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The 

^rcsbjJterian Congregation 

on 
Hockg Utoer 

By 

Thomas Hugh Svcncc, Jr. 



Rocky River Presbyterian Church 
Concord, North Carolina 

1954 



Copyright 1954 by 
Rocky River Presbyterian Church 



TYPOGRAPHY, PRINTING, AND BINDING IN THE U. S. A. BY 
KINGSPORT PRESS, INC., KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE 



To the memory of 

THOMAS HUGH SPENCE 

Ulster-lorn Scot 

Pastor of Rocky River Church 

1916-1931 






Preface 



The interests and endeavors of a considerable number of per- 
sons have contributed to this volume. Its preparation was under- 
taken at the request of Harvey Wilson Moore and Rev. George 
M. Wilcox, seventeenth and present pastor of Rocky River. Miss 
Madeline Orr gave largely of her time and talents, while Wil- 
liam Kemp Alexander and James R. Morrison lent valuable as- 
sistance in checking certain data embodied in its publication. 
Mrs. R. T. Coit, Mrs. Margaret Matthews, Mrs. John Nisbet, 
and Miss Elizabeth Hoyt have rendered a somewhat similar serv- 
ice, while Dr. Chalmers Davidson has made a number of con- 
structive suggestions concerning the earlier chapters. 

Misses Adelaide and Eugenia Lore graciously placed their ex- 
tensive historical and genealogical collections at the disposal of 
the author. Readers are accordingly indebted to them for the 
substance of Appendices G, H, I, and J; and are under like ob- 
ligation to Mrs. George F. Stratton for the inclusion of Ap- 
pendix L. 

Through the introduction of the materials comprising the sev- 
eral appendices, it was proposed to augment the narrative of the 
text by thus supplying much factual information that could not 
conveniently be included in the body of the book. The Statisti- 
cal Tables, for example, afford a comprehensive view of the 
Church's work of well above a century past, while the Marriage 
Records embrace more than six hundred weddings of intimate 
concern to great numbers who revere Rocky River. 

vii 



PREFACE 

It is the prayer of the author that those who read these pages 
may experience that quickening of interest and deepening of af- 
fection for this noble Congregation which came to him in the 
recording of its blessed and eventful history. 

T.H.S.Jr. 

The Historical Foundation, 
Montreat, North Carolina. 
January i, 1954. 



vni 



Contents 



CHAPTER PAGE 

Preface vii 

Rocky River xiii 

I. Alexander Craighead and the Early Years ... 3 

II. Times of Testing 20 

III. The Ministry of John Alakemie Wilson . ... 33 

IV. The Academy and Certain Alumni 47 

V. A Burning and a Shining Light 57 

VI. Days of Daniel Penick 63 

VII. War and the End of an Era 79 

VIII. Servants in the Congregation 88 

IX. To the Close of the Century 105 

X. Nineteen Hundred and After 137 

XI. To Serve the Present Age 155 

May Meeting 168 

Appendix 

A. Pastors of Rocky River 173 

B. The Eldership 173 

C. The Diaconate 175 

D. Sunday School Superintendents 175 

E. Presidents of the Women of the Church . . . 176 

F. Ministers from Rocky River 176 

G. Patriots and Soldiers of the Revolutionary Period . 177 
H. Confederate Casualties 179 

ix 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Quarters of the Congregation 181 

J. Early Graveyards 182 

K. Statistical Reports, 1836-1953 186 

L. Marriage Records, 1822-1870 189 

Bibliography 213 

Index 223 



Illustrations 

Facing 
Page 
Church and Educational Building Frontispiece 

George Marshall Wilcox 20 

Harvey Wilson Moore 34 

Some Nineteenth Century Pastors 58 

Session House 68 

The Manse 68 

The Church Building 76 

Pulpit of Present Church 76 

Sunday School Class Number 1 1 106 

Pastors of the Twentieth Century 138 

Young Men's Sunday School Class 150 

Leaders in Building Program ( 1 ) 1 60 

Leaders in Building Program (2) 164 

The Elders 172 

The Deacons 174 



XI 



Rocky River 



The waters of more than two centuries have followed the 
course of Rocky River toward the Eastern Sea since the van- 
guard of the Scotch-Irish settled along its banks and branches. 
Yet it is difficult to know just when or where to begin a history 
of the congregation known by the name of that stream, for no 
one can fix the precise time at which the church had its origin nor 
determine with exactitude where its story really began. 

The foundations were laid beyond the seas, amid the verdant 
valleys of Ulster, or, even earlier, upon the heathered hills of 
Scotland. But there is no uncertainty in regard to that staunch 
and sturdy race who made their way across the Atlantic, settled 
for a season in Pennsylvania, and then resumed the march to rest 
only intermittently until the Yadkin had been forded and the 
region of Rocky River attained. 

There are excellent works on the Ulster and Pennsylvania in- 
terludes, while the Scottish story has long been recorded by vari- 
ous competent pens. It is, therefore, presently proposed to begin 
the record of Rocky River on that watercourse which lent its 
name to the congregation. The River was accurately named, in 
part at least; for it is rocky beyond dispute. As to whether the 
somewhat pretentious designation of river is warranted may be 
open to discussion, but Rocky River it was in the days of the 
forefathers, and as such it is known by their children's children 
of this late hour, in spite of a happily futile Mid-Eighteenth Cen- 
tury effort to christen it Johnston's River. 

xiii 



The Presbyterian Congregation 
on Rocky River 



CHAPTER I 

Alexander Craighead and the Early Years 



Rocky River is first encountered by name in official ecclesiasti- 
cal annals when the New Side Synod of New York, on October 
3, 1755, appointed a certain Mr. John Clark "to take a journey 
into Virginia and North Carolina, to supply the vacancies there 
for six months, betwixt this and the next Synod, particularly at 
Rocky River and Sugar Creek, at the Hawfields, Enno, Ilico, and 
Dan Rivers." 1 

By this time the Scotch-Irish and their inevitable Presbyterian- 
ism had become hopefully established in several areas between 
the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. Even while Synod was in the 
act of commissioning Mr. Clark for his Southern journey, an- 
other minister of the New Side persuasion was in the midst of a 
mission to Piedmont Carolina, and on that specific day only a 
few miles from Rocky River. Hugh McAden had ridden down 
from Pennsylvania at the beginning of June and by September 
12 had crossed the Yadkin to enter the confines of the present 
Presbytery of Concord. 2 Here he found a number of churches 
functioning with their houses of worship already erected. 

According to a journal which he kept, and which has been 
largely preserved in William Henry Foote's Sketches of North 
Carolina, this itinerant evangelist of an early era found a church 
building not far from a Mr. Brandon's, known as the Lower 
Meeting-House when the deed for the land upon which it was 
erected was granted in 1753. 3 This was later designated as Cath- 

1 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 265. 

2 W. H. Foote, Sketches of North Carolina, p. 167. 

3 Ibid. 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

ey's Meeting-House and finally called by the Apocalyptic name 
of Thyatira. Soon afterward, McAden preached in another such 
house two miles from Justice Carruth's, which was probably 
Coddle Creek; and also in a "New meeting-house," three miles 
from the residence of Captain Osborne, presumably to be identi- 
fied with Centre. 4 

Proceeding southward he came to the home of Justice Alex- 
ander on October 12, which fell on Sunday, and preached in the 
afternoon. McAden was now in the territory of Rocky River 
and a memorable drought had taken fast hold on the land. On 
Wednesday he preached at Major Harris', three miles from Jus- 
tice Alexander's, and on Friday at the residence of David Cald- 
well, five or six miles further on. Here his congregation was 
small. His next stop was with William Alexander, whence he 
moved on to James Alexander's, "on Sugar Creek," twelve miles 
away. 5 

After a season spent in South Carolina, McAden returned by 
way of Rocky River; and after he had passed to Cathey's Meet- 
ing House was urged by that people to remain in the South as 
their pastor and divide his time with them and with Rocky River, 
but was moved to decline this call. 6 Its extension, however, indi- 
cates that Rocky River was at this time regarded as being able to 
provide for one-half the support of a minister. 

In 1753, the Old Side Synod of Philadelphia, once opposed but 
now considerably less inimical to their New Side brethren, had 
directed Mr. (Robert) McAiordie and a Mr. Donaldson "to 
show a special regard to the vacancies of North Carolina, espe- 
cially betwixt the Atkin and Catoba rivers" while absent in the 
South upon a contemplated missionary tour. 7 While no particular 

i Ibid., p. 168. Dr. Jethro Rumple judged the "house" near Justice Carruth's 
to have been Fourth Creek (Memorial Sermon Preached at Centre Church, 
p. 26). 

5 Foote, op. cit., pp. 168-169. 

6 Ibid., p. 170. 

7 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 210. 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

congregations are mentioned by name, it is significant that Foote 
has asserted that Rocky River is "the oldest church in the upper 
country." 8 

The establishment of such a series of meeting-houses as Mc- 
Aden found in 1755 requires time — some years at least — and the 
presence of Presbyterians in an earlier decade is confirmed by 
a supplication "from many people of North Carolina" presented 
to the Synod of Philadelphia on May 24, 1 744- 9 This appeal seems 
to have come from the Piedmont, since Rev. John Thomson, who 
later settled in that region, was instructed to "correspond" with 
its authors. 10 

According to tradition, John Rodgers was the first settler in 
the Rocky River community, arriving in 1732 from Pennsyl- 
vania. His cabin was built on the north bank of the River, one- 
half mile below the mouth of Back Creek. The same source holds 
that William White and Robert Harris came a year or two 
later. 11 

In recording the movement of the early settlers from the 
North of Ireland to this region, Foote identifies the particular 
points of their residence in the following words: 

As was usual, they came in a company: Col. Robert Harris, on 
Reedy Creek; his brother, Samuel Harris, on Clear Creek; Andrew 
Davis, on Reedy Creek; Moses Shelby, on Clear Creek; Wm. 
White and his two brothers, James and Archibald, on or near 
Rocky River; David Caldwell, on Caldwell's Creek; and Adam 
Alexander on Clear Creek. . . . The Morrison family came early 
to Rocky River from Scotland, making a short sojourn in Pennsyl- 
vania. 12 

A ford across Rocky River between the homes of William 
White and Robert Harris is said to have led to the location of 

8 Foote, op. cit., p. 186. 

9 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 175. 

10 T. H. Spence, Jr., and W. L. Lingle, Addresses Delivered at the Sesqiricen- 
tennial of Concord Presbytery, p. 3. 

11 J. B. Mack, A Historical Sketch of Rocky River Church, pp. 5-6. 

12 Foote, op. cit., p. 480. 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the first church building, which was constructed of logs, at that 
convenient spot, though the exact time of its erection and details 
of arrangements are unknown. 13 In any event, it was sufficiently 
early for the building to be referred to in 1765 as "the old meet- 
ing house on Rocky River," 14 though it is possible that the term 
"old" was primarily intended to distinguish the building in ques- 
tion from other meeting-houses in use at that date. 15 

It is unlikely that the Scotch Irish would long remain without 
a place of worship. Rocky River Church may never have been 
organized in ordinary fashion, but rather instituted in unstudied 
continuation of the expression of the Christian Faith in its cor- 
porate form on the part of those drawn southward from the 
Middle Colonies. That many of the Ulsterites tarried not in- 
definitely in Pennsylvania, or Virginia, but pushed on into the 
territory beyond is not difficult of explanation. In Pennsylvania 
land was not to be had save at considerable cost, 16 and it is to be 
remembered that the Scotch-Irish were actually Scotch and short 
of funds, besides; while in Virginia the Established Church was 
dominant to an extent not at all congenial to the Presbyterians 
from across the seas. 17 In Carolina, land was not overly dear, and 
worship after the Presbyterian fashion brought no actual inter- 
ference at the hands of civil authorities, particularly in those far 
inland regions with which this narrative is concerned. 18 

But the original motive prompting the settlement along Rocky 
River was of a nobler genesis than desire for the cheap lands of 
Carolina. Writing in 1755, Governor Arthur Dobbs, who ten 
years before had, with John Selwyn, acquired four hundred 
thousand acres of land in Piedmont Carolina, including much of 
the territory through which Rocky River runs, described the 

13 Mack, op. cit., p. 6. 

14 D. A. Tompkins, History of Mecklenburg County and the City of Char- 
lotte, Vol. I, p. 75. 

15 Foote, op. cit., p. 168. 

16 W. F. Dunaway, The Scotch-Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania, p. 103. 

17 Foote, op. cit., p. 79. 

18 Ibid., p. 187. 

6 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

settlers as "a Colony from Ireland removed from Pennsylvania, 
of what we call Scotch-Irish Presbyterians who with others in 
the neighbouring Tracts had settled together in order to have a 
teacher of their own opinion and choice." 19 Two facts impressed 
Governor Dobbs in regard to these people, the little clothing 
which they wore and the large families which they reared. He 
visited between thirty and forty households, and reported that, 
with two exceptions, the number of children in each ranged from 
five to ten. 20 

In the early autumn of 1757, Rev. John Martin, lately ordained 
by the Presbytery of Hanover, was in North Carolina and ap- 
parently recuperating from an illness. 21 In response to certain 
pleas for services from congregations in that Colony, the Pres- 
bytery, on September 28, directed Mr. Martin to preach for six 
Sabbaths at Rocky River, and one each at Hawfields and Hico, 
with the remainder of his time until the next meeting of Pres- 
bytery to be spent at his own discretion. 22 Such continued minis- 
trations suggest that the clergyman was residing, at least tem- 
porarily, near Rocky River, and imply a congregation of recog- 
nized significance. Nothing is known as to the fulfilling of these 
commissions, but on the 25th of January of the next year (1758) 
Presbytery was informed, through a letter from Mr. Martin, that 
he had become associated with the Indian Mission. 23 

ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD 

The first pastor of Rocky River was presumably a child of 
Rev. Thomas Craighead 2i and certainly a son of thunder. Elijah 
and John the Baptist must surely be reckoned among his Biblical 
kinsfolk and John Knox accounted his spiritual ancestor. 

19 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. V, p. 356. 

20 Ibid., p. 355. 

21 Minutes of Hanover Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 19. 

22 Ibid., p. 20. 

23 Ibid., p. 22. 

24 Richard Webster, A History of the Presbyterian CJnirch in America, p. 
434; Charles A. Briggs, American Presbyterianism, p. 274. 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Rev. Thomas Craighead, who was said to have been a native 
of Scotland, held pastorates in the northern portion of Ireland 
before embarking for the new world in 17 15. He resided suc- 
cessively in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Delaware, before 
reaching Pennsylvania in 1733. 25 

Alexander Craighead was licensed by the Presbytery of Done- 
gal (Pennsylvania) on October 16, 1734, 26 and was ordained and 
installed as pastor of the Middle Octorara Church by the same 
Presbytery on November 19 of the following year. 27 Contrary 
to the wishes of a neighboring pastor, he insisted upon preaching 
within the bounds of the nearby New London congregation, as- 
serting that ministers should not be limited to a single parish, a 
remark strikingly similar to one for which another religious 
leader has been repeatedly applauded. The Presbytery, however, 
took a somewhat different view of the matter, and when it at- 
tempted to try him for latitudinarian views of this nature, cou- 
pled with other charges, 28 at his own church in keeping with 
current custom, the sessions of the court were interrupted by the 
clamor of his sympathizers who had gathered for the proceed- 
ings. Nevertheless, he was suspended from the ministry at this 
time (December 1 1, 1740), but not before he had renounced the 
authority of the Presbytery. 29 

Later ( 1 742 ) he became affiliated with the Reformed Presby- 
terian group in Pennsylvania, known, as in Scotland, as Cove- 
nanters or Cameronians, and assisted in building a Covenanter 
church at Octorara. 30 That Craighead was specifically enrolled 
as a minister of the Reformed Presbyterian Church has been 

25 Webster, op. cit., pp. 381-383. 

26 Presbytery of Carlisle, Centennial Memorial, Vol. I, pp. 422-423. Variations 
in spelling of the family name are Craghead and Creaghead. 

27 Ibid.; Minutes of Donegal Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 97. 

28 Guy S. Klett, Presbyterians in Colonial Pennsylva?iia, pp. 165-166. 

29 W. Melancthon Glasgow, History of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
p. 466; Charles Hodge, Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church, Part 
II, pp. 142-143. 

30 Glasgow, op. cit., p. 467. 

8 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

questioned by as eminent an authority as Dr. Lathan who writes: 
"Although Air. Craighead cooperated with the Covenanters, he 
was never a member of the Reformed Presbyterian Church." 
The same author, however, has previously related how Craighead 
was chosen as President of the first known General Meeting' of 
their "Societies" which was held at Middle Octorara on March 4, 
1744; 31 and he does not appear to have been listed among the 
clergy of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of Amer- 
ica for a dozen or more years. 

In January, 1742, Craighead led his people in a picturesque re- 
vival of the old Scottish Covenants, and, in consequence pub- 
lished an extended booklet dealing with these ceremonies and 
their interpretation. 32 In a publication pertaining to a somewhat 
later observance of these Covenanter solemnities, his antagonism 
toward the King was acutely manifested, not, moreover, without 
an element of the dramatic. Both the National Covenant of 
1580-81 and the Solemn League and Covenant of the days of the 
Westminster Assembly were reproduced. To these were attached 
footnotes prepared by Craighead. Herein references to the 
"King's Majesty" in the covenants were conveniently explained 
by the words "That is, the lawful supreme Magistrate." 

A "paper" of this general period, apparently that growing out 
of the January, 1742, matter, and ascribed to Mr. Craighead, 
prompted Thomas Cookson, Esq., "one of his majesty's justices," 
to prefer a protest before the Synod of Philadelphia, as it met on 
May 26, 1743; whereupon the Synod expressed its divergence 
from the ideas set forth in that instrument. The terms employed 
by that body in regard to the declarations of the "paper" are 
quite specific and not at all ambiguous: "It is full of treason, 
sedition, and distraction, and grievous perverting of the sacred 
oracles to the ruin of all societies and civil government, and 

31 Robert Lathan, History of the Associate Reformed Synod of the South, 
pp. 115, 113. 

32 Discourse Concerning the Covenants. 

33 Renewal of the Covenants, pp. 53, 59, 61. 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

directly and diametrically opposite to our religious principles." 3i 
Thus did the members of Synod hold up their collective hands 
in holy horror at the doctrines of an erstwhile colleague. Stu- 
dents of history and less scholarly mortals, whose acquaintance 
with past events is gained in more informal and perhaps less 
arduous fashion, may recall that some thirty-three years later, 
Presbyterian clergymen of Pennsylvania and adjacent regions ex- 
hibited a radically different point of view regarding the discharge 
of their obligations to the British authorities. 

Craighead characteristically replied, both to the King's repre- 
sentative and to the Synod, by again renewing the covenants, 
preaching a sermon which might well be calculated to call down 
upon him the continued condemnation of the Crown and censure 
of the Church, and appraising the literate public of such activities 
and proclivities by publishing an account of these proceedings. 35 

Simply because Mr. Craighead both uttered and circulated 
statements which maligned the King did not mean that he was 
upon the verge of instituting a rebellion against that more or less 
gracious sovereign. As a matter of fact, the accepted practice of 
the Covenanters in giving public expression to their religious, 
and incidentally civil, convictions inevitably involved an indict- 
ment of the Crown; since it was in protest against the settlement 
made between the Church and State upon the accession of Wil- 
liam and Mary that this particular branch of the church origi- 
nated. 

Those who renewed the covenants at Middle Octorara were 
not content with merely reviving the customs and reproducing 
the texts of their Scottish forefathers, but added, for good meas- 
ure or bad, certain elements of their own. This Americanized, 
but still staunchly Scottish, section is entitled "The Declaration, 
Protestation, and Testimony of a Suffering Remnant of the Anti- 
Popish, Anti-Lutherian, Anti-Prelatick, Anti-Erastian, Anti-Lati- 

34 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 165. 

35 Renewal of the Covenants. 

IO 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

tudinarian, Anti-Sectarian, true Presbyterian Church of Christ, 
in America," though those of critical tendencies might be led to 
observe that a perceptible tinge of sectarianism could be detected 
in the very course of the denial of its existence. 36 

That the King's deputy should feel called upon to enter an ob- 
jection to the activities of a minister holding the views set forth 
in the publication just described is not surprising; for an examina- 
tion of certain passages in which the Protestation pays it respects, 
or rather disrespects, to the Ruling House and its representatives, 
past, present, and future, renders such resentment understand- 
able: 

9thly, We do likewise enter our Testimony against George the I. 
his having any legal Right to rule over this Realm, because he 
being an outlandish Lutherian; and likewise against George the II. 
for their being sworn Prelaticks, the Head of Malignants, and Pro- 
tectors of Sectarian Hereticks, and Electorv Princes of Brunswick, 
in chusing of new Emporers, which is their giving their power to 
the Beast; and for their Confederacy with Popish Princes, directly 
contrary to the second Commandment; and for Want of their 
Scriptural and national Qualifications, as is above said; and for 
their being established Head of the Church by the Laws of Eng- 
land; 3 ' 

and with an eye to future eventualities: 

iothly, We likewise state our Testimony against all that shall suc- 
ceed them under these Limitations to the Crown. 3S 

After a time, Craighead quarreled with the Covenanters, but 
not until he had made an effort to secure additional ministers of 
that particular Presbyterian persuasion from Scotland. 39 In 1 75 1 , 
he wrote to the General Associate (Anti-Burgher) Synod for 
similar assistance, which supplication was presented at the Au- 

36 Ibid., pp. 43-50. 

37 Ibid., pp. 47-48. 
33 Ibid., p. 48. 

39 Reformed Presbyterian Church, Reformation Principles Exhibited, p. 97; 
Glasgow, op. cit., p. 467. 

I I 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

gust, 1 75 1, meeting of the body. Efforts on the part of Synod 
to send workers in response to this appeal were frustrated for a 
time, 40 and by October 3, 1753, Craighead had once more be- 
come aligned with the confederation of American Presbyterian- 
ism through membership in New Castle Presbytery of the Synod 
of New York. 41 

Along with this shift of affiliation there also came a change of 
scenery, for he joined the large number of sojourners in Penn- 
sylvania who pushed southward to find a new home in the Valley 
of Virginia. Here he purchased, in 1753, 533 acres of the Borden 
Tract in what is now Bath County, and settled on the Cowpas- 
ture River near Windy Cove; 42 having, in the previous summer 
done the prescribed obeisance to the Anglican Church as re- 
flected in the civil laws of Virginia. The records of a court held 
for Augusta County on August 22, 1752, after noting the recog- 
nition of "a Presbyterian Meeting House in the forks of James 
River" as a "Public Place of worship," reveal that "The Rever- 
end Alexander Craighead a Dissenting minister in Open Court 
took the Oaths appointed by Act of Parliament to be taken in- 
stead of the Oaths of Alligiance and Supremacy made and Sub- 
scribed the Test and the thirty nine articles except what by the 
Act of Toleration is Excepted which on his motion is ordered to 
be Certified." 43 

Life was far from languidly void of excitement in these new 
surroundings; for his son-in-law, William Richardson, at a later 
period writes of Craighead, "This Gentleman has been twice 
driven from his congregation in Virginia," 4i whatever this may 
signify; while his daughter, Rachel, described the narrowness 

40 John McKerrow, History of the Secession Church, p. 257. 

41 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 251; J. G. Craighead, The Craig- 
head Family, p. 41. 

42 Oren F. Morton, A History of Rockbridge County, p. 344. 

43 Augusta County, Order Book, Vol. 3, p. 326. 

44 Diary and Journal, p. 6. 

12 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

of the family's escape on one occasion by saying, "As they went 
out at one door the Indians came in at the other." 45 

Since Mr. Craighead was absent from the first meeting of Han- 
over Presbytery, of which he was a charter member, held at 
Hanover, December 3, 1755, Rev. John Brown, who was serving 
as minister in the general locality of Craighead's Virginia home, 
was commissioned to notify him of an appointed day of fasting 
and prayer. 40 Though also absent from the meeting of March 18, 
1756, convened at Providence, he was "appointed to supply two 
Sabbaths in the Vacancies in Augusta," the county in which his 
property lay at that time. 47 Three more Virginia points were as- 
signed to him to be supplied following the Presbytery of Septem- 
ber 28, 1757. These were Louisa, Bird, and North-Mountain. 48 

He was among the members of Presbytery who gathered at 
Cumberland on January 25, 1758; and at that session was desig- 
nated to make a southward trip, visiting Meherrin (Virginia), 
Nutbush (North Carolina), and Rocky River. The remainder 
of the journey was to be spent in filling vacancies at his discre- 
tion; and it seems that it was the intent of the court to have him 
employ the intervening time until the next meeting of Presbytery 
on the journey. 49 

The visit to Rocky River must have resulted in the beginning 
of an attachment between this roaming Scot and the people of 
the community; for the Presbytery, on April 26 of that year, 
was presented with a call from members of that Church "request- 
ing that Mr. Craighead might take the pastoral care of them." A 
letter from him, which probably accompanied the call, "informed 
the Presbytery . . . that he accepts." ou By this time he was pre- 

45 E. W. Caruthers, A Sketch of the Life and Character of the Rev. David 
Caldwell, D.D., p. 27. 

46 Minutes of Hanover Presbytery, Vol. I, pp. 1-2. 
i7 lbid., V . 5 . 

48 Ibid., p. 21. 

49 Ibid., pp. 21, 23. 

50 Ibid., p. 24. 

13 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

sumably, not only on the ground, but regularly in the pulpit. 

In entering North Carolina from Virginia he did not thereby 
remove himself beyond that sphere in which the civil laws were 
so drawn as to favor the clergy of the Episcopal Church. In 
April, 1 74 1, a statute had been enacted by the General Assembly 
of North Carolina prescribing the manner of marriage within 
the Colony and decreeing that wedding ceremonies should be 
performed by a minister of the Established Church or by a justice 
of the peace. 51 

This, says Caruthers, was extensively ignored by Presbyterian 
ministers within its bounds to such an extent as to move the legis- 
lative body, in November of 1766, to pass a law validating mar- 
riages previously performed by Presbyterian or other Dissenting 
clergy, and providing for the legality of those thus celebrated 
in the future. 52 Although the act was "declared void and of none 
effect" by the King on April 22, 1772, 53 the affair provides an 
indicative commentary upon Presbyterian practice during Craig- 
head's days in the Colony. Against a background of such general 
disregard, it is not difficult to assume that one who had already 
proved himself, literally and repeatedly, a dissenter from the dis- 
senters, would neither be embarrassed nor hampered in the exer- 
cise of his Presbyterian prerogatives. 

Some difficulty was experienced in securing a minister to of- 
ficiate at the installation at so remote a place as Rocky River, but 
this was ultimately solved by charging Rev. William Richardson 
to care for the matter as he proceeded toward the Cherokee Na- 
tion on a missionary tour. 54 

When Richardson arrived at Craighead's home on Novem- 
ber 1, 1758, he found a large family of six daughters and two sons 

51 State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIII, pp. 158-161. 

52 David Caldwell, pp. 73-74; State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XXIII, 
pp. 672-674. 

53 Caruthers, David Caldwell, p. 74; Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. 
IX, pp. 284-285. 

54 Minutes of Hanover Presbytery, Vol. I, p. (10). See note in Bibliography. 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

— a household numerically fit to take its place among the settlers 
whom Governor Dobbs described three years before. 55 The 
names of the Craighead children were Margaret, Agnes (Nancy) , 
Jane, Rachel, Alary, Elizabeth, Robert, and Thomas; while Mrs. 
Craighead's given name was Jane. 56 

The day following was spent by the visitor in combating an 
incipient illness; while, on the next, he preached and rode some 
five miles in order to give notice of the forthcoming installation 
which had been set for the next Monday. On Sunday, the guest 
minister preached again for his host "in one of his houses," while 
the activity of Mr. Craighead in riding twenty miles in fulfill- 
ment of a preaching engagement supplies specific insight into the 
generously exacting demands made upon a frontier minister of 
two hundred years ago. 57 

The entry in Richardson's journal which tells of the installa- 
tion of the first regularly settled Presbyterian pastor between the 
Yadkin and Catawba rivers is brief but exact, "Preached & in- 
stalled Mr. Craighead." This memorable service took place on 
Monday, November 6, 1758. 58 

Craighead was not the first Presbyterian clergyman known to 
have made his home in the Piedmont. Rev. John Thomson, to 
whom reference has previously been made, appears to have set- 
tled, in his old age, in what is now Iredell County in 1 75 1, near 
the home of his daughter and son-in-law, Samuel Baker. There 
is no record of Thomson assuming a regular pastorate, but he 
rather seems to have preached at a number of points over a con- 
siderable area for some two years, until his death in 1 753. 09 

Perhaps it should be added that the hostility of the Cherokees 
prevented the young would-be missionary from carrying out his 

55 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. V, p. 355. 

56 Richardson, op. cit., p. 6; Mecklenburg County, Will Book, Vol. A, p. 
167 Vz. 

57 Richardson, op. cit., p. 6. 

58 Ibid., p. 7. 

59 John G. Herndon, John Thomson, pp. 57-58; E. F. Rockwell, History of 
Fourth Creek Church, p. 19. 

15 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



plan for an evangelistic tour among them. His trip, however, was 
far from futile; for he not only served at the installation in the 
name of the Presbytery, but quite likely initiated, wittingly or 
otherwise, such negotiations as later resulted in his marriage to 
Nancy, daughter of Mr. Craighead. 60 

As to the latter's ministry in North Carolina, little is directly 
known. Between its beginning and the report of his decease, the 
records of Presbytery supply few details, and no congregational 
or sessional minutes have been preserved to tell of his labors of 
that far day. The miles which he rode on horseback, his ministry 
to the sick and dying, the sermons which he preached over a 
wide area, and the celebrations of the Lord's Supper lie hidden 
beneath the obscuring passage of nineteen decades. 

Among the ruling elders from Hanover Presbytery at the 
meeting of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia held in the 
city of fraternal affection in 1761, was David Caldwell, identified 
by Dr. Foote, though called Daniel Caldwell, as a Rocky River 
elder. 61 Craighead attended one meeting of Hanover Presbytery 
after his settlement in North Carolina, being present at the ses- 
sions held in Bird Church, Goochland County, Virginia, on April 
7-8, 1762; and was rewarded for his long journey of more than 
two hundred and fifty miles with the moderatorship. At this time 
he was directed to supply for two Sabbaths at Fourth Creek. 62 

Mecklenburg County was set off from Anson by an act of the 
General Assembly of North Carolina of December n, 1762, and 
appears to have actually begun the exercise of its functions on 
February 26, 1763. 63 The proposal to locate the county court at 
Charlotte, though ultimately carried out, is said to have met with 
opposition from the people of Rocky River under the leadership 
of Martin Phif er, who was serving as representative of the county 
in the Colonial Assembly. 64 

00 George Howe, History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina, Vol. 
I, p. 293. 

61 Foote, op. cit., p. 479. 

62 Minutes of Hanover Presbytery, Vol. I, pp. (44-46) . 

63 Tompkins, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 29-30. 

64 Ibid., pp. 31-32. 

16 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

The year 1764 was an eventful one in the history of North 
State Presbyterianism; for the Synod of New York and Phila- 
delphia, meeting on May 23, appointed two of its number, Elihu 
Spencer and Alexander McWhorter, to proceed to the territory 
occupied by the congregations under its jurisdiction in that col- 
ony with a view to effectively organizing and establishing the 
various local churches. By their commission they were instructed 
to "form societies, help them in adjusting their bounds, ordain 
elders, administer sealing ordinances, instruct the people in disci- 
pline" and inform them as to how "they shall proceed to obtain 
the stated ministry." 65 

The minutes of Synod of the following year (1765) record the 
accomplishment of this mission, but supply no information as to 
its details. 66 It is presumed that the bounds of the congregations 
of Mecklenburg and those of the churches of the adjoining coun- 
ties were fixed at this time. 

An early document connected with the acquisition of property 
following this organizational incursion cites certain specifications 
in regard to the lands obtained for this purpose. A drawing is 
accompanied by a verbal description of the holdings, and the 
resultant document follows: 

Surveyed May the 18th 1765 for the use of the congregation liv- 
ing about and upon the waters of Rocky River — Twenty two 
acres of land, being a parcel of M. McCulloh's N. C. Barony. Be- 
ginning at a white oak, running thence N. 74 W 2 1 poles to a 
Black Oak. Thence N 16 E 70 poles to a Spanish Oak; thence 
S 74 E 50 poles to a Black Oak, thence S 16 W 56 poles to a hick- 
ory thence N 61 W 25 poles to a Spanish Oak, then S 65 W 34 
poles to the beginning. 



Nath. Alexander 


By 


and ch. B. 


Geo. Alexander 


James Wallace 





65 Records of the Presbyterian Church, pp. 339-340. 

66 Ibid., p. 343. 

17 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

The Beginning corner of the within survey a white oak stands 
from the rocks at the head of the spring south 1 1 l / 2 degrees dist 3 3 
poles 6T 

While not apparent from the paper itself, a comparison of the 
boundaries described with those of the original deed for the 
Poplar Tent property indicates that these lands were intended 
for this newly constituted congregation. 68 

Somewhat surprising is the discovery in the Minutes of the 
Synod for 1761 of a supplication for supplies from Rocky 
River, 69 though Sugar Creek is not included in the list of seven 
congregations thus seeking preaching. 70 The fact that both of 
these churches presented a call for the services of Rev. Nathan 
Kerr to Synod on May 29, 1766, soon after the death of their 
pioneer pastor, points toward Craighead as having continued to 
serve them, in name at least, until his death in March of that 
year. 71 The Records of Hanover Presbytery give no intimation 
that the pastoral relationship with Rocky River, established in 
1758, was ever dissolved by that court. 72 

Notwithstanding his wanderings, controversies, and cares of a 
sizable family, Mr. Craighead managed to accumulate consider- 
able property. According to his will, dated April 9, 1765, and 
recorded in Mecklenburg County, his holdings included four 
plantations. One of these was that on which he resided at the 
time of his death, or certainly when his testament was drawn up; 
a second, on Long Creek in the same general section of North 
Carolina; a third, in Augusta County, Virginia, which embraced 
some 310 acres in his judgment; and a fourth, on Fishing Creek, 
"containing by estimation 500 ac." This document does not 
enumerate his slaves, but there were a number of them; since he 

67 Based on a copy of the original made by Eugenia Lore. 

68 Cabarrus County, Record of Deeds, Book 5, p. 173. 

69 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 310. 

70 Ibid. 

71 Records of the Presbyterian Church, p. 360. Glasgow gives the date of his 
death as March 12, 1766 (Op. cit., 468). 

72 Passim. 

18 



ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD AND THE EARLY YEARS 

refers to "all the negroes I now possess," and willed one such 
servant to each of his six daughters. 73 

The old warrior's work was well done. Six months after his 
death, Governor Tryon, on October i, 1766, in the course of a 
letter to Rev. Daniel Burton, Secretary of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, bore unintentional testimony to ef- 
fectiveness of the ministry of the first pastor of Rocky River and 
a wide region round. After referring to the inhabitants of the 
Colony of Carolina, the Governor concluded, "Those of Meck- 
lenburg county are almost all Presbyterians." 7i 

Far from the spot of his birth, the body of Alexander Craig- 
head was laid to rest near the Sugar Creek Meeting-house in a 
grave marked by two legendary sassafras staves which were 
used to carry his coffin, and are reputed to have taken root and 
grown into trees after having been placed in the ground to mark 
the place of his burial. 70 His spirit was borne to that irenic realm 
beyond the touch of all contention, while his labors continue to 
bear fruit through succeeding years as Rocky River and the 
other six churches of Mecklenburg, together with those numer- 
ous congregations set off from them, move forward with the 
advance of the Kingdom of his Lord and ours. 

73 Mecklenburg County, Will Book, Vol. A, pp. 167K-168. 

74 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VII, p. 260. 
75 Foote, op. cit., p. 192. 



19 



CHAPTER II 

Times of Testing 



After the death of Craighead, the Church was not immediately 
successful in obtaining a pastor. As has been noted, Rev. Nathan 
Kerr was called to Rocky River and Sugar Creek in 1766, but 
declined these overtures. 1 That the congregations of the Pied- 
mont were anxiously desirous of securing a settled minister is ap- 
parent from the following extract from the Minutes of the Synod 
of New York and Philadelphia of the year 1767: 

The following congregations in North Carolina, viz: Sugar 
Creek, Fishing Creek, Bethel, the Jersey Settlement, Centre Con- 
gregation, Poplar Tent, and Rocky River, united in a petition for 
one or more, of the Rev. Messrs. Spencer, Lewis, McWhorter, 
and James Caldwell, to be sent there, promising for their encour- 
agement that the sum of eighty pounds be paid by any of these 
congregations in which he shall choose to spend half of his time, 
and another eighty pounds by the vacant congregations he shall 
supply; this petition being read, the several gentlemen mentioned 
in it were interrogated whether they would comply with this re- 
quest, to which each of them returned a negative answer. 2 

HEZEKIAH JAMES BALCH 

Two years later (1769), Hezekiah James Balch, who had been 
licensed by Donegal Presbytery on April 20, 1768, was appointed 
to make a trip into the South and his Presbytery was authorized 

1 Records of the Fresbyterian Church, pp. 360, 367. 

2 Ibid., p. 374. 

20 




GEORGE MARSHALL WILCOX 
Pastor, 1941- 



TIMES OF TESTING 

to ordain him upon his passing a satisfactory examination and 
acceptance of a call from Carolina. 3 

Mr. Balch was born on Deer Creek, Hartford County, Mary- 
land, in the year 1746, the oldest son of Col. James and Anne 
Goodwine Balch. 4 He graduated from the College of New Jersey 
(1766), and studied Divinity under Rev. John Strain. 5 In the 
same class at the College was a relative, Hezekiah Balch; and the 
partial identity of the two names has led to considerable confu- 
sion, since each served as a Presbyterian minister in North Caro- 
lina, Hezekiah Balch later moving to Tennessee. 

On June 22, 1769, a call for Hezekiah James Balch was pre- 
sented before the Presbytery of Donegal from Rocky River and 
Poplar Tent congregations. At this same meeting of Presbytery, 
Mr. Balch was censured because of the manner of his marriage, 
the chief charge apparently arising from the fact that the cere- 
mony was performed by a minister of the Church of England. 6 
The wife thus acquired under such allegedly reprehensible cir- 
cumstances bore the given name of Martha, 7 while her family 
name is said to have been Sconnel. In November of 1769, Balch 
was ordained and, if the record is to be read literally, installed in 
absentia (that of the congregations) over Rocky River and Pop- 
lar Tent. 8 

His departure for North Carolina, so far as final removal was 
concerned, was delayed until at least June of 1770. 9 Extant rec- 
ords indicate that he engaged in several land deals in what is now 
Cabarrus County, through one of which, he, on March 30, 1769, 
acquired eighty-eight acres of land from William and Elizabeth 

3 Ibid., p. 399. 

4 George W. Graham, The Mecklenburg Declaration, p. 115; Journal of the 
Presbyterian Historical Society, June 1905, p. 79. 

5 Minutes of the Presbytery of Donegal, Vol. II, p. 241. 

6 Ibid., pp. 318-319. 

7 Mecklenburg County, Record of Deeds, Book 7, p. 310. 

8 Minutes of the Presbytery of Donegal, Vol. II, pp. 344, 347; Presbytery of 
Carlisle, Centennial Manorial, Vol. I, pp. 422-423. 

9 Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 7. 

21 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Ross for a consideration of fifty pounds in "Proclamation 
money." This property was designated as lying between English 
Buffalo and Coddle creeks, and is in the vicinity of the Jackson 
Training School of today. 10 

Mr. Balch has been depicted as playing a conspicuous part in 
the provocative events taking place in Charlotte in May, 1775. 11 
He seems to have died the following year, his death being placed 
by Dr. George Graham "in the summer of 1776." 12 In any 
event, it occurred before August 22, 1777; for a document of that 
date refers to him as deceased. 13 

Having been buried in the center of the Poplar Tent cemetery, 
his tomb was unmarked for many years. In 1847, according to 
the Historian of Poplar Tent, a large, flat stone was placed over 
the grave, which reads: 

Beneath this Marble repose the mortal remains of the REV. 
HEZEKIAH JAMES BALCH first pastor of Poplar Tent con- 
gregation and one of the original members of Orange Presbytery. 
. . . He was distinguished as one of the committee of three who 
prepared that immortal document the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, and his eloquence the more effectual from his 
acknowledged wisdom, purity of motive and dignity of character, 
contributed much to the unanimous adoption of that instrument 
on the 20th of May 1775. 14 

THE BLACK BOYS 

The part, or parts, played by Rocky River in the revolt of the 
Regulators were diverse; and the more spectacular nature of the 
exploits of certain younger members of the community has 
largely tended to obscure the certainly more cautious and per- 
haps less heroic actions of the more staid citizenry. 

In the year 1771, when it became evident that rather stringent 

10 Mecklenburg County, Records of Deeds, Book 4, pp. 485-487. 

11 Graham, op. cit., p. 115. 

12 Ibid., p. 116. 

13 Mecklenburg County, Record of Deeds, Vol. 7, p. 310. 

14 Wm. S. Harris, Historical Sketch of Poplar Tent Church, 1924 ed., p. 37. 

22 



TIMES OF TESTING 

measures must necessarily be invoked if the Regulator uprising 
was to be suppressed, Governor Tryon made arrangements for 
the securing of certain military supplies for this purpose. A quan- 
tity of powder and other martial paraphernalia having been col- 
lected in Charlotte, several wagons were obtained to transport 
these articles to the central portion of the State. 

But a few young men of the Rocky River and adjoining sec- 
tions were to take a hand in the matter. One of the participants 
enumerates the members of the group as James White, Jr., John 
White, Jr., William W T hite, Robert Caruthers, Robert Davis, 
Benjamin Cockran, Joshua Hadley, William W 7 hite "son of the 
Widow White," and James Ashmore. 10 Having learned of the 
supplies dispatched for the use of the Royal Forces, they laid 
plans for summary and speedy action. 

According to the testimony of James Ashmore, they, disguised 
as Indians and having discolored their faces, thereby to acquire 
the appellation of "Black Boys," proceeded to Phifer's Muster 
Ground, three miles west of Concord and on the road between 
Charlotte and Salisbury. Here they intercepted the wagons laden 
with ammunition. The powder was unloaded and dumped in a 
heap; blankets, leggins, and kettles were added to the pile; and a 
train of powder run from the whole. After James AVhite had 
fired his pistol into this train, the ensuing explosion effectually 
disposed of the powder and greatly damaged the other equip- 
ment, which appears to have received further attention to insure 
its destruction. 16 

During the course of these necessarily hasty malevolent prepa- 
rations preceding the disposal of the supplies, one of the Black 
Boys was recognized by a wagondriver as his own brother, Rob- 
ert Caruthers. Turning to him and speaking in a low voice, so as 
not to be heard by anyone else, the driver, James, said, "You'll 

15 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VIII, pp. 622-623. See also Foote, 
op. cit., pp. 480-481; Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. IX, p. 57. 

16 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VIII, pp. 622-623. J. H. Wheeler, 
Historical Sketches of North Carolina, II, pp. 65-66. 

2 3 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

rue this, Bob." "Hold your tongue, Jim," was the reply. With 
the coming of the Revolution, some years later, both of the 
brothers were aligned with the Colonists. 17 

On the nth of June, 177 1, Governor Try on issued a procla- 
mation in which an offer of pardon was made to the majority of 
those who had been associated with the Regulator movement, on 
condition that they should come to his camp, or to that of Gen- 
eral Hugh Waddell, before the tenth of July, and give certain 
indications of loyalty. "All those concerned in blowing up Gen- 
eral Waddell's Ammunition" were specifically excluded from 
this contingent clemency, however, as were a number of other 
particular individuals. 18 

The Governor and his subordinates embarked upon a pro- 
longed and strenuous series of efforts to capture the miscreants, 
employing various devices and resorting to almost every con- 
ceivable stratagem for their apprehension. At length, according 
to a report furnished the historian Wheeler, and originating with 
R. Kirkpatrick of Rocky River, two of their number who were 
half-brothers, enticed by the promise of immunity to any mem- 
ber of the group who would turn informer, determined, un- 
known to one another, to reveal the identity of the members of 
the band. 19 A memorial of this unhappy act is preserved in a dep- 
osition made by James Ashmore under date of June 22, 1771, 
and incorporated in the Colonial Records of North Carolina. 20 

In the late autumn of the same year a petition for the pardon 
of the Black Boys was laid before the Governor at Newbern. 
This was drawn up in the name of "a Number of the Distressed 
Inhabitants of Rocky River & Coddle Creek Settlement," and 

17 E. W. Caruthers, Revolutionary Incidents and Sketches of Character, p. 37, 
footnote. 

18 Hugh Williamson, History of North Carolina, Vol. II, p. 150; Colonial 
Records of North Carolina, Vol. VIII, pp. 617-618. 

19 J. H. Wheeler, op. cit., II, p. 66. 

20 Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. VIII, pp. 622-623. 

2 4 



TIMES OF TESTING 

depicts the incident at Phifer's Muster Ground in a somewhat 
different light from that in which it generally appears in subse- 
quent records and ensuing traditions. The paper begins, "That 
whereas a Certain No of young men, Ignorant of their Duty to 
our Sovereign Lord the King, riotously Assembled in a wicked 
manner," and proceeds to attribute the destruction of the pow- 
der, not to a commendable patriotism, but at least partially to an 
overindulgence in spirituous liquors. 21 

The names of the signatories of this petition are of interest, not 
only in connection with the incident involved, but because of 
their leadership in the communities; and are as follows: 



Moses Shelby 
Samuel Loftain 
Mathew Stewart 
John Morison 
David Slough 
Saml Harris 
James Morison 
Robert McMurrey 
William White 
John Davis 



John Russel 
Rob Russel 
James Russel 
Wm Scott 
Robert Campbell 
William Blair 
Thomas Hall 
Thomas Smith 
William Addem 



Robert McCallan 
James Callwall 
James Harriss 
William Sper 
John Callwall 
Oliver Wiley 
James Harris 
David Caldwell 22 



George Davys 

The stirring scenes in Charlotte during the month of May, 
1775, must surely have been of concern to the people of Rocky 
River, particularly in view of the leadership exercised by their 
Pastor, Hezekiah James Balch, in these transactions. 23 Alexander 
Craighead had been dead almost a decade, but an ample — perhaps 
a double — portion of his spirit was in evidence as Presbyterians 
across his wide parish moved toward effectual realization of the 
ultimate implications of the ideas which he had expressed, cer- 

21 Ibid., Vol. IX, pp. 98-99. 

22 Ibid., p. 99. 

23 Foote, op. cit., pp. 35-36. 



25 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

tainly in writing in the Middle Colonies, and undoubtedly by 
word of mouth in Carolina. 24 And Presbyterians, even in Penn- 
sylvania, began the unstudied vindication of the prophet whom 
they had officially repudiated a generation before. 

The ensuing war came close to Rocky River in the fall of 
1780, as General William Lee Davidson, after making his way 
southward from Salisbury, established headquarters in the vi- 
cinity. On the 8th of October he wrote General Jethro Sumner 
from "Camp, Rocky River," which he located thirteen and one- 
half miles north-east of Charlotte. While Davidson was en- 
camped there, skirmishes were reported in the surrounding terri- 
tory. He does not seem to have worshipped at Rocky River 
meeting house on the Sunday which was spent in the region, for 
by two in the afternoon of that day he was engaged in military 
correspondence. 25 It is likely that he was considerably north of 
the Church, since the road between Charlotte and Salisbury 
crossed the River near the site of the present bridge on the new 
highway connecting these two cities. That Rocky River and the 
surrounding territory were generously represented in the Revo- 
lutionary movement and in the American Army is indicated by 
the list of Soldiers and Patriots inserted toward the close of this 
volume. 26 

After worshipping for more than twenty years near the early 
ford, the people of Rocky River lifted up their eyes toward the 
hills to the south-east, and a second log church was built upon 
an eminence somewhat less than two miles from the original lo- 
cation. This site is marked by a graveyard which is only three 
hundred yards to the north-east of the present brick building. 
The removal, according to Daniel Penick, took place about the 
year 1776. 27 

24 Charles C. Hanna, The Scotch-Irish, Vol. II, p. 43 ; Synod of North 
Carolina, Centennial Addresses, p. 15. 

25 State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XIV, pp. 677, 679. 

26 See Appendix G. 

27 Minutes of the Session of Rocky River Church, Vol. I, p. 3. 

26 



TIMES OF TESTING 

In 1777, a case involving "J ames Balch, a member of Rocky 
River church" was referred to Orange Presbytery for adjudica- 
tion. The defendant had been suspended from church privileges 
by the Session, and appealed to Presbytery for a reversal of that 
sentence. The Presbytery, meeting at North Buffalo on June 3, 
1777, voted that the evidence on which the Rocky River Session 
had based its judgement was insufficient. 28 

Balch, thereupon, requested Presbytery to permit him to take 
the Oath of Purgation in connection with the charge, and his 
petition was granted. According to this procedure, the accused 
took an oath to the effect that he was innocent of the offence 
with which he was charged. Caruthers was of the opinion that 
this was the sole instance in which the Presbytery of Orange 
administered this oath. 29 It appears that the same matter was later 
brought before Hanover Presbytery, after Mr. Balch had moved 
within the bounds of that body. 30 

Thomas B. Craighead, son of Alexander, was licensed as a 
probationer for the Gospel ministry at a meeting of Orange 
Presbytery held at Fourth Creek on April 11, 1778, thus begin- 
ning his ministerial career as the first of a number of sons of 
pastors of Rocky River who have entered upon that sacred call- 
ing. 31 

ROBERT ARCHIBALD 

Robert Archibald was the next pastor. He entered the min- 
istry, by way of the medical profession, after graduating from 
the College of New Jersey in 1772. 32 Caruthers writes, "Robert 
Archibald, who had been licensed in the fall of 1775, was or- 
dained and settled as pastor of Poplar Tent and Rocky River 

28 E. W. Caruthers, A Sketch of the Life and Character of Rev. David Cald- 
well, D. D., p. 200. 

29 Ibid. 

30 Minutes of Hanover Presbytery, Vol. II, p. 173. 

31 Caruthers, David Caldtvell, p. 197. 
32 Foote, op. cit., p. 442. 

27 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

churches on the 7th of October, 1778." 33 The facility with 
which this author sets exact dates in connection with a number 
of such proceedings indicates that he had some indirect access 
to the factual contents of the early Minutes of Orange Presby- 
tery which had been burned when the home of the Stated Clerk 
was destroyed by fire on the night of January 1, 1827, at Hills- 
boro, North Carolina. 

Mrs. Archibald's given name was Katherine. An indenture 
made on December 20, 1786, indicates this fact. 34 She is said to 
have been a daughter of Moses Shelby. Archibald made his home 
in the Poplar Tent section of his field of labor, and in keeping 
with the custom of many Presbyterian clergymen of that day, 
he combined the duties of schoolmaster with those of the pastor- 
ate, as well as utilizing the knowledge which he had acquired as 
a physician to the advantage of his people. 35 

A meeting of Presbytery was held at Rocky River in Decem- 
ber of the year 1780; for on the 15th of that month Francis 
Cummins was licensed to preach at a session convened in Rocky 
River Church. 36 Like his ministerial predecessor, Archibald is 
recorded as having participated in a number of transactions in- 
volving real estate in the region of Coddle Creek and Rocky 
River. 37 

No roll of members of Rocky River of the early years has 
been preserved. The First Federal Census of the United States, 
taken in the year 1790, provides a list of heads of families living 
in the immediate territory of the Church. Many of the names 
preserved are definitely associated with the Congregation. Some 
served as elders, while at least ten of them signed the call for 
the services of Rev. John M. Wilson which was drawn up eleven 

33 Caruthers, David Caldwell, p. 196. 

34 Mecklenburg County, Record of Deeds, Book 13, pp. 108-109. 

35 Harris, op. cit., p. 7. 

36 W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pidpit, Vol. Ill, p. 419. 

37 Mecklenburg County, Record of Deeds, Book 11, pp. 37-38; Book 12, p. 11; 
Book 13, pp. 108-109, 431-433. 

28 



TIMES OF TESTING 

years later. A number lie buried in the cemeteries pertaining to 
Rocky River. 38 

During the Eighteenth Century the people of Rocky River 
had followed the traditional Scotch-Irish pattern of relatively 
small land holdings, as contrasted with the plantation system 
prevalent in other sections of the South. Consequently the num- 
ber of slaves in the Congregation was limited. The 1790 Census 
reveals that among those households making up the immediate 
Rocky River community the slaves totaled only eighty-seven, 
or an average of less than one to the family, while the largest 
number of such servants possessed by any one resident was 
eleven. These were owned by Samuel Harris. 39 The Pastor, Mr. 
Archibald, residing at Poplar Tent, reported four slaves. 40 

When the settlement of the Scotch-Irish along Rocky River 
began, the territory was in New Hanover County, which had 
been constituted in 1728. In 1734, Bladen was set off from New 
Hanover, and for some years Rocky River lay in this county. 
Anson was formed from Bladen in 1749; and Mecklenburg, as 
earlier noted, dates from 1762. Thirty years later, in 1792, the 
Rocky River community was detached from that County with 
the formation of Cabarrus; and since that time has lain within 
the boundaries of the latter. 41 

Mr. Archibald's ministry was the longest which Rocky River 
had enjoyed up to that time, in fact, only three pastors have 
exceeded him in length of service. Its termination was occasioned 
by theological abberations in the course of which he proceeded 
to proclaim the doctrine of Universalism, or the ultimate salva- 
tion of all mankind. These difficulties began about 1792; 42 and 
he was suspended from the ministry, and also from the commun- 

38 United States, Bureau of Census, Heads of Families . . . North Carolina, 
p. 162. 

39 Ibid. 

40 Ibid., p. 159. 

41 Wheeler, op. cit., II, pp. 276, 35, 21, 254, 63. 

42 Caruthers, David Caldwell, p. 253. 

29 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

ion of the Presbyterian Church, on October 4, 1794, by Orange 
Presbytery, meeting by direction of the Synod of the Carolinas. 43 

When Concord Presbytery held its first regular meeting in 
the spring of 1796, Mr. Archibald sent a letter to that body 
which contained "a challenge to a public disputation on ye doc- 
trine of universal salvation," with the intimation that the chal- 
lenger had "procured a clerk who is master of short hand for 
the purpose of writing & printing 500 copies of ye argument to 
be brought forward at said disputation." 44 It is needless to say 
that Presbytery did not see fit to engage in such a contest, but 
professed a willingness to discuss the matter in a somewhat less 
dramatic manner. 45 

The pastoral relationship between him and the Church had 
been dissolved some months before the action of Orange Pres- 
bytery in suspending Mr. Archibald from the ministry; for he 
is designated as "Without a charge," and another pastor, Rev. 
Alexander Caldwell, is listed as serving Rocky River and Poplar 
Tent, in the General Assembly Minutes of 1794. 46 The matter 
was finally resolved by Archibald's deposition from the min- 
istry at the hands of Concord Presbytery on March 28, 1798. 47 

During the pastoral interim following, Rev. James Hall and 
Rev. Joseph D. Kilpatrick were sent by Presbytery to conduct 
a communion service at Rocky River. This marked the beginning 
of a spiritual awakening characterized by Foote as "one of the 
most blessed of the numerous revivals enjoyed by Rocky River 
church." 48 

ALEXANDER CALDWELL 

Alexander Caldwell, a grandson of the Church and son of Rev. 
David and Rachel Craighead Caldwell, was the next pastor. He 
assumed charge of the Congregation at the time of his ordina- 

43 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. I, pp. 1 19-120. 

44 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 11. 

45 Ibid., p. 12. 

46 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1794, p. 30. 

47 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 42. 

48 Foote, op. cit., p. 482. 

30 



TIMES OF TESTING 

tion which took place before October 2, 1793, 49 and began a 
ministry which, for a season, proved of great acceptance. 50 Writ- 
ing a half-century later, Dr. Foote described him as of "superior 
mental endowments . . . portly gait, engaging manners, and 
eminent Christian character." 51 His wife was Sarah, daughter 
of Major John Davidson of Rural Hill Plantation, in the Hope- 
well Congregation; and their three children were living as late 
as 1873. 52 

An end was brought to what had begun as a happy and prom- 
ising relationship between pastor and people by the mental 
derangement of Air. Caldwell. This termination was effected 
through an act of Concord Presbytery, in session at Sugar Creek, 
on March 29, 1797. 53 

During the next several years, while the Church was without 
a regularly settled pastor, it was supplied, for some months at 
least, by John Couser, licentiate of the Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina. On October 20, 1798, he obtained leave to preach within 
the bounds of the Presbytery of Concord until its next stated 
session, 54 and in the following March a request was presented 
from Rocky River for "a continuation of Mr. Couser's labors," 
which was granted. 55 At the same meeting of Presbytery, Rev. 
S. C. Caldwell was directed to preach on one Sunday at Rocky 
River and to catechise the congregation. 56 On the 26th of the 
March following (1800), four different ministers were desig- 
nated to supply the Church for one Sunday each and two of the 
number to act as catechists in this connection. 57 

The early part of the year 1 800 was marked by a heavy snow- 

49 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. I, pp. 95-96; Foote, op. cit., p. 
482. 

50 Foote, op. cit., p. 482. 

51 Ibid. 

52 Harris, op. cit., p. 8; J. B. Alexander, Biographical Sketches of the Early 
Settlers of the Hopewell Section, pp. 26-27 . 

53 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 28. 

54 Ibid., p. 64. 

55 Ibid., p. 68. 
5e Ibid.,p. 71. 
57 Ibid., p. 85. 

31 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

fall in West Central North Carolina, which lay on the ground 
for a month to the detriment of the roads. 58 Such conditions 
were, as usual, reflected in the numbers attending worship at the 
Church. 

The death of Balch, the defection of Archibald, and the de- 
rangement which overtook Caldwell were not without their ef- 
fects; but, in the providence of God, a new century lay ahead, 
and with its advent there appeared the light of a brighter day. 

58 Francis Asbury, The Journal of the Rev. Francis Asbury, Vol. II, p. 369. 



32 



CHAPTER III 

The Ministry of John Makemie Wilson 



A future President of the United States, as well as a future Pres- 
byterian, was the distant cousin and sometime guest and playmate 
of the next Rocky River pastor. 

As one of a considerable number of Carolinians fleeing before 
the advance of the victorious British after the defeat of General 
Gates at Camden, young Andrew Jackson sought out the house 
of his relative, the Widow Wilson, who resided within the 
bounds of the Sugar Creek Congregation. Here he was hospita- 
bly received in ill-starred September of the year 1780, and re- 
mained until the following February. 1 

Jackson's biographer, James Parton, who enjoyed an extended 
and informing conversation with a son of John M. Wilson, has 
preserved a characteristic and perhaps prophetic incident in this 
portion of the early life of Old Hickory. Young Andy was oc- 
casionally commissioned to take damaged kitchen utensils to the 
neighborhood blacksmith shop for repairs. Upon the return from 
this chore, he uniformly displayed some implement of warfare 
which he had managed to manufacture while at the smith's. Years 
afterward John Wilson recalled having once remarked to his 
mother that "Andy will fight his way in the world." 2 He did; 
and Andrew Jackson not only received the highest honors at the 
command of a grateful nation, but eventually united with the 
Presbyterian Church, having in the quiet of the after years found 

1 James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, Vol. I, pp. 73-75; George Wilson, 
Sketch of John M. Wilson, p. 1. 

2 Parton, op. cit., pp. 74-75. 

33 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

that same Lord who laid hold upon young Wilson and called 
him to preach the Everlasting Gospel. 

John Makemie Wilson was born in the environs of Sugar 
Creek in 1769. His father, James Wilson, a native of England, 
had migrated to Pennsylvania where he was for a time a merchant 
in Philadelphia, before joining one of the numerous bands which 
set out for the land of additional promise beyond the rivers of 
Carolina. An active combatant in the Revolutionary War, the 
elder Wilson died during its course, leaving, in addition to his 
widow, several children. 3 

At the age of twelve, John was placed in Charlotte under the 
tutelage of Dr. Thomas Henderson. Then he entered Hampden- 
Sydney College to vie for first honors with Moses Waddel, who 
was to be marked by fame as an outstanding educator; and he 
later pursued the study of theology under Dr. James Hall of 
Bethany. 4 

In the summer of 1793, the young candidate was licensed by 
Orange Presbytery, 5 and was soon dispatched upon a missionary 
tour by the Synod of the Carolinas. Beginning in early Decem- 
ber of that year, he returned at the end of January, 1794. Mr. 
Wilson's summary of the mission reads: "In the whole of my 
journey rode near a thousand miles, and in all preached eight 
Sabbaths and eight week days, and in the whole received ^9. 
19. o hard money count." 6 

He was ordained by the Presbytery of Orange before Oc- 
tober 1, 1 795; 7 and began his first regular work in Burke County, 
North Carolina, where he not only acquired valuable ministerial 
experience, but also a wife in the person of Miss Mary Erwin, 
daughter of Alexander Erwin of that county, 8 who was known 

3 Sprague, op. cit., Vol. IV, p. 90; Mecklenburg County, Will Book, Vol. G, 
p. 30. Makemie is also found as McCamy and McKemie. 

4 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, p. 53 (1). 

5 Ibid. 

6 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. I, p. 138. 

7 Ibid., p. 164. 

8 Sprague, op. cit., Vol. IV, p. 92. 

34 




HARVEY WILSON AIOORE 

Great-Grandson of John Makemie Wilson 

Promoter of Program of Advance 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

as "Pretty Polly." 9 He was already a member of Concord Pres- 
bytery when, in 1801, the overture looking toward his assump- 
tion of the pastorate at Rocky River was made; for his field of 
labor in Burke County, then even as now, lay within the bounds 
of that organization. He was serving the older congregation of 
Quaker Meadows and its more recently organized daughter in 
the town of Morganton. 

The call made out for his services gives definite indication of 
the identity of certain of the leading members of Rocky River, 
and contributes as substantially to an understanding of the finan- 
cial aspects of church support at the beginning of the Nineteenth 
Century. This document bore the signatures of 1 19 persons and 
promised an annual salary of $319.75 for two-thirds of the pro- 
spective minister's time. 10 It was proposed that its remainder be 
devoted to the neighboring congregation of Philadelphia which, 
under the name of Clear Creek, had been set off from Rocky 
River a generation before. 

The largest subscription set down upon the call was $6.00, 
with ten of the underwriters obligating themselves for that sum 
each year. These were Archibald McCurdy, George Davis, John 
McLealland, Joseph Welsh, Robert Davis, Samuel Harris, Sr., 
William Morrison, the elder, Wm. Robb, Sr., Robert McCach- 
ran, and Oliver Wiley. Pledging themselves for $5.00 were 
Andrew Davis, Wm. Morrison, Jr., Wm. Alexander, and Hugh 
Cimmons; while James Stafford subscribed $4.50. Twenty-six 
individuals, whose names are unknown, each agreed to make a 
yearly contribution of $4.00 for this purpose. 11 

In those days the settlement of a pastor in a new charge was 
not to be undertaken with undue haste. The call was submitted 
to Presbytery, meeting at Steele Creek on October 1, 1801. It 
is clear from the manner in which the Moderator was instructed 

9 Liberty Hall Chapter, D. A. R., (Charlotte, N. C), Genealogical Records, 

p- 55- 
10 North Carolina Presbyterian, Sept. 3, 1875, p. 3. 
u Ibid. 

35 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

to forward this paper to Mr. Wilson that the future pastor was 
not present on that occasion. 12 On the 30th of the following 
March (1802), Presbytery, then in session at New Providence, 
was informed that the calls from Rocky River and Philadelphia 
were accepted. 13 

In the meantime, Mr. Wilson had given signal intention of 
such purpose by obtaining a home in the Mecklenburg region. 
On November 25, 1 801, he purchased from Chas. T. Alexander 
a tract of land embracing 327 acres lying in Cabarrus and Meck- 
lenburg counties "on the waters of Clear Creek." This land had 
formerly constituted a portion of "the Brick house Plantation," 
and the house which gave name to the estate was included in the 
transaction. The price paid for this homestead was $1275.00, 
as is shown by the deed conveying title to the property which 
was recorded on June 18, 1802. 14 

Three ministers, Samuel Caldwell, John Carrigan, and James 
Wallis, were appointed by Presbytery to install the pastor, to- 
gether with Ruling Elders James Robison and John Smith. The 
time for this service was set for the last Friday of April, 1802; 
and it was specified that the installation as it related to Phila- 
delphia, as well as Rocky River, was to take place in the latter 
meeting-house. 15 

It was in the autumn of 1803 that Rocky River first enter- 
tained Concord Presbytery. Eight ministerial members, including 
the host pastor, and five ruling elders assembled on Tuesday, 
September 6, for the opening session; and final adjournment was 
taken on the following Thursday. 16 The meeting was largely 
occupied with matters of routine nature; though a petition signed 
by more than fifty persons praying for the restoration of a min- 
ister-member, who had been adjudged guilty of succumbing to 

12 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 116. 

13 Ibid., p. 1 20. 

14 Mecklenburg County, Record of Deeds, Book 17, p. 706. 

15 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 1 20. 

16 Ibid., pp. 153-159. 

36 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

a weakness for whiskey and had been suspended by Presbytery 
at an earlier meeeting, was presented. This formal request met 
with unfavorable action. 17 While the expression of thanks which 
has come to characterize later meetings of presbytery is not dis- 
cernible in the minutes, there is no reason to believe that the visit- 
ing brethren were not hospitably entertained. 

The earliest available figures on the membership of Rocky 
River date from 1 806, when a report prepared at the instance of 
the General Assembly lists the total as 221. At this time, Phila- 
delphia reported 80 communicants. 18 

An early improvement in this pastorate was the replacement 
of the second log church by a more pretentious and commodious 
frame structure which was built within the bounds of what is 
now the cemetery lying to the north of the present brick church. 
Erected in 1807, this building measured forty by sixty-five feet, 
and was the house of worship of the people for more than half 
a century. 19 

By way of celebration of the completion of the church, the 
Synod of the Carolinas was entertained at Rocky River at its 
meeting in 1807. This Twentieth session of that court was con- 
vened on Thursday, October 1, and a sermon preached by the 
retiring moderator, Rev. James W. Stephenson, from the last 
clause of the third verse of Micah 2, "For this time is evil" Moses 
Waddel, a former classmate of the Pastor, as has been noted, was 
chosen moderator. 20 

The question of moment before the Synod at that time was 
presented through a complaint of the Second Presbytery of 
South Carolina against the First Presbytery in regard to the fail- 
ure of the latter to prefer charges against one of its members, 
Rev. W. C. Davis, who had reputedly been disseminating hetero- 
dox doctrine. Synod recommended to the First Presbytery that 

17 Ibid., pp. 155-157- 

18 Ibid., p. 207. 

19 Mack, op. cit., p. 15. 

20 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. II, pp. 185, 187. 

37 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



it proceed with the case "as duty and discipline may appear to 
direct." 21 It may be added that this Presbytery showed little 
inclination to bring Mr. Davis to trial, and the matter was ulti- 
mately disposed of by dissolving the First Presbytery and as- 
signing Davis to membership in Concord, which subsequently 
deposed him from the ministry, but not before he had withdrawn 
in anticipation of such measures and founded the Independent 
Presbyterian Church. 22 This consisted of a number of associated 
congregations, located chiefly in lower North and upper South 
Carolina, and was received into the Presbyterian Church in the 
Confederate States of America in 1863. 

During the course of Synod's sessions, it was "on motion, 
Resolved, that the Fourth Wednesday of November next, be 
observed as a day of thanksgiving for the late revival, and prayer 
for its continuance." 23 Interest of that day in what is now known 
as Home Missions, or Church Extension, is indicated by the fact 
that pages 204-210 of the Minutes of Synod are given over to 
the report of a missionary tour made by Rev. James Hall, while 
that of Rev. Wm. H. Barr occupies some six or seven pages of 
the text of the Record. 24 The Spears Graveyard, located one and 
one-half miles to the south-east of the present church, and con- 
taining the remains of a considerable number of early members 
of Rocky River, was deeded to Enoch Morgan, James Morri- 
son, Isaiah Speiars and Elisha Speiars, as commissioners "acting in 
behalf of and for all those interested in the said ground," by 
Joseph Gates Speiars on July 18, 1808. 25 

In 1 8 1 o the Rocky River Pastor received the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts from the University of North Carolina, as 

21 Ibid., pp. 189-192. 

22 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 333; Independent Presbyterian 
Church, Constitution and For?n of Government, p. 3. 

23 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. II, p. 204. 

24 Ibid., pp. 21 1-2 1 8. 

25 Adelaide and Eugenia Lore and Robert Hall Morrison, The Morrison fam- 
ily, pp. 491-492. 

38 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

this oldest of state universities turned to bestow a general and 
merited acclaim upon the Presbyterian ministry of the State. 
Eight degrees were awarded and each of them to a clergyman 
of that denomination. The title of Doctor of Divinity was con- 
ferred upon David Caldwell, James Hall, and James McRee; 
while Samuel Craighead Caldwell, John Robinson, William Left- 
wich Turner, and James Wallis, along with Mr. Wilson, were 
recipients of the M. A. award. 26 

The same year, Mr. Wilson represented Concord Presbytery 
in the General Assembly which convened in the city of Phila- 
delphia. 27 He had been elected a commissioner to the preceding 
Assembly (1809), but did not attend that meeting. 255 The Gen- 
eral Assembly of 181 3 divided the Synod of the Carolinas, 
thereby erecting two such bodies, the one to be known as the 
Synod of North Carolina and the other as that of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia. The Presbytery of Concord and, of course, 
Rocky River Church, were naturally attached to the former, 
with which they have since remained. 29 

An early contribution to the spread of Presbyterianism in the 
deeper South was made by the Congregation in 18 16 when four 
families, those of William Morrison, Robert C. Morrison, Mc- 
Ewen Morrison, and Enoch Morgan, moved to Fort Jackson, 
Alabama, ten miles north of Montgomery. Having been joined 
by several similar groups from North Carolina in the following 
year, they removed to a section described as Pleasant Valley, 
in the vicinity of the present city of Selma. 30 In November, 18 18, 
Rev. Francis Porter passed through this region on a missionary 
itinerary. A church appears to have been organized by him on 

26 North Carolina University, Alumni History, p. 748. 

27 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 18 10, p. 261. 

28 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 277; Minutes of the General 
Assembly, U. S. A., 1809, p. 209. 

29 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1813, p. 70; Thomas H. Spence, 
Survey of Records and Minutes, p. 21. 

30 Sarah E. Phillips, A Historical Sketch of Valley Creek Church, pp. 4-6. 

39 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the 20th of that month, and the Lord's Supper celebrated in the 
grove at the home of William Morrison on the following day. 31 
Thus, through a migration from Rocky River, Valley Creek, 
one of the earliest of Presbyterian churches in Alabama, was 
formed. 

The Synod of North Carolina adjourned in 1816 with the 
expressly published intention of meeting the following year at 
Rocky River, and a determined effort was made to carry out 
these plans. The first attempt to hold such sessions was on Thurs- 
day, October 2, 18 17. When it became evident that a quorum 
was lacking, those present waited for "a considerable time;" and 
then the Moderator (of the 18 16 meeting) adjourned the group 
until the morning of the next day. The same procedure was re- 
peated on Friday and again on Saturday. On Monday it became 
clear that a quorum could not be secured; and it was decided 
to forego further attempts until October of 1818, and to assem- 
ble at that time in Fayetteville. 32 

About the year 18 19, members of Rocky River, Philadelphia, 
and Bethany churches organized a single beneficent society for 
the purpose of aiding in the spread of the Gospel and also in 
the relief of the poor. After a time, this was divided to form 
separate organizations in each of the churches. 33 

The religious welfare of the colored population was the ob- 
ject of an early concern on the part of the Church. By 1820, 
two Sunday Schools were being conducted for the benefit of 
slaves within the bounds of Rocky River. 34 

The General Assembly of 1821 appointed the Rocky River 
minister as a member of a special committee, constituted of three 
clergymen from each synod, which was charged with making 
arrangements for the publication of a new edition of the Con- 

31 Boston Recorder, Nov. 20, 1819, pp. 189-190 (1-2). 

32 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, Vol. I, pp. 60-62. 

33 Robert Hall Morrison, Letter to James Morrison, Feb. 12, 1820. 

34 Ibid. 

40 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

stitution of the Church. 35 Among further honors conferred upon 
Mr. Wilson, was his election as Moderator of the Synod of 
North Carolina at its meeting in Salisbury in the year 182 i. 3G 

EARLY MECKLENBURG PRESBYTERY 

Mecklenburg Presbytery was set off from Concord in 1824 
by the Synod in session at Statesville. This new and short-lived or- 
ganization included the churches of Mecklenburg- and Cabarrus 
counties, with some territory west of the Catawba River. 37 

Its second meeting was held at Rocky River on September 6-7, 
1825, with four ministers and six elders present. Since four of 
its ministerial members were recorded as absent, it can be seen 
that the Presbytery was weak, too weak to continue long. 3S A 
member of Concord Presbytery in attendance was Rev. Hugh 
Wilson, a native of the Bethany Congregation and an alumnus 
of Rocky River Academy. Mecklenburg Presbytery took the 
following action in regard to Mr. Wilson and his work among 
the Indians: 

Whereas the members of the Concord Presbytery have entered 
into measures for the purpose of endeavouring to support the 
Revd. Hugh Wilson Missionary in the Chickasaw Nation; re- 
solved that if they fail of complete success the Presbytery of 
Mecklenburg stand ready to join with them in that work of char- 
ity. 39 

Early Mecklenburg was frequently occupied with plans and 
provisions for the so-called "Southern Professorship" in the The- 
ological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey. During the third 
meeting of Presbytery, held at Waxhaw, April 4, 1826, it was 
reported that "Revd. John M. Wilson paid thirty dollars which 

35 iMinutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 182 1, p. 12. 

36 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, Vol. I, p. 149. 

37 Ibid., pp. 315-316, 320-321, 328-335. 

38 Minutes of Mecklenburg Presbvtery (Earlv), Vol. I, p. 6. 

39 Ibid., p. 8. 

4 1 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

completes his subscription on behalf of Rocky River of $250" 
for this chair. 40 

Mrs. Wilson died on August 7, 1826, according to the inscrip- 
tion on her tombstone in the Rocky River cemetery. 

One of the occasional insights afforded by the statistical re- 
ports on Rocky River in its earlier years is embodied in the Min- 
utes of Mecklenburg Presbytery under date of April 5, 1826. 
This entry, covering the united congregations of Rocky River 
and Philadelphia, shows that during the previous year there were 
enrolled 390 communicants in the two churches, twenty-five 
having been added during that period and two dismissed, while 
fifty-five children and one adult had been baptized. 41 

A touch of professional, as well as local, color is to be discerned 
in the home address of Mr. Wilson, which is given, in this gen- 
eral period, as "Morrisons Tan-Yard." 42 

One of the later acts of Mecklenburg Presbytery was to re- 
ceive Rev. Robert Hall Morrison from the Presbytery of Fay- 
etteville, and to install him as pastor over Sugar Creek and Char- 
lotte churches. This was done on June 8, 1827, at the Sugar 
Creek meeting-house, where Presbytery was in session. 43 

The title to the old-burying ground, lying several hundred 
yards to the north-east of the present church, was transferred to 
the Trustees of Rocky River by two deeds. These were executed 
by Valentine Kirkpatrick and Hector McCacran and are dated 
July 31, 1827. 44 

Evidently convinced that its venture in expansion had not 
been justified, the Synod of North Carolina, at its meeting in 
1827, dissolved the Presbytery of Mecklenburg and returned its 
ministers and churches to that of Concord, from which they had 

40 1 bid., p. 10. 

41 Ibid., p. 12. 

42 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1829, p. 499. 

43 Minutes of Mecklenburg Presbytery (Early), Vol. I, pp. 20-21. 

44 Cabarrus County, Record of Deeds, Book 11, p. 28. 

42 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

been drawn to constitute the forerunner of the great Mecklen- 
burg Presbytery of the present day. 45 Rather strangely, the final 
report from Mecklenburg to the General Assembly, that of 1828, 
indicated that this Presbytery was actually larger than Concord 
from a numerical standpoint, consisting of 1645 communicants 
compared with Concord's 1633. The latter listed 13 ministers 
and 30 churches, however, against figures of 7 and 15 for Meck- 
lenburg. 46 

The University of North Carolina, which nineteen years ear- 
lier had awarded an honorary M. A. degree to the Rocky River 
minister and schoolmaster, took further cognizance of his proven 
abilities by conferring upon him the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity at the commencement of 1829. 47 

A note in a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, periodical of the fol- 
lowing year relates the crystallization of missionary interest in 
Rocky River and Philadelphia churches in the organization of 
an Auxiliary of the Board of Missions. 48 Such action was to be 
expected in the field of one who was blessed in the winning of 
souls. A contemporary states that "it was no uncommon thing 
to witness from twenty to thirty persons received by him into 
the church at one time." 49 

Dr. Jethro Rumple has preserved a pleasing commentary upon 
the esteem in which Dr. Wilson was held by the dignitaries of 
his day: "It was his custom to visit the county seat during court 
week and pay his respects to the judges; by whom he was greatly 
respected and honored with a seat by their side, so long as he 
would remain in the courthouse." 50 As a peacemaker he acquired 
a unique reputation; and so effective were his influence and ex- 

45 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. II, p. 122. 

46 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1828, p. 317. 

47 North Carolina University, Alumni History, p. 748. 

^Missionary Reporter, Apr. 1, 1830, pp. 218-219 (10-11). Bound with Chris- 
tian Advocate. 

49 W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, Vol. IV, p. 94. 

50 North Carolina Presbyterian, July 3, 1878, p. 1. 

43 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

ertions toward this end among his parishioners, "that it was com- 
paratively rare for suits to be taken by the members of his 
churches to the civil courts." 51 In contrast, he is said to have been 
subjected to persecution at the hands of certain persons hostile 
to him, but the details of these evil endeavors are unknown. 52 

Some insight into the methods employed by this Pastor for 
the instruction of his people is evidenced in the sketch by Dr. 
Morrison, who tells of the diligence with which he examined the 
members of his congregations in the Confession of Faith and 
the Catechisms of the Church. These examinations were con- 
ducted in the several sections of the two churches to which he 
ministered. Adults were quizzed in the doctrines of the Scrip- 
tures, as well as on the teachings of the Confession, though it 
might well be observed that the two are strikingly similar. 53 
Against the background of such training, it is not difficult to 
appreciate the judgement pronounced by Dr. Morrison, that in 
the days of his esteemed preceptor, no such country congrega- 
tion as Rocky River was to be found south of Pennsylvania. 54 

Continuing interest in the spread of the Gospel resulted in the 
formation of a "Young Men's Missionary Society of Concord 
Presbytery." A solicitation conducted by a special representa- 
tive in behalf of the work supported by this organization in 1830 
bore fruit in a contribution in the sum of $47.27 from Rocky 
River. 55 

A memento of the observance of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper during these days is preserved in the form of a commun- 
ion token, now displayed in the Historical Foundation at Mon- 
treat, North Carolina. This unusually small metal (probably 
pewter) coin was acquired through the late Ruling Elder Samuel 

51 Sprague, op. cit., Vol. IV, p. 93. 

52 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, p. 53 (1). 

53 Ibid. 

54 Ibid. 

55 Southern Religious Telegraph, Sept. 18, 1830, p. 149 (1). 

44 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN MAKEMIE WILSON 

Black. The only visible inscription consists of the letters MW 
in the form of a monogram, presumably representing the pastor 
under the name of Makemie Wilson. Mrs. W. R. Grey of David- 
son has related how she and other children at Rocky River used 
a bag of tokens in their play many years ago. 56 

Dr. Wilson's last illness began with his attendance upon the 
sessions of the Presbytery, held at Morganton in the year 1830. 
Though unwell for a number of months, his death was surpris- 
ingly sudden, taking place on Saturday, July 30, 183 1. 57 An old 
friend, Dr. John Robinson of Poplar Tent, had previously ar- 
ranged to preach at Rocky River on the following day, and 
arrived on Saturday afternoon for that purpose, without any 
knowledge of what had occurred. On Sunday, the funeral serv- 
ices were held at Rocky River and conducted by Dr. Robinson. 
Many of the people of Philadelphia united with those of the local 
congregation to pay their respects to one who had been with 
them for almost a third of a century. Since it proved impossible 
to accommodate the throng in the building, the services were 
held in the grove; and thereafter the body of the first minister 
to be buried at the Church was laid to rest. 08 

In appraising the ministry of Dr. Wilson, Robert Hall Mor- 
rison asserted that "the memorials of his usefulness will be long 
visible below." 59 That this prediction has been fulfilled in an even 
more literal sense than was ever intended by its author may be 
vouched for by those who have sat in the present church build- 
ing and gazed, perhaps when they should have been intent upon 
the words of one or another of his successors, at the tablet which 
hangs upon the wall to the rear of the pulpit, bearing the inscrip- 
tion: 

56 James F. Hurley and Julia G. Eagan, The Prophet of Zion-Parnassus, pp. 
79-80. 

57 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, pp. 53-54 (1-2); Charleston Ob- 
server, Aug. 13, 1 83 1, p. 131 (3). 

58 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, p. 54 (2). 

59 Sprague, op. cit., Vol. IV, p. 94. 

45 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



SACRED 



To the memory of 
the learned, pious, and ven- 
erable minister of the gospel 
Rev. JOHN M. WILSON, D.D. 
who departed this life 
July 30th 183 1. 
Aged 62 years, 
for about 30 years the able, faithful 
and beloved Pastor of Rocky-River 
and Philadelphia Churches. 



"They that be wise shall shine as 
the brightness of the firmament 

and they that turn many to 

righteousness as the stars forever 

and ever." 



And visitors to his grave in the cemetery adjacent to the 
church will recognize this language as the substance of that 
which, now considerably impaired by the attacks of time, is let- 
tered upon the stone erected, well beyond a century ago, over 
the resting place of that great and good man whose life and char- 
acter called forth such repeated eulogy. 



46 



CHAPTER IV 

The Academy and Certain Alumni 



In 1812, Mr. Wilson and a number of members of the congre- 
gations instituted a classical school which was to become remark- 
ably instrumental in the extension of the Kingdom of God in 
the immediate community, throughout the bounds of the Pres- 
bytery, across the Southland, and even in far-off Africa; for sev- 
eral of its students were to preach repeatedly at Rocky River on 
various occasions, others to hold pastorates in Concord Presby- 
tery, one to serve as the first president of Davidson College, an- 
other to organize the first Presbyterian church in the Republic 
of Texas, and still another to lay down his life in the Dark Con- 
tinent in an abbreviated but blessed endeavor to carry the Light 
of the World to those who dwelt in that distant and shadowed 
realm. 

Rocky River Academy was incorporated on November 16, 
1 8 1 2, through the following act of the State legislature: 



Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North- 
Carolina, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
That the Reverend John M. Wilson, William Morrison, junior, 
William Gillems, John Morrison, James Morrison, Archibald 
M'Clerty, Enoch Morgan and Charles Taylor Alexander, be, and 
they are hereby ordained and constituted a body corporate, to be 
known by the name of TRUSTEES OF THE ROCKY RIVER 
ACADEMY and by that name shall have perpetual succession; 
and they or their successors or a majority of them by the name 
aforesaid, shall be able and capable in law, to sue and be sued, 
plead and be impleaded in any of the Courts of Record within this 
state; and shall take, demand, and receive any property real or 
personal, and any monies or other things which shall be given for 

47 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the use of said Academy, and the same to apply according to the 
will of the donor, and by gift, purchase, or devise, to take, and 
have and possess, receive, enjoy, and retain, to them and their 
successors forever, any lands, rents or tenements of what nature 
or kind soever in special confidence, that the same or profits 
therof be applied to and for the purpose of establishing and en- 
dowing the said Academy. 1 

A major function of this academy was the preparation of boys 
for entrance into the University of North Carolina, an institu- 
tion which was attended by a considerable number of its gradu- 
ates, or for some college, such as Hampden-Sydney. It is to be 
remembered that Davidson was not founded until 1837, some 
years after the death of Dr. Wilson. 

The school was located about one mile from the residence of 
its Principal, between the two churches which he served. The 
minister not only acted as the head, but also the teacher, of the 
Academy. Some of the students who lived sufficiently near 
walked or rode horseback each day between their homes and 
this seat of learning, 2 while those from a distance, either secured 
boarding accommodations in the community, or occupied cabins 
nearby. As late as 19 17, long after the private academy had given 
way to a unit of the State educational system, boys were living 
in this manner in order to attend the public school; and in 1953 
one of these buildings still stands as a reminder of that distant 
but glorious day when Rocky River was making her noble and 
notable contribution to the education of the young men of her 
own and other congregations. 

Schoolboys of the early Nineteenth Century were not alto- 
gether unlike those of later generations. Elam J. Morrison, for 
example, confessed that one of the reasons prompting his enroll- 
ment in the Academy, which he and his associates knew as "the 

1 North Carolina, Laws of the State of North Carolina enacted in the year 
1812, Chapter CII, pp. 37-38. 

2 Thomas E. Davis, Autobiography, p. 8; The Presbyterian, May 15, 1869, 
p. 3. 

48 



THE ACADEMY AND CERTAIN ALUMNI 

Latin school," was a dislike for farm work. He also admitted that 
he was "shamefully idle" during the greater portion of his course 
of study, although demonstrating somewhat more diligence by 
way of application during the last six months of time spent in 
the institution. 3 

A former pupil of the Academy, in describing Mr. Wilson's 
service through the school, has written: "His great excellency as 
a teacher consisted, not merely in making good scholars of those 
who were willing to improve their opportunities, but in the 
happy moral influence which he exerted over them." Perhaps 
this is a partial explanation of the large proportion of graduates 
who entered the ministry. This same competent commentator 
held the Principal's powers as a disciplinarian in high regard and 
testified that "instances of disorder among his pupils were of very 
rare occurrence, and in very few cases were complaints heard of 
disturbance to the neighborhood originating from his school." 4 

His work was not always completed when Professor Wilson 
had prepared a boy for the State University or for some college; 
for there were at least three of the alumni of the Academy who, 
having finished their training in an institution of the latter type, 
returned to pursue the study of Theology under the guidance 
of its Principal. James Stafford, who resided six miles from the 
school, after graduation from the University of North Carolina 
in 1820, began preparation for the ministry under Mr. Wilson. 
The candidate made a trip once or twice a week for conference 
with his instructor, which involved a recitation and such occa- 
sional examinations as might be stipulated by the teacher. 5 

In the comparatively brief time during which the Academy 
operated under the supervision of its Founder, twenty-five young 
men were enrolled as students who later became ministers of the 
Gospel, and some fifteen of this group were from Rocky River 

3 Elam J. Morrison, Autobiography. 

4 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, p. 53 (1). 

5 The Presbyterian, May 15, 1869, p. 3. 

49 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

and adjacent communities. The list of these, as compiled by one 
of their number, Robert Hall Morrison, is as follows: Thomas 
Alexander, A. R. Barr (Foote has A. R. Pharr), Charles LeRoy 
Boyd, John L. Davies, William B. Davies, Thomas Davis, John 
McK. Erwin, Robert Hall, Cyrus Johnston, Robert Rufus King, 
Nicholson R. Morgan, Elam Johnston Morrison, James Morri- 
son, James Elijah Morrison, Robert Hall Morrison, William 
Newton Morrison, Dion C. Pharr, Henry N. Pharr, John Silli- 
man, James Stafford, James B. Stafford, Samuel L. Watson, Alex- 
ander E. Wilson, Hugh Wilson, John Makemie Wilson, Jr. 6 

The educational interests of the Rocky River minister and 
schoolmaster were not confined to his famous Academy. In the 
early i82o's, in the course of proposals looking toward the es- 
tablishment of an institution of advanced learning in the Pied- 
mont, he evidently evinced both concern and leadership in plans 
which were laid for Western College, a project which was des- 
tined to fall short of actual operation, yet which served to clear 
the way for another institution which was to open during the 
course of the next decade under the name of Davidson College. 7 

Several years after its suspension in 1824, an effort was put 
forth to reactivate the Academy. Mr. Wilson proposed to act 
as superintendent, while his son was to be an associate instructor 
in classical and scientific subjects. An advertisement appearing 
in the Catawba Journal of June 19, 1827, set forth the purpose 
to re-open the Academy and, in regard to living quarters and 
expenses, stated that "boarding can be had in respectable fami- 
lies at $70 per year, including every appendage, candles ex- 
cepted." 8 

ROBERT HALL MORRISON 

Among the pupils of the Academy, none was more to distin- 
guish himself than Robert Hall Morrison, who was a native of 

6 Watchman of the South, Nov. 24, 1842, p. 53 (1). 

7 J. Alston Ramsay, Historical Sketch of Concord Presbytery, pp. 69-70. 

8 Charles L. Coon, North Carolina Schools and Academies, p. 329. 

50 



THE ACADEMY AND CERTAIN ALUMNI 

the Rocky River community. It is neither necessary nor fitting 
that the life and work of Dr. Morrison be extensively treated in 
these pages, but the very nature of events calls for a consideration 
of his vital and prolonged relationship with the Church at Rocky 
River. 

Not only was he born within the confines of the Congregation, 
to receive the benefits of the ministrations of the Church, and 
to pursue his education at the Academy; but he also studied 
Theology under its Principal. On numerous occasions he was re- 
called to the church of his childhood to speak at sacramental 
seasons or to minister at the funeral of some friend and member. 

Public acquaintance with the work of John Makemie Wilson 
is due in considerable measure to the relevant chapter in Foote's 
Sketches of North Carolina. A comparison with this section of 
the Sketches with a lengthy article (curiously denominated a 
Short Sketch) which appeared in the Watchman of the South 9 
from the pen of Dr. Morrison, concerning the life and services 
of Dr. Wilson, will reveal that Foote not only based his treat- 
ment upon the earlier story, but freely reproduced portions of 
the tribute from the Watchman. Dr. Morrison was invited to 
deliver the funeral sermon after the death of Daniel Penick, and 
into that discourse he wove many facts relating to the life and 
family of that deceased pastor, as well as much of the history 
of the Church. 

The greater portion of the Morrison ministry was conven- 
iently exercised in Concord and, both earlier and later, in Meck- 
lenburg presbyteries. As a matter of fact, Dr. Morrison was the 
only ministerial member of both of the presbyteries known by the 
latter name, beginning his work at Sugar Creek and Charlotte 
just before the dissolution of the earlier court and entering the 
second Mecklenburg as a charter member upon its erection in 
1869. 10 

9 Nov. 24, 1842, pp. 53-54 (1-2). 

10 Minutes of Mecklenburg Presbytery (Early), Vol. I, pp. 20-21; Ibid., (Pres- 
ent), Vol. I, p. 1. 

51 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

A lengthy period of retirement, covering the years 1 840-1 889, 
during the greater portion of which he acted as stated supply 
of various churches, afforded an excellent opportunity, of which 
he obviously took ample advantage, to make numerous excur- 
sions from his country seat at Cottage Home, in Lincoln County, 
to the congregation of his birth. Chapters following will set forth 
some of the ways in which this distinguished son of the Church 
habitually renewed the ties which bound him, across the ex- 
tended years, to that community from which he had sprung. 

THREE SONS OF THE MANSE 

John Makemie Wilson, Jr., was born on October 21, 1808, 
several years after the settlement of his father at Rocky River. 
Having graduated from Washington College, Virginia, with 
honors in 1827, he embarked upon the study of law and was 
licensed to practice at the bar. In 183 1 he was married to Miss 
Philadelphia H. Fox of Spottsylvania County, Virginia; and two 
years later both he and his wife were converted. 11 That one who 
had been reared in such a home and church had not found his 
Saviour until this period of life is one of those mysteries which 
are difficult of comprehension. 

He then decided to abandon the practice of law and turned 
toward preparation for the ministry, for which he was licensed 
in 1835 by Concord Presbytery in session at Rocky River, 12 and 
ordained and installed as pastor at Bethany as Presbytery met 
in that church on November 10, 1837. 13 He later served at Mor- 
ganton, an old charge of his father's, from which he went to 
Missouri, being dismissed to the Presbytery of that name on 
October 3, 185 1. 14 Later he removed to Texas, where he died 

11 Washington and Lee University, Catalogue of the Officers and Alumni, p. 
80; E. F. Rockwell, Biographical Sketch Book, p. 21; Texas Presbyterian, July 
15, 1881, p. 5. 

12 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. Ill, pp. 122-123. 

13 Ibid., Vol. IV, p. 73. 

14 Ibid., Vol. V, pp. 574-575- 

52 



THE ACADEMY AND CERTAIN ALUMNI 

at his home near Seguin, Guadaloupe County, on June 29, 1881. 15 
Joseph Harvey Wilson, a son of the older John Makemie, was 
a member of the same class at Washington College as was John 
Makemie, Jr. Upon graduation, he entered the legal profession 
in which he gained eminent distinction. He established his resi- 
dence at Charlotte, N. C, and was elected to the Legislature 
of North Carolina as a member of the Senate, serving as Speaker 
of this body. His death occurred on September 13, 1884. 16 

A third son of John Makemie Wilson, Alexander E., born in 
Mecklenburg County, December ir, 1803, first decided to pre- 
pare himself for service as a physician because of an impediment 
of speech, which he supposed would interfere with his usefulness 
as a minister of the Gospel. Having completed his studies, he 
began the practice of medicine, when his attention was directed 
toward the great need for the evangelization of Africa, probably 
through the influence of Rev. Daniel Lindley, then pastor at 
Rocky River. Thereupon, he gave up his practice, secured train- 
ing in Theology, and was ordained by Concord Presbytery in 
the fall of 1834, at a meeting held in Rocky River Church. 17 

After his marriage to Miss Mary Jane Smithey of Richmond, 
Virginia, who was born on November 30, 1 8 1 3, the couple went 
to Boston, from which port they were to sail for Cape Town, 
South Africa, in company with Rev. and Mrs. Daniel Lindley 
and several other missionaries. 18 In this city an impressive farewell 
meeting was held in the Park Street Church on November 23, 
1834, at which twelve missionaries were present, when an ad- 
dress was delivered by Rev. David Abeel. On the 3rd of De- 
cember, Dr. and Mrs. Wilson, Rev. and Mrs. Daniel Lindley, 
who, as will be seen from the following chapter, had given up 
the work at Rocky River in order to go as a missionary, with 

15 Texas Presbyterian, July 15, 1881, p. 5. 

16 Washington and Lee University, Catalogue of the Officers and Alumni, 
p. 80. 

17 Foote, op. cit., p. 487; Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. Ill, p. 97. 
1S Missionary Herald, Jan. 1835, p. 32. 

53 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Rev. and Mrs. Henry I. Venable of Kentucky, embarked for 
Africa, together with another group of missionaries who also 
contemplated work in that continent. The parties sailed on the 
barque Burlington. 19 

After a favorable voyage of sixty-four days, they landed at 
Cape Town on the 5th of February, 1835. On March 19, the 
Wilsons, Lindleys, and Venables set out on a thousand mile trek 
for the country of the Mosalekatsi. 20 Two months were required 
to cover the 635 miles from Cape Town to Griquatown. On 
one occasion, fourteen oxen were necessary to draw a single 
wagon through a mountain pass, and altogether not less than 
one hundred oxen were used in pulling the three wagons of 
the party between the two towns. 21 When Griquatown was 
reached, it seemed that the oxen had suffered more than the mis- 
sionaries, due in considerable part to the lack of rains and the 
resultant shortage of grass. 22 

Messrs. Lindley and Venable proceeded alone from this point 
to Mosega, where it was determined to establish the base for the 
mission. Dr. Wilson and the three women remained at Griqua- 
town, and later moved forward to Kuruman, no miles to the 
north. 23 During their stay at Griquatown, a daughter was born 
to the Wilsons. By June 15, 1836, the entire party was at Mosega. 
Their reception by the local ruler was encouraging and prospects 
for the work appeared bright. 24 

But the members of the mission were now afflicted by a severe 
illness, ascribed by Dr. Wilson to the fact that the clay floor of 
the house which they inhabited had not thoroughly dried. Mrs. 

19 Ibid. 

20 Ibid., July 1835, p. 281. 

21 Ibid., Nov. 1835, p. 435. 

22 Ibid., Sept. 1836, p. 342. 

23 Ibid., Jan. 1837, pp. 37-39. 

24 Ibid., July 1837, pp. 291, 337; E. W. Smith, Life and Times of Daniel Lind- 
ley, p. 70. 

54 



THE ACADEMY AND CERTAIN ALUMNI 

Jane Wilson fell victim to this ailment and died on September 18, 
1836. 25 

Eighty-five years later, in 192 1, a lettered stone, evidently a 
relic from her grave, was discovered among others gathered for 
building the foundation for a railway near Ottoshoop, South 
Africa. This appears to have been inscribed by Dr. Wilson im- 
mediately following the death of his wife, to be deposited in 
the grave in which he himself laid her remains. "Her spirit," it 
affirms, "was called away to join ye assembly of ye just in 
heaven, soon after she commenced her toils in this land." 26 

Dr. Wilson returned to the United States in order to make 
arrangements for the care of his infant daughter. "Against the 
earnest remonstrance of his friends, he again sailed July, 1839, 
joining Dr. (J. Leighton) Wilson at Cape Palmas soon after- 
wards. Before sailing, however, he was married a second time to 
Miss Mary Hardcastle, of New York, who after his death mar- 
ried the Rev. Mr. Griswold, of the same mission." 27 Alexander 
Wilson's course was not long; and after a brief, but heroic, effort 
in behalf of the Lord he, on October 13, 1841, passed on into 
that place prepared for him among "ye assembly of ye just in 
heaven." 2S Dr. J. Leighton Wilson, in a letter written on the day 
of the valiant missionary's translation, gives an inspiring picture 
of the closing scenes in the earthly life of this son of Rocky River 
who, in the language of a memorial adopted by Concord Pres- 
bytery, "devoted the best of his days to the best of all Causes." 29 

The Academy building has long since disappeared and the 
voices of its students silenced these many years, while the schol- 
arly Principal himself, well above a century ago, was transported 

25 Missionary Herald, July 1837, p. 293. 

26 Edyth Kaigh-Eustace, The Tragedy of Mosega, pp. 21-22. 

27 The Missionary, Oct. 1900, p. 449; Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. 
IV, p. 310; Harvey Newcomb, A Cyclopedia of Missions, p. 93. 

28 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. IV, p. 310. 

29 Hampden C. DuBose, Memoirs of Rev. John Leighton Wilson, D.D., pp. 
91-93; Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. IV, p. 310. 

55 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

to those fair halls of higher learning to sit at the feet of the 
Master of all good teachers. But, in the providence of God, nei- 
ther religion nor education is exactly the same since the ministry 
of that school conducted by Dr. Wilson, to the end that the 
youth of his and other congregations might know the truth and 
through that knowledge might be free. 



56 



CHAPTER V 

A Burning and a Shining Light 



The ministry of Daniel Lindley, the next pastor of Rocky River, 
was brief, brilliant, and a fragment, albeit a glorious one, of his 
crowded career of consecrated service. 

A native of Washington County, Pennsylvania, where he was 
born on August 24, 1801, Daniel Lindley, the eldest of nine chil- 
dren, graduated from Ohio University, Waterford, Ohio, with 
the class of 1824. At this time his father was serving as a pro- 
fessor in the University. Some time was spent as a teacher before 
entering Union Seminary at Hampden-Sydney, Virginia. After 
his graduation from this institution, he was licensed by Orange 
Presbytery, October 10, 183 1. 1 

James Elijah Morrison was a classmate of Lindley 's at the Sem- 
inary, who, upon the former's invitation, came for a visit to the 
Rocky River community. The result of this apparently for- 
tuitous journey was a call from the Church to become its min- 
ister. Permission having been obtained from Concord Presbytery 
for its prosecution before the Presbytery of Orange, arrange- 
ments were perfected for him to settle at the Church. 2 

ACADEMIC INTERLUDE 

While Rocky River Academy rose to its highest fame under 
the leadership of Dr. W T ilson, the school continued its work on 
into the Twentieth Century when it was superseded by the pub- 

1 Union Theological Seminary, General Catalogue, p. 54; Minutes of Orange 
Presbytery, Vol. 1831-1836, pp. 9-10; North Carolina Presbyterian, June 15, 
1881, p. t. 

2 Alinutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. II, pp. 281, 286. 

57 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

lie schools. After the Wilson regime the instructor was usually 
a layman. 

In the 1830's, Professor R. McDowell took charge of the in- 
stitution. By this time it had moved from its original location and 
was operated in the vicinity of the Church. In 1835, a deed to 
"77 square poles" of land, on the waters of Reedy Creek, was 
made to the Trustees by Cyrus Alexander, as executor of Philan- 
dra Alexander. 3 

In the days of Professor McDowell, Robert Newton and 
Thomas E. Davis, two brothers who lived near the site of the 
present Harrisburg, were among the students. Robert, who at- 
tended the Academy earlier than his brother, walked the three 
miles and back to his home each day. When Thomas E. Davis 
entered the school, he managed to cover an amazing amount of 
work in the one year for which he remained. By building a little 
room eight feet square between his home and the family spring 
he was enabled to devote the maximum of time to undisturbed 
study. 4 

Young Thomas Davis was not only a diligent student but also 
a proficient musician, mastering several instruments through ap- 
plication on rainy days when farm work was impractical. 5 He 
has left an account of how he "led all the night-singings for years 
in the neighborhood." 6 

So successful was the administration of Mr. McDowell, that 
one historian of a much later day was led to designate it as "a 
veritable fount of blessings to the community and to the church 
at large." 7 

Even though the curriculum was intended to serve by way of 

3 Cabarrus County, Record of Deeds, Book 12, p. 418. 

4 Thomas E. Davis, Autobiography, pp. 9-10; Mecklenburg Presbytery, Bi- 
ographies of the Deceased Ministers, 1869 to 1900, p. 1. 

5 Thomas E. Davis, op. cit., pp. 5-6. 

6 Ibid., p. 6. 

7 I. S. McElroy, So?ne Pioneer Presbyterian Preachers of the Piedmont North 
Carolina, p. 28. 

58 




Daniel Lindley 

1832-1834 




Daniel Allen Penick 

1837-1870 





[oseph Bingham Mack 

1871-1875 



James Morton Wharey 

1876-1886 




John Gray Anderson 

1888-1893 




Richard Venable Lancaster 

1 894- 1 896 



SOME NINETEENTH CENTURY PASTORS 



A BURNING AND A SHINING LIGHT 

preliminary to that of the liberal arts college, certain elements 
of the course of study, as indicated by detailed contemporary 
testimony, show that it was a formidable one, calculated to give 
pause to the college student of today. A student of McDowell's 
wrote: 

I went through the Grammar, Latin Reader, the Bucolics, five 
Aeniads & most of Georgics of Virgil & started Greek in one year 
& studied Geographv Fridav evenings. I used to read one hun- 
dred lines in the Georgics of Virgil at a lesson. s 

Education in the field of Religion was also advancing about 
this time. Several Sunday Schools, which had previously been 
conducted in various sections of the Congregation, were consoli- 
dated into a central school at the Church in the spring of 1832. 
By April this organization numbered 150 scholars and was con- 
tinuing to grow. It possessed a library valued at between sixty 
and seventy dollars. 9 

This collection of books evidently grew with rapidity and 
within the next several years numbered almost five hundred vol- 
umes. Elizabeth, Leander, and Robert Kirkpatrick were among 
the more frequent patrons of the library, the first named having 
withdrawn seventy-seven books in the year 1834. 10 

With Samuel Morrison serving as superintendent, the teach- 
ers were examined each Sunday on the lesson for the following 
one. "It is an interesting sight," observed a member, "to see old 
men with their spectacles giving instructions to a class of young 
men & little boys." The same commentator continued, "Young 
men & ladies of 25 & 30 years are scholars. The old men wish 
to prepare these young men & women to take their places as 
teachers." n 

8 Thomas E. Davis, op. cit., p. 10. 

9 Jas. E. Morrison, Letter to James Morrison, April 20, 1832. 

10 Librarian's Record, pp. 11-12. 

11 Jas. E. Morrison, op. cit. 

59 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Even before Mr. Lindley's installation, the ingathering of souls 
which was to characterize his ministry began to be manifest. In 
connection with a sacramental service on the last Sunday of 
March, 1832, fifty-six members were admitted into the Church 
on profession of faith, as four visiting ministers assisted in the 
attendant services. 12 

Concord Presbytery met at Rocky River on November 7, 
1832, for the ordination and installation of the incoming pastor, 
who preached a sermon from Hebrews 7:25, and was examined 
in the several branches of theology. This was followed by an 
ordination sermon delivered by Robert Hall Morrison, while 
Rev. John Williamson and Rev. John Robinson also participated 
in the exercises. The climax of these solemnities came when "Mr. 
Lindley having kneeled down, was by prayer and the laying on 
of the hands of the Presbytery solemnly ordained to the holy 
office of the Gospel ministry and installed Pastor of Rocky River 
Church." 13 

Morrison Caldwell, in his contribution to Dr. Mack's Histori- 
cal Sketch of Rocky River Church, appraised the accomplish- 
ments of Lindley in this pastorate by saying, "In less than three 
years ... he accomplished what might well have been claimed 
as a life's work;" and the author proceeded to adduce evidence 
toward a substantiation of this unusual statement: a temperance 
society organized under his leadership with 500 members in a 
day when sentiment for such causes had in general made but slight 
progress, and the marked growth of the Church during his short 
ministry. 14 According to the Minutes of the General Assembly, 
U. S. A., during the church years 1832-33, 1833-34, a total of 
246 names were added to the church roll on profession of faith, 15 

12 Ibid. 

13 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. Ill, pp. 25-26. 
14 P. 9. 

15 Pp. 595 and 166 respectively. The 163 persons received on profession of 
faith in the year 183 2-1 83 3 is the highest on record. See also Charleston Ob- 
server, Feb. 23, 1833, p. 30 (2). 

60 



A BURNING AND A SHINING LIGHT 

as the fervent winsomeness of the young Northerner captured 
the hearts of his Southern constituency. 

This was a general season of refreshing in many parts of the 
Church throughout the South. The Virginia cono-reo-ation, New 
Providence, to which a native of Rocky River, Rev. James Mor- 
rison, had ministered for a number of years, reported 270 addi- 
tions during the church year ending with March, 1834. 16 

Some suo-o-estion of the reasons for the success of Daniel Lind- 
ley at Rocky River may be gained from a descriptive apprecia- 
tion of him, which was written with respect to his wider service, 
almost fifty years after his pastorate there. This reads in part: 

Dr. Lindley was of peculiarly genial temperament, and many will 
remember his simple but graphic discourses, in which, with a mild 
sweet voice, a benign countenance, an irresistible vein of wit, and 
a warm, loving heart for his Saviour and his race, he held his 
audiences spell-bound, and sent them away, not onlv delighted 
but permanently interested in the great work of Missions. 17 

In 1834, he made a trip to Philadelphia as a representative of 
Concord Presbytery to the General xAssembly. ls But a longer 
and more momentous journey was, even earlier, in the offing for 
this preacher of the Word; for he, like the Tarsian Traveller 
at Troas had heard a call, in this instance not from a man of 
Macedonia, but from those sitting in the spiritual darkness of 
Africa. Presbytery was requested to release him from his charge, 
and this was done at a meeting held at Poplar Tent on April 4, 

1834.- 

Daniel Lindley was the only one of Rocky River's seventeen 
ministers who had not been married by the termination of his 
pastorate. The deficiency was soon remedied, however, for his 
wedding to Miss Lucy Allen occurred on November 20, 1834, 

16 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1834, p. 162. 

17 Foreign Missionary , Oct. 1880, p. 209. 

18 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. Ill, pp. 66, 79-80. 

19 Ibid., p. 74. 

6l 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

almost upon the eve of their sailing for Africa in company with 
Dr. and Mrs. Wilson and other missionaries, as recorded in the 
preceding chapter. 20 

Unlike his colleagues, the Wilsons, Lindley labored for many 
years upon the mission field, finally leaving Africa in 1873, when 
the health of Mrs. Lindley prompted their return to the United 
States; and, in the meantime, his work was of compelling signi- 
ficance. 21 On a certain occasion he baptized 186 children and 
administered this sacrament to almost 7,000 during the cumu- 
lated course of his ministry. 22 The noted leader of the Boers, 
Paul Kruger, was among those whom he received into the 
church. 23 Dr. Lindley died on September 3, 1880, at Morristown, 
New Jersey. 24 

The choice of Daniel Lindley for inclusion in the necessarily 
selective Dictionary of American Biography is indicative of his 
imprint upon the world at large; 25 and the recent publication 
(1952) of his comprehensive biography under the title The Life 
and Times of Daniel Lindley 26 reveals the place accorded this 
apparently chance visitor, whose love for Rocky River never 
waned across the thousands of miles long separating him from 
his first pastorate among that long favored people. 

20 Southern Religious Telegraph, Nov. 28, 1834, p. 191 (3); Dictionary of 
American Biography, Vol. XXI, p. 499. 

21 Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XXI, p. 499. 

22 Ibid. 

23 Howard C. Hillegas, Oom Paul's People, p. 116. 

24 North Carolina Presbyterian, June 15, 1881, p. 1. 

25 Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XXI, p. 499. 

26 This work, by Edwin W. Smith, was published in New York City. Pages 
34-44 and 429-433 relate to Rocky River. 



62 



CHAPTER VI 

Days of Daniel Penick 



Daniel Allen Penick first preached from the pulpit of the 
frame church at Rocky River on June 12, 1835, and was buried 
beneath its site on January 10, 1870. Between these dates trans- 
spired many happenings of historical significance, and to their 
recital the three following chapters are dedicated. 

A debt is due to Mr. Penick, not only for his extended and 
efficacious ministry, but also for much of the available docu- 
mentary information relating to these labors. In the beginning, 
he procured, or caused to be procured, a large record volume 
at a cost of $5.25, judging from the price-mark which is still on 
the back of the flyleaf. But this was not all. At a meeting of the 
Session held many months before his installation, on Septem- 
ber 18, 1835, he was "appointed, for the present, clerk of Ses- 
sion." * In spite of the implied temporal limitation of this action, 
he served for more than twenty-seven years, relinquishing the 
office on May 21, 1863. 2 Furthermore, in addition to the regular 
entries of the proceedings of the Session, he was accustomed to 
add brief summaries of occurrences in the Congregation under 
the head of "Notes." In view of these facts he may well be re- 
garded as the historian of his times. 

And of the earlier days, too; for the first two pages of the 
oldest extant volume of the Records of the Session, beginning 
with 1835, are devoted to an historical sketch of Rocky River. 
While slightly inaccurate at several points, in the light of data 

1 Minutes of the Session of Rocky River Church, Vol. I, p. 5. Future refer- 
ences to these Minutes will be given simply by volume and page numbers. 

2 1, 245. 

63 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

later discovered, this narrative is of unusual value in that it was 
written some eighty years after the first specific entry mention- 
ing Rocky River in the Minutes of the Synod of New York. 
It is also to be remembered that this record antedates the sketch 
of John M. Wilson by Robert Hall Morrison by seven years, 
and was penned eleven years before the appearance of Foote's 
Sketches of North Carolina. 

By inheritance, the new Pastor was a Presbyterian. His father, 
Col. Nathaniel Penick, served as a ruling elder in the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, situated in the Virginia County of 
the same name, for many years. It was within this congregation 
that Daniel Allen Penick was born on October 27, 1797. 3 He 
was graduated from nearby Hampden-Sydney College in the 
year 1821, with the degree of A. B., and spent the three follow- 
ing years at the somewhat more remote Theological Seminary at 
Princeton, New Jersey. 4 During this time he began his memora- 
ble work among the colored population in connection with a 
Sunday School for Negroes. 5 

Powhatan County, adjoining Cumberland on the east, was the 
field of his first labors after returning from Princeton. Having 
been licensed by Hanover Presbytery on October 30, 1824, 6 he 
was ordained by that same body on the fourth of December of 
the following year. 7 There is an account in a diary which he kept 
of a blessed revival of religion in that region during the spring 
and summer of 1825, as a result of which about 150 persons were 
converted. In May of that year, a Presbyterian church was or- 
ganized in the County with twelve members, a number which 
was soon increased to sixty. 8 On September 20, 1825, he married 
Miss Agnes Ann Tinsley. 9 

3 R. H. A4orrison, A Funeral Sermon, p. 5. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Ibid.; Daniel A. Penick, Diary, 1821-1822, under date of Feb. 24, 1822. 

6 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, p. 5. 
''Family Visitor, Dec. 10, 1825, p. 3. 

8 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, p. 5. 

9 Ibid. 

64 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

In 1828 he moved to Milton, a village lying in the central 
portion of North Carolina, just below the Virginia line. During 
a ministry of seven years here, Air. Penick supplemented his 
duties as pastor by serving as general supervisor of the Milton 
Female iVcademy, in which he also, at times, acted as instructor. 10 
In 1833, one of the few extended literary productions from his 
pen was published in the Southern Religious Telegraph. This 
treatise was entitled Early Piety. Exemplified in the character 
of Mary Frances Huntington, a young girl who had died as the 
result of an attack of scarlet fever. 11 

Although his work at Rocky River began in 1835, he was not 
actually installed as pastor until almost two years had passed. 
The first six months of his ministry were characterized, among 
other things, by a controversy with the Methodists, in the course 
of which a number of members left the Church to unite with 
that denomination, 12 which was probably among the factors 
which led to a decline in membership from 500 in 1834 13 t0 
400 in 1836, 14 no figures having been preserved for 1835. So se- 
rious did the matter become that the Session felt constrained to 
issue a three-page deliverance upon the subject, and it was or- 
dered read from the pulpit to the Congregation. 10 This was done 
on December 6, 1835, "to a full house." 16 The document noted 
an evidence of proselyting on the part of the Methodists, and 
called attention to the fact that "there is a real & a wide differ- 
ence between the Calvanistick & the Arminian systems." 17 

A happier note for the new pastor is struck in the statement 
that "The monthly concert for prayer is generally attended in 

10 Minutes of the Session of the Milton Church, Vol. I, p. 43; Southern Re- 
ligious Telegraph, Sept. 30, 183 1, p. 159 (3); Visitor and Telegraph, Nov. 22, 
1828, p. 187 (3). 

11 March 15, 1833, p. 41 (1). 

12 I, 8. 

13 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1834, p. 166. 

14 Ibid., 1836, p. 390. 

15 I, 7- 

16 I, 10. 
17 1, 8-10. 

65 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the different quarters, & in some instances collections are taken 
up for foreign missions." 18 This division of the Congregation 
into districts, under the name of Quarters, for purposes of ad- 
ministration, is repeatedly evidenced by subsequent records. It 
was the practice to give each Quarter representation on the Ses- 
sion by electing elders on the basis of their residence in these 
several localities. 

The practical effects of religion upon the life of the members 
of the Church is effectively set forth in an entry during this 
period, under the date of May i, 1836: 

On Monday afternoon, at the close of the meeting; two members 
of the Church, who had been at considerable variance — one of 
whom was about to prosecute the other — having already tabled 
charges; came together & amicably settled all their differences. 19 

The sanction of disciplinary processes was enhanced by an 
enactment of the Session on November 28, 1835. This prescribed 
that "every case of actual discipline'''' should be published from 
the pulpit, together with such details as the names of the parties 
concerned and the offenses of which they were found guilty. 20 
An unusual problem was created in 1837, when R. Kirkpatrick, 
upon being summoned to testify in a case before the Session, 
"stated that he had deliberately made up his mind to give evi- 
dence in no case, except a criminal prosecution at the civil bar, 
& requested the Session to excuse him" from appearing. 21 This 
that body declined to do and censured him for his refusal to 

• 22 

serve as a witness. 

Beginning with the church year 183 5-1 836, statistical and nar- 
rative reports, as submitted to Concord Presbytery, are found in 
the Sessional Records, and are also published in the Minutes of 

18 1, 11. 
19 1, 13. 
20 1, 7. 
21 1, 17. 
22 1, 19. 

66 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

the General Assembly. A total membership of 444 was indicated 
by the first such report, which also showed that six adults and 
thirty-six infants had been baptized during the year ending 
March 31, 1836. Gifts to the cause of Foreign Missions amounted 
to $290. 00. 23 

Thirty-eight additions on profession of faith were shown by 
figures for the following year (1 836-1 837), together with a to- 
tal membership of 475. One hundred and eighty-six children and 
youth had been examined on the Shorter Catechism and about 
two hundred adults on the doctrines of the Concession of Faith. 24 
It is small wonder that Rocky River enjoyed an enviable repu- 
tation for theological literacy in those days! 

The formal installation of the Pastor, who had already served 
for almost two years, took place on May 6, 1837, with Dr. John 
Robinson of Poplar Tent and Rev. Robert Hall Morrison, the 
Rocky River boy who had recently become the first president 
of Davidson College, officiating. 25 Two days later, Mr. Morri- 
son preached a sermon on temperance which resulted in forty- 
seven whites and four blacks signing the Pledge, nineteen of the 
latter having already taken a similar step several days before. 26 

Rocky River not only supplied Davidson with its first presi- 
dent, but four members of the earliest graduating class, that of 
1 840, were from the community and each of them had formerly 
been a member of the Church. These students, and subsequent 
alumni, were Robert Newton Davis, William Flinn, Thomas D. 
Houston, and Archibald Neely. Two of the number, Davis and 
Flinn, entered the ministry to multiply their usefulness in the 
wider circles of the church at large. 27 

Andrew Davis, David Miller, John Morrison, John Phifer, and 

23 1, 12. 
24 1, 16. 

25 1, 21; A. W. Miller and D. H. Hill, Memorial Sketches of Rev. Robert Hall 
Morrison, D.D., p. 3. 
26 1, 21. 
27 Davidson College, Alimrni Catalogue, pp. 41-43. 

67 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

James Query constituted the bench of elders when Mr. Penick 
began his ministry, according to a record which he himself has 
left. 28 

Reflecting that period when gold mining was a profitable in- 
dustry in the section, is a charge preferred against a church mem- 
ber by the Session late in 1837 °f having mixed "jeweler's gold" 
with "soil gold," in an effort, which apparently proved fruitless, 
to sell the former for more than its market value. The accused 
confessed to having put "two pieces of jeweler's gold — viz. a 
slide & part of a ring of a watch chain — weighing two pen. wt. 
& a half" in a ladle of molten soil gold which was being "fluxed" 
for him. As a result, he was suspended from the Church. 29 

The controversy between the Old and New School parties 
which, not only agitated, but disrupted the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America about this time, was scarcely, 
if at all, noticed at Rocky River. The New School found slight 
favor in the eastern area of Concord Presbytery; and Rocky 
River moved along with the Old School wing of American Pres- 
byterianism in company with almost all of the churches of North 
Carolina, although several congregations in the western portion 
of the State joined the New School Assembly. 30 

Dr. John Breckenridge, Agent for the Assembly's Board of 
Foreign Missions, was a distinguished visitor in the autumn of 
1838. After preaching to the congregation, he secured subscrip- 
tions in the amount of $200.00 for the cause which he repre- 
sented. 31 

It is likely that the Session House was erected early in 1839. 
Minutes of the Session of previous years bear the entry "R. River 
Church" as the place of meeting. The record for April 21, 1839, 
begins with the words "R. River Session House," and concludes 

28 1, 4. 
29 1, 32-38. 

30 T. H. Spence, Jr., and W. L. Lingle, op. cit., p. 6. For example, see Minutes 
of Morganton Presbytery, Vol. I, pp. 107-110. 
31 1, 53- 

68 




THE MANSE 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

with the statement "Adjourned into the house for publick wor- 
ship." 32 

The "Semicentennary" — of the General Assembly? — was ap- 
propriately observed on the Second Sabbath of December in 
that year (1839), the day being given over to thanksgiving and 
prayer, with a fitting sermon and a subscription of some $85.00 
taken for the Board of Publication. 33 

Elders were elected on May 4, 1840; and the proceedings are 
described as having been "conducted with entire good order & a 
Christian spirit," perhaps suggesting that some such ballotings 
were known to have moved along in less happy fashion. Those 
elected, with a number of votes received by each, were Robert 
Caldwell (in), Walter F. Pharr (98), John S. McClarty (89), 
Alexander McClarty (86), and Joseph B. White (48 ). 34 All of 
these, with the exception of Mr. W nite, were installed on Sep- 
tember 20. 35 Four days later, E. B. Burns was chosen as elder 
from Phifers Quarter. 36 

The people were not unmindful of their obligation to have a 
part in the preparation of workers for the ministry. In 1841, be- 
fore Thomas E. Davis was to leave in a two-horse carriage with 
Walter W. Pharr to enter Union Seminary at Hampden-Sydney, 
the Church presented him with a purse of Si 25.00; and repeated 
this benefaction once and again during his second and third years 
at the Seminary, although he never returned home until the 
completion of his theological study. 37 

Another echo of the gold mining industry is found in a refer- 
ence from the Rocky River Session to Concord Presbytery early 
in 1846. This concerned the operation of mining machinery on 
the Sabbath Day. Presbytery's deliverance, as issued in April of 

32 1, 54. 
33 1, 58. 
34 1, 70. 

35 1, 77. 
36 1, 78. 

37 Thomas E. Davis, Autobiography, pp. 15-16. 

69 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

that year, laid down the broad principle that such work was not 
in general to be justified, but added "At the same time Presby. 
would not say that there may not be times, places and circum- 
stances which may constitute a fair exception to this general 
rule, in which cases the Sessions of the churches must exercise 
sound discretion;" and this, in turn, was followed by a warning 
against licensing or encouraging the desecration of the Sabbath. 38 

On July 4, 1847, John H. White, Sandy McKindley, and Rob- 
ert Harvey Morrison were inducted into the office of elder. 39 Up 
to this time, the Minutes are largely silent as to the Church's 
representation in Presbytery or Synod. J. H. White was elected, 
on September 28, 1847, to attend the next meeting of the Synod 
of North Carolina to be held at Fayetteville; 40 and from that 
date on numerous entries relating to the selection of such repre- 
sentatives are encountered. 

The now all-but-forgotten Mexican War is recalled by a rec- 
ommendation made to the Congregation in an action under the 
date of November 17, 1847, which provided that the sixteenth 
day of the following month be observed "as a day of special 
humiliation, fasting & prayer — That the God of nations may 
avert the fearful evils of this war & speedily bring about an hon- 
orable peace." 41 

Concord Presbytery returned to Rocky River for its meeting 
in the spring of 1848, the sessions beginning on Friday, April 14, 
and continuing through the following Tuesday. The sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper was observed on the Sabbath, when Rev. 
Robert Hall Morrison (now D.D.), and Rev. J. M. H. Adams 
preached to "large and attentive" congregations. 42 

A white member of the Congregation was arraigned before 
the Session on September 1, 1848, on the charge of "unchristian 

38 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. IV, pp. 552-553. 
39 1, 132. 

40 1, 137- 

41 1, 141-142. 

42 1, 143. 

70 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

conduct," the specific indictment accusing him of "making a 
violent assault without provocation upon the person of a colored 
member of this church belonging to Mr. Saml. Kimmons, named 
Caleb — & 2. In using profane language." 43 Several weeks later 
the accused admitted his guilt to the Session and "confessed that 
he had sinned against God & his brethren." The case was then 
dismissed, but not before the penitent had received "a suitable 
admonition." 44 

Certain evidences of God's visitation, of which we shall pres- 
ently speak more particularly, led to the desirability of enlarging 
the seating capacity of the church building; and these alterations 
were carried out during the year 1851. In the opinion of Robert 
Hall Morrison, such changes resulted in "quite an improve- 
ment." 45 The pulpit, which had previously been 'at the side of 
the auditorium, was placed at the end of the building. Two new 
galleries were added and the seating capacity of the edifice 
thereby appreciably increased. Altogether, the appearance of the 
church was considerably improved by these operations. 46 

The second and latest, if such a term may be applied to an 
event of more than a century ago, actual meeting of Synod to be 
held at Rocky River took place in 1851, beginning at 1 1 o'clock 
on October 9. Between fifty and sixty members were in at- 
tendance. Pleasant weather contributed to the delightfulness of 
the gathering. Six or seven hundred people partook of the Lord's 
Supper as it was celebrated on the Sabbath, while between 
twenty-five hundred and three thousand were present on that 
day. Rev. Drury Lacy and Rev. W. N. Mebane were the preach- 
ers for the morning and afternoon on this high occasion. 47 

The spring communion season of the next year (1852) was of 
particular interest in that Rev. Peter T. Penick, son of the Pastor, 

43 1, 144. 
44 1, 145. 

45 R. H. Morrison, Letter to James Morrison, Oct. 15, 1851. 

46 Ibid. 

47 1, 159-160. Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, 1851, pp. 3-4. 

71 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

who had been ordained on November 8, 1850, was one of the 
four ministers who assisted in the services. 48 He was to return for 
a number of such celebrations in the years to follow. 

SHOWERS OF BLESSINGS 

The Revival of 1849 ranks among the greatest of such out- 
pourings of the Spirit visited upon the Church. The ministers in 
attendance during the course of eleven days in the latter part of 
August included W. W. Pharr, Cyrus Johnston, James E. Morri- 
son, S. C. Pharr, and John Scheck of the Lutheran Church. Al- 
together, thirty-two sermons were delivered. As the meeting 
progressed, people came in crowds to the enquiry room. The 
atmosphere was described as one of "no great excitement of ani- 
mal feelings," and it was added that there was no approach to 
disorder. Eighty-eight members were received by profession dur- 
ing this period and two by letter. 49 

The year 1853 was marked by the visit of the greatest evange- 
list produced by the Presbyterian Church in the South, and the 
resultant meeting which is numbered among the most fruitful 
ever held at Rocky River. Daniel Baker did not remain long, but 
his preaching was with power. Accustomed to seeing the mani- 
festations of the salvation of the souls of men as he was, this 
great preacher of the Word grew gratefully enthusiastic as he 
reviewed the results of his brief stay in the Congregation. 

But he tells his own story in a letter addressed to Mrs. Baker: 

Rocky River Church, Penicks, July 28th, 1853. 
Help me to bless the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonder- 
ful works to me, and to the people round about here! I thought 
the meeting in Charlotte was a glorious one, which lasted some 
ten or twelve days, and was blessed to the hopeful conversion 
of some fifty precious souls. I thought that the meeting at David- 
son College, which was of scarcely seven days' continuance, and 



48 1, 162. 
49 1, 147-149. 



72 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

turned out more than thirty converts, of whom twenty-two were 
College students, was also a glorious meeting; but I must say, that 
the meeting at Rocky River church, which closed yesterday, 
seems to bear off the palm. Commencing on Thursday, it wound 
up on the following Wednesday; and, to our joy and astonish- 
ment, some seventy or eighty persons occupied the seats assigned 
to young converts! Of these, some forty-five or fifty were prom- 
ising sons of pious parents. What a harvest reaped down in one 
week! To God be all the praise! How thankful should I be that 
my voice fails not, although I am made to do all the preaching. 
Now in relation to another matter — for the services of last week 
I have received for the College nearly three hundred dollars! 
Surely the lines have fallen to me in pleasant places, and I have 
a goodly heritage. Blessed be God! Yesterday evening I received 
a letter from a pastor not far distant, who promises me three hun- 
dred dollars for the College if I will visit his church! 

Your affectionate husband, 
Daniel Baker. 50 

To this need be but added the following extract from the 
Minutes of the Session of September 8: "At several intervals, 
eighty-seven persons, who presented themselves as candidates for 
church membership, were examined & admitted to full com- 
munion." 51 In the three following years, four of the children 
offered for baptism were called by the name of Daniel Baker. 52 

Soon after Daniel Baker's visit, John Caldwell and McAmy A. 
White took their seats as Elders, being ordained and installed on 
September 25, 1853. 53 John M. Query, Joseph O. Pharr, and 
L. C. Kirkpatrick were elected to the same office on September 
12, 1857, and were inducted into the Eldership on January 3 
of the next year. 54 

The Academy, which had continued with the usual ebb and 

50 William M. Baker, The Life and Labours of the Rev. Daniel Baker, D. D., 
pp. 478-479- 
51 1, 170. 
52 1, 407-410. 
53 1, 171. 
54 I, 206. 

73 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

flow of significance and influence, was, at this time, under the 
direction of Captain Silas Lindsley. 55 

Rocky River reached the peak of her membership in 1856, for 
the report to Presbytery of March 31 showed 650 communi- 
cants, 202 of whom were Colored, the latter figure also being the 
highest in the history of the Church. 56 The Minutes of the Gen- 
eral Assembly show that Rocky River was the largest church 
in the Synod of North Carolina at this time, as was likewise true 
during a number of other years around the middle of the Nine- 
teenth Century. 

Up to this time, Concord and Charlotte seemed to have been 
the places to which members of the Church were accustomed to 
resort for an unsteadying indulgence in intoxicants, or at least 
it was in these towns that their excesses were most frequently 
detected. Harris' Depot now comes into prominence as a third 
center for the display of intemperance. 57 It may be added that 
court week was the favorite occasion for such imbibings, and the 
various sales, conducted at sundry times and places, were also 
marked by repeated resort to the always-too-popular bottle. 

An innovation was introduced in the method of taking col- 
lections for benevolent causes early in 1859, when the Session 
voted, with one member dissenting, to send a canvasser to each 
family in order to give every individual an opportunity to con- 
tribute to all the Boards of the Church. This system replaced 
the previous arrangement whereby such offerings were received 
"publickly, after preaching, in the church, on Sabbath." Mem- 
bers of the Session, two for each Quarter, were commissioned to 
care for the matter through the year. Record books were sup- 
plied these canvassers in which the names of the contributors 
were entered, and then transferred to a book kept by the Pastor. 58 

The financial report of the Church for the year 1 858-1 859 

55 Jerome Dowd, Sketches of Prominent Living North Carolinians, p. 274. 

56 1, 184. 

57 1, 180, 186, 213. 

58 I, 214. 

74 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

supplied convincing evidence of the effectiveness of this scheme, 
while that for the following year showed a continuation of the 
same trend: 

Cause 1857-58 1858-59 1859-60 



Domestic Missions 


$ 64.00 


$145.50 


$ 167.85 


Foreign Missions 


90.00 


135.00 


226.10 


Education 


52.00 


102.50 


774-55 


Publication 


90.00 


44.00 


25.70 


Church Extension 




68.50 


20.70 


Presbyterial 


20.00 


20.75 


35.00 


Congregational 


890.00 


826.00 


1359.00 


Miscellaneous 




59.40 


50.00 59 



On two occasions in the 1850's, Daniel Penick was accorded the 
covetable privilege of assisting in the induction of a son into the 
Gospel ministry. The eighth of November, 1850, was the occa- 
sion of a short journey to Philadelphia Church in order to preach 
the sermon in connection with the ordination and installation of 
Peter Tinsley Penick over the Philadelphia and Union congre- 
gations. 60 Thirty-four years later Peter Tinsley was to serve as 
Moderator of the Synod of North Carolina at its meeting in 
Winston. 61 The second such trip took place on January 28, 1858, 
in the other direction, to Poplar Tent, when the Rocky River 
pastor and Peter Tinsley Penick participated in the ordination 
and installation of Daniel A. Penick, Jr., over that congregation. 
At this time the Father delivered the sermon, while the incoming 
pastor received his charge from his Brother. 62 

Progress in matters other than those relating to finances is set 
forth in the Narrative Report for 1859-60, which tells that 
"monthly prayer meetings, at six different points, have been 
regularly & encouragingly attended," while Sabbath Schools for 

59 1, 206, 218, 228. 

60 Minutes of Concord Presbyter)', Vol. V, p. 531. 

61 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, 1884, p. 519. 

62 Minutes of Concord Presbyter)', Vol. VI, p. 384. 

75 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

both whites and blacks were said to enjoy a good attendance and 
"to be effective & promisory of good." 63 

THE "NEW BRICK CHURCH" 

Daniel Penick, in the absence of exact information, concluded 
that Rocky River had its beginnings about the year 1757. Ac- 
cordingly, on October 1, 1857, ne preached what was termed a 
"Century Sermon," having selected as his text I Samuel 7:12, 
"Then Samuel took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, 
and called the name of it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the 
Lord helped us." 64 

The discourse was not confined to the past, for the preacher 
proceeded to inquire of his congregation: 

Why might we not make this the occasion of constructing, or 
at least determining and preparing to construct, a new and more 
commodious house of worship, of more durable materials, which 
shall be at once an honor to the memory of our forefathers, and 
a suitable monument of our gratitude and thanksgiving to God? 
With earnestness, I ask, Why? 65 

His people answered with their hearts, their hands, and their 
purses; and the present church building is the embodiment of 
that response. 

Several years were occupied in the crystalization of purposes 
and formulation of plans. On January 4, i860, at the Annual 
Meeting of the Congregation, the proposition for building a 
house of worship was formally presented and only two votes 
were cast in opposition to the undertaking. 66 

Subscription lists were prepared for the signatures of the resi- 
dents of the several Quarters, with the understanding that pay- 

63 1, 228. 

64 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, pp. 9-10. 

65 Ibid., p. 10. 

66 This information and that set forth in the two following paragraphs was 
derived from the subscription lists and Treasurer's Record relating to the build- 
ing of the present church. 

76 




PULPIT OF PRESENT CHURCH 

George M. Wilcox, the pastor, stands before memorial tablets to two of 
his distinguished predecessors. 



DAYS OF DANIEL PENICK 

ment would be made, one-third when the contract for the build- 
ing was let, one-third six months later, and the remainder upon 
the completion of the work. Ruling Elder Sandy McKindley 
acted as Treasurer of the fund which was well subscribed by the 
30th of March of the same year; for the people had a mind to 
the work. 

Contributions ranged from the sum of $250.00, credited to 
Hugh S. Pharr, to a donation of twenty-five cents, including one 
gift of fifty cents from Mumford and Ruth, servants of the 
Treasurer; while an unnamed "Hired servant" of T. S. White 
donated $2.00 toward the building. The total cost of the "New 
Brick Church," as it is repeatedly called in the papers relating to 
its financing, appears to have been slightly in excess of $6,000.00. 
Detailed disbursements were made as follows: 



P. H. H. Saurs 




$~ 


t .495-77 


Taylor and Allison 




.,461.35 


Allen Cruse 


for bolts 




6.21K 


Horas Alexander 


for cleaning rubbish from under the church 


3.00 


Wm. Murlock 






30.00 


Franklin Stafford 


for furniture 




66.25 


C. H. Dejournet 


for pulpit furniture 




15.00 



Inspired by the prospect of a new church, the women of the 
congregation purchased a communion service of silver plate. It 
was procured at a cost of $40.00, and used for the first time at 
the May Meeting of 1 860. 6 " One of the large plates from the older 
pewter set, measuring fifteen inches in diameter, after having 
been presented to Mrs. J. M. Wharey, wife of a successor of Mr. 
Penick, was enameled a shade of blue. In the early io^'s, this 
item of hallowed association was placed in the Historical Founda- 
tion at Montreat, North Carolina, through Miss Mary Black of 
Davidson, another daughter of Rocky River, who, at that time, 
was serving as Historian of the Woman's Auxiliary of Concord 

67 1, 230. 

77 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Presbytery. The acquired coloring had previously been removed 
through the solicited interest of members of the Chemistry De- 
partment of Davidson College. 

Sunday, May 2, 1861, was the day for the dedication of the 
new church. A sermon was preached by the Pastor on Psalm 
122:1, "I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go into the 
house of the Lord." Other ministers having a part in the exercises 
associated with the consecration of the edifice were R. N. Davis, 
Henry N. Pharr, Walter W. Pharr, Wm. W. Pharr, and 
Daniel A. Penick, Jr. 68 Eighty-eight years, save a single day, were 
to elapse before the people of Rocky River would again convene 
for such a purpose. 
68 1, 232. 



78 



CHAPTER VII 

War and the End of an Era 



God's movements are not only mysterious but timely. While the 
poet Cowper is generally associated with the recall of the former 
truth, Robert Hall Morrison, in his sermon occasioned by the 
death of Mr. Penick, reminded his hearers of the latter fact as 
illustrated in the erection of the new church, and concluded, 
"Thus we see the hand of a kind Providence leading to its con- 
struction, before your means of doing it were diminished by 
subsequent changes." 1 So far as Rocky River was concerned, 
these changes proved both dire and devastating. 

In the autumn of 1861, after the Philadelphia General As- 
sembly, which met in May, passed the divisive Gardiner Spring 
Resolution, and before the organization of the Church in the 
South, as the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of 
America, had taken place, the Rocky River Session adopted a 
paper in the prevailing spirit of the times. Beginning with cer- 
tain introductory remarks based upon the action of the Phila- 
delphia Assembly, three resolutions declared independence so far 
as the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was 
concerned, called for an organization of Presbyterians in the 
Confederacy, and overtured Concord Presbytery to separate 
from the old Assembly and to form a connection with a similar 
body then in prospect for the South. 2 Since these sentiments were 
general throughout the greater portion of the Southern congre- 
gations, a Presbyterian Church in the Confederacy soon became 

1 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, p. 10. 

2 1, 233-234; North Carolina Presbyterian, Sept. 21, 1861, p. 2. 

79 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

a reality, with the first General Assembly meeting at Augusta, 
Georgia, in December, 1861. 

The Rocky River Pastor was among the representatives elected 
by Concord Presbytery as commissioners to the fateful Phila- 
delphia General Assembly which met in the spring of 1861. 3 In 
the fall of that year a paper was presented to Presbytery in ex- 
planation of the failure of these commissioners to attend the 
Assembly. This was signed by Daniel Penick, Jesse Rankin, and 
William Murdock. 4 

The first reason set forth for their "declining to attend" was 
that their presence was apparently not desired, since no reply 
had been received to a request for the assignment of quarters, 
although the entertainment committee in Philadelphia had in- 
vited them to indicate their wishes for such accommodations. It 
was also stated that private letters had been received from that 
place advising against attendance, and that some of the city 
periodicals moreover advised the same thing in regard to the 
whole Southern delegation. In addition, Mr. Lincoln's Proclama- 
tion and the Blockade were interpreted as a declaration of war; 
and it was doubted if they would be able to reach Philadelphia. 
The last reason advanced was the belief that the absence of 
Southern representatives would "tend to prevent the discussion 
of all questions which might lead to a division of the church." 
It is needless to add that the brethren were not censured by Con- 
cord Presbytery for failure to fulfil their commissions. 

In September, 1861, Daniel Penick felt constrained, because of 
certain rumors which he had heard, to write a letter for publica- 
tion in the North Carolina Presbyterian? defending the loyalty 
to the Confederate government of his son-in-law, Rev. E. D. 
Junkin. Mr. Junkin was then serving as pastor of the New Provi- 
dence Church in Virginia and continued in this relationship, not 
only throughout the war, but for fifteen years longer, thereby 

3 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. VI, p. 676. 

4 Ibid., pp. 732-734- 

5 Ibid. 

6 Sept. 14, 1861, p. 2. 

80 



WAR AND THE END OF AN ERA 

bearing convincing testimony to his devotion to the Southern 
cause. 

When representatives of the Southern presbyteries met in Au- 
gusta on December 4, 1861, for the organization of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States 
of America, a son of Rocky River, Robert Hall Morrison, was 
present as a commissioner from Concord Presbytery. Dr. Morri- 
son was, along with B. M. Palmer and J. N. Waddel, nominated 
for moderator of that body; but asked that his name be with- 
drawn on account of the state of his health. After Dr. Waddel 
had made a similar request, Dr. Palmer was elected by acclama- 
tion. 7 

A joint meeting of the Session and Trustees of Rocky River 
was held on October 25, 1863, looking toward provision for the 
education of children of such deceased soldiers as had been gen- 
erally connected with that church, of whom, as will be noted 
from Appendix H, there were a number by this time. After a 
full discussion of the situation, the following action was taken: 

Resolved 1st We the Elders & Trustees of Rocky River Church, 
do hereby express our cordial approval of the action of the Synod 
of North Carolina at its sessions in Goldsborough in making pro- 
vision looking to the education of the children of deceased sol- 
diers. 

Resolved 2nd With a view of aiding in this patriotic & benevo- 
lent work, we will make special efforts to see that all such indigent 
children of such deceased soldiers, within the bounds of our Con- 
gregation are so provided for as to receive at least as good an 
education as they would have received had their fathers not sac- 
rificed their lives in defense of their country. 

Resolved 3 — That each member of this body be expected to 
report to Session all such cases imthin his knowledge as need as- 
sistance. 8 

In December of the same year a committee of five, consisting 
of Hugh S. Pharr, Samuel Pharr, J. S. Query, J. C. Barnhardt, 

7 Assembly Reporter, Dec. 5, 1861, pp. 11-12. 

8 1, 247. 

8l 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

and R. M. McEachern, was appointed by the Session and Trus- 
tees to take special charge of providing for the children of in- 
digent soldiers by securing places for them to live, receiving and 
disbursing funds for their benefit, and reporting their actions to 
the Session and Trustees. 9 

In the spring of 1864, the Session reported that Sabbath 
Schools for both the white and colored members of the Congre- 
gation had been kept up during the year past, saving during the 
winter months; and that the Pastor had been paid a salary of 
$1507.00 in Confederate money. 10 Further light upon ministerial 
support in the later War years is evidenced by an entry in the 
Treasurer's Book under the date of 1864. This is in the form 
of a receipt given by the Pastor in which he acknowledges the 
sum of $2667.00 in Confederate currency "towards salary for the 
year 1864." In addition, Mr. Penick indicated that he had been 
the recipient, "from various individuals at various times," of 102 
bushels of corn, 685 pounds of pork, and 308 pounds of flour, 
all of which was credited on his salary. 11 The report on gifts to 
benevolent causes for the year 1 864-1 865 is followed by the no- 
tation, "Remark. The above was paid in Confederate Money & 
became worthless in the hands of the Treasurer." 12 

But if the Pastor suffered privation because of the War, his 

people incurred even greater hardship and anguish both upon 

the field of battle and by the fireside at home. Some idea of the 

Rocky River men in the armies of the Confederacy may be 

gathered from the number who lost their lives in the struggle. 

The officers of Company H of the 7th North Carolina Regiment 

were almost all from the Church, including 2nd Lieutenant 

Dixon B. Penick, son of the Minister, 13 and many of the privates 

of this command were likewise from the Congregation. 14 

9 1, 248-249. 
10 1, 250. 

11 Rocky River Treasurer's Book, Vol. I, pp. 18-19. 
121,252. 

13 North Carolina, General Assembly, Roster of North Carolina Troops in 
the War between the States, Vol. I, p. 262. 
u lbid., pp. 262-265. 

82 



WAR AND THE END OF AN ERA 

While the colored members remained with the Church during- 
the conflict, soon after its termination the greater portion of 
them departed. This will be considered in the next chapter. After 
they had left, only 332 members were reported in the spring of 
1867. In the meantime, further additions had been made to the 
eldership. In 1866, James L. Morrison, Robert C. Caldwell, 
Abram C. Alexander, and Dixon B. Penick were elected to that 
office on August 31, 15 and installed on November 25. 16 

Compelling evidence that God had not forsaken His people, 
despite the chastening to which they had been and were being 
subjected, was afforded by the ingathering of souls which took 
place in the autumn of this year. In connection with a series of 
services conducted by Dr. Robert Nail, thirty members were 
added to the Church on profession, their reception taking place 
on the last day of November. 17 

Concord Presbytery held its spring meeting of the year fol- 
lowing (1867) at Rocky River and a full attendance was re- 
ported, 18 this being the last session of Presbytery meeting in the 
Church before the setting off of Mecklenburg Presbytery in 
1869. To this meeting was submitted a report from the Session 
which told of monthly prayer meetings held in five Quarters of 
the Congregation. A "large & interesting Bible Class under the 
supervision & instruction of our Pastor" was also mentioned. 
That the term "Bible" is not to be construed in overly literal 
fashion is indicated by the supplementary statement that the 
group thus characterized was engaged in a study of the Conces- 
sion of Faith. 19 

A new order of church officers, that of Deacon, is now en- 
countered in the Records of Rocky River, when a "Note" under 
date of August 15, 1868, indicates that these officials were di- 
rected to solicit contributions toward the Church's quota of the 

15 1, 268-269. 
16 1, 270. 

17 1, 271. 
18 1, 271-273. 
19 1, 274-275. 

83 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

"Evangelists Fund." 20 These servers of tables appt-ar to have 
been first elected in 1867. 21 

Meetings for prayer in each of the five districts, assembling on 
Saturday evening before the first Sabbath of each month, were 
held in 1 868-1 869, and a "plan of weekly collections" was in- 
troduced in an effort to secure funds "for the furtherance of the 
Gospel." 22 It was stated that the amount promised, eight hundred 
dollars, had been paid the Pastor by way of salary. This was 
coupled with the confession that it was not considered sufficient 
for his support, but it was added, by way of apology, that "he 
is satisfied with that amount." 23 Two elders were installed in 
1869, William S. White on April 18, 24 and Dr. J. R. Wilson on 
October iq. 25 

For a long period (1 841-1869), Mr. Penick served as a trustee 
of Davidson College, and during a portion of that time (1866- 
1868) he acted as president of the Board; and was also a member 
of the governing body of Union Theological Seminary in Vir- 
ginia. 26 Early in his ministry he had been honored by the Synod 
of North Carolina, when at its meeting in 1839 at Lincolnton, 
he was elected moderator. 27 

His immediate family was large, consisting of six sons and a 
like number of daughters. Five of these children were born be- 
fore his arrival at Rocky River. The names of the twelve were 
Peter Tinsley (1 826-1 886); Maria Brown (1 828-1 883); Rosilla 
Allen, Mrs. G. L. Phifer (1830-1909); Nathaniel Hill (1832- 
1857); Daniel Allen (1834-1922); Dixon Brown (1836-1910); 
Agnes Anne, Mrs. E. D. Junkin (1838-1911); Mary Frances, 

20 1, 279. 

21 Register, Vol. II, pp. 24-25, 28-31. 
22 1, 282. 

23 I, 282. 

24 I, 283. 
25 1, 289. 

26 Davidson College, Alumni Catalogue,^. 5-6; Union Theological Seminary, 
General Catalogue, p. 33. 
27 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, Vol. II, p. 575. 

84 



WAR AND THE END OF AN ERA 

Mrs. Albert Baumann ( 1 841—192 1 ) ; Elizabeth Virginia ( 1843— 
191 5); George Willis (1 845-1 845. 6 days); Emma Garland, Mrs. 
John M. Brown (1846-1923); Edward Payson (i848-i932). 2S 

Thus approaches the end of an era and that of one of the 
Church's great pastorates. Daniel Penick had not only known 
Rocky River in the days of her glory, he had been, in the provi- 
dence of God, an instrument in ushering in this golden age. Like 
an unfaltering soldier of Jesus Christ, he remained faithful as her 
fortunes ebbed in the wake of war, and carried her people, and 
his, before the throne of God in prayer, despite an enfeebled 
body which betokened the end of his long pilgrimage of ministry 
and mercy. 

In these evening hours, his country seat, located some four 
miles to the south of the Church, was held in high repute for its 
beauty and charm and, above all, for the graciousness of its mas- 
ter. A neighboring pastor, Rev. E. H. Harding of Concord, has 
inquiringly written in a descriptive vein, "Who that has ever 
been a guest there does not recall with pleasure Glenburnie, with 
its noble oaks on one side, and the graceful elms on the other, the 
green grassplots and the flowers, and the venerable old man dis- 
pensing his hospitality with cordial heart and benign face!" 29 

On his way to the annual meeting of Synod in 1869, in com- 
pany with Rev. John Al. Sherwood, he expressed a conviction 
that this was to be, for him, the last of such journeyings. 30 For a 
year or more before this time, he had been subjected to a dis- 
tressing cough, while it was remarked by one close to him that 
during "all fall and winter he seemed to be ripening for 
Heaven." 31 Early in the new year, on January 8, 1870, he was 
seized with a severe chill and lapsed into semiconsciousness. It 

28 Names and dates furnished by Professor Daniel Allen Penick of Austin, 
Texas, grandson of the Rocky River Pastor of the same name and son of Dixon 
Brown Penick. 

29 North Carolina Presbyterian, Jan. 19, 1870, p. 2. 

30 Ibid. 

31 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, p. 7. 

85 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

was about four in the afternoon that he passed from the transient 
scene of his extended and blessed ministry into the presence of 
the Lord. 32 

Funeral services were held on the ioth in that church which 
still stands as a memorial to his efforts. One of his oldest friends, 
Rev. Robert Burwell, presided at the exercises in the church, 
during which the congregation passed in procession for a last 
look at him to whom they had owed so much for so long. His 
body was borne to the cemetery by the Elders of Rocky River, 
and there Rev. Walter W. Pharr took charge of the service. With 
a gracious sense of the appropriate, the grave had been dug be- 
neath the site of the pulpit of the old church from which he had 
preached for a quarter of a century. 33 

In keeping with the custom of the times, Robert Hall Morri- 
son, so often recalled to his home church to take part in various 
occasional services, was invited once more to deliver "A Funeral 
Sermon in Commemoration of the Character and Labors" of the 
late Pastor. This was on February 27, 1870. "It is no part of 
wisdom," the speaker began, '"to overlook or underate the tri- 
umphs of death," having chosen as his text First Corinthians 
15:55-57. This discourse was later printed by the Session, and 
is not only of a Scriptural and evengelical nature, but preserves 
many facts concerning Daniel Penick, his family, and his minis- 
terial service, as has been noted in an earlier chapter (IV) . 34 Thus, 
Dr. Morrison, who had represented the Presbytery in establishing 
the pastoral tie between Daniel Penick and the Church, pro- 
nounced the requiem upon an association which was richly 
blessed to the salvation and shepherding of souls over a period of 
three and a half decades. 

And then the departed leader took his place with Dr. Wilson, 
not only in a figurative, but also in a very evident sense; for a sec- 

32 Ibid. 

33 North Carolina Presbyterian, Jan. 19, 1870, p. 2. 

34 R. H. Morrison, A Funeral Sermon, all. 

86 



WAR AND THE END OF AN ERA 

ond marble tablet was erected above the pulpit, bearing the 
words: 

Rev. DANIEL A. PENICK, 

Born Oct. 27th 1797, 

Died Jan. 8th 1870, 

in the 73 rd year of 

his age. 



He was the beloved Pastor 
of Rocky River Church 

for 34 years. 
During his ministry 887 

were wooed to this Church, 
and 1375 were baptized. 



"Blessed are the dead who 

die in the Lord, 

They rest from their labors 

and their works do follow 

them." 



Much of that outline of Rocky River history with which many 
of her sons and daughters of the present generation are familiar 
has doubtless been derived from these two memorials of those 
whom a grateful congregation has thus delighted to honor. 



87 



CHAPTER VIII 

Servants in the Congregation 



The staunch, brick house of worship at Rocky River, dating, as 
has been noted, from i860, is characterized by commodious gal- 
leries raised on three sides of the interior. Separate outside door- 
ways open upon stairs leading to these side balconies to form 
entrances designed for the use of the members designated as 
"Servants" in the records of the Church, but more popularly 
known to later generations as the slaves of the antebellum era. 

These servants were reckoned real members of Rocky River. 
Their children were baptized by her ministers. They were ex- 
amined on their knowledge and faith in Jesus Christ as they pre- 
sented themselves as candidates for communing membership, 
even as they were amenable to the discipline of the Session along 
with their white masters. And when they passed from their labors 
in the red fields of Cabarrus into that far land beyond the west- 
ern slopes of the Piedmont, it was with the rites and benedic- 
tions of the Church that their bodies were committed to the 
earth to await the resurrection from among the dead. 

Several facts suggest the directing of special attention to the 
slaves of this particular congregation. There were many of them 
enrolled, the total during the church year 1855-56 reaching 202 
out of an aggregate membership of 650. 1 As a matter of fact, only 
several churches in the entire Assembly listed a larger colored 
membership at that time than did Rocky River. These were all 
in South Carolina, being Indiantown, with 303 Negro members 
out of a total of 413; Salem, with 274 of 349; Kingstree at Wil- 

1 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1856, p. 685. 

88 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

liamsburg, which reported 258 colored and 152 white members; 
and John's and Wadlamaw Islands, where 434 of the 470 com- 
municants were of African descent. 2 Furthermore, substantial 
records are available for such an investigation; while a rather pro- 
nounced ignorance of the religious relationships of this group 
seems to prompt a presentation of such facts as tend to shed light 
upon the Church and its Negro constituency of a century ago. 
Extant records have considerable to contribute toward an 
understanding of the manner of reception of servants into the 
membership of the Church, the discipline exercised over them by 
the governing body of the local congregation, and the circum- 
stances under which, at the close of the War, they were led to 
desert Rocky River for other ecclesiastical associations. 

RECEPTION 

At Rocky River, in keeping with Presbyterian theory and 
practice, baptized children were accounted members, albeit not 
fully privileged ones, of the Church. Daniel Penick baptized 
hundreds of Negroes, beginning with Caroline, daughter of Nat 
and Maria, servants of R. Bigger, on August 16, 1835. 3 

Like their masters, the parents occasionally expressed an af- 
fection for a minister of the past or present by naming their child 
for such a spiritual leader. Thus the second infant of African 
descent baptized by Mr. Penick was Daniel Lindley, son of Jack 
and Lenny, servants of Dr. Alexander, 4 while John McAmy was 
evidently the namesake of John Makemie Wilson. The favorite 
of all significant names chosen by the servants was that of Wash- 
ington, most often George, but at times in some other combina- 
tion. The baptismal lists from 1835 through 1864 indicate that 
no less than twenty slaves were baptized with the name of that 
one who was first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts and 

2 Ibid., pp. 691-693. 

3 I, 382. 

4 I, 382. 

5 I, 388. 

89 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

imaginations of the servants who were wont to worship at Rocky 
River. 6 

But the time came when the majority of the baptized servants 
desired to make a profession of faith and to consciously and de- 
liberately associate themselves with the Church. Under such 
circumstances, it was necessary for the candidate to appear be- 
fore the Session and submit to an examination as to his or her 
Christian knowledge and belief. A requisite in this connection 
was a letter from the master. On April 26, 1840, Jack, servant of 
W. Andrew, presented himself for examination and was in- 
structed to bring a note on the following Wednesday or Friday; 7 
while Ned, servant of M. G. Johnston, appeared as the bearer of 
such a note on June 10, 1849; and, after due deliberation, was 
received into full church privileges. 8 

Further details of this nature are revealed by an entry in the 
Minutes of the Session of the John's and Wadlamaw Islands 
Church of South Carolina, pertaining to a meeting held in 1856: 

The following servants were received as members on examination, 
after having been two years under the care of the Colored Leaders; 
three months under the special instruction of the pastor of the 
Church, and after having brought tickets from their masters, certi- 
fying to their good moral character, and granting them permission 
to unite with the church. 

This is followed by the names of the thirty slaves thus received. 9 
The reception of whites and Negroes at the same meetings of 
the Session supplies certain notes of interest. In the minutes of 
the Rocky River Sessional meeting of September 18, 1835, the 
name of Mrs. Daniel A. Penick, wife of the newly-elected Pas- 
tor, is entered immediately following that of "Caesar, servant of 
Mr. Jas. Morrison." 10 On May 3, 1850 an illustrative entry oc- 
curs: 

6 1, 382-418, 360-363. 
7 1, 69. 
8 1, 147. 

9 Vol. 1856-1911, pp. 1-2. 

10 1, 5- 

90 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

The following persons, after careful examination, were admitted 
to full privileges as members of the church viz. 

Ruth — servt. of Mr. S. M. AlcKindley 
Rachel — do do do 

Miss Tirza A. Wilson 
" Sarah N. Pharr. 11 

Five servants of the Pastor were received on September 23, 
1859, when Lucy Ann, Roland, Ned, Tom, and Clemantene met 
the Session and passed a creditable examination. 12 The possession 
of such a number of slaves is to be explained by the fact that 
Mr. Penick engaged in extensive farming operations on his plan- 
tation, located a mile to the south of Pioneer Mills. 

Numbers of servants were received into full membership in 
connection w r ith the occasional revivals which swept over the 
Congregation under the preaching of visiting ministers. During 
the latter part of August, 1849, a ser ies of such services resulted 
in the addition of eighty-eight new members, but only seven of 
this group w T ere slaves. 13 At this time Calvin Parms, described as 
a "free man in service of A. Stewart," and Rilla, "in service of 
P. Morrison," also united w r ith the Church. 14 

That the examinations connected with the reception of mem- 
bers were much more than mere routine is indicated by a minute 
dated April 29, 1853, which shows that several white persons and 
Negroes were received; but that one of the latter was advised to 
defer application on account of his defective knowledge of re- 
ligious and Christian principles. 10 Twenty-four applications for 
full membership were made on May 4, 1838. Fourteen of these 
resulted in favorable action, and of this number five were serv- 
ants, while ten were "put off," six of these belonging to the same 
group. 16 There was, in 1852, at the home of Dr. C. Alexander, 

11 1, 152. 
12 1, 471. 
13 1, 456-457- 
14 1, 456-457- 
15 1, 169. 
16 1, 47-48. 

9i 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

"an old darkey whose name was Uncle Ned," who was "very- 
old and bed ridden." The Session was convened by his couch; 
he was received upon profession of faith in his Savior, baptized, 
and the Lord's Supper thereupon administered to him. 17 

Certificates of dismissal were occasionally issued to servants in 
order that their membership might be transferred to other con- 
gregations. A notation to this intent is dated December 27, 1835, 
and reads: "Dismissed by order of Session, Moses & Ruth — serv- 
ants of Dr. Wilson's estate — to join at Ebenezer." 18 Jack and 
Jude were similarly dismissed on February 28 of the following 
year, having been sold by their former master to "a member of 
Poplar Tent." 19 That these were not exceptional cases may be 
inferred from the fact that a number of names of servants in the 
Register of members are followed by the statement "Trans- 
ferred." 20 

Even before the close of the Eighteenth Century, the Synod 
of the Carolinas had inculcated the obligation of religious in- 
struction upon the heads of families who were "possessed of 
slaves." These owners were admonished "to be careful to give, 
not only such verbal instruction to those of mature age as their 
circumstances will admit;" but were also cautioned to "teach the 
Children to read the Scriptures so as to be able to receive instruc- 
tions from them." 21 

MARRIAGE 

One hundred and seventy-nine marriages are recorded in 
Volume One of the Sessional Records and it is not without sig- 
nificance that none of these was between servants. While the 
minister of Rocky River baptized their children, there is no evi- 
dence, at this point at least, that he officiated at their weddings. 

17 1, 166. 
18 1, 11. 
19 1, 11. 

20 I, 421, 424, 426 et al. 

21 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. I, p. 197. 

92 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

It is to be remembered that either husband or wife might be 
separated from the other by sale, thus rendering it impossible 
for them to take such vows as were demanded by the church 
with the assurance that they would be able to fulfil them. 

Dr. Charles C. Jones has left a contemporary account of the 
proceedings generally attendant upon the taking of a wife by a 
slave, when he writes of the contracting parties: 

They are not required to be married in any particular form, nor 
by any particular persons. Their ceremonies are performed by 
their own watchmen or teachers, by some white minister, or as 
it frequently happens, not at all; the consent of owners and of the 
parties immediately interested, and a public acknowledgement of 
each other, being deemed sufficient. 22 

DISCIPLINE 

The Christmas Dancing Frolick of 1855 constitutes the basis 
of what was perhaps the most picturesque instance of disciplinary 
action involving servants in the records of Rocky River. Al- 
though not generally known until the middle of the year follow- 
ing, this escapade resulted in the infliction of suspension upon 
two of its principals and throws considerable light upon the so- 
cial aspects of plantation life of that distant day. 

The affair is first encountered upon the Sessional Records un- 
der date of July 29, 1856, when Common Fame charged Elic, 
servant of W. S. Pharr, "with having gotten up a dancing frolick 
during the last Christmas holidays, at an out-house of his Master: 
with having told lies about it, & with having had several fights on 
the occasion." 23 The same accuser indicted John, servant of S. C. 
Harris, as a participant, not only in the frolick, but also in the 
fighting. 24 

22 C. C. Jones, The Religions Instruction of the Negroes in the United States, 
p. 133. 

23 I, 189. 
24 1, 189. 

93 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

A fairly adequate and quite human picture of the celebration 
and its attendant improprieties may be reconstructed from the 
combined testimony of several witnesses who appeared before 
the Session during the hearings growing out of the incident. One 
of the defendants, John, had "appointed" a frolick to be held 
during the Christmas season. The original intention of its pro- 
moter had been to conduct the festivities in an outhouse belong- 
ing to a Mr. McEachern. This building, upon investigation, 
proved to be filled with cotton; thus necessitating a search for 
other quarters in which to gather by way of seasonal convivi- 
ality. 25 

At this point Elic appears, not only to have come into the pic- 
ture, but to have taken charge of the proceedings. An appeal hav- 
ing been made to him, he "proposed to take fire, open the door, 
& make on the fire at the Howie house," which seems to have 
been a more exact designation for the building in which the 
revellers gathered. 26 After starting the fire, which was fed with 
dried brush, Elic evidently turned to less gracious activities, 
fighting with one Jerry, and knocking down the latter's sister, 
Lucinda, when she moved to rescue her harassed relative. 27 

So much for the composite story of the witnesses at the trial. 
On his part, Elic, who, strangely enough, "had reported the case 
to the Session at first," contended that he had inadvertantly 
"come upon the frolickers on his way to see a sick neighbor;" 
but even this recital of benevolent intention failed to sway the 
Session, and Elic was suspended from the rights of church mem- 
bership, in company with his co-defendant, John. 28 

Another relic of Christmas fellowship is found in a pass, for 

some unexplained reason still remaining in the back of the Church 

Treasurer's Book kept by Sandy McKindley. It appears that this 

volume did double duty for a time, and that Mr. McKindley was 

25 1, 192. 
26 1, 192. 
27 1, 192-193. 
28 1, 193-194- 

94 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

in the habit of writing such notes at the bottom of the pages 
toward its back, and cutting out the missives for the use of those 
concerned. In any event, the brief note reads: "Violette has leave 
to pass to S. Pharr's Esqr to-day — home tomorrow. Sandy 
McKinley," and is dated December 26, 1864. 29 

But to return to Elic, or rather his sentence — Suspension was 
the usual penalty imposed upon members who were found guilty 
when tried by the Session. It barred the offender from partici- 
pation in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper and the privilege 
of baptism for his or her children during the period for which 
it was inflicted. The duration was generally for an indefinite 
period — until fruits of repentance had been manifest to the satis- 
faction of the Session. A lighter punishment was that of admoni- 
tion, which consisted of a formal rebuke administered in the 
name, and generally in the presence, of that judicatory. The 
minister was ordinarily charged with its infliction. Excommuni- 
cation, or the excision of the guilty party from the church, was 
rarely, but sometimes, invoked. 

Upon conviction, the name of an offender was frequently 
read from the pulpit at a subsequent service. This custom was 
confirmed by an enactment of the Session of November 28, 1835, 
set forth in the following terms: 

Session further resolved that the congn be notified on tomorrow 
that, in future, they will publish from the pulpit every case of 
actual discipline, — stating the names of persons disciplined, the 
offences for which they have been disciplined, & the penalties 
inflicted: — that all may know the true standing of their brethren. 30 

These stipulations, needless to say, applied, and were applied, to 
all members both white and colored, though there are several ex- 
ceptional instances on record in which peculiar circumstances 
and considerations led to their suspension. 

29 Rocky River Treasurer's Book, Vol. I, last page in volume. 
S0 I,7. 

95 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

The sins for which servants were tried are neither unfamiliar 
nor obsolete: stealing, lying, fighting, profanity, and all too fre- 
quent breaches of the Seventh Commandment; and, as is true 
with every race in each succeeding generation, these iniquities 
had a perverse way of leading the one to another, or others. 

A servant of John Davis, bearing the prophetic name of Amos, 
was arraigned on September 20, 1841. It will be noted that the 
counts preferred against this Nineteenth Century servant bear a 
marked likeness to those sins denounced by his Eighth Cen- 
tury b.c. namesake at the shrine set up at Bethel. The four-fold 
accusation charged Amos with the following sins: 

1. With theft, in taking a pair of pantaloons belonging to Jack, 
servt of W. Andrew — 2. With lying-in denying that he stole 
them — 3. With profane swearing — & 4. With fighting said Jack 
upon his claiming his pantaloons. 31 

At a later meeting of the Session, Amos confessed his errors, was 
suspended and the facts in the case were duly stated to the con- 
gregation in public assembly. 32 

A somewhat more spectacular and potentially hazardous case 
involved Mumford, servant of G. L. Phifer, who was charged 
with "having in possession & attempting to use a pistol." 33 When 
pursued, ran the testimony, he threw his weapon into a thicket, 
and was whipped for insubordination. 34 After being suspended 
by the court of the Church, 35 he was restored to fellowship and 
church privileges in the following year. 36 

That the discipline imposed by the Church was effective is to 
be judged from the number of instances in which restoration 
followed its infliction. Interesting in this connection is the affair 
of Jesse, who, in 1854, was charged "with unchristian conduct, 

31 1, 87-88. 
32 1, 89-90. 
33 1, 175. 
34 1, 176. 

35 1, 177. 
36 1, 182. 

96 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

in having absconded from his Master & an attempt to make his 
way to a free state." In a not altogether consistently logical con- 
fession, he expressed sorrow for "what he had done if it was 
wrong;" but added that "he does feel at the present like doing 
the same again." 3? As with Amos, his suspension was followed 
by restoration. 38 

In 1856, a Negro woman was charged with having deserted her 
husband for another man. Her explanation was that "she liked 
the latter better than she did the former," though the phraseology 
may be that of the Clerk of Session rather than the defendant. 
Although she later confessed her wrongdoing, the Session, after 
"much talk with her, & effort to instruct & properly impress 
her mind," eventually administered the extreme penalty of ex- 

■ • go 

communication. 

A rather puzzling question confronted the churches of the 
Presbyterian order, along with those of other systems of govern- 
ment, in the early Nineteenth Century in regard to the marital 
status of slaves. The problem has been intimated in connection 
with the matter of marriage ceremonies. The Synod of the Caro- 
linas, meeting at Rocky River in 1807, had submitted for its con- 
sideration the following query: "Shall a slave who has been ad- 
mitted to sealing ordinances, and marries another wife, or hus- 
band, during the life of the former, who has been involuntarily 
separated, be continued a member of the church?" 40 The diffi- 
culties involved in making reply were tacitly recognized, and 
substantially avoided, when the Synod gave answer in these 
words: "Synod recommends the decision of all such cases to the 
Church sessions where they may occur; but at the same time, 
earnestly recommend to all church sessions, to guard against all 
wanton, and unnecessary separation of such persons." 41 

37 1, 174. 
38 1, 182. 
39 1, 188, 191. 

40 Minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, Vol. II, p. 189. 

41 Ibid. 

97 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

A case in which white persons took little part, save to sit as 
arbiters and to aid and abet one of the parties in the controversy, 
was initiated at a meeting of the Session held on November 23, 
1837. At this time, a member of that body, Ruling Elder John 
Phifer, presented a request in the name of Moses, servant of 
J. Russell, asking leave to prosecute Julia, also of Mr. Russell's 
household, "for telling lies." In view of the fact that the master of 
the two prospective litigants was of the opinion that the matter 
should be further investigated, it was resolved to hold a hearing 
on December 8, at 2 p.m., to which those primarily concerned 
and two witnesses, Peggy and Jane, were summonsed. 42 

Session met at the time appointed and the witnesses presented 
their testimony. Mr. Russell, who was present, was asked to state 
his opinion of Julia and Moses. In the honesty and veracity of the 
latter he expressed entire confidence, but of Julia, he said that 
she had a bad temper and was much given to lying. 43 After con- 
sidering the matter, the Session found the defendant guilty and 
decreed her suspension until she should give evidence of repent- 
ance. Her prosecutor, however, did not escape unscathed; for it 
was "ordered also that Moses be admonished, in the presence of 
the Session, against indulging an unchristian spirit or course of 
conduct toward Julia, & also against absenting himself from the 
ordinances of the church." 44 

A religious, or perhaps irreligious, drama, with an all-servant 
cast, is introduced in the records of a Session meeting held on 
October 13, 1841, when Abram, servant of Mrs. M. Alexander, 
was indicted for "stealing & lying in reference to a pocketbook 
& the use he made of its contents which belonged to Martin, 
servant of Mrs. Margt. Harris." 45 

A hearing was held on December 15, at which time Anderson, 
servant of Samuel Harris, testified that he had been summonsed 

42 1, 38-39. 
43 1, 41. 
44 1, 41. 
45 1, 89. 

98 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

to settle a difference between Abram and Martin. Abram, he 
said, had contended that the pocketbook had been found by 
Moses, servant of Mrs. Pharr; but the unexpected appearance of 
Moses necessitated a hasty modification of the story and an ad- 
mission that the original discovery had been made by him. Martin 
reported that he had lost a pocketbook on Saturday night or 
Sunday morning of the Fall Sacrament, and that Abram had 
seen him searching for it. The latter inquired if it contained any- 
thing of value and was told that it did. Martin further stated that 
he had identified a piece of money from the pocketbook which 
was in possession of a man who said that it had been paid to him 
by Abram. 46 

The suspect admitted that this was substantially true; and since 
Abram had confessed, Martin had his money, and the defendant 
had denied any intention of stealing, the Session determined that 
he should receive the relatively light sentence of admonition in 
its presence. After this had been administered, the case was 
closed. 47 

It is not to be assumed that all proceedings resulted in convic- 
tion, though such was the usual outcome. This was due to the 
fact that considerable likelihood of guilt was indicated before a 
matter was entered into by the Session. During the War years, 
in 1862, Elic and Moses were accused of, and each denied, "hav- 
ing each stolen wheat & taken it to Mr. S. C. Harris' Mill." 4S The 
wheat in question had been presented at the mill so late at night 
as to necessitate arousing the miller from his sleep, after which 
he declined to grind the grain until he had consulted the owner 
of the establishment. In this instance, the Session did not concur 
with Common Fame, since the charge was not sustained; al- 
though the parties concerned were warned "to be on their guard 
against all unlawful trading" and cautioned against being abroad 

46 I, 92-93- 

47 I, 93- 

48 I, 236. 

99 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

"at suspicious hours & without the knowledge & permission of 
their owners." 49 

Drunkenness was an offence for which surprisingly few serv- 
ants were brought to trial, though many white men were indicted 
on this charge. The fact that Negroes were among those recorded 
as signing the Temperance Pledge would indicate that they 
shared the weakness of certain of their owners for strong drink. 5 " 
Strangely enough, a Negro woman was among those so ar- 
raigned. It should be stated that the charge of using profane lan- 
guage, apparently at the aforesaid Christmas Frolick, was com- 
bined with the accusation of drunkenness at Harris Depot. 51 

A prevalent note in the dealings of the Session with the Negro 
constituency of the Church is that of desperate reality. He who 
regards the transactions attendant upon such relationships as a 
proper source of condescending amusement on the part of a 
later generation utterly fails to grasp the design and function of 
discipline in that earlier age. Zealous for the purity of the Church 
and constantly concerned for the welfare of the servants, the 
Session moved with no undue haste in the infliction of penalties, 
and anticipated, even in their imposition, such a change of heart 
and reformation of life as would warrant the removal of these 
sanctions. 

But if the slaves had their weaknesses along certain lines, there 
were matters in which they seem to have acquitted themselves 
in a highly creditable manner. Their attendance upon the services 
of the Church and their attitude as worshippers brought forth 
the commendation of their Pastor as he looked back across the 
long years of an unremitting ministry among them. Specifically 
referring to the period immediately following the erection of the 
present edifice, he describes the assembled group as "orderly and 
(it was hoped) devout participants in the weekly worship of the 

49 1, 237-239. 
50 1, 21. 
51 1, 186. 

100 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

sanctuary — many of them with Hymn-books in use, apparently, 
and doubtless as deeply, interested, contented and profited as any 
of the congregation." 52 

The Minutes of the Session record no instance in which a 
servant was accused of unbecoming- conduct during- religious 
services or upon the church grounds. That there were difficulties 
along these lines in connection with some assemblages of slaves 
for the purpose of worship is indicated in a warning issued by 
that Apostle to the Negroes of the South, Dr. Charles C. Jones. 
In 1852, he wrote: "Close attention should be paid to their de- 
portment, lest they choose the seasons of public worship for 
seasons of business and pleasure; and what is more, for settling up 
their disputes in regular covibatsT 53 Here he seems to have been 
referring primarily to gatherings exclusively for the benefit of 
Negroes. 

EXODUS 

Daniel Penick himself is authority for the statement that one 
of the major reasons for the erection of the great, brick church 
at Rocky River was a desire to make more adequate provision 
for the spiritual welfare of the servants of the congregation. 04 It 
was his purpose and that of his members to prepare an edifice 
which would house the colored portion of the worshippers in a 
manner impossible in the frame structure which preceded it. 

But the new building was not long to serve such a purpose. 
Even before the War, there seems to have been some decline in 
the number of colored members at Rocky River. During the 
years of conflict, however, there was an actual increase in such 
names on the church roll, the numbers rising from 170 in April, 
1 86 1, to 180 in the same month of 1865. During this period, the 
total communicants dropped from 601 to 529. 05 The two long 

52 North Carolina Presbyterian, June 26, 1867, p. 1. 

53 Jones, op. cit., p. 262. 

54 North Carolina Presbyterian, June 26, 1867, p. 1. 
55 1, 231, 252. 

IOI 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

galleries on the sides of the church building were sometimes 
crowded, and usually filled, with servants at worship. 56 

With the close of the War, it was natural to expect some 
change in interest and attendance. By 1866, the colored member- 
ship had largely absented themselves from preaching services. 57 In 
an effort to remedy this state of affairs, the Session requested those 
desiring to remain in affiliation with Rocky River to give an in- 
dication of that purpose; and a readiness was expressed to grant 
letters to such churches as other colored communicants might 
wish to join. 58 Matters assumed an encouraging aspect. The Sun- 
day School which was conducted by the Church for the Negroes 
was well attended during the summer and fall of 1866. Spelling 
and reading were taught, as well as the Catechisms of the Church, 
together with Bible history and doctrine. Suitable textbooks had 
been procured, and these were either sold or donated to those in 
need of them. By April of 1867, about fifty of the former colored 
members had expressed a desire to be regarded as permanent 
members of Rocky River and this number was later increased to 
seventy-five or eighty. 59 

On the third Sunday of that month, however, the situation was 
decidedly and abruptly changed by the appearance of a stranger. 
After attending the usual morning service, he mingled with the 
freedmen and announced his purpose to preach. He was intro- 
duced to the Pastor as "Rev. Mr. Doland," or so his name was 
understood. His sermon was described by Mr. Penick as con- 
taining nothing of an objectionable character. 60 

Three weeks later he returned and organized a church among 
the Negroes, ordained five of them as elders, and appointed a like 
number of trustees, baptized the child of a woman under suspen- 
sion by Rocky River, and promised to provide a school. Such 

56 North Carolina Presbyterian, June 26, 1867, p. 1. 
57 1, 267. 
58 1, 267. 

59 North Carolina Presbyterian, June 26, 1867, p. 1. 

60 Ibid. 

I02 



SERVANTS IN THE CONGREGATION 

activities were combined with an assiduous effort to alienate the 
affections of the former slaves from the Pastor of the Church, 
who wrote that the fault was not with the Negroes, who were 
turned against him by their "new friends." 61 

On April 27, 1866, four colored members had been received 
on profession by the Rocky River Session and nine dismissed to 
"connect themselves with the African Church." G2 On July 2, 
1867, a number of requests were presented for letters of transfer 
to what was termed the "Colored Presbyterian Church of Rocky 
River." These certificates were granted. 63 

With the reduction of Negro membership in Rocky River and 
the neighboring churches of Cabarrus County, that of the con- 
gregations organized for freedmen by the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America (Northern) showed a cor- 
responding increase. Rev. Luke Dorland, the minister referred to 
by Mr. Penick, was reported by the Board of Domestic Missions 
of that denomination as laboring among freedmen during the 
early portion of 1867, with headquarters at Concord, N. C. 64 
Twelve months later, he is described as responsible for work at 
"Concord, Poplar Tent, Bethpage, Rocky River and Ramah, 
N. C.;" and as having received sixty-two members on examina- 
tion and 170 by certificate during the church year 1867-68. 
Two churches, one of them evidently near Rocky River, had 
been organized during that period, and the membership of his 
field totalled 365. 63 It is obvious that many of these had been 
drawn from the long established Presbyterian churches of the 
communities in which they resided. 

"Rocky River (col'd)" Presbyterian Church first appears in 
the Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., in 1868, with 

61 Ibid. 

62 I, 264-266. 
63 1, 273-274. 

64 Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., Board of Domestic Missions, Sixty- 
fifth Annual Report, p. 28. 

65 Ibid., Sixty-sixth Annual Report, p. 34. 

103 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

an even one hundred members, fourteen of whom had been 
added by examination and eighty-six received by letter. 60 By 1 87 1, 
the name of this congregation, which then embraced 161 mem- 
bers with 200 in Sunday School, had been changed to Belief ont. 67 

A few scattered evidences of colored membership follow in 
the Rocky River records, but chiefly as though to emphasize the 
fact that the majority of such members were seeking affiliations 
elsewhere. As late as 1873, "Edward Litaker (colored)" was re- 
ceived by certificate from the Bethpage Church, es while two 
years before "John Harris (col'd)" had been restored by the Ses- 
sion and immediately dismissed to Bellefont. 09 By the spring of 
1873, the 1872-1873 report to Concord Presbytery contained the 
ominous statement: "There is no effort made for the religious 
instruction of the Negroes." 70 By this time Bellefont was show- 
ing slight signs of decline, reporting a membership of 158 and a 
Sunday School enrollment of 75. 71 In 1952 the number of com- 
municants was 143, while the Sunday School listed 105 mem- 
bers. 72 

Despite the defects of these distant days, they well up from the 
past with a strange winsomeness; and he who walks in the great 
and goodly grove of Rocky River is possessed of no enviable in- 
sight if unable to draw from such departed yesterdays some 
memorial of the worshippers of a century ago, who, long since 
all, servant and master alike, have been ushered before a Tribunal 
of greater authority and wiser insight than was ever possessed by 
the venerable Session of that classic congregation. 

66 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1868, p. 750. 

67 Ibid., 187 1, p. 695. 
GS II, 29-30. 

69 II, 18. 
70 II, 41. 

71 Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A., 1873, p. 667. 

72 Ibid., Part I, 1952, p. 556. 



104 



CHAPTER IX 

To the Close of the Century 



The May Meeting of 187 1 found Rocky River possessed of a 
new book for sessional records which represented an expenditure 
of $4.50 on the part of Solomon Harris, the donor. 1 William S. 
Plumer, the only man elected moderator of the General Assem- 
bly before the division of 1861 and who also served as that of 
the Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, 
was among the ministers who participated in the services of this 
gracious occasion. Some one thousand persons were present on 
the last great day of the feast, and about 450 of them joined in 
the communion celebration which marked its climax. 2 An un- 
usual and pathetic interlude characterized this Sabbath, and is re- 
corded in the succinctly striking entry, "During the intermission 
on Sunday, an old man, a stranger was buried in the graveyard." 

JOSEPH BINGHAM MACK 

On the twelfth of the following August, Rev. Joseph Bingham 
Mack was installed as the "Eighth Pastor of Rocky River," ac- 
cording to his own account, by a commission of Presbytery con- 
sisting of Wm. W. Pharr, Daniel A. Penick, Jr., and Jethro Rum- 
ple. These ministers preached the sermon and propounded the 
constitutional questions prescribed for such occasions, charged 
the pastor, and delivered the charge to the people, in the order 
named. 4 

1 II, flyleaf. 
2 II, i'o. 
3 II, 10. 
4 II, 11. 

105 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

The incoming minister, a native of New York State, was born 
on Christmas eve of the year 1838. A graduate of Jackson Col- 
lege, Columbia, Tennessee, he attended Danville Seminary and 
completed the course of study at Columbia at the opening of the 
War between the States. Beginning his ministry in Harmony 
Presbytery of the Synod of South Carolina, he was soon serving 
with the Confederate Army as chaplain of the 55th Tennessee 
Regiment, and acted in this capacity from 1862 to 1864. After 
the close of the War, he was installed in Zion Church, Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, where Rev. J. L. Girardeau had carried on 
his great work among the Negroes of that city. This was fol- 
lowed by a short term as evangelist for Charleston Presbytery 
before assuming the work at Rocky River. Mrs. Mack was the 
former Miss Harriet Banks. 5 Another member of the Mack 
household who arrived at this time was three-year-old Edward. 
In later years he was to become distinguished as Professor of Old 
Testament studies at Union Seminary in Virginia, and, in 1939, 
to serve as Moderator of the General Assembly. 6 

Up to this time, the Rocky River pastors had customarily pro- 
vided their own homes. After Mr. Mack accepted the call, it 
became evident that there was no suitable place in which his 
family might live. This fact so weighed upon the mind of Ruling 
Elder Robert Harvey Morrison that he arranged for his own 
family to move into two small houses on his farm, permitting the 
incoming minister to occupy the Morrison home; thus surpassing 
even the Great Woman of Shunem in gracious hospitality toward 
the clergy. 7 

Mr. Morrison devoted the seasons between his farm work to 
trips through the Piedmont section of the State as colporteur. 
Dr. Walter L. Lingle tells of one of a number of overnight visits 
made to his home in the Thyatira Congregation, and of how he, 

5 Scott, p. 424; Presbyterian Standard, June 5, 1912, p. 5. 

6 Scott, p. 423. 

7 Lore and Morrison, op. cit., p. 62. 

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TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

as a boy, purchased a copy of Pilgrim's Progress, the first book 
bought with his own money, for seventy-five cents from the 
traveller from Rocky River. 8 Referring to Mr. Morrison, Dr. 
Lingle writes, "He was a plain farmer and his name probably 
never got into the newspapers." 9 Newspapers or not, it assuredly 
deserves an honored place in the history of that Congregation 
which he served as Elder for forty-eight years, in addition to dis- 
seminating good literature among that and many other churches 
of western North Carolina. 

"Sitting upon his beautiful black mare with the grace of a 
cavalry leader he galloped into the homes and into the hearts of 
his people," are the words applied to the new pastor by one who 
was a boy when Mr. Mack arrived. 10 On August 31, 1871, very 
soon after his installation, a group of one hundred young people, 
gathered at a singing school at Rocky River, were addressed by 
Rev. William Banks of Waxhaw. This marked the beoinnino- f 
a season of revival which resulted in the addition of fifty-four 
members to the Church on profession of faith and three by cer- 
tificate. Rev. Walter W. Pharr was associated with Mr. Banks 
and the Pastor in these services. 11 At the beginning of that church 
year the total membership stood at 290. During its course sixty- 
seven persons were received on confession, while fourteen were 
added by letter. 12 

Soon after the arrival of Mr. Mack, a number of changes were 
instituted in the work and affairs of the Church. For many years 
it had been customary during the summer months to hold two 
preaching services each Sunday, one in the morning and the 
other in the afternoon. It was now becoming apparent that con- 
stituents living at outlying points were more and more absenting 
themselves from these ordinances. Moreover, churches of other 

8 Christian Observer, Nov. 1, 1950, p. 3. 

9 Ibid. 

10 Mack, op. cit., p. 12. 

11 II, 17. 

12 Minutes of the General Assembly, 1872, p. 251. 

107 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

denominations, more conveniently situated, were "making sad 
inroads" on the membership. Confronted by this problem, it was 
decided by the Session to discontinue the afternoon service at the 
church and substitute meetings held in rotation at strategic points 
in the Rocky River territory. Visible advantages of this change 
are suggested by the following list of places chosen for these 
preaching services, with the average attendance at each of them: 

Pioneer Mills ioo Rocky Ridge 180 

Sossamon's School House 160 The Depot 300 

When such numbers are compared with an average at the church 
of 175 in winter and 300 in summer, it is not difficult to appreci- 
ate the enthusiasm with which the success of the altered plan was 
reported to Presbytery in the spring of 1872. 13 

Progress in the Sunday School was also a cause for gratitude. 
Uniform lesson papers were welcomed as of distinct merit, and 
Songs of Praise, a newly adopted book secured from Richmond, 
hailed as of advantage when compared with the "Hymn Book 
designed for adults, & not for the lambs of the flock." To a "well 
selected library" was credited a quickening of interest in the 
study of the Bible. 14 

It is probable that much of the success of these times was due 
to the new Pastor himself. "Such was the magnetism and such 
the momentum of this man that he swept all before him," wrote 
Morrison Caldwell, who continues, "I can see him now as he 
came into the Sunday School and personally taught or led in the 
singing of the 'new tunes,' such as: 'Around the throne of God 
in Heaven, thousands of children stand'; 'There is a happy land,' 
etc." 15 

But not all the innovations proposed by the Pastor were ac- 
cepted without question, in fact, there seem to have been numer- 
ous questions. Evidently moved by the tenacity with which his 

13 II, 39-40. 
14 II, 40. 

15 Alack, op. cit., p. 12. 

108 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

parishoners continued to walk in the ancient paths with respect 
to the conduct of the affairs of the Congregation, Mr. Alack was 
led to prepare and deliver a sermon, under the guise of a dream, 
in which he set forth his protest against the manifest tendency 
with which the Church was wont to cling unflinchingly to the 
old and, with like diligence, to eschew the new. 

He dreamed; and with him the elders of Rocky River were 
carried into the heights until they stood before the gates of the 
Heavenly City. From its jeweled walls there came the sweet 
strains of a celestial anthem resounding in notes of rapturous joy. 
Upon inquiry on the part of one of the elders, the members of 
the Session were informed that they were listening to the "New 
Song of Moses and the Lamb." The startled interrogator then 
asked, "What place is this?" Upon being informed that it was the 
"New Jerusalem," the elders proclaimed in unison, "This is no 
place for us. Back to Rocky River! " 16 

The oral versions of this celebrated sermon are somewhat 
variant as to certain of the details, though all are in general agree- 
ment both as to the intent of the speaker and the content of his 
discourse. 

And either because of, or without regard to, or in spite of this 
visionary expostulation, the minister managed to make a number 
of changes even in the conduct of ecclesiastical affairs of those 
whom he served, notwithstanding their traditional averseness to 
customs other than those sanctioned by the benediction of by- 
gone days. 

The plan followed in raising funds for benevolences is set forth 
in the 1 871-1872 report. This provided for two offerings each 
year for each of these causes, by which every person was given 
an opportunity to "obey the command 'Freely ye have received, 
freely give.' " 17 

Three elders and an additional deacon were elected on Friday, 

16 McElrov, op. cit., pp. 27-28. 
17 II, 41- 

109 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

May 3, 1872, after a sermon by the Pastor on the previous day 
devoted to the qualifications of Ruling Elders and Deacons. 18 In 
consequence, S. E. W. Pharr and Col. J. C. Barnhardt were in- 
stalled as elders on September 15, 19 James Query White, who was 
also elected to this office, having declined to serve. 20 Matthias L. 
Harris had been inducted as deacon during the previous July. 21 

But all choirs, that of Rocky River among them, have not 
always been so harmonious as that of Mr. Mack's dream. Con- 
troversy centering around the choir held the attention of the Ses- 
sion at a meeting in July, 1872. "A great deal of hard feeling" had 
culminated in a fight in Concord between two of the members 
of the Church; and there were other evidences that the singers, 
like Euodias and Syntyche, were not altogether of one mind. The 
Session, as a result, assumed immediate control of the choir, di- 
rected that body to elect a leader, framed certain rules for its 
guidance, and provided that "any member of the choir disobey- 
ing these rules must leave the choir & come down stairs," 22 these 
evidently being the days in which the musicians occupied the 
gallery in the rear of the church. A happy sequel to this difficulty 
was enacted eight days later, when the two principals in the fight 
appeared before the Session and "expressed deep sorrow for the 
same," and shook hands. 23 

A characteristic caution, as well as adherence to Presbyterian 
practice, was exhibited by the Session on September 1, 1872, by 
which the reception of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Thompson was post- 
poned, even though they had passed a satisfactory examination 
looking toward being received into church membership. It de- 
veloped that the applicants were already affiliated, one with the 

18 II, 2j. 

19 11, 26. 
20 II, 26. 
21 II, 23. 

22 II, 23-24. 
23 II, 24. 

1 10 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

Methodist and the other with the Baptist church; so it was de- 
cided to await the arrival of letters of reference from their local 
congregations. 24 The wisdom of this procedure was demonstrated 
when, on May 2, 1873, such certificates were presented and acted 
upon by the Session. 25 

The delightful brick manse, which for three-quarters of a cen- 
tury has been the home of the pastors of Rocky River, was ready 
for occupancy early in 1873. Built at a time when tastes in resi- 
dences led to the erection of a building characterized by dignity 
and grace, as well as excellent adaptation to its intended purpose, 
this charming house possesses a rare attractiveness which reflects 
that of the church building several hundred yards away. Ac- 
cording to a news report published in January, 1873, t ^e cost of 
the structure was $3,000.00. Mr. Mack had just moved into the 
manse at this time. 26 

The appraised rental value of such a dwelling in the 1870's 
may be inferred from the annual report for 1872-187 3, in the 
course of which the following statement occurs, "We promise 
our Pastor $1200 and a house; or $1300 a year;" 2T and it should 
be added that fifteen acres of land were attached to the house. 
The salary specified was termed sufficient for the minister's sup- 
port "if he is economical." 2S 

By way of preparation for the May Meeting in 1873, services 

were held for several days during the preceding week at Plun- 

kett's School House, Pioneer Mills, and the Depot, with worship 

at the church on Friday. 29 An election set for the choice of an 

additional deacon on that day was postponed because of the 

prevalent high water; 30 and difficulties continued to beset efforts 

24 II, 26. 
25 II, 30. 

26 Christian Observer, Jan. 29, 1873, p. 4. 
27 II, 41. 
28 II, 41. 

29 II, 29. 

30 II, 31. 

I I I 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

to increase the Diaconate when Charles H. Erwin, who was 
elected three days later, 31 declined to serve." 

The problem of ministering to the families on the fringes of 
the Congregation, which had led to the provision of preaching 
services on summer Sunday afternoons in the different Quarters, 
was approached in a more drastic manner on July 27, 1873, when 
Zion Church was organized by representatives of Concord Pres- 
bytery with fourteen members, two ruling elders, and two dea- 
cons. 33 Located about five and one-half miles to the northeast of 
Rocky River, this new congregation was to a remarkable extent, 
composed of members of the White Family and drawn from 
Rocky River. The prevalence of this name in Zion Church is 
illustrated by an entry in the Sessional Records of Zion under 
date of November 23, 1888, entitled "An item of history." This 
note records the ordination and installation of Caleb R. White 
and Walter P. W T hite as ruling elders, and that of Lindley H. 
White and Lindley P. White as deacons. The service of installa- 
tion was conducted by Rev. J. G. Anderson, the Pastor, and 
A. G. White, N. G. White, and S. W. White, elders. 34 

Samuel Pharr was elected to the Rocky River eldership and 
Leroy McKee Morrison a deacon on August 2, 1873. These of- 
ficers were installed on June 14, 1874. 35 About this time dis- 
ciplinary action on the part of the Session began to assume a 
somewhat lighter form than had been the case during the minis- 
try of Daniel Penick. 

The spring of 1874 found the Church confronted by a debt in 
excess of $1,400.00. A conference held by the Session, the Dea- 
cons, and the Trustees revealed that much of this had been cared 
for either by payment or subscription, but the Deacons were 

31 II, 34. 
32 11,35. 

33 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. VII, p. 1004. 

34 A4inut.es of Session of Zion Church, Vol. II, p. 10. 
35 II, 36, 48. 

I 12 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

urged to make a thorough canvass toward its complete liquida- 
tion. 36 Zion Church presented a request that monthly services 
held by the Minister of Rocky River in the "Quarter across the 
River" be conducted in that church, and Air. Mack was re- 
quested to hold semi-annual communion services at Zion. This 
dual petition was granted bv the Session on May 17, 1874. 3 ' 

The Sunday School continued to flourish, and it was possible 
to report in the spring of 1874 that "for the first time in many 
years" the school had been operated through the winter months. 38 
On May 31, the request of D. H. White to be permitted to cease 
to act as deacon in the Factory Quarter was granted, and R. Ben- 
ton White was requested to assist as collector in the River Quar- 
ter. 39 

Rev. Daniel Lindlev, who came to Rocky River for his first 
pastorate in 183 1, arrived at Harris Depot on Tuesday, August 
18, 1874, after an absence of almost forty years. Two days after 
his return, the communion season was beo-un with a sermon by 
Father Lindley. "Though 73 years of age, he seemed to have al- 
most the elasticity of a young man, & preached 8 times during the 
1 1 days meeting." Ministerially associated with this saint from 
beyond the seas in the conduct of the meeting were L. McKin- 
non, Walter W. Pharr, S. C. Alexander, James Elijah Morrison, 
and the Pastor. Twenty-six sermons were preached. In spite of 
the interference of wet weather, it proved a glorious season, in 
the course of which forty-five were added to the membership on 
profession and three by certificate. Eighteen of the new members 
were described as from "non-Presbvterian families." 

A special meeting of the Session was held at the residence of 
Frederick Starnes in February, 1875, at which time Mrs. Martha 

36 II, 38. 

37 11,46-47. 
38 11,43. 
39 II, 47. 
40 II, 55-56. 

I I 3 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Bryson, "a blind & aged lady," was received into the membership 
of the Church on confession of her faith. 41 

Two days later the same group was convened to consider 
problems growing out of the sale of intoxicants. Whereupon, a 
petition was addressed to the Legislature of North Carolina in 
this connection. In consequence, a law was enacted by that body 
which made it a misdemeanor to sell liquor within two and one- 
half miles of the Church building. 42 The records of this period 
reveal that intemperance presented a recurring difficulty, not 
only in the life of the community, but also in the affairs of the 
Church. 43 

At the end of March, 1875, the number of members stood at 
394, the highest since the disastrous days of the War, with an 
average attendance of 185 in winter and 325 in summer. A salary 
of $1500.00 and manse was promised the Minister for the coming 
year. It was in glowing terms that the annual report for 1874- 
1875 spoke of the condition of the finances of the Church. 44 

Deacon J. Melancthon Black, who had been partially incapaci- 
tated by paralysis, was given permission to cease his service in 
that office in the spring of 1875. 45 In April, the Diaconate was 
augmented by the election of Robert Benton White from the 
Factory Quarter, Joseph R. White representing Black's Quarter, 
and Robert L. Query who was a resident of Query's Quarter. 
They were installed in June ( 1 8 7 5 ) . 46 

Incipient interdenominational complications are suggested by a 
sessional entry under date of August 29, which records the ap- 
pointment of an elder to interview a feminine member of Rocky 
River in regard to her "bad behaviour" at a neighboring church 
of a sister denomination. 47 

41 II, 58. 
42 II, 59. 
43 II, 59-61. 
44 II, 62-63. 
45 II, 64. 

46 II, 66. 
47 II, 67. 

114 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

Early in 1875, Mr. Mack requested a dissolution of the pastoral 
relationship. The Congregation, however, indicated its attitude 
toward such contemplated change by declining, on the one hand, 
to concur in the matter and promising, on the other, to add 
$300.00 per year to his salary. As a result, Presbytery did not re- 
lease him. 48 As the same year drew toward its close, the Pastor re- 
peated his petition to Presbytery, basing it upon the grounds of 
his physical weakness, whereupon it was granted; for he had per- 
suaded the Congregation, at a meeting held on November 14, 
1875, to join in his plea. Presbytery, accordingly, severed the 
pastoral tie on December 8. 49 Thus closed a ministry which was 
richly blessed to the salvation of souls, the promotion of the grace 
of giving, and the development of the Church. 

After leaving Rocky River, Dr. Mack served the Church at 
large in several capacities, acting as evangelist, financial agent for 
Columbia Seminary and also for Davidson College, and holding 
several pastorates. A large number of conversions followed his 
preaching; he had a part in the organization of many churches 
and in the erection of not a few church buildings; and was instru- 
mental in influencing many young men to enter the ministry. 50 

JAMES MORTON WHAREY 

The pastorate was not vacant for long. A letter from Professor 
R. L. Dabney was read on February 26, 1876, in which that vet- 
eran of the sword and Word recommended Rev. James Morton 
Wharey as a prospective minister. 01 On the 13th of May, a call 
was extended to Mr. Wharey at a meeting presided over by Rev. 
L. McKinnon, then Pastor at Concord. 52 

48 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. VIII, pp. 91-92. 

49 II, 73; Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. VIII, p. 168. 

50 Presbyterian Standard, June 5, 1912, p. 5; Minutes of the Synod of Georgia, 
1912, p. 46. 

31 II, 81. The author is indebted to a daughter of Dr. Wharey, Mrs. W. R. 
Grey of Davidson, North Carolina, for reading the portion of this chapter con- 
cerning the pastorate of her father, and for several factual suggestions which she 
made in regard to its contents. 

52 II, 84. 

115 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Born on January 28, 1839, in Goochland County, Virginia, the 
new pastor was the son of Rev. James Wharey. He graduated 
from Hampden-Sydney College and Union Theological Semi- 
nary in Virginia. Like his predecessor at Rocky River, he had 
served as chaplain in the Army of the Confederacy. Immediately 
before coming to North Carolina, he had been pastor of the 
Cumberland Church in the Virginia County of the same name 
for some nine years, during which period he had married Mrs. 
Mary W. Overton of that County on July 23,1 868. 53 

The relaxation of disciplinary measures during the previous 
ministry appears to have proven disappointing; for soon after the 
arrival of Mr. Wharey it was decided by the Session that names 
of members who had been suspended should again be read from 
the pulpit in accord with a practice of some years earlier. 54 Even 
the publication of the names of these errants failed to settle the 
problem relating to church discipline, for a number of cases soon 
pressed for action by the Session. The Pastor was requested by 
that body to "give such instruction on this subject as he may 
deem proper." 55 

At the beginning of the new pastorate, Ruling Elder S. E. W. 
Pharr, who had been serving as Clerk of the Session, resigned and 
the practice of having the Pastor act in that capacity was re- 
newed. 56 Musical matters were soon to the fore again when 
Henry White resigned as chorister on February 1, 1877. There- 
upon, Dixon Penick was requested to lead the singing with Mr. 
White acting as his assistant. 57 About this time, it was decided to 
celebrate the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper four times each 
year, with communion services in February and November in 
addition to the regular spring and fall observances. 58 

53 Scott, p. 762. 
54 II, 90. 
55 II, 99. 
56 II, 92. 

57 II, 95- 

58 II, 95- 

Il6 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

In the meantime, the Rocky River Ladies Christian Associa- 
tion began to operate under a constitution adopted in 1876 which 
provided for four meetings each year and fixed the officers of the 
organization as President, Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, 
and five collectors. 59 Mrs. Agnes Penick was elected the first 
President and Mrs. Mary Wharey, wife of the Pastor, chosen 
Vice-President, with Mrs. Ada Blair as Secretary-Treasurer. 60 
The names of fifty-five persons were entered upon the earliest 
roll of membership. 61 The Association undertook to furnish a 
room in the manse, in consequence of which a debt was incurred. 
This obligation proved of some embarrassment, but was ulti- 
mately liquidated. 62 

Life in, and of, the Church is reflected by the annual report 
covering 1 876-1 877. Placing thirty-four communicants on the 
"reserved Roll" had reduced the total membership to 343. 63 Av- 
erage attendance had been 175 in winter and 300 in summer, 
which percentages of the total can be equalled by few congrega- 
tions in this age of paved highways, motor cars, central heating, 
and allied gages and gadgets of material, and often materialistic, 
progress. A Sunday School was conducted during the summer by 
one of the deacons. In the winter, this gave way to a Bible class. 
The minister was not faring so well, since payments on his salary 
were trailing promises by $ioo.oo. 64 John Dwight Morrison was 
elected Superintendent of the Sunday School for the ensuing 
year. 65 

Rev. J. B. Mack returned to assist in the services connected 
with the spring communion of 1877. On Saturday he delivered 
what was to become the famous Historical Address on Rocky 
River. So flattering was the reception accorded this discourse 

59 Minutes of the Rocky River Ladies Christian Association, Vol. I, p. 3. 

60 Ibid., p. 5- 

61 Ibid., pp. 6-1 1. 

62 Ibid., p. 65. 
63 II, 102. 

64 II, 103. 
65 II, 104. 

IJ 7 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

that an immediate proposal was made for its publication. 66 By 
way of contrast, the plague of intemperance beset the commu- 
nity. 67 A request from M. L. Harris to be allowed to demit the 
office of deacon was declined. 68 

Four in the afternoon was the appointed hour for regional Sab- 
bath preaching services. These were held in rotation at Harris- 
burg, Sossamon's School House, Morrison's Quarter, and in Zion 
Church. 69 

On June 30, 1877, Ruling Elder John M. Black laid down his 
duties in Rocky River to enter into that rest reserved for the peo- 
ple of God, having adorned that high office for more than forty 
years. Pages 1 1 2-1 1 3 of the Second Volume of the Sessional Rec- 
ords bear tribute to this native and servant of the Church. 

An apparent innovation in services is disclosed in the report to 
Presbytery of March 31, 1878, in a prayer meeting, held on dif- 
ferent Saturday afternoons, in several sections of the Congrega- 
tion. Attendance was recorded as ranging from fifty to seventy- 
five. 70 Two Bible classes were conducted during the winter under 
the leadership of the Pastor and of Rev. P. M. Custer, Principal of 
the Academy. 71 Financial affairs were in an acute state, with the 
Pastor's salary now $300.00 in arrears, 72 while about one-half of 
the previous year's benevolent gifts had been derived from a 
legacy of Mrs. Jane Howie. 73 By April, the combination of "pe- 
culiar financial pressure" and loss of membership led to an ar- 
rangement with Mr. Wharey whereby he agreed to a reduction 
in salary bringing his stipend down to $1,050.00 per annum; 74 

66 II, 105. 
67 II, 1 09-1 10. 
68 II, 106. 
69 II, 108. 
70 II, 1 19-120. 
71 II, 120. 
72 II, 120. 
73 II, 121. 
74 II, 128. 

118 



Query's 


62 


Black's 


Church 


65 


River 


Morrison's 


34 





TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

and even this had not been fully paid at the end of the church 
year. 75 

John Makemie Wilson White was installed as ruling elder over 
the Congregation on August 16, 1878, to begin a lengthy period 
of diligent service which was to terminate only with his death in 
1936. 76 Intemperance was now becoming so prevalent as to de- 
mand the Session's attention meeting after meeting. 77 

Baptized non-communicants were accurately enumerated by 
Quarters in the spring of 1880, with the following results: 

23 
52 
34 

making a total of 2 36. 78 

A prayer service was begun by the young men of the Congre- 
gation in the winter of 1 879-1 880. Considerable interest in the 
undertaking was evidenced for a season, but this seems to have 
greatly abated by spring. 79 Winter congregations were large, due 
to good weather, good roads, and good health. 8 " Some idea of the 
religious reading of the community is to be gathered from an item 
in the 1 879-1 880 report to Presbytery, in which it was stated that 
between thirty-five and forty copies of the North Carolina Pres- 
byterian were received regularly and that there were two or 
three subscribers to the Christian Observer.* 1 This same docu- 
ment expressed an opinion that family worship was greatly neg- 
lected. 82 

Plans for the organization of a Sunday School at Harrisburg 
were laid in the spring of 1881, with Deacon Elam Query as 

75 II, 141. 
76 II, 124-125. 
77 II, 127-137. 

78 II, 139. 
79 II, 140. 
80 II, 141. 
81 II, 142. 
82 II, 142. 

119 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

superintendent. A similar school, in charge of Ruling Elder John 
M. W. White and Robert Gourley, was proposed for Sossamon's 
School House; while A. C. Alexander and Augustine Osborne, 
teacher at Rocky River Academy, were elected associate super- 
intendents for the Sunday School at the Church. 83 

Rocky River was host to what must have been a rather dismal 
meeting of Concord Presbytery from March 30 to April 1, 188 1 ; 
for a note in the Session Book, patently penned in a melancholy 
strain, affirms that "Many of our people were sick & the weather 
was dreadfully stormy." 84 Better things for the future, however, 
were promised in the ordination of Thomas Lee Martin and J. 
Dwight Morrison as ruling elders on July 23, of that year. 85 

Interest in Rocky River's past is intimated in an act of the Ses- 
sion of the same date, whereby the Pastor, J. C. Barnhardt, and 
J. D. Morrison were appointed to prepare a history of the 
Church. S6 Permission was later given this committee to take a 
collection to defray the expenses of its publication at a regular 
church service. 87 November 26 was set apart as a day of thanks- 
giving, humiliation, and prayer, 88 and the communion service set 
for the following February (1882) was omitted because of bad 
weather and the resulting almost impassable condition of the 
roads. 89 

A yearning to return to the old customs is seen in a decision of 
the Session, officially made on February 20, to hold two services 
at the Church on each Sunday until July "by way of trial." 90 
The experiment proved convincing, if not successful, for by the 
end of the time specified the Session was ready to vote unani- 
mously to resume the system of holding a morning service at the 

83 II, 151. 
84 II, 151. 
85 II, 154. 

86 II, 154. 

87 II, 159. 

88 II, 157. 

89 II, 158. 

90 II, 158-159. 

I20 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

Church with afternoon preaching in one of the several Quarters. 91 
Some idea of the extent of arrears into which the Church had 
fallen in meeting its financial obligations may be gathered from 
the fact that a receipt was issued by the Pastor of some years 
back, Rev. J. B. Mack, under date of January 4, 1882, in ac- 
knowledgement of $36.00 on his salary for 1875. 92 Current dis- 
bursements in early 1882 included an item of $64.00 in support of 
Rev. W. B. Arrowood, evangelist for Stanley County, who was 
acting in that capacity as a result of a recently inaugurated effort 
put forth by Concord Presbytery in the eastern portion of its ter- 
ritory. 93 On May 13, the day on which this contribution for 
evangelism was made, John A. Barnhardt was elected deacon. 94 
Later in the spring, plans were completed whereby Mr. 
Wharey was to spend three months of the approaching summer 
preaching in the mountainous region of the Presbytery. A. 
Walker White, a member of the Church and candidate for the 
ministry, supplied the pulpit during the Pastor's absence and Col. 
Jacob C. Barnhardt acted as moderator of the Session. 90 

Beginning early in 1883, Zion Church was permitted to have 
the Rocky River Pastor preach at services held in the afternoon 
on the second and fourth Sundays of each month. 96 Sunday 
Schools projected at the end of the church year 1 882-1 883, to- 
gether with their superintendents, were as follows: 

Church A. C. Alexander 

Harrisburg Dixon Penick 

Smith's School House J. D. Morrison 

Pioneer Mills J. C. Barnhardt 



Sossamon's J. M. W. White 

91 II, 165. 

92 Rocky River Treasurer's Book, Vol. II, p. unnumbered. 

93 II, 162-163. 

94 II, 163. 

95 II, 164. 
96 II, 167. 
97 II, 169. 

121 



97 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Fruitful services were held in the Church in December, which 
were conducted by Rev. Jethro Rumple of Salisbury and Rev. 
N. M. Woods of Charlotte, during the course of which it was 
stated that "the Spirit of God seemed to be present in great 
power." Swollen watercourses were encountered by those who 
set out for worship on the morning of the sacramental Sabbath of 
this meeting. 9S Regulations prescribing the reading from the pul- 
pit of the names of offenders against the discipline of the Church, 
which had been enacted, or rather reenacted, some eight years 
before, were now rescinded." 

Extension of the Sunday School enterprise continued to be 
pushed, as D. Henry White and L. McKee Morrison were ap- 
pointed to open a branch Sunday School in the neighborhood of 
Black's (Lipe's) Mill, while J. L. Stafford was charged with a 
similar duty in the vicinity of his own home. 100 Another evidence 
of spiritual concern of early 1885 is found in a prayer meeting 
service, conducted on Wednesday nights at the Academy, which 
was attended in an encouraging manner by the young people of 
the community. 101 Altogether, these were the days calculated to 
gratify all those interested in what a later age was to term Re- 
ligious Education. The enrollment of the Sunday Schools sur- 
passed anything previously recorded. One hundred and fifteen 
were on the roll at the beginning of April, 1883. Twelve months 
later, this figure had been more than tripled and stood at 37 1 . An- 
other year brought the total to 428, the highest to be discovered 
in the available records of the Church. 102 This expansion was a 
local example of a quickening interest and accentuated develop- 
ment in the Sunday School movement throughout the nation. 

During these days the Academy was occupying a position of 
influence, and under the leadership of Rev. P. M. Custer, Pro- 

98 II, 172. 
"II, 178. 
100 II, 182. 
101 II, 184. 

102 Minutes of the General Assembly, 1885, p. 499. 

122 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

fessor Augustine Osborne, and Professor H. C. Dunn, who acted 
as principals at different times, achieved a rising eminence. 103 

A peculiarly distressing tragedy befell a Rocky River family 
on September 7, 1883. William Burns, infant son of J. C. and 
E. Ann Sosserman, who had been baptized during the course of 
the day's services at the Church, "was thrown from his Mother's 
arms by a sudden lurch of the wagon on their way home from 
church near Caldwell Creek and died in a few hours." 104 

James Lee Morrison, known to the Congregation as "Uncle 
Jimmy," died on March 27, 1885. 105 Page 193 of the Second Vol- 
ume of the Sessional Records bears an inscription as a "Tribute 
of Respect" to his memory and work. E. C. Davis and Dr. D. W. 
Flowe were ordained and installed as ruling elders on July 12, 
while Julius B. Morrison was added to the Diaconate in a like 
manner one week later. 106 

During the summer of 1885, a bridge was built across Rocky 
River, to render perennial assistance to members of the Congre- 
gation to the north of the stream in making it possible for them 
to reach the Church even when the River ran high because of 
continued rains. 107 

Musical matters surged to the fore at Rocky River during the 
months following. D. B. Porter was, upon request of the choir 
leaders, appointed an additional chorister in the late summer. 108 
But profound innovation in the praise of the sanctuary was im- 
pending. A petition, signed by some 150 persons, was presented 
to the Session on September 23, asking permission for the intro- 
duction of an organ "to assist the singers in conducting the wor- 
ship of God." Not only was the desire thus expressed granted, 
but a committee was appointed to secure a suitable instrument 

103 Mack, op. cit., p. 13. 

104 Register, Vol. II, p. 85. 
105 II, 183. 

106 II, 189. 

107 Wharey, James M., Pastor's Diary and Clerical Record, 1885, entries for 
Julv 6 and Aug. 10. 
168 II, 191. 

123 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

for this purpose. 109 By February, 1886, its duties had been dis- 
charged and the organ installed at a cost of $165.00. This instru- 
ment was placed, on instruction from the Session, "in the mid- 
dle block of seats about Ys back from the pulpit," probably with 
the intention of rendering maximum service so far as the body of 
the congregation was concerned. J. M. Harris and D. B. Porter 
were appointed organists, with Mrs. J. M. Wharey and Mrs. 
John A. Barnhardt, Mrs. N. E. Meisinheimer, and Miss Ida Bur- 
leyson, as assistants. 110 

Dr. Walter L. Lingle has recently written an appreciative 
description of Mr. Wharey and his preaching, as he tells of the 
communion services at his home church, Thyatira: 

A4y favorite preacher, of all those who came from time to time 
to help in the communion meetings, was Dr. James M. Wharey, 
who was pastor of the Rocky River Church, and later of the First 
Church of Mooresville. He was a large man and preached with 
deep emotion. Not only so, but he used many illustrations taken 
from everyday life, or from his experiences as a chaplain in the 
Confederate Army. That kind of preaching made a larger appeal 
to a boy than abstract theological sermons. 111 

The pastoral relationship between Mr., and later Dr., Wharey 
and Rocky River was dissolved by Concord Presbytery in the 
summer of 1886, on July 26. 112 He then moved to Mooresville, 
North Carolina, to serve the church there until 1905. 113 It was in 
1890 that the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by Hampden-Sydney College. 114 Upon his departure, Col. 
J. C. Barnhardt was appointed moderator of the Session and Dr. 
D. W. Flowe selected to serve as Clerk. 115 It was ordered that re- 

109 II, 192. 
110 II, 194. 

111 W. L. Lingle, Thyatira Presbyterian Church, pp. 64-65. 

112 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. VIII, pp. 887-888. 

113 Scott, p. 762. 

114 Ibid. 
115 II, 202. 

124 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

ligious services be conducted each Sunday by some member of 
the Session; but moved perhaps by some apprehension as to the 
outcome of this plan, the elders immediately proceeded to chose 
a committee to make arrangements for preaching services by 
some minister as often as possible while the Church was without a 
pastor. 116 

Rev. D. S. McAllister had been called as pastor by the summer 
of 1887; for on August 8, he was invited by the Session to "act as 
a corresponding and advisory member" until he had been re- 
ceived by Concord Presbytery, installed as pastor, and taken his 
place as moderator. 117 This installation never took place; for a 
month later the prospective pastor had become convinced that he 
should forego all intention of remaining at Rocky River, and 
gave a detailed statement to the Session of the reason prompting 
such a drastic reversal of plans. 118 The unusual, but entirely ade- 
quate and equally sensible, explanation advanced for this decision 
lay in the discovery that he was unable to speak in such a manner 
as to be effectively heard in the large auditorium of the Church. 

JOHN GRAY ANDERSON 

Such progress had been made by January, 1 888, that Rev. John 
Gray Anderson could be referred to as Pastor-Elect. 119 He was 
installed on Tuesday, May 4, with Rev. R. A. Webb and Rev. 
J. M. Wharey officiating at the service. 120 Thereupon, Dr. Flowe 
resigned as Clerk of Session and was replaced by Mr. Ander- 
son. 121 

Like several ministers before him, Mr. Anderson was a native 
of Virginia, having been born near Gordonsville on December 8, 

116 II, 203. 
117 II, 218. 
118 II, 219. 
119 II, 221. 

120 iMinutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. IX, pp. 152, 181. 
121 II, 226. 

125 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

1850. In the course of time, a year at Hampden-Sydney and 
a season at the University of Virginia were followed by several 
years spent as farmer and teacher. After attending Union Semi- 
nary in Virginia, 1 875-1 878, he was ordained on May 2, 1879, 
and served a number of churches in the state of his birth before 
coming to Rocky River. 122 

A constitution was adopted for the Young People's Missionary 
Society on March 2, 1888. In this document the time of meeting 
was set for "the Friday night before the full moon of every 
month." The circulation of missionary literature and especially 
the placing of the periodical, The Missionary , in every home 
were among the objectives of the Society. 123 After several 
months, or perhaps moons, of experimentation, the time was 
changed to the "Saturday night nearest the full moon" of each 
month. 124 

About this time, a systematic and thorough scheme was 
adopted by the Congregation looking toward the active partici- 
pation of its members in the upbuilding of the Church. Under 
the title "Plan of Work for Rocky River Church," a printed slip 
was distributed to the members on which eighteen different ave- 
nues of service were listed, embracing such possibilities as "dis- 
covering and relieving distress among the poor," assisting in the 
Sabbath Schools in several specific ways, "praying for the pas- 
tor"; and, as item 17, "reconciling persons at variance with each 
other." Members were requested to check the types of work in 
which they were willing to engage on two copies of this form, 
retaining one for frequent reference as a reminder of their com- 
mitments, and returning the second to the Pastor for his informa- 
tion and that of the elders and deacons having oversight of the 
matter in the not-altogether-mathematical five Quarters of the 
Congregation: the Church, Query's, Morrison's, Sossamon's, and 

122 Scott, p. 14. 

123 Minutes of Rocky River Young People's Missionary Society, Vol. I, 



p. 194. 

124 Ibid., p. 195. 



126 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

the River. This plan was ratified by a vote of the membership on 
June 24, 1888. 125 

During the same year, the church building was reroofed, the 
structure now being about twenty-seven years old, and some 
painting was done on the woodwork, probably the exterior. The 
total cost of these repairs was $2 7o.84. 126 

The year 1889 was inauspiciously ushered in with a difficulty 
at Sossamon's School House, and the Pastor was deputized to at- 
tend a public meeting there by way of investigation and report. 127 
He learned, as did the Session shortly afterwards, that the ma- 
jority of the people present at the gathering preferred to make 
their organization a union Sunday School. 128 

Twenty-three years of service as a ruling elder was ended by 
the death of Abraham Cicero Alexander on January 8, 1889, as 
is indicated by page 237 of the Second Volume of Records of the 
Session which is dedicated to commemorating his spiritual leader- 
ship. The 1 888-1 889 report shows thirty-one members received 
on profession of faith and the total membership as 313. 129 Laird 
H. Alexander and Alexander Newton Harris were added to the 
eldership by installation on August 31, 1889, while J. Harvey 
Spears and Jas. M. Harris were elected deacons on the same 
day. 130 

Foreign Missions began to claim the attention of the churches 
of Cabarrus County in 1890, and Rocky River agreed to make an 
effort to raise the sum of $225.00 toward the support of a mis- 
sionary in conjunction with neighboring congregations. 131 The 
report made under date of March 31, 1891, reveals that gifts to 
this cause amounted to $347. 54. 132 

125 Extract from Flan of Work for Rocky River Church, 1888. 

126 Treasurer's Book of Rocky River Church, Vol. II, p. unnumbered. 
127 II, 233. 

128 II, 235. 
129 II, 238. 
130 II, 243. 
131 II, 248. 
132 II, 270. 

127 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Sunday Schools were again flourishing, for the 1 889-1 890 re- 
port showed a total of 372 enrolled, while the membership of the 
Church was listed at 305. 133 William E. Harris was chosen as 
deacon at an election conducted during the May Meeting of 
1890, 134 while E. E. Gribble, from the River Quarter, and W. N. 
Spears, as representative of the Morrison Quarter, were elected 
to similar offices a year later. 135 

Several grounds for encouragement were enumerated as 1890- 
189 1 was passed in retrospect in the yearly narrative to Presby- 
tery. A Young Men's prayer meeting was noted, an improvement 
in the matter of intemperance reported, and a blessed meeting, 
in which the youthful, but even then undoubtedly eloquent, 
Rev. Egbert W. Smith assisted, were cited as causes for grati- 
tude. 136 

Plans for the church year 1891-1892 called for a change in 
the arrangements for Sunday afternoon preaching in the Quar- 
ters, whereby the Pastor was requested to use his own judgement 
in this connection, rather than feeling obligated to conduct serv- 
ices at centers in these districts in rotation. 137 The report for the 
twelve-month period of 1 891-1892 exhibited several distressing 
notations, such as "a decided falling off" in Sunday School in- 
terest, and a "painful" reference to intemperance and worldly 
amusements. 138 The Young People's Missionary Society was 
clearly a prospering organization in 1893, when the roll listed 
sixty-seven names, although an examination of this register might 
well lead to the conclusion that the term "Young" was being 
interpreted in somewhat elastic fashion. 139 

The Farmers' Alliance became a potent factor in the political 

life of the community during the ministry of Mr. Anderson; and, 

133 II, 253. 
134 II, 256. 
135 II, 272. 
136 II, 268-269. 
137 II, 267. 
138 II, 284-285. 

139 Minutes of Rocky River Young People's Missionary Society, Vol. I, p. 5. 

128 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

as time progressed, he became decidedly involved in its activi- 
ties. Eventually, quite a portion of the strength of the Alliance 
was transferred to the Populist Party. The exertions of the Pas- 
tor in these connections met with the disapproval of a portion 
of the Congregation, and the controversy which ensued resulted 
in his decision to leave the Church at Rocky River. 140 His min- 
istry came to an end on April 13, 1893, as Concord Presbytery 
dissolved the relationship at Mr. Anderson's request, with the 
stipulation that such action become effective on May i. 141 

After several years at Millersburg, Kentucky, he moved to 
the far South and labored in a distinguished manner in Florida 
and Alabama, dying at Tampa on September 18, 1944, at the 
advanced age of 93. 142 Hampden-Sydney awarded to him the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1902. 143 

RICHARD VENABLE LANCASTER 

Rev. Richard Venable Lancaster, who had returned during 
the previous year from a term as missionary to China, was called 
as pastor at a congregational meeting held on March 1 1, 1894, 144 
to be installed by a commission of Presbytery, which included 
Dr. J. M. Wharey, on the 5th of May. 145 The new minister, like 
Daniel Penick, was a native of Cumberland County, Virginia, 
where he was born in 1863. A graduate of Hampden-Sydney 
College and Union Seminary in Virginia, he had sailed for China 
soon after the completion of his seminary course. Mr. Lancaster 
was married to Miss Mary Littlepage Holladay of Hampden- 
Sydney on November 27, 1889, the wedding taking place at 
Yokohama, Japan. 146 

140 Conversations with older Rocky River residents. 

141 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. X, p. 63. 

142 Scott, 1950 ed., p. 15. 

143 Hampden-Sidney College, General Catalogue of Officers and Students, 
p. 42. 

144 II, 298. 
145 II, 301. 
146 Scott, p. 388. 

129 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

The Session took cognizance of the newly-established orphans' 
home at Barium Springs, when a collection was authorized in the 
Sunday Schools on the fourth Sunday of each month for this 
cause. 147 Many persons were received into the membership of 
the Church during July, 1 894, and these accessions were largely 
responsible for an ability to report an unusually large total of 
fifty-two on profession during the church year (1 894-1 895), 
with 366 members on the roll. 148 

D. B. Porter replaced James M. Harris as organist in May, 
1895, upon the resignation of the latter. Misses Mary Query and 
Lula Davis were, at that time, designated as Mr. Porter's assist- 
ants. 149 In consequence of disturbances during the services of 
worship at the church in the early fall of that year, the Clerk 
of Session was instructed to prepare a letter, addressed to the 
Congregation, concerning such untoward conduct. 150 Having 
recently installed a pastor who had returned from China, an act 
of what might be termed reciprocity was involved in the recom- 
mendation by the Session of Miss Claude Grier for missionary 
service, on September 29, 1895. 151 

A reflection of intra-congregational difficulties, as well as of 
some not so ancient history, is evident in a sessional overture to 
Concord Presbytery under date of March 28, 1896. This paper 
reads: 

The Session of Rocky River Church respectfully overtures the 
Presbytery of Concord to adopt the following or like paper and 
order it read in the churches The Presbytery of Concord in the 
exercise of its pastoral authority and with a deep sense of the im- 
portance of the subject would call the attention of all the churches 
under its care to the following 1st It is a fixed principle of our 
Church not to pass upon the merits of political questions except 
where they affect the morals or the religion of our people 2 But 

147 II, 302. 

148 II, 304-305, 310. 

149 II, 311. 

150 II, 312. 

151 n, 313. 

130 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

in differences between brethren even when these differences are 
concerning matters that concern and effect the State we feel 
bound to warn all that such contentions should be conducted in 
the spirit of Christ For ye are all brethren and have one hope of 
your calling 3 The Presbytery therefore most affectionately and 
earnestly urges upon our people the necessity of much prayer to 
enable us to live as becometh the Gospel during the political tur- 
moil of the present year. . . , 152 

Presbytery not only adopted the overture, but ordered it pub- 
lished in the North Carolina Presbyterian. 153 

Another church was established partially within Rocky River's 
contracting territory, when White Hall, located five miles along 
the Concord road, was organized on Saturday afternoon, May 9, 
1896, with twenty-four members. Jas. B. White was, thereupon, 
elected ruling elder. 104 Six members had been dismissed from 
Rocky River to become charter members at White Hall. 155 
Within six months, Rocky River was to release eight more com- 
municants for the organization of yet another congregation. 156 
This was Patterson, six miles to the north, which was officially 
constituted on October 3, 1896. 107 

Two months after this, Mr. Lancaster was released from the 
pastorate at Rocky River and Zion churches at a special meeting 
of Presbytery. 158 His later ministry, in addition to the regular 
pastorate, included the presidency of Belhaven College, Jackson, 
Mississippi, and the directorship of religious work in State In- 
stitutions for Virginia. In 1906, he was honored with the award 

152 II, 314-315- 

153 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. X, pp. 229-230. 

154 Ibid., p. 254. 

155 II, 317. The original membership of White Hall was largely drawn from 
Zion, and the former congregation, therefore, was the ecclesiastical granddaugh- 
ter, rather than daughter, of Rocky River. Following the death of its last 
surviving member, the name of White Hall was erased from the roll of Con- 
cord Presbyters' on September 6, 1922 (Minutes of Concord Presbvterv, 
Vol. XIV, p. 68). 

156 II, 318. 

157 Minutes of Concord Presbvtery, Vol. X, pp. 289-290. 

158 Ibid., p. 285. 

J3 1 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

of the degree of Doctor of Divinity by King College. Dr. Lan- 
caster died at Ashland, Virginia, on May 12, 1938. 159 

Rocky River was the scene of a remarkably novel event in the 
field of science and medicine near the close of the year 1897. 
Dr. Henry Louis Smith, brilliant young professor of physics at 
Davidson College, had, almost two years before, demonstrated the 
possibility of locating a foreign body within the human organism 
by means of a recently devised machine, when he photographed 
a bullet which had been fired into the hand of a cadaver used 
for dissecting purposes at the North Carolina Medical College, 
then located at Davidson. An account of the experiment and a 
photograph taken in this connection appeared in the Charlotte 
Observer™ and this publication led to wide interest in the possi- 
bilities of the rays which had been discovered by the German 
scientist, William Conrad Roentgen, toward the close of 1895, 
furnishing a basis for the experiments of the Davidson physicist 
in early 1896. 

Among those who learned of Dr. Smith's investigations was 
William E. Harris, a deacon in Rocky River Church, who lived 
in a house located some quarter of a mile from the Rocky River 
Grove and several hundred yards south of the Manse, which is 
now owned and occupied by Ruling Elder Hoyte M. McCachren 
and his family. But the concern of Mr. Harris, like that of Jairus 
of long ago, was far more than that of an academic nature; for 
his young daughter, Ellen, was suffering from a severe affliction 
of the throat. In November, 1897, the child had swallowed a 
thimble which was, providentially, of the open-end variety. 161 

Some weeks after the accident, at the end of December, Dr. 

159 Scott, p. 388. 

160 Feb. 27, 1896; see also issue of Dec. 14, 1947. 

161 A manuscript account of this misadventure and its remedy, prepared by 
Mrs. Elva Harris, mother of Ellen Harris, in the fall of 1952, has supplied 
first-hand information. This is likewise true of a letter written by Dr. Smith 
to Dr. Robert H. Lafferty under date of Nov. 29, 192 1. Mrs. Mack D. Reid, 
who lived for a time in the house involved in this incident with the grand- 
mother of Ellen, has furnished further facts incorporated in this story. 

132 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

Smith promptly responded to a plea to come to her aid. His ap- 
paratus was loaded in a hack or a wagon — there are divergences 
in the reports at this point — and the thirty miles from Davidson 
to Rocky River were covered as speedily as possible. Placing the 
girl in a hammock, which had been improvised from a sheet, and 
setting up the equipment in a front corner room on the first 
floor of the farm house, the professor worked long and diligently 
in his effort to locate the obstruction. Finally he said to Mrs. Har- 
ris, "I am persuaded the thimble is not in your child's body." Up 
to this point, the girl had been lving on her back. Turning her 
upon her side, Dr. Smith made further efforts and exclaimed, 
"I can see the thimble as clearly as if I had it in my hand." A 
photograph was then made for the guidance of the physicians 
and the approximate location indicated by means of an ink spot 
on Ellen's throat. 

Both patient and machine were transferred to Charlotte, the 
latter, however, by way of Davidson, to which point it was trans- 
ported in a carryall driven by Ruling Elder James Taylor of the 
Harrisburg Church. The surgeons were unwilling to proceed 
upon the basis of the picture made by Dr. Smith and insisted 
upon seeing the thimble by means of the X-ray, which explains the 
dispatch of the device to Charlotte. An operation was performed 
in late December for its removal, and, after a prolonged con- 
valescence, Ellen recovered. 162 

A contemporary publication, the Davidson College Magazine, 
which appeared about two weeks after the operation, described 
this graciously effective experiment as "the first recorded case 
in the state in which the X-ray has been successfully used as a 
means of surgical diagnosis." With the passing- of time, the geo- 
graphical area embraced came to be greatly enlarged, and the 
affair ultimately gained repute as the first use in America of the 
X-ray for such purposes. Actually, the invention was being uti- 

162 An interview with Air. Taylor in the fall of 1952 supplemented the fore- 
going. 

133 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

lized as an aid to surgery in the city of Philadelphia more than 
eighteen months before the incident in which Ellen Harris and 
the Rocky River community played such prominent parts. 163 

CORNELIUS MILLER 

The next pastor was Rev. Cornelius Miller, to whom a call was 
extended on February 21, 1897. 164 Mr. Miller was, at that time, 
serving as Evangelist for Orange Presbytery. His installation 
took place on June 13. 165 Mississippi was the native state of this 
new pastor, who had served in the Confederate Army as a cav- 
alryman. He graduated from the University of Mississippi after 
the close of the War, in 1871, and studied theology at Union 
Seminary in Virginia. Before coming to Rocky River he had 
preached in a number of churches in North Carolina and was, 
for a brief period, pastor in Texas. The new hostess at the Manse 
was the former Miss Mary L. Scales of Rockingham County, 
North Carolina, her marriage to Mr. Miller having taken place 
on December 12, 1876. 166 

Among the early problems confronting, if not actually await- 
ing, the minister was that of the time of meeting for the Young 
People's Society. The Session confirmed his suggestion that these 
gatherings take place during the daylight hours, or in the early 
evening, at a meeting held in July. By the 6th of August, how- 
ever, the second option was withdrawn and it was insisted that 
the meetings be scheduled for the afternoon. 167 The news of this 
later action was conveyed to the Young People by the Pastor 
on August 14, as indicated by a minute of the Society, which also 

163 Davidson College Magazine, Jan. 1898; Book of the South, p. 178; Who's 
Who in North Carolina, p. 478; E. Alexander, The Query History, p. un- 
numbered; Annals of Surgery, Vol. XXIV, pp. 217-218. For an interesting 
preliminary to this account, additional details, and certain minor variations, 
see Asheville Citizen-Times, Sept. 27, 1953, Sect. A, p. 10. 

164 II, 320. 

165 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. X, p. 346. 

166 Scott, pp. 498-499. 
167 II, 324-326. 

134 



TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY 

records the official acquiescence of its members as they bowed 
to the unavoidable and inevitable, in the brief entry, "After a few 
remarks from Mr. Miller the Society decided to hold its meeting 
in the afternoon instead of at night." 16S 

A leave of absence was granted the Pastor during October, to 
be devoted to evangelistic work in Stokes County. 169 Another of 
Rocky River's sons to enter the ministry, J. Marc Harris, was 
endorsed as a candidate about this time. 170 

D. B. Porter, who had been appointed to lead the singing of 
the congregation in the previous year, now suggested that Elber 
Morrison be installed as chorister. This was done in March, 1898, 
and Air. Porter assumed the duties of organist. 171 On August 28, 
1 898, James C. Thompson was installed as elder. 172 

Tribulations for the country church, not only continued, but 
increased. The Session, at the instance of the Pastor, on Septem- 
ber 2, 1898, overtured the Presbytery of Concord to move in 
behalf of these rural congregations "weakened by removal of 
their young men and often of their most substantial families to 
the towns." 173 By way of remedy it was suggested that such 
members continue to support the church from which they had 
gone out through contributions to its current expense budget, 
"especially in cases where these persons still own the land from 
which they have removed." 174 Forty-five years later the revival 
and application of this general idea was to prove quite effectual 
in the case of Rocky River. Churches receiving members under 
such transfers were also called upon to provide funds for the 
support of the country churches from which these additions had 



168 Minutes of Rocky River Young People's Society, Vol. I, p. 90. 
169 II, 326. 
170 II, 327. 
171 II, 331. 

172 II, 342- 

173 II, 343-345- 

174 II, 344- 

175 II, 344-345- 

135 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Further indication of the situation in which Rocky River 
found herself in regard to financial matters is seen in a petition 
of the Session of the day following, which sought a reduction 
in the Church's Presbyterial Assessment from $30.00 to $20.00 
per year, 176 while Presbytery's recognition of such straits is 
shown by the granting of the request. 177 

Mr. Miller announced his election as Evangelist for Stokes 
County in the following summer (1899), and left soon afterward 
to take up this work. 178 E. C. Davis was then elected Clerk of the 
Session, on September 10, 1899; and thus ended the custom of 
having the Minister also serve as Clerk, a practice which dated 
back to at least the time of Daniel Penick. 179 

After his departure from Rocky River, Mr. Miller held pas- 
torates in North Carolina and Tennessee, prior to his death at 
Dalton, Georgia, on February 13, i9i2. 1S0 

176 II, 346. 
177 II, 348. 
178 II, 365-366. 
179 II, 367. 
180 Scott, p. 499. 



136 



CHAPTER X 

Nineteen Hundred and After 



ROBERT JUNIUS HUNTER 

Robert Junius Hunter, native of Mecklenburg County in 
which he was born on February 15, 1867, came to Rocky River 
as stated supply in 1900. 1 Educated at Davidson College and 
Princeton and Louisville seminaries, he had been licensed by 
Transylvania Presbytery in 1 899, but had not yet been ordained 
when he took up his work at Rocky River. On December 1 1 , 
1900, he was married to Miss Annie Russell Gaines of Louisville, 
Kentucky, in that city. 2 His ordination and installation took place 
on Friday, May 3, 1901, at the eleven o'clock services, and were 
conducted by a commission of Concord Presbytery consisting of 
three ministers, C. Preston, G. H. Cornelson, and W. A. Gillon, 
with Ruling Elders J. B. White, S. W. White, and A. N. Harris. 
The then very newly ordained minister was installed at Zion by 
the same representatives of the Presbytery on the afternoon of 
that day. 3 

It was deemed expedient to reorganize the Young People's 
Missionary Society in 1900; and a new constitution was adopted 
on June 9 of that year, in which it was provided that when a 
member was absent from a meeting and failed to send his or her 
offering, a collector, representing the delinquent's Quarter, was 
to call upon the absentee for payment. 4 

Two aged members of the Session, Dr. D. W. Flowe and 

1 Scott, p. 340; II, 373. 

2 Scott, p. 340. 

3 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. X, p. 587. 

4 Minutes of Rocky River Young People's Missionary Society, Vol. I, 
pp. 178-179- 

137 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

John Query, died about this time, the former on May 23, 1900, 
and the latter on February 17, 1901. 5 

A trend, definitely detrimental to the rural church, which, as 
has been stated, had become evident toward the close of the 
Nineteenth Century, continued in accelerated fashion with the 
early years of the Twentieth. The general movement of popula- 
tion into the towns exerted a debilitating influence upon many of 
the country congregations, including Rocky River. This was the 
day of the development of the cotton manufacturing industry 
in Cabarrus and the surrounding counties. With disconcerting 
regularity, members were dismissed at succeeding meetings of 
the Session and the result was manifested in the general decline 
of the Church's numerical strength. As one after another of Her 
choice sons and daughters transferred their membership to as- 
sume positions of leadership in their new affiliations, it was at near 
tragic cost to the home congregation. 

It will be recalled that the peak of membership came in the 
year 1856, when 650 were enrolled; although in later compari- 
sons it should be remembered that 202 of this number were Ne- 
groes who, in succeeding generations, were formed into separate 
churches. When matters had somewhat subsided after the end of 
the War, only 290 communicants were to be counted in 1871. 
Under the leadership of Mr. Mack, this figure rose to 394 in 
1875. In 1887, when the Church suffered the usual experience of 
those without a pastor, there was a decline to 275. By 1895 this 
had risen to 366, and from that point there was a gradual reduc- 
tion for a period of sixteen years. 6 

But it was not altogether a matter of removals. In 1885, Rocky 
River reported 240 baptized non-communicants, a promising 
source of future accessions. Ten years later, the number stood 
at 200, and by 1901 it had decreased to 150. In 1909, the last 

5 II, 374-375, 384. 

6 Minutes of the General Assembly: 1871, p. 106; 1875, p. 145; 1887, p. 315; 
1895, p. 494- 

I38 





Robert Junius Hunter 
1901-1908 



James Lapsley 
1909-1916 





Thomas Hugh Spence John Addison Ricks 

1916-193 1 1932-1941 

PASTORS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

year when this item was included in the statistical tables of the 
Minutes of the General Assembly, only 45 such potential com- 
municants were reported. 7 

An election, held in the fall of 1901, resulted in the ordination 
and installation of John F. Alexander and J. Hall M. White as 
elders. 8 By this time the number of Sunday Schools within the 
bounds of the Congregation had been reduced to two. A. N. 
Harris was elected superintendent of the school at the Church, 
while John F. Alexander was chosen to head the organization 
at Harrisburg. 9 E. A. Morrison resigned as choir leader in Au- 
gust, 1902, and his resignation was accepted with great reluc- 
tance and appropriate appreciation of what he had accomplished 
in this position. 10 Some months later, Miss Sue McEachern was 
appointed assistant organist. 11 

Twenty-six members were added to the Church in 1903- 
1904, twenty-two of whom were received on examination; 12 but 
mounting dismissions to other churches tended to prevent the 
roll from growing as might otherwise have been expected. 

Mr. Hunter remained at Rocky River until the summer of 
1908, when he moved to Canton, North Carolina, in an effort 
to secure relief from Malaria which had afflicted him for some 
time. Believing that his new charge would be only temporary, 
he undertook it as stated supply and served the Canton Church 
as such until 1920, doing what he himself judged to have been 
probably the best work of his ministerial career, though never 
installed as pastor. He later acted as pastor of the Beulah Church 
at Buechel, Kentucky; and for fifteen years, previous to his re- 
tirement in 1940, was at the West Avenue Church, Gastonia, 
North Carolina. His death took place on June 18, 1947. 13 

7 Ibid.: 1885, p. 499; 1895, p. 494; 1 901, p. 173; 1909, p. 175. 

8 III, 2-3. 

9 III, 3. 

10 III, 7. 

11 III, 10. 

12 Minutes of the General Assembly, 1904, p. 166. 

13 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, 1947, p. 495. 

J 39 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

HARRISBURG CHURCH ORGANIZED 

Since the building of the railway line between Charlotte and 
Salisbury and the establishment of a station at what was origi- 
nally called Harris' Depot, that settlement had become more and 
more important as one of the centers of the Congregation radiat- 
ing from the Church, which lay three miles to the east. As a 
point selected for Sunday afternoon services and the location of 
a flourishing Sunday School, Harrisburg continued to grow in 
significance in the territory to which Rocky River ministered. 

The culmination of these religious activities and interest came 
in 1903 with the organization of a separate church. As a prelimi- 
nary to this act, the Rocky River Session met at the home of 
M. M. Morrison in Harrisburg, and granted letters of dismissal 
to sixteen or seventeen members who proposed to unite with the 
prospective congregation. 14 On July 2 1 , a commission, composed 
of ministers and consisting of G. H. Cornelson, Jr., W. A. Gil- 
Ion, and Mr. Hunter, met in compliance with the directions of 
Concord Presbytery, and formed the Presbyterians of the Har- 
risburg territory into a church known by that name. Twenty 
persons constituted the charter membership. D. L. Morrison, 
D. B. McEachern, Jno. F. Alexander, and D. N. Johnson were 
then elected elders, while S. W. Houston, Z. M. Stafford, and 
Ellis Morrison were selected for deacons. Messrs. Morrison and 
McEachern were then installed as elders, and Mr. Houston set 
apart for, and inducted into, the office of deacon. 15 

DISSOLUTION OF ZION CHURCH 

The organization of Harrisburg was soon followed by the dis- 
solution of Zion Church, which, as previously noted, had been 
established in the northeastern area of Rocky River's parish in 
1873. Concord Presbytery, at a called meeting held on Janu- 

14 III, 14. 

15 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. X, p. 752. 

140 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

ary 7, 1904, was informed that the membership of Zion had 
dwindled to a point where but one resident member, Ruling 
Elder S. W. White, and two nonresidents remained upon the roll. 
Presbytery, accordingly, dissolved the church and transferred 
the membership of Mr. White to the First Church of Concord. 16 

JAMES LAPSLEY 

The Church, as had proven generally true under such cir- 
cumstances, was not long without a pastor; for Rev. James Laps- 
ley was installed on May 1, 1909, with three ministers, J. M. 
Grier, J. W. Lafferty, and R. A. Lapsley, Jr., acting in the name 
of the Presbytery in the formation of this relationship. The same 
commission installed him at Harrisburg in the afternoon of that 
day. 17 

The new Pastor was a son of the first layman to be elected 
Moderator of the Southern General Assembly and brother of 
the heroic Samuel Norvell Lapsley who died as a pioneer mis- 
sionary in the Congo in 1892. Rev. James Lapsley was 49 years 
of age when he came to Rocky River. He was unusually talented 
from a mechanical standpoint, producing a total of eighty-seven 
inventions. Mrs. Lapsley was the former Miss Flora Morrow of 
Hartselle, Alabama. 18 

In 1 909 the name of the Woman's Organization was changed 
from "The Agnes Penick Benevolent Society" to "The Agnes 
Penick Missionary Society." 19 Many such as should be saved 
were brought into the Church during the next several years, 
twenty-five persons being received on profession in 1909-19 10 
and forty, two years later. 20 

Samuel Black and Clifford O. McEachern were made elders 

16 Ibid., Vol XI, p. 5. 

17 Ibid., Vol. XI, pp. 367, 404- 

18 Scott, p. 391. 

19 Ethel Hudson Morrison, History of Woman's Auxiliary of Rocky River 
Church, 1876-1925. 

20 Minutes of the General Assembly: 1910, p. 210; 1912, p. 209. 

141 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

in 191 1, 21 and Mr. Black was elected Clerk of Session and Super- 
intendent of the Sunday School in 191 2. The latter vacancy was 
created through the resignation of A. N. Harris, while that in 
the clerkship was occasioned by the retirement of E. C. Davis. 22 
The "Young Men's Prayer Meeting" was credited with a gift 
of $44.25 to the Barium Springs Orphanage in the annual report 
for 1911-1912. 23 

A new well was drilled at the Manse about the beginning 
of 1 9 14, and a pump installed. A committee was then ap- 
pointed to solicit funds to cover the cost of this provision for 
the temporal welfare of the minister and his family. 24 The Pres- 
bytery of Concord met at Rocky River on April 21-23, r 9 J 4» 
but the only local touch in the records of these sessions relates 
to a visit of its members to the Jackson Training School. 25 

Mr. Lapsley left Rocky River in the spring of 19 16 after a 
ministry characterized by numerous additions to the membership 
of the Church. He removed to Florida to assume charge, as stated 
supply, of the St. Andrews and Panama City churches in that 
State. Later work was done in North Carolina and Virginia, pre- 
ceding his death at Craigsville, Virginia, on July 30, 1930. 26 

HOMECOMING OF 1912 

During Mr. Lapsley 's pastorate, in August, 191 2, an elaborate 
homecoming was held at Rocky River. The Session had laid 
plans for the season at a meeting held in early July, which was 
followed by a gathering in Concord for the same purpose. 27 

The formal program was held on August 15, and began at 
ten-thirty in the morning with an invocation led by Dr. John G. 

21 HI, 54. 

22 HI, 57. 

23 III, 58. 

24 III, 67. 

25 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XIII, p. 17. 

26 Scott, p. 391. 

27 III, 59- 

142 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

Anderson, pastor from 1888 until 1893. President D. H. Hill 
of the State Agricultural and Mechanical College at Raleigh was 
the chief orator of the occasion, and delivered an address on the 
"Character of Rocky River Pioneers." Dr. Hill was a grandson 
of Robert Hall Morrison and sustained the same relationship to 
Rocky River Church. Eulogies upon the life and labors of the 
ecclesiastical fathers in this Israel of the New World were next 
in the order of exercises, tributes to John M. Wilson by Rev. 
Daniel Penick Junkin, to Daniel Penick by Rev. E. P. Davis, 
to Joseph B. Mack by Rev. A. Walker White, to James Morton 
Wharey by Rev. J. M. Harris, preceding the benediction by 
Rev. R. C. Morrison. All of these participants had intimate con- 
nections with Rocky River. A "Discussion of Preservation of 
Grave Yards" was included in the activities of the occasion. 28 

Music for the day was furnished by the Rocky River Choir 
and a choir representing Camp Number 2 1 2 of the Confederate 
Veterans from Concord. These old soldiers — it was forty-seven 
years since Appomattox — called forth the following comment 
from the Editor of the Presbyterian Standard: "Just under the 
pulpit sat the choir of veterans ... of the Concord Camp, men 
who seemed to belong to the heroic age which the speakers were 
holding before us . . . They sang the old hymns with a fervor 
that touched every heart." 29 

An estimate set the number of persons present at 2500. Mor- 
rison Caldwell was chiefly responsible for the arrangements for 
the occasion, the echoes of which did not die down for a num- 
ber of years following, while memories of the event still remain 
with many who were in attendance upon the exercises. 30 

As a sequel to this celebration, a plot of land, traditionally the 
site of the earliest house of worship erected on Rocky River, was 

28 m, 60. 

29 August 21, 1912, p. 1. 

30 III, 60. 

H3 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

gratuitously transferred to the Trustees of the Congregation by- 
Mrs. L. L. Plott. The deed, dated March 30, 19 14, described the 
area as "the first burying ground in Cabarrus." 31 

This spot, now covered by a clump of small trees, was found 
by the writer, upon the occasion of a visit in the summer of 1950, 
to be marked by a number of rough stones as though suggest- 
ing the location of several graves. Two such markers are spaced 
so as to indicate the resting place of a young child. A monument 
erected on the land bears, on one side, the inscription: 

HERE WAS ERECTED 

IN 1754 

THE FIRST ROCKY 

RIVER CHURCH. 

A. CRAIGHEAD, PASTOR 



and on the other: 



THE FIRST CHURCH 

BETWEEN YADKIN AND 

CATAWBA RIVERS 

THIS SPOT 

WAS THE FIRST 

GRAVEYARD IN 

CABARRUS CO. N. C. 

THOMAS HUGH SPENCE 

The history of Rocky River, from the standpoint of the au- 
thor, falls into three periods: 1, those elusive years prior to 1835 
for the reconstruction of which materials are only sparsely avail- 
able; 2, from the arrival of Daniel Penick with his illuminating 
pen until, 3, one sunny September afternoon in the year 1916, 
when the writer rode from the railway station at Harrisburg to 
the Rocky River manse on a wagon driven by James Barnhardt 
and loaded with household possessions, to take up his abode in 
that delightful brick house; but only until the following morn- 

31 Cabarrus County, Record of Deeds, Book 81, pp. 422-423; III, 67. 

I44 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

ing when he set out to enroll as a freshman in Davidson College. 
From that day in early autumn, more than a third of a century 
ago, a sustained contact has been maintained with Rocky River. 

Rev. Thomas Hugh Spence was a native of Northern Ireland, 
having been born near Ballymena, County Antrim, on Septem- 
ber 30, 1866. He migrated to the United States in 1887. Decid- 
ing, several years later to enter the ministry, he studied at the 
Rock Hill (South Carolina) High School, Davidson College, 
concluding his course there in 1897, and Columbia Seminary 
from which he was graduated in 1905. A pastorate of several 
years (1 905-1 909) in Rowan County, North Carolina, was fol- 
lowed by seven years spent at Smithfield in the eastern portion 
of the state. Between his college and seminary training, he mar- 
ried Miss Anna Grace Sparrow of Davidson. 32 

His installation at Rocky River took place on October 29, 
1916. 33 During his pastorate the membership of the Church re- 
mained at a rather constant figure of about 200. 34 Contributions 
to benevolences during the early 1920's rose to new heights, with 
a total of $2,803.00 given to such causes during the year 1920- 
192 1, 35 an amount not to be exceeded until thirty-one years had 
passed. 

The elders of Rocky River seemed to have formed a custom 
of homegoing in two's, and, in x\pril and October of 191 9, Laird 
Alexander and E. C. Davis passed into the presence of their 
Lord. 36 F. S. Pharr and W. E. Alexander were added to the Ses- 
sion after election to the eldership on June 25, 1922. 37 

The late teens were still essentially the horse and buggy days. 
Though a few motor cars had been introduced into the com- 
munity, they were necessarily handled, not only with due regard 

32 Scott, p. 676; Minutes of Concord Presbyter}', Vol. XIII, p. 227. 

33 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XIII, p. 227. 

34 See Appendix K. 

35 Ibid. 

36 m, 95-96. 

37 in, 112. 

i45 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

to their mechanical eccentricities, but also with deliberate def- 
erence to the condition of the sundry array of dirt roads in the 
territory occupied by the Congregation. 

Considerable numbers of the church members were invariably 
found in "Town" (Concord) each Saturday, wagons and buggies 
largely serving as conveyances. The Academy, long associated 
with the community, had been superseded by a public high 
school, located just across the road from the Church grove, and 
was a center for Saturday baseball games during the summer for 
those who were able to forego the attractions of the County Seat 
and others who stopped by on their return from that congrega- 
tional rendezvous. August was the month for social functions; 
since crops, had been "laid by" and farmers, while not entirely 
freed from work, found its pressure greatly lessened. This meant 
that the young people could conveniently gather in various 
homes during the evening, either in response to a specific invi- 
tation to a party or by way of simply "dropping in." 

The Christmas season of 191 6 was an occasion of which recol- 
lections still remain so far as at least one of the participants in 
its series of festivities is concerned. Centering around the Aber- 
nethy, Barnhardt, and Black homes at Pioneer Mills, with an ex- 
cursion to the W. D. Harrys', some nine miles to the north and 
on beyond Harrisburg, what now would probably be termed 
simple pleasures of that week of more than thirty years ago are 
yet among the bright memories of one who was at home for the 
holidays from college. 

In this connection, that same student can still recall an expe- 
rience, of the sort which it is rather difficult to forget, associated 
with a trip by train from Charlotte to Harrisburg in the fall of 
19 1 6. Two ladies were seated just in front of the traveller; and 
it soon became apparent that they were whiling away the four- 
teen miles, or thirty minutes, of the journey with a discussion, 
not only of their new pastor, but of the entire Spence family. 
It was with some relief that the not disinterested listener heard 

146 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

them each profess an incompetence to pass judgement upon their 
unsuspected auditor on the grounds that he had been away from 
home for the greater part of the time since the arrival of the 
Spences at Rocky River, thereby depriving them of an oppor- 
tunity either to note his virtues or to observe his vices, though 
their conclusions may not have been couched in these precise 
terms. 

In 1920 the Rocky River choir won for the fourth time a silver 
cup which had been offered for competition among the various 
choirs which gathered for the annual Sunday School conven- 
tions, thereby securing permanent possession of this trophy. 38 
At one of these contests, a partisan of a neighboring congregation 
and an elder from Rocky River came near resorting to blows as 
a sequel to acute discord growing out of this rivalry in sacred 
harmony. 

The Church focused much of her attention upon the War 
during the years 191 7-1 9 18, and a number of her sons entered 
the armed services. Gold mining activities at Pioneer Mills, three 
miles to the south of the Church, were resumed, after a lapse 
of many years. Much of the energy expended in this connection, 
however, was consumed in pumping water from the shaft of 
the long disused mine, and the yield of metal was negligible. 

The extensive dependence of the Congregation upon farming 
as a source of income, coupled with the fact that much of the 
land in the general vicinity of the Church was in the hands of 
non-Presbyterians, proved an element of financial weakness over 
a long period of years. It was not until the general introduction 
of the motor car that it was possible for those employed in Con- 
cord, and other industrial centers, to reside in the bounds of the 
congregation and find such gainful employment where work of 
this type was available. 

The condition of the Church building and that of its surround- 
ing grove were subjects of discussion at the annual meeting of 

38 Inscription on cup. 

147 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the Congregation held on January 10, 1923. At this time plans 
were made for considerable repair work on the Church. 39 It was 
also decided to prune those trees which appeared to call for such 
treatment and to plant additional ones in certain spots on the 
grounds. 40 

In the fall of that year (1923), the Synod of North Carolina, 
evidently moved by a study of the State map which shows Cabar- 
rus County in the role of an intruder into the territory of Meck- 
lenburg Presbytery, and demonstrating a more perfect acquaint- 
ance with geography than with Concord and Cabarrus traditions, 
took action transferring that county, together with its ministers 
and churches, to Mecklenburg, the presbytery of its obvious 
geographical affinity. 41 The Session of Rocky River joined the 
majority of such bodies in the County in petitioning Synod to 
rescind its order and restore Cabarrus to Concord Presbytery. 42 
The retransfer was promptly effected by Synod in 1924, 43 which 
thereby tacitly and tactfully reaffirmed its adherence to the sec- 
tion of the Confession of Faith which teaches that courts of that 
gradation, as well as councils, are not to be judged universally 
inerrant. 

During this brief period when Rocky River was once more 
counted among the churches of Mecklenburg, a rather perplex- 
ing entry appears upon the minutes of that presbytery, in which 
it is asserted that "Rocky River Church was given permission 
to change its name to Morgan Memorial Church." 44 By way of 
clarification, it should be added that the Rocky River in question 
was a church located in a neighboring county which had pre- 
viously been associated with Mecklenburg Presbytery; and it is 
likely that the change was prompted by an understandable de- 

39 III, 114. 

40 in, 114. 

41 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, Vol. 1923, p. 207. 

42 III, 123. 

43 Minutes of the Synod of North Carolina, Vol. 1924, p. 348. 

44 Minutes of Mecklenburg Presbytery, fall 1923, p. 25. 

148 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

sire to obviate the inevitable confusion of having two churches 
by the same name in one presbytery. 45 

Additions to the Diaconate were made with the accession of 
F. W. Pharr and M. D. Reid to this body through vote of the 
Congregation, their ordination and installation taking place on 
February 22, 1925. 46 The desirability of some measures for keep- 
ing the different cemeteries associated with the Church in proper 
order had long been recognized; and on January 6, 1926, steps 
were initiated toward this end, with the selection of Ruling Eld- 
ers J. M. W. White, Sam Black, and W. M. Morrison, as a com- 
mittee to raise funds for the endowment of "the several grave- 
yards in which Rocky River Church is interested." 4T A report 
made to the Congregation five years later indicated that this fund 
then amounted to $99i.oo. 48 

W. A. Alexander was ordained and installed as an elder on 
April 29, 1927, while, at the same time, Daniel Alexander and 
Floyd Parrish were added to the number of deacons. 49 The death 
of Elder J. H. Spears occurred in the year following (1928) on 
December io. 50 

A two months' vacation was granted the Pastor in 1927 "in 
order that he might visit his people in Scotland and Ireland." 51 
On the ensuing trip, Air. Spence spent the first week of June 
with the author and his wife in Dunfermline, Scotland, where 
the son, a divinity student at the University of Edinburgh, was 
serving as assistant to the pastor of the North United Free 
Church (now St. Johns). On Sunday, June 5, the Rocky River 
pastor was guest minister to that congregation in a town famed, 
in the long ago, for the pious and illustrious Queen Margaret and, 

45 A situation existing in certain presbyteries at the present time. 

46 III, 124. 

47 III, 129-130. 

48 III, 154. 

49 III, 137. 

50 III, 145. 

51 III, 137. 

I49 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

in later years, as the birthplace of the wealthy and generous An- 
drew Carnegie. 

While the Church at Harrisburg had been set off from the 
parent congregation at Rocky River as early as 1903, the same 
pastor had continued to serve both churches, with services in the 
morning at Rocky River and in the afternoon at Harrisburg. In 
1930 the pastoral relationship between Mr. Spence and Harris- 
burg was dissolved and this congregation secured a full-time min- 
ister in the person of Licentiate, and later Reverend, F. N. 
Wilson. 52 

Mr. Spence's pastorate, which ended on March 31, 193 1, was 
the third longest in the extended history of Rocky River, only 
those clerical patriarchs, John M. Wilson and Daniel Penick, ex- 
ceeding him in length of service. He was later at nearby Patter- 
son Church, first as stated supply and then as pastor until his 
death on May 9, 1937. His grave, near the present Rocky River 
church building, is marked by an impressive stone, which, as 
indicated by the inscription which it bears, was erected by the 
churches of Harrisburg, Patterson, and Rocky River in apprecia- 
tion of his ministrations among these congregations, each occupy- 
ing territory which originally pertained to Rocky River. 53 

JOHN ADDISON RICKS 

The next pastor was a young man, recently graduated from 
Union Seminary after having received his collegiate training at 
Davidson College. Rev. John A. Ricks was a native of Green- 
ville, North Carolina, born, like Dr. J. B. Mack, on Christmas 
Eve, but sixty-eight years later (1906). He was licensed by Con- 
cord Presbytery on October 4, 1932. 54 His ordination and in- 
stallation took place in Rocky River Church on October 30, of 
that year; and were in charge of a commission of Presbytery con- 
sisting of three ministers — C. M. Richards, T. H. Spence, and 

52 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XV, pp. 200, 215, 226, 244-245. 

53 Ibid., Vols. XV, p. 191; XVI, p. 221. 

54 Scott, p. 609. 

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NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

F. N. Wilson; together with Ruling Elder W. G. Caswell, of 
the First Church of Concord. 00 

Entering into his work with evidences of enthusiasm and con- 
secration, Mr. Ricks was instrumental in increasing the member- 
ship of the Church, which rose from two hundred to 296 during 
his ministry. 56 Not long after the arrival of Air. Ricks, a number 
of new officers were added. On January 15, 1933, E. A. Morri- 
son and S. C. Pharr were elected to the eldership of the Church; 57 
and on March 19, following, John Russell, John C. Sossoman, 
and Mack C. Howie were elected deacons. 58 C. S. McCurdy, 
F. W. Pharr, and L. V. Spears were chosen elders on April 15, 
1934; 59 while W. K. Alexander and C. M. Miller were, in like 
manner, added to the Diaconate by installation on August 5. 60 
J. Hall White died in 1933 after thirty-one years of service as 
ruling^ elder. 61 

The summer of 1933 was the occasion of a celebration of the 
reputed 179th Anniversary of the founding of the Church. This 
assumed the form of a home-coming, and brought the children 
of Rocky River from half a dozen states and greetings from many 
more scattered across the nation. 62 

An outpost Sunday School, the first to be established and op- 
erated by Rocky River in many years, was begun in the area 
immediately to the east of the Church in 1935. Ruling Elder 
W. E. Alexander was associated with the Pastor in this work. 
This particular school was later discontinued and another begun 
several miles to the northeast of Rocky River. 63 

An individual communion service was presented to the Church 
late in the summer of 1935 by a group of friends and former 

55 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XV, p. 325. 

56 See Appendix K. 

57 III, 165. 

58 III, 165. 

59 III, 175. 

60 III, 176. 

61 III, 181. 

62 Christian Observer, Oct. 4, 1933, p. 10. 

63 Conversation with Rev. J. A. Ricks. 

151 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

members, to whom the Session addressed a resolution of thanks 
at a meeting held on August 3 1 . This service was first used in the 
celebration of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper at the Sep- 
tember Meeting. 64 Mrs. W. C. Taylor, in 1936, delivered to the 
Session one of the first communion cups used at Rocky River. 65 
Concord Presbytery was entertained on September 17-18, 

1935. At this time a call from the Patterson Church was placed 
in the hands of a former Rocky River pastor, Rev. T. H. Spence, 
accepted by him, and a commission appointed for his installation, 
which included Rev. John Ricks and Ruling Elder Sam Black. 66 
In the next year (1936), a brother of the Minister, now the Rev. 
George Ricks of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, was recommended to 
Presbytery by the Session as a candidate for the ministry. 67 

Mrs. J. A. Ricks, Sr., mother of the Pastor, served as hostess 
at the manse during the early portion of his ministry. On June 27, 

1936, Mr. Ricks was married to Miss Mamye Snow Turner of 
Bedford, Virginia. 68 

The outpost Sunday School moved forward in an encouraging 
manner, and the Session took formal note of its appreciation of 
the work of Mr. and Mrs. Ricks as related to this particular enter- 
prise at a meeting held early in 1939. 69 Another project inau- 
gurated through the interest of the Pastor was a Sunday School 
Library, which was established in 1938. 70 About the time of ac- 
quiring the recent volumes which made up this collection, steps 
were taken whereby the older Sessional Records, covering the 
years 1 835-1901, were deposited with the Historical Foundation 
at Montreat. 71 

In the autumn of 1939, two additional elders were elected, 

64 III, 183. 

65 III, 185. 

66 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XVI, pp. 97, 102. 

67 III, 188. 

68 Scott, 1950 ed., p. 580. 

69 III, 200. 

70 III, 198. 

71 III, 201. 

152 



NINETEEN HUNDRED AND AFTER 

William Chenault Spence on November 12, and Hoyte M. Mc- 
Cachren on the 26th of that month; 72 but L. Victor Spears was 
lost to the Session by death on July 3 of the same year. 73 

A distinguished guest, and son of a former minister, was the 
visiting preacher for the May Meeting in 1940. Dr. Edward 
Mack, professor in Union Seminary in Virginia and at that time 
Moderator of the General Assembly, returned for these several 
days to the church and scenes of his childhood which he had left 
upon the removal of his father sixty-five years before. 74 

Early in 1941, Mr. Ricks, after a pastorate in the course of 
which, as has been noted, the Church's membership was increased 
by almost fifty per cent, left Rocky River to undertake work in 
lower Rowan County in the vicinity of China Grove. 75 By 1948, 
this had been organized into a church under the name of Imman- 
uel, reporting ninety members and a Sunday School of 124. 76 At 
its summer meeting of that year, Concord Presbytery convened 
in the handsome house of worship which had been erected by 
the people of this young but flourishing congregation. 77 

THE ED ERWIN FUND 

Edward S., invariably known as Ed, Erwin was a son and de- 
voted member of Rocky River, and served for a long period 
as deacon, trustee, and Treasurer of the Church. 75 Cognizant of 
the fact that there must come a day when he would be called 
to lay down his accustomed work in its behalf, he made prudent 
provision against that time by setting aside the sum of Ten Thou- 
sand Dollars in his will for the benefit of the work at Rocky 
River. Mr. Erwin died in 1927. 

Somewhat more than thirteen years later, Elder William M. 

72 III, 205. 

73 Tombstone in cemetery to rear of present church. 

74 The author attended these services. 

75 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XVI, p. 415. 

76 Minutes of the General Assembly, 1948, p. 268. 

77 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XVIII, p. 6. 
7S III, 139-140. 

153 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Morrison made a report to the Congregation concerning the 
stewardship of the proceeds of this bequest which had come to 
be known as the Ed Erwin Fund. 79 The principal sum had been 
kept intact, only the interest being expended. It was an instruc- 
tive story of accomplishment. 

A building, formerly used as a residence by the principal of 
the public school which had superseded the Academy and was, 
in turn, replaced by a consolidated school at Harrisburg (1926), 
was purchased as a club house. The church was wired for elec- 
tricity when electric power became available in the community, 
lighting fixtures were installed, and improvements made on the 
interior of the building. The manse was also wired and a modern 
water system installed. The sum of $3,902.86 was expended in 
the foregoing connections. 

During the dismal days of the depression of the 1930's, the 
Fund served to supplement the gifts of the Congregation for the 
payment of the Pastor's salary, $978.00 having been applied on 
this account, while a total of $1,776.82 was devoted to items un- 
der the head of Maintenance. Altogether, $6,657.68 was spent in 
the interests of the Church during a period of twelve years, an 
average of $554.81 per annum. Though Mr. Erwin died in 1927, 
the people of Rocky River continued, and continue, to enjoy the 
benefits which a love for his church led him to provide for its 
future and onward progress in the advance of the Kingdom of 
his Lord. 

79 This report has been preserved with the Sessional Minutes. 



154 



CHAPTER XI 

To Serve the Present Age 



Rocky River has been richly and remarkably blessed, even from 
her early years, in the enjoyment of the regular ministry of the 
Word of God. Concerning the beginnings, Dr. Foote has sum- 
marized this fact in his statement that "from all the efforts made 
for settled pastors, there was but one congregation, that of Rocky 
River, that could obtain any preaching except from missionaries, 
for many years." x 

The success of the Congregation in this respect during the 
Eighteenth Century continued throughout that which was to 
follow, and has manifested itself in the same beneficent manner 
across the past fifty years. During the most extended formal 
vacancy of some five years at the end of the Eighteenth and the 
beginning of the Nineteenth Century, which separated the pas- 
torates of Alexander Caldwell and John M. Wilson, the pulpit 
was regularly filled by Licentiate John Couser for a considerable 
portion of the time, as has been previously noted. 2 

A period of exactly six months intervened between the dis- 
solution of the pastoral relationship with Mr. Ricks and the in- 
stallation of his successor, Rev. George Marshall Wilcox. 

GEORGE MARSHALL WILCOX 

Mr. Wilcox, then at the Vineville Church in Macon, Georgia, 
was called to the pastorate at a congregational meeting held on 
May ii, 1 94 1. 3 Rev. George Hanna, Rev. R. S. Arrowood, and 

1 Sketches of North Carolina, p. 318. 

2 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 68. 

3 III, 214; Minutes of Concord Presbyter> r , Vol. XVI, p. 437. 

155 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Ruling Elder John J. Barnhardt constituted the commission of 
Presbytery for his installation on July 27.* 

The new pastor was born at Elberton, Georgia, August 8, 
1883. He attended Presbyterian College of South Carolina and 
Davidson in succession, graduating from the latter in 1904. The 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity was received from Columbia Sem- 
inary five years later. Mr. Wilcox was pastor at Walhalla, South 
Carolina, 1909-19 1 5; Bennettsville, in the same State, 191 5—1926; 
and had gone to the Vineville Church in the latter year. During 
his ministry at Walhalla, he was married to Miss Stiles Marion 
Coe of Richland, South Carolina, the ceremony taking place on 
October 4, 191 1. 5 

Henry Wilcox, a brother of the pastor, made the Church 
a gift of new hymn books several months after the ministerial 
member of the family came to Rocky River. 6 

Clarence F. Blume, Eugene P. Morrison, and Clegg M. Mc- 
Cachren were elected deacons on October 13, 1942, and were 
ordained and installed on the 26th of that month. 7 Upon the res- 
ignation of Sam Black, who had served as superintendent of the 
Sunday School since 191 2, William Chenault Spence was elected 
his successor on March 31, i94i. s 

THE WAR 

The War of 1 941 -1945 could not fail to manifest its effects 
in the life of the community. Such secondary matters as ration- 
ing and shortages were, in spite of their frequent introduction 
into conversation, recognized as of minor consequence. That the 
sons of Rocky River were engaged in mortal struggle on battle- 
fields and aboard ships scattered around the world, was the thing 
that mattered. The Rocky River service flag carried numerous 

^Ibid. 

5 Scott, p. 770. 

6 III, 216. 

7 III, 219. 

8 III, 212. 

156 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

stars, two of which were wrought in gold before the end of the 
conflict. 

Peter Boger Bost, son of Peter Boger and Jenny Hudson Bost, 
was the first such casualty. He was born in Cabarrus County, 
December 20, 1905, and was baptized in May of the following 
year. 9 At an early age he united with Rocky River upon pro- 
fession of faith. 10 He was a student at Mount Pleasant Collegiate 
Institute and later attended Davidson College, participating ex- 
tensively in athletics both during his school and college days and 
in later life. 11 

Boger enlisted in the Marine Corps, receiving his basic train- 
ing at Parris Island, South Carolina. While stationed at Norfolk, 
Virginia, he became ill, and was taken to the Naval Hospital at 
Washington, where his death occurred on July 29, 1943. Funeral 
services were held at Rocky River and he was buried at Boger's 
Chapel, the resting place of his Father, who died when Boger 
was an infant. 12 

John Daniel Boger, the second Rocky River boy to give his 
life in the service of his country during the late War, was born 
on April 5, 1920, on the Old Charlotte Road, several miles to 
the south of Concord. He was the son of Charles E. and Elise 
Barnhardt Boger, and grandson of John A. and Sallie E. Barn- 
hardt. John was baptized on November 14, 1920, and was re- 
ceived into full membership of Rocky River Church on May 3, 
193 1. He attended the public schools in Concord and was a grad- 
uate of North Carolina State College at Raleigh. 13 

Immediately after graduation he entered the Quartermaster 
Corps, and, after eleven months of service, was transferred to 
the Army Air Corps. For two years he served as instructor in 

9 Anna S. Spence, Rocky River Casualties in the Great War. 

10 Ibid. 

11 Ibid. 

12 Ibid.; History of Cabarrus County in the Wars, p. 19. 

13 Anna S. Spence, Rocky River Casualties; Rocky River Church, Service 
of Dedication of Audio-Visual Equipment. 

157 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

the Gulf Coast Training Command. Assigned to overseas serv- 
ice, he flew over the Holy Land on Christmas Eve, 1944, on the 
way to India where he was stationed. In the course of his third 
trip from Kurmitola, India, to Kumching, China, he was reported 
missing in action on January 6, 1945. At the time of his death 
he held the rank of Captain. "Captain Boger had a reputation for 
energy and earnestness of purpose," wrote General Carl Spaatz, 
Commandant of the Air Corps, in a letter addressed to his Parents 
under date of April 19, 1946; and the same officer added, "His 
many friends will not forget the competence and integrity which 
marked him." 14 

On the afternoon of Sunday, May 2, 1948, a special service 
was held in the Church. At this time a complete collection of 
audio-visual equipment was presented to the Congregation by 
the immediate family of Captain Boger in memory of this young 
son of Rocky River. The presentation was made by James Philip 
Boger and the speech of acceptance by William Chenault Spence, 
as General Superintendent of the Sunday School. 15 

Not since the erection of the Manse in the 1870's had a con- 
struction project of major proportions been undertaken at Rocky 
River. The need of additional space for the activities of the Sun- 
day School and the desirability of a community center had be- 
come more and more apparent, while the church building itself 
stood in need of renovation and the addition of a heating plant. 

Under the leadership of Mr. Wilcox, who by this time had not 
only evidenced an enthusiasm of his own, but had revealed that 
happy ability to impart it to others, an initial step toward the 
providing of such equipment was taken at a congregational meet- 
ing held on April 25, 1943. At this time a committee, consisting 
of W. K. Alexander, J. Lee White, Hoyte McCachren, W. M. 
Morrison, and William Chenault Spence, was appointed to "draw 

14 History of Cabarrus County in the Wars, p. 19; Anna S. Spence, Rocky 
River Casualties. 

15 Rocky River Church, Service of Dedication of Audio-Visual Equipment. 

158 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

plans and solicit funds for the Community Building." 16 In this 
connection it was proposed "to make a list of former members 
and sons and daughters of Rocky River" which would be utilized 
in the raising of these desired funds. This duty was entrusted to 
R. A. Alexander, W. E. Alexander, Sam Black, E. A. Morrison, 
Ralph Morrison, and F. W. Pharr. 17 

Looking toward what was termed the "Church Improvement 
Program," a committee was constituted of all the officers of the 
Church with F. M. Parrish as chairman. 18 An attractive folder 
of six pages was distributed which was addressed "To the Chil- 
dren who have gone out from her and to other friends of Rocky 
River Presbyterian Church," setting forth the need for the pro- 
posed building and soliciting the support of those to whom the 
publication was directed. The estimated cost of the new struc- 
ture was, at that time, set at $2 5,ooo.oo. 19 A drawing of the ex- 
terior of the building as originally envisioned and three floor 
plans were presented. 20 

But it was not proposed to call upon the Sons and Daughters 
of the Church without having the then present members do their 
part in the program for improving the plant and facilities. The 
membership undertook, within five years, to i, Install a mod- 
ern heating plant in the church building; 2, Renovate and repair 
the interior of that structure, including a new roof, but without 
changing the appearance of the venerable building; 3, Beautify 
the premises; 4, Obtain the services of a full-time caretaker; 5, In- 
stall an organ. 21 The appeal of the publication was enhanced by 
the reproduction of photographs of the Church and Manse, to- 
gether with a view of the Session House before restoration and 
another after it had been thus improved. 

16 III, 223. 

17 III, 223. 

18 III, 223. 

19 Rocky River Church, Progress! Posterity! Perpetuation! 

20 Ibid. 

21 Ibid. 

l S9 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

In the autumn of 1947, another booklet was published with a 
drawing of the Church and proposed Sunday School building on 
the front cover. This was the work of Col. J. Norman Pease 
of Charlotte, authority on ante-bellum design, who had prepared 
plans for the new building in keeping with the architectural fea- 
tures of the Church. It was reported that the cost of the addition, 
which was to be connected with the Church by a colonade, had 
risen, along with almost everything else, to $50,000.00; and that 
one-half of the necessary sum was in hand. 22 "Rocky River's 
early contribution to Christian Education" was portrayed in the 
booklet, with a note on Rocky River Academy of the early 
Nineteenth Century, and a list of its twenty-five ministerial 
alumni. A catalogue of Rocky River pastors was also included. 23 

The "Building Committee," as indicated by this publication, 
consisted of Harvey Wilson Moore of Charlotte, great-grandson 
of Rev. John Makemie Wilson, Chairman; William H. Barnhardt 
of Charlotte, son of the late J. A. Barnhardt and himself a son 
of Rocky River; Thomas M. Barnhardt, likewise of Charlotte, 
grandson of Rocky River; Hugh M. Grey of Concord, grand- 
son of Dr. James M. Wharey; Fred Wilson Morrison of Wash- 
ington, D. C, son of Rocky River; Jones Y. Pharr of Concord, 
son of Rocky River; and the Pastor. 24 John J. Barnhardt was to 
render significant service in connection with the work of this 
group. 

By this time, Mrs. Edna Parsley Barnhardt of Charlotte had 
arranged for the installation of a Hammond organ and chimes 
in the sanctuary. This gift was made in memory of her husband, 
Charles Eugene Barnhardt (1883-1938), and was dedicated at 
a service held on the afternoon of Sunday, June 23, 1946. Samuel 
Goodman was guest organist and Buford Goodman, guest pian- 
ist. The program for the occasion described Mr. Barnhardt as 

22 Rocky River Church, Report on the Progress toward Perpetuating for 
Posterity. 

23 Ibid. 
2i lbid. 

160 




Harvey Wilson AIoore 
Chairman 



Thomas M. Barnhardt 




John J. Barnhardt William H. Barnhardt 

LEADERS IN BUILDING PROGRAM (i) 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

one who "was born in our community, baptized in our church 
and confessed his faith in Christ before our session." 2o 

One of Rocky River's long links with a memorable past was 
severed on August 27, 1946, with the death of Mrs. W. H. (Fran- 
ces Dorton) Hudson. She was a great-granddaughter of Rev. 
John Makemie Wilson, and had passed her ninety-third birthday 
at the time of her homegoing. Airs. Elizabeth Stafford Howie, a 
member of the Church for sixty-four years, died on October 1 2 
at the age of eighty-five. 26 

In consequence of an election held in the following year, 
William W. Carriker, James Ray Flowers, and John Scott Pharr 
began their work as deacons on March 3, 1947. 27 

The May Meeting of 1947 was the occasion of the return of 
the son of a former pastor, when Rev. Samuel Baxter Lapsley, 
son of Rev. James Lapsley and nephew and namesake of the 
pioneer missionary to the Congo, was the visiting preacher. On 
this Sunday, May 4, printed church bulletins were distributed to 
the worshippers for the first time in the history of the Congre- 
gation. 

The year 1948 was marked by the death of two elders, long 
and intimately associated with Rocky River. William McKee 
Morrison died on May 15, and Sam Black on December 1 1. Each 
was prominent in the affairs of their community and county, 
but both were best known for their association with the Church. 
They were born and spent their entire lives in its vicinity, and 
were laid to rest in the cemetery which is hallowed by the re- 
mains of three pastors, a number of deacons, and many of the 
ruling elders of the Congregation. 

Of wise and deliberate judgement, Mr. Morrison, who was gen- 
erally greeted as Buck by his friends and neighbors, lent recur- 
rent aid in the consideration and conduct of the affairs of the 

25 Rocky River Church, Service of Dedication — Memorial Organ and Chimes. 

26 Anna S. Spence, History of Woman's Auxiliary of Rocky River Church, 
1 946- 1 947. 

27 III, 238-239. 

l6l 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Church. He was elected an elder in 1920, 28 and served loyally 
and constructively as a member of the Session until the time of 
his death. On September 10, 1 919, he was married to Miss Ethel 
Hudson, great-great-granddaughter of Rev. John M. Wilson. 29 

Sam Black, or Squire, as he was widely and affectionately 
known to young and old alike, occupies a unique place in the 
history of the Church. Son of John M. Black, who was a mem- 
ber of the Session for forty-one years, he himself became an 
elder in 1 9 1 1 . During the following year he was made superin- 
tendent of the Sunday School and Clerk of the Session. 30 Al- 
together, he served on that body for thirty-seven years, acted 
as its Clerk for thirty-six, and as Sunday School superintendent 
for twenty-nine. 

A familiar figure as the congregation gathered for worship 
from Sabbath to Sabbath, the offices of trust which he was chosen 
to fill testify to the esteem in which he was held by the Church. 
His invitations to the Woman's Auxiliary to schedule their an- 
nual "all-day" meetings at his home during the summer season 
were accepted with recollections of his former, and in anticipa- 
tion of his future, hospitality on such occasions. As one who 
touched the life of the Church at numerous points, he has now 
taken his place in a tradition stretching back across the many, 
many years that have passed since Presbyterians began to wor- 
ship God on Rocky River. 

Following the death of Mr. Black, S. Corum Pharr was elected 
Clerk of Session, after serving for a time as Acting Clerk. 31 In 
the spring of 1 949, Deacons Clarence F. Blume, Eugene P. Mor- 
rison, Clegg M. McCachren, together with Troy H. Linker and 
William M. White, were added to the eldership. 32 The Board of 
Deacons having been thus depleted through the loss of the first 

28 in, 103. 

29 Lore and Morrison, op. cit., p. 225. 

30 HI, 57- 

31 III, 258. 

32 III, 256, 258. 

162 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

three of these new elders, it was decided to add to its number; 
whereupon, Foy B. Parrish and James R. Morrison, in addition 
to all the foregoing, were inducted into office on April 3 of that 
year. 33 

DEDICATION OF EDUCATIONAL BUILDING 

Sunday, May 1, 1949, was among the great and glorious days 
in the history of Rocky River, for on that date the dedication 
of the Educational Building took place. Saturday had been 
marked by persistent and excessive rainfall, and the early light 
of the Sabbath disclosed low hanging clouds of threatening mein. 
This resulted in the making of preparations to serve dinner to 
the expected attendants in the new building, if this should prove 
necessary. 34 

Never had the grounds looked lovelier than as early arrivals 
began to gather for Sunday School. Not only had the grove been 
put into fine condition, but the results of extensive grading and 
the laying of gravel driveways in the vicinity of the church were 
apparent. J. Lee White was responsible for these latter improve- 
ments, which were carried out at his personal expense. 

After the usual Sunday School, the eleven o'clock service, at 
which the writer was privileged to preach, was concluded with 
the traditional observance of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 
The offering, in keeping with a long standing custom, was des- 
ignated for the cause of Foreign Missions. By this time, weather 
indications were such as to warrant the spreading of dinner upon 
two long tables which had been set up in the grove; and it was 
here that this meal was served. 

Rev. Locke White, D. D., member of a family long associated 
with Rocky River and pastor of historic New Providence 
Church in Virginia, preached the dedicatory sermon at a service 
beginning at two-thirty in the afternoon. The text was I Chroni- 

33 III, 258. 

34 The writer has drawn upon his presence on this occasion for certain facts. 

163 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

cles 29:3, and his topic "Devotion for the house of the Lord." 
The Pastor presided at the service of dedication in the absence 
of Harvey W. Moore, who was prevented from attending by 
illness. The Scripture lesson was read by Dr. White from a hand- 
some Bible which was later sent by Mr. Wilcox, in the name 
of the Congregation, to Mr. Moore in recognition of his untiring 
and visibly fruitful service as Chairman of the Building Com- 
mittee. 35 

John J. Barnhardt, a son of Rocky River, who had taken a 
prominent part in the financing and construction of the edifice, 
made the formal presentation of the new building, which was 
accepted by Ralph Morrison, a trustee of the Church. The con- 
gregation then adjourned to the court between the two buildings 
for the Litany, conducted by Mr. Wilcox, followed by the 
prayer of dedication, the latter led by Rev. John A. Carriker, 
who went into the ministry from Rocky River. The church 
choir, directed by Mrs. R. A. Sappenfield, Jr., was assisted by 
that of Mitchell College, which rendered several appropriate 
special numbers during the day. 36 

While the program, as printed for the dedication, called for 
"Inspection of the Building" after the second service, many 
guests took advantage of the period preceding the afternoon as- 
sembly for this revealing tour. They found a structure, furnished 
and equipped, which would do credit to any congregation, rep- 
resenting a total outlay of $82,500. From the attractive nursery 
to the dignified and fittingly furnished session room, the plant 
was one to bring joy to the hearts of all lovers of Rocky River. 
It was a long hark from the first rude house of logs erected for 
the worship of God by the people of the community two cen- 
turies before. 

The occasion was not complete for large numbers without a 

35 Concord Tribune, May 2, 1949, p. 1; Historical Foundation News, July 
1949, p. 1. 

36 Concord Tribune, May 2, 1949, p. 1; Rocky River Church, Bulletin, May 1, 
1949. 

164 




I Iugh M. Grey 



Fred Wilson .Morrison 




Jones Y. Pharr 



J. Lee White 

Chairman Congregational 

Building Committee 



LEADERS IN BUILDING PROGRAM (2) 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

trip to the cemetery to the rear of the church where many a 
loved one slept after having served God in their day and gen- 
eration. Then, with the departure of the worshippers and the 
coming of night, the day ended; but only to mark the beginning 
of a more effective ministry in the name of God on the part of 
Rocky River, to be made possible by the splendid building which 
had been consecrated to the advancement of His Kingdom and 
the glory of His Name during its course. 

Concerning the beneficence of the Sons and Daughters of 
Rocky River, combined with the efforts of the current congre- 
gation, the Editor of the Concord Presbyterian, the official pub- 
lication of the Presbytery, was soon to write: "They have made 
Rocky River one of the best equipped country churches in our 
Assembly — it is doubtful if there is another quite so well 
equipped." 37 

Seventy-five years before, Daniel Lindley, whose local jour- 
neying and world travels must surely have served to make him 
an authority on the subject, had characterized the roads around 
Rocky River as "probably the worst under the sun." 3S Now, at 
provokingly long last, a hard-surfaced highway was built to the 
Church, being completed in the summer of 1949. 

Rocky River was given an opportunity to utilize her newly 
acquired facilities for the entertainment of friends throughout 
Concord Presbytery when that court held its spring meeting for 
1950 in the Church. This was on April n, and the following 
extract from the report of the Committee on Resolutions, as 
adopted by the Presbytery, gives expression to a sense prevalent 
on that occasion: 

We came here to do the Lord's work, but we have paused many 
times during the day to rejoice in the Lord's handiwork, to note 
unmistakable evidence of the Providential Hand which alone could 
have shaped such a people and such a place. 39 

37 Concord Presbyterian, May 15, 1949, p. 3. 

38 E. W. Smith, Life and Times of Daniel Lindley, p. 432. 

39 Minutes of Concord Presbytery, Vol. XVIII, p. 134. 

165 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

For the visitor to Rocky River is not only reminded of her sto- 
ried past, but also of Him Whose gracious will has guided that 
people across the cumulated years. 

On Sunday, May 7, 1950, a large bronze tablet, set in the out- 
side of the east wall of the church, was unveiled. This plaque 
bears the following restrainedly impressive wording: 

COMMEMORATING 

ROCKY RIVER 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

ORGANIZED ABOUT 175 1 

CABARRUS COUNTY 

FORMERLY MECKLENBURG 

ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD CALLED AS REGULAR 

PASTOR APRIL 1758. HE INSTILLED 

PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS 

LIBERTY IN THE PEOPLE HE SERVED AND IN 

1771-1775 THEY ANNOUNCED TO THE WORLD 

THEIR IDEA OF INDEPENDENCE 

ALL DELEGATES TO CELEBRATED CONVENTION 

IN CHARLOTTE MAY 1775, WERE FROA4 THE 

SEVEN CHURCHES OF MECKLENBURG COUNTY, 

OF WHICH THIS IS THE MOTHER CHURCH. 

ERECTED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

OF COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA 

UNDER AUSPICES OF 

THE CABARRUS COUNTY COMMITTEE 

1950 

Participants in the attendant exercises included Harvey W. 
Moore, Tommy Pharr, Thomas R. Smith, Jr., Mrs. Thomas R. 
Smith of Albemarle, North Carolina, and W. G. Caswell, a 
former principal of the Academy. 40 

40 Concord Tribune, May 8, 1950, pp. 1-2. 

166 



TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE 

Gifts reported by the Church for the year 1 949-1 950 were 
in excess of those of any like period in the history of Rocky 
River, with a total of $ 1 5,407 contributed to all causes. 41 

In 1951, when William Chenault Spence, who had held office 
for ten years, relinquished the superintendency of the Sunday 
School, Wilton A. McCachren was elected as his successor. 42 
It is a noteworthy fact that, beginning with the induction of 
A. Newton Harris as superintendent in 1900, only four persons 
have served in this capacity. 

Ruling Elder William E. Alexander died on August 6, 1952, 
at the age of eighty-four; and the Session took appreciative offi- 
cial action concerning his service to the Church. 43 As has been 
true in so many instances in the past, a son continues the work 
of the family as an official of the Congregation. In this case, 
William Kemp Alexander has held the office of Deacon since 
1934. 

Yet another historic occurrence is to be noted; for on the 
afternoon of Sunday, September 6, 1953, formal recognition, 
embodied in permanent form, was taken of the gift of the Edu- 
cational Building by the children of Rocky River. This was in 
the nature of the unveiling of a "Plaque of Appreciation" which 
records the gratitude of the local congregation to the donors of 
the structure. With the Pastor, Rev. George M. Wilcox, pre- 
siding, the Plaque was unveiled by Mrs. John W. Russell and 
Mrs. G. Alvice Miller. The speaker for the exercises was J. Lee 
W T hite, Chairman of the Local Building Committee. His address 
was followed by the consideration of a subject which proved, 
not only aptly appropriate for the occasion, but a fitting one 
with which to close the record of the Lord's work through two 
centuries among the people on Rocky River — "We Look into 
the Future." 44 

41 Minutes of the General Assembly, 1950, pp. 218-219. 

42 III, 280. 

43 III, 305. 

44 Rocky River Church, Bulletin, Sept. 6, 1953, 2:00 p.m. 

167 



May Meeting 



There is more to the story than can be expressed through 
words or set down in characters upon the pages of a book. To 
belong to Rocky River is an experience to be forever cherished 
by all those who have been initiated into the gracious fellowship 
of her children, and one which can never be forgotten by any 
of that privileged number. And the epitome of such realization 
is to be discerned in the May Meeting, that hallowed home- 
coming of mystic fascination for all who have gone forth from 
the sacred precincts of the Mother Church. 

For many years the first Sunday in the month of May has 
been set apart as the season for the celebration of the Lord's 
Supper, the corresponding Sunday in September being observed 
in like manner, while a later custom of holding a winter com- 
munion service has been revived during the recent past. A morn- 
ing meeting for worship, culminating in the Sacrament, such as 
was described in the preceding chapter, is followed by dinner in 
the grove, at which the attendants customarily gather by families 
in the fashion of ancient Israel. A second assembly is held in the 
afternoon, after which the congregation, drawn not only from 
the immediate membership of Rocky River, but derived in large 
part from those whose roots are there, is loath to depart. It is the 
day of days, as it were, the Christian counterpart of the Pass- 
over, Pentecost, and Tabernacles all combined in one. 

It has been said by them of olden time that no one could fully 
appreciate the meaning of rejoicing who had not been present 

168 



MAY MEETING 

at the symbolic pouring out of the water at the Feast of Tab- 
ernacles. The Sons and Daughters of Rocky River repeatedly 
echo this blessed conviction as they convene in the grove to hold 
fellowship with one another, and then pass on into the church 
to gather around the Table of the Lord. In that high and holy 
hour but scant imagination is required to look back across the 
two centuries past to that far-off day when some itinerant herald 
of the Evangel, ministering in the name of the Saviour, took 
bread and blessed and brake it in celebration of the first such 
service in the community. 

The May Meeting not only reflects the joy of the treasured 
feasts of Israel, but stands as an earnest of that uninterrupted 
o-atherino - around the Father's table, when the saints of all a^es 
shall drink anew of the fruit of the vine in the blessed Kingdom 
of their Redeemer. It is not only a backward look to the days of 
Alexander Craighead, and John Makemie Wilson, and Daniel 
Lindley, and Father Penick, but a prospect of the time when 
they, and those who follow them across the intervening years, 
shall assemble in that house not made with hands, at the end of 
the age, beside the waters of another River, which flow forever 
by the throne of God. 



169 



Appendix 







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Appendix 



A. PASTORS OF ROCKY RIVER 



Alexander Craighead 
Hezekiah James Balch 
Robert Archibald 
Alexander Caldwell 
John Makemie Wilson 
Daniel Lindley 
Daniel Allen Penick 
Joseph Bingham Mack 
James Morton Wharey 
John Gray Anderson 
Richard Venable Lancaster 
Cornelius Miller 
Robert Junius Hunter 
James Lapsley 
Thomas Hugh Spence 
John Addison Ricks 
George Marshall Wilcox 



Installed 
Nov. 6, 1758 
Nov. 15, 1769 
Oct. 7, 1778 

1793 
April 30, 1802 
Nov. 7, 1832 
May 6, 1837 
Aug. 12, 1 87 1 
June 24, 1876 
A4ay 4, 1888 
May 5, 1894 
June 13, 1897 
May 3, 1901 
May 1, 1909 
Oct. 29, 1916 
Oct. 30, 1932 
July 27, 1 94 1 



Ceased to Serve 
March 12, 1766 
1776 
1792 (?) 
March 29, 1797 
July 30, 183 1 
April 4, 1834 
Jan. 8, 1870 
Dec. 8, 1875 
July 26, 1886 
April 13, 1893 
Dec. 18, 1896 
Sept. 16, 1899 
June 23, 1908 
April 11, 1916 
March 31, 193 1 
Jan. 27, 1941 



B. THE ELDERSHIP 

Before the Arrival of Daniel Penick 



William White 
William Scott 
Robert Harris 
David Caldwell 
Daniel Alexander 
James Morrison 
Francis Newell 
Aaron Alexander 



Nathaniel Alexander 
Archibald White 
Adam Alexander 
David Reese 
Abraham Alexander 
John Query 
William Morrison, Sr. 
Thomas Davis 



William Morrison, Jr. 
Thomas White 
James Bradshaw, Sr. 
James Burns 
John White 
James Bradshaw, Jr. 
Wm. Rolland Pharr 



173 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



B. THE ELDERSHIP— Continued 
During and Following the Ministry of Daniel Penick 



Andrew Davis 


?_ 


1852 


Elam Columbus 






John Morrison 


1816- 


1846 


Davis 


1885- 


-1919 


James Query 


1823- 


1844 


Clerk of Session, 


1899- 


-1912 


John Phifer 


?_ 


1845 


David W. Flowe 


1885- 


-1900 


David Miller 


?_ 


1836 


Clerk of Session, 


1886- 


1888, 


John M. Black 


1836- 


1877 




1893- 


-1898 


Robert Caldwell 


1840- 


[847 


Laird H. Alexander 


1889- 


.? 


Alexander McClarty 


1840- 


[850 




1903- 


•1919 


John S. McClarty 


1840- 


r8 7 i 


Alexander Newton 






Walter Franklin 






Harris 


1889- 


-1921 


Pharr 


1840- 


i853 


James C. Thompson 


1898- 


•1900 


David White 


1842- 


[867 


John A. Erwin 


1901- 


.? 


Sandy McKindley 


1847- 


869 


John F. Alexander 


1902- 


•1903 


Robert Harvey 






J. Hall M. White 


1902- 


x 933 


Morrison 


1847- 


t 8 95 


LeRoy McKee 






John H. White 


1847- 


'857 


Morrison 


1903- 


191 1 


John Caldwell 


1853- 


[865 


Samuel Black 


191 1- 


1948 


McAmy A. White 


1853- 


[866 


Clerk of Session, 


1912- 


1948 


Leander C. 






Clifford O. 






Kirkpatrick 


1858-1 


871 


McEachern 


1911- 


1920 


Clerk of Session, 


1 863-1 


871 


John Harvey Spears 


1918- 


1928 


Joseph O. Pharr 


1858- 


861 


Alpha L. Carriker 


1920- 




John M. Query 


1858-1 


901 


William McKee 






James L. Morrison 


1866- 


885 


Morrison 


1920-1948 


Abram C. Alexander 


1866-] 


889 


William E. Alexander 


1922- 


1952 


Robert C. Caldwell 


1 866-] 


869 


Frank S. Pharr 


1922- 


1933 


Dixon B. Penick 


1 866-1 


871 


W. Albert Alexander 


1927- 




William S. White 


1 869-1 


876 


Elber A. Morrison 


J 933- 




John R. Wilson 


1869-1 


906 


S. Corum Pharr 


J 933- 




Jacob C. Barnhardt 


1872-, 


893 


Clerk of Session, 


1948- 


1952 


S. E. W. Pharr 


1872-1 


884 


Louis Victor Spears 


1934- 


1939 


Clerk of Session, 


1875-1 


876 


C. Samuel McCurdy 


1934- 




Samuel Pharr 


1874-1 


880 


Frank W. Pharr 


1934- 




Nathaniel G. White 


1877-, 


881 


Hoyte M. 






John M. W. White 


1878-1 


936 


McCachren 


1939- 




Thomas Lee Martin 


1881-? 




William Chenault 






John Dwight 






Spence 


1939- 




Morrison 


1881-1 


890 


Clarence F. Blume 


1949- 





174 






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tr ȣ 



APPENDIX 



B. THE ELDERSHIP— Continued 



Troy H. Linker 1949- 

Clegg M. McCachren 1949- 

Clerk of Session, 1952— 



Eugene P. Morrison 
William M. White 



1949- 
1949- 



C. THE DIACONATE 



John M. W. 

Alexander 
J. Melancthon Black 
John Dwight 

Morrison 
Elam M. Query 
David Henry White 
Matthias L. Harris 
LeRov McKee 

Morrison 
Robert L. Query 
Joseph R. White 
Robert Benton White 
J. Lafayette Stafford 
John M. W. White 
Robert A. Gourley 
Alexander Newton 

Harris 
John A. Barnhardt 
Julius B. Morrison 
James M. Harris 
John Harvey Spears 
William E. Harris 
E. E. Gribble 
William N. Spears 



1867-] 


904 


1867-1 


875 


1867-1 


881 


1867- 


888 


1867- 


874 


1872- 


878 


1874-, 


903 


1875- 


877 


1875- 


877 


1875- 


886 


1877-; 




1877- 


878 


1879-: 




1879- 


889 


1882- 


[889 


1885-: 




1889- 


[895 


1889- 


[918 


1890- 


1900 


1891- 


'899 


1891- 


1926 



Edward S. Erwin ? 

James C. Thompson ? 

W. Edney Harris 1901 
Abner D. Wilson 1901 

W. Albert Alexander 1908 
R. Arthur Alexander ? 
C. Samuel McCurdy ? 
Frank W. Pharr 
Mack D. Reid 
Daniel Alexander 
Floyd M. Parrish 
Mack C. Howie 
John W. Russell 
John C. Sossamon 
William Kemp 

Alexander 
Charles M. Miller 
Clarence F. Blume 
Clegg M. McCachren 1942 
Eugene P. Morrison 1942 
William W. Carriker 
James Ray Flowers 
John Scott Pharr 
Foy B. Parrish 
James R. Morrison 



1925- 
1925- 
1927- 
1927- 

J 933- 

!933" 
J933- 

1934- 

*934" 
1942- 



•1927 
■1898 
-1926 
■1906 
■191 1 
-1951 
-1934 
-1934 
-1944 

1937 



! 949 
1949 

1949 



J 947~ 

J 947- 

J 947- 
1949- 

1949- 



D. SUNDAY SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS 



Joseph Flinn 
Samuel Morrison 
John M. Black 



1832 



J. Dwight Morrison ?-i! 

Abram C. Alexander 

and 1 880-1! 

John R. Wilson 



175 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

D. SUNDAY SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS— Continued 



Abram C. Alexander 






Samuel Black 


1912-1941 


and 


1881- 


-1883 


William Chenault 




Augustine Osborne 






Spence 


1941-1951 


Abram C. Alexander 


1883- 


-1887 


Wilton A. 




Elam Columbus Davis 


1887- 


-1900 


McCachren 


1951- 


Alexander N. Harris 


1900- 


-1912 







E. PRESIDENTS OF THE WOMEN OF THE CHURCH 
AND PRECEDING ORGANIZATIONS 



The following are known to 

Mrs. D. A. (Agnes) Penick 
Mrs. S. A. Grier 
Rev. Jno. G. Anderson 
Rev. R. V. Lancaster 
Mrs. W. C. Taylor 
Mrs. J. C. Black 
Mrs. Harvey Spears 
Mrs. T. H. Spence 
A4rs. Edward Erwin 
Mrs. F. W. Pharr 
Mrs. R. A. Sappenfield 



have served in this capacity: 

Mrs. Frank Teeter 

Mrs. W. M. Morrison 

Mrs. W. M. Linker 

Mrs. Eugene Morrison 

Mrs. Hoyte McCachren 

Mrs. John Russell 

Mrs. George Wilcox 

Mrs. Ray Flowers 

Mrs. W. M. White 

Mrs. Wilton A. A4cCachren 



F. MINISTERS FROM ROCKY RIVER 



Name 
Edgar F. Alexander 
John A. Carriker 
Robert Davis 
Thomas E. Davis 
John M. Erwin 
William Flinn 
Joseph M. Harris 
James Aiorrison 
James E. Morrison 
Richard C. Morrison 
Robert H. Morrison 
William N. Morrison 



Born 


Ordained 


Died 


1866 


1892 


1895 


1892 


1919 




1818 


1845 


1871 


1809 


1845 


1883 


1789 


? 


1840 


1818 


1845 


1894 


1870 


1899 




l 795 


1817 


1870 


1805 


1834 


1892 


1862 


1893 


1930 


1798 


1821 


1889 


1810 


1837 


1885 



176 



APPENDIX 

F. A4INISTERS FROM ROCKY RIVER— Continued 



Daniel A. Penick, Jr. 


1834 


1858 


1922 


Peter T. Penick 


1826 


1850 


1886 


Henry N. Pharr 


1799 


1825 


1862 


Walter S. Pharr 


1790 


1820 


1866 


Walter W. Pharr 


1813 


1844 


1886 


William W. Pharr 


1832 


1858 


1912 


George H. Ricks 


191 1 


*939 




Thomas H. Spence, Jr. 


1899 


1924 




A. Walker White 


1850 


1883 


!935 


Alexander E. Wilson 


1803 


1834 


1 841 


John M. Wilson, Jr. 


1808 


1837 


1881 



G. PATRIOTS AND SOLDIERS OF THE 
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD 

Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, pastor of Rocky River and Poplar 
Tent churches, prayed openly for the safety of the "Black Boys" 
while they were in hiding. 

William S. Alexander 

Thomas Allen 

Robert Anderson 

James Andrew 

William Andrew 

John Bigger (Constable) 

Robert Bigger 

John Black 

James Bradshaw 

John Bradshaw 

Robert Bradshaw 

James Burns 

Charles Caldwell (Constable) 

David Caldwell, Capt. 

John Caldwell 

Robert Caldwell 

Andrew Campbell 

Charles Campbell 

William Campbell 

John Carothers 



Robert Carothers. "Black Boy." 
Benjamin Cochran. "Black Boy." 
John Cochran 
Robert Cochran 
William Cochran 
John Davis 

Robert Davis. "Black Boy." 
Thomas Davis 
William Davis 
John Dickson 
Charles Dorton 
William Dorton 
William Driskill 
Alexander Ferguson 
Thomas Ferguson 
Thomas Gourley 
James Harris, Capt. 
Robert Harris, Capt. 
Robert Harris, Col., of Reedy 
Creek 



177 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



G. PATRIOTS AND SOLDIERS OF THE 
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD— Continued 



Robert Harris, Col., of Rocky 

River 
Samuel Harris, Major 
Thomas Harris, Sheriff 
William Harris 
Joshua Headley. "Black Boy." 
Samuel Houie 
Thomas Irwin 
Nathaniel Johnston 
Alexander Kimmons 
Hugh Kimmons 
Valentine Kirkpatrick 
John McAnulty, Capt. 
James McClellan, Jr. 
James McClellan, Sgt. 
Hugh McEachern 
James McEachern 
Robert McEachern 
Thomas McFadden, Capt. 
Charles McGinnis, Colonel in Pa. 
Benjamin McGraw 
James McGraw 
Joseph McGraw 
David McKinley 
Allen McLain 
Alexander McLarty 
Alexander McLarty, Jr. 
Archibald McLarty 
Thomas McLure 
Robert McMurray 
James Martin 
Griffith Morris 
Duncan Morrison 
James Morrison 
John Morrison, d. 1777. 
John Morrison, to Tenn. 
Robert Morrison 
William Morrison (Big) 



William Morrison (Miller) 

John Neely 

David Newell 

Francis Newell 

John Newell 

William Newell 

Walter Pharr 

William Pickens 

James Plunkett 

James Plunkett, Jr. 

Alexander Porter 

David Purvians 

James Purvians 

Alexander Query 

Joseph Rogers 

Seth Rogers 

Francis Ross, Lt. 

Hugh Ross 

James Ross 

John Ross 

William Ross 

David Russell 

James Russell, Sgt. 

John Russell 

Robert Russell 

Robert Russell, Jr. 

Alexander Scott 

James Scott, Capt. 

John Scott 

William Scott 

Evan Shelby 

Moses Shelby 

Thomas Shelby 

John Simons 

Hugh Smith 

Francis Snell 

William Spears 

George Stafford 



178 



APPENDIX 



G. PATRIOTS AND SOLDIERS OF THE 
REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD— Continued 



James Stafford 
James Stafford, Jr. 
John Stafford 
James Tagert 
David Taylor 
William Townsend 
William Voyles 
William Waddington 
Andrew Walker 
Aaron Wallace 
Thomas Watson 
Joseph Welch 
Andrew White 
Archibald White 
Archibald White, Jr. 
David White 



James White 

James White, Major. "Black 

Boy." 
John White, son of James. 

"Black Boy." 
John White, son of Thomas 
Joseph White 
Robert White 
Samuel White 
Thomas White 
William White, son of James. 

"Black Boy." 
William White, son of William. 

"Black Boy." 
Moses Wiley 
Oliver Wiley, Capt. 



H. CONFEDERATE CASUALTIES 



Name 
Dion E. Alexander 
Elam N. Alexander * 
John Milton Alexander 
Wm. Horace Alexander 
George W. H. Andrew * 
Robert McK. W. Bigger 
James A. Black 
John Lee Black 
Robert M. Caldwell * 
Thomas M. Erwin 
Edwin M. Harris * 
Milas E. Harris * 
William C. Harris * 
William Johnston * 
McAmy W. Kirkpatrick 
Joseph R. McAnulty 
Albert B. A4cClellan * 
John S. McCommon 
Cicero Hector McEachern 



Died 


Age Place of Death 


July 3, 1863 


20 


Gettysburg 


1864 


37 


Rock Island, 111. 


July 5, 1862 


35 


Richmond 


July 9, 1862 




Richmond 


Oct. 14, 1863 


3° 


Bristoe Station 


July 25, 1863 


30 




July 4, 1862 


33 




June 10, 1863 


28 


Virginia 


May 3, 1863 


26 


Chancellorsville 


July 3, 1863 




Gettysburg 


July 24, 1863 


26 


Petersburg 


Aug. 26, 1864 


2 4 


Spottsylvania 


May 3, 1863 


3 1 


Petersburg 


May 4, 1863 


28 


Fredericksburg 


Aug. 16, 1864 


26 


Ox Hill 


June 27, 1862 


29 


Cold Harbor 


July 8, 1862 


2 3 


Richmond 


1862 




Hospital 


July 28, 1864 


36 





179 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

H. CONFEDERATE CASUALTIES— Continued 



Name 


Died 


Age Place of Death 


Z. Monroe McEachern 




22 


Chancellorsville 


J. M. W. McKindley 


July 10, 1862 


3 2 




James Alexander McLarty 


Sept. 3, 1862 


3 2 




Joseph G. Martin 


Oct. 3, 1864 






Adolphus Mehaffey * 


May 6, 1864 


33 


Wilderness 


Joseph Mc. Miller 


July 9, 1863 




Gettysburg 


John McKemie Morrison * 


May 3, 1864 


n 


Richmond 


Quincy C. Morrison * 


Aug. 7, 1863 


35 




Thomas H. Neely * 


Feb. 9, 1863 


2 9 


Richmond 


Cicero H. Pharr 


Feb. 1865 


36 


Federal prison 


John Calhoun Pharr 


Apr. 7, 1865 


30 


Richmond 


John E. S. Pharr 


Sept. 11, 1863 




Fredericksburg 


John Milton Pharr 


Sept. 2, 1862 


33 


Fairfax C. H. 


Rolin Watkins Pharr * 


May 12, 1862 


18 




Wm. Roland Pharr * 


Nov. 28, 1863 


2 5 


Hospital 


James Penick Query * 


Oct. 26, 1863 


25 


Salisbury 


John N. Query 


Sept. 17, 1862 


2 5 


Sharpsburg 


Robert Sidney Query 


Feb. 1865 


44 


Hilton Head, 
S.C. 


McKemie Wilson Russell 


Sept. 17, 1862 


34 


Sharpsburg 


Eli Jefferson Smith 


Sept. 1, 1863 


2 4 


Ox Hill 


Hugh J. Smith 


Nov. 10, 1863 


2 9 




Isaac N. Smith 


March 1863 


22 


Camp 


Wm. White Smith 


May 3, 1863 


2 7 


Chancellorsville 


Calvin A. Snell 


Oct. 18, 1862 


30 




Cyrus A. D. Snell * 


Nov. 10, 1862 


28 




Josiah W. Spears 






Richmond 


Winslow F. Spears 


Apr. 8, 1862 


2 3 




Erastus S. Stancil 


Dec. 13, 1862 


2 5 


Fredericksburg 


Wm. Lindley Stancil 


March 1863 


2 3 


Lynchburg 


James H. Walker * 


July 1, 1863 


3 2 


Gettysburg 


James Hall Walker * 


Apr. 7, 1862 


36 




Joe Calvin Welch 


Aug. 2, 1862 


33 




Alexander R. White 


July 26, 1864 


26 


Richmond 


Daniel C. White * 


Jan. 2, 1862 


2 5 


Camp 


Francis M. White 


Apr. 3, 1862 


26 


Camp 


Franklin Orr White 


July 1863 


2 7 


Gettysburg 


James E. White 


June 1864 




Spottsylvania 



ISO 



APPENDIX 

H. CONFEDERATE CASUALTIES— Continued 



Name 


Died 


Age Place of Death 


James Milton White 


July 28, 1864 


20 


Reams' Station 


John Wilson White 


June 3, 1863 


2 4 


Petersburg 


Marshall Lindley White 


June 29, 1862 


21 


Willis' Chapel 


Phillip P. White 


1862 


20 


Camp 


Richard Jay White 


May 12, 1864 


2 4 


Spottsylvania 


Thomas Hall White * 


Feb. 9, 1863 


2 9 


Richmond 


Washington B. White 


June 27, 1862 


36 


Gaines' Mill 


William Shaw White 


Sept. 30, 1864 


25 


Near Petersburg 


Wm. Robinson White 


July 1863 


2 9 


Gettysburg 



* Marker in Rocky River cemetery. 

I. QUARTERS OF THE CONGREGATION 

The Quarters, or districts into which the Congregation was di- 
vided for purposes of administration and supervision, were set off 
during the pastorate of Hezekiah James Balch. 

The First or, as afterward called, Smith Quarter had as its original 
elder James Morrison. Others who, with their families, resided in 
this quarter were William Andrew, John Caldwell, Andrew Davis, 
Alexander Kimmons, Charles, David, and John McKinley, James W. 
Morgan, John and Robert Morrison, Walter Smiley Pharr, Hugh 
and William Pickens, Joseph, Moses, and Seth Rogers, Francis, 
James, John, and William Ross, Moses and Thomas Shelby, Hugh 
Smith, James Snell, William Spears, Arthur and James Stafford, Sam- 
uel Stewart, Thomas and William Watson, Moses Wiley; and later, 
J. C. Barnhardt, Levi Parks, D. A. Penick, and Allison F. Woods. 

The Second, or Church Quarter, was under the care of Col. Rob- 
ert Harris of Reedy Creek. Here were found the families of An- 
drew, Charles, and Thomas Campbell, Robert and Thomas Davis, 
James and Thomas Harris, Alexander Huie, William Johnston, Rob- 
ert, Valentine, and William Kirkpatrick, Isaac, John, and Joseph 
McClellan, Hector, John, and Peter R. McEachern, Thomas Mc- 
Fadden, James McKinley, Francis, James, Laird, and Robert Mc- 
Murray, John Neely, Walter Pharr, James Porter, and James White. 
Later came the Archibald family, James, John, and Robert Carothers, 
Washington Harris, James L. Morrison, S. E. W. Pharr, John Phifer, 
and Nathan Phillips. 

The Third, known as Black's Quarter, was first under the super- 

181 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

vision of Francis Newell. In this territory lived John and Joseph 
Bigger, John and Melancthon Black, James and John Bradshaw, 
Charles Dorton, Thomas Erwin, Robert and Thomas Gourley, John 
Hartwick, William Hudson, William McAnulty, Archibald Mc- 
Curdy, the McEacherns, David McKinley, David Miller, James 
Plunkett, James Purvians, James S. Russell, Chas. E. Sehorn, John 
and Martin Sossamon, George Teeter, Aaron Wallace, James 
Walker, and Archibald, John, Samuel, and Thomas White. 

The Fourth was known as the Query Quarter. Its first elder was 
David Caldwell. Families within its borders were those of the Coch- 
rans — John, Robert, and William, John Gingles, Robert Harris of 
Rocky River and Robert Harris, Jr., along with William Harris, 
David Long, Charles C. McGinnis, Samuel Pharr, Alexander Query, 
and James Wilson, together with others living beyond what is now 
Harrisburg. 

The Fifth was eventually to be known as the Factory Quarter, and 
its elder was William Scott. In this quarter resided William S. Alex- 
ander, William H. Archibald, James Ashmore, Hezekiah James 
Balch, James Burns, John Dickson, Alexander Ferguson, Joshua 
Headley, Peter and Samuel Huie, Charles McCommon, Griffith Mor- 
ris, Benjamin, Joseph, and Samuel Patron, John Phifer, John Rodg- 
ers, David and James and Robert Russell, Alexander and John Scott, 
James Tagert, Lewis Townsend, Andrew Walker, and William 
White. 

As the Congregation grew, another quarter, presided over by 
James Bradshaw, Sr., was formed by a division of Number Five; 
but this was discontinued in 1820. 

When Rocky River was first established it served a wide radius 
but as other churches were organized — Sugar Creek, Poplar Tent, 
and Clear Creek (Philadelphia) — the lines were shortened; and it was 
after this that the quarters were instituted. 

With the passing of time, there were changes in the family names 
whereby the different quarters were designated. 

J. EARLY GRAVEYARDS 

There are a number of graveyards with legible markers still stand- 
ing in which early members of Rocky River were buried. The larger 
of these are the old burying ground across the Concord Road from 
the present church building, Spears Graveyard, about one and one- 

182 



APPENDIX 

half miles to the Southeast, and the cemetery to the rear of the 
church. In addition, some of the men and women associated with 
Rocky River in the years gone by were laid to rest in the Pharr and 
Stafford burying grounds, at Rocky Ridge, at Zion Church, and in 
the Memorial Garden in Concord, as well as other spots not listed 
above. 

In the case of the two oldest graveyards with markers bearing 
inscriptions, the old Rocky River and Spears, names appearing upon 
the stones are indicated, together with the substance of the vital data 
relating to the persons concerned. Abbreviations employed in this 
connection are obvious: d. for died, a. for age (at time of death), 
and dau. for daughter. 

Old Rocky River 

Sarah Alexander, wife of Wm. S. A., d. Nov. 27, 1799; William S. 
Alexander d. Oct. 26, 1826, a. 75; Elizabeth Alexander (Black), wife 
of W. S. B., d. Nov. 29, 1796; James Burns d. Nov. 14, 1817, a. 49; 
Penelope Burns d. Dec. 28, 1830, a. 59; Penelope C. Burns d. Dec. 28, 
1839, a. 17; Samuel Burns d. June 9, 1799, a. 10 months; Andrew 
Campbell d. Oct. 14, 1796, a. 41; Margrat Carother, wife of Rob- 
ert C, d. Aug. 12, 1 794, a. 40; 

Walter Fair d. Dec. 22, 1799, a. 59; Zeno Kirkpatrick d. Dec. 10, 
?, a. 2; James M. McKinley, Oct. 19, 1783 — Jan. 5, 18 10; Rebecca 
McKinley, wife of J. M. McK., Nov. 5, 178 1— Sept. 20, 1825; 
Thomas McLellan d. Nov. 29, 1807, a. 25; (See final paragraph be- 
low); M. W. A. 58 1804; M. S. W. A. 97 1799; Abagail Morrison 
d. Oct. 6, 1825, a. 65; Catherine Morrison, Sept. 12, 1789 — Oct. 19, 
1792; Three infants of William and Abagail Morrison; William Mor- 
rison d. Nov. 10, 182 1, a. 65; 

David Russell d. Jan. 29, 1831, a. 66; Elizabeth Russell d. March 6, 
1837, a. 60; James Russell, Sr., 1733 — Feb. 21, 1799; Jane Russell 
d. July 29, 1823, a. 82; Mary Russell, wife of Robert R., d. Jan. 13, 
1847; Robert Russell, Jr., Oct. 3, 1772 — Jan. 20, 1791; William Rus- 
sell, Sept. 19, 1772 — Feb. 13, 1799; James Scott, Revolutionary sol- 
dier, Dec. 3, 1753 — May 24, 1817; Margaret Scott, wife of John S., 
d. Nov. 1 80 1, a. 31; 

Agnes White, Aug. 20, 1784 — Alar. 7, 1807; Archie White; Elam S. 
White d. Oct. 18, 1838, a. 30; Elizabeth White, July 11, 1791 — 
Nov. 17, 1793; Elizabeth M. White d. Mar. 26, 1845; Frances White, 

183 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

wife of Joseph W., d. Sept. 7, 1823, a. 58; Jane White, wife of Wil- 
liam W., Sr., d. May 18, 1837, a. 83; Jane White d. May 23, 1844, 

a. 63; Jean White, dau. of William W., March 19, 1789 — Jan. 9, 
1805; John R. White d. July 12, 1822, a. 27; Joseph White d. Oct. 6, 
1842, a. 80; Margaret White, wife of Thomas W., ? 17, 1778 — 
July 18, 1809; Robert White d. Feb. 23, 1810, a. 33; Sarah White, 
dau. of William W., Oct. 13, 1786 — Oct. 10, 1807; Sarah White 
d. Oct. 25, 1 8 10, a. 6; William White, Sr., Mar. 12, 175 1 — July 10, 
1794; William White, Jr., son of Wm. W., June 13, 1775 — Oct. 18, 
1799. 

A stone, on which it is impossible to decipher the name, supplies 
the following facts regarding its subject: 1750 — Dec. 3, 1832. 

The Historical Records Survey (1939) also lists the following: 
Martha McMurray d. Dec. 11, 1798, a. 15; R. E. McMurray d. 
May 4, 1798, a. 14; Sat. M. McMurray d. May 24, 1800, a. 25. 

Spears 

Barbara Andrew d. July 1, 1800; William Andrew, Aug. 13, 
1758 — Mar. 13, 1806; Agnes Archibald, wife of W. H. A., Jan. 29, 
1794— Oct. 1, 1886; Bost Infant, son of J. M. & A. M. H. Bost, 

b. & d. June 20, 1856; James Bradshaw, d. Feb. 19, 1809, a. 67; Rob- 
ert Caldwell d. Nov. 6, 1832, a. 75; Ann Cochran, wife of Robert C, 
d. Oct. 10, 1889, a. 63; Cyrus H. Cochran d. Sept. 21, 1838, a. 21; 
Elam W. Cochran, son of Robert & Ann G, d. Feb. 12, 18 13, a. 14; 
Elizabeth Cochran d. A4ar. 23, 1818, a. 73; Malinda Cochran, wife 
of Robert B. C, d. Jan. 31, 1846, a. 54; Martha Cochran, dau. of 
Robert & Ann C, d. Dec. 23, 1818, a. 20; Robert Cochran, June 21, 
1764 — July 28, 1837, married Ann C, Mar. 7, 1797; Robert Cochran 
d. April 28, 1822; Robert Brice Cochran d. Nov. 2, 1824, a. 31; Wil- 
liam Cochran, Sr. d. Oct. 2, 1829, a. 77; 

Amelia Davis, wife of Thomas D., Jan. 3, 1782 — July 2, 1853; 
Samuel Davis d. May 13, 1822, a. 38; Thomas Davis, d. Aug. 7, 1819, 

a. 42; David Dorton d. Feb. 9, 1847, a. 70; John Gingles, May 15, 
1769 — July 28, 1831; Rachel Gingles, Apr. 18, 1772 — Oct. 30, 1825; 
H. D. Grigles, Apr. 13, 1836— Aug. 8, 1837; W. H. H. Grigles 

b. July 18, 1 84 1, a. 8 months; Margaret Harris, wife of Robert H., 
d. May 27, 1811, a. 37; Martha Harris, wife of Samuel H., d. Aug. 2, 
1797, a. 29; Martha Harris, wife of William H., d. Jan. 25, 1818, a. 44; 

Elizabeth Kimmons d. Oct. 15, 1850, a. 70; Margaret Kimmons 

184 



APPENDIX 

d. Nov. 22, 1852, a. 65; James M. King d. April 3, 1845, a. 19; Ma- 
tilda King, wife of Richard K., d. Feb. 22, 1844, a. 44; Richard King, 
Jan. 5, 1795 — May 7, 1854; Margaret Kirkpatrick, wife of Robert K., 
d. July 7, 1822, a. 31 and Milus C. Kirkpatrick, son of Robert K., 
d. July 7, 1822, a. 5 months (both on one stone); Capt. Archibald 
McCurdy, Revolutionary soldier, d. Nov. 10, 1843, a. 92; Archibald 
McCurdy, Jr., son of Capt. Archibald McC; Sophia McCurdy, dau. 
of Capt. Archibald McC; 

Enoch Morgan, son of J. W. & T. H. M., d. Sept. 15, 1849, a. 17; 
Jane C. Morgan, dau. of J. W. & T. H. M., d. Sept. 3, 1840, a. 10; 
John W. Morgan, d. Aug. 14, 1845, a - 4^; Sarah H. Morgan, dau. of 
J. W. & T. H. M., d. July 18, 1843, a. 5; T. H. Morgan, wife of 
J. W. M., 1803 — July 2, 1857; Thomas R. Morgan d. June 9, 1845, 
a. 20; 

Capt. James Morrison d. Oct. 30, 1804, a. 78; James Morrison 
d. Sept. 16, 1824, a. 47; James Morrison d. Sept. 4, 1846, a. 78; Jennet 
Morrison d. Feb. 4, 18 10, a. 75; John Morrison (no dates); John 
Morrison, Jan. 2, 1768 — Mar. 13, 1846; Lura Morrison, wife of Sam- 
uel M., d. Dec. 14, 1810, a. 26; Margaret Morrison, wife of James M., 
d. Sept. 6, 1844, a. 67; Margret Morrison, wife of James M., d. 
Nov. 24, 18 17, a. 47; Mary Morrison d. Sept. 13, 1821, a. 45; Mary 
Morrison, wife of James M., a. 58; Robert Morrison d. Aug. 10, 
1 8 10, a. 82; Sarah Morrison d. Oct. 6, 18 16, a. 77; Sarah Morrison, 
wife of Samuel M., d. Dec. 14, 18 10, a. 26; Thomas Morrison, d. 
July 17, 1 8 15, a. 31; E. Pickens (1827 only date given); Isaac Ross, 
Grandfr., Mar. 1, 1708 — Feb. 13, 1760; M. Ross, wife of Isaac R., 
June 30, 1722 — May 20, 1766; Robert Russell, Mar. 28, 1790 — June 
21, 1838; George Simons d. 1829, a. 27; Margaret Simons, wife of 
Thomas S., d. 1826, a. 67; Thomas Simons d. 1806, a. 51; William 
Spears (Monument with U. S. seal) d. Mar. 2, 1803, a. 72; Mary 
Wilie, wife of Oliver Wilie, d. Aug. 21, 1822, a. 78; Mary Wiley, 
wife of Moses Wiley, d. June 7, 1818; Oliver Wiley d. Dec. 1802, 
a. 61. 



185 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

K. STATISTICAL REPORTS, 1 836-1953 



Years 


Pastors 


-a 
3 



o 
O 


§1 

-a x 


T3« 

<!0 


CS 

'5 
-a 3 

_o g 
"o 
OO 


c 

'5 

3 

11 H 

"0 O 

HO 


| 

~5 p, 

T3 <A 


an 




•a +* 
egg 

>,s 

T3 O 
3 CS 


-^ 

oj p 

"3.-S 

c c 

mo 


PhCC 


fc 0. 

3 « 

OH 


a 
a 

3 

II 
OO 


1836 


Daniel Penick, P. E. 






18 


1 




400 


6 


36 




390 






8 


1837 









38 


3 




475 


13 


51 




303 






10 


1838 


Daniel Penick, P. 






24 


4 




529 


10 


59 




274 






15 


1839 




, 






28 


- 




535 


11 


39 




292 






8 


1840 




' 






25 


2 




545 


8 


38 




248 






11 


1841 




' 






12 


2 




552 


5 


39 




172 






8 


1842 




' 






10 


4 




505 


1 


50 




266 






7 


1843 











12 


1 




497 


1 


33 




288 






8 


1844 




. 






23 


3 




495 


1 


31 




232 






8 


1845 




' 






8 


2 




483 


2 


19 




108 






7 


1846 




' 






30 


3 




471 


7 


42 




132 






- 


1847 




' 






21 


5 


125 


476 


7 


21 




107 






7 


1848 




' 






11 


4 


127 


478 


2 


24 




117 






8 


1849 




' 






7 


10 


130 


485 


1 


39 




120 






8 


1850 




' 






100 


2 


194 


576 


13 


29 




101 






7 


1851 











19 


2 


151 


587 


6 


36 




195 




594 


46 


1852 











5 


3 


149 


577 


- 


39 




128 




800 


31 


1853 




' 






8 


1 


148 


571 


3 


31 




275 




554 


49 


1854 




' 






95 


2 


180 


649 


28 


28 




988 




730 


84 


1855 











27 


- 


195 


646 


11 


35 




228 




850 


17 


1856 




' 






15 


3 


202 


650 


4 


43 




191 




770 


552 


1857 




' 






25 


2 


143 


573 


6 


32 




326 




758 


128 


1858 




' 






14 


4 


150 


568 


5 


32 




296 




890 
826 


20 


1859 











17 


3 


156 


575 


3 


39 




494 




79 


1860 




' 






37 


6 


176 


616 


12 


46 




- 




1359 


35 


1861 




' 






18 


5 


170 


601 


4 


35 




635 




5711 


65 


1862 











11 


4 


174 


602 


2 


56 




331 




637 


120 


1863 




' 






4 


4 


177 


599 


- 


37 




491 




2096 


304 


1864 




' 






14 


9 


176 


523 


3 


35 




926 




1590 


471 


1865 




' 






19 


1 


180 


529 


5 


36 




1261 




- 


- 


1866 




' 






25 


4 




383 


6 


44 




154 




1128 


30 


1867 




' 






47 


5 




332 


2 


16 




167 




856 


60 


1868 




' 






- 


- 




316 


- 


1 


100 


183 




732 
962 


60 


1869 




' " " 






3 


5 




311 


- 


19 


160 


291 




30 



186 



APPENDIX 

K. STATISTICAL REPORTS, 183 6-195 3— Continued 



Years 


Pastors 


-a 
3 


a 


e3 

Q 


a 


§1 

31 

T3 03 

-a k 


■nig 

-a a 


"a 

S B 



a 
03 

'5 

3 
S § 

s a 



HO 


| 

~5 0. 

-O <3 


« 1 
,5 m 




•a .t> 

£ z 

>,B 

M 


s 

G'-S 
S 3 

org 

So 

B O 

03O 


M S3 

Pho5 


1 ! 

£ 0. 

3 X 

OH 


a 

"3 
ja 

£ a 

■^ 
00 


1870 


V. 






2 


9 




307 


- 


16 


100 


199 




1062 


280 


1871 


J. B. Mack, P. E. 






4 


1 




290 


- 


16 


80 


294 


250 


- 


55 


1872 


J. B. Mack, P. 






67 


14 




350 


5 


18 


170 


472 


1169 


800 


100 


1873 








14 


4 




352 


3 


13 


175 


601 


1374 


1338 


- 


1874 









27 


9 




366 


3 


23 


175 


589 


900 


489 


- 


1875 





10 


6 


55 


6 




394 


17 


23 


175 


362 


1400 


1038 


170 


1876 


V. 


10 


8 


9 


6 




394 


- 


22 


175 


344 


1350 


186 


44 


1877 


J. M. Wharey, P. E. 


9 


6 


6 


- 




343 


- 


17 


170 


132 


590 


400 


- 


1878 


J. M. Wharey, P. 


9 


8 


8 


4 




351 


1 


9 


175 


178 


1011 


29 


72 


1879 


" 





10 


6 


2 


3 




330 


- 


13 


75 


120 


950 


104 


123 


1880 


" 





10 


6 


- 


1 




300 


- 


20 


160 


127 


1117 


50 


56 


1881 


" 





9 


8 


7 


1 




300 


1 


13 


125 


421 


959 


- 


56 


1882 


" 


' 


10 


7 


7 


2 




290 


1 


24 


100 


89 


876 


49 


70 


1883 


" 





10 


8 


8 


2 




265 


1 


16 


115 


248 


1165 


106 


100 


1884 


" 





10 


8 


24 


12 




300 


4 


32 


371 


251 


984 


91 


30 


1885 


" 


' 


8 


8 


13 


9 




300 


1 


10 


428 


348 


1221 


76 


313 


1886 


" 


' 


9 


8 


6 


9 




297 


- 


21 


348 


265 


865 


203 


36 


1887 


V. 


10 


7 


13 


3 




275 


2 


22 


160 


103 


619 


218 


- 


1888 


J. G. Anderson, P. 


10 


7 


20 


7 




285 


2 


20 


256 


117 


210 


287 


30 


1889 


" " 


9 


7 


31 


10 




313 


1 


15 


305 


413 


1000 


471 


91 


1890 


" " 


10 


5 


7 


14 




305 


2 


18 


372 


438 


933 


108 


62 


1891 


" " 


10 


5 


30 


10 




335 


2 


18 


266 


707 


1033 


87 


151 


1892 




10 


7 


8 


4 




332 


3 


23 


244 


505 


908 


128 


84 


1893 


V. 


9 


6 


5 


5 




326 


- 


15 


222 


429 


1089 


130 


75 


1894 


R. V. Lancaster, P. E. 


9 


6 


7 


5 




326 


- 


15 


169 


304 


444 


44 


58 


1895 


R. V. Lancaster, P. 


9 


7 


52 


8 




366 


12 


11 


236 


492 


650 


70 


32 


1896 


" " " " 


8 


7 


- 


5 




358 


- 


14 


292 


402 


635 


95 


35 


1897 


C. Miller, P. E. 


8 


7 


- 


7 




350 


- 


12 


246 


374 


555 


144 


19 


1898 


C. Miller, P. 


8 


7 


24 


18 




356 


- 


12 


161 


347 


525 


98 


35 


1899 


" 


8 


6 


8 


2 




341 


1 


9 


145 


337 


644 


71 


20 


1900 


S. S. 


8 


6 


3 


2 




335 


- 


11 


84 


249 


485 


100 


- 


1901 


P. E. 


5 


5 


5 


4 




310 


3 


8 


102 


420 


474 


124 


20 


1902 ! R. J. Hunter, P. 


7 


7 


12 


3 




230 


- 


5 


165 


360 


600 


20 


141 


1903 


7 


7 


9 


4 




240 


- 


7 


109 


341 


548 


91 


25 


1904 " 


8 


7 


22 


4 




200 


- 


14 


106 


419 


535 


102 


20 



187 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

K. STATISTICAL REPORTS, 1836-1953 — Continued 



Years 


Pastors 


"O 


a 


a 


a 


§1 

11 
-a x 


£ 

■ota 


a 

*a 

"2 a 

"0 


a 
ce 

a 
- 1 

J a 


HO 


| 
"3 a 

"O t3 


J3 ft 


"0 

-a -►= 
CO S 

■So 

a £ 
a c 


-^> 
S'a 

> c 

a a 
MO 


lb 

eS"3 
P-ICG 


§1 

t ft 

3 K 

OH 


3 

A 

11 
00 


1905 


R. J. Hunter, P. 


8 


6 


2 


3 




190 


- 


7 




338 


550 


83 


20 


1906 





7 


5 


5 


6 




180 


- 


7 


98 


448 


586 


147 


104 


1907 


" " 


7 


5 


3 


- 




185 


- 


7 


98 


456 


652 


66 


85 


1908 




7 


5 


5 


1 




185 


- 


8 


108 


408 


606 


137 


20 


1909 


J. Lapsley, P. E. 


7 


6 


1 


1 




158 


- 


11 


129 


303 


357 


238 


- 


1910 


J. Lapsley, P. 


7 


5 


25 


2 




172 


3 


8 


109 


368 




595 


28 


1911 





7 


6 


2 


2 




156 


- 


1 


108 


396 




675 


20 


1912 


" 


8 


5 


40 


4 




206 


5 


6 


110 


414 


575 


10 


121 


1913 


" 


9 


5 


13 


2 




218 


7 


6 


88 


465 


640 


169 


- 


1914 


" 


7 


6 


1 


2 




220 


- 


5 


90 


438 


655 


383 


5 


1915 


" 


7 


6 


22 


- 




233 


- 


6 


121 


555 


628 


89 




1916 


V. 


6 


6 


12 


2 




200 


- 


6 


113 


468 


575 


113 


20 


1917 


T. H. Spence, P. 


6 


6 


1 


1 




200 


- 


2 


114 


552 




250 
333 


20 


1918 






6 


6 


5 


9 




205 


1 


7 


144 


765 


700 




1919 






7 


5 


4 


3 




205 


1 


6 


120 


951 


900 


204 


- 


1920 






5 


5 


4 


10 




210 


1 


3 


100 


2495 


1015 


189 


- 


1921 






7 


5 


3 


14 




210 


- 


4 


120 


2803 


1000 


396 


- 


1922 






6 


5 


16 


7 




210 


5 


5 


- 


2456 


1000 


220 


180 


1923 






8 


6 


- 


- 




200 


- 


3 


144 


1556 


1000 


735 


70 


1924 






8 


6 


6 


7 




200 


1 


4 


146 


1227 


1000 


438 


- 


1925 






8 


8 


8 


- 




200 


1 


3 


140 


1454 


1000 


110 


- 


1926 






8 


7 


7 


6 




200 


- 


2 


160 


1130 


1000 


219 


- 


1927 


" " 




8 


5 


10 


1 




200 


1 


5 


176 


1211 


1000 


288 


- 


1928 


" " 




8 


6 


3 


- 




200 


- 


- 


176 


936 


1000 


332 


425 


1929 


" " 




8 


6 


5 


6 




200 


- 


3 


176 


890 


1000 


506 


157 


1930 


" " 




8 


6 


7 


4 




200 


- 


- 


162 


1043 


1000 


288 


- 


1931 


V. 


8 


6 


7 


1 




206 


- 


2 


162 


558 


1000 


217 


- 


1932 


John Ricks, P. E. 


8 


6 


2 


1 




200 


- 


- 


150 


335 


415 


576 


7 


1933 


John Ricks, P. 


9 


9 


22 


12 




238 


8 


14 


175 


202 


630 


110 


- 


1934 


" 


8 


9 


24 


3 




260 


12 


8 


202 


334 


1000 


377 


- 


1935 


" 


9 


8 


5 


10 




270 


3 


- 


253 


433 


1000 


296 


295 


1936 | ' 


9 


8 


7 


3 




263 


5 


1 


252 


577 


1000 


480 


159 


1937 1 " 


10 


8 


10 


2 




274 


1 


5 


234 


542 


1000 


420 


1450 


1938 




10 


8 


9 


10 




278 


2 


5 


239 


670 


1000 


496 


73 


1939 


" " " 


8 


8 


20 


6 




294 


11 


1 


223 


731 


1000 


395 


332 



APPENDIX 

K. STATISTICAL REPORTS, 1836-195 3— Continued 



Years 


Pastors 


-a 
3 


a 


OS 

a 


a 


§1 

11 

-a S 


c-2 

-atg 


a 
ca 

'S 

TJ 3 

-2 g 
*3 


a 

CS 

3 
"rt d 
'o 
HO 


| 

"so, 


-1 

C'-S 

►Spa 





* g 

-o 

c S 

3 a 


a 

a 3 

"Sr2 

a 


MO 


I- 


1 | 

fc a. 
3 « 

OH 


a 
.2 

3 

ll 
OO 


1940 


John Ricks, P. 


9 


8 


1 







296 


- 


- 


233 


638 


1200 


493 


1093 


1941 


V. 


9 


8 


6 


4 




296 


4 


6 


220 


430 


1000 


599 


62 


1942 


G. M. Wilcox, P. 


9 


8 


6 


10 




300 


- 


3 


203 


450 


1205 


1135 


232 


1943 


" ' 








9 


11 


9 


2 




299 


4 


2 


156 


782 


1500 


598 


304 


1944 


" 








9 


11 


2 


4 




299 


2 


4 


175 


800 


1500 


875 


772 


1945 


" ' 








9 


10 


6 


- 




301 


2 


3 


175 


827 


1500 


946 


240 


1946 


" ' 








9 


10 


1 


9 




303 


1 


8 


175 


1159 


1800 


874 


2100 


1947 


" ' 








9 


13 


3 


11 




305 


2 


5 


175 


1518 


1925 


2122 


6223 


1948 


" ' 








11 


13 


2 


5 




303 


1 


2 


175 


2341 


2544 


2547 


3368 


1949 


1. ■ 








14 


12 


7 


4 




300 


5 


4 


235 


2104 


2700 


2568 


2553 


1950 


" ' 








14 


12 


6 


5 




306 


- 


7 


220 


2282 


2700 


4893 


5532 


1951 


" ' 








14 


12 


7 


9 




314 


5 


4 


254 


2063 


2700 


4045 


286 


1952 


" ' 








14 


11 


6 


5 




290 


2 


7 


250 


2887 


3000 


4362 


4549 


1953 


" ' 








13 


11 


4 


6 




295 


- 


5 


220 


3033 


3300 


4510 


- 



L. A4ARRIAGE RECORDS, 1 822-1 870 

To Joshua Harris, "Maker of coffins in the Rocky River Settle- 
ment," we are indebted for a three-fold record which embraces: 

1. Baptisms from September 23, 1827 through April 29, 1859; 

2. Deaths occurring from January 25, 1817 until September 12, 
1859, the final entry, necessarily in another hand, representing the 
decease of the Recorder himself; 

3. Marriages taking place from February 19, 1822 and closing 
about July, 1859, the first noted being one of the several weddings 
of Joshua Harris. 

For this period, the Harris records form the basis of the following 
entries. 

During the years of his pastorate, Daniel Penick preserved a cata- 
logue of those who were united in marriage under the general aus- 
pices of the Church, the greater part of the ceremonies being 
performed by Mr. Penick. These are found in the First Volume of 
the Minutes of the Rocky River Session. When a marriage so re- 
corded does not appear in the Harris list, it has been entered in the 
proper chronological sequence below and marked (DAP). Note is 

189 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

also made of certain instances in which the Penick data vary from, 
or supplement, those of Joshua Harris. Notations of these differ- 
ences, or additions, are enclosed in parentheses, and prefaced by the 
initials DAP. 

A careful examination reveals that a number of the weddings listed 
by Mr. Harris were those of parties not formally connected with 
Rocky River Church. Comparisons also indicate that he sometimes 
assigned an event to that date on which he had tardily learned of 
its occurrence. The spellings are those of the original Compiler and 
of the Church records. It is judged that many descended from these 
unions will find interest in their recording by contemporaries. 

In the absence of other indications, weddings not dated took place 
at the same time as those preceding in the list. Uncertain dates are 
marked by ? 

Marriages 
1822 

Feb. 19 Joshua Harris to Elizabeth Harris 

1826 

July 1 3 Walter F. Pharr to Jane Stafford 
Aug. 3 Robert Bigar to Martha Robinson 
Sept. 2 8 Ewd. Harris to Margert Harris 

1828 

March 4 John Gingles, Sen. to Emelia Davis 

John Gingles, Jr. to Dorcas McGinnis 
April 19 Solomon Harris to Jane Phillips 
July 25 Joseph Mehaffey to Isabella Harris 
Sept. 17 John C. Cochran to Polly Davis — Cochran 18 — Polly 

26 
Dec. 1 1 Henderson Rodgers to Sarah Pharr 
1 8 Walter F. Pharr to Sarah Morrison 

1829 

Jan. 29 Jeremiah Stegall to Clemmingtine Morrison 

John McLarty to Cracida McLellen 
March 5 Franklin Stafford to Mary Pharr 

190 



APPENDIX 



Feb. 


18 


Marc? 


1 4 


May 


l 3 


June 


1 1 


July 


J 3 




2 7 


Aug. 


2 4 


Sept. 


9 




14 


Dec. 


7 




9 




25 


Jan. 


20 




27 


Feb. 


2 4 


March 3 




J 7 


April 


28 


June 


2 


July 


26 


Oct. 


6 




r 3 


Nov. 


1 




3 




J 5 


Dec. 


1 




8 




l 5 




29 



1830 

Wm. Bever to Matilda Pharr 

Dr. James Gilmore to Sarah Harris 

George M. Harris to Sarah Shaver 

Hampton Pharr to Catherine Morrison 

Lot Hamilton to Polly Davis 

Davis Dixon to Polly McLane 

McCamy Alexander to Margeret Bowls 

Richard Martin to Elizabeth Littleton 

E. H. Davis to Linny Gingles 

R. C. Cochran to Statira McKinley 

J. M. Morrison to Polly Johnston 

Winslow Alexander to Margert Alexander 

Josiah Harris to Margert Purvians 

1831 

Henry Pharr to Polly Davis 
William Davis to Margert Parks 
James Caldwell to Polly Dixon 
Sandy McKinley to Ann Hope 
Jo. McCombs to Prudy Johnston 
R. C. Harris to Polly Alexander 
John McEchran to Jane Pharr 
Jesse W. Harris to Addaline Alexander 
Nathaniel Harris to Mary Gilmore 
Green Newel to Sarah McLellen 
Wm. McLellen to Burniece Black 
Wm. Hays to Violet Harris 
Nat. Johnston to Polly Welch 
Wm. Nicolson to Catherine Pharr 
James Cochran to Mary Cathey 
Robt. McLellen to Polly McEchran 
Mr. Walker to Cynthv Spears 
A. Smith to Sarah AlcLellen 



1832 

Jan. 5 Eli Stafford to Eliza McCombs 

1 2 Hugh Bain to Ann Allen 
June 21 Dr. Maxwell to Margeret McLarty 



191 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



Sept. 



Oct. 

Nov. 



20 



13 



Hall Burns to Mary Groves 

S. A. Stewart to Elizabeth Cochran 

Dan Melchor to Elonor McUrdy 

Alphrad Bost to Elizabeth Bradshaw 

Elija Davis to Teressa Smith 

Wm. McLellen to Teressa McEchran 



1833 



Wm. T. Alexander to Margert Harris 



March 2 8 

July 18 Harvey Morrison to Margeret Cochran 

Dec. 26 Curtis Kirkpatrick to Elizabeth Alexander 

1834 

Mr. Chambers to Mary Wilson 
D. Bradshaw to Eliza Flinn 
Elias Huie to Polly Jackson 
Levi Parks to Tirza Davis 
R. W. Harris to Mary Stafford 
Sandy McKinley to E. Morrison 
Hampton White to Peggy Query 
John Huei to Eliza McLellen 
C. H. Gingles to Mary Alorrison 
Go. McLure to Eliza Pharr 
Elias McLellen to Fanny Townzen 
Isaac Wilson to Miss Walace 
Wm. Caldwell to Eliza Query 



Jan. 


14 


March 2 7 


May 


20 


Aug. 


26 


Sept. 


2 


Oct. 


21 




2 7 



Nov. 25 



Dec. 



Feb. 5 
10 

2 5 
March 26 
May 7 
June 9 
Oct. 16 



Nov. 
Dec. 



2 9 
6 



1835 

Rufis Reed to Polly Wilson 

Rev. John Irwin to Mrs. Neyle 

Dr. Gipson to Elizabeth Phifer 

Sandy Query to Miss Cannon 

Sam McKee to Cinthy Morrison 

John Wilson to Martha Parks 

George Monteeth to Livina Garretson 

Joshua Harris to Sarah M. Mehaffey 

Silas P. Stewart to Martha C. Lemmond 

Mr. Towle to Sarah Snell 

Richard R. Carson to Harriet Wilson 



(DAP) 



192 



APPENDIX 



Dec. 10 Alexander W. Allen to Jane White (DAP) 
22 Aquinus White to Clarrissa White (DAP) 

1836 

Feb. 2 John Query to Delina Alexander 
4 Stephen Ecock to Caroline Newel 
James Allen to Mary Richeson 
Wm. P. Harris to lYiartha Cochran 
James Alexander to Miss Allen 
Hovis McBaul to Amanda Moon (DAP) 
Joseph L. Black to Mary McCachren (DAP) 
Jo. McCombs to Martha Parks 
Zimri Johnston to Miss Keighlor 
James Morris to D. Walker 

Harvey Davis to Mary Spear (DAP: 8; Elam H. 
Davis to May C. Spears) 
Robt. McLellan to Matilda Kimmons 
J. M. Black to Elizabeth Johnston 
Moses Alexander to Margaret Allen 
John Allen to Dorcas Cochran 





9 




l 7 




2 3 




? 




2 5 


March 1 5 




2 4 


Sept. 


7 




20 


Nov. 


2 3 


Dec. 


22 



Feb. 23 
March 
April ? 
Oct. 26 
Dec. 28 



Jan. 



teb. 


22 


Sept. 


5 




2 7 


Oct. 


1 1 



Dec. 



22 



1837 

Dr. Hapholbt to Dorcas Foster 
Thos. S. Martin to Dorcas E. Tucker (DAP) 
John A. Davis to Margt. E. Spears (DAP) 
David R. Kelough to Elizabeth Erwin (DAP) 
Rev. Angus Johnston to Mary A. Spears (DAP) 

1838 

Cisro Alexander to Mary Cochran (DAP: A. C. Al- 
exander) 

P. Townzen to Mary Ross (DAP: H. P. Townsend) 
Sam Kimmons to Tirza Stafford (DAP: 20) 
David Newel to Matilda Harris 
Hope Cochran to Jane Harris 
Jim Andrives to Sarah Farr 

John Gingles to Clementine Purvines (DAP: Purvi- 
ance) 

Silas Collwell to A valine Query (DAP: Caldwell) 
Wm. A. Sosaman to Sarah Dixon (DAP) 



193 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

1839 

Jan. 8 Josiah L. Phillips to Margt. Wilson (DAP) 
D. M. Taylor to H. C. Harris (DAP: 22) 
Joshua Teter to Margaret Callwell 
John Bost to Suphfira Brown 
Wm. Remes to Catherine Farr 

1840 

J. B. White to Ann M. Harris (DAP: 22) 

Jo. O. Pharr to Luesa Black 

Andrew Alexander to Miss Montooth 

Jo Cochran to Catherine Macnite 

Wm. T. Alexander to Mary Orr 

L. H. Harris to Harriet Alexander 

Robt. Mcibon to Jane Blunt 

J. C. Pharr to Poly Davis 

Rev. W. S. Pharr to Miss Allison 

R. L. Archibald to Sarah Archibald (DAP: Sarah R. 

Bradshaw) 

Joshua Harris to Susan White (DAP) 

D. Ingram to Martha Alexander 

D. White to Caroline Walker 

Alfred Brown to Margaret Bost (DAP) 

J. Porter to Mary Harris, sister of Mack Harris 

1 841 

James L. Morrison to Elizabeth White (DAP) 

Andrew Flinn to Sarah Means 

John F. Morrison to Elvira R. McLelland (DAP) 

Harvey Scott to Margeret Morrison 

Robt. Strube to Eliza Huie 

J. M. Black to Eliza Weddington 

John M. Morrison to Mary Davis (DAP) 

John Teeter to Sally Cook 

John L. Morrison to Margert Davis 

Harvey Spears to Mary McLellen 

Sam Harris to Catherine Watson 

Nat Johnston to Margert Welch 

Jas. Orr to Nancy Cochran 

P. D. Furr to Elizabeth McEchran 

194 





24 


May 


6 




23 




2 4 


Jan. 


21 


March 1 7 




24 


April 


H 


June 


11 




3° 


July 


l 5 




28 


Aug. 


4 




20 


Oct. 


6 




2 9 


Nov. 


8 


Dec. 


l 7 




2 3 


Jan. 


21 


Feb. 


2 


April 


J 5 


July 


2 7 


Aug. 


10 


Sept. 


*4 




2 5 




28 


Oct. 


5 


Nov. 


9 




16 




l 9 


Dec. 


16 



APPENDIX 



Jan. 


6 


Feb. 


8 




2 4 


March 


12 4 


April 


12 




3° 


June 


i 


July 


12 


Aug. 


30 


Sept. 


I 



Dec. 



2 9 



1842 

George Alexander to Sarah Pharris 

Harvey Taylor to Mary Purvians 

Horace Alexander to Marget White 

Wm. Underwood to Martha Newel 

Wm. Cartor to Mary Ann Taylor (DAP: 10) 

James White to Mary Hickingbeckim 

R. W. Allison to Ann Phifer (DAP: May 31) 

Rev. G. W. Gibbs to Ceny Morgan (DAP: Geo. M. 

Gibbs) 

J. R. Weddington to Narcissa Black 

N. Penigar to Tirza White 

E. P. Cochran to Mary McGinnis 

Allen Boger to Hesse White 



Jan. 





l l 


Feb. 


2 




14 




16 




2 3 


April 


13 




25 


July 


? 


Aug. 


21 


Nov. 


28 



1843 

Dr. Hapholdt to Sarah A. Williamson 

J. C. McLellen to Sarah Harris 

R. Cravan to Elizabeth Pharr (DAP: 

Geo. W. Craven; Farr) 

J. C. Sosserman to Sarah Burns 

Nat Alexander to Adaline Davis 

H. H. Pharr to Joanna Davis 

Loranizo Strube to Elizabeth White 

Jo Cochran to Martha Sample 

Robert Knox to Margaret Bain (DAP) 

Harvey McLellen to Margert Morrison 

Robert Young to L. E. Phifer (DAP) 



Jan. 31: 



Jan. 


2 5 


Feb. 


6 




8 




22 


March 


» 7 




8 


May 


16 


July 


2 5 



1844 

Dr. Gilmore to Hetty Alexander 

Dr. McLellen to Margert Purvians 

P. D. Furr to Elizabeth Harris (Josh) 

Wilson Blackwelder to S. H. Scott (DAP) 

Miles Lemmons to Mary Means 

Jesse Luallen to Linny AicLellen 

Eli Stafford to Jane Cochran 

Wm. G. Newell to Cressida S. Black (DAP) 



195 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

July ? Joseph M. Black to R. McEachern (DAP) 
Dec. 17 Leird Query to Mary Scott (DAP: James L.) 

1845 

Jan. 1 2 Henry Garmon to Martha White 

Feb. 6 Elisha Scott to Mary Kimmons 

March 20 Thos. White to Elizabeth Alexander (DAP: 13) 

April 4 Hampton Speir to E. Barnhardt (Earnhardt) 

June 12 A. F. Woods to Mary Gilliam 

July 17 Dr. R. W. Martin to Ceny McLellen (DAP: 16) 

29 Milton Hunter to Jane Wilson 
Aug. 1 2 Isaac Alexander to Carline Morrison 

Wm. Miller to Serena Morrison (DAP: David W.) 
Sept. 1 8 Wm. Rodgers to Martha Bell 

23 Wm. Morrison to Mary Newel (DAP: 18) 
Oct. 16 Saml. Kimmons to Dorcas Pharr (DAP) 
Nov. 4 R. H. Morrison to Mary Stewart 
25 Harvey Morrison to Martha Pharr 
L. C. Kirkpatrick to Burnies White 
Dec. 1 3 Robt. Query to Emely McGinnis 
Franklin Irwin to Minka McGinnis 
1 8 Cases Cochran to Margeret Galloway 
23 Henderson Davis to Mary Rodgers (DAP: 
Thomas H.) 
Chas. McGinnis to Lucreia Kirkpatrick 

1846 

Jan. 8 McCamy A. Harris to M. I. Alexander (DAP) 
May 1 2 John Newel to Jane Swearingin 
July 28 Dr. Gilmore to Elizabeth Alexander 
Aug. 4 Wm. T. Alexander to Margery Cohan 
6 Jonathan Smith to Margert Caldwell 
11 A. J. York to Burnies Long 

C. N. White (shff) to Josephine Brown 
Dec. 3 Hugh C. Cochran to Jane Hunter 

8 Robt. S. Young to Miss Burton 

9 J. H. Wilson to Mary Phifer 
Batte Irwin to Mary Robinson 

1 5 Jefferson Hunter to Cracida Cochran 

196 



APPENDIX 

Dec. 17 R. L. Cochran to Martha McGinnis 

31 J. M. Alexander to Herriet Harris (DAP: D. Alex- 
ander) 

1847 

Saml. Caldwell to Mary Alexander 
W. Yates to C. McClellan (DAP) 
George L. Phifer to Rose Penick 
Cisro Alexander to Mary White 
J. M. Query to Sarah Cochran 
John Frazor to Jane Davis 
Dr. Rankin to Elizabeth Alexander 
Randsom Winecoff to Hetty Bost 
John M. Morrison to Herriet Newel 
Lee Morris to Mary Parks 

Leroy Morrison to Margeret Pharr (DAP: George L. 
to M. M.) 

Orrison Hoggs to Mrs. Kirkpatrick 
John McLarty to Miss Smith 

Rev. Walter Wellington Pharr to Miss Bain Alex- 
ander 

Lee Garretson to Burnies Hadley 
Mr. Wolf to Mary Ann Davis 
Franklin Alexander to Miss Craige 
Agustis Pharr to Miss Handcock 
Sam Black to Lydda McEchran 
P. D. Furr to Elizabeth Davis 

1848 

Jas. C. Morrison to Jane White 
Rev. Mr. Lafferty to Miss Chamberlane 
John Gingles to Elizabeth B. Harris 
Mr. Johnston to Susan Caldwell 
Saml. White to Martha Bio-q-ar 
John W. Davis to Martha Wolf 
W. T. McAnulty to Polly Stogner 
Stephen Wilson to Jane Flow 
Jas. McEchran to Miss Fisher 
J. Wilson to Mary Jane Allan 

197 



Jan. 


7 




21 


Feb. 


23 


April 
May 


28 
6 




1 1 




25 


June 
July 


2 4 

3 




22 


Aug. 


l 7 


Sept. 
Nov. 


16 

4 




18 


Dec. 


25 
2 




4 




9 


Jan. 


28 


Feb. 


1 


March 


1 2 




8 




9 
16 


April 

May 

July 


30 
1 1 

4 
4 





ii 




12 




"3 


Aug. 


17 




2 4 




26 




? 


Oct. 


4 




5 




10 


Nov. 


2 9 


Dec. 


1 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

July 6 John H. Bryen to Carcida B. Harris 
Milton Hunter to Martha Rodgers 
Martin L. Phifer to Miss Hoyl 
Robt. Caldwell to Mary Cochran 
Isaac Snell to Jane Towle 
Williamson Wallace to Mary Morris 
Dr. M. M. Orr to Miss Fox 
Hon. D. M. Barringer to Miss Weathery 
Isaac Harris to Mary Burns 
Thos. P. Rodgers to Emely Alexander 
Amzi Cook to Margery McGinnis 
Wade Flow to Margaret Cuthberson 
Cornells Alexander to Mary Caldwell 
2 1 McCamy Alexander to Mary Hunter 
Adw. Neel to Caroline Hunter 
Wm. B. Phillips to Cene Newel 
Joshua Hartsil to Palina Turner 
William Petree to Elizabeth Galloway 

1849 

Jan. 1 7 James Dortin to Margeret Means 

Feb. 1 Samuel Pharr to Martha Scott 

John D. Morrison to Elizabeth Wilson 
John Kilpatrick to Herriet Orr 
8 Lawsen Blackwelder to Matilda Gingles 

Dr. Bingham to Miss Harris 
1 5 Garretson Blair to Margeret Query 
John Orr to Miss Harris 

March 8 Ad. Johnston to Polly Johnston 
Robert White to Mary Corzine 

April 10 Wm. F. Phifer to Miss M. M. White 
John Weddington to Elizabeth Hart 
Rev. Saml. C. Pharr to Miss Springsteel 
Col. Rea to Martha McEchran 
Mr. Stough to Mary Morrison 
Robinson White to Mary Query 
Jo. W. Scott to Martha Brown 
Hale Weddington to Margaret Hart 
Mr. Garretson to Sarah McGinnis 

198 





22 


May 


10 


Aug. 


2 




23 


Sept. 


4 


Nov. 


1 




? 



APPENDIX 

Nov. 1 3 Chas. Caldwell to Jinny Cochran 

15 Mr. Jimmison to Sarah Alexander 

20 Asa Bost to Carline Venderburg 

2 2 Alfrad Area to Margeret Pharr 

Dec. 1 3 Cyrenas Alexander to Margeret Ann Cochran 

19 Mr. Northern to Luise Gingles 

20 R. C. White to Dorcas Alexander 

Mr. Wolf to Sarah White (DAP: D. C. Wolfe) 
James Newel to A4iss Howel 
Mr. Howel to Miss Gray 
Lawrance Dry to Ann Brien 
Adam Alexander to Miss Kate Stokes 
Jasper Gowyer to Nancy L. Flemming 
27 Thos. F. Brian to Emely Davis 



1850 

Rev. R. H. Lafferty to Cornelie Parks 
Wm. Underwod to Miss Bostian 
Orrison Hodges to Susan Wallace 
Warren Meloan to Amanda White 
Joseph Miller to Miss Carrigan 

Berryhill to Ann Taylor 

Wm. GrifTeth to Emely Reid 

Alfrad McEchran to Herriet Johnston 

John McKinley to Polly Hutson 

Robert R. Brown to Miss Haul 

Samuel Blair to Minty Query 

Jo Irvin to May Ann Ray 

Thos. Ferguson to Elizabeth Feruguson 

Thomas H. McLellen to Martha Elizabeth Harris 

John Bradshaw to Mary Phifer 

Wm. Huie to Sarah Lyde 

Dr. James Stewart to Margeret Morrison 

Alfrad Martin to Elizabeth Keeler 

Robert M. White to Margt. E. Dunn (DAP) 

A4ilton Hunter to Mary Montgomery 

Hampton Newel to Harriet Bradshaw 

Wm. B. Cochran to Rachel Caldwell 



199 



j an. 


5 
10 




17 




2 4 
26 


Feb. 


3 1 
19 




21 




26 


May 
June 


3° 

18 


July 


2 5 
9 




10 


Aug. 


3° 

22 


Sept. 
Oct. 


2 5 

22 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Nov. 19 Rev. Wm. Barringer to Miss Lavinia Alston, of 
Chatham 
23 Wm. Rodgers to Eliza Strube 
26 David Taylor to Catherine Pharr 
28 John Brafford to Esther Newel 
Sam. Garretson to Miss Hunter 
Dec. 10 Mr. Craford to Rebecca Harris 

19 Nathaniel White to Sarah Martin 
Hall Hudson to Frances White 

1851 

D. W. Faggot to Elizabeth Swearingin 
Hugh Harris to Mary Walker 
J. M. Alexander to Rebecca Martin 
L. C. Kirkpartick to Carline McLellen 
Mike Festerman to Polly Howell 
Matthias Boger to Catherine Burns 
Rev. Aaron Quay to Jane Huie 
Washington Brien to Sally Gray 
Calvin Hood to Ann Newel 
Wm. Carter to Jane Baker 
Hope Caldwell to Miss Wilson 
Chas. McGinnis to Caroline Alexander 
28 Sandy White to Sarah Hudson 

Harvey Henderson to Harriet Dixon 
Sam. Burns to Elizabeth Harris 
Sept. 30 Hugh Taylor to Jane McEchran 
Oct. 4 J. Williford to Eliza Black 

7 R. L. Cochran to C. M. Irwin 

McCamy Dickson to Margaret Huie 
9 Saml. Gilmore to Margaret Alexander 
14 J. L. Badger to Mary McMillan 
Nov. 6 Wm. White to Martha Neely (DAP: Nov. 7) 
Dec. 3 Wilson Wallace to Caroline Harrison 
4 Robt. Query to Adargeret Caldwell 

1852 

Jan. 6 F. S. Weddington to E. Ann Scott 
13 N. A. Kirkpatrick to J. L. Pharr 

200 



Jan. 


16 


Feb. 


30 

18 




2 5 

? 


April 
May 


3 

7 


July 


2 9 

28 


Aug. 


12 
26 



APPENDIX 

Feb. 24 James Cannon to Georgia White 

Dr. McKee to Margeret Sadler 
March 18 S. ? Caldwell to Alary C. Welch 

25 Mr. Huie to Frances Lyde 
April 8 McCamy A. White to Elizabeth White 
May 6 John Slone to Sarah Stewart 

James Grible to Sarah Houston 

June 1 George Bost to Blackwelder 

3 Pinkney Caldwell to Sarah Russel 
? Mr. Hutcheson to Dorcas Lucky 
July 27 Sandy Query to Jamima Walker 
29 Blumer White to Ann Winecoff 
Aug. 10 R. R. King to Martha Morris 

Dr. L. C. Kirkpatrick to Miss M. C. C. Buchanan 
David Newell to Miss Burns 
Sept. 16 Adam Clontz to Mary Weddington 

2 1 Hadrick to Betcy Burns 

Oct. 7 Dr. McKee Houston to Mary Black 

14 Rev. P. T. Penick to Miss Bay ley (DAP: Sarah L. 
Bailey) 

John Morrison to Patcy Morrison 
Mr. Peoples to Miss Neel 
Nov. 1 8 Sam K. W. Snell to Jinnet Harris 
Dec. 9 L. S. Williams to Lucy Dillard 
John Purvians to Miss Pennigar 
Jas. Russell to Mary M. Irwin 
14 Robt. Cochran to Tirzah Eugene Cochran 
2 1 Jacob McMurdy to Sally White 
Elam Wiggons to Erixeny Hodge 

i853 

Jan. 1 3 Lock Gipson to Miss Babcock 

? S. G. Scott to Frances Scott — never did 

? Mark Festerman to Miss Gardner 

? Danl. Penninger to Stancil 

? John Gorder to Stancil 

1 8 Lawson Cochran to Susan McCaleb 

2 1 Charles Starns to Esther White 

27 Washington Russel to Sarah Flow 

201 





23 


April 


4 




6 




? 




26 




28 


May 


12 


June 


1 




2 3 


July 


7 


Aug. 


18 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Feb. 10 James Carter to Mary Ann Robinson 
Jo Reed to Cornelie Brown 
Tom H. Strube to Martha Walls 
James E. Morrison to Juley Colter 
Elam N. Alexander to Malissa Tolliston 
John Dixon to Miss Grier 
Mr. Slone to Harriet Black 
James Page to E. Jane McAnulty 
Sandy Flow to Elizabeth Gingles 
Peter Brown to Christena Crawford 
John Cross to Catherine Pitts 

Rachal Neely to Maxwell 

Rev. Mr. May to Jane Harrison 
Lee Venderburg to Miss Brawley 
2 5 Sam Huie to Harriet T. Cochran 
John Hunter to Martha Lee 
Sept. 8 Green Hodge to Aiargery Orr 
27 Tilrow Blair to Lock Parks 
? John Brown to Miss Karr 
29 Wm. Cochran to Lidda Towls 
Oct. 9 Matthias Klutts to Pelina Sprinkle 
Nov. 1 Chas. M. McKinley to Mary E. Harris (DAP: Oct. 1) 
2 J. Tom Downs to Margeret Joanna Orr 
24 Jas. A. Harris to Margeret Burns 

Alex Scott to Mat Ann Cochran (DAP: Martha 
Cochran) 
? Dr. Dillard to Mag Brown 
Dec. 2 J. C. A. Cochran to Margeret Porter 
1 5 David M. Corzine to Mary Hudson 
20 Cis McEchran to Pha. Archibald (DAP: Cicero) 
22 Dicon Caldwell to Elizabeth McLean 
27 John Hardwick to Miss Ceny Nely? (DAP: E. C. 
Neely) 

1854 

Jan. 6 Lawson Black to Sarah Morrison 

? Henry Garmon to Hartsil Suffirer 

26 Jo. Calvin Welsh to Tamanda Wilson 

Feb. 2 Wm. Morris to Eliza McCombs 

202 



Feb. 


22 


March 2 




14 


April 


4 


May 


2 5 




? 


July 


3 




22 


Aug. 


2 2 




2 4 


Sept. 


7 




20 


Oct. 


4 


Dec. 


*4 




? 




14 




28 



APPENDIX 

R. B. Cochran to Elizabeth Query 
David M. Russel to Nancy Hunter 
Dan Peninger to Mary Catherine Pharr 
P. Milton Morris to Lu Alexander 
Rufus Barringer to Miss Morrison 
James Carson to Molly Williams 
Thos. Still to Palina Barber 
Rev. J. L. Watt to A. L. Neal 
John P. Moor to Martha Parks 
Wm. P. Rich to Martha Jane Martin 
Jo. Walker to Polly Hunter 
Rev. S. Ross to Neomy Caldwell 
J. B. Alley to Sarah A. MeharTey 
Dr. Sam Gilmore to Jane S. Pharr 
McCamy W. Caldwell to Amanda Query 
John Walker to Martha Porter 
Wm. Orr to Sarah Rogers 
Wm. Garretson to Martha Bingham 
Decator McGinnis to M. C. Cochran 
Abner Goodson to Sarah Young 

1855 

Jan. 1 8 Seth Spears to Sarah I. Townzen 
Spain Gray to Polly Hegler 
Jackson V. Bost to Gray 

22 Ibson Cannon to Emely Baker 

23 Cisro McLellen to Catherine Smith 
Ben Glen to Catherine Gingles 

30 Columbus White to Antenet T. Alexander (DAP: 
E. A. Alexander) 
Feb. 1 Col. R. M. Cochran to Marv Davis 
John Gibson to Jane McCalab 
8 Robt. Caldwell to Martha Cochran 

14 Joshua Harris to Ann Levina Lingle 

15 James C. McLellen to Marv Rodgers 
Wilson Bigger to Elizabeth Bost 
David Miller to Miss Long 

Harris Polk to Elizabeth Bockem 
Wm. L. Archibald to Caroline Bradshaw 

203 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



Feb. 28 
March 6 

20 

22 



April 10 
11 



12 



May 
June 
July 

Aug. 



Sept. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



19 

10 



31 
16 



22 

30 

1 

2 5 

2 7 
1 

6 

1 

4 
5 

*3 
20 



George Alexander to Sarah Getton 

R. M. Biggers to M. E. Bost (DAP) 

Thos. Jordan to Clemmentine Stancil (DAP) 

James Nelson to Frances S. Cochran 

H. P. Townzen to Mary Brown King 

John O. Bost to Ann Hall King 

R. C. H. Cochran to Barbara Cochran 

Thos. Alexander to Sarah Jones 

James Irwin to Elizabeth M. Newell 

James Carter to Martha J. Hadley (DAP: Headly) 

John M. Morehead to Sarah Phifer 

Tobias Linker to Mary Biggar 

L. B. Krimmenger to Vashti Gilmore 

Sam Krimmenger to Mary Ann Swaringame 

Franklin Stafford to Mary Caldwell 

Rev. C. Caldwell to F. A. McKinley 

S. E. W. Pharr to F. I. Cochran 

Jess Hudgens to Sarah Pharr 

John Springs to Elizabeth C. Stafford 

Wm. Brawley to Miss M. J. York 

John Revvels to Eliza Carter 

Wm. A. Deal to Salome Lingle 

Jackson Bost to Linny Swearingame 

James Walker to Jane Pharr 

Adolphus Gipson to Mary A. Moss 

Dr. Davidson to Molly Elms 

Peter Albright to Addeline Cress 

Martin Bost to Rose Crowel 

Lions to Mag Springs 

Joab Camble to Sarah Johnston 

Sam J. Harris to Elizabeth McEchran 

James H. McLellen to Sarah Davis 

Isaac Allison to Mary Robinson 

Hugh J. Smith to Margret W. Kirkpatrick 



1856 

Jan. 29 David Garritson to Margerat McLean 
Jacob Dove to Margerat White 
3 1 Manless Harris to Martha L. Harris 



204 



APPENDIX 



March 1 3 


April 


9 




22 


May 


5 




21 


Aug. 


J 4 




28 


Sept. 


2 




23 




2 5 


Nov. 


18 




2 7 


Dec. 


4 




9 




10 




1 1 




2 3 



A. Newton Harris to Jane A. Smith 

Harvey Scott to Eliza Towls 

S. Washington Harris to Martha Davis 

Archibald Melone to Cate Swaringame 

Robt. R. Brown to Elizabeth Pharr 

John Morrison to Isable Morrison 

Elonor Davis to Mr. Foster 

John Wilson to Sidney Davis 

Columbus Q. Morrison to Susan Gray (DAP: Q. C; 

Sept. 3) 

Wm. R. Cochran to Ceny D. Harris (Josh) 

Sam Luin to Jane Gibson 

Pleasant Hodges to Sarah Cochran 

Cornells Alexander to Mary Caldwell 

Franklin Caldwell to Wilson 

Robt. Cochran to Margery Cochran 
John M. McEchran to Jos. Archibald 
Jack Black to Jane Russel 
John W. McKibbin to Dovey Murph 
Bill Carter to Prudy Turner 
James A. Black to Eliza Area 



1857 
Jan. 6 R. R. King to Sarah Parks 



10 





2 9 


Feb. 


12 




l 7 


March 


1 3 


April 


1 




3° 


May 


12 




*4 




21 



Wm. Blue to Margerat White 

George Farr to Margerat Pharr 

McCamy White to Martha Sprinkle 

Conner Flow to Martha Gingles 

Wm. F. Harkey to Lenora Cochran 

John Treelore to Margerat Speir (DAP: Mar. 

Treloa) 

Robert Caldwell to Margeret I. Harris (Josh) 

Wm. H. Howie to Mary I. White (DAP) 

Monroe Sloop to Cate Albright 

Peter Albright to Cate Bostian 

J. W. Patron to Miss C. C. Johnston (DAP) 

Robt. B. White to Martha H. Alexander 

Rev. S. C. Alexander to Mary Homes Brown 



12; 



205 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



June 


? 


July 


7 


Aug. 


2 7 


Sept. 


l 5 


Oct. 


l 5 




29 


Nov. 


4 


Dec. 


22 



31 



J. L. Moody to Sarah Blacke 

Sam McKee Stafford to Mary C. McKinley 

Levi Leech to Cinda Page 

Sam Wharton to E. C. Alexander 

Cox to Patsy Sweringame 

Wm. Caldwell to Senera Caldwell 

Wm. Cochran to Eliza Bain 

Rev. P. T. Penick to Eliza J. Bingham 

Rev. D. A. Penick, Jr. to Eliza L. McKneely 

T. B. Slone to Sarah Ann McCorkle 

Caleb McCurdy to Martha Bost 



Feb. ? 

1 1 

March 4 

9 

2 5 
April 2 7 

May 

June 

Aug. 



Sept. 
Oct. 



Nov. 



20 

3 

10 



12 

14 

5 
14 

19 

28 

1 1 



2 5 

3° 

Dec. 2 

16 

? 

2 3 



1858 

Saml. A. Stewart to Mrs. Stewart 
John M. Fink to Sarah Gingles 
James Alexander to A4ary Caldwell 

A. D. Parks to Isabella Wilson 
John Harry to Susan Shalby 
Henry Howey to Mary Johnston 
Charles Cochran to Ceny Cochran 
Logan Wilson to Josephene Hunter 

Rev. Alexr. Sinclair to Laura Brevard Davidson 

David White to Jane Huei 

Elam M. Query to Josephene Wilson 

Rev. E. D. Junkin to Agnes A. Penick 

Rev. I. G. AlcGlaughlin to M. McElwee 

Dr. McKee Houston to Mary Watson 

Caleb N. White to Miss Coleman 

Jackson Slone to M. Jane Goodman 

Mr. John A. Dorton to Miss Narcissa A. Archibald 

(DAP) 

Lee Houston to Martha Alexander 

Chas. H. Irwin to C. Eliza B. Bost 

Wm. C. Harris to M. M. T. Davis 

B. B. Young to Isabella M. Lingle 
Wilson A. Lingle to Martha J. Lynch 
Cyrenas Alexander to Martha Kirk 
Jas. A. Kirkpatrick to Emelia E. White 



206 



APPENDIX 
l8 59 

Jan. 6 John Cochran to M. Festerman 

1 8 Elias Morrison to Jane Reames 

Feb. 10 Monroe Russel to Martha Martin 

Wm. W. Speir to A4artha Earnhardt 

? G. W. H. Andrew to Sarah Alexander 

17 Arastus Stancil to Teressa Alexander (DAP: E. S. 

Stansil) 

? Henry Bever to Aveline Flow 

? James A4cCaul (83 yrs) to Miss Culberson (17) 

March 2 E. B. Burns to Elizabeth Brown 

May 5 Thos. H. McClellin to Barbara Cochran 

10 Conner Reed to Luisa Caldwell 

June 2 1 Wm. R. Pharr to Jane Amanda King 

July 28 Rev. R. H. Caldwell to Emely Caldwell 

? Ci Harris to Emely Alexander 

? E. A. Miller to Ann Bost 

Here ends the register kept by Joshua Harris. Marriage lists fol- 
lowing are from the Records of Rocky River Church (Sessional 
Minutes, Vol. I) during the later years of the pastorate of Daniel 
Penick and that portion of 1 870 following his death. 

1859 (Continued) 

Caleb Linker and E. C. White 
Joseph R. McLellan and M. C. Long 
Dixon B. Penick to Elizabeth A. Cochran 
M. W. Johnston to A. H. Bost 
T. R. Bennet to M. J. Townsend 

i860 

Eli J. Smith to D. J. Kirkpatrick 

Isaack B. Teater to D. S. Harris 

M. A. Lipe to Martha M. Erwin 

J. C. Pharr and R. M. King 

Cyrus A. Snell and Margaret A. Porter 

1861 

J. L. Davis and J. M. Russell 
T. M. Johnston and Sarah Pharr 

207 



Sept. 


!5 


Oct. 


2 9 

18 


Dec. 


3i 
J 3 


Jan. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Nov. 


3 

H 
6 

2 7 


Dec. 


1 1 


Jan. 3 
March 29 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 



May i James Campbell and F. D. Alexander 
Nov. 27 Wm. Johnston to V. S. Pharr 

1862 

Feb. 20 T. G. Davis to E. Spears 
Aug. 7 T. A. Davis and M. E. White 

1863 

Jan. 1 R. M. McEachern and M. E. Tucker 
Feb. 25 ? L. Stafford and C. E. McKindly 

1864 
Oct. ? Henry Pharr and Ann Davis 

1865 

Jan. ? John Caldwell and S. N. Pharr 

June 22 John M. Alexander to M. F. Query 

Sept. 1 2 Isaac C. McClelan to M. W. Smith 

J. B. Morrison to Betty Scott 

Oct. ? Nat. McClelan to M. C. Smith 

Nov. ? S. K. W. Snell to E. E. Query 

Dec. 14 Robert Snell to M. M. Query 

1866 

Jan. 2 D. L. Alexander to E. McClelan 

Feb. 6 William Harris to Cynthia E. Spears 

July 24 John H. Caldwell to Sarah L. Parks 

Nov. 1 5 William Nicholson to M. E. L. Morrison 
M. L. Pharr and M. L. Kirkptarick 

27 Thomas McKinley and F. L. Alexander 

Dec. 11 S. H. Alexander and M. M. McClellan 

1 3 Walter McClain to Margaret A. Martin 

20 Robert Cope to Mary E. Spears 

1867 

Jan. 17 Joseph McClellan and Martha A. Russel 

3 1 John M. Black to Sarah A. Erwin 

Feb. 14 John M. McClarty to E. M. Black 

19 John M. W. Alexander to E. A. Morrison 

208 



APPENDIX 



June 


26 


Sept. 


5 


Jan. 


30 




? 


Feb. 


? 


April 

July 
Sept. 


30 

28 
8 




10 


Oct. 


15 
20 


Nov. 


1 1 


Dec. 


22 



R. H. Caldwell to M. Q. Pharr 
B. Boyd to M. C. L. Pharr 

1868 

Joshua Teater to Harriet C. Alexander 
J as. B. White to ?. WinecofT 

Stricland to E. J. McEachern 

Thos. H. McClellan to Mrs. Mary Query 
S. A. Harris to E. C. Wharton 
D. H. White to Laura Hampton 
Joseph R. White to M. J. White 
David Cline to Jane W. Morrison 
Elam C. Davis to E. E. Kirkptarick 
William S. White to Fanny White 
William L. Morrison to A4ary Black 
Charles Miller to Sally Spears 

1869 

Jan. 25 Robt. Scruggs to Julia A. Biggers 
May 1 1 John Freeze to Mary H. Scott 
Aug. 10 A. Bauman to Mary F. Penick 
Oct. 28 Wm. Townsand to E. J. Martin 
Nov. 17 Dr. D. W. Flow to Mollie J. Pharr 

Eddie P. Penick to Maria L. Morrison 

1870 

Charles H. Erwin to Virginia Johnston 
Hugh S. Pharr to Mary Means 
Joshua Teeter to Mary Carigan 
Victor Query to Martha Barnhardt 



Jan. 


5 


Feb. 


? 


Nov. 


2 4 


Dec. 


12 



209 



Bibliography 



Bibliography 



A. Minutes, Records, and Reports of Ecclesiastical Bodies 

B. Miscellaneous Manuscripts 

C. Books and Pamphlets 

D. Periodicals 

A. MINUTES, RECORDS, AND REPORTS OF 
ECCLESIASTICAL BODIES 

(Minutes unless otherwise designated) 

I. CONGREGATIONS (all manuscript) 

i . John's and Wadmalaw Islands, South Carolina 
Session: Vol. 1856-1911. 

2. Milton, North Carolina 

Session: Vol. I, 1 826-1 850. 

3. Rocky River 

Church Register: Vols. I — III, 1 835-1953. Vol. I is in first 
volume of Minutes of Session. 

Librarian's Record: Vol. 1832-? 

Session: Vols. I — III, 1 835-1953. 

Treasurer's Record: Vols. I— III, 1 836-1 898. Also Building 
Fund Treasurer's books, subscription lists, and similar 
papers relating to the erection of the present house of 
worship. In possession of J. Lee White, Concord, N. C. 

Women of the Church (various names): Vols. I— II, 1876- 
1888. 

Young People (various names): Vols. I— II, 1893-1917. 

4. Zion, Cabarrus County, North Carolina 

Session: Vol. II, 1 886-1904. 

II. PRESBYTERIES 

1. Concord: Vols. I-IX, 1 795-1 892 (manuscript); Vols. X- 
XVIII, 1 892-1953 (printed). 

213 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

2. Donegal: Vols. I — III, 1732-1777 (manuscript). In Presbyte- 

rian Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

3. Hanover: Vols. I — II, 1 755—1785 (manuscript). Pages 1-28 of 

Volume I, and so numbered, are in the front of the volume. 
After the union of the Synod of New York and that of 
Philadelphia in 1758, the Clerk turned to the back of the 
book and began his entries, where pages 1-46 are numbered 
in parentheses. This scheme is followed in references. In 
Library of Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va. 

4. Mecklenburg (Early): Vol. I, 1 825-1 828 (manuscript). 

5. Mecklenburg (Present): Vol. I, 1 869-1 876 (manuscript); 

fall 1923 (printed). 

6. Morganton: Vol. I, 1 836-1 840 (manuscript). 

7. Orange: Vol. 1831-1836 (manuscript). 

8. The (Philadelphia) Presbytery: Vol. ijo6-iji6. In Records 

of the Presbyterian Church (Philadelphia, Pa., 1841, 1852, 
1904, the last with index). This volume also contains the 
Minutes of the Synod of Philadelphia, 17 17-1758; of the 
Synod of New York, 1745-175 8; and of the Synod of New 
York and Philadelphia, 1758-1788. Page references are to 
the 1904 edition. 

III. SYNODS 

1. Carolinas: Vols. I— II, 1788—18 12 (manuscript). 

2. Georgia: Vol. 191 2 (printed). 

3. New York (See under The Presbytery above). 

4. New York and Philadelphia (See under The Presbytery 

above). 

5. North Carolina: Vols. I— III, 181 3-1843 (manuscript); 1851, 

1884, 1923-1924, 1927, 1947 (printed). 

IV. GENERAL ASSEMBLIES 

1. Presbyterian Church in the United States: Vols. 1861-1953 

(printed). As Presbyterian Church in the Confederate 
States of America, 1 861-1865. In references as Minutes of 
the General Assembly. 

2. Presbyterian Church in the United States of America: Vols. 

1794, 1809-1810, 1 8 1 3, 1821, 1828-1829, 1832-1861, 1868, 
1 87 1, 1873, 1952 (printed). All are so-called Old School 

214 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

during period of Old and New School division. In refer- 
ences as Minutes of the General Assembly, U. S. A. 

V. BOARDS 

Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Board 
of Domestic Missions, Sixty-fifth and Sixty-sixth annual re- 
ports, 1 867-1 868 (printed). 

Exact titles of printed minutes are variant, and references to min- 
utes, whether manuscript or printed, are never italicized except in 
case of those published in the Records of the Fresbyterian Church. 

B. A4ISCELLANEOUS MANUSCRIPTS 

Augusta County, Virginia. Order Book, Vol. 3. In county court 
house, Staunton, Va. 

Cabarrus County. Record of Deeds, Books 5, n-12, 81. In county 
court house, Concord, N. C. 

Davis, Thomas E. Autobiography. 

Harris, Elva. Account of Removal of Thimble. 

Harris, Joshua. Records. In possession of Mrs. George F. Stratton, 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Liberty Hall Chapter, D. A. R. Genealogical Record. In Public Li- 
brary, Charlotte, N. C. 

Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Record of Deeds, Books 
4, 7, 1 1-1 3, 17. In county court house, Charlotte, N. C. 

Will Book, Vols. A and G. In county court house, Charlotte, 

N. C. 

Mecklenburg Presbytery. Biographies of the Deceased Ministers, 
1869 to 1900. 

Morrison, Elam J. Autobiography. In Possession of Miss Mary King, 
Concord, N. C. 

Morrison, Ethel Hudson. History of Woman's Auxiliary of Rocky 
River Church, 1876—1925. 

Morrison, James Elijah. Letter to James Morrison, April 20, 1832. 
In Southern Historical Collection, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Morrison, Robert Hall. Letters to James Morrison, Feb. 12, 1820, 
and Oct. 15, 1 851. In Southern Historical Collection. 

Penick, Daniel Allen. Diary, 1821-1822. In Southern Historical Col- 
lection. 

215 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Ramsay, J. Alston. Historical Sketch of Concord Presbytery, March 

29th, 1796 to March 31st, 1896. 
Richardson, William. Diary and Journal, 1758-17 59. In New York 

Public Library. 
Rockwell, Elijah F. Biographical Sketch Book. 

History of Fourth Creek Church. 

Rumple, Jethro. Memorial Sermon Preached at Centre Church . . . 

April 1 st, 1896. 
Smith, Henry Louis. Letter to Robert H. LafFerty, Nov. 29, 192 1. 

In Davidson College Library, Davidson, N. C. 
Spence, Anna Sparrow. History of Woman's Auxiliary of Rocky 

River Church, 1946- 1947. 

Rocky River Casualties in the Great War, 1941-1945. 

Wharey, James M. Pastor's Diary and Clerical Record, 1885. 
Wilson, George. Sketch of John M. Wilson. 1 896. 

Manuscripts of all types not located elsewhere are in the Histori- 
cal Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, Mon- 
treat, N. C. 

C. BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS 

Alexander, Eugene, compiler. The Query History. Back Creek 

Church. 1934. 
Alexander, J. B. Biographical Sketches of the Early Settlers of the 

Hopewell Section. Charlotte, N. C. 1897. 
The History of Mecklenburg Coimty from 1740 to 1900. Char- 
lotte, N. C. 1902. 
Asbury, Francis. The Journal of the Rev. Francis As bury. 3 vols. 

New York. 1821. Vol. II. 
Baker, William M. The Life and Labours of the Rev. Daniel Baker, 

D. D. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, n. d. 
A Book of the South. New Orleans, n. d. 
Briggs, Charles Augustus. American Presbyterianism, Its Origin 

and Early History. New York. 1885. 
Caruthers, E. W. A Sketch of the Life and Character of the Rev. 

David Caldwell, D. D. Greensborough, N. C. 1842. 
Revolutionary hicidents and Sketches of Character Chiefly in 

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216 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Colonial Records of North Carolina. See North Carolina. 

Coon, Charles L. North Carolina Schools and Academies, 1790- 
1840. Raleigh. 19 15. 

Craighead, Alexander. A Renewal of the Covenants, n. p. Reprinted 
1748. 

Craighead, James Geddes. The Craighead Family. Philadelphia, Pa. 
1876. 

Creaghead, Alexander. A Discourse Concerning the Covenants: 
Containing the Substance of Two Sermons, Preached at Middle- 
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B. Franklin for the Author. 1742. The writer has never seen this 
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Davidson College. Alumni Catalogue of Davidson College, David- 
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Dictionary of American Biography. Vol. XXI. New York. 1944. 

Dowd, Jerome. Sketches of Prominent hiving North Carolinians. 
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DuBose, Hampden C. Memoirs of Rev. John Leighton Wilson, 
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Foote, William H. Sketches of North Carolina, Historical and Bio- 
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Glasgow, W. Melancthon. History of the Reformed Presbyterian 
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Graham, George W. The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
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Hampden-Sidney College. General Catalogue of the Officers and 
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Hanna, Charles A. The Scotch-Irish or the Scot in North Britain, 
North Ireland, and North America. 2 vols. New York and Lon- 
don. 1902. 

Harris, William S. Historical Sketch of Poplar Tent Church. 
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217 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

W. Hampton Eubank. Concord, N. C. 1924. Page references are 
to original edition unless otherwise indicated. 

Herndon, John Goodwin. John Thomson, n. p. 1943. 

Hillegas, Howard C. Oom Paul's People. New York. 1900. 

History of American Missions to the Heatheji from their Com- 
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A History of Cabarrus County in the Wars. n. p. (1947). 

Hodge, Charles. The Constitutional History of the Presbyterian 
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Howe, George. History of the Presbyterian Church in South Caro- 
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Hurley, James F. and Eagan, Julia Goode. The Prophet of Zion- 
Parnassus. Richmond, Va. n. d. 

Independent Presbyterian Church. The Constitution and Form 
of Government of the Independent Presbyterian Church. Colum- 
bia. 1839. 

Jones, Charles C. The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the 
United States. Savannah. 1842. 

Kaigh-Eustace, Edyth. The Tragedy of Mosega. n. p., n. d. 

Klett, Guy S. Presbyterians in Colonial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. 

*937- 
Lathan, Robert. History of the Associate Reformed Synod of the 

South. Harrisburg, Pa. 1882. 
Lingle, Walter L. Thyatira Presbyterian Church. Statesville, N. C. 

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Lore, Adelaide and Eugenia, and Morrison, Robert Hall. The 

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l 115 t0 l $15- To which is appended a Fore-word and an After- 
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M'Kerrow, John. History of the Secession Church. Edinburgh and 

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Newcomb, Harvey. A Cyclopedia of Missions. New York. 1855. 

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General Assembly. Roster of North Carolina Troops in the 

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Laws of the State of North Carolina enacted in the year 1812. 



Raleigh. 181 3. 

The State Records of North Carolina. 16 vols. Walter Clark, 



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North Carolina University. Alumni History of the University of 
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Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson. 3 vols. New York. 1861. 
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Phillips, Sarah E. A Historical Sketch of Valley Creek Church. 
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Presbytery of Carlisle. The Centennial Memorial. 2 vols. Harris- 
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Records of the Presbyterian Church. See The (Philadelphia) Pres- 
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Reformed Presbyterian Church. Reformation Principles Exhibited 
by the Reformed Presbyterian Church. Philadelphia. 1849. 

Rocky River Presbyterian Church. Bulletin: May 1, 1949; Sept. 6, 
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Extract from Plan of Work of Rocky River Church. Broadside 

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Progress! Posterity! Perpetuation! Folder (1943). 

Report on the Progress toward Perpetuating for Posterity. 



Pamphlet of 1947. 

— Service of Dedication of Audio-Visual Equipment. 1948. 

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219 



CONGREGATION ON ROCKY RIVER 

Service of Dedication of Memorial Organ and Chimes. 1946. 

Rumple, Jethro. A History of Rowan County, North Carolina. 
Salisbury, N. C. 1881. 

Scott, Eugene C. Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church, 
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Shaw, Cornelia, compiler. Davidson College. New York. n. d. 

Smith, Edwin W. The Life and Times of Daniel Lindley. New 
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Spence, T. H., Jr. and Lingle, W. L. Addresses Delivered at the 
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Spence, Thomas H. Survey of Records and Minutes in the Histori- 
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Sprague, William B. Annals of the American Pulpit. Vols. Ill and 
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State Records of North Carolina. See North Carolina. 

Synod of North Carolina. Centennial Addresses (1913). n. p., n. d. 

Tompkins, D. A. History of Mecklenburg County and the City of 
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Union Theological Seminary. General Catalogue of the Trustees, 
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United States, Bureau of Census. Heads of Families at the First 
Census of the United States taken in the Year 1790, North Caro- 
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Washington and Lee University. Catalogue of the Officers and 
Alumni of Washington and Lee University , Lexington, Va., 1749- 
1888. Baltimore. 1888. 

Webster, Richard. A History of the Presbyterian Church in Amer- 
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Wheeler, John H. Historical Sketches of North Carolina from IJ84 
to 18 p. 2 vols, in one. Philadelphia. 1851. 

Who's Who in North Carolina. Chicago. 1947. 

Williamson, Hugh. The History of North Carolina. 2 vols. Phila- 
delphia. 1 81 2. Vol. II. 

220 



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D. PERIODICALS 

Annals of Surgery. Philadelphia, Pa. Vol. XXIV, July-Dec. 1896. 

Asheville Citizen-Times. Asheville, N. C. Sept. 27, 1953. 

Assembly Reporter. Augusta, Ga. Dec. 5, 1861. 

Boston Recorder. Boston, Mass. Nov. 20, 18 19. 

Charleston Observer. Charleston, S. C. Aug. 13, 1831; Feb. 23, 1833. 

Charlotte Observer. Charlotte, N. C. Feb. 27, 1896; Dec. 14, 1947; 

Oct. 29, 1950. 
Christian Observer. Louisville, Ky. Jan. 29, 1873; May 12, 1926; 

Oct. 4, 1933; Nov. 1, 1950. 
Concord Presbyterian. Morganton, N. C. May 15, 1949. 
Concord Tribune. Concord, N. C. May 2, 1949; May 8, 1950. 
Davidson College Magazine. Davidson, N. C. Jan. 1 898. 
Family Visitor. Richmond, Va. Dec. 10, 1825. 
Foreign Missionary . New York, N. Y. Oct. 1880. 
Historical Foundation News. Montreat, N. C. July 1949. 
Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. Philadelphia, Pa. 

June 1905. 
Missionary . Nashville, Tenn. Oct. 1900. 
Missionary Herald. Boston, Mass. Jan., July, Nov. 1835; Sept. 1836; 

Jan., July 1837. 
Missionary Reporter. Philadelphia, Pa. i\pr. 1, 1830. 
North Carolina Presbyterian. Favetteville, N. C; Wilmington, N. C. 

Sept. 14 and 21, 1861; June 26, 1S67; Jan. 19, 1870; Sept. 3, 1875; 

July 3, 1878; June 15, 1881. 
Presbyterian. Philadelphia, Pa., and New York, N. Y. May 15, 1869. 
Presbyterian Standard. Charlotte, N. C. June 5, Aug. 21, 1912. 
Southern Religious Telegraph. Richmond, Va. Sept. 18, 1830; Sept. 

30, 1 831; March 15, 1833; Nov. 28, 1834. 
Texas Presbyterian. St. Louis, Mo. July 15, 1881. 
Visitor and Telegraph. Richmond, Va. Nov. 22, 1828. 
Watchman of the South. Richmond, Va. Nov. 24, 1842. 



22 1 



Index 



Index 



This index is primarily designed for reference to persons and places, 
together with certain topics, which are treated in the narrative section of 
the volume. Several general references to the Appendix are also included. 



Abeel, David, 53 

Abernethy, 146 

Academy, Rocky River, Chap. IV, 
and 41, 57-59, 73-74. Il8 > I2 °> 
122-23, J 4^> x 54> I( ^o, I( 56 

Adams, J. M. H., 70 

Addem, William, 25 

Africa, 47, 53-55, 61-62 

African Church, 103 

Agnes Penick Benevolent Society, 

141 
Agnes Penick Missionary Society, 

141 

Albemarle, 166 

Alexander, Abram C. (Abraham 

Cicero), 83, 120-21, 127 
Alexander, Adam, 5 
Alexander, C, 89, 91-92 
Alexander, Charles Taylor, 25, 36, 

47 
Alexander, Cyrus, 58 
Alexander, Daniel, 149 
Alexander, George, 17 
Alexander, Horas, 77 
Alexander, James, 4 
Alexander, John F., 139-40 
Alexander, Justice, 4 
Alexander, L. H., 127, 145 
Alexander, Mrs. M., 98 
Alexander, Nathaniel, 17 
Alexander, Philandra, 58 
Alexander, R. A., 159 
Alexander, S. C, 113 
Alexander, Thomas, 50 



Alexander, W. A., 149 
Alexander, W. E., 145, 151, 159, 

167 
Alexander, W. K., 151, 158, 167 
Alexander, William, 4, 35 
Allen, Lucy (Mrs. Daniel Lind- 

ley), 61-62 
Anderson, John Gray, 112, 125-29, 

142-43 
Andrew, W., 90, 96 
Anglican Church, 12 
Anson County, 16, 29 
Antrim County, 145 
Appomattox, 143 
Archibald, Robert, 27-30, 32 
Archibald, Mrs. Robert, 28 
Arrowood, R. S., 155 
Arrowood, W. B., 121 
Ashland, Va., 132 
Ashmore, James, 23-24 
Audio-visual equipment, 158 
Augusta, Ga., 80 
Augusta County, 12-13, l8 
Austin, Texas, 85 footnote 
Automobiles, 117, 145-47 

Back Creek, 5 

Baker, Daniel, 72-73 

Baker, Samuel, 15 

Balch, Anne Goodwine, 21 

Balch, Hezekiah, 21 

Balch, Hezekiah James, 20-22, 25, 

3 2 
Balch, Mrs. Hezekiah James, 21 



225 



INDEX 



Balch, James (Father of H. J.), 21 

Balch, James, 27 

Balch, Martha, 21 

Ballymena, North Ireland, 145 

Banks, Harriet (Mrs. Joseph B. 

Mack), 106 
Banks, William, 107 
Baptist Church, 1 1 1 
Barium Springs Orphanage, 130, 

142 
Barnhardt, 146 

Barnhardt, Charles Eugene, 160-61 
Barnhardt, Mrs. Charles Eugene, 

(Edna Parsley), 160 
Barnhardt, J. C., 81-82, no, 120- 

121, 124 
Barnhardt, James, 144 
Barnhardt, John A., 121, 157, 160 
Barnhardt, Mrs. John A. (Sallie 

E.), 124, 157 
Barnhardt, John J., 156, 160, 164 
Barnhardt, Thomas M., 160 
Barnhardt, William H., 160 
Barr, A. R., 50 
Barr, William H., 38 
Baseball, 146 
Bath County, 12 
Baton Rouge, La., 152 
Bauman, Mrs. Albert, 84-85 
Bedford, Va., 152 
Belhaven College, 131 
Belief ont Church, 104 
Bennettsville, S. C, 156 
Bethany Church, 34, 40-41, 52 
Bethel, Palestine, 96 
Bethel Church, 20 
Bethpage Church, 103-04 
Beulah Church, 139 
Bigger, R., 89 
Bird Church, 13, 16 
Black, 146 

Black, J. Melancthon, 114 
Black, John M., 118, 162 
Black, Mary, 77-78 
Black, Sam (See Samuel) 
Black, Samuel, 44-45, 141-42, 149, 

152, 156, 159, 161-62 



Black Boys, 22-25 

Black's (Lipe's) Mill, 122 

Black's Quarter, Appendix I, and 

114, 119 
Bladen County, 29 
Blair, Mrs. Ada, 1 1 7 
Blair, William, 25 
Blume, Clarence, 156, 162 
Boers, 62 

Boger, Charles E., 157 
Boger, Mrs. Charles E. (Elise 

Barnhardt), 157 
Boger, James Philip, 158 
Boger, John Daniel, 157-58 
Boger's Chapel, 157 
Borden Tract, 1 2 
Bost, Peter Boger, 157 
Bost, Mrs. Peter Boger, 157 
Bost, Peter Boger (Jr.), 157 
Boston, Mass., 53 
Boyd, Charles Leroy, 50 
Brandon, 3 

Breckenridge, John, 68 
Brick House Plantation, 36 
Bridge, 123 
Brown, John, 13 
Brown, Mrs. John M., 85 
Bryson, Mrs. Martha, 1 13-14 
Buechel, Ky., 139 
Bulletins, 161 
Burial of stranger, 105 
Burke County, 34-35 
Burleyson, Ida, 124 
Burlington, 54 
Burns, E. B., 69 
Burton, Daniel, 19 
Burwell, Robert, 86 

Cabarrus County, 21, 29, 36, 41, 
88, 103, 127, 138, 144, 148, 157, 
166 
Caldwell, Alexander, 30-32, 155 
Caldwell, Mrs. Alexander, 31 
Caldwell, David (elder), 4-5, 16, 

Caldwell, David (father of Alexan- 
der), 30, 39 



226 



INDEX 



Caldwell, Mrs. David, 30 

Caldwell, James, 20 

Caldwell, John, 73 

Caldwell, Morrison, 60, 108, 143 

Caldwell, Robert, 69 

Caldwell, Robert C, 83 

Caldwell, S. C, 31, 39 

Caldwell, Samuel, 36 

Caldwell's Creek, 123 

Callwall, James, 25 

Callwall, John, 25 

Camden, S. C, 33 

Cameronians, 8 

Campbell, Robert, 25 

Canton, 139 

Canton Church, 139 

Cape Palmas, Western Africa, $5 

Cape Town, South Africa, 53-54 

Carnegie, Andrew, 149-50 

Carolinas, Synod of, 30, 34, 37, 39, 

92, 97 
Carrigan, John, 36 
Carriker, John A., 164 
Carriker, William W., 161 
Carruth, Justice, 4, 4 footnote 
Caruthers, Eli W., 14, 27 
Caruthers, James, 23-24 
Caruthers, Robert, 23-24 
Casualties, Confederate, Appen- 
dix H. 
Caswell, W. G., 150-151, 166 
Catawba Journal, 50 
Catawba River, 3-4, 15, 41, 144 
Cathey's Meeting House (Thy- 

atira), 3-4 
Census of 1790, 28-29 
Centennial, 76 
Centre Church, 4, 20 
Charleston, S. C, 106 
Charleston Presbytery, 106 
Charlotte, 16, 22-23, 25-26, 34, 42, 

5*» 53. 72, 74, I2 2, 133. H0> H6, 

160, 166 
Charlotte Observer, 132 
Cherokees, 15 
Chickasaw Nation, 41 
China, 129-30 



China Grove, 153 

Choir, 109-10, 116, 123-24, 130, 
135, 139, 143, 147, 164 

Choir, Confederate Veterans', 143 

Christian Observer, 119 

Church Building, 5-6, 26, 37, 63, 
71, 76-78, 88, 101-02, no, 114, 
123, 125, 127, 144, 147-48, 154, 
158-61, 163-67 

Church of England, 21 

Cimmons, Hugh, 35 

Clark, John, 3 

Clear Creek, 5, 36 

Clear Creek Church (Philadel- 
phia), 35 

Club House, 154 

Cockran, Benjamin, 23 

Coddle Creek, 22, 24, 28 

Coddle Creek Church, 4 

Coe, Stiles Marion (Mrs. George 
Marshall Wilcox), 156 

College of New Jersey, 27 

Colonial Dames, 166 

Colonial Records of North Caro- 
lina, 24 

Colored Members, Chap. VIII, and 
70-71, 74, 83, 138 

Columbia, Tenn., 106 

Columbia Seminary, 106, 115, 145, 
156 

Communion Service, 77-78, 151-52 

Communion Token, 44-45 

Community Building, 158-59 

Company H, 82 

Concord, 23, 74, 85, 103, 110, 115, 
142-43, 146-47, 157, 160 

Concord First Church, 141, 151 

Concord Presbyterian, 165 

Concord Presbytery, 3, 30-31, 35- 
36, 38-39, 41-45, 47, 51-53, 55, 
57, 60-61, 66, 68-70, 77-81, 83, 
86, 104-05, 112, 115, 1 19-21, 124- 
25, 128, 130-31, 131 footnote, 

I35-37* 140-42, i4 8 , W J 5 2 -53, 

155-56, 165 
Concord Road, 131 
Congo, The, 161 



227 



INDEX 



Cookson, Thomas, 9 

Cornelson, G. H., Jr. (G. H.), 137, 

140 
Cottage Home, 52 
Couser, John, 31, 155 
Covenanters, 8-1 1 
Covenants, 9- 11 
Cowpasture River, 12 
Cowper (poet), 79 
Craghead, 8 footnote 
Craighead, Agnes (Nancy), 15-16 
Craighead, Alexander, Chap. I, and 

25, 27, 144, 166, 169 
Craighead, Mrs. Alexander (Jane), 

Craighead, Elizabeth, 15 
Craighead, Jane (daughter of 

Alexander), 15 
Craighead, Margaret, 15 
Craighead, Mary, 15 
Craighead, Nancy (See Agnes), 

15-16 
Craighead, Rachel, 12-13, 15, 30 
Craighead, Robert, 15 
Craighead, Thomas, 7-8 
Craighead, Thomas B., 15, 27 
Craigsville, Va., 142 
Creaghead, 8 footnote 
Cruse, Allen, 77 
Cumberland, Va., 13 
Cumberland Church, 64, 116 
Cumberland County, 64, 116, 129, 
Cummins, Francis, 28 
Custer, P. M., 118, 122-23 

Dabney, R. L., 115 

Dalton, Ga., 136 

Dan River, 3 

Danville Seminary, 106 

Davidson, 45, 77, 115 footnote, 
132-33, 145 

Davidson, John, 31 

Davidson, Sarah (See Mrs. Alex- 
ander Caldwell), 31 

Davidson, William L., 26 

Davidson College, 47-48, 50, 67, 



7 2 ~73» 7 8 > 8 4> "5» !3 2 , !37> x 45" 
46, 150, 156-57 

Davidson College Magazine, 133 
Davies, John L., 50 
Davies, William B., 50 
Davis, Andrew, 5, 35, 67-68 
Davis, E. G, 123, 136, 142, 145 
Davis, E. P., 143 
Davis, George, 35 
Davis, John, 25 
Davis, Mrs. John, 96 
Davis, Lula, 130 
Davis, Robert, 23, 35 
Davis, Robert Newton, 58, 67, 78 
Davis, Thomas E., 50, 58-59, 69 
Davis, W. C, 37-38 
Davys, George, 25 
Day of Prayer, 70, 120 
Deacons, Appendix C 
Deer Creek, Md., 21 
Dejournet, C. H., 77 
Depot, The (Harrisburg), 108, m 
Dictionary of American Biogra- 
phy, 62 
Dobbs, Gov. Arthur, 6-7, 15 
Doland (See Dorland) 

Donaldson, , 4 

Donegal Presbytery, 8, 20-21 
Dorland, Luke, 102-3 
Dream, 108-10 
Dunfermline, Scotland, 149 
Dunn, H. G, 122-23 

Ebenezer Church, 92 

Ed Erwin Fund, 153-54 

Educational Building, 158-60, 163— 
65, 167 

Elberton, Ga., 156 

Elders, Appendix B 

Elijah, 7 

English Buffalo Creek, 22 

Enno, 3 

Episcopal Church (See also Angli- 
can Church, Church of England, 
Established Church), 14 

Erwin, Alexander, 34 

Erwin, Charles H., 111-12 



228 



INDEX 



Erwin, Edward, 153-54 

Erwin, John McK., 50 

Erwin, Mary (Mrs. John Ma- 

kemie Wilson), 34-35 
Established Church, 6, 14 
Euodias, no 

Factory Quarter, Appendix I, and 

113-14 
Farmers' Alliance, 128-29 
Fayetteville, 40, 70 
Fayetteville Presbytery, 42 
Fishing Creek, 18 
Fishing Creek Church, 20 
Flinn, William, 67 
Flowe, D. W., 123-25, 137-38 
Flowers, James Ray, 161 
Foote, William H., 3-5, 16, 30-31, 

Forks of James River, 12 

Fort Jackson, Ala., 39 

Forth Creek Church, 4 footnote, 

16, 27 
Fox, Philadelphia H. (Mrs. John 

Makemie Wilson, Jr.), 52 

Gaines, Annie Russell (Mrs. Rob- 
ert Junius Hunter), 137 

Gardiner Spring Resolution, 79 

Gastonia, 139 

Gates, General, 33 

Gaudaloupe County, 53 

General Associate Synod, 11-12 

George I, King, 11 

George, II, King, n 

Gillems, William, 47 

Gillon, W. A., 137, 140 

Girardeau, J. L., 106 

Glasgow, W. Melancthon, 18 
footnote 

Glenburnie, 85 

Gold Mining, 68-70, 147 

Goldsborough, 81 

Goochland County, 16, 116 

Goodman, Buford, 160 

Goodman, Samuel, 160 

Gordonsville, Va., 125 



Gourley, Robert, 120 

Graham, George, 22 

Graveyards, Appendix J, and 22, 

2(5 > 2 9> 37-3 8 5 4 2 > 4 6 > 86 > I0 5> J 43- 
44, 149-50, 153 footnote, 161, 
164-65 

Great Woman, 106 

Greenville, N. C, 150 

Grey, Hugh M., 160 

Grey, Mrs. W. R., 45, 115 foot- 
note 

Gribble, E. E., 128 

Grier, Claude, 130 

Grier, J. M., 141 

Griquatown, South Africa, 54 

Griswold, Rev. Mr., 55 

Hadley, Joshua, 23 

Hall, James, 30, 34, 38-39 

Hall, Robert, 50 

Hall, Thomas, 25 

Hampden-Sydney College, 34, 48, 
57, 64, 116, 124, 126, 129 

Hanna, George, 155 

Hanover, Va., 13 

Hanover Presbytery, 7, 13, 16, 18, 
27,64 

Hardcastle, Mary (Mrs. Alexan- 
der Erwin Wilson), §^ 

Harding, E. H, 85 

Harmony Presbytery, 106 

Harris, A. N., 127, 137, 139, 142, 
167 

Harris, Ellen, 132, 132 footnote, 

J 33-34 

Harris, Mrs. Elva (Mrs. William 

E.), 132 footnote 
Harr 
Harr: 
Harr 
Harr 
Harr 
Harr 
Harr 
Harr 
Harr 



s, J. Marc, 135, 143 

s, James, 25 

s, James M., 124, 127, 130 

s, John, 104 

s, Major, 4 

s, Mrs. Margaret, 98 

s, Matthias L., no, 118 

s, Robert, 5 

s, S. C, 93, 99 



Harris, Samuel, 98 



229 



INDEX 



Harris, Samuel, Sr., 5, 25, 29, 35 
Harris, Solomon, 105 
Harris, William E., 128, 132 
Harris, Mrs. William E., 132-33 
Harris Depot, 74, 100, 113 
Harrisburg, 58, 11 8-21, 139-40, 

144, 146, 150, 154 
Harrisburg Church, 133, 140-41, 

150 
Harriss, James, 25 
Harrys', W. D., 146 
Hartford County, 21 
Hartselle, Ala., 141 
Hawfields Church, 7 
Henderson, Thomas, 34 
Hico Church, 7 
Hill, D. H., 143 
Hillsboro, 28 

Historical Address, n 7-1 8 
Historical Foundation, 44, 77-78, 

152 
Historical Sketch, 60 

Holladay, Mary Littlepage (Mrs. 

Richard Venable Lancaster), 

129 
Holv Land, 158 
Homecoming of 191 2, 142-43 
Homecoming of 1933, 151 
Hopewell Church, 31 
Houston, S. W., 140 
Houston, Thomas D., 67 
Howie, Mrs. Elizabeth Stafford, 

161 
Howie, Mrs. Jane, 118 
Howie, Mack C, 151 
Howie House, 94 
Hudson, Ethel (Mrs. William Mc- 

Kee Morrison), 162 
Hudson, Mrs. W. H., 161 
Hunter, Robert Junius, 137-39 
Hunter, Mrs. Robert Junius, 137 
Huntington, Mary Frances, 65 
Hymn books, 101, 108, 156 

Hico, 3 

Immanuel Church, 153 



Independent Presbyterian Church, 

India, 158 

Indiantown Church, 88 
Iredell County, 15 
Ireland, 7, 149 

Jackson, Andrew, 33-34 

Jackson, Miss., 131 

Jackson College, 106 

Jackson Training School, 22, 142 

Jersey Settlement, 20 

John the Baptist, 7 

John's and Wadmalaw Islands 

Church, 88-90 
Johnson, D. N., 140 
Johnston, Cyrus, 50, 72 
Johnston, M. G., 90 
Johnston's River, xiii 
Jones, Charles C, 93, 101 
Junkin, Daniel Penick, 143 
Junkin, E. D., 80-81 
Junkin, Mrs. E. D., 84 

Kerr, Nathan, 18, 20 
Kilpatrick, J. D., 30 
Kimmons, Samuel, 71 
King, Robert Rufus, 50 
King College, 132 
Kingstree Church, 88-89 
Kirkpatrick, Elizabeth, 59 
Kirkpatrick, L. C, 59, 73 
Kirkpatrick, R., 24, 59, 66 
Kirkpatrick, Valentine, 42 
Knox, John, 7 
Kruger, Paul, 61 
Kumching, China, 158 
Kurmitola, India, 158 
Kuruman, South Africa, 54 

Lacy, Drury, 71 

Ladies Christian Association, 1 1 7 
Lafferty, J. W., 141 
Lafferty, Robert H., 132 footnote 
Lancaster, Richard Venable, 129, 
131-32 



230 



INDEX 



Lancaster, Mrs. Richard Venable, 

129 
Lapsley, James, 141-42, 161 
Lapsley, Mrs. James, 141 
Lapsley, R. A., Jr., 141 
Lapsley, Samuel B., 161 
Lapsley, Samuel Norvell, 141 
Lathan, Robert, 9 
Lewis, Rev. Mr., 20 
Library, 59, 108, 152 
Life and Times of Daniel Lindley, 

62 
Lincoln (Abraham), 80 
Lincoln County, 52 
Lincolnton, 84 
Lindley, Daniel, Chap. V., and 53- 

54, 113, 165, 169 
Lindley, Mrs. Daniel, 53-54, 61-62 
Lindsley, Silas, 73-74 
Lingle, Walter L., 106-07, I2 4 
Linker, Troy H., 162 
Lipe's (Black's) Mill, 122 
Litaker, Edward, 104 
Loftain, Samuel, 25 
Long Creek, 18 
Lore, Eugenia, 18 footnote 
Louisa Church, 13 
Louisville, Ky., 137 
Louisville Seminary, 137 
Lower Meeting House, 3-4 
Lutheran Church, 72 

McAden, Hugh, 3-5 
McAllister, D. S., 125 
McCachran (See also McCachren, 

McCacran, McEachern) 
McCachran, Robert, 35 
McCachren, Clegg M., 156, 162 
McCachren, Hoyte M., 132, 152- 

53, 158 
McCachren, Wilton A., 167 
McCacran, Hector, 42 
McCallan, Robert, 25 
McCamy, 34 footnote 
McClarty, Alexander, 69 
McClarty, John S., 69 
McClerty, Archibald, 47 



McCulloch's N. C. Barony, 17 
McCurdy, Archibald, 35 
McCurdy, C. S., 151 
McDowell, Robert, 58-59 
McEachern, C. O., 141-42 
McEachern, D. B., 140 
McEachern, R. M., 82 
McEachern, Sue, 139 
McKamie, 34 footnote 
McKemie, 34 footnote 
McKindley, S. M. (Sandy), 70, 77, 

9i, 94-95 
McKinnon, L., 113, 115 
McLealland, John, 35 
McMordie, Robert, 4 
McMurrey, Robert, 25 
McRee, James, 39 
McWhorter, Alexander, 17, 20 
Mack, Edward, 106, 153 
Mack, Joseph B., 105-11, 113-115, 

117-18, 121, 138, 143, 150 
Mack, Mrs. Joseph B., 106 
Macon, Ga., 155 
Manse, m, 114, 117, 132, 134, 142, 

144, 154, 158-59 
Margaret, Queen, 149 
Marriage of Slaves, 92-93 
Marriages, Appendix L 
Martin, John, 7 
Martin, Thomas Lee, 120 
Mebane, W. N., 71 
Mecklenburg County, 16-19, 2 9-> 

3 6 * 4 1 , 53> !37> l66 
Mecklenburg Declaration, 22, 25, 

166 
Mecklenburg Presbytery, 41-43, 

51, 83, 148-49 
Meherrin, Va., 13 
Meisinheimer, Mrs. N. E., 124 
Methodist Church, 6^, in 
Mexican War, 70 
Middle Octorara, Pa., 9-10 
Middle Octorara Church, 8 
Miller, C. M., 151 
Miller, Cornelius, 134-36 
Miller, Mrs. Cornelius, 134 
Miller, David, 67-68 



231 



INDEX 



Miller, Mrs. G. Alvice, 167 

Millersburg, Ky., 129 

A4ilton, 6s 

Milton Female Academy, 6$ 

Ministers from Rocky River, Ap- 
pendix F 

Missionary ■, 126 

Missouri Presbytery, 52 

Mitchell College Choir, 164 

Montgomery, Ala., 39 

Montreat, 44, 77, 152 

Moore, Harvey Wilson, 160, 164, 
166 

Mooresville, 124 

Mooresville First Church, 124 

Morgan, Enoch, 38-39, 47 

Morgan, Nicholson R., 50 

Morgan Memorial Church, 148-49 

Morganton, 35, 45, 52 

Morganton Presbytery, 68 footnote 

Morison, James, 25 

Morison, John, 25 

Morrison, D. L., 140 

Morrison, E. A. (Elber), 135, 139, 

I5 1 ' l 59 
Morrison, Elam J., 48-50 

Morrison, Elber (See E. A.) 
Morrison, Ellis, 140 
Morrison, Eugene P., 156, 162 
Morrison, Fred Wilson, 160 
Morrison, James, 38, 47, 90 
Morrison, Rev. James, 50, 61 
Morrison, James Elijah, 50, 57, 72, 

Morrison, James L., 83, 123 
Morrison, James R., 163 
Morrison, John, 47, 67-68 
Morrison, John Dwight, 117, 120- 

21 
Morrison, Julius B., 123 
Morrison, Leroy McKee, 112, 122 
Morrison, McEwen, 39 
Morrison, M. M., 140 
Morrison, P., 91 
Morrison, R. C, 143 
Morrison, Ralph, 159, 164 
Morrison, Robert C, 39 



Morrison, Robert Hall, 42, 44-45, 
50-52, 60, 64, 67, 70-71, 79, 81, 
86, 143 

Morrison, Robert Harvey, 70, 
106-07 

Morrison, Samuel, 59 

Morrison, William, 35, 39-40 

Morrison, William, Jr., 35, 47 

Morrison, William McKee, 149, 
153-54, I 5^, 161-62 

Morrison, Mrs. William McKee, 
162 

Morrison, William Newton, 50 

Morrison Family, 5 

Morrison's Quarter, 1 18-19, I2< 5, 
128 

Morrisons Tan- Yard, 42 

Morristown, N. J., 62 

Morrow, Flora (Mrs. James Laps- 
ley), 141 

Mosalekatsi, Country of, 54 

Mosega, 54 

Mount Pleasant Collegiate Insti- 
tute, 157 

Mumford and Ruth, 77 

Murdock, William, 80 

Murlock, Wm., 77 

Nail, Robert, 83 

National Covenant, 9 

Neely, Archibald, 67 

New Castle Presbytery, 1 2 

New Hanover County, 29 

New London Church, 8 

New Meeting-House (Centre?), 4 

New Providence Church, N. C. 

(See Providence), 36 
New Providence Church, Va., 61, 

80, 163 
New School, 68 
New Side, 4 

New York City, 62 footnote 
New York, Synod of, 3, 12, 64 
New York and Philadelphia, Synod 

of, 16-18, 20 
Newbern, 24 
Norfolk, Va., 157 



232 



INDEX 



North Buffalo, 27 

North Carolina General Assembly, 

14, 16 
North Carolina Legislature, 47, 53, 

114 

North Carolina Medical College, 

132 
North Carolina Presbyterian, 80, 

119, 131 
North Carolina State College, 143, 

157 
North Carolina, Svnod of, 39-43, 

70-71, 75, 81, 84-85, 148 

North Mountain Church, 13 

North United Free Church, 149 

Northern Ireland, 145 

Nutbush Church, 13 

Oath of Purgation, 27 

Octorara, Pa., 8 

Ohio University, 57 

Old Charlotte Road, 157 

Old School, 68 

Old Side, 4 

Organ, 123-24, 159-160 

Orange Presbytery, 22, 27-28, 30, 

34, 57, 134 
Osborne, Augustine, 120, 122-23 
Osborne, Capt., 4 
Ottoshoop, South Africa, §§ 
Overton, Mrs. Mary W. (Mrs. 

James Morton Wharey), 116 

Palmer, B. M., 81 
Panama City Church, 142 
Park Street Church, 53 
Parms, Calvin, 91 
Parris Island, S. C, 157 
Parrish, Floyd M., 149, 159 
Parrish, Foy B., 163 
Parton, James, 33 
Pastors, Appendix A 
Patriots and Soldiers of the Revo- 
lutionary Period, Appendix G 
Patterson Church, 131, 150, 152 
Pease, J. Norman, 160 



Penick, Agnes Ann (Mrs. E. D. 
Junkin), 84 

Penick, Daniel Allen, Chaps. VI- 
VII, and 26, 51, 89-92, 101-03, 
112, 129, 136, 143-44, I 5°> l &9 

Penick, Mrs. Daniel Allen, 64, 90, 

".7 

Penick, Daniel Allen, Jr., 75, 78, 
84, 105 

Penick, Daniel Allen (III), 85 foot- 
note 

Penick, Dixon B., 82-84, 85 foot- 
note, 116, 121 

Penick, Edward Payson, 85 

Penick, Elizabeth, 85 

Penick, Emma Garland (Mrs. 
John M. Brown), 85 

Penick, George Willis, 85 

Penick, Maria Brown, 84 

Penick, Mary Frances (Airs. Albert 
Bauman), 84-85 

Penick, Nathaniel (father of Dan- 
iel Allen), 64 

Penick, Nathaniel Hill, 84 

Penick, Peter Tinsley, 71, 75, 84 

Penick, Rosilla Allen (Mrs. G. L. 
Phifer), 84 

Penicks, 72 

Pharr, A. R., 50 

Pharr, Dion C, 50 

Pharr, F. S., 145 

Pharr, F. W., 149, 151, 159 

Pharr, Henry N., 50, 78 

Pharr, Hugh S., 77, 81-82 

Pharr, John Scott, 161 

Pharr, Jones Y., 160 

Pharr, Joseph O., 73 

Pharr, Mrs., 99 

Pharr, S. C, 72 

Pharr, S. Corum, 151, 162 

Pharr, S. E. W., no, 116 

Pharr, Samuel, 81-82, 95, 112 

Pharr, Sarah N, 91 

Pharr, Tommy, 166 

Pharr, W. S., 93 

Pharr, W. W, 72 

Pharr, Walter F., 69 



233 



INDEX 



Pharr, Walter W., 69, 78, 86, 107, 

Pharr, William W., 78, 105 

Phifer, G. L., 96 

Phifer, Mrs. G. L., 84 

Phifer, John, 67-68, 98 

Phifer, Martin, 16 

Phifer's Muster Ground, 23, 25 

Phifer's Quarter, 69 

Philadelphia, Pa., 16, 34, 39, 43, 61, 

80, 134 
Philadelphia (Clear Creek) 

Church, 35-37, 40, 42- 

43, 45-46, 75 
Philadelphia, Synod of, 4-5, 9-10 
Pilgrim's Progress, 107 
Pioneer Mills, 91, 108, in, 121, 

146-47 
Plan of Work, 126 
Pleasant Valley, Ala., 39 
Plott, Mrs. L. L., 143-44 
Plumer, W. S., 105 
Plunkett's School House, in 
Poplar Tent, 18, 20-22, 28-30, 45, 

61, 67, 75, 92, 103 
Populist Party, 129 
Porter, D. B., 123-24, 130, 135 
Porter, Francis, 39-40 
Powhatan County, 64 
Prayer meetings, 75, 84, 1 18-19, 

122, 128, 142 
Presbyterian Church, U. S., 79-80 
Presbyterian College of South 

Carolina, 156 
Presbyterian Standard, 143 
Preston, C, 137 
Princeton Seminary, 64, 137 
Providence Church, Va., 13 

Quaker Meadows Church, 35 
Quarters, Appendix I, and 66, 69, 

74, 76-77, 83-84, 1 12-14, 1 18-19, 

121, 126-28 
Query, Elam, 119-20 
Query, J. S., 81-82 
Query, James, 68 
Query, John, 137-138 



Query, John M., 73 
Query, Mary, 130 
Query, Robert L., 114 
Query's Quarter, Appendix I, and 
114, 119, 126 

Ramah, 103 

Rankin, Jesse, 80 

Reedy Creek, 5, 58 

Reformed Presbyterian Church, 

8-1 1 
Regulators, 22-25 
Reid, M. D., 149 
Reid, Mrs. M. D., 132 footnote 
Republic of Texas, 47 
Revival, 30, 38, 60, 64, 72-73, 83, 

91, 107, 113, 122, 128 
Richards, C. M., 150 
Richardson, William, 12, 14-16 
Richardson, Mrs. William (Agnes 

Craighead), 15-16 
Richland, S. C, 156 
Richmond, Va., 108 
Ricks, George, 152 
Ricks, John Addison, 150-51, 151 

footnote, 152-53, 155 
Ricks, Mrs. John Addison, 152 
Ricks, Mrs. John Addison, Sr., 152 
River Quarter, 113, 119, 126-28 
Robb, William, Sr., 35 
Robinson, John, 39, 45, 60, 67 
Robison, James, 36 
Rock Hill High School, 145 
Rockingham County, 134 
Rocky Ridge, 108 
Rocky River Colored Presbyterian 

Church, 103-104 
Rodgers, John, 5 
Roentgen, William Conrad, 132 
Ross, Elizabeth, 21-22 
Ross, William, 21-22 
Rowan County, 145, 153 
Rumple, Jethro, 4 footnote, 43, 105, 

122 
Rural Hill Plantation, 31 
Russel, James, 25 
Russel, John, 25 



2 34 



INDEX 



Russel, Rob, 25 
Russell, J., 98 
Russell, John, 151 
Russell, Mrs. John, 167 

St. Andrews Church, 142 

St. John's Church (See North 

United Free Church), 149 
Salem Church, 88 
Salisbury, 23, 26, 41, 122, 140 
Sappenfield, Airs. R. A., Jr., 164 
Saurs, P. H. H., 77 
Scales, Alary L. (Airs. Cornelius 

Miller), 134 
Scheck, John, 72 
Sconnel, Alartha (Airs. Hezekiah 

James Balch), 21 
Scotland, 8, 149-50 
Scott, Wm., 25 
Selma, Ala., 39 
Semicentennary, 69 
Selwyn, John, 6 
Senguin, Texas, 53 
Session House, 68-69, 159 
Shelby, Katherine (Airs. Robert 

Archibald), 28 
Sherwood, John Al., 85 
Silliman, John, 50 
Singing School, 107 
Sketches of North Carolina, 3, 51, 

64 
Slaves, Chap. VIII, and 18-19, 2 9> 

7°-7i» 77 
Slaves, Names of: Abram, 98-99; 
Amos, 96-97; Anderson, 98-99; 
Caesar, 90; Caleb, 71; Caroline, 
89; Clemmantene, 91; Daniel 
Lindley, 89; Elic, servant of 
W. S. Pharr, 93-95; Elic, ?, 99- 
100; George Washington, 89; 
Jack, servant of Dr. Alexander, 
89; Jack, servant of W. Andrew, 
90, 96; Jack, ?, 92; Jane, 98; 
Jerry, 94; Jesse, 96-97; John, 93- 
94; John AlcCamy, 89; Jude, 92; 
Julia, 98; Lenny, 89; Lucinda, 94; 



Lucy Ann, 91; Alaria, 89; Alartin, 
98-99; Aloses, of Dr. Wilson's 
estate, 92; Aloses, servant of Airs. 
Pharr, 99; Aloses, servant of 
J. Russell, 98; Aloses, ?, 99-100; 
Mumford, servant of S. M. Mc- 
Kindley, 77; Alumford, servant 
of G. L. Phifer, 96; Nat, 89; Ned, 
servant of C. Alexander (?), 91- 
92; Ned, servant of Daniel Allen 
Penick, 91; Ned, servant of 
M. G. Johnston, 90; Peggy, 98; 
Rachel, 91; Rilla, 91; Roland, 91; 
Ruth, servant of S. M. AlcKind- 
ley, 77, 91; Ruth, of Dr. Wilson's 
estate, 92; Tom, 91; Violette, 95; 
Washington, 89. 

Slough, David, 25 

Smith, Edwin W., 62 footnote 

Smith, Egbert W., 128 

Smith, Henry Louis, 132, 132 foot- 
note, 133 

Smith, John, 36 

Smith, Airs. Thomas R., 166 

Smith, Thomas R., Jr., 166 

Smith Quarter, Appendix I 

Smithey, Alary Jane (Airs. Alexan- 
der Erwin Wilson) 

Smithfield, 145 

Smith's School House, 121 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, 19 

Solemn League and Covenant, 9 

Songs of Praise, 108 

Sosserman, E. Ann, 123 

Sosserman, J. G, 123 

Sosserman, William B., 123 

Sossoman, John G, 151 

Sossoman's Quarter, 126 

Sossoman's School House, 108, 118, 
120-21, 127 

South Carolina and Georgia, 
Svnod of, 39 

South Carolina, First Presbvterv, 
37-38 

South Carolina, Presbytery of, 31 



2 35 



INDEX 



South Carolina, Second Presbytery, 

Southern Professorship, 41-42 
Spaatz, Carl, 158 
Sparrow, Anna Grace (Mrs. 
Thomas Hugh Spence), 

H5 
Spears, J. Harvey, 127, 149 

Spears, L. V., 151 

Spears, W. N., 128 

Spears Graveyard, Appendix J, 

and 38 
Speiars, Elisha, 38 
Speiars, Isaiah, 38 
Speiars, Joseph Gates, 38 
Spence, Thomas Hugh, 144-47, 

149-50, 152 
Spence, Mrs. Thomas Hugh, 145 
Spence, Thomas Hugh, Jr., 144-47, 

149, 163 
Spence, Mrs. Thomas Hugh, Jr., 

149 
Spence, William Chenault, 152-53, 

156, 158, 167 
Spence Family, 146-47 
Spencer, Elihu, 17, 20 
Sper, William, 25 
Stafford, Franklin, 77 
Stafford, James, 35 
Stafford, James (II), 49-50 
Stafford, James B., 50 
Stafford, J. L., 122 
Stafford, Z. M., 140 
Stanley County, 121 
Starnes, Frederick, 1 1 3 
Statesville, 41 
Statistics, Appendix K 
Steel Creek, 35 
Stephenson, James W., 37 
Stewart, A., 91 
Stewart, Matthew, 25 
Stokes County, 135-136 
Strain, John, 21 
Sugar Creek, 3-4, 18-20, 31, 33-34, 

4 2 > 5 1 
Sumner, Jethro, 26 



Sunday School, Colored, 40, 64, 

75-76, 82, 102, 104 
Sunday School, White, 59, 75-76, 

82, 108, 113, 117, 119-22, 126-28, 

130, 139-40, 142, 151-53, 156, 158, 

162-64, '67 
Sunday School Superintendents, 

Appendix D 
Sunday School Teachers, 59 
Syntyche, no 

Tampa, Fla., 129 
Taylor, James, 133, 133 footnote 
Taylor, Mrs. W. C, 152 
Taylor and Allison, 77 
Thompson, James G, 110-11, 135 
Thompson, Mrs. James G, iio-n 
Thomson, John, 5, 15 
Thyatira Church, 3-4, 106, 124 
Tinsley, Agnes Ann (Mrs. Daniel 

Allen Penick), 64 
Transylvania Presbytery, 137 
Try on, Gov. William, 23-24 
Turner, W. L., 39 
Turner, Mamye Snow (Mrs. John 

Addison Ricks), 152 

Ulster, xiii 
Ulsterites, 6 
Union Church, 75 
Union Theological Seminary, 57, 
69, 84, 106, 116, 126, 129, 134, 

!5o, 153 
Universalism, 29-30 
University of Edinburgh, 149 
University of Mississippi, 134 
University of North Carolina, 38- 

39, 43, 48-49 
University of Virginia, 126 

Valley Creek Church, 40 
Valley of Virginia, 12 
Venable, Henry I., 54 
Venable, Mrs. Henry I., 54 
Vineville Church, 155-56 

Waddel, J. N., 81 
Waddel, Moses, 34, 37 



236 



INDEX 



Waddell, Hugh, 24 

Walhalla, S. C, 156 

Wallace, James, 17 

Wallis, James, 36, 39 

Washington, D. G, 157, 160 

Washington College, 52-53 

Washington County, 57 

W atchman of the South, 51 

Waterford, Ohio, 57 

Watson, Samuel L., 50 

Waxhaw, 41, 107 

Webb, R. A., 125 

Welsh, Joseph, 35 

West Avenue Church, 139 

Western College, 50 

Westminster Assembly, 9 

Wharey, James, 116 

Wharey, James Morton, 115, 115 

footnote, 116, 1 1 8-2 1, 124-25, 

129, 143, 160 
Wharey, Mrs. James Morton (Mrs. 

Mary W. Overton), 77, 1 16-17, 

124 
Wheeler, John H., 24 
White, Archibald, 5 
White, A. G., 112 
White, A. Walker, 121, 143 
White, Caleb R., 112 
White, D. H., 113, 122 
White, Henry, 116 
White, J. Hall M., 139, 151 
White, J. Lee, 158, 163, 167 
White, James, 5 
White, James, Jr., 23 
White, James B., 131, 137 
White, James Query, no 
White, John, Jr., 23 
White, J. H., 70 

White, John M. W., 1 19-21, 149 
White, Joseph B., 69 
White, Joseph R., 114 
White, Lindley H., 112 
White, Lindley P., 112 
White, Locke, 163-64 
White, McAmy A., 73 
White, N. G., 112 



White, Robert Benton, 1 13—14 

White, S. W., 112, 137, 141 

White, T. S., 77 

White, Walter P., 112 

White, William, 5, 25 

White, William, Black Boy, 23 

White, William, Black Boy, son of 
Widow, 23 

White, William M., 162 

WTiite, William S., 84 

White Family, 1 1 2 

White Hall Church, 131, 131 foot- 
note 

Wilcox, George Marshall, 155-56, 
158, 164, 167 

Wilcox, Mrs. George Marshall, 1 56 

Wilcox, Henry, 156 

Wiley, Oliver, 25, 35 

William and Mary, 10 

Williamsburg, S. C, 88-89 

Williamson, John, 60 

Wilson, Alexander Envin, 50, 53- 
H, 62 

Wilson, Mrs. Alexander Erwin 
(Mary Hardcastle), 55 

Wilson, Mrs. Alexander Erwin 
(Mary Jane Smithey), 53-55, 
62 

Wilson, F. N., 150-51 

Wilson, Hugh, 41, 50 

Wilson, J. Leighton, 55 

Wilson, J. R., 84 

Wilson, James, 34 

Wilson, John Makemie, Chaps. Ill— 
IV, and 28, 57-58, 64, 86, 89, 92, 
*43> i5°» *55, 160-162, 169 

Wilson, Mrs. John Makemie, 34- 

35) 42 
Wilson, John Makemie, Jr., 50, 52- 

53 
Wilson, Mrs. John Makemie, Jr. 

(Philadelphia Fox), 52 
Wilson, Joseph Harvey, 53 
Wilson, Tirza, 91 
Wilson, Widow, 33 
Windy Cove, 12 
Winston, 75 



237 



INDEX 



Women of the Church, Presidents, 

Appendix E 
Woods, N. M., 122 
World War I, 147 
World War II, 156-58 

X-ray, 132-34 



Yadkin River, xiii, 3-4, 15, 144 
Yokohama, Japan, 129 

Zion Church, 11 2-1 3, 118, 121, 131, 

131 footnote, 137, 140-41 
Zion Church, Charleston, S. C, 106