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Full text of "The photographic instructor for the professional and amateur"

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FOR THE 



Professional and Amateur. 



BY 



W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS and CHARLES EHRMANN. 



WITH AN APPENDIX 

ON THE Nature and Use of the various Chemicals and Substances 

EMPLOYED IN PHOTOGRAPHIC PRACTICE. 



THIRD EDITION-FIFTH THOUSAND. 



NEW YORK : 

THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY, 

423 BROOME STREET. 



1891. 






• » • . • • » 



JSo^i ' 




COPYRIGHT, 

1888, 

BY THE SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 






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Publisher's Preface to the Third Edition. 



The popular demand for the Photographic Instructor has 
been so great that the first edition of 2,500 copies, quickly 
followed by a second edition of 1,000 copies more, have been 
sold. A third edition of another thousand copies has therefore 
been required ; and a large edition in Spanish has also been 
published. 

The book has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date. 
Considerable useful information has been added, not only to 
the Appendix on the nature and uses of the various chemicals 
and substances employed in photographic practice, but also to 
the lessons on the dark room, developing, printing, and ortho- 
chromatic methods. The lessons on Stereoscopic Photography^ 
Artificial Light and Transparencies, have also been enlarged. 

A new frontispiece has been given the book. It is a Kurtz 
reproduction from an excellent negative of the Hall of Phil- 
osophy — the Mecca of so many good Chautauquans. Many 
illustrative cuts of apparatus, etc., have also been added to the 
book. 

New York City, June Ist, 1891. 



Preface to the First Edition. 



In the autumn of 188G the autliorities of the Chautauqua 
University recognized the growing demand for photographic 
knowledge by establishing a school of photography in accord- 
ance with Chautauqua ideas and as an integral part of the 
great university. 

Prof. Charles Ehrmann was chosen the instructor of the 
school, and The Photographic Times its organ. Practical 
instruction was given during the assembly season, the follow- 
ing summer, at the Chautauqua grounds, and corresponding 
classes were formed which regularly received the printed 
lessons by mail, and the written criticism of work sent to 
Prof. Ehrmann for that purpose, with his advice and sugges- 
tions, supplementary to the printed lessons, as the peculiar 
needs of indiduai students seemed to require. Provision was 
made for answering all questions of the students, by number, 
in a department devoted to that purpose in The Photographic 
Times, and the school rapidly grew in numbers, influence, 
and usefulness. It has now become an important department 
of the great Chautauqua University, with representatives 
from nearly every State in the Union, with a few even from 
abroad, and a reputation which has extended to countries 
beyond the sea. 

Local classes for practical instruction at the school's head- 
quarters, New York, during the autumn, winter, and spring, 
have recently been started, and with entire success ; so that 
now, personal, oral, and demonstrative teaching is given by 
the instructor of the school during the four seasons of the 
year, besides the written and printed instruction which is 
mailed to a much larger number during the entire twelve 
months. It was the great practical value of these printed 



6 PKEFACE. 

lessons, written as they were by authorities on the various 
subjects of which they treated, that suggested the advisability 
of issuing them in the permanent and convenient form which 
their usefulness seemed so justly to deserve. 

Carefully revised, rearranged, and enlarged, they have, 
therefore, been herein collected, with an appendix added, on 
the nature and use of the various chemicals and substances 
employed in photographic practice, by Prof. Ehrmann, and 
some tables, with other photographic information taken from 
" The American Annual of Photography and the Photographic 
Times Almanac." To Prof. Ehrmann is also due the credit 
for contributing most of the lessons in this book, for he orig- 
inally wrote the greatest part of them. 

Mr. Charles "Wager Hull, Superintendent of the School, 
wrote several of the lessons which form the opening chap- 
ters ; while Prof. Randall Spaulding, of the Montclair High 
School ; Prof. Karl Klauser, of Farmington, Conn.; Mr. John 
Carbutt, the dry-plate maker of Philadelphia; Mr. O. G. 
Mason, of Bellevue Hospital, New York; and Dr. Maurice 
N. Miller, of the University of the City of New York, deserve 
the thanks of the reader for the remaining lessons, not writ- 
ten by 



The Editor. 



Editorial Rooms of The Photographic Times., 
June, 1888. 



CONTENTS. 



FAGS 
Q 

Preface, 

Preface to First Edition, * 

Q 

Introduction, " 

LESSON I. 
Apparatus, .------. -----^" 

LESSON IL 
Management of Apparatus in the Field, ----- 19 

LESSON in; 

The Dark-Room, .... - 24 

LESSON IV. 
Exposing, - - - - - - - oi 

LESSON V. 
Developing, - - 36 

LESSON VI. 
Fixing. Washing, Varnishing, Intensifying and Reducing, - 44 

LESSON VII. 
Printing on Albumenized Paper, . . - . - - 52 

LESSON VIII. 
Printing on Varioijs Papers, - - 61 

LESSON IX. 
Printing on Permanent Bromide of Silver Paper, - - - 72 

LESSON X. 

"Artistic" Printing, ...------ 82 



8 CONTENTS. 

LESSON XI. PAGE 

Trimming and Mounting the Prints, ---.__ 87 

LESSON XIL 
Spotting and Burnishing the Prints, 92 

LESSON XIIL 
Portraiture, .....gg 

LESSON XIV. 
Retouching the Negative, ---..... 107 

LESSON XV. 
Photographing Interiors and Inanimate Objects, -' - . 115 

LESSON XVI, 
Copying, Enlarging and Reducing, - - - - . . 120 

LESSON XVII. 
Orthocromatic, or Color-Sensitive Photography, - - - 126 

LESSON XVIII. 
Transparencies, and How to Make Them, 133 

LESSON XIX. 
Landscape Photography, ----.... 142 

LESSON XX. 
Stereoscopic Photography, -. 150 

LESSON XXI. 
Light and Lenses, -- _. 154 

LESSON XXII. 
Photo-Micrography, - - 164 

LESSON xxin. 
Photographing by Artificial Light, 168 

LESSON XXIV. 
Emulsion Making, . . - I73 



APPENDIX on the Nature and Use of the Various Chemicals 
and Substances Employed in Photographic Practice, - - 181 



INTRODUCTION. 



The series of lessons whicli follow this are written more 
especially for those who know little or nothing of the charming 
art of photography, yet who desire to be taught its mysteries by 
easy, simple methods, leaving for later study the whys and the 
wherefores, the chemistry and the science. Experience has 
shown that the amateur and the beginner is far too much inclined 
at first to ask questions that later on might be well and proper 
enough ; too apt to become an experunenter while yet a tyro ; too 
likely to fill his notebook and his head with conflicting theories 
and formulae ; not patient enough under simple instruction, and 
too anxious to do everything at once. These rarely succeed ; 
success attends those who move only so fast as they learn and 
understand. 

To become even moderately successful, photography demands 
of its votaries certain characteristics, a few of which it is proper 
the beginner should know of and appreciate, for upon them 
success depends. 

Patience. — Photography, being based upon chemical condi- 
tions and changes, moves only just so fast ; it cannot be hurried. 
You cannot make a better picture by using a stronger developer, 
thus gaining time by " hurrying things up ;" it is not like driving 
a nail or sawing a stick of wood. Patience to wait for the right 
time of day and the right kind of light ; patience to look your 
subject all over, to study it, and find the most pleasing point of 
view. The resulting picture will then satisfy you and your 
labor will be rewarded. "We all know of amateurs who should 
have painted on their cameras " wholesale only," for they care 
not half so much for quality as they do for quantity ; they can 
make more pictures in a day than a painstaking, good, working 



10 INTKODUCTION. 

photographer can make in a week, but not one in a dozen is 
worth the cost of the soda contained in the developer. 

This kind of a photographer reminds one of the boy who 
busies himself on the Fourth of July by blazing away from a 
revolver, and measures his patriotism by the number of shots 
he fired. 

Oedek. — This is an absolute requirement. When it is 
understood that each chemical is used to produce a certain 
effect when brought into relation with another chemical, it is 
obvious that the bringing together of chemicals at the wrong 
time or in the wrong order must destroy the work in hand. If, 
as is constantly the case, various operations are going along at 
the same time, the greatest care must be used, by continually 
wiping the fingers, etc., that those solutions which should be 
kept apart are so kept. Faith in your own efforts is essential 
to success ; not that the methods of instruction or the formulae 
to be given are any better than others, but that they will 
enable the student to make as good a j)hotograpli as any one 
can make. 

Follow closely and exactly everything that you are instructed 
to do, and under no circumstances adopt or attempt changes ; 
when all has been done as directed, the course is finished and 
good work made, then, and not until then, plunge into the 
boundless field of theory and experiment and good may come 
of it. 

Those who think they know it all or know somebody who 
does, who are not willing to follow as herein directed, will do 
justice neither to themselves nor to the teacher. Last, and by no 
means the least important requirement is that those who propose 
to learn the art of photography must love it. 

Benefits. — Hidden here and there along every roadside, 
every mountain stream, every bit of woodland, everywhere, 
indeed, are beauties not seen b}^ the uneducated eye ; but pick up 
your camera on a fine bright morning, leisurely stroll along, 
and you will find new beauties at every turn ; the more familiar 
you become with nature's beauties, the more familiar nature 
will become to you ; you will see what you never sa^ before, 
for the reason that you never observed before, you never be- 



INTKODDCTION. 



11 



fore searched for her beauties ; now that yon know of them 
you can never find the end. Pages might be written on this 
benefit alone ; it is worth far more than any cost to acquire it. 

Another of the chiefest charms of photography is its unsel- 
fishness ; the pictures made on a morning ramble are not alone 
enjoyed by the maker, but enjoyed as well by all his (or her) 
friends ; and this cannot be said of all the ordinary pastimes of 
our time. 

Be patient and persevering; maintain absolute order and 
cleanliness in dark-room and afield ; and adhere to one line of 
the subject until it is mastered, before branching out and ex- 
perimenting here and there. The result will be a practical 
skill in the making of good photographs, and an educated eye 
to see, depict and enjoy the beauties of nature alone and with 
your friends. 




The Photographic Instructor, 



LESSON I. 



APPARATUS. 

In photography, as in all other industrial and artistic pur- 
suits, certain apparatus, or tools, are needed to produce a 
picture ; some you can buy ; others, with but little laljor and 
ingenuity, you can make. This lesson is written to inform you 
of those tools which you must have, and leaves to your own 
judgment the purchase of those which, though not absolutely 
necessary, are, nevertheless, of considerable comfort in carrying 
forward the various operations through which you are to be 

led. 

The first group of essentials are, of course, the camera and 
plate-holder, the lens, the tripod, the cloth to be used when 
examining the image cast upon the ground-glass by the lens, 
and the focusing-glass. 

Cameras vary greatly in their design, and in the means 
adopted to produce certain necessary conditions. They should 
be as light as is consistent with the work they have to do, but 
not so light as to be liable to injury from the accidental blows 
they are almost certain to receive in out-of-door work. 

Cost is too often held to be the first consideration; but good 
workmanship and simplicity is of greater value to the amateur 
than the few dollars difference in price. 



14 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



For all the uses for which tliej are intended, the "Favorite " 
and " Waterbury " camei'as meet every requirement. 




The " Waterbury " Camera. 

The first-named of these cameras is made of light walnut, 
and the latter of mahogany. They have rubber bellows, fold- 
ing platform, single swing, vertical shifting front, record slides 
and side latch for holding the platform rigid. The two feat- 
ures last named are especially desirable. They are as light and 
compact as substantial cameras can be constructed. The sizes 
made of this style are for pictures 4 inches by 5 inches; 
5 inches by 8 inches, and 6|- inches by 8^ inches. These, 
with rare exceptions, are the sizes used by amateurs and most 
beginners. 

To those readers who know nothing about cameras, it is 
well to explain the certain parts named, and their uses. The 
bellows is that part between the front and back of camera, 
made to allow them to be moved together or apart, as may be 
required in adjusting the focus, or the making sharp and 
distinct of the image on the ground-glass. The ground-glass 
is that part which in the cut is represented as falling back, and 
in the place of which, as will be described later on, the holder 
containing the sensitive plate is secured. 

The single swing is that part of the camera to which the 
ground-glass is attached; it is an adjustable arrangement held 
in place by a thumb-screw, as shown in the cut, and may be 
tilted to the front or to the rear, or may be placed vertically. 
Its uses are many : it serves to equalize the focus, and by 



APPARATUS. 



15 



proper use the foreground containing the near objects in a pic- 
ture is made clear and distinct, or, as photographers say, 
"sharp." 

The vertical shifting front of the camera is that part on 
which the word "Scovill" is seen; it may be elevated or 
lowered at will, and is held firmly in. place by a thumb screw. 
On this front the lens is placed ; by^ lowering it, more fore- 
ground is brought into the picture ; by elevating or raising, less 
foreground. 

The side-latch for holding the platform rigid, is the bolt 
seen on the platform or bed-piece, and holds rigidly the folding 
platform. 

The platform folds up against the back of the camera, when 
the back has been pushed forward until it meets the front. 

This simple and effective arrangement not alone renders the 
camera more portable, by reducing its size, but as well protects 
the bellows from injury during transportation. 

One of the most important factors in the production of the 
photographic picture is the lens, of which, as in case of the cam- 
era, there is an end- 
less variety. Fortu- 
nately for the begin- 
ner of li mited means, 
the improvement in 
lenses places within 
the reach of all, good 
lenses for very little 
money. Nothing can 
surpass for all the 
ordinary views of 
still life, the "Water- 
bury" lens. It is 
moderate in price, and, for the purpose stated, meets every 
requirement. It has good depth of focus (by which is meant 
that objects near by and distant are both clearly defined), covers 
a good field, or breadth of subject, and works with fair 
rapidity. 

With it most excellent landscapes and groups can be made in 




The " Waterbury " Lens with Diaphragms. 



16 



THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTEDCTOE. 



a very few seconds ; but to tliose who wish to include in their 
work pictures of moving objects, the more expensive lenses 
must be employed, of which the Morrison, the Wale, and the 
Gundlach lenses are representative types. 

The tripod is the stand on which the camera is placed ; it is 
adjustable, and must be made of well-seasoned wood. W hen 
not in use it is folded into compact form, placed in a bag, and 
is easily carried in the hand. One of the best forms made is 
that known as the Scovill Adjustable Tripod. 

The extension tripod possesses, also, special advantages. It 
can be set up ready for use quicker than any other, and with 
less trouble. When placed on uneven ground, the camera it 




The Scovill Extension Tripod. 

supports may be brought to the proper level by simply adjust- 
ing the length of tlie legs, and it has no detachable parts to be 
misplaced or lost. Without this tripod, valuable time is often 
wasted, or opportune moments lost in placing the tripod legs, 
and changing their position, to include just what is wanted in 
a picture, and to level the camera. 

Next in the order of essentials are the focusing cloth and 
the focusing glass. 



APPARATUS. 



Tlie cloth should be about one yard square, of some dark 
material, and impervious to light ; such material can easily be 
found in any home. Many prefer a cloth made of some water- 
proof material ; this has the two-fold advantage of excluding 
light, and, in case of a shower, protecting the camera from the 
rain. 

This desirable little instrument is intended to aid the pho- 
tographer in securing a sharply defined picture on the ground- 




The Scovill Focusing Glass. 



glass 



To most people it is indispensable ; the image on the 
glass being small and reversed, is at times somewhat difficult 
to determine as to exact sharpness. 

The dry-plate holder (each holding two plates) which the 
next cut represents, is a device for holding the sensitive plate, 
guarding it from light, and is so constructed as to be secured 
upon the back of the camera, in the place occupied by the 
ground-glass, with slides to be withdrawn when so placed that 








Showing Patent Registering Slide. Wi , , , aken out. 

the image which was thrown upon the ground-glass may then 
be thrown upon the face of the plate which is concealed in 
the holder. 



18 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

The position of the face of the plate is exactly that first 
occupied by the ground-glass ; thus, whatever was seen upon 
it must now be thrown upon the plate. If the image was 
" sharp " (a photographic term for clearly defined) on the one, 
so it must also be on the other. 

Of these holders as many are carried into the field as, in the 
photographer's opinion he will need for the work he has 
before him. 

The articles named — camera, lens, tripod, focusing cloth, 
focusing glass, and plate-holders — comprise all that is necessary 
to be carried into the field, neatly packed, as they should be, 
in proper cases. This, at least so far as the holders are con- 
cerned, should never be neglected, for as little exposure of 
them as possible to light should ever be the rule of the careful 
photographer. 

The next lesson will describe the methods for using the 
articles which are described in this. 




LESSON II. 
MANAGEMENT OF APPARATUS IN THE FIELD. 

In the previous lesson effort was made to fully describe the 
apparatus required. 

Now let us suppose that we have the camera, with its lens 
in place in the center of the sliding front where the word 
" Scovill " appears, the flange of which has been neatly fitted 
and firmly fastened with small screws ; the tripod, the focus- 
ing cloth, and the focusing glass. For the present we will 
leave the plate-holder behind. Picking up the articles named, 
let us step out upon the lawn, taking position so that the 
sun will be a little to one side, and behind us. We can 
hardly expect to secure a good picture with the sun or 
strongest light directly in front of us, neither can we look for 
good effects of light and shade (and both are needed) if the 
light be either immediately over head or directly behind us. 
More, far more, depends upon the proper selection of the point 
or view and the direction of the light than many suppose. 
There is a proper time of day ; a proper direction from which 
the light should come for every landscape ; a time when the 
shadows will so fall as to give the proper effect, for from the 
shadows in their relations to the strong or high lights, do we 
get, when properly contrasted, the harmonious effect of the 
whole. Let us place our camera here. Before us lies a view 
combining conditions which will teach us the use of our lens 
with its diaphragms. The first step to be taken is to choose 
the best point of view. In choosing this we are governed by 
' the following considerations : The- sun is to our back and to 
the right ; in the immediate foreground we liave a large rustic 
seat ; further along and to the left is a rustic bower covered 
with vines ; in the middle foreground a small pool of water, 
still and glassy as a mirror, with several small willows beauti- 



20 THE PHOTOGRAJHIO INSTKUCTOE. 

fully reflected from within it ; further on to the left a magnifi- 
cent cluster of large trees ; beyond, in the distance and a little 
to the right, is a pretty villa, and not so thickly surrounded 
with trees as to obscure its architectural beauties ; in front of 
it a lawn stretches down to the little pool that is situated, as 
mentioned, in the middle foreground. The light, coming from 
the direction stated, falls in such a way as to penetrate well into 
tlie large forest trees, casting the shadows of the others aslant 
the lawn and bringing the projecting angles of the villa into 
bold relief. This effect of relief — the bold standing out from a 
flat surface — is nowhere better seen than in a well painted sign ; 
proper shading at a proper angle gives to the letters every 
appearance of being solid, raised from the surface. From this it 
must be plain to all that the proper relief can only be produced 
by proper shading, proper kind of shadows ; these it must now 
be seen, cannot be had to good effect when the light, as before 
stated, is either immediately overhead or directly in front or 
behind. 

Having selected our point of view, place the tripod firmly 
upon the ground, and upon it fix the camera, passing through 
the head of the tripod the thumb-screw which secures the 
camera to it, only setting up the screw tight enough to hold the 
camera in place, and allowing it to be turned from side to side 
as may later on be required. This done, see that the camera i& 
level, look at it from all sides ; this is an all-important step, 
especially when an architectural object forms part of the 
picture. 

The tripod resting firmly, the camera being level, next remove 
the cap from the front of the lens and place the focusing 
cloth over all, excepting the front of the lens. With the lens 
there should be diaphragms. Of these there are several ; they 
are flat, thin pieces of blackened metal, with holes of various 
sizes in their center ; they are also known as " stops," and are 
frequently spoken of as " openings." In focusing, which is soon 
to follow, we shall use the largest opening or stop, for the reason 
that the image is brighter on the ground-glass, due to the letting 
in of more light than could be admitted through the smaller 
stops. Having arranged the stop as suggested, and having 



MANAGEMENT OF APPARATUS IN THE FIELD. 21 

Temoved the cap from front of the lens, next step to the rear, 
raise the cloth and place it over your head. 

What do you see ? Nothing, unless you have used a camera 
before. Tou would scarcely have thought so, but there is quite 
a " knack " in finding the image on the ground-glasss. You 
are probably too near. Kaise the cloth a little and draw your 
head slowly back, the image will soon appear. Now close the 
<jloth tightly, so as to exclude all the light, moving to or from 
the glass, until you have the proper focus for your eye. Next 
loosen the thumb-screw that holds the movable part of the 
camera, so that by slowly and steadily moving the ground-glass 
to or from you, you obtain a sharp image on it ; this your 
focusing glass will enable you to do exactly. In using, place 
it against the back side of the glass, and your eye at the lens 
in the small end. It may be that the focusing glass does not 
suit your eye ; it is adjustable ; the eye-piece can be moved in 
or out as may be required. Test it, however, by holding the 
ground-glass between your eye and the light, the ground side 
from you, and move the eye-piece until the glass on the ground 
side looks rough and distinct, as it will do imder proper condi- 
tions. In the landscape before us so move your camera, by 
turning to right or to left on the tripod, as to bring the rustic 
seat into or near the upper right-hand corner of the glass, and 
the villa nearly to the lower left-hand corner, as you see the 
inverted image before you. This upside-down condition of 
things will confuse you at first, and so will the appearing on 
the right of objects which are on the left, and those of the left 
on the right. However, you will soon become accustomed to 
this new order ot things. In examining the image you may 
find that the villa is not all upon the plate. To bring it on, 
raise the sliding front until it is all upon the plate and a fair 
piece of sky as well. If in doing this you have not lost your 
rustic seat in the foreground, all is right. If you have, then 
you are too near your objects ; move back, taking up a position 
that will give you on the ground-glass all the objects you 
wish to have upon the sensitive plate. Your sliding-front 
will bring in more foreground by lowering, more sky, 
by raising. Be sure to fasten it tiglitly when the proper posi- 



22 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTKUCTOK. 

tion has been found ; and fasten also the camera to the tripod 
by setting up the screw beneath. Nothing has been said as to 
letting down and making fast the folding bed. This, it is as- 
sumed, has been done. 

In this picture you will find no use for the swing-back; in- 
deed, it is not often required for field work ; when you are so 
placed as to have an object immediately in the foreground, so 
near that you are unable to obtain sharpness, you may use the 
swing-back to advantage. In this case, set back the top which 
lengthens the foreground focus, so that the whole may be 
equalized. When not in use, be careful to have it firmly fixed 
at right angles to the bed or platform. 

Now focus the image which has been arranged upon the 
glass. Choose some object in the middle foreground, the bark 
of a tree, a cluster of rocks that are moss-covered, any object, 
in short, on which, by aid of your glass, you can sharply focus. 
This done, examine the rustic seat in the near foreground, and 
the villa in the right distance; both are beyond doubt lacking 
in sharpness ; now is the time to see what the stops will do. 
See if by using the next smallest stop sharpness is obtained ; 
if not, the next, until all parts of the image are sharp ; this, 
within fairly reasonable bounds, providing the lens is suited to 
the size of plate in use, can be had ; but, as you have seen, at 
a great sacrifice of light , which, however, we cannot avoid. 
In using the stops or diaphragms, always use the one with the 
largest opening that will give you the desired definition or 
sharpness ; this for two reasons ; you get more light on the 
plate, thus making your picture in a shorter time ; and you 
get a more crisp, brilliant, and pleasing result. Before the 
camera has been long in use, the careful student will find that 
the nearer an object is, the further apart will be his lens and 
his ground-glass when he makes sharp the image, and closer 
together when the object is at a greater distance. He will also 
have observed that when the focus has been found for an ob- 
ject 75 to 100 feet away, and the proper stop has been used, 
that all beyond that distance is equally sharp. Knowing this, 
a mark on the folding bed is made, and all pictures within 
certain distances, can be made without using the ground-glass; 



MANAGEMENT OF APPARATUS IN THE FIELD. 



23 



the ground-glass is placed at the marked spot, and the photo- 
grapher goes ahead with certainty of success. Were it not 
so, the beautiful pictures of moving objects could not be made; 
to locate them on the plate, a little instrument is placed upon 
the camera, termed a finder. Of this, and its uses, however, 
more will be said when the methods of making instantaneous 
pictures are described. 




LESSON III. 
THE DARK-ROOM. 

In some part of your house a closet can be found with a 
tight-fitting door which will meet all your wants ; the larger 
the better, for your ruby light and your breath will very soon 
destroy all the air for breathing purposes. If you can, build 
a room in some part of your house, and when building pro- 
vide for proper ventilation ; it will well repay the little cost 
of the few boards needed. Make it six feet wide, ten feet 
high, and twelve feet long. Ventilate it by having made at 
the tinsmith's four tubes shaped like the letter U, one end 
one-half the length of the other. On the long end have a 
flange. Cut two holes in the wall of the room at the bottom 
and two at the top, the size of the inside of the tube, and nail 
the tube by the flange to the wall so as to cover these holes ; 
the tubes should be a foot one way by six inches the other in 
the clear ; paint them inside and out a dark, dead color to pre- 
vent reflections of light. 

This simple and inexpensive method will add to your com- 
fort on hot days, and help to keep the air of your dark-room 
pure. Locate the door of the room at one end, or as near one 
end as possible, using the end farthest from the door for 
changing and developing ])lates. Construct around the room 
a wide shelf at such a height that, when sitting on a chair, 
your knees will pass comfortably under it ; on this shelf, at the 
side, you can place the plate-holders when you wish to fill 
them ; at the end you will have room for your developing 
operations. 

Make other shelves above as you may wish them, on which 
to place your "traps" and store your negatives. If running 
water can be had in the room you will be most fortunate. It 
is assumed that you are not so fortunate. At the end of the room 



THE DARK-ROOM. 



25 



where developing is to be done, first settle upon the spot where 
you are to place your ruby lantern, by the light of which all 
your work is now to be done. Of these there are many kinds ; 
the cut represents one that is inexpensive and reliable. Should 




The W. I. A. Petite Lantern. 

you want a larger one, it is easily found.* In front of this 
place an ordinary heavy sheet iron pan, such as is used for 
baking, measuring about sixteen inches by ten inches wide ; 
this is to constitute your sink, over which developing is to be 
done, and it should be two or three inches deep. In the 
bottom of this pan have a piece of lead pipe soldered to carry 
the water entering it to a pail underneath the shelf. In this 
pan construct and adjust a wooden frame of four strips of 
wood, on which your developing tray can rest clear of any 
dirty sediment that may collect in the bottom of your little 
sink. Next construct a shelf on your left, and within handy 
reach without leaving your seat ; on this set a pail, which is to 
hold your supply of clean water. Put in this pail a stop-cock 
and over the cock slip a piece of rubber tubing long enough to 
reach to the developing tray over your sink when in position 
in front of your ruby lantern. 

*The "Peerless" lantern is excellent, being larger than the "W. I. A. 
Petite," and giving more light. — Editor. 



26 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



Have the pail in wliich the clean water is kept a little smaller 
than the one into which the overflow passes ; this precaution 
may prevent marring the ceiling below you. 

Sitting down to your work may be thought a lazy way of 
doing things; it is comfortable, nevertheless. Having 
arranged our room for its uses, let us now see what is needed 
to do our work. Of chemicals we require sulphite of soda in 

crystals, a small quantity of sulphuric acid, 
pyrogallic acid, carbonate of potash, alum, 
hyposulphite of soda, and a bottle of var- 
nish ; also a pair of scales fine enough to 
weigh grains. For weighing more than 
an ounce the ordinary house scales, if good 
ones, will answer. If you buy the devel- 
oper already mixed you will not require 
scales, nor will you need either of the first 
four named chemicals. To mix your own 
developer is scarcely cheaper, but it is 
better for a beginner, for it acquaints him 
with what he is to use. After becoming 
perfectly familiar with the developing 
solutions, their constitution and use, you 
may save time and trouble, if not, indeed, some expense, by 
buying the developer ready prepared. 

You will require four glass graduates, one each of eight, 
four, and two ounces, marked with drams, and a minim glass- 
to measure drops. 




The Scovill Glass 
Graduate. 




Agate Iron Pan. 



Three trays or agate iron pans must be had, one for devel- 
oping, one for the alum solution, one for the hyposulphite or 
fixing solution, each to be kept for its own use, and on no 
account to be ever used for anything else. 



THE DARK-ROOM, 



For developing use the shallow pan ; the others should be 
the deep style, being always the size next larger than the size 
of plate you use. For the alum and the hyposulphite of soda 
it would be better to employ the second size larger. 

Agate iron pans with pouring lip, the following sizes are 
supplied, either shallow or deep : 5 by 7, 7 by 9, 8 by 10, 10 
by 13, 11 by U, 14 by 17, t5 by 19, and 19 by 24. 

A couple of funnels and a glass mortar you may be able to 
dispense with, though to have them will add to the ease of 
working. 





Agate Iron Corrugated Funnel. Glass Mortar and Pestle. 

If about the house you have running water, by all means get 
a negative washing-box, attach a rubber tube to the opening 
in the lower left-hand side, as shown in the cut below, and the 
other end of the tube slip over the faucet of the wash basin, 




The Scovill Negative WA^.iiiM.-Box. 

thus allowing a stream of water to pass into the box, around 
the plates as they stand on edge in the grooves and overflow at; 
tlic opening on the right hand. 



28 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOK. 



One little thing more, and we shall be ready to develop a 
plate when the proper time comes. The cut below explains 
itself ; its cost is but a few cents. 




The Scovill Plate-lifter. 



Scovill's plate-lifter for raising plates out of the developing 
solution without soiling the fingers. 




Russell Negative Clasp and Drying Support. 

By using the Russell negative clasp and drying support, 
there is no need of wetting or staining the fingers in the 
developer, or of touching a plate until after it has been devel- 
oped, varnished, and dried. They are adapted for all sizes 
from 3i by 4J to 8 by 10, inclusive. 

Of plates many manufacturers make several brands. Some 
are intended for instantaneous work, others for landscape, or 
subjects of still life, and for transparencies such as may be 
hung in the window, made into lamp shades, or for use in the 
lantern ; all are packed in the same way. 

All are put up in paper boxes containing one dozen, in the 
following manner : On the bottom of the box a plate is laid 
face up— that is, the side on which the sensitive preparation is 
placed ; on this either a thin piece of paper is laid, or some 



THE DARK-KOOM. 29 

Other method is used to keep its surface from coming into con- 
tact with the one next above it, which is placed face down. 
The third plate is placed back to back to the second plate, and 
so on face to face, or back to back, to the top plate, which is 
back up. 

Before opening the box containing the jDlates provide your- 
self with a broad, flat, and very soft brush of camel or sable 
hair at least two inches wide ; light your ruby lantern, lay the 
brush on a clean piece of paper at your side, and all is ready 
for opening the box containing the sensitive plates. It is to 
be assumed that in an outer room you have opened and 
throroughly dusted and cleaned the plate-holders or shields, as 
they are often called. This should be done quite often ; if 
not, you will will probably find on your negatives transparent 
spots, the result of small specks of dust from dirty holders. 

If you use the kind of holder shown in cut in Lesson I., you 
will notice a slide at the left ; this acts as a partition between 
the two plates ; on either side is a flat spring of sheet brass, 
which presses against the back of each plate, holding it finnly 
in position. When this partition or slide is in place, it is held 
there by a catch on the edge of the holder. The slide on the 
right is the one which is drawn out when the holder is placed 
on the camera, and when all is ready to make the ex-posure. 
Of these there are two — one in front of each plate ; the other 
in the cut is seen as closed. 

Before we close the door of our dark-room let us loosen the 
catch on the slide between the two plates, and pull each one 
in each holder out a short distance and place them on the shelf 
in order at our left, closing tightly the slides that are in front 
of the plates. This done, we close the door and fasten it on 
the inside to keep out any curious friend who, on entering, 
would bring in a very bad friend — light. This precaution 
taken, we sit down comfortably in our chair facing the broad 
shelf, having on one side the empty plate-holders, on the other 
the brush, and in front the box of sensitive plates ; these, to 
begin with, shall be Carbntt's B or landscape plates. 

Take the box, open it with care, removing lid, and turning 
back to each side the paper that covers the plates ; then by the 



30 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOK. 

edge gently raise the top plate, which we find back up. This 
can easily be determined, if in doubt, by holding it at an angle 
towards the ruby light, the back showing a bright reflection, 
the face a very dull one. Take the plate by one corner in the 
left hand, being careful not to touch its face, except just at the 
corner, and pass the broad soft brush gently over tlie sensitive 
surface to remove any particles of dust that, in the shaking it 
has had in the box, may have lodged on it. This done, lay 
down the brush, take plate in the right hand, and, having 
withdrawn the partition slide from the plate-holder, put the 
plate just dusted carefully into one side of it, facing the out- 
side ; dust another plate and put it into holder, face out, as 
before, thus bringing the backs together ; then slip in the par- 
tition slide between the two plates and fasten it ; be sure that 
the other slides are also closed, and holder No. 1, with two 
plates, is ready for use. Be careful in sliding in the plates 
that you do not bring the face in contact with the holder, 
otherwise, they may be scratched ; the same care must be used 
in taking them out. If any plates are left in the box, mark 
the number in it, the kind of plate, secure it by a string and 
put away in the darkest corner of your dark room for future use. 

This work may appear to be most simple, and so it is ; all 
things appear simple to those who know how to do them and are 
in constant practice, but to the beginner the most simple thing 
often seems difficult until mastered. It will be awkward work 
the first time ; you will not be able to work with ease in almost 
total darkness ; you will probably drop a plate or two on the 
floor ; some of them will be put into the holder wrong side out, 
or scratched putting them in, and, without doubt, you will cut 
your fingers with the edges of the glass, ISTone of these blun- 
ders will be made oftener than is necessary to teach you not to 
do it again, however. 

There is considerable knack in handling a plate so that its 
surface shall not be injured or one's fingers cut ; to save the 
latter, be careful not to draw the fingers along the edges ; if 
you do, it will probably spoil the plate and hurt your fingers. 

On filling the plate-holders you are ready for exposing, which 
will be treated of in the succeeding chapter. 



LESSON lY. 
EXPOSING. 

No FIXED rule can be given for this part of the photographic 
operation. No end of conditions serve to change the time 
required even in a day's work out of doors ; indoors it is much 
more simple, shortening the time as we approach midday, and 
lengthening as we pass into the later hours of the afternoon. 
From eleven until two o'clock is the time when exposure should 
be the shortest ; an hour or two before sunset the slowest, for 
then we often have in the summer months a peculiar red or 
yellowish light, which renders photographing almost impos- 
sible. 

The later spring and early summer months, as a rule, give 
the quickest lights ; the fall months, though the days may be 
clear to the eye, are often hazy aud yellowish in their color of 
light. Longer exposure will sometimes give us all we desire, 
always providing there is no haze. This no amount of time 
will ever offset. When a haze or fog obscures the distance to 
the eye, do not make any attempt to work on distant subjects. 
It may be that subjects very near can be made, there being less 
haze or fog to look through ; but this depends altogether on its 
density. 

Under-exposure and over-exposure outside of certain com- 
paratively narrow limits, is in a general sense fatal to the best 
work ; yet there is what photographers call latitude of exposure, 
which, be it more or less than just right, is not of necessity fatal 
to good work. For instance, if four seconds should be exactly the 
right time of exposure to give on a certain subject, and either two 
or six seconds should have been given, the negative in the hands 
of a skillful photographer would not be lost ; it would be noticed 
in the operation of development, and, as will be later shown, the 
method of treatment would be so changed as to produce a good 



32 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTEUCTCE. 

negative. The main trouble in over-exposed and under-exposed 
plates lies in the fact that we do not discover the error 
soon enough to apply the remedy. It is much easier to save 
a jDlate that has been over-exposed, however, than one which 
has received too little time. 

When in doubt, therefore, give the doubt to the side of over- 
exposure. Time enough must always bo given to impress "the 
image on the plate ; you can restrain an over-exposure, but no 
amount of coaxing will ever bring out in the negative that 
which has not been put there by your lens. You might as well 
give it up first as last. Photography will do a great deal now- 
a-days, but it will not make an instantaneous picture of a yellow 
horse against a green back-ground ; it might do something for 
you if the horse was white. This brings up another ohase of 
the subject, which at first may give 3'ou trouble. The photo- 
graphic character of subjects varies as greatly as does the sub- 
ject. The view of a house that is painted white will require 
less time for exposure than one that is painted with the reds, 
browns and yellows, so common of late. Spring foliage will 
require less time than summer foliage that has faded some- 
what, while the glorious tints of the fall are practically, if not 
wholly, beyond our art. People with sallow complexions and 
dark dresses will require more time than the child or young per- 
son whose complexion is clear and bright, and clothing light in 
color. Dark eyes, as a rule, photograph well ; light blue eye& 
do not. An ordinary open view with a Waterbury lens and 
medium stop will probably require, on a good clear day, about 
two or three seconds' exposure ; with a Morrison wide-angle, 
half that time. If the view to be made is through a well- 
wooded lane or roadway, or of a house well hidden in trees, the 
time might be ten or twelve seconds ; if of a dull lighted in- 
terior it may take hours. 

From what is written it may be that the reader is fearful he 
will never know how much time to give. Do not despair; 
you will learn more easily than you imagine. A certain rule 
as to the time required for any given subject — the rule which 
the writer fancies must be the rule of all out-door workers — is 
this : The point of view having been selected, the camera in 



EXPOSING. 33 

position, everything ready for the exposure, I stop a moment, 
look carefully over the view, call to mind a certain view which 
in character of subject and conditions of h'ght is similar to the 
one before me, and to which tlie right time had been given, 
judge this one by that, and expose accordingly ; giving it the 
same, or more or less, as, in my judgment, it may seem to 
demand. In my memory there are stored away for such use a 
few instances, which I may be allowed to term as samples ; 
one at least of them is quite certain to meet the present want ; 
by it, as stated, I measure this. Of such samples there need 
not be many. A broad open view, with distance, a view 
through a road well shaded by trees on either side, a view in 
woods with heavy foliage, a view through a grove with medium 
distance and rocky foreground ; such, and others, that I do not 
need to name. Each have to me a certain photographic value ; 
each I know well as to time given. I choose my sample, as I 
have termed it, and use my judgment. To one who has no 
standard in his mind this may appear diflScult to understand ; 
later on, when you have made a few good negatives, you will 
have them impressed on your memory and can then choose 
your own samples. There seems to be a sort of intuition 
about this matter of exposure that makes the subject liard 
to explain, for even after you have taken the cap from the 
lens, your mind made up as to the time, the chances are more 
than ever that you will change it to a longer or shorter ex- 
posure, which nine times out of ten will be the right thing to 
do. This, of course, if after experience has been had. 

An authority in photography said, many years ago: " In 
the whole range of photographic manipulation, the sum of 
which goes to make up the perfect picture, there is not one of 
more importance than the correct time of exposure in the cam- 
era." This is true to-day. 

In generalities enougli has been writtten ; let us now take 
our camera and plates and have a " a shot," as we call it. In 
other words, let us make our first exposure. Sec that the cam- 
era and lens are clean and free from dust ; see that the holders 
are tightly closed before leaving the dark-room ; see that tliey 
are in a good box to shield them from the light, not forgetting 



34 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

that, although light we must have, we want only that which 
passes through our lens ; it is our friend, yet, by carelessness, 
it will prove our worst enemy. 

The plate-holders must always be well cared for, never laid 
about upon the grass in the sun ; keep all in the box but the one 
in use. Let us put up the camera here ; a good foreground, 
moderate distance, bright foliage. Set tripod firmly, focus 
with a large stop in lens on an object, say a hundred or so feet 
away, adjust tlie sliding front, and turn the camera to one side 
or the other until you have upon the ground-glass the subject 
you wish. Keep the camera level, changing the stop to the size 
that will make foreground and distance both clear and distinct 
upon the glass ; if immediate foreground is not as sharp as it 
should be, draw back the swing-back at top until it is ; screw 
up tightly all the set screws, and cap the lens. 

After these things have been done, remove the ground-glass, 
take plate-holder from box, throw your focusing cloth over it, 
close box, and put holder in place of the ground-glass ; draw 
the shde with a steady motion until nearly out, then with a 
quick motion entirely out, keeping cloth over it the whole 
time, and letting it remain over the holder until it is returned 
to the box. You are now ready to expose ; study object, settle 
in your mind the time you should give— let us say it is four 
seconds on a Keystone B plate — uncap, give the time, and 
re-cap. In taking off and putting on the cap do it quickly, 
but be careful not to jar or shake the camera, particularly when 
you uncap. If you do, you may cause vibration, and thus 
render the picture indistinct. 

The lens being capped, raise the corner of the focusing cloth 
that covers the holder, and return the slide you had removed. 
Do this by a steady, quick motion, shielding it with the cloth 
and putting in the slide squarely, not one corner first, for inside 
there is a spring to cut off the light when the slide is with- 
drawn ; examine it when empty and you will see why it must 
go in square. Be particular about this. 

Having now made one exposure, which we will assume to be 
exactly right, let us make two more, which, we shall find, later 
on, are wrong ; one say for two seconds or a little less, and 



EXPOSING. 



35 



one for six or seven seconds, giving us for a future lesson one 
that is right, one that is under-exposed and one that is over- 
exposed ; their action under the developer in the next lesson 
will give us the proof. 

Later, it will be seen that the plate to which was given four 
seconds prove to be just right — a good, clean, clear, sharp 
negative of fine intensity, all that we want. You npw have a 
sample, as we have termed it, or standard, for that character or 
class of views ; for such, in future, you now have something to 
measure another exposure of similar subject by; if of little 
thicker foliage or foreground, or little less biilliant light, then 
in your judgment a little more time ; if the reverse, then a 
little less time. 




LESSON Y. 
DEVELOPING. 

Development is that part of the photograpliic art which 
brings to sight the latent or hidden image on the sensitive 
plate after it has been exposed in the camera ; it is a delicate 
operation, requires close attention, good eyesight and judg- 
ment, oftentimes patience, always care and cleanliness. It can 
only be carried forward when all but the ruby light has been 
excluded; if successful in it, we have our greatest photo- 
graphic joy ; if not, our greatest disappointment ; for if a 
success, we have a negative from which, with care in its hand- 
ling, hundreds of charming prints may be made. Before 
proceeding to develop the plates exposed in the last lesson, let 
us put our house in order, make the developer, etc., so that, 
when we close the door of the dark-room, everything will be 
at hand and just where it should be. A good motto for the 
dark-room would be the old one of " a place for everything, 
and everything in its place," not only for the reason that it is 
always well to have it so, but that in the darkness of the dark- 
room it must be so, otherwise we are not able to work. So 
dim is the light, excepting only that which is just before us, 
that, if anything is wanted, we must know just where to put 
our hand to find it. 

Always, before commencing, wash thoroughly each article 
that is to be used ; cleanhness in photography is but the syn- 
onym for success. The developer which we shall first use 
will be made after Mr. Carbutt's formula ; it differs but little 
from many others, is simple, and works satisfactorily. Just 
here let us impress one thing upon the student. During these 
lessons, use this developer only ; under no circumstances try 
any other, for most excellent work can be ^made with it. 
Leave experiments to the future, follow instructions closely ; 



DEVELOPING. 37 

if you do not, confusion and failure will result. As a rule, 
almost without an exception, beginners make very poor work. 
There is no reason why they should make good work. They 
])lame their formuliB instead of their own lack of knowledge 
and practice ; somebody says use so-and-so, another something - 
else ; the work does not improve, discouragement follows, ^ 
sometimes the charming art is given up in despair. Stick to 
the simple rules here given, and you are sure to make good 
work. 

Now for the chemicals needed to compound the developer : 

Sulphite of soda, crystals 1 pound 

Carbonate of potash, granulated 1 pound 

Carbonate of soda, granulated 1 pound 

Pyrogallic acid 4 ounces 

Sulphuric acid 1 ounce 

Bromide of potash 1 ounce 

This quantity of chemicals will give you enough developer 
for nearly three hundred plates of 6^ by 8^ size, and will, if 
used with care and bought of a conscientious dealer in photo- 
graphic chemicals, not cost you much over one cent for each 
plate, reference being had to the proportions given below, and 
used on plates to which proper exposure has been given. 

To compound the developer for use, proceed as follows. 
Procure two twelve-ounce bottles of clear, white glass, for 
reason that you can always see if they are clean, with well-fit- 
ting corks; mark one "No. 1, Pyro;" the other "No. 2, 
Potash." This done, take the eight-ounce graduate, put into 
it five ounces of good, soft, spring water, or better still if in 
doubt as to the quality of the water, use that from melted ice. 
Weigh and add two ounces of sulphite of soda crystals, stir 
with a glass rod or stick until dissolved, then add slowly half a 
dram, fluid measure, of sulphuric acid ; to this add 240 grains 
of pyrogallic acid ; when dissolved fill up to eight ounces with 
water. 

Next take the bottle which has been marked " No. 1, Pyro," 
place in it the funnel, into the neck of which you have first 
placed a little wad of clean wet cotton ; pour the solution into 
the funnel, having the cotton loose enough to allow the solution 



38 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

to trickle slowly into the bottle. This solution is good for use 
so long as it is clear. When it becomes opaque or muddy 
looking it must be rejected. 

JSText make up a solution for the bottle marked " "tTo. 2, Pot- 
ash," by dissolving one ounce each of potash and soda in five 
ounces of water ; then add water to make eight ounces ; filter 
in same way, being sure that the filter has been thoroughly 
washed. In hot weather, when chemicals work more rapidly 
than in winter, it is well to add to " No. 1, Pyro " about fifteen 
grains of bromide of potassium. The contents now in the two 
bottles form what is known as stock solution, and for the process 
of developing are used as follows : 

Water 4 fluid ounces 

No. 1, Pyro 3 fluid drams 

No. 2, Potash '. 2 fluid drams 

Of this, in the proportions as given, as much may be mixed 
as at one sitting is likely to be used. 

The developer being ready, wash the pan or tray in which it 
is to be used and place over it the large pan described in a pre- 
vious lesson, in front of the lighted ruby lantern. Place the 
holders containing the exposed plates and the developer in 
handy position within reach, close and fasten the dark room 
door and take your seat facing the lantern and tray. 

All being ready, remove the slide which divides the plates 
in holder and let the plate to which four seconds' exposure was 
given slide out slowly, face up, to prevent scratching the film 
on face of plate, close holder and lay the plate in the tray, face 
up (the dull looking side), then with a sweeping motion from 
one side to the other pour the developer over it ; do not pour 
upon one spot, but gently sweep it over the whole face. 

This done, move the tray from side to side, being careful to 
have the solution wash over all parts of the ]3late and keep it 
gently in motion. Should an air bubble appear on any part of 
the plate, gently touch it with a finger and break it, otherwise 
you will have a spot, on which the developer not acting, after 
the process of fixing, will be transparent. In a few moments 
a shadowy or darkening appearance on part of the plate will be 
noticed gradually growing in distinctness ; this will be the high 



DEVELOPING. 30 

lights, the sky, or objects of a liglit color on which the strongest 
light has fallen, followed by an indistinct outline, as it lies in 
the tray, of the view or picture thrown upon the plate by the 
lens. In a moment or two it will slightly fade from view, 
becoming less distinct ; then with the thimble on your fore- 
finger slip the point of the little spear on thimble under the 
plate and raise it from the tray ; hold it up to the light and 
examine as to its intensity and the detail of foliage, and see if 
the objects which were in shadow liave all appeared. 

If not quite intense enough — in other words not so opaque in 
the sky as to shut out all light as viewed by the ruby flame — if 
the details in tlie shadows have not appeared, the bark on the 
trees is not distinct, replace it in the solution and continue the 
operation until these conditions are attained. Then wash it 
with a gentle stream of water from the upper pail, and it is 
ready to place in the alum solution. This we shaU not do in 
this lesson, but will stop with the development. 

IS'ext, let us take the plate to which we gave two seconds or 
a little less, treat this in exactly the sameway and we shall find 
that it " comes up," as photographers say, very slowly. We 
wait patiently, but the details do not appear in the shadows, tlie 
high lights become very opaque and intense; there is nmch 
more of the plate on which nothing appears than there was in 
the other ; we continue twice as long in our efforts to "get some- 
thing out ;" it does not come ; we give it up and wash as we did 
the other. 

Lastly we take the other and last plate, to which we gave an 
exposure of seven or eight seconds ; treat this as the others ; 
almost instantly we notice the action of the developer ; it works 
rapidly; the whole view seems to flash up at once, detail 
in shadows, everything " comes up " almost instantly ; it appears 
to finish at once ; we take it from the tray, and to stop further 
action of developer wash it. Here we will let them rest for 
future treatment, although the operation is in practice a con- 
tinuous one. For each plate a fresh solution must be used. 
Between the development of each plate wash the tray by play- 
ing the little hose into it to remove any of the old solution that 
has become a dark-reddish color. 



40 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

If in developing a plate that has had the right exposure 
given it, you should stop short in the development, you 
will find the details in the poorly-lighted parts of the plate are 
wanting, and the intensity of the high lights and sky not dense 
enough to shut off the light when you come to print it on 
paper. This intensity should be such as to give, when the 
print is made, just a faint tinge to the paper, not so dense as 
to stop all light and leave the paper a pure white, nor lacking 
in intensity to such a degree as to allow the passage of too 
much light so as to make a dark, dull, heavy sort of sky. If 
we push the development in the under-exposed plate in our 
efforts to get out the details, we shall have the sky very dense, 
and, lacking the details. We have, when finished, a large por- 
tion of the plate that is httle more than clear glass, giving us 
a negative of severe contrasts, and worthless, yielding a print 
with an absolutely white sky and heavy dark shadows. 

The over-exposed plate will, if we push the development, or 
continue it too long, grow up, as it were, all over the plate, 
and, when finished, be of too even a tone, too much alike all 
over, lacking in contrast ; if stopped short it will be lacking in 
intensity in the high lights, and, like the under-exposed plate, 
worthless. 

Over-exposure, if not too great, we can control. If you have 
reason to know that a plate has been over-exposed, make the 
developer as before, with this change : use but half as much of 
the No, 2 solution, and add half a dozen drops of a solution 
of the bromide, made up 50 grains to the ounce of water. The 
cutting down of the No. 2 will make the development slower ; 
the bromide will also restrain the rapid action, and help to 
gain intensity. If it still dashes up, pour off solution, and add 
a little more bromide ; if too slow, add a little more of No. 2. 
In this way, you may be able, by judgment in variously com- 
pounding, to save a day's work that has been over-exposed. No 
amount of writing can tell you more than this; practice alone 
will teach you. 

Much under-exposed plates are quite difficult to save from 
being total failures. If but very little light has acted upon the 
plate, and in some portions of it none at all, the plate had best 



DEVELOPING. 41 

be discarded altogether, because without light action no 
developer in the world is able to bring forth an image. 

But plates which have not been excessively under-exposed 
can be saved by increasing the proportion of the alkaline solu- 
tion of the developer, and by repeated changes and modifica- 
tions of the normal solutions, each individual change being to 
suit exactly the state of the plate at that time. When starting 
as well as in continuing the development for some time, only 
very weak solutions should be employed. This may be done 
by simply diluting the normal developer with two or three 
times its bulk of water, and subjecting the plate to it for a 
long time, a half or even a whole hour. Or begin by flowing 
the plate with a much diluted alkaline solution, previously de- 
scribed. Add three drams of it to three ounces of water, and 
allow the plate to soak in it for three or four minutes. Then 
return the plate to the normal developer diluted with an equal 
bulk of water. When the image begins to appear, increase the 
strength of the solution gradually, and continue to do so, till 
all details have been brought out, and proper printing density 
has been obtained. Weak solutions used to the end of the 
operation would be productive of but weak and feeble nega- 
tives. If we attempt to force development by an excessive 
increase of alkali, dense fog will be the consequence, and the 
operation will result in total failure. 

Temperature has great influence in slowing or hastening 
develo])ment ; cold retards, heat accelerates, we therefore use 
more alkali in winter time than in summer. The average 
temperature should be about 65 deg. F. 

If at any time a fog appears to overspread the plate, a sort 
of a veil, as it were, thrown over it, it may be from one of 
many causes, among them over-exposure, improper shade of 
ruby glass, light entering the dark-room, a camera or holders 
that are defective, an old and decomposed solution of No. 1. 
Fine transparent lines on the plate may come from using a 
brush to dust off which had bristles that were too stiff ; or 
from injury to plate m putting in or taking out of the holder. 

Spots may occur from not breaking air bubbles, or from dust 
on the plate. A transparent patch along the edge of plate is 



42 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOK. 

often the result of not covering it with developer ; the same 
careless act will give you a portion of the plate which varies in 
intensity and detail from the other parts. A swelling up, or 
" frilling," as it is termed, generally along the edges, is the re- 
sult of using a developer at too high a temperature. 

As yet the negative cannot be exposed to white light ; it 
must pass through the alum and hyposulphite of soda before 
it leaves the dark-room; and in the next lesson we shall learn 
how to perform these operations correctly. 

But before we describe the operations subsequent to develop- 
ment, we should at least briefly describe some other methods 
for developing. We will giv€ an additional formula for pyro- 
soda developer, and one that has found much favor amongst 
the Chautauqua Students. 

It is as follows : 

A. — Dissolve 3 ounces of granulated sulphite of soda, and one-quarte? 
of an ounce of meta-bi-sulphite of potassium in 32 ounces of distilled water 
and add 1 ounce of pyrogallic acid. 

Keep in well stoppered bottle. 

B. — Dissolve 8 ounces of granulated, or 16 ounces of crystallized 
carbonate of soda (common washing soda) in water enough to make a 
bulk of 32 ounces. 

Mix one ounce of water with one dram of A, add a few drops of B, and 
increase gradually till development proceeds regularly. If necessary, 
restrain with 10 per cent solution of bromide of potassium. 

Ferrous oxalate developer, formerly very extensively 
employed for the developing of negatives and positives on 
paper or plates, and mainly so in certain reproduction processes 
has been almost totally abandoned and replaced either by hydcj- 
chinon, of which mention will be made at the proper place or 
eikonogen. The name of this agent signifies " picture maker." 
Its most remarkable features are the latitude of the developing 
process it allows, the proportionately small quantity of alkali 
required to make it active and the great reduction of the time 
of exposure it permits. 

The following formulae have proved very satisfactory : 

No. 1. — Dissolve 128 grains of eikonogen, 1 ounce crystallized sulphite 
of soda in 16 ounces of distilled water. 

No. 2.—\% ounces crystallized carbonate of soda in 10 ounces of water. 



DEVELOPING. 



43 



For normal exposures take 3 parts of No. 1 and 1 part of 

No. 2. 

Over or under-exposures are regulated with more or less of 
soda as in the pyro developer. When the picture begins to 
show add a few drops of bromide potassium solution, to pro- 
mote intensity. The developer keeps tolerably well, but not 
indefinitely, as claimed by some. 

For very short exposures dissolve by heat 120 grains eiko- 
nogen, 1^ ounce crystallized sulphite of soda, 120 grains 
carbonate of potassa in 8 ounces water. 

This solution acts with enormous energy, it should be used 
in its full strength but in exceptional cases, ordinarily when 
diluted with an equal bulk of water. Bromide of potassium 
should not be omitted. The developer does not keep longer 
than four or five days. 

Eikonogen does not stain the fingers. 

The treatment is very much like that with alkaline pyro, 
and anyone of but little experience will soon get accustomed 
to it ; a judicious use of a bromide restrainer is a necessity in 
order to build up intensity. Alkali should be used sparingly, 
for when in excess, yellow, and even dichroic green fog h 

likely to occur. 

In the lessons on bromide printing, instantaneous expos- 
ures, reproductions and transparencies, occasion Avill be taken 
to describe more definitely the eikonogen developer. 




Fairbanks Photogh \i m us' Scale, 



LESSO]^ YI. 

FIXING, WASHING, VARNISHING, INTENSIFYING 

AND REDUCING. 

It is to remove from the negative all those portions of the 
light, sensitive substance (bromide of silver mainly) upon 
which light and developer have not acted, and to the presence 
of which is due the greyisb white or yellowish color of the 
film and its opacity, that " fixing" is required. 

Although various fixing agents are known, the hyposulphite 
of soda is the most practicable and has therefore been univer- 
sally adopted. 

The carrier of the bromide of silver is gelatine, a substance 
not soluble in cold water, but easily so when at a temperature 
of over 80 deg. Fahrenheit. Gelatine emulsion plates, when 
developed in comparatively warm solution, have a tendency, 
especially after having first passed through the hypo solution, 
to detach the film from its support. To prevent this " frilhng," 
or to arrest it, we resort to alum, because of its property to 
harden or tan gelatinous matter. Alum is used either in sepa- 
rate solution before fixing and after, or combined with that of 
the hyposulphite salt. 

Procure two half -gallon glass jars, with wide mouths. In 
one make up the alum solution, one part of alum to eight or 
ten parts of water ; in the other the " hypo " solution, one part 
of the hyposulphite of soda to five parts of water. When dis- 
solved, these solutions are ready for use ; they need not be fil- 
tered. 

These chemicals you can buy by the pound ; they are cheap, 
and come neatly packed in paper boxes. For this work pur- 
chase two trays, of size eight by ten inches and about two 
inches deep (see Lesson III.), one to be used for each solution, 
of which pour enough in the tray to fully cover tnc plate j' if 



FIXING, WASHING, VARNISHING, ETC., KTC. 45 

a dozen plates are to be passed tlirougli, put in a larger quan- 
tity than for a few plates ; when through, throw it away. The 
" hypo " especially should be renewed when it works slowly ; 
it should do its work, as will be explained later, inside of ten 
minutes. 

The negative having been washed after development, as 
directed in last lesson, is placed in the alum solution, in which 
it must be allowed to remain for four or five minutes ; wash 
again, and then place in the " hypo " solution, where it must 
rest until all of the whiteness has disappeared, as seen from 
the back. This may be conducted in the dark room, with the 
door open, in a weak light ; it is not well to trust to a strong 
outside hght, however, until all the whiteness has been 
removed by the " hypo ;" after this you may expose it to any 
light. 

The necessity of a most thorough washing of the plate, after 
it has passed the alum solution, can not be sufficiently 
impressed upon the student. If but a trace remains upon or 
within the .film, the hyposulphite of soda subsequently used 
will cause a decomposition of both substances resulting in a 
white precipitate which settles upon the surface of the film or 
remains within it, very finely dispersed and causing opalescence. 
A mixture of the two substances in solution produce the same 
effect of turbidity and precipitation. 

On account of various advantages an acid fixing bath has 
taken precedence over that of plain hyposulphite of soda solu- 
tion. After the fixing of but a limited number of negatives, 
the plain bath will change color and turn finally to a muddy 
brown, depositing a black precipitate. The acid bath remains 
clear almost indefinitely, it bleaches out yellow stains, destroys 
slight fog caused by long continued development, and reduces 
eventually over density of negatives. It is prepared by adding 
to 1 quart of hyposulphite of soda solution (1:5) two ounces 
of acid bi-sulphite of soda lye, known in trade by the name of 
" S. P. C. Clarifier." If, after taking the negative from the 
fixing bath and examining it by a strong light outside the dark- 
room, you should notice any brownish-mottled appearance in 
looking through it, return it to the " hypo " until it is removed. 



46 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

Thorough " fixing " is all important ; on it depends the life 
of the negative ; if but half done, jou will some day (it may 
be a week or months) discover a brownish stain on that part of 
the plate on which the " hypo " had not fully acted. 

Washing. 

After the " fixing " the plates are jjlaced in water to wash ; 
ininning water if you have it ; if not, in a large tub or pail in 
which the water should be changed two or three times an hour 
for several hours ; if running water is used, an hour will be 
ample time for the washing. 

It is the object of washing the plate, to remove from it 
every trace of the fixing agent, without which its permanency 
will be very much impaired. To attain to this end without 
prolonged action of water, the hyposulphite salt may be 
destroyed by chemical means. To do this we resort to a hypo- 
chlorite of zinc, known as "Flandreau's Hypo Eliminator." 
It should be understood that with it washing is not entirely 
obviated, but the operations are greatly shortened. Wash as 
usual for about 30 to 40 minutes, add to every quart of water 
^ ounce of the Eliminator, allow the negatives to rest therein 
for about 10 minutes and finally rinse ofE with pure water. 

In Lesson III. an illustration of the Scovill !N"egative Wash- 
ing Box is seen, a cheap and effective apparatus for the 
purpose. Upon removing the plate from the water, place in 




sccvat 
The Scovill Negative Drying Rack. 



a drying rack, or in some way on end, and allow it to dry 
spontaneously. 



FIXING, WASHING, VARNISHING, ETC., ETC. 



47 



If in baste, place it in the sun or near the stove, and you 
will learn that it will not dry ; it will melt the gelatine in the 
film, and teach you the lesson that will prevent its repetition. 

Next in order is 

Yajbnishing. 

The negative must be absolutely free from all moisture. 
This will probably be the case on the day following develop- 
ment. If in doubt hold the plates near the fire to drive out 




all moisture for a few moments, or stand them in the sun for 
a while, an operation that may be performed, since the water 
no longer saturates the film. For amateurs' purposes it is 
rarely necessary to varnish. With care, scores of prints may 
be made from the unvarnished negative without damaging it 

in the slightest, but for those 
who may wish to varnish it is 
well to describe the process. 
Yarnish can be had especially 
for this purpose already pre- 
pared ; it is known as Scovill's 
Negative Yarnish. 

The plate being dry, seize it 
by the lower left-hand corner as 
shown in the cut, liolding it level 
and pouring from the bottle on 
to the film quite a pool of the 
varnish. Then slowly lower the 
end fartherest from you, allow- 
ing the varnish to spread to the 
further end ; then depress the 
upper edge, flowing the varnish slowly along to the spot where 




48 



THE PHOTOGfiAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



your thumb is, then to the corner next to you, gradually rising 
until you reach the position shown in the cut, when the surplus 
is drained back into the bottle. While draining keep up a rock- 
ing motion to and from you to break up any tendency of the 
varnish to set in ridges ; cork bottle and put plate in drying- 
rack until the varnish hardens. This will take at least two or 
three hours. 




A varnish particularly well-adapted for gelatine negatives 
is "The Krystaline," a solution of celluloid in acetate of 

amvl. 

With it the plate needs no heating, the manipulation is the 
same as the one above described, the varnish dries spontane- 
ously within an hour, and the protective coat formed by it is 
impervious to water. 

When a number of negatives have been developed and 
varnished, there are two methods of preserving them from 
dust and from scratches. One is by putting them in envel- 
opes made of stout paper, and called " negative preservers," 
which are sold to correspond with the different sized nega- 
tives. Another way is to store the negatives in boxes like the 
one shown. These are called " negative boxes," and are con- 
structed to hold twenty -four negatives, which are slipped into 
the grooves at the two sides, and thus secured from rubbing 
each other. These boxes are also made light-tight for holding 
unexposed and undeveloped plates. Some, too, are provided 
with lock and key, which often is a convenient addition. 

The negative is now ready for printing, but before we pro- 
ceed to describe that process let us consider some of the 



FIXING, "WASHING, VARNISHING, ETC., ETC. 49 

methods for improving the quality of the negative by increas- 
ing or reducing its destiny. 

Increasing and Reducing Intensity. 

It sometimes happens that a negative lacks intensity, from 
causes which are not at this time worth reciting. If you have 
a negative of a view which you cannot easily retake, and 
which has all the needed details in the shadows, then it may 
be well to try some strengthening or intensifying process, but 
if you can duplicate it, by all means do that. If it has not 
the requisite detail, throw it away, for all the intensifying 
that can be done will but increase opacity ; detail you cannot 
add. 

We except in this instance the intensification with nitrate of 
of uranium. Hall's intensifier, of which we shall speak later. 

The first condition for successfully intensifying a feeble 
negative is, that it is perfectly free from any fog. Yellow 
stained or red fogged plates are beyond remedy, and if gray 
fog is present it will intensify at an equal ratio with the nega- 
tive deposit and result only in a slow printing plate without 
any marked difference in the negative character. To remove a 
slight fog from a plate the acid fixing bath above mentioned 
will answer well, if more pronounced, more energetic means 
must be applied. None is better for the purpose than a very 
dilute solution of perchloride of iron free from any hydro- 
chloric acid. The fog removed, the plate must be thoroughly 
washed, and subjected to the action of iodide of mercury solu- 
tion, first proposed by Mr. Edwards, and of which we give a 
modified formula. Dissolve 1 dram of bichloride of mercury 
in 7 ounces of water, and make another solution of 3 drams of 
iodide of potassium in two ounces of water. Pour small por- 
tions of the iodide solution into that of the mercury, till the red 
precipitate formed first is thoroughly redissolved, and the 
solution is clear and colorless. 

For use take 1 ounce of it to 3 ounces of water, immerse in 
it the negative, when its density will at once begin to increase 
and build up to the desired point. When of sufficient printing 
quality, wash in pure water for a few minutes, when the de- 



60 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

posit will turn to a yellow color. The application of a hypo- 
solution in the proportion of 1:30, will restore it to an agree- 
able brownish black. Finally give the negative a thorough 
washing. 

Hall's intensifier, which is sold ready prepared, needs only 
to be poured over the plate till the desired density is reached. 
It acts well with under-exposed plates, provided it has clear 
shadows. Its action is not so much chemical as mechanical by 
conveying to the clear parts a non-actinic color, and a slightly 
greater density to the developed, harmony is established be- 
tween light and shades. The uranium salt is a harmless sub- 
stance, the mercury a violent poison. 

If in the development you have gone too far and the nega- 
tive is too intense, it can be reduced by the following . 

Red prussiate potash 1 ounce 

Water 16 ounces 

Hyposulphite of soda 1 ounce 

Water 16 ounces 

Pour out enough of the hypo solution to cover the plate ; to 
this add, say, four drops of potash solution to each ounce of 
the hypo solution. Mix weU, and in this immerse the nega- 
tive ; watch closely, removing the plate from time to time, that 
you may see how the reduction proceeds. When reduced suf- 
ficiently, wash well and dry. 

This method of reducing has become very popular, not- 
withstanding its many faults. Owing to its want of perma- 
nency and rapid decomposition in light, the operation of reduc- 
ing with it must be conducted rapidly and in subdued light. 
It will stain the negative film intensely blue under certain 
circumstances, and often will it give the film a yellow tone. 

A more reliable method is that with ferric oxalate. Dissolve 
in the following order : 

Water 7 ounces 

Potassium ferric oxalate 2J^ drams 

Cryst. sulphite of soda 2 drams 

Pulverized oxalic acid 45 gr. 

Hyposulphite of soda IJ^ ounces 

Filter and keep in well stoppered bottles. 



FIXING, WASHING, VARNISHING, ETC., ETC, 



51 



The solution remains intact for several months. Its action 
is gradual and controllable and leaves no stain of any kind 
upon the film. Eeducing can be accomplished without wash- 
ing the hypo from the plate. 

As the solution continues to act for some time after the plate 
has been transferred to the washing water, reducing should be 
interrupted before the desired point of density has been 
reached. 




LESSON VII. 

PRINTING ON ALBUMENIZED PAPER. 

The Silver Solution. 

The albumen paper that is sold by dealers has been soaked 
in an alkaline salt, and when such paper is floated upon a solu- 
tion of silver nitrate, two compounds are formed ; the organic 
albuminate of silver, and silver chloride, both of which are 
sensitive to light. 

A sixty-grain solution of silver nitrate may be recommended, 
that is, one which contains sixty grains of silver to the ounce, 
although a much weaker one will answer the purpose tolerably 
well. As a matter of course, the bath grows weaker with use. 

Such a bath may be made as follows: 

Water 64 ounces 

Silver nitrate 8 " 

Ammonia nitrate. 2 " 

Magnesic nitrate 1 ounce 

To each ounce of the solution add one drop of strong ammonia. 
By adding silver nitrate, from time to time, the solution 
may be kept up to the required standard. This may be ascer- 
tained by the argentometer ; the figures at the surface of the 
bath in which the instrument is floated indicating the number 
of grains per ounce. The ordinary hydrometer will serve well 
enough, since we may add silver, from time to time, in sufli- 
cient quantity to keep the instrument at the same level when 
floated in the bath. We may, indeed, employ any glass tube 
closed at one end and open at the other. Cause the tube to 
stand upright in the liquid by dropping shot into the open 
end. The surface of the bath may be marked by a ring of 
thread, and this mark may afterward be made permanent by a 



PRINTING ON ALBUMENIZED PAPER. 53 

three-cornered file. Of course, the tube must always contain 
shot of the same num])er and size. 

On account of the presence of ammonic and magnesic salts, 
the argentometer should read not sixty, but eighty. Only silver 
nitrate needs to be added from time to time, as the solution is 
not depleted of the alkaline salts, except as the quantity of the 
liquid is diminished. The best way is to add a quantity of solu- 
tion compounded as above, and then add silver nitrate to bring 
the whole up to the required reading on the hydrometer. 

The silver bath should be kept in an alkaline condition by 
adding occasionally a few drops of ammonia. The tendency to 
become acid is due to the liberation of nitric acid from the 
silver nitrate. 

During the floating of the paper some organic particles pass 
from the paper into the bath, where they soon decompose and 
discolor the solution. The bath may be cleared by shaking it 
up with a handful of china clay or kaolin, which adheres to 
the particles and carries them to the bottom. The bath should 
then be filtered, or when used it may be decanted, leaving the 
sediment behind. Better yet, the bath may be drawn from the 
bottle by two tubes, carried in one cork after the manner of 
the wash bottle which is so much used in laboratories. One 
tube is a syphon that reaches to the bottom of the bottle, while 
the longer arm is outside the bottle and carries the solution 
into the tray. The other tube passes merely through the cork 
and through this a current of air is blown ; the pressure from 
this starts the syphon. 

Floating the Paper. 

This must be done in a glass, porcelain or wooden tray. If 
wood is used, the bottom and sides should be well shellacked. 
A convenient tray for amateurs is the " Waterbury " tray, of a 
size large enough to float a whole sheet at a time. 

Lift the sheet to be floated by two opposite cornel's, with the 
film side down, and let it touch the bath first near one end. 
Lower the rest of the sheet smoothly and quickly until it all 
rests upon the bath. Across each end lay a light piece of wood, 
until the curling of the edges has ceased. These edges may 



54 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOE. 

easily be kept down also by breathing upon them. As soon as 
possible each corner of the sheet should be lifted and bubbles of 
air adhering to the film should be broken with a glass rod or 
blown away by a smart current of breath. No drops of the 
solution should be spattered upon the top of the sheet. The 
albumen paper commonly sold in the market should be floated 
about two minutes in winter and a minute and a quarter or a 
minute and a half in summer. For printing with weak nega- 
tives the floating should be somewhat longer. 

Withdraw the sheet by grasping two corners with wooden 
clips and hold it over the bath to drain. It is an excellent 
plan to draw the sheet over a glass rod fixed across one end of 
the tray. This scoops all superficially hanging silver back 
into the bath. The sheets may now be pressed between pieces 
of blotting paper and hung up to dry, being supported by the 
clips to stretched twine or across wooden rods. The drying 
should, of course, take place in the darkness or in extremely 
weak light. 

The albumenized side of the paper, either before or after 
sensitizing, should not be handled more than is absolutely 
necessary in cutting it to the proper size. The hands should 
be clean and dry. The sensitized paper soon becomes discol- 
ored and is seldom in its best condition after twenty-four hours. 
In cold, dry weather, however, it will keep well for several 
days. 

Fuming. 

The sensitized paper, after being thoroughly dried, by arti- 
ficial heat or otherwise, should before printing be exposed for a 
time to the fumes of ammonia. The ammonia is useful in 
absorbing the free chlorine that is evolved during the exposure 
of the paper to the sunlight. To this end secure an old box 
that is two or three feet long and half as wide and deep. 
Paste black or brown paper over the cracks, and set the box on 
end. The front should be removable, and might conven- 
iently work with a hinge. It should fit pretty accurately, and 
around the margins it would be well to tack a strip of cloth. 
Instead of this wooden front, a large piece of pasteboard or 



PRINTING ON ALBUMENIZED PAPER. 55 

blotting paper miglit be used, it being crowded in at the edges 
and the whole box then covered with a cloth. 

Provide the box with a false bottom placed about two inches 
above the real one. This may consist of a porous cloth . 
stretched across, or of a perforated thin board or pasteboard. 
The perforations should be numerous. 

The paper is placed in the box by putting two sheets back to 
back and hanging them, by means of clips provided with 
hooks, to twine stretched back and forth across the top of the 
box ; or, the sheets, back to back, may be pinned through the 
corners to the sides and top of the box. A large number of 
sheets may be fumed at one time. When all are in place, put 
a shallow tray or plate containing strong ammonia under the 
perforated bottom and close the front. The paper should 
fume about fifteen minutes in warm weather, and nearly 
double the time in cold weather. After fuming, a short time 
should elapse before printing, to allow the paper that is moist 
with the fumes of ammonia to contract and resume its normal 
size. 

Printing. 

The word " printing," as used in Photography, is a mis- 
nomer. The word, as seen in its etymology, means, properly, 
to take an impression by some mechanical means. But photo- 
graphic " printing " is a process of reproduction by a chemical 
change tliat is effected in a sensitized surface through the 
agency of light ; and might therefore be more properly styled 
"copying," after the manner of the Germans. The only 
mechanical changes involved are such as serve to bring the 
sensitive surface into proper relation to the actinic power of 
the light. 

A frame that is at least one size larger than the negatives to 
be printed from is a great convenience. In the first place, in 
the larger frame the negative will be printed to the very 
margins ; and, in the second place, the larger frame will be a 
great help if you desire to vignette upon your print clouds 
from another negative. A clear glass plate of the same size as 
the frame may be used to support the smaller negative. 



56 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOK. 



Place the negative iu the frame, film up, and upon it lay the 
paper with the sensitive surface down, that is, next to the neg- 
ative. Put the back of the frame in its place and press it 





Irving Printing Frame Closed. 
(Front View). 



Irving Printing Frame Open. 
(Back View.) 



down with tlie springs. The frame is now read j to be exposed 
to the light. 

The change effected by the light in the sensitive film may 
be expressed by the formula : 

Ag CI + sunlight = Ag + CI. 

We see that free chlorine is evolved aud metallic silver depos- 
ited. It is this fine deposit of silver that constitutes, by its 
greater or lesser amount, the lights and shadows of the picture. 

If the negative is very weak and flat, that is, lacking in con- 
trast, it were better not to print by direct sunlight ; otherwise, 
the exposure may be made to the direct rays of the sun. To 
effect this, a wide board may be thrust out of a window having 
a southern exposure. It is better yet, however, to nail together 
three boards in the form of a right-angle triangle, and so place 



PRINTING ON ALBUMENIZED PAPER. 57 

the triangle in the open window that the hypothenuse is per- 
pendicular to the line of the sun's rays. Strips may be nailed 
across the board for supporting the printing frame. 

The progress of the printing must be carefully watched. 
Withdraw the frame from time to time into the diffused light 
of the room, slip the spring, raise one end of the back, and 
examine the print. The print when ready to be taken out 
should be considerably darker than the finished picture is to 
be. This excess of blackness will disappear in the subsequent 
washing and fixing. Rather weak and flat negatives should be 
printed especially dark, as they lose more of their depth in 
subsequent operations. Experience alone will determine just 
how long to continue the exposure in order to secure the best 
results. 

Washing the Prints, 

The washing may be performed in a japanned or porcelain 
tray. Lay the prints one by one face down into the tray and 
press them beneath the water. Twenty-five or thirty may be 
washed at a time. After being jjlaced in the tray they should 
be moved by slipping them from the bottom and placing them 
upon the top. After standing eight or ten minutes the water 
may be poured off and a fresh supply added. The same manipu- 
lation should be performed with each washing as with the first. 
Into the fourth wash a quarter of an ounce of saturated solution 
of sodic bicarbonate and half an ounce of saturated solution of 
common salt may be placed. The soda will bring the prints into 
an alkaline condition that is favorable to the action of the toning 
bath. The prints should remain in this mixture not more than 
five minutes, and should then be well rinsed. They are then 
ready for the 

Toning Bath. 

The office of the gold toning bath is to substitute for the 
reddish, disagreeable color of the print a l)luish or brownish 
black. ITie chemical change involved is not at present very well 
understood. 

It is a prime requisite of any toning bath that it be slightly, 



58 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

but decidedly, alkaline. It should be tested from time to time 
with litmus paper, especially if it does not act properly. 

Many toning baths are in use and they differ somewhat in 
results. We will describe but one or two : 

Stock Solution. 

Water 15 ounces 

Chloride of gold and sodium 15 grains 

To make up a toning bath for twenty prints, take 

Water 10 ounces 

Sodic bicarbonate 3 grains 

Sodic chloride (common salt) 6 " 

Stock solution of gold 3 ounces 

A good pinch of sodic bicarbonate and of sodic chloride will be 
sufficiently accurate. To this bath add three ounces of the stock 
solution of gold that has first received three drops of a saturated 
solution of bicarbonate of soda. This last is to maintain the^ 
alkalinity of the bath. 

Another excellent toning bath is as follows : 

Stock Solution. 

Water 15 ounces 

Chloride of gold and sodium 15 grains 

Pour three ounces of the stock solution into the toning tray 
and render it slightly alkaline by carefully adding a saturated 
solution of sodic bicarbonate. Then add a pint of water and 
about twenty grains of sodic acetate. After standing half an 
hour this bath will be ready for use. 

Lay the prints in the bath one by one, face down, and move 
them continually, so as to avoid sticking together of the prints, 
an^ consequent unevenness of tone. Ten or twelve may be 
toned at one time, and as these are taken out others may be 
added. If the bath becomes very weak and slow in its action, 
provided excessive cold be not the cause, more gold should be 
added. 

In ten or fifteen minutes the reddish color should begin to 
disappear and to be gradually succeeded by a rich purplish 
black in the shadows. The prints should not be withdrawn 



PRINTING ON ALBUMENIZED PAPEK. 69 

from t]ie bath until tliis stage lias been reached. On the other 
hand, they should never lie so long as to acquire a bluish or 
slatj color. 

As heat accelerates chemical action, it is important that the 
bath be kept at about the same temperature as the room, sixty- 
five or seventy degrees. To effect this the toning tray may be 
set on a hot soapstone ; or better yet, as some one has suggested, 
the tray may be set across a small open cask, in the bottom of 
which stands a burning lamp ; but the bath must not be over- 
heated. The prints must be examined in light strong enough 
to enable the operator to judge accurately of the tone. After 
thorough rinsing the prints are ready for the 

! Fixing Bath. 

The office of the fixing bath is to dissolve the silver chloride 
not acted upon by light ; without which the picture is subject 
to f urtherlight-action, will consequently not retain its brilliancy 
and definition, and will, in fact, assume a dark color all over. 

One of the products of the fixing process is a double salt, 
the argento-sodic hyposulphite, which is again soluble in an 
excess of sodium hyposulphite, and must be totally removed 
from the print by subsequent washing, to secure its perfect 
permanency. 

The following bath is recommended : 

Water 1 gallon 

Sodic hyposulphite 1 pound 

Sodic bicarbonate 1 tablespoonful 

Common salt 1 " 

The prints should be placed in the bath one by one, enough 
of the liquid being used to cover them well. Move them fre- 
quently, as in toning, to prevent sticking together. They 
should lie in the bath not less than fifteen minutes. It is bet- 
ter to prolong the time to twenty minutes, if the bath is rather 
cool. The bath should be made up some hours or days before- 
hand, as the dissolving of the crystals lowers the temperature 
materially. The fixing-bath should be thrown away after once 
using. The fixing-tray should, under no circumstances, be 
used for any other purpose. 



60 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

To insure against blistering, it is well to transfer the prints 
from the tixing-bath into a strong solution of common salt, in 
which they may lie three or four minutes. 

They are then ready for their final 

Washing. 

A limited number may be washed well enough in a tray. 
Rock the tray occasionally, or move the prints by continually 
slipping out the bottom one, and placing it upon the top. The 
water should be changed seven or eight times, and during the 
earlier part of the process the changes should be more frequent 
than during the latter part. A thorough elimination of the 
fixing solution is essential to the permanence of tiie photo- 
graph. There is little danger, therefore, of continuing the 
washing too long. Some even allow water to run over the 
prints all night. It is supposed by many, however, than an ex- 
cessively prolonged soaking in water weakens the print. 

The object of washing the print is to remove from it all sodic 
hyposulphite and the derivatives of the fixing process. A test 
for perfect elimination is the iodide of starch paper of dark 
purple color, which, when brought into contact with prints, or 
the water dripping from them, will bleach immediately if only 
a trace of hyposulphite be present. 

To remove these last traces of the obnoxious salt, a table- 
spoonful of Flandreau's S. P. C. Hypo Eliminator, added to 
one quart of the last washing water, and allowing the prints 
to remain therein for a few moments, and then rinsing them 
off again with pure water, will effect a thorough elimination, 
without which albumenized paper prints will always be liable 
to turn yellow or to fade. 

The eliminator should not be used in large proportions, as by 
too strong solutions the whole silver deposit might suffer. 



LESSON YIII. 

PRINTING ON VARIOUS PAPERS. 

Printing on Ready-Sensitized Silvered Paper. 

We have learned in the previous lesson how to sensitize albu- 
men paper, how to print upon it and how to tone and fix prints 
which have been made upon it. 

For the convenience of professional photographers, as well 
as for amateurs, a brand of paper, albnmenized and sensitized 
in the solution of nitrate of silver, quite ready for printing, is 
now in the market and extensively used. This paper, being 
capable of giving universally good results, exempts the operator 
from annoyances often encountered when silvering paper, it is 
of especial value to the student, and some of our attention 
should therefore be given to the mode of working with it. 

We have learned how to sensitize alburaenized paper, and 
how to fume it in the vapors of ammonia preparatory to print- 
ing. With the paper before us the first operation is dispensed 
with ; the second, however, becomes an absolute necessity. 

Before we advance further it will be interesting to examine 
the reasons for which the photo-cliemist has been induced to 
prepare ready- sensitized paper, and how it is done. Sensitive 
paper does not keep in good working condition for any length 
of time ; in fact, through the influence of such adverse circum- 
stances as heat, moisture in the atmosphere or air tainted with 
certain gases, it will lose its brilliant whiteness, assume a yel- 
lowish tint, and will finally turn to a brown color and thus 
become unfit for photographic printing. The theories upon 
which these changes are based, as well as those explaining the 
other processes connected with printing, we shall consider in a 
future lesson ; be it sufficient now to say that the desire to 



62 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTKUCTOK. 

obtain a more durable sensitive paper has resulted in tlie ready- 
sensitized paper before us. 

When floating a sheet of salted and albumenized paper upon 
silver solution, the chloride in the albumen film converts the 
silver nitrate to a chloride, the decomposition of which substance 
by light gives us the photographic picture. In rei;jioving the 
sheet from the silver bath much of the solution adheres to the 
paper, dries there and assists afterwards considerably in making 
the print. This same silver prevents the paper from being 
durable or retaining its whiteness, and must be removed unless 
the paper be used the same day. This is done by washing it in 
water after the chlorification has been thoroughly effected. In 
that state we have upon the sheet a film of the organic silver 
albuminate, finely interspersed with silver chloride. To prevent 
a decomposition of these bodies by atmospheric influences or 
high temperature, the back of the paper is coated with other 
chemicals, like citric acid, citrates, nitrites, sulphites and car- 
bonated alkalis ; the latter being probably the most effective of 
all. Without this precaution, the washing away of the excess 
of nitrate of silver would be of no benefit to the paper, and it 
would be likely to turn color in time. 

The ready-sensitized paper of commerce, as we purchase it 
from the dealer, may possibly give, under a very strong and 
dense negative, a tolerably good print, but to secure good 
impressions from comparatively feeble negatives it is absolutely 
necessary to fume it in the vapors of ammonia. The effects 
produced by fuming cannot be the same as upon unwashed 
paper, as, without the presence of free nitrate of silver, the 
respective combination cannot form and the ammonia will act 
only as an absorber of the chlorine gas, which, during printing, 
is liberated from the chloride of silver by the action of light. 

The great amount of acid matter employed to make the 
paper durable requires the aid of alkalis to establish that state 
of neutrality requisite in printing upon albumenized paper. 
Hence we understand how fuming assists to gain the desired 
result, and the importance of fuming ready-sensitized paper 
cannot be too forcibly impressed upon the mind of the 
student. 



PRINTING ON VARIOUS PAPERS. 63 

If printed copies are well preserved from humid air, toning 
may be deferred to a convenient time, or until a sufficient 
number of prints lias accumulated. 

Toning, Fixing, and AY ashing 

does not differ from tlie processes as described before, but it will 
be interesting to all to learn of the toning-bath, which has been 
worked with such good success by the practicing classes of the 
Chautauqua School, and by which equally good tones have 
been obtained upon ready-sensitized and freshly-prepared albu- 
men paper. 

The washing of the prints before toning should be conducted 
with all possible care and attention. It may be done either 
by subjecting them, for at least fifteen minutes, to a continuous 
stream of water, or to half-a-dozen changes of water at in- 
tervals of ten minutes. If, toward the end of the washing, a 
slight amount of alkali, say ordinary washing soda, be added, 
the prints will be better disposed to receive the gold of the 
toning-bath. 

As a rule, ready-sensitized paper requires but a very slight 
over-printing. Long-continued toning, possibly with a view to 
bleach out prints when too dark, is detrimental to the general 
tone ; it turns the whites to a sickly gray, depriving the print 
of its brilliancy. 

After sufficient washing, toning may be commenced. The 
gold bath, to which experts have given the name " Chautauqua 
Toning-Bath," is prepared about thirty minutes before use, 
and is as follows : 

Make a stock solution of fifteen grains of chloride of gold 
and sodium in fifteen ounces of water, of which two ounces 
are poured into the toning-tray — best of a light material, porce- 
lain or white agate ware. 

Chloride of gold reacts acid, but as it does not tone in that 
condition, it must be rendered neutral, or slightly alkaline. 
Test with blue litmus paper ; acidity changes the color to red, 
alkalines restore the blue. Neutralize the acid gold solution by 
adding gradually, in small portions, a saturated solution of bi- 
carbonate of soda, till the bluing of the litmus test paper in- 



64 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOE. 

dicates neutrality. When in that state, ten grains of acetate 
of soda are added, and when dissolved the solution must be 
diluted with not less than eighteen ounces of water, before 
prints can be subjected to its action. 

Fixing, washing, and hypo-elimination are the same as with 
prints made on freshly-prepared paper. 

Feinting on Plain Papse. 

The term " plain paper " signifies photographic positive 
paper, as it comes direct from the paper mills, without having 
undergone any preparation for future use, such as salting, al- 
bumenizing, or extra sizing. 

If photographs on paper are to be finely finished in aquarell, 
sepia, India ink, orsimilar pigments, albumenized, or otherwise 
prepared surfaces present to the artist a variety of difficulties, 
among which stands foremost its gloss and hardness, repelling 
the aqueous mixture of color substances to such an extent as 
to make it extremely difficult, even impossible, in some cases, 
to wash in large surfaces, to blend colors into each other, or to 
build up intensity by repeated application of shades. Non- 
albumenized paper is also more pleasing to the artist, to 
whom the photograph serves as a sketch, or base, to work 
upon, and is much used by landscape, still-life, and portrait 

artists. 

Plain paper is absolutely necessary when photographic half- 
tones are to be reduced into a system of lines, stipple or cross 
hatchings for reproductions in high relief for mechanical print- 
ing methods, for a variety of transfers, and the photographic 
tracing processes, which will be considered further on. 

Plain paper is, of course, subjected to somewhat different 
treatment from that of our old friend, the albumenized paper, 
and of the great variety of methods, practiced we select two 
which have been generally approved of by professional photog- 
raphers. 

No. 1. A. — Make a solution of 300 grains of chloride of am- 
monium in one gallon of water, and soak the paper in it for a 
minute or two, being careful to avoid air bubbles. Then hang 
up and dry. 



PRINTING ON VAKIOU8 PAPERS. 65 

B. — Dissolve one and a half ounces of crystallized nitrate of 
silver in fifteen ounces of soft or distilled water. Divide the 
solution into three parts ; set one of them aside and add to the 
two-thirds remaining aqua ammonia fortior till the yellowish 
brown precipitate formed is redissolved in an excess of the 
precipitant, being careful to add only enough ammonia t(5 
render the solution perfectly clear again and without exhibiting 
more than only a perceptible odor. To this ammonio-nitrate 
of silver solution add the third of the original solution set aside, 
which will cause a strong turbition of the liquid, but which will 
vanish by tlie addition of a few drops of glacial acetic acid. 
Then filter. 

The salted paper may be fioated upon this solution for two or 
three minutes, or, what is preferred by most practitioners, the 
solution may be spread over the paper fastened with pins upon 
a clean board, either with a tuft of clean cotton wool or a 
Buckle's brush. After the paper has been thoroughly sensitized 
and dried in the dark room, it may be cut to the required size 
and printed upon in the usual way. 

Plain paper had best be toned and fi:xed in one operation, to 
secure vigorous and brilliant prints. 

Dissolve fifteen grains of jDure terchloride of gold in seven 
and a half ounces of distilled water and add it drop by drop 
and by constant stirring up to a solution of two ounces of hypo- 
sulphite of soda in twelve ounces of distilled water. If prop- 
erly prepared, this solution remains perfectly clear and limpid ; 
if brown or yellow, it is unfit for use. 

Of this gold stock solution add three ounces to fifteen ounces 
of a ten per cent, hypo solution and mix well. Prints without 
a previous washing are immersed therein. It fixes and tones 
simultaneously, although it requires a much longer time to 
obtain neutral or black tones. Plain paper prints have shown 
with this method a great durability. 

No. 2. — A printing method upon plain paper was given by 
Mr. Ilardwich as early as 1 85G, but has for its extremely fine 
qualities been retained to the present day. Based upon the 
presence of citrate of silver in the sensitizer, any variety of 
warmer tones, almost to a positive red, can be obtained with it, 



66 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTEUCTOE. 

and it is therefore especially commendable for the use of the 
artist. Take of 

Pure citric acid 100 grains 

Chloride of ammonium 100 grains 

Gelatine, previously swelled in cold water 10 grains 

Water 10 ounces 

The gelatine is used to retain tlie layer of sensitive salt at 
the surface of the paper, but it does not affect the tint. 

Dissolve the citric acid in a small portion of water and neu- 
tralize with carbonate of soda; the quantity (of common wash- 
ing soda) required for 100 grains of citric acid is 228 grains ; 
add the alkali cautiously, with continual stirring, until the last 
portions produce no further effervescence and the immersed 
litmus paper, previously reddened by the acid, begins to change 
to blue. 

The best paper for this method is the " Papier Saxe," one 
side of which is to be floated for two minutes upon this salting 
bath. Owing to the presence of gelatine, it is preferable to 
heat it slightly. 

Render sensitive upon a neutral solution of nitrate of silver, 
50 grains to the ounce of water, allowing three minutes contact. 
The sensibility to light is somewhat less than that of albumen- 
ized, but greater than plain paper, sensitized with ammonio- 
nitrate of silver. 

When the proof is removed from the printing frame it is of 
a brown or purple tint, which becomes bright red when 
immersed in a j)lain solution of hj^DOSulphite of soda. Red 
prints of this sort are very popular for certain engraving or 
photo-engravirig purposes, but to make them adaptable for sub- 
sequent operations, they must be kept from the influence of 
the gold bath. 

Toning and fixing in one operation may be done with the 
previously described gold and hypo bath, but prints should be 
first washed in water, to which a trace of common salt has 
been added, in order to remove all free nitrate of silver from 
them. Aqua ammonia, if substituted for the salt in the wash- 
ing, prevents changing of tones when being dried. Any 
variety of tones, from rich violet purple to positive black, are 



PRINTING ON VARIOUS PAPERS. 67 

easily obtained, and the pictures are especially distinguished by 
their brilliant whites. 

The Chautauqua Touing-Bath may also be employed for 
toning these plain prints. Gold acts upon them with great 
rapidity, and it is, therefore, advisable to use the normal batli 
in a diluted state. As weak gold gives invariably the best re- 
sults, the dilution might be with plain paper in the proportion 
of 1:3, 

Fixing plain paper, when toned in the alkaline bath, requires 
no further admonition ; no other precautions than those with 
albumenized paper being required. Washing and hypo elim- 
ination are also the same ; but it will be observed that hypo- 
sulphite of soda is much easier and sooner removed from plain 
paper prints than from albumenized paper. 

Cyanotypes or " Blue" Prints. 

We have seen how to make photographic prints upon sil- 
vered paper, and we have received, with those methods, tones 
of various colors, from a warm brown to a positive black. 
There is another kind of print made, not with the aid of the 
salts of silver, but with a certain iron-combination, known by 
the name of red prussiate of potash, whose tones are of a 
beautiful and intense blue. They have gained immense popu- 
larity on account of the ease and the simplicity of the making. 

The labor required to make silver photographs, even when 
printed upon ready-sensitized paper, consists of seven distinct 
operations before a print is ready to be mounted. " Blue" or 
cyanotype paper requires but one ; a simple washing in water. 

The color of these prints, if properly made, is not unpleas- 
ant, but, on the contrary, is quite attractive, and collections of 
photographs interspersed with them offer a very attractive 
variation. 

' Like the ready-sensitized chloride of silver paper, the cyano- 
type paper has become an article of trade, and is manufactured 
and sold in enormous quantities, cut up into sizes to corre- 
spond with the negative plates made with the cameras of the 
American Optical Company and other manufacturers. 

All that is necessary to produce a blue print is to bring the 



68 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTETJCTOK. 

prepared side of the paper into absolute contact with the nega- 
tive, expose to light, and wash. 

Besides being able to make a blue print, the student should 
learn how to prepare the paper, and become acquainted with 
the conditions required to produce a sensitive and durable 
article. In the first place, a paper of any fine texture, free 
from any chemical bleaching agents or their antidotes is 
wanted. There is none so well adapted for this purpose as 
the " Papier Saxe " or the " Rives." Its sizing is quite impor- 
tant, and although the ordinary commercial paper answers 
quite well, it is advisable to give it a stronger body, by im- 
mersing it in albumen- beaten to a froth, and allowed to settle 
again for the separation of the clear liquid. Four parts of 
water mixed with one part of the clarified albumen is a good 
proportion. After leaving the paper in this mixture for a 
minute, it may be hung up to dry spontaneously, and the albu- 
men may be coagulated by placing the paper in a steam chest 
or by hanging it up near a very hot stove. 

For sensitizing the paper we prepare two solutions : 

A. — Citrate of iron and ammonia 1% ounce. 

Water 8 ounces. 

B. — Red prussiate of potash IJ^ ounce. 

Water 8 ounces. 

Filter and keep separate in the dark-room. Before use, 
equal volumes of these are mixed together and poured into a 
flat dish or tray. After all foam or air-bubbles have disap- 
peared, the paper is floated upon this solution for three min- 
utes, observing the same precaution required in silvering albu- 
men paper. Then hang up to dry. 

All this is done in the dark-room, or in a much subdued light. 
When dry, the paper is printed at once, or it may be preserved 
for future use. If intended to be keep for a length of time, 
the pieces of the required size are best brought into close con- 
tact with each other, wrapped up in waxed or paraffin paper 
and subjected to a slight pressure. This is done to prevent 
moisture or impure air from coming into contact with the sen- 
sitive surface, which would speedily change the original greenish 



PRINTING ON VARIOUS PAPERS. 69 

yellow color to a muddy greenish blue, denoting a chemical 
decomposition. Paper having undergone such a change is not 
easy to print upon. It prints slow, for it has lost much of its 
sensitiveness, the shadow parts of the negative do not print out 
in detail, and to obtain pure whites is quite impossible. 

The mode of printing being the same as that upon other 
sensitive substances, requires necessarily absolute contact. 
Printing in sunlight is advisable, and the operation should be 
carried far enough to give the darkest parts, that is, those under 
the clearest parts of the negative, a decided reddish bronze 
color. "When completed, the print is removed from the press 
and washed in pure water till the picture is perfectly developed 
and stands out with a beautiful blue tone upon a white 
ground. 

When the water dripping from it ceases to be of a yellow 
tinge the operation is completed, and the result is a permanent 
and durable picture which is not affected by light and but little 
by atmospheric influences, 

A few drops of hydrochloric acid intensifies the blue color, 
and a little sulphuric acid gives it a greenish tint. Ammonia 
gives it a purple color and renders the picture lighter, and can 
be used therefore to reduce a print, if too dark. A few di'ops 
of sulphuric acid added to the wash water restores the blue 
color. 

A Chautauqua student has succeeded in toning blue prints to 
a beautiful green. The well washed prints are immersed in a 
solution of three drams of borax in six and a half ounces of 
water. Enough sulphuric acid is added to make the solution 
acid and is then neuti'alized again with ammonia. Finally 
twenty -five grains of crude catechu are dissolved. In from five 
to ten minutes blue is changed to a brilliant dark green with 
clear whites, provided the paper has been freshly prepared. 

Blue paper is extensively used for the reproducing of tracings 
and drawings. The copies are naturally negatives, that is, the 
black lines of the original appear white upon a blue ground. 
Although the general effect of the picture is thus reversed, blue 
printing has found jast in this particular line its most extensive 
employment. 



70 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRTJCTOR. 

The tourist anxious to see a proof of his negative can judge 
of its general qualities when printed upon cyanotj^e paper 
without resorting to the troublesome silver printing and gold 
toning ; and many amateurs are so partially inclined toward 
blue prints that they even admit them to their albums. 

Efforts have been made to convert blue prints into prints of 
other colors, especially those of dark brown or black shades, 
but they have, according to all reliable authorities, signally 
failed. An old method for changing color is to bleach the 
bhie by means of a carbonated alkali, leaving upon the paper a 
deposit of sesquioxide of iron, which is afterwards developed 
with tannic or gallic acid. Clear whites it is almost impossible 
to obtain, and the general tone of the transformed print may be 
acceptable to some, but it certainly is not to the general 
public. 

Red prussiate of potash, in substance or in solution, is sensi- 
tive to light, and should therefore be kept in the dark. 

The citrate of iron and ammonia is very hygroscopic, and 
when exposed to air attracts so much moisture that it will be 
decomposed and reduced to a black pulpy mass. We must 
therefore keep it in well stoppered bottles. 

We annex to this lesson Pellett's very interesting method 
for making blue lines upon white ground. 

The formula is composed as follows : 

Gum arable 385 grains 

Sodium chloride 46 grains 

Tartaric acid 62 grains 

Perchloride of iron 123 grains 

Water 33^ ounces 

Highly sized and smooth paper is evenly coated with this 
mixture, dried in the dark and exposed under a negative. 

Develop with a saturated solution of ferroeyanide of po- 
tassium. Fix in a one to twenty solution of hydrochloric 
acid. 

The paper is not durable and is best prepared immediately 
before use. 

Also a good process for copying drawings with black lines 
upon a white ground : 



PRINTING ON VARIOUS PAPERS. 71 

Coat good, stout paper, by means of a brush or sponge, with 
the following solution : 

Water 12 ounces 

Gelatine ^K drams 

Ferric chloride 5K drams 

Tartaric acid ^^ drams 

Sulphate of zinc m drams 

Expose in the printing frame till the greenish yellow color 
of the ground appears to be bleached out and develop with 

Gallic acid ^K drams 

Alcohol '^ ounces 

Water ^^ ounces 

The developer produces within three minutes perfectly black 
lines upon a white ground. With under-exposures the ground 
retains color, and over-exposures make the lines sKghtly gray. 

A most convenient method of printing is that on Aristo 
paper, consisting of a stratum of chloride of silver enmlsified 
with collodion or gelatine. 

One of its most popular and prominent varieties is the 
Omega of chloro-bromide of silver and gelatine. It is extreme- 
ly sensitive to light, and is well adapted for the printing from 
feeble and insufficiently developed negatives. With it no 
fuming in ammonia vapors is required, and after printing no 
washing of the proof. By merely immersing it in a combmed 
fixing and toning bath, prepared especially for this particular 
brand of emulsion paper, any possible tone can be attained 
within eight or twelve minutes. A comparatively short washing 
in pure water eliminates the fixing agents, after wdiich the 
print is squeegeed upon a hard rubber or tintype plate, from 
which it will detach with a beautiful gloss after having dried 
spontaneously. 



LESSON IX. 

PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER 

PAPER. 

This paper, entirely different in its preparation from those 
we liave already become acquainted with, is extremely sensitive 
to light, and requires, therefore, but short exposures. The 
mode of operating is not the same, not similar, to any of the 
sensitive papers which we have considered, and requires an 
essentially different treatment. The pictm-e is not secured by 
a complete printing-out, but by development conducted as in 
the negative processes, and with chemicals not described in 
previous instructions. 

The uses of the bromide paper are almost unlimited in their 
variety. 

For making contact prints from negatives of all kinds, por- 
traits, views, interiors, architectural and mechanical subjects, 
it is unsurpassed, both for quickness of execution, and artistic 
effect. The pure, soft black and gray tones, and steel engrav- 
ing effects obtained, and the absence of the conventional glossy 
surface, usual in photographs, are points in its favor that are 
appreciated by artists and connoisseurs of refined taste. 

For copying patent office drawings, engineers' and architects' 
plans, it surpasses all other processes in quickness and quality 
of result. It is used by botanists for making copies of leaves, 
etc., by contact printing. 

It is invaluable for use in meteorological and astronomical 
recording instruments. In making quick proofs from wet 
negatives, it enables the photographer to see his result without 
waiting for his negative to dry. 

But perhaps the most important application of permanent 
bromide paper is to the process of enlarging, i. e., the making 
of large positives from small negatives. 



PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER PAPER. 73 

Owing to its great sensitiveness, it will receive and retain an 
image projected upon it by means of an apparatus similar in 
principle to a magic lantern, thus enabling the photographer to 
make prints of any size from small negatives. Such prints 
present the effect of fine crayon drawings, at the same time re- 
taining the photographic fidelity of likeness and detail. 

The exposure required for this extremely sensitive paper 
varies with the intensity of the negative, and the quality and 
intensity of the light, but may be approximately stated to be, 
using as thin negatives as will make good prints, one-quarter 
second by diffused daylight, or ten seconds at a distance of one 
foot from a No. 2 kerosene burner. Yery thin negatives 
should be printed by weak yellow light, like that obtained from 
a kerosene lamp turned down a little below the normal inten- 
sity. In this way a strong, vigorous print may be obtained 
from a negative that would otherwise be too thin and fiat. 
Strong, intense negatives are best printed by daylight. 

Permanent bromide paper is manufactured in various grades 
of sensitiveness and surface. For contact printing of proofs, 
for drawings, tracings, or those from ordinary negatives, the 
" Star" No. 1, with smooth surface, is best adapted ; while for 
enlargements, especially when to be finished by the artist's hand, 
the No. 3, of rougher grain, is preferred. All of the different 
grades are sold cut in popular sizes, and put up in light-tight 
packages, or in endless rolls, well protected against the action 
of undue light. For contact printing the paper is laid in the 
printing frame upon the negative, as heretofore described, and 
for enlargements is fastened against the easel, to be explained 
later on. Owing to its gelatinized surface, the edges of the 
paper curl on the coated size, and to make the developer take 
freely to it, immersion in water becomes necessary before de- 
velopment. When perfectly flattened out, the water may be 
poured off and the developer applied. 

Formula for Developer. 

1. — Oxalate of potash 1 pound 

Hot water 3 pints 



74r THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR, 

Acidify with sulphuric or citric acid. Test with litmus 
paper. 

2. — Protosulphate of iron 1 pound 

Hot water 1 quart 

Sulphuric acid (or citric acid, \i ounce) J^ dram 

3. — Bromide potassium 1 dram 

Water 1 quart 

These solutions keep separately, and mix only for immediate 

use. 

Take in a suitable tray; No. 1, six ounces ; No. 2, one 
ounce ; mix in the order given ; use cold. 

The image should appear slowly, and should develop up 

strong, clear and brilliant. When the shadows are sufficiently 

black, stop, pour off the developer, and flood the print with the 

clearing solution, consisting of one-quarter of an ounce of citric 

acid to one quart of water. Kepeat washing with the acid 

water three or four times, rinse well with pure water, and 

finally fix in hyposulphite of soda, three ounces of which is 

dissolved in one pint of water. When perfectly fixed, which 

takes about ten minutes, wash again, submit to the alum-bath 

and final washing, which is greatly accelerated by the use of 

Flandreau's hypo eliminator, as in the case of other kinds of 

prints. 

Remarks on Development. 

The developer in use is termed by photographers the 
"ferrous oxalate" developer, and consists in reality of the 
ferrous oxalate dissolved in an excess of oxalate of potash. The 
mixture should present a clear, dark-ruby color. If turbid, 
too much of the iron solution has been added, and the iron 
oxalate formed is in excess, the oxalate of potash present can- 
not keep it in solution, hence a part of the iron salt remains 
undissolved, and precipitates in the form of a bright yellow 
powder. Such developer is unfit for use. 

Care should be taken to employ oxalate of potash only when 
in a perfectly neutral state, or when acidity is slightly prevailing. 
An oxalate, reacting alkahne, tends to make hard and chalky 
prints without half tones, effects erroneously ascribed at times 
to under-exposures. The only difficulty occurring with bro- 



PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER PAPER. (0 

mide prints, is a misjudged time of exposure. Over and 
under-exposures can be observed with the ferrous oxalate de- 
veloper in the same way as by the effects shown in the nega- 
tive process with pyrogallic acid. Under-exposure gives hard, 
black and white prints without any half tones or fine grada- 
tions. 

For over-exposure we have remedies on hand by which we 
can counteract their effects. One of these is Bromide of Potas- 
sium Solution No. 3, which, when judiciously used, will re- 
strain the forcible action of the developer, and modify the 
gray tone resulting without it. 

Too much of it, however, tends to make a yellowish or olive 
green tone which is by no means agreeable. With a careless 
application of bromide of potassium there is danger of spoiling 
the print entirely. 

A better restrainer is undoubtedly a developer prepared 
some time previous to its use, and when it has attained partly 
to a higher state of oxidation. Whenever an over-exposure 
may be suspected, it is advisable to commence development 
with this partly oxidized solution, and when the general out- 
lines and deeper shadows of the picture are fairly out, substi- 
tute for it a freshly-made preparation, and counterbalance its 
action, if too forcible, again with the old. The operation 
probably requires a little more nicety than the ordinary 
method, but the resulting tones are decidedly better and richer 
than those resulting from an excessive use of bromide of pot- 
assium. 

The office of the acid clearing solution is to dissolve the iron 
salt that has entered into the pores of the paper supporting the 
gelatine film during the development. Without it the prints 
would be of a yellowish, muddy color, wanting in the bril- 
liancy and clearness for which bromide prints are noted. 

Permanent bromide prints should not be dried between 
blotters like albumenized paper, but should be hung over a 
line, or laid back down upon glass or clean paper. 

The eikonogen developer spoken of in Lesson No. YI. is 
claimed to be superior to the ferrous oxalate in the permanent 
bromide of silver printing. 



*7. 



76 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

It does not rapidly deteriorate, but remains clear and retains 
its vitality as a developer for a long time. 

It works mucli more rapidly than oxalate. 

It does not stain or degrade the whites in the least, does not 
stain the paper itself, and with a properly made emulsion does 
not fog even with under-prolonged development. 

In cases of over-exposure, especially in line work, or in 
copying drawings by contact, it does not clog the fine lines 
up as is noticably the case with oxalate. Therefore for com- 
mercial work it is more easily and certainly used than oxalate. 

There is greater latitude than with oxalate. 

The developer, as now used by a large firm in this city, in 
place of oxalate, which has been in use for a long time, is made 
up in about the following solutions : 

Solution No. 1. 

Eikonogen 16 grains 

Sulphite of soda (crystals) 32 grains 

Water 1 ounce 

The sulphite of soda is first dissolved, then the eikonogen. 

Solution No 2. 

Carbonate of potash 168 grains 

Water 1 ounce 

To make eight ounces of developer take six ounces of 
1^0. 1, to which add three drams of No. 2 and two ounces of 
water. 

' In case it acts too slow add one dram at a time of the potash 
solution, till the speed of development suits you. Should the 
density of the shadows be too weak, keep the print in the 
developer longer till they come up to suit. If the}' do not, 
then add an ounce more of No. 1. Slightly under timing may 
thus be remedied by increasing the amount of potash. Car- 
bonate of soda will answer equally as well as an alkali, but it has 
been found advisable to increase the amount of sulphite of soda 
nearly twice. Potash is used because it is more powerful and 
does not stain. 

The formula given is intended more for line work where 
brilliant contrasts are desired. For enlargements it is prob- 



PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER PAPER. 77 

able the amount of eikonogen may be reduced, say one ounce 
of Ko. 1 to four or five ounces of water. The developer used 
one day is preserved and used as an old developer the next day 
to start the prints in. The color of the developer (a dark 
green) is deceptive to the eye, making one think it would 
surely stain the white paper or the fingers, but it does not. 
The new developer is bound to work a revolution and enable 
amateurs to produce prints or negatives easier and better than 

heretofore. 

Enameling. 

Squeegee the wet print, face down, on a polished piece of 
hard rubber or ebonite ; when dry the print will peel off with 
a fine polished surface. The print should be slipped on to the 
rubber plate under water to avoid air bubbles. 

Flexible Prints. 

Permanent bromide prints soaked in a mixture of glycerine, 
five ounces, and water, twenty-five ounces, and dried, will not 
curl, and may be used for book illustrations, unmounted. The 
heavier papers, "No. 2 " and "No. 3," are especially adapted 

for this purpose. 

After drying, prints may be straightened by the scraping 
action of a sharp-edged ruler applied to the back ; the corner 
behind the ruler being lifted as the ruler is passed along. 

Enlargements. 

The operation of enlarging on permanent bromide paper 
involves the same principles as those underlying the making 
of a negative ; it is simply photographing on a large scale the 
negative instead of the original. To avoid the necessity of 
using a large camera, the dark-room itself is made to take the 
place of the camera body, and the negative is placed in an 
opening in the dark-room shutter so that all the light will 
come through it to the lens, as in Fig. 1. 

This cut represents an enlarging apparatus that any photo- 
grapher can improvise from ordinary apparatus and material, 
with the expenditure of a few hours' time. To construct it 
proceed as follows : 



78 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



Out a hole in the dark room shutter two sizes larger than 
the largest negative to be enlarged from, fit into the opening a 
frame about two or three inches deep, glazed on the outside 
with a sheet of ground-glass. On the inside edges of the 




frame, top and bottom, arrange grooves in which to slide the 
negative ; when the negative is in position it will be brilliantly 
illuminated against the ground-glass. Now, on a table or 
shelf, adjusted in front of the negative box, place an ordinary 
camera having the ground-glass removed, point the lens toward 
the negative, and connect the lens and negative box by means 
of a bag of opaque cloth, open at both ends and provided with 
elastic bands to close it tightly around the lens and negative 
box. This will prevent any light from coming into the dark- 
room, except that which passes through the lens. (See Figs. 
1 and 2.) 

In this apparatus the camera body seiwes no useful purpose ; 
all that is required is to support tlie lens. In case a portrait 
lens is used, it should be put in position so that the back lens 
will be next the negative instead of as shown in the cut. 

The easel to hold the sensitive paper is the next requisite, 
and this may be constructed by fastening a large, flat board in 
an upright position, upon a box of suitable size, to serve as a 
base, so that the whole may be moved to and fro to regulate 
the size of the enlargement. The face of the easel should be 



PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER PAPER. T9 

c.jvered with white paper. Now, if the easel is put in position, 
facing the camera, the image can be focused on the screen by 
sliding the camera backward or forward on the shelf. 




Lens- 



Fig. 3. 

The size of the enlargement will depend upon the length of 
focus of the lens, and the distance the easel is set from the 
negative. 

Any lens that will make a negative can be used for enlarg- 
ing, and the proper size for the lens depends wholly upon the 
negative to be enlarged from, and not at all upon the enlarge- 
ment to be made. If the lens will cover the negative, it will 
make an enlargement from it of any size. 

For enlarging from negatives, 5x8 inches and under, a half- 
size portrait lens is suitable. It can be worked nearly wide 
open for heads, but must be stopped down for half and full 
length figures. Rapid rectilinear lenses are also suitable, but, 
of course, do not work quite as quickly on heads as poitrait 
lenses, because they have not as large apertures. For full and 
half-length figures and views they are quite as rapid, because, 
for this purpose, the portrait lens requires to be stopped down 
as far as the rapid rectilinear. 

Hints. 

Mealy Mottled PWn^s.— Over-exposure and short develop- 
ment. 

Greenish Tones are obtained by over-exposure and too much 
bromide. 

Forcing Development does not give good results, for the above 
reason. 



80 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTKUCTOK. 

Face of Permanent Bromide Paper can always be distin- 
guished by its curling in. Convex side is always the back. 

Fixing. — The operator can tell when a bromide print is fixed 
by looking through it or upon it in a good light ; unfixed por- 
tions will be greenish yellow. 

Yellow Prints. — Prolonged development will cause yellow 
prints by depositing iron in the paper. The exposure must be 
correct, so as to allow of quick development. 

Running Water is not so sure a means for washing prints 
as changing them from one tray to anotlier, allowing them to 
soak at least ten minutes in each fresh water ; twelve changes 
are suflacient ; no less. 

The Permanency or Bromide Prints. 

It should be understood that a print on permanent bromide 
paper is a very different thing from an ordinary photograph on 
albumen paper. The image is produced by development upon 
a substance containing no free nitrate of silver. On the 
albumen paper it is formed by light alone acting upon an 
organic compound of silver and the chloride in the presence 
of free nitrate of silver ; in this case the image is known to be 
unreliable as to permanence, w^hile in the case of the bromide 
paper all the evidence points to as great a permanence as can 
be desired. 

A very interesting modification of the permanent bromide of 
silver paper is the transferotype. The sensitive emulsion is 
not directly spread upon the paper, but rests upon a substratum 
of soft gelatine, which will easily melt in water of about 80 
deg. Transfers can be made on almost any substance, but the 
materials mainly used are glass, opal, celluloid, marble plates 
or tiles of pottery, metallic ware, painters' canvas, fabrics and 
leather. The operation is the same in all cases. 

The exposure and development is the same as with perman- 
ent bromide paper, and after the print has been thoroughly 
fixed and well washed, it is while still wet, brought into abso- 
lute contact with the substance to be transferred upon. For 
plain surfaces the ordinary squeegee answers well, for curved 
surfaces a stout piece of cardboard cut parallel with the curve 



PRINTING ON PERMANENT BROMIDE OF SILVER PAPER. 81 

is required. Fabrics and leather after being thoroughly 
wetted should be stretched upon a clean board or glass plate, 
and while still damp the picture squeegeed upon them. It is 
then dried under slight pressure, soaked for a short time in 
water of ordinary temperature, and then transfeiTed to another 
tray with water of between 90 and 100 deg. Fahr. Soon air 
bubbles will collect on the paper, and the paper beginning to 
recede spontaneously from the corners and edges may then be 
pulled off with ease. After the paper has been removed the 
substratum of soft gelatine should be washed off with tepid 
water. 

Owing to the property of eikonogen to tan gelatinous 
matter, we must for transfers resort to the ferrous oxalate, by 
which under all circumstances that so much admired neutral 
black tone can only be produced. 

Warm tones, chocolate brown, or a decided red can be made 
with the following solutions : 

A. Nitrate of uranium 4 grains 

Water 4 ounces 

B. Ferricyanide of potassium 8 grains 

Water 4 ounces 

Flow A over the w^ell- washed plate, and return after a few 
minutes to the beaker or graduate, add an equal bulk of B^ 
and to each ounce of the mixed solution two drops of glacial 
acetic acid, and pour over the plate again till the desired tone 
is obtained and wash. 

After the transfer has been made the toning solution is 
applied. Ferricyanide of potassium also hardens gelatine, and 
if used upon an unstripped picture the paper support would 
refuse to come of. 

To protect transfers made on earthenware or glass from the 
influence of moisture or water. There is no better medium 
than the " Krystaline " varnish spoken of in Lesson YII. 

Clips, plates, saucers, etc., when thus prepared may be 
washed in lukewarm water and dried with a soft cloth. 



LESSON X. 
"ARTISTIC" PRINTING. 

But a little time lias passed since the primitive amateur 
photographer thought his duty done by exposing his ready- 
made dry plates and leaving to a " professional " the labor of 
developing and printing. He has since discovered that his 
own developing and printing are quite as essential as the mere 
exposure in order to reproduce the picture which he had in 
his mind's eye. 

On the proper development of correct and faulty exposures 
former lessons have given instructions. The following remarks 
are intended for those who, having mastered plain printing, 
desire to have some knowledge of more artistic methods, viz. : 
I. Of Printing in Medallion Style ; II. Vignetting ; III. Flush- 
ing or Tinting the White Background ; IV. Combining I, and 
II.; V. Printing in Backgrounds; VI. Printing in Clouds. 

Printing in Medallion. 

In order to print portraits in medallion style it will be 
necessary to procure some metal oval and circle guides and a 
revolving Robinson print trimmer. It will be desirable to 
have at least two sizes of the guides for the carte de visite and 
two sizes for the cabinet form. Cut a suitable mask on orange 
post-office paper and paste it on the face of the negative. This 
will give you in printing an oval or circle with a white border. 
In order to tint the border, paste the cut-out oval on a clean 
glass of suitable size. Place your print on another glass, adjust 
the "cut-out" face down over it and expose to light, more or 
less according to taste. The tinted border may be ornamented 
in various ways by a piece of tulle or lace stretched over it, 
etc. ; but the plain tinted border will be the most satisfactory 
on the whole. 



AKTISTIO PRINTING. 



For Yignettino Portraits. 



83 



It is desirable that tlie original should have been taken 
against a light (not white) background. If the background be 
too dark, it must be lightened artificially, as f. t., by covering 
the glass side of the negative with ground-glass varnish and 
darkening it with a stump and black lead, beginning close to 
the head, l^ext cut out a mask close to the figure ; for a por- 
trait the pear shape will be found most suitable. Cut the 
mask not in straight, but in irregular wavy lines, similar to the 
cut of Weymouth's vignetter. Cover your printing frame 




with a stout card-board into which a square or an oval opening 
is cut out, large enough to receive any size of masks. This 
opening is to be covered with a piece of tissue paper of even 
texture. Underneath this paste your mask and back the whole 
on the printing frame, the tissue paper uppermost, next to the 
light. Adjust the negative in proper position, looking through 
against the light ; if a greater number of prints of the same 
negative is desired, paste the negative in proper position by 
means of some strips of glued paper. If, after printing a 
proof, the gradations of the vignette should prove too abrupt, 
it may be remedied by (1) widening the space between the 
negative and the mask ; (2) by painting on the glass side of tlie 



84 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOE. 

negative with Russian or indigo blue, a contour in waving 
outlines, according to taste ; (3) by encircling the head with 
loose cotton wool, always on the glass side of the negative. 

Flushing. 

Flushing or tinting the white background of a vignette 
will be of advantage in prints from flat negatives. The dull 
hghts in the print will be enhanced by subduing the extreme 
white of the background. The easiest and safest way to do 
this is to cut out a mask slightly smaller than the head and 
figure (omitting the shadows caused by the vignette printing). 
Place the print into a printing frame and over the glass out- 
side you mask and expose to light, moving with a darning- 
needle (which hardly throws any shadow), waxed on one end 
in order to get a tack on your cut-out mask, moving it slightly 
during exposure. 

Combination Printing. 

A combination of the vignette, plain or tinted, can then be 
made with the medallion style, for which no further instruc- 
tions need be given. 

Taste and the quality of the negative must guide the printer 
to decide which of the described ways of printing will show 
the subject to best advantage. A child's or a very young 
lady's head will show best closely vignetted on a white back- 
ground, while a gray head with whiskers will be most effective 
on a plain, dark background. 

Peinting in Back-Geounds. 

Printing in hacJcgrounds^ either natural or artificial, for 
portraits or groups, is a more difficult subject, and will require 
some experimenting before success can be attained. The mode 
of operation consists (1) in obliterating any backgrounds of 
your figures by the use of any opaque color close to the figure 
or figures, and in printing them in proper position ; (2) in 
choosing a background which is lighted from the same side as 
the figures; (3) in cutting out masks of the figures slightly 
smaller than the originals. Xow place your foreground nega- 



ARTISTIC PRINTING. 85 

tive into the printing frame and your figures over it and close. 
Cover outside of the glass of the printing frame the figures 
with your cut-out mask and expose to light, moving the mask 
as before directed. The degree of intensity of the background 
must be examined from time to time in order to get perfect 
harmony of tone between figures and background. 

Printing in Clouds. 

Printing in clouds into landscape photographs. ^ A land- 
scajDC photograjDh, be it ever so successful, with a clear blue 
(in photography, a white) sky is but a half -finished picture. 
To give animation to the blank space, especially when the 
horizon is low, it will be necessary to enliven it with cloud 
life. 

Secure on a favorable day cloud negatives from some ele- 
vated point, tilting the camera upwards in order to get the 
greatest amount of sky on your plate. Avoid over-developing, 
as it is desirable to have quick printing negatives. Mark them 
according to the exposure, scratching in some corner S. M., 
south morning ; E. E., east evening, etc. Do not hesitate to 
point your lens direct against the sun, especially on fine sunset 
evenings ; the transparent spot of the sun disc is easily blocked 
out by a circular cut-out opaque paper, somewhat larger than 
the sun disc, gummed on the glass side of the negative. 

Having thus obtained a number of cloud negatives suitable 
in lighting for any of your landscapes, the difficult part 
remains of printing them into your picture without showing a 
dividing line. Proceed as follows: Make a mask of your 
landscape on some opaque paper (post-office paper will do), 
tracing the outlines of the horizon in a rough way, not 
minding single tree tops rising above it. Place your jDrint 
over the selected cloud-negative in a printing frame, and your 
mask outside of the frame in position. Expose to the sun, 
constantly moving youi mask up and down, also sideways ; 
never hold your mask too high above the horizon point, but 
rather move it an eighth of an inch or so below. As it is easy 
to observe, from time to time, the effect of your printing, you 
can manage the mask, raising it higher, lower, or cornerwise, 



86 



THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



according to requirement. The result will be, after a little 
practice, a perfect blending of the two negatives. 

It will be advisable to secure cloud-negatives on larger plates 
than those used for the landscape. By placing the print in 
different positions, a variety of cloud effects can be obtained 
from the same cloud-negative. 

In conclusion, let us warn the young photographers never to 
print the full size of their negatives when they use lenses of 
very short focus, as/". ^., the wide-angle lenses, for the reason 
that only about two-thirds of the centre is in true perspective 
and the borders outrageously exaggerated. Even with nega- 
tives made with long-focus lenses it will be advisable to make 
some sacrifice for the benefit of a more artistic result. The 
printing of landscapes in medallion and vignetted form give 
most charming effects, and many a faulty negative may yield 
excellent results by this mode of treatment. 




LESSON XL 



TRIMMING AND MOUNTING THE PRINTS. 



Trimming, 

The albumen prints, having been thoroughly washed, and 
the last traces of hypo having been eliminated from them, they 
may be dried and trimmed or cut to appropriate sizes and 
shapes preparatory to mounting. For economical reasons, 
many photographers trim their pictures before toning and fix- 
ing, and collect the paper clippings containing small amounts 
of silver, to recover by chemical processes the precious metal. 

Prints should be dried spontaneously, and not by heat. 
They are hung up two by two and back to back with clips and 
strung on a line. 




Lockwood's Clip. 

The trimming of the photograph sliould always be neatly 
and carefully done. The edges should be untorn and the form 
or shape should be true. A knife is often used with a glass or 
metal form, but the invention of Mr. S. M. Robinson, known 
as the Robinson Trimmer, has almost displaced the knife. 
These trimmers are made in two forms, the one illustrated by 



88 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

Fig. 1 being constructed so as to revolve in a socket in order 
to follow accurately an oval or round-cornered metal " guide," 
and the other, in Fig. 2, known as the " straight-cut," is for 
trimming straight edges, a metal guide being used with it also, 
or a glass form. 

The theory of these trimmers is that instead of cutting they 
pinch off the surplus paper, thereby giving a nicely bevelled 
edge to the print, and they are far superior to the knife or 
scissors, if held or used as indicated in the drawings. 

To trim the print well it must be laid upon a hard surface. 
Many use a glass, others again trim upon a sheet of zinc. 
With the former, the cutting tool is very soon dulled, and with 
the latter, the metal is cut up and roughened so much that a 
clean cut soon becomes an impossibility. A better mode is to 
paste a sheet of well-sized paper on the glass, which, Avhen 
dry, gives sufficient resistance to the trimmer without injuring 
its sharp edge, and the surface, not being slippery as so glass, 
allows the print to rest well upon it during the manipulation. 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Robinson's Trimmers. 

Before mounting, the prints are wetted again in clean water, 
and when perfectly pliable laid upon blotting paper in several 
thicknesses face down, and piled upon each other in such quan- 
tities as to allow of convenient pasting. 

Mounting. 

A very durable and adhesive mountant is the S, P. C. parlor 
paste. 



TRIMMING AND MOUNTING THE PRINTS. 89 

Another good paste, easily made by anybody, is the following: 

Good laundry starch 1% ounces. 

Sheet gelatine or white glue 80 grains. 

Put the Starch into a small pan, add one ounce of water, and 
mix thoroughly witli a spoon or the ordinary mounting brush, 
nntil it is like a thick cream, then add fourteen ounces of 
water and the gelatine, broken into small fragments. Boil for 
four or five minutes, set aside until nearly cold, then add one 
ounce of alcohol and six drops of pure carbolic acid. We have 
now fifteen ounces of a very good and durable paste that will 
keep well, in stoppered bottles, is smooth as cream, and with- 
out lumps or grit. 

Previous to applying the paste all superfluous water is 
squeezed from the])ile of prints with a slight pressure between 
blotting paper, after which the mounting can be commenced. A 
flat bristle brush is dipped into the paste, and then drawn with 
slight force over the print laying on top of the pile. It is drawn 
several times, and in opposite directions, over the back of the 
print without leaving more paste than is necessary for adhe- 
sion. The print is then lifted up with the point of a knife, 
and placed in proper position upon the mount. "With a stout 
piece of paper and an ^vory paper cutter, or similar tool, the 
print must be laid flat, all air bubbles expelled from under it, 
and when adhering uniforn)ly to all parts of the mount, laid 
aside for drying, with the face side down. Care must be 
taken to apply no more paste than is needed to fasten the 
print to the mount. Highly glazed mounts, at present so much 
in vogue, are, on account of their greasy enamel, quite difflcult 
to mount upon. To make photographs adhere to them uni- 
formly, it is best to add, and mix w^ell with the fifteen ounces 
of paste, one-half ounce of ammonia. A part of the ammonia 
saponifies the greasy matter, the rest evaporr.tes. The method 
is very easy to work, and is not injurious to the picture. 

Blue prints and photographs on plain paper are similarly 
mounted, but do not require to be wetted; it is probably 
better to paste them wheft in a dry state. 

Permanent bromide prints may be mounted wet or dry ; the 



90 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

prints should not be dried between blotters like albumenized 
paper, but should be hung over a line or laid back down upon 
glass or clean paper. To mount, brush over the back some 
thin starch paste, lay the print on the mount and rub into 
contact with a soft cloth. 

For very large pictures cover an artist's stretcher frame with 
a piece of common white muslin by stretching it tightly while 
dry and tacking it on the outside edges. Give the cloth a coat 
of starch paste, rubbing it well in and avoiding streaks and 
lumps, lay over a smooth table a piece of g-ubber sheeting, lay 
the wet print on the rubber cloth face down, and with a rubber 
squeegee scrape off the water. Give the back of the print, as 
it lies on the rubber cloth, a coat of paste, and then lay the 
stretcher face down upon it and rub the muslin into contact 
with the back of the print, using a thin paper-knife to reach 
under the edges of the frame. Lift the frame and rubber cloth 
from the table together and peel the rubber off from the face 
of the print. This will leave the print on the stretcher smooth 
and flat. When dry it will be tight as a drum head. 

Albumenized and other paper photographs may be mounted 
on musHn similarly. Should it be required to mount them 
back to back with a muslin support between them, trimming 
had better be deferred until after mouiiting and drying. The 
muslin should, however, be well stretched. 

To prevent mounted pictures of large dimensions from curl- 
ing up the mounts should be dampened before the pictures 
are laid upon them. They are then dried between blotting 
paper and under a slight pressure, the blotting paper being 
changed occasionally. 

To mount in an album without cockhng, let the photograph 
be ironed with a hot iron on the back till it is perfectly smooth, 
then place it under pressure till quite flat. A large book 
answers the purpose admirably. To prepare for mounting lay 
the flattened print face downwards on a smooth board or piece 
of glass and upon it place a piece of clean, stiff paper, an 
eighth of an inch less all round than the photograph, upon the 
exposed edge of which rapidly and sparely brush some liquid 
glue (as little as possible) to cover it. Herein lies the secret. 



TRIMMING AND MOUNTING THE PRINTS. 



91 



Avoid making the paper wet. Tlie album being conveniently 
placed — the position the photograph is to occupy being pre- 
viously marked with a pencil — carefully raise the photograph 
with a point of some kind, to avoid soiling the fingers with the 




Album. 

glued edge making it non-adhesive in the parts where such 
glue would be removed and lay it down in the proper place. 
At once lay a piece of clean paper over it and rub it down 
firmly with a soft rag and close the album. In half an hour 
the face will be dry and the print perfectly flat, and it will 
remain so. 




Improved Spring Back Eclipse Album. 



LESSON XII. 
SPOTTING AND BURNISHING THE PRINTS. 

Spotting. 

Careless or excessive negative retouching, faults or impuri- 
ties in the glass supporting the gelatine lihn, foreign matter 
which has accidentally found ingress between negative and 
paper during printing, dirt upon the surface of the negative 
plate, and a variety of other causes, produce white spots of 
unexposed paper on albumen prints. These faults or spots 
must be taken out or touched away by an operation termed 
" spotting " by photographers. 

Simple as the operation may appear at the first glance, it 
requh-es, nevertheless, a steady hand, an eye well, educated to 
judge correctly of color, and some mechanical skill. Only the 
white spot should be covered with the retouching medium, 
and its color must harmonize strictly with the general tone of 
the photograph. If the spot is large, interrupting different 
shades, the touching must be done in such a manner as not to 
break up the harmony or to present tones in variance with its 
surroundings. With " l)lue " prints or those on plain paper it 
is comparatively easy to do this. Albumen paper, on account 
of its gloss and hardness, repels aqueous colors and India ink, 
and the paint or color must be prepared to work easily on the 
paper. 

Take 

Gum arabic 10 parts 

Glycerine 1 part 

Alcohol 5 parts 

Water 34 " 

Dissolve the gum in a mortar by rubbing it well with the 
solvent, add the other ingredients, mix well and keep in a well- 
stoppered bottle. 



SPOTTING AND BUKNISHING THE PRINTS. 



93 



Take, further, a half part of dried and pulverized ox-gall 
and mix well with ten parts of the above solution. 

A mixture of neutral tint, carmine and Prussian blue can 
be made to match any photographic tone. Such a mixture, 
combined with the ox-gall preparation, is eminently useful for 
retouching or spotting out albumenized paper prints. A tine 
camel's hair brush slightly moistened with the color solution 
will do the work. For larger spots washing may be employed, 
but it is better to do the work by stippling. 

Bromide prints are best spotted with a very soft lead pencil, 
Faber's BBB. or Conti's crayon. 

Burnishing. 

The very high polish on photographs, now so popular, is 
attained by jDropelling the picture over a heated burnishing 
tool contained in a little machine constructed especially for the 
purpose. 




A BUKMSIIER. 



The burnishing tool should be uniformly heated, and this is 
done either by two or three alcohol flames or by gas passing 
through a perforated tube, which is attached to the ordinary 



94: THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOK. 

gas-burner by means of a rubber tube. Petroleum or oil lamps 
must never be used, as by any imperfect combination of the 
fuel carbon is separated in the shape of smoke or soot, which 
will soil the picture and the hands of the manipulator. 

Preparatory to burnishing the mounted, dried and spotted 
print is lubricated to promote its free and uninterrupted pas- 
sage over the tool. This is done by rubbing over its face an 
alcoholic solution of Yenetian or Castile soap, or finely scraped 
solid soap. 

A print to be burnished should not be dried too much, as 
the swell of the card bends the picture backwards. Let the 
picture dry until the contraction of the paper just commences 
to bend the picture forwards. It will be found that the picture 
in this stage is about three-fourths dry, and it is absolutely 
necessary that it should not be allowed to dry any further 
until after it has gone through the burnisher. 

This is best done by arranging the pictures in one or two 
piles and placing them under a weight. They should be care- 
fully taken from the pile and spotted out, and immediately 
placed in another pile under a weight. The same precaution 
should be taken in applying the lubricator to tlie print. The 
reason for this method of procedure will be evident to anyone 
who has observed with what a number of irregular lines the 
surface of a picture becomes broken when allowed to become 
perfectly dry in the usual manner. "When these marrings have 
once appeared in a picture there is no method for again uniting 
the broken surface. When burnished by the above directions 
the picture will be found to be very compact and hard when 
cool, and neither alcohol nor water will destroy the gloss thus 
obtained. It is advisable to put, first, the picture through the 
burnisher lengthways, curling it up backwards around the 
roller ; afterwards put it through sideways, thus straightening 
it, and thereby also raising a much higlier polish. 

If, occasionally, a cabinet or card picture will not take the 
gloss, breathe upon it freely before running it through the 
burnisher. Should the enamel not be produced the first time, 
repeat the operation after tlie picture has become cool ; the 
desired result will then be obtained. 



SPOTTING AND BURNISHING THE PRINTS. 95 

It is imperative to keep the burnisliing tool in a good condi- 
tion. Rust or scratches are its greatest enemy, and if they 
should occur a re-polish can he given to the burnisher by rub- 
bing it well with an oiled leather file and the finest emery 
flour. 

Unmounted photographs are often required to be burnished. 
The trimmed and spotted picture is lubricated as usual, laid 
smoothly upon an ordinary cardboard, larger than the print, in 
the same position as if it had been mounted thereon and passed 
over the tool. The manipulation does not differ from that of 
mounted prints, but care must be taken not to allow the print 
to slip from its position. 

When mounted on muslin the burnishing of prints is quite 
easy, but it is advisable to place a cardboard between the rough 
roller and the print, so as to prevent an impression of the cor- 
rugated surface of the muslin. When burnishing prints that 
are mounted back to back, either with or without paper or 
muslin support between them, the card-mount protector must 
again be employed ; burnishing the one side of the double print 
first, then the other, in the usual manner. Often pictures are 
seen which present a much higher and more beautiful gloss 
than can be obtained with the burnisher. These are called 
"enamels" or "glaces." The method of enameling is a little 
more complicated, but nevertheless is quite easy. It is done in 
the following manner • 

Enasielling. 

Sprinkle the surface of a glass plate with powdered French 
chalk, rub it evenly over tlie surface with a tuft of cotton 
wool, continuing to lightly rub it until the chalk is all removed, 
then coat the glass with the following 

Collodion. 

Soluble gun cotton 48 grains 

Alcohol 4 ounces 

Sulphuric ether 4 ounces 

As soon as the collodion is well set lay upon it the print, 
previously soaked in a warm sohition of one-half ounce gela- 
tine in ten ounces of water, to which a few drops of glycerine 



96 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTEUCTOK. 

liave been added. Expel all air bubbles from beneath the 
print and sqneegee it into absolute contact with the collodion- 
ized glass. 

After drying, the print can be peeled oif from the glass and 
the face will present a polish almost as high as the surface of 
the glass from which it has been removed. The print is then 
ready to mount, as follows : Moisten the face of the mount 
with a damp sponge and lay it upon the pasted print ; rub 
down with a soft cloth and put under pressure to dry. 

The addition of five per cent, of glycerine to the paste will 
prevent the print peeling off the glass as it dries. 

For enamelling bromide prints the same collodion substratum 
as mentioned above may be employed. 

As soon as the collodion is well set, slide the j^late face up 
into a tray of water, in which is floating, face down, the per- 
manent bromide print, which has just been fixed and washed ; 
grasp the plate and print by one end and lift together from the 
water, avoiding bubbles and draining the water from the oppo- 
site end ; squeegee the print into contact with the plate and 
set away to dry. Before the print is quite dry apply a coat of 
starch paste to the back. 

Another method is to squeegee the wet print, face down, on 
a polished piece of hard rubber or ebonite ; when dry the print 
will peel oS. with a fine polished surface. The print should be 
slipped on to the rubber plate under water to avoid air bubbles. 

Cyanotypes aud plain paper photographs do not assume 
gloss so readily under the burnisher as do albumen prints, but 
they, too, may be enamelled to a considerable extent. 

Great richness of tone and depth, transparency and detail in 
lights and shadows can be given to them with encaustic paste, 
which secures also their permanency, this paste being a pre- 
ventative against the action of moisture and injurious gases. 

The formula for the paste is as follows : 

Pure virgin wax 500 grains. 

Gum elemi 10 

Benzole 200 " 

Essence of lavender... 300 

Oil of spike 15 



SPOTTING AND BURNISHING THE PRINTS. 97 

Melt the whole thoroughly on a water batli, and strain 
through muslin. A simpler plan is to dissolve the elemi in 
the solvents as described, and, after filtering, mix with the 
melted wax, as the filtration, which is chiefly intended for the 
gum elemi, is more easily managed before the wax is present. 
This, when finished, forms a stiff paste. By increasing the 
proportion of essence of lavender, it can be made thinner, 
which in winter may be desirable. The encaustic paste is put 
on the print in patches in three or four parts, and then rubbed 
with a light, quick motion, with a piece of clean flannel, until 
a firm, fine surface is obtained. If a rich, thick coating of the 
encaustic be desired, a very light pressure in rubbing is neces- 
sary, so that a polish may be acquired without rubbing off the 
paste in the operation. If a print is retouched, more care 
must be taken to use the hand lightly in applying the paste. 

Finishing a photograph properly is of as much importance 
as the developing or printing of it. A badly mounted, spotted 
or burnished picture may spoil all the good work previously 
done, and the tyro must, therefore, never neglect to give "the 
final manipulation his undivided and careful attention. 




■''1...!...,^ 



'I'' l.liU.|Jl"^ 



The Scovill Squeegee and Print Roller. 



LESSON XIII 

PORTRAITURE. 

This important and most difficult branch of photography 
can hardly receive sufficiency attention within the short space 
of a Chautauqua lesson. A mere outline only can be given to 
the student in describing the construction of the studio, or the 
uses of back-grounds and accessories, the lighting and posing 
of subject, or the arrangement of groups ; although this should 
be considered in more detailed form. It is impossible to give 
concisely all that upon which innumerable artists liave written 
volumes with more or less success. 

Before any degree of proficiency can be attained, art-pho- 
togra]3liy requires much practical exercise, close observation, 
and diligent reading. It is, therefore, advisable to supplement 
the studying of this chapter by the reading of a good book on 
the subject.* 

The studio or skylight room must be of first consideration. 
It is well to have plenty of space to move about in and to con- 
tain the necessary furniture, apparatus and accessories. The 
length may be partly determined by the size of the pictures 
intended to be made, and it will be found that if the room is 
to be long enough to allow a cabinet portrait to be taken of a 
full length standing figure with sufficient space for back- 
ground, camera, and contingencies, twenty-eight feet will be 
quite sufficient. In width, if we allow enough space for fur- 
niture, head-rests, additional cameras and utensils, fourteen 
feet will give room enough in which to work comfortably. 

Various opinions exist among the experts as to the best 
shape and position of the skylight. There was certain rules 

" Pictorial Effect in Photography." By H. P. Robinson (The Scovill & 
Adams Co.) Price, $1,50. 



PORTRAITURE. 99 

and facts, however, which should not be disregarded. Con- 
trast between light and shade is a point of the utmost import- 
ance, and the results deriving from their management are ob- 
vious. If all the light comes from one point, the contrast will 
be too violent, whereas too lights, equally strong from oppo- 
site directions, will place the subject to disadvantage, destroy 
contrasts, produce flat pictures, without roundness or solidity 
of effect. The light thrown on the subject should be diffused 
and soft. The direct light of the sun must be avoided. It is 
well to remember that, if the skylight faces east, the rising sun 
will stream in ; a southern light admits the sun immediately 
before and after noon, while a western light is equally objec- 
tionable on account of the afternoon sun. It is only from the 
north, then, that the direct sunlight can be avoided ; hence 
every skylight should face the north. 

It must be borne in mind that a skylight suitable for one 
style of work is not always the best for another class. Thus a 
low light is generally better for standing or entire figures, and 
gives brilliancy to all parts of the picture, while a higher light 
is better suited for head and bust pictures, it being softer and 
more subdued. Therefore, it is an essential point to so con- 
struct a skylight as to adapt it as near as may be to the pro- 
ducing of general work. When it is impracticable to have a 
side light, the top light should have considerable slope, and 
thus give different heights, but when it is practicable, top 
light should be combined with a side light. The side light 
should rise in an elevation from thirty to thirty-five inches 
above the floor, be not less six feet and not more than eight 
feet high, and not less than ten feet and not more than twelve 
feet long. The top light, rising from the side light at an 
angle of 35 deg., should be of the same length as the side light 
or one-fourth more. 

At certain periods of the year, when the sun reaches a high 
elevation, its rays will be apt to intrude themselves through 
the top light, to avoid which, to a certain extent, two poles 
may be erected, furnished with cross bars, along which a can- 
vass curtain may be drawn. 

The sashes should be fitted ^vith white glass, and the panes 
be as large as practicable to avoid too often repeated lappings. 



100 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKTJCTOK. 

To regulate light effects at the will of the operator, to con- 
centrate it at some points, to exclude it or subdue it in others,, 
we resort to movable screens or shutters. A plan to be recom- 
mended is to provide two or three shades on spring rollers, 
whose combined widths are the width of the top hght, the 
spring rollers being attached to the highest point of the top 
light. These may be made of some stiff material and of a light 
neutral color ; and if a double set of curtains is preferred, the 
other can be of thin white muslin. The side light may be cur- 
tained similarly, but should be movable from side to side. 

The color of the interior of the studio had also best be of a 
light neutral tone. The floor should be level aud steady ; it 
may be painted of a light brown or other suitable color. 

Carpets and oilcloth are objectionable for several reasons. 

Backgrounds, are essential parts of the studio and should be 
properly selected. If plain and uniform in tone, the effects 
produced by them are plain and uniform. A carefully gradu- 
ated background relieves certain parts of the picture and con- 
trasts well with others ; thus the lights in the figure should be 
relieved by the darker shades in the background, and vice 
versa. Fancy-painted backgrounds are always dangerous 
experiments, except in the hands of an expert. Absolutely 
avoid heavy columns, pedestals or balustrades ; they rarely 
contribute to the beauty of the picture. The introduction of 
a gracefully falling curtain, with good taste and in keeping 
with the subject, may occasionally be permitted to relieve 
what otherwise might appear too monotonous, or to form a 
balance line, which may be requisite. 

In the introduction of accessories, such as rocks, stumps, 
gateways, shrubbery, etc., these should be faintly but distinctly 
reproduced to give life and harmony to the background, rej)re- 
seuting a landscape or garden scene, with graduated sky of 
delicate and broken clouds. 

For interiors the background might be in panels of graduated 
tints ; if painted to rej)resent the light streaming in from a 
casement, be very careful that the light falls on the sitter from 
the same direction. 

The nearer the subject is to the light the stronger will be the 



PORTRAITURE. 101 

shadows. A reflecting side- screen -will subdue excessively 
strong shadows on the face. It should be covered with light 
gray material and be placed obliquely towards the sitter and at 
a distance to soften the shadows, but not near enough to destroy 
them entirely. 

How to light the sitter can be treated in general terms only. 
Lighting the subject in special cases is a question which can be 
solved by the operator alone when the subject is before him. 
He must see that the light and shade fall so as to produce 
the most agreeable effect before the sensitive plate is exposed, 
and with the capacity of seeing this the power of modifying is 
usually accompanied. 

As a general principle, a high side light a little in advance 
of the sitter is the best direct light ; excess of vertical light is 
in most cases to be avoided ; nevertheless, it may be useful at 
times in giving form and brilliancy to flat, commonplace faces. 
But where the sitter has heavy brows, sunken eyes or promi- 
nent features, the least possible vertical light should be 
employed, or these features will look more marked and heavy. 
With such faces the side light, well in advance of the sitter, 
will give the most soft and harmonious effect, without risk of 
flatness. The top front light will generally serve to illumine 
sufiiciently the shadow side of the face without having to resort 
to the reflecting side screen, which, however, under some cir- 
cumstances, will not only be useful but necessary. As a rule, 
a mild and soft light is what is required. Strong illumination 
produces lights and shadows of much intensity, giving black 
and white pictures. 

There are other influences beside the amount of space 
through which the liglit is admitted. The aspect of the day, 
the period of the year, the quality of light, the situation of the 
studio and the quality of the plate ; for a very sensitive plate 
seems to require a greater contrast of light and shade than a 
slow one. 

The true test of good lighting is roundness. This can only 
be obtained by securing delicacy in the half tones ; there should 
be no broad patches of light and shade, but gradation every- 
where. The operator must educate himself to see these half 



102 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC IJSTSTKUCTOE. 

tones, and he must see them in his model without looking at 
the ground-glass. Get the right effect in nature and the rest 
will follow. 

A few remarks on the imperfections of the human face may 
be appropriate. 

Every face has, artistically speaking, two distinctly different 
sides, and it is for the operator to select for his portrait the best 
view. With gentlemen, as a general thing, the hair is parted 
on one side, and that side is usually preferred, if there be no 
reason for choosing the reverse. Often the head is rather bald 
towards the beginning of the parties ; in such cases, perhaps, 
the opposite side might be preferable. Light yellow or red 
hair should be powdered, unless a color-sensitive plate is to be 
exposed. 

In cases of a too high forehead, the latter may be foreshort- 
ened by raising the camera. Blue and light eyes should, as a 
general rule, be turned from the light. Deeply sunken eyes 
require considerable front and very little top light. "Where 
the eye is defective, you will, of course, turn that side away 
from the camera as much as is necessary, to lose sight of the 
defect ; or even a profile may be taken. Where one eye is 
smaller than the other, it is generally prefei-able to take the 
larger one more prominently. Where one eyes is higher than 
the other, if no other objection offer, take the higher eye. In. 
the case of small and partially closed eyes, make them look up- 
wards, or if desired that the portrait look at you, depress the 
chin a little. For very large and staring eyes make them look 
lower. 

In a fuU face the eyes may look straight forward, being 
careful to turn the body to one side, more or less ; never have 
chest and head presented exactly in front of the camera. 

The direction of the eyes is important. Never allow the 
head to turn in one direction and the eyes in the opposite ; 
nothing can be worse than this. In the case of short-sighted 
persons wearing spectacles, beware of false reflections. An 
improperly placed side- screen will reflect so much light that 
the eyes are entirely obliterated. 

In but very rare cases do we find a perfectly straight nose. 



PORTRAITURE. 



103 



If it turn to the left or right, the two sides of the face 
will appear materially different ; when twisted towards the 
left, a view taken from that side will shorten the nose, 
apparently, whereas the opposite result takes place from the 
other side. If the nose be very long take the face rather full. 
In the case of a turned-up nose, raise the camera as high as 
possible ; with a round and rather Hat or fat nose, take it pretty 
well from the side. 

For high cheek bones, with hollow cheeks, be very careful 
of a too strong top light, and take the face rather full, well 
lighting up the cheeks. In frequent cases the profile is the 
better view. Should one cheek be swollen, perhaps it might 
be better to avoid that side ; if not practicable to do this rest 
the cheek upon the hand. 

Old and wrinkled faces require a strong front light without 
much shadow, and are generally best taken in full, front views. 

Small and narrow mouths may be taken rather full; pursue 
the opposite course with large mouths and fat lips. 

It is very difficult to secure pictures of large open mouths 
with protruding teeth. Closing the hps by force distorts the 
chin and all chance of obtaining a good likeness is lost. En- 
gage the sitter in conversation and expose the plate when 
mouth, chin, and cheeks are in the most favorable position. 

Full or three-quarter length figures are more difficult to 
manage than head and bust. A pictorial back-ground may 
then be employed, and furniture or other accessories appro- 
priate to back-ground and the costume of the sitter are admis- 
sible. 

For a lady there is nothing better than a simple attitude, 
without attempt to pose artificially ; let the hands join in front, 
or, for variety's sake, rest one upon a chair or other suitable 
piece of furniture. Throwing one hand behind the back gives 
in some positions very pretty effects. When furniture is used 
to assist in making the position, a piece of lace or nicely folded 
drapery is of great value to conceal some parts or bring others 
into better relief. Sitting figures are more easily posed than 
standing ones ; more action can be brought into the picture, 
and employment can better be given to the hands, thus obtain- 



4 

-A 



104 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTKUCTOR. 

ing life and expression for the whole composition. A fan lends . 
itself admirably to the purpose, so does a book, sewing, writ- 
ing, or similar employment, answers well. 

No difficulty occurs more frequently in portraiture than the 
posing of hands. Arms and hands should be rather retired, 
both in position and tone ; if they must come in the picture, 
endeavor to turn the edge of the hand towards the camera, and 
avoid leaning the arms too heavily against anything which 
will distort the natural form. Care should be taken that the 
fingers curve gracefully. Hands appear frequently too large, 
and to prevent this they must be placed in a plane with the 
face. In some positions a hand looks much larger than in 
others. Especially is this apparent when its broad back is 
seen. When the fingers are interlaced the effect is similar. A 
well-formed hand is a beautiful object, and while in the com- 
position of a portrait, first consideration is given to the head as 
the principal object, the second place the artist should give to 

the hands. 

Group pictures are likewise not easily made, and none present 

so many difficulties as the family group, in which, frequently 
three generations are represented, thus offering material of 
various kinds, from which to compose a whole, harmonious in 
all respects. It is in all cases necessary that each individual of 
a group should be an equally well-lighted portrait and perfect 
likeness ; and while one of the first art-principles and good 
taste tell us that one or more of the component parts of a pic- 
ture should be given prominence, and others be subdued in 
light-effect, a variety of difficulties here naturally occur. 
Groups should always be arranged in pyramidal form, and in 
such a manner that the whole appears to be composed of 
several minor pyramids. The same refers to smaller groups 
of but a limited number of persons. For two, let one stand, 
the other sit ; while, in a group of three; two had better be 
sitting and one standing. By no means should the persons 
composing a group stare at the camera ; let every one of them 
select a point to look at, according to the turn of the head, and 
on a level with the eye. 

Out-door groups frequently represent a mass of figures, 



PORTRAITURE. 105 

-without any attempt at artistic arrangement. This latter dis- 
position is caused by the impossibility of getting assistance, 
from the nature of the ground or place where the photograph 
is taken ; but it should be the operator's task to utilize to best 
advantage the material offered. . He should look out for, and 
take advantage of, any spot that would afford him aid to break 
up monotony, and to give variety to the general form. A 
picturesque set of steps often gives such aid in a high degree, 
and more appropriate appear groups when a motive for the 
gathering of so many persons is represented in the picture ; 
prominence should be given to the most important persons, 
and action thrown into each individual and the whole. 

In selecting a back-ground, it should be endeavored to secure 
one with a broad expanse of light, if not too blank. Much 
detail is objectionable, as it interferes with the figures. The 
worst back-ground, but the one that is oftenest used for out- 
door groups, consists of foliage of large, shining leaves. The 
effects of the white spots caused by the glittering leaves, espe- 
cially when out of focus, is very disagreeable. 

The introduction of animals is in most cases dangerous. A 
cat or a dog have often totally spoiled an otherwise quite per- 
fect group. 

The photographing of children was, with the old, slow pro- 
cesses, the hete noir of the operator. Thanks to the rapid 
emulsion plate, the young members of society are comparatively 
quite easily managed now. Posing and lighting them, how- 
ever, requires, under all circumstances, much patience and 
perseverance, a tranquil mind, and a certain self-possession, 
which, unfortunately, is not always displayed by the operator 
when a young babe is presented before his camera. 

To make portraits with limited amateur outfits, and in our 
own homes, with the command of light emanating from one 
window only, is easily accomplished. Place your sitter at an 
oblique angle toward one window of the room, allowing its 
full force of light to illuminate the subject. To avoid a con- 
fusion of light-effects, screen the other window or windows 
with a white-muslin shade or tissue paper, by which means 
harmony is established and sufficient illuminating force secured. 



106 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



If the shadows cast are too abrupt or too opaque, reflect light 
from the opposite side ; a clothes-horse, covered with a sheet 
or table-cloth, answers quite well for the purpose. 

For photographic portraiture, a different kind of lens is con- 
structed, possessing more luminous power, and consequently, 
working more rapid than the single landscape lens. Of thesCj 
however, we shall treat in the lesson on lenses. 




LESSON XIV. 
RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE. 

Negatives of portraits, and in frequent cases of landscapes 
as well, require certain corrections before satisfactory prints 
can be made from them. In faces there are wrinkles and 
heavily shaded folds to be subdued, warts or scars to be 
removed, freckles obliterated, broad shadows lightened and 
very often whole features to be remodeled. In landscapes we 
can assist with pencil and brush to establish better harmony ; 
we lighten up shadows, correct broken lines, add or remove 
objects, either wanted in the picture or objected to, introduce 
high lights, strengthen up distances and, when practical, intro- 
duce a clouded sky. 

It is the function of the retoucher to improve negatives by 
judicious and careful work, to give them artistic effects when 
wanted, but not to overdo his task and merely smooth the plate 
down mechanically, as the joiner planes down a board. Ketouch- 
ing must be done well, and if the effects aimed at cannot be 
reached, it is far better to print from an unretouched plate, 
with all the objectionable features in it. The retoucher should 
be a photographer and an artist ; that is, he should be able to 
judge of the quality of the negative to enable him to know 
where to employ the pencil and where not. He can make a 
work of art from an average good negative, but he can never 
be able to render a positively bad negative serviceable for print- 
ing. Retouching is an aid in photography, and should never 
be considered of main importance when making negatives ; nor 
should the operator rely upon the pencil to supply wants that 
the plate and camera have refused to give. 

Therefore, it cannot be laid down too clearly that retouching, 
even when done by a real artist, should be considered only as a 
necessary continuation of very careful work ; not that the part 



108 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

of the retoucher is inferior to that of the operator, but that the 
two should work so well together that the final result will be 
arrived at through the cleverness of both. 

It is not everybody who can retouch well. It is a work 
requiring a great deal of taste, lightness of hand, close appli- 
cation and great patience, all of which qualities few people 
possess. But every photographer is capable of correcting in his 
negatives some faults which may occur, no matter how skilled 
as an operator he may be. 

The first thing required is an easel on which to work. This 
should be a piece of fine ground glass in a frame, on w^hich the 
negative is placed. The bottom of this frame has hinges as 
well as the top, which retains a cover of wood, kept open by 
means of small supports, lying on the sides of the frame of the 
ground glass. The necessary slant 
is given to this by means of two 
other supports, entering at will 
into some notches on the edges of 
the surface of a flat and square 
box, of which the middle is cov- 
ered by a looking glass, reflecting 
the light under the negative. 
Several carriers — same size as the 
ordinary photographic glasses, and 
fitting one into the .other, com- 
pletely stop the light around the negative. A little movable 
rule goes up and down in front of the ground glass and serves 
as a rest for the hands of the retoucher. This easel should be 
put upon a table before a window, with a north light. As 
there should be no hght except that which illuminates the nega- 
tive, a black blind should be thrown over the top and allowed 
to fall down closely on each side. There are easels sold pur- 
posely, and provided even with wooden shutters, which are 
kept open by hooks fitting into the top shutter. The retoucher 
is thus enclosed in a box and gets no light except, that which 
comes through the negative. 

The choice of pencils and brushes is very important, the 
great desideratum being one with a rough texture, yet capable 




RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE. 109 

of taking a fine hard point. Such an one is the best octagonal 
blacklead j)encil of Faber, which in contrast with many is, as a 
retoucher, once observed to us, " ahnost capable of doing the 
retouching itself." 

It is desirable to have three or four diiferent degrees of 
hardness of pencil, so as to suit every class of work, the HH, 
H, F and HB being tlie most suitable. The H is for general 
work ; the HH (the hardest of the four) for very fine and 
delicate execution and where little labor is required. The F 
and HB are suitable for heavier penciling when the shadows 
are heavy and considerable opacity is needed. It is customary 
to point them in a manner quite diflierent from that usually 
followed. The lead is laid bare to the extent of almost an 
inch, and a more or less fine point given to it, according to the 
negative under treatment. 

The brushes should be sable and very soft. It is very difii- 
cult to get good bruslies, so they should be chosen with great 
care. They must be pretty thick, not too long and with a very 
good point. All this will be easily found out by dipping them 
in water and bending them about. If a brush, then, at once 
makes a fine point, it is a good one. 

The two colors most required in negative retouching are 
India ink and light blue. The first is the most opaque color, 
but as the latter tint is the nearest to the negative it will per- 
mit of finer work. 

Finally, stumps of different sizes ana a very soft camel' s-hair 
brush, for dusting the surface during the operation, will com- 
plete the list of necessary implements for the retoucher. 

Gelatine negatives can be retouched upon without being 
varnished, althougli a varnished surface is often preferred. In 
any case, the film requires a previous preparation, to allow tlie 
pencil to " take." This is done by rubbing over the parts to be 
retouched a few drops of the S. P. C. retouching fluid, either 
with the finger or a small tuft of cotton wool. The fluid should 
be rubbed in well, but not to complete dryness, allowing a 
slight cuticle of it to remain, which after an hour or two will 
be dry enough to work upon. After a negative has been var- 
nished, the same application can be made, provided the varnish 
is dry. 



110 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

The method of deadening the varnish gloss by rubbing over 
it iinely-powdered cuttle-fish bone has been entirely abandoned, 
as upon such surface the pencil works gritty and irregularly. 
After having retouched upon the gelatine film, the negative 
may be varnished, and if, as it occurs at times, certain parts 
have not attained sufiicient opacity, the varnished plate can be 
retouched over again. 

The negative being placed on the frame, as described, the 
light should be regulated according to its density — the greater 
the density of the negative the stronger the light required — 
taking care always to use the lowest degree of illumination 
consistent with the complete visibility of all detail and half- 
tone. If too strong a light be used, the retouching will show 
more forcibly than appears in the negative, and will ruin its 
delicacy. The aperture in the retouching easel should not be 
too large, or there will be a flood of light running into the eyes 
that will not only dazzle and tire them, but render the lighter 
and more delicate tones invisible. 

The pencil is to be pointed in the manner described, the final 
" sharpening " being given by a piece of emery paper or 
cloth, a little care being necessary to avoid breaking the long 
and fine point. The easiest, and surest method is to work the 
point by repeated strokes away from the body, and not to rub 
it sideways or backward and forward. This hint will be 
found very useful, as the breaking of half an inch of point is 
very irritating. 

First take out of faces all freckles and marks, blotches of 
unequal color, etc., and then very carefully make the smallest 
possible amount of alteration in what is usually termed the 
" modeling " — that is, softening very heavy shadows and in- 
creasing the prominence of some of the leading lights. This 
is done by delicate " dabs " or dots, so to speak, with the point 
of the pencil, which must be made of the right intensity at 
once, as the depth cannot be increased by successive washes of 
color, as in painting, though if the retouching be done in very 
fine dotting or stippling, extra depth may be got by carefully 
filling-in between the first pencilings. 

The terms " stippling " and " hatching " as they are often 



RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE. Ill 

employed, may be Ijriefly described as dotting and lining, re- 
spectively. When there are transparent parts requiring a con- 
siderable amount of intensity giv.en to them, it will be found 
next to impossible to do it at once, and then the only plan is to 
make a first retouching uj^on the unvarnished negatives as deep 
as possible ; varnish, and retouch again. After the spots are 
all taken out by stippling, the modeling may be done by hatch- 
ing, making small lines only, as regular in size and distance 
apart as possible, and, as much as can be done, causing them 
to follow the lines or contours of the features, or the parti- 
cular facial developments that are being "worked upon. It is 
important that the hatching should be done in a regular 
manner, or a very scratchy and uneven effect will be produced. 
Great care must be taken to avoid crossing the lines, or make 
two strokes touch one another, this being a fertile source of 
" lumpy " or " scratchy " work, as it is forcibly called. 

It will be found of great use, if not an actual necessity, to 
have a magnifier for especially delicate work — not to be made 
use of from beginning to end, but merely for particular por- 
tions of the work, and to aid a general scanning of the whole 
when completed, so as to pick out any unevenness or rough- 
ness. If used all through it causes the work, strange as it may 
appear, to be less real and flesh-like, and, we might almost say, 
less delicate. The glass should be of good width, so that both 
eyes can be used, and it is better if it can be aflixed to a per- 
manent support which will hold it at one distance from the 
negative; and this will materially lessen the fatigue of the 
eyes in using it. 

The hatching may be suitably begun at the forehead and 
finished at the lower part of the face, working from the high- 
est lights to the shadows, and not vice versa. Every face will 
impart hints as to the leading lights and shadows under vary- 
ing modes of illumination. 

We conclude by pointing out some alterations which may 
be made or avoided with advantage. One of the commonest 
faults of a photograph is the stern or " cross " expression so 
frequently seen, which is caused by a too strong light. One 
of the chief seats of this expression is between the eyebrows. 



112 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

It is not caused by the perpendicular line or lines, more or less 
pronounced, always seen there in persons somewhat advanced 
in life, but is produced by the contraction of the eyebrow, 
which at the end nearest the nose will be found, when under 
this expression, to have taken an angular form and produced a 
decidedly darker shadow underneath in the orbit. If the cor- 
ner of this angle be taken ofi and the heavy, dark shadow be 
slightly lessened, the effect at times is almost magical ; and yet 
anyone can see, by looking at a retouched negative, that very 
few retouchers are aware of this simple expedient, it being 
generally thought that the upright furrows cause the frown. 

The portion of the cheek nearest the nose should be most 
carefully and thoughtfully done; there is often a delicate 
shadow, which is liable to be taken out by the unskilled 
retoucher, witli the effect of producing a swelled cheek. The 
hne often found running down from the wings of the nostrils 
should be carefully lightened with the aid of the knowledge 
which should be obtained by a slight study of the artist's own 
face in a mirror. The difference between a smile and a sneer 
is caused by an almost imperceptible difference in the shading 
of this furrow that cannot be conveyed in words. 

And there is the corner of the mouth, where much may often 
be done if it be borne in mind that in a smile the corner of the 
lip is slightly turned up, and in a serious, grave or crying 
expression it takes an opposite direction. The hands may often 
be improved by taking out the swollen veins they frequently 
present in the photograph, though it often happens that this 
can only be done on each individual print. 

In landscape negatives, as well as in other negatives, all hard 
shadows should be softened and the lights strengthened ; but 
all the work should be done on the back of the glass. In foli- 
age neo;atives taken with a brio-ht sun, the nearest trees are 
often wanting in detail, while the more distant ones are quite 
sharjj. Prints from these negatives have an unpleasant effect, 
the different lines of distances being too distinctly marked ; 
this may be improved by touching with a brush, not too 
pointed, and India or blue ink, representing some leaves 
according to the lights, which are already indicated. It is 



RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE. 113 

impossible to distinguish the trees retouched in this way from 
the others finely obtained on the negative. 

Finally, if there are any strong lights to be put on negatives 
for obtaining effects of snow, it is best done on the back of the 
negative, either on tissue paper or white varnish. 

The same thing may be done in negatives of clouds which 
are sharjily lighted by sunlight. If the shadows are too trans- 
parent and the lights too hard, put in some half-tones and 
remove the varnish irom the lights. If, on the contrary, the 
light parts are weak, strengthen them either with a stump or 
brush and remove the varnish from the shadows. For positives 
and enlargements the same work has to be done, and always in 
the same way. 

It will be seen, then, that in the art of retouching negatives 
it is only in the first step that any difiaculty is to be met with, 
because, being the most important, all the rest follows from it 
and is, so to speak, only the same thing differently applied. 
Therefore, with the knowledge of these few various methods, 
and a little taste and practice, one may be almost certain of 
accomplishing good results. 

Retouching by chemical means, as the operation of partial 
or local reducing and intensifying of a negative has been quite 
properly termed, deserves at least superficial consideration. 

It frequently occurs with landscapes and interiors that some 
portions of the negative are too intense, while others are not 
dense enough to produce harmonious prints. Masses of foliage 
in the foreground are for want of sufficient time of exposure 
much under, and far off objects correspondingly over, exposed; 
the out-runners of trees are solarized, and when printed ap- 
pear like a light fringe ; windows in interiors are surrounded 
by a halo, the objects nearest to them are too light, and those 
further removed invariably in heavy and sombre shadow. 
To correct these faults with pencil, brush and scraper, would 
necessarily involve the expense of much time and labor. We, 
therefore, resort then to retouching by chemical means, which 
is a local intensification of feeble, and reduction of excessively 
intense parts. 

A negative to be subjected to this tedious and difficult 



114 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

operation should in the first place be well soaked in water, to 
allow the gelatine to soften, the water should be drained, 
and all remaining drops or streaks be blotted off. To suit the 
shape and size of the parts to be operated upon we require 
several round and flat camel hair brushes and broad blenders. 
When the negative requires both intensifying and reducing, 
commence with the former. Dip your brnsh in the intensifier 
of Lesson YII., taking up very little, work upon the feeble 
part, and carefully keep within the outlines of it. Wherever 
there is not a sharp and distant contour, distribute the solution 
with a blender moistened with water, and as soon as the solu- 
tion begins to act visibly, wash, blot off again, and repeat 
the application of intensifier, and its distribution with 
the blender. By repeatedly working in this manner, a 
sufficient intensity will be attained. Finally wash well, and 
then proceed to reduce in the same manner, and with the solu- 
tion of potassium ferric oxalate, also described in Lesson VII. 
As the operation is conducted in daylight, and frequently 
requires a very longtime, Farmer's solution, owing to its prop- 
erty to decompose easily under the influence of light is not 
applicable here. If either to the intensifier and the reducer a 
little gum arable mucilage is added, outlines can be kept much 
easier than with the pure solution, provided the gelatine film is 
not too moist. It requires a steady hand, much care and pati- 
ence to do the work well, but the results will compensate for 
the trouble incurred. 




LESSOR XV. 

PHOTOGRAPHIiSfG INTERIORS AND INANIMATE 

OBJECTS. 

Interiors. 



During the cold months of winter, when the earth is covered 
with snow, and the trees are devoid of their foliage, the lands- 
cape photographer finds fewer attractive subjects for his 
camera than in the seasons when nature wears brighter gar- 
ments, and presents more varied scenes. There are frost and 
snow pictnres, to be sure, and may of exquisite beauty ; but 
they are difficult to find with the camera, and, when discov- 
ered, require a peculiar skill in the photographer to be justly 
reproduced on his plate. At this season of the year, then, to 
what shall we turn our attention. 

Portraits and in-door groups, copying, and the photograph- 
ino; of interiors, at once suo-sjest themselves as suitable and 
pleasant work for the winter months ; and of all these the 
photographing of interiors can be pursued with perhaps the 
greatest real satisfaction and pleasure. 

Few are the homes that have not, at least, one room that will 
make an attractive photograph when properly lighted aud ar- 
ranged. Indeed, the pleasant mystery often is, how so pretty 
a photograph conld be made of " our very plain library." But 
in a photograph even an ordinary appearing room acquires a 
certain dignity, and we instinctively think of palace halls and 
stately mansions. 

Especially attractive do one or more rooms appear when 
seen through doorways or arches, with portiere-draped back. 
And then there are so inn,ny corners in a house, mantels and 
fire-places that make pretty vignette photographs. Not only 
are such photogra|)hs of the greatest interest to the owner when 



116 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOE. 

made in his own home, but those of churches, theatres and 
famous buildings, and even of private dwellings, possess not 
a little architectural value. 

The first requisite for making interiors is a good, perfectly 
rectihnear, wide-angle lens, and of as short a focus as will per- 
fectly cover the plate used. A forward-focus camera is very 
convenient sometimes in photographing interiors, for often it 
is necessary to crowd well up into a corner in order to get a 
good field. Use always as quick a plate as can be obtained, for 
with the room properly lighted, and using a small diaphragm, 
so as to obtain the greatest amount of detail possible, the ex- 
posure is long enough, even with the quickest plate, to satisfy 
the most obstinate advocate of slow emulsions. 

The lighting is, perhaps, the cause of most failures. I^o 
direct sunlight must be admitted, but as much diffused light as 
possible, and the more the better. If possible, light the interior 
from the rear and sides; but if it is impossible to avoid a 
window in front of the lens, it must be carefully closed with 
its shutters and a curtain drawn over them. If tliis precaution 
is not taken, "halation " is sure to follow — " that appearance 
of halo — dark in the negative, light in the print — which makes 
its appearance around very bright objects in photographs," 
which Prof. Burton describes. When the sun shines directly 
through the rear or side windows, its light can be diffused by 
drawing the shades over the windows, if they be white ; if not, 
white sheeting, or even paper, answers well. But an over- 
cast day, if it be not too dark, is the best for photographing 
interiors. 

Halation is also caused by light which is reflected from the 
back of the plate. The greater part of the transmitted hght 
strikes the back of the plate. That traveling in a direction at 
right angles to or forming a large angle with the back of the 
glass, is transmitted through it ; but those rays which strike 
the back of tlie glass at the angle of total reflection are sent 
back to the front surface, where they pass into the emulsion. 

The means of avoiding the objectional appearance caused in 
this way is, of course, to back the plate with some substance 
which absorbs light. Bitumen answers well for this purpose ; 



PHOTOGKAPHINQ INTERIOKS AND INANIMATE OBJECTS. 117 

also black carbon tissues moistened with glycerine. Plain paper 
of a dead black surface, cut into the proper size, does very well 
and is easy to obtain and adjust. 

By the use of paper films instead of glass plates for making 
interiors one cause of halation is largely removed ; but even 
with them an even and harmonious light is absolutely neces- 
sary in order to be perfectly free from this annoyance. 

Do not strive after effects of chiaro-oscuro. We must 
depend on our arrangement and the development of the nega- 
tive alone for artistic effect in the work. With a soft, even 
light over the entire room the best and only successful interiors 
can be made. 

The exposure must be ample. An over-exposed plate on an 
interior can be treated with far greater chances for success 
than one which has been under-timed ; indeed, an under-exposed 
negative had best be 'thrown into the waste pile, and the devel- 
oper, time and patience of the operator saved for less hopeless 
attempts. No definite time can be given as the correct one 
for an exposure on an interior, for so much depends on the 
amount and degree of light, which is ever changing. By 
experience one acquires the judgment which is necessary to 
decide the proper length of exposure, and the illumination on 
the ground glass soon becomes a sure sign to the practiced 

eye. 

Development, fixing and washing is proceeded ^\dtll in the 
usual manner, and, if the exposure be correct, will be found 
to present no new difficulties. In this, as in everything else, 
" practice makes perfect," and by practice alone can we hope 
to attain perfection. 

Inanimate Objects. 

A variety of mercantile articles — such as machinery, invent- 
ors' models, etc., are often brought before the photographer. 
A few hints regarding the treatment of such objects may, 
therefore also be mentioned in this Lesson. 

Fabrics^ Paper Hangings, Embroideries^ Etc. — If it is the 
object to photograph them for commercial purposes, they 
should be stretched upon a plain board or screen, in order to 



118 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

present a plane surface. The nature of their colors invariably 
demands orthochromatic plates. 

Laces should be placed similarly, but in order to show the 
delicacy of the structure they should be fastened upon a 
ground of sharply contrasting color. White upon black, or 
mce versa. 

Glassware. — Ornamented or cut plates are copied against a 
dark ground, to make the transparent parts appear black upon 
the photograph. 

Hollow Glassware^ Cat or Engraved^ may be filled eitlier 
with a colored opaque fluid or, as in the case of globes or lamp 
shades, be lined with dark muslin. They should receive such 
an illumination as to produce distinct lights and shadows, 
without which the photograph will not be plastic. 

Porcelain or Delf should be similarly lighted. The objects 
being generally white and glossy, a proper exposure is import- 
ant to obtain brilliant lights and fine shadows. 

Bronzes. — On account of their non-actinic color and high 
gloss, lighting requires good judgment. To obtain the best 
general effect, a slight over-exposure is not only admissible, 
but sometimes necessary. 

Silver or Plated Ware. — Owing to their high polish, these 
articles can be photographed only in very subdued light. To 
avoid inartistic reflections, the skylight or windows should be 
covered with a thin white fabric or white tissue paper, and 
side screens be used to subdue or control the light. In order 
to do away with the reflected image of camera and operator, 
often quite visible upon larger objects, a screen of neutral color 
should be placed immediately in front of the camera, allowing 
merely an aperture for the lens. 

Machinery., when taken out of doors, is quite easy to man- 
age, but much trouble occurs when the object is to be photo- 
graphed in the shop, store or warehouse, whose light is gener- 
ally poor, and the distance from the position the camera can 
occupy perhaps insufficient. All available light should then 
be admitted, and as heavy machinery cannot be moved at the 
will of the operator, he should be provided with several lenses 
of different focal length . 



PHOTOGRAPHING INTERIORS AND INANIMATE OBJECTS. 119 

Jfodels.— The inventor directs from what point they are to 
be taken, and he knows exactly what he wants to show in the 
photograph.. The United States Patent Office prescribes a 
particular size, 7x11 inches, with sufficient margin. Only this 
size is accejDtable. 

Plaster of Paris Cornices, Centrepieces, Brackets', etc., must 
be fastened to a white ground and be placed in a hght falling 
obliquely upon them, to secure distinct and transparent shadows 
and brilliant high lights. 

Marble Statuary and Similar Works of Sculpture require 
illumination very much as portraits do, allowing, however, for 
their white color. The technical part offers no difficulties, 
but it is highly important to preserve a good balance between 
lights and shadows. 

Furniture and Cabinet Articles.— The photographer is 
always inclined to place them in a perspective position, never 
quite satisfactory to the manufacturer, whose demands should 
be respected, at least in this respect. The difficulty occurring 
here is to make the quality of the wood show distinctly, as 
well as the upholstery and form. 

Flowers and Leaves, when nicely arranged, make very 
interesting and beautiful photographs. As a correct represen- 
tation of color values is one of the first conditions, we must 
invariably photograph them upon orthochromatic plates. 

All these and kindred objects must be perfectly sharp; 
very small stops should therefore be employed when photo- 
graphing them. Besides, they must be correctly exposed and 
carefully developed, for they are satisfactory only when free 
from blemishes. 




LESSON XYI. 
COPYING, ENLARGING AND REDUCING 

Photogkaphers are almost daily called upon to copy not 
only photographs, but also paintings in oil or water-color;:, 
engravings and the like. The mode of operating does not 
differ much from that heretofore described, but several import- 
ant points must be observed to which our attention has not 
yet been directed and without which this work will give but 
little satisfaction. 

Reproductions are made either in the natural size .of the 
original, enlarged or reduced. In any case the proportions of 
the original must be preserved. To do this the apparatus 
must be placed directly opposite the object to be photographed 
and at right angles to it. Obliquity results in incorrect pictures, 
no matter how superior the lens may be. The object to be 
copied should receive a direct front light. If the work is to be 
done under the skylight, camera and object may be placed upon 
an elongated platform, movable upon a pivot, with ball and 
socket arrangement, so as to place the original in a position 
oblique to the floor, but parallel with the skylight. If the 
object be very large, side screens may be required to reflect light 
or to subdue it before an uniform illumination can be attained. 

We have seen in practice that the farther away the object is 
from the camera the smaller the picture will be, and, by revers- 
ing the axiom, we find that a very much enlarged picture can 
be made only by bringing the camera close to the object to be 
copied. The lesson, " Printing on Bromide Paper," speaks of 
enlargements ; the principles laid down there may be adhered 
to in all other methods of enlarging. For portraits, when the 
central part of the picture — the head — is the main object, an 
ordinary portrait lens may be used ; while landscapes, architec- 



COPYING, ENLAKGING AND REDUCING. 



121 



tural views, drawings or engravings, in wliicli equal sharpness 
all over the picture is demanded, rectilinear lenses must be 
used, like the Morrison copying lenses, the Wale, "Universal," 
the Gundlach rectigraph, or the Steinheil aplanat. 

A new apparatus, the Scovill Enlarging, Reducing and 
Copying Camera, is well adapted for the work. Its fonn of 
construction is made apparent by the illustration here given : 




It is principally intended for the copying of negatives or glass 
positives ; but by removing the kits in the front, the lens can be 
inserted into the same opening, rendering the apparatus capable 
of copying other objects as well. To copy a negative in the 
natural size, place it in the kit on the front of camera and 
button it in. Attached to the centre-frame of the camera is a 
division upon which, on the side towards the camera front, a 
lens is mounted. Suppose this to be a quarter-plate portrait 
lens, the focal length of which we will suppose to be four 
inches ; draw back the centre-frame and the lense to twice the 
focal length of the lens, slide the back-frame with ground-glass 
the same distance from the centre-frame. To enlarge with the 
same lens to eight times the size of the original, the centre of 
the lens must be four and one-half inches from the negative, 
and the ground-glass be thirty-six inches from the centre of the 
lens. To reduce in the same proportion, reverse and have 
thirty-six inches from the centre of the negative, and from 
centre of lens to ground-glass four and one-half inches. These 
examples will furnish a key to the following : 



132 



THE PHOTOGEAPHIC mSTKUCTOR. 



TABLE FOR ENLARGEMENTS. 
Reptinted from the "■British Journal Almanac for 1882." 



Focus OF Lens. 


Times of Enlargement and Reduction. 


In. 
2 


1 

In. 

4 

4 


2 

In. 
(i 
3 


3 
In. 

8 

2?4 


4 

In. 
10 

2K 


5 

In. 
12 
21 


6 

In. 
14 

2i 


7 
In. 
16 
2| 


8 

In. 
18 

H 


2Ji 


5 
5 


7^2 

3M 


10 
3i 


12% 
3}^ 


15 

o 


17^ 

2H 


20 32^ 
2f 2{i 


3 


6 
6 


'J 
4K 


12 
4 


15 


18 
3| 


21 
3i 


24 
3| 


27 
3f 


3K 


7 
7 




14 
4% 


17K 

43| 


21 
4i 


04.1 
4. 1 


28 
4 


3H 

311 


4 


8 
8 


12 
6 


16 


20 
5 


24 


28 

^ 


32 
4f 


36 
4^ 


4^2 


9 
9 




18 
6 


22% 
5fi 


27 
5f 


31i 
5i 


36 
5| 


40i 
5tV 


5 


10 
10 


15 

7K 


20 


25 

6J4 


30 
6 


35 


40 
5^ 


45 
51 


5M 


11 
U 


16% 


22 

7^ 


27% 


33 
6^ 


38^ 

6A 


44 
6f 


49^ 
6A 


6 


13 
12 


18 
9 


24 

8 


30 

7% 


36 

71- 


43 

7 


48 
6f 


54 
6t 


7 


14 
14 


21 
10^2 


28 
9i 


35 

83^ 


43 

81 


49 


56 

8 


63 

71 


8 


16 
16 


24 
12 


32 

lOK 


40 
10 


48 
9| 


56 
9i 


64 


72 
9 


9 


18 
18 


27 
133-^ 


36 

13 


45 
Ilk" 


54 
10-1 


63 

104 


73 

lOf 


81 
lOi 



It is assumed that the photographer knows exactly what the 
focus of his lens is, and that he is able to measure accurately 
from its optical centre. The use of the table will be seen from 
the following illustration: A photographer has a carte to 
enlarge to four times its size, and the lens he intends employing 
is one of six inches equivalent focus. He must, therefore, look 
for 4 on the upper horizontal line, and for 6 in the first vertical 
column, and carry his eye to where these two join, which will 



COPYING, ENLARGING AND REDUCING. 123 

be at 30 — 7^, The greater of these is the distance the sensi- 
tive plate must be from the centre of the lens ; and the lesser, 
the distance of the picture to be copied. To reduce a picture 
any given number of times the same method must be followed, 
but in this case the greater number will represent the distance 
between the lens and the picture to be copied ; the latter, that 
between the lens and the sensitive plate. This explanation 
will be sufficient for every case of enlargement or reduction. 

If the focus of the lens be twelve inches, as this number is 
not in the column of focal lengths, look out for six in this 
column and multiply by two ; and so on with any other 
numbers. 

Reproductions require proportionally much longer time of 
exposure than portraits or landscapes, and in this particular 
point frequent errors are made, generally towards over-expos- 
ures. The operator must learn by practice how much time to 
give, probably with the loss of a few plates, before the required 
experience can be attained. 

As with the full aperture of the lens, enlarged pictures will 
appear upon the ground-glass with a want of definition, small 
stops become necessary to retain the original sharpness. 

Oil paintings demand almost invariably a direct front illumi- 
nation. If, from the glossy varnish, reflections occur, they 
must be counteracted by a dark side screen ; naturally with 
loss of much light. Aquarelles or pastelles appearing brighter 
are easier to copy. 

Daguerreotypes or pictures under glass must, on account of 
their reflecting properties, be placed so that reflections of light 
are overcome. Daguerreotypes often show buff marks upon 
polishing the metallic plate. It is better to copy them by 
direct or reflected sunlight. Photographs when highly burn- 
ished or enamelled receive the same treatment as other pictures 
with glossy surfaces. Ordinary photographs generally copy 
very well, with the exception, perhaps, of those very much 
enlai'ged, when the grain of the paper shows rather too 
strongly. 

Plates may be developed as described in Lesson Y., or with 
any of the standard formulae for developers. 



124 THE PHOTOGKAPHIO INSTKUCTOK. 

For line work, when a negative in black and white only is 
desirable, and when no half tones or modulations are to be 
preserved, we resort to the ferrous oxalate developer described 
in the Lesson on " Printing on Permanent Bromide Paper.'' 
For that class of work, time of exposure is even more import- 
ant than for ordinary copying, as by a probable reinforcing, 
or long-continued developing, the sharpness of lines is often 
considerably damaged, making the negative utterly worthless 
if a relief plate is to be made from it. Keferring to the 
formula described before, we take three ounces of the solution 
of oxalate of potash and add to it one ounce of the solution of 
sulphate of iron. If more iron is used, the mixed solution 
will turn turbid and separate a yellow precipitate ; in such a 
state it should not be used. The perfectly clear and trans- 
parent red solution is poured over the plate, and the appear- 
ance of the image closely watched. If the image comes with 
anything like rapidity, pour the developer off, wash slightly, 
and flood the plate with a solution of pure oxalate for a minute 
or two, pour off, and without washing, continue with the orig- 
inal developer. If the effects of over-exposure are still appar- 
ent, restrain with 

Iodine 15 grains 

Alcohol ^H ounces 

to which, after being dissolved, add three and a quarter ounces 

of water. 

From fifteen to twenty drops of this compound added to 
the developer will secure the intensity and clearness of the 
lines desirable in black and white negatives. 

For the development of negatives, reproductions of draw- 
ings in lines, devoid of half-tones, written documents, and 
those to be applied for photo-mechanical printing, the sub- 
stance named hydrochinon or " quinol," and closely related in 
composition and properties to pyrogallic acid, renders excellent 

service. 

It possesses extraordinary reducing power, produces absolute 
intensity, and perfect transparency in the non-exposed parts, 
provided the emulsion used is free from fog. The intensity 
to be produced depends ' largely upon the concentration used, 



COPYING, ENLARGING AND REDUCING. 125 

and the amount of alkali present. For reproductions to be 
developed with hjdrochinon no better plates can be found 
than Mr. Carbutt's of lower sensitiveness ; either the "A" or 
the " B " ^rade. 

It is not possible to restrain over-exposed plates with 
bromides, as thej' almost overcome the action of hydrochiaon. 
If restraining has become necessary, do it with old developer. 
For black and white negatives, the more energetic, freshlj 
prepared developer may entirely be dispensed with. Solu- 
tions previously used will do the work equally well, if not 
better. 

A good formula is composed as follows : 

a. Hydrochinon \ ounce 

Sulphite of soda, granulated 1 ounce 

Meta-bisulphite of potassium 30 grains 

Water 16 ounces 

b. Carbonate potash \\ ounce 

Water 16 ounces 

Take equal parts for normal exposures. Proceed as with 
pyro. 

More of h increases intensity. 

For the production of black and white negatives the method 
is perfectly reliable. 




LESSON XYIL 

ORTHOCHROMATIC, OR COLOR-SENSITIVE 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

When we subject a photograph to critical examination, and 
conn3are the effects which colors have produced upon our plate, 
with their appearance of brightness or value of tone in the 
original, we find that our reproduction is verj far from a cor- 
rect representation of what the eye has seen. While form, 
light and shade have been photographed in perfect correspon- 
dence with the original, colors have not been so reproduced. 
Our plates copy the bright yellowish-green of vernal foliage 
quite dark, and the far-distant blue mountains in a landscape 
so extremely light, that most careful development is not capa- 
ble of rendering them harmoniously with the general asj^ect of 
the scene. The bright scarlet blossom of the geranium copies 
like the green leaves of the plant ; the crimson tulips, seamed 
with yellow, show no color contrast ; and the dark blue 
hyacinth appears nearly white in the ordinary photograph. 

The cause of this untruthfulness in photography was well 
understood by the earliest experimenters, they knowing very 
well why different effects could not be expected. 

All light does not act upon a photographic surface but only 
certain parts of light. 

The force or power that causes photographic, or photo-chem- 
ical action, scientists have callled aotinisyn ; and the active rays, 
aGtinic. 

Actinic rays are those found at one end of the spectrum, the 
violet and blue, called most refrangible by spectrum analysts. 
Eed, orange and yellow, at the other end of the spectrum, do 
not act at all, or but very feebly. The latter rays do not 
deviate so much from the path of undivided light, as blue and 
violet do, and are, therefore, called less refrangible. 



OKTHOCHEOMATIC, OR COLOR-SENSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHY. 127 

If we expose an ordinary photographic plate at the sohir 
spectrum, these effects wnll show to perfection how differently 
the two ends of the spectrum work. Violet and blue will give 
very pronounced impressions, hut they will diminish more and 
more, until, at the other end of the spectrum, no effect is 
\Hlsible. 

This is exactly what we notice in every-day photographs. 
Yellow and orange copy much too dark some reds do not 
impress the plate at all ; and blue and violet, no matter how 
dark they may be, invariably come too light ; and the variety 
of colors in fabrics, embroideries, paintings, and many natural 
objects have thus given endless dissatisfaction to the photog- 
rapher. 

For many years it was considered as impossible to remedy 
these defects, as we now think it impossible to photograph 
colors themselves. 

With (ti-thochromatic or color-sensitive plates we overcome 
these difficulties, and produce effects nearly correct in their 
value of brightness. 

An immense amount of practical work and labor had to be 
done, before anything worthy of interest was attained, but we 
cannot deny that the discovery of the process is based abso- 
lutely upon theories, and has been established by experiments 
in spectroscopy. These experiments were based again upon one 
princi2:)le, that is, the addition of some substances, possessing 
the power of absorbing and converting into chemical energy 
those rays which upon an ordinary plate have no effect. 

For this purpose, a large number of dye-stuffs were found to 
be most effective. They are themselves sensitive to light, for 
they bleach wdien exposed to it. Bleaching action was found 
to be strongest on the i*ed end of the spectrum, which has 
no effect on ordinary plates. The most generally adopted 
theory for this is, that the energy absorbed in bleaching the 
dye is transmitted to the silver haloid of the plate, overcoming 
its passiveness and rendering it capable of development. 

Of the many dyes that have been experimented with, only a 
few have been retained although many more are being added, 
according to the researches constantly made. It is true, not 



128 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOK. 

all of these dyes sensitize alike, or for several colors at the 
same time, and as the spectrum photographer proposes to 
examine distinct spectrum-regions with distinct media, the 
practical photographer selects colors that give the best general 
effect. 

Some of the dyes, known by the name of eosines, answer 
admirably, though many of them do not, and all of them 
refuse to reproduce red beyond a certain point. A very happy 
combination of dyes, belonging to another class, has been 
made, which cause sensitiveness far into the regions of the 
spectrum red. This action is due to one of its ingredients, 
cyanine, or chinoline blue, the most red sensitive substance 
known. 

With the addition of color sensitizers to the emulsion, or by 
bathing ready coated emulsion plates in their solution, the gen- 
eral sensitiveness of the plate is very much retarded. The sur- 
plus of dye-stuff not chemically combined with the silver 
bromide will then act like a ray filter and suppress the activity 
of blue and violet rays. But were we to add the sensitizers to 
unwashed emulsion an equivalent of the respective body would 
combine with the silver, the surplus of dye would be removed 
by the subsequent washing of the emulsion, and their optical, 
or retarding action would be reduced to a minimum. The sensi- 
tiveness for red and yellow, which can only be looked for in a 
change of the molecular condition of the silver salt, would 
then, simply through the combination of silver with sensitizers 
retain its fullest activity and not be depressed by the presence 
of an optical obstacle. 

To obtain the best general effects in pigment colors, we 
employ another dye, the erythrosine, which is also an eosine. 
With it the best practical results can be obtained, for it sensi- 
tizes to perfection up to orange, yellow and green, giving, at 
times, quite correct reproductions even of red, when that color 
is not perfectly pure but partly mixed with other colors. And 
we find but rarely pure red in pictures, fabrics or embroideries, 
hence erythrosine has been selected pre-eminently as the 
sensitizer for commercial plates and every day work. 

Occasionally, cyanine, in small portions, is added to the ery- 



ORTllOCHROMATICj OR COLOR-SENSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHY. 1'29 

throsine to obtain better red-sensitiveness, and it acts then very 
satisfactory in that combination. 

Violets and blues will, even with these plates, exercise a very 
violent action, and, to suppress it, a ray filter, principally of a 
pure yellow color is employed, it being placed between the 
lens and the sensitive plate. 

At first, the dye itself was incorporated with the emulsion, 
and with that the plates were coated. Practical work, and Mr. 
Flener, with his centrifugal machine, showed that but an 
extremely small quantity of color was requisite to give effects. 
In fact, after an emulsion had been colored, he separated from 
it the bromide of silver, re-emulsified it, and, with the infinites- 
imal amount of color combined with the silver, obtained the 
same effects. All this led to the redemption of an almost-for- 
gotten process, the staining of ready-coated plates to color-sen- 
sitize them. 

This way of working has become more popular than any 
other method, and although color-sensitive plates, colored in 
the emulsion, have become an article of commerce, stained, or 
bathed plates, as they are commonly termed, seem to be pre- 
ferred by most operators. 

For general work erythrosine has been found to be the 
most effective, and a preparation known as Flandreau's S. P. C. 
Orthochromatic Solution carries it as chief ingredient. 

With this solution any photographer may make his own 
orthochromatic plates, and any good plate may successfully 
be rendered orthochromatic by simply bathing it with the 
erythrosine solution. 

When orthochromatic plates are used for reproductions of 
landscape work, it is advisable to color-sensitize plates of only 
moderate rapidity. The Carbntt " B " and the Seed, of lower 
grade, answer very well for this purpose, while for shorter 
exposures those of higher sensitiveness are better adapted. 

The formulse are as follows : 

Preliminary Bath. 

Aqua ammonia 1 dram 

Water 7 ounces 



130 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

Color Bath. 

Erythrosine solution (1 : 500) 1}^ drams 

Aqua ammonia 2 drams 

Water (distilled) SJ^ ounces 

and the directions are simple. 

Immerse a plate of medium sensitiveness in the preliminary 
bath and allow it to remain therein for three minutes. After 
removal, drain well, and, without washing, flow the color 
solution to and fro over the plate. Bj' holding it as near as 
possible in horizontal position, allow it to remain for just 
seventy-five seconds ; then drain off, rear the plates upon blot- 
ting paper, and finally move to the drying closet. Under a 
well-regulated draft of air, drying will be accomplished in a 
short time. To protect the color-sensitive film against the 
influence of impure air, coat with diluted albumen or gelatine 
solution and dry again. 

When so prepared, color-sensitive bath plates will keep well 
for several months. 

Colored plates may be exposed while still wet, and the 
general sensitiveness is somewhat decreased thereby. If, 
however, the object to be photographed requires a very long 
exposure, it is better to use a dried plate. 

The development of erythrosine plates ofi^jrs no serious 
difiiculties ; but it must be remembered that the plates, being 
so sensitive to color, especially to yellow, the process must be 
carried on either in the shadow of a subdued ruby lantern, or 
in a light obscured by several thicknesses of brown tissue 
paper. 

To suppress the violent action of blue and violet, a yellow 
screen is placed between the sensitive surface and the objec- 
tive ; the best method being to fasten the screen on the back 
of the front bearing the lens. It being difficult to obtain glass 
of pure yellow color, photographers prepare these screens them- 
selves with yellow collodion. 

Take of crushed (not powdered) curcuma root two ounces, 
and macerate in ten ounces of alcohol for three days. After 
filtering the tincture, mix with an equal bulk of ether, and 
add to each ounce of the mixture six grains of gun cotton. 



ORTHOCHKOMATIC, OB COLOR-SENSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHY. 131 

With this collodion coat a plane parallel glass plate, which 
must be perfectly white, thin, without any curvature and strise. 

The yellow color imparted to the collodion is sensitive to 
light, and plates prepared with it will fade when exposed 
unnecessarily for a long time. 

With the interposition of the yellow screen (which is abso- 
lutely necessary for the copying of objects in which blue and 
violet predominates), the time of exposure must be increased 
from three to six times that of an ordinary plate. 

With artificial light of sufficient force the yellow screen can 
be dispensed with ; a yellow cylinder-globe or shade placed over 
the source of light answering equally well. 

The yellow glass should be very thin ; if unnecessarily thick, 
the time of exposure becomes longer. Focus should be taken 
with it, as a refraction of light may occur, making a perceptible 
difference. 

The reproduction of oil paintings, aquarells, fabrics and other 
articles colored highly in various shades, does not require any 
particular precautions. When much red is present, the exposm-e 
should be lengthened ; with the absence of blue, the yellow 
screen may be dispensed with, neither is it required for general 
landscape work. Artificial light, rich in yellow and orange 
light, allows work without the screeu. 

For orthochromatic landscape work, when blue is not a pre- 
dominant color, another method of color sensitizing the plate 
has become immensely popular. The plates are, perhaps, not 
quite so sensitive as those heretofore described, but with them 
the yellow screen can be dispensed with. 

Erythrosin solution (1:1000) 7 drams 

Nitrate of silver solution (1:80) 17 minims 

Aqua ammonia 8 drams 

Water 2 ounces, 5 drams 

The method of preparing the plate is the same as with the 
pure erythrosin bath ; the preliminary ammonia bath is also 
necessary. The solution should be allowed to rest on the plate 
for from one to two minutes, and be used but once. 



132 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOR. 

As a formula for developing, which gives very good results^ 
we may adopt : 

a. Granulated sulphite of soda 3 ounces 

Water 1 quart 

In this solution dissolve : 

Pyrogallic acid 1 ounce 

b. Granulated carbonate of soda 2 ounces 

Water 1 quart 

For normal exposure add 1 ounce of water to 1 ounce of each 
a and h^ or the second formula of the lessons on development. 

The hydrochinon developer of the lesson on reproductions 
also has produced very excellent results. 

Development should be commenced in total darkness. After 
the expiration of two minutes, when the color-stuff has been 
partly washed away, the plate may be examined in a weak red 
light, and the process may therein be continued. Fixing, 
washing, intensifying or reducing is accomplished in the same 
way as with ordinary plates. With some emulsions the color 
is difficult to wash off the plate ; when this is the case, a little 
alcohol will remove it more effectually than water. 

Of commercial orthochromatic plates none have attained such 
high color sensitiveness as those manufactured by Mr. John 
Carbutt. It is impossible to sensitize an emulsion equally well 
for all the colors of the spectrum, but he has found a happy 
medium, by which he sensitizes his plates for those colors 
generally predominating in colored fabrics or paintings. Being 
highly sensitive for green rays, these plates are well adapted 
for landscape work, when they may be used without ray jfilter 
unless a distant mountain range of hazy blue color is intro- 
duced into the pictures. 

Their general treatment is the same as that for both plates 
above described. 



LESSON XYIII. 

TRANSPARENCIES, AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 

There are various methods and processes for making trans- 
parencies, many of whicli have passed into history, and, as 
the object of this lesson is to place before the reader the latest 
method, combining simplicity of manipulation with perfection 
of result, it will be only necessary to enumerate the various 
methods of the past, without entering into a detailed descrip- 
tion of them. They comprise the albumen ; collodio-albumen ; 
collodio-bromide ; bathed dry-plate, in which a bromo-iodized 
collodion plate is sensitized in a solution of silver nitrate, and, 
after being wished, is coated with a preservative ; collodio- 
chloride, wet collodion process, which is still used by profes- 
sional slide-makers ; carbon, and the Woodbury processes. 

At the present time two processes only are in use in 
America, viz. : the old wet collodion process and the new gela- 
tine dry-plate process. The first is limited in its use to those 
who make lantern-slides mainly for advertising purposes, 
while the new gelatine dry-plate, of the special kind made for 
producing transparencies known as Carbutt's gelatin o-albumen 
plate, is almost universally used by amateurs and the profes- 
sional portrait and landscape photographer. It is in the use of 
these plates, therefore, that we shall proceed to describe the 
necessary operations. 

The requisites for contact printing are a deep printing-frame 
a size larger than the negative to be used, with a flat, glass 
bottom free from scratches (crystal plate is best) ; some thin 
red enameled label paper for masks, a Carbutt " Multum in 
Parvo " lantern or other artificial light, and transparency plates 
of the suitable size. Those for lantern-slides are made on thin 
crystal glass of the now accepted standard size, 3^ by 4 inches; 
for the larger size transparencies they are made on fine ground- 



134 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

glass, which has the advantage over the clear glass, that the 
image is rendered in its right position when made by contact 
with the negative, just as a silver print would be, the obscured 
side of the glass being back of the image, and it only remaining 
to cover it with a clear glass and mount in a suitable sized 
metal frame which is sold for that purpose. The transparency 
need not be confined to the size of the negative ; the image 
can be enlarged or reduced to suit the taste and circumstances; 
nor is it absolutely necessary, for the purpose of enlarging or 
reducing the image, that a camera be provided, if the use of a 
small room can be commanded, and the light shut out from all 
but one part of the lower sash. Over this light must be 
placed, and covering the entire distance, a sheet of fine ground 
glass which will give an evenly difi'used light to pass through 
the negative ; beneath this a support for the negative should 
be placed. The same camera and lens used in making the 
negative can be employed for making the transparency, pro- 
vided the image is to be reduced in size, and the negative can 
be held upright in one of the plate-holders. The camera itself 
may be supported on a board raised to such a height that the 
lens will centre with the centre of the negative. Care should 
be taken, in adjusting it, that the side of the camera and the 
face of the plate-holder holding the negative forms a perfect 
right angle. If it is desirable to make an enlarged transpar- 
ency, say, from a 4x5 or a 5x8 negative to an 8x10 plate, the 
same camera and lens must be used, but the ground-glass of 
the camera must be removed, so that the magnified image may 
pass through the camera into the sensitive plate, supported in 
an upright position at the distance found to be correct. To 
ascertain this the camera with its lens should slide easily 
between two strips, for, unless your camera is provided with 
a front rack movement, you will have to move the camera, and 
with it the lens, to obtain a focus, using a light of glass on 
which is stretched a piece of white paper to obtain a focus, 
and placed against a support on the board carrying the camera, 
and at right angle with thebase of it. This is supposing yon 
are working in a room in which all light, except that passing 
through the negative, is excluded before placing the negative 



TEANSPAKENCIES, AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 135 

in the holder or support. If it is desirable to have a margin 
on the transparency, cut out a mask from the thin, red enam- 
elled paper or tin-foil, and place on the face of the negative, 
being careful to see that the margin shows equally around the 
large plate or focusing screen. 

While the foregoing description will enable any one to pro- 
duce enlarged or reduced transparencies from their negatives, 
it is but a makeshift, and will be found to entail great loss of 
time and uncertainty in working, which can be avoided by 
using a properly-constructed camera, such as that made by 
the Scovill & Adams Company.* The writer of this article 
has had one in use for years. The end holding the negative 
has adjustments for centering the image, and the extended 
range of adjustment of the lens enables a lantern transparency 
to be made from an 8x10 negative, or vice versa ; an 8x10 
transparency from a 3^x4-^, or other intermediate sized 
negative. 

Having explained the tools required, let us now proceed 
with our description of the chemicals required and the making 
of the proper solutions. 

Of chemicals will be required the following : 

Neutral oxalate of potash 1 pound 

Sulphate of iron 1 pound 

H3'posulphite of soda 5 pounds 

Alum 1 pound 

Citric acid i pound 

Liquor ammonia 4 ounces 

Plain collodion varnish 8 ounces 

Too much stress cannot be laid on the procuring of chemi- 
cals of the greatest purity ; especially is it necessary that the 
first two articles named should be pure. Many have been 
disappointed in their efforts at transparency-making by apply- 
ing to the country druggist for oxalate of potash and have 
been supplied with bin-oxalate of potash ; be careful, there- 
fore, to procure the chemicals from a reliable dealer in photo- 
graphic materials. In compounding the solutions, first pre- 
pare, by a thorough cleansing, suitable sized bottles ; for the 

* Described minutely in Lesson XIV. 



136 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

bulky solutions, nothing is better than the ordinary glass pre- 
serve jar ; and for labels, a safe plan is to cut from the circular 
accompanying the plates you are to use the formulae, and 
paste them on the glass jar to contain the solution it describes. 
Next in importance is the water ; clear, soft river or spring 
water, melted ice or distilled water, as is most convenient, 
should be used, but never hard water containing lime in 
solution. 

We shall now describe a very excellent plan that has been 
used for years in dissolving large crystals — a method that does 
away with the use of a pestle and mortar. After filtering the 
A solution of following formula, select a one-half gallon glass 
preserve jar ; and for B solution, a quart jar. Measure into 
each one the quantity of water required, except that in the B 
solution a few ounces of the water may be reserved until after 
solution of the iron salt. To dissolve the salts, so as to need 
no after-filtering, take a common domestic salt bag, washed to 
free from salt, and in this place the crystals and suspend it in 
the water so that the bulk of the salt is just covered by the 
water ; immediately a stream of denser liquid will be seen 
falling to the bottom of the jar ; this will continue until the 
whole of the salts are dissolved and a clear solution is the 
result ; then remove the bag, give the bottle or jar a shake, 
and the solution is ready. The same method is to be employed 
in dissolving the iron and hyposulphite of soda, using a sepa- 
rate bag for each one, and completing one before commencing 
the other. Having everything ready, carefully weigh out by 
avoirdupois weight the chemicals, and make solutions as per 
following formula : 

Carbutt's Improved Developer for Transparencies. 

A. Oxalate potash 8 ounces 

Water 30 ounces 

Citric acid .. 60 grains 

Citrate of ammonia solution 2 ounces 

£. Sulphate of iron 4 ounces 

Water 32 ounces 

Sulphuric acid 8 drops 



TKANSPARENCIES, AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 



137 



C. Citrate of Ammonia So/ution. — Dissolve one ounce citric acid in five 
ounces distilled water, add liquor ammonia until a slip of litmus paper 
just loses the red color, then add water to make the whole measure eight 
ounces. 

Developer.— \dd 1 ounce of B to 3 of A, and }4 ounce water and 3 to 
6 drops bromide solution. 

In the making of transparencies, the first requisite is a good 
negative, and every effort and care should be taken when pro- 
ducing it, to insure its freedom from imperfections ; the second 
requisite is a suitable artificial light for use when making 
exposures by contact, and we know of none better than 
Carbutt's " Multum in Parvo " Lantern, designed especially for 




this class of work. It lias a safe light in front, to be used 
when developing negatives or transparencies ; two side doors, 
that to the left when opened emitting clear, white light ; and 
a reflector attached to the revolving lamp, which throws paral- 
lel rays toward the printing-frame holding the negative and 
sensitive plate. The door on the right, when opened, reveals 
a light of opal glass, through which the soft white light allows 
the negative or positive to be examined. The third requisite 
is suitable sized developing dishes, and these should be of 
porcelain or the enameled iron ware, and cannot be used with 
the pyro developer without risk of staining the transparencies, 
as we use for them the ferrous-oxalate developer only. 
Having now provided ourselves with the necessary requisites 



138 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTKUCTOB. 

for the work, we can proceed with the making of transparen- 
cies, beginning with the popular lantern-slide. For convenience 
of exposing the plate, the lantern should be hung in front of 
the operator so that the bottom is about twelve inches from the 
work-bench. To the left, and in line with the bottom of the 
lantern, should be fixed a bracket-shelf, so that the printing- 
frame can be supported at a distance of about twenty inches 
from the lamp-flame. We now place our negative glass in 
contact with the glass in a deep printing-frame ; a suitable size 
is 6^x8^, for that answers for 5x8 and under ; over this place 
one of Carbutt's thin, crystal, transparency plates, so as to cover 
the portion of the negative desired ; lay a piece of dark felt or 
other soft material over it ; close down the back ; turn the 
lamp of the lantern by the knob underneath, so that the reflec- 
tor faces to the left door of the lantern, and allow the clear 
light to act from ten to fifteen seconds ; close the door of the 
lantern ; remove the plate from the printing-frame ; place in 
a 4Jx5|- porcelain dish, and flow over sufiicient of the developer 
to well cover the plate. If correctly timed, the image should 
appear slowly, taking two or three minutes to complete ; allow 
the development to continue, however, until the blacks look 
quite strong, and detail is plainly showing in the high lights •, 
then wash off the developer, and immerse in a fresh solution 
of the hyposulphite of soda (pyro-developed negatives should 
not be fixed in the same solution), made by dissolving 8 ounces 
of the salt in 40 ounces of water, in the same manner as 
directed for dissolving the iron salt. Let the transparency 
remain in the fixing bath three to five minutes after the white 
bromide seems cleared from the plate ; wash for half an hour 
in running water ; then immerse for five minutes in the 

Hardening Solution. 

•\Yater "^ ounces 

Pulverized alum • ■ ^ ounces 

Citric acid jounce 

• 

Afterwards wash again, and this time for twenty minutes to 
half an hour ; then carefully go over the surface with a tuft of 
absorbent cotton, while water is running over it, give a final 



TRANSPARENCIES. AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 139 

rinse, and place in a drying-rack to dry spontaneously. Finally, 
varnish with plain 

Collodion Varnish. 

Alcohol 4 ounces 

P\'roxal ine 30 to 40 grains 

Sulphuric ether. . 4 ounces 

When, after shaking, the cotton is dissolved, filter and flow 
the plain collodion over the dry transparency; then dry, 
cover with matt and a crystal cover glass, and bind with black 
binding strips. 

Transparencies for window and door decoration should be 
made on plates somewhat larger than the negative, so that a 
suitable margin may surround the image. To do this, cut a 
mask with rectangular or other opening out of the thin red 
enamelled paper. For an 8x10 transparency from a 6^x8^ 
negative, take a piece of the mask paper 9x11 with two sides 
cut to right angles ; make a line witli j^encil and ruler 1 j inches 
from two sides ; from the side line measure 5^ inches, and from 
the cross line measure T^ inches ; cut on these lines with a sharp 
knife through the paper laid on glass or zinc, and remove the 
blank ; make a x mark on left upper corner, to denote register 
corner, place this mask in a 10x12 deep printing-frame; let 
it register close to the left-hand upper corner, lay the negative 
film side up and under the mask ; adjust the negative so as to 
show in proper position through the opening; over this place 
a Carbutt A transparency plate 8x10, letting it register in the 
same corner as the mask ; lay over a pad of black Canton 
flannel or felt ; close the printing-frame ; expose to the lamp or 
gaslight ten to fifteen seconds or more, according to degree of 
density of negative. Develop as directed for lantern-slides, 
and in every other respect proceed the same. 

The tone, both of lantern and large transparencies, can be 
varied from a warm brown to a velvety black. Increased 
exposure and weaker developer (adding water) with more 
bromide gives warm brown tones. Short exposure and stronger 
(undiluted) developer gives dark tones. 



140 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 



Very beautiful transparencies and lantern slides may be devel- 
oped with eikonogen. Owing to the activity of this developing 
agent, the time of exposure is so much reduced that a plate 
requiring by the light of the Carbutt lamp from 12 to 15 sec- 
onds, when developed with ferrous oxalate, will be fully 
exposed in from 3 to 4 seconds for eikonogen developer. 

A formula that has given uniformly fine results is : 

Eikonogen 1 ounce 

Granulated sulphite of soda 2 ounces 

W.ater . . .32 ounces 



Dissolve by heat, and add 

Carbonate of potassium. . . . 



1 ounce 



Dissolve, filter and put up in small and well-stoppered bot- 
tles. The solution in this form does not keep well longer than 
from 4 to 5 weeks, hence it is ad- 
visable to prepare it in quantities 
to correspond with the demand. 

Contrary to orthodox rules, ex- 
perts have stated that this solution 
gives in transparency work the 
finest results, when development 
is commenced with fresh 
solution. AVhen the image 
is fairly well brought out. 




its action is interrupted, the plate washed and then subjected 



TKANSPARENCIES, AND HOW TO MAKE THEM. 141 

to a developer used repeatedly hefore or a day or two old. 
The picture will then gain in intensity, tone and brilliancy. 

AV^e annex to the preceding page a cut of the Scovill Sciop- 
ticon and optical lantern of the quality desired by the amateur 
for home exhibition. It projects a perfectly sharp image .of 
8^ feet diameter at a distance of about 18 feet, and is for 
that reason an excellent instrument for the Sunday-school, the 
parlor, or a small lecture room. The exhibitions given with it 
on the Chautauqua assembly grounds have iirmly established 
a reputation for this excellent and comparatively low priced 
apparatus. 




LESSON XIX. 

LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY. 

It has been said by those engaged in the instruction of 
youth, that they often find it far more difficult to eradicate 
from the mind of a piij^il tlie errors of previous training, than 
to impart and render permanent such knowledge as is required. 
A false start on the road to knowledge may soon lead to dis- 
couragement, and finally, to overwhelming disaster. And this 
is just as likely to occur with older as well as with young 
students in the technical science and art of photography. Few, 
if any, students, in any department of art have attained a 
prominent position in his or her profession without begin- 
ning with the rudiments and thoroughly mastering the first 
principles. 

First lessons may seem uninteresting, and, to many appear 
unnecessary — a waste of time and material. But, if neglected, 
it is more than probable that far more time and greater expense 
will be demanded for correction of the mistake, besides the 
worry and regret which is sure to come with the convinction 
that the beginning has been too hurried and its details too 
lightly passed over. Do not expect to at once produce results 
equal to those of workers who have grown gray in the same 
field of labor, and if you do have such expectations, do not be 
discouraged by a few failures. 

It is well to begin with a fixed determination that quality 
should be the first and most important, atid quantity a second- 
ary or unthought-of factor. A good picture of a single tree, 
shrub or even leaf, a small picture of a corner in the garden, a 
field or bit of water, is far more satisfactory, instructive and 
valuable than a so-called /«^> picture, however broad the space 
shown may be. Do not try to photograph everything you see ; 
select your subject after consideration, execute your work with 



LANDSCAPE PnOTOGRAPHY. 143 

deliberate care, and you may afterward take pleasure in 
exhibiting the results to your friends. 

First secure good apparatus. Do not define the word good 
as here used to necessarily mean high priced ; very fine work 
is often done with comparatively cheap tools. Safety of 
expenditure is best secured by intrusting orders to a well- 
known and reliable firm. Otherwise, purchases of apparatus 
should be made under the counsel or by the advice of some 
competent person, who has been made acquainted with the 
requirements and conditions of the buyer. Good, cheap 
apparatus may be found if properly sought for. But a great 
deal of apparatus is sold which is dear at any price, having 
less real value than the raw material from which it has been 
constructed. 

After determining to procure an outfit, begin study for its use. 
Select subjects and study them from various points of view, 
and under different lights of morning, noon, or later in the 
day. Observe the effect under various conditions of illumina- 
tion. Some of the finest photographs of American landscapes 
have been made under an obscured or partially clouded sky 
just before the morning sun appeared above the horizon. 
The light reflected from such a sky is soft and yet brilliant, 
while the air usually has less motion than at any other time of 
day, and the dewy sparkle of the foliage is found only in the 
early hours of the day. 

In the broad expanse of field and detached woodland, the 
brighter light of later hours is often most desirable on account 
of the well-defined shadows which serve to break up the mon- 
otony and give brilliancy to such scenes. A herd of cattle, 
or a flock of sheep — which add much to the beauty of land- 
scape pictures — are less likely to be in motion, and are oftener 
found in picturesque groups in the early morning. No land- 
scape of any considerable breadth should be photographed 
without the introduction of animals or familiar figures. 

If animal life is represented in the picture, do not place it 
in. the immediate loreground, unless it is to appear the import- 
ant feature of the scene. Whether the figures used are biped 
or quadruped, they should be placed at such a distance as will 



144 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

prevent their blocking out other important objects, or giving 
tlie appearance of crowding. 

Many beautiful landscape pictures may be secured in the 
late afternoon hours, even up to within a short time of the 
sun's disappearance below the horizon. This is an especially 
favorable time of day for fine cloud effects. In scenes made 
up of large masses of foliage, it will be found necessary to 
give considerably longer exposure. This increase of exposure 
is very important in heavily wooded, mountainous districts. 
The absorption of actinic force and the low power of the 
reflected green rays are such that considerable care is neces- 
sary for producing fine work under such conditions. 

Care should be exercised in setting up the camera for field 
work. In most instances it is necessary to have the camera 
horizontal and level, and any desired change in the boundaries 
of the picture may be made by a proper use of the sliding 
front or swinging back of the instrument. For more or less 
sky or foreground, lower or elevate the sliding front or lens 
board of the box, and, for side changes, utilize the wide swing- 
back. This last-named motion is very important when a long 
stretch of shore, river or street view is under treatment. By 
swinging the end of the ground-glass focusing screen, showing 
the near objects back or further from the lens, and the end 
showing the distant objects nearer to the lens, much finer ren- 
dering of details is secured. 

When the body of the camera is much tipped up or down, 
the result is likely to be greatly distorted and give a false 
character to the picture. It is seldom advisable to photograph 
landscape scenes from the shadow side. The shadow, unre- 
lieved by illuminated portions, produces a sombre effect in the 
v/ork. 

The proper rendering of distant views is best secured in 
clear, bright weather. Even a slight veil of fog or smoke is 
quite sufficient to prevent good results, under otherwise most 
favorable conditions. By clear weather, a cloudless sky is not 
necessarily meant, but rather such conditions as show the air 
to be free from smoke or fog, which give to distant objects a 
dim or hazy appearance. A sky partially obscured by thin, 



LANDSCAPE PHOTOGKAPHY. 



145 



light, fleecy clouds, reflects an excellent light for fine landscayje 
work. The pleasant weather immediately after a heavy rain 
is also very favorable. At such times the floating particles 
have been precipitated or washed from the air, and the dust 
with which foliage has become coated in dry weather no longer 
absorbs the light, or prevents reflection from smooth surfaces. 

When photographing a scene including any considerable 
expanse of water, choose some point of view from which the 
surface of the water does not present a broad, brilliant sheet of 
unbroken white. This is sometimes difiicult if there is neither 
a fresh breeze nor a flowing current; and if either of these 
conditions exist, the picture is apt to be unsatisfactory unless 
made by instantaneous exposure, and such short exposures 
often result in hard or inharmonious prints, when considerable 
expanse of woodland or heavy foilage is included. 

A field of waving grain, or the long majestic swing of tall 
forest trees in a heavy gale of wind, are beautiful objects to 
look upon, but are as yet beyond the reach of photographic 
illustration, because the light at such times is usually too weak 
for the rapid exposure required for satisfactory results with 
mo^dng objects. 

Beginners, and in fact old workers, are apt to commit errors 
in time of exposures in the open air. This is not mainly due 
from lack of ability to judge of the amount of illumination, 
but rather from disregard of the color of the light. During 
long periods of dry weather the air becomes filled with parti- 
cles of floating matter, which gives the light a yellow, non- 
actinic tone, requiring much longer exposures in the camera. 

It it is advisable to keep full notes of all work done in the 
field, as such records often prove valuable in after-work of the 
same class. Field books for such records may be had from 
most dealers in photographic materials. Plate-makers and 
chemical manufacturers are many times blamed for faulty 
results which are due to lack of judgment, or its proper 
exercise when the materials are used. 

Great care should be taken to prevent light from reaching 
the inside of the plate-holder or camera box, except such as 
passes through the lens, when the exposure is made. It should 



146 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

be remembered that the light under an open sky is much 
stronger than it is inside a room, and a small leak which would 
be scarcely noticeable in the latter, may be, in the former, 
sufficient to illuminate the entire inside of the camera-box or 
plate-holder. A cloth or opaque cover is advisable for shading 
the camera during exposure in the field. Some have recom- 
mended enveloping the entire camera-box in a shield of some 
light opaque material, made up in the form of a bag suffi- 
ciently large to admit of di'awing and replacing the slide with- 
out removing or opening the bag. 

Every record of field work should state the focus of the lens 
used and the exact diameter of the stop or diaphragm. To 

state that you used for certain results Mr. S 's lens with 

No. 3 stop, really conveys no information to the listener, unless 
he is familiar with the lens. But when you say I used Mr. 

S 's eight-inch focus lens with one-half -inch diaphragm, 

your listener can at once understand the conditions under 
which the picture described was made. 

The development of a landscape plate should, theoretically, 
not be different from that of other work, but when we con- 
sider the variety of influences bearing upon the work, among 
which are principally the varying conditions of light, it will 
readily be understood that a different procedure must be 
adopted. 

It may be taken, as a rule, that for timed landscape work 
no better plate can be found in^the American market than our 
favorite, the Car butt B, with which we have become familiar, 
and the fine quahties of which we have had ample opportunity 
to observe. Time of exposure depends, in landscape photog- 
raphy, as well as in every other branch of the art, upon the 
degree of sensitiveness of the plate, the quality of light, the 
time of day, and the color of the object. Thus, for instance, 
will dark-green, wooded scenery require a much longer time 
than a view on the lake shore or ocean beach ; a white marble 
palace or a white frame cottage much less than a brick or 
brown-stone-front house. 

The results of the practicing class, 1886 and '87, of the C. 



LANDSCAPE PHOTOGKAPHY. 147 

S. P., encourage us to continue, for that class of work, with 
the Chautauqua developer, composed as follows : 

A. Bromide of ammonium 2 drams 

Water 8 ounces 

B. Aqua ammonia 1 ounce 

Water 7 ounces 

C. Pyrogallic acid 1 dram 

Water 12 ounces 

Nitric acid 5 minims 

For properlj-timed exposures take of 

jl 40 minims 

£ 20 minims 

C }/2 ounce 

Water 2 ounces 

For over-exposures restrain the action by adding to each 
ounce of the mixed developer from three to five minims of A, 
and for under-exposures accelerated with a few drops of B^ 
being careful not to use it excessively, for then green fog will 
invariably result. 

For instantaneous exposures, when but rarely the proper 
time can be approximately estimated, the mode of operating 
requires modification. 

We return here to the original developer, as described in 
Lesson Y. 

When, on account of weak light, or extremely rapid speed 
of the shutter, under-exposure may reasonably be suspected, 
a good method is to bathe the plate in a diluted alkali solution 
before proceeding with the development. 

The alkali solution, No. 2, of Lesson Y, may be mixed 
with three volumes of water. After the plate has soaked in 
this for two or three minutes, it is removed, washed and placed 
in diluted developer of the normal composition. The strength 
of the developer may be increased as the process goes on, until 
a proper amount of density and detail is obtained. 



148 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

For instantaneous work, the following formula has found 
much favor among the students of the corresponding class : 

a. Water 13 ounces 

Pyrogallol 1 ounce 

Gran, sulphite of soda 2 ounces 

Bromide potassium 80 grains 

Citric acid 60 grains 

b. Water 12 ounces 

Gran, sulphite of soda 2 ounces 

Carbonate of potash 3 ounces 

To make the developer, take 3 drams of each a and h to 
4 ounces of water. 

In our opinion, the finest results can be effected by merely 
modifying the developer. When a plate shows signs of under- 
exposure, the normal developer must be at once removed and 
a quantity of pure water poured into the tray, in which the 
plate remains while the operator is mixing a new developer to 
suit the peculiar case. 

All authorities, and the most successful practitioners advise 
the employment of a weak developer, in case of under-exposure, 
at the commencement of the operation. Often it becomes 
necessary to change the developer several times in the course 
of one development, each solution being prepared to suit the 
exact state of the plate in which the previous one left it. Old 
developers — that is, those which have been used once or twice 
— are very serviceable for starting the action on an over-timed 
plate. 

As the process progresses, it will be seen what treatment is 
necessary, and a fresh developer, which is rather weak in alkali, 
perhaps, will be used in place of the old one. A weak devel- 
oper, if used to the end, will yield but a feeble negative ; it 
must be strengthened as the development continues. Of course, 
it requires a much longer time to complete development when 
a weak developer is employed and the process is stopped, from 
time to time, to prepare new and slightly stronger solutions; 
but the result is reasonably sure. With the proper amount of 
time and patience, a fair printing-negative can be produced by 



LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY. 



149 



this method of procedure from a plate that was apparently 
nnder-exposed. 

Never force an under-timed negative bj increasing the 
amount of alkali in the developer; it can only result in failure. 
A developer which is very strong in soda or potash frequently 
causes a plate to frill, besides yielding a hard and glassy nega- 
tive. If too much ammonia is used, the result is green fog. 
Forcing an under-timed plate invariably results in a foggy neg- 
ative. The temperature, too, is an important condition to be 
observed when preparing a developer. In summer and warm 
weather considerably less alkali is needed than in colder weather. 





The Triplex Shutter. 



The drop-shutter — which is an indis- 
pensable instrument for instantaneous 
exposures — explains itself by the simple 
mode of construction and easy way of 
attachment as shown in the cuts. 
A more complicated arrangement is found in the Prosch 
' Triplex." 



ScoviLL Safety 
Shutter, with Time and 
Instantaneous At- 
tachment. 



LESSON XX. 
STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY. 

The stereoscope, although capable of being constructed in a. 
variety of forms, involves but one principle, the projection of 
a different perspective view of an object at the same moment 
to each eye. The two different impressions resolve themselves 
into one picture, which acquires the appearance of relief or 
solidity, from which circumstance the instrument has been 
named, the "stereoscope" being compounded of two Greek words 
signifying "soZ^W and "/se^." One method of causing the 
two pictures to be viewed at the same instant, that by placing 
two mirrors at an angle of 90 degrees of each other is not as 
interesting as the one where the effect is caused by means of 
two half lenses, or the lenticular stereoscope first described by 
^ir David Brewster. It consists of a frame or box of wood 
having an opening in front for admission of light, and mounted 
with two tubes or eye-pieces placed apart about the distance of 
the two eyes, two and a half inches. Each tube is furnished 
with a semi-lense, so placed that the centre of each half len& 
may con-espond with the pupils of the eyes. 

Outline figures of objects, such as geometrical sohds, crystals, 
etc., that can be drawn mathematically correct as seen by the 
two eyes singly, produce beautiful pictures for the stereoscope, 
but for portraits, views, or moving objects photography afforda 
the only means of obtaining sufficiently correct representations, 
upon the accuracy of which the almost magical effect of the 
stereoscope depends. 

This class of photographic work, so far as the making of the 
negative is concerned, is the same in all its details as the nega- 
tive-making already described. 

The only difference in apparatus is found in the use of two 
lenses, in all respects exactly alike, and placing in the camera,. 



STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY. 



151 



exactly in the centre, a partition of such length and width as 
to keep the images thrown by the lenses from interfering the 
one with the other. The nsual 5x8 camera is well suited for 
this style of work; better yet, so far as economy is concerned, 
is the size known as 4^x6^. 




The cut illustrates fully the style of camera required for 
this work ; in it may be seen the central division and the two 

lenses. 

It is self-evident that, by the use of this camera, two nega- 
tives are made of the same view at the same time, one differ- 
ing from the other suflSciently to give the relief needed when 
the print is made, mounted and viewed through the instru- 
ment known as the stereoscope. 

The difference in the two pictures is well illustrated by 
holding a book directly in front of the left eye, at the same 
time closing the right eye. By thus placing the book, the 
back only will be seen by the left eye ; now open the right 
eye, upon doing which the whole of the right side of the book 
will be seen, thus relief or solidity is given to the object. 

Nothing need be here written as to choice of subject, direc- 
tion of light, development, or any of the manipulations already 
given, for the reason, as first stated, that all are the same. 

After printing, we meet with the important part of this 
work in the monnting on card-board. Of this the best size is 



152 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTKUCTOR. 

4x7. When you are ready to mount the pictures, before 
cutting, turn each one over and mark the one that is at your 
right hand with an L, for left, and the other with an E, for 
right, for when mounted on the card the one that is to the 
right, as printed, is to be placed to the left on the card ; keep 
each pair together, otherwise you will have different shades of 
toning on one card. 

Before cutting out you should have a piece of glass prepared 
to trim by, to measure 2J inches wide and 3| inches high ; 
some workers make it 3 inches wide. As a rule, the first- 
named width is the best. Some people have difficulty in 
viewing the pictures when too widely separated. This piece 
of glass may be cut on top at a right angle to the sides, or may 
be rounded, as suits the fancy, but it must be smooth along the 
edges to render the cutting-out clean ; it may be had of the 
dealer if you do not choose to bother with the making. 

The trimming may be done with the Kobinson Trimmer 
before described, or with a knife that has a rounding point, 
and that is perfectly smooth and absolutely free from any 
roughness on the edge, otherwise it will tear and make ragged 
the edges of the print. 

Place upon a sheet of glass the print to be cut ; upon the 
print place the glass pattern by which the print is to be 
trimmed, hold the pattern firmly and pass the knife closely 
along the sides of the pattern with a steady but quick move- 
ment. 

In placing the pattern, be careful to have the base-line the 
same in both pictures, and use on one side or the other the 
same object, so that each may contain exactly the same view. 
This, with a little practice and care, can easily be done. 

Viewed in the stereoscope, the picture, if properly mounted, 
will be most charming ; the distance, quite perfect. 

There are views without end, anywhere and everywhere, 
that are suited to this sort of work— little bits, wooded lanes, 
forest paths, waterfalls, brooks over-hung with trees— that pos- 
sess little charm in a single view, but which are just suited for 
this style of picture. 



8TEKE0SC0PI0 PHOTOGRAPHY. 



153 



Always avoid having the negative very intense ; avoid pure 
whites in the print, for the effect will be snowy ; plenty of 
detail (full exposure) ; even if the print seems dark, the stereo- 
scope will bring it all out ; while if " hard," as we term it 
(black and white), the effect is not good. 

In this style of picture, have, if possible, something promi- 
nent in the fore-ground. From this the stereoscopic effect is 
plainly seen ; a bush, a log, in fact any object so placed, seems 
to lift the whole picture into relief. 




LESSON XXI. 
LIGHT AND LENSES. 

Light is deflected from its straight course when passing- 
tkrough transparent media. If a stick is dipped into water, 
it appears to be bent out of its known straightness. A ray of 
light entering glass is bent, and the bending varies with the 
density of the medium which it enters. Water bends or refracts 
more powerfully than air, glass more than water, and different 
qualities of glass, varying in density, refract light with different 
power. 

If a light ray passes through a pane of glass, it is bent 
from the perpendicular when entering, and towards it when 
emerging. 




Refraction takes place at the sm'face of the transparent 
medium, where the ray enters, but it does not bend when 
passing perpendicularly to the flat surface. 

Sir Isaac JSTewton has shown that a ray of sunlight is not 
homogeneous, but that it consists of several colored rays united, 
or intermingled, which can be demonstrated by throwing a 
pencil of sunlight upon an angle of a " prism." An oblong 
image is then formed and may be received upon a screen. 
The light passes the prism not in its undivided state ; it is 
broken up into its primary, prismatic colors, and each of 



LIGHT AND LENSES. 



155 



these has its own separate degree of bending tendency or 
refrangibility. 

Differently-colored rays refract unequally. Red rays emerg- 
ing from the prism form an angle with the vision; they 
diverge. Yiolet rays are more deflected from their original 
than the red, and are called most refrangible ; the red are the 



Violet. 



Indiso. 




least so. Green rays are more refrangible than red, and less 
than violet, because spectrum green is situated between red 
and violet. 

In ordinary photography it would be quite natural to sup- 
pose that the most powerful luminious light acted most strongly 
upon sensitive plates, but if the light is at all yellowish, how- 
ever bright it may be, its chemical force or actinic power will 
be but very small. In this way we explain the superiority of 
the morning sun over that of the afternoon, or the want of 
chemical action when the setting sun has sunk T)ehind a bank 
of golden clouds. 

The elementary rays of the spectrum can be reunited into 
white light. If the sun spectrum, emerging from a prism 
passes through a glass lens, and is then projected upon a 
ground-glass or white screen, the single rays will combme to 
make white light. 

The deflecting power acts upon the surface of bodies. 
While the light rays bends on entering and leaving the trans- 
parent body, it continues in a straight line when in its medium ; 
hence, it is evident that by modifying the surface of refractors, 
the rays of light may be diverted at pleasure. 

Two prisms, placed base to base cause rays, parallel before 
entering, to meet in a point, and conversely, prisms placed 



156 



THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTEtlCTOE. 



edge to edge to divert them. These phenomena are observed 
upon curved as well as upon plane surface. Lenses, that is, 
glasses ground of a curvilinear form, show the same refractive 
power. 





Lenses constructed for the purpose either of concentrating 
or scattering rays of light, are in general, made of glass, and 
are ground with spherical surfaces ; the axis of the lens being 
the line joining the centres of the spheres, and, therefore, a 
line with respect to which the lens is symmetrical. Regarding 
the curves in their combination we distinguish lenses which 
are called : bi-convex, plano-convex, concavo-convex, or, more 
frequently, " meniscus," concavo-plane, and double-concave. 
The first three of these are thicker in the middle than at the 
edge, and are called " converging glasses^'' because they cause 
pencils of light that are refracted through them to converge 
more than they did before ; the others are thicker at the edge 
than in the middle, and are called " diverging lenses^'' because 
they diverge rays of light when being refracted through them. 

The rays of light proceeding through a converging lens from 




an illuminated object, cross each other when emerging, and 
the image formed is necessarily inverted ; thus rays transvers- 



LIGHT AND LENSES, 157 

ing centre or axis of the lens pursue a course either coincident 
with, or parallel to the original. 

When an object is placed at some distance in front of a lens, 
an image is formed smaller than the object, but if the object is 
advanced nearer to the lens the image increases in size, the 
focus at the same time receding to a greater distance from the 
lens. A lens of short focus, placed at a given distance from an 
object, forms a small image, the rays of light being then 
strongly refracted. The image becomes larger when the lens 
is brought nearer, but the lens will be " strained," when going 
beyond a certain point, and distortion or misdrawing of the 
picture will result. Therefore, long-focus lenses are constructed 
to obtain large images. Lenses for taking large photographs 
have usually a considerable diameter, but it must be under- 
stood that the size of the lens has nothing whatever to do with 
the size of the image. With long-focus lenses, the aperture is 
increased to admit more light. 

A ray of light passing through a lens is analyzed into its 
prismatic colors, and will give on the ground-glass screen an 
image with colored fringes. This defect of lenses is called 
chromatic aberration. To remedy this, media of different den- 
sities are employed in the manufacture of lenses, so that 
different refractive power will establish a balance, by which 
practically correct work can be done. Snch corrected lenses 
are called achromatic — meaning, without color. 

Achromatism is the first necessity in any and all photographic 
lenses. A single non- corrected glass lens possesses chromatic 
and spherical aberration. This second disturbing force is 
caused by differing refraction of differently-colored rays falL'ng 
upon various portions of the lens surface. The rays falling on 
the lens near its edge are bent more suddenly than those that 
pass through it near the centre, so that each portion of the 
lens will bring the ray to a focus at different distances. To 
remedy this, the curvature of the lens is modified ; the form 
showing the greatest amount of this defect — the double-convex, 
i. e.j convex or rounded on both sides — is but rarely used in 
photography, the meniscus form, convex on one side and hol- 
low on the other, is much preferred. 



158 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRDCTOK. 

To meet the chromatic or color aberration, and still further 
counteract spherical aberration, lenses for photograpliers are in 
reality built up of two, and in some cases of three, single lenses, 
of different degrees of refractive power and quality of glass, 
cut in carefully-calculated curves, to correct or achromatize the 
instrument. If the lens is a doublet, like the rectilinear, or 
portrait, each component part is constructed in this way. 'Not 
only the complete instrument is thus achromatized, but also 
each main component. 

The practical result of working with non-corrected lenses 
will be that the focus is not where it appears to be. In such 
lenses there are really two foci, the visual and the actinic or 
chemical focus. The extent of such difference is ascertained 
by experiment whenever the fault exists. Our modern photo- 
graphic lenses are, however, so constructed that both foci 
invariably coincide. 

The image given by a lens is not a plane, but tends more or 
less to a shape like the section of a hollow sphere. To get it 
as flat as possible, or to approximate in section a straight line, 
is one of the chief aims of the optician. With a view to this, 
the proper kind of glass is selected, and the lenses ground 
according to elaborate calculations, without which another 
evil, known as astigmatism may be introduced, by which the 
definition towards the edge is materially injured, bending the 
lines of an originally square or right-angular object inwardly 
or outwardly. 

Spherical aberration is also overcome, to a great extent, by 
placing a diaphragm or stop in front of the lens. Oblique 
and central rays can, by passing through it, be brought 
approximately in focus on a plane at right angles to the axis 
of the lens. 

The diaphragm has a further purpose, in that it allows the 
focus of a distant object and one nearer to the lens to be 
brought towards one plane. The nearer the object, from which 
light proceeds, is to the lens, the longer will be the focus. 

It will be observed that by placing the diaphragm either in 
front or back of the lens, the effects will be equal, and also 
that on the aperture of "the diaphragm the brightness of the 



LIGHT AND LENSES. 159 

image will depend. Hence the smaller it is, the less light is 
admitted, and the time of exposure must be increased. In 
either position of the diaphragm distortion may occur ; in the 
one case of being in front, the lines forming the square will be 
turned inwards, and be reversed when the diaphragm is placed 
on the back of the lens. ^ But bj placing a lens on either side 
of it, the distortion may be entirely obviated. Upon this 
prmciple doublet lenses, with central stops, are constructed. 
When very small diaphragms or stops are used, say of an 
aperture equal to the fortieth part of the focal length of the 
lens, allowing a distance of four feet for every inch of focal 
length, everything beyond that distance will be pictorially 
sharp. If the lens of a camera, producing pictures of 4x5 
inches, having a focus of six inches, and a small diaphragm is 
then used, the depth of pictorial delineation is such that every- 
thing beyond twenty-four feet from the camera will be well 
defined, when an object at that distance is sharply focused. 
From this it will be seen that the shorter the focus of the lens 
the greater will be the pictorial depth. 

The compound achromatic meniscus lens is the form gen- 
erally used for landscape work. It is constructed of a bi-con- 
vex lens of crown glass, and a bi-concave of flint glass, the 
contact surfaces being of equal i-adius are joined with a cement, 
generally Canada balsam. To this class of lenses belong the 
"Waterbury Series," an instrument of the highest order for 
landscaj^e work. In it the diaphragm is placed in front, 
allowing to pass those rays only by which a perfectly sharp 
picture can be secured. 

Some opticians construct single lenses of flint glass of differ- 
ent degrees of density or refractive power, establishing achro- 
matism by that means, while others obtain the same effect by 
the use of crown and flint glass of special composition. These 
instruments are doublets, and are formed by a symmetrical 
pair of achromatic lenses, the concave surfaces of which face 
each other. The diaphragm is placed centrally between the 
two. They work sharply with an aperture equaling about 
one-seventh or one-eighth of the focal length, and are well 
adapted for the photographing of groups, single portraits, land- 



160 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTEUCTOK. 



scapes and reproductions. The Wale "Universal" belongs 
to this class. 




By making the lenses much thicker and giving them, also, 
shorter radii of curvature, and placing them closer to each 
other, a very wide angle of view (from 90 to 110 degs.) is 
obtained. Wide-angle lenses consist of a symmetrical com- 
pound, each achromatic lens of which is composed of a plano- 
convex crown, placed in contact with a bi-convex flint, the 
concavity of the side of which next to the crown glass being 
only very slight. 

The Morrison Wide-angle Lens consists of an achromatic 
meniscus as the front, and a single meniscus as the back lens ; 
the front one being over-corrected to an extent sufficient to 
counter-balance the non-correction for achromatism of the 
back lens. It includes an angle of great width. 




Wide-angle lenses are mainly used for interior views. 

Of portrait lenses it is required that they transmit the 



LIGHT AND LENSES. 



161 



greatest possible amount of light, so that by a short exposure a 
detailed negative can be made; and they should give extreme 
sharpness with a large opening. The relation existing 
between the working aperture and the focal length of the 
lens is termed angular aperture, and it is essential that it be 




,■■'■"'■■-'■'■■" ■/...-.■..... - 




very great in a good portrait lens. Prof. Petzval discovered 
the means for establishing these conditions, and his lens con- 
sists of a plano-convex (or nearly so) form, with the convex 
side near the object to be taken. The inner or contact sur- 
faces of the constituents are not of the same radius of curva- 
ture, and, besides, are separated from each other to a slight 
extent. This produces negative spherical aberration, or aber- 
ration of an opposite nature to the positive aberration, which 
produces the effect of lengthening the oblique rays and thus 
flattening; the field of delineation. 

Newer portrait lenses are principally constructed upon the 
Petzval plan. 

Several opticians, among them Mr. Morrison, have lately 
constructed lenses with a back combiuation differing from 
that described above ; the negative aberration, necessary for 
flattening the field, is obtained by the non-concentricity of 
the contact surface, by which a meniscus of air- is always 
interposed between them. Unless the two back lenses are 
kept screwed closely together, a sharp picture cannot be 
obtained. A separation of the lenses introduces a degree of 
aberration inimical to sharp definition. 



162 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTBUCTOE. 



In choo'sing a pliotograpliic lens, the purpose for which it is 
required must be kept in view, A portrait lens has properties 
which are not essential for landscape work, and which even 
might prove detrimental. 

Several drfferently-constructed lenses are now made which 
answer the requirements for all photographic work. 




The Scovill Instantane Landscape and Portrait Lens. 



LESSON XXIL 
PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY. 

Photomicrography is the art of makini^ enlarged images of 
mierograjjhical images of photography. 

Micro-photographs, on the contrary, are microscopical photo- 
graphs, or reduced hnages, of large pictures or object, and 
have little value, as a rule, excepting as curiosities. 

In the production of photo-micrographs, the object to be 
photographed is always illuminated by transmitted light. Solar, 
electric, magnesium, or ordhiary gas or lamp-light may be 
employed, and are of value in the order stated, sunlight being 
best. 

Inasmuch as the actinic power of the light employed is 
weakened, directly as the image of a given object is magnified, 
only the more brilliant illumination will be suitable for the 
higher amplifications of the microscope. 

Microscopical enlargements are usually stated in diameters, 
that is to say : If the image of an object one-hundredth of an 
inch square is made to appear one inch in diameter, it is said 
to be magnified one hundred times (XlOO) only, notwithstand- 
ing the apparent superficial area has been increased ten 
thousand times. This is for convenience and brevity of 
expression in writing. 

Microscopical objects for pliotographical enlargements are 
invariably of the utmost thinness, and pictures therefrom pos- 
sess little or no perspective ; and, while the image is expressed 
in outline, this does not preclude the possibility of the exist- 
ence of very'great detail. 

The chief obstacle lies in this : That objects to be pictured 
nmst be generally translucent, in order to secure illumination 
by transmitted light, and, as a consequence, the details of 



164 THE PHOTOGKAPHIO INSTEUCTOE. 

structure are of only varying degrees of translucency, and so 
the contrasts in the projected image are weak. 
The essentials of the apparatus are : 

(a) Arrangement for securing the light. 
{b) Means of concentrating the last. 

(c) Mechanism for adjustment of the image forming com- 
bination. 
The principles of photo-micrography are best conveyed by 
first employing the most simple apparatus and being content 
with moderate magnification. Such an apparatus is provided 
in the ordinary magic lantern attached to the compound 
microscope. 

The source of light here selected is that from a single-wick 
kerosene burner. 

The flame must be placed edge-wise in the optical axis of 
the apparatus. This is important, in order that the full inten- 
sity of the light may be secured without interference of the 
feebly-illumined outer portions. 

The concave mirror, if supplied with the lantern, must be 
removed, inasmuch as the rays reflected from such surface 
would not be focused coincidently with the rays directly 
impinging upon the condensing lenses. 

A thin, blackened, metal plate with a half-inch circular 
perforation should be placed between the edge of the flame 
and the condenser, and close to the former, for the same reason 
as indicated in second paragraph preceding. 

The rays from the fiarae are collected by the lantern con- 
densers, and thereby concentrated upon the object upon the 
stage of the microscope. 

The center of the lainp-flame must be in the exact optical 
axis of the condensers and of the microscope body ; otherwise, 
the object will be obliquely lighted. 

The heat-rays, which are now concentrated upon the object, 
to its detriment, should be intercepted by placing a vessel with 
plate-glass sides, containing a dilute solution of ammonio- 
sulphate of copper, in the path of the light and near the stage 
of the microscope. This improves the definition by intercept- 
ing certain illuminating rays which possess no actinic power. 



PHOTO-MICKOGKAPUY. 



165 



The blue cell may be removed while focusing, if found neces- 
sary, in consequence of its cutting off too completely the visual 
rays. 

If the microscope be provided with an achromatic sub-stage 
condenser, its use will improve the illumination. A half-inch 
objective may be employed as a condenser with excellent 
results. 

In selecting objects for photo-micrography, secure such as 
present sharp outhnes and clear detail. Minute insects, or por- 
tions of larger ones, diatoms, and some animal and vegetable 
histological slides will be preferred. Potato-starch makes an 
excellent object, and may be prepared as follows : Scrape the 
freshly-cut surface of a raw potato, and convey the merest 
speck of the fine scrapings to the centre of a glass slip. Add 
a single drop of clean water and drop on a thin-cover glass. 
The glasses must be scrupulously clean. The cover will adhere 
sufficiently without cementing and will not slip when the 
whole is placed upon the vertical] y-j)Ositioned stage of the 
microscope. The starch granules present concentric markings* 
which afford a good test for the defining power of the higher- 
power lenses (such as the one-fifth inch). 

Any good microscope objective may be employed for 
photographical purposes. Begin with the one-inch lens and a 
small insect — a flea, for example — mounted as a translucent 
object. It is not necessary to have lenses specially-corrected 
for photography. The objectives of our first-class opticians 
almost invariably give good photographic results. Do not 
waste time with inferior, poorly-corrected French lenses. 

The image formed by the objective should be received 
directly upon the focusing-glass of the camera. Be sure that 
the connection between the camera and the microscope is abso- 
lutely light-tight. This is best effected by tying a velvet tube 
around the microscope body. 

Eemove the eye-piece ; it will amplify the image without 
increasing the definition. Aim to secure a sharp negative. 



* Practical Microscopy. (New York ; William Wood & Co.) By Maurice 
N. Miller. M.D. Describes the method of preparing objects like the 
above, besides animal tissues. 



166 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

with good contrasts and of medium size. The half-plate is 
sufficiently large, and the quarter will indeed be very satisfac- 
tory in most instances. Enlargements upon bromide paper will 
be much more satisfactory than the results of attempts to 
amplify directly. 

The size of the image upon the focusing-screen depends upon 
{a) the focus of the objective ; {h) the distance between the last 
and the focusing-plate. As has before been stated, the illumina- 
tion will decrease according as the camera-bellows is drawn out. 
Commence with a medium distance — say twelve inches. 

If the amplitication be considerable and the contrasts 
feeble, the image cannot well be focused upon the ground- 
glass. Substitute a piece of plate-glass, having first thinly 
smeared one side with tallow. Focusing should invariably be 
done with a magnifying lens. 

The light must be adjusted for central ity. This is done 
once for all if the lamp can be fixed in the lantern. 

Exposing must not be done by drawing the slide of the 
plate-holder, as the adjustments are thus disturbed. A piece 
of blackened cardboard, interposed between the lantern- 
condenser and the microscope-stage, should be removed for 
exposing. This avoids all danger of jarring during the action. 

The period of exposure can only be determined by experi- 
ment. Construct a table of exposures from actual trials, 
noting («) the objective used ; (J) the character of the object 
photographed — as to translucency, color, etc.; (c) whether with 
or without the secondary — sub-stage — condenser ; [d) the 
length of the camera, or distance between the microscope 
objective and the sensitive plate. 

The definition must be perfected by attention to the stage 
diaphragm and the position of the secondary condenser. The 
rule regarding the employment of the diaphragm is : The 
higher the power employed, the smaller the opening used. 
The illumination must be perfected by racking the sub-stage 
condenser until the best effect is secured. If the picture 
develops unevenly* — quickly in the centre and slowly around 

*This may result if the inside of the tube (body) happens to be left — 
by the negligence of the maker — bright, so as to reflect the peripheral rays 
upon the sensitive film; and it may be corrected by introducing a tube 
made of blackened paper. 



PHOTO-MICROGEA.PHY. 



167 



this — ^the field has been improperly illuminated, and the con- 
denser must be racked to and fro until the light appears of 
equal intensity in the different parts of the field. 

Microscope objectives, capable of adjustment for thicknesses 
of cover-glass, are invaluable for purposses of photo-micro- 
graphy, and the adjustment does not differ from the same when 
the lens is employed for ordinary visual work. 

Immersion objectives may be used as well with the micro- 
scope body in the horizontal position. 




LESSON XXIII, 
PHOTOGRAPHING BY ARTIFICIAL LIGHT. 

Dark days, cloudy weather, a desire frequently, even the 
necessity, to obtain photographs of but sparingly-illuminated 
objects or of localities in total darkness, have led to extensive 
experiments with a variety of artiticial-light sources. Among 
the many methods proposed as substitutes for day -light are the 
electric arc and incandescent lights, light resulting from the 
burning of magnesium, the calcium, oxy-hydrogen, Bengal 
pyrotechnic white fire, the ordinary gas, and petroleum flames. 
Wherever long exposures are required, and the cost of install- 
ing an electric system is of but secondary consideration, the 
arc-light has held its own. For quick and instantaneous work, 
for the amateur and scientist, magnesium has gained an 
immense popularity over all other artificial lights, because of 
its cheapness, its simplicity, and the brilliancy and highly- 
actinic quality of its light. Early and very successful experi- 
ments with magnesium wire or ribbon had shown the enor- 
mous light-force emanating from this burning metal, but 
owing to its then very high price, the photographer was 
debarred from using it in daily practice ; still, it was occasion- 
ally resorted to in urgent cases. 

After it had been learned how to reduce the metal from its 
natural combinations by electrolytic processes, its high price 
suddenly fell, and it became available to the photographic 
public. The actinic force of the magnesium flame is increased 
by burning the metal with the aid of oxygen directly. To do 
this efficiently, magnesium, reduced to powder or fine filings, 
was mixed by many experimenters with purveyors of oxygen, 
more or less explosive and otherwise dangerous, but realizing 
the desire of obtaining a more perfect light. 



PHOTOGKAPHING BY AKTIFICIAL LIGHT. 169 

Most of the substances furnishing oxygen being jjoisonous, 
and giving rise to the evolution of dangerous and obnoxious 
^ases, necessarily raise just objections against their use. 
Others again do not contribute to perfect combustion of the 
whole metal, and reduce the light-force ; while gun-cotton, 
used as a fusee, imparts a decidedly yellow color to the flame, 
making it less actinic. 

The instructor of the Chautauqua School of Photography 
prepared a magnesium flash-light compound, and demon- 
strated its practical use with perfect success. It is absolutely 
safe in every respect, and of enormous luminous force. 
Divided into charges of about twenty, forty, and eighty 
grains, respectively, it is prepared and sold in form of little 
cardboard cartridges, and ignited by a burning match through 
a fusee reachino- the centre of the cartridere. 

To light a portrait with taste, and to give it roundness and 
plasticity, the magnesium light demands more care and judg- 
ment than day-light. One can make a good portrait — say of 
the size of a cabinet, with the objective generally used for 
portraits, by placing the light at a distance of from five to 
eight feet from the subject. The student should remember 
that, " the nearer to the source of light, the stronger and 
sharper ivill he the shadows cast." Hence, we must soften 
the shadows by removing the light, with, of course, a sacrifice 
of some of its force. The light being comparatively powerful 
at as near a distance as five, six, or seven feet, we can reduce 
its force, and diffuse it over a large space, by interposing 
between it and the subject a screen of white tissue-paper, or a 
thin fabric (gauze). On account of the close proximity of 
the light, the subject must be removed so far from the back- 
ground as to avoid shadows of the sitter to fall upon it. The 
light, placed towards the sitter at an angle of 30 deg., must be 
so far removed from the apparatus as to prevent light from 
■entering the lens, but not so far as to destroy plastic effects 
upon the subjects. Strong shadows will occur with day-light 
as well as with the magnesium flash, on that side of the 
subject opposite to the light-source, an.d to counteract this 
efiect, we resort to the side- screens described in the Lesson on 
Portraiture. 



170 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTUCTOK. 

How to place the liglit source correctly when groups or 
objects occupy a large space is of great importance. It is 
better to place it on the extreme right or left of the group, 
than in its front and centre, which will tend to obliterate all 
shadows and destroy plasticity ; side light produces more art- 
istic effects and roundness to every individual person and face. 
With very large groups it may become necessary to brighten 
up the shadows on the side opposite the light source. A light 
nearly opposite, but further from the group, and of considerably 
less power, when ignited simultaneously will destroy the heavy 
shadows. A second light requires, of course, the aid of an assist- 
ant. As the light of the magnesium flame radiates downwards, it 
should be placed sufficiently high to secure the desired effect. 

The manner of igniting the flash light compound deserves 
detailed consideration. Some time will invariably elapse 
between the lighting of the fuse and the ignition of the pow- 
der. During this short interval of time, the attention of the 
sitter is naturally directed towards the light which is expected 
to be flashed, the pose is invariably disturbed, facial expression 
changes, the eyes will close and a failure is the result. 

The flash is quickest when the powder is ignited by the aid 
of a little twist of gun cotton. It is then touch and go. 
Equally well answers a red hot wire, fastened to a stick. 
After the position of a smgle person or group has been 
arranged, focus taken, slide drawn, the uncapping of the lens 
with one hand and the igniting of the powder with the other, 
can be well done simultaneously and instantaneously. 

The quantity of magnesium (The Scovill Flash-light Pow- 
der) required to light a subject perfectly well, increases or 
decreases with the distance of the object from the source of 
light. Increase or decrease being proportionate to the squares 
of the distance. To double the brightness and active force of 
light it must either be made four times stronger, or the object 
be brought one-quarter of the distance nearer to it. If we 
require, for example, at a distance of three feet 15 grains of 
powder, and wanted to produce the same light effect at six 
feet, 60 grains of powder would be wanted, or at nine feet 
135 grains. 



PHOTOGRAPHING BY AETIFICIAL LIGHT. 171 

The luminous power of the lens and size of stop has, of 
course, much to do with the time of exposure. Were we to 
take a Gundlach rapid rectigraph No. 2 of eight inches equi- 
valent focus, stop ^, and a Carbutt eclipse plate, 40 grains of 
powder would be necessary for a full exposure when the dis- 
tance is about eight feet. Were we to attempt to make a 
picture under the same conditions with the Waterbury B lens 
which is of about the same focus, and whose largest stop 
is j^, at least 120 to 130 grains would be required, while with 
the 4x5 Waterbury detective camera and small stop, 90 grains 
of powder will give the same effect. 

To find sharp focus in a room, lighted by ordinary gas or 
petroleum lamps, is sometimes quite difficult. But the task 
may be facilitated by placing a burning candle or taper in 
close proximity to the sitter's face, and by then focusing on 
the flame. In large rooms or halls, the same method can be 
made available ; but there it will be better to distribute a series 
of lights over the space desired sharp in the picture, and focus 
on them. 

Focus having been secured, the lens is capped, and the slide 
drawn from the plate-holder ; all lights are then extinguished, 
the cap removed, and the magnesium cartridge or other pre- 
paration is ignited. The lightning-like flash w^hicli follows 
endures about one-thirtieth of a second ; after which the lens is 
recapped, the slide inserted, the room relighted, and the plate 
carried to the dark-room for development. 

As a developer for plates, exposed by the magnesium flash- 
light powder, the student is referred to the formula appended 
to Lesson XIX on landscape photography. The precautions 
required by all instantaneous exposures should be carefully 
observed in this work as w^ell. 

The selection of objectives for making flash-light pictures, 
depends much upon the nature of the object to be photographed 
and its surroundings. Those of strong luminous power, short 
focns and large aperture are generally preferred. Single achro- 
matic lenses on account of the abundance of light required, are 
but rarely chosen for that class of work. For groups or when in 
conflned position we must resort to the wide angle. The 'long 



172 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IN8TRUCTOE. 



exposure required is counterbalanced by the short distance 
from the object and the proportionately small quantity of 
powder necessary to produce the desired effect. 

Many kinds of elaborately constructed lamps and apparatus 
are now in use, by which pure metallic magnesium, without 
the addition of substances to promote its rapid combustion, is 
forced through an alcohol flame and ignited, either by an 
instantaneous air-blast or by continuous pressure, producing a 
light of long or short duration. Some of these lamps do the 
work quite effectually. 

For safety and sure success nothing has as yet superceded 
the Scovill flash-light powder, and many operators have 
returned to it after having recorded a series of failures in 
employing the complicated lamps. 

The only perceptible product of the burning of magnesium 
is oxyd of magnesium, identical with the well-known calcined 
magnesia ; it rises in a white cloud, but is soon dispersed. 

Before the smoke has entirely- 
been dissipated, it is not advisable 
to proceed with another exposure. 
The finely divided particles of 
magnesia suspended in the air are 
apt to cause an impression (fog) 
upon the plate. 

The accompanying cut repre- 
sents " The Little Giant Kepeat- 
ing Flash Lamp," a safe and 
convenient apparatus, with which 
pure naetallic magnesium powder 
is blown by pneumatic pressure 
through an alcohol flame, pro- 
ducing a powerful light of high 
actinic properties. 
A number of flashes can be made with the contents of the 
receptacle. 




LESSON XXIV. 
EMULSION MAKING. 

We have necessarily gone through a variety of operations in 
learning how to make photographs ; but the basis of all our 
various productions on paper, glass and other substances is, as 
we have seen, the negative made upon a glass plate, coated 
with a substance called bromide of silver gelatine emulsion, 
the preparation of which we still have to learn. 

It is not the purpose in this lesson, to give a full account of 
how to prepare light-sensitive gelatine emulsions, and how to 
coat plates with them to be ready for the amateur's work, for 
good and extended works already exist on this subject which 
are at the disposal of students* ; it is merely intended to show 
what gelatine emulsion is, and to give an outline of the opera- 
tions necessary to produce a light-sensitive plate, in the modern 
sense of the word. 

Before we enter into this description, it may be well to 
mention that, previous to the year 18S0, plu'tographers pre- 
pared their own plates, as occasion demanded ; a glass plate, 
coated with mediums, carrying within them metallic iodides, 
bromides and chlorides, were subjected to the action of a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, thus producing combinations of iodine, 
bromine, or chlorine with silver, and a light sensitiveness of 
the film resting upon the glass support. By exposure to light 
and development, good printing negatives were secured from 
these lihns. Starch, gums, gelatine, albumen, but principally 
collodion (a solution of gun-cotton in alcohol and ether), were 
the mediums adopted to carry the sensitive salts. It was then 
suggested to mix the nitrate of silver in solution with the 

*Fhoior^raphy With Emulsions, by Capt. Abney ; and Dry Plate Making 
for Amateurs, by Dr. Geo. L. Sinclair. 



174 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKUCTOR. 

bromides, iodides or chlorides (haloids, as they are termed 
collectively), of alkaline metals, mixed intimately with a solu- 
tion of gelatine, so as to keep the correspondingly-formed 
silver haloid suspended, in the form of a milky liquid or 
emulsion. 

To Dr. Maddox* is due the credit of having first prepared 
a serviceable gelatine emulsion. The silver haloid which he 
originally used was the bromide, but later researches, mainly 
those of Victor Schumann and Captain Abney, have proved 
that the addition of iodide to the bromide of silver increases 
the sensitiveness of the plate and contributes much to perfect- 
ing the final result. 

Probably all writers on modern photography, and scores of 
practitioners, have made emulsions successfully. The opera- 
tion is interesting and instructive enough to attract the atten- 
tion of the studious amateur to try his hand at emulsion- 
making. 

For our purpose, it will be sufficient to describe the making 
of emulsion, according to one or two formulae which have 
given entire satisfaction wherever they have been adopted. 

A very popular method is that of Mr. Henderson's, as 
modified by Chas. Scolik, which was described as follows in 
the Photographic Times : 

The Henderson emulsion is indeed excellent, particularly in 
the results, giving absolute clearness, beautiful high-lights and 
well-defined shadows. With all these good qualities, it shows 
a sensitiveness of from 20 to 21 deg. Warnerke, which is equal 
therefore, to all commercial instantaneous plates. 

We prepare our emulsion in the following way : In a 
Florentine flask of 1 litre capacity f we dissolve from 3 to 4 
grams Ileinrich's gelatine in 150 c.c.m. of distilled water, at a 
temperature of 50 degs. C, and add 1 gram crystallized citric 
acid (recently citric acid has been omitted). After perfect 
dissolution, 7 grams of carbonate of ammonium, previously 

*See Appendix oi History of Photography, by W.Jerome Harrison F.G. S. 
fWe retain the decimal weights and measures in order to give the 
formula without the least deviation from the original. 



EMULSION MAKING. 1T5 

reduced to a fine powder, is added, which causes a violent 
effervescence ; further add 45 grams bromide of ammonium 
and 8 c.c.m. of a 10 per cent, iodide of potassium solution, and 
finally 420 c.c.m. alcohol (92 per cent.) mixed, with 18 c.c.m. 
ammonia (0.91). 

In another flask we dissolve sixty grams nitrate of silver in 
three hundred c.c.m. of distilled water. The two solutions, 
prepared in day-light, must now be removed to the dark 
laboratory, when the silver solution is added in small portions, 
and by constant agitation, to the alcoholic bromide solution. 
During the first two hours the mixture is frequently shaken 
up, the flask being closed with a well-fitting stopper to prevent 
the volatilization of the ammonia during the ripening. Allow 
it to stand over night, and, on the following morning, swell 
eighty-four grams of Heinrich's gelatine in just enough water 
to cover it ; strain off the superfluous water, melt the gelatine, 
and add to it tlie silver solution, warmed to 35 deg. C, mix 
well together, and pom- finally in a flat porcelain dish. When 
allowed to stand for a long time, the emulsion, on account of 
the alcohol, is rendered a hard and tough mass ; it is better, 
therefore, to chill only for two or three hours, according to 
the temperature. If too hard, it is difficult to reduce to shreds 
or press them into nodules. Afterwards wash for three or 
four hours in from ten to twelve changes of water, press out 
the water in a linen bag, and melt in a beaker glass, filter and 
coat. 

Of the highest importance in emulsion-making is the tem- 
perature. In our laboratory we ripen emulsion in ten hours, 
at a temperature of from 25 to 28 deg. C. in summer, and in 
winter by from 16 to 22 deg. C, in eighteen to twenty-three 
hours. Dr. Stolze has correctly observed that, at a tempera- 
ture of less than 20 deg. C, only 17 to 18 deg. Warnerke can 
be reached. With the proportions of time and temperature 
employed by us, twenty to tweuty-two sensitometer numbers 
can be easily obtained. 

It is an interesting fact that alcoholic emulsions digested or 
ripened at higher temperatures, about 40 or 50 deg., will never 
give satisfactory results. Alcohol favors ripening when alkali 



176 THE PHpTOGKAPHIC 1N8TBDCTOK. 

(ammonia) is present. But at a temperature beyond 25 or 30 
deg. C, a variety of perplexing difficulties occur. It is not 
safe to attempt ripening a Henderson emulsion at a tempera- 
ture near 50 deg. In fact, it is almost impossible to do so. 
Granulation of the emulsion, fog, feeble and flat negatives are 
tbe results. 

It is equally necessary and important to consider the amount 
of water used for swelling. Not more than is absolutely 
requisite should be taken up. Swell for fifteen to thirty 
minutes, and no longer. Remove carefully all water not 
absorbed, and add only very small quantities at a time to the 
silver solution at moderate heat. 

Quick and perfect chilling is essential. This is best done 
by placing the vessel containing the emulsion upon ice. When 
shredding, the particles should appear to be compact and 
solid ; if not sufficiently chilled, the wash water will froth, 
and the emulsion will become soft and slippery in consequence 
of having taken up too much water. Such emulsions granu- 
late, and their sensitiveness decreases materially. 

The same must be said of diluted emulsions. It is erroneous 
to say a diluted emulsion retains the original sensitiveness. 
If, after washing, all superfluous water has been thoroughly 
removed, plates may be prepared with a thin coat. This dries 
more rapidly and ofi'ers advantages in operating which can 
hardly be sufficiently estimated. 

Another emulsion, which is very popular in America, is that 
of Prof. Dr. Joseph M. Eder, and is prepared as follows : 

Dissolve in a Florentine flask 

Bromide of ammonium 20 grams 

Bromide of potassium 24 grams 

Solution of iodide of potassium, 1 : 10 5 to 10 c.c.m. 

Distilled water.... 550 c.c.m. 

And add, in winter, 

Hard winterthur gelatine 45 grams 

Heinrich's gelatine 45 grams 

In summer, 

Hard winterthur gelatine 65 grams 

Heinrich's gelatine 25 grams 

With sufficient water to allow the gelatine to swell. 



EMULSION MAKING. 177 

Into another flask place 

Nitrate of silver cryst 60 grams 

Distilled water ' 550 c.c.m. 

And, when thoroughly dissolved, add sufficiently strong 
ammonia till the brownish precipitate formed is re-dissolved, 
being careful not to use more ammonia than is absolutely 
necessary. Both of these operations may be performed in day- 
light ; afterwards remove to the dark-room. Both of the solu- 
tions are then heated to 150 degs. F., and the silver solution, 
in very small portions, drop by drop, and by constant agitation, 
added to the gelatine, thus effecting a uniform and very fine 
precipitate of the silver haloids formed. The silver flask is 
rinsed with 100 c.c.m. warm distilled water, and the rinsings 
added to the rest. 

The entire mixture, or emulsion, is then digested upon a 
water-bath of a temperature of 100 degs,, F., till a small por- 
tion of it, spread upon a glass plate, shows a blue color when 
viewed by the transmitted light of a candle-flame. 

The emulsion, being now complete, is poured into a flat 
dish or tray, allowed to cool or chill, and to stand for twenty- 
four hours, during which time ripening continues. 

Emulsions made by either of the two mentioned formulae 
contain the results of the decomposition of the soluble haloids 
and the formation of the insoluble silver salts, i. e., nitrate of 
ammonia and nitrate of potassium, an excess of free nitrate of 
silver, and the insoluble sensitive silver haloids. While the 
latter remain, the former soluble substances must be removed 
— that is, the emulsion requires washing. To do this the 
chilled gelatinous mass is cut up into shreds by means of a 
horn or bone paper-knife, or pressed into nodules, through 
coarse canvas. 

Swelled gelatine, or the tremulous emulsion, being soluble 
at about 80 degs. F., the operation of nodule pressing must be 
performed under iced water. Shreds or nodules are then 
washed for several hours either in repeated changes of ice- 
water, or in a rurming stream of it, till all soluble matter is 
removed. 



178 THE PHOTOGRA.PHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

A very convenient metliod to wash small quantities of 
emulsion — about as much as an amateur will take in hand — is 
to place the shreds in an ordinary earthenware tea-pot, tie a 
coarse hair cloth over the opening, place the lid upon it and 
attach to the spout a rubher hose, through which ice water is 
allowed to run. 

Washing completed, the emulsion-shreds are spread upon a 
coarse canvas, fastened to a tenacle, and all water is allowed 
to drain, which may take hours ; collected in a beaker-glass, 
re-melted by moderate heat, and filtered. To remove mechan- 
ical impurities, and to keep out coarse particles of silver 
haloids, filtering becomes an absolute necessity. A variety of 
ingeniously devised filters for emulsions have been constructed, 
but for our experiments, on a small scale, perfect filtration can 
be effected by pressing the melted emulsion through a clean 
piece of chamois leather, or by allowing it to run through 
flannel tow. 

Our own method for filtering emulsion is crude, perhaps, 
but very effective, and easy to control. We spread over a 
beaker glass with an opening of from three to four inches in 
diameter, a piece of the pliable chamois about sixteen inches 
square. The filter is then pushed down into the beaker to form 
a bag; and the emulsion is poured into it. We then join the 
two edges of the chamois at the top, and roll the sides 
together, turning with each hand in an opj^osite direction, until 
the roll has very nearly approached to top of the emulsion in 
the bag. We are now ready to apply pressure, and thus force 
the emulsion through the chamois filter. 

By grasping the two opposite ends of the rolled-up sides of 
the filter, we twist them forcibly in an opposite direction down 
upon the bag containing the emulsion, and force it through 
the leather. The manipulation is much easier to effect than 
might seem from the description. 

Air bubbles formed in the emulsion during filtering are 
removed by a second filtration through a wad of hempen or 
flax tow or absorbent cotton. 

Place the medium in the neck of a funnel whose stem is 
widened into a bulb, and pour the warmed emulsion upon it, 



EMULSION MAKING. 179 

To avoid the formation of other air bubbles, the receiver ia 
placed in an obhque position towards the stem, so that the 
filtrate strikes and runs down on its sides. 

If this last work has been done correctly, the operator may 
at once proceed to coat. 

Of course, a tolerably high temperature must be maintained 
in order to keep the emulsion in liquid form. If the emulsion 
has been kept for any length of time before coating on the 
glass plates, an antiseptic is required to keep it in good condi- 
tion. Small quantities of thymol or carbolic acid in alcohol do 
this very well. 

The glass plates to be coated must be scrupulously clean. 
W ash them in a strong solution of soda, and after allowing 
them to stand in diluted nitric acid 1 : 3, rinse them off well 
and dry upon a rack. 

Before coating, the plates must be furnished with a substra- 
tum. Gelatine alone, or when mixed with a trace of bichro- 
mate of potassium, and exposed to light ; pure albumen, or 
albumen with a little chrome-alum ; a thin solution of potas- 
sium water-glass in water, or rubbing the glass with the same 
solution till dry, have been recommended, and are used with 
success. 

The coating and drying-room must be absolutely free from 
dust, and be well ventilated, sufficiently dark, and heated to 70 
or 75 degs. The plates must remain in the room long enough 
to assume its temperature before they are coated with the 
emulsion, which is heated higher than the temperature of the 
room. To coat plates of the same size uniformly, the emul- 
sion must be measured out for each individual plate, half an 
ounce being enough for an 8x10 plate. If the emulsion refuses 
to run smoothly over the plate, assist it with a glass rod. 

After coating, the plates are laid upon a cold marble slab 
perfectly leveled, and allowed to chill, after which they can be 
eet on edge for di-ying. This requires from eight to ten hours. 
Longer drying is likely to produce fog. 
As exposure to ruby light, when extended for a very long 
time, naturally affects the plates, they should be dried in an 
absolutely dark closet, through which a strong current of dry 



180 



THE PHOTOGBAPHIC INSTETJCTOK. 



aud cool air is allowed to pass, and in which the plates are set 
up with sufficient space between them. 

It is never advisable to open the drying-closet before the 
plates are presumed to be perfectly dry. The slightest change 
of air and temperature will have a marked effect upon them. 
Dried gelatine emulsion plates are best kept in grooved wooden 
boxes, well shellacked inside and out. 




APPENDIX 



ON THE 



NATURE AND USE OF THE VARIOUS CHEMICALS 
AND SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED IN PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC PRACTICE. 



Acid, Acetic, the acid of vinegar, gets its name from the 
Latin word acetum, vinegar. It is prepared from wine and 
other alcoholic liquids by exposure to air at a high tempera- 
ture. The alcohol, by oxydation, is entirely changed in its 
composition, and converted to its acid derivative. The acid is 
produced in large quantities by a destructive distillation of 
hard wood — oak or beach ; but, owing to a great variety of 
incidental products and impurities, lengthy processes are 
required to obtain it in a pure state and concentrated form. 
It is generally made by distilling it from the crude acetate of 
soda or acetate of lead. 

Pure acetic acid should leave no residue after evaporation, 
and give no precipitate with cither the nitrate of silver or the 
chloride of barium. 

The acid of commerce, or when in the most concentrated 
form, "glacial acetic acid," is employed in photography to 
liquify gelatine; as a restrainer, principally in the wet-collodion 
process; to eliminate iron from the paper support of gelatine 
emulsion films ; and for various other purposes, especially when 
in connection with the bases. 

Acid, Boric or Boracic, occm*s naturally in the waters of 
volcanic lagoons. It crystallizes in transparent, colorless plates, 



i 



182 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

and dissolves in 25 parts of water. It is one of tlie most 
powerful res trainers in alkaline development. 

Acid, Chromic, consists of oxygen and a metallic element, 
" chromium," named thus on account of the beautiful colors of 
its many salts. 

Chromic acid, in its pure state, is used in Obernetter's pro- 
cess to reproduce negatives from negatives (see The American 
Annual of Photography, Yols. I. and II.) ; and, in combma- 
tion with potassium or ammonium, in the photo-mechanical 
printing methods, where it acts as a powerful oxydizer upon 
organic bodies. 

It crystallizes in fine, red heedles, which are deliquescent 
and very soluble ; is sensitive to light, and is decomposed by 
it with the liberation of oxygen. 

Acid, Citric, is found in the juice of limes, lemons and 
several other fruits, from which it is extracted by combining 
the acid with carbonate of lime and hberating the acid from 
the citrate formed with sulphuric acid by evaporation and 
crystallization. 

Citric acid is a white, crystalline body permanent in dry air, 
but attracting moisture in dampness. It is easily soluble in 
water, also in alcohol. The aqueous solution will get mouldy 
after a short time. If adulterated with tartaric acid, which it 
very much resembles, a sumptuous addition of carbonate of 
potash to its solution will cause a white precipitate of bi-tartrate 
of potassium, or cream of tartar. 

Citric acid, like other organic bodies, rich in carbon, has the 
property to reduce the oxides of precious metals. 

It is used in combination with the pyrogallol developer ; for 
the preparation of double silvered albumen paper; to clear 
bromide prints from adhering iron ; and, in combination with 
bases, for various other purposes. 

Acid, Gallic, from which pyrogallol is most frequently made 
is a true acid, is soluble in 100 parts of cold water, and easily 
soluble in alcohol. Its action as a developer is not as powerful 
as its derivative, pyrogallol, but has been frequently recom- 
mended to intensify feeble negatives when combined with 
acetic acid and a trace of nitrate of silver. Eecently it has 



APPENDIX. 



183 



been proposed as a slow-acting developer for the production of 
black and white negatives, with very promising results. 

AcU, Uf/drochloric, commonly called umriatic acid, is com- 
posed of two elementary gases— chlorine and hydrogen. The 
acid is prepared by the action of sulphuric acid upon common 
salt, chloride of sodium, and the evolved gas, when cooled, is 
absorbed by water. In olden times, sea-salt was exclusively 
employed for the purpose, hence the name " muriatic," from 
the Latin muria, brine or salt water. 

Ilydrocholoric acid, when pure, is colorless, of a pungent, 
suffocating odor. It leaves no residue on evaporation, and 
should give no precipitate or opacity witli dilute solution of 
chloride of barium. Its use in photography is very extensive. 
As a solvent for metallic bodies, in combination with nitric 
acid to prepare chloride of gold and chloride of platinum ; to 
precipitate chloride of silver from waste solution or wash 
waters ; as an addition to the alum clearing-bath ; and when- 
ever a free mineral acid is required, the nature of which is a 
matter of indifference, since it is not liable to alter bodies by 
oxidation, as nitric acid will do, nor to form insoluble com- 
pounds, as occurs with sulphuric acid. For the cleaning of old 
bottles, funnels, or other glass and earthen-ware, as trays or 
evaporating dishes, it is an invaluable medium. It is not a 
bleacliing agent, but decomposes in sunlight, with the separa- 
tion of free chlorine. 

Acid, nitric, is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. In very 
small quantities, it can be formed directly by passing a series 
of electric sparks through a mixture of T volumes of oxygen 
and 3 volumes of nitrogen. Bound to bases, the acid is found 
naturally in enormous quantities, as saltpetre, nitrate of potas- 
sium. Chili or cubic saltpetre, nitrate of sodium, etc. It is 
manufactured, on a large scale, by allowing sulphuric acid to 
act upon any of these nitrates. 

The pure, concentrated acid does not attack copper, lead, tin 
or silver, but when mixed with water, or when containing 
nitrous acid, or still lower oxides of nitrogen, a dissolution of 
the metal takes place speedily, and red vapors of nitrous 
acid are evolved. The metal is thus oxidized, the oxide com- 



184 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC ESTSTEUCTOK. 

bining with the nitric acid in excess, and forming the corre- 
sponding nitrate. Nearly all the nitrates', are soluble, neutral, 
and not capable of forming double salts. 

Nitric acid is extensively employed in photography. With 
it we prepare the nitrate of silver, copper, lead, etc.; we use it 
to make gun-cotton, or pyroxyline, when it is combined with 
sulphuric acid ; with it we clean glass plates preparatory to 
coating them with sensitive substances ; for the preservation of 
pyrogallic solution ; in various developers ; and as natural 
nitrates in many other operations. 

One volume of nitric acid and two volumes of hydrochloric 
acid constitute the nitro-muriatic acid, formerly known as 
Aqua Regia, capable of dissolving gold, as when we prepare 
chloride of gold. The process taking place is probably due to 
a liberation of chlorine gas, which, in statu nascenti, combines 
with gold, while nitrous acid and water are simultaneously 
formed. 

Acid, Nitrous, constitutes principally the red fumes arising 
when metals are dissolved in dilute nitric acid. Combined 
with bases, the acid foiTus nitrites. Nitrite of silver is formed 
sometimes when nitrate is being fused. Of other nitrites, 
none need be mentioned in connection with photographic 
operations except the potassium salt, which is used for j^re- 
paring ready-sensitized paper. 

Acid, Oxalic. Combined with potassium, this acid is found 
naturally in a little plant, growing in shady forests, and known 
by the name of wood-sorrel {pxalis acetosella). It is combined 
there in excess of the potassium, as a bin-oxalate. This acid, 
having found extensive employment in chemistry and the 
mechanical arts, and its natural source being but extremely 
limited, chemists have resorted to prepare it by artificial means 
and produce it by treating sugar, starch, gum, rice, and other 
substances with nitric acid. At jDi'esent, it is largely made by 
heating saw-dust with caustic potash to 400 deg. F., and a sub- 
sequent treatment of the resulting mass with carbonate of lime 
and sulphuric acid. 

It is a colorless, crystalline substance, resembling Epsom 
salts in its appearance, but is very poisonous. Care should, 



APPENDIX. 



185 



therefore, be taken whenever it is handled by inexperienced 
persons. 

In its pure state, it is used to acidify the oxalate of potas- 
sium solution, with which the ferrous-oxalate developer -is 
prepared; it is added to the alum clearing-bath; pyrogallic 
acid solutions are renewed with it ; and stains on the fingers, 
caused by pyro-developer, may be removed by it ; and it is very 
valuable for cleaning brass or copper implements. 

Combined with potassium, and eventually with iron, it is a 
constituent of the oxalate developer, used largely by all pho- 
tographers not English or American. 

Acid, Ptjrogallic, or pyrogallol, a substance which is 
employed in enormous quantities as a developing agent, is, 
properly speaking, not an acid, because it shows no acid reac- 
tions, notwithstanding its capability to form feeble combina- 
tions with some bases, a property common to several of the 
indiflPerently-acting organic compounds. For this reason, the 
name of pyrogallol has been substituted for pyrogallic acid. 

It is prepared by subjecting gallic acid, or other substances^ 
to dry distillation or sublimation, but can be made also by 
subjecting finely-pulverized Aleppo galls to a similar process. 
Pyrogallol is a white, voluminous and crystalline substance, 
easily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and very poisonous ; 
two grains of it will kill a dog. 

Owing to a property, which it also shares with many other 
organic bodies, to reduce precious metals, like silver, from 
their combinations, to de-oxidize them, it is a powerful devel- 
oping agent. With the wet-collodion process it is used with 
citric acid ; with dry gelatine-emulsion plates, whose develop- 
ment is the result of true chemical action, alkalines are added 
to its solution, to make it active. 

Up to a certain point the addition of ammonia, soda or pot- 
ash accelerates ; beyond that it results in gray, red or green 
fog, according to the kind of alkali taken, and reduces even 
the silver of the emulsion so far as to give the plate a 
perfect metalHc lustre. To prevent pyrogallol in solution from 
decomposition, we add to it sulphites, sulphurous, or other 
acids. A pure, aqueous solution turns black speedily by 



186 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTBUCTOB. 

exposure to air and light. Ferric salts turn it yellow ; ferrous 
salts, bluish-black (ink) ; chlorine also blackens it, but iodine 
has no influence. 

Acid, Salicylic, is a white, crystalline, voluminous powder ; 
is obtained from the bark of certain species of the willow- 
tree. It has been used to preserve gelatine emulsion, and, for 
a like purpose, it is added to pyrogallol solutions. 

Acid, Sulphuric, composed of sulphur and oxygen, is 
made by burning sulphur and oxidizing the resultant vapors 
of sulphurous acid by means of nitrous acid. The operation 
is performed in a series of lead chambers till the acid obtained 
has gained sufiiciemt concentration. 

It is a dense, oily, colorless, inodorous liquid, and strongly 
corrosive, acting destructively upon organic tissue. 

Pure sulphuric acid is used to acidify sulphate of iron solu- 
tion ; otherwise not very extensively, excepting when com- 
bined with bases or in the prejaaration of other chemicals, like 
gun-cotton, etc. 

Acid, Sulphurous, a gas, is prepared by heating sulphuric 
acid, water and charcoal, and absorbing it by water, of which 
forty volumes will take up about one. 

This solution of the acid in water is known by the name of 
sulphurous acid water. 

The commercial article is a clear, colorless liquid, with a 
strong odor of burning sulphur, and, owing to its great attrac- 
tion for oxygen, will readily turn into sulphuric acid when 
exposed to the air. 

Sulphurous acid prevents the decomposition of pyrogallol 
in solution, and is very valuable as an agent to bleach pyro- 
stained negatives. 

Acid, Tartaric, occurs naturally in many kinds of fruit, 
but principally in unripe grapes. It is a white, crystalline 
solid, of strong acid properties, and, if diluted with water, of 
very agreeable taste. It is easily soluble in water, also in 
alcohol. 

Its photographic use is but limited, though it has been of 
late successfully employed as a restorative to spent ferrous- 
oxalate developer. 



APPENDIX. 



187 



Albumen is a substance largely found in the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. That separated from the blood of quad- 
rupeds is occasionally used; much more so, however, tlie 
whites of birds's eggs. It is soluble in water, but becomes 
insoluble or coagulates when exposed to the temperature of 
boiling water. Heated at a low temperature, it evaporates to 
a yellow, friable mass, which is again soluble in water. Alco- 
hol, and some of the metallic salts, coagulate it also. With 
nitrate of silver, it forms a white precipitate, albuminate of 
silver, with the property to turn red in sunlight. 

Albumen is used for various photographic purposes. With 
it substrata for sensitive collodion or gelatine plates are formed, 
and enormous quantities are expended in preparing albumen- 
ized paper. In combination with bichromates it is employed 
in several photo-mechanical printing methods, and with it are 
made, to the present day, the sharpest and rtiost delicatL 
lantern-slides and transparencies. With sensitized albumen 
the first negatives were made upon glass, long before collodion 
was thought of. 

Alcohol is a product of various fermentations. When certain 
vegetable juices, containing sugar or starch, are exposed to a 
moderately high temperature, a decomposition takes place; 
carbonic acid is discharged, and alcohol is formed ; it remains 
in the liquid, however, and must be separated from it by 
distillation. It is a colorless, volatile liquid, of agreeable taste 
and odor, very inflammable, burning with a bluish flame, and 
mixing in all proportions with ether and water. Alcohol is 
capable of diss«ilving a great many substances, hence its exten- 
sive use as a solvent in many photographic operations. It is 
employed in the manufacture of varnishes ; to dissolve pyro- 
gallic acid ; to prevent or arrest frilling ; to extract water from 
wet gelatine plates, in order to effect rapid drying ; and, in 
combination with ether, is a solvent for gun-cotton. 

Alcohol, Methylated, often mentioned by English authors, is 
pure alcohol mixed with wood-spirit. On account of its dis- 
agreeable taste and odor, it is not fit to be used for the manu- 
facture or adulteration of alcoholic beverages, and, therefore, i& 
exempt from taxation within the British empire. When a 



188 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

formula prescribes methylated alcohol, Americans use the 
ordinary 95 deg. alcohol. 

Alum is derived from the metal aluminium. Sulphate of 
aluminia will combine with the sulphates of potassa, soda and 
ammonia, forming crystallizable double salts, the alums of 
commerce. Alum was used in former times to harden albu- 
men films in the printing upon wood-engravers' blocks, but 
with the advent of the gelatine emulsion processes, it entered 
the laboratories of the photographers, to be there largely used. 
The potassium alum is used now to turn or harden gelatine 
films before or after fixing. It is also believed by many to 
remove the fixing-agent from plates or paper prints, but this 
has been proved by diligent researches not to be the case. 

Alum, Chrome, is a double salt, isomorphous to alums, and 
consists of the siilphate of oxide of chromium with the sul- 
phate of potasssa or ammonia. It dissolves in water with a 
violet color, and is used with albumen or gelatine as a sub- 
stratum for gelatine plates, or for hardening films in aggra- 
vated cases. 

Am,monia, composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, is an ex- 
tremely pungent and irrespirable gas ; known to photographers 
in its aqueous solution, termed by them aqua ammonia, liquor 
ammonia forti (or stronger) or caustic ammonia. It is pre- 
pared by heating chloride of ammonium in a retort with 
slacked lime. The gas evolved is absorbed by water in the 
receiver, which, when saturated, should show a specific gravity 
of 0.875. It must be kept in well-stoppered bottles, for when 
in contact with air, carbonic acid is absorbed and carbonate of 
ammonia formed. Liquor ammonia is used as an addition to 
the alkaline pyrogallic acid developer. Portrait photographers 
claim to be able to obtain with it better plasticity and detail 
than with either potassa or soda. Ammonia dissolves chloride 
of silver, and has been, therefore, recommended as a fixing- 
agent for prints. It is a test to distinguish the silver haloid 
from that of barium. After previous application of bichloride 
of mercury, it is used for intensifying gelatine negatives. 
With it we prepare ammonio-nitrate of silver for certain 
printing processes, and for Dr. Eder's gelatine emulsion. As 



APPENDIX. 189 

a fuming agent for eilvered albumen paper it is invaluable. 
With freshly-sensitized paper, the ammonia and free nitrate 
of silver adhering, forms a better sensitive compound than 
ordinary chloride of silver, and, with washed or permanent 
paper, it acts as a chlorine absorber, when the reduction of 
metallic silver is effected by light, and thus acts beneficially to 
the printing process. 

Ainmonium, a hypothetical metallic radical, consists, like 
the ammonia, of nitrogen and hydrogen, and is capable of 
forming salts like the oxides of metals. It has not yet been 
obtained in its pure state, the nearest approach to it being an 
amalgam with mercury. 

Ammoniiiin Bichromate, made by neutralizing chromic 
acid with ammonia, is on account of greater solubility than the 
corresponding potassium salt, which it resembles in appear- 
ance, much preferred to it in some of the mechanical printing 
processes. 

Aminonium Bromide is made by neutralizing hj^dro-bromic 
acid with ammonia. It is a white crystallizable salt, soluble 
in alcohol and water, and is used to restrain alkaline develop- 
ment, for the sensitizing of collodion and gelatine emulsions. 

Ammonivm Carbonate, a colorless, crsytalline salt, is made, 
by sublimation, from chalk and chloride of ammonium. It 
has been used occasionally as an addition to the developer, in 
place of the aqua ammonia, and, by sprinkhngits j^owder over 
the backs of printing-pads, it has been substituted for the 
fuming of sensitized albumen paper. 

Ammonium Chloride, or sal-ammonia, is the oldest ammo- 
nium compound known. The ancients termed it sal-ammonia, 
for it was then prejiared in the Syrian desert, near a temple of 
Jupiter Aminon, and made by subliming camel's dung. It is 
a white, translucent, fibrous salt, of pungent taste, very soluble 
in water, and is made now by neutralizing ammoniacal gas 
liquor with hydrochloric acid and subsequent rectification. It 
is principally used for salting albumenized and plain paper, 
and for the preparation of chloride of silver emulsions, when 
it converts the nitrate salt into chloride of silver. 



190 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTEUCTOK. 

Amtnoniura Iodide^ is a coarse, white, crystalline powder. 
It may be made by adding carbonate of ammonia to iodide of 
iron, but more easily by neutralizing hydro-iodic acid with 
ammonia. It is much used for making sensitive collodion, and 
is also added to gelatine emulsions. 

Ammonium Oxalate has recently been recommended for 
the preparation of paper in the platinum printing process. It 
is made by neutralizing oxalic acid with ammonia. 

Amm.oniiim Sulphide, better known as hydrosulphate of 
ammonia, is used extensiyely by process workers to intensify 
black and white collodion negatives, after Dr. Eder's method, 
with nitrate of lead, or a previous intensification with bromide 
of copper. It is obtained by saturating ammonia Tvith hydro- 
sulphuric acid in excess, when it forms a yellow liquid of very 
disagreeable odor. Applied to the negative silver deposit, it 
forms the permanent sulphide of silver, and produces absolute 
opacity. 

Ammonium Sidpho- Cyan ate, the r hod an -ammonium of the 
Germans, is a compound of sulpho-cyanic acid and ammonia ; 
extremely poisonous ; a fixing agent ; and in combination with 
gold chloride, is used for toning gelatine and chloride of silver 
prints (aristotypes). 

Arrowroot is the starch obtained from the roots of maran- 
iha arundinacea, a plant growing in southern climes. That 
coming from Bermuda and Florida is considered to be the 
best. It is used for sizing plain printing paper and for making 
photographer's paste. 

Asphaltu7n, or the bitumen of Judsea, is a mineral fossil. 
That coming from Asia Minor, owing to greater purity, is 
preferred by photographers. Asphaltum, of which only a part 
is sensitive to light, is used for copying negatives in line or 
stipple upon zinc plates, preparatory to etching. Previously 
the non-sensitive part is removed by digesting the whole in 
ether ; the purified remnant is dissolved in benzole free from 
water ; spread upon the plate ; is then exposed to light under 
the negative. Asphaltum prints are distinguished by superior 
sharpness. 



APPENDIX. 191 

Bromine^ a dark red, volatile fluid, of penetrating odor. In 
its chemical properties it resembles chlorine and iodine. All 
the combinations with metallic radicals are of the highest 
importance. It unites with them very energetically, and is 
able to displace oxygen from many of its combinations. 

Bromine, in pure state, is occasionally added to positive 
collodion (ferrotypes) ; was used extensively to sensitize 
Daguerreotype plates; and attempts have been made to 
unite it directly with silver for the bromide of silver gelatine 
emulsion. 

Cadmium, is a salt resembling tin in appearance and zinc in 
chemical j^i'operties. Its iodides and bromides were, at one 
time, used in the wet collodion process. Owing to their tend- 
ency to tliicken, collodion process workers have now aban- 
doned them. 

CalGium,^ another metal of importance, occurs naturally in 
enormous deposits, as lime-stone, chalk, marble, gypsum, 
phosphates, and fluor spar. Its oxyd — lime — finds employ- 
ment for various chemical and manufacturing purposes. In 
photography, it is little used. Lime-water, pure or with 
sugar, is sometimes added to alkaline developers. 

Calcium, Carhoyiate, or chalk, neutralizes the acidity of the 
perchloride of gold in various printing methods. 

Calcium, Chloride^ for its great energy in attracting mois- 
ture, is used as a preservative for dry plates, sensitive paper, 
and as an exsiccator for various purposes. It has also been 
used in collodion, without showing, however, decided advan- 
tages over other chlorides. ' 

Calcium, Hypochlorite^ the chloride of lime of commerce, 
is also added to certain gold toning-baths. It is supposed to 
give absolutely black tones. More extensively we employ it 
for making the hypo-chlorites of zinc, sodium and potassium, 
or hypo-eliminators. It should be employed only when per- 
fectly dry, exhaling a strong odor of chlorine. 

Catechu is the extract of the wood of a tree belonsfinsr to 
the acacia species and growing in the south-eastern part of 
Asia. It comes in regular cubes, but most generally in irreg- 
ular pieces of brown color. It contains much tannin of the 



192 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

variety, which precipitates iron witli a green color. Hence 
its use to convert bUie into green prints. From it is derived 
the pyro-catechin recently proposed as a developer. 

Chlorine, an elementary gas, of greenish-yellow color, irre- 
spirahle, and of penetrating odor, is made by heating one part 
of peroxide of manganese with two parts of hydrochloric 
acid. The gas evolved is absorbed in cold water, and thus 
kept in solution. It must be kept in the dark, as, under the 
influence of light, hydrochloric acid will form. Its afiinity 
for hydrogen is very great, and is the only body which unites 
directly with gold and platinum. The combinations of chlor- 
ine with other elements, excepting oxygen and hydrogen, are 
termed chlorides, and are mostly soluble in water. Those 
with alkaline metals are used for the preparation of chloride 
of silver. 

Collodion is a solution of pyroxyline or gun-cotton in ether- 
alcohol ; has been and is, to the present day, employed as a 
carrier of alkaline iodides, bromides and chlorides, witn which 
corresponding silver salts are formed, when brought in contact 
with a solution of nitrate of silver. 

Plain or normal collodion forms the substratum from which 
American film negatives are stripped, and it assists, in a similar 
manner, in enamelling prints, A modification (leather collo- 
dion) contains a few drops of castor oil to the ounce, and is 
preferred for stripping films. 

Copper, in its pure, metallic state, is of a rose-red color, and 
can be obtained thus by electrolytic processes. Helio or photo- 
gravures are photographs etched upon copper plates with acids 
or perchloride iron. In Obernetter's photo-copper-plate en- 
gravings, chloride of silver, into which the photographic silver 
deposit has been converted, affects, indirectly, etching. Photo- 
engraving blocks are multiplied in copper or electrotyped, and 
upon silvered copper-plates were made the first helio-graphic 
pictures, the Daguerreotypes. 

The salts of this metal have found but limited application 
in photographic work. Copper nitrate or sulphate in the irpn 
developer gives high intensity to a collodion negative; with 
the bromide salt, extra high intensity is gained after develop- 



APPENDIX. 193 

ing and fixing, and cliloride of copper lias been added to 
gelatine emulsions. Solutions of ammonio-sulpliate of coppei' 
in interposed cells, are used in photo-micrograpliic work. 

Cyanine^ or cliinoline blue, is a dye-stuff derived from alka- 
loids of the Peruvian bark. It is a greenish, crystalline 
powder, dissolves in alcohol and water with intense blue color. 
Being the most red-sensitive substance known, cyanine is 
much used in ortho-chromatic photography. 

The compound dye, azahne, consists partly of cyanine. 

Dextrine^ or British Gum is made by heating starch in the 
presence of a dilute acid, when it becomes soluble in water. It 
is usually a pale buff powder, and is frequently used as a 
mountant. 

Eihonogen, a Kaphthalin Derivative, is a most energetic 
developing medium. It has been used with equal success in posi- 
tive and negative processes, and owing to its great force it has 
become a favorite developer for instantaneous exposures. It 
comes in greyish brown, crystalhne powder, or in clear, large 
yellow crystals. When in the former state it dissolves in water 
with a green color, and when crystallized with a greenish 
yellow. But the color of the solution does not seem to affect 
its chemical action. 

It does not stain the fingers, and is therefore highly esteemed 
by lady amateurs. 

Eosine, the potassium salt of tetra-bromo-fluorescein, is 
owing to its yellow sensitiveness, also used in orthochromacy. 

Erythrosine, is extremely sensitive for general color-effects 
in reproducing colored objects, but mainly for green, yellow 
and orange ; it is a dye belonging to the group of cosines and 
the sodium salt of tetra-iodo-fluorescem. 

Ether is a very volatile, colorless liquid, of agreeable odor ; 
is prepared by distilling alcohol with sulphuric acid and recti- 
fying the result over slacked hme. It dissolves fatty and 
essential oils, i-esins, alkaloids and the chlorides of gold, plat- 
inmn, iron and uranium. With alcohol, it dissolves gun-cotton, 
resulting in collodion. 

Fluorine resembles iodine, bromine and chlorine in chemical 
properties. Fluoride of silver has been frequently recom- 



194 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

mended as an addition to sensitive substances, not giving, how- 
ever, the expected result — higher sensitiveness. 

Gelatine, or glue, is extracted from bones, tendons and other 
refuse matter of mature quadrupeds. Chondrine, a similar 
substance, made from cartilages or the bones of young animals, 
cannot be used for photographic purposes. All commercial 
gelatine contains more or less impurities, and must be purified 
before it can be used. This is done by soaking the gelatine for 
twenty-four hours in several changes of cold water, dissolving 
at a low temperature, and adding a trace of acetic acid. Then 
mix intimately the white of one eg2, with every pint of the 
solution, and heat rapidly till the albumen coagulates ; filter ; 
allow to cool, and press through coarse canvas into a vessel 
holding ice-water ; change the water several times ; collect the 
jelly, and spread it upon nets to dry. Such gelatine is suffi- 
ciently pure for all photographic purposes. 

The more soluble the gelatine, the finer will be the film, but 
the more likely to frill. That used for emulsions should not 
lose its form by soaking in water. 

Glycerine is a component of fats and fatty oils. It is a 
syrupy, colorless liquid, of sweet taste. It has a great affinity 
for water, with which it mixes in all proportions, and is 
employed whenever any substance is to be kept moist for a 
length of time. For this reason, it is added to silver-baths, 
when collodion plates made sensitive in them have to be 
exposed for a very long time ; but, as nitric acid decomposes 
glycerine speedily, such silver-baths must be acidulated with 
acetic acid. 

Glycerine is added to the gelatine skins or solution for strip- 
ping films, in order to keep them flexible. 

Gold occurs naturally in a tolerably pure state. To obtain 
it free from other metals, like silver or copper, it is precipi- 
tated from its solution in nitro-muriatic acid with protosulphate 
of iron, and the resulting brown powder (chemically-pure gold) 
is carefully washed, re-dissolved, evaporated, crystallized, or 
kept in solution. The 

Gold Chloride, or ter-chloride, more proper, thus obtained, 
forms yellow-brown crystals ; is very deliquescent ; soluble in 



APPENDIX. 195 

ether, alcohol and water, and is the basis for all photographic 
toning-baths for paper prints, and occasionally, also, for 
diapositives. 

Gold- Chloride and -^SW^M77^, is a crystallizable doul)le salt; 
as it does not contain free acid, and is not deliquescent, it can 
be much easier handled, and is, therefore, preferred by many. 

Gold^ Salt of {Sel d' Or), the hyposulphite of gold and 
sodium, is formed by adding a weak solution of chloride of 
gold to a weak solution of hyposulphite of soda, and evaporat- 
ing. This salt was used for toning or gilding Daguerreotypes, 
and is occasionally employed for toning paper prints. 

Hydrochinon, or Quinone, is prepared by oxidizing aniline 
sulphate with bichromate of potassium. It is in pale yellow 
or white crystalline needles, is soluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, and a powerful developer. 

For reproductions in line or stipple, and for the copying of 
transparencies and lantern-slides on plates of low sensitiveness, 
it works admirably with the following formula: 

A. Water 10 ounces , 

Sulphite of soda, cryst 6 drams 

Carbonate of potassium 6 drams 

B. Hydrochinon , IJ drams 

Water 1 ounce 

Alcohol 1 ounce 

Mix one ounce of A with one dram of 7?. 

Ilydroxylamine Hydro Chloride is prepared by the reduc- 
tion of nitrate of zinc and nitrate of ammonia. It is a very 
powerful reducing agent, and has therefore been recom- 
mended as a developer. 

But on account of blistering the gelatine film in an uncon- 
trollable manner it has never become popular with photog- 
raphers. It is occasionally used to precipitate silver from 
waste solutions. 

Iodine^ like chlorine, which it closely resembles in chemical 
properties, is disseminated all over the earth, but is never 
found in large quantities. In the mineral kingdom it occurs 
but rarely, but is frequent in mineral springs and saline 
waters. It is made from kelp, the ashes of certain deep-sea 



196 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTKDCTOE. 

fungi, and other marine plants, where it usually occurs united 
with sodium. It is a solid, of gray color and metallic lustre, 
resembling graphite, with which it is occasionally adulterated. 
At high temperatures, it becomes liquid, and is resolved into 
deep, violet vapors. 

Iodine is one of the most important substances for the 
forming of light-sensitive bodies. With it Daguerre prepared 
his sensitive silver plates, and ever since ifc has been used to 
make sensitive papers, films or ])lates. It combines energetic- 
ally with metallic and non-metallic bodies. In free state, it is 
used as an alcoholic solution or tincture, and sometimes in 
aqueous solutions, .when it is rendered soluble by the addition 
of potassium iodide. Tincture of iodine is added to freshly- 
prepared collodion to ripen it, and the operator removes silver 
stains by its use. The iodide of silver forming, being after- 
wards dissolved with hyposulphite of soda or cyanide of 
potassium. 

Dilute tincture of iodine added to cold, boiled starch gives 
it an intensely blue color. This compound has been found to 
He an extremely sensitive reagent for hyposulphite of soda, 
and is, therefore, used to detect its presence in prints or nega- 
tive films. A mere trace of hypo destroys the blue color with 
great energy. 

India Ink. A black pigment obtained from China. It is an 
exceedingly fine lampblack said to be produced by burning 
oil of Sesame, mixed with gum and dried till it turns to a solid 
cake. 

Iron., in different combinations, is an important factor in 
many photographic processes. 

Iron Chloride, j3er-chloride, or ferric-chloride, is in frag- 
ments, of a crystalline structure, of orange-yellow color, 
inodorous, and of strong styptic taste ; is deliquescent, very 
soluble in water, alcohol and ether. With ferro-cyanide of 
potassium (the yellow prussiate of potassium), it forms an 
intense blue precipitate. 

Per-chloride of iron is used in photography to arrest frilling 
of gelatine plates ; with it, also, is removed green fog, by con- 
verting the negative deposit into chloride of silver, and 



APPENDIX. 197 

re-developing with ferrous-oxalate ; for the preparation of 
ferric-oxalate and potassium-ferric oxalate which, in combination 
with hyposulphite of soda, is a tine reducer for over-developed 
negatives. 

Iron Citrate and Ammonia is in garnet-red, translucent 
scales, having a slightly styptic taste ; is deliquescent in air. 
and very soluble in water, forming a clear, ruby colored solu- 
tion. With ferri-cyanide of potassium (the red prussiate of 
potassium) and exposure to light, it gives us the cyanotype or 
blue print. 

Iro)h Iodide, a crystalline substance of greenish -black color, 
was, at one time, used as an accelerator in the wet-collodion 
film. 

Iron Oxalate, or ferrous-oxalate, is precipitated when a solu- 
tion of oxalic acid, binoxalate, or neutral oxide of potassium 
in excess is added to proto-sulphate of iron (ferrous sulphate). 
It forms a pale yellow powder almost insoluble in water, but 
dissolves readily in a solution of neutral oxalate of potassium, 
forming with it a double salt (the common ferrous-oxalate 
developer). When an excess of sulphate of iron is added to 
the oxalate of j)otassium, it cannot be kept in solution and the 
jellow oxalate of iron precipitates. Such developer is unfit 
for use. Allowing ferrous-oxalate developer to stand for some 
time under the intluence of air, it becomes oxidized, separating 
from the solution potassium-ferric oxalate in the form of beauti- 
ful green crystals. Partly oxidized developer may be profita- 
bly used as a restrainer, or restored to its original force by the 
addition of small particles of tartaric acid and exposure to direct 
sunlight. 

Iron Proto-suli)hate, sulphate of iron, or ferrous sulphate, is 
in the form of transparent crystals, efflorescent ; is of a pale 
bluish green color, styptic taste and acid reaction. It is decom. 
posed by tannic, gallic and pyrogallic acid, forming a bluish 
black compound (ink). AVhen efflorescing it loses a part of its 
water of crystallization, and is entirely deprived of it by exsic- 
cation. In such cases the iron salt should not be employed for 
photographic purposes ; neither is it fit to be used wlien, after 
long standing, a brown or red crust covers the crystals. That 



198 THE PHOTOGPAPHIC INSTKUCTOK. 

denotes a higher oxidation, which to prevent in our sulphate 
of iron solutions, we add a trace of sulphuric acid to them. 

Kaolin, or porcelain clay, consists for the most part of 
silicate of aluminia. 

It is used for decolorizing the silver sensitizing bath. 
Lead, l^ot many of the salts of this metal have been 
entered upon the list of photographic chemicals. 

Lead Acetate, at one time considered to be a perfect hypo- 
eliminator, is now done almost entirely away with, its deleteri- 
ous effects having been conclusively shown. 

Lead Nitrate was recommended by Dr. Eder as an intensi- 
fier for black and white collodion negatives, and is now largely 
employed as such. When nitrate of lead and ferri-cyanide of 
potassium are acting upon a negative deposit, the ferri-cyanide 
is deoxidized to f erro-cyanide, forming, with the lead, ferro- 
cyanide of lead, an insoluble compound, which is subsequently 
blackened with hydro-sulphate of ammonia. 

LitTiixim. — A widely diffused metal, but always occurring 
in small quantities. It is the lightest solid body known. 
Bromide, chloride and iodide of lithium is occasionally used 
as a sensitizer, because of the large amounts of halogens the 
salts contain in comparison with other haloids. 

The carbonate of lithium is used with eikonogen developer. 
Litmus is a coloring matter derived from orcella tinctoria, 
and other lichens. It is used as a test for acids and alkalines, 
and is employed either in tincture or bibulous paper colored 
with it. When acidity is present the blue color turns red, 
and is restored again to blue by alkaline solutions. 

Magnesium is a white malleable metal which burns with a 
brilliant flame of highly actinic power, furnishing to the 
photographer a very useful artificial light. Since, with the 
presence of oxygen, the flame becomes still more actinic, the 
metal reduced to a fine powder is mixed with purveyors of 
oxygen and then ignited. Instantaneous expaaiijres can thus 
be made in total darkness. 

Magnesium Chloride is sometimes used for the salting of 
paper, and the iodide was at one time considered a most excel- 
lent sensitizer for negative collodion. 



APPENDIX. 199 

Magnesium Sulphate, or Epsom salts, a white crystalline 
salt, of l^itter taste, is an excellent anti-frill, because it has the 
property of hardening gelatine and similar substances. 

Mercury is the only liquid metal in existence. It is vola- 
tile even at such moderate temperatures as 70-80 deg. Fahr. 
By means of mercurial vapors the Daguerrean plates were 
developed. 

Mercury Bichloride, mercuric chloride, or corrosive sub- 
limate, is a colorless, crystalline, semi-transparent mass, of 
metallic taste, and is very poisonous. It is soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether. 

When a photographic deposit is washed with a solution of 
mercuric chloride, a white double chloride of mercury and 
silver will form, which is insoluble in water. Upon this action 
are based most processes of intensifying ; the white image 
being afterwards blackened with ammonia or sulphite of 
sodium. Positives on japanned tin-plates are whitened with 
the mercuric chlorides (alabastrines) and the silver is bleached 
from drawings to serve the photo-engraver. Paper photo- 
graphs bleached out with mercury can be restored again by 
hypo-sulphite of soda or ammonia ("magic" photographs). 
With mercuric chlorides we remove silver stains from our 
garments and fingers, or when in very dilute solution restore 
yellow prints to their original whiteness. 

Mercury Nitrate in solution is a test for hypo, with which 
it forms a brown-black precipitate. 

Platininn is a precious metal of dull, grayish-white color, of 
less lustre than silver, not affected by mineral acids. Like 
gold, it combines with chlorine, and to effect its solution aqua 
regia, or nitro-muriatic acid, alone can be used. The resulting 
platinum chloride is a dark brown solution. 

Platinum Potassio-chloride, a double salt of bright yellow 
color, is used in the different platinum printing processes. 

Potassium is the metallic radical of all the salts bearing its 
name. Its oxyd. 

Potassium Ilydroxyd, or caustic potash, is a deliquescent 
and easily soluble substance, occasionally used as an accelerator 
m developing gelatine emulsion plates. 



200 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. 

Potassium Bichromate, orange-red, anliydrons, prismatic 
crystals, soluble in ten parts of water, not soluble in alcohol, of 
strong acid reaction, is very poisonous. All chromates are 
indirectly sensitive to light. Their behavoir towards light 
when mixed with organic matter, gelatine, or albumen, is of 
the highest interest, for upon it are based most photo-mechani- 
cal printing processes. Light changes the chromates and 
oxvdizes the organic matter, making it insoluble in water. 

Potassium, Bromide. This salt forms white, cubical crys- 
tals which are very soluble in water, but sparingly so in 
alcohol. For the preparation of bromide of silver, in the 
emulsion process, it is better adapted than any of the other 
bromides. For that purpose it is important to use it in a 
state of absolute purity. 

The presence of iodide can be detected by the yellow color 
of the precipitate, when a trace of nitrate of silver solution is 
added to a solution of the bromide. Iodide is denoted when 
the precipitate has a yellow color. Bromide of potassium is 
used entensively to form bromide of silver in emulsions, for 
sensitizing collodion, and is the most popular restrainer in 
developing emulsion-plates. 

Potassium, Carhonate is usually made from the crude pot- 
ash, A very pure article, sufficient for developing purposes, 
is prepared by incinerating cream of tartar — bitartrate of 
potassium — lixiviating the ashes and evaporation. It is a 
white, deliquescent, salt, very soluble in water, has a strong 
alkaline reaction and effervesces with acids. "With carbonate 
of potassium are prepared the most energetic developers for 
instantaneous exposures. 

Potassium Bicarhonate. The ordinary carbonate united 
with another equivalent of carbonic acid. Saleratus is an 
impure bicarbonate. It is soluble in water but not in alcohol. 
It is used to neutralize acid solutions and to soften gelatine m 
some of the photo-mechanical processes. 

Potassium Chlorate has of late found photographic employ- 
ment in furnishing oxygen to the burning magnesium of its 
flash-light compounds ; but, on account of its explosive prop- 
erties, the salt has been almost entirely abandoned. It has no 
other use in photography. 



APPENDIX. 201 

Potassium Chloride closely resembles common salt (sodium 
chloride) in appearance, assuming the cubic form of crystalli- 
zation. It is but rarely used. 

Potassium Cyanide. The commercial article comes in 
white, opaque, amorphous masses, of sharp, alkaline, bitter 
taste, and alkaline reaction ; exhales the odor of hydro-cyanic 
acid, and is very poisonous. For collodion plates it was much 
used for fixing purposes. It might be nsed for gelatine plates, 
also, for the same purpose ; but, it being adulterated very fre- 
quently with hydrate and carbonate of potassium, these salts 
would weaken the gelatine film very much. Except to remove 
with it silver stains from hands and fingers, the article is but 
rarely used since gelatine plates have superseded the collodion. 

Potassium Suljjho- cyanide, analagous to the ammonium 
salt, is white and crystal! izable, resembling the taste of nitre ; 
soluble in water and alcohol, and very poisonous. It has been 
employed as a fixing-agent, and, in combination with the 
chloride of gold, in toning-baths. 

Potassium Ferri-cyanide, known as red prussiate of potash, 
is obtained by passing chlorine gas tln-ough a solution of 
potassium ferro-cyanide. It forms beautiful red crystals, which 
are converted by light into the yellow potassium ferro-cyanide ; 
the solution produces a dark-blue precipitate with ferrous salts, 
and a bro^vm color with ferric salts. 

It is used in the cyanotype process. Potassium f erri-cyanide, 
being sensitive to light, its solutions should be kept in the dark. 
If the solution has assumed a greenish cr blue color, it is unfit 
for use. With hyposulphite of soda, it forms Farmer's solution 
for the reduction of intensity, and with nitrate of uranium, 
Selle's intensifier, recently used for toning bromide prints or 
tranparencies on gelatine plates. 

Potassium Ferro-cyanide, or yellow prussiate, is obtained 
by heating refuse animal matter with iron filings and potassium 
carbonate. It is soluble in water, but not in alcohol. It forms 
very beautiful yellow crystals. With ferrous salts it gives a pale, 
blue precipitate, while, with ferric salts, a precipitate of Prus- 
sian blue ensues. Because of this property, it is also used 
in some of the blue print methods, especially in one by which 
positives from positives are obtained. 



202 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTBUCTOE. 

Potassium Hypochlorite^ in solvition, is tlie well-known eau 
dejavelle^ which is an excellent hypo-eliminator. 

Potassium Iodide is prepared by adding iodine to a solution 
of hydrate of potassium, and, after evaporating, by gently 
heating the solution to decompose the iodate formed simultan- 
eously with the iodide. It forms white, cubical crystals, which 
are very soluble in water and alcohol. With nitrate of silver 
the solution produces a bright, yellow precipitate of iodide of 
silver. 

Iodide of potassium is extensively used for sensitizing collo- 
dion, and is now invariably added to bromide emulsions to 
increase sensitiveness. 

Potassium Meta Bisulphite lately introduced as a preserva- 
tive for pyrogallol in solution is a salt of indefinite composition, 
and is prepared by supersaturating carbonate of potassium 
with sulphurous acid. It is soluble in water in the proportion 
of 1:2, and contains frequently much sulphate, when it retards 
development. 

Potassium Nitrate, saltpetre or nitre, a white salt, of sharp, 
cooling, bitterish taste ; crystallizes in long, striated, six-sided 
prisms, permanent in air. It is devoid of water of crystalliza- 
tion; soluble in water, but not in alcohol. In combination 
with sulphuric acid, photographers use it in the making of 
gun-cotton ; as an addition to the developer for collodion jDosi- 
tives (Spiller & Crooker); as a restrainer in alkaline develop- 
ment. 

Potassium Oxalate. There are three combinations of pota- 
sium with oxalic acid — the neutral salt, the bin-oxalate, and 
the quadroxalate — of which the neutral salt alone concerns the 
photographer. It is colorless and efflorescent, of bitter taste, 
and poisonous. 

The neutral salt of commerce reacts more or less alkaline, 
in which state it will, in the oxalate developer, produce hard 
and glassy negatives. Hence oxalic acid is added to its solu- 
tion in quantities sufficient to slightly redden litmus paper. It 
shoidd, also, be free from chlorides. 

Potassium Permangaiiate forms crystals of dark purple 
color ; its solutions are red. Manganates and permanganates 



APPENDIX. 203 

are decomposed by organic matter acting upon them as oxi- 
dizers. Hence tlie salt is used to rectify silver baths over- 
charged with organic substances. Permanganate solution 
should be added as long as the roseate color remains. Sun- 
ning the bath afterwards is advisable. An excess of the salt 
makes the solution alkaline, which requires after-acidulation. 

Potassium, Silicate, which is ordinary glass, can be made in 
a soluble modification when silica is melted with twice its 
weight of carbonate of potassium or sodium, and the product 
treated with water, which dissolves the greater part. This 
preparation, known as water-glass or soluble glass, is used as a 
substratum for gelatine emulsion plates and in making Licht- 
druck plates. 

Potassium Sulphate is a white, hard, semi-transparent salt, 
soluble in water, but not in alcohol ; is claimed to give collo- 
dion positives a white metallic lustre when added to the iron 
developer. 

Potassium Sulphide, sulphuret, hepar sulphuris, or liver of 
sulphur, is the substance with which photographers precipitate 
silver from waste solutions. It is a solid, amorphous mass of 
liver-brown color, and very soluble in water. The solutions, 
when exposed to air, oxidize, form sulphate of potassium, and 
separate sulphur. When dry, it is inodorous ; in the moist 
state, its odor is very disagreeable. The sulphide is also used 
to intensify collodion negatives. 

Pyro-catechin, a chemical combination isomeric with hydro- 
chinon, possesses like it strong developing power, and is com- 
bined with alkalis in a similar way. 

Sulphites, it is said, do not preserve it from oxydation, and, 
if present, act as a restrainer. 

The substance is too costly for practical purposes. 

Pyroxyline, or gun-cotton, dissolved in ether-alcohol, con- 
stitutes the photographic collodion. It is prepared by sub- 
jecting wliite cotton, free from greasy matter, to the action of 
nitrate of potassium and sulphuric acid, or a mixture of sul- 
phuric and nitric acid, washing till all acid is removed, and 
then sjDontaneously drying. It should be perfectly white, 
without exhaling the odor of nitrous acid, and should be 



204 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

soluble without sediment. Gun-cotton of long fibre, producing 
a crackling noise wlien being pulled out, is generally preferred 
for negative collodion ; when in a powderj state, it is asserted 
to be better adapted for positives (ferrotypes). 

Silver is found naturally in large quantities — occasionally in 
a very pure state. In combination with chlorine, bromine, or 
iodine, it is the most important factor in all photographic 
operations, for it forms the photographic image, when reduced 
to metallic silver by a variety of processes. 

Silver Acetate. — When the silver bath, in the wet collodion 
process, is acidulated to a great extent with acetic acid, very 
small crystals of the nearly insoluble acetate of silver will sep- 
arate, settle upon the sides of the bath-dish ; even upon the 
surface of the collodion film to be sensitized. These crystals 
interfere greatly with the operation to be performed, and their 
presence makes the bath useless. 

Silver Bromide, an insoluble haloid, of grayish-white color, 
is formed when a solution of an alkaline bromide is added to a 
solution of nitrate of silver. Bromide of silver is known to 
exist in five modifications of different sensitiveness and aggre- 
gation. That employed in photography is easily blackened by 
light, easily soluble in cyanide of potassium and hyposulj^hite 
of sodium, but sparingly so in ammonia. Silver bromide is 
the active princij^le in our negative emulsions; the addition of 
a certain percentage of silver iodides increases their sensitive- 
ness. The various kinds of bromide of silver paper have 
superseded all other positive enlarging processes, and, to some 
extent, contact printing upon other sensitive paper also. 

Silver Carhonate. When, to a solution of nitrate of silver, 
carbonate of soda is added, a yellowish-white precipitate will 
deposit, which is carbonate of silver. This precipitate, allowed 
to settle, and after being well washed, when added to a silver- 
bath, is the best means to keep it in a constant state of neu- 
tralit3^ Acidity formed in a printing-bath, after repeated use, 
will be neutralized by keeping some of the solution in the 
stock bottle. 

Carbonate of silver, thrown down from old solutions or 
wastes, is converted again into chemically pure nitrate by dis- 
solving it carefully in dilute nitric acid. 



APPENDIX. 205 

Silver C/doride is prepared similarly to the bromide by 
bringing a solution of nitrate of silver in contact with an 
alkaline chloride. Horn Silver, as this preparation was called 
in ancient times, gave the first impulse to the researches on 
the action of light. Chlorine gas is liberated, when it is 
exposed to light, leavhig a residue of metallic silver intimately 
mixed with unreduced chloride. It is soluble in hyposulphite 
of soda, ammonia, cyanide of potassium, and more or less 
in a great many soluble chlorides. The main substance 
upon which all photographic printing depends is chloride of 
silver, for when salted, plain, or albumenized paper is floated 
upon a nitrate of silver solution, chloride of silver is formed. 

Chloride of silver emulsions are popular. With collodion, as 
a carrier for the sensitive salt, are made aristotypes ; with gela- 
tine, it is used in the various opal, transparency, and other 
processes. 

Silver Hyposuljjhite and Sodium, argento-sodium hyposul- 
phite, is a double salt, formed during the fixing of a plate or 
print. Being sensitive to light, it is advisable to conduct the 
fixing operation in a dark-room, or in subdued light. At a 
certain point of thft fixing this salt is formed, but it is dis- 
solved again in an excess of the hyposulphite of soda. If, 
before its dissolution, the plate or print is exposed to light, 
sulphides form with the separation of sulphur, and the film 
turns yellow. Such stains it is impossible to remove. To 
obviate entirely such occurrences, it is commendable to employ 
in all fixing operations a second freshly-prepared hypo bath. 
The injurious double salt being soluble in hypo, a fresh fixing 
solution, not contaminated with dissolved silver, is the best 
safeguard against fading or yellowing. 

Silver Iodide, resembling the two other silver haloids, is of 
a decidedly yellow color. With iodide of silver the Daguer- 
reotype was made. It was the sensitive medium of the 
Talbotype, and mainly that of the American (Whipple's) nega- 
tive albumen process. Collodion was sensitized solely with it, 
until bromide became its associate. When in the preparation 
of iodide of silver an excess ot nitrate of silver is present, tlie 
precipitate is of a decided yellow color and highly sensitive. 



206 THE PHOTOGBAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

but when the alkaline iodide prevails, the resulting deposit is 
of a pale color and absolutely non-sensitive. It is but spar- 
ingly soluble in ammonia, but cyanide of potassium and hypo- 
sulphite of soda dissolve the iodide with great energy. The 
addition of a small percentage of iodide of silver to the 
bromide emulsion increases sensitiveness and gives brilliancy to 
the negatives ; passing that point, the negative becomes feeble, 
and the plates fix slowly and with difficulty. Pure iodide of 
silver gives the best results in the '* black and white " collodion 
copying processes. 

Silver Nitrate is prepared by dissolving pure metallic silver 
in dilute nitric acid, evaporating the solution to crystallization 
point, and crystallizing the salt. If evaporation is carried on 
so far that the mass in tlie bowl begins to flow like an oil, and 
is then poured, into forms, or upon a cold marble slab, we have 
fused nitrate of silver. For photographic use the crystallized, 
salt is preferable ; by long-continued heating the nitrate is par- 
tially reduced to nitrite, injurious, at least, in the collodion 
process. 

ISTitrate of silver comes in colorless, transparent crystals, 
sometimes of considerable size, when they Itave a metallic ring. 
It is soluble in its own weight of water and in four parts of 
alcohol. When its solutions are precipitated with a soluble 
chloride or hydrochloric acid, the supernatant liquid should 
not leave a residue after evaporation, and the precipitate be 
perfectly soluble in ammonia. That is a proof of the purity 
of the salt. 

From the nitrate of silver are derived all the silver haloids 
used in photography. 

Ammonia causes a precipitate in nitrate of silver solutions, 
but the precipitate re-dissolves in an excess of the precipitant. 
Ammonio-nitrate of silver thus formed is used in Dr. Eder's 
gelatine emulsion and in various printing methods on plain or 
albumenized paper. Fuming of sensitized paper is based upon 
the reaction of ammonia. 

Sodium, a silver-white metal, oxidizing rapidly in air, is the 
radical of all the salts bearing its name. It is found in enor- 
mous quantities, and. is distributed all over the world ; in solid 



APPENDIX. 207 

crystalline masses, in the waters of the ocean, and many saline 
springs. 

The liydrated oxide is occasionally used to accelerate alka- 
line developing. 

Sodium Acetate is a white salt, crystallizing in long, striated 
prisms,, of sharp, bitterish taste. It is soluble in water and of 
neutral reaction. As an addition to the gold toning-bath, 
neutralized with bicarbonate of soda, it is invaluable for the 
producing of the much-desired warm tone of albumenized prints. 

Sodium Borate, Bi-borate, or Borax, exists native in 
several localities of America and Europe. It is a white, 
crystalline salt, reacts alkaline, and possesses a bitter alkaline 
taste. On account of its alkalinity it is employed in many 
toning methods, where it is claimed to give black shades. 

Borax is a strong restrainer in the alkaline development, and 
is, furthermore, an aid in dissolving shellac in water. Such 
shellac solutions are occasionally employed as varnishes for 
gelatine negatives, but their principal use is to give gloss to 
Lichtdrucks and photo-lithographs. 

Sodium Bromide and Iodide are but rarely used in photog- 
raphy at jDresent. 

Sodium, Carbonate, The crystals of this extensively-used 
and well-known salt (sal soda) dissolve rapidly in water, are of 
disagreeable taste and strong alkaline reaction. We use this 
salt as an accelerator to the developing of emulsion plates with 
pyrogallol. Exsiccated — that is, deprived of its water of 
crystallization — its strength is about doubled ; hence half the 
quantity only should be taken when a formula prescribes the 
crystallized salt. 

SodixLm, Bicarbonate, a preparation similar to the corres- 
ponding potassium salt, is milder in taste and does not act as 
forcibly as the simple carbonate. Its use to neutralize the 
acidity of the chloride of gold, for the purpose of toning, is 
quite universal. 

Sodium Chloride, the common table salt, occurs in enormous 
quantities all over the world. For the salting of printing 
papers it is but rarely used, the corresponding ammonium 
chloride being generally preferred. 



208 THE PHOTOGKAPHIC USTSTEUCTOE. . 

Sodium Citrate, a white, crystalline salt, of saline taste and 
easily soluble in water, is a most energetic restrainer. Its 
action, when employed in a lU per cent, solution, is so ex- 
tremely forcible that plates believed to be hopelessly over- 
exposed will result in serviceable negatives by its use. 

Sodium, Hypochlorite, or Labarraque's solution is, like the 
potassium hypochlorite, used to destroy chemically the last 
traces of hyposulphite of soda in print or plate. 

Sodium Hyposulphite, large, colorless, transparent crystals, 
of saline taste and neutral reaction ; is very soluble in water, 
but not in alcohol. Its solution dissolves the haloids of silver, 
and it is, therefore, of the highest value in all photographic 
operations, for it dissolves from plate, film or paper all those 
parts of the silver salt upon which hght and the developer 
have not acted ; it "fixes" them, as it improperly is called. 
The hyposulphite of soda of commerce is pure and neutral 
enough to use for all our purposes ; the addition of alkalis to 
its solution is of no use whatever, excepting, perhaps, in a few 
particular cases. Sulphuric, muriatic or other strong acids 
added to the solution separates sulphur and causes sulphurous 
acid to evolve. The salt is thereby distinguished from the 
sulphite, which, with acid, evolves likewise sulphurous acid 
bat without precipitating sulphur. 

Hyposulphite dissolves iodine and destroys the blue color of 
iodide of starch. Hence iodide of starch is a valuable test for 
hypo. 

This salt, a valuable assistant, is also a great enemy to the 
photographer when improperly used. It is easily decomposed, 
resulting in sulphuration. 

In extremely weak solutions it accelerates the f errous-oxalate 
development. If too strong, a lustrous deposit of metallic 
silver will result. 

Sodium Witrate, cubic or Chili saltpetre, called so from its 
crystalline form and native source, is but rarely employed. 
Owing to its great ease of crystallization it has been refused 
as a nitrifier in the making of gun-cotton. 

Sodium Silicate, soluble sodium glass, like the analogous 
potassium silicate, is used similarly as a substratum for emulsion 
films. 



APPENDIX. 209 

Sodium Sulphite is in the form of wliite, transparent crys- 
tals, very soluble in water. It is deliquesent ; when exposed 
to air it attracts oxygen, forming itself into sulphate. Sulphite 
is a preserver of pyrogallol, sulphate is not. Hence, when in 
pure state, it is employed extensively for the purpose stated. 
If, however, the salt is not what it pretends to be, it becomes 
useless. 

The granulated or exsiccated sulphite is safer to employ, 
because it is more constant than the crystallized salt ; still, it 
must be remembered that it loses about 50 per cent, of its 
weight by exsiccation, and, if a formula calls for a certain 
amount of the crystallized salt, half the quantity of the granu- 
lated will be approximately correct. Many virtues and faults 
have been ascribed to the sulphite, but, besides its pyro- 
preserving properties, no other advantages have been distinctly 
proved. 

Sodium Tungstate, a rare salt, of neutral reaction, is said to 
give positive black tones when used with the gold toning- 
bath. 

Strontium is a metal resembhng calcimn in appearance and 
chemical properties. 

Its chloride is used in the preparation of chloride of silver, 
collodion emulsions, and similar processes. 

Uranium Nitrate is produced b}' dissolving the metal ura- 
nium, or either of its oxides, in nitric acid. The salt forms 
bright, yellow crystals with a greenish cast ; is very soluble in 
water and alcohol. In combination with ferri-cyanide of 
potassium it is used as a mechanical intensifier for gelatine 
and collodion plates, positives and negatives alike. Its action 
is to give the plate a non-actinic, brown color, by which print- 
ing is retarded. A very dilute solution of cyanide of potas- 
sium removes the color without injury to the tilver deposit. 

"With nitrate of uranium a great variety of tones on paper 
or glass can be made. It is sensitive to light. 

Varnish. Most photographic varnishes consist of alcoholic 
solutions of shellac, resins, or resinous gums. Gelatine, being 
extremely hygroscopic, all moistui-e must be expelled from its 
films before varnish is applied. When moisture is present the 



210 THE PHOTOGEAPHIO INSTBUCTOB. 

shellac will precipitate upon the film in the form .of white 
granular deposits. A wash with alcohol will remove these 
deposits, after which varnishing can be accomplished. 

Water is a transparent liquid without color, taste, or odor, 
consisting of oxjgen and hydrogen. By reason of its great 
dissolving power, it is always more or less contaminated with 
foreign matter, carbonic acid, carbonates, chlorides, ammonia, 
and organic substances. Carbonic acid and other gases ab- 
sorbed in water cause blisters upon albumenized paper ; car- 
bonate of lime in water forms a precipitate with the oxalate of 
potassium ; and chlorides precipitate silver. For most photo- 
graphic operations, purified or distilled water is absolutely 
necessary. Ordinary water boiled for some time and allowed 
to cool is free from calcareous^ matter, and absorbed gases are 
expelled, hence it is comparatively pure, and may be employed 
for photographic use. 

Zinc is a bluish-white metal, brittle, and of crystalline struc- 
ture. It is added, occasionally, when reduced to a fine pow- 
der, to the magnesium flash-light compounds. It burns with 
a bluish-green, quite actinic flame, and may be used profitably 
in this connection when long exposures are required. AVith 
polished plates or rods, it precipitates metallic silver from 
waste solutions by mere immersion, and in photo-mechanical 
printing methods zinc plays a highly important part. Upon 
finely polished zinc plates, coated with asplialtum or bichro- 
matized organic substances, are printed the photographs pre- 
paratory to etching them into high reliefs for the ordinary 
typographic press. 

Zinc Bromide is occasionally added to sensitive collodion. 

Zino Ilyjyochlorite, prepared by decomposing chloride of 
lime with zinc sulphate, is a perfect and absolutely safe hypo- 
eliminator, because the salts resulting from the contact of 
hyposulphite of soda with hypochlorite of zinc are very solu- 
ble in water and harmless to the photographic silver deposit. 



APPENDIX. 211 

ENGLISH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT 

SOLID MEASURE. 

20 Grains — 1 Scruple = 20 Grains. 

3 Scruples - 1 Dram = 60 Grains. 

8 Drams = 1 Ounce = 480 Grains. 
12 Ounces = 1 Pound = 5760 Grains. 

FLUID. 

60 Minims = 1 Fluid Dram. 

8 Drams = 1 Ounce. 
20 Ounces = 1 Pint. 

8 Pints = 1 Gallon. 

The above weights are those usually adopted in formulae. 



\ 



All Chemicals are usually sold by 
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 



27ii Grains = 1 Dram = 27^1 Grains. 
16 Drams = 1 Ounce = 437i Grains. 
16 Ounces = 1 Pound = 7000 Grains. 



Precious Metals are usually sold by 

TROY WEIGHT. 

24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = 24 Grains. 

20 Pennyweights = 1 Ounce = 480 Grains. 

12 Ounces = 1 Pound = 5760 Grains. 

Note. — An ounce of metallic silver contains 480 grains, but an ounce 
of nitrate of silver contains only 437i grains. 



212 THE PHOTOGEAPHIC INSTKUCTOE. 

THE METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND 

MEASURES. 

The meter is a measure of length equal to 39.370 English 
inches, or 39.368 American inches, a standard of linear measure 
supposed to be the ten-millionth part of the distance from the 
equator to the north pole, as ascertained by actual measure- 
ment of an arc of the meridian. 

This system formed on the meter as the unit of length, has 
four other leading units, all connected with and dependent 
upon this. Hence, we have : 

1. The meter, which is the unit of measures of length. 

2. The are, which is the unit of surface, and is the square of 
the meters. 

3. The litre, which is the unit of measures of capacity, and 
is the cube of a tenth part of the meter. 

4. The stere, which is the unit of measures of solidity 
having the capacity of a cubic meter. 

5. The gram, which is the unit of measures of weight, and 
is the weight of that quantity of distilled water at its maximum 
density, fills the cube of a hundredth part of the meter. 

Each unit has its decimal multiples and submultiples, that is 
weights and measures ten times larger, or ten times smaller 
than the principal units. The prefixes denoting multiples are 
derived from the Greek and are : deka, ten ; hecto, hundred ; 
kilo, thousand, and myria, ten thousand. Those denoting sub- 
multiples are taken from the Latin, and are deci, ten; centi, 
hundred (like in centigram or centimeter) and milli; thousand. 

The metric system has been adopted by many nations, the 
English excepted. In America its use has been made optional, 
but"^ is legalized by Congress. All photographic formulse 
received from the continent of Europe express values and 
quantities with metrical weights and measures. To utilize 
them direct without translating into the expressions of the 
English system, the student is advised to procure gram 
weights and cubic centimeter graduates, and substitute them 
for those denoting quantities according to the old plan. 

As an assistant to those who cannot acquire these aids, we 
annex tables taken from the " British Almanac of Photog- 
rapiiy," which convert grams and cubic centimeters into 
English grains, drams, and ounces, sufficiently correct for 
practical purposes. 



APPENDIX. 



213 



THE CONVERSION OF FRENCH (METRIC) INTO ENGLISH 

MEASURE. 



1 cubic centimeter = 


17 minims 










2 cubic centimeters = 


34 












8 


= 


51 












4 


z^ 


68 




or 


1 dram 8 minims. 




5 


=: 


85 






1 " 25 ' 






6 


' = 


102 






1 •' 42 ' 






7 


— 


119 






1 " 59 ' 






8 


zzz 


136 






2 drams 16 






9 


= 


153 






2 " 33 ' 






10 


' = 


170 






2 " 50 ' 






20 


= 


340 






5 " 40 ' 






30 


' = 


510 






1 ounce dram 30 


minims. 


40 


' — _ 


680 






1 " 3 drams 20 




50 


ZIZ 


850 






1 " 6 ' 


' 10 




60 


= 


1020 






2 ounces 1 ' 







70 


' = 


1190 






2 " 3 ' 


' 50 




80 


= 


1360 






2 " 6 • 


' 40 




90 


' = 


1530 






3 " 1 ' 


' 30 




100 


= 


1700 






3 " 4 ' 


' 20 




1000 


' 


1 litre = 


34flui 


d ounces nearly, or 2^ pints. 



THE CONVERSION OF FRENCH (METRIC) INTO ENGLISH 

WEIGHT. 

Although a gram is equal to 15'4346 grains, the decimal is one which 
can never be used by photographers ; hence in the following table it is 
assumed to be 15| grains, which is the nearest approach that can be made 
to practical accuracy : 

15f grains. 



1 gram = 

2 grams = 
3 



4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
1000 



= tup 

= 61| 

= 77 

= 92| 

= 107| 

= 123i 

= 1381 

= 154 

= 169§ 

= 184| 

^ 200^ 

= 2151 

= 231 

= 2461 

= 2611 



or 



292f 

308 

462 

616 

770 

924 
1078 
1232 
1386 
1540 
1 kilogram = 32 oz. 



1 dram 


H 


1 " 


17 


1 " 


32f 


1 ■' 


47^ 


2 drams 3| 


2 " 


18-1 


2 " 


34 


2 " 


49| 


3 " 


4^ 


3 " 


20^ 


3 • 


35^ 


3 " 


51 


4 " 


6f 


4 " 


21^ 


4 " 


m\ 


4 " 


52^ 


5 " 


8 


7 " 


42 


10 " 


16 


12 " 


50 


15 " 


24 


17 " 


58 


20 " 


32 


23 '• 


6 


25 " 


40 



If grain, 
grains. 



3dr.,40gr. 



214 



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X 



Photographic Publications. 

(Selected from the Scovill Catalogue of Books.) 

Pric«, 

Per Copy. 

THE LIGHTING IN PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIOS.— Published by Mr. P. C. 
DucHOCHOis, the Eminent Photographic Expert and Chemist, is a pamphlet 
containing about loo pages, fully illustrated, and very valuable as a practical 
help to the professional photographer $o 75 

THE KNACK. — Written expressly to help the beginner in perplexity 25 

THE CHEMISTRY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.— By Professor Raphael Meldola.. 2 00 

HOW TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS.— Containing full instruction for making 
Paper Negatives. Sent free to any practitioner of the Art. Nev^ edition just out. 

ART RECREATIONS. — A guide to decorative art. Ladies' popular guide in home 

decorative work. Edited by Marion Kemble 2 00 

THE FERROTYPERS' GUIDE.— Cheap and complete. For the ferrotyper, this 

is the only standard work. Seventh thousand 75 

A COMPLETE TREATISE ON SOLAR CRAYON PORTRAITS AND 
TRANSPARENT LIQUID WATER-COLORS -By J. A. Barhvdt. Practical 
ideas and directions given. Amateurs will learn ideas of color from this book 
that will be of value to them. And any one by carefully following the directions 
on Crayon, will be able to make a good Crayon Portrait 50 

ART OF MAKING PORTRAITS IN CRAYON ON SOLAR ENLARGE- 
MENTS. (Third Edition.) By E. Long. Price i 00 

PHOTOGRAPHY APPLIED TO SURVEYING. Illustrated. By Lieut. Henry 

A. Reed, U.S.A. Cloth bound 250 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIOS OF EUROPE.— By H. Baden Pritchard, 

F.C.S. Paper 50 

Cloth 1 00 

HISTORY AND HAND-BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.-Translated from the 

French of Gaston Tissandier, with seventy illustrations. Cloth bound, reduced to 75 

AMERICAN CARBON MANUAL.— For those who want to try the carbon print- 
ing process, this work gives the most detailed information. Cloth bound 50 

MANUAL DE FOTOGRAFIA.— By Augustus Le Plongeon. (Hand-Book for 

Spanish Photographers.) i 00 

SECRETS OF THE DARK CHAMBER.- By D. D. T. Davie 50 

PADDLE AND PORTAGE.— By Thomas Sedgwick Steele. Illustrated i 50 

AMERICAN HAND-BOOK OF THE DAGUERREOTYPE.— By S. D. Hum- 
phrey. (Fifth Edition.) This book contains the various processes employed in 
taking Heliographic impressions. Reduced to 25 

MOSAICS FOR 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1875, 1882, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890 25 

BRITISH JOURNAL ALMANAC FOR 1878, 1883, 1887,1888 25 

PHOTO. NEWS YEAR BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY for 1870, 1871, 1887, i88q, 

1890 25 

THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S FRIEND ALMANAC FOR 1873 25 

AMERICAN ALMANAC OF PHOTOGRAPHY 25 

THE NEW PRACTICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ALMANAC 25 

i 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES ANNUALS 



ARE 



A Record of Photographic Progress. 

rrice, per copy, -_---_____ $050 

I^itjrary Kdltloti, --------___i 00 

Edltlou de L,uxe, -_--___-__ 2 ^q 

By mall, 12 cents extra. 



Contains five full-page illustrations— 

!Aii Hxqulslte Plioto-Gravure, by Ernest Edwards. 
A Bromide Print, by the Eastman Company. 
A Silver Print, by Gustav Cramer, of St. Louis. 
X-«vo mosstypes, by the Moss Engraving Company. 
197 pages of Contributed Matter consisting of articles on various subjects, by 80 repre- 
sentative photographic writers of this country and Europe. 



Contains eight (8) full-page high-grade illustrations ; and over ninety (90) original con- 
tributions, written expressly for its pages, by the most eminent 
photographic writers of Europe and America. 
THE ILLUSTRATIONS COMPRISE: 
L Plioto-IL.itlios^rapli, showing an improved new process, by the Photo- 
flQ 1 Gravure Company of New York. 

' \ Plioto-Copper-Plate Engraving of a Pictorial Landscape Subject, 
by E. Obernetter, of Munich. 
CO I A Meisenbach of "The Old Stone Bridge," by Kurtz. 

I A ^Inc Etching, from the Engraving, which is itself as fine as an Engraving, 
by Stevens & Morris. 
L Charming Child Portrait, by Crosscup & West's improved process. 
Three Mosstypes of popular subjects. And 

330 PAGES OF VALUABLE INFORMATION. 

^ 1 

CO J ENTIRE EDITION SOLD. 

22] 

/ Contains the Following Full-Page Pictorial Plates: 

»♦ Thomas Edison." A Portrait of the Eminent Electrician. George M. Allen 
& Co., New York. 

'* Babyhood." A Tinted Photo-Gravure. The Photo-Gravure Co. of New York. 

" Putnam's Escape." A Collection of Historic Views. The Crosscup & West 
Engraving Company, Philadelphia. 

'• Southern Fruit." An Orthoehromatic Study. The Electro-Light Engraving 
Company, New York. 

" At the Barracks." A copy of the great Meissonier picture. William Kurtz, N.Y. 

" Minstrel Party at 'John Bro'^vn's Eort.' " Photo-Engraving Com- 
pany, New York. 

C\ "John Bro-«vn's Home and Grave." Lewis Engraving Co., Boston. 
JT / *• Oflf Duty." An Instantaneous Study. William Kurtz, New York. 
Oi 1 *' IHinnehaha Ealls in Winter." Levytype Company, Philadelphia. 
fC\ \ "Central Parle." In the Menagerie. I. M Van Ness, New York. 
^^ » " A iwerry Tale." A Child Group. F. Gutekunst, Philadelphia. 

" The Van Rensselaer IHanor House." Photo-Electro Engraving 
Company, New York. 

" An Improvised Studio." Electro-Tint Engraving Company, Philadelphia. 

" The Bats." A " Flash " Light Photograph in Howe's Cave. William Kurtz, N.Y. 

"A Raider's Resort." Morgan's Favorite Rendezvous. M.Wolf, Dayton, Ohio. 

** Group of Esquimaux." William Kurtz, New York. 

"Diatoms." Photo-Micrographs. William Kurtz, New York. 

" Tropical Luxuriance." A Scene in Florida. Moss Engraving Co., N. Y. 

" An Arctic Camp." Moss Engraving Company, New York. 

" Home of Edgar Allen Poe." Moss Engraving Company, New York. 

NEARLY 400 PAGES OF READING MATTER. 



THE 

American Annual of Photography 

and Photographic Times Almanac 



I^On 1891 o 



LARGER AND BETTER THAN EVER BEFORE. 



Oyer Tlity-six FULL-PAGE Illustraiions. Over One Hnndred Original Conuiliniioiis. 

PRICE THE SAME AS USUAI.. 

In Paper Covers, 50 cents. Library Edition (cloth bound), $1.00. 

By Mail, 15 cents extra. 



SOME OF THE PICTORIAZ, ILLUSTRATIONS: 

A Fine Copper-Plate Engraving (Portrait Study). By the New York Photo-Gravure 

Company. 
"Attraction," "Temptation," " Satisfaction," a series of three hunting pictures. By 

R. Eickemeyer, Jr. 
The Solar Eclipse (December 22, 18891. By Prof. S. W. Burnham. 
"Three Little Kittens." By William M. Browne. 
"The County Fair." By J. P. Davis. 
A Portrait of Prof. Burnham. By Hill & Watkins. 
" I Love '00," (a charming child picture). By Franklin Harper. 
Daguerre Portraits. (Nine portraits of J. L. M. Daguerre, including one never before 

published ) 
The Yacht " Volunteer," Before the Wind. By H. G. Peabody. 
Finish of Race Between Taragon and St. Luke. By J. C. Hemment. 
" Enoch Arden." A Portrait Study. By H. McMichael. 
" The Life Class." By Charles N. Parker. 
Portrait Study. By William Kurtz. 

" The Regatta " Two Yachting Pictures. By A. Peebles Smith. 
A " Flash " Picture. (Interior.) By Horace P. Chandler. 
" Contentment." By Miss Emilie V. Clarkson. 
Old Mill on the Bronx River. By John Gardiner. 
" Sailing the High Seas Over." By Harry Piatt. 
The Great Selkirk Glacier Face. By Ale.xander Henderson. 
"Lightning" (Two Pictures.) By W. N. Jennings. 
" Down in the Meadows." 
" Forest Shadows " By G. De Witt. 
"In Chautauqua Woods " By " A Chautauquan." 
Haines Falls. By W. S. Waterbury. 

Besides many Pictures throughout the Advertising pages. 



IS 



That Americans like the best of everything, and when the best costs the least 

they will buy it without urging. 
The more distinctively American such an article is, the greater will be their 

pride in it. 
It goes without saying that a full-jeweled watch is worthy of a good case, and 
11 I that an Encyclopedia should be bound in something more durable than 

paper covers. 
The American Annual of Photojfraphy is now in world-wide 
NtlT I favor, and commonly spoken of as an "Encyclopedia of Photographic 

"" ' ' Progress." 

It should be ordered with cloth binding (Library Edition), as it has, both in 
bulk and importance, outgrown paper covers. Other books, containing no 
more pages or information, sell for $3.00. In attractiveness they will not 
compare with 



SOP 



The Photographic Times Annual for 1891, which is the most profusely 
and handsomely illustrated Photographic Book ever published. 



Ill 



"It makes this already valuable book simply invaluable." 

A CYCLOPEDIC INDEX 



TO THE 



AMERICAN AMUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY Al PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES ALMANAC 

FOR 189I. 



16 CYCLOPEDIC INDEX. 



Litmus — A coloring matter derived from orcella tinctoria, a lichen. Its 
blue color turns red when in contact with acids. Alkalines restore 
the blue color again 142. 

LUBKICATOR 348. 

M 

Magnesium — A metal of silvery white color, burns at a comparatively 
low temperature with extremely actinic and brilliant light 207. 

Magnesium Flash Light — Pure metallic magnesium reduced 10 fine 
powder. When blown forcibly through an intensely hot flame is 
instantaneously consumed and produces a highly actinic light. 
Originally the magnesium powder was mixed with substances evolv- 
ing oxygen, and when ignited produced a similar light a49, liJOT, 135. 

Manganese — A metal of dusky white or grayish color, very hard and 
difficult to fuse 176. 

Mastic — The resinous exudation of Pistacia ientiscus, growing on the 
islands of the Grecian Archipelago, North Africa and Arabia. Yel- 
lowish white drops or tears, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether and 
benzole 105. 

Mavall. S. E. — A native of Ohio, djrer by trade. Embraced daguerreo- 
typing at an early date. Established a studio in Philadelphia, but 
emigrated to England, where he and his descendants are carrying on 
a lucrative business to the present day 28. 

Meade.— We find the brothers Harry and Charles R. Meade in possession 
of a Daguerrean studio in Albany, N. Y., as early as 1842. They 
repaired to New York city a few years later and had the first elegantly 
and sumptuously fitted up gallery at 'Hi Broadway, where their pro- 
ductions stood foremost 28. 

Mercury Chloride, Mercuric Chloride, or Corrosive Sublimate. — A 
colorless, crystalline, semi-transparent mass, of metallic taste. It is 
soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and very poisonous 14:5. 

Microscope — An optical instrument, consisting of a lens or combination 
of lenses for examining objects which are too minute to be viewed by 
the naked eye 278,205,117, lo7, 71. 

Molecular — Belonging to, consisting of or residing in molecules 59. 

MoNCKHOVRN, Or. D. VON — Of Ghent, Belgium. Born 1834, died 1882 ; 
was an excellent chemist and physicist, who devoted himself chiefly 
to the scientific side of photography • 94 

Monochrome — Of one color » 265. 

Money ' irders. International 408. 

Morse, Prof. Samuel F. B. — American inventor of the telegraph. One 
of the earliest e.xperimenters in photography, and more successful 
than others of his contemporaries. He remained an ardent admirer 
and promoter of the art during the whole of his useful life 28. 

Mount Without Cockles 348. 

24 PAGES I:K AI^I«. 
PRICE TEN CENTS. 

For sale by all dealers in Photographic Materials, or sent post-paid on receipt of price 
by the publishers, 

THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO., 

423 Broome Street, New York City, 
iv 



THE 

^COYILL 



PHOTOGHAPHie 
LIBRARY 

N91 



The StoviLL FHOTOQR/irHic Librart. 

No. 1. 

Price, in a Box, $5.25, 

Includes the following standard books in cloth binding 
(Library Edition): 

The History of Photography $1 00 

The Photographic Instructor (Second Edition) i 50 

The Photographic Negative i 5° 

Photographic Printing Methods (Second Edition) i 00 

The Modern Practice of Retouching Negatives 75 

The Photographic Times Annual for 1890 i 00 

$6 75 
It will thus be seen that if the books were bought 
separately they would cost $6.75, but purchased in the 
■'Librar}-" they cost only $5.25, and are neatly packed in 
a strong box. An appropriate and practical holiday gift 
for a photographer. 



1802 



TWELVE 




STUDIES 



A Collection of Photo-Gravures from Rep- 
resentative Negatives by Leading 
Photographic Artists in this 
Country and Abroad. 



THE COLI. 

" Dawn and Sunset".. . 
"Childhood" 


ECTION INC 

From the Negative 
(t << 

u (< 

li (t 

u n 
11 11 
11 11 
It <i 

U 11 

11 (1 

ave Some Apples ! " 
From the Negati\ 


I.UDES : 

by H. P. Robinson. 
H. McMichael. 


"As Age Steals On".... 
"A Portrait Study".... 

" Solid Comfort " 

" Oohelia " 


J. F. Ryder. 

B. J. Falk. 

John E. Dumont. 

H. P. Robinson. 


" No Barrier " 


F. A. Jackson. 
W. H. Jackson. 


"El Capitan" 


" Still Waters " 


T. J. Montgomery. 


"Surf" 

"A Horse Race" 

" Hi, Mister, May We H 


James F. Cowee. 
George Barker. 

'e by Geo. B, Wood. 



Printed on Japanese paper, mounted on boards. 
Size, 11x14, tied with silk cord in a specially 
designed cover and put up in a neat paper box. 

PRICE, postpaid, - - $3.00. 



THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO. 



VI 



Wilson's Photographic Publications. 



Tor Sale by The Scovill & Adams Company. 



Price, 
Per C!opy. 

WILSON'S QUARTER CENTURY IN PHOTOGRAPHV.-By Edwaru L. Wil- 
son, Ph.D. " The best of everything boiled out from all sources." Profusely 
illustrated, and with notes and elaborate index $4 oo 

WILSON'S PHOTOGRAPHICS.— "Chautauqua Edition," with Appendix. By 
Edward L. Wilson, Ph.D. A most complete photographic lesson-book. Covers 
every department. 352 pages. Finely illustrated 400 

THE PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.— By Dr. H. W. Vogel. Revised by 
Edward L. Wilson, Ph.D. Gives special consideration to Emulsion Photog- 
raphy, and has an additional chapter on Photography for Amateurs. Em- 
bellished with a full-page electric-light portrait by Kurtz, and seventy-two 
wood -cuts 3 00 

BIGELOW'S ARTISTIC PHOTOGRAPHY, with photographs 4 00 

HEARN'S STUDIES IN ARTISTIC PRINTING, with photographs 3 00 

BURNET'S HINTS ON ART. A /ac simile reproduction of the costly origmai 

edition 4 00 

PHOTO-ENGRAVING, PHOTO-ETCHING, AND PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY. 
By W. T. Wilkinson. Revised and enlarged by Edward L. Wilson, Ph.D. 
Illustrated. i8o pages. Cloth bound 3 00 

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PHOTO-MECHANICAL 
PRINTING. By Prof. W. K. Burton. Amply illustrated. 348 pages. Cloth 
bound I 00 

WILSON'S PHOTOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. A semi-monthly magazine, illus- 
trated by photographs, $5 00 a year ; club rate with Weekly Photographic Times, 9 00 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC COLORISTS' GUIDE.— By John L. Gihon. The 

newest and best work on painting photographs i 50 

WILSON'S LANTERN JOURNEYS.— By Edward L. Wilson, Ph.D. In three 
volumes. For the Lantern Exhibitor. Give incidents and facts in entertain- 
ing style of about 3,000 places and things, and travels all over the world. Per 
volume a 00 

PHOTOGRAPHIC MOSAICS, 1891. Published annually. Cloth bound, fi. 00; 

Paper cover 50 

vii 




Edited by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS. 

IS ILLUSTRATED EVERY WEEK 

WITH A FULL PACE PICTURE, 

thus including in the year FIFTY-TWO FULL PAGE PICTURES, making it 
the best illustrated Photogrraphic periodical in the world. Special numbers 
contain more than one high grade illustration; and there are published, besides 
superb Photo-gravures, pictorial illustrations, by other photographic and photo- 
mechanical printing processes. 

The illustrations are carefully selected, and represent the best work of repre- 
sentative American artists. There are also copies of famous pictures, from time to 
time, to illustrate lessons in art for photographers, accompanied by instructive reading 
matter. 

The Editorials and Editorial Notes are of greatest practical value, 
as they are the result of actual practice and experiment, by the staff. 



Leading Articles by such acknowledged author- 
ties as 

Prof. W. -K. BURTON, on Scientific and Prac- 
tical Subjects. 
ANDREW PRINGLE, on Subjects of Greatest 

Value. 
P. C. DUCHOCHOIS, on Chemical Subjects. 

W. J. STILLMAN, on Art and Practical Sub- 
jects. 

Prof. CHARLES EHRMANN, on Dark Room 
AND Printing Practices. 

And frequent contributions from G. Watmough 
Webster, F.C.S., of England; Carl Srna, Charles 
ScoLiK, Dr. Euer, Prof. Spitaler, Lieut. -Colonel 
Volkmer, of Austria; Dr. Lohse, Dr. Schnauss, 
KarlSchwier, Victor Schuman, and F. Mueller, 
of Germany. 

Notes from the Every-day Gallery Experiences 
of such well-known Practical Photographers as 
W.H.Sherman, H. McMichael, 

Prof. Karl Klauser, J. R. Swain, 
J. M. Mora, and John Carbutt. 



Various Occasional Articles of a Practical Nature, 
and otherwise, by our favorite contributors: 

Rev. C. E. Woodman, Ph.D., C. D. Cheney, 
D.D.S., Henry M. Parkhurst, Charles Wager 
Hull, C. W. Canfield, Rev. G. M. Searle, 
C. M. Brockway, Miss Adelaide Skeel. 

"Occasional Notes," by Prof. W. H. Pickering, 
of Harvard College Observatory. 

The Chemistry of Photography, by W. Jerome 
Harrison, F.G.S. 

Correspondence — Scientific and practical discussion 
of important and interesting questions, by practi- 
cal photographers, and letters from all parts of the 
globe, by intelligent and observing correspondents. 

Notes and News, 

Photographic Societies, 

The Chautauqua School of Photography, 

Queries and Answers, 

Our Editorial Table, 

Record of Photographic Patents and 

Commercial Intelligence. 



One Year, - - $5 00 \ Six Months, 

One Month's trial, - - 50c, 



$2 50 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHIMG ASSOCIATION, Publishers, 



4:23 Broome Street^ New York Citff. 

viii 



PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION 



IN 



pri0T©eR/iPriY 

is now made possible to every beginner and student 
in the Art-Science through the 

Cliaufsauqua ^chool of Photsogi'apliil, 

Either by direct personal instruction at the Practice Grounds, in Sum- 
mer ; the local classes at the School's Headquarters, 423 Broome 
Street, New York City, during the Autumn, Winter and 
Spring; or by the corresponding classes, through 
printed lessons and the Organ of 
the School. 

I— The Corresponding Class, open for admission at any time receives 
instructions by 24 printed lessons, prescribed home practice, required 
reading and by correspondence with the Instructor. 

Course of instruction, one year tuition fee inclusive of books, $6.50. 

H. — The Practicing Class opens on July 1st, every year, and remains 
in session until about September loth. Practice in studio and field. 
Theoretical instruction and lectures on photographic subjects. 

Course of 10 lessons $5.00 

Special lessons, each 1.00 

III.— The Local Class at the School Headquarters, 423 Broome Street, 

New York, opens about November 15th. Term closes positively the first 
week of May following. Subjects of instruction : Photography with 
Bromide of Silver, Gelatine Emulsion, the popular printing methods, 
preparation of photographic chemicals, theories, etc, etc. 

Course of 10 lessons $ 7 50 

Instruction on special subjects 10 00 

Single lessons, each 1 00 

IV. — The Post-Graduate Class course of instruction two years. Sub- 
jects : Chemistry, photo-chemical processes, optics, and aesthetics by 
required reading and correspondence with the Instructor. 

Tuition fee, including one year's subscription to the monthly Photo- 
graphic Times, $7.50. Text books will be charged extra. 

After completing a regular course, students are admitted to examina- 
tion, and if passed, are awarded a Chautauqua Diploma. 

In accomplishments and numbers the Chautauqua School of Photo- 
graphy stands unrivaled. Her fame has reached beyond our own shores, 
for among the students of the Corresponding ( lass are residents of Canada, 
the West Indies, South America. China and Japan. 

The Chautauqua Exchange Club, an institution of the School, has proved 
to be a very useful and instructive adjunct to the regular instruction. 

For particulars, address 

Professor CHAS. EHRMANN, 

Instructor C. S. P., 
423 Broome St., New York:. 

ix 



THE 



^covill \ Adan]? CompaniJ, 

423 Broome Street, New York City, 

SUCCESSORS TO THE 

PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT 



— OF THE- 



Scovill Manufacturing Company, 

Are Manufacturers, Importers of and Dealers in 

AN UNEQUALED VARIETY OF 

Photographic Goods, 

EMBRACING 

Every Requisite of the 

Practical Photographer, 

Professional and Amateur. 



PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT. 

Publishers of "THE SCOVILL PHOTOGRAPHIC SERIES" 
(38 publications), the "Photographic Times Annual," etc., etc. 

Latest Catalogue of Photographic Books and Albums, and a 
copy of "How TO Make Photographs" sent free on application. 

W. IRVING ADAMS, H. LITTLEJOHN, 

President &' Treasurer. Secretary. 



THK 



AMERICAN OPTIGAL COMPANY'S 

APPARATUS, 

Either for Studio use or for Out-door Photography, 

HAS NEVER BEEN EXCELLED OR EVEN EQUALED. 



The Cameras excel in design, construction, and in fineness of 
finish. 

The Boston Imperial Camera is now the most popular of the 
numerous styles of Studio Cameras. 

Of the View Cameras, the Irving and Star Reversible Back 
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most popular. 

In Hand Cameras and Amateur Outfits, the styles are so 
numerous that the latest catalogue must be consulted to get a 
fair idea of them. 

The American Optical Company's Apparatus 

Is sold by photographic merchants in this country, Canada, 
West Indies, South America, Australia, Great Britain, Russia, 
Mexico, and in many other parts of the globe. Consult the 
latest descriptive catalogue ; it is sent without charge by the 
proprietors, 

THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO., 

423 Broome Street, JV'eu- I'ork. 

Send for bargain prices of foreign specimen lenses. 

ri 




Fac-simile of Bronze medal awarded 
at the Boston Convention of the Pho- 
tographers' Association of America, 
August, 1889, to The Scovill & 
Adams Co., for improvements in Pho- 
tographic Apparatus. 

This was the only medal awarded 
by the Association for this contest in 
which there were twenty competitors. 



xu 



SCOVILL 



HAND CAMERAS. 



PATENTED. 




THE SCOVILL HAND CAxMERAS have long held the highest rank 
on account of their finish and superior excellence throughout. 
Among the latest improvements are the revolving finder, the swing-back, 
and now to them is added the Instantane Lens at the following list : 

Without Single 

31^x43^ Scovill Hand Camera, with Instantan6 Lens swing. swing. 

and Double-holders $55 00 $60 00 

4x5 Scovill Hand Camera, with Instantanfe Lens and 

three Double-holders 60 00 65 00 

43^x61^ Scovill Hand Camera, with Instantan6 Lens 

and three Double-holders 90 00 95 00 

i%\Q% or 5x7 Scovill Hand Camera, vi^ith Instantane 

Lens and three Double-holders 100 00 105 00 

SCOVILL ROLL-HOLDER HAND CAMERAS. 

It naturally followed upon the introduction of the Roll-holder that it 
should be applied to the Scovill Hand Camera, and this has been done 
in a manner that displays the greatest ingenuity. Attached to each is the 
Patent Automatic Tally, to record the number of exposures made. 

*3J^x4J^ Scovill Hand Camera, with Instantan^ Lens, Roll-holder, 

Automatic Tally and one Double Dr)'-plate Holder $70 00 

*4x5 Scovill Hand Camera, with Instantane Lens, Roll-holder, 

and one Double Dry-plate Holder 75 00 

*NOT MADE WITH SINGLE SWING. 

xiii 



THE 



Improved Waterbury Detective Cameras. 




POINTS OF SUPERIORITY. 

Timed and Instantaneous Photographs. This is the only Detective Camera which is as 
well adapted for making views as for photographinpr quickly moving objects. 1 he 
negatives produced are of such sharpness that they may be enlarged to almost any 
size. It is in fact, 

The Only Detective Camera made with plate for tripod, and ground-glass the full size 
of the plate, just as in an ordinary view camera. This ground-glass is where it can- 
not easily be broken. 

The Becessed Finder is fitted to the Waterbury Camer.\, and it differs from finders 
ordinarily supplied in that it shows exactly the same image as is included on the 
eround-glass. though diminished in size. Without this accurate finder, one cannot 
be sure of what is taken in or left out of an instantaneous photograph. It is 

The Least Trouble of any hand camera, because you can have the negatives developed 
and the finished pictures delivered directly after making the exposures by sending 
them to a photographic printer. Where there is no waiting and uncertainty there 
will be no worry. 

The Instantaneous Lens in this Camera is not of the "universal focus," distorting, 
nondescript character, but works with such rapidity and is of such uniform 
excellence that it has added greatly to the popularity of this Camera. 

U addition to the foreBoing special adTantages. the small Waterbury Detective 
Camera is lighter and more compact than any other hand camera. 

The Focusing Screw is beside the Finder. 

I-ItlCE I^rST. Leather covered. 

4x5 Waterbury Detective Camera, with 2 Double Plate Holders $25 00 

5x7 Waterbury Detective Camera, with 2 Double Plate Holders. ........ 40 00 

Double Film Holders are substituted for Plate Holders where desired. 

4 X 5 Extra Double Plate Holders \^ 

5x7 Extra Double Plate Holders ^ ** 

xiv 




erecTiize 

CMTVieRAS. 



wo MEET the de- 
mand for a cheap 
Detective Camera 
within the reach of 
the youth, and of 
those who want to 
makebut a moderate 
investment in photo- 
graphic appliances, 
we have introduced 
the 



l^nacl^ Detective Ganier'a 



) 



which is made in two styles, /. e., finished in Antique Oak or 
covered with leather. The whole front of this Camera is hmged, 
which is a great convenience. The Camera has a Recessed 
Finder, an Instantaneous and Time Shutter with Speed Regulator 
Cap for timed exposures, and one Double Dry Plate Holder, and 
Is certainly Lighter and more Compact tiian any 
other Cheap Detective Camera in the market, 
and what is still more important, has a much 
more Expensive and more Perfect Lens. 
This Double Combination Instantaneous Lens, with inter- 
changeable Stops, when bought separately costs as much as the 
whole camera. We are enabled to make a low price on the corn- 
plete Camera, because the Cameras and Lenses are produced in 
such large quantities. 

We would invite the attention of all parties interested in de- 
tective work to the sample pictures made by this camera which 
are on exhibition in every Photo Stock house in this country. 

Price, No. 1—4 x 5 Knack Camera, Antique Oak, - $15.00 

" " 2— " " " Leather Covered, - 17.50 

Extra Double Plate Holders, each, 1.25 

Knack Developiiiiaiia PrMiii ODtfit, - ■ 5. 



XV 



THE ADVILL CAMERA. 



There are many amateur photographers who do not want to 
be encumbered with glass plates, nor do they want to use films 

in rolls, as in many roll hold- 
ers one hundred exposures 
must be made before any por- 
tion of the roll can be devel- 
oped, and the finished pictures 
conveniently made. Our new 




'Advill" Camera 



i 



— made for either twelve or 

eighteen cut films — is a 

_ happy medium between these 

Patent applied for. extremes. The cut films uscd 

with it may be of different degrees of sensitiveness, and any of 
them exposed at pleasure. The Lever, which is also the Indi- 
cator, may be moved backward or forward. Each film carrier 
has a number corresponding to a similar number on the out- 
side of the camera. After exposing one film move the indicator 
along from one number to the next number to get the exposed 
film out of the way and the unexposed film into place. 

It is not necessary to send out an elaborate handbook of in- 
structions with this simple, effective and novel camera Any- 
one can see at a glance how to Set the Shutter, Touch the 
Release and Turn the Indicator. 

The camera is fitted with an Instantaneous Lens, which has an 
arrangement connected with it for changing the stops in the Lens 
without opening the camera. The shutter is arranged for both 
timed and instantaneous exposures. Attached to the leather- 
covered case there is a recessed finder. 

At present we have only a few of these cameras, but expect 
soon to have a supply, ample to meet the demand. 

No. 1, "Advill" Camera, for 12 4x5 Films, Price, - $25 00 

No. 2, "Advill" Camera, for 18 4x5 Films, Price, - - 25 GO 

No. 3, "Advill" Camera, for 12 4x5 Glass Plates, Price, 25 00 

xvi 





p^^ 



That the substitution of a pneumatic release for the or- 
dinary trigger on a wood drop-shutter greatly enhances its 
value, " goes without saying." 

The Scovill Time and Instantaneous Shutter 

Is Fitted ^yith Pneumatic Attachment» 

which may be worked at a considerable distance from the 
Camera, thus enabling the operator to form part of a group 
or to be included in a view he is photographing. This 
Shutter may be used for either timed or instantaneous ex- 
posures ; the change is made by simply moving a switch. 



SCOVILL UNIVERSAL SAFETY SHUTTERS. 

This Shutter is styled Universal, not only because more 
of the Scovill Safety Shutters are in use than of any other 
pattern, but because it can be arranged with a variety of 
openings, from ^ to 2 inches at the center, as shown by 
the dotted lines of the accompanying illustration. Uni- 
form distribution of light over the plate is insured bv the 
form of opening. 

The breakes on all these Shutters ^ 
make them safe to use, b}' preventing a T|ji|ijf||| 
recoil with the resulting double expo- 
sure, and the jarring common to maii\ 
Shutters, which in time breaks apart tliu 
glasses of a Lens where cemented to- 
gether—hence the designation " Safct\' 
Shutters." 




Scovill Saiety 
Shutter, with 
Time and Instan- 
taneous Attach- 
ment. 




No. 


Width of 
Opening 
in Slide. 


ScovlU 
Uni- 
Tersal 
Shut- 


Uni- 
versal 
Shut 
ters, 
with 
Pneu- 


Scovill 
Safety 
Shut- 
ters. 


Safety 
Shut- 
ters, 
with 
Pneu- 
matic 


Univer- 
sal Tinit 
and In- 
stanta- 
neous 
Shutter 
with 






ters. 


matic 
Re- 




Re- 
lease. 


Pneu 
matic 








lease. 






Releaae 


1 


114 ins. 


$2.70 


$4.20 


$1.20 


$2.70 


$4.70 


ji 


2.80 


4.30 


1.30 


2.80 


4.80 


3 


IM " 


2.90 


4.40 


1.40 


2.90 


4.90 


4 


2 " 


3.00 


4.50 


1.50 


3.00 


5.00 


5 


2^ " 


3.10 


4.60 


1.60 


3.10 


.5.10 


6 


.3 " 


.3.2.5 


4.7.5 


1.75 


3.25 


5.25 



Scovill Universal 
Shuttei . 



H'hen orderiiif^these Shutters, exact liiatneter 
of hood o_f Lens should be given, so that the 
proper circular opening may be cut out to ex- 
actly fit hood of Lens. If not stated, the Shut- 
ters will be sent without the round opening being 
cut. 




Scfivili Safety 
Shutter. 



xvu 



^^ IRVINO VIEliV CAMERAS. 3le^ 



The IRVING Camera recently 
introduced by the American Op- 
tical Co. was awarded the highest 
prize by the judges at the American 
Institute Fair. They expressed 
themselves as unable to see how a 
more complete, compact, light, 
handsome and serviceable camera 
could be made. 

The Irving Cameras all have 
swing front in addition to swing 
back, thus doing away with the 
necessity for vertical shifting ar- 
rangement to the front board. They 
have the Howe patent reversible 
back, fitted with self-locking 
ground-glass frame, and when 
desired, celluloid is used in place of 
glass for the focusing screen. 

One of the best features of the 
camera is the absence of detachable 
screws. An idea of this is convey- 
ed by the illustrations showing the 
camera when extended and when 
folded. 




i n a n i n l t ilii 'inH i ' a ir *'"•"•' 1 i -t- ■ ■— ■-*'-^.--'' - ' ■ - - --^.v. :•-. ., .n. .. i 



A superb canvas case, the 
finest ever made, is supplied 
with each one of the Irving 
Cameras. Price list is as 
follows : 

Single Double 
Swing. Swing. 

4 X 5 $37.00 $32.00 

5x7 33.00 38.00 

5x8 35.00 40.00 

6Jx Si 40.00 45.00 

8 xlO 45.00. 50 00 

In order to convey an 
idea of the lightness of 
these cameras, it is suffi- 
cient to say that the 5x8 
size camera weighs only 
3 lbs. 



XVIU 



THE SCOVILL 




A GNESIHM ^ eOMPQUND 

. ^—^ ". : : : : : r\ 



IS ENTIRELY FREE FROM POISONOUS INGREDIENTS. 



[N ORDER TO DEMONSTRATE THIS, QUANTITIES HAVE 
BEEN EATEN AT VARIOUS TIMES. 



// Aas ofte7i been pounded in a mortar to show that 

it does not explode. 

The Results Obtained by Using Our Magnesium 
Compound have Kever been Surpassed. 

■♦ I ^ I » 

" It seems almost incredible that any one should continue to use com- 
pounds which are known to be of an explosive nature. The various sub- 
stances used to make actinic Magnesium light are no secrets ; some are 
easily explosive, some are dangerously poisonous, and yet, for some 
fancied advantages which they oiler in a compound, manufacturers are 
willing to put them upon a confiding public, and photographers seem 
ready to risk their lives, or at least the danger of severely injuring them- 
selves by using them. Even when great caution is used, an explosive 
compound is always dangerous, and had better be left untouched. If 
there were no good compounds which were free from dangerous properties, 
there might be some excuse for adhering to the use of those which are 
known to be explosive and poisonous, but such is not the case." — Photo- 
graphic Times. 

♦-^■♦-♦-♦-♦-# 

price of ^coVill ]V[agnBgium Coigpoaqd : 

In ounce bottles, with fuses $0 50 

' ' 14 pound cans " 1 40 

"1^ ' 3 65 

"1 " " " 5 00 

Pure Powdered Magnesium per oz, 60 

" lb, 6 00 

.\ix 



The ScoYill Handy Flasher 

has been tried with safe "flash" mixtures Hke the 
Scovill Magnesium Compound, and invariably has 
given successful results. There is no device intended 
to accomplish the same purpose which is so conven- 
ent and portable. In fact it folds so compactly that 
it has been styled the "pocket flasher." A still more 
important consideration in its favor is that it may be 
so held as to throw the light downward, and thus 
avoid shadows. This is very important when flash 
photographs are made where there are light hangings 
and wall in the background. Some expert photog- 
raphers attach a piece of cardboard to the handles 
of this flasher to serve as a reflector. The Asbestos 
plates furnished and the use of fuse serve as addi- 
tional safeguards to the operators. 



Price, Handy Flasher, - - $0.75 



XX 









. xr% O O OO ro "^ PO 




U) 












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1 of 25 c 


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a charge 


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a X X >< X X >< X 

■^ ^00 O O - c^ 

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OTHER SIZES 

one dozen, a 


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per yard. 

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XXI 



THE 



DONALDSON Star Bromide Paper. 



No. " I," Smooth surface, thin, for proofs, positive print- 
ing, copying drawings, etc., by contact. 

No. "2," Smooth surface, heavy, for positive printing, 
enlarging, and working in ink, oil and water colors. 

No, " 3," Rough surface, heavy, for positive printing, 
enlarging, and working in crayon, ink, water colors and oils. 



We recommend the No. "3" for enlargement, and Nos. " 1 " 
and " 2 " smooth surface paper for contact prints. Enlargements 
on our paper require no finishing when taken from good original 
negatives. 

This paper does not blister.- 

Send for book of directions. 



PRICE LIST 



OF 



STAR BROMIDE PAPERS, fc "1," "2," or "3." 



Size. Per Doz. 
31^x4^ $0 25 

4 x5 40 

41^x51^ 50 

414x61^ 55 

53^x6)^ 60 

5 x7 65 

5 x1% 70 

5 x8 75 



CUT SHEETS. 

Size. Per Doz. 

6 X 8 $1 00 

61^x S% 1 10 

8 xlO ' ^" 



10 
11 
12 
14 
16 



xl2 

xl4 
xl5 
xl7 
x20 



1 50 

2 25 

3 00 

3 25 

4 50 
6 00 



Size. Per Doz, 

17x20 $6 40 

18x22 7 50 

20x24 9 00 

22x28 11 25 

24x30 13 00 

25x30 14 00 

24x36 16 00 

30x40 22 50 



Other sizes in proportion. 

If ordered in packages of less than one dozen, 25c. extra will be charged for packing. 



lOin.wide, p. yd..$0 56 

11 " " .. 62 

12 " " .. 68 
14 " " .. 79 



IN ROLLS. 

16 in. wide, p. yd. .$0 90 24 in. wide. p. yd. .$1 35 



18 
20 
22 



1 00 
1 12 
1 24 



25 
30 
31 



1 40 
1 68 
1 75 



xxii 



OMl 






(Chloro-Bromide Emulsion.) 
(Manufactured by BRADFISH & HOPKINS.) 

|;ITH the introduction of Gelatino-Emulsion Paper a new era has 
)een started in Photographic Printing, especially for the Amateur, 
who appreciates so many marked advantages in this paper over 
Sensitized Albumen Paper. After many and costly experiments Sensitized 
Emulsion Paper for direct printing out has been produced which far ex- 
cels any heretofore made, and which is guaranteed to be fully reliable in 
every respect. 

The paper is unexcelled for fine results and simplicity of oper- 
ation. 

Its KEEPING qualities are unsurpassed, it being in good condition 
for months after manufacture. It will give the fine effects of fresh silver 
paper, without the necessary separate operations attending toning, fixing, 
etc. The different solutions are combined in one bath, making it specially 
desirable to the amateur, there being only two operations, toning and 
washing, then mounting the same as albumen or other paper. 

Any tone from a rich brown to a dark purple may be obtained, ac- 
cording to the time left in the toning bath. 

The print is permanent, can be burnished, also glac6d by squeegeeing 
on to a ferrotype plate. 

PRICE LlSreF eMEGA PAPER. 

Size. PerDoz. Per Gr. Size. Per Doz. Per Gr. 

8i4x4K 20 5x8 45 $4.50 

4x5 25 $2 50 6^x8}^ 70 

8% x5H (cabinets trim'd)..0 30 2 25 8x10 90 

4li xQ'A ( " untrimmed).0 35 3 50 20x24 4 00 J dz. 2 35 

5x7 40 400 20x24 pr sheet, 40 

FULL AKD EZFLICIT SISECTIOKS OK £ACE FACEAaZ. 



07VVEGM TONING SOLUTION, 

For toning and fixing Aristotype, Omega, or Albumen Prints. Gives any 
tone and clear prints. 10 oz. Bottles 50 cents. 

Ferro Plates for Enamelling the Prints, 10 x 14 inches, i5 cents each. 

xxiii 



READY SENSITIZED ALBUMEN PAPER. 



This Paper was expressly manufactured for and introduced by us to 
give to those who have not the skill, time, inclination or appliances to 
sensitize photographic paper preparatory to printing, an article of the 
finest quality and of uniform sensitiveness. 

PRICE LIST. 

Size. Per Package. 

4x 5 inches, in light-tight packages, 2 dozen $0 45 

5x 8 " '• " 2 " 85 

6ix8i " " " 2 " 1 10 

8x10 " " •■ 2 •' 1 65 

18x22 " " .. 1 .. perdoz. 3 30 

To save loss, roils are not broken. 



For Making Blue and While Pictures. 



Our brand is a sure index of superiority in texture, the paper is 
better wrapped than any other, and is noticeably free from spots streaks 
or flaws. 

This paper is extremely simple in its manipulation, and therefore 
very convenient for making proofs from negatives. It is also adapted for 
the reproduction of Mottoes, Plans, Drazuhigs, Mantiscript, Circulars, and to 
show representations of Scenery, Boats, Machinery, &c., for an engraver to 
copy from. The rapidity with which a print can be made with this paper 
is for numerous purposes, and to men in some occupations, a verj- great 
recommendation in its favor. 

Size PiriCE l^ISX. Per Package. 

4x5 inches, in 2 dozen light-tight parcels $0 28 

5x8 " 2 " " 50 

6^x 83^ "2 " , " 67 

8 xlO " 2 " " 83 

To save loss, parcels are not broken. 

In full rolls of 10 j'ards each, 30 inches wide, $3.50 per roll. 

xxiv 



Having just concluded an arrange- 
ment with James Swift & Co., of 
London, for the exclusive sale of their 
unrivaled photographic objectives in 
the United States, we take pleasure in 
announcing that we shall soon have 
all their various lines of Lenses in 
stock, and that a forthcoming cata- 
logue is now in preparation and will 
soon be ready for distribution. 

The Scovill &l Adams Co. 



XXV 



Waterbury Lenses. 




The unprecedented success which has everywhere resulted from the 
employment of the Waterbury Lenses, for 4x5 and 5x8 plates respectively, 
induced the Scovill Mfg. Co. to extend the series of this favorite objective. 
The popular C Waterbury Lens gave an opportunity for producing 8x10 
and even 10x12 photographs with the sharpness, detail and brilliancy of 
the smaller sizes, but after its advent there was still a gap between the 5x8 
and 8x10 sizes. The desire to see the Waterbury series complete had led 
to the production of the BB Waterbury Lens, which covers 6^x8% (the 
ever-popular 4-4 size) to the extreme edges. In future, revolving dia- 
phragms will be supplied with all of the Waterbury Lenses. In them are 
cut (with mathematical accuracy) openings in value /g, /^, ^, Jg, /j, 
respectively. 

The Waterbury Lenses are composed of a biconvex crown glass lens 
cemented to another lens of the plano-convex form, made of the best 
selected flint glass. 

Owing to the great advances in the sensitiveness of emulsion plates, 
the Waterbury Lenses are now common!}- used for groups and for instan- 
taneous views, with the Scovill Safety Shutters, described on another page. 
No better testimony can be given to the excellence and reliability of these 
objectives, and the mathematical accuracy with which they are made, than 
that deduced from the recent test made of 392 lenses of the C series, in 
which large number only two lenses differed at all in focal length of 
luminous power from the others. 

Diameter. Back-focus. 

Inches. Inches. 

A, Single, for 4 x 5 plate 1^% 6 $3 50 

A, Matched pair, stereoscopic 7 00 

B, Single, for 5 x 8 plate IH 10 4 50 

B, Single, for 5x8 plate, with patent 

instantaneous Shutter 5 50 

BB, Single, ior 6}4 x S% plate m 103^ 6 00 

C, Single, for 8 X 10 plate 2}4 16 8 00 

xxvi 



THE 



INSTANTANE LENS. 

With Aluminum Mount and Iris Diapliragm. 




The several lenses which form the combination of the Instantan6 are 
ground from the newly invented glass which has found such prompt 
recognition in Europe. By reason of the crystaline purity and whiteness 
of this glass, the Instantan6 will be found to answer the most difficult 
requirements in Speed, and to work satisfactorily when others fail. 

Having such a remarkably brilliant, yet soft illumination, this lens will 
be found vastly superior to all others of the Rectilinear class for Portraits. 
Used with the full opening, it takes a portrait of very superior quality. 

The Instantan^ Lens is perfectly Rectilinear, and entirely free from 
astigmatism, even when used with its full aperture. It has the most re- 
markable depth of focus ever produced in any lens of the character. 

The Instantan6 is one of the few lenses that are really Aplanatic. It 
is guaranteed not only to cover the size plate for which it is sold, but to do 
this without the least loss of definition on the edge of the plate. 

It has a good field, although not so forced a capacity as some, resulting 
in a considerably larger image of the principal object than any other lens of 
its size would yield, besides absolute freedom from any distortion whatever. 



No. 1, for 4x5 

No. 2, for 5 X 8 
No. 3, " 6i^x 8K 
No. 4, " 8 xlO 



Price List of Instantane Lenses. 

Equir. Focus. 

size, instantaneous or timed 

photographs 6 inches. 

size 8 " 

10 " . 

12 " . 



.$30 00 
. 35 00 
. 50 00 
. 60 00 



4x5 InBtantan£ Lens, with Inst. Shutter and Iris Diaphragm, price $40.00. 

xxvii 



Morrison Wide-angle View Lenses. 




These Lenses are absolutely rectilinear ; they 
embrace an angle of fully 100 degrees, and are the 
most rapid, and are universally conceded to be the 
best wide-angle lenses made. 



No. 
0. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



Diameter 
of Lens. 

.1 inch. . 

.1 " .. 

.1 ' ., 
..1 " .. 

.1 " .. 
,.li ' 



3i 

5 
6i 



Size of Plate. 
4^ inch 



10. 

11. 



..If 

..u 



Equivalent 
Focus. Price. 

2i inch, each, $20 00 



8 

8i 
10 
14 
17 
20 
24 



.11 
.14 
.17 
.20 
.25 X 30 

1 to 6 are all ma 
The shorter focused Lenses 
views in confined situations, 
will be found most useful. 



Nos. 



25 00 
25 00 
25 00 
30 00 
40 00 
50 00 
60 00 
80 00 
100 00 , 

de in matched pairs for stereoscopic work, 
are especially adapted for street and other 
For general purposes, a pair of No. 5 Lenses 



4i 
.. 5i 
.. 6i 

.. 8 

..lOi 

..14 

..17 

..22 

..28 



These 3 sizes will 
fit into 1 flange. 

These 2 sizes will 
fit into 1 flange. 

These 3 sizes will 
fit into 1 flange. 



We desire to call your attention to the 

Morrison Combination Wide-Angle Lenses. 

The acknowledged superiority of the Morrison Wide-angle Lenses, 
and the desire of photographers to have a number representing the various 
focal lengths in as compact form as possible, rendered it necessary for 
Mr. Moriison to devise a scheme for combining the various foci in one 
instrument. This he did a year or two since, and his " Combination " 
Lenses are now in great demand. 

An elegant morocco case, velvet lined, four and a quarter inches long 
by two and a half wide by one and three-quarter high, contains one eight- 
inch Wide-angle Lens in its usual brass mounting, with revolving 
diaphragm, and a set of Lens Cells of four, five, six, and eight inches focal 
length respectively. These Lens Cells are interchangeable, and the 
operator is thus possessed of one Lens Combination by which he secures 
focal length of four, five, six, seven and eight inches, and hence is fully 
equipped for interior and exterior work from 4x5 to 8x10 in the most con- 
fined situations, or for landscapes at nearest and greatest distances from 
the point of observation. 

The device is so simple that it will be readily understood from the 
following explanation. Put in Cells as follows : 

Front. Back. 

5 ...with 4 for 4-inch Back Focus. 

5'.'.'.! " 5 " 5 " 

6 " 5 " 6 " 

6 ..." 8 " 7 " 

si! " 8 " 8 " 

Thus the operator combines five focal lengths in one Lens. 
These Lenses if purchased separately, would cost in the aggregate 
$130, thus a saving of $55 is effected. 

No. 1, price complete in morocco case $75 00 

No. 2, combining four, five, and six inches focal lengtlis. . . 55 00 



XXVlll 



The Scovill Economic Lenses. 




These Lenses are intended to fill the want 
experienced by thousands of successful workers with 
the Waterbury Lens for a good, low-priced Recti- 
linear Wide-Angle Lens, whereby they can gain 
artistic effects in perspective at short distances. 



Price Scovill Economic Lenses. 



No. 


Size of Plate. 


Back Focus. 


Equivalent Focus. 


Price. 


2 


5 X 8 


5 inches. 


5^^ inches. 


$12 oo 


3 


6%xsy2 


6 " 


6^4 " 


15 00 


4 


8 X lo 


8 


8^ " 


20 00 



XXIX 



Scovill Prepared Solutions. 

PO^IVDBRS AND CAPSUI.ES. 




S. P. C. Eikonogen Developer. Per package, 
S. P. C. Pyro and Soda Developer. 

Price, per package, ....... 

S. p. C. Hydrochinon Developer. 

Does not stain the fingers or leave the plate yellow ; works 
equally well with all brands of plates, giving perfect de- 
tail,density and brilliancy in the negative. Full directions 
enclosed in each package. Price, per package, 

S. p. C. Pyro and Potash Developer. 

Price, per package, ...... 



75 
60 



60 

60 




S. P. C. Bromide Paper Developer 

for Star Bromide Paper. Set, ..... 75 

S. P. C. Restrainer in accurate dropping bottle, 50 

S. P. C. Developing Powders, Per box of 12, 50 

Hydrochinon Capsules, . . per box, 60 



XXX 



SCOYILL PREPARED SOLUTIONS, POWDERS, &c. 




S. p. C. Clarifying Solution. Per bottle, $0 50 
S. P. C. Reducing Solution. Small bottle, 50 

Large bottle, ........ 75 

Reduces density in negatives and positives on glass or 
paper. Can be applied locally to remove halation marks, 
ghosts, etc. 

S. p. C. Hypo Eliminator. (For Removing 
every trace of Hyposulphite of Soda from Negatives 
and Prints.) Price, per bottle, with book of testing 
paper, 50 

S. p. C. Retouching Fluid. (For Varnished 

and Unvarnished Negatives.) Price, per bottle, . 35 

Magnesium Flash Compound, oz. bottle, 50 

Hall's Intensifier. (For strengthening Weak Nega- 
tives.) Price, per bottle, ...... 





S. p. C. Varnish, Per bottle, 35 

French Azotate. (For Toning Prints.) " " 25 

Kristaline Varnish, . . . " " 40 

S. P. C. Toning Solution. Per set, . .100 

Produces the most brilliant tones, ranging from choco- 
late to black on ready-sensitized paper. 

S. p. C. Orthochromatic Solutions. 

By which any plate may be rendered color-sensitive. 

Price, per package, ... ... 1 50 



XXXI 



THE 



No. 1 SOOVILL SOIOPTICON, 

Complete with Double Slide Carrier, 

$30. 

No. 2 SCOVILL SCIOPTICON, 

Complete with Double Slide Carrier, 

$50. 




After experimenting- with most of the lanterns in the market, we have come to the 
conclusion that for parlor or small hall exhibitions, chemical and optical experiments, etc., 
the ScoviLL Lantern affords at a moderate price, the greatest number of advantages, and 
from its simplicity and non liability to get out of order, gives, even in inexperienced 
hands, results superior to all others. 

The No. 1 ScoviLL Sciofticon when packed for carr>'ing, in its own Russia iron case, 
measures 15 x 10 x 6 inches, and weighs 12 pounds : the case serving as a convenient stand 
when the lantern is in use. 

The C.^sE and Body of the Lantern are of Russia iron, and neat and compact in form. 
That part of the body which surrounds the lamp is double, the outer cover being orna- 
mentally perforated so as to allow a constant current of air to circulate and keep down the 
temperature. 

The lamp is of the triple wick variety, and so constructed that the three flames combines 
and by the draught of a ten-inch chimney give a brilliant flame. 

The Condenser is four inches in diameter, neatly mounted in brass, thoroughly venti" 
lated, and arranged with screw flange so that the lenses may be separated and cleaned 
when required. 

The Cone, vv'hich carries the objective, and the mount of that lens are nickel-plated. 
The objective is a double achromatic lens of one and a half inch clear aperture and five- 
inch focus, so that at a distance of twelve feet from the screen, it gives a brilliant picture 
on disc six feet in diameter. The focus is roughly obtained by sliding the front, carrying 
both cone and lens ; and fine adjustment by a rack and pinion on the objective. 

The No. 2 Scovill Sciopticon measures, when packed in case for carrying, 18^x12x8^, 
and weighs 19 pounds. The objective is a double achromatic lens of H inches clear 
aperture and 5^ inches focus so that at a distance of about 12 feet from the screen it show 
a brilliant picture on disc eight feet in diameter. The lamp has five wicks and is corres- 
pondingly more powerful than the lamp with the No. 1 Sciopticon. 

xxxii 



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