approv'd; yet , , ,. r >. -■ t 

k muH bt JlowdA i. wren, W- — 5> J*«> 'i*'.] I« 

o»J.a =»d ««. of ononom, fo? ^ l?" "^ ■■■ *= F~»i»sd.- 

HoDcr o> Virgil, c mny ..Ao- VCT P">b.bl7 >lljd» to Scocc.i 

riv'J «n« elegant account of Hercules) pal- 

.J^—M «..., * w;/./ '"8« o.. of Hell. Hen:. F„. & 

Hartin,] &'& /'iTiAeHit Non oeca tenebris incijat prinui 

)bx». Horn. Iliad. I. 5, ^. 

Tenuis reliftx lucis a tergo nitor, 
1039. J,fnmhtr<mtmvfttim-ki\ Fulgorque dubius folis affiftic** 
I>r.Beiitleyreadafc'>inlUadof irr: ^jt, Jhyer. 

but the meaning is noc that Chaoi 

retires as from his own outnoft 1046. »'«|Ai bit Jh^ad iMn^u^ 
Woriu, but retirei atiiots ihewt- la Iik« nunner TaUb de&iitnng 


Far off th'«i)p]^l Hot^lH'telMed ii^'" ' 
In dicuif,' tJsdeKMJii*<]>ril«Uit «^;«fijiii!. 
With opal to#'lt IndtWtlkiteM^gbkM ' 
Of Uviij liphiii <jii<ie.J»» mtiv AW* .;, . ; IRP 
And'fiftbyhilhgihgln»g6ljje«-gte& „■-' ,'„;. „ 
This pendent wold, in ))ignds;s|f.'iiil!ir ,."; *; ;, 

^ Angd Gabriel's fli|ht, Clat t. ■nfeljr bi^er ifcUL'lhe Bm^ fl 

St. 14. aKnpoiiamc9afuBSaa.--'Bttk 

E fi librS fii 1- ^^.u p,LLC. '^^ ™jS!! " !^ 

But I think «=lwi.hlljnJin| then.- No* l.ttly Hetf'n UllbilL 

nal putialitf oat has fo ono'. aoollir trorST ' ^^S^ 

continymu, the preferejce mn« H™ o'ei n.V 'ft Jn. »*Jili 

be|..en»iheIiJian. The fan ,S41«b et.a^ ■-™- >•-" 

fianza fuEgefti another imitation. ° 

TaUb calli Gabriel'f ivings, Befidea. Satan did not (ec die EaiA 

Infaticdiitaenle, agili. e prefe. ''f.'i™' •'^'^rf^J''^' 

And Hilton, ver. 408, t^i, lU. 543. and wander'd Ioe| 

Bpbotne^thinde&igable^ S.'l'^j; "^"J^ J 

^''^- the Arch-Angel Urid, where tk 
I0«. W>lh ^ tm""} Wi* Stnk tjiBfi PmUfiMircrc. See ID. 

ttKKn of precioib ftooes. Ofalii 731. nufiwim vutrU thmtftrt 

p Aone of divcrfc colon, paitakiDg mull mean the whole world, lb 

of the carbuncles faint fire, tho new crpued univcrfe, umI fcM/ 

amechifij bright purple, and thp ,^ «^ it appcar'd ia TTwnrarifrl 

yin^flili cheaiing greeq. with the empyreal Heavea do bv- 

Bamt and RicbarJ/m, get thvi <■ /«r ^ Jm^ft m^ 

ta/ii mytiotb large, tc sppeir'd 

1052. 7%r/ pnidait \oarU, im Hg- no bigger than fuch a ftar appean 

mifi *t »flm- to be when it ii clef€ bj thr >■« 

CfJmmlUji mmffdiudt tUJi hj tbt ihe fuperior light wher«of nukei 

wMix.J ^Y thii pnidem mMrld Uij ftar thai bappeiu to be nev 

b not meant the Earthy but the herdilk, toteemejcccedin^ylnll 

IKW creation, Hcarea and Earth, and atmoft difapaear. Dr. Bcndqr 

die wfa^ ffib of fix'd fian in- hai fliangcljr t''**''-— 1 the fcafe a 


BodfoP. FARADJ^&l^LQgT. 


Of fmalfdl nugnitude clofc t^ the loeon. ' ^ m 
Thither fiiU fcuigbt with mifchievoiu revenge,- -f 
Accurs'd, aod.ia a cudcd hour he hies. ^055 

Eaith wMBiaot. and jrtt srgiiiQg 
very juftij ihu dkc Earth couM 
DM be taau : jud Mr. AddJIsn 
tut filial it}tn the like iniAjikci u 
appezn fam hu wordii " The 
■' glimscrug light which toot in- 
" to [he Cbaot from the ntmoft 
** *crge of the oeatian, with the 
** dUaut djlcover]' of the Euth 
** ilkM hang doTe by the moon, 
■' ire wonderfully benitiAil and 
" poatia]." But how much more 
vimderful is the imigiBatioR of 
fuch prodjgioiu difluice, that after 
&UW had Qsrelcd on lb fiu, and 

comet Within view of die wbui 
world, it fboald flifl appear in 
comparifbn with the enpyreal Hex- 
yen no biegcr than the finallaS 
ftar, atid uut liar appcariiig yet 
finaller by its prt>xinuty to the 
inoon ! and how much more bean- 
dful and poetical h it to opcK 
the ftene ttius by degrees I Sata* 
at liift defcriei the whole world at 
a diflance in book the fecond, and 
then in book the third he difcoven . 
our pjanetary fyflem and the fiuU 
and aftcrwanlt by the direflioti of 
Uriel the (artb and neighbouiin^ 

The end of the Secqnd'Bbok. 


Third Boo 

O F 




Cod fitting on bis dirone fees Sacui fifing towards tias 
world, then newly created} fhows him to the Son who 
fit at his right hand i loretds the fuccefs of Satan h 
perverting mankind ; clears his own juftice and wifdom 
nom all imputation, having created Man free and able 
enough to have withftood his tempter; yet declares his 
purpofe of grace towar(.is him, in regard he fell not rf 
nis own malice, as did ^Satan, but by him feduc'd. Tm 
Son of God renders pf^fes to his Father for the mani- 
feftation of his gracious purpofe towards Mnn ; but 
God again declares, that Grace cannot be extended to- 
wards Man without the £itifa£lion of divine juftice; 
Man hath offerdea the majefty ef God by afpiring to 
Godhtad, and iherefore with all his progeny devoted to 
death mud die, unlef^ feme one can be ioiuid fuSdcnt 
to anfwer tor his otfenfc, and undergo his punifhment. 
The Son of God freely ofiers himfelf a ranfomc for 
Man : the Father accepts him, ordains his incarnation, 
pronounces his exaltition above all names in Heaven 
apd Earth; commands all the Angels to adore htm; 
Chey obay, and hymning to tbdr aaxp* in full quinw 
celebrate the Father and the Son. Mean while Satan 
alights upon the bare convex of this world's ootermcit 
orb ; where wand'ring he Brft finds a place, fince call'd 
The Limbo of Vanity; what perlbns and thin^ fly op 
thither ; thence comes to the gate of Heaven, ddctiVa 
alcending by ftairs, and the waters above the finnuKOt 
that flow about it: His pall^ thence tt> die oib c^ the 
fiin ; he Bnds there Uriel the r^nt of that wb, but 
firft changes himfelf into the flupe of a meaner Angdj 
and pretending a zealous dcfire to behold the new ctqk 
tion, and Man whom God had placed faeie, inquires of 
bro the place of his habitation, and is dinded^ alif^ 
firft OD mauA Niphates. 



BOOK in. 

AIL hdy light, ofsprii^ of Heav'n firft-bocn^ 
Or of th' Eternal coeternal beam 

[ expre& thee* unblam'd i finoe God is Ikht, 


ce advifes a {lOet to con- reader, I imtgbiy camioe wi(h it 

torooghl^ dit luiciire nd were omitted* One ii even nieidM 

his genius. Milton ktma with a Aalt^ if it be a faolt^ tiiat 

8 kmnvn mritdiy ivcH, ittheooeeiiaoffi>Maaybeamiei^ 

his ftrength lay, and has and acooaints os fo much with the 

e choTen a fubjed entirely drcoamances and ^'li^n^^r of tho 

laUe to thoTe tabnis, of author. 

ewasmafter. As his go- 2, Or rf tV timudfettnudhmm 

i wIwmIh Pully iBmed to 3>e hUy 1 taefrrft tbn^ uMmdif^ 

Ui fahfoa is tho noUeft Or mi^ I without blame call theo» 

M have aBterol inbo the the coetcnial beam of the eceraal 

I of muu Bveiy tUog God? Tho Ancients weie Texy 

ndygKot and atanilhw caotioBs and carioBsbf what naniei 

icoink. The whole fyftes they addit&'d their deitiei, and Mil- 

idkdaal world f the Chaos ton in imitadoo of them oneftioiie 

Onthm; Heaven, Earth, v^etherhelhOQldaddrelstieL^hc 

It enter into the coaiitu* as the firft-bom of Hdnren, or at 

his poem. Having in the the coeternal beam of the etonal 

, feoond books vmeiented Father, or as a pcoo edieieal 

«d world with all iu hor- fiream whole fimntain is onkaown: 

» thread of his faUe nato- But as the fecond appellation fonw 

dshimintotheoppoCt re- to afoibe a proper eternity to 

liWs and elory. AiSftm. light, Ifilton vciy ja% doobtt 

fUMUgbt^ &c.]Ouraa- whether he mig^ we that withoot 

Idrefi to tight, and kmcn- Uaae. 

if his own bliadneis vkXf |. •^^Jbit$G$dUt^9 

'be eenfiir*d as an excro- jhd-^immudfrmKcUid&ki 

V dipefikm not agreeable ZHMfr--— j From i JohmI«<; 

mies of epic poetry 1 but <Wtf ArAr, m im him is m dmi* 

it lb charming a part tf 9fiM aU. And 1 Tim. VL i6, 

m^ th*t die moft cndcil Ww9 smJp mip iwitMH^tt^ w^mmg 





And never but in unapproached light 
Dwelt from eternity, dwelt then in thec» 
Bright effluence of bright eiTcnce increate. 
Or hear'ft thou rather pure ethereal ftream, 
Whofe fountain who rtiall tell? before the fun. 
Before the Heav'ns thou wert, and at the voice 
Of God, as with a mantle didft mveft la 

The rifing world of waters dark and deep. 
Won from the void and formlefs infinite. 
Thee I re-vifit now with bolder wing, 

>« the light, luhich tit man tan ep- it}. fFitri is tit «k«r *iitrt Ij^ 
fraaeh unia. dimiUelh T 

6. Sritht iSutnce of hrighl t/TtiUt II. 7h ri^e ■zi'trU »f «uMn 

tookill. PARADISE LOST. 


Efcap'd the Stygian pool, though long detain'd • 
Tn that obfcure fojourn, while in my flight 1 5 

Through utter and through middle darknefs borne 
With other notes than to th' Orphean lyre 
[ fung of Chaos and eternal Night, 
Taught by the heav'nly Mufe to venture down 
The dark defcent, and up to re-afcend, go 

Though hard and rare : thee I reviflt fafe^ 
And feel thy fovran vital lamp ; but thou 
Reviiit'ft not thefe eyes, that roll in vain 


Oitt fa here applied t6Cha6s,W/i^ &c.] He was not only taught by 

mt firm mad owrV. A (hort but the Mofe to *uentwrt dvnvn, which 

noble deicripttOn of Chaos, which indeed was tiot very hard and dif- 

b faid to be hfimte, as it extended ficult, but alfo up t6 ttafiend^ tb% 

nndemeathy as Heaven abore, in- bard and rarti which is manifefUf 

Enitelx. Ricbardfon. an allufion to Virgil, ^n. VI. isB. 
i6. Tbnmgb utter and tbromgb 

mddli durhtffi] Throtigh 
Hen which is often caird utter 
itrkuffi, axid through the great gulf 
between Hell and Heaven, the 
middle d^o'kmfi, 

17. Witb§tbern9tes tbdn to th^Or- 

fbUm fyre &c, ] Orpheus 
Bide a hymn to Night, which is 
till extant; he alfo wrote of the 
Creadon oat of Chaos. See Apoll. 
Rhodius I. 493. Orpheus was in- 
fpir*d by his mother Calliope only, 
Ifilton by die bt£ni*nly Mufe } there- 
lore he boalb he fung with other 
aocei than Orpheus, tho' the fub- 
je6U were the lame. Rscbardfon, 

Sed revocare eradnm> fnperafque 

evadere ad auras 
Hoe opus, hie labor eft; paud, 

quos aquus amavit 
Jupiter, ant ardens evexit ad w 

thera virtus, 
Diis genid potuere. 

But to return, knd vieW the chear* 

ful ikies. 
In this the talk, ahd tnighty labor 

lies : 
To few great Jupiter imparts this 

And thofe of (hini&g worth and 

heav'nly race. 


10. 7«im&r h tbi hmfnlj Muff 
VOL.T: ^ X 

2S- S9 



To find thy piercing ray, and find no dawn 
So thick a drop ferene hath quench'd their orbs. 
Or dim fuffufion vcil'd. Yet not the more 
Ceafe I to wander, where the Mufes haunt 
Clear fpring, or fhady grove, or funny hiil, 


<;. St thUi a drop ftrtitt huA «>n>ce to hi» ftiend Leoniri Fhi- 

quenih'd Ihiir erhi, lara, an Athenian then at Puii, 

Or £m fuffMfim •vfi!"J.'\ Drof ft- for him to confult Dr. Theveow; 

rttu at Gutta Terena. It wa^ for- he fent hi* cafe ('lin in the i jth of 

merly thought that that (on of hiE familiar letteri) : what tdva 

blindncfs was an incurable ex- he had ij not known i but it feuu 

tinflion or quenching of figlit by by this paflage that he wu act 

a tranrparcni, wacry, cold humor certain what his dife3l« wat: gr 

diiUlling upon the opuc nerve, pc:rhaps he had a, mind tQ dcfcnb^ 

tho" muing very little change ta both the great caufes of bliodacb 

the eve to appearance, if any i 'tis according to what wai knavm tt 


vith the love of Ikcrcd fong ; but chief 
Sion, and the flowry brooks beneath, 30 

wafh thy hallowed feet, and warbling flow, 

ly I viiit : nor fometimes forget 
other two equal'd with me in £ite. 


wut wth tht bve efjapred botch at beft. The moft probabb 
'^^g i 3 So Virgil. Gcorg. explanation of this pafTage I con- 
cave to be this. The* he men* 
3ulcc$ ante omnia Mufc, tions>r, yet there arc but /a*;^ 
n facra fcio ingenti per- ^'^P? ^^ particularly defires to re- 
lu amore. femblc, and thole he diftirgailhef 

both with the epithet blitutio make 
^thejh^ry hroeks hfneath^ die likencf:> the more ftriking, 

^y^t£"be2tie!?fTh^ BiMTbam^ris ondhiindM^mdts. 

poets, but his highefl de- Maomdes is Homer, fo caird from 

J in the fongs of Sion, in the name of his father Mseon : and 

f Scriptures, and in thefe no wonder our poet defires to 

tated day and night. This equal him in renown, whofe writ- 

nfe of the paiTage ilript of ings he fo much ftudied, admired- 

:al ornaments. and imitated. The character of 

— n9rJometimesforget\ *Tis Tbrnmyris is not fo well known and 

s as md fometimes not forget, ellablifh'd : but Homer mentions 

I neqme in Latin are nre- him in the Iliad. II. 59$; and £u- 

the fame as et non. ilathius ranks him with Orpheus 

Pearce. and Mufzus, the moft celebrated 

'irfe other tnuo &c.] It has poets and muficians. That laftfol 

ag^'d that Milton didaccd challenge of his to the nine Mufet 

nrr/M, which tho'diiTcrent was probably nothing more thaa 

yet is not diflinguifhable a fable invented to exprefs his vio- 

I, fe that they might eafily lent love and affe^lion for poetry* 

kcih the one for the other. Plato mentions his hymns witk 

left of fpeech perhaps we honor in the beginning of hit 

ead others inflead of other, eighth book of Laws, and towards 

HTM too : but thofe other may the conclufton of the laft book of 

tted as well as thife otbtr his Repoblic feigns, upon the pria- 

'83. thefe other 'wheei ciples of tranihiigration, that th# 

* : but then it muft be ac- foul of Thamyris pafled into a 

Iged chat /M is a im^ nightingale. He was a T}u:adaa 



So were I eqiial'd with them in renown. 
Blind Thamyris and blind M^onides, 
And Tirelias and Phlneus prophets old : 
Then teed on thoughts, that voluntary move 
Harmonious numbers; as the wakeful bird 
Sings darkling, and in (hadieft covert hid 
Tunes her noftunial note. Thus with tlie year 
Seafons return, but not to me returns 


i-cnted the Doric Dr. Bentley i) totally for rcjefUne 
iing to this verie, and objeifls to tke b^ 

by birth, 

mood or meafurc, 

Pliny. L. 7, c. j7. I'lutarcTi in accent of r.Vc&j; but asDr.Petrtf 
his treatife of Miific fays that he obferves the accent may be mend- 
had ihc lini:ft voice cf any of his td by fuppoUng that the inter 



or die fweet approach of ev'n or morn, 
ght of vernal bloom, or fummer'e rofe, 
ocks, or herds, or human face divine; 
:loud inflead, and ever-during dark 
mnds me, from the chearful ways of men 
off, and for the book of knowledge £ur 
;nted with a univerial blank 
lature's works to me expung'd and ras'd^ 



soold better ezprefs die muf- 
raghtfulnefs of a blind poet. 
>hra(e was perhaps borrowed 
be fbUowine line of Spenfer^s 
of tfaeMniesy 

d on iweet contentment of 
\j thoaght. ^hjer. 

— * thai njobmtary move 
mt m m t numbenti Sec,'] And 
ider will obferve the flowing 
! numbers here with adl the 
nd harmony of the fineft vo- 
ir. The words feem of them- 
tohave fallen naturally into 
almoft without the poet's 
ng of it. And this harmony 
ra to greater advantage for 
nghnels of fome of the pre- 
\ verfesy which is an artifice 
ntly pradic'd by Milton, to 
"eleis of his numbers in fome 
, the better to fet off the 
il flow of thofe which imme- 
f follow. 

— darkUng^"] It is faid that 
irord was coin'd by our la- 

thor, but I find it ided feveral 

times in Shakefpear and the au- 
thors of that age. Lear's fool fays, 
A^ I. So out went the candle, and 
we were left darkling, 

41. Siafons return f hut not to me 
returns] Thb beautiful turn 
of the words b copied from the 
beginning of the third ad of Gua- 
tini*s Pallor Fido. MirtiUo ad* 
drefifes the fpring. 

Tu tomi ben, ma teco 

Non tomano &r. 

Tu torai ben, tu tomi, , 

Ma teco altro non toma &r. 

Thou art retumM; but the fe- 

Thou brought'^ me laft b not re- 
turned with diee: 

Thou art returned; but nought 
returns with thee 

Save my lad joys regretful me* 
mory. Fanihawe. 

49. Of natures vtprks &c. ] 
Dr. Bentley reads JU mUmri's maf 
Stc. becaofe (he (ays) m hMt of 

X 3 'wvrkt 

19© PARADISE LOST. BookllT. 

And wifdom at one entrance quite fhut oat. p 

So much the rather thou, celeftial Light, 
Shine inward, and the mind through all her powen 
Irradiate, there plant eyes, all mift from thence 
Purge and difpcrfe, that I may fee and tcU 
Of things invifible to mortal fight. ^j 


viorh is .in imphilofophical exprtf- of it and them ever To paOtoniM!^ 

fion. If (o, and if the fentencc and (o patiently InmciiEcd. Thtf 

inu\ teTaiinae at 6iaiii, viliy may that wr!) read the mod exccUoii 

we not read ? Homer, bemoaning rhe ftmc mit. 

Prefented with an umverfd blank; i'?"""''^ '*'''' ""'' t"™, **\.?"^ '' 

^//nature's works w me eApOfiE'd '^"; H'rodotium hw life giro 

1 feme ifcrfcs, in whidi be be- 
wailed his blindncft. JLmr, 



Now had th' almighty Father from above. 
From the pure empyrean where he fits 
High thron*d above all highth, bent down his eye. 
His own works and their works at once to view : 
About him all the San(5tities of Heaven 60 

Stood thick as flars, and firom his fight received 



E ^uanto e da le ftelle al baflb 

Tanto e pih in sil de la ftellata 

Gli occhi in gih rolft, e in on 

fol punco, c in una 
Viiia miro cio^ che* n fe il mondo 


When God almighty from his 

lofty throne. 
Set in thofe parts of Heav'n that 

purell are, 
(As far above the clear ftars every 

As it is hence up to the higheft 

Look'd down, and all u once 

this world beheld, 
Each land, each city, country, 

towUf and field. Fairfax. 

59. ' ■ anJ fhetr nvoris"] That 
is the works of his own works, 
the operations of his own crea- 
tures. Angels, Men, Devils. 

6 X . -^ and from hit fight recMd 

Beatitude fcft utterance ; ] Our 

author here alludes to the beatific 

wfion^ in which divines fuppofc 

X4 *^ 

oec tarn oculorum hebetodine, 
quam caeleftium alarum umbra has 
nobis itaSSt, tenebras videtur, fa£tas 
illaftrare mrfus interiore ac longe 
pr arft a b i Ko ge lumine haud rare 

56. New had tb^ almgbty Father 
&c.} The funrey of the whole 
creation, and of every thing that 
is trada^ed in it, is a profpe^ 
worthy of omnifcience; and as 
inach aboYC that, in which Virgil 
has drawn his Jupiter, as the Chri- 
fiian idea of the fupreme Bein£ is 
more rational and fublime man 
that of the Heathens. The par- 
ticolar objedb, on which he is de- 
fcribed to have call his eye, arc 
reprefiented in the moSt beautiful 
axid lively manner. Addijon, 

TTiis pidure of the Almighty's 
looking down from Heaven is 
much the fame with that which 
Tafib gives in the following lines. 
Cant. I. St. 7. 

Qoando da T alto foglio il Padre 

Cb* e ne la parte piu del Ciel iln- 




Beatitude pafl: utterance ; on his right 

Tiie radiant image of his glory fat, 

His only Son; on earth he firft beheld 

Our two firft parents, yet the only two 

Of mankind, in the happy garden plac'd. 

Reaping immortal fruitsof joy and love. 

Uninterrupted joy, unrival'd love 

In biifsful folitudc; he then furvey'd 

Hell and the gulf between, and Satan there 

Coafting the wall of Heav'n on this fide Night 

)kni. PARADISE LOST. 193 

the dun air fublime, and ready now 
ftoop with wearied wings and willing feet 
the bare outiide of this world, that feem'd 

m land imbofbm'd, without firmament^ 75 

certain which, in ocean or in air. 

ji God beholding from his profpeft high, 

herein paA, prefent, future he beholds, 

lus to his only Son forefeeing fpake. 

3nly begotton Son, feed thou what rage 80 

uifports our Adverfary ? whom no bounds ' 


kers. One may, I think, ob- of Chriftianity, and drawn tqge* 

e that the author preceeds with ther in a regular fcheme the whole 

:ind of fear and trembling, difpenfation of Providence witk 

Id he deicribes the fentimcnts refpedb to Man. He has repre- 

he Almigfity. He dares not fented all the abftnife doQrios of 

: his imagination its full play, prededination, free-will and graces 

choofes to confine himfelf to as alfo the great points of incama* 

I thoughts as are drawn from tion and redemption (which nata- 

books of the moft orthodox di- rally grow up in a poem that treati 

-s, and to fuch expreilions as of the fall of Man) with great 

be met with in Scripture. The energy of expreffion, and m a 

ities therefore, which we are clearer and flronger lieht than I 

x>k for in diefe fpeeches, are ever met with in any other writer^ 

of a poetical nature, nor fo As thefe points are dry in them* 

)er to fill the mind with fen- felves to the generality of readers, 

:nts of mndeur, as with the condfe and clear manner, in 

ights of devotion. The paf- which he has treated them, is very 

I, which they are defignM to much to be admired, as is like* 

^ are a divine love and reli- wife that particular art which he 

IS fear. The particular beauty has made ufe of in the interfperP- 

he fpeeches in the third book ing of all thofe graces of poetry, 

ifts m that fhortnefs and per- which the fubjedt was capable of 

aity of ftile, in which the poet receiving. Satan's approach to tha 

cottdit*d the greateft mylkenes confines of the creation is fine^ 



Prercrib'd, no bars of Hell, nor all the chains 

He,:p'd on him there, nor yet the main abyfs 

Wide interrupt can hold; fo bent he feems 

On defperate revenge, that ftiall redound fir 

Upon his own rebellious head. And now 

Through all reftraint broke loofe he wings his wayi 

Not far off Heav'n, in the prccinifls of light, r 

Diredly tow'ards the new created world. 

And Man there plac'd, with purpofe to aflay gO 

If him by force he can deftroy, or worfc. 

By feme falfc guile pervert; and /hall pervert, * 

For Man will hearken to his glozing lies. 

Bookin. PARADISE I.OST. {95 

Such I created all th' ethereal Powers 100 

And Spi'rks, both them who ftood and them who £ul*d| 
Freely they ftood who ftood, and fell who fell. 
Not free, what proof could they have giv'n finceie 
Of true allegiance, conftant faith or love. 
Where only what they needs muft do appeared, 105 
Not what they would ? what praife could they receive I 
What pleafure I from fuch obedience paid. 
When will and reafon (reafon alfo* is choice) 
Ufelefs and vain, of freedom both defpoil'd^ 
Made paflive both, had ferv*d neceffity, no 

Not me ? They therefore as to right belong*d. 
So were created, nor can juftly* accufe 
Their maker, or their making, or their £ite. 

As if predeftination over-rul'd 

Their will, difpos'd by abfolute decree 1x5 

Or high foreknowledge; they thcmfelvcs decreed 

Their own revolt, not 1 5 if I foreknew. 


•« Providence for fuffcring Adam iij.^^ i/ 1 /crehtenv,} JjT here 

«« to tranfgrcfs. FooUfh tongues ! does not imply the leafl doubt or 

** when God gave him reafon, he uncertainty ; but is ufed, as it ii 

•* gave him freedom to choofe, for fomctiracs in the bcft authors, in 

«« reafon is but choofing : he had the fenfe of Though, Though I 

«' been elfe a mere artificial Adam, foreknew, that foreknowledge ha4 

Cs'r. See hb Speech for the liberty no iDfluencc. 

of unlicenc^d printing, p. 1499 ana 

.150. Edit. 1 73 J. ^ 

HI. Or 



Foreknowledge had no influence on their &ult. 
Which had no lefs prov'd certain unfbreknown. 
So without Icaft jmpulfe or fliadow' of fete, 120 
Or ought by me immutably forefcen. 
They trefpafs, authors to thcmfelves in all 
Both what theyjudgeand what they choofc; fbrfo 
I form'd them free, and free they muft remain. 
Till they inthrall themfclvcs; I elfe miift change 12 j 
Their nature, and revoke the high decree 
Unchangeable, eternal, which ordain'd 
Their freedom, they themfelvcs ordain'd their fell. 
The firft fort by their own fuggeftion fell. 



rhe other none : in mercy' and juftice both, 
rhrough Heav*n and Earth, fo (hall my glory' excel, 
)ut mercy firft and lad ihall brighteft fhine. 

Thus while God fpake, ambrofial fragrance fiU'd 
Ul Heav'n, and in the bleiled Spirits elei^ 136 

Senfe of new joy inefiaUe difius*d : 
^yond compare the Son of God was feen 
VIoft glonoos; in him all his Father fhone 
Subftantially exprefs'd; and in his face 14^ 

Divine companion vifibly appeared, 
!A>ve without end, and without meafure grace, 
bVhich uttering thus he to his Father fpake. 

O Father, gracious was that word which closed 
rhy fovran fentence, that Man fhould find grace; 145 


lis mafter Homer» and all whofel- 
owed him, where they are repre- 
imtiiig the Deity fpeaking, de- 
cribe a fcene of tenor and awful 
xmftcmation. Tin HeaveiUf $€mt 
md B^ih trtmbli &c» and thb, to 
)e fore, was confident enough 
vith their natural notions of the 
ttpreme Being : but it would not 
lave been fo asreeable to the mild, 
nercifuly and benevolent idea of 
he Deity upon the ChrifUan 
ieheme, and therefore oar author 
las very judlcioufly made the 
yoida of the Almighty diffuiing 
ragrancc and delig)lu to allarouiM 

him. There is i paflage in Ariofto^ 
which is exadly in the fame taftc 
widi what Milton has given us» 
Cant 29. St. 30. 

Dio cosi diffe ; e fe (erena intomo 
L'aria, e tranquillo il mar piiiche 

mai fufle. 
Thos f^d the Higheft, and then 

there did enfue 
A wondrous calm in waters and 

in air. Harrington. 


140. SuhPmntialfy txprefi'di] Ao> 
cording tD Heb. I. 3. where the Sco 
of God ift ftiled, tbt brighmfa ^ 




For which both Heav'n and Earth (hall high extol 

Thy prailes, ■vviih th' innumerable found 

Of hymns and fiicrcd fongs, wherewith thy throne 

Incompafs'd fha,ll refound thee ever bleft. 

For Iliould M;m finally be loft, fhould Man, 

Thy creature late fo lov'd, thy youngeft fon. 

Fall circumvented thus by fraud, though joiui'd 

With Iiis own folly ? that be from thee far. 

That far be from thee. Father, who art judge 

Of all things made, and judgeft only right. 

Or fliall the Advcrfary thus obtain 

His end, and fruflrate thine? Ihali he fulfil 



Bbokin. PARADISE LOST. 199 

Yet with revenge accomplifh'd, and to Hell 160 

Draw after him the whole race of mankind. 

By him corrupted ? or wilt thou thyielf 

Abolifh thy creation, and mimake 

For him, what for thy glory thou hail made ? 

So fhould thy goodnefs and thy greatnefs both 16^ 

Be queftion'd and UafphemM without defenfe. 

To whom the great Creator thus reply^d 
O Son, in whom my foul hath chief delight. 
Son of my bofom. Son who art alone 
My word, my wifdom, and efFcdhial might, 170 
All hzfi thou fpoken as my thoughts are, all 
As my eternal purpofe hath decreed: 
Man fhall not quite be loft, but fav'd who will. 


Angelic harmonies: the eaith> the may be jufiify'd as well from the 

air Saxon. 

Hf/otmM. Pfearce. i68. O Stm, Sec.] The Son is 

' s 5 1. — that it /ram thetfar^ 5rc.] here addreG*d by feveral titles and 

An imitation of Genefis, XVIII. appellations borrowed from Scrip- 

'%^. n&t Befiarjnm ihn t9 dB af" tnie. O £m» in njuhom wffmlbatb 

'itr tbii mm m t r^ f fiof tht rigbttnu Mtf itUght<, from Mat III. i^. 

with dk nmektdi imdthat tbe rig6- Ify UmiidSoM in whom I Mm niM 

4mmfMmtihe at the nmcked, thiU he fttafed. Son tf m^ hefvm^ from John 

fat fhm thtt: JbaUnot tbt judgi rf L i8^ The only hegotton Son wmch is 

MlU the earth th right ?^ in the ho/om of the Father, hfy 

: '. t ;8. — ^ Mi^^i] This word and word^ from Rev. XIX. 1 3. And bit 

ought our audior moft ufaally fpells name is ealied the woord of God. Mj^ 

naught and augbti and they may wi/dtm and ejfeaual mighty from 

be ipelt either wayf but this is i Cor. I. 24. Chrifi the fi 


180. J^ 


Yet not of will in him, but grace in me 

Freely voucliiafd; once more I will renew 17J 

His lapfed powVs, though forfeit and inthrall'd -^ 

Ey fin to foul exorbitant defires; •! 

Upheld by me, yet once more he fhall ftand ^■^ 

On even ground againft his mortal foe, 

By me upheld, that he may know how frail j8o 

His fall'n condition is, and to me owe 

All his deliverance, and to none but mc. 

Some I have chofen of peculiar grace 

Eleft above the reft; fo is my will: 

The reft fliall hear me call, and oft be warn'd 

fiookllL PARADISE LOST. aoi 

To pray'r, repentance^ and obedience due. 

Though but endevor'd with fincere intent. 

Mine ear fhall not be flow, mine eye not Ihut. 

And I will place within them as a guide 

My umpire confcience, whom if they will hear, 

Ziight aftecUght well ua'd they fliall attain, 196 

Ajid to the end perHiting, (a£e arrive. 

This my long Cuffenncc and my day of grace 

Chey who negled and fcom, ihalt never taile; 

Sut hard be harden'd, blind be blinded more, 206 

Chat they may ftumble on, and deeper fall; 

^nd none but fuch from mercy I exclude. 

Kut yet all is not done; Man difobeying, 

!3ifloyal breaks his fealty, and fins 

h^gainll: the high fupremacy of Heaven, 105 

- fltaing God-head, and fo lofing all, 

"o e^iate his treafon hath nought left, 


A« well u to iti deriradon trim Deity by putting in his sioutli t&I> 

* f reach ta and tbveir. hornd doCfain of a daj- of grace, 
*^^y.jMJiatl>itmJferfiJKi,g,/aff after which it 1! tot poflibU Tor a 

ormv.] Ht tb»t aJmrtib to man tD repent; and there cln ba 

* ^t^dfi^a bt/ovtd. Mat* X. 2J. no fort of e«cufc for him, ejicept 
W^8. Tbu mf Img fnfftrmHtt ati the candid reader will make loma 
^^ mj 4a) af p-mtt allowance fof the prejudices, whigh 
"j&«y luh* mtghB *Kd fianr^ fidi he might poflibly receive from the 

nfvtri^ei} It U « great gloom}' divinicy of that eothufiaAic 
t. that our aathiw Ihonld nave age in which he lived. 7h^, 

^ debafcd the digtii^ of tht 


oay aeav my row rs, wxicic inciii wc nuu lucii a 
Which of ye will be mortal to redeem 
Man's mortal crime, and juft th* unjuft to favc? 
Dwells in all Heaven charity fo dear ? * 

He afk'd, but all the heav'nly quire flood mu 
And filence was in Heav'n : on Man's behalf 
Patron or interceflbr none appear'd. 
Much lefs that durfl upon his own head draw 
The deadly forfeiture, and ranfome fet. 
And now without redemption all mankind 

2 1 ^j-^andjuft iF unjuft tojofve .?] a filence in Heaven. 

That is. Which of ye will be fo This beautiful circumfianc 

juft as to favc the unjuft? Which cd upon Rev. VIII. i. wh 

of ye will be righteous enough to a certain occafion ic is (ai 

fupply the defects of others righ- luas filcnct in Heavtti. A] 

teoufnefs ? It is plainly an allufion there was filence in Hell, 

to \VttAll.\%, For Chriji alfohatb was proposed who fkould 

9nce fufferd for fim^ the juft for the o n the dangerous expediui 

tiniu/i. ftrftv manHnrl rli^t-* i« 

Bookm. PARADISE LOST. 203 

Muft have been loft, adjudg'd to Death and Hell 

By doom fevere, had not the Son of God, 

[n whom the fulnefs dwells of love divine, 225 

His deareft mediation thus renew'd. 

Father, thy word is paft, Man fhall find grace; 

And fhall grace not find means, that finds her way. 

The fpeedieft of thy winged meflengers. 

To vifit all thy creatures, and to all 230 

Comes unprevented, unimplor'd, unfought ? 

Happy for Man, fo coming; he her aid 

Can never feek, once dead in fins and loft; 

Atonement for himfelf or offering meet, 

fndebted and undone, hath none to bring: i^S 

Behold me then ; me for him, life fen: life 

[ offer; on me let thine anger fall ; 


places, the difference of the ex- our nvorh, tut acccrdtng to his enum 

preffi<m is rcmftiicable. In Hell it purpofe and grace, Pfal. LXXXVIIL 

tt faid ail fat mute^ II. 420, as 13. But unto thee have I crfJ^ O 

Cbere the infernal peers were fitting Lord^ and in the morning Jhall my 

la coandl; bat here it is faid they frayer prevent thee. Here the fa- 

U&d mute, as the good Angels were vor if it comes, comes not unpre^ 

ftanding round about the throne of vented; prayer prevents or goei 

God. before God*s goodnefs. 
^Z'^i. Comet unprevented^ Prevent Richard/en. 

from pretvenirt to come before. 

This grace is not preceded by me^ 236. Behold me then ; meforhim^ 
rit or fupplication ; itielf prevents life for life 

Dr goes before! *tis a free gift, as I offer; on me let thine anverfaHi 
KI. 3. Prevemmt gract defcendstqrp Account mt Man \\ The frequenl 

Ipc. 1 Tim. I.' 9. Ita emrdug f and vehemem repetition of mt here 


Account me Man; I for his f^kc will leave 

Thy bofom, and this glory next to thee 

Freely put off, and for him laftly die 240 

Well pleas'd ; on me let Death wreck all his rage j 

Under his gloomy pow'r I (hall not long 

Lie vanquifh'd ; thou haft giv'n me to pofleis 

Life in myfelf for ev'r; by thee I live. 

Though now to Death I yield, and am his due 245 

All that of me can die ; yet that debt paid. 

Thou wilt not leave me in the Ipathfomc grave 

His prey, nor fuifer my unfpotted foul 

For ever with corruption there to dwells 

But I (hall rife victorious, and fubdue 250 

My vanqui(her, fpoil'd of his vaunted fpoil; 

Death his death's wound (hall then receive, and fioop 


is very like that in Virgil, ^n. 249. --*-<uv/i& rvfrs^Mv/imtf 
IX. 427. dwel/i] According to tki 

Me, me: adfum qui feci: in me ^^^'?'*^ .f"^ '^'^••^ ^^^ 
convcrtitc fcrrum ; >^ '* *^' "^^^f'iT^ thmB^ 

One to fee corrmfhm, Pfal. XVL la 

and a little afterwardsy applied to our Saviour*s r e fiu ic flk i 

Conjicite, 6 Rutulij jw primum , tbenrttttvtA I am ray 

ibfumite ferro. '^''J' .to obfenre. tfitt the qoM 

conceit in thii Ime is veryincot* 

244. Ufe in myfelf for n^V ;] For fiflent with the charaAer of tk 

01 the Father hath life in bimfelf fo fpeaker, and anworthjr of the &!• 

hath he given to the Son to haroe Ufe jcil)' of the reft of the fpeecL 

ih himft^i John V. 26. IWilton might perhaps be led isBs 

Booklll. PARADISE LOST. 205 

Inglorious, of his mortal fting difarm'd. 
I through the ample air in triumph high 
Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell, and (how 255 
The Pow'rs of darknefs bound. Thou at the fight 
Pleas'd, out of Heaven (halt look down and fmilc. 
While by thee raised I ruin all my foes, 
Death laft, and with his carcafs glut the grave : 
Then with the multitude of my redeemed 260 

Shall enter Heav'n long abfent, and return, 
Father, to fee thy face, wherein no cloud 
Of anger fhall remain, but peace aflur'd 
And reconcilement; wrath fhall be no more 
Thenceforth, but in thy prefence joy entire, 265 
His words here ended, but his meek afpc(ft 

Silent yet foake, and breath'd immortal love 


it by a witticifin of the fame kind openfyy triumphing voir them in fV» 

in Seneca, who fpeaking of the Col. II. 15. 
terror Pluto was in from the wound 2^9. Death lafl^ According to 

be received from Hercules, fays,- St. Paul, ^he lap tnemf thatjhallbi. 

Here. Fur. vcr, 568. dejiroy'd is Deaths I Cor. XV. 26. 

Effbgit t«ui vulnerc faucius, *^^- .^' T^r!T' '"^^' ^ 

Mt mortis domitttu ferHmdt mori. «., ^" ""'^^ ff^^, . „., ^ 

^ Thyer. ^'^*' ^'^ -^ ^' *^'3 What a 

^ ' charming and lovely pifhire has 

254. J thmgb the ample air jn Milton given us of God the Soft 
triumph high iscJ] Thai haft coniider'd as our Saviour and Re- 
i/cended on high, thou haft led capti- deemer ? not in the leafl inferior 
vity captive^ P{al. LXVIII. 18. in its wav to that grander one in 
dnd hainnr fpoiltd PrindpoHtia and the 6th book, where he defcribes 
?$njucrs, i$ trutdi a ft>m» of tbim iiim dothed with majcfty and ter»> 

y 3 ror. 



To mortal men, above which only fhone 

Filial obedience ; as a facfifice 

Glad to be offered, he attends the will 270 

Of his great Father. Admiration feis'd 

All He;iv'n, what this might meatij and whither tend 

Wond'riiig; but foon th' Almighty thus reply' d, 

O thou in Heav'n and Earth the only peace ^ 
Found out for mankind under wrath, O thou 27J 
My fole complacence ! well thou know'ft how dear 
To me are all my works, nor Man the leaft. 
Though lafl: created; that for him I fpare 
Thee from my bofom and right hand, to favc. 


\nd be thyfelf Man among men on earth, 

^ade flefh, when time fhall be, of virgin feed, 

^y wondrous birth: be thou in Adam's room 285 

The head of all mankind, though Adam's fon. 

\s in him perifli all men, fo in thee, 

^s from a fecond root, fhall be reftor'd 

\s many as are reftor'd, without thee none. 

rlis crime makes guilty all his fons ; thy merit 290 

imputed fhall abfolve them who renounce 

rheir own both righteous and unrighteous deeds, 

\nd live in thee tranfplanted, and from thee 

deceive new life. So Man, as is moft juft, 

>hall fatisfy for Man, be judg'd and die, 295 

\nd dying rife, and rifing with him raifc 

rlis brethren, ranfom'd with his own dear life. 


ering thm £t(fi mi iUfiri, mini ears And Antony to Trcbonins, JuL 

>nft thoM opentdi burnt-offering and Caef. A61 III. 

■^-•I'rmg hf thou not r,q^iJ: ^j^ f, ,^j, ^, ^ . ., ^ 

^benfnd I^ L§ J eonu $ tn the a;»- ^ y ' ,/ 

ume 0/ the book it is 'written of me: 281. ^-njubom tbom onfy eemfi n^ 

I diRgbt to do tby njoilU O nrf Godi deem, 

iOt thy law is wihin iMpr beart^ 7beir nature"] Thtt is, the nature 

of them> whom jdiou only canft 
277. — nor Mam tie lea/,] The redeem. A manner of fpcaking 
caft dear, Tbon^b la/i created', very ufual with our author, 
bmewhat like Shakelpear't Leax 
o Cordelia, J^6i I. 287. Js in him pert/ball men, Sec.] 

For as in Adam all die, e^uen fi in 
— Nmuf ourjoft CbnftJbaU all bi made aBn/e, 1 Cor. 

dlltbomgb mrlafi^mt ktfim XV. %z. 

¥4 299. Giving 



So heav'nly love ihall outdo hellifh hate^ 

Giving to death, and dying to redeem. 

So dearly to redeem what hellilh hate 300 

So eafily deftroy'd, and ftill deftroys 

In thofe who, when they may, accept not grace. 

Nor (halt thou, by defccnding to aifume 

Man*s nature, leiTen or degrade thine own. 

Becaufe thou haft, though throned in higheft blifs 

Equal to God, and equally enjoying 306 

God-like fruition, quitted all to fiive 

A world from utter lofs, and haft been found 

By merit more than birthright Son of God, 

Found worthieft to be fo by being good, 31a 


299. Giving to deatht and ifytng 
to ndeem,'] The love of the 
Father in giving the Son tq death, 
jm4 the love of the Son in fub- 
mitting to it and dying to redeem 
mmkixid. Mr. Warburton thus 
explains it. " Milton's fyflem of 
** divinity taueht, fays he, not 
•• only that Man wag redeemedj 
•' bat likewife that a real price 
** was paid for his redemption; 
•• d)fing to redeem therefore fignify- 
*' ing only redemption in a vague 
«* uncertain fenfe, but imperfcftly 
•* rcprefents his fyftcmj fo im- 
•• perfectly that it may as well be 
*< called the Socinian ; the price 
** paid (which implies a proper re- 

demption) is wantiog. Bat» 
' pay a price implying a Tobi* 
' taiy afC the poet tkerefbffcvdi 
' exprefles it by iH^V ^ ^ 

< that is giving nimfeir to dmi; 

< fo that the ienfe of thelioefilir 
' exprefTes Milton^s notion, H» 
' nfiidj Ivue gaw€ a frictfir^^ 

* demftioH of mmtkimd^ wed ly ^ 

* tui of that pice rtalfy nktmd 
' thtmr 

30K mwd ftitt dtflr^'i Ob 

Bentley objeas to JHH deMnyi, tbt 
this fpeech is before Adam^s (A 
and therefore he thinks that Mil- 
ton gave it etnd nviJI deftm. ^ 
there are manv' paflages m thdie 
fpeechcs of Goa and Meffisk 


took III. PARADISE LOSTt^. 209 

"ar more than great or high; bccaufc in thee 
^ve hath abounded more dian glory' abounds. 
Therefore thy humiliation fhall exalt 
Vith thee thy manhood alfo to this throne; 
lere (halt thou fit incarnate, here fhalt reign 3 1 r 
k>th God and Man, Son both of God and Man, 
Lnoirited univerfal king ; all power 
give thee; reign for ever, and aflume 
rhy merits; under thee as head fupreme 
Thrones, Princedoms, Pow'rs, Dominions I reduce : 
Lll knees to thee (hall bow, of them that bide 321 
n Heav'n, or Earth, or under Earth in Hell. 

Vhen thou attended glorioufly from Heaven 


liere the fall Is (jpoken of as a notice as an infUnce of Milton^t 

ling pail; perhaps becaufe all orthodoxy with relation to the di- 

lings, even niture ones, are pre- vinity of God the Son. 

nt to the diyine Mind. Thus we 317. aUf&wtr 

»d in ver. 151. I givi thet\\ Mat. XXVIIL i8* 

rhy creature late fo lov'd : ^^ ^ ^JZZ\%. 

ad ver. 181. 'Thy mmts','\ Imitated from Ho> 

— that he may know how frail ^''^Jl^':^ ^"t^"^ "^ 

His fall'n condition is : — »i"l ^- ^^.^^^l^ ^« "^.•P*- 

ed to the divine Perfon to whom 

jid yet thefe two paflages, with it is fpoken. 

:hers of the fame kind. Dr. Bent- 321. Jli knees to tbeiJ^/lcw,Scc.'} 

y has fufferM to ftand uncenfurM. That at the name of Je/us every knet 

Pearce. Jbould Btfiv, of things in Heanjen^ attd 

306. Equal to Goit and equally en- things in Earthp anJ things under tbi 

Jofing Eeo'th, Philip. II. la 
CodJiie frmtimh] Thii ddcrvcs 

334- «* 


Loud as from numbers without number, fweet 
As from blcfl voices, uttering joy, Heav'n rung 
With jubilee, and loud Hofanna's fili'd *** i 

Til' eternal regions: lowly reverent 
Tow'ards either throne they bow, and to the ground 
With folcmn adoration down they caft 351 

Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold; 
Immortal amarant, a flow'r which once 


a p-Dsl hud atSiZ. Hrr^'n rung, laftingam/irfljrr, which he hw finely 

A-c. where ihc firll words arc put fet nearihe tree of life. Amaran- 

in the ahlativc cafe ahfolutcly. tus flos, fymholum eft immonili- 

Fearer, tatis. Clem. Alexand. Hami. 

ixnthtyCBJi 357. the fount of lift. . 

>kIIL FA RAD I S E LO S T. 2x3 

Paradife, faft by the tree of life, 
gan to bloom 5 but foon for man's offcnfc . ^SS 
) Heav'n rcmov'd, where firft it grew, there grows^ 
d flow'rs aloft fhading the fount of life, 
d where the river of blifs through midft of Heaven 
Lis o'er Elyfian flow'rs her amber flream; 
xh thefe that never fade the Spi Vits eledl 360 
<i their rcfplendent locks inwreath'd with beams. 


^t only fomctimcs roH over Ran ncdlar, vifiting each plaa^ 
^, to water tkem. And yet and fed 

fc Dr. Pearce) I am rather in- Flow'rs worthy of Paradife. 

d to think, that the poet here ^ j « 

^er means iJbrough or amtmg. And as there they are flow'rs wflrz-^r 

ntfr. Jortin underftands Rp/ls o*tr ^™*^>» "> ^«"« ^^^J arc worth/ 

-y>IJj ibrtmgb Of ^; and obfervcs f/^y^TZ *^ V^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^'' 

Horace nfes the verb fr^terire *^ • «^ ^« "a^es uie of the fame 

tnch the iiune manner, Od. IV. f ^^effion m his poem caU'd L'Al- 

. 3. ^^^' 

— et decref c c n tia ripas ^^m golden flumber on a bed 

smina pnetereim^ ^^ heap*d Elyfian fo^'^rs, 

by and within their banks. Bat And then as to his calling it amher 

re onderftand the paflaee as it ftnam^ it is only on account of its 

cprefs'dy there is no kind of ab- clearnefs and tnuifparency, and 

jty in it; for we frequently fee not at all on account of its color, 

s and weeds and flowers grow- that he compares it to amber. The 

Jpder water : and we may deame^ of amber was proverbial 

^re fuppofe the fineft flowers among the Ancients ; Callimachut 

jow at the bottom of the ri'ver in his hymn tq Ceres, ver. 29. has 

Hfs^ or rather the river to roil etK^/leiPw t;^A>p ; and in like man- 

• them fometimes, to water ner Virgil fays of a river, Georg. 

n. The author feems to in- HI- 522. 

I much the fame thing that he p^^^r eledro campum petit amnis. 

exprefs d m IV. 240. where '^ '^ 

king of the brooks in Paradife 360. ^tb tbe/e that m'vtrfadt^ 

lys they Dr. Bentley reads 'with this that 


Approa9h not, but with iDoth wings veil their eyes. 
Thee next they fang of all creation firf^ 
Begotten Soq, Divine Similitude^ 
In whofe confpicuous countenance, without cloud 
Made vifible, th' almighty Father fhines^ j86 

Whom elfe no creature can behold; on thee 
Imprefs'd th' effulgence of his glory* abides^ 
Transfiis'd on thee his ample Spirit refts« 
He Heav'n of Heav'ns and all the Pow'rs therein 
By thee created, and by thee threw down 39I 

Th' afpiring Dominations : thou that day 
Thy Father's dreadful thunder didft not ipare. 
Nor ftop thy flaming chariot wheels, that {hook 
Heav'n's everlafting frame, while o'er the necks 395 
Thou drov'ft of warring Angels difarray'd. 


382. Approach noti\ So Ovid Met. in Col. I. 1 5. thefirft-lom rftv^ 

II. 22. creature or of all creaHn^ mUHH 

Confiftitquc procul, ncquc cnim ^Vf-^; and Rev. Ill 14. A fc. 

propiora Lcbat ^""""i "if *^ ^'^« "f ^•'• 

387. JVbom elfe m9 creatwn m- 
hut tvitb both ivin^s *veil their tyes» hehoUi ] No cruuntc Ol 

So they are reprelentcd in Ifaisdi^s othenvife behold the Father bat a 
vlfion of the throne of God : and through the Son. N9 mam U^ 
Above it ft cod the Seraphims ; each fcen God at any timei the meh htgh 
9fie had fix icings; ivith tivain he ten Son 'which is im the h§f§m rf^ 
eover'd his fuce^ &c. Ifa. VI. 2. Father^ he hath deeUurtd kim^ Jobi 

I. 18. But He thai haikfiem m 

383. cf all creation frft^l So hath fcen the Father^ John XIV. 9, 

398. fitf 

in. PARADISE lost; 


ICC, Father, firft they fung Omnipotent, 

utable. Immortal, Infinite, 

lal King; thee Author of all being, 

taiti of light, thyfelf invifible 375 

Ift the glorious brightncfs where thou Htft 

in'd inacceilible, but when thou (had'ft 

full blaze of thy beams, and through a cloud 

m round about thee like a radiant fhrine, 

: with exceffive bright thy fkirts appear, 380 

lazle Heav'n, that brighteft Seraphim 


. Thmti inaceejpbhy hut nvhen 
ibwJhuT/^ The word ^K/ 
r die iame as except^ unlefs ; 
IhU hut nuhen thou Jhaifi^ 
I then only accefllbley when 
bad*ft &c. Perhaps Milton 
1 Tiew'what Ovid fays of 
If when his fon Phaeton 
to him. Met. II. 39. 

ifcnm caput omne mlcantes 
ifuit nulios, propitifque ac- 
edere juflit. Ptarce. 

U 'Dark tvith excejfft've bright 
ihyjdrts appear,"] Milton has 
ne thought of darknefs oc- 
'd by glory, V. 599. Bright- 
id made ifrjifthle. This alfo 
0$ hb meaning here ; the ex- 
* brightnefs had the efFe£l of 
s(s» invifibility. What an 
f glory f the Ikirts only not 
look'd oh by the beings 
t to God» but when doubly 

or trebly (haded by t cloud and 
both wings. What then is the full 
blaze! Richardfitu 

In like manner Tafib defcribing 
the Almighty in Heaven, Cant. 9, 
St. 57. 

Quivi ei co& nd fuo fplendor s^in- 

Che v*abbaglian la vifla anco i 

pii^ degni. 

The fame thought in Spenfer*^ 
Hymn of heavenly Beauty, but 
more languidly exprefsM, 

With the great glory of that won- 
drous light 

His throne is all IncompaiTed ag- 
round , 

jUmI hid in his own brightncfs from, 
the fight 

Of all that look thereon i^c. 


382. Approach 

Their happy hours in jay indih)WMii lg. < r^i p C i *1 

Mean while upon the ivm opacoue glbiib 
Of this round world, whoTe firfl convex divide! 
The luminous inferior orbs inclos'd 
From Chaos and th' inroad of Darknefg ( 

411. HaiiSM o/GeJ,] So m ehe 
condufion of tlie hymn to Her- 
cules mcndoa'd before, ^b. VUl, 

413. llv capital matter of my 

fi'>i\ Dr. Bentley readj here 
f»r ffg; out why may not Mihoa 
Uke the liberty lu'd in the ancient 
chorus, where fomctimcB the plu- 
ral, and fometimes the fingutar 
number is ufed? Or it may be 
faid that MUcbn fpeaks in his own 
perfaa, or rather narratei tb^n 
gives ut tbe words u tl 

It is to be noted that the « 
this hymn ii in imitation 
hymns of Homer and Callh 
who always promifc to re 
future hymns. RKinait^. 
418. MraittuliiienfotitteJ 
Satan's walk upon the H 
the univcrfc, which ai a i 
appeared to him of a ( 


proach looked like an wA 
plain, 19 natural and noble; 
roaming upon the frontien 
crearion between thftt mafs 
ler.wliich was wrought into 1 
and ihai IbapehA 1 " 

atan alighted walks : a globe fkr oft 

: feem'dy now feems a boundleft Continent 

>ark, wafte, and wUd, under the froWn of Night 

tarlefs expos'd^ and eveNthreatnitig ftorms 41^ 

f Chaos bluft'ring round, inclement fky ; 

ive on that fide which from the wall ef H^avenj 

llough diflant far, fome fmall refle£lion gains 

if glimihering air le(^ yex'd with temped bud : 

[ere walk'd the Fiend at large in fpacious field. 430 

s when a Tultor on Imaus bred^ 


MB HcO to Etrth IB order to who are called f^fiag^ as they lire 

AtOf maikind, but lighting firft chiefly iii tentt» and remove from 

I ifae hare oonrex of this worid*s jrfflce to place for the convenience 

BTBMa Ofby M/emo/ land as the of paftorage, their herds of cattd 

BC calk it» is very fitly com- and what they take in hunting 

icd to a vnltur flyinff* in qoeft heing their princifial fubfiftence. 

' hb pray* tender lanibs or kids Gmiges and Hjdafies are famons 

iw-yitB*a» from the barren rocks fivers of India ; and Striea is a 

the MQfe fruitful hills and region betwixt China to the eaft 

•BBM of India, but lighting in mi the moantain Imaus to the 

I way OB die plains of Sericana, Weft : and what our author here 

kkh ware in a manner a fea kys of the Cbmefis^ he feems to 

' Imi too, the coontry being (o have taken from Heylin*s Cofino- 

KMlh aBd open that carriages gpraphy, p. 867. where it is faid, 

stB drivsB (as travelers report) *^ A^jreeable onto die obfervation 

ttl fails and wind. Immu is a ce- ** of^modom writers, the country 

tarated moaatain in Aiia ; its '' is To plain and level, that the^ 

mm todfies fiuwf in the Ian- ^ have carts and coaches driven 

iM Of the inhabitants according ** with fails, as ordinarily as drawn 

roay, ISb. 6. cap. 21. incola- <* with horfes, in thefe parts."' Oar 

ai Hnfaa nivofom fieuficante; author fuppofes thefe carriages to 

d therefore it is faid here wbojt be made of r^nv, to render the 

m^ rUjg0, It is die boandary to thing fomewhat more pobable. Tit 

I «dttf die Wdbn Tanai^ mn be d we ght diotot iacradiMi^ 

2 2 as 



Whofc fnowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds, , 
Diflodging from a region fgarce of prey 
To gorge the flcfli of lambs or yeanling kids 
On hills where flocks arc fed, flies tow'ard 

fprings 435 

Of Ganges or Hydafpes, Indian ftreams j 


may produce In the ruder at ihe 
fame dmu botii bciicf aoJ afloaift- 
men:. This is broaghi to odt m 
a well-chofcii fable, by t6c K- 
Gouot of fucb things zi have rtallj 
happen'J. or at \e»A ofruch UiiMi 
as have happen'd according » iSe 
recuvcd opinions of in&nkiild. 

as there vrts i, man lately At Bath 
who attempled fomelhing of the 
iatne nature, and could real!/ drive 
his machine wJihout horfcs by the 
help of wind and fail upon Marl- 
borougli Do»ii3, but it would . 



I the road; it did wcU 

enough upon the plain, bi 
could not make it 20 up hill. 

Milton's bUa ii a mafier- 


ookm. PARADISE LOST. ttt 

3t in his W2T l^ts on the turm phins 

f Sericina, where Cfaineics drive 

%h Ldls and wind their cany waggons E^ht : 

) 03 Ais windy lea of land, the Fiend ^40 

"^alk^d cp and down alone, bent on his prey ; 

lone^ for other dneatore in this place 


maduaery wLich fills the poems fiction of MihonV f:»b!e» though 

Ji of Homer and Vupl \\T»h ^t nod it full of fury nsing inci- 

h QrcnTT^nces as axe i^-oodcr- dents» they are geceralK' funcd to 

» bat not 2znpo£b]e» and fo frc- our nodocs of the chinc^s and per* 

entlj produce in the reader the fons ddcribed, and tempered with 

A pleafiag pa£:cn that can rife a due meafurc of prol^ubiliiy, I 

che mind of man, which is ad- muft only make an exception to 

radon. If there be any infhmce the Limbo of Vanity, with hii 

the JEjKid liable to exception epiibde of Sin and IVaih, an^ 

Ml this aooount, it is in the be- fome of the imaginary peribns in 

ning of Ae third book, where his Chaos. Thcl'e palfnges ane 

leas is reprefented as tearing afioniihing, but not crcuible ; the 

the myrtle that dropped bloo£ reader cannot fo far iuirofe upon 

qualify this wonderful circum- himfelf, as to fee a poitibility in 

ice, Polydorus tells a fiory from them; they arc the Jcfcripiion of 

root of the myrtle, that the dreams and ihadows. not of things 

barous inhabitants of the coan- or perfons. I know that many 

having pierced him with fpears critics look upon the llories of 

I arrows, the wood which was Circe, Polypheme, the Sirens, nay 

: in his body took root in his the whole OdvfTey and Iliad, to 

unds, and gave birth to that be cjicgorics ; but allowing this to 

eding tree. This circumftancc be true, they arc fables, whicK 

US to have the marvelous with- confidering the opinions of man- 

the probable, becaufe it is re- kind that prevailed in the ngc of 

fented as proceeding from na- the poet, might poflibly have beca 

d caufes, without the intcrpofi- According to the letter. The pcr- 

i of any God, or other fupcr- fens are luch as might have aClcil 

jral power capable of pro- what is afcribed to iluni. Ub the 

ing it. The fpcars and arrows circumftanccs in which tbry aic rc- 

w of themrelvcs, without fo prcfcnicJ, miehl poflibly have been 

:h as the modem help of an in- truths and re3itics. 1 his appear- 

p.tment. If we look into thp' r^ce of probability is fo abfolutoly 

Z 3 rec^uifuQ 

itt PARADISB l.O$T. QooliI 

Living or li&lefs to be found W9S none 3 
None yet^ but flore hereaft^ from tht c^rth 
Up hither like aereal vapors flew 4 

Of all things tranfitory' and vain, when iia 
With vanity had fiird the works of men ; 
Both all things vain, and all who in vain things 
Built their fond hopes of glory' or laiUng fame, 
Or happinefs in this or th' other life ; ^ 

^ who have their reward on earth, the fruits 

fcquifite in the greater kinds of ^ 444. Vtmiyet^ &c.] Dr.BCi 

ppetry, that Aridotle obferves the is for rejedine this verfe and I 

^cient tragic writers made ufe of four more which fellow ai a 

die names of fuch gre^t men as fertion of the editor ; bat I ll 

had aduall/ lived in the world, there can be no doubt of thcv 

tho^ the trc^edy proceeded upon nuinnefs, whatever there aq 

^ventures they were never en- of their goodnefs. Mr. Rich 

gaged in, on purpofe to make the fbn thinks the Paradiie of Fod 

fubjed more c^cdible. In a word, finely imag^nM, but it ail 

bcudes t.e j.iJuen meaning of an own*d that it is formed moiei 

epic allci ory, the p'ain litteral the tafle of the Italian po qi I 

(enfc ough? to appear probable, of the Ancients. 

The fto'7 -uulc! be iuch as an or- , . .-it 

dinary reader may acquiefce in, 1 ^5^* . «« •* ««r«J Toi 

whatever natural, ir.oral, or poli- ^!!J" "S u"* <»»»»•««'/ " 

^cal truth may be difcovcred in it ?*^,t I J* '^**JF «P^ 

by men of weaker penetration. ^"» " ^«» ** force of tke Gi 

^j. Urd.f.-\ Milton writci ^'^'*"*' '^'^fili^ « -^- 

it uieL/s ; but i conceive the word 

fiarlrfs without fear, ///7/r// with- do Furiofo, Cant. 34. St. 70, i 

out lift or defirc, purUJs^ ruthUfi^ gives a^much larger defcriptioi 

JbapcUfi, &c. .^ things loft upon cj^ and. tr^aTi 



Of pamfbl fiip cr ilu ioD aad blkid aed^ 

Nought feddng birt the pnife of 0Mn, here find 

Fit rctnbotioD, empty as their deeds; 

An th' unaooomplUb^d works of Nature's hand^ 4^^ 

Abordfc, mooftroBS, or onkincBy mix*d, 

Diflblv^d OA earth, fleet hither^ and in Tain^ 

TS final diflokrtion) wandor here. 

Not in the neighb'ring moon, as fome have 



Tke rom that ftmers make and 

ncTer pay» 
Tke coonfsb wife that carelefi 

men negled. 
The fonci Mbts that I<«t ns oft 

The praHes diat with pride die 

heart infed. 
And ail \Te lofe with foDy and 


May dieie be roond unto chit place 

ttp ia Ae soon, than evrnocc here 
nnkca ef the limbo of Vanity. 
Tko leader aMf have a tafta of it 
cbc iaOammm aansa'sof Har- 

A ftore-hode firange^ diat what 

on eanh is loft 
By fhnlt» by time»by fiutune»theie 

b filend. 
And fike a merdundife is there 

Infeuigpr fort than I can «di 

Nor ^peak I dole of wealth, or 

things of cofty 
In which blind fertune^s powV 

doth moft abound. 
But eVa of things ^te oat of for- 
tune's powV, 
Which wiUuUy we wafte each day 

and hour. 

The precfoiis time thajt fbob mif- 

peiid in play. 
The vain attempts that nerer take 


And fo he proceeds in enumerating 
other particular}, the vanity of ti- 
des, falfe flatteries, (cmA loves, 
great men's promifes, court-fer* 
Tices, death-bed ahns, &r. and 
men's wits kept in jars like oil. 
Our late great Engliih noet hu 
likewife made fine uTe ox this no* 
tion in his Rape of the Lock* 
Cant. c. as indeed it feems to ho 
fittei* mr a mock-heroic poem chaia 
for the true epic« 





Thofe argent fields more Ukely habitants, 46a 

Tranflated Saints, or middle Spirits hold 
Betwixt th' angelical and human kind. ^H 

Hither of ill-join'd fons and daughteis born "^P 

Firft from the ancient world thofc giants came 
With many a vain exploit, though then rcnown'd; 
The builders next of Babel on the plain 4M 


Some thought ir mounted to the is ceruinly leis confiderable in k- 

lunar fphere, felf than our earth, ii n not like!/ 

Since all ihings IoH on earth are thai its iiihabii.inti fhould be U 

treafur'd ihtre. much more confiderable. 

There hero's wits are kept in +63. Uiilnr tf'J JtMs »ti 
pond'rous vafes, daugbtai bti-a &C. } He 

Aoa beau'b io fDutF-boxcs and meaiis/^f/Dnjt^GWili-ioin'ilitth 

cafes. tht^ngl'itrst/mta.aiiBMa^toAl'i 

BookllL PARADISE LO S.T. 225 

Of Sennaar^ and flill with vain defign 

New Babels, had they wherewithal, wpuld build : • 

Others came (ingle ; he who to be deem'd 

A God, leap'd fondly into ^tna flames, ^^ 

Empedocless and he who to enjoy 

Plato's Elyfium, leap'd into the fea, 

Cleombrotus; and many more (oo lopg^ 


fivqaently does in the names of 

471. Emfedochsi'] The icholar 
of Pythagoras, a philofopher and 
poet, born at Agrigentum in Sicily : 
he wrote of the nature of things 
in Greek, as Lucretius did in Latin 
verfe. He ftealing one night from 
his followen threw himfelf into the 
flaminfi; JEtnZj that being no where 
to be lound, he might be eftecmed 
to be a God, and to be taken up 
into Hearen; but his iron pattens, 
being thrown out by the fury of 
the Duming mountain, difcover'd 
his defeated ambition, and ridi- 
culed his folly. Hot. de Art. Poet, 

— Deus immortalis haberi 
Dum cupit Empcdodes, ardeqtem 

frigidns i^tnam 
Iniiluit. Humf, 

473. deomhrotus \] The name is 
righdy placed the lail word in the 
fentence, as Emptdodes was before. 
He was called Ambraciota of Am* 
bracia, a city of Epirus in Greece. 
Having read over Plato's book of 
the SouVi immortality and hap|pi- 

nefs in another life, he was fo ra- 
vifh'd with the account of it, that 
he leap'd from a high wall int» 
the fca, that he might immediately 
enjoy it. His death is celebrated 
by Callimachus in one of his epi- 
grams, Ep. 29. which we will fub- 
join with Fnfchlinus his tranfU- 

Phccbe vale dicens,de rape Cleom- 
brotus alta 

Ambraciota, Stygis vivus adivit 

Funere nil- dignum pafTus : folum- 

que Platpnis 
De vita mentis pcrpete legit 


And from hence other authors (eem 
to have taken his ftory, as Cicero 
Tafc. m^. L 34...-CalUmacl^ oui- 





Embryo's and idiots, eremites and friers 474 

White, black, and gray, with all their trumpery, 
Here pilgrims roam, that ftray'd fo for to fcek 
Id Golgotha him dead, who lives in i-Icavcn } 
And they who to be fure of ParatUfe 


dem epigntmma in Ambradotiin order &nd conru£ciB. We have tic 

CleoDibroium cH : qucm ait. cam fame anful negligence in Puailifa 

«i nihil accidiflct advcrli, c muro Regain'd, II. 181. 
' 1 oisre abjecilTe lefto Platonit 

libro: and Ovid Ibis, ver. 493. 
Vd dt pracjphi venias in Tartars 

Have we noi ben, or hy r«l«iM 

In courn and regal chamben ^ 

thou lurk'fl. 
In wood or ^ove bj- mofijf )w» 

Iain lide, -^^H 

In vallev or i>t(vb eiuMB^B 



r pat pn the weeds of 
Francifcan think to pais dUguis'd; 489 

paffi the planets fev'n, and pafs the fix'd» 
that cryftalUn fpbere whole baUnce weighs 
trepidation talked, and that firft mov'd ; 


adng them there, butmak- 
an tho principal figures. 

Here pt/grims &c. J Thofe 
id ffone upon pilgrimages to 
»ly Land, to vifit our Lord^s 
ire : but to fuch perfons that 
! faid, which was to the wo- 
iter his r^forredion, Luke 
. 5, 6. Whyfeekye tbt li*uing 
the deadf Hi is nst hin hut is 
to which text our author 
o allude in this pafTage, 
And that cryftallin fpbere &€.] 
pflp h^a according to the 
\ afrroBomy, adapted and im- 
\ff Ptotony. fbiy fafs thg 
fim^Uf our planetary or folar 
r W beyond this pafi thi 
ie fin&ament or fpherc of 
cM ibirs, and beyond this 
jfUJUn fpbere^ the cryfUllin 
B» dear as cryftal, tp which 
^jbmaics attributed a fort of 
Vk OE (baking (the trefida- 
aioch talk'4 of) 10 account 
tain irr9gi|lari(ies in the mo- 
f the ftacs, ond beyond this 
rfi nmPd^ the primum mo- 
(he fphere which was both 
ii 9ipv'd aivi the firft movei% 
inicadng it3 motions to all 
ver fphares ; and beyond this 
If fm^reas^ licaTQH, the 

feat of God and the Angels. Thia 
paflaij;^ may receive iomf &rther 
lieht and inuffa-ation from another 
of the iame nattu« ia Tailor where 
he defcribes the deicent of the 
ArchrAnnl Mkhael fin^m Hea^ 
ven, and mentions this cryftallin 
and idl the other fpkere« bat only 
inverting the order, as there the 
motion is downwardi* and here it 
is upwards. Cant. 9. St. 60, 6i, 

Pafla il foco, e la luce &r. 

He oafi'd the Kght, a«l ihimns 

fire affign*d 
The glorious feat of his fetoOed 

The 9axv9X £rft, aod eire)j crv* 

The irmament where %xA fiaie 


Unlike in working then ia diape 

At his left hand, Saturn he left 

and Jove, 
And thoie uatroly enwit callM I 

Since he errs not who thsm c'etli 

guide and move. Fairfax. 

A od wkea our poet moatioBa 9t. Aw 
/cr a$ HiMnhts ^khi nmib kii inr, 


228 PARADISE LOST. Bookni| 

And now Saint Peter at Heav'n's wicket feems 

To wait them with his keys, and now at foot 48^ 

Of Hcav'n's afcent they lift their feet, when lo 

A violent crofs wind from either coaH: 

Blows them tranfverfe ten thoufand leagues awry 

Into the devious air; then might ye fee 

Cowls, hoods, and habits with their wearers toft 490 

And flutter'd into rags, then reliques, beads^ 

Indulgences, difpenfes, pardons, bulls. 

The fport of winds : all thefe upwhirl'd aloft 

Fly o'er the backfide of the world far off 

Into a Limbo large and broad, fince call'd 49; 


he certainly intends (as Mr. Thyer there as an inhabitant, and anotkr 

obferves) to ridicule the fond con- as a fpcdlator. Milton meia if 

ceit of the Romanilh, that St. Pe- any body was prefcnt there k o 

tcr and his fucccfTors are in a par- to be able to lee what pafsU k 

ticular manner intrufled with the would fee ccu:/s, hoods^ &c hit 

keys of Heaven. And he makes very common among poets lo oft 

ufe of the low phrafe of Heanjen$ thus to their readers ; Thn «fA 

nvtckety the better to expofc the ye fee is no more than Then k:A 

notions oi thofe whom he places be/een. Sec Virgil, JEn, Vlll. 676. 

here in the Paradife of Fools. ' p^^, 

489.— then might ye fee'\ This This manner of (peaking, whid 

is one of the pallages which fur- puts tlie fecond perfon indcfinittzf. 

nifhcs Dr. Bentlcy here with objec- is very frequent among the pocs^ 

tions againil fifty-five verfcs of as Virgil .flin. IV. 401. 

Milton. To the words mizht ye »*• 

fee he fays, how could any one of ^^S^^^^ ^cmas . 

his readers fie them, unlcfs he is upon which Serx'ius {slvs^ Honrfi 

himfolf fuppos'd ;ifcoi? But was figura fi rem teniae perfonz in k- 

i;ot Satan there ? and he is no fool cundam transferas. Mugirc \^d^ 

in this poem : it k ons thing to be bis JLn, IV. 490. that is, rklebit 

Booklll. iPARADISE LOSt. 229 


The Paradife of Fools, to few unknown 

Long after, now unpeopled, and untrod. 

All this dark globe the Fiend found as he pafs'd. 

And long he wander'd, till at laft a gleam 

Of dawning light turn'd thither-ward in haftc roo 

His travel'd fleps : far diftant he defcries 

Afcending by degrees magnificent 

Up to the wall of Heav'n a ftrudure high; . 

At top whereof, but £u: more rich appeared 

The work as of a kingly palace gate, ^oc 

With frontifpiece of diamond and gold 

Embellifti'dj thick with fparkling orient gems 


aut potent vidcrealiquls.^n. VIII. 501: His travePd fteps:'\ Tir*d 

691. Heps, from tra^agUato (Italian.) 

— pelago credas innarc rcvulfas Bicbardfia: 

Cydadas; dial is Crcdat quis. 506. With fmntij^iece of diammi 

e r> 1 , T^ • J • TT x^^i-- - ^*^ f^^^^ ] Imitated from 

Sec Cowley's Davidcis II. No^c 17. Qvid, Met. H. i . 

Jiqx. The Jhort of nmnds :} Ludi- 

bria ventis. Virg. iEn. VI. 7 5. Regia folis crat fubUmibus alta co- 

495 . Into a Umbo large and broad,"] lumnis. 

The Ltmbus fatrum as it is call'd, Clara micante auro, flammafquc 

is a place that the Schoobnen fup- imitante pyropo. 

pofed to be in the neighbourhood ^hc fiin^s bright palace, on high 

of HeU, where the fouls of the columns rais'4 

patriarchs were detain d, and thofc ^^^j^ bumifh'd gold and flaming 

good men who died before our Sa. jewels blax'd? Addifon. ^ 

viour s remrrcdbon. Our author •* 

gives the fame name to his Para- ^o'j,'~''nvitb Jparkling orient gemi] 

difcof Fools, and more rationally Dr. Bentley would read ardent 

places it beyond the hackjide of tin gems, becaufe orient is proper to 

miorld. ^X "F^^ ^^^ ^^7 • ^^^ ffarkUng 

ajo PARADISE LOST. Bookill. 

The portal ihone, inimitable oo earth .^^| 

By model, or by fliading pencil drawn. "^^ 

The ftairs were luch as whereon Jacob (aw 

Angels afccnding and defcending, bands 

Of guardians bright, when he from Efau fled 

To Padan-Aram, in tlie field of Luz 

Dreaming by night under the open fky, 

And waking cry'd, This is the gate of Heaven. 

Each ftair myfterioufly was meant, nor ftood 

There always, but drawn up to Heav'n fomei 

Viewlefs; and underneath a bright fea flow'd 




Bookin. PARADISE LOST. 231 

Of jafpcr, or of liquid pearl, whereon 

Who after came from earth, failing arrived 520 

Wafted by Angels, or flew o'er the lake 

Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery fteeds* 

The ftairs were then let down, whether to dare 

The Fiend by cafy' afcent, or aggravate 

His fad exclufion from the doors of bliis : gzg 

Diredt ^ainft which open'd from beneath, 

Juft o'er the blifsfid feat of Paradifc, 

A paflage down to th' Earth, a pafl^e wide. 

Wider by £ir than that of after- times 


Aram was h the fiM vf Lmz ; but ;2i. Wtfiti hy Aw^t^ J^.] Ai 
ke was flying to Fadan-Aram or the Lazarus was carried by Angels, Luke 
coantr/i of Aram, that is Syria ; XVL 22 ; and Elijah was rapt up 
and by the way refled and dreamed in a chariot of fire and horfis of 
diis dream in the field of Lux, for fre, 2 Kings II. 11. 
fo the adjoining city was called at 525. — * doon ] Milton writet 
the firft; Jacob upon this occailon this word dore and dnres except onljr 
gave it the name of Bethel, by in one i;iftance in L 904. of the fe* 
whic!i it was better known after- cond edition, which he alterVl hooi 
wards. The pafTaee was wrong the firft edition : but the other ap- 
pointed in all the editions, for there proaches nearer in foond to the 
mould be no comma after Lu%: ori^nal word, if it bederirMfrom 
the comma ihould be after Padan- the Saxon dam, the Gennan durt^ 
Arom, in the f eld of Lnz being to dnra, tnra; and all as Junius fay* 
be joinM on to drtdming in the next from the Greek ^c/f^, jantft. Aim 
Ytrh. yet I think we commonly pn>* 
518. -^- and underneath a bright IKKince it dere tho' we oonftantljr 
feafi-uu^dl The author him- write it door. But in aH fnck cam 
felf explains this, in the argument we want an adTmntage, diat the 
of this book, to be meant of the French have emoy'd, of an Aca* 
'ucur abow the firmament. He demy to fix atid tme Mr lamaee. 
mentions it again Yfl. 61 9. He;^ Some prapofab were nide for 




PARADISE Lost. Docklll. 

Over mount Slon, and, diough that were large. 
Over the Promis'd Land to God Co dear, , 

By which, to vifit oft tliofe happy tribes, i 

On high behefts his Angels to and fro 
Pals'd frequent, and liis eye with choice regaid 
From Paneas the four^t of Jordan's flood m 
To Beerfaba, where the Holy Land 
Borders on Egypt and th" Arabian (liorcj 
So wide the opening fcem'd, where bounds 
To darknefs, fuch as bound the ocean wave, 
Satan from hence, now on the lower ilair 
That fcal'd by fteps of gold to Heaven gate. 



I this world at once. As when a icout 
jgh dark and defcrt ways with peril gone 
ght, at laft by break of chearfiil dawn 545 
ns the brow of fome high*climbing hill, 
h to his eye difcovers unaware 
oodly profpeA of fome foreign land 
een» or fome roiown'd metropolis 
gliftVing fpires and pinnacles adom'd, ^^6 
h now the riling fun gilds with his beams : 
p^onder feis'd, though after Heaven feen, 
ipi Vit malign, but much more envy feis'd, 
ht of all this world beheld fo fain 5^4 

i he furveys (and well might, where he flood 


1 ocean, Hitherto fialt thou p|Iorious an idea as any that arlfei 

no farther, in the whole poem. He looks 

Satan from bence^ &c.] Sa- down into that vaft hollow of che 

:r having long wanderM aniverfe, with the eye, or (as Mil- 

fiirface, or outmoft wall ton calls it) with the ken of an 

UTerfe, dii'covers at hll 2 Angel. He furveys all the won- 

p in it, which led into the. ders in this immenfe amphitheatre 

and is defcribed as the that li'^ between both the polos of 

through which the Angels Heaven, and takes in at one /iew 

id ho into the lower world the whole round of the cre:;:ion. 

nr errands to mankind. Addifon, 

g upon the brink of this 55;. Round he fur^veji &c ] Satan 

ind taking a furvey of the is here reprefented as taking a view 

:e of nature that appeared of the whole creation from eaft to 

rw and fre(h in all lU beau- weft, and chen from north to fouth ; 

h the iimile illuflrating but poetry delights to fay the moft 

mftance, fills the mind of common things in an uncommoiii 

:r with as furprifmg and m^Mi^r, Round b^Junvf^St^ 'well Ike 

I, A a ns:gh 



So high above the circling canopy 

Of night's extended ftiadc) from caftcrn point 

Of Libra to the fleecy ftar that bears 

Andromeda iar off Atlantic fcas 

Beyond th' horizon ; tlien fiom pole to pole 56a 

He views in breadth, and witliout longer poufe 

Down right into the world's firll region throws 


nigl/ in He prerent fituation,^ f'igi much giGater journey one w» tba 

tiitfvr tie tirciiag taiafj 0/ ai^hl'i the ouier, one wai caltcd lel^ I 

txttnied fl>adt. Dr. Bentley objeCU or longitude, the other brcadA (C j 

to the cxprelSoit of rtrdiig tanafy, laulude. Il is fine, St it ii UUnL 

when the {hade of night muft needs (o reprcfcnt Satan utalun^iR 
be ■ ime : buc u Dr. Pearce re- of the world before hfi "^ ~ *^ 
pile), CO Satan who look'd down iclf into it. 

Bookltt. PARADISE LOST. tjs 

His flight precipitant, and winds with cafe 
Through the pore marble air his oblique way 
Amongft innumerable ftars, that (hone 56f 

Stars diftanty but nigh hand feem'd other worlds^ 
Or other worlds they feem'd^ or happy iles. 
Like tho^^l^efperian gardens £im'd of old^ 
Fortunate fields, and groves, and flow'ry vales. 



for lis deamefi and wUfenels, (Wdler) has iuduilusveires upon 

widuxit anj regard to itihardnefii his sniibefles paffing through Ai 

and the word mmiitar, mmrbU^ h ooad of peoplt i 

imnAhmzJ^ word ^*p. The yielding marUi of a fiiowy 

fM#p« that ngnifies to (hine and breaftT^ 

fjiSoK, And as Milton ufes the ex- 

preifion of the marhU air, {o Virgil And what is nearer to onr purpofi^ 

does likewife of the marbh fea, Othello in Shakefpear b reprdent- 

Oeorg. I. J54. ed as fwearing Aft IIL 

Et^ofliidoinfidbmremisiiiipcUere —Now by yondMer^ZrHcafOW 

It is common with the Andent^ 
and thofe who write in the fpirit 

And Ma. VI. Tao; ^^ manner of the Ancients, in 

their metaphors and iimllesy if they 

Et qiae sMnmr^s fert monftra fub agree an the main circumftance, 

aqoore pontos ; to have no regard to leSer parti- 

And idfawhcre he calls Orpheos's f6c, thAtJUms 

Mck Mrlfr, Georg, IV. 513. J^^^ 4/?^,/,] They appeared by 

Tm qaoqoe mmnmrta caput a ^^ ihining to be flars. *Tis s 

camce revnlfiim. Greek eaprefiion, as Plato in an 

^^ epigram on his friend Stella pre- 

Aiid Ovid in like manner fpeaks ferved by Diogenes Laertius. To* 

of Nardfliu his mmtUi hamds. Met. Jime ^Mlft &wy a morning Jiar^ 

Vt«a««fli* '- «.MH«iiu «^ iheimJki. RichardTon. 

ton pdBOfc g^5^.^ ^ S^riTH^, bei 

Aad a famoM poet of our own caufe placed in the weft under ths 

Aa s «vciuiig 




Thrice happy Ues, but who dwelt hip}>)r theite ' ^jq 

He ftay'd not to inquire: above them all .^^H 

The golden fun in fplendor likeft Heaven ^^M 

AUur'd his eye : thither his courfe he bends 
Through the calm firmament, (but up or down, 
By center, or eccentric, hard to tell, 57^ 

Or longitude,) where the great luminary 
Aloof the vulgar conftellations thick, 1 

That from his lordly eye keep diftancc due, ' 

Difpenfes light from far -, they as they move 
^Thcir ftairy dance in numbers that compute 580 

^ ^^ — - *4 ^y 

Booklll. PARADISE LOST. 137 

Days months and years^ tow'ards his all-chearlng lamp 

Turn fwift their various motions, oi^ are tom'd 

By his magnetic beam, that gently waraia 

The uniyerre, and to each inward part 

With gende penetration, though unfeen, 585 

Shoots invifible virtue ev'n to the deep ; 

So wondroufly was fet his flat;on bright. 

There lands (he Fiend, a fpot like which perhaps 

Aftronomer in the fun's lucent orb 

Through his glaz'd optic tube yet never (aw. 590 

The place he found beyond expreflion bright. 


X. 675f the nordi bong uppennoft thing from the p^utratimt before ' 

in our glofacs» mentioned, and which mjghc havQ 

hie vertex nobis femper fob- been vifiblc, thoughthc other waa 

^■^'^ . Ym Geonr I 24.2. °^ '®* ®"' "*^ Dodor lays that 

"6* ^* • 1- • ifpyifiiig fpoilg the meafure of the 

or whether it was iy oMter, or ec- ver(e. Milton feems to have though 

ttmtrUf towards the center, or from this no blemifti to his poem» for ho 

the center, it not being determined frequently in the beglnniiijj; of % 

whether the fun is the center of yme choofes thb artiiicial negli*^ 

the world or not; or whether it gence of meafure ; So in I(. 302^ 

was hylmmtuJit that is in length, 880. III. 358. %h 79, 377. Thero 

oaft or WW, as appears ftom IV. is n6 need therefore of reading 

539. and VII. 373. with Dr^ Bentley Sb^qti wtal 'mr» 

580. — -\wr MimAers] That is in tut, fcc. Pmt^' 

meafures. Ricbardfon, The number of fyllables in thia 

586. ^00// iwtnphli tnrt^i «vV verfe fecsms not ill contrived to ex« 

to the dup\ ] Dr. Bentley prefs the depth to. which the fun^a 

(ays iwmfibU makes mere tautologv beams penetra^ted. 
with tbouih ynfieni but 1 think ^^o. Through bis glasCdoftictM\ 

not ; the words tbomgh unften relate The fpots in the fun are vifiblo 

to pfnctratimif and iwtnfibU is the with a telefcope : but aftronomer 

epithet Wvirtue^ which is a 4^&in^ perhaps ncrer yet ff^w through by 

A«3 {lax" A 


.■jf0^-- PARADISE LOST. 

Compar'd with ought on earth, metsd or ftonc} 

Not all parts like, but all alike inforin'd 
With radiant light, ae glowing ir*on whh fircj 
If metal, part fcem'd gold, part filvcr clcaTj 
If ftoncj carbuncle moft or chryfolitc, 
Ruby or topaz, to the twelve that (hone 
In Aaron's brcaft-plate, and a ftone befidea 
Imagin'd rather oft than clfewhere feen. 



f/nz'i eitic tuie, that is lus tek* thing to Suu who vai coni 

cope, fucii a fpot a» Satan now he from ihc hocier region of Hdii 

was in the fun's oii). The poet and thcrdorc Miltoo jadkiai^ | 

neniion: thisglafi tbeoftner inhO' omiti ii, and inhrgn upoo die I 

Bor of Galileo, whom he means riches of ihc ptace, the ^fM wd { 

here by the afiranemcr. Giver and precious floMt oUck j 

%<ii.-— KKial er fhnt(\ In the abounded therein, and hj AA \ 


ftcme, or Ukc to that which here below 600 

fophers in yain fo long have fought^ 

n, though by their powVfol art they iMnd 

U HermeSy and call up unbound 

ious (hapes old Proteus from the lea, 

'd through a limbec to his native form. 605 

: vronder then if fields and regions here 

be forth Elixir pure^ and rivers run 


at /S«r of the twdte ftones 6o2. -— tbeufk h tkiirp§w*r/kl 

MTi breaftpUte are here «r/ tbp tindtcc.'] Tho* hy 

i\L For what we tranflate their pow^rfuiart they mnd and fix 

'diaUf Exod. XXVIII. 17. quickfilver, and change their mat- 

erVl in the marg^ of our ter, unbound, unfixM, into as many 

the rmly: and what we various (hapes as Proteus, till it be 

i teryl, Exod. XXVIII. zo. reduced at laft to iti firft oririnal 

Tentyj the Vulgate, and Ibnn. Htrmu, another word for 

the verfions, and Jofephus, Mercury or quickfilver, which is 

n^ odiers take for a chfj^ venr fluid, awl volatile and hard 

his alteration therdbre of to be fixed. Prwiaui & Sea-God» 

uce*s friend cannot be ad- who could transform himfelf into 

tad Mr. Fenton's readine various ihapes, till beins dofely 

worfe, or the twelve^ which prefs*d he returned to nis own 

be (aid after fome of the proper fionn. By this the Ancients 

have been already men- underflood the firft principle of 

The pafTage may be un- things and the fub}ed matter of 

i thus widiout any altera- nature; and our poet therefore 

uby or topaz to tbt twe/vif rtrv fitly employs this meuphor 

and ail the rtfi rtck§mng t9 or nroilitude to exprefs the matter, 

?/cv, that (hone in Aaron's which the chemifts make experi« 

Jate. Tlie poet had parti- ments upon thro' all its mutations, 

mentioned fome of the ftones and wluch they drain thro* their 

cm*s breaft-plate, and now limbecs or ftills, till it refume its 

ides all the reft to the mmm6er native and origixud form. 

Such a concife manner 606. trhat wonder then tec. ] 

iking is not unufual with And if chemi(b can do fo much, 

lior. what wondin: then if in the fun it« 

A a 4 fclf 



Potable gold, when with one virtuous touch 

Th' arcli-chemic fun, fo far from us remote. 

Produces, with terrcftrial humor mix'd, 610 

Here in the dark fo many precious things 

Of color glorious and efFeft fo rare? 4ifc^vr|', I 

Here matter new to gaze the Devil met 

Undazled; far and wide his eye commands; 

For fight no obflacle found here, nor fhadc, 615 

But all fun-rtiine, as when his beams at noon 

Culminate from th' equator, as they now 

Shot upward ftiU dircdt, whence no way round 



ghsdowfrom body' opaque can £dl; and th'air,, 
No w^ere fo clear, fharpen*d his vifaal ray 620 
To objeds diftant far, whereby he fbon 
Saw within ken a glorious Angel ihnd. 
The fame whom John faw alfo in the fun : 
His back was turn'd, but not his brightnefi hid; 
Of beaming funny rays a golden tiar 625 

Circled his head, nor lefs his locks behind 
JUuftrious op his (boulders fledge with wings 
Lay wavingTound; on fome great charge employ 'd 
fic feem'd, or fix'd in cogitation deep. 


in the fenfe c£ Himn There w«s iinder his bvely locks, that hang 

BO fhadow bat all fun-ihiney like behind over his ihoulders adorn'd 

MS whin bis beams iU noon cuhmnate with wings, from waving them« 

from tV efnator^ that is are vertical fclves into curls and rings. Tiar 

and (hoot dire6Uy from the equa- of Tiaray the Perfian word for n 

tor, which is die reafon why thofe round cap, high and ending in m 

who live un^cr the equator, under point, the ufual covering and oraa- 

the line, are called Afcii, and at ment the eaftem princes wore oa 

i^oon caft no ih^idows. The other their heads. Humt, 

as is ufcd by way of reafon, in the 627. '^^JUdge fwitb fwings] We 

(esie of for as msicb as ; There w^ how commonly fay JUd^'d^ bat oor 

no fhadow but all fun-(hine, for ^othor ufes JUdge agam in VIL 

as mach at bis btams Jhot now (&- 420. butfeatbtrdfocn andJUJ^iK^ 

ToQly upward. He prefers it doubtlefs as of a fefier 

. ^ tf-i. r - A «y iL /-_ . found ; and there are fevcral fodi 

*^^- ^^-^T^'^ii /& woids that want mollifying in oar 
alfo tn the fun{] And Ifcrw j 3 / 15 w««r 

^ Angel flooding in the fun. Rev. l^^_ ^^;y^ Milton con- 
^^^' ' 7- ftanthr fpclls this word imphfd, but 

625. ^^^^ a golden tiAr\ A gol- the French word from whence it 
jen coronet of fhining ravs circled is dcriv*4 is ^lojer. 
bis head^ yet ncver^hdeis did not 

634. Bnt 



Glad was the Spi'rit impure, as now in hope 
To find who might direft his wand'ring flight 
To Paradifc the happy feat of Man, 
His journey's end and our beginning woe. 
But firfl lie carts to change his proper Ihapc, 
Which elfe might work him danger or delay: 
And now a ftripllng Cherub he appears, 
Not of the prime, yet fuch as in his face 
Youth fmil'd celcftial, and to every limb 
Suitable grace difFus'd, fo well he feign'd: 



<<«'•* I 


634. Buifrjl ht lafi kc. ] Hc hwe by the pen of Milton. 


Under a coronet his flowing hair ^aq 

In curls on either cheek phiy *d ; wings he wore 
Of many a colored plume fprinkled with gold. 
His habit fit for fpeed fucdnd^ and held 
Before his decent fieps a filver wand. 
He drew not nigh unheards the Angel bright^ 64c 
Ere he drew night his radiant viiage turn'd^ 
Admoniih'd by his ear, and ftrait was known 
Th\Arch-Angel Uriels one of the fcven 
Who in God's prefence^ neareft to his throne. 


la Taflb likewife, when the Angel reprefenting the Angeb ; bot I n. 

Gabriel is fent to roufis the Clm- ther ander£nid it that die«m/ir 

ftian army, he appears is a ftrip- won were hit hahii^ and they were 

ling* Cant. i. Sc 13. c^r^Aly a habit///Sv'^^MA/^ac4» 

^ . r • M .:i -^ **"' ficdnS I underifand with Dr. 

Tra giovane. e fanouUo eti con- Pe^rce. not inits firft and littetal 

ttJ?^^ A J- • 1 k..,^^ ^f»it girded or ttuk'd up I but in the 
Pircfe. et onid di ragg^ a biondo metaphorical fenfe. riad. uA pi 

«™«- AwV; as Fabius in Inft. Orat. IL z. 

A ftripling feem'd he thrice five ^*>'* ^^'^ fuccindique (^c. 

winters old, z , «. t >.,,«. 

And radiant beams adom'd Ws . ^44; Hudeaniftepsl Thcword 

locksofgoW. Fairfax, ^^^^^^^aunaa^tfft^m 

* our language will, I think, Tcarcdy 

But there doth not ieem to be any come up to what oar poet is here 

particular reafon for it in that defcribing, and therefore we ought 

phice, as there is in the paflage be- in juftice to him to recur to its 

lore OS. Latin original Hor. Od. lU. 

xxvn. S3. 

643. His habit Jii for JpiedfuccinSA 
If the author meant that Satan had Anteqnam turptj mades diuntn 
cloches on as well as wings, it is Occopet malai. 7bj€r, 
tomxwry to his uiual manner of 

650. — tmd 

144 PARADISE L08f^ Bbok 

Stand ready at command, and are his eyes I 

That run through all the Heav'ns, or down to th'Es 
Bear his fwift errands over notoift and dry, 
0*er fea and land : him Satan thus accofb. 

Uriel, for thou of thofe fev'n Spirits that ftand 
In fight of God's high throne, glorioufly bright, 6 
The fird art wont his great authentic will 
Interpreter through higheft Heav'n to bring, 
Where all his fons thy embaily attend i 
And here art likeliefl: by fupreme decree 
X^ike honor to obtain, and as his eyej 6i 

To vifit oft this new creation round j 
Unfpeakable defire to fee, and know 
All thefe his wondrous works, but chiefly Mao. 
His chief delight and favor, him for whom 
AU thefe his works fo wondrous he ordain'd, dt 

' Hat 

6 JO. — — and are his eyes kc, ] which iignify G^distm^Ugk. \ 

An expreilion borrowM from Zech. is mentioned as a Rood Aned 

IV. 10. 7hofe fe^ven; th-v nrr he the fecond book of EIHras, di 

€yis of the Lordi njuhich run to and ten 4 and 5 ; and the Jem 1 

fr§ through the luhols e^inh The fomc Chriflians conceive him V.' 

Jews therefore believed i-^c e were an Apgel of light accoidiiw If] 

fen;en prindpal Angels, who were name, and therefore he hai II 

the captains and leaders as it were perly his llation in the fun. 
of the heavenly hoft. See Tobit 

XII. 15. Rev. 1. 4. V. 6. VIII. 2. 663. *— ^ ha c^fy Um 

6C4. t/r/>/,] His name. is dc- His chief delight mmd/mvwr.h 

riv<?d from twq {Ictrcw words /^*mAw&c.J I>r. Satfk 


'ought me from the qtkires of Cherubim 
bus wand'ring. Brighteft Seraph, tell 
:h of all thefe ihihing orbs hath Man 
d feat, or fixed feat hath none, 
iiefe fhining orbs his choice to dwells 670 
may find him, and with fecret gaze 
i admiration him behold, 
im the great Creator hath beflow*d 
, and on whom hath all thefe graces poured i 
)th in him and all things^ as is meet, 675 
iverfal Maker we may praife; 
fUy hath driv'n out his rebel foes 
}cO: Hell, and to repair that lofs 
this new happy race of Men 
t him better: wife are all his ways. 680 
ike the falfe dliTembler unperceiv'd; 


favorifi nubom^ and fays quern hie Imidat, And Vxrgily ^n. 

is thief fofvor is not Eng- V. 541. 

as ux, Pearce replies. Nee bonus Eurydo pndato invi« 

irely may be meant the dit honori : 

his favor; 2ishy delight i^M^ri is the honorable pcrfont /r^r- 

leant not his delight it- iatQ which was preferred before 

le objed of his flight, him. 

Ir. Upton obferves, it is 678. — - that kfs\ This is Mil- 

the aoilrad for the con- ton's own reading m both his edi** 

Terence ufes /?//*/ for tions. Dr. fientley and Mr. Fcn- 

4ndria, Ad. V. Seebu ton read not To well their Us. 

083. Jfy' 


For neither Man nor Angel can difccm ' ^ - 

Hypocrify, the only' evil that walks 
Invifible, except to God alone, 684 

By his permiflive will, through Heav'n and Earth:' , 
And oft though wifdom wake, fufpicion fleeps •* I 
At wifdom's gite, and to fimplicity '^ j . 1 

Refigns her charge, while goodncfs thinks no fll'^\ ' 
"Where no ill fcems: Which now for once beguil'd 
Uriel, though regent of the fun, and held 69O - 

The fliarpeft lighted Spirit of all in Heaven; ^. 
Who to die fraudulent impoftor fou! 
In his uprightnefs anfwer thus return'd. 


The more it fccma exccfs^ that led thcc hither 

From thy empyreal manfion thus alone. 

To wimeis with thine eyes what (xxfit perhaps 700 

Contented with report hear only' in Heaven : 

For wonderful indeed arc all his works, 

plea£mt to know, and worthiefl: to be all 

|lad in remembrance always with delight; 

But what created mind can comprehend 705 

Their number, or the wifdom infinite 

X%at brought them forth, but hid their caufes deep > 

[ (aw when at his word the fbrmlefs mafs. 

This world*s material mdd, came to a heap: 

Confufion heard his voice, and wild uprov 719 

Stood rul'd, flood vaft infinitude confined; 

Till at his fecond bidding darknefs fled, 

Xright fhone, and order from diforder iprung : 


poedcaDy cxpre(s*d, in the whole atioQ» b very noble in itfdfy ani 

poem. What neat art has the not only proper where it is iiicror 

|ioet (howB 10 taking off the dry- duced, but requifite to prepare tho 

aefi of a mere moral ientence by reader for what follows in the fe- 

flirowing it into the form of a fliojt venth book. In the following pait 

•nd beautiful allegory I TJ^. of the fpeech he points out the 

694. Fmr Ang3t Ice] In the an- earth with iiich eircomfianoet, that 

fwer whkh thii Angpl returns to the reader can Ccarce forbear fiui<- 

ahe diinb'd evil Sfirit» there is c^inghimfelf employed on the £yne 

fuch a Decoming maiefty as is alto- ufiant view of it. AtUifiu. 

father fuitaUe to a fu{)erior being. 713. — «• tmdtrdir from ^fi^^ 

he oart of it» in whidi be repic- ^^^wf :] So PhtoinTjflMi:^ 

Cms Kimfelf aspislcntit the oc- £if rn^^r «^« ^^^^^ t% rwi «• 





Swift to Uicir feveral quarters hafted then 
The cumbrous elements, earth, flood, air, firc; yjy 
And this ethereal qiiinteffence of Heaven 'V* 

Flew upward, fpiritcd with various forms, '.''-^ 

That roll'd orbicular, and turn'd to ftars * 'V.? ■ 

Numberlcfs, as thou ieeft, and how they movej ■' 
Each had his place appointed, each his courfc ; 720 
The refl in circuit walls this univerfe. - -■ 

Look downward on that globe, whofc hither fidff**^ 
With light from hence, though but' refle(^cd, fliinesj 
Th:it place is Earth the feat of Man, that light 
His day, whicli elfc as th' other hemifphere 725 

fiooklll^ PARADISE LOST, 249 

(So call that oppofit fair ftar) her aid 
Timely* intcrpofes, and her monthly round 
Still ending, ftill renewing, through mid Heaven, 
I With borrowed light her countenance triform 730 
Hence fills and empties to inlighten th' Earth, 
And in her pale dominion checks the night 
That Ipot to which I point is Paradife, 
Adam's abode, thofc lofty fhades his bower. 
Thy way thou canft not mils, me mine requires. 735 

Thus faid, he turn'd ; and Satan bowing low. 
As to fuperior Spirits is wont in Heaven, 

Where henor due and reverence none negledts. 
Took leave, and tow'ard the coaft of earth beneath, 
Down fi-om th' ecliptic, fped with hop'd fuccefs, 740 


from Ariftode and others of the thority fufficient to juftify our aa- 

ancient philofophers, who fuppofed thor. Thefe ilars are nuTnbtrlefs^ 

that bendes the four elements there os thou feefty (fays the Angel) and 

was likewife an ethereal auintef- feed how they move \ and the reft 

ftence or fifth eflence, out of which of this fifth elTence that is not 

theftars and Heavens were formed, formed into ftars furrounds and like 

and its motiMi was orbicular : ^r-oi a wall inclofes the univerfe. Lacret. 

J^ ^fSL^ ra riffffcLptt roi^^eia^xoi V. 470. 

AAA0 'mtfATrJov, «^ i T« aiBiem Ht late diffufus in omnes undique 

^u9%fM9ar aAA«/<(r /' aurn 7»r partes 

xtritJif ttratp KV7tXf^9etP.rrv y4tp : Omnia fie avido ,complezu czteri 

which are the very words of Dio- fepfit. 

fenes Laerdus in his life of Ari- 730. — her countenance tri/orm^l 

ode; and it would be eafy to Incrcafing with horns towards the 

make a parade of learning and ■ eaft, decreafing with horns to^'ards 

multiply quotations, but this is au- the v/ci\, and at the full. 

Vo L. !• B b 741. — /t 

250 PARADISE LOST. Booklll, 

Throws Iiis flcep flight in many an aery \sdieel, . y 
Nor ftay'J, till on Niphates top he lights. 

74.. -,™w«'T«««"?'^^f«'.J 

This fponivc motion is minbutcd 
to Salan for joy, that he was now 
fo near his journf/s end : and it 
is very projicrly tal;cn notice of 
here, as it is faid to have been ob- 
fervcd by the Angel Uriel aftcr- 
warJs in IV. 567. 


Bent on all fpced, and mark'd his 

So bcautifuV 

:. 4. Sl 14. 

tcr, Imt even tne minuter pans of 
this poem hang together. But 
Mr. Thyer fny; — '■ I differ from 
" you in yourfenrc of thcfe words. 
" I do not think that Milton in- 
" tL-nili^d 10 dcfcribe any fportive celebrated 

Accelerando i1 volator le peMM 
Con larghe mote in terra a^pot i 

Orl, Fi 

A mountain in the borders 

mcnia, not far from the fpnag of 
Tigris, as Xenophon affinns upoa 
his own knowl<?dge. TTie poa 
lands Satan on this mountain, be- 
caufe it borders on Mefopotinui, 
in which the moft judlcions d^ 
fcribers of Paradifc place it. 

I mull not conclude my refleflioii 

upon this third book of Paradifc 

Loll, without taking notice of that 

' plaint of Milton 


Fourth Book 

O F 


Bb 2 


Satan now in profpfcl of Eden, and nigh the place where 
he limit now;cm])t the bold enterprife which he un- 
dertook alone againll: God and Man, falls into many 
doubts wiih Iiinifclf, and many palTioris, fear, envy, and 
dclpairi hut at length confirms himfelf in evil, journeys 
on to Panidire whole outward profpei5t and lituation is 
defcribcLl, overleaps the bounds, fits in the fiiapc of a 
cormorant on the tree of life, as higheft: in the ganjen, 
t(j lu.'J; about him. The garden delcrib'd; Satan's 
lirfi fight ot Adam and Evcj his wonder at their excel- 
Sent lon-a and happy fiate, but with refolution to work 
their lall; overhears their difcourfe, thence gathers that 
rhe tree oi knowledge was forbidden them to eat of, un- 
der pen;ilty ot death j and thereon intends to found Ks 
tempr-ition by fcducing them to tranfgrefs : then leaves , 
them a while, to know further ot their ftate by fomc I 

BooklV. PARADISE LOSt. 255 

And like a devilifli engin back recoils 

Upon himfeif ; horror and doubt diftraft 

His troubled thoughts, and from the bottom ftir 

The Hell within him; for within him Hell 26 

]He brings, and round about him, nor from Hell 

One ftep no more than from himfelf can fly 

By change of place : now confciencc wakes defpair 

That flumber'd, wakes the bitter memory 

Of what he was, what is, and what muft be 25 

Worfc; of worfe deeds worfe lufFerings muft enfue. 

Sometimes tow ards Eden, which now in his view 

Lay pleafant, his griev'd look he fixes fad 5 

Sometimes tow*ards Heav'n and the full-blazing fun. 

Which now fat high in his meridian tower : 30 


firove the contrary. Satan was mufi /fie, we may keep the word 

oldfaroffandfearlefs^ and a5 he memory here, and prefer it to his 

drew nearer, was pleasM twi/h bofd theory. Memory is recordation or . 

fucctfs ; but now he is come to earth the thinking or reflefling upon any 

to htpn hit dire attempt, he does thing, as well prcfcnt and future 

not rgnce in it, his heart mifgives as pad. Pearee, 

him, horror and doubt difiraS him. Thus Virgil fays of his bees, that 

This is all very natural. rememhring the fwinter coming en 

24. the memory they lay by provifions in the fum- 

Of ivhat he ivat, nvhat //, and mcr, Georg. IV. 1 56. 

reads tbeon inftead of pumon, ; be- ,^borem 

caufe he does not underftand what Experiuntur. ct in medium qua. 

u the mmory of a thing prefent or ^^^^ reponunt. 

future. But if the Dodor will al- 

low that it is fcnCs to lav fttfif aft 30. arriSafi tower : ] At 

«r9p«T@- mr, or rtmtmDtr tbttytu noon the fan is Kftcd up as in a 

B b 4 tower. 


Then.much revolving, thus in fighs began. 

O thou that with furpaffing glory crown'd^ 
Look'il from thy fole dominion like the God 
Of this new world ; at whofe fight all the ftars 
Hide their diminifh'd heads; to thee I call, 35 
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name 

Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams. 
That bring to my remembrance from what ftatc 

1 fell, how glorious once above thy fphere; 

Till pride and worfe ambition threw me down 40 

Warring in Heav'n againft Heav'n's matchlefs kbg: 


tower. The metaphor is ufed by ftom whence he fell, and bcob 

Virgil in his Culex, ver. 41. forth into a (peech that is W&a'i 

Igncus aethercas jam fol pcnctri- with fcve«l tranficnt touches cf 

rat in arces. rcmorlc and felf-accufatiott: ban 

len^ he confirms himfelf ia ife- 

Spenfer in his admirable tranflation penitence, and in his defiga cf 

of that poem has followed him drawing Man into his own ftatc cf 

punaually. guilt and mifery. This conflid ef 

The fiery fun was mounted now ^^^ " J^^ ^* a«wt dol 
on hight ^^ ^f' f "}« opening of his fpccd 

Up to the heav'nly fonuVs. J?, ^H^""" J" ^^^ ^'*^ "* "*■ 

Richardfon. This fpeech is, I think, the fai 

that IS afcnbed to Satan ia die 

j2. O thou &e. ] Satan being whole poem. AiUm. 

now within profpeA of £den» and When Milton defignM to iuie 

looking round upon the glories of made only a tragedv of the Pin- 

the creation, is filled with fenti- dife Loft, it was hu intentioo to 

ments different from thofe which have begun it with the firt on 

he difcover'd while he was in lines of the following fpeeck 

Hell. The place infpires him with which he fliow'd to hu nep&ew 

thoughts more adapted to it : ^ He Edward Philipt and otben, asPU- 

jcflecU upon the happy condition lip informs us in his accomt of 


Ah wherefore ! he deferv*d no fuch return 
From me, whom he created what I was 
In that bright eminence, and with his good 
Upbraided none ; nor was his fervice hard. m^ 

What could be Icfs than to afford him praifc. 
The eafieftTecompenfe, and pay him thanks. 
How due ! yet all his good prov'd ill in me. 
And wrought but malice ^ lifted up fo high 
I fdeind fubjedion, and thought one ftep higher ^d 
Would fet me hig'hefl, and in a moment quit 

The debt immenfe of endlefs gratitude. 


che life of his uncle. And what t inordinate defires that break forth 

noble opening of a play would into the mod execrable a^ls to ac- 

this have been! The lines were complilh their haughty de/igns; 

certainly too good to be loft, and which makes our author (ligmatizc 

the author has done well to em- ambition as a worfe iin than pride, 

ploy them here, they could not Buf7:e» 

have been better employed any Dr. Bentley reads anJ eun^d amhi^ 

where. Satan is made to addrefs tion^ bccaufe he thinks it hard to 

the fun, as it was the moft confpi- fay whether fridg or amhition is 

cuous part of the creation; and worfe: but Milton fcems to meaa 

the thought is very natural of ad- by pride the vice confider'd in itfclf, 

drefling it like the God of this and only as it is the temper of the 

world, when fo many of the Hea- proud man ; and by amhition the 

then nations have worihipped and vice that carry 'd him to aim at be- 

adored it as fuch. ing equal with God: and was not 

40. nil pride and 'worft ambition] this vice the worft of the two ? I 

Pride is a kind of exceifive and vi- obfcrve that Satan always Inys the 

cious felf-efteem, that raifes men blame on his ambition, as in vcr. 

in their own opinions above what 6x and 92. Pearce, 

IS jufl and right: but ambition is co. I fdeind] For difdain'd; an 

that which adds fuel to this flame, imitation of the Italian ^r^;ra;/. * 

aad claps fpun to thcfc furious and Hume. 



So burdenfome ftill paying, ftill to owe, I 

Forgetful what from him I ftill received, I 

And underftood not that a grateful mind jjl 

By owing owes not, but ftill pays, at once I 

Indebted and difcharg'd; what burden then? I 

O had his pow'rfiil dcftiny ordain'd I 

Me fome inferior Angel, I had flood I 

Then happy ; no unbounded hope had rais'd (A I 
Ambition. Yet why not? fome other Power 
As great might have afpir'd, and me though mean 
Drawn to his part ; but otlier Powers as great 
Fell not, but fland unfhaken, firom within 
Or from without, to all temptations arm'd. 6j I 
Hadft thou the fame firee will and pow'r to (land? | 
Thou hadft : whom haft thou then or what to* accufc, 

But Heav'n's free love dealt equally to all ? 
Be then his love accurs'd, fince love or hate, 


The fame word is ufed by Spenfer, Grttiam tutem et qui letoleAb* 

Fjury Queen, B. 5. Cant. 5. St. 44. here, et qui habeat» recnliile. Be^ 

and other places. 79. O then at laft relent :]'VU» 

$^, AfuiumierJIoo J not] This verb is no fault to be found widi A 

is to be connefLsd with the other reading, but I am fomediBO i>* 

verbs in ver. 50. 1 fdcind and din'd to think that the ante 

thought. might have given it 

^^^ *— a grateful mind O then at laft refeia : 

By owing owes not, but Jlill paysi] becaufe of what follows, 

Satan here has anticipated a fen* — — is there no place 

tence, afterwards us'd by Cicero i liefl for repentata^ 



^o me alike, it deals eternal woe. yo 

fay curs'd be thou ; fince againft his thy will 

)hofe freely what it now fo juftly rues. 

le miferable! which way fhaU I fly 

liinite wrath, and infinite defpair? 

V^hich way I fly is Hell; myfclf am Hellj yg 

.nd in the loweil deep a lower deep 

ill threatning to devour me opens wide, 

b which the Hell I fufFer feems a Heaven. 

^ then at lafl relent : is there no place 

eft for repentance, none for pardon left ? Sq 

Tone left but by fubmiflion ; and that word 

>ifdain forbids me, and my dread of fhame 

Lmong the Spirits beneath, whom I feduc'd 

V^ith other promifes and other vaunts 

'han to fubmit, boafting I could fubdue 85 

'h' Omnipotent. Ay me, they litde know 


id again, ver. 93. Or if we retain the word nlutt, wtt 

Jut fay I could repent, &C ^^7 £«PI^^« .^^t Satan could not 

... , , , t • *^ »"t bnng nunfelf to fay repeat, 

"T «« »»ot improbable, that he ^nd therefore makes ufe of the 

id Shakc^ar in his thoughts, foftcr term reUnt. 
amlct, Aaill. 

Try, what repentance : what can 8i. ^^-^ and that nvord 
it not ? Difdmnfirhids me,} Difdain for« 

^et what can it^ when one cannot bkls mc that fford/uhmJlM. 
repent ? Bendejr. 

112. Bj 



How dearly I abide tliat boaft fo vain, 
Under what torments inwardly I groan. 
While they adore nie on the throne of Hell. ij 
With diadem and fcepter high advanc'd, ^ 

The lower ftill I fidl, only fupreme ^r *m\'^n\ 

In mtlery; fuch joy ambition finds. ■" ''i(V/ 

But fay I could repent and could obtain ..J 

By adl of grace my former flate; how foon 9f 

Would highth recall high thoughts, how foon uolay 
What fcigu'd fubmiflion fworc? eafe would recant 
Vows made in pain, as violent and void. |., | 

For never can true reconcilement grow. 


knows my puniflier; therefore as far 

granting he, as I from begging peace: 

ope excluded thus^ behold in ftead 105 

; out-caiV, exil'd, his new delight^ 

ind created, and for him this world. 

ewel hope, and with hope farewel fear^ 

^el remorfe : all good to me is loft ; 

)e thou my good ^ by thee at leafl 1 1^ 

ed empire with Heav'n's king I hold^ 

ee, and more than half perhaps will reign; 

[an ere long, and this new world fhall know. 

lus while he fpake, each paffion dimm'd his face 

:e chang'd with pale, ire, envy, and defpair; 1 1^ 

h marr'd his borrowed vifagc, and betray'd 

counterfeit, if any eye beheld. 

eav'nly mind? from fuch diftempers foul 


"-each fajfion dimjnd bis face companied with a pale livid coun- 

-Mchm^diiiUb pally in^emrf^ tenance. It is remarkable that in 

maddiffairi] Each paiTion, the argument to this book we 

vy, and defpaify dimm'd read^ inftead of ire^ fear^ envy and 

ntenance which was thrice de/pair; and z% fear may be jafH- 

: with pale through the fuc- fy'd by vcr. 1 8. horror and dmht 

agitations of thefe three difiraSiy and other places; fo is 

. For that palenefs is the anger warranted by ver. 9. and by 

hue of envy and defpair his curfing God and himfelfy and 

ody knows, and we always by his tlu-eatning of Man in the 

that fort of anger the moft clofe of his fpeech. 

and diabolical, which is ac« 

ia6. — -M 


Are ever clear. WJicreof he foon aware. 
Each perturbation fmooth'd with outward calm, 
Artificer of fraud; and was the firft izi 

That pradic'd fiilHiotid under faintly fhow. 
Deep malice to conceal, couch'd with revenge: 
Yet not enougli had praftic'd to deceive 
Uriel once warn'd; whofe eye purfucd him down 
The way he went, and on th' Aflyrian mount 126 
Saw him disfigiir'd, more than could befall 
Spirit of happy fort; his gcftures fierce 
He mark'd and mad demeanour, then alone, > 

As he fuppos'd, all unobferv'd, unfeen. 

lIV. paradise lost. 163 

\rith a rural mound^ the champain head 

I ftccp wildernefs, whofe hairy fides 13 j 

h thicket overgrown, grottefquc and wild, 

efs dcny'd; and over head up grew 

perable highth of loftieft (hade, 

ar, and pine, and fir, and branching palm, 

^Ivan fcene, and as the ranks afcend i^o 

le above (hade, a woody theatre 

ftatelieft view. Yet higher than their tops 

: vcrd'rous wall of Paradife up fprung : 

lich to our general fire gave profpeft large 

) his nether empire neighboring round. 14^ 

1 higher than that wall a circling row 

goodlieft trees loaden with faireft fruit, 

Gfoms and fiiiits at once of golden hue. 


licr in the fame manner as the fineft fruit trees ; and the only en- 

hes in the theatres and places trance into Paradife was a gate on 

)ublic (hows and fpeflacles. the eaflern fide. This account in 

yet higher than the higheft of profe may perhaps help the reader 

; trees grew up the verdu- the*better to underhand the defcrip« 

waU of Paradife, a green in- tion in verfe. 
ire like a rural mound, like a 140. Afyl'vanfcene^ So Virgil> 

L fet with a hedge, but this SaA, 164. 
;e grew not op fo high as to r^^ ^ j^j, f^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

er Adam s profpcft mto the d^ Wr, horrentique atrum ncmus 

hbourmg country below, which j^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

died his emftre^ as the whole 

1 was his domnion, V. 751. 147. imth f tar efi fruity 

above this hedge or c;reen tlojfoms cmd fndtt at once of golden 

grew a circling row of th« ^^ J Dr. Bcntlcy itt^ifruits 



Appear'd, with gay enamel'd colors mix'd: 
On which the fun more glad tmprefs'd his beams 
Than in fair evening cloud, or humid bow, ifi 

When God hath fliow'rd the earth j fo lovclyfccm'd 
That Iimdfliip: And of pure now purer air 
iVIeets his approacli, and to the heart infptres 
Vernal delight and joy, able to drive ij{ 

All fadnefs Init dcfpair: now gentle gales 


;•' !;v;iirll vcrfo, bocaufe Or-iiifol. Dt.Scndey readlTlHtMii/Mrtvm- 

;■ -v. • in the ncKi : biit I lliould ing douJ. 

f ■.»:>»>: \o Tf^A in both places; 1 JI. fi Iwttyfitmd 

lu:c;ii!l'c 1 oblurvt \\vxl whoii Mil- Tbat landjkit : \ And now if m 
icii ffca!;^ nf what ii hanging on compare our poet's topographj" of 
' the Paradife - --'^ "- ' ' - ■ ■ 



Fanning their odoriferous wings diipenie 
Native perfumes, and whifper whence they ftole 
Thofe bahny fpoik. As when to them who fail 
Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are paft 1 60 
Mozambic, off at fea north-eafl winds Uow 
Sabean odors from the fpicy ihore 
Of Araby the bleft; with fuch delay 
Well pleas'd they flack their courfe, and many a league 

nida, md Marino^s gaiden of Ve- 
uuy he wiU, I ehinky be perfuaded 
hju Milton imitates their maiuier» 
tat yet that the copy greatly excels 
lie originals 1%^. 

1 58. aiki ^wbij^ lubejice they 

T^/ihmlm^^j.] This fine par- 
age is ondoubtedl/ taken froa as 
be a one in Shakefpear's Twelfth 
^ht at the Ix^mng 

-^ iike the fweet fouth 
That breailief upon a bask of 

Stealing and giving odor. | 

Mfr. Thyer is fHU of opinion, that 
ililcon radier alluded to the fol- 
owing lines of Anofto*s defcrip* 
ion m ParadiTe, where fpcaking 
if the dolce mora he fays 

B qoella i i fiori, k i pomi, e \ 

la Terznra 
Gli odor diverii depredando g^a, 
E di tntti facera una mifhira, 
Che di foavita a Talma notriva. 

OrLPur.C. H-S(-Si* 
Vol. L 


The two firft of thefe lines expreft 
the air*s ftealing of the native 
perfumes^ and the two latter that 
vernal ddight which they give to 
th^ wkJL Befides it may be fur- 
ther obferv*d that this expreffion 
of the air*s ftealing and diiperijng 
the fweets of flowen is very com- 
mon in the beft Italian poets. To 
inftance only ia one more. 

Doke confiifion di mille odori 
Sparge, e *nvola Yolando aura 
Adon.diMarxno C. i.St. 15. 

163. nuUhfuch deUy 

WMfhm'ithtyJUuk ibtit emrje,] 
The noffth^eaft winds blowing con* 
trary to thofe who have doubled 
the Cafe 0/ Good Hofe, and are paft 
the iland Moteamhic on the eaftefn 
cooft of Africa near die continent, 
and are failing forwards, they moft 
neceflarily flack their cour/e ; but 
yet they are well enough pUu^d 
nvitbfmcb iilaj^ as it gives them 
the pka(nre of iinelling fuch deli- 
cious odors» ^abtam •isr$^ from 
Cc Sabai 



Chcai'd with the gratefiil fmell old Ocean Cniles : 
So entertain'd thofe odorous fwects the Fiend i66 
Wlio came their bane, though with them better pleas'd 
Than Afmodeus with the iiftiy fume 
That drove him, though enamour'd, from the fpoufe 
Of Tobit's fon, and with a vengeance fent 170 

From Media poft to Egypt, there faft bound. 

Now to th' afcent of that fteep favage WU , n 
Satan had journey'd on, penfive and flowj 
But further way found none, fo thick intwin'd. 
As one continued brake, the undergrowth i 

Of flirubs and tangling bufhes had pcrplex'd 


>ath of nua or beaft that pai^^'d that way : 
gate there only was^ and that looked eaft 

h' other fide: which when th' arch-felon &w» 
entraoce he difdain*d, and in cofitempt, 1 80 

ne flight bound high over leap'd all bound 

lill or higheft wall, and fheer within 

ts on his feet. As when a prowling wolf, 

)m hunger drives to feek new haunt for prey, 

ching where fhepherds pen their flocks at eve 185 

urdled cotes amid the field fecure, 

»s o'er the fence with eafe into the fold: 

s a thief bent to uohord the cafh 


rtatores, in wliich tibe poet Talibas JEAtu «rdc[iitem et torr% 

figed this artificer of fraud. tuentem 

Jddifim. L^batdidis animnm, facrinuif* 

u AU path of man or htajt que debat. 

ibat faffJ that 'way:'\Sztsuii r ..^^ ... ^ . 

rcome» the afc^t of the J^f^X^ "!l' i?t '^^^ ''m 

' PtHKlife. which was fo over- f^iJf * fir"K J^f' f ^T" ^ 

1 wiih thicket and under- ^uf^i'/:? f '^J'S3f ^ V 

, that neither man nor beaft TrS^s^f^ f^ ^ ^"* 

pa6 that way. 7W fa//J "P"*** " ^^- ' 3»^- 

waj, &at woiUd have pais'd HxuffAf J< ^a* txlcirir n/f /(/•• 

wzy, a remarkable manner Xf^^^ * 

eaking, fomcwhat like that HaTC yeo heard how (he kiUM m^ 
642. So feemdfar off thtfy^ ^^^ j,^ ^^^y ^^^^ l,jU»j ^^ j 
mi^ that is (ipcakmg Itri^y) 

I hare feem*d if any one had 183.—-^/ luhen a fnwUng <iwK] 
there to have feen him. And A ^olf b often the fubject ot a 
ike manner of fpeaking we fimile in Homer and Virgil, biic 
Dbferve in the belt dafiic au- here is ooniider'd in a new light, 
. as in Vixg. JBn. VI. 467* and perhaps never farniih'd out a 

C c 2 ftronger 

270 PARADISE LOST. Book IV. ' 

Of God the garden was, by hiia in ih* caft 
Of Eden planted; Eden ftretch'd bcr line 2 id 

From Auran eaftward to the royal towers 
Of great Seleucia, built by Grecian kings, ' 

Or wliere the fons of Eden long before 
Dwelt in Telaffar: in this pleafant foil 
His far more pleafant garden God ordain'd; atj 
Out of the fertil ground he caiis'd to grow 
All trees of nobleO: kind for fight, ihieLl» taAei | 


malte of the tree of life = They fays Chap. XXXVU. ii.) whiti 1 

did not life it ill before the fal!, and Trlafar or Talatha was a proviiKt 

after the fall they were not per- ud s city of t)i«cliiJdren of E<Ib; 

mttted CO ufe or eu of it at all. plKcd by Ptc^omy 'm bhjlt^ { 

ffin CiF GmI iht aardrn iii.ts. i* DBim. the cnmmon Amsib af Tt 

BboklV. PARADISE LOS T^ 271 

And all amid them ftdod the tree of life. 
High eminent^ blooming amhrofial finit 
Of vegetable gold; and next to life, aao 

Our death the tree of knowledge grew faft by. 
Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing UL 
Southward through Eden went a river large. 
Nor changed his courfe, but through the ihaggy hill 
Pafs*d underneath ingulf 'd; for God had thrown 
That mountain as his garden mold high rais'd 326 


heroic poem, when they ran out walks of Paradife. In ihort, as 

into an unneceflarv length ; the de- the critics have remarked that in 

Icriptkm of Paradife would have thofe poemi, wherein (hepherds 

Iwcn faulty, had not the poet been are a£tors, the thoughts ought al- 

ireiy particular in it, not only as it ways to take a tindure from the 

it At icene of the principal adion, woods, fields^ and rivers ; fo we 

Imt as it it requifite to give us an mav obferve, that our firft parents 

Idea of that happineis from which ieldom lofe fight of their happy 

our firft parents fell. The phm of ftation in any thing they fpeak or 

It is woBderfUly beautiful, and do; and, if the reader will give 

formed upon the ihort flcetch me leave to ufe the exprefiion, that 

which we have of it in holy Writ, their thoughu are always Paradi' 

Mi]ton*s exuberance of imagiaa- JS^m/, Addiibn. 
tion hat poured forth fuch a re- 

dondm^ofomamentt onthitfeat a a 3. Smtiward through Edtn 
of hapmnefs and innocence, thatit wr«/ « r/iwr /cr^^ This is 

would be emUefs to paint out each moft probably the river formed by 

Crticular. I muft not quit this the jundion of the Euphrates and 

ad without further obferving, Tigris, which Aows/mthward^ and 

that there is fcarce a fpeech of mnft needs be a river targe by the 

Adam and Eve in the whole poem, joinii^ of two fuch mighty nvers. 

wherein the fentiments and allu- Upon this river it is luppofed by 

Cons are not taken £rom this their the beft commentators that the ter- 

delijghtfnl habitation. The reader, reftrial Paradife was fituated. Mil- 

during their whole courfe of ae- ton calls this river Tigris in K. 71. 
tion, always finds himielf in the 

C c 4 a}3. Jbid 


Upon the rapid current, which through veins 
Of porous earth with kindly thJrft up drawn, 
Rofe a frcfh fountain, and with many a rJll 
Water'd the gardenj thence united fell aj* 

Down the deep glade, and met the nether flood, 
Whi'-h from his darkfome pailage now appeare. 
And now divided into four main ftreams. 
Runs diverfe, wand'ring many a famous realm 
And country, whereof here needs no account i J3J 
But rather to tell how, if Art could tell, 


233. ^ad rtrvi SviJ/J inlB feur ftoet expreffes it «* if then 

main Pnams,'] This is ground- nad t»eD parted into Itliar « 

ed upon the words orMofes, Gen. rivers below the gardeni buttfe 


rom that iaphir fount the crifped brooks^ 
I on orient pearl and fands of gold, 
msLzy error under pendent {hades 
:<flar, viiiting each plant, and fed 2^40 

^, worthy' of Paradife^ which not nice Art 
s and curious Juiots, but Nature boon 
forth profuie on hill and dale and plain, 
vhere the nu)rning fun firft warmly fmote 
^n fields and where the unpierq'd fhade 245 

iT^n'd the noontide bow'rs ; Thus was this place 


MoTca tiks Corvino, who of to defcribe any thing (haded. 

sht a rich pearl as a pre- Thus Boiardo defcribing a fleet of 

m Volpone ; // your fiori fliips going to pot to fea. Orl. Inaoi. 

rr Aa I. Cant. 29. 

3^b nvbire the mmnng fim Dc le fuc fdc e tttlto fM«a f om- 

mfiili^ This is a man- Che fotto a quelle il mar e fatto 

-xpreffion unuiual m oar ^^^ 

, and plainly borrow'd 

Italian poets, with whom So alfo Ariofto I r ememb er op6n a 

common. Ariofto Orl. For. likeoccafion, 

St« ao. «... fotto le vele il mar ^imbrum* 

afolcardcntcilvicincoUe. ^o thefe inftances may be added 

,. St. 35. ^'^^f'^ T9&i Gier. Lib. Cant. 14. 

il fol ncl coUcj e fa ri- 

ko. 7byer, Qainci ella in dma k nna mon- 

tagna aicende 
Jmkr^^d the wmii^ PUha&tata, e itmAre efeata, $ 
«uV/;] A perlon muft be tnma. 

k! with the Italian lan- 

o difcem the force and In like manner to expreis the ap- 
tpriety of this term. It b a proach of the evening they fay fu 
ich their poets make ufc fimhntmr, or if they would fay it 




A hnppy rural feat of various view; 
Groves whofc rich trees wept odorous gums andbalm^ 
Others whofe fnik burnifli'd with golden rind 
Hung aniLible, Heipcrlan fables true, ajo 

If true, here only', and of delicious taftc • n 

Betwixt them lawns, or level downs, and flock* 
Grazing the tender herb, were interpos'd. 


g 1 dufVv o gloomj — / empe The firff and moft proper fcnfe of 

T e ibewoii fibula, u all ihcdiaio- 

^c ] nari« inform us, is fomeihJng 

T o na- commonly talked of, whether true 

I b \i- or falfc; and if Milion us"d the 

ti f i e for- word fatlt fo hef(^ the fcnfc U 

D r a I J / as oJa- clear of the objeciioD. But the 

uriiKlly a Doitor would rather throw out 


• palmy hUk)Cj or the floVry lap 

• fom^ irriguous valley fpread her ftore, 25^ 
Dw'rs of all hue, and without thorn the rofe ; 
lother fide, umbrageous grots aiul caves 

' cool rcccfs, o'er which thc numtling vine 
ys forth her purple grape, and gendy creeps 
uturiant} mean while Qiurm^ring waters j&ll 260 


Icioas taftcy thofe there had thoms 4nd thifiUs^ Gen. III. i8. 

kc. Ricbardfon, and torn hence the general opi. 

(55. — > irriguom 'vaUey] Well- nion has prevailed that there were 

ter*d, full of (jprings and rills : no thoms before ; which is enough. 

I the epithet of a garden in Ho- to jadify a poet in faying the tofe 

e. Sat. II. IV. 16. was without thoms or prickles. 

[rriguo nihil eft elutios horto. 

Hume. ^57' -^"otbir fidi^ umbrageous gr^u 

and cavis\ Another £ae of 

156. FkwVs o/alJ bue, ^md^witb- the garden was umbrageous grots 

9ut tbomiberofe:'\'€nl» and caves ^Tr, Qr on another Ade 

r^edte this verfe, oecaufe kf were ihady grots and caves, it€. 

iks it a jejune identity in the poet the prmofition being omitted as is 

fay fbe Jlowry lap ffread not unuMal with our author. See 

tVj; but, as Dr.Pearce obferves, I. 282 and 723;. On mte fide were 

^ the expreflion be not very groves of aromatics, others of fruit; 

ifi, it is not fo bad as Dr. Bent- and betwixt them lawns or downs. 

reprefents it; for the conftruc- On emotberfidt were (hadyjm)tto*s 
n and fenfe is, 7be JItnury laf of and caves of cool recefs. Our au- 

r 'oedhy fpread ber ftore^ which thor indeed has not mention^ 9ne 

re was what? v/hy fiown of ^^before, but without that he often 

:ry cdor of bue. Dr. Bentley makes ufe of the expreflion, «» 

icQs too to the latter part of the tb^otberfidt^ as you may fee in II. 

ie, and nmihout tborn tbe rofe^ 108, 706. IV. 985. IX. 888. at 

1 calls it a puerile fancy. But Virgil frequently fays in parte edia^ 

ihould be remembered, that it in mmtbet party though he has not 

s part of the curfe denounced faidexpreflymvirr^/ before, ^n« 

m the earth for Adam's tranf- L 474. VjII. 682. IX. 521. 
ifioo, that it ihould bring fmh 




Down the flopc hills, difpers'd, or in a lake, 4 
That to the fringed bank with myrtle crown*dI 
Her cryftal mirror holds, unite their flreams. 
The birds their quire apply; airs, vernal airs. 
Breathing the fmell of field and grove, attune 
The trembling leaves, while univerfal Pan 



et hibemi* parubui (»■ 

261. dSpn-d, er in a 2eh,'\ Orbii . 

The waters fall difperfed, or unite tibus 

their ftreams in a. lake, that pre- Cum primum litcem pecucUifatil- 

fenls her clear looking-glafs, hold) fere t^c. 

her cryftal mirror lo che Trinced — ,, _ 

bank crown-d with mynJe. Ke °^- **"■ '" '°7- 

makes the lake we may obfcrvc s Ver erat astemum, placidique te- 

peKoQ, and a critic like Dr. Bent- peocibas auris 

ley may End fault with it ; but it Mulcebaui Zephyri natoc fiw^^ 

ii ufual with the poets to perfonify ,^j,jj gg,„_ ^^Hj 


Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance 
Led on th' eternal fpring. Not that hir field 
Of Enna, where Proferpm gathering flowers, 
Herfelf a fairer flow'r by gloomy Dis 270 

Was gather'd, which coft Ceres alt that pain 
To feek her through the world; nor that fweet grove 


naimer (as Homer in hii Hymn to flepdame JUna'i eye, theflepdamo 

Apollo had done before him) that of Bacchus and m£c of the Lt- 

now all nature was in beauty, and byan Jore according to (bme an* 

crery hour produced fomething thofs, particularly Diodorus Sica- 

new» without any change for the lus» Lib. i. aiui Sir Walter Ra- 

worfe. RicbardfiM. leigh's Hift. B. i. ch. 6. Tea. 5. tho* 

difercnt from others ; nor mount. 

268. — Not tbatfmrJUU &c.] Anuara^ where the kings of Ahaf- 

Not that fair field of Etma in Si- fma, or Abylfinia (a kingdom wl 

cily, celebrated fo much by Ovid ^e upper £thk>pia) keep their 

and Claudian for its beauty, from children guarded, a place of moft' 

whence Froftrfin was carried away delightful profped and fituation» 

by the gloomy God of Hell Dis or indos'd with alabafter rocks, whidi 

Pinto, which occaison'd her modier it is a day*s journey to afcend» 

Ctrtt to feek her all the world fuppofed by fome (dio* fo fiur di- 

over; nor that fweet grore of ilant from the true Paradife) to be 

Dafbmi near Antioch, the capital die feat of Paradife under thct 

of Syria^ feated on the banks of Etbiatiam or equinodial line near 

the river Onmtis^ together \^th the ^rings of the river Nile : Not 

the CmJlaUmi fpring there, of the any nor all of thefe could ry with 

fame name with that in Greece, this Paradife of Eden; this ex- 

snd eztoll*d for its prophetic qua- ceeded all that hiflorians have 

lities; nor the Hand Njfiif incom- written or poets have feignM of the 

pafs'd with the river TW/mt b moft bcauuful places in the world. 

Afiica, where Cham or Ham the By the way we fhould obferve hit 

fim of Noah, therefore caUed M, manner of pronouncing Profhfm 

(iR^o firft peopled Egypt and Ly- with the accent upon the iecond 

bia, and among the Gentiles goes fyUable, like the Latin, and aa 

by the name of Ammon or L^an Spenfer and the old Englilh aii* 

Ifo^e) hid his miftrefs Amalthea and thors pronounce it. Fairy Queen, 

her beautiful fon Baccbtu (there- B. 1 . Cant* a. St a. 
lore called Dionyfus) from hit 



PARADrSfi tOST. BooklV. 

Of Daphne by Orontes, and th' infpir'd 

Caftalian fpring, might with this Patadife 

Of Eden ftrive; nor th^ Nyfeian ile 

Girt with the river Triton, where old Chjin, 

Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Lybian Jove, 

Hid Amalthea and her ilorid fon 

Young Bacchus from his ftepdame Rhea's cyc; 

Nor where Abaflin kings their ilTue guard. 

Mount Amara, tliough this by fome fuppos*d 

True Paradife under the Ethiop line 

By Nilus head, inclos'd with fliining rock, 

A whole day's journey high, but wide remote 





Saw undelighted all delight; all kind 

Of living creatures new to fight and ftrange. 

Two of £as nobler (hape ered and tall. 

Godlike ere£b. with native honor clad 

In naked majefly feem'd lords of all, 290 

And worthy feem'd ; for in their looks divine 

The image of their glorious Maker (hone. 

Truth, wifdom, fanditude fevere and pure» 

(Severe but in true filial freedom plac'd) 

Whence true authority in men; though both 295 

Not equal, as their fex not equal feem'd ; 

For contemplation he and valor form'd. 

For ibftnefs (he and fweet attradive graoe^ 


hidi feviti «W putif that is ttn€t ther than a fear of the Deit^. 

lxdine(s; which are qualities that From hence we ma^ fee that I>r« 

nrt to mi^ftrates trtu mtbotity^ Bentley had no fuffident realbn to 

3iat peeper authority which they change yk;^rf in the firft verfe into 

wuky want who yet have legal an- ferme^ and to throw out the feccmd 

thority. This is Milton*s mean- verfe entirely. Pearce^ 

ing: and for explaining the word 297. For contemplation be wtdva^ 

feZertp he inferts a v^e to fhow krfomid^ 

diat he does not mean fuch a TdtfifimfiJhiandfwatjatraSkf 

JknBstude or holine(s as is rigki ff"^^'*] '^he curious reader 

and aufteic, but fuch as is flac*d in may pieafe to obferve upon thefe 

JlKmi freedom I alluding to the fcrip- two charming lines, how the num- 

tntal expreflionsy which reprefent hers are varied, and how artfully 

gQod Chriftians z% free and as the he vsAfbe are placed in each verfe, 

fims of God : on which founda- i^ as the tone may fall upon them, 

tioa our obedience (from whence and yet fall upon them differently. 

our fan6Utude arifes) is a^W, and The author might have given both 

B0( a flaviih one ; a reverence ra- exi^y the fame tone, but every 



He for God only, (he for God in him : 

His fair large front and eye fubliaic dcclar'd ^^|^ 

Abfnlutc rule; and hyacinthiof locks m^M 

Round from his parted forelock manly hung ^H 


ear muft judge this alteration to be Knf J* xs.'tTT©- 

much for the worfe. OuA« «x( «»/«., CtMitinna. 

. . fl« (//««<. Odyff.Vl.131. 

For valor he and contemplation 

fortn'd, Bacic from his brows s leagi of 

For fofineft (he and fweet altrac- hair unfurls. 

live grace. His byacinthin Jock* <ic(cei>d ift 

wavy curb. Broame. 

zgg. HifwC„.iorIy,JhtfcrGfd ' 

intim:'] The author gave Euftathlus Jnterpreti hyaeiBtiiitt 

itdius, fays Dr. Bende/, locks !>/ btack locks, and Sddu 

by very dark brown: and Miltoa 

He for God only, fli< for God W in like manner means biDwo or 

-- ^ - J n I . hsir from Eve's in the color as wtll 



Cluflrlng, but ndt beneath his ihoulders broad : 

She as a veil down to the ilender wafle 

Her unadorned golden trcfles wore 305 

Dkhevel'd, but in wanton ringlets wav'd 


beauty: and oar Spcnfcr, B. 2. 
Cant. 13. St. 79. and B. 3. Gant. 5. 
St. 29. Bentley, 

His beard is- m pardcalar that tJie 
poet could not nave forgot, but I 
luppofe he purpofdy omitted it, 
becanie Raphael and the principal 
pdnters always reprefent him with- 
out oAe; I believe no one remem- 
bers ever to have feen a good print 
m^ piduve of him with one, and 
Milton frequently fetches his ideas 
ftom the works of the greateft 
mafters m painting. 

304. Sbi as a 'veil dtwm to the 
JUnJtr nnafti 

Hfrnuuhrmd goUen trefes Sec. ] 
In like manner Marino paints his 
Venus. Adon. Cant. 8. St. 47. 

O&de a guifa d*an vel dorato, e 

Celando it bianco feu tri Tonde 

In mille minutiflimi rufcelli 
Dal capo fcaturir gli aarei ca- 


The poet has, I think, fhowed 

great judgment and delicacy in 

avoiding in this f^ace the entring 

into a circumftantial defcription of 

Bve^s beauty. It was, no doubt, 

a very tempting occa£on of giving 

an indulgent kK>fe to his fancy; 

iuice the moft lavifh imagination 

V©!-. I. 

could not poflibly carry too high 
the charms of Woman, as fhe firft 
came out of the hands of her hea- 
venly Maker. But as a pidure of 
this kind would have been too 
Kght and gay for die graver turn 
of Milton*s plan, he has very art* 
folly mentioned the charms of her 
perlon in general terms only, and 
direded the reader^s attention more 
particularly to the beauty of her 
mind. Moft great poets have la- 
bor*d in a particular manner the 
delineation of their Beauties (Ari- 
ofio^s Aldna, Taflb^s Armida, and 
Spenfer^s Belphoebe) and ^tis very 
probable that the portrait of Eve 
would have rivaled them all, if the 
chafte corre6biefs of our author*s 
Mufe had not reftrain'd him. 


J05. goUtfi trejfti\ This fort 

of hair was moft admir'd and ce- 
lebrated by the Ancients, I fup- 
pofe as it ufually betokens a fairer 
ikin and finer complexion. It would 
be almoft endlefs to quote paiTages 
to this purpofe in praife or Helen 
and the other famous beauties of 
antiquity. Venus herfclf, the God- 
defs of beauty, is defcribed of this 
color and complexion; and there- 
fore is ftiled gQldtn Vtnus^ '/J^vn 
hpo^nn by Homer, and Viimt 
mtrea by Virgil. As Milton had 

Dd the 




As the vine curls her tendrils, which imply'd 
SLibjeflion, but requir'd with gentle fway. 
And by her yielded, by him heft recciv'd, 
Yielded with coy fubmiffion, modeft pride. 
And fweet amorous delay. 
Nor thofe myfterious parts were then conceal'd. 
Then was not guilty (hame, difhoneft fliamc 
Of nature's works, honor difhonorable. 
Sin-bred, how have ye troubled all mankind 315 


the taflc of the Ancients in other /wj i«r, it is a Jhamt ■■/# *^«? 
thing!. To likeivire in this particu- And ihcreforc Milton ^ns Adia 
■ ' ' e pre- lockj, that hmg elaftritig, iaf m 

oaktV. PARADISE LOST. ±83 

^ith fhows inflead^ mere (hcxm of feeming pure, 

jid bstnifli'd from man's life his happieft life, 

implicity and fpotleis innocence! 

3 pafs'd they naked on^ nor fhunnM the light 

If God or Angel, for they thought no ill : 3 ao 

3 hand m hand they pafs^d, the lov^ft pair 

'hat ever fince in love's embraces met; 

Ldam the goodlicft man of men fince bom 

lis fons, the £dreft of her daughters Ere. 


tls'd wk& more e!e|;ance tlum ire cbtaOy r^efied by th. Bentk/t 

At admirM paflage in Horace, as inplying diat Adam was one o( 

hkh no doobt Milton had in Us hitfons, aMEttoneof herd8i]|^- 

lOu^its, Od. XL XII. 26. ten : but this manner of expreffion 

^ fadU fitvitia negat ^ bonow'd from the Greek bn- 

te pofcente magb gai^eat eripi, ?"Ǥ^ m which we find fomemn^ 

TnSdum rape^ f^upat. flieTaperlative degree ufcd inftead 

'^ '^ of the comparative. The mean* 

314. -— > htior difiwnrablif'] He ing therefore is» that Adam was a 

liides to 1 Cor. XIL 23. Arndtboft goodlier man than any of his fens» 

twAers of the b§df nMcb we think and Eire flurer than ter daaghters^ 

' he lefs hmgrmhle^ ttfon tbtfi nve So Achilles is (aid to haYe beta 

f/itw tmre almmUmt honor. But the iHLiffA9pmTAr&' «AA«» Iliad.I. $05* 

ODor paid to thofe parts is really that is more fliort-livM than othefs. 

diftonor, a token of our fall, and So Nireas is faid to hare been die 

I indication of our guilt. Inno- handfomeft of the other Orectaas* 

»l nature made no fuch diftinc- Iliad. IL673. 

Oil. Sinhtd, honv haw u trtm- . «- ^^. . ^ j^ ^»«« .?-•• Ta#m 

W &c. Should we not read, ^JlTi, ^ 

Sui-bredy how have jFM troubled— T»r aAA«r Aeer«a^r- •*-*— 

It what b he fpeaking to betides And the fame manner of fpeaking 

^amtf has pafsM from the Greeks to the 

}23. Jdam the podBefi man of Latins. So a freed woman is called 

men Ac.] Theft two Hnes in Horace, Sat. 1. 1. 100. firtifinui 

•c cenfur*d by Mr. Addifon, and ^yndaridarum^ not that Iht wis one 

Dds of 





Under a tuft of Hiade that on a green ' 
Stood whifp'ring foft, by a frefli fountain fide 
They fat them down ; and after no more toil 
Of their fweet gard'ning labor than fuffic'd 
To recommend cool Zephyr, and made cafe 
More cafy, wholfome thirft and appetite 
More grateful, to their fuppcr fruits they fill, 
Neftarin fruits which the compliant boughs 
Yielded them, fide-long as they fat recline 
On the foft downy bank damaik'd with flowcn: 
The iavory pulp they chew, and in the rind 335 
Still as they thirfted fcoop the brimming Areani; 


Wanted, nor youthful dalliance as befecms ; 
Fair couple, link'd in happy nuptial league. 
Alone as they^ About them frifking pky'd 349^ 
All beafts of th' earth, iince wild, and of all chafe 
In wood or wildemefs, foreft or den; 
Sporting the lion ramp*d, and in his paw 
Dandled the kids bears, tigers, ounces, pards, 
Gambord before them; th'.unwicldy elephant 345 
To make them mirth us*d all his might, and wreath'd 
His lithe probofcis; clofe the ferpent (ly 
Infinuating, wove with Gordian twine 
His breaded train^ and of his fiital guile 
Gave proof unheeded j others on the grafs 3501 


J47. His Uihe frobofcisil His d^ could unty, bat Alexander cat 

limber trunk, fo pliant and ufeful it with his fword. His breiultd irmni, 

to him, that Cicero calls it tliptHm' his plaited twitted tail. And 9/ Im 

tfrum pianumf the elephants band, /a/a/ ptile gavi prwof wibitied%-. 

H»mi. That mtricate form into which ha 
put himfelf was a fort of fymbel 

349. hpauaiing^ wQVi ivitk Got- QX type of his fraud, tho^ not then 

diau twine rcgaraed. Hunu zxiA Rickardfm*, 

His hnadidtrffin^B[t.1Infamatiflg^ M^ may obfenre tha^t the poet is 

wrapping, or rolling up, and as it largi^ in the defcription of the fer- 

were imbofoDMng hiqifelf. Viigilr pent, than of any of the bther 

freqoently ufes the words fissuo/us animals, and very judicioufly, as he 

and^ySfUMTtf to exprefs the winding is afterwards made the infhiiment 

nocioas of this animal. With Gor- of fo much mifchief ; apd at thC:. 

itiam fwine^ with many intricate fame time an intimation is given of 

turnings and twiiUngs, like the fa- his fatal guiUt to preparq the readdt 

mous Gordian knot, which no bo- for what follows.. 

Pd 3 351. Couch'd^ 




Couch'd, and now fiird with pafture gazing ftt. 

Or bed ward ruminating j for the fun 

Declin'd was hailing now with prone carreer 

To th' ocean iles, and in th' afcending fcale 

Of Heav'n the ftars that uftier evening rofe; 3J5 

When Satan ftill in gaze, as firft he ftood. 

Scarce thus at length fail'd fpeech recover'd fid. 

O Hell ! what do mine eyes with grief bcholdl 

Into our room of blifs thus high advanc'd 

Creatures of other mold, earth-horn perhaps, 36b 


351. CjBfiV, ] Let the reader and ag&in, ver. 156. 
ebferve how artfully the word 
<«(^iVH placed, fo as to make the — "«'« A >««• >mj ai/u 

Bi>okIV. ?ARADIS6 LOST. tSf 

Not Spirits, jrct to hcav'niy Spirits bright 
Little inferior I whom my thoughts purfiie 
With wonder, and could love, fo lively (hinet 
In them diyine reiemblanoe^ and fuch grace 
The hand diat fimn'd diem on dieir (hape hath pour'd. 
Ah gende pair, ye tittle thinic how nigh 366 

Your change approaches, when aU thefe delights 
Will vaniih and ddiver ye tp woe. 

More woe, the more your tafte is now of joy; 
Kbppy, bat for fo happy iU fecur'd 370 


is ufoally made upoa tk» veib, t& wdA bom hc»oe our waAor feemt 

mark the a^on more ftrong^y to tp have borrowed his metaphor of 

the reader. the JcsUs of Heaves, weighing 

^ , , , . . ^ night and day, the one afcendine 

35a. Orte^drnmitaiuig:} as the other finki. 
Chewing the cud before they go to 

idL Hum. ^^j. $c€rcitbm Mi ii9phfmtd 

^ „ . ^ fP^'^^ recowr'd fail.] Tho* 

l^^Tsib usmilitAThciluAB Satan came in qieft of Adam awl 

in the wcilem ocean; for that the Eve, yet he is ftruck with foch 

fan fet in the fea, and role om of fi^^>^yfrm^^ at the fidit of then, 

it a£^in» was ^ ancient poetic no- that it is a long time before he 

tion, and is become part of the can recover his fpeech, and break 

>f Satan ^ves the poet the 
epportumty of inlarging hit 
^ - <*««^*ption of them. This is very 

antomnal equinox, the days and beaimfnl 
vdits are equal, as if weighed in . ... , . -^^ , P^, 

there is the antharity of Scripture. 
Libra diei fenmique pares uU fe« fbm bafi mad$ bim m Httltr kwer 
writ horas : #*m tb€ Jhgib. PU. VUL 5. Hek 

Virg. Georg. I. ao8. D. 7. 

D d 4 $89. Yet 


Long to continue, and this high feat your Heaves 

111 fenc'd for Heav'n to keep cot fuch.a foe 

As now is eriter*dj yet no purposed foe 

To you, whom I could pity thus forlorn^ 

Though I unpitied : League with you I fcek, 375 

And mutual amity £0 ftrait, fo dofe^ 

That I with you muft dwell, or you with mc 

Henceforth 5 my dwelling haply may not pleaie, 

Like this fair Paradife, your fenfe, yet fuch 

Accept your Maker's work; he gave it mc, 38a 

Which I as freely give; Hell fhall unfold. 

To entertain you two, her wideft gates. 

And fend forth all her kings; there will be room, 

Not like thcfe narrow limits, to receive 

Your numerous ofspring ; if no better place, 385 

Thank him who puts me loath to this rcvengp 

On you who wrong me not for him who vmog'd. 


389- — J'^^ M^^'^ ren/onjuft, See.'] 395. Then from bis iffhU^dm 

Public rcafon compels me, and that that high tree SccjThe W 

public reafon is honor and empire of life, higher than die reft» itet 

inlarjg'd with revenge, by con- he had been perching all this vUe 

querifig this new world. And thus from ver. 196. And thco fbrtk 

Satan is m&de to plead fuff/ic reafon transformations which f^'ovf^ 1^ 

jufi^ and n.ccjfuy to excufe his de- changes in Ovid^s MetamoiplMii 

vilift} def h ; the tyrant's plea, as the are fo natural, and yet fo farprifiif 

poet calls it, probably with a view as thefe ? He is well liken'd tt 

to his own times, and particularly the fiercefl beafb, the lion and tk 

to the plea for fhip-money. tiger, and Adaua and £?e in ther 



And fhould I at your harmlefs innocence 

Melt, as I do, yet public reafon juft. 

Honor and empire with revenge inlai^M, ^90 

By conqu'ring this new world, compels me now 

To do what elfe though danm'd I fhould abhor. 

So (pake the Fiend, and with neceflity; 
The tyrant's plea, excus'd his deviliih deeds. 
Then from his lofty fbnd on that high tree 39^ 
Down h^ alights among the fportful herd 
Of thofe four-footed kinds, himfelf now one. 
Now other, as their fh^pe ferv'd befl his end 
Nearer to view his prey, and unefpy'd 
To mark what of their flate he more might leam 40a 
By word or adtion mark'd : abput them round 
A lion now he fblks with fiery glare; 

Then as a tiger, who by chance hath fpy*d 
Jn fome purlieu two gentle fawns at play. 

natire famopence to two gentle did not do it for itrant of attendoiw 

fiiwii3. and that it was not merely the cf« 

Mt of his blindnefi. See Inilancei 

40a fv mart what of thiir ftati of it in my note on III. 147. and 

he more might leant we have another following here^ 

JBjwoni§raShKmark^ii:'} Thd* ver. 405. 
the poet nfes mari and marked too» 

yet fuch repetitions of the fame Strait cwehet dofe, then rifing 

word are common with him ; fo changes oft 

fommfui thit we may fuppofe he His cwcEbu watch. Putrct. 



Strait couches clofe, then rifing changes oft 40c 
His couchant watch, as one who choie his groond. 
Whence rufhing he might fureft feife them both 
Grip'd in each paw: when Adam firft of men 
To £rfl of women Eve thus moving fpcech, 
Turn'd him all ear to hear new utterance flow. 410 

Sole partner, and fole part, of all thefc joySt 
Dearer thyfelf than all ; needs muft the Power 
That made us, and for us this ample world. 
Be infinitely good, and of his good 
As liberal and free as infinitcj iU 

That rais'd us from the duft and jrfac'd ut here 


Ought whereof he hath need, he who requires 

From us no other fervice than to keep 42# 

This one, this eafy charge, of all the trees 

In Paradife that bear delkious fruit 

So various, not to tafte that only tree 

Of knowledge, planted by the tree of life; 

So near grows death to life, whatever death is, 42; 

Some dreadful thing no doubt ; for well thou know*ft 

God hath pronounc'd it death to tafte that tree. 

The only fign of our obedience left 

Among fo many figns of pow'r and rule 

Conferred upon us, and dominion given 43a 

Over all other creatures that pofTefs 

Earth, air, and fea. Then let us not think hard 


dm made Dr, Beadey read beft thou eateft tbtrtof, thou fimU fiardjf 

fmri (ot fib fmrt^ thinking that >/r £e. And in like manner what 

/^to^ is a contradidUon, and fo it is Adam fays afterwards 

at he eederftands ^here, to be j&mnhM£iv£st 

the «»* of A^ t^^y^ cafe go- q^^ ^^^^^ rrr^i thatpiM 

&C.1 It was very natundTcM* Adam it is taken from the divine commif- 

to difeeerie of this, and this was iion, Gen. I. 28. Hm}$ dmimm 

what Satan wanted more particu- mmt tbeji/b of tbt foa^ amtowr tb§ 

larly to learn; and it is exprefs^d fvwlof the mr^ and over every hnh' 

fieoi God^s command, Gen. II. tin th'.ngth^ moveth uftm the earth. 

l6» 17. Of every tree of the g^ikn Inefj things are fo em^nt, that it 

thiunuryeft freely eat % hat of tin tree is almoll fuperfluous to mention 

of kaowle^ of good and evil^ thou them. If we take notice 6f them» 

^ab not eat ofUf for in the dtrt thai it is that Vitvf reader may be (en^ 

^ ■ - fible 

1 o prune tneie growing plants, and tend thi 
Which were it toilfome, yet with thee w 
To whom thus Eve reply'd. O thou for 
And from whom I was fbrm'd fleOi of ch; 
And without whom am to no end, my gt 
And head, what thou hafl: faid is juft and 
For we to him indeed all praifes owe. 
And daily thwksj I cbie^y who enjoy 

fiUc how much of Scripture oar found it very difficult 
author hath wrought iaio this di- thcTe tender putt oft 
vine poem. fentiments proper for 

^^t).7hat Jay left rememirr.Scc.y DOcence ; to hftve i 
TheremaJmugparcofEvc'g fpeech, warmth of love and t 
in which fhe gives an account of of it without artifice < 
herfelf upon her £rft creation, «nd to have made the m 
• the manner iq which Ihe was moA iodenring tMngs 
brought to Adam, is I think a> fcending from his ^at 
beautiful a palTage at any in Mil- and the woman ret 
ton, or perhaps in any other poet without departiiig tn 
whatfoever. Thefe oaflaBes are all deihr of her charsA*.- 


} far the happier lot, enjoying thee 

raeemlnent by fo much odds^ while thoa 

ike confort to thyfelf canft no where find. 

hat day I oft remember, when from fleep 

&cA awak'd^ and found myfelf repos'd 450 

hder a fhade on flow^rs^ much wondering where 

nd what I was, whence thither brought, anH how. 

ot diftant ^ from thence a murm'ring fovnd 

f waten iiTued from a cave, and ipread 

ito a liquid plain, then flood unmov'd 45^ 

are as th'expanfe of Heav'n; I thither went 

i^ith unexperienced thought, and laid me down 

^n the green bank, to look into the clear 


cm, as pardcolarly in this fpeech As new. wak'd from foundeft 

Etc, and the lines following it. fleep, CsTc. 

be poet adds, that the Devil If we compare his accoant of him* 

med away at the fight of fo much felf upon his creation with this 

ppineis. Aidifvn, here given by Eve, the beaaty and 

\taitnl9ft remember 9 From this propriety of each will appear to 

wdf as ieveral other pailages greater advantage. 

the poem it appears, that the 451. Under a JbaJe em Jbw'*rs,'J 

ce fuppofes Adam and Eve to The firft edition has u$uUr m Jbade 

i¥e bean created, and to have on fienu^n^ the fecond nndn a Jbade 

'ed many days in Paradife be- of fiemtrs \ and the fubfoquent edi- 

re the fall. See IV. 639, 680, tions vary in like manner, fome 

;2« V. 31. &c. exhibiting mi flewrs^ others ef 

450. Ifirfi awal^d^ As death is fleers \ but xe^t'A on Jlow'^rs ml- 

ten compared to Jieep^ fo our der a (hade Teems to be much bet- 

miiig into life may well be ter than ajhade ofjlew^rs. 

:en*d to 'wakini : And Adam 458. — to look into the eUear 

caks in the fame figure» . VIU. hmofib lah^ It hat been aikad» 

3. . iazcafticall/ 


Smooth lake, that to me feemM another ikj. 
As I bent down to look, juft oppofit 4! 

A fhape within the watry gleam appearMi 
Bending to look on me: I ftarted back. 
It ftarted back ; but pleas'd I foon retiirn*d, 
Pleas'd it returned as foon with anfw'ring looks 
Of fympathy and love : there I had fix'd 46 

Mine eyes till now, and pin*d with vain defirti 
Had not a voice thus warn'd me. What thoa fd^ 
What there thou feeft, feir Creature, is thyfelf; 
With thee it came and goes : but follow me. 
And I will bring thee where no fhadow Hays 4; 
Thy coming, and thy foft embraces, he 
Whofc image thou art; him thou fhalt enjoy 
Infeparably thine, to him fhalt bear 


Circftflkally enough,(Spe£lator,Vol. (he had feen no other hoMl t 

5. N*' 325.) whether iomt moral is cure, is much more profaMe 

not couchM under tliis place, where natural, aa well aa man 4d 

the poet lets us know, that the firft and beautifiil» chtti che fi 

woman immediately after her crea- ftory of Nardffiia in Oyid« 

tion ran to a looking- glais, and whom our author maadMij 

became (o enamoured of her own the hint, and kai 9XpTtAy in 

face, that flie had never removed ibme pafta^s, )kx has ami 

to view any of the other works of his puerilities withost lofitf \ 

nature, had not (he been led off his beauties, as the reader 

to a man. However that be, this eafily obferve by comparing 

account that Eve gives of her com- together. Met. III. ^^y. 

ing to a lake, and there falling in Spem mihi nefeio quam rab 

love with her own imager when mittis omko : 


Multitudes like thyielf, and thence be call'd 

Mother of human race. What could I do^ 475 

But follow ftrait, invifibly thus led ? 

Till I efpy'd thee^ fair indeed and tall. 

Under a platan; yet methought leis £ur, 

Lefs winning foft^ lefs amkbly fiiildy 

Than that finooth watry image: back I tum'd}48d 

Thou following cr/dft alottd^ Return fiur Eve, 

Whom fly'ft thou? wIkhb thou fly'ft, of him thou att^ 

His flefli^ his bone; to give thee be'ing I lent 

Out of my fide to thee, nearefl; my heart 
Subfiantial life, to have thee by my iide 485 

Henceforth an individual folace dear; 
Part of my foul I feek thee, and thee clame 
My other half: with that thy gentle hand 


Camqac ego porrexi tibi farachiay its lezrts, UKaTVf, Greek, broad ; 

pocrigU ulcro ; a tree ufeful and delightful for its 

Can rifi, anides : lacrymas quo- extraordinary (hade» Virg. Georg. 

que {xpt notavi IV. 146. 

Mc ladTaante tuai. — • Jamque miniftranteni/i>/«nM»p«- 

Ite repefcnffie, quam cemis, ima- tantibus ombram. Httmi. 

ntM mnbra eft: 4S3. His flejh^ bis koMi ] The 

Hahabetiftaftti: tecum venitque Scnpture exprei&m; horn tf urn 

manetque ; hms aniflefi> rf mfjb/b^ Gen. IL 

Tecum dilcedet^ fi tu difcedere 23. as amrwardswhrahecallsher 

poffit. Piu^ ofm/ml — m^ §tbir ka^, k 

4y9.Umdermflatimi] The fhac J» &« Ho»«^ 
0ec ib named firom the breadth of jlmm^dMmdhmm0.Od.t.UL%. 

492. $9 



Seis'd mine ; I yielded, and from that time fee 
How beauty 13 excell'd by manly grace 
And wifdom, which alone is truly fair. 

So fpake our general mothcft and with eyes 
Of conjugal attraftjon unreprov'd. 
And meek furrender, half embracing lean'd 
On our fort father; half her fwelling bread 
Naked met his under the flowing gold 
Of her loofe treffes liid : he in delight 




492. St^ate w giiurtU melbtr, ten be a dozen (Unxu Open cka 

anJ'wUh tjij otcaTion, an J wilb tu Ittnuun 

Of anjagal attraSim unrejH-B-u'J, wMtyeb cbang'd AtUm and Bit 

&c.] Spenfer, Fairy Queen, into a Veous and Adonu. fij^t 

looklV. PARADISE LOST. 297 

bth of her beauty and fubmiffive charms 
andl'd with fuperior love, as Jupiter 
Ml Juno fmiies, when he impregns the clouds 50a 
liat fhed May flow'rs^ and prefs'd her matron lip 
^ith kifles pure: afide the Devil turn'd 
Dr envy, yet with jealous leer malign 
^d them afkance, and to himfelf thus plain'd. 
Sight hateful, fight tormenting ! thus thefe two 505 
aparadis'd in one another's arms^ 


^e, and defcribes the earth put- like that fine one in the Pfalms of 

g forth her faireft flowers as the the clouds droning fatnefsy Pfal. 

jnediate efFedi of them. And LXX V. i a. and it is faid MayfiiyuJrs 

j^l likewife in defcribing the to fignify that this is done in the 

ring employs the fame k^nd of fprng, as Virgil defcribes it. And 

lages, and reprefents Jupiter ope- then follows and prefid her matrcn 

dog upon his fpoufe for the /i/, where the conftrudion is Adam 

odudlion of all things^ Georg. fmiPd *with fuperior lovet and prefid 

.325. her matron lip^ the fimile being to be 

^um pater omnipot^ns foecundis «f ^/rftood as included in aparen^ 

• k k ^Jr *^ *«v««uw atitfxs. Her matron Itp evidently 

imbribus zcher r r t. • j i- • jm- 

.... 1 * J r^^ figmnes her married lip, in diltinc- 

onjueis m eremium laetae dclccn- -^ c ., *^* , . ,. 

J- ** , ^ tion from a maiden or a virgin lip, 

dit, et omnes .-. j o n. ti r o r - i • e 

laenus aut, manio commixtus * .■ .1. ^ a r^ , . 

lorpore, fcrtus h^atxxz then marned, lays mutm 

^ cheeks, 
OX then almiehty Jove defcends, _ , , 

and pours ^^ matronalcs erubucrc gense. 

ito his Worn bride his fruirful j^ i^pu^j ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ carried to 

Ihow n; j^-^^ ^^^ ^1^^^ therefore their kilTes 

nd mixing his large limbs with ^^,^ j^^^^j ^^^ innocent. Ic wai 

hers, he feeds ^^^ innocence of their loves thai; 

[er births with kindly juice, and ^^^^ ^^^ j^^^jj ^^^ ^^^^ ^r envy, 
fofters teeming feeds. Dryden, ^^5 Uparadh^d in t^ne another' t 

)aXcx^rc{![ionoi the clouds fhedding armsy"] lmparadis'd\i^shtc\\ 

v*n is very poetical^ aod not un* remark Vi as a word Brft coin'd by 

^04.. J. fi« Miim. 


The happier Eden, fliall enjoy their fill 

Of bhfs on bills; while I to Hell am thruft, ^ 

Where neither joy nor love, but fierce defire, 

Among our other torments not the Icaft, 510 

Still unfulfiU'd with pain of longing pines. 

Yet let me not forget what 1 have gain'd 

From their own mouths: all is not theirs it feems; 

One fata! tree there ftands of knowledge call'd, 

Forbiddcntiieni totafte: Knowledge forbidden? 515 

Sufpicious, reafonlcfs. Wliy fhould their Lord 

Envy them that? can it be fin to know? 

Can it be death? and do they only {land 


more dcfirc to know, and to rqcdfc 
ms commands, invented with deiign 
eep them low whom knowledge might exalt 
I with Gods : afpiring to be fuch, 526 

tafle and die : what likelier can enfue ? 
rft with narrow fearch I muft walk round 
garden, and no corner leave mifpy'd^ 529 

ince but chance may lead where I may meet 

wand'ring Spi Vit of Heav*n by fountain fide,. 

thick (hade retired, from him to draw 
: further would be learn'd. Live while ye may, 
appy pair j enjoy, till I return, 
pleafures, for long woes are to fucceed. 53^ 
ikying, his proud flep he fcomful turn'd, 
ith fly circumfpeftion, and began froam ' 

igh wood, through wafte, o'er hill, o'er dale, his 


firft parents were created Pearce fays that without anj al- 
-fed underftanding, and the teration or any pun we may 
9wledee that was forbidden read 

knowledge of evU by the jichancif hut chance) majUadUz 
ion of It. * ^ "^ 

that is a chance^ and it can be only 

^ chance but chance nutf leiu[] a chance^ mof lead Sec. fiut this 

tley cenfures this jingle, ^ort of jingle is but too common 

iks it unbecoming Satan at with Milton. This here is not 

IS a jundure to catch at much unlike theyW#y%r/i0ra of die 

lerefore propofes to read Latins. 
y chance maj lead &c. Dr. 

Eel 539- — »« 



Mean while in utnioft longitude, where Heaven 

With earth and ocean meets, the fetting fun 
Slowly defcended, and with right afpeit 
Againft the eaftern gate of Paradlfe 
Level'd his evening rays: it was a rock 
Of alabafter, pil'd up to the clouds, 
Confpicuous far, winding with one afcent 
Acceflible from earth, one entrance high; 
The reft was craggy clifi; that overhung 


J3^-^— <■« uttnift lengiiudi^ At and to recondlc chem I tiifik »« 

tlie ucmufl lengtK, at the tartheft miAttaAUod latu d'fctajt^ix'^ 

iIIftLince. Longitude ia length, as haps Lnufy dtfcmdtd, or undctwrf 

jn V. 75+. it as Dr. Pearce cjcplaini it, tiu 




Still as it roie, impoflible to climb. 

Betwixt thefe rocky pillars Gabriel fat. 

Chief of th' angelic guards, awaiting night; 559 

About him exercis'd heroic games 

Th* unarmed youth of Heav'n, but nigh at hand 

Celeftial armoury, (hields, helms, and fpears. 

Hung high with diamond flaming, and with gold. 

Thither came Uriel, gliding through the even 555 

On a fun beam, fwift as a (hooting (lar 


were ready. The Angeb woald Nare per adlatem liqaidam fu* 

not be idle, but employed them- fpexeris agmen. Ricbardfin. 
felres in thefe noble exercifes. So 

the foldiers of Achilles during his 5^6. On a fun heam^ ] Uriels 

Soarrel with Agamemnon, and fo glidmg down to the earth upon a 

ie infernal Spirits, when, their um-beam, with the poet's device 

chief was gone in feareh of the to make him difcend, as well in his 

new creation, II. 528. Riebardfin. return to the fun, as in his coming 

^ ^ 5. gliding tbrwgb tbe ruen} from it, is a prettinefs that mighc 

That is thro' that part of the he- have been admired in a little Un- 
mifphere, where it was then even- ciful poet, but feems below the c:e- 
ing. Evening (fays Dr. Bentley) nius of Milton. The defcriptTon 
is no place of fpace to glide thro' : of the hoft of armed Angels walk- 
no more is day or night, and yet ing their nightly round in Paradife, 
in the fenfe, which I have given is of another fpirit, 
toe^, Milton fays in die next g^ f ; ^^ y^^ j^ y^ ^^^^^ 
vcne but one thwarts tbe ntght^ gj^^ ** 
and elfewhere fpeaks of tbe confines D^^ji^ ^^ ^^^ . 
y 4W^. Pearce. ^ 

in ver. yqi. Uriel is faid to be ar- as that account of the hymns 

riv'd from //v funs decSne^ which which our firft parents ufed to hear 

it no more a place than the even- them Ang in thefe their midnight 

ing, but beautifully poetical ; and walks, is altogether divine, and in- 

julUfy'd by Virgil, Georg. 1 V. ^9. exprcUibly amufmg to the imagina- 

where a fwarm of bees lails thro* tion. Addifan, 

Che glowing fummer ; As Uriel was coming from the (un 

£ e 3 to 



In autumn thwarts the night, when vapors fir'd 
Imprefs the air, and Hiows the mariner 
From what point of his compafs to beware 
Impetuous winds : he thus began in hafte. rfio 

Gabriel, to thee thy courfc by lot hath given 
Charge and flriift watch, that to this happy place 
No evil thing approach or enter in. 


10 the earth, his coming upon a KtyafAJir xownTitr, ut Scholnfla 

fun-beam was the mofl: direfl and male (and Co likewife Mr. Pow 

level cDurfe that he could take; iranllates it) fed ftell^etrajeaioneni. 

for the fun's rays were now pointed The fall of Phaeton is illufcaied 

right a^oinll the eallern gate of with thcramecomparifoa brOrid, 

Paradlfc. where Gahm-l wai fit- Met. II. 320. 

linp, and to wlioia Uriel was go- ,, , . 

• " '^ Volvitur in przcepi, long: 


This day at highth of noon came to my fphere 
A Spirit, zealous, as he fecm'd, to know 565 

More of th' Almighty's works, and chiefly Man, 
God's lateft image: I defcrib'd his way 
Bent all on fpeed, and mark'd his aery gate; 
But in the mount that lies from Eden north, 
Where he firft lighted, foon difcern'd his looks 57a 


ther, as Virgil himfidf has noted 563. No e*vil thing abroach «r 

long ago, Gcorg. I. 365. enter w.] Dr. Bcndcy objcas, 

Q^n* «f:on% A.iu. «--«♦/* \^^^ ^^^ ^^ natural order is invwted, 

I7t^«,«,^«.« u««^. . ♦-^^ «i ^^^n*8 rightly obfcrvcd in the com- 

STJaT .^ monreaaing,ifweallowthefenfe 

befcerc tradus. ^^ ^ ^^ fj^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

And oft before tempcftuoas winds ^^'"i '^ <«^wr^* or at Icaft to «»- 

arife, ^''* '*• Pearce. 

The fccming ftars fall headlong .57. G.;^/ lateft image :] For the 

from the flues ; firrf vvas Chrift, and before Man 

And (hooting through the dark- ^erc the Angels. So in III. 151- 

nefs gild the night Man is called God'swi«rw/?>i. 
With fweeping glones, and long 

trails of light. Dryden. 5^7- ^ defarih'd bis w^ ] 

Some read defcrji^ but defcrilfd is 

560. — - he thus began in bafte."] propercft. He defcrih^i to Satan 

This abruptnefs is here very ele- or ihow*d him the way to Para^ 

gant and proper to exprefs the hafle dife, as it is faid he did in III. 722, 

that he was in. 733. and marked bis aery geUt ; For 

it was fportive in many an aery 

561. thy cwrfe hy lot] He 'wbeely as we read in the condofion 

fpeaks as if the Angels had their of the third book ; and it was well 

particular courfes and offices af- taken notice of there, as fuch ufe 

ngn'd them by lot, as the priefts is made of it here. And the fame 

had in the fervice of the temple, we may obferve of the turbulent 

See I Chron. XXIV. and Luke I. paffions difcover*d inhimonmonnt 

8^ 9. Niphates in this book, ver. 125— 

£ e 4 130. 



Alien from Tleav'n, with paflions foul obfcur'd: j 

Mine eye puducd him iWI, but under fliadc 

LoH fi'^ht of him: one of the banilh'd crew, 

I few, ]iath vcntiir'd from the deep, to raife 

New troubles; him thy care muft be to 6nd. 57J 

To whom the winged warrior thus return'd. 
Uriel, no wonder if thy perfe^ft fight, 
Amid the fi;n's bright circle where thou fitft. 
Sec far and wide ; in at this gate none pafa 
The vigilance here plac'd, but fuch as come 580 
\Vt.Il known from Ilcav'nj and fince meridian hour 
Nu cic.itiirc thence: if Spi'rit of other fort. 


So minded, have o'erleap'd thefe earthy bounds 

On purpofe, hard thou know*ft it to exclude 

Spiritual fubftance with corporeal bar. 585 

But if within the circuit of thefe walks. 

In whatfoever fhape he lurk, of whom 

Thou tcirft, by morrow dawning I fhall know. 

So promised he; and Uriel to his charge 
Return'd on that bright beam, whofe point now rais'd 
Bore him dope downward to the fun now fall'n 59 1 
Beneath th' Azores ; whether the prime orb. 
Incredible how fwift, had thither roU'd 
Diurnal, or this lefs volubil earth. 


592. Beneath th^ Axares'^ They Impabefque manns mirata vola- 

are ilands in the great Atlantic or bile biuram. 

weflem ocean ; nine in number ; Virg. ^n. VU. 38^ 
commonly call'd theTerceras, from 

<Mie of them. Some confound the he writes it *oolmbU when he makes 

Canaries with them. the fecond fyllable fhort as in 

Hu$ne and RicbarJftm. IX. 446. bf Jborter fight f the 

eafif bad left him there at the 

^92. — — nvhetber the prime prb^ Azores, it being a lefs motion for 

^c] The fun was new falTn he- the earth to move from weft to eaft 

neeith tb^ Axoresy with three fyl- upon its own axis according to the 

lables, for fo it is to be pionounc'd : fyftem of Copernicus, than for the 

^vbetber^ not njuhither as in Mil- Heavens and heavenly bodies to 

ton*s own editions, the prime erhf move from eaft to weft according 

the fun, bad ro/fd thither dinmal, to the fyftem of Ptolomy. Our 

that is in a day's time, with an in- author in like manner. III. 57 r. 

credible fwift motion; or this Ufs queftions whether the fun was in 

volubil earthy with the fecond fyl- the center of the world or not, fo 

lable long as it is in the Latin fcrupulous was he in declaring for 

n/^lubiliit any fyftem of philofophy. 

598. iVm 

3o8* PARADISE LOST. BooklV, 

Now falling with foft flumbrous weight inclines 615 
Our eye-lids : other creatures all day long 
Rove idle unemployed, and lefs need reft; I 

Man hath his daily work of body' or mind I 

Appointed, which declares his dignity, I 

And the regard of Heav'n on all his ways; 620 I 
While other animals unadlive range, I 

And of their doings God takes no account. I 

To morrow ere frefh morning flreak the caft I 

With firft approach of light, we muft be rifcn, 
And at our pleafant labor, to reform 625 

Yon flow'ry arbors, yonder alleys green. 
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown. 
That mock our fcant manuring, and require 


Now falling nuith foft flumbrous 628. That mock our fcewt mo- 

lAjehht inclines nuring,'] Manuring is not Jwt to 

Our eye-lids : ] Spenfer, Fairy be undcrftood in the coznmGo /esfe. 

Queen, B. i. Cant. i. St. 36. bat as working with hands, as tlic 

The drooping night thus crcepcth ^^^^^ manowvrer ; 'tis, as inaat- 

on them tall, diately after, to lop, to rid vncf 

And the fad humor loading their eye- ^^^^ " fcatter'd. Ricbari^ 

lids, 635. My Author and D/^,] 

As meffenger of Morpheus ou ^^^ '^hom and from *whom 1 wii 

them cafi formd m our poet's own words, 

Siveet fumbring detVy the ivhich to ^Y' ^^C • '^^ Author^ the author 

fleet them bids. Thyer. ^^ "7 ^«"^g* out of whom I »» 

made. j^oc,. 

^ 627. Our 'vjalk'\ In the firft edi- We have another view of oar M 

tion it was our ^walks, in the fe- parents in their evening difcourt'cs, 

cond and aU following our *walk. which are fuU of plcafing imajcs 



ore hands than ours to lop their wanton growth : 
lofc bloflbms alfo^ and thofc dropping gums, 630 
lat lie beftrown unfightly and unfmooth, 
k riddance, if we mean to tread with eafe; 
tzn while, as Nature Wills, night bids us reft. 
To whom thus Eve with perfe<ft beauty' adorn'd. 
Y Author and Difpoler, what thou bidft 6 ? r 

largued I obey; fb God ordains ; 
kI is thy law, thou mine : to know no more 
woman's happieft knowledge and her praifc. 
ith thee converfing I forget all time; 
I feaibns and their change, all pleafe alike. 640 
eet is the breath of morn, her rifing fweet, 
ith charm of earliefl birds; pleafant the fun. 


fcntiments fuitabic to their It was now an ettmal J^ring^ ver. 

iition and characters. The 268. and we (hall read in X. d'jj. 

ch of Eve in particular is drcf- of the changes made after the fall,' 
op in fuch a foft and natural ^ u • • 1 

; of the words, as cannot be or r^T . S.*"i' ^?r 1. ^ 
ciently admired. Addifan. Of f^onsto eacTidime; elfehad 

^r^£ktdt:;K PerpeLSdonearthwithver. 

of the day. and not of the °^' ^*'^"- 

'. So in Vill. 69. we read And we may farther obferve, that 

I fiafons, hours, or days, or Eve in the following charming lines 

months, or years : menttons mmrmng. ewnng, mgbt. 

^ the tmies of the day, and not the 

in IX. 200. he fays Adam and feafons of the year. 

partake tbt feafon prime for 641. S^jceei is the hnaik of a mn t^ 

uft ff^tsp that is the morning. &c.] Mr. Diydes in fcis prdface to 




When firft on this delightful land he fprcads 
His orient beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and flower, 
GHft'ring with dew ; fragrant the fertil earth 64^ 
After foft fhow'rsj and fweet the coming oa 
Of grateful evening mild; then filent ntght 
With this her folemn bird, and this fair moooj 
And thefe the gems of Heav'n, her ftarry train: 
But neither brcatli of morn, when flie afccnds 65a 
With charm of earlieft birds ; nor rifing fun 
On thisdelightfuUandj nor herb, fruit, flower, 
GHft'ring with dew ; nor fragrance after fliowcrs; 
Nor grateful evening mild; nor filent aight 

\fJUU fKL^ U^^ r^I^rrin Utf^A «»- ...^IL- K.f ^. 



This glorious fight, when ileep hath (hut all eyes? 

To whom our general anceftor reply'd. 
Daughter of God and Man, accomplifh'd Eve, 660 
Thefe have their courfe to fini(h round the earth» 
By morrow evening, and from land to land 
In order, though to nations yet unborn, 
Miniftring light prepared, they fet and rifej 
J^ft total darknefs fhould by night regain 665 

Her old pofTeffion, and extinguifh life 
In nature and all things, which thefe foft fires 
Not only* inlighten, but with kindly heat 
Of various influence foment and warm. 
Temper or nourifh, or in part ihed down 670 

Their ftellar virtue on all kinds that grow 

On earth, made hereby apter to receive 


fo frequently falute each other, dons and even in Milton^s own I 

were agreeable to the ftile of the find Tb9fe ; becaufe it is faid before 

andent times, as appears from fe- ver. 657. 

veral of the like nature in Scrip- ^^ wherefore aU night long fliine 
ture. Kfilton has not been wanting /^#/if 
to give his poem this caft of anti- 
quity, throughout which our firft and afterwards, ver. 674. 
parents almoft always accoft each ^^^yj j^en, though onbeheld in 
other with fome title, that expreffes ''^^^^ ^f night; 
a refpca to the dignity of human shine not in vain; 

661. ne/e bavi thiir courfi] I both which paffages evince that 

have prefum'd to make a fmaul al- Thofi here is an error of the preis. 

teracion here in the text, and read 671. Their ftellar 'virtue] At 

TJbe/e, though in mod other edi- Milton was an univerfal fcholar, fo 



Perfeftion from the fan's more potent ray. 
Thefe then, though unbehcld in deep of nigh^ i 
Shine not in vain; nor thmk, though men were no 
That Hcav'n would want fpedtators, God wantpni 
Millions of fpiritual creatures walk the earth 
Unfeen, both when we wake, and when we llcgj; 
All thefe with ceafelefs praife his works behold 
Both day and night: how often £:om the Aeep 63< 
Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard 
Celeflial voices to the midnight air. 
Sole, or refponfive each to others note. 
Singing their great Creator? oft in bands 68. 

While they keep watch, or nightly rounding walk 
With heav'nlv touch of inftrumental founds 

he had not a little afFcflation of of mortal men, clothed wixh '* 

fhowing his learning of all kinds, wandering every where thro«glii 

and makes Adam difcourfc here earth. Sec Heiiod, I. I20*i2| 
fomcwhat like an adept in aflro- 682. Ctlrftial ^omcet tt the b 
losy, which was too much the phi- ni^ht air,'} Singing t» 

loiophy of his own times. V/hat midnight air. So ia Viig. £d.L 
he fays afterwards of numberlefs ^ ^^. r«^«j^*^ j 

Ipiritual creatures walking the earth 

unfeen, and joining in praifes to For as Dr. Pearce obfenres il 

their great Creator, is of a nobler ihould be a comma after mti, 

fbain, more agreeable to reafon the conllru£Uoii may be Su 

and revelation, as well as more tJbeJr gnat Creator to the mU 

pleaiing to the imagination, and air. And this notion of t 

feems to be an imitation and im- iinging thus by night is agree 

provement of old Hefiod's notion to the account given by Ludt 

q£ good geniulcs> the guardiana IV. 596, 

teoklV, PARADISE LOST. jrj 

n fall harmonic number join'd, their fongs 
divide the night, and lift our thoughts to Heaven, 

Thus talking hand in hand alone they pofs'd 
)a to their blifsfal bowV; it was a place 690 

^hos'n by the fovran Planter, when he fram*d 
Ul things to Man's delightfal ufe; the roof 
)f thickeft covert was inwoven fliade 
^aurel and myrtle, and what higher grew 
>f firm and fragrant leaf; on either fidd 695 

Lcanthus, and each odorous bufliy fhrub 
'eoc'd up the verdant wall ; each beauteous flowerj 
ris all hues, rofes, and jeilamin 
Lear'd high their flori(h'd beads between, and 


Qttoram nofUrsgo flrepitu, ludo- 694. Laurel and nrprtU^ Virg« 

que jocanti Ed. II. 54. 
Adfinnanc volgo taciturnt filentia 

rumpiy Et vos, 6 laurl, carpam, et te 

Chordarumque fonos fieri, diil- proxima xnyrte, 

cefqoe querelas. Sic pofitx quoniajn fuaves inifce« 

Tibia quas fuodic digitis pulfati ti^odpre^. Wume^ 


688. Di'vide the mghu'\ Into 696. Iris'^ The fIower-de-];]ce 

matches, as the trumpet did among fo call'd from refembling the colors 

tie AhcientSy founding as the of the Iris or rainbow. Irii all 

ratch was relieved, which was hues^ \\^^x. \s of all huts, ps a little 

■Jlcd MfviMug the night. before we hav^ itnvo*ven Jhads 

cum buccina no(lem laurel and myrtle, that is inwoven 

pivideret. Sil, Ital. VII. 154. (hade ^ laurel and myrtle. Such 

fackiurdfofi. pmifhons grf fre^uei^t in Miltpfi, 

Vol. !• * , F f 709 — Mf 


Moifaic; underfoot the violet/ 
Crocus, and hyacinth wkh rich inlay 
Broider'd the ground, mc»:e color'd than with 
Of coftlieft emUem : other creature here, 
Beaft, bird, infeft, or worm durft enter noi 
Such was their awe of Man* In ihadica: bow 
More facred and fequefler*d, though but fei] 
Pan or Sylvanus never flcpt, nor Nymph^ 

700. — — the 'violefj oor author the Terj ti 

Crocusy and hyacinth'] Our author Bier's verfes is obferrc 

has. taken this from Homer, who cadence, mod almoft 

nakes the fame fort of flowers to finely tranflated. 
fpring up under Jupiter aiSd Juno 703. O/^ €^ftbeft ndi 

as the/ lay in conjugal embraces hlim is here in the Grcd 

upon mount Ida, Iliad. XIV. 34.7. feafe for .inlaid floors c 

T./^/ /' .V. v8«r J^,« ,«r ,»». Z^iS^^^^' 

A«Tor y tp^tiivlap i/i xg^xoy, ^^^ paf imenti atone 
tfcT' vAKivOov vermiculato. Bai 

Glad earth perceives, and fiom ^^J^ we read Mm Jb^k 

her bofom pours with fuch a fpace s ii 

Unbidden herbs, and Tokmtary between two words, » i 

flowers ; ter r had occapy'd tbe 1 

Thick new-bom violets a (oft car- by fome accident had 

petfbread, impreffion. ImJbaSerbm, 

And dultring lotos fwell*d the rif- s^ore ftrongly the ihadiac 

ine bed, as the retirednefi of the 

And indden hyadaths the turf ^^ fhadinefs is a prindpi 

befbow, ftance of the deferiptioii, 

And flamy crocus made the moun- bower is leMom mentioi 

tain glow. Is Called fimdf h^mtr^ 

Where Mr. Pope remark, thtt ia fiJ^'^^.Tx, 

tlV, f»ARADiSE tost. ^i^ 

Faanus haunted. Here in clofe fecefs 
b flowers, garlands, ahd f^reet-fmelling herbs 
Mifed Eve dcck'd firft her nuptial bed, 7 19 

heav'nly quires the hymenaean fung^ 
It day the genial Angel to our fire 
ght her in naked beauty more adorn'd, 
5 lovely than Pandora, whom the Gods 

>w'd with all their giib> and O too like 7 1 ^ 


t of the fimile then is this, certain iUndard, and what ftandanl 
never was a more fhady, more proper than the prefent prac- 
icred and fequefler'd bower, tice, and efpecially fince there ara 
I bat in fidion, than this feveral inftances of the fame in 
I reality. Pan, the God of Milton himfelf ? 
idSf or Sjhanuj, the God of 714. Man Iwely tbak Pandorap 
and groves, Wood-mrnph, or &c. ] The flory is this. Prome- 
r, the tutelary God of haf- theus the fon of Japbet (or Japetus) 
len, were not even feign*d to had ftoPn fire from Heaven, Joves 
a more fweet receis than this autbtntic fire, the original and pro- 
am and Eve. totype of all earthly fire, which 
. Witb flowers ^ Milton ufu- Jupiter being angry at, to be re- 
idls it fiours, but here it is veng*d fent him Pandorm, fo call'd 
WO fyllables fimners, which becaufe all the Gods had contri- 
Bie imagin that he writ al- butvd their gifts to make her mord 
pmr when it was to be pro- charming (for fo the word fignifies). 
'd at one fyllable, zsA flower She was brought by Hermes (Mer- 
it was to be pronounced as cury) but was not received by Pro- 
^llables: but upon farther metheus the wifer fon of Japket 
nation we find, that when he (as the name implies) but by his 
mces the word as one fyl- brother Epimetheus tV unwiferfin^ 
he fometimes fpells xlflvwer She enticM his foolilh curiofity to 
fometimes jloure^ ibmetimes open a box which fhe brought, 
and ia likewife iow/r he wherein were contained all manner 
differently hmvevy bowr, of evils. Ricbardfonp 
\ ^sAfitrwer '^SkxrfrS^ Jbrwer, The epithet ummfer does not im- 
/b$wri. It is fitting that all ply that his brodier Pfometheiia 
ihoiiUl be reduced to ibni* was nnwife. Milton' ufei wrmfirp 



In Hid event, when to th' unwifer fon 
Of J;i[-'hct brought by Hermes, ftie infnar'd 
Mankind with her fair looks, to be aveng'd 
On him who had ftole Jove's authentic fire. 

Thiis at ilicir fliady lodge arriv*d, both flood, 72c 
Buth tuni'd, and under open Iky ador'd 
Tlic God that made both fky, air, earth and heaven. 
Which they bclickl, the moon's refplendent globe, 
And ft.irry pole: Thou alfo mad'ft the night. 
Maker omnipotent, and thou the day, 72J 


ch we in our appointed work employed 
s finiih'd, happy in our mutual help 

mutual love^ the crown of all our blifs 
dn'd by thee, and this delicious place 
as too large, where thy abundance wants 2 3^ 
ikers, and uncropt falls to the ground, 
thou haft promised from us two a race 
ill the earth, who (hall with us extol 

^oodnefs infinite, both when we wake, 

when we fcek, as now, thy gift of flccp. 73 5 


tlly withoat them. There is flace^ that is That maift &c. as in 
! inflance of this kind out of ver. 724. 7b<m aljh ma£ft the night, 
rr, in the 23d chapter of Lon- Dr. Pearce choo^s rather to read 

Ad£f9H, thus, 
iceire Mr. Addifon meant _ the crown of all our Uifi 

?7- ?If^^ ^\ ?^?i^ ^?? OidainM by thee iVi this deHdoat 
u of Heftor being firft nam d, place. 

lien oi a fadden introduced ^ 

^ing, without any notice The confhufUon no doubt is ibme- 
that he does fo. But the what obfcure, but withoat any al- 
ien here in Milton is of ano- teration we may underfiand the 
brt; it is firfl fpeaking of a paflage with Dr. Pearce thus, and 
I, veA then fuddenly turning thou mad*ft thi$ dtUdoui flact: or 
Icoarfe, and fpeaking to him. with Mr. Richardfon thus, haffy in 
pre may obferve the like tran- our mutual help and mutual love^ the 
fma the third to the fccond chief of all our blifs, thy gift, and 
I in the hymn to Hercules, happy in this deUdws Paradife : or 
^n. VIII. 291. thus, bafp^f in our mutual help and 
. ut duros mUle labores muiu^love, the crtn^m of all owr blifs, 
alcrit. Tu nubigcnas, inviae, ^"^ '^'^^^SfVi^'l'iri i> 

rimembresfefr.^ , ^^^T^t^'^-^^'A^'-"?^' 

ley reads the gift, and obferves that 

^. —... and this delicious place] it is word for word from i^mer» 

endey reads Thou this deSam who has the expreffion freqaendy : 

F f 3 HHfin^ 

Siiait fide by iidc were laid; nor turn'd I 
Adam from his fair fpoufCj nor Eve the l 
Myfterious of connubial love refus'd: 
Whatever hypocrites aaitercly talk 
Of purity and place aod innocence. 

K»f^>t7tfrT tf f' <tir«T«t X41 inm 744. tfltntver 

fu£er iKnl'- Our luthor calb til 

Bot li,,,/, i. right, fork v.r. 6i!. ! "'?"°j°' ^"y" 

..Jr,JI,.\,.M,/!im therefore "iex Jo to th. C 

(l«p is G»f. gin : indYirRil (whom ?«(^"'i "!"• '•J? 

MilSonoftncrimtam th.S Honct) ''„»*« J"^™ °f 

— iionoDiv6nip«li(limifcrpit. '.'i"'Y- '• '• 

' txmti f«mi fomU depa. 

y^S.VAi /aid iPiamntMi, and ether giving ht*d H AA 

rim daarimt tfDaimh,^ 

Gkftr-tiiKg nont, hut ajaratitn pure f*eri^, h»vimm thti. 

irhiibCadlikei6tJl,1 Here Mil- eJ luitb « £u in 

ton expreflcs his own favorite no- ' marrj. Sec. 


iming as impure what God declares 

ly and commands to fome, leaves free to alL 

Maker bids increafe ; who bids abftain 
our Deftroyer^ foe to God and Man ? 

wedded Love, myfterious law, trae fource 750 
liuman ofspring, fole propriety 
aradife of all things common elfe. 
hee adultVous luft was driv'n from mea 
)ng the beftial herds to range; by thee 
idcd in reafon, loyal, juft, and pure, 755 


to 'mdof ice The qaotiuion for hy wffierimu he (Dr. Bentlejr) 

i fwell this note to too great means, itfelf hidJen or couctafdi 

rth \ but the seader, who un- md Milton means, containing fome 

nds Italian, may, if he pleafe, hidden me^ming in it, beiidet the 

ire the original with ^iir an- plain precept which appearM. 
and he will eaiily perceive Feara. 

an excellent copier Mikon -^ of mil things tmmantire\ 

IS judicious in omitting fane i^S^^^^ reads W^ aUthiLgsi 

iftances as m imitating others, v ^ ^^ i:«««:— ^-.— :« »f.;. «1^ 

in one of Taffo't l^rs to bat./ fi gnifies among in this place, 

u^'I^^ c- ^ ij _i ^ ir «• *' <^ocs m ver. 411. and m V. 

latioa Signer Hercole Taflb, g yr ^ cUcwhcrc 

u p. 150. Edit. In Venetia. ^59- ^^ 24- «^ p\,^^ 

>• -; — mffterioKi Anc^] That 75 3. By tbee miult^roiu luft See. ] 

luding a myftery in it, in the Mr. Lauder aflerts that thefe lines 

fenfe as wffttmm ritts are are copied from the panegyric on 

n of before. He plainly al- marriage in the Triomphus Pacis or 

to St. Paulas calhng matri- congratulatory poem on the peace 

a nrfftny^ Eph. V. 32. No betwixt Holland and England in 

then for Dr. Bentley's myflt' 1655 by Cafpar Staphorftius : 

tasut: and his obje^n^ that * r • . r • t- • r.k^«k- 
ftppofed to be m^fi^imu i. Aufpice te, fugiens alicm fubcab* 

V at aU, it eafily anfwwr'dt '^"' 

F f 4 Dira 


delations dear, and all the charities 
Of father, fon, and brother firft were known. 
Far be' it, that I fliould write thee fin or blamc^ 
Or tliink thcc unbefitting holieft place. 
Perpetual fountain of domeftic fweets, 760 

Whofe bed h undefil'd and chafle pronounc'd, 
prcfcnt, or pad, as faints and patriarchs us'd. 
fkre luve his golden ihafts employs, here lights 
Ilis conftant lamp, and waves his purple wings. 
Reigns here and rcvclsj not in the bought fmile y^C 



harlots, lovelefs, joylcfs^ unindear'd^ 
Lial fruition ; nor in court amours^ 

K'd dance, or wanton mafk, or midnight ball, 

ierenate, which the fkrv'd lover iings 

his proud fair, bed quitted with difdain. y^o 

^fe luU'd by nightingales embracing flept^ 

1 on their naked limbs the flow'ry roof 

w'rd rofes, which the morn repaired. Sleep on, 

ft pair; and O yet happieft, if ye feek 

happier flate, and know to know no more, yyr 


m of the poem is in a maimer 769. Orfinmait t/ohUb iheJlamPd 

:iided, anid while Adam aad ^^fifA We common]/ 

are lybg down to deep; and bij firemmit with the French, but 

aorality 1^ one great end of lHjl&om. keeps, at iifaal» the Itidiaa 

ry, that end cannot be better word fortnaity which the (buv^d 

noted than by fuch digreffions lover fings, flarv^d as this compli- 

is and that upon hypocrify at ment was commonly pay*d in fi^ 

atter part of the third book, moy in dear cokl mghti. Horace 

mentions this circmiiftuice» Od. III. 

65. Ritgnt hire and reve/t;'] X. i. 

It our «uthor here lays of mtr- Extremom Tanain fi bibcia, 
sManno applies in the fame £™g * 

IS to Venus in his dcfcription Sarvo nujjta viro, me tamen af- 
«r, Adon. Cant. 2. St. 1 14. pcras •«"«* « 

'tis nrobable that Milton al- f^^ ^nte fbi^ objiceroin- 
1 to this and other fuch extra- ^^^^ wujit«?re*u 

nces of the poets, tjid meant p, aquilonibus : 

V, that what they had extrava- «iuiiwui«ua 

ly and faUly applied to loofe and in another of his odes he haa 

:on love, was really true of that prefervcd a fragment of one of 

»n in its date of innocence. thefe fongs, Od. I. XXV. 7. 

iui Amor fi traftulla^ c quindi Me too longas pereunte noflesi 

impcra. Tkjer. Lydia, donnis. 

776. Nevt 


This evening from the fun's decline arriv'd 
Who tells of fome infernal Spirit feen 
Hitherward bent (who could have thought F)cfcap'(i 
The bars of Hell, oa errand bad no doubt: 795 
Such where ye find, feife foft, and hither bring. 

So faying, on he led his radiant files, 
Dazling the moon j thefe to the bow'r direft 
In fearch of whom they fought: him there they found 
Squat like a to:.d, clofe at the car of Eve, 800 

Aflaying by his dcvilifli art to reach 
The organs of her fancy', and with them foige 
Illufions as he lill, phantafms and dreams^ 


Like gentle breaths from rivers pure, thence r^c 
At lead diftempcr'd, difcontcnted thoughts. 
Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate defires. 
Blown op with high conceits ingendring pride. 
Him thus intent Ithuriel with his fpear 8io 

Touched lighdy ; for no falfhood can indure 
Touch of celeftial temper, but returns 
Of force to its own likenefs : up he ftarts 
Difcover'd and furpris'd. As when a fpark 
Lights on a heap of nitrous powder, laid S ig 

Fit for the tun fome magazine to flore 
Againft a rumor'd war, the fmutty grain 
With fudden blaze diffused inflames the air : 

So ftarted up in his own ifhape the Fiend. 


Blight raife at lead vain thoughts^ 8i6. Fit for the tun] Tis coni^ 

if not flnful a£Uons. monly calVd 9, iarreJ : but Milton 

for the fake of his veFfe, aad per- 

814. ^-* Asivben ajpark haps for the fake of a lefs vulgar 

Lights Mr a bttf of nitrous fonuder^ term, calls it a tun from the French 

&C.J Arioilo uies the fame iimile tonneau, any caHc or veiTel. 

to defcribe a fudden ftart of paf- ^i<^. So flarted up in bis ownJhap9 

fion. OrL Fur. Cant. 10. St. 40. the Fiend.] His planting 

^_ i. /. r 1 •. ^1/i. himfclf at the ear of Eve under 

Non cofi fin falmtro, e zolfb paro ^^ ^^^ ^f ^ ^ . ^ 

Tocco dal foco. fubito . auampa. ^ ^^j„ ^^^ ^^^ bnagination,, 

Ev*n as falt-peter mioct with brim- is a circumftance that furprifcs the 

ftone pure, reader; as his flartin? up in his 

Inflameth ftraiti when once it feels own form is wonderfuUy fine, both 

thefirc, Harrington in the litteral defcription, and ia 

Thyer, the moral which is concealed under 



Book IV. 


Back ftept thofc two fair Angels half amaz'd 

So fudden to behold the grifly king; 

Yet thus, unmov'd with fear, accoft him ibon." ^ 

Which of thofe rebel Spi'rits adjudg'd to HcH 
Com'ft thou, efcap'd thy pnfon? and transform'd. 
Why fatft thou like an enemy in wait, 8a^ 

Here watching at the head of thefc that fleep? 

Know ye not then, faid Satan fiU'd with fcom, 
Know ye not me? ye knew me once no mate 
For you, there fitting where ye durft not foar; 
Not to know me argues yourfelves unknown, Syi 
The lowcft of your throng j or if ye know. 


Think not, revolted Spi'rit, thy fh»pe the fame, 83$ 
[>r undiminKh'd brightneis to be knowii) 
As when thou ftood'ft in Heav'n upright and pure ^ 
That glory then, when thou no more waft good, ^ 
Departed from thee'; and thou refembleft now > 
^hy fin and place of doom obfcure and foul. 84^ 
Bur come, for thou, be fure, ihalt give account 
To him who fent us, whofe charge is to keep 
This place inviolable, and thefe from harm. 

So fpake the Cherub > and his grave rebuke^' 
Severe in youthfril beauty^ added grace 845: 

[nvincible: aba(h*d the Devil ftood, 
And felt how awfiil goodnefs is, and iaw 
Virtue' in her (hape how lovely; faw, and pin'd 
His lofs; but chiefly to find here obferv^d 

Dodor reads Or hrightutfs tauSm- Sat without any alteration may ws 

wi/b'di which ohler of the* words not undeiftand >&^# and hrigbtmfi 

we moH: follow, tfnlefs it may be as in the accufative cafe after the 

thoQght as (mail an alteration to verb think f Think not thy fhape 

read thus, the ftme, or ondimiaifh^d bright- 

Think not, revolted SpiMt, Ij ?^» ^, ^f '^^ now, as it wa* 
fhape the fame "^ formerly m Heaven. 

Or undiminilh'd brightnels to be 845- «f^^ V^r-^^^l^^ ^'"^^ 
known. added ffrtuil Virg. Mn, V. 344, 

ion as in I. 732. we have Gfatior ct pulchro venicns in cor- 

' 1.. 1. J 1 pore virtus. 
his hand was knvwn '^ 

In Heaven hy many a towrcd ftmc- 848. Virtui in berjhafe how iovifyi 

sure hijdi. Pearce. ftcj What is faid h«re of fiang 



His luftre vifibly impair'dj yet fecm'd 850 

Undaunted. If I mufl contend, laid he, 

Beft with the bcft, the fender not the fent, 

Or all at once ; more glory will be won. 

Or lefs be loft. Thy fear, faid Zephon bold, 

Will fave us trial what the Icaft can do 8j| 

Single againft thee wicked, and thence weak. 

The Fiend reply'd not, overcome with ragej 
But like ;i proud ftecd rein'd, went haughty on, 
Champing his iron curb: to ftrive or fly 
He held it vain; awe from above had quell "d 860 
His heart, not elfe difmay'd. Now drew they nigh 



ig next command. To whom their chief 
[ from the front thus caird aloud» 865 

lends, .1 hear the tread of nimble feet 
I this way, and now by glimpfe difcern 
I and Zephon through the (hade, 
ith them comes a third of regal port, 

led fplendor wan; who by his gate 870 

:rce demeanour feems the prince of Hell^ 

:ely to part hence without conteft ; 

irm, for in his look defiance lours. 

carce had ended, when thofe two approached, 


lef related whom they brought, where found, 
rufied, in what form andpofture couch'd. 876 
whom with ftern regard thus Gabriel fpake. 


wohiei/rom ibe front] Ga- 
HDnoanced here as a word 
fyllables, tho* commonly 
as only of two ; a liberty 
ikxm takes in the names of 

friends, I hear Sec.] Ga- 
Icovering Satan*s approach 
ance is drawn with great 
and livelinefs of imagina- 

ned Mr. Upton in his O-/- 
fepvmtions on Sbakejpear re- 
iut Milton in this whole 
keeps doTe to his mailer 
who lends out UlyiTci and 

Diomede mto the Trojan camp ai 
fpiesy Iliad. X. 533. 

n piKoi 

O friends, I hear the tread of 
nimble feet. 

NAbOor tfx/To/« ver. 540. 

He fcarce had ended when thofe 
two approached. 

877. — nmthfitm rtgard^ An- 

(wering to the Homeric /nrtr Af* 

C g »e/Ml^9'» 

Employ'd it fecms 
Whofe dwelling G( 
To whom thus Sa 
Gabriel, thou hadft 
And ruch I held th. 
Puts me in doubt. 1 
Who would not, fin 
Though thither dooi 
And boldly venture 

«.*©•, Iliad, m. j„d J 

*/Kr, VKve inwitus, llijKl. ] 

"J™ "•"/'">"; and Ml 
«h"Ubii mdtrlUnd. ,r«o5, 
«d«6iiiercnfe BaUiDr I 
J*™. *™gk k ii light t 


Fartheft from pain, wherethoumi^t'ft hope to change 
Torment with eafc, and fooneft recompenfc 
Dole wkh delight, which in this place I fought; 
To thee no rcafon, who know'ft only good, 895 
But evil haft not try'd : and wilt obje<a 
His will who bound us ? let him furer bar 
His iron gates, if he intends our ftay 
In that dark durance : thus much what was ajQcM. 
The reft is true, they found me where they fay; 900 
But that implies not violence or harm. 

Thus he in fcorn. The warlike Angel mov*d, 
Dlfdainfully half fmiling thus reply'd, 
O lofs of one in Heav'n to judge of wife. 
Since Satan fell, whom folly overthrew, 905 


nodon both to the one and the torment witt iafi .is according to 

other. the Latins, whom Milton often fol- 

S83. — — to tvioiatejleep^ Shake- lows. Glandem mutavU ariftd. Virg. 

fpear in Macbeth has a ffaronger Gtotz, I. 8. 

cxpreffion, to ' murder Jleep\ both 890. "-"^ and vnlt tIjtB 

equally proper in the places wh^re fUi imll nubo bound usf 1 If 

they are empIoyM. thefe words are to be read with a 

887. — tut this quefiion af^d note of interro<;arion as in all the 

Futs me in douht^ Homer : 1 hou editions, thou mufl be underilood, 

fecmftlft a wife man. formerly, Ni/i' and Dr. Bentley chooics to read 

i^ aot9^i poiri io/y,et<» Bentley. and wilt tkou^ okje£f. It is a con- 

gg2. '''^■^ to change cife way of fpeaking fomewhat 

TtffvvMr/ <wxVi& r^,] We common* like that in II. 730. and knvuoft 

ly ixf to change one thing/^ ano- for fwhom* But I have fometimes 

tber, and Dr. Bentley would read thought that the paflage may bo 

fgr ioft in thb place : but to chm^t >«ad without tbe xu^tc of iQterro- 

C g 4 gatio^ 

However, «iul to fcape hh ; 

So judge thou Aill, prefuni] 
Which thou incurr'ft by fly 
Scv'nfold, and fcourge that 
Which taught thee yet no b 
Can equal anger infinite pro 
But wherefore thou alone? 
Came not all Hell brokp lo( 
Lef3 pain, Id's to be fled? c 
'Lefs hardy to indure ? coura 
The firfl: in flight from pain 
To thy deferted hoft this C3 
Thou furely hadft not come 
To which the Fiend thus 


that I lefs indure, or fhrink from pain, 925 

Idng Angel ; well thou knoVfl I flood 

r fiesceft, when in battel to thy aid 

I blailing volied thunder made all fpeed, 

1 feconded thy elfe not dreaded fpear. 

flill thy words at random, as before, 930 

ae thy inexperience what behoves 

n hard affays and ill fucceffes paft 

lithful leader, not to hazard all 

ough ways of danger by bimfelf untry'd : 

erefore, I alone firft undertook 935 

wing the defolate abyis, and fpy 

s new created world, whereof in Hell 

le is not filent, here in hope to find 

er abode, and my afflidled Powers 

fettle here on earth, or in mid air; 940 

)ugh for pofleflion put to try once more 

lat thou and thy gay legions dare againft ; 

loie eafier bufinefs were to ferve their Lord 


Sva. Df . Pearce gives feve- but *6b wrong no doubt. The word 

dftances, II. 278. The fenfibU occurs very often thereabouts, and 

nr. XI. 4. The ftony from their wobably occafion*d the miftalce. 

r. XI. 497. Hii heft of man. The feme requires it to be The. 

8. TJbi biafting] Thus 'tis in^e BjdianUaa. 

"■-^" thciecondhasitfi^; . 

Gg3 945-^ 



High up In Heav'n, with fongs to hymn his throne. 
And pra6tic'd .; i^ances to cringe, not fight. 94^ 

To whom til-: warrior Angel foon reply 'd. 
To f.'.y and ftr.Jt unfay, pretending firft 
Wife to fly p-:in, profcfllng next the fpy, .^^ , , ^ ^ 
Argues no leader but a liar trac'd, 
Samn, and couldH; thou faithful add? O name, 550 
O fiicrcd name of ftithfulnefs profan'd! 
Faitliful to wlioni? to thy rebellious crew? 
Army of Fiends, fit body to fit head. ■♦ 

Was this your difcJpline and faith engag'd, . 

Your military obedience, to dilTolve nyj 

looklV. PARADISE LOST^ 335 

ffeav'n's awful monarch? wherefore but in hope 960 
JTo difpoflefs him, and thyfelf to reign ? 
^ut mark what I arrecd thee now, Avant; 
:*ly thither whence thou fledft: if from this hour 
^Vithin thefe hallow'd limits thou appear, 
tack to th' infernal pit I drag thee chain'd, 05 
(ind feal thee fo, as henceforth not to fcom 
I The facil gates of Hell too ilightly barr'd. , 

^ So threatened he; but Satan to no threats 
hvc heed, but waxing more in rage reply'd. 

Then when I am thy captive talk of chains, 970 
roud limitary Cherub, but ere then 
ar heavier load thyfelf expeft to feci 
rom my prevailing arm, though Heaven's king 
idc on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers, 
Ts'd to the yoke, draw'ft his triumphant wheels gy^ 


971. Proud Umiary CbtnA,^ itmitaneui, Digcft. And as Mr. 

bou proud prefcribing Angel that Thyer farther ohfcrves, the word 

-citimeft to limit me, and appoint is intended as a fcomful fneer upon 

Y prlTon, according to Mr. Hume, what Gabriel had jufl faid, 

r raihcf limitary. Jet to guard the _ jf ^.^^ ^j^ ^^^ 

>unds; a taunt infulting the good y^ithin thefe hallow'd limits thou 

Dgel as one cmploy'd on a little appear, 

ean office, according to Mr. Ri- ^'^ 

lardfon. For limitary (as Dr. Hey- 974. Riit on thy nrnrm^ 8cc. 1 

A remarks) is from liniitaneus. This feems to allude to fizekiePs 

tilius limitatui are foldiers in «ur- vifion, where four Cherubims 9xt 

fon upon the fironciers. So Du^ appointed to the four wheels : jtni 

G g + i^ 


In progrefs through the road of Heav'n ftar-pav'i 
While thus he fpake, th' angelic fquadron br^ht 
Turn'd fiery red, fliarp'ning in mooned horns 
Their phalanx, and began to hem him round 
With ported fpears, as thick as when a field 980 
Of Ceres ripe for harvefl: waving bends 


viogs, tioQs of the array after Agamciii- 
' ibi lion's fpeech to the waving i ' ' 
•vfr cats of corn. Iliad. II. 147. 

f/v a-rn.!-imi liU hfl up ihis 
gi:<y nf the G<,d af l/mfl nv 

,h.m .'b<^-t. See Cliap. I, 
and XI. zz. 


r,--. ma, ,h„ I, fi.t, to. 1 A.C,& .L'^V-'. ." r- »« 

The conference between Ciaoncl _^^, , 

ii.d Snr.n abounds with fen-iments , -"Zvi^^'f 

proper for ilie occafion. and fait- Of T*» ««ff *>.epif jwm9«. 



Her bearded grove of ears, which way the wind 

Sways them ; the careful plowman doubting ftands. 

Left on the threfhmg floor his hopeful (heaves 

Prove chaff. On th' other fide Satan alarm'd 985 

ColleAing all his might dilated ftood. 

Like Teneriff or Atlas unremov'd : 


an eager and undaunted combatant, 
where fury not only feemt to ercft 
mud inlarge his ftature* but ex- 
pands as it were his whole frame, 
and extends every limb. I don*t 
TCmember to have ever before met 
with the word diiat^ii applipd in 
the fame manner in our language. 

Like Teneriff or Atl^ unre« 

$0 Satan in T^» Cant. 4. St. 6. 

Ne par Calpe s^ inalza, *1 magno 

Ch* anzi lui non parcflip un pic« 


The nfe of the word um-imo-v'd for 
iinffiove2d)le is very poetical, and 
juftily'd by Milton's conjugal at- 
iraSim wtreprovd^ and Spenfer^s 
mmtfnmei truth. See the note on 
492. njpfT. 

987. like Tnuriff 9r Aila; un- 
remwd:^ Well may Satan 
be Iiken*d tp the greateft moun- 
uinsy and be faid to (land as firm 
and immoveable as they, when 
Virgil has applied the fame compa- 
ny iQ h^ h«n>, JEa. nil' jou^ 

Quantas Athos, ant quantos Eryx, 

aut ipfe corufds 
Com fremit ilicibus quantos^ gaa« 

detque nivali 
Vertice fe attoUens pater Apenni- 

nus ad auras. 

Like Eryx, or like Athos great he 

Qr father Apennine, when white 

with fnows. 
His head divine obfcure in doods 

he hides. 
And (hakes the founding foreft on 

his fides. Dryden* 

Mr. Hume fays that the Peak ef 
TenerifF is 15 miles high, and 
Mr. Richardfon aflerts that it is 45 
miles perpendicular, if that be not 
a falfe prmt 45 for 1 5 : but the ut- 
moft diat we can fuppofe is that it 
is 15 Biiles fro9i the very firft 
^fcent of the hill till you come 
thro* the various turnings and wind- 
ings tQ the top of all ; for I have 
been afliir^d from a gentleman who 
meafur^d it, that the perpendicular 
hiehth of it is no more than one 
nme and three quarters. 

988. HU 


His Mature rcach'd the fky» and on his crcft 
Sa' liorror plum'd; not" wanted in his grafp 
What lecm'd both fpcar and iliield: now dreadful 

dtcds 090 

Might have cnfued, nor only Paradiic 
In this commotion, but the Aarry cope 


It [;. nrobable that bcfiJtis Homcr'i 
liircoi-J, l!iaU.IV.4+3. 

SuAinet, ^tnxos eSbntem faud- 
bui ignes. 

A triple pile of j^tuaei Ui enC 

On which with belching flute* 

Chimzra buro'd ! Diyden. 


Of Heav*n perhaps^ or all the elements 

At leail had gone to wrack, difturb'd and torn 

With violence of this conflid;, had not foon 99^ 

Th' Eternal to prevent fuch horrid fray 

Hung forth in Heav'n his golden fcale?, yet feen 

Betwixt Aftrea and the Scorpion fign. 


^— - fAdLKdt yttf K% g^X^^ •^^^ rying on of his fable, and for the 

6§/l$ KOi *\Ao/, breaking ofF the combat between 

"b/Tip ripTi£fi wt ^i9h K^or 'j*^ ^? warrion, who were upon 

mufii io/lu. ^^^ P^'°l ^ «ngf Png- To this 

we may further add, that Milton is 

And all the Gods that round old the more juflify'd in this paflage» 
Saturn dwell, f< we find the fame noble allegoiy 

Had heard the thunders to the in holy Writ, where a wicked 
deeps of Hell. Pope. prince, fome few hours before hq 

was afTaulted and flain, is (kid to 

996. W EtiTM^i H frrtrnt fuch J^^T^ ^f ^^^^^^ '« thefcaUs, and 

^ h^dfra,-\ The breaking '' ^^^*''^ hem found ^anttng 
off the combat between Gabrid Addifon. 

and Si^, by the haneing out of ^^7. ^;, ;^ ^,^^ j g^ 

the golden fcalcs m Heaven, is a they are in Honfer vpi;(r«ct t«- 

r^nement upon Homer s thought, ^^,y^ both where he Weighs the 

who teUs us diat before the battel deftinics of the Greeks and Tn>. 

between Heftor and AchiUcs, Ju- jans in book the 8th, and the fates 

pitcr weighed the event of it m a of Heftor and Achilles in book 

pair of fcalcs. The reader may the 2 2d. And this figure of wcieh- 

^e the whole pdTage m the 22d ing the deftinics of men appew'd 

riiad. Virgd before the laftdeci. fo beautiful to fuccceding ^oets, 

five combat defcnbcs Jupiter in the that iEfchylus (as we are inform'd 

fame manner, as wcjghmg the fates by Plutarch in his treatife ofHear^ 

of Turnus and iEncas. Milton, ,>^ tbe poets) %vrit a tragedy upon 

rho' he fetch d this bcauttful cir- tfis foundation, which ^eintidcd 

coxnftance from the IhadandiEneid, 4i;yor«(ri* or the weiMn^ of 

docs not only mfert it as a poeti- /jg^^ « * y 

cal embellifhment, like the authors 

jibove mentioned; but makes an <)ijli. Bfhwixt Jfirea and the Sc^t" 
artful ufe of it for the proper car- fnnfifn^ Idbra or the^calet 



Wherein all things created firft he weigh'd. 

The pendulous round earth with balanc'd air looo 

In countcrpoifc, now ponders all events, 


is rnc of (hr twelve fip,ti5 of the kitgJom, and f.mfl>d it^ thut trt 

v.ti.ii;ic, as Jih,a (nr \ itgo the luiighed in iht halamcti. So indj 

Vir^i:!) and S.^rpm aiCo arc. This hath Milton imprOT'd upon tb« 

ilocj as it were rt-aliie the fidion, fiflions of ihc poets by the etemil 

arid gives confcqiiently a greater truth* of holy Scripture, 
force 10 it. Rkh^rilfiK. 

Thi,^ nllufior to llif {\^\\ Libra in looj. 7he fi^ud each ef faHtg 

the HtanTib j. a I)[::iu:j' that is not aW of fight •,'\ Dr. Bentiiey resds 

in Homer or Virgil, and ^ireii this Ihi figmd eatb tec. To onderfiud 

dage a maniFelt advaut.i^e over which of thefe two reading! fiutt i 

h their dcfcripiions. the place beft, let us coniider the | 

poet's thought, which wat ihii: 

qgg. IV!',-r,-}n all li^!ii^< created God put in the golden fcales »o 

fir/i I. 'xe-gh\h S:e.] This weights : in the one fcale he pst 

of weighing tlie creaiion at firft the weight, which wis the /cfn/ 

(that is reprefented the conft- 



;ls and realms : in thefe he pat two weights 
fequel each of parting and of fight ; 
latter quick up flew, and kick'd the beam ; 


vi^oiy ;. whereas the other 
in which was the fequel of 
'ting or retreating, having de- 
d. It was a fign that his go- 
r quietly would be his wileil 
eightieft attempt. The reader 
ccttfe my having been fo long 
note, when he confiders that 
endey and probably many 
have mifunderilood Milton^s 
It about the fcales, judging 
y what they read of Jupiter's 
in Homer and Vireil; the 
It of which is very different 
this of Milton ; for in them 
Ltes of the two combatants 
igh'd one zplnSt the other, 
le defcent ofone of the fcales 
3wM the death of him whofe 
ly in that fcale, quo vergai 
t lethum: whereas in Milton 
ig is weighM but what relates 
an only, and in the two fcales 
agh'd the two different events 
retreating and his fighting. 
what has been faid it may 
r pretty plainly, that Milton 
mel meant the confequence or 

as it is exprcfs'd in ver. 

and then there will be no 
[>n for Dr. Bentlcy's /ignal ; 
>ecaufe it is a very improper 
in this place, and becaufe a 
§/ parting and of fight ^ can 
ihing elfe than a fignal when 
ft and when to fight ; which 
ill not pretend to be the 

poet's meaning. Piorct. 

It may be proper, before we con- 
clude, to produce the parages out 
of Homer and Virgil, whereof fo 
much has been faid, that the reader 
may have the fatisfa£lion of com- 
paring them with our author, Iliad. 
VIII. 69. 

KaI 70Ti /H XP^^^^ VATIfp iTf- 

£r J * C7/9f / cTt/O JtHf f TtfftlAC^C®- 

At /txir hx^^^ xupif fT/ y^on 

tvfMV etf p9ir. 

The Sire of Gods his golden fcales 

With equal hand: in thefe ex- 
plored the fate 

Of Greece and Troy, and pois'd 
the mighty weight. 

Prcfs'd with its load the Grecian 
balance lies 

Low funk on earth, the Trojan 
ilrikes the flcies. Pope. 

The fame lines, mutatis mutandis, 
are apply'd to Hedlor and Achilles 




Which Gabriel fpying, thus befpake the Fiend, looj 
Satan, I know thy ftrength, and thou know'ft inini^ 
Neither our own but giv'n; what folly then 
To boafi: wliat arms can do ? fince tliine no more 
Than Heav'n permitB, nor mine, tliough doubled now 


thus Every ruder, whacoinpxTaibele 
pafliigcs wiiti 6UT >oih«r, nuB&f 

Silainly (Lat ihcr' there U (oae n- 
emblance, yet there b llfo |rk 
difference. There arc rdAnhtia 
and in Homer at well u in Mihsai 
but Milton in rome mcjfinv u- 
Here each contendiog hero's lot ihorizej the fiftion b/ loaking fail 
he tries, kales the balance in the HeiTOK. 

Ani weighs with equal hand their In Homer and Virgil the comlu- 
dcftinies. lanu areweigh'd one againft asa- 

!n the 2:d book, and there : 

Jove lifts the golden 

The fates of mortal me 
things be!o\ 



To trample thee as mire: for proof look up, loio 

And read thy lot in yon celeftial fign^ 

Where thoa art wcigh'd, and (hown how light, how 

If thou refift. The Fiend look'd up, and knew 
His mounted fcale aloft: nor more; but fled 
Murm'ring, and with him fled the fhades of night i o 1 5 

1012. IFbiTi tbm art ^wiigF^ and 
Jhvum how li^tt Ifow fu;iaAf] 
He does mot make the afcending 
fcale the fign of vi&ory at in Ho- 
mer and Virgil, bat of lightnefs 
mod weakneis according to that of 

Belihazzar, Dan. V. 27. Theu art 
'weigb^din the balances^ and art found 
•wanting. So true it is, that Miltoa 
oftner imitates Scripture than Ho- 
mer and Virgil, even where he is 
thought to imiiace them moft. 

The end of the Fourth Book* 



piFTH Book 

O F 





Morning approach'd. Eve relates to Adam h 
blefome dreamy he likes it not, yetcomfc 
They come forth to their day labors : Thci 
ing hymn at the door of their bower. ' 
render man inexcufable fends Raphael to ad 
him of his obedience, of his n-ee eftate, 
enemy near at hand, who he is, and n 
enemy, and whatever elfe may avail Ac 
know. Raphael comes down to Paradife, i 
pearance defcrib'd, his coming difcera'd hf 
afar off fitting at the door of his bower j 1 
out to meet him, brings him to his lodge, 
tains him with the choiceft fruits of Pani 
together by Eve ; their difcourfe at table: ft 
performs his meflage, minds Adam of ill 
and of his enemy ; relates at Adam^ reqod 
that enemy is, and how he came to be to| I 
ning from his firft revolt in Heaven, and A 
cafion thereof; how he drew his legionsiia 
to the parts of the north, and there iodifii 
to rebel with him, perfuading all but only J 
a Seraph, who in argument diilbades and.o 
him^ then fbriakes him. 




O W mom her rofy fleps in th* eaflem clime 
Advancing, fbw'd the earth with orient pearl, 

1 Adam wak'd, fo cuftom'd, for his ileep 

aery light from pure digeition bred, 

temp'rate vapors bland, which th' only found g 


nv morn her roj^fl^s] This And he obfenres that Lucrerius*t 

morning of the day after metaphor hauimi €m^t arvm wants 

coming to the earth; and much of the propnety of Milton's 

er makes the morning with Jbw*ii th earth ivith orieiU fem^h 

rers, poJW^tfxIuA^ H«^» fince the dew-drops hive (bmething 

477. the ro^f'fmger'i imirn^ fili the ihape and appearance of 

in gives her rofy fteps, and fcatter*d feeds, 
a roj^ band. The mom is 

', then rofy upon the nearer c. — which tF mt/j found Arc.J 

li of the fun. And (he is Ulbich refers to Jleep^ and not to 

fociu the earth btc, by the vd^on the fubftantive immediately 

t of metaphor as Lucretius preceding. I mention this becauie 

thefuuy ll. 211. It has been miftaken. It is cer« 

- . ^ . tainly more proper to fay that the 

lumme can/ent arva. yj^ ^ ^^^^^ 2nd fang of biitls 

rer adds that the fame al- ^P^^^ fi^ dian wfon. The 

dcfcription he remcmben "prcffion «5f>W (as Dr. Pearcc 

fcen fomewhere in Shake- "g^^X^ ^^5";" > fccms the fame 

md more poeticaUy ex- ]??* *.»^ J" Y^'\'-*i* ^'* ***/ 
^ * faenfi m both which places oafy 

fignifies aiome ; the only founds for 

le mom in faffron robe there was none other; and it is to 

o*er the dew of yon high be underftood as meant of the 4m- 

ern hill. tin fiag of the krdt, as Wtll as of 

Ahz Cho 


Of leaves and fuming rills, Aurora's fan. 
Lightly difpers'd, and the fliril! matin fong 
Of birds on every bough; fo much the more 
His wonder was to find unwaken'd Eve 
With trcffes difcompos*d, and glowing check, |b 
As through unquiet reft : he on his fide 
Leaning half rais'd, with looks of cordial love 
Hung over her enamour'd, and beheld 
Beauty, which whether waking or afleep. 
Shot forth peculiar graces j then with voice Ij' 


'iMfianitf Uirtit! and fuming rilb. Km fjM #xt/«^^b 

Faming rilli, for fumes or HcUIU Tuf or* aMTG- ^^^H 



Mild, as when Zephyras on Flora breathes. 
Her hand foft touching, whifper'd thus. Awake 
My faireft, my efpous'd, my latcft found. 
Heaven's laft beft gift, my ever new delight. 
Awake; the morning (hines, and the fi:e(h field 20 
Calls US; we lofe the prime, to mark how fpring 
Our tended plants, how Mows the citron grove. 
What drops the myrrh, and what the balmy reed. 
How nature paints her colors, how the bee 

fits on the bloom extrafting liquid fweet. 25 


B normorare il fiame, e gli ar- 

E can Tonda fcherzar raura, e co' 


The birds awak*d her with their 

* morning fong, 

Their warbiiDg muiic pierc'd her 

tender ear, 
The mnrm'ring brooks, and whift- 

ling winds among 
The rattling boughs and leaves, 

their part did bear. Fairfax. 

^.—tP only fowid] This Dr. Bent- 
ley caOs ftrange didlion, and he will 
hare it to be early found: but the 
prefent reading is countenanc'd by 
the following une in Spenfer, Fairy 
Qaeen, B. 5. Cant. 1 1. St. 30. 

As if the only found thereof fhe 
feared. l^hyer, 

16. hlilif as liiben Zfpijnts on 
Flora breathes,'] As when the 

foft weftem gales breathe on the 
flowers. Exceeding poetical and 
beautiful. Riehardfcm. 

For this delightful fimile Milton > 
was probably obliged to his admir'd 
Ben Johnfon in his MaOc of Ijovi 
reconciPd to Virtue, 

The fair will think you do *em 

Go chooie among — — but with a 

As gentle as the firoaking *U'ind 
Jlitns oir the gentler fienAprs, 

Song 3d. Thyer. 

21. we lofe the pritae,'] The 

prime of the day; as he calls it 

-— that fweet hour of prime, 

vcr. 170. 

and IX. 200. 

The fcafon prime for fweeteft fents 
and airs. 
H h 3 The 



Such whifp'ring wak'd her, but with ftartlcd eye 
On Adam, whom embracing, thus flie ipake. 

O ible in whom my thoughts find all repofc^ ,^^J 
My glory, my pcrfedion, glad 1 fee ^Bl 

Thy face, and morn return 'd; for I this night 30 
(Such night till this I never palVd) have dream'd, 
If dream'd, not as I oft am wont, of thee, 
Works of day part, or morrow's next defign» 


The word is ufed by Chaucer and between Adam and Evt, had Ik 

Speufer, a) in Fairy Queen, B. I. eye very fteqonjdy upon the ink 

Cant. 6. Si. 1 3. of Canticle*, in wUich there ii 1 

They all, as elad as bid. of iov- ""'''■= ^E'"' °^ «**«™ P^^' ^ 

ous *nmf ■ ^^^ °"^^ ^" unlike what m 

\ ™cct with in Homer, who » «■ 

36. Sacb lahiffnng iL-ak'd to",] ncraUy plac'd near the age of So- 


But of ofFenfe and trouble, which my mind 

Knew never till this irkfome night: nqiethought 3 J 

Clofe at mine ear one calFd me forth to walk 

With gentle voice, I thought it thine j it faid, 

Why fleep'ft thou Eve? now is the pleafant time. 

The cool, the filent, fave where filence yields 

To the night-warbling bird, that now awake 40 

Tunes fweetefthis love-labor'd fongj now reigns 


forifiiy nuUther the tender ffrctpes op- onlv in a dream produced on pur- 

fear^ and the fomgramatt %td forth, poic to taint her imagination. Other 

— — « His preferring the garden of vain fentiments of the fame kind 

Eden to that, in this relation of her dream will 

1. -L r • * I • be obvious to every reader. Tho* 

-—where the fapient king ^^ cataftrophe oi the poem is 

HeM dalliance with h« fair Egyp- g^^, ^^^^ ^^ ^^ P^ 

tianfpoufe, IX. 4+3- the Juficulan of it are fo ««fuHy 

(hows that the poet had this de- ihadowed, that they do not anti-» 

lightfol fcene in view. Addifon. cipate the ftory which foUows in 

35. •^^methought the ninth book. I (hall only add, 

CUofe at mine ear &c.] Eve's dream that tho' the viiion itfelf is founded 

IS full of thofe high conceits in- upon truths the drcumfUnces of it 

gtndring fride^ which we are told are full of that wildnefs and incon- 

the Devil endevor'd to iniUl into fiftency, which are natural to a 

her. Of this kind is that part of dream. Addifcn, 

it where (he fancies herfelf awak- 41. Tunes faoeet eft bis to've-labor^d 

cn'd by Adam in the following /^^O Spenfer in his £pi- 

beautiful lines, thalamion, a poem which Milton 

Why ncep'ft thou Eve ? lie. ^^^'^^fT '? '"^^T/ ^^ " '^i 
^ ^ •« tnrds mje'leamed Jong, We muft 

An injudicious poet would have farther obfenre that our author 

made Adam talk thro' the whole takes great liberties in his ufe of the 

work in fuch fentiments as thefe: genders, fometimes making ifo'sv and 

but flattery and falfhood are not her and it of the fame thing or 

the courtfliip of Milton's Adam, creature. We have a very remark- 

and could not be heard by Eve in able inftance in VI. 878. 

ber ftat9 of innocence, excepting 

Hh4 Dilburden'd 



Full orb'd the moon, and with more plcafmg light 
Shadowy fcts off the face of things; in vain. 
If none regard; Heav'n wakes with all his eyes, 
Whom to behold but thee, Nature's defire ? 
In whofe fight all things joy, with ravithmcnt 
Attraded by thy beauty ftill to gaze. 
I rofe as at thy call, but found thee notj 
To find tliee I direfted then my walk; 
And on, methought, alone I pafs'd through ways 
That brought me on a fudden to the tree 
Of intcrdided knowledge : fair it fecm*d» 
Much fairer to my fancy than by day: 


• « 

^ US oft fcen ; his dewy locks diftiird j-^ 

mbrofia j on that tree he alfo gaz^d j 

nd O fair plant, faid he, with fruit ibrcharg'd, 

•eigns none to eafe thy load and taftc thy fwec^ 

or God, nor Man ? is knowledge fb defpisMP 60 

r envy', or what refervc forbids to tafte ? 

orbid who will, none (hall from me withhold 

onger thy offered good, why elfe fet here? 

his faid, he pausM not, but with ventrous arm 

[e pluck'd, he tafted ; me damp horror chilPd 65 

t fuch bold words vouched with a deed fo bold; 

lit he thus overjoyed, O fruit divine, 

^eet of thyfelf, but much more fwect thus cropt, 

Drbidden here, it feems, as only fit 


44. — Heavn luakts njottb all his Corde capeflere: fexDitt nolla pe« 

(yes^ Here again he has bis dem ftabilibat. 

liter Spenfer fuU in view, B. 3. My,b fiurer tc m, fane, thm 

'"*•"•, S'- 45- bjJi,:^A»xhc fenlkrioiu 

— with how many eyes are often more pleafing, and the 

[igh Heav*n beholds is^c. images more livelyy when we are 

afleep than when we are awake. 

4.9. To find thee 1 Jinked then mf And what can be the caufe of this ? 

iva/Ai] So Ennius apudCi- Our author plainly thinks it may 

t>nem, De Pivinat. I. 20. be efefled l^ the agency of fomt 

—— itafola fpiritual being upon the fenfory 

A -It r -^- .-^.^ while we are auleep. 

oft ilia, germana foror^ errare ^ 

videbar, 56. — his drwy locks diftHPd 

'ardaque vefligare, et quaerere JnAroJua'] So Virgil of Venos, 

te^ neque p^ i£n. 1. 403. 




For Gods, yet able to make Gods of Men: yo 

And why not Gods of Men» fince good, the more 
Communicated, more abundant grows, 
The author not impalr'd, butfaonor'd more? 
Here, happy creature, fair angelic Eve, 
Partake thou alfo; happy though thou art, 7J 

Happier tliou may'il be, worthier canft not be : 
Tafte this, and be henceforth among the Gods 
Thyfelf a Goddefs, not to earth confin'd. 
But fometimes in the air, as we, fomciimes 
Afcend to Heav'n, by merit thine, and fee 80 

What life the Gods live there, and fuch live thou. 

ookV. PA?LAPISE LOST. 355 

jid various : wond'riog at my flight and chapgp 
o this high exaltation; fuddenjy g^ 

ly guide was gone, and I, methought, funk down^ 
.nd fell afleep; but O how glad I wak'd 
o find this but a dream ! Thus Eve hej: night 
.elated, and thus Adam anfwer'd fad. 
Befl image of myfelf and dearer half» or 

*he trouble of thy thoughts this night in fleep 
ilefts me equally ; nor can I like 
'his uncouth dream, of evil fprung I fear; 
et evil whence? in thee can harbour nonq^ 
reated pure. But know that in the foul xoo 

re many lefTer faculties, that fervc 
eafon as chief; among thefe &ncy next 
'er ofHce holds ; of all external things, 
Hiich the five watchful fenfes reprefent^ 
le forms imaginations, aery fbapes, lo^ 

^hich reafon joining or disjoining, frames 
[1 what we' affirm or what deny, and call 


am. Night for the vifigns and op «— - andthui AtUsri] Adam 
axns frequent in it. So SiL ItaL conformable to his fuperior cha- 
.216. raster for wifdom inflrufls and 

comforts Eve upon thb occaiion. 
romi/Ia evolvit fonmi, npftemque JMJon, 

xetia^t. Humi* 

117. E*vil 



With wheels yet hovering o'er Ac Ocean hthbi t^tt 

Shot parallel to tlie earth his dewy ray, 

Difcovcring in wide land/liip all the eaft 

Of Pdradife and Eden's happy plains. 

Lowly ihey bow'd adoring, and bcgaii 

Their orifons, each morning duly paid 

In various ftile ; for neither various ftilc 

Nor holy rapture wanted they to praife 

Their Maker, in fit ftrains pronounc'd or fung 

Unmeditated, fuch prompt eloquence 

Flow'd from their lips, in profc or numerous vcrfc, 

More tuneable than needed lute or harp 151 




To add more fweetnefs ; and they thus began* 

Thcfe arc thy glorious works. Parent of good. 
Almighty, thine this univerfal frame. 
Thus wondrous fair; thyfelf how wondrous then! 
Unfpeakable, who fitft above thefc Heavens 156 
To us invifible, or dimly feen 
In thefe thy loweft works; yet thefe declare 
Thy goodnefs beyond thought, and pow'r divine. 
Speak ye who bed can tell, ye fons of light, 160 
Angels ; for ye behold him, and with fongs 
And choral fymphonies, day without night. 
Circle his throne rejoicing ; yc in Heaven, 


The author has raifed our expedla- tbefirft author ofheawiy bath crtMid 

don by commending the varictu tbtm, Bui if tbty loere aftvmjhed 

fillip ajid holy rapture^ and fromft at their fower and virtue^ Ui them 

gloouenci of onr firft parents ; and underfiand hj them^ how mmch migh^ 

indeed the hymn is truly divine, tier he is that modi them. For hy 

and will fully anfwer all that we the greatnefs and beauty of the crea^ 

expeded. It is an imitation, or tures, froportionably the tnaker of 

rather a fort of paraphrafe of the them is feen. 

1 48th Pfdm, and (of what is a pa- 1 60. Speak ye who befi can te//,8ec.'] 

raphrafe upon that) the Canticle He is un/peaAable, ver. 156. no 

placed afcer Te Deum in the Li- creature can fpeak worthily of him 

turgy, O ail ye works of the Lord^ as he is; but fpeak ye who are 

blefsye the Lord^ See, which is the beft able ye Angels, ye in Heaven; 

fong of the three children in the on Earth join aU ye creatures, (fc. 

Apocrypha. 162. — dav without night,] Ac* 

I cc. — thyfelf how wondrous thenf} cording to Milton there was grate- 

Wild. XIII. 3. f, 5. ff^ith whofe ful wdjfitude like day and night in 

beauty, if they being delighted, took Heaven, VI. 8. and we prefume 

them t9 be Gods ; let them know bow that he took the notion from Scrip- 

much bitter tbi Isrdof tbemit: for Uure» R«t. VII. 15. Tbtf are before 



On Earth join all ye Creatures to extol 

Him firft, him laft, him midft, and without end. i6^ 

Fairefl: of ftarSj laft in the train of night. 

If better thou belong not to the dawn, 

Sure pledge of day, that crbwn'ft the fmiling mom 

With thy bright circlet, praife him in thy iphere. 

While day arifes, that fweet hour of prime. 170 

Thou Sun, of this great world both eye and foul. 


ihl ihrim- of Cod, and fri-'-je bim LudFer, et cxii flatione nnw iflimw 

d,iy and r.ight in lis Senple. But Wtjt, 

flill ic was day iKirl.-iut nirhl, that rwn.^ a n i i- » -r 

h without iJ. .i..!.r ., LL for ^^ **?". *5« fl«*' '^ I-*^ 

the darkncfs ther 

had chas'd 
The fiar« awajr, nnd fled ^imft tf 


Acknowledge him thy greater, found his praife 
In thy eternal cburfe, both when thou climb'ft. 
And when high noon haft gain'd, and when thou fidl'ft. 
Moon, that now mcet'ft the orient fun, now fly'ft. 
With the fix'd ftars, fix'd in their orb that flies, 1 76 
And ye five other wand 'ring fires that move 
In myftic dance not without fong, refound 

His praife, who out of darknefs call'd up light. 


jjl^ JcbmvliJge him thf^tatir^'] jEnrnamfue adytis effeit penetra- 
It w not an improbable reading Hbus ignent: 

T\ijfxAtkmFwUdietyjCrtai9r:\iMt Qeonr. U, 400. 
I fuppole the aathor made ufe of a* * ^ * 

frtanr anfwering to grtat. — glcbaqa^ verfif 

JEtirmm frangenda bidentibiis. 
Hioa San, of this ^eai world 

both eye and fool, 17$* Metn^ that nanu mnt'^/t ihi 

Adcnowledge him thy gnatir. orient Jim, mw fifft^ &c ] 

The conftmdion is, ^bou Mtm, that 
So Ovid calls the fun the eye of the worn) meet* ft and mom/ fifft the meat 
^mrH Mundi ocalos, Met. IV. fun, together nmth the fix'd ftarsp 
228. And Pliny theftmU Nat. Hift. and ye five other wamf ring fires kc» 
Lib. I. c. 6. Hanc mundi effe to- He had before called upon the fim 
tins animnm. And the expreffion who governs the day, and now he 
/ly greater may be fitly paralleled invokes the moon, and the fix'd 
with tfy fierceft IV. 927. and his ftars, and the planets who govern 
^^«r/r in raradife Regained 1. 279. the night, to praife their Maker. 

The moon fometiaies meets and 
175. In thy eternal cour/e,'} In fometimes /»/ the fun, approaches 
thy continual courfe. Thus Vir- to and recedes from him in her 
gil calls the fun, moon and liars monthly courfe fFith the fix'd 
eternal fires, iEn. II. 1 54. Vos, ftars, fix'd in their orh that files ; 
4ttimi ignes; and the (acred fire they are fix'd in their orb, but 
that was confhmdy kept burning their orb flies, that is moves round 
eternal fire, JLn. II. 207. With the utmoil rapidity ; for Adam 

Vol.1. "^ I i i» 


Air, and yc Elements, the feldcft dicA 

Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run 

Perpetual circle, multiform; and mix 

And iiouriili all things; let your ccafelcfs change 

Vary to our great Maker uill new prallc. 

Ye MIfts and Exhalations that now rife jSj 

From hill or fieaming lake, duflty or gray. 

Till the fun paint your fleecy /kirts witli gold. 

In honor to the world's great Author rife. 

Whether to deck with clouds th' nocolor'd Dtff 


is tnndc to fpeak according to t^ ptUt uii puticdvly io PjfdiM- 



Or wet the thirfly earth with falling (howeris^ 1 90 

Rifing or £ilUng ftill advance his praife. 

His praife ye Winds, that from four quarters blow. 

Breathe foft or loud 3 and wave your tops, ye Pines, 

With every pUnt, in fign of worfliip wave. 

Fountains and ye, that warble, as ye flow, ig^ 

Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praife. 

f oin voices all ye living Souls ; ye Birds, 

That iinglng up to Heaven gate afcend. 

Bear o& your wings and in your notes his praife. 


181 .*-#ito M MfitermioM run &c.] 
That in a flounoUl mixture and 
combination run a perpetual circle^ 
one clcn^nt continually changing 
into another, ^^cording to the doc- 
trin of Heraditus, borrowed from 
Orpheus. £t cum quattuor iint 
genera corponim» vicifiitudine eo- 
mm mnndi continuata natura eft. 
Nam ex term, aqua : ex aqua, ori- 
tur aer : ex acre, aether: deinde 
retrorfunxviciflim ex aethere, aer : 
inde aqua : ex aqua, terra infima. 
Sic naturis his, ex quibus omnia 
cooftant, furfus, deori'us, ultro, ci- 
tro commeantibus, mundi partium 
conjun^o continetur. Cicero de 33. 

107. — - j^f Having Souh ; ] Sou/ 
u ukd here as it fometimes is in 
Scripture for other creatures be- 
fides Man. So Gen. I. 20. the 
moving crtaiure that hatb lift^ that 
\s/oul in the Hebrew> and in the 

margin of the Bible; and ver. 30. 
n/ery thing that crapeth upon thg 
iarthf luhereiM there tj li/e, that 19 
a li*vingfoul, 

198. 7hat fieging up to Hi^vm 
gate afc£nd,'] We meet witb 
the like hyperbole in Shakefjpe^^ 
Cymbeline, Ad II. 

Hark, hark! the lark at Heav Vt 
gate fings ; 

and again in his 29th fonnet. 

Like as the lark at break of dajr 

From fuUen earth fings hymnt at 

Heaven^s gate : 

and not unlike is that in Homi;^ 
Od. XII. 73. of a very high rock/ 

O^etM xopt/f !?• 

And with its pointed top to H^av^n 

I i 2 202. Witnefs 

201. iyi,„ff, if 1 ht 

Bentley thinks ihac Mi 
^,D^ that both Adam ai 
in this hymn, and 
rcadi if tut be filemt, 
next vcrTe but one hy « 
Milton rather imitatei 
cieat chorui. Where ft 
plflra', and fometinm 
nambcr is ufed. The i 
tic'd Ijj- oar pdct in thi 
tbe choru* in Sampfo 
wKere the Wider will 
page almoll that the 
thu varied. Or. Beat] 
tint the whole hymn : 
videt itTelfinto parts ii 
and that he hai prefu 
it fo, tfao' not warm 
edition. But thit it at 
ley's invention; for th 
let to mutic Tome yean 
Alt. compolition the i 
«f it were aJCgo'd i 
^&dam and Eve. i thi 
inierlociitory partg arc I 
£t for. ai heroic poera : 
■inhor flxinld be Tuppol 



11 unlver^ Lord, be bounteous fllll 205 

give us only good ; and if the night 

/e gathered ought of evil or conceal'd, 

perfe it, as now light difpels the dark. 

o pray'd they innocent, and to their thoughts 


upiter give us good things, 
her we pray for them or not, 
remove from as evil things, 
tho* we pray for them. And 
learn from the firft book of 
>phon*s memoirs of his mailer 
ates, that Socrates was wont 
'ay to the Gods only to give 
I things, as they knew oeft 
t things were fo. ivxfro /f 

9ftUf H( Tisf dff«c x«tAAicct ef 
x< oToitf aya,id, fr/. And to 
fame porpofe there is an ex- 
mt collet in our Liturgy, for 
eighth Sunday after Tiinity, 
humbly hifeecb thee to put awaf 
I us all hurtful things^ a»i to 
us thofe things tuhicb he frofi- 
ffor us, 

09. So frs^^il they inuocentf emd 

to their thoughts 
irsu peace recover ifoon andiuoxt' 

ed calm. 
^n to their mormn^s rural tvork 

they hafie &c J Thefe verfes 
thus pointed in the beft, that it 
^ilton*s own editions : but the 
•r fentence begins very abrupt- 
On to their mormug^s work &C. 
Bentley therefore continuing 
fentence resds thus. 

So prayed they innocent; and t» 

their thoughts 
Firm peace recovering foon and 

wonted calm. 
On to their moming^s rural work 

they hafle Ufc. 

Dr. Pearce thinks the fentence fuf« 
ficiently continued in the common 
reading, if recover J be a parti- 
ciple of the ablative cafe; and 
conceives this to be the conftruc- 
tion, Peace and calm being recovered 
to their thoughts^ they hafie &C. and 
accordingly points it thus, 

— and, to their thoughts 
Firm peace recovered loon and 
wonted calm. 
On to their moming^s rural work 
they hafle. 

But perhaps the abruptnefs of the 

On to their mon^ng*s rural work 
they hafte 

was defign'd the better to exprefs 
the hafte they were in as they were 
kter to day than ufual : Or per- 
haps with an eafy alteration it nuy 
be read thus, 

^hen to their morniog^s rural work 
they hade. 
113 214. ^hiir 



Firm peace recover'd foon and wonted calm. a lo 
On to their morning's rural work ihey haftc 
Among fwect dews and fiow'rs; where any row 
Of fruit-trees over-woody Teach'd too iar 
Their pamper'd boughs, and needed hands to cbcd: 
Fruitlefs embraces: or they led the vine zJj 

To wed her elm; fiie fpous'd about him twines 
Her marriageable arms, and with her brings 
Her dow'r th' adopted clufters, to adorn 


J. Their pamfcr'd heagl-i,'] The iku ij Tcry fitly made the n 
lenl of a nnirnc ' 
nr^cd in Otid s 

proprieh' of this cxprcJlton will nenl of a nnrricd coapJe, i^tdi 
bed be leen "- i-.. i...: ., r, e -. _j :_ ^^m _ 


His barren leaves. Them thus employed beheld 

With pity Heav'n's high king, and to him call'd 220 

Raphael, the fpciable Spi rit, that deign'd 

To travel with Tobias, and fecur'd 

His marriage with the fcv'ntimes- wedded maid. 

Raphael, faid he, thou hear 'ft what flir on Earth 
Satan from Hell fcap*d through the darkfome gulf 
Hath rais'd in Paradife, and how difturb'd 226 
This night the human pair, how he defigns 


Yet this tall elm> but for hb vime 
(he faid) 

Had flood neglefted, and a bar- 
ren (hade ; 

And this fair vine, but that her 
arms furround 

Her marry*d elm, had crept along 
the ground. Pope. 

And Virgil likewife has the meta- 
phor of the vine embracing the 
elm, Georg. 11. 367. 

Inde ubi jam validis amfUxtt fiir- 

pibus ulmoft 

and not only the poets, but Colu- 
mella and the writers of ruHic af- 
fairs frequently ufe the phrafes of 
nufta ijithy and marita ulmus, 

222. To tra*vf/ with Tolsas,'] In 
the book of Tobit the Angel Ra- 

Shael travels with Tobias into Me- 
la and back again, and in(tru£b 
liim how to xnarry Sara the daugh- 

ter of Raguel* and how to drive 
away the wicked Spirit who had 
deilroy'd her former feven hus- 
bands before they had knowledge 
of her. So ficiable a Spirit as this 
is very properly fcnt to converfe 
with Adam upon this occafion. 

224. Raphael, faid he J thou hear*ff 
mihat Hir on Earth d:c] Mil- 
ton in the following fcene feems to 
have had his eye in a particular 
manner upon the 9th Canto of 
Taflb*s Jerufalem, where God fends 
Michael to aflifl the Chriftians. 
What God fays here to Raphael 
is expreisM much after the fame 
manner with the beginning of God*t 
fpeech to Michael, St. 58. 

— Non vedi hor come s*armi 
Contra la mia fedel dillecca greg- 

L'cmpia fchicra d' Auerno — 



235. Hap* 



In them at once to ruin all mankind. 

Go therefore, half this day as friend with fiiend 

Converfe with Adam, b what bow'r or fliadc S30 

Thou find'ft him from the heat of noon rctir'd, 

To refpit his day-hbor with repafl, 

Or with repofe; and fuch difcourfc bring on. 

As may advife him of his happy Aate, 

Happinefs in his pow'r left free to wUl, tjj 

Left to his own free will, his will though free. 

Yet mutable; whence warn him to beware 

He fwerve not too fecure: tell him withal 

BookV. . PARADISE LOST. 369 

His danger, and from whom ^ what enemy, 

Late £dl'n himfelf from Heav'n, is plotting now 

The fall of others from like flate of blifs; 24 1 

By violence? no, for that (hall be withftood; 

But by deceit and lies; this let him know. 

Left wilfully tranfgreffing he pretend 

Surprifal, unadmoni(h'd, unforewarn'd. 245 

So fpake th' eternal Father, and fulfill'd 
All juflice : nor delay 'd the winged Saint 
After his charge received; but from among 
Thoufand celeftial Ardors, where he ftood 


qneffion bat Milton had thb cir- aathors, and have each their par- 
cumftance in hb thoughts, becaufe ticolar beauties and defeds. Mil* 
in the following book he defcribes ton does not in this place feem to 
the chariot of the Meffiah with endevor to imitate, as he does in 
living wheds, according to the plan many others, the Italian poet, but 
of Ezekiel's vidon. I queftion not rather to drive to rival and outdo 
but Bofla and the two Daciers, him, and to have chofen for that 
who are for vindicating every thing purpofe circumHances of a difFe- 
chat is cenfured in Homer, by fome- rent fort to embelli(h his defcrip- 
thing parallel in holy Writ, would tion. Which has fucceeded beft, 
have oeen very well pledged had eveiy reader muft determin for 
they thought of confronting Vol- himfelf. ^hyer. 
can's tripodes with Ezekiers wheels. 249. Thoufand celeftial Ardors^ ] 

Addifin, Ardir in Latin implies fervency. 
It perhaps would be an entertain- exceeding love, eager deiire, fiery 
xnent to the curious reader to com- nature ; all included in the idea 
pare this circumftantial defcription of an Angel. Richard/on. 

of RaphaePs defcent from Heaven By the word Ardon here Milton 
with that of Michael in Taflb*s only means Seraphim, which fig* 
Gier. Lib. Cant. 9. St. 60, 61, 62. nifies juft the fame in Hebrew 
They feem both to have been (being derived from xarafh to 
much labored by their refpeAive bum) as Ardtrs does in Englifh. 




Veil'd with liis gorgeous wings, up ipnoging light 250 
Flew through the midft of Hcav'n; th* angelic quires^ 
On each hand parting, to his fpeed gave way 
Through all th' empyreal roadj till at the gate 
Of Hcav'n arriv'd, the gate fclf-open'd wide 
On golden hinges turning, as by work 25J 

Divine the fovran Architeft had fiam'd. 
From hence, no cloud, or, to obftruft his fight. 
Star intcrpos'd, however fmal] he fees. 
Not unconform to other fliining globes. 
Earth and the gard'n of God, with cedars crown'd 
Above all hills. As when by night the glafs 261 

Book V. P A R A D I S E L O S T. 371 

Of Galileo, Ids afiur'd^ obferves 
Imagin'd lands and regions in the moon^ .: 
Or pilot, firom amidft the Cycla^s 
Delos or Samos £bft appcarii^, kens 265 

A cloudy fpot. Down thither prone in flight 
He fpeeds, and through the vaft ethereal fky 
Sails between worlds and worlds, with fteddy wing 
Now on the polar winds, then with quick &n 
Winnows the buxom air; till within foar 270 

Of towering eagles, to' all the fowls he fecms 
A Phoenix, gaz'd by all, as that fole bird. 
When to inihrine his reliques in the fun's 


trmmti wib cedars \Vhich were names to tliem : Or pilot, from awnJft 

higher than the highcfft bills. the Cycladts^ a parcel of Hands isk 

jt6i. «— As nsihen by mght tbs the Archipelago, Delos or Samos foft 

glqfs &c.] The Angel from a^aring^ two of the lareeft of 

Heaven «te Tiewing the earth is thefe ilands and therefore £ft ap« 

compared to an aSronomer ob- pearing, kms a cloaufy/pot^ for ilands 

fervii^ the moon thro' a telefcope, feem to be fuch at their ^t^ ap« 

or to a pilot at fea difcovering an pearance. But the Angel (tts with 

Hand at a diftance. As tuben iy greater deamefs and certainty than 

stigbt tbi gla/s of Galileo^ the tele- thefe; the glafs is le/s ajfur^d, and 

fcope firft ufed in celedial obferva- the pilot kens only a cloudy f^^ 

tions by Galileo a native of Flo- when the Angel i&t^ not the whole 

rence^ hfi affur^i than the Angel, globe only, but diftindlly the mount 

as was bkewife the pilot, obfcr*uest of Paradilc. 

a poetical exprcffion, the inftru- 206. Dorwn thither frnu in 

ment put for the perfon who makes Jiight &c.] Virg. ^n. IV. 253. 

ufe of it, imagifCd lands and regions —nine loto praxeps fe COrpore 

in tbi moofiy it is not only imagin'd ad undas 

chat there are lands and regions Mifit, avi ftmilis. 

ill the moon^ but adronomers give 272. AFhajux,'] Dn Bentley ob.* 



Bright temple, to Egyptian Thebes he flics. 
At once on th'eaftcrn cliff of ParadUc zy; 

He lights, and to his proper ihapc returns 
A Seraph wing'd ; fix wings he wore, to (hade 
His lineaments divine; the pair that clad 
Each ihoulder broad, came mantling o'er his brejft 


jcfls to Raphael's taking ihfiafii 

»f a Phatiix.. and ihc objcfUoa 
would be very juft if Milton bad 
faiJ any foch thing: but he only 
fays that tt all ibt fmuii ht fetmt 
a Phanix ; he was not really a 
Phcenix. the birdi only fancied him 
*" ' among 

. This bird « 

s famous 

the Ancients, bm generally loolced 
upon by the Modtms a^ fabulous. 
The naturalills fpeak of it as Tingle, 

Sm Plia. Niit. Hift. L. to. c a> 
Ovid. M«. XV. and CUudon « 
Pboraice. AniiidainT«flbuinti« 
manaiT compared to a Ptucaii, 
Cmt. 17, St. 35, 
Come all' hor. che1 rinato niM 
augello. (J-f. 

Aa when the Dcw-bois Pbsaii 

doth begin 
To fly to E&iope-wud, ai tbe fair 


th regal orfiament -, the middle pair 
t like a ftarry zone his wade, and round 
ted his loins and thighs with downy gold 
1 colors dipt in Heav'n; the third his feet 
dow*d from either heel with feather'd mail, 
-tindur'd grain. Like Maia's fon he flood. 




hat MHton makes Raphael 
thi/baf€ of a Pbandx. Bat by 
nng $9 Ins froter Jbapi Milton 
s only that ne ftood on his 
and gathered up his fix wings 
tieir proper place and fitnation. 

I another ingenious perfon ex- 
(sit, He feemM again what he 
' was, a Seraph wing'd ; where- 
his fUeht he appeared what he 
ot» a Phoenix. 

7. -"^fix swings be nvorif &€.] 
Serapmm feen by Ifaiah, VI. 
d the fame number of wings» 
r ii ftood the Serapbimst emcb m 
X voings: but there the. wings 
fpofed differently. 
1^ — - nuitb ftatbtiri nunlt 
'timSMr^d grain.] Feathers lie 
lort of another refembling the 
, of metal of which coats of 
are composed. Sky-colored, 
in grain, to expreis beauty 
araDlenefs. Ricbardfat. 
teTs defcent to the earth, with 
pire of his perfon, is repre- 
[ in very lively colors. Se* 
of the French, Ittlian and 
h poeu have f&vea a loofe to 
imaginationf an the defcrip* 

don of Angels : Bat I do not re- 
mmber to hare met mth any ib 
finely drawn, and fo conformable 
to the notions which are given of 
them in Scripture, as this in Mil- 
ton. After having fet him fbrdi 
in all his heavenly plumage, and 
reprefented him as alighting upon 
the earth, the poet concludes hit 
defcription with a drcumftanoe^ 
which is altogether new, uidima- 
£in*d with the greateft ftroigth of 

<— Like Maia*s (on he ftood. 
And (hook his plumes, thatheavV 

ly fraerance filled 
The circuu wide. AMfon. 

The comparing of die Angel to 
Mmits jifty to Mercury, (howt 
evidently that the poet had parti- 
cularly in view thofe fublime paf* 
fages of Homer and Vireil, which 
d«cribe the flight and defcent of 
Mercury to the earth. That of Ho* 
mer is in the Iliad. XXIV. ^39. 


TS KO^^A mvtiKUp 



And fhook his plumes, that heav'niy fragraoce fill'd 
The circuit wide. Strait knew him all the bands 
Of Angels under watch; and to his Jfete, 
And to his mefllige high in honor rifc; 285^ 

For on feme mefla^c high they guefs*d him boond. 
Their glittering tents he pafs'd, and now is come 


AfiCgfjia, -jtpvirtia, T« ft/f 9f Stu terrain, rapido ponicr con 
ftt Ufi-fr %{i'uyf«vt Rajxune porcaat. 

Kj'' ct' tiatf^'-t yAtai; *!**, Turn virg-im capit: hie aniina 
istaiff ewtiiBiii' ille Cfpcat Oreo 

Em«to J^ii (^rSJ'iir, Tti t' dk/fWC Pallemes. aliai fub triAii TvUit 
ofif/iT* Sihyet, initlit ; 

The God obeys, his golden pj- Hermes obeys; wHh 


Into the bUfsfiil field, through groves of myrrh. 
And flow'ring odors, caflia, nard, and balm; 

A wildemefs of fweets ; for Nature here 
Wanton'd as iti het prime, and play'd at wil^ 
Her virgin fancies, pouring forth more fweet. 
Wild aboVe rale or art 5 enormous blifs. 



the copy or the original, yet I be- 
lieve every reader will eafiljr de- 
termin that Milton*s defcription b 
better thah both. The reader may 
likewife, if he pleafes, compare 
this defcent of Raphael with that 
of Gabriel in Taflb, Cant. i. 
St. 1 3» i4» 1 5. Bvt (as Dr. Pcarce 
obferves) it b the graceful po- 
ihire in ftanding after aiightmg 
that b particularly compared to 

Hie paribus primum nitens Cylle- 
DiQs alb 

CanfiiHu -/Bn. IV. 255. 

It b probable that the idea was Hrft 
taken from the graceful attitudes 
of the antique ftatues of Mercury : 
but our author might have it more 
immediately from Shakefpcar's 
Hamlet, Aa III. 

A ffamoo, like the hendd Mercmy 

New-lighted on a Heaven-kiffing 


as the image of the Aii^*s (baking 

hb fragrant plumes is borrowed 

particularly from Fairfax's Taflb, 

On Lebanon at firll hb foot he fet. 
And fhoc^ hb wings with roary 
May-dewi we;. 

2S8. — - aiiii9 hisflaiif 
And H his nujffmgf l^gb in ~ 
rife;] With die fame refpeft 
as the Mufes pay to Gallus in Vir- 
gil, Ed. VI. 66. 

Utque viro Phoebi chorus afFur- 
rexerit omnb. 

a96. — f9mi^/wrth mortfiuUi^ 
Wild above rule or art ; imorwuM 
blifsJ] So the two iirft edi- 
tions point this palTagc : Dr. Bent- 
ley puts no ftop after art ; for want 
of which he has fallen into a con- 
fiderable miflake: inilead offoar- 
rimg firth tmrtjkuetty he would nave 
OS read fowriwg firth prrfafi. He 
ixft m§re fwtet than what ? no- 
thing: for the oompariibn b dropt. 
But the fenfe b, pouring fonh 
what was the more fweet for 
being wild and above rule or art. 


Or fhould niere not be a comma 
only after art ? and b not en&rmout 
blifs the accufative cafe after fwr- 
ing firth f which blifs was the uton 
/wittf as it was wild abcvi rmig or 

298. Him 



Ilim through the fplcy foreft onward come 

Adam difcern'd, as in the door he dt 

Of his cool bow'r, while now the mounted fun 300 

Shot down diredl his fervid rays to warm 

Earth's inmoCl wonib.more warmth than Adam need*: 

And Eve within, due at her hour prepar'd 

For dinner favory fruits, of tafte to pleafc 

True appetite, and not difrelifh thirft joj 

Of nedla'rous draughts between, from milky ftream, 

Berry or grape : to whom thus Adam call'd. 

Hirte hidicr Eve, and worth thy fight behold 
Eaflward among thofe trees, what glorious (hapc 



To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchfafe 
This day to be our gueft. But go with fpeed. 
And what thy ftores contain, bring forth, and pour 
Abundance, fit to honor and receive 315 

Our heav'nly ftranger: well we may afford 
Our givers their own gifts, and large beflow 
From large beftow'd, where Nature multiplies 
Her fertil growth, and by difburd'ning grows 
More fruitful, which inflruds us not to fpare. 320 
To whom thus Eve. Adam, earth's hallow'd moldt 
Of God infpir'd, fmall flore will fervc, where florc. 
All feafons, ripe for ufe hangs on the ilalk ; 
Save what by frugal floring firnmefs gains 
To nourifh, and fuperfluous moifl confumes: 325 


l^uft or new wine, fo we fpell it 
after the Latin mufium^ add not 
maufi as it is in our authors own 

310. — — fiiffu anotbir mtm ] 
The nominative cafe is here un- 
derftood» the glorious fiapt before 

310. fiems another mom 

Riim 991 miJ-noon;'] An expreffioa 
probably borrowed from thcfe two 
Hnes in Mariners Adonis, upon a 
fudden appearance of a glory much 
of tiie fame kind. C. 1 1 . St. 2.7. 
Vol. I. 

E oio uM lufiro UoHpeggiar^ 

Chi file a Jolt ogttunfty e ponu i 

Itomo. Thyer. 

325. — * mU fuferflwom fmift con^ 
Jums:'] This is rather too 
philoibphical for the female cha* 
rader of Eve : and in my opinion 
one of Milton's greateft faults is hia 
introducing inconfiftences in ihm 
charaders Doth of Angeb and Man 
by mixing too much with ijiein 
hu own phUofophical notions. 





But I will hafte, and frohi each bough and bratB^ 
Each plant and juciefl: gourd, will pluck fuch choice 
To entertain our Angel gueft, as he 
Beholding fliall confefs, that here on Earth 
God hath difpens'd his bounties as in Heaven. 

So faying, with difpatchful looks in hafte 
She turns, on hofpltablc thoughts intent 
Wliat choice to cJioofe for delicacy bcft, 
What order, fo contriv'd as not to mix 
Taftes, not well joiii'd, inelegant, but bring 
Tafte after tafte upheld with kindlieft change; 




irs her then, and from each tender fblk 

atever'fiaith all-bearing mother yidds 

ndia Eaft or Weft, or middle (hore 

^ontus or the Punic coaft, oc where ^V^ 

nous reign'd, fruit of all kinds, in coat 

gh or fmooth rin'd, or bearded hufk, or fhell, 

gathers, tribute large, and on the board 

ps with unfparing hand; for drink the grape 

crufhes, indfenfive mufl:, and meaths 34^ 

n many a berry', and from fwcet kernels prcfs'd 

tempers dulcet creams, nor thefe to hold 


1 Ynglt Mn. XII. 680. cian iland in the Ionian fea (now 

banc, oro, fine mt furere ante ^ ff'V of Venice) anciently caU'd 
uiuu^ uiv, imc «i^y-^»f us pj^j^^cw, then Corcyra, now Cor- 

"'^'* ' fa, under the dominion of tlie Ver 

laoy more inftances might be netians. The foil is fruitful in oil^ 

wine, and moft excellent fruits^ 
. .... -. , „ w . and its owner is made ifamo'as for 
'•J^trrot'cStr^a hisg-ien3CclcbratcdbyHo.«^^ 
«MM>Top yti, and the Latins y^ j^^ ^^^ ^^ 

T-HS n"^- JV9.S- the word /•#'»>' Milton int^. 

•theied all manner of fruits ^^ y„, .^ \i y^ invention of 

the earth at that nme af- fermenting the jnce of the grape, 

\.il "^K r /r*^"^ "• and thereSy giving it an intoldcate 
ibkft and beft cuftivated gw- i„g q„aiity^ *^Thu he would f»y 

was not the wine of Paradife. 
\. '—— or tiadJle Jhvt tec. ] ^h*''r 

I the borders of the Medi- 34$. — — and miatbs'\ Sweet 
e^ni infmtut, partof Afia, drinks like meadi. A word dc^ 
Fmdc coaft, part of Africa, hy Chancer, and perhaps deriv;4 
frt Aiciimu ra'gn'tt, in a Gre- from utiv. 

K k « 34!. — *«r 



Wants her fit veflels pure, then ftrows the ground 
With rofe and odors from the fhriib unfijm'd. 

Mean while our primitive great fire, to meet 3J0 
His God-like gueil, walks forth, without more tnio 
Accompanied than with his own complete 
Perfctftions ; in himiclf was all his ftatc. 
More folemn than the tedious pomp that waits 
On princes, when their rich retinue long 355 

Of horfes led, and grooms bcfmear'd with gold, 
Dazles the croud, and fets them all agape. ^ . 

Nearer his prcfcnce Adam though not aw'd, ^H 
Yet with fubmifs approach and reverence meek, ^ ' 


As to' a fuperior nature, bowing low, 36Q 

Thus faid. Native of Heav'n, for other place 
None can than Heaven fuch glorious (hape contain ; 
Since by defcending from the thrones above, 
Thofe happy places thou haft deign'd a while 
To want, and honor thefe, vouchfafe with us 365 

Two' only, who yet by fovran gift poflefs 
This fpacious ground, in yonder (hady bower 
To reft, and what the garden choiceft bears 
To fit and tafte, till this meridian heat 
Be over, and the fun more cool decline, 37a 

Whom thus th' angelic Virtue anfwer'd nnld. 


Yurbaqoe mirator znatrum^ et as he is fitting: See my note cm 

profpedat euntem, II. 917. Pearct. 

AttonttiB Mtans animis. 

371. — ib' angeBc Ttrtni] Tkc 

2lSi,'-'^^Natpueof Hiav%fir Angel: thus Homer ufes Fleitf juais 

otber tlaci fitnv tbejirengib §/ Priam for Priam 

Uvu emt than Heaven fucb glon9us himfelf, Iliad. III. 105. and F.ii7«* 

jh4i^ cmtmn ;] Milton in the p®- yL%9& for Hedor, Iliad. XIV. 

torn of theTe words ytry plainly al- 41 S. 

ludes to what .£neas fays to Venus . . » c 

in th^ fi«ft yEneid v^r. 327. -^'^f^ «^ ^•> -f''^. ^^'^ ^•- 

^ ' y@- A^jupooio. Odyff. VII. 167. 

O, qua^^ tc mcmofem, Virgo ? After th^ fecred facngth of Aid- 

na^qu^ haud abi vultus nous heard that. 

Mortalis, nee vox hommem fo- 

nat; 6 Dea certe. Tbyer. Ipiuted twice by the Cfiatious Vir- 

gil, OJora camam <vfi for dogs, JEn* 
IV. 1 32. Fh 

368. — wbat tbe garden cbmctft IV. 1 32. Vimjui Deum imfimam the 

be^s infernal Deities, An. XII. 149. 

refit and taftt^l That b, to tafie fbwr. 

Kkj 378— ^•-. 

» uavc 11 win. iJOtOthi 

They came, that like Po 
Witii Smr'na dcck'd and 
Undcck'd fi»e with hetfe 
Than Wood-Njrfnph, 6t - 
or three that In mount I( 
Stood ttfentertahl her goe( 
OTCBdeded, virtue-proof; 
Wter-d lit* chttfc. On wh 

padrf. oflralifr™ nigit wdi 
tjtiHKirri to hive I dajktfii 
•rtorbjtthit could HOT be more 
deiightfol in imagination, tlian thia , 

»y"6.7.1?:: '"°''"-««-' 

380. ViUeci'J/awwithberfiin 
™ u fimplfct aiandrdu inde«L 


ow'd, die holy fklutatioD us'd 
g after to bleft Maiy, fecond Eve. 
[ail Mother of Mankind^ whofe fruitful womb 
1 fill the world more numerous with thy fons, 
n with thefe various fruits the trees of God 3 90 
e heap'd this table. Rais'd of grafly turf 
ir table was, and mofly feats had round, 
on her ample fquare from fide to fide 
autumn pil'd, though fpring and autumn here 
c'd hand in hand. A while difcourfe they hold; 
fear lefl dinner cool ; when thus began 396 

author. Hcav'niy flranger, pleafe to tafle 
fe bounties, which our Nourifher, from whom 

perfcft good, unmeafur'd out, dcfcends. 


[^ *— - 'virhu proof i\ Proof ii the figure of Etre miniftring at the 

in the old poets for armour^ table, are circumftances which de- 

^pear, Rom. & Jul. Ad I. ferve to be admired. AJdifim. 

in ftrong /r< of chafUty ^ ^S?- -— to JIW feamd £«r.] 

v^ arm'd See Luke 1. 28. She is call d ficond 

a love's lieak childiih bow ^'^'^ /J Chrift is fometimes caUed 

he Uves unharm'd. feamd Adam .^^__ • 

^94. AUeutumM fitd^ The table 

;. — i- On 'whom the Avgei had mofly feats round it, and all 

tUil &c.] The natural ma- autusm jpil'd npon it ; that is the 

of Adam> and at the fame fruits of autumn. So in Viig. 

his fttbmiilive behaviour to Georg. II. 5. 

perior being, who had vouch- _ p.nipineo gravidus autumno 

to be his gueft; the folcmn YlovtttLr 

which the Angel beftows up- * 

c mother of mankind, wilb 2^ — — /^^ Milton writqp 

Spiritual, may of pared ( 
No'ingratefulfood: and 
Intdligential fubftances re 
As doth your rational; at 
Witliin them every lower 
Of fenfe, whereby they he 
.Tatting concoa, digcft, a 

it ftrfit after the French pArfait or 

of fpelUnE „ u after tl,e Latin 
f^eu,; and very ,ig]„| , 
oally .awe mate ufe likewife of 
tke woiJ frfiai^. And in the 
pneral it ii better forely to derive 
our language from the original La- 
tin, than to make it only the copy i 
or a copy, i 

V>7. N,-l.gra,/./jMQ There 1 
oeing mention made in Scripture i 
of ,»^,V~; P&l.LXXVIjra" , 


1 corporeal to incorporeal turn. 

know, whatever was created, needs 

be fuftain'd and fed; of elements 415 

; grofler feeds the purer, earth the fea, 

h and the fea feed air, the air thofe fires 

ereal, and as loweft firfl the moon; 

ence in her vifage round thofe fpots, unpnrgM 

ors not yet into her fubfhmce tum'd. j^zo 

• doth the moon no nourifliment exhale 

m her moid continent to higher orbs. 

: fun, that light imparts to all, receives 

m all his alimcntal recompenfe 

lumid exhalations, and at even 425 


sf diofe fyftems of philofoph^ TIirM ^iex«t vie J^* flU/^<9 

li he had learned in his O J^* iiKi&' '^AA««i«r» 

ger years. If he had written Tor /* iiA/or ^fAnyii. 

the late difcoveries and im- ^^ ^^ ^^^^ the poet al- 

ements in fcience, he would luJcd to this, and more parficdariy 

written in ^^^.J^^^' to that paflage in Winy, where the 

dlow'd by aU philoTophers, ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^ 

the fun and fixed ftan receive j„ ^j^^ „^^ %^^ ^^ ^ 
fopphcs of nounflimcnt; but ^^y^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ . . .^ 

k«» «n««in#r tn#k«f or» tMl snrl • •• • i* « ' ^ 

.^. V ■ . 7 ,' pctcniB aa naonenaum Ultra 10101 

indulged to a poet mfpeak- !^. „„;,j„ ^5^ ^ aUud eft 

»f thefc things, Asm to « phi- ^^„^ „p„ ^^ ^„^ 

Jier. The fame kind of thought ^^^ Li^. 2. <5vr9. 

diroagh an Ode of Anacreon, * ' 

IQ ^zi. Ntr Jitb tit mttm M» mmi/k- 

>■ j»ix<ur<c 9irM. „. ^*«' «*^] A Ladnifin. $• 

*;« /» /tr/f*' t/rm'. Virj. Gewj. I. « j. 




Sups with the ocean. Though in Heav'n the trees 
Of life ambrofial fruitage bear, and vines 
Yield nc(fi:ar ; though from off the boughs each mani 
We brufh mellifluous dews, and find the ground 
Cover'd with pearly grain : yet God liath here 4j0 
Varied his bounty fo with new deliglus. 
As may compare with Heaven ; and to tafte 
Think not I {hail be nice. So down they iat. 
And to their viands fell, j, nor feemingly 
The Angel, nor in miA, the common glo& 435 


Nee nulla interca eft ir 

qT omwi, 
t Toiljtn, 


Of Theologians; but with keen difpatch 

Of real hunger^ and concodive heat 

To tranfubftantiate : what redounds, tranipires 

Through Spi'rits with eafe; nor wonder; if by fire 

Of footy coal th* empiric aichemift 1^^^ 

Can turn, or holds it poffible to turn, 

Metals of droffieft ore to perfed gold 

As from the mine. Mean while at table £v6 

Minifter*d naked, and their flowing cups 

With pleafant liquors crown'd : O innocence 44.5 


Mans I this (kme word he ofes in bold triab and experiments {ifjL'jm" 
hu ^eiracbordofit p. 223. Vol. i. tiK®- in Greek from 's-vi^ a trial 
Edit. 1738. or experiment) without much fldU 

^t8. — lubat niounds^ tranjpins and knowledge in the art, like a 
&C.J This artfully avoids the inde- quack in phyAck. And they muft 
cent idea, which would elfe have be ftrange empirics indeed, who can 
liefcn ^apt to have arifen on the hope to find out the philoiopher^t 
Aneels feeding, and withal gives (lone, and turn metals ofdroffieft •rt 
a £licacyto thefe Spirits, which to ferfeS gsld. But it is not ftrange 
finely diilinguifties them from us in that our author fo frequently al- 
one of the moft humbling circum- lodes to alchemy (as he does in 
fiances relating to our bodies. IL $17. III. 609. as weU as here) 

Ricbardfom. when Johnfon has written a wholo 

^ jg. — nor nmnder ; ifbyfi"' ^^0 comedy upon it. 
Nor u it a wonder, that the Angels 445. 9f^itbpieafantHfu$rs<rmion^d:^ 
have eoncoBinte beat in their fto- To crown tbeir cnps was a phrale 
nachs fufficient to tran/nb/antiate, amon? the Greeks and Romaai 
to tdm their food and nooriihment for filling them above the brim, 
into their own fubftance, to aJM- bat yet not fo as to ran over* 
imti as it was faid before, andtnm Thus it is ufed by Homer, Iliad. 
i^rfonai to incorforeai; if by fire 1. 470. 

the ilchcmlft can turn or think, to mn-M» 

turn til metih to gold. Tie m- %^„. "T w -r- 

firic Mtumft, tt one who makct 



Deferving Paradife! if cvdr, then. 

Then had the fons of God cxcufc to* have been 

Enamour'd at that fightj but in thofe hearts 

Love unlibidinous rcign'd, nor jealoufy 

y/ss underftood, the injur'd lover's Hell. ^jo ' 

Thus when with meats and drinks they had faffic'd, 
Not burden'd nature, fuddcn mind arofc 
In Adam, not to let th* occafion pafs 
Giv'n him by this great conference to know 
Of things above his world, and of tlieir being 455 
Who dwell in Heav'n, whofe cxccHence he faw 
Tranfcend his own fo far, whofe radiant forms 



vine eifiilgencc, whofe high pow'r Co hr 

:ceeded human, and his wary fpeech 

lus to th' empyreal minifter he framed. 460 

Inhabitant with God, now know I well 

ly £ivor, in this honor done to Man, 

ider whofe lowly roof thou haft vouchiaf 'd 

> enter, and thefe earthly fiiiits to tafte^ 

Kxl not of Angels, yet accepted fo, 465 

I that more willingly thou couldft not feem 

:Heav'n's high feafts to'havefed : yet what compare? 

To whom the winged Hierarch reply'd. 

Adam, one Almighty is, from whom 


he reading in Milton's own edi^ 468. To nubom tbi 'wimgedHUrwxk 

IS, and not above this 'world as reply d. ] Raphaers beha- 

'. Fenton and Dr. Bentley have vioar is every way fuitable to the 

a*d it to be printed. dignity of his nature, and to that 

. ^gL f /. ,/ , ^ T charader of a ibciable Spirit, witk 

"/aLT^ -^^ T^^!^ *^* I which the anthor has (b ludicioufly 
ciiiemct is a general word ; and . ^ j •-."^* *" "* j*i*«*awii4»F 

im^^v^ •Wl 77 ^V A., introduced him. He had received 

u t i^ !^ 7 V^ inilruaions to convcrfe with Adam. 

J^i parnculars, dieir r^. ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^ ^ 

^•^1. ^"^n V r'\ '^v • ^fl ther, and to warn him of the ene- 
wc of the Deity} and their %^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ contriving hU de- 

«rr. rearce. ftruaion: accordingly he is repie- 

467. '•-"^yet what eomfareT ] fented as fitting down at table with 

t hucb was nnary ; and Jie was Adam, and eating of the fruits of 

"ttd to aih the Angel directly of Paradife. The occafion naturally 

sdiiEerent conditions of Men and leads him to his difcourfe on the 

igds; but yet intimates his de- food of Angels. After having thuy 

B to know by quelBoning whe- enterM into converfation with Man 

nr there was any compariion be* upon more indifferent fulge^, be 

eendiea. warm him of Ui ebedience, ttd 



««.. iiiui« icuii u, Hiere ij 
As nearer to him plac'd oj 
Each in their fcveral aifUv- 
Till body up to fpirit wor 
Profortian'd to each kind. 
Springs lighter the green fta 
More aeiy, Uft the bright , 
Spirits odorous breathes: fl 
Miu's nouridiment, bygra 

aaia a mmral tranfirion to (ie 
M<»rof thit Men ABgd, who 
™ epttl^'d in the drcumvcBlion I 
of our fiifi parents. JdtHfan. i 

47'* treattialt j 

•a. »e.] That ii, created 
■ 'irflShm, 1 


To vital ipi'rits afpire, to animal. 

To intelledtual ; give both liife and fenfe, 485 

Fancy and underftanding; whence the foul 

Reafbn receives, and reafon is her beings 

Difcurfive, or intuitive ; difcourfb 

Is ofteft yours, the latter moft is ours, 

Difiering but in degree, of kind the fame. 4^ 

Wonder not then, what God for you faw good 

If I reiuie not, but convert, as you. 

To proper fubftance : time may come, when Men 

With Angels may participate, and find 

No inconvenient diet, nor too light fare; 49^ 

And from thefe corporal nutriments perhaps 

Your bodies may at lad turn all to fpirit. 


botm kis own falfe notions in phi- philofophy, fo was too much of a 

lolopDjr to an Arch-Angel he has fyftematift in his divinity, 
really leflen*d the charader, which 482. Spirits o^rous^ We moit 

he intended to raife. He is as much take notice in reading this verfet 

niftaken here in his metaphyfics, that Sprits it here a word of /«;# 

u he was before in his phyfics. fyllables» tho* it is often oontraAed 

rhis notion of matter refining into into mt or propoonc'd as two flioit 

[pirit if by no means obTerving the ones, and < potioalarly ia the £b* 

(mrndt frofortim^d to mch land. I cond line after this 

rappofe, he meant it as a com- T<f ^ti^l ATrits mjhin i 

Bcnt on the coclrm of a natural ^"^ ^^ 

Hidy changed into a imritttai body, and the fecond fyfiaUe in tJSrmu ia- 

it ia I Cor. XV. and perhaps bor- t» be pronounced long, tho* riia 

wv/dkfromfomeof hisfyftinnsof poet makes it ihoit in o^trpUce^ 

Eviaicy. For MUttm, as ho was IV. 166. 

W^ BNch of a malerudifthi his 




Improv'd by trad of time, and wing'd afcend 

Ethereal, as we, or may at choke 

Here or in heav'nly Paradifes dwell; 500 

If ye be found obedient, and retain 

Unalterably 6rm his love entire, 

Whofe progeny you arc. Mean while enjoy 

Your fill what happinefs this happy ftatc 

Can comprehend, incapable of more. fof 

To whom the patriarch of mankind reply'd. 
O favorable Spl'rit, propitious gueft. 
Well haft thou taught the way that might direft 
Our knowledge, and the fcale of nature fet 


In contemplation of created things 

By fteps we may afcend to Ood. But fay. 

What meant that caution join'd. If ye be found 

Obedient ? can we want obedience then 

To him, or poffibly his love defert, 515 

Who form'd us from the duft, and plac'd us here 

Full to the utmoft meafure of what blifs 

Human defires can feek or apprehend ? 

To whom the Angel. Son of Heav'n and Earth, 
Attend: That thou art happy, owe to God; 520 
That thou continueft fuch, owe to thyfelf, 
That is, to thy obedience ; therein ftand. 
This was that caution giv'n thee ^ be advis'd. 


the whole drcumferetice of what viiible creator of all things. Hmme. 
mankind can fee or comprehend. Milton here very clearly alludes to 
The metaphor is bold and vaiUy the Platonic philofophy of riiing 
expreffive. Matter^ we firft matter gradually from the coniideration 
ii this center; natore infinitely di- of particular created beauty to that 
verfify*d it the icale which reaches which is univcrfal and uncreated. 
10 the ntsioft of our conceptions* Thyer^ 
all round. We are thus Jed to $20. Attend: &c. ] The fen- 
God i whofe circumference 'who tences here are very fhort, as every 
€we ttUf Uucireumfirib^d be Jills in- thing ought to be in the precep- 
Jhutmdtf VII. 170. Rzcbarifon. tive way. ^uicquid pr^ecipieSf eflo 
ciZ.Bjfieps'we may afcend ioGod,'] hrenjis^ is the rule of Horace, De 
fhere b a real vifible ladder (be- Arte Poet. 33^. And this brevity 
fides that vifionary one of Jacob) in the preceptive, as it is agreeable 
Wbofe fooc» tho' placed on the earth to Horace's mle, fo Hkewifc to his 
^mong the loweft of the creation, practice, as particularly in that 
>ct leads os by fteps in evniemplatiom firing oJF precepts, Epift. I. II. 53* 
mf ereaied tbhgs up to God the in*> Speme Tofuptates, C^c. 

V o L. I. LI 546. «- tbam 


Not onr neceffitated ; fm 
Finds no acceptance, nor 
Canlieans, notfiw, be 
Willing or no, who wiH 
By deffiny, and can no e 
Mjfclf and aU th'angdjc 
In fight of God oithrotf. 
Hold, as you yours, whilt 
On other fiirety nonej fre 
Becaiifc we ftecly love, ai 

anaofi-d Uieie niriitly {6m^ 


To love or not; in this we ftand or fall : 540 

And fome are faU'n, to difobedicnce fell'n, 
And fo from Heav*n to dcepeft Hell; O fall 
From what high fbte of blifs into what woe I 
To whoofi our great progenitor. Thy words 
Attentive, and with more delighted ear, 54^ 

Divine inftruaor, I have heard, than when 
Cherubic ibngs by night from neighboring hills 
Aereal mufic fend : nor knevir I not 
To be both will and deed created free; 
Yet that we never (hall forget to love 550 

Our Maker, and obey htm whofe command 
ftngle is yet fo juft, my conftant thoughts 
Aflur'd me\ and ftill afliire : though what thou teirft 
Hath paft in Heav'n, fome doubt within me move» 
But more deflre to hear, if thou confent, 555 


of mock in the bme manner in One c^j prohiUdon, who en- 

IV. 419. joy 

Free leave fo large to all things 
— He who reqoirat elfe. 

From ns no other fervice than to.... .i./.r j 

1^^^ And this command tho JuigUf and 

ui oi!e, this eafy chvge. ^^^«l ^ that *cco»«5 |« ^ 

' • obev'd, isyet/c ju/, that it lays a 

And again, yct. 432. farther obligation upon our obe- 

*- Then lot w not think hard 

I. 1 « 

A una <iuani made req 
Aibr ihort paufe aflentin} 

High matter thou injoin 
Sad taik and hard; for he 
To human ieofe th'invifit; 
Pf warring SpiritsF how 
The ruin of fo many glori 

•5S7- ^fth^fiuftdfiliwttttit 

btarJi] Worthy of religioii) 
filaice, fDch u wu recpir'd u the 
ficrificCT ud other rcbgioiu cere- 
monici of the Ancdentt) aUodiag 
to thst of Honce, Od. II. XIII. • 
19, 30. ■ ■ 1 

UtniHique_^rrv £gnaJUtntlt . 

■ Minatur lunbne dicere. \ 

563. High matltr tbtM iigaiiijl mi, 

S^ufiii»dberJ-,tit.1 It»CU> 


And pcrfcdl while they ftood? how laft unfold 

The fecrets of another worldy perhaps 

Not lawful to reveal ? yet for thy good 570 

This is difpens'd 5 and what furmounts the reach 

Of human fenfe, I Hiall delineate fo^ 

By likening fpiritual to corporal forms. 

As may exprefs them beft; though what if Earth 

Be but the ibadow' of Heaven, and things therein 575 

Each to' other like, more than on earth is thought ? 

As yet tliis world was not, and Chaos wild 
Reign'd where tbcfc H^v'ns now roll, where Earth 
now refls 


tUnn in HeaTcn and things in from its remote bennniDg in die 
Earth than is generally imaging, fecond; and (how why I have con- 
whtch is fuggefted very artfully^ as fider'd the facking of Troy as an 
St b indeed the beft apology that epifode^ according to the common 
could be made for thofe Bold fi" acceptation of that word. But w 
giues» which Milton has employed, this would be a dry unentertaining 
and dpedally in his defcription of piece of criticifm, I (hall not in- 
the bacteb of the Angels. large upon it. Which ever of the 
577. Jijet this nuwrld was not, notions be tniey the unity of Mil- 
Sec. ] Had I follow*d Moniieur ton^s aAion is jn^erved according 
BofTu^ method, I fhould have da- to either of them; whether we con- 
ted the a6tion of Paradife Loft iider the fall of Man in its imme- 
from the beginning of Raphaers diate beginning, as proceeding 
fpeech in this book, as he fnppofes from the refolutions taken in the 
the a£tion of the i£neid to begin infernal council, or in its more re- 
in the fecond book of that poem, mote beginnine, as proceeding from 
I could allege many reafons for the £rft revolt of the An^s in 
my df-awipg the adion of the Heaven. The occafion vMdi Mil- 
.^ndd radier from its immediate ton affigns for this revolt, as it as 
bc^finniog in the fiift book» than founded on hints in holy Writ, and 

L 1 3 on 



Upon her center pois'd; when on a day 
(For time, though in eternity, apply'd 580 I 

To motion) meafurcs all things duraWe 
By prefent, part, and future) on fuch day 
As Heav'n's great year brings forth, th' empyreal hoft 
Of Angels by imperial fummons call'd. 
Innumerable before th' Almighty's throne 58J 

Forthwith firom all the ends of Heav'n appear'd 
Under their Hierarchs in orders bright: 
Ten thoufand thoufand cnfigns high adraiK'd, 
Standards and gonfalons 'twixt van and rear 
Stream in the air, and for dliUnftlon fenre ego 


3ookV. PARADISE LOST. 399 

3f hierarchies^ of orders^ and d^ees $ 

3r in their glittering tifiiies bear imbkz'd 

Eioly memorials, adts of 25eal and love 

R^ecorded eminent. Thus when in orbs 

Of circuit inexpreflible they flood, 595 

Orb within orb, the Father infinite. 

By whom in Uifs imbofora'd iat the Son^ 

A.midft as from a flaming mount, whofe top 

Brightnefs had made invifible, thus fpake. 

Hear all ye Angels, progeny of light, 600 

Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers, 
Hear my decree, which unrevoked (hall ftand. 


wifeM ihifims ef G§J came U frtjent giving his great command con- 

thmifglvts hefire the Lord. And ceming the Mefliah in Heaven, 

amin, i Kings XXII, 19. Ifa^the 598. — — nubofe M 

Ltrd fitting on bis throne, and all the Brightnefs had made invifihle^ ] 

k^ ef Heawen ftanding by him on bis The fame juft and yet bold thought 

right bmnd and on his left , which with that in III. 380. 

wuenong^ to fonufh the hint to j^^ y,^ ^^^^^ bright thy' 

ji tt^ ^jt^Lt ^ *"^'- *at vcrfe. Tfy.. 

or hanneTp but of what particular 602. Hear mf decree^ &c. ] We 

fartauthon do not feem to be at obferved before that Milton was 

aU igreed, and neither ia it very very cautious what fentiments and 

material to know. language he afcribed to the Al* 

ztA.Amidfiatfiromafiamamgmmmt^ mighnr, and generally confia*d 

firmn the divine jprefimce in the fions of Soipturei and in thii par- 
amount* Exod. XIX. when God ticulm: fpeech the reader will eaiily 
Mve his commandments to, die rfirk how much of it is copy*d 
cUUborn of VodiA^ as here he is fiom holy Writ by comparing it 

I<l4 m& 



This day I have begot whom I declare 

My only Son, and on this holy hill 

Him have anointed, whom yc now behold 605 

At my right hand ; your head I him appobtj 

And by myfelf have I'wora to him ihall bow 

All knees in Heav'n, and ihall confcfs hira Lord: 

Under his great vice-gerent rdgn abide 

United as one individual ibul 610 

For ever happy; Him who difobeys, 

M? difobeys, breaks union, and that day 

Cail out from God and blcflcd viiion, falls 

Into' utter darknefs, deep ingulf 'd, his place 

Ordain'd without redemption, without end. 6ie 


'hat day, as other folemn days, they fpent 

] fong and dance about the &cred hill; 

fyfiical dance, which yonder ftarry fphere 620 
)f planets and of iix'd in all her wheels 
.efembles neareft, mazes intricate, 

iccentric, intervolv*d, yet regular 

lien moft, when nx>ft irregular they feem ; 

jid in their motions harmony divine 625 

> fmooths her charming tones, that God's own ear 

iflens delighted. Evening now approach'd 

?or we have alfo' our evening and our morn, 

/e ours for change dekdable, not need) 

orthwith from dance to fweet repaft they turn 630 

tefirous; all in circles as they flood, 

ables are fet, and on a fudden pil'd 


Sace lie em notywlio doth them text in Job XXXVIIT. 37. that 

guide and move. feems to favor the opinion of the 

FsdAx^iTaSo^ Cant 9. St. 6. Pythagoreans, concerning the ma- 

ileal motion of the fpheres, though 
tra turn ea quz funt infixa certis our tranflation differs therein from 
is, torn iUa non re fed vocabulo other veriions. CMontum caU mat 
vttia. fSc. Cicero Tufc. Difp. dtrmre fadei T Who (hall \y 
25. And in their motions fuch afleep, or ftill the confort of the 
inc perfedion appears, and their Heaven ? But this is to be un- 
rmonioas proportion fo tunes her derftood metaphorically, of the 
inning notes, that God himfelf wonderful proportions obierved by 
as*d and delighted, pronounced the heavenly bodies in their varioiii 
mgood, Qcn.I. i9. There is » motions. Amr. 

633 rMti 


Of furfcit where hum 
Excefs, before th'aU-bou 
Witt topioas land,, rqe 
Now what tmdtniai ak 

/J3 ruhiiJm3ar} Nea* 

of tit color of „hiQ,; i „„flj 

■ndOdyfl: V.93. 

634. hpfarl, Ac.l Thi's fraff „f 
buqon of the God, i„ Hoi;,-! 

n.tomEoHe.c.p ;,,.,„, ™« 
»«to/i bat here tkt iJa„;il 
ifiunaul, end nt, 


rom that high mount of God, whence light and (hade 
>ringboth, the faceof brigbceft Heav'n hadchang'd 

graDeful twilight (for night comes not there 645 

1 darker veil) and rofeat dews difpoe'd 

.11 but th* unfkeping eyes of God to reft j 

/ide over all the plain, and wider &r 

'ban all this globous earth in plain-cutfpread. 

Such are the courts of God) th' angelic throng, 650 

>irpers'd in bands and files, their camp extend 

y living dreams among the trees of life, 


f^B and in thy bghi Jkall ^m fit ^ rcCeite an addidoB from diit of 

aht. If thefe verfes were left out, his creatures I Ricbardfin, 

^ta (as Dr.Pearce rightly obferm) ^ omBrojU night ] So* 

ic words in vcr. 641. which re- ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^y^^ \Jrofial, 

rould refer to fomeaung tl^is ^na ileep for the fame reafon IL 

o where to be found ; and thm^ ^^j^ ^^ y^^^f^ itrefreihe. 

^ Milton (he fuppofes) inferted ^nHrengthens as much as food, 

Kfe verfcs in the fecond ediuon, ^ ^^^j^ |; zmhio^z. 
ut the />f of the Angels might be 

Kpre£>U Secun of fitrfkit, are k 646. A liiMrl^ viil\ Mikon fpeHi 

o danger of it, arc not liable to this word differently, fometimet 

, as men are. Whirt fidl meafkn '9ml. fom«i«es w/7j but mdl it 

nly bwnds excefs. full meafure is right from the Latin Wmv. 

i« only thing that ftinti and li«Mts ^ Mi but tb' un/Ueping eui of 

^em 5 the utmoft they are capable "^^ q^ ^ ^,^ . j So the Pfalmift, 

f containing m the only bound fct p^ ^XXI. 4. He tbat kufttb Ifrad 

J tkem; they have full meafuic, n^l ndtber Jhimbtr ncr flap. The 

«it they cannot be too full, diey ^^^^ j^^ likewife Homer ia 

ianot overflow; wtbouferfUw- . . j^^ jj^ ,^ 

641. Tifcidng in tbiirj^f. ] AKKH fitf fd, Bit — 

Vhnt an idea of the divine good- Bvi^ff '^mprv^iu* ^ub /^ uk ix^ 

tb, whofc perfeft happinefs learnt raJ'vf*®' ^'^&', . , 

Th imnortilt 



Pavilions numbcrlefs, and fudden rear'd, 

Celcftia! tabernacles, where they flcpt 654 I 

F^nn'd with cool winds; fave thofc who in their couric 

Melodious hymns about the fovran throne 

Alternate all night long: but not fo wak'd ^ 1 

Satan; fo call him now, his former name 

Is heard no more in Hcav'n; he of the firft. 

If not the firft Arch-Angel, great in power, 660 

In favor and pra;eminence, yet fraught 

With envy' againll the Son of God, that day 

Honor'd by l:is great Father, and proclam'd 

Mefiiah Kin^ anointed, could not bear 


Friendlieft to ileep and filence^ he refolv'd 
With all his legions to diflodge, and leave 
Unworfliipt, unobey'd the throne fupreme 670 

Contemptuous, and his next fubordinate 
Awak'ning, thus to him in fecret ipake. 

Sleep'ft thou. Companion dear, what ileep can cloie 
Thy eye-lids ? and remember'ft what decree 
Of yefterday, fo late hath pafs'd the lips 675 

Of Heav'n*s Almighty. Thou to me thy thoughts 
Waft wont, I mine to thee was wont to* impart; 
Both waking we were one; how then can now 
Thy fleep diffcnt ? New laws thou feeft impos'd ; 
New laws from him who reigns, new minds may raife 
In us who ferve, new counfels, to debate 681 

What doubtful may enfue: more in this place 


67 3. Sleef^JI tboUf Companion dear^ It is juft the fame manner of Tpeak- 

<wbatjlt€p can cloft ing as in I J. 730. 
^hl ne-Udif and rememherfi *v:hat 1. .. r r\ c 

^^^.r«&c.]Wc have printed p:;^?'^*^ ^"7' ,? !?.', 

ponauation. 5/f^'^/Aj«, a«^««/^^^ ^ ;«„ ^^ p ^ . ^^ 

^'^iT'a ^^% Til i W V ; kmw'ftfor -whom ; 

23. Wbmijiief can dofi tby eye-Uoif •' -^^ ' 

mmd rtwumherfi &c. that is ^btn at the fame time that thou know'ft 

tbou rimemhrft Sec. for whom. 

682. •— more in this plait 

potei hoc fub cafu ducere Tiv utttr is not f aft, '\ This is & 

lompos ? verfe, but I believe the reader wiU 

Virg. ^n. IV. 560. Agree» chat it conid not have had 

ft |(K>d in effea. had it bee& 
entire veife by itfelf, as it has n. 
It IS btvkca wd na^ pait of r 

«v ty rf A> .^^^ «* 

Ipeaks aiter tlie fame manner 
1«=..II.4&> Ort,„,„,_, 
eijffc. Ami in botl place?, 
•tVighlbn thi ftme as ii< ,«,, 
pnly tins is a fplsOandn, and t£ 
saanadjeftive, agreeini witk U 
^atij^gtl, undcrfttKjd « the «Mi 
flmaion. Purtt. 

Jfs-r,// (fa, ,i^ «, „„_ 

«e-j He begins liis revolt witli 
Je. So well dotli Milton mfa, 

685. n, ,^»„ ,y ,i, _^ 
see Sannaaanm De partu Vijjinis 

Vos^ qunm omne aideiet ctelnn 


The quarters of the north; there to prepare 
Fit entertainment to receive our king 690 

The great Meffiah, and hb new commands^ 
Who fpeedily through all the hierarchies 
Intends to pafs triomphant, and give kws. 
So fpakc the £iUe Arch^Angd^ and infus'd 


m^rib, Jer. VI. f • St. A«ftm fays /iW. This poem b longer thta 
that the Devil and hb Angels, be- the Iliad, for it confifb of five and 
ing averfe from the li^t and fervor twenty books; bat it ec^aab tho 
of charity, grew torpid as it were Iliad in nothing but in length, for 
with an icy hardnefs; and are the poetry b very indifferent. 
tkeielbre by a figure placed in the However in fome particnlars the 
north. Diabolus sgitinr ct Angeli plan of thb poem b very like Pt« 
cjtit a luce atque fervore caritatis radife Loft. It opens with the ex- 
averfi, et nimb in fuperbiam in- altation of the Son of God, and 
vkliamque progreffi, velut glaciali thereupon Lucifer revolts » and 
duricia torpaerunL Et ideo per draws a third part pf the Angela 
figufiun tanquam in aqoilone po- after him into fbe quarters tf tin 
nantnr. Epift. 140. Seft. 55. And north. % 

Shakefpear in like manner calls 

Satan the mcnarch of the north, -«— pars tertia laevam 

1 Henry VI. Ad. V. Hoc duce perfequitur, gelidoqae 

aquilone locator. 
And ye choice Spirits, that ad- 

moaiih me. It b more probable, that Milton 

And give me figns of future acci- had feen this poem than fome 

dents, others, from which he b charged 

You fpeedy helpers, that are fub- with borrowing largely. He was 

ftitutes indeed an univerfal fcholar, and 

Under the lordly monarch ef the read all forts of authors, and took 

north. hints from the Modems as well as 

the Ancients. He was a great ge- 
I have feen too a Latin poem by nius, but a great genius form*d by 
Odoricos Valmarana, printed at reading; and as it was faid of Vir- 
Vienna in 1627, and intitled Dir- gii, he coUeded gold out of the 
t m minac hi^ five Dt Bello Intelligent dung of other authors. 
iiamm fmfer Dinnm Verbi incanuh 

jot. Tells 

The great hierarchal ftar 
Tells the fuggefted caufc 
Ambiguous words and jc 

7o=- "TM ihtfuggtM tmifi, 
TTic caufe thw Satan had fuggefl. 
ed, namely to prepare entertain, 
neat for their new king uxl receiv* 
Wi Jaw* : tmd taft, htu^m ambi- 
pw imrdst imitated from Virs 
jBd. 11.98. * 

-- — hinc rnatgere vocei 
In Tulgum ambiguM. 

708. Hit num'naiiM, ai tit mn- 

»y/*- /fc,/^/«&c.] This 
limilitude ts not To new as poetical. 
Viigil la like manner compares the 
beautiful young Pallas to the morn- 
ing liar, ^n. VIII. 589. 

Qualis, ubi oceani perrufus Luci- 
fer unda, 
Quem Venus ante alios aftrorum - 
^ diligit igncs, 
Extulir m jfrr 1. .._.. „ ■ 


Or taint intcjgrity : but all obey'd 
The wonted fignaly and fuperior vokc 705 

Of their great potentate; for great indeed 
His name, land high was his degree in Heaven ; 
His countenance, as the morning ftar that guides 
The ftarry flock, alluF'd them, and with lies 
Drew after him the third part of Heav'n's hofl:. 710 
Mean while th* eternal eye, whofe light difcerns 

Abftrufeft thoughts, from forth his holy mount 


to be Milton^s meaning, yet it may Drew after him the third part of 

lie faid that Satan*s cmmtnumcit fe- HeavVa hofL 
dndng his foUowen by difguifing 

Che IoqI intentions of his heart, 7"- ^«» w*»^ '* ttemal iu^ 

may be very properly faid to y^- ^ , nvbcfijigbi Mfcems f c.] Dr. 

tbtee vritb iia. We read in Q- Bcntlcy fcems very fure that Mil- 

ccro's Epiftles to his brother, frtms, ^f^'s tcjrt is wrong here, becaufe in 

0€uii, Yvlmfif/^mnHmUMr. Lib. ?5,^J** ^ *^ confcuaion it is 

I. Ep. I.e. 5. Pimrci. ^^^ ^^ /^//)r//rw/«#thatit>i% 

jsna, ver. 718. He would there* 

^io.DnnviiftirbimtbiibirJpart fore pcrfuade tts that Milton gave it 
cfHemi'm's boft.-] BebcU a f^^^ ^jj^ y^t Eternal, Hi whofe 
grtaireJdragcM^ andbisUjUrew fight dlfccms &c. 

tbiibtrd fart rf tbt ftars of Heaven, *^ 

etnd £d cafi tbetn to tbe eartb. Rev. But would not He in this place thus 
XII. 3, 4. Dr. Bentley finds fault following tb' Eternal be a botch in 
with this verfe as vzry bad mea- poetry? Milton fre^uendy takes 
liuie : bot as a perfon of much a liberty, allowable m a poet, of 
better tafte obferves, there is a expreiUng only fome part or qua« 
great beauty in the faU of the lity of a perfon, when he nreina 
numbers in this line after the ma- the perfon himfelf, and goes en to . 
jefty of thofe before and afj^erit, fay things which (properly fpeak- 
occaikm*d principally by the change ing) are applicable only to the per- 
of the fourth foot from an iambic fon himfeli. And Milton had eood. 
into a trochaic; an artifice often authority for doing fo: in rfaL- 
made n(e of by Milton to vary hi| LI V. 7. the eye is made a perfon, 
numbers by thofe difcords, mine tje Jhall fie bis dtfire nfon mine 

Vo L. I. 'Mm enemies** 


■wg m na amy 

Son, ffcoa in whom t 

In fiiU re^mfcnce. Hi 

^earljp it asw eoneoM i 

•»»•<..• ft in Mb. Jct: »f. tl 
tt i> ;u &c ths whole nin, 

^W" «*r Am Ac TUtttmttn 

ffot ofiiiK M.ft. Bknflcf, vu 
2' ""^ ^y** *'^ cmaHHMUa anc 
wirf«y Wy are the put for thi 
J*»» » die pcribfc, Buann 
temrf and ugniMr fliaai qn^ 
now. whether dwy are not hew 

»w dtber ai one or tke othei 
■gOrau^ardtereoftRqaira. Tu 
■toni coumeiiBsce An aDnrei 

aSaun hiinfeir duttdrawi Aea 
no* him with- Kea: fe th- m»^i 


Of our omnipotence^ and widi what arms 
We mean to hold what anciently we dame 
Of deity or em{ure$ Hack a foe 
Is rifing, who intends to' ereft his throne 
Eqoal to ours^ througfaodt the fpacious north ; 
Nor fo content, hath in hk thought to try 
In battel what our pow'r is, or our right. 
LiCt us advife, and to this hazard draw 
With fpeed what force is icfi; and all empby 

716. Jnmtg fh fim tf iMrfe, ] 

The Angels are here called fom of 

^Jft mtrmigf «s Ladftr is islu. 

XIV. 12. probably upon account 

of their attlf creadon; or to ex- 

pieia the angelic beauty and glad- 

neTsy the m e f wi i i g being the meft 

delightfal feafon of the day. Job. 

XL 1 7. Tbim age Jhall he cUarer 

tbem the mon^de^ ; thou Jhalt Jhine 

firthi fhom Jhalt he eu the maming. 

XXXVIII. 7. When the morning 

fiart famg together ^ and the fins of 

God fifonted form. See alfo Cant. 

VI. 10. lia. LVIII. S. mchardfon. 

^ 71 S. JbedfimUng] Let not the 
puHB reader be olrended, becaufe 
die fupreme Being is reprefented as 
fimUng and fpeakmg ironically of 
hu foes; for fuch fienres of fpeech 
are not onnfual in the Scripture it- 
ftlf. Immediately after the fall of 
*Man we read, Gen. III. 22. And 
th9 Lmrd God/aid^ Behold fht Mam 
is henme as 9ne of us, to knrw good 




emi iwl. There ire levcnd i«r 
ftances of the like manner of fpeak- 
ing in die propiiets. But thti is 
particularly grounded upon Pfaj. 
II. I. &c. fl^ do the HoMthen rage, 
and the feopli imagin a vain thing f 
■■■■■■ agmmfi the LoihI and eMsnJthk 
jMidnted'-^'^HethatJitteth in thf 
Heanens JbaU ianghj the Lord fiau 
have them inderifion. It juppeara 
that onr author had this pamtge in 
view, by his makine the Son al- 
lude fo plainly to it m his anfwer. 

— Mighty Father, diou thy foes 
JufHy haft m derifion, and fecore 
Langh'ft at their vain defiens and 

7 1 9. — in nvhom niy^ory Ihehold 

InfmllreMendeneet Heir of all em^ 

migbts] For he is the hri^sU 

nifs of his Father^ s glery^ ond op* 

painted har of aU thtngs, Heb. I. 

2t 3. 

Mm 2 

734.. L'ghtmnr 

Laugh'ft at their vain dd 
Matter to me of glory, i 
Btofliatea, when they fa 
GiT*n me to qnell their p 
Know whether I bt dexn 
Thy rebels or be found i 
So Ipake the Son] but J 
Fir wa> admnc'd so wing 
Innumerable as the flan a 
Or flars of morning, dew- 

•i^ u I piidoplit the adjiffin 

Omm it to be taken sdTeitiaUy, . 

Mt It u nuhcr KfabAantive, end f 

ia ScrlptBra the Angel'i coQste- 1 



Impearls on every leaf and every flower. 

Regions they pafs'd, the mighty regencies 

Of Seraphim and Potentates and Thrones 

Fn their triple degrees; regions to which 750 

All thy dominion, Adam, is no more 

Than what this garden is to all the earth, 

^d all the fea, 60m one entire globoib 

Stretch'd into longitude ; which having pafs'd 

fit length inta the limits of the north 755- 

rhey came, and Satan to his royal feat 

Eligh on a hill, far blazing, as a moiiAt 

Rab'd on a mount, with pyramids and towers 

i^^rom diamond quarries hewn, and rocks of gold; 

The palace of great Lucifer, (fo call 76* 

rhat flrufture in the dialed of men 

interpreted) which not long after, he 


IaiMttdrottiidoffqaadroiu/i^«r The fanqr was borrowed from the 
th^ ftood, Schoolxneiu Benilt;^. 

And all bv thns thofe fqoadrons Spenfer hat ttpin the fame notion, 
ranged were : and ufes the lame exprei&on in his 

Hymn of hearenly love* 

nd by Si^nfcr, Fairy Qgeen.B. u Therethoyia their iriml tripB^ 

;ant. \ z. St 39, ^^^ 

About him wak» and on his will 

Like as it had been many an ^tveoA. 

Aqgel's Yoice '^ 

Singing before th' eternal Miyefty, 76 1 . in tbi SaUa rf'mim'\ 

In tneu trinal triplidtits on lugh. Tbt learned reader cannot but be 

Mm) pleafcd 

About life great recepticn 
Thither to come, and w 
Of coufiterieited truth th 
Throijes, DominatioiK, ] 
If thefe magniJc titles y< 
Not meteljr Utular, fince 
Another now hath to him 
AB pow'r, and 119 ectips.'< 

Zjt " ""' 1">- Homer 
Mttll, u, in the knmigc <,f ,h, 

E«<»>thofc th.vjob,i„,hcl„. 



ng anointed, £xr whcun all this hsfte 

dnight march, and lEirried meeting herc» 

)nly to confult how we may beft 

what may bo devis'd of honors new 780 

'e him coming to receive from its 

tribute yet unpaid, proftmticm vtAc, :*, 

luch to one» but double how iiidiir'dy 

e and to hit image now prodam'd? 

hat if be^r counfek slight ered jS$ 

linds, and teach us to caft off this yoke ? 

re fubmit your necks, and choofe to bend 

apple knee? ye will not, if I trufi: 

low ye right, <m: if ye know yourfeWei 

^s and Tons of Heav'n p(^(t*d before 790 

kmsy Virtues^ Ptwten^ The 
Sie Hpord Virtim in this line 
spkiAs what Milton flMtnt 
irgiritV Virtwi in ver. 37 1 . 

I dud th* angelic Virtae in- 

an Older of Aagds ditiii- 
by that name. This 11 the 
rndeatly hii neaakig by 
les after, ver. 857. 

d all the Spiriti of Heaven 
n created in their bright de- 

CxowCA theni with t}ofY$ andco 

their ^ry nam*d 
Thrones, DominiiiQnty Priaoe* 

domsy Virtoei, Pcfven. 

790. NiUives tmi fom vf Ikivm 

By nmuA Dr. Beadey*t fidfe 
pointing e/ diis paflaee has led 
Others to miftake the Tenfe of it, 
as well as himfdf. He icfen tho 
word t4jtlid to natinm tmi fim^ 
hitt ihottld it not radber be refused 
ta Himv*m the woid imintdiarcly 
preoeding* there beiag no conuna 
oetween them in Milton*s owaedip. 

Mm 4 tiu»» 


In freedom eqsal? or ca 
Law and edia on us, w. 
Err not? much IcTi 6r tl 

«mg»o) which mdon 

■ *.r„^r^"'^"'•— 


And look fer adoration to th'abufe 800 

Of thofe imperial titles, which aflert 
Our bebg ordain'd to govern^ not to ferve. 

Thus far his bold difcourie without control! 
Had audience, when among the Seraphim 
Abdiel, than whom none with more zeal ador*d 80^ 
The Deity', and divine commands obey'd. 
Stood up, and in a flame of zeal fevere 
The current of his fiiry thus oppos'd. 


mtr Lord and mafter. Dr. Pearce Mr. Warbiirton filll underiUnds it 

iii78» that the fentence is elliptical» othcrwiie. Who can in retfon af- 

aiiid may be fupply'd thus, much fume monarchy over thofe who 

iifi can he fir tint (vis* for our are his equals ? and introduce law 

h6si%Uf$ in fvwtr and jpiendor^ytx, and edid upon them, when they 
796.) in right afliime/iiriiarZir/ can coiidn6t their a^na righdj 
Mr. Richardfon underftands it to without law ? much lefs for this in* 
be fpoken blafphemonfl^ and with trodu^ion of law and ediA dame 
contempt of the Memah , This the right of dominion. For he 
mmiherg YtT.yy$, This Kuut amint- thought the pving of ciril lawa 
ed, ver. 777. And then the fenfe did not introouce dominion. His 
will mn after this manner, X^ head was full of the ancient le- 
€nm iben in jufiia affimi monarehf giflators, who gave laws to equals 
mftr tqnaJst or can intr§dnci a lanu and fban^ers, and did not pretend 
oniediB nfon us^ who 'witbout lafw to the nght of difpenfing them, 
an imfamkUf mmcb Ufi can bt in- which is dominioa. So he fitya 
troduci a law and idia fir fbis (I before 
don;t fay What) /^^ «ir Urd and -- fop orden and degrees 
ricnHHadarattonfiomns.^xitihta Jar not with liberty (^. 
we mufl write Tbu with a great *' ' 

letter, and we muH not continue. This is ^od fenfe, but ftill the 
(he note of interrogation at the grammatical coniboi^ion is not eafy. 
end of the fpeech. If we fhould, I fuppofe it muft be thus, mncb 
I imagin we (hould be obligM to /</i^ /Am (can he aflame ver, 794.) 
l^aAmMcbnuriiB&tdiiQi mucbl^i. mhtmirUrdn 

809. O 


That to his only Son by 
With regal fceptcr, era 
ShaU bend the knee, ani 
Confers him rightftl Kir 
Flatly nnjuft, to bind wi 
And equal orer equals lo 
One over all with unfacc 
Shalt thou give law to G< 
With him the points of 1 
Thee what thou art, and 1 
Such as he pleas'd, and c 

««i fo likewiTe ia VI. 360. ■" 


r experience taught we know how good, 826 
f our good and of our digniqr 
provident he is, how £u from thought 
ftke US U&y beat rather to emit 
zppy ftate under one head toon near 830 

1. Bat to grant it thee unjuA, 
equal </Vtx equals monarch reign : 
Jf though great and glorious doft thou count, 
angelic nature join'd in onc^ 
. Id him begotten Son? by whom S^r 

■ his Word the migh^ Father made 
ings, ev'n thee j and all the SpiVics of Heaven 
m created in their tvigbt degrees, 
D*d them with gbry', and to their glory nam'd 
pes, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers, 
tial Pow'rs) nor by his reign obfcur'd, 841 
sore illuftrious made; fince he the bead 


, ftrtfUm muM «V (Ariyf 840. Thnnu D^miiuaiau, PrtKf 

that are in Hiavrm, and tbtU dmii, firtmei, Ptturri,'}^ Thii 

Earib, •vi^bli tmd i>M^, vcrfs, wbicb occnn ib oltan u thii 

• tbnhttbrmuiicrdtmimtnl, yoaa, utnnflatcd, uMr.lAider 

if»liiiti,BTfowiri; ailti^i^i obTcrreii from tb« fTontiTpiccc of 

rwtid if tim MM/fir Urn, Heyvood'i tUcrircLj of Angtli, 
( itfrrt ail Ibinti, W In him 

n tttififi: and cne concliifloa Throni, Dam inaii ones. Print 

(peech is taken from UiC HUk Virtutci, PouflatB.J 

iokflfHiLU. * 



One of oar number thus reduc'd becomes; 
His laws our l.tws; all honw to him done 
Returns our own. Ccafc then this impioos rage, 84J 
And tempt not thcfe; but haften to appeafe 
Th' incenfed Father, and th' incenfed Son, 
While pardon may be found in time befought. 

So fpakc the fervent Angel; but his zeal 
None feconded, as out of feafon judg*d, 8jO 

Or fmgular and rafli, whereat rcjoic'd 
Th' Aport-itc, and more haughty thus reply*d. 
That wc were form'd then fay'ftthou? andthevork 
Of fecondary hands, by taflc transfcrr'd 


3 this creation was? itmember'ft thoa 
makii^ while the Maker gave thee being? 
mow no time when we were not as now ; 
7 none before us, fel£>begot, ielf-rais'd 860 
ir own qoick'ning pow'r^ when £tfal courfe . 
circled his full orb, the. birth mature 
lis our native Heav'n, ethereal fons. . . 
mifiance is our own} our own right hand 
teach us highcft deeds, by pcoof to try 865 
is our equal : then thou fhalt behold 
:her by fupplication we intend 
:&, and to begirt th' almighty throne 
clung oc beiieging. This report, 
^ tiding carry to th' anointed King ; 870 


les three, as well as fome- S64. —— mt mv» right band 
wo fyllables. As Shake* Sbali teacb us bigbeftieibi\ From 
ct% likewife, 2 Hen. IV. Pfal.XLV.4. Tbimvum right bmid 

Jballteaeb tbie terribli things. 

die pow*r tad frnfasta of Deztra mihi Decs, et tehim qood 
»king» miifile libro. Vi1c.iEiLX.773. 

tde afterwards, gg^ Befeeebit^ cr htJuJiS 

Mie againft us in full fmf- Thofe whidi are thought me ftuJcs 

vr. of Milton may be jamfy*d hj the 

!• ^ . 'tr ^,^ :. ^^ authority of the beft writers. This 

L It was certainly better wncc, Andna, Aai-SclIL 13. 
»n to make it all dieoneor — — incejptio eft amewtium, kwd 
)^hcr. .0HaMtinmi 



And fly, ere evil intercept thy flight. 

He fajd, and as tlic found of waters deep 
Hoarlc murmur echo'd to his words applaufc 
Through the infinite hoft; nor lels for that 
The flaming Seraph feaiicfs, though alone fiy^ 

IncompalVd round with foes, thus anfwer'd bold. 

O alienate from God, O Spi'rit accuR'd, lO 

Fordiken of all good; I fee thy fall '-'"' 

Dctcrmin'd, and thy haplefa crew involv'd 
In tliis perfidious fiaud, contagion fprcad 98b 

Both of thy crime ;ind punifliment: heacefbrtfa *' 
No more be troubled how to quit die yoke ' 


That golden icepter^ whidx ^kw jdidft reje^ 

Is now an iroiL rod to brttife^nd hceik 

Thy dUbbedience. WeU thott dkiftadvi^ j 

Yet not for tiiy advice or thitttis I % . .: 

Thefe wicked tents devoted^ kitthe wndi ^ jft^o 

Impendent^ raging into fuddoft fiaote 

Diftiogniih not: for (bon exp^d to i^ 

His thunder on thy head^ devouring fire. 

Then who created thee lamenting learn. 

When who can uncreate thee thou ihalt know. 895 

So rpake the Seraph Abdiel ^thful found 
Among the faithlefs, faithful (mly he ; 
Among innumerable £dfe, unmov'd, 
Unfhaken, unfeduc'd, unterrify'd 
Elis loyalty he ksft^ his lave, hk 0eal> 900 


[» Dr. Pearce fays] by onderftand- Angels prefenred his allegiance to 

iag imi Ify before the word left, his Maker, exhibits to us a noble 

See the fame elliptical way of moral of religious fingularity. The 

'peaking in II. 483. But it would zeal of the Seraphim breaks fordi 

leplainer and esifier with Dr. Bent- in a becoming warmth of fenti- 

zf% alteration, if there was any ments and expreffions» as the cha- 

lodiority for it; rader which is given us of him de- 

Thefe wicked tents devote, but ^..J^ .??^*" J^T '^^ ^" 

left the wrath l^c. trepidity which attends heroic w- 

tae. The author doubtlefi defign*d 

896. & fyahi the Seraph Ah£il it as a pattern to thofe, who live 

faitbfkl found UcJlThtiMixt among mankind in tfieir prefent 

»r Abdiel, who was the only Spi- fiate oi degeneracy and corruption. 

it that in this infinite hoft of Addifm. 

On thofe proud tow're to 

Theendbf tl 


Sixth Boo 


O F 




were lent lortn to oaitei agami 
Angels. The firft fight deicrib'd 
Powers retire under night : He ca 
vents devilifh englns, which in t 
fight put Michael and his Angels I 
but they at length puUbg op i 
whelm'd both the force and mai 
Yet the tumult not Co ending, Gt 
day fends Mefiiah his Son, for wl 
ferv'd the glory of th^ viftory : ] 
of his Father coining to the place, 
his legions to ftand flill on eithei 
chariot and thunder driving into t 
enemies, purfues them unable li 
the wall of Heaven; which opt 
down with horror and confiifion ii 
punifhmcnt prepar'd for them in 1 
fiali returns with triumph to his f 








nw entring upon the 
if Ptndift Lofty in 
Bt defcribes the battel 
mag ziiM his rcA* 

idon, and prepared 
y feveral paflages in 
I books. I omitted 
piaffikgcs ih fn^ ob- 
m the former books, 
fely referved them for 
)f this, the fubjedt of 
ecsfkm t6 them. The 
rinfldon was ib in- 
ns great fcene of ac- 
^tttrcT he fpeaks of 
r poffible, above him* 
^her6 he mentions Sa- 
{inning of his poem, 

he afanighty Power 
dlong naming from 
sal iky 9 
s ruin and combuflion, 

ifs perdition, there to 

in chains and penal 

defy th'Omnipotent 

lewife feveral noble 
I the infernal confc- 

) Chief of many thro- 

That led th' imbattePd Seraphim 
. towarf 
Too well I fee and rae the dire 

That with fad overthrow and foul 

Hath loft us Heav'n^ and all this 

mighty hoft 
In horrible dcftniftion laid thiia 

But fee! the angry viftor hath re- 

His miniilers of vengeance and 

to the gates of Heaven : the 
fulphurous hail 

Shot after us in ilorm, overblown 
hath laid 

The Bery furge,that from the pre- 

Of Heaven nceivM ns falling; 
and the thunder, 

Wing'd with red lightning and im- 
petuous raee. 

Perhaps hath ipent his flmftt, and 
ceafes now 

To bellow through the Yaft and 
boundlef.^ deep. 

There arc feveral other very fub- 
lime images on the fame fubied in 
the firft Dook, as alfo in the fc- 
cond, II. 165. ^c. 

What when wt fled amain, pur- 

fucd and (truck 
With HesvVs afflifting thunder, 

and befought 
N n a The 



ALL night the dreadlefs Angel unpurfued 
Through Heav'n's wide champaJii held his war; 
'till morn, 
Wak'd by the circling hours, with rofy batsi 
Unbarr'd the gates of light. There is a cave 
Within the mount of God, &(l by his throne, 5 
Wliere light and darkndi in perpetual round 


; this Hell Pour'i] out by ailUOM bctriA^ 

nous banoa 
□undj. Porfaing. 

The deep to (lieher us 
then fecm'd 

A refuge from thofe \vi 
In fiiort, ilie poet neve 
anv tiling of this balttl but in fuch 
images of grfatnel'^ and lerror as 

It rcquii'd grenE prcgiuncj afi^ 
vention and llrengili of iatwM- 
fill ih» baud <Mih fidi 

e faiiabk u. the fabjed. Among ^^'^„,ai„^^ M Ibo^ nife «j 
fevcral othm 1 cannot forbrai ^^^-^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^f ^j.^ ,^^, 



;e and diflodge by turns, which makes through 


^ful viciilitude, like day and night; 

t iffiies forth, and at the other door 

quious darkne& enters^ till her hour 10 

cil the Heav'n, though darkneis there might well 

L twilight here : and now went forth the morn 


f conftemadon even in the 
kngeh. Thb is follow*d by 
ariD^ up of mountains and 
ntanes; till, in the laft place, 
ei&ah comes forth in the ful- 
f majeffy and terror. The 
of his appearance amidft the 
{s of his blunders,' the nafhes 
lightnings, and the noife of 
iriot- wheels, is defcribed with 
moft ffiights of human ima- 
m. Addijon, 

till m$m 

Td by the circling hours ^ nmth 

rofy hand 
mr'd the gates of Ugbt,"] This 
ied from Homer^s Iliad, V. 
Mfhere the hours are feigned 
! manjaer to guard the gates 

J^* I'^'iOeivaj. 

r^tCs golden gates, kept by 
Qe winged hours ; 
miffion'd in alternate watch 
Im^ ftand^ 

The fun*s bright portals and the 

ikies command. 
Involve in clouds di* eternal gates 

of day. 
Or the dark barrier roll with eafe 

away. Pope. 

6. Where Ught and darkntfs &C. ] 
The making darknefs a pofitive 
thing is poetical. But befides that, 
as he thought fit to bring it into 
Heaven, it could not be otherwife 
reprefented, for obvious reafons. 


And the thought of light and dark* 
nefs lodging and diflodging by turns* 
the one ifluing forth and the other 
entring, is plainly borrowed from 
a fine paflage in Hcfiod, which had 
almoft efcap'd me, Theog. 748. 

— i^i ru$ Tt xoc Nfcff^ tfojpr 


14. '^wm/b^d 

■""-""""•B DMze on bla 
War he perceiv'd, war 
Already known what h 
To have reported : glac 
Among thore ftiendly P 
With joy and acclamati< 
Thatof ftnisnynjyrig, 
Beturn'd not loft: On tt 
Ttey Jed him high ^ppl 

'4- ,"7~" wa^siSV m'eit. 1 Tt t. 

• ooni. H. Itdfj. p„ " "' 
«f fiiei boyilh &„cl=.'.;7.L°2? 


before the ieat fupreme; from whence a voice 
r'rom midft a golden cloud thus mild was heard. 

Servant of God, well done, well haft thou fought 
The better fight, who fin^ haft maintained 30 
^gainft revolted mukitudes the caufe 
J{ truth, in word mightier than they in arms; 
\nd for the teftimony* of truth haft borne 
Jniverial reproach, &r worle to bear 
Than violence; for this was all thy care 35 

To ftand approved in fight a£ Cod, though worlds 
[udg'd thee perverfe : the eafier conqueft now 
R^emains thee, aided by diis hoft of firiends, 
3ack on thy foes more glorious to return 
Than fcorn'd thou didft' depart, and to fubdue 40 


34. Um%fer/kJ riproachf/ar <w9rfi A good man bean a contumely 

/« ^#4ir worfe 

nmt iMincii} This fentinient Than he would do an injury. 

I very juftf and not unlike what Umver/a/ nprMch, Here are two 

floras fays in his character of Tar- Trochees, and not an Iambic till 

[•ia the proud — in omnes fuper- the third foot; and fo likewife in 

•a> qusB crudelitate mvior eft bo- V. Sy^. 

tj^iJ,f^^^M: Thr5figh th« Mtc host - 

i^ant. 4* §t. 4. This meafure is not rery common : 

r, M J J u.^^. *!.•« kot as Mr. Jortin obfenres, Milton 

^'"u'V^ !fHjl '^ **""*"" often inferti harih rerfes, when he 

bad words be bore. TV- ^„,a eafily hare *lter'd them, 

ieaomoBt and Fletcher exprefs the jud^ng, I fuppofey that they had 
ame (eatiment ytry well. Beggars the fame effea in poetry, which 
iuih A& II. difcords have in mufic 

Nn4 j^u^-^rca/n 



By force, who reafon for their law refisTe, 
Right reafon for their law, and for their king 
Meffiah, who by right of merit reigns. 
Go Michael of celeftial armies prince. 
And thou in military prowefs next 
Gabriel, lead forth to battel thefe my fons 
Invincible, lead forth my armed Saints 
By thoufaiids and by millions rang'd for fight. 
Equal in number to that Godlefs crew 
Rtbelliotis; them with fire and hoftile arms 
I'eailefs afi-mlt, and to the brow of Heaven 
Purfuing drive them out from God and blifs 
Into their place of punifhment, the gulf 



flis fiery Chaos to receive their fall; £^ 

So fpake the ibvran voice, and clouds began 
To darken all the hill, and fmoke to roll 
In dufky wreaths, reluctant flames, the lign 
Of wrath awak'd^ nor with lefs dread the loud 
Ethereal trumpet from on high 'gan blow : 60* 

At which command the Powers militant. 
That flood for Heav'n, in mi^ty quadrate joined 
Of union irrefiftible, mov'd on 
In filence their bright legions, to the found 
Of infbumental harmony, that breath'd 65 

Heroic ardor to adventrous deeds 
Under their God-like leaders, in the caufe 
Of God and his MefHah. On they move 


Dr. Bentley*t change of his into ders^ ami iigbtmngs^ and a thick 

its, becaafe nMcb (not nvho) went cUmd upon the tnoutu and mxiunt 

* before, proceeds upon a fuppofi- Sinai luas altogether om a fmoAe, be- 

don that ijobicb is not to be referred caufi the Lord de/cended upon it in 

to a perfon; though it is well fire. 

known that formerly nvbicb was as 5^' ~" reluHant fiames^ As flow 

often apply^d to a perfon as 'who: and unwilling to break forth, 

ms Dr. Pcarce obferyes. Stnpa vomens tardum fumum. 

t i^C;:2tm'S}^. Virg.^n.V.68.. 

to roll &c.] In this defcrip- 64. In filence ] So Homer ob- 

tion the author manifefUy alludes fenres, Iliad. III. 8. to the honor 

to that of God defcending upon of his countrymen the Grecian;, 

xnoont Sinai, Exod. XIX. 16, &c. that they march'd on in filence, 

AadU earn tofafs 9m the third da^f while the Trojans advanced with 

imiiemmm^ftMihtnwnikm' Mfcai|d clamor. 

Came fummon'd over E 
llieir names of thee; i 
Of Heav'n they march'd 
Tenfold the length of tl 
Ftr in th* horizon to the 

71. —fir ^gb Mhvt iht pim» 

&C.] Our author BttribaCei the fua 
Idad of motion to the Angeli, ■ 
tho Ancienti did to their Godt 
which WHS gliding' dm' the aii 
widiout ever touching the grounii 
with iheir feet, or u Milton eUe- 
where eleg<uitl)rexpn8«it(B.VIJI. 
302. ) fmatth-JtUin vailbtmt fitp, 
Aod Homer, Iliu! V. 778. com- 
pvei the moiioa of two GoddeiTct 
to the flight of dons, as Milton 
here compares die march of the 
Angeb to the fainli coaung on the 
wag to Adam 10 nceire their 

Book VI. f^ARADISE LOST. 43^ 

From fkirt to flcirt a fiery region, ftretch'd So 

In battailous afp^, and nearer view 
Bridled with upright beams innumerable 
Of rigid fpears, and helmets throng'd, and (hields 
Various, with boaftful argument portrayed. 
The banded Pow'rs of Satan hading on Sc 

With furious expedition 5 for they ween*d 
That felf-fame day by fight, or by furprifc. 
To win the mount of Ood, and on his throne 
To fet the envier of his ftate, the proud 
Afpirer, but their thoughts proved fond and vain 90 


MHton has raifed the image in pro- 84. Fariws, with Boajf/ul argu- 

portion to his fubied. ^^Amtjpsef mmtptrtra^^d^l fields 'ua-- 

ufoM Milton s imtatimu of the An- rious are Taned with divcrfe fculp- 

cienis. p. 9. tore^ and paintings; an elegant 

8 1 . ■ I and nearer *vitnu &c. ] lAdnifpa. And the thought of at- 
To the |K>rth appear*d a fiery re- tnh^^x^^JhieUs 'vanotut nuitb boaft^ 
gion, and nearer to the view ap- fid argnmemi fortrajf^d, to the evi| 
pear*d the banded Powers pf Satan. Angeu feems to be taken from the 
It appeared a fiery region indl- Phoniifilae of Euripides, where the 
fiin£Uy at firft, but upon nearer heroes who befieee Thebes are de« 
view it proved to be Satan*s rebel fcribM with the like boaftful ihields» 
army. only the prophet Amphi^iraus hath 

82. BrifiUd *witb ufrirhi beams i|o f^ch boaftful argument on hi« 
&C.] The Latins exprefs this by fiueld, bat a (hield without argv- 
the word bomre uken from the ment as became % modeft man, 
briftUng on a wild boar's or other ver . 1 1 1 7. 

aniip^l's back. Virg. j£n. XI* 601 • 
-^ turn late ferrcus haftii ^ ^^^^ Ay^/*^®-* 8 (Tu^w' 

MiltQn h V before, in II. 5 1 31 the tTAtf* 

e.xprei&Oii of bmrent arm* 

93- -A' 




In the mid way: though ftrangc to us it fecm'd 
At firft, that Angel fliould witli Angel war» 
And in fierce hefting meet, who wont to meet 
So oft in feftivals of joy and love 
Unanimous, as fans of one great fire 
Hymning th' eternal Father: but the Ihoot 
Of battel now began, and rufliing found 
Of onfet ended foon each milder thought. 
High in the midft exalted as a God 
Th'Apoftate in his fun-bright chariot (at. 
Idol of majefty divine, inclos'd 
With flaming Cherubim and golden ftiieldsj 



Then lighted from his gorgeous throne, for now 
'Twixt hoft and hoft but narrow fpace was left, 
A dreadful interval, and front to front IC5 

Prefented flood in terrible array 
Of hideous length: before the cloudy van, . 
On the rough: edge of battel ere it join'd, 
Satan with vaf); and haughty flrides advanced 
Came towring, arm'd m adamant and gold; 1 10 
Abdiel that fight indur'd not, where he flood 
Among the mightleft, bent on highefl deeds. 
And thus his own undaunted heart explcnres. 
O Heav'n ! that fuch refemblance of the Highefl 


111. Abdiel that fight iudur^d m/,] A follloqujr apon fuch an occtfion 
Virg. JEn. n* 407. is only making the pezfon think 

mUud, And as it is obferved by a 

Non tulit banc fpeciem furiata very good jud^ in thefe matters, 

mente Cborcebus. this ine of fohloquies by the epic 

poets, who might fo much more 

113. And thus bis own undaunted eafily than the dramatic delcribe 

heart explores,"] Such folilo- the workings of the mind in nar- 

•oies are not uncommon in the rative» feems to be much in favor 

poets at the beginningand even in of the latter in their ufe •£ themp 

the midft of battels. ThusHe^or, however the modem critics agvee 

Iliad. XXII. 98. explores his own (as I think they generally do agree) 

magnanimous heart, before he en- in condemning them as unnatural, 

gages with Achilles, tho^ not only frequent, but gene- 

. ., j^ rally the mo^ beautiful parts m the 

Oxw^f <^ *£^ ^« -"^P^ •" bell plays ancient and modem, 

He ftood, and quedion'd thus his have been wrote without them, 
mighty ' mind. Pope. 

115. — wst/FT 

Unfound and felfc) nor 
Thit he who in debate 
Should win in tnns, in 
Viftors thoagh brotifli i 
When reofon h«h lo dei 
Moft ntht, is Uut tote 
So pondering, and iroi 
Forth ftepping oppoflt^ b 

»*• ffc«= ;~i>, in oppai^n " 


His daring foe, at this prcventkm more 
Incens'd, and thus fccurely him dcfy'd. j^o 

Proud, art thou met ? thy hope wal to hate rcach'd 
The highth of thy afptring mioppos'd. 
The throne of God unguarded, and hit fide 
AbandoA'd at the terrc^ of thy power 
Or potent tcmgue: fool^ not to think how vain 13^ 
Againf!: tb' Omiripoient to rife in arms ; 
Who out of fmatleft things cooU without end 


Have raised inceffibnt armies to defeat 

Thy folly ; or with folitary hand 

Reaching beyond aU Umit, at one blow 140^ 

Undded could have fimfli'd tbec; and whelm'd 

Thy legions under darknefs: but thou feeft 


tW Mr. Pope hm iMMtimes Ut- Ofyokl if if k irtffe a thing of 
fenM the rpirii •f die cxpseffioo b/ mtmght 

tranfladng the word Nhct/®- fome- Gcd to itfift» or duuif • hb pur* 
tines f pofe greet, UV. FaiifiMc. 

Fool tkuhe was— — ^^ 

^ ^ moOf tiat the creatioa was oat of" 

fbel dut he wa9» aed ft> the ^ nothing. €§M bm)$ rmid int^ 

ture blind. fmi mrnkf, Matthw XXVI. $3. 

Bat Mlltt>n has here partkulariy f****^'^ ^^^ J f'^.T^J^'? 
inikatfdTaffo,Cant.4rSL2. i^ii^Faibir, mnd hi JMl frrf^.j 

^ gn^f me more toon twemt legtons •/ 

Come fra pur kggiera iaipfafa Amgtk? 

IfrejmgiiarenkdiviaavoglinO^ kaacL 

147' — «r 


— — TT .wn lUUl^Ullldtinft' 

Whom the grand fix 
Thus anfwer'd. Ill for t 
Of my revenge, firft fo 
From flight, fedidou A 
Thy merited reward, th 
Of this right hand pnm 
Iniiur'd with contnffiftic 

»+7v mpatUmfitft; Sec 

The are of the word>a in thi 
puce ftemi a linlc fbrc'd and fin. 
gular; and I can't help thinkiDs 
but Milton broneht it in in onfar tc 
fneer the LoyaTiftj of hit time 
who branded all diflenten.of whom 
M WM one, with die opwobrioj* 
■ame Of Seaaries. Thi alfo ac- 
ooanti fin- the vord/rw in the next 
line, inarnuich as ic fuited Milton'a 
oaiticalar view hvrfrr tn •a.kiiii. 



[ part of the Gods^ io fynod met 
deities to aOTert^ who while they feel 
livine within them, can allow 
otence to none^ But Well thou com'ft 
thy fellows, ambitious to win 1 60 

ne fome plume> that thy fuccefs may fliow 
^ion to the reft : this paufe between 
Wer'd left thou boaft) to let thee know; 
I thought that Liberty and Heaven 
v'nly fouls had been all one; but now 16^ 
at moft through floth had rather ferve^ 
ing Spi'rits^ trained up in feaft and fong; 
aft thou arm'dy the minftrelfy of Heaven, 


Seflaries, tho* Fewer in 
xt were more in the right 
' oppofers. 

- that thyfucctfs mayfi?vw\ 
efs, thy ill luccels; the 
cefs is ufed in the fame 
9. Ricbardfon* 

^tkat thyfitcctfs mayjkrw 
hon to the reft:'] Bentley 
tellable fault: itlhouldbe 
Mr. Pope fays fucceft 
I don*t know what this 
The text is right, and the 
is, that thy fucce(s may 

fellows the road to de- 
or the way to defbroy their 


167. Mimftring SpPritJ,'] So they 
are called Heb. f. 14. Are they not 
aU mmftrim^ Spirits^ and Satan 
mentions it in deniion. Compare 
this with that of Virj;, JEsk. IX. 

Vobis pida croco et fulgenti ma- 
rice vefUs : 

Defidiae cordi: jurat indulgere 
choreis : 

£t tunicx manicas et habent redi* 
micula mitne. 

O vcre Phrygiae, neqne enim Phry- 
ges ! ite per alta 

Dindyma, ubi afliietii bifbrem dat 
tibia cantum. 



Of fcrvitudc to fcm 
OrNitnrc; God and 
When he who niJes i 
Them whomhegovc 
To ferre tfa'unwi&, c 
AgaiAfl his worthier, 
Thyfelf not fiwi but 
yet lewdly dar-ft our : 

^Ty npm To« bozaTqae newt 

. "*»*•.•] Someaiing Eke ■ 

"Whit JWH, fi^, » Jopi^ jy 

*IX. 107. 

ookVl, PARADISE LOST. 443 

eign thou ki HeU diy kiogdam; kt me ferve 
I Heav*n God ever bleft, tnd has divine 
ehefts ckfcy^ worthieft to be ohey'd; 185 

etdiainsiA Hell, notreahnsexped:: meanwhile 
rom me returned, as erft thoa faidft, from fligfat^ 
'his greeting on thy impious creft receive. 
So &f 'ing, a noble ftroke he lifted fai^, 
i^hich hung not, but db fwift with tempefl fell ^ i ^o 
n the proud crefl of Satan, that no fight, 

or motion of fwift thought, lefs could his ihield 

"ch rain intercept: ten paces huge 

e back recoil'd ; the tenth on bended knee 

^ mafly fpear upftay'd ; as if on earth 195 

ioids under grooiid, or waters fencing way 


^„ thorn h» Bffftiy kiffgdmi Ut 189. So fitfhtg^ &€. ] Sit^mt k 

imftrw \ncxt contracted into one fyllaM^ 

JHtm^n God ifuer hlefit Or is to be pronounc'd as two (hott 

^gn'd as a contrail to Satan's ow^»» ^^ch vcrjr well expreifea 

vattut in I. 263. *« eagcmcfs of the Angel. He 

fctcr to rcigQ in HeU, than fcrve *?5jf . *^. ^|? ^ *^^ ^ ^** 

in Heaven mnfli d his ipeech, while he w» 

faking, which is DMich better 

my. From me return d, at erft thou ^^^ j^^. Bentley 's reading Zo fmd^ 

_ fiddfty fromfigbt^ ^ as if he had not aim'd his blow, 

^ gnctirngkc] So AfcaniM m ^ ^^^ Yic had fpoken. 

^ retorts his adveHary 5 term ^ ^f ^ ,^^y 

c-cproach, iEn. IX. 635, ^-^^ umior pound, &c.] Kefiod 

\^ cttpti Phryget haec Rutulis re- compares the fall of Cvgaus to an 

^ ^nfa reantttmt, oak or a rode falling, ocut. Here. 

Ming to ver. 599. 4ti« 

^ ^ Oo 2 Hem 

wucrcai IV 

Th' Arch- Angel trumc 
It founded, and the & 

■ "Ti *|Tp> 

Aid findlei of din kind «re v 
fiequent unongft the «ndent po. 
»at tliongh oar Author nuKht u 
tte hut of hi) from thrace, ■ 
we mnft »Uow, that he hu V 

feM art and judgmeat hightei 
m proportion to thefupwi^di 
■ay of hi. fuhjca. But perha 
*« might rather more onAibly t 

5r " "^f °^^ ^P^' '^'fer wh« 
•tooiy he intcntfid to nprt^Cent 
Llinttian) nfloiy over the Devi 
f*!? Queen. B. I . Caat. 1 , . St. 5, 

80 down he fell, aj an huge rocfc 
dift, * ^' 


Hofanna to the High'cft: nor ftood at gaze 205 
The adverfe legions, nor lefs hideous joined 
The horrid fliock : now ftorming fury rofc. 
And clamor fuch as heard in Heav'n till now 
Was never; arms on armour claihing bray'd 
Horrible difcord, and the madding wheels 210 

Of brazen chariots rag*d; dire was the noiie 
Of conflid; over head the difmal hiis 


and fomedmes it is ufed as a verb And *tis hard to guefs, what faolt 
adive, as here in Milton; Fair/ to charge on the printer, fince 
Queen* B. 5. Cant. 11. St. 20. poetic Riry is commonly both 

Even blafphemous words, which Un^V^^^'^*^''! '? ^ '^^ 
(h d th Ar • lyntax. But here m this 

'^' fentence, which is certainly vi- 

and in Shakefpear*s Hamlet, A€k I. cioas, the hifs flew in volies, and 

The kettle dmm and trumpet thu, f V' vaulted the hofts with fire : 
. J '^ the author may be fairly thought 

The tnumph of Ws pledge. to have given it 

— over head nmth difmal hifs 
2ia. -^ wtr bead the difmal hi fs J]^ fiery darts in flaming votiea 
Of Jury darts ] Now the author flew. Biniley. 

il come to that part of his poem, „ .- , , , . , • 

where he is moft to exert what fa- But if there be any place m this 
culty he has of J4(®-, magnilo- poem, where the fublimity of the 
quence of ftile, and fublimity of thought wiU allow the accuracy of 
viouKht, expreflion to give way to the ftrength 

_ _ -I w 1 of it, it is here. There is a pecu- 

Nunc, veneranda Pales, magno ^^ fo^^^ fometimes in afcribing 
nunc ore fonandum. ^^i^x to a circumftance of the things 

Virg. Georg. III. 294. ^YiXch, more ipropcrly belongs to 
He has executed it to admiration : the thing itfclf ; to the bifs^ which 
but the danger is, of being hurried belongs to the darts. Sec my not^ 
away by his unbridled fteedi and onll.6c4. Pearce, 

of deferring propriety, while he's As the learned Mr. Upton remarks 
bunting after found and tumor, in his Critical Obfcrvauons on. 
^ O o } Shake^aTa 

._«r ^ 

migtl ofth, raore. The m 

• tole of, Hijd. XII. ^j j^ ^"'' 

Ai when two feajej are di.wM 

r'lw' ""■ ""U Hcflot'. 
m^lltf. migbt 

foie of Jght. -p„p^ "" 

A«dn,fcv,nap,rt=,l,„ J„i,„ 
»^Ju. CT5 „p„„ Honcr. „d , 



Prodigious pow'r had (hown, and met in arms 
No equal, ranging through the dire attack 
Of fighting Seraphim confus'd, at length 249 

Saw where the fword of Michael fmote, and fell'd 
Squadrons at once ; with huge two-handed fway 
Brandilh'd aloft the horrid edge came down 


applying; the word tormenfy which 
the Latm poets did before him in 
ii£ng the term 'vexare. So Marino 
defcribing Neptune railing 4 ilorm, 
Adon. Cant. i. St. 123. 

■ e d' Aqoiloni 
Col fulmine dentato (emulo a 

7§niuntamio la terra^ 3 mar com* 

mooe. ^bjer. 

So Spen(er in the Mourning Mqfe 
of Theftylisy fpeaking of .£olu5y 

Who letting loofe the winds 
Toft and tormented tb^ air. 

247. - 


— and met in arms 
The poet feems al- 
moft to hs^ve fors;otten how Satan 
yiz& fbiPd by Abdiel in the begin- 
ning of the a6tion : but I Aippofe 
the poet did not confider Abdiel as 
€qual to Satan, tho' he gain'd that 
accidental advantage over him. 
Satan no doubt would have prov'd 
an overmatch for Abdiel, only for 
the general engagement which en- 
faed, and brok^ off* the combat be- 
tween them. 

251. ■ nmth huge tnjoo-handed 

fiuay &c.] It ihows how 
entirely the ideas of chivalry and 
romance had pofieiTed him, to make 
Michael /ieht with a t<wo'bamled 
fword. The fame idea occafion^d 
his exprefling himfelf very obfcure- 
ly in die following lines of his Lj- 

Bat that two-handed cng^n at the 

Stands ready to fmite once^ and 

finite no more. 

Thefe are the laft words of Peter 
prcdidiing God*s vengeance on his 
church by his miniftry. The mak- 
ing him the miniiler is in imita- 
tion of the Italian poets, who in 
their fatiric pieces againft the 
church always make Peter the mi- 
nifter of vengeance. The tnvc* 
banded engin is the two-handed 
Gothic fword, with which the 
painters draw him. Stands readf 
at tbe door was then a common 
phrafe to fignify a thing immi- 
nent. To /mite once and /mite k§ 
more fignifies a final dellrudion. 
bat ^^udes to Peter's fmgle ufe of 


Inteftin war in Heav'n, 
Or captive dragg'd in cl 
And viiage all inflam'd I 
Author of evil, unkn. 
Unnam'd in Hcay-n, nov 
Thelb ads of hatefiil ftri 
Though heavieft by juft i 
And thy adherents : how 
Heav'n's bleffed peace, ai 

5»jj™iinil.taf. of,h,Hi,K 
rndtafcrvsnt. ly^bvin 
'IS- OfMfiU^am.-i In 

•w^w £amma,: But MUtwi'. 



f ifery, uBcreated till the cnme 
»f thy rebellion? how haft thou inftiird 
'hy malice into thouiands, once upright 270 

jid faidifuly now prov'd M(ci But think not here 
o troulde holy reft; Heav'n cafts thee out 
rom all her confines, Heav'n the feat of bliis 
irooks not the works of violence and war. 
[ence then, and evil go with thee along, 275 

liy o&pring, to the place of evil, Hell, 
'hou and thy wicked crew; there mingle broils, 
re this avenging fword begin thy dopm, . . 
k fome more fudden vengeance wing'd from God 
recipitate thee with augmented pain. 280 

So fpake the prince of Angels ; to whom thus 
*he Adverfary. Nor think thou, with wind 


aflby where Michael in like man- 
ar rebukes the infernal Spirits 
ho fought againft the ChriiUaas, 
inc. 9. St. 64. 

Eteae miledetti al voftro regno^ 
EtegDO di pene, e di perpetua 

E fiano in quegli a vol doiuiti 

Le voftre guerre, et i trionfi veftrL 

So hence you curft to your ap- 
pointed laods^ 

The realms of death, of torment^ 

and of woes. 
And in the deeps of that in- 

femal lake 
Your battels fight^and there your 

triumphs make. Fairfax. 

2S2. The Adverfary.^ Not as any 
enemy in fight may be called, but 
in a fenfe peculiar to him, Satan 
being his name, and Satan in He- 
brew fignifying the advirfiaj. 

282. Ai»r think thou &c. 1 

Hon. niad. XXL 200. ^ 


The ftrifc which thon c 
The ftrifc of glory; wh 
Or turn this Heav'n itfel 
ThoD £iUeft, here howe 
If not to reign: mean vr. 
And join him oam'd Aln 
I Ay not, but have fough 
They ended parle, and 
Unrpeakable; Gx who, d 

niA«(/H> /ui ^n n* rmm >t> 

rnirvttar «{, 

(89. '[btjrift wbiti ibou eafffi 

mil,} Tht audtor gave it 
Tlie Arifc which thou call'fl 


Of Angels, can relate, or to what things 

Liken on earth confpicuous, that may lift 

Human imagination to fuch highth 300 

Of Godlike pow'r? for likeft Gods they feem'd. 

Stood they or mpv'd, in ftature,: motion, arms. 

Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven. 

Now wav'd their fiery fwordsy and in the air 

Made horrid circles; two broad funs their fhields 305 

Blaz'd oppofit, while expedation ftood 

In horror ; fi:om each hand with fpeed retir'd. 

Where crft was thickeft fight, th'angelic throng, v 

And left large field, unfafe within the wind 

Of fuch commotion; fuch as, to fet forth 310 

Great things by fmall, if nature's concord broke. 

Among the conftellations war were fprung. 


fo cMfiiaious ti to lift htmtm ima- limity of this deTcripdon. Thofe 

gimatim &c. A general battel is a are the combats of Men, but this 

fcene of too much confufion, and of Angels ; and this fo far fur- 

therefere the poets relieve them- pafles them, that one would think 

fdres and their readers by draw- that an Angel indeed had related ic« 
ing now and then a iingle combat 306. — lAjbiU expeSatiou flood 
between fome of their principal Jm horror ; ] Eocpedation is per- 

heroes, as between Paris and Me- fonify*d in the like fublime manner 

ndausy Hedor and Ajax, Hedor in Shakefpear, Hen. V. Ad II. 

and Achilles in the IHad» and be- 


tween Turnus and Pallas, i£neas 
and Mezentius, Turnus and iEneas 311. — 1/ nature's concord broke^ 
an die i£neid: and very fine they Among the conftellations 'war nuerg 
am bot fall very fliort of the fub- A^^fgi] The context fliows 


As not -of pow'r at oa/x 

ll*jt Or. Badey) AmUHmmm 
tt wia^lrt injead of ««r WW. 
fapptOe th« Doate ta awn, A, 
m the common Reading then 
^tanfiv • topHaOn puide. k 
tweenthejizdiuid 311th t«t& 
Nov how Ini AeDuan'k^fem 
wo awnd the mmal Sr*h ta 
$rm (be lv>) >» ho* i»« 
orfei of the ablttire cafe. Sao 
pofotfcm fo, wffltfc«iK*& 

wmtmg io the Doaor't rejuline t 
<»H«ive pviide henma V 
^i iia.«nd 312th Tcrfw, toconnca 
*~ ?^ >^;' So that the 
&ntt of Milton [if it be a feult) « 
g ptieii iOT'J faim the poem ly the 
MOOT, but oBlTftiftrt to another 
♦me. We had better ken then 
we wdrea dJng, and allowtfiepoei 
ateHwyrfdropphig the cop,. 
tMon DeiDre uk wotdi Tiaattamttt 
^accDOBt of Aat £m of imariBa. 
OM wh^ vai kindled, anCdie 



In might or fwsft prevention: but the fword 320 

Of Michael from the armoury of God 

Was giv'n him tempered io^ that neithar keen 

Nor iblid might refift that edge: it met 

The fword of Satan with fteep force to fmite 

Defcending, and in half cut iheer; nor ftay'd^ 32^ 

But with fwift wheel reverie, deep entring ihar'd 

MutOBf POtWltMhBHiHiR CM itib* 

Hme genius he was ma&r of^ has 
in dus book drawn to his affiftance 
all the helps he could meet with 
among the ancient poets. The 
ftvoid of Michael, which makes fo 
great a havoc among the bad An- 
giels» was given him» we are txridy 
out of iit anmmj 9f G^i^ 

Was ^^n him temperVl (by that 

neither keen 
Nor (olid might lefift that edge : 

it met 
The fword of Satan with fteep 

force to fmite 
Defeending, and in half cqt (beer; 

This paflage is a copy of that in 
Virgil* wherein the poet tells ns» 
diat die fword of .^eas, which 
was g^ven him by a deity, broke 
into pieces die fword of Tumus, 
which came fit)m a mortal forge. 
As the moral in this place is di- 
vine, fo by the way we may ob- 
lenre, that the beflowing on a man 
who is fmvor*d by Heaven fuch an 
allegorical weapon, is very con- 
ibrmabie to the old eaftem way of 
dnnkittg. Not only Homer has 


made nfe of it, but we find the 
}ewifh hero in the book of Mac- 
cabees* 2 Maccab. XV. 15, i6. 
who had fought the battels of die 
chofen people with fo much glory 
and fuccelsy receiving in his dream 
a fword from the hand of the pro* 
rfiet Jeremiah. Addifom. 

Taffo likewife mendons the ar- 
moury of God, Cant. 7. St. 80. 
But this account of Michael's fwoid 
feems to be copied from Arthegal's 
in Spenfer, Fairy Queen, B. 5. 
Cant. I.St. 10. 

For of moft perfc6t metal it was 

And was of no lefs virtue, than 
of fame. 

For there no fubftance was fo firm 

and hard. 
But it would pierce or cleave^ 

wherefoit came; 
Ne any armour could his dint out* 

But wherefoever it did' light it 

throughly ihar'd. 

And this wordy&tfrVis ufed in the 
fiuBc manlier 1^ Mikon. 

^1%, -^ tmd in hatf cut Jhitr 'r-'^ 


we MTC nereBimirwppMwuiy » 
obferve how finely peat genimet 
imittte one ijiother. Thin ii k 
ncdl beautiful paJIage in Homer a 
DiwJ, in. 363. where the Tword 
of MeacJau* in a duel with Parit 
bieaki In jSeca in hii hand; tn3 
&b fine la die origioal i« fo cOn* 
triv'd, that wc do not mIj' fee thi 
aSira, atEnflathini remtHu, but 
■Imoft ftncy we leir die finmd of 
AebicakiAgfwordmdulbaiKl of 
TtaxS«TI M*l TITOIX.9* JW- 

TFVfir »«« X't^' 
At dui kind of beaatr coold h^- 
1/ be eqaai'd by Virgu, he hu with 
p«itjudgm«nt fubututed another 
of his own, and hai artfnilf mmit 
m break in the veffe to ezpmi the 
breaking Ihort of the fword of 
Tntnuj againft the divine armour 
of .Aneaj, Xa. XII. 73 1. &(. 
-^— at peifidoi enfi) 
Fianptur, J in loedioqiie ardcn- 
tem dcferit idn. 


Not long divifible; and from the ga(h 32 ^ 

A ilream of nefta'rous humor iiTuing flow'd 
Sanguin^ fuch as celeflial Spi'rits may bleed^ 
And all his araiour ftain'd ere while fo bright. 



almoft painfid ia dercribing Satan*s I;^»p o/otf^rip ti piM fuuutpf ^^i 
pain, ^otffi. 

^„ rr* deep entring^V Homer's Gods when wounded bled 

AU his nght fide : then Satan firft y^^^ difierent from human blood, 

knew pain, - j^^j peculiar to them. And Mil- 

Andnw^ttdhmi to and firo «•- ^ ^^^^ y^ Ang^ y^ tl,^ 

«^ •« -^-^^ . ,. ^.^ . fame humor, that hais no other 
The ^rf«^fword with ^/f«r/f»«. name. He gave it therefore 

Fals'd thiottffh him. ^ ^^'^^ ^f »cho«>"» ^«*»^ i^'^ 

^, ^ . . . ^^ ./iwV. Bentley. 

3 29. 7 if grimug fw9rd tvtib dif- 

€9Mtiwmms wtmnd] Di/cmii' I fliodd have thought that an at- 

nwmu 'wmmd u faid in allnfion to tentire reader could not have mifs'd 

the old definition of a wound, that obfenring that the ftream which 

it feparatet the continuity of the Milton ipealcs of was not of nee 

parts, nmhau eft fdutio cmtinui : harems humor only, but of neaarous 

And griding b an old word for cut- ^»*»^ fanguin, that is, converted 

ting, and ufcd in Spenfer, as in into what celeftied Sfirits bletd: 

FairyQueen, B.2.Cant.8.St. 36. and Mvhat is that but the fame 

fteci did gndf. meaning, the Dodor's objeAion is 

332. A flitam 9f neSiarms humor wide of the mark. Bcfides, if 

ijfidngfiaw^d ■ neBarous was wrong, yet ichorous 

Saugmuy"] Here^s an odious blun- would not feem to be right, becaufe 

der. Neaar is the drink of the the middle fyllable of it (hould be 

Gods; and was Satan's humor or long, according to the profody of 

blood a proper drink ? But the the word from which it is derived. 

next line fhows what the author Pcaia, 

dilated. The paiTage wherein Satan is de- 

Sanguin, fuch as celcftial Spirits fen bed as wounded by the fword 

mav bleed Michael is in imitation of Ho- 

^ mer. Homer tells us chat upon 

The whole diftich is word for word Diomedes wounding the Gods, 

uken from a verfe in Horner^ there fiow*d from the wound an 

Vol. I, P P ll%r. 


To find liimfclf not mate 
Humbled by luch rebuke 
His confidence to equal C 

leior, or pure kind of blood, 
which wu not bred from moru] 
viandi ; and chat tho' the pain was 
exttuifitely great, the wound torn 
elded up and healed in thoTe be- 
ing* who are veiled with immort*. 

The reader perhaps would be 
pleafed to fee the paflage in Ho- 
mer here quoted, Iliad, v. 339, 
^le if' a/xCcfm din* <&**(« 

lX*P O'SS'Tip ft ftti /ZMApVO-l 

Ov yaf B-/TBF lAr', a vnvt**t' 
^'k-ik' avAiiitnt ttait HOI ttOwtf- 

From the clear v«n a ffiream im- 
mortal flow'd. 




Yet foQQ hfi heal'd $ for Spi'rits that live throughout 

Vital ia ^xery.part, not .as frail man 345 

In en^vfl$» h$9rt or head, liver or reins. 

Cannot but by annihilating die ; 

Nor in t)ieir liquid texture mortal wound 

Receive, no more than can the fluid air : 

All heart they live, all head, all eye, all ear, 350 

All intcUed, all ienfe ; and as they pleafe. 

They limb themfelves, and color, fhape or iize 


Tor J^' af %rafu 

ilftitf^ ii OS OT/i^f yLA'XJUi N J^f 

Er4#«rf nrio^or?! Jt«u «ffA«r« 

much more loofe and redandant 
than our expreOlve author. HMme. 

3^ fir SpTritJ that iiw 

thnuthout &c.] Our author^s 
reafon for Satan*s healing fo foon 
is better than Homer's upon a like 
occafion, as we quoted it jnft now. 
And we fee here Milton's notions 
of Angels. They are vital in every 
party and can receive no mortal 
wound, and cannot die hut by an- 
nihilation. They are all eye, all 
car, all fenfe and underflanding ; 
and can aflume what kind of la- 
dies diey pleafe. And thefe no- 
tions, if not true in divinity, yet 
certainly are very fine in poetry ; 

but moft of them are not difagree- 
able to thofe hints which are left us 
of thdfe fpirituai beings in Scrip- 

348. N^ in tbar liquid tcxhtre 

Reciivif mo nwrt than can tbefnid 
air: ] The fame compari- 
fon in Shakelpear, Macbeth, hO\ . 

As eafy may'it thou the intren- 

chant air 
With thy keen fword imprefs, as 

make me bleed. 

350. All heart they live, all head, 
all eye* all ear ^ 

AU intel'Ua, all fenfe ;] This is 
expteiTed very much like Pliuy's 
account of God. Nat. Hift. L. i. 
c. 7. Quifqub eft Deus, ft modo 
eft alius, et quacunque in parte, 
totus eft fenfus, totus viius, totus 
auditus, totus animacy totus animi, 
totus fui. 


362. And 

Threatened, nor from tl 
Refrain'd his tongue bla 
Down cloven to the waJ 
And uncouth pain fled t: 
Uriel and Rajdiael his n 

)62. Jmi wumh tMtJkdk 

hviitfA I qii^i6ii not bi 
Milton in hii defcnpdon of bit fi 
nooi Mdoch flyi^ kaia the tn 
ed| and bcUomi^ with the woiu 
he had received, had hii e^e 
Man in the IliAdj who upon hi 
being wounded it reprefcDCed i 
redniig out of the fight, and mail 
ing an outcry louder than that of 
whole army when it begins th 
charge. Homer addi tlat th 
Greeki and Tnjaoi, who wer 
cngaffid in a general battel, wer 
Icrnfy'd on each fide with the bel 
lowiu of thit wounded deity. Thi 


Though huge, and in a rock of diamond arm'd, 

Vanquifli'd Adramelech, and Afmadai, 365 

Two potent Thrones, that to be lefs than Gods 

Difdain'd, but meaner thoughts learn'd in their flight. 

Mangled with ghaftiy wounds through plate and oxail. 

Nor flood unmindful Abdiel to annoy 

The atheift crew, but with redoubled blow 370 

Ariel and Arioch, and the vblence 

Of Ramiel fcorch'd and blafted overthrew. 

I might relate of thoufands, and their names 

Eternize here on earth ; but thofe ele£): 


word is left oat in this line, and that composed of fmall pieces like 

that the fenfe and the meafure fhells, orTcalesof fiih laid one oVer 

would be improved by reading it the other; or fomeching refem- 

thusy bling the feathers as they lie on 

Uriel and Raphael, each his vaunt- '^ »^«» °f ^^' V- *84. 

ine foe Rtcbardfin^ 

^ ' 371. Ariel and Anocb^'\ Two 

36$. Adramelicb^ ] Hebrew, fierce Spirits, as their names de- 

Mi^tj magmficent king^ one of the note. Ariel Hebrew, ibt Hon of 

idcus of Sepharvaim, worihipped GW, or a firong lion. Ariocb of 

bv them in Samaria, when tranf- the like fignificacion, a farce and 

planted thither by Shalmanefcr. tnrille lion. Ramiel Hebrew, one 

And tbt Sefbarvitis bnmt their chil- that exalts him/elf agmnfi God, 
dren in the fat to Adrameltchy Hume. 

2 Kings XVII. 31. Afmadaiy the 373. I might relaie of thoufunds^ 

luftful and deftroyinff Angel Afino- &c.j The poet here puts into the 

deus, mentioned Tobit Hi. 8. who mouth of the Angel an excellent 

robbed Sara of her feven hu/bands; reafon for not relating more parti- 

of a Hebrew word fignifying to culars of this firft battel, it would 

dffinj. Hume. have been improper on all accounts 

368. flati and nuuL'] Plate to have inlarged much more upon 

19 thp bmd (olid armour. Mail ii it, but it was proper that tlic Angel 

P p 3 ftiOuUl 

For ftrength from trutH i 
Illaudable, nought merit 
And ignominy^ y^ to gli 
Vain glbriouSj dnd ^rou] 
Therefore eternal f^ce 
And now their mightie: 
Tf^th lAany an inroad ffn 

fluwld appnr » know more tbn 
In cbofe to lelate, ortbin the poet 
Wit abU to make hfan rdkte. 

382. lUaudaile.^ h v&i ben 
4uidt in the fiune nmuur ai nEEw- 
iStfw in VirgH, 
— Quis aqt Einyflhea dumm* 
Aat iamduj nefcit Bafiridu ana i 
Georg. III. 5. 
Jhid &f learned reader mwy, if he 
jilealcti fee a diflcRatton upon thn 


Enter'd, and fool diforder; all the gronnd 
With fl^v<er*d armour ftrowB^ and on a heap 
Chariot and chaHoteer lay worbstfi'i^ 390 

And fiery foantung ftdeds; what Hood, recoil'd 
O'cr-Wtaifed, through thfe faint Satanic hoft 
Defenfive fcarce, or with pale fear furpris^d. 
Then Ac£t with fear forpris'd and fenfe of pain> 
Fled ignominions, to fiich evil brought 395 

By fin of difobedience, till that hour 
Not liable to fear or flight or poiti. 
jFVu: otherwife Ch' inviolable Saints 
In cubic phalanx firm advanc'd entire^ 
Invulnerable^ impenetrably arm'd ; 400 


ftf thit ^vbat Jicml thdr gtbttody This was a very great advaiitag;e 
JMi iMtthatis nocdieiliieaiungof on the fide of the good Angels; 
ky mfhttjhad is ^t b opJ)dfition to but we moft fuppofe tnat the rebel 
what AnrMwr/nmV in the preceding Angels did not know their own 
line, nrt of the Satanic hoft i^ wtSkneb till tht's j^ow. 
mtfiriarm^iii and that part which 399. h cMc pbaianx Jtrm'\ Th 
was not dvertom^y but kept on ibi£bw(s of ipeech, to have oeen 
tiidr feety and fiooJ^ either gave tMc, it moft hive been as high. 
mrf and ttemtd •^tr-vcearitdj or as it is broad, as Dr. Bentley jurav 
t»nib ftJe fiitir fiafriN Jtid iffn- obfcrves. But why muft a poct^s 
mmws. mind, foblim^d as Mihon^s was on 

396. --**« tiU that hoar &c. ] It this occaiion, be expciSied to attend 
leems a very extraordinary droiln- to every circumftance of an epi- 
ftuice attending a battel, that not diet msme ufe of? He meant four 
jonly non^ of the warriors on either fquare only, having that property 
fide were capable of death by of a aibe to be equal in length on 
-woond, but on one fide none were all fides. And (b he exprdTes him- 
C4Mddc of wound or even of pain, felf in his traft called Iht reofon 

P P 4 •/ 

Now oigbt her coiir& 
Inducing darknels, gratd 
And lilence on the odiou: 
Under her cloudy.covert 
Victor and vanquUh'di. o 
Michael and bis Angek fi 

^OMTth GivtrwmtM &e. p-ai;^ 

Edit. Tolind. Jt ihtftfmt^trjnmtt 
im talitl taiitt im «■« grtM tii*, thi 
paim fhaloMx, am tmbUm tf tratt 
*mi' fitJfufimfs. To be fuie Mil- 
ton'f Mic, uio' not ftnfil/ propcTi 
it better than the epithet mmrtitl 
<which the Ho&OT would gire n* 
in the room of it) becaufe & A^ 
Uax in butel co>Ud not be otiier- 
wife Chaa martial t jwd lb clole^ 
united an idea could not have any 
beauty or force here. Ptaret. 

40;. — tbiMth fnm ihiir tUf* A* 

3ook^ PARADISE LOST- 465 

Incamping, placed in guard their watches round. 

Cherubic waving fires : on th' other part 

Satan with his rebellious difappear'd. 

Far in the dark diilodg'd; and void of reft^ . 410 

His potentates to council call'd by night ; 

And in the midft thus undifinay'd began- 

O now in danger try'd, now known in arms 
Not to be overpow'rd^ Companions dear. 
Found worthy not of liberty alone, ^20 

Too mean pretence, but what we more afieft. 
Honor, dominion, glory, and renown; 

Who have fuftain'd one day in doubtful fight 


h^fm^ that b Chenibim like fires t fidfe comfeit) that God wu iiei- 

wavjBg ; the Chenibim beine de- ther fo powerful nor wife as he wat 

IqjM^by oar author, agreeably to taken to be. He was fortM to 

Scripture, as of a fiery fubfiance acknowledge that they had fof. 

and nature. fer'd fome tofs and pain, bit en- 

devors to leflen it as much as he 
415. — —im/awii^r^, can, and attributes it not to the 
ms ftitntatts io cupicil caltd hj true caufe, but to their want of 
mgbt\ ] So Agamenmon, better arms and armour, which he 
the Grecians being defeated by therefore propofes diat they (hould 
Hedor, calls a council of the provide themfdves withal, to de- 
princes and generals by night. Iliad, fiend themfelves and annoy their 
IX. enemies. 

418. Owmnmiam^tryi^ &c.] 

This fpeech of Satan is very artful. 422. Hvnor^ dtmnmon^ plmy^ mtd 

He flatters their piide and vanity, nmowni] Dr. Bentley thinks 

and avails himielf of the only that Milton gave it Pfw^ramlAo^ 

comfort that could be drawn from minion i^c, Honory glory^ mni r#- 

{hii day*s engagement (tho' it wu Moiiy, (he fays) arc three words all 




(And if one day, why not eternal day^?) 

What Heaven's Lord had jTOW'tfiilleft to fend 42J 

Againft us from about his throne, and jodg'd 

Sufficient to fubdue us to his will. 

But proves not (0: then JaUible, it fccms. 

Of future we may deem him, though tUl now 

Omnifcient thought. Troe is, Icis firmly arm'd, 430 

Some difadvantage we indur'd and pain. 

Till now not known, bat known as foon contemn'dj 

Since now we find this our empyreal form 

Incapable of mortal injury, 4^4 

Imperiftiable, and thot^h pierc'd with wound. 

Soon clofing, and by native vigor heal'd. ^^H 

SookVY. l»ARADlSfe L63t, i^6f 

Or equal xAiat between ui nkBtSt the odds, . 
In nature none : if other hidden cade 

Left them faperior, while w6 can pttttrve 

Unhurt our minds and underftancfing fouiUf, 

Due fearch and confbltation Will difdloft. 44^ 

He fat; and in th'aflembly hext ttpittxid 
Nifroch, of Principalities the prime; 
A6 one he ftood efcap'd from dUd £ghl» 
Sore toird, his riven armt to hftvdc hewti^ 
And cloudy iA afp^ thus ahiWrilig fpake* j^j4 
Deliverer frdtn neW Lofds^ le&der to Gtt 
Enjoynkeftt of our right at Gdds; yethai4 
For Gods, and too tineqtial work we find, 
Againft unequal arms to fight iik paift, 
Agaihft unpain'd, impaffive ; from which evil 455 
Ruin muft needs enfue; for what avails 
Valor or ftrengdi^ though matchleft, queli'd with pain 


T/ /' *F ^oCwfitft rf ^iUfit9 » TTic Sevemjr call him i/Ufiraeh in 
u.w9t\ji99i Thyer. Kinp» ukI Nafaracb in Ifiiahr 

Jofephiu calls him Arm/ktt. He 
447. Nijrocb^ ] A God of the muft have been a principal idoU 
Aflynans, in whofe temple at Ni- being worihipped by fo great a 
Bireh Sennacherib wu kill'd by orince, and at the capital qitv 
Bit two (bni, 2 Kings XIX. 37. Niniveh; which mayji&fy Mil- 
arid Ifaiah XXXVII. ^f, 'Tis not ton in calihig him rf PrimdpaUtiet 
Ifcnown who dui God Nifneb Wii. fbifrime, 

463.— /if 



Which all fubdaes, and makes remifs the haods 

Of mightieft? Senfe of plcafurc we may well 

Sparc out of life perhaps, and not repine, +61 

But live content, which is the calmeft life: 

But pain is perfedt milery, the vfortt 1 

Of evils, and exceffive, overturns 

All patience. He who therefore caii invent 

With what more forcible we may offend ^ 

Our yet unwounded enemies, or arm 

Ourfelves with like defcnfe, to me defcrves ■ 

No lefs than for deliverance what wc owe. 

Whereto with look compo&'d Satan rcply'd. 
Not uninvented that, which thou aright 470 


/hich of us who t)^hold$ the bright fur&ce 
f this ethereous mold whereon, we iland, 
*his continent . of ipaciQusHcav'Sf adorn'd 
(^ith plant, j&uivfiow!r ambrofiaJ^ genu and gold; 
(Thofe eye fo fuperficially iiirFeys ... ,4^6 

'hefe things^ as not to oxind froin whence diey grow 
>eep under ground, materials dark and cmde, 
(f fpiritous and fiery fpume^ till touched 
Vith Heaven's ray, and tempered they (hoot forth 
o beauteous, opening to the ambient light ? 48 1 
^hefe in their dark nativity the deep 
hall yield us pregnant with inlernal flame;. 
Vhich into hollow engins long and round 
i'hick-ramm'd, at th' other bore with touch of fire 48 $ 


ok as it is commonly pronoonc'd, Wba/t ^ £> fiiperfidally fmvejrs 

IT Milton would hardly ufe a tro- &r. 
bak foot at the end of the verfe. 

Ir. Bentley reads likewife this ethe- 482. — the dap ] It is com- 

m/ Wield i and it is true Milton monly ufed for HelU bat here is 

DBmonlv ufes the word ethtreal^ only opposed to furface^ ver. 472. 

at that IS no reafon why he may and is the fame as deep under gretmd, 

oe lay likewife ethereous which b ver. 478. which may likewife ex- 

eorer the Latin *ethtretu. The plain the word imfermal in the next 

onftruftion of this fentence is, line. Not but infernal flame may 

Vhicb of us tvho beholds &c fo Ju- mean flame like that of Hell, Hell 

wjkimlly funuejs tbefe things : but having been frequently mentioned 

• die nominauve cafe nvhich of us before by the Angels, and the idea 

i.iiientipn*d fo many lines before being very well known. 

he ^trh fur^jcysf he throws in ano- 484. Which into hollow &c. ] 

ker nominative cafe^ JFhich that is the meiterials, ver. 

478. Thefi 


Dilated and infuriate, ftiall fend forth 
From far yvith thund'ring noifc among our kos 
Such implements of mifbhicf, as fhail dafti 
To pieces, and o'erwhelm whatever Hands 
Adterfe, that they (hall fear wc have difarm'd 490 
The Thund'rer of his only dreaded bolt. 
Nor Iqng (hall be our labor; yet ere dawn, 
Effefl: Ihall end our wifti. Mean while rcviwi 
Abandon fear; to flrength and counfdi join'd 
Think nothing hard, much lels to be defpair'd. 49] 

He ended, and his words their droo[Hng chcar 
Inlighten'd, and their languiJh'd hope rcviv'd. 



' invention all admir'd, and each, hpy^ hi9 
be th* Inventor mifs'd ; fo e^y' it feem'd 
ce found, which yet onfound moft would t^VQ 

thought ^00 

poffible : yet haply of diy race 
future days, if malice (hcaild abound, 
ne one intent on mifchief, or infpir'd 

th devilifli nuchination, might devifc 
:e inftniment to plague die ions of men 50^ 
fin, on war and mutual flapghter bent, 
thwith fix)in council to the work they flew; 
ne arguing ftood ^ innumerable hands 


Spenfer bas die tune thought, 502. laJkiMn dap^ Sami ma m- 
yr Queen, B. i. CanL7. St. i). /««/» &c.] This fpeaking 

when Aat dcviliih iron cngin LJ^^^ tfj^^L bi. 

de3^ W and fram'd by P ^S *5^*% "^ 
Furi^fldll, *• iwptfcauon. Vug. ^n- IV. 

th windy nitre and quick ful- °'5- 

phur frang^t, Exoriare aliqub n^ris ex offibiM 

d ramm*d with buUet round, dtor&r. 

ordain*d to kill &r. ,^^. . 

Thia here very iMoperly comes 

tho* the po^ have amed to from the mouth oT an Angel. 

bute the invention to the Devil 507. Fm'tbwiih /hm c$imdl /# 

i a notion of its being fo de- tie luork thiy JUw ; &c ] 

flive to mankind, yet many Tliis and the two toUowing lines 

ors have obferved, that iince are admirably contrived to expreft 

ufe of artillery there has lefs the hurry of the Angels; and con- 

rhter been made in battels than fift therefore of (hort periods, widi* 

before, when the engagements out any particles to connedk them. 

: dofer and laftcd longer, 

512.— yw- 

512 /-Iflimiml,. 

Jmi ic] Dr. Benilev, 
»»t U! real s, follow, ^" 

— fiilphuMw and nitrous ft 
Thtx fa>K ihey mini, „j , 

fwj cbark 
Concoaed and adofted. tliev 
To blackcS pain, and iiio « 
Pan bidden veini rff up. 
To jufUfy, hi, g,„, ,,,„,; 
™»;£'- ",\°°?»' p™"ifo c 
4ai M,l,o. i, h„, diftSiuB t 

made AmcS. L« „, now e 
anin jhe I)„i„., obj,ai„„ .; 

Jodl approach of htat diey wiu /? 
•«a^ in,. I tb'nlc 4" 
this IS not true: tho' ft.-r. .■-_. 


To blackeft grain^ and into ftoro^ convey'd : 515 
Part hidden veins digg'd up (nor hath this earth 
Entrails unlike) of mineral and flone^ 
Whereof to found their engins and their balls 
Of miflive ruin 3 part incentive reed 
Providej, pernicious with one touch to fire. 520 


tnBtdtf for €im'e§Mlt and is bat fbmetiffles he his even coupled nn- 

a cant word fit only for the powder- Uketeniet. Pe^tra, 

wSBf not for a poem : for cbarcoaJ 516. Part hiddtn "jam dig£J up 

is, in its etynu)logy, what b chark'd (nor bath tbu tartb 

Oft rather charred to a coal, that is. Entrails unKke) tf mntral imd 

burnt tho' not a(hes. SoQty no/, /«"^»] Dr. Bentlcy has car- 

V. 440. is right : ' but when the ried on the mark of parentheils to 

word cbarky or charcoal at length, the end of the verfe ; bat it (hould 

is ufed, tooty feems a fuperfluous be placed after Mt/fir: andtheyfoive 

epithet, becaufe it is implied in ^e may have been mentioned here as 

word charred. In the common what they ufed for balh. That 

itading the Dodor miiles the word (lone-bullecs have been in ufe, fee 

fomadi a neceflary word, becaufe Chambers'^ Univ. Di6t. in Cannoftm 

without long pounding the three in- Or Milton by the word fleike here 

gredients tc^ether, no powder can would exprefs more di(Undly that 

be made. But b not the fenfe of the metal, of which they made 

the word pound fufficiently imply'd their tnginj and ba/ls^ was indos'd 

in reduced to grain f The words in and mix'd with a (lony fubflance 

fluud^ mngUd, reducd, cowveyd, in the mine. See Furetiere^s French 

£ggdi were changed ( fays the Didlionary upon the word JMimrid^ 

Dodor) from the prefent to the Pearce. 

perfed tenfe : for the prefent tenfe 520. — — * pernicious nuitb om touch 

provide in ver. 520. demonftrates to fireJ] The incentive reed 

that all the foregoing verbs were is indeed pemiciosu as the engins 

of the fame manner. If there were and balls do no mifchief till touched 

any demonftration to be drawn frgni by that : but probably pernicious is 

hence, one would think rather that not to be underflood here in the 

It would fall againft the prefent common accepcationy but in the 

tenfe provide. But tlicre is hardly fcnfe of the Latin perm^c, quick, 

a page where Milton has not run fpeedy, ^c, 
from one tenfe to another, and 

Vol. I. Q^q ^iV'^unJcr 


So ;"lU ere day-lpring, under confcious night. 
Secret Eliey finilli'd, and in order fct, ' W 

With filcnt circumfpeifllon iincfpy'd. 

Now when fair morn orient in Hear'n ippfcar'd, 
Up rofe the vI<^or Angels, and to arms 525 

The matin trumpet lung: in arms they flood 
Of golden panoply, refulgent hoft, 
Soon handed; others from the dawning hills 
Look'd roiind, ;ind fcouts each coaft: Illght-anKed 

Each quarter, to dcfcry the diftant foe, 530 


JookVL PARADISE L06T, 475 

Adhere lodged, or whither fled, or if for %hr, 

n motioQ or in halt : him foon they met 

Jnder ipread enfigns moving nigh, in flow 

tut firm battalion ; back with fpeedieO: iail [ 

^phiel^ of Cherubim the fwifteft wing, 53 1 

^9ie fly'ingy and in mid air aloud thus cry'd. 

Arm, Warriors^ arm for fight ; the foe at hand^ 
Vhom fled we thought, will fave us long purfuit 
!^hxs day; fear not his flight; fb thick a cloud 
le comes, and fettled in his face I fee 549 

ad refolution and fecure : let each 

.533. _/if^(j<u; 7Q3. zxA (louis of foot ia Paradife 

But firm hattali(m\\ The leafon JUgaio'd, III. 327. W« hare f^ 

: their being both a JIow and i^/um equitumque nules in Livy, 

fm battalion is fuggefled a little Lib. 5. and even nubem belli in 

ttrwards. They were JIow in Virgil, i^n. X. 809. and armo» 

*awi9g their cannon, and firm in rum niibem in Sutiusy Thcb. IV* 

^-der to conceal it, ver. 551. 839. 


.535. Zophiel, In Hebrew the^ 541. Sad refolution and fecure :'\ 

'^ God. Hume. By fad here is meant fower ana 

fallen, as tnfiis in Latin and trijlp 

539. *— y^ thick a cloud in Italian iignify. Pearu, 

He comesf ] This metaphor is 

aal in all languages, and in al- Or poflibly it means no more than 

oft all authors to exprefs a great ferious or in earned, a fenfe fre- 

ultitude. We have it in Heb. quent in all our old authors. And 

II. I. Seeing ive alfo are com- I remember a remarkable infl^ncje 

}ffed about <witbfo great a cloud of of the ufc of the word in Lord 

^iineffes &c. We have ri?®- Bacon's Advice to Villiers Duke of 

^^»i' in Homer, Iliad. IV. 247: Buckingham; " But if it were 

mbus feditum in Virgil, i£n. VII, " an embafly of weight, concem- 

In order, quit of all 
Inftant without diftu 
And onward move i 
Not diftant fir with 
Approaching grofs ar 
Training his derilifl, , 
On every lide with ft 
To hide the fraud. A 

■; "f ««m of lUre, cioice 
nadc of fomc /^ p^ 

«xpenence, and not of » y, 


A while; but fuddcnly at head appeared 
Satan, and thu$ was heard commanding loud. 

Vanguard, to right and left the front unfold; 
That all may fee who hate us, how wc feek 
Peace and compofure, and with open bread 560 
Stand ready to receive them, if they like 
Our overture, and turn not back perverie^ 
But that I doubt; however witnefs Heaven, 
Heav'n witnefs thou anon, while we difcharge 
Freely our part; ye who appointed ftand, 565 

Do as you have in charge, and briefly touch 
What we propound, and loud that all may hear. 

So fcoffing in ambiguous words, he.fcarce 
Had ended; when to right and left the front 


^^6, hiorVd nvith fire, ] note on ftf, 399. Pim^ce* 

Beardttl, headed with fire. Of the I knew one who uied to think it 

French harbey and the Ladn hfrba fhould be boUeno tube: to which it 

a beard. Hum. may be obje^ed that etipmy, ««- 

chi/ue, are the hollow tubes or guns 

^^8. ...^ quit ofidl impi£mint;} themfelves. Jortin. 
The carriages and baggage of an 

army were caird in Latin ip^£- 553. Trmmng ] Drawing in 

menia : and the good Angels are train, from the term, train of ar- 

laid to be qaii of ail impetKment in tillery. 
oppofidon to the others incomber'd 

widi their heavy artillery. 568. ^0 fcoffing in amUfftnu 'words, 

&c.] We cannot pretend entirely 

^j2.— — ^ in hollow cute] Dr. to juftify this punning fcene: but 

Bentley reads ^Mirr, but fee my we (hould confider that there is 

Brafs, iron, ftony mi 

very little of Ah land nf wi 

where ; 


but i 

fi>ce, and ia this we wiaj fa| 
ilton to have facri£c'd to 
tille of his timcj, when pmu 
better relilh'd than they u 

frefent in the learned world ; 
know not whether we are 
grown too delicate and faltit 
in thi) j>MtiGular. It ii cei 
the Ancient! praftJc'd tliem t 
both in their converiation am 
their writings; and Aiiftotle 
cninmenda them in his booh 
Rhetoric, and likewife Cicert 
his treaiifc of OratOTy; and if 
fhoald condemn them abfolut 
wc muft condenm half of the g 
fayings of the grenefl wio 
Crcccc and Rome. They are 
proper indeed in ferious wo 
and not at all becoming the - 
jelly of an epic poem ; but 
author feemi to have been betn 

r Book VI, PARADISE LOST. 479 

y^ijth hideous orifice gap'd on us wide, 

Portendinjg hollow truce: at each behind 

A Seraph flood, and in his hand a ree;:^ 

Stood waving tipt with firc; while wc fufpcpfe 580 

CoUedted flood within our thought? anxus'd. 

Not long, for fudden all at once their reeds 


Put forth, and to a narrow vent apj^y'd 
^ ' Witlj 

renthefis here, as MUcon himfelf was led to mention them here 9f 

^1 has put it. The conflnidlion then part of Satan's artillery. Pearce. 

f„: will be, W^icb to our eyes di/co- We read before that thefc Ang^ 

[yj verd a triple rotv of pillars laid diggd up veins of mineral and Jtone^ 

s «ff fw/feelj, of ira/s, iron, fionj mold ver. 517. and that may account 

»f or fubftance, had not their mouths for the hrafsy iron, ftony fubftance 

c X^V '^ide, and ihow^d that they here. 
^ were not pillars ; the intermediate 

words containing a reafop why 578. Portending hollvw frua : ] 

£, he caird them pillars (for like to Here Raphael himfelf cannot help 

L fillarj moft they feem'd or hollonjSd continuing the pun. 
"^ todies &c.) being included in a pa- 

^ renthefis. 580. Ztood n»annng\ This muft 

^ certainly be an error of the prefs, 

■!/ ^76. Brafsy irony ftony mold,] occafion'd by ^W in the line bc- 

"^ Mold here fignifies Aibdance as in fore or in the line following; but 

' ir. 355. but Dr. ^entley by read- then it is a wonder that Milton did 

~' ing caft in mold changes the fenfe not correi^ it in his fecond edition. 

'] of it to one of 9 Very different Dr. Bentley reads 
^^ nature. By this emendation (^he 

fays) he has rid the poem cX fione — and in his hand a reed 

^ cannon: but fuch cannon haveoeen Held waving tipt with fire ; 
^ heard of clfe where, and are now 

^ to be feen (I think) at Delf in and we (hould fubfiitute fome fiich 

^ Holland. Whether they ever were, word as this, as it makes better 

'* QT could have been ufed in war, fenfe, as well as avoids the repeti- 

^ nay be queftion'd : but it is pro- tion of ftood three times fo near 

bable that Milton by feeing iuch together. 

Jlone canaon in foreign countries, 
»* Q^q 4 586.— ifr<^ 


Their devilifli glut, ( 
Of iron globes J wlii 
I^vel'd, with ruch ii 
That whom they hit. 
Though ftanding elfe 
By thoufands. Angel , 
The fooncr for their a 

^'^f'' '^^v^ Sit?! 


Have eafily as Spi'rits evaded fwift 

By quick contrad:ion or remove; but now * 

Foul diffipation followed and forc'd rout; 

Nor ferv'd it to relax their ferried files. 

What fhould they do ? if on they ruih'd, repuUe 

Repeated^ and indecent overthrow 60 1 

Doubled^ would render them yet more defpis'd^ 

And to their foes a laughter; for in view 

Stood rank'd of Seraphim another row^, 

In poflure to diiplode their fecond tire . 605 

Of thunder : back defeated to return 

They worfe abhorr'd. Satan beheld their plight. 

And to his mates thus in derifion call'd. 


tiie roar fill*d the air with roar. A cry of Hell hounds never ceaf- 

Neither do I fee how the matter ing barked, 
IS much mended by faying that 

the roar of the cannon imbowel'd we have % cry 9f ttttt bmndt for 
with roar tore the air &r. The the Hell hounds themfelves, fo 
cannon I think cannot themfelves here we have the r^ar of the can- 
be properly faid to be imbowePd non for the cannon themfelves; and 
with noife» tho* they mieht im- the rvorofcannon may as properly 
bowel with noife the air. I would be faid to imbowel the air *witb mt/- 
therefbre endevor tojuftify this by rageoas na/e^ as a cry of Hell 
other fimilar paflages. It is ufiud hounds to iark. 
with the poets to put the property 

of a thing for the thing itielf: and 599. ^^^^ ferried Jilis.'\ The ItSr 

fts in that verfe, II. 654. (where lian word Jerraie^ dofe^ c om paQ^ 

iec the note). thyer. 

6ao. fi 

Flew off, «nd intp fl 
As they wch)14 da^cc 
Somewhat extf^vigiu 
For joy of oiFer'd pe 
If our propofkis ofux 
We &oiild compel fJ 
To whom t}iu5 P^ 
Jyeadcr, the terms w- 
Of hard contents, ar 
Such as wc migj« pc 
And iluQ^[c4 mvi^i 
Had need iirom hea4 
Not uodcr^Qodf t^is 

6lO, Te lutem tlmi Belial] 


They (how tie when our foe$ walk not upright 

So they among themiibives in pieafant veia 
Stood fcoffing, highlcn'd in their thoughts beyond 
All doubt of vi£tory; eternal might 630 

To match with their inventions they prefum'd 
So eafy^ and of his thunder made a fcom. 
And all his hoft derided^ while they ftood 
A while in trouble : but they ftood not lon^; 
Rage prompted them at length, and found then) 
arms 63 e 

Agalnft fiich hellifh mifchief fit to' oppoic. 
Forthwith (behold the excellence, the power. 
Which God hath in his mighty Angels plac'd) 
Their arms away they threw, and to the hills 
(For Earth hath this variety fi-om Heaven 640 

Of pleafure fituate in hill and dale) 
Light as the lightning glimpfe they ran, they flew; 
From their foundations loofning to and firo 
They pluck'd the icated hills with all their lojstd^ 


63 c. Ri^e ^i*«- fif^ ^^^ ^"^ ] I^^^CKS is jBOthing an the .fifft and 

furor armaiBiMiilfarat.*! engageoMot wliich does 

Vifg.JEo.l. f^o. not appear «amral, and agreeable 

eooneh Co ilie ideas moft reiders 
£43. ^rm ii^/muKkiimu Ac. j) waiild.cni€«i«e «f « fight between 


jot ben, ruS airi ,^, 
'"* ," JAripoo,., b, ,h= 
*M the ajiaent jxwtj, ^d 
mtr .1, pinicula,. I,w„, 

•tor. m rfcribt the Srt 


" f"l" » pcnikions in 

Ike miMIy of li, MikeP 
"gim were the obI, i,J„ 
Iccoold n,«leX 
"itiK thofc Upod,,^ a^ 
P«"y. b^,h r„„d „J ,, 

the Mk «.„ TO, j„ ^^, 
^»g . .ho.|h. „ ,ht fo 

™,„j"?' '^ , * meafure 
ejffj" '") ■" iwdcn, b 

anciciit poett. What Hill , 
£» "«"»««»" the ™„p 
tof the Drtcf'. ..c :. .. '^. 


When coming towards them fo dread they iaw 
The bottom of the mountains upward turn*d ; 
Till on thofe curfed engins triple-row 650 


chrew them at the Godi. He dian, withoat its paeiilities. I 

describes one df them in partica- need not point out the defcripuos 

far takinfi; up Lemnos in his arms, of the ndlen Angels feeing the 

and whirBng it to the fkies» with promontories hanglne over their 

all Vdcan^s (hop in the midft of heads in fuch a dreadful manner, 

it. Another tears up mount Ida, with the other numberkfi beaa- 

with the river Enipeus, which ran ties in thb book, which are ib 

down the fides of it; but the confpkuous, that the^ cannot 

poet, not content to defcribe him efcape the notice of the mod or- 

with this mountain upon his (houl- dinary reader. There are indeed 

den, tells us that the river flow'd To many wonderful Arokes of poetry 

down his back, as he held it up in this book, and fuch a variety 

in that pofture. It is vifible to of fublime ideas, that it woulk 

every judicious reader, that fuch have been impofiible to have given 

ideas £ivor more of burlefque, them a place within the bounds 

than of the fublime. They pro- of this paper. Beiides that I£oA 

ceed from a wantonnefs of ima- it in a great meafure done to my 

^nation, and rather divert the hand at the end of my Loid 

mind than aftonifli it. Milton has Rofcommon*s Eflay on tranfiated 

taken every thing that is fublime poetry. I (hall refer my reader 

in theie feveral pailages, and com- thither for ibme of the mafier- 

pofet out of them the following flrokes in the fixth book of i^a- 

great image; radife Loft, tho' at the fame time 

there are many oihcrs, which that 

From their foundations loofning noble author has not taken notice 

to and fro of. Adihfn, 
They pluck'd the feated hills with 

all their load, 648. When comng tvwertis tbem 

Rocks, waters, woods, and by fi drioJ ibey/e*ui\ Does not 

the fhaegy tops this verle expreis the very motion 

Uplifting bore them in their of the mountains, and is not 

hands : — — there the fame kind of beauty 

in the numbers, that the poet re- 

We have the full majeily of Ho- commends in hii c::ccll»:nt Eflky on 

jner in this (hort defcription, im- Criucifni ? 
proved by the imagination of Clau- 


Into their fubftance 
Implacable, and m 
Long ftnigling und. 

When Aj« ftriret fimu 
n& Wright to throw. 

The line too laboca, and tl 
aove flow. 

65$. Titit mnma/' btk 
tt^,} Somewhat Ij 

That cfft him goodlj ann" 
moft of all him hanii'd 

661. ■ nmi gnfi hy 

F«-m.-^ What aline 
WW* Milton here inculcate 

flbokVL PARADlIB LOST. 4^7 

Oat of fudi pis*n, though Spi'rits of puteft lights 

Pureft at fifft, now grofs by finning grdwn. 66 i 

The reft in imitation to like arms 

Betook themi and the neighboring hills uptort ^ 

So hills amid the air encotitlter'd hillt 

MnH'd to and fro with jaculatioh dire, 66| 

That under ground they fought ki diflftal (lMd«; 

Infernal noife ; war feem'd a civil game 

To this upt-oar; horrid cohfufion heap*d 

Upon confufion rofe : and how all Heaven 


Exclufere diem tells, fttnt ferrea Hoinef s battels, thit tirey rift iit 

caelo horror one above another to the 

Nubila, nee jacalis arftatus fuffi- end of the IKtd. Tht ftirte may 

dtaer. be faid of Milton^s battels. la 

the firft day's engagement, when 
But what was a (hade of arrow's they fought under a cope of fire 
to a (hade of munhtsdns hnrIM to with bmrning arrows, it was Bdd 
and fro, and encountring in mid 

air ! This was infernal nnfe in- ■ ■ all Heaven 

deed, and making almod a Hell Refounded, and had Eaith been 
c^ Heaven. Such was the uproar then, all Earth 

in Hell, II. 539. Had to her center Oiook. 

Others with vaft Typhaan rage But no^, when they fbueht with 

more fell mountains and ptdmontones, it k 

Rend up both rocks and hills, and faid JU Hraz^f^ haJ gme to ivrack^ 

ride the air had not the almighty Father intdr- 

In whirlwind; Hell fcarce holds pos'd, and fcnt forth his Son in 

the wild uproar. the folnefs of the divlfte gidi'y and 

majelly to expel the rebel Angeh 

669. -^^'dnd now all Heaven out of Heaven. Homer*s Ilud, 

Haigme to ^ixracky — ] It is re- VIII. 130. 
mirk'd by the critia in praife tS 





Had gone to wrack, with ruin overfpread; 
Hid not th' almighty Father, where he fits 
Shriu'd ill his fandluary of Heav'n fecure, _. 

Confuiting on the fum of things, forefeen ^ 

This tamuh, and permitted all, advis'd ; 
That his great purpofe he might fo fulfil, 675 

To honor his anointed Son avcng'd ... 

Upon his enemies, and to declare — " 

All pow'r on him transferr'd: whence to his Son 
Th' aJlelTor of his throne he thus began. 

Effulgence of my glory. Son belov'd, 680 

Son in whofe face invifible is beheld 
Vifibly, what by deity I am. 


Anoin whoTe hand what hy decree I do, 
I ^ Second Qnmipotence, two days ate paft, 
I Two dajfs, as we con^pute the day^ of Heaveo, 685 
Since XJKchaxil and his Pow'f s went fijrth to tame 
Thefe difobodient : for^ batli been ^dr fighc^ 
As likelieft was, whoa two ^uch foes vaet arm^d; 
For to themfelves I left them, and ^u know •ft. 
Equal in their creation (h^y were form'd, 6go 

Save what fin hath impair'd, which ycA hath wrought 
Znieniibly, for I fi^ipend their doom i 
Whence in pei;peta$d fight they needs muft iaft 
Endlefs, and no icdutkyi wiU be Ibuod ; 
War wearied hath pcr^m'd what war can do, t^g 


fiitif wod'C^A. i;. fit imagi §/ Aetd witbin the compafi df this 
ihe invifibU Ggd. cne book we have all the variety 

of battels chat can well be con- 

691. — which uthatb*wrmight ceiv'd. We have a fiagle com* 

/itfittfihfy,^ This ^word d^tk «ot bat, and a geoeral engageiBcM. 
feem well to coniift with that al' The firft da/^s iidit is wim darts 
seration, which the Angel had juft and fwoxds, in imitation of the 
before faid that fin had wfought in Ancients; the fecond day's fight is 
Che ^^a Angds. Tfyer. with artiUeiyy in [imitation of the 

The Cuat dimcttlty Hack with me Modems; but the images in both 
At fiift ; hotf I foppofe, the author are raifed proportionably to the 
aieant that the manner in which fuperior nature of the b^gs here 
£n wroo^t was if^tn/Hle, not the defcrib'd. And when the poet 
effeds. has briefly comprisM all that has 

any foundation in fa£l and reality, 

695. War 'wemriedhmih performed he has recourfe to the fidlions of 
'what war can do,] And in- the poets in ihcir dcicriptions of 

Vol. 1. R r dit 


' Of ending this great 
Can end it. Into th< 
Immenre I have tran^ 
In Heav'n and Hell t 
And this pcrverfe coi 
To njanifeft thee wo 
Of all things, to be 
By lacred uni^ion, tl 
Go then thou Might! 
Afcend my chariot, ; 
That fliake Heav'n's 

tilt gianta war with the Godi 

when ix-ar halb thus ferfernii 
•liar can da, he rifcs ftill Y 
•nd the Son of God ii fent 


My DOW aad'thunder^ my almighty arms 
: Gird on, aaii fword upoo. thy puii&nt thigh ; 
: ^urfue thefe foos of darknefs, drive them out 7 1 5 

From all Jieav'n's bounds into the utter deep : 

There let .them learn, as likes them, to defpife 

God and Mefli^ his miblnted king. 

He faid, and on his Son with rays direA 

Shone full; he all his Father full exprefs'd 720 

Ineffably into his i&ce received ; 

And tfans the filial Godhead anfwVing fpake. 
O Father, O Supreme of heav'nly Thrones, 

Firft, Higheft, Holieft, Beft, thou always feek'ft 

To glorify thy Son, I always thee, 725 

As is mofl jufl ; this I my glory' account. 

My exaltation, and my whole delight. 

That thou in me well pleas'd, declar'ft thy will 

FulfiU'd, which to fulfil is all my blifs. 


ThePfidm here meant is the XLVth, be improved by reading and point* 
Ter. 3- & 4* Gif^^ ^h /^"^ 'f^ iog the whole pafCige tlius> 

giry mU thy majefy :' and in thy ma* — bring forth all my war, 
jefy riA frof^tm/y Uc. My bow and thunder, my al- 

714. and/word upon thy fu^ ""8^^ *™*' 

iJfoHt thigh;] A great man And gird my fword upon thy pu- 

obferved to me, that the fentence iiTant thigh, 

falls in this place, and that it may 

R r a 732. Thoa 

Image of thre in : 
To their prepar'd i 
To chains of darin 
Thaefrom tbjrjuft 

^732. tkulb^tiMi. 
We ma, nJU obfcrre tkat 
»"! in Iht llilt «d j,„ 
Scnpture. Thij t»lfti- t 

LZf/i'^ "*"*'*"• 
"tJbaU kmjt dtlhjtrxJ up U 

'l; ^jJf. hi,f,if i,y^, 

fcmcduttly if«Brw«A «.hei 


Whom ta doey is happineft entire* 

Then fholl thy Saints unmix'd, and from th' impure 

Far feparate, circling thy holy mount 

Unfeigned Halleluiahs to th«e iing» 

Hynans of high praife, and I among them chief, 745 

So faid, he o'er his fcepter bowing, roie 
From the right hand of glory where he fat; 
And the third iacred morn began to (hine» 
Dawning through Heav'n : forth rafli'd with whirl- 
wind ft)und 
The chariot of paternal Deity, 750 


Of th^e reb(Uioui» ef theft wbp rtligioua gniDdtMr, which throws 
have rebelled } s rcRiafkable ex- the advantage on the fidir of the 
praffipn. Engliih poet. Tiyer. 

746, S9 faidj hi tf V bis fcepter 749. ^^^^ forth rufl^d with whirl' 
hawiwgt roji $1^,"] The de- oui'Vy^f^^c.^ Milton ha^ 

(cription of the Meffiah*s goina out raifed his defcription la this hoo{: 

againft the rebel Angels ia a Icene with many images taken out of 

o? the fame fort with Hefiod*s Ju- the poetical p^irts pf $cfip(prc. 

pife»: againft the Titaos. They The Me(fiah> d^^riot is formed 

9M ho^ 9( them the ineft ua- upon a vifion of Ezekiel, who, as 

doubled uiiUiices of die true fob;- Grotius obferyes, h^v very much 

lime ; bnt which hai exceeded it is in him of Homer*s fpirit in tlie 

very dificulc to dctermin. There poetical p«ru of his prophesy. 
is, I think* a greater profufion of JMfm. 

poetifiAl images la that of the lat- 

tfixi bm then the faperior characr The whole defcriptioii indeed is 

tcr of a Chriftian Meffiah, which drawn almoft word for word from 

Milton has with great judgment Ezekiel, ^ the reader will fee by 

and majeftv fi^portsd in this jpart CQn^paring them (Ogetbef • 

of his work> gives a certaia air of 

R r 3 — — forth 


Fladiiiig tliii-k n.imcs, wheel within wheel undrawn, 
Itfclf infHnt5l with Spirit, but convoy 'd j 

By four Cherubic Ihapesj four faces each •fl i 

Had n ondroiis ; a^ with ftars their bodies all 
And wings were Tet with eyes, with eyes the wheels 
Of hcril, and carrecring fires betweeni 756 

Over their hcLuls a cryftal firmament, 
Wlicreon a faphir throne, inlaid with pure 


■ — Forfli ru(h"d with vvhirlwind 

Tlie chaiiot of pntcrnal Dciiy, 
Klailiing ihjck flames. 

" four face? each 
Had wondrous ; as with flan tlieir 

bodies all 
And wings were fet with eyci,wjdi 

eyci ihc wheels 


Amber, and colors of the ihow'ry arch. 

He in celeilial panoply all arm*d 760 

Of radiant Urim, work divinely wrought, 

Afcended; at his right hand vidlory 

Sat eagle- wing'd; bcfide him hung his bow 

And quiver with three-bolted thunder ftor*d. 

And from about him fierce effufion roU'd 765 

Of fmoke and bickering flame and fparkles dire : 


Whereon a faphir throne, inlaid Aaron> breaflplate ; what the/ 
with pure were critics and commentators are 

Amber, and colors of the (how^ry by no means agreed ; but the word 
arch. Urim fignifies light and Thnmmim 

ferfiSiwni and therefore Milton 
And the likcfufs cf the firmament up- very properly gives the epithet of 
OH the heads of the UinMg ereaimres radiami to Urim. It is moft pro- 
it-^ cs the color cf the terrible cry- bable that Urim and Thummim were 
JIml, JlretcheJ firth ewer their heads only names given to fignify the 
abo-De : And abofve the firmament that clearnefs and certainty of the di- 
'was over their heeds fwas the iike^ vine anfwcrs, which were obtain'd 
ntfs of a throne^ as the appearance by the high pried confuJting God 
of afaplir ftone : And I fano as the with his brean-platt* on, in contra- 
color of amlery as the appearance of diflindion to the obfcurc, enigma- 
the loju that is in the cloud iu the tical, uncertain and iniperfe^ an- 
d^y of rain. I. 22, 26, 27, 28. fwers of the Heathen oracles. 

760. He in ctltftial pon^pfy all 765. And from about him ficrci 
armd iffufion relTd 

Of radicnt Ufim,"] All ann'd in Of fmoke and bickering feme emi 
complete heavenly armour of ra- J^arkles dire : ] A furious 

diant light. Celejlial panepfy is in tempeil pouring forth fmoke and 
allufion to St. PauPs expreflion, fighting flame round about him. 
Eph. VJ. II. Put on the panoply. Bickerings fighting and thence de- 
the 'vAole ormcur rf God. The word llroyin^, of the WeMh Bicre a 
was ufed before, ver. 527. Urim combat There went up a fmoke 
and Tbummim were fomething in out of his nofirils, emd Irt out of 

R r 4 ^ hit 

IBuftrious far and wid( 
Firftfeen; themunex 
When the great enfign 
Aloft by Angels borne, 
His army, drcumfiis'd 
Under their Head imbc 
Befcre him pow'r divin, 
At his command th' up 
Each to his place, they 

^J »<tb JtvtunJ, Pfal Yvm 


ObfequiouS} Heav'a his wonted £k» renew'd^ 

And with frefli flowerets hill and valley fmiVdL 

This faw his haplcfs foes but ilood obdur'd, 785 

And to rebellions ^h* rallied their Powers 

Infenfate^ hope conceiving from defpar. 

In heav'nly Spi'rits could fuch perverfenefs dwell? 

But to convince the proud what iigns avail. 

Or wonders move th' obdurate to relent? 799> 

They harden'd more by what might moft ceclame» 

Grieving to fee his glory, at the fight 

Took envy) and afpinng to his highth^ 

Stood reimbatterd fierce, by force or firaud 

Weening to profper, and at length prevail 79^^: 

Againft God and Meffiah, cm: to ^ 

In univerfal ruin kft: and now 

To final battel drew, difdainmg flight. 


787. ■ tcpg umaivugjhm 788. A httnf»h Sfirits miifiA 

(Uffair. ] Imitated firom ftrvtr/tm/i dmmltf ] 

Una iaius vi£Us nulbm fpenre &• \ir%.JBA. .ii. 

lutein. ^n. II. 354. ^ ^ . . # i. ^ a 

Or raAcr from Qsiatos Cortim. it u in Mikon'« two firft editions ( 

lib. 5. cap. 4. lenaviam onoqae and if he wrote hijf, k muft ba 

aMdEtaTaciu^ ^0f9 d^^miih underilood the fiune « *jj!/»f 

/Imtrnfi^^ ■ Nt I wai thmking wtetto^ 

Accepted, fearlels in his 
And as ye have rcceiv'd, 
Invincibly; but of this ( 
Tho punifliment to othe 
Vengeance is his* or wt 
Number to this day's t» 
Nor moltitude; ftand oi 
OocTs indignaticHi on t3» 
By me J not you hot me 
Yet envied i affiunft me 

would not be better to mi In m 
tfufol nin Uft, wben I found jt 
in Dr. Bendey'i edidon, botivitl 
oat anv note upon it, or taf thii 
to diJhttgiiilh the alteradon. >■ 
it btd been fo p rinud in all tl 
former editions. 


Becaufe the Father, t' whom in Heav'n fupreme 
Kingdom and pow'r and glory appertains^ 815^ 

Hath honor'd me according to his will. 
Therefore to me their doom he hath afiign'ds 
That they may have their wifli, to try with me 
In battel which, the ftronger proves, they 211^ 
Or I alone againft them, fince by ftrength 820 

They meafure all, of other excellence 
Not emulous, nor care who them excels^ 
Nor other ftrife with them do I vouchfafe. 

So fpake the Son, and into terror changed 
His count'nance too fevere to be beheld, 825 

And full of wrath bent on his enemies. 
At once the Four fpread out their ftarry wings 
With dreadful fhade contiguous, and the orbs 


is either mean or fuperfluous. Or With droadful ihade contiguoiit» 
rather hent may be a participle in 

this conftrudion — iUs counttuanci to9 Their wngs join'd to«ther made 

/cvire to he bebeU, and bent full of a dreadful (hade ; and Ezekiel fays, 

nvratb on bis enemies. Tbeir ivings mjire joined em to ano* 

827. At me tbe Four Ac] When- ^^^- ^- 9- 
ever he mentions the four Cheru- 
bim and .the Me(fiah*s chariot, he ■ and the orfat 
itill copies from Ezckicrs vifion. Of hii ficrct chariot roll'd, as with 

M once the Four fpread out their Che fouod 

ftarry wings ^ 

Among theiB he aniw" 
Grafping ten thoo&nd 
Before him^ £3cli ai u 
Plaguess tbtftAaaiOk 
All cOMnjgQ^ dawn tba 

Of (omiit Qood), orof a flu 

tit <utbttli •aitmt hj ibtm; anJ v. 
*•»» totitt I btm-d /if wdfi tf t, 

oe tnmlUtorjuAa B& (tf Mild 

— • /' *t 1&4tt ^alJ^luCh V ^ 


O'er Hiields andiicAms and helmed heads he rode 840 

Of Thrones and migh^ Secaphim proflrate. 

That wi&'d the moumains now mi^ &e4igan 

'Hirown on them as a fhelter from his ire. 

Nor le(s on either iide tempeftuous fell 

His arrows, from the fourfcild-viJ&g'd Four S4 j 

Diftind with eyes, and from d[ie living wheds 

Diftindt aUke with multitude of eyes ; 

One Spirit hi them rnrd, and «vcry eye 

Glar'd lightning, and (hot fordi pernicious fire 

Among th'^accurs'd, that withered all their ibcngth, 

. And 

Cooch'd, jnd now^ird with pt- WhoTe carcafes oq ground wei» 
fture gudflg (at. horribly proibate. 

&fl. OfThrmui md mgbH St- Andfi. 3. Cant. 12. 
' rapbim frofirate, ] Milton 
commonly pronounces this word. Before fair Britomart ffae feU pro- 
as we -do* imh the accent upon the fbate. 
£rft fyllable. See L 2S0. X. 1087. 

1090. But here the accent is upon S42. That miijh^d the mmmtaiiu 

the M fyllable, and fo Fairfax afes f^ow mMe bt again &c.] Bo 

it inliis tradlation of TafTo.Cant. i . Re^* VI. 16. Hbtffmi t9 the moaa- 

St. 83. f^oju. Faff on MS, ami Me as frmm 

He heard the weilem Lords would £^^ ^ ^f ^. Z ± 
undermine 7^' '^JrT. '^ '«^^ ffht 

nmnA^^MMMu^ , Lamb: ^wlnch is rery applabablt 

^ft^iT* '^ °*" he«.«fl,cyhadWor^lSm. 

r^^^^' ed with momitains. Sec ver. 6 j^. 

And "Spenfer, I think, commonly What was fo terrible befbre> Acy 

pronounces it in this manner. Fairy wifliM as aflkkwr now. 

Qiteen. B. 2. Cant. 8. St. $4. 

85> n/ 


Am! of their wonted vigor left them drain'd. Set 

Exhaurtcd, Ipiiitlcls, afflifted, feU'ri. 

Yet h:\t' his ftrengtii he put not forth, but check'd 


8;j. fit I'/ii/' Us firrng.'ty he put of brazen cliariota, the Iiurling of 

nit fur: k, Src] i iicri; is no rock* and mountains, the eanh- 

cjucftion Milion had heated his quake, the fire, the thunder, are 

' - l:siic of the all of them employ 'd to lift up 

"'■" ''" -"'"'-' •'•e reader's imaginacioR. and pre 

n a fkiitablc idea of To grnt 

aftion. With what an hai ihc 

x'd poet reprefenied the whole body of 

— the earth trembling, even before i: 

was <:rcaled ! 

All Heav'n refoaadcd, and hti 

Earth been then. 
All Earth had to her center ^otk. 

. biiforc 


ti.ii (■;;i;a;;tm 

cr.i of 1 

he An. 


Homer ila-ru: 

Sivc- »■■ 



u:-., htroc. -i 

nJ (Jg.1:.. 

. mix'd 

her ill ballt-!. 

Wars .1 

tl-.° c 

unitnJii.g srni 

lies, aiiJ lifLs up 

hi; V, 

fTi.-c in Inch a 

[hat it 

is hi: 

■ard diltiiiiily 

.-tiniJil . 

ail the 


i and confiif, 

on of Ih, 

. fight. 


LT r.t ih,: l-imi 

: tiTiic i! 




His thunder in mid voly ; for he meant 

Not to dcftroy, but root them out of Heaven : 

The overthrown he rais'd, and as a herd 



Yet half his (Irength he put not 

forth, but checked 
His thunder in mid voly; for he 

Not to deftroy, but root them out 

of Heaven. 

In a word, Milton*s genius, which 
was fo great in itfelf, and fo 
ftrengthcn'd by all the help of 
leaming, appears in this book 
every way equal to his fubjedl, 
which was the moft fublime that 
could enter into the thoughts of a 
poet. As he knew all the arts of 
afleding the mind, he knew it 
was neceilary to give it certain 
refting places, and opportunities 
of recovering itfelf from time to 
time : he has therefore with great 
addrefs interfpcrfed fe veral fpeeches, 
refle&ions, fimilitudcs, and the like 
reliefs to diverfify his narration, 
and cafe the attention of the reader, 
that he might come fre(h to his 
great a£Uon, and by fuch a contraft 
'of ideas have a more lively tafte of 
the nobler parts of his defcription. 

Tet half hisfirengtb be put notfirtb^ 
&c. 1 his fine thought is fomewhat 
like that of the Pfalmifl, LXXVIII. 
38. But he being full of compajjion^ 
fcrgave their iniquity ^ and defrayed 
ihem not ; yea^ marrf a time turned he 
kis anger afway^ and did not fir up 

all bis nvrath. And it greatly ex- 
ceeds Hefiod, who makes Jupiter 
upon a like occaiion exert all his 
ftrength. HeC Theog. 687. 

Ov/' etf IT/ Zivf i^f r for fcf rO-^ 

Yt6af» iitv ^JiQ- v^tifjo ^pnu, 

6JC <rc T€ WXffAf 
^OdVi ^ Iff . 

856. -"—^ and ae a herd 
Ofgeets &c.] It may feem ftrangt 
that our author amidfk fo many 
fublime images (houki intermix fo 
low a comparifon as this. But it 
is the pradiice of Homer; and ws 
have iome remarkable inftances in 
the fccond book of the Iliad, where 
in a pompous defcription of the 
Grecians going forth to battel| 
and amidft the glare of fcveral 
noble fimilitudes, they are com- 
pared for their number to /i>j about 
a ftfepberd*s cottage^ tjuben the milk 
moif ens the pails ', and after he hat 
compared Agamemnon to Jove, and 
Mars, and Neptune, he compares 
him again to a bull. But we may 
obfervc to the advantage of our 
author, that this low iimile is not 
apply*d, as Homer's are, to the 
perfons he meant to honor, but to 
the contrary party; and the lower 
the Gomparifoni, .the more it ex. 
prefo Mr-Al^^Md there U 

•fM the 

Struck than with hoi 
Urg'd them behind i : 

the greater propriety in the i 
tadc of pall particularly, be 
our SariDor Mprcfetiti Ac w 
xMlerihe fiune Image, atthe 
we olM til /hut. Mm. XX\ 
Jwi bt MUJkttUjhnt m hi. 

««rf, hit tbt RMM M lh€ Ufl. 

«>iiicfa resfoa Dr. Pearee it «1 
Dion tliw by K timtrttufuk mj 
»*w flif^ bat deer, thu'c} 
being n it were appropriue 
the poets to that animal. X 
hai tiBdik Jmnnt twice at leaft 
Che anthor (at Dr. Seiulcy 
Dr. Heylin imagia) might . 
«id not -w but a timtrma ; 
™«**«^''»/<-'' • im 
>k<(. fint he wwild ^onily : 
MU'd 4e Ikme aterJtf nau, 
Am a/«rf immediately afterw. 
■nd neither would he have 
Ae MTprefion of timu-mu ^k 



Down from the verge of Hcav'n; eternal wrath 865 

Burnt after them to the bottomleis pk. 

Hell heard th' uofufferable noife. Hell iaw 

Heav'n ruining from Heav'n, and would have fled 

AfFrighted j bat ilrk^ fate had call too deep 

Her dark foundauom, and too fail had bound. 870 

Nine days they fell i confounded Chaos roar'd. 

And felt tenlbld confufion in their &11 


in the didionaiy Delia Cnifca it 
explain*d by falling headlone and 
violently from a higher to alower 
place. Feartim 

The word rmmng in this place is 
the Italian worn ruham^ AngU- 
cis*d, which expreflesin the fbrongeft 
manner the idea which the author 
wanu to conTey> as it denotes any 
thine falling down with min ana 
precipitation. To give one inftanc« 
oot of a thoaiand. Taflb Gier. Li^ 
herata. Cant. 9. St. 39. 

Come ne 1* Apennin robuHa pi« 

Che fprezzo d*Euro, e d^Aquilon 

la guerra 
8e turbo inufitato al fin la fchi- 

Gli alberi intorno rmaandf atterra. 

The following inftance may be add* 
ed too from Marino. Adon. Cant i. 
St. 36. 
fi ruinanja dal* etherea mole. 

871. Nine dap tkj fiU\\ And fo 
in Book I. co. 

S f Nln? 

idea. The beauty of it 
chiefly from the Pyrrichius in the 
third, and the Trochee in the fourth 

Burnt after them tQ the b6ttom- 

and change th^m into IiMnhict, 
which fome perhaps would think 
]|)etter, and it will lofe its eflFeft i 

Burnt after them tp HcU's trc- 
miendous pit. 

Milton himfeif was fo fenfible of 
this beauty, that he repeats it In 
Paradife Regain*d» I. 360. 


-f«-<- but was drives 
With them from bH(s to the hotf 
tomlefs deep. 

868. HisnPn rulnhgfrom Hmv*s,] 
Ruining is here ufed as a deponent; 
it is a beautiful way of fpeaking, 
and very exprcQive of the idea ; it 
is founded on the notion of the 
Ladn ruina from ruo. And Milton 
here followed the fenfe of the Ita- 
lian word rovinare QV ruinarf^ which 
Vol. I. 


!' 1 

i I 

- b' 





: I 






r I 

Her mural breach, 
Sole vidor from tl: 
Meffiah his triump 
To meet him all h 
Eye-witneffes of hi 

Nine times the fpace that 
day and night feTr . 

Thus in the irfk Iliad th( 
continues nine days, and 
occafions the poets are fon. 
numbers nine and three. TI: 
three Graces and nine Mufe 
might at firft occafion this 
thinking it is not cafy to f, 
n IS certainly very ancient, 
are now fo accuflom'd to it 
here, inflead of pine. Milt 
faid ten days, I am perTu 
would not have had fo good 
fea. The fame fpace of 


With jubilee advanced ; and as they went, 

Shaded with branching pahn, each order bright, 885 

Sung triumph, and him fung victorious Kinjg, 

Son, Heir, and Lord, to him dominion given, 

Worthieft to reign : he celebrated rode 

Triumphant through mid Heav'n, into the courts 

And temple of his niighty Father thron'd 890 

On high; who into glory him receiv'd. 

Where now he fits at the right hand of blifs. 

Thus meafuring things in Heav'n by things on Earth, 

At thy requeft, and that thou may'ft beware 


like that u& Fairfaxes Taflby Cant. 9. Her mural Ireach, retunung nvbenee 
St. 59. »' rolTd.'] Returning is to be 

!?•. 1. r r • .1. -^L u-. r- ^r join'd in conibufUdn with Heav*u, 
Fit houfc for them, the houfe of J^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ heaven re! 

gncf and pain. ^^^^ ^^ ^^ pj^^ . g^^ ^^ ^^ 

An inftance this, and there arc preffion (as we noted before) is 

others, that Milton made ufc of not very accurate, Heav'u repaired 

the tranflation of Taflb, as well as her mural bnacb^ and returned 

of the original. nubence it rolTd. 

878. DiJhurden'dHeofv'nr^idc'd,'] ggg WmUtftto reign :^ AI- 

So Taflb when Michael has drove ludi^gto Rev. IV. 11. <rhou art 

the infernal Spirits to Hell. Uicr. ,^^^^^ q i^j^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^/^^^ 

Lib. Cant. 9. St. 66. ^^ ^j^,^ ^^^ fcwer^ Sec. and fo 

Liberato da lor quella (1 negra making the Angels fine the fame 

Faccia depone il mondo, / Ji ra/- divine fong that St. John heard 

legra. them fing in his vifion. 
The earth deliver-d from fo foul g^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ ,^.^^^ .^ 

RccTI her beauty, and refum'd „ W»_J, /*'>£/«£-'*. &c.] 

xvvv.axi VI i w / , jj repeats the fame kind of apo- 

her joy. Fairfax. T/^er. ^^^^ jP^^ .^ ^^^ condufion, that 

DiJhurAtrfd Ueavn rejotcd^ ami he made in the beginning of his 
fion repaired narration. Sec V. 573. fcfr. 

S f 2 By 


By what Is paft, to thee I have renard 
What might have elfc to human race been hid; 
The difcoFd which befd, and ivar in H t a ven 
Among th' angelic Pow'rs, and the deep fiJl 
Of thofe too high afpiringy who rebeii'd 
With Satan; he who envies sow thy fbie, 
Who now is plotting how he may ibduce 
Thee alfo from obedience, chat with him 


By IHeening fpirieual to ceqxjtal BrtiBi9n rtquirts iwm» mDtl 
forms, i5fc ley (a/s : or it may be aid 

and it is indeed the bcft dcfcnfe *«f "«''*• «w« iiPw/^/« 

that can be made for the bold fie- 009. Tfy ivraAer ;] AsSci 

tions in this book, which tho' feme calls the wife /Jbe OAsuitr ^ 

cold readers perhaps may blame, 1 Pet. HI. 7. 
vet the coIdeH, I conceive, cannot 

but admire. It is remarkable too It may perhapt be amat 

with what art and beauty the poet the reader to fiad here at tbe 

from the highth and fublimity of clufion of this fixth book die 

the red of tlus book defcends here mendartions, which Loid M 

at th« clole of it, like the lark mon has beilowVi upon it i 

from her loftiell notes in the clouds, ESky on tnuiHated voW, u 

to the moil profaic fimplidty of which Mr. AddiibnwfaiBi 

language and numbers; a fiinpli- above. Hiat tnAy BoUrabc 

city which not only gives it variety, poet is there makinv hh ooad 

bat the greatefl majefty, as Mflton of the ba xb aia a t bondMoT 

himfelf Teems to have thought by and wi(hes that theEami 1 

always choofmg to give the fpeechei ihake off the y<^e, havuBib] 

of God and the Meffiah in that tn examptle befoi^'thcoiaiA 

fiile, tho* thefe I fappofe are the thor of Paradife Loft, 

parts of this poem, which Djyden g^ ^ . 

cenfurcs as the flats which he often ^ "**">: '*"«« rime is pei% 

met with for thirty or forty lines rr i*"J?' . 

together. ^^ *"^ /? """ne, we flight : 

* ufcful laws. 

900. ^/M Satan; benvbo tn^et For that, in Greece or Rome 

now thy ftatu ] The COB- never known* 


Bereav'd of hoppincA thou nuiy'ft pcrteioB 
His punifhrnciHj «temtl mUery; 

Which would be all his fokce and revenge, 905 
As a defpite done againft the moft High, 

Thee once to gain companion of his woe* 
But liilen not to his temptations, warn 
Thy weaker; let it profit thee to' have heard 
By terrible examjrfe the reward 910 


Tin hy Barbarian ddngei o'er- DefyMTehovab! Heiv» \«izt lioft 

flown: andhoft, 

Subdued, undone, they did at laft (A narrow but a dreadful interval) 

obey, ^ ^ Portentous fight! before the cloudy 

And change their own for their in- van 

vaders way. Satan with vaft and haughty ftrides 
I grant that irom fome mofly idol advanced, 

oak Came towring arm*d in adamant 
In double rimes oar Thor and Wo- and eold. 

den fjpoke ; There b«owing engins with their 
And by lucceffion of unlearned fiery tubes 

times, DifpersM ethereal forms, and down 
As Bards began, fo Monks rung on they fell 

the chimes. By thouunds Angels on Arch-An- 
But now that Phcebus and the fa- gels rolled ; 

credNine Recover*d, to the hills they ran. 
With all their beams on oar bleis*d they flew. 

Hand fhine. Which (with their ponderous load. 
Why (hould not we their micieiit rocks, waten, woods) 

rites reftore, From their firm feats torn by the 
And be what Roane or Athcnsitcre ihaggy tops, 

befi^re ? They bore like ihields before them 
Have we forgot how Raphael's through the air, 

numerous profe Till more mcensM they hurPd them 
Led our exalted fouls through at their foes. 

heav'nly camps. All was confufion, HeavVs foon- 
And mark*d the ground where dations (hook. 

proud apofiate Thrones 



"£'•*«'•*» ** ouu ILTU: 

iii i-: 



as they lay. 

And (ann'd with vengeance) ( 
vidlorious Son 

fEfFulgencc of paternal Deity] 
Grafning ten thoufand thimdi 
his Juuid 

'J I 

» -I 


The end o; 

Book V. 310. Ini 


t i i!.'.