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Full text of "A pictorial history of France for the use of schools [microform]"

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NEGA TIVE 
NO. 91-80355 




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A UTHOR : 



TITLE: 



GOODRICH, 
SAMUEL ... 

PICTORAL 
HISTORY OF FRANCE 




PLACE: 



PHILADELPHIA 



DA TE : 



1874 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 
PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC MICROFORM TARHFT 



Master Negative # 



Original Material as Filmed - Existing Bibliographic Record 




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Goodrich, Samuel Grlswold, 1793-1860 

A pictorial history of Franco for ihe use of 

ed. brought down to the present time. Philadel. 
phia, Butler, 1874. 

360 ?• illus., ports., map. 19 cm. • 
Illua. t— p. 



;?3751 



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LIBRARY 




PICTORIAL 




F R A N C E. 



FOR THE USE OF SCnOOLS. 



HV S. G. GOODIUCIJ. 

AUrnOIt OF PKTEK I'AKI.Ey S TALES. 



r.EYl.SEl) AND IMPROVED EDITION 



UROUGIIT VOWS To HIE PRESENT TIME. 



PIllLAlJELl'lllA: 
PUBLISHED BV J. H. BIJTLKK .S: (X> 

1H74. 



Kntertil ucccrdiuj:; to Act of Conj^ress, iu the year 1842, V>y 

S. O. (JOODUICII. 
In t > Clerk's Omce of the District Court of M:u*s;i<hu.<tltj» 



PREFACE. 

In tlie preparation ot the following pages, it is proper to say, that t le 
writer has been largely assisted by Mrs. 31arkham's History of France, 
especially in the details which relate to the manners and customs ofdi^ 
ferent ages, and the progress of civilization. 

The work is particularly designed tor schools, and therefore especia 
elTurts have been made to render it interesting and instructive j to keep 
the general thread of the narrative clearly in view, while a variety of in 
cidents are thrown in, illustrative of events, and reflecting light upon thr- 
spirit of the age. 

The history of France occupies so large a space in the general history 
of EurojK}, and is so interwoven with that of surrounding nations, that 
It Incomes, of necessity, to a considerable extent, a history of Europe 
It is believed., that, as an introduction to the study of European History, 
this work may prove useful. 



Entered, iiocoraing to Act of Congress, in the year 1S55, by 

S. (5. (;(H)1)KICII, 

Id th« Clerk's OfTue of (he Di.-trirt C"urt of the Southern District of New York. 



Entered accord injj; to Act of CoTi.iires.s, in the year 1"^71, •'.> 

TIIK IIKIR.S OF S. G. (JOODRICH, 
III tlie Othce of til.' Mhnirian of Congreistj, at Washington. 



i 



D 
3 
"":> 



d 



STANDARD 



IIISTOIMCAL SCHOOL SERIES 



BY S. G. GOODRICH. 



1. GOODRTCirS PICTORIAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 

AND OTHER PORTIONS OF AMERICA. 

2. GOODRICHS PICTORIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 
3 GOODRICH'S PICTORIAL HISTORY OF FRANCE. 

4. GOODIlRllS PICTORIAL HISTORY OF GREECE, ANCIENT 

AND MODERN. 

5. GOODRICH'S PICTORIAL HISTORY OF ROME AND MODERN 

IT.\LY. 

6. GOODRICH.— PARLEY'S COMMON SCHOOL HISTORY— A Brief 

COMPEND OF UnIVEKSAL HiSTORY. 

7. 'iOODRICirS FIRST HISTORY— An Introduction to PARLBY*g Com 

MON SCIOOI HlSTORr. 



294424 



Ji 



'. '■%- 




CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION 

JdAPTBR I -Boundaries, Extent, Climate, ^ .9 

II. —About the Towns, Cities, and Inhabitant* »f France, ... II 

III. —The Inhabitanta of France, 13 

HISTORY. 

I. — About the early Inhabitants of France, IC 

II. — The Romans comjuer France, 19 

in. — About the Franks, who drove the Romans out of France. — Phara- 
mond. — Clodion. — Meroveus. — The long-haired Kings. — (.hilder 
ic. — Clovis is converted to Christianity by his wife Clotilda. — The 

sacred Phial 20 

IV. — The Superstition of Clovis. — The Salic Laws. — Anecdote of CloTis 

and the Soldier, 23 

V. — About the Merovingian Kings who succeeded Clovis. — The Mayors of 

the Palace, and the Fain^ans or Sluggards, •25 

VI. — Review of the Merovingian Period of French History, .... 28 

VII. — About King Pepin the Short, 31 

VIII. — About Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, 39 

IX — Continuation of the Reign of Charlemagne. — The Normans, , . 35 

X. — De.ilh and Burial of Charlemagne, ... .... 36 

XI. — About Louis the Good-natured 37 

XII. — Of Charle.s the Balil. and the Language spoken in F*rancc, ... 39 

XIII. — Account of the Feudal System 40 

XIV. — The Feudal System, continued, 42 

XV. — RoUo the Norman establishes himself in Fnmce. — The Counts of 

Paris become more powerful than the King 43 

XVI. —The Race of Cliarlemagne lose the Throne of France, . . , . <** 
XVII. —General Remarks \\\yon France during the Citrl.ivingian Dyttaety, . . 5(1 

XV'III. — Fnmce UHiler Hugh Gipel ffk 

XIX. — Literature of France in the Tenth Century 53 

^X. —The People believe the World to be coming l<> an end. — Cxcomnumi 

c.-\linn of King Rolierl and its Consequences 56 

XXI. — !Vew Style of Dress introduced. — Anecdotes if Iving R^tbei I. — Hi* 

Death, ge 

XXII. — Reign of Henry I. — Henry sends to Muarnv y ,ir Russia for a Wife, . 58 

XXin. — Chivalry. — Education of a Knight. — Ann-" -.f i Knight, . . .60 

XXIV. — Effect of Chivalry up«in the Condition of ilie People, . . . . (B 

XXV. — Philip tlie First. - Villiain the Conquer .r .m.l his Son Robert. . . 63 

1 



s 







CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION 

JatPTBR I - Boundaries, Extent, Clinialc, &c .9 

II — About the Towns. Cities, amllnhabitanta »f France, ... II 

III. —The IiihahiuntJ of France 13 

HISTORY. 

I. — Al)out the early I iihal)ilant9 of France, 18 

II. — The Rotnans com iner France, 19 

III. — About the Franks, who drove the Romans out of France. — i*hara- 

moiul. — CUulion. — Meroveiis. — The Ion?- haired Kings. — ( hilder 
ic. — Clovis is convened to Christianity by his wife Clotilda. — The 
sacred Phial, 20 

IV. — The Su|>erstition of Clovis. — The Siilic Laws. — Anecdote of Clovis 

and the Soldier 23 

V. — Alwul the Merovingian Kings who succeeded Clovis. — The Mayors of 

the Palace, and the Fain^ans or Slu??ards, •25 

VI. — Review of the Merovingian Perioil of French History, . ... 28 

VII. — About King Pepin the Short 31 

VIII. — Alxiut Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, .32 

IX. — Continuation of the Reign of Charlemagne. — The Ni»rmans, . . 35 

X. — Derilh iwid Burial of Charlemagne, ... .... 36 

XI. — AtxHit I.,ouis the Good-natured 37 

XII. — Of Charles the Bald, and the Language s[K)ken in France, ... 39 

XIII. — Account of the Feudal System, 40 

XIV. — The Feudal System, continued, 42 

XV. — Rollo the .Norman establishes iiim.self in Frime. — The Counla of 

Paris become more fxiwerful than the King 43 

XVI. —The Race of Charlemagne lose the Throne of France, ....<'* 
XV'II. — General Remarks ui>oii France during the CMil.iviiigian Dyitaaty, . . &(» 

XVMI. — France under Hugh Ca|)el b'2 

XIX — Literature of France in the Tenth Century 53 

^X. —The People believe the World to be coming t<> an end. — Excomnumi 

cation of Ki.'ie Ro'ieri and it.s Consequence.-' 56 

^Xl —New Style of Dresi i i it roduced. — Anecdote- •>! Iving Rolieit. --Hi9 

I»ealli 56 

XXII. — Reign of Henry I — Henry sends to Mu.^rnw ..r iiiissia for a Wife, . 58 

XXIII. — Chivalry. — Eduratioii of a Knight. —Arm-' ..f i Knight, . . .60 

IXIV. — Effect of Chivalry upon the Coridition of 1 lie IVopie, .... 82 

XXV. — Philij) the Fir.-l - Villiam ilie Comnifr >r md tiis .'nmi Rolnrt . .63 

1 



il 



lit! 



CONTENTS. 

II 

I'aj» 

Cn4nrm . . . ^ 

XXVI — Account of Ihc Crusailes, • ' 

XXVI - Cause, of the Zeal of the Cn.sa.lcn, - The first Bund set out unde 
Peter the H,nnit and Walter the Penniless. - They never reach the 

■ • • • n< 

KXVIM - IvWe all^ufthe fiist Crusade. -Th^ Kingdo'.n > fJerusalem f.unded, 5S 
XXIX. - The Knights of I.M, Temple and of St. John. - The Ch.ld's Crusade. . - 
X\\ — Wretched Coadilion of France under Phihp I. . • * ' ' * 
Xxi' - Reign of Louis VI.. surnan.ed the Fat. -Tlu Condition of the Co.n- ^ ^ 

mon People improves, ' * ' '. , 

XXXIl.- Melancholy DeathofPriace William of Englar d. -France ,s attacked ^^ 

by powerful Enemies, .■..,*.'" i..*, 

XXXIll.-The Oriflamme is unfurled. -A French Prince k.Ued by a h-?^!*^' ^ ^^ 

Accident, ' * ' ,.' , r i ^w« 77 

XXXIV -The Progress of Learning.- About the Troutadours -C....rt> -f Uve, 77 
XXXV. -Reign of Louis VII.- The second Crusade, . . ■ ■ ^* 

XXXVI — More alwut the second Crusade, . . • • • • ' ' ^ 

V WVII - Illustrations of the Manners of the Age of Louts \ M . • • • 
XKkZ. - Perfulious Onuluct of Louis Vll.-He .uakes a P.l.r.nn.e t<. the 
Shrine of ThomasABecket.- Death of Ia.u,s\ II 

XXXIX - Philip II., surnamed Augustus. - Improven.enl ol Pans • • " 
xl -Third Cnusade, under Kichard the Lion-hearted and Ph.l.p Augustus. 

- Captivity of Richard. - Saladin the Great ' ^ ' 

XLI. - The fourth Crusade. - The Venetians make a hard Rirgain w.th the ^ 

Crusaders, .*,,',* ' oi 

XLII - Conti.u.ation of the fourth Crusade. - Constantinople taken, • ' '^^ 

XLIIi:- Philip gets possession of Nornuu^dy.- Battle of Bouv.n^,. . - ^ 

XL V - Crusade against the Albigenses. - The French mvade England, . . 94 

i^V. _ LUelur^of the Time of Ph.lip Augustus. _ Fablieux and Romances. ^ 

— The nflh Crusade ' / * *».»,- 

„ f I ...ioVlII the Lion. — Queen Blanche governs lh« 

XLVl. —Short Reiiin of I-ouis N lii-, i»e i^iuii. v^ . . 97 

Kinuduni as Kc^enl, .J *o- t •' oa 

XI VII - Anecd .te of Queen Blanche. - (M.aracler of Uuis IX. . or St. Lou.S, . 98 
XLVII. - Anecu ^^ ^ Prisoner. - He is released upon 

XLVIIl. — The sixth Crusade. — M. Loui^ i.iKtn ru»uii ^ ^ 

Pavm.Mit of a lariie Kan.som, . • • '■',.* * / 
XUX.-m^e uU... St. l.oui. -Hi» Lova of Justice. - The Parhnn.en. of ^^^_ 

Paris. — Betl of Justice ^^^ 

I. - Seventh Crusade. - Death of St. Uu.is, ^ 

f , -AlK.nt Lord Jouiville.- A Chateau, . . • • " ' " ' 
LI. — AiHMu L.» 1 . , r. I I TU^ Ktne's Barber —The Romance 

LII. — Phili|) III-, surnamed ihe B..ld.- The Kmg s Baroer. ^^ 

LIU. - Trills* by''th?Judgn,aU of G^d. - Ordeals and Judicial Combats. ^^^^ 

Sti.ry of the Dou: of Monurgis, 

1 IV - The Sirilian Vespors. - Death of Philip the Bold, . . • • • « 

, V P ilin , ho Fair. -Sumptuary Uws.-Cnrious Fashions of Dre«. • Hr. 

;v,.Ipe2.l!rsLductof Philip the Fair.-War with the Flemmg. - ^^^ 

The French suffer a great Defeat, ^^^ 

j.Vll. — Destruction of the Knights Templars, ^^^ 

f VIII AUuit Tournaments , * ,>, r>u»..«. 

LIX.-i^rideof the Fren.h Nobles.-The Stales-General. -Cunous Charge ^^^ 

IX -DeatroTLi.sX.lThe Silic Law confirmed. - About the J«W8. - ^^^ 
Chiules the F lir. - The • loral Games, . . • • 



Ca«PT«R 
LXI 

LXII 
LXI II 
IJtIV. 

IJCV. 

LXVI. 

IXVII. 

LXVIII. 

L.XIX. 

LXX. 

LXXI 

lA'XlI. 

LXXIII. 

LXXIV. 

I.XXV. 

LXX VI. 

LXXVII. 

I -XX VIII. 

I -XX IX 

LXXX. 
LXXXI. 

LXXXII. 
LXXXIII. 
I.XXXIV. 




CONTF^TS. n 

Pam 

— Philip VI. of Valois - Edward does homage for Guienn?. - Bravery 

of the Countess de Montfort, 120 

— Biilile of CrtMjy.— Cannon.— The Galwlle, 12;^ 

— Sie^e of Calais. — Heroic Conduct of Six of ihe Citizens, . . , I'M 

— Why the eldest Son of the King of Franco is called the Dauphin. — 

Biittle of Poictiers. — Moderation of the Black Princo, . , .125 

— In.->urrection of the Pea-sanls, called the Jacquerie. — Great Feat of 

three Knights, 127 

— How King Edward is induced to make Peace with France. — Honora- 

ble Conduct of King John 128 

— The daily Occurrences in the Streets of Paris. — Charaaer of various 

Naiioiis. — Alxiut Astrolocy 129 

— AlNiut (.'hades V.. surnamed ilie Wise. — The Kuyal Library at Paris. 

— The Co:i.stal>le du Guesi'.lin, 130 

— The Literature ami Painting of the Reign of Charles the Wise. — How 

llie Kui!.' lived 132 

— The Edncaiion of the Lidies of the Fourteenth Century, . . 134 

— More alHiut the I^idies of the Fourteenth Century, 136 

-ClurhM VI., surnamed the WcllBelovtHl, 137 

— AlNxit Mysteries and IVIoral it ie.-», 133 

— Siiiijuliir Preparations f.>r ilie Iiiva.sion of England. — Melancholy Sto- 

ry of Charles the Well Beloved 140 

— Battle of Agincourt. —The Game of Cards intrinluced. — Meaning of 

the Figures on till! Cards, 142 

— Charles VII , surnamed the Victorious. —The Maid of Orleans . 144 

— More alxiut the Mai«l of Orleans, . . 145' 

— I»e.uh of the Maid of Orleans. —Charles returns to Paris. Dre.nlfut 

Famine and Pestilence, J47 

— Wicked Conduct of tlie Dauphin, and unhappy Di-ali of Charles the 

Victorious. - Sini;ular Fa.shions in Dre.ss 148 

-l»uisXI. - Til.' I -.'ague of the Public GihkI ISQ 

— AI)out Burgundy. - l^mi.s a Prisoner to diaries ihe Bold. - The Per- 

fidy of I.ouis meets its due [•uni.sinn.-nl, 151 

— Meeting Ix-nvcen l^uis XI and KdvvanI IV - .Alioni Switzerland, . 152 

— Marv of Bnriinndv, ... tr^ 

— About I-oiiis XI - Hi ; SiiNTslition - Tbe Ka.al Anuisements. — Rat 
"""""■- • - 165 

— Chirles VIII., surnamed the Oiurtei.us. - Anne <•( Beaujeau governs 
the Kingdom.— Charles wins the Hand of the Heiress of Brittany, 157 

-Charles invades Italy —His rapid Succes..^ and its Cnsepiences.— 

Retires from Ii.dy. — Gains ihe Battle <.f Fomnva, . . . .159 
Sudden Change in tbe Conduct of Charles the O.mrteous. — The Man- 

ner of his Death and bis Cliriractt^r iflQ 

Louis XIJ., called the Father of his People.— A l).iui Cardinal d'Am- 

boise, his wi.se Minister. - More of Aime of Brittany, . . , i«i 
Singular Ceremony performed by the Nobles of Castile. — Alx)ut Isa- 

Iwlla of Cii-siile liu 

Ambitious Project of Po|)e Juliiis 11. -The Uague of Cambray — 

Change in the regular Habits of L. uis Xll. causes his Death, . . 161 
AJ)oul Francis I. _i.;„iiP3 firgt ap|.oar hi Court. — Change in the 

Fas^pp ':f Dressing the Hair. — War in I:h v, . . . . {0 



j^ CONTEN I>5. 

PaoI 

'^HAPTBR 

" XCIl. - Extensive Posaesa.Jns of the Emperor Charles \ - Rivalry between 

Charles V. and F-ancisl.-A»)out CardinnlWc bey, ' * ,,- 

XCIII. -The Field of the Cloth of Gold. - Wicked Conduct of Louisa of Savoy 170 
XCIV. — Alwut the Constable de Bourlion. - His unfortunate Falc.-Charlte 

V. gains an unexpected Advantage over his Rival « » 

XCV -Charles visits Francis in Prists. - Charles releases Francis. -A'wut 

vhe Chevalier Bayard, the Knight without Fear and without Ke- ^^^ 

proach _, 

XCVI — The Ladies' Peace. — About the Architecture of the French, . . • I '» 
XCVII. - More about French Architecture. - A Six Years' Summer and its Con- 

sequences, 

XCVUL - Death of Francis I., calletl the Father and Restorer of Letters and the 

Arts. — Henry II. marries Catherine deMedicis, '77 

XCIX- Charles V. resigns his great Power of his own Accord. -How he 

spcn*. his Time in his Retirement, , u ' 

C - Battle of St. Quentin. - Philip of Spain's two Vows. - Palace of the 
Escurial.- Calais taken from the English. - Henry killed at a 

Tournament, *r«v 'u ' 

CL- About the Refonnation- Martin Luther. -John Calvin. -The Hu- 

, . . loA 

guenots, , , , u 

GIL -The Family of Guise l«come powerful. - Pen^eculions of the Hu- 

guenots. - The Psalm:* of David proscribed as heretical, . . 18J 
ail - More alxnit the Hu-nenols. -Trial and Condemnation of the Prince 

of Cond*. — Death of Francis II., and its Consequences, . . . 1»5 
CrV. - Catherine dc Medicis. - Invention of Side-saddles in France. - Anec- 

dotes of Catherine's Belief in Magic *^° 

OV. - About Charles IX. -The Triumvirate. - Commencement of the Civil 

CVI —War between the Roman Catholics and Huguenots. — Death of the 
Duke of Guise. -Singular Fate of his Assassin. — Present from 
Elizabeth, Queen of England, to the Huguenots, and their Return 

for it. — Arms in use at this Period .190 

CVn. - War with the Huguenots renewed. - Death of the Prince of Conde. - 

About the Bearnois. — Their Dress '9' 

CVIII - About Henry Prince of Beam, aflerwar.ls Henry the Great. - By thi 
Death of his Mother he becomes King of Navarre. - His Marriage. 

— Calm before a Tempest, ^ 

CIX — The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ''•' 

ex. -The Duke of Anjou elected King of Poland. - About the Polish En- 
voys and the enterlainn.ents given to them. —The superior L-^arn 

ing of the Poles, ' 

CXI -Sufferings and Death of Charles IX. -Conduct of his Mother. - He 
finds one Friend. -The Chancellor THopilal makes great Reforms 

in tlie Administration of Justice, '• 

CXIl. - About Henry III. - He leaves Polanf with Delight. -His Habits and 
Amusements. - His Mode of Expressing Grief fcr the Death of a 

Friend, 

OXin. -About the League. - A Plea to exclude Henry of Navarre from the 
Throne. — War of the three Henrys. - Death of the Prince of 
Conde, rnw 

CXrV. — Plots of the Duke of Guise. - Murder of the Duke. — Death of Cath- 
erine 3e Medicis, . 



CXV. 



CXVI. 

# 

p CX\ u. 

rxviii. 
cxix. 

cxx. 

cxxi. 

cxxii 
::xxiii. 
cxxiv. 

cxxv. 

CXXVI. 



cxx VII, 
CXXVIII. 
XXIX. 

^oxxx. 



CXXXI. 

CXXXII 
CXXXIII. 

CXXXI V. 

cxxxv. 

CXXXVI. 



CXXXVII. 

-:.xxxviii. 

''^XXXIX. 
/ CXL. 

CXLI. 
CXLII. 
CXLIII. 
CXLIV. 
CXLV. 
CXL VI. 



/ 



CfJNTRNTS f 

1*4 te 

— Decree o, the Doctor* of the Sorbonne against Henry. — He seeks Aid 

from IL 5 King of Navarre. — Death of Henry III., the last of the 
House of V'alois. -General Character of that Race of Kings, . . 2i) 

— Effects of the Civil Wars on the Condition and Manners of the French 

People. — AlK>iil the Soldiers. —The Authors of this Period. — Daily 
Life of aSchooltxty, '^i:, 

— About Henry IV., called the Great. — Story of the Woodcutter who 

wished to see the King, 20.'i 

— Siege of Paris. — Magnanimous Conduct of Henry IV 2U7 

— Henry IV. becomes a Catholic. —Joy of the Parisians. — About the 

Regalia of France 207 

— More about Henry IV. —The Etlict of Nantes. —The Way in which 

he put down Insurrections. — His Marriage, 203 

— Of Dress and other Personal Matters, 210 

— Of the Furniture. — Of the Authors of the Time of Henry IV., . 211 

— The Duke of Sully, 212 

— Henry's Plan for a Christian Republic. —Omens, and his Opinion of 

them 213 

— Coronation of the Queen. — Death of Henry IV^, 21'j 

— Character of Mary de Medicis. — She is a Patron of the Arts. — Mar- 

shal d'Ancre. — The King's Favorite, de Luynea. — An old Charge of 
Sorcery revived, 2I6 

— Slate of Manners in the Time of Louis XlII 2I8 

— Fashions of Dress in the Time of Louis XI II. 219 

— Cardinal Richelieu. —The Siege of Rocholle, 22U 

— Death of Richelieu. — His Patronage of ihe Arts and Literature. — Cor- 

neille. — Moliere. —The French Academy. — The Garden of Plants, 

— The first Newspaper 222 

— Death of Ixiuis XIII. — Character of Cardinal Mazzarin. — The Treaty 

of Westphalia, 223 

— War of the Fronde 224 

— Character of Marshal Turenne. — Treaty of the Pyrenees. — Death of 

Cardinal Mazarin. — Character of Louis XIV. at that Period, . 22li 

— Lnii.s XIV. invades Flanders.- Is compelled to retire and to make 

^^^^^ 22s 

— Louis XIV. declares War against Holland. - His rapid Conquests in 

that Cdiiniry, Qog 

— The Situation u( Holland appears to be desjierate. — The Prince of 

Orange, afterwards William III. of England, takes the Command.— 
The Peace of Nimeguen, 231 

— The Palace at Versailles. —The various Manufactures inlrtxluced into 

France by Colbert.— The Canal of Unguedoc, 23£ 

-The Literature of the Age of Louis XIV., 234 

■The Churchmen of the Time of Ixjuis XIV., * . 236 

— General Manners and Customs ^ ^ 237 

— Madame de Maintenon.— The Duchess of Burgundy 538 

— The Duke of Burgundy —The Dauphin ' , 2-10 

— Revocati(.n of i.ie Edict of Nantes. — Persecution of the HufuenoU, 243 
-Continuation of the Persecution of the Huguenots, .... 244 
-New War in Europe. — Peace of Ryswick, 345 

— New Object of Ambition to Louis. — Proposed Partition of Spain . 9M 

1* 



•,it 



yi CON I K.N I>. 

Chawbr *'*'*• 

CXLVIl. — Philip of Anjoj.GraiuliJoiiof Loui3, -ecomes King of. Spain. - Anoii cr 

War in Europe '^' 

CXLVIIl. —The French siifTer many Defeats. — Capture of Gibraltar by the Eng- 

liah • • ' f** 

CXLIX. — lx>ui3 reduced to a very didtres^ed Condilioa. — Peace of Utrecht, . 25f) 

CL. _D<Mnestic Afflictions of Louis XIV. — His Death, '-^''1 

CLI. — Character and Habits of Louis XIV. — Great Change in the Character 

oftheNoblea, 2.0.3 

CLIl. — The Duke of Orleans appointed Regent. — IVIi.ssi.s.sippi Scheme. . v54 

CI.III. —The Pestilence at Marseilles. —The Ijenevolenl Bishop 2iVi 

CLIV.—1/Ouis XV. — Hi.^ Character ^y 

CLV. — Cardinal Fleury. — The Nobles, . . '-^'^ 

(JLVI. — Maria Theresa and the Hungarians 260 

CLVII. — A Tribute to Merit —Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. — How Louis XV. 

came to be surnamed the Well Beloved 2G1 

CLVIII. —The Military Schcxils established. —Fashions of Dress. —The Arts, 262 
CLIX. — The old French War. — The Seven Years' War. — Quebec taken from 

the French. —Canada conquered by the British, 263 

CLX.— The Silhouette Style.- The Family Compact. — France reduced to a 

very low Slate, ^^ 

CLXI. — Good Character of the Dauphin. — His Death. —The Philosophers. — 

Voltaire and Rousseau 265 

\OLXII. — Disputes Ixjtween the Jesuits and Janseni.sts. —The King quarrels with 

the Parliamentii. — Life at Chanteloup 267 

CLXin. — Lettresde Cachet. —Abuse of Power by Richelieu 26.3 

CLXrV. — Death of Ix)ui3 XV. -About Frederic II. of Prussia, called the Great, 269 
CLXV. — Louis XVI., surnamed the Desired. — Marie Antoinette, his Queen, . 271 
CIXVL — More ab«iut Marie Antoinette. — Monsieur, afterwards Louis XVIIL — 

The Count d'Artois, afterwards Charles X., 273 

CLXVIL — Dr. Franklin in Paris. — Revolutions in Dress, 275 

CLXVIII. — Turcot. — Necker. — The American Revolutionary War. — La Fayette, 277 

CLXIX. — Events which preceded the French Revolution, 278 

CLXX. —The Duke of Orleans. — Madame de Genlis. —The Duke de Charlres, 

now Louis Philippe. — Mirabeau, 2S0 

CLXXl. — Meeting of the Slates-General. —The Jacobin Club. — A Royal Session. 

— Meeting at the Tennis Court, 281 

CLXXIl. — The Royal Session held. — Indignant Speech of Count Mirabeau.— 

The tri-colored Cockade adopted. —The National Guard organized.. 283 
CLXXIII. — Commencement of the French Revolution. —The Bastile destroyed. — 

The King and Queen deserted, 2.94 

CLXXIV. — Abolition of Titles. — Character of Necker. —The Poissardes. — The 

King brought to Paris, 235 

CLXXV.— The Confederation. —The Emigrants form an Army, . ... 236 

CLXXVI.— The Flight to Varennes, 2S7 

•'I AX VII. —The Flight to Varennes, continued, 288 

;i..\'XVHl. — Great Change in the Personal Appearance of the Queen.— The Emi- 

grants receive Assistance, -"^ 

CLXXIX. — The 10th of August, 1792.— The King deposed. — Royal Family im- 

prisoned ^^ 

•"I ,XXX. — The first Year of the Republic. — The Jacobins become ihrt Rulers, . 291 

CLXXXI. — Trial and Death of Louis XVI. 293 

CLXXXII. — The Dauphin, called Louis XVII., 294 

rLXXXIIL — The Fate of the Rest of the Royal Family 295 

CLXXXIV. — Succesa of the French Army. — Spirit of the People, . . .297 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



Chapter 
CLXXXV. 
CLXXXVl 
CIXYXVII 

t.?-\xxvni 

•;l.\xxix 

cxc. 
cxci. 

CXCII. 
CXCIII. 

CXCIV. 
CXCV. 

CXCVI. 
CXCVII. 

CXC\III. 
CXJIX. 

cc. 

CCI. 

ecu. 

CCI 1 1. 

CCIV. 

CCV. 

CCVI. 

CCVII. 

CCVIII. 

CCIX. 

ccx 

CCXI. 

CCXII. 

CCXIII. 

ccxiv. 

CCXV. 
CCXVL 

ccx VI I. 



ccx VIII.. 

crxix. 
ccxx. 

CCXXI.- 



• Pagi 

— The Reign of Terror 29P 

— Napoleon Bonaparte, 299 

— Bonaixirte selected for a difficu'l Service. — His Success, and its Re- 

ward —His Marriage, 302 

— Another Change in the Const! ;ution of Governmert —Commence- 

ineiit of the CaiMp.Ti:,'n in Itily, 303 

— More alxiut the Italian Camjxiien. — Battle of I/kU. — Taking of Ar- 

eola. — Bdiiajiartc saved by his Grenadiers, ..... 304 

— INIore alK>ul Napoleon Bonajiarte 305 

— CoiichLsion of the Italian War. -Treaty of Leoben, .... 306 

— Life at Montebello. —Peace of Oampo Formio, 308 

— Bonaparte's Ilereption at Paris. — Description of his Appearance at 

Ibis Time. — A new Expedition, 309 

— The Expedition to Egypt, 3i(.t 

— Triumphal Progress of Bonaparte through France. -Is made First 

Consul, 313 

— The Pa.-<sage over Mount St. Bernard, 314 

— Battles of ]\Iareiig<» and Hohenlinden. — Peace of Luneville and of 

Amiens, 315 

— Napoleon elected Emperor r»f the French 318 

— War reneweil. — Bjitlle of Austerlitz. — Peace of Presburg. — Column 

in the Place Vendome 31^ 

— The Battle of Trafalgar. — More Victories of Napoleon. — The Peace 

of Tilsit. — Meeting of Emperors, 321 

— The Queen of Prus-sia. — Napileon makes new Kinffs, . . . . 32i 

— Austria is again suUliied. — Peace of Vienna. — Marriage of Napt>. 

leon with Maria I><iuisa, 324 

— Disastrous Russian Campaign. — Burning of Moscow. — De.struction 

of the Grand Army, 32f 

— France is invaded by her Enemies. —Abdication of Napoleon, . 329 

— Of the Parisians g-j^ 

— I^iiiis X VHI. railed to the Throne. — Return of Napoleon from Elba. 

— Hi.s Rerepi ion in France, 331 

-The Allies agaio make War upon France.- Battle of Waterloo, . 33:] 
-Napoleon is sent to St. Helena. — His Death 335 

— Death of Marshal Ney. — Escape of Lavallelie, 336 

— State of Parties in France, 337 

-Charles X. — The Liberal Party gains Strength. — War with Algiers, 339 

— Commencement of the Revolution o' the Three Days, . . . 34C 
-Conclusion of the Rov(dution. — La Fayette again in conniKind of 

the National (Jnard, . . »,, 

'•••••... t>41 

— Louis Philippe call, d to the ThroiH-, 3^2 

— Louis Napoleon IJ(mapart<', qi« 

-Perjury <.f I^.uis Napohon.-Thn Coup d'Ktat.-Destruction of 

tlio Kt'public — The Knipiio .^^g 

-K*if;nof XapoUon III. — Crimean and Italian Wars. — Kx| • di- 

tion to Mtxico.— Enibullishment of Paris. — Profligacy of tl... 

Court. — Degeneracy of the People ' . ,3.-0 

-War with Prussia. — Revolution in Franco, .... 363 
-The Siege of Paris. — Surrender of Metz. — Negotiations for 

^^'*^^' 355 

-The Terms of Peace. — Entry of the Germans into Paris.— Civil 

War. — Conclusion, ge- 

-Tablts of Royal Families, gjp 



\ 



i 




FRANCE AS IT NOW IS. 



CHAPTER I. 



Boundaries, Extent, Climate, ^c. 

1. France is one of tlie most important states in Europe. It is 
wtuated in the western part of Eiirojn?, and lies about three thousand 
two hundred miles east (.f the United Stales. By looking at the map 
on the next pape, it will he perceived that it is hounded on the south 
by Spain and the Mediternineati Sea; on the east bv Sardinia, Swit- 

j^M-luMd :md n r M..,v . i „,rih bv Belgium and the English 

Channel, and on the west by the Bay of Biscay, which is a part 
(»t tlie Atlantic Ocean. Corsica, a fine island in the Mediter- 
ranean, belongs to France. 

2. Tiie most famous rivers of France are the Garonne, the Loire, 
t:.e Rhone, and the Seine. The Pyrenees are a range of liio-ii 
mountains between France and Spain ; and tlie Ali)s sej>:irrte 

/nfn.du.'l-o>,.-CHAP I vpfsp I Wluu ..f Fra.ic.u? In what part of Kun lie la 
hranre / Point t..vvar.l-< Fra, ..•,;. H..w lir otT is France from lh« Uniteil Slal«-s / H(.«» 
IS hraiir.e lxiiiii.le.1 -Ml the Morih / Fast? South? VVent / What of Corsica ? 2. Wha' 
•ire I ho tnosi fim-tis rivers of France? Which wav does the Oaronie flow? Whet* 
Joe-s It empty ? Which way .Im!^ the Kh'nie flow ? Where does ii einpiv ? Which wav 
iW«iheSeiiie rt..w? Where does it empty ? What of the Pyrenees! The Alps? Thi 



10 



INTRODUCTION. 



1NTIUH>UCTI0N. 



11 



: i 



France from SwitzcrlaiMl and Italy. In the centre of the kingdom is a 
chain of nKninlains calli-d the Ccvennes. 

8. France is about OOU miles Ion*?, and nearly as wide. It coit 
tains 2i>.'),(H)U s«inare miles; and is almost twice as large as (Jreal 
Britain, and four times as large as the state of New York. Its l»>pii- 
lation is nearly fortv millions, about equal to that of the I nitod 
States. France is divitled into departments somewhat like our 
coimties. These dei)artments arc generally named from the rivers 
that run through them. A Jfap of France follows. 







S Q I^ A AT w 



IV^ 



L:~ 






#OV|. 



s<- 



UNCty 



,> ...LI 



'•^y"}^ ^ s~dP 






P-~5i 



^''fst 






1? < 



\JOtlcif 



'<^.:^ 



'^:x^ 



- * Q 



15 


















-^ 






Vi 












Terul ^ 








4^/^ 






4. The climate of France is very pleasant. At Paris, the weathci 
IS much the same as at Washington ; at Marseilles, it is warmer, and 
resembles that of Charleston, in South Carolina. The traveller in 
France will observe that the people are able to live a great deal ou« 
of doors, which gives the country a lively and cheerful aspect. 

5. It is a very fruitful country, producing great quantities of wheal, 

Cevennesi 3. Lenirlh of France 7 Width? Its extent? Population? Departments'/ 
4 Climate? Weather at Paris ? At M>rdeilles? 5. Productions of France? 
' Questions on thf Map. Which vvaj is Paris from London? (.^isica ft jm Pans I 
DirectioTi of the (ollowin? places from Pat is — Toulouse ? Mar.-^eiUcs ' Lyons .' Rheims 1 
Nismesi R<jn3eaix ? Metz? Orleans? Calais? Nanus? Brest? Ha-^ie? Soiasor.sl 



rye, oats and barley ; it abounds in fruits, such us cherries, grapea, 
figs, peaches, &c. From the grapes large quantities of wine are 
made. 



CHAPTER II. 
About the Toimis, Cities, and hihabitants of France, 




Palace of the Tuikrtes. 

1. Paris is one of the gayest and most beautiful cities in tlie 
world. It is enclosed by a wall, and contains about two millions 
of inhabitants. The river Seine passes through the city, and is 
crossed by several beautiful bridges. 





/.>, 



HI 



5 Philippe and Mana Amelia^ the last King and Queen of Pance, 

2. Among the fine buildings of Paris, the palace of the Tuileriws 
takes the first rank It was the favorite residence of the King« of 

'•I.— I What of Paris? The wall? The Seine ? 2. What of the Ti ii»-ie» ? Wnt 



10 



INTPvOnUCTION. 



lNTI{ul>l < 1 inx 



11 



¥ 



hi} 

i 



iM-aiirc fn»iii Swit/crl.tiMl a.ul Italy, lii tliu (viitiv of tlw Uing<loui is a 
chain of iiiotmlains calK-il ilu- t 'i'Vi'iiMcs. 

:j. FraiM'i- is aUoul «i()0 miles lon^', ami m-arly as \\'n\v. li coir 
tains -Ji »•">,'»; M. ) s.jiiar-' miK-> ; and i- ainu.sl twice* as lar-:.' a^ <ircal 
r.ritain, aial t<.i;r times as lar-c as tlic state of New York, l.s popu- 
lation is iicarlv forty millions, alxnit c<jual t(» that of the I nitr.l 
State-. Trance is "(livi<le«l into «le|tarlmenl> somewhat like our 
oinuie^. These departments are -iiierally named from the rivers 



iha! run !lirou<;h them 



A M<ii> •>/ Fninn: follows 




' -^^h 











rr- 




4. The climate of France is very pleasant. At Paris, the weathri 
js mueh the same as at Washinffton ; at Marseilles, it is warmer, anil 
resembles that of Charleston, in South Carolina. The traveller in 
Franee will observe that the people are able to live a great ileal ou« 
of doors, which ffives the country a lively and cheerful aspect. 

5. It is a very fruitful country, producing great quantities of wheat, 

Ceveiinesl 3 Length of France? \Vi(Jth? Its extent? Population? Deparlmenla ? 
4 Climate? Weather at Paris ? At M>r^eille3? 5. Productions of France? 

Q»/^.^7to^•s on thp Map. Wliich wav id Paris from London? (,>isiC4i fK>ni Pans/ 
DirectioT! of the (ollowin? place? fnim Put is — Toulouse ? Mar^'oilU^a Lyons / Uheims 1 
Ni3mes' R.jrde;»ix? Melz? Orleans? Calais? Nantes? Brest? Ha-'ie? Soiasonsl 



A 



rye, oat.s and barley ; it abounds in fruits, sueli us cherries, grapes, 
tigs, peaches. &c. From the grapes large quantities of wine are 
made. 



CHAPTER 11. 
About the Towns, Cities, and Inhabitants of France, 




Palace of the Tuiknts. 

1. Farls iri one of the gayest and most beautiful cities in the 
w<Mld. It is enclosed by a wall, and ('<»ntaiiis about two millions 
of inhabitants. The river Seine passes through the city, and ia 
cro.-jsed by several beautilul bridges. 





'.•>ui$ Philippe and Maria Amelia, the last King and Queen of F"ance. 

'2. Among the fine buildings of Paris, the palace of the Tuileriea 
'akes the first rank It was the favorite residence of the King* of 

H.— 1 What of Paris? The wall? The Seine? 2 What of the Ti iiu-ies ? Vfn» 



12 



INTKODUCTION. 



France, for many years. The last king wlio lived there was Louw 
Philippe; he came to the throne in 1830, hut in 1848 he was driven 
away by the people, and fled to Ix)ndon. Al the present time (1871) 
France is in a state of anarchy, and can hardly be said to possess a 

government. ^ r^ . x %k jx • 

3. Among the other splendid edifices of Pans are the Mad* «me 
Church, the Exchange, the Church of Notre Dame, the Pantheon, the 
Chamber of Deputies, the Council of State, and the Hotel de \ die, 

or City Hall. 

4. The public gardens of Paris are very beautiful and attractive, 
riiat of the Tuileries is laid out with neat gravel walks, and is 
ornamented by statues, fountains, trees, and [lowering plants. It C(.n- 
lains about 70 acres, and is in the heart of the city. It is the resort 
of the people of leisure, and every fine day thousands of persons ma> 
be seen here. Among these, there are always hundreds of young chil- 
dren, with their nurses, giving a very lively appearance to the scene. 

5. The Garden of Plants is in the eastern part of the city, and la 
filled with curious and interesting objects. It has an immense variety 
of plants and fiovvers, besides large mustMims of various curiosities. 
It has also a collection of rare animals, from all quarters of the globe. 

6. The Elysian Fields consist of extensive pleasure-gn)unds, laid 
out with broad avenues, and decorated by foresrtrecs. The avenues 
are the daily resort of hundreds of carriages of every description, and 
thousands of people, drawn hither for amusement and recreation. 

7. Among the streets of Paris, that of the Boulevards is the most 
celebrated. This is several miles in length ; here are the finest shops, 
and here is the greatest throng of people. Every fair day, this street 
is filled with crowds of persons, who seem to be seeking pleasure and 
pastime. Many of the buildings are seven stories high, and many are 
in a very rich style of architecture. The beautiful shops, the gay 
moving throng, the superb edifices — all together form a spectacle of 
elegance and luxury rivalled by no other street in the world. 

8. Paris is more interesting from the fact that the people are polite 
and cheerful, and always seem to pay respect to a stranger, as if they 
desired to make him feel happy and at home. One may spend a year 
in looking at the pictures, statues, gardens, edifices libraries, and 
institutions, of this famous city. 

9. A very curious thing respecting Paris is, that beneath the city, at 
Ihe depth of several hundred feet, is a vast cavern, dug out and made 
a burial-place of the dead. Here many thousands of people have been 
buried, and their bones are set in rows, so as to look like a countless 
congregation of human skeletons. This place, called the cata- 
combs, may be visited by all who desire it. ^ - , • 

10. There are other large towns, as Rouen, very celebrated in lu^ 
tory, and now famous for its manufactures of jewelry ; Bordeaux 
famous for its wines; Havre, the port where American ships gener 
kll venter; Marseilles, also famous for wines, and for its extensi^* 



wns ihe last king Ihai inhabiieil the Tuileries? Wh:il of Umis Philippe? f Jf^'^f 
fine imildings in Paris ? 4. Describe the Tuileries. o. Describe the Ganieu of PlajjU^ 
6. The Kly^laii Fields. 7. Des.;ril)e the Boulevards. 9. Dc-3cril>c the catacombs. P Whal 
ri; Rouen? Bordeaux? Havre? Marseilles? Lyons/ 



INTKODUCTiON. 



rj 



conmierce ; and Lyons, remarkable for its manufactures of silk There 
Aie also many other fine cities and towns in France. 



CHAPTER HI. 
The hifiabitants of France. . 

1 Wi: have said that there are forty millions of people in 
France, and we are glad to say that, on the whole, they area hap|)y 
nation. They are generally cheerful an«i light-hearted, and, 
havinir a pUasant climate, they arc much in the open air, and 
they a^-e very sociable with one another. They take a great deal 
vf pleasure in conversation, in wit, in trlling stories, &c. They 
are said to be the most polite nation in the world. 

2. But although ihe French prople arc fond of amusement, they 
are also a nation of great genius. There an; many learned men in 
the country, and especially in Paris, who have done a vast deal 
to a«lvauce the sciences of astroiuimy, chemistry, mineralogy, &c. 
For many of the modern improvements in the arts of lite we are 
indebted to learned and ingenious natives of France. The French are 
a M> famous for their skill and 'ourage in the art of war. 




Fnnch costumes. 

3 The French have great talent for the fine arts, as music, sculp 
lure, painting, architecture, &c. They also excel in making watches 

III - 1 Population of France.' Whil of the nation? De-scrihe ih? French nation 
< What of learned mer ? What of sciences t M.Hlern improvements^ / War ? .i »">i 

2 






1 

i- 



12 



INTUODllCTION. 



FraiKV, tor iiiutiv y^ars. Tlu' last kinj? who livid tlieri- was Loui^ 
riiilipiK-; Ij«' canu' to the throne in ISliO, hut in LSlS he was driven 
away Uv the |)eoi»le, and lUa to Lon<lon. At tho pn-^vnt tiim- (1871) 
Fraiu-e* is in a stato of anarehy, and can hanlly Uv said to i>osstss a 

ijovtrnincnt, i »« i 

3. Amonfr the other splendid editiecs of Pans are the IVlade,eine 
Church, the" Kxehanjre, theC'hureh of Notre Dame, the Paiitiieon, the 
ChauiluT of I), piities, tiie CiMinril of State, and tlie lloitl de \ ille, 

or City Hall. 

I. The [nildie ^r;irdcns of Pans are very l)eanlitul and ;iltraetiv( 
That of the 'I'nileries is laid out with n«';tt <rravel walUs, and i? 
ornamented hv statues, fountains, tn-es, and flowfrin-j plants. It eon- 
lauis alMHit 70 aeres, and is in the heart of th.' eity. It is the resort 
of the pe(»ple of leisure, and every fine day thousands of perscMis ina\ 
he seen tiere Among these, there are always hundreds of y(»un«; ehd- 
dren, with their nurses, «;ivinj]f a very livrly apprarance to the scene. 
r». The (iar«len of Plants is in the east.'rn part of the city, and \s 
filled with curious and inteivstinfr ohjects. It has an immense variety 
of plants and (hiwers, hesides lar<re museums of various curiosities. 
It has also a coll(>cti(»n of rare animals, from all (piarters of the glohe. 
(). The Klysian Fiehls consist of extensive pleasure-irnmnds, laid 
out with broad avenues, and decorated by foresrtrees. The avemu'^ 
are the daily resort of hundreds of carriages «»f every description, and 
thousands of people, drawn hither for amusenuMit and recreation. 

7. Among the streets of Paris, that of tlie Hmilevards is the most 
celebrated. "This is several mih-s in length; here are the finest shops, 
and here is the greatest throng of people. Every fair day, this street 
is filled with crowds of persons, who seem to be seeking ple;isure and 
pastime. Many of the buildings are seven stories high, and many are 
in a very rich style of architecture. The beautiful shops, the gay 
moving throng, the superb edifices — all to«rether fi)rm a spectacle ot 
elegance and luxury rivalled by no other street in the world. 

H. Paris is more interesting from the fact that the people are p(dile 
and cheerful, and always seem \o pay respect to a stranger, as if they 
desired to make him feel hai)py and at homt?. One may spend a year 
in looking at the pictures, statues, gardens, edifices libraries, and 
institutions, of this famous city. 

9. A very curious thing respecting Paris is, that beneath the city, at 
the depth of several hundred feet, is a vast cavern, dug out and made 
a burial-place of the dead. Here many thousands of pet)ple have been 
buried and their bones are set in rows, so as to look like a countless 
congregation of liuniun skeletons. This place, called the cata- 
comhx, niav be visited bv all who desire it. 

10. There are other large towns, as Rouen, very celebrated in hij> 
tory, and now famous for its manufactures of jewelry ; Bordeaux 
faimuis for its wines; Havre, the p(»rt where American ships gener 
h!l venter; Marseilles, also famous for wines, and for its exteimnfl 



was ihe l.-«l kins? llv.t i.ihal.iie.l the Tuileries? WluU of Louis Philii.lH.? ?, ,^'*;a' 
fine l.uil(lini,'=. i.rPan.s ? A DescriU. the Tmleries ... I>escrU« the Orir.U-.M.f I U.,ls 
6. The Kly^iaii Fielil.i. 7. I>es.-ril»e tlu; Buuk-vimis. y. l>.-.scrilKMhec;iia(omlw. 1 > W hal 
rfRonenI Honlcanx ; Havre 7 Marseilles? Lyons/ 



1 



I.MUOIUJCltON 



la 



rommerce ; and liyons, remarkable for its manulaetures of silk Theib 
Aie also many other fine cities and towns in France. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Inhabilants of France. , 

1. \Vi; have sai«l that there are forty iniHi(»ns of people in 
France, and w«' are glad to say that, on tlie wliob-, they area hap|.y 
nation. Thev are generally elieerful and light-hearted, and. 
haviiiL^ a |deasaiit eliiuate,*they are niiuli in the open air, and 
thev jire very sociable' with (uieanother. They take a ^reat dt-al 
vf jdeasure in conversation, in wit, in l< liing stories, «&c. They 
are said to In- the nn»st polite nation in tin* world. 

t'. lint altheuiih the French people are fond of iinniseiuent, thev 
are also a nation (d' great <rcnius. 'i'lien- an- many le;une«l men \u 
the comilry, and especially in Paris, who have done a \ast deal 

t(» rulvauce the sciences of a^ln my, chemistry, mineralogy, ^:c. 

For many of the modern imi)rovemen1s in the arts of life we are 
indebted t«) learned and ingenious natives of l-'raiice. The French are 
a JO famous for their skill and « outage in the art of war. 




Fruuh coahiviea. 

'6 The French have great talent for the fine arts, as music, sculp 
Hire, painting, architecture, &c. They also excel in making watches 

III - 1 Pnpiilanon of France.' VVhil of llip iii.iin,,? rescritm tlu« Fr.Mich naii.;n 
< Wliavofl^-ariie.! mer? What of srio.i.-.' ^ ' M..,It>n. improvetneoti' ^ War? -i. h 'X 

•2 



14 



INTROinji;i|ON 



INTRODUCTION. 



15 



\*\ 



and fine je\v«lry ; in devisiiifj and rnHnnfaciurino; tasteful articles'* o/ 
dress Almost all our fashions in dress come from Paris. 

4. But while the inhabitants of Paris arc fond of dress, and vcr^ 
fond of chan^'-ini^ the fashions, it is curious that the j)roph3 in the conn 
try have the sauje fashions as their nreal-j^raiidniothers and jrreaj 
jkrrar.d fathers had a hundred years mjjo ; and while a lady of Paris 
wears a thin delicate slip[)er, niade »>f the soft skin of a kid, the woni.-'i 
c»f the provinces wear vvoodcMj shoes that weifjh two poinids a pair! 

5. The French, in short, are famous for ^reat tliintis, as well a* 
small. They excel in ahnost everythiutr they undertake; in makint,' 
war, and in dancinj? ; in studyinjr the iicavenly bodies, or in making 
wigs; in planninsr a cam[)aign, or in devisiny: new bonnets; in build- 
»ng fortifications, or manufacturinir hoots and shoes ; in settling the 
nolitical affairs of Ivarope, or in making soups. 




Mudtrn Frt/ich diligt/tce. 

6. The common stafje-coach of France is a heavy, lumberiuj^ 
vehicle, cylled a diligence: and it is well named, for, though it doe« 
not CO fast, it is very diligent, and ^^ets alonjj a fjreat distance in a 
da> . The French are not equal to \\\ii English and Americans in navi- 
rration. bill they havt; improved in tiiis of late, and have now a fine 
navy. Their ii'rmy is usually large, and well equipped and traiiK-d. 
They have also good railroads and steam boats, 

7.' It is a (|uestion of some interest, how so many as 40,U(K),(MM) 
people can live in a country only four limes as larLre as tlie sla'r 
of New York ; but this is easily answered. In the first place, the 
country is fruitful : in the second place, the people are industrious . 
and in the next place, they are moderate in their wants and wishes 



I 







Two thirds of the whole nation are occupied in tilling the soil; 
the rest are occupied chiefly in manufactures. 

8. Tl'ie government of France under Louis Philippe was monar- 
chical ; that is, the king was at the head of the nation, but the laws 
were made by the chambers or parliament, with the king's assent. 
The king was the executive branch of the government, — that is 
to say, he executed the laws. The government of France was, 
therefore, what is called a limited monarchy. But, as we have 
said, France is now almost without a government. 

{>. It is the story of this great nation that we are now about to tell. 
We shall go back to the earliest period, and endeavor to show you 
what has haj)pened in France during the last eighteen hundred years. 
We shall tell you about her kings, her great men, and the people. 
And we shall endeavor to show how it is, and by what influences, a 
populous and polished nation has grown' up, in the progress of years, 
from scattered tril)es of savages. 

10. We may here remark, so as to give a general idea of the his- 
lory of France, that when the country was first known, it was called 
(j.'iut, and the people Gauls. These were conquered by the Romans, 
and afterwards tribes of rude people, called Franks, flocked into the 
country, conquered it, and settled in it. 

11. From these France takes its name. The present French peo- 
ple are descended from the ancient Gauls and Franks ; their language 
is that of the Franks, mixed with Latin and Gaulish words, together 
with many new words, introduced in more modern times. 

1*2. Thus the French nation has been about two thousand years in 
being converted from a barbarous or savage people to what they now 
arc. When Paris was first know^n it was only a little collection of 
huts on an island in the Seine, being surrounded by thick forests, 
infested with wolves. How great is the change, and how interesting 
must be the history of events, which shows the means by which it has 
been wrought ! 

in France? 8. Describe the government of France. 9. What is thai you are to learn 
from the fol owing pages? 10. What of the Gauls? The Romans? The Franks 1 
11. What of the name of the French? The French people 1 Their langiiage ) 12. Whal 
•f the hista y of France ? Paris ? 



wiiat (»lher thiiizs have the French great talent? 4. What of the country people. <is 
compared with those of Paris? 5. For what are the Frencli lainoiis/ ('•. What of I'lS 
■iiligencc? Navigation? Navy? Army? 7. How "s it tliat 90 many i>eople can li% 



n^ 



14 



l.\ FKOIMltlON 



INTKOnrcTlON. 



16 



h ' 



II 



and fine ie\v(«lrv ; ui (i«'visiii;z and manuractiirmi: tasti-fvil article.'* oi 
dress Almost all our taf^liions in dnss com*' troin Paris. 

4. But wiulc till- iuhahitants of Paris arc loud of dnss, and ver^ 
fiindof chaiiifini; the fashions, it iscuriotis that thoj>roj»l(> in the coun 
try have ihn saiuf fashions as ilu'ir i^rcat-j/randuiothcrs and iin;ii 
tjrar.dfathrrs had a liuudrcd years aL'o : ami uhilf a lady of Par:? 
wears :i lliin delicate slipper, made of the soft skin id" a kid, the u nnci 
(d the pr(»vinces wear wooden shoes that weiLfh two pounds a pair I 

T). The, French, in short, an- tiimous for i^reaf thiui2>. ;i- w-W a& 
biiiull. They excel in ahuost everythiuL'^ they undertake ; in niakiiiL' 
war, and in dancin<i : in studvintr the liea\euly iMtiijes, or in makiuf,' 
witrs ; in i)lamiinu a campaign, «n' in devising: new honnets ; in huild- 
• ujr fortifKMlions, or n\annfae!uriiij7 httots and shoes; in settling the 
political artairis of Iv.irope, or in makiun; ;.(mps. 




Mudtrn ri'iirh i!iUi(t.'!ry . 

6. The eonunon sta^re-coach of France is a heavy, lumherin^ 

vehicle, called a (hH'^rnrr: and it is well named, ft>r, tlnuigh it dor* 

not ijo fast. It is very (/ilii^'nf, and et^ts alontr :i {jreat distance in a 

!a\ . The French are not etpial to the l'ai>ilish and Americans in navi- 



i!a\ 

•nation, hill ihev have impvovt^d in this ni' late, :md have now a hue 

navy. Their army is usually lar-e, ami well e<iiii|)ped and UaiiK ' 



■' I, 



'I'hey have als(> u'ooil railroad- ;ind stt'aiiiboats. 

7. It is a (iiu'sliou of some interest, iiow so many a> 4(>,tHio,o(M) 
p«ople can live in a country only tour tim<'s as huLie as ihe >ta'' 
of N"\v Vt»rk : hut this is easily answered. In the lirst phu-e. ih* 
countrv is truitlul ; in the second phu-e, the peopK- are iudustr.' ...- 
aiui in the next [dace, they are moderate in their wants and wishes 



wiial otiiiT Iliiii!,'^ have tli.> Frciich ltciI tali'iit / 4. Wnat r,f ihe rotmiiy [i-uj):.'. d« 
rotnp.iri'il with tlinse of Paris ? 5. For what aro the French laiiuu!?- / C. WlM i»f l'i« 
'iiligflnoc? Naviiraiioii ? Navy? Army? 7. How 's il tlial 30 many i»eople can li* 



1 



Tv.o lhii<U of the whole nation are oecujdeil in tilling the soil; 
the re>t are occupied chielly in manufactures. 

s. I'lu'iioverumentoi" France under Louis Philippe was monar- 
chical; that is,thekiiii:- wasat thi' head of the nation, but the laws 
wen- made by the chambers or parliament, with the king's assent. 
'file king was the executive branch of the government, — that is 
to say, he executed the laws. The government (d" France was, 
i':. r.lore, what is called a limited monarchy. Hut, as we have 
^aid. France is now almost without a government. 

*:>. It IS the story of this jjreat nation that we art? now about to tell. 
We shall go l)ack to the earliest period, and endeavor to show yon 
ahat has hajtpened in France during the last eighteen Innidred years. 
We sshall tt 11 you about her kin^s, h(;r fjreat men, and the people. 
Anil we shall endeav«!r to show how it is, and by what inthienees, a 
populous and polished nation has jxrown'np, in tht^ progress of years, 
fnMii .scattered tribes t)f savages. 

10. We mav hen? remark, so as to give a general idea of the his- 
lorv of Franct', that when tin; country was first kiujwn, it was called 
(laiil, and the ptiople iiauh. Thes!^ were coiKpiered by the Romans, 
auil afterwanls trihes of rude people, called Fraidis, llocked into the 
ciunilrv, cou'iuered it, aiul stntled in it. 

11. From these France takes its name. The present French peo- 
ple are descended from the ancient (Jaulsand Franks ; their lauijuage 
is that of the Fraid^s, mixed with Latin and (iaulish words, together 
witii many new words, introduced in more modern times. 

\'Z. Thus th(> French nation has been about two thousand years in 
being converted from a barl)arous or savage people to what they now 
are. When Paris was first known it was only a little c(dlection of 
huts OH a!i island in the Seine, being surnnmded by thick forests, 
infested with wolves. How great is the change, and how interesting 
must be the history of events, which shows the means by which it h:is 



been wrought I 



in France'' S. Describe t tie government of France. 9. VVIial la tliat you are to learn 
fn»m the fol owini: jxitfes? 10. What of the Gauls.' Tlie Ri»nian.s? Tho Franks) 
11. \Vhat'>f the name of the French? The French people ? Their Ian^ia;?e 7 12 Wh« 
•f the hiPlo y of France / Paris ? 






m 




CHAPTER 1. 

About the early Inhabitants of France. 

1. Franjk was not always one kingdom, as it is now, but the 
country was anciently divided into many small states, governed by 
independent rulers. The rulers of one, becoming more powerful than 
those of the others, by degrees made themselves masters of the whole, 
and thus formed the powerful kingdom of France. 

2. The first inhabitants of this fine country probably came from 
Hermany, perhaps 2500 years ago. They had no alphabet or written 
letters, and of course no books; all we know about them is from the 
Romans, with whom they were continually at war, until they wvn 
finally subdued by Julius Csesar, a Roman general, about sixty years 
before the birth of our Saviour. 



I— I How was Frane situated in early times? How did it become one great kin^ 
•m» 2 3. Who were the first inhabitants of France? Describe the Gar's. WbaJ o* 



\i 



EARLY INHABITANrS. 



»• 



3. ('aesai besides being a skilful general, was a g> jd scholar, and 
wrote a history of all that he saw in the countries which he con- 
quered. What is now France was called by the Romans Ga/Iia, oi 
(iauL The inhabitants, called Gauls, we are told, were very similar 
in their character to the French of the present day, at the time Ca*sar 
conquered them, though of course men rude and savage. 

4. They were cheerful and light-hearted, with feelings quick and 
impetuous, but not deep or lasting. In their manners and habits they 
were little better than our own Indians. The city of Paris was then 
hut a collection of huts, made of wood and clay, like the Indian 
wigwams 




House of the Ancient Gauls. 

5. They lived by hunting and fishing, and their arms consis f d of 
oows and arrows, and an axe, which, like the Indian tomahawk, was 
hurled at their enemies in battle. They resembled the Indians also 
in their vi ,'s, for they were very intemperate in the use of intoxi- 
cating liquors. 

6. Tlteir dr^ss consisted of tight trousers, with a mantle thrown 
over their shoulders. In one particular they were creditably distin- 
guished from the Indians. The Gauls treated their women with the 
greatest honor and respect, and these in consequence were much 
superior in their character to the women of most savage nations. 

7. Th'; Gauls had no churches ; but in tlie midst of thick forests 
were er cted huge circles of rough, unhewn stones, placed upright, 
many of x\hich are now to be seen, though in a ruinous state. A 
these the people assemRed, and the priests, called Druids, clothec in 



lulius Csesar? How did Cai^sar describe the Gauls? 4. What of Paris in the limeol 
C.-esar? How lone; ago did Cresat live? .5. How did the Gauls live? Their armsl 
Their vices? 6 Dress of the Gauls ? Treatiiient of women ? 7. Religion of tl"* GauU) 
S. The Druids 7 



!l 




v/_---.'J :. V'-. '' ^^w.--'v' 



CHAPTER I. 

About the early hihabitants of France. 

1. Franjk was not always one kinn^flom, as it is now, but the 
country was anciently divided into many small states, iToverned by 
IndependtMit rulers. Tbe rulers of one, beeomiiiL: moro i)<>\veriul than 
those (tfthe otliers, bv tlejjrees made themselves masters of the wlwdr. 
and thus formed the powerful kinjidom of France. 

2. The first inhabitants of this fine couniry probal)ly came from 
( Jeniiany, perhaps *2.")()0 years ago. They bad no alphabet or written 
ti'tters, and of course no books ; all we know about them is from the 
Romans, with whom they were continually at war, until they wen 
finally subdued bv Julius Ca'sar, a Roman general, about sixty years 
before the birth of our Saviour. 



I 

tni 



- I How \v;is Fmiie sitn;ite«l iti wirlv limes? How ilid it become one great kiny 
» '2 ;l Who were the first iahahitania of France? Describe the Gars. What o# 



HAKI.V I.NHAniTANrv 

'^. ('aesai besides being a skilful general, was a g> jd seludar, and 
»*Tote a hisvory of all that he saw in the countries which he eon- 
ipicred. What is now France was called by the Pomans Gallia, or 
Haul. The inhabitants, called (lauls, we are tidd. were very similar 
HI their character to the French of the j)rey(Mit day, at the time Ca-sar 
coiKpiereU them, ihouizh ol" course men rude an<l savage. 

1. They were cheerful and light-hearted, with leelings quick and 
im[)etuous, but not deep or lasting. In their manners and habits they 
were litth; better than our own Indians. 'J'lie city of Paris was then 
i)ut a collection of huts, m.ide t)f wood and clay, like the Indian 
\vi If warns 




House of the Ancient Gauls. 

5. They lived by hunting and fishing, and their arms c(»nsis m1 of 
oows aiul arrows, and an axe, which, like the Indian tomahawk, was 
hurled at their enemies in battle. They resembled tiie Indians also 
in their vi 's, for they were very intemperate in the use of intoxi- 
cating liquors. 

f). TJM^ir dre^s consisted of tight trousers, with a mantle thrown 
ovrr their shojilders. In one particular they were creditably distin- 
fniished from the Indians. The Gauls treated their women with the 
greitf^st honor and respect, and these in consequence were nmch 
siuperior in their character to the women of most savage nations. 

7. Th'. (Jauls had no churches; but in the midst of thick forests 
wen. or cted huge circles of rough, unhewn stones, plac('d upright, 
many of uhich are now to be seen, though in a ruinous state. A 
these the people assembled, and the priests, called Druids, clothec :n 



liilnis tV.sar/ How did Ca.iar de.scril« lliR (iaulii'/ 4. What of Fari-s in the limeol 
C.-esar? How Ion? aso diil C.'psat live? B. How did the Gauls live? Their amisl 
Tlioir vires; 6 Dress of the Gauls ? Treatii.eut of women? 7. Religion of tte tjaul«) 
S The Druids / 

3* 



18 



THK I)IM)II»S 



while cire.sses, and crowned with oak leaves, offered sanificcs t(» iht 
one (lod, whom ihcy worshipped 




Drmdicol place of morship. 

8. These Druids were the historians and lawyers of their day ; foi 
ihe records and laws, being made into verse, were committed to 
memory by them, and were thus transmitted from one g^eneraMon to 




The Druids 

another. They appear to have had a despotic influence over Ch6 
people, even so far as to have the power of life and death, and i< 
•♦x?ms that they often sacrificed human victims to their deity. 



THE R031ANS IN GAUL 



t» 



CHAPTER II. 
The Romans conquer France 




Caspar attarking the Gauls. 

1. We have said that Gaul was conquered by the Romans nnilei 
Julius Cffisar. You will remember that at this time Rome was a 
crreat and splendid empire. She governed it for more than foui 
centuries without disturbance. During that time a great many 
Roman citizens settled in the conquered province, and brought with 
them their manners and arts. 

2. The Gauls lived in poor mud huts, or ill-built wooden hovels; 
but the Romans built fine houses, and palaces, and baths, Some of 
which are to be seen at this day. At the city of Nismes there is a 
beautiful amphitheatre, almost as perfect as when the Romans went 
to it to see the shows. There is also a much more useful monument 
of their greatness ; this is an aqueduct, carried over a deep valley and 
Mver, upon three tiers of arches, built one over the other, of immense 
FJones. 

ft. The Romans lived in houses large enough to contain a great 
many people. One side of every houso was appropriated to the 
{somen, who lived very much apart from the men. Each family had 
i great number of slaves, who were prisoners taken in war. 



11— 1. How long did the Romans govern Gaul ? What of Roman citizens? 2. Houew* 
•f '-he Gauls ? What changes did the Romans causo ? What of Nismes ? Which way 
* Nismes from Paris? How far from Paris? 3. Houses of the Romars? 4 Whai 



l^ 



I'Mi-; i!i;i ii'< 



white dresses, uml crowned witli oiik It^iives. otli'ied sMeniiecs to llit 
oru' (mmI, ulioiii thi'V \vorslii[tj»e(l 



m 



rHK ROMANS IN CiAUL 



CHAPTER II. 

The Ro7nans conquer France 



19 



If -I 




Drmdkal place o* v^orshtp. 

8. These Drui<l.s wi-re the liistorians and lawyers of their <hiy , for 
ih(* records and laws, beiii^'- made into verse, were committed t« 
meinorv hv them, and wen^ thus trans\nitted from one <reneraMon to 







The Drmds 



I- 



another. They appear to liave had a despotic influence over the 
people, even so far as to have the power of life and death, and \^ 
■♦'ems that they often sacrificed human victims to their deity. 




Ca!^nr ottnrhvs the Gauls. 

1. We have said that Gaul was conquered by the Romans uiidci 
Julius Ca'sar. You will remember that at this time Rome was a 
irreat and splendid empire. She fjoverned it for more than foui 
<"enturies without disturbance. I)uriii<,^ that time a js^reat many 
Roman citizens settled in the conquered ])rovince, and hrouj^ht with 
them their manners and arts. 

2. The Gauls lived in jxmr mud huts, or ill-built wooden hovels; 
but the Romans built fine houses, and palaces, and baths, Some of 
which are to be seen at this day. At the city of Nismes there is a 
beautiful amphitheatre, almost as perfect as wiien the Romans went 
to it to see the shows. There is also a much more usi^ful monument 
of tixMr greatness; this is an atpieduet, carried over a deep valley and 
'iver, upon three tiers of arches, built one over the other, of imn»ei!s<i 
fiones. 

f^. The Romans lived in houses larjit enoujjh to contain a ^-reat 
many people. One side of every hovise was appropriated to the 
vAomen, who lived very much apart from the men. Each family had 
1 frreat number of slaves, who were prisoners taken in war. 

(I — 1. How loM^ did the RuiTian.s 2oveni Gaul? Wlialof Komancili/:e:is ? 2. Houses 
•I 'he Gauls? What chamjes did » ho Romans causo? What of Nismes? Which way 
• Nismes from Paris? How far from Paris? 3. Houses of the Romar3? 4 What 



:^0 



THK FKANKS 



PHAKAMOND — CLODION - MEKOVF.US. - 44^. 



2i 



ill' 



4. TI.C com.uesl by the Honians was of great service to Gau By 
,ts means civil zation and the arts were introduced. Commerce Hour. 
11,:^ and the cities of MarseUles, Aries, Autun and Lyons at amc^ 
,<> 'J considerable size. Thv, company of the merchants «f /jj « ^^ 
established at this i,eriod,and hascontmuedto exist to the present day. 




Roman nqufilncl at Nismes. 



5 'iTie head of the company was called the provost f th^ rmr- 
chants In the course of time, the company became powerful, and the 
X^st came to be the principal officer of the cjty, ----"^ P^^^^ 
Bimilar to those of the mayors ot our own ci les This office has 
descended to modern times in France, and is called prejcct. 



CHAPTER III. 

About the Franks, who drove the Romans out of Frame. - 

^a.ildcric.^Clovis is converted to Christianity by hu 
vnfe Clotilda. — The Sacred Phial. 

I A RESTLESS love of chan-e, desire for plunder and perhaps 
•carMtv of food, which arose amoncr the people who did not steadily 
rultwate the soil, and who yet increased in numbers, induced various 
tribes for a loner series of years, to emi^rratc from Germany, and 
to establish themselves within the limits of the Roman empire, which 
was already tottering, from its overgrown size 



benefits foUoweil from the ronqiiedl oflhe Kunians? 
5. Whalofthe;»oroj>7? 
Ul \ What •»«■ variou8 irilws lu Germany f / 



What considerable towns grew rpl 
What of the Franks ? H What >' 



2. About the middle of the third century, several iri d vttf had 
settled along the Rhine and the Weser, in German , ass, )oiated 
themselves together and took the name of Franks, o' Freemen, tc 
show their determination to be free. After a contin'iv 1 struggle oi 
ilU) years, they finally established their capital at i'leves, on the 
Uhiiif, in Germany. From this point they soon sp jad themseHck 
into (Ja'il, or France. 





Pliaramond, reigned 420 to 42b 



Clodwn, 42M tt 448 



3. We know very little about their history ^\nng this period 
But the general belief is that Pharamond led the* loes of Franks who 
first established themselves in France. He died i 428, and was suc- 
ceeded by Clodion, celebrated for the beauty of b .. hair. Clodion di*id 
n 448, and was succeeded by Meroveus, who ;i.ve his name to the 
Merovingian, or first race of French kings, 'i is true there is som » 




Meroveus, reigiied 448 to 458. 

doubt about tnis ; all we can say with certainty is, that ihe FranKa 
were a powerful people in the fifth century, and that in the year 45S 
there was a king named Childeric, who extended his territories to the 
river Loire, in France. 
4. This Childeric was a brave prince, but his subjects, being dis- 



Pliaramond' Ciodinn ? Meroveus^ What of the Franks in the fifth century ? Wh« 
iid the fi«' reiiUiry »)^?in and end? Wh.il ..f Childeric ? 4. ">. 6. THl the «rU>rv or 



L^O 



THK FKANKS 



PHAin vro.VD — CLODION- ."MKIIoVFr^ li". 



2i 



h i 



4 TI.C oon<,-H,>sl bv Um' Uon.ans xvus of jTreiit servRv to Gau Bj 
,ls means civil /.iiti.u.and ih.' ;trt« were introduced, a.umierce iljur 
ish"l, and the eitws of MarseUles, Aries, Autun and ^vons attaine^ 
,o a considerable size. 'Vhv, comi>any ol the merchant. <d I ans ua« 
,.s:aMished at this peri(.d,and has continued to exist to tin- i.resent aay. 




fxoniiin <itjunliiri 'it \ismes. 

5 The head of the company was called ffic prorost <?//'" 'y 
^hanfi In the course of time, the eon.pany became powerful, and the 
j^rov^lst came to be the principal otf.cer ..f the city, ^^^^T/^'"^ l",^^™ 
similar to those of the mayors <.f our c»wn ^Mties 1 h,s office has 
descended to nK.dern times in France, and is called prrjicf. 



CHAPTEK III. 

Ahmif the Franks, who drove the Romans out of France. — 
Pharamond. - Clodion. - Merovms. - Thejon^ -hatred hi n^s. 
^Cf.Udfrk.—Clovh is converted to Christianity by his 
wife Clotilda. — The Sacred Phial. 

1 V uKsTi.Kss love of chan.je, desire for plunder and perhaps 
icarMtv of tood, which arose amouir the people, who did not steadily 
rulr rate the soil, and who yet increased in numbers, induced various 
tr ;« tor a lon.r series of years, to emigrate from Germany and 
to ^tiblisb thenrselves within the limits of the Roman empire, which 
was already totterinjj, from its over«,^rown size. 

benefits foliovved'fV^h7.^,.^^e Komans / What ronsKlerabJo towns grev, rpl 
5. Whalofthf/xoro.s/; , . .. , i ., vvi.n of ilu- Franlv-. ? :■ What »' 



J 



2. About the middle of the third century, several \r[ a v^ »* had 
settled alonji the Rhine and the Weser. in German , as& »ciated 
itiemselves tojjether and took the name of Fran/is, o' Frranrn, ic 
sliow their determination to be free. After a continuv J struOfj^le oi 
i.'iO years, they finally established their capital at l^e^'es, on the 
iviiliie. in (Jermany. From this point they soon sp ju(/ themse'vet 
iuto (la'il, or France. 





Pharjmond, reigned 120 to 42b 



Clodwti, \2H u 4 18 



^. We know very little about their history ''-riuj^ thia period 
Hut the jx'^neral belief is that Pharamond led the* <oes of Franks who 
first established themselves in France, lie died i 4'28, and was suc- 
ceeded by Clodion, celebrated for the beauty of h • nair. Clodion d'*!d 
ri 448, and was succeeded by Meroveus, who ^i,ve his name to the 
Merovingian, or first race of French kings, 'i is true there is soiv » 




Meroveus, reigticl 1 18 to 458. 

daid)t about tnis ; all we can say with certainty is, that the tY'uiKs 
were a powerful people in the fifth century, and that in the year 4.18 
tli.'re was a kin'j named ChiMeric, who extf nded his territories to the 
river Loire, in France. 

4. Thia Childcric was a brave prince, but his subjects, beinp dis- 



PliarainoiKi 
Ji«1 ihH fi»" 



Cltilion? MerovpiH ■* 
■eilUiry l>»?in <M\i\ <Mtl 



VVlmt <•! 111.: Fr.nik.s ni the fifih century ? Whini 
.' Willi ..r Cliil.lerir ': 4. :">. 6. I>ll ihe wtorv oi 



• >•/ 



CIllLDbKlL — ULUV'iS — OLOULDA.— 401. 



.uiiu'iiied, (in.vt! hirii troiii tne couniry, and placed Ei^edras, a Roman 
ueiieral, upon the llirone. Childeric had left p:ood friends behind 
him; one of uiese, named Wionald, ^rained ffroat influence oyer the 
new kiniT, and indued him to i)erform such actions as made hmi 
•idious to liis subjects. , 

5. As soon as Wionald perceived this, he sent -.0 is old niaster 
the half of a piece of gold which they had broken at their last niter 
view. Cliilderic understood the token, and returned to Gaul. Col- 
lectinir an army, he ai^ain possessed himself of the throne, and main- 
lained'^himself upon it till his death, in 481. 

(>. In IG53, a tomb, said to be his, was discovered. Amonf? other 
rerK-s found in it, was a seal ring, with the impression of a man of 
jreat beauty. His face was shaved, his hair long, plaited, separated 
on the forehead and thrown back ; in his right hand he helda javelm 
ind on the seal was the name " Childeric " 




Childerir. reli^ned 458 to ISl. Chn-is, 481/0 511. Clotilda. 

7 The Merovin<Tian kings were called thp hm'^-lioircd hni'S, 
because the roval familv allowed their hair to fall in long curls ovei 
their shoulders, while all the other Franks had it cut short at the 

lack of the head. . 

8 Clrlderic was succeeded bv his sen, Clovis. W hen he came to 
'he throne h(^ was a pauan. Hearing much of the beauty and virtue 
ot* ("lotilda, niece of the King of Burgundy, he asked her in marriage. 
Her uncle wius afraid to refuse his consent, for fMovis had already 
a«-quireil great reputation :>s a soldier; and so the matter was agreed 
upon. 



Chil.Wic. 7. WlKil were the Merovingian king:* called? Why? ^. W, U of i>-iii1 



CLOVIS A.V HIS CHARGKrt— 496. 



33 



9. The ambassador set out for Burgundy to bring Clotilda, and 
j.avinff presented her with two little bits of money, she was con. 
fiidered as married. The young queen, having made her prepara- 
tions, started on her journey in a wagon drawn by oxen. This wab 
the mo.st elegant carriage then in use. Carriages <lrawn by oxen art- 
used by Turkish ladies for pleasure-riding, but they would hardly do 
for French queens now. 

10. Clotilda was a Christian, and was very desirous to convert hei 
husband, but he steadily refused, until, in the midst of a battle, his 
iroc»ps i>egan to give way, and he then made a vow, that, if the God 
of Clotilda would grant him the victory, he would be baj.ti'zed. Clevis 
was victorious, and kept his vow. 

11. On Christmas day, A. D. 496, he was baptized at the city of 
i^heims, together with his sister and about three thousand of his sub- 
jects. Clovis was thus the first Christian King of France ; before 
him, ihev had been pagans. The superstitious people of that age 
believed that a dove descended from heaven, bringing a phialfilled 
with oil for the consecration of the king. This phifvl has been kept 
lo the present day, and is called the sacred phial. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Superstition of Clovis. — The Salic Laws. — Anecdote of 

Clovis and the Soldier. 

1. St. Martin of Tours was the favorite object of the worship ot 
Kinrr Clovis. On a certain occasion, being about to engage in l)attle, 
he made a vow that if he was victorious lie would bestow on this 
saint his tavorite charger, which was probably the thing he loved 

most dearlv. 

•J. He gained the battle, and then wished lo redeem his pledge lor 
one bundr^i'd pieces of gold. But the saint would not let him off so 
easily, and the horse would not stir from the stable till the saint 
was "satisfied. "An excellent friend in time of need, this St. 
Martin," said the king, "but rather difficult to transact business 

«^•ith." 

3. The religion of Clovis never restrained him in his cfMirse of 
imbiiion, for h'e seized every opportunity of extending his doniinions 
either by fraud or violence. In his day, and long after, it was 
believed that all crimes might be atoned for by the erection of 
churches and the support of monasteries. 



Clotilda'' 9 Hnw did Cl<>vi.-j w.m1 Cl.iiildii ' How did ladies travel in the time of Clovis? 
What of Turki.sh ladies ? 1<». What of Clotilda and Clovi.-^ ? 1 1. When was Clovjs l-ep- 
tized? What of the sacred phial.' 

V. — 1 2. What of Clovis .ind St. Martin of Tours? X W'hat of tie religion of 
Clovi.<»' What opinion prevaile<l in the liine of Clovis ? 4. What of the \ intor:** * tb# 



I 



Si CMIl.ilhKU. — «.I.U\ .S — lJlX)riLI>A.— -vsi. 

, um-'iiird, (in.vr liiiii fruiii Uie (Muinirv, :in(l iiUiohI Euetlias, a Roman 
.H'lieral, upon tlif tl.-nMie. Childcric h:ul left ffoo.! triends behini. 
fiiin; one of Uics*', n:.m.-(l Wioiiald, uaiiu-.l irivnt iiilluence (.yer tlin 
now ki.iu-. :iii.i iM<lu(v.| l.im to iH'rlnri.i surli iicticns :is made lum 

odio'.ia tn his sulijecls. , 

5. As s(M)ii ;is Wionald perceived this, he sent '.o xs old niaster 
the half of a piece of ijold which they Imd broken at their last inter 
view. Childeric understood the token, and returned to (laiil. (ol- 
l.'etinir an army, he aj^ain possessed himsidf of the llirone, and main- 
laiiied himself upon it till his death, in 481. 

f). In inr):i, a tomb, said to be his, was discovered. Amonj? otlier 
rcdi'-s found in it, was a seal rinf^, with the impression of a man of 
^rirat beauty. His face was shaved, his hair lonjj, plaited, separated 
on the forehead and thrown back ; in his rijrht hand he helda javdin 
and on tlie seal w:ls the name " Childcric " 



CLOVIS AN HIS CHAKGl.iC. -49f). 



5!3 




Vinhlenr. nhvied -158 fo IM. Ch,ri^, IM to 511. Clotilda. 

7 The Mrroviii'nan kitiirs were called fhr InniS-hnirrtl hrii'X, 
liecause the roval familv albmed their hair K. fall in loiiir curls ovei 
their shoulders, while all the other Franks had it cut short at the 
lack of the head. . 

8. Clrlderie was succeeded by his sen, C lovis. \\ hen he came to 
'he throne he was a pn^an. IT^arinir much of the bea\ity and virtue 
of ("lotilda, niece of th^' Kinij of Hurjrundy, he asked Iv^r in marnajre. 
Her nnele was alVaiil to refuse his consenl, for ('lovis had already 
ace,uired great reputation as a soldier: an<l so the matter was agreed 
upon. 



i;hil.l^ric. r. Wlul were ihe Mc roving inn king.-, calleil ? Why ? *. W: »i of iV-i^ 1 



»» 



9. The ambassador set out for Burgundy to brinrr Clotilda, ant^ 
i.avinur presented her with two little bits of money, she was rnn. 
sidered as married. The young queen, havinjj made Iwr^ preirara- 
lior.s, started on tier journey in a wagon drawn by oxen. This wap- 
iti ■ MKfst eU'L'-aiit carriage then in use. Carriages drawn by oxen are 
i-s-m1 by Turkish ladies for pleasure-riding, but they would iiardly dii 
tor Frencii (jueens now. 

10. Clotilda was a Christian, and was very desirous to <*onvert hci 
husband, bat he steadily refused, until, in the midst of a battle, his 
troops lu'ir-du to give way, and he then made a vow, tliat, if the (iod 
of Clotilda would grant him the victory, he would be baptized. Clevis 
was victorious, and kept his vow. 

11. On Christmas day, A. D. 41K;, he was baptized at the city of 
Kht'ims, together with his sister and about three thousand of his .sub- 
jfeis. Clovis was thus the first Christian King of France ; before 
him, thcv had been pagans. The superstitious p«>oplo of that age 
bi'lieved'that a dove descended fr«»m heaven, bringing a phial filled 
with oil fi>r the consecration of the king. Tliis phiM has been kept 
to th<* present day, and is called (he sacred phial. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The Snj}frstitirm of Clovis. — T/te Salic Laws. — Atiecdote of 

Clovis and the Soldier. 

I. St. Martin of Tours was the fiivorile object of the worj-hij) ot 
Kini: Clovis. On a certain occasion, being about to engage in battle, 
he made a vow that if he was victorious he would bestow on this 
saint his fiivorite charger, which was probably the thing In; loved 

most dearlv. 

•J. Hr oained the Ir.ittle, and then wished to ndttni his pledire for 
onr liniidre<l j)ieees of uold. Hut th(^ saint would not let him oil' so 
easily, and the hors*; would not stir from the stable till the saint 
was "satisfied. "An excellent friend in time of need, this St. 
Martin,"" said the king, "but rather dilTicult to transact businosa 

(\ith."' 

'^. The religion of Clovis never restrained him in his course of 
md)iiion, fiir he seized every oi'portunily of cxtendinir his dormnions 
either by fraud or violence. In his day, and long after, it was 
believed" that all crimes might b.^ atoned fi)r by the erection of 
churches and the support of monasteries 



Clotilla? 0. U"\v liiil CInvis v..-.l (Jl.iilila ' l!n\\ <ii<! ludies travel in llie time of Clovis? 
What of Turkish la.lie.'? .' 10. Wivil of Clotii.la a.ni Clovi-; .' II. When was Ciov:s l-ap- 
lized? W' hat of ihe sacred pi'.ial.' 

V — I. 2. W^hit of Clovis iM.l St. Marliii .-f T.-nrs? X What of tw religion of 
Clovis 1 What opinion prevaiJPfl in th»» tiino of Clovi< ! i. Whnt of the tistnr.w * U» 



- I 



I 



; 



: 



I 



I 



^ 



I 



s ' 



I. 



*i4 



CL0V1S.-5U. 



4. The .nests, «ho .ere ^f'^^<'^'y^l^'^:^^:::^Z 
i„ their histories huve ,«>ss,..l »;". ^'^^^.f ,'^^d ,l,e hea^s of 
treachery, 'l'" secure his ow.i ''"^^ "'yf' ';tva ds, lest time should 
,„„,V of his relations to he ,f ,»;^"i.' ;' ',,^f , ' ^u heu, to death, 
re.mvv the l.infr ha,r, ihe emhlem "t f" V^^V ^ ' • p^^,,,^,, ,„„„ 

:,. Ch.vis may he consiclere<l as the "' ™" J ■ Xhough 

arehv, ior he first co,„h„„.,l the -^^^^^'^[Sed j ^ and hua.ane 
so cruel, he was a wise inonareh. M«J^^f' f„^„ {he name given 
|.aws. One code was <^^'>«f,/''fks of the 'riers Meuseaud Rhine, 
to the scddiers who S"*"''^ V' '" ,y'"'^,,v V"^ ' the Sael, on the banks 
6. Another code was called "';^^^'' ;/^X la',, is s ill tamiliar to 
of which it had its origm. l''^, "^" :„' ^.''."h i, ,hat which excludes 
us, for one of its provis.m^ is yet a hirce , t ^^ ^^^ ^._^^ .^ ^^„^j 

females from the throne ol ^'■'»^^- .i ," oresent day there has never 
,„„.„, hut '>•■"' '''y™«;/J■'■^Vr,:" a o^tW this 'provision will be 
been a sole (lueen ot Trance. ""- . , , .„ 

apparent when 1 tell you "''""\.^';;',,^';';'J;4t. perpetual wars. He 

;ive.l in .he mi.lst ot his ^",''''"»' r h.s trooDS were only kept togethei 
rather lilce a chief ol >'-'".''' '• '« J^^aJ^'^PThe rel'^'i"'' "' "'"'^'' >'« 
by the hope and the Py^ "^^ ''^, ;' J,',;- ,„ „„ecaote. 
sto(Kl to his people will h. 1" "•™^'' f^„i, f„„„d among the booty a 
8. His army, having I'l""','--"''' ^'^'X „!. The bishop besought 

what fell 10 his share. Soisscns for the 

division of the spoils. ^^^^^^ ^^/^ P ^^ ive him the vase. Al 
„..ddle Cl-s -^-;:^-^t,fit"w haughty soldier hfted 

appeared wiUincr to J^^'^^^^y;!*^^ , '^'....g. ^vith the utmost violence, 
Stv' V.fu 'sh'^l' rtelotnTt.- but what the lot gives 



you 



'■ '^O.' The king concealed ^'l^:^Ti!!:^:X:'^^^^ 
deferred. At a review in the field ot Mars ^.^ ,^^_^j 

with his arms not m prope ^ierj^ Uie ^^_^^ ^^^^^^ 

isunder with his sword. It was inus, 

the vase at Soissoiis.'' ,,■„„„„„ clevis erected a church at 

1,. At the solicitation of > %q"^^";^^° compared with what it 

Franks now in existence. Clovis diedm^u^^^^^ 

Sjvis build « When did he die ? 



CHILPKBKKT- CLOTHAIRE-CHII-PKRIC — 5ft» 



CHAPTER V. 



sr> 



Ahout the Merovingian Kings wno succeeded Clovis.— - Tkt 
Mayors of the Palace, and the Faintaiis or Sluggards 





Cfnhkbert, 511 to 558. 



Cloth (I ire, 558 to 561. 



1. ArcoRDiNG to the custom of the Franks, the kinjjdom uas 
divided hetween the song of Clovis — four in number. These were 
Theodoric, called Thierry I., Clodoinir, Childebert and Clothaire. 
Clothaire survived all his brothers. One of these had left three sons, 
who had been entrusted to the care of their p^rand mother, Clotilda. 

2, KinjT Ch)thaire sent to her a sword and pair of scissors, which 
she n^adily understood to mean, that her nephews must either die, or 
rut of!" their hair and enter a convent. She chose the sword, and 
two of them were accordina[ly killed by Clothaire himself. The 
t.hi-d founded a convent near Paris, railed St. Cloud, a corruption 
of lis name of rhlodould. 





Cfiaribert, 561 to 567, 



Chilperic, 567 to 584. 



3. Clothaire now reii^ned alone till 501, when he died, leaving 
four sons, Charibert, Gouthran, Chilperic, and Sigebert. Sijreber 
iTiarried Rrunhault, daughter of the King of Spain, and his ambaa- 



V. — 1. How w.-is lli^ kiiieloin of Clovis .livi( «»d ? 2. What of Clothaire? What rl 
Ihe three nep'iews f.f Clothaire? Wliat f St Cloud? '.i. When 'lid Clothaire dip' 

s 



*i4 



CI .O VIS. -"11 



,r,.a,-l...rv. To sour,. !..:< "«„ • '" ". .;.,"„.^,,,,,, ,,.„ „„„■ sl,..ul.i 

.I. .VU..11..T !.• was rail. . M' ~'; ';,,,. ,.,„. |^ ^„|| ,a,niliar f. 

„s. .or on,, of ,ts i^rov.s.ons js v, |u 1.-;^.,,,^ ,„. „,., ;,,„„ „ .,,,|..,1 

;r;;;;::tru.J. ;:;:.■.:..;-■;;.-- ,. ..■ 

n„l,..r li1.o a.-lM,.|- ol •-"•'""•,",;,„';" 'tIm- n^lauon in «ln.-l, I-' 

^^::;;^^;: ;;::;^':inv>'? 'f :: -ir;^^^ ..„..i 

S. His unnv. hav.nu^ r'''''•'•''";^^ Man vh Tlio b-ish.p In-sou^rhl 

what tVll to lus shun-. . Si»issoiis for tin' 

a. Th. ar,ny «- assnuW .».;;;• '^^ ^^ ^^,^^, ,„.,,, .„ ., 

,l,vision ot ll... sl...lls. Ill s. » f j ,,;,„ ,i„. vasr. AM 

>■""'■"■ , . 1 .,1 Lis roscntmi'iit. I'ut his vcn|ii-ance was only 

10. Tlu- kins eoii'-ralot l.is f>^^.\"" .'\,.,,^ ,iu- soldier ■.ii.iK'aro<l 
lolVrr,.!. A. a rev.cw .n .1... u ot M. r- ^^_^^^ ^^.^ ,_^,^ 

vv-uh lus anus not .n pro,..^ ^ ■^^,V,„;"•■ Iai,l he, " that yon Btrn,-k 

isnnder with his swor.l. H " •'' '""' ' 

the v;use at Soissons ■ ^ted a chnrrli at 

11. At the solieilat.on ol '■ '^ '"-j:;;^ eotniK.re.l with what it 
Pans, whtoh at thts t,me wa-s ^-^^^ ^^^,, ,„„,,, i„ i,, au.l t.. 
now is. A pi.i..s woman. .v..m-.l ^^ ;';;;;.„„ .„■ „„s ehnrch yet 

-^ ''" :^r:'.:^^^^^ ^^•^^ """^""" -""' "" '"" 

'Sks-:- in «istence. ^C.ovi^d^5il__ 

S,T,9biultn When Jul he die? 



c;mi.i»i:i;KKr (lotmaikk cmim'kkic. &fH 



2r> 



CHAITKK V. 

.{f'ouf the Mirorinirinii Kiiii^s irno surcpeded C/ovis. — The 
Mayors of the Pa/f/rr, and the Fahuans or S/ui^gards 





Clnhf'hr/f. r^\ \ fn ...V 



rinfl.fiire, 5C)H to .Wl 



I. A« < (iiMMN*; to the nisldiii nf ilir Friiiks, thn kiiifjdom \%'.ia 
liviilrd hrtvvccn tin'; sons of ( 'lovis- four in mirnUcr. These were 
'I'lieodnric, culled 'i'liierry I., ( 'lodoiuir, ('liildf'hert and ('l(»tliaire. 

• Mtitliiiire survived all his hrolhers. ( )ii(! of these had l(;fl three sons, 
who had l>e«'n (Mitnisted to the rare of their (jraudinother, (^lotilda. 

'J. K'\]\<r ("Idthaire sent to lu-r a sword and pair of scissors, vvliich 
*<he r< adilv understood to mean, that her nephews must either di«', or 
<Mit oil" their hair and enter a convent. She chose the sword, and 

• wo of them were accorditif/lv killed hy ('lothaire himself. The 
»lii-d founded a convent near Paris, called St. Cloud, a corruption 
ttf lis name of ( 'hlodoald. 



I 





Chnrihprt, •'itil to 'xlT. 



Chilpprir, .^67 to 581. 



3. ('lothaire now reiLrned alone till '>(i\, when he died, leavin*? 
four .sons, ChariluTt, Gouthran. Chilperic. and Sicohert. .Sijieber 
married Bnmhault, dauj^hter of the Kin-j of Spain, and his aiiibas- 



V. _ 1. How was tli'i ki.iTluin of Clni^ -livit ».! 1 2. Whai of Cl«»ihaire? What rt 
rtw Ihree iiep'iew.-; ..f (Initiiiire ? Wkil { S\ Cloud? :{- When iid Clothaire dir ' 



2g . C1.0rHAIRE ll.-l)AOOBERT -t«- 

^or on that occasion w- Gogo Af„^; «/ * P«^- J 

first n.eMt.on m history "f f f '?"' ^^7,', departure fr.nn Spam .n a 

U,e Spaniards were to the G,.nn.u s -^ ^^^,^_^j Fredego.ul-, 

4. Chilpenc took for lub f"^» '' L.^^uisheil for her beauty, he. 
a daughter of a pe..«uut, '''''i."!";' > j f ^*^ "ee„ Brunhault and fre 
talems,andhercrunes lleq^^^^^^^^^ ,„,i,ed all h« 

degomle deluged France "'l'' »'"^>; ^j j„„ „.as divided betwee,. 

'S^i^:^'^^'^^^^:^^^^^"'^'' -0 «otha.re U , .. 
of Chilperic and Fredegonde. 





Clnthdire II. 



Dd'Mert, tViS to 038. 



5. Childebert died in f^^^:^:ZJ^^ 

Clolhaire 11., and ^^';\'.':;:V,^' " f-'b^'^bert by the murder of hi* 
sons, Dagobert 1. »"d Cha. Ik rt 1 . im5.0D , , ^^ 

:;rr; rc,ortn!r,i:^trdlt"l;!:-^hed .. b. iust,ee ,n -he 

-Tt^^ -.'"•- ';• ,r ^itSfiZfuXr n 

comtnerce flourished ; and f'''' '" ' ^';''^.,7i^ o38, and the n.on- 

^r^o^=^"' !;;;■ £Stf-- z. ss^. 

:? tr;:^aee: ^^^ lTq;r;::I;S and a., power feu .nto 

the hands of the mayon "ff'.V!:Z„ „!,l Gem.an words, monl;lo,ne 

7. This title ts derived f' »'"'";; ',^7,,i,,U8 ,,ieted up a U 
meaning judge of murders. Bm^^^^^ 2,,„, . ^^^^,, ,,^ 

iir^nF^LitXt aganrXnged into .„ai.. -/» H- — V™ 
of the palace. — 

What were the names of hi^ fmir son. ? Whni ^^^f jrfifi^^Vic^.^^Snd '"vifrr^ W hat of 
^lace? What of ?if ^^^ ^ i" Reiween^hl w^ he kingdom of France d.vu^ed . 
Gouthran? When dul he ihe 7 Between wnoi.iw^ What of l)a<io\)erti b. \\ h«' 
Twh^nc^-^ ChiUlebert die? >^^haM.apPened^ m 6^^^ ^^^^^^ ^.^.^ ,v^^^, ^f ,„, 
of France uarmg Vhe reign of P.igobert / 



THE FAINEANS. — 741 



27 



8. Ill 688, Pepin d'Heristal, Mayor of the Pai ice, assumed thr 
whole power, merely suffering the king to ap{)ear at tl e annual meet- 
ing in the Field of Marcii, wliich was an assembly of the nobles and 
people, at first held in March, and afterwards in May ; and there 
fore it was called at tiist the Field of March, or Mars, and afterwardv" 
the Field of May : at all other times the king was kept in confine- 
ineu*. 





Clotis 11. , 038 to 656. 



Clothaire III, 656 to 668. 



'i. Pepin died in 714, and was succeeded in his office by his son, 
Chailes, called Martel, or the Hammer, from the weight of hia 
blows in battle ; a man who, by his great valor and activity, saved 
Uie kingdom from the Saracens, who had already conquered parts of 
Italy and Spain. On the death of Thierry IV., in 737, Cha''pa 
thought himself powerful enough to dispense with the ceremony >< 
aopointing a nominal king. 





: I 






Childeric II., 668 to iMA. 



Thitrry III, 673 to 690. 



10. He therefore mounted the throne, and at his death, in 741, he 
bequeathed th<; kingdom to his sons Pepin and Carloman, who as- 



sovereigns who succeeded him? 7. How did the riile. m.tvor df the palace, orieinatel 
H. What of Pepin d'Heristal? 9. When did Pepin d'Herisial die? What of Lrjdflea 
Martel ? When did Thierry 11. die ? 10. What die' Charles ."Nlartel do l pon the dealli of 
Thierry? How wa-^ the "M.^nn-mjirin rare of king? .enninated? How hns had tbialirw 
of kings reigned ? 



I i 



1 



i! \ 



i ! 



I 11 ^ 



-J I-LOIIIAIKK 11 I'AOimKltl tT^ 

.a,l»r.mll,.t.»r.xsi,u,«.s(io..M..A^^/..r.^^^^ 

,ir.i „„•„.,..„ u. I.islov "I .«. ^^ . ,v„,„ si«,n in;. 

::::;:; ;:;:^'Xr;:::';J:tr^i..-..;i;-. -■>-" 

,l,...,n.l.- .1.-1UL'.'.1 I'l-"'--' ""'..'",: l,iu..l.'n.wns,liv„lr,ll,,'lw..c.. 
otClnlperic aiul Fmlegonae. 



THK KAINKANS 



II 



27 





Cliithiiir'' II- 



l),i'-i>hcrt, •VJ.'^ /(' <'".>8 



5. ,-,.,.a,.,„-n .lie,, in f^'V'''^t■^!::t^lri,w;!";!^e::t;; 

noihain. 11.. -.."a ^" -, ;;:; ;•;'l^'i i:,;!;^ i; 111. .".-.1.. .,f m. 

!:?;;:!;;:;:ru:;;r::;i:r:,r;n.;;:,;l.i...a..Hi..si,.^^ 

.„„„,..■„•.. ll..urisl.o,l ; •■'"' I'"''' ; ,lH ; die in 038, and Ihe nu.u- 
the hands of the maiivrs ^'^/^'^ /;';^;'; ! ; ,,j (;^,^,,,^„ ,,,,,as, ;m)n/-.A'>«'' 
of the paliice. ^ 

- . v\'tv.. »f<rrr'hor' 1 \Vh;U "1" l»"' mayor cf ihe 

What were iho name, of Itis l.mr soa. ? U h u > :.^j ;; ,.^ ^^,,.,„., .,,f, ; What of 

^Uce^ What of ^'r^^^" ^J:""''! Je,. Ih >M v.i^^^^ kingdom of iMaoro . hvideci ; 
bouthran? ^hon i i-l h.\ il e .- Kenvee.ov^^^^^^^^ What of Da?o!HMt ♦-. \V h«' 

of France unring ^he rei^zn "i im^'mm^fu . 



8. Ill HH8, Pepin iri[«'ri«l:il, Mayor of the Pa we, assumed tin- 
whole power, iiicn-ly siilleriii!,^ tlii' \i\n\i t(» appear at tie annual meet- 
inj^ in llir l''ir|(l of Maii-h, uliieji was an asstinldv '>f the nohle;-- an<l 
[MMple, at first jicid tn Man-h, and afterwards iii May; an<i tin re 
Ion; it was called at fust the Fnld of March, or Mars, and afterward." 
i!ie Field ot" May : at all (MJier tunes the kintj was kept in confnie- 

MHUl*. 





6(V>t/.s- //.. f,:;s i(, firxi. 



Clothaire III., 05f) to Gti8. 



V. Pe[)in died in 711, and was suc(X'eded in his office hy his son, 
('hailes, called Martrl, or the liimtiur, from the weifrljt of his 
hlow's i:; 'nattle ; a man who, hy his j^reat valor and activity, saved 
Uie kiii<,^dom from tlu; Saracens, who had already conquered [)arls of 
Italy and Spain. On the <leath of Thierry iV., in 737, {'A\d/\» 
ihou<,dit himself p(»werfiil etiou^^h to dispense' with the ceremoni »< 
appointing a nominal kin<r. 





Childeric 11., 6G8 to f»7.;. 



Thitn!/ ///., 673 to 090. 



10. He therefore mounted the throne, and at his death, in 741, lit- 
Ne«pieathed the kinfj<lom t(» his sons Pepin and f'arloman, who as- 



"overeiiiiis whit siicci-citcd liirii? 7. How diil iIil- -ill*' riiiiv.ir df Uie palace, orieinate J 
H. What of Pepi,, .rHf-ristal .' 0. VVIicn .lid Popin d'Hr-ri t:»l .lio? Wtial of Cridfiea 
Marlel ? When did Thierry It. die .' 10. What (hJ Charl^^s Marlel do i \»in the death of 
rhierry ' Ffmv wns the ^T^- ■ ■ 'in mm of kin?-! prniriat-'d ? How hnq had iMsllr* 
of king* reieiipd ' 



* 



^ REVIEW OF IHL MEHOViN.nAN PYNA^FY - H. lO 741. 

..ed the title as well as power of kin^^^^^^^^ ^he'thrt 

Merovingian dynasty, or race of Clovis, wno 

from 481 to 741. 



i ! 



CHAPTER VI. 

Review of the Mero^ngian Period of French History, 




Throne of Dasobert, in the Museum at I'aris. 



France. U will be «>"i"''^"'- ' .";."^^ . ;,„,v know that about lilty 
U,e eon.,«est o Vsar - — ; .^ ...rlVance was oeeu,iea 1 y 

S" ^%alle.rbX"."'.o^^a "-;;f^^t„:il^a.t;t four 

o. We know that R.""'« ^"IT"! 4%te 
,;„■! years held PVPf^'"" "L'lT,r;"^.,' f other countries to the 
.,.a..v, HoUan.!. Belsuun ^ vU^Hau. a .1 oh ^^^^ ^^^ 

ceased t.. be her P"f ''f''""^; ,., .,„ ,,„„ „iven name and oriein to 
..e^'^nrnStr^^^e'oer^^^^ 

What of Rome ? 3. What of the Frai.fe* ' 



VI. — 1. What of France in early lime^ ? 



KKVIEW OK THE MEROVINGIAN DYNASriY. — 161 TO MI. 



•J9 



auout the year 400, and established themselves there. It is probable 
ihat they advanced by degrees, and perhaps a considerable niinaber of 
years elapsed between the first march from Treves, on tbe llhine, and 
the final overspreading of the whole territory. 

4. As to Pharamond, Clodion and Meroveus, we have said there 
is much doubt and uncertainty ; but there is none as to Clovis. Here 
the page of history become.'^ clear and certain, although it must be 
admitted that it does not present a very pleasing series of pictures. 
The people were rtide, and the kings thought it right to murder 
fathers, brothers, or cousins, that might stand in their way. Still, 
during this period of 200 years occupied by the long-haired or Mero- 
vingian kings, of which we have given a brief notice, the French 
natPon was gradually advancing in civilization, numbers and power. 



Table of the Merovingian Kings. 



Clovis began to reign in 481 ; and from this point is dated the found 
ation of the French monarchy. 

Tliierry I., 1 

Clodomir, 1 Sons of Ci(»vis —began their joint reigns in 512. 

Childebert I., | Clothaire w&e the survivor, and died in 5GI. 

Clothaire I., J 

Charibert T., 



SJouthran, 

Chilperic, married Fredcgonde, 
Sigebert, married Brunhault, 
Childebert II., son of Sigebsrt, 
Clothaire II., son of Chilperic, 



I Sons of Clothaire — began thei? 
joint reigns i n 56 1 . Gouthran w;n 
the survivor, and died in 503. 

Joint kings. 



1 



(1 k- 




Thiernj II 




Childebert II. 



Theudebert. } Sons of Childebert 11. — reigned jointly with Clo- 
Tliierry JI., ( thaire II., till 613, when Clothaire became sole king 

4. WhU of Clovis ? What of the people under the Merovingian kines? What of the 
kings ? What of France u ulf;r these kin^s ? When did Clovis besia to reign ? Whal 
of the four sons of Clovis .' What of the four sons of Clothaire ? What of Childebert II 
and Clothaire II. ? Whal of the two sons of Chi' ^ebe^t II. 7 What of the two sons o 
Clothaire / What of Si^elieri 11. and Clovis II '■ rVhat were the nani&s of the six 9'»i| 

3* 



I ; 



KKVIIAV (»l' rni. Mi;i;nVI.\(JIAN ItVNASlV 1-1 ro 7\\. 



•J« 



! i 

111 

1 



? I 



.„...ed the .u>.., us wen ..s v^^ ^!,^:^^^:XT:::^ t^'^ 

Merovingian .iyniisty, or rucc ..I < -1"^ •». 
from 481 to 741. 



CIl.M'THK VI. 
Reuewofthe Mrro^n,i.n, I'm.! 'tf l^rn.h U:,ory. 




nru,u uf Da.,.be,t. i,, the ISInHxm nt fam- 



I „>,.r ilw first staec of llic liistory ol 
,, Wk Imvo now l"'^^! '' " / " U i^i'' thi^ tbut all, previous to 
Fran.-,.. It vv.ll « rou.arU.a. i r nu m„ ^^^ i ^,^^_,^, n,.^ 

„,, eon,,,,.-., of . a-.u ;;>»;;; , ,,.;;"l^,..„e.. „.s oocn,n,.,l 1 v 

... Wc know that ^"-^'y^Zl^^i^^^ liritain, Uo,- 
,1„,1 yo:,rs l,.l. possess,,,,, "f '^ f,;' .^ , ,> ' ,„, „|„.r ,.o„n„ios to tho 
nanv, ll..lla".l. I olaium, -^^ '■ ' " ; ,. n,-,,, „.,„„rv. Uoine wa, 
riolS i,;t;":o::W r^::;:^''':'*;,;:.' l. t.,cse sev.:ra, countnc. 
t-eased to he her P'^f ;f ^^i!'; ,.. ,,.^,,, \,^,.,. civen name and oricjin to 

\Vh:\l(»f iheFrai.^*' 



a.Kiut llu' y«Mr 100, -.md cstiiUlishod tlj«Mnsi^lves tliore. It is prohable 
that they advanced l»y den^rcos, and |urhap.s a cuiisijlcrahle nu'iibcrof 
voars ela[>sed lu'tweeii llu* first niarcli fnnii 'I'rrvcs. on the Rhine, and 
tlie fnial overspreading of the wh(d«' territory. 

4. As to IMiaraiiiojid, (Modioli and Merovens, we have said there 
is nnieh douht and inieertainty ; Ijnt then; is none as to ( *h)vis. 1I(to 
lh«> pa^M; of history heeoiner i^lear and eertaiii, altlioiijjh it iinisl he 
admitted that it does n<»t present a very pl«asin^r series nf pictures. 
The peoph- were rude, and th(; kin^s thought it riirlit to iiiiirder 
fathers, l)rolhers, or cousins, that nii<.dit stand in their way. Still, 
dnrinj; this period of uMiO years occupied hy the loiiL^-haired or Mero- 
viiiixian killers, of which vv<' iiave <,Mveii a hrief notice, the French 
nation was jiradiially advancin^^ in civilization, nnnihers and [)Ower. 

Tahlk ok tin: Mkkovingian Kincs. 

( Movis hciiiin to reii,Mi in IHl ; and from this point is dated tlic found 
ation of the French uioiiarchy. 

Thierry I., ") 

1 Sons of f'iovis — hrrran tlnur joint reijrns in 512. 

[ Clothain^ wf^s the survivor, and died in .'')() I. 



( Modomir, 
Childehert I., 
( "iothaire I., 

' "harihert I., 

'Ni'oiithraii, 

Chilperic, married Frede;.roiide, 

Siirel)ert. married Jirunhault, 



I Sons of r'lolhaire — hejjan thei? 
V joint reifTMs in .'iOl. CJonthran \v:!j 
th'j survivor, and died in 5i).'i. 



(:inldebertIi.,sonofSijjeb.rt, I j„,„t kings. 
Clothaire II., son ol Chilpenc, S 





Thierry II 



ChiUhhrt II. 



V1.-1. WlvUofFrancei..e.rlyiime..' 2. Wlut.fH-.mc? 



Fheudcbert, } Sons of Childebert 11.— reirrned jointly with Clo 
Thierry II., ^ thaire II., till 613, wlien Clothaire became sole king 

1. Wliit (.f Clovis t VVh:it of the people iimler the Merovinsian kines? What of the 
kiiiijs 1 What of France u itirr these kin^s? When iVh\ Clovis becrin to re\sn 1 Whal 
of the four snn.s of Clovis .» Whal of the four sons of CLilhaire .' Whal of Childeberl II 
and Clothaire II. 1 What of the two .sons of Chi' ^e^>erl II. ? Whal of the two sons o 
Clothaire / Whal of Si?el»eri II. and Clovis II Vhal were the ua!ne.s of the six Vuf 

.3* 



il 



ll 



r 



n ' 



;ji 



REVIl-W OF THK MKKOViNGIAN DYNASTY. -481 TO 741 



Daffoberl 1 . } Sons of Clothaire II.— began to reign in 
Charibert 11., i In <"»:il Dagobrrt became sole king. 



eaft 





Clovis III. 



Dagobert II 

Sigebert 11., ) Began to reign in 638. Clovis survived, and died 
Clovis 11., ^ in 055. 
Dagobert 11., ] 



l)agot)erl ii., | 

Ciotbaire HI., | Faineuns, wlio bore the title of kini 

'nii(!rrv III., K^, 711^ ji„,i vvho were under the go> 

ChiUleric II., ^ p^ i,j i'lleristal. 

r«i-...:.. Ill ' 



gs from 655 
governnieM' oi 



f;iovis III., 
Dagobert 111., 





Chilpcric II 



Clothaire IV. 



VMu^ll IV', ^ Faineans under the government of Charles M-..rt-i 
Thierry IV., ) 

, ,'nl kin.. u^iiT^^I^ii^eristal 1 How 1. ng. did ey relgu J What of the h1 H^^ 
k ..^a uador Charles Marlel ? Exlcnt of ihcir reign . 



» 



\ 



PEPIN THE SHORT.— 75 

CHAPTER VII. 
Ahmt King Pepin the Short. 



31 




Chillier ic III. 

1 The ai fdnToment which Charles Martel had made foi he svio. 
c.iicn did nut kst long. Pepin, though called the UilU or th« 
SAor/, from the sh(.rtn.3ss of his stature, had an active mind and an 
ambiiovs spirit, and s.K»n induced Carlonuui to enter a convent. 
Cm was iotsure the people would consent to the total exdusum 
of the Merovingian family, and therefore gave the title of king to a 

prince known as Childeric 111. Ju,^ooH nt 

^ 2 But, having strermthened his own power, he soon disi>osed ot 
Chiideric as he had <.f his own bn.ther, and caused ^^f^r f \« f I^^. 
claimed king. At Soissons he was raised upon a ^^leUl, he prm 
cipal ceremony at the inauguration ot a monarch ; and to render hia 
person sacred, he was anointed with oil from the sacred phial,-a 
Snony which has ever since been performed nt the coronation of 
kings oi France. 




t'p.]nn tht Short, 751 to 768. 

•> This ceremony of consecration by anointing is an im tation o\ 
»a old Jewish ceremony ; for we are told that Samu el poured oil oi . 

" VII - I When do« the (:arin7i,^ian race of Icings begin ? Wha. of Pepin ? 2^Wha' 
•f Childeric? What did Pei>in do now I What ceremonies took place? 3. What o» 



1 



11 ! 



I 



l> . 



' i 



;<i 



RK 



ivii-w OF rm: mkkovingian dynasty. - i-» to 74i 



Dasohcn \ . i Sums u( Clothaire IL-l.e^nm to reign 
CharilHTt II., S 1" «'-'l l>:i;-*»^)«'rt became sole king. 



in 



62ft 





Dagobat II. ^^"^'^ ^^'• 

Si.elu.rt 11., ^ Began to reign in 038. Clevis survived, and died 

Clovis 11., i[ in r)')5. 

Da.M.lu.rt 11., 1 

Clutl.aire 111., | K.inruns, who bore the title of kings tmm (i'.S 

Tbitriv 111., I ^„ 7n, ..uul who were under the govermnen» el 

ChihhTie 11., , p, |„ a'lleristal. 

-b.vis 111., I ' 

Dagobert 111., 





Chilptric II 



Clothaire IV. 



ri!!lbnire iv', ^ Faineans under the government of Charles Mart^i 
Thierry IV., ) 

r^-7^^>maer Pepiu .t'Henst.i; How I. ng did .ey rel.n ! What of the «! 1S«^ 
I ,,^s uiulor Charles Martel .' Exlcnl of their reign , 



PEPIN THE SHORT. -7£ 

CHAPTER VII. 

Ahtmt King Pepin the Short, 



31 




Childeric III. 

\ TnK-a.r.inm^tnent which Charles Martel had made foi he sut> 
c.iicn did ,otl:ist lo.t.. Pepttt, though called //. I.nl. or lh« 
Wmr/, froni the short.tass of Itis stature, had an active mind and an 
atnhi hIs spirit, and so<»u i.tduced t'arlotua.i to enter a convent. 
IV n ^^-as , ot sure the people would consent to the total exchts.on 
of 'the Merovingian fanuly. and therefore gave the title of king to a 
nrince known as Cliilderic lil. i- j * 

' a. llut,l.av,„i Blr..„s.l,en,.l his.m,. i-ONver, he soon Jsix'sod o 
ChiUloric as !.<■, l,;..l of l,is own l.r,.ll.or, and causo.l '"•".«':'[ '",;'', ™- 
clain,ed kin-. A. Soisson. ho was rais.d n,,on a '^'•"^ f ' ' '^^ ; 
cioal coron-.onv at tin- inauynration ol a nionurch ; and to render Ins 
ners(Hi saertiL'he was anointed with oil Iron, the sacred ph'al. — ? 
eerelnony which has ever since i,een performed al .he coronation of 
kings of France. 




t'f.pin tht Short. 751 (>> TiiH. 

S This ceremony of c«)nsecration hv anointing is an im tation ol 
in'old Jewish ceremony ; for we are told t jialSamud poured oil oi. 

' VII - I Wh«n do^. the (Tario^.^ian race c»f kings bet^ii. 1 Wha. of Pepin? 2^Wlu,' 
tf^-hilderic? Whal'ii.l P.-pin do t..nv • What rcromon.es t.H.k place? 3. What or 



'& 



CHAKLEMAGNE. -768. 



the hoa.] of Saul. Under the reign of Pepin, Fiance Mlaiiied to greM 
rtreuffth and consequence. His fame reached oven to Lonslantinople 
and the Emperor of Mie East sent him macjnificunl presents, and 
amoncr other\jnngs ai. orcran ; the lirsi that liad bec.i seen in 1 ranee 

4 The courtiers of Pei)in were v.ry apt to make jokes about tlie 
diminutive size of the little king, lie resolved to put a stop to this ; 
and for this purpose invited them to see a fight between a bull and a 
Hon The lionSiaving thrown down the bull, Pepm turned to the 
courtiers, and inquired which of them had the courage to separate or 
lo kill the furious combatants. i n i 

5 The bare proposal made them shudder. No one answered. 1 
will' do it myself then," said the kincr; and drawing his sword, he 
ca up to the lion, and pretty soon dispatched him. 1 hen with great 
mtrepidity, turning upon the bull, he cut oQ h^ head at one blo'A 
Vou .nay be sure That no more jokes were cracked at the expense of 

**'6 Pepin died in 768, leaving two sons, Charles and Carloinan. 
Carioman soon died, and ('harles was left sole monarch. He is gen- 
erally known as aarlana^ne, or Charles the Great ; and although 
this name was not given him till after his death, the plainest way w U 
he to adopt it at once. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
About Charles the Greats or Charlemag?ie. 




Charlemagne, 708 fy 816. 

1 Charlemagne was one of the most famoua of all the French 
kin-s. He was not onlv a great warrior, but a great si atcsman 
Everywhere he was successful in making conquests until heat last 
re\^^^ over France, Germany, and Italy. Ihus his empire wa« 



Fr„,„ i,nder Pepinl Whal of hi. fame! 4, 5. What of Pepm ami hU co»ni.rs» 
" v'ltr-f'wTa'. car;,V,''inf'l"Sna^eJ 0,« w-a. co..„.rie,.W h. r.* ' 



UHAKLEM AGNF. — 768. 



33 



If really extended, and he was called the Emp, or of thi West, as the 
king at Constantinople was called Emperor of the East. This title 
vvhi'ch he ijainetl had been before held by the emperors of Rome. 

2. Charlemagne was as much larger than common men as his 
father, King Pepin, was smaller ; for he was nearly seven feet in 
height, and well proportioned, excepting his neck, which was rather 
toolarge ; a serious defect in those days, when the throat was uncov- 
ered. IJy his dress he could not be distinguished from the meanest 
of his subjects, except upon great occasions, when he appeared iu hia 
robes of state. 

3. At first he wore a long cloak that reached to the ground ; atmI 
it is not surprising that he should havt; changed this for the s.iort 
cloak of the Germans, made of many colors, which was much bi iter 
suited, from its size, to a fighting people. The conquest of Italy {^ave 
him a taste for the silks and the rich furs which the Venetian -aer- 
chants imported from the East. 

4. His under dress was a kind of shirt made of linen ; and over that 
he wore a garment like a frock, bordered with silk. His legs were 
covered with stockings, bonnd tight by cross garters all the way up 
and down. But though the king was so simple in his own dress, 
some of his subjects w'cre disposed to be extravagant ; he therefore 
fixed a price upon all kinds of cloths, and said what sort should be 
worn bv each class of citizens. 

5. He was very economical of his time, and while dressing he 
heard and decided causes; and while he dined some person read 
aloud to him from the works of St. Augustine, or the history of 
Jerusalem. He had to(» many important things to occupy his mind 
to bv". very particular as to what he had for dinner, but, as the cook 
knew his taste, boiled meat was generally provided for him. 

G. He was very fond of learned men, and invited foreigners to his 
court; among others, an English bishop named Alcuin, one of the 
most learned men of the age. He bestowed upon him so many 
estates, that Alcuin is said to have had twenty thousand slaves. As 
all learning v.as confined lo the ecclesiastics, it is not surprising that 
they should have been familiar with a monarch so fond of literature. 

7. He established schools, where the scholars were taught gram- 
mar, arithmetic, and church music: an education that may be con- 
sidered (piit;^ complete, in an age when the chief qualification 
required in the priests, the only persons who had the least tincture of 
knowledge, was, that they should be able to repeat the Lord s prayer. 

8. Althongh Charlemagne reproached the ecclesiastics with theii 
love of riches, yet he continued to enrich them ; and his bounty laid 
the foundation fir that great wealth and power which made the high 
churchmen such troublesome subjects in the times of his successors 
Bishops became great lords, and differed in their manners and habit ^ 
from other great lords only by being more arrogant and luxurious. 



How did he extend hia empire ? What was he called ? Who wa.-? called Emperor of thp 




I 



Ml 



I 



onomy 



•e 



CHAKLEIVIA(}NE.-76a 



the head of Saul. Under the roian «.f Pepin, Fiance Mtamed to ^reM 
Itrencnh and consciuence. His lame reached even to Constantinople 
and tlic Emperor of ♦he East sent him maamhcent presents, and 
amoncr c,lher\hini,s ai. orj^an ; the f.rst that had been s.yn m P ranee 

4 The courtiers of Pep»'» ^^•''■*' ^''"V ='i'^ ^" "'''*^'' -5"''''* ^^^"^'\ ^.*"^ 
diminutive size ..f the little kin-, lie risclved to put a step to this ; 
and for this purpose invited them t(. s.-e a h-ht hetween a bull and a 
Hon The lionS.avin.r thrown .l..un the bull, Pep.n turned to the 
courtiers, and in,piired which of then. h;ul the conra-e to separate or 
lo kill the furious combutants. i .. i 

'i The bare proposal made them shudder. No one answered. 1 
will do it mvself then,'' said the kin- ; and drawing his sword, Im 
ran up to the lion, and pretty soon dispatched him 1 hen, with <xreat 
mtrepiditv, turmn- upon the bull, he cut oil h.s hea.l at one blow 
You may' be sure that no more jokes were cracked at the expense of 

*'o Pei'.in died in 7(iS, leavin- two sons, Charles and Carloman 
Carioman soon died, and Charles was left sole monarch, lie is ijen- 
.^rally known as Charlnna^n.. .n Charles the Creat ; and although 
this name was not -iven him till after his death, the plamest way w.U 
he to adopt it at once. 



CHAPTER VIll. 
About Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, 



I 




Charlemagne, 708 fw 816. 

1 CHARLE.MAr.NE w.is one of the most famous of all the French 
kincis. Tie was not onlv a -reat warrior, but a ^'^^'^t ^J^^*^"^;^" 
Evervwhere he wns successful in makintr conquests umil heat last 
J^i-ned over France, (iermany, and Italy. Ibus his empire wa. 



F...ce under Pepin' W..U of h=.s fume? 4, 5. What of Pepin and hi. courtiers^ 
' ^;if ^[.'^lial c^'^'lu'^S^S'lSUe^ over what countries .id he reir ' 



UH A K LE31 AGN F. — 76S. 



a:i 



If really extended, and he was called the Emp. or of llu West, as the 
kintr at Constantinople was called Emperor of the F.ast. This title 
which he -ainc^l had been before held by the emperors of Home. 

'J. Charlema-ne was as much lar-er than ctmunon men as his 
father, Kin- Pepin, was smaller ; for he was nearly seven feet in 
hei-ht, and well proportioned, exceptin- his neck, w hich was ratlu.T 
toolar-e ; a serious defect in those days, when the throat was uiu'ov- 
ered. "liy his dress he e(»uld not be distinguished from the meanest 
of his sulijects, except upon -real occasions, when he appeared ir^ hi.s 
robes of state. 

3, At first he wore a Ion- cloak that reached to tiie jjrround ; md 
it is not surprisin- that he should hav«> chan-ed this for the .s.mrt 
cloak of the Germans, made of many colors, which was much bt tier 
suited, from its si/e, to a fi-htin- people. The concjuest of Italy j^ave 
Inm a taste for tlie silks and the rich furs which the Venetian -aer- 
chants imi>orted from the East. 

1. llis under dress was a kind of shirt made of linen ; and over that 
he wore a -arment like a frock, bordered with silk. His Ic-s were 
covered with siockin-s. bttund ti-ht by cross jrarters all the way up 
and down. Hut thou-h the kiiifr was so simple in his own dress, 
some of his subjects were disi)osed to be extravajrant ; he therefore 
fixed a price upon all kinds of cloths, and said what sort should be 
worn by each class of citizens. 

5. lie was very economical of his time, an<l while dressing he 
heard and decided" causes; and while he dined some person read 
aloud to him from the works of St. Au-ustine, or the history of 
.I(3ru.salem. He had too many important tliin-s to occupy his mind 
lo be very particular as to what he had for dinner, but, as the cook 
knew his lasie, boiled meat was -enerally provided for him. 

0. He was very fond of learned men, and invited forei-ners to his 
court; am;«n- others, an En-lish bishop named Alcuin, one of the 
most learni^d' men of the a-e. He bestowed upon him so many 
estates, that Alcuin is said to have had twenty thousand slaves. As 
all learni.i- v.as confup'(l to the ecclesiastics, it is not surprising that 
they should hav«' been familiar with a monarch so fond of literature. 

7. He established schools, where the scholars were taught gram- 
mar, aritbmeiic, and church music: an education that maybe con- 
sidered (pii? • complete, in an age when the chief qualification 
required in the priests, the oidy j)ersons who had the least tincture of 
kuowled-e, was, that they should be able to repeat the Lord s pray^T. 

8. Altliou-h Charlemagne reproached the ecclesiastics with their 
love of riches, yet he continued to enrich them ; and his bounty laid 
the foundation for that great wealth and power which made the high 
churchmen such troublesome subjects in the times of his successors 
Rishops became great lords, and differed in their manners and habii^ 
from other great lords only by being more arrogant and luxurious. 



Hf.w did he exlend his empire ? What wiis he calletl ? Wlio was called Emperor ot the 
K:i.st ? Who ha.l held the liUe of Emperor of the West Iwfore CriJirlemagne ? 2. . . -1. Wha» 
of the person of Charlemagne? His dress? 5. What can yon say of ^^^^f"^^^* 
«..momVoflime? 6. What of leamad men ? 7. What of schools ? ^. -.i Whatofeccl* 



34 



CHARLEMAGNE -«fXi 



Jl 



q Far from behav. i^ themselves like the ministers of u reli^rior 
„f T,ei;e tl ev uerc the most factious subjects, and most forvvard in 
hJ cSc s of t,.e tim.^.; and, in spite of the laws vvhich Char e^ 
In^ne made to restram them, were foremost in the fields of blood 

'*"lO With all his fondness for learning this f ^^^^"f^^f ^^.^^;;^ 
know how to write. When he vvas an old man he oo^^reat p.uns 
to learn, and practised a ^^reat deal, but he never ^*'"»^y'^^'7,^\«^"i^;^ 
the 1 Jtt^rs. But wntin,/ in those days was an art conhned to a few . 
who made it their business to write letters tor I'lre 

11 Althou'Th the kinjr was so abstemious lumscll, yet he knew 
how 'to .he handsome entertaimnents. Twice a year ^^ "^vited a 
he nobk-s t.. a L^reat feast, each of which lasted tor a ^veek and was 
c Jled a "ienarv'court. The nobles came with a crowd of attendants, 
and all were entertained at the expense of the kins:. 

l'^. Every day at the end of the dinner three heralds entered, each 
wi h a pold cup in his hand, and crying out three times '' Bounty 
of the most powerful of kinj^s,'' threw money ^-'^^""g^^he c^rowd 
After this, the learned monkeys, and bears and dops, were brought 
,n to show oir their accomplishments for the amusement of the king 

'"Is't'c reign of Charlemagne forms the link between ancient and 
modern histo. v, and marks the period when learning and the arts 
r: first encouraged m France! The French ^^-^J^^^^^ 
proud of tiiis monarch, not for the extent of his ^\>"<l"f ^^' X" 
manv persor.al virtues ; his justice ; his wisdom in the enactment ot 
lawsVhis zeal in the cultivation of the arts and ^^^^"f ^ ' ,7^^,^^! 
extreme earnestness t., soften the manners of his subjects, and to pro 
mote their welfiirt; an<l happiness. . , 

14. His whole reign was. a perpetual series ot ^^ars , but t^ht 
account of them would be little interesting to you. You "^^Y' ; 
haps, have seen the battle of Roncevalles mentioned, for the poets 
have made it almost as famous as the biege ol ^^oy. pu„Hp- 

15. It was o,ilv a fight between a few of the ^j^^ie f of C ha^^ 
ma<nie and a body of savage mountaineers, who ^^^'^^^^^^^^^^J^^Ylled 
hls^rmy as he returned from Spain in 777, and among others, kilUd 
Roland, the nephew of the king. 

suislic. or priests? 10. What of Charlemagne's learning to write? '} J^l of [n^ 

enSnments7 12. Wlu.l happened after the ent^ert.m^^^^^^^^ 

l( Charleinasrne 1 Why are the French proud of the rngn ol Ohariema^^ 

i' \i« Utile of Roiift;\ alios ? 







CHARI.EIMAGNE.-SfW. 



30 



CHAPTER IX. 
i,(mtinuatio?i of the Reign of Charlemagm. — The Nonnans, 

1. In the year 800, Charlemagr.o visited Rome, and the Pope, as & 
testimony of his gratitude for llie benefits he had received, resolved 
to confer upon him the title of " Emperor of the West.'' But this 
he intended as a surjmse for the king. 

2. Accordingly, on Christmas day, when the great church at Ronu) 
was crowded with people of vailous nations, the Pope carnc^ softly 
behind the king as he knelt before the altar, and placed a crown 
ui>on his head. ^ The lofty dome resounded with the cry, " Long life 
U) Charles the August, crowned by the hand of God! Long life to 
the great Emperor of the Romans!" 

3. Charlemagne testified the greatest surprise at this honor, and 
protested that if he had known vhat the Pope intended to do, he 
would not have gone to church that da/. However, he had been 
anointed with the sacred oil, and there was nothing to be done but to 
endure the honor. I think he pretty soon became reconciled to the 
burden, fi)r he was very particular in requiring other sovereigns to 
address him bv his new title, 

4. The incursions of the Nornia?}s, or Norlhmm, or Men of the 
North, compelled CharhMiiagne to build a hrge number of vessels, by 
means of which the whole coast, from the moutli of the river Tiber, 
in Italy, to the limits of his (Jennan dominions, was protected. 

.'5. 'riiese Normans issued originally from the countries of Norway 
and Denmark, and are the same jjcople who, in the early history of 
England, are called Danes. The tbrests with which their native 
cou'^itries were overgrown furnished them with the means of build- 
ing vessels, which were navigated with two sails and a number of 

oars. 

6. Each of these vessels contained about one hundred men, with 
beer, sea biscuit, cheese, and smoked bt^ef, fi)r their support. Sailing 
along the coast, these pirates would land wherever it was not 
defended, and after ravaging the country^ return home with theii 
booty, generally without seeking to establish a residence in the coun- 
tries they laid waste. 

7. The churches and monasteries were the chief depositories of the 
riches of these countries, and were the principal objects of attack, 
and this circumstance occasioned the loss of many valuable records of 
thr«e times which had been prepared by the mr»nks. 

8. There was one old friend of most young readers who lived in 
the time of Charlemagne. TLit« \t. Sultan Haroun al Raschid. 
I suppos. uany have fancied that hr was no more a real man, than 
that the paiaces of Aladdin were lea' palaces. 



IX. — 1. What new honor was l)e.st.nvel on ';harlemai?nc ? When? By wliom 7 
i, 3. What of the ceremony ? 4. Wnal iew e- emies api^areJ ? What measure did 
Charlenia^r.e adopt? 5. W^ho wpre the N'orna «? What of their vessels ? 6. W hat 
•' theii ..xper.ilioriS ? ''. .Vlw t (ooB w-* o.. aa^ ei. ^v them i Why ? 8. 9. Who wa- 



* ■ 






i 



36 



CHARLEMAGNE. — bV3. 



9 He was, however, a real man, and a very great man. He 
reigned over the Arabs in Asia, from 78G to 807 and was a mosl 
v,ise and learned prince. At that period, the Arabians were u pol- 
ished and intelligent people, well skilled in the sciences I roni them 
we Irive many of the terms most familiarly used in science, surli as 

alcrebra, alkali, &c. ^ ^. , i „<, .. 

10. The sultan had a great respect for Charlemagne, and. as a 
,,roof of his regard, sent him a curious machine for measuring time 
by means of water. Tlie dial of this clock was composed ot tv.olv.. 
small doors, which represented the division ol the hours. 

11 Each door opened at the hoyr it was intended to represent, and 
out of it came the same number of little balls which lell one by one 
upon a brass drum. At 12 o'clock, twelve horsemen issued torth 
and, marching round the dial, closed the doors. 



CHAPTER X. 

Death aiul Burial of Charlemagiie. 

1 All the power and greatness of Charlemagne could not secure 
happiness to him. The death of his two eldest sons afflicted him to 
60 great a degree, that in a sh.)rt time he was reduced trom a state of 
usual health and strength, to a condition in which he could not Mnlk 

without assistance. . ,» , • i • i i i > 

o He was now at the city of Aix, in Belgium, which he had 
selected to be the capital of his <loiuiMi..ns. He had erected a mag- 
nificent palace, and also a superb chnprl, from whicli it derives Us 
present name of Aix-la-Chapelle. , . r r i n Tho 

3 The dome was embellished with a globe of solid gold. J he 
gates and balustrades wi«re of bronze, the vases and chande hers ot 
sold and silver, and the ornaments displayed a richness hitherto 
unexampled in that region. As the use of bells was introduced into 
France during this reign^this chapel was undoubtedly furnished with 

4* To this chapel Charleinaune repaired. He was arrayed in his 
imperial robes, with a crown of gold upon his head, and supported 
by his only remaining son, Louis. Taking the crown from his head, 
he placed 'it on the altar, and after urging his son to be a good mon- 
arch, as well as a good man, commanded him to take the crown and 
put it on his own head. This was in 813. 



H.iro.in al Ra.schi.l J Whore di.l he live ? What of the Arabians ? 10, 1 1. What presenl 
did he serul to Charlen»a-n.! ? I'escnbe u. vviv.t ritv waa his itnilal' 

Y —1 What of ihe com itioii of Charlemagne? 2. What city was ni3 t^P'^a' 
Whence .1. name? In what country i3 Aix-laChapelle ? 3. What of »"^ ^^hapell 
4 What event look place there? When? 5. How .lidCharlem^e occupy h.s lim«? 

Note. It is reconiinend.Hl thai in every instance where ihe name of a plar^ occuip, the 
oupil should be required ic tell where it is. what direction from Pans. *r 



i,OUIS THE GOOD-NATURED. -- SI 1. 



31 



6. Charlemagne now gave up all the cares of government, and 
Hjcupied himself in works of devotion. His time was spent in read- 
ing the Scriptures, in prayer, and in acts of charity. His strength 
gradually failed, and in January, 814, he had become so weak as to 
be unable to swallow anything' but a little water. On the twenty- 
eighth of that month he 'expired, uttering, in a low and faltering 
voice, " Into ihy hands, O Lord, I commend iny spirit." 

0. He die I in the seventy-second year of his age, and forty-fouith 
of his reign. His body was deposited in a vault in his chapel. Ii 
was placed ui)on a splendid throne of gold, dressed in the fmperia. 
robes, with the crown on his head, and his sword by his side; the 
Bible was placed upon his knees. But under the imperial robes waa 
♦he hair shirt of the penitent, and he still bore the pilgrim's purse, 
which he had carried in all his pilgrimages to Rome. 

7. The tomb was filled with gold and silver, and scented with the 
choicest perfumes, and a triumi>hal arch wiis erected, bearing a long 
inscription. But the tomb was robbed of its riches by Otho HI., in 
1001, and a single inscription, " Carlo Magno," in the pavement, is 
all that now marks the spot where his remains are deposited. 

8. At the death of this great emperor, his empire extended to the 
Ebro, on the south, to the Eyder and Vistula on the east and north, 
and to the sea on the west. It included Italy, the whole of Geimany, 
with the present Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and Prussia, half of 
Spain, and all France. 



\ 



CHAPTER XI. 
About Louis the Good-natured. 




Louis /., 811 to 840. 

1. Louis was in Aquitaine at the time of his fathcv> death, in 
his journey from thence to Aix-la-Chapelle, he wafi everj-where 
leceived with acclamations of joy by the people. The goodr«88 of 



When did he die ? 6. What was his age ? How long had he reigned? 7. W»i«l ^ h** 
lomb ? 8. Describe his empire al his death. 






I 

f 



i 



36 



CHAULKMAGNE -MJ. 



9 H« was, however, a real man, and a very fc^reiit man. fk 
ceicrned over tlic Arabs in Asia, tn,.u 760 to 807 and was a rnosl 
wi^ and U:arned pnncc. At that period, tlie Arabians were a ptd- 
ished and intclli^^ent people, well skilled in the sciences. I n^';' ;^;" 
we derive many of the lerms iiiost tamiliarly used m science, surn a.s 

ah^ebra, alkali, &c. . ... , « ^.^ .. 

"lO Tho sultan had a great respect ior ( harlemajrne, and. af, a 

proof of his regar.l, sent him a curious inachinr for ""'^'^"'•'"^Jj;; 
bv means of water. The dial of this rlcck was compusr.l ot tv.oK. 
small doors, which rei.resented the division (d the hours. 

11 Each door opened at llu; hour it was intrnde<l to repres.'ut, an<l 
out of it came the same number of litth- balls which trll one by one 
upon a brtujs drum. At 12 o'clock, twelve horsemen issued torth 
ami, marching round the dial, closed the doors. 



£ (•" 



! 



CHAPTER X. 

Death and Burial of Charlemagne. 

1 All the ix.wrr and n;reatness of Charlrmapne could not secure 
happiness to him. The dr.lh of his two eldest sons afll.cle.l him to 
so rrreat a d.-ree, that in a short time he was reduced tn.m a state o 
usual health and strrnirtb, to a cMuiition in which he couhl not vv'.lk 

without assistance. i • i i i . i 

'^ He was now at tlif ntv ol Ai.x. m n.-lgium, which lu' h.id 
selected to be ihc capital of his .lomiMions. lie had erected a nuiL- 
uificent palace, .and also a superb .-bap,-!, from which it derives .ts 
present name «»fAix-la-('hapelle. ,. ,- i n mm 

S Tb<> doui.' was rmbeUishr.l with a globe ot solid g(dd. J he 
rrates and balnstra.lrs wrr»> of bron/.e, the vases and cbande hers ot 
irold and sihvr, and the ornaments displayed a richness hitherto 
nnexample.1 m that reLnon. As the use of bells was introduced into 
France durin- this reign^this chapel was undoubte.llv furnished with 

**"V To thischaprl ('harleman.u; repaiiv.!. He was arrayed in his 
imperial robes, with a crown of ^j^.M upon his head, and supi.ortcd 
bv his onlv remaining s,.n, Louis. Taking the crown from his head, 
he i.lacedit on the altar, and after urging his son to be a good mon- 
arch, as well as a good man, commanded him to take the crown and 
put it on his own head. This was in 813. 



H.irounanJasil.i.l.' Wlvro .li.l h.- hv ; Wh;u ..fih.^ Arabian. 7 l", W. What jrescnl 
ai,^^he^ond u. a.aH....... : IV^^ 2 What oty was ni-M^J-i; 

wttR-e .1. name? L. what country is Aix-U-Cha,>elle ? 3. What of Iv.s chapd? 
4 What event took place there ? Wheii ? 5. How .li.l Charlemagne or:upy hi3 lime ? 

Sott It is recommended tliat in every instance where the name of a plara occiup, the 
impil 8houUJ \yc required tc tell where it is. what direction fron» Farrs. *r 



rtfclll Ii I 11,1-JL.iiy..,, 



I.OU1S Tilt: (il)Oli-NArLUKL>. sn 



X\ 



6. CharhMuagnc now gave up all the cares of government, and 
H,'cupied himself in works of devotion. His time was spent in read- 
ing the Scriptures, in praver, and in acts of charity. His strength 
gradually failed, and m .himiary, bl 1, he had bt^comc so weak as to 
be unable to swmIUjw anything but a little water. On the twenty- 
eighth of that month he 'expired, uttering, in a low and faltering 
v(»ice, '• Into thy hands, () Lord, I commend my si)irit.'' 

t). He die 1 in the scvcnty-sieond year of his ag«', and loiiy-fiuirlh 
af his reign. His body was deposited in a vault in his chapel. Il 
was placed up«)n a splendid throne (d' gold, dressed in the rmperia. 
robes, with the crown on bis htad.and his sword by his side ; the 
Hible w:is placed upon his kners. Hut under the imperial robes was 
♦he hair shirt of the penitent, and he still bore the pilgrim's purst\ 
which he had carried in all bis pilorimages to Rome. 

7. The tomb was filled with gold and silver, and scented with the 
choicest perfumes, and a triumphal arch was erecied, bearing a long 
inscription, lint the tomb was roblxd of its riches by Otho 111., in 
1001, and a single inscription, "Carlo Magno,"' in the pavement, is 
all that now marks the spot where his remains are deposited. 

8. At the death of this great emi»t«ror, his empire extended to the 
Ebro, on the south, to the Eyder and Vistula on the east and north, 
and to the sea on the west. It inchuied Italy, the whole of Geimany, 
with the pn'seiit Hungary, JJidiemia, Poland, and Prussia, half of 
Spain, and all France. 



CHAPTEI! XI. 

About Jjniis Ihr Ciood-nalnred. 




Louis I., 811 to 810. 

1. Louis was in Aquitaine at the time of his tathcvf death. In 
his journey from thence to Aix-la-C!iapelle, he waii everj-where 
leceived with acclamations of joy by the people. The goodi'ess of 



When did he die ? 6. What was his age ? How long had he reigned ? 7. Wtial »f h-« 
lomh? 8. Describe his empire at his death. 



38 



LOUIS THE GOOD-NATURED. -S40. 



his disposition, which acquired for him the surname of Lv Debonnatr^ 
or Good-natured, seemed to promise a peaceful and happy reign. 

2 He possessed virtues which would have made him most esiima- 
hie as a private man, but he was totally unfit to govern a large empirt^ 
in so stormy a period. His first error was the division ot his domin 
ions between his three sons, Lothaire, Pepin, and Louis. 

3. Lc.uis had another son, named Charles, who was born aflc^r this 
division, and it became necessary to provide for him a kingdom trom 
the territories which had already been bestowed upon bis elder broth 
ers. This excited resentment in those- princes, and they rose in rebel- 
lion against their father. i u. i 

4 The two parties n.et in a field between IJasle and ^tiras^'^urg. 
The Pope, named Gregory, took part with the rebels and, by his 
promises and threats, induced the king to submit himselt to his rebel- 
lious sons. The Pope and the princes paid so little regard to then 
promise's, that the place is yet cal id the Fnid of Lies. 

5 The king was deprived of his crown, and condemned to do per- 
petual penance. Pcnancr was a punishment inflicted by the priesta 
for any offence which they said was against the laws of the Chrisaan 
reliiiion : and so great was the influence of the priests that they had 
caused it to be considered as established law, that no person couhl 
bear arms, or execute any civil office, during the period ot his 

'^'^G^"b\' perpetual penance, therefore, the king was forever disqual- 
ilicui frJm resuming his power. The first act of his penance was per- 
formed in the church at Soissons. A haircloth was spread betore the 
altar, and Li)uis, takiuii off his sword and coat, threw himselt upon 
the ground, and, with his face to the earth, confessed that he hud 
marched a body of troops in the time of Lent, and had taken up arms 

in his own defence I , ^ i • u i 

7 He was then clothed in sackcloth, and confined in a cell, where 
nothincr was allowed to him but what was absolutely necessJiry to 
sustaiir life. The rebels could not agree amongst themselves, and this 
hni to the restoration of the tather, who finished a disastrous nngn ot 
twenty-seven years in a tent, near Mentz, dying of griet cau-ed by a 
new rebellion of his son Louis, A. D. 840. 



was tl.« first error of his rei-n ? 3. What event occasioned truube ? What a ni^ M.na^ 
r W il .van dul the P..l« act 1 What is the fieUl of meetin? tailed ? Why T *^ How 
Ls the & treated 1 -.Htal of j^nance 7 f. What of the ,v,na,.ce of th. #in,r .' 7 
Wluu cauHwf his restor on to the crown 1 When did he die ? 



U . 



I 




OM 



CHARLES I. — 840. 



39 



CHAPTER Xn. 

yf Charles the Bald, ami the Tyi)iguage spoken in France, 




Charles /., 840 to 877. 

1 Tme glory of the Carlovingian race had expirid with Charle- 
„.A^,.e His successors, by their folly and vices, destroyed the vast 
fabnc of power which their ancestor had raised. No sooner was 
f.ouis dead, than his sons began to dispute about the possessions 
which their father had bestowed upon them. Charles called the 
Bald, from his bald head, and Louis, united themselves agamst 

Lothaire. , , , i r * ;r. o 

2 Each party assembled an army, and the hostile forces met in a 
)lain near Fontenoy. Thev were drawn up in battle array, and the 
leaders proceeded to ad.lross them. But as they had no common lau- 
cruage, they made use of several. Charles, who commanded the 
Franks and Gauls, who now for the first time began to be called b> 
the general name of French, was obliged to use two languages m 
addressing the inhabitants of the different parts of the country. 

3. To those coming from the north, he spoke in \he lajigm d oil, 
or laninie d'oui, which very much resembles the modern Irench 
and is a great deal of (Jerman mixed with a little Latin. But those 
comincr from the south used a great deal of Latin mixed with a little 
German, and to these he spoke in the langue d'oe, which was modi- 
fied into the Provengal, and, after being for two centuries the favorite 
language of poetry, has cca.sed to be a living language. 

4 These lancruacres derived their names from the different words 
meaning yes; vlz.,^wi, and or:. In a siniilar manner the German 
was called langue de tja, and the Italian the langue de si. Charle- 
magne would permit nothing but German to be spoken in his own 
family, to the no small mortification of his French subjects. 



VII __ 1 What of the successors of Charleniaene ? What of the sons of puis '! 
2 Wiiat if the language ? What of the Franks and Gaul. ? 3 What wa« t^heja,.|«. 
d'outf What of the lamtce d'oe ? A. Whence these names 7 What was ih^e lan?uaf- 



38 



rX)UIS THE GOOD-NATUKED. -r?40. 



his disposition, which aaiuired for him the. surnaiiK? ot Lr Dtlonnatre 
or Good-natured, seemed to promise a peaceful and luippy reicrn. 

2 lie possessed firtues which wouUl have made hnn most esimia- 
hie as a private man, hut he was totally unfit to povern a larjie empirt* 
in so stormy a peri..d. His fust error was the division ot Ins domin 
ions between his three smis, Lothiiirr, P.-pm, and Louis. 

:i L„uis had another son, uanu-d ( harles, who was horn niter this 
divisi.ni, and it became necessary to provide f«»r him a kin^nloni troin 
the territories which had alnady b.'en best(»wed upon Ins rider broth 
<>rs. Tiiis excited resentnu-nt in those princes, an. I they rose m rebel- 
lion a«rainst their father. i t:. j ,„ 
\ The two parties met ma field between Ha.sle and Strasburg. 
The Pope, named Gre-orv, took part with the rebels and, by his 
pronnses and threats, induced the kin- to submit himself to his rebel- 
lious sons. The Pope and the prin.-e* paid su little regard to then 
promis.>s, that the place is vet eal >d i/u: FnldoJ Lus. 

;-, The kinrr was deprived .»f Ins crown, and condemned to do per- 
petual penanci). Pntann was a punishment inllicted by the priests 
for any offence which thev said was ajrainst th.^ laws of the ( hris.ran 
ndi.ri<,n ; and so preat was the influence of the priests that they ha. 
,.:,used it to he considered as established law, that no person couhl 
bear arms, or execute any eivil ofllce, durii.n: the period of his 

penance. . , ■ ^ r . .1 

(\ Hv per|)etual penance, therefore, the kin- was forever disqu.il- 
.U^^A from n^snminir his power. The first act of his penance was -per- 
formed in the church at Soissons. A haiivloth was >pread be tore the 
,llar,and L.uns, takini: otf his swor.l and coat, threw himselt upon 
ihe -round, ami, with his face to the earth, confessed that he \"n\ 
luaivhed a body of tr.u.ps in the time of Lent, and had taken up arms 

in his own defence ! , .^ • • n i 

7 He was then ch.tluMl in sackcloth, and conhned in a cell, wfiere 
notbin.r was allowed t(» him but what was absolutely necessiry to 
susfni7 life The rebels could not a-ree amonirst themselves, and tins 
l.-d to the restoration of the father, who finished a disastrous rein-n of 
twenty-seven years in a tent, near Mentz, dyin- of grief canned by a 
new rebellion of his son Louis, A. D. 840. 



\1 I VVh;U..fI..Mivi How wrislu-surnamed? 2. VVl.al ol l.is characur? \\ ha. 
wa. , ^l t rs ,. o of hi. rei.n I X Wl,al event m-casioMcl trouh e ' W ha I « n.. .....^ 

\ W-luat .an .li.l the Poi-e act ? What is the fieUl of nieel..,." mUc*! ? V\ h v I J^ How 
i-as the K t'rLued 1 ''Vl.at of ,euance ? J. What of th. .Huauce 0. the .tn^ .' ^ 
What f-aurtuil his restor 011 to the crown ? \N hen did he die .' 




I 



CHARGES I. -840. 



39 



CHAPTER Xn. 

yf Charles the Bald, and the T/iiiiruage spoken in France, 




CharJcf /.. ^10 to Sll. 

I T'tE Morv of the CarlovinLrian race had expirid with Charle- 
s..A.M>p. H'is »ucccssors, by tluur folly and vices, destroyed the vast 
fabr.fc of power which their ancestor had raised. No .sooner was 
f.ouis de:id, than his sons began to dispute about t le possessions 
which tneir father had bestowed upon them. Charles called tlu^ 
Bal.l, from his bald head, and Louis, united themselves against 

''•> 'loach party assembled an army, and the hostile forces met in a 
>lain near Fontenoy. Tlu-v were drawn up m batth> array, and tlie 
leaders proceeded t., address them. But as they had no c(mimon lan- 
crua.r,., thev made use of several. Charles, wno commanded the 
Franks and Gauls, who now for the first time began to be called l)> 
the general name <.f Fr.Mich, was obliged to use two languages in 
addressing the inhabitants of the dilTerent parts of the country. 

3 To those coming fn.m the north, he spoke inihelangiie d oif, 
or /an<rne d'oui, which vi'ry imich resembles the modern irench 
and is a great deal o( Cermau mixed with a little Latin. But those 
comin- from the south used a great deal of Latin mixed with a little 
German, and to these he spoke in the langnc d'oc, which was modi- 
fied into the Proven9al, and, after being for two centuries the favorite 
lan-ua-e of imetry, has ceased to be a living language. 

4" These lan-iui-es derived their names from the different words 
.^leaning yrs ; vlz.,"o7//, and or. In a similar manner the German 
was called hmrue dr yr^, and the Italian the languc de si. Charle- 
maane would permit nothing but German to be spoken in his own 
farnily, to the no small mortification of his French subjects. 



Yir _ 1 Wint of the successors of Charlemaurne ? What of the sons of Eouia? 
■2 Wh-7 of the UinLnia-e ' What of the Fras.k.s and Gauld ? 3. What was the lavgu^ 
d'oSi/ Wharof the^^^^^^^ 4. Whence these names 7 What was the Ian guar- 



r '' 



40 



THE FKUIUI- SYSrEM 



5. Cl.arles and Louis were victorious, and a new division ot he 

empire was the consequence. To Lothaire was given Italy and a 

part of France, including: the present Lorraine w Inch is a corr.ip- 

ion of Lotharingia, or land of Lothaire Louis took ^^---y' - 

hence is called '' The German r and Charles assumed the croxM. o* 

^ T Qiarles had four sons, two of whom he wished to make chv.ich 
n.cn* under the idea that the dedication of his sons to the service ol 
(iod'would expiate his own sins; for in that superstitious ape the 
people had persuaded themselves that all otlences might be ci.mpen- 

sated by gifts to the church. , , ■ ^ i ,u„ r^tV^pr 

7. OfSll these sons, but one, named L<uus, survived the lather, 
who died at a miserable hut by the wayside on the Alps in 8//, 
not without the suspicion that he was poisoned by his Jewish phys i- 
cian. He had few Virtues and many defects ; he was ambitious ad 
enterprising, but weak, timid and irresolute, and destitute ot the 
spirit^or ability to execute the projects which he had capacity -nou^h 
to form. 



CHAPTER XIIL 



' i 






Account of the Feudal System. 

1 It is proper at this period to look at the system of government 
which originated among the Franks, and continued to f(jrm the bn^is 
of many European governments, down to a recent period ^ou will 
recollect that the Franks were originally a number of tribes ot tree- 
men, who combined for the purposes of conquest and plunder. 1 her 
chose one man to be the principal chief or king. Under him were 
other chiefs, who led the dillerent tribes ; and which were again 
divided into smaller companies, undpr various leaders. 

2 In the conquered countries they kept up their military organiza- 
tion. The conquerors occupied themselves sole y in war and m 
amusemenS IcJing the cultivation of the soil, and all the mechanic 
arts, to tne .enqueued people, who were reduced to a state of slavery, 

''"s ThdT"ondition ditrered from that of household slaves only in 
this • serfs could not be removed from the land to w-^iich they had 
been allotted, but were bought and sold with it, like the tree, ^vhtcl 
grew upon it. 



L^l hv rhirlema-Mie ^ 5 What new division wa.^ made of the empire ? 0. Mow many 
sons had SrlS r Wl.at d.d he purpose to do ^vith two of them ? 7 How many su:- 

itI^Ii Whnn.n.l Louis die ^ Where 7 What of his character ? . 

v.ve. I^u;s? Whe^id.dl^^^^^^^ the Franks 7 2. What of their conduct m ih. 

eoSJriee"t\.e7c" ;- were the conquered l^^^^^^^f^^^S^.^Z^iTZ 

pied? 3. Howdi.^ they differ from household slaves? 4. What was aone wun »» 



THE FEIDAL SYSTEM. 



41 



4. All the personal property of the conquered countries was at 
once divided by lot among the whole army. But the land was con- 
sidered as the' property of the king ; not to keep, however, but to 
bestow upon his followers. He retained a portion for his own sup- 
port, and, as there were no taxes, his power depended on the extent 
of his private estates. 

5. The remainder was bestowed on the next highest chiefs, to be 
occupied by them for life ; and at the death of each, his portion of 
land, called a fa/d, or Jief, went back tc the king, who l)estowed it 
upon some other person. It is from this word feud that feudal ie 
derived, and therefore the feudal system means that system which ia 
founded upon these fiefs. 




Aunt' lit Junl'il rosffe 

6. Those upon whom the king ])estowed fiefs were called vassah 
t)/ the crown. The land was given to them upon the condition thai 
ihey should join the king whenever he should summon them, with a 
number of soldiers in propo tion to tlft extent of the land they ha^ 
received . 



persor al pn>perty of the conquered :ountriea? What with the land? 5. What wa» 
a fie'' - 6. Who were vassals of the ( rown ? Upon what condition di( they hi>Ui tanJ 't 



\ * 



\^ 



iO 



TMK FKi;i>AI, SYisTEM 



5 (.1.arU>s iiiul T.ouis were victorious, and a new liivision of the 

empire was the c.nse.iuenee. To Lothaire was given Italy ami a 

.art of France, inehnlinj: the present Lorraine, which is a corr p- 

ion of Lotharin-ia, or hmd of L..tha.re. Lou.s took .ern,a..y, .nd 

hence is called - The Gcnnan ;" and Charles assunu-.l the cn.w. o» 

'rl!7:harles had f<Kir sons, two of whom he wished to make n.u.eh 

n, nnch.r the idc-a that the chnlication ot his s(M.s to the -^'rvice o 

Codwouhl expiate his own sins; h.r ,n that superst.UM.s ..^n. the 
,„,,pl.. had persuaded theu.selv.-s that all utl.nces notiht In- rcinp. n- 

s:Hed hv f,nfts to the church. , r i .» , f..tUnr 

7. Of all these sons, hut one, natned Louis, survived the father, 
who died at a miserable hut by the wayside on the Ali>s, in 8/ / , 
uot without the suspicion that he w.s poisoned by his Jewish p h s i- 
.ian. He had few virtues and nnny .l.lecis ; he was ^";«'f ^ '^. ^^ j 
enterprising, but weak, timid and irresolute, and destitute ot the 
spirit or alnlity to execute the i.rojects which he had capacity onou^h 
te form. 



CHAPTKU XIll. 

Acamnt of the Feudal System. 

1 It is proper at this period to look at the system of ^overum.'nt 
^vhich oriuinated amonir the Fra.dcs, au.l eontinued to f.jrm the basis 
of many Kuropean un.vernments, <lown to a recent period. \ou w.„ 
recollect that the Franks were orifjinally a number of tribes ot free- 
men, who combint.l f..r the purposes of comp.est and plunder. 1 her 
chose one man t.. be the principal chiet or kmp Under him wee 
other chiefs, who led the dilFerent tribes; and which were ajiam 
tlivided into smaller companies, undf^r various leaders. 

-> In the conquered countries thev kept up their military oruraniza- 
tion The con(iuerors occupicMl themselves solely m war and m 
amusemenS leaving the cultivation of the soil, an<l all the mechanic 
arts, to tnf tcmiuered people, who were reduced to a state ol slavery, 

'"':! '''Xi? con(litLn\lim>re^ from tlu.t of household slaves only in 
this • serfs could not be removed from the land to vvhich they had 
been allotted, but were bought and sold with it, like the tree? ^'hieb 
grew upon it. 



0S..1 bv Charlemagne ? 5. What new division wa. ,na.Ie *>f 'he empire ? ''H;;;;;"^^;;;^ 
sons lull Ciiarles / Wlial .1..1 he purpose lo do willi two of th«n 1 7 How many su. 
sons ;Y V; , vvhp,, ,lid l^Hii'^ die ? Where ? Wlial of his character ? , 

"'xm -t wS f t e .^^^^^^^^^^ of 11- Franks 1 2. What of their condnct m ih. 

CoSJiee UiercSliuered/ What were t'- con.jnered I-MJc calle^.. Ju.w oc.u 
pied? 1 Howdi.1 they differ from household slaves? 4 v\ hal was uone wn. 



THE FEt ?*AL SYSTEM. 



41 



4. All the personal property of the ctmquered countries was at 
once divided by lot among the whole army. Hut the land was con- 
sidered as the' property of the king ; not to keep, however, but lo 
bestow upon his lollow'ers. lie retained a portion for his own sup- 
port, and, as there were no taxes, his power depended on the extent 
of his private estates. 

5. The remainder was bestowed on the next highest chiefs, to be 
occupied bv them for life; and at tlie death of each, his i)orlion of 
land, called a /mt/, or Jiff, went back t<. the king, wlu> i»esto\ved it 
upon .some other {)erson. It is from this word feud that feudal i« 
derived, and therefore the feudal .system means that system which ia 
founded uj)on these fiefs. 




A urn lit fi in)'! I rn^t!* 

6. Tho.se upon wlioin the king l)estowed fiefs were called rar^xah 
i»/ the crown. The land was given to them upon the condition thai 
they should join the king w'ncnevcr lie should summon them, with a 
number of soldiers in propo tion to tl# extent of the land they ha^ 
received . 



persoral pr()perty of the conqueretl ionntries? What with the land? 5. What wa» 
a fie'' • 6. Who were vassals of the f rown ? Upon what condition dit they hold tariJ * 



^ THE FEUDAL SYSTEM. 

7 To do this, they bound themselves by an oath, ^vhich was calleiJ 
swearing" a term denved fron. an old word "^eamng faittu 
TlTe ceremony used on the occasion was this : the vassal to( k off ha 
c-iu oe t and^purs ; then, kneeUng before his lord, he pl^ced Im 
Cw'o'haK and swore to use his hands, his fortune and his life, 

'" 8 ''ini^ kTna called the lord paramount, on his part swore to pro- 
tect'hiitssaC'and not to contin^ie in arms -re tlum ort>^ ay^^ 
one time, and not to bear arms against the church .^ l'"^. .\'^^^\l^} 
TecZn imitated the example of the sovereign, and distributed their 
lands amon^r their followers upon the same conditions. 

9 These could parcel out their lands into other fiefs, so^»at ^e ts 
and sulSs migh? be nmltiplied to an infinite egree^ Each d^^^ 
hc.m-icreto the lord from whom he received his 1^"^' ^"^ "'^ X\r 
r,nf w=L the same, except that all the inferior brds swore they 
woJd never summon their vassals to tight against the king. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

The Feudal Systefn, continued. 
1 The fiefs as I have told you, were originally bestowed only foi 

linJs hey succeeded Tn establishing as a r.ght, ^^l''^' ]2l'n 

'%Tl:l rcTthe';r IX^"^ ^he fe«dal systen. tha, 

Zr JgMltnl'areTth'e sYJ co.f:i L'l su^ef of the sa.e 

""T'-Even the king himself, though liege lord of tlm whole kingdou. 
«i a visal to the Abbot of St. Denis, of whom he held a sn»all fiU. 
Xn theTSals of the same lord were called pans, or peers, that >s, 

^'''f The vassals of tl.e king were '-^^Y^'Se'L^'^u^Z 
was no limited number of these peers ""<'«\>'^f,^f 't"\,X-sis 

i;^;XsS;^5^:£^^ 

;i.^'„7fraS" H.l« -« ':^« Ji,:r4i.tauTrHoT„Jn, at » later P«ri„. , 'V^. 



MANNERS OF THE FEUDA AGE. — ROUO. - 876. 



43 



Norn.andv, Burgundy, and Aquitaine ; the Counte of Flanders, 
Champagne and Toulouse. 

6. The nobles, when not engaged in general war, lived in heir 
castles like independent monarclis ; they distributed justice in iheir 
own right, coined money, and made laws. Close to the castle walls 
were the houses of the' shoemaker, carpenter, blacksmith, &c., who 
were slaves, and worked for the benefit of the lord alone. Upon the 
approach of an enemy these retired within the walls. 

7. The merchants'of those days resembled our own pedlers, except 
in the extent and value of their goods. They travelled from castle to 
castle, carrying precious stones, silks, spices, and every article which 
was then esteemed rare and costly. 

8. They were the newsmen of the day, and their visits served to 
break the monotony of the ladies' life. In this life there was little 
excitement. When not engaged in attending upon the sick and 
wounded, or in the domestic duties of milking the cows, or cooking, 
which the greatest ladies did not disdain to perform, their time was 
passed in sewing and embroidery ; and frequently the only journey 
they made in their lives was from the castle of their father to that of 
the husband. 



CHAPTER XV. 

RoUo the Norman establishes himself in France. — The Coiinis 
of Paris become more powerful than the King. 




Norman ships. 

1. By a lavish distribution of titles, Louis II., who was called th^ 
Stammerer^ from an impediment in his speech, secured the supper 






were the lay peers ? G. How did the nobles live? What of the ine«;han tst 7. 
jf the merchants ? S. What of the lariiea 1 



Whil 



42 



THE FF.LDAL SYSTEIVl. 



7 To do this, they bound thenisdves by an oath which wascal ed 
swear n/yw/y a ter.n denv.d tVo.n an old word n^eamn^ aitiu 
^,e ceremony used on tiie occasion was this : the vassal took otT ha 
o m oe t and «purs ; then, kneelinu before his h.rd, he paced I . 
";^^K'nds m and swore to use his hands, his lortunc and his lite. 

'" 8 ''rirkun^ called the h.rd paramount, on his part sworo to pro- 
tec^-hiL!:;.^ii;and not u> continue la anns "--^l'^ ;r;>J;y^;^ 
one time, and not to hear arms apinst the church . ;;^ff J^^ 
Uie crown imitated the example of the soverei^M. and di.tiibutcd tlu ir 
lands amr)n.r their fcdlowers ui.on the same conditions. 
'' 'n...s.:,.oul.l parcel out their lands i"to/>tber hefs, so that ti. s 
an.l sub-hels mi,l. be nmltiplied to an in unte j^;;;;-- -h^^l 

Zl\ never su.nm.m ihoir vu«s.ls t» li«l,. api.nst the king. 



CHAPTEU XIV. 

The Feudal Syxtcm, continued. 
I Thk fiefs as I have tel.l veu, were ..riunually bestowed only fm 
,ife- I tl. hoWers were naturally cles.rous "V'"""''.:u;,'c"s^ o tl e 

%=v;t:;i' r!r.;.:::r :;:';iu:r\nnhc feuaa, system .ha 

.he sa ,: ^r:;;;. ;;!i.ht m. 1,0.1. lora a..!l v.ussal. A .InUe^lor ,ns..u,o. 
„r„Tht receive the hou.a?e o. a eount for a co.... , • ml ^t e .^a 
lime might do hon.aso to the same eonnt lor a sul.-fiel ot the 

""'.r'-Even the ki,.s l.i...self. .l.ouffh liege lord of the whole kinsdou- 
«as a \V a 1.0 the Ahbot of St. Denis, of whom he held a small .1. 
All .he "ssals of the same lord were called pmvs or peers, tha, ,„ 

"'''f The vassals «f the king were ealle.l /■<--•., .C ';>'"''-, ^;^'';;:;i 
wai no limited ntnuber of these peers ''ml'-V*''^; '[''"'' t>l« 'Is > 



\\\ III.- l.)nl p.irainoiiul proiiiisie / W iMl "itl me ^.u^.ai-* 



MANNERS 01' THE FEUDA AGE. — ROL? O. - 876. 



43 



Norn.andv, Bur<jundy, and Aquitaine ; the Counts of Flanders, 
Champasine and Touhuise, 

0. The nobles, when not cnunfred in jreneral war, lived m hcu 
castles like independent monarchs ; they distributed justice in iheir 
own rijrht, coined money, and made laws. ( 'lost^ to the castle walls 
were the houses of the shoemaker, carpenter, blacksmith, &c., who 
were slaves, and worked for the IxMieiit of the lord alone. Upon the 
approach of an (Miemv these retired within the walls. 

7. The merchantsOf those days resembled our own pedlers, except 
in the extent and vahu; of their ffoods. They travelled from castle to 
castle, carrvinir i»recious stones, silks, spices, and every article which 
was then esteemed rare and costly. 

8. They were the newsmen of the day, and their visits served to 
break the" monotony of the ladies' life. In this life there w;ls little 
excitement. When not enj^ajied in attendin<r upon the sick and 
wounded, or in the domestic duties of milkinfj the cows, or cookinj:, 
whicii the frreatest ladies did not disdain to perfttrm, their time was 
passed in sewincr and embroidery ; and frequently the only journey 
they made in their lives was from' the castle of their father to that ot 
the husband. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Rdlo the Normaii establishes himself in Fraiirc. — The Coiuils 
of Paris become more -powerful than the King. 




1. By a lavish distribution of titles, Louis II., who was called t?y 
Stammerer, from an impediment in his speech, secured the suppor 

were ihe lay peers ? C. How did ilx- limbics live? What of the mc«;han :s ? 7. Whil 
jf the merchants 1 S Wliat of the ladies? 



14 LOUIS 11 - CAKLOMAN. - LOUIS III. -THE NORMANS. - 888. 

of the nobles to his claims to the crown, but survived his accession 
only two years, for he died in 87U. , ■ , i ^ 

2 Before his deatli, he sent the crown and sceptre to his eldest 
son Louis, thus desiirnatin? him to be the successor. But the nobles 
would not acknowlcdcre his title. At lenfrth Bozon, the most power- 
ful of these, havin^r first secured for himself the kingdom of i rovence, 
divided the remainder between Louis and Carloman, sons of the late 
king. 



CHAKLES THE FAT. - NORMANS - EUDES- 39^. 



45 





Lours II., 877 to 87H. 



Louis III. and Carloman, 879 to 884. 



3. Louis and Carloman did not live long, and their brother Char e. 
being very young, the nol)les and bishops gave the crown to (.harles 
the Fat.iLn of Louis the German. He was already Lmpen.r ol 
Germany ; and thus tne whole empire of Charlemagne, except l^ro- 
vence, was reunited under his great-grandson. Charles was unequal 
to the management of such extensive territories. He was not oniy 
proud and cowardly, but contemptible for his gluttony. 




Charles the Fat, 886 to 888. 

4 The Normans now fell upon France with greater fury than 
ever before. In 886 they laid siege to Paris. This city vvas still a 
email place, occupying only the island in the Seine, over which were 
two bridges, strongly fortified by towe rs. The city was defended 

" XV -1 What wa3 the surname of Um\s II. ? Wheu did he die? 2. Whom did 
ne wis». lo succeed him? How were hi^ dominions di^P-ed of 3. JVhal l,^a.ne of 
his sons' To whom did the nobles give the crown? V/hal of Charles the Fal ; 4. 
Wh^?f the Newmans? What of Paris 7 Who commande.1 there 7 6 What weapons 



t>y liie bravest .nen in France, with FAides, Count of Paris, at theif 

head. • xv j- 

5. The Normans expected to take the city by surprise, t inding 
It well fortified, thev built movable towers, from which to attack the 
(kfendera of the hridgt^s. But these towers were destroyed by huge 
-itoncs, hurled from engines constructed for the purpose. Battering 
rams were likewise used by the Normans, i)ut without success. After 
Paris had stood a sierre of four years, ( 'liarles the Fat made his 
aj)i)earance with a large army. 

6. From all quarters of his empire his subjects had come together 
U) drive out these savage invaders, from whom they had suffered so long 
and so much. Judge, then, their surprise and disappointment, when 
Charles, yielding to his own personal fears, consented to purchase 
the safety of the city of Paris, at the same time giving the enemy per- 
mission to march into another portion of the kingdom, to ravage and 

lay it waste. . 

7. So great was the disgust of all classes and nations among his 
subjects, that thev at once renounced their allegiance to him, and he 
fell into such al)iect poverty as to want the mere necessaries of life, 
and was only siived by charity from starvation. A most touching 
letter, addressed to his nephew, who was chosen to succeed him, beg- 
ging for the crumhs which fell from his table, is recorded, and aliorda 
& most affecting picture of the uncertainty of human affairs. 




Count Eudcs, 888 to 896. 

8. The brave Count Eudes was chosen king; but he probably 
proved too resolule in the reform of abuses, for the nobles and bishops 
soon grew tired of him, and took advantage of his absence to cr(»wn 
Charles, son of Louis the Stammerer, and himself surnamed the. Sim- 
vk, from his incapacity. His youth, for he was but fourteen years 
old, and the weakness of his intellect, rendered him unfit to govern 
He was a mere puppet in the hands of ambitious nobles. 

9. Eudes died in 898, and Charles was recognized as sole king 
In 91 1, Rollo, a leader among the Normans, appeared in France, and 



*ere uswP How Ions was the city bcsiesred ? 6. How was it relieved? 7. How was 
^harle-s tre.it eiP 8. VVh«» was chosen kinff ? What of Charles the Simple? 9. When 
lid Eudes die' Who was Rollo? Whon did he appear in Franre? What ar.Unge 



i 






14 LOUIS n -CAULOMAN.- LOUIS IlL-THE NORMANS. - 888. 

of the nobles to his claims to the crown, but survived his accession 
only two years, for he died in 871i. , , i . 

2 Uefore his death, he sent the crown and sceptre to his eldest 
son Louis, thus (lesiiTuatin? him to he the successor. But the nol)lea 
would not acknowi.'d^rc his title. At lenjrth IJozon. the uu.st power- 
fill of these, haviu^r first secured for himself the kinjrdom ot i roveiice, 
divided the remainder between Louis and Carloman, sons ol the late 
king. 





Louts 11., S77 fo b7l'. 



J.'>ins III. and Carloman, 879 to bb4. 



3. Louis and Carloman .lid not live long, and their brother harCi 
hein.r very young, the nobles and bishops gave the crown to ( harles 
the Fat, a son of Louis the (Jerman. He was already Lmprror ot 
Germany; and thus ine wIh.K^ empire of Charlemagne, except 1 n>- 
vence, was r(«iinited under his great-grandson. Char es was une.pial 
to the management of such extensive territories. He was not onij 
proud anf". cowardly, but contemptible for his gluttony. 




Charles the Fat. Sbt) to SS8. 

4 The Normans now fell upon France with greater fury than 
ever before. In 886 they laid siege to Paris. This city was still a 
email place, occupying only the island in the Seine, over which were 
two bridges, strongly fort:ified by towe rs. The city was defended 

~XV -.-L What wa:. the surname of Lo.iis 1 1 ? VVhe.i di.l he die ? 2. \Vhom did 
ne wisL U> succeed hnn? How were hi. dorniuious di.p....ed of? 3. fha l>^a ne of 
his 8ons^ To whom .hd the nobles give the crown? V. hat of Charles he Fat? 4. 
Wh.U^flheNJnlns? WhatofParis? Who commanded! there 7 5 What weapons 



h i, 



CH AKLES THF. FAT - NORM ANS — EUDES. — S9^. 



46 



t>y (ne bravest .nen in France, with Eudes, Count of Paris, at their 

head. 

5. The N(.rmaus exi)ected to take the city by surprise, finding 
it well fortified, they built movable towers, from which to attack the 
dt fenders of the bri«'lges. Hut these towers were destroyed by huge 
slones, hurled from engines constructed {ox tiie purpose. Battering 
rams were likewise used by the Normans, i)ut without success. Alter 
Paris had stood a si(>La' of four y«'ars, CharUs the Fat made his 
apiH-arauce with a large arm v. 

(i. From all quarters of his empire his subjects had come together 
I., drive «)ut these savage invaders, from whom they had sutlered so long 
ynd so much. Judge, then, their surprise and disappointment, when 
Charles, yielding to his own personal fears, consented to purchiise 
tiie safety of the, citv of Pans, at the same time giving the enemy per- 
mission to march into another portion of the kingdom, to ravage and 
lay it waste. 

"7. So great was the disgust of all classes and nations among his 
snbiects, tliat thev at once renounced their allegiance to him, and he 
fell into such abjei't poverty as to want the mere necessaries of hie, 
and was only saved by charity from starvation. A m(»st touehing 
letter, addressed to his neplu!W, who was chosen to succeed him, beg- 
ging for the crumhs which fell from his table, is recorded, and allorda 
& most affecting picture of the uncertainty t)f human alfairs. 




Count Eudes, 888 tu 896. 

8. The brave Count Eudes was chosen king; but he probably 
proved too resolulfc in the reform of abuses, for the nobh's and bishoi)S 
soon grew tired of him, and look advantage of his absence to (;rown 
Charles, son of Louis the Stammerer, and himstlf surname<l the Sim- 
p/r, from his incapacity. His youih, for he was bv.t fourteen years 
old, and the weakness of his intellect, rendered him unfit to govern 
lie' was a mere puppet in the hands of ambitions nobles. 

«). Eudes died in 898, and Charles was recognized as sole king 
In 1)11, Rollo, a leader among the Normans, appeared in France, and 



Apreiis.Mp H.>w loiiu w.i^ the citv besipsed? 6. How was it relieved 7 7. How was 
CJharles treated f ^. Who was chosen kinL' 1 What of Charles the Snnple? 9. Wher 
lid Eude.s die? Who was Rollo? When did he appear in France? What ar."anBe 



4A U^'IA/) -911. -CHARLES THE SIIMPLK. - 'J22. 

I'harles to secure the rest of his kingdom, offered to bestow .i,,«.; 

hh« au ex'Ln^ve territ<.ry between the Seine and the sea. He also 

bred HoUo his daughter in marriage, if he would he<^;>«^7,,^ '^^^^^ 

Ian RoUo accepted both propositions; and he and his lollo%Nera 

were baplrl and settled themselves in what has since been called 

Normandy. 




Charlts tilt Simplt, b".»!> lo \f2f 

10 Rollo had the title of duke, and was required to do homage foi 
his fief of Normandy. To this he consented, but positively rel\^ed 
to comply with one of the established ceremonies which was that ot 
k sX he king's foot. But he at last consented to do it l>v proxy. 
Accordingly, he deputed one of his soldiers to go through with it loi 

*" Ti The man showed the small value he attached to the perforin 
ance "by the careless and disrespectful manner ^^^^'"^ ^^^^''^^ 
it. Instead of kr.eeling to salute tb. royal toot he c.iught it up .. 
erformed the ceremony by lifting it to his mouth. n this aukw • 
l!peration, the rude Norman well nigh overturned the simple king 
ihrone and all. 




Raoiil, »>23 to 936. 

12. Rollo faithfully kept his promise not to molest the Frenctr 
He gave u? his predatory habits, es tablished schools, and fr amed 



CHARLES. - RAOUL -- LOUIS IV. - U-Sl 



n 



wise laws. His followers, in one or two generations, became assimi 
lated to tho French in language, manners and customs, and proved a 
protection against their still barbarous countrymen. 

13. Rollo applied himself to cultivate and embellish his terntor) 
with the same ardor which he had displayed in the pursuits ol war ; 
and, under his good government, it became in a short time the most 
jerlile and flourishing province of France. 

14. The imbecility of Charles led to his deposition by his subjects. 
The crown was offered to Hugh the Fair, nephew of Kiides, who 
declined the title of king in favor of his brother-in-law, Raoul, but 
retained the authority. Charles died in 892, and Raoul ir, 936. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The Race of Charlemagne lose the Throne of Frame. 




Louis IV., 936 to 954. 

I Hugh a^rain declined the throne, and sent to England to invite 
Louis, son of'' Charles the Simple, to return. Hugh received him 
with the greatest respect, and caused him to be crowned at Rheims, 
by the name of Louis IA^, to which was added the surname of ^'Om- 
tremcr, or the Sfrnnircr, because he had been brought up in England. 

2. Louis was verv superior in abilities and courage to any of his 
predecessors since Charlemagne ; but he wanted honesty and sincer- 
ity ; and consequently his abilities were of but little service either to 
himself or his countrv. He would not submit to the authority (f 
Hugh, who wished togovern the country as he had been accustome 

3. Hugh accordingly took up arms, and joining himself to the Uukt 
of Normandy, a civil war ensued. In the course of this war, a young 
son of the Duke of Normandy tell into the power of Louis, who would 
have put the poor boy to death, had he not been rescued by the courage 
and ingenuity of Osmond, his tutor. 



Ihe cliaracter of Roll*? 14. What. Iwcame of Charles? Who wrw made kins? When 
*"xVl!*--L^Who wa.s Louia IV ? W hal A'as his simmme ? '? What of hi» ch«- 



t, - 



It 



¥S 



Kil.l.(. '.Ml -CHARLES THE SIMPl.K - X-Z- 



UlARLES. - RAOLTl- -- LOUIS IV. — 954 



il 



Charles lo secure the rest of his kingdom, (,fiered to beslcw u,.o.. 
nm ^ex^n^ive territory iMtwc-en the Seine und the seu. l^e al.o 
'Z^ tZ his d.u,hti; in nK.ru.e, if ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
.i-.n RoUo accented both nronosilions ; and he and his. lolloweu 
w" re biiai-ltani settled tlnLelves i„ wl.at iKts s.nce been e.lle.i 
Ntirm:iii(iy. 




Churlts (/it .Sim;'/(, ^''^ '" ^-' 

10 Rollo liiul the iitle ..iMulie. cmd was required to do UmnaKe foi 
his fief of Nor,nandv. To tl.is he consented, hut ,,os,l>vely aW 

eon,plv with one of the estahlishe, ccretuontes, wh.eh -'»';-' 
kissiu'T the kin.r-s foot. But he at last consented to do it l.> proy. 
ASllrdin^ly. he^le,,uted one of his soldiers to go through wth it lo. 

'"'u The man show.al the small value he attached to the perform 
.nce'bv 1 c careless and disrespectful maimer in which he executed 
r likead of kLceliug to salute the roval foot, he caught >, up a d 
oerlonneil the eercmonv hv lilting it I" his mouth. n this aw'^^^'; ^ 
irperSn, the rude Norman well nigh overturned the simple Wmg 
throne and all. 




Raoiil, 9'2:i to 936. 

^^'i^;^^ ,:;:bir^5iX];Uh^^^ 



wise laws. His followers, in one or two irenerations, became assimi 
lated to the French in lan<iiiafTe, manners and customs, and pri)ved a 
protection ajiainst their still burburous countrynuii. 

13. Hollo applied himself to cultivate and embellish his Icrritor} 
with the same ardor which he iuul displayed in the pursuits of w-ar ; 
liiui, under his <rood irovernment, it became in a short time the most 
(ertilc and tlourisliin|T province of France. 

11. The iml)ecility of Charles ltd to liis deposition by his subjects. 
The crown was otVered to Hugh the Fair, nephew of Kudes. who 
declined the title of king in favor of his brother-in-law, Haoul, but 
retained the authority. Charles died in 892, and Kaoul ir, 936. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The Race of Charlemagne lose the Throne of Frame. 




Louis IV., 936 to 954. 

1. Hugh a«^ain declined the throne, and sent to England lo invite 
Louis, son (/Charles the Simple, to return. Hugh received him 
with the greatest respect, and caused him to be crowned at Rheims, 
bv the naTne of Louis IV., to which was added the surname ol' d' Oii- 
Inmrr, or the Sfrnn<irr, because he liad been brought up in England. 

2. Louis was verv su])erior in abiliti(\s and courage to any of his 
predecessors since riiarleinagne ; but he wanted honesty and sincer- 
ity ; and conse(pi( ntly his ai)ilities were of but little service either to 
hiinself or his countrv. He would not submit to the authority < 4' 
.Uuffh, who wished togovern the c(»untry as he had been accustomt 

lo do. 

3. Hugh accordingly took up arms, and joining himself to the Dida 
of Normandy, a civil war ensued. In the course of this war, a young 
son of th(* Duke of Normandy lell into the power of Louis, who would 
have put the poor boy to death, had he not been rescued by the courage 
and ingenuity of Osnutud, his tutor. 



Ihe c!iaracter of Rnll.? ]A. \V!ia». l)ecnmc '>f Charles? Who wa.« made kins? Wlwn 
IVI.-l. Who wa.s Louis IV ? VVIiai .vas his surname? V What of ht» cM-* 



48 LOL'IS D'OI JTREMER - HUGH - LOTHAIRE. - 9;'* 

4 Richard, for so was the lad called, was slayin^^ with Louis m * 
castie One evenincr, whilst the king and his attendants were at sup 
r;^Osinond tcK.k th'e child out of his bed, and concealing hun m a 

und e of hay, put him on his hack, and going out as if to teed h . 
h""se!-an Iffice then performed by the greatest nobles to a favorit. 
mppd —he carried the child out of the castle. , •. i r ,„. i 

T'wien he had -ot quite clear of the village around it, he found 
hi^atteil^^ts ready witlJ horses ; they mounted, ^^J^^ ^ 
die of the night had reached a place of safety. Hichard ^v..s ccie 

Ate 1 i after life for his goodness and piety, and or the nobleness 
and tauty of his person, and in his latter days for his long beard and 

"'o'^Lots d'Outremer died in 054, from the effects of a faH^- his 
hnr^P is he spurred after a wolf that crossed his path. He lett two 
c^rCl^^iire and Charles. As Charles w.ts only a few months old, 
r^hotkin^^^^^ given to Lothaire ; and ^t- mentioned ^^ a 

remarkable circumstance, that during three years there was no .ivil 
war in France 




Lothaire, 954 to 980. 

7 Hugh the Fair died in 95G, liaving reigned many years, as his 
cotemporaries said, without bearing the title of king. He was sa^d 
fohZ been the most powerful man who never wore a croWn He 
was married three times, and each of his wives was a king s daug^i^ 
ler. All his wealth and power was inherited by hi^ son, Hugh 

^Txhe rei-n of Lothaire was marked by no event of importance , 
and* f™ t of something more interesting, I w, I tell you of ^n 
evoeiition which Otho, Emperor of Germany, made against Pans 
Ha^nc^ collectecl a vast armv, he advanced against the city laying 
v^te ?vervthing before him.- Hugh Capet was now Count of Pans, 
*nd had put the city in a good slate of defence. 



vVtiat ..f liim ? Wh.. iahoritetl bis wealth 7 8, 9, 10. What I8 ««« •- 



aiandy. 
sit" death ? 
did Hughdi'jt 



LOUIS v. — HUGH CAPEl'-9«7. 



49 



9. Otho, hearing of his preparations, sent him word, 'that he 
ivould make him hear so loud a liianv as would make his ea» 
linjjle." 




Louis v., itSf) to 987. 

Aceordingl}, one morning lie posted his army on the heicrhts of 
Montmartre, which overlook Paris, and there he made the soldiers 
sing a Latin psalm as loud as they could bawl. 

10. The noise was prodigious'; so many voice? bawling at once 
made themselves heard from one end of the city to ihe other! Having 
performed this mighty feat, Otho returned to Germany. Lothaire 
died in 987, leaving one son, Louis V,, often 'tailed tlie Slncrgard 
who was placed under the guardianship of Huth Capet. 

U. Louis V. reigned but a few months, ai 'lere being none of 
the race of Charlemagne in a situation to mair. i iheir ri'^rht to the 
throne, it was disregarded by Hugh Capet, who mounted it himself. 
Ihus ended the Carlovir.gian dynasty, which had lasted 230 years, 
and under whom the kingdom was reduced to a little territory about 
Rheims and Paris. 



tn^T^'^\t^V^^^^^''■■ •;■ "»^v lone did l^uis reign? Who succeeded him ? Ho» 
d«!h of llJuis? """"^ ^'"^^ ""*""" "^"^^ ^'*'' ''''^^ '^ ""^ ^•^^ kirulon. at iht 




4S 



|.(M'|S iroiITIlKMKK -HUGH. -l,OTHAiKK.-a'.6 



4 Richard, (or s(» wiis the lad called, wius slayuij^ with T^ouis ai » 
nstie O e cveninc., whilst the kin,x and his .itendants were at sup 
Tr (isnond Kx.k the child out of his l,ed, and c.Micealin^ Inni u a 
uudle f hay,nu^ his hack, and -mn- out as it to teed \u. 

tl^^^tlh^e then pcrtonucd hy the nn.ac.t uohhs t<. a lavonie 
slecd —l-.e carried the child (u.t of the castle. 

1 When he had .mt ciuite clear of the village around it, he tound 
...^.t^wl^i^^ts ready with ho.es ; they mount^nl, - -^^^ - ^ 
AU.rl- the ni.rht had reach.'d a place ot safety. Hichard ^^«^^ ^Ub 

r ..el iatW life for his cr.,„dness and piety, and tor the nobleness 
and .iluty on'^rpe!^...!, an<l m Ins latter days tor his long beard and 

^TiZ. d'Outremer died in 051, from t'- ^fleets of a fall^iWmi Ins 
horse as he spurred aftt;r a wolf that crossed his path. Ue lUt tvso 
^'l^^u;:! and Charles. As Charles was -^y ^^^-;;;:^-^"^ 
.he vvhole kincrdoui was ,aven to Lothaire ; and ^^^ 7"^";^ ,^f,,;*, 
remarkable circumstance, that during three years there was no .ivil 

war in France 




Lnth.nre, 954 to m'u 

7 llurrh the Fair died in 95(i, havinn: reijine.l many years, as his 
cotemporaries said, without bearinj? the title ot king, lie was sa d 
frhave been the most powerfv.l man who n.'vcr wore a crown He 
was marm'd three times, and each of his wives was a k.nc, s dau?h- 
le'r All his wealth and power was inherited by his son, Hugh 

^'Txhe reicrn of Lothaire was marked by no event of importance 
•v.id fo wm? of something mor.. interestin,, 1 w.l tell you o ^u 
eviilUion whicli Otho, Kmperor of Cermany, made against 1 aris 
Hav n c dl.H-te.l a vast armv, ho advanced against t le city laying 
vStl^Sve;vthing hetbre him/ Hugh (^tpet was now C<.unt of Pans, 
tnd bad put the city in a good state (»f deh^nce. _____ 

\neri w,.u,..H,..i.: . . y ';v'VMS";r'w.;'utit:;;;s;;Ll'"wha^ 

3un,!v. WiMl w=M .1,. d...r ...r o '^'^^'y^';^!. .^^ ■ ^. ^^ ; ' ^ I>or...! ? 7. When 



LOUIS v. — HUGH CAPCT-»i7. 



49 



9. Otho, hearing of his preparations, sent him word, 'that he 
ivould make him hear so loud a litanv as would make his ean 

uiiijle." 




Louis v., '.iSf) to DbT. 

Aca)rdingl}, one morning lie posted his army on the hei<Thts of 
Monlmartre, which oveilo(di Paris, and there he made the soldierfl 
sing a I.atin psalm as loud :is they could bawl. 

10. The noise was prodigious; so many voice? bawling at once 
made themselves heard from one end of the city to itie other? Havinc 
performed this mighty feat, Otho returned to Germany. Lothaire 
died in 987, leaving one son, Louis Y., often 'tailed tlie SIiKi^trard 
who was phiced under the guardianship of ILil h Capet. ''^ 

IL Louis V. reign«'d but a few months, ai '»ere bein-'- none of 
the race of Charlemagne in a situation to mail. i iheir rinjit to the 
throne, it was disreganhd by Hugli Capet, who mounted ii himself. 
1 bus ended the Oarhnirgian <iynasty, which had lasted 2:i() years, 
and under wlu»m the kingdom wiis reduced to a little territory about 
Itiieims and Paris. 



tlie expeditio" of Oiho 1 11. How - did I,uui.s reiqn? Who succeeded him ^ Hov* 




5U 



rHE CAHLOVINGIAN DYNA^Y. 751 TO ^ 

CHAPTER XVll. 



^ieiieral Rerark^ upon 



France (hiring the Cariomngvtn 
Dynasty. 



■ ^t^'^ 








^^^U^ 



»'• - ' ~« 



,. T„. house of Charlc,„„«nc fell V ■'«?--' t^?, T^ !^ 
nnder the lasl of th.. ^Y;r:'S'The V' ■;s, mdVr V first race; the 
;• ^r ^ ::;ir— .rthrr.^:r a'.,thonty, ...r the seeon., 

•'>Tthe complete estahUshment "i;*;.'^-*!,^,^";;':;:!: -' it -l 
U.v.,.gian line was as fatal to '1- happmcss of^^ XJ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 
,0 the power of the n.onarch. 1 ^ere vvere^ g ^^ ^^^-^^ „„„ 

were vUals of s.>l greater Uml^^T^^^^ ^j^) ^^^^ ^^^..^ ,„ 

with another, anJ their ^'"'J^"^ .lefenccless people. 

which they all ^'S'«^"^^-''^"jrrften repeated under this dynasty. 

3. The ravasosof the N nna s o^ en r P ^^^^^ ^ 

augmented the n.isenes of the n mn J* ^^^^ ^,,,.:, wer. 
,ext for fortifying the.r cxsths, ■ " ^ "^ "^^ _ , ^..hanced the 

4. The ignorance that '"fi^^ "^"f V\,Xuagne .o enlighten Ins 
evils of th,s voruKl. ."^f ,f^^^ f^' , ,« succes^-rs ; few knew how 
K'a^r^rU^ a^ttKning waa held tn generaUontetrn- 

' ~^ \ 1 AT »vnra of the palace? NoMe:i*» 

XVII -1. «n.at ..f ti.» ';™-"!,:if;;:;;rf;;rNoS,"" 4 ,g,ra,.eonh. ,«« 

i. What of the feiitJal svslem? J Kava^ea 



THE CARLOVINGIAN DYN;STY -9r>4 



51 



H Diwincr the first race of French kings, the armies consisted 
iiimost wholly of infantry ; under the Carlovingians, cavalry became 
common. Casques for the head, and cuirasses for the breast and 
»)ack. were also adopted by the soldiery at this period. I he b rench 
preserved the German custom of going to battle siufjiug ; and the song 
of Roland, killed at Roncesvalles, was preserved as a military chan: 

.ill the fourteenth century. , , 1 .u 

6. During this period, the nobles still reserved to themseh-es the 
cifTht to administer justice, and decide upon questions of life and prop 
er'ty, in respect to all under their authority. Judicial ci-nbats of 
duels were authorized by law, and often practised. 1 he Lai n tongue 
ceased to \ni the common language of the nation during the ninth cen- 
tury ; and a mixture of Frank with bad Latin, forming the basis ot 
the' present French language, became the common vehicle ol speech. 

Table of thk Carlovingian Race, or the Descendants of 

Charlemagne. 

Louis the Good-natured, son of Charlemagne, left four sons. 

Sons of Louis the Good-natured. 

Lothaire, emperor, died 855. 

Pepin, King of Aquitaii.e, died 838. 

Louis, King of Germany, died 87G. 

Charles the Bald, King of France, and afterwards emperor, died 

877. 

Sb7is of Lothaire. 
Louis the Young, emperor, died 875. 
Lothaire, died 8G8. 

Charles, died 868. ., .. , • u , u■^A 

Pepin, son of Pepin, King of Aquitaine, died without children 

Sons of Louis the German. 
Carloman, died 880, leaving one son, afterwards emperor. 
Louis, died 882, without children. ,,000 • u 

Charles the Fat, Emperor and King of France, died 888, wjlhoui 

children. , . , . 

Arnoul, emperor, son of Carloman, died m 899, leaving one son 
Louis, emperor, who died 911, leaving no male heirs. 

Son of Charles the Bald 
fjouis II., or the Stammerer, died 876. 

Sons of Louis the Stammerer. 

Louis in., ditid 882, > jg^^jj^^ „^ children. 

Carloman, died 884, > ° 

Charles the Simple, died 929. _ 



1- 



All died without male heirs. 



^1 5. Of the army ? 6. Judlice ? Unguage ? Here the leaclif r will piil «ich qw* 
ioiia aa he liinks beVi njjon the table of kings. 



J/--' 



OU 



r„K CAKLOVINGIAN DYNASTY. 751 TtJ 0^ 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Fra7ire during tM Carlovtngi^ 



'ieneral Rerarh: upon 



Dynasty. 





^^^P&^ 



:J^-3' 



^i 



„„lr the 1.S, of -h,. M|'n;vm!;;.-...| K . . >^i;-,. ,,,^,, ,„.„ . „, 

,„vin..na,. line w,.s as l..:.l ." "-J-^/';';' ^^ .gr^.t .lat.v nobles who 
lo .1.0 power ol .l.e in.M.areh. I h. n tre ^ ^^ ^^^^^ „„„ 

vv.-roAs»lsofs.,l.re...-r oa. IM^^^^^^^ .j.,^> „„,y „,;,„ ,„ 

with another, ai.a .he.r "•;"„,"' !^ '" ,,,;,-,,„celess r-oplo. 

which they all ^'^'"■";;^-^'^. " "^'r^fte. r Tea.e,l .....lef .his dyna..y. 

3. The ravasresot the 5) "»'" f.' ' " .|,i, . j, „„-e .h,' ..oWes a j.re 
augmented the ...is>enes ot .he "^'" ";"';;, J-,,,, „..eir power. 
leKt for fonifyinu' the.r .-asiles. ••;"";";,'* ,r .,l«o e.'.hanee.l the 

4. The ijrnoianee ''Vl!/'''-;"'!";/,^;^ ."...■ to enliph.eu h„ 
evils of this peruKl. 'f ,'*,' ^.:,, lesueVes^^rs : few knew how 

Kt. :;■ wri" ::;rit^gn:^^va^ ^^'"-j^ 

—"" . ■» AT .. V. >rs ol Ihf palace? NoMes ^ 

XV,,-,. WW,, of >i- ;;r"r[iS«"r'";"N..n:;?,:;" * ,,„L„c.„f ..-. ..« 

2. What of lh.'le.i.l.il HV^-lem? «» U.»\a,e 






TMK CARLOVINr.lAN DVN, STY. - 9->l 



51 



*i DiwincT the first race of French kings, the armies consisted 
itimost whoUv of intantry ; under the Carlovingians, cavalry hecame 
common. C-isques for the head, and cuirasses for the breast and 
i)ack. were also adopted bv the soldiery at this period. I he b rench 
preserved the German custom of «roin^- to battle sinonng ; and the song 
of Roland, killed at Uoneesvalles, was preserved as a military chan: 
.ill the fourteenth century. . , i .i 

0. During this period, the nobles still reserved to theinsehxs the 
n.rht to adnunister justice, and decide upon questions ot lit.; and prop 
er'ty, in respt-ct ti. all under their authority. Judicial cc'iibats of 
duels were authorized by law, and often practised. The Lai n tongue 
cea.sed to In; the comm.)n language of the nation during the ninth cen- 
turv ; and a mixture of Frank with bad Latin, forming the basis ot 
the present French language, became the common vehicle ol speech. 

Table of tuk Carlovinmuan Race, ou thk Descendants of 

Chaki.emagne. 
Louis the (;»MMl-natured, son of Charlemagne, left four sons. 

Si)ns of Louis the Good-natured. 

Lothaire, emperor, died 855. 

Pepin, King of A(iuitaii.c, died 838. 

Louis, King of Germany, died 870. 

Charles the Bald, King of France, and afterwards emperor, died 

877. 

^ns of Lothaire. 
Louis the Young, emperor, died H75. ) . . ., , 

iK^thaire, died 808. \ All died without male 

Charles, died 808. ) ,. , . , , ., . 

Pepin, son of Pepin, King of Acpiitainf;, died without children 

Sons of Louis the German. 
Carloman, died 880, leaving one son, aftx^rwards emperor. 
Louis, died HH2, without children. 
Charles the Fat, Emperor and King of trance, died 888, wilhoul 

children. ,. , . , 

Arnoul, emperor, son of Carloman, died m S91), leaving one son 
Louis, emperor, who died 911, leaving no male heirs. 

Son of Charles the Bald 
lionis 11., or the Stammerer, died 876. 

Sims of Louis the Sfammrrrr. 

Louis 111., died 882, } j^^^,j ^^ children. 
Carloman, died 884, y 
::harles the Simple, died 929. 



heirs. 



1^^ 5. Oflhearn.y? G. Supine 'f Laii?ua^«'? Her.i the leaclu^r will pul siich (]«.(.> 
lioiis as htf tbuks \>e:M ii|x>ri lli« table of kiiisrs 



' 



HUGH CaPET-UEKBKRT. 



«K»f). 



53 



.g HUGH CAPET. -yS7. 

Son of Charles the Simple. 
Louis IV., or d' Outremer, died 954. 

Sons of Louis (T Outremer. 
Lolhaire, King oft ranee, died 987. 

L^t''v'°WL^rr:a>ea 087-, and in him ended, he C... 
Jingian race. 



CHAPTER XVlll. 

Fraiice laider Hugh Capet. 




/ 



II„^h Capet, 987 to m). 
hmd, and fig»""™>y^Tf , ;w,m Forn Jrlv none but proper 

"t\i,;s^e;enet7;:r„ rr -:j— i^r^::f.Jri 

the tin.e of Hugh, surnames bccano ^»'»" "^^^ '^h,", f„„ o.e 
'X ^h^^'h, :. 'rr;»r St^^ir rU son. natura, 
defect or striking characteristic consecrated at 

;t=rt".i;;mS'reJJt.^^^^^^^ 
srnoni;r';r^uri.;:;S''i:^.^ .- y^ 

another generation. ^ 

VOien'* :l. What of the coiisfrratiun of Hugn uapei I 



'-, There were at th s time eight powerful I^^^f^P^^^'rf ^„V Nor- 
all inde^ndentof the erown ; these «ere B>.r|>;^dy Aq>n,a,„ Nor 

,„andy,'Gaseony, Flanders, Champafrue a d Jo. 1 '^^ ^^^^ 

was a dependency on Normandy . li^Mdes ''"^«^ S^^'^^t.ii .hose who 
were inuLerab/e smaller ones l-rj-''^; jl '^^^-f^^fo ^Tol^ce 
could a.^quire possession ol any ''^"'"''y " * ''\" iLanee of the royal 
6. No-hiu? can better dc-n.onstrate the '"^'^^^/f^"^ „ho, on 
authority than the answer o^one of the^e^ c^a.ed 1 ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

"^.r^VZ mafe'yo^alinT^'ia question to whtch Hugh 
IvmurdeS,, cruelty, immorality, irrelig.on and violence. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Uterature of France in the Tenth Century. 

1 V.,„ mav ask if there were no men of peace no scholars or 
1. You may asK 11 inei Doubtless there were 

philanthropists worthy "^ ."l'"? "'™' ","; to right, the qualities i-os- 
«uph ■ but in times when might is superior lu 1 1|, ' ' 

employed in recording the deeds ot ^^^ PP";*; ^j^' superior from 

'l^ and '^l^^tZ:: 't s'w^: find"on':pr,... wruin„ 

made to commence with a <^. „„nvcPi,tionahle diaraciers. 

3. Among the most "t^^;''".' 7,.' ^ ""hc Xs tl'e son of poo, 

was Gerberl, secretary I" }\"f\ ^ ;'l''^ ; . "^„",ement8 he was like 

parents, but Vv his wonderful .^-.>s an aequ™ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

3 meteor illuminating a dark sR\. J 



. u wthPneonlei Whalof the nobles? 5. How many 

How did Hugh gain the '^'^^^J "/' V\^^ P^Tre ^ called 1 6. What shows the week- 
powerful principalities were there ? V\ rial were u ;, ^ ^ ^^ 

'.ess of Vne king's power? .. 



„,„er. 7. Wher;'irdHughreii,le! Wnindid he die! What U 

■ ess ui mc 11.1115 -J jnivn^i . 

«aid of tlie tenth centunr? who alone possessed any learning? "0;^.^/*" 

XIX. - 1. What of the scholars 1 ^ 2^**^^^^"'' ' what is aaid of Gerbert ? Gi»« hlf 
tnjployed ? What curious ixiem w;is written 7 



I 



h* 



IRUJH C^PET - UKKBKKT. '.KT, 



53 



b2 



HUGH CAPKr.-iW7. 



Son of Charles the Simple. 
Louia IV., or d'Outremcr, died 954. 

Sons of Louis W Outremer. 
Lolhaire, Kin^r of !• ranee, died 987. 

'i!::^^:':^:^!:^!!:^-^''^^ «87 ; a-a . ...m ended ,he C.,.o 
tfingian race. 



CHAPTER XVlll. 

Fra7ice under Hugh Capet. 




Iliiiih Captt, 9S7 to y^J»). 

,. w. now ,...,;„ .he ..isw., .r .... u,,,. f- ;^^;;^t A*::^': 

Various exp|a"H..on--J^ ■;;',. -;';-^^ ,;,,„,.„ ,„„, 

the tin>e of Hush, suruun..s becauu. ™"" 1; ' .^,,,, ,Von. .he 

Khui>ns. l)ur,us t''« -^j ->^;;^ ^ "? ! ; , '|,i„,. because it hu,l 
ilieorown upon his head, but llugn F^^,^ ; i,,, 

„„.,„ ,-..n.,ol.l ,0 hnu that >",'^,""«",.;"„f., , , was not aoluully 

S.:;:u'^:;ui;r;;:;i:::;r;i;r'Ua;':u;;i.v i,, his ..niw -o y. 

another generation. 

— " 7^ 7r wi..t ..f iviiiwd ' -2. Whence were surname. 



f 



1 



4 Hu.^h ha.i brought over the clergy and the .nonks "h.s interest 
„v renou,Tei„« the abbeys ,vhieh he had "^•-'.;« ^J ^ .".^'l L'; tt 
excess of devo„o„ for 'f '- =i'';-f^ j;^^^ ^ '«t sl^to have 
Requier, whose shnne he had c..rn..l ' ' " ' ' ,\;,^,,,.„3,,ess and am- 
nromised liiiu that lie should nr kniji. Hi. th. r. Ml. .s u.s a 

o the nobles prevented him from ''"Py^'l^^^^^^ ; , ..^tes, 

r, 'ri,cre were at this time e.-l.t power ul 1'"' "^ l''l' " f." Nor^ 
.1, i,„le,K.ndcntof the crown ; these were ""''f 'V^^ ,i,;^^ "'"S?^t„; c 
„,andy,'Gascony, Flanders, ^ J^-'n-.;; ; ;^- ' .,' ™:e' states, th-^r. 
was a dependency on ISormaiidy. ''' ^'' ,S^„''''^,,^„ ,,,, „„ ,,,osc who 
.veie iuuumerable smaller ones i;-;!:; -''^j ' ^-^..^oJ violence, 
could u.-quire possession ol any '' " '"'X" ' ' iJ,,ifir,,,ce of the royal 

G. Noibins can better d™.ous.Ta.e the "-P ', J^^j,^ ,,h„/„„ 

authori.y .ban '''^I.^'X". wrnnde >™ a mint'- rettlrned for 
'r;^r-; Whl l.S'vouTi;in?ia question to which Hugh 

™fi^:gnJia;^h,cip..y.P.^ 

lv,nurde?s, cruelty, immorality, irreligion and violence. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Literat,ire of Frame in the Tenik Century. 
,. Yoi, .nayask i.-tl.ere -^^^^^^^^ 

emp lived in recording the n cos oi '"^ 1 , g,,,,,,,. „r from 

pinverful and more wily bishop, or in V J^ f ^^f ,. " , " ' les, wri.inu 
Ivhom proceeded office ""' '-"j;: ^ ,^ , ^^e I'vord "f which was 
along poem in praiscMif < hnl"- ."« i"io. e y 

made to commence with a i^ M,„.xcep.ionahle diaracters. 

3. Among the most '■"'""'■•'";■">; "" u, \ ,s the son of poor 

was Gerberl. secretary .o 1 ugh (.ai. • ' ' f;^,^,,,^ |,„,,.,^ like 

parens, hut Kv'iisw.niderul mni.s - a M— ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

a meteor illuminating a aark sk\ . j 

S^';?"lK'iLS';;rrT rVJ^S SS, re^lLe, W.e„ m he die,^ What ,.. 
eaid of the tenth century ? ^ possessed any learnin 

XIX. - I. What of ihe «^''''''^"l.j^^,Viten™ What is said of Ger 
tinploved ? What curious ix^cui was wriilen ? 



la 



i<i '1 



How was il 
IvhaTTs ^Yd of Gerben ? Giva hll 



h* 



54 OEKBKlir. ^ UrEUAlLKK. -TENIri ^;EN1UKV 

>-.f AnrilHc and devoted himself with «ucli 
fharity into the convent of ^unllac, anu superiors, 

ardor to study, that l>e soon "^'=""f,f ^^e ctesic authors of anti- 
4. He applied hunsell '"^ I^ f^"^''^^; '^f' lufcoteraporaries. He 
nuity, with a success "f1"='"'^''.X !t the University of Cordova, 
?raveiled into Spain that he "''^''' f^ ^'•^,,,,," edge of tte 
gain from the learne<l ''^^^^''^Y'tX^^^Ze, ha? his fame spread 
Lienees. He made such S"'f, "^'=.;V"his wonderful acquire- 
rtT'lntXe all:.ns a.ry"-eS a^ wnte the Arahic charae- 

^s^'i'the people X^\''^Z:^L abandoned France 
5. He was now employed 7 ,"."f " ,j ' eivinc the archbishopric 
in disgust, on '«"'?,' '-1'^^%^^ '"j^fe tercd fnto the senice of 
of Rhcims, to which '•« f P':^^„^"ga him with honors. Finally, 
r b^rrh:\«::rSyt;::n« ... career .. Pope SyWes- 

'^"■But your surprise at, he Uttie^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

these times. vviU h^ '"">"'■;'- ' ^^J^" Ro'„"rLote their books either 
of the few books which "'"'';' ;,/''f Egyptian papyrus. The latter, 
on parchment, or on paper nude °f ^-^P'^" P .^.j gut after the 
being the cheapest was ol course ""'^ «7^„"^„/ „,« communication 

^rr r:;i:rl^?;;t;:e' rs^nT., .h papyn. coum n„ 
-el': vaC t:^::^}l;'Sii^ ^tr^tx:^. 

i^^::Z:71"T^^v!Z!^e been lost to us, and what 
lXl'eV:,td is the ^l^::-^:Z^^.r.r...or^ for 

8. Private persons f 'f °'" P^'^Xsc A <^<"'""=^ "^ ^"J°" ^'"'^ 
tune was not '"ffi«?"' f^^/^^e&s book, two hundred sheep, five 
for a single copy of a,''"'^'' ^''S' j „/ „e and millet. 

quarters of wheat, ^''-l 'l« ^™^^?"?" J xi borrowed the works of 
^ 9. Even so late as 14/1, when I.om^^^^^^ ^^ „„^ „„, 

Basis, an Arabian Phy«,f ■»"yXte but w& obliged to procure a 

S^^^^KShL^^ 

S nV-:rlKjKL,»f ? ' 8. a wKUuae^s are v,ve„ of the value of books , 




KOBKkT. — 1000. 



Sb 



CHAPTER XX 

I'j. p.oWp hpJit^re the World to be coring to an E?id. — Ex- 
"^ 'c^t^n^M^of Kins Robert ani Us Co,.e,p.nces. 




RohtTt, «iW to 1031. 

o u ^ ,»,„ Pinns there is a more than ordinary want of 

I. About Robert the f '"f '^^^ ' ^^d by a curious circumstance. 

information ; and this '^ '". I'^J^^'fthe „orld was only to last one 

It was very g-^^f "''V .^^''^'itienement of the Christian era A» 

rerrltlTlel^Too'o^rCrrTgencra, gloom and dread pre- 

^t The minds of the --. --f ofdevTo^The^^rand' Ve 
wilh the necessity of P-%""'';^li:[,ty couW, and Ponged into 
thoughtle^ -if" ""'""Ue nSer he drea/ed yea; approached, the 
every kind of vice. 1 he nea'CT ' apprehension, 

more calamitous were the f «^^ '"X^fjed, all useful labor ceased, 

3. The lands were no ' >"S7,^"'"!2-„ ' moment. Above all, it 
and the people thought only of t^epassmgm ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 

letters, especially <if the ><=""'=<L^^''^f;e ensued-the people must 

4. But worse <="''«=X'"Tf t^ere eouW have been a general agree- 
all have starved to t*''' ~ 1 n,rnartv contended that it was thr 



to death - •f;''«g ~-° ":;;Sed fhat it .^ th. 
;r roS;>t ttot^' S •' no, r tCLd years will not be com 
pletedtiUtheendof lOOl.'' 

* _ t-. .1 ,.rli<^ hold tn 



mem wui*.^" -"^ 

year 1000 ; the other ^^ 

pletedtiUtheendof 100 1. , i^ion cultivated their land yet 

5. So those who held ^^^Xoked for the destruction of the world 
,>ne year more ; and those vvlio looked ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ,„„u courage. 
,n the year 1000, findincr ^»^«"^J^™i^ 'Errors of famine were 
and went to work again ; and thus tne ^ 

averted. . * o^intpd with his father in the goveni- 

^ ''~~. T~ -^ „f Prhert' 2. What waa the 

^^v 1 AVhat ciirious belief prevailed m the reign ot K Ten, . prevenleJ - 

^^-^- ^llt^^nZxTi 3. What other consequence. *, ^ > J^" I ^^^^ 

•£mre wStofEkingI What disturbed his quiet • Whom 



\ 



it 



54 



oKiuii-.iir 



irlKKAlllUK IKMil iJEMUltV 



. f (Inrniic and (Imolcd liiniself with such 
rhurily mi" tl>e e....v.Ma of -^ " ; ?'.k" ' Uce .,f l.is superiors, 
ardor to «.ndy, .hut ho .oon " '^^'J ^.^^'^Vthe claLic authors of ant.- 
.,. ll.a,.|diod huHselt ;•; «;\7,^' 7 cotcmporaries. He 
nuUv, with a success uuenuaMLd hy any m . j' ,- (;„rdova, 

Lveiled into Spain that he "'•!^;l' ''!'«,,.';:' .^4 Jftl.o abstn.se 
pain fron. the learned ^ "'"■''" ,'',1 of , is ti^Cl.aT his lame spread 
^iences. He ■»-\^, -[;/;;;;; ^1.:^":.^ 1- vvonderf«l acquire- 
^nt; an^i"Xe all his -dnUty to re.l and write the Arah.c charac- 

S;",'^;>ade\he people «;-">- '-■•-;' "^.h abandoned Fntnee 

5. He was now «'"l'l"y«'^'7 .^V^g' "-■'l^^Ji^j..^ „,« archbishopric 

•„, dissnst, on hems disappointed "" »' ,^^,^:^ "-„,„ ^j.e service of 

„r Uheims, to which ''e asinre . 1 e -r |^_,,^^^^ i.,„„„y, 

:i;^'c^;h;:;a;:\'-"S;^'y;':nh.d „. career .. Pope Sylves- 

"■;>"»,. your surprise at ,.. MM-^--^;;. ^,^^2^^^^ 
these times, will ^e ain.m.sheil win 1 ^ y°» ^^^^ ^,,^,i, ,,„„Us either 
of the few books which ''M^'"'; \ " i' "v ,tian papvrus. 'I'lie latter, 
on parchmimt, or on paper m de J^'OT^^ ,;.„,. Hut after the 
beiils the cheapest was ol co rse '^^^ « "^ ,^„/ „„ communication 
ISr K;;;::ra;;d'S[;;e w^slXn .,..; a^d papyms co„,d no 
lontxcr he luul. ■ pntirclv on narchnieiU, and 

'•. '''""•^ "";V;^^":t i: r .M ;booL hTcaiL vJry rare and of 
as the price .^ '^^^ '"'ilc^aUie of the parchiuent, that the works 

I^'l:.:^;^;:^r^.he\fia^^«f-r^h,ramode^^ 

8. Private persons ff "" l'"^X;''\!l^ t:„untess of Anjou paid 
tune was not ^^'J'^ ^\Ju^^.,^, two hundred sheep, five 
for a siuRle copy ol ",'• ""''";"'=;' „,i,v of rye and millet, 
quarters of wheat, ■"»' ' '« ^^n iC s' XI. borrowed the works of 

;Sr'iV>^.'Jk:ul.u^-n ' S.'9. ^viSu'.u,.c» „rc =,vc„ of 0,e va>,.e .f !>-*. , 




hORKuT. - lOLlO. 



CHAPTER XX 



5& 



rh. Peovlc belkce the World to he coring to an Eiid.-- Ex- 
' "" t£ wL of King Rolert ani its Consequences, 




Robtrt, yilti to 1031. 

o » iihn Pious there is a more llian ordinary waul of 

1. About Roherl the ^i^^"^/' '^^ ' ,,.^,, by a curious circumstance. 

vailed. ^ , ^.^vwui^^ and nious v)ersons were filled 

2. The minds of the •"";';. ^^'^^'^^'f'l^iion' The gay and the 

with the necessity ol P"f"""'f X,ha thev eould, and plunged into 
thouahtlc^determined oero<^^yal haltlM^ , approached, the 

every kind ol vice. he ".'/^^J.' , „„„, apprelnMision. 

more calamitous were the f *^'« "' ^.!;,^J a„ ,4eful labor ceased, 

3. The lan,ls were no '""S^ "'""^'•^„^' „ „,„enl. Above all, it 
and the people thought only <;' "^« P^'i",^, ,,, o,at was so soon to 
:rt ::'h-::^rk.tvtdg^^^^^ -pt .om private 
letters, especially of the '™"'"' \;J'/;^;„ p„sued-the people must 

4. Bui worse C"';''«l"<="7^, 'J f,^; d have been a general agree- 
all have starve.l to ' <;'''"' " ' V"'IV ^^tv contended that it was the 
r ro^ ttM;"' S - no, r .&d years will not he com 

(,ne year more ; and tliosc vNho loc kcci »«y' , • ^„„^ courao^e. 

-j'-S^ror^-tSir-I^Uh^ste^Ss Jf .mme^vere 

nent, continued lo occupy uic ^ ^_^ 

^ " T . ,w.«fR-Vrti 2. What waa the 

YY 1 Wlial curit.us belief prevailcxl in the rc'?" «[ f. ^4"" r, wiuil prevcnteJ - 
^^ ' \V ^n manners 1 3. Whal olher couse<iucace. % ' ^^j^^. 

'tST^eT WlSl of the kiag ? What .hsturl^ed h,s qu.e.t 



f 



5Q UOBERT'S EXCOMMtJNKATION. - lUf«. 

,iriuL5>, lit u..t"r-.r ihp intt-rlVrence ot the 1 ope. 

have been l«-f ''f"' b" '"^ Rol.rt married Herll.a, l.is fourth eousin. 
7. About the year 9i)H, ' ""^^^ "" J/ , „,„i f,„ a sliort time the;, 

'"ir'Sn refuse,, to obey tbe order a,u. --^-^'^J'^.r 
etcommun,ra,al, that is |>ut out of the ' r-h ' " I ^r ^^^^^^^^ 

den to speak to him. or hav.! ur.ytb.nR "Jl/V' ' ' "\„ eeelesiastics 

t.me the kingdom was put ''■"'••■^"'"Xt'o' religion in that king- 
were forbidden to perlorm any ot the otiices oi reu„ 

'1: The ehnrehes .ere shut up, -^-^0 7e^'rveTiSt"a 
..wried; and even the dead ""; ,'"™\^'', u7„ And queen were 
prayer. So terrified were the peop c "^ J,^.^^ "° They were left 
Seserted by the eourtiers, an,l ''";"' y'^^„^^;\"es\.e„,ure,l to set at 
in the solitude of the palaee. »'fJ;"/Zif^Zlcs to attend upon 
defianeethe P»P«"^ '•''^'==''^,^";V:^;':^; Sever had been upon the 

^T"='tr™;ort.;ned on all s«les to yield ; but ..U he^and 
Bertha, who were sineerely »"»^hed to o ,e anothe 
T^:jrZ^: ;[e''=lVtr;;ara.,on,Vnd poor Bertha 
went into a convent. 



CHAPl^ER XXI. 

New Stylcof Dress introduced.- Anecdotes of Kms Robert,^ 
*^ His Death. 

,. U ...0... Robert married a --'j.-if;' .^^rXwlfd^r^^^^^ 
aprotid an<l indolent pnneess. f ^e e .ghted '» M^ 

•"'•"• ^■"' '""'a oXrSvlt 1 cou rdTfn.lm of the age 
the most gay and the most '-'^'''"^ ' ^, y^ .^ere not at all t» 

o. The manners and dress "f """"^^ ^"""f "" what these maimers 
the ta^sle of the king or h.s S^^^^'^^'^f ^^^ „H historian tells us. 
tt^:^'^^^^:^^^ ^^^ntoni^nee, beeamethe resort 



ROBERT —1031. 

\ fr'.vnlons of men. Their manners and dress 
i*%ri:H;Vu.t »,:;rand^^uipments of their horses were 

-r-^^nrmiddle p.. of 0.^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -;^ -^ ti; 

heads were shaven like Merrv A"<",^,"-, ,,^^,1 neither faith nor 
,,uskins were shame uUy ^'^^^.J 'h^U "h'uneful examples were 
:!;r;r::;m,t';Xed"b;;ttede raee of Frenehmen, formerly 
SO seemly in their manners ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ j^^^ ^^ en 

i:;i;i;5.^^roMrg^'rhLt— ^^^ 

'" rS.e dry^ had hulden a beggar u,*rU. ta^^^^^^^^ 

^r ^V^dl'mrrs :^l!.f^^^ .one. a.!d the gold 
.rnLents of the king's mantle «"« «-« «"„ ,„a „„e day she 

6. I have told you that the ^"f " ''"''^^JSd with rich silver 
presented the king w.th a ^P^"'''^. '--- ^ e-^y-g ^his fine 
.rnaments. As '''C k ng ^v^ S J Reckoning to htm to 

lanee m Ins >">f ' '''',„^';7'/„ „^d gS s<^me carpenter's tools, 
come, he ordered the man '"?"■""*■ R„bert took him nto asnug 

With great sol.Mnnity and parade a sealed P^^^^^' ^ ^^^^ some 
and thirty-fourth of Ins reign. 

.. r 1 r, Rpiate the anecdote oflhe king and a « beg 

How o"l was he 1 . How long had he re.gned ? 



i I 



!i 







ll 



bS 



HENRY 1 - 1031 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Rei^n of Henrv I. - He^iry sends to Muscovy, or Bu^sm fc^ 
° a Wife. 




Hinry I, 1031 to 1060. 
1 Robert left three sons, of whom the youngest was the inother'. 
favoV.^!'aTd she tried ^^■^^f^^^Z^::'o^^^^^T^^^^^^ 
'^:^,:i..'Z2rnl ':^'^'^ yea^ oia when his 

obliged all to swear allegiance to the you K^n. ^.^^^^ 

Khrh:x';;^r/hL"B^S^^^^ -.« Kohe. 

'"^■"TVil'Rotrt''teing oppressed with remors.. for his sins det^er- 

age to Jerimlem r e ^^^,^^^ ^.^ departure. ^ 

arranged his attairs as wlii a» lu whom he wished 

*; His chief anxiety was about an onl\ son, lo wnum 

,0 i.cl^: tt ini.eriun'ee of h.s ''--^j;;-;,^"-;* ^rfel?^ to'^Ms 
r4 '-r SrrrSrnf fa^ut J's' ^X^u'ir the Con.u^eror, of 

17 2. What did Constance do? W'^^^^'^iJrKns'J 5 What was his chief anxi- 

irTw^.^^sirniZ^m ss'-nr;-' w^a. ... .ho,„M o. .h. poo.. .. 



HENRY 1. — (:H1VA..RY.— I'JfiO 



69 



. Kiiiti^s which afterwards distinguishei him, and, with 
age the great abilities nv l"^i^ ^"^^ ^ maintained his rights. . 

the aid of Henry, ^^^ 1^^." ^'XTciused him so much inconvenience, 
7. The marriage ot Robert had ^^^^ea mm ^^.^ 

pie with one eye and one leg. K^rmlpss nueen • she endowed 

P 8. This Anne of Russia w^ajeryijm^^^^^^ Ts for Henry him- 
a convent, and was enrolled n the ^f^ «^^^^^^^^^ ,^ i,.^ve forgotten 

most powerful. pi^jii^ Robert, and 

9. Henry du^ m ^^^^'^ ^^^^^V^- '^^^^^ 
Hugh, Count of Vermandois^^ 1 2tVuU period ; the people made 
nifi?ant, yet his reign was a very "^P"^ ; '\\);^^^^^ had evir before 

more rapid strides Jowards ^V'^^^'^ ni'Sure owing to the insti- 
done This improvement was in a great mtasurt owmj, 

tution of chivalry, which arose ;^{;:;"^ /^ire.fin'to great disorder. The 
10. At this time the church had lale "^^« ^ ^^ ^p to 

most flagrant abuses prevailed .^y^^^f ^^^^^^'^ j'^^s at onetime the 
sale to the highest bidder, and a lad ^^" ^^^^^^^ "/^J^^^^^^ of Benedict 
infallible ruler of the consciences ^^^^ ; " f,^\^^^^^^^^ of here 

IX. The corruptions of the church gave rise to manj t>u 

sies. 1 ^ ♦„ tntil ibstinencc from animal food, 

, ,. There was one sect who ^ J^''" ^^^^^'^ ^,,53 ^p^.e diet was a 

k:l 1^^, we^l^K' h^Sd^tt"- staUe. and hnrnt 
as heretics. 

hernliM ' 




. I ; ;- 



W 



bS 



HENKY 1-1031 



CHAPTER XXII. 






Reign of Henrv I.- Henry »eWs to Muscovy, or Fu,>.i^ 

a Wife. 



{o' 




Hemij I, 1031 to lOfiO. 
1 RoBKRT loft three s.,ns, of whom lli.^ younscst was the mother'a 

tt:>rr'er:rH:! !;;v'a!;.:,ruv™Vy ,-.1 ...a .he., hu 

oMicrtnl all to sNvoar al cRiancc to he X^ ;: '^^ - j ^j^^ ^,„hition 

.o • ec": the' !..hen.a,L, of h. ''•";••"•;-'';;;;,; -^fell^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
,«; ttT.^.^ar =f fa^!: rwr..rr C^,,. Je.. of 




HENRY I -CHlVA.UY.-lOfin 



59 



. » ,1,,,.. vvhii-h aflcvwaras aisiincruishei hiui, and, with 
T '^"^ ^'u nrv vu.- n -' ana, maintain^l his rights. . 
the aul c)t ilenr>, ^^^ '>/';' '7, . j him so much inconvemence, 
7. The marriage *.l Robert haa \^'^\^'^'^^^^ ,y^ i,^ g„,^ on this 

U.at Henry resohea not ^o ;--;y^^ (^ i'>end^ 

point, he sent to Muscovy tor a x U. a ut 1 1^ 1 ^ .1^ .^ ^,^^,^^^^^ 

a convent, ana was enroHca n the 1».^^ ^'^J^ "'^ ^ ^^ ,,,,ve lorgottrn 
self, the French lustorians..h.^l>-*K^-^ ,,. ,,^^,„,, 

tliat such a person was m exi^tu.ce s ^"^/^ . ^ • ,^,,,,,,.,. 

^;;^;;:::';;:^f^;^,:roft:;l.^.&.:»a.s'cha.,.,,a^,e..e..he 

lluol., t'.mm oi Vcr.i.a..aoib. i !'""-' '' ■ , . \,,e people i.ia.le 
..ifiSaot, vet his rei... was a very ""!"' ; " ' .;. Zi J^ before 
more rapid str,.les »nvaraB n..pro e . en ^^l^- ,„ i,,e i„5ti. 
done. This i..iprovcii.ei.t w;is ... a s;.e..i ......Mr. 

t...i».. orc/»™/,-y, vvhieh "";■?, •;;';;\!li;'.,ri,"„-sreal disorder. The 
10. .\. this t,..,e .he eh, M.h l''" <• '^^» ;, al erown was p..t up to 

sies. 1 ,. ♦« tnf.l •a)stinence from animal food, 

, , . There was one seet who to U^'; 1^-^"^' ji^, ,,,, ., 

;;;;;l![r^:S!a'r;£io.!;:s^a.^^ 

k t:l ^irS ti: Ual.£ "^ 1;= ar^lS^^ ^o the staUe, a..d h„r..t 
as heretics. 




^ 



CHIV/ R Y. — ELE V ENTH CENTURY. 



CHAPTER XXIll. 
Chivalry, — Ediccatirm of a Knight. — Arms of a Knight 




^:' «;; .?^i;;ji5^*^^ ' "- ' '*^- 



A Knight-errant. 



1 The o-rc:il (M)prossions and abuses which prevailed ahcut (ht 
^ccinning of the eleventh century crave occasion tor an ^'-^^IJ";;; »"f ';> 
'nst tulion. We can trace the spirit to tlie tunes of he earliest 
Franks but the peculiar system known as chvaln, had Us origin in 
fhe piety of certain nobles; who d.^sired to give a religious tendency 

to the profession of arms. . 

2 They devoted their swords to (iod, and took a solemn oath to 
use 'them only in the cause of the weak and oppressed Those who 
took iipo" themselves these obligations were called ^.;^^ 5; and in 
^ very short time every noble (for only men of noble birth could be 
admitted into this order) aspired to the honor of being a knight ; nnd 
thiTled to more care being bestowed upon the education ot the 
vounT, f.,r something beside mere brute strength was necessary. 

3 Tl . candidate for knighthood must be courteous, generous, and 

respectful in his deportment to his superiors in rank or age, and to 

he iXs. The cultivation of these virtues naturally softened b,. 

character! and made him kind and affable to those whom Providence 

had placed in less fovored circumstances. 

l^To acquire these virtues, the young noble vvxs placed, at a very 
early a<^" under the ^are of some lord distinguished for his kn ght y 
luaHtie;. ile was domesti cated in his castle, and was instr uctea in 

XXIII. - 1. What insliuuion arose at the beginning of the deventhcen^^ 2^ Who 

y;^i^J? V^ ^^^^SXX e^cS -^ S t .earn . 



CHIVALRY. -HLF.YENTH CENTURY. 



B\ 



,„ the observances of chivalry. He ba. ^^^^^^ ^S 

obedience. . . ,, . .,„ „f ,im m.re — for so was he oallcii - was 
5. Tlie imncipallmsim-ss of tlic page r ,.„ae out, 

,„ assist lus lord >„ dross.n^ V";t J th sHav. ,1,. whc'.e 

and to wail ..|«m h.n. a..d 1 us '''^ ''' 'f ':;;j.,',,,„ „.;is placed ii. ".e 
househuM dined at .me lal.le. A large ^^ -"^ , ' „,^ ,„,, ,,^, 

,„,ddle, to nrake a div.sKU. '•f-'.^,';" '^^J'^^, ,, fetf bv tl.e servants. 
Willi liis guests, and that pari wliu-li " !>« "^ "1 ^^ ' J cucaged 

6 When not iu attendance upon '"^ '""'• ''"; ''•'«^, "^..a f;*^be 
«i?h his companions in unWtary spans ,n '^^r ^" /s^me^ "' '''^ 
evening be ,,o,ued in the >".-'-' '^'""^fiVjf, ^t he^" ed his lord 

person in Ibe order, liul i ic >ouiv ,,„,,! pvalttd iu rank, or 

'receiving the honor from the hands -^^ ^' « > "^^^^^^ \t, difficult^ in 
the most distinguished lor v rlue. As ' ">^ "" ^ ^ ;„ ,■.„„, „,• 
Jetcrmining this latter po.ul, hut ''""« " ^'^'^ ■" ^, ^^o be considered 
he king, so the sovereign came ».'^''"'"^'' ' j:,id„.^i ngl.l what 
as the iTiuntaiii of all honor, and came 1 ..s J^^^^f ^'^ '^'j, ,^,,,f. 

Je trdescrihed. ^yJ^SLt' Sf t km i:^.'!.: 
bath ; as if to express that in F .«^" '« ^,j j^^ j^^ ^^^e bath he 

in a complete suit ot black ^rmor ^^,^ ^^^^ 

must always be prepared. symbol of chastity. 

,0. His dress w^ then completed^^^ ^^ 

and a pair "^ ^I7^'.^''7,.X', ° "„„rd w:is girded on, and thi. 

;i;nf thi^'ettil;' wasi^'in-iea ''y - -'"■~ - "« '"^- 

''i/"^The whole was concluded by a stroke on the shoulder from 

f .V.O ivicTpi 6 What were his amuseinentB? 7. Whc 
LS;"makrkf4\S""«'i"" l*ly ™^« 'h.m, 8, 0, 10, ... Describe U,e ce«o»a, 

6 



il 



^ 



<:HIV; RY.-KI.KVHN'I'H CKNTUKY. 



CHAPTER XXIll. 

Chivalry. -Edmation of a Knn^ht.-Arms of a Kiiighi 







A Kmsrht-ermnt. 

1 T.iK "rc;.t opurcssions ;m<l abusps wlii<-l. |ir<>v.ulv(l ulic.i (V.( 
wiimin.r (,? Ih.^ rl,.v,-,.tl, .-.■nlurv -:.vr o,T.si,.n l..r an ,;Mr:,nnlinar> 
:nsl u m. Wo .-.n trur. ,1,. spirit t„ tly nines n tl,e .arlu-st 

;!,o"vi..ly «f ccniin nnhlrs; who .i.'«i>-,-.l to fitve a rol,s,o„s to„<|..M.cy 

to tho nrofosftion ot* arms. , 

2 Theydcvotr.l thrir swords to CotLruul took a solonu. outl. to 

nsrthon, Llv it. tho <-:u,sc of th. u.ak ;uul ^^VV^^f'.,}:';^'^;;^ 
took upon llu'insrlvrs those i.hl.-^it.ons were calkn /rm.'/> ^ «"rt n 
avorv short time every nohle (for ot.ly tnen ot ..ohle h.rth cou1<l 
(huilLl i.ito this order) aspired to the ho„or ot .emii ^ k.u.^ht : nd 
this led to m<.re care h-in- bestowed upon ti>e <>dueat.on ot thc> 
voun- for si.methi.t- heside mere hrut.' strength was necessary. 

•i Tl candidate tor Uni-hth.xxl must he courteous, ffcnerous, and 
respectful in his deportment to his superiors in rank or a.ee, and to 
tTe la ies. The cultivation of these virtues naturally so tener h,s 
diaracter! and made him kind and atlUhle to those whom Providence 
h-ul nlaced in less favored circumstances. 

.^ T^acquire these virtues, the youn^ nohle was placed, at a very 
earlv a-- under the -.are of some lord distmiinished hu- his kn fititly 
luatitie";. ilo was domesticated in his .-astle, and was lustructed in 

wero k..i-hts ? 7.> what n.v.l ditl the instiUitit.u lead ] X What mn^l bt l f'''-^/^^*- J 
IJTkSt ? 4. Where «a^ a ..oble youth placnl for cducat.o,, ? W hat did ht, 'earn / 



CHIVAI.UY. - KLl^VKN rn CKN ITUY. 



B\ 



,.. ,l.e o,.erv. of .>„valry. He W ^;^^^:J: :f^::::!^ ^ 

!::;. j-:;;l t!::"'^::inr;::^k^^ .^'.^-' ^-^^ -•> -- 

3. The pnncipul l.uf mess ol ih. (m^i • , „,„ 

,„ assist his io„i n, .hess,,^, \;^':;;'tZ 1." ' 'i-.'- ""• "'»■'■'■ 

|,„„„.hold .li"e.i at one table. A lar?ie s.'t <-"•"• "1 , , 

„.,,,,U., to tnake a a.vision '>-;'-;•':" '-••';^^, ,;f '' ^ , Inants. 
with Ins cnests. an.l that part wh,e "■;"'!; >,„, ,,,,3 ,,,j.,o,.,l 
,;. When not in alte.ulanee upon I'"" '''•.'';,,' ''-.f,, „„J i„ •.he 
„.,h h,s eon.panions in „,il,tary sports n, ' ,j^,^"'\,;,™;,l,.,,U,e 
even,,,, be ,,o,n,..l ,n .l,e „>ns,<;, f"""^J^"^^ t.\^Z^A L- lor-l 

pi-rson to the o,-.lei. lint "il \oui^ „„„t oxalleil in rank, or 

'reeetv,,,,. th,. Itonor l,-o„, -Ite han-ls "'";";., ,^' .,,,v,.-.,lty ,„ 

!i:;;er,,;:;tnr;;;nt:irn,,,e^t.n..^^^ 

i;::h ; t'l^ t^;::;t .ilf n, ';;f-;;.Vnnse. ^.^^>^^^ l;e 

:: !^; tni;;' Mairtiirw;:;:: St!;, e.- aea.„ .. wb,e 

must always be prepared. symbol of chastity, 

a„<l a pair ol ,^1'"^;., '"'',", " i.j, ,„.onl was frir.led on, an,l this 
l^ll^'^f 'IW .;:;;I!u;l.,:v'was!:^lnp!:ue.. by a„ exhortation .« be bra.e 

-"i;:>;it who.o was '^^^^'y,:^:^- ^^t^."::. 

'""I':. The appointntenis of a kni.b . <-.,siste,l in a ^ml of armor, 
,'.-: !'. Vi ,1„. wbob oersoi,. So„,eti,nes it was maile ol nia,i, 
rhlirL, Sol ,r::;.:f,;rl:;i,':« a .... ".•".■.-,rl< .iress^^aln^-po^^ 

" ^ , '.a w'hTi \v.>rp his aniusemenlB ? 7. Whc 

6 



62 



CHIVALRY. -ELEVENTH CENTUK^ 



elrable. either to sword or lance. Latterly, the armor v^.ts composea 
of plates of iron ^vhich protected the men-at-arms trom head to heel 

13 The offensive weapons of the knight were a la..ce twelve or 
fifteen feet long, a heavy sword a dagger and otien a species ol 
battle-axe, or a steel club, called a mace-at-arms. Ihe horse, like 
tlte knicrh , was covered either with mail or with an armor ot plate 

14 Upon a march the knight seldom wore the heavier parts of his 
arnio'r, v^hich were borne by pages. The heavy -ar-horse w^s led 
by a pa-e, while the knieht himselt rode a more common beast, and 
received liis arnied horse fresh at the moment ot battle. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Effect of Chivalry upon the Condition of the People. 

1 Perhaps you think that this chivalry might be all very well fox 
tho noble«» and vet the other classes be not at all the gainers. Hut 
yt wM^^ that one of the vows of tlie knight wa^ to protect 
U^e weak and oppressed, whose wrongs had been one of the causes 
of th.3 institution. But the indirect consequences were far more im 

^T Whilst it refined the manners of the nol)lcs it introduced habits 
of expense, that gave a stimulus to industry. Knighthood led to a 
more costly style of dress, of armor, and of all sorts of equipments. 
The kni-hts v'ied with one another in all these, and in like manner 
in the nmnbcr of their attendants, and in the size and architecture of 
their castles. Thus trade was increased ; talent and invention were 
encourage ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ confined to roving ped- 

ers'; the towns were again peopled ; the streets were filled with shops 
..nd warehouses, and the merchants became rich and were enabled to 
tngacre in foreign commerce. Though they still continued without 
nolitrcal ri^rhts, yet their wealth made them important. ^ 

4 The condition of the country people and farmers was aiso im- 
nroved They still labored only for the benefit of the lords, and 
iherefore could not grow rich. But they were subject to fewer 
personal injuries, and one of the clauses of an agreement entered into 
by the nobles about this time, was for the protection of this class of 
people They acrreed that no one should molest the laborers in the 
field, nor deprive'^them of their implements of husbandry. 

5 This agreement among the nobles is worth mentioning, for the 
times must have been very bad, when such a league could have been 
considered a blessing. A Bishop of Aquitaine pretended that aft 



offgjv. an«s Vll 'U^e'rhe'eSt. oVcSr? ? 2 \o what did 't lead the nobl«: 
• 8. What of trade? What of the towns ? 4. What of the farmer..? What agrwmeiv 



PHILIP l.-ii6a 



63 



...gel had ap. eared to lam, and bi^ught him a w^ 
enjoining men to cease from their hostilities, and to oe 

""eTgreat pestilence was desolating the ^-^ ' jte'l^tL^ fo 
men were disposed to receive P^-%^T'wraU; of gX Ige'feral 
perform anything, in order to avert t^.e wrah -^ J^^'^^^^^J ,^ 
peace took place, and continued for seven years, i ^ 

[hat, for the time to come, from Wednesd^^^^^^ agreement 

morning, no act of violence should be committcQ. b 

was called the " Truce of God." ^ r^^ ^^^^ 

7. But the effect of fear and ot remorse ^on v oie ott- 
was found to hang heavy on th^:i\^ands and U^^^^^^^^ ^^^.^ 



CHAPTER XXV. 

FhUip tht First, - William the Conqueror, and his Scm 

Robert, 



n 




ti 



Philip /., 1060 to 1108. 



, u e u^r^^rr T his son Philip was only seven yean 
1. At the death of Henry i^^h^^^^^^^ y^.^ ^^^ian. 

old, and Baldwin, Larl ^f^fj^"^^^'^^^^^ for his virtue, 

Now this Baldwin ^f^.^^XcaSofihe young king was properly 
ild^^ ''B:^n^n:.^^^^ whL thl king wa. fourteen 

^Tu^tas probably foun^aa^^^^^^^^^^ 

agree among themselves ^ Jo ^^^ ^^^;7^^i3,,d, a king was not con- 

although by the .^^^^ „^t .'pntv-one vet it was determined that 

:n:Z^^ r;;^;,;r^^7^formaUo„! 6. Wlmwa, the Truce of 

SS i"t Dfd it ile '» '>«„"^'?;T'',' Who was the guardian 1 What of the educa 
XXV.-l.. Whosucc^ded Henryl Wl»v^^ gu^^^^^,^^^^^,,^,, ,, ^„, 



,iSt^ L^^^S^- »-- '^'"^ '-•'" °"" ' 






62 



CHIVALRY. -ELEVENTH CEMimv 



elrable. either to swur<l or lance. Latterly, the armor vyis eomposea 
o Xt^rot- iron v.hiclt protected the .ueu-at-arin. Iron, head to hoel 

13 'n.e oliensive uelponsof the kniglit were a lance twelve o 
fifteen feet lonff, a heavy sword a dagger and ollen a ^V<^-^ 
l.attle-axe, or a steel club, called a macc-at-arms. i he h. r^t like 
the k.ii.rhi, was covered either with mail or with an armor ot i)late 

14 r>n a march the knight seldom wore the heavier parts ol his 
armor, which were home by pages. 'Hie heavy -ar-horse was ed 
by a pa-e, while the kni-ht him«elt rode a more commiHi beast, and 
received his armed horse fresh at the moment ot battle. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Effect ofCkivalry upon the Condition of the People. 

I Pkuh^ps you think that this chivalry miubt be all very well foi 
,he n<.bh-s,and" vet the other classes be not at all the gainers. Hu 
V u will recollect ihat one of the vows of the knight was o protect 
the weak and oppressed, whose wrongs had been o.u' ot the cause. 
of tho institution. 15ut the indirect conse.iuences were tar m.,re im 

^"T Whilst it rethied the manners of the nobles^, it introduced habits 
„f expense, that gave a stimulus to industry. Knighthood led to a 
Hore c<.sth' style of dress, of armor, and ot all sorts oi equipments. 
The kniolits vied with one another i.» all these, and in like manner 
i„ the nu';nb,.r of their attendants, and in the size and architecture of 
their castles. Thus trade was increased ; talent and invention were 

''T^The/tratlic of the country was no longer confined to roving pcd- 
ers : the towns were again peopled ; the streets were toied with sh(3ps 
..nd warehouses, and the merchants became rich and were enabled to 
en-a-re in foreian commerce. Tbonuh they sti.l continued without 
poTitu-al rights, yet their wealth made them mjportant. ^ 

1 The con.litlon of the country people and tarmers was aiso im- 
proved They still labored only tor the benefit of the lords, and 
herefore could not grow rich. ' But they vvere subject to fewer 
.>ers(,nal injuries, and oiu^ of the clauses ot an agreement entered into 
by ihe nobles about this time, was for the protection ot this class of 
people They a.^reed that no one should molest the laborers in the 
field n».r deprive them of their implements ot husbandry. 

5 ' This aUi-ement among the nobles is worth mentioning, tor the 
times must have been very bad, when such a league could have been 
considered a blessing. A Bishop of Aciuita ine pretended that a a 

nf nvikin- a kni"hl. 12. VVh;il of tlu^ defen-sive arms of a kuiijhl ? It. What of the 
• a. Wlili 01 trade ? Wtial of the, towns ? 4. What of the farmer. ? What agreenieiv 



PHILIP t.-li6a 



63 



..,el had ap. eared to him, and bt.u.M Mm a writi^ 
enjoining men to cease trom their hostilities, ana lo oe 

one another. . , , i ,.,,,| xhQ minds of 

0. A greut pestilence w:is desolat.njj "'« ;"" ' J^ .^,„, ^-aUng to 

,„en were ^^i to ro..-e.ve l"'"'^""}''^'^'';" f,' '"'g h1 A general 

porloru, ;u>yll.in,., in ora.-r '", •-■" J^"-, "^j^ ' "' IMe.obles agreed 
,oace t».,k place, and eonlmue.l lor ^ev >^^r-- j^„„j 

1,,,,, lor the ti.ne to come, ro,u l^^'" ';_,",™y^,^''".V,Ti, agreement 

,„„,nin.4. n» act of violence slumld 1« cmnnutKd. b 

was cullwl llie '• Trmv "' ^ , ,• ...... =n„ii wove oil. TUe time 

7. lint 11,0 ellecl ol tear and ol rj ». «' « •"■ ^„,„ 

«a.louna lohan. i.eavy on '''':;:■,, ;'^;^;^ ''',,, Monday morn- 



rh'dip the 



CHAPTER XXV. 

First. — William the Conqueror, aiid his So:i 
Robert. 




Philip /., 1060 to 1108. 



. L r IT .v« T b?s son Philip was only seven year« 
1. At the death of He ry.. \^.^ ^^^^^j^,,. 

Md, and Baldwin, Larl "^J^^f ^^^;^[fj^Xin ruished for his virtue, 
No^v this ^^^l^^:Z,£::;iZ^yonn, king was j^roperly 
al^^d^;:^ =tu;un;!>:uui:S U. died when the king was fburteen 

years old. lur.onU m-iiter for the great nobles to 

- 2. Itwaspr«fomjdad,m ult^nuuer^ J^^^ ^^,, 

r:::^^^ - Wl«"»' toi.sformatio„^ 6. What w,3 Ae Tr.,ce of 

S;3r1°Di;iUcOKlumetolH>J,b-rY.n ^^, ,„, a„„, What of lh| ataca 

.,„^^oft.;^L^^^Wht''«"°Sk"iil.saU,ofag.l WUat.fthek,,,;! 4. Wl... 



«4 



PHIllP 1-1160 



vices, lie Iw.l naturally " 2">f jlrC ^ Jlo.l, u.ul scusHaluy, anc 

that orhi8Si.bj..«« «"«" '^f.V^'^e 'of Kttsilund. I'h'lil' ""^ ""' 
ha.l scate.1 l.i...sL-l upon f ' « ''" ';^^„<,e should thus have Rained a 
plcaBod that one who owed "" f hf, ow", «ith povvev n.tich .note 
kin.'doni, as ainpl,' and as iair as his ov , 

extensive and abs<dnte. . „f William to rebellion, and the son 

5 lie excited Kobert, the son of W>11'^'.^° garrison, headed 

«n. besieged by the father '" ^ Jl"'"" .j-Jj^ts kn.Rhl, me of the bravest 
hv the vcutng prince, "uide f, f. '{• ^..^ "t'Anlpht, who appeared in 

'■•;".ir;,u..tof the yoi.i.^j ^^zt:^':^^^^::^ 

,„st, horse an,l man ; and «"'r'^ ' l'';!y^,7 ,,is lifc, ha,l he not recoR- 
,|,e disuuMint,..! knight wouW h.e taken m , ^^^ _^^ ^ ^ 

„i.c,l, by the I'"'" »' ^"JV. he'd scovery^ he HuuR himself Iron, us 
'' ^: ^^;;lis, Robert -P-ajiis ^..r to .«..n . hhn sc^eof 

;;;:^-rn='hrwe:r^.^^^^^^^^^ 

part with his doininions till Ins '■''='"'•.. i„ Kobprttiuis-;ard, 

^ I Another party of these No™J =>ubj'^te > ■ _ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.,,g,,,„„ 
or the Robber, » Jescendant of RoUo, l^e d p ^^^^^ ^ ^_^ ^^^^ 

iS::^ hS^'^riSt^^ 

_^ " vvh-tldiil Phil'pdo? VViiiiano-' 

,„.»>,„i«u, 7^-^,Y,iK,ll^SJi\":V '8:"?V,^,t of »,c Non;,.„. in ^. ... ; 




I'HE CRUSADE.V 



•<> 



, CHAPTER XXVI 

Account of tfie Crusades. 



i 1 




Crufiadcr and Saracen 



. 1 »*vF -ilrc-ulv told vou thai Robert the Magnifioenl made a piV 

';-m^r.:r Jrs^ll^iS^hrine in Italy or P^^esnn,. vv.re h^ld U; 

be the siirest and most -^P^t^^i^^.^.L't'.'.rcies received. 
"Tiw'wt werfin diffieidties'or dangers often made a vow 
that 'fto^ -extricated they wo,,h...aUe^^^^^^^ 
the holy places, and 'here .esufy !>y a ms praycrs. a^^_ . ,^, ,^ ^^^_^^ 
ehnrch, their sense ol the protection J reliL'ious voy- 

^^•''"'tUtnn"rH^hrre^s" U"!dtCtu'of.^ ' 

""T'The pWim avened on' foot, and his peculiar .1-- ^^--^ 
K,'himinlu^;bristiHneo«.,triesahns^n P" <^^^^^ 

or, as the '^-'^}-' V^^f";^ do h, wUh fu 1 sl'eefes, fastened bya 
posed of a tumc "^ ^^^^/^^'i^'^ U, having a cockle-shell or seal- 

lr;or.Su ; and aS will, an iron ferule, to support h.s weary 

'T WhllsrPalelunl'renS'a part of the K.stern F.mpire the 

4. Whilst 1 *"f •"''^ . ,.isrhar<»in" bis re igious vows. Undei 

«iXer™;^ of r SaSU u., access^ to Jerusalem wa. 



•I 



-, o WVwi nuide the»«? To wJial places were they 
XXM.-1. Whalof pil.rn.s.^s 2^ ^'^^lld V^ Saracens Irea^hem ? 5 H.>^ 
uade ) 3. What was the pil^'rim s <ire:»3 . 



u 



PHIIIP 1-1160 



.,„;, yncv \m^ l..M'a.iie a slave to hi? 
3. l.ea onnrMy to bis ^^^'] ^^^^^^J,,,^^^ ^nd . com.lv vem>n 
vices. H.-. l.^^'l -'^'^^"•.'f >• -•' '" , .: m Jloth uud sensv.alny, anc 

4. liut though tins Nvas he '^f^'y^^^^^^,^^ D^k.' i.f NonvKiiuly. 

,,;„! sraUMl hi.ns.-lt upcu Le \» ^^; .^ shouM thus have -avu.a a 
^,,.. Uhatonowhoc.^^ b f.^^^^^ ,,^ev nuu-h n.re 

Uiu.mIimu, as auiph- and as lair 

extrusive aiul al)S()lute. WiUiuu to r( iM^lion, and the son 

5 He eMUled KolMTt the son ot \y lu. H^ ^ aarrison, headed 

his li.lin<a. , <■ ._„ „rincc bore down his anl;i^^»>- 

,, Tl.,. o„..t ,.f the y.|U"i; ■; ,;,;'■:, ,a,„.... ... .1.0 .l.ro.. "t 

„„• ;r,s,uo„u,.-.l Uu.jj Wt, "■""';.'', .^,'i,va^ in .l.e act oC slav,n^' M» 
„„,,.,|, l-y ^U'■ '.».- "1 "" VX', '•; , V 'rv 1... thuvr l,in,..ir Iron, ms 

-;;,t;i:a.^;^;s;;:..:i;;.»nU.:.iau,e.u.nn>..^^ ' 

|,i. .N.,r,na,. ,,ossosB.ons, "' " ''V^,"^ , »,' ' !u. h.' oxv-C-a ■»-""; 
„r tho Robl-or ^-'e^oenaant «t Ho ", '.' , Vormev, aftor a ton )o.r. 



.11 







rHK CRl'SADKh. 

tJAPTEK XXVI 

Account of t}i£ Crusades. 



65 




Crusader (ind Saracen 



. T ,.. ..IrP-.dv t..ld von thai Robert the Macrnifioont niadn a pll- 

be tho surest a„,l most ^J';!' ;' ; , 'tt.i u "^ nieroies roceive.1. 

Heaven for l^as. -'"«"«"'•. ^.'^'^^ :;r an<-ors often ntade a vow 

2. Those vvl.o "•''';^'" ™, '^^^^^ a jonrnov .0 one of 

(Int. if Ihey were V^l"*"''"' ''\'f /," , s r.v<-rs ami .'nfls, to tl,e 

ehiircn, their sliisg *'» '"^ l . . , ..uippi „r these re mmous voy- 
.ep.,le.,re vvas ,ut,u,a y . o I.n.. P «h^^^^^ ^ 

^'^?^\'l "T W loll'l or^ot, a,.d his pecul, ress seet^l 

,; ,,„\:':,/.,rC,,risti.. eo;n,.rie. a,.s^^^^ 

or, us the earher poets ea it. o ""^ ; ,,,^„^,„,j , ,. 

,,ose.l of a tunic of '•""'■^^i-'^''V'^': ,'.'.," ., <,,ekle-sl,ell or scal- 

i.Ue ; a lar.e hut tn rue ^'.l',, -'J-.';!" •';;;•',,,■ wallet hn„, 

l:;i:r.i:e';iir; '!:u;ra':,!!ir w„l, an i,on femK to support h.s weary 

^''f WhilsriHl"su::!.'len'':n;:;'la pa,t„f .l,e Iv.s,ern Empire the 
4 W hilst 1 .11. St' " ,|isehar.nntf liis relif.ious vows. Undei 

lwf^„"JiS:nerrt\eoi'0;'sa^^^^^^ 

made J 3. What w.us lUc |)i1;.ti..i » .ire»:> . 



b6 



rut. CRUSADbX-PLTEK THE HERMI'l 



Bccurecl lo the pious pilgrim, and the regular ^^^^^J^^l;^' ^^ ^^ 
suhiected formed an important pari ot the revenue of the feullan. 

5 But when the rude and fanatical Turks obtained possession of 
J^.ru^,alem, about 1004, an act of pilflrrimage became not only peril- 
ous and expensive, but wa^ often an introduction to martyrdom. 1 he 
c er^y were insulted, stripped, and thrown into dungeons ;artd every 
Christian found in the Holy Land was treated with the greatest 

'"JT:^ Alexis, the Christian Emperor of the East who lived at Con- 
stantinople, made the most earnest supplications for aid |he ^m*^ 
made so strong an impression upon the mind of one man ^l^^^t, like 
fire falling among combustible materials, the flame spread through- 

"""T^Thriaan was Peter the Hermit, a monk of Picardy. He was 
of a slicrht, indifferent figure, and owed nothing to external accoin- 
pli'hme^ts'. He had himself been a pilgrim ^o Palestine, and couM 
therefore, speak as an eye-wilness of the atrocities ol the Turks, and 
nf thp siifferintTS of the Christians. 

8 Crere with rags, barefooted, he travelled from court to court 
from castle to castle, from city to city. Everywhere ho «a^ ''^t™';; 
to as a prophet, and the people were inspired with an enthusiasm 

"™' The Poprsummoned a council at Clermont, and multitudes 
flocked to it. Whilst he was yet addressing them, there burst forth 
„re shniliaieous shout. " It is the will of God!" and this became 
?hc w tchword throughout Europe. The people crowded round to 
recehe flom the hands of the Pope the symbol of enlistment in the 

To" Thistyinbol was a cross of red stuff sewed to the shoulder of 
the cioak ; hence the undertaking was called ;i crusade, and those who 
oined its ranks were called crusaders. So great was the eagerness 
Lf ?he m^UUude to assume the cross that some of the princes cut their 
robes to pieces to furnish the symbol. ti „!.,,„„= 
11 The whole of France was like a troutiled ocean. The barons 
were' selling and pawning their lands to raise money for the expe- 
toionrlnd^he citizens were seizing the opportunity to purchase 
pSges, which the nobles, regardless of every hing but the present 
occasion, were now willing to sell them. 



France ? 




4 



THE CRUSADtX 



CHAPTER XXVll. 



^1 



Causes of the Zeal of the Crusaders. — The first Band set out 
under Peter the Hermit and Walter the Peiiniless. — Th*>y 
never reach the Holy Land. 




A Crusader in his armor. 

1. But the zeal we have described must not be imputed to piety 
ftlone. The passion of the age was for war ; the nobles were delighted 
with the tlu)ught of adventures, and were attracted by a desire to 
acquire glory and wealth. If principalities had been conquered in 
Italy by a handful of Normans, what was not to be expected from the 
valor of an infinite number of warriors fighting under the banner o^ 
the cross ? 

2. Again, a full remission of sins was promised to all who assumed 
the cross, and thousands of offenders, to whom a long and severe pen- 
ance had been prescribed, thought that going to war and making con- 
:iuests would be a much more easy and agreeable mode of expiation. 

3. If they succeeded, their fortune in this world seemed secure; if 
Uiey died, a crown of martyrdom was promised in the next. The 
assumption of the cross, too, gave to the poor debtor a complete dis- 
charge from his debts ; and the rich one had only to point to the badge 
upon his shoulder, as a sufficient answer to the present d<^niands of 
his creditor 



XXVI I - 1 . '2. 3. What were the inducemenla to the crusaders 1 4. How many assiuue*' 



o<5 



riih cKi)sAi)bx-ri:ri:K rnK hkk.mh 



1' ' 
i! 



Bocurea U) the pious pil^^rim, and th. regular ^^^^ i^^ 'A' ' ^'^ ^^ ^ 
subieolcd toruiwl aa imporlant pari ot the revenue ot the buli.ui. 

5 But when the rude and Tanatical Turks obtained possession of 
.Irr.Kvalem, about 1094, an act of pil-rimage became not only peril- 
ous and expensive, but ^^:^s often an introduction to "'^^rtyrdom^ 1 he 
Her-v were insulted, stripixd, and tl.rown into dungeons aitd eNcry 
( 'hmtian found in the Holy Land was treated with the greatest 

''"If Alexis, the Christian Kmperor of the F-ast who lived at Con- 
stantinople, made the most earnest supplications tor aid |l^e oU. 
uri.ie so stroncr an impression upon the mind ot one man, that, like 
nnrtallinganiong combustible materials, the flame spread through- 

""T^'S'.uan was Peter the Hermit, a monk of Picardy. He was 
of a slight, inditferent figure, and owed nothing to e>^^^7";;^ Z'^;;^-;;;;;- 
plishme^us. He had himself been a p.lj:rim ^.^P^^7\\"^^.'^"\.f ^^^^^^^ 
therefore, speak as an eye-witness of the atrocities ot the lurks, and 
i)f the sul!erin<TS of the Christians. 

"^8 ('>vered with rags, barefooted, he ^--l^-\»-"\ -'-;;" ri:; 
from ciistle U. castle, from city to city. Everywhere he ^^^ ^ 1 st m^ 
to as a prophet, and the people were inspired with an enthusiasm 

similar to »J];; "^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^„„,ii ^, Clermont, and multitiHies 
flocked to it. Whilst he was yet addressing them there burst iorth 
„n Itaneous shout, " It is the will of God!" and this became 
d?e watchword throughout Enn.pe. The people crowded round to 
rLTve fnun the hands of the Pope the symbol of enlistment m the 

'To' Tldstymbol w.is a cross of red stufl^ sewed to the shoulder of 

the cioak ; hence the undertaking was called ^.cru.aclr, and those who 

ined its ranks were called rn,.nfrrs. So great was the eagerness 

Lf the mulutude to -.ussume the cross that some of the princes cut their 

robes to pieces to furnish the symbol. K^rn.m 

11 The whole of France was like a troirtded ocean. I he barons 

were'selluKT and pawning their lands to raise money for the exi»e- 

ditimiramfthe citizens were seizing the opportunity to purchase 

privileges, which the nobles, regardless of everrhing but the present 

occasion, were now willing to sell them. 



^ . . .u 1 A \vh-.t .lid -M.'viado' 7 What of Peter the Hermit) 

r^J:iSl^SS ^^t L^>!r itl^enJ:? a What dij Uje Pope d. ^^. 
effect was oroduced ? 10. Whence the name critsade? 11. What was the en«ci 
Krance ? 







TflK CRUSAI>F>». 



CHAPTER XXVH. 



61 



Causes of the Zeal of the Crusaders. — The first Band set out 
under Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless. — Th*>q 
never reach the Holy Land. 




A Crusader in his arinor. 

1. Hut the zeal we have described must not be imputed to [dety 
alone. The passion of the age was for war ; the nobles were delighted 
with the thought of adventures, and were attracted by a desire to 
actjiiire glory and wealth. If principalities had been conquered in 
Italy by a handful of Normans, what was not to be expected from the 
valor of an infinite number of warriors fighting under the banner o^ 
the cross ? 

2. Again, a full remission of sins was promised to all who assumed 
the cross, and thousands of ofl!enders, to whom a long and severe pen- 
ance had been prescribed, thought that going to war and making con- 
luests would b(; a much more ea.sy and agreeable mode of expiation. 

3. If they succeeded, their fortune in this world si'emed secure; if 
;hev died, a crown of martyrdom was promised in the next. The 
assumption of the cross, too, gave to the poor debtor a complete dis- 
charge from his debts ; and the rich one had only to point to the badge 
upon" his shoulder, as a sufficient answer to the present d'^mands of 
his creditor 



/f'i- 



XAVII -\.'^. :i. What were the inducementa to the crusaders ? 4. How many assimie** 



68 



THK FIRST CRUSADE. 



4. Whilst sjick alluring lemplalions were held "ut to every chisi 
anil order, it will not surprise you to leiirn that moir. '-ban a niiUion 
of people pledjred themselves to the holy war. But you must no» 
Huppose that these were all stout men and soldiers. A very large 
proportion were women, chihlren, and decrepit old beggars. 

5. Such as these required little time lor preparation, and were in 
such 3 hurry to depart that they would not wait for the rest. The 
nobles were not sorry to be rid of such troublesome travelling com- 
panions. So off they started, to the number of 300,000 ; Peter the 
Hermit, with sandals on his feet and a rope round his waist, and 
Walter the Peimiless, marching at their head. 

6. They bad chosen these to be their leaders, and they were very 
good representatives of the motley crowd which piety and penury hao 
associated togirther. Such was' the gallant army which first left 
Europe to rescue the holy sepulchre ifrom the fierce and well-disci- 
plined Turks. You may judge of the efficiency of this army from the 
fact that only eight horsemen could be found among them ; and this 
it a time when the principal strength of an army consisted in cavalry. 

7. They were in all other respects e(iually unprovided. 'I'he 
greater part were ignorant what distance they had to go, and through 
tvhat countries they were to pass. It was enough for them to know 
♦.hat they were going to the Holy Land, and that their priests had 
assured "them that this object, if attained, would secure the salvation 
of their souls. 

8. They had been persuaded that God would employ miracles to 
supply all their wants, and that they should be fed on the way, as 
the Israelites had been fed of old in their journey through the wilder- 
ness. They had no sooner passed the boundaries of France, and 
leard a strange language spoken, than some of them supposed they 
had already arrived near the end of their journey. 

1). The poor children would '\m\\\\rv at every town, '• if that was 
Jerusalem." Their conductors^ led them by the way of Hungary ; 
but they were almost as ignorant (d' geography as their followers ; 
and they often wandered about at random, sometimes following the 
track of an animal, or the flight of a bird, which they would fancy 
was sent expressly to guide them. 

10. Finding themselves disappointed of the quails and manna which 
they expected" they were compelled to resort to force to obtain food ; 
and, consequently,' the inhabitants of the countries through which 
they passed rose against them. Nearly the whole of this vast multi- 
tude fell a sacrifice to hunger, fatigue, or popular fury. 

11. Peter and Walter were among the few survivors; and they 
waited at Coustautinople for the better disciplined and more efficient 
forces, which we left making their preparations, and to wliom we will 
now return. 



the cross? Of wlial description were the crusaders? 5. Who set out first ? Whole.^ 
ihe w;i V ^ 6, 7. What of the strength of this l)ody ? 8. Fow did thoy expect to l)e fed ) 
9. Wiial of : .e children ? What guides dii they follow 1 10. What of th«ir auffennga 1 
II. Wiia: became of their leaders ? 



THE FIRST CRUSADE 



69 



v< 



CHAPTER XXVm. 

Mo,e about t)u first Crusade. - The Kingdmn ,f 3c uale 

founded. 

. This frreat armament, amounting, in the whole, to more than 
^00*000 hVtoV men, had assembled from different nations, but 

J'. , "^ "^ .,, if UP mav believe the testimony of historians, 

:;^l^:;^n.ier;by iZ:^^c.y. «« .^ acco.pa„i.d by h. 

't'H^.ht^v:rra„fors!Trot,.er .0 the King of France; Robe.. 

„fkS oAvbom w^ . rave already spoU.^; S^p^^^^ 

fnthpr of Stenhen afterwards King of England, K-ot)en., r.an ui 

''"TTlie tbird division was led by Raymond of Toulouse, a veneru- 
, 1 I ^Vnlmncl esteemed for wisdom ;vs for valor. He was lord 
hie ><■'■? ''/rfirsfdistiei of France, and was one of the most pow- 
ItTo? I.rr nrhoes tuTt^^ aU fron> motives of religion, and, 

;:^gnlra"tohS-n,aban'do„ed Ins country, witb ibe determma- 

"°f"ThJFmnenIr Alexis wbcn be asked for aid, bad only expected 

:.i»Ii tbpi m- ts d-mr fS ^ ;r :^ 

-^S^Slt ^&X^(^ &™ faH^e 
ii—r^ ^fr.rGe wa's lied S A, a^d 

:Sries""'TheVlooked trpTu-eTreeks as barbarians, and treats! 

^ s'ontX'aTollng French count, called Robert of Paris. tooU 
1 • J;rnnoI Ibe tbrone wberc ibe emperor was reposmg m state, 
xcSnT" This Greek is an audacious clown to presume to s,., 
wben so many noble knighu are standmg. 

,. Vho c.Mnnmnded Jhe n„l d.v-. ' , ^to o^^frey .of B^^^^^ ^^^ Ray"0"J' ^-^ 
manded Ihc second divww" ' f„||,ij of Alexia! 6. 1* whal is ■: compared' 7. How 
Toulouse! 5 yi^'J^J' tti^\:S,e oU^eir neMu ,z -.1 9. Whalw..lh, 
did the cn'sailers treat n m ? o 



^ niK CULTSADKS "1099 

1 * oil ihp adventures ot ine cm 

; mse"- ' l'r"'<^« "' Ai.(i<";l>- A ' « , .^ ^,,,,,11 r..in«;nit. 

11. This city wa» laWui I'Y •'- , , „„ „s «a\ls. C.odtr y 

"U elect...! Km "' .''.'"'i "j, .1 in s.-ir - b.te...ler ol 1 1... II" 
,,i,„ to as«.....e .1.^.1 W>«- , \''.,'; I . . .1."".^. •"«"•••»' "' «"'''• ^'^ 



CIlM'TKli XXIX. 

W^ framed a complete code t>l 
.. Go„K,..v w.« n wise V--; .«;JX.." S«- -t::. 
.vrilteu laws, calld ''"•,■;.■,,,,. «o derive ..ur ,.n..cipal k."ml 

T,V»c...lo vol "•>»»'"• *'"' f""" y^i , Lvail-...! in U.o IV...lal l'».os- 
il f ll... laws an.\ c.isl.n..s «l.ul. \'ri>a ^^^ ^,^,, „„. 

,.„';« a....r..a the new «'"" ^^;:" ,„ ,„«vs«r.-8 lor .Is s^onty. 

1 0..o..fll.eses..c..t..s .l"ole.l .«>J rf.mna.ice ot th.s s.-r- 

.1 j;-r.mW.«, aga">«' "": '""*,t„.l.m U l.o l.o..ors. an.l tichos a... 
. ^^% ...em.^^ v-f„ '^;'n:'t;iel''o..eaie.,ee t.. the ,onn„a,...s o. 
pleasures of \ite, auu lo 
their crrneral. , _,,^„ .,,>j when not engaged in >^ar, 

/r„,>A/5 Hospitallers, lluiinr^ 

° ^ ' . . . »%rK.,., »«n>i thai 



° ' . ^ . Til When wad thai 

• " 7~i T 10 Which of iheiureadYiJ^'ni^'j!;^^,, whal mark of hu 

ronilucl of U>e l«'^'>-'" • J L kin^ ' What lUle did Cuxlfrey take 

S taken? Who was made k,«, . vVho were .he K.u«hU 

„i^^^i_hc.»u,.v;^^^^^^,^,f^,y, Wh.aofh,s.aw.1 3.4. 



PHlLiP I "1100. 



71 



f(,T the pil^rrims. But, like ihe Templars, they chiefly devoted 
themselves to militarv exploits ajjainst ihc inhdels. 

(5 \s thrv never attaini'd to tli.> same eminenee as the lemplars, 
BO they were not exposed to thi^ same dann^erv; ; and the order ot the 
Kni-hts of St. John, under tlic new name of Kni^rhls (>f Malta, con- 
tinued their sworn war ajrainsl the Mahometans until a very late 

^** 7* 'Hiere wen* sev.M» jrnat armaments or crusades in the course of 
the two iwxt eenlnries. The enthusiasm of the first is natural and 
simple, while hope was fresh and dan-er untried; hut it may wel 
excite our pity and wonder that six succeeding gen<-ration« slnnild 
have rushed headhM.g down the same preeipice. ,,,.,.,,,,, 

H Perhaps the nu)st remarkahle is the one called the (.hild s t.ru- 
side " As it has no particular connection with my story, 1 may aa 
well mention it new, altlu.ugh it did not take place until near the end 
t)f the twelfth century. . i i- «i . 

•) It was he.run hy a hoy, who was so fanatical as to helieve thai 
he had received a commission fnnn (Jod to redeem the ludy sepul- 
chre which he assertiul could (»nlv !)«' accomplished hy the innoccnl 
hand's of children. He travelled ahout the country m a richly orna- 
mented car, followed hy his train of yovu.g crusaders, which was con- 
tinually increasing in numher. , . , .. ,• • 

10 'Kvervwhere tliey wen; received with a kind ol religious re- 
spect* At last, they reached the shores of the Mediterranean and, 
hclicving that they should he carried to the desired port hy divine 
guulance, they emharked in ill-j.rovided veesels, and the whole i)er- 
islu'd in the waves ! 



CHAPTER XXX. 
WretrJied Condition of France under Fhilip I. 

1 The crusade relieved King Philip of many turhulent nohles and 
iroublesome subjects. Still, there remained enough to employ him 
ttt home. Hut he was himself sunk in sloth and sensuality, and he 
abandoned the government to his son Louis, whose character was the 

reverse of that of his father. r . i • i j 

2. The lords, taking advantage of the indolence of the king, had 
erected castles and towerr »n the very neighborhood of Pans, from 
which they sallied forth like captains of banditti. The most trouble- 
some of these were the lords of Montford and Montleheri. The ruini* 
of the tower of Montleheri may still be seen near Pans, where its 
ji.rd used to be on the lookout for the merchants coming from Orleans, 
and from whence he would pounce upon them, as a lion on his prcjy. 



fi. Wlio Ihe Knights of St. John 7 



What of them? 



Templars? Wlial of them? -, - -r-o , , -^un. .-..„„ u 

7. How many cHHadcs were there 7 8 9 10. Give an account of the Child's ci^^^^^^^^ 

XXX -1 What of King Philip Who managed affairs? 2. What of the lord.1 
Who were the ino.i trouhkso.ne ^ 3 Wh.tl did they .lo? 4, What did I>ouia .lof 



72 



PHILIP 1-l.OUlS VI. -1108 



S If a rich morchai.t was so unfortunate as t<. fall ir.lo his hands, he 
„a mpr soncd in the castle dungeon, and tortured till he would 
l.r„e to pay such rans.,u. as the lord of the castle chose t., d^n^nJ- 
'■i UuTschiu,tised the insolence of these lords, an.l thereby gained 
Ko much popularity as to draw up.,u hin.self the hatre.l of his step- 
moto lertrade,\vho wished tor his death in order that her sou 
It succeed to Ute crown. She even gave l.on,s a dose of poison, 
and his life w:is saved only by the skdl ol bi.s phraim n. 

5 Philip finished his slothful life in ll.W, m ibe dty-seveu h year 
of his a"e and fiftieth of his reigu. On his dealh, he showed sorae 

ouiiousness of his own unworthiness ; for he desired that he might 
not te burS i, the abbey of St. Denis, the usual burial-place of he 
French kings, being, as he said, too great a sinner to presume to lay 
his hones by those of the great martyr. , j ;,. i,„., 

6 The power of the monarch of France had now reached us lo v- 
• est state of debaseineul; and it did not extend over more than a dis- 
trict of oc hundred to one hundred and twenty square miles, of which 
Paris w^ the capital city. But each succeeding century now added 

"'7"vVe"nms\not forget to mention one curious fashion o.' dress 
wlii'ch prevailed at this Time. The Earl of Anjou had a strange de- 
ft 'rmv'n bis feet. To co,K-,.al it. he invented a shoe with an nn- 
Inen^ peak. The fashion was at once adopted .n France, and Irom 

ilu'iu-e it sureiul into Eii^IhihI. r 4 ;», 

8 An M Fr.M,ch wrUer tells us that they were worn two leet n 
length an.l shaped like the tails of scorpions ; and that, in a battle 
,e ween 1 e (Jreeks and some Norman knights, the alter were in- 
vhS so long as tbev remained on their horses ; hut, when dm- 
mmi ted they became a certain prey to their enemies, as the length 
of Ihei- shoes'^ rendered them helpless, being in danger of tailing 
every step. 



at 



5. VVheadid Philip. lie? Hi. age? 6 What of .he ,K>wer of the king.1 7. 8. Wl^ 
turitms fashion in ilress? 




LOUIS Vl— IIOS 



73 



CHAPTER XXX.. 

Reign of Lm is VL, sur named the Fat.— The Condition of the 

Comvion People improves. 




Louis the Fat, 1 108 to 1 137. 

1. Louis, who luid been associated in the crown at the ago of 
rwenty, was about thirty years old at tlie death of his father. He had 
no taste for learninjr, nor any political talents; but he had, what was 
far better, a good heart, an inflexible love of justice, a friendly dispo- 
sition, and a gay and cheerful temper. 

2. lie was naturally brave and exceedingly active, nor did hfe 
allow his corpulence, which was so great as to acquire for him the 
surname of " the Fat," to render him indolent. lie lived with his 
soldiers more like a comrade than a king, partaking of the same 
hardships, and exposing himself to the same dangers. 

3. During the early part of his reign he was engaged in constan 
war with his great vassals, and putting a stop to the outrages and 
robberies of the lesser nobles. In all these he was successful. But 
tiie advantages lie thus gained, as they could be but temporary, were 
of trifling importance ctunpanid to that of a grand discovery which he 
n»ade in the courst; of these (juarreis. 

4. You remember that, of the common i)eople of France, one class 
had, as it were, bouiiht their time ; and tlie feudal lord had no claim 
uiKMi them l)ut for tlie payment of certain fixed taxes. This class 
was etio-aored in trade and "^manufactures, and had collected in cities 
and towns, and had become rich. 

C). Such people are little di^^posed to be superstitious ; and they 
would be littlt! alfected by the other imlucements to assume the cross. 
I'liBy had no debts from which iney wished to be discharged, ai.d the 
path to fame was closed to them, because oidy those who could prove 
a descen*. of four generations from nobles could be admitted to the 
honor of knighthood. 



vVAi —1,2. What of l^oiiifl • 3. How was the early part of his reien occupied 
4. Whii of the common jieoplr ir> .he towns ami cities? 5. \v>y could they noil* 



1)1 



72 



I'lm.iP I -i.ouis VI -ni« 



3 If a rich n,.Trha„t was so imfi.rlu.ate as u, iM into lus liands.he 
J ,,pr OM..1 in U,. eusllo ,ln„cro„n, an,l ,ort„r<Kl l.ll be would 
i,M.. my such rausoHi as tlu= h,r,l of.hc v^^'U' .-hos,- to , .Muan.l 

i'Lous chastised the insolenco ..f these lunls. a.,,1 thcrchv samel 

snmuch opularuy as to ,lraw u|,ou hunsclf the han-d ol h,s sic,. 

r.Ir -l ™lc, wl.o wished li.r hi» death n, onl,,- that l,cr sou 

'succeed to U.e ctowu. She eve,, .ave I ou,s a dose ot ,,o,sou, 

,T his life w:us saved only hv the sliill ol his |,liysu-ia i. 

5 PI p iuished his slothYul lir.. iu 11"-. .0 the mty-seveuth year 

efhis arc aul nil.cth of his re,eu. Ou his de.th. he showvd sou.e 

iusciousm'ss ofhts ,.wn uuworthu.ess ; for he des.rcl that he ungM 

,^1X0. iu the -ahhcv or St. Deuis, tlu. usual hunal-place ol he 

Kreuch klu ss. hciu,.. as he said, too srea, a si 'r to ,.res,iu.e to lay 

' ' The «. v.-r of the luouarch of France liad uow reached its low- 

•es state ot'dehaseuu.uf, au,l it did uot exteud over luore thai, a dis- 

»^t 0,1c huudred to one hundred and tueu.y square toiles, ol which 

Paris was the ..aiutal city, liut each succecdtng century now adile.l 

''':"u'e' must' not forget .., u.enti me curious fashion ot dre.ss 

which prevailed at this tune. The Karl of .Vnjou i.ad a s,ra„ue , e- 
^,riu V m hi- feel. Tocnn-eal it. he invented a slme with an uu- 
IiHiisc peak The fa.sh,o,i was at once adopted .n France, aiul iroin 

ili.'m'f it sDi't'tul into l'iiiL^l;»ii(l. . . 

8 \ h French writer tells us that they were worn two lee. in 
leinitli Old shaped like the tails of scorpions ; and that, m a ha. le 
: '±n Un. (ilecks and some Normal, km.hts. the "J- --; ". 
vincihle so hni.' as thev remained ou iheiv horses hut. «lun ills 
", ,1 ted hcv Sc'caine a' cn-tain pr.-y to their en.Mnics, as the hmg 
"fliiei- shoes rendered them helpless, he'll." m danger ol tailing at 

evrry sUip. 



5. When tlitl PliUi|» die ? Mis age 1 
curiims fiwhion in dross? 



G What of tlif IMUV.T of lilt' kill!,'-*? 



7. S. Wli*! 










ixiuis VI. — lias 



CHAPTER \XX. 



7J 



Reign of Loi U F/., surnamcd the Fat.— The Condition of the 

C'mimon People improves. 




L'>iiis the Fat. 11(1^/0 li:>7. 

I. Loi IS, who had been ;ts:-:oeiu1eil in th(^ crown at the ajje ot 
Jwonly, was about thirty years old at tii»' death of liis lather. ]le had 
no taste lor learninir, norV.iy political talents; but he had, what w'Jis 
far better, a <rood heart, an i'nllexible love of justice, a friendly dispo- 
sition, and a j^ay and clieerfni temper. 

•J. lie was naturally brave and exce-v-dinjily active, nor did lit 
allow his corpulence, which was so <rn"»t -is to acipiini lor him the 
surname of " ///r /•>//," to render him indolent. He lived with his 
s«d(liers more; like a comrad(; than a kint:, partakin.u of tbe sauui 
hardships, and ex[»osin<r liimself to tlu; same danjj^ers. 

:{. Durintr the earlv part of his reiirn he was entjaL^ed in constan 
war with Ins iireat vassals, and puttinij a stop to the outraf^js and 
nihberies of the lesser nobles, in all tbesc; he was successful. But 
tiu! advantaircs he thus LTainetl, as they couM be but temporary, W(;re 
of trilliu!,^ importauc' cmpared to that of a irr.unl discovery which ho 
made in the course of thes;' tpiarrcls. 

1. You rememlirr that, of the connnon pople of Fran<-e, one class 
had, as it were, bousjlit their time ; and the ftuidal hu'd had 110 claim 
ii[)on them but for tln^ payment of certain fixed taxes. 'I'his cla.ss 
was enu-aired iu trade and maiuifactures, and had collected in cities 
and towns, and had beccjine rich. 

;'). Such people are little disposed to be superstitious ; and they 
would be little air.'ct.'il iiy the other inducemiMits to as.-uirie the cn>s!-;. 
Ihey had no debts from which iliey wished to be dischar^'ed, ai.d the 
path to fime was clos'^i to them, beiraus.- only those who eouM j)rovfc' 
a <lesceu* of four trcuerations from iu)bles could l)e admitted to tlic 
honor of Uniiihthood. 



v.WI —1 2 Wlnl of L.»iiis • H. How vv;\s ilie earlv part of his reien ocfupied 
t. VV»in ..(" ihe crninmi pr-.tpli ii. lie towns ami cities? 5. \v» y could they not be 



74 



LOUIS vi.-nu8 



ll 



ll 



< 1 



little for their f''^''^';,J^X^"t:,Wu:%^>^ "f .l.«>" "P"" -^'^ 
money. '1 Ley were, !'«'-'"-: ■; '^ ; ^^^ „„, ,.,„,,s availed ll.em- 

"T" !;;::;' rrl^lrlKlt^tha,, ., ,>„„ as ...^n^.. de- 
pended t^.ni.s feudal p«ssess,ons it ^va. -H'-"- ■ ^t. If 
mauv of its own vassals possessed more "to s vc i 

he could make friends of tlus nsu-c; <^'^^,^' ''", "^'^^\ "' T'l'er, "'igl'» 
into subjection, and then, by opposn.g one class 

't '^'e citizens uere ..ad to ava.l ^^^<^"'^j;^ ^.^^^ 
tion of the king towards t em, to l-rocu^^^ 

^iral'SeirXt :,d;'wr U,ey freed fr... al, servitude, but 

sovere'i: and then uude'r onWers "fXlZ;LX^'"^^ 

tion of these eonununes was sireimously opposeU oy me 

power it so much abridL'ed. , .mfii,„ted bv 

the mercy of capricious, and olten cruel, ma^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ 

,1. Arts sciences and ^'"J^Xr,^" freedom spread frou. 
brought under cultivation. In anotl.er <"; "';y' ^.p^e ,10 longei 

the towns into the country d'^tncls, and th as^W «^ «_,. 

bought and sow with the trees "'at «"-.» »" ^^^ '^i es from th<^ com- 

:i::;;tr!:^:;=u:t:l^t'"' -- ^ -""^" "" '■"" 

etto been confined to ihe nobles and prelates. 



CHAPTER XXAll. 

Melancholy Death of Prince WilUaM of England. - France « 

attached hy imcerjid Enemies. 

,. But there was one of the .--; .XiaWerr' Vi'" w^l 

rcrt Kiii::ft;^.^;Tbo.^ tr» -wed .legi 

mce to the King of France. 

1 ,1 7 WhM course did ihe kins adopi 

-i:XA\r-1'%Vho"vS"?"e"mo-t powerful vassal of France 1 2. Wh, were war. 1^ 



lOUiS VI.-DKATH OF PRINCE WIIXIAM. 



T6 



i P war now conuuonced between them. Wars ii lliose days 
were not very blixulv, since each party was eager t( take llieir 
enemies alive,' for the sake of the ransom. 1 only reter to t us war 
for the purpose of relating a melancholy story o anected with the 

return of peace. ^ vt a *^ 

3 \ peace havino- been concluded, Henry hastened to bartleur, to 
f'mbark for England. Just as he was going on board ship, a luan 
came to him and claimed the privilege of carrying the kmg m lua 
ship. This man's father had carried over William the Conqueror 
when he went to tin? conquest of Enjrland, and as a reward, that 
monarch' hud promised that he and his posterity should forever liave 
the rifrht of carrying the kind's of England across the seas. 

4 The man said he had fitti^d out a gallant vessel, which he called 
the White Ship, and had (^nipped and decorated it in a style proper 
for the occasion. Henry had made other arrangements, and could not 

k Unwilling to disapi)oint so zealous a servant, he consented that 
his son, with Ins suite, composed of alUhe young nobles of England 
and Normandv w ilh their attendants, together with the prince's sister 
and many noble ladies, should embark on board his vessel. 

6. The vessel i)eing delaiueil, Prince William ordered wine to be 
distributed to the ship's crew. Many became intoxicated, and even 
the capUiin himself was not perfectly sober. They sailed about sun- 
set, and beinjj desirous to overtake the king, they crowded sail, and 
plied their oa'is. They had not left the harl)or, before the careless- 
ness of the pilot brouorht them upon a rock. 

7. Tlie vessel struck with so great violence as to force many 
planks from her bottom, and she at once began to fill with water. 
The boat was hoisted out, and the prince entered it, and having gol 
clear of the ship, might eafjly have reached the shore in safety. But 
he now recollected that iiis sister was on board, and he could not be 
induced to forsake her, i)ut ordered the sailors to row back. 

8. Terror and despair had now destroyed all distinction of rank, 
and no sooner did the boat approach the ship, than every one, actuated 
by a desire for self-preservation, attemj)ted t(» get a place, and in con- 
sequence it was instantly sunk, and all on board perished. But much 
happier was th«; prince, who thus perished in the cause of hmnauity, 
than that man whose misconduct htid caused the disaster. 

9. The cajnain might have saved himself upon the mast, which 
still remained above water, and upon which the only person of the 
whole company who was (inally saved had taken refuge. The cap- 
tain gained the same place, but so great was his remorse upon find- 
ing that the prince had perished, that he threw himself off, and was 
drow'ned. 

10. The peace with Henry was not of long duration, and by hia 
influence the Emjieror of Gt^rmany also took up arms against France. 
Against such powerful enemies a more than usual effort was neces- 



bloody ihan now ? 3. 4, 5. 6, 7, S, 9. Relate itio melancholy death of Prnce William 
10. W -.at new war was France enffa^jd In 7 Wliat wa.s the conduct of he ''ass*!* m 



■ t 



u 

i! 






76 



lAJUis VI -ini. 



sary. In a contest betvvcMMi the kinjj :iiu\ a vassal, the otlic. v.issal* 
would {generally take the part of the latter. Hut against a foreigner, 
who vv;is the common enemy of both, they readily rallied. 



CHArXER XXXIIi. 

The Orijlajnvie is vn furled. — A French Prhice killed by a 

siu^ular Accident. 

1. PKKiiArs you do not know that each of the old Catholic comi- 
tries of Kuropi^ considered one of the saints as more peculiarly its pro- 
tector. Thus we hear «»f St. Georij^e for Merry Kn<jlan(i, St. Andrew 
for Scotland, St. l*atrick for Ireland, .&c. The patron saint of France 
is St. Denis. 

2. In tiu; monastery of St. Denis, upon the altar of the duirch, was 
deposite<l the sacred standard of France. The nu)nks pret«Mided that 
it had hccn placed there hv an anjjel from heav«'n in the time of Clovis. 
The stair was of tfold, and the llatr of red silk coviTcd with golden 
Mames. Hence it was called the orijhinnnr. 

3. The kings of the house of ( 'apet claimed tlu^ right to ht^ar this 
banner, as being Counts of Paris. A piect^ of St. Martin's old hlu« 
cloak had hitherto been borne as the royal banner. The orillamnui 
continued to be used from this time until the reign of Louis XI., 
when it disappeared. 

4. This was iu)t the standard of the monarch, but that of tlu; king- 
dom ; it was only to be brought forth u[)on the most i.nportant occa- 
sions ; and tlu> unfurling of the orillanuuc was the s-ignal for all llu 
vassals, from oiu' eiul of Fran<'e to the otluM", to assembh; round theii 
king, and to follow him to war. 

Ci. 'i'lie summons upon this occasion was promptly obcy»(i ; ami 
Louis fouiul himself at the head of an inuueuse army, who had assem- 
bled alm»)st as instantaneously as if they sprung from the ground. 
Never was the advantag«; of being fully prepared for any danger morii 
apparent ; for the enemy, being satisheil that nothing couM be elfected, 
at once retreattul. 

6. In ILJl, Jiouis had the misfortune to lose *iis eldest son i)y an 
accident, which exposes to us the lilthy state in which the, streets of 
Paris were then suH'ered to be kept. They were very narrow, and 
full of dirt and rubbish, and the pigs had come in for their share of 
the immunities of tht; conunoners, aiul enjoyed the iVeedom of the 
city 

7 But the pigs of Paris, of that day at least, did iu)t possess the 
politeness lor which the other citi'/«Mis have been go famed ; for one 



•XXXlIl — i. W'liut iif siiiars ? 2. \Vli;it ofi'u' uridaimiit' ? \Vlii» wore llie first kinffs 
I'lUl used it? 3. What hat! Iiitliorto lieen llie siamlard i)f the kiiigd of France ? 4. When 
irad llie nriflai ime brou-rlit I'ortli .' Of wiial was llii.s the signal ? 5. How was the sum- 
ip«(\ji now ol» veil.- What w;is the effect? 6. What caiiseil the death of the son of 



1 



LOUIS vB -Tin: rKouiunouns. ti:j7 



77 



.f them ran against the horse upotj which the yom.^ prince waa 
riding, and caused him to fall ; aiul tlu; rider was so severely hurt aa 
to survivj' but a few Iumus. 

H. As IS fn'iiueutiv the case, the abuse of privileges by oiu; causes 
th.- loss of th< 111 to all. An i»rder was issued dedarmg ibr the future 
that no pig should be sulli red in the streets. Hut the monks of St. 
Aulhouy remonstrated so elfe.-tually, that an especial permission was 
oraute.rio their pigs to run in the streets, proviih-d they had bel > on 

ihcMr necks. . ,. i r i 

\). 'i'he loss of this sou, who was worthy the all«*ction ot his lather, 
almost overpinvered the kiuu:. In lliJ'J, he crowned his second son, 
Louis, who was then only twelve years <dd ; and it is supposed that 
upon this occasion the peers of France were reduciMl to twelve;. 

10. Louis the Fat died Augu.st Isl, W'M \ and never was a king 
of France more sin'-en-ly lamented, especially by the poorer classes 
of his subjects, whose friend and protector he had always been. His 
dying address to his son and silccesscu- juoves him to 1iave had a just 
estimate of the duty <»f a ki!ig. 

11. " RenuMuber, mv son," sai<l the expiring nuMiarch, "that 
royalty is a public trust', for th«' e.xercise of which a rigorous account 
will be exacted of you by Him who has the sole disposal of cro\N na 
and sceptres." 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Progress of Learniyig. — Aboid the Troiiladaiirs. — Courts 

of Love. 

1. Though Louis had no great taste for learning, yet his measun s 
made a great change in that respect among all ranks of people. By 
forl)idding the .sale of church preferment, he opcHied a path to all who 
were eminent for learning or virtue. Low birth, which was an 
exclusion from other dignities, was no hindrance to advancemeni in 
the church. 

2. 1 have already told you about Gerbert, >^ho, from being a pool 
charity boy, came to be Pope ; and his was by' no means a rare case. 
Ill tin; times of which I am now speaking, there was Pope Gregory 
VII., originally a poor monk of Clery, who aspired to universal 
dcuniuion. 

:\. He was th«; first who |)ut forth the claim that all Christian kincs 
were his vassals, and attempted to make them submit to his authority. 
This power the popes claim as the successors of St. Peter, who, they 
maintain, was the first Bishop of Rome. 



Louis? 8. What lollowed from thi.s accident ? 9. When wa-s Ills son I»uid crowned' 
What was the numljer of |)cerd ? 10. When did Louis the Fat die? What is jfaiu .«f 
him ? 11. What wa.s his dying speech? 

XXXJV. — 1 . What of the progress of learning ? What of the church ? 2. 
Po|;e Grngory VII ' 3. W at claim 'm1 he make? On what ground? 4. 

7* 



What ol 
What if 



! 

II 



II 



;!; 



78 



LOlns VII.-TROUBADOURi: AND TROt VERES 



4. The chief counsellor o the king *vas the Abbe Suger, one of 
the wisest and most virtuovs ministers that ever governed Franco 
under any of her kings. He was of obscure birth and unprepossess- 
ing appearance, and was indebted solely to his uncommon learning,' 
and virtue for his advancement. 

f). Hut the great genius of the age was Abelard, a tencher of t\w\- 
oric, philosophy and tli(M»logy. So numerous was the concourse of 
scholars who Hocked to hear him, that he was obliged to deliver his 
lectures in the open air, no hall in Paris being large enough to on- 
tain his audience. 

ti. This great uudience was composed chiefly of the sons of the 
merchants and manufacturers, for the nobles were interested in less 
u.Hcfu! kinds of learning. They devoted themselves almost exclu- 
sively to pfKJtry and romance ; and an acquaintance with the writings 
of the Tnnihtnfours and Trourtrcs became a necessary part of the 
education of gentlemen and of ladies. 

7. The trouveres were the poets of the north of France. Their 
sonnets were written in the French Wallon language, which very much 
resembles the mod«!rn French. The trouveres did not confine them- 
eelves to poetry, but wrote romances also ; and the name of trouveres 
is intended to distinguish them from tlu; writers of the true histories. 

8. But it was the troubadour whose works were most prized, and 
whose visits were most acceptable, at court and at the castle. The 
earliest of them were natives of Prov«'nce, and they wrote in their 
native dialect; and from this time the Provencal, or language of Pro- 
vence, became the language of poetry, and for the space of two or 
three centuries was universally studied and admired. 

9. Suddeidy it ceased to be cultivated, and it is now almost forgot- 
ten ; and though there are immense numbers of Provencal manuscripts 
in the royal lii)rary at Paris, the language is so obsolete as to be 
scarcely iiUelligible. 

10. The tntubadours in general were persons of little education, 
who poss;'s.sed the faculty of rhyming, though this was not an inven- 
tion of th(>ir own, but borrowed from the Arabians. They possessed 
the happy art of fascinating their hearers by the harmony ami sim- 
plicity of their verses. They roved about at pleasure, and were wel- 
comed wherever they went. 

11. Their songs were chiefly filled with complaints of the cruelty, 
at.d com[)liments to the beauty, of the ladies they pretended to 
admire ; and the flattery with which they were well seasoned, no 
doubt, rendered them more delightful to those for whom tlu^y were 
intended. 

P2. Hut besides tliose who made writing verses a profession 
.here were many gallant knights who gloried in the title of troulia 
dours. Even Richard I., King of England, was of the number, and 
have no doubt he took as much pleasure in his reputation for skill in 



Itie AI)Ji* Su^ar? 5. Whil of Al)elard ? What of his lectures? G. Who attended tlieinl 
7. Who wcr^' the trouveres ? In what langtage did they write l What did they wnlei 
5. Who we.-j the first troulwdours? What ■ ' the Provencal lantruage ? 10. \\\va\. -.vai 
•^ho gene.u clianicter of the troubadours ) What was the chararier of their compo 



tii 



UrtllS VII -THK SFCOND CKUSAPK - 1137. 



T9 



...aking verses, as from his funu. us the u.os. acemnpUshed knight of 

'''' *"*;■.„ r ,.,t„- w,« i"irried to such an excess, that every 

13. The laste for pwtr) «as "-a""-" , ' vV'hile the jren- 

ladv at all e.uincnt for rank "^ «;" .^/^^Vlf;,,;", '.e la^lU^ \»'\ 'lieir 
Uemcn '■•■'d /heir .ournan.eu a d m 1. .. arms,^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

14. in intst <^"""a ^ ^ assimied still 

;ir:;ie':r;;Lr^k,:i!riti r\.:::'l:";:i.i.«... ... d...hey .hei. 

'"■"iT'' Amone im.,v weiehtv causes brought l,ef«r<- then,, was the 
'" m" \rter "taKT arguments, the court roferre.l the matter t« two 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Beigu of Louis VII. — The Sccmd Crusade. 




Loms VII.. 1137 (« 1180. 

1 Loui-« Vll., iurnaraed " Ihc Young,'' to distinguish him from 
nis 'lather, was, upon his accession to the throne, more powcrfnl han 
any of his immediitc predecessors. He had previously marr ied I'.lea- 

iui,.,.; la^'w^aT^n-Tile .-.'-I- "-^ .f ,■i^^'»^.l::;"JL^^lSht°Ufo^'.lim''^''"' 
,„.^:. were ;j;-f ^^-f-Vjjruio of Lo\ua VU/ -tyh^^f hi, Sower, Wt»mdM W 



i 



i! 



Ii 



78 



l,()l;iS VII - TKOUBAPOUKb AND TROtVEKf^?. 



4. Tlie cliicf counsellor a tho king ivas the Abbe Sufjer, om» of 
the wisest :uul most virtuoi 5 ministers that ever governed Frrmco 
iiiider imy of her kiii^rs. lie was of obscure birth and unprepossess- 
iiiir ai)[K"araiif(\ and was indebttMl solely to his uneomniou learninj,' 
and virtue lor his advaneeinent. 

;'). IJiit the j^rreat jrcnins of tiie a^e was Abelard, a leaeher of riii t- 
orie, philosophy and lli"(do<ry. So numerous was tiie 'auieourse of 
scholars who (loekcd to he.ir him, that he was oblitred to de!iv(T his 
lectures in the ojten air, no hall in l^aris beinji larjje enouiih to "u- 
taiti his audicncf. 

J>. Tliis <;reat auditiicc was composed chiefly of the sons of the 
iiK;rch;ints and manufacturers, for the nobles were interested in less 
usidh! kinds of learnin<,^ They devoted themsedves aiumst exclu- 
sively to p(M;try and romance ; and an acipiaintance with the writinjrs 
(d' the Tnnihtii/inn'.'< and Tnmrtrrs became a necessary part of the 
edut'ation (d \M'ntlemen and of ladies. 

7. The trouveres wen; tlu; poets of the north of France. Their 
sonnets were \vritt(Mi in the French Wallon lant^niatre, which very much 
resend)les the modern French. The trouveres did not confine them- 
eelves to p<K'try, but wrote rom;inces also ; tmd the name of h-in/rt'rrs 
is intended to distiiiLMiish them from the writers of the true hist«)ries. 

H. Hut it was the trou!)adour whose works were most )>ri7.ed, and 
whose visits were most acccptablr, at court and at the (Mstle. Tin; 
earliest of tliciu were natives (d" iVovence. and they wrote in iheir 
native dialect; and from this time tin; Provencal, or lanmia<,n> of Pro- 
vence, became the laniruaire of poetry, and for the space of two or 
three centuries w:is universally studied and admired. 

9. Suddenly it ceased to be cultivated, and it is now almost forixot- 
len ; and thouirh there are immense numi»ers (d' Provencal manuscripts 
in the n»ynl lilirary at Paris, the langua«^e is so ol)solete as to be 
scarctdy iuttdliLrible. 

10. The trouliadours in i;eneral were iiersons of little, education, 
who poss "ss ed the facultv <d' rhymin<;, though this was not an inven- 
tion of their own, but borrowed from the Arabians. Tluiy [jossessed 
the happy art cd' fascinatini^ their hearers by the harmony and sim- 
plicity of tlieir verses. They n)ved about at pleasun-, and were w(d- 
comed wherever thi'y went. 

1 1. Their .soults were chielly filled with complaints of the cruelty, 
ar.d compliments to the beauty, of the h'.dies they pretended to 
a<lmire ; and the flattery with which they were well seasoiH'd, no 
noubt, rendered them more delijxhtful to those for whom they w(;re 
;ntended. 

l"J, IJul besides tliose who made wriliie^ verses a pndes.siop 
.here were manv sxallaut kniehts who Lrloried in the title «d" trouba 
dours. I'iVen llichard 1., KiuL"^ of Knjrland, was of the nundu r, :nid 
have no doubt he took as much pleasure in his reputation for skill in 



Itie Ali»>* Su?ar? 5. Whu of Abelani? Wluilof his lectures? fi. WluKUtouded tlioiv? 
J. Who wen! tlie troMv^res / In what lansreasre did they write .' Wh.u did tliey wriloi 
3. Wlio wei the tir-sl troii'Kutour.s? What ' the Provenral ianinia^e / 10. What -a-sui 
'he geue.a. cliiiracter of the troubadours 1 What was ttic ctiara<aer of their cornp* 



1A)ITIS VII - THK J^KCONI) ClU'SAt^K - 1137 



79 



..aking verses, a. fVotn his latt. as the ttu.st accomplished knigltt ol 

his age. .,.,.r;../t ti» such an excess, that every 

,:j. -riu- f.,s,e lor poetry "■^'^,;: ""' 'i^^. If,! . While tin- -en- 

l,.lv .t all cnnnonl f..r rank ;'^ ''; ' ./,'f. ,'' rn r.1,0 la.lios l,a,l li.e.t 

^;::;,,^!;;;t'j::^.r:rii;;M;,::;;t;;n;:'«.;;;:^ 
;:::,r;;!;r:!;;;;:iL,^:;ru,;i^i:i.!:;i :.;.>- '-•''■' •> - ''-'-^ •"- 

"'",''"'"r,m,n^- n.-mv wci-hiv cau.es br.u.^U. lul-r^' H"'"., «■:.£ the 
Z^ tllem n, the. ' j,.dsu.c,,.. The decs.o,, .s not re«,rded. 



CHAl'TER XXXV. 

Reisn oflMuis V 11.— Tlie Second Crusade. 




l.„im Vn.. 1137/" IISO. 

t Uui-^ VJl., iurua.aed '■ th- Ymng:' to .lislinguish him IVoi.i 
n,.- t;„her, was, ,..<„. hia aecessio,, to the throne, n.ore l»'werlul han 
" ,y of his iu.n.e,li!.te i,redecess.,rs. lie had ,,rev,„usly n.arned^lca- 

■i-.. ! .^- win.. .f ......... "••""•'■'v'^i IS ,^r."irJl::,';™.^;r'«iorc-'..»tnj"'''"' 



! 



i I 



11 M 



'\ ' 






m 



LOUIS VII— 1137 



nor, 6ole heiress of Aquitaine, and that extensive ♦*'ri -orv had thus 
been united to the crown. 

2. lie was naturally amiable, but witliout uui 1> talent, and tins 
h:id not been at all cultivated by education. So lonf^ as the wise 
SuiTfr lived, this deficiency of tbe kinf,' was not so apprirent ; but 
after tbe death of Su^er, when tlie kinp was called u[)on to act for 
himself, his want of jud<,nnent became but too apparent ; n ore espe- 
cially when he was called into competition with Henry 11. of Eng- 
land, the miist sagacious monarch of the arre. 




Thibault, Count of Champagne. 

J. Ihibaiilt, Count of Champagne, had rebelled against his sove- 
reign, but had been obliged to submit, and had been pardoned. A 
sc^cond time he took up arms : and then Louis, irritated at his want 
of good faith, resolved to punish him. 

4. Th(^ count retired to his castle of Vitry, which Louis took by 
assault, and then set on fire. The flames, raging m<»re fiercely than 
the king had expected, si)read to the neighboring village, an<l a 
••hurch, in which many of the inhabitants had taken refuge. w:is 
destroyed, with all its inmates. 

5. So shocked was Louis at this accident, that le at once ^ave up 
the war, and made peace with Thibault. In the agony of remorse, 
he vowed to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. While the king was 
in this mood, the news reached France that the infidels were making 
ittempts to regain the Holy Land. 



•narry? 2 Whal was his character? 3.4.5. Wlial event induced fiOuis to asBume bt 



1 



I 



LOUIS VII. -THE SECOND CRUSADE. 



81 



i> Bernard, abbot of Clairvr-ux. a man of gieat learning md virtue, 
jut enthusiastic and fanatical, was held in such reverence : y the peo- 
ple at this time, that he might almost be called the oracle ot 1^ ranee. 
He was employed to preach the second crusade. 

7 Takin«r adva'ita<re of th<' state of mind ..t the king, 15eriianl 
urtred upou^him the necessitv of at ouce fulfilling his vow, and ol 
atJning ior his crime bv the deslruclion of the infidels I he wise 
Suger, on tlu- contrary, did all in his power to dissuade the king Irom 
•Mio-a'nu'r ptrsonallv in the mad uiiderttiking. 

H ''The prcui.lices of the age would not permit him to oppose it 
altoirether, but he thought the king might ellectually assist by troops 
and^money, whilst his presence at home would preserve the trau- 
luiUilv of his hereditary dominions. 

\). Now both Hernafd and Sujier were actuated by good motives. 
But Suger was the nmst sagacious, and he was willing to be in- 
structed by past experience. He was not less devout than Bernard, 
but he foresaw that the W(«lfare and happiness of whole nations would 
be sacrificed, without advancing the interests of the church or pro- 
motiui; the cause of religion. 

10. But the earnest exhortations of Bernard, who assumed to be 
a i>rophet, and i)ledged his word for the success of the undertaking, 
added to the inclinatuMi of the king, carried the day. An assembly 
of nobles and prelates, now for the first time called a *' parliament, ' 
was held at Vezelay. So great was the number present that the 
meeting was held in the open air. 

11. Alter the assemblv had been addressed by Bernard, Louis 
received from his hands across and a pilgrim's scrip, which had been 
consecrated bv the Pope for his use. Crosses were then distributed 
to those who'wished to join the expedition, and so great was the 
uuniber of these, that the great store of crosses which had been pro- 
vided was exhausted, and the king and the abbot cut up their own 
cloaks to supply the deficiency. 



CHAPTER XXXVL 

More about the Second Cnisade. 

1. From VcAelay, Bernard hastened into Germany. He did not 
understand the language, to be sure ; but this was a trifle. The 
people were moved by the pathetic vehemence of his tone and ges- 
ture, and yet more by the numberless miracles which he professed to 

vvork. 

2. But the " miracle of miracles," as he himself called it, was the 



cro.ss? 6. Who preached the secoiid cm-sade ? 7. What wa:? 'he advice cf the king •< 
counsellors ? 9. 10 What is said of Su<rer and Dernard ? Whose advice prevaile«l 1 
Vhatoftheparliamenl? 11. What followed the address of Bernard? „ _,, v. 
XXXVL — 1, 2 What was the success of Bernard in Germany) 3. Wbc 9A tr« 



8(1 



LOUIS Vll— 1137 



I 



It 

[It 



!i 



1 1 



nor, aole ht'iress of Aquitaine, and that extoii^ive • t: on hiu\ ihua 
bfoii iiiiitfd to th<^ crovvii. 

'J. 11." was naturally anii:il)l('. hut \vitli(Mit niu 1i tal.iu, ami tins 
hrid not l)Cfn at all cuitivatt'd hy rducation. So lono- as tht- %vir:;e 
SuiTfr lived, this deficiency of ilie kinu" was not so a[»i)-irent : hut 
after tin; death of SuLTtT, when the knii: w;us called upon to act lor 
himself, his want of judi,nnent hecame hut too apparent; nore espe- 
cially when he was called into competition with Henry 11. «>f Kng- 
land, tlu; iwiist saj^acious iiKMiiirch ot' the a<'^e. 







(^14111 



•^.'^a^ii**- 



Thibault, Count of Champa i^oie. 

d. Ihihault, Count of Champajriie, had rebelled against his sove- 
rcif,m, but had been ohliired to submit, and had been pardoned. A 
second time he took up arms ; and then I,ouis, irrit:ite<l at his want 
of <j:ood faith, restdved to punish him. 

4. The count retired to his castle of \'itry, which Lfuiis took hy 
assault, and then set on fire. 'I'he flames, riiifinf: more fiercelv than 
the kiiiii had expected, sjiread to the neif;hhorin<r villaw-e, and a 
••hiirch, in which many of the itihahitants hnd taken refuse, was 
destntyed, with all its inmates. 

5. So shockt'd was Loui.s at this accident, that le at oiici ja\( up 
the war, and made peace with Thibault. In the iiirony of remorse. 
lie v»)W(m1 to make a pilirrimajre to .Terusaleni. While the kinjr wais 
in this mood, the news reached France that the infidels were making 
itlempts to retrain the Holy Land. 



•'Uirry? 2 VVhal wna his clianicter? 3. 1. .'> Wluu oveiit induced f^uis to aasume b« 



inns VII rut: skconh chusade. 



81 



b Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux. a man .>f iiirat learnmr 4ml virtue, 
jut enthusia.stic and fanatical, \%a.s held in such reverence y the peo- 
ple at this time, that he mjoht almost be called the oracle ol 1^ ranee, 
lie was employed to pn-ach the second crusade. 

T. Takiier advania-e of thr slate o\ mind ..f ihe km-, IJernar.l 
ur.r,-d upoii'bim the necessity of at ouc- fullillmu: his vow and ol 
alonintr for his crime bv the destructn.n of the mluhds. Ihe wise 
Suirer'i)!! the ceutiaiv. «"iid all iu his power to dissuade the kin^r Irom 
en""a"^in"^ p« r>onallv in the mail uiidertakitiL'"- 

^ "ria- pre;udie."s of llit< a-e woubl not permit him to ..ppo.si' it 
uho-eiher, hut' he ihou^rht the kinjr mioht ellectually assist by troops 
and inoney, whilst his presence at honu> would preserve the tran- 
piillitv of bis hen'<litary dominions. 

-.1. Now both Hernafd and Suiicr were actuated by s^ood motives. 
Hut Suurer was the most sa,i,racious, and he was williiifj: to be in- 
slruett'ifby past experience. He was not less devout than IJernard, 
but he foresaw that the welfare and happiness of wlude nations would 
be sacriliced, without advancini,^ the interests of the church or pro- 
motmi: the cause of religion. 

UK Hut the earnest exhortations of IJernard, who assumed to l)0 
a [.rophet. and ple.l^ed his word for the success of the undertakmjr, 
added to the inclination u\' tin; kinjr, carried the day. An a.s.sembly 
of iioldes and prelates, now for the first time called a '' parltanunt,'' 
was held at \ «'/elay. So ^^reat was the number present that the 
me«'tiii<r was Indd in the open air. 

11. After the assembly had been addressed by Hernard, l.ouis 
received from his haii<ls across ami a pil«rrim*s scrip, which had bix-n 
consecrated bv the Toiie for his use. Cnjsses were then distributed 
to those who Wished to join the e\pediti(»n, and so great w.is the 
number of the.M-, that tlu'L^reat st(»re of cro.sses which had been pro- 
vided was exhausted, and the kiny- and the abbot cut up their own 
cloaks to supply the delieieney. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 
More about the Second Crusade. 

I. Fkom Ve/elav, Bernard hasteiMul into Germany. He did not 
understand the lanfrua;ie, to b(> sure ; but this was a trifle. The 
people were moved by the pathetic vehemence of his tone and {les- 
nire. and yet more by the numberless miracles which he protessed to 

^vork. 
'J. But the " miracle of miracles," as he himself called it, was thr 



cros:^? 6. Who preiiclied llie si'.niKl rpisi.l.- .' 7. Wl.al wa- 'he advice of the kiagN 
-niiiiseliors 1 9. 10 What is siii.l of Suwr ;unl r^iniard? Whose advice prevail»n 
Vhiit of Ihe parliament / 11. What f »ll')\ve(l the adMretw of Bernard? 
XXXVI. --1, 2 What wa^ the success? of Reniard in Germany! 3. Whc tod tr« 



I 



] 



I 



11 



82 



LUUIS Ml. -THK SECOND CKUSADE 



prevailir.g upon the Em; iror Conrad to take up the i^ross. So great 
was his success, that he iinsclf tells us thai in the countries in which 
he preached, the cities and easlles were deserted, and the illages sc 
far stripped of their inhabitants that only the women and children 

were left. 

3. Even these would not seem wanting; in piety ; h)r in the army 
of Conrad was a company of women, armed, :ind ridinjjr in the hish- 
ion of men, and led by a woman, who, from ner gilded spurs and rich 
Imskins, was called i:;ohlai-foot(<L 

4. In the French host, the part of ilie trohlon-footed dame wns i>'T 
formed hy no less a personage than Queen Eleanor herself. She was 
attended by a large band of the yovith of both sexes. Some gallant 
damsels appeared mounted like men, and a chosen band of the gayest 
and most noble young men styled themselves "Queen Eleanor's 

Guard." 

5. You may easily imagine that pilgrims of such an age, and ot 
such manners, would i)romole tbe gayety, rather than add to the dis- 
cipline or to the success of the pious undertaking. 

0. Conrad, with about two hundred thousand followers, vvas the 
first to set out ; and, after a series of disasters and defeats, in which 
the greater part lost their lives, the emperor arrived, almost alone, at 
Anlioch. From thence he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and then 
returned to Europe. 

7. Louis met with no better success. The Saracens were far 
superior in skill, and equal in courage, to the Christians of this age. 
They followed close \ipon the heels of the crusaders; took advantage 
of every error ; and the immense army of Louis was at length reduced 
to a mere handful of men, with whom he was glad to take refuge in 

Antioch. 

8. From thence he also proceeded to ])erform his devotions at the 
holy sepulchre, at .lerusalem. His vow being fulfilled, he had now 
nothing to detain him, but he lingered a year in Palestine, as if reluc- 
tant tcrshow himself in France, a defeated and dishonored man. 

«K At length, however, he returned ; and of all the two hundred 
and fifty tholisand wbo went out with him, he brought hack only 
Queen Eleanor and a few of her courti»'rs. At home, he found him- 
st^f reproached as the destroyer of the flower of the population ot 

Friince. 

10. IJut St. Bernard came in for the largest share of the re- 
proaches. They accused him of being a false prophet ; of having 
.neddled in matters that did not concern him, instead of confining 
himself to the duties of his profession. 

11. To the upbraidings of the widow and the orphan, he onl> 
replied by referring to the example of Moses, "who," he said. 
" like him, promised the Israelites, in the name of God, to lead them 
into a happy country, and yet saw the first generation perish in the. 
deserts." 



women " 4. Who was chief of the French women 7 What of her suaril ? 6. Who w 
om firsl ? What v/tLi the fate of Conrad's army ? 7. Wliat was the success of ly.iis) 
9 Wha. w;is "lie fate of his army 7 How diil his 8>uhjects receive him? 10. Ho-» mw 



•i 



1 



LOUIS Vll.-MA.NNERS OF HIS AGK. 



93 



U, The CO elusion of the undertaking had proved that Suger was 

.he true proplel. He was too good a man to take pleasure m this 

/mmph o' 'r Ins t>pponent, especnally as the deinonstration of his own 

.upermr sagacity had been attended with sucli ^i^«:^^';""%^^^"\t*tinn. 
\) Hut his iieart must have been gratified by the benedictions 
which all France was unanimous ifi bestowing upon hmi, lor tbe wis- 
dom and prudenct« with which he had governed during the kino s 
al,sence. Louis could not but be sensible ot tbe error he had com- 
initir,! in not following tbe advice of this wise counsellor 

, I The reproacbes of his subjects and his own sel -accusation 
.otnpletely changed his temper. His cheerfulne.^ torsook »""; ;»;;^' 
being displea.sed with himself, he was cross and morose to others 
He had (luarrelled with his queen, too; and, laking advantage of a 
ilistant relationship between them, obtained a divorce from her 



CHAPTER XXXVH. 

Illustration of the Manners nf the Age of Louis VII. 

1. Louis had a perfect right to retain a part, at least, of the vaat 
dower he had received with his wife, as a portion for her two daugh- 
ters But he resigned the whole, and Eleanor, within six weeks, 
married Henry Plantagenel, Duke of Normandy, who became King 
of I'^njrland at the death of Stephen ; and thus her important terri- 
tories became annexed to that crown. 

•> For the next twenty years Louis and Henry were engaged in 
almost continual war. During a short interval of peace, they went 
together to receive Pope Alexander HL, who fled to France for 
refuse from the troubles which distracted Italy. 

3 T':ach king taking a rein of tlie bridle of the horse upon which 
the'Pope rtKle, they condnetcd bim with the greatest respect to the 
lodLTinffs provided for him. One day the Pope went to pay his devo- 
tions at the church of St. Genevieve, at Paris. A splendid carpet 
was prepared for him to kneel upon. , , ^ , , i 

4 When the Pope had finished his devotions and left the churcli, 
bis attendants and the monks of St. Genevieve quarrelled for the pos- 
session of the carpet. They fell to blows, and the uproar was sc 
frreat that the king came in person to quell it. . , ^ , ., 

'i But the prize was too valuable to be relinquished by either 
party ; so, without regarding tbe presence of the king, they continued 
the battle, and he, after getting a share of the blows, was compelle^ 
L.) retire. The monks gained the victory, and carried oflf the carpet. 



Bernard received? 11. What was hi.s reply lo their reproaches? 12 13 What of Suger? 
,4 Whal change la„k place n ihe king ? What measure did he adopt ? 

WWII - What beca .e of the territories of Eleanor ? 2. What is said ol tne nein 
t«^uy;'an,r ' What K^ned during the short peace ? 3. What of the reception of 



S4 



»,OUIS VII. - 1169. 



6. Th r triumph was short ; for when the Pope saw what a beat 
ing his ,>^3ople had got, he turned the monks out of tlie monastery. 
A piece of cari)et was a valuable article in those days, when even the 
floors of kings' palaces were covered with loose straw. 

7. WliiU; such were the manners of the churchmen, the amu^i^- 
ments of the court were not the most refined. At a royal mtirria^'^c 
at the court of Navarre, the princes and jjrincesses were entt'rtainnl 
by a comhul between two blind men and a pig. The men were arnn'd 
with clubs, and tbe pig was to be the prize of whichever could knock 
it on tb»^ head. 

8. The pig, having tbe use of bis eyes, could generally avoid tlu 
blows which were aimed at it; and tbe blind men, instead of strikin, 
the pig, generally hit one auotlnn*; and in this, it seems, the chs , 
diversion of the sport consisted, at least to the spectators 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Perjldiaiis Conduct of Jjyuis VII. — He ?fiakes a Pilgrimage tc 
the Shri7ie of Thomas-u-Bvcket. — Death of Louis VII. 

I. Louis took for his second wife Constance of Castile, and upon 
her death was married a third time. In 11(59 he had a son born, 
named Philip, whom he surnamed the ''''Gift of Gody''^ but who is 
better known in history as Philip Augustus. 

'2. The character of Louis in tbe latter part of his hie will be best 
illustrated by an anecdote, lie was besieging Kouen with a numerous 
army ; the town was well garrisoned and provisioned ; the siege had 
already lasted many montbs, and seemed likely to continue some time 
longer. 

3. In honor of St. Lawrence, Louis proclaimed upon this day a 
.>uspension of arms, which was joyfidly accepted by the people of 
Uoucn ; more particularly by the younger portion, who, tired of being 
coope<l up within the walls, went to enjoy themselves by tbe banks 
of the river, where they anuist.'d themselves with various sports. 

4. S* iw) of the counsellors of the king — not the good JSuger, you 
maybe sure; he was long since dead — seeing the security of tbe 
^iti//^ns, pro{)osed to Louis to take advantage of the confidence which 
they [)Iaced in his good faith, and to seize the opportunity of surpris- 
ing the town. Louis at first rejected the proposition with the scorn 
it deserved. 

5. At last, however, he yielded to the temptation, and gave orders 
for the attack. It happened that a priest of Rouen, having notbiiii; 
else to do, went up to the top of a hiigh tower, in which hung tbe 



Che Pope ? 4. 5. 6. Whal anecdote ia related of the attendants ? 7, 8. What of t he 
iiniisempntg of the court 1 

XXXVIII. — 1. Who w;u5 the second wife of Louis? Wiien was his son bom? Wliai 
was h« CAlled? 2. What anecdote is related of the latter pari of the life of Louis? 8 



1 1 



LOUIS VII. -1 ISO. 



d5 



.1 



alarm bell, and there amused himself with looking into the enemy's 

^^O^'VII at once he perceived a prodigious onmiotion , men hurrying 
tnnn t'ent to tent, some carrying scaling ladders, which were used to 
laount the walls of besieged places, lie at once --P- ^^ ^^^^ 
ireacherv, and without losing a moment, began to ring tbe alarm be I 
7 Tlie people, hearing -. left their sports and hasiened to tbe 
lowli The urates were shut, and everything was soon in preparation 
„. receive the enemv, who, when they arrived, instead ot entering a 
defenceless citv, f.ni'nd themselves vigorously repulsed, bo that tue 
nerf'dv of Louis met with the ill success which usually attends it. 

8. L(.uis was desirous of seeing his son Philip crowned. He had 
now reached his fifteenth year, and it wtus determined that the cere^ 
mony should be perfi.rmed witb great pomp, in the Presence of aL 
the great nobles who had already assembled on the occasion But on 
the dav before that on wliich ttie ceremony w:is to have taken place, 
the vo'un.r prince, when hunting, lost his way in a iorest. 

<>' lle'wandered about all night, and was found m the morning 
|,v"a wcunl-cutter, who carried him back to his terrified attendants^ 
'ibe fatigue and cold brought on a dangerous illness, which aftlicted 
the kincr'so much, that he determined to make a pilgrimage, not to 
Palesli.re, f.>r be had already had enough of that, but to the toinb of 
Tbomas-a-Becket, an ambitious but learned man, who had been Arcli- 
bisboi) of Canterbury in England and was buried at that place 

10 So rrreat was the anxiety of Louis about this only and long- 
desired son, that he was onlv gone five days, when the fatigue and 
an Viet v brought on an attack of palsy. He languished for several 
months, and died on the eighteenth of September, 1180. When on 
his death-bed, he caused all his money, clothes and jewels, to be 
brought, and distributed them with liis own bauds to the poor. 



What did the kingeamedtly wish? What arndent happened to the prince 7 9. Wlial 
did the king do in consequence of the iUness . - the prince ? 10. When did Louis cl«» 
Wlmt did he do on his death-bed ? 




S8 



PHILIP 11-1190. 



CHAPTEF XXXIX. 



PkUip II. , Sf,^ named Augustus. — Imjrraveihent of Paris. 




FhiJip II., 1180 to \22^. 

1. We have now reached one of the most remarkable periods in 
Krench history. Until this time the French nation was a sort of 
confederation of princes, governed by a feudal chief. Philip soon 
made himself an absolute king. He substituted a regular army foi 
the old feudal militia. 

2. Philip owed his success in a great degree to the adoption of 
the same means which ensure success in other ranks of life. He laid 
his plans with skill, and he pursued them with the most steady per- 
s(werance. He is the first King of France whom we can call a poli- 
tician. Without being a great man, he performed many great 

actions. 

3. At his accession, France was in a quiet state, and the king took 
advantage of this leisure moment to improve and beautUy Paris. 
It was not much extended beyond the little island in the Seine, and 
•he king undertook to enclose the buildings, gardens, and other cul- 
Uvated lands that bordered both banks of the river, with a strong 

wall. 

4. This was a great undertaking, and it took twenty or thirty 
years to complete it; but when finished, Paris was nearly four tiuxt^ 
its original size. Outside the walls, he erected a dark, gloomy build- 
ing, which, according to the custom of the times, was both a palace 
and a prison. This he intended for his country residence. It still 
exists, and is called the Louvre. But if you should go to Paris, and 
wish to see it, you must look for it in the heart of the present city 

5. Amongst other things, Philip built a gYeat market-house for 
.he convenience of merchants, who were thus enabled, as the old his 
lorians tell us, to expose their goods for sale without the hazard oi 
their being st.*len by '* gentlemen." But his greatest improvemeni 
was the introduction of water into the city by an aqueduct. 



PHILIP IL-n89. 



.-r 



I! 



6 Another improvement was the pavmg of the streets; and the 
....^umsmce which l.d to this may be best given you m the words of 
^„ .rSorir " The king, one day, walking about in his royal 
^"Afo^^n to'the window i; divert his thoughts by watching the 
^™,rso"ol X river. Wagons drawn by horses were traversing the 
Syaild, by throwing up-the mud, made such an intolerable stench 

'"^i^ 'll^'irSXw— rnceived a difficult but ..ecessary project 
„n -wliiih .tine of his predecessors had ^ared to exccute^b^^^^^^^ 
Iw .lillicultv and expense ; and this was the paving ot the streets, 
lie trefoL caused the two principal streets to be paved "th large 
la^ so.o7 The accumulation of dirt has been since so great that 
51 original pavement is now found seven or eight feet below the 

""T'lirt'tesll' pacific employments could not long interest the king. 
He llo M Ten lishly of his own talents, and longed to try hi. 
" en ih w 1. tl e w.'e and politic King of England. Causes of d* 
puJfre soldon, wanting when men desire to quarrel, and they sooD 

^TS^:Sertrr,''but Henry ^'.."^V.rrorrtti 
for it was for his interest to preserve peace. 1 he two kmgs neia 

dilate fr'iemls^^^ would live in the sanu. tent, sleep in the same 

l:iX Lrannk ou".f the same cup But tins great inendship soon 
turned to deadly hatred, as you shall hear. 



CHAPTER XL. 

Third Crusade, under Richard the Lion-hearted and PhUip 
Augustus. — Captivity of Richard. — Saladm the Great. 

1 On the death of his father, in 1 189, Richard 1. became King of 
Knffland He agreed with his friend Philip to engage m a new cru- 
Bade They were to take no pilgrims, but only soldiers ; so that this 
was the most elfective host that had ever left Europe. But, unfortu- 



X':<XIX —1. What is said of the French nation? 2. What of the king? 3. Wh»i 
irore IPS first niejisures 1 4 What of the Louvre i 5. What of the market-house? 6 



What other improvement in Paris? 8. What were the feelings of Philip towards Hen- 
gr? 9 What of their conferences? 10. What of the mtimacy Jetween Philip aud 

XL."" ■« Who goi up the third crusade 1 What of the friendshi; between the king.1 



S6 



PHILIP II. -11*. 



CHAPTEF XXXIX. 

Philip 11. , sf.^naiyied AugKstiiS. — Improvemejil of Paris. 




Phihp II.. 1180 to 12'Jj. 

I. Wk have now reached one of tlie most remarkable periods »n 
Trench history. Until this tiiiu' the French nation was a sort of 
r(»nfe(lerati()n of princes, jrovtMiied by a feudal chief. Philip soon 
made liiins(df an absolnte Uiiiir- He substituted a regular army for 
the old feudal militia. 

"2. Thilip owed his success in a {rrfat dep^ree to the adoption of 
the same means which ensure success in other ranks of life. He laid 
his i)lans with skill, and he pursued them with the most steady per- 
severance, lie is the tirst Kinji of France whom we can call a ptdi- 
ticiaii. Without l)ein<r a <:reat man, he performed many great 
actions. 

;{. At his accession, France was in a (pjiet state, and the kinir took 
advantage of this leisun> moment to improve and beautify Paris. 
It was m»t much extended 1»< yoiid the little island in the tSeine, and 
•he king undertook to enclose the buildings, gardens, and other cul- 
«.ivated lands that bordered b(»th banks of the river, with a strong 

wall. 

4. This was a great undertaking, and it took twenty or thirty 
years to complet»> it; but when finished. Paris was nearly four tinies 
Its original size. Outside the walls, be erected a dark, ijfooniy bnild- 
inji, vviiicb, according to the custom of the times, was both a palace 
and a prison. This he intended for his country residence. It stil! 
exists, and is called the Louvre. Put if you should go to Paris, and 
wish to see it, you nuist look for it in the heart of the present city 

5. Amongst 'oth(^r things, Philip built a great market-hou.-'e lor 
.he convenience of merchants, who were thus enabled, as the old his 
torians tell us, to expose their goods for sale without the hazard oi 
their being stolen by '' gi7itkmin." But his greatest improvemeiii 
w:is the introuuction of water into the city by an aqueduct. 



X'A'XIX —I. What is said of the Fro-irh nation? 2. What of the king? 3. Wh». 
were l|is fKs' niwisurcs 1 4 What of tlie Louvre/ 5. What of the market-house? 



PHILIP n.— ns9. 



S- 



6 Another improvement was the pavmg of the streets; and the 
Mrcimttwe which led to this mav be best given you in the words of 
n is ori in " The kin-, one dav, walking about m his rov^al 
:"i:^ t' 'the w'ublw t; divert his thoughts by watchmg the 
^ of the river Wa.nins drawn bv horses were traversing the 

::iruMll-thn"in.up^he mud, made such an intolerable stench 

ihlt the km"- could not endure it. . 

- • lie Tl lW.a .....ment conceived a .lifficuU but -..eccssurv p.".!"-" 
„„ 'uLuhl oflus prcloccssors iKul aarcl to excc.le beca,,^ of 
s ,1 IK U V in.l .■M.ensr ; an.l tbis was tbe paving ot the » rcct.. 

I, J T accumula,,:,,. ol' d.r. ba» been « nee so Rrea tha^ 

•LLoriiinul pavomeal is now Imntd seven or e.^bl feet below tl>e 

''T llrutlM""'- e,„i.b.yn.en,s conUl not '""f ""-f 'l';;^!;"j«. 
ll,.U,m.rbl v.TV iii"lilv of I'is own talents, an.l onged to try hu 
tret w 1. be w,sc and p.ditic Kins of England Causes of dl»- 

p,U.' are setllo 'u wanting when nten desire to .,narrel. and tbey soon 
Trnst> hetWiMMi llcurv and Philip. , . , • 

P ,1,P was oaier for war, bnt Henry "-'",.;;-■- "'^i^^^fheW 
,-„, ,, „...'.;,r bis interest U, prese^ ,H.n.e _^ .1^ two^.n^s held 

; ;;;''b;:i;;:';;rF;rn .i Nornriy^ L eac, eonui stani ..pon 

s , ■ mi rv. M last. l>b.Up, n> a passn.n at ln„l,ng that Henry 
e::,ld,;e,.b:r "frightened nor .•beat,;.!, cnt down the ehn, .leclar.ng 
tie.t thev should never meet Ivneath its shade again. 
^^'UL Miu! ; now tried lus artifices upon the s..n. ot H-O;; -^ -^ 

c led m makm, tl.em rebel against ^^''^^^ v Wan^ T ui^^ 

Richard, the eldest, under his protection. 1 1'") >- "'^ ^ tCt^ 
tiinite friends; thev wouUl live in thi^ same, tent, ^Kh p in t ic same 
bTat!d drink out-of the same cup Put this .real inendship soon 
turned to deadly hatred, as you shall hear. 



CHAPTER XL. 

Third Crusade, under Richard the Lion-hearted and PhUip 
Augustus. — Captivity of Richard. — Saladin the Great. 

1 On the death of his father, in IIHO. Richard I. became King of 
Knaland. He agreed with bis frien<l Philii. to engage in a new cru- 
sade They were to take no pilgrims, but only soldiers ; so that thia 
was the most elTectivc host that had ever left Kurcpe. But, untortu- 



Whit )th(>r improvemenl in Pari.s? 8. What were the feelings of Philip towartls Hei»- 
Jyf 9 WhTtof their ctinfereuces .^ 10. What of the intimacy :«tween Philip aud 

^ XL."^ \ Who goi up the third crusade ? What of the friendshi. between the kings? 



88 



PHILIP II. ANP KICHAKP I nf KNGLANU. 



nately, the two kintrs agreed to pass the winter tojrether at Messina, 
and hcfon; the end of it their friendship had hecome (pute cool. 

2. Wlien spring ctiine, Philip hurried away to Acre, which had 
been taken from the Christians by Saladin the (ireat, Sultan of 
Egypi, and which the Christians were now trying to recover. Rich- 
ard', having waited to be married, did not arrive till the month of 
June. \ha the kings could airrci' no JHllijr than they did in Sicily. 

A. Instead of pressing the siege, the French and F.nglish thought 
oidy of exhibiting to one an»»ther their horsemanship and skiU in the 
us;.' of arms. But at length the approach of Saladin forced them to 
unite their eflbrts and to exert themselves, and the town was taken. 

4. Richard was tlie most celebrated knight of his age, and hia 
courage and skill hail gained for him the surname of the " Ltun- 
hrarM/." Upon this occasion he obtained so much praise that the 
jealous heart of Philip could not brook it, and, after taking a solemn 
oath that he would make no attack on the territories of Richard, he 
departed for Europe. 

5. No sooner had he arrived in Italy than he applied to the Pope 
to absolve him from his oath to Rifhard. Hut the Pope would not 
sanction such ptirfidy. Philip reached France in lli)2,and there had 
the mortification to find, that, whilst he himself was looked upon as a 
deserter, Richard was regarded with admiration by all Europe as the 

champion of Christianitv. . 

6. In the following vear, Richard set out on his return, but, being 
shipwrecked, was made a prisoner, and detained in Germany; and 
this circumstance, which would have been a matter of regret to a 
generous rival, was to Philip a source of gratification. He at once 
attacked Normandy, and endeavored to stir uj) the English to rebel 

lion. 

7. Rut both English and Normans were faithful to a king whose 
faults were forgotten in admiration of his courage, and in natural pity 
for his misfortunes. At last Richard obtained his liberty ; and a little 
incident which led to the discovery of the place of his confinement is 
worth mentioning, as it shows that the professed troubadours, light 
and frivolous as they were, were not all of them wanting in generous 
and noble feelings. 

8. Amongst all those who had shared the bounty of the king, there 
was but one whose gratitude and affection were strong enough to lead 
him to devote his life to the service of a ma.ster whose power of re- 
warding was supposed to be at an end. This was Blondel, his favor- 
ite minstrel. 

9. It was known that the king was in confinement somewhere, but 
Ihe place was carefully concealed. But Blondel determined to dis- 
vjover it, and, if possible, to procure the release of his master. But 
he wandered from palace to castle in vain. At last he heard that a 
very strong and almost inaccessible castle on the Danube was guarded 
with uncommon care. 



2 When tlid Philip reaclj Palestine ? When did Richard ? 3. How were the troop* 
tmployed? 4. What of Richard's conduct ? What of Philip? 5. What did Philip do 
ik ftalv ? How was he received in France ? 6. What accident happened to Richard J 



PHILIP II. — SALAUIN— liyj. 



89 



H 



10 Thither he bent his anxious steps, and approaching the castle, 
heard the melancholy captive solacing himself with music. Blondel 
kMiched his harp ; the music of the captive ceased ; upon this the mm 
It I played the first part of a favorite tune of his master ; the captive 
in'^anth played the second part ; and thus the faithtul servant obtained 
a certain knowledge that the inmate of the castle was no other than 

his roval master. , i r^ i 

1 1 ■ lie at once made his discovery known throughout Europe, and 
ih.' Emperor of Germany, who had detained King Richard, was com- 
pelled to release him ; but he first exacted the payment ol a arge sum 
of money, as a ransom for a man whose only ollence was the misfor- 
tune of having been shipwrecked on his coast. 

12 The memory of Richard was long retained among the bara- 
cens * The Syrian mothers used his tremendous name to fngliten 
their children into silence, an.l if a lumse started on the road his rider 
was wont to say, " Dost thou think King Richard is in tha bush ? 

13 But I must not forget to tell vou som(>thing about ^ahuiin, who 
was' far s.iperior t<. his enemies in all the (pialities which constitute a 
good man. He had been brought up in all the etremmate habits of 
The Exst, and his early y.nith was devoted to pleasure and luxury 
But these he soon renovmced, and became a pattern of simplicity and 

abstemiousness. ^ , -n . i . u« 

14 Amidst all the gorjreous splendor of the East he was to be 
distincruished from air his attendants by his dress of coarse doth. 
Water was his only drink, and he was most strict in fulfilling all the 
duties of his religion. He set an exami)lc of clemency and modera 
lion in victory, which the crusaders would have done well to hav. 
followed : his whole condtict was a mortifying contrast to their coarse 

and brutal cruelty. 

r. He was liberal and generous, and he did not confine his bounty 
to those of his own faith. He founded hospitals, into which the 
Christian and the Mahometan were alike admitted, ihe whole ot 
the creat riches which he accpiired in his conquests were expended in 
works of public utility, or in acts of kindness to indiyiduals, and when 
he died only one piece of gold and forty pieces of silver were founi^ 
in his treasury. 



Wnat di Philip then do? 7, 8, 9, 10. 11. Relate the «"a.,ner of Richard's rek- 
12 Wlia-. iid th« Saracens think of Richard ? 13. What of Saladni ? 
8* 




JHI nCK CKlfSADES. 



CHAPTER XLl. 

The Ptntrth Crusade. — The Venetians make a hard Bargain 

with the Crusaders. 

1. Before I go back to my story, 1 may as well tell you about the 
fourth crusade, which produced more lastiiif? conse(iuences than either 
:)f the others, and resulted in placing a French subject on the ilin)ne 

.»i' the Caesars. • i / 

2. A third prophet now appeared, but far inferior to eitiier ()I 
those who preceded him. An illiterate priest, called Fulk of Ne- 
villy, claimed to have received the divine command to rouse all 
Christendom to make a fourth attempt to drive the infidels from llie 

sacred places. . ^ i> i 

3. The result of his first efiTort was not very promising ; for Kich- 
ird, King of England, only laughed in his face, as much as to say, 
the man must either be a fool himself, or think me to be one, if he 
supposes that I am to be caught a second time in such a scrape. 

4. Philip received him with inore politeness, told him that he had per- 
formed the pilgrimage once, and that it was not convenient for him 
to leave home again ; but he was willing to assist him with money, 
and he accordingly imposed a general tax for the service of the holy 

war. , • . 

5. At the same time, a tax, called the Saladin tenth, was levied 
by the Pope on the whole Roman Catholic church— not only upon the 
laymen, but upon the clergy ; and as it was found to be very lucra- 
tive, it was continued after the occasion for it ceased, and is the 
foundation of the tithes paid by the clergy to the Roman pontiffs, or 
to the sovereigns to whom thev may have granted it. 

6. But thoui?h tiie kings were so ill-disposed, there were enough 
others who were ready to avail themselves of the olfers of the Pope ; 
glad to obtain absolution from all temporal and spiritual obligations 
upon such ea^y terms. A large number, nobles as well as com 
mons, assumed'the cross. Having determined to go by water, they 
sent agents to Venice, which was the great commercial city of the 
age, to engage ships and provisions. 

7. You will see by the map that Venice is very conveniently situ- 
ated for carrying on commerce between the East — from which were 
to be obtained all the luxuries of life, such as silks, and spices, and 
jewels — and that part of Europe which alone was civilized enough to 
prize these luxuries. 

8. In their intercourse with the East, they had learnt how to make 
^lass and fabrics of silk, and between commerce and manufactures 
they had grown immensely rich. Whilst everybody else lost by the 
crusades, they had been great gainers ; as others had grown poor 



THE CRUSADES. 



91 



ihey had grown nch, for they were the only pei sons who couk fur- 
n sh the crusaders with provisions and other necessaries. 

9 Thrwe^^^^^ re.dv, therefore, to furnuh everythmg that 

.hie new crusade?s required. Fen- the payment ol a very large sum 
o^^::^ in advance, Ls agreed tluU on a fixed ^'^^^^ 
berof ships, with an ample supply of provisions, ^h^"!^ »;^ ' "^^ 
npss The price was very high, and the ccrms of payment m ad 
va"; were '"v hard, but the agents could do no better, and so th.-y 
•K'ceptcd them, and returned home. 



XLl. — 2. Who preaclieil iho fourth crnaade ? 3. Mow diil KichanI receive hiinl 
1 How d=d Philip ? 5. What was the Salatlin 'xix I 6 What success anions the people i 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Co7iti7iuation of the Fourth Crusade. — Constanthwple taken. 

1. The crusaders, having chosen 15aldwin, Count of ^l^landers, tn 
be the leader, appeared at Venice on the appointed day. 1 hey tound 
everythinrp e^^^^^^^ -<'^«^^'in? ^" ^»'« ^^^"^^ «/ '^^ agreement : nice 
stalL fof thei? horses, comfortable quarters for the droops, and a fi- 
fleet of vessels, all ready to hoist sail as soon as passage and freight 

"T-Brlht3dt be done so readily. The crusaders had come 
a long journey already, and all their money was spent. It wjis in 
vain thai the cliiefs gave up all their plate and jewels ; still there was 
-i large sum deficient, and the Venetians were obstinate in f^^^J^^ 
give credit. They tit last hit upon an expedient by which all diffi- 
culties would Im' removed. . . , 

3 Th" Venetians had some troublesome Christian neighbor^, v\ho 
rather interfered with themselves in the way of trade. As destroy- 
injr cities and conquering countries was the profession of the crusa- 
ders, it was very natural that the Venetians should propose to them 

to make payment in this way. , , ,r . n- ; „ t^ 

4 Accordinrrly the proposal was made, the \ eneUans offering to 
receive the destruction and conquest of these cities instead of money. 
The crusaders hesitated about accepting the offer. Their contract 
with the Pope was still in force, and by turning their arms even tor 
a short time, against Christians, they might lose all the advantages 

" 5 ' However, means were found to secure his approbation, and the 
crusaders, having no other scruples, soon fulfilled the ti3rms of the 
Venetians. But they had now found out that fighting Christians was 
•J much more agreeable business than fighting Saracens. I hev could 
get much more booty with less hard fighting. . , „ . 
^ G. But here again the Pope was to be consulted. But he waa 

V^;;ri.^paration did they make ? 7. What of Venice ? S. How hailthe crusades aflTect- 
ed Vouice^ y Whai asreenienl did they make with the cru-saders ? 

XU -1. How did the Venetiaaa i^rform iheir agreenienl ? 2. How was .1 «nth^ 
tnisaders? 3 What proposal did tlie Venetians make? 4. Why o'^"*® "^ g 
toiSS ? 5 bid "hey^arrVpt it ? 6, 7. What expedition did they undertake n«rt 9 8 



w 



PHILIP 11.-1199. 



e.'Lsily convinced that bringing the Greek empire under his subjec- 
tion, and converting the Greeks to the Roman C'alholic religion, 
would be full as meritorious as delivering the Holy Land from other 
infidels. 

7. Having obtained his consent, the erusaders at once turned their 
ships towards Con.slantinople, and entered the harbor, after having cut 
the ciiains whicii we'rt; stretciied across the entrance, with great shears 
fixed to the bows of their vessels. 

8. 'I'lj^ city soon yielded to them, and, after dividing an immense 
booty amongst all who were engaged in the enterprise, they deposed 
the old emperor, und placed their leader, Baldwin, Count of Flan- 
ders, upon the throne; thus establishing the Latin empire in the 

I'/ist. 

y. Baldwin was soon after killed in a war with the Bulgarians. 
He wa'^i succeeded by his brother Henry, who was poisoned in 1210 , 
and tht^ crown then came to his nephew, Peter de Courtenai, a de- 
scendant of one of those barons whose robberies caused so much dis- 
turbance in the beginning of the reign of Louis VI 



CHAPTER XLHL 
Philip gets Possession of Normandy. — Battle of Bouvirtr^ 




John of England and Prince Henry. 

[. Richard died in 119!>, and, as he left no children, the crowi 
\( England belonged, of right, to his nephew Arthur. But lh» 

What of their success? Who was made Emperor of the East? 9. Who succeede* 
Baldwin ? Who succeeded Henry ? 
XLIII. - i. When did Richan/ I. die ? Who succeeded him 7 2, 3. What did Pluli| 



PHILIP 11.-1214 



93 



*u«,nf PiMr.rd John surnamed " Lack-land," because he had no 
iTu ; -^U^Mn; dunn, the Uie of h.s lather, seiz^ ujKm .i 
I'ul, having V>t possession of the person of Arthur, put him to 

'^''o'^'philip had long set his heart on Nornumdy, and r . hoped now 
to^oe a p etence fo? taking it. John, as Duke ot ^--•'- y^^^ 
the'vassal of Philip. Plnlip therefore summoned him to appear at 
P-iris to answer for the murder ot Arthur. 

-i 1 bn did not obey the summons ; and was in consequence pro- 

.xe<-uli(.ii Norumiulv [.roved an easy .•.u.quest, i..r J''h» h-'d •{•'a'' 
lo ,0 hi,ns,.ir K. ploaMlre. a„a maae ,u, cliort to retain U, and the 
>i„r, .LIS would not fK'hl Tor so despicable a sovereign. 

4 J hn w s t e las't of eleven dnkes who ha.l governed Normandy 

,,'tw: tiXd and ninety-three years. P'f l'.-'»;,f ^.^^^ 
,„-,sier of Maine. Toiiruiiie and Anjou, and was only pre^'=n^^" 
by .he peremi^ory oonunan.l of .he Pope from invading tngland 

''t 'philip was now threatened to be overwhelmed by a powerfi: 
e<,nfederael. The King of England the Duke of 1 landers and I ; 
|.^nl.l.^o^ o{ Germany, united against him. Philip, at the neaa t 
firyTmsand men, m^t his enemies at Bouvines, near Tournay, on 

■^"f'Tlf army'of ihe eonfederates, under the eommand of the empe- 
ro! «".s even more numerous; but .he superior ski and vigilance 
rf Phiin, g ™ned him a decid-'d victory. William ol Bretagne, chap- 
laiu to 'king Pl'il'P, was present at the battle, and has given an 
■u-counl of it Some extracts from this may interest you. 

7 'I'lK French armv had passed the bridge of 1 """nes and Olho 
thou.'lit this a favorable moment to commence the attack, vynen 

' IM wa^ informed that Otho w;is moving, he, fatigued with the 
lengill oflbe way and the weight of his armor, was resting under an 
♦Lsh^trt'o which errew near the church. , , i 

8 At' thus iie^s he rose up and went into the church, and address- 
mtr a short prayer to God, he went out, took up his arms, and with a 

^^ous foce as'if he had been going to a wedding, remoun ed his 
Lorse In crossing the field, the cry "to arms ' was heard he 
trumpets sounded,1md the squadrons which had already crossed the 

""^^.'Vh1"i was hot and impetuous. The German cavalry 

VincT warlike and very audacious, pushed close to the king. 11 s 

Sams defended him; but they, with their Teutonic fury, would 

htve nlvthe kin-. In the mean time the mlantry came up, and, 

w h h r tie hmces and their hooks, dragged the king from h^ 

hdrse, and he would have been killed, had not Providence preserved 

"^'To. His standard-bearer waved the banner in token of distress, 



-,.v, ir. .u^ How .lid he cTeoi it^ 4- Wliai further conquesla did Philip make! 
TvUo maL "roa Phlwp 7 ^^ ^ When? G. Wh.ch party w.-« 



•f . 



PHILIP ii.~i'^it 



93 



^2 



PHIl-lP II. — ll'.>0. 



I'. It t 



f.isily cMMiviiHMMl that hriiifriiijx the (Ircek empire iiinler liis sufijec- 
lioii, and Odnvertiiiiz the (ireeks to tlie Koiiimii Cnlliolie relinfjoii, 
would be full as nierilorieus as d-liverin^^ the Ht)ly Laud tVeiii other 
iii(i(l(;ls. 

7. Having obtaifK'd his coiiMiit, thf crui-aders at ouee turned their 
Bhi[>s towards ( "oiislaiitinoph-. and entered the harbor, alter havinji eiil 
tlie chains wiiieh wrn- strrtchrd aitn.ssthe entrance, with jjnal shears 
fixed to the bows (dthtir vessels. 

8. 'I'liv city s(»ou viehlcd to tlien), and, after dividing- :in innnensc 
booty :inion<:st all who were eii^raucd in the enterprise, they deposi'd 
the old emperor. ;iud placed their had*-r, lialdwin. Count <»f Flan- 
ilers, upon the throue ; thus establishinji; the Latin enn>ire in the 

Mast. 

U. Baldwin was soon after killetl in a war with the JJulji'ariaiiS. 
lie wa'i succeeded by his br(»tlur Henry, who was jioisoned in I'JIO, 
:^lH\ the crown then came to his nephew , Peter de Courtenai, a de- 
scendant of one of those barons whose robberies cau.scd so mueli dis- 
Uirbanct: in the besjinn;nt^r of llie reign of Louis VI 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

Philip gets Possess io?i of Nnrnmndy. — Bo.ttle of Bouvinrs 




John of Engldfnf and Prince Henru 

1. HicHAKii died in 110J>, and, as he left no rhildren, the crowi 
if Encjland belonged, of rigiit, to his nephew Arthur. But ihk 

What t>f tlieir success? Who was iiiade Kniperor of the East? 9. Who suoceede* 
i?alil\vin ? Who succeeded Henry ? 
XUW. - i. When did Richan/ I. die ? Who succeeded liim? 2, 3. What did Pli-lii 



.rother of Riehard, John, surnamed - L:i.-k-land,- because he had no 
;^^ o .^ ^n.a ;> hint dunn. the lile <.f his 1-uher, seized ujjon U 
!uui, haviu.r.M.t possession of the person ol Arthur, put him to 

''''''^'Philii. had lon-r set bis heart on Normau.ly, and r . lu.ped nou 
U. ::e a e e IW takm. it. John, as Duke of ^onnandy w^ 
Ibe^as^aild-Ph.l.p. Plnl.p tberelore summoned him to appeat at 
P-iris to auswt'r for the murd«r ol Artbui. 

ill I did not obey the summons ; and was in eotisequenee pro- 

b=,J';~!ir;:;:/:r,;:xr;:;;r.S^'= 

Normans would not fi-ht for so despieable a soveitijrn. , 

lolm was the last of elev«M» dukes who ha.l governed Norman y 
,.\w!; Imndred and timety-three years. ^''^ ^P---;-';;,:^^^ 

by ,;j. ,,,.,■. nM'.,.ry .•.mm.uM.l ..r .l,c I'opc 1V„.U .nvu.l.ng bnglana 
■'t 'VlnliP was „ow ,hr,.aU',u.,l .,. l>o ..v.rwl.ehn.d by a poworf.: 

ImTlluiusalul „>,■„,.;.... IMS ,.„..n,„.s at l!.,uvincs, near lournav, on 

•^'(T''lVf arnn'ol'tlv.. oonll.lorat.-s. .n.d.T ll..' con.n.an.l ..f the enipe- 
r„ \v se nmr,- nun.eruns : In.t .he superior .kl an.l vg.lanee 

i'h ,,. . a ne.l hnn a ,l,.ei.le,l vietory. Willia,,, el iretaRne, chap- 

„, „! Kin!" I'InUp. «as present a, the battle, and l.a3 given an 
.;,,,„uil ..|- It" Sunie extra.-ls Irem this may interest yon. 
• 7 'I'be Krenel, annv bad passed the brtdgc ol ""^'";«\»''\'. '' 
thouubt tins a iavorable n.onient to ennnnence '''«;''';"•;• ^.'' '™ 
I'hilM. xvas inl-orn.ed that Olho was niovnig. he, latlgued with the 
1. nutl, of the way an.l the w.-ight of Ins armor, was resting under an 
•isli tree which iiH'W near the church. 

s \t tins news he ro.s.- up and went into the cbureh, and address- 
nm-i "short i.raver to Co.d, he went out, took up his arms, and with a 

Us ni!^. as- if he had been going to a wedding, remounted ns 
horse In cro.ssing th.. field, the cry -to arms ' was heard le 
mnnpets soun.led, and the scp.adrons which ha<l already crossed the 

^'"'''nir^omliat was hot an<l impetuous. The German cavalry, 

't.eiii.r warlike and very audaeimis, pushed ch.se to the kmg. Uis 

tcnda,,ts<l.dended him: but they, with their 'reutonic fury, wo Id 

have only the kin-. In tin- mean time the mlantry came up, am 

':,h their little h.mces and their hooks, dragged the king from his 

h/use. :.ud lu> would have been killed, ba.l not Providence preserved 

^""o. His standard-bearer w.v. d the banner in token of distress, 



m^\^ 10 d..' How thd I..- on-.vi a; l. What further ^l''^^^' wK mrtytvw 
rvVhoMudevvirouPh.l.p? Whali«itth3wa^fou«t ? When? 0. \\ h.ch parly WM 



94 



CUUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGKNSES. — 1208. 



L»TERATUKE.-THK FIFTH CRUSADE 



m 



which brought some knitrhts to the rescue, and the king, though 
wounded, mounted his horse. The emperor also encountered equal 
danger, and was only saved from a stab aimed at his neck by the 
thickness of the armor which it was the custom of the day for the 
knights to wear. 

II. It was still the fashion for the priests to engage in the battles, 
but instead of a sword or a lance, it was thought more becoming for 
them to fight with a mace, which was a large club ; this, while it was 
not quite so convenient for shedding blood, was not less efficacious ii* 
destroying life, and thus they saved their conscience*- 



CHAITHK XLIV. 

Crusade agaiiist the Albigcjises. — The French mvade Eng' 

land. 

1. But a crusade of a less questionable character was now about 
to deluge the southern provinces of France with blood. This was 
against a sect of Christians called Albigenses, from the city of Alby, 
in Languedoc, where they first appeared, and also called " goo<' peo- 
ple," from the regularity of their lives. 

2. They differed in opinion from the Catholics, and this was 
thought a sufficient reason for waging against them one of the most 
cruel and exterminating wars that ever disgraced the annals of any 
nation. The arbitrary and cruel tribunal of the Inquisition was first 
instituted against the Albigenses. 

3. The Pope, finding that the monks who had been sent against 
them, armed with all the power of the church, were not sufficient to 
stop the progress of what he called heresy, in 1208 proclaimed a cru- 
sade against them, granting to those who should join in it the same 
privileges and indulgences which were promised to those who took up 
arms against the Turks and Saracens. 

4. Now most of tiiese people, who were the snbj(>cts of this cruel 
persecution, lived in the territories of the (^ouEit of Toulouse, and he 
accordingly undertook their defence, and was himself excommuni- 
cated, as being a favorer of heresy. The most cruel of thf persecu- 
tors was Simon de Montfort, whose zeal was increased by the promise 
of all the country which he should conquer from thti Count of Toulouse 
and the Albigenses. 

b. The Count of Toulouse was obliged to submit, aitd. having been 

c.ubjccted to the greatest humiliation and beaten with rods, he at 

lenjjth received absolution. Thousands of Albigensi^s were burnt or 

■ massacred without mercy. Tt Avonld seem as if murder w<Te esteemed 

an act of Christian piety. 



fictnrious? % 3, 9, 10. Relate the king's crmducl in the bailie. 11. Whal of clergy 

ftehlins? .„. 

XLI" — 1. Wh.li of the Albigenses? 2. What of the Inquisition 1 3. What measuii 
•iid tl« *ope adopt "» 4. Who defended the Albigenses? VVhn wa.s their most cniel par 



b: 



"-'"De Montforl was killed at the siege oC Timlouse, in 121S, and 
,„■,;; Z del .he war subsided ; bu. ,, w.^ -■;■•- ---^ 'r Jpf ^ 
.,„e„t i.en«ds. We will now S,"^ ^-W •■ bH,, «1»^ c^re.g-^^ 

S^to" d^i^ r'XoJV E^'..'ri„ righ.' „f h,s wife. 

"Tphilip. n.,t choosing to quarrel with the Pope, »l.'P^"«^ «°^ 
,I,M leased with his son, for acoedinrc to the wishes ol the t.nchsh 
'"V , , 1 e s->me tnie he furnished him with an army, and 

'I'l-rianded'in Knglanrnnd was everywhere hailed as a deliverer 
«,(. detestable bad John become to his subjects. 

ch Louis had almost completed the -'"^"f ^^^^-^^l^"^^!^^^^^^ 
,l..uh of John entirely changed the aspect of afiairs. 1 »»^\^^^^«"^/^; 
Vu^A-mA deserted him, repenting now that they had invited a for- 
i nor hito the k^ 'The;^swore allegiance to young Henry, 

:;^':f triatrkingranTLouis was ohliged to abandon the enterpnse 
;uid return to France. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Uterature of the Time of PhUip Augustus -^ Fablieux and 
Romances. — The Fijth Crusade. 

,. Thb la«t net of importance in the reign of Philip wms the fitli"^ 

„u a new erusade against the Saracens. V"'"'"'*'.'". "'''^,1 e^Ye 
saders pr.«eeded to lay siege to Cairo. An inundation ol the N.le 

"'o ''S.'rhrlgi:;' as ii wee m » trap, they wore gla.1 to accept 
,u<-b terms^,s .he Sidtan would grant them, and he generously ,« - 
milled .hem to return home. Philip «as .00 infirm .0 .Migage in .bi» 

iir anv o.her ac.ivc employme ... . 1 ;, :, „. 1,;, .,.1. 
■i He was vcrv fond of loading romances, and it is to his taste 
,1,:;, we owe all the marvellous histories of -A.ng Arllmr an.l in. 
kLm. ofllu- Round Table-' of - Charlcmogne and /"■''«'"-/" 
,< ■'^ Alexander th, Orcair This las. was wr,..en in .he kind M 
verse now used b> .he French in their serious iK-etry, which is there 
fore called Alrxnndrinc verse. 

„cn.„r! .'•,. Wtol «;i3 the rf»i!l! 7, .S Whal .liJ Prince I/-«i. undert-ike ! 9. Wh* 

»■- W' -^'^Val wo. the tot act of impnrmnce of rblMp ? 2. Whal •^•^Jl"'^^};: 
.1. What of Philip's .a.<ef"rlilBn>tur»! 4. Whil of ihe ro,mncc«J :,. Whaloflh.ro 



i 



96 



PHILIP Il-l-as 



, Ti CO r,.,mi,fc<i bear verv liulo resemblance to the « yrks whicli 
, *■ 3 f r a Te D?esenl day. We shoul.l eo.isicler il a pretty 
:-l'. ";!;;. ^nt'l: C^fliL t« read oae of .>.- .l.rou|^.. 
V„r„ lit le r.-..ura was paid to liislorical or froosrapbiea pob.ib lilies. 
Kty of liabvlm, w'us placed in l-rnPce, and Judea is described as 

^ TZ. :ru;e:!;,reSaid was calle,, Hrulu. f »"»'--- 

nnnv <i( the lairv tales wind, still amnse some c nldreti. 
'"■ r^' 'L Frend. bave always been very ^""^ "[}'"y^2erG^>e 
.1 ♦» . . V,... -.r.. iiult3l)iea for the tiimous Melodies oj Mother uoost. 
TlieVl.-^ alsi/sb.,;; t'rl^s in verse called FaM.eu., «bich contnineo 

'"f 'wb^llwonVd be to us a serions objection to the old romances 
8. VV lial would oc lu ua J . J ^^. ^gj^ 

reau uuv.u^ii, ^ pi,;i;,v i,n,i tnore serious employments man 

SiSSes; rrrtAl;;::';ia ?t r^ary to set L^t arranging 

'"'if 1'eelin. some eon.pnnetions of conscience at the "••""";'■;'' 
wl "it his "asnres bad bien an.asscd, he arpr.,pnated ^J l-t"^ «- 

,„ .he express V'^V^^^-^J^^y^'^^ tJ^' n-li^T^ 

;t;ay-S;. :. rmH^'^tnbyear^ 

of his rei^m. His son Lonis, s.irnatnetl the L,on, succeeded lum.^_ 



5 Whul was a ureal reconimemlalion to a boot . v> uy 
lb. Whaii di.l Philip die ? Who succeeded him 7 




UUIS VIII. — 1223 



CHAPTER XL VI. 



Short Reign of Louis VIIL, the Limi. — Qn£e7i Blamhe goverm 

the Khifrdom as Rege7it. 




Louis the Lion, 1223 to 1226. 

1 Why this Vww was called the Lion, except it were in derision 

I cannot tell you ; for he was feeble both in body and in mmd, and 
♦he only merit that flatterintr historians could find for him was, that 
■-' he was the son of an excellent father, and father of an excellent 

2 He was in his thiitv-sixth year when his father died. His 
mother was a descendant t)f Charlemajjne ; and thus the two races of 
Charlematrne and Capet were united in his person. It was perhai)S 
on this account th:il Philip omitted the usual precaution of sccurinfr a 
p(>aceahle succession to his son, by havinjr him crowned during his 

own lifetime. , tii • j 

:j. Louis and IJhmche, his queen, were crowned at Kheims, and 
the Parisians, alwavs ready for a frolic, celebrated the event with 
trreat demonstrations of jo v. They huntr carpets from their windows, 
and decorated the buildmjrs with irarlands of flowers ; tables covered 
ivith provisions were placed in the streets, at which the jjoor were 
fed, and minstrels and troubadours i)araded the city singing the 
praises of the kinjr. 

4. The sbort rcijjn of I^uis was spent in war with Henry ill. ot 
England, and in a relentless persecution of the i)Oor Albigenses. Bui 
the\'rongs done to these last were in some measure avenged. The 
kinu' had laid siege to one of their cities, init the inUuisc heat of the 
weather was the'^cause of a fever which carried ofl' 20,000 of the 
troops : and finallv the king himself fell a victim to it. 

5. Having assembled his nobles around his bed, he made them 
swear that they would cro\^-n his eldest son, and would respect and 
obey Queen Blanche as regent of the kingdom during the minority 



XLVl. - 1 . What is scd of I/iui3 VIII. ? 2. What of his right to the crown 1 3. What 
of his coronation ? 4. Wlvit events in his rei?n? What caused his death? &. wttwi 



96 



PHILIP II - 1"^^ 



4 Tln.^P nui.inc«>s br:ir very little roseniblunce to llie wc^rks which 
bear that .mm- at tic l^^^^^'^ ';;>.,, ^^, ,,,..,i ^,,^ „f tlie.n thn.u^h. 

sf:r,sirrX';;ff;;;;.r3"S:;!;;i;;;;;s. 

'"r'^'l'l • : • . I ^t: : vs l.,.n, v,.,y io,,,! ..f .Uiryl.cs. It .s U. 

i WIvil w.is ;i t.'n.-;il rfc,..iniiieM.l.iii.'H to .1 iK>oK.. v» i.j 
lb. \V1>«*> iii<'- l'l»l'P J'« ■ ^'''" succeeded hiin / 



If 

IK 




UUIS VIII.- 1-223 



CHAPTER XLVI. 



Short Rtign of Louis VIIL, the Uoii. — Qitcen Blanche goverm 

the K'niirdom as Regciit. 




Louis the Liou, 1223 to 1220. 

1 Wiiv this kiiK^ was called the I. ion, cxeejU it were in derision 
I caniis.t tell you ; Tor he was feeble both in body and m inmd, and 
•h.' onlv ni.-rit that llatteriii<,^ historians C(mld find lor him was, that 
•' he was the son ..f an cxerllent fatluT, and father of an excellent 

V He was in his thiitv-sixth year when his father <li(d. His 
nidtiicr was a descendant ».f Charleniajine ; and thus the two races ol 
('hirlenia<nie and Capet were luiited in his person. It was pi'rhai)S 
„n this account that l»liilii» omitted the usual precaution of secunnjr a 
pf-aceable succes.sit>n to iiis sou, l)y havinji him crowned dnrinrr his 

own liietime. , ,,, • j 

:{. Louis and Blanche, his (pieen, were crowned at Kheims, and 
llu; Parisians, alwavs iv:uly for a frolic, celebrated the event with 
irrcat demonstrations of j..v.' Thev hun«: carpets from their windows, 
and decorate.l the buihlinos with i:;irlands of llowers ; tables covered 
vvith pr(»visions were placed in th«- streets, at which the i)oor were 
(rA, anil min.strels and troubadours [>araded the city sini,nng the 

praises of the kiniz. ^ itt * 

I. The short reiirn of Louis was spent in war witli Henry 111. ol 
K!ii:land, and in a ndentless per.secution of the poor All)ii:f»nses. l$ut 
tbe^'wronirs done to these last were in some measure avenyred. The 
kin«^ hail^laid sieirc to one of tln'ir cities, but the intense heat of the 
we;7ther w:is ihecause of a fever which carried oil" '20,000 of the 
lroop.>: and fiiKillv the" kim^r himself fell a victim to it. 

5. Havinc: assembl.-d his nobles around his bed, he made them 
swear that They would crown his ehlest son, and would respect and 
obey Queen Blanche aa retrent of the kinj^dom during the minonly 



XLVI. — 1 . What i,^ .^ ud of l/iuis VIII. ? 2. What of hia right to the crown ? 3. What 
of hia corunati'.n 7 4. WIvil ..-venLs in his reii^i? 



What caijsed his death? 5. When 



96 



LOUIS IX. -1226. 



,f U.a «on. He died u> October, .Q26, having reigned a U«le n..r, 

n" t:r£che was very -^^'^^l^s" ilTf '"she^'^-^^^^ 
„a'd, b». «l.e d,.l not vvas^ any ^---f^I^^^^X peace of'the king- 
at once to adopt sucli ""r'*"f„^„'^^ f ' "s,,e knew too well the oharacte. 
dom, and the safety of h« son ■ f"r^^'« ^'^ ^ ^ „„ oath which 

of the great nobles to suppose that i*^l^ 

tound ihem to obey a woman ^"''^^^j^Smpii.hments, both bodu, 

7. But she was a woman fS^^^'^^lZgxe^i personal beauty. 

and mental ; of an undaunted sp.nt, and "^ g J^ f„, ^, years, 

Her cl''«f/"""^'^''°'XVude n bis mann"--- ='■»' his adv.ce was 

^^^^'^^-^^h'^;^^^^ of her conduct, was 
^ 8. Blanche, by the decision and prompWud ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

fj:ert.f hfr :lVradtS"K"of twenty-one. when she re- 
Signed the regency. 



CHAPTER XLVll. 

r^ ^ WniirhP — Character of Louis IX., or &. 
^7i€C(/oi6 oj Queen BlaiKhe. ^na 




Louis IX.. I22ti to 1270. 



r n on Hlmche will be better understood Irom 
?iwSn;irrrdsr:;,dTof ;V\t . '^^d P-s, m an.er. 

V'-^rpS :;': 'rsS"hat .^e, oouw --^y -rhe-l 



iidhediel • -- 
■chief counsellor 



Who was app«imtetl regent .' 



What of Queen Blanche 1 7. 



Whow« 




LOc.;* IX. -1344. 



99 



il.pn. lo set the rnen free, and offering to be security for the money 
S^LSed of them. The priests toof offence n^ this, declaring that 
thP nueen had no right to interfere about tlieir slaves. 

3^ They seii^d u^pon the wives and families of the poor men and 
crowdTd tLm all in^ the same small place, where many died o suf 
focation. On this, the queen proceeded to the prison -;«^; ^«J f ^^^^^^^ 
ants, and ordered them to force open the doors, bo f ^ J;^;^ ^^ "^^^^ 
fear of offending any person connected with the church, that not one 

'T'tU q7ee:\^ took an axe, and with her own hands began to 
break down the door. Thus encouraged, her attendants set to work 
and the doors were soon opened. - The poor pnsoners were brouglu 
out ; many of them fiiinted as soon as they fe t the fresh air Ihose 
who were able to speak loaded her with blessings. Her kindness di(. 
nnt rpst here for she made them all free forever. 

5 LoutsIX ctnmonly called St. Louis, had a truly upright and 
ben;vorent disposition. His temper was mild and torgiving, and at 
the sl^ne time brave and firm. In prosperity no man had more meek- 
ness Tor Tadversitv more fortitude. Under al circumstances, his 
"ntegrhy was inflexible, and he was governed solely by religious prin- 

*^^V*His piety did not deprive him of the qualities becoming a king. 
His' liberality was not in the least inconsistent with a wise economy. 
\t that time, the revenue of the king arose only from his own estates, 
;md not from the purses of the people. His grandeur, like that of any 
private person, depended upon a judicious economy. 

7 Louis did not, like his predecessors, regard the foiinding a mon 
asterv or building a church as an expiation for sin. He used to say, 
when speaking on this subject, " that living men were the stones 
of God's temple, and that the church was more beautified by good 
manners than by rich walls." 



CHAPTER XLVHL 

The sixth Crusade. — St. Louis taJcen Prisoner. — He ts re- 
leased upon Payment of a large Ra7ismn. 

1 In the year 1244, Louis was attacked vvitli a violent illness, and 
as he lay in a state of letharszy, he imagined that a voice spoke to hiro 
**rom heaven, ordering him to take up the cross against the infidels: 
and scarcely had he recovered his speech, when he made a vow to 

carry on a crusade. „ , , j 

2."^ His mother and all his wisest counsellors vehemently opposed 

the project ; but he considered his vow as a sacred bond, vhich men 



XLVn. - 1 - 4 Relate the anecdote of Queen Blanche. 5. What of Louis IX. 1 6. Vhai 
*^iS>Rn - 1 What happ*r ed to Louis IX. ? What vow did he make ? 2. What mmn 



96 



lyOl'lS lX.-l'i-^6. 



LOv:;^ IX -1244. 



99 



,„„d, but Bh... a„l nn, «as,e uny ;" J ^^^t, ,^,,e peuce of ,he king- 
at once to udopl su.-l. " ' •'^"''^ ' '' J ' ^ ,e knew too well the .•haraelet 
d„m, and the sakty ol her "^ ' • " ^^'J ^J^„,d ,.,„ard an oath uhicl. 
of the ureat nobles to suppose that t^y^ 
t„un.i then, to obey a wonum lf;lJ^^'^f^^,';^,,Umo:^^s, both bod.iy 

7. Hut she svas a won.an ot f'^f ^^ J .^^ beauty. 

and .uental ; of an >>"'l-";\';'l^ '"•,::„ respectable for his year.. 
Her chief counsellor was U en , ^^^^ \ ,„,, his advtce wa. 
filonts and virliif ; rallicr runt in m=> 
genc'ftlly «,veu in .be f '■V"J„<'J^",;r^„„de of her conauet, was 

8. lllaueluN by the decision » ." ' J" J^,,,;,, a,„l ,„ nuiintaiu b.'r 

;ttrti?rtr::i1SatX:.1..e •;-e'of tweW-one. ^vhen she re- 
Bijrned the regency. 



CHAPTER XLVU. 



A,ualae of Queen Blanche. -C^ra^ter of L.is IX.. ^ &. 




T ■■ JY i-''^t) to 1270. 



, T„.eharaeter of Queen Blanche wi..K^ 
.n'aneodote "Htor U >.j^in--t . aSc .o P^y certain comtdn.- 

. ., fi What of Qoeea Blanc he 1 7. Wlio w«i 

Whet' ^^K;rs"'«rS".'.-e-' 

tar chief counseUor? »• »'*^'' 



Ihen. to set the men free, and offerinfj to be seeurity for he money 
denuuuled of them. The priests took oll^Miee a^ this, deelarmg that 
the (iiieen had no riirht to interfere about their slaves. 

V Thev seized ni.on thr wives and families of the poor men and 
oro'Vde tUm all into the same small place, where many died o sut- 
focation. On this, the qneen proceeded to the prison -;^ '-.f ^ ^^^ 
ants, :ind ordered them to force open the doors, feo ^^^^^''^lone 
four V.f otVendinjr any person connected with the church, that not one 

'^r 'ni:^:;u^^ Uien took an axe, and with her own h-ds began U, 
break down the door. Thus cncouracred, her attendants set to work 
and the doors w.re soon opened. The poor Vr^^^^-^J^^ ^^^^ 
out ; many of them fainted as soon as they le t the tresh air. Ihosc 
who were able to speak loaded her with blessings. Her kindness die. 
not rest here, for she made them all tree lorever. 

5 Lonis IX., commonly called St. Louis, had a truly upright and 
benevolent disposition. lIis temper was mild and lorgiving, and at 
the si^ne time brave and firm. In prosperity no man had more meek- 
ness mr 7^ more fortitude. Under all circumstances, his 
integrrty was intlexible, and he was governed solely by religious prin- 

*''^(!''"His i.ietv did not deprive him of the qualities becoming a king. 
His'liberality-was not in the least meonsistent wuth a wise economy 
\t that time, the revenue of the king arose only from his own estates, 
and not from the purses of the people. His grandeur, like that ot any 
private person, depended upon a judicious econ(Mny. 

7 hduis did not, like his predc^cessors, regard the tounding a mon 
asiery or buildin- a church as an expiati«.n for sin. He used to say, 
wh(Mi speaking on this subject, - that living men were the stones 
of God's temple, and tliat the church was more beautified by good 
manners than by rich walls." 



CHAPTER XLVHI. 

The sixth Cri/sade. — St. Umh taken Prisoiier. — He is re- 
leased u]XJ/L Payment of a hru'e Ransom. 

1 \s the ve:ir 10 H, Tiouis was attacked with a violent illness, and 
as he lav in a state of lethar<rv, he imagined that a voice spoke to hira 
%.m heaven, ordering him to take up the cross against the infidels: 
and scarcely had he recovered his speech, when he made a vow to 

carry on a crusade. „ , i j 

2." His mother and all his wisest counsellors vehemently opposed 

the project ; but he considered his vow as a sacred bond, vhich men 

XlvVII. - I - 4 Relate the anecdote of Queen Blanche. 5. What of Ivouis IX. 1 6. Vhai 
*^ JCL\^in - I What happ^r (A to Louis IX. ? What vow fli.l he make ? 2. What mw 



4 



rXlUlS IK - iSM. 



.Oi 



100 



LOUIN IX l2.Ta 



were not perniitte<l to unloose. He devoted four years to pu iii^ hit 
kintrdoin in order, and then sailed for Kf^^ypt, taking vv ilh luni his (laeeii 
and his hrothers. 

.'J. Now if Ijouis had listened to the voic<^ of reason, he vvouhl not 
only4iave seen the injury ho was doinjj t(» his own country, hy tluis 
draniing her of her wealth and population, hut also the extn'nie in- 
justice of this w:u*, which seemed Ut him so just. He had, ind«'<'d, 
no rijrht to carry the desolation of war into the H(»ly Land ; hut a de- 
sir*^ to preserve the holy places iVoni desecration served :is a pretence 
of right. 

4. Hut in ravaging Egypt, he had not even this pretence. There 
was no more reason ft)r making wai> upon the Sultan hecausc; he was 
V Mussulman, than there w«)uld h»> at the present day for carrying 
war into the empire of China, hecause its inhahitants are not Chris- 
tians. 

5. In complete armor, with the oriflanune waving over him, St 
liouis was the foremost to leap upon the shores of Egypt. Damiettu 
at once opened her gates to him, and leaving there his cpieen and her 
ladies, he advanced towards C'airo. Hut the same fate awaited him 
that had hefallen the last crusaders. 

G. Hemmed in hy the waters of the Nile, and hy the enemy, he 
was compelled to surrender himself, and such of his troops as had 
stirvived the dangers of war and jxstilenee, as prisoners to the Sultan. 
This event took place Ai)ril r)th, liifjO. When the news reached 
France, the grief and desolation of the people were excessive. 

7. Queen Hlanche did iu)t long survive it. She died partly froui 
grief at her son's misfortimes, and partly from remorse at having had 
two persons put to death as spreaders of false news, who had tirst 
reported the defeat of the army. 

8. The kin<i^ was at first loaded with chains; hut as soon as the 
Sultan, who was a descendant of Saladin, heard of his capture, he 
sent him a robe of honor, and forgave him one fifth of the ransom 
which the king had himself offered. After a captivity of two months, 
Louis regained his liberty, upon the surrender of Damietta and the 
payment of 100,000 pounds of silver. 

i). This great amount of money was raised with much dilTiculty, 
aiul, among other expedients, they were obliged to melt down the 
silver balustrades which surrounded the tomb of Richard the Lion- 
hearted, who was buried at Rouen. They did not coin this into 
mon(\v, but delivered it by weight. 

10. The silver coin of the country had become so debased with 
copper that few persons would receive it, except in small sums. 
There was not silver enough in it to give it the color of silver, and 
therefore it was called moiutn negra, black money. In the reign of 
Philip I. a piece of leather with a silver nail in the middle was the 
c irrent coin. 



11. Instead of returning to Europe, Louis \ ent to Acre. Whilst 
be was there, he found that a mistake had been made in the payment 
■»f the money for his ransom, and he at once made good the defi- 
ciency. His courtiers thought him over-honest ; but Ix>uis reproved 
them, and made- them know that ho valued his honor and his integ 
rity too highly to fi»rfeitthem for silver or gold. 

I'J. Hut we left the j>oor (pieen and her ladies at Damietta. As 
you may well suppose, they were not a little alarmed when they 
heard of the fate of tin; king. The queen was in consUmt terror ; 
sIm' thouglil every noise she heard was the approach of the Saracens 
and was fi)rever crying out, " Help, help, the Saracens are coming!" 
and an old knight, more than eighty years old, who attended her 
would constantly answer, " Do not be alarmed, madam; I am with 

\'.i. Now this old knight she would scarcely ever permit to leave 
her, and one day she threw herself on her knees before him, and in the 
gr«Mtest agony besought him that he would cut oft' her head the in- 
stant that the Saracens should take the city, that she might not fall 
alive into their hands, and be made a slave. 

11. To this the old knight replied, that " he begged she would 
make herself perfectly (jasy, for it was what he had already deter- 
mined in his own mind to do, if she had not desired it." However, 
his resolution was not put to the test, for. the queen and her ladies 
were included in the ransom, and were permitted to join the king at 
Acre. 

ir>. Louis, after reinaining four years in Palestine, at length re- 
turned to France. He was received with every demonstration of joy ; 
but it w as observed with regret that he yet continued to wear the cross 
ui)on his shoulder, a sign that he still nourished the design of going 
again to Palestine. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

More about. St. Louis. — His Love of Justice. — T/te Parlitb' 
ment of Paris. -^ Bed of Justice. 

1. Louis now devoted his time to repairing the damage France had 
sustained by his absence. He maintained great state and regularity 
in his court ; but in his own dress and manners he preser\'ed the plain- 
ness of a private man. He earnestly applied himself to the reforma- 
tion of abuses. 

2. Sitting under the shade of an oak which is still standing m 
the forest of Vincennes, near Paris, he heard the complaints of the 
poor, and redressed their wrongs. He framed a code of laws which still 



ures did he adopt ? 3. What is said of the justice of the cause ? 5, 6. What bflfcU Louia 
in thi3 expedition ? 7. What of the death of Queen Blanche ? 8. How was the kine 
mated ? Hnw '-d he regain his liherty 1 10. Whatof ihenoney of France? II. Wha 



insuace of Ixjuin' honesty ? 12. What of the queen ? 15. How lone did 1 tuis remain 
in t;aiestine ? How was he received in France ? 
XLIX. — 1. V'hat of the conduct of Louis ? 3. Relate the anecdote of his Viatica • 
9* 






103 



LOUIS IX. - 1254. 



goes by hi.s name, and justice was administered with the strictest im 
partiality. 

3. His brother Charles, Count of Anjou, had a dispute with a pri 
vate gentleman, one of his vassals. The cause was tried before the 
count's officers, and a decision, of course, (jiven in his favor. The 
gentleman appealed to the king's court, and this so enraged Charle? 
that he threw him into prison. 

4. The king, h'laring of this, at once summoned his brother .'nto 
his presence, and said to him, with a stern countenance, " Because 
you are my brotlmr, do you suppose you are above the laws?" and at 
the sjime time ordered him to release his vassal, and to let the law 
take its course. 

5. The count obeyed ; but the gentleman could not find a single 
lawyer who had courage enough to undertake his cause. When the 
king heard of this, he appointed an agent for that purpose. The 
cause was discussed with the strictest impartiality, and a decisioi. 
was given in favor of the vassal, who was reinstated in his posses- 
sions. 

6. But the greatest compliment to his character was the reference 
made to him by the king and barons of England of the disputes be- 
tween them. His award was too wise and temperate to suit either 
party, but the honor of being selected to decide between them was one 
which would be paid only to a virtuous prince. 

7. A council, composed of all the great vassals of the crown, the 
prelates, and the officers of the king's household, had existed under 
all the kings of the house of Capet. The constitution of this council 
was now changed, and, by the name of the " Parliaimnit of Paris,'' 
it became a superior court, to which an appeal might be made from 
,he other courts all over France. 

8. Beside being a court of justice, this parliament was employed to 
-egister the king's edicts ; and sometimes they chose to remonstrate 
igainst them, and even positively to refuse to give them the sanction 
jf being registered. When this happened, the king was obliged to 
^o himself to the place where they held their sessions, and order them 
to register the edict. 

9. There was then no escape ; for it was a maxim of the French law, 
that in the presence of the king the power of all officers and magis- 
trates was suspended. When the king attended the parliament, his 
seat was on a couch under a canopy ; and hence he was said, on such 
occasions, to hold ^hed of justice^ a phrase which often occurs in 
history. 



WThat coinpUmenl to his cluiracter? 7. What was the parliament of Paris? a Wlitf 
n tO0 'uty of the p;irliainent ? y. What i.s a ted of justice 1 



LOUIS IX. -1270. 



CHAPTER L. 



103 



Seventh Crusade. — Death of St. Lotiis, 

1. The Pope, who assumed the right of disposing of crtivns and 
kingdoms, having taken offence at the King of Sicily, offered that 
kingdom to St. Louis for one »f his sons. But he declined it, say- 
ing that it was not just for him to accept the property of another. 

•J. He said, that, as a matter of good policy even, a king should be 
just ; for that the reputation for honesty gave a king more real power 
than any accession of territory could do. His brother Charles, of 
Anjou, was less scrupulous, and accepted the offer of the Pope. Aftei 
a bloody war, he succeeded in establishing himself in Sicily. 

3. The anecdote I have already related will give you an idea of the 
character of this prince. He was ambitious, cruel, and selfish : his 
memory is even now held in detestation by the Sicilians. He made 
the very name of Frenchman hateful to them. They took a most 
horrible revenge, as you will presentlv hear. 

4. By a wise administration of the government for sixteen years, 
Louis had brought his kingdom into a state of complete tranquillity : 
had recruited his finances ; and everything seemed favorable to the 
execution of his favorite project, another crusade. Accompanied by 
a crowd of nobles, he embarked in .Tuly, 1270. 

.'). Prince Edward of Eiigland and Charles of Anjou were to fol- 
low. Animated by the wild hope of converting the King of Tunis, 
Louis directed his course to Africa. Instead of a willing convert, he 
found a formidable enemy. Louis resolved to try force to accom- 
plish so desirable an end, and laid siege to his capi'-jl city. 

0. The excessive heat of the climate proved destructive to the 
troops. The plairue broke out in the camp, and destroyed great num- 
bers. The king himself was attacked by i- , and was soon at the point 
of death. Sending for his eldest son, he gave him a paper in which 
he had written directions for his future conduct in life. 

7. He earnestly exhorted him to govern with justice and equity, 
and to make the fear of God the rule of his actions. To show his 
humility and penitence for his sins, he caused himself to be lifted fronn 
his bed, and laid upon a heap of ashes on tlie floor of his tent. In this 
situation he died, August 2.5th, 1270. He was fifty-five years old, 
and had reigned forty-four years. 

8. Just at the moment of his death the fleet of Charles of Anjou 
arrived. As soon as that prince landed he sounded his trumpet, and 
was surprised to hear no answering blast. Alarmed by the solemn 
silence that pervaded the whole camp, he mounted his horse and gal- 
loped to the royal pavilion, where the first object he saw was the body 
of his brother extended upon the ashes. 



L. -1. What offer ditl the Po|>e make? 2. What was the answer of Louis ? 3. What 
jfCLirles of Anjou? 4. When did Louis set out on a new crusade? 5. Who were lo 
follow? Where did Louis £o ? 6. What hippened to his troops and himself) 7. What 
was the dying advice of I^ouis ? When did ^ die ? What was hia age ? How 101* hw* 
»ie reigned? 8. Vhat of Charles of Anjou . 



N 



104 LOUIS IX -LOKD lvOL\Vn,LE. — 127U. 

CHAPTER LI. 
About Lord Joinville. — A Chateau. 

1. Per Ji APS you may be curious to know how we have learnl so 
much about this Kiiifr Louis. His virtues jorained him many personal 
frirnds, and amoucrst others, Lord Joinville. a nobleman of hijh rank. 
They met at Cyi)rus, as they were both ^in\\\i on the sixth crusade, 
and were so much pleased with one another, that they at once became 
the best of friends. There was a greut similarity in their charac- 
ters. 

ti. Aftei Joinville had determined to go on the crusade, he sum- 
moned all liis friends and vassals to his castle, and entertained their 
for a week with ail manner of feasting and merriment. He then told 
tliem tluit he was going to the holy war, and might never return ; if 
there was any one to whom he had done wrong, he wished him to 
come forward, and he should receive amends. 

3. Joinvilh? then .set out on [)ilgrimages to various holy places in 
the neighborhood, determining when he left his castle not to enter it 
again till he returned from the holy war. In the course of tliese pil- 
grimages, which he made barefooted, and with no clothing but a shirt, 
he often pass(!d in sight of his own home. 

4. II(! says, " I did not turn my eyes that way, for fear of feeling 
too much regret, and lest my courage should fail on leaving my two 
fine children, and \\\f fair castle, which I loved to my heart." A 
picture of this castle ornaments the Memoirs of Joinville. It is on the 
top of a hill, and the walls seem designed rather for ornament than 
defence. 

5. As lh(^ feudal system declined, the nobles became less of fight- 
ers, and tlnur rhnlfdux (every French gentleman's house in the coun- 
try is now called a chaleau) becauie less of fortresses. On the slope 
of the hill was the vineyard, and' there, during times of danger, the 
laborers, while at work, were under the protection of the archers on 
the walls, 

6. At the bottom of all was the town or village, where the houses 
of the serfs stood clustering under the eye and shelter of their liege 
lord. Joinville shared in all the dangers of the crusade, and was ex- 
posed to even greater perils. 

7. Joinville had more true wisdom than the king; for he excused 
himself from going on a crusade a second time, saying that, on his 
return from the former exi)edition, he found that his poor vassals had 
been so much oppressed and ill-treated, that he could not, in consi<l- 
eration of the duty he owed them, leave them again. 

8. He lived, honored and respected, to a very great age, being 
more than a hundred years old when he died. " The queen, know- 
ing his atfection and love for the king, and with how much fidelity 
he kad ser\ed him, earnestly entreated him to write a small book of 



I'HILIP III. — 1270. 



105 



he holy actio^« and sayings of her deceased husband. * It is from 
his " Memoirs" utat we get our knowledge of those times. 



CHAPTER LIL 

Philip HI., sur named the Bold. — The King's Barber. - Tki 

Rotnance of the Rose. 




11 — '. Who relates the life ol Lo»#s1 2, 3 What p'eparaiion did Joinrill* make foi 



Philip the Bold, 1270 to 1285. 

1. The young king got his surname in a curious way. He waa 
with his mother in Egypt, and when she was frightened by the Sara- 
cens, he would laugh at her, and say that '' he did not fear them at 
all ;" and so they called him a bold little fellow. 

"2. At the time of his father's deatli he was himself too sick to take 
the command of the troops. So his unc/e Charles undertook to lead 
them to battle. The Arabs defeated them in a novel way. As often 
as the French advanced, the Arabs would stir up the sand, for the 
country about Tunis is a complete desert, and the wind blowing it in 
the faces of the French, they were blinded and compelled to retire. 

3. Philip resembled his father in some respects. He was pious, 
liberal, and just; but he was much inferior in understanding, and so 
very simple and credulous, that people were continually imposing 
upon him. His subjects were very prosperous and happy during his 
reign, and the French esteem him one of the best of their kings. 

4. In 1274, Philip, his first wife being dead, married Mary, of 
Brabant, to whom he became very much attached, and who, conse 
quently, acquired a great influence over him. Now the king had a 
servant, who, from constant intercourse, had become a great favorite, 
and was employed in affairs of state. 

5. His name was Peter le Brosse, and he is called the king's bar- 
ber. But you must not suppose from this that he was altogethei 

the cm Slide ? Wlial of his chateau? 7. Did Joinville go on the last crusade? 8. Why 
did he write his Memoirs ? 

LII. — 1. Whence the surname of Philip III. ? 2. How were his troops defeated? 3. 
^ha^ of his character 1 4 What of his queen? 5. What of his barber ? 6 Whatpkt 



104 



LOUIS IX -l,OKI) ?OI.\VII,LK. 



1270. 



I'Hll.lP III — 1270. 



ia5 



CHAPTER Li. 



he holy acti(»^« aiitl say*iifrs of her deceased husband. ' It is fioni 
his " Memoirs" i.iat we gel our knowledge of those times. 



Aljoid Ijjrd Joi/icille. — A Chateau. 

1. Pkijiiaps you may be curious to know how we have learnl so 
much about tliis Kiui; Louis. lfi« virtues gained him many personal 
rrii-nds, and amoiifr.st otiiers. Lord .loinville.a nobleman of lii^rh rank, 
'i'hfv met at ('yi)rtis, as tlu-y wrre both going on tb(; sixth crusade, 
and were so nnicb pleasrd witli one aiiotlier, tli;it thev at once became 
the best of friends. There was a greiit .similarity in their charac- 
ters. 

"2. Aftei Joinville had (ktermincd to go on tlie cru.sade, he sum- 
moned :ill his friends and vassals to liis castle, and cntertaiiH'd tlien 
for a week with a!i manner of feasting and merriment. He then told 
them tbat \\v was «,M)ing to the holy war, and might never return ; if 
there was any <»ne to whom he bad done wrong, he wished binl to 
conu' forward, and h(^ sh<»uhl receive amends. 

3. .loinville then .s(>t out on ((ilfrrimages to various holy places in 
tin; neiiibl)orlio«»d, determinini: when he left his casth; not to enter il 
again till be returned froiu the ludy war. In the course of these pil- 
grimages, wbicb he made barefooted, and witii no clothing but ashirt, 
ho often pa.vsed in sight of his own home. 

'1. lie .says, " I did not turn my eyes that way, for fear of feeling 
too much regret, and lest my courage should fail on leaving my two 
fine children, and u\f fair castle, which I loved io my heart."' A 
picture of this castle (u-iiaments the Ahnioirs of .loinville'. It is on the 
top of a hill, and the walls seem designed rather for ornament than 
defencj;. 

5. As till' feudal system declined, the nobles became less of lli,rht- 
ers, and their rhatKiui (every French gentleman's house in the coun- 
try is now called a chdlnnt) became less <d' fortresses. On the slope 
of th(! hill was tlu^ vineyard, and' there, during times of danger, the 
laborers, while at wi>rk, were \\\n\vx \\\v. protecticm of the archers on 
the walls. 

0. At the bottom of all was the town or village, where the houses 
of the serfs st(»od clustering under tin; eye and shelter of thi'ir lien-e 
l(»rd. Joinville shared in all tln^ dangers of the crusade, and was e!x- 
posed to even greatt^r i)erils. 

7. Joinvilb> had more tru(; wisdom than the king; for he excu.«sed 
himself from going on a crusade a .seccuid time, sTiying that, on his 
return from the former expedition, he found that his poor va.^^sals bad 
been so much oppressed and ill-tr(>ated, that he could not, in consid- 
eration of the duty he owed them, leave them again. 

8. He lived, honored and respected, to a very great age, beinfr 
niore than a hundred years old when he di»\i. " The (|uecn, know^ 
ing his alfection and love for the king, and with how much 'fidelity 
he had served him, earnestly entreated him to write a small book of 



1! — '. Who related the life ol Ixn^is? 2, 3 Wh.^l p-eparaiion did Joinvil> make foj 



CHAPTER LIl. 

Philip III., sur named the Bold. — The Kiiig^s Barher. 

Romance of the Rose. 



- 7 



•/., 




Philip the Bold, 1270 to 1285. 

I. Thk young king got his surname in a curious way. He waa 
with his mother in Egypt, and when she was frightened by the Sara- 
cens, he would laugh at her, and say that '* he did not fear them at 
all ;" and so th(;y called him a bold little fellow. 

«. At the time of his fither's d<'at!i h.e was himself too sick to take 
the connnand of the troops. So his unc/e Charles undertook to lead 
them to battle. The Arabs defeated them in a novel way. As often 
as the French advanced, the Arabs would stir up the sand, for the 
country about Tunis is a complete desert, and the wind blowing it in 
the faces of the French, they were blinded and compelled to retire. 

3. Philip resembled his father in some respects. He was pious, 
liberal, and just; but he was much inferior in understanding, and so 
very simple and credulous, that people were continually imposing 
upon him. His subjects were very prosperous and happy during his 
reign, and the French esteem him one of the best of their kings. 

4. In 1271, Philip, his first wife being dead, married Mary, of 
Brabant, to whom he became very much attached, and who, conse 
quently, acquired a great influence over him. Now the king had a 
servant, who, from constant intercourse, had become a great favorite, 
and was employed in affiiirs of state. 

5. His name was Peter le Brosse, and he is called the king's bar- 
f»er. But you must not suppose from this that he was altogethef 

lhecru-«ule? What of hid chateau? 7. Did Joinville go on the Ia.sl crusade? 8. Why 
did he write hi.s Memoirs ? 

LII. — 1. Whence the surname of Philip III. ? 2. How were his troops defeated J 3. 
W^ha/ of his character 1 4 What of his queen? 5. What of his harber? 6 Whatplct 



I 



106 



PHlLlf III. -1274 



Ignorant -ind illiterate. Besides learning how to 'Ve&a nair and 
shave, the barber of those days received a medic, education. He 
had charge of the health of the king, and was, in fact, his physician 
and surgeon, 

6. The queen's influence over the king excited the jealousy and 
hatred of the barber, and he determined, if possible, to eflect her ruin. 
He tried to make the king believe that Mary was trying to get rid of 
the children of tlip king's first wife, that her own son might inherit 
Ihe crown. 

7. His wicked parpose was favored by tiie sudden death of Prince 
Louis, and the charge of murder was openly made against the 'jueen. 
I he king and the relations of the queen were very much shocked at 
this accusation. Tliey adopted methods to ascertain the truth or false- 
ness of the charge, in which we should not place much confidence. 

8. The king sent for a woman who pretended to be inspired, and 
to be able to tell fortunes, and as she declared that the queen was 
guiltless, the king was satisfied. The queen's brother took another 
method ; he employed a champion to fight the accuser, and as his 
representative got the better in the battle, no doubts remained of the 
queen's innocence. 

y. The wicked barber was soon after detected in some acts of trea- 
son agamst the king, and was hung on a high gibbet v;hich had lately 
been erected at Paris. Queen Mary wa.« a great ])a1ron of the poets 
but thev were of a dilferent character from the troubadours. 

10. The taste for their lively and gay son'^rs had gone by, and a 
very grave and serious style was now the fashion. A poem, called 
the '' Romance of the Rose,'' begun by one i)oet in the reign of St. 
Louis and finished by another who lived thirty years afterwards, was 
the great favorite. It is the history of an imaginary dream, and was 
extended to twenty thousand verses — a great merit in those days. 



did '.\c form ? 8. How was the innocence of the queen ascertained? 
II i« iture of this period ? 



K. Vhat of Um 




"THE JlrlXiMENT OF (iOD. 



CHAPTER LHL 



W> 



Vtiak by the Judgment of God. — Oi deals aiid Judicial Com' 
bats. — Story of the Dog of Mo?itargis. 




Mcuaire and the dog of Moutargis. 

1. If any of you have chanced to be in court when a person waa 
to be tried for any crime, you may have heard the answer he makes 
to the question of the clerk, " How will you be tried?" The accused 
person replies, " By God and my country." Now this answer has a 
different meaning from its original one. 

2. It is a relic of the feudal times. If any person had a quarrel, 
no matter what was the subject, whether money, the title to lands, or 
any personal offence, or if one person accused another of any crime, 
both parties went before the superior lord of whom they held their 
lands, and were each of them sworn to tell their stories truly. 

3. If these stories did not agree, the lord did not undertake to deter- 
mine the question himself, but referred the decision to ^^The Judg- 
7unU of God,'' as it was called. There were two modes of doing 
this — either by ordeal, or by the duel. In either case, the party who 
came off safe was declared to have gained the cause. 

4. There were various kinds of ordeal : the parties were made to 
walk through fire, to carry hot iron, to walk over hot iron, to be 
tiirown into the water as witches are at the present day, among some 
uneducated people, even in civilized countries; or they were made to 
swallow a piece of bread or a little water, which had previously been 
•i.Msecrated by the priest, and by which the guilty party, it was sup- 
uised, would be choked. 

5. But if the party accused should demand a trial by the dael 

IJIl -1. 2. What of lawsuits in feudal times? 3. How determined in case par 



s 



106 



I'lllin- III 1274 



ignoram -Mid illiKMiilr. hrsiflra Irarnintr how to 'rps.^ nair aiiH 
sliavo, \Uv. harhrr ol ih.w «laya rcrciv^'.l a hhmIj.- . rijiir.inn!! lid 
IkuI rharj:.' of flio h.-alth oi \\w kin^r, ;in<i was, in Ta.-t, Ins plivsinan 
«»iul s\irfi«'on. 

<>. Thr (jiHM'n's mniicncr over the Kini,' r\nir.| ilir |r;i|.Misv am! 
hafr«ul oIiIm' h;irl»»'r, and In .|<ti'rniin«>«|, if possiltlr. m iflcri Imi rnin 
Ho trir»l to niakr ihr Kini: hrln-vn lliat M;iiv u:is h\inn to jmI ti.l of 
lln' oJuMn-n o| ili.> Kind's <ivsf wilr, ilmt li.i ..\vn sun niiulil uiImmi 
JIk* <to\\h. 

7. Ills wirK.'d it.nposr was laNorrd U\ [\\r sn<l.l.n d.-atli n| '•imrr 
lionis, :ni»l iIm< rliarfr.- o| nnmirr was (ijhmiIv ina«l«' aunjnsl tlir ju. r n 
I In' kiny ami tin- nj.itions ol llm «pn'«n u. i. \. ry nnn-li sliock. .1 u 
lIuM a»viisatiun. 'I'licv adopt. m| uu'thods to asn'itaiii llio lintli or false 
(M'ss o\'\Ur clnir^o, in wlin-h wr sImmiM not pl:ir.< inn«-li ronlnlcn.-.' 

^*. 'I he kuiii srnt for a woman who pmcndftl to ho mspirnl, :ini| 
lo he :il)h' to tell tortnncs, and as sho deelarrd that the <pir(>n'\\as 
jjuiltlo.ss, the kini: was satislied. The .pieen'a brother took nnolher 
nn-thod; ho nnphnod a ohainpion t«) (ieht the arenser. and :is his 
n'presentative irot thc^ hett»>r in tho hatlle, no donhts remain.'d of the 
•pieen's innorenor. 

;>. The wieked hiirhor was soon after deteete.l in .sonii* arts of irr.i 
son atjainsl tho kin^\ and was hnn^ on a hioh ^ih»»et w hirh had hitely 
hivn erfvt«'d at Pans. Qne.ii Mary was a jrreat patron of the poets, 
hnt tlu'V were of a dillerent ehai.ieter fr(»ni the tronl>a«lonrs. 

It>. I'ho tasto for their lively and ^r;,y soni:s had i,'one hy, and a 
very pravo ap.d porions stylo was imw the fashion. A j)oeni, oalhd 
the " Ro/nnnrr of On I\os/\" heenn hy one poet in the rei^n of St. 
lionis and }inis!u\i hy anolhor who lived thirty years afterwards, was 
lh.> eroat t:ivoril<\ li is the hist<.ry of :ui imaoniarv dream, and wii.s 
oxtondod to twenty thon.sand vers(\s a i,Meat nierit"^in ih.ise days. 



I..1 'K Jhrm ? S. How wa.s the inn... , , i thn quoon a.<c.Tlaiuo.l ? U An.a ul <U 

III* Mure of this pcri\n • ".« ui .i» 



y^- 
.^i^ 




14 



1 
'if 



lift MMKJMKNI r>F fiOli 



CMAI'IKfl [JIF 



101 



/>/«/t '-•// f/ir .hill ^111' itl 'tf (iofl. Onlfffls find Juiinnl Com- 
hfifs Sffnif nf the Iht^ of Mtnitnr^is. 



^V'^'^'ri',, 



"^1 







Mf/iy/ir' (I /III tfi< fliKj II f V''"'' -' / . 

I. Ik any of you li;i\c rhnrieed to h*' in romt v\ lien a f»orson wan 
»o he tried for any oriirie, voii may have, hfiard the answfT hfi makoa 
to the question (»f the elr-rk, "• Ifovv will yon he trif<l '"" Thr; aocnsod 
j)erson replies, •■ hy («od and my eonntry." Now this answer has a 
dilforont mranintj from its oriLnnal ono. 

'J. It is a relie of the fe.nflal timos. If any porson had a quarrel, 
no matter w hat was the suhjoot, w'hf;ther money, the title to lands, or 
any pors(Mial «tlIeno«', or if one {jerson aer-nsod another of any erirne. 
hoth parties went before the suporior lord of whom thoy hehl their 
laruls, and were eaoh of thorn sworn to toll thoir storios truly. 

.'{. If thosf; stories did not arrroe, the lord difl not un<lertake to deter- 
mine the rjnestion himself, but roforred the dorision to ^^Thp Judir. 
limit iif dod,"' us it w.'ifl called. There w(;re two modes of doinj? 
this — (Mther by ordrnl., or by the dv/l. In either case, the party who 
o:imo off sate was declared to have orained the cause. 

\. Thf-re wore various kinds of ordeal : the parties were made to 
ualk thronob fire, to carry hot iron, to walk over hot iron, to be 
tiirown into the water as witohes are at the present day, amonsi some 
niiedncat«'d poo{)Io, even in civilized countries; or they were made to 
swallow a pioee of broad or a little water, which had previously been 
•Mnsooratod by the priest, and by which the nruilty party, it was sup- 
uised. would be choked. 

Hnt if the party accused should demand a trial by the duel 



5. 



IJIl -1. 2. WtMi of lawsuits in feudal times? 3. How delermineii in case par 



108 



TIIK IKhi OF MONPAKCJIS. 



TH«: SICILIAN VKSPKKS .2S2. 



then h.! drew down hi« ^Unc, uiid tho acousor vv:..s obJijred to take it 
up, and ihis was an am^ptanc^i of the ohallrij^ro. 'Vhv \xuUrv f,xeci a 
•lay lor th.; tw«. parties to appear, an.l dtridu by streiicrti. or'^skill the 
inalter iii disjuitc!. 

0. At III,' appointed lime and plac.', u|ii,-|, was usually at sunrise, 
and in tin; courlyard of the castle, th.- people far and near assend)led 
to witness the li-ht ; and even la.lies took plr;usure in these brutal 
entertamnin.is. Jf nlher party fa.ird to appear, lie w;is held infa- 
mous, anil ilu! eause (l»cid.>d ajrairisi inni. 

7. The tw.) eoMd)ata.its approaebcd the plaee on horseback, in full 
cetensive arnmr, and with their otliuMve arms borne before then. 
I hey came <m. softly an.! sh.wly, bavin- raeh of them in his hand the 
iiiKi^'e otlUu saint on wh.uu he relied for assistance, and to whom he 
addressed ins prayers. 

H. The plan; enclosed for the combat was called the /is/s, and the 
parties were introduced by two kni-bis, on.' selrcted by each parly 
to see that t,he rules were not violat.-d. Ka.-h combatant took bis 
station at a different en<l of the lists, and at the sound .)f a trumpet 
tliey rushed to^n-ther, each party tryin^r to push his adversary from 
us horse with the point of his lance ; and the succt^ssful party Irain.«d 
tiie suit. * -^ *^ 

9 But S(mietimes they wenr obli^r^d to ,lo m<,re than this, ami to 
cc.nt.nue the battle on foot, and with their swords ; and if the parties 
were e<pially matched, the contest would continue throufrh the whole 
( ay ; m such cas<>s tlu; cause was considered as decided in favor of 
the delendant. 

10. Kv(M. points of abstract law wi^e referred to this decisic.n In 
the reipi ol Otho III., the doctors of law bein^r „nable to a.m'e about 
a -eneralqiiestu.n of inheritance, the emperor submitted the decisis,!, 

o the ,u,lj:men ot God, and selected two stout fellows to maintain 
tin. lillenM.t sides ot the ar-Tumeut. The victory fell to one of the 

i^ngly "" "" "' '*"'**' ^*' *''i«^'=^y' ^^:'s madeaccord- 

11. A sinrrular trial by eo-nbat took place in the reign of Charles 
II' f "u" "'"V^^' '^'''^ ^vas murdered in the forest of Hondi, not 

ar from laris, by J\ acaire, his mortal enemy, win, concealed the 
body under a tree, and returned to Paris, thinking that there had been 
no witnesses of the iUnni. 

12. In that he was mistaken ; for, besides the watchful Kye which 
witnesseth every deed, Aubri's faithful dog had observed the w Imle 
transaction, and laid himself ,lown on his master's grave, never leav! 
mg It except to go in search of food. For this purpose, he usually 
repaired to Pans, to the house <.f his late masler'L most intimate 

-.nlo'Jlr ^a""'''^' s"n>rised at tbe singular appearance and disappear- 

arri ul at the tree, under which Aubri had been buried, the do., 
scratched away the earth, and disclosed his master's murdered l>od/ 



109 



14. From this time, the dog would never (piit thr; friend. It waa 
^fl)serve<| that whemner he saw Macaire, he always growled at him, 
.'lew at him, and showed every sign of ang«'r, insomuch that Macaire 
was suspected to be the murderer. To decide his guilt or innocence 
lie was s<'iilenced to a trial by combat w ith the dog. . ' 

15 The dog had his natural weapons of claws and teeth ; besides 
A iich he had the a.lvanlage of a tub to retire to when he was weary 
I Ih! man was only allowed to hav(. a .stick and a shield. The com- 
bat took place at Pans, in the pr(!.s..nce of an immense concourse of 
peoj.],. It lasted so long that Macaire fainted, through fatigue, and 
wheti he came to himself, c(.nfes? d the crime 



CHAPTER LIV. 

T/it Sicilian Vespers. — Death of PhUip the Bold. 

1. In th(; C(»urse of our story we have avoided telling about scenw 
ol bloodshed and horror ; but there is one transaction of this chara^ 
ter, which, Irom the figure it makes in history, and from its being 
fre«iueiitly referred to, w(; must notice. 

'2. You will recollect that the Sicilians were determined to have 
rev(!nge for the cruelties practised by (Jharles when he conquered that 
kingdom. Amongst tin; sufferers was John of Procida, who had 
been depriv.d of a little itiland in the gulf of Naples, of which he 
was lord. 

3. This man <levoted his whole lime and thoughts to obtaining 
rev(>nge. JSometimes in the disguise of a physician, and someiimes 
of a friar, he trav<dled from place to place, and at length succeeded 
in engaging .several monarchs, and all the people of Sicily, in one of 
the most horrible ploti> ever conceived by man. 

4. This was no less than to massacre all the French in Sicily, and 
so to extirpate them from that island. The plot was two years in 
agiUilion, and yet, so well was the secret kept, not a Frenchman had 
any suspicion of the impending danger. 

5. It was at first propo.sed to strike the blow when Charles was 
upon the island ; but they feared that his vigilance and activity might 
disconcert their plans, and detennined to take advantage of his 
al)sence. At length everything was ready, and the ttdlinrr of the bell 
for evening prayers, called vesi>ers, on Easter-day, 1282, was to be 
the signal to the assassins. 

At that hour, as the French in ignorant security were sitting &\ 
v^ipper, the Sicilians rushed upon them, and in the short space of 
two liours, but one Frenchman was left upon the island. The life 
of this one was spared on account of his extraordinary virtue. This 
massacre is called the '' Sici/ian Vespers.'' 



ii.«Snti«io'™s^atiifi,'. i;•iL^?i'^l5;'?^^^•ls 'r»L 



r .'[ T \ ^l^^^ of John of Procida ? .3. To whtt did ho Jevoie his time ? 4 5 WhM 
of the plot he formed 1 6 Why is it called the Sicilian Vesucra 7 " Who awistiyl ^ 

10 



II I 



ir 



J 10 



PHILJP IV. -1289. 



7. The Sicilians had been assisted by Peter, Kinff of Araffon Tliifc 
^ve offence to the Pope, who offered the kingdom of Ar^on to the 
King of I ranee Either Philip did not possess a nice senTe of ricrht 
and wrong or else he had great faith in the right and authorityV 

Q T ; ""^ ^^ i^'^f'^y accepted the gift in behalf of his son Charles. 

H. l^hilip marched with an army to take possession of it ; but Peter 
who had no thoughts of giving up his kingdom at the pleasure of Up 
Pope, prepared to defend himself. The French fleet, with all the 
stores lor the army, was destroyed by the greatest admiral of the day 
Andrew IJoria. -^ 

i|. Pliilip, disheartened by the lo.ss, determined to abandon the 
undertaking. He set out for home, but died upon tht'. way, having 
reigned hfteen years, and being in the forty-first year of his age. Ho 
left four sons and threii daughters, one of whom, named Margaret, 
married Edward 1. of England. ^ 



CHAPTER LV. 

P^Ap the Fair. — Sumptuary Laws. — Curious Fashions of 

Dress. 




Philip the Fair, 1285 to i314. 

1. The happy days of France were now for some time at an end. 
I he new King Philip, though beautiful in his person, and hence sur- 

named the Fair, was anything but agreeable in the qualities of his 
heart. He was not deficient in abilities, but all the powers of his 
mmd were directed to the gratification of his own selfish desires 

2. He loved money, and scrupled at the commission of no act 
however cruel or unjust, to obtain it. The possessions of the French 
crown were now very much increased. He had himself married Jane, 
heiress of Navarre ; and upon the death of the Count of Toulouse with' 
out heirs, his territories came to the king. 



^ilians? Wha was the consequence? 9. How long did Philip reign ? What was his 
LV -I. What of Philip the Fair 7 2. What did he «taiP by hie marriage ? 3 Whitt 



PHI1.IP IV. — 1285. 



11] 



3 The early part c»f Philip's reign was occupied in making ivhat 
we called suniptuary laws ; that is, laws regulating the cost and style 
of dress and living of his subjects. There were but two meals taken 
in the day : the dinner, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, and the sup- 
per, which was the principal meal, at five o'clock in the afternoon. 

4. The king ordered that no person should have more than one 
dish of meat at dinner. At supper, two dishes of meat, and also a 
jish of soup, were allowed. On fast days, when there was but one 
meal, two dishes of herrings and two of meat were permitted. The 
law was soon evaded, by placing several kinds of meat on one dish. 
A new law was made to prevent this, and at the same time it was 
declared that cheese should not be considered meat, unless made into 
a pie ! 

5. The usual dress of this period was a long tunic, with a robe or 
a cloak, and sometimes both, over it. The cloak of a noble waa 
made of scarlet or violet cloth, and his cap was of velvet, laced with 
gold. The cap of the plain citizen was of cloth. 

6. Over the cap a kind of hood was worn, with a cushion at top, 
and a tail hanging down behind. This part of the head-dress was 
called a chaperon, and was worn by both sexes. The cliaperons of 
nobles were larger than those of others, and were trimmed with fur ; 
those of citizens were plain, and shaped like a sugar-loaf. 

7. The number of dresses and the cost of the material were regu- 
lated by law, and varied with the rank of the wearer. The wealth 
of many citizens enabled them to vie in splendor with the nobles. 
To restrain them, it was enacted that no citizen's wife should keep 
a carriage, or be lighted in the streets at night with waxen torches ; 
that she should not wear ermine, or other rich furs, or gold, or pre- 
cious stones. 

8. A man's rank might also be known from the length of his shoes. 
A prince might wear them two and a half feet in length ; those of a 
baion were two feet; while a simple knight was reduced to eighteen 
inches, and a plain citizen to twelve. Hence the French proverb, 
" Eire sur un grand pied dans le tnonde^'^ the literal translation of 
which is, " To be upon a great foot in the world." 

9. The clergy long exclaimed in vain against this absurd fashion 
and the wearing such shoes was very near being declared heresy. To 
please them, a succeeding king, Charles V., forbade the custom, and 
imposed a fine upon all who followed it. This regulation had the 
desired effect. 

10. But what was taken from the length was added to the breadth ; 
and shoes twelve inches wide at once made their appearance. The 
shoes of each fashion were frequently adorned with horns, claws, or 
some grotesque figure ; the more ridiculous it was, the greater the 
beauty. 

11. The female dress at this time was very graceful. It consisted 



I 



laws did he make? 4. What laws as to eating? 6. What of dress? 7. 



citizens ? 8. What of the shoes ? 
female dieaa i 



10. What kind s^cxee'letl lone shoes ? 



What of Um 
11. What A* 



J 10 



PHILIP IV. -law. 



7. 1 ne Sicilians had been assisted by Peter, Kunr of Aragon Tlii^ 
gave offence to the Pope, who offered the kingdom of Aragon to the 
King of f ranee Kitlier Philip did not possess a nice sense of riaht 
and wrong or else he had great faith in the right and authority'of 

Q x^ul ^"^ r''i''''y 'Accepted the gift in behalf of his son Charles. 

H. 1 hilip inarched with an army to take possession of it ; but Peter 
who had no thoughts of giving up his kingdom at the pleasure of tl"^ 
P(»pe, prepared to defend himself. The French tleet, with all the 
slorj-s tor the army, was destroyed by the greatest admiral of the day 
Andrew Doria. 

!|. Philip, di^shrartened by the loss, determined to abandon the 
"nd..rtaki,,g. He set out for home, but died upon the way, having 
reigne<l tittcen years, and being in the forty-first year of his arre He 
left h.ur sons and three daughters, one of whom, named Margaret, 
married hdward 1. of Kn<Mand. ^ 



CHAPTER LV. 

P/i^Jp the Fair. — Siimptuanj Laws, — Curious Fashimis oj 

Dress. 




Philip (fie Fair, 1285 to i3l4. 

I. The happy days of France were now for some time at an end. 

I he new King Philip, thouirh beautiful in his person, and hence sur- 

named the Fair, was anything but agreeable in the qualities of his 

heart. He was not deficient in abilities, but all fhe powers of hi» 

mind vvere directed to the gratification of his own selfish desires 

L. He loved money, and scrupled at the commission of no act 
however cruel or unjust, to obtain it. The possessions of the French 
crown were now very much increased. He had himself married Jane, 
heiress ot Navarre ; and upon the death of the Count of Toulouse with< 
«'Ut heirs, his territories came to the king. 



^.lians? Wha was the consequence? a How long did Philip reipn ? What wash!. 
LV -I. Whal of Philip the Fair 7 2. What did he *raiP by his marriage ? 3 What 



PHtl^rP IV. — 1285. 



in 



3 The early part of Philip's reign was occupied in niaking ivhat 
ire called sumptuary laws ; that is, laws regulating the cost and style 
of dress and living of his subjects. There were but two meals takeu 
in the day : the dinner, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, and the sup- 
per, which was the principal meal, at five o'clock in the afternoon. 

1. The king ordered tliat no person should have more than one 
'lish of meat at dinner. At supper, two dishes of meat, and also a 
lish of soup, were allowed. On fast days, when there was but one 
meal, two dishes of herrings and two of meat were permitted. The 
law was soon evaded, by plaeing several kinds of meat on one dish. 
A new law was made "to prevent this, and at the same time it was 
declared that cheese should not be considered meat, unless made into 
a pie ! 

5. The usual dress of this period was a long tunic, with a robe or 
a cloak, and sometimes both, over it. The cloak of a noble was 
made of scarlet or violet cloth, and his cap was of velvet, laced with 
gold. The cap of the plain citizen was of cloth. 

G. Over the cap a kind of hood was worn, with a cushion at top, 
and a tail hanging down behind. This part of the head-dress waa 
called a chaperon, and was worn by both sexes. The chaperons of 
nobles were larger than those of others, and were trimmed with fur ; 
those of citizens were plain, and shaped like a sugar-loaf. 

7. The number of dresses and the cost of the material were regu- 
lated bylaw, and varied wiih the rank of the wearer. The wealth 
of many citizens enabled them to vie in splendor with the nobles. 
To restrain them, it wns enacted that no citiziMi's wife should ket^p 
a carriage, or be lighted in ihe streets at night with waxen torches ; 
that she sluuild not wear ermine, or other rich furs, or gold, or j)re- 
cious stones. 

8. A man's rank iniLrhtalso be knt)wu from the length of his shoes. 
.V prince might w ear them two and a half feet in length ; those of a 
baion were two feet; while a simple knight was reduced to eighteen 
inches, and a plain citizen to twelve. Hence the French proverb, 
" Eire siir un graiul pied dam k mondej'' the literal translation ot 
which is, " To be upon a great foot in the world." 

9. The clergy long exclaimed in vain against this absurd fashion 
and the wearing such shoes was very near being declared heresy. To 
plea.se them, a succeeding king, Charles V., forbade the custom, and 
imposed a fine upon all who followed it. This regulation had the 
desired effect. 

10. liut what was taken from the length was added to the breadth ; 
and shoes twelve inches wide at once made their appearance. The 
shoes of each fashion were frequently adorned with horns, claws, or 
some grotesque figure ; the more ridiculous it was, the greater the 
beauty. 

11. The female dress at this time was very graceful. It consisted 



laws did he make? 4. Whal laws as lo eating? 5. Whal of dress? 7. What of th« 
citizens ? 8. Whal of the shties ? lU. Whal kind 8«jccee<'etl lone slmea ? II. What o« 
female iieaa 7 



112 



PHILIP I v. — 1299. 



3f a liglit boddit 3, made very high, and fitting the si ape, over which 
was an open robe trimmed with gold or fur. The breadth and rich- 
ness of this trimming were strictly regulated by the law, and depended 
on the rank of the wearer. 



CHAPTER LVl. 



Perfidious Cmiduct of Philip the Fair. — War with the Flem- 



ings. 



The French suffer a great Defeat. 



1. The attention of the king was soon called to more serious mat- 
ters. A Norman and an English vessel met off the coast, and each, 
having occasion for water, sent a boat to the land. The crews camo 
at the same time, and to the same spring. A quarrel ensued as to 
who should first fill their casks, in the course of which a Norman was 
killed. 

2. This scuffle between two sailors soon kindled a bloody war, and 
the greater part of Europe became involved in the quarrel. By a 
mean artifice, Philip got possession of six towns in Guienne, belong- 
ing to the King of England. To get possession of Flanders, he made 
use not only of treachery but of great cruelty. 

3. The Earl of Flanders was a brave old' knight, who had accom- 
panied JSt. Louis to the Holy Land. Thinkintr to strengthen himself 
against Philip, he offered his daughter Philippa in marriage to Ed- 
ward, eldest son of the King of England. 

4. Philip was resolved to prevent this marriage, and he took eflect- 
ual means to do so. He invited the old earl to make him a friendly 
/isit at Paris, with his wife and daughter. The moment they arrived, 
ne shut them up in prison. After keeping them in confinement about 
a year, he released the earl and his wife, but he detained Philippa 
until her death. 

5. Such conduct made him many enemies, and at one time almost 
all Europe was combined against him. By bribery and artifice he 
contrived to dissolve the league. To secure the good will of Ed- 
ward, he gave him his sister Margaret in marriage, and bestowed the 
hand of his daughter Isabella upon the Prince of Wales, the eldest 
son of Edward. 

6. He was now able to turn the whole force of the kingdom against 
Flanders. He summoned all his vassals, and that no one might be 
hindered from coming, he forbade all private wars, all tournaments, 
iiid all trials by combat, until the king's wars were done. 

7. The old earl, finding himself hard pressed, determined to go to 
Paris and plead his cause in person. Charles of Valois, who com- 
manded the king's troops, promised in the king's name that he should 



.w^^ITt!" What caused a war ? 4. What of the treatment of the Earl of Flamlersi 5 
Uow did Phihp gain the friendship of Edward ? 7 What new instance of hia treacherr 
& Wnat of hia success against Flanders 7 



PHILIP IV. -1307. 



113 



DJtuni i.i safety. No sooner had he reached Paris, than Philij hrew 
him into prison, saying that he was not bound by the prom.se of 
Charles. The latter, offended at this breach of faith, left the service, 
and retired to Italy. 

8. The imprisonment of the earl did not secure the submission of 
nis subjects. The king sent against them a well-disciplined army of 
50,000 men, under a skilful general. The Flemings, more merchants 
than soldiers, were little better than raw militia. 

0. Their want of skill was their best security ; for the French, de- 
spising these shop-keepers, as they called them, did not take the 
necessary precautions to secure victory. In consequence, they suf- 
tVred a defeat, with such terrible loss, that the Flemings, after the 
battle, collected on the field four thousand golden spurs, of the kind 
worn only by knights. 

10. Philip now went against them in person, and they in their turn 
were defeated. The Flemings, by no means daunted, shut up their 
shops, and assembling in a vast multitude, marched boldly up to the 
French army. 

11. The king, amazed at the sight of so numerous an army col- 
lected in so short a time, could not help exclaiming, " Shall we never 
have done? I verily believe it rains Flemings!" His astonishment 
was increased when their heralds appeared, offering instant battle or 
an honorable peace. Philip was wise enough to choose the latter. 



CHAPTER LVH. 

Destruction of the Knights Templars. 

L I HAVE alreac'v V)ld you about the origin of the Knights Tem- 
l»iars ; and T must now give you some account of the disastrous fate of 
the order. Its heroic devotion to the defence of the pious pilgrims, 
and the piety and valor of the knights, had excited the admiration and 
gratitude of the Christian world, and ample possessions in all parts of 
Europe was the reward. 

2. Their great riches had in some degree relaxed the severity of 
their virtue. Most of them preferred the ease and luxury of Europe 
to fruitless struggles in the East. It was easier to gain renown in 
the tournament, than in fighting the infidels in the sultry deserts of 
Asia. 

3. Though a neglect of their duties afforded a pretence for theii 
destruction, yet the true cause is to be found in the cruel and vindic 
live spirit of Philip, who had taken offence at some emi.ient Tern 
plars, and in his cupidity, which longed to possess the grtat wealtl 
which the destruction of the order might secure. 

4. It was necessary to obtain the consent of the Pope. For thi 
purpose Philip had several interviews with him, held, fox greate 



I.VII —1 2. What oflhe Knights Templars? 3. What led to their destniciion? 4, f 
10* 



w 



\u 



PHILIP 



» V. — 1314 



tion known to the order ^' ^^ ""^^^ ^^^ ^^^"^a- 

0. Ill ohellience to a secret order everv ']\.,n^u^ :„ t? 
arrested upon the same dnv Thn L-f 7 i'niplar in France was 
Dronertv '^''"'V> '''"»« ''''y- J"(^ l^'ng took iiossession of all their 

reYiX'X!rsiu;n"'rth":;;rs^ '"-'"-''""'^ ">" "^^ ^''-'<' -« » 

whi^lf r" ""^ "'" ''"!?'"«' overcome by the severity of the tortures to 
which they were subjected, confess,;d their guilt f but wrha?dl» 
e exception retracted the confession, and fuffer'ed the most'' { 

TiTI k .' ''"' *''■■'""' "'^"''e'' of the order, was in Cvnm, 

fhough cautioned not to trust himself in the power^f PhUin h« 
hastened to maintain the honor of the order ^' 

St^.:j':L„t re-r;^-i;red'irr^^ ^ '^^ '-' "^ -- -- 

ceivedhrr'that't'wasTnnoce'ntM"' "" '^^'^^ "'■"-'""- ^ad de- 

to in'st.m execulTon^'fi-v "'"" ''"''■"""'' ""™S'=''' =""' "^ered de Molai 
the pile" h?s ^.iH fh ,"3 ?,"■; " "'',"' "^" '''^ o"-" g"d<^n »=ill as 

.n f The f:;: ^^r^r;-.:'.;:? :," 't^^^^^^ittr; 

.ttt«ri^7iei"J»iYnfei'li;^ '"^°- 4ont^';:erS; 



8. What measures did Philinadonf? 7 w^o. ..r.i j 




rOURNAftlENTS. \\Q 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

About Tournaments 

1. 1 HAVE already told you that one of the employments and awiLso 
nients of the young nobles was carrying on mimic battles in the ras- 
tle yard. Those who had already reached the dignity of knighthood 
amused themselves, and acquired fresh skill, by similar exercises. 

2. Sonuimies the inmates of one castle would challenge those oi 
another to a trial of skill. The challenge was frequently extended 
still further : the knights of one country would challenge those of 
another to a friendly encounter. Sometimes a bold knight would pub- 
lish a challenge to the whole world, offering to break a lance with 
any and all who should appear at the appointed time and place. 

3. These trials at arms were called tourna/ntnts. By degrees they 
eame to be attended with more and more pomp and ceremony, till at 
last they became almost affairs of state. The laws which were made 
tor the government of the combatants would fill whole volumes. 

4. As they professed to be friendly encounters, and as the great 
point of skill was to push an adversary from his horse with the point 
of the long lance while the parties rushed furiously together, the prin- 
cipal laws were, that the combatants should not use sharp weapons 
nor be tied to their horses. * 

5. The proclamation of a tournament was made in the most pom- 
pous language, a long time before it was to take place, through every 
province, and at every court. The announcement produced the great- 
est excitement. As the time approached, the country far and near 
Jhe appointed place was in motion. 

6. The enclosed space in which the contest was to take place was 
•.ailed the lists. It was surrounded with stagings, built in the shape 
)f towers, decorated with all i)ossible magnificence of rich carpetings 
md banners. In these were placed the kings, queens, princes, ladies 
ind damsels, and, lastly, those ancient knights who had been selected, 
Dn account of their long experience in the management of arms, to be 
judges upon the occasion. 

7. Now the chief object of the knight, in these contests, was to 
maintain the superior excellence of his lady, and to prove his own prow- 
^ss. Some means must be adopted, therefore, to distinguish one from 
another. He could not be known by his face, for this, as well as the 
rest of the body, was covered with steel. Each one, therefore, selected 
some particular object, and caused it to be painted on his shield, when 
It was called a device, or bore it upon his helmet, in which case it 
was called a crest. 

8. Sometimes the knight would wear, over his armor, a coat made 
of cloth of gold, with the same device embroidered on it in brilliant 
colors ; and hence the term coat of arms. Lions, tigers, eagles, and 
other animals of superior courage and ferocity, were great favorites. 






LVIII —1,2,3. What were lournameiUs ? 4. What were the chief tws ^ For what 
leasa.sf 6 What of the lists? What of the compa>jy ? 7. Wh»i >f the knighu) 



IJ6 



PHII.II' lY.-LOUES X. -lail 



Some, hovve\cr, took less fierce and ambitious emblems. That ol 
the King of Franco is called a lily, though in truth a pike-head. 

9. While the lists were preparinrr, the shields of those who wer« 
to contend in them, or ejitcr the /ists, as it was called, were displayed 
on the walls of some neighboring monastery. A herald named to the 
ladies the owner of each. If among the candidates any one was found 
who had given a lady just cause of complaint, she touched his shield 
to point him out to the judges ; that is, to demand justice of him. 

10. The necessary inquiries were at once made, and if the crime 
was proved, the knight was excluded from the tournament. If, in 
spite of the sentence, the knight presented himself, a shower of Ijliws 
from all the knights present, and perhaps from the ladies themselves, 
punished him lor his temerity, and tauglit him to respect the ladies 
and the laws of chivalry. ' 

11. The most beautiful lady was selected to be the queen, and all 
entered with the greatest vivacity into the success of the combatants. 
A favorite knight was encouraged by a favor, as it was termed. Thia 
was a scarf, a veil, a sleeve, a bracelet, or some article of dress or 
ornament, with which the knight ornamented the point of his lance, 
or the summit of his helmet, or some part of his arms. 

12. These precious facors often passed into the power of an en- 
emy ; m such case, the lady sent others to her knight, to console him 
for Ins loss, and to encourage him. During a long and anxious con- 
test, the poor ladies would appear at last almost stripped of their 
finery. ^^ 



CHAPTER LIX. 

Pride of the French Nobles. — The States-Gefieral.-^Curimi 

Charge of Magic. 




Louis X., 1314 to 1316. 

1. Held in abhorrence by all good Catholics f»/r his quarrels with 
the I'ope, and odious to all good people foi his treatment of the Tern, 



What i8 a device ? What a crest 7 S. What of coals of arms ? 9. What preceded th. 
Uir •ment ? 1 1 . What of the ladies ? 12. What of fav- ra -■ preceded lh« 



LOUIS X. 814 



nn 



plars, Philip made himself obnoxious to his people bv lis oppressive 
taxes. It had always been his policy to depress the nobles, and 
therefore they hated him. 

2. He allowed citizens to purchase fiefs, and further mortified the 
old nobihty by raising his goldsmith, Ralph, to that dignity. This 
ihey considered as an infringement on their privileges. The French 
nobles w'ere the proudest people in Europe, and, on account of their 
descent from the old Franks, looked upon themselves as a superior 
race of beings. The king might make Ra.ph a count, but he could 
not make him a Frank. 

3. Philip took a more effectual mode of raisir.g the citizens. He 
admitted them to the general assembly, which had hitherto been con- 
fined to the nobles and prelates. In 1302 he called together the 
States- General, as they were termed, composed of the clergy, the 
nobles, and the deputies of the people. Meetings of the states-general 
were frequently held until 1614, when they were discontinued until 
1 789. 

4. In 1314, as the king was hunting, his horse fell, and he was so 
much hurt that he died. He was in the forty-sixth year of his age 
and twenty-ninth of his reign. On his death-bed, he was touched 
with a late repentance, and taking pity on his poor oppressed subjects 
he besought his son Louis to moderate the taxes, to maintain justice, 
and to coin no base money. 

5 He left three sons and two daughters. The sons succeeded one 
another on the throne in quick succession, and each dying without 
male heirs, the crown passed to a son of Charles of Valois. The 
oldest son of Philip was Louis, surnamed Hutin, which means Per- 
vish; but why he was so called is not known. 

6. Louis was twenty-six years old when he began to reign. Ha 
left the government to his- uncle Charles of Valois, whose first act 
was to effect the ruin of de Marigny, the minister of the late king 
The superior abilities and integrity of de Marigny had made him 
obnoxious to the other nobles. 

7. He was accused of theft, and Charles caused him to be executed 
without a trial. The wife of de Marigny was accused of a queer 
crime, that of trying to kill the king by magic. The charge was, 
that she had made a waxen image of the king, which she exposed t« 
1 gentle heat, so that it would gradually melt. 

8. It was said that as the wax melted the king would waste away, 
and as the last atom melted the king would expire. Upon thi^ charcre 
she was committed to prison. But Charles bitterly repented of Ins 
injustice to de Marigny. Remorse is said to have occasioned his 
death. As the physicians could find no particular disease, it was 
imputed to magic, the common mode of accounting for everything 
that could not be readily understood. 

9. Louis founl the treasury empty, and in order to fill it, he 
issued a proclamation offering freedom to all his serfs upon the pay- 



LIX.- 1. What of Phil i 
4 When did Philip die 



p? 2. What of I he nobles? 3. What of the states-general J 
Hr-v old wa.« he ? 5. What of his sons ? What was the rir 



» 



< i 



Ii6 



I'M 1 1. II' IV. -LOUIS X. -1:514 



Some, h<ivve\er, took k-ss fierce and ambitious emblems. That o( 
the Kinjr of France is called a lily, tlioij<rh m truth a pike-head. 

9. While the lists were |)repariti<r, i|,e shields of those who wern 
to contend in them, or niter the /ists, as it was called, were displayed 
Dn the walls ot some nei<rhborinir moniisterv. A herald named to the 
iadus the owner ot each. If amontr the candidates any one was found 
who had friven a lady just cause of complaint, she touched his shield 
to point him out to the judjres ; that is, to demand justice of him. 

10. Ihe necessary inquiries were at once made, and if the crime 
was proved, the knirrht was excluded from the tournament. If in 
spite ot the sentence, the knirrht prrs.nted him.self, a shower of blows 
hom all the knijrlus present, and perhaps from the ladies themselves, 
punished him for his temerity, and tauyht him to respect the ladies 
and the laws of chivalry. 

11. The most beautiful lady was selected to be the queen, and all 
entered with th.; ^rrratest vivacity into the success of the C(.mhatants. 
A favorite kni<>^ht was encouraged by a favor, as it was termed. This 
was a scarf, a veil, a sleeve, a bracelet, or some article of dress or 
ornament, with which the knijrht ornamented the point of his lance, 
or the summit of his helmet, or .some part of his arms. 

\2. These precious />//•«/•>• oftrn passed into the power of an en- 
emy ; in such case, the lady smt others to her kni«:ht, to console him 
fcr his loss, and to encouraire him. Durin^r a long and anxious con- 
test, the poor ladies would appear at last almost stripped of their 
hnery. * * 



CHAPTER LIX. 

Pride of the French Nohlrs.— The States-General-^ Curious 

Charge of Magic. 




Louis A'., 1314 to 1316. 



I. Hkld ill abhorrence by all crood Catholics f(;r his quarrels with 
the Pope, and odious to all good people foi his treatment of the Teni, 

What is a device ? What a crest ? S. What of coats of arms ? 9. What preceded thi. 
ViP •meat? 11. What oflhe ladies? 12. What of fav rs " ** nai preceded th» 



LOUIS X. 



914 



m 



plars, Philip made himself obnoxious to his people bv i.is oppressive 
taxes. It had always Ix^en his policy to depress the nobles, and 
therefore they hated him. 

•2. He allowed citizens to purciiase fiefs, and further mortified the 
old nobility by raising his goldsmitli, Ralph, to that dignity. This 
they considered as an infringement on their privileges. ^The French 
nobles were the i)roudost people in Europe, and, on account of their 
descent from the old Franks, looked upon themselves as a superior 
race of beings. The king might make Ra.pli a count, but he could 
not make him a r rank. 

3. Philip took a more ellectual mode of raising the citizens. He 
admitted them to the general assembly, which had hitherto been con- 
fined to the nobles and prelates. In 1302 he called together the 
Staus-Gnural, as they were termed, composed of the clergy, the 
nobles, and the deputies of the people. Meetings of the states-<Teneral 
were frequently held until 1014, when they w-ere discontinued until 

4. In 1314, as the king was hunting, his horse fell, and he was so 
much hurt that he died. He Wiis in the forty-sixth year of his age, 
and twenty-ninth of his reign. On his death-bed, he was touched 
with a late repentance, and taking pity on his poor oppressed subjects 
he besought his son Louis to modenite the taxes, to maintain justice, 
and to coin no base money. 

5. He left three sons and two daughters. The sons succeeded ono 
anotlu^r on the tiirone in quick succession, and each dyiufr without 
male heirs, the crown passed to a son of Charles of Valois. The 
oldest son of Philip was Louis, surnamed Ilutia, which means Per 
vish; but why he was so called is not known. 

G. Louis was twenty-six years old when he began to reign. Ha 
left the government to his- uncle Charles of Valois, whose first act 
was to effect the rum of de Marigny, tluj minister of the late kintr 
The superior abilities and integrity of de Marigny had made him 
obnoxious to the other nobles. 

7. He was accused of theft, and Charles caused him to be executed 
without a trial. The wife of de Marigny was accused of a queer 
crime, that of trying to kill the king by magic. Tlie charge was, 
that she had made a waxen image of the' king, which she exi)osed tu 
1 gentle heat, so that it would gradually melt. 

8. It was said that as the wax melted the king would waste away, 
and as the last atom melt.Ml the king would exjjire. Upon thi:^ char<re 
she was committed to prison. But Charles bitterly repented of his 
injustice to de Mariiiny. Remorse is said to have occasioned his 
death. As the physicians could find no particular disease, it w;is 
imputed to magic, th(^ common mode of accounting for everything 
that could not be rearlily understood. 

9. Louis founl llie treasury empty, and in order to fill it, he 
issued a proclamation offering freedom to all his serfs upon the pay- 



LIX.- 1 
4 When d'd Philip die 



What of Philip ? 2. What oflhe nohlM ? 3. What of the stales general J 
H^ -v (.id vvH.« he ? .'5. What of his sons ? What was the mu 



\ V 



118 



PHILIP V. -1316 



ment of d certain sum of money by each. But the greater part pre- 
ferred their money to their freedom. Money must be had, however 
80 the king hit on the sinirular expedient of forcing them to be iree., 
whether they would or not. 



CHAPTER LX. 



Death of Louis X. — The Salic Law co7iJirmed. — About tht 
Jews. — Charles the Fair. — Th^ Floral Games. 

1. Louis Hutin, after a rei^n of nineteen months, died suddenly, 
from the effects of drinking cold water when he was hot. He left 
only one daughter, named Jane. You will remember that, by the 
Salic law, females could not succed lO the throne of France. There 
had been no occasion to apply this law for scvei-al centuries. 

2. Some of the nobles seemed disposed to dispute its validity, and 
to assert the right of Jane to the throne. But the parliament con- 
firmed the Salic law, and took the oath of allegiance to Philip Sei 
uncle. Jane succeeded, however, to the throne of Navarre, in whicn 
kingdom the Salic law did not prevail. 




Philip v., V.\\uto 1321. 

3. Philip reigned six years, and his reign is ..nly remarkable for 
an attempt which was made to p(,ison all tb.> wells and springs in 
h ranee, 1 his, whether justly or not I cannot tell, was charged upon 
the Jews who were always made the scape-goats, and under every 
reign had been subjected to tin; most cruel persecutions. 

4. Cutoff from intercourse with the rest of mankind, hated and 
despised alike by Christian and by Mahometan, an excuse -as never 
wanting to torment them. The pious believed they were dointr God'« 
fecrvice by destroying those who had crucified his Son, and the cruel 
and avaricious were glad to make use of the same pretext to wring 
from them the riches which they devoted themselves to amassing. 

name of the eldest ? C W ho governed ? What of de IMarienv 1 7. 8. What of hiT^e I 
What of mag,c ? 9 What expe.lient did Um\s adopt to fill the trea^nrv ? 
I^ - I, 2. What of the Salic law? Who siiccpc<Jed 1 ouU X. ? '3. How loi.^ dkf 



CHARLES IV. -PHILIP VL-1328. 



119 



J • I J -P ' ^"'"^""e<^ ^^^ Long, removed his residence from the 
old island in the Seine to the Louvre. He died in 1322. As he left 
only daughters, he was succeeded by his brother, Charles TV., sur- 
oamed the Fair. 




Charles the Fair, 1321 to 132w . 

6. His reign affords nothing worth mentioning, except it be the 
establishment of the Floral games, at Toulouse. In 1323, seven 
lovers of poetry issued a general invitation to all the poets of Pro- 
vence, the successors of the old troubadours, to meet at Toulouse on 
the^ following May-day, there to recite their poems. 

7. A violet of gold was to be the reward of the one whose poem 
should be adjudged the best. The entertainment was found to be sc 
pleasant, that the citizens of Toulouse determined that it should be 
repeated annually at the public expense. A society was formed for 
Its proper regulation ; a president and secretary were chosen, and the 
seven institutors were made directors. 

8. Two more prizes were added : an eglantine as the second, and 
a pansy as the third. The festival continued three days, on each of 
which poems were recited. On the third day, the city gave a mag- 
nificent entertainment, and the prizes were awarded. The violet was 
given for the best poem, the eglantine for the best eclogue, and the 
pansy for the best ode. 




Philip VI.. 1328 lu 1350. 



9. If any one person took all three prizes, he was dubbed a doctor 
of the gay science, ;is p oetry was called. In 1540, a lady of fortune 

Philip the lx.ng rcien ? What event occurred ? 4. Wh t of the Jews 7 5. Where did 
fhillprcdide? When ilid le die ? Who aiicreeded him P 7 8. 9. DcBcribe the Floral 



m 
I 



118 



i'UUAP V —1316 



ment of a. certain sum of money by eacli. But the greater pan pre- 
ferred their money to tiieir freedom. Money must be had, however 
BO the kin;^ hit on the siiii^ular expedient of forcing them to be iree, 
whether they would or not. 



CHAPTER LX. 



Death of Loiiis X. — The Salic Law confirmed. — Abovt tht 
Jews. — Charles the Fair. — Thr Floral Games. 

1. liOUls HuTiN, after a rejtrn of nineteen months, died suddenly, 
from the effects of drinkin^r cold water when he was hot. He left 
only one daufrhter, named .June. You will rememb(>r that, by the 
Salic law, females could not succed lO the throne of France, 'riiero 
had been no occasion to :ipply this law for several cunturies. 

2. Some of the nobles seemed disposed to dispute its validity, and 
to assert the riirht of Jane to the throne. Hut the parliamen't con- 
firmed the Salic law, and Xuuk the oath of alle«riance to Philip '\ei 
uncle. Jane succetMled, however, to the tlirone of Navarre, ir. whicn 
kingdom the Salic law did not prevail. 




rmiip r., i;-iit) w v.vix. 

3. Philip reigned six years, and his reiirn is ,.,dv remarkable for 
an attempt which was made to pcuson all the wells and springs in 
b ranee, I his, wh.'ther justly or not I cannot tell, was charged 'upon 
the Jews who W.T.; always nuide the seape-^cats, and under every 
reign had been sul)jeete(l to tlie most cruel perseeutious. 

4. Cut otr from intereourse with the rest of mankind, hated and 
despised alike by Christian and bv .Mahometan, an e.vcuse ^ as never 
wantmiT t,. tornuMit them. The pious believed they wer.' dointr God'« 
fccrvice by destrovin<r those who had crucified his' Son. and the cruel 
aiid avaricious were irlad to make use of the same pretext to wrino 
from them the riches which they devoted themselves to amassing. " 

name of the eldest ? R Who -ovenied ? What of de IMari-nv ? 7. S. What^f hi^^Jl 
What "f '"a^.c ? 9. What exF«,Iieut did Louis adopt ,o till iho treasury" 
lO. - 1, Z. What of the KUic law? Who siiccpeded 1 miU X. ? 3 How lor.g dkf 



ly? 



CHARLES IV. -PHILIP VI.- 1329. 



119 



i. P*»ijip ^ •, surnamed the Long, removed his residence from the 
old island in the Seine to the Louvre. He died in 1322. As he leli 
only daughters, he was succeeded by his brother, Charles IV.. sur- 
named thf' Fair. 




Charles the Fair, 1321 /o 133k. 

6. His reign affords nothing worth mentioning, excej)t it be the 
establishment of the Floral games, at Toulouse. In 1323, seven 
lovers of poetry issued a general invitation to all the poets of Pro- 
vence, the successors of the old troubadours, to meet at Toulouse on 
thc^ following May-day, there to recite their poems. 

7. A violet of gold was to be the reward of the one whose poem 
Bhould be adjudged the best. The entertainment was found to be sc 
pleasant, that the citizens of Toulouse determined that it .should be 
repeated annually at the public exi)ense. A society was formed for 
its proper regulation ; a president and secretary were chosen, and the 
seven institutors were made directors. 

8. Two more prizes were added : an eglantine as the second, and 
a pansy as the third. The festival continued three days, on each of 
which poems were recited. On the third liay, t!ie city gave a mag- 
nifieent entertainment, and the prizes were awanled. The violet waa 
given for the best poem, the eglantine for the best eclogue, and tha 
pansy for the best ode. 




Philip VI.. 132b lo J3oO. 



0. If any one person took all three prizes, he was dabbed a doctor 
of^the gay science, as poetry was called. In 1540, a lady of fortune 

Philip the Lr.i.e roi-n ? What event occurred ? 4. VVh t of the Jew^ ? 5. Where did 
» hilip rcdi.le ? Whfti liid ho die ? Who siicreeded him f^ ~ «'.>. Dewcri tie the Floral 



120 



PHILIP Vl.-13!«. 



left her whole estate to secure the maintenance of the custom, ztnd 
added a pink to the number of the prizes. The institution continvied 
to exist to the time of the great revolution, in 1789. 

10. Charles the Fair died in 1328, leaving no male heirs, and the 
crown passed from the direct line of Hugh Capet to Philip, sori of 
Charles of Valois ; and hence this is called the Valois branch of hi* 
family. 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Phutp VI. of Valois. — Edward does Homage for Quien'^ie, 
Bravery of the Countess de Montfort. 




Costumex of the age. 

1. Philip of Valois was crowned at Rheims, in the thirty-filUi 
year of his age. He was surnamed the Fortunate^ from the circum 
stance of his obtaining the crown : there seems to have been little eh^e 
in his life to merit the appellati(m. 

2. He was violent, rash, selfish, and suspicious ; his only merit 
appears to have been personal courage. His title to the throne waa 

games. 10. When did Charles die ? Who succeeded to the throne ? What is the new 
family called ? 
LaI. - I What was the surname of Philip? Why? 2. His character? Who disputed 



PHILIP VL-I328. 



121 



u..mted by Edward HI King of England, who claimed it for him- 
• F?^^'/ V' '""^'^«^'/^ho was a daughter of Philip the Fa r 
S.i \ u- ' "^'T ^^f^^^^Jy ^'i»»»o"t any foundation f for byle 
;^alic law h,s n.other had no right to the throne hersdf, a.id of 
course could transuut none to her son. If the Salic law we e sot 
aside, then Jane of Navarre, and her descendants, were the ri^u?;i! 

4. Edward was not (luite ready to prosecute his claim by force of 
arms, so he concealed his designs, and even went so lar^s to do 

i^ ranee. 1 he ceremony was performed witli jrreat splendor and vn 
may be sure that Philip „.ade it as disagreeable i'p'Set^^^ 

5. He was himself .seated on a splendid throne, clothed in a rich 
robe ot violet-colored velvet, covered with golden 1 lies • on his head 
was a crown sparkling with jewels, and in his hand he held a ~ 
The kings of Bohemia, Navarre, and Majorca, and all the . reai 
princes and nobles of his kingd<,m, stood around him "^ 

b_ Edward was led in by one of Philip's officers, and, havin.. taken 
off his spurs and h,s sword, was made to kneel beforeKingP ilip 
Fhe officer then said to him, " Sir, as Duke of Guienne vouHt^k.u w 
edge yourself to be the vassal of my lord the king ; and you roZ; 
to bear true faith and allegiance to him." ^ promise 

7. Edward was not prei)ared to make such a promise ; so after 
some discussion, it wa^ omitted, and the ceremony ended !,y tlie King 
of trance giving a kiss to his powerful vassal. Edward soon threw 
otr all disguise; he assumed the title of King of France, and di.l 

Tr IS oV'tllT^l """'""' '° ^ ^'"^'"' lord, assumed th^ coat of 
arms of tlie r rench king. 

8. The^ kings of England continued to use the title and arms of 
kings of Prance urn, the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, thouTthev 
had not possessed a toot of territory there for centliries Wh s he 
wa^ bus threatened from without, Philip took no pains to makp 
friends within his kintrdom. ^ 

y. He lost the confidence of his nobles by an act of bad faith He 
invited some Breton nobles to a tournament at Paris, and then per! 
fidiously caused them to be se,zc>d and beheaded without trial or sen- 
tence. Among these Breton nobles was John of Montfort 

10. His wife, who, as the old chronicler Froissart savs, - was as 

-ood as a man," clothing herself in armor, and mounting a war! 

horse, took up(,n herself the din.ction of his affairs. I [er success wis 

not equal to her e.ideav<,r.s^ She was driven from place to Z^^^^^ 

he troops of the King of France, until only the little castle of He.T- 
nebon remained to her. 

11. King Edward had promised to assist her, but the succors 
were lon^ in coming. Her followers began to murmur but she 

S n^ '^'"h r '""T '''-' '''''^''- 'rwo of these we e 
..Iready past, and the French troops were now advancing, to be 



i^^l ^^^-pr-r-ry-;^£-.«^^^^^^ -; 



120 



PHILIP VI — 13VW. 



PHILIP VI. -1328. 



121 



left her whole estate to secure the maintenance of the custom, stnd 
added a pink to the nnniber of the prizes. The institution continued 
to exist to the time of the great revolution, in 1789. 

10. Charlt'8 tht; Fair died in 1328, Icavintr no male heirs, and the 
cTown pas.sed from the direct line of Hufjh C'apet to Pliilij), sori of 
(yharles of V^ilois ; and hence this is called the Valois branch of hi* 
family. 



I 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Phutp VI. of Valois. — Edward does Homage for Ctiiientie. 
Bravery of the Countess de Montfort. 




I- 



Costitmts of the dii^". 

1. Pmilip of Valois was crowned at Rhoims, in the thirty-fifth 
year of iiis \vh\ He was surnami'd (Iw Forfuitafr, from the eircum 
stance of his ohtaininir the crown : there seems to have been little eh'.e 
in his life to merit the appellation. 

2. He was violent, rash, selfish, and suspicious; his only merit 
appears to have been personal courage. His title to the throne was 

e^ine^. 10. When dill Charles (lie? Who succeeded to llie tt\r«>iie ? Wlial ii* the new 
f-»rnily called 1 

LXI. - I What was the surname of Ptiilip ? Why ? 2. His charartor ? \V ho disputed 



d.uited by Edward HI King of England, who claimed it for him- 
selr in nght ol his m<.thor, who was a daughter of Philip the Fa r 
.>. lalward s chnm was clearly without any foundation for by the 
.^al.c law Ins mu,l..;r had no ri,.ht to the' throne hersHf and of 
cmrse could traiKsnm none to h.T son. If the Salic huv we e set 
asHle, theti Jane ot Navarre, and her descendants, were the Vi^t^J 

4. Edward was not (piiu- ready to prosecute his claim by force of 
arms, so he conec.aled his designs, a\id even went s fa7as to do 

i- ranee. Ihe ceremony was perlormed with .nrat splendor anrl vn,, 
may be sure that Philip made it as disagreeable ::;!pS:t^H" 

5. He was himself .seated on a splendid throne, clothed in a rich 
robe of violet-c<dored velvet, covered with ...Id.-n 1 lies on his I'ea 

Ihe kings ol Hohemia, N.varre, and Majorca, and all tl„. . rea 
I.nnces an.l nobles of his kingdom, st..o<l aroimd him '^ 

(.Edward was l.Hl in by one of Philip's offin^rs, and, bavins v.kcu 
oft his^spursand Ins sword, was made to kneel befon- Kin. Ph,li 
I he officer then said to bun, - Sir, as Doke of (iuienne vou^-Jk . 
U^^^re yourself to be the vassal of my lord the king; and v , romise 
to bear true faith and allegiance to him." - promise 

7. Edward was not prepared to make such a promise • so after 
some <liscuss,on, it was omitted, and the ceremony ind.ul by the'Ku 
<» 1 ranee .,y,n. a kiss to his powerful vjissal. >:dward so<,n thr u 

wla w^^"""/) ''V""^' '''' '\''' ''' ^^'"^ <*^" ^'— ^ '-' ^^ 

™i rT *';l'"'^V; '""'''""' ^" ^ ^"'"''^^' lord, a..sun.ed th.' eo-.t of 
arms of the r rench kiiiff. 

8. The kinosof England continued to use the title and arms of 
k,ur.so trance unt, the time of Napoleon Honaparte, thouuh they 
I'.id not {.....sesse.l a oot of terr.K.ry there for centuries Whilst he 
was bus threatened fron. without, Philip took no pains to n ak'p 
friends withm his kin<:<l<.m. ' 

. y. He lost the c.nlidence of his nobles by an act „f had linti, He 
invited some 1 reton nob es to a tournament at Paris, and then per- 
fidiously caused them to be s(mz..I and Im bc-aded without trial or Im- 
tenc^e. Among these Hreton lu.bles was Jcbn of JM<M,tfort 

10. Hiswife, who, as the old chronicler Frois.sart snvs " was a^ 
irood as a man," clothing herself in armor, an.r mountin'.. Twa! 
borse, took upon herself the direction of his afl'airs. Her success was 
not equal to her endeavors^^ She was dnven fVom placerp™ 
the troops of the Kini: of Franee, until only the little castle of Hei7 
nebon remained to her. ' ^^^" 

11. King Edward had promised to nssist her, but the succors 
were one, ,n coining. H.r followers be:,an to murmu , but e 
>e-ed them to boM <.„t three days lor.ger. Two of ese we e 

Uready past, an d^ the French troops were non^ advaru-ing, to be 



122 



I'HII.II' VI.- |:Mb 



ready to take possession of the place th' ^noment the time had 
expired. 

12. The countess, ahnost in despair, was sittinjj at her window, 
lookinj^ towards the sea. What was lier jny to discover the horizou 
.covered by the masts t)f a large fleet, steerintr towards Heimebon ! 
She rushed into the streets, shouiinff joytully, " The red cross, the 
red cross! the succors of En<;hiiid are at hand !" 

13. The I'^nfTJish, who had been detained for forty d;iys by contiary 
winds, now landed, and the brave countess w:«s saved. Tiie g^allanl 
Sir Walter Manny, who commanded the Eni^lish forces, thouphl 
himself amply rewarded for all his toils by a kiss from this brave and 
valiant lady. 



CHAPTER LXII. 



Battlr. of Crcssij. — Cannon. — The Galelle, 




Cannon of early txmes. 

1. KowArti) led a powerful army into France, lie was accompa 
nied by his son Edward, called the Black Prince, from his dark armoi 
and his black plume of feathers. On the twenty-third of Aug^ust, 
1316, was foufjht the famous battle of Ocssy. The English were 
victorious, and were indebted for t'leir success to the ilisseiisions of 
the French nmonorst themselves ; and a nerrligence, which might seern 
trifling, contributed in no small degree to the result. 

2. On the morning of the battle there was a violent shower of 
rain, and the French archers were so much taken up with their 
•juarrels nmong theinselves, that they forgot to put th«^ir bows into 
the cases. Tlu^ consequence was, that the strings were all spoiled, 

was tlie title iriven lip? 9. How did Philip lose the confidence of the nobles? 10, 11 
12, i;i. Relate the story of the Countess de iMontfort. 

LXTl. — 1. Who led the English anny ? When was the battle of Cressy fought? 2 
What oentrihuted to the defeat of lh»* French ' 3 What waa the amount, of the Fwncb 



. 



PHILIP vi.-iwe. 



im 



and the arrows fell short of the mark whilst those of the English, 
who had used the proper precaution, r lade terrible havoc. 

3. Philip fought bravely, but was a. length obliged to flee. Of all 
his gallant army, but sixty persons remained in attendance on the 
king. There were left dead upon the field of battle two kings, eleven 
high princes, eighty great nobles, twelve hundred kniirhts, and more 
than thirty thousand private soldiers. 

4. Amongst the dead was the old blind King of Bohemia, who was 
led into tiie battle by guides. His standard was taken and carried to 
the Black Prince ; on it was his rest, three ostrich feathers, with 
the motto, in German, " Ich iJicn'' -^^ I serve,'' which the prince 
adopted ; and it has been borne ever since by the successive princes 
ol Wales, in memorial of this victory. 

5. The English employed six pieces of cannon in this battle, and 
It is the hrst time we hear of their being used. To maintain the war 
Phihp was obliged to impose heavy taxes. But one was so much 
more oppressive than any other, being upon a necessary of life, ihat 
the b rench word Gabclle, which means /ajr, is applied in France to 
this tax alone. 

6. The gabelle was long continued, but at last was changed into a 
monopoly ; that is, all the salt made in France was brought to the 
king's warehouse, and there sold to the people at such price as the 
king might choose to fix. In all the latter reigns, the privilege of 
selling salt, and all the taxes of the kingdom, were farmed out, as it 
IS called. 

7. Private individuals, who from this circumstance were called 
Jar/ncrs-genrral, paid a fixed price for the privilege of receiving all 
the money collected on account of the tax which they bought They 
generally made pretty good bargains for themselves, and became rich. 
1 hey were of course obnoxious to the people, who looked upon their 
wealth as stolen from themselves. 

8. Kings sometimes find time to make bad puns, as well as their 
subjects. The word 5a/ is the Latin for salt ; when Kimr Edward 
heard of this new and oppressive tax, he said that Philip was fond ol 
inventing Salic laws. 



kjM ? i. Whence the rre.sl of the Prince ..f Wales ? 
ifualfJ 7 What were farmers L'enerar/ 



, 6. W luit is sa;.J o» laxt* ? W fv# 




\22 



I'HII.II' \l. 



|■ll^ 



ready to trike jxissessioii ol" the pliice i1k ^^oment the time hati 
expire*!. 

12. 'I'ho countess, a!in(»si in despair, was sittin*? at her window, 
lonkinjr towards the sea. Wliai was her j<»y to disrover tlie horizon 
.-overrii hy the masts of a larj^M^ tleel, steering' towards llenni*h«/i) ! 
She rushed into the streets, shouiiuLT joyfully, *• 'i'he red cross, the 
red ••ro.i.s ! tlie succors «>t' I'ai^land are :it hand !" 

l.'J. The ]'!no-lish, wlio had heen detained for forty d;iys !»y cnnliiiry 
winds, now hinded, and the hrave counte.s.s w:is ^aved. Tlie trallanl 
Sir Walter Miiiuiv, who connuanded the Enjxlish forces, tiiou^ht 
himself anipiv n^warded for all his toils hy a kiss from this brave and 
faliant ladv. 



CIIAI^TEK LXIl. 

Baltic of ( 'r(ss)i. - - Va/nntn. — The Gabelle, 




Con lion oj early Umes 

1. I'j)U'Ar:i> led a powerful .'irmv into t' ranee, lie was accompa 
nied hv his son JMlward. called the Black I'rince, from his dark annoi 
and his hlack plume of featluTs. On the twenty-third of Aujinst, 
1*U(), was fouLrht the famous haltle (»f ('rc.ssy. TIm" Kn^lish were 
victorious, nnd were indehted for t'leir succ(>ss to t!ie dissensions of 
the French innonirst themselves ; and n neulifieiice, which miLrht seem 
tritliuij, contributed in no small de^"ret^ to tlie result. 

•J. On tlu' morninjj of the battle there was a violent shower of 
rain, ;iiid the French archers were so much taken up with their 
quarrels :iniourr themselves, that they forgot to put th'Mr bows into 
the cases. The consequence was, that the strings were all spoiled, 



wa.^ lliii lit !i' •ji\ I'll lip? 9. How (lit] Piiilip losr the ronfiflei.rt^ of the nohles ? 



10. 11 



III lip losr till 
r2. 13. Rel.itc the story of the Counte-s dc i\T..!iif..rt. 

l.XFI. — 1. W ho lotl the Kiii.'li>h ariny ? Wln-n was the hattle of Oessy foiiirhl? 2 
What wntribiitril to the oeftat of Hv Fieorh ' '^ What wan the amount nf the Fivncb 



PHiup VI - me. 



IS?:? 



and the arrows fell short of the mark whilst those of the English, 
who had used the proper precautitm, i lade terrible havoc. 

3. Philip touirbt bravely, but was a. leng^th obli<red to flee. Of all 
his ffallant army, but t^ixty persons remained in attendance on the 
kino-. There were left dead upon the field of battle two kinjrs, ehnen 
hiirh princes, ei^^lity great nobles, twelve hundreil kiULrhts, and more 
than thirty thousand private soldiei-s. 

T Amoi.nst the dead was the old blind Kino (,f Uoheniia, who was 
led into the battle by guides. Hi.- standard was taken and carried to 
th<' Black Prince ; on it was his rest, three ostrich feathers, with 
the motto, m (ierman, " /r/i J),rn" —'' \ serve," which the prhice 
adopted ; and it has heen borne ever since by the successive princess 
ot Wales, in memorial of this victory. 

5. The Euirlish employed si.\ pieces of cannon in this battle, and 
It is the lirst time we hear of their beinrr used. To maintain the war, 
I hilip was obhired to impose heavy taxes. But one was so much 
more oppressive than any other, bemn upon a necessary of life ihai 
the I rench word Uahdle, which means tax, is applied in France to 
this tax alone. 

0. 'i'lhi gahlle was long continued, but at last was chan«Ted into a 
mon«.j)oly; that is, all the salt made in France was brought to the 
kmir s warehouse, and there sold to the people at such price as the 
king might choose to fix. In all the latter reigns, the privilege of 
sellinjr salt, and all the taxes of the kingdom, were farmed out as it 
IK called. ' 

7. Private individuals, who from this circumstance were called 
Jnn/urs-iranrra/, paid a fixed j)ri(;e for the jirivilegc; of receivincr all 
the money collected on account of the tax which they bought, 'fhey 
generally made pretty g(M)d bargains for tiiemselves, and became rich 
Ihey were ot course obnoxious to the people, who looked upon their 
wealth as stolen from themselves. 

8. Kings sometimes find time to make bad puns, as well as their 
subjects. The word .sa/ is the Latin i'or salt ; when King Edward 
heard of this new and oppressive tax, he said that Philiu wL fond ol 
mvenling Salir laws. 



tr!!V/ i^'':;';r'''"'''T^ "'""'"'•'•*'"■•' "'^\'>'l^-*? ■'',«■ Whali.ss,i:.Jo«lax<*? \Vr>4 
»l «jl. ' . W hat were fanner-: ■/.•ii.'ral .' 




124 



PHII.IF VI. - 1M7 



CHAPTER LXIII 



Siege of Calais. — fleroic Conduct of six of the Citizem 




Queen Phihji/m pleadtmr htjnre Ktug Edward. 

1. After the baltlo of C'ressy, Edward laid sieijc lo Calais; ftit 
that city, he thought, would he a very valuable acquisition to Enj^land 
It has been called " the pale to France ;" and ^;o lonj? as the English 
kept this crate, an army mifjht at any time be marched into France. 

'2. For a whole year the brave j[Toverner refused to surrender; stili 
cherishini? hope of receivinnr assistance from his king. Philip came 
with a jrreat army to his relief. He found the fortifications, with 
which the English had surrounded Calais, too strong to be attacked 
with any hope of taking them. 

3. lie sent a challenge to Edward to give him battle in the open 
field ; but that monarch was too prudent to risk a certainty upon the 
jncertain event of a battle. Philip was obliged to leave the city to 
Is fate. 

4. The wretched inhabitants now gave themselves up for lost. 
They were reduced to the last extremity ; their provisions had long 
been gone ; and not i cat, dog, horse, nor any species of vermin ihnt 
was eatnble, remained in the town. Tje "governor was thereforr 
comp*^!lcii : ^ nftJ3r to surrender. 

5. Edward, instead of applaudino the citizens for a gallantry 
which he would have rewarded in his own subjects, was highly 

^y^- —}■ ^h-it tlid Rlvvarl d.) after the luttl,; of Cr.^ssv? "2. .S. What did Philip do 
:<) relieve Calais' 4. What were t'lc people r.oin|)ell«>il lodo? r,. Wha*. were the feel 



I 



PHILIP VI.-iaiT. 



125 



incensed at what he called their obstinacy. At first he wonM n,.. 
promise them even their lives. But his own officers obiected to th? 

o'itL^s " """'"'""' ''^"' "«^'' ''"""'> '' 'h'^ assembled 

I !:.i^l'- "•''* '"!""'' •■""' f<"'f"sion ; no one knew h-v to ■^M A . 

anu e^en the Frince , f Wales, interceded in vain for their lives 

a great victory « hie 'LI, ,1 l^M J="?'f'', bringing ti.e news of 

king-s tent, sL re v .e^l'^ the^fre^ t^f'T^' ^'"'"'"^ "'« 

■ot to violale the laws of reli.io, ad oH .? J." """?■, ^"^^'"^ '""« 

lt». The king hJ,,L7 -r' o<^l'"""'- by so inhnman an act. 

madun,, I cou d «ell 'w ' von hill T"*' ''!" "^ ''^"P"' ^''^' " ^h, 
cmnot deny any boon cl^y ou ' 'k rf " f'^'-i^'r It'' ^''^ ' ^''' ^ 
dispose <,f them as von w II " Ti^ ■ , }"'"' ""=*<= """"' "nd 

.'■ith clothes,^ iwi^h moncv f„ ? "" ''"■"" '"'''"§ l"^™ P™-i<ied 
safety. "^ ''" ''""' expenses, were dismissed id 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

^-Zfeff f"f"" ^''Iff Prance is called the Dauphin 
Battle of 1 metiers. -Moderation of the Black Prince 

KrlncfrnrEn".;^^d."'p:";a7ch^h:':iH 

^nsideredas the greMest , r"„s',,f th,, 11 'if'i''" ''"''*' «''° i" 

time. " The country - he t"I^,^ - 1^ ' ?'"''' ^'""""' """"'t 'hie 
with fire and sword. ' The' fill's ""^y :!^ rilJuCt'ed """'"'^ 

were^verywher^ ^^^, 1X.'Z^.^Zn-^: 



'n?9 of Ed wan I ? 
eitizen.s? Wha 



w>;.lA^e!Kli;-/^'^-K;-^;^.ce,^^^ 



M 



124 



I'lni.iF VI. - i.w 



CHAPTER LXIII 



Siege of Calais. — Heroic Conduvl of six of tht Citizens 




Qurcn Plii!ti>i}(i iiUdthii'j; hi fint Kni'^ Edward. 

I. Aftkk tlu' battle of Crcssy, Kdwanl laid sioiro to Calais; ftii 
ihatoity, lu' thoufTht, wonlii hv a vrry valual)le aniiiisitioii to EiiL^Hand 
It has been called " tli»' ^--aw to France ;" and so loii<r as tho English 
kept this irate, an army nnf?lit at any time be marebed into France. 

•J. For a whole y<'ar the brave mnerner refused to surrender; still 
fherishinir hope of reeeivintr assistance from his Vuvj;. IMiilip came 
vvitli a irreat^ army t(» his relief. He fonnd the fortiticalions, with 
which the l']nolish had surrounded (iilais, too strong to be attacked 
witii any hope of takintj them. 

3. IFe .sent a challentre to Edward to (five him battle in the open 
field ; but that monarch was too j)rudent to risk a certainty upon the 
jncertain (-vent of a battle. Philip was oblifriMl to leave the city to 
ts fate, 

4. The wretched inhabitants now jjave themselves u[) for lost. 
They were reduced to the last extremity ; their provisions had long 
been ?(>ne ; and not i cat, doa, horse, nor anv species of vermin that 
was eatable, remained in the town. T je qr^vernor was therefon 
compt^'li'i, . ' oIIIt to surrender. 

5. EdwartI, instead of applaudino the citizens for a jrallantry 
which he would have rewarded in his own subjects, was hifrhly 

LXlII- — I ^Vliil iliil Kdw.ml (!,» after iho luiil," of ("r.^s-!v ? >. :\. What did Philip d« 
« relieve Cnlai.s ' J. What wvro t'<p jvopU- mmpellrd indo ? r,. Wh.r. vvere the feel 



I 



I 



miLIP VI. -1^7. 



125 



mcensed at what he called their obMimcv At fir* i li 

prcnise .l.e,„ evon ,hcir lives. ' BrKn ot/r ^,1 '':c,:,r o .hU 

7. All Hxsliiiimll ,111,1 ,-„„fn..i|on ; no one knew h -v to iPt A. 
H. i hey were led before Edward in the nrescribcd A«»,; » . 

; ;■:; ;;'r;::;;"s ,si; "v:-, "•»-;; ■!="«" -A 

in 'V\ I I r<^'i^n(.n and ol honor by so iidiunian -in ■^n^ 

-nnot ;,,.„. ';;!w I , ';;„ ';;! :;™„f "V';- ;)'- -i^-y ; yet i 

'y-n«<>^' ..r iKiii ;,s voii u I •• ' ri . I"'"' ""'**'-' ""^"> ""d 

Kifrtv. '"^ '"' ""^■"' ■•-'^Penss, were dismissed iD 



CHAPTKK LXIV. 

Why theddc^t Son of Ike Kh,^ of France h called the Dauvhin 
-battle o) PotCter..- Moderation of the Black Print 

«.nsi,lere.l .-.s ,1,7. «, '^.ci, ,:,,'' ''ir"''''™'':'' ''i'l'"" P«-«. who is 
<i."n. " The e,n,u r • ,<M I , ' .' '' ""'"' ".'^'"■'' ^ ''^""■'^ ='''""1 1^8 
« .tl, fire a„d s«„r, . ^ ■ri . , . h 'v «'!','"''' "''^V" ''<'"■ -l<'SoIated 

wcr^^ver^.;.^^ 



ri6 



JOHN THfc <JOUn. -.f356 



ti 



the streets we» overgrown with weeds, and the people seeroeW aaJ 
and downcast.' 




John the Good, 1350 to 1361. 

3. Philip died in 1350, in the fifty-seventh year of his ajGrc, and 
twenty-third of his rcijrjn. He left two sods and a daughter. Before- 
his death, Dauphiiiy had been achied to the territories of the crown. 
The last prince, having lost his only child, gave it to France, on con 
:lition that the eldest son of the king should always hear the title of 
Dmiph/n. 

4. Hereafter, when mention is made of f/ie dnuphin^ you will 
understand that the eldest son of the King of France! is intended, just 
as the eldest son of the King or Queen of Fngland is called the Prince 
'jf Wales. 

5. John, the eldest son of the late king, was forty years old when 
he ascended the throne. From his courage in war, which has always 
been a favorite quality with the French, he had acquired the surname 
of " the Good.'''' His rergn was one of the most disastrous in French 
history 

6. Peace could not long endure between two nations that hated 
one another so bitterly as did the French and English. Edward, the 
Black Prince, advanced with a small force into France. The troops 
of the King of France, many times more numerous, surrounded his 
little army. 

7. The king was earnestly entreated to wait quietly, until the 
prince, cut oil* from all su[»plies, should be compelled by famine to 
surrender. But John wished to have the credit of defeating the 
Black Prince in battle. The English camp was very strongly forti* 
fied, and could only be approached upon one side, and by a very nar 
row road. 

8. On the lOth September, IS.^G, the king led his army to the 
attack. A panic seized his troops, who fled, leaving the king and 
his favorite son Philip prisoners in the hands of the English. They 
were conducted to the tent of the prince, who received them with the 
greatest courtesy and respect. 

Whence Ihe title dauphin J 5. Who succeedeil Philip) 6,7,8. What of the oatt.e 



t 



JOHN THE GOOD. law. 



127 



9. Durinp supper he waited upon the king as :«' he had been his 
vwn father, and seeing him sa»l and heavy, he sought to cheer him 
by consoling words. The captives were carried to London, where 
they were received by the king and queen, and entertained for four 
years, more like guests than prisoners. 

10. They entered London in grand procession. King John appeared 
in royal robes, mount.d upi)n a beautiful wliite charger, while the 
Prince of Wales rode by his side upon a little black horse, of very 
ordinary appearance. In modern times ibis might be considered as 
ap allectation of humility. But we must not judge of the feelings of 
a rude h^g from those of a civilized one. 

11. In Edward's time, it was no uncommon display of the victor 
to show coiKiucred princes to the peojjle, loaded with irons ; the very 
opposite conduct of the conqueror of Poicticrs wiis considered as a 
mark of moderation and humility, and wius received as such by the 
vajjquished, and all who witnessed it. 



CHAPTER LXV. 

bisiirrection of the Peasants, callvd the Jacquerie. — Great Feat 

of three Knights. 

1. FuANCK was now plunirfd into the greatest misery. The 
nobles, havifijr no one to restrain them, endeavored to reduce their 
tenants again to the condition of serfs. Tlie acts of eru«^l(y and vio- 
lence of which they were guilty, almost exceed belief They burnt 
the houses of the peasants, and drove them like wild beasts to seek a 
shelter in caves and forests. 

2. But even a worm when trod upon will turn again. Some of 
these iHMsants were talking over their grievances, when one of them 
had the courage to say that they had a right to defend themselves. 
JNo sooner was the word s{)oken, than the spirit of revenge took pos- 
session of the whole company. 

3. Seizing scythes, pitchlbrks, and whatever else they could lay 
their hands upon, they rushed to the nearest nobleman's house, and 
murdered all the inmates. With hourly increasing numbers, they 
proceeded onward, destroying wherever they came. The panic of 
the nobles was extreme ; no one knew how soon his own tenants 
might turn against him. 

L Private quarrels now ceased. French and English forgot the 
jlilTerence of country in the fear of the common enemy, who were 
called the Jaa/uerie, because they wore short jackets, a costume con- 
fined entirely to the laboring classes. 



Wlmi!'!If/.nl^^''T'^f '^^'^"=''^- ^- "«^vwas John treated while a prisoner? II 
What IS said of this treatment ? 

M V - 1 . What is said of the state of France ? 2. What of tho peasants 7 4. Wh». 



I 



r26 



JOHN THE uooii n:>r. 



the streets wop overgrown with weeds, and the people seemed aaj 
and downcast.' 




John the Good, 1 :>.')() t(t \'M)\. 



3. Philip died in 1350, in tli«' fifty-seventh yvAx of iiis a£jr, and 
Iwenty-lliird of his nMirn. He left two sons and adanjrhler. Before 
his death, DaiJphiny had heen added to the territories of the crown. 
V\w, last prin«*e, havinij;^ lost his only child, ijave it to France, on con 
lition that the eld(!st son of the kiiijx shonM always hear the title of 
Duuphin. 

1. Hereafter, when mention i.s made of llir (/aiip/tin, you will 
•iiiderstand that the! eldest son of the Kinsj of Franc*^ is intended, just 
ns the eldest son of the Kinjr or (^uceii of Fnj^Mand is called the Prince 
Mf Wales. 

C). .lohn, the eldest son ol' the late kin<T. was tortv years old when 
he ascendLMJ the throne. From iiiscouraire in war, which has always 
heen a favorite (luality with the French, he had acquired the surname 
<»f " the Good.'''' His reign was one of the most disastrous in French 
history 

6. P(\'ice could not lonu <Mulure Ix^tween two nations that hated 
one another so hitterly as did the FrtMich and I'aiLrlish. Kilward, the 
Black Prin<M% advanced with a small force, into France. The troops 
of the Kinij^ of France, many times mon; numerous, surrounded his 
little army. 

7. The kinir was earnestly entreated to wait quietly, until the 
prince, cut olf from all su|)plies, should he com|)elled hv famine to 
surrender. Hut .lohn wished to have the credit »)f defeatintr the 
Black Prince in hattle. The I'aiijlish canq) was very strongly forti« 
fied, and could only he apj)roached upon one side, and hy a very nar 
row road. 

S. On the 19th Septend»er, 1350, the kinjr led his army to the 
attack. A panics seized his troops, who lied, leaving the kinjj and 
his favorite son Philip prisoners in the hands of the Kntjlish. They 
were conducted to the tent of the prince, who received them with the 
greatest courtesy and respect. 



WKcnce jIik lilU- i!iuif>hin / .'.. Wlio «iiLtftMlnl Pliilip) 6,7,8. Wluil cf the wiU.e 



JOFIN THE GOOn i:r.r, 



*)' 



12 



9. Durinn supjter he waited upon the kinsj as :<* he had been his 
ywn father, and seeiiiir him sad and heavy, he soutrht to ciieer him 
by consoliniT words. The captives were carried to London, where 
they were received by the kin^r and queen, and e'ltertuined for four 
years, more like iriiests than prisoners. 

10. They j'liti'rcd London in <i rand proc(^ssion. Kinjr John appeared 
in royal robes, mounted upon a beautiful white charger, while the 
IViiiceof Wales r<>de by bis side upon a little black horse, of very 
ordinary appearance. In modern times tlii.s might be considered as 
ai" allectation of humility. But we must not judge of the feelings of 
a rude :f»:e from tlio.se ola civilizt'd one. 

11. lii F<lward's time, it was no uncommon di.splay of the victor 
to show riMujuered princes to the people, loaded with irons ; the very 
opjK.siK' .'onduct (tf the eompieror tif Poiciicrs was considered as a 
mark n| moderation and buiiiility, and wa.s received as such by the 
^aiKjui.sbed. and all who witnessed jj. 



(TLAPTKR LXV 



Imurrectionofthe Pcasauls.raUvd thr Jarquerir. — Great Feat 

of (hn'4 Knights. 

\. Vu.ysw. was now plunged into the <Tre;ii,>si niiserv. The 
nolnes, b.ivmo no one t<( restrain them, emleavoied to reduce their 
tenants airain lo the eojidiiion of serfs. The acts of erueltv and vio- 
lence of whieh they were guilty, almost ex<-eed belief. 'Phey burnt 
tin- bou.ses of the pcasant.s, and drove them like wild beasis to" seek a 
sbeltcr in eaves and forests. 

'J. But «'ven a worm when trod ujK)n will turn again. 8omo of 
these [.easaiits were talkirej over their grievances, wh.Mi one of them 
Imd the courage to .say thai they had a right to defend themselves 
^o sooner was the word spoken, than the spirit of revenge to(»k pos- 
session (»f the wlnde company. 

3. .Seizing .scythes, pitebiorks, and whatever else they coidd lay 
their hands upon, they rushed to the nearest nobleman's "house, and 
murdered all the inmates. With hourlv increasinir numbers, 'they 
proceeded onward, d«\stroying wh(;rever 'thev came. 'Piie paimr of 
the nobles was extreme ; no one knew bow soon his own tenants 
might turn against him. 

1. Private cpiarrels now ceased. French and English foro-ot the 
ditl.'rence of C(,untry in the fear of the common (Micmy, who were 
called the Jaaiurriv. because they wore short jackt:ts, a costume ojn- 
fined entirely to the laboring classes. 



; 



Wll'.'.''^^'^'?/ riy •''''.' '''^' '^ ^T"^'^- ^- "'"^ ^^'-^^ •^"^"' Ire^t'-^'J while a prisoner? 11 
Wliru IS saiil of iliis irealment 1 in 

».SV -I. Whiil is said ofthe Slate of France? 2. What of iho pea.^anU7 4. Whi». 



128 



JOHN THK (H. OI)..— I3,',6 



5. The city of Meux, in wliicli wrn' the (laupliinrss qnd her ladies, 
was aftackod by a party of the insiir^'cnts. TIuto wore no means of 
ilefence. The l)uk«! of Orlt-ans was the only nobleman in the place, 
and th«^ inhabitants were well inclined towards the rebels, and evee 
Ifft the fjatc^s o|>(;n for tbeir admission. 

(). At the inom(M)t of their approach, two of Khxn; Edward's 
knio-hts hajipcn«"d to be passinn^ near the city, and heard of the dan- 
ger of the (lau[»hiness. They at once put spurs to their horses, and 
Uallopinc into the t(»vvn, found the Jacquerie surrounding the jjalaee, 
and threatcninir to burst open the jrates for the purpose of murdering 
every one w iihin. *• 

7. The two knitjhts drew their swords, and, bein^ joined by me 
Duke of Orh'ans, soon dispersed th<; whole thronp, of whom mon; 
than seven thousand were killed. This seems to be an cxtravajrant 
story; but you will n-membrr that the knijrhUs were mounted on 
!u)rsel)ack, and were clad in steel armor, upon which the weapons of 
the peasants could make no impn^ssion. 

^ 8. You nmsl not suppose that the kni«jhts were entirely unattended. 
No kni^'ht in those days rode abroad without some attendant scpiirea 
and men at arms. These were called the furnit\ire of a lance. The 
nund)er of these attendants, of course, depended on the rank of th«^ 
kniijht; but five or six was the usual furniture of a single la»«ce, a* 
a knight was called from his principal weapon. 



CHAPTER LXVI. 



How King Edivard is induced to vmJxe Peace with France. - - 
Honor able Conduct of King John. 

1. The Jacquerie beinj? at lenpth subdued, and the country brouj^ht 
into a pretty quiet state, the dauj)hin, who governed France as reo-ont, 
was able to take some measures for his father's release. But Ed- 
ward's conditions were severe, and the States-general would not arrree 
to them. 

2. Edward then advanced into Eranee with an army, even to the 
walls of Paris. But the dauphin had grown wise by experience, and 
would not meet him in battle, but remained quietly in Paris. Edward 
marched about the country, amusing himself with his hawks and his 
hounds, as if he had come for sport, and not to fight. 

3. He now considered tiie whole kingdom as his own, and notning 
short of being acknowledged as king would content him. But sud" 
denly his heart was changed. A more violent storm than had ever 
before been known, overtook the I-^nglish army. 

4. The thunder and lightning were incessant ; and the hailstoneH 



were tliey called .' 5, 6, 7. How w.k§ the dauphirte.« saved ? i^. What ( he attendance 
>n knighta? ^ 

LXVI. —2. 3 What is s.iid of King Edward's fontUjcl in f ranee? < V hat induced 



"'HN Tin: GOOD - i.jG^i 



129 



*ere of sueli size, and fell with such violence, that many men and 
more than SIX thou.sa.Kl of the hon.es of the' EnglisirLTCe 
killed. 1 he king was so much impressed by the aw fulness on he 
scene that he considered it as a warning, and at once made p^^^^^^ 

5. He renom.eed all title to the crown of France, and aS' to 
a ransom tor king John, which w;ts t<, be paid in hree naym^nti 

tr^s In k.'Mr.rw';v\"' ''"'^''^'' 'tt'' '^'^ ^""i^'^ ^^^ ^^« ^^ <^^^- 

W un ;. ^=^f'';.''.,^^'"«»^"^« y »>unuuguiK,n the altar of the 

luml. until th.; cause ..[ their trouble is removed. During the can- 
mtyo K .J,,, ,^p^.^ vv- placed in the elu/rchVf Not^ 

Umie a I aris, and kept burning till his return. 

been of s'u'c I Mrn.li"'*' ''^V' ^''T /"""'' ^'"'-'''- ^' ^'^'« ^^^^^ to have 
wluel Ir V ^^^'""' ength that it might have encircled Pans, 

a large wtlld " '"""^- ^ ^' ''^^'''" ^'^ ^'^""^ ^'^^ ^^ ^"P« ^«"»^ 

lha^tco;'be'e.!irj^^''^"^"'^ ^"t '^^ P"^^" "^'t»'« l'^^"^*^ hostages, if 
that can be called a prison where they were allowed to go wherever 

Btit't^'^nhrr"'^^' ''"^ "^'""?i ''' '''' ^«^'" -'- i" fou days 
wLui to 1 .ins, and refused to return. 

John wiis exceedingly distressed at this conduct of his sons 
He consid(.re( ,t as a breach of faith which could o.dy be redeemed 
by his surrendering himself a^ a pnsoner to Edward. iL^^cordZlv 
returned w England, where he died, April 8th 1364 ''^ '^^^'^^"^^^ 



CHAPTER LXVH. 

The daily Occurrences in the Streets of Paris. - Character of 
various Nations. — Adout Astrology. 

1. I WILL novv give you a description of what was daily iroinfr on 
at Pans, about the middle of the fourteenth century. Theiirso^unS 
U^at was heard ,n the morning was the tinkling of little bells wMcb 

the deahofsuch persons as had died during the night anrcall nf 

upon al Christians to pray for the souls of the dece Jd ' ^ 

2. Ihen came the people who attended upon the hot baths bid- 

cold. After that, r othing was to be heard, for several hours, but the 



l^nrSKt 4£S./r"r'^lS^?Sl\^ relea^eof John. 6. Whatcu. 

V^'!. .t did John do ? When did he die 'Where ^ ""P"^°""^"t of the hostages ? 9. 

l-X M I. - 1. What ;vas the fir«t sound rn Pari., in the morning J 2. What succeedH 1 



130 



UHAKLES v. — 13&4. 



CHARLKS V. — 13tyi. 



tries of the butchers, the millers, and of those who sold fish fruit; 
and vegetables. 

3. Of tlie fruits, plums, pears, and apples were the most common. 
But the vegetable most in demand was garlic, of which a kind of 
Bauee was made, and eaten upon bread, like butter. The tailors made 
A conspicuous appearance, standing with their needles and tliread all 
ready to mend any hole or accidental rent in the clothes of the pass- 

ers-bv. 

l/Tliosc who had met with any misfortune stood at their doors 
and proclaimed it with a loud voice to all who passed. In addition to 
all tin; other noises, were to be heard the voices of the monks and 
scholars, begging alms in the streets. 

5. These poor scholars seem to have been a pretty miserable set , 
for in a book written about this period, they are described as goin^ 
about with pale and haggard faces, hair neglected, and iheir clothes 
in rags. The frontispiece of an old grammar, then in use, furnishes 
a touching picture of tlie interior of a school. 

6. There is the master, with his enormous rod in his half-raised 
hand, ready to let it fall upon the unfortunate scholars, who stand 
round him with their books, and with their shoulders stripped naked, 
prepared to receive the blow at the first mistake. Rods were so 
much in use, as to be reckoned among the necessary expenses of a 
college. 

7. The university of Paris was crowded with students of all na- 
tions. A writer of the age of St. Louis thus describes them. The 
French, he says, were proud, vain-glorious, and effeminate. The 
Germans were rough and vulgar ; the Normans, vain and boasting ; 
the English, drunkards and cowards. 

8. The favorite study was astrology, or the reading of the stars, 
which were supposed to have an infiuencc on the events of the world, 
and also on the human body ; so that every physician became an astrol- 
oger, and consulted the stars before he gave an opinion on tKe case of 
a patient. 



CHAPTER LXVIIl. 

Abaitf. Charles F., mr named the Wise. — The Royal Library 
at Paris. — The Constable du GuescUn. 

1. Petrauch, the poet of whom I have before spoken, in a second 
visit to France, saw the dauphin Charles, now become king. lie 
tells us that he was astonished at the cultivation of the dauphin's 
mind, and the polished elegance of his manners. 

2. But what Petrarch most admired was the wisdom with which 
the dauphin could converse upon all subjects; the respect he showed 



i:n 



tomtn of learning, and his own ardent desire to obtain knowiedee 
Char e.) was wont to say, that men of learning could not be too hiehlv 
witeemed ; and that so long as wisdom continued to be honored J 
France, the kmgdoni would prosper. 




Ckarhs V., 1364 to 1380. 

3 He spared no expense to procure the best collection of book? 
• hat could be had. The royal library in his father's time consisted 
ot twenty volumes, but was increased during the reign of Charles to 
the number of nme hundred. ^ t^ 

4. He is entitled to the honor of beincr the founder of a library 
Which at the present day contains 900,000 books, Ix^sides ,300 000 
maps, &c. , and more than 1 ,300,000 engravings. A king of such a 
character well merited the surname of "Mr Wise " 

5 He possessed all the good qualities of St. Lcniis, and the gen- 
eral increase of knowledrro and his own superior education kept him 
rom comrnitting the same errors. The kings of France before him 
had been little more than leaders of armies, and to be brave was con- 
sidered the chief merit ; but Charles was the first monarch who could 
regulate the march of an army without engaging personally in the 

Edward HI., King of Entrland, used to say, thai of all Ae corn- 
)etitors he ever contended with, Charles was the one who ha.l nevei 
appered against him, and yet gave him the most trouble. Bui 
^/hai.es knew how to select good rrenerals. 



3. VVhal of ihe fruits ? Whal of the tailors ? 4, 5, 6. What of the scholars? What of 
ihesc.hiK)ls? 7. Whal of the sludonts of the university ? 8. What of astrology ^ 
LXVIIl. — 1. What of Charles? 3. Whal of the royal library? 4. Whal ia the siae 



he roval libnirv now 7 6. What did Edward say of Charles ? 7. What of du Guet 



\:\o 



I II m;m ^> \ 



1 'i-.t 



rn 



< ru's «»t tlu' hulfli' I , tti. null<MM, ;intl o< tlu»^(' u1h» «n1«| fish fruit 
an<1 Vfjrrlahlrs. 

:« Of lit. ■ riiiit"^. I'lnm-. prin-'^, nn<l ;»|>plcs wfrr tlu 'Miumoh. 

Hilt iltr \i'ir«'t;\bl«- n»"'-t m <itnvii»«l \\:i^ <'MvIm\ ■♦ • l-i.-h i Itm.l nf 
k:hi.-.' \\;is nn«lt', :hi<! ' •' " •"<»'« !<».■ ■■' l"»..' Imiti ■ 11-' inl-..-^ ni'.-l.- 

. .-.n, ,i.nMMHis :«|>pr;i' -wlin.' ' tluMi mi .||. ...lii I M 

> .' in<:nil ;inv Im»I. h1:i1 " "' '" '•"' •''••Hi- "• »•"• p • 

rr- l»\ . 

I riio-. who li 1.1 m. 1 w \\\\ :uu Mii'<rititim«' stiiit.l it Hi.n »l<t.Ms 

:in<l j.r«M-|;iim«-«l tt \\ itli ;i l«'ii.l \n\rv «u nil \\li.> |>» > A In Ml.lilinu In 
all ihr <ttlH 1 jioisfs. vvrn- to l»«' Ur-.nA «l\.> \.>i.-. m| tlir innnl<^ aiitf 
^i^'lH'lars. l)«'o^i»in«; nlni" \n lh«' slrn'ts. 

;■> riirsf poor Rchol < tn In lia\<' l»»'' n a pvrtU no .i >'.l' ■< 

tor Ml a ht.oK wiitl.'n about tins p»M)o.l, llnv an- ilrsfiibifl a-j jjrMMij 
j»lMnit \Mlh pair an<l ha^riranl iwrv*, ban iKMjbM-tr.l, an. I (Im-ii .Infb.s 
ii\ r;ij:'<. Tbr jVontispirro ot an old ovamniav, tluat in hv... jnntiKlirM 
a toiM-biHL; pMMnr«> ol tbr Mttrviov o1 a srbool. 

li. 'rinMv IS thr luasl. i. n Mb bis nionnoiis lo.l iii \\\-i bill iim»M| 
hand, roadv to bt M fall upon lb.> nnrorlunato scbolaiM, v\ bn -jtaiid 
round Iniu witb tb«MV book--, and witb tboir sbonbbi^ sinpp..! nalud, 
pn'p;iro«l to rorriv*- «br blow at lb«> tir«»t niistak*'. Hods w«'H' ko 
iinirb Ml nso, as to b<^ ro< Koin>d anioin; tbo n«M'«'r<«arv rvpiaisrs o| ;i 
rolb'*,'"!' 

7. Tbr nnivrrsitv ot Taiis was rrowdrd witb stndmts n| all na 
tions \ wr t. .1 ibo ajrr ot St. Iionistlnis d<scid»ts ibom. TIm' 
l'Von»'b, he says, wrrr proud, vnui j^lonous. and olbiunialo Tbo 
iJonuans \V4rr rontjb and\uljjar, tb<' \oiiu n\^, vain and buaKtnijT . 
Ibr F.nolisb. drunkards an«l towards. 

S. 'I'biMavontr stu«lvwas astr«»lo}2\ . or ibo i.adm' o| tb. tnrs, 
wbicb worr supposed to ba\c an nitlurnfi' ou tbc cvrnts ot tbo world, 
and also on tbr liuman l>odv , so that rvrry pbvsinan brraino an astro} 

op^r. and PonsultiMl llic slars brbuv br }javr an «)pinn»n on l' a';«' of 

H patHMit. 



(HAl^TKK lAVlll. 

Abaitf Charles I .. siirnnnKd the liV.vr. Thv Kniin] Lihrnry 
at Paris. — T^/r (\)>/.«//;/7r //// (iti( srlin. 

1. PrTUAKcii. t)ir p(»t'l ofwbom 1 bnvc U^fort^ sp»»k(Mi, in :i s^mmukI 
visit to Franct\ saw tbr dauphin ("barlos. now luvoino kin^. Il«* 
IfUs us that Ih' was astonished at the cultivatitui of tlie dauphin'a 
mind, and the p(dished elefranoe of his manners. 

C liui whui l\'trarch most admired was the wisdom with which 
the dauphin eonid converse upon all subjects; the respect he showed 



3 Wtiaio! itu- fruil.- Wha: nf the lailor.« ' fi. VVliat of the scholar- ? What of 

iht sciKH»ls? 7. Wliat ofltit' sludtJiUs of llie uuiversiiv ? >. Wlial of a.slri>l(>L'y '' 

LXVin_l What iif" Charles ; 3 What of '.he n>yal librtry ? 4. Whal ia the siae 



Optecti.. <! , (fid Ml it 
Fr:iMCf> f he 1. . ,,,,! ,. 



Ci'.at 



>l» Ml/ 



I "f learning rmild not rwj too hi^hlv 
visdf>m continue*! to be hotiorcd in 




.1 ff' <r)a r'''d no , • i , . r i i 

"=•♦ '•""''' *"■ ^'^"' ' •' library in hi.s father's time, cor.s,st.-d 

". '""^ "''"' ;ncreji.sed dnrinor the rejrrn of Tharb-s fo 

\\\<: nuififKr of tntie. bundn-d. 

^ U< IS entitled to tho br^nor of boinrr the fouufler of a librrirv 
vvlncf, af the presf-nt day contains 000.000 books, besides .'JOO 000 
rna|.s, A/c, and more tban I ,'iOO.OOo rtMrravmrrs. \ !:..-.,»■ ..,.1 j 
cbara^-tfr wf II mrrited th« aurnam. z,^ H~w. ■ 

^V ffe possessed all thr. rrood rpmh- - .. [^„,jj,^ ^„,, ,,,^ ,,^^. 

'•ral increase of knowledrrc an.j his own Mui)erinr ediutJiliofi kentlnm 
n.n, eo,nmift,nrr the same error '"',„ |,,nos of France before bim 
f';';J h'-n little more tb:m b.-adm- ,; ..-mi.'s. and to be brave wa« cr.r.. 
«idered the chief merit ; but Charles wa.s the first monarch who coul,^ 
rerrufate the march of an armv witbout en.raiTinrr pcraonallv m fba 
'^ampairrn. 

(y. Edward IFI.. Kmo- „f Kn-iand. usfMl to sav. that -.f all vfie .-om- 
.etitors be ever contended with. Charles was the one who had never 
rippered arrainst him, and y. t ^ave him the most tronbir.. B,j| 
'^nar.es knew how to select izood ueneral.s. 



■lai tfid Eiiwani aay of Charles 



Vhal of du Gtm 



132 



ruAUi.Ks V \:¥v^ 



7 or ihrsp, tin' most I-Muona \v;«s Aw (i«H'srlin, in r»'ler»^n,-P to 
whom lh.« Wurt. nsMl t.. Im;>s1, thai llu-y Im.l tlir xvisrst kinir «,„» 
tno, hravrst ^.mkm:.! m I'.uroi).-. H*' was a ir.Mitlnnan of Hntlany. 
On arconnl ofhis m.T.l, bo was appoint.-.! hv ( harlrs to l.r ('on^/nNe 
ofFranrr. I'lns was a luilitary oHi.v, an.! llu- Inulu'sl in lli.- kini;- 

doin iimliT \\v.i\ ol' th.' Kin^^. 

H Charl.vs was naturally anxious to n.'t ri.l ol l.is tiuuM.-somP 
Knolish n.iirhhnrs. Talunj; a.lvantairr of ihr .lisroMt.-nts n\ soinr of 
ihAiascon suhj.vta ..f K.lwanI, lu- sunuuono.l tliat MUHiarrh, as bis 
vas?.al. toappoar an.Mo lu>inam« ; an.l, up<Mi his rorusal, at om.m- .Ir 
rlaro.l him to h.^ a rolxl, an.l all his possrssions in Fran.'.. L.rt.it.'.L 

'.) rii.T.' was no iniusti.M- m this pr.».'.-..lini|, lor snrh w.^r.- th.' 
n.iuiili.Mis up..n wIim-Ii ho h.>hl th.-m. Du (iu.s.-lin vv:.s s.m int.. 
<;ui.>nn.\ with an armv, to tak.- possossi.m o|' that torritory. 'he 
mhahitants prt>lorro«l Kmu Charh-s t.. Kmir K.lwar.l, an.l v.-ry nat- 
urally ; tor, h.'si.U. h.Miii; a h.tt.>r rul.'r, Thiirhs was also th.'ir .-..un- 
trvman. Hu (iu.>sclin th.-r.-lor.' ma.l.' ra|>i.l pro>iross. 

10. n.> ha.l lai.l si.'}r«" to a raslh' ni LanmuMlo.', and tln^ uovoriior 
a.rroo.l to s^urr.Mi.l.^r upon a n«rtain dav, ifho .li.l m.t r.M'.Mv.^ assist- 
ance in th.> intrrval. Th.- ninstahle .ImmI hor..ro tlw app..int.Ml tin..', 
an.l th«- ^-ovornor was a.lviB.Ml not to k.'op his ajrr.-omont ; hut ho .h- 
claiv.l that ho w.uihl Ix' as lru.> to that h.>ii.irahh> knight in .l.'ath, as 
tha* kniirht woiihl have h.MM) t.) him lu lil'o. 

11. On th.> appiunto.l day h.^ maivh.^l, tollowo.l hy th.^ wlmlo ^rar 
rison, to the Fr.Mieh eamp,aiul pla.M^l the keys o\' the eastle on tin; 
bier of the deparlcl hero, llis h.).ly was huri.MJ in the ehuirh ..I 
St. IVnis, wh.MV none hut th.> kinj^s o\' VvAucr ba.l hith.>rto been 
buried. A spl.Midid tomb was er.MM.^l by th.« kiuji, an.l on it was 
placed a lamp, which was k.^pt burninjr lor a ^rr.'at mimb.^r o» years. 

1*2. I'he dymj,^ words of the constable were an .'xbortation to hi8 
soldiers nev.'r to forjx.n what he had s.) «»lt.Mi t.d.l tb.'m : that into what- 
ever country they shotild havi^ t.> carry war, they sh.uil.l u.-v.t .mmi- 
sider the w.>men, th<> .hil.livn, the cl.-rjzy, .>r tin' yoov, as .Mi.'ini.s 
Yin a lon.u time, no .)ne .-ould be loun.l willing to tak«> his oHice of 
instable, all deeming themsi^Ues too unworthy to succeed him. 



CHAPTER LXIX. 

The Literature and Paint ini: of the Reign of CImrles the Wist 

— How the King lived. 

1 (^HARLES caused the works of manv of the old Greek and liatin 
authors to be translated into French. But these were wretched 
productions. A contemporary writer represents the original authort 



] 



Clin T 8 VVlial course did Charles adopt \o gel rid of ihe Engli.^h? 9, 10, 11, 12 Whtf 
• mid of the ctmduct i>f du Gueaclm 1 What of his death ? 



•HARI,F.S V IV.i 



133 



M loudly complaining ." the iiriiorance of their translators, wno m;»d« 
Ihem siy things which they had never thought of 

2. Many original works aj»p*Mr<d during this reign. A multitu.lc! 
of chronich's were composed. Froisstirt was the only historian whose, 
works were at once pleasing and instructive; the best' proof of their 
merit is, that, n<»t.withstanding the barbarous style in which they are 
written, they are still interesting. I cannot say as much for his poe- 
try, whifh was no better than that ofhis contemporaries. 

':{. Chronicles and private histories in verse were much in fashion, 
but ir tli( III sense, decency and truth wore all sacrificed to rhyme. 
The art (»f making verses was deemed so diflTicult, that whoever pos- 
sessed it was looked up<»n as a conjurer, and was in no little danger 
r»f being put to death. 

1. 'J'he painters of the age were not much more skilful than the 
p(»ets. When they painted human figures, they exerted all their 
skill in preserving the driss and the form <»f the hair; they had no 
iflea of giving any animation to the person oj c.o\intenance. Tliat the 
irieaning (»f the painting might not l>c mistaken, a label was put into 
the mouth of each figure. 

b. This invention, which had its origin in some jesting advice 
given by a distinguished Italian painter to a French artist, just 
siiitod the genius of the French, and was seiwd upon with avidity. 
Nothing was then seen but pictures by question and answer, and for 
greatcr"safety the name of each person was carefully inscribed on the 
figure. 

(J. Some of tho.se curious performances still exist, particularly in 
old tajK'stry. Water colors alone were in use at this period ; paint- 
ing in oils was noj introduced till the following century. In the con- 
struction of the houses of this period, neither comfort nor convenience 
appears to have been consulted. 

7. In m.ist of them, the light was admitted through a hole in the 
wall, which was closed in barl weather by a wooden shutter, or a few 
H\\v.i\H of paper, (ilass was an object of luxury, reserved for the 
housf;s of the rich nobles and palaces of the king. 

8. Thes*; last were buildings of great extent, but rudely built. 
The furniture was as plain as the edifice. The king and all the 
royal family, except the queen, sat on benches or wooden stools; 
the queen had a chair adorned with red leather, silk fringe, and gilt 
nails. 

li. In the centre of the rofim was a large stove, around which the 
family assembled in cold weather. The state apartments were dec- 
orated with cloth of gold and silver, velvet, damask, cloth and tap- 
estry. Glass mirrors were very scarce ; those of polished metal 
were generally used. 

10. Most of the officers of the king's household had apartments 
in the palace. In the kitchen, besides the cooka, were fcur officer* 



LXIX — 1 What did Charles do for learning ? 2. What kind of books were popular 1 
4 What of the painlinea ? 6. What of the houses 7 7. What cf the wmdo^^ ? 8 
What of the paiaces ? ' What of the furniture? 10. Wlial ..f the king's officen. 
11. Wno were among the most important? 12. \ 

12 



What of the king's g* ard? 



134 



CriAKIKJ V i:iBl 



CHARLES V. - I3M. 



ia6 



.1.' :vl,!^,^;;;^;:;;l:' t^i;:;;: :;:;'^:::i..;7::";' r^^'T^'*'-'' *" 

".".•h .•Mr,.,,,,.,! |,v ,|„,r „ns , ,. ■ ,v!?'., , " "' J''"' "'"" 

;."u:^:;:r::;.li';;^,:^-::,i;'r:;!;:'",^y^';;;;';;l''>;;^^ 



CHAI'TliK LXX. 

nc E,lucalin„ of the Im.U.s of the I'mcrlnnth Cent,,, v. 
I. Tm: prime mover in M ||„. irouhlis which (lisi„rl,,.,l I'. 

;?•£=,:=■ i:-SS;7i£';;;:;;i'-i^;s. 

life n f tl'i L I / ^*'V ''^ •'">' ""'"•'"t, pm .'.,. end to his 



^.!;^^.ciL'S:^5:^-->t^;. ^ -« *-eao^^^^ 



' 



fclormation, if we are to believe tlie accounts we have of the manner* 
of the ag:o. 

0. The noblest and fairest ladies, we are told, would ride about the 
rountry in the dress of ukmi, of various and stranjre fashion; they 
would crowd to tlu^ tournaments dressed in party-colonul robes, with 
short hoods, and chains bound round their heads like cords, wearing 
^rirdles of silver Mud ji^<dd, and across their br(!asts small knives, which 
they called datjaers. In this •ruisc; thtiy rode upon charir«-rs, or other 
lar^^e horses, rivishm^^ their wealth on jesters and bulfoons. 

7. They attended tin- church rejrularly, not f(»r purposes of 
devoti(Jn, but to jrossip with the youu}? men, who came with iheii 
hawks and their hounds, to show ihiur fine coats. So daufierous was 
the example thus set to yomiijer ladies, that a fjood and noble knifrht 
thouirht it necessary to write a treatise, jjivinjr advice to his dauph- 
lers, which was afterwards printed. 

H. lie tells us that he was sittinj,' in his garden in April, 1371 
musini,^ on the virtues of his wife, whose «;arly death had left bun to 
a lon«r^wi(h»who(»d (»f sorrow, when his reverie? was interrupted by the 
appnach of his thre(? dau;,'ht«Ts. This led him to think of the condi- 
tion of women in society, and he n^solve<l to write; a treatise, to 
enforce the practice of such virtues as slumld secure to them purity 
and happiness. 

IJ. These «rirls luul Imhmi brou|fhl up in a monastery, and had been 
well instructed in all ladylik»; accomplishments. Th«7 had been 
taught uee.ll(!Work, couf(;etionary, church uuisic, and surtrcry. The 
practice of this last was one of "the i)rincipal and ino.st important of 
female duties, in an ajre wberi the m(!n of the family were so con- 
stantly exposed to dan<,M!r in the tournament and battle. 

U). Th(! ^rood kuijrht «»ri<,Mnally had some doubts about allowing 
his (lau<rhters to learn to read ; for he had observed that those who 
possessed that accomj.lishmeut, {renerally wasted their time over book* 
that speak of love-fables, and such worldly vanities, instead of im- 
proving themselves by readinji bool* of wisdom and science. 

11. However, that th(;y mifrht be able to read their Bibles and 
prayer-books, he had at last consented, liut a« to writing, he thought 
it best they should know nothing of th«! perilous art. 

12. Uo then enforces tin; duties of cleanliness, and tells them thai 
as a knijxht wiuneth honor imd «'stecm by great pain and labor, and 
putUJth his body in Influent peril to gain a go<xl name — so a good 
woman should ptil herself to great trouble to keep her person neat 
and her mind pure. 



9. VVUl <.l III.; «!.'ii(aiu'i. df llie kiiiglil'a daughters? 10 What did he perniU t 
'e«r 1 ? 12 VVlial diHics dix^a he point out ? 



U 




km 



CHARLES v. — 1384. 



f 



CHARLES VL-13ao. 



CHAPTER LXXI. 

Mare about the Indies of the Fourteenth Ce .tu^y. 

whom h. holds up as a Tatterrfor h^H fE!"' '"' ^'^"'^^f'^^^d, and 
certainly could nof havo CraZtter "^ ' "' ""'^"^^'^ ' '"^"^ ^^ 

2. Althoufrh she rose from her hod of sf aw „4 • » i 
her to cover with haircloth, three times during '.h-\''''" ^^'y ^^^ 
«n^ down, returned thanks to CUui 1?? '^''"^'"f^^^^^ "'ff^t, and kneel- 
yet this watchruh.es Hi not prevent K '" '''■ '^'"'^^^*''^" -"^«' 
morninir. prevent her from rism^ earlv in the 

tins, she walk-...l in her^arde '2i 'wrTvT'''^ '''''^"'- ^'"'^^ 
past eleven. Alter tinf «l7,, , . . """<"^^' ,^^'"<^h "as now at half 
l^st she had in the hlusl' ""*-''' "'" '"'^' ""^'"S «i.h her the 

And if sh/knew of an7«,or^r^,,t';;' ' " *■"? '" "'" ''""' =""i ^i<=k- 
she would ad<,r„ her wAhTer fw' ' j^ 1"! i; '.? "?? '" ^ --ried. 
woman was to he huried she wn„ 1 .?, u '. ""> P"'"' &«"'«- 

occasions. ' " """''' '"'•"'^'' "'« t'-rdies used on such 

if ft wts^^LTfot'dTv' wr'"f l''^y^'«',^''« """I'l Lave her supper 

per the steward was called ^"'£,1,^^; I, l"!. «'-"'^^-. . After sup-' 
for the ne.\t day ' '"" "''■" provision to make 

^fti.e'a'^;r/;nHen';r'^Tt;e'\v" ' 'l^f'^T ""^ -I--"""' 
week, and was very reChr in nM. '',''■"'>' "''" ''''«'«<' 'hrice a 
was walking one daVk n!eht sie ft 1 into 'fT'" t"'"''' ='"'' =^ ^^e 
tallins praved for help * '''"''I' *«"' =""1 as she was 

JerI^rL^'':„rsLtL^ r^ Hard 

r^o;?e'r:ftL"n:^"dalt ^: r '" '? ii" '^ wt„" 

well, and took her cmt ^ ^ ' ''''^'' '^*^-^ ^eard her in the 

pomts^^lt^^rXm tejl^T ^^1 '^^-« ^''-- - -me othe, 
that they shoul in " /. rtnn? ^J'^ t'^^ '^^'^ "'-^'^^ ^"^ «hort 
•viththe^ food Wlenfc^^^ ^"^ ^^-^'^ 'i"^-er, 

to look in at people's window. V tv u '^''^'''^^ ^'^^-^ "^"^^ "«t stoj. 
nor becoming^ ^ windows, foi this, he says, is neither agreeable 

Jl^heiAhe^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^j, ^ 



la"! 



^, 7. What story doe* •»» 



I 



uncij into the room, but stop at the entrance, and announce then 
joming by a little cough ; and he winds up by recommendin<r to the 
ladies to abstain from stealing and from telling lies. "^ 

10. Now as this is all to be found in a poem written for the in- 
struction ot those who could read, and as this accomplishment waa 
confined to the higher ranks, we must take it for granted that the 
manners of the noble ladies were such as to require this counsel. 



CHAPTER LXXIl. 
Charles F/., surnamed the Well-beloved 




Charles VL, 1380 to 1422. 

1. We left Charles the Wise suffering a lingering death from the 
efff^cts of poison. Having made every provision for the safety of his 
children and of his kingdom, which prudence could suggest, he 
awaited with piety and resignation his final hour. He expired on 
the 16th September, 1380, having lived forty-four years, and reigned 
sixteen. 

2. The kicked King of Navarre survived his victim several years; 
but his death shows that there is a retribution even in this world! 
To keep himself alive, he had long been obliged to wear cloths 
steeped in spirits around his body. An attendant had been sewing 
these on, and instead of cutting off the thread when he had finished, 
he applied the lamp to burn it off. 

3. The whole of the highly inflammable coverii.c of the king was 
at once in a blaze, and being unable to rid himself "^of it, he perished 
»n the most exquisite torments. By some his death was attributed to 
the carelessness of the attendant, but the better informed charged it 
to his treachery. 

4. Charles VI. , called also ''the Well-beloved,'' was only thir. 
teen years old at the time of his father's death. He was impetuous. 



y 



LXXIL --L When did Charles the Wise die? 2.3. What of the death of Charles a« 

12* 



im 



CHAKLES v.-ir*54. 



ir 



CHAPTER l.XXl 

Mme about the Udies of the Fou.'teenlh Ce itu-y. 

who,,, l„. I,„|,|s „,, . , S.m't I '';;.''' fP"'" '"> <-'"l'"""Hl, an.! 
cer,,.i„|v ,■,,,,1,1 „„! |,,v,. i;,,,,,,"!. 1!, „, ',^ "'^^''' '" '"'"'"■ • ^""1 '■<= 

-*• '^'fli'Hij^^h she rose from her l)-.rl nf «. . i. . 

her to cover with hairH.„h thr e , ,, ■ V '' .' •'' ''"'' ^'^'^'^ ^^^ 
•n-.loun, return..! th:M.ks to , | ^^n ''"'^^^^ ■""' '^"•^'^'I- 

yt tins watehfu|,.e.s < ,,1 ,1' T^^' ^"'' ^''^. ^ ''"■''^"="' -'"J^, 
nuuMinir. ""^ J*'^'^^^^"^ 'i«'r from risin^r e.irlv in the 

past cli.v,.,,. \r„.r ,l,-„" Jl. "","',''','""•''■' "'"'•'' »^is ""»■ at l,alf 

Tor the next day ' '"''' ''''■■'' provisi,,,, to make 

«e,'k,a,„l was very re,-„ • r i , .iT i ',''"'-'' "'"' '^'""•'l ""-ieo a 
>v;is walki,,,. „„o dark nl, ,, ch i- , ''' "'^l':"""^ <^">'<'». a„,l as she 

«nLpi,^''::i':Ll^;:;;:-^;':,|;;:;;t:--ii '-de ha.d 

well, a„,l ,„„k |„.r Z" ■ '" ^"^ '"'"''' 'h^y h™r<l her i„ the 

p»";u.^''ne';",rTiu:,;"\ti'Th.:v"r "r; 'r''"' i"'"--^ "" -•- -i"- 

thal they sl„,„ld „,, ',,',, t'a' .}?''' """, "i'''^ '■"• ^1'"" 
vith their i;„„|. Who, t ,. vn ''''-'I'l''- ""' 'l-'"l> 'iK'ir li„rj,.r, 

■o look i„ at ,. le-s i ,,l ,„V, ,v 'u ="■"■'■' "l"^^' ■""^' "'" '"'I' 

nor beeon>i„jr. ' """■""•S '"■ 'his, he says, is neither agreeable 

-!:T^'!!L!iYJ*!!i^i^'JI;^y^^lHl<i not bo„„ce an a 



CHARLKS VI.-I3ao. 



13'; 



lificij into the room, but stop at the entrance, and announce then 
Joining by a little coujrh ; and he winds up by reeommendino- to the 
ladies to abstain from stealing and from teliincr lies. * 

10. Now as this is all to be found in a poem written for the in- 
struction of those who could read, and as this accomplishment was 
conhiR'd to the hicrher ranks, we must take it for ^^ranted that the 
manners ol the noble ladies were such as to require this counsel. 



CHAPTER LXXll. 
C/iarles F/., suriiamed the Well-Moved 




Charles VI., 13S0 to 1122. 

1. We left r.harlos the Wise sufTerin? a liufrerinjr death from the 
effects of poison. Ilavinfr made every provisi(»ii for the safety of his 
children and of his kinirdom, which prudence could sug<rest, he 
awaited with piety and resignation his final hour. He expired on 
the IGth September, 1380, havinjT lived forty-four years, and reigned 
sixteen. 

2. The wicked King of Navarre survived his victim several years; 
but his death shows that there is a retribution even in this world! 
To keep himself alive, he had long been obliged to wear cloths 
steeped in s})irits around his body. An attendant had been sewing 
these on, and instead of cutting off the thread when he had finished, 
he applied the lamp to burn it off. 

3. The whole of the highly inflammable coverii.r of the king was 
at once in a blaze, and being unable to rid himself Of it, be [)erished 
»n the most exquisite torments. By some his death was attributed to 
the carelessness of the attendant, but the better informed charged it 
to his treachery. 

4. Charles VI., called also "Me WeU-behvrd;' was only thiTw 
teen years old at the time of his father's death. He was impetuous. 



il 



LXXII.--1. 



When did Charles the Wise die? 
12* 



2. 3. What of the death 3f Charles Vtm 



i 



IIB 



CHARLES VI. — IAjo. 



CHARLES VI. -138.-). 



IJ9 



but iKj^ssed many good qualities ; lie was affectionate And obliLNne 
and never forgot a kindness, nor broke a promise which he had made 
lie liad a remarkable facility in remembering the face of any person 
whom he had once seen, and he was noted, among other things foi 
his great personal strength, as he could easilv bend a horse-shoe with 
his hands. 

5. Had his good (pialities been properly cultivated, and his reasor 
been spared to him, his reign, instead of being the most disastrous ii 
l^rench history, might have been one of the most happy. Hut his 
uncles, alter his father's death, wholly neglected his education, and 
encouraged hiin to engajre in frivolous amusements, that he micrht no* 
interfere with their ambitious schemes. " 

6. The Duke of Anjou had been appointed to act as regent durino 
the minority ot the king; and his first act was to seize upon, and to 
appropriate to his own use, the whole of the immense treasures which 
the economy of the late king had accumulated. 

7. Unhappily for France, the regent had interests of his owr 
which were adverse to those of his country. Joanna, Queen of 
JNaples in her own right, a woman whose name has come down to us 
loaded with infamy, and who was distinguished in her own affe for 
her superiority in every kind of vice, having taken offence at the true 
heir, Jjcqueathed her possessions to the Duke of Anjou. 

8 fhe duke, flattered with the prospect of a kingdom of his own 
paid little attention to the interests ut' that country of which he wjui 
only regent Assembling an army, he marched into Italy, where the 
most fata disasters befell him. His army was destroyed,'his ba.rirHjre 
ost, and he was reduced to poverty and distress. Of'uH the i.nmense 
treasures which he had brought from France, (.nly one small silver 
cup remained ; and death soon put a period to his sufferings 



CHAPTER LXXHI. 

About Mysteries ami Moralities. ^ 

1. In 1385 Charles married Isabella of Bavaria, a princess ol 
great beauty but of depraved manners. She br-^ught much misery 
not only to her husband, but to the kingdom. This marriacre was 
celebrated with great splendor, and a play was acted upon *h? occa- 
sion. Hut this had very little resemblance to the exhibitions that are 
now ti) be seen at the theatre. 

2. The plays of those days were called Mysteries and Moralities 
and were introduced by the pilgrims who returned from the Holy 
l^and. 1 hey usually represented some sacred subject, and each 
company confined itself to a con.«*tant repetition of the same exhibi. 



W^ap.m,ted resent/ ^ What did the rogol do? ^. What k-cam. <!} h n i ^' 

l^XMll. ~ 1. Whom did Charles marry ? What «.f the dueen 1 % What of Mvstene* 



iorj. The mystery exhibited before the king and queen was called 
* The History of the Death of our Saviour." 

3 The performers were all monks, and the play lasted eight days 
JThtre were eighty-seven characters in it, and the principal speakei 
vas St. John. The actors did not confine themselves to this earth, 
but ascended into Paradise, which was represented by the highest of 
several scaffolds erected upon the stage, and when the scene lay nearer 
the earth, tliey descended to lower scaffolds. 

4. The actors were placed on benches in front, from which they 
walked on to the stage, whenever their parts required their appear- 
ance. These plays attracted vast crowds, and the provost of Paris, 
an officer corresponding with our mayor, w ho entertained juster views 
of the respect due to holy things, interfered, and issued a law forbid 
ding their performance. 

5. The monks appealed to the king, and he was himself so much 
pleased with the representation at which he had been present, that he 
took them under his protection, and gave them a charter as a com- 
pany, by the name of " The Master, Governors, and Fraternity of 

he Passion and Resurrection of our Lord." 

6. Thus sanctioned by the king, the rage for plays became so 
great, that the priests were obliged to begin divine service at an 
earlier hour on Sunday, that their parishioners might be enabled to 
attend both the church and the theatre. But the exhibitions were 
not long confined to the monks, nor to the representation of sacretl 
subjects. 

7. Some young nobles formed themselves into a company to repre- 
sent the follies and al)surdities of the times. Their leader was callec* 
the Prince of Fools, and he wore by way of crown, a hood with ass's 
ears, and once a year he made an emry into Paris, followed by a! 
his subjects. 

8. The play which they performed was called "T//e Eorhihition of 
Folly.''' The citizens and the court were equally delighted with their 
exhibitions, and the king chartered the "Joyous Institution," which 
quite supplanted the brotherhood of the Passion in public favor. 

9. Perhaps one reason of the great popularity of the Exhibition o? 
Folly was its being gratuitous, while the monks charged so exor 
bitant a price for admission to their performances, that parliament 
mterfered and reduced it. 



and Moralities? 3. Who were the performers? 4. What of the wuccess of the plays f 
5. Who protected the actors ' W^hat name did tiiey lake .' 7. Whil n*^ * com any w«i 
formed i 6. What of the new company ? 




II 



14b 



CHARLES VI — 1389. 



CHAPTER LXXIV. 

Singular Preparation for the Inrasion of England Mela,. 
choly Story of Charles the wiiullorlt '^''"* 

pentleman who prepared f„r "is exnX """^ '"""'"''• '•''■«fv 
atlendant styled 'a ;!<VW, ^r, ^ „St ' 2 ""' fj'"'"'"'' "'"' »" 
ness ,t was t.. pilla^ f„r his ^^stcVs benefit ' " ™'"''''' "'"'^^ •'"^'■ 

whiih cruiA"!:' ule:i'LS':„7r„.r t™""^. ^^"""^ -«"«, 

putes at e,.,.r, delayed ho expedii " X k" ''^'""- «'" "'« '^'^^ 
meneed.when .„a„y ef the v-^Ee t Ir^ the stormy season com- 
wo,Hiencasllo drilled into the rifer-iv!:!,*"'f^«''' '"«' 'h" fan.ous 
to the Knglish sailors. ""''' ""'' '""'ame an easy prey 

.jnd\hllfa?;';;'/r;..:-::n,r.'::!e:': "r'-" <'^"''^'- - "«^ 

He revoked several unjust ^ZZul^ *^ '• '"""""' ''"" "'^ fi'f're. 
'mposed durin,, ,he rcCt.cv iicc eT 1^."*''" ""^ n ^'"<^'' ''••") '"--™ 
"•ery .lesire to rule witl, .iust'i™ a^l' uiX,™""'^''""-' •■""' ^'-«ed 

^ke .;^"t:r^;:2ar "iri-ii^ir 'li^:;r tt" '"^"-'' - " 

^-Iciaud left Paris to j„i„ |" "' 'i- ,'I " 7'' '"'"'•""Ps to asseti 
tl.rown l,i,n ,„„. a fever " ,, I 1' .,„ \ ""l'';""^'»--« "f l"s spirit had 
march into DretaTne ' '^ ■"•'■'"'^nts begged hi,„ to defer his 

-etd^::td\ll,:;rK.:,:;:;:;.::/td' "^^ r •""■ »- ^p-- 

the weather, for it was \ulZl Z ,1 ' '"""•■'''standing ,he heat of 
his armor. Itnd increased h,;,,fi,rV' ''"•■'''"'■''''''* *'-'™' "-«' 
with pearle over a hood of scarlet clolh^ ^ "'"""^ " •"" ''<''«"«<^<' 

had jutt^m^rrrlhrfortT'ff Ma„™th?n"' Jh"", ^"'^ ''«^"''='"'«' ="«) 
figure, clad in a white r, he with t^aked fret"'^" '="" ''">'' S''"^"^' 
sprang from between two trees n„d /■,"""', ""''">■<=■•«<' hearf, 
" King, a,lvanee no further' v™ ?i TI^'"" ]'f ''"'"« •''"■laimed 
as suddenly disappeared * "" hetrayed;- The figure ther 

a-^n'q^itizfC'reCreZ^ s"-!:;'';'"';'-" "'"■;' ""-^ ••"'-•"-. 

the scorching r"ays was alt^os '„;', ;;;^1 1^''-"'"' "''ere the heat of 
ollow.ng the king, one of whon. carried h i ''■"" "v"" '"'" P^S'^^ 

___^1^';;^;^;;;;^^^^'^^ as it were, from a lethargy, 



« VXrv - ,. What prepmtion ,a. mad. against Ersl,«J 



? 3 What is said rf th* 



1 



CH.4K1.KS VI. -i:«o 



141 



imagined the prediction of the apparition was on \\c. point of beinu 
a.tcomplislied. Seized with a sudden frenzy, he drew his sword and 
rushed madly upon his attendants, who all fled at his approach. At 
l^^st, his sword l,(Mu- broken, one of his servants sprung up behind 
him, and held him tightly, while the others tied him with cords 

J. lie was laid on a cart, and in tliis manner carried back to Mans 
It was many months before he recovered his senses ; and a frirrhtful 
accident brought on a return of the disorder. At the marriage of 
one o the queen s attendants, the king and five young nobremen 
agreed to appear in the character of savages. Their dresses were 
made of coarse cloth covered with flax, which was listened on with 
pitch. 

10. On account of the inflammable nature of this dress, orders had 
been given that the flambeau-bearers (for in those days there were no 
chandeliers or other fixed lamps) should stand close to the wall ; but 
the Duke ot Orleans, ignorant of the order, and not thinking of 
the consequences, took a torch from one of the bearers, and hofding 
It close to the dress of one of the savages, that he might find out who 
he was, set fire to the flax. 

11. Five of the savages were instantly in flames. The sixth, who 
was the king, was standing at a little distance, talking to his sister- 
in- avv. t5he had the presence of mind to wrap him in her mantle, 
and thus saved his life. The king was conveyed directlv to bed, but 
tr« agitation prevented him from sleeping. 

VZ. At last he fell into a doze, from which he was soon roused by 
he v-oices of tlie peoph-, who, having heard of the accident, had col- 
lected around the palace, and would not be satisfied until they had 
«een the king. He was therefore obliged to dress, and parade about 
the streets, to pacify them. All this brought on a return of his da 
Iirium. 

13. From tiiistime,for thirty years, he had his reason but for short 
intervals, and these only made him feel more keenly the misery of his 
situation. The queen abandoned him and her children to the care 
of servants, and, using all the revenues of the crown for her own 
■imusemenls, left them destitute of the absolute necessaries of life. 

14. The king, in one of his lucid moments, being told of the de^ 
iJorable situation of his children, sent lor their governor, who con- 
fessed with tears that they had neither food nor clothes. " Alas ' ' 
eaid the monarch, " I can believe it, for Jane no better tieatcd mv 
Belf." ' 



kins? I, 5 6, 7, S. Relate the iianiculars of the kiiis's loss of reason. 10 II I 
^ hat ?^oueK r \ a return of his disonier ? 1 3. Ht.w was he treated by the iroen ) ' 



10 




i 



i 

I 



14!:^ 



CHAIiLFlS VI - 1415. 



CHAPTER LXXV. 



(ia^'U of Agincourt. — The Ga?ne of Cards introdiiced 
Meaning of the Figures on t le Cards. 







Batth oj Agincourt. 

1. For a lonjT pc^riod the kiiias of KiinrlaiiH had too much to trouole 
\\\e\\\ at homn to tiiid time totrouhle other countries. But Henry V., 
Iiavinf? estahlished peace at home, was able to carry on war abroad.' 
With no other pretext tlian the ahnost forgotten chiiiii of Edward III. 
to the crown of France, he invaded that country with an army. 

2. The oriflamme was unfurled, and the French army assembled ; 
but the jealousies of the nobles delayed its march. Henry was per- 
mitted to ravage the country without op[)osition. At length the 
French army was put in motion, and overlook the enemy near Agin- 
court. 

3. On the twenty-sixth of October, 1115, the French experienced a 
still more disastrous defeat than tliat of Cressv or of Poictiers. They 
were four times more numerous than the English ; but these very 
numbers were one cause of their defeat. 

4. Through the want of skill in their general, thev were drawn up 
on a piece of ground so small that they could not use their arms, and 
8t> niarshy and \\o\ that the footmen sunk to their knees al every step. 
But sickness destroyed fjreal numbers of the Encrlish, and, fjndino 
his army toi weak to lake advantage of his victory, Henry returned 
to England. 



LXXV— .3. 4 What -"f the haule of Agincourt ' A. I.'har of rht- sncces? of Henri 



^ 



CHAKLl-S VI.-- 14'22 



14:^ 



5. He fanded a second lime in France, and made nimself ii.ast(*r of 
fill Normandy before the factious nobles of France seemed to be aware 
of his presence. Opposition by Ibrce was now too late, and, after 
several conferences, Henry was acknowledged as the regent ol' the 
■cingdom, and as the successor to the crown ; and the unconscious 
rJharles was made to sancticMi these proceedings. 

6. The dauphin retired U> Poictiers with a few friends. Henry 
and his son, (afterwards Henry VI. of England) were i)oth crowned 
at Paris, and acknowledged as the future sovereigns of France. 
Henry V. died at Vincennes soon after this event, leaving the Duke 
of Bedford regent of France. 

7. Charles ended his unhappy life October 21st, 1422. He lived 
fifty-five y«ars, and reigned forty-two years, thirty of which were 
passed in a stale of almost constant insanity. To amuse him in his 
lucid intervals, the game of cards was introduced into France. 

8. They were painted in gold and divers colors. It was a renewal 
of an ancient amusement, and in less than four years, the rage for 
card-playing became so great that the provost of Paris tbrbade their 
use. But as the court paid no attention to the law, of course the 
common people disregarded it. 

9. It is a very singular fact that no change has been made in the 
form or figures on the cards, since the time of Charles VI. Those 
wiiich are now played with res<Mnble in all respects those which were 
used to amuse that monarch, and a very just idea ol ilie dress of that 
period may be obtained from them. 

10. The figures had a distinct meaning. By the hearts were 
meant the churchmen, from the French word cmir^ meaning heart, 
iud these cards are called ^^ grns de chceur,'" or choirmen. By the 
Bpades, which are in fact pike-heads, are meant the nobles or mili 
tary. 

11. By the square stones, or tiles, which we call diamonds, but 
which the Frencli call rarnauT, was intended the class of workmen ; 
and, lastly, the suit which we call clubs, but which is in fact a leaf of 
clover or trefi»il, was meant to represent the peasantry. 

12. Queen Isabella was treated by the English with the contempt 
and nejrk'c't that she deserved. She hated her son, the dauphin, on 
account of his virtues, and at last died of vexation at st^eing him suc- 
cess tiil. 

13. A monument was erected over her, in which, instead of a dog 
which it was customary to place al the feel of ladies in the monuments 
ol those times, the sculptor substituted the figure of a wolf, as an em- 
hleii of her cruel anr' rapacious disposition. 



Willi tliil Charles do? G. What of the dauphin? Wlio was the Enirlish regent ol 
Kt.M,. -•? /. When did Charles die? What atnusement had he? 10. II. Wliat la aald 
••I t w Cgure-s on ca: Is ? 12. What of Isate'ia ? 13. What of her m«.nmwnt I 



r 



Ut> 



'•llMH.h> \l 1415. 



CHAPTER LXXV. 

(la^'U of A^'i/icofn-t. -- The Game of Cards introduced 
Meaning of the Fignrcs on t le Cards. 




Battle of Aginronrt. 

I. For :i loiiir pn-iod tlu> kiiios of KnirliuKi had too nmoli to trouole 
them at home to liiul time to trouble other eoiiiitries. Hut Henry V., 
havinnr (>stal)lisliO(l peace at lioiiie, was al)le to eiirry <m war abroad. 
With no other pretext tlian the almost forcrotten elaim of Ivlward 111. 
to the erown of Fraiiee, he invade»i that rouutrv with an army. 

'J. The orif/wimr was unfurled, and the Freneli :irmv assembled ; 
hut the jealousies of the imbles delayed its march. Henry was per- 
initlt'd to ravage the country without opp<»siti«Mi. At lenirth the 
French army w;is put in motion, anil overto(di the enemy near A<?in- 
court. 

3. On the twenty-sixth of Octi.bn, I li:., jJio Freneh experienced a 
still more disastrous defeat than that of ( 'ressv or of Poictiers. Thev 
were tour times more numerous than the Fu<:lish ; but these very 
mimbers were one cause of iheir defV-at. 

4. Thnuin-h the want of skill in their jicneral. thev were drawn up 
on a piece of rrreund so sm.ill tint they could nnt ust tbnr arms, and 
so marshy nnd wei th;it the toutmrn siink to their knees ;il every step. 
Hut sickness destroyed irreiit numbers of the Enijlish. and, fhidino 
his army toi weak to take advantaiie of his victory, Henry returned 
to England. 



L.^V — :?. t What ^ftho »iattl.> .if Aginronrt •' r, ):\,.v cf fh.- siirrc^y nf Henn 



■^^4 45 



CHAK[.I> \I - 14^2 



I4:i 



5. H( (anded a second time in France, and made nimself ii.ast<>r of 
nil Normandy betore the tactions nobles of PVance seemed to be aware 
of liis presence. Oppositicm by fon*e was now too late, and, alter 
several conferences, Henrv wus acknowledued as the reffeni of the 
<iii^ulom, and as the successor ;-> the crown ; and the unconsi'ioug 
Jharles was made to sancticMi these procetMlinjjs. 

<>. The dauphin retired io Poictiers with a few friends. Henry 
iud Ins S(tn. (:ilt<rwards Henry W. ot' I'aii^land) were both crowned 
at Paris, and aeknowledn-cd as the l\ilure sovereit2:ns of France. 
Henry V. died at \ incennes soon tifter this event, leaving the Huke 
of IJt'dlord regent of FraiHV. 

7. Ch:irles eiuh.'d his uidiai)py life Octi>l>cr t21st, 14*2'2. He lived 
fifty-tive years, and reigned forty-two years, thirty of which were 
l)a.ssed in a stat(> of almo.st constant insanity. To auuise him in his 
lucid intervals, the game of cards was introduced into France. 

H. They were painted in gold and divers colors. It was a renewal 
of an ancient amtisement, and in less than four years, the rage for 
c:ird-playiiig became so fjreat that the provost of Paris torbade their 
use. Hut as the court j)aid no attention to the law, of course the 
conuuon peo[)le disreganled it. 

'.>. It is a very sinj^uhir fact that no change has been made in the 
form or figures on the cards, since the time of Charles VI. Those 
which are now played with resemble in all respect:* those which were 
used to amuse that monarch, and a very just idea ot itie dress of that 
period inny h<! olttained from them. 

10. The lijjures had a distinct meaning. Hy the hearts were 
meant tin- churchmfn, from the French word n£ur, meaning heart, 
111(1 these cards are called " i,*-///.? ^/cj rAav/r," or choirmen. Hy the 
fcl)ades, which are in fact pike-heads, are tiieant the nobles or mill 
tar v. 

11. Jiy the s(piare stones, or tiles, which \\v call diamonds, hut 
which the Prcncli call rarnaitr, was intcMided the class of workmen; 
and, lastly, the suit which we call clubs, but which is in fact a leaf of 
clover or trefoil, was meant to represent the pea.santry. 

I"-'. Quecti Isabella was treated by the English with the contempt 
;ni(l nenlcft that she deservetl. She hated her son, the dauphin, on 
account of his virtues, and at last died of vexation at se(Mng him suc- 
cesstnl. 

l.'i. A monument was erected over her, in which, instead of a dog 
which it was customary to place at the feet of ladies in the monument* 
of tho.s(' times, the sculptm- substitutcul the figure of a wolf, as an em- 
hlfii of her cruel an^' rapacious disposition. 



Jiitt <li.l rii.irl.'s (I..? r.. What of tho .luiphin ? Wlio was the Endish regent of 
KJ;»),. i;' 7. Wli.-ii ili.iCliarles.lie? What ainiisf«mpiiHia.t tie? 10.11. What i* Mid 
.•f t w r.ij.inM <.„ car 1>! .' 12. What of Isalw-'ia ? 13. Whal of !»er tnonuiiQut ? 



144 



CHARLES VII. — 1428. 



CHAPTER LXXVI. 



CHAKI.hs Vri— 1429. 



145 



Charles VII. j surnamed the Victorious. — The Maid of Ut' 

leans. 




Charles VII., 1422 to 1461. 

1. Thk dauphin, now Charles VII., was at once proclaimed by the 
princes and nobles who formed his little court. He was about twenty 
years old, possessed of excellent abilities and a good heart, but he 
commonly suffered indolence and a love of pleasure to stifle all his 
better qualities. 

2. His countrymen have given him the pompous title of " the Vic- 
torious^^^ because in his time the English were driven out of France ; 
but I think another surname, sometimes given to him, of " the Well 
Served,'' is more appropriate, for he was rather a spectator than an 
actor in the deliverance of his country. 

3. Rheims was in possession of the English ; he was therefore 
crowned at Poictiers. He was so poor that he had little but prom- 
ises to bestow upon his followers ; but his affability and kindness 
served him instead of wealth, and procured him many faithful and 
zealous friends. 

4. But agreeable maimers could no* entirely supply the place of 
money ; for, being in want of a pair of boots, he was obliged to go 
without them, the shoemaker refusins^ to let him have them until they 
were paid for. Of all France nothing now remained to him but the 
3ity of Orleans ; and in 14*JS the English forces laid siege to that. 

5. At the approach of LmiI, which you know is a season of fasting 
with some sects of Christians, during which they eat no meat, a large 
supply of salted herrinijs was sent to the English, guarded by a strong 
force. The French sallied out of the town to attack the escort, but 
«vere driven back with great loss. This was called the " Bottle of 
the Herrings,'''' and the loss of it reduced the French almost to de- 
spair. 

• 

LXXVl. — 1. Who siiicceftded to ihe French throne '' 2. What is Charles sumamed 1 
8. X^here was he crownei' t Why i What of h\^ manners? 5. What of the battle of 



o The king now considered the loss of Orleans as certain an«l 
*'as about to retire from the country, when his fortunes weJe unex 
pecu^dly retrieved by one of the most singular occurrences in history 
UtB was the appearance of Joan of Arcfcalled also the Maid of Or" 

7. This girl was the daughter of poor peasants, who lived at Dom- 
remy near th. banks of the river Meuse.' From her inS she S 
been tauirht to look upon the English with abhorrence oraccoimt of 

he desolat.<,n they had spread through the country ,''fbr war in\ts 
dreadful ravages, does not spare even the humble cot/age of thi pe^ 

8. These scenes of desolation made a deep impression on her mind 

th m bvXlt' T;'r"\'"P" «^--ersalmn,^.nd she r^n^d of 
them by night. IJetore she was thirteen years old she fancied she 
saw visions and conversed with angels frou; heaven, who asst'red her 
as she said, that she was the appointed delivere of h^r " urn rv 
►Such assertions will always find believers ind hf^rf-Zf ^'""try 
bors looked upon her as really inspired ' ^'"^''^^ '"^ "''^'' 

cart o^-l'hn''?"''""'''^' '!"^^'«^;^^' ^« serve at a small inn, where she took 
care ot he horses and performed other labor, which in our countrv 

10. Thus things went on till she was seventeen vears nU .vho„ 

she went to the king, and offered to deliver OrleSromH..F ^T 
an,l then to conduct him to Rheims to be cn.w^^^^^ 

cotirtiers thought her crazy, and demand from er, mfr^'e it 

rei>ly was, that she would soon exhibit one at OrleaL " ' 



CHAPTER LXXVII. 
More uhmit the Maid of Orleans. 

ml; ^^"l'"'-''^' ^'}'»«'' H?^"se he could lose nothinj? by the exner.. 
nent, or because he really believed that she spoke by dfvine -nitC 
Uy, granted her request to be furnished with armor,' am u! l^ tm 
w h an escort of troops to Orleans. She was theref .re arrav^l i^ , 
ull suit of arm<,r and mounted upon a charger. I„ lu'r h^d w "s a 
l)anner, sent, as she said, from heaven. ^ 

i-. Her fame had n-one befm-p Ui^r- 'V\.,^ \? i- i • •• 
-ized with a dread a^d h;rr:r':f fi'^hln..' '^ainffiv:n'''"sh;.:i:d 



■X. I..-. M,„v ,li,ni,oki„5 .r™. V?. 2. What .(Tec. „a, ..n.!,,™! „„ th. K-.. 



144 



CHAKLKS VII. — I42S. 



CHAPTER LXXVI. 



CH.-iHI.f^ Vff - M-:>(). 



145 



Charles VII., surnamed the Victorious. — The Maid of Or- 
leans. 




Charles VJI., 1 122 /r> 1101. 

1. TiiK dauphin, now Cliarlos VII., was at once proclaimed hy ♦he 
princes and nobles wlio formed Ills litth; conrt. He was abont twenty 
years old, possessed of excellent abilities and a fjood heart, but he 
commonly sutVered indolence and a lov«; of pleasure to stifle all his 
better (lualities. 

2. llis countrymen have ;j^iven him the pompous title of "/At' Vir- 
torious,''^ because in his time the Enjj^lish were driven out of France ; 
but I think another surname, sometimes o;iven to him, of '' thr Well 
Strred," is more appropriate, tor h*.* was rather a spectator than an 
actor in the deliverance of his country. 

3. Rhe'ims was in possession of the Eng^lish ; he was then*fore 
crowned at Poictiers. He was so poor that he had little but prom- 
ises to bestow upon his followers ; hut his atfability and kindness 
served him instead of wealth, and procured him many faithful and 
zealous friends. 

4. But atrreeable manners could no* entirely supply the place of 
money; fi»r, bein«^ in want of a pair of boots, he was obliged to i^o 
without them, the shoemaker refnsinL»^ to let him have them until they 
wtM'e paid for. Of all Fraiiee uothinLT now remaintnl to him but the 
3ity of Orleans ; and in ll'JS the Kn;_rlish forces laid sieije to that. 

5. At the approach of LmU, which vou know is a season of fa.stinw 
with some sects i»f f Mirisiians, duriufr which they eat no meat, a lar^e 
supply of salted herrinijs was sent to the Eno^lish, guarded by a strong 
force. The Frencli sallied out of the town to attack the escort, but 
»vere driven back with jjreat loss. This was called the " Bottle of 
the Herrings.,'^ and the loss of it reduced the French almost to d«>- 
spair. 



LXXVI. — 1. Who siicceRded to the Fronoh throne'' 2. What is Charles surnamed 1 
8. \^here w.Ts he crowMPi' ^ Why ^ Wh.il of his manners? 5. What of iho bailie of 



I 



o Th.^ kn,- now considered llie loss of 0rle,„is as cernin •iiul 
*as a j.„„ .„ r...,ro fr,.,„ ,l,e coumry, wl,e„ his li.rtunt^ we e ui.ex 
pectedly retrieved l,y one of the must singular oeeurrenees in his ,rv 
hm was the appearanee „fJoa„ of Are.-'ealled also ,i,e Ma!d oTor' 

1 ' ill I o • 

7. Tins ^rirj was the dauirhter of po,)r peasants, who lived at D<.m- 

n-my .....r th. b:.nks ol ,h. nver Meuse.* Fron. her infa. , vie Id 

heen tau,rh, ,o .,„k upon the En,Tii,l. nith abiiorrenee, on acco 1 of 

he desolation tb.v had spread throu.^h the countrv ; fo war / ,. 

dreadlul ravaoe«, d<>.s n<,t spare even the hun.ble cot/age of 2^^^^ 

><. These sr.wKs of .lr.s<,lation made ad.vp impression on her mind 
uiLin in niiri.t. lJ,.jore she was thirteen years old she fancied slm 

'" 1^ s ';i' r"i"'""' "V'' "'^^^^ '^""" '"•=•-"' -»- =- - 1-" 

S^.eh . ' m"', '''^" ''•'' .'ippointed deliverer of her counlry 

N<'h assertions will always Ihul believers, and her family and 3 
hors hu.ked upon her as really inspired ' ^ 

ercises as most men. i^Apcri in manly e\- 

10. Thus thino^s went on till she was seviniteen ve-ir^ .,U »•» 
B <| u.-nt to the k.n., and oft^red to deliver ()rlea:n-^,;;t;;^ 
•iiid then to conduct him to Kh,>iiiis to be cnmned '" '"'^'"^.'^f;*' 

riv';^''u;Lf:,''"''Tf'^""'''r'""''"'^^^^^^^^^^^ 

rei.ly ua.^, that she would soon exhibit one at Orleans. ' 



CHAPTER LXXVII. 
More ahoiit thv Maid of Orh 



ans. 



„.,,;> '"'"''■•'• '''."'"■'• '',';'■■',"-• '"■ '•""I'l lose nothinLT hv Iho experi- 
I lent, or heeause he really helieved that she s,M,k,. In- .ifvi , . Xfr 

y. Srante,! her re,,„est to he fnrnisl with 'mnor; an J ti 

I, an eseort ot troops to Orleans She was Iherel ,re irn v«l ma 

"II suit ol armor, and mounted upon ;, ,.har"er In l,..r l,..,' i 
I'^Hiin.r. s,.ni, as she said, fr |„.av,.„ " '" ''"'"' """ * 

pt;i::ii::Xel;;rl,s"Lr::;:::r^;:;:i,,,::;:j;:;«li:t:^^^ 



ihfc Hf.'-riii"..i ' 

<u«; h.,u-,,M,v,:,:,,;.r,;m;r,,7;;;;'L';,:;T 

II..U- ,l,,l ,l„,ki„5 ,P,„„ ,,„, 2. wiiatnirec. w.x, |,r ,,■ ,;i.e K.. 



Who uMs the IMaid nfC)ilf>ans J fi Q VV»..». «fi - i 



t4() 



CHARLES V 11. — 1429. 



3 Wherever she led the attack, the enemy threw down then %r.Ti* 
and fled. So many deserted from the English army, that a priylama 
ion was issued in England, offering a reward for the arrest of eveif 
Kldier who deserted from France " for tear of the mayde. 







Juan of Arc. 

4 Bui still the panic continued, and the English general lx>nl 
Talbot, was obliged to raise the siege. The regent, ^^^^^\\ '^^^^ng 
collected a new army, sent it, under the command ot bir John l<al- 
staff, to the assistance of Talbot. The Frenrh marched agamst he 
united forces, and on the eighteenth of June camo m sight ot the 

^"s^'^Toan, being consulted as to the fate of the battle, answered that 
the French must be careful to provide themselves with good spurs. 
" How, Joan," said the French general, " will the French run awav 
then^" "No," replied she, "but they will have to ride bard to 
overtake tiie enemy." Nor did she prove a false prophet. I he 
Knglish fled at the first onset. 

0' Sir John Falstaft*, a man of tried courage, did not escape the 
gener:il infection, lie set the example of flight, and lor his cow- 
ardice was deprived of all the honors which a long lite ot service had 
pained for him. The maid now offered to perform the secoiul part ot 
her mission. The' accomplishment of it seemed to be almost beyond 

belief. 

7. Rheims was at a great distance, and in the hands of a power- 
ful body of the enemy. The way was guarded l>y several strong 
fortresses, and Charles had but a small body i>t troops. Hut the 



r 



I 



CHARLES rn.-1429. 



147 



king, yielding to the importu.iity of the maid, set out on the journey. 
His progress resembled a triumph. 

8. The towns submitted themselves to him, and on approaching 
Rheims he was met by a deputation of the citizens, who presented to 
him the keys of the city. Here the consecration was performed with 
the holy oil of Ciovis. The maid stood by in complete armor, with 
her standard in her hand. When the ceremony was completed, she 
tlirew herself at tlie feet of the king, and, with a flood of tears, 
entreated to be permitted to return to private life, now that her prom- 
ises had been accomplished. 

9. But the king would not permit this. As a mark of his grati- 
tude he ennobled her family, giving it the name of " du Lys," in 
allusion to tlie /i/irs on her banner, and assigned to her a suitable 
estate in land. At the same time he desired her to remain with the 
army until the English were driven out of France. 



CHAPTER LXXVHI. 

Death of the Maid of Orleans. — Charles returns to Paris. 

Dreadful Famine and Pestilence. 

1. The French ofl^cers were very jealous of the fame of Joan, and 
were ashamed that a woman should perform greater exploits than 
themselves. In a sally from tlu; town of Compeigne she was deserted 
by her companions, who lied into the town at the approach of the 
enemy, and, siiutting the gates, refused to admit her. 

2. She fell into the hands of the Duke of Burgundy, who sold her 
to the regent Bedford, for a great sum of money. By every law of 
honor and humanity, Joan should have been treated as a prisoner of 
war. But Bedford chose to regard her as a sorceress and a heretic. 

3. She was brought to trial on this accusation before some clergy 
in the interest of Bedford. During a long trial, which lasted four 
months, she behaved with the greatest firmness and dignity. She 
answered all their questions with wonderful propriety. She was pro- 
nounced guilty, and condemned to perpeUial imprisonment, and to be 
allowed no other food than, as the sentence of the Inquisition would 
express it, " the bread of pain and the water of anguish." 

4. At the same time she was forbidden to j)ut^ on the dress of a 
man, under pain of death. The regent thought her sentence was too 
mild, and at once adoptf^d measures to secure a more severe [)unish- 
ment. In the cruel hope that she would not be able to resist the 
Jeinptation of dressing herself iu armor, he caused a complete suit to 
be hung up in her cell. 

5. Poor Joan fell into the snare Persona who had been coo 



wh *)ldier3? 4 Wlml dill Bedford do? 5 What did Joan say of li.e re^^nll ..f -.he >v 



T Flow wm' she'retVrdedT'""* "'"^^'"''''''"^ ^•^•'"*" ^''^^^''^ '■ 8- What (»f her :iucce*, ? 

ili^mlid '^' uL »if ^ r^^. ^'"*' ''f 1'"^ ^^ •i"' ^^'^'''^ ^""'■«'-^ ' '^ W'"»^ accident l^f«ll 
ille maul How waa ahe treated by t'>-s Figtish^ ,{ Whai was ..he charged withl 



14« 



CHAllLKS VII. — M29. 



r 



cHAKLKs rrr. 1429. 



Ul 



3 Whenever she led the attack, the (Miemy threw down then u.iui 
and fled So maiiv d.sfTtcd IVonithe En<rlish army, that a proclaniH 
ion was issurd in 'Kn-l:u.d, (»mrin- a reward for the arrest of ever v 
H. Idler who deserted from France " for tear (.1 the mayde. 




Juan of Arc. 

4 Bui still the panic continued, and the En^rli^sh freneral I^nJ 
Talhot, was ohli^n-d t.. raise the siecre. The recrent, H«;'ltnrd having 
collected a new army, sent it, under the couuuan.l ot Sir John l^al- 
statr, to the assistance of Talbot. The Fnu.-h .narchcd apainst he 
united forces, and on the eighteenth of June came m siszht ot the 

enemv. . , , , 1 ^\ .i.,.* 

5 Joan heitK- consulKul as to the late ot the hattle, answered tliat 
the French must he careful to provide themselves with ii..o«l spurs. 
" How, Joan," said the French -rneral, " will tli.' French run avvav 
then'" ''No," replied sh.«, '' hut they will have to rule hare to 
overtake the enemy." Nor di.l she prove a false pr..i)het. 1 lie 
Knc'^lish (led at the first onset. 

« Sir John Falstafl", a man of tried courase, did not escape tlie 
general ini;>cti(»n. He set the example of fliffht, and tor his cow- 
anlice v%as (h.prive.l of all tlie h«Mmrs which a Ioul; life *.t service had 
trained tor him. The maid now ollered to perf(»rm the second part ot 
her mission. The accomplishment of it seemed to he almost heyoud 

belief. 

7. Uheims wasata areat distance, and in the han.ls ot a j.ouer- 
ful hody of the enemv. The wav was jruarded hy several strong 
fortresses, and Charles had hut a small body id troops, iiul the 



king, vielding to the importu.iity of the maid, set out on the journey. 
His profTress resembled a triunipli. 

8. The towns submitted themselves to him, and on approaching 
Rheims he was met by a deputation of the citizens, who j)reseiited to 
him the keys of the city. Here the consecration was performed with 
llie holy oil of Clovis. The maid stood by in complete armor, with 
her st;ind;ird in her hand. When the ceremony was completed, she 
llirew herself at the feet of the kin«r, jiiid, with a flood of tears, 
entreated to be permitted to return to private life, now that her prom- 
ises had been accomplished. 

U. IJiit the k\i\<r would not permit this. As a mark of his grati- 
tude he eijii(>l)led her family, jriving it the name of " du Lys," in 
allusion to tbi; /i/irs on her banner, and a.ssigtu;d to her a suitiible 
estate in land. At the same time he desired lier to remain with the 
army until the Fn<rlish were driven out of France. 



CHAP'J'ER LXXVHI. 

Death of the Maid of Orleans. — Chirks rchiriis to Paris, -- 

Dreadful Famim and Vestiknce. 

1. Thk French ofTicers were very jealous of the fame of Joan, and 
were ashamed that a woman should perform jrn-ater exploits than 
themselves. In a .sally from the town of (Jompeifjne she was deserted 
by her companions, wln> tied into the town at the ajiproach of the 
enemy, and, shuttinj,^ the; jjatt's, refused to admit her. 

2. She fell into the hands of the I)uk(> of niirjrnndv, who scdd her 
to the rcLTeiit Heclford, for a <rreat sum of money. Uy every law of 
honor and humanity, Joan should have been treated as a prisoner of 
war. iJut liedford chose to regard her as a sorceress and a heretic. 

3. She was bnuight to trial on this accusation before some clergy 
in the interest of liedtord. During a long trial, which lasted four 
months, she behaved with the greatest lirnmess and dignity. She 
answered all their questions with wondi'itul propriety. She was pro- 
nounced guilty, and condemned to perpetual imprisfinmeut, and to be 
allowed no other tood than, as tlu' sentence of the Intpiisition would 
exi)ress it, "the bread of pain and tlie water of aiiLniish.'' 

4. At the same time slie was forbidden t(» put on the dress of a 
man, under pain of death. The regent thought her st'iitence was too 
mild, and at once adopted measures to secun? a more severe; j)unish- 
ment. Jn the cruel hope that sin; would not be able to resist the 
temptation of dressing herself in armor, he caused a complete suit to 
be bnnir np in her cell. 

5. Poor Joan fell into the snare Persoiks who had been cod 



idli sc.ldier^i? 4 VVlul ili>l Bedford do ? 5 What did J-.an ^-hv ..t ti.e rt-nlt uf he '»#» 



lit!' 7 Wl.ai iiuile the second iiiiderUikiii!,'uf Joan diiliciill' 3 
^ Mow was hhe rewarded ? 

.hi* m^^H "^ u '■ ^^''^^ ^^^ ''"•' '"''*'''"- "•" ^''^' Vr^^^ih oHi.ers 1 '> What accident 1 

«lus .n.*,.l How waa .he treated hy f., F.gliah'? ^ Wha wa- «he charged w 



What of her auccess ? 

2 What accident ix-'fell 
■ ithl 



14S 



CHAKLES VII 1440. 



C. The sentence was executed m the market jwa ^^^^^ ,,^.^^ 



Z^ ^£. Si^'f^^^nL-:^^^.. 1S.^nX.;; ana t„e. ., 

after an„ther sub.uittcd to 1^"'S < i' J^^- ^^ .'^„X^;4th, 1437, he 
first to throw ope,. Us Kal.s to 1»" ;•""'' ^.^^'i "e„eo of seventeen 
made his ,.ul,lic .nlry .nto '''?71'^; ' ' "^.^Verect a statnc to the 
years. One of the hrst acts ot the i i'" '^'^ ^.-'^ 'V ^^^T ■^^ ,,^3 continued 
Maid of Orleans on the spot where she died, where 

to the present day. ,•„,„;„„ i„ France, followed by a 

8. In 14:18 there was a great »■"""- L^,™"^",' p^js, that the 

dreadfnl pestilence. So g'^^atw.js the mortal tv / ^ ,,„, 

wolves rnau.'d about the nearly -''■•'•'-'^^„.f'^\'[,;"Usent, Uedford. 
carried olV belore the eyes "^ ''j^jf^.^Wh In afhori time the 
died of vexation at the success ol the t rench. 1 
Knglish possessed no territory m i rauce but tne ciiy o 



CHAPTER LXXIX. 

WMed Cmdvct of the Dauphin, and mAappy DeathJ Charts 
the ViclarmiS. - Singidar Fashiwis m Dress. 




hiuis XI, I II'>1 '" "8^- 

. . ■ . m n .r„n,. WIS Krreed on between the KuRlish and Krench. 

1. In l^l"^'"'"^Vfi .'nrU.ms cousin to the kina, who had 

'" ""' ^""^ -rin Fulhnd : e?sin "iheSe of .^Kincn.rt, found 

•--ii, Lr'S^[;r;i"?cl'!irI:r««e.n France a,Kn,.a„.. ^ 2. What .. 



LOUfS XI. — 1461 



14}' 



K 



Jaii^hter of the Duke of Biirjiundv, and liis son was afterwards Kins 
of France, by the title of Louis XII. 

2. Charles now hoped to have a little enjoyment in attending to 
his oardens, of which he was very fond, and i'n other quiet amuse- 
ments. 13ut his son, the dauphiri, afterwards Louis XL, would allow 
him no rest. He had early shown a disobedient and malitrnant tem- 
per- At the aire of sixteen he excited a rebellion acrainst his father, 
who afterwards forgave him, and received him into favor. 

li. But the kino: was so(mi oblitred to banish him to Dauphinv. 
Here he became so obnoxious to the i)eople, that he was forced to fly 
mto IJurirundy, where the duke received him with kindness. ThiV 
kiiidiie.ss he repaid by exeitintr dissensions between him and his son 
the Count of Charolois. ' 

4. Louis was even charged with havinn^ bribed the servants to 
poison his own father. The unhappy monarch, under this fear 
retuse.1 to take any food, and actually starved himself to death, in 
itbl. He was in the fifty-ninth year of his aire, and had reigned 
thirty-nine years. ^ 

5. As Charles Vll. was of low stature, and had very short legs 
he jrenerally w(.re a dress that would conceal his pers(.nal defects' 
I he fashion ot lon^r and loo.se frarments, which had been laid aside 

durM)<,r the reitrn of John, was therefore revived. Hut in the first 
year ()j his successor, Louis XL, a total revoluti..n lo(»k place in dress 

(>. 1 he ladies laid aside their lonjr trains, and cut oil" their sleeves 
vvhjch had swept the frround ; in their place they had deep borders 
ot lur, of velvet, and of other materials, made of .rreat breadth The 
ohanjre in the bend-dress was e.pially comj)lete. 

7. Jn the reiij.i of Charles V|. it had been necessary to make the 
doors wider, to admit a head-dress six feel broad. Now the same 
doors must be made hio-ber, to admit an extraordinary structure 
nearly three feet in heijrht. This was in the form of a turban, taper' 
mn: toward the top, and wreathed round with a handkerchief of silk 
or other lig^ht material, the corners of which hunjr to the around 

y. l^or men s dress the loner robes were succeeded by short jackets 
that scarcely reached the waist, and fittinrr close to the body The 
s eeves were slashed to show their white shirts, and the jacket was 
fastened by lace to the breeches, which were equally tijrht 

brn.; t 'vr^""'^ ''■^''^ ''"^^^' f ^^^ shoulders to make them appear 
broad. I he hair was worn so long that it covered the eyes and fkce. 
Un the head was worn a cloth bonnet half a yard hicrh. Kniirhts and 
squires, indimTently, wore the most sumptuous gold chains The 
nobhj authors complain that citizens, and even servants, had 'jackets 
of silk satin, or velvet, and that almost all wore peaks at their shoes 



Charles' What of his son Louis? 4. What caused hia death 7 r, w>... ,1, 

13' 




14S 



LHAKl.KS Ml 1»W 



by the French, and despisea ^^^' ^^ ' /' 7. 'I ;,,,,rrci in the Ltre.ts. 

i-:;lr^^S;thel;.d";;;;^^ 

^^^t tII;: -la'ursrinh.. K..l.h ^ew worse a.uiwor..^^O^^^^^^ 

tirst to throw <.pen U. oaus to l^n ... n ^^^ ;,,,,, .f seventeen 
,nu<le his i.uhlie .ntry into '''^V'^l'lV ' ' \..;^';, "reet a stattie to the 
years. ( )ne of th. lirst aets ot the t n ^^ ^^ j^^ .;^;^': -^ ,,^^, continued 
Maid of Orleans on the spot where ^lie dud, ulun. 

to the present day. ♦•..,„;nP in Franee, foUowed hy a 

8. In MM there was a -reat *•» "^ ;. ^^^^ ,„' i>,,ri,, that the 

dreadful pestilenee. So .reat was ^^J^^ ^ a hildren were 
wolves ro.uned ahout the nearly ^^.^^^.^^^^ .f 'S\>i\;';.,.,„t, Bedford, 
carried olf heh.n- the ^'>-'-'* '^J^ J^WH tune the 

died of vexatio.i at the success «\ /» ^ J ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^f Calais 
Knglish possessed no territory in I' ranee but ine cuy 



CHAPTER LXXIX. 

Wicked Conduct of the Dauphin, and unhappy Death of Charles 
Wicked L07J f^ __ ^^^ .^^, p^^j^,,,,, ,n Dress. ^ 




Lniiis XJ, n»'i f" ii'^^- 



,1 ... »w.t\^.>pii the Kni'lish and French. 



LOUIS XI. -1161 



14}' 



Jiuiffhtcr of the Dnkr ..( Burunndv, and his son was afterwards Kina 
ot France, hy the title of Louis XII. 

2. ("harles now hoped \o have a little enjovnient in attendino- to 
his gardens, of which he was very fond, ami in other quiet ainns*-- 
ments. JJut his.^on, tlio dauphin. :.ftriward.^ Louis XL, would allov' 
linn no rest. H,. J,ud early sjn.wn a disi.hedient and inalii:nant tem- 
per. At the aire of sixteen li.- oxeited a rehtdlion nirainst his father, 
who alt.Twards lorirave him, and received iiim into favor. 

.'{. IJut thr kiiiir was smm ohlijTod t«. hanish him to Dauphinv. 
line I,, hi'vuiuo so olmoxiciis f.. il,,. people, that he was forced to fly 
mto H.irLMindy, where tl... dukr ivceived him with kindness. TliiV 
km. iiess ho repaid hy .xeitinu dis.^cnsions hetvveen him and his son 
the ( oiirit of ( 'harojois. ' 

1. Louis was oven .-harLM'd witli haviii<r hrilx-d the servants to 
."M.son his own falhor. The unhappy m.M.areh, under this fear 
retii.scl 10 take anv Wnnl, and aetualiy .starved himsolf l<. death, in 
IM'l. lir was m ih.' hlty-nmth year of his airo, and had rei<rned 
thiriy-nine years. ^ 

.'>. As ("iiarhs \ II. was ».f low stature, and had very short leo-g 
he generally wore a dress that would eoncai his personal (h^fecls' 
I lie fashion ot lonji and l.x.se jrarments, which had hoen laid aside 
'Iminir tho reiirn of .Ldm, was therefore ivviv.>d. Hot jn the first 
year ot his suecessor Louis XL, a total nv..l..iion to.dv plar.> in dress 

♦ >. 1 ho ladles laid aside their loiii: trains, and eut olf their sleeves 
whieh ha<l swept the irrouiul ; in their place thev ha.l de,.p horders 
o Inr, of velvet, and of other materials, mad(> of ^inat hreadth. Tho 
•■lian^M' 111 the head-dress was e.piaily comj)loto. 

7. In the ri-jr,, of ('h:,rh.s \|. it had l.,>en neo'ssary to mak.- the 
•ours wider, t.i admit a Inad-dress six feet hroad. Now the same 
•I'HTs mu.s. I,e made hii^her, to a.lmit an extraoniinary structure 
nearly three e.-t m heinh,. 'I'his was in the form of a tnVhan, taper- 
mjj toward the top. and wreathed round with a handkerchief of silk 
or other liirhi material, tin' corners of which hunjr to tin; around " 

H. i-or men s dress the lomr roh(>s were succeeded hy short iackets 
that scarcely reached tlw waist, and tiltinu close to the hody The 
seeves were slashed to show their white shirts, and the jJkct ^^'^ 
laMened hy lace to the hreeches, which were equally ti-ht. 

.♦. 1 1);| jackets were stidfed at the shoulders to mak;> them appear 
'read. 1 ho hair was worn so lonjr ih,t it covered the eyes and Le 
On the head was worn a cloth homiet half a yard lii.rh. Kniohts and 
squires, mdillerently, wore the most sumimious ^r7,|d chains ^Thc 
nolde authors complain that citizens, and even servants, had iackets 
"f silk satm, or velvet, and that almost all wore peaks at their shoea 



'.;tiarles Whiii of hi3 s<.in Louis? 4. What causerl hi<. ,U»i7,t r i.r. . u 

13* 



m^' 



i 



160 



LOUIi^ XI. -1481. 



CHAPTER LXXX. 

> 

Lmii XL — The League of the Public 6 ^. 

1 Louis was in Burgundy when he heard of his father'u death. 
Jle invited the duke to accompany him to Rheims. As there were 
Bome apprehensions that the succession might be disputed, that prince 
summoned his nobles to meet him at St. Quentin ; and so well was 
llie summons obeyed, that one hundred thousand men appeared there 

at the time appointed. 

2 But a vassal at the head of so large an army seemed to Louis to 
be rather a dangerous friend ; yet it would be still more dangerous 
to turn that friend into a foe by any appearance of distrust. He con- 
trived, however, artfully to insinuate to the duke that the appearance 
of so lartrc a force might alarm his subjects. The duke, who had no 
Sinister motives, at once dismissed his troops, and took the road to 
Rheims, accompanied onlv by four thousand of his nobles. 

3 From Rheims, where he was consecrated by the archbishop, 
Louis proceeded to Paris : and the natural frivolity of the people, or 
the powerful force by which he was now accompanied, secured to 
hinia.T„<,(l reception. His first act was to deprive his brother of 
everything that his father had given him, excepting the county ot 

Bern 

4. He dismissed all his father's counsellors, and replaced them 

by men of low extraction and mean habits, who, he thought, would 

be more subservient to his will than he could expect persons of 

hiffher rank to be. These measures excited the indignation ot the 

nobles, and a lea-ue, called " The League of the Pubhc Good was 

formed against the king, at the head of which were the Dukes ot 

Berri and Bretatjne. r i • 

5 The Count of Charolois also joined the confederacy ; for his 
warm nature could not but highly resent the heartless, ungratetul 
manner in which the kinjz, forgetful of all his obligations to the hou^ 
of Bur<Tundy, took everv opportunity to weaken and injure it. 

(J The leatnie assembled a powerful army which might have berin 
rery formidable to Louis, had they agreed between themselves. But 
amontr so many chiefs there was no leader. Although encamped 
close "to Paris, thev let three weeks pass away without doing any- 
(hincT of importance. Louis in the mean time was collecting forces. 

T^Fea.ing to trust to the event of a battle, he sought to dissolve 
this formidable confederacy by policy. This great object he accom- 
plished at the expense of a few promises ; and with no other loss than 
that of his honor, which he little regarded. 

8. The Dukes of Burgundy and Bern were satisfied ; and liherU 



\ 



LOUIii XI. — 1468. 



15J 



proniiajs were maoe to all the malecontent nobles. They did not, 
however, gain so much as they had reckoned upon ; for the crafty 
king found various means to evade the fulfilment of his promises. 



CHAPTER LXXXL 

About Burgundy. — Louis a Prisoner to Charles the Bolt — 
The Perfidy of Louis meets its due Piaiishment. 

1. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, died in 1467. Under his 
'o.ig and peaceful rule, his subjects lived in great plenty and pros- 
perity. 'Fliey had but few taxes to pay. " If any country might be 
said to resemble the Land of Promise," says Comines, " it was this 
country, whicli abounded in wealth and repose. The expenses of the 
men and women were great and extravagant, and their entertainments 
most profuse and splendid." 

2. The city of Antwerp V'as the centre of the commerce of north 
ern Europe. Bruges was as large and prosperous as Antwerp. At 
Arras, the most beautiful tapestry was made. In Ghent there were 
more than 50,000 workmen employed in the woollen trade. The 
prosperity and wealth of the people made the duke more powerful 
than many kings, and his court was the most splendid in Europe. 

3. The Count of Charolois, Charles, surnanied the Bold, inherited 
the vast dominions, but not the wisdom and prudence, of liis father. 
He was brave and generous, but passionate and hasty. He soon had 
cause of complaint against Louis, who, believing himself to be a better 
politician and not so good a soldier as his antagonist, desired to have 
a personal conference. 

4. It wius agreed to have a meeting at Peronne, a town belonging 
to Burgundy. Ix)uis, to make a display of his confidence in the 
duke's honor, came witb only a small number of attendants. To 
secure his own safety from some of his enemies who were in the 
town, he desired that he might be lodged in the castle. 

5. A short time before coining to Peronne, Ix)uis had sent emissa- 
ries into Flanders, which now belonged to the Duke of Burgundy, to 
excite a rebellion there. By an unaccountable oversight, he had for- 
gotten to countermand the orders. It so ha|)pened, that, at the very 
m(»ment when he was at Peronne trying to cajole the Duke of Bur- 
gindy, his agents excited the people of Liege to revolt. 

6. On the discovery of this treacherous dealing, Charles ordered 
the fjates of the c:istle to be shut, thus making the king a prisoner, 
riius the artful and perfidious Louis was caught in a net of his own 
contriving. He did not, however, lose hu presence of mind in this 
emergency 



I AXX - 1. What of the Duke of Bureundy ? 2. How di.l L«>"'^ »^'' ;^'* i". ''"" ■ . ,^^ . 
4ow\vliuH.i.s received at Paris? 4. What did Ix,m. do? 3.6. What d the nobles 
in) 7,8. How did I.OUW dissolve the league? 



LXXXI. — 1. What of Burgundy ? 2. What were the principal citea ? What of tha 
wealth of the people? 3. What of Charles the Bold ? 4. What did Ixuis do? .0 What 
e>l to the imf-isonnient of Louis? 6. Relate the incidents of his inprisonmenl a"»d 



152 



LOUIS XI.- 1475. 



7 H(3 I'ound means, through the few servants wlio were jc imitted 
to ffo in and out of the castle, to send temptinjT offers of rich fritts to 
thos*5 of the duke's attendants who had most intlucnce witli their 
master. These exerted tliemsclves to allay ih% passion of Charles. 

8 For two days and three nights, he remained in a state of the 
L'reatest agitation. At length he became more tractable, and con 
sented to spare the king's life, and to give him his liberty, uiKin con- 
ditions sufficiently humiliating. Om; of these conditions vvas, that 
Louis should accompany the duke to Liege, and assist m (lueilmg the 
insurrection he had himself excited. , •• t 

To Lir<re, therefore, the two princes went ; and it Louis was 
capable of feding any remorse or pity, he must have been t«)uched at 
witnessin«- the dreadful fate which his own acts had broufrht on this 
unhappy people ; for Charles, in his passion, spared neither the inno- 
cent nor the guilty. , , • , a 

10 The Parisians were very facetious at the king s expense, and 
at the failure of his fine contrivances. To revenge himselt, he 
deprived them of all the tame animals and birds they kept tor their 
amusement. He had a register kept of all that the parrots and other 
talking birds said, to find out if any of them had been taught to pro- 
nouive that unlucky word ''Prronw .'' 

11 One of tlu' duke's attendants whose influence Louis secured, 
was the celebrated Philii> de Comines, who became impressed with 
a frreat opini(»n of the king's wisdom, and perhaps also of his liberal- 
ity, lie afterwards entered the service of Louis, and has left us, m 
his memoirs of his own times, one of the ablest and most entertaining 
histories ever written. 



CHAPTER LXXXIL 

Meeting letwceii Lmds XL and Edward IV. — About Stvil 

zerland. 

1. In 1475, Edward IV. of England entered France through " the 
ever open gate of Calais," with a powerful army. His first step was 
t(» send a herald to Louis to claim the crown of France, and to deliver 
a defiance in case of refusal. . 

2. Louis, who remembered the terrible days of Cressy and Agin- 
court, trembled at the thoughts of an English army in France, and 
reg<dved to spare no pains to get rid of it peaceably. He received 
ihe herald in the most courteous manner, made him rich gifts, and 
promised him more if he would use his good otiices in effecting a 
peace. 



lelease. 8. \^ rial were the conditioiwl 10. What did Louis do U- 1(« Pirisiantl II. 
Whut»a3 PliilipdnCtimincs? , , r. i -« r i- 

LXX.KII -1. Whar happened in 1475? 2. What was the conduct of Uuii 7 4 ». b. 



tOtriS XI —1477. 



.53 



3. The herald was won by the condescension seconded by the lil»- 
trality of the king, and readily entered into his views. Through him, 
Louis was enabled to purchase the good will of some of Edward's 
most influential ministers, and finally to bribe that monarch himself to 
return to Fngland. 

4. Witb his *' good brother of England " he requested a personal 
interview ; still, however, so much distrusting Edward, that he 
would only meet him upon a bridge, in the centre of which was a 
large wooden grating, about breast high, so that the kings might dis- 
course together leaning over it. 

5. Comines gives us a long description of thi; meeting. " The 
King of England advanced with the air of a king, dressed in cloth of 
gold, and having a black velvet cap on his head, with a large lily 
made of precious stones upon it. He was a prince of majestic ap- 
pearance ; tall and straight, but not so handsome as he was in his 
, ounger days, when he was the most beautiful person that eyes ever 
beheld. 

6. " When he came to a little distance from the grate, he pulled 
off his cap, and bowed himself to within half a toot of the ground. 
Then the Kiiijr of France, who was leaning on the top of the raU, 
received him with abundance of reference and respect, and they em- 
braced through the holes of the grate. 

7. " After promising, in the most solemn mamier, faithfully to ob- 
serve the treaty they had made, the kings passed some time in fairil- 
iar discourse ; and the wit and pl(.«asantry of Louis almost tempted 
Edward to pay him a visit at Paris ; an honor which the King of 
France did not covet, for fear his powerful rival might be unwilling 
to leave it aj^ain.*' 

8. Soon after this, Charles the Bold made a treaty with France. 
His ambition now turned his arms against Switzerland. This coun- 
try seemed to otfer small temptation to a rich and powerful prince. 
It was distinguished for little but the poverty, simplicity, and valor of 
its inhabitants, and the deputies who waited upon Charles assured 
that prince, tiiat their whole country was not worth so much as the 
spurs of his knights. 

9. Hut these simple peasants, fighting in defence of liberty, were 
more than a matcli tor the veteran and well-disciplined troops of Bur- 
gundy. (Jharles suffered two defeats, and in the second, lost his own 
life. So unacquainted were the victors with objects of luxury, that 
the most magnificent pavilions were torn up to make clothes, and the 
superb silver and gold plate of the duke was mistaken for pewter, and 
readily exchanged fi)r copper, which they esteemed the most useful 
of the two. 

10. A magnificent diamond, which \\u\ duke had worn in his cap, 
was found by one of the pea.sants, who thought it was glass, and 
threw it down ; however, as it sparkled and looked pretty, he picked 
It up again, and put it in his pocket. He was quite delighted to 
find a purchaser for the bauble, at the price of a few shillings. The 



7 f^laro the particulars of the intnrvie belweea I/Hiis and Edward. 8. Against whcia rt' 



154 



LOUIS XI — 147T. 



purchaser, equally ignorant of its value, being in want of money, soW 
It for a trifle. ^,„:„„ nf thp kincr and was one ot 

could be no end. Comiiieb itiis us, ^ 

ah,.ct and iniseralde people ^h^"/ 1^^/^^^,^,^ ,Lt%^^^^^ „ot less' a 
of Charles;" — a strikin? proof hat a v^ariiKe ruiei 
^ourge to his own people than to his enemies. 



CHAPTER LXXXIII. 



Mary of Biir gundy. 



1 T u ,s did not attempt to coilceal his joy at the death of the duke, 

^"^ a'^'a crreat nart of the mob were moved to compassion, and would 
K .^Sd with her ^^^ but others violently opposed it and 

t;^^:S.^^X'^^^ pHnce.Un.ea to he. pal- 

est son of the Emperor of Germany 

tWe. .heB>>.a make war, VVhatl^ii^j^I^j^jr^ft^^^^^^^^ 
\\ixxT-r2"wto '^^''!f^KS°f»:a:e Duke „f Burg„nd.7 3.4 WK.. 



LOUIS Al —1480. 



\bb 



h. ** He was a man," saysComines, " little likely to oe pleaeant to 
A daucrhter of Buifrundy, whose tables are nicely served, whose pal- 
aces are man^nificenl, aiid whose dress was sumptuous. But the Ger- 
mans are quite of a diHerent temper, boorish in their conversation, 
and dirty in their way of living." 

7. The briilegrooni was so poor or so covetous, that the lady was 
oblifred to furnish him with money, and with a retinue, to enable him 
to appear in a becoming manner at the nuptials. Mary survived 
her father only four years, and was then killed by a fall from her 
horse. 

8. iShe lelt two children, a son and a daughter. The latter was 
sent into France when she was two years old, to be educated as a 
wife for tiie dauphin ; and the son, named Philip, was brought up by 
the people of Ghent as their future duke. 



CHAPTER LXXXIV. 

About Louis XL — His Superstition. — The Royal Amuse' 

ments. — Hat-hunting. 

1. Edward IV. of England being dead, Louis was now rid of all 
his most feared and hated rivals. He had, either by secret treach- 
ery or open violence, reached a greater degree of power than any of 
his predecessors had attained. But now, instead of enjoying the 
fruits of his labor, he was to pay the penalty of his crimes. 

2. His constitution was broken down, and the fear of death filled 
him with indesoribable horrors. As his strength of body declined, 
the malevolence of his temper increased. Conscious, as he himself 

ells his son, " that he had grievously oppressed his people," he lived 
in constant dread of their revenge. 

3. He shut himself up in his castle of Plessis, which he fortified 
by digging ditches, and placing in them iron spikes. Not daring to 
trust his own subjects, he was guarded night and day by a band of 
Scotch archers, who had orders to shoot any person who approached 
without first making himself known. 

4. The great gates of the castle were never opened, but every per- 
son was admitted through a small gate, called a wichet-gate, through 
which but one person could pass at a time. So great was his dread 
of the nobles, that the princes of his own family, and even his own 
daughters, were forbidden to visit him without invitation. 

5. The avenues to this abode of misery were lined with gibbcfta 
instead of trees, and one of the three familiar associates of the king 
was Tristan I'Hermite, his hangman. The others were Oliver 



t,f ihe youn^ duchesa ? 5. Whom did she marry ? 6, 7. What of Maximilian ? What 
oeciiinft of Mary ? 8. What of her children ? 
L.\ X>iV. — 1. What of Ihe condition of Ixiuis 7 3. What -*id he do ? I. 5 tV^ritie 



156 



LOUIS XI. - 1483. 



Oaino, his barber, and Jacyaes Coctier, his physician. To the last 
this most tyrannical monarch was an absolute slave. 

G. Tl»e artful Jacques had pretended that an astrologer had pre 
dieted that his death should take place a few days before that of the 
kino^. TIk; kiuf^, therefore, watched over the life of Jacques with 
anxious care, loaded him with presents, and submitted to all his inso 
leuce. 

7. Ill the fear that his subjects mi^ht deprive him of the nrovern- 
iiHMit <Mi account of his increiisinjr imbecility, he made a great show 
of attention to business, and thoufjh he could not sec a single \yord, 
lu; pTet(Mi(led to read all the documents committed to his secretaries. 

8. That he might learn promptly what was going on in all parts of 
the kingdom, he established regular posts. Though these wore em- 
ployed in the service of the king, yet citi/.ons wore allowed to ride 
the post horses on payment <»f a certain sum. It was not until 1030, 
that the letters of privatti individuals were carried by the public posts. 

9. The king sought to divert his thoughts by anmsements. As 
huntiufj had been a favorite one, when he was in health, he caused a 
number of rats to be caught, and turned loose in his chamber, where 
he hunted them with cats. Hut he soon grew tired of this, and his 
itteudants devised another, which was more innocent. 

10. They collected the peasants, and, dividing them into bands, 
distributed them in the meadows about tlie castle, where some played 
on the pipes, whilst others danced and sung. Louis, who, to conceal 
the ravages of disease, now dressed with splendor, looked at them 
from the windows of the castle ; but if lie perceived that any one took 
notice of him, he instantly retired, and did not appear again that 
day. 

11. The nearer death api)roaciii'd, the more his dread of it in- 
creased. He tried to keep it oil" by all the arts of superJ-Ution. He 
kept various relics about his peivson, and his cap was stuck round with 
little leaden imajjes, to which hi; constantly addressed his prayers. 
He caused the holy oil to be brought from Rheims and kept it on his 
table. 

12. The Pope sent him various articlos of a.ssistance from Rome, 
and even the Grand Turk dosnatchod a (io[)utation of holy relics from 
Constantinople : the king feared to accept these last, as they came 
from infidel hands, flis chief reliance was on a holy hermit of Cala- 
bria, whom he caused to be brought to his castle, and whom he fre 
quently, on his knees, besought to prolong his life. 

13. Believiughimself to be on the point of expiring, he ordered his 
chief officers to go to his son, and to consider him as their master : at 
the same time he sent to the dauphin hawks and hounds, and all that 
was then considered as forming the royal establishmeint. Reviving a 
little, he would have recalled them, but it was too late. 

14. His chW.l anxiety now was to iie Dn a Saturday, which he 



tiia ca:^l!e al Ple.s.sis. Who were hi3 favorites? 6. What hail Jactiiies |)ei-ui.ler him ^ 
7 Whaulid Louis Jo to deceive his subjects? S. What of po-sls ? i). What cf l!* 
artiusein^nts of Louis ? 11, 12. What did he do to prolo.i? his lile ? I'J. What did Ym * 
U lh« a| proach of deal h ? 11. When did ho die ? What was liis only merit? 



4 



i! 



1 



CHAKLE.S Vin." 1483. 



151 



esteemed the most fortunate, day. This wish was gratified, for he 
died on Saturday, August 30th, 1483. He left one son and two 
daughters. Louis is said to have possessed one merit : though he 
oppressed his subjects much, he never suffered any other person to 
do so. 



CHAPTER LXXXV. 

iJharles VIIL, surimmed the Courteom. — Anm of Beaujeu 
governs the Kingdom. — Charles ivins the Hand of the Heir- 
ess of Brittany. 




Charles VIIL, 1483 to 1497. 

1. Charles, either on account of a delicate constitution, or irom 
motives of jealousy, had been deprived of all the advantages of educa- 
tion : the orders of his father to prevent his application to study had 
been so rigorously enforced, that on his accession to the throne he 
could neither read nor write. 

2. Ashamed of his ignorance, the youthful monarch no sooner be- 
came his own master, than he pursued his studies with indefatigable 
zeal, and even acquired a taste for books. 15ut his early habits of 
idleness had given him an aversion to business, and he was very will- 
ing to leave the conduct of affairs to others. 

3. He was gay and lively, but so deficient in judgment, that, though 
he set out in Tife with one of the best hearts in the world, he waa 
continually guiltv of unjustifiable actions. He was generous and for- 
givino- to excess'; and had so gentle a temper, that it is recorded of 
him, that he never, in the course of his life, said a single word which 
could give pain to a human being. . 

4. Although, bv a law made by Charles V., the young king was 
of age to assume"' the reins of government, being in his fourteenth 
year"^ vet Louis did not deem it prudent to entrust them to such fee- 
ble hands. He therefore, bv his will, placed Charles under the guar- 



' JCXXV. — 1,2 3. What of Charh's 1 4. Who managed the government ? 5, 6 Whv 

14 



156 



LOUIS XI 1483. 



CHAKl.KS Vm. 11=^». 



151 



Ihiiiu, his barber, and Jacraes Coctier, his physician. To the lasi 
this most tyrannical nioniii-ch was an absolnte slave. 

0. The artful .1 acquis had pretcMided that an astrologer had pre 
dieted lliat his death should take plaee a tew days before that of the 
kiniT. Tht; kin<(, tiun-efore, watched over the life of .laeques with 
anxious eare, loaded him with presents, and submitted to all his in<(» 
lenco. 

7. In the fear that his subjeets mi<rht deprive him of the <rovern- 
ini'iit (HI account <»f his increasing imbecility, he m;idc a j^reat show 
(•f attention to business, and tbouuh he could not see a siny:le word, 
h». prclcndt'd to read all the* documents conmutte<l to his secretaries. 

H. That he mitrht learn promi)tly what was {xoin? on in all parts of 
the kim^^lom, he estal)lisbed resjular [)osts. Tboujih these were em- 
ployed in the servic;; of the kinix, yt citizens were allowed to ride 
the post horses on p:ivment of a certain sum. It w:is not until Iti.'iU. 
that tin; letters of private individuals were carried by the public posts. 

IJ. The kinjr sou-rht to divert his tbounhts by amusements. As 
huntinj^' had been a favorite one, when he was in health, he caused a 
number of rats to be cau«:lit. and turned lo»»se in his chamber, wh<re 
he hunted them with cats. IJul he .^(hmi u:rew tin^l of this, and Iim 
illendants devised anotht;r, which was more imiocent. 

10. They collected the peasants, and, dividin«r them into bands, 
distributed them in the meailows about theca.stle, where some played 
on the pi[H's, whilst others danced and sunjx- Louis, who, to conceal 
the rava<,res of disease, now dres.sed with splendor, looked at them 
from the windows of the caslle ; but if he perceived that any one took 
notice of him, he instantly retired, and did not appear a«;ain thai 
day. 

11. The nearer death appn»aebed, tbe more his dread of it in- 
creased. He tried t«» keep it otf by all the arts of superstition, lie 
kept various relics about his person, and his cap was stuck round with 
little h'aden imaucs, to which he constantly addressed his prayers. 
He cause<l the holv oil to be bmuLiiit from Kheiins and kept it on his 
table. 

1*J. The Pope sent him various articles of a.ssistance from Home, 
and even the (Jrand Turk de.>;itatebed a deputation (d' Indy rtdics trom 
('onstantino[)le : the kin<: f'ared to accept these last, as they came 
from inlidfd hands. His chief reliance was on a ludy hermit of Cala- 
bria, whom he caused to be broun^bt to his castle, and whom he fre 
quentlv. on bis knees, Ijcsou^lit to pr{donn^ his life. 

13. Helievinu himself to be on the point of ex{)irinL^ he ordered his 
chief officers to j^o t(» bis .son, and to consider him as their master : at 
the same time he sent to the dauphin hawks and hounds, and all that 
was tlu'n considered as forminjz the royal establishment. Revivinj: a 
little, he would have recalled them, but it was too late. 

J 4. His chief .\nxiety now was to iie du a Saturday, which he 



his caslle .U Pii'ssi-t. Wlio wore lii.s favorites? 6. Wlial liail Jacipif-s |)eitn.!ef him ^ 
7 Wlial did Lours d<> to drceivo Ids swbiects ? ^. Wiuit of ih>s1.s ? '.». What cf ll^ 
ttrtiusf lU'iils of Loiii.s 1 II. 12. Wlul did he do to pn.lo.ii: his liie / i:!. What did h« * 
U the a| proach of deal h ? 11. When did he die 1 What wa.s his only merit? 



l' 



esteemed the most fortunate, dav. This wish was ^rratified, for he 
died on Saturday, August :U)th, 1183. He left one son and two 
daughters. Louis is said to have possessed one merit : though he 
op|)ressed his subjects much, he nevtM- sutiercd any other person to 
do so. 



CllAinEli LXXXV. 

Charles VI 11., sur named the Court cons. — Anuc of Beaujeu 
goi-eryis the Kingdom. — Charles wins the Hand of t.h£ Heir- 
ess of Brittamj. 




Charles VllL, 1 183 to 1497. 

1. Charles, either on acctumt of a delicate constitution, or Irom 
motives of jealousy, had been deprived (d'all the advantages of educa- 
tion : the orders of his father to i>revent his application to study had 
been so rigorously enforced, that on his accession to the throne he 
could neither read nor write. 

2. Ashamed of his ignorance, the youthful monarch no sooner be- 
came his own master, than he pursue«l his studies with indefatigable 
•/,.'al, and e\en ac.piire<l a taste for books, liut his early habits of 
idleness had given him an aversion to business, and he was very will- 
ing to leave the conduct of allairs to others. 

li. He was gay and lively, but so deficient in judgment, that, though 
he set out in Fife with one of the best hearts in the world, he waa 
continually guilty of unjnstifiabh; actions. He was generous ^^"^^J^t- 
.riviiKr to excess"; and had so gcnth- a temper, that it is recorded of 
iiim, that he never, in the course of his life, said a single word which 
could give pain to a human being. 

4. Although, by a law made by Charles V., the young king was 
of acrt; to assume"^the reins of gov;rnm(Mit, being in his fourteenth 
year, yet Louis did not deem it prudent to entrust them to such fee- 
ble hands. He therefore, by his will, plax;ed Charles under the guar- 



'.XXXV. — 1,2 .3. WhiinfCharl— 

14 



J Who managed the government? 5,6 W!r*» 



(58 



CHAKLES Vill — 149] 



dianship of his eldest sister Anne, wife of the Duke of Beaujeu, who, 
being the eldest daughter of the king, was styled Madame. 

5. The princes of the royal family, and more particularly the Duke 
of Orleans, did not readily submit to this arranofement. An assem- 
bly of the states vv;us called, with the hope i)f displacing her, but they 
confirmed her authority. She was a very strong-minded woman, and 
possessed great talents, with perha[»s a little too nnich of the politi<- 
spirit of her father. 

(}. She had not, however, his cunning or malevolence, and was ofi 
the whole a very fine woman. She was at this time only twenty-tw«i 
years of age, but she cheerfully gave up all the usual amusements of 
her age and sex, and devoted herself to business. 

7. The Duke of Orleans, deeming it unsafe to remain in France, 
fled to the court of Bretagne. This was the only fief that now re- 
mained independent of the king. Great additions had been made to 
the territories of the crown by Louis XI. He took by force a large 
district from the house of Burgundy. Boulogne he acquired by pur- 
chase. 

8. The counties of Maine and Anjou were bequeathed to him by 
Charles of Anjou, who also left to him Bar and Provence, and all the 
imaginary claims of the house of Anjou to the crown of Naples. As 
the reigning Duke of Bretagne had no sons, the rulers of France had 
already begun to cast their eyes upon it. Anne was glad of a pretext 
for war. 

9. The Bretons were defeated at St. Aubin, July 28th, 1488. 
The Duke of Orleans was taken prisoner, and closely confined ; to 
make his captivity doubly sure, he was shut up in an iron cage every 
night. The Duke of Bretagne did not long survive the defeat. His 
daughter Anne, sole heiress of the duchy, was onlv thirteen years 
old. • ^ 

10. But she possessed a strong and vigorous mind, and discretion 
far beyond her years. The Bretons were anxious that she should 
marry, and thus give them a protector. Some advised her to marrv 
the Seigneur d'Albret, whilst others urged her to settle all difficul- 
ties by marrying Charles. But she did not fancy either of these ; 
d'Albret was old enough to be her grandfather, and she looked upon 
Charles as the natural enemy of her family. 

11. Her choice fell upon Maximilian. They were formally es- 
poused ; but, either from indolence, or some other cause, he neither 
came to claim his bride, nor sent any troops to her aid. Charles, 
seeing her neglected by her betrothed husband, renewed his suit. It 
was backed by 50,000 strong arguments. 

12. But Charles was too gallant a knight to rely upon these. En- 
tering her capital city in disguise, he visited the princess, and plead- 
ed with such good success, that he won his cause. They were mar- 
ried December 10th, 1491. 



if .\iine of Beaujeu ? 7. What of the territories of the king ? 9. What of the battle ol 
Kt. Aubiu ; How was the Duke of Orleans ireatetl? 10. What of Anne of Eriltanyi 
11,12. What of her marriage ? 



CHARLES VIII. -1494. 



159 



CHAPTER LXXXVI. 

Ckarles invades Italy. — His rapid Success aiid its Comequences 
. -Retires from Italy. — Gains the Battle of Formva. 

I The kingdom was now at the highest pitch of power. Allet 
the lapse of several centuries, all France was again united under oiu 
Bovereicrn. A passion for military glory rendered Charles insensible 
to the pleasure of possessing real power. Caesar and Charlemagne 
had been his favorite characters in history. During his period ol 
study, ho had caused their lives to be translated into trench. 

"> ' He resolved to enforce the claims he had upon Naples hy virtue 
of Charles of Anjou's bequest to Louis XI. He was urged to do so 
by Ludovico Sforza, a man preeminent, even in that age, tor perhdy, 
ingratitude, and cruelly, and who wished to dispossess his nephew 
of'the duchy of Milan. 

3 Charles set out on the enterprise in 1494, with so little prepara- 
tion that he could only collect an army of 18,000 men, and with so 
little money that before he reached Italy he was obliged to borrow 
the jewels of some of the court ladies, to raise money upon them to 

nay his troops. , , i *■ »„ 

4 Ferdinand of Naples and the Italian princes had ample time to 
prepare for their defence, but they imagined tliat the whole would 
end in idle talk. Ferdinand, his son Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, and 
the Pope, Alexander VI., were all notorious for their vices. 

5 ''It seemed," says the old historian Mezerai, "as if txod had 
blindfolded their eves,'and tied down their hands, and raised up this 
youn^T kintr to chastise them, who came with a small force and a 
brainless cmincil." Charles proclaimed himself " the friend of free 
dom, and the enemy of tyrants.''' . j o 

6 Every city opened its gales at his approach. He entered Home 
and 'Naples in' triumph. Ferdinand of Naples was now dead and 
Alfonso reigned. As soon as this prince heard of the advance of the 
French towards Naples, his terror seemed to deprive him ot his 
senses. While they were yet distant, he would faticy that he heard 
them in the streets, and that the very stones cried out. France. 
France '" which was the war-cry of the I rench soldiers. 

7 He would not wait for their coming, but fled to Messina, and 
shut himself up in a monastery, where his miserable existence /sas 
soon terminated. He had amassed great treasures by fraud and cru- 
elty, and yet, when he fled from Naples, he showed no anxiety to 
save anything but a few garden seeds. He was succeeded by his son 
Ferdinand, a prince of great promise. _ 

8 Charles was received at Naples as a deliverer from oppression. 
This brilliant success absolutely turned the heads of Charles and his 



LXXXVI. - I. What was the slate of the kingdom? fhat of Clmrles ? 2. VfhM 
claims did he revive? 3. What of his preparat.onjor *«1,.^.;^- .^^f^^^gV 8 Wl^ 
princes ? 6. W hat of the success of Charles ? 7. W t.a-. : . AM-.o^ of N .plea * o. w '-i 



160 



CHARLES VIII. -1496. 



council. Instead of trying to secure their conquest, they gave them 
selves up to diversions and feasting. The soldiers followed thu 
example of their leaders. 

9. The inhabitants were ill treated, their goods pillaged, and theil 
rights disregarded. The Neapolitans soon found that their new mas 
ters were worse than their old, and that these professed friends of 
freedom were in fact great tyrants. 

10. Whilst Charles was thus wasting his time, a powerful confed- 
eraey was forming against him. Sfor/a, having succeeded in his 
designs upon Milan, joined the other princes of Italy against Charles. 

I hey were supported by Maximilian, who had now become emperor 
and who had an old grudge against (Jharles on account of the loss ol 
his bride, and also by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. 

U. C'harles was at length roused from his thoughtless security 
His only safety was in being able to return to France. He had but 
nine thoasand men left, and his course was » bstriicted by an army of 
the allies amounting to forty thousand men, who were strongly posted 
in the valley of Fornova. Charles had now his first opportunity of 
showing his skill in war. 

12. With his little army he broke through the ranks of the enemy, 
and gained a victory, with the loss of only eightv of his men. But 
three thousand of the enemy were left dead on the' field. The victory 
was no other advantage to' him than to open a way into France, for 
he was stripped of all his conquests in Italy in as short a time as he 
had gained them. 

13. The exiled Ferdinand, by the help of Gonsalvo de Cordova, 
called the Great Captain, whom Ferdinand and Isabella sent to his 
assistance, speedily recovered the whole kingdom of Naples, and 
before the close of the year 1 lOfi, Italv had resumed the same appear- 
ance as before the invasion of Charles. 



CHAPTER LXXXVH. 



iyudden Change hi the Conduct of Charles the Cmirtems, — 
The manner of his Death and his Character, 

1. Charles, after his return from Italy, gave himself up for a 
lime to those pleasures and diversions which were the ruin of his 
Italian expedition. Yielding at length to the clamors of his sub- 
jf cts, he assembled a new army and procee<led again on his way to 
Italy ^ 

2 The advanced cavalry had already passed the Alps, and Charles 
had reached Lyons, when suddenly a total change took place in his 



effeci h;i<l success on Charles? 9. How did the French !)ehave ? 10. What was the 
consefiuence ? 11.12. What of the battle of Fomova ? 13. What if Gc jsalvo de Cor- 
dova ? 

LXXXVII. --1 Wh»». expedition did Charles undertake? 2 :i Wha change took 



^HARLES \ni. — 149^>. 



161 



^iidracler and conduct. The enterprise was abandoned, and Charhis, 
forsaking his frivolous diversions, seemed desirous to live only for the 
good of his people. 

3. He dismissed all unjust judges and unworthy persons from their 
offices. He had shown a determination to effect a reform in the man- 
ners of the clergy, whose extreme ignorance and great vices had made 
them contemptible in the eyes of the people, when his life was sud- 
denly cut short. 

4. During hissti.y in Italy he had acquired a taste for architecture, 
and on his return he gave orders for tlu^ erection at Amboise, the 
place of his birth, of an edifice which was to Ix: more magnificent than 
had yet been seen in France. This palace was to be decorated with 
splendid furniture, statues and paintings, which he had brought from 
Italy. 

5. One day, when he and the (picen were at this palace, some 
noblemen were playing ball in the ditoh below. Desirous that the 
queen should see the sport, he went to her cliambcr, and led her into 
a gallery from which she could st>e the players. 

6. The doorway of this gallery was so low that the king in enter 
ing struck his head against the loj». lie took no notice, however, of 
the blow, but entered into eonversation with the persons assembled 
there. To one of them he said that " he hoped he should never com- 
mit another wilful sin as long as he lived." As he spoke these 
words, he fell senseless to the ground. 

7. He was laid upon a wretched bed which stood near, and in a 
short time expired. This happened on the 17th of April, 1498. He 
was in the twenty-eighth year of his age, and the fifteenth of his 
/eign. Charles had a very ordinary figure, and with the exception 
of his eyes, which were sharp and brilliant, his face was ugly. 

8. He spoke slowly and with difficulty, but the kindness of his 
manner and his amiable qualities rendered him a universal favorite, 
and acquired for him the surname of " the Courteous.'' Never was 
any man more beloved ; two of his servants are said to have died of 
sorrow for the loss of him, and Anne of Brittany, his widow, was 
D.lmost crazy with grief. 

9. Charles left no children, and was succeeded upon the throne by 
Louis, great-grandson of Charles V., whom we have hitherto known 
as the Duke of Orleans, but who was henceforth known as Louis XII. 



♦lace IP the king? 4. What of his taste for architecture '/ 5, •>, 7. Relate the manuf I 
nf his ifeath. When did he die ? 8 What was hi» surname ? 9. Who aucceetlp I to \X» 
Uown * 

14* 




i&2 



LOUIS Xh - 1499. 



LOUIS xn— uyy. 



163 



CIjAPTER LXXXVIII. 

Louis XII , called the Father of his People. — About Cardt^wi 
d'Amhmse^ his Wise Minister. — Mare of Anne of Brittany. 




Louis XII., 1498 to 1515. 

1. Louis XII., when he succeeded to the throne, was in /he thirtv- 
Bixth year of his age. His early life had been attended ivith many 
sorrows and mortifications. The jealousy of Louis XL who would 
not permit one so nearly related to the throne to be far absent from 
his own person, had caused him to be kept in a state of constant sub- 
jection. 

2. His misfortunes after the death of that monarch are familiar to 
you. But all these vexations and trials had produced a most happy 
effect on his character. No king of France was ever more solicitous 
to promote the happiness of his people ; and" so enthusiastically was 
he beloved by them in return, that they have bestowed upon him the 
surname of " the Father of his People.'"' 

3. He was anointed at Rheims, May 27th, and crowned at St. 
Denis, July 1st. Lnmediately on his accession he rewarded the zeal 
and fidelity of Georjfre d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen, by raising 
him to the dignity of prime minister. And never did a favorite betteT 
deserve the confidence of his master. 

4. During the whole of his administration he caused the sciences 
and trade to flourish. He was a munificent patron of literature ; and 
su'^h was his general conduct in the various stations which he occu- 
pied, and especially as prime minister, that he was as r iich beloved 
by the people as by his master. 

5. He labored zealously to effect a reformation among the clergy, 
and promoted it by his own example ; for he would hold but one ber.- 
efice at a time, and devoted two thirds of the revei. uc of that to the 
relief of the povjr and the repair of churches. 



6. The first care of Louis in entering on the concerns of his gov- 
eioment was to lessen the taxes, and improve the administration of 
justice. Being importuned to remove from the command of the army 
a brave old general, I)e la Trimouille, who had taken him prisoner 
at the battle of St. Aubin, Louis magnanimously replied, '''■that it 
(lid not become the King of France to revenge the quarrels of the Duke 
<f Orleans.'''' 

7. At the death of her husband, Anne of Brittany had retired into 
her own dominions, where she lived like an independent sovereign. 
I'hese were again united to the French crown by her marriage with 
Louis. Anne was quite remarkable for the propriety of her conduct, 
and tor her simple manners. Her court was a model of decorum. 

8. She was always surrounded by a numerous train of young 
ladies, whom she employed in embroidery, and in other works suitable 
to their rank. She herself would sit at work in the midst of them. 
She was a very excellent woman, and one of the very best among the 
queens of France. Her heart is yet preserved in the royal library at 
Paris, enclosed in a case of gold. 



a, 4 

'8 



LXXXV m. — I, 2. What of the charactor of Louis XH. ? What \v;w he surnameil ? 
5. What of Gifilinal d'Amlxiise? 6. What anecdote of the good tem|»er of Loui* i 
n hum did he iDarry / Whalr Anne ot Hriltauv ' 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 

Singular Ceremony performed by the Nobles of Castile. — Abait 

Isabella of Castile. 

1. It would have been happy if Louis, when he forgave the quar- 
rels of the Duke of Orleans, could also have forgotten some claims 
which that duke had upon Milan, derived from his grandmother. He 
would have avoided many difficulties, and been spared many mortifi- 
cations. 

2. In 1499 he sent an army into Italy, which, in twenty days, made 
him the master of the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Genoa. 
The king, clad in ducal robes, entered the city of Milan in triumph. 
Ludovico Sforza, being taken prisoner, was shut up in a castle in 
France, and there ended his days. 

3. Louis, not satisfied with the conquest of Milan, now turned his 
arms against Naples ; but foreseeing opposition from the Catholic 
king, Ferdinand of Spain, he proposed to that monarch to share with 
him in the robbery, and in the division of the spoils. 

4. Frederic of Naples, being in no condition to defend himself' 
against the combined monarchs, abandoned his territories, and, leav- 
ing his children to he mercy of Ferdinand, trusted himself to the 
generosity of Louis, who gave him a pension, and made lim Duke 
of Anjou. 

5. The prey being secured, a quarrel arose as to the division ol 
It ; each party desiring something more than his share. From allies 

IJCXXIX — i What of ih« cxTedition of Lt)uis into Italy? 3. What proposals die 
■Wi make to reiiUitand ? ^. \S tiat was the result of the proposal ? 7. Wh^t of Isabella 



I \ 



162 



LOUIS XI I - 1 1»J. 



LOUIS xn. H'jy. 



163 



CIjAPTEK lxxxviii. 

Lmiis XII , called the Father of his People. — About Cardi^ial 
d'Amheise, his Wise Minister. — More of Amie of Brittany. 




Louis XII., 1 l'J8 to 1515. 

1. Louis XII., when he succeeded to the throne, was in /he thirty- 
sixth year of his afje. His early life had heen attended ^■ith many 
Borrows and mortifications. The jealousy of Louis XL who would 
not permit one so nearly related to tli«> throne to he far ahsc^nt from 
his own person, had caused him to he kept in a state of constant suh- 
jection. 

2. His misfortunes after the death of that monarch are familiar to 
you. But all these vexations and trials had produced a most happy 
effect on his character. No kiii<r of France was ever more solicitous 
to promote the happiness of his people; and so enthusiastically was 
he beloved by them in return, that they have bestowed upon him the 
surname of '' the Fathrr <f his Prop/,/' 

3. He was anointed at Hheims, May 27th, and crowned at St. 
Denis, July 1st. Immediately on his accession he reward(Ml the zeal 
and fidelity of (Jeorfff d'Amboise, Archbishop of Houen, by raising 
him to the dijrnity of prime minister. And never did a favorite better 
deserve the confiderice of his master. 

4. During th(> whole of his administration he caused the sciences 
and trade to flourish. He was a munili<'(;nl jiatron of literature ; and 
su.-h was his ircneral conduct in tlic various stations which he occu- 
pied, and especially as prime; minister, that he was as r uch beloved 
by the people as by his master. 

5. He labored zealously to effect a reformation amonn^ the clerjjy, 
and promoted it by his own example ; for he would hold but one ber.- 
efice at a time, and devoted two thirds of the revei.uC of that to the 
relief of the pt/^r and the repair of churches. 



I'XXX\ III. —1,2 VVIi.u of the charactor of Louis XII. ? What wiw he suriunu'd ? 
V i- ^' .^''*''^ "'^ Canhiul irAinlxiise ) 6. VV hit autxdt.te of the gcxxl lem|»er of Ltmin J 
,8 U hom did he iiiarrv / What r Anne ol Hnttaav ' 



6. 'Ihe first care of Louis in entering on the concerns of his gov- 
einiTient was to lessen the taxes, and improve the administration of 
justice. Beint^ importuned to remove from the command of the army 
a brave old general, I)e la Trimouille, who had taken him prisoner 
at the battle of St. Aubin, Louis magnanimously replied, '"that it 
ilid not become the Kifi^ of France to reirnge the </i)arre/s of the Duke 
if Orleans."' 

7. At the death of her husband, Anne of lirittany had retired into 
her own dominions, where she lived like an independent sovereign. 
These were again united to the French crown by her marriage with 
Louis. Anne was (piite remarkable for the propriety of her conduct, 
and for her simple manners. Her court was a model of decorum. 

8. She was always surrounded by a numerous train of young 
ladies, whom she employed in embroidery, and in other works suitable 
to their rank. She lierself would sit at work in the midst of them. 
She was a very excellent woman, and one of the very best among the 
queens of France. Her heart is yet preserved in the royal library at 
PariS; enclosed in a case of gold. 



1 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 

Singular Ceremony performed by the Nobles of Castile. — Abcti 

Isabella of Castile. 

1. It would have been happy if Louis, when he forgave the quar- 
rels of the Duke of Orleans, could also have forgotten some claims 
which that duke had upon Milan, derived from his grandmother. He 
would have avoided many difficulties, and been .spared many mortifi- 
cations. 

2. In 1499 he sent an army into Italy, which, in twenty days, made 
him the master of the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Genoa. 
The king, clad in ducal robes, entered the city of Milan in triumph. 
Ludovico Sforza, being taken prisoner, was shut up in a castle in 
France, and there ended his days. 

3. Louis, not satisfied with the conquest of Milan, n(»w turned his 
arms against Naph's ; but foreseeing oj)position from the Catholic 
king, Ferdinand (»f Spain, he projKXsed to that monarch to share with 
him in the robbery, and in the division of the spoils. 

4. Frederic of Naples, being in no condition to defend himselt' 
against the combined monarchs, abandoned his territories, and, leav- 
ing his childr<>n to he mercy of Ferdinand, trusted himself to the 
generosity of Louis, who gave him a pension, and made lim Duke 
ot Anjou. 

5. The prey being secured, a quarrel arose as to the division of" 
it ; each party desiring something more than his share. From allies 

IJ^XXIX — i What of i\w oxwdilion of I^ouis into Italy? 3. What proposals die 
v» make to reidutand ? .'S. \> nat vva.s the result of the proposal ? 7. WhJ«l of Isal^lia 



164 



LOUIS XII. — 1507. 



Nhoiii lerdmand nuirricd ur-er the death of Isahelh, 
J.sabella was ol a very diirerent nature Iroin the eraltv 



o!2 J'^fr ""^'y.^^^' ^"d Gonsalvo de Cordova, partly by the e«*»f. 
P "tlv b! ,r U '^'T '^'r'.^^^^^ gained him'his'^surnamc a„d 
seonr^Pd -t. f^''^''^^^^ violations of the most solemn enpacremente 

;erfidiou'm.";r P""""" ''' '''' '''^^'^''' '^-^^^ to^.is e"u2' 
toOu.^L-./^?'^';"i5^T''^*'"''^ ^" Ferdinand all his ripht and title 

of Castile. 
Ferdinand. 

is L,er''4dTC,'",' ".V' "';'''" "",'' ^'"^"'"' "»«"^«' =""1 ^'-' "■■"'"■ 
in hose vic( th r ' " k" "''•, '■' "?•' '""'" ''" I'ro'ection, an.l 
IIV.T f u, ?;. ; ' '"'""'bus made the discovery of America .Sh,. 
«a.s mdebK'd lor ,er crown 1„ a suceesslul rcbellio,, IV ,»i,les of 
(-astile, disffusted by the vices of her brother He rv IV , 
Ihe ret^.in„ mot.arci., .I,.t,,r,„i„ed to depose him ^ ' ' "''" '''"' 

'orv \l ll^'lir "'■l"-'"^'-''-''"'? »^» altogether m.precedented in his- 
i7nir. . '"'""■ •""■'*°" "=»'' ""' '" "leir power, they deposed him 

:"«^:. ol^iSti-V.^;-'" "^ '■-■'- -P-'.'""i.^hatdfand"tt 

.ieptilio: ~r,,r.;" ]lrz x; Arti^ar^-TT.r' 

litl'e*'of1cinr',„r',L"'" "'"/""^H"""'"'' =""' """^y P"rehased the 

ch!dit';^d%;^i:Tarrb^^^^^^^^ 

;ege„, m ^ame of bis .rlroTwllo wroff;i'yer;r llS" 



;i^sto'Mfci.'^ir^i^'^^jr,f-s^^^^^ '» "-.... 




LOUIS XII. -1503. 



CHAPTER XC. 



165 



Ambitious Project of Pope Jidiits II. — Tue League of Cam 
hray. — Change in the regular Habits of Louu XII . cru.sc. 
his Death. 




Maximilian /., Emperor of Austria, 1493. 

1. In 1503, Julius II. was elected Pope. He was a great patron 
of the arts. He commenced the building; of the great church at 
Rome, called St. Peter's church, and he was the friend and patron 
of Raphael the painter, and Michael Angelo the painter and architect. 
Julius was one of the most bold and aspiring pontiffs thai ever sat 
upon the papal throne, and it is indebted to him for the greater pari 
of its present possessions. 

2. The great object of his ambition was to drive all the '* barbari- 
ans," as the Romans considered foreigners, out of Italy, and then to 
form a powerful state, of which the Pope was to be the head. But 
before driving them out, he wished to use their services to humble 
the proud and powerful commercial republic of Venice, which, if suf- 
fered to retain its power, might interfere with his ambitious plans. 

3. Louis, Maximilian, and Ferdinand had each some claim, eithei 
just or unjust, upon that republic, and Julius had skill enough to 
induce them to suspend their wars with one another, and to combine 
iheir power against the Venetians. This combination was the famous 
league of Cambray, formed in 1508, which was successful in its 
object, and stripped Venice of a considerable portion of its territory 

4. The councils of Louis had hitherto been governed by the Cardi 
nal d'Amboise. This great and good man was taken ill at Lyons, 
as he was accompanying his master to the Venetian war. Consciou.s 



XC. — 1. Whatof Julius II.? 2. What was the great object of his ambition? 3. Wla' 
<» I h^ leiETue of Cambray? 4 What of Cardinal d'Amboise? 5. WhJ.t of his deatn' 



iei4 



I^OITI.S XII. -150? 



urtly bvthe shamoh-ss violutions «.f thn most sclonin tM.-.rrenw.nts 

;s;:?i;:, 't^iir "■•^^'■^^^ '■ "- '"^'-^- ^"'*^"-" - >- -^"iw 

t..?i„.'Li'''"I'' '^"."jf. "■•'"^'■'•'•r.'l 1.. F,T,li„u„,l all his rinhl und till,. 

"'7';',!?""'J-' ^'n-li, .l-lrn,m„.,l ,„ ,|,.,,„s,. him ' " " "•'- 

-orv \"J j"""""''' "' I""""'''''''-!-' » ■'» allo^M.iher un,,roc>,l,,.„t,.,l i„ his- 

■Ins :,■.. „i' :,'::'^:,::r:r'''"' ,"' "- M^"-"'-Ariia, a„d„„ 

riivil ml„.r,v ' ;*'""' '■'■["■'•■•"■"•"■i: the ki...r, i„ his 

'«w!,;;;''j,;;:,i'::.'l;;"T-,i;,"'' "-^ '■'-'• ^' -i..re ,„ i,. ha„d:a„., u,; 

0. J he ariMisatioii ai/^aiiist Hmrv \vi« i-or.,i ,. i .» 

■f 1- - " "„. ' , "I if^.^7'i; ' fa^,3™,' ,;; 






iS'lIerifc4re7'^V'^vV''■Y ""'^^''"^ connected with her h i. story 
einernuusi e/ 11. U l.o bec.une sovereign at the death of Philmj 



10 Who ain. 




'S 



LOUIS XII.- i:i(«. 



CHAPTER XC. 



165 



Ambitions Project of Pope Julius II. — Tue Ijeagiie of Cam 
hraij. — Change in the regular Habits of Louis XII. 
his Death. 



(•/■//.sr. 




Maximilian I., Emperor of Austria, 1493. 

I. Jn 1503, Julius II. was elected Pope. He was a great patron 
of the arts. He commenced the buildinfj of the great church at 
Rome, called St. Peter's church, and he was the friend and patron 
of Raphael the painter, and Michael Angelo the i)ainter and architect. 
Julius was one of the most bold and aspiring pontiffs that ever sat 
upon the papal throne, and it is indebted to him for the greater pari 
of its present possessions. 

2. 'riie great object of his am!)ition was to drive all the " barbari- 
ans," as the Romans considered foreijincrs, out of Italy, and then to 
form a powerful state, of which the Pope was to be the head. But 
before driving tlicm out, he wished to use their services to humble 
the proud and powerful conunercial republic of Venice, which, if suf- 
fered to retain its power, might interfere with his ambitious plans. 

3. Louis, Maximilian, and Ferdinand had each some claim, eith<M 
just or unjust, upon that republic, and Julius had skill enough to 
induce them to suspend tlnur vvar.s with one another, and to combine 
iheir power against the Venetians. This combination was the famous 
league of Cambray, formed in l.'iOH, which was successful in its 
object, and stripped Venice of :« c()Msideral)le portion ()f its territory 

I. The c(nincils of L(uiis had hitherto l)cen governed by the Cardi 
nal d'Amboise. This great and good man was taken ill at Lyons, 
as he was accompanying his master to the Venetian war. Consciou.s 



XC. — 1. Wh,-\tof.Tulius If. ? 2. What \va.s the ^reat object of his ambition? 3. Wn.a 
of iV leiiriieof Cambrav? 4 What of Girdniald'Amboise? " "" 



5. Wh.'.t of hw doatn '• 



166 



LOUIS Xn. 1515. 



ofso^ae errors into which his ambition had led him, he expiessed hia 
regret to one of his attendants : " Alas!" said he^ '' why have I not 
been all mv life plain brother John?" 

5. His death, in 1510, was universally lamented, not oi ly by the 
French, but also by the adversaries of France. Julius alone, who 
7*ood in awe of his int»3£rrity, rejoiced at his death. Julius and Louis 

t last came to open war, and the former was i-educed almost to 
•xtremity, when the queen, who deemed it sacrilege to carry on vvai 
igainst the church, prevailed with Louis to spare him. 

6. But Julius, havinjr procured the assistance of Ferdinand and the 
Venetians, renewed the war, and their united forces were defeated by 
the French on the 11th of April, 1512, in a great battle at Ravenna. 
Julius died in 1513, and was succeeded by Leo X., who also suc- 
ceeded to his animosity against France. 

7. In the same year a new enemy appeared in Henry VHL of 
England, who, young and inconsiderate, was eager to display his 
spirit in a war with France. As he had no good pretences of his 
own, he assumed the quarrel of Maximilian. They united their 
forces, and defeated the French in an action near Guinegate. This 
being, on the part of the French, more a flight than a battle, has been 
called ''the haltle of the Spurs.'" 

8. Anne of Brittany died in 151 1. The king loved her with sin- 
cere affection, and was much afflicted at her death. In the course 
of a few months, however, to cement a peace with England, he mar- 
ried Mary, the young and beautiful sister of Henry. 

9. To please his yomjg bride, Louis gave up his regular heurs and 
quiet habit of life ; he relinquished his former custom of dining at 
eight o'clock in the morning, and retiring to rest at six in the evening 

10. He adopted instead the fashionably late dinner hour of twelve 
at noon, and would sit up at dances and gay assemblies till midnight. 
These altered habits disagreed with his health, which had long been 
declining, and he died January 1st, 1515. His only children were 
two daugliters ; the crown of France, therefore, passed to his cousin 
Francis, Count d'Angouleme. 

11. Brittany was the inheritance of Claude. Her father had long 
been desirous of marrying her to Francis, but Anne of Brittany 
opposed the maniage, on account of her disapprobation of the conduct 
of Louisa of Savoy, the count's mother, a woman of great beauty and 
talents, and of most extraordinary fascination of manners, but of very 
bad character. 



What of the war between Ix'jis and Julius' G. When was the battle of Ravenna? H* 
tween wtioni ? 7. What new enemy apjieareil ? What battle was fought ? S. Whoi.i die 
Uuis marry for his second wife? 9, 10. What caused his death? When did h« i'»' 
* ho succeeded to the throne ? 11. What of Brittany ? What of I^uisa of <\av ■ > 1 




* 




FRANCIS 1. — 1515. 



CHAPTER XCL 



167 



ilhout Francic L — Ladies Jirst appear at Court.- Change in 
the Fashion of dressing the Hair. — War in Italy. 




Francis /., 1515 to 1517. 

I Francis L was in the twenty-first year of hjs age. His person 
was finely formed, his face was handsome, and his whole air and 
demeanor chivalrous and princely. He was brave, generous and gay. 
His temper was so frank and open that he was incapable of disguise. 
But with these dazzling qualities he had many faults. 

2. His high opinion of himself laid him open to the arts of flattery. 
He wanted judgment, and at the same time that he was presumptuoua 
ind headstrong, he was apt to be deceived and governed by others. 
No faults were, howtner, seen in him at first. His gay and open 
character won all hearts. 

3. The young nobility, whom the frugality and more reserved 
deportment of TjOtiis XIL had kept at a distance, crowded round 
Francis, :md his court was the centre of all that was brilliant and 
noble. The aspect of the court was changed in another respect. 
Before his time, the nobles in attendance on the king left their wives 
to look after their families at home. 

4. But Francis invited the ladies to accompany their husbands, and 
at one time i^.'^re were as many as three hundred ladies in attendance 
at the court. As Francis was not very particular as to their charac- 
ter, some of them were very wicked women, and caballed and inter- 
fered in all affairs, so that their quarrels and meddling did infinite 
harm. 



*N 



\r* - I •> What of Francis 1.1 3 What of the youns nobility ? 4 What rhaii«» 



166 



LOUIS XIl 1515. 



ot'so'iie errors into wliich his ambition had led him, he expiessed hia 
regret to one of Jiis attendants : " AUis!" said he^ '' why have I not 
been :ill mv life plain hrothtr J»)hn ?" 

5. llis death, in 1510, was universally lamented, not oi ly by the 

Frenoh, but also by the adversaries of France. Julius alone, who 

7*ood ill nwe of his intcnrrity, n-joieed at his death. Julius and Louis 

t bust came to open war, and the former was 'redue«Hl almost to 

xlremity, when the queen, who dremed it sacrilege to carry on wai 

ijrainst the church, [irevailed with l^ouis to spare him. 

(i. But Julius, bavin;; l>ro<'uretl the assistance of Ferdinand and the 
V«-netia!is, renewed the war, and their iniited fiirces were defeated by 
the French on the llth of April, lol'J, in a irreat battle at Ravenna. 
Julius died in l')!:}, and was succeeded by Leo X., who also suc- 
ceeded to his animosity a«,niinsl France. 

7. In the san»e year a new enemy appeared in Henry \ IIL ot 
Kn^land, who, voun^r and inconsiderate, was eairer to display his 
spirit in a war with Franc«\ As he had no n^ood j)retenees (.f his 
own, he assumed the (piarrel of Maximilian. They united their 
forces, and defeated tln^ French in an action near Guine^nite. This 
beinif, on tlie part of the French, more a tlif?ht than a battle, has been 
calleti "//if ha/f/r of tin: Sinirs." 

8. Anne of Ikiltany died in I'llL 'i'he Uinf; loved her with sm- 
cere alleclion, and was mueh alHicted at her death. In the course 
of a few months, however, to cement a peace with England, he mar- 
ried Mary, the younu: and beautiful sister of Henry. 

li. To please his younir bride, liouis fjave up his re^jular heurs and 
quiet habit of life ; he reliiKpiished his former custom of dinin/ii^ at 
eijrht o'clock in the morninir, and retirinixto rest at six in the evening- 
^It). He adopted instead the fashionably late dinner luuir of twelve 
at noon, and would sit up at dances and pay assemblies till midni<:ht. 
These altered habits disagreed with his health, which had lotig been 
declining, and he died January 1st, 1515. His only children were 
two daugliters ; the crown of France, therefore, passed to his cousin 
Francis, Count d' Ani.n)uleme. 

11. Brittany was th»' inheritance of Claude. Her father had long 
been desirous of marrying her to Francis, but Anne of Brittany 
opposed the mariiage, on account of her disai)probali(ui of the conduct 
of Louisa of 8avoy, the count's mother, a woman of gn\it beauty and 
talents, and of most extraordi.iary fascination of maimers, but of very 
bad character. 



Wliat <»f llie war l)etweei» lA>ji.s ami Julius "» 0. When wa.s itie iKiUle <»f Ilavenna? \Us 
iwftMi whom .' 7. What iicweruMiiy appeanvl ? What battle was foiiirlit ? S. W'luii i diJ 
1.1 llis marry fi»r Ins secmul wifo ? 9. Hi. What causeil hi.s dealli? When did he J"*' 
*»io -.ii.reeded to the llironc ? II What of Brittany ? What of Lotrisa of *sn » 7 




FRANCIS 1.-1515. 



167 



CHAPTER XCI. 

n/Hjut Frajiciz I. — Ladies first appear at Court. — Change in 
the Fashion of dressing the Hair. — War in Italy. 




Francis /., 1515 /y 1517. 

I Francis L was in th(^ twenty-first year of his age. His person 
was finely tormed, his face was handsome, and his whole air and 
demeanor chivalrous and princely. He was brave, generous and gay. 
His temper was so frank and open that he was incapable of disguise. 
But with these dazzling (pialities he had many faults. 

2. His high opinion of himself laid him open to the arts of flattery. 
He wanted judirment, and at the same time that he was presumptuous 
■i\\\.\ headstrong, he was apt to be deceived and ir«tverned by others. 
N(» faults were, however, seen in him at first. His gay and open 
rliarar'ter won all hearts. 

ii. The young nobility, whom tin; frugality and mon; reserved 
«loporlmeiit of Tiouis XH. had kept at a distance, crowded rotmd 
Francis, and his court was the centre of all that was brilliant and 
ii(»ble. The aspect of the court was changed in another resi)ect. 
Before his time, the nobles in attt'iidance on the king left their wives 
to htok after their families at home. 

1. But Francis invited the ladies to accompany their husbands, and 
at one time u.'^re were as many as three hundred ladiea in attendance 
at the court. As Francis was not very j)articular as to their charac- 
ter, some of them were very vticked women, and caballed and inter- 
fered in all aflFairs, so that their (juarrels and rueddling did infinite 
liarm. 



I 



P 



t 



X' ' ■ I -i \Vh:>l ..f Fraiirh 1. 1 1 Wli»' -if il,.. ynimrr iiubilily 1 4 Wh;il rl|.ii( 



IG8 



FRANCIS I. -1516. 



FRANCIS I. -ir,i9 



16** 



5. All a<vi«l«Mil wliioli happpiuMl to tlip kinfj inlroduopu a \u*w 
fashion. T\v«>lfih-niiiht vva.s ohsorvrd by the Kn'urli with irrriit fos 
livity. It hap|)«MU'(l that, one twplftli-iiijrht, I'rajuMs J., then yoimj/ 
and fond of boyish spmts, was rnira^'d with a party of the yoiiii^ 
h>rda of his court in earryiny^ on a mock siey^e. 

(). The inissih's used were snow-halls, with whi«'h tliey atlai krd 
the house they were hesiciriiiir. The party within also pch«'d th( 
a.«sailants with snow-h:il!s. At last one of the Jesiejred h<t fall hy 
acculeut a Ii^r|,ir<l (ire hr.iud, which struck the kin^ upon the head, 
and severely wimndcd him. 

7. He was ohlijr^-d in cous(Mpience to have liis hair shiivetl «»lf ; and 
this accident intnxhiced into France a fashion of wearih^ the iiair 
*hort, which lasted nearly a century, when the curlinjj^ locks of the 
\'0[\\\ff lvin»r Louis \l\'. introduced tlu; fashion of wearintr it Iouilj. 

8. Francis, like the late kiiiir, secMued io set an uiulue value upon 
his claims in Italy. To ohtain possession of Milan was the first and 
fast object of his reign. It was the main-spring of almost all his 
ictions, and he many times risked his kin^jdom for it. 

9. The Pope entered into a confederacy with Maximilian, the 
J>wiss, Sforza the reiirniuir l)uk»^ of Milan, and F(>nlinand. who, 
lh(ui(Th on the brink of th«» y^rave, was as much alive as ever t«» 
*v«)rldly p»)litics. Hut Francis «lid not ijive them time to unite their 
knees. A French army, ender the Chevalier iJayard, crossed the 
Alps with incredible rapidity, and surprised the Pope's general. 

10. Francis m p(»rson gaiix^l a ffrcM victory over the Swi.ss, (V'to- 
bt^r 13th, 151.'). Sforx;i, alarmed at these successes, gave up Milan, 
and retired into France, w lu^re he died, ami the king returned to 
Lyons in triumph, so much elated with success, thai he thought him- 
•elf invincible. 



CHAPTER XCII. 

Extensive Possessions of the Emperor Charles V. — Rivalry he- 
Uoeen Charles V. ajid Francis I. — Al^out Carditud Wolsey. 

1. Ferpinand of Spain died in l-'ilO. He was succeeded by his 
grandson, Charles V., who was already in possession of the extensive 
territories of the^ house of Burgundy," which he inherited from his 
father Philip. From his grandmother Isabella, he inherited Castile. 
From Ferdinand, he received A ragon, Grenada, fnmi which Ferdi- 
tiand, had expelled the M(Xirs, and part of Navarre. 

*J. Ferdinand hail long looked with a covetous eye ;.pon this little 
kingdom, and in 15 1*2 he took quiet possession of all that part which 
lay on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees. John d'Albrel, who was 



livik plare in the court ? 5 6. What accident liappeiieii to the king? 7. Wli.il new 
fashion tlitl it (K-casion ? S. What of the kins's claim upon Italy ? 9, 10. What was the 
success of the kinsr? 
XCII —I. When diJ FerdinarJ of Spain die? Who succeeded him 7 What cf his 



ito heriN abandoned it »n th«^ approach of the Spanish troo[»s, and fled 
U» Hcarn, a small district on the French side, which fi..-ii this time 
consfituted (he entire d(»mirion8 of the kings of Navarre. 

:*. C:,i|,:,ririe de F(mx, the wife of J(.bn d'Albret, was the last 
d''s<-en.l;M,l of tb:.f .l:,ur of France, who, you will recrdlect, was 
•l.iiighter of Louis X., from whom she iid.erited Navarre, lli(,u.rh the 
N-iiic law kepi Imt from the throne of France, ratharme w.Mild 
•'hen reproach her husband for bis want of spirit, and would .say, " [f 

''='<l '"••'M .I'/fni d-Albret,and V(mi Catharine Foix, w.. should not 
fi;iv»> lost «Mir knii,M|oMi." 

1. In adrjitioii to tbrsc iriiiin ns** p(.ss<'ssioiis in Kurope Charles 
was sovereign of almost all that bad f,ern discovered m the West 
Indi.s ami Americ:,. |„ ir,|l», on the denfl, of bis paternal grand- 
biliier, MaximiiiiM., he suecee.led t(. all the territories of the house of 
i\ usiri.i. 

5. 'i'be ofliee of lanprror of ( Jermany was elective. The emperor 
as such, did not possess a smgl.^ foot of land ; but as the bead of all 
Me .stairs of (.rrmany, be pos-srssed i^^reat power, and was considered 
tbe first amone Cbnstian princes. It had bmg been held by .succes- 
sive members of the bouse of Austria, and f:harles considered himself 
as liaving a hereditary claim to it. 

0. Hut Francis ,|,d not acknowledge this cla.m, and offered him- 
self as a rival candidate. The contest was earned on with all out- 
ward appearance of fri.M.dsbip. Francs on the occasir.n said to 
liarles W ,; are two suitors to tbe same mi.stress ; tbe more fortu- 
«iat(! will gam her, and tbe other nni.st rest coni.infed." Francis how- 
ever, vvas very far from being coiitente.j when Charles was eleeWl 

/. Ileeould notconeeal bis disappointnui.t, and be bad a feelina 
«d iHTsonal hatred towards Charles nil the day of his death 'I'be 
rivalry betwe.,, tb,- tuo princes agitate.l all Kurope, and kindled 
lon^rer an.l nw.re geiM,.ral wrrs than bad bitbirto fn^en known in mod- 
ern riUroj)e. 

fu ^ '''■'[';';, ="'\' f/ancris were erudi anxious to gam tbe friendshii. 
of Henry \ IH the Kmg of Kngland. To that end. Francs propose 

meeting with Henry. Cbnrles, finding it impossible to prevent it 
determined t.. defeat i,s purpo.se, and so scet.re the favor of the 
laiifhsb monareb by an aet as flattering as it was uncommon. 

UmJ .t'n''; ^*''"">'."" Henry -s generosity for his safety, Charles 
andcd at Dover, on bis way from Spain to Flanders. The King of 
laiLTland, who w.as already on his way t«, meet Francis, charmed w.th 
s.u'b an instance of confidence, hastened to receive his royal guest 
Cl.arles, .luring bis .short stay, not only gained the favorable opinion 
oMIenry, bu secured the good will and the influence of his powerful 
Hiinister and favorite, the Cardinal WoKsev. ^ 

n ^lif.T*.'?. '"l"' u'' ''•^J^**^"^^' f»ad risen fnmi the lowest condition 

n If to the highest offices both in church and state. In his style 

^t I.Mng. he exceeded the splendor of kings. Henry was one of ihe 






Si^L^f^lS;^,^YTh- ■;^,)j;h-Vf Catharine Foix. 4. What of t.» fbreig.. 
uruirle.^ / ., V\ hr. of the office of emp,?rnr ' 6. Who was the rival oT 
15 



no 



FKANCIS 1. - 151S 



FRANCIS I. — 1922. 



171 



ijreatest tyrants that ever lived, but Wolsey l,ad gamed a compleu, 

■^.T'ThrcIriu';™- equally rapacious and pro.„». was greedy »1 
monev vau> aud ostenlatiois, he loved flattery ; ol boundless ami, • 
"on he coveted new honors. Whoever desired h,» tavor, or that o. 
his master, must sacrifice literally to these passions 

1^ The cntperor was perfectly acquainted with his character, and 
knowing that he office of Pope was the only one to which he could 
aspire, offered his interest to procure for him that honor on the firs, 
vacancy. 



CHAPTER XCIIl. 

The Field of the Cloth of Gold. - Wicked Conduct of Louvia 

of Savoy. 

1 On the duv after the departnr.; of Charles, Henry went over to 
Ca ais U, meet Francs. This meelin. took pliK* near Ardres, and 
from the „,a.n.ill«-u.-e displayed on both sides, has l«en called -the 
>M If /fcwA,//, ,f^M:- Henry and Francis first met one another 

on horseback. ^^^^^ salutation, they dismounted, and entered a 

splendid pavilion, and began with great gravity to discuss 'he affairs 
?m vvWch tbev w^re ostensibly met. Hut such discussions did not 
st^ille temper of either of the young and gay monarcbs. fbey soon 
g ew wea y^of them, and, leaving all serious matters to their mmis- 
^Xsp^-i't the remainder of the eighteen days they passed together, 

"' f OntoTrcumstance is related, which marks the manners of the 
times After witnessing a trial of strength ami agility '>etvveen the 
FreiKh • nd F.n.^lish wresUrrs. the, two kings retired to a tent The 
Kin" of En. ami. sei/,in. the King of France by the collar, said, My 
brotht"r I "mist 1 ave a trial with you," and attempted to trip up lus 
heels; bul Francis, who was an excellent wrestler, twisted him 
round and laid him flat on his back. 

rFrom this scene of amusement, Henry went to meet Char es 

at GravelTnes, and that sagacious monarch, by the renevval of his 

nrom ses to Wolsev, and by" the gift of some bishoprics in Spain, and. 

vTatirin- the vanity of Henry, contrived to eftac^ any favorable 

in^illres^mns'to which the open and generous nature of Francis might 

'■'T ^rnellamed all he wanted, which wa., .hat Henry should 
temain neutral in the approaching contest between himself and V lan- 



ChatLsl Who succeeded » S. What object had b„lh to gain ! 9 What Jul CI,:.. Ie« do 
#, Wliai of tne meeung between (.harles ami Henry 



tif. B(ih of these were impatient to commence hostilities, but each 
rrished the other to be^in. At length, Francis, taking advantage of 
some disturbances in Spain, sent an army into that country. 

6. The flames of war once kindled sooji spread. The great battle 
was to be fought in Italy. Francis, instead of givina the command 
of his army in that country to the Constable de Bourbon, the only 
skilful general in France, entrusted it to Lautrec and Bonivet, men 
who in rash courage and presumption resembled himself. 

7. Nor was the civil administration left in better hands. Louisa 
of Savoy, the*king's mother, controlled everything. She disposed of 
all the offices of state at her pleasure, and bestowed them only on 
those who would flatter her vanity or her vices. 

8. With such a government at home, and such generals abroad it 
will not seem surprising that the war in Italy should be a series of 
defeats and disasters. Lautrec threw the whole blame upon Sem- 
blan^ai, the director of the finances, who had failed to send him money 
for the payment of his troops, who had in consequence deserted in 
great numbers. 

9. Semblan^ai asserted that tiie money had been paid into the hands 
of the king's mother, and otTered to produce the acquittances she had 
given for it. But Louisa, who had applied the money to her own use 
contrived by some means to stc^al the acquittances from Semblancai • 
and this man, venerable for his years and respected for his intefrritv' 
was sacrificed to screen her crime. ^ 



CHAPTER XCIV. 

About the Constable de Bourbo7i. — His unfortunate Fate. ^ 
Charles V. gains an unexpected Advantage over his Rival. 

\. To the folly and crimes of Louisa there seemed to be no end 
ihevnow broucrht a new misfortune upon her country. This was 
the defection of the Constable of Bourbon. He was a nephew of 
Anne, Lady of Beaujeu, and had married her daughter, who was the 
richest heiress in France. She died in 1522, and her husband suc- 
."eeded to all her possessions. 

2. He was still young and handsome, and Louisa of Savoy, who 
vvas a great many years oMer, wished to marry him. She desired 
the king to propose the match to Bourbon, who was a man of strict 
and regular conduct, and had an utter detestation of Louisa's vices 
lie expressed his dislike to her in such strong terms, as provoked the 
»^ing to strike him. o > r 

3. From that moment Uuisa's love turned to deadly hate, and 



Sr^'haJ ofThl wStatalv / ^'wi 'f ^"'l ^'^ ^^'-^^ini^tra.i..,. of affairs in France? 8 
XCrv - I Whi. ^Jr ^- To*^ "If ance of the wiclce.Jne.ss of Louisa of Savoy » 
*UI . - I , What of I^ui.=.a of Savoy ? What of the Puke .,f Ro,.rbon ? A. What did 



I 



IT2 



FRANCES 1.-1526. 



FRAiNulS I. — 1 526. 



J 73 



Rhe detPTinineci to destroy the constable. She put in a claim to all 
the Bourbon possessions in right of her mother, and, contrary to al. 
law and equity, obtained a decision in her favor. 

4. The constable, thus stripped of everything, in a moment Oi des- 
peration forgot his duty to his country, and, al)andoning her service, 
entered into that of the emperor, w ho received liim willi open arms 
His condition here was anything but happy. He met the common 
fate of traitors. His own countrymen abhorred him ; and the Span- 
iards shrank from him, and treatt^ him with suspicion and reserve. 

5. His prospects at first were flatterinfr. Charles waft liberal with 
his promises. In concert with Henry VHl., he .'ntered into a secret 
treaty with the constable for the division of France. Charles, like 
the lion in the fable, was to have the largest share ; a small kingdom 
was to be formed for the constable, and Henry was to have Gui 

enne. , • , i « 

6. But France must be won before it could be divided, liourbon 
was appointed to make an invasion, in the hope that the French, 
who were greatly dissatisfied with th(! bad administration of aflfairs, 
would flock to his standard. Not a single Frenchman, however, 
joined him, and he was forced to retreat with great haste into Italy. 

7. Francis, elated with this discomfiture of Bourbon, led an army 
into Italy, and laid siege to Pavia. The city was defended by An- 
tonio de Leyva, a general of great skill ; but its greatest security was 
in the mismanagement of the French, who were frequently stopped m 
the midst of assaults by the failure of their ammunition 

8. A numerous army, under Bourbon and Lannoy, was sent by 
Charles to the relief of the city. The army of Francis had been weak- 
ened by many detachments, and he was strongly importuned to with- 
draw, until he could reiid'orge it. But he had written a letter to his 
mother, saying that he would nevt'r move from the walls of Pavia till 
he had taken it. Rather than break his word, he risked his life and 

kingdom. 

0. On the 23d of February, 15'25, his fortifications were attacke.l 
by the enemy. Had Francis contented himself with making a tie- 
fence, all might yet have been well with him. But he could not 
resist the impulse to pursue the enemy, who had been repulsed in the 

first attack. 

10. The consequences were most tlis:<strous. The French were 
seized with a panic, and even the first prince of the royal family, wh<j 
had married the king's sister, fled from the field, and never stopped 
till he reached Lyons, where he died of shame. Francis fouglit 
bravely. His horse was killed, :ind he himself received several 

wounds. 

11. Two Spaniards, not knowin-r who he was, were on tiie point ot 
killing him, when one of the French attendants of Bourbon came up 
and recognized the king. This man besought him to surrender to 
the ?onstiible ; this he would not submit to, but demanded to see Lan 
noy, to whom he presented his .sword. 



;he constable do in his ilcsjxiir? H. What treaty was made? 6. What sucrcss nad 
Bour»<oi in France ? 7 What did Francis do 7 S. What did Francis say? 9. Wher 



i2. Lannoy, kneeling, received it with profi)und respect. Taking 
Ais own sword from his side, he presented it to the king, saying, 
" that It did not become so great a king to remain unarmed in the 
presence of one of the emperor's subjects." Francis was conducted ' 
to the imperial camp, whence he despatched this laconic but expres- 
sive note to his mother—" Madame, all is lost, except our honor." 



CHAPTER XCV. 

Charles visits Francis in Prison. — Charles releases Francis. — 
About the Chevalier bayard, tJie K7iight withmit Fear and 
ivithmit Reproach. 

1. Charles afl^ected to receive the news of his rival's defeat with 
o-eat moderation. He rejected, however, the advice which many of 
his counsellors gave him, to restore Francis unconditionally to free- 
dom — an act which would have reflected immortal honor on his name. 
The terms which he demanded were so unreasonable, that Francis 
declared he would submit to perpetual imijrisonim^nt rather than agree 
to them. 

2. From Italy he was removed into Spain, where he was kept a 
close prisoner. Sinking under the disappointment of protracted hope, 
he fell into a fever, which threatened to put an end to his life. 
Charles iUeu relaxed the severity with which he /was treated. He 
even went to visit him. 

3. Francis, who was in bed, ill and languishing, reproached the 
emperor with having come to see him die. Charles soothed his pris- 
oner with kind and conciliating expressions. Such was the {>ower of 
jhosc few kind words spoken in season, that Francis from that mo- 
ment befjan to recover. 

4. After he had been a year in prison, Charles offered him his lib- 
erty on nearly the same terms as before. Weary of confinement, he 
now accepted them, and agreed to fjive his two' eldest sons as hos- 
tages for their performance. Francis then set ofl^, escorted by Lan- 
noy, for France. 

•'). When they reached the river Bidassoa, which divides France 
tnmi Spain, they saw on the opposite bank Lautrec, with the two 
princes. The two parties met in a boat which was moored in tke 
middle of th»; stream. The father gave a hasty embrace to his chil- 
dren, and tfien delivered them as prisoners to Lannoy. 

C. It must, I should think, have b?en a bitter pang to him to see 
his two poor children consigned to the same prison from which he had 
been so anxious to escape. But Francis did not give himself time 



11, 12 



wii^ 'ho battle of Pavia ? Between whom ? 10. What of Francis' behavior 7 
V*5»' i^^PHiro 1 What did he write to his mother? 

lt\ - What of the conduct of Charles? 2, 3. What of Francia? 4. Upon wlw 
1.5* 



. 



174 



FKANCI8 I. - I.ViG 



to reflfi' t upon it Mounting a liorsc, tlie instant he reached the 
French sliorc, he waved his cap over his head, and exclaiming, " ! 
am yet a king !" gaUopod otF, and scarcely stopped till he reached 
JJayonne, where his mother awaited his coming. 

7. lie was soon called upon hy Charles to fulfil the conditions of 
his release ; but he excused himself, under the dishonorable pretext 
that promises made in prison were not binding. As a contrast to 
this conduct of the king, I will give you the history of a man whose 
virtues shed a lustre upon this period, which, in a moral sense, is in 
general gloomy. 

8. He wiis a soldier, but it was his misfortune to live in an age 
when fighting w;is c(»nsid«'red the only suitable employment for a grn- 
'leman. There lived in Dauphiny a brave and loyal gentleman by 
the name of Bayard, who had four sons. . 

9. The eldest of these would have the family estate, but the others 
nuist seek their fortunes abroad. Pierre, the secon«l, chose to be a 
soldier, and the two others were provided for in the church. At the 
age of thirteen young Pierre entfred as a page into the service of the 
Duke of Savoy. The account of his departure from his father's house 
is thus told by a contemporary bioirrapher. 

10. '* Ilis mother, poor lady, was in a tower of the castle, weep 
ing bitterly ; but when she was told that her young son was on his 
horse, impatient to be gone, she desccndrd to take leave of him, tell- 
ing him that she commanded him three thinjjs. 

11. '* The first was, to love God above all things, and recommend 
himself night and morning to God, and starve him without offiiiiding 
hiin in any way, if it might be possibl(\ The second was, to be 
courteous to all men, casting away pride ; neither to slander, nor lie, 
nor be a talebearer, and to be temperate and loyal. 

I'J. " The third was, that he should be ehiiritable, and share with 
the poor whatever gifts God should bestow upon him." These wise 
commaiyls he implicitly obeyed, and for his observance of them he 
was indebted for a title far above that of a prince or noble, — that of 
the knight " without fro r ami irit/iout rrproorh.''^ 

13. From boy to man lie was beloved and respected for his cour- 
tesy, bravery, benevolence, invincible integrity and piety. Franciii 
I. would receive the honor of knighthood from no hands but his. 
Being once asked what possessicms a man had best leave to his son. 
Bayard replied, " Such a^j are least exposed \o the power of time or 
human force, Wisr/om and V'lrtiK ." 

14. Being mortally wounded in a battle m which the enemy were 
cqimiianded by Bourbon, the chevalier Bayard caused himself to be 
placed against a tree. In this situation, calmly waiting for death to 
release him from pain, he was found by the duke, who exjlressed sor- 
row for his fate. " Pity not me," said the chevalier ; " I die in the 
discharge of my duty ; but pity those who fight against their country 
md their oath." 



•«rin3 was 'le releaiieit ? Ti, 0. Relate the |)arliculars of \m release. 7. Did he fulfil hi' 
tiu^ageinen s ? 8. Relate the story of the chevalier Bayard. 



ARCHITECrURK OF THE FRENCH. 



CHAPTER XCVl. 



I/ft 



The Ladies^ Peace. — About the Architecture of the French 

1. In 1529 a treaty was made between Francis and Charles, called 
he Treaty of Cwnfyray. It was also called " the Ladies^ Pcace,'^ be- 
•ause it was negotiated by Louisa of Savoy, and Margaret, aunt to 
Charles. 15y this treaty, Francis agreed to marry Eleanor, sister of 
the emperor, and to pay a large ransom for his sons, both of which he 
performed. 

2. The latter he found \\\c most difticult, on account of the great 
scarcity of money in France. It w;is several months before the re- 
(juired sum could be collected, and then it was conveyed in forty-eight 
large chests to Bidassoa, and there given in exchange for the pris- 
oners, with the saiTJC formalities with which they had been exchanged 
for their father, 

,'J. Francis had now an interval of peace, and he availed himseif 
of it to indulge his taste for the fine arts. He assembled around him 
the most learned men, and the most celel)rated artists of his time. He 
tore down some of the old palaces, and built new ones. The inter- 
course with Italy introduced a new style of building; — and this 
reminds me to tell you something of FnMich architecture. 

4. 1 will begin with the churches. The oldest style of church 
architecture was rude and simple, and was called the L(mil>ard Style. 
They were heavy and clumsy buildings, like the Saxon churches in 
England ; but there was a material difierence between the two. 

5. In the Saxon, the pi!!:irs were short and thick, and far apart, so 
lliat the arches which sprang from one to another were low, and had 
a wide space. In the Lombard style, the pillars were thick, but lofty 
ind near together, so that the arches were narrow. 

6. Under the reign of Hugh Capet, the pointed arch was first in- 
troduced, and gave rise to what was called the mixed Lombard. Oth- 
er alterations and improvements arose, till at last, during the course 
of the thirteenth century, the elegance of the Gothic architecturu 
reached its highest perfection. 

7. The wars with the English, and the consequent distraction of 
the country, put a stop to all public works during the greater part of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Under the paternal government 
of Louis XII., several new and considerable buildings were erected. 

8. The frequent intercourse with Italy introduced a new style of 
architecture, being a mixture of Italian with the Gothic ; a mixture 
which is much admired by the French, but which is very incongru- 
ous, and deprives each style of much of its beauty. 

9. One of the most curi(tus relics of architectural antiquity in 
France, is a bridge across the Rhone near Avignon. It was. erected 
in the i\ irleenth centurv. It is still much admired as a work of an. 



XCVl. — 1. What was the treaty of Catnhray? Who negotiated il? 2. What of the 
ransom for the sons of Frajicis ? 3. How <iiil Francis employ the peace? 4, 5. What 
» aaid of the. Saxon and Lombard styles of architecture ? 6. What of the Gothic? P 



>i\ 



176 



ARCHITECTURfc OF THE FRENCH 



ntAIVClS I— 1M7. 



IT> 



,nH irjLS ve.'arded at the time of its erection as so wonderful, that the 
arch te^t XsupiLed to have been miraculously assisted, and was 

selves in building bridges from motives of piety. 



CHAPTER XCVII. 

Mm-e about French Architecture. A Six Years' Summer, arm 

its Consequences. 

1 1 WILL now tell vou about the houses of the French. The 
dweimrs onte Gauls/as I have before told you. were me-!y huts 
The Romans used stoi^ and brick in their ^u W^^^^'^^ yja^s 
An not aonear to have im talcd them in this. Iheir houses were con 
IrriedTplalks of woo.l tied together, and the spaces hlled up with 

""i' Even public buildings and ll.e walls of towns were built in this 
manner When the lords began to build castles then stone came 
hito u"-' a..a^. ? hut brick was almost totally disused from the time of 
the Romans 1 the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when it be_ 
ganu?be employed as an ornament. The bricks were so mixed with 
stone as to form iiatterus or figures in the walls of houses. 

3 I^the thirtLntb cenlurv, po-plo began to cover the roofs with 
tiles and these n bouses of distinction were v.rnished and painted n 
chemiers Slate also came itilo use for the sune purpose about the 
samTtlme. Hefore that peri,Kl, the roofs almost universally were 

*T Thetst.fri.alia,, architecture was exhibited in some mens- 
..,!'„„ .1 /nutsi,le of the hous'^s which were most elaborately orna- 
Inted T er^ ar"- m -"- "Id houses of this period, the exter,or 
Twhhlh iscompleulv covered with medallions, festoons of flowers, 
irrouns of fio^ures, and' all kinds of faucitul orna,ne,its. 
^ 5 "^Thos^'were somettmes n,ade of carved wood, but generally of 
Dliter There is a fine specimen of this sort of house at Rouen It 
wS built in the reijn of 'Prancis 1., au.l is supposed to have been 
ru./«iir>ipr{ hv him ifi his visits to that citv. 

6 "^^he C^s "f this period were distinguished by the enormou. 
heieht of the rooft, which was supposed to ff,ve an a,r of d,gn,ty to 
fhe edmce The;e roofs were likewise loaded with ori,ame,,«. 
You w ill recol ec that Philip Augustus erected a palace, called the 
Louvre, outside the walls of Paris. ^»tj^ the cit y incre ased in 

WtalTftu^nn archUeclur.) 9. What curiou. ralic re,mi„.? 10. Wl,al o( bulldin. 



•ne. the walls were exU nded, and before the year 1383, this buildinp 
was enclosed within them. 

7. Francis, finding this old feudal building .o be very inconvenient, 
and withal in a very ruinous state, determined to pull down the 
crreater part of it, and to erect a new and magnificent palace in itf 
place, after the designs of Pierre Lescot, the greatest architect of tfir 
day. 

8. From the year 1.528 to 1534, a perpetual summer prevailed in 
France; during four years, not two <iays' frost was experienced. 
Nature, exhausted by such a continued heat, incessantly produced 
blossoms, but had not strength to bring the fruit to maturity. A 
scarcity of provisions was the consequence of this phenomenon. 

9. The harvest was scarcely sufficient to supply food for the fol 
lowing year. Worms, and in'sects of every kind, multiplied in ar 
extraordinary degree, and destroyed the little fruit which the earth 
yielded. A most dreadful famine prevailed, and the consumption of 
the unwholesome food gave rise to a disorder which carried off ono 
fourth of the inhabitants of France. 



CHAPTER XCVIII. 

Death of Francis /., called the Father and Restorer of Letter % 
and the Arts. — Henry II. marries Catherine de Medicis. 




Henry IL, 1.547 to 1559. 

I. Neither Charles nor Francis could long be contented without 
the excitement of war. We accordingly find them almost constantly 
engaged in it from 1536 to 1544, when a treaty was concluded at 
Cressy, which was not broken during the few remaining years of 
Francis, 

^ 2. In these wars, Henry was generally engaged as the ally of 
Charles ; and had these monarchs acted in concert, and not been too 



J\ hal of the ornarnenis ? 6. What disiiii^uishetl the hoii-sed of this period? 7. What of 
Yr^l?? ^1^ Louvre/ 8. 9. What uf the weather from 155iS to 1534? 
A<^V1II — 1. What or wars beiween Charles and Francis? 2 Wliat were the rcsultat 



176 



ARCHITELTURR OK THK FRENCH 



rRANCIS I— 1547. 



IT) 



»na U-1S re- .»rde(l at the time of its erection as so wonderful, that the 
arch tect w^^^^^^^ to have heen n.iraculouslv assisted, and was 

ea^foS at^er his death hy the name of St. Benedict orj^enezeU 

() The huihlincr of a l)ridc:e was, m those days refiarded as an 
act f ch n V t the puhlic, and of piety to God ; and a company wt.^ 
LmUi^dh^ ^^ the\-oiha-hnod of Brul^.^r who employed them- 
:iclves in building hridges from motives ot piety. 



CHAPTER XCVII. 

More about French Archhecture. A Six Years^ Summer, aim 

its Consequences. 

1 I WILL now tell vou about the houses of the French The 
d.l:il n^ ' t-the Gauls, as I have before told you, -re merely hut^ 
The Romans used stone and l>rick in their ^^^^j^^f^^,,^',,'^^^^^^^^ 
do not aopear to liave imitated them in tins. Iheir houses were co 
itrucLlcIf planks of wood tied together, and the spaces tilled up w.tli 

"" o"*' Even public buildimrs and the walls of towns were built in this 

mamie^ Wh.n th- lords briian to build castles then s one cam. 

^r use a<rain ; but brick was almost totally disused Irom the tinu3 ot 
he Rom n^ til tlu. sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when it b - 

Ian tXeinploved as an ornament. I'.ie bricks were so mixed with 
Btone as to fcrm" patterns or f.irurrs in the walls ot houses. 

3 I^ the thirteenth e.-nturv, pooi'l^ Ih^S^" to coyer the roofs w ith 
tiles u the e in houses uf .listinetion were varnished and painted m 
cheoVers Slate also came into use for the same purpose about the 
same time. Before that p.rio.l, the roofs almost universally were 

^'f 'Fi;t!irrital.an an.lu.eeture was exhil>ited in some meas- 
ure on tl;r. outside of the houses which were most elaborately orna- 
men^d There are st.ll som.. old houses of this perio<l, the exterior 
JTf whth iscompleielv covered w„h medallions, test.H.ns oi tlowers, 
ffrouos of ficTures. and" all kin.ls .>f f mciful ornaments 
^ T^These were sometimes made of carved wood, but generally ot 
uhster There is a line specimen <.f this sort of house at Rouen It 
Kilt in the rei.n of Francis I., and is supposed to have been 
opcunied bv him in his visits to that city. , , , . 

6 TUeU,sos,.f tl,is porkKl wore distinn:,„sl,e<l by the enormo„, 
hei-^ht of .he r».>ft. wl,icl ' was suppusoil .,. jjive .,. iur .,f .hgnuy to 
ihe e<l ice •l'h,.;e roofs were likewise loaded with ornaments. 
You w irecollec that Philip Augustus erected a palace, called the 
Lo,"vre, outside the walls of Paris. But as the e,ty .ncreased m 



WhalorluJi.in architecture! 9. What curiou, relic remain,? 10. What .,( Imil.V,.. 



4 



■ne. the walls were ext* nded, and before the year 1383, this buildinj' 
was enclosed within them. 

7. Francis, finding this old feudal building o be very incwivenient, 
and withal in a very ruinous state, determined to pull down the 
greater part of it, and to erect a new and magnificent palace in iu 
place, after the designs of Pierre Lescol, the greatest architect of the 
day. 

8. From the year 15'J8 to 1531, a perpetual summer prevailed in 
Kraiice; during four years, mtt two days' frost was experienced. 
Nature, exhausted by such a ctMitir.wed heal, incessantly produced 
f»lossoms, but had not strength to bring the fruit to maturity. A 
ficarcily of provisions was the conseipience of this phenomenon. 

1). riie harvest was scarcely sutlicient to supply food for the fol 
lowing year. Worms, and insects of every kind, multiplied in ar 
extraordinary degree, and destroyed the little fruit which the earth 
yielded. A most dreadful famine prevailed, and the consumption of 
the imwholesome ibod gave rise to a disorder which carried otf on« 
t'ourth of the inhabitants of France. 



CHAPTER XCVIII. 

Death of Francis /., coiled the Father and Restorer of Letter » 
and the Arts. — Henry II. marries Catheri?ie de Medicis. 




Henry II., 1.547 to 1559. 

1. NEITHER Charles nor Francis could long be contented without 
the excitement of war. We accordingly find them almost constantly 
enrraged in it from 1536 to 1514, when a treaty was concluded at 
Cressy, which was not broken during the few remaining years of 
Francis. 

2. In the.st wars, Henry was generally engaged as the ally of 
''hatles; and had these monarchs acted in concert, and not been too 



\\ hai of the ..ruamenis ? 6. What (lisiii,!r„i.,|,e,| the hn.i.se.s of this period ? 7. What of 
YPVM? L-^uvre .' S. 9. What uf the weathe-r from Wl-i to \TyU 7 

-Vf.VlII — 1. What oi wars h?iwecji Charles aitrl Francis? 2 What were the resultBl 



f 



178 



HENRY 11— I&17. 



anxious about i)\e'iT own particular interests to do what wa« ^^^'V,^^* 
the common cause, the French monarchy must iiievitably have bee? 

subverted. , 

3. For a lonjr time before his death, Francis had been preyed uptji 
by a slow fever, which affected his temper, and made him irritable 
and restless. He fancied that chanjre of place would bring relief to 
his disordered frame, and roved incessantly from palace to palace. 
He died at Ranibouillet, in the fiftv third year of his age and the 
thirty-second of his reign, on the 31st March, 15-17. He left one son, 
Henry, who succeeded to the throne, and two daughters. 

4. The king's magnificence accompanied him to the last. He had 
the most splendid funeral that had ever been seen in France, and the 
people were so absorbed in their admiration of it that they forgot his 
f-iults, and pardoned his ambition, his breach of faith, and his disre- 
gard of morality. 

5. His palaces, his establishments for learning, and the monuinentt 
of the arts which he encouraged, have handed down his name to latei 
ages as that of a great and glorious king, " the Father and Restorer 
of letters and of the arts.'" 

6. Henry ll resembled his father in many parts of his character. 
Like him, he was brave, generous, and of a gay and lively temper; 
and like him he loved show and profusion. But he had not hia 
father's superior talents, nor his imposing dignity of manner. 

7. He was good-natured to excess, was agreeable in conversation, 
had a great readiness in public speaking, and was one of the hand- 
somest and most graceful men of his time. Although the facility 
with which he suffered himself to be governed by favorites made hinj 
a very indifferent king, vet he might have been still worse if he had 
been governed by his queen, the universally detested Catherine do 

Medicis. 

8. But she seems never to have had any influence over him. Noth 
ing is to be remarked of her during the reigns of Francis I. and of 
hel- husband, except the art with which she concealed the violence of 
her passions, and the profound dissimulation in which she veiled her 

talents. , . 

9. Upon his death-bed, the late king had given his son much advice 
as to his future conduct. Amongst other matters, he enjoined upon 
him three things : not to remove the present tried and faithful minis- 
ters ; not to recall the constable Montmorenci from banishment ; and 
not to promote the elevation of the family of Guise. 

10. But not one of these injunctions was regarded. Francis was 
scarcely laid in his grave, before his father's ministers were removed 
from office, and Montmorenci summoned to court and given the chief 
place. Francis, Duke d'Aumale, eldest son of the Duke of Guise, 
was loaded with favors. You will see how pointedly the misfortunea 
which befell Henry and his children may be traced to the infringe- 
ment of his father's dying commands. 

3. What of l^raucis' habits of life ? When did he die ? Who succeeded him ? ,t jy*^ 
of hij funeral? 5. What was he sumamed? 6,7. What of Henry? 8. Whftt ol 
Catherine de Medicis 1 9. What was Francis' advice to Her.ry ? 10. How wn- • 



HENRY II. — 1549 ITJ 



CHAPTER XCIX. 

Charles V. resig^is kis great Power of /lis own accm d. — Uow 
he spent his Time iri his RetireineiU. 

1. In 1549, Henry II. and his queen made their public entry into 
Paris. This was celebrated by tournaments, and other ontertain- 
monts. These were succeeded by the execution of several lieretica 
in the presence of the whole court. This horrible spectacle affected 
the king extremely. His nerves never recovered from the shock they 
then received, and he was ever after subject to convulsive shudders, 
whenever the recollection of it crossed his mind. 
^ 2. An event occurred in 1555, which astonished all Europe. The 
F.mperor Charles V. carried into execution a project upon wliich he 
appears to have been long meditating, namely, the resigning his vast 
dominions, and retiring from the busy scenes of life. As he advanced 
in years, he became more and more surfeited with the greatness which 
in his early life, he had so much loved and sought. 

3. Several instances occur in history, of monarchs who have quitted 
a throne, and ended their days in retirement. Bnt they were either 
weak princes, who took this resolution rashly, and repented of it as 
soon as it was taken ; or unfortunate princes, from whose hands some 
stronger rival had wrested their sceptre, and compelled them to 
descend with reluctance into a private station. 

4. Charles V. is almost a solitary instance of a prince, capable c^ 
holding the reins of government, who ever resigned tiiem from delib- 
erate choice, and who continued during many yenrs to enjoy the tran- 
quillity of retirement, without heaving one sigh of regret, "or casting 
hack one look of desire towards the power and dignity he had aban- 
doned. 

5. All his hereditary dominions he resigned to his only son, Philip. 
By his influence, his brother Ferdinand had been elected King ot 
Hungary and Bohemia, and also King of the Romans, which last 
dignity entitled him to the succession ot the empire. Charles retired 
to a monastery in Spain, where he died, in 1558, in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. 

0. He never appeared for one moment to have regretted the step he 
had taken. At first, he employed himself sometimes in his garden, 
and x^meiimes in making models of machines, and in mechanical 
f.sperinunts. He was particularly curious with regard to the con 
'iiruction of clocks and watches. 

7. Having found, after repeated trials, that he could not bring 
any two of them to go exactly alike, he reflected, it is said, with a 
mixture of surprise and regret, on his own folly, in having bestowed 
so much time and labor on the more vain attempt ( f bringing man- 






ACIX. — 1 What of the King's entry into Paris? 2. What of the resignation of 
Ciuirles v.? 5. Who succeeded him? 6. How did he pass his time in retire-Tr.ent 1 
» *A hat -^fleotion did he make ? 8. What singular penance did he perfofm? 



180 



HENRY M. — 1557. 



HENKY \1. — J5h9. 



181 



kind to think exactly alike concerning the profound doctrines of reli 



gion 



8. These amusements were at length given up entirely, and his 
whole tinu; devoted to religious exercises. A fl'vv days before his 
death ho perfnnned a singular act of penance. He went through th^ 
wnoh; cnrcniony of his funeral, except the interment. Jfe laid him- 
self in fiis colfin, dressed in his shroud, and tlie prayers for the dead 
were repeated over him, in which he himself joined wth tears, show- 
ing every sign of fervent devotion. 



CHAPTER C. 

Battle of St. Quentiii. — Philip of Spain's two Vows, 
of the Escitrial. — Calais taken from the English, 
killed at a T(mrnament. 



Palace 
Henry 



1. ScARCRLY had Philip II. come into possession of his father's 
great possessions, before he i)ecame entangled in a dispute with the 
Pope, who called upon Henry for assistance, holding out the lure of 
making the concpiest of Naples. The bait was caught at by Francis 
d'Aumale, now become Duke of Guise. 

2. The opposition of the wiser counsellors of the king was of no 
avail. The Duke of Guise departed, full of hope, at the head of a 
gallant army. He met, however, with nothinjj but reverses, and was 
only spared from further mortification by being recalled into France, 
where his presence was required to avert still greater disasters. 

3. Philip no sooner heard that Henry had violated the truce be- 
tween them, than he despatched an army of fiftv thousand men into 
Francj!. His wife, Mary, Queen of England," sent ten thousand 
English troops to his assistance. The conmiand of the whole was 
held by the Duke of Savoy, who laid siege to 8t. Quentin, which 
\\;is defended by Coligny, Admiral of France, nephew of the Consta- 
ble xMontmorenci. 

4. In those days the ofTices of the army and navy were not kepi 
so distinct as they are at the present time. Those of general and 
admiral were fretjuently held by the same person, who commanded 
by sea or by land, just as occasion required. 

5. Montmorenci hastened to the relief of his nephew, and on the 
lOth of August, 15.57, was fought the battle of St. Quentin, in which 
the French sulfered a defeat as disastrous as those of Cressy and 
i*oictier3. In the course of the battle, Philip made two vows, both 
of which he kept. The first was, that if he came safe out of this 
fight, he never would be present at another. 

6 The second vow was, that, if victorious, he would erect a splep 



r,- ■ ,1"^^ '*^'^ '"^ ^ renewal oi the war l^tween France ajid Spain? 2. Who con- 
in>..uled ilie b reiioh ' .<. What did Fhilip du ? 4. Wlial is said of the offices of genera; 
wd admiral I o. W en w-as the baUle of St Quentin fought? What were Philip i lw» 



did palace in honor of St. Lawrence, to which saint the lOth of 
August is dedicated. Accordingly, he built the palace of the Escu- 
rial, about twenty-two miles from Madrid, in Spain, and built it in 
the form of a gridiron, because the saint is said to have suflered mar- 
tyrdom by being broiled to death on a gridiron. 

7. Had the Duke of Savoy been allowetl t<» follow his own judg- 
uHMit, he would have marched directly to Paris, and such was the 
consternation which prevailed, tluit it would have been an easy prey. 
Hut Philip, ignorant of war, and no less obstinate than ignorant, com- 
manded hiiTi to prosecute the siege of St. Quentin, which was defended 
l)y Coligny for a period long enough to give Henry time to prepare 
tor the defence of his capital. 

S. A brilliant action of the Duke of Guise served also to revive the 
spirits of the French. This was the capture, on the 5th day of Jan- 
nary, 1558, of the town of Calais from the English, in whose posses- 
ion it had been for more than two centuries. Thus the ancient rivals 
of France were expelled from the last hold which they retained on 
her territory. The power of the Duke of Guise was raised still 
higher by the marriage of tlie dauphin to his niece, the beautiful and 
unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots. 

0. In 155J), a peace was concluded between Henry and Philip. To 
cement it, a marriage was agreed upon between Philip and Eliza- 
oelh, the eldest daughter of Henry. It took place June 17th, 1599. 
On this occasion was held a splendid tournament. The king, who 
excelled in this exercise, entered the lists, and broke several lances 
with different lords of his court. 

10. The tournament lasted three days. On the last day, the king 
desired to try his skill against the Count de Montgomery, one of the 
captains of the Scotch guard, and esteemed one of the most expert 
tillers of his time. Montgomery was very unwilling to accept the 
king's challenge ; but Henry would take no denial. 

I!. Montgomery's lance broke against the king's helmet, but a 
splinter wounded him in the right eye. He instantly fell backwards, 
and would have come to the ground if the dauphin had not caught 
him in his arms. He lay without speech or sense durmg eleven 
days, at the end of which he expired. 

12. During this time the greatest distraction and confusion per 
vaded the court. There was a general struggle for power among the 
contending parties of the courtiers. At this juncture the queen came 
forward, and for the first time took lui open part in politics, by assum- 
ing t^e whole direction of affairs. 

13. Henry died July 10th, 1.5.59, in the forty-first year of his age, 
and the thirteenth of his reign. He left four sons and three daugh- 
tt«, one of whom, Margaret, married Henry, King of Navarre. 



vows? 8. What exploit was performed by the Puke of Ghjise? 9. When was peace 
ctnclu'led? How was it seen re<] ? 10, 11. How did Henry lose his life? 12. Whatwaa 
the cnduct of the queen? 13. How old was Henry II. when he was kilU i ? Who»n di^ 
bis uauRhler marry } 

10 



M 



182 



THE REFORMATION 



KKANCIS II. — 1659. 



183 



CHAPTER CI. 

About i he Reformatmi. — Martin Lvf her. — John Calvin.-^ 

The Huguenots. 

I Yoii will rrnuMnbor that tlu^ Pope, assuming to himself a powti 
^•hich lu'lonirs to thf Doitv ah.iuN promised a pardon tor their sins 
o Mu-h as shouhl as.unu> tlu- cross. This was att.rwards extended 
,o t'hose who should assist the holy eause hy irilts ot money. 

Fi.ulin.T it an easv mode of raising money, the Popes continued 
tolrrant iiM^aurs, as these permissions w(Te called, long after the 
i;i,h wars had ceased, hestowinjr then, upon all who pave money for 

any pi""s purpose enjoined hy the Pope. c \ ^c Vh,r 

3 In 1513, John de Medicis, one ol the illustrious family of 1- lor 
t-nce was elected Pope, and took the name ot l^^o A. He was a 
liberal patron of men of -euius, fond of pomp and sj^endor, and very 

rsinul to con.plete ,he stupendous rhureh ot M Peter's at Rome, 
wh eh had been be.Mm bv Pope .lulius 11., h.s predecessor. All thi. 
n^quire<l an exlraonlinary supply of money, and the old expedient of 
sellinu indulgences was resort«'d to. 

4 The most active measures w.re adopted to secure a great sale. 
Acr;nts were k.'pl at the taverns and places of resort, whilst others 
w?re s,M.t to oiler them from lu.use to house, as patent medicines are 
hav ked about at the present day. For some time a profitable trade 
urai carried on amoufr the itrnoranl ajul credulous. 

1 Hut the more enli-htened peoide had lon^r viewed the practice 
with ablu.rrence. The princes and nobles were angry at seeing their 
vassals robbed of their money to support the lazy pi-icsts in idleness 
aiul vice \t length, Martin Luther, himself oiu' of the clergy, ven- 
lurtMl op.'ulv to deny the authority of the Pope to imrdon sms. 

G Luther was born at Eisleben, m Saxony, A. I). MH.i. m^ 
parents were too poor to pay for his education, and he supported him- 
self while at school, like many other pot)r German scholars, by liter- 
ally be.r.ring his bread. From school he went to college, where his 
diligence and proficiency in his studies acquired him the respect and 

admiration of all the members. w^vinn 

7 In l'>Or. he entered a convent of Augustine tri.ir.-b. navinfi 

found a copv'of the Bible, which lay neglected in a corner of the 

ibrarv he devoted himself to the study of it, with sucn eagerness as 

to astonish the monks, who could not conceive what pleasure or 

advantage he could derive from it. , • . • ,1 

.^ The fame of his pietv and learning led to his being appointed 

a urofessor of the university of Wittenberg. In the year 151 / , from 

the pulpit of the great church at that place, he first made known hw 

Cl - 1 2 What were indulgences, and to whom were ihey granlad ) 3. Who waj 
I ^ Y and what is said of him ? 4. How were indulgences disposed oil o. Who 



I 

1 



opinions respecting indulgences. The boldness and novelty of these 
opinions drew great attention. Coming from a man of Luther's 
character, and delivered with great eloquence, they made a deep im- 
pression. 

1). The art of printing, which was dis(u»vered about the year 1440, 
enabled Luther to make his opinions known through all Christian 
eountries, and evt'rywhere they made many proselytes. Li France, 
tiu.se who adopted '\\\va\\ were called HuguiMiots, but why they were 
so called is not known. 

10. Although the reformers agreed in denying the authority of the 
Pope, they dTtfered from one another in some matters of opinion. 
The ilugueiu)ts for the most part agreed with John Calvin, who wjus 
born at Noyon, in Picardy, a province of France, in 1509, but who 
passed the greater part of his life at Geneva, in Switzerland. He 
died A. D. 1564 



CHAPTER CIL 

rhe Family of Guise heroine powerful. — Persecutions of the 
Huguenots - - The Psalms of David proscribed as Iwretical. 




^ Francis 11. , 1559 to 1560. 

1. The kingdom was in a most deplorable state, when the one • 
peeled death of his father placed Francis, at the age of sixteen years, 
upon the throne. It was suffering in every part from the ruinous 
effects of thM long wars. The introduction of the reformed religion 
had excited a general ferment, and had caused breaches and divisions 
in all order* of society. 

2. The court was split into parties. The two greatest factions, 
which hpt-^d one another most bitterly, were those headed by the 
Duke o*" Guise, and his great rival, the Constable Montmorenci. 



his or;r /-ns ? 9. What is said of the art of printing ? Who were called Huguenots I 
10. Who was John Calvin? , „ . « „rv 

• 'II — 1, 2. \"hal was thr coi>dition of France after the death of Henry II. 7 3. Wli»t 



1S2 



THE REFORMATION 



CHAPTER CI. 



FKANCI8 II. — 1559. 



183 



About the Reformation. — Martin Lnf her. — John Calvin.-' 

The Huguetiots. 

I Yov will vr.mvmhcT that thc^ P<>i>o, assuniii.g to himself a powti 
^hich l.rl(.n«s lo the Deity ul.u.c, proinised a pardon tor their sins 
•o surh as should assume the cross. This Nvas aiterwards extended 
,0 those who should assist the holy eause hy cr,tis ot money. 

'> Findin- it an easv mode of raisin<r money, the Popes continued 
foTrrant uu/u/irenccs, as these permissions ^^vrc called, lonp: alter the 
hofv wars had ceased, hestowin<r them upon all who g:ave money for 
anv pious purpose enjoined hy the Pope. r i r vi». 

3 In 1513, John de Medicis, one of the illustrious familv ot I lor 
.•nee was elected Pope, and took the name ot Leo X. He was a 
liheral patron of men of -enius, tond of pomp and sj^endor, and very 

iV^ir ul to con.plete ,he stupendous ehureh ot M Peter's at Rome, 
v^^h eh had heen he^un hy Pope .lul.us II., h.s predecessor. All hie 
required an extraordinary supply of money, and the old expedient of 
sellint^ indulijences was resorted to. 

4 'IMie most active measures were adopted lo secure a great sale. 
Ar^nus were kept at the taverns and places of resort, whilst others 
were sent to olfer them from house to house, as patent luedieines arc 
hawked ahout at the present day. For s.)me time a profitable trade 
vva* c:.irie<l (.u nvnouir the icrni.rant and credulous. 

ry But the more enli-htened people had lontr viewed the practice 
with ahhorrence. The princes and nobles were anpry at seein? their 
vassals robbed of their money to supp(»rt the lazy priests in idleness 
Vnd vu-e \t len^rth, Martin Luther, himself one of the clergy, ven- 
lunnl ..penlv t.) deny the authority of the Pope to pardon siiis^ 

Luther was born at Kisleben, in >axony, A. D. MH3. His 
parents were loo poor to pay for his education, and »'^ «"Pl""^^/^^^ ^^J""" 
kdf whih; at school, like manv other poor German scholars, by Uter- 
allv iKMr.rin.r his bread. From school he went to college, where his 
diligence and proficiency in his studies acquired him therespect and 

adnTiralion of all the members. ,• r ; ,,. Mnvino 

7 In llOO he entered a convent ot Augustine fr.arh. Having 
found a copy of th.^ liible, which lay neglected in a corner ot the 
library he devot.-d himself to the study of it, with sucn eagerness as 
t(, astonish the monks, who could not conceive what pleasure or 
advantage he could derive from it. , . , ■ • , , 

■; The fame of his piety and learning led to his being appointed 
a nrofessor of the university of Wittenberg. In the year 1517, trom 
the puliut of the great church at that place, he first made known hi^ 



Cl -1 2 What were indiiliieMCe:^. a.ul to vvtiom were they granted ? 3^^^"^^^; 
I Vy ^n,\ what is .said of him? 4. How were indulgences disposed of? ». Who 



I 



apinions respecting indulgences. The boldness and novelty of these 
opinions drew great attention. Coming from a man of Luther's 
character, and delivered with great eloquence, they made a deep im- 
pression. 

iK The art of printing, which xtas discovered about the year 1410, 
enabled Luther to make his opinions known through all Christian 
(M)iuitries, and everywhere they made many proselytes. In France, 
tlu.se who adopted "them were called Huguenots, but why they w(;re 
so called is im)1 known. 

10. Although the reformers agreed in denying the authority of the 
Pope, they differed from one another in some matters of opinion, 
riie Huguenots tor the most part agreed with .Tohn Calvin, who was 
born at Noyon, in Picardy, a province of France, in 1509, but who 
pa.ssed the greater part of his life at Geneva, in Switzerland. He 
died A. D. 1564 



CHAPTER CIL 

rhe Family of Guise heroine powerful. — Persecutions of tJif 
Huguenots - - The Psalms of David proscribed as heretical. 




i» Francis IF., 1559 to 1560. 

1. Thk Hngdom was in a most deplorable state, when the one 
peeled death of his father placed Francis, at the age of sixteen years, 
upon the throne. It was suffering in every part from the ruinous 
etTects of ihn long wars. The introduction of the reformed religion 
had excited a general ferm.ent, and had caused breaches and divisions 
in all order? of society. 

2. The cciurt was split into parties. The two greatest factions, 
which h?t«d one another most bitterly, were those headed by the 
Duke o*" Guise, and his great rival, the Constable Montmorenci. 



hi9or;r/-ns ? 0. What is said of the art of printing? Who were called Huguenots 1 
10. V; ho was John Calvin ? 
«"l| — 1. 2. \"^hat was th< coi>dition of France after the death of Henry II. ? 3. Wh»t 



Ml 



84 



FRANCIS It — iSa). 



FRANCIS 11.-1559. 



185 



With all this, the evident incapacity of the king affoided no promise 
of any future support to the sinkings state. 

3. The king and his young brothers were all that remained of the 
family of Valois. The next heir to the crown was Anthony de 
Bourbon, whose relationship to the royal family was through St. 
Louis, being descended from the youngest son of that monarch. An- 
thony himself was an easy, good-natured man, of no firmness or decis- 
ion of character, and easily swayed by the merest tritle. 

4. He had married Jane d'Albret, heiress of Navarre, and had thus 
gained the almost barren dignity of King of Navarre. An anecdote 
is related of his marriage which may amuse you. She was then 
about twelve years of age, and her dress was loaded with so much 
finery that she could not walk, and the Constable Montmorenci was 
commanded by the king to carry her in his arms to church. 

5. Henry, Prince of Conde, brother of Anthony, possessed a very 
different character : he seemed to concentre in himself all the taleni 
of the family ; but, having embraced the reformed religion, he wa.s 
excluded from all influence at court. 

6. The queen-mother, Catherine de Medicis, soon declared herself 
for the Duke of Guise, and this, together with his near relationship 
to the young queen, soon gave to his party the complete ascendancy. 
Montmorenci was deprived of his offices, and the Bourbons were ban- 
ished from court. 

7. The Duke of Guise was by nature humane and generous, but 
he was induced by his brother, the Cardinal of Lorraine, whose big 
otry was extreme, to pursue the Huguenots with unabating severity 

( -ourts were established for the trial of those accused of being Hu 
guenots; and so unsparing were they in couuniltiug to the flames ul' 
who could be suspected, that they acquired the name of" the Burning 
Cha/nbers.'''' 

8. Any person who was known to associate with Huguenots wa^ 
considered as a heretic. The wicked took advantage of the excite 
ment to gratify their passions, and many Roman (Jatholics were, froro 
the hatred or avarice of their accusers, denounced and executed aj 
heretics. 

9. Margaret, sister of Francis L, found it difficult to escape per- 
secution. She had written a devotional book, and because there was 
no mention made in it of saints or of purgatory, it was condemned as 
heretical by the doctors of the Sorbonne. Tlie theologians of Paris 
were so called, because they held their meetings at the college of the 
Sorbonr.e, a seminary for the education of poor students in divinity, 
founded A. D. 1256, by Robert de Sorbonne. 

10. Kven the Psalms of David were proscribed for the same rea- 
son ; and Marot, a popular French poet, was obliged to fly from 
his country, for having the temerity to translate them. It is a sat- 






id said of the royal family ? 4. Whom did Anthony de Bourbon marry ? 5. What is said 
of the Prince of Cond6? 6. What is said of the inHuence of the (jueen ? 7,8. How wer« 
the Huguenots treated? 9. What is said of the Sorbonne? 10. Did all Roman Cath- 
olica join in the persecution of the Huguenots 7 12. What is said of the Charrolloi 
'Hopilal I 



jifaction to know <hat there were some good Roman Catholics vho 
opposed these sanguinary proceedings. 

11. Anne of Este, the wife of the Duke of Guise, witnessed tnem 
with agonies of grief. "Shall not,"' she exclaimed, "the bloot] 
which is now shed be required of my children I" There was one 
honest minister too, the Chancellor ITIopital. He labored all his life 
to promote religious toleration, so that he was strongly suspected of 
being a Huguenot himself. 

12. His labors were not entirely unsuccessful, for he prevented the 
introduction of the horrible tribunal of the incpiisition into France. 
Such is the influence of virtue and undeviating integrity, that I'Ho- 
pital was uniformly respected by Catherine de Medicis herself, even 
though he opposed her measures, when he thought them wrong 



CHAPTER cm. 

More about the Huguenots. — Trial and Condemnation of the 
Pririce of Conde. — Death of Francis IL, and its Conse- 
quences. 

1. You must not suppose that converts to the reformed faith were 
to be found only among the common people. In addition to the Prince 
of Conde, there were many men and women of the highest rank 
among them. The Admiral Coligny and d'Andelot, also a nephew 
of Montmorenci, were of the number. 

2. The party, which now consisted of an immense number of per- 
sons of all ranks and conditions, began to calculate their strength, 
and to consider if they might not be able to force the government to 
adopt more tolerant measures, and to respect their natural rights. 
For this end, the Prince of Conde, as head of the party, entered into 
a correspondence with the Huguenots in different parts of the king- 
dom. 

3. This correspondence boing discovered, the prince and his 
brother, the King of Navarre, were summoned to appear at Orleans, 
io answer before an assembly of the States-General for their conduct. 
Their friends entreated them not to go ; but they thought that if 
they refused, it would be considered as an acknowledgment of crime, 
and they accordingly went to Orleans. 

i. Immediately on their arrival, they wenv to the castle to pay their 
respects to the royal family. Guise, as if impatient for his prey, 
had them arrested the instant of their leaving the king's presenw 
The Prince of Conde was at once brought to trial, and condemned Ui 
oe beheaded. 



cm — 1. From what rank in society were the Huguenots? 2. How did they «:t1 
i, t What was done in regard to the Prince of Cond* and the King of Navarre? 5. Wh«t 

IP* 



i^-: 



1^1 



CHARLES IX - ISeO. 



I 



5 T > virtu».us rHopital lah(.rc«l hard to prevent the execul.on of 

Ihe Bente^ce, and the delays which he contrived to interpose were the 

means of saving the life of the prince ; lor while his life was thus 

.anmng, as it tvere, on a th*ead, the unexpected death of the king 

made a sudden change in the aspect of atfairs, and delivered hiin from 

^6^ TheTllness of the king was not, at first, thought to he mortal ; 
but 'after some days, it was apparent that he could not recover. 
Nothincr could exceed the confusion and consternation ot the court 
The Guises saw their influence at an end, and knew tliat the queen- 
moihcr must possess the chief power <luring the minority of the new 
kintr, who was only ten years old. . . •♦u 

7 Hitherto tliey had slighted her, hut now they treated her with 
the most obseiuiious attention. (Catherine, forgetting her dying son, 
thought only how she might best secure her own authority. Ihe 
Gui^s endeavored to prevail on her to put the King of Navarre and 

his brother instantlv to death. . , , .u ,«-« 

8. Fortunately, I'Hopital was able to convince her that they were 
her only security against the power of the house of Lorraine b le 
therefore sent for the King of Navarre, and assurmg him that she 
had taken no part in the trial and condemnation of his brother, otiered 
him her friendship on two conditions : the first, that he should relin- 
quish in her favor all claim to the regency ; the second, that he should 
be reconciled to the Guises. i.„ ^^„ 

*) The first he readily acceded to, but he was with difficulty pre- 
vailed upon to agree to the second. Francis died December 5th, 
1560, in the eighteenth year of his age, having reigned seventeen 
months. As he left no children, his brother Charles was declared his 
successor, by the title of Charles IX. 



CHAPTER CIV. 

Cathenne de Medicis.— hwnition of SidcSaddles in France. 
— Anecdotes of Catherine's Belief in Magic. 

1 \s Catherine occupies so prominent a place in this part of my 
.torv, it is proper that I should ffive you some account of her. bho 
was' the daughter of Lorenzo de Medicis, a grandson of that great 
Florentine merchant, Lorenzo de IMedicis, whose wealth and talents 
raisfMl himself and his family to the rank of sovereign princes. 

2 She was born at Florence, at a time when that city was dis 
tracied by the contests between the friends and enemies ot her power- 
nil tamilv, and thus she became early familiarized with the intrigues 
and vices of dishonest politicians. 



•rent happened f.vonvhlo to the prince? 7. S How did Cathenne de Medicos aM7 9. 

Whan didTranci^U die? What waa his a-e ? Who succeetled him ? . . .^ 

aV. - 1, rwho was Ollerine de Med.ci- ? 3, 4. Wha: happened in her whe;. tte 



CHi IJLES IX. — 1560. 



187 



S. When she was only nine years old, her vvhok family, with the 
©iception of herself, were banished from Florence. She was de- 
tained, as a hostage, to secure the city from their resentment. Thii 
did not prevent them, however, from laying siege to the place. The 
cannon of the besiegers making an impression upon the walls, it was 
proposed that she should be placed there, exposed to the fire. 

4. This proposal was rejected with the horror it deserved ; yet 
horrible as it was, it vould have saved France from much misery 
had it been accepted. At the age of f«»urteen, she was married to 
Henry, afterwards King of France. 

5. She was a woman of great talents, but of no enlargement of 
mind. Her whole thoughts centred in self. To acquire power and 
lo retain it was the sole aim of all her actions. But even here her 
views were bounded ; she never looked beyond the present moment, 
and forgot that there was a future, both as regarded this world and 
the next. 

6. Hence, she was often entangled in her own nets. She looked 
upon deceit and dissimulation as wisdom and policy. She never 
acted with sincerity, and hence her whole life was a continued tissue 
of artifices. She ba«l a personal feeling of hatred to every Protestant, 
independently of her zeal for the Catholic religion. 

7. Without having the slightest reason to do so, she always attrib- 
uted the death of her husband, which you know was occasioned by an 
accident, to a preconcerted i)lan of the Huguenots. Although she 
[)ossessed no good qualities, yet she had some great ones. She hatJ 
a taste fi)r literature, anti encouraged men of learning, and promoteo 
all ingenious and liberal arts. 

8. She was by nature cruel, and yet fond of all thoee gayeties 
and refinements of life, which are supposed to soften the disposition. 
She was both avaricious and profuse, and united in her character the 
most discordant and contradictory qualities that ever woman pos- 
sessed. 

9. Her face was as deceitful as her mind. She had a calm and 
composed look, and never was known to lose her presence of mind. 
She was fat, and very fair, with fine eyes, and was altogether a very 
Handsome and engaging woman. She was very vain of her beauty, 
and in particular of the symmetry of her hands and feet. 

10. She had also very well turned ankles, and, that tht^y might l>€! 
shown to advantage, she was the first person to adopt the u.se of tight 
silk stockings. Amidst all her political cares, the care of the toilette 
occupied much of her time and thoughts, and her dress was genera'ly 
graceful and becoming. 

11. She was very fond* of hunting, and invented the side-sadd'e. 
Ladies of rank in France, till then, rode on a kind of pad, with a 
board suspended fron it for the feet to rest on. She had some severe 
falls from her horse in hunting : once she broke her leg, and at an* 
other time fractured her skull. 



wa3 youn? ? 5, 6, 7. 6. What is said of her character 7 9. What is said of her peraonaf 
*P(>«\irance .' 10. Whatofter dress ? II. What of her amusements 1 12. What le «»*J 
01 her lp?li«f in migir ? 13. 14. What anecdotes are related of it ? 



188 



CHARLES IX. — 1560. 



ill 



12. With all her strength of mind, upon one point she was very 
weak. Her belief in magic was entire. She constantly wore a chara 
written on parchment, and frequently consulted astrologers. One of 
them told her that all her sons should be kings. This prophecy gave 
her the greatest anxiety, for it led her to fear that they were all des- 
tined to die young, and to succeed one another as kings of France. 

13. She therefore tried to fulfil it by procuring for her two young- 
est sons other crowns. She succeeded in getting that of Poland foi 
one, but tried in vain to get that of England for the other, by marry- 
ing him to Queen Elizabeth. 

14. Another astrologer had told Catherine that she should die at 3 
place called St. Germains. She therefore carefully avoided af 
places of that name, and actually abandoned the Tuileries, a splen 
did palace which she had built for her own residence, because sht 
discovered that the parish in which it stood was called St. Ger- 
mains. 



CHAPTER CV. 



\bout Charles IX. — The Triumvirate. — Commc7icenieiU tg 

the Civil Wars. 




Charles IX., 1560 to 1574. 

1. Charles W. was endowed by nature with many valuable qual- 
ities; but they were all perverted by his education. It would have 
been better for him had this been wholly neglected ; for it was his 
misfortune to be taught only what was bad. 

2. His mother early trained him in the arts of deceit, and that she 
might secure herself from interference in the government, he was en- 
couraged to abandon himself entirely to pleasure. He was entrusted 
10 the cair «f the Marshal de Retz, an Italian of low birth, but a most 
accomplished cnaster in every kind of vice, in all which it was his 
business to initiate his pupil. 

C\' — I. What 13 said of ihe education of Charica IX. ? 4. Wliat is said of his iiatum 



CHARLBS IX. — 1561 



189 



S. I \ Bon.^ he was but too successful, but he never coula make the 
king a drunkard. He once prevailed upon him to drink to intoxica- 
tion, but Charles was so much ashamed of having been seen in that 
(iisgusliug condition, that he was ever after remarkably abstemi- 



ous 



4. He had by nature an ardent and vehement character. He did 
everything with violence. When he danced, it was with such im 
petuosity an*l perseverance, that the ladies of the court dreaded him 
for a partner. He loved all kinds of hard labor, and took great pU as- 
iire in working at a blacksmith's forge ; and no laborer toiling for his 
bread could work harder than he did for amusement. 

5. He was an excellent gunsmith. He possessed great bodily 
strength, and it seemed as if violent exercise alone would allay the 
restlessness of his mind and the irritability of his temper. In his per- 
son he was tall and large, but spoiled his appearance by stooping, 
and by an awkward habit of carrying his head on one side. He had 
handsome eyes and an aquiline nose. His complexion was fair and 
pale, and his countenance haggard and unpleasing. 

G. At the end of the short reign of Francis II. the affairs of the 
country were in a worse condition than they were at the death ol 
Henry II. The evils of a factious court were not lessened, and the 
violence of religious differences had very much increased. It was in 
vain that THopital exhorted the parties to patriotism and religious 
toleration. 

7. Catherine and the Duke of Guise were solely intent on the ac- 
quisition of power. The duke was very unwilling to give up the 
authority he had of late exercised. To strengthen himself, he en- 
tered into a close confederacy with the constable, and with the Mar- 
shal St. Andre ; the confederacy was called ihe triumvirate, which 
term means an association of three persons. 

8. Conde, now at liberty, placed himself at the head of the Hugue- 
lots, but his brother, the King of Navarre, soon joined the party of 
the triumvirate. Catherine now professed great regard for the Hu- 
guenots, and granted them several privileges. But the effect of this 
conduct was the reverse of what she expected. 

9. It added strength to the triumvirate ; for the Catholics, becom- 
ing alarmed at these concessions, and believing their own church to 
be in danger, relied for protection on the family of Guise. It soon 
became apparent that a civil war was inevitable. A spark only was 
wanting to set the whole kingdom in a blaze. 

10. It was soon struck. Several Huguenots, while at their devo- 
tions in a barn, were insulted by the servants of the Duke of Guise, 
who chanced to pass by. An affray ensued, in which the duke, 
while endeavoring to quell the tumult, received a blow upon the face 
with a stone. 

11. His servants, exasperated at seeing their master thus wounded, 
ttiliicked the Huguenots, and killed several of them. The Huguenot* 



chanicler ? .'>. What id said of hl3 personal qualities ? f). What is said of the state ol 
the country? 7. What was the triumvirat(> ? 8,9. How did Catherine act, and whal 
▼ere the consequences 1 Ifi. 11. What was the commencement of tht> civil \nrs ? 

1.'', 



188 



CHARLES IX. -1560. 



12. With all her strenglli of mind, upon one point she was very 
weak. Her belief in man^ic was entire. She constantly wore a charn 
written on parchment, arid frequently consulted astrolofjers. One of 
them told her that all her sons should he kinjjs. This j)rophecy pave 
her the ijreatest anxiety, f(»r it led her to fear that they were all des- 
tined to die younjT, and to succeed one another as kinps »>f France. 

13. She therefore tried to tulfil it by procuring for her two younf^- 
est sons other crowns. She succeeded in pettiufj that of Poland foi 
one, but tried in vain to pet that of England for the other, by marry- 
ing him to Queen Elizabeth. 

14. Anotb(!r iistroloper had told Catherine that she should die at a 
place called St. Germains. She therefore carefully avoided af 
places of that name, and actually abandoned the Tuileries, a splen 
did palace which she had built for her own residence, because sht 
discovered that the parish in which it stood was called St. Ger- 
mains. 



CHAPTER CV. 



Uout Charles IX. — T/ie Triumvirate. — Commniceineni oj 

the Civil Wars. 




Charlia IX., 1560 to 1574. 

1. Chahlks L\. was endowed by nature with many valuable qual- 
ities; but they were all perverted by his education. It would have 
been better for him had this been wholly neglected ; for it was his 
misfortune to be taught only what was bad. 

2. His mother early trained him in the arts of deceit, and that she 
might secure herself from interference in the government, he was en- 
couraged to abandon himself entirely to pleasure. He was entrusted 
lo the cair '^f the Marshal de Retz, an Italian of low birth, but a most 
ftccomplished master in every kind of vice, in all which it was his 
business to initiate his pupil. 



C\ — I Wh.it is .«aiil of the education of Charlca IX. ? 4. What \s said of hia iiatur* 



CH.\RLKS IX -- 1361 



189 



3. 1 . 80ii..i he was but too successful, but he never coula make the 
king a drunkard. He once prevailed upon him to drink to intoxica- 
tion, but Charles was so much ashamed of having been seen in that 
disgusting condition, that he was ever after remarkably abstemi- 

ilUS. 

I. He had by nature an ardent and vehement character. He did 
everyihing with violence. When ho danced, it was with such im 
|)eluosity and perseverance, that the ladies of the court dreaded hini 
for a partner. He loved all kinds of hard labor, and took great [)h as- 
iirc in workinp at a blacksmith's forije ; and no laborer t»>iling for his 
bread could work harder than he ilid for anuisement. 

5. He was an excellent gunsmith. He possessed great bodily 
strength, and it seemed as if viident exercise alone would allay the 
restlessness of his mind and the irritability of his temper. In his per- 
son ht! was tall and largt>. but si)oiled his api)earance by stooping, 
and by an awkward habit of carr\ing his h«'ad on oim side. He had 
liand.st»me eyes and an aquiline utxse. His ccunplexion was fair and 
pale, and his countenance hagijard and tuipleasing. 

(». At the (ind of the short reipii of Francis H. the affairs of the 
countrv were in a worse condition than they were at the death ol 
Henry II. The evils of a factious court were not lessened, and the 
violence of religious dilferences had very much increased. It was in 
vain that THopitrd exhorted the parties to patriotism and religious 
toleration. 

7. Catherine and the Duke of Guise were solely intent on the ac- 
quisition of power. The duke was very unwilling to give up the 
authority he bad of late exercised. To strengthen himself, he en- 
tered into a close confederacy with the constable, and with the Mar- 
shal St. Andre ; the confederacy was called tlic triumvirate., whir'h 
tern» means an association of three |M>rsons. 

S. ('ond«', now at liberty, placed himself at the head of the Hugue- 
lots, but his brother, the King of Navarre, soon joined the party of 
the triumvirate. Catherine now professed great regard for the Hu- 
guenots, and granted them several privileges. Hut the effect of this 
conduct was the reverse of what she exj»ected. 

\). It added strength to the triumvirate ; for the Catholics, becom- 
inix alarmed at these concessions, and believing their own church to 
be in danger, relied for protection on the family of Guise. It soon 
became apparent that a civil war was inevitable. A spark only was 
wanting to set the whole kingdom in a blaze. 

10. It was soon struck. Several Huguenots, while at their devo- 
tions in a barn, were instilted by the servants of the Duke of Guise, 
who chanced to pass by. An affray ensued, in which the duke, 
while endeavoring to quell the tumult, received a blow upon the face 
with a stone. 

11. HissciA-ants, exasperated at seeing their master thus wounded, 
attacked the Huguenots, and killed several of them. The Huguenoti 



chancier ? '>. What i:^ said nf his jiersonal qualities? Cy. \Vh.at is said (»f the staw o« 
Ihe country? 7. What was the trinmrirotp i S, 9. How did Catherine act, and wh«l 
vere the dn.swjufiices '!■ in. 1 1. What wa.s the lomTnencemeMi of thi' civil w\rs? 

1.1 



190 



CIIARl.KS IX. -1563. 



considered :tie massacre of those peasants as a , reineditated coiniiicnce 
ment of hostilities, and at oiiee rushed to arms. 

12. Siieli was the r<Miinieneenieiit of ihos;' dreadful reli<jious wars 
whieh for so luaiiy years desolated Franer. They wero carried on 
with a ferocity ahiiost unexaiTii)led : all family and social ties were 
torn asunder, every town hecaine a fortress, and countrymen and lei 
l«)W-cilizens cut one another's throats in the streets. 



CHAPTER CVI. 

War between tnc Roman Catholics and Hugtienots. — Death of 
the Duke of Guise. — Sinsru/ar Fate of his Assassi?i. — Pres- 
ent from Elizabeth, Queen of England, to the Hifgue?iots, 
and their Return for it. — Arms in u^e at this Period. 

1. The Prince of Conde. to«)k the command of the Ilv'.jruenot f»)rces, 
and the Duke of Guise placed himself at the head of the Catholics. 
They met at Dreux. Cinule was taken prisoner, and Coli^niy, who 
succeeded to the command, was ohlijred to retire from the field. 

*J. Conde w:us immediat«'ly led to the tent of the Dukt; t)f (Juis.', 
who received him more as a i;u«\sl than as a prisoner, and, as a mark 
of his confidence and frieiulship. made him sleep in the sanu- hed 
with himself. Comle. afterwards d.-clared that Guise slept ;is souinlly 
as if his hest friend, instead of his greatest enemy, were lyin«T hy 
his side; but that, as i\n himself, he did n«»t close his eyes all 

niijhl. 

3. The next year, ir»<i3, the duke laid siejjrc to Orh-ans. I he 
town was on the point of hein;r taken, when, one evenin*:, as the duke 
was returninif to the camp from a visit to his family, he received a 
mortal wound from an assassin. The duke instantly fell, and th'i 
assassin iralloped otf. 

4. After havinir ridden full speed the whole of the iii<;ht, which 
»vas extremely dark, the man supposed himself to he many miles 
from Orleans.' But when daylight broke, he found himself only 
about a mile from the spot from which he had first set out. His 
horse was unable to ^o a step further, and he was compelled to take 
refuge in a house, where, throwing himself upon a bed, he soon fell 

asleep. 

5. In this state he was (lisc*>vered, and, being carried to Pans, sut- 
fered the penalty of his crime. Guise lived only six days after he 
riveived his vvouiul ; but before he died, he exhorted ratherine to 
make peace with the Huguenots. He was succeeded in his title by 
his son Henry, in compliance with his dying advice, the queen made 
peace with the Huguenots, and granted them very favorable tarras. 

e. In Ihis war, the Huguenots had received aid from Elizabeth 



CV I — 1 By whiiin were the armies of ihe iw.i p;irii(!-j roinmaiided ? What was the 
te«ult of the fin' battle i 3 What id said of t»»e death of the, IHikt- of Gviir^e ? 4 What 



CHAKi.t->s IX 



I r^m 



191 



Queen of England, who considered herself as the ht^ad of ih; Prot- 
estant church. Among other acts of kindness, she made them a pres- 
ent offline pieces of cannon. This w;is deemed Um valuable a gift t« 
pass without some return. 

7. IJut the Prince of Conde was poor, and his party so much 
reduced, that nothing could be found to send her but some wool. 
and a few bells which had betMi taken from a church in Normandy. 
'Hie value of the gift of Queen Elizabeth may be judged from the 
fact, that, at the battle of Coutras, fought tw'enty years after tliia 
period, one party had three pieces of cannon and the other only 
I wo. 

8. Muskets, however, were the common arms of the infantry, and 
the cavalry had exchanged their lances for pi.stols. Armor still con- 
tinued to be worn, though the change in the mode of fighting which 
had been made by the common use of gunpowder, rendered it rather 
in incumbrance than a safeguard. 



CHAPTER CVH. 



^1 



4^ar imtk the Huguenots renrwed. — Death of t he Prince oj 
Conde. — About the Bearnois. — Their Dress. 

1. Finding the queen totally regardless of her promises, and goad- 
nl on by fresh injuries, the Huguenots, in 1507, again had recourse 
l«» arms. In the first engagement, the Constable Montmorenci los/ 
his life. His death was rather a matter for rejoicing than of regret 
with Catherine. 

2. She had now got rid of all of whos<} influence she was afraid ; 
the King of Navarre having been killed in the previous war. She 
persuaded the king not to appoint another constable, but to give the 
command of the royal armies to her third and favorite son, Henry 
Duke of Anjou. 

3. This prince was only sixteen years old ; he was therefore 
placed under the guidance of Marshal Tavaimes, a skilful general, 
but a devoted servant of Catherine. He had carried his obsequious- 
ness to her so far, as to offer to cut off the nose of a lady at whom 
the queen had taken otfence ! The offer, however, was not ac- 
cepted. 

1. On the 13th March, 1509, the two armies met near the town of 

larnac. The royalists were nearly four times more numerous than 

he Huguenots. Conde entered the field of battle with his arm in r. 

tling, from the effects of an old wound. Before the engagement 

commenced, a kick from an unruly horse broke his leg. Undaunted 

•»»^ca?ne of his murderer? 6. By whom were the Huguenots assisted ? 7, 8. What wert 
the arms now in common uw ^ 

CVII. — 1 . When wa.s the war with I he Hueuenois renewed 7 W^hat was one of the firw 
•rent.s? 2. Who wa."? appojntod to rninmand the royal armies? 4. When was the bat 
*i» of Jarioc foufjht ^ 5 What is saitl of the ttattle. aid of j.he death of the princ« 



192 



<:haki-K« i\. -1'^9 



by this :uvul.M>t, lu- maiie a short speech to his troi ;s, and then le,j 

them a^ainsl the enemy. i ♦ . ,k 

5 The Hnfjuonols, overpower.'d hv numhers, \ver»« for.-.Ml to 1 1 v . 
Conae heina now unahle to move, was eompelle.l to snrren.i.M !<■ 
wa« lined tVr>m his liors.> an.l plaeo.l on tlie ^rn)und, in tle^ sh:ul.; of a 
tree Whilst ho was in this situation, a eaptam ol the l)nU.- ot An- 
ton's unanl haselv eamo hehiiul him, and shot him .h'ad. H" Mt 
three sons, of whom tho .ddest, named Univy, sneroednl t.. the t.lhv 
(; Henrv. Pnnee of Hearn, son of the Kinjz of Navarre, wi.s de- 
dare.l the head of the l>,otestant partv. Wr derived his tith- from 
that provinee wliieh formed nearly the whole territory of his kjm- 
.l<,m The Ilnnw,s, as the people are ealled, are celehrated for their 
heantv Their .In^ss is partienlarly neat and heeonimtj. 

7 The women, even the poorest, dress with nood taste. U lieti.er 
Pn.raiTed in house or field l:d>or, it is always appropriate. 1 •';;;;";""•«' 
whieh are hnlliant and showy, are frenerally well ehosen. Ol thesj, 
colors, the most tasteful are ^renerally displayed in the handkerehief 
whieh forms the hea<l-dress 

8 It is of a manufaeture peenliar to the eountry, whieh neitlier 
fades nor ernmples. The middle is usually of a <lrah, fawn or hrown 
rol.>r, with a horder suited to it. It is adp.sled on the hea. with 
ereat skill, so as to set otV the heanty of the wearer. Beneath this 
handkerchief are to l>e seen soft hands of ilark hair canMully parted 
on the forehead, and placed ajrainst the cheek; so as to contrast witli 
the fflowinff and healthv, vet delicate complexions. , , , , 

9 \dd to this a neat little collar round the neck, am a shawl 
pinned down m front, over which the han.ls, in cnriously colored mi - 
tens, are closely folded. Besides the handkerchief, a kind oH";" ' 
called a rapufrf; is worn ahro.ad. It is made of white or scarlet cloth 
jf the finest texture, often hordered with hlack velvet. I he appear- 
mce IS exlromely pretty, whether hannmo loosely from the ho d over 
che shoulders, or folded thiek and tlal on the head. 



CH.vrTKK CVlll. 

Abmd Henry, rrince of Beam, afttrwards Henry the Great. — 
By th/' Deaih of his Mother he becomes King of Navarre. 
— Hui Marriage. — Calm before a Temprst. 

\ Henry, Prince of Beam, was sixteen years old at the time 
.,f Conde's death He was horn at the castle of Pau, at which 
place the shell of a larife tortoise, which was used as his cradle, is yet 
^reserved There is also to he seen there a huge twt)-pronged steel 
Wk which was used hv him in after years, and which was thought 



of Cond* 1 f. Who l»ecame the lieaJ of the Prolestara party ? 7. Whni is said of l)if 
BiVnoM? 5.0 Wlial of lh«ir tlress .» 



CHAKF-KS IX. — L'^'i 



191 



«t that lime, when ff.rks were first introduced, a very refined and del 
ieate invention. 

•2. As this prinee was de.stined to he one of the most famous men 
ni history, I will give yjui his eharaeter, as it had shown itself hefore 
this perKMJ oi his life, f jrjve it in the words of a hrter writp ;, :,f 
th'- tune, ;itid hy a ^'atludie, his enerny. 

.! ' We have jiere the Prinee of Hearn. ft must he confessed 

'"•;tl lie 1^ a eharmmtr yfnith. At thirteen years of a^e, he has all the 

'•per .pialities of eighteen or nineteen ; he is agreeable, p(dite, ohjig- 

injr. and hehav.'s to every (uie with an air ^o e .sy and e.ifrafrina, that 

vherever he is there is always a crowd. " 

I. "He mixes in eonversaticMi like a wise and prudent man, speaks 
.luaysto the purpose, and never .says more or less than he ouaht. 
• ^^I'all :ill my life hale the new reli(r,<M,, for having rohhed us of so 
uorlliy a friend. Ilis hair is a little red, yet the ladies think him not 
llH' ess agreeahle 0,1 that areount; his faee is finely shaped, his noso 
nrithertfio large „(ir loo .small, his eyes full of sweetness, and his 
whole eoimteiianee .inirriated with uneommon vivacity." 

.'"•.In 1.570, peace was at/ain m^wie, and to calm the suspicions of 
the l[ii(ruenols, a rnarriagf- was agreed uj)on between the Prince r,f 
Hearn and .\lar{^aret, si.ster of the king. The Queen of Navarre, 
olitriiy, and all the principal Huguenots were invited to Paris to the 
mipt.al.s and the cpieen, forgetting the dying advice of her husband, 
:i"eepte(| the iiivilali«in and went. 

0. in the midst of the preparations, she suddenly died ; and the 
Huguenots believed that her death wjus procured by means of a 
poisoned pair «d gloves, which she had purchased of f;atherine's Ital- 
1 H. perfumer. Hy her death, Henry became King of Navarre His 
•"'linage took place Auirii.st IHth, l.'>7-^. 

7. Th«! court was now to all appearance entirely oc/!upied with ban 
'Piets and ot.b«;r sphrndid entiTtainments in honor of the marriarre 
I h(! Hujiuenots were treated with the rrreatest atu^ntion. fjolicrny waa 
npeatfidly urged by his fri(.nds to leave Pans, and -not triTst him- 
Kell in th(! power of a king whos; pa.ssion.s were ungovernable, and 
ol an Italian woman whose dis.siinulation was unfathomable." 

H Hut he would not listen to the eautio.. and declared him.self 
n uly to abid.; all ha'/.'inls, ratlier than show a .li.stru.st which might 
plunge the country again into a civil war. The very kindness of 
Ihe court ex(uted the suspicions of nomr, that foul play was in 
leiidftd. ^ ■' 

\i. One of (Joligny"h friends, takiiiir leave of him, said, •' Tarn 
going to (pjii Pans, becaii.se ihev seem to be loo fond of us '* But 
no one could imagine the horrible treachery of which the HuTncnm* 
were to be the victims. 



<^HII I. 1. VVh.-u is sai.lof Henry. Pri.ireofBearn? n When w:ls nmremadai 

1';:,:;:^: " f>n;P'-e.ttosecnre a ^ 6 Wh a event ..cc.rre.l Junn/rhr,Tre?Sii. .« for 

!Mh«c?.;rtV '*'''•'• '• "«>^^'"'^lheH..guen,...ireae,i.' Ha.J they any .^uapi^wS 

17 



IM 



rMARI.KS ix.-isri 



\W 



CHAITKK (MX. 

The Massacre of St. Jiarfho/oifieiv. 

I For two voars ( 'atliorino l»:wl l..>.'n fontnvm^r \ho most airociout 

nlov vv»..Mi IS ,voonU.l m lustovv. Tins was no I.h. than to n.unln 

th.' H.uM.onots in Fvann.. Thr luuir, tl.on. , cruH hy naluro, 

'Shrunk *Vom sn.h an enormous rrnn.. At last, however, the queen 

jrained hiaeonsent. , ..,„|,,.^ 

o Kvervthnvr ha,l hitherto sucvrile.i arronl.uu o her >us u s 
n;nrv ('ol.U-v': ana all the Ira.lers, ha.l lalhn n,.o the snaro whu-h 
vas so arttullv lawl, au,i ban.,1 hv the ...t ol th.- kn.^ s ow., .,s eM n 
marnaije to Henry, who, nevertliele^s, ,t was on-u.ally inten.U<l 
bhoulil h(' one ofthe vietinis. 

S Nothnur now remain^,! hut the rxrrut.on, nu.l lor that hr 
m'ht of thel>tlh of August wasf.xe,! upon. Th. stnkn.. ot (he 
"nnt hell of the palaee was to he the si^rpal tor tlu« <.onuneneement ol 
fjw^ mssiere m Pans. The Swiss ayy.vul of the k.n^r :„mI th.> e.ly 

lUa w^ apU^a to take the 1.!;<1. To .l,st„.,u,sh then. jr<u.. 
,hoir victnus, they were or.hMva to su.n a white eross on th.-,r hat. 

and a searf »mi the h arni. ... , . ■ i .i . 

4 \s the anpoiute,! hour approaeluMl, the k^,K^ h;ss uinlrnr<l than 
h.s mother, wis u^ the jrrealest aj,Mtat,o.. ; luMr.MnhhMl Irom hea.l e 
Zr His mother a,ul the Duke of (Jmse ha. un-at . hlheu Ity .n 
kec^;mcr him to h.s purpose. The <puvn at length toree< Iron, h.m a 
romman.l to he^.n tlie slau.^hter, an<l then, to prevent the poHs.lul.ty 
oHm retractiu,^ she .avo the s.gnal, without wamnjr h.r the ap- 

''*'ij'' nvin not sh.»ek vou hv -ivinj: yon any <leseription of the horri 
We "scenes that foUowea. It will h.^ sulVieient to tell you ha e.. 
Pans alone, more than fne thousan.l per.she.l m what ks .-a UmI th. 
Massacre of St. H:nllu.lomew, because it was executetl on hisdav. 
Ammi,^ the victims was ( 'ol„niy, a man of the purest iHe, u.ul oi stnet 

relu'^ious i)rincij>le. , , , /^ • n . .i. . 

6 VI the firit somul of tlie holl, the implacable (.u.s(« flew to the 
house' of the admiral, an.l there complete,! his hhxuly purpose ; no. 
indeed hv his own hands, for he remained below, and sent his penph- 
up to the chamber. The venerable old man, disabled by wou.uls, had 
no other defence than his calm, intrepid countenance. 

7 The German sonant of Guise approached him with his .Ira wn 

.word in his hand. - Younc. man," said Colicrny, " X;- -';;", J.;.' 
reverence these ffrav hairs ; but do what you .hmk proper , mv 1. . 
ran he shortened but a very little." The sword was plun^^ed into 
ftis bodv without a word of reply. - „^ .^ „..» ih.> 

8 Orders had likewise been sent into the provinces to put tin 
Hu-uenots to death. In many pl.ices these orders were so we.. 



^.S-*'Twha, i.'t,l^; :::n,"aliir illd whyl How n.a..y w«ra victim- .n 



niAKus rx 



is7a 



lOfj 



obeyed that sevnity tlnuisand persons were sacrificed. 'Hiere wero 
tome ma|ristrates who liafi tlin eonrafre to di8<»bey. The Vi.scount 
^rOrtez, (Jovcrnor of llayonne, in answer to the kinfr's mandate, wrotp 
^is f.dlows : '* Your maj»\sty h;us many faithful snljjects in Hayonnr, 
but not (Mie exeentiornT." 

!». It was originally intended that the Km.; of Navarre and the 
vo'in}4 Prince of (^oinh'. should be ineluded in the massacre, but the 
kiiii: would not consent to sacrifice those <»f his own blood. I am (rhu\ 
to say that (Miarles displayed a little hninan feelinjr. He carefully 
prnteeted his nurse, who was a Protestant, keeping her C(uistantly by 
his side, so lorifj as there was any danger. 

10. I'liere was another Prote.stant saved by him, for less disinter- 
ested inotiv€?s perhaps. 'I'his was Ambro.se I'are, a man whose skill 
in surgery is mueh sp.iken of. Itefore his time, it was rather a 
butcher's than a heaiiiitr art. 

11. 'IMie eonrt for a time exulle.l in their vietory. Charles was 
heard to declare that now he sh(»uld live, in juare. IJut he had for- 
ever murderi'd his own peace. His and ('athcjrine's punishment soon 
began. In.stead of living in peace, they were a prey to constant dis- 
<piif!tu(le. 

PJ. At oiM' time, the king deni.-d all participation in the massacrre, 
and threw all the blame on the tini.ses. The very next day he avowed 
the de.'d and gloried in it, and order(^<l a thanksigiving for what he 
palled his victory over tin; Huguen(»t«. Of the.se, two millions yet 
remained. Their persenitors found that, instead of extirpating 
h.jn^sy, they had made, the heretics desj)*;rat<', and were afterwards 
glad to make a treaty with them. , 



CHAPTKR ex. 

The Duke of Anjon elected King of Poland. — About the Polish 
Kmmys and the Entertainments given to them. — The supe- 
rior Learning of the IWrs. 

1. CiiAKLK.s had long regarded his brother H.Miry, Duke of Anjou, 
with a jealous eye, as being his mother's and the people's favorite. 
It was, therefore, with much joy that he heard of his election to be the 
King of Poland. Nor did this eircurn.slance afford less satisfaction to 
^ ' itherine, for it relieved in some degree the anxiety occasioned bj 
the old prophecy. 

2. Henry hiins<df was very averse to accepting it. He did noi 
like to leave the delights and enjoyments of France, to go to what 



Pari-.' What i.i saiil of Culii-'uy ? >. Was the iiia*ia<:re confiiietJ lo P:iri.i? Did all ih* 
ina^islralcs obey llin onlen lliey rpr«Mve«!^ 9 Who were spired, and why? 10. What 
is joid of Aiiibro;je Par^ ' II. What did ihe kiii>,' aiid Calheriue gain by l he success of 
llibir project? 12. What wa.s the ette<M on the Huguenots .' 
i'l. — I What evoi rive innch plea.sure to the kiu^ and his mother* .3,4. What l# 



I 

ll 



i 



196 



»:hari.es IX. — ir.73. 



I I 



k»e considerod a barbarous country. The king and Catherine were 
determined he should go, and he was forced to submit. 

3. The thoughts of the court and ministry were now engrosted by 
the preparations for the reception of the Polish envoys in a manner 
suitable to the dignity of both nations. On the 15th of August, ir)73, 
Ihev arrived at the gates of Paris. So splendid an embassy had not 
been seen there K»r several centuries. 'I'here were more than one 
hundred nobles, besides the twelve envoys. 

4. Their aspect, dress, and equipage were no h^ss a novelty to the 
Parisians, who gazed with wonder on the large size of their bodies, 
their loner beards, their grave and stern countenances, the neb fur? 
on their dress, and the brilliant decorations of their arms and horses 

5. It was remarkable that the Polish gentlemen could all speak 
Latin, many of them German and Italian, and several of them could 
speak' French ; whilst anu.ng the whole chief nobility of the court of 
France there was not one who understood the Latin language, and 
the king was obliged to summon to court two gentlemen who were 
distinguished for the possession of this accomplishment. 

6. A course of sumptuous entertainments tilled up the time, until 
the day fixed for tlu; grand ceremony of presenting the decree of elec- 
tion. This was performed in the great hall of the palace, where the 
kiufr, seated under a canoi)V. rt^ceived the Polish envoys, two of 
whom bore upon their shoulders a silver chest, in which the decree, 
havinfT one hundred and ten seals affixed to it, was deposited. 

7. This was followed by an entertainment given by the queen- 
mother in the garden of the Tuileries, at which a n^prescntation was 
introduced, suitgd to the taste of the times. Suddenly, from behind 
a curtain, a huge rock crested with silver appeared, hovering in the 

lir. • I 1 • ir 

8. In its niches were sixteen nymphs, representing by t.ieir dit- 

ferenl ornaments the several provinces of France. These nymphs 
were playing on various musical instrnments, and reciting verses in 
honor of the new king. Then, descending to the ground, they pre- 
sented Henry with a tribute appropriate to the several provinces they 

represented. 

9. Forming themselves into sets, they exhibited whatever was 
curious or graceful in French dances. The Poles, notwithstanding 
their natural gravity, were much pleased with these gay diversions, 
and were well satisfied with the grandeur and liberality of the Fren fh 
court. 



KiiJ of ihe Polish envoys? 5. WJial is saiJ of the h-ariiiiig «»f iN 
S What is said of the eiiierlaiiinieuts eiven to them ? 



olivl mtlriiwii I 




fflAKl.P-S IX.- 1571. 



CHAPTER CXI. 

Sufferings and Death of Charles IX. — Co?iduct of his Mot'/wr. 
— He finds one Frie?id. — The Chancellor VHopital niaWs 
i:reat Reforms in the Administration of Jt/slice. 

I. Thk heultb of Char'.es now nipidlv declined. He had nevei 
neen quite himself since the day of St." Bartholomew. .His com- 
[»lexion, whieli was before pale, was now often Hushed ; his eyes 
aeijuired an minatural fier(-ene.s.>, ; his nights were restless and dis- 
turbed, and his sleep unr< rreshing 

2. The sufferings t.f his body at length became greater than you 
can conceive. Nor were the sufTerings of his mind less than those 
of his body. Tlu; recidlections of the massacre continually haunted 
him, and he w:ts frequently overheard bewailing bis crime with bitter 
tears and groans. 

:i. Catherine, having forced from Wvn a commission of regency 
during the interval that must ela[)sc berveeu his death and the arriva! 
of his brother from Poland, thoun|;» no more of him. But he hnd one 
triend left, and that was his nurse, wlmse lifi^ he had saved at the time 
of the massacre. 

4. As she was watching hini one duy, being weary, she sat down 
on a chest by his bedside and fell asleep. ]*re.sently she w:is awak- 
ened bv hearing the kip.g bemoaning himself with tea'rs and groans. 

.'). She approached the bed very gently, and opened the curtains. 
The king then said, with a heavy groan, '"' Alas, nurse! what blood I 
what murder ! Ah, I have followtMl a wicked counsel ! Oh my Ood, 
forgive me, have mercy upon me, if thou wilt !" After a few more 
bitter lamentations, the nurse gave him a dry handk(!rchief, his own 
being steeped with tears, and closing the curtains, left him to n^posc. 

n. He died May 'MMh, 1574, in the twentv-fourth year of his age, 
hn-ing reigned thirteen years. He had married Elizabeth, daugh'tci 
of the Emperor Maximilian IL, a gentle-tempered and virtuous prin 
cess, far too good for the scenes into which she had been brought. 

7. It is singular that in this unhappy reign, which on the part of 
:he court was one continued scene of wrong and cruelty, many judi- 
cious laws were enacted, and many abuses refi)rmed iti the adminis- 
ration of justice. All these benefits were the work of the trrea*. 
Michel PHopital. ^ 

S. Dismissed from the office of chancellor by the queen, when she 
f.iund that his integrity interfered with her own schemes, and seeing 
tliat all his efforts were vain to stem the torrent of political corrup- 
tion, he turned all his attention to the improvement of the laws, and 
the increase of their efficiency. This great man and upright magis 
ale died in 1573, aged sixty-eighl. 



u V rl i.r}^^^^ '^ ^'^'^ ^^ ^''« ^*^« "'" Charle.s IX. ? 3. How did hia mother treat 
him? 4 5. What friend did he find? 6. Whcii did lie die ? What was his age? What 
13 said of his wi!e ? 7. What is said of t lie stare of the laws 5 Who mads the refonw ' 
B. Wr.en did the Chancnllor THopital die? 

17* 



196 



HE.NKV 111.-1574. 



CHAPTER CXll. 



Ahmit Henry Iff. — He leaves Pnlujul ivitk Delight. — Hit 
Habits and Amuseme/its. — His Mude of exjrressitig Grief for 
the Death of a Friend. 




Henry III, 1574 to 1589. 

I. Henry \v:is at Cracow, in Poland, wlu'ii lio heard of liis brother's 
death, lie was so impatient to he oil', that, without takiiicr any meas- 
ures for the trovenimeiil of this kiiii;(h>m (hiriiijr liis absence, he tied 
secretly in the niirht, and never stopped till he had got beyond itd 

limits. 

ii. Here he was overtaken by sonu^ Pcdish nobles, who entreated 
him to return, which lu; j)romised to do as stuin as he had settled 
atfairs in France. In his early years he had displayed some maidi- 
ness; but every ilatterinji appearance of character soon vanished. 

3. Now, althout,r|i in his twenty-third year, he was more like a 
wayward boy than a man. He lived shut up in his palace, occupied 
in devisiuLT new fashions in dress. He was exceedingly vain of his 
personal appearance, and painted his face white and red, and wore 
some kind of plasters at niiiht to improve his complexion. 

4. He also slept in gloves to makt^ his hands white, and stained his 
hair to hide the natural color, which was red. The dye which he 
made use of did not exactly fulfil tlu) purpose of its application, but it 
was not wholly without etfect. It destroyed the whole, and left him 
bald, and to conceal the baldness he wore a turban. '^ 

5. The Duke of iSully had an interview with him when he was in 
freat distress, and thus describes his appearance : •' I found him in 

is closet, a sw )rd bv his side, and a short cloak on his shoulder.-, a 
ittle turban on his head, and alxuit his neck was hung a basket, ii 
vhich were two or three little dogs, no bigger than my fist.'' 
(). He was often found playing with a cup and ball, and ihia 

amsement soon became so fashionable at court, that gentlemen 



I' 



CXIl. — 1 . Where was Henrv ITI. when he lioanl of tus hrolher'n death ? How did lie 
% 11 2. What is said of his character? ."{, 4. What of his habits .' 5, 6. What of hi* 
K-^usemenls J 8 How th'! he express his i;rief for the death of his freiiil I 



HK.NKV III 



|.'>84 



1»9 



pages, lackeys and all, were perpetually engaged in it. The queen 
tmcouraged him in all these follies, that she might be left at liberty 
»o gratify her own inordinate love of power. 

7. TIk; Poles, finding that Henry did not return, chose another 
kintr, and Henry and his late subjects thought no more about one 
.mother. His mind was occupi«'d with grief for the death of his inti- 
111 ile friend, the Princess <»f ("ondc. 

>i. For three days he al)an(iuned himself to grief, and then set about 
devi.sing some mode' of (wpressiiiir it. The result of his labors wa* 
the substitution of small death "s heads for the silver tags which wer«' 
then much worn on the dresses of trentlemen. 



CHAPTER CXHl. 

Ahmttthe Leagiie. — A Plea to exclude Henrij of Navarre from 
the Throne. — War of the Three Henrys. — Death of the 
Prince of Conde. 

1. Whilst Henry amused himself with these trifles, his unliappy 
kingdom continued a prey to civil war. The Huguenots had been 
strengthened by the accession of the Duke d'Alencon, the youngest 
brother to the kin<j, and heir to the crown. 

2. Ill ir)70, a treaty was made with them, but on terms which were 
considered by the Catholics as much too favorable to the Protestants 
The Duke of (.'uisc, taking advantage of this feeling, proposed to the 
Catholics to tonu a Lmgur for the defence of their religion. 

.3. The osteiisibli! object proposed by him was the extirpation oi 
hen^sy ; the real ellect of the success of the league would b« o maki 
the intluence of the Duke of Guise paramount in France. Vnis j)rinc< 
was the idcd of the people. Pos.sessed of brilliant talents, and gei 
enms to profusion, he had a towering ambition, which neither ])rin 
ciph; nor honor couh' -""strain. 

}. Thinking tj divert the storm from himself, Henry declan^l him 
self the head of the league, thus giving strength to'a party whose 
;'riiicii)les were in reality subversive of royal authority. But this, 
Henry did not discover till he was at the brink of ruin. 

.'). The death of the Duke d'Alencon, which took place in 1.584, 
made a great change in affiiirs. Henry of Navarre was now the heir 
t" tlie tlirone. The character of this great prince had already dis- 
played itself. The prospect of his succession filled the Catholics 
with dread. They endeavored to excli de him, upon the plea that his 
ri<rhts were forfeited on*account of his relisrion. 



(JXIII 1 What ^ave new slr'-iiii't lo the Hui^iieriots ? 2. What measure wan 
- l<.|>t.'(l by the llonian Catliolics? Vhy ? 3. What is said of the Duke of Guise? 4. 
Wli.ji cmirse di<l Henry adopt ? 'i. Wh.it rhanfre was pnxiuced by the death of the Duka 
} .A'.-r„;.„, ; u'hii' -ii;! the Cv.'.iiiics atieinpl to no ? 6. Did the kinc win with them * 



II 



2S00 



HKNriY III - ir»6S. 



6. The Duke of Guise joined heartily in the scheme, but the king 
would consent to nothing which should impair the riijhts of the Kin^ 
of Navarre. He sent pressinp^ invitations to him, in his own and hia 
mother's name, "to come to court; but the Kini^ of Navarre would 
not trust himself in their hands. 

7. In 158.5, Philip II. of Sj)ain declared himself " //»• I^rofrctnr nj 
ifu' Laigvr.'''' 'V\\G war which followed has betsn called the war of 
ihe three Henrys; that is, Henry 111., Henry of Navarre, and Henry 
Duke of Guise. 

H. In irjKS, the Huc^uenots sustained a i:re;il loss in the death of tl v. 
I'rince of Conde, who w:is poisoned by his own servants. He was a 
iiKin of <^ real abilities, of the most strict and sincere intej^rity, and no 
way interior to his cousin Henry of Navarre in bravery and generosity 
of character. He was a Protestant front the purest principles of 
religion and scorned every selfish and unworthy motive. 



CHAPTER CXIV. 

Plots of the Duke of Guise. — Munhr of the Duke. 

Catherine de Medicis. 



Death of 



1. The situation of the king was daily becoming more \mcom- 
fortable. Treated by the leasjue with insolence and tyranny, he knev\ 
not which way to turn himself. 'l\>o weak to contend either with the 
King of Navarre or the Duke of Guise, he acted an insincere part 
towards both ; sometimes treating opeidy with the one, at the very 
moment that he was treating stjcretly witli the other. 

2. He became at hMigih an object at once of general distrust and 
contempt. Comparisons began to be made bfitwcen him and the Duke 
of Guise, and several plots wen; formi^d to dethroni^ tlu; king and con- 
fine him in a mona.stery. The Duke of Guise, by his agents, fo 
mented the public disntlection. 

3. One of the most active of these ngents was his sister, who, to 
revenire herself for some remarks which Henrv had made on her want 
of personal beauty, took every means of turning him into ridicule and 
lowering his authority. It was an insolent speech of this woman 
which finally rousi^l Henry from his lethargy. 

4. Showing a pair of gold scissors which she wore at her girdle, 
sht said, " The best use T can make (»f them is, to clip the hair k)^ a 
•»rince unwcrthy to sit oi« the throne of France, in order to qualify 
M..* for a mona.stery, that one more deserving may mount it. ' 

5. The plots of G-jise were now ripe, and, in defiance of the orders 



r. Who was c.iIUhI " the Protector of the Leastit ?" Why was the war calletl the war 
of the lliree Henrys? 8. What loss ditl the Hiipienota meet with ? When did Cond* 
die 7 What is said of him 7 

CXIV. — 1. What is said of the situation of the king? 2. What of the conHuct of lh« 
Uukeof Ouise? 3 What of hia sister? 5. W:|it occurred on the duke's coming t« 



HK.\RV 111—1588. 



20; 



<il the king, became to Paris, where he was received with tri imphaui 
joy by the populace. H»'nry, in great alarm, ordered some Swiss 
troops into the cuy ; [)ut they were overpowered by the Parisians, 
who collected in vast nmubers, and wt^re only restrained from the 
commissK.n of vKdene.e by the Duke of Guise, who assumed the ap- 
pearance of great moderation. 

a. Th.' king, no h)ugcr deeming himself safe in his capital, made 
his escape during the night by getting over the wall of the garden ai 
the back . it the palace, and mouutiMg a horse, took the road to Char- 
ires. Catherine, who remained behind, at last procured an appareir 
iec«)nciliation betwe.n Henry and the Duke of Guise. 

T. Hut Henry had now resolveil to get rid of his ambitious subject, 
and s;H"ing no other moile, resorted to the detestable crime of assassi- 
nation. In the night of the i>4d December, he himself introduced 
lime ot his guards into secret hiding-places in the pa,ssage leading to 
his chamber, and i)laeing dagirers in their hands, he conimanded them, 
as their king, to kill Henry, Duke of Guise. 

8. The designs of the king were known to S(j many persons, thai 
the duke receivcMl no less than nine billets, warning him not to attend 
the council the next day. Hut he looked on them as contrivances of 
Henry to intimidate hnu, imd disregarded the warnings. 

9. He obeyed th • sumMionv; to attend the council, and on his way 
to the royal chaml) •:•, w:ls suddenly beset by the assassins, and fell, 
covered with wounds. From the scene of death, Henry went to hia 
mother's apartment, and said, exultingly, ''Now, madam, I am a 
king." ^ 

10. Catherine neither blamed nor approved the deed, but coldly 
replied, " We shall see what will come of it." But she did not live 
to witness the const^piences, for she died almost immediately after, 
her death being hastened by her remorse for the ruin and misery 
which her schemes had brought and were still bringing upon hei 
race. '^ 



CHAPTER CXV. 

Decree of the Doctors of the Sorhonm against Heiiry. — He 
seeks Aid from the King of Navarre. — Death of He?iry III, 
thi last, off he House of Valois. — General Character of that 
Race of Kings. 

1. The assassination of the Duke of Guise was follovved the next 
day by that of his brother, the Cardinal of Guise. The effect of 
these murders w;is very different from what Henry expected. The 



P.iris? 7. By what crime did Henry get rid of his troublMalie subject? 10. Howd^d 
tdthenne receive the information of the crime ? • 

OX V. — I What event followed the death of the Duke of Guise ? What was the effecl • 



202 



HKNUY m.-ir)ba 



« 



partisans of the league wer«; intlaiiuHl with the utmost rage, and flew 

to arms. 

2. The doctors of tlie Sorhonne, whose decrees were considered 
almost as hiiiding us laws, i>ronounc«ul Henry of Valois to have for- 
feilni the crown, and al)solve(l all his subjects from their uUegiunre 
ti. him. Thus ilenrv, instead of " findinjj himself a king," was on 
the point of losing his throne. In this . xtremity, he turned to the 

King of Naviiire. • i- i 

3. il«; hesouixht timt prince to have rninpassion on his distressed 
condition, and t(» come to his ;is.sist;u«<-e. The King of N:iv:irre, who 
ahhoried his crinu's :uid suspected his sincerity, could with ditlicully 
brint' himself to listen to his entreaties. However, the two Henrys 
uiet, ami were reconciled to one another. 

4. 'I hey united iImmt forces, and m .lulv, ir»S<), ai)pcared heloro 
Paris with a large army. The alarm of the Parisians was excessive. 
Tb'ir destnictum appear.Ml to he inevitable ; when an unlookci* 
for event made an entin? revolution in the allairs of the kingdom. 

5. On the first of August, l.'iSn, a monk, named Clement, obtained 
admittaivce to the king's chamber, uikI.m- pretence of having important 
communicali.Mis to make to him. I'resenting a paper to the king to 
read, he almost instantly gavt^ him a mortal wound with a knife which 
he had hitluTto kept concealed. 

6. The king sent at once for the King of Navarre, embraced him 
cordially, ilecbired him his successor, and conjured him to renounce 
ihe reformed religion. In him the house of Valois became extinct, 
• »#ing tM'cupie<l the throne for iitU years. 

7. Of Ihe thirteen monarchs of this race, it must be said that they 
'..•re, for the most part, brave, magnific.Mit, and lovers of the 

lie arts. Thev foun<l the kiiigd«»m overrun by foreign enemies, 
and parcelled (u'lt into independent states. 'VUcy (>xpelled the hng- 
lifh, thev united Dauphiny, Hurgiuuly, Provence, and iJrelagne to 
their di)miiiions, and lell to their successors a great and compact ter- 

litorv. . . 

8.' On the other hand, these kings wvw, with hnv exceptions, arhi 
trary and ambitious, lovers of coiuiuest rather than of the prospcTity 
of their people, on whose rights thev trampled without scruple. Ihey 
ground down the poor by taxes, and degraded the nobles by bestow- 
irg he highest dignities' on mean and unworthy favorites. 

Table of the Kings of the Family cf Valois 

Hcz^n to reicii. 

1328. Philip VI., grandson of Philip III. 

1350 John II., surnamed the Good. 

1364. Charles V,, the Wise. 

1380. Charles VI., the Well-Beloved. ' 

1422. Charles VII., the Victorious. 



8. What was the decree of the doctors of the Sorlwnne ? 3. What course did Kerry III 
idopl ? 4. 5. What event saveil the city of Paris ? 6. How longdid the family ofValow 
occupy the throne 1 
Mi' I of them ? 



ent saveii me cuv oi raris • u. iiu»t lunguiu mo "»"■■•/ \gf, — . 
H(«v manv -nonarchs were thert of that family? 7, 8. Whw w 



CONDITION OF THK KKKNCH I'K(»P:.K 



203 



£461. Louis XI. 

1483. Charles Vlil. 

1498. Louis XI I., grrat-grandson of Charles the Wise, called 

tJK! Orleans- Valois branch of the family of Capet. 
1515. Francis 1., gnat-great-grandson of ('harles tlio Wise, called 

ilif Aiig(mleme-Valois branch 
1517. Ilrnrv II. 
iryrAK i'Vancisll. 
I5(i0. Charl.s IX. 
1574, Ile-nrv III. 



CHAPTER CXVI. 

Effects of the Civil Wars on t/ia Conilition and. Marw^rs of the 
Frtnr/i I'ro/f/p. — A/joat the Soldiers. — The Authors of this 
Period. — Daily Life of a Srhofdhoy. 

1. These long civil wars had reduced Fraiic<? to a most melan- 
choly coudition. They wen; not lilvc wars in which one nation brings 
its army afrainsl another, aud one {jreat battle (h'cides the fate of the 
war. Those are bad enough. Hut Inn; then; were as many hostile 
pow<'rs as there wen* towns. 

2. Brother was now arnuul against brotbcr. Relati«»ns deliberately 
murdered one another ; nf;ither (Catholic nor Protestant was saft; in his 
bed; the lands, when cultivate<l at all, were lilb'd with the sword in 
otu; hand and the phmgli in the otlujr. From men; exhaustion, the 
leaders of the parties were obliged to agree to a cessation of 0j)en 
war ; but with the mass there was nev<'r any pence ; every <lay was 
marked by bloodshed. 

.'i. Fach party maintained an army of what we should call regular 
fnxjps, in distinction from the militia. None but the king's Swiss 
guard wore any uniform dress, and th(!irs was of gray cloth, intro- 
duced by Henry III. The nobles and ofTicers of each party adopted 
a distinction of dress. The Catholics wore crimson jackets and sasheSj 
and the Huguenots white ones. But this was a badge of party, and 
rot a mi'itary iniiform. 

4. The troo[)s had a nominal pay ; but they seldom received any. 
.)\iring the Italian wars, this was no jjreat matter to them; for the 
Frerieb soldii^rs acquired such prodigious wealth, that it was no un- 
(roinmon *liing to see the privates dressed in velvet and gold, and one 
man's dr*ss is described as being of green satin, with gold coins for 
buttons. 

5. But in the civil wars this wealth disappeared. Poverty and 
rags had succeeded to all this splendor ; and the French soldiers 
noighv have passed muster in Falstaff's ragged regiment. They 



CXVI. — 1,2. What was the effect of the civil wars 1 3. What is aaid of the drew oJ 
Dm troops) 7 4. Were the troops paid ? 4,5. How did they support thetnaelre* 1 <• ^ 



204 



LITKUrt I'lJRK. 



were driven lu obtain the bare necessaries of life by the murder and 
plunder of the peasants. 

6. The effect of this state of thinr^s on tlie minds of all ranks of 
people \v;is most melancholy. Their feelinfjs were made callous by 
familiarity with scenes of blood, and their malig^nant passions were 
fostered by the violence of party spirit, till they seemed to be insensi- 
ble to all (lillbrence bfHveen riu^hl and wrong-. 

7. All writers ai^^rec that the character »)f the French people undcr- 
wt'ut a irw;il ("liaufje for tiie worse duriii«r the reigns of the three last 
kings of the house of Valois. Hut the gloom of this dark period wa.s 
in some degree lessened by the progress of literature, to which the 
patronage of Francis I. had given a great impulse. 

H. The popular poets of the day were Jodelle, Despories and 
Ronsard. Jodelle was the father of French tragedy, and Desportes 
was famous for his eleg-ies ; but it was the Franciad of Ronsard, the 
first French epic poem, which bore otfthi; palm. It was the delight 
of Queen" Elizabeth of England in her palace, and the solace of Mary 
Queen of Scots in her prison. 

9. Mary sent Ronsard a splendid present of silver plate, on which 
was a representation of Mount Parna.ssiis, the favorite abode of the 
fabulous god of poetry, as a token of g^ratitude for the beguiling of her 
sorrows which she had derived from the perusal of his poetry. Ron- 
sard greatly improved the French language, which before his time 
w:is very harsh and unpolished. 

10. Of the prosi! writers of the day, Montaigne, who died in 1592, 
is very celebrated. His essays were at one time extremely popular, 
and are still read and admired by many. They are written in an easy, 
sprightly tAylc, and present a lively pictiire (jf tht; tastes and manners 
of a gentleman of that age, but are not well [)leai<ing to the improved 
moral and religious taste of the [)resent dav. 

11. And now you shall have an account of liu; life of a schoolboy 
of thai «lay, as given by himself. " Heiiig, in the year 1545, four- 
teen years old, 1 was sent with my brother to study under the super- 
intendence of an ancient gentleman. We were with him during 
three years, leading a much stricter life, and studying much more 
severely, than persons of the present time would suppose. 

12. " VV'e rose at four in the morning, and, having said our prayers, 
began our studies at five, our great books under our arms, and 
our inkstands and candlesticks in our hands. We listened to lec- 
tures till ten without intermission, and then dined, after having in 
haste run over the substance of the lectures, which we had taken 
ilovvn in writing. 

I'.l. " After dinner, as a matter of amusement, we read Greek 
plays, Demosthenes, &c. At one o'clock, our studies began again. 
.\t five we recited, and looked out in our books the passages cited in 
the lectures. Then we supped, and read in Greek and Latin. On 



\Vh.»l was the efll-ct of th,^ wars on the chanicter of I lie peiijilf ; How was the gloom of 
this |)eritHl in *)ine ineasnrt; relieved? >S. U. Who were the |)opular poets? What i« 
SHiit ofeactj 1 10 Who was the most ceiehrateft prcwe writer of this period? Wlu<t ;* 
Mid of him ? I'. 12, 13. Dedcrilxjlhe life of a schoollr«- 4t this j)eriod. 



tlF.SKY IV. — 1589. 



206 



riolydays we went to church , and during the remainder of the day had 
a little music and walking.' Now I will tell you how, under a j?oo(J 
king, France recovered from her misfortunes. 



CHAPTER ^XVIl. * 

About Henry iT., called the Great — Story of the Woodcut ia 

who wished to see the King. 




Henry IV., 1589 to 1610. 

1. When the melancholy catastrophe which put an end to the igno- 
ir.inious reign of Henry III. was known at Paris, the people aban- 
doned themselves to the most disgraceful excesses of joy. The 
siiter of the Duke of Guise, whom I have spoken of, ran about 
♦he streets, exclaiming, " Good news ! good news ! the tyrant is 
dead!" 

2. In the mean time, all was confusion in the royal camp. The 
nobles of the royal army were inclined to the cause of the king of 
N^avarre, who assumed the title of Henry IV., but who is known in 
history, and whose memory is still cherished by every Frenchman, by 
the well-deserved title of Henry the Great. 

3. But the party of the league refused to acknowledge his right 
to the crown, and caused his uncle, the Cardinal Bourbon, to be pro- 
claimed king, by the title of Charles X. The cardinal was an olu 
man of eighty, naturally of a weak mind, and now in the hands of 
Henry. But all this was of no consequence ; the leaders of the 
party only wanted his name, hoping by that to govern the country 
themselves. 

4 . Tlie strength of the army under Henry was much reduced by the 
v\ithdrawal of many Catholic nobles, who had been willing to serve 
ander Henry III., but professed neutrality in the present contest. At 
the same time, they offered actively to assist Henry IV. if he would 
become a Roman Catholic, which he refused to do. 



CXVII. — 1. How was the news of the death of Henry III. received at Paris ? 2. What 
iTM the feeling at the royal camp? ■{. What did the party of the league do? 4. What 
!• aaid of ttj strengtii of the army of Henry ? What weakened the forces of Henry FV. 1 

18 



204 



IJTKIt.nllJRK. 



were driven to obliiiii the bare iiecessiiries of life by the murdtir and 
pluiid(;r of the peasaiit-s. 

G. Tlie elfcet of this .stale of thinj^^s on the minds of all ranks of 
peoj)i»; was most luelaiieholy. 'I'hcir teelin^s were made callous by 
familiarity with scenes of blood, and llunr maii«rnatit passions were 
fostered by the violence of partv s[)iril, till thev seemed to be insensi- 
ble to all dillirence betv ce'n riLrht and wroni,'-. 

7. All writers aL^ree that tin; cbaract'T <if the French peo[)le niidit- 
weiii a i^reat chan^t^ tor the worse diiriiiLT the reiirus <»f the thnu- \,\>\ 
kinifs of the honse of Valois. Hnl the liluoni of this dark period wa.- 
in some deirrce lessened by the [)ron[ress of literature, to which the 
[)atronatro (»f Francis I. had jjiven a ^^reat imptdse. 

H. The p(!i)u!ar [>oets of the dav were .lodelle, r)es{)ortes and 
Ilonsard. .lodelle was the fither oi French trajiedy. and Desportes 
was famous for his eleiries ; but it was the Frnnriad of Honsard, the 
first French epic [»oein, which bore olFtbe palm. It was the delight 
of Qneerr Filizabeth of FiUnrland in her palace, and the solace of IMary 
(^ne^Mi of Scots in her pris(»n. 

J). Mary sent Konsard a splendid pres«:nt of silver i)late, on which 
was a rej>resentati(Mi of Mount Parnassus, the favorite abode of the 
fibulousy^od of poetry, as a token of fjralitude for the beg^uilint^ of her 
sorrows which sh<3 had derived from the perusal of his j)octry. Ron- 
sard greatly improved the French langu;ige, which before his time 
was very harsh and unp(dished. 

10. Of the [irose writers of the day, Montaigne, who died in lolJJ, 
is very celebraterl. His essays were at out? time extremely popular, 
and are still read and admired by many. 'I'hevare written in an easy, 
sprightly sHyle, and i)resent a lively i)i«Mure of tin; tastes and manners 
of a irentleman of that age, hut are not well plea>ing to the improved 
niural ;uid ridiijious taste of tin* [»re.sent dav. 

I I. .Vnd now you shall have an account «d" the life of a schoolboy 
of that day, as giveu l»y liims{df. "' Heilll,^ in the year 151.">, four- 
teen years old. 1 was stMit with my brother to study under the super- 
i!ilend(Micc (»f an ancient gentleman. We were with him during 
three years, leading a much stricter life, and studying much more 
severely, than persons of the present tune would suppose. 

I'J. " We rose at four in th(; morning, and, having said our prayers, 
buiran our studies at live, our sjreat books under our arms, and 
our inkstirids and candl<\sti(d<s in our hands. W»! listened to lec- 
tures till ten without intermi.ssion, and then dined, after havinij in 
lia.stt; run over the sultstance of the lectures, which we had taken 
liviwn in writing. 

V.i. '* After dinner, as a matter of amusement, we read Greek 
pi lys, De'inosthenes, &c. At oiu; o'clock, our studies began again. 
-Vt five wr ncited. and !o(jkcd out in our books the passages cited in 
the lectures. Tli-n we supped, and reatl in (Jreek and Latin. On 



W'h.it \v:i.s the etrci-l r.rtl\.> w.irs oii ih»' rh.inuMiT ofilie ptM[il.' ' How was thu ffloom of 

tins |);>ri.Ml ill sniiu; nuvisiir.- relieved? •> 1). Who were Ilie |x<i)iil;tr |H>etf! ? "Wtiat i.« 

sjtiil (ifeacli ? JU Wtm was tlie most relehrale<i prose writer of this j^eriod? \Vli;<t ;.* 
•aid of hitn .' I '. 12, 13. De-scrihe the life of a .schooltr' it this ijcriod. 



tlF.S'KY IV 



15S9. 



206 



rioiydays we went to churchy and during the remainder of the day had 
a little music and walking.' Now 1 will tell you how, under a goot' 
king, France recovered from her misfortunes. 



CHAPTER ^LWIl. 

About Henry IV., called the Great — Story of the Woodcutta 

who loished to set the King. 




Henri/ IV., 1589 to ItilO. 

1. WhExN the melancholy catastrophe which put an end to the igno- 
ir.inious reign of Henry III. was known at Paris, the people aban- 
dtned themselves to the most disgraceful excesses of joy. The 
sifter of the Duke of Guise, whom I have s[)oken of, ran about 
♦he streets, exclaiming, " Good news ! good news ! the tyrant is 
dead!" 

2. In the mean time, all was confusion in the royal camp. The 
nobles of the royal army were inclined to the cause of the King of 
N^avarre, who assumed the title of Henry IV., but who is known in 
history, and whoso memory is still cherished by every Frenchman, by 
the well-deserved title of Henrv the Great. 

3. But the party of the league refused to acknowledge his right 
to the crown, and caused his unt h;, the (cardinal Bourbon, to be pro- 
claimed king, by the title of Charles X. The cardinal was an ohi 
man of eij^hty, naturally of a *v<ak mind, and now in the hands of 
Henry. But all this was of no conse(pience ; the leaders of the 
party only wanted liis name, hoping by that to govern the country 
themselves. 

i . The strength of the army under Henry was much reduced by the 
withdrawal of many Catholic nobles, who had been willing to serve 
under Henry III., but professed neutrality in the present contest. At 
the same time, they ottered actively to assist Henry IV. if he would 
hecome a H "mi;;!! Catholic, which he refused to do. 



CXVII. — 1. How wa.s itic news of the (If.-aili of Henry III. received at Paris ? 2. What 
WIS the feeling at the royal camp? •!. What did tlie party of the league do? 4. What 
!• nid of tij strength of the army i>f Henry ? Wliai weakened the fcxes of Henry IV. 1 

18 



206 



HENRY IV. — 1589. 



5. So much were \.a forces diminished, that Henry was obliged to 
break up his camp before Paris, and to retire into Normandy. In 
idftition to rhe dillicultirs thrown in his way by bis enemies, Henry 
suffered nuich embarra.ssment from his friends. The r'atholics who 
had joined his party conhl have no toleration for the H»i{,nienots, who. 
on their part, had no cordiality for the ('alholics. 

G. Eacli party was jealous of any favor or mark of confidence be- 
stowed on the other; and as tluiv were none of his own family to 
whom he could look for any su|»p<.rl, Henry was oblij^ed to contend 
alone with all the burdens of bis diflicult situation. 

7. Hut no man ever lived who was more competent to do so. He 
was now in the thirty-sixth y«ar ot ins a^^., and had been tried from 
his earliest years in the hard schot)l of adversity. He was blessed 
with a frank and cheerful disposition, and ^My and buoyant spirits. 
I'rompt and vifjilant, he was always ready to act. 

H. H.' was sparinjr in his personal expenses, but generous and lib- 
eral to others. He is said to have sidxlued his enemies as much by 
liis clemency as by his valor. He was a man of rrreat sincerity and 
simplicity of manners, and was — a rare thinnr in France — a kin^ 
without artifice or dissimulation. 

i'. His compassion and tenderness of heart endear(>d him to all the 
lower ranks of people, who were but little accustomed to receive kind- 
ness from their superiors. Of his kindness and condescension 1 can 
tell you a story. 

10. One day, as a poor woodcutter, who had passed all his life in 
the forest of Fontainebleau, was at his usual work chopping fuel for 
his cotta<T«!, a hunter rode up, and eagerly inquired if the hounds had 
p:issed that way. The old man shook his head, and was sorry, he 
>aid, they had not; for he wished to sec the king, of whose goodness 
M) much was said. 

11. The stranger goo<l-humoredly bade him get up behind him, for. 
as Ik; was one of the hunt, he mii.st ride till he came up with it ; theii 
he should see the king. '' Hut how shall 1 know him?" said the 
wiKKlman. '* Hy his being the only person who will not uncover his 
head," w;is the reply. 

12. The stranger rode and galloi)ed along, till at last he fell in 
with the hunt. All was instantly bustle and rejoicing ; all gathered 
round the stranger, who had been long missed ; all hailed him with 
respect, and all took off their caps: when the delighted and astonisheMJ 
forester perceived that it was the king, '* the good Henry" himself, 
who had brought him info the courtly circle ! 



SWhaiwjis the consequence? Wh.u caused the kins? great embarrassment? 7 »..v. 
il. wa.siheknigathi8a4:c««ionioihethroneJ What issaidof hi8charact«r ? 10,11 1 9 
V\ liat a ectloie is related of his kindness ? . • • . ■ 



HENRY IV.— 1590. 



201 



CHAPTER CXVIII. 
Si€f(e of Paris. — Ma^rfianhnous Coiuluct of Henry TV 

1. The party of the league was much the strongest, and was sup 
,)orted by the money and influence of the King of Spain. It had for 
Its leadei the Duke of Mayenne, brother to the Duke of Guise, b-it 
in all respects unlike him'. His only claims to consideration were 
his rank, and the cause in which he was engaged. 

•J In 151R), the league lost their ])liant(»m of a king, who, him- 
self, never iiad a» y wish to superstnlethe belter rights of his nephew. 
In the same year. Henry laid siege to Paris. The inhabitants had 
made no preparations foi difiiu-e, but they determined not to 

yield. 

3. Th'^y put the city into the bijst state of <lefence they could, or- 
t;anizcd themselves into companies to learn the u^of arms, and every 
family sent its copper cooking vessels to be made into cannon. But, 
notwithstanding all th(;se (Ml^rts, Henry could at any moment have 
taken the city, could he have been prevaibnl upon to adopt the vio- 
lent measure of an Jissault. 

1. "I am," said he, "the true father of iny people. I would 
rather never have Paris, than possess it by the death and ruin of so 
many persons. "' This clemency saved the city to the league. 
When the inhabitants were reduced to the last extremity short of 
absolute starvation, a Spanish army appeared, and Henry was forced 
to retire. 

fj. On the 30in of August, ir>!U), the s«Mitinels, who had been keep- 
ing watch all night on the walls, perceived at break of day that th(; 
royal army was decamping. Their cries of joy at this unexpected 
sirrht were so loud, that thi; awak(Mied and astonished inhabitants 
imagined some new calamity had befallen them. 

(). Hut when they comprehended the truth, they were almost mad 
with joy. Some crowded to the walls to convince themselves that 
the news was true ; others rushed out of the gates in search of food ; 
while others repaired to the churches to return thanks to God f<»r 
their deliverance. 



CHAPTER CXIX. 

Henry iY. becomes a Catfiolic. — Joy of the Parismm. — Aboui 

the Regalia of France. 

1. It had now become apparent that there was but one tiling 
which could restore peace to this distracted country. The kinc 

CXVIII. — 1. What ia .said of the fmrty of the league? By whom were lh«iy com- 
manded ? 2. When did Henry lay aieee lo Paris? 3 What did the citizens do > 4. 
What is said of Henry's conduct ! 4 What saved the city ? What is said of the feaJ 
ir.ss of the inhabiunts 7 



208 



HKNKY IV ~irm 



must become a Catholic He had lonjr thought of the ma iter, auv 

had attended upon tlie ins.urtinns of Catholic divines. 

2. Sully and others (.f liic most sincere and conscientious Hugut 
riots stronj^ly advised this course, as a duty which circumstances 
uuposed upon a kiuLj on whom th(! tranciuillity and luippiness of so 
larjre a portion of the human race depended. Accordiuijly, on July 
'ifjth, 1593, the king made his profpssiou in the church at St. Denis. 

.'i. A truce was now <j[rant«'d to the Parisians; and vou shall heat 
\yh;it use they first made of it. 1 will give it to you in the words of 
Sully: "The next day, a prodirrious concourse of the people of 
Paris assemhled at St. Denis. The king showed himself to the peo- 
(ile ; wherever he turned his steps, the crowd was so great that it was 
soiiietiiiu^s itiipossihle to pierce through them. 

4. " At the same moment a million of voices cried, ' Long live the 
king I Every one returned charmed with the gracefulness of his 
person, his conde^etision, and that popular air that was natural to 
him. ' God hless'Tiim !' said they, with tears in their eyps. Tender 
and sensitive as he was, the king beheld this spectacle with the 
strongest emotion." 

5. You shall also hear the king's story. *' They are wild," saya 
he to a friend, " to see a king. A pleasant adventure happened to 
me at church : ati old woman of eighty years of aire seized me by the 
head and kissed ine. I was not the first who laughed at it." 

G. The course pursued by the king was attended by the happiest 
consequences. The tiobles flocked to him in daily increasing num- 
bers to tender him their submission, and Henry received them with a 
frankness, and kindness, and sei'ming forgetfulness of the past, which 
won the afffction of all. 

7. Rheinis was in the hands of the Duke of Mayemie, who still 
held out against the king. Henry was therefore crowned at Char- 
tres, February 27th, 15'.M. A new crown and sceptre were made for 
the occasion, for the partisans of the league had melted down the 
regalia of France, as the symbols of royalty are called, not sparing 
even the golden Crown of Charlemagne, which had long been pre- 
served as a curious and valuable relic. 



CXIX. — 1. VVIku was the kiiiir .lilviswl td tin i(» secure the peace of ]is kingdom ? 2 
Did he follow tlie advice / When 1 X How did ihe Pari.sians behave a\ the occasidil 
1. Whit does Sully siy ahoui their conduct? r». What does the kh^ himself tsay? 
B. Whit were he conse<|U9iices of the king's course 7 7. Where v/aa he crowned ? lV»i» 
aut at Rheimi ? What is said of the regalia of France 7 




HENKY IV 1591. 2U9 



CHAPTER CXX. 

More zbmit Henry IV. — The Edict of Nantes. — The Way iii 
ivhich he put down hisurrections. — His Marriage. 

1. Henry was received into Paris Match 22d ; and though hf 
entered it at the head of an army flushed with victory, and having so 
many causes of enmity against the Parisians, yet no one throughout 
this great city complained of the slightest violence on their part. 
There was no commotion, and from that very day the shops were 
opened, with all the security which a long-continued peace could have 
given. 

2. The king at once proclaimed a general pardon to all the French 
who had borne arms against him. In giving him credit for this act 
of magnanimity, you must recollect that it was not extorted by ne- 
cessity, but, on tlie c«»ntrary, was grant«>d when he had full power to 
satiate his revenge, could his soul have harbored such a feeling. 

3. The Duke of iMayenne soon submitted himself, and was received 
and treated w ith so much no!)leness ;ind generosity, that he was ever 
after one of the king's most faithful S(>rvants. Even the Duchess of 
Montpensier, who had been his most persevering and bitter enemy, 
was won by the politeness and courtesy of his reception ; for, instead 
of covering her with confusion, as many would in his situation, he 
conversed with her with the familiarity of an old friend. 

4. Thus France at length saw the termination of those troubles 
with w'bich she had been distracted duriuff a period of thirty-scv(^> 
years. The rights of the Huguenots were secured to them l)y an 
edict, called " the Edict of Nan/rs.'' They were granted the frex^ 
exercise of their religion, and all offices of honor and dignity were 

opened to them. 

5. The French were delighted with the king, and began to feel the 
happiness of a good government. The taxes, it is true, were as high 
as ever, but they were paid without murmuring, because the people 
were persuaded that the money was expended with economy and hon- 
esty 

6. Henry paid the greatest attention to the condition of the peas- 
antry, a class whose wants and sufferings had hitherto been disre- 
garded by the sovereigns. In the early part of his reign, an insurrcc 
tion broke out amongst the peasants in Guienne. 

7. Instead of sending troops to kill the whole, as had been the cus- 
tomary mode of quelling such disturbances, the king had their com- 
plaints inc^uired into, and their wrongs, as far as possible, redressed. 
The peasants immediately returned to their duty, and l)ecame a wy^i 

attached and devoted portion of his subjects. 



CXX. — What is said of Henry's entry into Paris? 2. What did the king do' i. 
What wa-s done in reference to the Huguenots ? 5. Wliat were the feelings of the Frond 
pe^^ple ? 6. To what did Henry pay especial attention ? 7. How did he put down in»»r 
rertion ^ 8. Whom did he marry ? What is said of his wife ? 

18* 



iilO 



HK.NKY 



1«FJ, 



8. In IfiOO, for reasons of state and against his own feelings, Hen- 
ry married Mary de Medicis, a woman of weak nind and vioki. 
temper. She was entirely governed by her Italian favorites, and cr 
ated much dissension at court. 



.V 



CHAPTER CXXI. 

Of Dress and other Persomd Matters. 

1. Another object of the great king was to promote the arts and 
manufactures. The silk trade of Lyons owes its birth to him. 
Thinking to benefit trade and commerce, he encouraged his courtiers 
in habits of expense quite opposite to his own frugal habits. 

2. The expense of dress became enormously great, on account of 
the quantity of gold, silver, and jewels with which it was decorated. 
It was not only costly, but dreadfully heavy. It is related of one of 
the ladies of the court, that, when she was in full dress, she was so 
encumbered by the weight of her finery as to be unable to move, or 
even to stand. 

3. The dress of a gentleman of the day is thus described : "He 
was clothed in silver tissue, his shoes were white, and also his stock- 
ings. His cloak was black, bordered with rich embroidery, and 
iined with cloth of silver ; his bonnet was of black velvet, and he 
wore besides a profusion of precious stones." 

4. The ruff had been laid aside in the last reign, because Henry 
III. took it into his head that the person whose business it was to pin 
on his ruff had been bribed to scratch him on the neck with a poisoned 
pin. 

5. Its place, so far as the ladies were concerned, was supplied by a 
sort of frame of wire and lace, in which the head was enclosed, and 
which, in compliment to the queen, was called a Mfdids. Masks 
were much worn by both sexes. They were made of black velvet, 
and were so necessary a part of the oul-door costume of a lady, that 
she was thought to be in dhhabilk if seen without one. 

6. This weight of dress led to the introduction of a new luxury. 
The ladies could no longer ride to court on horseback. Coaches were 
therefore employed to carry them. The first coach made its appear- 
ance in Paris in the reign of Henry II. 

7. For a h.iig time there were but three in the whole city. 1 -je 
queen had one; a great court lady had another; and the third be- 
longed to an old nobleman, " who, being too fat to ride on horse- 
back, was obliged to submit to the mortification of being carried in a 
coach like a woman.'' 



CXXI. — What did the king do to encourai^e trade and commerce ? 2. What is said 
about dress? 3 What of the dress of a ?enlleman? 4. Whv was the ruff mven upi 
5. What supplied the place of the ruff? Whatofma.sk?? 6 Wlul new luxury w ti; 



HENRY IV. - I60a 



211 



CHAPTER CXXH. 

:^f the Furniture. — Of the Authors of the Time of Henry TV. 

1. The tapestry, carpets, and bed-hangings of the houses corre- 
sponded in splendor and costliness with the dress. When the (\m- 
Hiable Montmorenci was killed, iiis body was brought to his own 
liouse, and lay in state, as it is called, — that is, for exhibition, — in a 
hall, the walls of which were hung with crimson velvet bordered 
with pearls. 

2. But in all other respects, the houses, and even the king's pal- 
aces, were very deficient in what we should call furniture. Except- 
ing one or two' arm-chairs for the heads of the family, the rooms usu- 
alfy contained one coarse long table, some stools, a few benches, and 
with several chests, which also served for seats. 

3. Those who could not afford the expense of hangings of silk, or 
damask, or satin, covered the walls with gilt leather, or had them 
panelled with wood. I think the last was the most appropriate, from 
the description we have of what was perhaps the only parlor and sit- 
ting-room of a French chateau, or country-house. 

4. *' The hall was very large. At one end was a stag's antlers, 
which were used for hanging up hats, coats, dogs' collars, and the 
cnaplet of paternosters. At the opposite end of the hall were bows 
and arrows, targets, swords, pikes and cross-bows. 

5. "In the great window were three harquebusscs, (a kind of gun,) 
with a variety of nets, and other apparatus for sporting. In the chests 
(called coffers) were coats of mail laid up in bran, to keep them from 
rusting. Under the benches was a plentiful supply of clean straw foi 
the dogs to lie on." 

6. Amidst all this litter, there were two shelves, on which was 
deposited the library. This consisted of the Bible, Ogier the Dane, 
the Shepherd's Calendar, the Golden Legend, the Romance of the 

Rose, &c. 

7. From this selection, it would appear that romances were pre- 
ferred to those memoirs and histories so much more interesting to us, 
of which many had been written. The period itself produced several 
writers whose works are still held in high estimayon. 

8. At the head of these is the great Duke of Sully, who has given 
a most interesting account of those scenes in French history in which 
he and his great master bore the most conspicuous part. Next to him 
is De Thou, who has written a minute general history of the period 
between 1545 and 1C07. 

9. Another distinguished memoir-writer was Theodore d'Au- 
bigne. half-brother to the king, and grandfather to Madame de Main- 
tenon, of whom I shall have more to say when I coire to the reign of 
Louis XIV. 



CXXII.— 1. What \f said of the tapestry, &c., of the houses? 2. What of the othfli 
mrniture \ 4. What is said of tl^e hall of a French chateau ? 6. What of the library • 
:. Who were the princiial memoir- writers ? Wliat is said of Sully 1 What of l)e Tbou 1 



212 



HENRY 17. -leuu. 



10. One jf the first cares of Henry was to restore his capital to ita 
former flourishing condition. Ho fo"und the streets overgrown with 
grass, many of the shops and houses shut up, and others, abandoned 
by their owners, had been converted into stables. When the Span 
ish ambassadors arrived, a few months after his coronation, they rx- 
pressed their admiration at the great improvement which had taken 
[dace in the city, since it had been under his rule. 

i 1. Tlie king replied, " Wiicn tii(! master is absent, all things gel 
into (hsorder; but when he is returned, his presence ornaments the 
house, and all things profit." 



CHAPTER CXXIll. 

The Duke of Svlly, 

1. In all tliat Henry did, he found a most able assistant in his faith 
ful friend, the Duke of Sully. Although he continued a Huguenot, 
he was intrusted with the highest ofiicos in the state ; and he well 
merited the confuh'iice, ior lie appears to have had nothing at heart 
hut tiie honor of his royal niat^ter and the good of his country. 
^ 2. Great attempts wen.> made to induce him to change his religion. 
The Pope himself labored to ellect this object, but Sully's answei 
was, "that he would never cease to prayfor the conversion of hi? 
h(diness." Sully was a grave, dignified ])ersonage, and even after 
his retirement from office lived in a nuich more stiff and courtly stylo 
than his royal master. His favorite residence was at Villebon, about 
sixty m.iles from Paris. 

3. Here he was surrounded by such a host of attendants, that, on 
some occasion, when above eighty of them were ill, their absence was 
scarcely perceived. The readiest way to make you comprehend what 
a private person could do with so many people will be to give you a 
description of his style of living. 

4. The duke rose early. After his prayers, he set himself to work 
with his four secretaries. Their occupation consisted in arranging 
his papers, lookin* over and correcting his memoirs, in answering . 
letters, and various other matters of business. Thus he passed the 
morning till an hour before dinner. Then the great bell announced 
that the duke was ^oing to walk. 

T). All the household at once arranged themselves in a row in the 
hall, and the duke issued forth, preceded by his esquires, his gentle- 
nuMi, and his officers and guards. Some ot' the family walked by his 
side, with whom he conversed, and a long train of oflicers and sol- 
diers followed. Having finished his solemn walk, he entered the 



J WhaiofD'Ai.bisrnfc? 10. To what did Henry jay particular attention? II. Wha. 
wa3hi3 reply to the Spanish ambassadors? •'«•'*- 

Jc^^I^rZ ^- "^r^^ 'f ^"^ °'" ^^^ ^"'^« of Sully ? 2. Wliai is said about hit religion » 
where did he prefer to lire? 4. Describe hi« mode oflife. 



HENKV iV <(kJU 



213 



satiiig-room, which was a vast apartment, hung round .vith pictures 
representing the most memorable events of his own life and of that of 
nis master. 

6. In this room stood a long table. At the top were two arm- 
chairs, for the duke and duchess. All their sons and daughters, 
whether married or not, were seated on little stools. Such in those 
days was the subordination of children to their parents. They did 
not venture to sit down in their presence without permission. 

7. After dinner, the duke went to work again till it was time for 
his afternoon's walk. This was accompanied by all the formalities 
of that of the morning. After a few turns, the duke would commonly 
go through a little covered walk which divided the flower and kitchen 
gardens, then up a flight of stone steps to a grand alley of lime trees. 

8. There he would place himself on a little bench, and leaning his 
two elbows on a sort of summer-house window, would enjoy the view 
of a beautiful terrace below, of a large pond, of his park, and of afino 
distant country beyond. His gardens were laid out in terraces, alleys, 
and straight rows of trees, and were full of busts, urns, and statues. 



CHAPTER CXXIV. 

Henry's Plan for a Christian Republic. — Omens^ and hii 

Opinion of them, 

1. Henry did not confine his thoughts to the good of his own 
people alone. A favorite project of his was to unite all Christendom 
int(j a sort of Christian republic, in which each state should be secured 
from the aggression of any other. This plan, however, did not meet 
with much encouragement from other princes. 

2. But all the projects of this great king were brought to a sudden 
termination. Reports had for some time prevailed throughout France 
that the king would not live long. His death had also been foretold 
by fi)rtune-tellers. There were various ill omens too, one of which 
is thus gravely related in the memoirs of one of the bravest of the 
French generals and gayest of the courtiers, Marshal Bassompierre. 

3. *' On the 1st of May, as the king was passing through the grfat 
gallery of the Louvre, leaning on M. De Guise and myself, he left us 
to go into the queen's chamber, saying lo us, ' Don't go away — I 'm 
ffoing to tell my wife to make haste? ;md dress, that she may not keep 
the dinner waiting.' 

4. " Whilst we were waiting, and leaning on the iron balustrades 
of the court of the Louvre, the May tree which had been planted in 
the middle of the court fell down, without any wind or apparent 
cause. I said to Guise, ' I wish it had not happened. It is a very 



CJflflV — 1. What favorite project had Henry 1 V.I 3. What omen occurred » 5. Wh* 



214 



MKNKV IV 



l«10 



had omen. May God preserve our king, wl»o is the May ol ihu 

Louvre.' 

5. '* The kinjr, who had approached without our knowing it, heard 
all that 1 said. ' You are fools," said he, ' to amuse yourselves with 
Bueh prognostics. 1 thank you for your solicitude ; but lea'-n from 
me never, for the future, to c.nc ahout omens and predictions which 
are vain and frivolous. 

6. " ' For the last thirty years all the astrologers and fortune- 
tellers in France have i)redicted to mo every year that I should be 
killed, and have warned me lo beware of certain days, in none of 
which luis any accident happened lo me. In the year in which I do 
actually die, all tlu^ omkmis will be put in history, while nothing will 
be said of the omens (»f the pn'ce«ling years.' " 

7. Though this wise king had no superstition, and laughed at 
omens, still he knew thai he was the object of hatred to some relig- 
ious fanatics, on acc(umtof his toleration to the Huguenots; he knew 
too that a carriage in a crowded street would aflord the best oppor- 
tunity to any orie who wished to destroy him. Hence the stories that 
he foretold of his own death. 



HENRY IV 



1610 



215 



CHAPTER CXXV. 

Coronation of the Queen. — Death of Henry IV. 

1. The queen had never been crowned, and in 1010 she demanded 
that the ceremony should be performed. The king was very unwil- 
ling to grant her recpiest, both on accoimt of the expense, and because 
he did not like thois(! great ceremonies ; yet, as he was oue of the 
kindest and most indulgerit men in the world, he did not like to refuse 
her request. 

2. Accordingly, on the 13th day of May, IGIO, the ceremony was 
performed, with the greatest magnificence. It was determined that 
the queen should make her grand entry into Paris on the 15th of May. 
The happy citizens were busily occupied with their preparations. 
Triumphal arches were erected in all the streets through which the 
procession was to pass, and the whole city was a scene of bustle ami 
•^x^K^ctation. 

3. Amidst the general gayety, the king alone wore a face of dejec- 
tion, and seemed to take no pleasure in the passing scene. On the 
I itb of May, in reply to an expression of affection from one of his 
.ittendants, he said, " You do not know me now ; but when you have 
lost me you will know my worth, and the difference between me and 
other men." 

was the king's opinion of them? 7. Hid the king believe himself to be in any 
danger ? 

CXXV. — 1. What Is said of the queen's desire to \te crownal ? What were the king'* 
Wishes? 2. When did the ceremony ta'«e place? What ceremony was lo follow it, and 
when? 3. What was the appearance of ho kin?' 4.;') What did Bassompierre »y to 



4. BassoiTipierre, who was present, thus continues the story : 
Then I said to him, ' Sire, will you never cease afflicting us by 

■aying that you will soon die? You will live, if it please God, long 
and happy years. There is no felicity in the worhl eipial to vours'': 
fo\i are in the flower of your age ; in perfect health and strength of 
oody, full of honor beyond any other mortal. 

5. " ' In the tranquil enjoyment of the most flourishing kingdom, 
adored by your subjects, possessed of wealth, of fine, beautiful pal- 
aces, a handsome wife, and fine children ; what can you desire more?' 
The king only sighed, and said, 'All the.se 1 must (piit.' He then 
desired me to meet him in the afternoon at the arsenal, which was the 
residence of Sully, who was sick. 

0. "I went, according to his wishes, but, alas! it was in vain ; for 
soon after I arrived there people came rushing in, exclaiming that the 
king was wounded, and had been carried to the Louvre. '^I rushed 
out, and seizing the fir.st horse I could find, galloped to the Louvre. 
I ran up to the king's closet, and found him stretched on a bed, sur- 
rounded by weeping officers. The king heaved one sigh — it was 
his passing breath, and the physician cried out, ' It is all over; he is 



gone 



I' " 



7. And now for the particulars of the deed which threw millions 
into mourning. The king started for the arsenal in his coach, in 
which, beside himself, were six noblemen. Tlu; coach had no glass 
windows, or blinds, but leather curtains, which were all drawn up, 
that the king might see the preparations for the reception of the 
queen. 

8. At the crossing of a street he was stopped by a string of vehi- 
cles passing in a different direction. At the instant, a man named 
Ravaillac jumped upon the wheel of the coach, reached over, arid 
stabbed the king twice in the breast. The curtains were drawn 
down, and the carriage driven back to the Louvre, to which it might 
be tracked the whole way by the blood which flowed from it. 

!>. The courtiers at once asseml)led in haste and agitation lo deter- 
mine what should be done. The queen was declared regeit. The 
whole transaction passed so rapidly, that at four o'clock on the 14th 
of May, 1610, the king was in good health, and before half past six 
the queen was established in the regency. 



riim ? 6. What does Bassompierre relate of the transaction of the 14th of May ? 7, 8. 
Itelale the particulars of the king's death. 9. Who was declared recent ? On «»hftl dk) 
•»*i the murder cc- nilled? 




216 



LOUIS xni.-i6io. 



CHAPTER CXXVl. 



Character of Mary de Medicis. — She is a Patron of the Ai t$ 
—Marshal D'Aiicre. — The King's Favorite, De Luy?ies.- 
An old Charge of Sorcery revived. 




Louis XIII., Uiio ^/ U)43. 

1. The consternation and public grief were universal ; the king vvaA 
mourned for as a father. Tliis excess of grief, on the part of a whole 
nation, for the death of one man, may seem unnatural and affected. 
But under a despotic government everything depends on the personal 
character of the sovereign. 

2. The life, the liberty, the happiness of every one of his subjects, 
is in his power ; everything, therefore, is referred to the king ; and 
while a bad king makes himself detested, a good king gains for him- 
self love, and gets to be looked upon as a father. 

3. Henry left two sons, Louis, and Gaston, Duke of Orleans. 
Louis, the eldest, known iu history as Louis XIIL, was only nine 
years old at the time of his fallier's murder. As I have already told 
you, the regency was conferred on Mary de Medicis, his mother. 

4. Mary was a weak and bigoted womafi, but her reputation is 
wholly unstained by any such bloody crimes as those for which Caln- 
erine is universally execrated. She patronized the arts, and Paris is 
indebted to her for the gallery of the Luxemburg, a collection of 
paintings by Rubens, the great Flemish artist, representing the prin 
cipal events in the life of his r<»yal patron. 

f). The queen made herself very obnoxious to the nobles by sui> 
!nitting entirely to the guidance of two Italian adventurers, a man and 
his wife, named ('oncini. In a very short space of time the man was 
raised to the peerage by the title of Marquis d'Ancre, and made one 
of the marshals of France. 

6. The discontent of the nob'es was increased by the insolence of 



CXXVl. — 1.2. Wh.il \v:u ihc public lee-rn?? Why should so great an effect be prr 
duced .' 3. Who aucceetletl Henry? What was the age of Louis XIII. ? 4. What was 
the character of Mary de Medicis.' For what is Paris indebted to her? 5. How did sh» 
make herself obnoxious to the nobles? 6. What increa.'^ed the discontents? 7. W^hai 



LOUIS XIIL — 1610. 






toe fa-t orite. 1 o repress the murmurs of the people, and to show the 
tate that awaited all who should say anything against him. D'Annre 
claused gibbets to be erected in various parts of Paris ; but or.e of 
the^se was put to a use he little expected. 

7. The king, who possessed none of his father's energy of charac- 
ter, was all his hte a mere puppet in the hands of others. At the acre 
ot sixteen years, he was under the control of De Luynes. This man 
had entered the service of Ilenrv I^^ as a page. By his dilin^ence 
and attention he attracted the notice of that monarch, who grante.l 
broth^erT ^''^'^^-'' ''''^^''* ^^ employed in educating his two younger 

8. The king, hearing of this, was so much pleased, that he doubled 
bis salary, and made hini the companion of his son Louis, over whom 
he acquired the greatest inlluence. L(uiis was fond of hawking and 
shooting, and De Luynes had great skill in these sports ; and by these 
accomp ishments he may be said to have flown into the king's favor 
and to have been enabled to soar to the great height which he after- 
wards reached. 

y. De Luynes easily excited in the mind of the king an impatience 
the control ot his mother and a jealousy of her favorites, and per- 
suaded him to assume the government to himself. His first act was 
the issuing of an order for the arrest of D'Ancre, and the execution 
ot this order was intrusted to Vitry, captain of the king's guard 

10. Vitry met the marshal on the bridge of the Louvre, announced 
to him the order, and, without waiting to see if he would quietly sur- 
render hiin.self, shot him dead. The king avowed the act as done 
by his order, and rewarded Vitry by giving him the office of marshal, 
wjiicli he had thus been the means of making vacant. 

11. The body of D'Ancre was seized by^he people and hunff on 
one of his own gibbets. Meantime, his wife was arrested on the 
charge of sorcery. Being asked what charm she had used to acquire 
so much influence over the queen, she replied, " I have used no charm, 
but the ascendency which a strong mind has over a weak one " 

12. The old charge was also revived against her of contrivincr the 
death of the king by melting a waxen image; the same, you" will 
recollect, upon which Madame de Marigny suflfered three centuriea 
bemre. 



Wl^'ii V n ^'"= • ^^''" '''''■^' ^f ^"^"^^ • S ""^^- ''"' ''« ^^'ii" »'i« influence 7 1) What 
^ elMig did De Luyne. e.vcne in the king', n.ind ? What .iid the king orderV 10 Hoi 

TrAncrV) I-/ WhT'."'"' ""^ ^*'^"-'' . ''■ .What charge vva.s made agai.^t ,l,e wif" o" 
V v^iicre .' ]4. What charge w;us revived against hor' 

19 




216 



LOUIS XIII— 1610. 



CHAPTER CXXVl. 



Character of Mary de Medicis. — She is a Patron of the Ai t$ 
— Marshal lyAncre. — The Kini^'s Favorite, De Lwjfies.- 
An old Charge of Sorcery revived. 




Luiiis XIII., lt)li» /'/ 1«)43. 

1. The consternation and i)iii)lic frrief were universal ; the kinij wai 
mourned for as a fatlier. This excess of grief, on the part of a whole 
nation, for the death of one man, may seem unnatural and afiected. 
Bui under a despotic jroverinnent everything depends on the personal 
character of the sovereijjn. 

2. The life, the Iil)erty, the hap[)iness of every one of his suhjects, 
is in his power; evervthiiig, therefore, is referred to the king; and 
while a had kinii makes himself detested, a good king gains for him- 
self love, and gets to he looked upon as a father. 

3. Henry left two sons. Louis, and Gaston. Duke of Orleans. 
Louis, the eldest, known in hii^tory as Louis Xlll., was only nine 
years old at the time of his faiher's murder. As I have already told 
y*)u, the regency was conferred on Mary de Medicis, his mother. 

4. Mary was a weak and higoted woman, hut her reputation is 
wlndlv unstained hy anv such hloody crimes as those for which Catri- 
erine is universiilly execrated. She patronized the arts, and Paris is 
indehted to her for the iraih ry of tlu; Luxcmhurg, a collection of 
paintings hv Kuhens, the great Flemish artist, representing the prin 
cipal events in the life of his r(»yal patron. 

.''). The queen made herself very oi)noxious to the nohles hy sut» 
'.nittins: entirely to the; guidanc'e of two Italian adventurers, a man and 
his wife, named Concini. In a very short space of time the man was 
raised to the peerige by the title of Martpiis d'Ancre, and made one 
of the marshals of France. 

6. The discontent of the nob'es was increased by the insolence of 




CXXVI— 1.'2. Whit 
duced .' 3. V" 
the character 
nuike 



LOUIS XIII. — 1610. 



217 



ftie fa'ioTite. To repress the murmurs of the people, and t.) show the 
late that awaited all who should say anything ajrainst him. D'Ancie 
caused gibbets to be erected in various part's of Paris ; but oi.e of 
lh<^se was put to a use he little expected. 

7. The king, who possessed none of his father's energy of charac- 
ter, was all his hie a mere puppet in the hands of othersf' At the a«TP 
of sixteen yt>:.rs, he was under tlie control of De Luynes. This man 
had entered the s.-rvice of Henry I\'. as a page. By his dilj.rence 
and attention he attracted the notice of that UK.narcli, who .rramed 
um a small salary, which he employed in educating his two \"oumver 
brothers. ° - o • 

H. The king, heari.iu of this, was so much pleased, that he doubled 
lis salary, an.l made hini the companion of his son Louis, over whom 
he acquired th.> gri-ate.st inlhience. J.c.nis was I'ond of hawkin- and 
siiooting,and De Luynes had great skill in these sports ; and by "these 
accomp ishments he may be .said to have tlown h.to the king's favor 
an.l to have been enabled to soar to the great height which he after- 
wards reached. 

J». De Luynes easily excited in the mind of the king an impatience 
ol the control ol his mother and a jealousy of her favorites, and per- 
suaded him to assume the government to himself. Jlis first act waa 
the issuing of an order for the arrest of D'Ancre, and the execution 
ol this order was intrusted to Vitry, captain of the king's fruard 

10. \ itry met the marshal on the bridge of the Louvre,\nnounced 
to him the (.rder, and, without waiting to see if he would (luietlysur- 
r.M.der himself, shot him dead. The king avowc^d the act as done 
Dv his order, and rewarded Vitry by giving him the office of marshal, 
whicli he bad thus been the means of making vacant. 

11. 'I'lie body of D'Ancn; was .seized by'tiie pciqde and hung on 
one of his own gibb.>ts. Meantime, his wif,' was arrested on the 
charge ot sorcery. Being asked what charm she bad used to acquire 
so much influence ,.ver the queen, slie replied, - I have used no charm, 
hut tlie ascendency which a strong mind lias over a weak orje." 

1-2 The old chari:.; was also revived against her of contriviufr the 
.leati of the king by m.dting a waxen image; the same, yoirwill 
recollect, upon which Madame de Marigny sufTered three centuries 
hefore. 



.;i'i.^n n r= ^^''•'«^.-^I^fI''>yMe.s? 8. How. li.l 1m> .mj.. his influence? ;> Whal 
^. liigdi.l 1)0 Luynes exc.lem the kn.u's mind ? Whal did the kn.-' order i l(J Hot 

i> nnc.re ! f4. VVh.ii chirire was revived iiiranist her'* 

IJ) 



^(&km. ^ 





07Ma 



5>c'^>^is^ 



218 



LUUIS XIII -I6I0. 



■i 



CHAPTER CXXVII. 

State of Manners in the Time of LaMi XIII. 

1. Although the king was now noiiiiiuilly the sovereign, yet Vh 
Luynes, in fact, ^overnoil. lie was so proud and arrogant, and su 
dimcult was it for suitors to get admittance to his presence, that it 
was said " that there were three most difficult things in the world — 
to square the circle, to fuid the philosopher's stone, (which was to turn 
everything into gold,) and the third was, to speak with the Duke de 

Luynes." , • • i • r j 

2. It has hecn said of the court of France at this time, that it did 
not possess one person of honor or worth. Prid.- and haseness were 
the universal characteristics. The depravity of morals extended itself 

to all classes. „ 

3. Paris was the scone of constant robheries and murders. IMot a 
nitrht passed without bloodshed, so that it was not safe to go into the 
streets without a strong gTianl, as one of those whose duty it was to 
remedy the evil felt to his cost. 

4. One of tlu; secretaries of state, being invited to sup abroad, lelt 
orders to havt; his horse brought to him at nine o'clock. It so hap- 
pened that the horse fell lame on the way, and the secretary must 
needs walk \wu\e. This was not very pleasant, for the streets were 
horridly dirty, and the only attempt at lii:hting them was by large 
vessels placed at the corners, filled with pitch and other combustibles. 

5. He started oif, with his lackey going before with a torch. He 
had just reached the Pont Neuf, upon which the (pieen had erected a 
splendid equestrian statue of Henry IV., cast in bronze, when he 
heard the clashing of swords. He looked under the torch, and seeing 
there were but two persons, kept on. 

6. He had not gone many steps before the two persons came run- 
ning up to him with swords drawn and pistols cocked, apparently in 
a great rage with one another. 'I'hey said they were quarre^Umg 
about a paper which they had picked up in the street, and, with many 
compliments to the secretary, desired him to read it. 

7. Accordingly, he took out his spectacles, and beoan to read : 
' All persons who pass over this bridge after nine o'clock are re- 
quired to leave their cloaks behind thi;m, and if they have no cloaks 
:o leave their hats." The secretary started when he read this, aiu' 
one of the fellows said to him, " 1 think the paper concerns you, 
sir." So they made him take olf his cloak, and walk home witJM.iii 

one , , 

8. These robbers were for the most part the servants ot the noUled 
and gentlemen, who, instead of trying to restrain thetn, often set 
il.emabad example; for we are told that gentlemen would some- 



C\XV1I — 1. Wtiat 13 siiiJ of De Luynes? 2. Wlial is said of the court of Vrunce 
.lurh." the rule of De Luynen? What of llie morals of the people? 4 What auecdow 
is tela -ed to illu^irate them ' S. From vvtiat cla.-a were llie robbers ? Fn.m w»u»i w tha 
Una cui-jyurse ileriv«d f 



LOmS XIII— 1610. 



219 



limes steal a cloak, or snatch the well-filled purse af a citizen. It 
was the custom to wear the purse hung to the girdle, and the roboer 
generally cut it off; and hence the name cut-purse, sometimes apoliec' 
to a thief. * ^ 



CHAPTER CXXVIII. 

Fashions of Dress in the Time of Louis XIII. 




^:Z^ 



Gentleman and lady going to court. 



1. The king, partly from defect of nature, and partly from a n5g- 
lected education, was a man of very weak and contracted mind. He 
was fond of music and painting, and had some mechanical ingenuity. 
He had contracted, it is said, an abhorrence for reading, from having 
been made to read Pauchet's History of France when he was a boy ; 
so that after he became a man he was never known to take up a book! 

2. He introduced one improvement in the personal appearance of 
bis subjects. Up to the time of the death of Henry IV., thick, bushy 
beards, well stiffened with wax to make them stand out at the bottom, 
ba<l l.een the fashion ; but the same knife that killed him struck at the 
roots of these cherished beards. 

:i. These were presently shaved off smooth, in compliment to the 
smooth chin of his young successor, and nothing w:is left but a pair 



CXXVlIl. — I. What is said of tl c character of ljn\i\s XIII. ? 3. What change wa« 
atade m ihe pergonal appearance of his subject d ? 4 What is said of the dresa of the gen 



218 



LOUIS XI 11 1610. 



CHAPTER C XXVII. 
State of Manner is in the Time of IjLUi XIII 

1. Altholgh ti»e kiiif][ was now numiiitilly thf sovereign, yet D« 
Liiynes, in fact, fjovernriT. He wns so proud and arrogant, and so 
didicult was it for suitors to get aduiittance to liis presence, that it 
was said " that there were tliree most ditlicult things in the work — 
to square the circle, to lind the philosopher's stone, (which was to turn 
everything into gold,) and the third was, to speak witli tlie Duke de 

Luynes." , • • , • i i 

2. It has heen said of the court of France at this time, that it did 
not possr'ss one person of honor nr worth. Pride and haseness were 
the univ(n-sal characteristics. The dei.ravity of morals extended itselt 

to all classes. ., 

3. Paris was the scene of constant rohheries and nuirders. I\ot a 
night passed without hloodjshed, so that it was not safe to go into the 
streets without a stroni: guard, as oi»e of those whose duty it was tu 
remedy tiie «vil fell to his cost. 

4. One of the .secretaries of state, heing invit(>d to sup ahroad. lelt 
i.rdt'rs to hav*- his hors(^ hrought to him at nine o'clock. It so h:ii)- 
pened that the horse fell lame «)n the way, and the secretary must 
needs walk home. 'Plus was not very pleasant, for the streets were 
h»»rridly dirty, and tlie onlv atteuji.t at Imhling tlu'in was hy lar«re 
vessels' place".! at thecoriu«rs, tilled with pitch aiul other coml)UStd)les. 

5. He started olf, with his lackey jroiiig hefore with a torch. He 
had just reached the Pont Neuf, upon which the queen had erected a 
splendid eijue.slrian statue of Henry IV., cast in hron/.e, wIkmi he 
heard the cla^hiiiLT of swonls. He looked under the torch, and seeing 
there wt^e hut two persons, kept on. 

0. He had not gone many ste[)s hefore the two persons came run- 
ning up to him w ith swords drawn and i>istols cocked. ap[>arentlv in 
a great raije with one another. They said they were (piarrellmu 
;J)out a i.aper whicii they liad picked up in lh(> street, and, with many 
(compliments to thi; .secrel;iry, desireij him to read it. 

7. Accordinuly. he took out his spectacles, :ind he«ian to rend 
'All persons wiio pa.ss over this hridge afti>r nine o'clock are re- 
quired to leavt' their cloaks hehind them, and if they have no cloaks 
:o leav(! their hats." 'Phe secretary started when lie read this, am' 
one «)f tlu; fellows said to him, " I think \\\r, paper concrns you. 
sir." So they made him take olf his cloak, and walk honu' wiihoi;! 

«'ue 

H. 'Phese rohhers wen! for the most part the servants ot tin; nol)les 
lu^l gentlemen, wh(», instead of trying to restrain them, often set 
thei.rahail exanq)le ; for we are told that gentlemen would some- 



CXXVII - 1. Wliat id .s;u 1 of De I.uvue.s'' 2. W^lial i.^ aaiJ of ihe court of h ru.ice 
iliiriM- l!io rill.- of D.- Luyiieni WUm o( ihe morals of the FciM'le? 4 What ai.«.doM 
is rela-tfd to lllusirate tliem ' '?. Fr-ou wlut i lass were ll»e rol.ljers ? hn.,,. vvl,ai i- ll»e 
(«rin cutpurse ilerivt>J t 



LOnS XIII — 1610. 



219 



times steal a cloak, or snatch the well-filled purse of a citizen. It 
was the custom to wear the purse hung to the girdle, and the roboer 
generally cut it off; and hence the name cut-purse, sometimes anoliec 
to a thief. * ^ 



CHAPTER CXXVIII. 

Fashions of Dress in the Time of Louis XIII. 




Gentlemdii and huh/ 'j^oluij; to court. 

1. Thk king, partly from defect of nature, and partly from a n;jr- 
lected educati«)n, w'as a man of very weak and contracted mind. He 
was fond of music and painting, and had some mechanical ingenuity. 
He had contracted, it is said, an ahhcu-rence for reading, fron?haviiio 
heen made to read Fauchet's History of France when he was a boy'"; 
so ih;it after he became a man he was never known to take up a book! 

'J. He introduced out^ imj)rovem(Mit in the pensonal appearance of 
his subjects. Up to the tinn; of the death of Henry IV., thick, bus^hy 
''e:irds, well .stiffened with wax to m;ike them stnud out at the bottom", 
hatl been the fashion ; but th(,' same knite that killed him struck at the , 
roots (»f ihesi; cherished beards. 

."i. Tiie.se were presently shaved off smooth, in comj)liinent to tlic 
smooth chin of his young successor, and nothing was left but a pair ^ 



CXXVIII.- 1. VV^hal i3 sai.l of iK, charartiT of Loiiid XIII.? 3. Whal chanee wat 
tuade III the personal ipijearam e of liis siilijetire' I VVl.ai issiiidof the dresaofthe gen 



220 



LOUIS XIII. — 1621. 



of thin miistachios on the upper lip, and a smajj pointed tuft on thfl 
chin. The rest of the attire of a well-dressed man of this period is 
»hus described : 

4. " He was clad in a velvet mantle thrown carelessly over his 
bhoulder. He wore white boots with a larj^e pair of spurs. In his 
liand he carried a little switch, with which he incessantly lifted up 
his mustachios, that fell over the corners of his mouth, while with the 
other he smoothed down the little pointed beard on his chin." 

5. The ladies of the day were more like moving tubs than anything 
else. Round hoops, stuffed hi[)s, and all sorts of contrivances were 
resorted to, for the mere purpose, as it should seem, of disfiguring the 
form. 

G. As the king approached to maturity, strong hopes were enter- 
tained that he would display a little moreenergy, throw off the influ- 
ence of favorites, and govern the kingdom as his father had done. 
But these hopes were disappointed. De Luynes died December 15th, 
1021. His place in the king's confidence was at once filled by the 
oelebrated Armand du Plessis Richelieu, soon after created cardinal 



CHAPTER CXXTX. 

Cardinal Richelieu. — The Siege of Rochelle. 

1. Cardinal Richelieu was born the 5th of September, 1.585, 
at the castle of Richelieu. He was educated at the Sorbonne. 
Being of noble family, he was rapidly promoted, and at the age of 
twenty-one years was made Bishop of Lu^on. He commenced his 
political career in the service of Marshal D'Ancre. 

2. At the first symptoms adverse to the marshal, he made his peace 
with De Luynes, by betraying to him the secrets of his rival. By 
his abilities and cunning he soon placed himself in a situation to suc- 
ceed to power, and from that time to his death, in 1012, he was the 
despotic ruler of France, though not prime minister in name till 1020. 

3. Not content with ruling the state, Richelieu took the conunand 
of armies in person. On such occasions he wholly laid aside the 
priest, and assumed the soldier. He appeared in the midst of the 
troops, on a superb charger, with a jjlumed hat on his head, a sword 
by his side, a coat embroidered with gold, and with the light arnuir 
then in use. 

4. Richelieu possessed two predominant qualities — an insatiable 
iove of power, and an inordinate vanity ; and to the gratification of 



tlemeii ? f>. VVtiA. .'ftlie dress of iSie ladies ? C>. Who succeeded Dc Luynes in the kins'? 
favor? 

C.t^X. — L When was Cardinal Richelieu U)ni? Where did he study? With whon: 
did he commence his jwliiical career.' 2. How did he gain the favor of De Luynes? 
When did he come into pt>wer .' When did he become prime minister in name ? 3. What 
i« «vi«1 of his appearance as a general ' 4. What were Richelieu's pretSiminant qua.' 



'M 



LOUIS Xlir. — IG28 



2)5?. 



ihese two passions, he steadily devoted all his powers. He nevei 
'^T^i^L-'*"^ P''"jcct, however vast, or any artifice, however mean, b^ 
'vhich his end could be accomplished. 

5. He said of himself, " I dare not undertake anything till I have 
Ihorougnly weighed it ; but when once 1 have made ray determina- 
tion, I go to my end ; I overturn all, I mow down all ; nothing stops ) 
me; in fine, I cover all with my scarlet gown," (his cardinal' "^ 
dress.) 

t>. The power (»f the aristocracy received its death-blow from him 
tliose whom he could n(»t buy he mowed down. The nobles hav = 
never since been able tc. eont.Mid witli the crown. He put an end U 
the religious wars by wliicli the kingdom had been so long distracted — 
But this he effected by depriving the Huguenots of all their rights ai 
men. "^ 

7. The siege and capture of Rochelle is one of the most memorabh 
incidents in the wars between the Huguenots and Richelieu, whc. 
was assisted by Spain, ^^lie town had always been the stronghold 
of the reformed religion. It had often been besieged, but its situatici 
rendered it difficult to cut it off from supplies bv sea, which it fre 
quently received from the English. 

8. Richelieu determined upon its destruction ; and to cut off all sup- 
plies, he caused a solid mole to be constructed across the mouth of 
the harbor, which was more than a mile in width. The English 
after a miserably conducted attempt to relieve the Rochellers, left 
them to their fate. 

9. The inhabitants, encouraged by the exhortations and example 
of the Duchess of Rohan, the daughter of the great Sully, submitted 

to the greatest misery. She herself and her daughter ate no other - 
food during three months than horse-flesh, with a small biti)f bread 
each day. ' 

10. At length all hope of assistance from England failed, and the 
city was surrendered. Some idea of the misery they had endured 
may be derived from the fact, that of 15,000 persons who were in the 
city when the siege commenced, only 4000 persons survived the fatal 
effects of famine, fatigue and the sword. 

\j i^ "lou^hful of bread was the most acceptable present that 
could be made to the survivors, but to many it proved fatal, from the * 
avidity with which they swallowed it. The sequel to this melan- 
choly story is remarkable. 

12. On the very next day after the surrender a violent storm aro?<- 
and buried in the waves that fatal mole which had been the occasion 
of the destruction of the city. Richelieu took ample vengeance on 
J he city for its obstinacy; he destroyed the fortifications, and abol- 
ished Its privileges ; and from that day the Huguenots have been 
entirely at the mercy of the crown. 



~'*'who^. ^"^ ?'i ^'^ ^^'^^ ^''^ aristocracy? How did he treat the Huguenots t 
R,K-hit\ T\vl \ TTo' "'e'»o';iWe events in the religious wars ? What is said of 
Kochelle ? « What did Richelieu do to procure the surrender of the city ? 9. Who wa« 

'T WwTp1?;,"^k,"- '^- ^^""^ i««a<<l of the suffering, of the inhabitants of RocheUe" 
*/'. wnat ren arkable event happcne<l after the surrender? 

19* 



222 



LOUIS Xill. -1^42. 



CHAPTER CXXX. 



t 



Deal A of Rig elieu. - 
lure. — Coriieille. ~ 
Garden of Plants. 



His Patronage of the Arts and Lttera* 
Moliere. — The French Academy.— The 
- The first Newspaper. 



1. The last seven years of the reign of Louis were spent in 
ittennptinf; to repress iho power of the house of Austria. The French 
U^iMied some increase of influence in these wars, but little accession of 
territory. 

2. Meantime the lieallh of Richelieu was crradually decaying. 
Ills pride and ambition were proof against decay. Worn down by 
disease, he still attended the court, beinnr carried, on the shoulders of 
his {Tuiirds, m a machine covered with damask. He yet hoped to sur- 
vive the kingr, and was laying his plans to secure the reo-ency, when 
death overtook him, December 4th, 1012, in the fiftv-seventh year of 
his a<re. " •' 

3. Richelieu was fond of display and maimificence. Ke assumed 
a regal style of livinnr, and commenced the construction of a palace 
upon a scale which excited the jealousy of the king. This was the 
t alais Cardinal, now called the Palais Koyal. In its unfinished state 
It was finer than any of the palacc^s (.f the kincr, to whom it was de- 
vised by the will ot the cardinal, and Louis at once removed into it 

4. Another monument of the magnificence of Richelieu is the 
church ot the Sorbonne, in which he placed his own monument, the 
finest work of the irreat sculptor, (liradon. The noblest monument 

o the caitlinal is the (lard^Mi of Plants, which he established. This 
has become the most complete collection in tin; world of all tha* is 
curioiis and b.viuiiful among animals, vegetables and minerals. 

5. Here are to be seen the most rare and beautiful plants, collected 
from all parts ol the «nirth. The wild animals, instead of being con- 
fined in narrow cages, are allowed space enough to gambol about. 
1 he f)irds have room i>n()uj,r|, to stnUch their wings. The large family 
ot monkeys occupy an elegant stone building. All are so disposed of 
as to teel as little as possible the restraint upon their liberty 

6. Richelieu was n(»t only greedy of tlu^ praise of hiscontempo 
raries, but covinous of i)osthunious fame. His name and arms 
occupy the most con.spicuous places in all the buildinjrs erected by 
him. Ihe same craving led him to patronize men of letters, that his 
own tame might be immortalized by their pens. 

7. The most eminent of these was Peter Corneille, a man of rrreat 
genius, but rather too declamatory and grand in his style to suit any 
hut Y ranch taste. He was a dramatic writer, and his tracredy of the 



•Pi'i^?^9~"w\.)J'|'''*^ ol'jeci occupied the allenlinn of the kin- during the la^l part of fiis 
wSi w^' hnte ' '•]' VVhu'i"^' a-e of Caaiinal Richelieu 1- When ,li,l Richdieu d e? 

r«n«t, 1 ^ WK .i" "^^ "" '''>"' "'^ ^^"^ GMi\m of Plants ? fi. What proofs of h-t 

tanitj J /. Wl'o wa.s the most eminent literary man of this period I WhatTsaid o> 



LOUIS XIII. — 1613. 



223 



t>id was so enthusiitstically admired, as to become the standard of 
literary merit : "It is ;is fine as the Cid," became the fashion, ble 
*»xpression. 

8. The success of this play excited the jealousy of Richelieu, for 
he also wrote plays, and was more vain of his talents as a poet, which 
were very ordinary, than of his talents as a statesman, which were 
very great. He was vain enough of these last; indeed, he was a 
complete slave to vanity; and fiattery niid adulation w^ere as necessary 
to him as his daily food. 

li. Although Moliere did not attain to the height of his celebrity till 
the succeeding reign, yet he owed to Richelieu his first introduction 
to literary life, jfe was the greatest comic writer of France, and 
Louis XIV. pronounced him to be the greatest ornament of his 
reign. 

10. Richelieu also established the French Academy, which has 
become so much celebrated. It was a society of literary men asso- 
ciated together for the improvement of the French language, and 
style of writing. One of the first labors required of them by the 
founder was to criticize the poem ot" the (Jid. 

11. The first French periodical work also appeared during Riche 
lien's administration. It formed an annual volume, and was similar 
to the annual registers now published. It contained notices of events, 
and a history of the state of Europe. It was so successful that the 
aithors of it were led to engage in a new enterprise ; that of publish 
ing a weekly newspaper, which first appeared in 1G37. 



CHAPTER CXXXI. 

Death of Lends XIII. — Character of Cardhud Mazariii. — The 

Treaty of Westphotia. 

1. Louis did not long survive his ambitious minister. A slow 
fever hung upon him, and Ik^ fi'It his strength decay. The dauphin 
was not yet five years old, and tlie king hoped by a distribution of 
power to secure a (piiei minority. He appointed his wife, Anne of 
Austria, to be regent, but provided that all affairs should oe deter- 
mined in council, of which he appointed his brother the chief. 

2. This being done, he prepared for death with composure ; and 
when the physicians told him that he had but two or three hours to 
live, he expressed the greatest satisfaction. He died May 24th, 
1643, in the forty-second year of his age, and on the day on which he 
completed the thirty-third of his reign. He left two sons, Louis 
XIV. and Philip, afterwards Duke of Orleans. 

Corneilie? 8. What is sriid of M:helieu'? literary talents? 9. What i.s said of Moliere I 
in. What of iho French Academy / It. What is siiid of j)eri(Mlic;J woriis ? 

CXXXI. - { Wtiai measures dii' Louis XII. adopt to secure (fuiot after his deathi 
8. When did he die? Flow old wis he ? How long had tie reigned ? How many mint 



?24 



LOUFS XIV. - I6IB. 



LOUIS XIV. — 1648 



225 



3. No sooner was the king dead than his will was openly violated 
The eoincil was set aside, and all power nominally vested in Anne ; 
L'ut she herself was governed by Cardinal Mazarin, an Italian, in hia 
manners the reverse of Richelieu, and in talents quite inferior to him. 
Richelieu was haughty and overbearing, and bore down all o})posi- 
tion ; Mazarin was supple and insinuating, and affected great gentle- 
ness of manner. 

4. Mazarin had a very fine face, handsome eyes and mouth, large 
foreliead, well tbrmed nose, and open countenance. He had a greai 
deal of wit, and nobody told a story more agreeably ; he was per- 
fectly irresistible when he wished to please. He remained in office 
eighteen years, during which he experienced great reverses, but 
always came out of his troubles triumphantly ; in allusion to which 
he adopted for his device a rock lashed by the waves. 

5. He had neither hatred nor friendship, and only displayed either 
as his interest dictated. It always gave him great offence to be com- 
pared to Cardinal Richelieu, who was his master, and who surpassed 
him in great qualities. 

6. The death of Riihelieu did not put an end to the wars he had 
kindled. The enemies of the French hoped to derive great advan- 
tage from the disorders which usually attend a minority, and they had 
little dread of the young and inexperienced general who now com- 
manded the French army. 

7. But they found themselves sadly mistaken ; for the " great 
Conde," not yet twenty years old, by a series of victories more splen- 
did than any that had been gained since the foundation of the mon- 
archy, compelled the Emperor of Germany to conclude the treaty of 
Westphalia, in October, 1648. 



CHAPTER CXXXn. 
IVar of the Fronde. 

1. Mazarin was quite ready for peace, for he found his domestic 
troubles quite enough to*emi)loy him. That he was a foreigner and 
a favorite, was quite sufficient to make him unpopular. His foreign 
pronunciation was the constant subject of jests ; and ridicule, a most 
powerful engine among the gay and lively French, played upon him 
without ceasing. 

i'. The most active in exciting discontent was the Bishop de Retz, 
afterwards a cardinal, and a writer of memoirs. He was a man of 
restless, bustling, intriguing, seditious character, who seems to have 
been actuated solely by a love of mischief-making. 



did he leave ? 3. What took place after his death ? What is said of Cardinal Mazarin ? 
4. What ot nis personal appearance ? What wais his device ? 7. Who was the Frenck 
«"""^ 'V/''" war with Germany ? When was the treaty of Westphalia concluded ? 

(.AAAll. — I . What inclined Mazarin to peace ? 2. Who was the most active in cr»- 
•img discontent ? What is said of the Cardinal de Retz ? 3 What was the reauX of hia 



3. Jj.18 efforts were not long without success. The people of Pari? 
resisted the execution of an order of the minister, shut up their shops, 
and barricaded the streets. This was the connnencement of the civil 
war, called the War of the Frondrjxom the French word fromier, tc 
browltcat or censure; a nanie sometimes given at the present day to the 
opponents of the government. 

4. Tht'(iu('cn, thinking herself unsafe at Paris, tied It) St. Germains. 
accompanied by her chiKireu and the Cardinal Mazarin, and Conde. 
Here she was obligeil to pledge her jewels to obtain money. The 
king himself was often in want of the necessaries of life ; most of the 
court were obliged to sleep on straw, and the pages were dismissed, 
it being absolutely impossible to supply them with food. 

5. Some of the ladies were obliged to pass the day in bed, for want 
of means to make a fire. Tiie most remarkable thing in this war was 
the ridicule with which it w;is accompanied. Song.s and epigrams 
were for a lime the most deadly artillery used. 

6. That the parties did not confine themselves to these, may be 
learned from a touching account of the state of the neighborhood of 
Paris, given in the history of the nuns of Port Royal. Their con- 
vent, being guarded by soldiers, became a refuge for the neighboring 
peasants. 

7. The lady al)bess, in a letter to atricnd, writes thus: *' We are 
all occupied in UKikin^ s(Mips for the poor. Everything is pillaged 
around. Corn-fields are trampled down by the cavalry in presence of 
the owners. Despair lias seizL'd on all whose confidence is not with 
God. Nobody will any longer plough or sow, for nobody is certain 
of reaping what he sows. 

8. '* We have concealed as many of the peasants and cattle as we 
can. We are almost stifled i)y IxMug pent up with beasts, but we 
could not resist the pressing lamentations of the poor. Our sleeping 
hall is filled with horses, and in the cellar are concealed forty cows. 
We are crowded! with the old and the infirm, with children, and the 
sick and wounded." 

0. The ladies took the lead in these troubles. Mademoiselle de 
Montpensier, cousin to the king, and the Duchess de Longueville, 
were the active leaders on the part of the Fronde. To please these 
ladies, many of the nobles joined the Fronde. Others had even less 
honorable motives; for they joined solely that they m'ght be bought 
over by the government. 

10. Some were bought with money or places, others with the hand 
of some riclr heiress ; and when they had got what they wanted, they 
were quite; ready to change again. The great Conde was as unprin- 
cipled as the rest. Thus the war continued for four years, the nobles 
changing sides as interest or inclination prompted. 

11. Conde and Turenne were constantly opposed to one another, 
and yet were constantly changing sides ; Mazarin at one time was at 

Bfforts? What was the war which followed called, and why? 4. What did the queen 
do? What ia said of the condition of the court? 5. For what is the war remarkable? 
6, 7, 8. What anecdote is told of the state of the neighborhood of Paris ? 9. Who Vh)1i 
the lead in these troubles ? How did the nobles behave 1 10. Wliat was the conc^J c* 
CmkU ? How long did the war continue ? 12. What was the rasult of the whol«i 



226 



LOUIS XIV 



1659. 



A 



LOUIS XIV. — 1681. 



court, and at another in exile, yet governed the queen a.'s absolutely 
when in one place as the other. 

12. The end of four years found the cardinal quietly established in 
Paris, courted by all, while Conde was an exile, leading the enemies 
of his country. Tlie only vcstiires renKiinin<^ of the troubles, were 
the terms pdUmaittr, applied to overbearing, ill-educated younjj men 
Aiid frondeur, applied to one who censures the governmert 



CHAPTER CXXXIII. 

Character of Marshal Tiireniie. — Treaty of the Pyrenees. • - 
Death of Cardinal Mazarin. — Cfiaracter of Louis XIV. -tt 
that Period. 




.^ouis XIV., 1613 to 1715 — Mad. de JMaintenon, and Duke of Orleans 

1. The war with Spain still continued, and Conde, who now com- 
manded the Spanish forces, had not lost anything of his military 
genius. But in Turenne he had a rival who equalled him in abil- 
ities. 

2. Turenne was a short man, with broad shoulders, which he 
shrugged from time to time when he talked ; an ill habit which he 
had contracted from want of self-p(»ssession. A pair of dark, thick 
eyebrows gave a most unhappy expression to his countenance. Tc 
hear him speak in council, one would think him the most irresolute 
man in the world ; but when obliged t») como to a decision, nobody 
formed one better or more promptly. 



227 



3 He had an enlarged mind, and did not think that the pursuit of 
earning was incompatible with any profession. lie possessed soma 
AcquaintanctA with the Latin poets, and had a thousand beautiful pas- 
sages from the FnMich poels at his tongue's end. He was modest in 
his dress and in his deportment. 

4. Hut his perfect integrity and contempt of riches furnish his 
greatest claim to our good opinion. He conmianded the French 
army, when he might have amassed an innnense fortune ; but he ab- 
siainetl. His extraordinary disinterestedness gained him the alVection 
even of those amongst whom his duty to his country obliged him to 
carry the desolations of war. 

5. He had a great deal of wit, and was one of the pleasantest 
conq)anions in the world ; he knew a thousand stories, and loved to 
tell tlnnn, and he told them well. He made himself beloved gener- 
ally by olTicers and soldiers ; he was above all mean jealousy of the 
reputation of others; he was content to do his duty, and, by so 
doing, gained for himself the reputation of being the greatest captain 
of the age. 

0. I do not say so much about Turenne because I think a success- 
ful general the greatest man in the world. I think far otherwise ; but 
it is rare to find a man who unites in himself the qualities of a great 
and successful general and those of a good man ; and if there must be 
wars, I would have such taken for patterns. 

7. The arms of France were sticcessful in all quarters, and Spain, 
wearied out by reverses, sued for peace, which INIazarin willingly 
granted. The war was concluded by the treaty of the Pyrenees, No- 
vember 7, 1659. On the part of France, it was agreed that Louis 
should marry the daughter of the King of Spain, should renounce all 
claims to the Spanish throne in case that king should die without 
male heirs, and should pardon Conde. 

8. The king was accordingly married in 1660. The queen pre- 
served through life an inestimable character, and it is recorded, that, 
at her death, twenty-three years afterwards, Louis exclaimed that this 
was the first cause of regret which she had ever given him. 

9. Cardinal Mazarin died March 9, 1661. He had done little for 
the good of the nation he governed. But it would be unjust to 
refuse him the credit he deserves for the treaties of Westphalia and 
the Pyrenees. The title of peace-maker is a glorious one, and the 
war he put an end to had caused many miseries, devastations and 
massacres. 

10. The king was about twenty-three, fond of pleasure, unac- 
custo'ned to business, of which he had been purposely kept ignorant 
bv Mazaiin ; it seemed impossible that he should not imitate the 
great number of princes, who, reserving to themselves the honors 
arid pleasures of the throne, have placed all the burdens on oth- 
ers. 



CX^XIU. — 1. Where did CoiMto conimami? Who was opposed to him ? 2. What i» 



said of Turenne t 4. What is lis greatest claim to our good opinion? 7. Withvvhiini 
waij ihfi treaty of the Pyrenees'' When was it concluded? What were the conditions? 
8. Wlien was the king inarria.? What was tlie character of his wi'e? 9. W lien did 
Hazttrin (iie ? What good things did he do 7 10. What \a said of the habits of the kind 



226 



LOUIS XIV. — 165y. 



court, and at another in exile, yet governed the queen as absolutely 
when in one place as the other. 

12. The end of four years found the eardinal quietly established in 
I'aris, courted by ;dl, while (,'unde was an exile, leading the enemies 
id" his country. Th*- only vestiges remaining ot" the troubles, were 
Uie terms prtii/naitrf', applied to overbearing, ill-educated young men 
.,\\*\ frondeur ^ applied to one who censures the governmert 



CHAPTER CXXXill. 



Character of Marshal Tureujie. 
Death of Cardinal Mazarin. - 
that Period. 



- Treaty of the Pyrenees. • - 
Character of Lmiis XIV. it 




,Muis XIV., 1613 to 1715 — Mad. dc Mmntcnon^ and Duke of OrUam 

1. The war with Spain still continued, and Conde, who now com- 
manded the Spanish forces, had not lost anvthinu of his military 
genius. But in Turemie he had a rival who equalled him in abil- 
ities. 

2, Turenne was a short man, with broad shoulders, which he 
shrug<red fnnu time lo time when he talked; an ill habit which he 
had contracted from want of self-possession. A pair of dark, thick 
eyebrows gave a most unhappy expression to his countenance. Te 
hear him speak in coimcil, one would think him the most irresolute 
man in the* world ; but when obliged It) come to a decision, nobody 
formed one better or more promptly. 



,\ 



LOUIS XIV. — leei. 



227 



3 He had an enlarged mind, and did not think th:it the pursuit of 
earning was incom[tatible with any profession, lie possessed soma 
AC(piaint;inc« wiih the Latin [loets, and had a tluMi^and beaut il'ul pas- 
sages from the Frcncii poets at his tongue's end. ll«' was modest in 
his tlress and in hi.-< deportment. 

\. \\\\\ bis p«>rt"ect intc^irrity and etdUempt of rielu-s I'urnish his 
greatest claim to our uood ojunion. lie commaiuled the French 
army, wluii he miii:ht have amassed an immensi' fortune ; but he ab- 
>iai!i(^d. His extraordinary disinterestcdne.ss gaiiK'd him the alll'ction 
even of those amongst whom his dntv to bis eountrv obliged him to 
I'arry the desolations of war. 

."). He had a y:reat deal of wit, and was one ot' tlu; pleasantet-l 
rompaiii(»ns in th»' world; he knew a thousand stories, and loved to 
tell them, and be tidd them well. He madt? himself beloved gener- 
ally by ollicers and soldiers ; he was above all mean jealousy of the 
reputation of otluTs; he was content to do his <luty, and, by so 
doini,'^, gained for himselltlu^ reputation of being the greatest caj)tain 
of the aj^c. 

<). I do not say so much about Turenne because I think a success- 
ful gen(!ral the greatest man in the world. I think far otherwise ; but 
it is rare to fmd a man who unites in himself the qualities of a great 
and successful general and tho.se of a good man ; and if there must be 
wars, I would have such taken for patterns. 

7. The arms of France were successfid in all ipiarters, and Spain, 
wearied out by rtnerses, sued for peac(\ which IMazarin willingly 
granted. The war was conchnled bv the treaty of the Pyrene«?s, No- 
vember 7, l().'){). On the j)aTt of I'Vaiice, it was agreed that Louis 
should marry the daughter (dthe King of Spain, should renomice all 
claiins to the Spanish throne in case that king should die without 
male heirs, and should pardon ('ond*^. 

8. The king was accordingly married in ifiOO. Tin; (}ueen pre- 
served through life an ineatitnable character, and it is recorded, that, 
at her death, twenty-three years afterwards. Louis exclaimed that this 
was the first cause of regret which she had ever given him. 

9. Cardinal Mazarin died March I), Ififil. He had don(^ little for 
the good of the nation he jjf^verned. But it would be unjust to 
refuse him the credit he deserves for the treaties (d" Westphalia and 
fin; Pyrenees. The title of peace-maker is a glorious one, and the 
war be put an end to had caused many miseries, devastations and 
ma.ssacres. 

10. The king was about twenty-three, fond of pleasure, unac- 
cu.sto'ned to business, of which he had been purposely kept ignorant 
by Ma/aiin; it seemed impossible that he should not imitate the 
ifreat numl)er of princes, who, reserving to themselves the hoiu)r8 
and pleasures of the throne, have placed all the burdens on oth- 
ers. 



CXVXIIl. — L Wliere did Coacte coniiiiantl ? Wli.» was opposed to liirn? 2. What i« 



siii! (ifTiireruie? 4. Whul is lis ereatesl claim to our ^'ood opinion? 7. Wilhwlxnn 
wa-s l!ie ireiily of tin; Pyrenees'. When was it concluded? What were the conditi'ni.sl 
3. \VUfi!i w;i.s the king n>arri», ? What was tiie character of his wi**}? 9. Wlien did 
Mar.Arin <ii'; 7 What good things did he do 7 10. What is said of the habits of the kinit 



228 



LOUIS XIV.— 1667. 



i 



11. But the youii^r kincr had an elevated and ambitious soul, a love 
ot glory, and a tonchiess for power. Thougli from habit he had sub- 
mitted to Maziirin, he luid long borne the yoke witli imp.itience, and 
the moment that he saw himself freed from it, he declared his resolu 
tion to take the reins into his own hands. 

1-2. From that time till the last moment of his life he was not only 
the nomma' but the real head of the state, and kei,t all his ministers 
under stijct control. He ai)i,lied him.st'lf most in.iefatigably to busi- 
iiass; and to this virtue, more than to any (Uiier, he owes his reputa- 
tion especially now that the glare wiiich his conquests and his pomp 
last around him, is all faded away. ' 



CHAPTER CXXXIV. 

Lmis XJV. invcules Flanders. — Is compelled to retire a?td to 

Tiiake Peace. 

1. The reign of Louis lasted seventy-three years ; and may be di- 
vided into three distinct periods: his minority, his manhood, and his 
Old age. Ihe hrst, as y(,u have seen, was a period of turbulence and 
disorder. Ihe second was full of iriumi.h and glitter; but in the 
third his lortunes declined. His old age was a melancholy series of 
reverses, followed by severe domestic atllictions. 

2 Louis had a great passion for military gl(,jv, and soon found a 
pretext h)r gratilymg it at the expense of his nt^ighbors. You will 
rec(»llect that at his inarriag(> h.^ expressly renounced all claims to 
any portion «t the d(,nuni<.ns nf Spain. This scdenni renunciation he 
set at nought, and upon the death of the King of Spain laid claim to 
r landers and other extensive territories. 

3 The Emperor Leopold, aUhouuh, as the head of the house of 
Austria, expressly bound to protect the interests of the infant Kinjr of 
i^pain, consented that Louis should take possession of Flanders, on 
condition that he himself sbould have Spain in the event of the death 
ol the young king. 

1. h is said ihai LeopoM was so much ashamed of this nefarious 
contract, that lie insisted it should be kept a secret from all the world 
aud that there should be but one copy of the treaty, which should be 
deposited in a meta chest with two h.cks, the key to one of which 
8h.>nh be kept by the King of France, and the kev to the other by 
nimseli. ' ^ 

5. Colbert, a worthy successor to Sully in the care of the 
tinances, had place d at the disposal of the king more resources than 

JwinT' ''• ^'''' "^^''^ '■'^""'^^^- '=*• ^^^"^ '.f his conduct after the death of 
2 F^hli"h/H Z!."!! »"^ '""r^ ^^'^ '^'='V'^ ^"'^ X^V. ? How may it be divided 7 
xmori\a act/ 6. WJ-> were the king's chief ministera? 7. How were the regi-ner.u 



LOUIS XIV -166^ 



229 



iiad ever been possessed by any former monarch, Ix)uvois, the nin- 
ister of war, had adopted the novel precaution of distributing maga- 
zines along the frontiers. 

6. Having made the most ample provision, Louis put himself at the 
head of the French army ; the skilful Turenne commanding under 
him. The young nobility Hocked with ardor to carry arms under the 
eye of their sovereign, and submitted to the strict discipline which he 
enforced. 

T. He distinguished the dilTerent regiments by uniforms, and thus 
injspired the spirit of emulation. But he earricd'with him pomp and 
luxury, which was a dangerous example, as the generals would im- 
itate him, and the inferior officers, to the extent of their ability, would 
copy their generals. 

8. P^xcellent and well-disciplined troops, immense preparations, 
two ministers of great abilities, and Turenne for a general — with all 
these advantages Louis marched to certain conquest. He was accom- 
panied by the celebrated Vauban, whose genius made a complete 
change in the science of engineering. 

9. The rapid progress of his arms alarmed the other powers of 
Europe. England and Holland, laying aside, for the time, their 
mutual quarnds, united with Sweden, to put a stop to the course of 
the youthful sovereign, whose ambition threatened the independence 
of Europe. The haughty conqueror stopped short, and propo^^d 
peace. This was concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle, May 2, 1668. 

10. Jle could hardly conceal his vexation at having the terms of 
It dictated by a citizen of Holland, the inflexible republican Van 
Bennig, who negotiated withcmt fear and without complaisance. 
•' Do you not rely on the king's word ?" said the French ambassador, 
one day, to the Dutchman. " I do not know what the king will do, I 
only consider what he can do," replied he ; and he dictated the terms 
himself. 



CHAPTER CXXXV. 

Z/w',w XTV. declares War against Hollaiid. — Uh rapid Coiv- 

quesls in that Country. 

1. Irritated at being thus stopped short in his career of rapid 
conquest, Louis thirsted for revenge. Holland was the most accessi- 
ble of his enemies, and he determined to wreak his vengeance on her. 
But he could do nothing against her, so long as she was in alliance 
with England. 

2. The great object was to separate them. This he effected by 
means of the Duchess of Orleans, sister to Charles H. of England 



distinguished? What dangerous example did the kins set? 8. Who was his ensrineer? 

9. What put an end to ihe conquesLs of the king? When was peace concluded? 

10. Who dictated the terms of the peace ? 

CXXXV. — 1. What were the feelings of Louis XIV. at the peace? What prevcntc<« 

20 



\\ 



III 



230 



LOUIS XIV. -1672. 



Shf vva?j sunt on an eiiibassv to Entrland, and exerted her influbnie 
over her brother to so jrreat purjxjae, that she not onlv detached him 
from his alliance with llidland, hut secured his aid afjaiusi it. 

3. Louis also secured the aid or the neutrality (Tf ail the other 
powers except Spain, and as he entertained no 'drea«i of her, lie 
looked upon the concpajst ot" the defcncidess republic as certain. ' To 
all his power the little republic of merchants; pould opiuise only a few 
hired troops. 

4. But yet no pn-text for war had occurred. At last one was 
found. The republic, as every country has done, both before and 
since, upon some occasion of rejoicinrr, had issued a medal, upon 
which was inscribed some [naises of herself. 

5. Louis chose to consider this as an insult to crowned heads, 
and in I67i3, burst into the Dutch provinces at the head of a most 
formidable and nunierons army. He passed the Rhine without dan- 
ger, on the 12th of June. The river was very low, and the opposite 
bank was occupied by only two refriments, who disappeared at his 
approach. 

6. The cavalry had to swim but a short distance, and the infantry, 
with the kinjT, passed over; undisturbed, upon a bridge of boat's.' 
There was nothirjjr difficult or hazardous in the passage ; but it 
sounded like a great achievement in the ears of the Pansians, and 
was matrnified and panegyrized in the most bombastic style by the 
poets. 

7. In less than three months, three provinces, and more than forty 
strong places, were conquered. Amsterdam beheld the enemy almost 
at her gates. Muyden was saved by the singular presence of mind 
of a woman. Fourteen stragglers "appeared before the gates, and 
the magistrates at once surrendered, and sent them the keys of the 
city. 

8. But they were kept out of the citadel by a woman, who raised 
the (Iravvbridjjc, and refused to let them enter. The magistrates, 
finding the party so weak, took courage, and making the enemies 
drunk, took from them the keys. The republic was now in despair. 
It appeared as if nothing but inevitable ruin awaited them. 



h\s gnuifying Ins passions? 2. H<nv did ho offset his object ? 4. What pretext had he 
fiir war ? 6. When did ho oinor Itolland ? Hv what pa.^aire did he enter ill G Wt-at. 
le said if the ixissi?.- cf the Rliine .' 7. What \va« his succew? H< w was Muvden 
i» 'ed 7 J. W lai \v;u-. ih.> r.Militi..!. ..f Holland ' ' 



«•< 



LOUIS XIV. -1672. 231 



CHAPTER CXXXVL 

rhe Sihiatmn of Holland appears to be Desperate. — The 
Pr'mce of Orange, afterwards William III. of England^ 
takes the Command. — The Peace of Nimeguen. 

1. The richest families, and those which were most zealous foi 
liberty, prepared to fly into the furthest parts of the world, anti to 
seek a refuge in Batavia. They took a list of all the vessels capable 
i)f rnakintr the voyage, and found that fifty thousand families could be 
thus provided for. 

2. Thus Holland would no more have existed but at the extrem- 
ity of the East Indies. All this rich and prosperous country would 
have been left a prey to the waters, which are now with so much diffi- 
culty and expense kept out, and would soon have become a vast mo- 
rass. 

3. To Louis would have been left only the miserable glory of hav- 
ing destroyed the finest and most extraordinary monument ever 
erected by human industry. Yet this is what poets, orators, and per- 
haps historians, would have adorned with all the flowers of the most 
eloquent flattery. 

4. In this dreadful situation they determined to sue for peace 
Their deputies were received with insulting haughtiness, and intol 
erable conditions were prescribed. Nothing short of the most abject 
submission, and entire abandonment of all their civil and religious 
rights, would satisfy the victors. 

5. On the return of the deputies, and the news of the conditions, 
the terror of the people was changed into despair, and despair revived 
the republican courage. The young Prince of Orange, afterwards 
William III. of England, was placed at the head of the government, 
and became the chief support of the state. 

6. " I have a sure method," said he, " to prevent my ever being 
witness to the ruin of my country ; I will die in the last intrench- 
ment." William was a man of sound and steady resolution, and bent 
all his faculties to save his country. The sluices were opened, and 
the country laid under water; an eflfectual protection till the ice should 
afford a natural bridge. 

7. About Christmas a strong force was sent by the king to take 
the Hague by surprise. It marched over the ice, and would probably 
have succeeded, if a thaw had not come on. The troops were sur- 
rounded with water, and they had no other road but the top of a nar- 
row dyke, where only four men could march abreast. 

8 There was also' a fort in the way, which, as they had no artil 
lery, they could not hope to take. There appeared to be little 
chance of escap ;. But what their own courage never could have 



CXXXVI. — i . Wliat did many of the Uulcli prepare lo do ? 2. What would have heen 
he con3e<iiieiire ? 5. Who was placed at the head of the government of Holland? 6. 
WYaX mea? 1103 did tie adopt to protect the country ? 7. 8. What \a said about a Frenrli 



232 



LOUIS XIV. 



1678. 



secured was yielded to them by the cowardice of their opponenta, 
who surrendered without a blow. ' 

9. The prospects of the Dutch now began to brighten. In 1073, 
the Emperor of Spain declared openly for Holland. The Piincc of 
Orange, uniting his forces to those of Montecuculi, the imperial Lren- 
-jral, made a demonstration of carrying the war into France, l.ouis 
at once recalled his troops, and abandoned all his conquests. 

10. In lf)7i, England withdrew from her alliance with France. 
Charles was loath to give up an ally who furnished him with money 
lor his private expenses, but the clamors of the English people com- 
pelled him to make peace with Holland. 

11. Louis, undismayed by this desertion, made vigorous efforts 
against all his enemies. Turenne gained splendid victories ; but he 
tarnished his brilliant reputation by executing the orders of the sav- 
age minister, Louvois. In pursuance of these orders, the army under 
his command laid waste with fire and sword the whole fertile district 
of the palatinate of the Rhine. 

12. This fine country was almost converted into a desert. The 
elector palatine, from the windows of his palace at Manheim, beheld 
at one time two cities and twenty-five villages in flames. In 1678 
England offered herself as a mediator between the parties. 

13. The pt ace of Niniegiicn was concluded. Holland was left in 
possession of everything she had before the war commenced, and 
trance was suffered to retain some of the territory which she had 
conquered from Spain in the pn^ceding war. 



CHAPTER CXXXVH. 

1 he Palace at. Versa files. — The various Majuifacturcs intto- 
duced into France Inj Colbert. — The Canal of Langiiedoc. 

1. liouis had now reached the height of his power. The adula 
tion of his courtiers persuaded him that he was invincible abroad 
and omnipotent at home. The vain-glorious monarch, in his own 
opinion, and that of his dazzled subjects, was regarded as superior 
to all the kings and warriors either in ancient or modern history 

2. Although military glory was the great object of the ambition 
of Ix)uis, ho did not entirely neglect the improvement of his kino- 
dom. Paris has always been the pride of a Frenchman, and to beau- 
lityand adorn that city, the sovereigns have devoted most of the time 
and money which they have spent upon such objects. 



l>n^'!''''Jn'^Wh-'*'r1p^',"''T''-. ?■ ^^>t chanire ick place in the prospects of the 
Dutch ? 10 U hen du! England withdraw fr.nn the French alliance ? Why i 1 1 What 

nfth«,i'lVrr.'?'T'''' t'"'''''"!'''^- '^- "^^""^ '^^ ^*»« consequence of the execution 

of these orders ? By whose metlialion was peace concluded ? W hen ? 13. What is th« 

peace called? How were the parties left? vynaiisirw 

CXXXVn - 1. Wha' Vi said of the position of Ixiuis XIV. at the peace f Nimejruen 



LOUIS XIV. — 1678. 



^.\!S 



^, Bui Louis had never forgotten the part which the Parisiana 
took in the disturbances of the Fronde, and never liked to reside in 
their city. During the early part of the reign, the court was held 
at St. Germains, but was afterwards removed to Versailles. 

4. At this place the king erected the most splendid and extensive 
palace in Europe. He expended upon the buildings and grounds 
the almost inconceivable sum of two hundred millions of dollars ! Tc 
furnish this residence for the " grand monarch," the people were 
loaded with the most oppressive taxes. 

5. While Louis was raising this monument of folly and extrava- 
gance, his wise minister, Colbert, was laboring most assiduously to 
promote the welfare and prosperity of the country. The most ample 
encouragement was given, under his administration, to trade, com- 
merce and manufactures. 

6. He established a company to trade to the East Indies, which 
in time became the rival of the' Dutch, and proved one of the great- 
est resources of the kingdom. Fine cloths had hitherto been im- 
ported from England, but by his judicious patronage, the manufacture 
was established in France. 

7. By encouraging the growth of mulberry trees, he enabled the 
gilk manufacturers to dispense with Ihe importation of the raw silk 
The art of making plate glnss was imported from Venice, and sue 
cceded so well that the' French soon excelled their masters. 

8. The carpets of Turkey and Persia were successfully imitated, 
and the tapestry of Flanders yielded its preeminence to that of the 
Gobelins, where eight hundred workmen were employed. Their 
works were carried on under the direction of the best painters, and 
the finest productions of French and Italian artists were imitated 
with a wonderful degree of nicety. 

9. The machine for weaving stockings was imported by Colbert 
from England, and •women were brought from Venice and Flanders 
to instruct young girls in the art of making lace. Tin, steel, porce- 
lain, and morocco leather, hitherto imported from foreign countries, 
were now prepared in France. 

10. But the most important of his undertakings, in point of util- 
ity, extent, and difficulty, was the canal of Languedoc, which con- 
nects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. The con- 
struction of this work was commenced in 1664, and continued without 
interruption till its completion, in 1081. 



2 To what improvements had the sovereicns hitherto most attended? 3 Why had 
Louis a dislike to Pari.s 1 Where did he hold his court ? 4. What is .said cf his pakvce 
at Versailles ' r> To what did Colltert ?ive attention? 6. What is .sard of the hast 
^nliat,-"dei What of the woollen manufacture ? 7. What of silk? W'hal of glass? 
^ Wrtal of carpels? W hat of tapestry ? U. What of stockings? W^haloflace? Uhat 
jiner manufactures were introduced ? 10. What was his most important work 7 r hei 
wv U Wtun, and when completed ? 

80* 



294 



»AJ CIS XIV. - |67». 



CHAPTER CXXXVIIl. 

Th£ Literature of the Age of Louis XIV. 




Iloiist of Mailanit dr Stvi'^ni. 

1. Though he was himself illiterate, yet the vanity of Louis led 
ftim to be a liberal patron of men of letters. In this he was encour- 
aged by Colbert, who was more capable of appreciatinjr the true value 
of literature. At the sufrcrestion of this statesman, Louis ffave pen- 
sions to all the eminent men of letters throughout Europe, and thus 
secured to himself, at a small expense, more acfulation from men of 
real learninpr than any prince of modern times. 

2. It would require a volume to irive even a slight sketch of all the 
men of eminent literary talent who reflected honor on this reign Of 
the dramatic writers, besides Corneille and Moliere, Racine was the 
most distinguished. Among the poets were Jkuleau, La Fontaine 
and Voiture. ' 

3. Of philosophers, the chief were Montesquieu and Fonter.elle 
I his period af)ounded in writers of histories. There was Henault 
president of a court, a man of the highest reputation for virtue and 
talent, who spent forty years in writing a short chronological abridfr- 
mcnl ot the h:story of France. He was slow, but sure ; and if he has 
not given us a lively history, it is at least an accurate one. 

4. Ihis is more than can be said of the history written by his 
contemp(,rary Father Daniel, which is said to contain ten thousand 
blunders ; and well it may, for he took no care to make it correct. 



tiif *Sif Jr"[n7hi« T^^f ivf*'' '''" ^^\ P-''»''""'«=« of literature by l^n.is XFV. ? Who waa 
nis advi^r in this ? 2. Who wore rho ino.-t rrlphtai.^.l (Iranmlir. writrrj^ Who th« 
poeu.? 3. Who we- the chief :)hilu..oph.rs/ Wh;n ,s sa, > of HenrilT 4. wL ll? 






I 






LOUIS XIV. 



if;rs. 



2Sb 



JiT M "^'^ ^^^t'ng.it, the king's librarian sent him a trreat maaa 
Df valuable records, thinking they would be useful to hTm. ^ 




Statue of Corneille. 

5. Daniel sent them all back, saying that he was sure he could 
make a very readable history without plaguing himself with ^n!l 
paper rubbish. Another of these historians,'and a verT honest 

';e tid "^ It wis'' "^r'l " ^^^"S"' "^^'"^ ^^y -^^^^^^ 

HMhe'lnghl^r^mlm::: tvS"^'^^ ''''''''' ^^ -' '^ -"^^-^^^»^^ -en 

KU\ ^'"';j'''^^ ^^^ genius and learning of the age confined to the men 
Madame Dacier was distinguished f<,r her knowledge of the anden 
classics. She not only published editions of many of them with 
French ^""''"^"^^"*^" ^'"^ ""^«^' '^"t translated several of them into 

7. We are told, that - though she was the most learned woman in 
Europe, yet her great learning did not alter her genteel air in conver- 
sa ion, or in the least appear in her discourse, which was easy, mod- 
est, and nothing affected." •'' 

8. The reputation of Madame de Sevign^ is not founded on quite 
so solid a basis. Her letters, however, furnish a lively picture of the 
manners of the times m which she lived, and are considered as mode', 
o*^ epistolary writing. »iouc.« 



Miwdel^ig,^,"''"'^"^''""^'-''" '■ What of Madame Da^ierJ 8. WI-, * 



T'M 



• Mf'Iv M\ 



r\\ vriKi? r\\\\ ill 



Thf J ,itrrntvrfi > 



l.'v <<i' ] >u,!y \ \\ 




niiBinifinll 



r .1 



^ T"'"« >^;«s InmsHf illii.MMir. x.t (I..- \:n.ilv nl l,.M,m IH 

mm to I>r :i ,,Sr;,; i.,,,r.M, ol ;uni ol' 1. ll, , , j,, ||ns |,r u ;, , .mmmmit- 
np'il l>v(\>|Uril. ^^ll..^^ is m.uv ,;.p.,!>lr ol .•.ppiv.M;i1lM.» llir lMi.«v;,|Mf 
ot lilorntnr.'. Ai tl.r suoj^vsn.xi of ihis ^.f;.t^s,n:.n. i.ouis ,..nr p. „ 
si.nis to :ill ilip .'mni.Mil www of l.Ml.^rs lliroiiohm,! Mm.. p.-. ;,,..! ll.ii. 
JMVurrd to luinspir. ;,; ,. small oxpon.vr, ,noro aJnl:.! ...,, fioin mi.m. ..( 
roal l(\arnino tli:i!) nnv priiu'(> of inodoni tinios 

It woulij m]; \ol.imr to jrixr ,nvii .» s|ij.|,l sK, t.li ol all ihr 

iMfii (.1 (Miuii.Mit lil.niiv laloMt who r.Ml.vlr.l hoiH»r on tins ivi-n Ul 
Ih. lirnmnJio vvnt.Ts. Srsi.los (^.rn.M^lr ami Moli.rr. li u-ino'was il,, 
most (listiMo^nishcl. Ain.mi: \W rux-Ku,,,- n.ulrau. 1 a Kontaiiir 
.'md A oil I.;-! 

;^ or pliilo>;»phrrs. th," cJiHr u^rc M..iit.'s.iuir,i ;,ii.l FoM!.«::.||r 
I Ins prnoil al)oun(i(<,i in vvntrrs ol' historhs. Then' was llciiaiilt 
prrsid.Mit of a conn, a m:ui K^{ tlir liiol.osj n^piitatioii for virtnc aii.l' 
talont. uhu spf'iii iortv wars in wrilinn a short chronolo.Ti,-.-!! ahri.h-- 
lu.'iu (.t the hisf.rv of Franor. Ht- was slow, hut Mir»« ; and if he lia.^ 
f.ol Lnw.i us a ! - „ lea.st an arcurato ono. 

■'• ■' '"'^ '^ •''*"■•' "';" -ai<! (.f the historv written hv hi^ 

comenip..rarv l-athor Dauin. u nu-h ,s said to contain ton thousand 
blunders ; und wtll it may, lor lie took no care to make it correct 



tu ad^M^v,, " I , VV '^'^ P'-^tr.. .,„rr by I..,,,. XIV. ^ Whn was 

Pl«l« / J W ho H*.- Ihf < iMPf :.t,:i ,„,r..,. r. \VI,,,, ,< ..„ I of f^„,inl! ' -I Wlu.t f 



J 



4 






r <•(' I . ( 









maM 



'o him. 




r. Daru^'l «.T.f ih.-n, all f.ark, sayinf? that he > .- .nre hP couW 

|. ■.. , '^ r>i'«:ri"ncr nunsolf with such 

' , . 'Tr^ir' w -^'istorians, and ri very honcst- 

;:;;",; ""/="»»'f'' '• ^ '.f wh.m manv^vh.mJal.st>...^ 

•ir«" foiM. r 11 I- , 

.11, "■mn|f;-i!orht • 

in fhf l.ni'ht' -: ,s:an;;v,- ,;;;vs. ^ 

fi^ \nr w:, t:-.. ..,,us and !• wnn.^r ^f the a rro confined to the men 

;^^"'"'" ^' ' '!:^t:: :. ::.f. .- f^., her knowledjje of ih^ annent 

I,'' , 'i^">f'« '^'f many of them, with 

.. ^ , OKiatfrt seveml of them into 

7. VV e are told, that, •• liK.uoh she was the most learned woman m 
Lurop., vet her .r.-.r l.arni. ■ -r. ,,., „^, ^er rrenteel atr in conver- 
sation, or k, ih- .ppf-nr rdi>.eoiir.o .Ah,.!, .v.. ...< ^inrt 

'^^^ atid nothinff ^lice!- : 

" Thr- repii' ■ '.fadar' - •• j i 

manners of the tim-- -, „ i.:,.i. ..(..-. r.. ,^ _ ( P'^^»»^« «i " « 

^r • . I . nsidered aa mode J 

o^cpi.stolary writii;_- 



r »r !i*r Iianiel ? 5, 



f' ."Vr^jz. 



What if Madame Dacier? i Whu « 



<3« 



LOtIS XIV. - IS/s. 



CHAPTER CXXXIX. 

The CJiurchmen of the Time of Lmiis XIV. 

1. licT the great ornaments (,f this reign were the ecclesiastir» 
I he most eminent of ihe.^ for piety, learning, and ehKiuence, wer. 
Mossuet BonrdnOue and Fenelon. TJ.e first of these was oricnnallv 

to the pulpit. W'd to a change in his destination. " ' 

:J. On ace<,„nt of t.is gu-at learning, he was app(,inted preceptor to 

the daupnn son of Lonis XIV., and the fidelitV with which he dis 

charged his duty led to his heing made Bishop of Meanx. He died 
n 1/04, at the age of seventy-seven years. lie et.gagea in a theo- 
ogical controversy with Fenelon, in which a decisio.rwas m Je m 

III his favor hy the Pope. 

3. Louis who had taken his side in the dispute, one day asked 
hirn wlKU he should have done, if he (that is the kin ^^ad pro 
ected tenelon. -Sire," replied liossuet, -I should have con 
tended ten times more earnestly : when a man enlists m U^ca se 
of truth, he is sure of triumph, sooner or later." 

4 II1.S time vvas so wholly devoted to the duties of his profession 
hat he allowed himself no leisure for exercise or recreation.^ m"h 
he had the most beautiful gardens, he so seldom visited them t fa 
hs gardener could not help saying to him one day, - If I were to 
plant saints you would come and see them; but ^ai for your L5 
you care nothing about them." ^ ' 

\nth]ll r'''i-^"'' ^'""''^ reputation as a preacher to the manner 
in which his discourses were delivered. This was sincrularlv im- 
pressive and affecting. The whole audience were frequently iiLC^ 
into tears by the delivery of sentences, which appear il pr u oil a 
string of words almost without meaning. ^ 

6. Bourdaloue vyas a preacher of a different character- he dis- 
dained all flights of fancy. He appealed to the reason, and Attempted 
to con^•lnce hat, rather than to afTect the passions. His se^C 
and orations have been often published, and are still held in esteTm 
inn ^Sr ""'^''^ youngest of the three, has left the best reputa- 

ess one of the most humble and pious of men. He was selected to be 

he preceptor of the grandsons of the king. His precepts rendered 

tfre Duke of Burgundy one ot the most virtuous and accomplished of 

8. He was now made Archbishop of Cambray, one of the richest and 
most important church offices in ^ance. The virtues of the Duk 
of Burgund y gained for his preceptgr the respect and gratitude of 

«,.?r^*^ 9^ T^T V ^'''' "'l''^ ^^^ ;"''^^ Jisting-jished ecclesiastics 1 What is .said of Ho. 

r{vhafw^S^';;;rto'i;^^^«:^r^'p^r w;;it'w^"l^i::. 

preacher ? 6 What is said of Bourdaioue^ 7 VVhat 7s%afd orP^'n^lnn'^^'^T °" ff " 
-a. he precepts. What •>.. his success 7 S. "2^ S/^!,^';^:rL^^J^ 



4A<\J16 XIV. — 1678. 



23^ 



ai France. The character of the young prii ce ^yas contrasted will. 
Jiai of his father, the dauphin. The comparison was not favorable to 
the latter, and the jealousy of Bessuet, the instructor of the latter, was 

Excited . 

9. His efTorts to injure the archbishop were promoted by the pub- 
lication of 'JMrmarhus, a work which Fenelon had written for the 
.imusement and instruction of his pupil. The person who was em- 
ployed to copy it, dishonestly made another copy for himself, and solo 
it to a bookseller. . 

10. Never were purer, more useful, or more elevated maxims ol 
conduct offered to a prince. But the picture of a wise and humane 
government, and of the evils proceeding from unjust ambition and 
ostenUitious profusion, were considered by the king as a satire upon 
himself. He therefore became the enemy of the author. 

11. Banished from court to his own diocese, he lived universally 
respected for the purity of his manners and the mildness of his tem- 
per. His great revenues were devoted to charity, and so well were 
his aftairs arranged, that he died without debts and without money. 
During the wars which desolated Flanders, his house was open to 
the poor, the sick, and the wounded, without reference to country. 

12. It is among the few pleasing anecdotes of modern war, that the 
Duke of Marlborough, and other generals of the allies, gave express 
orders that the possessions of the archbishop should be carefully pro- 
tected from injury, regarding them as devoted to purposes of common 
" .^i^fi.^ence. He died in 1715. 



CHAPTER CXL. 



'Jeneral Manners and Customs. 

1. It may amuse you to have an account of the matters which 
seemed worthy the notice of an English traveller who visited France 
about this time, being the physician attached to the family of the 
English ambassador. 

2. The first thing that he noticed was the great fondness of the 
people of all ranks for shows, or spectacles, as they called them. To 
see the embassy enter Paris, some hundreds of the nobility, includinrz 
i)ishops, were content to wait in the streets for some hours, sitting 
[)atientlv in their coaches. 

W. These coaches had been sominvhat improved in their appearance 
since the use had become general. They were now hung on springs, 
and were very fine with gilding. Hackney-coaches were in use, but 
they were the most miseral)le vehicles that could be. 



9, lU. Wiial publication gave otTeiice to the king? Wliy ? II. How did Fenelon em. 
ploy his time in hi.s diocese? 12. What were the orders of the Duke of Marlborough? 

When did Feaelon die ? . .r . w • 

CXL — 2 Oi what are the French people very fond f 3 Wliat is t^aid of the coaches' 

16 



238 



Lours XIV. -1G73 



4. There was one kind ot carriage that was new to hiir It *rai 
called a rin«i.m7/.. It was a coach on two wheels, drawn oy a nan 
3! d pushed by a hoy or a woman ; and this vehicle he considers a did 
grace to so niafrmficeni a city. . 

oA^.!"''";! '''■^^■^^*'f''"^' ''^ Pf'^'^^^^s to the iKissen^ers in the streets. 
Of the.se the cl.urchinen made the most considerable figure havino 
splendid cquipaires and fine liveries. The lawyers, hoN?ever a^si^t" 
ed by their wives, made some show. ""Nvevtr, asM.-t 

To their prole^ssion it seems was attached the ri-ht of havinn 
the trains of the dresses carri.nl by a page, and of being preceded 
when they went to chnrch l,y a lackey bearmg a great velvet cosher 
lliese great privileges they conld impart to their wives 

/. A lawyer was an ollicer of the crown, and his office, like all 
others from the highest to the lowest, was to be purchased. The 
right to quality a wife with the above honors made the place much 
more valuable, tor no lady conld resist a suitor thus recommended. 

W.lhere has been a decided improvement in the streets since we 
l:ist inquired about them Now, they were lighted at all times 
dming the night, as well when the moon shone as at other times of 
the month, winch cur traveller was induced to notice the more "as 
m i^ondoii th.'v had an inq)ertinent custom of taking away the lights 
.or halt ot the month, as though the moon was certain to shine,"and 
uiat tliere couhl be no cloudy weather." 

1). The candles were placed in lanterns suspiM.ded from roi,ea 
stretched acro.ss the street. The expense to the city was, even at 
that time, mere than two hundred thousand dollars. Dr Franklin 
when he was „, Pans, was kind em)ugh to give the p,M>pie some ad- 
vice on this subject, namely, that if they would go to bed earlier and 
rise earlier, they might save th(;ir tallow ! 

10. The travelhjrs descriptic.n of the iionses you shall have in his 
own words. - All the houses of persons of distinction are built with 
wide gates to drive in a coach, with courts within. TIktc are reck- 
oned above seven hundred of these great gates, and manv of these are 
otten ttie most noble [)atterns of ancient architecture 

11. - The lower windows of all tiie houses are grated with stroi.o 
bars ot iron As the houses are magnificent without, so the finishing 
within an( turniture answer in richness ; as hangings of rich laoestrv 
raised with gold and silver threads ; crimson damask and velvet beds 
or of gold an« silver tis.sue ; cabinets and bureaux of ivory inlaid with 
shell and golden and silver plates; branches and candlesticks of crys- 
tal ; but above all most rare paintings. 

12. " You can scarce go into the lumse of any man of substance 
but you see souK^thing of th.vse luxuries and splendor, and citizen^-' 
are observed frequently to ruin themselves in these expenses But 
as tor the comtorts and conveniences of life, they were not lobe found 



LOUIS XIV. — 1683. 239 



CHAPTER CXLI. 

Madame de Maiyiteiion. — The Duchess of Burgundy. 

1. In 1683 the first wife of Louis died, and two years after he 
,)rivately married Madame de Maintenon. She was originally a 
Higuenot, and grand-daughter of Theodore d'Aubigne, half brother 
of Henry the Great. 

2. Her father died when she was very young, and it was remarked 
of her mother that her manner to her daughter was so unnaturally 
cold, that she never embraced her but twice in her life. She appears, 
however, to have been a woman of strong mind, and not easily over- 
come by misfortunes. 

3. By accident her house took fire, and seeing her dauirhter cry- 
ing, she severely reproved her for it, saying, '• Is the loss of a house 
worth crying for?" Madame de Maintenon, who herself told the 
Btory, added, " I should have had a great deal more scolding, had my 
mother known that I did not cry for the house, but for my doll that 
perished in the Hames." 

4. She did not long remain with her mother, but was taken from 
her care by an order from court, thai she might be brought up a 
Catholic. The takinjr of the children of Huguenots from their parenta 
w:is one of the means adopted by Louis to extirpate the reformed re- 
ligion. 

5. The person to whom she was entrusted got weary of her charge, 
and married Mademoiselle d'Aubigne, at the age of fourteen, to the 
{»oet Scarron. She was so poor that Scarron, in his marriage con- 
tract, states her dowry to have consisted of " two large eyes, full of 
fun, a fine shape, a pair of beautiful hands, a great deal of wit, and 
four dollars." 

0. Scarron's death did not leavt; her much richer than she was at 
her marriage, except in the friends whom the j)ropriety of her de- 
portment and the fascination of her manners had gained tor her. 

7. These procured for her the office of governess to the children of 
a lady attached to the court. In this situation the king had frequent 
opportunities of seeing her, and was so much pleased with her agree- 
able conversation and placid temper, that he married her. 

8. She never received the rank or title of queen, and the only 
chaiiijt; that could be perceived in her deportment was, that she with 
drew fr(»m general society, and confined herself t«) the company (d'the 
king and a few ladies. She possessed a singular modesty, and ajr 
sunied iuj airs of greatness in const;(pience of her elevation. 

0. But happiness does not necessarily accompany the possession 
of power or riches. No one experienced this more fully than Ma- 






CXLI. — 1 Wlieii tii«I ihe firsl niieeii iJie ? Wtioiii »liil lie nflerwards marry ? 2. Wlsu 
Is *i if! of the mother of Madame de Maintenou ? 3. Relate the story of the fii-; 4 
Wliv wa.s dhe taken from her nuther'' .'i Whom iliil she marry? What dowiy did 
»|-,e l.riiif? her hushnnil 7 7 What ofhce diil she hI.ihim ' Tn what did this lead? li 



240 



IX)lJlS XIV ^ 1653 



monarcli." „u» thus exoressps herself: " Why can 

10. In a letter to a friend she thus «^P«^^„ ^^ get 
, „„t give yo« all my experience 'Why can I m.t^ ^^ J_ ^^ 

,|,e ennu. which devours the R'^f ^ ' *™.i7„f ,7d„ess in a fortune b.. 
rid of their time' See you not that 1^'« »' ^»« , ^i3„.nc.e 

vond what I could ever imagine and that nothing 
ufGod prevents my sinking ""f f " • ;„ her apartment, and 

11. The kinp! Kcnerally spent his «™" "f '" • "^p,3 \,.hile she sal 
would often transact business vv.lh """''.'''; "X any part in what 
„, sewing or --^,;;;f j^-' :tirnr:J?l.eVatu T.:; opinion and 
Z'^'^Z doetMalTar Sobriety thinUr' But she carefully 

She devo-ted herself to the -;"-'--' ''^'^..f'l^y'of Madame de 
,3. Tluuigh she t";\'' .F--;;!!; '^f^'t,,'" l^g the happiness of 
Maintenon, yet her ehiel deliRht was in roin ^ „p|a„eholy to 
„er grandfather, and m '^""^^^" She was only eleven years 
;tl':l:she'r,:rfc:ret& the first, great .^. 

in adapting herself to the humors of ll'« !"»>;• ;„.,, Sometimes 

14. She could be grave or gay as '«'^^'";', Jf '"^J^, .,„i herself on 
she would perch herself on l'';' '^"'^ ''fj ^ tu V.f Uich he took in 
his knees and canjss or Ujase ' ». 'f -^^^^rved discretion, and 

^ridCai.:, lulliJ: wl ™ ;.Uin. ;-"- •'^ — I-,,.., with the 

15. In public, the duchess ^^^^ ,«, i;%„, ,„ his latter 

-rsr^lrSente! toVr^ L a^- J'-^-f^g 
t^^^=^tt:^\>:^£^ .tired to rest... 
give him an account of all that had passed. 



CHAPTER CXLII. 

The IhiJce of Burgundy. - The Dauphin. 

.. r.i. Duke of n;;^.-;;ay w. h, f^^t^^^^TlX ^» 

^jrheTedeiU^c^^^t^^ 



LOUIS XIV.- I6J3. 



2il 



liouis, and to distinguish them the father is called tlie " gratis 
dauphin. ^^ 




Grand dauphin and hia ivife. 

2. The yountrer dinipliin was educated by the great and good 
Fenelon. He iMcame greatly attaciied to his preceptor, and care- 
fully preserved all that he had written for his instruction. At the 
death of the (bnpliin. the bigoted king caused all these papers to be 
burnt, for fear the |)rineiples they inculcated might be too liberal. 

.S. This prince was naturally passionate, but he had early learnt to 
i-oiUrol his temper, and, after his boyish days, was rarely known to 
give way to it. He was sincerely religious, and very anxious to do 
his duty botb to God and to man. He bestowed in charity the money 
which was allowed him for amusements. 

4. Expecting one day to be king, he studied to acquire a perfect 
knowledtrc of everything that could contribute to make the country 
nourishing :Mid the people happy. The king, his grandfiither, who 
knew how tt> apjireciate his merit, treated him witb a deference and 
respect for his opinion, which astoni.shed all those wbo knew how 
tenacious Louis was of his own authority and opinions. 

5. Altluujgh he was lame and deformed, yet his SfMisibh; face and 
noble deportment gave a dignity even to his person. Wo. saw througli 
the malice, and despis«Ml the littleness, of the conrtiers ; and the min- 
isters soon foun<l tbat they could not impose upon his .s< Mind judgment, 
and clear insijrht into allairs. 

0. His father, tht; grand dauphin, was neither very good nor very 
bad. He was very good-natnred, but inclined to be miserly. He 
was educated by Bossuet, whose Universal History was written for 

CXLIl. — 1. Wliiii (.r the Dukr <»f Biiriruiulv ? What was he calletl? 'i. By whom 
wad he educated ? W lial did the rfin? do at the tl.-ath of the duke ? 3, 4. What i.s .said 
of hi.s character •' How did llie kni: treat liiiit? 5 How did he heliave to tiie counieral 
6 VVh?t i.s .<iaid of the dauphin ' Ry whom was h- educated .' What Iwoks were 

21 



240 



LOlilS XIV ' \0<i 



LOUIS XIV.- IftW 



211 



"■"""• ""•';■• :,;";;;:.,t^'- s" » 1'=' - -"s • " 

I not Rive you all niy experience y ^^ 

,|,e ennui which jlcvonrs the «7^;';. ^' ' ,,7,,/ , l-ss in a fortune he 
ri,l of their tmte ^«^V"» ""' >' ' \ '^^^ ^^^,^ ™„ ,„„ „,„ assistance 
v,„„l what 1 ceuia ever nnaffine and Ui.it notI.in„ 

;,fGo.l prevents my siukniR ""' «[ " ' j ^^ ;„ ,„,, apartment, ami 

11. The kins srenemlly spent his ' ^ ' .' ""^„ ' ■ ' ,„3 \,.,,i|,, she sal 

.vouhl often transact ''"---,«;::;;;; 'ue i^i'v part in what 

hy --vin,or rea in., 1^ ;;1P^^^^^^^^ ^,,^„ „,^ ,,J „,,i„ion aiu 

:;;^ *'';''"^h::t ^.11: M-I:: S.,hr,e.y think-- nut she carCnlly 

avoiaeil all interference in ''"^•"•■:; V' "'.-''W,,^. ui„„ ,,asse.l tlie reinain- 

1-3. She retircl to hi'il very early, ■""""^^ "■ '7,iV,r,.„ His favor- 

;;;:s.^i;;r::f?-:!ti:lnse,n.^ton.er.r.^^^^ 

i:i. Though she took ,rr,.at [■ -"^^.^'. ''„„'>', ,, happiness of 
Maintemu., yet her chiet ,leli(.'ht w as > " "^^- } ,„„hnch,>lv to 
|„.r ,ran,l.ather. an,l m -^-™;, '^ '" ^, ^.s „nlv eleven >Ws 

:^:r::;;;;:ihe'r :';:;Fi^me.:;r^^ ...i, .om ti. ..st, great ..., 

in a,laptini: herself to the humors "> 'l';; 1;"'^ ; ■,.^^ Sometimes 

1 1. 'she eonl.1 he .rave or jiay as "'■■ ;' ^^ '' J ,,,„i ,,erself on 

.he would p<rch herselt on ''•'■''""'' '^, \'i'V;'Vhieh he took in 

SllCan^; 41 when the kin. Jl-'^-^'^-i^S-hin, with the 
,5. l"!'"V''^•'''^'''''■^?ru\l? do :'.,■. er,and ,n his latter 

^- r;;;!v;nr:;im lA::^ tr ^^;:- j---rx!S 

l^^^^^tZtt:Z:^"r\:i^^'^ -l^d t,, rest... 
.rive him ail ticcomU of uU that had passed. 



CHAPTER CXLll. 

nr Ihd-r of Burgundy. - The Dauphin. 

?XT'raea,h; :;;.-c:':icd'j^^ 

*'"Hj:',,'i^^itMr..r,i:..r''^:.r:i;::;v.;'r, mi.-.. 



Jiouis, and to distinguish them the father is called the " gran* 
dauphin. ^^ 





Grand daiiphiii and ins wife. 

2. The yoiiiifrer (hMiphiii was educated Ijy the great ami gdod 
Fpiieloii. He h( came irrcally altaeiicd to his oreeeptor, and care- 
fully prcservrd all that he had written for hi-^ instnietion. At the 
death of the (hiiphin. thf hijToted kinir caused all these j)aj)ers to he 
hurnt, for !• -ir ilir principles they inculcat.:-.! miurhl he t(K» lilx^ral. 

.*>. This priiiee was naturally |)as*i(»nate, hut he had early learnt to 
i-niitnil his tcniptr, and, after his hoyish days, was randy known to 
liive way to it. He was sincendy relifrious', and very anxious to do 
h's duty l)olh to (uh\ and t() man. Ii(^ hcstowcul in charity th(' money 
which was allowe<l him for amusements. 

1. J'Apcctin^'^ one day to he kiiiir, ho studied to acquire a perfect 
knowledirc ,)t" everything that could conlrihute to make the country 
lloiirishiiin and the pe«»ple lirippy. 'J'he kinu;, his grandfather, who 
knew how to appreciat*^ his nu^rit, treated him with a d«)ferenc(i and 
respect for his opinion, wljieh astonished all those who knew how 
tenacious Louis was of liis own authority and (»j)inions. 

r>. Although he was lame and deformed, yet his smsihlii face and 
nohU; deportment <jav(; a diirnity even to his person. Ifc saw throujrh 
the malice, and despi.sed the littl(>ness, <tf the courtii-rs ; and the nun- 
i.-ters soon found that they cduld not impose upon his sound iud<,nnent, 
and clear insiirht into allairs. 

<). His fatln-r, the grand <lauphin, was neither very "ood nor very 
had. lie was very j^tuxl-natiired, hut ineliiM'd to !>e miserly. He 
was educated hy Hossuet, whose Universal Jlistory was written for 

rXIJI— 1 Wli.ii ..r ihe Dukr of Bnr-ruinK ' Wli.ii was he called? M. Hy whom 
warj he eilucateil ? W l,;ii did the ^iiiir do at the d.:illi of tin- diik.^ .' .J. 1. What U said 
of hiH characlcr ' How did tli.i kt i<_' iri'.-il him' ."i How did li.' Iidiave to the coiirHertf 
B U hi»t is laid of ilif daii|)l»iii ■ Hv whom wis (c "dur.iied ' What l»cH?k3 were 

21 



'SVJ 



LOUIS XIV. -1635. 



his usf Thn most learned men, and women too, were employee .« 
prepare an edition of the ancient authors, with notes and explanatio«B, 

for his instruction. . • u u 

7 The ffra.id dauphin had not capacity enough to nrain much ben- 
efit 'from these advantages. He had so little taste f..r literature, that 
after he hecamc^ a man, he never read anything hut the lists of deaths 
and uiarriafT.'s in the newspapers. ♦ 

H Hut the lahor of all the learned men was not wasted, tor t lie 
hooks Ihev prepared have served for the instruction ot many youths. ; 
they are still used, even in this country, in our academies and col- 

^^r*lksides heiu'^ so illiterate, he was hashful and awkward, and 
seems to have possessed no one quality hecominj; a ruler. His wite 
was not a woman to counteract these <lefects. hhe was u^ly, awk- 
ward, without wit, and spoke French very hadly. It is not wonc er- 
ful that she should have felt out of place in the most hrilliant court m 

'"lO^She loved to shut herself up in a little hack room with one of 
her German women, with whom she could talk in her native lan- 
ffuaire The kin«r and her husband tried in vain to draw her into 
more cheerful society. She uradually sunk into a protound melan- 
choly, and, as the French ladies asserted, literally moped herselt Ui 
death. 



CHAPTER CXLHI. 

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. — Persecution of tJu 

Huguenots, 

1 The year lOH.'i is the epoch of the worst blot upon the charac- 
ter of Louis- the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and the perse- 
cution of the Huifuenots. Louis was naturally inclined to he re- 
ligious ; but, until near the close of his life, when disease and afllic- 
tion had opened his heart, he possessed little ot the true spirit ot 

'"^I?e 'was a bigoted Roman Catholic, and honestly believed that 
he did God's service when he murdered those who did not believe as 
he did As his vanity led him to think himself superior to all oth.T 
nuMi in the brilliancy of his actions, so it led him to believe his own 
opinions and religious faith to be inlallibly triie. , ... . ,, , 

:{. Ma/arin had never been a persecutor. During the life of Col- 
lu-rt the inrtuence of that wise minister had protected the Hugueui.ts 
a.rainst their numerous enemies. He found them useful subjects and 
encouraged thrir industry as mueh as lay in his power. But ( olbert 
died in [083. 



pared fir his use? 7. How diJ Ihe dauphi.. profit by ihem.^ 9 What is said of the 
•Hfe of the dauphin 7 10 Hov? did she pa.s3 her time » . , 

CXL I- WhU is ihe greale.sv blm ou the cimricterof Ia,u.s .'What .s sa.d ^ 
.ha^igious feeling f Louis ,' 2 Wh.i did his van.ty lead him lo believe ? 3 ^\ h*1 



LOUIS XIV. -IGcib 



24J 



4. After his d«';iili, the influence of the ministers coincided with 
itie inclination of the king. Louvois was cruel and bloodthirsty 
by nature, and his father, Le Tellier, had a bitter hatred to the Prot- 
estants. By the iivfluence of this last, the Edict of Nantes was 
revoked. He died a few days after the adoption of this cruel meas- 
ure, thanking (Jod that lu^ h:t<l b«MMi j>erinitted to live to wit 
ness it. 

/>. In 1081, several steps had been taken against the Huguenots, 
which could not but excite amongst them the greatest alarm. They 
were e.xpelled from all offices, exchuled from all situations of profit; 
and their children were allowed and encouragiui, even at the early 
age of seven years, to abandon iht; nligion of their parents, and were 
received as converts to the Roman Catholic church. 

6. These severities induced many families to se6?k anew home in 
countries where they might worship God according to the dictates 
of their own hearts. On this it was ordered that all seamen and 
artisans wlio should attempt to leave the kingdom, should be sent 
to the galleys. 

7. As several families were observed to be prej)aring to sell their 
estates, it was further ordered, that the proptTty should be confis- 
cated, if the sellers left the country within a year after the sale. 

8. Besides appealing to the avarice of the Huguenots, the most 
eloquent preachers were sent amongst them to endeavor to convince 
and persuade them. But these not proving so successful as he 
wished, the king sent dragoons to second their efforts. From the 
cruel excesses committed by these soldiers, tiiis persecution is often 
called by French writers " //ie dragonade.'''' 

9. Louvois declared it to be " his majesty's will that the greatest 
rigor should be executed on those who will not adopt his religion, 
and that such as have the stupid vanity to ludd out shall be pur- 
sued to the last extremity." 

10. The dragoons established tiicmselves in the houses of those 
who refused to obey these commands, and when they had consumed 
all the provisions, they pillaged the houses, destroyed the goods, 
and seized upon wlialever belonged to the Protestants. 

11. The troojis next attacked the persons of the Protestants, and 
tortured them in a thousand ways, without any distinction of age or 
sex. Numbers who remained firm and unshaken were throwj. into 
dungeons ; or if by chance any of them escaped into the woods, 
they were pursued like beasts of prey, and, like them, massacred 
without mercy. 

1'2. Many of the females were placed in convents, where the nuns 
would not suf?»!r them to <;njoy any repos(; till they consented to 
renounce their religion. All were reduced to |)overty and wretched- 
ness, and their places of worship were razetl to the ground. 



preveuled iterseculiou in llie early pari of !iis rei'iii ^ 1. Who ailvi.sed to perseculioi ' 
r>. When di<l (he perseculions coiiuneiite .' What were the fir-st steps? 6. What w;ji 
the constkueuce of ihe.se .severities ,' (I, 7. WHiat orders were issued .' ^. What inuaiw 
wer<- tried to convert the heretics? W^hal was the persecution called? 10. What ww 
Um f .niiliict of the troops ? 11, \t How were the Huguenots treate*! ? 



344 



ijouis XIV - lea^ 



CHAPTER CXLIV. 

Cnnthmation of the Penecution of the Huguenots. 

I There was no saft^v for tlu,' iR-n.eoated Huguenots bat ii 
fli.rht; an<l,at the sanir, time, precautions were taken to deprive 
th;: unhappy victnns of tyranny of hH possible means of escape. 
The guards were doubled on all the frontiers. The peasants were 
onh^red to attack the fucritives wherever they met them. 

2. Soldiers were dispersed over every part of the country AH 
who were taken were thrown into prison, stripped ot what ^tle tiu,y 
had saved from the general wreck, separated irom their wives and 
families, loaded with chains, put to the torture, and exposed to all 
the sufferincTs which the ingenuity of their oppressors could invent. 

3 All these proceedings were in exact compliance with the orders 
of the court ; and these cruel and merciless orders emanated from a 
cour distinguished above all others for the mildness ot its manners 
and the refinement of its taste ; the influence of the savage Louvois 
seems to have predominated over every one. . , , 

1 Notwithstanding the vigilance of the government, not less, it 
,s said, than half a million found means to escape, and carried into 
forei-n and rival countries not only the money they hac betM. able to 
save," but also, what was far more valuable, their skill m manu- 
factures, and their habits (»f industry. ,.,.,„ . , , , ■,, . 
5 Many of the branches of manufacture which ( olbert had intro- 
duced with great expense were carried on principally, and some 
exclusively, by Huguenots; the art of preparing tm and steel was 
kno^ o.;i; to them, and the k.u.wledge of it was thus lost to the 

"(f ' A^larcre mimber to..k refug.; in America : some wwre to be 
lou.ul in al? the colonics, l)ut the greater number went to Carolina, 
,he climate of which most nearly resembled that of the country from 
which they had been exiled. ,,, 

7. Everywhere they met with the most cordia welcome. 1 hen 
sufferings entitled them to the sympathy of all. ihese United 
States were then m.or and thinly inhabited colonies of Great Ikitam, 
anil the acquisition of settlers having such habits and principles was 
of inestimable value to them. . 

8 The n'vocation of the Edict of Nantes is a very imj.ortant 
epoch in the history of France. She ha.s never recovered from the 
bow which her industry then received. 1 he Huguenots wen; 
Muiet and peaceable citizens. The justice of the observation ..1 
Queen Christina, of Sweden, is evident. " \ consider France, said 
8he '' as a sick person, whose legs and arms have been cut (.fl, ns 



rXllV -1 Wlut mea.im>. wore ;ul.>ple.l I., proveiil lli-l.l 7 2. What wxs .torn- r>^ 
.e!^.HU,ion o( the E.t I of N.ut.s? 9 What u sai.t of Prote.tau.s smmc thai tt.mi 



LOUIS XIV. - 1690. 



24^ 



tt remedy foi a disorder which mildness and patience would have 
totally cured." 

9. History aince that time has said but little of the French 
Protestants. The government has grown milder in Us principles, 
and has begin to learn, from sad experience, the crime and folly of 
persecution. But liberty of conscience never became perfect in 
France till the great revolution in 1789. 



CHAPTER CXLV. 

Neiv War hi Europe. — Peace of Ryswick. 

1. In 1687, chiefly through the influence of the Prince of Orang-e, 
a new league was formed by the treaty of Augsburg, which united 
(iermany, Holland, and Spain against France. Savoy also joined 
the alliance. 

2. In 1688, the abdication of James IT., and the Rei-olution in 
F./i-r/andj as it is called in history, placed the Prince of Orange on 
llie throne of that country. No .sooner had he secured himself upon 
it, than he bent all his efforts to strengthen the powerful confederacy 
against France. 

3. A French army of 100,000 men burst again into the unhappy 
country of the palatinate, which had suffered such horrible devasta- 
tions in the former war. The direction of military affairs was still 
in the hands of the savage Louvois. He now determined to make 
an absolute desert of this fertile and extensive district, that the Aus- 
trian army might find no means of subsistence in it. 

4. Wh(!n he proposed it to Louis, the king shrunk with horror 
from the adoption of so cruel a measure. He said that the former 
ravages of his army had excited the indignation of the civilized world. 
Hut Louvois persisted, and the king made no further resistance. 

5. Everything was destroyed by fire and sword. The wretched 
inhabitants were comjielled to quit their habitations in the month of 
February, 1689. Men, women, and children, had to wander in the 
flelds at this inclement season witliout shelter. It is said that the 
ravages of the former war were but a mere spark compared with this 
horrible conflagration. The officers who executed the orders were 
covered with shame at being made the instruments of so much cruelty. 

6. A party still existed in Ireland in favor of restoring the crown 
of Great Britain to James II. Louis sent 6000 French troops to its 
assistance. They met with a decisive defeat in the battle of the 
Boyne, July 11th, 1690. 

7. William HI. received a slight v^ound in the battle, and a report 



CXLV. — I. What new combiualir n wa.s fonninl nirainsl Franco ? When, and by whos4 
influence? 2. What event occurred in 1688? :i What did the French do ? What did 
Lf)UVois proixjse ? 4. H<tw \vh.^ tlje nmjwsal received by Louis ? 6. What expedition 
waa sen', out by I^ui* ? What wa* ho reiJult ? When was the battle of the Bojf 



21' 



246 



LOUIS XIV. -1697. 



of his death was spread. Tliis news was reciived at Paris witi 
great demonstrations of joy. The bells were rung, William was 
burned in elligy, and even the guns of the Bastile were hred, (thcugh 
without the orders of the king,) as on an occasion of great pub'i'' 

rejoicing. 

8. Upon the land, the French armies, ur-der Marshals Luxemburg 
and Catinat, opposed with success the forces of their enemies, com- 
manded by Prince Eugene and Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy. 
Luxemburg died in January, 1695, and was succeeded by Marshals 
Boufllers and Villeroi. 

l). By sea, the advanta^je was on the side of P'.ngland and Holland, 
and on the 19th of May, 1692, 'rourville, the Frencii admira , was 
completely defeated, and the remnant of his fleet, which took refuge 
on the J'^rench coast, was afterwards destroyed by the enemy. James 
IL, from a neighboring hill, beheld this disaster, which seemed to 
destroy his last hope of being ever reinstated upon the throne of his 
ancestors. 

10. All parties were at length sincerely inclined to peace. The 
Emperor and Spain were weary of a war which had been attended 
only with misfortunes ; the people of England had long murmured 
at the h*:avy expense of engaging so vigorously in the con'inental 
quarrels of their sovereign. 

11. The trade of Holland was interrupted, and her most fruitful 
pcovinces laid waste. Louis must have become sensible that his own 
great exertions had almost exhausted the great resources of France, 
and he was also harboring other designs, which the restoration of 
peace was necessary to matvire. Under these circumstances, the. 
peace of Ri/swirk was concluded, in September, 1697. It is so called 
from a small village near the Hague, where the treaty was signed. 

12. By this peace Louis restored all his conquests from Spain 
and Germany, and acknowledged the title of William Hi. to the 
crown of England. Thus he consented, at the end of a war which 
had been on the whole successful, to terms of peace which could 
scarcely have been expected, even in defeat, from the monarch of 
60 great a country as France. 



CHAPTER CXLVI. 

Netv Object of Ambition to Louis. — Proposed Partition of Spain, 



1. The secret of all this moderation is, that a far more tempting 
iimbition was now working in the mind of Louis. The King of Spain, 



iDuirht? 7. What hap|>eiie(l to William III.? How was the news received at Pari?? 
8. Which Dariy was successful on the land ? Who were the commanders ? 9. What is 
nici of the suo:es3 of the French at sea ? 10. For what reason did the different nation* 
desire peace? 11. When was peace ntade? What is it called? 12. What was the 
rwult as '.o France .' 
CXLVI. —1. What produced this moderation in the King of France? 2. Who were 



LOUIS .\1V. — 1697. 



247 



cive last male heir of the Emperor Charles V., was now on the brink 
.»f the grave. All Europe was in anxiety as to the disposal of the 
rich inheritance which he had to bequeath. 

2. He had no children, and his nearest relations were Louis XlV 
and the Emperor Leopold. Bv a remarkable coinci«lence, both wer* 
his first cousins, being grandsons of Philip 111., and both were his 
brothers-in-law, both having married daughters of Philip IV. 

3. Thus both princes transmitted to their children the same rela 
lionship to the crown of Spain, by the same double connection, and 
in i^recisely the same degree. I»uis' wile and his mother had been 
the elder sisters. But then the right of succession had been sol- 
enmly renounced for themselves and their posterity, both by Louis 

and bv his father. ^ , , c 

4. The prejudices of the Spaniards were in favor of the house ot 
Austria, and they had also an inveterate hatreil of the French. Be- 
sides these two great monarchs, there was a young prince ot Bava- 
ria, a grandson of Leopold, who was also a direct descendant, through 
his mother, of Philip iV. . 

5. Louis, who paid little regard to treaties when they stood in 
the way of his ambition, would gladly have seized upon the whole 
for himself; but he knew that the attempt to do so would unite all 
the powers of Europe against him. With such a combination, he 
felt that he could not successfully contend. 

6. Whilst Louis wished to get all he could, he was equally desir- 
ous to keep out of the hands of the emperor all that he could not get 
for himself. With these views, he proposed to the King of England 
to join in a treaty for the division of the Spanish empire, after the 
death of Charles II. 

7. William agreed to his proposal, probabl} from the fear thai 
liouis might otherwise obtain the whole or a large share for himself. 
The territories of Spain were divided between the young Prince of 
Bavaria, the dauphin, and the archduke, Charles H., son of the 
emperor. 



CHAPTER CXLVH. 

Philip of Anjmt, Graiidson of Louis, becomes King of Spain. 

— Another War in Europe. 



1. The indignation of the King of Spain at this parcelling out hit. 
/lominions, may be more easily conceived than expressed. He at 
once made a will, by which he bequeathed the whole to the Prince 



the nearest r.!lali()u3 to the Kia? of S|)aiii ? What sinirtilar coincidence was there ? 3 
WhU i^ said of the riirhl of the French prince? 4. Whom did the Spaniards prefer 
What other candidate was there? 5. What restraint was there ur)on I/)ius? 0. Wha 
»ec')nd wish had Louis? What proposal did he make? To whom? .'What answei 
was made to the proposal ? How were the territories of Spam to be divided? 
CXLVII. - 1 . What was the feeling of the King of Spam ? What 'iid he do ? Wht« 



UH 



LOUIS XIV.— 1701. 



of Bavari.a. That youn^ princo died suddenly, and a new partition 
treaty was 8i;;ned by William and Louis. 

12. All theso arran;!;eni('nts, howovor, won* tinally superseded by 
n now will made by the Kin;:; of Sjiain, alxnit a month before his 
death, by whieh he IxMjueathed the wiiolcof his dominions to Phi- 
lip, Duke of Anjou, j^randson of I>«>uis, an<l second s(»n of the dau- 
phin. 

3. Louis hesitated whether to accept this splendid inheritance 
for his ^ratidson, or to abid(» by the partition treaty, and thus in- 
crease the dominions of the French monarchy, lie <lecided t*) 
espouse the claims of his grandson. En;j;iand and Holland readily 
acceded to an arrangement which ^ave no accession of territory to 
either of the continental powers, and acknowledged the title of 
Philip V. 

4. The emperor, meantime, prepared to dispute this title, and 
commenced hostilities in Italy, where his armies, under Prince 
Eugene, gained decided advantages oxqy the French generals, Ca- 
tinat and Villeroi. England antl Holland soon joined with tho 
emperor, 

5. The English pcoph^ were yet groaning under the lairden of 
taxes imposed to support the expense of the last war, and it is 
supposed that their discontent would have forced the king to con- 
clude a ])eace with France, if Louis, on the death of James IL, in 
1701, had not most indiscreetly acknowledged his son as King of 
England; and this notwithstanding he hatl so lately recognized 
the title of William HI. 

0. The whole English natitm was roused at this insult. Nothing 
was now thought of but war. The death of William IIL made no 
change in this respect, and Anne, who succeeded him, renewed 
all his engagements. 

7. Louis could not repress his anger at such a combination ; but 
his chief resentment fell upon the Dutch. He declared, with 
great emotion, that as for those gentlemen pedlars, the Dutch, 
they should one day repent their insolence, in declaring war 
against one whoso power they had formerly felt and dreaded. 

8. However, the affairs of the allies were in no way influenced 
by his threats. The Duke of Marll)orough, a famous English gen- 
eral, w*as appointed to the command of the allied army, and proved 
the most formidable enemy to France that had appeared since the 
disastrous times of Cressy and Agincourt. 

uKvlt* new arranj;em«?nts on his I'lirt nnossjiry ? '2. What was his final disposition of 
iIm territories > 3. What course did Louis adopt? What did the other power* oi 
Kim>iK* do? 4. What is said of the eniiwror? 6, 6. What of the feelings of the Kug- 
Ush people? 7. What did Louis thjvaten to do? 8. What infl icnce had thesa 
Jireau? Who ootumandiHl the allies? 



LOUIS XIV.— 1707. 



249 



CHAPTER CXLVHL 

l he Frtnck suffer many Defeats. — Capture of Gibraltar hy tht 

English. 

I. From this time to the year 1711, the reign of Louis vva.s a con- 
tinued series of defeats and calamities. An account of all these in de- 
tral would not he interesting to you. It will be sufficient to tell you 
the results. 

"2. In Italy, the imperial forces, under Prince Eug«Mie, in the battle 
«»f Turin, Sejit. 7th, 170(), gained a victory which left the house of 
Hoiirbon no hope of restoring its power in that country. 

.'{. The allied armies, muler the Duke of Marlborough, gained the 
victorif^s of Hlenheim, Uamillies, Oudenardc, and Malplaquet. Not 
oidy was France dej>rivcd of all her conquests in former wars, but 
the coutiiuicd progress of her enemies sceincd to threaten her very 
existence as a nation. 

4. From all these triumphs, the English, at whose expense the 
war was for the most part carried on, derived no other advantage than 
the name of having gained great victories. A conquest of much 
greater importance to them was made with a comparatively trifling 
expense of blood and treasure in Spain. 

•O. The fortress of Gibraltar stands upon a iiigh, rocky promontory, 
and is only accessibh^ upon one side. It wa.s .so strongly fortified by 
nature, that tho S[)auianls, to whom it belonged, thought that no one 
would be mad enough to attempt to take it from them, and it was 
therefore left in the charge of some old fellow, for whom it was nec- 
essary to provide an oflice. 

6. Sir (Jeorge Hooke, having failed in some object for which he 
had been sent with a fleet into the Mediterranean sea, resolved to make 
an attem[)t upon Gibraltar. The very boldness of the attempt was 
the cause of its success. The governor, astonished at the velocity 
and intrepidity with which the British sailors mounted the rocks, 
surrendered at the first assault. 

7. When the news reached England, it was for some time in de- 
bate whether it was a capture worth thanking the admiral for. It 
was at last determined to be unworthy the public gratitude, and while 
the Duke of Marlborough was loaded with wealth and honors for use- 
less services, Sir George Rooke was left to neglect, and soon dis- 
placed from his command. 

8. Whilst nothing is left of all Marlborouoji's triumphs but the 
name, Gibraltar has remained in the possession of the English, and 
has proved of the utmost vahu^ for the refitting of ships, and for th^ 
protection of her commerce in the Mediterranean. 



CXLVIIL - 1. What was the f jccess of ihe French in this war? 2, What decldfi<l 
their fate in Italy ? 3. Wliat v\.,..iries were gained by the Duke of Marlboroiitrh ? 4. 
What advaiila!:e did the English derive from these victories? 5. What ia 8;iiil <>f th« 
fortress of Gihraliar? 6 By whom was it taken from the Spanish? 7. What reiuri 
was made to Sir George Rooke by the British government? 8. What is said <>f this coj' 
quest? 



360 



LOl 



XIV. -1711. 



CHAPTER CXLIX. 

Louts reduced to a very distressed Condition. — Peace of 

Utrecht. 

1 ExHAUSTFi) in his ie.s..urces ami hunibleil in his aiiibiMoii, 
f.ou'is, tlMMi-h h.' ha.l hcfon- vainly tried to ne^M)tiate, sent in i70|» 
an an.l.asHa<iur to II..llan,i K. sue for peace. He offered even n.ueh 
more than the allies ha.l elainied at the hecrinuinu: ot the war, and his 
nronosals ouo;ht K. hav(^ been accepted. ,.,,., , 

2 Hut the Duke of Marlhoroucrh, who was h.i.d (.1 the power, and 
still* more fond of the salary and perquisites, attached to his com- 
mand, induced the allies to insist on terms so exlravarrani that Louis 
rejected them with disdain. The French i.e(,ple, thoujih opi»ressed 
and impoverished, shared in the indi),n.ation which their monarch felt 

and expressed. , , , • ^ ., 

:J III 1710, Lonis airain sued for peace, and added new concessions 
to those he had proposed the year hef.)re. Anion- the rest, he offered 
to curknowledcre the Archduke Charles as King ot Spam ; to afford 
no assistance 'to his grandson Philip, and even to advance money to 
the allies, to assist in carrying on the war against him. , , ,. 

4 The allies rejected tlu.'se lerms with insult, and demanded that 
Louis should himself undertake to expel his grandson from the Span- 
ish throne. This ignominv, Louis, overwhelmed as he was rejected 
with scorn, exclaiming, '' Since I must make war, I had rather make 
it asrainst my enemies than my own children. . ^ , , u 

5 In th.' mean time, J..seph had succeeded his fathe.- Leopold as 
emperor. In April, 1711, Joseph died, and was succeeded by his 
brother, the Archduke Charles, wiio was the competitor ot Hiilip V 
for the throne of Spain. This event gave a great accession of strength 
to the French interests. , • ^ c 

6 Europe in rreneral was more unwilling to see the union o. fepam 
and the empire in the hands of the same prince of the house^of Aus- 
tria, than that two princes of the house of Bourbon should be in pos- 
session of the thrones of France and Spain. 1 ■ • T? 

7 An extraordinary change of opinion had taken place in l^.ng- 
land The people were now become impatient for peace. A change 
was consequently made in the officers of government, and one ot the 
firsi acts of the' new ministers was to recall the Duke of Marlbor- 

'^"i He was succeeded by the Duke of Ormond, who had private 
instructions not to fight. In July, 1711, the English troops were 



CXLl K - I. What was the corulition of L<.uis in 1709 ? Wlat terms of peax:e di^^he 
orter ■• 2 What di.l the allies propose.' Did L.mis accepl ihcm? .? Wheu did Loui. 
^L propose ^x^h'o? What did 'he offer to do I 4. What did the all.es now requ.rel 
W at w;Jlx>u s' a.^swer .' 5 What changes had taken place ui Germany ? 6. Why 
^ere the?e cha.i?e3 favorable to Fnince ? 7. What change had taken p^ce m tngbiMl) 
uSli?.wed 8. Who succeeded Marlborough? What were his orders? 9 Wbi- 



LOUIS XIV.— 1714. 



25) 



ivithdrawii from the army of the allies. Piince Eugene, left to him- 
iclf, was defeated by Marshal Villars at Denain. 

9. This victory was the more important, as it cheered the spirits 
of the French nation, which was a nation always ready to be rean- 
imated by the first symptoms of success, and it raised the tone ^nd 
confidence of its ambassadors at lUrecht, at which place conferences 
relative to peace were now being held. 

10. Treaties of peace with all the pow ers except the emperor were 
signed at Utrecht, in 1713. Philip was recognized as King of Spain, 
at the same time renouncing the succession to the throne of France 
Louis recognized the title of Anne to the crown of England. 



CHAPTER CL. 

Doj?iestic Afflictions of Imds XTV. — His Death. 

1. Thus Louis saw the termination of that disastrous war which 
had reduced his kingdom to extreme wretchedness and poverty. The 
allies had been punished for their unreasonable rejection of the terms 
offered in 1710 ; and the humiliation of France had been in the same 
measure relieved. 

2. But misery enough remained to show in frightful colors the 
crime and folly of ambition, and to prove to ;'^° king, who was now 
seventy-six years old, and visibly drawing near his end, that he had 
altogether mistaken the true ends of life, and all the ends for which 
his power had been given. 

3. Domi>tic afflictions, also, had fallen heavily upon him. The 
dauphin, the onlv one of his sons who had survived infancy, died in 
April, 1711, leaving three sons, the Duke of Burgundy, Philip, King 
of Spain, and the Duke t)f Berri. 

•1. In February, 1712, the hopes which the nation had fondly cher- 
ished of retrieving all their losses under the government of a wise 
and enlightened prince, were blasted by the death of the Duke 
i.f nuririmdy, who was buried in the same grave with his lovely wife, 
vvli'i died only six davs before him. 

r». Within three wH'eks the grave was again opened to receive the 
remains of their eldest son. In May, 1714, the Duke of Berri died ; 
and as the King of Spain had renounced the successi(m to the throne 
of France, all the hopes of the Bourbons now rested on the sole sur- 
viving son rf the Duke of Burgundy, a feeble infant, for whose life 
great fears were entertained. 

6. A deep gloom had long since settled upon the court, the splen- 
dor and magnificent entertainments of which had excited the envy 

?avB new spirit to the French ? 10. When was peace concluded ? Where? What were 
•ome of the terms ? „,. . , 

CL. ~ 3, 4. 5 What domestic afflictions had befallen Ix'iis ? Who was the on'O"*; 
wir\n% k-sir to the throne? 6. What change had lake- 4ace inthe court? 7 Wbal 



252 



fOUlS XTV I7IS. 



and rwlnurnti^m ol J\nro|)<'. liouis ln<l li'mnt In f'orMi « niorc just I'sli 
mato «>r \vii;il is rcnllv vnhinhlr in lilc. HowtMl «l«»v\n \\\\\\ alllirtitMi 
he 8ou«Tht a i«'riio»> in the lioprs of n'li;»nMi. 

7. In Aiiiinsi, 171 j. il luM'anin rvi«l«in ilitil In- li.ui nm lony It 
livo. In his last sirknrss, br «lisj>lavr(l a rorlMiiilf IcniprrtMl h\ Ini 
militv. siioli as \'v\\ «>\hihit. lit' rrrollrcliMl lim Dun \vrakn»'s8«'8. 
ami li:i«l ilir njairn.utiniitv to «*ont«'ss tlnin. TaKni;' Ins infant snr 
"•('ssor in his arm> hf tlin-^ addn'ssrd hiin ahiml in the prcsrmM' of all 
his aUciulanls, 

8. " \'on will soon li<> kinjz of a jrrpat kinir«loni. What I most 
earnostlv r«M'oinnnMi<i to von is. novrr to for^rt tho ol)lijTati«>ns y«ui 
arr nmlor to (Jo*!. H<Mn'inlM'r thai to him von owo all that \o\i pos 
S4'ss. iMnloaxoi to livr al |>«\h*«' with vonr nriirhhors. I have hi'm 
loo t'ond of war. 

!>. '' 1\» n« < you t'ollow my oxampio in th'it, nor in mv lavish "x 
pi'iKlitnro. TaKO advirr in all thintrs. and rinh'a.or to tind onl »hi 
h'-sl. that you may adhrro invariahlv to it. 'loliovo vonr jnoph 
trom lavos as so(mi as vou oan, and do thai whirh 1 have had tin' mis 
t»Mtnno ot' not IxMni; ahlo to do.'" 

10. Ijonis di«'d Sopt. 1st, 1715, IxMnir within a low <lavs orscxjMilv- 
srvon years of afjfv Wluai hv v»;s vorv yo\mjj, his mothor ono day 
said to him, " My son, «Midrav'»r to rosomhh' your ^randfilhor. and 
not your falluM."* Tho kin<j )".i\i :;7 askrd tho reason, " It is." said 
sh(\ " h(N'aus(^ the people woy^ al the dealh ol Henry l\., and 
laui^hod at that of Louis Mil.' 'V\\o d(^ath of Louis MJI. had onlv 
not disturbed tlu' natural pay«'ty of the peoph> ; at the death of Ij^niin 
\n . ihcy ahs<diitelv rejoieed. 

11. The jxreat ehanj^e which had \:\\in\ jdaee in the eharaeter of 
iKinis had Ixnmi elll'<'ted hv the ]nTV«^pts and (>\auiple ol' Matlame de 
Maintenou. Dunne the husl, disastrous wars, she luul ^«»ne so fir as 
to soil her jewels and horses, to supply the wants of those wlm had 
boon rotluced to poverty by the and>ition of Ikt hnsbaml. 

12. She never would alh»vv the kiuL'^ to s(Mtle anv properly upon 
her, bocause she considered all that he should iiiv«» her wonhl be .so 
much added to the taxes, and taken from the hard earniujxs of the 
j.oor laborers. At :he kinjj's dealh she was l;^'l totallv unprovided 
for. 

13. The recent, Duke of (Orleans, offered her a pension, sayinjj, 
''that her disinterestedness had rendered it neces,sary." She con- 
siMitod to receive a small sum, and retir«>d to St. C\r, a school which 
she had fomuled tor the educatit)n of jiirls, whose jiarents, haviurr en. 
joyed better circumstances, hail horn reduced to poverty. She lived 
here till her death, in 17l!», beiui^ eiirhty-three years old. 



w:is ihr .-nniincl of I/itiis in his last i!li,c*s7 •>^, ■.). Wlial was Iiis ad.Ircsd to his heir 
Id \\h>'n .''.I 1/iiiis ili»-' How okl w.x^ he? VVhnt was his mother's atlvico to hi»r 
when hf v\.i<» v^,„uc ' What \v.i.<= her roa-son ? How diil it aj)p!v to Ixmii! ^ II Whm 
hail chanretl the character of Louis ? What was the oomhict of Madame de iMaintenoji 
•n ihe wars? 12. Why would she accept iu> properly from the kiim ? i:t. What pro 
•imoii wa- ma.ie for her by the i«gent ? Wliiiher did she retire • When .H-l she die 1 



hOUIS AlV.- I7i 



25) 



CUWIKH CLl 



Charactn ami Unhits of hnds KIV.-(hfnt Chnn^p in me 

Vhnrnrff r of fhf IWfif>/fs. 

I. Ma7,M!IN used to say of fionis, that there was sluffenonjirh in 
him to make four kinjis, and one lifMiest man. Nature had certainly 
intended him f<ir a ^reat man ; but art had .sadly marred the noblo 
work of nature. lie had a fine person, which he deformed hy the 
dress of the aire ; a fine manner, rdiderrrl almost l>oird»astical by his 

hijih opinion of bis dimiity. 

y. lie bad a clear miderstandini;, but was profoundly iprnorant ; a 
natural uprirrbtness of mind, which was warped by flattery, and by 
the evil cour7Rels of the .fesuits, his \elicrions advisers. He was ex- 
tremfdy t£ood-tempered ; hut this quality was neutraliWMl hy rijrid con- 
formity to rules and etifpiette. 

:{. 'i'he kin^r was the im»st exact man in the world ; everything 
was refrnlated by clock-wf>rk. Kvery morninff at eight o'clock his 
valet called him, and his nurse, who lived to a great age, entered hi? 
apartment, accompanied by his phy.sician and surgeon, who examine.! 
into the state of his health. 

4. Thet^rand chamberlain and a tribe of courtiers were next ad- 
united, an«l the king prweeded to dress himself ; which the French 
historians tell ns bcrdid " with grace and ease." The first thing he 
did was to put on his wig, which was banded to him, at the end of 
a loner cane, before the curtains were undrawn, for he thotjght it un- 
dignified to be seen bare-beaded. 

7,. Y(Mi will rec(dlect that an accident which happened to Francis J. 
introduced the fa.shion of short hair. rx>\iis XIV., when a boy, had 
remarkably beautiful long curling k)cks, and the servile courtiers, 
always ready to copy their master, had wigs made to imitate them. 
When the king became a man, he too adopted a wig ; so by degrees 
the wigs becanie larger and larger, and were more and niore curled 
and fri'/zled, until they became enormous. 

(>. We are next told, for the chroniclers are very minute, that the 
king did not use a dre.ssing-table, but that one of the persons present 
held the looking-girifls before him. When the dressing was at last 
happily over, the king fxtcupied himself till dinner-time in transacting 

business, 

7. He dined in public, and the privilege of seeing him eat was a 
highly courted honor. The being gazed at by a staring crowd did 
w\ spoil his apfietite, for it is recorded that he would often eat four 
plates of soup, a pheasant, two good slices of ham, besides mutton 
and salad, with pastry, frnit, and sweetmeats into the bargain. 



CLl. - 1. What did Mazaria aay of Louis XIV. ? What waa the chnnrter of Loom 
jnV.t 3. WhaX is aaid of his peraonal hahits? 5. What new l^iwnn wjw iutr» 
inced » 6. ", 8. How did the king occupy his time after he 'v.is .Iret-^i I '.» How -iw 

22 



254 



I-OUIR XV, 



715 



8. At twelve, the king retired to his chfimber, where the undreus- 
ingr was performed with the same ceremonies that attended the dress- 
ing-, and the wig bein<r duly received on the cihI of the cane, the kinji 
was left to his repose. 

9. Louis liked to be surrounded by a numerous throng of courtiers 
►Slaves never were ke[)t in more abject subjection ; a frown was a pun 
ishment almost irisup|)ortable, and bani.siiment from the court was 
regaided as little less dreadful than a sentence of death. The charac- 
ter of these sycophants may be learned from the tritles which tliey 
set up as the objects of ambition. 

10. The individual who was permitted to hold a candle while the 
king was undressing became an object of general envy; he looked 
upon himself as the most fortunate of beings, and as amply rewarded 
for a life of turmoil and misery. 

1 1. The vicious court and corrupting despotism accomplished what 
Louis XL, with his iron cages and loathsome dungeons, had in vain 
endeavored to eflect. The French nobles lost that energy and spirit 
of independence which had distinguished their ancestors. Among 
the degenerate set who shed tears when the monarch frowned, we 
look in vain for the high sense f»f honor and manliness of Gueaeli* 
and Bayard. 



CHAPTER CLIL 

The Duke of Orleans ajyjmnted Regent. — Missistnppi Scheme 

1. l.ouis XV. being only tive years old at the death of his great- 
ijraudfather, a regency was necessary , and this was assumed by 
Philip, Uuke of Orleans, a nephew of the late king, and the next heir 
to the throne. 

2. The Duke of Orleans, from a child, manifested great quickness 
of parts, with a boundless curiosity, and a capacity for almost every 
kind of acquirement. His preceptor, St. Laurent, a man of real 
principle and groat merit, unfortunately died before his education 
was finished, and he fell into the hands of the Abbe Dubois, who en- 
tirely subverted his moral habits, and he became abandoned to vice. 

3. The first acts of his administration were extremely popular, 
and gave the most favorable ideas of his government and character. 
He restored to the parliament the right of remonstrating against the 
edicts of the crown, which right had been taken from them by Louis 
XIV. 

4. He compelled those who had enriched themselves at the ex 
pen»e of the public, during the calamities of the preceding reign, to 

lie treat his courtiers? Whril was the character of the courtiers? 11. What change wan 
nade in the character of the nobles? 

CLU. -1. Who succeeded Louis XIV. ? Who was made regent? 2. What vias itie 
«".lu»r^c>r '^f the resfenl ? 3, 4. What were the first acts of Fiia governni»>ni .' i To 



I.OU1S XV.— 1715. 



255 



restore their ill-gotten wealth, and he removed from his council thote 
who had been most active in religious persecutions. 




Louis XV., \l\bto 1711. 

6 But this did not last long. An indolence almost become habit- 
ual,' and a love of pleasure, led him to give up all the cares of his 
office to ])ubois, the most unprincipled of men, and a total change 
took place in the manners and politics of the court. 

6 T«) bi.M.iry and devotion succeeded oi)en impiety ; to tormality 
and decoruiu, eaae atul licentiousness. To this change, the chamc- 
ter and exami)l«3 «)f the regent in a large degree contributed. His 
levitv was such that he turned everything into pleasantry. Ihis 
humor of the regent was but too readily followed by a lively and vo 
atile people like the French. r • i- i 

7. The most sacred things were made the subject of ridicule. 
The discharge of duty w as called a weakness ; regard for honesty, a 
prejudice ; and delicacy was considered aflfectation. The regency 
of the Duke of Orleans infiicted a lasting injury on the morals of the 

nation. . , . , .. 

8. One of the most remarkable incidents of the regency was tlin 
famous Mississippi scheme of John Law, a Scotchman. The ex 
travacrancc of Louis XIV. had consumed all the resources of the 
etate.'' To support his long wars, his magnificent court, and above 
all his lavish expenditure on his palace at Versailles, he had con- 
tracted debts to an enormous amount. 

9 The regent was verv much embarrassed by these debts. 1 he 
creditors were clamorous for payment. But the treasury was empty, 

wh.,m did he gi-e up the duties of his office ? 6, 7 What change look ^^'^^^'}^^l^J^^ 
lie tiw.ral8» I. What remarkable incident occurrc<l in the regency? 9. Whatw«Mi 



Hi 



:^54 



f-OUIS XV.- 715 



LOUIS XV.- I7i:.. 



255 



8. At twelve, the kiri^ retired to liis eliuinber, where the undress, 
ing was performed with the same ceremonies lliat attended the dress- 
irifj, and the wig beinir duly received on the end of the cane, the kinji 
wa.s left to his repose. 

••>. Ijouis liked to h(' surround«'d hv a nimnrotis thronu (it'courtifTS 
Slaves never were kept in iiiorr ahjtet suhjietion ; a frown was a pun 
ishmcnt ulnmst insuj)|)ortahle, and hani.siiment from tlie court was 
regaided as little less dreadfiM than a sentence of death. The charac- 
ter of these sy<;ophants may he learned from the trifles which tliey 
se't up as the objects ol' ambition. 

10. The individual who was pernutte«l to hold a candh' u lule the 
king was undressing became an object of general envy ; he looked 
upon himself as the most fortunate of beings, and as amply rewarded 
for a life of turmoil and misery. 

1 1. The vicious court and corrupting despotism accomplished what 
liouis XI., with his iron cages an(l loalh:;ome dungeons, had in vain 
e(id«.*avored to eflect. The French nobhs lost that energy and spirit 
of independ(Mice whicb had distinguished their ancestors. Amonc 
the (legtMieratt^ set who sIhmI tears when the monarch frowiu^l, we 
look in vain for the high sense of honor and manliness of Gueseli* 
and Bayard. 



CHAITEK GUI. 

The Duke (tf Orham appointed Regeitt. — Mississippi Scheme 

1. I.oi'is XV. being «Mdy Jive years tdd at the death of his great- 
i(randfatber, a regency was neces.savy , aiul this was asstimed by 
Philip, l)uk(! of Orleans, a tiephew of the late kinu. and the next heir 
to the throne. 

2. The Duke of Orleans, from a child, manifested great quickness 
of parts, with a boundless curiosity, and a capacity for almost every 
kind of acquirement. His preceptor, St. Laurent, a man of real 
principh; and great merit, unfortunately died hetore his education 
was tinished, and he fell into the hands of the Abbe Dubois, win) en- 
tirely subverted his moral habits, and he became abandoned to vice. 

W. 'I'he first acts of his administration were extremelv popular, 
and gave the most favorable ideas of his government and character. 
He restored to the parliament the right of remonstrating against the 
i'dicts of the crown, which right had been taken from thein by Louis 
XIV. 

■l. He compelled those who had enriched themselves at the ex 
pense of the public, during the calamities of the preceding reign, to 



lie treat Iiia coiirtifrs? What \vn>! the cliaracter of ttie courtiers? 11. What change wm 
naile in llie clianutfrotiiie nol)lcs? 

CLII. -I. Who succeeded Louis XIV.? Who was made reffent ? 2. What wa.-» xur 
r.\\H.r*c'f: of the reijeul ? 3, 4. What were the first acts of Fi»3 govenunoni / i Tr 



restore their ill-gotten wealth, and he removed from his council thote 
who had been most active in religious persecutions. 







Loins XV.. 1715 M 1711. 

5 But this did not last lonii. An indoh'iice aluutst become habit 
ual, and a lovi- of |)leasure, led him H» give up all the cares (.f his 
office to Dubius, the most unprincipled (.f men, and a total change 
took plact? in the maniurs and piditics of the court. 

(). To bigotry an«i devoti<ui succeeded open imi)iety ; to tormality 
and decorum, ea.se and licentiousness. To this change, the charac- 
ter and example of the regent in a large degree contributed. His 
levity was such that he turned everything into pleasantry. This 
hunu)r of the regent was but too readily followed by a lively and vo 

atile people like the French. ^ • i- i 

7. The most sacred things were made the subject ot ridicule. 
The dischar^re of duty was called a weakness ; regard for honesty, a 
prejudice ; a'iid delicacy was considered afiectation. The regency 
of the Duke of Orleans inllicted a lasting injury on the morals of the 

nation. ^ , . 

8. One of the most remarkable incidents of the regency was tlm 
famous INli.ssissippi scheme of John Law, a Scotchman. The ex 
travagance of Lcuiis XIV. had consumed all the resources of the 
etate." To supi)ort his lonu wars, his magnificent court, and above 
all his lavish expenditure on his palace; at Versailles, he had con- 
tracted debts to an enormous amount. 

9. The regent was very much embarrassed by these debts. 1 he 
creditors were clamorous for payment. But the treasury was empty, 



whom did he gi-e up the d.aies of his offlre / 6, 7, Wiiai clunge took P^'^^ *■' ^^^^ P"^ 
tic morals) I. What remarkahle iacidenl occurred iii the regency? 9. WhatwwlR 



25t 



LOUIS XV. — 1720. 



anil ilti public discontent daily iiicreased. Law innv propo8e<l li. 
the rejrent a plan which he said would relieve him i'roni his embar- 
rassiTieiit, and add enormously to the wealth and prosperity of the 

country. 

10. This was to establish a j^reat bunk, which should pay off the 
debts of I he state in paper money. The profits of the bank were to 
be made l>y tradiufj to the country on tin; banks of the river Missis- 
sipjti, which was then believed to abound in ^old and silver and pre- 
cious stones. ^ 111 

11. Measures, were adopted to depreciaTe the go\i\ and silver 
coins, that is, to make them daily of less value in comparison with 
the bank notes, which were never' to fall b(>low the value expressed 
upon them. All who had <?old and silver made haste to exchange 
it for paper money. The officers of the bank could not make this 
fast enouirh to supply the demaiul. 

V2. The inhabitants of the provinces- rec^arded the citizens of 
Paris with envy. They flocked to the capital, where such a con- 
course of peoi)le iiad never been seen before. They besiejred the 
doors of the bank, brin^infr their jrold and silver. Some expressed a 
fear that they were too late, but were solaced by the assurance of 
one of the officers, " Never fear, gentlemen, we will take all your 

money." i r i j 

13. And so it proved, to their cost; for at last the bank failed: 
the gold and silver had all disappeared; the worthless paper only 
remained ; and half France was rumed. In the haste to get rich, 
multitudes had sold their houses and lands to purchase st^k in a 
bank which appeared to be making such enormous profits. 



CHAPTER CLIU. 

The Pestileyice at Marseilles. — The heiiexolent Bishop. 

1. There is one other event of the regency which I will relate to 
you, as it affords a contrast to the preceding, and exhibits human 
nature in a more pleasing light. This was a dreadful pestilence 
which devastated Marseilles. 

2. In May, 1720, a vessel arrived there from Syria, and the 
captain, presuming he had no infected goods on board, neglected to 
observe the usual precautions. Soon after his merchandise w.is 
landed, the plague appeared in the city, and spread with frightful 

rapidity. 

3. The streets were filled with the dead. The terrified inhabi- 
tants sought to escape from the city ; but the government, that the 



consequence of the extntva?ance of Louis XIV. 1 10. How was it proposed to pay the pub 
lie debts? How were the profits of the bank to be made? 11. 12. What measure 
w.;re ailopfed to pa&s off the paper money? What was the consequence^ 13. What 
«aa ilie result of the whole? 
CLIII. — 2. Wial occasioned the pestilenre hi Marseilles? ."> What pre» ent*^ »V 



LOUIS XV. — 1721. 



25-7 



pestilence might not spread into the country, had placed a guard of 
.soldiers all around, which prevented the possibility of flight. Some, 
however, of the wealthier and more prudent had left the city at the 
first alarm. 

4. Those who now remained were in the most dreadful condition, 
and all their energy seemed lost in despair. Four men alone pos- 
sessed courage and fortitude enough to undertake anything for the 
general safety. 

5. One of these was Belsunce, Bishop of Marseilles. He exerted 
himself night and day to succor the dying, to cheer the despairing, 
and to animate the courage of those few who partook with him these 
glorious employments. The duty which he especially took upon 
himstilf was to attend upon the sick in the hospitals. 

6. In this Christian office he was assisted by some of the Sisters 
of Charity^ an order of nuns, who, instead of spending their lives in 
idleness in a convent, devote themselves to nursing the sick. The 
other three courageous men were Estelle and Moustier, sheriffs of 
the city, and Chevalier Rose. 

7. They assumed the task of trying to put a stop to fhe pesti- 
lence. Their first care was to remove all the dead bodies from the 
streets, for so long as these sources of infection remained there could 
-le no h(U)e of purifying the air. The hospitals were quite unequal 

.. contain the numbers who were daily imploring admittance. 

8. A large hospital was erected outside the walls ; but when it 
was nearly completed, it was destroyed by a violent storm from the 
north. The despairing inhabitants now looked upon themselves as 
the peculiar objects of the wrath of Heaven. As strangers were 
afraid to come near the city, the inhabitants had no means of pro- 
curing food, and a famine was the consequence. 

0. It appeared as if the storm had now been sent to complete the 
work of destruction which the pestilence and famine had commenced. 
But this last seeming misfortune proved to be a great mercy. The 
strong north wind purified and cleansed the air, and the violence of 
the pestilence abated. Their famine was relieved by some ship-loads 
of corn which the Pope sent them. 

10. Their courage now bejran to revive. But it was not until 
the end of June, 1721, that the plague entindy disappeared. The 
good bishop survived all the dangers and fatigues M* this terrible 
period. The people, of course, loved him, and he was luuch attached 
to them. Though offered a much richer bishopric, he never would 
leave Marseilles, where he died, in 1755, at the great age of eighty- 
four. 



people from leavins the city ? 4. What was the condition of the people ? Were then 

ny exceptions? 5. What is said of the bishop? 6. Wliat of the Sisters of Charity ? 

What was done to stop the pestilence? 8. ^hat becanre oi the n«5W hospital ' J 

What apparent misfortune proved to be a blessing? Why? 10. V.'hat became ot .t»t 

gooti bishop 7 

22* 



255 LOUIS XV - 1723 



CHAPTER CLIV. 
Lmiis XV. — His Character. 

i. The rejrency expired in 17*22, the kinff having then attaincul 
ihe ape of thirteen, the period fixed for the termination of his inr 
nority. The kinjr had nalurallv very little capacity. He detested 
study, and, as uiay readily he imagined, it was not easy to make 9 
hov "learn his lesson against his will, who knew himself to he a kinjr. 

2 His poverfjcss hit upon a sing^ular expedient to make him more 
(lilifient. As it would have been little short of hifrh treason to whip 
thcTcinff, she procured a child of poor parents, and of the same a^e 
with the kincT, lo be the companion of his studies ; and whenever the 
kinff was na"u£Thty, or said his lesson badly, the poor unfortunate 
child was whipped in his stead. t • ? l w 

3. This was not very well adapted to improve Louis heart or his 
head. He grew up vicious and frivolous. Like most ignorant peo- 
ple he was extremely inquisitive about trifles. He delighted in mean 
.-Tossip ; he knew nothing of the great political events which were 
Taking place in his own and other couniries, and upon which the 
happiness of his people depended, yet he knew a great deal of what 
was going on in private families. ,,,-,•. • i 

4 He had a natural love of low company, and delighted to pick 
up and repeat vulgar expressions. Notwithstanding this, he acquired 
o much of the outward show of royalty, as to have a very digni- 
fied and majestic air and manner. 

5. He was also remarkably handsome, and had the most beautitui 
blue eyes that ever were seen. The preceptors that succeeded the 
governess of his infancy were n(.t more successful than she had 
been. The Cardinal de IPleury, who had most reluctantly accepted 
the office, labored hard to check his vicious propensities. 

6. The eflr(»rts of Fleury were not wholly in vain; for so long as 
he lived, the king kept within the bounds of decency. But after his 
death, he sunk into an abyss of vice, from which he never afterwards 

emerged. , ,, .i r 

7 A child of such a character could not be able, at the age ot 
thirteen, to tnVe care of himself, much less of a kingdom. The Duke 
of Orleans, t.y the title of prime minister, continued to carry on thf 

government. , i- j i • ir 

8 Abandoning his former idle habits, he now applied himselt 
with threat dilio-e'nce to the promotion of the welfare and happiness 
of the people. " But the reform in his mode of life had been deterred 
'oo long. His early excesses had destroyed his health, and a fit ot 
apoplexy put an end to his life, December 2d, 1723. 

ni.l V. — 1. When did the regency expire ? Why 1 What ia said of Ix^uis XV. ? 3 
Will. uv^\e r>f correclio., did his g.,vcrn«.-:s a.Iopt ; :i. What is said of his character 1 
[, Wli a. I ^ ^ ...1 of his iwrsonal appearance ? Who was his preroplor ? 0. Wl'^l was u« 
3UCC Jsi 7 Who managed the govenimsnl? a W^.-:l..n^e took place inihe Puk^ 

}f Orlrtans ? 



UJUIS XV. — 172.3. 259 



CHAPTER CLV. 

Cardinal Fleurij. — The Nobles. 

1. The Duke of B<»urb(in, a urandson of the great Cond^. suc- 
ceeded to the olfice of prime minister. The only event worthy of 
notice, during his administration, was the marriage of tjie king to 
Maria, daughter of Stanislaus, an exiled king of Poland, who had 
taken refuge in France. 

2. As Bourbon was totally incompetent for the otfiec, he was 
soon dismissed, and Cardinal Fleury, yielding to the yidicitations of 
the king, seconded as they were by the universal wish of France, 
accepted the ditHcult post, at the age of seventy-three years. 

3. Happily for France, he possessed a most pacific disposition ; 
for the country only required repose to restore her to a state of pros- 
perity. Fleury well understood this : instead of attempting any 
great innovations, he quietly left the kingdom to restore itstdf. 

4. But the rigid economy which he introduced did not always 
prove to be true economy. To save the present expenditure of 
money, he did not adopt proper measures to preserve the public 
ships, and the entire ruin of the navy was the consequence. 

5. Nor was the cardinal long permitted to pursue his peaceful 
policy. In order to understand the reason of this, I must descrilxj 
the French nobility. There were scattered through France more 
than seventy thousand families, every individual of which would 
have thought himself disgraced by engaging in any branch of trade 
or useful industry. These were the nobles. 

6. The ancient nobility did not consist of more than two hundred 
families. They guarded their privileges with great rigor. No per- 
son was permitted to enter the royal carriage whose family had not 
been noble before the year 1400. 

7. A large portion of the rest of this numerous class of drones had 
purchased their nobility, for the purpose of procuring exemption 
from taxation, which was a privilege of the nobles. Their titles ami 
this exemption formed their chief distinction. For the most part, 
they were mistjrablv poor and uneducated. 

8. Excluded from all peaceful employments, it was only in war 
that a path to honor and wealth was open to them. In spite of all 
his efforts to avoid it, Fleury was, therefore, forced by the nobility 
into a war; the ostensible purpose of which was *o replace Sta- 
nislaus on the throne of Poland. 



CLV. — 1. Who succeede<l the Duke of Orleans as prime minister? What look place 
under his administration ? 2. Who succeeded Bourbon? 3. What is said of Cardinal 
Fleury ? 4. What is said of his economy ? 5. What is said of the nobles ? 6. What 
-.f llie ancient nobility ? 7. Hew were titles obtained? For what purpose? 8. What 
Jid ihey force Fleury to do? 



I I 



?I60 LOUIS XV. -1740. 



CHAPTER CLVI. 

Maria Theresa and the Hujigariam. 

1. Tins war lasted about two years; and the result of it w&a 
that Stanislaus received, in lieu of the throne of Poland, which he re- 
nounced, the duchies of Lorraine and Bar. It was also provided 
I hat these should, at his death, be united to France, as t sort of* 
inarriajre portion for Queen Maria. 

•2. Thus, from an unprotected exile, whose father soug^ht in 
France nothinjj but an asylum from misfortune, this princess became 
heiress of thcTnost valuable accession, which, with the exception of 
Bretagne and Guienne, any queen had ever brought to the crown. 

3. The anxiety of the Emperor Charles VI. to secure the impe 
rial throne to his daughter, Maria Theresa, induced him to consent 
to this arrangement. The King of France recognized her right to 
the succession by a solemn compact. 

4. Tn 1740, the emperor died. Various claimants appeared for 
the rich inheritance. Frederic II., King of Prussia, who is celebrated 
as a soldier, seized upon Silesia. The Elector of Bavaria,^ who 
<-l:iimed the throne in opposition t(» Maria Theresa, applied to France 
for assistance. Cardinal Fleury did all he could to prevent so shame- 
ful a breach of the solemn engagement which had been entered into 
with the late emperor. , , • 

5. But his efforts were vain, and a French army marched mto 
Austria. The Elector of Bavaria assumed the title of Emperor, and 
Maria Theresa sought refuge in Hungary. In that country, the feu- 
dal system exists even to the present day, though the atmosphere of 
courts has destroyed the free and independent spirit of the nobles. 

6. At the time of which we are speaking, they lived in their cas- 
tles, surrounded by their vassals, and still preserved much of the true 
spirit of chivalry. Amongst them Maria Theresa found that sym- 
pathy which her misfortunes deserved. 

7. She convoked an assembly of the nobles, and, clad in mourning, 
with her infant son in her arms, she addressed the assembly with 
forcible eloquence, and with the more effect because she spoke in 
Latin, a language which was still in use in Hungary. 

8. She presented her son to the several nobles, one by one. They 
all engaged to defend and protect him. At last they drew their 
swords, and cried out unanimously, " Moriamur pro regc nostra 
Maria Theresa!'' — ''Let us (fie for our king, Maria Thfresa!'' 

9. You may think it strange that they should speak of the empress 
;is the king, and not the ijiiecn, of Hungary ; but it better comported 
with their feudal prejudices to give to their sovereign the title of 
kino-, even when the crown rested on the head of a woman. 



LOUIS X\'.-I748. 



CHAPTER CLVn. 



261 



a Tribute to Merit. — Treaty ofAix-la-Chapelle. — How Louu 
XV. came to be sur named the Well-beloved. 

* The fortune of the war was now suddenly changed. The 
Crt)ats and Pandours, a set of active but irregular troi>ps from Hun- 
gary, crowded to the assistance of their s<»vereign. The spirits of the 
Austrians revived, and the French were forced to retreat. 

2. They were also defeated at Dettingen by the English, under 
George II., who had taken the part of the empress. Cardinal Fleury 
died January 29, 1743. He is said to have died with a heart broken 
with grief for the disasters of a war in which he had been forced to 
engage. 

3. There is one anecdote of him which deserves to hj repeated. It 
shows that the spirit of peace and civilization may be carried even 
into actual war. In the Isle of Man dwelt Bishop Wilson, a man who 
had resisted all the temptations of ambition, and refused many offers of 
preferment, that he might devote himself to the improvement of the 
rude inhabitants of the island. 

4. To testify his respect for this good man, Fleury gave orders 
that, during the war with England, no attack should be maxle upon the 
Isle of Man. though it belonged to England. 

5. In 1744, Louis took the command of an army himself, and was 
present at the reduction of several places ; but at Metz he was attacked 
witli a dangerous illness, which produced a general consternation 
throughout France. His recovery was celebrated with transports of 
joy by a people at that time remarkable for an enthusiastic attachment 
to their kings. 

0. The surname of " WcU-l}ehvcd'' was given to the king on this 
occasion ; and in return for the affections of his people, he displayed 
the feelings of a good heart, and exclaimed, very sincerely as well as 
very naturally, " How sweet it is to be thus loved ! What have 1 
done to deserve it?" 

7. Soon after his recovery, he beheld from a distance the battle of 
Fontenoy, in which the allied army of England, Holland and Aus- 
tria was defeated by the French under Marshal Saxe, one of the 
ablest generals whom any age has produced, and no less remarkable 
for his prudence as a conmiander, than for the impetuosity of his nat- 
ural character. 

8. The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, put an end to a wai in 
which France had generally been successful in Austria and the Neth- 
erlands, and generally imsuccessful in Italy. France again solemnly 
recognized the title of Maria Theresa. By a previous treaty, Fred 

• eric of Prussia had secured the possession of Silesia. 



CLVl — 1. How long did the war Insl ? What was ihe result? 3. What ir^diiced the 
emperor to consent to the arranirement ? 4. When did the emperor die ? Who claimed 
nis throne? 5. What became of Maria Theresa? What is said of Hungary ? 6. How 

lid the nobles live? 7. WTiat did Maria Theresa do? S. What did the noblei profD 

.se? S Why did they call her kins? 



CLVIl. — 1 What cluiiised tlie furiune of the war ? 2. At what battle were the French 
defeated 7 Wlieii did Cardinal Fleury die ? 3. 4. Wlial anecdote is told of his kind di-* 
position? 5. What happened in 1744/ C. Wliai surname was given to Ixniis XV. ^ 
What wna his remark ? 7. What is said of the battle of Fontenoy ? Whai of Mar**'!' 
Siia ' M \\\\c.v was pe-ice concluded ? What is it called? 



262 



LOUIS XV.- 1751 



CHAPTER CLVIII. 



l'h< Military School established. — Fashions of Dress. 

The Arts. 




Equestrian statue of Louis XV. 

1. The few years which followed the peace of Aix-la-Chapellc 
wore amonj]!^ the most prosperous and happy that France had evei 
known. Manufactures and commerce flourished, and the colonies, 
particularly St. Domingo, made rapid advances in wealth and im- 
portance. 

2. The k'mff, who appears to have had a fondness for science, in- 
stituted in 1751 the most useful and splendid establishment of his 
reign. This was the royal military school, in which five hundred in- 
digent young men were to he educated at the public expense. 

3. Under the same patronage, the sciences, particularly mathemat- 
ics and astronomy, made considerable advances. IJut in matters of 
laste, such as architecture, dress, and paintings, the reign of Louis 
XV. does not deserve any praise. 

4. A love of gaudy and frivolous ornament was everywhere vis- 
ible. Architecture was deformed, and painting disfigured by il 
(jods and goddesses were introduced into scenes at variance with 
riistory and propriety, and rustic shepherds and simple shepherde^'sea 
were represented as dressed in the most fantastic fashions of th« 
court. 



CLVIII. — I. What is sail! of the years succeetrme llie peace of Aix-laChapelle? 'A 
VVhal institution was established ? '.I. What is said of matters of tasie ? 4. What i-i 
•r-.Nitectiire and painting? 5. What of Jre!»s ? 7 What is said <tf Paris? 



LOUIS XV. — 1759 



263 



i. As il i<!gards dress, hoops and Itigh heels were in al. iheii 
;:huy. Paint, both red and white, was liberally applied to the face, 
!'((;k, and hands; and the heads of the polished court ladies were 
loaded with grease and powder enough to excite the envy of the Hol- 
lentot belles. 

♦). Tiie application of these last was reduced to rules with scientific 
•'xactness, and Sieur ie Gros published a volume on the art of hair- 
dressing, for the instruction of his twelve Imiulred brother hair-dressera 
111 l*aris. 

7. Notwithstanding the general bad tasW, the appearance and con- 
venience of Paris were much improvc<l hy Ijouis XV. A noble 
square was built adjoining to the gardens of the Tuileries, In it was 
a bronze statue of the king on horseback, placed on a pedestal sup- 
ported by four marble statues, representing strength, peace^ prudence, 
•diid justice. 

8. After the misconduct of Louis had forfeited the title of Weli' 
fjeloved^ this group gave occasion to the following epigram : 

Oh fine pedestal ! Oh beauiiiul statue ! 
On horseback is vice ; on foot, virtue. 



CHAPTER CLIX. 

The old French War. — The Seven Years' War. — Quebec taJ.en 
from the French. — Canada conquered by the British. 

1. Coming in contact as the dominions of France and England did, 
in widely separated parts of the globe, and with the violent jealousy 
that existed between the two nations, it was hardly possible for the 
go\"ernments, however pacific might be their inclination, to remain 
long at peace. 

2. In 1754, the war commenced between the French and English 
colonists in America, which the grandfathers of the present genera- 
tion used often to speak of as the old French icar. It was in this wai 
that Washington gained that military experience he possessed when 
he was first placed in command of the army in our struggle for inde- 
pendence. 

3. The results of this war were very unfortunate for the French 
interest in America. The capture of Loui.sburg, a strongly fortified 
city on the island of Cape Breton, commanding the entrance of the 
river St. Lawrence, was fi)llowed by the more important capture of 
Quebec. 

4. This city, which almost rivalled Gibraltar in the strength of 
its natural position, was taken by the British troops under the com- 
mand of (ien. Wolfe in Sept., 1759. The conquest of all Canada 



CLIX. — 2. When wa^ ,ke war renewed l>etween France and England'/ Where did it 
omr'^ence ? What is i .ailed in this country? 3. What was to France the result of 



the war in America? 1. Wher, wai Qneboc talten ? By whom? 



When did l\» 



262 



LOUIS XV. i7r,l 



CHAPTER CLVJIl. 



']'^^ Military Sc/iooi cstaUished. — Fashions of Dress. 

The Arts. 




Et/iustritm stilt ut of Louis X V. 

1. The few v«'ars which followed the pe:ic*e of Aix-la-Thapellc 
wore ainoiij; th<' most prosperous and happy that France liad evei 
known. Manufactures ;ind eonuiicrce flourished, and the colonies, 
particularly St. l)omini;o, made rapid advances in wealth and im- 
portance. 

*2. The kinu, wlio appears to have had a fondness for science, in- 
stituted in 17r>l the most useful and splendid establishment of his 
reijrn. This was the roval military school, in which five hundred in- 
dijjent yountr men were to he ediicat(>d at the public expense. 

3. Under tlw^ same patrona<re, the sciences, parti<'ularly mathemat- 
ics and astronomy. uiad«^ considerable advances. Ihit in matters of 
laste, such as architecture, dress, and paintinrrs, the reijrn of Louis 
•W, does not deserve anv praise. 

1. A love of (Tandy aiul frivolous ornament w:is ev«>rywlu)re vis- 
ible. Architecture was delbrmed. and paintin<; disfin-ured by it 
(j«;tls and goddesses were introduced into scenes at variance with 
riistory and propri«Uy, aiul rustic shephenls ami simple shepherdesHea 
were rejin'sented as dressed in the most fantastic fashions of th»j 
court. 



CLVIII. — 1. What is saiil of llic ye;ir>- surce^'diiiL' tlif jvare of AixIaCliajvlIe? ^ 
VViial institution was esiablisluMt ' ';!. Wlial i- --.li.l ..f matli-rs <.l tasie ? J VVIiat oi 
%r"!ijt«ctiir»» and paintini? ' ."> Wli it oi lives' 7 Wliat m sai.l wf Paris ' 



LOUIS XV - irr.H 



263 



i. As il i^^pards dress, hoops and hi^jh heels \\v\o in ul. theii 
;:loiy. Paint, both red and white, was liberally applied to the face, 
;'rck, and hands; and the heads of tin pcdished court Indies were 
loaded with grease and powder enounh to excite the envy of the Hot- 
tentot bt'lk'S. 

r». The application ofihe.se last was nMJuced to rules witl» scientific 
exactness, and SuMir le Gros p\dilished a v»dnme on the art of hair- 
(iressiiif:, fju" the instruction of liistwelvt^ hundred brother hair-dressers 
III I'arih. 

7. Notwithstandino; the irciu'ral !)a(l t:isi(\ the aj)pearane(; and eou- 
veninnci' of Paris were much imjirovcd liv liouis X\ . A noble 
sipiare was built adjoinin^r to the iranicns of ttie 'I'uileries. In it was 
a bronze statue of the kin^^ on luuseback, placed t>n a pedestal suj>- 
ported by lour marble statues, rcprcsiiilinLr s/rti>.i>t/i, peace, prudence^ 
•.mdjusticr. 

8. After the misconduct of Louis had forfiited the title of Weli' 
Moved, tliis jjjroup gave occasion to the followinir epigram : 

Oh fine j)edestal ! Oh beauiilul statue ! 
On horsohack is vice ; on foot, virtue. 



CHAPTER CLIX. 

The old French War. — The Seven Years' War. — Quebec tahen 
from the French. — Canada conquered by the British. 

1. Co.MiNG in contact as the dominions of France and Kni^land did, 
in widely separated parts of the globe, and with the violent jealousy 
that existed between the two nations, it was hardly p«issible for the 
govt!rnments, liowever pacific might be their inclination, to remain 
long at p(>ace. 

*J. In 1754, the war commenced between the French and English 
colonists in America, which the grandfathers of the present genera- 
tion used often to speak of as tin old French war. It was in this wai 
that Washiufrton gained that military ex])erience he possessed when 
he was first placed in coumiand of tlie army in our struggle for inde- 
pendence. 

'S. The results of this war were very unfi)rtunate fi>r the French 
interest in America. The capture of TiOuisburg, a strongly fi>rlified 
fitv on the island of Cape IJrelon, coiiunanding the entrance of the 
river St. Lawrence, was fidlowed by the? more important cajjture of 
Quebec. 

I. This citv, which ahuos! rivalled (Jibraltar in the .strength of 
its natural position, was taken by ihc Hritish tr«>oj»s under \hv com- 
mand of (ieu. VVuhe in Sept., 1750. The coufjuest of all Canada 



CLIX. — 2 Wtienwa' .l«e war n'mnvW lit-I ween France and Kncland? Wliere did it 
C/tmcence? What ia i alieil in this country / '.' Wlial was to Franre tlie result of 
lh« war ill Anit»r.cri ' J Wht-r. wa-* <'^nf>tioc lakfo ' Rv wlmrn .' -I. Whon did llie 



264 



I.OUFS XV. -17f52. 



was uie constMiinMice, aiul it has remained in llic; possession of tlie 
IJrifish since thai time. 

5. The war did n«»t extend to Kurope till 175(). It is commonlv 
.tailed in European history the St.rrn Yiara' War. In the former 
war, you recolleet that Frane(; an<l 1'rus.sia were comhme«l a;:;ain.sl 
Austria and Kn^^land. In the present war, Austria and France were 
lea<,aied toj;elher ajrainsl Prussia, which receivtjd aid from Knglaml 
alone. 

(». 'I'he secret history ()f this chan<,M' of p(dicy en the part «'l' 
Franct! is said to have heen, that Maria 'I'heresa was most lavish of 
her attentions to tin; rulin<j favorite of Louis ; and that the favorite, 
captivated hy these tlatteries, and an«rry with tin; Kinu of Prussia, 
who was said to have spoken sarcastically of her, was the elfeetual 
advocate of Austria. 

7. Russia, Swe(h'n,and Saxony joined the leajrne aj^aiiist IVussia ; 
but Frederic was not dismayed by the powerful cj)mbination. It 
would take too lon«r u time to jjive you even a brief relation of the 
many exploits which tln^ Kinj? of Prussia performed in the course id" 
this saniruinary war. There scarc(>ly exists, perhaps, in the history 
of the world, any instance in which any other jreneral ever eflected 
so much with means apparently so inadequate. 

8. At len«ftli. exhausted even by his own victories, In; was on the 
[Kunt of falling,' befon; Russia an«l Austria, wIumi he was dtdivered by 
one of those extraordinary <!vents which sometimes are seen to change 
the fortunes of nations. 

9. Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, died in ITti'J, and was succeeded 
by Peter 111. 'i'his younj; monarch was an enthusiastic admirer (d* 
the talents and eourafre of Fre<lerie ; he solieit«Ml his friends^uo, and 
restored all that Russia had taken from him. 



CHAPTKK ( LX. 

The Silhouttlc Style. — The Fani'ily ('omjhirt. — France reduced 

to a very law State. 

1. '1'mk host statesmen of Frauee had l)e«Mi opposed to the war, and 
the first elforts (d'the French arms haviiin- proved successful, they en 
deavored to prevail u[)(>n the k\\\\r to take advantaj^je of that circum 
stance to make an atlvanlaiieoiis peace. 

2. Rut Madame de J\inii»a(Ioiir, the kiii<r"s favorite, who now ^^ov- 
orned everything, found it more lor her interest to continue the war. 
Everything was sacrificed to gratify her avarice and :imbition. She 
appointed and dismissed minisl»?rs and ueiierals at her pleasure, and 



war l>esui inEnroj)e? Wlial is ii called lliere? \Vtn> were lh«" iwrtie:! to it llicre? <! 
VVIuU pRxliiced the cliaiiw ol }K>liry? 7, s. VVJial is said i>f Frederic? 9. What line v 
fiprted evpiu occurred ? What were the consetnionces ? 
OLX. I What was the advice of the statosmen nf France? 2. Who soverr<v1 everv 



IX)UI.S \f.-i76l. 



S2Q5 



#r» greatly ijis..rumental in producing the disasters which now fol- 
l<»wed one another in rapid succession. 

^: /-'^r«'»":»l Rernis, whom she luul made minister, provino- too 
aithtui to tlu! country, was removed to make room for the Duke de 
• hoiseul, who she thoujrht would be more subservient. The care of 
'lu- liiiances was entrusU'd to M. de Silhouette, in the hope that he 
«»Mild devise some plan to extricate thv country from its embarrass- 
ments. 

■I. Rut th(! measures which he adoptetl, though despotic in the high- 
est d.'gree, were so absurd as to make him iIk; object of the ridicule 
nl the lively Parisians. Portraits in the iSilhomtte style, and breeches 
in the S,//,nw//r s/,/fe, became all the rage : ilu; wit consisted in the 
lineaments (d the former being traced on a shadow, and in the lattei 
)«"in;: made with(»ut pockets. 

.>. The generals followed the example of the favorite ; money was 
■oon; thought of than glory, or th<; interests of the country. So cagei 
*u\ sueeesst.d was Marshal Riehelie,, i„ the pursuit, that he acquired 
.<nonrst his own soldiers the title oi' (inurul P/u/ukr. 

(5. F-ance, being brought to the brink id" ruin, implored the assist- 

nce of hMain. In consequence of this application, the famous " Fa?n- 

y Comi-aL*'' was entered into, by which Uie subjects of each mon- 

rch weie >i.<itled to all the privileges of the other, with the single 

t xceptK.n »'i U.e direct trade to America; and the enemies of one were 

4 ways to bb legarded as the enemies of the other. 

7. France gained lutle at this lime by the treaty; its only effect 
was the subjection of her ally to a series' of disasters similar to her 
«)wn. All parties at length feeling themselves exhausted, a general 
p( ace was concludLd at Paris, in February, ITfKi. Thus the nation 
gained repose, but m the expense of a large diminution of her U;rri- 
tones in Asia, Aft ..a, and America, which were ceded to Great 
Rnlain. 



CHAPTER CLXI. 

Goo.l Character of the Dauphin.— Hh Death. — The Philos- 
ophers. — Voltaire ami Rmisseau. 

1. JhK i'eath of Mad?me de Pompad(.ur, in 1764, did not free the 
king from his th-aldom. A new favorite at once suj)plied her place. 
Ihe king rtb.ai(loi!<3d himself entirely to the dominion of vice. 

2. Whilst ti.c i^irrals of the court conformed in a great measure 
to the example oi' the kinrr, yet the royal family presented some 
praiseworthy exc,)ptn.>s. The queen and her four daughters were 
women of exemplaiy ehavacter; but, unluckily, they were also of 

w'."V ^- ^^'''"'^ '-^ ''"''^,'V" ■^'^''^ '•-''"? ^- What wa» the -eneral oh>ct of desire? 

W ',' r."h Tf ""'I" '" ^''"'*-^ RiChel.e.1 ? G. What wa. the Family Compact? 7 
u hat resulted from this compai', \ "^ 

CI.XJ. — 1. What is said of fh -lorals of the king? 2. What of those of the court* 

23 



Am 



LOUIS X\ - 176D 



Tery retired habits, and their example could or^Iy b(. sefi. m a Tery 

narrow circle. , q, ^ „,„. 

3. The dauphiness, also, was a very charming woman bhe wsj 
all kindness and gentleness, and d.>voted her life to the iulfilment of 
her duties as a wife and a mother. The dauphin, too was a man of 
;in excellent character. It speaks loudly in his tavor thai Madame de 

Pompadour was his avowed enemy. «- • r u 

4. Amiable and warm-hearted, he had a sincere affection for his 
father. But the king, influenced by his favorite, received all his dem- 
onstrations of love with coldness. Mortified at such treatment, the 
prince, whose spirits were naturally weak, sank into a state ot mel- 
ancholy. His health gave way, atul he fell into a consumption. 

5 He met the approach of death with the most cheerful tranqui- 
lity His only vvorldly regret was on account ot his son, afterwards 
Louis XVI., left without a guide amid the dangers ot a vicious cou-t 
and a corrupted age. He died in 17(55. 

6. His atfectionate wife, who had nursed him with unremitting 
care during the whole of his illness, contracted the seeds ot his latal 
disorder, and soon followed him to tlie urave. 

7 The virtue and good sense of the dauphin were strikingly illus- 
trated by his opposition to the works and conduct of a large body ot^ 
the men of letters, calling themselves philosophrs. " formerly, 
said the prince, " the name of philosopher inspired veneration ; but 
to call any one a philosopher now, would be an insult that might sub- 
ject the party committing it to a prosecution." 

8 The avowed object of these self-sl vied philosophers was to over- 
lhn»w the Christian religion. They united all their efforts to destroy 
what they commonly called ''fanaticism;" but by this term they 
meant nothing less than Christianity. 

9 The worse the object they proposed, the more determined were 
Ihev in the prosecution of it. Circumstances favored their wicked 
purpose The corruptions of the Church of Rome had alienated many 
people even from religion itself. • t • i i 

10 The tone of infidelity spread into all companies, 1 might almost 
say ii>io ai: conntries, willi aluruiing rapidity ; and in France espe- 
cially if ii did iioi serve to prepare the political revolution ot the sub- 
seiiuenl reign, yet it aggravated its worst excesses 

11 The most eminent writers of the reign ot Louis AV were 
Voltaire and Kousseau The tamilv natne of Voltaire was Arouet. 
He was born at Paris. Feb '2(»th. ir.'M. He was a man ot dry wit 
and of a sarcastic turn ol expression, but of the most outrageous and 
iealous vanity iiTiaoinahle. ^ t^ • j j 

12 He was invited to lierlit. by Frederic of Prussia, and stayed 
there some time . but Frederic could not bear his arrogant;. He 
tied from Prussia, and sen led afterwards at Fernev, near Geneva m 
Switzerlani" He died at Pans, May 30th, 1778 To those vhtlos 



Were there any exceptions ? 3. What is said of the dauphiness? ^J;.»»^;f ^»^«''?;^'P!^"i! 
T. Who were the self-styled philost>phers ? 8. What was their object? 10. What X 
Mid of the progress of their infidelity? What of its effect? 11. Who were lb« 



LOUIS XV. - 1765 



26' 



9j)hers who indulge their wit at the expense of religion, the lattei 
part of Voltaire's life maj ifford a salutary lesson. 

13. No sooner was he attacked by disease, than all his bousted 
philosophy forsook him ; .he fear of death induced him to make a 
formal retraction of his errors ; on a return of health he relapsed into 
impiety ; but a fresh illness gave fresh vigor to his repentance. 

14. In short, the perpetual struggle betwticn vanity and duiy^ 
between the Philosopher and the Christian, that marked the last 
moments of his existence, rendered him alternately an object of pity 
and contempt, and strongly exemplified the worse than uselessness 
of talents, when not subjected to the control of reason and the influ- 
ence of religion. 

15. Rousseau's writings are very impassioned. His feelings 
seemed to follow the current of his imagination, and he had plainly 
no principle by which to regulate them. He too was vain, even to 
a degree of insanity. He quarreled with everybody, even with those 
who were disposed to be his best friends. 

16. Rousseau and Voltaire never could tolerate one another. 
Rousseau was fond of appearing odd. He once made a visit to Lon- 
don, where he attracted great attention by walking about the streets 
in the costume of an Armenian. He was born at Geneva, June 
28 1712, and died July 2, 1778. 



CHAPTER CLXH. 



Disputes betweeji the Jesuits and Jansenists. — The King guar 
rels with the Parliaments. — Life at Chanteloup. 

1. In the reign of Louis XIV. a dispute arose, concerning certair 
abstract points of religious belief, between the Jesuits and a sect 
called Jansenists, (from Jansen the founder.) The king, who was 
entirely governed by the Jesuits in religious matters, and was withal 
very bigoted, commenced a persecution of the Jansenists, and the 
leaders were thrown into prison. 

2. To make their triumph complete, the Jesuits prevailed upon 
the king to refer the dispute to the Pope for a decision. This de- 
cision was in fav(tr of the Jesuits, and the Pope issued a decree, 
which is called a bull, ordering all Catholics to renounce the opin- 
ions of Jansen. But the Pope was no longer considered infallible 
n;ir was a blind obedience yielded to his decrees. 

3. A large portion of the clergy, of the people, and the parlia- 
ments, considered the bull as an infringement upon their rights, and 



eminent writers of this reign ? 12, 13, 1 1. What is said of Voltaire? \Ti, 16. What of 
Rousseau ? , 

CLXII. — 1. What dispute arose in the reiffn of Louis XIV. ? 2. To whom was a de 
cision referred? What was 'he declnion? What was the consequence ? 3. Wh?t ws« 



268 



(X)UIS XV. - )770 



the whole kingdom was thrown into a fern rnt. The death of Looii 
XIV. checked the tumult, and the Duke of Orleans made such exola- 
nations of the hull as induced the clergy to yield .ussent to it ^ 

4. In I7o0 the dispute was revived. The leading clergv were 
now on the side of the Jesuits, wh<,, having also the king wifh them 
commenced a persecution against all who differed fn.m then, in opin- 
Ta\u parliament* deftnded the rights of freedom of thought, 

and the members were banished by the kina " ' 

rJ-lulL ^^%^""^P^"«d, however, by the clamors of the people to 
recall them In the mean time, the Jesuits had made themselves ob- 
Zr/ "" ?^T^""'' ^" ^^ompadour, and to the minister Choiseul, and 
pressed!' ' """'' '"''^ '^'" """'^"' "^ ^^^' ^'^'^^'^ entirely'sup- 

6. The Duke of Choiseul possessed some influence with the kin? 
Ihis he generally exerted to advance what he considered the besi 
interests of the k.ngd<»m. This of course brought him in frenuen 
conflict with the ruling favorite. She took adv^uage of his advi 
office^ the cause ot the parliaments to procure his dismissal frc n 

7. He received a Idfrc de r^cAr/, banishing him to Chantelou3 
1 his was a magnificent palace on the banks of the river Loire Ha 
was considered as a martyr to the cause of liberty, and was soon 
surrounded by the most select and brilliant society in'France. 

a. I he establishment was on a princely scale; the servanta 
amounted to four hundred in number. The g^uests e. joyed the r^osl 
perfect freedom P'.very person spent his mornings i^e pL^d 
At three o clock dinner was served, but those who preferred itTad 
dinner in their own apartments. prt^itneu ii lud 

eslrAt'^lr^'fT'' ''■''^''"'^V '^"^^ conversed, some read aloud : 
every one fi,! lowed his own inclinations ; and those wearisome ques- 
tions, ''Why don't you stay?" and " Where are you going"' ^vert 

anT^e'nt to b^H ''" '^T^^ '^'7 ''' ^"^"^^^ ^^^-^^ - »- Pl--S! 
ment fn J«K ^ ^k''''''^ "' ^' '^^^ "" ^^ ^'^^'^d- The establish: 
men furnished, what was then considered essential, a private 



CHAPTER CLXIII. 

Lettres de Cachet —Abme of Power by Richelieu, 

V '^*'? t^^^''^ de cachet, which occupy so prominent a nlace in th« 
ms ory of France a. this period, were written orders bearii'g the s^al 
uJ the king, banishing the person to whom they were addressed or 
ordering him to be confined in some prison. aoaresscd, or 






LOUIS XV -i7ru. 



£69 



wuUu^,.„„ al..e .o discover .he .m-noe VofX'h l!:^^^:^ 
so lonif n prison ^ r^J^.^ reproached him so much for keeping 

•lie... ".I, ; h'.'ri;,r,::^, ,i5r;r:'" "- •■• -""i » 

afterwards R'chelieu, wh.ch happened five years 

froin the ruline favor te 1 A//~ //. -„ / / 1 , ^"^ """^ Pf"<-"re 

cent victim .o"a sXary dun^eof f^f^^ ""= "'"»- 

was the only release """-"""' '™'" "hieh, m most cases, death 

me to banish you to Chanteloun ^ff,i h^ ^ •,'!■ ^"X"'^' "Wiges 

four hours. I'should senT3 much fimC H ^'"'7 "' '"-">- 
bear th.^duchess, iu whose h^ealthTfrn 'rrii^e led '" ''''"" ' 

some ottr^,^; '.''a rV;;'r';;S"co"" ""' •="""«'' ""' «<' '^X^" 
»««v. • • . 1 y '^^"' cousin, to protect von " Tu^ 

tenn cousin is the iisinl nuwU ^.f J^j ^ i'««^'ti.ci, you. ihe 

and does not in.p.y a^TreraUoLhfplt'rod™"" ""= "'"^ '^ ' """'O' 



CHAPTER CLXIV. 

Ucatk of Louis XV. -Mo,a Frederic II. of Prussia, called 

the hreat. " 

JKloT?'- ^J?l.af iS onS t^":^lJ-It' '' -'''of Cardinal Ficheheu.* 
If them in the reign of I^uisX V ^ f wEm ^ of Baseomp.erre ? 7. What of the um 
Mid of tlM twm cousin ? ^ ''^^ '^'^^ ^^« '«^'«r l« Cho seul? 9. Wutt J. 



2-'>* 



270 



LOUIS XV. -1774. 



w 



all the members a" tne parliament of Paris. This removed the only 
jheck whicii had ever existed on the absolute power of the kmg. 
" 9. A universal lethargy seemed to prevail. All ranks submit- 
ted without resistance to the tvranny of the minister, vviio was ssip- 
3orted by the influence of the fiivorite. The king was mfluenced 
ihrou.rh his fears, and the fate of Charles I. of Enfiland, who waa 
beheaded by order of parliament, was constantly placed before him, 
fts a warninjT to him not to yield. , ^ t 

3 Such was the state of things in France at the death ot J^oius 
XV , which took place May lOih, 1774, in his sixty-filth year, after 
4 reign of fifty-nine years. He was succeeded by his grandson, 

Louis XVI. ^ T^ , . TT r n I 

4 I have made frequent mention of Frederic 11. of Prussia, and 
as he was one of the most distinguished men of the times, 1 think 
you would like to hear a little more about him. His father was a 
man of a brutal and violent temper. He prided himselt on being a 
thorough soldier, and despised all refinements. 

5 He disliked his son, and always spoke of him with contempt, 
as a coxcomb and a Frencb wit, because his taste led him to culti- 
vate his mind by sludv. The (pieen was an amiable, good woman. 
She was very desirous that her son should marry her niece, the Pm- 
cess Anne of England. 

6 Frederic had seen his cousin, and was deeply enamored ot her. 
The kinf^ at first consented to the marriage, but havins: takcR seme 
offence at the father of Anne, (I believe for calling him his brother 
the corporal,) he fi.rbade his son to think any more of the match. 

7 Frederic fi)und this a very hard order to obey, and being more 
and more miserable at home, he, with his mother's approbation, de- 
vised a plan of escape to England. But, unluckily, the plan was 
discovered, and Frederic and his friend and confidant, Baron de LMt, 
were seized at the moment of escape and thrown into prison 

8 The kin^r's first imi)ulse was to put his son to death, but his 
lile was saved''by the intervention of the Austrian ambassador, who 
declared that the Prince of Prussia was under the protection of the 
empire. William, finding he could not take his son s life, inflicted 
on him a most horrible revenge. , • r * r 

He caused the unfortunate De Catt to be executed in tront ot 
the window of his son's prison. The prince fainted away at thia 
horrible spectacle, and was with difficulty brought to himself again 
He was kept in close confinement fi)r three years. 

10 This harsh treatment made a change in the character ot the 
prince. Vie became hard, unfeeling, and despotic. He could be 
iust and liberal, because his reason told him that it was good policy 
to be so ; but he loved nobody and he cared for nobody. Having 
been so great a sufferer from tyranny himself, when he became king 



CI.X1V. - 1. What did the king to the parliament ? 2. What was the state oMee ng 
in France? How was the king kepi in suhjoclion ? 3 When d.d L'^Ui^XV «l.e? 
Who succeeded him? 4. Wlia! ia said of the father of Frederic II. «f Pr\'83'aJ .? 
Whom did hrsVolher wish him to marry? 6. Did his father consent? 7 Whn diu 
Sr2wir aitemo' to do 1 What was the rcault? What waa the kmg s first inten 
MS^rVtaM'S^ntt^lil^excct^on? 9 Wnat revenge did the klnr take? 10. What 



LOrjIS XVI— 1774 



271 



he acted as if he tb >ught he had acquired the greater ngh ^ be » 

tyrant. 

II. He had great courage and decision, and a clear understand- 
ing. Tiie love of fame prompted all his pursuits, and engrossed all 
his fiiculties. He divided his time between war, literature, and ihe 
government of his kingdom. He was very methodical, and there- 
fori; found time to do a great deal. 

V2. He read much, and divided his books into two classes, llie 
first class consisted of the lighter works of the day, which he read 
only once ; the second, of books of established merit, to which he 
wished to give repeated attention. 

l.S. (X each of these select works he had five copies, one for each 
of the five palaces he used to inhabit. Thus, when he removed from 
one palace to another, he had only to make a note of the volume and 
page at which he left off", to be able to resume the perusal, without 
having to carry his books about with him. 

14. He was no lover of pomp, and gave little of his time to trifles. 
Whilst the dress of a courtier was to Louis XIV. almost an affair of 
state, to Frederic II. it was a matter of the utmost indifference. One 
day, some person just arrived from a long journey, made an apology 
for appearing in his travelling dress. The king rebuked him by 
saying, that all he wanted of him was his head, and as long as he 
brought that, he might come in what dress he pleased. 

15. His own dress was never splendid, and n^ often new. He 
commonly wore a blue military uniform, a small wig with a long 
queue, and a little three-cornered cocked-hat. He was never seci. 
abroad without high-topped boots. In his latter years, he would 
indulge himself, when he was indisposed, in wearing a loose gown ; 
l)iit even then he w;is seldom seen without his cocked-hat, and never 

without his boots. 

IfJ He indulged in the use of snuflf to excess, and snuff-boxes, 
of which he had an incredible number, were his only personal 
vanity. The only living things to which he was uniformly kind were 
liis dogs. He had a favorite breed of very small greyhounds, and 
some of them were always with him. When he travelled, and even 
when enc igeu in war, he would carry one of these little animals m 
his arms. 



f 



CHAPTER CLXV. 

f/yuis XVL, surnamed ''the Desired:' — Mark A ntoimtie, hv^ 

Queen. 

1. The extravagance of Louis XIV. and the wickedness of Lruia 
?CV. had reduced France to a most melancholy condition. The 



.hanee took place in the character of Frederic? 11 What is ^id of his character I 
12 13. What of his library ? 14, 15, 16. What of his i^rs'.nal habits? 



272 



LOUIS XVl— 1774. 



Fteople were loaded with the most oppressive taxes, and infidelity and 
inentiougness pervaded all classes. 




Louis XVL, 1774 to 1793. 

2. The accession of a prince " who, in the most corrupt court, had 
led an uncorrupt life ; in tlie midst of irreligion and atheism had pre- 
served a pure and enlightened devotion ; who was personally eco- 
nomical in the midst of unbridled luxury," was hailed with joy. 

3. The hope that inspired all classes was well expressed by the 
surname, ^^ the Desired,^' which, as it rellected censure on his prede- 
cessor, the g^ood feelincr of Louis XVI. would not permit him to accept. 

4. Louis apj)lied himself dilinfcntly to redress the grievances of 
the people. lie recalled tiie parliament ; he dismissed the faithless 
ministers, and banished the dissolute companions of Louis XV. 
He labored hard to restore order to the finances. Nothing could be 
more amiable than his disposition. The happiness of his people was 
the great object of his solicitude, 

5. Hut all these good qualities could not compensate, in the opin- 
ion of the fickle Parisians, (and in matters of opinion their word is 
law throughout France,) for certain personal deficiencies in the king. 

6. He was clumsy in his person, careless and untidy in his dress, 
and his countenance was heavy and unpleasing. He did not look 
like a king, and the French, who are of all people in the world most 
governed by the eye, soon lost all respect for him. 

7. Long used to the blaze and llutter of a gaudy court, they 
could not reconcile themselves to a monarch who preferred the sim- 
ple habits and amusements of private life, and tobk more pleasure 

, in making locks and keys in his little workshop, than in presiding 
over splendid fetes. 

8. The (|U(>en also shocked them by the contempt with which siie 
treated those unmeaning ceremonials which had been introduced by 
Louis, and which like his uhost still haunted the court. This queen 
was Marie Antoinette, daughter of the Empress IMaria Theresa. 

9. Her marriage with Louis took place in 1770. During the fes- 



CLXV -1. What was the state of France al the death of l^iiia XV. ? 2. What ta 
«did of the tiiaracter of Louis XVI.? 3. What surname was given lo him? 4. What 
did ho do? 6. Wlial i.s said of his personal appearance? 7. What of the fueling of th# 
peopla 8. What wiu the conduct of Ih'j que^n ? Who was she ? U, 1' . What ban 



» 



LOUIS XVI — 1774. 



273 



tiritiefl of that occasion, an event occurred which the supe»^titiolll^ 
looked upon as a most inauspicious omen. The city of Paris, to 
testify their joy, caused a brilliant display of fireworks to be made in 
the square of Louis XV. A crowd of six hundred thousand assem- 
bled to witness it. 

10. The display of fireworks being- over, the crowd rushed from 
the square. The foremost fell over a heap of rubbish which had 
negligently been left in the street which was the principal outlet. 
Those behind continued to keep on, and thus prevented those who 
had fallen from recovering their feel They were thus crushed to 
death ; others fell over them, and the whole number of victims to this^ 
negligence was estimated at between eleven and twelve hundred. 

11. The queen was only fifteen when she was married. She was 
beautiful, thoughtless and wilful. Her whole education had been 
confined to a few accomplishments. Conscious of her own ignorance, 
she disliked knowledge in other women, and it is said that sense and 
information never found favor with her. 

12. It is certain that the two ladies who enjoyed her friendship 
were both of them, though amiable, sweet-tempered, and of irreproach- 
able character, women of very ordinary capacities. These were the 
Princess de Lamballe and the Duchess de Polignac. 

13. Marie Antoinette lived to lament her own deficiencies, and to 
say, " What a resource in the casualties of life is a well-informed 
mind!" Her own defects were apparent to all the world, and soon 
deprived her of the respect of the public. Her amiable qualities were 
seen only by those who knew her intim^ '^y. 

14. Her manners were singularly engaging and fascinating to those 
she liked, and with whom she could feel at ease. She was warm in 
her friendships, and benevolent and tender-hearted almost to an ex- 
cess ; but her feelings were under no regulation, and she attempted 
neither to control nor disguise them. Here resentments were also as 
warmly expressed as her friendships, and this occasioned her manv 
enemies. 



CHAPTER CLXVI. 

More about Marie Antoinette. — Monsieur, aftencards Lmiih 
XV III. — The Count d'Artois, afterwards Charles X 

1. It was very natural that a young and lively princess should find 
the court formalities extremely irksome. Still she was very unwise 
to show her dislike of them. To relieve their tedium, she admitted 
gentlemen into her court parties, which no preceding Queen of France 
had done. 



j»r.ed at the time of her marriage? II. W|)at ia said of her character at that tiniel 
»*. Who were her friends? What is said of their character? 13. Wliat furthsr ia saM 
of her characte- ? 14. What of her manners ? 



"^1 



i 



212 



LUUl^ XVl- 1774. 



LOUIS X\l — 1774. 



273 



fi 



eople were lorulcd witJi the most oppressive luxes, an-.l iiifulelitv and 
u'leiitioufiiess pervaded all classes. 




Lrnns XVI., 1774 to HUS. 

2. The accession of a prince " who, in the most corrupt court, had 
led an un.'-orruitt life ; in the ]ni(lst of irrelifjion and atheism had pre- 
served a jmrc! and enlii:littn''d devotion ; who was personallv eco- 
nomical in the nudst of nnl)ri<lli'd luxury," was hailed with jov. 

.*{. The hope that inspind all classes was well expressed by the 
surname, "' //<^ Dfsira/,''' which, a^ ii rellectcd censure on Ids {)re(le- 
cessor, the u^ood feeliiiji of J.oiiisXVI. would not permit him to accept. 

4. Louis applied iiinisrlf dili<iently to redress the grievances of 
the people, lie recalled the parliament; he dismissed the faithle>.3 
ministers, and banished the dissolute com{)anions of Louis X\ . 
He labored hard to restore order to the fmanct>s. Nothing could be 
more amiable than his (li.sj)osition. The happiness of his people was 
the jjreat object of his S(dicitud(\ 

5. Hut all these y:ood cpialities could not compensate, in the ojiin- 
ion of the fickle Parisians, (and in matters of opinion their word is 
law throun^lwiut France,) for certain personal (lefi(riencies in the king. 

0. lie was clumsy iu his persttn, careless and untidy in his dress, 
and his countenance was heavy and unplcasinn-. He did not look 
like a kinir, :i!ul the Trench, who are of ail [people in the world most 
governed by the eye, soon lost all resj)ect for him. 

7. Long used to the blaze and llutter of a gaudy court, they 
••ould not reconcile themselves to a monarch who preferred the sim- 
ple habits and amusen\ents of private life, and took moi:e pleasure 
in making locks and keys in his little workshop, than in presiding 
over si>kMHlid fetes. 

8. The (pieen also shocked them by the contempt with which she 
treated those unmeaning ceremonials which had been introduced by 
Louis, aiid wliieb like his Lrhost still hauntcul the c(uirt. This queen 
wtis Marie Antoinette, dtiughter of the Kmpress iNIaria Theresa. 

U. Her marriage with Louis took place in 1770. During the fea- 



Cl.XV -I.Wlint was t!ie si;iie of Fmnce ;it the .le:Uh of Louis XV. ? 2. What it 
*.inl of the c.iaractcr of Ldiiis XVI.? ;{. \Vh:it snruaine was iziveii lo hiiM? 4. What 
did he do? G. Wlial is said of hi^ periiixvil appeaniace? 7. What of the fueling of lh< 
peopl« 8. What was the comtiicl of iho qiie?n ? Who was she? ".>, 1*. What hao 



^ 



f 



tiritica of that x!casion, an event occurred which the supe.&iitiouR 
looked upon as a most inauspicious omen. "^Lhe city of Paris, to 
testify their joy, caused a brilliant (lis})lay of fireworks to be made in 
the square of Louis XV. A crowd of six hundred thousand assem- 
bled to witness it. 

10. The display of fireworks being over, the crowd rushed from 
the stpiare. 'Fhe foremost fell over a heap of rubbish which had 
negligently been left in the street which was the principal outlet. 
Those behind continued to keep on, and thus prevented those who 
bad fiUen from recovering their feet They were thus crushed to 
death ; others fell over them, and the whole number of victims to this. 
n(nrlifT(Miee was estimated at between eleven and twelve hundred. 

11. The queen w;is oidy fifteen when she was married. She was 
beautiful, thoughtless and wilful. Her whole education had been 
cofifined to a few accomjdishments. Conscious of her own ignorance, 
she disliked knowledge in other women, and it is said that sense and 
information never found favor with her. 

12. It is certain that the two ladies who enjoyed her friendship 
were both of them, though amiable, sweet-tempered, and of irreproach- 
able character, women of very ordinary capacities. These were the 
Princess de Laml)alle and the Duchess de Polignac. 

13. Marie Antoinette lived to lament her own deficiencies, and to 
say, " What a resource in the casualties of life is a well-informed 
mind !' Her own defects were apparent to all the world, and soon 
deprived her of the respect of the public. Her amiable qualities were 
seen oidy by those who knew her intim»x 'v. 

14. Her manners were singularly engaging and fascinating to those 
she liked, and with whom she could feel at ease. She was warm in 
her friendships, and benevolent and tender-hearted almost to an ex- 
cess ; but her feelings were under no regulation, and she attempted 
neither to control nor disguise them. Here resentments were also as 
warmly expressed as her friendships, and this occasioned her manv 
enemies. 



CHAPTER CLXVL 

More ahout Marie Antoinette. — Monsieur, afterwards Lmiti 
XV III. — The Count d'Artois, afterwards Charles X. 

1. It was very natural that a young and lively princess should find 
the court formalities extremely irksome. Still she was very unwise 
to show her dislike of them. To relieve their tedium, she admitted 
gentlemen into her court parties, which no preceding Queen of France 
had done. 



per.ed at the time of her marriage? IL WMiat is said of her character at th.it timel 
;•-. Who were her friends? What is said of their character? 13. What further i« saiif 
of hercharacto"? 14. What of lier manners 7 



274 



LOUIS XVI — 1774. 



2. Her great delight was to abandon the court altogether, and to 
retire with a chosen circle of friends to her little farm at Trianon, 
where, dismissing the queen, she would act the farmer's wife, and, 
attired in a simple dress of white muslin, would employ herself in 
her dairy and garden. 

3. But here was more the appearance than the reality of a farm. 
The thatched building, which looked so much like a barn, proved on 

entering it to be a splendid ball-room. The Parisians thought that 
acting the dairy-maid was a very silly occupation for their queen. 




Ruins of Mane Antoinette's farmhouse. 

4. But there Aas nothing which so much lowered her in their eyes 
18 her evening walks on the terraces of Versailles. These terraces 
were a public walk, and in summer evenings were thronged with 
people. The queen delighted to mingle in the crowd, and because 
she wore a nrask, she fancied herself unknown. 

5. But her grace and dignity betrayed her through her disguise, 
and she was often exposed to insults, from persons who would not, 
except for her disguise, have presumed to address her. Although 
she was fully aware that the public censured her for these evening 
walks, her friends could not prevail on her to give them up. 

G. She forgot that every station has not only its peculiar duties, 
but also its own anuisements, and that what was proper enough for 
some persons, might be very improper and impolitic for a Queen of 
France. Unhappily, almost all her anmsements were of a sort that 
lowered hei in the public estimation. 

CLXVI. — 1 How did the queen try to relieve the dulncss of her parlies ? 2. What 
was her chief pleasure? ."<. What ia said of her farm? What was the opinion of the 
Pirisians? 4. What is said of her evening walks? 5. How was she known in her dia 
guiae } 6. What is said of her conduct f 7. What amusement was then the fashion ^ 



t 



LOUIS XVI. -1770. 



275 



f 



7. Private theatricals were at that time a univ,.fsal oaaion i„ 

trance, and to be able to act was an accomplishment no CesU- 

lal to a lady than to be able to dance. This exactly suited Tp 

hvely disposition of the queen ; she had her prfvaTe theatre and 

on tlfe\ra;r "' ''"''"™"' """''' '"""'""y -''ibH tV^lf 

stvVw'ls'?''^ *" >l.e eldest of the two brothers of the king wa. 

He eve" write iri^L^f .'I''"'"' P^'^""^". ="'<! f"nd of literltur" 
xiL e\en urote articles for tiie newspapers. When i bnv Im U^A #1. . 

reputatmn of havn.g the most talent of U.e family ^' *'" ^'^ '''" 

.> Ihere is a story that when Louis and his brothers were voun.r 
a deputation was sent from the country with an address to hen ' 
a flari,r/'^f''''^ the dauphin, as bein^g the eldest, Idtegan^^^^^^^^ 

10 ^ ^»";pl»"|ent to his talents and progress in learning. ^ 
Monsieur ..in' ^^T^ "^^errupted the spokesman, and pointing to 
bo^' Wr^ h'pr .?''' ^°" "^"^V'^^.^n n^y brother; he is the clever 
rr^* A .v^ u ''^^^^'' '''* "^'' ^"'s was an honest boy, and he ore- 

r^ro^fc^Vitr^" ''''■ ^""^'^" ^"--""^^ -'^-'^ 

11. The other brother of the king, called the Count d'Artois wa^ 

Hy't^LtTf^^^ ^' "- handsome gay In^ 

S ' and nil ri? ^/^'^^^'«"« "•"^h more than serious employ- 
ment and partook in all the queen's diversions, and encouraged her 

harlLF of wf "''•''""• nT*" ^^""^ ^'^^^"'^ i« the same L 
I tiarles X., of whom you will hear more presently. 



CHAPTER CLXVII. 

Dr. Fraiiklin in Paris. — Revolutions in Dress, 

* \' Tr'^u-^ "^Vf " "^ ^""^h ^ character, it was very natural that the 
.tyle of fashionable society should have been frivolous in the extreme 
Nothing was thought of but amusements. To dress to act to sT^' 

o dance, were the sole business of life. To male comp limen" fj 

stretch of intellect among the wits of the day. 

2. All at once a revolution was wrought in these follies, and an 

Trltd'ErDr T'1^''^''y^• This'revolution in fashion wa 
iroduced by Dr. trankhn, who now made his appearance at the 
French court a^ one of the deputies of the America^ Congress sent 
K. ask the assistance of France in the war which the Unfted State^ 
were then carrymg on to gain their independence. 
6 Ihe simplicity of his dress turned the heads of the ladies, and 

.LJlVIl.- 1 What was the state of fashionable society in France? 2 What pro 






Se74 



LOUIS XVI —1771. 



LOUIS XVI. -1770. 



275 



2. Her great delij^Mit was to abandon the court altogether, and lo 
retire with a chostMi circle of friends to her little farm at Trianon, 
where, dismissing tiie ([ueen, she would act the farmer's wife, and, 
attired in a simple dress of white muslin, would employ herself in 
her dairy :nid irarden. 

3. JJut here was more the aj)pearance tluin the reality of a farm. 
The thatched huildin<,s which looked so nuich like a ham, proved on 

enierino- it to he a sphiiidid hall-mom. The Parisians thou<jht that 
actinjr the dairy-maid was a very silly occupation for their queen. 




litiins nf J\Iane Antoinette s farmhouse. 

4. But thera .vas nuthmir which so much lowered her in their eyes 
18 her evening; walks on the terraces of V(>rsailles. These terraces 
were a public walk, ;iiid in summer e'venings were thronged with 
people. Tiie queen delighted to mingle in the crowd, and because 
she wore a mask, siie fancied hensclf unknown. 

5. IJut her ijrace ;iud dignity betniyed her through her disguise, 
and she was often (Xposed to insults, trom persons who would not, 
except for her disguise, luive presumed to address her. Although 
she was fully aware that the public censured her for these evening 
walks, her friends could not prevail on her to give them up. 

(). vShe forgot that ev(>ry station has not only its peculiar duties, 
but also its own amusements, and that what was proper enough for 
e«Mne persons, might be very improper and impolitic for a Queen of 
France. I'nhappily, almost all her anuisements were »)f a sort thnt 
lowered hei in the public estimation. 

CLXVI. — 1 How dill the (inoon try to rpliove ibe dulncf^s of her {VtPties? 2. What 
was her chief pleasure ? ;?. What ia said of her fann ? Whal was the opinion of ihe 
Pifisians .' 4. Whal is said of lier evening walks? 5. How was she known in her dia 
|uim? 6. What is said of her comhicl ' 7. What amusement was then the fashion' 



7. Private theatricals were at that time a univtrsal Da«ion in 

I; ranee, and to be able to aet was an aecon.plishn.ent no lesf esU 

lal to a lady than to be able to dance. This exactly suited X 

vely d,spos,t,on of the queen ; she had her private the,"tre and 

™ Ufe's^nl"' ' "'" '""'■"""'"■ "■""'•' '-l"'">'y -^''ib" herself' 

MvVw-ST';;.*' ""■;'''''1 '"■ """"" '■>•<'"'"« of the kin. was 
eve, wr,',, M.""'- ".T'""" I«^^""^'S<-, ""d lond of li.enuure 
evtu »n tp .Liiiclos lor Ihe newspapers. When a hov he h-.d il... 
ivputatm,! 01 huvin^Mhe „,ost tal,.nt of ,h,,. fun,ilv ^' ' "'" 

.' Ihere i.s a .s|„ry that wlion Louis and hi.sbroilier<. were von,,,, 
a deputation was sent fron. .he country »,th a,, Sre s .. , m" 
I be orator .adc^ressed the dauphin, as bein> ,he eldest and ber^n.whh 
a lanns co,np|„ne„. ,„ his talents an,l pr.rjjress i„ lea'r'^ 
Monsieu ^Z' • t'" """'■"I'"-''' "'« «l'"kes,nan, and pointing to 

hoy '• Wbe 1,'erM ' •'"" "'"^ '"«="' ">>' '"-"'I'^r : he is the clever 
hoy. Wbetber clever or not, Louis was an honest boy, and he nre- 

rbrufi^'o^t'orxVi'ir"^'" "'^- "°"^^™^ ^^—-^ -'^'^^ ^ 

U. The other brother of the king, called the Count d'Artois was 
livHv "tr '","',?'■",="«' Monsieur: He was handsom^ gay a,^ 
liNely , he loved trivolous diversions much more than serio, s emolov- 
tnents, and partook in all the .lueen's diversions, aiul c™ouraeed her 

i". ri^rof^vt'"''"''""- ,.!'"' '^'"'"•' ''■^""--"- 
I narles A., ol whom you will hear more presently. 



CHAPTER CLXVri. 

Dr. Franklin in Paris. — Rnolutions in Dress. 

1. VViTH a queen of such ■^ character, it was very natural that the 
.tyle ot fashionable society should have been frivolous in the extreme 
Nothing was thonght of but atuusements. To dress to act t w' 
o dance, were the sole busmess of |,fe. T<, r^i coruid'imen ry 

sTetoh^fln' ,r\""^""'"^"'"*'^ "^^-^ "'•' ^'^^^-«^ -«' most de c«d 
stretch ot intellect imioiig the wits of the d;iv 

0. All at once a revolution was wrought" in these follies, and an 

roduud by Dr. franklin, who now made his appearance at the 
brenchcourt.-Ls<.noof,he deputies of the American Congress s(i 
lo ask the assistance of France in the war which the Unfted State 
were then carrying on to gain their independence. 
3 Ihe simplicity of his dress turned the heads of the ladiee, and 



^^i^^ wT wa^'h^s c,:;:.tv.''^ ■^'^""•^^^^ ''■ ^^^" -- ^»^« ^' 

.LJIV II. - 1 What was the slate of fi^^hionahle society in France? 2 What pro 



10 
^ihei 



276 



LOUIS XVI. — 1776. 



alter6ii the coats of the j^entlenien. The gold lace and embro.deiy, 
and the powdered curls, wiiicli had been the pride ol" the Parisian 
beaux, were all discarded. The line gentlemen appeared wiih theii 
hair cut straight, and in plain brown coats like that of this sober 
American. 

4. A t rench writer thus speaks of the arrival of the deputies : 
" It was as if the sages of Rome and Greece had snddtMily appeared ; 
their antiiiue simpli(;ity of dress, their firm and plain demeanor, theii 
free and direct languai;e, formed a contrast to the frivolity, effeminacy 
and servile refinements of the French. The tide of fashion and nobil- 
ity ran after these republicans, and ladies, lords, and men of letters 
all worshipped them." 

5. At a spletidid entertainment given to the deputies, the ('ount- 
ess de Polignae, one of the most distinguished of the court beUes, 
advanced to l)r. Franklin, and placed a crown of laurel on his 
head. 

6. The revolutions in the costume of the ladies were not less ex- 
traordinary in their way than the other great revolutions which were 
going on. At the conunencement of the reign of Ijouis XVI. the 
hair, loaded with powder and pomatum, was drawn up to a height 
which seemed to plac^e the face in the middle of the body. 

7. The body was compressed into a stiff case of whalebone, which 
checked the i)ower of breathing, and almost deprived the victim of 
the power of eating'- ; while a pair of cumbrous hoops, place-d on 
her hips, gave to iier })etticoat the amplitude of a small iniiated 1ml- 
loon. In this slrauLTc disguise, it would almost have puzzled the 
learned nutjon himsc^lf to decide under what genus such a female an- 
imal aliouhl be classed. 

8. Pictures wrrt? publislied in which hair-dressers were represented 
as mounted on laddiTs, dressing the ladies" hair. It was all in vain, 
howover, th:it ridicule was levelled anaitisl thcsL' enormous piles. 
They continued lo rise higher and higher, till a violent illness of the 
queen, which caused her to lose her hair, occasioned their downfall. 
Suddenly, as if with one consent, every lady in France was seen with 
a flat head ! 

9. Th(; next great change was wrouryht by the author St. Pierre, 
who, in the tale of Paul and Virginia, has described Virginia as 
attired in a simple robe of white muslin, and a plain !>lraw hat. This 
simple picture instantly captivated the ladies of Paris. 

H). The silks, satins, and formal dress, which had reirrned wit'i 
different modifications from the time of St. Louis, now all vanishec^ 
as if by magic, and nothing was to be seen, from the queen to th( 
waiting-maid, but white muslin gowns and straw hats. 

11. With the rage for liberty was introduced an admiration for the 
old republics of Greece and Rome. The ladies then dressed their 
heads in imitation of antique busts, and end< ivored lo copy the lighl 
and scanty drapery of ancient statues. 



diicw! a chansre ? 3. What cluinire was eirected ? 4. What is snid of the ariival of tha 
Ainericaa clepulies at Paris ? 5. What happened at an eiucnairimeiil to them? 6, 7. 
^iul fashion prevailed at the beginning of the reign of I/>uis XVT. ? 8 Wnat produeail 



h 



I 



\ 



IX)UIS XVI —1776. 



2^7 



« While the ladies were thus attired like Grecians, the gentlo- 
nien Kept them in countenance by cropping their hair like Romans. 
This passion for the antique was put an end to by the appearance at 
the theatre of a f unous actress in the character of a t hinese girl, 
dressed according to the idea she had formed of the costume of China 
with her petticoats U»aded with frills. 

13. The novelty of these frills again enchanted the Parisians, who 
soon mutlled themselves up in frills and ruffs. The fashion found its 
way to America, though many ladies there were, I dare say, quite 
unconscious that they were dressing themselves " a la Chinuis uu 
Francois. ^^ 



CHAPTER CLXVIII. 

Turgot. — Necker. — The American Revolutionary War. — 

La Fayette. 

1. We left Louis XVI. trying to devise some remedies for the 
evils which, with his kingdom, he had inherited from his ancestors. 
The most embarrassing of these were connected with the finances. 
The charge of providing a remedy for these was committed to Turgot, 
a man of jireat and enlijihtened abilities. ^ 

2. lie saw clearly the existing evils and the proper remedy foi 
them. Hut as the disease was great, so must the remedy be viident. 
The king, however well-<lis|)osed, was weak and timic' He feared 
lo apply the remedy, and Turgot reliiuiuished his charge. 

3. The appointment of the successor is a striking evider.ce of the 
pood intentions, and at the same time of the anxiety, of the king. 
Necker, a Swiss by birtli, a Protestant in religion, and a banker by 
profession, was appointed to an office, for which noble birth, the pro 
iession of the Catholic faith, and the being a native of France, had 
hitherto been deemed indispensable qualifications. 

4. A new cause of disquietude to the king now arose. The dif- 
ferences between Great Britain and her North American colonies had 
ended in a war. The colonies applied to France for assistance. It 
was urged upon Louis that this was a most favorable opportunity of 
weakening her old rival, and of regaining the territory and the mil- 
itary reputation which France had lost in the last war. 

5. 1 hese were great temptations. But Louis was of a peaceable 
temper, and felt, perhaps, some repugnance, as a king, to encourage 
subjects in resisting their sovereigns. He could have no sympathy 



!he first change? 9. 10. Wlial produced the new change? What was the change? 
11. What change came next ? 12. What efTecled another change? 

CLXVIII. — I. To whom wa.^ the care of the finances commuted ? 2. What is said of 
Tiirgol? 3. Who succeeded Turgot? What i.s said of Necker? 4. What new cause 
of anxiety irose ? What arguments were addressed to Louis? 5. Whal effect hat' 
Ibey ? 6. What was the feelin? of the French nation ? 7. Who was the most ardent 

94 






278 



LOUIS XV - 1784. 



LOUIS XVI— 1788. 



279 



writh rebels, as these noble-spirited colonists were called, and the assist- 
ance was refused. 

6. Happily for the colonists, a different spirit prevailed among the 
French people. Animated partly by a horror of oppression, and 
partly by a love of glory, both of which feelings had survived the 
death of the more formal attributes of chivalry, many of the French 
resolved to give their personal aid to the cause which their kino- de- 
clined espousing. ° 

7. At the suggestion of the Uritish ambassador, the king interfered 
to prevent this. The most ardent advocate of the cause of Amer- 
ican liberty, the young Marquis de La Fayette, was committed to 
prison. Contriving to elude the vigilance of his keepers, ne escaped 
into Spain, and from thence sailed to America. He arrived at the 
moment of the greatest despondency, but his coming spread iov and 
restored confidence. • ^ f j j 

8. The example of La Fayette kindled an enthusiasm throughout 
Trance. Absolute monarchs often find it politic to yield to the 
wishes of their subjects, and Louis was not of a temper long to resist 
the popular will. A treaty was made with the United States of 
North Anrierica, in which their independence was recognized by 
t ranee. This was considered by England as a declaration of wa> 
against her. 

1). The war between France and England was carried on princi- 
pally upon the sea, and with variable success ; but on the whole favor- 
ably for France. By the peace which was concluded at Versailles 
"u •^""'^'■y' ^*^^' s''*^ recovered nearly or quite all the possessions 
she had lost during the former war, except Caruda. 



CHAPTER CLXIX. 

Events which preceded the French Revoliaion. 

1. After the peace of 1783, the internal difficulties of France rap- 
idly increased. The expenses of the war had added greatly to the 
public debt. The exemption of the property of the clergy and nobles 
from the payment (»f taxes, whilst it diminished the national resources, 
naturally aggravated the discontent of the people. 

2. The queen and the court had never been reconciled to the ap- 
pointment of M. Neckcr to oflfice. In addition to his want of noble 
birth, his integrity and the austerity of his manners were not to their 
taste. He was, in consequence, dismissed from oflfice in 178L 

a.lvocale of America \ What is said of La Fayette 1 8. What effect had his example ', 
:». What 18 .said of the war? When was peace made? What did France gain by the 

CTJCIX. — 1. What was one of the consequences of the war? What increased the evils t 
8. WHat IS said of the queen's feeling towards Necker? What measure was adopted 1 



te 



3. This was an unfortunate measuie for the king, for the very cir- 
cumstances which made him obnoxious to the court gave him credit 
with the people, and his dismissal furnished new grounds of complaint 
In 1783, M. de Calonne was appointed minister. 

4. He found himself compelled to propose a measure, which, 
equitable as it is, was not proposed until every other expedient for 
raising money had been tried in vain. This was to make the landed 
property of the clergy and nobles bear its due share of the public 
burden. 

5. This measure could not be carried into execution without the 
consent either of those bodies themselves, or of some great national 
council. The assembling of the States-General was the most natural 
resource. In this all the orders of the state were represented. This 
body had not been called together since 1644. 

6. But, in the existing state of the country, this appeared to tlie 
king to be a hazardous measure. They might not content themselves 
Arith removing the evil for the redress of which they were called to- 
gether, but might proceed to the consideration of the other causes of 
complaint. 

7. For it is to be observed that, at this time, the people not only 
suffered many grievances from the actual despotism both of the gov- 
ernment and of the nobles, but that (the principles of liberty, which 
made them more sensible of these grievances, were very generall} 
discussed and very popular^ 

8. The interest taken in the late war in America had diffused an 
enthusiasm for republican principles ; and many writers, Rousseau in 
particular, had advocated them with a most persuasive eloquence 
In this state of opinion, Calonne reasonably dreaded the conse 
quences which might result from the assembling of the States- Gen- 
eral. 

9. The parliaments appeared determined to support the exclusive 
interests of the privileged classes. The only remaining alternative 
was to convene the Notables ; an assembly consisting of a number of 
persons summoned from all parts of the kingdom, selected by the 
king himself, and chiefly from the higher orders of the state. The 
Notables had been convened by Henry IV. and by Louis XIII. 

10. They now met on the 22d February, 1787. The number of 
members was one hundred and forty-four. This assembly, however, 
would not listen to the measures which were proposed by Oalonne, 
and that minister, finding the tide setting against him, was obliged 
to resign his office. M. de Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse, w;is 
appointed his successor. 

11. Brienne was equally unsuccessful with the notables, and 
they were consequently dissolved in May. Finding himself totally 
incompetent to manage affairs, Brienne resigned in 1788. His ad- 
ministration had made bad worse. Haughty, and at the same time 



3. What were its effects? Who succeeded Necker? 4. What measure was pntfxised 
by Calonne? 5. What was necessary to carry it into effect? What \a said of the 
Sut^es-General 1 6, 7, 8. Why were they not called together? 9. What was it deter- 
mined to do' What is said of the Notables ? 10. When did they meet? What did 
Ikeydo? Who succeeded Calonne? II. What is said t»f Brienne? 12 What courw 






/I 



■ _1J!^ —1. ' , T " 



280 



LOU155 AVI. — i7S9. 



Bervilu and inefficient, he had brought authority into contempt. Hu 
had s^Mired to himself the highest and most lucrative ecclesiastica 
dignities in the state, and now retired ilIo Italy to enjoy them, leaV' 
iiig the king to weather the storni alone. 

12. The king now saw no resource but to throw himself into the 
arms of the popular party. Necker was reinstated in his office. The 
joy of the people was immoderate. It seemed as if they conceived 
that he possessed a magical wand ; that by waving it he could pay 
oti* an immense pui)lic debt without money; and, that by another 
movement of it he could, with the same ease, supply six and twenty 
millions of people with corn and bread. 

13. In pursuance of the advice of Necker, the States-General were 
summoned to meet on the 1st May, 1789. This was composed of 
representatives of the three estates of the kingdom, as they were 
called ; that is, the clergy, the nobles, and the people. 

II. The Ihinl estate^ that is the people, demanded that the number 
of their re[)n'beiitatives should be equal to that of both the others 
taken together ; and the king, after much deliberation, conceded to 
them their double reprtscnlation. Another very important question 
was, whether the three estates should meet together and form one 
body, or whether they should meet in three distinct bodies. 

15. In this latter case, every measure, before it could become a law, 
must receive the assent of two of the estates, voting separately. It 
would appear to be very easy, therefore, for the clergy and the nobles, 
whose interests were very much the same, to unite against the peo- 
ple. On the other hand, if they met in one body, the people would 
have a great ascendency over the other orders. tDlH>n this question 
the king had not courage enough to ccime to any decisioiiTT 






. CHAPTER CLXX. 

The Duke of Orleans. — Madame de Genlis. — The Duhe de 
Char t res y ?ww Louis Philippe. — Mirabeau. 

1. There were many among the nobles, who, from dislike to the 
queen, or from the hope of aggrandizing themselves, had fermented 
the popular discontents. The chief of these was the Duke of Or- 
leans, great-grandson of the regent of that name ; he had inherited 
some of his ancestor's talents, most of his vices, and very few, if any. 
of his cap-ivating qualities. 

2. He hated the queen because she had beefl too frank and un 



did the km? adopt next ? What was the popular feeling » 13. What was Necker'.s ad- 
vice? What were the Slates-General? 14. What did the third estate demand .' Whal 
an.swer was made to it? What other important (juestion arose* 15. What were the 
reasons on each side of the (luestion ? 

CLXX. — I. What is said of many of the nobles? Who was thechief of the discontent 
•diioWes? Who was the Duke of Orleans? What was hj-'charac'er? 2 WhjtwashU 



IA»UI^. XVI. - 17>T.. 



283 



i^iarded to coticeal her disapprobation of his conduct, and graiined his 
malice by attacking her character in every possible way. Most of the 
abusive pamphlets, which in the beginning of the rev(dution were cir- 
culated against the queen, could be traced to liis palace 

3. Not contented w ith vilifying the queen, he is said to have aimed 
also at dethroning the king, in the hope of obtaining the crown • this 
criminal ambition he concealed under the mask of patriotism. But 
his desires exceeded his means of accomplishment. 

4. He had no character, and no power of any kind, except what 
his immense wealth and his undaunted wickedness gave him. While 
he deceived himself w ith the idea that by coiTq»assing the ruin of the 
royal family he was at once gratifying his revenge and his ambition, 
he was in fact preparing his own destruction. 

5. Wicked as he was himself, and engrossed as we may suppose 
his thoughts to have been with his ambitious projects, he did not 
neglect lilie education of his children. Ihis he entrusted to the cele- 
brated Madame de Genlis, whose delightful tales of domestic life were 
the first deviation from the stitVand formal old French novel. 

0. This selection of governess was a most happy one ; her pupils 
have been as distinguished for their virtues, as their father was foi 
his vices. The ehh st of these is Louis Philippe, the late King 
of the French. Of him, Madame de Genlis always spoke with admi- 
ration, but with evident pride, even while she disclaimed all credit. 
" His inherent dispositions," she would say, *' were so happy, that 
lie owed almost everything to nature." 

7. Another of the nobles who attached themselves to the popular 
party, was the Count de Mirabeau. He was even worse than the 
Duke of Orleans in his nuirals, and was more capable of doing mis- 
chief; for in eloquence and genius he stood far above any man in 
France. He was elected a representative of the commons. 



CHAPTER CLXXl. 

Meeting of the States-General. — The Jacobin Club. — A royal 
Session. — Meeting at the Teiinis Court. 

1. IMosT of the deputies appeared at Versailles on the day appoint- 
ed, but as the elections in the city of Paris were not yet concluded, 
the king deferred the commencement of the sessions til the 5th of 
May. The members employed the interval in forming an acquaint- 
ance with one another. 

2. The most zealous advocates for the rights of the people formed 

\ -~~ — ~ ■ 

conduct towards the queen ? 3. What is said to have been his aim ? 4 To what did ho 
owe his consetiueace ? 5. What is said of his care for his children? To wlwni duJ he 
entrust their education? What is said of Madame de Genlis ? 6. Whal is said oi hi» 
children? 7. Whal is said of Mirabeau ? 
CLXXI. - 1. When did ihe Stales-General meet? 2 Whal society was formed 

24* 



I I 



^ /<i 



LOUIS XVI. - 1739. 



LOUIS XVI. - i789. 



2s:i 



»hem3fclvcs into a society. After the place ot' the assembly's meeting 
«vas changed to Paris, this society held its meetings in a building 
which had been a convent of a religious order of monks called Jaco- 
bins, from the circumstance of their convent being in St. James' street, 
and Jacobus is the Latin for James. 

3. Because this society or club held its meetings at this place, it 
received the name of the Jacobin club ; a name which excited alarm 
and horror throughout Europe ; for the society, before long, became 
the most powerful body in the state. 

4. The states inet on the fifth of May, 1789. The session was 
opened with great splendor ; the king, seated on his throne, surround- 
ed by the members of the royal family (except the Duke of Orleans, 
who took his seat with the deputies) and of his court, delivered a 
speech, in which he expressed his pleasure at thus meeting his peo- 
ple, and a hope that the happiness and prosperity of the nation might 
be thvi result of their measures. 

5. The deputies of the third estate soon settled the question as to 
the mode in which the three estates should meet. They decided that 
the representatives of the clergy and nobles were only the deputies 
of particular incorporations, whom they would permit to sit and vote 
among themselves, but who had no right to act in separate bodies 
to make laws for France, Some of the clergy and of the nobles joined 
them. 

6. They then declared themselves the sovereign legislators of the 
kingdom, and assumed the title of National Assembly. On June lOlh, 
a majority of the clergy voted to unite with the National Assembly. 
The nobles perceived that unless some decided step were taken by the 
king all would be lost. They accordingly entreated him to dissolve 
the States-General. 

7. On the morning of the 20th of June, when the president and 
members of the National Assembly were about to enter their hall as 
usual, they were stopped by the king's guards, and were told that 
workmen had been sent to prepare it for a royal session, that is, a 
meeting of all three estates in one room for the purpose of hearing a 
speech from the king. 

8. The members very naturally were irritated at the arrogance of 
the king, in thus turning them out of their hall without so much as 
giving notice to their president, and they also feared that he intended 
at once to dissolve the assembly. 

9. In the excitement of the moment, they hurried to an old tennis- 
court, and, in spite of a very violent rain, held their meeting, and 
resolved that the assembly should continue its sessions until they had 
formed a constitution for their country. 

Where did it hold its meetings? 3. What is said of the Jacobin club? 4. How was 
the .sessio.i of the States-General opened ? 5. How did the third estate settle the ({uestion 
in dispute? 6. What authority did ihev assume ? What name? What happened on 
the 19lh of June ? 7. What on the 20lh'of June ? What ia a royal session? 8. Wtai 
was the fee'ing of the members of the assembly upon this occasion ? 9. W\).V, did ihef 
Jo? 



CHAPTER CLXXII. 

7 he Royal .Session held. — Indignant Speech of Count Mzra- 
beau. — The tri-colored Cockade adopted. — The National 
Guard organized. 

1. The royal session was held in the most splendid fashion, but 
rather too much in the style of the ancient despotism. The repre- 
sentatives of the people were treated with marked contempt. They 
were kept waiting in the open air during a violent storm of rain, 
whilst the nobles an# clergy were comfortably seated within. 

2. The king declared his will, amongst various other matters, that 
the three estates should meet in separate bodies. He then ordered 
the deputies to retire, and left the assembly. He was followed by 
the nobles and part of the clergy, but the representatives of the peo- 
ple, and those attached to them, remained in gloomy silence. 

3. This was interrupted by the entrance of an officer of the king, 
who repeated his majesty's orders that the deputies should leave the 
hall. The Count de Mirabeau, starling from his seat, indignantly 
exclaimed, " The representatives of the people of France have de- 
termined to remain. 

4. " You, sir, wlio have no seat, nor a right to open your lips 
here, are not to remind us of the king's pleasure. Go, tell your mas- 
ter, that we are here by the power of the people, and that nothing 
shall expel us but the point of the bayonet." 

5. The weakness and irresolution of the king were now signally 
displayed. Only four days after the royal session, he sent an ordei 
to the nobles to meet with the other estates. 15ut he did not pursue 
with any firmness the plan of conciliating the people. 

6. Yielding to the influence of the queen, he began to collect a 
large body of troops about Versailles and Paris, in the hope of over- 
awing the assembly. All confidence in the king was now gone : the 
only reliance of the people was upon Necker, his minister ; and at the 
suggestion of the queen, this last bond of union was severed. 

7. Necker was removed from office, and ordered to quit the king- 
dom. Paris burst into a flame at this unexpected event. The peo- 
ple collected in vast crowds. The opponents of the queen and the 
court placed upon their hats the tri-colorcd cockade, of red, blue, and 
white ribbon, and all who did not adopt this badge were subjected to 
insult, and even death, as enemies of the people. 

8. The soldiers were commanded to disperse these assemblies, but 
they refused to fire upon their own countrymen. Uniting with the 
citizens, they formed themselves into a militia by the name of the 
National Guard, and chose La Fayette to be their general. 



CLXXIL — 1. What is said of the royal session ? How were the representatives of the 
.leople treated ? 2. What did the king do / What did he order? How was hr obeyed ? 
3. What look nlace after he left the hall ? 4. Repeat the speech of Mirabeau. 5. What 
display of weakness did the kins make? 6. What measures did he adopt by advice of 
the queen? 7. What happened at Paris jii the dismissal of Necker? 8. How did ir« 
■ol tiers act 7 



-;/f 



^^sum 



384 LOUIS XVI. - 17sy. 



CHAPTER CLXXIIl. 

Commence nie?tt of the French Revolution. — The Bastils dc' 
strayed. — The King and Queen deserted. 

1. The commencement of the French Revolution is dated from the 
I llh July, 1789. On that day, hostilities an^ainsl the royal authority 
were openly commenced by an attack upon the IJastile. This word 
nieans ani/ cast/' with tittle turrets, but has lonpr been exclusi'ely applied 
lo a buildinff of that description in Paris, used ifh a prison. 

2. The very name of this prison spread terror throughout France. 
There were dun«;eons twenty feet below the surface of the ground, 
the floors covered with slime, and filled with disgusting reptiles. 
The only furniture ir a room was a stone with a scanty covering of 
straw for a bed 

3. It was to this horrible prison that the odious lettres de cachel 
Lonnnitted the miserable victims of arbitrary power. But this instru- 
ment of tyranny was now elteclually removed. It was taken by the 
people from the soldiers of the king who delended it, and then, un- 
der the direction of the civil authorities of Paris, was completely 
destroyed. 

4. Not one stone was suffered to remain upon another. The keys 
were sent to General Waslungton, as the head of the great party, 
throughout the world, of the opponents of tyranny. They were by 
him presented to the United States, and are yet preserved at Wash- 
ington. 

5. It was now apparent that any further opposition to the popular 
will was useless. Necker was recalled, and was received with 
transports of j(»y by the whole nation. About the same time, the 
brothers of the king, and the nobles who were attached lo the queen's 
party, becoming alarmed for their own personal safely, fled from the 
country, leaving the king and queen to fight the battle alone. 

G. The evils of this desertion of their country soon became apparent. 
The most pressing letters were written, urging them lo come back. 
To some of them the queen wrote with her own hand : " If you love 
your king, your religion, your government, or your country, return! 
return I return !" 

7. These letters produced no effect, either because the emigrants 
did not choose to expose their lives by returning, or because they 
thought that they could best serve the interests of their king and 
country by remaining w here they were. Those who left their coun 
try were called the emigrants. 

CLXXIII. — » When diil the French revolution begin ? What happened on that day t 
What id said of the Baslile .' 4. What became of the keys? 5. What measure did ihfl 
king adopt ? \^hal became of the nobles of hid party ? 6. Was their conduct approved 
by the que«*i.' 7. What effect had her letters? What were those who left Fran«« 
tailed} 



285 



LOUIS XVI. - l7iM 



CHAPTER CLXXIV 

Abolition of Titles.— Character of Necker.— The Poissardes.-^ 

The King brought to Paris, 

1 The National Assembly now proceeded with earnestness in the 
work of reforming abuses. The nobles and the clergy seemed to 
contend with each other which should be the first to ofier the great- 
est sacrifices to the public welfiire. When they once began, they 
were afraid to stop. Every exclusive right and privilege through- 
out the whole king<lom was at length resigned. 

2 The assembly then proceeded to abolish all hereditary titles, 
and all marks of distinction of ranks in society. They did not pro- 
ceed quite so far as the succeeding assembly, who abolished the com- 
mon modes of address, Mr. and Mrs., as being loo aristocratic, and 
voted that the terms citizen and citizeness should be used in their 

3 The abolition of all the distinction of ranks was opposed by 
Necker, thoutrh himself one of the people, and born and bred in the 
republic of Geneva. He thought that merit should be distinguished 
by some particular title of honor. His opposition to ^me ot the 
most violent measures had diminished his influence, and on the 4th 
of September, 1790, he resigned his oflice. . , , • 

4 He was a man of the strictest and most unblemished integrity, 
and had, during the greater part of his career of office, possessed the 
highest popularity throughout France. He now retired to his na- 
tive country, and died at Copet in 1804. 

5. The roval family, consisting of the king, queen, the dauphin, 
who was born in 1785, his sister, born in 1778, and the Princess 
Elizabeth, the sister of the king, had hitherto remained at \ er- 

sailles. , , j i. *u 

6 On the 6th of October, an immense mob, led on by the pots- 
sardcs, that is, the women who sold fish in the markets of Fans, 
rushed to Versailles, and made an assault upon the palace. It is lo 
be observed that throughout the revolution the women were tore- 
most in all scenes of cruelty and bloodshed. 

7. They seemed to take a savage delight in human suffering, and 
to have lost the usual attributes of their sex when they abandoned 
its appropriate duties. Upon the present occasion, all the inmates 
of the palace would have been sacrificed, if General La Fayette had 
not interposed to protect them. j r u u 

8 Bv his advice, the king complied with the demands of the mob, 
and returned with them to Paris, accompanied by the royal family. 
He was permitted to live at the Tuileries, but was closely watched. 

CLXXIV. -1. What is said of the nobles and clerey ? 2. What of titles? 3 W|hu 
..p^^ed the abolition of files • 1 What ^ said of Necker? 5. W'^^ ^"jP^^^V^e 
rov,i family? Where did they live? 6. What happened October bth 1769? ww £ 
«"veJ ihe family ? 8. What did the king do? Where did he live m Pans? Wha m 
wid of ihei' life there? 



i 



2S« 



LOUIS ATI -1791. 



He never wulked in the garden withoit being attended by half a 
dozen of the National Guard. 

9. The queen was not permitted to stir out of doors without some 
of these guards so close at her heels that she could not say a word 
to her companion without its being overhiard. Even the dauphin. 
a pretty, good-natured looking boy of five yoars old, could not work 
with lis hoe and his rake in his little garden without soldiers stand- 
mg by to watch him. 



CHAPTER CLXXV. 

The Confederation — The Eviigrants form an Army, 

1. The National Assembly having prepared a constitution, it was 
determined that it should be formally ratified by the king on the 
anniversary of the destruction of the IJastile. The large plain called 
" the Field of March," because the March meetings^of the nobles 
were held there in ancient times, was to be the place for the per- 
formance of the ceremony. 

2. An immense amphitheatre was to be formed upon this plain 
Ihe slow progress of twenty-five thousand hiced workmen could not 
keep pace.with the ardent wishes of the friends of liberty. Person* 
of every class, without distinction of age or sex, to the number ol 
two tiundred and fitty thousand, took part in the labor. 

3. Every corporation and every society was ambitious of the 
iionor of assisting in the preparation of the place where they were 
to swear to defend the constitution. Hardly a man, woman, or child 
remained an idle spectator. Men of all professions, mixed together 
cheertully handled ihe pickaxe and shovel. 

4. Delicate females, sprucely dressed, were seen here and there 
wheeling along barrows filled with earth ; while lonff strings of stout 
tellows dragged heavy loads in carts and wagons. Thus, at the end 
ot a week, the amphitheatre was finished, as if by enchantment 

5. More than three hundred thousand people, the ladies all dre-^ed 
in^ white, were present at the ceremony, which took place July 14th 
1/90, and IS called the Confederation. In the presence of this im- 
mense multitude, the king, and the members of the assembly for 
themselves, and La Fayette in behalf of the National Guard, swore 
to observe and to defend the constitution. 

6. Whilst these events were passing at Paris, the number of emi- 
? rants had been increasing daily. In the spring of 1791 they formet' 
an army at Longwy, on the German frontiers. Thev adopted a black 
.miform faced with yellow, with a death's head, surrounded by a 
laurel leaf on one cuff, and a sword on the other, with the motto 

'Conquer or die." ' 



CLXXV. — 1. What ceremony was tc. be performed? When' Where' 2 Wh,ii 



LOUIS XVL — 1791. 



2&. 



CHAPTER CLXXVI. 

The Flight to Varennes. 

\ The scenes of bloodshed that were daily exhibited, an<| the 
.nurd^r of such of their officers and servants as remained faithl^ I to 
them, had ccuivinced the king and queen that they and their fa-nly 

were no longer safe in Pans. r u tKpv wptp 

2 But it was next to impossible to escape from it. Ihey were 
closely guarded in their palace, and besides that, no person was peT- 
mMted to leave the city without a written permission, or ; assport, as 
K is called! At length a Swedish nobleman, who happened to be in 
Paris, devised a plan for effecting their escape. 

3 He knew that a Russian lady was about to leave Pans with 
her family, and he obtained two passpons for her. One of these was 
to be used by the royal family. The governess of the royal cj^ildien 
was trpaJ for the Russian lady, and the dauphin and his sister 
were to pass for her two daufjhters ; the queen for the governors, 
and the king and the Princess Elizabeth for attendants. 

4 It was also arranged that a party of emigrant soldiers should 
meet them at a certain point with fresh horses to convey theni to 
Longwy. Everything being prepared, the dauphin and »»» sisteri^ere 
taken from their beds^on the night of the 20th of June, 1791 The 
Door little bov was so sleepy that he could scarcely stand, and when 
ho saw himself dressed in girl's clothes, he asked if they were going 

^T^The 'children and governess were first conveyed to the coach, 
which was waiting at some distance from the palace 1 he dauphin 
was soon asleep at the bottom of the carriage m happy iporance 
of his danger ; but the princess was old enough to comprehentl the 
anxieties of their situation. 

6. After waiting an hour, which, as you may well fjippose 
seemed to her an age, the king and queen and Princess Elizabeth 
ioined them, and thev set off Never was a more helpless set ol 
beincTs cast adrift in the world than the six poor creatures who were 
nowrat the dead of night, to steer their course across a country in 
which thev were surrounded by a thousand dangers. 

7 They had, it is true, three gentlemen with them, who acted as 
servants, but these supported their character so ill, that instead ot 
assisting, they only added to the hazards of the royal party. As loi 
the kinS and queen, thev knew no more of the manner of travelling 
for priNate persons in France, than the poor boy who was asleep at 

S.'^ They went on, however, through that night and part of the 
next day witlioul meeting with any other mischance than a slight 



CLXXVI - I What were the fears of ihe king ? 2. What is said of leavjn? Parlil 
3 wis plan wa« adopted ? 4. f,, 6. What of ii. execul.on ? 8. How long d.d lh,y fi 
on safely ? 9. Wlv»i of the escort of soldiers 1 



1 



2SS 



LOUIS XVI. -i:oi. 



I.OU1S XVI —1791. 



289 



accident to the carriage, which caused some delay. On this de.ay, 
however, hung- the fate of the fugitives. 

9. The party of emigrant soldiers, after waiting some time at the 
appointed place, and not seeing the royal party arrive, concluded that 
ihe enterprise had heen ahandoned ; and, perceiving that they were 
exciting the ohservalion of the country people, they returned hv bvo 
roads to Varennes. 



CHAPTER CLXXVII. 

The Flight to Varennes^ cmitiimed. 

1. TnK soldiers were scarcely out of sight when the travellers 
arrived, and were thrown into the utmost perplexity and dismay at 
not finding the ex[)ected escort. They proceeded, however, and 
reached St. Menehould, where the king had the imprudence to put 
his head out of the carriage window to make some inquiries about 
I he road. 

2. At this instant a young man named Drouet caught a glimpse 
of him, and was struck with his resemblance to the impression of 
the royal head on some new pieces of mt)ney, which he had that 
morning received from Paris. 

3. He drew near the carriage, and the sight of the queen con- 
firmed him in his suspicions, and he set olT instantly to give the alarm 
al Varennes. In the mean time the royal party advanced. They 
arrived at Varennes in the night, and not knowing where to find 
IVesh horses, they drove about the town in search of them, thus giv- 
ing Drouet ample time to arouse the inhabitants. 

4. Presently the place was in an uproar ; the road was barricaded 
so that the fugitives could not proceed, and the carriage was sur- 
rounded by a crowd of people. At this moment a party of soldiers 
rode up, and asked the king's permission to force a way for him 
through the town. 

5. The king incpiired whether it would cost many lives ; and being 
told that it probably would, he fi)rbade the attempt, and yielded him- 
self a prisoner. The royal party were obliged to leave the carriage, 
and to enter the house of the mayor, who kept a small shop. 

6. The queen, sitting down in the shop, exhausted all her powers 
of fascination and persuasion on the mayor's wife, (who, it appears, 
was the chief manager of affairs in Varennes,) in the hope to prevail 
on her to befriend them. 

7. The woman seemed greatly touched, but yet remained inflexi- 
ble, and persisted in saying, while the tears rolled down her cheeks, 
that it would be the death of her husband if she should assist them 
to escape. Marie Antoinette pleaded in vain. 

CLXXVII. — I. VVIiai impruileiice (litl the kins rommil ? 2. Who recognized himi 
♦Josv ? .] VVhAl folli.-.veil .' Wh.it did the fti.'jilive.s do ^ 4. What happened al Va- 
reimen.' 5. How were the royal f;iniily treated? G. What did the queen do? 8. W)Mt 



8. The wretched fugitives were compelled again to ^et into then 
carriage, and to retrace their steps, amidst the insults of a disorderl\ 
?aob, which the news of their arrest had assembled. Barnave ami 
I'eli()n, two deputies from the National Assembly, were sent to meet 
them on their return to Paris. 

\). The (hi)uties got into the carriage, liarnave treated the cap- 
tives witjj kindness and respect ; but Petion, who was by birth a 
gentleman, affected to show that he was a good republican, by as- 
suming a coarse and brutal manner. He rudely sei'/(Ml the little 
dauphin, and placing him on his knee, began to play with his hair, 
which was very Ixautiful, twisting the ringlets round his fingers. 

10. Tlie poor boy, half frightened and half i)ffeiule(i at this treat- 
ment, cried out; ibe queen could no longer conceal her displeasure, 
and snatching th«^ cliihl away, said, ''Give me my son ; he is accus- 
tomed to tenderness and delicacy, which renders him little fit fo» 
iuch rudeness." 



CHAPTER CLXXVHl. 

L ^ecU Change in the jwrsonal Api)*:arance of the Queen. — The 

Emigrants receive Assistance. 

1. TiiK treatment of the wretched prisoners was now worse than 
ocfore. They were replaced in the Tuileries, and watched with the 
utmost vigilance. Guards were placed at the doors of their apart- 
m«Mtts niglit and dav, and the queen could only obtain permission to 
have her bed-room door closed while she was dressing and undressing 

2. The Princess De Lamballe had a short time before escaped into 
I'iUtrland ; but when she heard of the imfoitunate termination of the 
llight to Vareimes, she resolved to return to Paris, and share the 
prison and the afllictions of her friend. The Queen of Kngland used 
every argument ti» dctiin her, but without effect. 

\^. When sin- arrived at tho Tuileries, and behehl tin; change 
which a few wt'eks had wrought in the beautiful Marie Antoinette, 
she could scarcely believe her senses, 'i'he (pieen's eyes were sunk 
III their sockets, her hair ha<l turned white in one night, and she 
looked ten years older. 

1. Hut though her beaut v vva.s thus jlinuiied, aini all her hopes 
were gone, she still maintaiued the ^race and (ii<rnity of her manner, 
and, when it was necessary, c<uil(l call up the energies of her lofty 
spirit. As for the king, \\v. appeared at that time to be sinking into 
a state of lethargy. 

5. The feeling against the royal family w;is very much exas- 

.visd 111.' Willi llirt fimiUves? Who met them on ll»t; road? 9. How did the deputies 
T-.iitiem' Whal of ihf dauphin.' pi. Wlial of tlie <|iieen? 

CI, XXVIII -1. How w.«n'llif prisoners treatifd afier their return? 2 What ol xht 
l*riiic*'ss l»e Limlwlle ' :< What ..fthe af>|w>araii. .- <>f tli»' rpieeri i I Wlial of l»»i 

25 



Jmj 



LOUIS XV!.— 1792. 



;)eralcd by iIm; mdiscreei proceedings of ihe emigrants and tlieir « 
lies, the Aiistrians and Prussians : for the emperor and the King ol 
Prussia, fearing that their own subjects, excited by the example ol 
the French, miglit be tempted to relievo themselves fron» the oppres- 
sions of a despotic government, determined to put a stop to the pro- 
gress of liberal opinions by force. 

0. This they thought would be a very easy matter ; for most 
of the French officers who possessed any experience in the arts of 
war had emigrated. They supposed, also, that all the l)etter classes 
of French would join them as soon as they entered France, and thai 
the undisciplined rabble would not be able to make a stand against 
the veteran troops of Prussia. The command of the allied arm'es 
was given to the Duke of Brunswick. 

7. His first act was to issue a proclamation, threatening with the 
most severe punishnu'uls all those who did not at once ren«)unce 
those rights which the king himself had solemnly engaged to respect 
and mainl-iiin. 'ihe city of Paris was threatened with entire de- 
struction. This pr(»chimation very naturally excited indignation 
throughout all France. All i)arty feeling subsided, and all united foi 
the defence of their coiinlry against a foreign enemy. 



The 



CHAPTER CLXXIX. 

lOM of August, \192.— The King dejxysed. — Rwjai 
Family imprisoned. 



1. On the 10th of August, 1792, an immense mob assembled 
arouiul the TuiUries. 'J'he royal family tied for safety to the hall 
of the National Assembly. The Swiss guard of the palace, finding it 
impossible to kerp back the niob who pressed into llu' palace, at 
length fired upon tliem, and killed and wounded many. 

'2. The rage of the pcojih* knew no bounds, IJeing joiue*! by the 
National (Juard, who were no longer under the connnand of l-a Fay- 
ette, they broke into the palace and munh'red all who were found in it. 
This afliiir furnished a new charL^' airainst tlu- king. The Swiss 
were said to have fired by his orders, and thus he was accused ol 
making war against the peoj)le. 

.'i. His enemies took advantage of this excitement to procure hi.s 
suspension from the office of king, and the commitial of llui royal 
fimily as priscuters to an old, gloomy buildinti, fi)rmerly belonging to 
the Knights T«^mplars, and still retaining the name of the Temple. 

4. Everything was done that could make their imi»risonment irk- 
some 'i'he king, (pieen, and Madame Elizabeth employed their 



•naiineri VVIial o( llie kins? '•. What iiKTcastHl llie feelins? a^'aiiisl llieiii ? Win.' 
wsisled ihe enii^raiil.s ! Wliv ? i'>. Wliy .liil ilu-v iliink their plan easy 7 Wlio com- 
mandeil? 7. What was 1 1 in first an .' it's erteil .' ,- . o .- ■ -> o t»n . 

CLXXIX - 1 What ol tli.'lOlli .Aiiifii.si. 17W What ol the Swiss Ouara? 2 Wha 
^^ the Na'ti(»ua! JJiiard ' What new . harse as^aiiisl the king ' 3 What was l>»e coiia« 



LOUIS XVI.- irr: 



21M 



pptivity in the education of the two children, and reading ic '-ach othei 
roin religious books. 

5. They were not allowed the use of pen, ink or paper, for fear 

liey should correspond with the emigrants ; but the little princess 

ontrived to get some scraps of paper, upon which she made notes 

jv'iih a pencil of the daily occurrences ; these notes were afterwards 

printed. 

0. Only one of their attendants was allowed to accompany them : 
his was a man named Clery, who was very much attached to the 
king. At first they were allowed the assistance of a woman in clean- 
ing the rooms and making the beds. She was naturally coarse and 
vulgar, and treated them as badly as she could. In a short time she 
lost her senses, and then, in addition to all their other troubles, the 
poor prisoners had to take care of this woman. 

7. From this time the princesses did the whole work ; they were 
rather awkward, and y:ot very tired at first, but soon became accus- 
tomed to it. Sewing had alForded a little alleviation to their tedious 
hours; but they were soon deprived of this, under pretence that it 
might affi)rd them a secret method of communicating intelligence to 
their friends. 

8. They were constantly subjected to insult and vexation. They 
were frequently searched to see that they had no papers, which the 
officers might choose to call treasonable ; and they even carried their 
insults so far as to accuse the Princess Elizabeth of having stolen a 
teacup, which had l)een misplaced. 

9. But they lK»n; all these insults with an mishaken magnanimity. 
Not a murmur nor a complaint ever escaped from them. In the king 
fhere was a singular mixture of cowardice and courage. In danger 
and difficulty he had the timidity of a child ; btit in misforumu nu 
man could .show more firnmess and resolution. 



CHAPTER CLXXX. 

The First Vrar of the llfpitUir. — The Jacobins become the 

Rulers. 

1. TnK first National Assrmhly had becMi succeeded byanothei body 
of men chosen by the people, and called the National Legislative As- 
<-/o/)h/. On the 20th of September, 1792, this last body gave place 
to the National Convention. On the first day of its session the (;on- 
\.'Mtion decreed " that royalty was abolished in France." 

•J. 'I'hey also decreed that the old giode of reckoning years frou/ 
the birth of our Saviour, should no longer be used, and that every- 
thing should be dated by the y«!ar of the Republic ; the first yeai 



qiietice? 4. How were the royal limily Ire.iteil? Hnw cljij ihpy r-mplfiy themselves 't 
5. What of Ihe yoiiAg princess .' «. Wliaiof their altenilaiil.-s / o. To what were the? 



9iil)jected? W. Mowdid ihev Uthave' 



CLXXX I Whose reed'-tl tlie Natinoal Ass»'iiil,lv ^ Wli:ti IhmIv caii.e next ^ Whar * 



jit)2 I .urns XVI — i7i*'i 

.ommoncing on the t>3d September, 1792. They ^'^^l f 7.^;^^; »* 
names of the months. Instead of January, February, &c., they sub 
«tituted names denotin- some oharactonstic (,1 the new months, such 
as Rainv-month, Windy-month, <fee. 

3 So far all th.' liberal party were agreed. But as it regarded 
me 'treatment of tlu' royal fan.ily a.id some other measures, then 
were two parties. The most ntoderate was that oi the C.ironde. 
called beciuse the .-hiofmemhrrs of it came Iron, th|' department <.l 
iliat nam? • ealled also Hrissotines, from Brissot, the leader. 

4 Th. otC partv was called ihr Afo.n/«/n, because the seats they 
occupied in the hall r.>se one above the other in rows ^^^ is ;^ ^^^ 
knovvn, h..wever, as the Jacobin rarty, the meinbers ot it belongino 
to that club. The leaders wt>re Danton and Hobespieire. 

5 The Hrissotines were .n f tvor of establ.sh.n.r a republican lorm 
of governtuent ; but for treatm, the kmg and the roy.hsts w.Ui mi d- 
ness One -reat object of the Jacobins was to lake away the life ot 
Ihe kinV Thev were n<.t so numerous in the Convention as the 
Girondists, but by their threats they terrified the more moderate into 
the adoption of the most vi..lent measures. 

(J The ..pentions of the allied annus were at first successful , a.Hl 
it was expected that thev would a.lvance immediately on I aris Ibis 
apprehension excited in that city a still more savage fury than ha,l 

before been maniftsled. . , . i, 

7 A sort of c(uirt was instituted, before which prisoners ol . a. 1. 
sex a.ul of all ages wt're brought, in mockery of al the forms ot ju. 
lice The (lueen-s friend, the beiu:tiful Princess de Lamballe wt.s, 
after .ne of Ibese mock trials, murdered ; and her head, placed upon 
a pole, was exhibite.l before the windows oi the room m which the 

rov:il prisoners were confined. 1 ;.. 

8 The dreadful specta«-l.^ threw the .pieen into convulsions, in 
which she remained for several hours. The number of persons put 
to death in Paris alone <luringthe month ot J^eptember, 1 .'.♦'J, ammmt- 
ed to several llnnisands. Similar massacres were coumutted in other 
parts of France. Ml who were suspected ot being triendlv to the 
king, or who were ri.-b, or ha.l in any way ren.lered themselves ob- 
noxious to the mob, were put to death. . . 1., . 1 

«) Nothin.r can better illustrate the levity ot the French people 
•l.an an anecdote which is relatetl of this blo.Hly period An actor 
celebrated for his skill in dancing, was convicted ot not bemi: a goo.l 
citizen lie was condemned to death ; but was pardoned, on condi 
, ion that In- wonhl dance, inmsel:', at the theatre for a wlude year, 
without any lee or reward. 

wi^l wa.s Ih- tirsl ili'cn-o .' 2. WIkU ..Hut cluu.ged ? 3. Was ll.ere any .liffcrence ..I 
p n • r Y ow manv pani.-. ? Wh^ wero they callecl? 5. How ^ '«1^^ Mjlff-*"- ' •■ 
< "«l A tbt- all. 's .' 7. What was done in Paris 7 9. What anedolo h related ? 



LOUl> XW- I7y.{. 



293 



CHAPTER CLXXXl. 



Trial aiid Death of Lmiis XVI. 

<)s the 25ih December, I7i>2, l.ouis was ordered 1 1 a| pear br- 
forf he ( "onvention to answer the charges that had been made agaii.si 
him lie asked permission to employ legal counsel to assist him m 
Ins I ;tence. This was jrranted. It was a perilous ofiice, and -.f 
iliose who were first invited by the king, only two, Messrs. TroiM-h. i 
and Deseze, had the couraire to accept, 

ii. The third, named 'I'arn^ct, declined. One of the most distin- 
gmshed advocates in France, M. de Malesherbes, at once ollered In,- 
services, and they were accepted bv the king. His generous olbr 
excited the admiratii.n of th«> people, whilst the conduct of Tart^el 
excited ^M'neral dis^^ust. liven the lish-women marked the difference ; 
llieyhnn.r^rarlands of tlowersand laurel upon the gate of Malesherbes' 
whilst larget waij obliired to conceal himself to avoid their insults. 

3. Uie king was now separated from his family. To his applica- 
tion for permissn.n to see them, it was answered that he could have 
no communication with the .pieen and his sist.-r dilrii.i: the trial ■ but 
' hi'l he mi-hi, if he pleaded, hav.- t|,.- c.mpany of his son, who in 
tlial case wc.nld n(»l be permitted to see his mother .)r his aunt. Loni^ 
would not acce])t the privilege on these terms. 

1. The defence of the king, which was read by M. Deseze, had no 
lufhience on the Convention ; not one singh-member had the boldness 
lo assert the innocence of I.ouis. Ui)on the question of punishment 
nf seven hundred twenty-one votes given, three hundred sixty-six 
were for immediate death. 

,.^-,.'^^^*^.^^"*^*^ "/ Orleans, who had assumed the name of Philin 
Kgalite, that is, Philip Equality, voted for death. Each member 
-ave his vote aJoud. When tiie duke gave his vote that Louis was 
uuilty, It excited a murmur ; but when he gave his vote for the death 
o his relation, the cries of" Monster !" " Wretch !'' were heard on 
all sides. 

(J Even those who had the worst opinion of Louis thought none 
the better of the duke for joining in the persecution oi one so nearly 
niated to him. Louis was condemned t(. death in January, 1793 
and before the close of the year Orleans was doomed to a like fate 
lb- was executed on the 6th of November, and died unpitied by per-' 
sons ot any party. '' ^ 

7. Lonis demanded to have the question as lo his guilt submitted 
"•the nation, but this was not allowed, and on the 20th .Tanuarv 

.1 r ^'^s »""«»"ced to him that the next day he must die. He 
■.s.<ed for a de ay of only three days to prepare for appearing befort 
Ins (,od. but this was refused him. if b 



CIA'XXI. — 1 2 When (lid ttie trial of Louis commence 7 What is sai( 



id of his counsel ? 
-r orlean.s ; «, What l^came of hmi ? 7. What did ]^xm de land? What the an 



1294 



1.0UIS AHI. — I7y:j 



8. Oil the eveiiin«( of the same day he was pemiilted to fee and U> 
take his firuil leave of his wife and family. This meetinj^ vas affect- 
ing in the extreme, hut the king did not lose his self-cominand. The 
remainder of the time he employed in the preparation for death, en- 
joined by his relijTJon, to which he was sincerely attached. 

9. At ein^ht o'clock on the niorninj? of January 2 1st, he was sum 
nioned to his fate. He ascended the scaffold with a firm and difrni. 
ficd step, and his behavior there partook of the calm fortitude which 
had distinfTuished him throuirh all his scenes of suff«Tinjj. Raisin^! 
his voice, he exclaimed, " Frenchmen, T die innocent ! I forgive my 
enemies!" He would have said more, but was prevented by the 
beating of the drums placed there on purpose to drown his voice. 

lOr The executioners now laid hold on him and placed him to n) 
ceive the fatal blow. M. Edgeworth pronounced aloud, " Son of St. 
fiOuis, ascend to heaven I" The blow was given. A few among the 
guard who surrounded the scaffold shouted, " Live the nation ! live 
The republic I'' But the most were silent, or only spoke to request 
their officers to lead them away from the spot. 

11. Thus died, in the thirty-ninth year of his age, one of the best- 
hearted monarchs that ever sat on the throne of France. He fell a 
victim to the follies and vices of those who preceded him. The peo- 
ple had for centuries been groaning under the oppressions of kings 
and nobles. They had a perfect right to relieve themselves from thcs'i 
oppressions, by force if neccs.sary. But nothing can justify the tior- 
»ible murders which were committed in the name of liberty 



CHAPTER CLXXXH. 

The Dauphin, called Louis XVII. 

1. Thk situation of the unhappy queen and the other members of 
t e royal family was now worthy of compnssion. They remained 
subject to the outrages and insults of brutal and unfeeling jailers. On 
the 3d of July, the Convention ordered that the dauphin should be 
separated from the rest, and placed in the charge of an uneducated, 
wicked man named Simon. 

3. The design was to enulicaie all the good principles he had re- 
ceived from his father and mother, and to bring him up in a state of 
■gnorance and vice. \h' was made to drink intoxicating liquors, was 
taught the most blasphemous oaths and wicked songs, which he was 
made to rep»3at at the windows for the amusement of the soldiers. 

3. Tn a few months, this lovely boy, who had naturally an excel 
'e'l', constitution, became a miserable object, diseased and stupefied by 
i„ treatment. Bui his love for his mother was proof against all 
.macks. Some artful persons had led him to say things, which they 






KATK (IF rHK KOVAl, FA.^lll.Y 



J7'.M 



29iJ 



>*hj»e to interpret, as charging upon his mother the commission ot ^ 
some crime, and they compelled him to sign a written paper to that 
••iffect. 

4. The child was so much grieved at the use they made of his 
words, that he formed a resolution never to speak again ; and this res- 
olution he persisted in for a length of time, although threats, an<l 
[>romises of fruit and toys, and everything that could be most tempt 
ing to a child, were employed to make him break it. 

5. In January, 1794, Simon left him, and for a long time the pooi 
little child, only eight years old, was left alone, locked up in a greut 
room. His bed was not made fo» s i months, and for more than a 
year he had no change of shirt oi stockings. Illness soon rendered 
him too weak even to wash himself. In this pitiable situation he con- 
timied for nearly a year. In the day time lie had no occupation, and 
in the evening he was allowed no light. 

0. A change of jailers brought an amelioration of his condition. 
They provided for his wants; and one of them, named Gamier, would 
sit with him for hours together, trying to amuse him. The[)Oor l)oy, 
who had l>een long unused to kindness, s(X)n became very fond of 
Gamier. 

7. But these attentions came too late. Ruined in mind as well ag 
in body, the \K>or child lingered until June, 1795, when death re- 
lieved him from further sufferings. Immediately on the death of his 
father he had l>een proclaimrd king by the royalists, by the name of 

r»uis XVII. 



..^ern? •^. What of his ror.ilucl the night before death? 9, 10. When itiil be Jie 1 
•Iclale the ivirticulars nl" lii.^ death. 
OLXXXII. — •-. How were the rest of the royal family treated ? 'Vhal was dit « vilh 



CHAPTER CLXXXHI. 

The Fate of the rest of the Royal Family. 

I. The separation from her son completed the misery of the poor 
heart-broken queen. She was entirely iMJwed down by it. Her onl) 
consolati(m w;is to go to the top of the tower and watch for her son 
who was [)ermittcd to walk on an opjiosile tower. Lcmking through 
a crack in the wall, she would stand for hours together to see the 
child :is he ptissed at a distance. 

'2. But of this mournful consolation she was soon deprived. Abot.t 
a month after the separation, she was roused from her bed at two 
o'clock in the morning, by a committee of the Convention, who <r- 
dered her to rise, telling her that they had come to remove her to tli 
Conciergerie, a prison in which none but persons of the lowest ami 
n>ost infamous cfescription hiul ever been confined. 

3. The poor queen was obliged to rise and dress herself before 

these men, who searched her pockets, and took everything out of them 

^ « 

.he dauphin T 2. What was the object? 3, 4. What instance of firmnesa? 5. Wha' 
W9it his life after Simon left hiir ? 6. What improved his contlition ? 7. What was hit 
'ate ? What was his title ? 
• '.XXXIII.-- What of he qtieeu? What was her cons'ilalion ? 2. Whither wr 



2im 



t'\\'\: OF rnK KnvAi, I \>iii,v i:"ti 



lS shn was passing: thronijh a low «lot)i way, slu* Ptriu'k b»'r li»r»'ln'a«l, 
nd onn of the men asked if she was hurt. She roplied, " Nolhinj! 



Thoy however allowed her. as a preal favor, 1o retain her po kf»- 
handkerehief and her sniellinfTrbottle, lest she should faint hv the way 

A! 

and 

ran hurt m(^ now." 

4. She was plaeed u\ a {iloomy, damp e«dl, where shr lirul iioi 
fven the eomfort of endiirinjj her sorrows alone. A police nllir. t 
was kepi with her nij^ht an<l day, who never lost sij^ht of her. The 
two prineesses were n«nv left sad and <lis<*onsolate in thrir tower 
i'hev were kept in ifrnoranee of the cpieen's eondition, hnt remendnT 
\u(r that she had hcvn aerusioined to heirnile her .'jorn.vs hy work, 
they hesonpht pj^mission to send her the materials. 

.*>. They coUoeted all the worsted \hr\ could \\\u\, and also a pair 
of little stoekin«:s she had hejjun to knit for the dauphin. Hut her 
o-uards would n«>t permit her io have them. The queen's inchistry, 
however, overeame all nupedimeuts. She found a pi«ve »»f an old 
<*arj>ei in l.er eell, which she tunavelled, and hy means of two sticks 
■the eontrived to knit these ravellinjis ini«) jjarters. 

6. On the 14th of Octulxr. iTlK'i. they w»mU thro^mh the forms of 
a trial, and eondenuu'd her io death. On the Kith of that month she 
was executed, meetiuii her tale with the oreatest fortit\ule and eom- 
|K)sure. 

7. In May, ITiM, the I*riueess Kliy.aheth was put to death. The 
same piety whieh had puid«Ml her steps am)d the mazes of a eorru|)t 
and friv(dous court, was Ikt firm sMpp<ut in the ru<z«r»Ml path she had 
now h. tread. In all the alliieUoiis of her fanuly, it was to h(>r they 
always looked for suppori autl «'<iust>lation. 

8. The serenity of her eountenanee ami demeanor, on many oeca- 
sions, iTiade the wretehes who were loadinjj the rest of the royal fam- 
ily with abuse, shrink from iusiiltinji her. When con«lenmed to death. 
3he requested to be put in the same room with those who w<'re to suf- 
fer with her. 

9. To these she addressed words of eonsolation and hope. In her 
last moments, as in the whole of her precedinp life, she was m(»rc 
occupied with the sorrows of others than with her own. 

10. But one wretched individual now remained of that family, 
which a few short years before seemed to be at the v(^ry pimiaele <d' 
human jrreatness and hai>piness For six months the younjT princes."^ 
remained the solitary tenant of her ploomy tower. At the end of thai 
period, she was irivcu u\^ to the Austrians, in exehanj^e ft»r some 
Frenchmen who had been made prisimers. 

11. When she arrived at Vienna, her friends there used every en- 
deavor to cheer her ; but her «;pirits were so completely depresstnl ihai 
it was more than a year before she w as seen to smile. • The expression 
of melancht>ly was so firmly imprinted upon her countenance, thM it 
?ould never he effaced. 



<ne removed ? 4. How was she treated in tier new prison? Wlial did tlie prinressef 
<»•? 5. What employment did the (pieen find? 6. When was she tried? When exe 
•iiiHiI? 7. What became of the Prinrt-ss EliznJ)eth? What of her chararter ? 8. Wha 
»t h-r hehavior now 7 How did she employ herself? 10, 11. What of the. young priu 



TffK HKPVmM 



I J ! 



LW 



CIIAf'TKK (T.XXXfV. 

Success of f/if i'h /,f// Arnnj. Spirit of the P/^ojie. 

I Wk left the allies carryintr evervtliiii<; before (hern, and yon 
nave probably been surprised that the" Duke of Brunswick did not 
m;ir-h directly to Paris, rescue the roval family, and execute hl» 
(hreata ajramst that city. He wiuild uJadU have done so if he -ouk 
Hut he soon learned that he bad nrreafly miscalculated the strermtb 
of his op[»f)iient.s. 

2. His lu.p.- that the French wruild M..ck to his standard :i.s soon 
as It appeared in France, turned out to bo utterly unfounded. In- 
stead of a mere rabble, he ffuirid liim.self opposed by a disciplined 
•iriny, commanded by an abler general than himself. 

.T Dumouriez ri(.t only ret(K»k Verdun and F.on(Twy, but, after 
varuMis successful encfmnttTS, .rained at (;enappc, on the .5th of No- 
vember. \1S)'2, a victory whieh plaeed the whfde of the Austrian 
Netberla.Mis, with the exception (.f Luxembura, in the possession of 
r ranee. 

1. On ihe I.m of February, I7f>.'?, the C.nvemion declared war 
a-:.in.st Kuirland and H(dlan<l, and a fortnight afterwards against 
>'\y,\\\\. In ihdiaiid t Ik; successes of Dumouriez continued, but hav- 
intr made him.self <»bnoxious t(» some of the .lac(,bins, after in vain 
alfemptiiitr to KMbice hi.s army l(» ;.ct ajrain.st the Convention, he fled 
(or jiersonal safety \u the Aii.strians. 

r,. II.' was accompanied in h,,s flij/ht by a few of his officers 
anM.npt »»tliers by LiMiis Philippe, the late Kinjf of the French', 
Ihen Duke DeCbarfres, wb.. bad fjaiued apcat reputation for his skill 
and bravery. 

r.. The rieseriion of Diimourie/, tlu.urrh it checked them for a 
mne, did iM.i p„t a stop t(. the successes of the French arms 
Amonirst the people the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. They were 
not called upon to ri.sk thf;ir lives in battle to jrratifv the vanity or 
pinbition of an oppressive monarch. 

7. They now enrrajTcd in the cause of their country, of which 
each person felt him.self to be an important part. All were dejirous 
to contribute iii .some way or other to the common cause. Those 
who had no m(,iiey, brouir|,t their personal ornaments and deposited 
them in the hall u{ the Convention. Those whose ajre or .sex ren- 
dered them unfit for actual fifrhtinff, employed themselves in provid- 
ing^ ir»r the wants and comforts of those who were more fit. 

H. When such a spirit prevailed amonjr the people, it is not aur- 
piisinjr that, under officers who had risen to command simply by the 
iorce of their own merits, the French armies should have been every- 
where successful. 



i w5P. ' What of the allien.? 2. What of the French? 3. What of Dumouriez 1 
m.,^ie7? Twhn ?//''"'^^'^rf • ''■ ^hat their auccesa? What SecamT." Du- 
Zle7 The J2^nl"^™??"'^'.?"r"'"*"- ^•'^^ «*■ ^he feeling of the Frencl 
^ Wh.;, JhoI^!?? vJh "'"'' ''"^ '^'-^ *." ■ ^- The con-equences of thei. ^p>i|- 
Whal of Holland ? When wad i«ace made with Pruasia a d Spain ' 



298 



THE KEIGN OF TEKKOK— 1793. 



N A POLECN Bt >N A P.\ K I'h 



299 



9. Before the end of 1794, all Hollaiid was conquered, and re- 
mained from this time until the close of the wars of the revolution 
dependent upon France. In 1795, Prussia and Spain were glad to 
make peace, the latter ceding to France some territories in the West 
Indies in exchange for that which France had conquered in Europe. 



CHAPTEK CLXXXV. 

The Reign of Terror. 




Rnhespitrrt and Danton. 

1. From the time of the kin«r's death the Jacobin party obtained 
ft complete ascendency in the Convention. At the head of this party 
was Robespierre, who, huvinu (rot rid of his rivals, was now the 
ruler of France. The period durinjj which he controlled the gov- 
ernment of France has been called the Reign of Terror. 

2. A tribunal was established, which condemned to death all who 
m any way incurred his displeasure. T^e guillotine could despatch 
but one victim at a time ; other and mor^ cruel methods were resort- 
ed to to gratify his love of bloodshed. 

3. At the commencement of the revolution he was a lawyer in 
Paris, with little prospect of ever rising to eminence in his profes- 
sion. But a new career was then opened to him. Exceeding his 
fellows of the Jacobin party in cruelty, he very naturally became theii 
leader. There was nothing in his personal appearance which indi 
•jaled his disposition. 



' 



i. During ilie most sanguinary period of his reign hb was distin- 
guished by the delicate and affected fastidiousness of his dress. A 
muslin waistcoat, lined with rose-colored silk, and a coat of the soft- 
est blue, was the favorite costume of this monster ; who, inaccessible 
to every feeling of humanity, still submitted Xo fashion, which, ujkIci 
every form of government, has been thf tyrant of France. 

5. Th« nH.i.^iircs which Robespierre adopted to secure his power, 
pnived tl".* mr.u.> of his destruction. To gel rid of dangerous rivals, 
he cauwd the ii 'st intluential men of the Jacol)in party to be brouojii 
before the revol iiionary tribunal, and execution was sure to follow. 

It w:is uncertain who might be tin' next victim ; the survivinn 
members of the Convention iniiled in defence of their common safety 
On the 28Ui of July, 1794, Robespierre was made prisoner, and on 
the next day he was executed. The news of his death was received 
with joy throughout F'rance, and indeed throughout the civilized 
world. 

7. Whilst the great mass of the French people had quietly sub- 
mitted to the government of the Convention, or those who ruled in 
its name, there had been attempts at resistance made in some places 
by the friends of liberty ; in others, by the partisans of the king. 

8. But all such opposition was speedily put down by the troops 
of the Convention, whose victories over their fellow-citizens were 
always followed by the most inhuman cruelties. All who resisted the 
Convention were declared to be traitors to their country, and to he 
entitled to no mercy. 

9. Among the disaff'ected was the city of Toulon, which surren 
dered to an English force, upon condition that it should be held for 
Louis XVII. An army of the Convention soon appeared before its 
walls. The cannon of the besiegers were directed by one, who was 
destined to act a most prominent part in the affairs of the world. 
This was Napcr-eon Bonaparte. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVI. 

Napoleon Bonaparte. 

1. Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio, in (Jorsica, August 
15th, 1769. His father was a lawyer of much ability, and his mother 
was a woman of great firmness, as well as one of the handsomest 
women in the island. He was named after some old saint, so obscure 
that his namesake never knew which day he was to celebrate as the 
festival of his patron. 

2. While yet a lad, the bishop one day questioning him about 
this, he smartly replied, that there were a great many saints, and 



CLXXXV. — 1. What of the Jac 
'ailed ? 3. Who was Rol^.spicrre "^ 



^\\\sl Who was their leader? What is this periu. 
t What of his |)ersoaat appearance? 5 Wh*i ■•» 



...» Tieasiires? 6. What liticaine of him? 7. Was there any reaisuince to i<ie Conven- 

iin.,? ^. How was it put down ? 9. What of Toulon? Who was distin^iished there ? 

nA'\XVl. — l. Where was Bonaparte born? When? For » horn named ? 2. What 

KiA ii -i if.Dlv '• I he itishop ? What wa.s the compliment of the Pope? 3. What of hi* 



.^00 



.% A POL KON RON A PA RTF.. 



NAPOLEON BONAPAKTK. 



:m 



only ihiee hundred and sixty-five days to divide amongst them. The 
politeness of the Pope, alter Napoleon hecanie powerful, promoted 
the patron saint in compliment to the {rod-child, and St. Napcleon 
D* IJrsins was accommodated with a festival. 




Nopt'leoii fio/hipfirt' . 

3. In hischildlutod Najmleon did no inoir mischief than other hoy>». 
II IS abilities attract»'d the notice of Marlxeut', the French jrovernoi 
of the island, who procured for him admittance into the royal niilitarv 
school at Hricnnc, at which lads were (iducated lor enj^ineers and 
officers of artillery. 

4. Napideon appliiul himself most closely to study. The instruc- 
tors, who were recpiired to make reports to government, spoke whh 
admiration of his talents, and of his industry, and of course he made 
great progress in his studies. His favorite^ studies were mathemat- 
ics, and those sciences which were connected with his piofession of 
a soldier. 

5. His amusements all took the same direction. His little garden 
♦v'as turned into a fortified camp, which no one was permitted to in- 
vade. In winter, with the aid of his school-fellows, acting uikIct 
his orders, he constructed snow forts, with a skill and knowledge 
which gained great cri'dit for the youthful engineer. 

0. So great was his profnriency in his studies, that, at the unusu 
ally early age cf fonrtcen years, he was selected to be sent to the 
.•idlege at Paris. Here he attracte»l the same notice as at Hneinie 
iud was adnntted to the best literary society of that capita.. 

7. At the age of sixteen he was made a lieutenant in the army. 

•hiUlhood ? What achcKtl was tie sent lo? 4. What nf tiis progress in sliidy ' Wlii' 
d he prefe"? 5. Wtuit of his amuseincnls ? 6. Wtiat lienor was paid him fur »»• 



! 



« 

A 



i 



Hitherto he had led a studious and retired life; but now he vion 
a'ore into society, and exhibited his wondert'ul powers of pleasing all 
those upon whom he chose to exert them. His handsome and intelli- 
gent features, with his active, though slight figure, gave him great 
advantajjes. His manners made \ip in sj>irit and energy what thev 
wanted in grace and polish. 

8. He became an adventurer for the honors of literature, also, 
lud gained the prize olfered by the Aca«lemy of Lyons for the best 

essay on a ipiestion which they proposed. At the outset of the 
revdlution he advocated so heartily the principles of liberty, as to 
i-vcite the indignation of his brother officers, and, in conseq"ence, he 
withdrew himself from their society, and retired to Corsica, where 
he devoted himself with renewed ardor to study. 

9. Almost enclosed by the wild olive, the cactus, the clematis, 
and the almond tree, is a very singular and isolated granite rock 
Heneath it are still to be seen the ruins of a small summer-house, 

he entrance to which is almost closed by a luxuriant fig-tree. This 
was his favorite retreat, and it yet bears the name of Napoleon's 
grotto. 

10. The active spirit of Napoleon would not permit him to remain 
long in .seclusion, and he returned to Paris. The revolution had 
opened to all the path to the highest honors in the state. Noble 
birth, though unaccompanied by a single good or noble quality, was 
no longer a passp(jrt to office. 

11. The notes which the inspectors of the military school alwayb 
preserve concerning the scholars, described Napoleon as a lad of the 
grtxitest genius and industry ; and to the ch;iracter which he had thus 
acquiretl at school he was indebted for the promotion to the rank of 
general, and the command of the artillery before Toulon. 

12. The Convention, by means of committees, assumed to direct 
all military operations. There was such a committee with the army 
at Toukm. I'he deputies did not make their appearance on the field 
until three hours after the battle was won ; but in the report they 
talk largely of their own exploits, and forget to mention so much as 
the name of Bonaparte, to whom the victory was entirely to be as- 
cribed. , 

13. Rut the praises which were suppressed by the deputies, were 
loudly proclaiiiied by the army. He was placed at the head of the 
list of tho.se recommended by the commander-in-chief for promotion, 
with the ■rointed addition, that, if neglected, he would be sure to 
force his own way. 

14. The downfall of Robespierre threatened to involve Bonaparte 
in its consequences, for he was supposed to be strongly attached to 
his party. He was removed from his command, and no attentior 
was paid to his repeated requests for employment. His fortunes 

,)ri.)rtcici'.cy ? 7. Where did he go from schixil? What were his manners and ap,)eai 
ance ? 8. What of his talents for lilerainreV What of his jwlilical principles? U 
What of his grotto 1 iO. What ctiange liad the revolution made ? it. To what did hf 
owe his promotion? 12. What v w the conduct of the deputies at Toulon ? 13 Wha; 
lid llio general say of him ? I What danger threatened Bona[nrte ' VVii;» <i«i h* 
wi«ii to do 1 

26 



.^00 



.NAPOKKOX noXAPARTF. 



only chiee himdrpd aiwl sixty-fivo days to <livide amongst them. Tbt 
politeness ot" the Pope, alter Xapoleon heeanie powerful, promotid 
the patron saint in compliiii«iit to ilic ^r,,(|-child, aiui St. NapcKoii 
Da IJrsins was accouuuodated with a ri'>tival. 




•^^;->»ira;^ 



NdJ'"!' oil Iniihipdi I' . 

3. In hisehildhood Nap<deon did no iiioic niisehiet than other hoys. 
II IS ahiliti«'s attraeltMl tiic noticr of Marhonil'. the Freneh governoi 
»»f tlu^ island, who pr<»eured f(»r hiui adinittanee inti> tiie ntyal military 
sehool at I5ri<nne. at whieh lads were ("diUMted f«»r eiiLlineers and 
ortieers of artillery. 

4. Napolinn applied hiinsidf most closely to study. The instruc- 
l«»rs, who w»Me rtvpiired to make reports to government, spoke with 
admiration of his talents, and of his imlustry, and of conrso he madt- 
great progress in his stndii's. Ifis favorite studies were matht-mat- 
ies, and those seieiicfs whieh were connected with his piofc^sion of 
a soldier. 

i>. His amusements all io«dv the same direction. His little ganlen 
vvas turned into a fortified camp, which no one was permitted to in- 
vade. In winter, with the aid of his seho<d-fellows, acting uiuler 
his orders, he constnieled snow torts, with a skill and knowledge 
which gaini'd great credit lor tin- vouthlul engineer. 

(>. So great was his proficiein'V in his studies, that, at the umisu 
ally <'arly age of fourteen years, he was selected t«> he sent to tin 
>."oliegc at Pans. Iler^^' he attracted the same notice as at Hrienne 
ind was ujlmitted to the hesl literary society of that ca[)ita.. 

7. At the age of sixteen he was made a lieutenant m liie arn»v. 



.hihlluuHl? W hilt school \va.s lie :;0 111 tti? 4. What cf liis proL'n-ss iii iJliidy ' Wha' 
d he prefe-7 5. Wivil of his ainusoineuts .^ (i. What honor waa piid him tur ^'• 



\AP0M:< >\ BO\APAI{ TK. 



30i 



Hitherto he had led a studious and retired life; hut now he won 
ti'ore into society, and exhihited his wonderful powers of pleasing all 
I'lose upcui whom he ehost; to ex«Tl them. His handsome and intelli- 
gent features, with his active, though slight itgure, gave him great 
advant^iixes. His manners made »ip in spirit and energy what thev 
wanted in grae(^ and polish. 

'^. He hecamt^ an adventurer tor the honors o!' literature, al.so, 
lud ijained the jirize «>tlered hy the Academy of Lyitiis tor the Ix^st 
c.s.sav on a <piestion whieh they |»roposed. At the outset of the 
rev<'lution lie advocated s<i heartily the priuci[)les of" liherty, as to 
'•\(.'ite the indignation of his hrother olfieers, and, in consequence, he 
withdrew himself tVom their society, and retired to Corsica, where 
he devoted himself with renewed anlor to study. 

'.'. .\lmost enclosed hy the wild olive, the cactus, the clematis, 
and the almond tree, is a very singular and isolated granite rock 
Beneath it are still to he seen the ruins of a small summer-house, 
he entrance to which is almost closed hy a luxuriant fig-trcc. Thia 
was his favorite n^treat, and it yet hears tin; name of Napoleon's 
i^rotto. 

10. The active spirit of Napoleon would not permit him to remain 
long in .seclusion, and he returned to Paris. The revolution had 
opened to all the path to tin; highest honors in the state. Nohle 
hirth, though unaceom|)anied hy a single good or nohle quality, was 
no longer a passp(nt to office. 

11. The notes which tlu? inspectors of the military seho<d always 
preserve concerning the scludars, descrihed Nap(d(M»n as a lad of the 
gn^^itest jrenius and industry ; and to th<' character which he had thus 
accpiired at scho<»l he was indehted for the promotion to the rank «)l 
general, and the' comm;md of the artillery hefore Toulon. 

1"J. The Convention, hy means of connnittt'cs, assumed to direct 
all military operations. There was such a committee with the army 
at TouK»n. 'I'he dejiuties did not make their appearance on the field 
until three hours after the hattle was won ; hut in the report they 
talk kirgely of their own exploits, and forget to mention so much as 
the name of Jionaparte, to whom the victory was entirely to he as- 
crihcd. 

\^. lint the ju'aises which were suppressed hy the deputies, were 
loudly proclaiiiied hy the* army. He was placed at the head of the 
list of lho.se recommended hy the- commander-in-chief for promotion, 
with the rointed addition, that, if neirlectf.'d, \w. would l)e sure, to 
force his own way. 

11. The downfall of Hohes}>ierre threattnied to involve iJoujj)arte 
in its eonsequ(;iices, for he was supposed to he strongly attached to 
his party. H(^ was removed from his connnand, and no attenlior 
was paid to his repeated reciuests for employment. His fortunea 



,)ri)tkic.icy ? 7. Wiiere (hd ho iru from scliool ' VVliii were liis manners aiid ai.,)eai 
ance ? '^. What of his talents Tt literature'/ Wliat nf lijs |Ktiiliral principles? U 
What of his erolio 1 i'l. WJi il tliani.'t; had the revulciion made ? 11. To what did hf 
nwe his promotion? 12. What v is the conduct of the deputies at TtMiImi 7 i:) VVha- 
lid ihe general say of him? I What danger threatened Rnnri;n!ic ' Win 'i" >»• 
wibii to do ? 

26 



•J02 



THE REPUBLIC. - 17«J5. 



were now at the lowest ebb. He was destitute of money and friend* 
and so disgusted was he with the treatment he received, that he ap 
plied for permission to enter the service of tlie Sultan of Turkey. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVII. 

Bonaparte selected for a difficult Service. — His Success, ard 

its Reward. — His Marriage. 

1. The Convention had become hateful, if not contemptible, by 
yieldinjr so submissively to be the tool of Robespierre. Its authority 
was resisted in Paris, and the personal safety of the members was in 
danger. A hirfje body of troops in that city remained faithful to 
their orders ; but everythiiin: depended upon the leader. 

2. A man of the greatest firmness and decision, and at the same 
Ume having the greatest skill in influencing others, was required. 
The utmost anxiety prevailed ; for such a man is not easily found. 
It was then that a few words from Barras, one of the members, de- 
cided the fate of Europe for twenty years. " I have the man,"'said 
he, " whom you want ; a little Corsican officer, who will not stand 
upon ceremony." 

3. Bonaparte was sent for, and gave his opinion as to the best mode 
of putting down the insurgents. It was satisfactory to all. He was 
placed at the head of the forces. The insurgents made an attack 
upon the luileries, which was now occupied by the Convention bu* 
were repulsed with great slaughter, and before night all open resist- 
ance to the Convention was at an end. 

4. This service was rewarded by the command of the army 
statimied about Paris, called " the Army of the Interior." This was 
a difficult post. I'he scarcity of bread, and other causes, would 
sometimes produce riots, which the General of the Interior was 
called upon to oppose with the military force. On one occasion, 
when Bonaparte was anxiously admonishing the crowd to disperse a 
very stout woman exhorted them to keepnheir ground. ' 

5. "Never mind these coxcombs with the epaulettes," said she • 
ihey do not care if we are all starved, so they themselves feed and 

get tat. — " Look at me, good noman," said Bonaparte, who was as 
Uiin as a shadow, " and tell me which is the fatter of us two " 
Ihis turned the laugh against the woman, and the mob dispersed in 
good humor. Ihis, if it be not the most celebrated of Napoleon's 
victories, is worthy of record, as achieved at the least cost 

6. A fine boy, about ten years old, presented himself to the fron- 
eral, with a request unusually interesting. He said that his name 
was l^ugene Beauharnois, son of Count de Beauharnois, who, although 

CLXXXVII. — I. What was the feelm? towards the Convention f Who were failhfu, 
i- t ..... What wa3 wanting? Who snpplietl the want? 3. What of iLnap^ifi^ 
... I.'ici I Ifow was ,1 rewarded ? What of the dillir„ltie.s of his offiro' ." iSa'' 



THE KEPUBLIC. — 1796 



303 



ae had fonght bravely for the Republic, had incurred the displeasure 
of Robespierre, and had been put to death only four days before the 
fall of that tyrant. 

7. Eugene was come to ask that his father's sword might be 
restored tt> him. The nature of the re(iuest, and engaging manners 
of the child, (,'xcited the interest of Napoleon. This led to an ac- 
quaintance witli the mother. The beauty of her person, the grace 
of her manners, her amiable disposition and inexhaustible fund of 
good humor, won the heart of the general, and in March, 1790, they 
were married. 

8. Josephine, such was her name, acijuired great influence over 
her husband, and sh was always found a willing, and often a suc- 
cessful advocate in the cause of humanity. She had at all times the 
art of iniligatisg his anger, not against herself, for I do not know 
that he was ever angry with her. This she did, not by directly 
opposing, but by gradually disarming it. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVII!. 



Another Change in the Constitution of Goveimment. — Com 
menjcement of the Campaign in Italy. 

1. The National Convention, in whose name so much crime had 
been committed, terminated its disgraceful career October 27th, 1795. 
A new constitution was now to be tried. In its external form it bore 
some resemblance to that of the United States. 

2. The legislature consisted of two bodies. One, called " the 
Council of Ancients,'' corresponded to our own senate, whilst " tlif. 
Council of Five Hundred'''' answered to our house of representatives. 
Instead of one president, the executive power was entrusted to five 
persons, called " the Directory.''' 

3. In the spring of 1796 three great armies took the field. Two, 
which were to act in Germany, were under the command of Generals 
Moreau and .Tourdan. These were not so successful as the armies 
of the republic had hitherto been ; the Archduke ('harles of Austria 
compelled them to retreat ; — and the manner m which Moreau 
effijcted this gained for him great credit. 

4. Bonaparte was appointed to the command of the third army, 
and was sent to conquer Italy. Hitherto, others had the credit of 
that which he b'ju performed ; but now the praise or the blame would 
be his own. The old Austrian generals had little dread of a com- 
mander, who, compared in age with themselves, was a mere boy, and 
of whose name or family they had never before heard. 



■.he ancctJote ahout the stout woman. 6. What of Eueene Beauharnoia ? 7. What wa* 
his request ? To what did it lead ? What of his mother? 8. What of her influence? 

CLXXXV'III. — 1. When was the National Convention dissolved? What did the new 
institution reMPible ? 2. What of the legislature ? What of the executive ? 3. How 
Riany armies in 796 ? What the success in Oermany • 1. Who commanded the thi*' 



304 



THE REPUBLIC — I7y/. 



5. But ihey were not on that account the less careful. Thej 
posted their troops on the steep hills and precipices of the Alps, to 
prevent the French from crossing these mountains, as tney must do 
before they could enter Italy. 

6. The hostile armies met at Monte Notte on the ISth of April, 
1796, and Bonaparte trained the first of a scries of victories which 
continued, almost without interruption, for a long course of years. 

7. Afterwards, when Napoleon had reached to the height of 
power and fame, flattery endeavored to trace the name which he had 
made famous into renu>te ages, and researches were made into an- 
cient records, to discover that there was one Bonaparte who had 
written a hook, — that a female of the name had heen the mother of 
a pope. 

8. Napoleon justly considered such clai/ns to distinction as un- 
worthy of his notice. To a person who made a merit of deducing 
his descent from some ancient line of Gothic princes, he caused reply 
to be made, that he dated his patent of nobility from the battle cf 
Monte Notte. 



CHAPTER CLXXXIX. 

The Ttaliurt Campaign rnnlinued. — Battle of Lodi. — Taking 
nf Areola. — Bonaparte saved hy his Grenadiers. 

1. It would takn too lotiir to give you an account of the various 
victories, which, following one another in rapid succession, placed 
the greater part of Italy in subjection to France. The most cele- 
brated achievement was the passage of the bridge over the river 
Adda, at Lodi. 

2. This bridge was defended by a strong body of Austrians, who, 
with twenty or thirty pieces of cannon, threatened with certain death 
all who should be hardy enough to attempt to cross it. Exposing 
hiinsclf to the most imminent perils, Napoleon in person directed the 
position of the cannon which were to sujjport the troops destined to 
make the desperate attempt. 

3. The Austrians, disheartened by a long series of defeats, could 
iiot sustain the attack of the French, inspirited by a long course ol 
victory, and led on by otficers who afterwards became almost as 
famous as their general. 

4. The French soldiers had a mode of amusing themselves, bv 
•jonferring an imaginary rank upon their generals when they had 
performed some remarkable exploit. They showed their sense of 
the bravery displayed by Bonaparte at the battle of Lodi by creating 
him a Corporal ; and by this phrase, of the Little Corporal, he was 



7 VVhiiher sent ? Whal of the age of llie general ? fi. Where did ihey meet the 
!!.L,.X1'^" ^ '^' ^- ^^^^ was Bot>!i|»arte's opinion of hcrediury honors ? 



army ? 

•nemy? W uen .• /, o. wnai was i5ot>a]»arte's opinion of hcrediury 
CLXXAIA - 1 Whal is siiid of the victoriea in Italy? 2, X What of ihe lxnt:ft or 




THE REPUBLIC — 1 37. 



3(M 



aftei wards distinguished in the intrigues carried on both in his tavoi 
and against him. 

5 Throughout the whole campaign, Bonaparte fearlessly exposed 
his own person, where an important object was to be gained. It will 
be sufficient to mention one of these occasions. The village of Ar- 
eola was in possession of the Austrians, and it was essential to 
Bonaparte's operations that he should take it from them. 

H. It could only be approached by a long narrow^ causeway, which 
traversed the marshes that surround the town. The Austrian troops 
were posted-so as to defend this passage. They received the French 
with so heavy a fire that they fell back in disorder. The chosen 
grenadiers rushed forward, but they too were driven back. 

7. Areola must be taken, but the fire continued to be tremendous. 
At length, to animate his soldiers to a final exertion, Bonaparte 
caught a standard, and rushing on to the bridge at the end of the 
causeway, planted it there with his own hands. 

S. At this moment a fresh body of Austrians arrived, and the fire 
blazed more destructively than ever. The French column gave way, 
but, still careful of their general, bore him back in their arms through 
the dead and dyinir, the fire and the smoke. In the confusion he was 
at length nushed into th;' marsh. 

0. The Austrians were already betwixt him and his own troops 
and he must have perished or been taken, liad not the grenadiers per 
ceived his danger. The cry instantly arose, " Forward, forward I — 
save the general !" Tlieir love to Bonaparte's person did more than 
even his commands and example had been able to accomplish. They 
returned to the charge, and the Austrians were driven from the 
town ! 



CHAPTER CXC. 

More about Napoleon Bonaparte. 

1. Many generals have been indebted for their success to a fortu- 
nate accident, or to the valor of their troops, and a victory has caused 
them almost as much embarrassment as a defeat. But Bonaparte 
attained all his t)bjects by the very means he proposed, and the suc- 
cess was improved to the utmost. 

2 His irenius had devised new methods of conducting a battle, 
itid tne rnpidity of his movements quite disconcerted the old generals, 
who thought that defeat must certainly follow any deviation from the 
old established principles. Soon after the battle of Lodi, Bonaparte 
•lad some conversation with an old Hungarian officer, made prisoner 
in one of the actions. 



5. 



What of Bonaparte's conra.ic ? C 



Lodi V 4. Whence the title " Little Corponl ? " 
7, 8. 9. W'.iat of the attack on Areola ? 
f'Xr:. — 1. What of Bonaparte's plans? 2 What was the opinion of the old ijtjueraiii 
26* 



hit 

#1 



m 



lf)6 



THE REPUBLIC. - 17y: 



THE REPUBLIC. - 1797 



307 



3 The omctT did not know the general, and loniplained vert 
much of his method of gaining victories. " Things.'' said he, *' are 
ping on very hadly : the French have got a >^)ung general whc 
knows nothing of the regular rules of war ; he is sometimes in our 
front, sometimes on our rear, sometimes on the flank : there is no 
'supporting such a gross violation of rules.'- 

4. Con.scious of his own superior ability, Bonaparte did not hesi- 
tate to acknowlt'dire merit wherever it existed. He was anxious to 
procure for those officers who dislinsruishcd themselves the rewards 
which their services entitled them to. In all his despatches he urcres 
the promotion of his brethren in arms. ^ 

5. This conduct was not only just and generous, hut also highh 
politic. VVt're hi.s recommendations successful, the general had the 
gratitude due for the Ix-ncflt ; and wen^ they not attended to, thanks 
equally belonged to him for his good wis^ln's. 

6. One of the conditions upon which peace was granted to the 
several states of Italy, was the surren<ler of those works of art, the 
paintings and statues, which had for so loui? a period been the admi- 
ration of the civilized world. These were sent to Paris, and the 
national vanity was not a little gratified by this novel species of 
tribute. 

7. At the same time, Bonaparte treated with the greatest honoi 
all who were distinguished for their literary and scientific attain 
ments. In a letter addressed publicly to Oriani, a celebrated astrono 
iner, he assures him that all men of genius, all who had distinguished 
themselves m the republic of letters, were to be accounted "natives 
of Trance. 

8. " The French people," .said he, " have more pride in enrolling 
among their citizens a skilful mathematician, a painter of reputation, 
a man eminent in any class of literature, than in adding to their ter* 
ritories a large and wealthy city." 



CHAPTEf^ CXCI. 
Conclusion of the Italian War. — Treaty of Leoben. 

1. The eyes of all Eun.pe were now riveted on Napoleon Bona- 
parte. He, who a tew months before had been seeking rather for 
subsistence than expecting honorable distinction, had become the 
.error of empires and the founder of states. Such sudden elevations 
have occasionally Kippened amid barbarous people, but were hitherto 
unheard of in civilized Europe. 



i vvh^J "^ t^'e Hungarian officer? 4. What of Bonaparte's conduct to his officer.. 
CXCI - I. What is said of fie rise of Napoleon ? 2. VV»m of the means 1 3. H hal 



'J. The means which had raised him were equally competent to 
make good his greatness. He had infused into the armies which he 
commanded the firmest reliance on his genius, and the greatest love 
for his person ; so that he could always find agents ready to execute 
nis most difficult commands. 

3. He had even inspired his troops with a portion of his own inde- 
fatigable exertion and commanding intelligence. Under his training 
tliey seemed to become the very men he wanted, and to forget, in the 
excitation of war and the hope of victory, even the feelings of weari- 
ness and exhaustion. When practising the long and severe marches 
which were part of his system, be would cheer them by saying. " I 
would rather gain victory at the expense of your legs, than at the 
price of your blood." 

4. Having destroyed five Austrian armies, which in succession had 
been sent against him, and reduced Italy to a state of complete sub- 
jection to the French republic, Bonaparte now directed his course 
towards (fcrmany. 

5. The successes of the Archduke (^harles upon the Rhine, and his 
high credit with the soldiers, st^enuMJ to point him out as the most fit 
person to oppose to the young general of f^ ranee. The opinions of 
FiUrope were divided as to the issue of the contest. 

f). But the result did not long remain a matter of doubt. In the 
space of scarce twenty days Bonaparte defeated the Austrians in ten 
combats, in the course of whicii the archduke lost at least one fourth 
of his army, and was compelled to retreat, leaving the way to Vien- 
na, the capital of Austria, open to the enemy. 

7. Bonaparte j)r<»posed to the archduke to make peace, omi-rinii 
him very favorable terms. But this was declined by the archduke, 
who began a hasty retreat towards Vienna, determined to collect th" 
last strength of the empire, and fiffht for the existence, it might be 
of his brother's throne, under the walls of his capital. 

8. But in that capital a very diflferent spirit prevailed. Terror, 
grief, and confusion, filled the minds of all classes. Their alarm be- 
gan with the court and royal family, who, packing up the most valu- 
able property, determined to take refuge in Hungary. Amongst the 
fugitives was the Archduchess Maria Louisa, then between five and 
six years old, who fled with terror at the approach of that victorious 
general, on whom she was destined, at a future period, to bestow her 
hand. 

9. The cries of the citizens were for peace. The enemy were 
within a few day%' march of their walls. The fears of the govern- 
ment prevailed, and ambassadors were sent by the emperor to sue for 
peace. Bonaparte granted a suspension of arms for five days, which 
was afterwards extended, when the probability of a permanent peace 
became evident. 

10. The preliminaries were signed at Leoben, April 18, 1797 
Tlie Austrian ambassador, in hopes to gain some credit by the admi.^ 

were the fcelinss of his troops? 1. What of his success? 5. Who was sent aiiHinal 
him? 6. Wiiat wa^ the result? 7. What did Prince Eugene do? 8. Wh*t. wa.-i lh» 
foiling ?». Viei"ia ? '^ What course dul the emperor adopt? 10. Whep* -v*" i"«a'« 






f 



308 



THK KEPURi.I(J.~|7y7 



sion, s» .cH, as a concession of consequence, that the enipen r acknowl- 
edfred tne existence of the French republic. 

11. "Strike out that clause," said Bonaparte, sternly " thf 
brench republic is like the sun in heaven. The misfortune lie^ 
with those who arc so blind as to be i^niorant of the existence a 
either." 



THE REPUBLIC -1798. 



309 



Italy. He took a most affecting leave of his soldiers, the compan- 
ions of bis earliest success, who witnessed his departure with soi 
row. His own position was a perilous one. He returned to Franct. 
in a situation which permitted no middle place. He must rise yet 
hig^her, or sink forever. 



CHAPTER CXCH. 

Life at Montchello. — Peace of Campo Farmio. 

1 BoNAPARTK now cujoved an interval of repose, which he passed 
with his wit.. :.t the palace of Montebello. This palace is situated a 
t.'w miles from Milan, on a jiently sloping hill, commandinT an ex- 
tensive prospect (d the fertile plains of Lombardv. 

2. The ladies of the hipbest rank, as well a^ those celebrated for 
beauty and accomplishments, were daily paying their homage to 
Josephi.u'. who received them with as much ease and ^race as if she 
luul been born for exercisinir the courtesies which devolved upon the 
wife of so disliiiyuished a person as Napoleon. 

3. NcfTotiaticuis proc(.eded amid cayety and pleasure. The am- 
bassadors of Austria, and of other states of Germany, and of the vari- 
ous Italian states— the tbronjr of generals— the bustle of important 
business, mingled with festive entertainments, balls, and huntin<r- 
parties, gave the appearance of a splendid court. 

4. It was such, in point of importance. Many states awaited with 
anxiety the result of the deliberations; destined to hear from the 
voice of Napoleon the terms on which their national existence was to 
be prolonged or terminated. 

5. Napoleon had now all that the world considers essential to hap- 
piness. He was welcomed on every side as the " Deliverer of Italy " 
Honor and power were his beyond that of kings. He was in 'the 
flower of his youth. Vet he, himself, in after years would frequently 
say that the happiest period of his life was when a young officer of 
artillery, without m.mey and without any family influence he wan- 
dered about Fans to find a cbeaj) place to dine at"! 

6 The negotiations were at length broujTht to a close. I'eace was 
finally settled by the irvaty of Cnmpo Formio, October 17, 1797 
A large part of Italy was formed into a new republic, called the 
(isa/pnir h> puhhr \'enice was given up to the Emperor of Austria. 
?>oon afterwards Genoa was fbrmed into the Liiryrian Republic 

'• ii«":ip^rie had now finished, for the present, his career in 

'm^S^.^^S^^'-'^''''^'^ ^"' '^^ ^"•^*^>"" ^"'•«-«^'J-r make? 11. How 
iM.Heliello? 4 V\halofthenegolialion3there? 5. What of Napoleon'- life » 6 Wh^r 



CHAPTER CXCHI. 

Bonaparte's Reception at Paris. — Description of his Appear* 
ance at this Time. — A new Expedition. 

1. In a city where all is welcome that can vary the tedium of ordi 
nary life, the arrival of any remarkable person is a species of hol- 
day ; but such an eminent character as Hon;ij)arte was no every-da* 
wonder. His yoiilli, too, added to the marvel. 

2. Madame de 8tael, ihv dauirhter of Necker, who was herseif 
one of the most distinguished persons in the literary world, has de 
scribed his general maimer in society at this period. He was one 
she tells us, for whom the admiration which could not be refused ti 
him, wijs always mingled with a portion of fear, 

3. He w:is diflerent in his manner from other men, was neithei 
pleased nor angry, kind nor severe, according to the common fashion 
He appean^d to live for the execution of his own plans ; and estima- 
ted his fellow-mortals no otherwise than as they could be useful tc 
him. 

4. Though in general reserved and stiff, few could resist the fas- 
cination of his maimers when he exerted himself to please. He was 
eareless in his dress, and had already adopted the gray great-coat, 
buttoned up to his chin, and the little cocked hat — a costume by which 
he was to be distinguished almost ever after. 

5. The Directory, whose power rested on a very weak foundation, 
were anxious to get rid of the presence of a person so dangerous, from 
his talents and popularity. 'J'o him, a state of inactivity was irk- 
some, and he, therefore, was glad to accept the command of a very 
powerful expedition, fitted out for the conquest of Egypt. 

0. To this army, a corps of a novel descrij)tion was attached. No 
h'ss than one hundred of the men, most distinguished for their knowl- 
edge of the arts and sciences, called by the French, .wrr/n.s, were 
selected to accompany the expedition, and to explore the treasures of 
a land, which, for so many ages, bad been considered the cradle (»f 
kriovvicdoe. 

7. Everything connected with the ancient republics of Greece and 
liome was very much the fashion in France. As the names and 



C/.\«'lll I How wa-' llMiiaparie received al Pari.s ? '.>.:{. VVha does Madame de 
■tael say ol him? 4. What cf his die.sd .' ;".. How did the Direclo'v --iew him ? What 
xpedilir.n wa-^ prii|K>sed ? () What nmv ror|»! wa.s ait.ultc.l to it '. Whil was Faii' 



expedition wa-^ pn ,. . 

oflh'"* plan of Bonaparte ' 



:no 



KXPKniTION IX) EGYPT. - 179S 



KXPEDITION TO KCJVPT IT'.H 



311 



ilress, so il • illustrations were borrowed from these heathen. In 
reference to his union of war and science, some one said, it was as 
if Bonaparte desired that the goddess Minerva should marcli at the 
head of his expedition, holding in one hand lur dreadful lance, and 
with the other introducing the arts and the muses. 



CHAPTER CXCIV. 

The Expeditimi to Egypt. 




1. TriK expedition sailed from Toulon in June, 1798, and, al'lei 
lakinor Malta, landed stife at Alexandria, in Egypt. This city oflerni 
hut little resistance, and the army soon advanced towards ('airo. 
During the niarch they were constantly annoyed by the Mamelukes, 
as the troops of the sovereign of Egypt v/er<^ called. 

2. The danger did not abate the French love of the ludicrous. 
The sarans had been supplied with asses, the common bea