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Full text of "Proceedings [of the] annual business meeting"








3 1833 01076 9492 

From the third London (1781) edition of his Travels. By courtesy of 
the Lloyd Library, Cincinnati 



STATE Historical Society of Wisconsin 



Held October 21. 1909 ': 






JJubligfjEb bj) Sutfjoritp of I.ato 


The Society as a body is not responsible for statements or opinions 
advanced In the following pages by contributors 



Officers, 1909-10 .... 

Committees ..... 
Library Service .... 

Proceedings op Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting 

Business session . . . . , 

Open session . . . . 

Reception . . . . . 

Executive Committee meeting 


Report of Executive Committee: 

Summary ..... 

Death of Curators Van Slyke and Burrows 

Financial condition: 

Transfer of State salaries 
State appropriations . 
General and Binding Fund 
._ Antiquarian Fund 

Draper Fund . 
Mary M. Adams Art Fund 
Anna R. Sheldon Memorial Fund 

Library accessions: 


Catalogue department 

Public Documents department 

Maps and Manuscripts department 


Bulletins of Information 
Wuconnin Uistoriral Colkctums 
Wisconsin History Commission 










Report of ExECuxrv'E Committee— Continued. Pai^e 

Administrative details: 

Professional meetings, etc. . . . . .32 

French archives relating to American history . . 33 

Washington archives relating to "Wisconsin history . 33 

Museum •••....'. 34 

Historical celebrations: 

Manitowoc ....... 36 

Green Bay . . . . . ^ .36 

In Sauk County ...... 39 

Legislation . ... . . . . .39 

Report of the Treasurer ...... 42 

Fiscal Report of the Secretary . . . , .46 

Givers of Books and Pamphlets . . . . .53 

Accessions of Manuscripts, Maps, etc. . . . .76 

Accessions to the Museum ...... 80 

Periodicals and Newspapers currently received . . 89 

Report of Green Bay Historical Society . . .107 

Report of Lafayette County Historical Society . . 114 

Report of Manitowoc County Historical Society . . 115 

Report of Ripon Historical Society .... 117 

Report of Sauk County Historical Society . . .118 

Report of Superior Historical Society .... 120 

Report of Walworth County Historical Society . . 121 

Report of Waukesha County Historical Society . . 123 

Historical Papers: 

Indian Diplomacy and the Opening of the Revolution in the 

West, by James Alton James .... 125 

A Bibliography of Carver's Travels, by John Thomas Lee . 143 

Organization, boundaries, and names of Wisconsin counties, by 
Louise Phelps Kellogg ...... 184 

Reminiscences of early Grant County, by Jonathan Henry Evans 232 
Settlement of Arcadia, by Eben Douglas Pierce . . 246 

Settlement of Green Lake County, by Richard Dart . . 252 

Paper-making in Wisconsin, by Publius V. Lawson . . 273 

An appreciation of James Rood Doolittle, by Duane Mowry . 281 

Index to Historical Papers 




Portrait of Jonathan Carver .... Frontispiece 

Facsimile of letter from Rear Admiral Wilkes to Secretary Gideon 

Welles (two pages) ...... 76 

Indian earthenware kettle, found near Green Bay . . 80 

Fort Howard memorial tablet ..... 109 

Porlier-Tank cottage, now in Union Park, Green Bay . . Ill 

Old fireplace in Porlier-Tank cottage .... Ill 

Monument to Chief Mexico ..... 115 

Unveiling the Mexico monument ..... 116 

The Yellow Thunder pillar . . . . .118 

Unveiling the pillar ...... 118 

Facsimile of original advertisement of Carver's Travels . . 144 

Facsimile of title-page of London (1778) edition of Carver's Travels 15G 

Facsimile of title-page of London (1781) edition . . . 164 

Facsimile of title-page of Philadelphia (1784) edition . . 165 

Facsimile of Paris (1784) edition ..... 166 

Portrait of Jonathan Henry Evans . . . . 232 

Portrait of Anson Dart ...... 252 

Portrait of Richard Dart ...... 252 

Old Red Paper Mill, Xeenah ..... 273 

Xekoosa-PZdwards paper mill, Xekoosa .... 274 

Nekoosa-Edwards sulphite plant, Port Edwards . , . 276 

Consolidated Water Power and Paper Co.'s mill. Grand Rapids . 278 

Portrait of James Rood Dooliltle . . . . . • 281 


Officers, 1909-10 


William Ward Wight, M. A. 

Vice Presidents 

Hon. Emil Baensch ..... 

Hon. Lucius C. Colman, B. A. 

Hon. Burr W. Jones, M. A. 

Hon. Joun Luchsinger .... 

Hon. Benjamin F. McMillan 

Hon. John B. Winslow, LL. D . . . 

Secretary and Superintendent 

Reuben G. Tiiwaites, LL. D. . . 


Hon. Lucien S. Hanks .... 

Librarian and Assistant Superintendent 

Isaac S. Bradley, B. S. . 

Curators, Ex-Officio 

Hon. James O. Davidson .... 

Hon. James A. Frear . . 

Hon. Andrew H. Daul .... 

Curators, Elective 
Term expires at annual meeting in 1 9 10 

Robert M. Bashford, M. A. 
Jairus H. Carpentkk, LL. D. 
Lucius C. Colman, B. A. 
Henry E. Leoler, Esq. 
Hon. Benjamin F. McMillan 
Dana C. Munro, M. A. 



La Crosse 








Secretary of State 
State Treasurer 

William A. P. MoiiRis, B. A. 
Rev. J. M. Naugiitin 
Arthur C. Neville, Esq. 


Frederick J. Tuuneu, LL. D. 
Charles R. Van Hise, LL. D. 


Officers of the Society, 1909-10 

Term expires at annual meeting in 191 1 

Rasmus B. Anderson, LL. D. Hon. Elisha W. Keyes 

Hon. Emil Baensch Hon. John Luchsinger 

Charles N. Brown, LL. B. Most Rev. S. G. Mess.mek 

Frederic K. Conover, LL. B. J. Howard Palmer, Esq. 

Alfred A. Jackson, M. A. John B. Parkinson, M. A. 

Burr W. Jones, M. A. William A. Scott, Ph. D. 

Term expires at annual meeting in 1 9 1 2 

Thomas E. Brittingham, Esq. . Rev. Patrick B. Knox 

Henry C. Campbell, Esq. Maj. Frank W. Oakley 

William K. Coffin, M. S. Arthur L. Sanborn, LL. B. 

Hon. Lucien S. Hanks Hon. Halle Steensland 

Nils P. Haugen, LL. B. E. Ray Stevens, LL. B. 

Col. Hiram Hayes William W. Wight. ]\L A. 

Executive Committee 

The thirty-six curators, the secretary, tlio librarian, the f^overnor, the 
secretary of state, and the state treasurer (forty-one in all) constitute the 
executive commiitee. 

Standing committees (of executive committee) 
Library — Turner (chairman), Munro, Stevens, Knox, and the Secretary 

Art Oallery and Museum — Conover (chairman), Van Hiso, Brittingham, 

Sanborn, and the Secretary (ex-oflicio). 
Printing and Publication — Munro (chairman), Turner, Parkinson, Scott, 

and the Secretary (ex-officio). 
Finance — Morris (chairman). Palmer, Steensland, Brown, and Scott. 
Advisory Committee (ex-officio) — Turner, Conover, Munro, and Morris. 

Special committees (of the Society) 
Auditing — E. B. Steensland (chairman), A. B. Morris, and A. E. Proudfit. 
Relatione with State University — Thwaites (chairman), Oakley, Haugen, 
Siebocker, and Brittingham. 


Library Service 

Secretary and Superintendent 
Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL. D. 

Librarian and Assistant Superintendent 
Isaac Samuel Bradley, B. S. 

Library Assistants 
(In order of seniority of ! 


Aknie Amell\ Nunns, B. A. 
Mart Stuart Foster, B. L. 
IvA Alice Welsh, B. L. 
Eve Parkinson, B. A. 
Louise Phelps Kellogg, Ph. D. 
Anna Jacobsen, B. L. 
Edna Coupkr Adams, B. L. 
Daisy Girdham Beecroft 
Asa Currier Tilton, Ph. D. 

Clara Alida Richards, B. A. 
Kate Lewis 
Harriet Luella Allen 
Charles Edward Brown 
Lillian Jane Beecroft, B. L. 
Mabel Clare Weaks, M. A. 

— Superintendent's Secretary 

— Chief of Heading Boom and Stack 

— Chief Catalogtier 

— Chief of Newspaper Department 

— Editorial Assistant 

— Cataloguer 

— Heading Room and Stack 
— Superintendent's Clerk 

— Chief of Public Documents, MapSy 

and MSS. Departments 
— Reading Room and Stack 
— Cataloguer 

— General Assistant 

— Chief of Museum Department. 
— Periodical Department 

— Maps and MSS. Department . 

Student Assistants 

Isabel Hean 
♦Arch W. Kinne 
♦James Allen Grimes 


-Reading Room and Stack 

-Newspaper Department 

*0n part time 


Library Service 

Care Takers 

Magnus Nelson 
Irving Robsox 
Martin Lyons 
Bennie Butts 


Elizabeth Alsheimer, Anna 
Mausbach, Gertrude Nelson, 
Nelia Warnecke 
*Barbara Brisbois, Sena Hagan, 
Burdett Kin^ne, Rupert Schmel- 


Robert Berigan 
tCiiARLES Kehoe 

— Head Jan. and Gen. Mechanic 
— Janitor and General Mechanic 
— Janitor and General Mechanic 
— Office Messenger 
— Housekeeper 


-Cloak Room Attendants 
-Elevator Attendant 
-Night Watch 

Library Open — Daily, except Saturdays, Sundays, holidays, University 
vacations, and summer months: 7:45 A. M. to 10 P. M. 
Saturdays: 7:45 A. M. to 9 P. M. 

Holidays, University vacations, and summer months, as per special 
Museum Open — Daily except Sundays and holidays: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. 
Sundays, holidays, and evenings, as per special announcement. 

♦During session of the University, 
f During winter months. 


Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting' 

The business session of the fifty-seventh annual meeting of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin was held in the lecture 
room of the State Historical Library Building at Madison, upon 
Thursday afternoon, October 21, 1909, commencing at four 
o'clock; an open session was held the same evening in the North 
Hall of the Society's Museum, commencingat half-past seven. 
In the afternoon the Executive Committee also held its annual 

Business Session 

President Wight took the chair at four o'clock in the afternoon 

The secretary and superintendent, on behalf of the Executive 
Committee, submitted its annual report, which was adopted. [See 
Appendix for text.] 

Chairman Morris, of the committee on finance, presented its 
report, approving the report of Treasurer L, S. Hanks for the 
year ending June 30, 1909; to which in its turn was attached the 
favorable report of the auditing committee (Chairman E. B. 
Steensland) upon the treasurer's accounts. These several reports 
were adopted. [See Appendix for texts.] 

The secretary presented his fiscal rejiort for the year ending 
June 30, 1909, all accounts having been audited by the secretary 
of Btate and warrants therefor paid by the state treasurer. (See 
Appendix for text.) 

* The report of the proceedings hero published, is adapted from the 
oflicial MS. records of the Society. 

2 [111 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Curators Elected 

Messrs. A. A. Jackson, D. C. Miinro, T. W. Ilaight, A. D. 
Agnew, and W. M. Smith were appointed a committee on the 
nomination of curators, and reported in favor of the following 
persons, who were unanimously elected for tlie terms indicated: 

For term ending at annual meeting in 1911: to succeed George B. 
Burrows, deceased, William A. Scott of Madison; to succeed N. B. Van 
Slyke, deceased, Elisha W. Kej'es of Madison. ^ 

For term ending at annual meeting in 1912: Henry C. Campbell of 
Milwaukee; William K. Coffin of Eau Claire; Hiram Hayes of Superior; 
William W. Wight of Milwaukee; Thomas E. Brittingham, Lucien S. 
Hanks, Nils P. Haugen, Patrick B. Knox. Frank W. Oakley, Arthur L. 
Sanborn, Halle Steensland, and E. Ray Stevens of Madison. 

Reports of Auxiliaries 

Annual reports were received from the Society's several auxilia- 
ries, the local historical societies of Green Bay, Lafayette County, 
Manitowoc, Ripon, Sauk County, Superior, Wahvorth County, and 
Waukesha County, and they were ordered to be printed in the 
J*roccedin<js. [See Appendix for texts.] 

The meeting thereupon stood adjourned. 

Open Session 

The open session of the Society commenced at '7:30 o'clock in 
the North Hall of the ^Museum, President Wight in tlie chair. 

In opening the meeting, the president delivered his annual ad- 
dress as follows: 

The present meeting of the Society should have a particular in- 
terest, this being the sixtieth year of the Society's existence. To 
be sure, annual meetings are nominally reckoned from tlie reorgani- 
zation of the Society, which occurred in 1853; hence, from tlie 
evening's programiiK^ it appears that this is, ofhcially, the fifty- 
seventh annual meeting. 13ut that statement does not extinguish, 
and is not antagonistic with, tlie fact that the Societv existed four 

'Judge Keyes was a curator from ISGS to 1898, inclusive. No other 
curator now in oflico began service so early as 1SG8. 


Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting 

years earlier, and that its members listened to the reading- of three 
annual addresses — by William R. Smith, ^Morgan L. Martin, and 
Lewis N. Wood — and that these addresses were all printed.' 

It is pleasant to glance along the list of the names of the one 
hundred and twenty-nine persons who were members of this Society 
between its original organization in 1849, and its rehabilitation in 
1853. No one can now be familiar with the careers of all these 
men, but many of them have made their impress on the history of 
Wisconsin. One might think that all of them must be dead after 
these many years. So far as I know, there are now no survivors — 
the latest death which I can trace is that of George W. Mitchell, 
who joined the Society from Portage, and died at the Plankiuton 
House, in Milwaukee, February 16, 1908, aged eighty-five years. 

It is not my present purpose to sketch the history of these sixty 
years. This interesting task has already. been performed, and the 
result appears in matter now in print, and accessible to all. More- 
over, the history of these j-ears has been written by this building; 
stately, ornate, and graceful, it emphasizes the quaint little book- 
case wiiich stored the Societj^'s library previous to 1854, and is 
today one of the most interesting articles in our museum. The 
fathers — the faces of some of them are about us now on the walls 
of this room — who organized this Society sixty years ago this 
year, builded better than they dreamed; and now, gathered with 
the dead, are the benefactors of the living. 

The present membersliip of the Society is 744, a net increase of 
93 since the last annual meeting. During the year 132 persons 
have joined our ranks; but owing to deaths and defaults, the net 
fraiu is 93. Of the present membership, 129 reside in Milwaukee, 
120 in Madison, 29 in LaCrosse, 21 in Superior, 19 in Ashland, 
19 in Janesville, 18 in Green Bay, 17 in Appleton, 14 in Sheboy- 
gan and in Ripon. That there is not a member in every hamlet in 
the State, is the loss of the hamlet more than of the Society. 

The library increase during the past year has been in books 
5,937, in pamphlets 6,530 — a total gain ot 12,473. This is a little 
better than the average gain of the past ten years — such average 
being 11,352. The present number of titles in the library, includ- 
insr herein books and pamphlets, is 320,147. 

' Tht'V are the earliest publk-ations of the Socit-ty, and caimot now be 
!>ui)plied by the socrotary, for they aro of the irroatost rarity. 

[13] • 

. Wisconsin Historical Society 

The year just closed has been one of prosperity, of a steady, 
certain, not phenomenal, growth. Yet the Society has its great 
and pressing needs — one of these, is more room. The last legis- 
lature -was flinty -hearted, and refused to appi-opriate money for a 
wing to this building. At the present moment it needs one wing 
as much as a bird needs two. We shall be driven to the necessity 
of outside storage for our valuable accumulations, unless the State 
of Wisconsin remembers that this institution is the trustee of the 
State and entitled therefore to its generous support. 

This Society needs also money for the purchase of historical 
literature, for the employment of additional service, and for the 
enlargement of the field of its work. Here, our friends, who ex- 
tend far beyond the confines of the Americas, can substantially 
help us if they will. I do not like to ask people to remember us 
in their testaments. Living in this joyous, sunny world, shall we 
wish people out of it in order that they thus may become our ben- 
efactors? Generous annual Christmas presents will make the of- 
ficers of the Society exclaim as each season's gift arrives, "May 
you enter late into HeavenI" They will allow you also, our warm- 
hearted donor, to exclaim: 

Books of the mighty dead, whom men revere, 

Remind me I can make my life sublime. 
But prithee bay my brow while I am here; 

Why do we always wait for Death and Time? 

You all know that in the closing days of this year the Society — 
indeed, the State — has suffered a distinct loss. I allude to the 
departure of Mr. Henry E. Legler, one of the most active of our 
curators, to a field believed by him to be more commanding and of 
wider influence. Unobtrusive, unostentatious, yet forceful, re- 
Bourceful, energetic, ready, thoroughly furnished unto all good 
works," his pleasing personality will be universally missed. In 
leaving the State for a more illustrious career, he does so 
"without spot or blemish or any such thing." 

Historical Papers 
The following historical papers were presented, for the text of 
which see xVppendix: 

Indian diplomacy and the opoiiinir of the Revolution in the West, by 
James Alton James of Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 

Organization, boundaries, and names of Wisconsin counties, by Louise 
Phelps Kellogg of the Society's staff. 


Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting 

Reminisconses of early Grant County, by Jonathan Henry Evans of 

Settlement of Arcadia, by Ebon Douglas Pierce of Vancouver, Wash. 

Settlement of Green Lake County, by Richard Dart of Dart ford. 

Paper-making in Wisconsin, by Publius V. Lawson of Menasha. 

An appreciation of James Rood Doolittle, by Duano Mowry of Milwau- 


Upon the concltision of the literary exercises, the resident cura- 
tors tendered an informal reception to those in attendance at the 
meeting. The ladies of the Society's library staff served refresh- 
ments, and the museum -was opened, several special exhibits bein^ 
arranged for the occasion. 

Executive Committee Meeting 

The annual meeting- of the Executive Committee was held in 
the lecture room at the close of the Society's meeting, in the af- 

Loss on real-estate mortgage 

Mr. Morris, on behalf of the finance committee, offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which Avas adopted: 

Whereas, The State Historical Society of Wisconsin became the owner, 
through foreclosure of a mortgage, of lots six (0) and seven (7), block 
thirty-five (35), Summit Park Addition to St. Paul, which at the time that 
said premises came into its possession under such foreclosure cost the 
Society the sum of eleven hundred eighty-four dollars and eighty-six cents, 
($1,184.80); and 

Whereas, Said premises were sold about December 15th, .lOOS, for a 
net sum of eight hundred forty-three ($84:1) dollars, leaving a ditlerence 
between the amount so realized and the amount of the original cost, of 
three hundred forty-one dollars and eighty-six cents ($341.80), which 
amount still stands to the real estate account in the inventory of the prop- 
erty of said State Historical Society of Wisconsin at the sum of three 
hundred forty-one dollars and eighty-six cents ($341.80), and which amount 
is a loss to the Society, and such loss should be properly distributed 
amongst the funds from which the loan was made; and 

WnERE.\s, The only fund from which such loan was made, was the 
binding fund; therefore, 

[ 15 ] . 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

liesolced. That said sum of three hundred forty-ono dollars and eighty- 
six cents ($311. SG) of loss as aforesaid, be charged to the said binding 
fund, now the general and binding fund, and that the treasurer bo directed 
to make proper entries thereof in the books of account. 

New Members Elected 
The following new members were unanimously elected: 


Afton— Orley D. Antisdel. 

Antigo — Edwin H. Van Ostrand. 

Ashland — Harold B. "Warner. • 

Chippewa Falls — AVilliam Irvine. 

Edgerton— Laurence C. Whittet. 

Madison — Charles F. Lamb. 

Manitowoc — John Schuette. 

Menomonie — Henry E. Knapp. 

Milwaukee— Charles Allis, William W. Allis, William Bigelow, Carl G. 
Dreutzer, Otto H. Falk, Frederick L. Pierce, • Ben X. Scherer, Henry F. 

Ripon— Miss Shirley Farr. ■»>. 

Superior— Richard B. Dear, William J. Leader. 

Bay City, Michigan, Bay City Public Library. 

Annual memljers who changed to life, during the year: 
. Abrams— Robert C. Faulds. 
Apploton — John Stevens, Jr. 
Grand Rapids— Isaac P. Witter, 
Janesville— George G. Sutherland. 
Manitowoc— Dr. Charles M. Gleason. 
Milwaukee — James W. Skinner, George A. West. 

Antigo — Edward Cleary, William H. Hickok, Charles O. Marsh. 
Appleton— Henry W. Abraham. Charles H. Boyd, Claudius G. Cannon, 
John Faville, George :SL Miller, David J. Ryan, Mrs. :J[ary A. White. 
Ashland — Michael E. Dillon, John J. Miles, Martin Schrank. 
Blair — Seven S. Urberg. 
Brandon — Roberts. Norris. 
Chippewa Falls — Thomas J. Cunningham. 
Darlington — Charles F. Osborn. 
Delavan — John J. Phoenix. 
De Pere — xVugust G. Dusold. 
Elkhorn — George O. Kellogg. 
Evansville — David Van Wart. 
Font ana — Carlos S. Douglas. 
Fort Atkinson — Frank W. Hoard. 
Gotham — Paul A. Soifert. 

[ 16 ] 

Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting 

Grand Rapids — Theodore W. Brazeau, Charles E. Briere, E. N. Po- 

Grcon Bay — John C. Thurman. 
Hurley — Michael G. McGeehan. 

Janesville — Frederick C. Burpee, George F. Kimball, Samuel M. Smith. 
La Crosse — George M. Burton, Albert 11. Schubert, Thomas H. Spence. 
Loyal- Albert F. Fuchs. 
McFarland — William G. MacLachlan. 

Madison — Ilarry M. Durbrow, George B. ilerrick, Lewis B. Nagler, 
Hosea W. Rood. 
Marinette — John W. Follett. 

Milwaukee — William F. Adams, Andrew D. Agnew, Charles H. Anson, 
Frank R. Bacon, Edward A. Benson, Walker P. Bishop, Frederick B. 
Bradford, Robert Camp, Paul 1). Durant, Franz C. Eschweilor, Iliram F. 
Fairbanks, George L. Graves, Otto J. Habhegger, George A. Harlow, 
Jamos K. Ilsley, Jackson B. Kemper, Courtney S. Kitchel, Herbert X. 
Lafiin, Frederick Layton, William J. McElroy, Justin W. Meacham, 
Charles E. Monroe, Henry M. Ogden, Mrs. Emma W. Quarles, John W. 
F. Roth, Charles M. Scanlan, Fitzhugh Scott, Charles D. Stanhope, Mrs. 
Mary G. Upham. 
Nekoosa — Henry E. Fitch, Herman H. Helke, Peter O. Winther. 
Oshkosh — George B. McC. Hilton, George L. Varney. 
Palmyra — Martin J. Gosa. 
. Pigeon Falls — Em. Christophersen. 
Racine — Samuel T. Kidder. 

Ripon — William R. Dysart, Frank M. Erickson, Frederick Spratt. 
Shullsburg — Mrs. Charles J. Meloy. 
Strum — Carl J. Helsem. 
Sturgeon Bay — Arthur J. Smith. 

Superior — Charles H. Bird, Benjamin C. Cooke, William E. Pickering, 
Robert J. Shields. 

Two Rivers — Lawrence H. Ledvina, Charles E. Mueller. 
Verona — Paul R. Gray. 
Washburn — Peter J. Bestl^r. 
Waukesha — Walter P. Sawyer. 
Waupaca — Henry A. Larson. 

Wausau — Mrs. Jeannette M. Coates, Marvin B. Rosenberry, Miss Susan 
W. Underwood. 

Wauwatosa — William R. Xothercut. 

Whitehall — Hans A. Anderson, Peter H. Johnson. 

Winneconne — Auirus Sillars. 

Woodruff— Frank L. McKean. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa — Ernest R. Moore. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. — Clay Evans. 

Providence, R. I.— Wilfred H. Munro. 

Springfield, Mass. — Lawrence A. Curtis. 

Manila, P. L— Charles H. Leavitt. 

The meeting thereupon stood adjourned. 
[ 17 h d 



Executive Committee's Report 

[Submitted to the Society at the fifty-soventh annual meeting, October 21, 



During- the year, the board of curators has suffered the loss, by 
death, of two of its prominent members, K. B. Van Slyke and 
George B. Burrows. The legislature of 1909 added 8200 an- 
nually to the Society's administrative fund, and §1,000 annually 
to its book-purchasing fund; it also transferred the salaries of the 
secretary, librarian, and assistant librarian from the State pay- 
roll to the Society's administrative fund. The legislature failed 
to provide for the proposed new northwest Aving to the library 
building, for the support of the museum, or for increased salaries 
for certain of the library assistants. The private endowment 
funds now aggregate 860,54:4.46. The library accessions of the 
year were 12,473 titles, slightly above the average for the past 
decade; the library now contains 320,147 titles. Details are \iTe- 
seuted, of the year's work in the several departments: more space 
and larger funds are needed for each; broadened popular interest, 
and increasing demands for service to the public, are clearly evi- 
dent; and on every hand, improved methods are being introduced. 
The Society has subscribed to tlie important co-operative enter- 
prise of searching the French archives for material bearing ou 
Mississippi Valley history up to 1763. A like search is being 
made by the Society, on its own account, in the archives at Wash- 
ington, for material affecting Wisconsin history prior to 1S36. 
In August, representatives of the Society took part in various 
historical celebrations within the State. The reiiort closes with a 
statement of the over-crowded condition of the building; the need 
for increased financial support is also shown to be urgent. 


Executive Committee's Report 

Death of Curators Van Slyke and Burrows 

The Societj' has been singfularly unfortunate witliin the year, to 
lose by death two curators who took exceptionally keen interest 
in its affairs and long and faithfully served the institution upon 
important committees. Hon. Napoleon Bonaparte Van Slyke 
died at his home in Madison on February 14, 1909, and Hon. 
George Baxter Burrows passed away but eleven days later (Feb- 
ruary 25). 

Mr. Van Slyke was born in Saratoga County, New York, De- 
cember 21, 1S22, consequently at tlie time of death had en- 
tered upon his eighty-seventli year. Having lost his father at the 
age of nine, young Van Slyke was thenceforth dependent for sup- 
port upon his own exertions. Nevertheless he contrived spas- 
modically," as his finances warranted, to acquire an excellent 
academic education. Commencing life as a farmer, he later be- 
came a salt manufacturer at Syracuse, and in 1853 settled at 
Madison, Wisconsin, where he became a banker, although for a 
brief period previous to the War of Secession he was a manufac- 
turer of lumber in the northern part of the State. During 
1861-62, ^Ir. Van Slyke was assistant quartermaster of the State, 
and then was appointed State quartermaster in the federal service, 
being accorded the rank of lieutenant-colonel. This threw him 
into intimate relations with all Wisconsin soldiers who were mus- 
tered in or out at 3Iadison, for the work of issuing supplies was 
constantly under his careful and effective sui>ervision. Mr. Van 
Slyke was for twelve years a regent of the University of Wiscon- 
sin, as such being chairman of its executive committee. From 
1865 until the time of his death, he was a curator of this Society, 
and during a great part of tliat long term served as chairman of the 
finance committee. The persistant growth of our private endow- 
ment funds has owed much to his expert advice and untiring solici- 
tude. For this and countless other services throughout the forty- 
four years of his otlicial connection with us, tlie Society will ever 
hold his memory in high esteem. 

Mr. Burrows was a native of Windsor County, Vermont, his 
day of birth being October 20, 1832. His father was a Baptist 
minister, with an honorable record as an Abolitionist but possessed 
of a scanty purse, hence George was compelled from early boy- 
hood to work his way through life. His academic education was 
acquired only by dint of great personal exertion. After serving 
[ 21 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

as a clerk in Vermont country stores, he started as a merchant in 
.a small way in New York City, but in 1858 settled in Wisconsin, 
becoming a banker at Sauk City. In 1865 he removed to Madi- 
son, and built up a large and prosperous business in real estate 
brokerage, especially in the handlinir of pine lands. From 1877 
to 1882 Mr. Barrows served as a member of the State senate, and 
during his last term was president y:<?v> tern thereof. In 1895 he 
was a member of the assembly, and speaker of that body. 
Throughout this legislative session. Speaker Burrows worked 
persistently and successfully for the bill providing for the erection 
■of the present beautiful home of this Society, and during the 
period of its erection served as a member of the building commis- 
sion. Mr. Burrows was a curator of the Society from 1877 to the 
time of his death, and served with energy upon important com- 
mittees, particularly on the finance committee as a colleague of 
Mr. Van Slyke. lie was also president of the State Forestry Com- 
mission, president of the New England Society of Dane County, 
and held many high offices of trust in Masonic and other bodies. 
His active regard for the interests of our Society was evidenced by 
the fact that in the will providing for the administration of his 
large estate, he made this institution his residuary legatee for the 
entire property, in case certain family conditions failed to develop 
as he desired. 

Financial Condition 

Transfer of State Salaries 

Ever since the early days of State aid to the Society, its secretary, 
librarian, and assistant librarian have been included in the regular 
State pay-roll, with salaries specified by statute. These statutory 
salaries were established nearly a generation ago, Avhen the prices 
of living were far below the present. During the past twenty 
.years the Society has either been asking the legislature for a new 
building, or for assistance in meeting its many otlier pressing needs, 
hence it has seemed inopportune to urge the consideration of more 
adequate salaries for the three officials in question. Your commit- 
tee has, therefore, felt obliged from time to time to add to these 
salaries through the medium of annual grants from the income of 
its private endowment funds. This course has not appeared to us 
an altogether dignified method of meeting the situation; but only 
in this way could the institution retain the services of the experts 

in its employ. 


Executive Committee's Report 

Recogrnizing the inadvisability of fixing- the compensation of such 
persons by statute, the legislature at its last session dropped these 
three officials from the State pay-roll and added the sum of their 
statutory salaries (64,800) to the regular annual appropriations to 
the Society. In making this transfer, it generously added 
enough to the total to make the sura 85,000. In this manner the 
Society's annual stipend from the State had a net gain of -S200. 

Commencing with the current fiscal year (l909-10), the salaries 
of the three officials named have been determined solely by your 
committee, just as the salaries of officers of the University of Wis- 
consin and other public educational institutions are regulated by 
their governing boards. These salaries -will hereafter be taken 
entirely from State appropriations, and such sums as have hitherto 
been added to them from the Society's private funds will be ex- 
pended for the salaries of some of the subordinate members of the 

In view of this new arrangement, it seemed best to the com- 
mittee, at a special meeting held .June 21, to vacate the office of 
assistant librarian, which has long been purely titular. For many 
years past, some active member of the staff, receiving a like salary, 
has held this office simply to satisfy statutory requirements. 

State Appropriations 

All certified expenditures for the Society; emanating from State 
appropriations thereto, are audited by the secretary of state, and 
remittances to claimants are made by the state treasurer, the same 
as with other State departments. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, covering the period 
of the present financial report, the Society received -^25,216.00 
from the State, in direct standing appropriations — >>20, 180.00 
under section 2, chapter 533, Laws of 1907, for administrative 
and miscellaneous expenses; and -^5,036 under section 3 of the 
same chapter, for books, maps, manuscripts, etc. 

The following statements show the condition of these funds on 
July 1, 1909: 

Section 2. Cuapter 533, Laws of 1907 

Receipts, year ending Juno 30. 1909 

Unexpended balance in State Treasury, July 1, 1908 . $315 94 

State appropriation for year ending Juno 30, 1909 . . 20,180 00 

Total ....... $20,495 94 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Disbursements, year ending,' June 30, 1009 
Ad rat ion of the Society 

. $11,029 41 
81 70 

213 50 

332 84 

$11,657 45 

Services . 

Supi)lies and equipment 

Freight and drayage 


Maintenance of Building 
Services ...... $0,099 50 

Supplies . . ... . . 1,491 4G 

Light and power (rebate to U. W.) . . 227 13 

Equipment ..... 193 03 

Repairs . . . . . . 556 34 

Unexpended balance in State treasury, July 1, 1909 



$20,224 91 
271 03 

$20,495 94 

Sectiox 3, Chapter 533, Laws of 1907 

Receipts, year ending Juno 30, 1909 

State appropriation for year ending Juno 30, 1900 . . $5,035 93 

Disbursements, year ending June 30, 1909 
Books and periodicals .... $-1,88301 

Maps and manuscripts . . . . 57 01 

Pictures ...... 59 80 

$4,999 82 

Unexpended balance in State treasury, July 1, 1909 , . 36 16 

$5,035 98 

Details of the foregoing expenditures will be found iu the fiscal 

report of the secretary and sui)eriutendeiit, submitted iu oonuec- 

tion herewith. A copy thereof has been Hied with the governor, 

according to law. 

The General and Binding Fund 

is the product of special gifts thereto, one-half of the receipts 
from membership dues and the sale of ordinary duplicates, and 
accrued interest. On July 1, 1900, as will be seen by the accom- 
panying report of the treasurer, it contained -^31,3] 7.:23, a gain of 
8858.19 during the year. The income of this fund is at present 
chiefly used for the payment of salaries of some of the Society's 

[24] . • 

Executive Committee's Report 

The Antiquarian Fund 

is, like the General and Binding Fund, derived from accrued in- 
terest and from the acquisition of one-half the receipts from mem- 
bership fees and sale of ordinary duplicates. On July 1, 1909, 
this had, despite expenditures from the income, grown to 
$11,472.99, a net gain of ^952.09 during the year. The income 
of this fund is at present expended in the ethnological work of the 
museum department, which has been much benefited thereby. 
The Draper Fund 

which relies for increase upon interest receipts and sale of publi- 
cations emanating from the Draper manuscript collection, con- 
tained on July 1, 1909, the sum of $11,194.V6, a net gain 
within the year of $17 7.52. The income is used for indexing and 
calendaring the Draper manuscripts. 

The Mary M. Adams Art Fund 

contained July 1, 1909, $4,998.19, a net increase within the year 
of 6146.72. This fund is bringing to the ^kluseum many valuable 
and interesting articles. We need, however, several funds of this 
size and character to work important results. 

The Anna R. Sheldon Memorial Fund 
is for the purchase of books to add to the Anna R. Sheldon me- 
morial art collection in this library. It contained on July 1, 1909, 
$1,561.29. Contributions both to the interest and principal of 
this fund are liable to be received from time to time from the 
memorial committee, which has already made some important 
accessions to the collection. 

Library Accessions 


Following is a summary of library accessions for the year ending 
September 30, 1909: 

Books purchased (including exchanges) . . 2,800 

Books by gift . . . . . . 3,137 

Total books ..... 5,037 

Pamphlets by u'lft ..... 6,3S0 

Pumphk'ts on cxchaniro and by purchase . . 61 

Pamphlets made from newspaper clippings . . 95 

Total pamphlets ..... 6,536 

Total accessions ..... I'* 473 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Present (estimated) strength of library 

Books ..... 


Pamphlets ..... 


160, 706. 

Total . . . • 

320, 147; 

The year's book accessions are classified as fo 

Cyclopedias ..... 


Newspapers and periodicals 


Philosophy and religion .... 


Biography and genealogy 


History — general .... 


History — foreign .... 


History — American .... 


History — local (U. S.) . . . . . 


Geography and travel . . . . . 


Political and social sciences 


Natural sciences ...... 


Useful arts ...... 


British Patent Office reports 


Fine arts ...... 


Language and literature . . . . . 


Bibliography ...... 




Comparative statistics of gifts and purchases: 



Total accessions . . . . 



Percentage of gifts in accessions 



Percentage of purchases (including exchanges), in ac 

cessions ...... 



Books given ...... 



Pamphlets given .... 



Total gifts (including duplicates, which are not ac- 

cessioned) ...... 



Percentage of gifts that were duplicates 



Percentage of gifts that were accessions 



There have been bound durinj 
classified as follows: 

British Patent Office reports 
British Parliamentary papers 
U. S., State and city documents 
Miscellaneous books 


the year a total of 2,853 volumes, 






Executive Committee's Report 

The accessions for the past ten years liave been as follows: 
1900, 8,983; 1901, 11,3-40; 1902, 10,510; 1903, 10,584; 1904, 
11,990; 1905, 12,634; 1906, 10,214; 1907, 11,564; 1908, 13,210; 
1909, 12,473. Average 11,352. 

Among the important accessions of the year were the S. U. 
Pinney library of nearly 1,000 volumes; South American material, 
chiefly historical and documentary, ag-gregating- 643 volumes; and 
142 volumes on art, from the estate of the late Mrs. Anna R. 

The Library 

Catalogue Department 

During the year, good progress has been made in the reclassifi- 
cation and. re-cataloguing of our large pamphlet collection. The 
most notable feature of this work has been the ti'eatment of some 
240U pamphlets relating to the War of Secession. There still re« 
main several large collections, such as the English political, 
slavery, religious, addresses, sermons of the 18th and early part 
of the 19th centuries, and American biograpliy. In most cases 
they are at present collectively and somewhat heterogencously 
bound in volumes, according to early library methods, but are 
now to be taken apart and scattered through the library according 
to modern rules of classification. 

The famous Tank library, composed chietly of Dutch books — 
some of them of considerable historical value and typographical 
interest — has not thus far been classified and catalogued. It is 
hoped, however, to begin work upon them within the present fis- 
cal year. 

We continue to purchase Liljrary of Congress printed cards, so 
far as practicable. They assist materially in liglitening the work of 
cataloguing, especially of current accessions. 

Public Documents Department 

The building of a mezzanine floor in the newspaper consultation 
room released room 105, where unbound newspapers had hitherto 
been stored. The room was thereupon assigned to tlie document 
department for the shelving of seldom-used files. This shift made 
possilde several im])rovi'nuMits. Tlie removal of documents from 
stack B, thereby furnishing some new slielving space for the gen- 
eral library; the removal of some material from the document 
stack itself, thus furriisliing added space for the growth of more- 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

frequently used classes of documents; and the assembling in the 
same nei«rhborhood of many documents that had been scattered in 
various parts of this badly-crowded building-. 

By takin£- advantag-e of the offer of the United States superin- 
tendent of documents to receive our large stock of duplicates of 
federal publications, the library has been able to clear the room 
in the basement immediately beneath the stack. This latter is 
now in use for British parliamentary papers, journals, and debates, 
and some other material. 

While this shifting- and concentration have facilitated the work 
of the department, yet even noAv there is much material incon- 
veniently stored, and out of direct communication with the docu- 
ment stack. This works a serious handicap to the activities of the 
department. Moreover, the basement, where a g-reat deal of the 
material must now be stored, is inconvenient for readers on account 
of poor light, and possibly unhealthy from lack of proper heat and 
ventilation. The dampness is also injurious to tlie valuable books 
there stored. 

Nowhere does the crowded condition of the library make itself 
more keenly felt than in the newspaper and document depart- 
ments, which have the greatest increase in proportion to their 
allotment of space. For the past few years the documentary col- 
lection has been increasing at the rate of over 2,0U0 volumes and 
3,000 pamphlets annually; the total is now approaching 75,000. 
The relief given by new space is but temporary. At the end of a 
year after such addition, the accession of a tile of twenty volumes 
necessitates the shifting of several hundred volumes, if not several 
thousand, a makeshift needlessly consuming valuable time. Un- 
less new space is soon provided, some of the material in the de- 
partment must be packed away in inaccessible places, which would 
prove a costly inconvenience both to the li])rary and its readers. 

In common with all American reference libraries, we note a 
steadily growing use of public documents; this manifests itself not 
only in greater freciuency of consultation, but in increasing 
breadtli of range. Until quite recently, comparatively few bibliog- 
raphies mentioned governmental publications as sources; but 
there is now a general recognition of their large value in many 
fields of incpiiry, and bibliographers are making more frequent 
references to their contents than hitherto. This is one of the 
causes of the wider use of such material; which brings us more 
forcibly than ever to the conviction that in view of tlio jiresent 

r 2S 1 

Executive Committee's Report 

close iuterrelation of all branches of learning, it is almost impos- 
sible, save on some arbitrary geographical basis, for a great refer- 
ence library to limit the scope of its documentary collection. 

One interesting feature of the steady increase in the patronage 
of our own document department, is the fact that the use of the 
room is now more evenly distributed over the day, the week, and 
the year. This is fortunate in view of our limited table space; 
but the constant demand for service from the assistants in charge 
deprives them of time formerly available for technical duties. 

The large task of re-classifying, re-cataloguing, and re-labelling 
our public documents, has made satisfactory progress during the 
year. State manuals and blue books, school documents, legisla- 
tive journals, railroad reports, general municipal documents, and 
statutes have now been re-classitied. 

A certain amount of time each day is given to the important 
task of collecting new material; it could well occupy the entire 
lime of one trained person. Among the tiles carefully checked 
up during the past year are the reports of the Wisconsin county 
asylums. The supervisors' proceedings of Wisconsin counties 
have also been carefully gone over and brought to date. It is a 
legal duty of the county clerks (lievised Statutes, section 709) to 
send to the Society all county publications. For the most part 
the officials cheerfully comply with the regulation, when reminded 
of our wants, and in many cases put themselves fo considerable 
trouble to get old issues. The law in question is a valuable aid 
to the collection of Wisconsin county material, for the use of 
State officers, legislators, and others studying State and local in- 
stitutions. It would be well if it might be extended to include 
the printed reports of cities, also of all corporations, societies, and 
associations organized under State law. 

Much attention is given to the exchange of duplicates. Aside 
from purchase, this is often the only method of obtaining many of 
the older documents, and in some cases the recent ones also. 

There has been a large increase in South American material, 
coming chiefly from Chile, Peru, and the Argentine Republic. 
Australian material has also come with regularity, both from the 
commonwealth government and the several states. Special men- 
tion should be made of a gift from the government of South Aus- 
tralia of a bound set of their i^arliamentary proceedings and papers 
complete from 187C to 19u8, in 1U5 folio volumes. 

[ 29 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

The Wisconsin Free Library Commission, the State Library, 
the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics, and other State 
departments, as well as individual donors, have been generous in 
their gifts of miscellaneous public documents. These sources of 
accession are important, as they often enable us to complete our 

The usual amount of binding has been done. It would be an 
economy, were more possible. Bound books, and especially bound 
pamphlets, are less liable to damage or loss, than when unbound 
and can be more economically cared for. 

Maps and Manuscripts Department 

The completion of the mezzanine floor has added much needed 
space. It has provided 76 additional map drawers, additional 
shelves for atlases, a case with drawers for tiling illustrative mater- 
ial, additional locked cases for manuscripts, and space for a rack 
for roller maps. 

A considerable number of maps have been mounted and passe- 
partouted. The latter is an impoi-tant supplement to mounting; 
it prevents fraying at the edges, and facilitates getting the maps 
in and out of the drawers, being thus conducive to the better pres- 
ervation of this very perishable form of historical material. 

It has been possible during the year to add many maps to the 
collection, that have for this purpose been taken from duplicate 
public documents. When folded in books, maps are certain to be 
damaged and perhaps lost. It is therefore desirable to remov^e 
them from duplicate volumes and i)lace them flat in drawers in tlie 
map room, where they will be carefully preserved. 

During, the year the valuable typewritten minutes of hearings of 
the Wisconsin Railroad Commission have been bound, as received. 
Except the file in the othce of the commission, ours is the only one 
approaching completeness. 

The steady accumulation of unbound manuscript collections in 
the vault, where they are inconveniently placed and liable to dam- 
age, is unfortunate. To remedy this condition would necessitate 
the constant employment of one skilled ]jcrson in mounting and 
repairing such material, preparatory to perniaiuMitly binding into 
volumes; but until tliere is an imprt)vement in the Society's ti- 
nances, such assistant cannot be employed. 

Four volumes from the Draper manuscript collection have with- 
in the year been treated by theP^inery Record I'reserving Comi)any, 

[301 . • 

Executive Committee's Report 

of Taunton, Massacluisetts. Their process of repairing, mounting-, 
and binding- is costly, but it appears to be the best at command 
until we can afford to establish a mending plant of our own. Such 
other volumes of manuscripts in the Society's possession, as are of 
special value and most in need of preserving, will from time to 
time, as finances warrant, be treated by tlie Emery process. 

A number of the vertical filing drawers, recently added to the 
equipment of the department, have been set aside for filing single 
manuscripts. All such have now been filed, and properly cata- 
logued on cards. The system is already proving a convenience, 
in enabling us to locate at once any of the hundreds of separate 
documents in the care of the department. 

A beginning has been made Avith the calendaring of the Wis- 
consin Manuscripts. The series known as "C" (Green Bay and 
Prairie du Chien Papers, 99 volumes), has been selected for initial 
treatment. The Phillipps Manuscripts, an English collection in 
11 volumes, has recently been placed in new covers. Of the 
Draper Manuscripts, we are now calendaring the Boone Papers. 


Bulletins of Information 

Five bulletins have been published within the year: No. 44, 
"Acquisitions of labor material," issued in February, 1909; 
No. 45, "Museum accessions," issued in December, 1908; No. 46, 
* 'Periodicals and newspapers currently received at the library," 
issued in December, 190S; No. 47, "Reports of auxiliaries, for 
1908," issued in January, 1909; No. 48, "List of active members 
of the Society," issued in February, 1909; and No. 49, "Charter, 
constitution, and by-laws of the Society," issued in June, 1909. 
Nos. 44-47 were separates from the Pi-orrcJin[/s for 1908. 

Wisconsin Historical Collections 

Volumes vii, viii, and x of the reprint edition have, since our 
last report, been published and the first two have been distributed 
to members. Volume ix still hangs fire in the State printing 
of!ice; but with customary optimism, hopes are expressed by the 
printers that it will be ready for distribution, together with 
volume X, some time during the coming month. "When this 
happens, the reprint edition of the first ten volumes of ColUrdo/iK, 
provided for by the legislature of 1903, will have been concluded. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Wisconsin History Commission 
Three attractive volumes have tlms far been iniLlishecl by this 
body, and by special arrang-eraent therewitli have been distributed 
to our members. These are: Col. William Freeman Vilas's 
Vicksbuffj Campoign, Gen. John Azor Kellog-o's Capture and 
Escape, and Col. Frank Aretas Haskell's Jkittle of Getti/sburg. 
The commission's activities were strengthened by the legislature 
of 1909, which voted to it an appropriation of 64,000 for the bi- 
ennial period ending June 30, 1911, to pay for the cost of collect- 
ing- and editing material bearing on Wisconsin's part in the War 
of Secession. Arrangements for the work are now under way, and 
doubtless other volumes, giving the results of special research, 
will be issued within the coming year. The popular demand for 
tbe three thus far published has W?en very great, and editions are 
now practically exhausted. 

Administrative Details 

Professional Meetings, etc. 
As usual, the secretary has within the year rather freely ac- 
cepted invitations to address public meetings in this and other 
states, upon topics associated with our work, whenever the doing 
80 has not materially interfered witli his administrative duties. 

On December 10, 1908, he lectured before the Sioux City (Iowa) 
Academy of Sciences, on "Men and manners in colonial times;" 
this was, on February 6, 1909, repeated before ]Mar(iuette Uni- 
versity, :Milwaukee. Between Christmas and New Year's he rep- 
resented the Society at tlie annual meetings of the American His- 
torical Association, Bibliographical Society of xVmerica, and 3[is- 
sissippi Valley Historical Association, held in Washington, D. C, 
and Richmond, Va. January 7, 1909, he addressed the Lafayette 
County Historical Society on "The mission of local history." At 
the meeting of the American Library xVssociation held in the White 
Mountains from June 28-July 3, the Society was uepresented by 
the secretary and the chief of the departments of i)ublic documents 
and maps and manuscripts. August 8, 1909, the secretary par- 
ticipated in the exercises incident to unveiling the monument to 
Chief 3[exico, at 3Ianitowoc Rapids; from Angu>t lU-12 he took 
part in the anniversary and unveiling exercises at Green Bay; and 
on August 27 spoke at the Newport home-coming. He has also 
delivered several lectures before the Wisconsin State Library 
f R2 1 

Executive Committee's Report 

School, and edited for the press the several publications of the 
Wisconsin History Commission. 

French Archives Relating to American History 

A year ago we stated that the American Historical Associa- 
tion's committee of seven on co-operation between state and local 
historical societies had perfected a plan for co-operation in search- 
ing: the French archives up to 1763, particularly for material 
bearinj;' upon the history of the Mississippi Valley. This plan 
has, however, been held in abeyance until subscriptions were ob- 
tained from institutions directly interested. During- the present 
month, tlie subscription list has been completed, and it is expected 
that the work will be inaug-urated at once, under the supervisioE 
of the Uureau of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington. Its director, Dr. J. Franklin Jameson, has been 
appointed treasurer of the fund. Tlie eleven subscribers are: 
Alabama Department of Arcliives and History, Chicago Histori- 
cal Society, Howard Memorial Library of New Orleans, Indiana 
Department of Archives and History, Illinois Historical Library, 
Iowa Historical Society, Kansas Historical Society, Michigan 
Pioneer and Historical Society, Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History, Missouri Historical Society, and Wisconsin Historical 
Society. Our own subscription is S200. 

Washington Archives Relating to Wisconsin History 

Within the present month, arrangements have been perfected 
through the Bureau of Historical Research of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution of Washington, for a systematic search in the archives of 
the Senate, House of Representatives, and various federal admin- 
istrative departments in Washington for hitherto unpublished 
documents appertaining to the history of pre-territorial Wisconsin. 
It is believed that a considerable body of such material exists at 
the national capital; but not until recently has this been readily 
available, and even now there are likely to be found serious ob- 
stacles to research in some of the departments. It is hoped that 
some of the documents may be received in time for inclusion in 
volume xix of M'ism/isut Hiiitorhuil C'>lh:<-tii>n.-<. 

It may inciilentally be metitioned that the Societ^-'s editorial staff 
is also making i)relimiiiary negotiations for similar searches in 
manuscript collections at Detroit and Ottawa. Operations in this 
direction are, however, hampered bv the lack of sufficient funds. 
[33] . ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

The Museum 

There has been an encouraging increase in the number of visit- 
ors to this department, many of whom are students of history and 
anthropology. The register sliows that among them were a large 
number of persons from neigli boring and distant states. 

Many permanent collections have been reinstalled and their con- 
tents instructively labeled, and the overhauling of other collections 
is in progress. The work of re-aecossioning on a modern basis 
the entire contents of the museum, is progressing steadily. Special 
exhibits have been prepared from time to time. 

In collecting for the museum we have held strictly to its prescribed 
fields of history, anthropology, and art; all proffers of natural his- 
tory material are referred to the University of Wisconsin, The 
accessions of the year through donation, deposit, exchange, and 
purchase number about 2,000 specimens and are almost wholly of 
an excellent character; this is more than double the number 
acquired during any previous year of our existence. A list of the 
accessions recorded up to September 30, 1909, is presented else- 
where. This clearly indicates tlie progress now being made, and 
should encourage citizens possessing instructive sjiecimens to place 
them in our care, for the ])ublic benefit. 

Among the most worthy acquisitions of the year, are the 
Mrs. Carrie Bain Hoyt collection of Indian baskets; the series of 
Medici colored photographic reproductions of the works of old 
masters; the George B, Merrick collection of articles illustrative of 
steamboating days on tlie Upper Mississippi River; several collec- 
tions of AVinnebago, Chii)pe\va, an<l Seneca Indian specimens; the 
May's Lick, Kentucky, arch.-eological collection; tlie South Sea 
Islands collection presented by 3Irs. Charles A. P:eschke; the Law- 
rence Martin collection of Alaskan specimens; the Charles T. 
Jeffery series of casts of Madelainieu bone and ivory carvings; 
and the Halvor L. Skavlem additions to the Lake Koshkonong 
arch;eological collection. Of these, all but the last, which is held 
in reserve for future use, are now on exhibition. 

A model of the celebrated Cliff Palace, constructed and presented 
to the museum by Dr. Louis Lot/., of Milwaukee, is attracting the 
attention of many visitors. 

Tlianks are due the museum's growing number of friends in all 
parts of the State for their interest and assistance in adding to and 


Executive Committee's Report 

improving the quality of its collections. The following citizens 
have within the year made gifts of small sums of money for the 
purchase of desired specimens: Messrs. W. W. Warner and Mor- 
ris F. Fox of Madison; Mrs. Charles A. P;vschke, Mrs. Charles 
Catlin, Mr. J. W. Skinner, and Col. Gustav Pabst of .Alihvaukee; 
:^Ir. Charles J. .Teffery of Kenosha; Mr. H. P. Hamilton of Two 
Rivers; Mr. E. P. Arpin of Grand Rapids; and Mr. Albert Rade 
of Chicago. The articles thus acquired have been credited to 
them as donors. Similar gifts will be welcomed at any time. 

Through the medium of exchanges with other museums and with 
individuals, there have been acquired several important and desira- 
ble specimens. 

Eight special case exhibits have been made during the year, il- 
lustrative of the following subjects: "Indian agriculture; " "Steam- 
boating days on the Upper Mississippi River, 1823-1870;" "Evo- 
lution of Indian jewelry;" "Wisconsin Civil War company ros- 
ters;" "Indian fishing;" "Early steamboats of the lower ^lississippi, 
Missouri, and Yukon rivers;" and "Prehistoric implements of 
Mexico and Porto Rico." A loan exhibition, made during the 
months of June and July, of over 600 ancient Indian, American, 
and foreign dolls, intended to illustrate their historical, ethnologi- 
cal, and pedagogical interest, attracted State-wide attention. 

The screen exhibits included " Logging in Northern Wiscon- 
sin," "The leper colony at Kalawao, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands," 
"Birdstone amulets," "The proposed AVisconsin River Park," 
" Wisconsin Indian mounds," "The reservation Chippewa," and 
"The Cawston ostrich farm." Several of these were afterwards 
loaned to public libraries throughout the State. 

The number of University students and pui)ilsof public schools, 
now making constant use of the museum collections is large, and 
increasing. To them every facility for study and observation is 
being extended. Several illustrated talks and lectures have been 
given to classes of these, both by the chief of the department and by 
their o\n\ instructors. This new field of public educational serv- 
ice is increasing the need for additional collections. Iniiuiries for 
specimens, which cannot be purchased because of insufficient funds, 
are constantly being made both by students and educators. 

Several ethnological lectures have been given to women's clubs, 
and local liistorical and other societies in various Wisconsin cities. 
Aid and advice have also been given to some smaller local museums 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

now in process of establisluuent, and with tliem intimate relations 
are bein^? established. 

Durin? the past year, the Madison Art Association has given 
several important loan exhibits and art lectures in the nmseum 
halls; these have drawn larg:e audienceri. 

We asked the legislature of 190U to ai)propriate the modest sum 
of 83,500 per year for the better administration and growth of 
the museum, but this reipiest was not granted. It is sincerely 
hoped that the succeeding legislature may look more kindly upon 
what we consider a vital necessity in the furtlierance of this branch 
of our work. We need also the continued private assistance of 
the public-spirited people of the State, without whose efforts in 
its behalf the museum would long ago have been a failure. The 
department has, in fact, already attained a national reputation, but 
this reputation involves responsibilities which cannot be met unless 
our official funds are materially increased and private assistance 
also broadened and extended. 

Historical Celebrations 

At Manitowoc Rapids, on xVugust 8, 1000, there was unveiled 
in the presence of a large audience, a highly creditable stone 
monument to Waumegasako (corrupted to "^lexico"), chief of the 
mixed bands of Indians formerly settled at that place. An account 
of the exercises will be found in the annual report of the Manito- 
woc County Historical Society, p>>st. 
Green Bay 
On August 10-12, 1000, Green Bay was the centre of three his- 
torical meetings, held under the joint direction of this Society and 
of the Green Bay Historical Society. The following programme 
was carried out: 

S P. ^^. Tuesday, Awju.d 10, in Kellorjg Public Library 
Address of welcome from tho city of Green Hay, Mayor- Winford 

Address of welcome from the Green Pay Historical Society, President 
Arthur C. Xoville. 

Response, The secretary of llie Wisconsin Historical Society. 
Address, '■The Old Fort at Green Bay," Frederick Jackson Turner, 
LL.I)., professor of American history in the University of Wisconsin. 

Address, '--Ur. and Mrs. Nils Otto Tank,"' lljalmjir Rued Holand. Esq., 

[36] . • 

Executive Committee's Report 

2:30 P. M. Wi'dnt.'uhty, AiKjust 11, at Chicurjo d- Northwe><tcrn Passenger 
Unveiling of bronze tablet commemorating;: the successive location on 
this site of the French Fort St. Francis, the British Fort Edward Augus- 
tus, and the American Fort Howard. 

Introductory address. President Arthur C. Xevillc. 

Address, Hon. James H. Elmore, of Green Bay, chairman of committee 
in charge. 

Address, Hon. E. M. Hyzcr, general counsel of Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway, and other representatives of the company. 
Address, Dr. Turner. 

Tiie •bronze tablet, which is imbedded in a large granite boulder, was 
then unveiled by }.lrs. James H. Elmore, daughter of Col. "William Chap- 
man, oflicer at Fort Howard in 18.^7. 
Music, "The Star Spangled Banner." 

The flag was then unfurled on the Hag staff at the southeast corner of 
the stockade of Fort Howard, and a salute of 13 guns fired. 
The inscription on the tablet is as follows: 
Erected by the Gkeen Bay Historical Society.— 1909 
853 feet, North 45 degrees. 7 minutes East, from this tablet, 
stands a flag pole, marking the southeast corner of the stock- 
ade of Fort Howard, occupied by United States troops August 
181Gand almost continuously until 1852. Onthis site also stood 
the French Fort St. Francis, built prior to 171S and rebuilt by 
the British in 17G1, as Fort Edward Augustus. 

4 P. M. Wednesday, at Union Park, Soutlt Side 

Formal openinu' of the Tank cottage (built about 1785. and now the old- 
est dwelling in Wisconsin) recently removed to Union Park. 

Address, 'The History of the Tank Cottage," Miss Deborah Beaumont 

Address, by Louis A. Sogey, representing the South Side Improvement 

Response, Hon. S. D. Hastings, president of the Kellogg Public Library 

Address, Hon. Henry E. Legler. secretary of Wisconsin Free Library 

5 P. M. Thursdatj, in Kellogg Public Librarii. 

Address, "The French discovery of Wisconsin," the secretary of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Reception to the visitors by the Green Bay Historical Society, the 
Woman's Club, the Marquette Club, and the Catholic Woman's Club. 
• 11 A. M., August 12, at P,d Ban/r.^ 

RedP.anks is twelve miles north of tlie city of Green Bay. on the east 
shore of the Bay. The audience proci-ciliHl thither from Green Bay by 
boats, carriages, and automobiles. A monument dedicated to JeanNicolet, 
discoverer of Wisconsin in 1G3I, was unveiled, with the following exer- 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Introductory, President Neville. 

Address, The secretary of the Wisconsin Historical Society. 
Address, Hon. John F. Martin of Green Bay. 

The monument was unveiled by Miss Rachel Grignon, grand-dauihtor, 
fifth removed, of Charles de Langlade, the principal founder of Green 
Bay, the first permanent white settlement in \Yisconsin. 

The inscription on the bronze tablet (imbedded in a granite boulder) is 
as follows: 

Commemorating the discovery of Wisconsin in 1034 by Jean 
Nicolet, emissary of Governor Champlain of Xew France. In 
this vicinity Nicolet first met the Winnebago Indians. Un- 
veiled August 12, 1909, by the members of the State Histori- 
cal Society of "Wisconsin, and the Green Bay Historical Soci- 

This tablet, commemorating: the 275tli anniversary of the dis- 
covery^ of "Wisconsin by Jean Xicolet, in 1634, cost 8372, of which 
8122 was subscribed by citizens of Green Bay, and 8250 by 
members of the State Historical Society non-residents of that city. 
Following: were the subscriptions received from our members and 
for-svarded through the Society's treasurer to the local committee: 

Lucius C. Colman, La Crosse 
Charles AUis, Milwaukee 
Charles F. Pfister, Milwaukee 
Edward E. Ayer, Chicago . 
Irving M. Bean, Milwaukee 
Harlan P. Bird, Wausaukeo 
William Irvine, Chippewa Falls 
George M. Paine, Oshkosh 
James M. Pereles, Milwaukee 
Edgar P. Sawyer, Oshkosh 
Thomas E. Brittingham, Madison 
William K. Collin. Eau Claire 
Henry P. Hamilton, Two Rivers 
James K. Ilsley. Milwaukee 
Reuben G. Thwaites, Madison 
Isaac P. Witter, Grand Rapids 


















Throughout the three days' celebration, there were exhibited in 
the Kellog:;,' Public Library a lar<4e number of interesting articles 
illustrating the early life of Green Bay. 


Executive Committee's Report 

In Sauk County 

The tliinT annual pilgrimage of the Sauk County Historical So- 
ciety was held on August 2 7, 1909, in connection with a home- 
coming celebration at the old, but now deserted, town of New- 

The members of the Society started from Baraboo in carriages 
and automobiles soon after 8:30 A. M., and first proceeded to the 
C. C. Allen farm, four miles north of Baraboo cemetery. Here, 
at a cross-roads, was unveiled a stone pillar, erected jointly by the 
Society and tlie Twentieth Centifry Club of Baraboo, and dedicated 
to the memory of Yellow Thunder, chief of the Winnebago Indians 
formerly resident in that neighborhood. The following exercises 
were held: 

Paper, "Indian memorials," James H. Hill, clerk of the county court. 

Paper, "Yellow Thunder," Mrs. Emma C. Mertzke, of the Twentieth 
Century Club. 

Address, "Burial of Yellow Thunder," Edmund Calvert, who knew the 
chief's family. 

The pillar was unveiled by Miss Izero Virginia English. 

After these exercises, the procession took up the line of march 
to the site of old Newport, five miles to the north, near Kilbourn. 
Here, a picnic dinner was had; after which, the secretary of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society delivered an address, The romance 
of Mississippi Valley history," and remarks were made by 
W. S. Marshall and Dr. A. A. Jones of Delton, and 3Iaj. Guy C. 
Pierce of Kilbourn. 


As previously noted, the Society's legislative committee reported 
to the legislature of 1909 upon what they considered the most 
pressing needs of the institution, and re<iuested legislation to meet 
these needs. 

I. The removal of the Society's three principal executive offi- 
cers from the State paj'-roll, and the addition to its annual admin- 
istrative appropriation of the sum of their statutory salaries, was 
effected. In making this desirable transfer, the legislature added 
8200 tu the ai)proi)riation, so as to make "even change." This 
net increase to our administrative fund is small; but so far as it 
goes, desirable. Reference thereto in greater detail is made 
ante, p. 22. 

[ 39 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

II. The legislature was asked for a further addition of -^2,000 
annually to the administrative fund. This was intended to meet 
incrcasinfr cost of repairs and supplies, to place several members, 
of the library staff upon a more satisfactory salai-y basis, and to 
add two members to the existing staff. The members of the joint 
committee on claims appeared, after examination, to be satisfied 
that these were legitimate requests; but owing to uncertainty as to. 
the State's financial outlook, the committee finally reported against 
the measure, and accordingly it was defeated. 

Prices of supplies and wages of outside workmen are fast mount- 
ing; we have come to the period of serious repairs to the building; 
we have recently lost several of the best-trained members of the 
staff, enticed elsewhere because of slender prospects of higher 
salaries in this library; we seriously need several additional skilled 
assistants — the request for but two was so modest that we had 
hoped it might be granted. Our application for an increase to the 
fund had been crowded down to what was considered the unreduc- 
ible minimum; its failure has occasioned no little perturbation in 
the executive oflice of the Society, for it was supposed that ofhcial 
economy had already reached its last limit. However, a State- 
supported institution has nought else to do than calmly meet disap- 
pointment and cultivate afresh its faith in the future. 

III. As stated elsewhere, application was also made to the leg- 
islature for a special appropriation of 63,500 per year for the 
more effective administration of the museum, and to purchase ex- 
hibits therefor. This measure received strong popular endorse- 
ment from all parts of the State, and apparently the majority in 
both houses favored the proposal. But unfortunately, in the last 
hours of the session, the bill fell by the way. This important de- 
partment of our activities, for which we have a strong ambition, 
backed by most slender funds, must during the next biennial pe- 
riod contrive to exist by dint of private generosity. 

IV. Our book-purchasing appropriation, originally voted by 
the legislature of 1900, has been but 65,000 annually. It should 
be 610,000; but we asked for only 61,000 additional at the present 
time, in the hope that some future legislature might increase the 
grant to the desired amount. This refjuest was acceded to, so tliat 
the fund will hereafter be 60,000 per year. Tlie increase, how- 
ever, is more apparent than real, for liooks, like most commodi- 
ties, now command much higher prices than in 1900. 


Executive Committee's Report 

V. The legislature was further requested to authorize the con- 
struction of the northwest wing to the library building. Four 
years ago the immediate necessity therefor first became apparent. 
With the rapid growth of the libraries of the Society and the Un- 
iversity, congestion has of course steadily increased. Todaj-, the 
building is inconveniently crowded in every part, and further 
growth can only be accommodated by the most sti'enuous methods 
of storage, with cumulative inconvenience. It seems probable 
that within the next eighteen months we may be obliged to resort 
to storage outside of the building; but this desperate remedy will 
be applied onlj- as a last resort. 

Originally, it was intended that only newspaper files should be 
placed in the basement, and even such use of this space was dep- 
recated by many. The place is necessarily damp in summer, 
when the hot air then everywhere prevalent, condenses on the cool 
walls and produces undue humidity. In practice, it is found not 
a i)roper storage room for books; yet here are now unavoidably 
housed an immense and priceless collection of newspaper files, and 
many thousands of valuable public documents from this and other 
countries. In a measure, this is overcome by turning steam into 
the basement twice or thrice weekly, throughout the summer, but 
such precaution is not a perfect antidote to mold, for the musty 
odor is still strong, and in time permanent injury will almost 
surely be wrought. 

This serious state of affairs was fully explained to the claims 
committee, and hopes were held out by them, even to the closing 
days of the session, that relief would be granted; however, the bill 
was reported for indefinite postponement. We can only hope 
that a fresh appeal to the legislature of 1911 may prove success- 
ful. But even if the grant is then made, the new wing could not 
be occupied until 1913, which means that the difficult problem of 
storing the certain accumulation of four years, by both libraries, 
is now before us. 

On behalf of the Executive Committee, 

Recbex G. Thwaites, 

Secrttartj and Si(2)crintende)tt. 


Treasurer's Report 

Inventory, July i, 1909 

'» Cash .... 


$4,122 06 

Mortgages .... 


55,500 00 

Real estate 


580 54 

Do ... . 


341 86 

$60,544 46 

. Belonging asfolloics: 

General and Binding fund . 

. $31,317 


Antiquarian fund 



T- Draper fund . 



Mary M. Adams Art fund 

4, 90S 


Anna R. Sheldon fund 



$00,544 46 

Mary M. Adams Art Fund 
Treasurer, Dr. 

July 1, 1908 Balance .... 
June 30, 1909 Share of interest . 

$4,851 47 
241 09 

Treasurer, Cr. 

Sept. 22, 1908 Foster Brothers, Boston, picture 

Oct. 30, 1908 Foster Brothers, Boston, pictures 

Jan. 15, 1909 Foster Brothers, Boston, pictures 

Feby. 25, 1909 Foster Brothers, Boston, pictures 

June 15, 1909 XewcombOlachlin Company, Clii- 

cago. framing . 

July 1, 1909 Xew balance 

)2 56 

$3 75 
20 75 
11 25 

10 87 

47 75 

$■1,998 19 

$5,092 50 

' The report being for the year ending .Tune 30, of course does not in- 
clude the subscriptions to the special Nicolet Tablet Fund, subscribed by 
members in August, 1909, and acknowlodired in tiie report of the Execu- 
tive Committee, antt', p. 3S. Tliis transaction will appear in the treasur- 
er's report a year hence. 


reasurer s 


Entertainment Fund 

Treasurer, Dr. 

July 1, 1908 By balance 

Oct. 27, 1908 Casli subscribed by members 

Treasurer, Cr. 

Oct. 30, 1908 Refreshments at annual meeting 
1908 .... 

$12 41 

1 09 

$13 50 

$13 50 

$13 50 

Antiquarian Fund Income 

Treaxnrer, Dr. 

\ Dues of Annual Members 

i Life Membership fees 

i Sale of ordinary duplicates 

UitTerence in- checks 


Share of interest 

$492 00 

250 00 

100 36 


522 84 

$1,36G 25 


, Cr. 




C. E. Brown, museum chief 
travel expense . 

$8 15 




Thomas R. Roddy. Black Rive 
Falls, curios 


200 00 




Louis Lotz, Milwaukee, cratin 

C. E. Brown, travel expense 

4 00 
25 60 




Sister Lillian, Oneida. Indiai 
doll . 

2 10 



Brancel & Houy, Milwaukee, cur 
ios . 

4 00 



W. B. Hinsdale, Ann Arbor, 
Mich., curios . 

60 00 



A. B. Stout, Madison, curios 

7 00 




J. R. Xisslcy, MansHeld, Ohio 

curios . 
A. B. Stout, services 

10 75 
6 00 




C. E. Brown, travel expense 

9 71 




C. E. Brown, paid for curios 
Joel H. DuBose, Ellorton, Ga.. 
curios . . . . 

1 80 
9 30 




Thomas R. Roddy, curios 
East Wisconsin Trustee Co., 

Manitowoc, curios 
Balance to Antiquarian Fund 

50 00 

25 75 

052 09 

B1,3C6 25 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Antiquarian Fund 

July 1, 1008 Balance . 

June 15, 1909 From Antiquarian account 

July 1, 1909 Xew balance 

$10,520 90 
952 09 

$11,472 99 

Draper Fund 

Treasurer, Dr. 
July 1, 1908 Balance . 
June 30, 1909 Draper duplicates sold . 
Share of interest 

Treasurer, Cr. 

June 30, 1909 L. P. Kellogg, services . 

July 1, 1909 Balance . 

$11,017 24 

79 98 

547 M 

$-150 00 
11,194 76 

$11,644 76 

$11,644 76 

Anna R. Sheldon Merhorial Fund 

■Treasurer, Br. 

Sept. 3, 1908 Cash from Anna R. Sheldon Me- 
morial Committee . . $] 
June 30, 1909 Interest apportioned 

,500 00 
61 29 

id Binding Fund Income 

July 1, 1909 New balance 

General a 
Treasurer, Br. 
\ Dues of Annual Members 
•i Life Membership fees 
^ Sale of ordinary duplicates 
Balance from General Fund 
Share of interest 

Treasurer. Cr. 

R. G. Thwaites, salary as superintendent 

I. S. Bradley, salary as assistant superintendent 

L. S. Hanks, salary as treasurer . 

C. E. Buell. Madison, examining title 

Recording mortgage 

Balance to General and Binding Fund 

$4^2 00 

250 00 

100 37 

355 99 

1,513 S3 

$1,300 00 

400 00 

150 00 

3 00 

1 00 

858 19 

General and Binding Fund 

July 1, 1908 Balance . 

Juno 30, 1909 From income account 

$30,459 04 
858 19 

$1,561 29 

$2,712 19 

$2,712 19 

July 1, 1909 Xew balance 


$31,317 23 

reasurer's Report 

The foregoing statement has been examined and found correct. 
Dated ^ladison, Wis. Oct. 19, 1909. 

W. A. P. Morris 
J. II. Palmer 
Halle Steexslaxd 

Finance Committee. 

We, the undersigned Auditing Committee, certify that we have 
carefully examined the books of account and vouchers covering 
disbursements for the year ending June 30, 1909, made in be- 
half of the Society by L. S. Hanks, treasurer, and find a proper 
voucher for each of the said disbursements. AVe further have to re- 
port that the cash resources on hand and in bank correspond with 
the balance as indicated by the books of said treasurer. 

A. E. Proudfit 
E. B. Steensland 
A. B. Morris 

Auditing Committee. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Secretary's Fiscal Report 

To the Executive Committee^ State JUstorical Society of Wis- 
cotishi — During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, the State 
appropriated to the Society, directly, 625,216.00— §20,180.00 
under section 2, chapter 533, Laws of 1907', and $5,036 under 
section 3 of said chapter. Disbursements from these appropria- 
tions Avere made upon warrant of the undersigned, audited by the 
secretary of state, and paid by the state treasurer. According to 
the books of the secretary of state, verified by our own, the Society's 
account with the State stood as follows upon July 1, 1909. 

Section z, chapter 533, Laws of 1907 
July 1. Unexpended balance in State treasury 

$315 94 

State appropriation ..... 20,180 00 

$20, 495 94 

Disbursements during year ending' June 30, 1909, as 
per appended list ..... $20, 224 91 

July 1. Unexpended balance in State treasury . . $271 03 

Section 3, chapter 533, Laws of 1907 
State appropriation ..... $5,036 00 
Overdraft (clerical error), 1907-08 ... 02 

$5,035 98 

Disbursements during year ending Juno 30, 1909, as 
per appended list . . . .' . »4,999 82 

July 1. Unexpended balance in State treasury . . $30.10 

'This includes the sn^iall balance coining to the Society because chapter 
422, Laws of 1909 (transferring the three principal om[)loyees to the 
Society's payroll from that of the State), became operative on and after 
June 17, 1909. 

[46 1 

Secretary's Fiscal Report 

Orders drawn daring fiscal year ending June 30, 1 
cordance with section 2, chapter 533, Laws of 1907: 
Edna C. Adams, general assistant 
Clarence W. Alvord, Urbana, 111., travel expenses 
Alford Brothers, towel supply . 
Harriet L. Allen, general assistant 
Elizabeth Alsheimer, housemaid 
Marion J. Atwood, student assistant . 
Daisy G. Beecroft, superintendent's clerk 
Lillian J. Beecroft, periodical room assistant . 
John Bohrmt. masonry repairs . 
I. S. Bradley, librarian, travel expenses 
Barbara Brisbois, cloak room attendant 
Charles E. Brown, museum chief, services and travel 
N. B. Bunin, student assistant . 
Bonnie Butts, otlice messenger . 
Capital City Paper Co., supplies 
Chicago Sc Northwestern Railway Co., freight 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co., -freight 
Conklin & Sons, ice .... 

Continental Manufacturing Co., Indianapolis, dustali 
Cudahy Packing Co., Chicago, soap powder . 
Bridget Dale, housemaid 

Dennison Manufacturing Co., Chicago, supplies 
J. S. Eastman, electrical services and supplies 
Electrical Supply Co., supplies . 
Ferris & Ferris, drayage 
Marshall Field tt Co., Chicago, supplies 
J. H. Findortf, lumber and carpentry . 
Mary S. Foster, reading room chief 
Gilbertson & Anderson, clock repairs . 
Alexander Gill & Co., repairs to roof . 
Phillip Gross Hardware Co., Milwaukee, supplies 
Tillie Gunkel, housekeeper 
Clarence S. Ilean, newspaper room chief 
Isabel Hean, general assistant . 
H. R. Ilolaud, Ephraim, travel expenses 
J. I. Holcomb Mfg. Co., Indianapolis, cleaners' suppli 
Hygienic Soap Granulator Co., New York City, suppl 
Illinois Central Railway Co., freight 
Anna Jacobson, cataloguer 

Johnson Service Co., Milwaukee, steam fitting supplies 
"W. G. Jolinston & Co., Pittsburgh, library supplies 
Hazel Jones, cloak room attendant 
Charles Kehoe, night watch 
Louise P. Kellogg, editorial assistant . 
William Keyes, saml .... 
Walter E. Kindschi, cloak room and elevator service 
[47 1 

909, in ac- 

$600 00 

16 30 

96 00 

600 00 

384 00 

262 60 

730 81 

558 16 

41 40 

31 40 

88 70 

1,013 15 

4 60 

600 00 

55 00 

52 81 

112 24 

86 40 

8 75 

24 00 

116 00 

6 50 

199 03 

48 13 

36 60 

2 55 

533 49 

900 00 

3 00 

460 00 

16 60 

516 78 

180 00 

360 00 

10 00 

93 23 

9 60 

12 87 

657 45 

14 40 

32 40 

85 55 

255 00 

450 00 

1 25 

203 54 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Kloin Brothers, painters' supplies 

Louise Leclerc, extra cleaner 

Kate Lewis, cataloguer .... 

Ceylon C. Lincoln, janitor and general mechanic 

Adolph Link, cloak room attendant 

Leo P. Link, elevator attendant 

A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, library supplies 

Flora McCranner, extra cleaner . 

Lucien McCulloch, cloak room attendant 

Madison Gas it Electric Co., supplies . 

Madison City Treasurer, water supply 

Madison Tent & Awning Co., repairs . 

Anna Mausbach, housemaid 

Mautz Brothers, painters' supplies and labor . 

Mary Morhoff, extra cleaner 

Carl Nelson, substitute janitor 

Gertrude Nelson, housemaid 

Magnus Nelson, janitor and general mechanic 

New York Store, cleaners' supplies 

R. J. Nickles, electric supplies . 

Northern Electric Manufacturing Co., repairs 

Annie A. Nunns, secretary to superintendent . 

Oppel's Fancy Grocery, cleaners' oil 

Otis Elevator Co., Chicago, supplies 

Eve Parkinson, newspaper room chief 

Piper Brothers, cleaners' supplies 

Remington Typewriter Co., Milwaukee, repairs 

Clara A. Richards, general assistant . 

Theo. B. Robertson Soap Co., Chicago, supplies 

Irving Robson, assistant janitor and general mechan 

Mildred Schuman. extra cleaner 

Elizabeth Schmelzer, housemaid 

A. A. Shillander. student assistant 

Sumner & Morris, supplies 

R. G. Thwaites, secretary and superintendent, offic 

bursoments and traveling expenses . 
William Tiernan, student assistant 
Asa C. Tilton, document and manuscript room chief 
Joseph Tyrrell, carpentry repairs 
Ellen L True, general assistant 
Nelia "Warnecko. housemaid 
Iva A. Welsh, catalogue room chief 
Wisconsin Free Library Commission, typewriter 
Wisconsin, Rejrents of University, balance on joint 

nance account .... 

Yawkey-Crowloy Lumber Co.. lumber 

al dis 

$20,051 56 


Secretary's Fiscal Report 

Orders €lra\v'n duriug fiscal year ending- June 30, 1909, in ac 
cordence with subsection 2, section 376, of statutes as amended by 
chapter 422, laws of 1909:^ 

R. G. Thwaites, secretary 

I. S. Bradley, librarian .... 

A. A. Nuuns, assistant librarian. 

$173 35 

$72 24 
57 78 
43 33 

Orders drawn during fiscal year ending- June 30, 1909, 
cordancewith section 3, chapter 533, Laws of 1907: 

W. F. Adams, Springfield, Mass., books 

M. Etta T. Allen, Chillicothe, Ohio, books . 

Americus Book Co., Americas, Ga., books 

American Historical Association, New York City, publications 

American Library Association. Boston, publications 

American Library Assoc. Pub. Board, Boston, catalogue cards 

C. C. Andrews, St. Paul, newspapers . 

Robert Appleton Co., New York City, books . 

P. W. Banning, Chicago, books 

W. W. Bartlett, Eau Claire, pictures 

H. K. Bassett, Madison, newspapers 

J. H. Betitou, Boston, Mass., book 

Bibliographical Soc. of America, Chicago, publications 

Harry M. Bigelow, LaCrosse, pictures . 

John W. Blackstone, Minneapolis, books 

Boston Book Company, books 

E. F. Browning, New York City, books. 

Burrows Brothers Co. , Cleveland, books 

A. W. Butler, Indianapolis, books 

JohnW. Cadby, Albany, N.Y., books . 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C, books 

Carswell Company, Ltd., Toronto, books 

C. N. Caspar Company, Milwaukee, books 

Champlain Society, Toronto, publications 

Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, books . 

H. C. Conrad, Wilmington, Del., book . 

C. F. Cooper & Co., Chicatro, book 

William A. Crozier, New York City, publications 

Louis Danziger. Chicago, books 

Dennison Mfg. Co., Chicago, book labels 

$40 40 
15 00 
15 CC 

3 00 

4 00 
10 S3 
41 98 

G 00 

5 00 
5 00 

10 00 
5 00 
3 00 

32 80 
5 00 

29 40 
7 20 
9 25 

3 00 
24 00 

4 00 
314 00 

71 95 

20 00 

115 20 

10 00 

22 00 

3 00 

3 46 

9 00 

'This chapter, which transferred the secretary, librarian, and assistant 
librarian from the state pay-roll to that of the Society, became elfective 
June 17, 1909. These expenditures represent the allowance to each 
of said otlicials under the new act. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

C. Derossi, New York City, book 

Dodd, Mead it Co., New York City, books 

W. F. Doolittle. Cleveland, books 

B. H. Dupuy, Lake City. Fla.. books . 

E. P. Dutton& Co., New York City, books 
Eg-ypt Exploration Fund, Boston, books 
Emery Record Preserving Co.. Taunton. Mass 
Julia A. p-lisch, Madison, book 

J. N. Fradenburgh, Oil City, Pa., book 
Genealogical Assoc, New York Citj% books 
TV. A. Gamwell, Providence, R. I., books 
Goshen College, Goshen. Ind., book 
Grafton Press, New York City, books . 
R. S. and R. L. Greenlee, Chicago, books 
M. I. J. Gritt'in, Philadelphia, book 
John Hart, Richmond, Va., books 

F. B. Hartranft, Hartford, Conn., book 
H. E. Hayden, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., books 
Mrs. Ida M. Hazen, Chicago, ne^vspapers . 
S. P. Heilman, Heilman Dale, Pa., book 
Stan V. Henkels, Pliiladelphia, books . 
Hennessey & Co., Delavan, maps 
Theordore W. Herr, Lancaster, Pa., book 
A. E. Himley, Crandon, maps . 
History Book Co., Minneapolis, books . 
W. W. Hixson iS: Co., Rockford, 111., maps 
noneymau's Publishing House, Plainfield. N. 
C. S. Hook, Staunton, Va., books 
Houghton MitTlin Co., Boston, books . 

H. R. HunltingCo., Springfield, Alass., books 

Iowa Publishing Co.. Davenport, Iowa, book 

Hall N. Jackson, Cincinnati. Ohio, books 

Jamestown Official Photo Corp., Norfolk, Va. 

Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, book 

Harry Johnson, Phillips, map . 

W. G. Johnston A: Co., Pittsburgh, books 

L. Lauterbach, Madison, map . 

W, G. Leland, Paris, France, maps 

Lewis Historical Pubhshing Co., New York C 

C. F. Libbie & Co., Boston, books 

Library Bureau, Chicago, book . 

Library of Congress, Washington. D. C, catal 

C. F. Liebeck, Chicago, book 

G. E. Littletield, Boston, books . 
William T. Lyle, Easton. Pa., book 
A. B. Lyons, Detroit, book 

J. P. McLean. Franklin, Ohio, book 
A. C. McClurg A: Co., Chicago, books . 

mounting m 



ty, books 

ue cards 


Secretary's Fiscal Report 

W. F. McMillan, St. Paul, book 

Albert W. Mann. Boston, book . 

Massachusetts Soc. of Mayflower Desc, Boston, book 

Massachusetts Magazine, Salem, Mass., periodical 

F. J. Meeker, Newark, X. J., books 

H. W. Meyer, Apnleton, map 

Meyer News Service Co., Milwaukee, clippings 

Military History Society of ^lass., Boston, book 

W. H. :Miller, Richmond, Ky., book 

Robert C. Moon, Philadelphia, Pa., books 

W. H. Moore, Brockport, N. Y., magazines 

N. F. Morrison, Elizabeth, X. J., books 

H. H. Morse. Tarry town, X. Y., book . 

Joel Munseirs Sons, Albany, X. Y., books 

F. 0. Xason, Hillsdale, Mich., book 

D. H. Xewhall. Xew York City, books 

E. C. Xeilson, iladison. photographs . 
S. N. D. Xurth, Washington D. C, books 
David F. Xye, Eiyria, Ohio, book 
George A. Ogle i*v: Co, Chicago, book . 
The Pandos Company, Chicago, periodicals 
D. L. l\assavant, Zelienople, Pa., books 
J. T. Patterson, Mauston, maps 
Pennsylvania-German Society, Lebanon, Pa., publicat 
J. J. I'iuney, Sturgeon Bay, map 
Publishers' Weekly. Xew York City, publications 
Publishing Society of Minnesota, St. Paul, books 
Rand, McXally & Co., Chicago, atlas . 

G. H. Randall, Oshkosh, atlas . 
P. B. Redfield, Bridgeport, Conn., books 
P. S. Reinsch, Madison, books . 
Reporter Printing Co., Fond du Lac, map 
S. X. Rhoads, Philadelphia, book 
Joel Ricks, Logan, Utah, book . 
H. E. liogers. La Crosse, newspapers . 
C. C. Satfell, Baltimore, books . 
Theo. Schulte. Xew York City, newspapers 
I. D. Seabrook, Charleston, S. C, books 
Edwin J. Sellers, Philadelphia, book . 
"W. C. Sharke, Seymour, Conn., book . 
Charles E. Slocum, Defiance, Ohio, book 
Snow it Farnham Co., Providence, R L, book 
Society of Mayflower Desc. in R. L, Providence, book 
Henry Sotheran it Co., London, England, books 
Southern Book E.^change, Raleigh, X. C, books 
SouthiTu Historical Society, Richmond, Va., books 
G. E. StechertA: Co., Xew York City, books 
George R. Stewart, Azusa. Cal., book . 
W. F. Stowe, Kingston, N. Y., book . 


6 00 

4 00 
3 00 
2 50 

12 21 

2 00 

25 20 

2 50 

5 00 
20 00 

343 10 
88 20 

3 00 
22 00 

3 25 
3 25 
17 00 

9 00 
5 00 
7 50 

10 00 
31 00 

7 00 
5 00 
5 00 
3 00 

15 00 

16 00 
5 00 

15 00 
499 05 

2 00 
21 00 

5 00 
14 00 
38 00 
50 00 
26 00 

3 00 
10 00 

7 00 

10 00 

2 50 

477 41 

55 88 

6 00 
582 21 

7 00 

4 oa 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

R. G. Thwaites, secretary and superintciulent, ofR 

bursements for books, charts, etc. 
Tice & Lynch, New York City, for B. J. Stevens & 

and Martinus Xijhotf, for books 
Torch Press, Cedar Rapids. Iowa, books 
C. W. Treat, Nashville, Tenn., books . 
George Wahr, Ann Arbor, Mich., book 
George A. Warren, Brighton, Mass., books 
Owen N. "Wilco.x, Cleveland, book 
H. W. Wilson Co., Minneapolis, books 
Lawrence Wilson, Washington, D. C, books 
Mrs. Lloyd Wyman. Painesville, Ohio, books 
C L. Van Xoppen. Greensboro, X. C, books 
R. H. Yale, Beatrice, Xebraska, books 

al di 

50 75 

16 86 

10 27 

67 00 

2 00 

5 00 

5 00 

18 50 

2 50 

5 00 

5 50 

4 70 



Gifts to Library 

Givers of Books and Pamphlets 

[Including Duplicates] 


Abel, Miss Annie H., Aberdeen, Wash. 
Academy of- Natural Sciences of Pliiladelpliia 
Adams, Charles F., Boston .... 
Adams, Francis K., Punta Gorda, Florida . . 
Adams Nervine Asylum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Adriaans, JobnH., Washington, D. C. . 
Akron (O.) Superintendent of Schools 
Alabama Archives and History Dept. , Montgomery 

Inspector of Jails, Montgomery . 
Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition, Seattle, Wash 

U. S. Exhibit 

Albany (N. Y.) Board of Education . 

Charities Commission 

Allen, John K., Chicago 

American Anti-Boycott Association, New York . 

Anti- Vivisection Society, Philadelphia . 

Beet Sugar Company, New York . 

Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 

Bureau of Industrial Research, Madison 

Chamber of Commerce, Paris 

Civic Association, Philadelphia 

Federatiim of Labor. Washington, D. C. . 

.Jewish Historical Society. New York . 

Philosophical Society, Pliiladelpliia 

Protective Tariff League, New York . 

School for the Deaf, Hartford, Conn. 

Telegraph and Telephone Company, Boston 

Unitarian Association, Boston 
Andrews, Byron,* Evansville .... 
Andrews, Frank D., Vineland, N. J. 
Angell, G. 11. vV- Co., IMadison .... 
Angell, James B., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Anti-Imperialist League, Boston .... 
Arizona. Board (^f Control, Plioonix . 

Board of E'lualization, Phoenix . 

Superintendent of I'ulilic Instruction, Phoenix 

Territorial Auditor, Phoenix 

Territorial Library, Phoenix 




*Also unbound serials. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 




Arkansas, Governor. Little Rock .... 


Historical Association, Fayettoville 


Insurance Commission. Little Rock 

. . 


Secretary of State, Little Rock .... 


Association for International Conciliation, American 

Branch, New York 


Association for the Preservation of Vir;?inia Antiqui- 

ties, Richmond 


Atlantic Deeper Watervi-ays Association, Philadelphia 



Aurora (111.), Superintendent of Sc-hools . 


Australia Bureau of Census and Statistics, Melbourne 


Government, Melbourne 



Government Statistician, Melbourne. . . . 



Patents Department, Melbourne .... 

• • 

Bacon, WilHam Plumb, New Britain, Conn. 

Baer, U. S., Madison 

Baird, Henry Carey, Philadelphia .... 

Balch, W. L., Boston 

Ballard, Esek S.. Boston 


Baltimore, Board of School Commissioners 

Baltimore i*c Ohio Railroad Co., Baltimore 

Bangor (Me.), Superintendent of Schools . 

Bangor iV- Aroostock Railroad Co.. Bangor 

Barclay, :Miss C. B., Cazenovia, X. Y. . 

. . 

Barron County Shield 

Bascom, Robert 0., Fort Edward, N. Y. 

Bayfield County, Board of Supervisors, Wasliburn . 

Beach, William H., Seneca Falls, N. Y. . 

Belgium, Academie Royale d'Arch^ologie, Brussels . 

. . 

Bennett, A. A., Jefferson, Me. .... 

Berlin, Evening Journal 


Friends in Council 

. . 

Bixby, William K., St. Louis 

Blair, Miss Emma H., :Madison 

Blakely, Mrs. Fannie E., Kingston, N. Y. 

Bliss, Eugene F., Worcester, Mass. 

. . 

Bosbyshell, O. C, Philadelphia .... 

Boston. Associated Charities 

. . 

Athenaeum . . . ' 


Children's Institutions Department 

. . 

City Auditor 

City Messenger 

City Registry Department 

Congregational Library 

Home for Aged Men 

Industrial Aid Soc. for Prevention of Pauperism 

. . 

Metropolitan Park Commission .... 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board 

North End ^fission 

. . 

Port A: Seamen's Aid Society .... 

Public Library 



Schoor Committee 



Gifts to Library 



Boston, Statistics Dopartmout 

Transit Commission 

Bostonian Society 

Bostn'im. Paul. Madison 
Bowditch, Charles P., Boston . 
Bowdoin Coll<',c:e, New Brunswick, Me. 

Libraxw, New Brunswick, Me. . 
Breed, William C, New York . 
Brennan, J. P.. I'oterboro, N. H. 
Bridgewater (Mass.) Publishing Company 
British Columbia, Bureau of Provincial Informr 
Victoria .... 

Minister of Mines, Victoria . 
Brittingham, Thomas E., Madison 
Brookline(Mass. ) Public Library 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Pu])lic Library 
Broun, Thomas L., Charleston, W. 
Brown, Charles E., Madison 
Brown County Board of Supervisors, Green Bay 
Brown University, Providence, R. I. 
Bryan, William Jennings,* Lincoln, Nebr. 
Buffalo, Chaml)er of Commerce . 
, City Comptroller 

Historical Society 

Public Library 

Buffalo County, Board of Supervisors, Alma 

Bunker Hill ^[onument Association, Boston 

Burke, Laurence C, Madison .. 

Burlington (la.) Free Public Lilu'ary 

Burnett County, Board of Supervisors, Grantsburg 

Burnham, J. H., Bloomington, 111. 

Burton, Clarence M., Detroit 

Burton, John E., Milwaukee .... 

Cabell, .Tames Branch, Richmond, Va. 
Calhoun (Ala.) Colored School .... 
California, Adjutant General, Sacramento 

Building and Loan Commission, San Francisco 

Charities and Corrections Board, Sacramento 

Controller, Sacramento ..... 

Institution f<ir rhe Deaf and the Blind, Berkeley 

Railroad Commission. San Francisco . 

State Board of K<iualiz:ition, Sacramento . 

State Library, Sacramento .... 

Treasurer, Sacramento ..... 

University, Berkeley 

Calumet County, Board of Supervisors, Chilton 
Cambridge (.\rass.) Historical Society 

Superintendent of Schools .... 
Canada, Geological Survey, Ottawa . 

King's Printer, Ottawa .... 



*Also unbound serial: 


Wisconsin Historical Society 




Canada, Labour Department, Ottawa 
Library of Parliament, Ottawa . 
Patent Office, Ottawa .... 
Canadian Institute, Toronto 
Carnegie Library, Allegheny, Pa. 

Bradford, Pa 

Nashville, Tenn [ 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Carnegie-Stout Free Public Library, Dubuque, 
Gary, Seth C, Boston .... 
Case Library, Cleveland. 0. . . , 
Catlin, Miss Lucia E., Elizabeth, N. J. . 
Cedar Rapids (La.) Public Library . 
Champlain Society, Toronto 
Charleston (S. C.) Mayor .... 
Chautauqua Society of History and Natural Scie 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Chicago, Board of Local Improvements 

Buildings Department .... 

City Attorney 

Civil Service Commission 

General Superintendent of Police . 

Health Department .... 

Historical Society 

House of Correction .... 

Public Library 

Sanitary District 

Statistics Bureau and Municipal Library 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Co., C 
Chippewa County, Board of Supervisors, Chipt 


Cincinnati (0.), Chamber of Commerce . 

City Auditor 

Museum Association .... 

Public Library 

Clairmont, A. de, Toledo, 

Clark, Arthur H., Cleveland .... 
Clark, Mrs. Darwin,* Madison .... 
Clark County, Board of Supervisors. Neillsville 
Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton, Mass. 
Cleveland (0.), Associated Charities . 

Public Library 

Water Department ..... 
Colorado, Auditor, Denver 

Civil Service Commission, Denver 

Equalization Board, Denver 

Game and Fish Commission, Denver . 

Governor. Denver 

Labor Statistics Bureau, Denver . 

School for the Deaf and the Blind, Co 

Ea. ! 






























'Also unbound serials. 


Gifts to Library 



Colorado, State Agricultural College, Ft. Collins 

State Bank Commission, Denver . 

State Board of Capitol Managers, Denver . 

State Board of Land Commissioners, Denver 

State Board of Child and Animal Protection, 

State Bureau of Mines, Denver . 

State Engineer, Denver .... 

State Historical and Natural History Society 

State Inspector of Coal Mines, Denver 

State Library, Denver 

State Reformatory, Buena Vista . 

State Treasurer, Denver .... 

Superintendent of Pu])lic Instruction, Denver 

University, Boulder 

Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, Denver. 
Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C. 
Columbia University, New York 
Columbia County, Board of Supervisors, Portage 
Columbus (Ga.), Superintendent of Schools 
Commons, .John R., Madison .... 
Concordia College. Milwaukee .... 
Confederated Historical Association, INIemphis, Tenn 
Congregational Church Building Society, New York 
Connecticut, Charities Board, Hartford . 

Historical Society, Hartford .... 

Industrial School for Girls, Middletown 

Legislature, Hartford 

Railroad Commission, Hartford . , , . 

State Library, Hartford 

Conover, Mrs. S. F., Madison 

Cook County (111.), Board of Commissioners, Chicago 

Cooper, H. A. , Washington, D. C 

Copeland, E. B., Z^Ionroe 

Copeland, Elijah, Chariton. la 

Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Council Bluffs fla.). Free Public Library . 
Covert, Mrs. Jennie M., Clinton . '. . . 

Coyne, James H., St. Thomas, Ont. 

Crane & Company, Topeka, Kans 

Crawford County, Board of Supervisors, Prairie du 


Crucible Steel Company of America, Jersey City, N. J. 

Curry, J. Seymour, Evanston, 111. . 

Curtis, George, Madison 

Dane County, Board of Supervisors, Madison 
Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Verona 
Daniels, Joseph F., Ft. Collins. Colo. 
Dante Society, Cambridge, Mass. 
Darling, .Jasper T., Chicago 
Daughters of the Revoluton, General Society 


Wisconsin Historical Society 


Daveuport (la.), Public Library- 
Davidson, J. N., Green Lake 
Davis, Andrew McFarlnnd, Cambridge, Mass. 
Davis, N. Darnell, Barbadoes, West Indies 
Dayton (O.), City Auditor .... 
Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington . 
Democratic National Committee, Chicago ' 
Denver, Juvenile Court 

Public Library 
Depew, Chauncey ^r.. New York 
Des Moines (la.). Mayor . 

Public Library 
Detroit (^lich.). Public Library 

Public Lighting Commission 
Deutsche Gesellschaft von r^Iilwaukee 
Deutsche Pionier-Vereins von Philadelphia 
Dinkelspiel, Hart & Davey, New Orleans 
Distillers Securities Corporation, Jersey City, N. J 
District of Columbia, Charities Board 


Public Library ... 
Doane, Alfred A., FJverett, Mass. 
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, New York 
Door County, Board of Supervisors, Sturgeon Bay 
Douglas County. Board of Supervisors, Superior 
Dover (Mass.) Historical Society 
Dover (N. H.), Public Library . 
Drew Theological Seminary Library, Madison, N. J 
Drexel Institute, Philadelphia . 
Dunn County, Board of Supervisors, Menomonie 
Durrett, lleubenT., Louisville, Ky. 
Dutton, Joseph, Kalawao, Molokai, Hawaii 

Eau Claire Public Library .... 
Eau Claire County, Board of Supervisors. Eau C 

Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Eau Clai 
Edwards, Richard H., Madison . 
Ely, Richard T., Madison .... 
Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore 
Erie (Pa.), City Treasurer. 
Esch, John J., La Crosse .... 
Essex Institute, Salem. Mass. . 
Estabrook, C. E., Milwaukee . 
Evans, Nelson W., Portsmouth, O. . 
Evanston (111.), Historical Society 

Public Library 

Fairchild, Mrs. Lucius, Madison 
Fairmount Park Art Association, Philadelphia 
Fall River CNfass.), City ("lerk . 
Fitchliurg (Mass.), Ilisbn-ical Society 

Public Library 

Fitzpatrick. T. J,, Iowa City, la. . 
Fond du Lac County, Superintendent of Schools 
[58 1 



Gifts to Library 


Foote Family Association of America, Middlobury, Vt. 
Forbes Library, Northampton. Mass. 
Fort Wayne (Ind.), Board of Public Wort 
Foster, Miss Mary S.." Madison 
Fowle, John A., Dorchester . Mass. . 
Frame, Andrew J., Waukesha . 
Frankenburirer. Mrs. D. B.," Madison 
Freemasons, Lodge of St. Andrew. Boston 

Order of En stern Star, Wisconsin Grand Chapter 


Frisque, Joseph, Green Bay 

Fuchs, Albert F., Loyal .... 

Galbreath, .Charles B., Columbus, O. 

Garfield, Charles W.. Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Gary, Frank B.. Washington, D. C, 

Gavet, William F., Danvers, r^Lass. . 

Gay, Julius, Farminetou, Conn. 

Georgetown University. Washington . 

Gernon, Miss Ella,* Madison 

Gibbs, Oliver, Melbourne Beach, Fla. 

Gilnian. William C, Norwich. Conn. 

Gold, Howard R., Madison 

Goodwin. Henry D., Milwaukee 

Go win, E. B.. Beloit ... 

Grand Army of the Republic. Wisconsin Department 

Woman's Relief Corps. Madison . 
Grand Rapids (Mich.), Public Library . 

Superintendent of Schools . 
Grant Countv, Board of Supervisors, Lancaster 

Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Lancaster 
Gratiot, Charles C.,*t Shullsburg . 

Groat Britain, Patent Oflice 

Greeley (Colo.), W. T. K. Club 

Green, James. Worcester. :Mass. 

Green, Samuel A., Boston .... 

Green. Samuel S.. Worcester. ^Lass. • . 

Green County, Board of Supervisors. Monroe 

Greensboro (N. C.K Free Public Library. 

Gregory, Charles NoV)le, Iowa City. la. . 

Gwynne Temporary Home for Children, Boston 

HamburiT-Amencan S. S. Line, Now York 
Harries, William II., Cale-lonia, Minn. . 
Harrisburg iPa.i, Superintendent of Schools 
Hart, Charlrs Henry, Philadelphia . 
Hartford iConn.i, Public Library 

Wati'r T)<partment .... 

Haverhill (Mass.), City Clerk . 










. . 



















. 1 





















•■Also unbound serial> 
[•Also maps. 

[ r.o 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 



Haverhill, Public Library .... 
Hawaii, Historical Society, Honolulu 

Promotion Committee. Honolulu 

Treasurer of Territory, Honolulu 
Hays, James A.,* Tacoma, ^\'asl^. . 
Hazzard, George H., St. Paul, Minn. 
Hicks, John, Santiago, Chili . 
Hillsboro I'ublic Library .... 
Hinman, Abner, Oswego, N. Y. 
Hispanic Society of America, New York . 
Hollister, A. H.,* Madison 
Holyoke (Mass.), City Clerk 
Hooper, ;Moses, Oshkosh . . . . 
Houdlette, Miss Edith L., Melrose Highland; 
Howard Benevolent Society, Boston 
Howard Memorial Library, New Orleans . 
Howe, Archibald ^I., Cambridge, Mass. . 
Howe, Daniel Wait, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Hudson, Thomas J., Madison '. 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New Y'ork 
Huguenot Society of South Carolina, Charleston 
Hunnewell, .Tames F., Boston .... 
Hyde Park (Mass.), Historical Society 

Idaho, Bureau of Immigration, Labor, and Statistic 


lies, George, New York 

Illinois, Auditor of Public Accounts, Springfield 

Charities Board, Springfield 

Labor Sfc)tistics Bureau. Springfield . 

State Historical Library, Springfield . 
Illinois Association Opposed to the Extension of Suf- 
frage to Women, Chicago .... 
Illinois Central Railroad Co., Chicago 
Immigration Restriction League, Boston . 
Imprimerie Frauco-Americaine, New Orleans . 
Indian Rights Association, Philadelphia . 
Indiana, Board of Stite Charities, Indianapolis 

Labor Commission, Indianapolis . . 

School for the Blind, Indianapolis 

State Board of Health, Indianapolis . 

State Library, Indianapolis .... 
IndiaTia Boys' School, Plaintield .... 
Institute Canadieu-Francais, Ottawa 
International Bureau of American Republics, Washin 


Iowa, Auditor of State, Des :\[oines . 

Historical Departmont, Des Moines . 

Masoni(' Library, Cedar Rapids . 

Railroad ('onnnissi<m, Des Moines 

Secretary of State, Des Moines . 

State Historical Society, Iowa City 

*Also unbound serials 


Gifts to Library 




Iowa County, Board of Supervisors, Dodgeville 

Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Dodgeville . 
Irwin, Miss , Radclifife College, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. Herman Bosler Memorial Library, Carlisle, Pa. 
James, D. G. , Richland Center .... 

Janesville Public Library 

Japan, Bureau de la Statistique G^n^ralo, Tokyo 

Jastrow, Joseph, Madison 

Jefiferson County, Board of Supervisors, Jefferson 

Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Jefferson 
Jeffris, Malcom G., Janesville .... 
Jersey City (N. J.), Free Public Library. 

Superintendent of Schools .... 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York 
John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I. 
John Crerar Library, Chicago . . . . 
John F. Slater Fund, New York 
John Lane Company,* New York 
Johns Hopkins Univ.^rsity, Baltimore 
Johnson, C. T., Walla Walla, Wash. 
Johnson, R. W., Philadelphia .... 

Jones, BurrW., Madison 

Joplin (Mo.), Commercial Club .... 

Judson College, Marion, Ala 

Jimeau County, Board of Supervisors, Mauston 

Kansas, Public Instruction Department, Topeka 

State Historical Society, Topeka . 
Kansas City (Mo.), Board of Education . 

City Comptroller ' 

Kellogg, Miss Louise P.,* Madison . 
Kendrick, Mrs. A. H., Delavan 
Kennan, K. K., Milwaukee .... 
Kenosha County, Board of Supervisors, Kenosha 

Kerr, Alexander, Madison 

Keyes, J. H.,* Madison 

Kiesel, Fred, Ogden, Utah 

Klmberley, E. O.. .Janesville .... 
Koreshan TJnity, Washington, D. C. 
Kremers, Edward,* Madison .... 
Kniszka, X. W., Ripon 

La Crosse, Superintendent of Schools 

La Crosse County. Superintendent of Insane Asylum 

West Salem 

La Follette, Robert M.. Madison 
Lake Carriers' Association. Cleveland. O. 
Lake Mohonk Conference, Mohonk Lake. N. Y. 
Lake Superior Mining Institute. Ishpeming, Mich. 
Lambert, William H., Philadelphia . 

•Also unbound serials. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 




Langlade County, Board of Supervisors, Antigo 
Lapham, Charles, Milwaukee 
Larkin, William H., La Porte, Ind. . 
Laval University, Quebec . 
Lawrence (Mass.), City Clerk . 


Leader, W. J., Superior 

Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co'., Philadelphi 

Leonard, B. A., De Fere . 

Leonard, E. E., De Fere . 

Lewis Institute, Chicago 

Liebech, C. F., Chicago 

Lindsay, Crawford, Quebec 

Lindsay Family Association of America, Roslindalo 


Litchfield County (Conn.), University Club 

Livingston County Historical Society, Geneseo, N. 

Lloyd, H. D., Estate of , Winnetka, 111. 

Lohman, Arthur H., [Milwaukee 

Lorenz, ]\I. O., Madison . 

Los Angeles, Civil Service Commission 

Public Lil>rary .... 
Loubat, Due de, Paris, France . 
Louisiana, Historical Society, Ncav Orleans 

State University, Baton Rouge . 
Lowell (Mass.), Board of Health 
Lynn (Mass.). Public Library . 

Superintendent of Schools 

Macalester College. St. Paul 
McBride, W., Sparta .... 
McKinley Memorial, Philadelphia 
McMillan. Hamilton, Kaleigh, N. C. . 
:kIcPike, Eueeue F.. Chicago 
Madison, City Clerk .... 

City Library 

First Church of Christ Scientist . 

General Hospital Association 

Health Officer .... 

Park and Pleasure Drive Association 

Superintendent of Schools 

Water Department 
Maffet, George West. Lawrence. Kans. 
Maine, Fifth Maine Ilogiinent Memorial Association 

Historical Society, Portland . 

Industrial and Labor Statistics Bureau, August 

School for Boys. So\ith Portland 

State Historian. Soldiers' Home . 

State Library. Augusta . 
Manchester (X. ID. Ilistorle Association 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Manitoba Department of Public Worlcs, Winnipe;L 

King's Printer, Winnipeg .... 

[ 62 ] • 

Gifts to Library 



Manitowoc, Public Library 
Manitowoc County, Superintendent of 


Superintendent of County Asylum. :Manitowoc 
Mapel, John J., Milwaukee .... 

Marathon County. Board of Supervisors, Wausau 
Marinette County, Board of Supervisors, Marinette 

Superintendent of Schools. Peshtigo . 
Marquette County, Board of Supervisors, Montello 
Maryland, Historiral Society, Baltimore . 

Statistics & Information Bureau. Baltimore 
Mason, Mrs. E. C.,* Madison .... 
Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com 
pany, Boston 

Auditor, Boston 

Bank Commissioner. Boston . . . . 

Board of Education. Boston 

Board of Health, Boston .... 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Boston 

Civil Service Commission. Boston 

Gas and Electric Li^ht Commissioners, Boston 

Highway Commission. Boston 

Historical Society, Boston .... 

Insurance Department. Boston 

Railroad Commissioners, Boston . 

Secretary of the Commonwealth. Boston 

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 

State Board of Charities, Boston 
Matthews, Miss ILirriet L., Lynn, Mass. 
Medford (Mass.), Superintendent of Schools . 

Meek, Basil, Fremont. O 

Merrell, Edward H.. Ripon .... 
Merrick. George B., :N[adison .... 
Methodist Episcopal Church Board of Foreign Mis 
sions. New York 

"Woman's Home Missionary Society. Cincinnati 
Mexico, Direccion General de Estadistica, Mexico 


Michigan, Dairy and Food Department, Lansing 

Industrial School for Boys, Lansing . 

Labor Bureau, Lansing . ' . . . • 

School for the Blind. Lansing ... 

School for the Deaf, Flint .... 

State Library. Lansing . . . . , 

State Public School. Coldwater . . . , 

State Reformatory, Ionia . . . . - 

Tax Commission. Lansing .... 

Treasurer. Lansing ...... 

Midland vV: South ^^■t•stern Junction Railway Co., Lon 
don, England 

Also unbound serials. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 




U. S. 


Military Order Loyal Leirioii of the 
mandery in Chief. Philadelphia . 

California Commandery. San Francisco 

Kansas Commandery, Fort Loavonworth 

Missouri Commandery. St. Louis 

Ohio Commandery. Columbus 

Pennsylvania Commandery. Philadelphia 

Wisconsin Commandery. Milwaukee . 
Miller, Paul G., Madison .... 
Mills, Miss Genevieve. Madison . 
Milton (Mass.l. Historical Society 
Milwaukee, Chamber of Commerce . 

City Service Commissioners . 

Deutscher Press Club .... 

Fire Departmont 

Hospital for the Insane 

Public ?iluseum 

Superintendent of Schools 
Milwaukee County, Board of Supervisors . 
Milwaukee Directory Company . 
Miner, H. A.. :\radison .... 
Minneapolis. Public Library 

Superi:itendent of Public Schools . 
Minnesota, Auditor. St. Paul 

Forestry Commission, St. Paul . 

Historical Society. St. Paul . 

Insurance Department. St. Paul . 

Labor Bureau, St. Paul 

Railroad and Warehouse Commission, Minneapolis 

School for Feeblo-Minded. Faribault 

Tax Commission. St. Paul . 

TJniversitv, Minneapolis 
Mishoff, Mrs. I. D.. Milwaukee 
Mississippi, Archives it History Department, Jackson 
Mississippi Vallev Historical Association, Lincoln, 


Missouri. Auditor, Jefferson City 

Industrial Home for Girls. Chlllicothe . 

Insurance Department. St. Louis . 

School for the Deaf .... 

University, Columbia .... 
Mobile it Ohio Ilailn^ad Co.. Mobile. Ala. 
Monroe County. Boanl of Supervisors, Sparta 

Superintendent of Insane .Vsylum. Sparta 
Montana, State Normal Collcije, Dillon 
Montreal (Canada I. City .... 
Moore. F. W.. Nashville. Tenn. 
Morris. Mrs. W. A. P..* Ma<lis..n . 
Morrison. M. L., Potcrlioroush, N. II. . 
Mowry, DonE.. Madison .... 
Mowry, Duane, Milwaukee 

Also unbound serials 


Gifts to Library 


Munk, J. A., Los Angclos . 
Munro, Daua C, Madison . 
Murray, Miss Louise W., Athens, Pa. 
Myers, Mrs. Peter, Bedford, O. 


Nantucket (^lass.). Historical Association 
Nash, T. E., Grand Piapids 
Nashville (Tenu.), Mayor . ' . 


National Business League of America, Chicago 

Carbon Company, Cleveland . 

Educational Association, Winona, ^Nlinn. 

Irrigation Congress, Sacramento, Cal. 
League fi>r the Protection of the Family. 

dale, Mass. 

Municipal League, Philadelphia . .. . . 

New Education League, INIilwaukee . 

Women's Christian Temperance Union, Evans- 
ton, 111 

Nebraska, Labor and Industrial Statistics Bureau, 
Lincoln ........ 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, Lincoln . 

Nelson, John M., Madison 

Nevada, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Carson 

University, Reno 

New Bedford CNIass.), Free Public Library 
New Brnnswick, Historical Society, St. .Tohn . 
New Hampshire, Charities and Corrections Board, 

Insurance Commission, Concord . . . . 

Public Instruction Department. Concord 

Railroad Commission. Concord . . . . 
New Haven (Conn.), City Comptroller 

Orphan Asylum 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven . 

New Jersey, Banking and Insurance I)(>partment, 

Trenton ........ 

Children's Guardians Board, Jersey City . 

Comptroller, Trenton 

Labor Departmenr, Trenton . . . . 

Public Roads Comniission, Trentou 

State Board of Assessors, Trenton 

State Normal School, Trenton . . . . 

Statistics Bureau, Trenton 

Treasurer, Trenton 

New Mexico, Engineer, Santa Fe . . . . 

New Orleans. City Comptroller 

New South Wales, (ioveriinient, Sydney . 

Government Board for International Exchanges, 

Labour Bureau, Sydney 

Registrar General, Sydney 




Wisconsin Historical Society 




New York City, City Accounts Commission 


Art Commission . .... 

Charity Organization Society .... 


City Comptroller 



City Kecord 


Colored Mission 



Health Department 



Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf- 



Legal Aid Society 


Licenses Commissioner 




Mercantile Library 


Municipal Civil Service Commission 


Municipal Research Bureau 


Parks Department 


President Borough of Richmond . . ' 


Provident Loan Society 


Public Charities Department .... 


Public Library 



Public Service Commission 

Reform Club 


St. Mary's Free Hospital for Children . 


Society for the Prevention i>f Cruelty to Children 


Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delin- 



Society for the Suppression of Vice 


Visiting Committee 


Taxes and Assessments Department . 


University Settlement Sor-iety .... 



New York State, Agricultural and Industrial School, 




Banking Department 


Chamber of Commerce. New York 


Historical Society. New York .... 


Insurance Department, Albany .... 

Public Service Commission. New York 


State Board of Charities. Albany .... 

State Board of Tax Commissioners, Albany 

State Civil Service Commission, Albany 

State Education Department. Albany . 

State Engineer & Surveyor. Albany 

State Health Department, Albany 

State Historian, Albany 


State Hospital for Crippled and Deformed Chil- 

dren, West Haverstraw 

State Institution for the Blind, New York 

State Labor I>epartnu'nt, .-Vlbany 


State Library, Albany 



State Prison Commission, Albany 

State Reformatory, lOlmira 

. . 

Water Supply Commission < Albany 


New York A: .Superior Investment Company, Superior 


Gifts to Library 

New York Catholic Protectory. New York 
New Zealand. Government, Wollincrton 

Labour Department, Wellington . 

Registrar-General. Wellington 
Newark (X. J.), Board of Education 

Free Public Library 

Newberry Library, Chicago .... 

Newspapers and Periodicals Peceived from Publisher 
Newton (^Mass.), Superintendent of Schools 
Niagara (Ont.). FTistorical Society 
Norfolk (Va.), Public Library .... 
Norfolk & Western Railway Co., Philadelphia . 
North Adams (Mass.) Public Library 
North American Company, Newark, N. J. 
North Carolina. Historical Commission, Raleigh 

Treasurer, Raleigh 

University, Chapel Hill .... 

North Central History Teachers' Association, Chicago 
North Dakota, Historical Society, Bismarck 

Insurance Commissioner, Bismarck 

State Examiner, Bismarck .... 

State Land Deparrment, Bismarck 

State Treasurer. Bismarck .... 
Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 
Northwestern University, Watertown 
Nova Scotia, Historical Society, Halifax . 

Public Works and Mines Department, Halifax 
Noyes, Charles P., St. Paul ... 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphi 

Oakley, Miss Mary, Madison 

Oakley, ?tliss Minnie M., Seattle, Wash 

Oberlin (O.) College .... 

Ocnnomowoc, Fortnightly Club . 

Odd Fellows. Independent Order of. Grand Lodge of 

Wisconsin. Milwaukee 
Ohio, Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster 

Auditor, Columbus 

Girls" Industrial Home, Rathljone 

Inspection of Workshops, Factories and Publi 
Buildings Department, Columbus 

Labor Statistics Bureau. Columbus 

Library Association, Cleveland 

Secretary of State, Columl)Us 

Stiito Library, Columbus 

State School Commission, Columbus 

Sfcite School for the Blind, Columbus 
Oklahiuna, Auditor , (Juthrie 

Corporation Commission, Guthrie 

Historical Society,* Oklahoma City 

Insurance Commissioner. Guthrie 


Also unbound serials. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 




Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton. Mass. . 
Oneida County, Boai-d of SuiT^rvisors, Ithiuelander 
Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. 
Ontario, Agricultural Department, Toronto 

Historical Society, Toronto . 
Oregon, Conservation Commission, Portland 

Treasury Department, Salem 
Osborne, RockM-ell E., La Crosse . 
O'Sheridan, Miss Mary Grant, Chicago 
Overmann, Dee S., Washington, D. C. 
Outagamie County, Board of Supervisors, Appleton 

Superintendent of County Asylum. Appleton 
Ozaukee County, Board of Supervisors, Port Wash 

Paine, Nathaniel, Worcester, Mass. . . . 

Pammel, L. H. , Ames, la. 

Parker, E. J., Quincy, 111. 

Parkinson, John B.,* Madison . 

Passavant, D. C, Zelienople, Pa. . 

Paterson (N. J.) Free Public Library 

Patrick. Lewis S., Washington, D. C. 

Patten, E. B., Minneapolis 

Paxton, Jolm G., Indept-ndence, Mo. 

Payne, William M. ... . • 

Peabody CMass.), Historical Society . 

Peabody Institute, Baltimore 

Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 

Ci'.mbridge, Mass 

Pearce, Charles C, Dodgeville . 
Pease, Verne S. , Baraboo . ' . 
Peck, Mrs. Ellen, Milwaukee 
Pennsylvania. Institution for the Instruction of the 
Blind. Philadelphia .... 

Prison Society, Philadelphia 

State Library. Ilarrisburg . . 

University. Philadelphia 

Water Commission. Reading 
Pennsylvania Soci<>ty, New York 
Peoria (111.) Public Library 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the 

Blind. Boston 

Perry, William W.. Milwaukee . 
Pfizeniuaycr, I'aul. New Y<n-k . 
Philadelphia. Board of Education 

Board of Trade 

Children's Country Week Association . 

City Comptroller 

Fre<^ Library 

Library Company 

Maritime Exchange .... 


Also unbound serial? 


Gifts to Library 


Philadelphia. Public Works Department 
Philippine Islanrls, Customs Bureau, :Manila 

Forestry Bureau, Mauila 

Health Bureau, Manila 

Weather Bureau, Manila 
Pinney. S. I'.. Estate of, Madison . 
Pittsburgh. City Comptroller 

Coal Company 

Plainfield /X. J.), Superintendent of Schools 
Polk, R. L. & Co.. Chicago 
Portland (Me.), City Messenger 
Portland (Ore.). City Auditor 

Superintendent of Schools 
Pratt Institute Free Library, Brooklyn . 
Presbyterian Church, Board of Foreign Mi 
New York. , 

College Board. New York . 

General Assembly, Philadelphia . 
Price County. Board of Supervisors, Phillips 
Prien, H. F., Middlcton .... 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Diocese of Albany 

Diocese of Connecticut .... 

Diocese of Harrislmrg .... 

Diocese of Louisiana .... 

Diocese of Milwaukee .... 

Dior-ese of Western Michigan 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Societv 


Providence (R. I.) Athenaeum . 

Butler Hospital 

City Cl?rk 

Overseer of the Poor .... 

Publi<^ Lilu-ary 

School Department .... 

N. Y 

Quebec. King's Printer 

Queensborouu'h Public Library. .Lamaica, 

Queensland, Governmeut, Brisbane . 

Racine Pu))lic Library 

Racine County. Board of Supervisors. Racine 
Superintendent of Insano Asylum, Racine 

Ranger. W. E.. Providence, R. I. . 

Reading (Pa.K Water Department . 

Reinsch. Paul S.. Madison .... 

Repnl)lican National Committee, New 

Rcser. Alva O.. La Fayc^tre. Tn(L 

Reynolds Family Association. Roslyn, 

Reynolds Library, Rochester, N. Y. 

Rhode Island. Charities & Corrections 


Factory Inspector, Providence 
Industrial Statistics Bureau, Providence 
Public Schools Commission, Providence 











Wisconsin Historical Society 




Rice, Charles B., Boston 

Richland County, Board of Supervisors, Richland Cen- 

Robb, J. H., Southampton, N. Y 

Roblier, W. A., Coloma 

Rood, Hosea W., Madison 

Rudloff, Mrs. Elizabeth, Milwaukee .... 

Sage, Mrs. Russell. New York 

St. Croix County, Board of Supervisors, Hudson 

Superintendent of Countv Asylum, New Richmond 
St. Joseph's Hospital.* Chicago .... 
St. Louis, City Register 

Mercantile Library Association . . . . 

Merchants' Exchange 

Public Library 

Superintendent of Schools 

St. Paul, Associated Charities 

Public Library 

Salem (INIass.), Pul)lic Library 

Salt Lake City, Citizens . ' 


San Francisco, Board of Supervisors .... 

Public Library 

Sanborn, A. L., Madison 

Sargent, .John S., Chicago 

Saskatchewan, Agricultural Department, Regina . 

Government Printer, Regina . ' . 

Provincial Secretary, Rrgina . . . . 
Sauk County, Board of Supervisors, Baraboo . 
Sawyer, Mrs. Harriet P., Madison .... 

Schafer, Joseph, Eugene, Ore 

Schenectady, (X. Y.), General Electric Company 

Scott, W. A.,* Madison 

Scranton (Pa.), Public Library 

Seattle, City Comptroller 

Seely, G. H., Menomonie 

Sellery, G. C, Madis.m 

Seneca Falls (N. Y.), Historical Society . 

Sewell, Miss H., Stoughton 

Seymour, Miss Yernie,* >radison .... 
Sheboygan County, Board of Supervisors, Sheboygan 
Sheldon, AnnaR., M(Mnoria! Fund, Madison 

Sheldon, George. Dccrficld, ^Llss 

Sheldon. Miss Georgiana,* Madison .... 

Shepardson, F. W., Chicago 

Showerman, Grant. Madison 

Simplified Sp<-!Iing Board, New York .... 

Sivyer, Charles M.. Milwaukee 

Smith, Frank, Dover. .Mass 

Smith, Howard,* iLidison 



. 142 

; : 1 



• ; 





















*Also unbound serials 


Gifts to Library 



Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
Socinl-Democmtic Party, Wisconsin Central Commit 

tee, ?Jilwaukoe 

Socialist National Committee, Chicago 
Societe des Americianistcs de Paris . 
Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland 

of Colonial Wars, District of Columbia 

of Mayflower Descendants in the State of Rhode 
Island, Providence 

of the Army of the Potomac. Brooklyn 
Somerville (Mass.), City Clerk .... 

Sons of the American Revolution, Wisconsin Society 
Milwaukee ....... 

Sons of the Revolution, Michigan Society, Holland 

Pennsylvania Society, Germantown 
South Australia, Government Printer, Adelaide 

Government Statist, Adelaide 
South Carolina. Historical Commission, Columbia 

State Treasurer, Columbia .... 
South Dakota, Auditor. Pierre .... 

Insurance Commissioner, Pierre . 

State Engineer, Pierre.. .... 

Treasurer, Pierre ...... 

Sparling, Samuel E., Madison .... 

Spaulding. Perley, Washingou, D. C. 

Spencer, Miss Katherino. :\Iadison 

Spencer, Robert G., Milwaukee .... 

Spencer, William H., New York 
Spokane (Wash.). City Comijtroller .< 
Sprague, A. B. R. , Worcester, Mass. . . 
Springfield CMass.), Superintendent of Schools 

Starr, Frederick, Chicago 

Steadwell, B. S., La Crosse .... 
Stephenson, Isaac, Marinette .... 
Stephenson Public Library, Marinette 
Stevens, John F., New Haven, Conn. 
Stevens, Walter B., St. Louis .... 
Stimson. Juhu W., La Porte, Ind. . 
Stockwell, C. S., Neillsville .... 

Stone, T. D., Green Lake 

Stout, .1. H., Menomonie 

Streissguth-Petran Engraving Company, Milwaukee 

Suite. Beniamin. Quebec 

Superior, City Clerk 

Sweden Kungl. Universitets i Uppsala Bibliotek 
Swedish-American Historical Suciety Library, Evan 

ton, 111 ' . 

Syracuse, (N. Y.) Public Lilirary ... 

Tandy, Francis D.. New York .... 
Tanner, PI. B.,* Kaukauna . . . . 

*Also unbound serials. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 




Tasmania, Government Railways Office, E 
Tennessee University, Sewanee . 
Terrell, Edwin H., San Antonio, Tex. 
Thomas, A. A.. Dayton, 0. 
Thomas, George C, Philadelphia 
Thomas. Leander, Shell Lake 
Thomas, William H., Mont?:omery, Ala. 
Thomas S. Clarkson Memorial School of ' 

Potsdam, N. Y 

Thompson, Slason, Chicago 
Thwaites, R. G., Madison 
Tilton, Asa C. , Madison 
Toledo (0.), Mayor .... 
Public Library .... 
Topsfield (Mass.), Congregational Church 
Toronto, Public Library 
Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congres 

Creek, Colo 

Trempealeau Countv, Superintendent of C 

lum, Whitehall .... 
Trenton (N. J.K Free Public Library 
Trinity College Historical Society, Durham 
Troy (N. y.). Mayor 
True, Miss Ellen I.. Madison . 
Turner, F. J., Madison 
Tyrrell, Henry F., MDwaukee . 

United Brewers' Association. Xew York 
United Fruit Company, Boston . 
United States, Agricultural Department 

Census Bureau .... 

Civil Service Commission 

Coast and Geodetic Survey . 

Commi'rco and Labor Depf^rtment 

Commissioner of Corporations 

Comptroller of the Currency 

Education Bureau .... 

Ethnology Bureau .... 

Equipment Bureau . . . . 

Forest Service 

General Laud Office . . . . 

Geological Survey . . . . 

Immigration and Naturalization Bureau 

Indian Commissiitn . . . . 

Insular Affairs Bureau 

Interior Department . . . . 

Interstate ConimcTce Commission . . 

Isthmian Canal Commission . 

Library of Coni::rcss . . . . 

Light Hi. use Board . . . . 

Manufactures Bureau . . . . 

Mint Bureau 


3, Cripple 
ounty Asy- 

', N. b. '. 


















Gifts to Library 



United States, Patent Office 

Pensions Bureau 

Public Heath & Marine Hospital Service 

Reclamation Service 

State Department 

Superintendent of Documents 

Treasury Department 

Weather Bureau 

Madison Station 

United States Catholic Historical Society, New Yorli 
United States Fleet at Sydney, N. S. W. . 
Universal Craftsmen Council of Engineers, New York 
University of the Pacific, San Jose, Cal. . 
Uruguay Direccion General de Estadistica, Monte 

video . 

Usher, Ellis B., Milwaukee . . . . , 
Utah Agriculural CoUec^e, Logan . . . , 
Utica (N. Y.), Mayor 

Public Library 

Van Bergh, ]Mrs. Lucy J., Madison ... 
Van Hise, Charles R., Madison .... 
Van Slyke, N. B., Madison .... 
Vassar Brothers Institute, Poughkeepsie. N. Y. 
Vermont, Adjutant General, Montpelier . 

Auditor, Rutland 

Historical Society, Montpelier 

Insurance Commission, Montpelier 
State Library, Montpelier . . . 

Treasurer, Montpelier 

Victoria, Government Statistician, Melbourne . 
Vilas, Charles, Milwaukee ..... 
Vilas, Mrs. William F., Madison 
Vineland (N. J.), Historical and Antiquarian Society 
Virginia, Labor Statistics Bureau, Richmond . 

State Library, Richmond .... 

University, Charlottesville .... 

Waldo, Mrs. D. F., Manitowoc 

Waltham (Mass.), City Clerk .... 

Walworth County, Board of Supervisors, Elkhorn 

Washington, Insurance Department. Olympia . 
Railroad Commission, Olympia 
State Library, Olympia .... 
University, Seattle 

Washington (D. C), University Club 

Washington County, Board of Supervisors, West 

Waterbury (Conn.). Superintendent of Schools 

Waupaca County, Board of Supervisors. Waupaca 

Waushara County, Board of Supervisors, Wautom; 

Wayland Academy, Beaver Dam 

Weisse, Charles H., Sheboygan Falls 
[73 1 




Wisconsin Historica! Society 




Welsh, Miss Iva A.* Madison 


Welton, Mrs. C. B.,* Madisou 



West Virginia, Archives and History Department, 

CharlGstowu ........ 



Western Australia, Government, Perth 


Eegistrar-General, Perth 


Superintendent of the Census, Perth . 


Wheeler, Giles, Concord, Mass 


Whitaker, Miss Bessie L., RocIj Hill, S. C. . 


Whitaker, George, Soraerville. Mass. 


White, Miss Rhoda M., Madison . . . . 


Whiton, James M., New York 


Whitsitt, William H., Richmond, Va. 


Wight. William W.,* Milwaukee . . . . 


Williams, Talcot, Philadelphia 


Wilmington (Del.), Institute Free Library 


ilayor : . . 


Superintendent of Schools 


Winchell, Newton H., St. Paul 


Wing, George W., Kewaunee 


Winnebago County. Board of Supervisors. Oshkosh 


Wisconsin, Agricultural Experiment Station 


Banking Department 



Buttermakers' Association 


Conservation Commission 


Dairymen's Association, Ft. Atkinson 


Executive Office 


Farmers' Institute Office . . . . ■ . 


Fisheries Commission 

. , 


Free Library Commission* 



History Commission 


Home for Feeble Minded, Chippewa Falls . 



Industrial School for Girls, Milwaukee 


Insurance Departmr>nt 


Labor Statistics Bureau 



Legislative Refen-nce Library .... 



Northern Hospital for the Insane, Winnebago . 



Railroad Commission . . . 



School for the Deaf, Delavan .... 


Secretary of State .... . . 





State Board of Agriculture . . . . . 



State Board of Forestry 


State Board of Health 



State Cranberry (irowers' Association, Cranmoor 


State Horticultural Society 



State Library 



Stite Normal School. Milwaukee .... 



River Falls 


Stevens Point 





*Also unbound serials. 

Gifts to Library 

Wisconsin, State Norinal School, Whitewater . 

State Prison, Waiipun 

State Reformatory, Green Bay- 
State Supervisor of Inspectors of Illuminatin 

Oils, Milwaukee 

State Treasurer 

Superintendent of Public Instruction . 


Washburn Observatory .... 
Veterans' Home, AVaupaca .... 
Waterways Commission .... 

Workshop for the Blind. Milwaukee . 

Wisconsin Bankers' Association, Milwaukee 

Fifth Wis. Vol. Inf. Association, Chicago . 

State Federation of Labor, Milwaukee 

State Federation of Women's Clubs, Kaukauna 

State Firemen's Association, Jefferson 

Tenth Wis. Inf. Hoc:. Association, New Lisbon 

Third Wis. Vet. Inf. Association, Janesville 

Thirty-second Wis. Reg. Survivors' Association 

Fond du Lac 

Twenty-eighth Wis. Vol. Inf. Society, Milwau 

Witberspoon Memorial Association, Washington 
D. C 

Woburn (Mass.), City Clerk .... 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Madison 

Woman's Presbyterian Board of Missions of 
Northwest, Chicago 

Wood, :Miss Frances A., Poughkeepsic, N. Y. 

Woodruff. Francis E., New York 

Worcester (Alass.), Free Public Library . 

Superintendent of Schools .... 

Worcester County (Mass.), Law Library, Worcester 

Wright, A. O., Estate of . Madison ... 

Wright, Arthur J., ^^ilwaukee .... 

Wright & Potter Printing Co., Boston 

Wiirtcmbcr-isclieu Kommis.sion fiir Landcsgoschichte 

Wyman, W. H., Omaha, Nobr. ... 

Wyoming, Treasurer, Cheyenne .... 

Wyoming (Pa.), Commemorative Association, Wilkes 


Historical & Geological Society, Wilkes-Barre 

Tale University, New Haven, Conn. . 

Yonkers (N. Y.), Mayor 

Yorkshire (England), Parish Register Society . 
Young INIen's Christian Association of Wisconsin 


Yukon Territory (Canada), King's Printer, Dawson 



Wisconsin Historical Society 

Accessions of MSS., Maps, Etc. 

(Gifts, save where otherwise specitiod. The report covers the year 
ending September 30, 1909.) 



C. W. Ah-ord, Urbana, m — Transcript of journal of proceedings of 
Maj. Robert Rogers's council Mitli the Indians at Mackinac, May 28 to 
July 23, 1767. (Original in possession of American Antiquarian Society.) 
American Bureau of Industrial liesearch, .l^«/i*««.— Convention proceed- 
ings of Associated Brotherhood of Iron and Steel Heaters, July, 1874. 
Correspondence of John Samuel, E. W. Boniis, and others. Scrap-book of 
Fred Long. Records, correspondence, etc., of Sutlrago Association, 
Union Co-operative Printing Company, Sovereigns of Industry, Interna- 
tional Workingmen's Association. Anarchist Club, Co-operative Shoe 
Manufacturing Association and International Debating Club, all of Phila- 

Charles R. Boardman, Oshkosh.— A collection of papers of Nathaniel P. 
Tallmadge, U. S. senator from Xew York (1833-44) and governor of Wis - 
consin Territory (1S44-4G), consisting of clippings, drafts of bills, speeches, 
and public letters, correspondence with Henry Clay, James D. Doty, Hor- 
ace Greeley, William Henry Harrison, Andrew Jackson, William II. 
Seward, Martin Van Buren. Thurlow Weed, and others. Also two auto- 
graph letters of William Floyd of New York, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. The general inclusive dates of the collection are 1830 to 

Louis W. Bridgcman, iVdcfj'.von.— Manuscript of autobiographical sketch 
by Gov. William R. Taylor — unsigned but vouched for by donor. 

W. F. Brown and R. J. O. Strong, Bdoit — Private record of marriages 
and deaths, kept by Rev. Dexter Clary, first pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional Church of Beloit (1840-50), deposited by Dr. Brown with the con- 
sent of Dr. Strong, a grandson of Mr. Clary. 

Buffalo (A'. Y.) IIi.-< Society — :Ms. copy-book of official letters, 
written by H. W. Gunnison, superintendent of the new custom house at 
Milwaukee, June 3, 18j(i, to February 18, ISj'). 

Miss Lucia E. Catlin, Elizabeth, X. ,/._ Papers of JohnCatlin, secretary 
and acting governor of Wisconsin Territory. They include documents re- 

'^'^ ^^4U^:!i5- /^ ^ 

^ <= -^, 





Fa(.-imii.k (H Lkiim: i;v Ri;ai; Ai>\iii:ai. CirAui.' s Wii.kks, ('. S. X. 

Fa( -imii.k (H Lkiii i: i;v liKAi; ai>\iii:ai. (. i[aui.' s \\ ii.wi-.s, i . a. .> 

WritttMi by him to Cideoii Wulles. S.^iPtaiy oi tho Xavy. after the 

capture of the Tieiit 

./^^-'---- : ^^^_ .-_ ^- 


'^^<:. ^. 






''S-_-.-*^ ^i-^ 


^^ - 






Miscellaneous Accessions 

lating to tho atlairs of that portion of tho territory not included in the 
present state, and to the organization of Minnesota territory, letters of 
Gov. Henry Dodge and others, deeds of land in Madison and elsewhere, 
and several early maps of Wisconsin. General inclusive dates. 1S3G to 

Arthur II . Clark Company, Cleveland. — Letter describing American Fur 
Company documents in their possession. 

Mrs. Sarah F. Cunover, Madison. — -Letters of Mrs. Timothy O. Howe, 
Horace Rublee, and others. 

Mrs. Oeorr/e Willis Cooke, Wakefield, Mass. — Letter of William Berry, 
member of the first constitutional convention from Walworth county, to 
his granddaughter, dated November 15, 1S46. It contains a description of 
Madison at that time. 

Herbert A. Baubner, Madison. — (Deposit.) Capital Base Ball Club 
record book. 

Ira B. Button {Brother Joseph Button), Kalaicao, Molokai, Hawaiian 

Islands Manuscript material relating to the life of this missionary to the 

leper colony. 

W. H. Gunther, Sheboygan. — Report and recommendations relative to 
Sheboygan harbor, by Col. T. J. Cram, U. S. Engineers, 1804. 

Miss Kate Kavanaugh, Washington, B.C. — Ms. Latin Bible, written in 
Spain in the middle ages, presented in the name of the late Peter Kava- 
naugh of Madison. Exact age of Ms. is not known. A few leaves are mis- 

Francis B. Kecne, Milwaukee. — Bundle of tho papers of Rear Admiral 
Charles Wilkes, U. S. Navy, willed to donor by Mary L. Wilkes, daughter 
of Admiral Wilkes. They consist chiefly of papers (1801-45) of Capt. 
William B. Finch (afterwards William C. Bolton), U. S. Navy, including 
reports of his visit to the Hawaiian Islands in lS'2t). Tho most noteworthy 
Ms. relating to Admiral Wilkes is the draft of the letter which ho wrote 
to the secretary of the navy after the capture of the Trent, but before he 
decided to release her. 

E. W. Keyes, Madison. — Roster of AVisconsin territorial pioneers who 
attended the exercises in commemoration of tho admission of Wisconsin 
to the Union in 1S48, held at Madison, June 7-9, 1898. 

M. II. Laird, Prairie du Sac. — (Deposit.) Tho records of the presbytery 
of Wisconsin River, September, 1S81— May, 1902. 

Mrs. Ermina Leonard, Be Pere. — Seven music books used by the mis- 
sionaries to the Indians at La Pointe and Mackinac from 1830-40. 

Peter Lochen, West Bend. — MS. account of Washington County asylum. 

M. E. Mcintosh, Milwaukee. — Suite's MS. notes on Langlade, given by 
Suite to the donor. 

O. A. Marshall, Barlington. — MS. map of Pekatonica, accompanied by 
explanatory letter. 

Buane M<>irry, Milwaukee. — Several letters and documents from the 
papers of Senator J. R. Doolittle. 

Mrs. Anna li. Sheldon Estate, Madison Autograph of Sir Seymour 


[ 77 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

I. N. Stticart, Apphton. — MS. of paper entitled, "Our roads and road 
districts in pioneer days." 

Oeorgc W. Stoner, Madison. — Deeds of land in Madison to John Stoner, 
1839 and 1841. 

H. B. Tanner, Kaitkauna. — Letters, documents, advertising material, 
etc., of the Rio Tamasopo sugar company, Mexico, 190:}-0S. 

John E. Thomas, Sheboygan Falls. — Letter, dated June 20, 1S84, from 
David Giddings, membi>r of first constitutional convention (1846), to 
J. H. Denison, of Sheboygan Falls, giving account of his first visit to that 
place in 1845. 

University of Wisconsin Library f James J. Hill liailway Collection), Madi- 
son. — Thirteen letter-books (1845-90) of John McRae, a railroad and busi- 
ness man of Camden, S. C. They contain much information on general 
economic and social conditions, as well as on railroads. 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission, Madison. — Reports of free transportation 
by railroads, June, 1905 — February, 1900. 

A. 0. Wright Estate, Madison. — Letters and circulars relating to the 
Congregational Church in Wisconsin. 


Gifts of maps have been made by the following: 

Athenaeum library, Boston (1); Burrows Brothers Company, Cleveland 
(2); Canada, Interior Department, Ottawa (3); Chicago, Bureau of Statis- 
tics (1); Chicago, Milwaukee it St. Paul Railway (2); Mrs. Sarah F. Con- 
over, Madison (1); Ducliac it Co.. Antigo (1); First National Bank, Port- 
age (1); Edward M. Griffith. Madison (2); Fred Ilayssen, Antigo (2); John 
B. Iloim, Madison (1); Frank H. Hodder, Topeka. Kans. (1); Idaho, 
Bureau of Immigration, Labor, and Statistics (1); E. E. Leonard, De Pere 
(15); Madison Art Association (1); New York, state engineer (1); Quincy, 
111., Chamber of Commerce (1); Frank Richardson (1); G. F. Sanborn Co., 
Ashland (3); Anna R. Sheldon Memorial Committee (7); Hon. Isaac Steph- 
enson, Marinette (1); Stewart and Mathews Co., St. Paul (1); A. C. Tilton, 
Madison (G); F. J. Turner, :\ladison (1); W. D. Tyler, Ilurloy (1); U. S., 
"War Department (2); 1). 11. Vaughun, Rhinelander (3); Wisconsin Timber 
and Land Company, Mattoou (1). 

Illustrative Material 
[Photographs, engravings, broadsides, etc.] 
Two important additions have been made during the jear: 
Photographs of Mississippi River steamboats, numberii^g 104, purchased 
from Harry M. Bigelow, of La Crosse. 

A complete set of photoirraphs of Union generals in the War of the Re- 
bellion, reproduced from original photoi^raphs and engravings, numbering 
585, was presented by Solwyu A. Brant of Madison. 

Smaller but much appreciated gifts were received from the following: 
C. H. E. Boughton. Chicago (1); Edward S. Curtis, New York (2); 
Mrs. L. Deacon, Racine (1); Mrs. J. S. Dunham, De Pere (1); Col. Reuben 

Miscellaneous Accessions 

T. Durrett, Louisville (1); Ira B. Duttoa (Brother Joseph Dutton), Kala- 
wao, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands (40); Miss Mary S. Foster, Madison (8); 
Misses Julia A. and Mary J. Lapham. Oconomowoc (1); W. S. Marshall, 
Madison (1); Duane Mowry, Milwaukee (7); Xewton 11. Parvin, Cedar 
Rapids, la. (8); Anna R. Sheldon .Memorial Committee (1); T. I). Stono 
Green Lake (5); H. B. Tanner, Kaukauna (50); Reuben G. Thwaites, 
Madison (40); J. B. Winslow, Madison (1). 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Museum Accessions 

(Gifts, save where otherwise specified. The report covers the year end- 
ing September 30, 1909.) 


(Purchase) Medici series of colored reproductions of works of tlie old 
masters, made by the most modern photographic methods, seventeen 

James D. Foley, La Crosse. — Oil portrait of the late lion. Peter Doyle, 
secretary of state, from 1874 to ISTS. 

Mrs. Kate P. Yonng, Clinton, loira.— Oil portrait of her father, the late 
Hon. George H. Paul, postmaster of Milwaukee and regent of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

W. R. Taylor, Madison.— Oil portrait of Ex-Governor William R. 
Taylor (1874-75). 


N. G. Abbott, Uarrisbury, S. Dak. — Grooved stone hammer. 

American Mu.seum oi Xafural Jli.^tory, Xitr York. — (Exchange) Collec- 
tion of archieological materials from an Indian village site on the Fox 
farm at May's Lick, Mason County, Ky. 

E. P. Arpin, Grand Ilapids. — Stone boat-weight, net-weights, and 
grooved club-head from the vicinity of Vancouver, Wash. 

Artkttr II. Badger, Madi-ion. — (Deposit) Bow, ten spears, boomerang, 
club, bark girdle, tapa cloth irarmenl, and other native articles from 
Queensland, and the South Sea Islands. 

Brancel & Ilouy, Miliraukte. — (Purchase) Three pairs of Eskimo 
children's and toy boots and a miniature model of a Dakota Indian 

Charle-i E. Bmirn, Madisan. — Two stone celts, Madison; flint arrow- 
point, Aztalan; flint arrowpuint, Tippah County, Miss.; ciiarred acorns 
from an Indian provision caclio on County House Hill, Manitowoc 
Rapids; hammerstono and Hint blanks from an Indian village site at 
Melar-sh Creek, Mauitowuc ("uunty; Hint arrowpoints, blanks, hammer- 

[ 80 ] 



t : iL^- 





t^tt^s^^'i^Mftiil M 


Found on east shore of Crreen Bay by John P. Schu- 
macher, and now exhibited in Kellogg Public 
Library, Green Bay 

Miscellaneous Accessions 

stones, potsherds, and other materials from sites near Red Banks and Big 
Suamico, Brown County: tlint implements, rejects, and other articles from 
various lower "Wisconsin River and other sites; cherry-baric and rasp- 
berry medicine, bark ties, and wooden peijs from Winnebago camp (1909) 
in the "Big Woods," Lake Wingra; Chippewa animal-dice game, Lac du 
Flambeau; cast of fluted stone axe found at Lowell, Dodge County. 

Mi»s Emma II. Blair, Madison. — Chippewa sweet grass basket, from 
Mackinac Island: Peyote medicine, used in Nebraska Winnebago "Union 
Church" ceremonies; mescal bean. 

T. D. Blair, Xeenah. — Blue hornstone nodule from an aboriginal site in 
section 21, Menasha township. Winnebago County. 

Mrs. Charles L. Catlin, MiUrnukee Sleeping mat made of strips of 

pandanus palm, by natives of Rurutu, Austral Group. 

Mrs. Sa7nucl B. Coicdery, Barahoo. — (Deposit) Two Eskimo ivory dolls 
and ivory animal-shaped amulet, Alaska. 

J. M. Cooky, Fennimore. — (Deposit) Iron Indian trade axe. 

Newell Dodge Madi-fon. — (Purchase) Fragments of a pottery vessel from 
Picnic Point, Lake Mendota. 

Rev. Leopold E. Drexel, St. Francis. — (Exchange) Clay, bronze, and 
amber ornaments from an Etruscan necropolis in'Etruria, Italy. 

J. H. Du Bose. Elberton, Ga. — (Purchase) Series of small stone disks, 
stone and shell beads, bone ornament, antler point and pottery pipes, all 
from the Rembert mound, on Savannah River, Ga. 

East Wisconsin Trustee Co., Manitowoc. — (Purchase) Indian crania from 
Two Rivers village sites; John Quincy Adams Indian medal (1825); 
grooved stone axes, Menominee; beaded garter and necklace, Arapaho 
paint pouches; Dakota shirt and saddle; Alaska Indian necklace and 
dance bag. 

W. H. Ell.ncorth, Milwaukee. — Collection of quartz and quartzite arrow 
and spearpoints. blanks, spalls, and chips from Indian workshop sites in 
Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, all in the vicinity of 

W. P. Erans, Omaha, Xebr.— G-.ifi used in cocktighting in Philippine 

Hoy Foss, Ofonomoicoc. — Collection of flint arrowpoints, blanks, and re- 
jects from Indian village sites near Oconomowoc. 

Morris F. For, Madi.'<on. — Stone gorget from Trumbull County, Ohio. 

Joseph Fri.'ffjue, Green Bay. — Stone celt, hammerstoue, flint arrow- 
points, blanks, chips and fragments, and clay trade pipes from the site of 
an early Menominee Indian village, at Big Suamico. 

C. V. Fuller, Grand Ledge, Mich. — Cast of binlstone amulet found on 
the bank of Grand River, section 28. Eagle Township, Mich. 

Albert Gilmore. Madi.'<on. — (Deposit) Pair of AVinnebago moccasins, 
catlinite pipe, and tlint arrowpoints from Arcadia; Hint arrowpoints, per- 
forators and blanks, and stone celt from village site at Borchor's Beach, 
Lake Mendota. 

Matthew Gratz, Madison. — (Purciiase) Flint arrowpoints, blanks, and 
rejects from Picnic Point, Lake Mendota. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Antoine Grirjnon, Trempealeau.— QdiXYimiQ pipe found al Trempealeau', 
Indian tobacco, and facsimile of Indian shot-maker. 

H. P. Hamilton, Tico Rivers. — Collection of potsherds from ruins at 
Athens and Mycena"; Cheyenne saddle-bag, and Winnebajro woven pouch. 

S. G. Ilask-ins, Pticnukte. — Arrowpoint made from piece of bottle glass. 

Mrs. James A. Hays, 2'acoma, Wash. — Obsidian arrow and spearpoints. 

Harcey Ildbing. Vancouver, llax/^— Bone flaker and awis, flint scraper, 
and arrow (jewel) points. 

H. V. Herd, Mgdi-ion. — Series of flint arrow and spearpoints, perfora- 
tors, knives, blanks, and rejects from an Indian village site in section 30. 
Blooming Grove Township, Dane County. 

W. B. Hinsdale, Ann ^4?-Z»or.— (Purchase) Collection of Seneca Indian 
materials from the Cattaraugus Reservation, New York, including a wooden 
and a cornhusk mask and turtle-shell rattle of the Falselace Society; bark 
rattle, carved wooden spoons and a hominy basket. Collection of the follow- 
ing Chippewa specimens from Canada: woven bags, wooden ladles, carved 
wooden spoons, sap bucket, sap trough, fish basket, and wooden bowl. 

Mrs. J. W. Ho'jan, LaCrosse. — (Deposit) Pueblo olla; stone beads, figu- 
rine, and mask, and copper crescent from the ruins of ilitla, Mexico; 
gourd hats and rattle of the hill tribes, and carved and inlaid money box 
from San Juan do Uloa, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Mrs. Carrie Bain Uoyt. Kenosha. — Collection of sixty Indian baskets from 
California. Mexico, and the Northwest Coast: model of Ilupa wicker 
cradle; Dakota saddle-bag and awl case; Menominee beadwork belt; string 
of Indian shell beads from California, and other articles. 

Miss Josephine L. Hastis, MiUcaukee. — (Deposit) Birdstone amulet found 
at Hustisford. 

Charles T. Jtfiry, Kenosha.— QoWectwn of twelve casts of bone and ivory 
carvings and implements froni the caves of the Madelainien epoch, Dor- 
dogno A'alley, France. 

Arthur Knight, Rodney, 0«.^.— (Purchase) Slate gorgets, and flint arrow 
and spear-points. 

Sister Lillian, S. H. X., 0/i >;■'/</.— (Purchase) Oneida Indian cornhusk 
doll and woven splint baskets. 

W.E.Leonard, J/af//.v<>/i.— (Deposit) Animal bones, flint-flake, and 
pottery fragments from a cave habitation at Felsburg, Ober Bayorn, Ger- 

Jjouis Lotz, .Vi7(fa«A-tv.— ^Iodel constructed by himself, of theCliiT Palace, 
a celebrated clitf-dwelling built in a natural recess in the wall of Walnut 
Canyon, in the Mesa Verde, a tableland in the extreme southwestern cor- 
ner of Colorado. 

Logan Museum, 5fA^iV. — (Exchange) Stone net-weights from the Kla- 
math Indians, Oregon; Bushman mortar and pestle, and stone spear- 
weight, from South Africa: tripod bowls from graves in the province of 
Chiriqui, Central America; potsherds from mounds at Shimosa, Japan. 

Mrs. John B. Mann, Woodruf. — Chippewa beadwork loom, bread-sticks, 
winnowing tray, tobacco pouch, or idle, tobacco drying rack, pin-and-bone 
game, trade axe, wild-rice beating sticks, hooks, and fork, and other ar- 



Miscellaneous Accessions 

Laicrence Martin. Madi-^on.— iDepoait) Paddle, bow, spear, throwing 
stick, mackerel club, canoe model, halibut hook, mask, arrows, wooden 
spoons, necklace, baskets, water-proof shirt, sealskin boots, and other 
native articles from Cold Bay, Yakutat, and other Alaskan localties. 

W. J. Martin, Lion, Juins. — {Exchange) Flint arrow and spearpoints, 
scrapers, and knives; hammerstones, whetstones, nut stone, polisher, 
potsherds, and other specimens from an Indian village site on the Big 
Walnut River, in Butler County, Kaiis. 

William Mc Con nt II, M< idi mm. —FVmt arrow points from Delaware Coun- 
ty, Ind. (Purchase) Cherokeebutfalohornand jet jewelry, Indian Territory. 

Horace McElroy, Jantsrille.— DdkotVL horn spoon and three sheet-copper 
arrow peints from Carcajou Point, Lake Koshkonong. 

Paul G. Miller, Madison. — (Deposit) Clay heads and fragments of pot- 
tery vessels, stone celts, chisel, and ceremonial hammer from ancient In- 
dian graves and sites in Porto Rico. 

Mm. EllaV. Milliken, Siou.r City, /o»^ra.— Child's bead ornament. Rosebud 
Reservation, S. Dak. (Exchange) Disk-shaped shell beads from Petaluma, 
and porcelain trade beads from an Indian burial place at Durham, Cali- 

J. R. Xisdey, Mansftdd, Ohio. — Silver brooches from grave of an Ot- 
tawa Indian child, Huron County, Mich. (Purchase) Grooved stone axe, 
plummet, bar amulet, sinker, gorgets, bone whistle, and shell disk ob- 
tained from aboriginal sites in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. 

William O'Brien, Madison. — (Purchase) Flint perforator, arrowpoints, 
and blanks from an Indian village site on the Gorham place. Lake Win- 

Miss Mary Alicia Owen, St. Joxeph, J/i.^— Five Musquawkie (Fox) In- 
dian garters, and beadwork necklace from the. Tama Reservation, Iowa. 

Gustav Pab.-<t, Milicaukee. — Ogalala lance, shield, horn spoon, pemmi- 
can, and medicine from the Pine Ridge Reservation, S. Dak. 

Mrs. Charlts A. Paschke, Milicaukee.— Pith, shell and seed necklaces, 
shell wreaths, dance wand, hat, skirt, tapa garment, cocoanut canteen, 
bark rope, fans, mats, rolls of hat braid, and other materials obtained from 
the natives of Tahiti, Raiatea, Rurutu, Tahaa, Tonga, and the Society 

O. L. Plahn, -Roodhouse, 111. — Grooved stone axe, celts, flint disks, ar- 
row and spear points, rejects, and Hakes. 

Albtrt liabe, Chicago. — Stone tube and six slate gorgets, Ohio; catlinite 
gorget, Tennessee; arrowshaft smoother, Arizona. 

James B. Reynolds, Madi-wn. — Dugout canoe formerly in use by a Win- 
nebago Indian on Lake WintTa. 

Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., Mihcaukee. — Pottery vessel from an Indian burial 
place at Prairie du Roche, 111. 

Thomas R. Roddy, Black Rirer F./?^.— (Purchase) Collection of Wis- 
consin and Nebraska Winnebago Indian materials, inclu<ling liead-dress, 
hair roll, breecli cloth, necklaces, moccasins, belt, garters, and other 
articles of dress and adornment; pipe, whip, shield, lance, bow, club, 
tomahawk, knife, whetstone, drum, scalp-lock, bags, pouches, mortar, 

[83 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

food bowl, ladle. pot-han,?er, matting, dance rattles, games, cradle, and 
other articles employed by the tribe; Dakota jrirdle, armlets, leggings, 
bridle moccasins, and baby carrier; Crow friendship bag and Navajo 
/ Mrs. Cyrus W. Rom, -YarZe'.w/i.— Birchbark, quill-ornamented recep- 
tacle purchased by her father from a Huron Indian at Detroit, in 18<.i5. 

J. S. Tripp, Itobinson, J/it7i.— (Purchase) Slate gorget from Jonesboro, 
Craighead County, Ark. 

Paul A. Seifert, Gotham. — Stone colt, flint arrowpoints, scrapers, per- 
forator, and blanks, pieces of galena, and musket balls from Indian village' 
site at Richland City. 

Frank Shepard, Kilbourn — Copper arrowpoint, and series of flint and 
quartzite arrow and spearpoints from Indian village site near Coon Bluff, 
Dellona township, Sauk county. 

H. L. Skaclem, Janesnlle — Collection of archiuological materials from 
an aboriginal village site on Carcajou (Lee's) Point. LakeKoshkonong, in- 
cluding stone pipes, celts, pendants, flint arrow and spearpoints, and 
scrapers, guuflints, trade metal pendants, arrowpoints and saw, iron knife, 
sawed pieces of catlinite, glass beads, and many other articles. 

J. W. Skinner, Milwaukee. — Series of ten slate bannerstones from aborig- 
inal sites in Ohio. 

Mrs. James S. Smith, J/a^/wort.— (Deposit) Five Tlingit, Choctaw, and 
other Indian baskets. 

Miss Mary E. Stewart, Milwaitkec. — Flint implements from near White 
Bluff, Tenn. 

K H. Stiles, Gotham.— Iron trade axe and glass trade beads from an- 
Indian village site at Richland City. 

A. B. Stout, Madison.— lliimmav^tonQ, flint blanks, and potsherds from 
the Indian village sites at Two Rivers; flint arrowpoint from the Fuller 
shore. Lake Mendota; study collections of Hint chips and fragments from 
West Point. Lake :Mendota. and from La Valle, Sauk County.^ 

(Deposit) collection of archreologioal materials from sites in the Missouri 
River region, in North Dakota, including bone awls, hoes, tlakers, and 
beads; potsherds, grooved pebble sinkers, hammcrstones, whetstones, 
scrapers, and other articles. 

G. D. Telfer, Ft. Atkinson.— ImWnn crania and bones from a mound at 
Fort Atkinson. 

Walter Tillman, La C/w.*<?. — Pottery fragments and specimens of chert, 
jasper, and chalcedony from La Crusse County. 

Orriii Thomp.ton, Xienah. — Stone gorget from a burial mound at Dorn's 
Landing, Calumet County. 

Reuben G. Thwaites, Madison — Pair of child's shoos from Patterdale, 
Westmoreland. Kngland. 

Mr^. Ueubeu G. Thwaites, Madi.s»n. — Choctaw Indian basket from Indian 

Unicemity of U7.vro«.«Vi.— (Deposit) Series of five Eskimo crania col- 
lected in the Kikkerton Island.s, Gulf of Cumberland, by Ludwig Kumlein, 
member of the Howgato Expedition, in July, ISTS. Casts of crania of 

f 84 1 

Miscellaneous Accessions 

Neanderthal man (interior), Pithecanthropus erectus, Eskimo, Laplander, 
Bojesman woman, Swede (aboriginal), Negress (Sierra Leone), and Ilus- 
sian (Muscovite). 

TT'. W. Warner, Madison. — "Winnebago silver earnings, ring, cross, and 
other jewelry, ribbonwork breech cloth and skirt, lacrosse stick and pot- 
hooks, Kiowa toy baby carrier, Brule fan and dancing bustle. 

George A., Mibcaukce. — Ilhyolite arrowpoints and blanks from 
Blue Bill Bay, Lake Puckaway. 

Wiscon-'iin Archivolorjiral Society, Milwaukee. — Collections of stone im- 
plements, potsherds, and other materials from Indian village sites at 
Richland City, Okee, and the Fox River, in Green Lake County. 

Mrs. E. C. Wi.-<iraU. Madison. -^Cla.m shells from aboriginal shell heaps 
on Indian River, Florida, catlinite from the Indian quarries at Pipestone, 
Minn., shells employed by natives in the making of necklaces, in Samoa. 

J. M. Wulfing, St. Louis, J/'o.— (Exchange) flint spade from St. 
Genevieve Couutv, Mo. 


E. A. Armstronrj Manvfncturing Compamj, Chicago. — Collection of sev- 
enty examples of shoulder-straps and chevrons in use at the present time 
by officers and non-commissioned ollicers of the United Slates Army and 
National Guard. 

E. P. Arpin, Grand liapids.— JetTorson Davis Confederate States presi- 
dential ballot. 

G. A. Hading, Mihcaukee. — Old-style Light Horse Squadron full-dress 

Francis Bannerman, Xew York. — (Purchase) U. S. War of Secession 
hat, cap, blouse, trousers and haversack, and Mexican "War shako. 

August IT. Bengs, Mihcaukee.— {T>(}^os\X.) Full dress helmet and coat, 
and boots and spurs worn by him as provost-sergeant of 7th U. S. Cavalry. 

Mrs. William J. Bigrlo>r, Frceport, III (Deposit) Homespun blanket 

made in lSo5 by Mrs. Caroline ilcAllistcr Schotield, mother of Gen. John 
M. Sc'nofield, U. S. A. 

Miss Emma II. Blair, Madison. — Bronze medal of American Library Asso- 
ciation, meeting at "Waukesha, 1901; aluminum "\"\'orld's Fair medal, Chi- 
cago, 1S9:1 

Mrs. Lucy B. Blair, Xeenah. — Tuscan braid bonnet worn by herself on 
her arrival in "Wisconsin in 1850. 

T. D. Blair, Xeenah. — Military coat worn by Maj. "William "W. Chap- 
man, U. S. A., in IS 1^. 

Charles E. Broirn, Madison. — Full-dress coat and cap worn by members 
of First Light Battery, "W. N. G. (now Battery A. 1st Wisconsin Artillery), 
previous to ISOO; hooks used by clam tishermon at Prairie du Chien: old 
style drag tooth. 

Mrs. Theodore D. Broirn, MiUraukce. — Army blanket and portfolio car- 
ried by Charles Kuhlmaim, member of Co. B. 2(Uh Volunteer Infantry, 
during Sherman's "march to the sea;" valentine received from the front 
during the War of Secession. 

[S5] . • 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Carntval Costumi' Company, Milwaukee— {Exizhnnsa) Full-dress coat 
worn by members of the old 4th Regimeut, W. N. G., M.ilwaukfe; blouse 
formerly worn by U. S. Marines. 

Miss Lucia E. C'atlin, Elizabeth, N. /. — Collection of forty-nine wild- 
cat and other American bank notes. 

Louis Corndius, Prairie du Chitn. — Six military buttons found on site 
of old Fort Crawford. 

Arthur Cornelius, Prairie du C/aV«. — Phototrraphs of ruins of old Fort 

B. L. Deitrick, Larraine, T'a.— (Purchase) Stamped Confederate home- 
made envelopes, addressed to Mr. Ivy Duggan, Q. M. Scrgt., 49 Georgia 
Regiment, Thomas' Brigade, Ilill's Division. 

East Wisconsin Tru.itee Company, Manitoiroc. — (Purchase) Stone bullet 
mold, and old wooden plate brought from Germany. 

W. P. Evans, Omaha, Nebr. — Moro chain mail and carabao horn 
cuirass from Jolo; Chinese sword obtained from the "Temple of Heaven," 
in Pekin, at the time of the Boxer outbreak; series of kris, campilans, 
barongs, bolos, and beheading knives captured in the Philippine Islands. 

Louis Falge, Maditoicoc. — Fox-trap, grub hoc, and axe formerly belong- 
ing to Pat Thiebeau, an early settler of Manitowoc Ilapids. 

Charles G. JIall, Chicago.— Fh-at-chi^s ticket, 1S57 (Fond du Lac to Mil- 
waukee), issued by Chicago, St. Paul *fc Fond du Lac Railroad; State P'air 
excursion ticket, 1S57 (Junction to Milwaukee), on the La Crosse & Mil- 
waukee Railroad. 

John llellman. Galena.— Invoice book of A. F. E. Saunders, a prominent 
merchant of Galena, III., d\iring the period of the old Mississippi River 
steamboat ing days. 

Mrs. Emma Zickt-rirk Ihnnj, Chhko.^h.- -^vd\ ring hammered from a 
silver dollar by Alvah P. Hamilton, a private of the 12th Wisconsin Bat- 
tery, and presented by him to his commiuuling otlicer. Captain William 
Zickerick, in 18G2. 

Howard G. Ilinckley, Boston.— V\e^:c of the woodwork of old South 

Gen. A. B. Lawrence, VTarsam, X. }'._ Piece of flag which How over the 
Confederate capitol at Richmond, Va., on April ;{, IStjJ, and hauled down by 
himself, then chief quartermaster of the .Vrmy of the James; Confederate 
States $10 bill, being part of the public funds surrendered by tien. Robert 
E. Lee, April 0, LSGj. 

Aufjuit Lindholm, Manitotcoc J!apid.i.— Old style broad axe from the old 
Pat Thiebeau cabin at Manitowoc Rapids. 

Enos Lloyd-Jones, JIiH.'> id e.— Old style steelyards. 

J. G. D. Mack, Madison. — One of the iron pikes furnished by John Brown 
for use in arming the negroes at Harpers Ferry, Va.; piece of homespun 
cloth made in Boone county, Ky., in 1S15. 

Charles L. Merrick. (i<tl<u,i. 7//.— Cerlilicalo for twenty-five shares of 
capital stock of the (Jalena Insurance Company (steamboat insurance), 
issued to John Hellmanof Galena, in April, 1.S57. 

OeoryeB. M<rrick. Muditun.— RrVicH from the First Church in Ames- 


Miscellaneous Accessions 

bury, ^lass., built in 1775, and one of the oldest meeting-houses in New 

(Deposit) Exhibit illustrating old steamboating days on the Upper 
Mississipi River, including photographs of steamboats and log rafts, of 
river towns and levees, of steamboat otHcers and other men prominent in 
the river traffic; passage tickets, steamboat advertisements, notices and 
literature, bill of lading book, and other materials. 

Photographs and illustrations of early typos of railroad engines; telo 
graph key and sounder used by donor from 187G to 1SS5 while station agent 
at River Falls on the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railroad; 
editor's pass. 

Collection of national, department and state reunion, post, regiment, 
and other Grand Army badges; cavalry sabre carried by him while chief 
brigade clerk of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Xinth Army Corps of Army 
of the Potomac: silver watch from the Cedar Creek battlefield, and other 
specimens connected with the "War of Secession. 

Capt. Rohcrt Mueller, Milicaukee.— Old style Light Horse Squadron hel- 
met and full-dress coat. 

Magnu.t Xdson, Madison.~0\d style railroad link and coupling pins. 

E. J. W. Xotz, J/iY/rawAvf?. — Fatigue cap worn by members of the old Light 
Horse Squadron bugle corps, Milwaukee. 

Miss Minnie M. Oakley, Seattle, irt;,'*//.— Bronze medal commemorative of 
the centenary of American independence. 

Oeorge F. 0' Connell. Madison. —Helmet and full-dress coats formerly 
worn by Company G (Governor's Guard), 1st Regiment, W. X. G. 

TF. B. Parker, Pasadena, C'al. — Gold medal awarded to him by the 
Louisana Purchase Exposition, ho having been the e.iecutive officer of a 
committee on educational exhibits appointed by the Wisconsin State 
Teachers' Association for the exposition. 

C. E. Parish, Los Angeles, C*//. — Section of the famous "witness tree," 
the starting point of the survey of Vancouver, "Wash. 

William Emjner, Oconomoiroc. — Ox-shoe found on the James H. Eckels 
place. Lake LaBelle. 

E. F. liii'hter, Mihraukce. — Fatigue cap worn by him as a member of 
the Light Horse Squadron, "W. X. G. 

George C. Sellery, Madison.— Curious old style padlock, from London, 

W. n. Salmon, Knapp. — (DepoHit) Telescope made by John DoUand, 
London, England, in about the year 175S. It was found on one of the Brit- 
ish ships captured by Commodore John Barry during the War of the Revo- 
lution, and afterwards presented to Gen. George Washington. 

George IT. Stoner, Ma d i.-<o n.— Grimhlone brought to Madison by his 
father, in the early days of settlement. 

W. li. Taylor, Madison. — (Deposit) Gourd vessel presented to Wiscon- 
sin's granger governor, William li. Taylor. It bears the painted legend: 
"Granger presented by Charles Waters, 1874, to our Ileform Farmer Gov- 
ernor, William R. Taylor." 

Bernard J. T/iieman, XeioYork.— WsiX impression of the seal of Michi- 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

p. C. Torrei/, Kenos7ia.— SidG-sadd\o used at Fort Howard, about the 
year 1S23, by the wife of Capt. John Winslow Cotton. 

John C. T?iunnan, Green i>«^.— Section of the first steel rail used on 
the narrow gauge railroad between Fennimoro and "Woodman. 

David Van Wart. Etansiilk.— lAucohx cent of tlie recalled issue, 1909. 

William Walton, Gotham. — Lead counterfeit half dollar, 1S47, from In- 
dian village site, at Richland City. 

W. W. Warner, Madson — Copy of "Milwaukee Light Guard Quick- 
step," composed and published by H. N. Hempsted; collection of fourteen 
Grand Army and other medals. 

//. //. Willard, Mazomanie. — Handbill issued by the Whitewater (Wis.) 
sanitary commission, March 7, 1S(53, soliciting contributions of vegetables 
for soldiers suffering from scurvy in the Union Army before Vicksburg, 

N. T. Woo, Madison. — Two Chinese coppers and a silver coin. 

Wyoming Uistorical and Geological Society, Wilkcs-Barre, Pa. — Bronze 
medal commemorating the centennial of the first use of Wyoming coal. 


Periodicals Received 

Periodicals and Newspapers cur- 
rently Received at the Library 

[Corrected to October 1, 1909] 


A. L. A. Booklist (m). Chicago. 

Academie Royale d' Arciieologie dc Belgique, Annales (q). Antwerp. 

Acadcmie Royale d' Archeologie do Belgique, Bulletin (q). Antwerp. 

Academy (w). London. 

Advance Advocate (m). St. Louis. 

Advocate of Peace (m). Boston. 

Alpha Tau Omega Palm (m). Allontown, Pa. 

Altruist (m). St. Louis. 

Amalgamated Engineers Journal (m). London. 

Amalgamated Sheet Metal Workers Journal (m). Kansas City, Mo. 

American Anthropologist (q). New York. 

American Antiquarian (bi-m). Chicago. 

American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, Worcester, Mass. 

American Catholic Historical Researches (q). Philadelphia. 

American Catholic Historical Society Record (q). Philadelphia. 

American Catholic Quarterly Review. Philadelphia. 

American Economist (w). New York. 

American Federationist (m). Washington. 

American Geographical Society Bulletin (m). New York. 

American Historical Review (q). New York. 

American Issue (m). Milwaukee. 

American Industrial Journal (m). Delavan. Wis. 

American Journal of Eugenics (m). Chicago. 

American Journal of Theology (q). Chicago. 

American Magazine (m). New York. 

American Missionary (m). New York. 

American Monthly Magazine. Washington. 

American Museum Journal (irreg). New York. 

American Philosophical Society Proceedings. Philadelphia. 

American Pressman (m). Cincinnati. 

American School Board Journal (m). Milwaukee. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

American Sugar Industry and Beet Sugar Gazette (s-nn). Chicago. 

American Thresherman (in). Madison. 

Americana (m). New York. 

Analecta Bollandiana (q). Brussels. 

Annals of Iowa (q). Des iloinos. 

Annals of St. Joseph (m). West De Pare. 

Antikvarisk Tidskrift. Stockholm. 

Antiquary (m). London. 

Arena (m). Trenton. X. J. • 

Asiatic Society of Japan, Transactions (irreg). Yokohama. 

Athenjeum (\v). Loudon. 

Atlantic Monthly. Boston. 

Augustana (w). Rock Island, 111. 

Australian Official Journal of Patents (w). Melbourne. 

Bates Bulletin? xVustinburg, Ohio. 

Bible Societj' Record (m). New York. 

Bibliographical Society of America, Bulletin. New York. 

Bibleotheca Sacra (q). Oberlin, Ohio. 

Bijdragen voor Vaderlandscho Geschiedenis. Arnheim. 

Black and Red (m). Watertown, Wis. 

Blacksmith's Journal (m). Chicago. 

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (m). 

Board of Trade Journal (m). Portland, Maine. 

Board of Trade Labour Gazette (m). London. 

Boletin del Archivo Xacional (bi-m). Havana. ' ^ - '^ 

Book Buyer (m). New York. 

Bookman (m). New York. 

Boston Ideas (w). 

Boston Public Library, Monthly Bulletin. 

Bricklayer and Mason (m). Indianapolis. 

Bridgemeu's Magazine (m). [Minneapolis. 

Brockton (Mass.) Public Library, Quarterly Bulletin. 

Brookline (Mass.) Public Library, Bulletin (bi-ni). 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Public Library, Bulletin (m). 

Browning's. Magazine (m). Milwaukee. 

Buenos Ayres Monthly Bulletin of Municipal Statistics. 

Bulletin (m). Nashville. 

Bulletin des Recherches Ilistoriques (m). Levis, Quebec. 

Bulletin of Bibliography (q). Boston. 

Bunte Blatter fur die Kleinen (m). Milwaukee. 

By the Waysitle (m). Appleton. 

California State Library News Notes (m). Sacramento. 

Cambridge (Mass.) Public Library r>ullotin (m). 

Canadian Antiquarian (m). Montrt^al. 

Canadian Institute, Transactions. Toronto. 

Canadian Magazine (m). Toronto. 

Canadian Patent Otlico Record (m). Ottawa. 

Car Worker (m). Chicago. 


Periodicals Received 

Carpenter (m). Indianapolis. 

Catholic World (m). New York. 

Century Mai^azino (m). New York. 

Century Path (w). Point Loma, Cal. 

Chamber's Journal (m). London and Edinburgh. 

Chatauquan (m). Springfield, Ohio. 

Chicago School of Sanitary Instruction, Bulletin (w). 

Christian Student (m). New York. 

Church News (m). St. Louis. 

Church Times (m). Milwaukee. 

Cigar Maker's Official Journal (m). Chicago. 

Cincinnati Public Library, Library Leaflet (m). 

Citizens' Magazine (m). San Francisco. 

City Club Bulletin (w). Chicago. 

City Record (official) (d). New York. 

Clarkson Bulletin (q). Potsdam, N. Y. 

Cleveland Public Library, Open Shelf (q). 

Cleveland Terminal & Valley Ry. Co., Relief Dept., Statement of Receipts 

and Disbursements (m). 
Coast Seamen's Journal (w). San Francisco. 
College Chips (m). Decorah, Iowa. 
Collier's National Weekly. New York. 
Colored American Magazine (m). New York. 

Columbia University, Studies in Political Science (irreg). New York. 
Commercial Telegraphers' Journal (m). Chicago. 
Comptes-Rendus de I'Athenee Louisiauais (m). New Orleans. 
Conservation (m). Washington, D. C. 
Contemporary Review (m). London. 
Cook's American Travelers' Gazette (m). New York. 
Cooperative Journal (w). Oakland, Cal. 
Coopers' International Journal (m). Kansas City, Kans. 
Cosmopolitan (m). New York. 
Country Life in America (m). New York. 
Craftsman (m). Now York. 
Current Literature (m). New York. 
Delineator (m). New York. 
Delta Upsilon Quarterly. New York. 

Deutsch-Amerikanische Buchdrucker-Zeitung (s-m). Indianapolis. 
Deutsch-Amerikan^scho Geschichtsbliiitor (q). Chicago. 
Dial (s-m). Chicago. 

District of Columbia. Library Bulletin (m). Washin-rton, D. C. 
Dominion of Canada. Labour Gazette (m). Ottawa. 
Dublin Review (q). London. 
Dunn County School of Agriculture and Domestic Economy Bulletin (q). 

Edinburgh Review ((j). 
Electrical Worker (m). Springfield, III. 
Elevator Constructor (m). Philadelphia. 

7 [91] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Empire Review (m). London. 

English Historical Review (q). London. 

Equity (q). Philadelphia. 

Essex Antiquarian (q). Salem, Mass. 

Essex Institute Historical Collections (q). Salem, Mass. 

Evangelical Episcopalian (m). Chicairo. 

Evangeliets Sendobud (w). College View, Xebr. 

Evangelisch-Lutherischo Gemeinde-Blatt (s-m). Milwaukee. 

Evangelisk Luthersk Kirketitende (w). Decorah, Iowa. 

Everybody's Magazine (m). Xow York. 

Exponent (m). St. Louis. 

Fairhaven (Mass.). Millicent Library Bulletin (bi-m). 

Fame (m). New York. 

Filine Co-operative Association Echo (m). Boston. 

Fitchburg (Mass.) Public Library Bulletin (bi-m). 

Flaming Sword (m). Estero, Fla. 

Fortnightly Review (m). London. 

Forum (m). Xew Y'ork. 

Franklin Institute Journal (m). Philadelphia. 

Free Russia (m). London. 

Free Trade Broadside (q). Boston. 

Friend and Guide (m). Xeenah. 

Friends' Intelligencer (w). Philadelphia. 

Friends'^Historical Society Journal (q). London. 

Fruitman and Gardener (m). Mount Vernon, Iowa. 

Furniture Worker (s-m). Cincinnati and Chicago. 

Genealogical Exchange (m). Butfalo. 

Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, Publications. Philadelphia. 
Genealogist (q). Exeter, Eng. 

General Merchants' Review and Mixed Stocks (w). Chicago. 
Globe Trotter (q). Milwaukee. 
Good Government (m). Xew York. 

Grand Rapids (Mich.). Ryerson Public Library Bulletin (q). 
Granite Cutter's Journal (m). Quincy, Mass. 
Granite Monthly. Concord, X. H. 
Granite State Magazine (m). Manchester, X. H. 
Harper's Magazine (m). Xew York. 
Harper's Weekly, Xew York. 
Hartford'(Conn.). Library Bulletin (m). 
Hartford (Conn.). Seminary Record (q). 
Harvard^University Gazette (w). Cambridge, Mass.. 
Haverhiir(Mass.) Public Library Bulletin (bi-m). 
Helping Hand (m). Chicago. 
Herald of Ciospel Liberty (w). Dayton. O. 
Herald'of the Cross (m). London. 
Herald ot'ithe Golden Ago (q). Paignton, Eng. 

Historic Magazine and Xotes and Queries (m). Manchester, X. H. 
Home Visitor (m). Chicago. 

Homu-opHthic Eye, Ear, and Throat Journal (m). Lancaster, Pa. 
[ 92 ] 

Periodicals Received 

House Beautiful (m). Chicago. 

Illinois Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin (w). Springfield. 

Illinois Historical Society, Journal (q). Springfield. 

Illustrated London News.(w). London. 

Illustrated Official Journal (Patents) (w). London. 

Improvement Era (m). Salt Lake City. .ii^-'.'.'> 

Independent (w). New York. 

Indiana Bulletin of Charities and Correction (q). Indianapolis. 

Indiana Public Library Commission (m). Indianapolis. 

Indiana Quarterly Magazine of History. Indianapolis. 

Indiana State Library :\lonthly Bulletin. Indianapolis. 

Indian's Friend (m). Xew York. 

Industrial Canada (m). Toronto. 

International Brotherhood of Boilermakers Journal (m). Kansas City, 

International Bureau of American Republics, Monthly Bulletin. Wash- 

International Horseshoers Magazine (m). Denver. 

International Moldcr's Journal (m). Cincinnati. 

International Musician (m). St. Louis. 

International Socialist Review (m). Chicago. 

International Steam Engineer (m). Boston. 

Iowa Journal of History and Politics (q). Iowa City. 

Iowa Masonic Library. Quarterly Bulletin. Cedar Rapids. 

Irrigation Age (m). Chicago. 

Jersey City (N. J.). Public Library, Bulletin Library Record (bi-m). 

Johnson Public Library. Quarterly Bulletin. Hackensack, X. J. 

Journal of American Folk-Lore (q). Boston. 

Journal of American History (q). Meridan, Conn. 

Journal of History (q). Lamoni, Iowa. 

Journal of Political Economy (q). Chicago. 

Journal of ZoiJph ily (m). Philadelphia. 

Kansas City (Mo.). Public Library Quarterly. 

Kentucky State Historical Society Register (tri-y). Frankfort. 

Kinderfreude (m). Milwaukee. 

Kingsley House Record (m). Pittsburgh. 

Kristelige Talsmand (w). Chicago. 

La Follette's Weekly Magazine. Madison. 

Lancaster County (Pa.) Historical Society Papers (m). Lancaster. 

Lather (m). Cleveland. 

Leather Workers' Journal (m). Kansas City, Mo. 

Lebanon Co. Historical Society Papers. Lebanon, Pa. 

Letters on Brewing (q). Milwaukee. 

Liberia (s-y). Washington. 

Library (q). London. 

Library Journal (m). New York. 

Library Work (irreg). Minneapolis. 

Life and Light for Women (m). Boston. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Light (bi-m). La Crosse. 

Literary Digest (w). New York. 

Littell's Living Age (w). Boston. 

Living Church (w). Milwaukee. 

Locomotive Engineers Journal (m). Cleveland. 

Locomotive Firemen and Engineers Journal (m). Indianapolis. 

Luther League Review (m). Xew York. 

Lutheran (w). Lebanon and Philadelphia. 

Lutheran Church Review (q). Philadelphia. 

Lutheraneren (w). Minneapolis. 

McClure's Magazine (m). Xew York. 

Machinists' Monthly Journal. Washington, D. C. 

Magazine of History (m). Xew York. 

Maine State Board of Health Bulletin (bi-m). Augusta. 

Manchester (Eng.) Literary and Philosophical Society, Memoirs and Pro- 
ceedings (tri-y). 

Manitoba Gazette (w). Winnipeg. 

Marathon County School of Agriculture and Domestic Economy, Bulletin, 
(q). Wausau. 

Maryland Historic Magazine (q). Baltimore. 

Masonic Tidings (m). Milwaukee. 

Massachusetts Labor Bulletin (m). Boston. 

Mayflower Descendant (q). Boston. 

Medford (Mass.) Historical Register (q). 

Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association of Milwaukee. Bulletin (m) 

Mercury (m). East Div. High School, Milwaukee. 

Methodist Review (bi-m). Cincinnati and Xew York. 

Methodist Review (South) (q). Xashville, Tenn. 

Michigan Dairy and Food Dept., Bulletin (m). Lansing. 

^lilwaukee Health Department. Monthly Report. 

Milwaukee Medical Journal (m). 

Milwaukee Public Library, Quarterly Index of Additions. 

Miners' Magazine (w). Denver. 

Missionary Herald (m). Boston. 

Missouri Historical Review ((]). Columbia. 

Missouri Historical Society Collections (q). St. Louis. 

Mitteilungen aus der Historischen Literatur (q). Berlin. 

Mixer and Server (m). Cincinnati. 

Motorman and Conductor (m). Detroit. 

Municipal Record (othcial; (w). San Francisco. 

Municipalit}' (m). iLadison. 

Munsey's .Magazine (m). Xew York. 

Mystic Worker (m). Polo, 111. 

Xashua (X. H.). Public Library Quarterly Bulletin. 

Xation (w). Xew York. 

National Ass'n of Wool Manufacturers, Builetiu (q). Boston. 

Xational Bulletin of Charities and Correction (q). Chicago. 

National Glass Budget (w). Pittsburgh. 

[ 94 ] 

Periodicals Received 

National Review (m). London. 

Noue Heidelberger Jahrbiicher (i^re,i,^). Heidelberg, Germany. 
New Bedford (JIass.). Public Library Bulletin (m). 
New England Family History (q). New York. 
New England Civic Federation Bulletin (irreg). Boston. 
New Englantl Historical and Genealogical Register (q). Boston. 
New England Magazine (m). Boston. 
New Hampshire Genealogical Record (q). Dover. 
New Jersey Historical Society Proceedings. Paterson. 
New Philosophy (q). Lancaster, Pa. 
New York City Dept. of Health Weekly Report. 
New York Dept. of Labor Bulletin (q). New York. 
New York Genealogical and Biographical Record (q). New York. 
New York Mercantile Library Bulletin (y). New York. 
New York Public Library Bulletin (m). New York. 
New York State Department of Health, Monthly Bulletin. Albany. 
New York Times Saturday Review (w). New Y'ork. 
New Zealand Journal of the Department of Labour (m). Wellington. 
New Zealand Parliamentary Debates (m). Wellington. 
Newark (N. J.). Free Public Library, Library News (m). 
Nineteenth Century (m). London. 
Norden (m). Racine. 

North American Review (m). New York. 
North Carolina Booklet (m). Raleigh. 
North Dakota Magazine (m). Bisuiarck. 
■Northwestern Miller (w). Minneapolis. 
Notes and Queries (m). London. 
Nouvelle-France (m). Quebec. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly. Columbus. 
Ohio Bulletin of Charities and Corrections (q). Columbus. 
Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society Quarterly. Cincinnati. 
Old Continental (bi-m). l)es Moines. 
"Old Northwest" Gonealoirical (,)uarlerly. Columbus. 
Olde Ulster (m). Kingston, X. Y. 
Omaha (Xebr.) Public Library Bulletin (irreg). 
Open Court (m). Chicago. 

Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. Portland. 
Our Boys (q). Dousman, Wis. 

Our Journal. Organ of Metal Polishers, etc. (m). Cincinnati. 
Our Young People (m). Milwaukee. 
Our West (m). Los Angeles. 
Outing (m). X^'ew York. 
Outlook (w). New York. 
Overland ^lonihly. San Francisco. 
Owl (q). Kewaunee. 

Painter and Decorator (m). LaFayotte, Ind. 
Pattern Makers' Journal (m). Cincinnati. 
Pedigree Register (q). London. 

[95 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Pennsylvania-German (m). Lititz. Pa. 

Pennsylvania iilagazino of History ((i). Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia Library Company. Bulletin (s-y). 

Philippine Islands, Bureau of Health, Quarterly Iloport, Manila. 

Philippine Weather Bureau, Bulletin (m). Manila. 

Philosopher (m). Wausau. 

Piano Workers" Otlicial Journal (m). Chica.L'-o. 

Pittsburgh & Western Ry. Co., Relief Dept., Statement of Receipts and 

Disbursements (m). 
Pittsburgh, Carnegie Library, Monthly Bulletin. 
Pittsfield (Mass.). Berkshire Athenieum. Quarterly Bulletin. 
Political Science Quarterly. Boston. 
Postal Clerk (m). Chicago. 
Postal Record (m). Washington, D. C. 

Pratt Institute Free Library, Monthly Bulletin. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Presbyterinn Historical Society Journal (m). Philadelphia. 
Princeton Theological Review (q). Philadelphia. 
Progressive Woman (m). Girard, Ivans. 
Providence (R. I.) Public Library, Quarterly Bulletin. 

Public (w). Chicago. 

Public Health (q). Lansing Mich. 

Public Libraries (m). Chicago. 

Publishers' Circular and Booksellers' Record (w). London. 

Publishers' Weekly. New York. 

Putnam's Monthly and the Critic. New York. 

Quarterly Review. London. 

Queen's Quarterly. Kinsrston, Ont. 

Quest (m\ Lafayette, Colo. 

Quincy (111.) Public Library Bulletin (q). 

Railroad Telegrapher (m). St. Louis. 

Railroad Trainmen's Journal (m). Cleveland. 

Railway Carmen's Journal (m). Kansas City. 

Railway Clerk (m). Kansas City. 

Railway Conductor (m). Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature and Cumulative Index (m). Min- 

Real Academia de la Ilistoria Buletin (m). Madrid.. 

Reclamation Record (m). Washinirton. 

Records of the past (m). Washin^Ton. 

Reliquary and Illustrated Archifoiuirist (q). London. 

Retail Clerks' International Advocate (m). St. Joseph, Mo. 

Review of Reviews (m). New York. 

Revue Canadienne (m). Montreal. 

Revue Ilistorique de la (^ues'lon Louis XVII ibi-m). Paris. 

Rodina (w). Racine. 

Round Table (m). Beloit. 

Royal Anthropological Institute Journal. London. 

Roval Blue (m). Baltimore. 


Periodicals Received 

Royal Geographical Society, Geographical Journal (m). Loadon. 

Royal Purple (m). Whitewater. 

Royal Society of Antiquities of Ireland. Journal (q). Dublin. 

Sabbath Recorder (m). Plainfiold, N. J. 

Sailors' Magazine (m). New York. 

St. Andrew's Cross (m). Boston. 

Salem (ilass.) Public Library Bulletin (m). 

San Francisco Public Library Bulletin (m). 

Saturday Evening Post (w). Philadelphia. 

Scandinavisk Farmer-Journal (s-m). Minneapolis. ,f 

Scottish Geogi-aphical Magazine (m). Edinburgh. 

Scottish Historical Review (q). Glasgow. 

Scottish Record Society (q). Edinburgh. 

Scranton (Pa.) Public Library Bulletin (q). 

Scribner's Magazine (m). New York. ,;. . 

Sewanee Review (q). New York. 

Shingle Weaver (m). Everett, Wash. 

Shoe Worker's Journal (m). Boston. 

Single Tax Review (bi-m). New York. 

Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collections. 

Social Democrat (m). London. 

Societe d'Archoologie de Bruxelles. Annales. Brussels. 

Societe de Geographic de Quebec, Bulletin. Quebec. 

Societe des Americanistes de Paris. Journal. 

Somerville (Mass.) Library Bulletin (m). 

South Atlantic Quarterly. Durham, N. C. 

South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. Charleston. 

South Dakota Congregationalist (m). Huron. 

Southern Letter (m). Tuskegee, Ala. 

Spirit of Missions (m). New York, 

Springfield (Mass.) City Library, Bulletin (irreg). 

Standard (w). Chicago. 

Steam Shovel and Dredge (m). Chicago. 

Stone-cutters' Journal (m). Washington. 

Stove Workers' Journal (m). Detroit. 

Sunset Magazine (m). San Francisco. 

Survey (w). New York. 

Switchmen's Union Journal (m). ButTalo. 

Tailor (m). Bloomington, 111. 

Team Owners' Review (m). Pittsbur^di. 

Teamsters' Otlicial Magazine (m). Indianapolis. 

Temperance (q). New York. 

Temperance Cause (m). Boston. 

Texas State Historical Association Quarterly. Austin. 

Thcologische Quartalslirift. Milwaukee. 

Tobacco ^Vorker (m). Louisville, Ky. 

Tradesman (s-m). Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Travelers' Goods and Leather Workers' Olllcial Journal (m). Oshkosh, Wis. 

[97 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Travelers' Railway Guide (m). New York and Chicago. 

TypographicalJournal (m). Indianapolis. 

Union Labor Advocate (m). Chicago. 

Union Postal Clerk (m). Chicago. 

United States Congress. Congressional Record. 

United Slates Department of Agriculture: 

Crop Reporter (m). 

Experiment Station Record (m). 

Monthly Weather Review. 
United States Department of Commerce and Labor: 

Bulletin of Bureau of Labor (bi-m). 

Bulletin of the Census. 

Immigration Bulletin (m). 

Monthly Consular and Trade Reports. 

Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance. 
United States Library of Congress: 

Catalogue of Copyright Entries (w-m). 
United States Patent Office: 

Official Gazette (w). 
United States Superintendent of Documents: ■■■' '»«■'*'<' 

Monthly Catalogue of U. S. Public Documents. 
United States Treasury Department: 

Public Health Reports (w). 

Treasury Decisions (w). 
United States War Department: Bureau of Insular Affairs: 

Summary of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. 
United Typothetae of America. Bulletin (m). Philadelphia. 
Universal Engineer (m). Xew York. 
University Settlement Studies (q). Xew York. 
Virginia County Records (q). Xew York. 
Virginia Magazine of History and Bioirraphy (q). Richmond. 
Warren County Library Bulletin (q). Monmouth, 111. 
Washington Historical Quarterly. Seattle. 
Weekly Bulletin of the Clothing Trade. Xew York. 
Westminster Review (m). London. 

Wilkes-Barre (Pa.). Osterhout Free Library, Bulletins (m). 
William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine. Williams- 
burg, Va. 
Wisconsin Alumni Magazine (m). Madison. 
Wisconsin and X'orthwest Trade Journal (m). La Crosse. 
Wisconsin Archaeologist (q). Milwaukee. 
Wisconsin Baptist ((|). Wauwatosa. 
Wisconsin Citizen (m). Brodhead. 
Wisconsin Conirregational Church Life (m). Beloit. 
Wisconsin Equity Xews (s-m). Madison. 

Wisconsin Free Library Commission, Bulletin (m). Madison. 
Wisconsin Journal of Education (m). Madison. 
Wisconsin Library Bulletin (bi-m). Madison. 


Newspapers Received 

"Wisconsin Medical Journal (m). Milwaukee. 

Wisconsin Medical Recorder (m). Janesville. 

Wisconsin Natural History Society Bulletin (q). Milwaukee. 

Woman's Work (m). New York. 

World Today (m). Chicago. 

World's Events (m). Chica^ro. 

World's Work (m). New York. 

Young Churchman (w). Milwaukee. 

Young Eagle (m). Sinsinawa. 

Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie (bi-m). Berlin, Germany. 

Zukunft (m). New York. 

Wisconsin Newspapers .;. 

^?5an!/ — Albany Vindicator. 
Algoma — Algoma Ilecord. 
^/wa — Buffalo County Journal. 
Alma Cf nter — Alma Center News. 

J„^,-^,;_Antigo Herald; Antigo Republican; News Item. 
^;,;,fc;<,n — Appleton Crescent (d); Apploton Post; Appleton Volksfreund 
Fox River Journal: Gegenwart; Moutags-Blatt. 
.4rfarf/a — Leader. 

Ashland— Ash\and News (d); Ashland Press. 
Avguda — Eagle. 
.Ba?rfj/:/n — Baldwin Bulletin. 

^araio<^ — Baraboo News; Baraboo Republic; Sauk County Democrat. 
jBarriin — Barron County Shield. 
Pa^jI^'W— Bayfield County Press. 

Beaver X't<7n — Beaver Dam Argus; Dodge County Citizen. 
Belleville — 'Qe\\Q\iWyi Recorder. 
Beloit — }^Q\o\i Free Press (d). 
Benton — Benton Advocate. 
^CT-?m — Berlin Journal. 
Black Creek— Black Creek Times. 

Blnrk liiver Falls — Budger State Banner; Jackson County Journal. 
Blooiner — Bloomer Advance. 
Bloomington — B\oom\n'^\on Record. 
Boscohel—Bo%coh(}\ Dial-Enterprise; Boscobel Sentinel. 
Brandon — Brandon Times. 
5ro(fAi?a7 — Brodhead Independent-Register. 
Bruce — Bruce News Letter. 
Burlington — Standard Democrat. 

Cawi6rja — Cambria News. 

Camp^'t7?c*^j<'r/ — Campbellsport News. 

Ca«/(fo7i—Cashton Record. 

C(M,wi7?c — Cassville Index. 

Cedariwr^ — Cedarburg News. 

Centuria — Centuria Outlook. 

[991 . ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

CAe^t'Z; — Chetek Alert. 
Chilton — Chilton Times. 

Chippetca F a lU — Catholic Sentinel; Chippewa Times; Herald. 
Clinton — Rock County Banner. 
Colby — Plionograph. 
Crandon — Forest Echo. 
Cumberland — Cumberland Advocate. 
Dale — Dale Recorder. 

Darlingt07i — Darlington Democrat: Republican-Journal. 
De Forest — De Forest Times. 

i)^/ara7i — Dolavan Enterprise; Delavan Republican; Wisconsin Times 

De Pere — Brown County Democrat; De Pere News. 
Do dgeville — Bodgoxille Chronicle; Dodge villo Sun-Republic. 
Durand — Entering "Wedge; Pepin County Courier. 
Eau Claire — Ean Claire Leader (d); Telegram (d). 
Edgerton — Wisconsin Tobacco Reporter. 
Elkhor n-YAkhovn Independent. 
ElUicoi't7i — Vii:TCQ County Herald. 
Elroy — Elroy Tribune. 

Evansnlle — Enterprise: Evansville Review. 
i^a^rc/; 2'W — Fairchild Observer. 
Fall River — New Era. 
Fennimore — Fennimore Times. 
Florence — Florence Mining News. 
Fond du Za'.- — Commonwealth (d); Reporter (d). 
Fort Atkinson — Hosivdis Dairyman; Jetterson County Union. 
Fountain City — Alma. Bl;i>tter; Buffalo County Republikaner. 
Frederic — Frederic Star. 
Friendship — Adams County Press. 
OleniDood — Glenwood Tribune. 
Grand Iiapids-Viood County Reporter. 

Grantt<f>urg -Burnett County Sentinel; Journal of Burnett County. 
Green Bay — Groon Bay Gazette (s-w); Green Bay Review. 
Greenwood — Greenwood Gleaner. 
Hancock — Hancock News. 
£rar(/'ord — Hartford Press. 

Hudson — Hudson Star-Observer; True Republican. 
Hurley — Montreal River Miner. 

Independence— Independence News Wave: Wisconsin Good Templar. 
Janesrill, — Janesville Gazette (d); Recorder and Times. 
Jefferson — JetTerson Banner. 
Juneau — Independent; Juneau Telephone. 
Kaukanna — K-Au\iam\a Sun; Kaukauna Times. 
Keno.^ha-KenoshK News (d); Kenosha T'nion: Telegraph-Courier. 
Keicau nee —Kewaunee County Banner; Kewaunee Enterprise; Kewaun- 
ske Liste. 

Kilbourn -KxlhouTTi Events; Mirror-Gazette. 

La Crosse — llexold and Volksfreund; La Crosse Argus; La Crosse 

[ 100 ] . • 

Newspapers Received 

Chronicle (d): La Crosse Leader-Press (d); Xord-Stern; Nord-stern Bliit- 
ter; Volks-Post. 

Ladyamith — Rusk County Journal. 

Lake Geneva — YieraXd.; Lake Geneva News. 

Lake Jfins — hhke Mills Leader. 

Lake Xehagamon — Star Enterprise. 

Lancaster — Grant County Herald (s-w); Teller. 

i/iradon — Conservative. 

Loyal — Loyal Tribune. 

Madison — Amerika; Cardinal (d); Madison Democrat (d); Madisonian; 
State; "Wisconsin Botschafter: Wisconsin Farmer; Wisconsin Staats-Zoit- 
ung; Wisconsin State Journal (d). 

Manitoicoc — Manitowoc Citizen; Manitowoc Herald (d); Manitowoc 
Pilot; Manitowoc Post; Xord-Westen; Wahrheit. 

J/a/'/nf?^'^ Eagle-Star (d); Marinette Tribune. 

MargJifidd — Marshfield Times. ,.-1^ Times (d): 

Mauston — Juneau County Chronicle; Mauston Star. 

Medford — Taylor County Star-Xews; Waldbote. 

Menomom'e — Dunn County X'ews. 

il/<?rri7/— Merrill Star- Advocate; Wisconsin Thalbote. 

Merrillan — Wisconsin Leader. 

Middleton — ^\^i\eX.on Times-Herald. 

Milton Junction — Telephone. 

Mihraukce — Catholic Citizen; Columbia; Evening Wisconsin (d); Excel- 
sior; Germania (s-w); Kuryer Polski (d); Milwaukee Free Press (d); Mil- 
waukee Germania-Abendpost (d); Milwaukee Herokl (d); Milwaukee Jour- 
nal (d); Milwaukee Xews(d); Milwaukee Sentinel (d); Seebote (s-w); Social 
Democratic Herald; Sontags-botc; Vorwlirtz; Wahrheit; Wisconsin Banner 
and Volksfreund. 

Mineral Point — Iowa County Democrat; ^Mineral Point Tribune. 

Minocqua — Minocqua Times. 

Mondavi — Mondovi Herald. 

Monroe — Journal-Gazette; Monroe Journal (d); Monroe Sentinel (s-w); 
Monroe Times (d). 

Monfello — Montello Express. 

Mount Iloreb — Mount Iloreb Times. 

Muscoda — Grant County Democrat. 

Necedah — Xecedah Republican. 

Neillsville — Xeillsville Times; Republican and Press. 

Nekooxa — Wood County Times. 

Xeic Lisbon — 'Sew Lisbon Times. 

New London — Xew London Republican; Press. 

Keic Richmond — Xew Richmond X'ews (s-w). 

OconomotCdC — Oconomowoc Enterprise; Oconomowoc Free Press. 

Oconto — Enquirer; Oconto County Ptepurter. 

Oco/i/o ?'«//.< — Oconto Falls Herald. ■.'"::', • 

Omro — Omro Herald; Omro Journal. : : 

Oregon — Oreiron Obaerver. 

[ 101 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Osceola — Osceola Sun. 

Oshkosh — Dienstag-Rlatt; Xorthwesteru (d); Wisconsin Telegraph. 

Palmyra — Palmyra Enterprise. 

Peshtigo — P&5\\i\go Times. 

P/iillips~Boe; Phillips Times. 

Pla infield ~Snn. 

Plattecille — Grant County News; Platteville Witness and Mining Times. 

Plymouth — Plymouth Reporter; Plymouth Keview. 

Partage — Portage Democrat; Portage State Register. 

Port Washington — Port Washington Star; Port Washington Zoitung. 

Poynette — Poynette Press. 

Prairie du Chien — CoxifiQr; Cv'&vfiord County Press; Prairie du Chien 

Prentice — Prentice Calumet. 

Pretscott — Prescott Tribune. 

Racine — Racine Correspondent; Racine Journal; Racine Times (d); 
Blavio (s-w); Wisconsin Agriculturist. 

Rtedslurg — RQQCi'ibviVg Free Press; Roedsburg Times. 

i?/a'ne^a//fZ^/' — Rhinelander Herald; Vindicator. 

Rice Lake — Rice Lake Chronotype; Rice Lake Leader. 

Richland Centtr — Republican Observer; Richland Rustic. 

Rio — Badger Blade. 

Ripon — Ripon Commonwealth; Ripon Press. 

Rirer Falls — River Falls Journal. 

Shaicano — Shawano County Advocate; Volksbote-Wochenblatt. 

Sheboygan — National Demokrat (s-w); Sheboygan Herald; Sheboygan 
Telegram (d); Sheboygan Zeitung (s-w). 

Shiboygan Fulls — Sheboygan County News. 

Shell Lake — Shell Lake Watcliman; Washburn County Register. 

<Sf/a'oc^o/i — Shiocton News. 

ShulUburg — Pick and Gad. 

Soldiers Grove — Kickapoo Scout. 

South Wayne — Homestead. 

Sparta — Monroti County Democrat; Sparta Herald. 

Spring Green — Homo News. 

Spring Valley — Spring Valley Sun. 

Stanley — Stanley Republican. 

Sterens Point — Gazette; Stevens Point Journal. 

Stoughton — Stoughton Courier-Hub. 

Sturgeon Bay — Advocate; Door County Democrat. 

Sun Prairie — Sun Prairie Countryman. 

Superior — Leader-Clarion; Superior Telegram (d); Superior Tidendo. 

Thorp — Thorp Courier. 

T'oinah — Tomah Journal. 

Tuinahatrk — Tomahawk. 

■ Tr'^inutaleau — Trempealeau Gazette; Trempealeau Herald. 
. Twi) liicers — <^"^"roniclo; Reporter. 

"" ' 'ion Grove Enterprise. 


Newspapers Received 

Viola — Intelligencer. 

Viroqua — Vernon County Censor; Viroqua Republican. 

Washbui'ii — AVashburn Times. 

TTafer/brfZ — Waterford Post. 

Waterloo — Waterloo Democrat. 

Watertoicn — Watertown Gazette; Watortown Leader; Watertowa Welt- 

Waukesha — Waukesha Dispatch; Waukesha Freeman. 

Waunakee — AVaunakee Index. 

Waupaca — Waupaca Record: Waupaca Republican-Post. 

Wanpun — Waupun Leader. 

Wausau — Central Wisconsin; Deutsche Pioneer (s-w); Wausau Pilot; 
Wausau Record-Herald (d). 

Trawfowa — Waushara Arj^us. 

Welcome — Welcome Independent. 

West Bend — West Bend News; West Bend Pilot. 

Whitetcater — AVhitewater Gazette; Whitewater Register. 

Wilmot — Agitator. 

Wonetcoc — Wonewoc Reporter. 

Other Newspapers 


Birmingham — Labor Advocate. 
Fairhope — Fairhope Courier. 


Los Angeles — Citizen; Los Angeles E.'^aminer (d); Los Angeles Express 
(d); Los Angeles Herald (d). 
. Oakland — World. 
San Francisco — San Francisco Chronicle (d); Star. 


Denver — Rocky ilountain Xews. j 

Lamar — Prowers County News. j 

District of Columbia. 

Washington — Journal of the Knights of Labor; Trades Unionists; Wash- 
ington Post (d). 


Atlanta — Atlanta Constitution (d). 
Union City — Farmer's Union News. 


Chicago — Bakers' Journal; Chicago- Posten; Chicago Record-Herald (d) 
Chicago Socialist i.d);Cliicago Tribune (d): Chicagot^r Arbeitor-Zoitung (d) 
Christian Socialist; Courier Franco-American; Dziennik Ludowy (d) 
Fackel; Folke-Vonnon; Hemlandot; Jewish Labor World (Hebrew); Noues 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Leben; People's Press; Skandinavian (d and s-w); Socialist Party Bul- 
letin (m); Svenska Amerikenaren; Union Leader; Vorbote. 

Decatur — Decatur Labor "World. 

Galesburg — Galesburg Labor Xews. 

Quincy — Quincy Labor News. 


Indianapoli$ — Y.qn\\Y Farm Journal; Union; United Mine Workers' 


Ce(far i^a?& — Dannevirke. 
Decorah — Decorah-Posten (s-w). 


Girard — Appeal to Reason. 
Topeka — Kansas Farmer. 

Lexington — Blue Grass Farmer. 


New Orleans — Times-Democrat (d). 


Baltimo're — Labor Leader. 

Boston — Boston Transcript. 
Groton — Groton Landmark. 
Holyoke — Artisan; Biene. 
Worcester — Labor News. 

Detroit — Herold; Michigan Union Advocate. 


Duluth—'LB.hox World. 

Minneapolis — Folkebladet; Minneapolis Tidende: Ugebladet. 
St. Paul — Minnesota Stats Tidning; Minnesota Union Advocate; Pio- 
neer Press (d); Twin City Guardian. 


St. Xowi«— Arbeiter Zeitung; Labor Compendium; St. Louis Globe 
Democrat (d); St. Louis Labor. 


Lincoln — Independent Farmer. 

Omaha — Danske Pioneer; Western Laborer. 


Newspapers Received 

New Jersey. 

Trenton — Trades Union Advocate. 

New Mexico. 

Santa Fe — New Mexican Review. 

New Yokk. 

Brooklyn — Eagle (d). 

Buffalo — Arbeiter-Zeitung; ButTalo Republic. 

Jamestoicn — Union Advocate. 

New York — Arbeiter (Hebrew); Arbitaren; City Record (d); Freie Arbei- 
ter Stimme; Forward (Hebrew) ; Freiheit; Journal of Commerce (d); New 
York Call (d); New York Tribune (d); New York Volkszeitung (d); Peo- 
ple; Truth Seeker: Vorwilrtz. 

Syracuse — Industrial Weekly. 

JJtica — Utica Advocate. 

North Dakota. 

Grand Forks — Normanden. 


Cincinnati — Brauer-Zeitung; Chronicle. 

Cleveland — Cleveland Citizen; Yolksfreund und Arbeiter Zoitung. 

Toledo — Toledo Union Leader. 

Zanesville — Labor Journal. 


Portland — Oregonian (d). 


Charleroi — Union des Travailleurs. 
Harrisburg — United Labor Journal. 
Lancaster — Labor Leader. 
Neircaitle — Free Press. 
Philadelpliia — Proletario. 

Pi^sJur^rA — Amalgamated Journal; Commoner and Glassworker; Iron 
City Trades Journal; Labor World; National Labor Tribune. 
Wilkes-Barre — Industrial Gazette. 

South Carolina. 
Charleston — News and Courier. 

South Dakota. 
Sioux Falls — Fremad. 


Nashville — Labor Advocate. 

Dallas — Laborer. 

Fort Worth — National Co-operator and Farm Journal. 
[105] . ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 


Salt Lake City — Deaeret Farmer; Deseret Xows (d); Tribune (s-w). 

Parkland — Pacific Harold. 
Seattle — Socialist. 

Fairbanks — Miners' Union Bulletin. 


Broken Hill — Barrier Truth (d). 

Melbourne — Socialist. 

Sydney — Worker. "•" 


Cmcansville — Cotton's Weekly. 
Jtlantreal — Gazette (d). 
Toronto — Mail and Empire (d). 
Vancouver — Western Clarion. 
Victoria — Colonist (s-w). 

London — Justice; Labour Leader; Times. 

Paris — Socialisme. 


Frankfort — Frankfurter Zeitung. 

Mexico City — Mexican Herald. 


Christiania — Social- Demokraten (d) 

Eobart — Clipper. 


Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

Report of Green Bay Histor- 
ical Society 

During the past year the Green Bay Historical Society has seen 
the fulfillment of three projects which it has long striven to ac- 
complish : 1st, The erection of a tablet and flag-pole marking the 
site of old Fort Howard— the site also of the early French and 
English posts. 2d, The placing of a tablet at Eed Banks, com- 
memorative of the landing of Jean Nicolet at this place in 1634, 
and the treaty then and there made by him with the Winnebago. 
3rd, The final location and restoration of the Porlier-Tank cot- 
tage in Union Park, and its formal opening to the public as a 
museum and prospective branch of the Kellogg Public Library. 

At a meeting of the Society held on October 21, 1908, in the 
assembly room of the Kellogg Public Library, two committees 
were appointed by the president : One was to procure funds for 
the restoration of the Tank cottage, of which Mrs. F. T. Blesch 
was chairman; the other was a committee of three, headed by 
Hon. James H. Elmore as chairman, to arrange with the officials 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company for the erec- 
tion of a suitable tablet on their depot grounds, to mark the site 
of old Fort Howard. ]\Ir. Elmore diligently corresponded and 
personally conferred with the Northwestern officials, and at the 
several meetings of this committee, held during the winter, re- 
ported progress. 

In June, a formal meeting of the Society was held, and at that 
tirne it was decided to join with the State Historical Society in 
celebrating the diseoverv of Wisconsin by Jean Nicolet in 1G34, 
this being the 275th anniversary of that event. ]Mr. Elmore alsa 
reported that President Hughitt and other officials of the Nortlv 
western road were ready to place a large boulder, with bronze 
8 [ 107 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

tablet affixed, to mark the site of Fort Howard ; that he had had a 
pei-soiial interview with them in Chicago, and found them very 
much interested in the matter, and quite enthusiastic. They 
were, however, not in favor of placing the tablet at the south- 
eastern corner of the stockade, where the Society had wished to 
have it located, for the reason that it would then be in the midst 
of a network of tracks ; that it would involve considerable danger 
to those who wished to examine the tablet, and might be the oc- 
casion of many vexatious lawsuits. It was therefore proposed 
that the monument be placed at the south end of their park, at 
the terminus of ^Main street bridge ; that a flag pole be erected on 
what was foraierly the southeast corner of the stockade, and that 
the company agree to furnish a flag for it and keep it flying in all 
suitable weather. ^Yhile paying the entire cost of the bronze 
tablet and boulder, the Northwestern officials insisted that the 
monument should be given in the name of the Green Bay Histori- 
cal Society, and that no mention should be made on the tablet of 
the company's generosity. They stipulated, however, that the 
flag-pole should be provided and erected by the Society. 

Mrs. Blesch reported that something over $100 had been col- 
lected for the repairing of the Tank cottage, and that the city 
council had donated the sum of $125 for painting, papering, etc. 

It was decided also to hold the joint meeting on the 10th, lltli, 
and 12th of August, if these dates could be arranged with the 
State Historical Society. The following committees were ap- 
pointed at this time : 

Arrangements — Hon. James H. Elmore, Chairman. 

Reception — Rt. Rev. J. J. Fox, Chairman. 

Programme — Dr. R. G. Thwaites, Chairman. 

Press — Frank Bissinger, Chairman. 

An informal meeting of the Society was held July 30 to make 
final arrangements for the joint celebration, the president ap- 
pointing at that time a committee of three (Rev. L. A. Ricklin, 
chairman) to secure a site and find a boulder for the Nicolet tablet 
at Red Ranks. The president himself made several trips to Red 
Banks, searching for a boulder of suitable size for the large tab- 
let which had been ordered, and was aided veiy much in this 
search by 'Mr. Jolm P. Schumacher and Father Ricklin. 

Dr. Thwaites visited Groen Bay on August 1, and met the 
various committees at the homo of President Neville, He also 




'■■■ ^ -'■.:.■:„: :. ■ .. -^^ 


Fort Howakd mkmokiai. TAni.KT 
Photograph by Effie .M. Ho.vlett. Oshkosh 

Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

made a trip to Red Banks with the members of the Xicolet 
Tablet committee, and rendered great assistance in locating the 

A tentative and handsomely printed programme was issued by 
the State Historical Society and widely circulated through the 
State, which contained the essential features of the local pro- 
gramme. A later and more detailed edition was prepared by the 
Green Bay Historical Society for use during the three days' 
celebration (see ante, pp. 36-38, for this programme). 

The programme was most successfully carried out in every par- 
ticular. The exercises were attended by large crowds of citizens 
and many outside visitors, who manifested great interest and ap- 
preciation of the fine addresses and ceremonies attendant on the 
dedications of the several monuments. 

A large number of the officials of the North western road came 
by special train to attend the unveiling of the Fort Howard tab- 
let and the hoisting of the flag on the pole at the corner of the 
southeast bastion. Their presence gave especial dignity to the 
exercises held. On account of a sudden shower, the ceremonies, 
except the actual unveiling of the tablet, were held in the large 
waiting room of the depot, which Avas crowded to its utmost ca- 
pacity. The addresses of General ^Manager Aishton and General 
Counsel E. 'M. Hyzer were listened to with deep attention. "We 
wish here to record our great sense of obligation to the officials 
of the XorthwesteiTi road, not only for their liberality, but for 
the unfailing courtesy shown by them to us in all our negotia- 
tions relating to this memorial tablet. 

Immediately following the Fort Howard exercises, on Wednes- 
day afternoon, the Tank cottage was formally opened, with in- 
teresting addresses by ^iliss Deborah B. ]\Iartin, 'Mr. Louis A. 
Sogey, and Hon. Henrv E. Legler. 

The historical collection arranged in the museum of the Kel- 
logg Pnblic Lilu-ary attracted widespread attention, a young 
man being sent out Viy the ^luseum of Natural History in New 
York to examine and report on the collection. It consisted for 
the greater part of nrtii-!cs in use from earliest times in Green 
Bay, beginning with Indian pottery and stone implements, then 
relics of the courcurs de hois, and leading up to and including 
the period of the abandonment of Fort Howard. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

The evening meetings were held in the roomy main library', 
and were verj- largely attended. Speeial mention should be 
made of the fine addresses made by Dr. Frederick J. Turner of 
the University, Dr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, superintendent 
of the State Historical Society, and of Hjalmer R. Holand of 
Ephraim, to each of whom we wish to express our thanks. 

The rooms were beautifully decorated by the Catholic "Wo- 
man's Club, the AVoman's Club, and the Marquette Club, and 
immediately following the exercises a reception was held by the 
clubs above mentioned. 

On Thursday morning the Society and its guests made an 
historical pilgrimage to Red Banks by boat and automobile. 
Quite a large number availed themselves of the means of con- 
veyance thus afforded, and many of the siunmer residents at Red 
"Banks and of the surrounding farms were present at the unveil- 
ing of the tablet. Very interesting addresses were delivered by 
Dr. Thwaites and 'Mr. John F. IMartin, the latter speaking in 
place of Father Ricklin, who was uTiable to attend. 

A large part of the cost of the ta])let was defrayed by mem- 
bers of the State Historical Society, non-resident in Green Bay, 
and the balance was made up by members of the Green Bay His- 
torical Society. The expense of the boulder and foundation was 
contributed by the local chapter of the Knights of Columbus. 

The Porlier-Tank cottage has been put in good condition dur- 
ing the summer; the committee has held regular afternoons, 
weekly, at the cottage, and a goodly sum has been realized in this 
manner, which has been expended in its furnishing and renova- 
tion. A number of interesting articles have been donated to- 
wards a museum, competent care-takers have been placed in 
charge, and it is hoped that later the librarj- board will be en- 
abled to establish there a branch library, for the use of the large 
population of the South Side. 

Before closing, the Society wishes to express its thanks to ^Ir. 
August Braums for his services in surveying and establishing the 
exact southeast corner of the old stockade. 

Arthur C. Xeville. 

^•JEEX Bay. November 16, 1909. 



•X'-^ """" 





Poklier-Tank Cnrru;!:, ndw :.n Union PakK, Gki:i:x Bay 
Photograph by Effie M. Howlett, Oshkosh 

> c. 3 


Old muiT-ACK ix Pohi.ikk-Tank Coitack 
Photograph by Effie M. Howlett. Cshkosh 

Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

The Old Tank House 

Miss ^lartiu's paper on this subject, read at the Green Bay 
celebration, contains so much interesting data that the Editor 
takes the liberty of appending it to Mr. Neville 's report : 

This, the oldest house now standing in Wisconsin, or Indeed in the 
Northwest, was built in "good old colony days," when we lived under 
King George the Third of England. All the settlers of Green Bay 
during the eighteenth century were French Canadians; the builder of 
this house, Joseph Roy, with his brother Amable, immigrated here 
in 1775, according to his own sworn testimony. Joseph married a 
Menominee Indian woman, and built this house the year following his 
arrival — that is, in 1776. Roy was a typical xoyageur of the period. 
He could neither read nor write, and signed his name with a cross. 
He followed the fur-trade in haphazard fashion, cultivated a small 
garden, fished, hunted, and in the spring made quantities of maple 
sugar. His cabin was built of uprights, worked perhaps with a w^hip- 
saw; it was lathed with boughs of trees, and plastered with mud — the 
condition in which we I'ound it, when the later-day clapboards were 
torn off. Only the centre of the present house represented the original 
dwelling of Joseph Roy; but it was a spacious dwelling for the time 
and place, and when filled with blazing logs the great fire-place 
doubtless amply heated the entire house. According to Roy's testimony 
before the United States land commissioner, w-ho came to adjust the 
French land claims in 1S21. he lived in this house twenty-nine years 
before selling the property in 1S0.5 to Judge Jacques Porlier. Although 
unlettered, Roy was a well-known and respected character, as was his 
brother Amable; Madame Amable Roy had the distinction of owning 
the first cultivated appletree in Green Bay. 

Judge Jacques Porlier, the second occupant of the old house, was a 
very different person from its builder, Joseph Roy. Coming to Green 
Bay from Montreal, in 1791, he was a cultured French gentleman, 
well educated, and with most courtly manners. He is described as 
being of medium height, with reddish hair, somewhat bald, quiet, un- 
assuming in manner, and universally polite. Jacques Porlier was 
Green Bay's first schoolmaster; for several years, he taught the 
children of his employer, Pierre Grignon. Later, he became involved 
In the fur-trade, which was always an intricate, fluctuating commer- 
cial venture. Porlier & Rocheblave were for years a well-known firm 
both in Mackinac and Green Bay. until swallowed up by the great 
American Fur Company, headed by John Jacob Astor. 


Wisconsin Historical Society \ 

Porlier held several offices of trust under the British administration; 
and when Green Bay passed under American government, he was 
made the first probate judge of Brown County, by appointment of 
Gov. Lewis Cass of ^lichigan Territory. Judge Porlier was a most 
painstaking magistrate. French being almost universally used, he 
translated the laws into that language. Many of our early deeds and 
records are written in Judge Porlier's careful, fine French hand. 
From the low, broad windows of this cottage Judge Porlier could 
watch the river highway, in his day the only convenient path of 
travel; he could see Indian canoes skimming back and forth, bringing 
crowds of aborigines to barter their furs for trading-house finery or 
ammunition; or could see the government barge from Fort Howard 
carrying gay parties to :Menomineeville. 

In one of his letters preserved in the library of the State Historical 
Society, Judge Porlier speaks of his beautiful garden, and says that 
"chere petite Marguerite" gives it all her care. This fine garden, 
where grew melons, corn, and beans in abundance, was enclosed by a 
high picket fence to protect it from the droves of semi-wild cattle 
that then infested the common. 

It was from this old house that Judge Porlier went forth one 
blustering March evening, just before the ice in the river broke up, 
to perform a marriage ceremony in another small log house across 
the river — the home of Joseph Jourdain, a habitant often spoken of in 
early annals. Jourdain's cabin was in festal array. The occasion, 
was the marriage of his pretty daughter Madeline to the Rev. Eleazer 
"Williams, a fine-looking man, much older than the little bride, and 
long known to us all as "the lost dauphin." Indeed, he Is still be- 
lieved by a select few to have been the missing Louis XVII of France. 

In 1S39 Judge Porlier died in this house. His death, and that of 
his old friend Louis Grignon, which occurred soon after, marked the 
passing away of the French regime in Green Bay. From that time, 
new influences came into the life of the town. 

WTien Mr. and Mrs. Nels Otto Tank came here in 1S50, it was no 
longer distinctively French in character. The Tanks added two wings 
to the cottage — the one to the north (or the west, as it now stands in 
Union Park) being called the "prayer room." because religious services 
were here held for the Norwegian colony; the other one is still stand- 
ing, and therein we hope to have our branch library. 

Although this old house is familiarly spoken of as "the Tank cot- 
tage," and our associations with it are wholly connected with Mrs. 
Tank — with her quaint, interesting personality, and the beautiful heir- 
looms with which her house was filled, like a background to the 
picture of this Dutch gentlewoman — there rises before us another 
picture, hardly less vivid, of the early French occupants themselves. 

Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

We see again the old house as it stood for so many, many years, 
close to the water's edge, gray, weather-beaten, indistinct against its 
thick screen of forest trees. So low and close to the ground was it, 
that the cottage seemed a part of the soil. We know that it was 
placed as it was. not for the beauty of situation, but because it was 
built by a French voyageur, who must live near the river highway; 
then again, the river brink was the only spot unclaimed by the forest. 
Roy's successor in this cottage, being a French fur-trader and mag- 
istrate, must also have his home on the direct route to Mackinac. 
We recognize that the heavy wooden shutters, that were lost when 
the house was moved to its present situation in the park, were 
placed on it in a far-off time by French hands, and were as strong as 
possible because of marauding Indians. We realize that the queer 
little dormer window, high up on the roof, is a memory of Montreal, 
not of Holland; that the great rubble-stone fire-place was built in a 
primitive time. So the old house, in quaint outline and bygone style 
of construction, tells its own story as no other chronicler can, also 
the story of those who have lived in it. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Report of Lafayette County 
Historical Society 

The Lafayette County Historical Society was organized and 
incorporated in January of this year. Responding to our urgent 
invitation, Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites favored us with an address 
at our court-house the evening of January 7, which was most in- 
structive, and stimukited largely the interest of our people in 
the new organization. 

The county board of supervisors generously set apart a suit- 
able room in the new court-house for a museum for the Society, 
and granted to it the use of the county board room for a meeting 
place. The board also made an appropriation, not to exceed $500, 
to properly furnish and equip the room set aside for a museum. 
These furnishings could not be bought in the market and had to 
be manufactured, and great difficulty and delay were encoun- 
tered in finding a company who would manufacture what we 
vranted. We finally contracted for the furniture, but consider- 
able time was required for its manufacture. The furniture will 
soon be delivered to us, and we will be in shape to move along 
in the work of the Society. 

Many of our people take a great interest in the Society and its 
purposes, and I have no doubt it will be instrumental in gathering 
and preserving much of the early history of this portion of the 
State, which otherwise would be forgotten and lost. 

P. A, Orton, 





Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

Report of Manitowoc County 
Historical Society 

The Manitowoc County Historical Society has no reason to feel 
discouraged at the results of its efforts for the season 1909-10. 
While not many meetings have been held, interest lias been main- 
tained and some plans long cherished by the members brought 
to a happy consummation. The same officers that have guided 
the destinies of the Society since its foundation were by unani- 
mous consent continued in office another year, when the annual 
business session was held in January. 

The winter coui-se opened on February 13 with a talk on the 
^'History of the town of Kossuth," by Otto Drews. ]\Ir. Drews 
had given the subject considerable investigation, and was able 
in a manner highly creditable to trace out the development of 
the settlements made by different nationalities. ]\Iany of the 
old settlers of the town were present, and their reminiscences 
added to the interest of the session. 

On ]\rarch 25 Dr. J. F. Pritchard, formerly a director in the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad Co., gave a most interesting lecture 
on the "Railroad history of Manitowoc County." He traced 
the early efforts and failures to secure rail connections with the 
outside world, and then went into the inside history of later 
Manitowoc transportation activities. 

The cro^\^ling feature, however, of the work of the Society was 
the dedication of the monument erected to the honor of Waume- 
gesako (^Mexico), chief of the mixed tribes at tlie mouth of iMan- 
itowoc River. This dedication was made possible by the public 
spirit and generosity of the Hon. Nicholas Kottenhoffen, who 
donated the stone, carved nut its rugged shape, designed the 
medallion which ornaments its front, and placed it on the beau- 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

tifiil slope overlooking the village of ^lauitowoc Kapids, once 
the comity seat. 

The villagers and the neighbors in the surrounding township 
of Manitowoc Kapids assisted iu making the event a success by 
donating a site, contributing towards the expense, and arranging 
the programme of the day. The event took place on a balmy 
Sunday afternoon, August 8, and was witnessed by a gathering 
of people variously estimated in numbers at from 3,000 to 5,000. 
In fact, the interest and enthusiasm manifested in this project 
outdid anything that had been expected by those having the 
matter in charge. The school children particularly were inter- 
ested in the affair, and the care of the historic spot has been 
placed in their hands. 

The dedication ceremonies opened with music and an address 
of welcome by Judge Emil Baensch, president of the Society. 
Prayer was then offered by Kev. ]\Ir. Hastings of St. James 
church. Dr. Louis Falge read a brief account of the dead chief's 
life-work and character. Secretary R. G. Plumb then delivered 
the presentation address, which was replied to in behalf of the 
township by Chairman Emil Vetting, and on behalf of the 
school district by Ed Bedell. The two official guests of the 
occasion, Dr. E. G. Thwaites, superintendent of the State His- 
torical Society, and I\Ir. Otto Habheggcr, president of the Wis- 
consin Archaeological Society, then delivered addresses, and a 
benediction closed the ceremonies. 

The monument is of reddish Lake Superior sandstone, and 
will doubtless long remain as a landmark and as a tribute to 
the friendly old chief who helped make easier the way of the 
^lanitowoc County pioneers. 

A course of lectures for the coming winter is already under 
active consideration, and it is hoped among others to secure as 
speakers Dr. F. J. E. Westgate, Prof. Fred Christiansen, George 
AYehrwein, and Capt. Tim Kelley. 

R. G. Plumb, 



^ o 

o ~ 

si f I 

o o 
3 r 


; ^ 





'--j\ > 




Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

Report of Ripon Historical 

The Ripou Historical Society has no record of achievement to 
report for the past year. There is still going on the quiet work 
of collection of material, which is being safely cared for at the 
city library. No important meetings have been held since the 
last report. Superintendent E. L. Luther of the city schools is 
the president, and is planning for a programme of special pa- 
pers to be prepared the coming year. 

S. M. Pedrick, 



Wisconsin Historical Society 

Report of Sauk County Histor- 
ical Society 

The Sauk County Historical Society lias finished a year in 
which the regular routine work of recording collections and ar- 
ranging historical newspaper items has been relieved by the 
marking of Chief Yellow Thunder's grave and the homecoming 
at Newport. 

The collections on exhibition in the rooms in the court-house 
have been increased, more particularly by the donations of hand- 
made tools of pioneer days, in the possession of which the Society 
is especially strong. 

The Society has decided to change from the card catalogue 
system of accessioning the donations, to the book system, such as 
is in use in the State Historical Library- at ]\Iadison. Next year 
will mark a beginning on this system. 

Plans are also on foot to change the classification of the speci- 
mens in the court-house, by subjects. 

At the four meetings held during the year, the following 
papers were read: 

"Old Newport." Hon. G. G. Swain of Winona, Minn. 
"Directory of Newport," Dr. Ambrose Jones of Delton. 
"Rafting on the Wisconsin," J. T. Huntington, Delton. 
"Newport to-day." Mis. J. E. English, Baraboo. 
"Sauk County in the Civil War." Hon. Philip Cheek, Baraboo. 

On Friday, 27, occurred the unveiling of the Yellow 
Thunder pillar, five miles north of Baraboo. at the cross roads, 
and the homecoming at Newport, all of which constituted the an- 
nual pilgrimage of the Society. 

At the pillar ceremony, Clerk of the Court James H. Hill 










The Yellow Tiundei; pillar 



., — • 



Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

spoke on "Indian memorials;" Mrs. Emma Mertzke, representing 
the Twentieth -Century Club, which participated in the arrange- 
ments resulting in the erection of the pillar, spoke on "Yellow 
Thunder, war chief of the Winnebago;" and Edmund Calvert, 
who knew the Yellow Thunder family, and was present at his 
burial, told of the last rites over the remains of the chief. 

The second part of the pilgrimage was held at Ne^vport, on 
the banks of Wisconsin Eiver, about four miles south of Kil- 
bourn. Dinner was eaten from baskets, after which Dr. Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, superintendent of the State Historical Society, 
gave an address, from the top of an Indian mound, on "The ro- 
mance of ^Mississippi Valley history." 

After his address, W. S. :\Iarshall, manager of the Marshall 
farm, gave his recollections of the thriving city of which but a 
few houses remain. Other speakers were Dr. A. A. Jones, of 
Dclton (a real homecomer, and nearly ninety years of age), and 
Maj. Guy C. Pierce of Kilbourn. 

Orin L. Stinson, 



Wisconsin Historical Society 

Report of Superior Historical 

This city lately adopted as its slogan, "Superior delivers the 
goods." Our Historical Society, however, has not lived up to 
this motto, for since there have been no meetings during the 
past year, vre are unable to make any annual report. Our 
people have been busy during the year in making history (as 
we hope), and have therefore neglected recording history pre- 
viously made. 

We trust that in the j'ear to come the present may be so 
subordinated that there will be leisure for reviving and pre- 
serving the memories of the past, and that it will not again be 
necessary to make return of nidla hona. 

James B^vrdon, 

Henry S. Butler, 



Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

Report of Walworth County 
Historical Society 

The Society begs leave to report a gain of one member, the re- 
election of the present officers, and the following memorial no- 
tices : 

Edward Seymour Beckwith. one of the earliest members of 
this Society, died May 28, 1909, at the National Home for Dis- 
abled Volunteer Soldiers, where he had gone for treatment of 
painful affections suffered for some years. He was of the 
eighth American generation in most of the several lines of his 
descent, and was second of the ten children of Asahel Lane 
Beckwith and Harriet Angeline Seymour. He was bom Octo- 
ber 18, 1837, at Chittenango, ]\[adison County, New York, and 
came to Wisconsin in 1856. He enli^ed April 21, 1861, in 
Company K, 2nd "Wisconsin InfantrJ^ In December following, 
this company became a battery of heavy artillery, and from 
this service he was mustered out July 6, 1864. Pie was in the 
actions at Blackburn's Ford and Bull Run. 

His .services to this Society and to the parent Society, as well 
as to the public library at Elkhoru. were numerous, intelligently 
directed, and noiseless. Among various aptitudes was that for 
tabulation of statistics of regimental service in the "War of Se- 
cession, and that for genealogical study and arrangement of 
data; and this quality was not wholly unknown to other "work- 
ers in the field of human relationship," or unacknowledged by 
them. A series of BccJcicith Notes, compiled by himself and a 
brother, owes full half of such value as it may have to his pa- 
tient industry, his intelligent skepticism at certain points, and 
his ingenious conjectures (often leading to proof) at other 
points. He had also collected considerable Se\nnour data. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Henrj' Bradley, honorary member of this Society, died at Elk- 
horn, August 17, 1909. He was a descendant of Francis Brad- 
ley and Mary Barlow, early settlers of Fairfield, Conn., and 
was son of Daniel E. Bradley and Betsey Sturgis. Pie was 
bom in the valley of Ouleout Creek, town of Sidney, Delaware 
County, New York. In 1839 his parents came to Elkhorn. He 
served the tovra for several years as clerk, justice, and school 
officer. From 1S61 to 1886 he was postmaster; after an inter- 
val of four years he returned to his old duty, serving from 
1890 to 1894, a total service of tweuty-nine years. 

Mr. Bradley was a man who could all'ord to speak truth and 
to do right at whatever consequence to himself. He was an 
early and efficient friend of the public library, and a liberal 
giver to its book-shelves. More generally speaking, he was al- 
ways to be found among men who sought, in some sane and 
practical way, to serve the larger and truer interests of Elk- 
horn. His onh^ son is a member both of this Society and of 
the State Society. 

J. H. Snyder, Jr., 



Reports of Local Auxiliaries 

Report of Waukesha County 
Historical Society 

The Waukesha County Historical Society has held two meet- 
ings durinj,''the past year. Five resident members and t^vo 
corresponding members were elected during the twelve months. 
A gavel made from a piece of an oak beam taken from the 
first house built in Eagle was presented to the Society by the 
Open Door Club of that tovm. It is marked ^^'ith a silver 
plate suitably inscribed— the gift of the president, George F. 

]Mrs. Helen A. AMiitney of Waukesha presented a package of 
old newspapers to the Society. 

At the meeting held in Waukesha ^March 6, 1909, after the 
election of officers, papers were read by ^Mrs. 11. ^l. Yoiunans 
on "The Waukesha County fair of old days," and W. P. Saw- 
yer, "Reminiscences of Waukesha and vicinity." These were 
followed by five-minute talks by members and guests. 

The meeting held Septemlier 4. 1909, in Dclafield, by the 
invitation of ]\Irs. Virginia Alden Brewster, was the most 
largely attended of any since the Society was organized, 125 
members and guests being present. 

A letter was read from Charles E. Bro^^^l, chief of the mu- 
seum department of the State Historical Society, inviting mem- 
bers to visit the museum, also asking as gift or loan, specimens 
for use in illustrating the educational, religious, militaiy. agri- 
cultural, railroad, and medical history of the State. 
< Announcement was made by the secretary that ^liss Louise 
Alden of Dclafield had placed a temporary marker on the site 

9 [123] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

of the birthplace of Lieut. William B. Gushing, near the vil- 
lage of Delafield. 

The programme began as usual with the singing of "Auld 
Lang Syne," and closed with a well-arranged medley of old- 
time songs, ending with "America." 

The papers were: "Reminiscences of Oconomowoc and con- 
trasts," Miss Grace P. Jones; "Stories of Pewaukee," I. N. 
Stewart ; and a letter from Nelson Hawks, son of the landlord 
of the old Hawks tavern, where the meeting was held. 

There were present a number of former pupils of Miss Jones 
and Mr. Stewart, as well as many who had pleasant recol- 
lections connected with the old tavern, making this an especially 
interesting meeting. 

Julia A. Lapham, 



Indian Diplomacy 

Indian Diplomacy and Opening 
of the Revolution in the West 

By James Alton James, Ph. D. 

From the opening of the lu'volutionary War, American lead- 
ers looked to the conquest of Detroit, the headquarters of the 
posts and key to the fur-trade and control of the Indian tribes 
to the north^s•est of the Ohio/ Tliroughout the war, this post, 
in the possession of the British, "continued," as Washington 
wrote, "to be a source of troubh) to the whole Western coun- 
try. ' ' - 

The garrison at Detroit, at tlie beginning of the year 1776, 
consisted of 120 soldiers under the command of Capt. Richard 
Lemoult. The fort was defended by a "stockade of Picquets," 

T- American Archives. 4th ser., ill, p. 1368; Mich. Pion. and Hi^t. 
CoJls., xxvii, pp. 612 et seq. 

Prom this post, a trace led wi at. ward by way of the Maumee and 
across the upper Wabash to Post St. Vincent. In like manner an 
Indian path extended to Kaskaskla and other posts on the upper 
Mississippi. Not only was it a Rroat centre for the fur-trade, but in 
years of good harvests flour and Kialn were furnished to other posts 
from Detroit. — Draper MSS., 46.19. The post was of great importance 
during the French regime. IndlariK from the Northwest took part, In 
common with Canadians, in the battle on the Plains of Abraham. 
June 29, 1759, a courier announced that there were about to arrive 
100 French and 150 Indians from Detroit; 600 to TOO Indians with 
M. Linctot, 100 Indians with M. Rayeul, and the convoy of M. Aubry 
from Illinois with 600 to 700 Indians. Twelve hundred other Indians 
from the same region were also reported to be on the way. — Wis. Hist. 
Colls., xviii, pp. 212, 213. 

2 Letter to Daniel Brodhead, Dec 29, 17S0. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

about nine feet out of the earth, without "frize or ditch." 
Three hundred and fifty French and English made up the en- 
tire number of men in the to-RTi and near-by country, capable 
of bearing arms.^ The majority of these men were French 
militiamen assembled under their own officers. Commanding 
tlie fort were two British armed schooners and three sloops 
manned by thirty "seamen and servants." There was not a 
single guimer among the crews; they were dissatisfied with the 
service and incapable of . making much resistance. 

Three hundred miles away to the southeast was Fort Pitt, 
the only American fortification (1775) guarding the long front- 
ier stretching from Greenbrier, in soutliAvestern Virginia, to 
Kittanning on the upper Allegheny.* This fort was without a 
garrison. The inhabitants were dependent on the protection of 
the militia of the neighboring counties, and large numbers were 
reported to be in a most defenceless condition.^ 

From these two centres, in council after council, were to be 
exercised all of the diplomatic finesse of white men in attempts 
to gain control over the Indians of the Northwest. Assembled 
at some of these conferences were the chiefs and other repre- 
sentatives of the Delawares of the Muskingum and the Ohio; 
the ShaAMiee and :Mingo of the Scioto, the AVyandot, Ottawa, 
and Potawatomi of Lake IMichigan, the Chippewa of all the 
Lakes ; and, besides these, the Miami, Seneca, Sauk, and numer- 

sThwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio (Madison, 
Wis., 190S), pp. 147-151. 

Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton arrived Nov. 9, 1775, but Captain 
Lernoult commanded the troops until the summer of 1776. 

The total population in 1773 was about 1,400; 298 of them men. — 
mch. Pion. and Hist. Colls., ix, p. 649. The population in 1778 was 
2144; 564 being men. — Ibid., p. 469. 

* Fort Blair, near the mouth of the Kanawha, had been evacuated 
by order of Governor Dunmore, and was burned by some of the Ohio 
Indians. — Amer. Archives, 4th ser., iv, p. 201. 

5 George Morgan, Indian agent at Fort Pitt, in a letter of May 16, 
1776, reported that there was "scarcely powder west of the Mountains 
sufficient for every man to prime his gun and only 200 lb. wt. in the 
Fort here.*'— Letter to Lewis Morris, Papers of Continental Congress, 
vol. 163. entitled "Generals Clinton. Xixon, Nicola, et al., pp. 237-239. 

[ 126 ] ■ 

Indian Diplomacy 

ous other tribes. All told, the Northwestera tribes numbered 
some 8,000 warriors.^ 

It is not certain which of the urgent invitations issued in 
May, 1775, by Col. Guy Johnson' and by Ethan Allen to take 
up arms, met with the earliest response. 

The latter thus v.-rote to some of the Canadian tribes :^ 

I want to have your ^varI•iours come and see me. and help me fight 
the King's Regular Troops. You know they stand all close together, 
rank and file, and my men fight so as Indians do, and I want your 
warriours to join with me and my warriours like brothers, and am- 
bush the Regulars; if you will. I will give you money, blankets, 
tomahawks, knives, paint and anything that there is in the army 
just like brothers, and I will go with you into the woods to scout; 
and my men and your men will sleep together, and eat and drink 
together, and fight Regulars, because they first killed our brothers. 

Ye know my warriours must fight, but if you our brother Indians 
do not fight on either side, we will still be friends and brothers; and 
you may come and hunt in our woods, and come with your canoes 
in the lake and let us have venison at our forts on the lake, and have 
rum, bread and what you want and be like brothers. 

In general, the American policy tended towards securing 
Indian neutrality, which was clearly stated by the Continental 
Congress in a speech prepared for the Six Nations early in 
July, 1775. The war was declared to be a family quarrel be- 
tween the colonists and Old England, in which the Indians 
were in no way concerned. It was urged that they should re- 
main at home and not join on either side, but "keep the hatchet 
buried deep."^ They were apprehensive of the policy to be 

6 Delawares and Munsee 600, Shawnee, 600. Wyandot 300. Ottawa 
COO, Chippewa 5.000. Potawatomi 400, Kickapoo, A'ermillion, and other 
email tribes of the Wabash SOO. Miami or Picts 300. Mingo of Pluggy's 
Town (Scioto River) 60. — Morgan, Letter Book, iii, March 27, 1778. 

Wyandot ISO. Tawa 450, Potawatomi 450. Chippewa 5.000, Shawnee 
300, Delawares or Munsee 600, :Miami 300. — Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, 
iii, pp. 560, 561. 

The Sauk, Foxes, and Iowa numbered some 1,400 warriors. 

T Amer. Archives, 4th ser., ii, p. 665. 

8 This letter was written from Crown Point, May 24, 1775. — Ibid., 
pp. 713, 714. 

• July 13, 1775.— 7&i(f., p. 1882. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

pursued by the British. Consequently, three departments of 
Indian affairs were created, to be under the control of com- 
missioners, whose duties were to treat with the Indians in order 
to preserve their peace and friendship and prevent thera from 
taking part in the present commotions. They were to super- 
intend also the distribution of arms, ammunition, and clothing, 
such as was essential to the existence of the Indians. ^° 

Within a year, however, a resolution was passed that it was 
highly expedient to engage the Indians in the ser\'ice of the 
united colonies and especially to secure their co-operation in 
bringing about the reduction of Detroit.^^ 

In a dispatch to Congress, George ^Morgan thus outlined the 
plan which, in general, was pursued by Indian agents of the 
best type on the frontier :^- 

We shall ever hold It our duty, to exert. our utmost influence to pre- 
vent hostilities and to promote peace and harmony with the Indian 
tribes. The cheapest and most humane mode of obtaining an al- 
liance with the savages is by buying of their friendship. They have 
been long taught by contending nations to be bought and sold. We 
are well satisfied we can bestow our country no service more es- 
sential to her interest than by restraining the hostilities of the Indians 
and giving ease to the minds of our frontier inhabitants. 

Indeed, this v.-as the safest course to pursue, for on the front- 
iers constant danger from retaliatory attacks outweighed any 

10 July 12, 177i), in Ihid.. p. 1S79. The three departments were 
Northern, Middle, and Southern. The Northern Department included 
the Six Nations and all other Indians north of these tribes. The 
Southern included the Cherokee and other Southern tribes. The 
Middle, all Indians between the territory of the two others. There 
■were to be five commissioners for the Southern and three each for the 
two other departments. 

ii Journals of Continryital Confjrcss. iv, p. 395. 

The commissioners were instructed. May 25, 1776, to offer as an 
inducement £50 of Pennsylvania currency for every prisoner (soldier 
of the garrison) brought to them. The Indians were to be given the 
free plunder of the garrison. 

"Washington was authorized to employ Indians, on June 17, 1776. — 
Id. (new ed.), v. p. 452. 

12 Morgan, Letter Book, ii, July 30. 1776. 

ri2si . • 

Indian Diplomacy 

assistance which might be secured through the enlistment of 

The British early employed the savages to cut off outlying 
settlements. Under plea that the '"rebels" had used Indians 
in their hostilities on the frontier of Quebec, after the capture 
of Ticonderoga, and that they had brought Indians for the at- 
tack on Boston, General Gage urged that General Carleton 
might be privileged to use Canadians and Indians for a counter 
stroke. ^^ - 

The letter which followed, containing "Ilis I\Iajesty's com- 
mands for engaging a body of Indians," and promising a large 
assortment of goods for presents, was of form merely. On the 
day it was written. 500 Indians were brought to ^Montreal to 
join the English army.^* Thereafter, the British were 'to en- 
list the savages for service with the regular army, as well as to 
employ them with more terrible results in cutting off outlying 
settlements and raiding the frontiers. 

There was necessity for prompt action on the part of the 
Americans, in order that they might gain the friendship of the 
tribes beyond the Ohio. In the provisional treaty at Camp 
Charlotte, Governor Dunmore promised the Indians that he 
would return in the spring and bring it to completion. By 
that time, the Revolutionary movement had assumed such pro- 
portions that he deemed it inadvisable to risk a journey to the 
frontier. Again, he found a ready agent in Dr. John Con- 
nolly,^^ a bold, enterprising, restless character who had been 
left in command of the garrison of seventy-five men at Fort 
Dunmore. In a contVrenee at Williamsburg, in February, 
]\Iajor Connolly was instructed by Lord Dimmore to use his 
efforts to induce the Indians to espouse the cause of Great 
Britain. In this he succeeded, in so far as he brought together 
at Pittsburgh the chiefs of the Delawaros and a few ]\Iingo, 
whom he assured that a general treaty, with presents, was soon 
to be held with all the Ohio Indians.^" Disbanding the garri- 

'3June 12, ITT-'i. General Gage to Lord Dartmouth. — A.mer. Arcldves, 
4th ser., ii. p. 9GS. 

n August 2. 1775.-7(7.. iii. pp. 6. 12. 

15 Pemia. Colon. Records. 17G0-1776, pp. 477, 4S4, 4S5, 637, 682. 

^«I!ev. on Upper Ohio. p. 35. 

[ 120 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Soclely 

son in July, he returned to find Dunraore a fugitive on board 
a man-of-war off York. Together they concocted a plan 
fraught with grave consequences for the back country and for 
the American cause in general. In a personal interview, Con- 
nolly won the assent of General Gage to the plan, and received 
instructions for the development.^' It was designed that Con- 
nolly should proceed to Detroit, where he was to have placed 
under his command the garrison from Fort Gage, led by Capt. 
Hugh Lord. This nucleus of an army, together with the 
French and Indians of Detroit, was to proceed to Fort Pitt. 
It was hoped that their force would be enhanced by the Ohio 
Indians, for whom liberal presents were provided, and by num- 
bers of the militia from Augusta County, who for their loyalty 
were to have 300 acres of land confirmed to each of them. Forts 
Pitt and Fincastle were to be destroyed, should they offer resist- 
ance, and the expedition was then to take and fortify Fort 
Cumberland and capture Alexandria, assisted by troops led by 
Dunmore and landed under protection of the ships of war.^^ 
Thus were the Southern colonies to be cut off from the North- 

Conditions promised well for the success of the enterprise. 
Connolly had won the favor of tlie Indians; Fort Pitt, as al- 
ready noted, was in a condition to offer but little defense; and 
the backwoodsmen were without the necessary equipment in 
arms and ammunition, to obstruct such an expedition. They 
were disunited also, because of the Pennsylvania and Virginia 
boundary dispute. A letter from Connollj^ to a supposed friend 
at Pittsburgh, led to his betrayal. Virginia authorities were 
informed of the intrigue. Runners were sent out from all the 
Southern provinces into the Indian nations through which he 
proposed to pass, with orders for his arrest.^" "With three asso- 
ciates, he was captured near nagersto\\-n, while on his way to 
Fort Pitt.=° 

IT The entire plan is given in Ihid.. pp. 140-142. 

18 Thwaites and KelloErg, Dunmorc's War (JIadison, Wis., 1905), 
p. 86; Amer. Archives, 4th ser.. iv, p. 616. 

i»/(Z.. lii, p. 1.543. 

20 A copy of the plan was in their possession. Capture of Connolly, 
In Id., iv, p. 616. 

[130] • 

Indian Diplomacy 

For upwards of two years thereafter, the frontiers were free 
from any general participation in the war. ^Meantime, immi- 
gration to the AVest continued,-^ and the contest went on between 
British and American agents for ascendency over the Indians 
of that region. 

]\Iajor Connolly had conducted his treaty with the Indians at 
Pittsburgh in tlie presence of the committee of correspondence of 
TVest Augusta County. -- The provisions and goods furnished by 
the committee on that occasion assisted materially in gaining 
the good-will of the Indians for later negotiations. A petition 
to Congress from the committee, followed at an early date, set- 
ting forth their fears of a rupture with the Indians on account 
of the late conduct of Governor Dunmore, and asking that com- 
missioners from Pennsylvania and Virginia should be appointed 
to confer with the Indians at Pittsburgh.^s 

On June 24, therefore, six commissioners were appointed by 
Virginia for the purpose of maldng a treaty with the Ohio In- 
dians, and a sum of +:'2,000 was appropriated for that purpose. 
Capt. James AVood, one of the commissioners, a man well-versed 
in frontier affairs, was delegated to lisit the tril)cs and extend 
to them an invitation to attend the conference at Pittsburgh. 
He was likewise to exphiin the dispute to the Indians, make them 
sensible of the great unanimity of the colonies, and "assure 
them of our Peaceable Intentions towards them and that we 
did not stand in need of or desire any assistance from them."-^ 
The day following. Captain VTood set out from VTilliamsburg 
on his hazardous joui-ney of two months, accompanied by Simon 
Girty, his sole companion, who acted as interpreter. The report 
made on his return was not wholly promising for the cause he 
represented. His reiM-ption l\v tlie Dolawares, SluuA-nee, and 
other tribes was friendly, for the fear excited by the battle of 
Point Pleasant was still upon them." Re learned, however, 

21 More "cabin improvements" were made in 1776 than in any other 
year.— Draper MSS.. 4C4S.-. 

22Rer. on Upper Ohio. pp. 37, 3S. 

^3 Jour, of Continental Conorcss (new ed.). ii. p. 76. 

24 J?ey. on Upper Ohio, p. 3.j. 

2-' These two tribes had invited others to unite with them against the 
English in 1764.— Wis. Hist. CoUs., xviii, p. 262. 
[ 131 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

that two British emissaries had already presented belts and 
strings of wampum to seventeen nations, inviting them to unite 
with the French and English against the Virginians.-^ They 
were warned that an attack by the "Big Knives" was imminent 
from two directions, by the Ohio and by the Great Lakes. The 
Virginians were a distinct people, they were assured, and an 
attack upon them would in no case be resented bj^ the other 
colonies. Besides, the in^atation to a treaty, which would be 
extended to them, should under no conditions be accepted; for 
the representatives who were to meet at Pittsburgh could not be 
depended upon. Similar advice was given the tribes of the up- 
per Allegheny Eiver, brought together at Niagara. Many of 
these Indians, at the instigation of Governor Carleton and Guy 
Johnson, were induced to go to Albany, and many more to Mon- 
treal, to join the British armies. 

The Virginia commissioners, together with those appointed by 
Congress, assembled at Pittsburgh, .September 10. Thus, not- 
withstanding English opposition,-' which in a measure had. been 
overcome by traders, chiefs, and delegates from the Seneca, 
Delawares, Wyandot, ]Mingo, and Shawnee gathered slowly for 
the conference. Each trilje on arrival was received with "Drum 
and Colours and a Salute of small arms from the Garrison."-^ 

During a period of three weeks, the commissioners strove by 
speech, and through presents of clothing and strings of wam- 
pum, to convince the Indians that they should keep the hatchet 
buried, and use all endeavor to induce the Six Nations and 
other tribes to remain absolutely neutral. They were assured 
that the cause of Virginia was the cause of all America. The 
commissioners say:-^ 

In this dispute your Interest is Involved with ours so far as this, 
that in Case those People with whom we are Contending sho'u'd 
Subdue us, your Lands, your Trade, your Liberfy. and all that is dear 
to you must fall with us. for if they wou'd Distroy our flesh and Spill 
our Blood which is the same with theirs; what can you who are no 
•way related to or Connected with them to Expect? * * » we are 

26Aw!er. Archives. 4th ser., iii, pp. T6-7S. 

27 Ihxd.. pp. 1542, 1543. 

28 iJer. on Upper Ohio. p. 74. 
^^Ibid., p. 95. 

[ 132 1 

Indian Diplomacy 

r.ot Affraid these People will Conquer us, they Can't fight in our 
Country, and you Know we Can; we fear not them, nor any Power 
on Earth. 

In the event of American success, tbey declare, with true 
American assurance, they would be so incensed against those 
Indians who fought against them, "that they would march an 
army into their country, destroy them and take their lands 
from them."^° To still further convince the Indians of their 
invincibility, they assert that the Indian tribes at the North 
were ready to become their allies, and that the people of Canada, 
with the exception of a few of Governor Carleton's fools, were 
friendly to the American cause.'^ The natives were invited to 
send their children to be educated among the white people, with- 
out expense to themselves.^- No little trouble was experienced 
in leading the Indians to agree to surrender all prisoners and 
negroes, and deliver up stolen horses. This done, peace "to 
endure forever" was established. 

That these children of the woods were greatly divided, and 
at a loss how to act, was in no way surprising. Promises of the 
British emissaries for a successful issue of their arms, were pre- 
sented in a fashion quite as alluring. Lieutenant-Governor 
Hamilton learned of the treaty shortly after it was concluded, 
through an Indian who was present, and a Frenchman who had 
been stationed within ten miles of Pittsburgh. The special mis- 
sion of this Frenchman was to discover the effect of the treaty 
upon the savages, and neutralize the results wherever possible.^'' 

Hamilton felt con\nnced that any treaty which might have 
been made Avould endure for a brief period only, on account of 
the "haughty, violent dispositions" of the Virginians. But 
arms, ammunition, rum, and other presents in ever-increasing 

3"Amer. Archives. 5th ser., ii, p. 318. 

31 /'ei;. on Upiier Ohio, p. 95. 

^- Amer. Archives, 4th ser., iii, p. 1542. 

Dr. Thomas Walker, on his return, took a young Indian with him 
to be educated. On quitting Virginia, in 1779, this Indian became an 
enemy of the state. 

33 A'et'. o.'i Upper Ohio, pp. 127-135. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

quantities, were the ready means of winning savage favor.^'* 
That tlie colonists might make a show of presents at first, but 
that they would be unable to furnish the different nations with 
their necessary wants, was an argument shrewdly used by Brit- 
ish officials, for the savages had already become aware of Amer- 
ican poverty. Threats to send canoe-loads of goods back to 
Montreal, were whips upon such tribes as might show any dis- 
position to waver. 

But the jealousy of the Indians was most quickly aroused by 
accoimts of encroachments Upon their lands. The contest for 
their alliance brought out what seemed to the Indians to be two 
distinct policies. Congress decreed that no encroachments 
should be made beyond the line agreed upon at Fort Stanwix.^^ 
The eommissionors at Pittsburgh declared it to be their purpose 
not to encroach on Indian lauds, and to retain only the tracts 
acquired by treaty.'^ 

It became increasingly difficult for the autliorities to keep 
faith \nth the Indians, for the acquisition of extensive tracts 
of their lands, beyond the fixed boimdary, was continuous.^- 
Frontiersmen continued to push the settled area forward, in 
total disregard of proclamations and ])oundaries. There were 
many of them who even hoped for a general Indian war, in or- 
der that the seizure of lands might go forward. To this end, 
parties were formed for the purpose of killing Indians on their 
way for a friendly \isit, and for waylaying hunters on their 

3* "What I mentioned to you on the subject of expenses," General 
Carleton wrote to Hamilton, Oct. 6. 1776, "was in consequence of in- 
structions from the Treasury, but it was not intended to limit you 
with regard to such as are absolutely necessary for putting your Post 
in a proper state of defence and for keeping the Indians in readiness 
for, and a disposition to act as circumstances shall require." — Mich. 
Pion. and Hist. Colls., ix. p. 344. 

"But the Indians must have presents," another official exclaimed; 
"whenever we fall off from that article, they are no more to be de- 
pended upon."— De Peyster to Haldimand, Ibid., p. 375. 

s-'Jour. of Continental Congress, iv, p. 318 (April 20. 1776). 

36 Rev. on Upper Ohio, pp. 9S. IIS. 

37 Prom 1775 to November, 1778. the amount of Indian lands thus 
acquired was reported to be seventy million acres.— Letter of George 
Morgan to Henry Laurens, Nov. 29, 1778, Morgan Letter Book. iii. 

[134 1 

Indian Diplomacy 

own lands. Scouting parties employed by the comity-lieuten- 
ants on the Monongahcla and the Ohio were guilty of acts of 
lawlessness,"^ which pointed to a premeditated design to bring 
on general hostilities. 

According to an English proclamation, no deeds to lands were 
considered valid until they were passed by the authority of the 
chief governor, registered at Quebec, and entered at the office in 
Detroit. Governor lEamilton declared at the close of the year 
1778 that he had never granted lands at Detroit. ^'^ He said :*° 

As there has been a restraint laid upon granting land to settlers 
at this place, whose farms are small and families numerous, the 
consequence has been young men growing to age engage as Canoemen, 
go off to distant settlements and in general become vagabonds so that 
the settlement does not increase in numbers as may be seen by com- 
paring the recensment of 1776 with that of 1766. 

The attention of the Indians was called to the fact, of which 
they were already well aware, that the "Big Knife" had been 
pushing them back for many j^ears and would not rest until he. 
was possessed of all this country'. The origin of the follo■^\^ng 
message, therefore, from the Six Nations and Chippewa to the 
Virginians and Pennsylvanians, early in the year 1777, may be 
easily discerned:*^ 

You have feloniously taken possession of part of our country on 
the branches of the Ohio as well as the Susquehanna. To the latter 
[Pennsylvanians] we have some time since sent you word to quit our 
Lands as we now do to you as we don't know we ever give you liberty 
nor can we be easy in our minds while there is an arm'd force at 
our very doors nor do we think you or anybody else would — There- 
fore to use you with more lenity than you have a right to expect, 
■we now tell you in a peaceful manner to quit our lands wherever you 
have possessed yourselves of them immediately or blame yourselves 
for whatever may happen. 

AVhile the treaty at Pitts1)nrgh had been made, in the language 
of its text, to last "until the sun shall shine no more, or the 

ss Rev. on Upper Ohio, pp. 27, 34. Morgan Letter Book, i, April 1, 
1777. Five or six spies fired on three Delaware Indians in their 
hunting camp, which they afterwards plundered. 

3^ Mich. Pion. and Hist. Colls., ix, p. 474. 

<oibid.. p. 433. 

■ti Jlorgan Letter Book, i, Feb. 2. 1777. 
r 135 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

waters fail to run in the Ohio, ' ' both of these reverses of nature 
seem to have taken place in the Indian imagination by the fol- 
lowing spring. In the meantime, they had been visited by 
British agents to secure their adherence.^- The traces to De- 
troit were well worn by the tribes which assembled there to meet 
Hamilton, who strove in eveiy way to excite the Indians to take 
up the hatchet.*^ To this end, British officers were generous 
with their presents and lavish in their hospitality, partaking 
with the Indians in the feast of roast ox, and recovering their 
dead anew with rum. 

Various desultory expeditions by the Indians kept the fron- 
tiers in continuous alarm. During the conference at Pittsburgh,, 
wandering bands of "VTyandot and ]Mingo went to the mouth of 
the Kentucky, "to look at the white people." On their return, 
they shot two white boys at Boouesborough. Three warriors of 
the Six Nations returned in June with two prisoners. A party 
of four Shawnee, returning in August from the Cherokee coun- 
try, killed two white men at Big Bone Lick. The whites retali- 
ated by shooting two of the Indians.^* 

Congress, early in April, appointed Col. George Morgan In- 
dian agent for the Middle Department. The choice was a wise 
one. For a number of years he had been a trader in the Illinois 
country, where he had become noted among the Indians for his 
generosity and strict honesty. No man of the time better under- 
stood the methods necessary in winning the friendship of the 
Western tribes. He was instructed to forward at once the 
great belt presented to the Indians at Pitts])urgh." The commis- 
sioners for the ^Middle Department were directed to conclude a 
treaty with the Western tribes at the earliest convenient time. 
Morgan was, so far as possible, to adjust all differences through 
arbitration^^ — in the language of the instructions:*^ 

*2 Rev. on Upper Oliio, p. 144. 

43 Morgan Letter Book, il, Aug. 31, 1776. 

*4 Ihid., Aug. 7. 1776. 

i'^Jour. of Continental Congress, iv, p. 268. 

46 One of the arbitrators was to be selected by the commissioners — 
or, in their absence, by the Indian agent — and one each by the parties 
in the dispute. — Ibid., p. 26S. 

*TJbid., pp. 294, 301. 


Indian Diplomacy 

Inspire them with justice and humanity, and dispose them to in- 
troduce the arts of civil and social life and to encourage the residence 
of husbandmen and handicraftsmen among them. 

In pursuance of this general policy, assurance had already- 
been given to the Delawares by Congress, upon the request of 
their chief, that in addition to the establishment of satisfactory 
trade relations and the protection of their right to the lands,** 
there should be sent to tliem a schoolmaster, a Christian minis- 
ter, and a man competent to give them instruction in agricul- 

Arriving at Pittsburiih. ;May IG, 1776, Morgan, in his endeavor 
to prevent the attendance of the Indians at a council called by 
Hamilton at Detroit, proceeded at once to the Shawnee towns.'^ 
William AVilsou, a trader who accompanied ^Morgan, extended 
the invitation to other tribes to assemble at Pittsburgh, Septem- 
ber 10, for the purpose of making a treaty. 

No incident better illustrates the situation which Americans 
were forced to meet in these critical preliminary years, than 
"Wilson's reception by Hamilton. TVith three companions, "Wil- 
son, upon invitation of the AVyandot, Aisited their village oppo- 
site Detroit and delivennl to the chiefs the speech and belt sent 
by Morgan. ^^ Hamilton liaving expressed the desire to speak 
vrith him in a friendly manner, "Wilson accompanied the chiefs 
to Detroit. In explaining the message to the Indians, Hamilton 
declared that the people who sent it were enemies and traitors 
to his king, and that he would prefer to lose his right hand 
rather than take one of them by the liand. Tearing the speech 
and cutting the belt to pieces, he then spoke to the assembled 
Indians on a tomahawk belt. 

"White Eyes, chief of the Delawares, who accompanied W^il- 
son, was ordered to leave Detroit before sunset, "as he regarded 

4S/6itf.. p. 268. 

*9 Speech to Captain White Eyes (April 10, 1776), who had passed 
the winter in Philadelphia.— 7f)irf., p. 269. 

The preceding November, two blacksmiths were employed to reside 
among the Iroquois and work for them. — /'/.. iii, p. oCG. 

^oAyner. ArcJnvcs, 5th ser., ii. p. 514. 

ci White Eyes and John Montour were two of his companions. — 
Jbid., p. 515. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

his head." Wilson, likewise, was directed to leave at once, re- 
ceiving a parting word from the governor, which was well 
calculated to excite fear among the frontiersmen and enthusiasm 
for the British cause among the savages. In reporting the af- 
fair, Wilson thus quoted Hamilton's remarks: 

He would be glad "if I would inform the people on my return of 
what I had seen; that all the Indians I saw there at the treaty were 
of the same way of thinking; and that he would be glad if the people 
would consider the dreadful consequences of going to war with so 
terrible an enemy and accept the King's pardon while it could be 

Hamilton then informed Wilson that an array of 20,000 men 
were landed in Canada, and had driven the rebel's entirely out 
of that government and were pursuing them to the southward; 
that 20,000 inore were landed in New York, and the same num- 
ber to the southward, with the eompletest train of artillery that 
ever came out of Europe on any occasion, and that the king's 
triumph was assured.^- 

The summer months were full of foreboding for the now ter- 
ror-stricken frontiersmen. Six hundred Cherokee were reported 
as being ready to strike the Virginia frontier with a determina- 
tion to kill or make prisoners of all the people. These savages 
had also accepted the war-belt from the Shawnee and Mingo, 
and agreed to fall on the Kentucky settlements.^^ A general 
confederation of all the Western tribes was reported, with the 
aim of destroj-ing all frontier settlements,"'* and there was delay 
only until their scattered young men should be called in and 
the com necessary for subsistence should ripen. In a speech to 
the IMingo, the most desperate of savage tribes, Hamilton is said 
to have stirred up their most brutal instincts. As he delivered 
to them the tomahawk, bullets, and powder, having previously 

^^ Ibid., p. 51S. General Howe wrote Lord Cormaine as to the actual 
situation as follows: "Upon the present appearance of things, I 
look upon the further progress of this army for the campaign to be 
rather precarious, an attack upon Rhode Island excepted." 

^3 Ibid., p. 1236— "Overhill Cherokee." 

5* Morgan Letter Book, ii, Aug. 31, 177G: Indian commissioners to 
a committee of Westmoreland County. 

[ 13S ] 

Indian Diplomacy 

taken part, as usual, with his ofliccrs in the war-song," he de- 
ch^red :^* 

that he ■wonder'd to see them so foolish as not to see that the Big 
Knife was come up very near to them and claimed one half the water 
in the Ohio and that if any of the Indians cross'd over to their side 
of the River they immediately took him, laid his head on a big block 
and chopp'd it off, that he had now put them in a way to prevent 
such usage and that if they met any of them they should strike 
their tomahawks into their heads, cut off some of the hair and bring 
it to him. 

It was suspected that 1,500 Chippewa and Ottawa were ren- 
dezvousing with the intention of attacking Fort Pitt." Driven 
to desperation, backwoodsmen forsook their clearings, evacuat- 
ing the country for 200 miles, except at certain places where 
some of them forted.^^ 

At the time, the frontier defense was entrusted to 100 men 
at Fort Pitt, 100 at Big Kanawha, and 25 at Wheeling, all in 
the pay of Virginia. These numbers were far too meagre for 
the purpose, much less capable of any offensive warfare. ^^ i\Ies- 
sengers were dispatched to Congress and to Williamsburg, im- 
ploring an augmentation of the numbers in the garrisons and 
the formation of new posts having proper supplies of ammuni- 
tion and provisions. ^'^ The militia of Westmoreland and West 
Augusta coimties were called out.*^ The county-lieutenants of 
Hampshire, Diurmore, Frederick, and Berkeley were directed to 
collect provisions and hold their militia in readiness to march 
to Fort Pitt for immediate service.*^- A company of militia waa 

eslTicTi. Pion. and Hist. CoUs., ix, p. 482. 

50 Morgan Letter Book, ii. Aug. IS, 31, 1776: to the committee of 
Congress for Indian affairs. 

'-1 Rev. on Upper Ohio, p. 200. 

=8 Morgan Letter Book, i, Nov. S, 177G: George Morgan to John Han- 
cock, president of Congress. 

5»M., ii. Aug. IS, 1776: to committee on Indian affairs. 

«o Congress directed that a ton of gunpowder should immediately be 
sent. — Jour. Continental Congress, iv, p. 396. 

^^ Rev. on Upper Ohio. p. 200. 

62 Morgan Letter Book, ii, Aug. 31, 1776: commissioners to county- 

10 [139] 

Wisconsin Flistorical Society- 
ordered out as ''rangers" for Fineastle Coimty. But notwith- 
standing the defenseless condition of the frontier, apprehension 
was so widespread lest the savages should destroy their homes 
during their absence, that the militia was gotten together only 
after great delay,*''^ many absolutely refusing the draft/'* 

Not until the 644 warriors and chiefs representing the Six 
Nations, Delawares, ]\Iunsee, and Shawnee assembled at Pitts- 
burgh, was it known for what purpose they came. The confer- 
ence served to dissipate the \vddespread gloom, for these Indian 
envoys promised "inviolable peace with the United States and 
neutrality during the war with Great Britain."*'^ Twelve chiefs 
were induced to \dsit Philadelphia, where they were introduced 
to Congress. For a few months after the treaty, all the other 
Western tribes, with the exception of a few of the ]\Iingo kno^vn 
as Pluggy's Band, seemed desirous of preserving peaceful rela- 

With difficulty. Colonel jMorgan persuaded the Virginia au- 
thorities that an expedition''' against tliese banditti would tend 
to bring on general hostilities with the tribes already jealous of 
the slightest encroachment by Amei'icans.*'^ He thought it more 
essential to restrain the frontiersmen and promote good order 
among them; to pacify leading men among the tribes by liberal 

63 A?/ier. Archives. 5th ser., ii. p. ."13. 
6i Rev. on Upper Ohio. pp. 174, 240. 

65 Morgan Letter Book, i, Nov. S, 1776: Morgan to John Hancock. 
Amer. Archives, 5th ser., iii, pp. 599, 600. 

66 Morgan Letter Book, i, Jan. 4, 1777. 

It has been estimated that there were some seventy families in- 
cluded in this band. They were joined by twenty young men of the 
Shawnee tribe. — Ihid.. March 9, 1777. 

67 7&icf., March 12. 1777. 

"You are to take command." wrote Patrick Henry to Col. David^ 
Shepherd, "of 300 men drawn from the militia of Monongalia, Yoho- 
gania and Ohio Counties or either of them and to m^arch with utmost 
secrecy and expedition to punish the Indians of Pluggy's Town for 
their iatc cruelties committed upon the people of this state." 

68 They were at the time exercised because of the settlement of lands 
on the Ohio, below the Kanawha and in Kentucky. 


Indian Diplomacy 

donations; and in all respects treat the Indians with "Justice, 
humanity and Hospitality."*^^ 

During the summer of 1777, the British began to employ 
more aggressive measures, with the view of distressing the fron- 
tiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania as much as possible.'" Gen- 
eral Carleton directed that the savages should be kept in readi- 
ness to join his forces in the spring, or march elsewhere, "as 
they may be most wanted."" 

Several months earlier, the plan to employ the Indians for 
this purpose had been proposed by Hamilton. In fulfillment 
of his desires, he was directed to use any means \vithin his 
power to crush the "rebellion" and to assemble as many Indians 
as convenient, under suitable leaders, for that purpose.''^ From 
the friendly disposition manifested by the representatives of 
the leading tribes of the Northwest, in a council held at Detroit 
(June 17, 1777), Plamilton felt assured that 1,000 warriors were 
ready to overrun the frontier. Although war-bands were ex- 
horted to act vigorously, they were urged to act with humanity.^^ 
But resolutions voiced by chiefs, to pay strict attention to the 
injunction that they spare the blood of the aged and of women 
and children, were idle.'* Special presents for proofs of obedi- 
ence signified little, where scalps were paid for.'^ 

^Meantime much time was eoiisumod at Pittsburgh in the dis- 
cussion on the character of aggressive operations to be under- 
taken. It was counseled that an expedition to Detroit was the 

69 Morgan Letter Book, i, April 1, 1777. 

-0 Draper MSS.. 3NX71. 

Ti ^Tich. Pion. and Hist. CoUs., ix. p. 344. 

"!' Letter of Lord George Germaine, March 26, 1777, in Ibid., pp. 346, 

-^ Draper .MSS., 49J13. 

'* Mich. Pion. and Hist. CoUs.. Ix, p. 454. 

T- Morgan Letter Book, iii, March 20, 177S. 

Daniel Sullivan, in a letter to Col. John Cannon, spoke of a visit to 
Detroit, disguised as an Indian trader, for the purpose of ascertaining 
conditions. While there, he learned that Hamilton, in his determina- 
tion to destroy' the frontier settlements, was wont to pay "very high 
prices in goods for scalps the Indians brought in. That he likewise 
pays for Prisoners but does not redeem them from the Savages and 
Bays he will not do it until the expiration of the present war." 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

only remedy against the incursions of Indians. Otliers held this 
plan to be impracticable and unnecessary. No more telling 
reasons for the probability of a successful attack on Detroit, 
were formulated during the entire war, than those submitted 
by Colonel Morgan. He urged :'^ first, That the road was prac- 
ticable; second, that the Delawares and Shawnee were disposed 
to remain quiet; third, that there were no powerful tribes near 
or on the road to Detroit, to oppose such an expedition; fourth, 
that Detroit was at the time in a defenseless state ; fifth, that it 
was from that post that the offending Western Indians were 
supplied "in all their wants and paid for all their murders;" 
and sixth, that its possession would induce all the tribes, through 
fear and interest, to enter into an American alliance.''^ For the 
purpose, he advised from 1,200 to 1,500 regular troops and such 
volunteers as might be secured. He opposed continuously the 
plan of General Mcintosh, who looked toward retaliatory expe- 
ditions. Not only were these expeditions failures, but they 
prevented the possibility of the capture of Detroit. Finding 
that his advise was unheeded, and confident that the policy then 
adhered to would produce a general Indian war, Colonel Morgan 
resigned his office as Indian agent. 

At this critical time, when the control of the "Western Depart- 
ment was about to pass into the hands of incompetent men; 
when conditions setmed to warrant the recommendation by the 
Board of War for the immediate assembling of the Indians for 
another treaty;'^ and when it seemed probable that the British 
and their Indian confederates were prepared to overrun the en- 
tire frontier, the authorities at Detroit were forced to turn their 
attention to the advance of George Rogers Clark."^ With his 
coming, a new phase of the war in the West was inaugurated. 

T8 Morgan Letter Book, iii, July 17, 177S: submitted to Col. Daniel 

77 It was his belief that there were only some 300 hostile Indians 
in the Western Department. Schoolcraft estimated that of the 7,2S0 
Indians capable of bearing arms, only 390 were in the employ of the 
British. In this estimate, however, he did not include the numbers 
enlisted from the Sauk, Fox, and Iowa tribes. These alone were able 
to summon 1,400 warriors. — Schoolcraft. Indian Tribes, iii, pp. 560, 561. 

78 June 28, 177S. Jour, of Continental Congress;, xi, p. 568. 

78 Hamilton learned of the capture of Kaskaskia on Aug. 6, 1778. — 
Mich. Pion. and Hist. CoUs., ix, p 490. 
r T io 1 

Jonathan Carver 

A Bibliography of Carver's 

By John Thomas Lee 

Jonathan Carver^ returned to Boston from his extended 
^Yestem journey in August, 1768^ ; and at once took steps 
to publish an account of his travels. In The Boston Chronicle of 
September 12, 1768, \vill be found this "Proposal to the Pub- 

Jonathan Carver, formerly a Captain in the provincial troops of 
Massachusetts-Bay, during the late war in America, and since em- 
ployed as a surveyor and draughtsman in exploring the interior and 
upper parts of the continent, adjoining to, and beyond lake Superior, 
and to the westward of the great aiver Mississippi, offers the follow- 

1 Librarians and bibliographical experts throughout the country 
have freely aided in the preparation of this bibliography. It is not 
too much to say that, but for their patient and painstaking assist- 
ance, it would have been impossible to complete the work at this 
time. To Mr. Wilberforce Eames, Lenox Librarian, and Mr. George 
Parker Winship, of the John Carter Brown Library, especial thanks 
are due for comparisons and collations. 

2 Dr. J. C. Lettsom, in the third London (17S1) edition of the 
Travels, says that Carver was born in 1732; but as the traveller was 
married to A1)igail Robbins in 1746 it is safe to say he was born five 
to ten years earlier than the date givan by Lettsom. The marriage is 
recorded in Canterbury, Conn. 

3 Carver gives the date of his arrival in Boston as October, 1768. 
See Travels (London, 177S), p. 177. On this point consult The Boston 
Chro7iicle, August 8. 17CS. 

* It also appeared in issues of The Boston ChronicU\ September 19, 
2G. 17CS. 

[ 1^3 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

ing Proposals to the Public, To publish, as soon as a proper number 
of subscribers encourage him in the design, An Exact Journal of his 
Travels in the Years 1766, and 1767, in which time he travelled up- 
wards of 2700 miles, among the remote nations of Indians, many of 
whom had never before seen a white person. 

This Journal will also contain Descriptions of the Indian nations — 
Of their manners and customs — Of the soil and produce of the country 
— Of the great lakes Huron, IMichagan, and Superior, &c. &c. &c. — Of 
the iMississippi and other great rivere that run in that part of the 
continent; and in particular, a full account of the Xaudowesse Indians, 
the most numerous nation of Indians in North-America, who live in 
tents of leather, and can raise 6000 fighting men, and among whom 
the author wintered in 1766. 

Draughts and Plans of these countries will be annexed, together 
with curious figures of the Indian tents, arms, and of the Buffalo 
Snake, which they worship. 

Each Subscriber to pay Two Spanish Dollars for every copy of the 
proposed work; and as soon as a sufficient number have subscribed, 
to indemnify the expence of printing and engraving, the publication 
will immediately ensue. 

Subscriptions are taken in by Capt. Carver at Montague [Mass.], and 
by J. I\Iein, at the London Book-Store, North-side of King-street, 

What encouragement Carver received is not known, but noth- 
ing came of the project ; and on February 22, 1769, he sailed for 
London in the "Paoli," Captain Hall, carrying with him his 
draughts and journals, and good recommendations for his faith- 
ful service.^ 

After ten years of waiting tlio book was published in London 
(1778), and bore the title, Travels through the Interior Parts of 
North-America in the Years 1766, 1767, and 176S. It was very 
favorably received, three editions appearing before the death of 
Carver, which occurred in 1780. Later it was translated into the 
Freneli. German, and Dutch languages. 

No adequate bibliograjiliy of the Travels has ever been issued. 
James Constantino Pilling, in his useful Bibliography of the 
Algonquian La)>guagc.'^,'' describes sixteen editions, but not with 

5 See TJie Essex Gazette (Salem, INIass.). February 28, 1769. 

6 Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 13 (Washington, 
1891), pp. 6S-71. 

[144] • • 

() J^ f O N C H A O \ I C r. £ for ' iy^^\ 

ity of our prclcnt proceciHii^ as 
1 liave will.cil, but his iM": n to 
jurl^meiit .'i:ul tuulcrllaiicii>Oj k^ 
I out, we would with all tluty to 
relUncv, as the Ri^preii-ntainc of 
tful {ovci(.i"ii, rtqueft ci \oor 
cy to point ouc t<^ us wherein ihc 
ity of ourproctetiiu^s confiil-jlK- 
til ^\'e c.iutioully niean to avoid 
in^; that has the le-rt appeaiance 
ition of Government, in any of 
lies, or any oi' the rij^hts ot 
s fovereignty, or that is in ihi. 
i:entive of rebellion, or even a 
jdififlc'ftion to the > -jvcrntncnt 
llabli'.hed and exciLiit-tl, 
iixcellency will be plc<jfcd in your 
I'wn knowledge of jnimau nature, 
delicacy ot Biifitli pri<riled«cs, 
iring- in your fro\rn^ on our pre- 
pceding, we hein;^ r.t prtient iu- 
J tliink, 'till belter intormed, that 
juality he imputed to us, it will he 
lonly to our doiii;^s and not to tlic 
1 nanuer aud deiij.a of uur n^tct- 
if 3 0ur txcellcnry ha: a riiflerent 
nnon of the matter, ue intrcat 
anatiou of the fan)e ; and allure 
ce'ilency we Ihall deliberately at- 
it. Nofliir.g could give us more 
••Is than a luggelHon that our pio- 
'> aip criminal ; not fo uiuch tiom 
f perfon^l puniflnnent, as froTn 
iverlion we have to any liiing in- 
it with tic- dignity of ourSove- 
md the hapjiintfs of hi» eMtudtd 
on ; ond we Haiter ouifclves that 
;ie veal defigns of thiv coiivcntrnn 
ifiood, it will proiV an ing-i:n.ent 
;e tVie intire Loyalty ofliiiMa- 
ibjcfts in this province and their 
'lOii to peace aud good older, 
e -name and behalf of the com- " 
• tc ot^ 3 number of towns in this 
)vincc', couven'J in lioltpu^^cp- 
nbcr z^ih, 1763. 
THOil.AS GUSHING, Giiairman. 

r. lie men, 

'J uu:Jt e.xcvji vic from rtr'rhi>:g 
re J J- cm .-iJ^Tiil'ly 'c/jicb ij.c^'i- 

\i to aanu it to ie it l^^-^l ^ij[!^'r.t!y ; 
y iiirt h f.-o uuxins cilo^' 

Lord Bottetourt'lms an <" r*" 
;o,ooo |.ound;> Herlin;i a yp.r. 
Lieuienaut i<nd Colios Rotulorum ot->*,6 
coiifliiy of Glacetlcr, Conllable ol' S'.- 
Bnavel's Callle, .md Colonel of t!ic C-loii- 
icllerlhire n iliiia 

N Augud 4, 
prefect draw flic 

D N D 

Vican a Ha 

on oi the whole t!o!ion. Tlie Right 
rud Bott«tourt is >n:k appointed i;o- 
ofVitgiwia, and Lcid Lieoten»rt 
^mciit»r He ^i» pre) ariuf: to fet 
t6> gun O.iiv'bonig appointed to 
'utLOV£t_l0.tipttan. wh^eitisfaid 

Jonathan Cai ver, 

Farnutlj a L(.ptMn in thi^rcv'iKcial Jrctpt' 
of the M^il-ichuftrs-Bay, during tht . laie 
•u.\ir IU jiiucrka, and f/i:e eriplcyid ak. a 
furviyor and druughfmun in ■■yplor!7!g •■'.te 
interior and upl>ir parts cf ti--i continti't, 
adJQinir.g t»', and hey end lake Supericr'. ..;.</ 
to the wcj!'xurd'if thf great rtvrr f^Hfifip* 
pi, cff:n the follotving 

i*ROPos.\h3 to the Pub tic. 

To piWiff:, asfbon-a* a proper nntuber- 

^of fubfcribcrs encourage him in the 

dcliou. An Exact Joursai of his 


In the Years 17^6, and I7^r> 
In which time he travelled upwards of 
2700 n-.ilcs, among the remote nations 
of Indians, many of' Avlioai had nerer 
before Ccew a white perlon. 

This J O U R N. .'^ L will alfo CT>ntain • 
Defciintions of the Indian nations — Of 
their manneis and culloms — Of tbe foil 
and pioduce of the coruntry — Of the 
gicat lakes Huron, Michigan, and Su- 
pcriorAc. &c. &c.— Of the MiiliiCppi and 
otlier "leat rivers tbat'run in that part 
of t!)e° coutineiit ; and in particuLir, a • 
full account of the Naudoweffe Indians, 
the niott nlimeroui nation r>j[ Indians ia 
Nortli-.-\merica, who live in tenfs of lea- 
ther,- and" can raifo 6000 fighting men, 
and among, wliom the author wintered 

DR..-\UGHTSanu PL A N S of thefe 
countries will be annexed, together with 
cirrioiis figures of the Indian tents, arms, 
and of the Bullaloe Snake which they 

'' Each SMifcriber to p»y -nVO'SPANISH 

DOLLARS for every copy of the pro- 

polrd vvo.-k ; and'as feon as a fuflicient 

unmb^r hare fubftribed^to indemnify the 

c.vpenceof the printing and engraving, 

tSc pubfic-ttion wiil innmdintely enfue. 

SUKSCRIt'TlONS are taken in by Opr. 

C,aR.vlvR at Mo'.T.^ctrE, .a^'l bv J- 


^K.rih-ddi c/- htrg.jire^tBOSrON. 

in I 

ihc l.ut- 

of Bot^ks, with Renaark', 
I emak's Macazisk, for • 
Jum 176". . 
rrr.R'^ Crona Far.ner/'- t'lTiufvbranb, 
.'< . .,j^k,f^.-(> r.ft^f Btinlh Ccioniti^ - 

Ohh.inal Anvntii.>>i..MKNr oi- C.\uvi;u's Tk.\vi;i..s 

Jonathan Carver 

sufficient detail to meet present-day requirements. In Joseph 
Sabin's Dictionary of Books Relating to Anioica,'^ will be foimd 
meagre collations of the principal editions of the Travels. John 
Russell Bartlett described, after the manner of his time, the 
Carv'ei-s in the John Carter Brown Library at Providence,^ in the 
printed catalogue of that library. Severa] incomplete and in- 
accurate check-lists liave also appeared in connection with 
papers on Carver. Sabin names three editions, which, in the 
absence of confirmatory evidence, are believed not to be extant. 
They are: Philadelphia, 1789, octavo; Philadelphia, 1795; and 
Walpole, 1838. In booksellers' catalogues and elsewhere have 
been found editions listed that never were printed — due, no 
doubt, to typographical errors or carelessness in compilation. 

In the present bibliography, thirty editions and reissues of the 
'Travels, the New Universal Traveller — to which Carver, in pov- 
erty, lent his name — and the two editions of A Treatise on the 
Culture of the Tobacco Plant are described. It is hoped that no 
title has been omitted, but as there appears to be no such thing 
as finality in the field of bibliography, it would be unwise to say 
positively that the work is complete. 

Was Carver Incapable of Writing the Travels 

That some parts of the Travels were plagiarized from Henne- 
pin, Lahontan, Charlevoix, and Adair is a fact well-established. 
The late Professor Edward Gaylord Bourne, of Yale University, 
in a very interesting paper contributed to The American Histori- 
cal Review^, has given examples that will satisfy the most skepti- 
cal. He not only proves that portions of the Travels were bor- 
rowed without credit from earlier writers on North American 
Indians, but appears also to arrive at the conclusion that Carver 
wa-s an ignorant man, incapable of writing such a book. Since 
the appearance of Professor Bourne's paper, others have ac- 

-Xew York. 1S70. iii, pp. 3S2-3S4. 

8 Bibliotheca Americana (Providence. ISTO). A chronological arrange- 
ment is followed in this catalogue; therefore the books are described 
under the years of publication. 

9 "The Travels of Jonathan Carver," in The Ameryan Historical 
Review, xi, pp. 2S7-302. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

eepted his position, even going further than he, by dismissing 
Carver with little ceremony.^° 

As Carver's volume is still one of the most popular books of 
early Western travel, and of particular interest to students of 
Wisconsin history, it may not be unprofitable to weigh available 
evidence in the hope of satisfactorily answering the question: 
Was Carver incapable of writing the Travels? 

Professor Bourne's authorities and conclusions, so far as they 
relate to the question propounded, are here presented: 

Part of a letter written in 1792 by Oliver Wolcott, of Con- 
necticut, to the geographer, Jedediah ]\rorse, is quoted: 

By information wliicli I have obtained respecting Carver, I am 
satisfied tliat his bool? was compiled under very inauspicious circum- 
stances. He doubtless resided a number of years in the western 
country, but was an ignorant man, utterly incapable of writing such 
a book. 

Professor Bourne adds that the source of Wolcott 's infonna- 
tion is not known. 

Then follows Robert Greenhow's statement in his Ilistory of 
Oregon and California :^^ 

The book was written, or rather made up, at London, at the sug- 
gestion of Dr. Lettsora and other gentlemen, and printed for the 
purpose of relieving the wants of the author, who, however, died 
there, in misery, in 17S0, at the age of 4S. 

Professor Bourne says in conmicnt : 

Whether this positive assertion as to the origin of Carver's book 
rests upon definite information or is a deduction from internal evi- 
dence, I do not know, but Greenhow's convictions were positive. 

10 The earliest published expression of doubt as to the authenticity 
of the Travels, so far as known, is in the form of a query found in 
the American Museum, July, 17S9. p. 2^,. Mr. John Goadby Gregory, 
In his valuable paper, "Jonathan Carver: his Travel^ in the North- 
west in 1766-6S," Farknian Club Publications, No. 5 (Milwaukee, 1S96), 
observes that Carver drew freely from the writings of Hennepin, 
Lahontan, and Charlevoix. See also A. W. Greely, Explorers and 
Travellers (New York, 1004). p. S4. This book was first published 
before Mr. Gregory's paper. 

n Boston, 1S44, p. 142, note. 

[ 146 ] 

Jonathan Carver 

Next is cited an entry in Henry' K. Schoolcraft's "Journal," 
under date of April 9, 1823 : 

I think it questionable whether some literary hack was not em- 
ployed, by the booksellers, to draw up the part of the work "on the 
origin, manners, customs, religion and language of the Indians." 

Eeferring to the first part of the Travels, Professor Bourne 
says : 

So far as I can judge by literary evidence, I should reply that 
Carver was the source rather than the author of the narrative. The 
style of the first part is fluent literary English, and apparently Is 
from the same hand as the descriptive matter in the second part. 

Carver is characterized as an "unlettered Connecticut shoe- 
maker and soldier," and the conclusion reached is, that "it is 
clear from tlie evidence here presented that the Travels of Jona- 
than Carver can no longer be ranked as an authentic record of 
the observations of the supposed author;" and that the book 
should be placed beside Benzoni's History of the Xetv World and 
The Booh of Sir John Mandcville. Professor Bourne also ven- 
tures the conjecture that the Travels in its present form is the 
■work of Dr. Lettsom. 

Dr. Reuben Gold Thv^-aites, in a recent volume, asserts that 
Carver was "an ignorant shoemaker — not a physician as claimed 
in his Travels;'^ and adds:^- 

Of course Carver himself was incapable of ■writing such a book. 
Nothing is known of the facts concerning its publication; but it is 
quite evident that he kept some rough notes — possibly like those of 
Peter Pond, of which a sample will be presented later — and that 
these were given proper form by some literary hack in the employ of 
the publishers. 

In editing volume xviii of the Wisconsin Historical Collec- 

^^Wisconsiii (Boston, 190S), pp. 125, 12S, 120. Carver himself did 
not claim in the Travels to be a physician; but Dr. Lettsom, in "Some 
Account of Captain J. Carver," included in the third London (17S1) 
edition, published after the traveller's death, makes the statement 
that Carver was designed for the practice of medicine, and that after 
his father's death he was placed with a gentleman of that profession 
"in Elizabeth Town, in the same province" [Connecticut]. This seems 
to be a bit of fiction, for which Carver may have been responsible. 

\U1] . ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

iions'^^ Dr. Thwaites is fully as sweeping iu his conclusions as to 
the authorship of the Travels. He says that Carver was "an ad- 
venturer of the type frequently foimd on the frontier; and has 
long enjoyed unearned literary and historical fame." 

Another authority on early books of American travel, in a re- 
cent letter, dismisses Carver as an impostor and his book as a 
publisher's triek.^* 

The fact that portions of the Travels were unquestionably 
taken from earlier works has perhaps influenced unduly Pro- 
fessor Bourne and other scholars in accepting the statement of 
Wolcott, whose source of information, it must be borne in mind, 
is unknown. 

We know very little of Carver's early life, and it cannot be 
stated with certainty that he was ever a shoemaker, although "he 
is credited with having made twenty pairs of shoes for Moses 
Field in 1754."^^ Carver may at one time have been a shoe- 
maker; but the only point worthy of consideration is whether or 
not he was an ignorant shoemaker. 

Several writers have conjectured that the publication of 
Carver's book was an afterthought; that its existence was due to 
the suggestions of certain English friends, who hoped in this way 
to relieve the poverty that was gradually tightening about the 
luckless traveller. But we Icnow that, immediately after his ar- 
rival in Boston, August, 176S, Carver printed a definite proposal 
to the public to publish an account of his travels;^" and the book 
as eventually issued^" corresponds very nearly with the descrip- 
tion contained in his proposal of ten years before. It is quite 
probable that Carver had carefully planned the book in his own 
mind before returning home from the interior. We have no rea- 
son to doubt that he made careful and copious notes during his 
journey, which he appears to have amplified in part at ]\[ichil- 
liraackinac in the fall of 1767; and we may safely assume that 
the}^ were imlikc those of Peter Pond, whose Journal,^^ altliough 

13 Pp. xvii, 2S1-2S5. 

1* Letter to the writer of this paper. 

15 Bourne, p. 290. 

i8An?e, pp. 143, 144. 

17 London, 1778. 

18 Wis. Hist. Colls., xviii, pp. 314-354. 

[ 148 1 

Jonathan Carver 

valunljle, is thoroughly illiterate, and of almost humorously 
phonetic orthograpliy. 

AVhat is. no doubt, the first published account of Carver's 
travels from his own pen has been found in Tlic Boston Chron- 
icle of February 22, 17GS, and so far as known has never before 
been reprinted. It is in the form of a letter to his wife at Mon- 
tague, Massachusetts, dated Michillimackinae, September 24, 
1767. The letter is here given in full as originally published. 
It is not only valuable in the present connection, but also sug- 
gests points of much interest -that are beyond the scope of this 
paper : 

My Deab — I arrived at this place the 30th of last month, is from the 
westward; last winter I spent among the Naudoussee of the Plains, a 
roving nation of Indians, near the river St. Piere, one of the western 
branches of the Mississipi, near fourteen hundred miles west of 
Michillimackinae. This nation live in bands; and continually march 
like the roving Aral)ians in Asia. They live in tents of leather and 
are very powerful. I have learned and procured a specimen of their 
dialect, 20 and to the utmost of my power, have made minute remarks 
on tlieir customs and manners, and likewise of many other nations 
that I have passed through; which I dare say, you and my acquaint- 
ance will think well worth hearing, and which I hope (by the con- 
tinuation of the same divine Providence that has hitherto in this my 
journeying, in a most remarkable manner guarded over me in all 
my ways) personally to communicate. It would require a volume 
to relate all the hardships and dangers I have suffered since I left 
you, by stormy tempests on these lakes and rivers, by hunger and 
cold, in danger of savage beasts, and men more savage than they; 
for a long time no one to sneak with in my native language, having 
only two men with me, the one a French man, the other an Indian 
of the Iroquois, which I had hired to work in the Canoe. I never 
received any considerable insult during my voyage, except on the 
4th of November last, a little below Lake Pepin on the Mississipi. 
About sun down, having stopt in order to encamp, we made fast our 
canoe, and built a hut to sleep in, dressed some victuals and supped. 
In the evening, my people being fatigued, lay down to sleep: I sat 
a while and wrote some time by fire light, after which I stept out 

^^ In his book Carver gives date of his arrival at IMichillimacklnac 
as "the beginning of November, 1TG7." See Travels (Loudon, 177S), 
p. 148 This change of date must have been wilful. 

20 Compare Travels (London, 1778), p. S2. 

[149] . • 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

of my hut. It being star light only, I saw a number of Indians about 
eight rods off, creeping on the banlvs of the river. I thought at first 
they had been some wild beasts, but soon found them to be Indians. 
I ran into my hut, awakened my two men, took my pistol in one 
hand, and sword in the other, being followed by my two men well 
armed. I told them as 'twas dar^, not to fire till we could touch 
them with the muzzle of our pieces. I rushed down upon them, 
just as they were about to cut off our communication from the canoe, 
where was our baggage, and some goods for presents to the Indians; 
but on seeing our resolution they soon retreated. I pursued within 
ten feet of a large party. I could not tell what sort of weapons of 
war they had, but believe they had bows and arrows. I don't impute 
this resolution of mine to any thing more than the entire impossibility 
I saw of any retreat. The rest of the night I took my turn about 
with the men in watching. The next morning proceeded up the 
Mississipi as usual, though importuned by my people to return, for 
fear of another onset from these Barbarians, who often infest those 
parts as robbers, at some seasons of the year.21 

My travels last year, by computing my journal, amount to two 
thousand seven hundred miles, and this year, from the place where I 
wintered, round the west, north, and east parts of lake Superior, 
to Michillimakinac, are two thousand one hundred miles; the total 
of my travels since I left New-England, is, four thousand eight hun- 
dred miles, by a moderate computation. Part of the plans and jour- 
nals, with some letters concerning the situation of the country, I 
sent back with some Indians, which plans and letters Governour 
Rogers has sent some time ago by Mr. Baxter, a gentleman belonging 
to London, to be laid before the lords of trade. My travels this sum- 
mer I am now preparing for the same purpose, which is the reason 
of my not coming home this fall. 

I have seen the places where the Spaniards came and carried away 
silver and gold formerly, till the Indians drove them away, un- 
doubtedly there is a great plenty of gold in many places of the Miss- 
issippi and westward. I trust I have made many valuable discoveries 
for the good of my king and country. 

I cannot conclude without mentioning something of the superstition 
of the Naudoussees where I si)cnt the last winter which agrees with 
the account of the father Hennipin. a French Recollect or a Fryar of 
that order, (who some years a^o traveled among some part of the 
Naudoussees, tho' not so far west as I have been) has given of that 

21 Compare Ibid., pp. 51-54. 

r 150 

Jonathan Carver 

people concerning books.22 i had with me some boolis necessary for 
my employment, which they supposed to be spirits, for as I by look- 
ing on the page when I first opened the book, could tell them how 
many leaves there were in the book to tbat place, they then would 
count over the leaves and found I told true; supposing the book was a 
spirit, and had told me the number, which otherways they judged 
impossible for me to know, they would immediately lay their hands 
on their mouths, and cry out in their language, Wokonchee, Wokon- 
chee, which signifies, he is a God, he is a God; and often when I de- 
sired to be rid of my guests in my hut, I would open the book and 
read aloud, they would soon begin to go away, saying to one another, 
he talks with the gods. Many other remarks of the like kind I 
have made of that people.^i 

They believe there is a superior spirit, or God, who is infinitely 
good, and that there is a bad spirit, or devil. When they are in 
trouble, they pray to the devil, because, say they, that God being 
good, will not hurt them, but the evil spirit that hurts them, can 
only avert their misery.^^ I have seen them pray to the sun and 
moon and all the elements, and often hold a pipe for the sun and 
moon and the waters, to smoak. 

On my return to this place, I received the thanks of the Governor 
Commandant, who has promised he will take special care to acquaint 
the government at home of my services. 

I have had my health ever since I left home, blessed be God, I 
hope you and all our children are well. I ha;ve not heard from you 
since I came away. Give my most affectionate love to my children. 
I long to see you all. I expect to be at home next July. I have twa 
hundred pounds sterling due to me from the crown, which I shall have 
in the spring. Give my compliments to all friends and acquaintances. 
I am. 

My dear, your's forever, 

Jonathan Carveb. 

It is hardly necessary' to assert that the writer of this letter 
was a man of intellicrence and fair education, quite capable of 
producing the Travels in all essential particulars. Readers of 
Car\-er will recognize several experiences that are related in 

22 Compare Thwaites, Hennepin's Xcxo Discovery (Chicago, 1903), 
p. 233. 

=3 Compare Travels, pp. 253-255. 
2< Compare Ibid., pp. 381, 382. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

somewhat different form in his book; and it is believed that a 
careful comparison of the letter and the Travels will lead to the 
•conclusion that they display the same mental and literary char- 
acteristics, and might easily be, and probably are, from the same 
pen. Surely there was no literary hack at old I\Iichillimackinac 
to write this letter for Cai-^^er ! 

The following item appeared in The Boston Chronicle of Aug- 
ust 8, 1768: 

Captain Carver, formerly of the New-England troops, arrived at 
Philadelphia on the 24th of July last from Fort Pitt, and informs 
us, that the garrison were very healthy about a fortnight ago. This 
gentleman has been employed several years as a draughtsman, and has 
been exploring the heads of the Mississippi, the Scioto, and Lake Su- 
perior, in which service he has given great satisfaction, having made 
several discoveries of considerable utility. . He went 1500 miles to the 
westward of Michillimackinack and travelled 1100 miles on Lake Su- 
perior, part of the time without any other company than a Frenchman 
and an Iroquois Indian. For a more particular account of Captain 
Carver's travels, see Boston Chronicle, Feb. 22d, page 91, where the 
reader will find a very curious and intelligent letter from Capt. 
Carver to his wife, containing a distinct account of his travels; which 
letter was communicated to us by a gentleman of distinction in this 

In the foregoing. Carver appears as a draughtsman — we have 
already seen that he calls himself a surveyor and draughtsman, 
in the proposal to print an account of his travels — and not as a 
shoemaker. Did he have the audacity to pose as being something 
he was not, among men who perhaps had known him for years? 

There is no reason to doubt that Carver went to England with 
good recommendations ;=° and if not what he claimed to be, he as- 
suredly was a clever dissembler — a difficult role indeed for an 
"ignorant shoemaker" to undertake. It is hardly probable that 
an illiterate man, untrained, perhaps uncoutli, could have won 
the good will and patronage of eminent gentlemen like Sir 

2'' The true reason for Carver undertaking his westward journey 
may never be known; but if we knew who this "gentleman of distinc- 
tion" was, we might have a clue. 

26 See The Essex Gazette (Salem), February 28, 17C9. 

\ 152 1 

Jonathan Carver 

Joseph ]3aiiks-' and Dr. John Coakley Lettsom.^^ AVe may, 
therefore, eonclnde that Carver cut a decent figure in London, 
and was presentable, intelligent, and plausible. 

It is significant that the Travels was dedicated to Joseph (af- 
terwards Sir Joseph) Banks. The dedication is thus worded i^' 

To Joseph Banks, Esq. F. li. S. 

SiE— When the Public are informed that I have long had the 
■Honour of your Acquaintance — that my Design in publishing the fol- 
lowing Work has received your Sanction — that the Composition of it 
has stood the Test of your Judgment — and that it is by your Permis- 
-sion a Name so deservedly eminent in the Literary World is prefixed 
to it, I need not be apprehensive of its Success; as your Patronage will 
unquestionably give them Assurance of its Merit. 

For this public Testimony of your Favour, in which I pride myself, 
.accept, Sir, my most grateful Acknowledgments; and believe me to 
be, with great Respect, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

J. Car\'eb. 

Is it reasonable to assume that Banks would have permitted his 
■name to be so prominently associated Avith a book which he knew 
to be a mere "publisher's trick;" a book pieced together by some 
"literary hack" from the writings of Hennepin, Lahontan, 
Charlevoix, and Adair, at the suggestion of Carver's friends, 
with the name of an "ignorant shoemaker" as the author? If 
Carver was incapable of writing the Travels, Banks must have 
been avare of iliat fact; and it is quite natural to suppose that 
he would liave declined a pul)lic dedication if he had known or 

27 Sir Joseph Banks (b. 1743-44. d. 1S20) was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1766 and president in 177S, which office he held 
until his death. Banks was wealthy, and accompanied Cook's expedi- 
tion, 176S-1771, in the "Endeavour," equipped at his own expense. He 
was a man of strong will, and perhaps the most eminent patron of 
•science in his day. See Dictionary of Xational Biography, iii. 

28 John Coakley Lettsom, M. D. (b. 1744. d. 1815). was of Quaker 
parentage. He is said to have been a "man of warm heart, active 
benevolence, and so much perseverance and practical skill as to se- 
cure a very large practice." He was the author of many works, and 
one of the founders of the Medical Society of London. See Ibid., 

29 First edition of the Travels (London, 177S). 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

even thought that Carver was not the author. It is improbable 
that Dr. Lettsom, uhom we have reason to believe was a benevo- 
lent and honorable gentleman, would be party to a literary im- 
posture. Certainly there is no evidence warranting this con- 
clusion. That Dr. Lettsom was interested in Caii'er, and per- 
haps deeply touched by his disappointments and poverty, there 
is no reason to question;^" but that he would carry his benevo- 
lence to the point of becoming a vicarious plagiarist or sanction 
a publisher's trick, is an unwarranted and ungenerous assump- 

The biographical sketch of Carver which Dr. Lettsom wrote for 
the third London edition of the Travels is, on the whole, unre- 
liable ; but it is thought that he wrote honestly, according to the 
information he had at hand. However, of some facts concerning 
Carver Dr. Lettsom must have had personal and positive knowl- 
edge, and among these was the traveller's ability to \\Tite. On 
this point he says:^^ 

In his familiar epistles, he [Carver] commanded an easy and agree- 
able manner of writing; and some pieces of his poetry, which have 
been communicated to me, afford proofs of his lively imagination and 
of the harmony of his versification. 

A partial comparison of the text of the first London edition of 
the Travels with that of the -second and third — the latter pub- 
lished after the death of Carver— disclosed the significant fact 
that the changes were made during the lifetime of the author. 
Those interested in the subject will find it profitable to compare 
chapter nineteen in the separate editions. 

Careful consideration of data here presented for the first time 
leads to the conclusion that, aside from the parts drawn from 
other works, Jonathan Cai-\'er was essentially the author of the 
Travels. It seems clear that he was a man of fair education, 
capable of writing the book; and in the absence of evidence to 
the contrary', it is not unfair to hold Carver responsible for the 
uncreditcd borrowings from earlier writings. It would be im- 

30 Dr. Lettsom bought the sheets of the third London edition of the 
Travels, and it is not unlikely that he used the proceeds to help 
Carver's widow and children. 

31 "Some Account of Captain J. Carver," in Travels (London, 1781), 
p. 19. 

[154 1 

Jonathan Carver 

proper, and quite untenable, to charge either Banks or Lettsom 
with aidinfr Carver in appropriating the work of others. It is 
not unlikely that Carver had some assistance in preparing the 
book for publication. Dr. Lettsom himself may have gone over 
the manuscript, polishing it here and there; but even if the 
traveller was assisted in culling from other authors, there is no 
valid reason for implicating the good doctor. It would have 
been possible for him to act as editor without having knowledge 
of the plagiarisms, as indeed it would have been for Banks to 
read the manuscript without suspicion. We know that Carver 
was familiar with the writings of Hennepin before he started on 
his western journey, and he may also have read Lahontan and 
Charlevoix at that early date.^- Adair's History of tlie Ameri- 
can Indiansvs-A's, published in 1775, and it is highly probable that 
the work early fell into Carver's hands; and during his years of 
waiting in Loudon he had ample leisure to read and reread the 
best books on the North American Indian, which he appears to 
have done to some purpose. 


The Travels are more elaborately treated in the present bibli- 
ography than is usual in works of the kind ; but it is far better to 
err on the side of fullness than to omit anything that would be of 
ser\'iee to the librarian or collector. ^Nluch bibliographical work 
of the past does not meet present demands, and will have to be 
done over again because of paucity of detail. ^Mistakes may 
have been made, but so far as possible two or more copies of each 
edition haA'e been compared and differences noted. In copying 
title-pages there has been no attempt to reproduce them with fi- 
delity, so far as large and small capitals, italics, etc., are con- 

32 Hennepin's A New Discovery was available in Carver's day in the 
English editions of London. ICOS and 1C90: Lahontan's Xew Voyages 
to yorth-Amcrica in the editions of London, 1703 and 1735; Charle- 
voix's Journal of a Vomije to Xorth-America in tne editions of London, 
1761 and 1763; and Dublin, 1766. 



Wisconsin Historical Society 

cerned ; but in all cases the piinctuatiou has been carefully pre- 
served. If typograpliical peculiarities are to be retained, of 
course the only satisfactory way is to reproduce title-pages in 
facsimile. This method is best, and should be more freely used 
b}^ bibliographers; but it was not thought practicable to employ 
it in the present work, 

London, 1778 

Title: Travels | through the | Interior Parts | of | 
North-America, \ in the ] Years 17G6, 1767. and 1768. | 
B3' J. Carver, Esq. | Captain of a Company of Provincial ] 
Troops during the late | "War with France. | Illustrated 
Avith Copper Plates. | London : | Printed for the Author ; 
j and sold by J. "Walter, at Charing-cross, and | S. Crowder, 
in Pater-noster Row. | MDCCLXXVIII. [1778] 

Collation: 8vo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq. F. P. S.. pp. [2) ; [Table of] Contents, pp. 
(16) ; Introduction, pp. [i]-xvi ; A Journal of the Travels, with 
a De.scription of the Country. L;ikes. &c.. pp. [17]-1S0; Of the 
Origin, Planners. Customs. Religion, and Language of the In- 
dians, [Chapters i-xix] pp. [181]-5'26; Appendix, pp. [527]- 
543; Directions for placing Plates, and Errata, p. [511]. 

Signatures: [a] in two. It in eiglit; A-I in eights, K-U in 
eights, X-Z in eights; Aa-Ii in eiglits, Kk and LI in eights; 
total, 282 leaves. 

Plates: [1] The falls of St. Anthony in the River :\rissis- 
sippi, I near 2400 ^Nliles from its entrance into the Gulf of 
INIexico. ! Publish 'd as the Act directs, by J. Carver 1 May, 
1778. [centre] I Survey 'd l»y Capt. Carver, Novr. 17, 1766, 
I II-Mirht of the Fall i :10 feet Perdendr. [left] [ M. A. 
Rooker Sculpt. [ Breadth, | 600 feet, [right] facing 
p. 60. Directions read p. 70. This is the first published view of 
the Falls of St. Anthony. [2] A :\ran and AYoman of the Otti- 
gaumies. facing p. 228. [3] A Mi\n & "Woman of the Naudowe.s- 
sie, faciinr p. 230. [4] [Three drawings] : A Pipe of Peace 
[centre, top] : A V.';ir Club, or Cassa Tale, [ the Ancient 
Tomahawk [left, lower corner] ; A Naudowessie Dagger. | for- 
merly made of Stone, [right, lower corner] facing p. 296. 

[ 156 ] 



o F 



Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. 
By J. CARVER, Escu 





Printed for the AUTHOR; 

And Sold by J. Wai.ter, at Charing-crofs, and 
S. Chowder, in Pater-nofier Row. 


PiioTOCiitAiMiic i.usi.Mii.r. OF rrri.K.-rA<;K of first 
London (ITTS) kuiiion 

Jonathan Carver 

Maps:^^ [1] A ! New ^lap j of | North | America ] 
from the | Latest Discoveries | 1778 | Engrav'd for 
Carvers [ Travels [left, upper corner], facing title-page ; size, 
13^ X 14:} inches. [2] A Plan | of Captain Carvers Travels 
I in the interior Parts of | North America | in 1766 and 
1767 [right, lower corner], facing p. [17]; size, 10-^x13^ 
inches. In some copies the position of these maps is reversed.^* 
This edition was printed with ^vide margins, and many book- 
sellers have incorrectly used the expression "large paper" in 
describing C(ipies in tbeir catalogues. 

London, 1779 

Tiflc: Travels [ through the | Interior Parts | of | 
North America, | in the i Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. | 
hy J. Carver, Esq. j Captain of a Company of Provincial | 
Troops during the late | War with France. | Illustrated 
with Copi)er Plates, j Tlie second edition. | London: | 
Printed for the Author, | by William Richardson in the 
Strand; [ and sold by J. Dodsley, in Pallmall; J. Robson, in 

=3 As there are three ways of measuring a map, it is necessary to 
say that the method here employed is to measure the whole of the 
printed part, including borders. 

3-J These are not the first published maps based on the surveys ot 
Jonathan Carver. Mr. George Parker Winship has kindly sent me 
the following description of a map published as early as 1776: Title, 
in cartouche, right lower corner: A Map of the | British Empire, 
I in North America. | By | Samuel Dunn, Mathematician | im- 
proved from the Surveys of | Capt. Carver. Size (inside of border), 
46.3x28.9 cm. Imprint: London, Printed for R. Sayer & J. Bennett, 
Map & Sea Chartsellers, No. 53 Fleet Street, as the Act directs, 17th 1776. Inset, left upper corner: The British Empire in 
North America contains, etc., [17 divisions in 21 lines]. Boundary 
lines in colors. 

There is in the Boston Pul)iic Library a map bearing the following 
title: A New Map of the Province of Quebec according to the Royal 
Proclamation, of the 7th Oct., 1763, from the French Surveys con- 
nected with those made after the War, by Captain Carver and other 
officers. London. R. Sayer and J. Bennett. 1776. Size, lS\^x25^'s 
inches. Scale. S.l.S miles to 1 inch. A French edition of this map 
appeared in 1777. 

[157] ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

New j Bond-street; J. Walter, at Cliariug-cross; J. Bew, | 
in Pater-noster How; and ]\Ie^ss. Richardson and [ Urquliart, 
at the Royal Exchange. | :\IDCCLXXIX. [1779] 

CoUation: Svo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banlvs, Esq; President of the Royal Society, pp. (2) ; An 
Address to the Public. The second edition, pp. (4) ; [Table of] 
Contents, pp. (16) ; Introduction, i)p. [i]-xvi; A Journal of the 
Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes, &e., pp. [17]- 
180; Of the Origin, .Manners, Customs, Religion, and Language 
of the Lidians [Chapters i-xix], pp. [lSl]-526; Appendix, pp. 
[527]-543; Directions for placing the Maps and Plates, p. [54-1]. 

Signatures: [a] in four, b in eight; A-I in eights, K-U in 
eights, X-Z in eights ; Aa-Ii in eights, Kk and LI in eights ; total, 
2S4 leaves. 

Plates: [l]The falls of St. Anthony in the River Mississippi 
[etc.], facing p. 70. [2] A ^^lan and Woman of the Ottigaumies, 
facing p. 228. [3] A :\Ian & AVonuui of the Naudowessie, facing 
p. 230. [4] [Three drawings] : A Pipe of Peace [etc.], facing 
p. 296. [5] The Tobacco Plant. Published Xovr. 1st, 1779 [foot] ; 
Drawn and Engrav'd for Carvi^-s Travels, as the Act directs b\ 

F. Sanson! No. 16 :\[aiden Lane Chcapside [top] , facing p. 522. 
Not mentioned in list of plates. Plates 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the same 
as in the edition. 

Maps: [1] A New Map of North America [etc.], facing title- 
page. [2] A Plan of Captain Cnrvcrs Travels [etc.], facing 
p. [171 . ]\Iaps are the same as in the first edition. 

Dublin, 1779 

Title: Travels | through the | Interior Parts | of | 
North-America, | in the i Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. | 
By J. Carver, Es'i. | Captain of a Company of Provincial 

[ Troops during the late [ War with France. | Illus- 
trated with Copper Plates. | Dublin: | Printed for S. 
Price. R. Cross. AV. AVatson, AV. and II. \ AAliitestone, J. Potts, 
J. AVilliams. AV. Colb-s. | AV. AVilson. R. :\roncrietTe, C. Jenkin, 

G. ! liurnett, T. AA^alker, AV. Cill)rrt. L. L. [ Flin, J. Ex- 
shaw, L. AAliite, J. Beatty, | and B. AA^atson. | MDCCLXXIX. 


Jonathan Carver 

Collation: 8vo ; titlo-pago, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq. F. R. S., pp. (2) ; [Table of] Contents, pp. 
(16) ; Introduction, pp. [i]-xiii, verso blank; A Journal of the 
Travels, with a Description of the Countrj^, Lakes, &c., pp. 
[15]-170; Of the Origin, ^Manners, Customs, Religion, and 
Language of the Indians [Chapters i-xix], pp. [171]— 192; Ap- 
pendix, pp. 493-508. 

Signatures: [a] in two, b in eight; B-I in eights, K-U in 
eights, X-Z in eights; Aa-Ii in eights, Kk in six; total, 264 

Plates: [1] The falls of St. Anthony in the River Missis- 
sippi I near 2400 ]\Iiles from its entrance into the Gulf of ]Mex- 
ico. [center] \ Survey 'd by Capt. Carver Nov. 17, 1766. | 
Height of "the Fall | 30 feet Perpeudr. [left] | Breath [sic] 
near j 600 feet [right], facing p. 50. [2] [Three drawings] : 
A Pipe of Peace [centre, top] ; A War Club or Cassa Tate | 
The Ancient Tomahawk [left, lower corner] ; A Xaudowessie 
[Dagger] | formerly made of Stone [right, lower corner], 
facing J-). 279. 

Map: A | New 'Mnp \ of North | America [right, lower 
corner], facing title-page; size, 16^x21|^ inches. In some 
copies map faces p. [15] ; but the position in the copy here des- 
cribed seems to be a more natural one. 

London, 1779 

Title: The New j Universal Traveller. | containing ] 
A Full and Distinct Account | of all the | Empires, King- 
doms, and States. [ in the Known World. | Delineating, | 
Not only their Situation, Climate, Soil, and Produce, [ 
whether Animal, Vegetable, or ^Mineral, | But comprising also 
an interesting Detail of the | 










]\Iilitarv Force, 

of all I Tlie Countries tluit have been visited by Travellers or 
Navigators. I from the Beginning of the World to the Present 

[159] • ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Time, j Accompanied with | a Description of all the cele- 
brated Antiquities, and an accurate History of | every Nation, 
from the Earliest Periods. | The Whole beinji: intended to con- 
vey a clear Idea of the Present State of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and America, | in everj^ Particular that can either add to use- 
ful Knowledge, or prove interesting: to Curiosity. | By J. 
Carver. Esq. | Author of Travels through the Interior Parts 
of North America. | London, | Printed for G. Robinson, 
in Paternoster-Row. | MDCCLXXIX. [1779] 

Collation: Folio; title-page, verso blank; Preface, pp. [i]-iii, 
Directions to the Binder, p. [iv] ; text, in double columns, pp. 
[l]-668; Index, pp. (6). 

Signatures: Title-page, a; A-I, K-U, X-Z; Aa-Ii, Kk-Uu, 
Xx-Zz; Aaa-Iii, Kldc-Uuu, Xxx-.Zzz; 4A-4I, 4K-4U, 4X-4Z; 
5A-oI, 5K-5U, 5X-5Z ; CA-6I, 6K-6U, 6X-6Z ; 7A-7I, 7K-7U, 
7X-7Z, 8A-SE — all in twos; total, 335 leaves. The pagination 
of TJie Xeic Universal Traveller is imperfect, the following page 
numbers not being used: 149, 150, 151, 152, 545, 546, 547, 548, 
549, 550. The text, however, jippears to be complete. 

Plates: [Each facing page indicated.] [1] The Author 
receommending [sic] the Study of Geography, is assisted by His- 
tory with the best Voyages and Travels [frontispiece], [2] A 
Chinese Mandarin in Summer Habit, p. 12. [3] A Chinese 
Lady of Quality, p. 13. [4] Another Habit of a AYotiac- 
"Woman in Siberia, in 176S. p. 23. [5] Habit of a "Woman of 
AVotiac in Siberia in 1768, ji. 23. [6] A Kamtchadal in his 
full dress in 1768. p. 24. [7] Habit of a Tartarian Woman of 
Schouvache, subject to Russia, p. 28. [8] Habit of a Lad}' of 
Indostan, p. 3i]. [9] View of Surat in the East Indies, p. 58. 
[10] Habit of the Great :\Iogul, p. 62. [11] Habit of a 
Persian Lady, from 'M: de Ferriol, p. 77. [12] Habit of a 
Georgian in 1768, p. lUO. [13] Habit of a Lady of Quality in 
Syria, p. 108. [14] A General View of Balbec, p.- 108. [15] 
View of the City of Jerusalt-m. p. 109. [16] The Remains of 
the Great Temple in Palmira, from the West, p. 111. [17] 
Habit of a Bashaw in Egypt, p. 116. [18] Habit of a Lady of 
Quality, in Bar1>ary, p. 153. j 19] Morning Habit of a Grecian- 
Lady, p. 177. [20] Habit of the Grand Seignior in 1772, p. 
191. [21] Habit of the Sultatiess Queen in 1772, p. 192. [22] 

[ 100 ] 

Jonathan Carver 

A General View of Florence, p. 225. [23] Habit of a Finland 
Girl in 17CS. p. 235. [24] Habit of a Gentlev.oraan in Moscow, 
p. 23G. [25] IMorning Habit of a Eussian Lady, in 1764, p. 
238. [26] Summer Habit of a Russian Woman with her cloak 
on, in ]7G5, p. 239. [27] Summer Habit of a Russian-Woman 
with her Cloak off. in 1765. p. 240. [28] A Russian Boor who 
sells live Fish. p. 241. [29] An Ancient Habit of a Married 
Woman of Friesland, p. 258. [30] Habit of a Countess of 
Holland and Zoeland. p. 261. [31] Habit of a Dutch Skipper, 
p. 262. [32] A View of the'Cit}^ of Paris, p. 271. [33] A 
View of the City of :\Iadrid the Capital of Spain, p. 309. [34] 
Habit of a ]\Ian of Chili, p. 576. [35] The Manner of catch- 
ing wild Cattle in Chili, p. 577. [36] Habit of a Lady of 
Lima in Peru, p. 580. [37] The ^Manner of the Esquimaux 
Indians kindling a Fire, p. 629. [38] Habit of a Woman of 
the interior parts of North America, p. 631. 

Maps: [1] The | AVorld, | with | the latest Discov 
eries | from the best Authorities. | J. Lodge Sculp, in 
serted before frontispiece. [2] An | Accurate ]\Iap of 
Asia, I According to the best | Authorities, follows pre- 
ceding. [3] East I Indies j By Thos. Bowen Geogr., p. 
56. [41 An Accurate ]\Iap | of | Africa | Drawn from 
the best Authorities, p. 114. [5] An Accurate Map | of 
Europe, | laid down | from the best | authorities, p. 165 
[6] Germany | From the best ] Authorities | by Thos 
Bowen, | Geogr., p. 207. [7] Poland, | Lithuania 
and I Prussia \ By Thos. Bowen. j Geogr., p. 230. [8] 
Moscovy I or I Russia | in | Europe | By T. Bowen 
Geogr., p. 235. [9] Sweden,. | Denmark, | Norway | 
and I Finland, p. 242. [10] France | From the best | 
authorities | By Thos. Bowen, | Geogr., p. 271. [11 
Italy, I from the best | authorities j by T. Bowen 
Geogr., p. 287. [12] Spain | and j Portugal | By 
Thos. Bowen, | Geogr., p. 308. [13] England j and 
Wales, p. 330. [14] Scotland ] By | Thos. Kitchin, p. 
501. [15] Ireland | from the best | Authorities, p. 552. 
[16] An I Accurate ^lap of | South America j Drawn 
from the best | Authorities, p. 575. [17] An Accurate 
Map I of [ North America | Drawn | from the best | 

[1611 • ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

authorities, p. 575. [18] An j Accurate ^Map | of the | 
West Indies | Drawn from the latest | and most approved 
j Maps & Charts, p. 597. 

It is quite likely that this l)0()k, which bears Carver's name, 
although he was not the author, was issued in weekly parts. 
The manner in which the sheets are numbered makes it seem 
probable that tlie work was issued in parts of 3 sheets or 12 
pages each. The last 3 sheets, the index, and preface are num- 
bered 55, which perhaps indicates that there were 55 parts in 

London, 1779 

Half-title: [Ornament] | A \ Treatise ] on the | Cul- 
ture I of the I Tobacco Plant. | [ornament] ] Price 
Two Shillings and Sixpence. 

Title: A ] Treatise | on the | Culture | of the ] To- 
bacco Plant; | with the | Manner in which it is usually 
cured. | Adapted to | Northern Climates, | and | de- 
signed for the use of the | Landholders of Great-Britain. ] 
To which are prefixed, [ Two IMates of the plant and its 
Flowers. | By Jonathan Carver. Esq. | Author of Travels 
through the liiterior Parts of j North America. | London: 
j Printed for the Author, J And sold by J. Johnson, in St. 
Paul's Church-yard. | 1779. 

Collation: Svo ; half-title, verso blank; title-page, verso 
blank; [Dedication], verso blank; [Table of] Contents, verso 
blank; A Treatise, &c., [Chapters i-v] pp. [1] -33 ; verso of 
p. 33 blank; Appendix, pp. 35-54. 

Signatures: [A]-G in fours; H in three; total, 31 leaves. 

Plates: [1] Flowers of the Tobacco plant. Published as 
the xVct directs :\Iar. 20 1779 by I. Johnson St. Paul's Church 
Yard. Drawn and Engraved by Copland & Sansom No. 16 
Maiden Lane, [colored] facing title-page. [2] Tobacco 
plant. Published as the Act directs :\Iar. 20 1779 by I. Johnson 
St. Paul's Church Yard. Drawn and Engraved by Copland and 
Sansom Xo. 16 :\laiden Lane, [colored] facing p. [1]. 

Dublin, 1779 

Half-title: A ] Treatise | on the ] Culture | of the 
I To])acco Plant. | Price One British Shilling. 

Jonathan Carver 

Title: A I Treatise | on the | Culture | of the ] 
Tohacco Plant ; j M'itli tlie | ^Manner in which it is usually 
€ured. i xVdapted to | Northern Climates, | and | de- 
signed for the use of the I Landholders of Great-Britain, | 
and Ireland, j ]>y Jonathan Carver, Esq. [ xVuthor of 
Travels through the Interior Parts of | North-America. | 
Duhlin : | Printed for Luke White No. 6, Crampton Court. 
I 1779. 

Collation: 8vo; half-title., ver.5o blank; title-page, verso 
blank; l>ooks Printed for Luke White, Bookseller [etc.], pp. 
(2); [Table of] Contents, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
the right Honourable the President, Vice-Presidents, and Mem- 
bers of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufae- 
tui-es and Commerce. * * * London, IMarch 26th, 1779, 
verso blank; A Treatise. &c.. [Chapters- i-v] pp. [l]-32; Ap- 
pendix, pp. 33-52. 

Signatures: Half-title; A-G in fours; H in two; total, 31 
leaves. No plates. 

Hamburg, 1780 

Title: Johann Carvers | Reisen | durch | die innem 
Gegenden | von | Nord-Amerika | in den Jahren 1766, 
1767 und 1768, | mit einer Landkarte. | Aus dem Englis- 
<?hen. I Hamburg, | bey | Carl Ernst Bohn. 1780. 

■Collation: 8vo; title-page, verso blank; Vorbericht, p. (1), 
vorso blank; Yorrede, ])p. [v]-xxiv; Peisetagebuch nebst einer 
Beschreibung der Seen, Lander, u. s. w., pp. [1]-153; Von dem 
Ursprunge, den Sitten, den Gebrauclicn, der Ecligion und 
Spraehe der Indier. Erstes Kapittel-Neunzehntes Kapittel, pp. 
15-!— 442; Anhang, pp. 443-456. Colophon on page 456: Ham- 
burg, I gedruckt den Carl Wilhelm ]\[eyn. 

Signatures: [a] in eight, b in four; A-I in eights, K-U in 
eights, X-Z in eights; Aa-Ee in eights, Ff in four; total, 240 

Map: Ivarte [ von Ilauptman Carvers | Reise in den 
innorn Theih-n von | Nord Amcrika. ] Pingeling sculp: 
-Hamburg [left, lower], facing p. 45G ; size, 10^ x 13-J inches. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

London, 1781 

Title : Travels | throu^rh the | Interior Parts | of [ 
North America. | in the | Years 176G, 1767, and 17b8. | 
By J. Carver, Esq. | Captain of a Company of Provincial | 
Troops during the late | "War with France. | Illustrated 
with Copper Plates, | coloured. | The third edition. ] To 
which is added. Some Account of tlie | Author, and a copious 
Index. I London: | Printed for C. Dilly, in the Poultry; 
H. Payne, in j Pall-mall; and J. Phillips, in George-Yard, | 
Lombard-Street. [ MDCCLXXXI. [1781] 

Collation: Svo; titic-page, verso blank; Advertisement, p. 
(1), verso blank: Some Account of Captain J. Carver, pp. 
[l]-22; next leaf blank; [Dedication] To Joseph Banks, Esq. 
[etc.] pp. (2) ; An Address to the Public, pp. (4) ; [Table of] 
Contents, pp. (16) ; Introduction, pp. [i]-xvi; xV Journal of the 
Travels [etc.], pp. [17] -ISO; Of the Origin, :\ranners [etc.], 
[Chapters i-xix], pp. [181]-526; Appendix, pp. [527]-543; Di- 
rections for Placing the ^laps and Plates, p. [oil:] ; Index, pp. 
(20). Dr. John Coakley Lettsom says in the Advertisement 
that the xVecount of the Author's life and the Index were pub- 
lished separately "for the convenience of the purchasei-s of the 
first and second editions.'' This explains the independent 
pagination of the Account. 

Signatures: Title-page and Advertisement; A-C in fours 
(last leaf of C blank) ; A in three, b in eidit; A-I in eights, 
K-U in eights, X-Z in eights; Aa-Ii in eights, Kk and LI in 
eights, Mm and Nn in fours, Oo in two, followed by two blank 
leaves; total. 30G printed leaves. 

Plates: [1] [Frontispiece; portrait of] Captn. Jonathan 
Carver. ] From the Original Picture in the possession of J. C. 
Lettsom, ]\I. D. | Published as the Act directs, by R. Stewart, 
No. 287, near Gt. Turnstile, Holborn. Novr. 16, 1780. | Not 
mentioned in list of plates. [2] The Tobacco Plant [etc.], 
[colored], facing p. 20 of Some Account of Captain J. Carver. 
Not mentioned in list of plates. [3] The falls of St. Anthony 
[etc.], facing p. 70. [4] A ^Man and Woman of the Ottigau- 
mics, [colored], facing ji. 228. [5] A ^Man & Woman of the 
Naudowessie, [colored |, facing p. 230. [6] [Indian weapons, 
etc; three drawings, colored], facing p. 296. 
[164 1 






Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. 
By J. CARVER, Esq, 






To which is added, Some Account of the 


Printed for C. Dilly, inthePouluy; H.Payne, in 
Pall-mall; and J. Phi tup 3, in George-Yard, 
Lombard- Street. 


PiioroGRAi'iiic lAtsi.Mii.i: or London (17S1) f:inTiox 

■^/ • // Q 

THREE YEARS ^^C^'^'^'^'"^^ 


Interior Parts of Nortji-AmI^ica, 



c o n: T A I N I N c, 

An Account of tlie great Lakcs^ and all the Lakcs^ 
JJIands, and Rivers, CataraflSj Mountainsy Mincralsy 
Soil and Vegetable Produdions of the North-Wcjl 
Regiom of that i-q/l CmtiucrU ; 


INSECTS, and EISIIES ;:c:..7cr to ihc COUNTRY. 



Inhabiting ihc Lands that lie n,l;iccnt to the Heads and to the 
Weftuard of the great Ri\cT MJ.Jfq^^i; 



Defcriblng the uncultivated Parts of Amprica that'arc t!ic 
molt proper for forming ScttlC:ncncs. 



P U J L J D E L ? H I A : 




PiioTo<;i:Ai-iiic K.\( siMii.K nr titi.k.-i'ai.k ok Piiir.AiiKi.iMiiA (17S4) kuitiox 

Jonathan Carver 

Maps: [1] A New Map of North America [etc.], [colored], 
facing p. [ij. [2] A Plan of Captain Carvers Travels [etc.], 
[colored], facing p. [17]. 

Plate 2 appeared in the second edition, uncolored. Plates 3, 
4, 5, and 6 and both maps are the same as in first and second 
editions, save that in the edition here described plates 4, 5, and 6 
and maps are colored. 

Philadelphia, 1784 

Tide: Tliree Years | Travels, | throngh the | In- 
terior Parts of Xorth-America, | for more than | five 
thousand miles, { containing, | An Account of the great 
Lakes, and all the Lakes, | Islands, and Rivers, Cataracts, 
Mountains, ^Minerals, | Soil and Vegetable Productions of the 
Xorth-AYest | Regions of that vast Continent; | with a | 
Description of the Birds, Beasts, Reptiles, | Insects, and 
Fishes peculiar to the Country. | Together with a concise | 
History of the C4enius, Planners, and | Customs of the In- 
dians j inhabiting the Lands that lie adjacent to the Heads 
and to the | AYestward of the great River ^Mississippi ; | 
and an | Appendix, | describing the uncultivated Parts of 
America that are the | most proper for forming Settlements. 
I By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of the Provincial Troops 
in America. 1 Philadelphia : | Printed and sold by Joseph 
Crukshank in ^larkct-Street, | and Robert Bell, in Third- 
Street. ! :\IDCCLXXXIV. [1784] 

CoUation: .8vo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq; President of the Royal Society; pp. [iii], iv; 
An Address to the Public. The second edition, pp. [v], vi ; 
[Table of] Contents, pp. [vii]-xvi; Introduction, pp. xvii-xxi, 
verso blank ; A Journal of the Travels, with a Description of the 
Country, Lakes, &c., pp. [23]-82; Of the Origin, :\Lanners, 
Customs, Religion and Language of the Indians, [Chapters 
i-xix], pp. [83]-211; Appendix, pp. 212-217. 

Signatures: [A] -I in fours, K-U in fours, X-Z in fours; 
Aa-Cc in fours, Dd in fivr ; last page of Dd blank; total, 109 
leaves. No map or plates. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Paris, 1784 

Half-title: Voyage | de 'SI. Carver, | dans Tinterieur 
] de rAmerique | Septenlrionale. | Traduit de I'Anglois. 

Title: Voyage | dans j les Parties Interieures | de 
j PAmeriqiie Septentrionale. | pendant les annees 1766, 
1767 & 17GS. I Par Jonathan Carver, | Ecnyer, Capitaine 
d'une Compagnie de Troupes [ Provinciales pendant la guerre 
du Canada entre la | France & TAngleterre. | Ouvrage 
traduit sur la troisieme edition | Angloise, par M. de C... 
avec des remarques & | quelques additions du Traducteur. | 
[Design] | A Paris, | Chez Pissot, Libraire, quai des 
Augustins. I M. DCC. LXXXIV. [1784] 1 Avec Approba- 
tion & Privilege du Poi. 

Collation: Svo : half-title, verso blank; title-page, verso 
blank; Preface, pp. [5]-ll; Sommaire des matieres contenues en 
cet ouvrage, pp. [12]-20; Approbation.-Privilcge du Roi, pp. 
[21]-24; Courte notice de la vie du Capitaine Carver, pp. i-xi j ; 
Introduction, pp. xiij-xxviij ; Voyage de ]\I. Can'er, dans I'in- 
terieur de I'Anierifpie Septentrionale. Premiere Partie, Conte- 
nant le Journal de cc Voyage, pp. [1]-127, verso blank; * * 
* Seconde Partie. De TOrigine, des Usages, des ]Moeurs, de la 
Religion & du Langage .des Indiens. pp. [129]-334; * * * 
Troisieme Partie. Des Animaux, Arbres & Plantes de PAmeri- 
que Septentrionale, pp. [;335]-412; * * * Quatrieme 
Partie. Contenant quelnues Supph'mens ; le premier de I'Au- 
teur, & les autres du Tradiuteur, pp. [413] -424; Contenant "un 
voyage curieux a t ravers tout le continent de I'Amerique, pp. 
425-444; Des Voj-ages de la ITontan. pp. 445-451. 

Signatures: [a] in eight, b in four; a in eight, b in six; A-I 
in eiglits, K-T in eiglits. V in eight, X-Z in eights; Aa-Ee in 
eights, Ff in two; last page of Ff blank; total, 252 leaves. 

Map: Carte | des Voyaizes du Cape. Carver, \ dons la 
partie interieure de j I'Amerique Septentrionale, | en 1766, 
et 1767 [right, lower corner], facing p. [1, sig. A]; size, lOJ 
X 131 inches. 

Yverdon, 1784 

Half-title: Voyage | de ^I. Carver | dans I'interieur 
I de FAmt'^rique Septentrionale | 

[ 1G6 ] 


D A N S 


D E 


Pendant les annees 1765, 1767 & i']6S\ 

Par Jonathan Carver, 

Kcuyer f Capiraine d'unc Compagnie de Troupes 
Pro-inciqles pendant la guerre du Canada entre la 
France ^ I'Angleierre. 

O U V R A G E traduii fur la trolfieme edition 

Angloife, par M. de C avec des remarques & 

quelques additions du Trad u6leur. 


Chez P I s s o T , Libraire , quai des AugudliiJ. 

Avec Approhaiioh & Privilege du Ret. 

Pli:OTO<.,UAl-IUf lAfMMIl.K Of PaRIS (17S4) EDITIOX 

The best French edition 

Jonathan Carver 

Title: Voyage | dans | les Parties Interieures [ de 
rAmerique Septentrionale 1 pendant les annees 1166, 1767 
& 1768. ! Par Jonathan Carver, [ Ecuyer, Capitaine d'une 
Compagnie de Troupes | Provinciales pendant la gnerre du 
Canada | entre la France & I'Angleterre. | Ouvrage tra- 
duit sur la troiseme edition | Angloise, par M. de C . . . avec 
des remar- | ques & qiielques additions du Tradueteur. ] 
[Design] I Tverdon. | M. DCC. LXXXIV. [1784] 

Collation: 12mo; half-title, verso blank; title-page, verso 
blank; Preface, pp. v-x; Conrte notice de la vie du Capitaine 
Carver, pp. xi-xxi; Introduction, pp. xii-xxxvi; Voyage de M. 
Carver.' dans Tintcrieur de TAmerique Septentrionale. Pre- 
iniore Partio. Contenant le Journal de ce Voyage, pp. [1]-124; 

* * "■■- Seeonde Partie. De 1 'Origine, des Usages, des Moeurs, 
de la TJeligion & du Langage des Indiens, pp. [125]-322; * * 

* Troisieme Partie. Des Animaux. Arbes & Plantes de I'Amer- 
ique Septentrionale, pp. [823]-392; * * * Quatrieme 
Partie. pp. [3931-429; Sommaire des matieres contenues dans cet 
ouvrage, pp. 430^36. On p. 436 is the Approbation signed "E. 
Bertrand. Conseiller & Censeur. " and dated August 10. 1784. 

Signatures: a and b in eights, c in two; A-I in eights, K-T 
in eights. V in eight, X-Z in eights; Aa-Dd in eights, Ee in 
two; total. 236 leaves. 

No map or plates. 

Philadelphia, 1789 

Title: Three Years | Travels | through the | In- 
terior Parts j of I North-America. | for more than | 
five thousand miles, | containing | An Account of the 
great Lakes, and all the | Lakes. Islands, and Rivers, Cata- 
racts. I ^lountains. ^Minerals, Soil and Vegeta- | ble Pro- 
ductions of the North-West Re- | gions of that vast Conti- 
nent ; j with a | Description of the Birds, Beasts, Rep- ] 
tiles. Insects, and Fishes peculiar | to the Country. | To- 
gether with a concise | History of the Genius, ^Manners, and 
I Customs of the Indians | inhabiting the Lands that lie ad- 
jacent to the Heads and | to the Westward of the great River 
]\Ii.ssissippi ; I and an I Appendix, | describing the un- 
cultivated Parts of America that are | the most proper for 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

forming Settlements, j By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of 
the Provincial Troops in America. | Philadelphia: | 
Printed by Joseph Crukshank, in :\Iarket-Street, | between 
Second and Third-Streets. | .^IDCCLXXXIX. [17S9J 

Collation: 12mo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq. President of the Royal Society, pp. [iii], iv; 
Address to the Public, pp. [v], vi; [Table of] Contents, pp! 
rvii]-xvi; Introduction, pp. [i]-vii, verso blank; A Journal of 
the Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes, &c., pp. 
[9]-91, verso blank; Of the Origin, Planners, Customs, Religion, 
and Language of the Indians, pp. 93-273; Appendix, pp 274-^ 

Signatures: [a] in six, A in two, B-I in sixes, K-U in sixes, 
X-Z in sixes; Aa in six, Bb in three; total, 149 leaves. 
No map or plates. 

Philadelphia, 1792 
Title: Three Years | Travels [ through the | In- 
terior Parts i of I North-America, | for more than ] 
five thousand miles, } containing | An Account of the 
great Lakes, and all the | Lakes, Islands, and Rivers, Cata- 
racts, I Mountains, :\liuerals. Soil and Yegeta- j ble Pro- 
ductions of the North-AVcst Re- | gions of that vast Conti- 
nent; j with a I Description of the Birds, Beasts, Rep- | 
tiles. Insects, and Fi.shes peculiar | to the Country. | To- 
gether with a concise | History of the Genius, ^lannere, and 
I Customs of the Indians | inhabiting the Lands that lie ad- 
jacent to the Heads and | to tlie Westward of the great River 
.AlLssissippi; I and an | Appendix, j describing the un- 
cultivated Parts of America that are [ the most proper for 
formmg Settlements. \ By Captain Jonathan Car^-er, [ of 
the Provincial Troops in America. | Philadelphia:. | 
Printed by Joseph Crukshank, No. 87, High- [ .Street, 1792. 
Co//a^/o//: 12mo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks. Esq. President of the Royal Society, pp. [iii], iv; 
An Address to the Public, pp. [v], vi; [Table of] Contents,' pp! 
[vii]-xvi; Introduction, i)p. [i]-vii, verso blank; A Journal of 
the Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes, &c., pp. 
[0]-9], verso blank; Of the Origin. Manners, Customs, Religion, 


Jonathan Carver 

and Language of the Indians, pp. [93J-273; Appendix, pp. 
[274] -282. 

Signatures: [a] in six, A in two, B-I in sixes, K-U in sixes, 
X-Z in sixes ; Aa in six, Bb in three ; total, 149 leaves. 

No map or plates. 

Philadelphia, 1794 

Title: Three Years | Travels | throughout the | in- 
terior Parts j of j North- America, | for more than | 
five thousand miles, | containing [ An Account of the great 
Lakes, and all the Lakes, | Islands, and Rivers, Cataracts, 
^Mountains. ] ^Minerals. Soil and Vegetable Productions | 
of the Xorth-West Regions of that vast | Continent ; | with 
a I Description of the Birds, Beasts, Rep- | tiles, Insects, 
and Fishes peculiar | to the Country. | Together ^\dth a 
concise | History of the Genius. IMannere, and | Customs 
of the Indians | inhabiting the Lands that lie adjacent to the 
Heads and | to the "Westward of the great River Mississippi ; 
I and an | Appendix, | describing the uncultivated Parts 
of America, that are j the most proper for forming Settle- 
ments. | By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of the Provincial 
Troops in America, j Printed at Portsmouth, New-Hamp- 
shire, j by Charles Peirce, for David West, | No. 36, Marl- 
borough-Street, Boston. \ :M,DCC.XCIV. [1794] 

Collation: 12mo: title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq. President of the Royal Society, pp. [iii], iv; 
An Address to the Public, pp. [v]. vi ; [Table of] Contents, pp. 
[vii]-xvi; Introduction, pp. [i]-vii, verso blank; A Journal of 
the Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes. &c., pp. 
[9]-91, verso blank; Of the Origin, Manners, Customs, Religion, 
and Language of the Indians, pp. [93]-273; Appendix pp. 

Signatures: [a] in six, A in two, B-I in sixes, K-U in sixes, 
X-Z in sixes; Aa in six, Bb in three; total, 149 leaves. 

No map or plates. 

Philadelphia, 1796 

Title: Three Years | Travels | througli the | In- 
terior Parts I of I North-America, | for more than ] 
five thousand miles; | containing [ An Account of the 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

great Lakes, and all the Lakes, Islands, | and Rivers, Cat. 
aracts, :\rountains. :Minerals, | Soil and Vegetable Productions 
of the North- [ West Regions of that vast Continent ; | 
%vith a ! Description of the Birds, Beasts, | Reptiles, In- 
sects, and Fishes j peculiar to the Country-. | Together 
with a concise | History of the Genius, .Alauners, and Castoms 
I of the Indians inhabiting the Lands that lie | adjacent to 
the Heads and to the Westward | of the great River :^rissis- 
^ sippi; I and an | Appendix, | describing the unculti- 
vated Parts of America that | are the most proper for form- 
ing Settlements. | By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of the 
Provincial Troops in xbnerica. | Philadelphia: | Published 
by Key & Simpson ; — 1796. 

Collation: Svo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Eqs. [sic] President of the Royal Society, pp. 
[iii], iv; An Address to the Public, jip. [v]-vii, verso iDlank; 
[Table of] Contents, pp. [ixl-xx; Introduction, pp. [i]-ix, 
verso blank ; A Journal of the Travels, with a Description of the 
Country, Lakes, &c., pp. [11]-1U; Of the Origin, Manners, 
Customs, Religion, and Language of the Indians, pp. [115] -349, 
verso blank; Appendix, pp. [351]-360. At the end there is a 
list of subscribers to Carver's Travels, pp. (20) ; and an addi- 
tional list of subscribers residing in New York, pp. (8). Very 
few copies contain the last-named list. 

SignaUires: [a] in four, b in four, c in two; A-I in fours, 
K-U in fours, X-Z in fours; Aa-Ii in fours, Kk-Uu in fours, 
Xx and Yy in fours ; total, 190 leaves. 
No map or plates. 

Leyden, 1796 (in two volumes) 

Half-title: Carver's Reize. [ Eer.ste Deel. |. 

Title: Reize | door de j Binnenlanden | van [ Noord- 
Amerika, | door [ Jonathan Carver, Schildkn. | Kapi- 
tein van eene Compagnic Provintiaale | Troepcn Geduurende 
den Oorlog [ met Frankrijk. [ Naar den derden Druk uit 
het Engelsch vertaald | door | J. D. Pasteur. | Met 
Plaaten. | Eerste Deel. | [Portrait of Carver, ax4 cm.] 

[ 170 ] 

Jonathan Carver 

I H. Roosing, Sc Carver. \ Te Leyden, ] bij A. en J. Hon- 
koop, 1796. 

Collation: 8vo; half-title, verso blank; title-page, verso 
blank : Voorberiebt, pp. [i]-iv; Het Leven van Jonathan Carver, 
pp. [v]-x3:iii; Inhond, pp. [xxiv], [xxv], and xxvi; In-leid- 
ing, pp. [1]-14; Reis in de Binnenlanden van Noord-Amerika, 
pp. [15]-r76; Van den Oorsprong, De Zeden, Gewoonten, Gods- 
dienst En Taalen Der Indiaanen Van Noord-Amerika, pp. 

Signatures: Half-title and title-page; * in eight, * * in five; 
A-I in eights. K-P in eights, Q in four; total, 139 leaves. 

Plates: [1] Waterval van St. Anthony in de Rivier Missis- 
sippi omtrent | 2400 Engelsche :\Ii.ilen van daar zij in de 
Golf van :\r.exico valt [centre]. Hoogte 30^i:. [left] H: Roosing 
Sculpt Rotterdam 1794. Breedte omtrent COOvt [right], facing 
p. 6G. [2] Amerikaan van de Natie der Ottigauraies [colored], 
facing p. 218. [3] Amerikaan van de Natie der Naudowessies 
[colored], facing p. 220. [4] Amerikaansche Vrouw van de 
Natie der Naudowessies [colored], with verso facing p. 224. 
[5] Amerikaansche Vrouw .van de Natie der Ottigaumies 
[colored], facing p. 225. named plate would properly fol- 
low [2]. 

3lap: Kaart | van Capitein Carvers ] Reize in de Bin- 
nenlanden van I Noord- America, ] in 1766 en 1767 | 
[right, lower comer]. C. van Baarsel sculp, facing p. [15] i 
size, 10;^ X 13.} inches. 


Half-title: Carver's Reize. | Tweede Decl | 
Title : Reize | door de ] Binnenlanden ] van ] Noord- 
Amerika, I door I Jonathan Carv^er, Schildkn. ] Kapi- 
tein van ecne Compagnie Provintiaale | Troepeu Geduurende 
den Oorlog | met Frankrijk. | Naar don derden Druk uit 
het EngeLsch vertaald | door | J. D. Pasteur. | Met 
Plaaten. | Tweede Deel. | Te Leyden, | bij A. en J. 
Ilonkoop. 1796. | 

Collation: 8vo; hnlf-title, verso blank; title-page, verso 

blank; Reis in de Binnenlanden van Noord-Amerika, pp. [1]- 

266; Aanhangzel, pp. [267]-280; Blad^-ijzor, pp. (16); De 

Plaaten moeten geplaatst wordcn, p. (1) ; Bij de Uitgeevera 

12 [171] '. • 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

deezes, zijn onder anderen gednikt de volgonde Werken, p. (1). 

Signatures: Half-title and title-page; A-I in eights, K-S in 
eights, T in five ; total, 151 leaves. 

Plate: [Three drawings] : Vrede Pyp [left] ; Naudowessischc 
Ponjaard, voorlieen van steen gemaakt [right, upper] ; Oorlogs 
Knods of Koppen-Kloover, de onde Tomahawk [right, lower], 
facing p. 98. 

Boston, 1797 

Title: Three Years | Travels | throughout the | In- 
terior Parts I of j Xorth-Aniericn, | for more then [sic] 
I five thousand miles, | containing | An Account of the 
great Lakes, and all the Lakes, Islands, | and Kivers, Cat- 
aracts, ^Mountains, ^Minerals, Soil and Ve- | getable Produc- 
tions of the Xorth-West Eegions of that j vast Continent ; ] 
with a j Description of the lairds, Beasts, Reptiles, In- | 
sects, and Fishes peculiar to the Countrj\ | Together with a 
concise | History of the Genius, ^Manners, and Customs [ 
of the Indians [ inhabiting the Lands that lie adjacent to the 
Heads and | to the AYestward of the great River Mississippi ; 
I and an | Appendix, | describing the imcultivated Parts 
of America, | that are the most proper for forming | Set- 
tlements. I By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of the Pro- 
vincial Troops in America. | Printed | By John Russell, 
for David AVest, | No. 5G, Cornhill, Boston. | 1797. 

Collation: 12mo; title-page, verso blank; [ Dedication] To 
Joseph lUinks, Esq. President of the Royal Society, p. [iii], blank; An Address to the Public, pp. [v], vi ; [Table of] 
Contents, pp. [vii]-xvi; Introdu(,'tion, pp. [5]-12; A Journal of 
the Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes, &c., pp. 
[i;j]-104; Of the Origin, .Mainiei-s, Customs, Religion, and Lan- 
guage of the Indians, pj). [103]-:}02; Appendix, pp. 303-312. 

Signatures: [a] in six; A-I in sixes, K-U in sixes, W-Z in 
sixes; Aa and lib in sixi's; total, 1&2 leaves. 

No map or plates. 

Edinburgh, 1798 

Title: Three Years | Ti-avels | through the [ In- 
terior Parts I of I North-America, | for more than ] 
five thousand miles; | containing | An Aceount of the 
[ 172 1 • 

Jonathan Carver 

great Lakes, and all the Lakes, Islands, | and Rivere, Cat- 
aracts, Mountains, ^Minerals, Soil, | and Vegetable Produc- 
tions of the Xorth-West | Regions of that vast Continent ; ] 
with a I Description ,of the Birds, Beasts, | Reptiles, In- 
sects, and Fishes | peculiar to the Country. | Together with 
a concise | History of the Genius, ]\Ianners, and Customs | 
of the Indians inhabitating the Lands that lie | adjacent to the 
Heads, and to tlie Westward | of the great River Mississippi; 
I and an [ Appendix, | describing the uncultivated Parts 
of America that | are the -most proper for forming Settle- 
ments. I By Captain Jonathan Carver, | of the Provincial 
Troops in America. | Edinburgh : | Published by James 
Key.— 1798. 

Collation: Svo; title-page, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq; President of the Royal Society, pp. [iii], iv; 
An Address to the Public, pp. [v]-vii, blank; [Table of] 
Contents, jip. [ix]-xx; Introduction, pp. 21-29, verso blank; A 
Journal of the Travels, with a Description of the Country, 
Lakes, (S:c., pp. [31]-134; Of the Origin, Manners, Customs, Re- 
ligion, and Language of the Indians, pp. [135]-369, verso blank; 
Appendix, pp. [371]-3S0. 

Signatures: [A] in two, B-I in fours, K-LT in fours, X-Z in 
fours; Aa-Ii in fours, Kk-17u in fours, Xx-Zz in fours; A3 and 
B3 in fours ; total 190 leaves. 

No map or plates. 

Charlestown, 1802 

Title: Three Years | Travels | throughout the Interior 
Parts j of I North America, | for more than five thous- 
and miles, I containing | An Account of the great Lakes, 
and all the Lakes, Islands, and | Rivers, Cataracts, ^loun- 
tains, Minerals. Soil and Vege- | table Productions of the 
North "West Regions | of that vast Continent. | with a ] 
Description of the Birds, Beasts, Reptiles, Insects, and Fishes 
pecu- I liar to the Countn.'. — Togotlier with a concise Ilistor}-- 
of I the (Jenius, Mn?iners, and Customs of the Indians in- [ 
habiting the Lands adjaeent to the Heads and to | the West- 
ward of the great River Mississippi; | and an | Appendix, 
I describing tlie uneultivated Parts of America, that are | the 
most proper for forming Settlements. | Fourth American, 
[173] •. ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

from tlie last Loudon edition. | By Capt. Jonathan Carver, ] 
of the P]-ovincial Troops iu America. | Charlestown: | 
Printed by Samuel Etheridge, | for West and Greenleaf, | 
No. 56, Cornhill, Boston. | 1S02. 

Collation: Same as Boston, 1797, edition; but not made up 
of the same sheets. The dedication to Joseph Banks is signed 
"John Carver," and there is a rude cut of a water fowl on p. 

No map or plates. 

Glasgow, 1805 

Title: Tliree Years I Travels [ through the | In- 
terior Parts I of I North America, | for more than | 
five thousand miles; | containing | An Account of the 
great Lakes, and all tlie Lakes, Islands, | and Rivers, Cata- 
racts, ^Mountains, ^Hnerals, Soil, and | Vegetable Productions 
of the Nortli-v^est Regions of that | vast Continent ; with a 
Description of the Birds, Beasts, | Reptiles, Insects, and 
Fishes peculiar to tlie Country. | Together with a concise | 
History of the Genius, ^Manners, and Customs of the Indians | 
inhabiting the Lands that lie adjacent to the Heads, and | 
to the "Westv.ard of the great River ]\Iississippi ; | and an 
j Appendix, | describing' the uncultivated Parts of America 
that are most } proper for forming Settlements. \ By 
Captain Jonatlian Carver. | [Note that the words "of the 
Provincial Troops in America" are omitted.] [ Glasgow; | 
Printed by E. :\Iiller for A. & J. Leslie, | Booksellei-s, Gal- 
lowgate. I 1S05. 

Collation: This is the second issue of the Edinburgh, 1798, 
edition, being the same sheets reissued with new title-page. 

No map or plates. 

Edinburgh, 1807 

This is the third issue of the 1798 edition, the same sheets 
being used, and in some copies the same title-page, vrith. date 
changed. The last three fitrnres of 179S were erased by scrap- 
ing, and the figures 807 stamped in with type, so that the last 
line of title-page reads: 

Published by James Key. — 1S07. 

[174] . 

Jonathan Carver 

There is a copy of this issue in the library of ^Nlr. Edward E. 
Aver, of Chicago, which contains a new title-page, differing 
slightly from that of the 179S edition. The arrangement is the 
same, as is also the capitalization. The spacing betw^een the 
words differs somewhat ; the type is not quite the same — in 
places a little larger, and in others smaller. The only changes 
are in the date and the omission of the hyphen in "North "West" 
(12th line). The two title-pages are so nearly alike that, with- 
out close examination, they appear to be identical. 

No map or plates. 

Edinburgh, 1808 

This is the fourth issue of the 1798 edition, the same sheets 
and title-page, with change in date, being used. The second and 
third figures of 179S were erased by scraping, and the figures 
80 stamped in with type, so that the last Jine of title-page reads: 

Published by James Key.— 1808. 

]Mr. AVilberforce Eames, Lenox Librarian, has in his private 
library a copy of this issue in the original boards, uncut, con- 
taining sixteen copperplate engravings (which have no relation 
whatever to Carver's Travels), illustrating other parts of 
America and the Pacific. Some copies may have new title-page, 
but unfortimately no other copy has been available with which 
to compare that owned by ]\[r. Eames. 

No map or plates other than those mentioned above. 

Walpole, 1 8 13 

Title: Three Years' | Travels | throughout the | In- 
terior Parts I of North America, | for more than | five 
thousand miles, | containing an Account of the | Lakes, 
Islands and Rivers, Cataracts, | Mountains, ]\[inerals. Soil 
and Vegetable I Productions of the North "West Re- | gions 
of that vast Continent; | With a Description | of the Birds, 
Beasts, Reptiles, Insects. ] and Fishes peculiar to the Coun- 
try. I Together with a concise | History of the Genius, 
Manners and Cus- | toms of the Indians inhal)iting the Lands 
[ that lie adjao^nt to the Heads and | AVest of the River 
^Mississippi ; | and an j Appendix, | describing the | 
uncultivated Parts of America, | that are the most proper for 
formirg [sic] ] Settlements. | By Jonathan Carver, | 
[ 175 ] . • ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Captain of the Provincial Troops in America. | Walpole, N. II. 
I Published by Isaiah Thomas & Co. | 1813. 

Collation: 12mo; title-pa(::je, verso blank; [Dedication] To 
Joseph Banks, Esq. President of the Royal Society, p. [iii], 
verso blank; An Address to the Public, i)p. [v], vi ; [Table of] 
Contents, pp. [vii]-xvi; Introduction, pp. [17]-23, verso 
blank; A Journal of the Travels, with a Description of the 
Country, Lakes, &c., pp. [25]-107, verso blank; Of the Origin. 
Manners, Customs, Religion and Language of the Indians, pp. 
[100]-272; Appendix, pp. [273]-280. 

Signatures: [A] in six, B-I in sixes, K-U in sixes, W-Y 
in sixes, Z in three; total, 1-41 leaves. 

Pages 236 and 237 are duj)licated, rendering the pagination 
incorrect from p. 237 ; the final page should be 282. Typo- 
graphically, this is the poorest of all Carver editions. 

No map or plates. 

New York, 1838 

Title: Carver's Travels | . in | Wisconsin. | From the 
I third London edition. | New- York: j Printed by Har- 
per & Brothers, | No. 82 Cliff-Street. | 1838. 

Collation: 8vo ; title-page, verso blank; Advertisement, pp. 
[iii]-v, verso blank; [Title-imge of third London (1781) edi- 
tion, but not line-for-line ; and the word "coloured" is omitted 
after "illustrated Avith copper plates"], verso blank; Advertise- 
ment [signed "John Coakley Lettsom"], p. [ix], verso 
blank; [Dedication] To Joseph Banks, Esq.; President of the 
Royal Society, p. [xi], verso blank; An Address to the Pub- 
lic, pp. [xiii]-xv, verso blank; [Table of] Contents, pp. 
[xvii]-xxiv; Introduction, i)p. [xxv]-xxxii; A Journal of the 
Travels, with a Description of the Country, Lakes, iSrc, pp. 
[33]-123, verso blank; Of the Origin, Manners, Castoms, Re- 
ligion, and Languaei' of the Indians, pp. [125]-321, verso 
blank; Api)endix, pp. [32:}]-332; Some Account of Captain J. 
Carver, pp. [333]-344; Addenda, pp. [345]-3G2; Directions 
for placing tlie .Maps and Plates, p. 3(;2 ; Index, pp. [363]-37G. 

Signatures: [l]-47 in fours; total. 188 leaves. 

Plates: [1] [Frontispircc : portrait of] Captn. Jonathan 
Carver, [.'tc] ; [2] The l';ills of St. Anthony, [etc.], fac- 
ing p. GO; [3] A ^Man ami Woman of the Ottigaumies, facing 


Jonathan Carver 

p. 152; [4] A Man & "Woman of the Naudowessie with verso fac- 
ing p. lo3; [5] [Indian weapons, ete. ; three drawings], facing 
p. 1S8; [G] The Tobacco Plant, facing p. 300. 

The plates are reproduced from those of the third London 
(.1781) edition; the titles, therefore, are the same. 

Maps: [1] A New ^Tap of North America [etc.], facing 
p. [;sxv] ; size, 13 x 14^ inches. [2] A Plan of Captain Carvers 
Travels [etc.], facing p. [33] ; size, 10§ x 13§ inches. According 
to Directions on p. 3G2. map [1] is "to front the Title Page;" 
but the insertion of portrait necessitated a change of position. 
These maps are reproductions, slightly reduced, of those con- 
taine-d in the third London edition. The best American edi- 
tion. ^^ 

33 While copious extracts from Carver's Travels liave appeared in 
other works, there has been no reprint in English, either in full or in 
part, since the publication of the New York, 1S3S, edition, with one 
exception. In 1907 J. U. and C. G. Lloyd of Cincinnati reprinted in 
one of their Bulletins Chapter 19 of the Travels. As this is an inter- 
esting Carver item, a full bibliographical description is given below: 
Title: Bulletin No. 9. 1907. Reproduction Series, No. 5, | Bul- 
letin I of the ] Lloyd Library | of | Botany, Pharmacy 
and I Materia Medica ] J. U. & C. G. Lloyd | Cincinnati, 
Ohio I Reproduction Series, No. 5 | 

The Bulletin contains a type reproduction, follov/ing the original 
line-for-Iine, page-for-page, including signatures, catch words, and in 
many cases line endings. The only differences between the reprint 
and the original are that long s"s are used in the latter and short or 
round s's in the former; and on p. 494 of the reprint the three lines 
of Chapter 18 carried over in the original are omitted. The first 
London (1778) edition is set to a measure of 18 ems or 3 inches; the 
reproduction is 3Vs inches wide. 

The collation of reprint is as follows: Line-for-line title-page of 
London, 1778, edition, verso blank; dedication, pp. (2); half-title, 
worded as follows: "[Travels through the Interior Parts | of 
North-America, in the Years ] 1766. 1767. and 176-^.1", p. (1)'. On 
verso of half-title begins p. 494, Chap. xix. The text is then carried 
on through p. .'2G, this page reproducing ihe original even to the 
catch word at the end, "Appen — ". 

At the beginning of the Bulletin there is a beautiful half-tone repro- 
duction of the Carver portrait in the third London (17S1) edition; an^ 
on pp. [3] and 4 is a biographical sketch of Carver, signed "J. U. L." 
[John Uri Lloyd]. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Tours, 1845 " 

Half-title: Bibliotheqiie | des | Ecoles Chretiennes ] 
approuvee | par IMgr Teveqiie de Xevers. | Verso: Pro- 
priete des Editeiirs, | Ad ^Mame et Cie [engraved signa- 

Engraved title :^' Aventures | de Carver | ebez les 
Salvages j de | l^Vmerique Septentrionale | [vignette 
picture of Indian family] | Tours | Ad Mame & Cie | 

Title: Aventures de Carver | cliez [ les Sauvages ] 
de 1 TAmerique Septentrionale. | Tours ] Ad Mame et 
Cie, imprimeurs-libraires | 1845 

Collation: 12mo: half -title; engraved title; title-page, verso 
blank; Notice historique, pp. [5]-38; Aventures de Carver 
[etc.], pp. [39]-261, verso blank; Tables des chapitres [etc.], 
pp. [263], 264. 

Signatures: Half-title and title-page; 1-10 in twelves; 11 in 
'ten; total, 132 letives. 

Plates: [1] [Frontispiece] : La Cataracte du Niagara. 
[2] [Engraved title; see above.] 

Tours, 1846 

Half-title: Bibliotheque | des | £coles Chretiennes ] 
approuvee | par ^Mgr. I'evequ-^ de Nevers. | Verso: Pro- 
priete des Editeurs. . . . 

36 The text of the nine Tours editions of the Travels is an abridg- 
ment, in suitable form for the parochial library of which it forms a 
part. This abridgment seems to have been made from one of the 
earlier editions in English. "Otherwise." as ilr. Wilberforce Eames 
sa}'s, "it would retain some of the expressions word for word as 
they appear in the French version of 17S4." The Tours Carvers are 
rarely met with in this country; in fact, the third, fourth, sixth, 
seventh, and eighth editions have not been found in any of the libraries, 
public or private, of the United States. However, all of them are in 
the Bibliotht^'iue Xationale at Paris. 

37 It will be noted that some of the Tours editions described do not 
contain engraved title and frontispiece ; it is quite likely, however, 
that these copies are imperfect and in their original state contained 
the two plates. 

[ 178 ] 

Jonathan Carver 

Engraved title: Same as edition of 1845. 

Title: Aventures | de Carver | chez les Sauvages | 
de I rAmeriqiie Septentrionale [ deuxieme edition ! Tours 
I Ad Mame et Cie, impriraeurs-libraires | 18-46 

Collation: 12mo; half-title; engraved title; title-page, verso 
blank; Notice historique, pp. [5] -38; Aventures de Carver 
[etc.], pp. [39J-261, verso blank; Table, pp. [263], 264. 

Signatures: Half-title and title-page ; 1-10 in twelves; 11 in 
ten; total, 132 leaves. 

Plates: [1] [Frontispiece] : La Cataracte du Niagara. 
[2] [Engraved title; see above.] 

Tours, 1849 

Half-title: Same as edition of 1845. 

Title: Aventures [ de Carver | chez les Sauvages | de 
I'Amerique Septentrionale | troisieme edition [ Tours | 
Ad Mame et Cie, imprimeurs-libraires j 1849 

Collation: 12rao; half-title; title-page, verso blank; Notice 
historique. pp. [l]-30; Aventures de Carver [etc.], pp 
[31]-234; Table, pp. [235], 236. 

Signatures: Half-title and title-page; 1-9 in twelves; 10 in 
ten ; total, 120 leaves. 

Tours, 1850 

Half-title: Same as edition of 1845. 

Title: Aventures | de Carver | chez les Sauvages | 
de TAmerique Septentrionale | cinquieme edition | A M 
[in cartouche] | Tours | Ad Mame et Cie, imprimeups- 
libraires | 1850 

Collation: Same as edition of 1849, being the same sheets 
with new title-page. 

Tours, 1852 

Half-title: Same as edition of 1845. 

Engraved title: Idem. 

Title: Aventures | de Carver | chez les Sauvages ( 
de rAmeri(iue Sei)tentrionale [ cinquieme edition | A M 
[in cartouche] | Tours j Ad :\rame et Cie, imprimeurs- 
libraires I 1852 

[179] . • • 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Collation: Same as edition of 1S49, being a copy with new- 
type and title-page. 
Plates: Same as described in former editions. 

Tours, 1858 

Half-tifh: Bibliotlieque | des | Ecoles Chretiennes | 
approiivee ! par Mgr. I'eveque de Nevers j Verso: Pro- 
priete des editeiirs. 

Engraved title: Same as edition of 1845. 

Title: Aventiires | de Carver | chez les Sauvages [ 
de I'Amerique Septentrionale | sixieme edition j A M [in 
cartouclie] | Tours | Ad Mame et Cie, imprimeurs-libraires 
I 1858 

Collation: Same as preceding, being a copy with new type 
and title-page. 

Plates: Same as in former editions. 

Tours, I 86 1 

Half -title: Same as edition of 1858. 

Engraved title: Idem. 

Title: Aventures | de Carver | chez les Sauvages ( de 
I'Amerique Septentrionale | septieme edition | A M [in 
cartouche] | Toui-s | Ad ]Mame et Cie, imprimeurs-libraires 
I 1861 

Collation: Same as preceding, being a copy with new type 
and title-page. 

Plates: Same as in former editions. 

Tours, 1865 

Half-title: P>il)liotheque | de la | jeunesse Chretienne 
I approuvee | par Mgr I'Evcque de Xevers | 3e serie 
in-12 Verso: Propriete des editeurs. 

Engraved title: Same as former editions. 

Title: Aventures | de Carver | chez les Sauvages [ 
de PAim'-riciue Septentrionale \ huitieme edition | A ^I 
[in cartouche] | Tours j Alfred ^lame et fils. editeurs | 

Collation: Same as preceding. 

Plates: Same as in former editions. 

Jonathan Carver 

Tours, 1870 

Half-title: Bibliotheqne j de la | jeunesse Chretienne j 
approuvee | par ]\Igr. I'archeveque de Tours | 3e serie 
in-12 I Verso: Propriete des editeiirs. 

Engraved title: Same as former editions. 

Title: Aventiires | de Carver | chez les Sauvages | 
de TAmc'rique Septentrionale | neuviemc edition ] A M 
I in cartouche] | Tours | Alfred Mame et fils, editeurs | 
MDCCCLXX [1870] 

Collation: 12mo ; half-title; engraved title; title-page, verso 
blank; Notice historique, pp. [5] -34; Aventures de Cai-ver 
[etc.], pp. t35]-23S; Table, pp. [239], 240. 

Signatures: [1]-10 in twelves; total, 120 leaves. 

Plates: Same as in former editions. 


In 1890, the late Paul Leicester Ford edited and caused to 
be reprinted from the Eoyal Magazine of September, 1759, '*A 
Short History and Description of Fort Niagara," written, ac- 
cording to the editor's opinion, by Captain Jonathan Cai-ver. 
Mr. H. H. B. ^leyer, Chief Bibliographer, has kindly funiished 
the following description of the copy in the Library of Con- 
gress : 

Title: A Short History and De- | .scription of Fort 
Niagara, | with an Account of its Im- | portance to Great 
Britain. | AVritten by | An English Prisoner, | 1798. | 
With a View of the Fort. | Edited by | Paul Leicester 
Ford. I Brooklyn, N. Y. : ] Historical Printing Club. ] 

Collation: 16mo; [half-title] Winnowings in American 
History. | New York Colonial Series. ] No. 1. | 250 
copies printed. | No. 39, | verso blank ; title-page, verso 
blank; Note [signed Paul Leicester Ford], pp. 5-7; Explana- 
tion of the View, p. 8; To the Author of the Royal ^Magazine; 
[signed J. C r], pp. 9-18. 

Signature: The pamphlet consists of 1)ut one signature, ex- 
tending from title-page [p. 3] to p. 18 inclusive, the half- 
title and a blank leaf at the end are on one sheet, wire-stitched 
to the folded signature. 

[ 181 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Plate: [Reduced facsimile from the Royal Magazine of 
September, 1759] A View of Niagara Fort, | taken by Sir 
"William Johnson, | on the 25th of July 1759. | Drawn on 
the Spot in 1758. | Size of engraving, 13.4 x 10.5 cm. 


The following are, so far as ascertainable, the principal col- 
lections of the Travels in the United States :^^ 

Edward E. Ayer, Chicago: London, 1778; London, 1779; 
Dublin, 1779 ; London, 1781 ; Taris, 178-1; Yverdon, 1784; Phila- 
delphia, 1789; Philadelphia, 1792; Port.smouth, 1794; Philadel- 
phia, 1796; Leyden, 1796; Boston, 1797; Edinburgh, 1798; 
Glasgow, 1805; Edinburgh, 1807; Walpole, N. XL, 1813; New 
York, 1838; Tours, 1846. 

Wilherforce Eamcs, New York: London, 1778; London, 1779; 
Dublin, 1779; Hamburg, 1780; London, 1781; Paris, 1784; 
Yverdon, 1784; Philadelphia. 1789; Philadelphia, 1792; Ports- 
mouth, 1794; Philadelphia, 179G; Boston, 1797; Edinburgh, 
1798; Glasgow, 1805; Edinburgh, 1S07; Edinburgh, 1808; Wal- 
pole, N. H., 1813 ; Tours, 1845 ; Toui-s, 1870. 

Boston Puhlic Library: London, 1778; Paris, 1784; Ports- 
mouth, 1794; Boston, 1797; Walpole, N. IL, 1813. 

John Carter Brown Library^ rmridruec, E. I.: London, 1778; 
London, 1779: Dublin, 1779; Hamburg, 1780; London, 1781; 
Philadelphia, 1784; Paris. 17^1; Yverdon, 1784; Philadelphia, 
1789; Portsmouth, 1704; Leyden. 179G; Boston, 1797. 

John Thomas I^cc, Madison, Wis.: London, 1778; Dublin, 
1779; London, 1781; Paris. 1784; Philadelphia, 1789; Boston, 
1797; Edinburgh, 1798; Charlestowu, 1802; Walpole, N. H., 
1813; New York, 1838. 

Library of Congress, Wasliington: London, 1778; London, 
1779; London, 1781; Paris. 17S4; Philadelphia, 1789; Philadel- 
phia, 1796; Boston, 1797; AValpole, N. IL, 1813; New York, 
1838; Tours, 1852. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston: London, 1778; 
Dublin. 1779: London, 1781 ; Walpole, N. 11., 1813; New York, 

3s No account is taken of duplicates; several of the collections con- 
tain two or more coiiies of some otlitions. 
I 182 1 

Jonathan Carver 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul: London, 1778; Dub- 
lin, 1779; London, 17S1; Paris, 1784; Boston, 1797; Charles- 
town, 1802; Walpole, N. IL, 1813; New York, 1838. 

Neiv York Historical Society, New York: London, 1778; 
Dublin, 1779; riiiladelphia, 1792; Philadelphia, 1796; Walpole, 
N. H., 1813. 

Neiv York Public Library: London, 1778 ; Dublin, 1779 ; Lon- 
don, 1781; Philadelphia, 1796; Walpole, N. H., 1813; Tours, 

Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison: London, 1778; Lon- 
don, 1781; Paris, 1781; Philadelphia, 1784: Edinburgh, 1798; 
Walpole, N. H., 1813 ; New York, 1838. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Organization, Boundaries, and 
Names of Wisconsin Counties 

By Louise Phelps Kellogg, Ph. D. 

"Wisconsin is at present divided into seventy-one counties. 
The following list, arranged chronologically, shows the date of 
the organization of each, the territory from which it was formed, 
and the several changes of boundaries that have since occurred. 
A statement of the origin of the county names, follows in the 
appendix. Great care has been exercised in compiling this data, 
the statutes being the principal source of information; but pos- 
sibly errors have crept in, and the Society will be much pleased 
if persons cognizant tliereof will kindly call attention to the 
matter, that the publication may be corrected in possible future 
editions. .^ 

Pre-Territorial Counties, 1818-36 

• Michilimackinac, 1818. Erected by proclamation of Lewis 
Cass, governor of ^Michigan Territory, Lairs of the Territory of 
Michigan, 1S2I: Excculivc Ads, Octobrr 26, 1318, The south- 
ern boundaiy was a line drawn due west and east from the 
dividing ground between the rivers whicli flow into Lake Su- 
perior and those flowing south, to a point due north from Stur- 
geon Bay, thence south to said bay, thence by nearest line to 
the boimdary of Indiana Territory as established in 1S05. The 
original county thus included portions of the present Douglas, 
Bayfield. Asbland. Iron, and Door counties. In 1826 this was 
limited on the north by the erection of Chippewa County, whose 
southern boundary was parallel of latitude 46° 31'. Upon the 
erection of AVisconsin Territory (1836), Michilimaekinac County 

[184] . • 

Wisconsin Counties 

■was confined to ^Michigan, and such portions thereof as fell to 
the lot of AViseonsin became unorganized portions of Crawford 
and Brown counties respectively. 

Brown, 1818. P^rected by proclamation of Lewis Cass, gover- 
nor of ilichigan Territory, Laws of the Terriionj of Michigan, 
1824; Executive Acts, October 26, 1818. Boundaries: north, 
county of IMichilimackinac ; east, the same and the northward 
extension of the line between Indiana and Illinois; south, by 
Illinois; west, by a line due north from the Illinois boundary, 
through the middle of the portage between Fox and Wisconsin 
rivers, extending to the coimty of ]\Iichilimackinac. 

1834:. By legislative act of ^Michigan Territory, Acts passed 
at the. Extra and Second Session of the Sixth Legislative Coun- 
cil, September 6, ^Milwaukee County was set off from BrouTi, 
the former to include all south of the line between townships 11, 
12 north, of the Green Bay land district. By the same act, 
the western boundary of Brown was enlarged to extend to Wis- 
consin River; the eastern was defined as a line running through 
the middle of liake Michigan until it struck the southern boun- 
dary of ]Michilimackinae County. 

1836. Under Xo. 2S, Letws of ^Yisconsin Tcrritorij, 1836, 
thirteen counties were erected from the territory of Brown and 
Milwaukee. Of these, the entire counties of Sheboygan, Fond 
du I-ac, Cahunet, ]\ranitowoc, and IMarquette, likewise the to^^^^- 
ships of Washington, Dodge, and Portage, north of township line 
between 11 and 12, were taken from Brown. The southern 
boujidary of Brown was thus the township line between 20 and 
21, from Lake ^Michigan to Fox River, up that to Lake Winne- 
bago; thence to township line between 18 and 19, from Lake 
AVinnebago to the line between ranges xii and xiii east; south 
to the township line between 17 and IS; west to a line between 
ranges xi and xii east ; south, to the to^^'n.ship line between 16 
and 17 ; west to the line between ranges x and xi east ; south to 
the township line between 15 and 16; west to the line between 
ranges viii and ix east; south to the towTiship line between 13 
and 14; west to Wisconsin River. This line attempted roughly 
to follow the course of Fox River. 

18-10. Under section 8, Xo. 12. Ijairs of Vt'i.^consin Territory, 
1839^10, there were taken from Brown County to form Winne- 
bago, townships 19 and 20 of ranges xiv-xvii east. 
\ ISf)"] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

1841. Under section 1, No. 38, Laivs of Wisconsin Territor'i/^ 
1840-41, all that portion of Brown lying west of the range line 
between ix and x east was added to Portage. Section 8 of the 
same chapter defined the limits of Bro^^'n as bounded on the 
north and east by the state line, south by the counties of Mani- 
towoc, Calumet, and Winnebago, and by Fox River, and west 
by Portage County. Under No. 40 of the same year, the law 
establishing Calumet County was repealed, and its territory re- 
verted to Brown. 

1842. Under an act approved Febniary 18, Laws of Wiscon- 
sin Territory, 18-11-42, Caliuuet County was re-established from 

1849. Under chapter 73, Laws of 1849, Marquette County 
was enlarged by all the to'UTiships lying north of Fox Eixer to 
the line between to^vnships 20 and 21, between ranges x-xiii; 
this made the southern boundary of Bro\^Ti the towTiship line 
between 20 and 21. Chapter 79, of the same year, annexed to 
Winnebago County all the Menominee Indian purchase not in- 
cluded in any county since its consummation. This detached 
from Brown all territory- lying west of Wolf River. 

1850. Under chapter 166, Laws of 1850, townships 21 of 
ranges xxii-xxv east, were cut off from Brown and annexed to 

1851. Under chapter 31, Laws of 1851, Oconto County was 
cut off from Brown, including all north of the line between 
townships 25 and 26, extending from Green Bay to range xix, 
thence south to the line between townships 24 and 25, thence 
west to Wolf River. Under chapter 66 of the same year, all of 
the present Door and Kewaunee, counties were cut off from 
Bro\ATi to form Door. Under chapter 83, of the same year, Out- 
agamie County, comprising townships 21-24 of ranges xv-xviii 
and the west half of range xix east, was taken from Bro\\Ti, 
which was by this act reduced to its present boundaries. 

Crawford, 1818. Erected by proclamation of Lewis Cass, 
governor of Michigan Territory, Laws of the Territory of MicJi- 
irjan, 1821; Executive Acis, Ocfohrr 26, ISIS. Boundaries: 
north, county of ^lichilimaekinac ; east, Brown County; south, 
State line of Illinois ; west, tlic western boundary of the Terri- 
tory (that is, the Mississippi River). 

[186] . • 

Wisconsin Counties 

1829. By act approved October 9, Laivs of Michigan Terri- 
tory, 1S29, all of Crawford south of "Wisconsin River was set 
oft to form Iowa County. 

1834. By legislative act of Michigan Territory, Acts passed 
at the extra and Second Session of the Sixth Legislative Coun- 
cil, Septonber 6, Bro^nl County was extended to TVisconsin 
River, thus cutting off a portion of Crawford, 

1836. Under section 6, No. 28, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 
1836, township 10, range vi east; a fractional part of towmship 
10, range vii east ; fractional parts of to\^T3ships 11 and 12, range 
viii east ; and a fractional part of township 12, range ix east — 
that is, all those portions of such townships lying west of Wis- 
consin River — were taken from Crawford to become part of 
Portage County. 

1838. I'nder Xo. 39, Laws of 'Wisconsui Territory, 1838, a 
six-mile strip parallel to Wisconsin River, and west of the same, 
was added to Portage from Crawford. Under No. 104, of the 
same year, all of Wisconsin Territory lying south and west of 
Lake Superior, east of ^Mississippi and Grand Forks rivers, and 
north of the Wisconsin, not included in any other coimty, was 
attached to Crawford "for all judicial purposes." This prac- 
tically included such portions of Michilimackinac and Chippewa 
counties of the Territory- of ]N[ichigan, as had been left unpro- 
vided with local boundaries or jurisdiction on the erection of 
Wisconsin Territory in 1836. 

1840. Under No. 20, Laws of ^yisconsin Territory, 1839-10,. 
St. Croix Coimty was organized from Crawford, to comprise all 
territoiy lying north and west of a line from the mouth of Por- 
cupine River on Lake Pepin, up that river to its first forks,, 
thence to the ^Meadow fork of Red Cedar River, thence up said 
river to Long Lake, thence along the canoe route to Lake Court 
Oreille, thence to the nearest point on the west fork of ^lontreal 
River, thence to Lake Superior and to the United States bound- 
ary line. Under Ibid., No. 23, Sauk County was organized 
from Crawford, cutting off all north and west of Wisconsin 
River, east of the line ])etween ranges i and ii east, and south 
of the line between to\\'nships 13 and 14. 

1841. Under No. 38, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1810-41, 
all of Crawford east of a line between ranges i and ii east, north 
of township 13, was annexed to Portage. 

13 r 187 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

1842. ruder act a])]M-oved F^'brunry IS, Lmvs of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1841-42, Richland County \vas created, taking from 
Crawford all south of township 12, east of range ii west. 

1845. Under section 1 of act approved February 3, Laivs of 
Wisconsi7i Territory , ISirt, the boundaries of Crawford were de- 
fined as comprising all north of Wisconsin River and east of the 
Mississippi, south of a line beginning at the mouth of Buffalo 
River, up that stream to its source, thence in a direct line to the 
southern point of Lake Clietac, thence due east to the western 
boundary of Portage, and west of the western lines of Richland 
and Portage counties. The same act created Chippewa County, 
from territoiy thus cut off from Crawford. 

1846. The foregoing line was found inconvenient. Hence, 
under an act approved January 14, Laivs of Wisconsin Terri- 
tory, 1846, the boundary between Crawford and Chippewa was 
thus defined : commencing at the mouth of Buffalo River, thence 
up the main branch thereof to its source, thence along the di- 
viding ridge between the waters of Chippewa and Black rivers 
to the headwaters of the latter, thence a direct line due east to 
the western boundary of Portage County. 

1851. Under chapter 131, Laws of 1851, Bad Ax (now Ver- 
non) and La Crosse counties were organized from Crawford. 
The former detached townships 12-14 iiud the northern half of 
towTiships 11, in ranges ii-vii west; the latter, all of Crawford 
north of the line between to^Miships 14 and 15. Thus Crawford 
was reduced to its present boundaries. 

■ Chippewa (Mich. Ty.), 1826. Under act approved Decem- 
ber 22, 1820. Lows of Michigan Territory, Chippewa County waL 
organized, from lands lying north of parallel 46° 31' north lati- 
tude. This included portions of the present Douglas, Bayfield, 
Ashland, and Iron counties, with the sites of the cities of Su- 
perior and Ashland. 

In 1836, when "Wisconsin Territoiy was organized, this county 
was restricted to ^Michigan. 

1838. T'nder Xo. 104, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1837-33, 
that part of Wisconsin fornn'ily within this county was incor- 
porated in Crawford County. 

Iowa, 1829. I'nder act approved October 9, Laws of Michi- 
gan Territory, 18'^!), Iowa County was erected from Crawford, 
comprising all the territoiy bounded on the south by Illinois, on 

Wisconsin Counties 

the east by the west line of Brown County, and on the west and 
north by tlie ^lississippi and Wisconsin rivers. 

1836. Under section -4, No. 28, Laws of Wisconsin Tcrrifonj. 
1S36, Dane County was formed, taking to^^'nships 5-9 of ranges 
vi-viii from Iowa County. No. 31, of the same year, further re- 
duced the boundaries of Iowa, by erecting all west of the fourth 
principal meridian into the county of Grant; and townships 1-4 
in ranges vi-ix east, into the county of Green. * 

1846. Under an act approved January 31, Laws of Wisconsin 
Terriforij, IS 16, Iowa was to be divided into two counties: the 
sontlurn. to be called Lafayette, was to be composed of town- 
ships 1, 2. 3. and the southern half of 4, of ranges i-v east; the 
northern, consisting of the remaining townships, was to be called 
Montgomery. This act was submitted to a referendum of the 
people of the county, who favored the diA^sion. 

18-17. Under an act approved February 4, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1817, Lafayette County was declared erected. The 
proposed name ^lontgomery was, however, not appended to the 
northern portion, whirh retained the name of Iowa, with its 
present boundaries. 

Milwaukee, 1834. \\y an act approved September 6. Second 
Session of the Sixth Lc;/islatii'c Council of Michigan Territory, 
1834, ]\Iihvaukee (originally spelled ]\Iilwaukie) County was 
erected from Bro^\•n, with the following boundaries: east, the 
eastern boundary of Illinois extended northward through Lake 
]\Iichigan ; south, the present state line of Illinois-AVisconsin ; 
west, Iowa County; north, the line between townships 11 and 12 
of the Green Bay land district. 

1836. Under Xo. 28, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1836, Mil- 
waukee County was divided, there being taken therefrom the 
counties of Bacine, Bock, Walworth, Jefferson, and parts of 
Dane. Washinirton, Df;dge. and Portage, thus restricting the 
boundaries of ^Milwaukee to the pres'Mit Waukesha and ^Nlilwau- 
kee counties. 

1846. T'nder an act approved January 31. Laws of Wiscon- 
sin Territory. IS [6. all of :\rilwaukee County west of range xxi 
east was to be oruranizod into Waukesha County, provided a 
referendum to the people of that portion of the county .should be 
favorable to division. This was <-arried. and :\Iilwaukee County 
was in the same year ivducd to its pres<'nt boundaries, 
r 1 SO 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Territorial Counties, 1836-48 

When organized in 1830, AVisconsin Territory comprised all 
of the in-esent states of Iowa and ^Minnesota, and part of the 
Dakotas. The portion lying ^vest of the ^Mississippi was on Jime 
12, 1888, set off as Iowa Territory; the counties formed therein 
by the first Wisconsin territorial legislature are not included in 
this summary. 

Walworth, 1836. Under section 1, No. 28, Laics of Vi"isconsin 
Territory, 1836, Walworth County was organized from Milwau- 
kee, with its present boundaries. 

Racine, 1836. Under section 2, Xo. 28, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1836, Racine County was organized from ^lilwaukee, 
with boundaries including the present Racine and Kenosha 

1850. Under chapter 39, Laws of 1850, Kenosha County was 
set off from Racine, which was thus reduced to its present 

Jefferson, 1836. Under section 3, Xo. 28, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1S36, Jefferson County was organized from ]Milwau- 
kee, with its present boundaries. 

1856. Under chapter 27. (icncral Laws of 1856, Jefferson 
County was enlarged by adding thereto townships 9 of ranges 
xiii-xvii east, taken from Dodge County. 

1858. Under chapter 90, General Laws of 1858, the preceding 
act was repealed, and Jefferson was reduced to its former and 
present boundaries. 

Dane, 1836. Under section 4. Xo. 2S. Laws of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory. 1836, Dane County was erected from territory formerly 
part of Milwaukee and Iowa counties. This act provided for its 
present boundaries, save at the northwest angle, which extended 
beyond Wisconsin River. 

1840. I'nder Xo. 23, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1839—10, 
all of tOAvnship 9 of range vi east that lies northwest of Wiscon- 
sin River, was given to Sauk County. Dane was thus reduced 
to its i)r('sent Imundaries. 

Portage, 1836 (see also Columbia). Under section 5. Xo. 28, 
Laws of Wisconsin Territory. 1836, Portage County was erected 
from territory formerly belonging to Brown, ^Milwaukee, and 

Wisconsin Counties 

Crawford. It eomprisod townsliips 10 of ranges vi-xiii east, 
townships 11 of ranges viii-xiii east, and townships 12 and 13 of 
ranges ix-xiii east, the whole nearly equivalent to the present 
Columbia County. 

1838. Under No. 39, Laws of ^Msconsin Territory, 183S, the 
boundaries of Portage were re-defined ; according to which all of 
range xiii was omitted, being likewise a part of Dodge; while a 
six-mile strip parallel to "Wisconsin River, on its west bank, was 
annexed to Portage from territory formerly a part of Crawford 

1840. Under Xo. 23, Laws of ^yisconsin Territory, 1839-40, 
Sauk County was established west of Wisconsin River, Portage 
thus losing township 10 in range vi and portions of the before- 
mentioned six-mile strip. 

1841. Under Xo. 38. Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1810-41, 
Portage County was enlarged by adding to it all that territory 
running north to the state boundary lying north of Sauk and 
Portage, between ranges ii and ix east, save the fractional por- 
tions of townships 14 and 15. range ix east, lying east of Fox 
River, which were part of ^Marquette County. Under tliis defi- 
nition of bounds, Portage County included the present Colum- 
bia, Adams, Juneau, Wood, and Lincoln counties, the western 
portions of the present ^Marquette, "Waushara, Portage, ]\Iara- 
thon, Langlade, Oneida, and Vihis counties, and the eastern por- 
tions of Taylor, Price, and Iron. 

1846. Under an act approved February 3, Laws of ^Yisconsin 
Territory, 1846, Cohuubia County was set off from Portage, tak- 
ing with it all of the latter county south of the line lietween 
townships 13 and 14. save the portion between Fox and "Wiscon- 
sin rivers. Thus Columbia corresponded nearly to the original 
Portage County. 

1848. Under an act ai->proved ^^larch 11. Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, lSi8, Adams County was set off from- l^rtagc; the 
new county comprised the territory between Lemonweir River 
and tlie northern boundary of Saulc County. 

1840. Under chapter 73. Laws of ISiO, M.Wiinctic County 
was enlarged, cutting fnmi Portage townships UU20 of range 
viii, and lG-20 of range ix. lender section 2 of the same chap- 
ter, Adams County was ;ilso enlarged, cutting fi-om Portage 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

townships 15-20 of ranges ii-vii. Chapter 77 of the same year 
provided that the portion of I'ortage south of township 14, be- 
tween Fox and Wisconsin rivers, should be annexed to Columbia. 
Thus the southern boundary of Portage County was in 18-49 a 
line between townships 20 and 21, eleven townships north of its 
original boundary as established in 1S3G. 

1850. I'nder chapter 226, Laws of 1850, :\rarathon County 
was erected from all that portion of Portage lying north of the 
line between townships 25 and 26. 

1851. Under chapter 114, Lows of 1851, townships 21-25 of 
range x east were annexed to Portage from territory formerly 
incorporated in "Winnebago County. 

1855. TTnder chapter 51, General Laws of 1855, the qualified 
voters of Winnebago County were to decide whether townships 
21-25 of range x east should be stricken off from Winnebago. 
Under chapter oS of the same year, all qualified voters in to^\^l- 
ships 21-25 of range x were to decide whether this territory 
should be part of Portage or of Waupaca counties. This elec- 
tion favored the former. 

1856. Under chapter 54, General Laws of 1856, Wood County 
was set oft' from Portage, consisting of townships 21-25 in ranges 
ii-v, townships 21, 22 of range vi east, and as much of township 
23 of the same range as lies south of Wisconsin River. Section 9 
of the same chapter defined the boundaries of Portage County in 
accordance with this division, and included townships 21-25 of 
range x east. Chapter lOS. of the same year, amended chapter 
54, so as to include in Wood County all of township 23 in range 
vi east. Thus Portage was in 1856 reduced to its present boun- 

Dodge, 1836. Under section 6. Xo. 28, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory. 1836, Dodge County was organized from Brown and 
iMilwaukee counties : fifteen townships, 11-13 of ranges xiii-xvii 
east, were taken from Brown ; and ten townships, 9 and 10 of 
ranges xiii-xvii east, were subtracted from ^Milwaukee. Town- 
ships 10-13 of range xiii were by tlie same chapter assigned to 
Portage as well as to Dodge County. 

1838. Under Xo. 3!). Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1838, 
townships 10-13, of range xiii. were dropped from Portage and 
thus continued as part of Dodge. 

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Wisconsin Counties 

185G. Under chapter 27, General Laws of 1S56, townships 9 
of ranges xiii-xvii cast were detached from Dodge and annexed 
to Jefferson Comity. 

1858. Under chapter 90, Geveral Laws of 1858, the preceding 
act was repealed, and Dodgre reverted to its original boundaries, 
which are those of the present. 

Washington, 1836. Under section 7, No. 28, Laws of 'Wiscon- 
sin Territory, 1836, "Washington County was erected out of ]\Iil- 
v/aukee and Brown. Townships 9 and 10, of ranges xviii-xxii 
cast were taken from the former; townships 11 and 12 of ranges 
xviii-xxiii east, from the latter. Washington County then in- 
cluded the present "Washington and Ozaukee counties. 

1850. Under chapter 114, Laivs of 1850, "Washington County 
was to he divided by setting off to^^^lships 9 and 10 of all its 
ranges to form tlie county of Tuskola. By section 14 of this 
chapter, this proposition was to be submitted to popular vote 
within the county. It failed of securing a majority, however, 
and Washington County remained for three years longer un- 

1853. Under chapter 21, General Laws of 1833, AYashington 
County was divided, and Ozaukee erected by cutting off all 
townships east of the line between ranges xx and xxi. Wash- 
ington County was thus reducod to its present boundaries. 

Sheboygan, 1836. I'luler section 8, No. 28, Laws of Wiscon- 
.<?m Territory, 1S36, S;heboygan County was erected from Brown. 
It comprised townships ]:}-16 of ranges xx-xxiii east, the same 
boundaries as at present. 

Fond du Lac, 1836. Under section 9, No. 28. Laws of Wis- 
consin Territory, 1836, Fond du Lac County was erected from 
Brown, and comprised townships [13] of ranges xviii [and xix] 
east, townsliips 14-16 of ranges xiv-xviii east, and townships 17 
and 18 of ranges xiv-xvi, including most of tiie present Fond du 
Lac, and part of Winnebago County. The original. act establish- 
ing Fond du Lac County omitted the word ''thirteen" before 
ranges xviii and xix east; and also omitted range "xix" after 
"xviii east," thus leaving five townsliips out of any jurisdiction. 
The townships 14-18 in range xiv were by the same act included 
in both Fond du Lac and ^Marquette counties. These defects 
were later remedied. 

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1840. Under Xo. 12, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1839-10, 
■Winnebago County Mas established, cutting off from Fond du 
Lac to\vnsliips 17 and 18 of ranges xiv-xvii east. Section 2, of 
the same chapter, transferred fractional tOMTiships 17 in ranges 
xviii and xix east, south of the Indian reservation line, from 
Calumet County to Fond du Lac. 

1844. Under act approved January 22, Laivs of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1843-41, all of Lake AViunebago south of a line from 
the southern boundary of the Brothertown Indian reservation 
to the line between townships IG and 17 was made part of Fond 
du Lac County. 

1848. Under act approved ]March 6. Laivs of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory, 1848, the boundaries of Pond du Lac were defined as in- 
cluding township 13. range xviii east, townships 13-16 of range 
xix east, and all of Lake AYinnc])ago south of a line from Brother- 
town reservation to the line between ranges xvii and xviii, thence 
to a line between townships 16 and 17. Section 2 of the same 
act declared that townships 14—16 of range xiv. which by No. 
28, Laws of 1836, had been included in both ^Marquette and 
Fond du Lac counties, were part of the latter. 

1859. Under chapter 60, General Laws of 1859, the legal 
voters of Fond du Lac were to decide whether township 16, 
range xiv east, should be ti'ansferred to Green Lake County. 
Popular concuri'ence was not accorded to this measure, and the 
boimdaries of Fond du Lac remained as defined in 1849. 

Calumet, 1836. Under section 10, No. 28, Laics of Wisconsin 
Territory. 1836, Calumet Comity was established from Brown, 
the new county comprising townships 17-20 of ranges xvi-xx 

1840. Under section 2, No. 12, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 
1839-^10, the southern portion of townships 17, in ranges xviii 
and xix east, south of the Indian reservation, was detached from 
Calumet and annexed to Fond du Lac. 

1841. Under No. 40. Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1840-41, 
Calumet County was declared non-existing and its territoiy re- 
verted to Brown County. 

1812. Under an act approved February 18, Laws of Wiscon- 
sin Territory, 1811—12, the preceding act was repealed, and 
Calumet County re-establisluxl. 


Wisconsin Counties 

1848. Under an act approved ^March 6, Laws of ^Y^sconsin 
Terriionj, 1818, all of Lake Winnebago north of the southern 
boundary of the Brothertown Indian reser\^ation, and east of a 
line between ranges xvii and xviii, -was declared a part of Calu- 
met County. 

1849. Under chapter 2, Ecviscd Statutes of 1849, the boun- 
daries of Calumet County were defined as at present. 

Manitowoc, 1836. Under section 11, No. 28. Laws of ^Yiscon- 
sin Tcrriforu, 1S36, ^Manitowoc County was erected out of terri- 
tory formerly belonging to "Brown, comprising townships 17-20 
of ranges xxi-xxv east. 

1850. Under chapter 166. Laws of 1850, townships 21 of 
ranges xxii-xxv cast were annexed to ]\Ianitowoc from territory 
belonging to Brown. The boundaries of Manitowoc were thus 
established as at ])resent. 

Marquette, 1836. Under section 12, No. 28, Laws of YVis- 
consiit Territory, 1836, IMarquette County was erected from 
territory formerly belonging to Brown, with boundaries as 
follows: to^Miships 14, 15 of ranges ix and x east, to^vnships 
14-1 G of range xi east, townships 14-17 of range xii east, and 
townships 14-18 of ranges xiii. xiv east. Of these, to\raships 
14—18 of range xiv were, through inadvertence, assigned under 
section 9 of the same chapter to Fond du Lac as well as to Mar- 

1840. Under No. 12, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1839-40, 
"Winnebago County was erected, its limits including two of 
I\larquctte's townships. 17 and 18 of range xiv. 

1848. ITnder act approved ^larch 6, Laws of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory, 1848, townships 14-16 of range xiv were declared to be 
part of Fond du Lac County. 

1849. lender chapter 73, Laws of 1849, the boundaries of 
^larquette were nnif'h enlarged, and made to comprise all the 
present ^laniuettc. Green Lake, and Waushara counties. Of 
this new ]»ortioii, townships 14-20 nf ranges viii, and townships 
16-20 of range ix east, were ti-ansferred to IMarquette from Port- 
age; while townships 16-20 of range x east. 17-20 of range xi 
east. 18-20 of range xii east, and 19, 20 of range xiii were trans- 
ferred from that part of Brown that was part of the Menominee 
Indian purcliase. 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

ISol. Under chapter 77, Laivs of 1851, Waushara Countv 
was erected from all that part of :\rarquette lying north of tlu- 
line between townships .17 and 18. 

1858. Under chapter 17, General Laws of 1S58, Green Lake 
County was set off from :\rarquette. The boundaries between 
these counties were modified by chapter 85 of the same year. 
which set off for Green Lake County aU east of the line between 
ranges x and xi, except the west four tiers of sections of town- 
ships 16 and 17, range xi east. 

1860. Under chapter 143, General Laws of 1S60, the boun- 
daries of :Marquette were defined as at present. 

1862. Under chapter 23, General Laws of 1862, portions of 
townships 14 and 15 in range x were to be detached from Mar- 
quette and added to Green Lake, and portions of to^\-nship 16 
in range xi detached from Green Lake and added to Marquette, 
provided a popular vote should so decide; but this proposition 
failed of endoreement. 

1865. Under chapter 191, General Laws of 1865, the same 
proposition in regard to portions of townships 14 and 15, in 
range x, was to be a second time submitted to popular vote. 
This again failed to secure approval of voters, and the boun- 
daries of Marquette County remained as defined in 1S60. 

Rock, 1836. Under section 13, Xo. 28, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1336, Rock County was erected out of Milwaukee 
County, its limits comprising townships 1-4 of ranges xi-xiv 

1838. Under Xo. 5, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 1838, town- 
ships 1-4 of range x east were annexed to Rock, making its 
boundaries the same as at present. 

Grant, 1836. Under section 1, Xo. 31, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1836, all of Iowa County lying west of the fourth 
principal meridian was detached therefrom and erected into the 
county of Grant, which thus was given boundaries the same as 
at present. 

^ Green, 1836. Under section 2, Xo. 31, Laws of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1836, Green County was set off from Iowa, its terri- 
tory comi)rising townships 1-4 in ranges vi-ix east— the same 
boundaries as at present. 

Winnebago, 1840. I'nder section 8, Xo. 12, Laws of Wiscon- 
sin Territory, 183U-iO, AVinii."b;igo was erected from Fond du 
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Wisconsin Counties 

Lac and Brown counties. It comprised townships 17-20, in 
ranges xiv-xvii east. 

1848. Under section 4 of an act approved ^Tarcli 6, Laws of 
Wisconsin Tcrritor;;, 18-lS, all that part of Lake Winnebago 
north of Fond du Lac County line, and west of the line between 
ranges xvii and xviii, was declared to be a part of Winnebago 

1849. Under chai:)ter 79, Laws of 1849, all of the Menominee 
Indian lauds, purchased under the treaty of 1848, and not at- 
tached to any otlicr county since that treaty was consummated, 
were annexed to Winnebago County — practically, this included 
most of Waupaca, S^hawano. and Langlade counties and one tier 
cf townships in range x east, immediately east of what was then 

1851. Under chapter 78, Laws of 1851, Waupaca County, 
comprising townships 21-25 of ranges xi-xiv, and such frac- 
tional part of township 25, range xv east, as lay west of Wolf 
River, was taken from Winnebago Coitfity. Under chapter 114 
of tlie same year, townships 21-25 of range x east were annexed 
to Portage. 

1853. Lender chapter 9, General Laws of 1853, Shawano 
County was formed, taking from Winnebago such portions west 
cf Wolf River as lay between townships 26 and 29, and east of 
the line between ranges xi and xii east. 

1855. Although chapter 114 of 1851 had detached townships 
21-25 of range x from AVinnel)ago and added them to Portage, 
chapter 51 of the General Laws of 1855 provided that the quali- 
fied voters of AVinnebago were to decide whether these to^nl- 
ships should belong to AVinnebago or to Portage. A majority 
having decided for. Portage, they were so incorporated. 

1856. Under chapter 45, General Laics of 1356, the bound- 
aries of AVinnebago were defined as they are at present. Lender 
section 2 of the saine aet, townships 26-29 of ranges x and xi 
east were added to Shawano County, and the remaining part of 
AVi!ine])ago. north of township 29, to Oconto County. 

St. Croix, 1840. Under No. 12, Laws of Wisconsin Territory, 
1839-10, St. Croix (.'ounty was created from Crawford. The 
new county em])raced all north and west of a line beginning at 
the mouth of Porcupine River, on Lake Pepin, thence up said 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

river to its first forks, tlieneo to the ]Meado\v fork of Ecd Cedar 
River, thenee up that river to Long Lake, by canoe route to 
Lake Court Oreille, thenee to the nearest point on the west fork 
of Montreal Eiver, and thence to Lake Superior and the United 
States boundary. This included, besides northwest Wisconsin, 
all of what is now :\rinnesota lying east of INIississippi River. 

1845. Under an act approved February 19, Laws of TTi.scon- 
sin Territory, 1815, La Pointe County was set off from St. Croix. 
It comprised all north of a line from the mouth of ^Muddy Island 
River, thence to Yellow Lake, thence to Lake Court Oreille, 
thence to :\rontreal River, liake Superior, and the United States 

1848-49. Upon the organization of the State (1848), Con- 
gress detached from "Wisconsin, for the purpose of giving it to 
IMinnesota, all that part of the former Territory of Wisconsin 
lying west of St. Croix River. The tract thus given to Minne- 
sota was henceforth lost to St. Croix County. Under section 6, 
chapter 77, Laus of 1819, the boundaries of St. Croix were de- 
fined as beginning at tlie westeni boundary of the State, at the 
mouth of Rush River, thence extending eastward to the line 
between ranges xiv and xv west, thence north to the line be- 
tween townships 31 and 32, thence east to the line between 
ranges xi and xii west, thence north to 'St. Croix River and west 
and south coextensive with the State boundary to the place of 
beginning: that is. including the present Pierce. St. Croix, Polk, 
and P>urnett counties and parts of what are now P>arron and 

1853. Under chaptt^r 31, General Laws of 1853, St. Croix 
County was divided: Pierce was set off, south of the line be- 
tween townships 27 and 28 : and Polk, north of the line between 
townships 31 and 32. St. Croix was thus reduced to its present 

Sauk, 1840. Under Xo. 23. Ijows of Wiscon&in Territory, 
1839-10, Sauk County was foi'med from territory formerly a 
part of Crawford Comity, with two townships from Portage, 
and a fractional township from Dane. The county's boundaries 
were the same as at pi-cs'-nt, except for four townships later 
added to Ricliland. 

1842. I'nder an act approved February 18, Laws of IWs- 

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Wisconsin Counties 

consul Territory, lSi1-d2, townships 9-12 in range ii east, were 
taken from Sauk to be incorporated in Richland County. 

1849. Under section 3, cliapter 77, Laws of 1S49, to\vnships 
14 in ranges ii-vi east were added to Saulv from Adams County. 

1853. lender cliapter 29, General Laws of 1853, the foregoing 
townships were restored to Adams, and Sauk assumed its pres- 
ent boundaries. 

Richland, 1842. Under act approved Februaiy 18, Laws of 
Wisconsin Territory, 1841-12, Richland County was erected 
from territory formerly belonging to Crawford and Sauk, Avith 
boimdaries the same as at present. 

Chippewa, 1845. Under an act approved February 3, Laws 
of Wisconsin Territory, 1815, Chippewa County was erected 
from Crawford, comprising all north of the boundary estab- 
lished for Ci'awford. west of Portage, south of St. Croix, and 
east of the ^Mississippi. 

1846. Under an act approved Januar\^ 14, Laws of ^yiscon- 
sin Territory, 1816, the boundary line between Crawford and 
Chippewa counties was changed to Buffalo River to its source, 
thence following the watershed of Chippewa and Black rivers to 
the western boundary of Portage. 

1849. Under section 4, chapter 77, Laics of 1849, the bound- 
aries of Chippewa were defined as including the territory Ijnng 
between Crawford, Portage, La Pointe, and St. Croix counties. 

1854. Under chapter 1, General Laws of 1854, all of Chip- 
pewa between Beef and Chippewa rivers, south of the line be- 
tween townships 24 and 25. was annexed to Buffalo County. 
Under chapter 12 of the same year, Dunn County was erected 
from Chipi>ewa, including the present Dunn and Pepin counties. 
Under chapter 100 of the same year, the southern boundary be- 
tween Chippewa and Jackson was made the line between to\\'n- 
ships 24 and 25. and portions of Chippewa were detached to 
form Clark County, making the eastern boundary of the former 
the line between ranges iv and v west, as far as the line between 
townships 31 and 32. thence east to range ii east. 

1856. Under chapter 114, General Laws of 185G, Eau Claire, 
with the same boundaries it has today, was formed from Chip- 
pewa, whose .southeni boundary became as at present. 

1860. Under chapter 235, General Laws of 1860, toAMiships 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

-32-37 of ranges x and xi west were detached from Chippewa 
and added to Dallas (now Barron) County. 

1864. Under chapter 4G2, General Laws of 1S64, townships 
38-40 of ranges x and xi west were detached from Chippewa and 
annexed to Burnett County. 

1875. Under chapter 17S, Laws of 1875, townships 32 and 33 
of ranges i east, and i-iv west were incorporated in Taylor 

1879. Under section 1 of chapter 103, Laws of 1879, to^yn- 
sliips 34—40 in ranges i east, and i and ii west were included in 
Price County. Under section 18 of the same act, townships 
35-37 of ranges iii-v west were declared to be a part of Chip- 

1883. Under section 1 of chapter 47, Laws of 1883, all of 
Chippewa north of the line between townships 36 and 37 was 
made part of Sawyer County. Chippewa was now reduced to 
the limits of the present Chippewa and Rusk counties. 

1901. Under section 1, chapter 469, Laws of 1901, Gates 
(now Rusk) County was taken from Chippewa, which thus was 
reduced to its present boundaries. 

Bayfield (originally La Pointe), 1845. Under act approved 
February 19, Laics of ^Visconsin Territory, 1815, La Pointe 
County was formed from St. Croix. It included all north of a 
line from ]\Iuddy Lsland River to Yellow Lake, thence in a direct 
line to Lake Court Oreille, to ^Montreal River, to Lake Superior, 
and to the national boundary. This county included a portion 
of what is now northeastern ^linnesota as well as the extreme 
northern part of "Wisconsin. The boundaries assigned on the 
Edmission of the State in 1848 cut off a considerable portion of 
La Pointe County. 

!I849. Under section 5. chapter 77. Laws of 1319, the bound- 
aries of La Pointe wore defined as follows : north and west, the 
■State boundaries; soutli. the line between townships 40 and 41; 
east, Portage County Tor the range line between i and ii east). 

1854. Under chapter 10, General Laws of 1854, Douglas 
County was formed from all of La Pointe west of range ix west. 

1860. Under chapter 211. General Laws of 18G0, all south 
and east of the line between to\niships 44 and 45 to the range 
line between v and vi west, thence north to the line between 

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Wisconsin Counties 

townships 49 and 50, thence east to the centre of the channel in 
the Bay of La Pointe, thence between the Apostle Islands to the 
State boundary, was erected into Ashland County, including 
parts of the present Bayfield. 

18G6. Under section 1, chapter 14G, General Laws of 1866, 
townships 48 and 49 of range v west, and fractional townships 
48 and 49 of range iv west, were taken from Ashland and at- 
tached to La Pointe County. Under section 2 of the same act, 
the name of the county became Bayfield. 

1869. Under chapter 116, General Laws of 1869, to^^^lships 
43-47 of range v west, and 43 and 44 of ranges vi-ix west, were 
detached from Ashland and restored to Bayfield, which there- 
upon assumed its present boundaries. 

Waukesha, 1846. Under No. 28, Laics of Wisconsin Terri- 
tory, 18 i6, it was proposed to erect Waukesha County out of 
^Milwaukee, with boundaries as at present. This was to be sub- 
mitted to a popular referendum, which resulted in favor of the 
new coitnty. 

Columbia (formerly Portage), 1846, For the establishment 
of this county under tlie designation Portage, see Portage 
County, above. Under an act approved February 3. Laws of 
Wisconsin Territory, 1$16, Columbia County was erected out of 
Portage, being bounded by Dodge on the east, ]\Iarquette on 
the north, Dane on the south, Saulc on the west, and on the 
northwest by Fox and Wisconsin rivers. 

1848. Under an act approved August 19, Laics of 1818, the 
legal voters of Columbia were to vote on having all west of 
Wisconsin River detached and added to Sauk County. This 
proposition was lost at the polls. 

1849. Under chapter 77, Laws of 1819, all that portion of 
the jNIenominee Indian purchase south of the line between town- 
ships 13 and 14, lying between Fox and Wisconsin rivers, that 
had been an unorganized portion of Portage County, was ceded 
to Columbia, whose boundaries were thus established as at pres- 

Lafayette, 1846. Under an act approved January 31, Laws 
of Wisconsin Territory, 1816, Lafayette County was erected by 
dividing Iowa County. Tiie boundaries of the new county in- 
cluded townships 1-3 of ranges i-v east, and the southern half 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

of towiisliips 4 of same ranges. This division of Iowa was sub- 
mitted to referendum. Having been approved by the voters, 
the new count}- was by act approved Februaiy 4, Laws of Wis- 
consin Terrifonj, 1817, declared to be erected with its present 

Adams, 1848. Under an act approved March 11, Laws of 
Wisconsin Tcrritonj, IS 18, at the last session of the Territorial 
legislature. Adams County was erected from Portage and com- 
prised the territoiy between Sauk County on the south; Wis- 
consin and Lemonwcir rivers on the east and north; and the 
line between ranges i and ii east, on the west. 

1849. Under section 2, chapter 77, Laws of 1849, Adams was 
enlarged to include the north half of townships 15 and townships 
16-20 of ranges ii-vii east. Section 3 of the same act deducted 
to^nlships 14 of ranges ii-vi east from Adams and added them to 

1853. Under chapter 29, General Laws of 1853, the bound- 
aries of Adams were enlarged to include to^-nships 1^20, in 
ranges ii-vii east. 

1855. Under chapter 28, General Laivs of 1855, the legal 
voters of Adams were to vote on a division of the county by 
Wisconsin River, the western portion to constitute Juneau 

1856. Under chapter 130, General Lairs of 1856, Juneau 
Coimty was fonnally organized from territory west of Wiscon- 
sin River formerly belonging to Adams. Thus Adams was re- 
duced to its present boundaries. 

Statehood Counties, 1 848-1 908 

Wisconsin entered the Union with twenty-nine counties 
erected within its borders. During the period of statehood 
foi-ty-two liave been erected, as follows: 

Kenosha, 1850. lender chapter 39, Laws of 1850, Kenosha 
County was erected from Racine, with boundaries as at present. 

Marathon, 1850. Under chapter 226. Laws of 1850, Mara- 
thon County Avas foi-med from Portage, including all the latter 
north of the line ])etween townsliips 25 and 26. The northern 
boundaiy of ^Nfarathon was the State line; it embraced all be- 
tween ranges ii and ix east— that is, all of the present :\rarathon. 
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Wisconsin Counties 

and Liuculu, most of Oneida and Vilas, and portions of Langlade^ 
Taylor, Price, and Iron. 

1860. Under chapter 120, General Laws of 1860, the bound- 
aries of jMarathon were enlarged by all the townships of range 
X, north of the line l)et\veen townships 25 and 26. This terri- 
tory was taken from Oconto and Shawano counties. 

1874. Under chapter 128, Laws of 1S74, all north of town 
ship 30 was erected into Lincoln County. 

1875. Under chapter 178, Laws of 1875, Taylor County was 
erected, taking from Marathon township 30 of range ii east, 
oVIarathon was thus reduced to its present boundaries. 

Oconto, 1851. Under chapter 31, Laws of 1851, Oconto 
County was erected out of Brown. It comprised all north and 
east of the line between townships 25 and 26, from Green Bay 
to range xix east, thence south to the line between townships 
24 and 25, thence west to AYolf River,- north with that to the 
boundary of ]\Iaratlion, and thence to the State boundary. 

1853. Under chapter 9, General Laics of 1S53, Shawano 
Count}' was formed, taldng from Oconto all of tov.nships 25, 26, 
and 27 east of Wolf Kiver, west of the line between ranges xviii 
and xix, and such fractional portions of townships 27-29 range 
XV east, as lie east of Wolf River. 

1854. Under section 3, chapter 23, General Laws of 1854, 
to"\\Tiships 28-30 of ranges xv-xvii east were detached from 
Oconto and added to Shawano. 

1856. Under section 3, chapter 45, General Laws of 1856,. 
Oconto was enlarged by all that portion of Winnebago lying- 
north of township 29 — that is, all north of Shawano and east, 
of IMarathon. Oconto then included the present Oconto, Mari- 
nette, Forest, and Florence counties, and portions of Langlade, 
Oneida, and Vilas. 

I860. Under chapter 119, General Laws of 1860, to^^-nships 
28-30 of ranges xv-xvii ea,st, already annexed to Shawano, were 
declared detached from Oconto and annexed to Shawano. Under 
chapter 120 of the same year, all the townships of range x east 
lying within Oconto were d<?tachcd and annexed to Marathon. 

1879. Under chapter 114, Laws of 1879, New (now Lang- 
lade) and ]\Iarinette counties were cut off from Oconto and 
Shawano. The former cut off all north of the line between 

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townships 30 and 3], in raug:es xi-xiv east; Marinette, all of 
its present territon,- and that part of Florence east of the line 
between ranges xvi and xvii east. Under section 1 of the same 
act, townships 30 of ranges xi-xiv east were detached from 
Oconto and added to Shawano ; while townships 28-30 of ranges 
xvi and xvii east, were reapportioned to Oconto. 

1881. Under section 2, chapter 7, Laws of 1881, the western 
portion of to^^■nship 31 of range xv east was taken from Oconto 
and given to Shawano. 

1882. Under chapter 165, Laws of 1882, to^\^lships 37 and 38 
of ranges xv and xvi cast were detached from Oconto and added 
to jMarinette, to form part of the new county of Florence. 

1885. Under section 2, chapter 436, Laws of 1885, townships 
34-37 of ranges xv and xvi east, were taken from Oconto, to 
form part of Forest Coimty. Thus Oconto was reduced to its 
present boundaries. 

Door, 1851. Under chapter 66, Laws of 1851, Door County 
was erected from Bro\^Ti, comprising the present Door and Ke- 
waunee cmmties. 

1852. Under chapter 363, Laws of 1S52, Kewaunee County 
was formed from Door, the latter being thus reduced to its pres- 
ent boundaries. 

Waushara, 1851. Under chapter 71, Laws of 1851, all of 
Marcjuette County north of the line between to^^-nships 17 and 
18 was set off to form Waushara, which was given its existing 

Outagamie, 1S51. Under eliapter S3, I^aws of 1S51, town- 
ships 21-24 of ranges xv-xviii east, and the west half of xix east 
were set off from lirown County to form Outagamie. 

1852. Under chapter 77. Laws of 1852, the boundaries of 
Outagamie County were defined as they are at present. 

Waupaca (originally Waupacca), 1851. Under chapter 78, 
Laws of l^ol. AViinpaei-a County was formed from "Winnebago 
of to-\niships 21-25 in ranges xi-xiv east, and such fractional 
part of township 25. range xv east as lies Avest of "Wolf River. 

1860. T'nder section 2, chapter 217. General Laws of 1860, 
the above b(»uiularies were amenck-d so as to include in "Waupacca 
County all of town.ship 25, range xv east, the fractional part 
added being talcen from Shawano County. 

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1S64. Under chapter 411, General Laws of 1864, the or- 
thography of the county was established as "Waupaca. 

Vernon (originally Bad Ax), 1851. Under chapter 131, 
Laws of 1351, liad Ax County was created from Crawford. It 
included the northern half of township 11, and all of townships 
12-14 of ranges ii-vii west. This was amended by chapter 132 
of the same year, modifying the boundaries of Bad Ax (Vernon) 
so as not to conflict with the territory of Richland, thus giving 
the former the boundaries it has at present. 

1S62. Under chapter 137, General Laws of 1862, the name 
Bad Ax was changed to Vernon. 

La Crosse, 1851. Under chapter 131, Lau's of 1851, La 
Crosse County was created from teri-itoiy that had been part of 
Crawford; it comprised all of the latter north of the line be- 
tween townships 14 and 15, between ranges ii and vii west. 
Chapter 132 of the same year amended that act, changing the 
boundaries of Bad Ax (now Vernon) County, and making La 
Cro.sse consist of- all of Crawford north and northwest of Bad 
Ax. This made La Crosse include the present La Crosse, Mon- 
roe, Jackson, and Trempealeau counties, and parts of Clark and 

1853. Under chapter 8, General Laws of 1353, Jackson 
Coimty was cut off from La Crosse, comprising all north of the 
line between townships 18 and 19. 

1854. Under chapter 2, General Laws of 1854, Trempealeau 
County was organized, taking from La Crosse that portion of 
township 18 that lies west of Black River. Under section 1, 
chapter 35, of the same year, a fractional part of La Crosse 
lying west of Trempealeau River, in township IS, was annexed 
to Buffalo. Under section 2 of the same chapter, all of La 
Crosse east of the line between ranges iv and v west was set off 
to form ]\I()nroe. La Crosse was thus reduced to its present 

1856. Under chapter 145, General Laws of 1856, to\niships 19 
in ranges v and vi west were taken from Jackson to constitute 
part of La Crosse. 

1857. Under chapter 17, General Laws of 1357, townships 
20-24 of ranges v and vi west. 22 and 23 of range iv west — that 
is, of Jai'kson west of Black River— were detached from 

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that county and annexed to La Crosse. Under chapter 42 of 
the same year, the two preceding acts were repealed, and all 
north of the line between townships ]S and 19 was restored to 
Jackson County. La Crosse thereby resumed its present bound- 

Kewaunee, 1852. Under chapter 363, Laivs of 1852, Kewau- 
nee County was erected from territory formerly belonging to 
Door, with boundaries as at present. 

Jackson, 1853. Under chapter 8, General Laws of 1853, Jack- 
son County was cut off from La Crosse, and comprised all of the 
territory formerly in that county, north of the line between 
townships IS and 10. Jackson thus included all of its present 
territory, most of Clark and Trempealeau counties, and a part 
of Buff<ilo. Under chapter 100 of the same year, all of Jackson 
west of the line between ranges vii and viii west was formed 
into Buffalo County; all of Jackson 'north of the line between 
townships 22 and 23, and east of the line between ranges iii 
and iv west was formed into Clark County. 

1S51. Under chapter 2. General Lairs of 1854, townships 19- 
24 in range vii west were taken f)'om Jackson to form Trempe- 
aleau County. Chapter 100 of the same year established the 
boundary between Chippewa and Jackson as the line between 
townships 24 and 25; and ad<litional townships in range v west. 
north of township 24, were added to Clark. 

1856. I'nder section 1, ehapter 145, General Laws of 1856, 
townships 19 of ranges v and vi west were taken from Jackson 
and added to La Crosse. Section 2 of the same act struck off 
from Jackson townships 19 of ranges i east to iv west, and an- 
nexed these five townships to ^Monroe County. 

1857. Under chapter 17, General Laics of 1857, twelve more 
townships of Jackson west of Black River were detached there- 
from and annexed to La Crosse. Under chapter 42 of the same 
year, this law was repealed, also thnt noted in section 1 of chap- 
ter 145. Gmrral Laws of 1S56. Thus all these to\\Tiships north 
of the line between townships 18 and 19, that had been attached 
to La Crosse, now reverted to Jnckson. 

1870. Under chapter 40, Private and Local Laws of 1870, 
TN'ood County was enlarged hx townships 20-22 of ranges i 
and i wt-st, detached from Jjickson County. Under chapter 41 

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of llie same year, the above-mentioned townsliips, with to"\\Ti- 
ships 21 and 22 of ranges ii and iii east except the 12 northern 
sections of townsliips 22, were detached from Wood and an- 
nexed to Jackson County. 

1872. Under chapter 33, Private and Local Laus of 1S72, 
the two preceding acts were repealed and Jackson Coimty re- 
verted to the boundaries it had had pre\'ious to 1870. 

1883. Under section 1, chapter 194, Laws of 1883, all that 
portion of the eastern half of township 19, in range v west, lying 
south and east of Black River, was detached from Jackson and 
annexed to ]\[onroe. Jackson's boundaries were thereby ad- 
justed as at present. 

Shawano (originally Shawanaw), 1853. Under chapter 9, 
General Laws of 1853, Shawanaw County was erected from 
territory that had been part of Oconto and Winnebago counties. 
It comprised townships 2G-29 of ranges xii-xiv east, and 25-27 
of ranges xv-xviii east. 

1854. Under section 3, chapter 23, General Laws of 1854, 
townships 23-30, of ranges xv-xvii east, were added to Sha- 
wanaw from Oconto Count}''. 

185G. Under section 2, chapter 45, General Ljaws of 1856, 
townships 26-29 of ranges x and xi east Avere taken from Winne- 
bago County and annexed to Shawanaw. 

1860. Under chapter 119, General Ljaws of 1860, townships 
28-30 of ranges xv-xvii east were declared annexed to Shawanaw 
from Ocor^to County; section 3 of the same act recounts that 
townships 26 and 27 of ranges xi and xii are defined as part of 
this county. Chapter 120 of the same year detached from 
Shawanaw townships 26-29 of range x east, and annexed them 
to ^larathon County. Section 2. chapter 217 of the same year, 
added to Waupaca township 25, range xv east, a portion of 
which had belonged to Sliawanaw. 

1864. Under chapter 411, General Laws of 1S6I, the orthog- 
raphy of the county was fixed as Shawano. 

1879. I'nder cb.a])ter 114. Laws of 1879, townships 30 of 
ranges xi-xiv east were annexed to Shauano from Oconto; while 
townships 28-30 of rantres xvi and xvii cast were transferred 
from Shawano to Oconto. 

]8S1. Under section 1, cliaptcr 7, Lairs of 1831, defining the 

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boundaries of I.anglade County, tlicre was included therein 
to-WTiships 30 of ranges xi and xii, which had been part of Sha- 
wano. Section 2 of the same act transferred from Lanirhide 
and Oconto to Shawano. townshi])s 31-33 of ranges xiii and xiv 
east and part of township 31 in range xv east. 

1883. Under section 1, chapter 303, Laws of 1S83, town- 
ships 31-33 of rajiges xiii and xiv east, with the west part of 
township 31. range xv east, were detached from Shawano and 
made part of Langhide. Shawano County boundaries thereby 
became as they are at present. 

Ozaukee, 1853. Under cliapter 21, General Laics of 1853, 
Ozaukee County was erected from Washington, with its present 

Polk, 1853. Under section 2, chapter 31, General Laws of 
1853, Polk County was erected from St. Croix, including all of 
the territory formerly therein, north of the line between town- 
ships 31 and 32. This included the present Polk, and parts of 
Barron, "Washburn, and Burnett counties. 

1856. Under chapter 94, General Laws of 1856, Burnett 
County was erected, taking from Polk all north of to^^•nship 37. 

1S59. Under chapter 191, General Laws of 1859, Dallas (now 
Barron) County was erected, taking from Polli all east of the 
line between ranges xv and xvi west.' 

1862. Under chapter 387, General Laics of 1862, townships 
32-37 in range xv west were to be detached from Dallas (now 
Barron') and re-annexed to Polk, if so determined by referen- 
dum to the voters of Dallas County. They consented to this ar- 

1863. Under chapter 106, General Laics of 1863, these town- 
ships were declared annexed to Polk County. 

1866. Under chapter 466, Private and Local Laws of 1866, 
townsliips 37 in ranges xviii-xx west were detached from Polk, 
and added to Burnett. Polk was thus given its .present bound- 

Pierce, 1853. Under cliapter 31, General Laws of 1853, 
Pierce County was set off from St. Croix. It comprised all of 
the territory formerly part of the latter county, south of the line 
between townships 27 and 28. These are the present boundaries 
of Pierce. 

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Wisconsin Counties 

Buffalo, 1853. rnclcr chapter 100, General Laics of 1853, 
Buffalo Coimty was ereetod Irom Jackson, which had beeu set off 
from La Crosse under chapter 8 of the same year, and was to 
comprise all the territory formerly a part of Jackson lying west 
of the line between ranges vii and viii west. This included most 
of the present Trempealeau County and part of the present 

1854. lender chapter 1. General Laws of 1854, all that part 
of Chippewa County east of Chippewa River, and south of the 
line between townships 24 and 25, and west of the line between 
ranges ix and x west, was annexed to Buffalo. Under chapter 2 
of the same year, Trempealeau County was cut off from Buffalo, 
comprising all east of the line between ranges ix and x west to 
Trempealeau River, thence to the ^Mississippi. Under section 1, 
chapter ;15 of the same year, a small portion of La Crosse County 
west of Trempealeau River, and south of the line between town- 
ships 18 and 19. was annexed to Buffalo. 

1857. Under chapter 10. General Laics of 1857, the boundary 
between Buffalo and Trempealeau counties was defined, relating 
especially to the channel of the river and the islands therein. 
Buffalo County boundaries were thereby adjusted as at present. 

Clark, 1853. Under chapter 100, General Laws of 1853, Clark 
County was formed from Jackson, out of all lands lying north of 
the line between townships 22 and 23, and east of the line be- 
tween ranges iii and iv west. 

1854. Under chapter 100, General Laws of 1851, the bound- 
aries of Clark County were defined as north of the line between 
townships. 23 and 24, east of the line between ranges iv and v 
west, south of the line between tOA\-nships 31 and 32, and west of 
the line between ranges i and ii ; a portion of this territorj"- 
was taken from Chippewa and the rest from Jackson County. 
According to this definition of the boundaries, the four town- 
ships 23 in ranges iii west to i east would be detached from 
Clark and annexed to Jackson. This was not actually done, 
however, and section 8 of chapter 2 of the Revised Statutes of 
1858 assigned these four townships to Clark. 

1875. Under chapter 178. Laws of 1875, Taylor County was 
erected, taking from ClaiMc townships 30 and 31 of ranges i east 
to iv west — that is, its ten northern townships. The boundaries 
of Clark thus became as at present. 

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Trempealeau, 1854. Under chapter 2, General Laws of 1854, 
Trempealeau County was formed from territory formerly in- 
eluded in Bulfalo, Jackson, and La Crosse counties, witli bound- 
aries the same as at present. 

1857. Under chapter IG, General Laws of 1857, the bound- 
aries between Buffalo and Trempealeau counties were defined, 
with relation to the channel and islands of Trempealeau and 
Mississippi rivers. Under section 2, chapter 42 of the same 
year, the boundaries between Trempealeau and La Crosse 
counties were defined with reference to the channel of Black 
River. Trempealeau County boundaries were thus adjusted as 
at present. 

Dunn, 1854. Under chapter 7, General Laics of 1854, Dimn 
County was set off from Chippewa, including all south of the 
line between townships 31 and 32, and west of the line between 
ranges x and xi west — that is, all of the present Dunn and Pepin 

1858. Under chapter 15, General Laws of 1858, all that por- 
tion of Dunn County lying south of the line between townships 
25 and 26 was set off for Pepin County. Dunn was thus re- 
duced to its present boundaries. 

Douglas (originally Douglass), 1854. Under chapter 10, 
General Laws of 1854, Douglass County was set off from La 
Pointe (now Bayfield), and comprised the territory formerly in- 
cluded in the latter, west of the line between ranges ix and x 

1856. lender chapter 94, General Laws of 1856, Buraett 
County Avas erected, taking from Douglass townships 41-43 of 
ranges xii-xvi v.est. Only a fraction of township 41 of range 
xvi west is within the boundaries of Wisconsin; toAMiships 42 
and 43 of ranges xvi west are part of the present ^Minnesota. 

1864. L'nder chapter 411, General Laws of 1864, the orthog- 
raphy Avas established as Douglas. Under chapter 466 of the 
same year, townships 41 and 42 of ranges x and xi west were de- 
tached from Douglas and added to Burnett. Under chapter 479 
of the same year, towiishiiis 43 of ranges xii-xv west were re-an- 
nexed to Doiiu-his, l)c'iiig (l<'t;iched from Burnett. The l)Ound- 
aries of Douglas County were thus established as at present. 

Monroe, 1854. Under chapter 35, General Laws of 1851, La 


Wisconsin Countie.s 

Crosse County was divided and ^ilouroe organized. The latter 
■comprised townships 15-18 of ranges i east, i-iv west. 

1856. Under section 2, chapter 145, General Laics of 1856, 
Monroe was enhirged by townships 19 of ranges i east, and i-iv 
west, all of them taken from Jackson County. 

1883. Uiider ehapter 191:. Lnivs of 1883, part of tOAvuship 19 
of range v west, south of Black River, was detached from Jack- 
sou and added to ^louroe, whose boundaries were thereby consti- 
tuted as at present. 

Juneau, 1855-56. Under chapter 28, General Laws of 1855, 
the legal voters of Adams County were to decide by ballot 
whether a new county named Juneau should be constituted out 
•of all of Adams west of the maiu channel of Wisconsin River. 
If so decided, the county of Juneau should be established. The 
vote was favorable. 

1856. Under chapter 130, General Laics of 1856, Juneau 
County was declared established, with boundaries as at present. 

Wood, 1856. Under chapter 51, General Laws of 1856, town- 
ships 21-25 of ranges ii-v east, townships 21, 22 of range vi east, 
and such part of township 23. range vi east as lies southeast of 
Wisconsin River, were detached from Portage County to form 
Wood. Under chapter 108 of the same year, this was amended 
to include all of to\\Tiship 23, range vi east, within the bound- 
aries of Wood, which thereupon assumed its present boundaries. 

1870. Under chapter 40, Private and Local Laws of 1870, 
Wood County was enlarged by townships 20-22 of ranges i east 
and i west, detached from Jackson County. This was done in 
order to render AVood County large enough to be reduced with- 
out a referendum. According to chapter 41 of the same year, 
the townships named in the preceding chapter, and likewise 
townships 21 of ranges ii and iii, and the twenty-four southern 
sections of townsliips 22 of tlie same ranges, were detached from 
Wood and added to Jackson County. 

1872. lender chapter 33, Private and Local Laws of 1872, 
that portion of Jackson in townshii)S 21 and 22. ranges ii and iii 
east, was restored to Wood County, which resumed its present 

Burnett, 1856. Under chapter 94. General Laws of 1856, 
townships 38-40 in ranges xii-xx from Polk County, and town- 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

ships 41-43 in ranges xii-xvi from Douglas County, were to 
constitute a new county, named Burnett. 

185S. The boundaries of Burnett Avere adjusted by section 6, 
chapter 2, Ecviscd Statutes of 1S58, to correspond to the State 
lines, some of the territory set off in 1856 being found to be in 

1864. Under chapter 4iG2, General Laws of 1861, Burnett was 
enlarged by townships 38-40 of ranges x, xi west, which were 
taJven from Chippov.a. Under chapter 466 of the same year, 
tOAA-nships 41 and 42 of ranges x and xi west, were taken from 
Douglas and annexed to Burnett. Under chapter 479 of the 
same year, Burnett was reduced by townships 43 of ranges xii- 
XV west, which were returned to Douglas. 

1866. Under chapter 466. Private and Local Laws of 1866, 
townships 37 in ranges xviii-xx were taken from Polk to be 
added to Burnett. 

1869. Under chapter 162, General Laws of 1869, Burnett w\is 
enlarged by toAA-nships 37 of ranges x-xiv west, taken from Dal- 
las (now Barron) County. 

1872. Under chapter IS, Private and Local Laws of 1872, the 
above law Avas reversed, and toAniships 37 of ranges x-xiv west, 
were re-annexed to Barron County. 

1874. Under chapter 248. General Laws of 1874, these same 
townsliips were taken from Barron, and re-annexed to Burnett. 

1883. Under chapter 172. Laws of 1883, Burnett County was 
divided, and all west of range xiv Avest erected into the county 
of Washburn. Burnett County thereby assumed its present 

Eau Claire, 1856. Under chapter 114. General Laws of 1856, 
Eau Claire County Avas erected from ChippcAva, comprising all 
the territory formerly Avithin that county, south of the line be- 
tAAeen toAvnships 27 and 28. Eau Claire Avas thus constituted 
Avith it~s present boundaries. 

Pepin, 1858. Tnder chapter 15. General Laws of 1858, Pepin 
County Avas created from Dunn, including all the territory for- 
merly in that county, sduth of the line betAveen tOAvn.ships 25 and 
26. Pepin Avas tlius established with its present boundaries. 

Green Lake, 1858. Under chapter 17, General IjOws of 1858, 
Green Lake County was formed from territory previously a part 

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of ]\rarciiiette County. Cliapter 85 of the same year changed the 
boundai'ios. maldng Green Lake include all east of the line be- 
tween ranges x and xi east, except the west four tiers of sections 
in townships Ifi and 17 of range xi east. 

1859. Under chapter 69. General Laws of 1859, township 16 
of range xiv, containing the city of Ripon. was to be detached 
from Fond du Lar- and annexed to Green Lake, if the qualified 
voters of Fond du Lac so decided. The popular vote was 
against this proposition. 

1860. Under chapter 143. General Laws of i860, the bound- 
aries between Green Lake and ]\Iarquette counties were defined 
as they are at present. 

1862. Tender chapter 23, General Laics of 1862, an act was 
passed to change these boundaries if it should so be voted by the 
two comities ; the people negatived the proposal. 

1863. Under chapter 191, General Laws of 1863, the attempt 
was renewed, but again it was voted down by the electors. 

Barron (originally Dallas), 1859. Under chapter 191 Gen- 
eral Laws of 1S59, Dallas County was erected from Polk, em- 
bracing territory comprised in townships 32-37 of ranges xii-xv 

18G0. Under chapter 235, General Laws of 1860, Dallas was 
enlarged by townships 32-37 in ranges x and xi west, taken from 
Chip]")ewa County. 

1862. Tender chapter 387, General Laics of 1862, the voters 
of Dallas were to detei-mine whether town.ships 32-37 in range 
XV should be re-annexed to Polk. The vote was favorable. 

1863. Under chapter 106, General Laws of 1863, these town- 
ships were declared a part of Polk County. 

1869. Tender chapter 75. General Laws of 1869, the name of 
Dallas County was changed to Barron. Under chapter 162 of 
the same year, townships 37 of ranges x-xiv west were detached 
from Dallas Tnow Barron) and annexed to Burnett. 

1872. Tender chapter IS, Private and Local Laics of 1872, the 
foregoing aet was repealed, and these tomis reverted to Barron. 

1874. Under chapter 248, General Laws of 1874, the act of 
repeal wa^ revci-sed and the townships in question were made 
part of Burnett. Barron was thereby left with its present 

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Ashland, 1860. Under chapter 211, General Laws of 1S60, 
Aslilnnd County was organized from La Pointe (now Bayfield) 
County. It included all of the latter county south and east of 
the line between to^Tiships 4-t and 45 to the line between ranges 
V and vi west, thence north to the line between townships 49 and 
50, thence east to the centre of the channel of the Bay of La 
Pointe. and between the mainland and Apostle Islands to the 
State boundary. This included all of the present Ashland 
County, and parts of Iron, Sawyer, and Bayfield. 

1866. Under chapter 146. General Laws of 1S66, to\Miships 
48 and 49 of range v west, and such fractional parts of to^vn- 
ships 48 and 49 of range iv west as lie west of Long Island Bay, 
were detached from Ashland and annexed to Bayfield County. 

1869. Under chapter 116, General Laws of 1869, toT\niships 
43-47 of range v west, and 43 and 44 of ranges vi-ix west (13 
townships in all), were detached from Ashland and re-annexed 
to Bayfield County. 

1883. Under chapter 47, Laws of 1883, ten townships (41 and 
42, ranges v-ix west) were detached from Ashland to form part 
of Sawyer County. Under chapter 74 of the same year, town- 
ships 41-47 of ranges ii and iii east— fourteen townships, sev- 
eral of which were fractional — were annexed to Ashland from 
territory foi-merly a part of Lincoln. 

1893. Under chapter S. Laws of 1893, Iron County was 
erected from Ashland, cutting off for this purpose, to^^'nship3 
41_17 of ranges ii and iii cast. 43-47 of range i east, and 44-47 
of range i west. 

1903. Tender section 1. chapt(n- 303. Laws of 1903, the bound- 
aries of Asliland County were defined as at present. 

Lincoln, 1874. Under chapter 128, Laws of 1874, Lincoln 
County was ere.-ted from [Marathon, including all the territoiy 
formerly within the latter 's boundaries north of the line be- 
tween townships 30 and 31. This included all of the present 
Lincoln, mn^t of Oneida and Vilas, and parts of Langlade, Tay- 
lor, Price, and Iron counties. 

1875. Tender chapter 17S. of 187:'). Taylor County was 
erected, taking from Lin.-oln townships 31-33 in ranges ii and 
iii east. 

1879. Under section 1. chapter 103, Laws of 1379, Price 


Wisconsin Counties 

County Avas erected, detaching from Lincoln townships 34-40 in 
ranges ii and iii east. 

1883. Under chapter 74, Laws of 1883, townships 41-47, in 
ranges ii and iii east were detached from Lincoln and annexed to 

1885. Under section 1, chapter 436, Laws of 1885, townships 
81-34 of ranges ix and x east were detached from Lincoln and 
annexed to Langlade. Under chapter 411 of the same year, 
Oneida County was formed out of all of Lincoln north of the 
line between townships 34 and 35, ranges ix and x east, and 
north of the line between townships 35 and 36, ranges iv-viii 
east. Thus was Lincoln reduced to its present boundaries. 

Taylor, 1875. Under chapter 178, Laws of 1875, Taylor 
County was formed from territory formerly belonging to Lin- 
coln, Clark, ^Marathon, and Chippewa counties. From Lincoln 
wtTC taken six townships, 31-33, ranges ii and iii east; from 
Clark, ten townships. 30 and 31 in ranges i east, i-iv west ; from 
^Marathon, one township 30 of range ii east ; from Chippewa, ten 
townships, 32 and 33. ranges i east, i-iv west — in all, 27 town- 
ships with the present boundaries. 

Langlade (originally New), 1879. Under section 12, chap- 
ter 114, Laws of 1S79, New County was erected from Oconto, 
with imperfect boundaries. 

1880. ITuder chapter 1!). Laws of 1880, the name of New 
County was changed to Langlade. Under chapter 247 of the 
same year, chapter 114 of 1879 was amended, correcting the 
boundaries of Langlade. These now con.sisted of the line be- 
tween townships 30 and 31 on the south ; the line between ranges 
X and xi east on the west : the State line on the north ; the line 
between ranges xiv and xv east on the east, thus including parts 
of the present Langlade, Oneida, Vilas, and Forest eoimties. 

1881. Under section 1, chapter 7, Laws of 1881, the bound- 
aries of Langlade were readjusted, whereby townships 30 of 
ranges xi and xii east were di'tached from Shawano and annexed 
to Langlade. Under section 2 of the same chapter, to\niships 
31-33 of ranges xiii and xiv east were detached from Langlade 
and annexed to Shawano. 

1883. Under chapter 303. Laws of 1883, these last six toAMi- 
ships were again detached from Shawano and re-annexed to 

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Langlade, together with a fractional portion of township 31 of 
range xv east. This was subject to confirmation by a referen- 
■dum to the voters of Shawano County. The vote was favorable. 

1885. Under chapter 137, Laws of 1885, the territory men- 
tioned in the preceding act was declared annexed to Langlade. 
Under section 1, chapter -136 of the same year, to\Miships 31-3-i 
•of ranges ix and x east were detached from Lincoln and added to 
Langlade. Under section 2 of the same chapter, Forest County 
was erected, taking from Langlade all of the townships north of 
the line between 34 and 35 in ranges xiii and xiv east, and all 
north of the line between townships 35 and 36 in ranges xi and xii 

1898. Under section 34, chapter 2, Be vised Statutes of 1898, 
Langlade's boundaries were so defined that to^^'nsllips 30 of 
ranges xi and xii east were accidentally omitted from its terri- 

1907. Under chapter 107, Laws of 1907, Langlade's boun- 
daries were modified to include townships 30 of ranges xi and 
xii east. 

Marinette, 1879. Under chapter 114, Laws of 1879, Mari- 
nette County was formed from territory formerly belonging to 
Oconto. The new county had the State line for its east and 
north boundaries; the south. and west were the same as at pres- 
ent, except that the boundary range line between xvi and xvii 
east on the west, extended to the State line, including in Mari- 
nette a part of Florence Coiuity. 

1882. Under section 1, chapter 165, Laws of 1882, the town- 
ships of Oconto north of the line between townships 37 and 38 
in ranges xv and xvi were detached from that county and an- 
nexed to ]\Iarinctte. Section 2 of the same chapter erected the 
county of Florence, em])racing all of Marinette north of the 
line between townships 37 and 38, and west of range xx east, in- 
cluding the new cession from Oconto. ]\Larinette's boundaries 
were thus reduced to those of the present. 

Price, 1879. Under chapter 103, Laws of 1879, Price County 
was formed from territoiy formerly part of Chippewa and Lin- 
coln counties — townships 34-40 in ranges ii and iii east, from 
Lincoln; and townships 34-40 in ranges i east, i and ii west, 
from Chippewa. Price County war, thus erected with the 
boundaries it has at present. 

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Florence, 1882. Under chapter 165, Laws of 18S.2, Florence 
County was created from I\larinctte. including all east of the 
line between ranges xiv and xv oast, north of the line between 
townships 37 and 3S, and west of the line between ranges xix and 
XX east ; of this territory, the townships in ranges xiv and xv had 
been, by the same chapter, added to Marinette from Oconto. 
Florence was thus formed from both Oconto and ^Marinette, with 
its present boundaries. 

Washburn, 1883. Under chapter 172, Laws of 1S83, Wash- 
burn County was erected from ]Burnett, comprising all of the 
latter east of a line between ranges xiii and xiv west; that is, 
to\niships 37-42 of ranges x-xiii west. Washburn was thus or- 
ganized with its present boundaries. 

Sawyer, 1883. Tender chapter 47, Laivs of 18S3, Saw^'er 
County was organized from territory formerly a part of Chip- 
pewa and Ashland. Ten townships. 41 and 42 of ranges v-ix 
west, were taken from Ashland ; twenty-eight townships, 37-40 of 
ranges iii-ix west, from Chippewa. Sawyer County was accord- 
ingly erected with its present boundaries. 

Oneida, 1885. Under chapter 411, Laws of 1885, Oneida 
County was formed from Lincoln, comprising all of the terri- 
tory formerly in that county north of to\\'nships 34 in ranges is 
and X east, and that north of townships 35 in ranges iv-viii east. 
This included most of what is now Oneida and Yilas counties, 
and a part of Iron. 

1893. Under chapter 150. Laws of 1893, Yilas County was 
erected from Oneida, and townships 41-44 of range iv east de- 
tached from Oneida and added to Iron County. This cut off 
all of Oneida nortli of the line between townships 39 and 40, 
and also to\^-nships 39 of ranges vi and vii east. Under chapter 
275 of the same year, townships 35 in ranges ix and x east were 
detached from Oneida and annexed to Forest. 

1897. Under section 1, chapter 278, Laws of 1897, the north 
half of township 39 of range x east was detached from Oneida 
and annexed to Vilas County. Under section 2 of the same 
chapter, to^^-nships 35 of ranges ix and x east were restored to 
Oneida from Forest; and townships 35-39 of range xi were taken 
from Forest and annexed to Oneida. 

1905. Under chapter 57, Laws of 1905, townships 39 of ranges 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

vi and vii east were detached from Vilas and annexed to Oneida 
Coimty, whose boundaries became as they are at present. 

Forest, 1885. Under section 2, chapter 436, Laws of 18So^ 
Forest County was erected from territory formerly belonging to 
Langlade and Oconto; townships 34-41 in ranges xiii and xiv 
east, and 35-42 in ranges xi and xii east, were taken from Lan- 
glade; townships 34-37 in ranges xv and xvi east, were taken 
from Oconto Coimty. 

1893. Under chapter 275, Laws of 1893, townships 35 in 
ranges ix and x east were taken from Oneida and annexed to 

1897. Under section 1, chapter 278, Laws of 1897, townships 
40-42 of range xi east were detached from Forest and annexed 
to Vilas County. Under section 2 of the same chapter, to^\■nships 
35 in ranges ix and x east, and townships 35-39 in range xi east 
were detached from Forest County and annexed to Oneida, 

1905. Under chapter 202, Laws of 1905, townships 41 and 
42 of range xii east were detached from Forest and annexed to 
Vilas County. Forest County thus assumed its present bound- 

Iron, 1893. Under chapter 8, Laws of 1893, Iron County 
was erected from territory previously a part of Ashland, includ- 
ing all formerly in that county in ranges ii and iii east, town- 
ships 43—47 in range i east, and townships 4-J^47 in range i west. 
Under chapter 150 of the same year, townships 41-44 of range 
)v east were detached from Oneida and annexed to Iron, which 
thus attained its present boundaries. 

Vilas, 1893. Under chapter 150, Laws of 1893, Vilas County 
was erected from territory formerly a part of Oneida, compris- 
ing all of that county lying between ranges v and x east, north 
of the line between townships 39 and 40, and townships 39 of 
ranges vi and vii east, and township 40 of range iv east. 

1897. Under chapter 278, Laws of 1S97, townships 40-42 of 
range xi east, were detached from Forest, and annexed to Vilas ; 
and the north half of to^^^2ship 39 in range x east was detached 
from Oneida and annexed to Vilas. 

1905. Under chapter 57, Laws of 1905, townships 39 of ranges 
vi and vii east were detached from Vilas and re-annexed to 
Oneida. Under chapter 202 of the same year to^^'nships 41 and 


Wisconsin Counties 

42 of range sii east were added to Vilas from Forest County. 
Vilas was tluis given its present boundaries. 

Rusk (originally Gates), 1901. Under chapter 469, Laws of 
1901, Gates County was elected from Chippewa, comprising 
to\\-nships 33 of ranges v-ix west and townships 34-36 of ranges 
iii-ix west, its present boundaries. 

1905. Under chapter 463, Laws of 1905, the name was 
chanered from Gates to Rusk. 

Derivation of County Names 

Adams was named for one of the presidents of that name — 
^Vls. Hist. Colls., i, p'. 112. Henry Gannett, ''Origin of Cer- 
tain Place Names in the United States," in U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletin, No. 197 (Washington, 1902), p. 18, credits as 
the name giver, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president. Ilis- 
torij of NortJiern Wisconsin (Chicago, 18S1), p. 60, says that 
this county was named for John Adams, the second president. 

Ashland was named from the village, and that in honor of 
the Kentucky homestead of Henry Clay — Gannett, Place 
Names, p. 29. Martin Beaser, one of the- first settlers of the 
village, and an ardent admirer of Henry Clay, is credited with 
the selection of the name — Ilisi. No. Wis., p. 67. 

Barron (originally Dallas). The original name was bestowed 
in honor of George INlifllin Dallas, vice-president of the United 
States (1845-49). Barron was selected in lionor of Henry D. 
Barron (1833-82). Born in New York state, Barron removed 
to AVisconsin in 1851. and was for a time editor and postma.ster 
at Waukesha. Tn 1857 he entered law practice at Pepin, where 
in 1860 he was appointed judge of the eighth circuit. In the 
following year he removed to St. Croix Falls, where he there- 
after resided. He was several times member of the assembly, 
and state .senator (1873-75). In 1876 he was appointed .iudge 
of the eleventh circuit, a position held until his death — Wis. 
Hist. CoUs., ix. pp. 405-409. 

Bayfield (originally La Pointe). The original name was the 
Frencli ai)in'llation for tlie (^itire locality about Chequamegon 
Bay. namt'd " I.a Pointe dc Chcciuamegon.'' by Father Allouez. 
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Wisconsin Historical Society 

The Jesuit mission there established by him in 1665 was knoA\'n 
as La Point e dii St. Esprit — see Wis. Hist. Colls., xiii, p. 404, 
and accompanying note. In the eighteenth century, the French 
post here established was frequently spoken of as "La Pointe" 
(for an example, see Wis. Hist. Colls., xvii, p. 9), although the 
official designation was Chequamegon. The name La Pointe 
was finally, in the nineteenth century, limited to the trading 
village on ]Madelaine Island, for which place the county was 
named. About 1857 the town of Bayfield was established, being 
promoted by Henry ^M.'Rice of St. Paul, who named it for Ad- 
miral Henry AV. Bayfield. R. N.. who surveyed Lake Superior 
for the English government in 1823-25. Bayfield (1795-1865) 
first came to America in 1814, and from 1817-25 was employed 
as admiralty surveyor for the Great Lakes ; later, he performed 
a like service for the river and gulf of St. Lawrence, dying at 
Charlottetown, P. E. I., after attaining the rank of admiral. 

Brown was named for ^lajor-Gcneral Jacob Brown of the 
United States Army — Gannett, Place Names, p. 33 ; Wis. Hist. 
Colls., i, p. 112. General Brown (1775-1828), born in Penn- 
sylvania, was a successful leader in the War of 1812-15. At its 
close he retained the command of the Northern division, and in 
1821 was made general-in-chicf of the army. He died at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Buffalo was named for its chief river, Beef or Buffalo, so 
designated because of the former presence of that animal in the 
vicinity — Gannett, Place Xanics, p. 55. Buffalo River was 
so named by Father Louis Hennepin in his voyage (1680) up 
the Mississippi. See Thwaites. Hennepin's New Discovery 
(Chicago, 1905), p. 222, where the explorer calls it "River of 
Wild Bulls;" on the accompanying map. it is designated "River 
of Oxen." The French voyageurs called this stream Riviere des 
]3ceufs; hence its present designation, Beef River. 

Burnett was named for Thomas P. Burnett, an early Wis- 
consin legislator — Wis. Hist. Colls., ii, p. 325; Gannett, Place 
Names, p. '^5. Although of Virginia birth, Burnett (1800-46) 
emigrated to K'ontucky when a child, and was there educated, 
practicing law at Paris in that state. In 1829 he was appointed 
sub-Indian agent at Prairie du Chien. and thereafter made that 
place his home until 1837, when lie removed to Cassville. After 
five years service in the Indian dopartnient he again took up the 
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Wisconsin Counties 

practice of law, and was influential in Wisconsin Territorial 

Calumet was named for a INIenominee Indian village situated 
on the southeast shore of Lake Winnebago — see Wis. Hist. Colls., 
vi, p. 171; F. AV. Ilodge. "Handbook of American Indians." in 
U. S. Bureau of Ethnology Bulletin No. 30, p. 195. The origin 
of the word is the Norman-French form of chalumet, a tube or 
reed, which was applied by French Canadians to the Indian 
implement known as "the pipe of peace" — Gannett, Place 
Names, p. 59; JIandboo'k, p. .191. 

Chippewa was named from its principal river, which was 
given this Indian tribal designation by French voyageurs. The 
first name applied by the early explorers to this stream was Bon 
Secours; it likewise occasionally appears on early maps as Bac- 
queville, possibly in honor of Bacqueville de la Potherie, the 
Canadian historian. About the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the Chippewa tribesmen began to settle in this region, and 
founded villages on the headwaters of the stream — Minn. Hist. 
Colls., V. Thereafter the river began to be called from the 
French form of their name. Riviere des Sauteurs. Jonathan 
Carver applies the term Chippewa to the stream which he as- 
cended in 1766. and appended this name to the map that ap- 
peared in the edition of his Travels published in 1778. From 
thence until the time of American occupation, the river was 
known by either term — des Sauteurs or Chippewa. For the sig- 
nificance of this tribal name, see Gannett, Place Xa)ncs, p. 72;. 
TJandhook, p. 277. 

Clark was named in honor of Gen. George Rogers Clark, the 
conqueror of the Northwest during the American Revolution — 
Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 12. Gannett, Place Names, p. 74, says the- 
name was given for A. W. Clark, an early settler. Dr. Lyman 
C. Draper, then editor of Wis. Hist. Colls., was, however, in a 
position to know. Clark County was erected in 1853; the 
same year. Dr. Draper came to ^ladison as secretary' of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society. lie was the acknowledged au- 
thority on the life and ser\'iccs of Gen. George Rogei-s Clark, 
whose papers form so large and valua])le a portion of the Draper 
]MSS. now in the keeping of the Society. Draper knew many of 
the prominent legislators, and no doubt suggested the name as a 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

fitting one for the county about to be established. His testimony 
thereon must be considered as conclusive. 

Gen. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) was of Virginia birth, 
and early emigrating to Kentucky took a prominent share in its 
defense (1775-78). In 177S he captured from the British the 
Illinois towns, and the next year, the village of Vincennes, tak- 
ing prisoner Lieutenant-Govei'nor Hamilton of Detroit. 
Throughout the Revolution he was active in defense of the fron- 
tier, and has been styled the ''Washington of the West." 

Columbia (originally Portage; see Portage, post.) was 
probably named in honor of Christopher Columbus — Wis. Hist. 
Colls., i, p. 112. Gannett, Place Names, p. 79, appears to indi- 
cate that the name was taken from Columbia River. It was 
more probably given because of the town of Columbus, which 
was first established as Columbus precinct in 1S42, and was the 
first county-seat of Columbia County — see A. J. Turner, Family 
Tree of Columhia County (Portage, 1904). 

Crawford v^as named in honor of William H. Crawford 
(1772-1834), secretary of the treasury under Monroe — Wis. 
Jlist. Colls, i, p. 112 ; Gannett, Place Names, p. 85. The county 
was, in fact, named for Fort Crawford, which took its title from 
Secretary Crawfoixl. This fortification was built in 1816 by 
Maj. WiUoughby Morgan, U. S. A.— Wis. Hist. Colls., ii, p. 122. 

Dane was named in honor of Nathan Dane, framer of the Or- 
dinance of 1787, establishing the Northwest Territory — Wis. 
Hist. Colls., vi, pp. 388-395. 

Dodge was named for Heniy Dodge, first Territorial governor 
of Wisconsin — Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 112. Henry Dodge (1783- 
ISGl) came from ^lissouri to Wisconsin in 1827. after service in 
the War of 1812-15. He was active during the Winnebago up- 
rising (1827) and a colonel during the Black Hawk War (1832). 
Appointed first Territorial governor, he served eight years in 
that capacity (1836-41; 1845— i8^, during the intervening years 
(1841-45), he was Territorial delegate to Congress. On the or- 
ganization of the State ho was elected first U. S. senator, and be- 
ing re-elected in 1851 served nine years in that capacity (1848- 
57). His home during pre-Territorial days was at Dodgoville. 

Door took its name from the straits between the mainland and 
Wasliington Island, locally known as Death's Door, a translation 

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Wisconsin Counties 

from the French voyagenr term, "La Porte des ^Morts" (the 
door of the dead) — Wis. Hist. CoU.^., vi, p. 166. The origin of 
this name is traditionary, probably having arisen from the 
dangerous character of these waters — Hist. No. ^Vis., p. 253. 

Douglas Avas named in honor of Stephen A. Donghis, U. S. 
senator from Illinois (18J:7-61), and Democratic candidate for 
the presidency in ISGO. 

Dunn was named in honor of Charles Dunn, first chief justice 
of \Yisconsin Territory— Gannett, Place Names, p. 98. Charles 
Dunn (1799-1872) was born in Kentucky, where he studied law, 
but was admitted to the bar (1820) in Illinois. During his resi- 
dence in that state he served as captain in the Black Hawk War, 
wherein he was accidentally shot by a sentinel. In 1829 he as- 
sisted in laying out the plat of Chicago. Appointed chief jus- 
tice of "Wisconsin Territory in 1836, he served throughout the 
Territorial era, also acting as member of the second State consti- 
tutional convention. In 1852-53 he was State senator from La- 
fayette County, and died at his home at Belmont (now Leslie), 
in that county. 

Eau Claire is named for its chief river, a tributary of the 
Chippewa. The name is a French rendering of the Indian term, 
Wah-yah-con-ut-ta-qua-yaw Sebe (Clear Water) — Wis. Hist. 
Colls., i, p. 120. Gannett, Place Names, p. 100. erroneously 
states that this county is named for the river of the same name 
in ^Michigan, 

Florence was named by II. D. Fisher in honor of !Mrs. Flor- 
ence Hulst, wife of Dr. N. P. Ilulst of ^Milwaukee. The name 
was first applied to the Florence iron mine ; and then to the 
town and county. 

Fond du Lac was named for its situation at the end of Lake 
Winnebago, being a French term for the head of a lak'.' — Wis. 
nist. Colls., i, p. 112. 

Forest was named for the dense forest with whieh it was 
covered when erected — Gannett, Place Names, p. 112. 

Grant was named for a river of that name flowing into the 
^Mississippi. The origin of the name of the stream is tradition- 
ary, being ascribed to "a trapp(n- who had his eabin on its 
banks"' — Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 112. The name was i>robably as- 
signed dujing the English regime in Wisconsin (1763-96), when 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

a mimber of Scotch and English trnders made hoadqiiarters at 
Prairie dii Chien, or at Cahokia, Illinois, and traded up and 
down the river. Among these was one James Grant (see Wis. 
Hist. Colls., X, p. 503). a prominent :\rontreal merchant; see Id., 
xii, p. 65. The Indian appellation for the stream appears to 
have been "Shequak;" see map in William H. Keating, Long's 
Expcdiiion up the Mississippi (Philadelphia, lS2-i). 

Green is supposed to have been named for Gen. Nathaniel 
Greene, of Revohitionaiy fame — ^yis. Bisi. Colls., i, p. 112; 
Gannett, Place Xanics, p. 124. C. ^V. P.utterficld, History of 
Green County fSpringfield. 111.. 18S4). p. 257, asserts, how- 
ever, that the county was named by its first representative in the 
legislature. William Boyles, because of the green appearance of 
its vegetation; the name of General Greene was suggested, but 
not adopted. See also Wis. Hist. Colls., \\\, pp. 424. 425. 

Green Lake was named for its principal body of water, a 
beautiful sheet of a distinctly emerald color. The lake was 
called by the French Lac Verd, which the early settlers trans- 
lated into Green hnko—Hist. No. Wis., p. 349. See also Dart's 
narrative, post. 

Iowa was named for the Siouan tribe that gave its name like- 
wise to the state of Iowa. Probably these Indians were first met 
by the early French explorers beyond the ^lississippi. In the 
eighteenth century this tribe seems to have removed to ^Missouri 
River: see Wis. Hist. Colls., xvii, p. 248. After the close of the 
French regime, they were again on the ]Mississippi, occupying 
both banks — Id., i, p. 32. It was probably at this time that they 
were found in the region of the original Iowa County, later the 
habitat of the Sauk, Foxes, and Winnebago. 

Iron was named for the amount of this ore to be found withii? 
its limits — Gannett, Place Xamcs, p. 144. 

Jackson was named in honor of President Andrew Jackson — 
Gannett. Place Xamcs, p. 145. 

Jefferson was named in honor of President Thomas Jefferson 
—Wis. Hist. Colls., i. p. 113. 

Juneau was named in honor of Solomon Juneau, an early 
French trader on the site of ^lilwaukee, and first mayor of that 
city. Porn in 170:^ in Canada, as a youth Juneau began trading 
at Mackinac, whence he wint to Milwaukee in ISIS, as an em- 

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Wisconsin Counties 

ploye of Jacques Yiean. Juneau was the first postmaster of the 
town (1835), assisted in laying out the first plat of the city (his 
partner being ]\[organ L. ]\Iartin of Green Bay), and served as 
mayor after its incorporation (1846). In later life he removed 
to Dodge County, and died in 1856 at Shawano, while attending 
an Indian payment. 

Kenosha was named for its principal town, which was first 
known as Southport. As this settlement was situated upon Pike 
Creek, a change was made to the Indian word for that fish — 
^Vis. Hist. Colls., iii, p. 414. See also Handbook, i, p. 673, where 
"Kenozhe," signifying pickerel, is given to a Chippewa gens. 

Kewaunee was named for its chief river, which was early 
known as Wood's River. In 1834 Joshua Hathaway, an early 
Wisconsin surveyor, rechristened it from the Chippewa word 
which he translated as "prairie hen"— ir/6\ Ilist. Colls., i, p. 
117. Verwyst. in Id. xii, p. 392, considers the M'ord equivalent 
to a peninsula, almost surrounded bj' water, from the Chippewa 
term, "I cross a point of land by boat." 

La Crosse was named from the village of La Crosse, which 
was established upon a tract known to early I\Iississippi voyagers 
as La Prairie de la Crosse. La crosse was the French term for 
an Indian ball game which was frequently played upon this 
spot — see IV/s. Ilist. Colls., iv, p. 383. Pike notes this locality in 
his voyage of 1805. See Ilandhooh, p. 127, for a description of 
the game and the implements used therein. 

Lafayette was named in honor of ^Marquis de Lafayette, of 
Revolutionary fame — ^y\s. Ilist. Colls., i, p. 113. 

Langlade was named for Charles Langlade, formerly consid- 
ered the first settler of the State. It is now known, however, 
that he did not permanenth' remove to Green Bay from ]\Iack- 
inac until 1764, and had been preceded by several others — Wis. 
Hist. Colls., xviii, p. 132. Langlade (1729-1800) was born in 
Mackinac, and served as an officer in the French and Indian and 
Revolutionary wars. lie became the most prominent citizen of 
the small French settlement at Green Bay, where he had an ex- 
tensive fur-trading establishment. 

Lincoln was named in honor of President Abraham Lincoln — 
Gannett, Place Xamcs, p. 161. 

Manitowoc takes its nnnie from a small river within its bound- 
aries. The origin of this Indian word is variouslv given. The 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

first constituent, "manito," is conceded by all to be the Indian 
word for spirit, or mysterious intluenee; hence "spirit land," 
"devil's den.'' etc., have been as.signed as its meaning — Wis. 
nist. Colh., i. p. 117 ; iii, p. 337 ; Gannett, Flace Xames, p. 170. 
Rev. P:. p. AYheeler (:\rs. in Society's librarv) gives its signifi- 
crnce as "spirit woods;" which appears to be borne out by 
Henry R. Schoolcraft, who says it signifies "a standing or hollow 
tree that is under a mysterious influence. ' ' This would seem to 
point to the erection of a Avooden cross on the banks of this river, 
allusion to Avhich we find in tlic journal of Father J. B. Buisson 
St. Cosme, dated 1600-1700. He declares that such a cross was 
reared in this locality in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. His words are: "the 4th of October we came to an- 
other small village of Poux [Potawatomi] on a little river where 
Rev. Father ?*Iarais had wintered with some Frenchmen and 
planted a cross"— J. G. Shea, Earhj Voyages (Albany, 1861), 
p. 50. AYo are inclined to think that the name ]\Ianitowoc was 
derived from the presence of this large wooden cross, such as the 
Jesuit missionaries frequently planted in the villages of their 

Marathon was named from the famous Greek battlefield — 
Gaiuiett, Place Xames, p. 171. 

Marinette took its title from the village which was named for 
Marinette Chevalier ( 1703-1 S05), a French-Chippewa half- 
breed, wife of John B. Jacolis. and later of William Farnsworth; 
the last-named settled on this site in 1822. There had pre- 
viously been hero a trading-post of the American Fur Company, 
and it continued as a trade centre for many years, largely under 
the direction of :\rarinette, who had much business ability. The 
town was platted by her son, John B. Jacobs — See Hist. Xo. 
Wis., p. 578. The name is an abbreviation of ^Marie Antoinette. 

Marquette was named in honor of Father Jacques Marquette, 
the Froneh Jesuit explorer, who passed through this region in 

Milwaukee takes its name fiom the river, which had been the 
site of an Indian village since Wisconsin was known to 
white men. For the variations in spelling see H. E. Legler, 
"Wisconsin Place Xames." in Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters Transactions, xiv, p. 24. Legler declares that 
this word means "council place." The majority of authorities 

Wisconsin Counties 

appear to consider it equivalent to "good land" — See Wis. Hist. 
Colls., iii. pp. 2!)0. 387; xii, p. 393; Handbook, p. 863. See also 
B. TI. Kelton. Ainials of Fort Mackinac (ed. of 1SS4), p. 150. 

Monrce was named in honor of President James Monroe — 
Gannett, Place Xatncs, p. 182. 

Oconto takes its name from its chief river. The significance 
of this word is variously given as "red ground," or "the place 
of the pickerel"— Gannett, Place Names, p. 194; or the Menom- 
inee word for "black bass" — Legler, Wis. Place Names. The 
latter Avould seem to be correct, since upon many of the early 
maps (1820-50) the stream is noted as Black Bass Eiver, 

Oneida is named for a tribe of New York Indians, a branch of 
the Iroquois, v.lio removed to ^Visconsin early in the nineteenth 
century. The name is said to signify "granite people" — Gan- 
nett, Place Names, p. 196. 

Outagamie bears a "Wisconsin Indian tribal name. It is the 
Chippewa appellation for the Foxes, who were first visited by the 
French in the AVolf Eiver valley. The term is variously inter- 
preted as "dwellers on either shore" — Wis Hist. Colls., xii, p. 
396; and "dwellers on the other side of a stream" — Legler, Wis. 
Place Names, p. 32. 

Ozaukee is the Chippewa form of the tribal name of the 
Sauk. The word is commonly asserted to mean, "people living 
at the mouth of a river" — Legler, Wis. Place Names, p. 32; 
others interpret it as signifying "people of yellow earth" — Gan- 
nett. Place Names, p. 200. 

Pepin is named for Lake Pepin — an enlargement of the ]\Iis- 
sissippi River. Lake Pepin is one of the oldest names upon 
the map of AVisconsin, being mentioned by that title in 1700 — 
Wis. Hist. Colls., xvi, p. 184. It seems probable it was named 
for one of the companions of Dulut^i, Avhom he notes as being in 
that vicinity in 1679. and not as Gannett (Place Naynes, p. 205) 
assumes, for the French king, Pepin le Bref. 

Pierce was named in honor of President Franklin Pierce — 
Hist. No. Wis., p. 707. 

Polk was given its name in honor of President James K. 
I>olk— Hisf. No. Wis., p. 722. 

Portage was originally named for the Fox-Wisconsin portage, 
then within its boundaries — a prominent landmark in early Wis- 
consin history. The gradual change in the boundaries of this 
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Wisconsin Historical Society 

county (described ante) left tlie name of the county without sig- 
nificance, save that therein is found Plover portage, an insig- 
nificant carrying-place between the waters of "Wolf and Wiscon- 
sin rivers — Wis. Hist. Colls., i, pp. 113, 118. 

Price was named for William T. Price, who was president of 
the State senate at the time this coiuity was formed — Hist. No. 
Wis., p. 765. Porn in Pennsylvania (1824), Price early re- 
moved to western Wisconsin, and in 1851 was register of deeds 
for La Crosse County. The same year he served in the legis- 
lature, and in 185-4 and 1859 as county .judge for Jackson. Af- 
ter man}' terms as assemblyman and state senator, he was elected 
in 1883 representative to Congress, and re-elected in 1885, but 
died during his second term, Dec. 7, 1886. 

Racine was named for its principal town, which was laid off 
in 1831^35 by Gilbert Knapp. The first designation of tliis set- 
tlement was Port Gilbert ; but its founder decided to change this 
to Racine, the French translation of Root River, on which he had 
laid out his town. Root was apparently the translation of the 
aboriginal name for this stream — see Wis. Hisf. Colls., vii, pp. 
335, 341 ; Butterfield, JIistor\j of llacine and Kenosha Counties 
(Chicago, 1879), pp. 279, 355. 

Richland was named for the character of its soil — Wis. Hist. 
Colls., i, p. 109. 

Rock was not named for its rocky soil (Gannett. Place Xames, 
p. 222), nor for Rock Prairie therein {Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 
113), but for its principal river. This stream was denominated 
by the early French explorers, "des Kickapoo, " for a village of 
that tribe found upon it. In the eighteenth century it was 
called ''Riviere de la Roche," which was variously translated 
into Stony, Rocky, and finally Rix-k River. This was no doubt 
a translation of the Indian word, given because of the chain of 
rocks at the month of the stream, causing the rapids beside which 
is now the city of Rock Island, 111. 

Rusk was originally named Gates in honor of John L. Gates, 
then a prominent ^lilwankt-e Inmberman and capitalist. It was 
changed (1905) to Kusk in honor of Governor Jeremiah ]M. 
Rusk (1830-93). Rusk was born in Ohio, and removed to Wis- 
consin in 1853, settling at Viroqua. A member of the legis- 
lature of 1861, he served in tbe federal army throughout the 

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Wisconsin Counties 

War of Socession. From 3S65-G7, Rusk was bank-comptroller; 
1S71-77, member of Congress; and 1SS2-89, governor of the 
State. Under President Benjamin Harrison, he was the first 
secretary of agriculture, an office wherein he was highly efficient. 
He died at his Viroqua home, soon after his last term of public 

St. Croix is named for its principal river. This is one of the 
most ancient names on the map of Wisconsin, and was so desig- 
nated in honor of an early French voyageur who was wrecked at 
its mouth— see Wis. Hist. Colls., xvi, p. 185. 

Sauk is an Indian tribal name — see ante, Ozaukee. It took 
this name from a large village of that tribe formerly within its 
borders, for particulars of which see Wis. Hist. Colls., iii, p. 
206 ; x\nii, pp. 282, 335. Although this village was removed be- 
fore the coming of the American settlers, it left its name to the 
neighboring Saulv Prairie— "IT^/s. Hist. Colls., i, p. 113. 

Sawyer was named in honor of l^hiletus Sa^\yer of Oshkosh. 
Born in Vermont in 181 G, he removed to Wisconsin in 1847 and 
two years later started a sawmill at Oshkosh. In 1857 and 1861 
he was a member of the assembly; 1865-75, he represented Wis- 
consin in Congress. In 1881 he was chosen United States senator 
and re-elected for a second term. Pie died in 1900 at his Osh- 
kosh home. 

Shavirano . was named for the lake of that name within its bor- 
ders. The word is a Chippewa term, somewhat modified, and 
signifies "southern"— "ir«. Hist. Colls., xii, p. 347. It is simi- 
lar to the French Chaoitanon (English, Shawnee), a tribal terra. 
There is no evidence that the Shawnee Indians ever lived in this 
locality. It was probably the southern boundary of Cliippewa 
tribal territory, although later claimed by the ^lenominee. 

Sheboygan takes its name from a river emptying into Lake 
Michigan. Two meanings have been assigned to this word: "a 
noise underground." and "river disappearing underground" — 
Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 17, and Hist. Xo. Wis., p. 967; and "a 
perforated object, such as a pipe-stt^m, or hollow bone" — Wis. 
Hisf. Colls., iii, p. ;137; xii. p. 397. 

Taylor, Since it was erected in 1875, this county was prob- 
ably nam.'d for the governor in office at that time, William R. 
Taylor. Born in Connecticut in 1818. he emigrated to Dane 
County in 1848, and lived upon a farm therein. He was, during 
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his term (187-i-7G) known as the "fanner governor." He died' 
in the spring of 1909 near IMadison. 

Trempealeau is named from its principal river. This stream 
was so called from a contiguous blnfl;, familiarly Imown to the 
early French voyageurs as La moniagne qui trempe a I'eau 
("the mountain that is steeped in the water"). This, in its turn, 
seems to have been a translation of the Indian term. Pah-hah- 
dah, the Sioux word for "mountain separated by water;" or 
TTay-nce-ah-chah, the Winnebago word for "soaking mountain" 
— see AYis. Hist. Soe. Proceedings, 1906, p. 246. 

Vernon. The original name of this county was Bad Ax, so 
designated from a stream therein, tributarj^ to tlie i\Iississippi. 
Bad Ax was a translation of the French voyageur term. La 
mauvaise hache, but the origin of the name is unknown. The in- 
habitants of the county felt that this name created an unpleas- 
ant impression ; it v/as thereupon, at tlie suggestion of Judge 
"William F. Terhune, changed to Vernon, implying the greenness 
of its wheat fields, and carrying a suggestion of Washington's 
home at ]\Ioimt Vernon — Buttcrfield, History of Yernon County 
(Springfield. 1884). p. 132. 

Vilas was named in honor of William F. A^ilas of Madison. 
A native of Vermont (1840), he removed to Wisconsin in 1851, 
and was graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1858. 
During the War of Secession he attained the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel; was postmaster-general of the United States (1885-88) ; 
secretary of the interior (1888-91) ; and United States senator 
(1891-97). He died in August, 1908, leaving to his alma mater 
tlie bulk of his large fortune. 

Walworth was, at the suggestion of Col. Samuel F. Phoenix, 
founder of the town of Dclaviin, named for Chancellor Reuben 
H. W^ilworth of Xew York— History of Walworth County (Chi- 
cago, 1882), p. 315. Walworth (1788-1867) was the last chan- 
cellor of that state (1828-18), the chancer\' court being abol- 
ished at the close of his term. He was known as a great equity 
jurist, and an early friend of the temperance movement. 

Washburn was named in honor of Cadwallader C. Washburn, 
governor of the State. 1S72-74. P.orn in :\laine (1818), Wash- 
burn migrated West at the agi^ of twenty-one. In 1842 he set- 
tled at ^Mineral Point, was admitted to the bar, and opened a 

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Wisconsin Counties 

bank. He was a congressman for three terms (1855-61), and 
again after the AVar of Secession (wherein he served), for two 
further terms (1867-71). After retiring from public life he 
built lip the flour-mill industry at ^Minneapolis. For many 
years he was president of the State Historical Society, and gave 
the University its observatory. He died in 1882. 

Washington was named for the first president of the United 
States— Tr/5. Hist. Colls, i, p. 113. 

Waukesha was thus named when its territory was separated 
from ^Milwaukee, and erected into a county. There was a strong 
popular desire for an Indian name. Waukt-shaw was suggested 
as being the Potawatomi form of fox, because the waters of the 
lower part of the county drain into Fox River of Illinois (which 
is, however, named for the Fox tribe of Indians, not for the ani- 
mal)— see Frank A. Flower, History of WaukesJw County 
(Chicago, 1880), p. 376; also 'Wis. Hist. Colls., i, p. 117. The 
name, therefore, was not an aboriginal name of the locality, but 
one chosen by its early American settlers from Indian vocabu- 

Waupaca takes its name from a river, whose Indian appella- 
tion has been variously interpi-eted. It is said to mean "white 
sand bottom" — Legler, ^yis. Place Names, p. 35; and ''pale 
water," or "to-morrow river "-^"O^/s. Hist. Colls., iii, p. 487. 

Waushara. This name first appeared on the map when the 
coimty was erected, and would seem (like Waukesha) to be an 
attempt of American settlers to apply some little-understood 
Indian term. One authority considers it equivalent to "good 
land"— Stennett, Place Xamcs, p. 32. 

Winnebago took its name from the Indian tribe that had 
formerly lived in this vicinity. The word was an Algonquian 
term applied to the Siouan tribe, and signified, "people dwelling 
by the fetid or ill-smelling water" (possibly a sulphur spring)^ 
see Wis. Hist. Colls., xvi. p. 3; Thwaites, Wisconsin (Boston, 
1908), pp. 16, 17. 

Wood is thus named in honor of Jo.seph Wood, a.ssembl\Tnan 
from Grand Uapids wlieii Iho county was formed. He came to 
Grand Rapids in 1848, and after having served one term in the 
legislature (1856). and one as county .iudge (1857), was mayor 
of Grand Rapids (1872-75)— TZw^. No. W'is., p. 1198. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Some Reminiscences of Early 
Grant County 

By Jonathan Henry Evans, in an interview with 
the Editor^ 

Arrival in Wisconsin 

I came to "Wisconsin with my parents when I was in my six- 
teenth year, arriving 'M?iy 15, 1S46. We settled on government 
land in the town of Kendall, then in Iowa, but now in Lafayette 
County. Previous to removing to "Wisconsin my father had had 
varied experiences, with differing degrees of fortune. He had 
lived near Philadelphia when the Pennsylvania Railway was 
projected and built (1832-35), and being a blacksmith and ma- 
chinist, established a small factory to build freight-ears. 

The State had undertaken a system of internal improvements 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh : a railroad from Philadelphia 

1 Jonathan H. Evans was born near Philadelphia, October 29, 1S30. 
After serving as a printer's apprentice at Shippensburg, Pa., he came 
West with his father in 1846, as here narrated. After attending 
Platteville Academy (1S51-52), he taught country school for a term 
and entered the mercantile business at Platteville. He was register 
of deeds of Grant County (1S57-1S61), and during the War of Seces- 
sion was sutler of the Thirty-third Wisconsin Infantry. Reentering 
business life, he held many local offices, such as president of the vil- 
lage of PlatTeville (ISTO) and county supervisor for several terms. 

He has been a director and vice-president of the First National Bank 
of Platteville, since its organization (1S91), and for many years w'as 
actively engaged as a dealer in real estate. During this time he sur- 
veyed and platted over twenty subdi\'isions to the city of Platteville. 
Chosen in 1S72 a member of the Board of Regents of State Normal 
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Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

to Columbia on the Susquelianna, thence a canal, follow- 
ing the watercourses to the headwaters of the Juniata at Hol- 
lidaysburg; from this point a railway, by a series of inclines, 
five up and five down, carrying the boats over the mountain to 
Johnstown, where the craft again took to the water for Pittsburgh. 
These boats were built in three water-tight compartments, each of 
which could be floated on to trucks and thus pulled over the 
mountains. The freight cars were first constructed to run on four 
wheels, and about a third the length of the modern cars. This 
was the style built by my father, who was one of the pioneer car 
builders in the United States. The State owned the railway and 
canal; individuals or companies owned the rolling stock and 
boats, paying toll to the State. The first rails were iron bars about 
the size of an ordinary wagon tire ; these were spiked on wooden 
string-pieces, perhaps six inches square. For the first two or 
three years the motive power was horses driven tandem. Soon, 
however, steam supplanted horses. Larger cars, with eight 
wheels, were built in Philadelphia, and my father's small factory 
was put out of business, so he removed to central Pennsylvania, 
and engaged in canal-boating on the Juniata and Susquehanna. 
He was one of many, individuals who owned boats and paid toll 
to the State. 

We left Pennsylvania in April, 1846, 'travelling by canal to 
Hollidaysburg, thence by rail over the mountains to Johnstown, 

Schools, he served as such for a long period, being for many years 
president of the board. Mr. Evans has also been prominent in the 
Masonic order of the State, and has devoted much time to the study 
of natural history, especially mineralogy. In 1855 he married Miss 
Sarah Kilbourne of Columbus, Ohio. For some years past, he has 
lived in retirement, but still retains a keen interest in educational 
and other public affairs. 

On August 11, 1908, the Editor of the Society's publications visited 
Mr. Evans at his home in Platteville, and through the fnedium of a 
stenographer obtained the verbal recollections herein set forth. The 
method of securing this data accounts for its lack of literary form, 
and somewhat disjointed character. So far as is practicable, Mr. 
Evans's exact words are here preserved. We should have preferred 
to have him work over the material into a connected article; but 
this he has found it impracticable to do. He has, however, revised 
the sketch as here presented. — R. G. T. 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

whence we floated l)y canal to Pittsburgli. There we boarded a 
steamer down the Ohio to Cairo, and up the Mississippi to St. 
Louis, where we changed to another boat which brought us to 
Galena. The journey that then took twenty-one days could now 
be accomplished in one. 

At some place below Louisville we saw a steamboat anchored 
in mid-stream. It proved to be a ' 'wrecker " at work recovering 
salvage from a sunken steamer. Our boat stopped, and we 
watched them working with a diving bell. A man went down in 
it and sent up all kinds of" stuff. We were told that many lives 
had been lost; but all we saw w^as a lot of merchandise hauled 
up from the wreck. 

My first impression of Platteville (18-lG) was that of a village 
located in a dense forest ; its area was perhaps forty acres. The 
building's were mainl}^ frame, but some were of log, and there 
were two or three impretentious brick structures. There were 
probably seven or eight hundred inhabitants, chiefly men en- 
gaged in lead mining. It was noticeable that there were but 
few old people, all being of middle age or under. As my 
acquaintance grew, I was nnich impressed with the general in- 
telligence of the people, who had a much higher average than 
those of central Pennsylvania whence I came. At the time I 
could not account for it, but subsequently learned that most of 
the people who came to southwest "Wisconsin were attracted 
thither by the reports of the fabulous mineral wealth of the 
district. As the means of communication from the East and 
South at that time (1827—46) were few and difficult, none but 
venturesome spirits, endowed with energy and enterprise, would 
emigrate to this region, so remote from the comforts of civiliza- 
tion. The travelled route was mainly by water down the Ohio 
and up the ^Mississippi ; hence the earliest settlers were from 
points contiguous to those water.s— Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri. 
Indiana, and Illinois furnished the majority, while New, York 
and other Eastern states sent small contingents. 

At this early date most of the land was uncultivated ; both 
prairie and timber were in primitive condition, hence there were 
many old Indian trails to be seen. I remember one in particu- 
lar; it came from the east, passing south of the mounds, thence 
through the ravine northwest of the village, and do\ni the watei-s 

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Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

of the Platte towards the ^Mississippi. There had been an In- 
dian campiiit!: plai-e on the limits of the present city; but as far 
as I know, no reiznlar native village on the site. For years 
after we came, Indians were frequently seen here, mainly 
Potawatomi and occasionally Winnebago. They were all re- 
moved to eastern Nebraska about the time of the admission of 
the State (184S). I have seen as many as eight hundred here 
at one time, probably when they were gathered for removal 
from AYisconsin. They usually camped where there was plenty 
of water, cither on the Peckatonica or Platte. In their inter- 
course with the whites they were peaceable ; but living a kind of 
gypsy life, they would steal pigs and other domestic animals 
such as dogs and calves, that came in their way during the night. 
They were inveterate beggars, never omitting to ask for whisky. 

Watching a Wheat Field 

In this eonnoction. a little incident happened to me when I 
was a lad. In tlie fall of 1846, a man named Brown had taken 
up a claim and sown a field of about twenty acres of w-heat, a 
few miles from the nearest settlement. He then left to get a 
winter's job and did not return in the spring to look after the 
crop. The wheat grew finely, and being unfenced was open to 
roving stock that began to graze upon it, the wheat being more 
fresh and tender than the surrounding prairie grass. A neigh- 
bor \\-ith whom Bro^\-n had worked the previous year, declared it 
was a great pity to have such a fine crop spoiled by the cattle; 
that it would pay some one to watch the crop until it was ripe. 
I was doing nothing at the time, and said, "If you will give me 
half, I will watch it until it is ripe. " This Avas agreed, and on the 
next Sunday my father, my })rothcr, and I went out to the field 
with a yoke of oxen and built a sod cabin. I cami)ed there that 
night, and staid four months alone, my only companion being a 
good and faithful dog. 'My dnor Avas a blanket. One night a 
big buck Indian poked his head through this portiere and 
grunted at me. I was so startled tliat I grabbed my giui. ^Vly 
first thought was to shoot him: fortunately I did not, or his 
kinsman might have scalped me. 

About tlie l^th of August. P>rown returned and assisted in 
thresliing the wheat. There M-ere six luuidred bushels, worth 
16 [ 2ar) ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

sixty cents a bushel. jNIy father got three hundred bushels of 
this, -which was a pretty good thing in those early days. 

My father did not follow his former business very long. Al- 
though raised a Quaker, he was much of a military' man. having 
been lieutenant-colonel of a militia regiment in Pennsylvania. 
He was good looking, and prided himself on his militaiy bearing. 
Although of little education, he was, like Rountree, a natural 
leader of men. As early as 1840 he used to go out and lecture 
on temperance in country school-houses — he was a radical tem- 
perance man, never using either tobacco or alcohol. 'My mother 
was of Pennsylvania-German stock, and was raised a Lutheran. 
Neither of them remained in their religious sects, however, after 
they were married. 

Stage Lines 

All the mails and most of the passengers in northern Illinois, 
eastern Iowa, and southern "Wisconsin, Avere carried by a large 
firm named Frink & "Walker, whose headquarters were in Galena. 
The coaches used by them were of the big old Concord variety, 
and there were frequent relays, so that passengers were carried 
quite expeditiously and at reasonable rates. I went to ]\radison in 
1855 to sit on a fedoi-al jury, riding from Platteville all the way 
in one of these stnges. Coaches left Galena — twenty-five miles 
away — in the morning, arriving at Platteville about nine or ten 
o'clock, and reaching ^^iadison about ten o'clock that night. The 
old ridge road was followed. "We struck the military road at 
Dodgeville, and proceeded over it to Blue ^Mounds, and thence 
to ]\[adison. This is much the same route as is now followed by 
the Chicago Sz Northwestern Railway, at least from Dodgeville 
into ]\[adison. The coach itself went on from IMadison to ]Mil- 
waukee. There were relays of horses about every ten miles, and 
we went along at a full swinging trot. The firm issued regular 
time-tables, and kept pretty well to their schedule. Another 
line of stages went to ^Milwaukee by way of JanesVille. 

When going from Platteville to Chicago, the coaches first 
went to Galena. From there, was a splendid line right through, 
by way of Freoport and F>lLrin. The line to Prairie du Chien 
was also important : this v.<nt by way of Lancaster. 

I haA'e spoken of the old military road ti') ^Madison. This went 
across the State along the best line of travel, following a well- 
[ :^3G ] 

Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

beaten Indian trail. lake all primitive peoples, Indians kept 
to ridges and watercourses in their trails, which was easier than 
going in straight lines, like onr modern "section roads." West- 
ward from :\Iadison. this military road lay on the watershed 
between waters running into Wisconsin Eiver and those flowing 
southward— thus it went through Blue :Mounds (Ebenezer Brig- 
ham's old place), Ridgeway, Dodgeville, and Montfort. 

Hauling Lead 

This was one of the old roads for carrying lead between the 
mines of southwest Wisconsin and the lakeport of Milwaukee. 
The ore was smelted at the local furnaces in close vicinity to the 
mines, and run into pigs ready for market. Some copper was 
likewise smelted at Mineral Point, and run into circular pans, 
when it was hauled away in the same manner as lead, reaching 
the same markets. The lead went by ox-teams, in great can- 
vas-covered wagons, the load being rated at about a ton of metal 
to each yoke of oxen. As such a team accomplished a good day's 
work if it travelled twenty miles, the distance between Platte- 
ville and Milwaukee was covered in eight to ten days. Some- 
times tramps and others "down on their luck" would travel 
with the lead caravans, but travellers generally regarded it as 
too slow a method. 

It should be understood, however, that most of the pig lead 
and copper from Wisconsin mines went to Galena, whence the 
bulk of it was dispatched by steamei-s down the :\Iississippi. seek- 
ing New Orleans and New York markets; some went up the 
Ohio to Cincinnati and Pittsburgh, or was distributed along the 
Ohio River route. How large a proportion of tlie output went 
overland to :Milwaukee, by caravans, to meet lake vessels that 
carried it to Buffalo and other Eastern markets, I have no means; 
of knowing; it was doubtless a rather small percentage. 

Early Roads 

^[any of the roads through this region were made before I 
came into it. The road from Potosi was open when we came, 
also that from Platteville to Lancaster, New Diggings, and Ben- 
ton — those were all mining places, and there was constant com- 
munication between them. There were few farms then; just a 
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vast prairie between here and Shnllsburg:. Such roads as there 
were, followed, as I have said, the lines of least resistance, wind- 
ing along the ridges and then through the valleys. Later, 
after the federal sui-^-eys between 1833 and 1835, the roads 
went at right angles, following section lines. 

There were, of course, no railroads in the pioneering days of 
southwest Wisconsin. Platteville was wholly dependent on the 
common roads to get its goods and ship out its minerals. ]Most of 
our merchandise came by way of Galena. ^Milwaukee was then 
a relatively small town — not so large as Platteville ; but it was a 
lakeport, with Eastern connections by water, and that made it 
important. I was for several years in the mercantile business 
in Platteville. It generally took a day for us to get a load of 
goods from Galena by horse-team, and two days by ox-team. 
The wagons came by Way of Hazel Green. This overland haul- 
ing by wagon added greatly to the cost of merchandise. 

A great many goods came to us from Dubuque by fern,'. We 
did not then consider those slow methods of transportation in- 
conveniences, but took them as they came. Dubuque was an im- 
portant centre, but not so much so as Galena. The latter quite 
outdistanced Dubuque until the railroad came. Galena sub- 
scribed liberally toward building the road, while Dubuque would 
subscribe nothing, Avith the curious result that while Dubuque 
was helped by the new highway of steel. Galena was irretrievably 
damaged by it. 

Steamboating on the ^lississippi Piver was a profitable busi- 
ness before the war and the general shifting of transportation to 
the railways. The amount of money made by the steamboat 
companies was something truly magnificent. ]\ly business af- 
fairs took me up and down the river a great deal, in those days. 
I v.-as always filled with admiration of the splendid organization 
of the service, and the picturesquoness of the voyage, which was 
varied with interesting incidents. 

There is nobod\' alive now. who was in biLsiness here at the 
time I was. I do not know how it happened that I survived all 
the rest of them : but hei-e I am. I attribute my good health to 
the good habits and splendid constitutions of my father and 


Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

A Wisconsin Giant 

During the early years of our residence in "Wisconsin, my 
father's nearest neiglibor was Randall, a Scotch giant, seven feet 
six inches tall, who in the summer time travelled with Barnum's 
circus. Randall lived between jMineral Point and Platteville, 
eight miles from the former and twelve from the latter. He 
was in many respects a remarkable man. ]\lost giants are mon- 
sters — not well proportioned; but he was a splendidly-propor- 
tioned fellow, and although weighing 420 pounds, had no extra 
avoirdupois tissue. From his thumb to the end of his little 
finger he would span thirteen and a half inches. One day he 
came to my mother and wanted to get a setting of ducks' eggs. 
He was hare-headed, and when she asked him what he had to 
carry them in, he said that one of his hands Avas sufficient — 
and indeed he did carry that whole setting back home in his 
hand. Randall had bookish tastes, and many of his friends 
gave liim books. Among others he had Rollin's Ancient History, 
which I borrowed from him and read during that summer when 
I was watching Brown's wheat-field. I believe that those four 
months I spent in watching the wheat was as good literary train- 
ing as I ever put in. I had good company in books, as well as 
my good dog. 

In winter time, when the circus business was shut do\ni, and 
Randall had nothing to do in his own line, he used to haul lead. 
He would load up tlie metal with his bare hands, picking up 
pigs weighing from seventy to seventy-five pounds and easily 
piling them up. His wife was a giantess, too — six feet, four 
inches in height — and she also travelled with Barmnn. Charley 
Stratton, popularly called "Tom Thumb," was one of their com- 
panions; lie emphasized the giant st;iture of the Randalls by his 
own diminutive size. 


I never snw a happier lot of persons in my life tlian were the 
pioneers of tliis region. Yet we never had fresh fruit. I had 
been in Wisconsin three or four years before I saw a peach, and 
1 came from a peach country. "We did not have canned fruit, 
either. AVe used to get blackberries and crab-apples from the 

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woods. There was, however, a great abundance of game ; every- 
body went out to hunt. The first winter we were here, there 
was a great snow, and deer were plentiful. Hunters brought 
venison into Platteville, and so great was the supply that they 
never thought of bringing the forequarters. Generally, they 
brought only the saddles, and sold these for two or three cents 
a pound. Prairie chickens abounded, and sometimes wild ducks. 
"Wolves, too, were quite numerous. 

Decadence, in Lead Mining 

The slump in the lead-mining industiy began in 1S49 or 1850, 
when the gold fields of California began to attract the miners to 
what promised to be a more lucrative region. This decadence 
came suddenly. Thei'e were from three to four hundred men 
raining here, and two hundred and fifty of them went to the gold 
fields, which made quite a difference in our population. Our 
miners were chiefly Cornish, and good miners they were, too, 
making first-class citizens. The falling off in mining in this 
region continued until 1S54, when the bottom pretty well 
dropped out. 

I attribute the decadence very largely, in addition to the loss 
of miners, to the increase in the value of the land itself. Own- 
ers are very reluctant to have their land prospected. John H. 
Rountree owned thousands of acres around Platteville. Some 
of his property decreased in value over fifty per cent by reason 
of mining debris left on the ground. I seldom allowed any- 
body to do any mining on my own property, because I did not 
want to damage the land for sale. A prospector says, "I want 
to explore your ground for zinc." He makes a contract to be 
permitted to drill an eight-inch hole. If he finds good showing, 
he makes a further contract to sink a shaft down to the mineral. 
and then the owner of the land gets a tenth of the proceeds. 
Take a big zinc mine, and right at the shaft they irrevocably 
destroy an nere or two of land. Unless a man gets a pretty 
good royalty, it is better to preserve the land. I know of a 
tnict south of here, that is so dug up that it docs not amount to 
anythincr. Genr-rally, one can raise crops more valuable on top, 
than below. 

Here is an instance of good profits made by a landowner, in 

[2401 . • 

Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

our own day, when zinc mining has been revived and prosperity 
has returned to the region : This man owned a three-cornered 
piece of land, and wanted to sell it for $3,000. The neighboring 
mine-owners would not buy, but contracted for it for mining. 
Boriug a hole, they found it rich, and w^anted to know what the 
owner would take for it. His price was now $6,000, which they 
declined to pa}-. The following ]March, after paying $6,000 in 
royalty, they "wanted to know what he would then take for the 
property. His price was now $30,000, which they would not 
agree to. But they had to pay him over $30,000 in royalty, 
so that he was well paid for his ground. While you can find 
lead and zinc on every lot in this town, mining is nevertheless a 
gambling ganii'. I once put $i00 into a mine, and that is the 
last I ever saw of the money. 

I well remember the excitement in 1865 about the alleged 
discovery of oil in this region. It was a dowTiright fraud. 
Some parties bought a barrel of oil, and boring a hole in the 
ground put the oil into it. They then put more oil in barrels, 
and said it came out of the well, and on the strength of this 
sold shares in their company. The same year, over in Crawford 
County, the gang worked the same trick. Major Rountree was 
greatly excited over the supposed discovery. He owned about 
five thousand acres in Crawford County, and I sold it for him. 
There was no oil ever found on it. No man who understands 
geology would advise any one to put any money into oil-stock in 
this section. 

James Gates Percival 

I knew James Gates Percival, who came here in 1S63 as our 
State geologist. He was one of the most interesting men I ever 
listened to. Percival used often to stop with ]\Iajor Pountree, 
and being a relative of the family I met him there. Percival 
was then an elderly man, and dressed in very shabby clothes, his 
suit not costing over ten dollars. However, despite his very 
plain garments, lie was neat about his person. He wore shoes 
when most people wore boots. At I remember him, he ^\■as not 
more than medium size, with rather shai-p, narrow, spare 
features, a little stoop-shouldored, and looking much like a labor- 
ing man, save for his strong face. He had wonderful eyes. I 
do not remember their color, ])ut should say they were blue. 
[ 241 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

On tbe wliole he was a pleasant-louking old man. But to hear 
him talk — there was the charm. Pie was not inclined to be 
cordial witli people in general. Unless approached in the proper 
way, he had nothing at all to say. To see him at his best one 
should meet him at the tea-table and get him into familiar con- 
versation. He impressed you as a man of power. "Whatever 
he said meant something. 

John H. Rountree 

As for ]\ra.jor John IT. Rountree, I knew him w^ell from his 

middle age to his death, and was at his house when he died. 
The ]\Iajor was very popular in this region. lie was a man of 
strong intellect, without much education. Such learning as he 
had, was largely acquired through contact with educated men. 
Being prominent in this locality, he was in the legislature for 
many years and ran for lieutenant-governor and county judge. 
Mixing with all sorts of people, he had naturally rubbed off 
some of the rough corners. He was a splendid man to his 
family, and had a devoted, loving wife, who was a Southworth — 
Mrs. E. D. E. X. Southworth 's sister-in-law. I did not myself 
know ]\rrs. Southworth, the novelist, for she left "Wisconsin 
before 1846. 

Major Rountree left a good many papers, but I hardly think 
they are of much value. There are some at his house now. 
Those that came into the estate, which I settled, his son and I 
sorted over, saving what wo thought were valuable and burning 
up bushels and bushels of others, some of which might have 
brought other people into trouble. I still have a bunch of let- 
ters in my safe. They often mention public men such as Gover- 
nor Dodge. 

Other Notables 

I was acfjuainted witli Henry Dodge, by sight; but a boy of 
seventeen or eighteen years of age is not apt to get on intimate 
terms Avith the governor of his State. I saw him first, during 
his second appointment as Territorial governor (1845— i8). He 
was quite popular hereabout, because of the considerable niun- 
ber of Southerners. In fact, the first people in our lead region 
were from the South, from ^Missouri and Kentucky ; later, came 
Yankees from the East. 


Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

George AVallace Jones, onr first Territorial delegate to Con- 
gress, Avas also one of my acquaintances. I saw him in Platte- 
ville only a short time before his death, which occurred in 1896. 
A nice-looking old gentleman, he was polished in manner, al- 
ways well-dressed, n!id had many desirable accomplishments. A 
Virginian, he cultivated all the arts of social life, and would not 
permit too much familiarity. His memory was marvelous. He 
had not seen me for ten or twelve years, but when we met at a 
public gathering he seemed easily to recall my name. 

Nelson Dewey, our first State governor, I also knew. Indeed, 
he lived more years in Platteville than in Cassville ; but resided 
at liancaster before being elected governor. He used to come 
to Belmont to see :\Iiss Kate Dunn, whom he married. 

Other "prominent men who lived in Platteville or the vicinity 
were Charles Dunn, the first chief justice of the Territoiy; 
Ben C. Eastman, a member of Congress; Orsamus Cole, for 
many years chief justice of the State; James P. Vineyard, an 
early legislator of the Territory; and J. ^M. Goodhue, a lawyer 
and journalist, later the founder of a leading newspaper in 
St. Paul, :Minn. These pioneers had much to do with making 
history for Wisconsin and shaping early legislation for the 
Territory and State. 

Old Belmont 
In the days when I knew Belmont, where the first Wisconsin 
Territorial legislature met in 1S3G, there were still some five or 
more houses in the already decaying village; although today 
there is nothing there save the old eapitol, that is now used as a 
barn, and Judge Charles Dunn's house (now a farmhouse). I 
used to be told, as a boy— and that was only ten years after the 
session— tliat the senate met on the ground lloor of the old eapi- 
tol, and the assembly upstairs. In 1S48, while I was still a 
minor, I was tally clerk of the presidential election that was 
held for our precinct in this building— Zachary Taylor, whom 
many of the neighbors had known when hf was commandant at 
Prairie du Chien, was running for president. 

Recollections of U. S. Grant 
General Grant was also an acquaintance of mine in the ante 
helium days. His father. Jesse, wa.s senior (and absentee) 
[ 243 1 • 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

partner in the firm of Grant & Perkins, leather merchants at 
Galena. Ulysses had been in the army, do^^^l at St. Louis, and 
married Julia Dent. He tired of army life, however, as our 
best military men do in time of peace. His father-in-law gave 
him some land and ho rented a house, but made a most signal 
failure of farming— indeed, he almost star\^ed. Then he ap- 
plied for a phiee as civil engineer iu St. Louis, but somebody 
else with more political pull got the job. 

Old Jesse Grant had several sous. Among them was Simp- 
son, who cared for his father's interests at the store in Galena. 
Simpson died at St. Paul, while on a business trip, and Jesse 
thought he would now have to do something for Ulysses. He 
wrote to him to go from St. Louis to :Mr. Perkins at Galena, and 
do whatever he was bidden. :\leanwhile, Jesse had written to 
Perkins that he was going to send Ulysses to take Simpson's 
place, but that Perkins should pay him only what he thought 
he was worth. 

AVhen Captain Grant appeared in Galena, Perkins set him at 
work, and after awhile wrote to Jesse: "Ulysses is here, and 
I have put him to work. I think he is worth about forty-five 
dollars per month, but he is di-awing more." Indeed, I used to 
be told that he drew about ninety dollars a month, to pay his 
rent and support his family. P.ut old- Jesse paid the balance 
himself — I don't know whether Perkins knew this or not. 

If you ever go to Galena, go down Main Street, then up Bench 
Street for a short distance. There you will find a little story- 
and-a-half brick house that would perhaps rent iu Platteville for 
ten dollars a month— that's where Ulysses lived at that time. 
After the siege of Vicksburg. the citizens of Galena built a resi- 
dence for him, but he never lived in it. 

Captain Grant used to come up through this region to repre- 
sent the firm. He rode in a one-horse open buggy, in which he 
carried leather samples, not only seeking trade but collecting 
bills, "in those early days he was not at all impressive in ap- 
pearance, being a short man. and rather spare. If he had not 
afterwards devi-loped into a great man he would have quiekly 
passed from one's memory. 

The first time I ever met him I didn't see him. It was a 
starlit night in January, ISOl. just before the war. Col. 
John G. Clark and I were county ofEcers, and were riding to 
[ 244 1 

Reminiscences of Early Grant County 

Lam-aster, the county seat, having been at Madison during the 
senatorial contest between Randall, Howe, and "Washburn. 
"\Yhere Fennimore now stands, was then but a wide expanse of 
prairie, with no houses in sight. "We there met a team strug- 
gling tlirough the snow drifts, from which two men hailed us, 
asking liow and when they could get to Widow Philbrook's. "We 
replied that they v.-ere about a mile and a half off the road. 
One of the men said, "Ain't you Evans?" Pie said he was 
Mark Bro^\'u. travelling for a liquor dealer named Lorraine, and 
added. "I want to introduce Captain Grant." That gentleman 
said. "You'll have bad news when you get home, gentlemen." 
lie explained that ]Mr. Hyde, landlord of the Mansion House 
at Lancaster, had drop})ed dead, and everj^thing was in such 
confusion that they had decided to come up to Philbrook's and 
spend the night there. 

Grant was often in Platteville after the war. I remember 
chatting and tahving with him in 1868, in my store, and giving 
him a cigar. He took it and put it in his mouth — but he didn't 
smoke it, only chewed on it, as Sheridan also used to do. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

The Settlement of Arcadia 

By Eben Douglas Pierce, M. D. 

The valley of Trempealeau River must have been known ta 
the early F'rench garrisons who occupied a post among the 
Sioux ; for more than once they wintered near Trempealeau 
Mountain, and dispersed throughout the surrounding region in 
search of game, or followed bands of Indians for trading pur- 
poses.^ The east bank of the ^Mississippi was conunon limiting 
ground for the ^Menominee and Winnebago; and when the Chip- 
pewa moved south and west from Lake Superior, in the third 
quarter of the eighteenth century, they did not dispossess these 
tribes of their preserves, Init confined their own hunting to the 
regions north of the river called by their name. The Trempe- 
aleau River and its tributary streams were noted for large 
game, both ellc and deer abounding; and buffalo were not im- 
common in the vicinity, as geographical names testify. No ac- 
counts of Indian or French visits to this valley are, so far as 
known, recorded, and it is not possible now to tell who were the 
first to visit the site of the present village of Arcadia. 

According to Winnebago tradition, Augustin Rocque had 
hunted and trapped on the Trempealeau as far back as 1820. 
Rocque was proba])]y but one of many half-breeds who made 
headquarters at Wabasha's Sioux village, on the site of the pres- 
ent Winona, and sallied thence in search of game and furs in 
the pleasant valley of the Trempealeau. But to Americans this 
region was not open for settlement until after the purchase of 
tlie Indian rights to all this territory, and this did not occur un- 
til Wisconsin was separated from ^Michigan, and erected into a 
territorv of its own. 

1 For the French in this region, see Wis. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 
190G, pp. 24r,, 247. 

[ 246 ] • 

Settlement of Arcadia 

After the flood of new settlers that poured into Wisconsin at 
the close of the Black Hawk ^Yar had taken up the best lands in 
the southern portions of the present State, covetous eyes were 
turned to the upper ]\Iississippi region, and the government was 
importuned to extinguish the Indian title. Accordingly in the 
autumn of 1S3G the chiefs of the Winnebago were called to- 
gether at Portage, and Gen. Henry Dodge, governor of the new 
Territory, and likewise general Indian agent, entered into a long 
series of negotiations with the tribesmen for a sale of their lands 
north of Wisconsin River. This they refused to do, alleging 
that these were their homes, and that they had no more land 
that they wished to sell to the whites. The council thereupon 
broke up without results.- 

Tlie following summer (1837) , a baud of twenty of the younger 
chiefs was induced to go to Washington, under the conduct of 
Thomas A. Boyd, sub-agent at Fort Winnebago, and Joseph 
Moore, Joseph Brisbois, and Satterlee Clark, traders of intluence 
among them. Nicolas Boilvin, Antoine Grignon, and Jean Roy 
accompanied the delegation in the capacity of interpreters. The 
chiefs declined at first to make a treaty, saying that they were 
not authorized by their tribe to do so; they at length yielded to 
pressure brought to bear upon them, and on November 1 signed 
a treaty conveying away all their lands in Wisconsin for about 
$1,500,000 to be paid in annuities. The agreement was that the 
tribe was to remove from Wisconsin within eight months after 
the signing of the treaty ; although it is claimed by some of their 
friends that the signers luiderstood that they were to have eight 
years in which to make the change.^ The removal of these 
tribesmen was accomplished, therefore, with great difficulty. 
Many of them straggled back to their old haunts, and for j-ears 
wandered in the northwestern and central counties of the State, 
where some of their descendants may yet be found in scattered 

The title to Trempealeau valley was thus cleared, but it was 
several years before actual settlement took place. James Reed, 

2 Wis. Hist. Colls., viii. p. 31S. 

3 /(?., vii, pp. 359, 303; Indian Treaties (Washington, 1904), pp. 
498-300; XiJes's Register, liii, p. 146. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

to whom the settlement of Trempealeau city is credited,^ made 
several .ionrneys np the river in quest of fui-s, soon after the 
treaty of 1837. The Bunnells came to this region in 1842. Wil- 
lard B. Bunnell hunted and trapped on some of the tributaries 
of the Trempealeau in the autumn of the same year, naming Elk 
and Pigeon creeks because of his successful hunts thereupon. In 
the autumn of 1843, the two brothers Bunnell, in company with 
Thomas A. Holmes and William Smothers, ascended the 
Trempealeau as far as the present village of Independence, 
where the party camped and spent several days hunting elk in 
the surrounding country.^ 

The valley had been a favorite hunting ground of the Indians 
long before the coming of white hunters, and tradition concerns 
itself with some of the principal landmarks, such as Bam Bluff ; 
but the occasional hunters and trappers who penetrated into the 
interior, enjoying their wild life of adventure, had no purpose to 
settle the country, and little dreamed the low marshy grounds 
along the Trempealeau Kiver would ever afford a site for a vil- 
lage such as Arcadia is at the present day. 

When the first settlers arrived at Arcadia (1855), they found 
a defence of breast- works, proving that some time soldiers had 
visited the place. The apparent age of the excavations at that 
time indicated they had been built several yeai-s before. Julius 
Hensel, a veteran of the War of Secession and an early settler in 
Arcadia, reports that the Indians claimed that a company of 
soldiers came up tlie valley shortly after the Black Plawk War, 
and near the present villnge of Arcadia met a band of Indians. 
No hostilities occurred, but tlie soldiers deemed it prudent to be 
prepared in case any evidence of enmity on the part of the 
tribesmen should be shown, and therefore erected breast-works. 
Where the soldiers were going, or what their mission may have 
been, has never been ascertained, and any effort to gain more in- 
formation concerning their movements has thus far been futile. 

The first permanent settlement of Arcadia came about in the 
autumn of 1855. Collins Bishop, George Shelley, and James 
*Broughton had made tbe joui-ney by team from Southern Wis- 

* Wis. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1907, pp. 252, 253. 

5L. H. Bunnell, Winona and its Environs (Winona, 1897), pp. 

[ 248 ] 

Settlement of Arcadia 

consin to Fountain Cit}^ driving witli them a lierd of fifteen 
cattle. At La Crosse they learned of vacant land located in the 
town of Preston, which then included tlie present town of Ar- 
cadia. A few weeks were spent at Fountain City, during which 
time ]Mr. Bishop took up some swamp and State land. But the 
desire to visit the large tract of unoccupied land in Trempealeau 
valley still possessed the minds of the homeseekers, and on an 
autumn morning fifty-three years ago they set out afoot for the 
new country. The party was composed of Collins Bishop, George 
Dewey, George Shelley, and James Broughton, and they fol- 
lowed an Indian trail that connected the Mississippi with the 
lands on Black Kiver. 

They hit the trail with eager feet, for their hopes were high, 
and before them drifted visions of future homes of peace and 
plenty. Over hills and through valleys,, across streams and 
through dimpling meadows of wild grass they worked their way, 
and in a few hours Glencoe Ridge was reached. Here they were 
overtaken by a lone footman, who was also looking for land. 
The new companion was Noah Corastock, a tried and faithful 
pioneer who brought with him the experience of a "forty- 
niner," and Avhose knowledge of surveying was a valuable aid to 
the land-seekers. The party journeyed on until the late after- 
noon, when they arrived at tlie home of George Cowie, where they 
passed the night. F>arly the next morning they set out for their 
destination, and, inspired by the fresh autumn air, and the ex- 
hilaration of adventure, the distance to Trempealeau River was 
soon covered. 

When the river was reached they drew cuts to see who should 
wade the stream and find a fording place. This was easily ac- 
complished, for the water was but a little more than knee-deep, 
and a fording place was found a short distance from where the 
bridge now stands. From the river to the hill they followed an 
Indian trail that led over nearly the same ground as the present 
. Main street. When the summit of the hill was reached, a tree 
was sighted, and owing to the scarcity of. trees the land-hunters 
decided to utilize it for a bearing tree. They were not disap- 
pointed, for when they came to the oak it proved to be just what 
thev anticipated; and not far from it was a hole in the ground, 
which after examination ]\[r. Comstock concluded was a section- 
post mark. 

[ 249 1 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

The day was spent in looking over the new country, and ex- 
amining its soil and general features with a view of locating. 
At night the men returned to Co^^'ie's home, and the next day 
came bar-k prepared to take each a quarter section of land, and 
select a favorable building spot. This done, they returned to 
Fountain City well satisfied with the prospects of the new coun- 

Late in the same autumn Collins Bishop hired James Brough- 
ton and a ]\Ir. Davis to build a house on his quarter-section. 
They erected this near the bearing tree, the site chosen by ]\Ir. 
Bishop, and used logs for the main part, with boards for the 
roof. This was the first house in Arcadia, and some of the 
boards from the old cabin are still doing service on ]\Ir. Bishop 's 
barn in East Arcadia. The old tree imder which the cabin was 
built, still stands, a majestic landmark and rustic monument 
commemorating the coming of the first settlers in 1855. 

The next spring ]Mr. Bishop took possession of his new home 
and broke several acres of land. This was the first soil culti- 
vated in Arcadia, and the crop gathered in the autiunn was en- 
couraging to the infant settlement. Durincr the spring and 
summer of 1856 other settlers came, and by winter several houses 
had been built, and the little community had made itself known 
to the neighborhood. The settlers petitioned (1856) the county 
board that Preston township be divided, and a new to\m formed. 
Then it became necessary to decide upon a name for the rising 
village. Previous to this time it had been kno^nl as Bishop's 
Settlement, while some called it Barntown, on account of the 
number of barns erected by the early settlers. The petition re- 
garding the formation of the new town was granted, and so one 
winter day the pioneer neighbors met at Bishop's cabin to name 
the town. To the W(unen this privilege was granted, and Mrs. 
David Bishop (InttM- :Mi-s. Charles ifercer) offered the name Ar- 
cadia, suggested by Noah Comstock, which was accepted. 

Arcadia, with its new name', grew steadily, and with the 
gro\\i;h came the inevitable changes incident to our Western 
mode of rapid development. 

^listaken identities were responsible for the names of two of 
our prominent blutTs. Noah Comstock 's mistake in regard to the 
section-post mark in the ground near the old bearing tree, gave 

[ 250 ] 

Settlement of Arcadia 

him a bluff in East Arcadia. He was not compelled, however, 
to retain the quarter section containing this waste of land ; but 
ever since the error was discovered, the bluff has been called by 
his Christian name. Xoah 's Bluff. Bam Bluff' was called "Gage's 
Barn" until the railroad was built, when it took its pres- 
ent name. ^Mr. Gage on his way across the hills from Trempeal- 
eau one moonlight night saw in the distance what he supposed to 
be a barn, and arriving at Bishop's house mentioned what he 
had seen and asked whose barn it was that had attracted his at- 
tention, and caused him to turn towards tlie lighted cabin win- 
dow, where he found a hearty welcome. From that day until 
the railroad came the bluff was called Gage's Bam. 

Few towns the age and size of Arcadia have yet in their midst 
the first settler of the place. But the venerable pioneer who saw 
the dawn of Arcadia, and who paved the way to our present 
prosperity still helps to till the soil on the old place he took as a 
homestead fifty-three yenrs ago; and although the sno^^'y hand of 
winter has touched his brow, he still possesses a clear and active 
mind that reflects the wholosomeness of a full-orbed life. His 
fibre is akin to the old oak under which he reared the first cabin 
in the to-vm, and with a memory enriched by a variety of inter- 
esting experiences, he enjoys recounting events of the pioneer 
days gone by. He is the last survir^'or of the first set- 
tlei's, and in looking baclv over the departed years he can see the 
contrast between the early awakening of the little settlement^ 
and the progressive and modern town of today. 

The dream of the pioneer has been more than realized. He 
has seen this county changed from a favorite hunting ground of 
the Indian, to a rich agricultural land; from a low, marshy 
swamp to a beautiful and prosperous village ; from a wilderness, 
to a populous community, where instead of barren hills and val- 
leys in a wild .state of nature, we have the cozy homes of a con- 
tented people, nestled among the woodlands, where. silence has 
departed and left in her stead the song of the housewife and the 


251 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Settlement of Green Lake 

By Richart Dart^ 


About the last of April, 1840, my father, Anson Dart, started 
southward from Green Bay with Samuel TV. BealP to explore 
the Green Lake country, which, having been purchased from the 

1 The following narrative was secured by Rev. Samuel T. Kidder of 
McGregor, Iowa, in 1906, when president of Ripon Historical So- 
ciety. Mr. Kidder had several interviews with Richard Dart, and 
much of the narrative is in the latter's own phrasing. Afterwards, 
when in manuscript, it was carefully revised by him. Richard Dart, 
son of Anson and Eliza Catlin Dart, was born May 12, 1S2S, in New 
York city. His removal with his father's family to the township of 
Dartford, Wis., is herein narrated. Mr. Dart still lives in the vicinity 
in excellent health, and with a remarkable memory for his early 
Wisconsin experiences. — Ed. 

2 Samuel W. Beall was of Maryland birth (1S07), and educated at 
Union College. After his marriage in 1S27 he removed to Wisconsin. 
•where in 1834 he was appointed receiver of public lands at Green Bay. 
At the expiration of his term of office he went East, but in 1S40 re- 
turned to Wisconsin in order to locate there permanently. After sev- 
eral years in the Green Lake country he removed to the neighborhood 
of Fond du Lac, where he was agent for the Stockbridge Indians. He 
served in both constitutional conventions, and was lieutenant-governor 
in lS30-o2. After locating at Denver. Colo., for a few years (1S59-61). 
he volunteered for service, was chosen lieutenant-colonel of the ISth 
Wisconsin regiment, and severely wounded at Shiloh. At the close 
of the war he removed to Helena, Mont., where he was shortly after- 
wards shot and killed in an altercation. — Ed. 

r or^9 1 . " 

ma w.viy "iXT«jB?/ii'?Jiro? 


I J 


Anson Daut, 179T-1S79 
From a daguerreotype in possession of the family 

RicHAKi) Daht 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

Winnebago Indians.^ had been surveyed in 1839 and opened to 
the market in 1S40. Beall having been in the land office at 
Green Bay Avas interested in this Green Lake country, rumors of 
whose fertility and attractiveness had reached his ears. Half- 
breeds and others were telling what a beautiful region it was. 
So Beall and Dart started on horseback up the great double 
Buttes des Morts trail. ^ From Knaggsville (now the Algoma 
district of Oshkosh) they followed the trail southwest until they 
reached the place where it ran a mile or two south of Green 
Lake. There they remained some weeks exploring. Both 
picked out land that they approved. 

Father chose an eighty-acre tract half a mile south from Green 
Lake Sandstone Bluff, on a little stream that ran in from Twin 
Lakes, just east of Spring Lake. The stream was much larger 
then than now. The lakes have receded, and the outlet is now 
nearly dry. Father and Beall went entirely around the lake, 
exploring with a view to settlements. There were no settlers 

3 Mr. Dart says that the rank and file of the Winnebago knew 
nothing of this government purchase. It was effected by agency men. 
who got the chiefs drunk and secured the cession papers. The gov- 
ernment paid no principal, but ninety-nine years' interest with no 
entail to the Indian's family or children .after his death. The rate 
of interest was small, and mostly eaten up in advance through the 
Indians getting trusted at Fort Winnebago agency for adulterated 
and poisonous whiskey. Mr. Dart considers that the Indians were 
badly treated by rascally traders and agents. — S. T. K. 

* The big Butte des Morts trail ran from Green Bay along the 
northwest bank of Fox River to Knaggsville (now the Algoma dis- 
trict of O.shkosh). thence southwest past the site of Ripon; thence 
westerly to Marquette, the seat of Marquette County; thence to Fort 
Winnebago, at Portage. There were no settlers in the Ripon or 
Green Lake region as yet. One branch of the trail struck off to 
Powell's siM-jng and Le Roy's plantation. 

Dr. H. L. Barnes of Ripon says that the trail crossed his father's 
farm, nov.- owned by Almon Bradley, three miles northwest of Mark- 
esan. Thence it went over tho hill, past the old Wbittier place; it 
then passed near Satterlce Clark's, and across to Deacon Staple's 
farm on Grand Prairie. A son of John S. Horner recollects that this 
trail passed by the Steele and Foltz farm and kept near the timber 
line along the cdire of the prairie, and that Satterlee Clark lived 
nearly a half mile north. — S. T. K. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

there as yet, only wigwams of the AViniiehago grouped or scat- 
tered round the h^ke. There was no timber there then, but oak 
and clay openings, with Green Lake prairie to the south.^ 


On returning to Green Bay, my father and brothers bought a 
large, wide skifip, something like a Durham boat, big enough to 
hold a ton of merchandise. This we loaded Avith provisions and 
supplies, and my father, my two brothers, Putnam and Charles, 
and myself, then a boy of twelve, started up Fox Kiver. AYe 
worked our way slowly, rowing, poling, or towing by line. It 
was hard work because of the rapids. At the little and great 
Kakalin or Chutes,'' the government had military stations, 
equipped Avith wide-wheeled, low carts, supplied with tackle; 
and, for a consideration, they hauled up boat, load and all, 
around the rapids. 

Fox Kiver was then a rushing, broad stream, a third larger 
than it is now. Besides the hard work it Avas t lonely trip, for 
we could not talk ^Menominee — that was the tribe then most 
prevalent on the lower Fox — nor could the Indians talk English. 
We saw their large bark-covered houses made of peeled oak 
bark hung over poles, placed between crotched posts. ]Many of 
them had seen but few Americans before. 

We had neither map nor guide, and the river was so Avinding 
that it Avas all guess-work as to Avhen aa'c should meet the Green 
Lake outlet. noAv called tlie Puckayan. We supposed it Avould 
be the first stream met after passing Lake Winnebago. So up 
that stream Ave started. The Avater began to groAv bad-colored, 
but AA-e kept on. The stream grew smaller and smaller and 
clogged Avith reeds. Logs fallen across it had to be sawed off. 
Progress Avas painfully slow. The third daj- from its mouth, Ave 
came out into Rush Lake. shalloAv and nuTddy, lined Avith broad 
marshes. AVe Avere forty rods from dry ground, with mud all 
around. AVe had to get out into the mud, unload Avhat camp 
outfit we needed for the night, and Avade through the mud and 

•'■' Mr. Dart was not personally i)reseut on this first exploring trip, 
but has heard his father describe it. — S. T. K. 
Now Kaulvauna and Little Chutes. — S. T. K. 

[ 254 ] 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

marsh to a place dry enough for a carnp. Swarms of mosquitoes 
and deertiies were eating our life out. We saw flocks of ducks 
and prairie chickens. The Indians were at that time nearly all 
away fi-om this their popular resort. We were very tired, but 
there was nothing to do in the morning but take our stuff back 
to the boat, turn round as best we could, and pole our way back 
to the Fox. 

We had no further mishaps, and when we actually saw the 
Green I.ake outlet there was no doubt of it. Its stream of pure, 
bright spring water shot clear across the river. We knew then 
that we were all right. 

It took us two days to wind up through the marshes to Green 
Lake. The last night we camped opposite the present Dartford 
boat-landing, where the road-bridge crosses toward Sherwood 
Forest resort. It was then surrounded with alders and marslies, 
and we did not know, that beautiful June night (June 11, 1810), 
that we were so near the lake. When we passed out from the 
thickets into Green Lake," the next morning, we shouted with 

There was at this time no heavy timber around the lake, ex- 
cept at the foot, in the marshes — only what were called "clay 
openings." burned over each autumn by the prairie fires. Com- 
ing up the crooked outlet, we had in one place gone around over 
a mile, by measure, to reach a place only a few rods from our 
former ])osition. whereas we could have pulled our boat across 
the marsh and saved time. Rattlesnakes were plentiful; marshes 
were on both sides, most of the way up ; deer-flies and mosqui- 
toes made us perfectly wretched. 

We soon crossed the lake and reached our land, of which my 
father recognized the quarter-section corner. AVe lugged our 
stuff up by hand from the lake, erected a shanty for shelter, and 
at once went to work to build a plank house. We split and 
hewed white oak planks, about two inches thick by six feet long, 
and set them upright, two lengths end-to-end twelve fiH't high, 
held together by grooved girts or sti-iiigers. We used poles for 
rafters and "shakes'* for shingl(\s, the latter shaved out of green 

T The Indians always used the French appellation for both small 
and large Green Lake, calling them respectively Petit Lnr y>'rd and 
Grand Lac Tcrd. We could never get them to use any other name, 
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oak. We built a large fire-place, and a stick-chimney plastered 
with yellow clay. The roof was fastened on with tacked cross- 

This house, of two rooms and a little attic, stood half a mile 
south of Sand Bluff. We kept our boat secure from the wash 
of the waves, either in the bay west of Sand Bluff or at the Cove 
where the Spring Grove resort now is, three miles below. The 
building was not all finished at once, but by slow degrees. We 
had in stock two barrels of flour, one barrel of pork, four bar- 
rels of potatoes, a few groceries, and $4 in money. We also had 
salt, pepper, Indian (or maple) sugar, but no butter or delica- 
cies. We soon got out of salt and other things, and to restock 
meant a journey to Green Bay. We were thirty miles from any 
other Amei-icans, the nearest settler of our nationality being at 
Fond du Lac. 

Winnebago Indians, who were then being collected at Portage 
for transportation, were plentiful, but our only civilized neigh- 
bor was Pete Le Roy.^ We got him and his ox-team to come 
over that month and break up for us a half acre that had been 
cleared by the boys, and in which we planted yellow corn. 

There being no mill, we made a huge mortar by boring out a 
hard, white-oak log, and, with a heavy hickory pestle, v,-e ground 
our eoi-n. As the mortar held but two quarts, it was only by 
rising at four o'clock that we could get enough meal pounded 
for a breakfast Johnnie-cake. The coarser part we boiled as 
samp, for dinner, and had eornmeal fried for supper, with 
neither milk nor butter. 

We had to pay $100 apiece for our first yoke of oxen, and $100 
for our first cow; that is, in \vork, for we had no money. The 
cow we bought from Fox Lake, the oxen of our neighbor, Pete 

8 Pete (probably Pierro) Le Roy was a half-breed trader-farmer, 
whose plantation lay four or five miles south of us, th'ree miles due 
south of where the Centre House now stands. Le Roy had a big 
spring on his place, the source of a creek t*hat bears his name. He 
was a son of the Le Roy at the Portage, mentioned in Wis. Hist. CoUs., 
vii, pp. 346. 360; see also .Mrs. Kinzie. Waubun. for whom Pierre Roy 
acted as guide in IS.''.!. He was in Pauquette's employ, and moved 
on as the country settled. One of his daughters, a pretty girl, went 
insane, to Le Roy's great grief. 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

Le Roy, wlio was a kind-liearted man and allowed ns to split 
rails for him, in payment. That was all the stock we had the 
first year. 


In the antumn, father and I started with two yoke of oxen, 
along the militarA- road east of Lake AYinnehago, to go to Green 
Bay for mother and my sisters.^ They had come to Buffalo by 
the Erie canal, thence to ^Mackinac in the steamer "Consola- 
tion," and ^rom there in a schooner to the Bay. The vessel was 
becalmed among the Manitou Islands, and was a fortnight late 
in reaching its destination. 

AThile father and I were gone, the other boys stayed alone. 
Only two sides of the house Avere finished, and a few roughly- 
hev.-n boards constituted the floor. Soon Le Roy came over, con- 
siderably excited, and said, '"You must come over and stay with 
me; a big panther has been seen — two of them, in fact, near the 
lake. They'll come and kill you, if you stay here." These 
beasts had afready been heard snarling at night — great fellows, 
nearly as big as a yearling calf. The boys told him that, hav- 
ing dra^ATi up their bunk, witli ropes, to the foot of the rafters, 
they thought they would be safe. He urged strongly, but they 
didn't go with him. for it was the time when yellow corn was 
ready for roasting. 

One evening, when the boys sat about, toasting corn, they 
heard the bushes crack. 

"What's that?" 

"Can't tbink, unless one of Le Roy's cattle has strayed 

But that could scarcely be, for his place was four miles off. 
Then they heard a strange whine — almost a scream. The ani- 
mal was walking around them. Then came a tremendous 
screech. It was the panther. They were scared enough, for 
they had no guns. The beast soon started off on the trail to- 
ward Le Roy's. Each boy grabbed a blazing brand from the 
corn-fire and started for the slianty, whirling tho brands round 
his head. Father was gone two weeks, and the boys were well- 

9 These sisters became Mrs. Mary Keene of Newark, N. J., and Mrs. 
Elizabetli Johii'^on of Minuesota. 

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seared during that time nnd didn't sleep verj' weU. The 
panthers came round, off and on, for a month and a half, but 
never molested us. Finally the Indians came over and shot 
them both. They were the only pair that had visited that neigh- 
borhood for years. 

Pioneer Hardships 

When mother came, only two sides of the house were up. 
One side was partly open the first ^\'inter, except for a carpet 
"hung up. Wolves and other wild animals would come and peer 
through the cracks at the firelight. Sometimes the stick chim- 
ney caught fire, and to prevent this occurring too frequently we 
had to keep it well plastered over with clay. 

Even after the house was finished it was very cold, for the 
joints were not tight. We tried to plaster up the cracks with 
white marl, but when dry this came crumbling off. Sometimes 
we used old newspapers, as far as we had any, to paste over the 
cracks. While we had no thermometer to measure the cold, I 
am sure that the winter of 1843-44 was the worst we ever ex- 

Very early that season, two and a half feet of snow fell. 
Then came a January thaw, followed by fine weather, like In- 
dian summer. Then more snow came; and clear cold weather 
with sharp, cutting winds. :\Iany wild animals were starved 
and frozen, and it was known in pioneer annals as the "great 
bitter winter." To add to the strangeness of it all, there wns 
Been in the west a great comet, whose tail seemed to touch the 
ground. We nearly froze in our rudely-built house, for we had 
no stove— only a big fire-place, where in twenty-four hours we 
would sometimes burn two cords of four-foot wood. It took 
hard work for the boys just to keep the fires going. Nor did we 
always have enough food: again and again I have seen my 
mother sit down at the tal)]e and eat nothing, since there was not 
enough to go around. 

Our house was built ^nthout a stick of anything but green oak, 
but we needed some sawed pin<^ lumber for finishincr. In the 
second year, we got enough money together to buy a little lum- 
ber. Then we borrowed an old watron and a yoke of oxen from 
Pete Le Roy, and George, my oldest brotlier. started with the 
outfit for Green P.ay. He arrived safely, got a jag of lumber 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

and a few groceries, and started home by the military' road, east 
of Lake Winnebago. On the return, the oxen gave out from ex- 
haustion, soniewliere between Taveheedah and Fond du Lac. 
George camped on the spot, among the prairie-wolves, until 
morning, but rest had not relieved the beasts.^" So, reluctantly, 
he left the wagon and the load by the lake-shore, and got the 
animals home as best he could. 

After almost a week at home, they revived, and then George 
went l^ack after his load. But when he reached the place where 
it had been abandoned, there was nothing left but the wagon- 
irons. The prairie fires had run through and burned out the 
countrj" for twenty miles each wa.y.^^ What could be done? 
We had lost the lumber, and the wagon was borrowed. As cus- 
tomary in those days, my brother had brought an axe with him; 
so he cut a timber crotch, bound stakes across, with withes tied 
on the burned wagon irons, and set out for home. It took a day 
and a half to drag the crotch and the load to our home. Father 
being a mechanical genius and a mill-wright,^- went resolutely 
to Avork, and hewed out a rough wagon of green oak, seasoned in 
hot ashes. It took a month or two to finish this rude cart, but 
at last it was done, and dear old Le Roy was satisfied. 

All the while, we were clearing and breaking land. It was 

10 The only settler in this region was Dr. IMason C. Darling, whose 
cabin at Fond du Lac stood on the river near the post-office site; 
later, he lived where Darling's block stood, on the corner of First and 
Main streets. 

11 Every fall we had to burn round everything — house, sheds, and 
stacks — to save them from these fires that annually swept the prairies. 

1- My father, Anson Dart, was born March 6, 1797, in Brattleboro. 
Vermont. Gaining some knowledge of drugs, he became a druggist in 
New York city, where he imported from France the first ounce of qui- 
nine brought to America. Later he removed to Oneida County, New 
York, and became a miller, haring a large mill at the town of Delta. 
Afterwards he lived awhile in Utica, being constructive superintendent 
of the asylum at that place, lie came West in lS3o-36 ard made in- 
vestments in Milwaukee, and also in pine lands, but lost them all in 
speculation. Daniel Whitney of Green Bay once offered the company 
■my father represented, $100,000 for their pine lands, but father laughed 
at the offer. Tn the reverses of 1S37 he was ruined, and finally took 
up land in Green Lake County, as herein narrated. 

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thin and poor in the clay openings, and as yet we did not know 
how to farm to advantage. Father used to repair grist-mills 
and sawmills as far off as Watertown, leaving us boys to run 
the farm. Finally we got enough money together to go up on 
the prairie and buy a "forty" of better land, with richer soil. 

Fatlier built a grist-mill for Samuel Beall in 1843-44. It 
stood where there is stillto be seen a remnant of an old dam on 
the south side of Green Lake, three-fourths of a mile south from 
Sand Bluff. Father ran this mill for two years ; then the little 
lakes^^ began to dry up, the water gave out, the mill-site was 
abandoned, and the mill pulled down and carried off. ^My uncle, 
Mr. Catlin,^-' came from Delta, Oneida County, New York, in 
1843 and v>as father's miller while he ran the Beall mill. 

Game • 

In the early years of our coming to Green Lake, there was 
plenty of small game— ducks, pigeons, and prairie-chickens. 
Deer were plentiful, except when they went south in winter to 
escape the cold. There were likewise wild turkeys and plenty 
of geese. Elk and moose were found upon Willow River, and 
occasionally around Green Lake. Shed elk and moose horns 
were then often found here ; some weighed from sixty to seventy 
pounds. AVe saw no buffalo, but their wallows and chips and 
horns were visible, and seemed recent. Le Roy said that he had 
seen these prairies black with buffalo. The ellv and moose soon 
went north, or disappeared. In cold, dreary winters, game was 

Green Lake was much resorted to by Indians, but Lakes Rush 
and Puckaway more so, because of the abundance of wild rice, 
ducks, and fish. In winter, when these lakes had frozen over, 
and Green was still open, the latter would be visited by innnense 
flocks of big mallards. 

In tracking game, the Indians relied on stealth and skill, 
ratlior than marksmanship. They were generally indifferent 

13 Old residents say that Twin Lalces were practically one in the 
early day. so were considerably larger than at present. 

y* He came all the way from New York by wagon, and it took him 
from spiing to autumn to come through. 


Settlement of Green Lake County 

shots, and had very poor "agency" guns. But tliey stole noise- 
lessly upon their game, made no noise when they walked, and 
displayed remarkable sagacity in getting close to their prey un- 
awares. They took no chances with dangerous game ; many of 
them would shoot at the same animal simultaneously, to make 

One afternoon, late in the season, we saw a lonely deer stalk 
past our camp, and down the lake valley, where we lost sight of 
him. That evening, an Indian came along. We told him of the 

He said, "I get him." 

"Oh," we said, "you can't. He's far away by this time." 

"Yes," he replied, "I get him tomorrow," and he lay down 
near our camp to sleep. 

We laughed at him, but he was as good as his word. Eising 
early, he did not follow the track of the deer, but started across- 
lots, down the valley, and got around the animal, which, as he 
anticipated, had, after a long journey, laid down tired, for a 
night's rest. The Indian shot him, almost before he waked. 
We boys followed the trail closely, next day, and proved that it 
was the same animal we had seen. 

Prairie Flowers 

I wish I could adequately describe the prairie flowers. Every 
month during spring and summer they grew in endless variety — 
such fields (»f changing beauty, I never saw before. It was a 
flower-garden everywhere. You could gather a bouquet any 
time, that couldn't be equalled in any greenhouse of New York 
or Chicago. There were double lady-slippers, shooting-stars, 
field-lilies, etc., etc. Some of them still linger beside the rail- 
way tracks. We tried over and over to transplant them, but 
only the shooting-stars would stand the change. There was also 
the tea-plant, whose leaves we dried for tea. When in blossom, 
the oak and clay openings, for miles around, were white with it, 
like buckwheat. We also had splendid wild honey from the 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Strawberry Story 

Gov. John S. Horner^^ had entered land \Yhere Kipon now 
stands, along Silver Creek and Gothic mill-pond. He wrote to 
father to take the earliest chance to go do\Mi and look over hia 
valuable water-power. So four of us went in June, 1S43, to the 
place where the old stone mill in Ripon afterwards stood, and 
viewed the land and stream. It was just at the crossing of the 
Big Buttes des I\Iorts trail — but we looked at the water-power 
and laughed. 

Coming back, we were skirting along the big marsh by the 
Dakin place, in Green Lake township, wlj.en a deer jumped out. 
We let him have two barrels of buck-shot, but he gave no sign 
of being wounded — simply stopped and looked back. My 
brother then shot him through the heart with a rifle, and taking 
his hams over our shoulders, we went on. 

"We were coming up near where you go down Scott Hill, by a 
thicket on the prairie, about the site of the old Bailey farm, 
when we snuffed a delightful odor — the smell of ripe straw- 
berries. We followed it up and found a place as big as an 
eighty-acre lot. that had been burned over, all covered with ripe 
wild strawberries as big as any tame ones you ever saw, and so 
thick that you could not lay your liand down without crushing 
berries. The ground was red with them, bushels and bushels 
for the picking. "We carried home our handkerchiefs full, also 
everything else we had to hold them. 

The next daj' we took the ox-team, laden with pails, pans, 
wash-tubs. etc. — everything that we had. to carry things — and 
the whole family went over. Whenever we had picked a lot, we 
went over to the shade of some plum-trees and hulled the berries, 
so as to take home the more. We filled all our dishes, but ex- 
actlj' what to do with them we scarceh' knew. We had no sugar, 
save maple made by Indians, and this was very dirty. The 
natives used to pack this sugar in large baskets of birch-bark, 
and sell it. 

How to dispose of the berries was a practical qu'^stion; but 
when we reached home we were glad to fmd guests — David Jones 

J'Por a biographical sketch of .John Scott Horner, see Wis. Hist. 
Soc. rrocccdings. 1003, pp. 214-226. — Ed. 
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Settlement of Green Lake County 

and Richard xVrndt from Green Bay, "who had come doA\'n to pros- 
pect. TVe therefore hung the berries up in a large linen bag, 
half a bnshel at a time, and squeezing out the juice, treated our 
friends to strawberry nectar, which was certainly a drink fit for 
gentlemen. "We improved this strawberry patch for one or two 
years, but at last the wild grass ran them out. 

Indian Visitors 

During our first years on Green Lake our most frequent visit- 
ors were Indians, usually of the "Winnebago tribe. They would 
stalk up to the window and peer in, or open the door without 
knocking. One midsummer day in 1842, while we were eating 
dinner, there was a rap at the door, which Ave opened. There 
stood a stalwart, richly-dressed Indian whom we did not know. 
He had no gun, his only weapon being a long lance whose shaft 
was decorated with three white eagle feathers, tied on with deer- 
sinew. It was the symbol of his rank, but we did not know this. 
"We shook hands, and he asked whether we could give him some 
dinner. "We welcomed him to our modest feast, as we usually 
did such callers, and found that he talked English quite as well 
as we did. 

After eating, he said: "I'm astojiished to find you here. No 
white man was ever seen here before. I wonder that you are 
alone. I shouldn't have found you now; only, as I passed up the 
trail [from Green Bay to Portage] I saw a wagon-track crossing 
it and coming this way. This excited my curiosity. I followed 
it, and found your house. ' ' 

He asked many intelligent questions, and we also questioned 
him. He said that he would like to have a long talk with us, 
but must go, for he had to reach Portage that night. We 
thought it useless for him to try to do so, and vainly urged him 
to stay. "VSHiile we saw him to be very intelligent and bright, he 
had not told us who he was. 

"How much shall I pay for my dinner?" he asked. 

"Nothing. You are welcome." 

"But," he replied, "I always pay for ray dinner." 

'VN'^e still declined anything, whereupon he took out a fine buck- 
skin pouch, well-filled with shining half-dollar.s — thirty or so, I 

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shoulfl think. Taking one out and plaj-ing with it for a few 
minutes, lie then tossed it to my little sister. 

**T don't want to be bragging of who I am," he said on leav- 
ing; "but you have treated me kindly, and it is fair for you to 
know that I am Dandy, chief of the "Winnebago.^*^ I thank 

It was the first and last time that we ever saw hira. He 
started back toward the trail, and soon passed out of sight. He 
was a splendid fellow, and it seems had, at the risk of his life, 
come back on a secret visit from the reservation at Turkey River, 
Iowa, to transact business for his tribe at Green Bay. 

Captain Marston's Story 

Captain ]\Iarston, army officer at Portage, in thp 40 's, told us 
the following story of Dandy, whom he greatly admired, and 
vouched for its accuracy. 

Dandy had been back from Turkey River, Iowa, several times 
-without leave. He was forbidden by the federal government to 
visit Wisconsin, but insisted on coming when he chose. 

Marston said to Dandy, one day, "Dandy, you are back here 
again against orders. I threatened you before with punishment, 
and here you are again." 

Dandy answered, "Captain ]\Iarston, it was necessary for me 
to come for my tribe 's sake. I told you what to expect. I could 
not do anything different. I shall certainly come again if busi- 
ness for my tribe makes it necessary. ' ' 

Marston replied, "Very well. I will tell you what to expect, 
and I shall do as I say. ]Mark my words. If I catch you back 
again in Wisconsin without my permission, I will hang you up 
at the flag-staff yard in Fort Winnebago." 

Dandy said: "You can't scare me a bit, Captain Marston. 

18 Mr. Dart says: "Dandy was about twenty-five years old in 1840, 
■was then head chief of the Winnebago, at the time of the deportation, 
and one of the brightest, finest looking young men I ever saw." This 
does not comport with Moses Pnquette's statement that Dandy was 
about seventy in 1848, "a small thin man, of rather insignificant ap- 
pearance." See Wis. Ifist. Colls., xii, p. 409; but see also Id., vii, 
p. 365.— Ed. 

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Settlement of Green Lake County 

]\Iy business here concerns the interests of my tribe. I shall do 
what I think is needful." 

Captain ]\Iarston was angiy, but they parted without further 
words. Some two months passed, when one day a runner came 
up the Wisconsin river from below, in a dugout, and reported to 
the captain, "Dandy is down the river, about six miles." 

* ' What ! Dandy, the Winnebago Chief ? " 


"I can hardly believe it," said Marston, "he wouldn't dare 
come. He isn't the man to do that, after what I told him when 
he was here last." 

"Well," said the runner, "come with me and I'll show him to 
you, or show you where I saw him — beside a big thicket, sitting 
on a log, smoking his pipe." 

Marston hastily mustered a well-armed squad of about twelve 
soldiers, and went do\ra the river with the spy until they came 
to the thicket. At first. Dandy was not to be seen ; but hardly 
had they fastened their horses for further search, for the thicket 
was dense and several acres in width, when Dandy appeared, 
calmly sat do\\'n on a log and began to smoke. 

"Dandy, I'm surprised. Why are you here again?" said 
I\Iarston. "You know what I said I would do, if you returned. 
I shall keep my word. ' ' 

At the same time he signalled to his armed men to advance 
around him, which they did. Dandy sat complacently on the 
log and quietly knocked the ashes out of his pipe. He only said, 
"Captain ^Marston, I told you I should come and why I should 
come. You hurt my feelings and do me wrong by treating me 
so. I am here because it is necessary', and I do no one harm." 

Marston answered, "Well, you know what to expect. I shall 
have to do as I said, and make you an example." 

"Very well," said Dandy, "you see I am here, and in your 

]\Iar.ston tiicn replied, "If you've got a pony here, get him and 
come with ns. Our guns cover you, and you are in our power. 
It is useless fcir you to try to get away. If you try, you will be 
shot. You must go back to the fort with us." 

Dandy said, "Follow me where my pony is;" and he pushed 
calmly back into the thicket, the .soldiers following closely, with 
guns ready to fire. In this manner they penetrated the thicket 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

for some thirty or forty rods. ^Marston, growing a bit suspicious, 
■stopped theiu and asked, "Dandy, where is your horse?" 

"Riglit here. I didn't bring him outside, for fear he would 
get hurt." 

"Well, be quick, for I'm going to take you back to the fort 
and hang you. You are my prisoner." 

"Do you realize wliat you "will come to. if you insist on this?" 

"You see my twelve men surrounding you. They mean busi- 
ness, and will shoot if you don't hurry. You can't get away." 

Just then Dandy jumped up on a log, pulled out an Indian 
whistle, and blew a shrill call. In an instant, fifty Indian war- 
riors jumped into view from a thick brush, each buck with a. 
rifle aimed at Marston's little body of men. There was a mo- 
ment of silence. 

"Now," said Dandy, with a faint smile upon his lips, "if I 
blow this whistle again, every man you've got is a dead man. 
"Will you take Dandy back to the fort, before he is ready to go, 
or not?" 

Whereupon jMarston, seeing his plight, answered, "Well, I 
see you have caught me in a clever ambush." 

The chief replied, "I won't injure a hair of your head, or 
any of your men, Captain ]Marston, unless you oblige me to." 
Upon his signal, ever>' Indian rifle dropped. "Now, Marston, 
take your choice. I was your friend. I never ^^Tonged you. 
You distrusted me, hurt my feelings, and forbade me to do my 
duty to my people. I have showed you what I can do." 

In silence, Marston and his men turned from the thicket and 
retreated up the river to their fort. 

Big Soldier 

Big Soldier, who in 1840 was fifty years old. was a subordinate 
chief, or captain, of the Winnebago. He was the first Indian 
we saw at our house, and one of our best friends. Strictly 
honest, and always ready to do anything for us, he slept in our 
house at times and we in his wigwam. lie became verv- im- 
portant to our in getting along. He told us ours was 
the first white man's boat he ever saw cross Green Lake. 

He got the name of "Big Soldier" in the summer of 1840, 
when Col. William J. Worth was rounding up the Winnebago 
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Settlement of Green Lake County 

and bringing them into Portage. He was there with his band, 
good-natured, talkative, and a great favorite with the soldiers; 
Naturally a clean and Indian, he was fond of finery and 
of white men's ways, and greatly admired Colonel Worth's 
regimentals. One day he asked Worth if he couldn't put them 
on and wear them awhile, around the fort. For fun, Worth 

"Yes," he said, "wear 'em every day if you want to." 
So the Indian fixed himself up, oiled his hair, put on Worth's 
uniform, and very proudly strutted about in Uncle Sam's regi- 
mentals, drawing himself up to full height and grunting out, 
"Heap big soldier!" He did it so grandly that it brought 
do\\Ti the garrison, and they always, afterward, called him "Big 

Big Soldier hated the Iowa reservation and wouldn't draw his 
pay out there. He preferred to get his living as he could pick 
it up, back here in Wisconsin, where he was born. When he 
went away he had to hide his ponies to save them. We used to 
keep them for him in our pasture. 

Indian Mounds 

We learned to talk the Winnebago dialect, and used to ask Big 
Soldier what the Indian mounds were, and what they were for. 
He had but one answer, "Winter wigwams." 

"What do you mean?" 

"AVliy, places rounded up high to camp on in winter, where 
the v.-atur will easily run oft"." 

There were trees on some of these mounds, a foot and a half 
in diameter, yet he always said "winter wigwams." We plowed 
up in our fields white flint arrowheads and pieces of pottery, 
which were .just as great a curiosity to him as to us. His tribe 
had no such white flints or pottery. He explained the irregular, 
effigy-moimds, as having been l)uilt so as to run tlieir wigwams 
off on arms, and not have them on one line, but in various 
groups. There is no doubt that the modern Indians so used 
these mounds, and thoy seemed to know of no other use or origin. 
Still, some of tlii'ui did contain burial places. 

The Winnebaizo tisi-d to make small mounds to preserve their 
provisions. AVIkmi |)lcntii'ul. tlipy drii^d flsh in the sun till tliey 
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were dry as powder, tlien put them in big puekawa sacks. The 
squaws also picked up bushels of acorns. In deep holes, below 
frost-line, they would bury their fish and acorns together, 
twenty bushels or so in a place, and cover them over with a 
mound of earth. When the deer had gone south, and game was 
scarce — they dared not cross the river into the timber, for fear 
of trouble with the ^Menominee — they would come and camp on 
these mounds^' and dig up tish and acorns for their winter food, 
and live on this provender until spring opened or game ap- 
peared. It was hard work making such caches, with the tools 
that they had. 

Indian Deportation 

My father's brother, Oliver Dart, came to Green Lake two 
years after we did (1842). One day he took several of us with 
him and walked over to Portage to see the Winnebago being 
gathered in to be sent oft' to Turkey Eiver, Iowa. This was 
their second removal. Colonel Worth's regiment, that had cut 
the military road from Calumet to Fond du Lac, was entrusted 
with the work of rounding the Indians up at Fort AVinnebago. 
They were greatly distressed to know that they were to be de- 
ported. Some would lie down on the bank of the river, break 
down and cry like children, and would beg the soldiers to bayo- 
net them rather than drive them from their homes. Bad whis- 
key had been their curse. We traded more or less with them 
and sometimes one would say he had nothing to sell, but finally 
would bring out from concealment a fine, big buckskin of three 
pounds' weight, worth $3, and oft'er it for whiskey. We never 
let them have it, but they could always get it at the Portage. 


Besides Le Roy there had hcvn a half-breed in our vicinity, 
undoubtedly the civilized settler of the present town of 
Green Lake. This was James Powell, who had IGO acres under 
cultivation as early as 1835 or 1836, near the present ^MitchcU's 
Glen. l*art of his land was afterwards occui)ied by A. Long. 

1" Remnants of such mounds are still visible on low ground back 
of the residence of S. D. Mitchell, near Green Lake. — S. T. K. 

[ 2GS ] 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

There was a fine spring on the place, since knoAVTi as Powell's 
Spring. This great spring and the green-turfed clearing where 
his plantation stood, are still visible ; he had a rail fence around 
his place, which was near the Grand Buttes des Morts trail. 
He was a powerful man, and besides a double log-house had a 
blacksmith shop, and was one of Pierre Paquette's traders, as 
was Gleason at Puekaway Lake. He Avas drunken, ugly, and 
quarrelsome, and greatly disliked by the Indians, who drove him 
off about a year or two before we came.^* 

The Counterfeiters 

About twenty rods down a ravine that runs from the north 
side of Little Green Lake, tliere was a cave, or excavation. Cut 
into its side was a crudely-made door, well hidden. This door 
was down when we come, and within the hole we found a com- 
plete counterfeiter's outfit, forge and all. It was for the manu- 
facture of spurious half-dollars, and may have been worked ten 
years or more. Le Roy told us that there were six or eight of 
the fellows, and they brought in their supplies and did their 
work by night. The forgers were not readily caught, because 
they never spent their bad money where it was made. The 
smoke of their fire came up as much as four rods from their cav- 
ern or shanty, in the middle of a very large old stump, around 
which sprouts had gro\\Ti up, so that it was perfectly concealed. 

These half-dollars would get out at Green Bay, and the In- 
dians would receive them in their trading change. The authori- 
ties did not know wliere to look for their source. They had 
first-class Indian hunters and hounds on their track long l)efore 

18 Henry Burling, now of Ripen, says that in his boyhood be uu 
derstood that Powell was mysteriously shot or burned in his shanty, 
and that what was said to be his grave was on his father's farm near 
Twin Lakes, and that for years his father plowed around the grave 
and kept it marked, but that later it was plowed under. Richard 
Dart thinks this was a mistake, and that Powell left the country. He 
would seem to be the same, trader spoken of as William Powell, who 
was present at the Portage when Pierre Paquette was shot; see Wis. 
Hist. Colls., vii, pp. 357. 387. 3S8. Probably he was a half-breed son 
of Peter Powell, a British trader in Wisconsin in the early part of thQ 
ISth century. — Ed. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

they were caught, wiiieh was about two years before we came. 
We never knew who they were, nor what became of them. 

First Settlers 

Wncn we came from Green Bay in 1840, the trader James 
Knaggs was at Oshkosh, and there were a few settlers at Fond 
du Lac, and scattered about on isolated farrasteads.^^ Waupun 
and Watertown were but just begun. 

I liave heard my father tell of his first trip to ^Milwaukee, 
through the woods. He borrowed an old horse from Le Ro}^ and 
followed an Indian trail past Beaver Dam and through the 
Waterto\Mi woods. He had nearly reached the latter settle- 
ment on Rock River, when about sundown he came to a little 
shanty and clearing, and found there a sawmill with a per- 
pendicular saw. The proprietor was Pete Rogan, who offered 
him the mill-plant at a nominal sum, saying that he was land 
poor and wanted to get away. Father did not accept this offer, 
but was afterwards sorry that he did not. 

The first election in ^Marquette County was held in the autumn 
of 1842 at our plank house, south of Green Lake. There were 
present Anson Dart, his sons George and Putnam, Pete Le Roy 
and his son, and "William Bazele^', tenant on Beall's place. 
These con.stituted the entire polling-list.-° 

After the failure of Beall's mill on Twin Lake Creek, father 
built in 184G on his own account another sa^^^nill, where Dart- 
ford now stands. Smith Fowler, a half-breed from Stockbridge. 
and I helped build the dam for this mill, going back and forth 
daily across the lake in a scow. We built a crib for the dam, 
and carried bouldors in the scow, with which to sink it. Some 
relics of this mill still remain at Dartford. 

The same vear. mv father sold his farm, increased bv that time 

i»The Pier family came to Fond du Lac in 1S36-37, anJ John Ban- 
nister and Mason C. Darling in 1S38. The following year, Reuben 
Simmons built the first house at Taycheedah. Francis D. McCarty 
came the same season. Meanwhile Vwiupun had been begun by Sey- 
mour Wilcox, and the De Xeveus were at the lake in Empire town- 
ship that is called by their name. — S. T. K. 

•'^3. H. Colton, Western Guide, or Kmigrarit's Guide. (N. Y., 1S45), 
gives Marquette County in 1S40 a population of eighteen. — Ed. 

Settlement of Green Lake County 

to 200 acres, to a man cominrr in from the South, Lowther Tay- 
lor by name. He received $12 an acre, a price that could not 
have been obtained again for thirty years. 

After the sale of the farm, our family went over to Dartford 
to live. "We were thus among the pioneers of the place that was 
named for my father. In addition to the sawmill, he built a 
grist-mill in 1850, and took in John Sherwood as partner. 

Early Politics 

Father was a Whig in politics, and was defeated in an elec- 
tion for state senator by ]Mason C. Darling of Fond du Lac, who 
was of Democratic proclivities. Sometime about ]S46 or 1847, 
ex-Governor Horner sent word up the trail to father, that Dr. 
Darling was getting a bill through the legislature setting over a 
tier of three towns — the best in ^Marquette — into Fond du Lac 
County. Horner desired father to go dovra to ]\Iadison and de- 
feat the scheme if possible. Father was interested at once, as 
he was then locating a county seat for Marciuette. He started 
for Madison and walked nearly all the way. Upon reaching the 
capital he found Horner's rumor a fact, and in the legislature 
four Democrats to every Whig. He knew but few of the legis- 
lators and everything seemed against him. He went to work, 
however, interviewing and persuading, and succeeded in defeat- 
ing Darling's scheme in the house; but it was carried in the 
senate. The next year the bill came up again and was carried, 
taking off what are now Ripon, ]\Ietomen, and Alto townships 
from ]\Iarquette.-^ 

In 1S4S father threw himself with ardor into the presidential 
campaign, and upon the success of the AVhigs received in 1851 
the appointment of superintendent of Indian affairs in Oregon, 
with a salary of $8 per day. Just about this. time the village of 
Dartford was formed and named for him. A hn\yer named 
Hamilton was so angry upon learning of tlie new enterprise, 
that he went down to IMadison and got the name changed to 

-1 These three townships, 16-lS of range xiv east, were by the first 
territorial division in 1S36 assigned, through an inadvertence, both 
to Marquette and Fond du Lac counties. By act of March 6, 1848, 
they were declared part of the latter county. — Ed. 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

Arcade; but the townspeople hearing of it in time, sent a dele- 
gation to preserve the name Dartford. 

T'atlier took my second brother. Putnam," with him to Ore- 
gon as his private secretary, and another brother to help him. 
They each had to pay $700 for fare from New York to San 
Francisco, by way of the Isthmus of Panama. ^Mother, my two 
sisters, one brother and I lived on at Dartford, but father never 
came back there to live. lie had various political appointments, 
and after coming back from Oregon was in Europe for two 
years. He died August 12, 1879, at Washington, D. C. 

Mother and I were finally the only ones of the family left at 
Dartford, and she later went back to Williamsport, Pennsyl- 
vania, where she died at the age of sixty-eight. Of the fifteen 
or twenty early pioneers of Dartford, all of whom were our 
friends, -not one is now living at that place. 

22 The only schooling my brother Putnam had was four or five years 
in a district school in New York, before we came to Wisconsin. So 
he took what books could be had. and educated himself. Nisht after 
night, after a hard day's work in the field or mill, he would sit by 
the fireplace with his book, sometimes until midnight. He thus be- 
came able to carry on all of father's correspondence as Indian com- 

[ 272 ] 

n^ Ml 


t / 5. K-1 



'Ali'^'"' s6«^^ 


Oi,[) Rf.i) Pai'ku Mir.i., XtEXAii 
Reproduced from cut in Cunningham's History of Xi'cnali (1S78) 

Paper-Making in Wisconsin 

Paper-Making in Wisconsin 

By Publlus V. Lawson 

The first mill known to have been built in Wisconsin for the 
manufacture of paper, was erected in 1848 at Milwaukee, on the 
north side of ]Menomonee River, about a block west of West' 
AVater street bridge. The four-story brick structure cost about 
$10,000, and was o^^•^ed bv Ludington & Garland. ^Milwaukee 
newspaper publishers were pleased to be supplied with its 
product, their paper having before this been subject to the delays 
and dangers of Avater transportation from the East. 

In ]\Iarch, 1849. D. E. Cameron bought out the original own- 
ers, and by midsummer had ten hands Avith a pay-roll of ^40 a 
week. His output of 110 reams a week he estimated as sufficient 
*'to supply the entire press of the State." Chicago was ready 
for his surplus product, so the business lu-ospered. A few years 
later, Cameron sold out to Xo(man & ^NlcXab, who established 
their plant about five miles up ^Milwaukee River, near the Orton 
flouring mill. A freshet in 1864 having carried away the dam, 
both plants i-i'mained idle until their dt'struction in 18G9 by an 
incendiary fire. 

Early in the CO's several ^Milwaukee publishers, headed by 
Jermain & Brightmnn of the Se)iti}ul, incorporated themselves 
as the "Wisconsin Paper Company, in order to supply the scarcity 
of that article, induced by the War of Secession. Their mill 
was on the south side of ?irilwaukee River, some distance below 
the dam. This establishment prospered imtil the mill was de- 
stroyed fFebruaiy 20, 1S(;7) by an explosion of one of its 
boilers, and it was Tint rdiuilt. 

A straw-paper and -b^ard factory was situated along ^Nle- 
nomonec River, near Grand Avenue viaduct. It was operated 
first by Ernest Prifgi-r c^ C()m]>any : later, by Winslow A. Nowell, 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

subsequently postmaster. This plant was in 3 875 destroyed by 

The second locality in southern Wisconsin to see the manu- 
facture of paper, was "Whitewater. There, between 1857 and 
1860, J. IT. Crombie began and operated for ten years a print- 
and tea-paper mill having a daily capacity of about three-and- 
a-half tons. Dennison & Turner bought out the mill some 
time in the 70 's. increased its capacity, and devoted it to the 
production of straw wrapping-paper. About 1890, under other 
ownei-s, its capacity became fifteen tons per day ; but in 1893 it 
was merged in the Columbia Straw Paper Company, and now 
stands dismantled.- 

-Appleton was the first community in the Fox Eiver valley to 
begin manufacturing paper, when in 1855 Richmond Brothers 
placed a mill at the upper dam. This having burned, they built 
in 18G0 at the lower dam a mill that was dismantled in 1890, 
when the Sulphite Investment Company built upon the site. 

Neenah was, however, the home of the enterprise that first be- 
came largely profitable, and called attention to the possibilities 
of the industry in "Wisconsin. Its first mill was built in 1865-G6 
by a $10,000 stock company composed of Hiram and Edward 
Smith, Dr. N. S. Robinson, John Jamison, ]\Ioses Hooper, and 
Nathan Cobb. The latter was chosen president, with Hiram 
Smith as secretary and treasurer. ^Myron H. P. Haynes was 
imported from "Whitewater to act as superintendent. The build- 
ing, historically known as the ''old red Neenah mill," was 
erected at the foot of the race, on the site of the government 
sawmill of mission days. 

The first year, it was leased to Dr. Robinson, who showed fine 
ability as manager and made the venture a success. The second 
year the company operated it on their own account, but retained 
Robinson as manager. The third year, the Smiths took over 
the lease at a price equal to the fii-st cost of the mill ; but before 
the year's end Edward Smith retired in favor of D. C. "Van 

1 The information concerning the Mihvaulcee mills was furnished 
by the veteran journalist and settler, Henry W. Bleyer. 

- B. M. Frees, now in the lumber business in Chicago, gave me the 
data concerning the Whitewater enterprise, in which he says he sank 
much money. 


22. " 

ft 3 

to 5 

p ^ 

e-^ 00 

c ^ 

5 §. 

1. & 

« 9 

O "CJ 
r» "53 

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ID 6 





Paper-Making in Wisconsin 

OstrancL Tender tlie firm name of Smitli & Van Ostrand the 
mill operated until sold in 1874 to Kimberly, Clark & Company, 
who in 1S90 tore down the old red mill to make room for their 
great Neonah mill of to-day. 

This first Neenah mill made 2,500 to 3,000 pounds of paper a 
day. A press notice of 1870 reads: 

The Neenah Paper Company received an order for ten tons of paper 
for the [Chicago] Trihtnie. made the order and shipped it inside of 60 

As late as ]\Iareh 29, 1883, the following appeared in the 
Meuasha Press: 

Mr. Robinson, a machine tender in a Neenah paper mill, made a 
wager that he could make 4,800 pounds of paper in twenty-four hours 
in a cylinder machine. At the expiration of the time he required but 
one pound more to win the wager, having run off 4,799 pounds. 

The machinery and processes in this old mill are historically 
interesting. The paper stock was rags, for no wood-pulp was 
then in use. The rags were shipped from ^lilwaukee and Chi- 
cago, assorted at the mill by women and girls, and cut and 
dusted by the "devil." They were bleached in "lime bleach," 
holding enough for one day's run. The lime, liquor and stock, 
was then steam-boiled for fourteen hours. The vat where this 
was done was called the open tub bleach. It consisted of "a 
wooden tub or tank fourteen feet in diameter, into which the 
steam was admitted through a perforated false bottom, forcing 
the bleach liquors up a centre tube, which ejected them over the 
rags in the tub. Returning down through the rags, they re- 
peated their journey up the tube and were again ejected over 
the rags, the tube erupting as often as the steam gathered head 
below. The boys nicknamed this vat "Vesuvius." 

The first Neenah mill had two of these open-tub bleaching 
vats, to supply the night and day run of the mill. The chemi- 
cals used were chloride of lime, sulphuric acid, and aluminous 
cake. After the rags had been taken from the bleach with pitch- 
forks, they were put through the "rag engine." cut up. and the 
stock dropped into "draining vats." One was filled and one 
emptied each day. They then passed through "beating en- 
gines" for five hours, and the i)ulp dropped into receiving tubs 
of 400 pounds cai)acity, from which the pulp was i)umped into. 

[ 275 ] 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

*'.stufl" chests;" then it was forced over an "agitated screen" to 
the "former," a square oblong tub, in which revolved the 
"cylinder," seven feet long by thirty inches in diameter, half 
submerged in the pulp. It was covered with a wire screen over 
which the pulp gathered on the surface. Another roll rested 
on tliis, with a wool felt between them, to which the thin layer 
of pulp adliered. and was passed along between other rolls, to 
scpieeze out the water. Then it Avent over the five steam-heated 
copper drier rolls, which had superseded the charcoal-heated 
drier. These copper rolls were 30 inches in diameter and 5-1 
inches long, which produced that width of paper. The paper 
was finished by two polishing rolls at the end of the machine, 
and then cut into squares, as all paper was in those days, being 
packed in bundles ready for shipment. This type of paper 
machine is known as the cylinder, and. stood erect on wooden 
posts.^ This old red Neenah mill made print paper which was 
.sold at 11^ cents per pound. 

In 1872 was formed at Neenah a partnership for paper-mak- 
ing that has since become the largest concern for that industry' 
in the world. Kimberly, Clark & Company was composed of 
four members— J. Alfred Kimberly, Charles B. Clark, Frank C. 
Shattuck, Ilavilah Babcock— none of whom had had any previ- 
ous experience in paper manufacture. The new company pur- 
chased from Hugh Sherry the Fox River flour-mill site, and by 
October, 1872, had the Globe mill ready for operation. This 
had a capacity of one-and-a-half tons per day and employed 
about forty hands. In two years the plant was enlarged, cover- 
ing the site. of Peckham & Knieger's foundry; the capital stock 
was soon increased to $400,000, and by 1899 this had become 
$1,500,000. Their first mill was, in 190G, entirely rebuilt and 
fitted with the latest designs for making book paper. 

Meanwhile the firm, now incorporated as the Kimberly-Clark 
Company, purchased and built other mills, until in 1909 it 
owned nine plants, containing .seventeen paper machines rang- 
ing from G7.V to 156 inches in width, producing all grades of 

■" This description of the machine of the first mill is compiled 
from an account in the Winuchago County Press, Sept. 24, 1S70, and 
conversation with pei-sons formerly employed in the first Neenah 

[ 276 ] 

o y 

^ ^ 

2. i^ 

I > 

4^:- .til l^it:^'^ 





Paper-Making in Wisconsin 

paper, from coai-^e wrapping to fine M-riting, with a daily 
product of 450 tons of paper, 110 tons of sulphite, and 70 tons 
of ground Mood. Fifteen hundred persons are employed, while 
the annual pay roll amounts to $750,000. 

Besides the original Globe and Neenah mills, the eompauy 
owns the Badger at Xeenah; the Atlas, Vulcan. Tioga, aud 
Telulah at Appleton ; a wrapper mill and an electrically-oper- 
ated writing mill at Kimberly ; a newspaper mill at Niagara, 
Wis. ; and pulp aiul sulphite plants at both the latter places. 

The next person to enter the paper business in Neenah was 
A. W. Patten, a ^Massachusetts man who had tried chair-making 
and flour-milling as well as lumbering and mining. In 1874 he 
built his mill at the head of the canal, where in 1877 he in- 
stalled a four drinnier machine, and in 1879 a rotary pulp mixer. 
Soon after this Patten sold out his Neenah mill to Samuel A. 
Cook and Frank T. Pussell, the latter of whom had been his 
manager. This second tirm operated the mill until 1900, when 
they Avere succeeded l)y John A. Kimberly, Jr. Under his 
management the mill has been rebuilt and improved, and now 
has two wide machines and one pneumatic-dried bond machine, 
making daily 50.000 pciunds of bond, government, envelope, writ- 
ing, and book paper. 

The AYinnebago mill of Xeenah was also built in 1874 by a 
company headed by John R. Davis, an energetic Welshman, 
The other mem])ers of the original partnership were John P. 
Ford secretaiy. II. Shoemaker treasurer, C. H. Seiwis, C. New- 
man. S. M. l^rown, and ]Mrs. E. A. Servis. The next year Col. 
George A. Whiting bought out the Shoemaker stock and was 
soon secretary, tiien superintendent of the Winnebago mill. The 
plant was started for jtrint jiaper, and had a daily capacity of 
six tons. Colonel Wliiting was the first Wisconsin paper manu- 
facturer to utulertake book paper. G. II. Cunningham's His- 
torif of XfOiali was printed on pa])er made in the Winnebago 
mill. The Davis interest remained predominant in its o^^^ler- 
ship until 1905. when the mill was sold to the Bergstrom Paper 
Company, wlio now operate it. enlarged and improved many fold, 
making daily 40.000 pounds of superealendar. book, railroad, 
manila, and eover paper. 

Colonel Wliiting lel't the Winnebago mill in 18S2 to erect one 
at Menaslia luuler the firm name of Gilbert & Whitinir. Five 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

years later that firm was dissolved. Colonel Whiting then 
turned his attention to the Wisconsin River plants; while his 
partner, the late AVilliam ^l. Gilbert, built a plant on the Law- 
son Canal at ]\Ienasha, a mill still operated by the Gilbert Paper 
Company, and making annually 11,000,000 pounds of bank, 
ledger, and high-grade writing paper. 

Other ]\renasha concerns are the John Strange Paper Com- 
pany, changed in 1S87 from a pail factory to a paper mill; the 
]\lenasha Paper Company, operated previously by Alexander 
Paul, Samuel A. Coolv, and H. H. Ballon ; and the Island Paper 
Company, that in 1005 bought out the mill of Charles B. How- 
ard, built in ISSS on the site of the old red straw-wrapper mill 
at iMenasha. 

Paper manufacturing at Kaukauna was begun in 1872 by 
Col. H. A. Frambach, who erected the Eagle mill and found 
his water power so great that it was twice used in the same mill. 
This plant was burned in 1881, and when rebuilt was sold to 
H. J. Rogers and the Van Xortwicks. ^Meanwhile Colonel Fram- 
bach, after building the Badger mill at Kaukauna (bunied in 
1807), developed the manufactories at Niagara, on IMenominee 
River, since taken over by the Kiml)erly-Clark Company. 
Frambach 's mills are now located at Cheboygan. ^Michigan. 

Meanwhile, a company composed of A. ^V. Patten, Henry 
Hewitt Jr., W. P. Hewitt, and A. AV. Priest b(nv-rht in ISSti 
from the Northwestern Railway Company the lower rapids of 
Kaukauna and tliere erected the Outagamie mill, a large and 
profitable enterprise. 

The first tissue mills in Wisconsin were inaugurated at Kau- 
kauna in 1885 by William W. Thilmany. This is now a great 
mill, producing many tons of tissue for napkins, fruit wrappers. 
toilet, etc., printed and cut in all shapes required by the market. 

At Appleton, beside the mills already noted, are the Patten 
Company's plant, begun in 1881; and a group of three mills 
erected in 1900 by the Fox River Paper Company, also the 
Riverside mills, erected to absorb the suqilus pulp from their 
extensive sulphite outfit. 

.\t Green Bay the tissue business was inaugurated by John 
Hobert; while in 1900 :\rcCoi-mick erected the Northern paper 
mills, with two machines for tissue. 

Paper-Making in Wisconsin 

Before 1871 all Wisconsin paper was made of cotton rags, 
white paper waste, or straw. Four years earlier, the first wood- 
pulp in America was made by Fritz AVurtzbach at Curtisville. 
Mass. A syndicate Avas organized, headed by Senator AYarner 
]\Iiller, to secure rights in these wood-pulp grinders, fii-st patented 
by Christian Yoelter in France. These were introduced into 
Wisconsin by Bradner Smith, who at the south end of the upper 
dam at Appleton began in 1871 to make pulp from poplar. The 
next pulp machine was operated at the Eagle mill, Kaukauna, 
by Colonel Frambach. In addition to poplar, spruce and bass- 
wood were used. The sulphite process of treating wood-pulp 
was first used by the Atlas Paper Company of Appleton, where 
the wood cooked was spruce. Hemlock was first cooked by the 
sulphite process at the Badger Paper IMill at Kaukauna. 

By the year 1890 Wisconsin saw the wood-pulp process enor- 
mously developed. The invention of the stereotype cylinder 
press made possible the use of dry paper for printing. This 
made wood-pulp paper available, and the price of print fell from 
$11 to $1.20 per cwt. The greatly-increased use created an 
enormous demand for the product, which the Fox River Mills 
could no longer supply. This led to the growth of the industry 
in the upper "Wisconsin Valley, where both wood and water 
power were accessible. 

The first mill on this river was built in 1886 below Centralia 
by Colonel Whiting of Xeeuah and Frank Steel of Appleton. It 
is still in operation. Three years later Whiting secured rights 
at Conant's Rapids, below Stevens Point, erected dams and built 
two great mills. Others are to be found at Grand Rapids, Ne- 
koosa. Port Edwards, Wausau, Rhinelander, ]\Ierrill. and Toma- 
hawk. All are huge producers, using either ground or sulphite 
wood pulp. The mill at Rhinelander is entirely a Wisconsin pro- 
duct, the machinery being furnished by the Beloit Iron Works. 
The mills of the consolidated company at Grand Rapids are op- 
erated entirely by electricity. 

The question of the future supply of wood for pulp has become 
a pressing one. In 1908 the Wisconsin mills used approximately 
375.000 cords, of wliic-h 50 per cent was hemlock, and the rest 
spruce. Of this, the former is almost wholly cut within the 
State, while the supply of spruce comes from Alinnesota and 

[ 279 1 . ■ 

Wisconsin Historical Society 

Canada. The amount of hemlock is limited, and within a few 

years there will be a shortage for the paper mills. Their best 

chance is to develop the use of other species, such as jack pine, 

tamarack, balsam, birch, etc. This is a problem which the federal 

forest service, through its laboratory in :Madison, will endeavor to 

solve, in cooperation with the paper manufacturers.* 

; The importance of the industry in Wisconsin is sho^Mi by the 

' fact that at the last United States census, our State ranked 

! fourth in the amount of capital invested, and fifth in amount of 

I product for the paper manufactories of the entire country — a 

nation that produces many times more paper than any other on 

the globe. The State census of 1905 showed fifty-two firms, with 

a capital of $24,000,000 employing 6,000 persons, who receive 

• $3,500,000 in annual wages. $10,000,000 is paid out each year 

for material used in 130 mills, where every grade of paper is 

i made, from wrapper to finest bond. 

About 1902, twenty-five paper concerns, most of them in Wis- 
consin, formed a holding company to regulate output and prices. 
In 1904 this consolidation was sued by the United States govern- 
ment under the Sherman anti-trust law. The separate finus in- 
volved, having declined to produce their books, the holding cor- 
poration, with the consent of the incorporators, was dissolved 
:May 11, 1906, by an injunction from the United States supreme 

* This information concerning the wood supply was kindly fur- 
nished by Mr. Edward M. Griffith, State Forester of Wisconsin. 


James Roon Doolittle, 1S15-1S97 

James Rood Doolittle 

An Appreciation of James Rood 

By Duane Mo wry 

The fact that more than a decade has ehipsed since James Rood 
Doolittle passed into the shades, cannot justly be urged as an ob- 
jection to til is appreciation of his life and works.^ For Mr. Doo- 
little was, during the last half of the nineteenth century, a public 
character of no ordinary ability or worth, and the truth about 
him cannot be too often or too forcibly stated. ^Moreover, the 
history of his adopted State, as well as that of the nation, would 
be incomplete if it failed to take into account his valuable pub- 
lie services to both. 

Quoting from a document in his own handwriting. 'Mr. Doo- 
little delighted to say that he 

was born in Hampton, Washington County, New York, on a farm ad- 
joining Vermont on tlie west side of the Green :\Iountains, on the 3d 
day of January, 1S15, five days before the battle of New Orleans, dur- 
ing the war with Great Britain. A few months before his birth his 
mother was within sound of the guns at the battles of Plattsburg and 
Lake Chaniplain. When four years of age. in 1S19, his father removed 
with his family to the then far west, and settled in the thick forests 
of western New York, where the Alleghanies slope down toward Lake 
Ontario, but whtre the level above the sea was still so great, that the 
water is soft and pure, and the air absolutely free froni all malaria, 
in the Southern part of old Genesee (now Wyoming) County. It was 
in that region of forest, pure water and mountain air that he grew 

1 Mr. Doolittle died July 27. 1S97, when visiting a daughter at 
Providence, R. I. His remains are buried at Racine, Wis., beside those 
of his wife and other members of his family. 

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vO manhood; and. excepting four years at Geneva (now Hobart) Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1S34, and a few years, when he studied 
and practiced law at Rochester, he resided in Wyoming County, un- 
til, in 1851, he removed to Racine. Wisconsin. 

Thus is told, in a brief and interesting way, in his own well- 
ohosen language, the story of his early life. But it does not tell 
the whole story of his activity while a young la-svj^er in Wyoming 
County. lie assures us that at first "he was not much pressed 
with professional business;" but gave time and thought to the 
consideration of political and public questions. One of the first 
of these was the exemption of a homestead from sale on execu- 
tion. He was one of the earliest advocates of that important 
measure. His contention was, in brief, that the wife and chil- 
dren have an equitable priority, growing out of the marriage re- 
lation, over the creditors of the husband, and that, upon grounds 
of high public policy, the law should protect, defend, and encour- 
age the family, as the true unit of human society. 

In the fall of 1S89 he was nominated for the legislature by the 
Democratic Repu])lican party. He accepted the nomination for 
the purpose of discussing before the people of Genesee County 
the homestead exemption question and other political issues of 
the day. With a party majority of 3,000 against him, he had no 
expectation of election, and of course was defeated. Neverthe- 
less, he invited his Wliig competitor to join him in the discussion 
of public questions, but the latter declined. The homestead ex- ^ 
emption idea, however, took strong hold upon both parties, and 
shortly thereafter became a part of the laws of New York. 

Mr. Hoolittle participated in the presidential campaign of 
1840. supporting with all the ardor of his young manhood, ^lar- 
tin Van Buren, the Democratic Republican candidate for a sec- 
ond term. His canvass in 1839 had already given him some 
prominence as a public speaker, and he was much sought to ad- 
dress large audiences in western New York. For five months in 
succession, he spoke nearly eveiy day to large meetings, but the 
opposition prevailed. "Tippecanoe anil Tyler, too," were suc- 
cessful at the polls. In his comment on that campaign. 'Mr. Doo- 
little observes: 

It was in vain to appeal to reason and principle against the over- 
whelming tide of prejudice and passion aroused by the false pretences 
everywhere put forth, of which no one who did not live in that day, 

[ 282 ] 

James Rood Doollttle 

or take an active part in that campaign, can form any adequate con- 

.Mr. Doolittle tells an interesting story of his connection with 
the presidential campaign of 1S44. The slogan of that campaign 
was "the re-occupation of Oregon, and the re-annexation of 
Texas, at the earliest practicable period, as great American meas- 
ures." Instead of nominating :\Iartin Van Buren, as was ex- 
pected, the Democratic Republican national convention nomi- 
nated James K. Polk, of Tennessee. The discontent in New York 
at this action of the convention was widespread. Suddenly, and 
without any preparation, I\rr. Doolittle was called upon to' speak 
in New York at the first meeting after the convention. He was 
sorely tried to know how to meet the apparent critical situation. 
But his previous study of Texas, where, at one time, he had 
thought of locating, had so filled his mind- with its history, and 
with its importance to the Union, that it proved to be a master 
effort, one of his greatest. It came as an inspiration to the lis- 
tening multitude, and at its conclusion the meeting enthusiastic- 
ally endorsed the immediate annexation of Texas. This speech, 
wholly extemporaneous, threw I\[r. Doolittle actively into the 
presidential eampaigii of 1844. and from that time to its close he 
spoke constantly in the larger to\ras of western New York. 

By this time, ^h: Doolittle 's great political activity had 
brought him prominently to the attention of the voters of his 
home county. Accordingly, at the next election, although there 
was a large ^liig majority, the county elected him district at- 
torney, which oftice he held for four years, and the duties of 
which he discharged with ability. 

The presidential campaign of 1S4S deeply interested him ; and 
by this time the slavery question was beginning to assume great 
political importance. It Mas :\rr. Doolittle who drafted what has 
since been known as the famed "corner stone resolution." intro- 
duced in the New York state convention by David Dudley Field, 
who then had the floor. Its introduction caused both enthusiasm 
and consternation. While it mot defeat at that time, it was tri- 
umphantly adopted the next year. That resolution is as follows : 

Resolved. That, while the democracy of New York represented in 
this convention will faithfully adhere to all compromises of the 


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Constitution and maintain all the reserved rights of the states, they 
declare, since the crises arrived when that question must be met, 
their uncompromising hostility to the extension of slavery into terri- 
tory now free, or which may be hereafter acquired by any action of 
the government of the United States. 

Its adoption by a wing of the Democratic party, which :Mr. 
Doolittle chose to call the Democratic Republican party, caused a 
division in New York, one being called "Honkers" and the other 
"Barn Burners." The former were passive, while the latter 
were progressive anti-slavery advocates. With his intense hatred 
of oppression in every form, ^NFr. Doolittle cast his fortmies with 
the "Barn Burners." This faction or wing of the ruling party 
in the state formed the Free Soil party of New York. The reso- 
lution was also the doctrine of the leading newspapers in many 
Northern states. By easting his destinies with the Free Soil can- 
didate, however, 'Mr. Doolittle deliberately went with the minor- 

In the foregoing has been summarized some of the activities of 
:Mr. Doolittle before turning his face farther westward, which in- 
dictates that in him was a positive character of no mean ability 
and power. 

Coming directly to events preceding the War of Secession, to 
the period which involves the rise and fall of the slave power in 
the United States, to the period of reconstruction, and to the 
negro i)rolilem and some just solution of it, where do we find the 
now resident of the recently-admitted State of Wisconsin? Is 
tlie attitude of Mr. Doolittle in doubt upon any important public 
question of the hour? Is it possible to discover anything that 
savors of duplicity in his nature? Is it true to say that he was 
a political apostate? Is it just to charge him with being a rant- 
ing demagogue ? It may be cruel to ask these questions, but they 
have bee!i asked before. Not only have they been asked, but it 
has been eliaigtd th;it as a public oflleial and a party leader, 
he has been guilty of at least questionable conduct. The answers 
to these questions have sometimes been unfair, rmjust, and un- 

Prior to his election as a United States senator, and after his 
location at Racine in 1851, he Avas actively engaged in the prac- 
tice of his pi-ofessi(m until called upon to serve as a circuit jud«ie 
in IS.IS. This ofiieial position was discharged in a highly ac- 
\ 2M ] 

James Rood Doolittle 

ceptable manner, until his resignation in 1856. The position 
brought a small salary, and he found it quite insufficient to meet 
the growing demands of a large family. There is, however, 
nothing to shoAv that at the time of his resignation of the judicial 
office he had already set his ambition toward the halls of national 
legislation. Indeed, there is evidence that, as a financial neces- 
sity, he made up his mind to give himself over freely to the prac- 
tice of his profession. 

Whatever may have been his bent or choice, it is certain that 
he always placed a high estimate on the legal profession. In an 
address to the graduating class of the Union College of Law. in 
Chicago, in 1S70, he refers to the legal profession as "a high 
calling — one. of the highest." He assures the young men that 
"to realize the ideal or perfect lawyer, he must know all the law, 
and have great and varied knowledge of all human affairs." 
Thus it ^v\\\ be seen that Judge Doolittle, for it was as "judge" 
that he Avas generally addressed after leaving the bench, had no 
fanciful notions of the law and the duties of the great laA\yer. 

But the great and all-important question of the liour, the 
slavery question, its extension or abolition, was burning for it- 
self a place in his conscience. His "corner stone resolution" 
was not forgotten by him, although nearly a decade had elapsed 
since it first saw the light of day. Judge Doolittle 's pronounced 
anti-slavery views made it easy for him in 1856 to withdraw from 
•the Democratic party. In midsummer of that year, he publicly 
announced his intention thereafter to unite his political fortunes 
with the new Republican party, and in that year he ably sup- 
ported its presidential candidate, John. C. Fremont. 

Judge Doolittle 's withdrawal from the Democratic party is a 
long .story; it does credit to his conscience and his high character. 
He could not submit to the doctrine that any further extension of 
slavery was justifiable. Nor could he subscribe to his party's ac- 
tion to eliminate from its future platforms and policies, any con- 
sideration of the slaveiy question. ^Moreover, the fugitive slave 
act was becoming a vital issue in many of tlie Xorthcrn states. 
Judge Doolittle took the view that it was uiu-onstitutioiial. a po- 
sition supported by the supreme court of AVisconsin in the Booth 

The great oratorical ability of Judge Doolittle on the political 
■stump made him a national character in that fi'ld. His services 
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ucro evei-ywhere in great demand. Indeed, at a later date, when 
he again joined his forces with the Democratic party, it is inter- 
esting and remarkable in -what great demand his services were 
held by the leaders of that party also. His acknowledged ability 
as a speaker and thinker brought him out as an available candi- 
date for the United States senate in 1857, and the "Wisconsin 
legislature placed that great office upon him in Januarj', 1857. 

"When ]\Ir. Doolittle commenced the discharge of his senatorial 
duties. President Buchanan was still in office. It was the prac- 
tice of Judge Doolittle freely to write to his family, particularly 
to his wife, of events as they impressed him at "Washington. 
Some of these letters disclose interesting historical data, others 
uncover the true character of the great commoner. In a letter to 
his wife just before the convening of Congress, in December, 
1857, he writes : 

To-day, with Mr. Dixon^, of Connecticut, I called on the President a 
short time. The President's message is waited for with great anxiety. 
He and his Cabinet are said to be a unit in favor of sustaining the 
Kansas Convention. The Free State men will not vote at the elec- 
tion on the 21st inst. The Kansas question grows bigger and bigger 
every day. The old Fogies are trying in every way to stave it off, 
but, like Banquo's ghost, it will not down at the bidding. 

In another part of the same letter, after referring to his ab- 
sence from home, he adds : 

But I have no doubt if you feel as I do there is a vacancy in the 
heart which all the world beside cannot fill without the presence of 
the loved one. But in the order of God's Providence I have a mis- 
sion to fulfill. 

In a letter written a day or two later to his wife, he says: 
I expect the session will commence tomorrow. It is to be a session 
of intense interest and excitement. But I see the end from the be- 
ginning. It is not my faith in man so much as my faith in God 
which gives me my strong assurance. 

The administration will lend its power to introduce Kansas as a 
state under the constitution formed at Lecompton. The Republicans 
will resist it. I believe the moral force of our position and the cer- 
tainty of political annihilation to Douglas will compel him and his 
friends to go for submission of the Kansas question to a fair vote 

A United States senator. 


James Rood Doolittle 

of the people, and "ue shall succeed in spite of the administration. 
The people of Kansas will make it a free state, and the administra- 
tion will be compelled to sign a bill for its admission as a free state. 
And herein is God's wisdom superior to our wisdom. It will after all, 
in such an event, be fortunate that a man is in the presidential chair 
who is in sympathy with the South. The South cannot rebel against 
him, for he is their own man. So, in the providence of God the South 
will be compelled to yield and will be held by their own executioner. 

In a letter from New York, no date except "Friday evening, 
eight p. m.." and probably written before those above mentioned, 
he writes his wife : 

This evening I have been to visit Col. Fremont and his lady. She 
is very agreeable but very plain looking, and was at work making 
with a needle upon an open canvas, a chessboard for Col. Fremont. 
She read a portion of a letter just received from her father ("Old 
Bullion"), in which he speaks of the short, bad reign of the so-called 
Democratic Party, which has neither a principle or measure in com- 
mon with the Democratic Party of Jeft'erson's and Jackson's days. I 
go to Washington fully conscious that the most important events in 
our national history are pending. I feel that I was placed in this 
position by a higher power than my own and trust that it is for the 
accomplishment of his purposes and the glory of the republic and the 
good of the world. 

Jannarj' 30th, 185S, he writes his wife : 

I hope they who felt sore because I did not support Buchanan will 
see the propriety of my course, seeing as I did the absolute certainty 
that Mr. Buchanan, if he acquiesced in the Border Ruffian Usurpation 
'in Kansas, that he must follow it to the bitter end. 

In another part of the same letter he says: 

I see by a paper * * * some criticisms upon my course as a 
new senator. That is to be expected from some minds who neither 
wish nor are capable of sympathizing with or appreciating my true 
position or motives, men in whose minds such a sentiment as that of 
high and sacred duty never finds a place, and who do not know what 
• it means when it appears exhibited in others. Such persons are to be 
pitied rather than to be the objects of hatred and contempt. 

April 14, same year, ]ilr. Doolittle writes his wife: 
I am sorry to say the House agreed to a Committee of Conference, 
and the Lecompton matter is again in uncertainty. 

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Wisconsin Historical Society 

Under date of May 15. 185S, the following extract from a let- 
ter to his wife shows what kind of a man Judge Doolittle was : 

How true it is we know not what one day, even one hour, may bring 
forth. On Thursday last an appropriation bill from the House was up 
in the Senate. Judge Trunibulls moved an amendment to put on our 
mileage. It passed. Of course, I did not vote for such an amend- 
ment, being interested. Well, come to look into the bill, the Reporters 
of the House, who do not work half as hard as the Reporters of the 
Senate, had $S00. a piece for last session, also for this session, & 
also for next session, and the Reporters of the Senate were left out. 
I moved to re-consider. A long debate ensued and in the course of it 
Toombs* & myself had a pretty sharp discussion somewhat personal in 
its character, in which, my friends say that I used him up pretty 
badly. * * * It was much enjoyed not only on our side but on 
the other sirTe of the Chamber equally. I said but a few words, but 
they were very much to the point as they generally are when I am 
roused. It probably did our friends good to see in such a mild temper 
& in such a mild tone & manner & with such mild blue eyes as I 
carry, that when pressed by such insolence & overbearing words as 
Toombs indulges in, to find, when roused, there is something of the 
caged lion, not dead but sleeping. (Perhaps you could tell them 
more about it.) And what roused me somewhat more was an intima- 
tion that in case the bill was re-consideved they would strike off the 
mileage, just as if they supposed I would suffer a personal consid- 
eration to swerve me from doing what I deemed my duty. I would 
sooner sink through the floor of the Senate crushed to atoms. Well, 
I carried the re-consideration, and shall put in our reporters. Then, I 
dare say, they will endeavor to strike out the mileage. If they can 
do so, let them do it. Of course, I shall not vote upon that question. 

In a brief note during the same month lie says : 
■ Trumbull sits at my left. We together constitute the Democratic 
right wing of the Republican Party. King & Hamlin at the center in 
the van. Cameron & Collamer on the left."' 

AVhile "on board the 'Northern Belle,' "on the Mississippi, 

•'' Senator Trumbull, of Illinois. 

* Robert Toombs, of Georgia, afterwards secretary of state in the 
Confederate cabinet. 

•'•Lyman Trumbull, of Illinois; Preston King, of Xew York; Han- 
nibal Hamlin, of Maine; Simon Cameron, of Pennsylvania; Jacob Col- 
lixHier, of Vermont. 


James Rood Doollttle 

October 13, 1859, ou a speaking tour for the Eepiiblican party, he 
Avrites his -wife : 

We have carried Minnesota, "horse, foot & dragoons" over Douslasites 
& all combined. 

His enthusiasm seems unbounded. The following is from a 
letter to his Avife dated ^lay 29, 1860, and foreshadows the elec- 
tion of the Republican candidates: 

We are bound to elect our ticket, and bound to make our party 
neither an old Whig, or an abolition party, but a real Republican party, 
which is worthy and capable of administering the government. 

From the "Committee Rooms on Indian Affairs" he writes his 
wife under date of June 26, 1860 : 

We are summoned to meet at 12 M. to-day in extra session, and in 
Committee at 10 A. M. It is now 14 past 11, no quorum of Committee 
in attendance. I know not how it is. But I am not one of those lucky 
men -who easily shirk out, and get rid of business and go home & pair 
off & all that. I do not regard it as a proper discharge of official 
duty. I never can do so. 

December 2d, 1860, just before the meeting of the last Demo- 
cratic Congress before the civil war. he writes his wife: 

There is here a great apprehension of disunion & civil war. The 
aspect of affairs is somewhat threatening from the fact that Greeley 
& some others say. Why if they want to go let them go, and use no 
force to maintain the supremacy of the Constitution. This leads the 
Secessionist to suppose that it is a mere holiday affair like a general 
muster, and takes from the Conservative & Union man of the South 
his strongest argument to prevail on the people there to abide by the 
Union. * * * j have always hoped that God, in his mercy, would 
spare us that (civil war); that we could prevail on that people (the 
South) to foresee the evil afar off and enter upon a policy which 
should make provision for their free colored men, and looking toward 
the final emancipation of the whole. But their determination to 
banish the free blacks, and to re-open the slave trade with all its hor- 
rors may make their day of vengeance and destruction very near at 
hand. * * * Let it be settled there shall be no more slave terri- 
tory. Let those now free & those to become free have homes in Ilayti, 
Honduras, Jamaica and other tropical regions, and let us have peace. 
The colored race will go further & further South, and by a system of 
gradual amelioration and emancipation be removed at last from all 
but the town districts where white men labor, and their condition 

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there in the course of years be raised up first to serfdom, then to 
peasantry, and then to freedmen. 

AVriting to liis son January' 7, 1861, he says: 

We are in the midst of a real crisis, in the presence of great events, 
perhaps on the eve of civil war. The Southern demagogues have 
sowed the wind, they may reap the whirlwind. They have systematic- 
ally misrepresented the Republican party, its purposes and principles. 
They have influenced their ignorant masses with the idea that we 
piopose to emancipate immediately the whole negro race and to place 
them upon an equality with the whites socially and politically. They 
have made their people believe that. And they have made their 
slaves think so, too. They have raised a storm they cannot control 
and it sv.-eeps them at once into revolution. 

The following, -written March 17th, 1862, deals with a differ- 
ent matter and is addressed to "My dear Wife:" 

it is not unlikely that next winter will close my political life. If 
it does, I shall leave it without a single regret. I have the conscious- 
ness of having done my duty, and I hope of having done my country 
some service. * * * As to the judgeship, that is altogether too 
uncertain to think about for a moment. If it comes, it will be what I 
do not expect. It is possible not probable. * * * j shall expect to 
go into my profession once more either in Milwaukee or Chicago. 

July 21st, at 4 P. M., he gives a graphic description of the 
battle now historic : 

This is a day of agonizing suspense. The great battle is now going 
on. The sound of cannon can be heard here. The battle is at a place 
called Bull Run, a stream of water about ZV2 miles east of Manassas 
Junction. Johnson with his force has joined Beauregard at Manassas 
making the force fully equal to ours. Besides they have chosen their 
ground and are entrenched. The news we got to-day is that at 3 
A. M., our troops by a new road cut out about one mile north of the 
place where the batteries of the rebels were found, turned their bat- 
teries and with our cannon made the attack. It is now going on, 
and will not probably be over before sundown. The loss of life must 
be terrible on both sides. The fight must be desperate. From here 
to Manassas every road is blocked with teams loaded carrying pro- 
visions and supplies. I have just sent Henryo to get the latest news 
from the President. When I do get news here clear & definite I will 
telegraph home. 

"Judge Doolittlc's son. Captain Doollttle, of the army. 
[ 290 ] 

James Rood Doolittle 

To his wife he writes :\ray 13, 1862 : 

Yesterday I passed my tax bill through the Senate almost without 
opposition. I wonder if the croakerr; can see anything good come out 
of Nazareth. The same class of minds which six years ago would push 
the doctrine of State Rights to the point of nullification now would push 
the doctrine of old Federalism to the point of blotting out all the 
rights reserved to the States, and make this republic a consolidated, 

January 28, lSG-1, he writes to his wife, referring to an objec- 
tional appointment in the army: 

I am not prone to make my personal griefs the ground of my pul> 
lic action. 

April 23, same year, he writes : 

The last week or more has been crowded full of events and matters 
for me. The telegraph has announced before this my denunciation of 
the attempt to raise the new issue of negro suffrage on a mere abstrac- 
tion, in the territorial bill for Montana. It will subject me to de- 
nunciation and misconstruction by all the unreasoning newspapers of 
the land. But I shall make the sacrifice. 

April 2G. 18G5. after Lincoln's assassination, to his \\df e : 
Johnson- is all right. * * * God is still with us. O, if we are 
only true to the country all will yet be safe. * * * Mr. Johnson, 
Kings and myself are a trio whose hearts & -heads sympathize more- 
closely and more deeply than any other trio in America just now. 

April 6, ISGG, he writes: 

I am going to make my speech before long. I am writing it out 
now. I shall try and restrain all temper and reach the judgments 
of men, 

June 20, 18GG, at the executive office, he writes: 

What is ahead in the political world just now we cannot certainly 

see. It seems the President's Cabinet gives him no real strength. 

♦ * * My only fear is that the President has waited too long about 

making his Cabinet a unit. It has demoralized our friends in all the- 


July 1, 18GG, he .says: 

You, of course, long before this have seen the Call for a National: 

~ President Andrew Johnson. 
8 Preston King, of New York. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

Convention. It is likely to be a grand success. It will organize, or 
rather re-organize the Xational Union party in contrast with the 
present treacherous, intolerant, sectional Disunion party. The Call 
cost me a great deal of thought and care. But it has been a great 
success. It commands the minds of all the great men. * * * It 
means action, union and victory for the sake of the Union and the 
rights of the States, by which personal liberty can be made sure. 

June 7, 1S6S, he writes as follows : 

Yesterday and the day before I joined in the debate and am giving 
these Radicals some home thrusts. It stirs them all up like throwing 
a stone into a hornet's nest. * * * i do not know that my name 
will be mentioned in the Convention at New York. How the Wiscon- 
Fiu delegates feel toward me I am not certain. But I think Pendleton^ 
cannot be nominated. If he is, I fear the result is from that moment 

July 13, 1868, he writes his wife from Washington : 
The time, perhaps, has not yet come when the people can see the 
awful crime of this radical party in trampling the States to pieces, 
and by force establishing negro supremacy over the whites. We may 
not succeed in this contest. * * * i hope the re-action may come 
now. I hope Seymour will be elected. 

January 3, 1869, being his fifty-fourth birthday, he ^^^•ites 
From "Washington : 

I think I may say that I have a conscience void of offense, and free 
from any sordid or selfish ends in the great struggle I have made for 
my country and for humanity. * * * i leave it (the Senate) with 
a clear conscience and pure hands. And while I must confess I have 
seen some sad changes in the character of the body, I am not without 
hope that when the time comes, as I think it must come * * * a 
different style of men will be restored to the Councils of the Senate 
and our country will re-enter upon its grand career. 

These confidential letters of Judge Doolittle to his wife and 
other members of his immediate family, dealing with vital public 
questions and policies, were never intended for the inspection of 
the general public ; but the above extracts go fur to establish the 
unsullied character and lofty personal life of a truly great and 
good man and worthy public officer. They do more; they fasten 
the conviction upon the mind of every reasona])le person that in 

George II. Pendleton, of Ohio. 


James Rood Doolittle 

Judge Doolittle was a person who placed principle and country 
far be3^ond the reach of party and expediency. "What were the 
tehests of conscience?" was the first question he asked himself 
with reference to every important official duty. Having 
answered that to his own satisfaction, the rest was easy. 

But M-e do not find that his career in the senate and as a mem- 
ber of political parties was opposed to the final judgment of 
history. Indeed, his view of the status of the Southern states 
after the war has been amply justified by subsequent events. 
These States, he contended, were never out of the Union; it is 
now agreed that his position was constitutionally sound. 

Again, who of us can help but feel proud of Judge Doolittle 's 
attitude upon the question of President Johnson's impeachment, 
a bit of political persecution that does small honor to our na- 
tional legislature. There are still living those who condemned 
his voice and vote upon that subject ; but that condemnation has 
now been changed into universal commendation and praise. A 
president of these United States has never yet been guilty of 
high crimes and misdemeanors. us indulge the belief that 
never will one be guilty of such an offense. 

It was the good fortune of Judge Doolittle to be very much in 
the confidence of President Lincoln. It is equally true that 
President Johnson had great faith in his judgment and patriot- 
ism. Having known ]Mr. Lincoln's reconstruction policy, it was 
not difficult for ■Mr. Doolittle to champion the same policy under 
his successor. Today we honor the man for his independence 
and courage, even though it cost him political prestige at home. 
There are few men living, and probably none dead save he. who 
would deliberately cut oif all hope of future political preferment 
in his own state, by adhering to a policy which he felt certain 
was inherently just and sound. It requires moral courage. But 
that this quality was not lacking in Senator Doolittle, is clearly 
evident from his jirivate correspondence. 

Judge Doolitth^ always maintained that colonizAtion was the 
solution for the negro i)roblem. and this was the view of Pr-'si- 
dent Lim-oln. This was and still is the view of many very hoiK'st 
and sincere men, Ix'th in and out of ]>ubli(' oftlec. The details. 
Judge Doolittle had never worked out. l)nt the idea po.ssessi-d him 
all his days. During the reconstruction period of our political 
life, he was greatly maligned and abused for this view. Other 
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counsels prevailed, however, and so we have with us today the 
negro problem still unsolved. Undoubtedly, the not far distant 
future will confirin the wisdom of the policy of colonization of 
the negro as the only, feasible solution of the race question in 

It is no doubt true that Judge Doolittle aspired for great po- 
litical honors. His correspondence with public men gives ample 
assurance of that. On at least two occasions, he was a receptive 
candidate for appointment to a United States judgeship. He 
was actually nominated by the Democratic party for governor of 
Wisconsin. But the race was a hopeless one from the start. 
After leaving the Senate in ]869, his name was mentioned fre- 
quently for the circuit judgeship ; but this office did not seem to 
appeal to him strongly. It is certain that his well-known ability 
brought him prominently before the party leaders as an avail- 
able candidate for the presidency. Letters in the writer's pos- 
session show that men of national reputation volunteered their 
support, should the nomination go to him. This was quite 
natural. Judge Doolittle 's great ability as a speaker was known 
throughout the country. He had a large acquaintance. His 
name was, indeed, a household word. It pleased him much to 
tell that he had conducted speaking tours in thirteen presidential 
campaigns. Pie ventured the assertion that during his time more 
people had heard his voice than that of any other living person. 
In this he was doubtless correct. 

Perhaps one of the greatest shocks to Judge Doolittle 's hopes 
and ambitions in his later life, was the refusal of President 
Cleveland to give him a foreign mission. It is w'ell known that 
Judge Doolittle left the United States senate a comparatively 
poor man. It was his great ambition to serve the public faith- 
fully and honestly. Some of the letters to his wife show. that 
while in office personal advantage was always furthest from his 
thoughts. Mr. Doolittle M'ould have been delighted to have 
rounded out an active career with an appointment to the Russian 
or Austrian mission. As a solution of his financial stress it 
would also have pleased him greatly. But it was not to be so. 
Tilt.- apparent indifference of the president greatly annoyed him. 
Some few people chose to believe that a charge that Mr. Doo- 
little sold his official influence for pay. contributed to defeat him 
for the foreign mission. But this charge is now believed to be 
f 294 1 

James Rood Doolittle 

-AS cruel and lieartless as it was false. No one believes it save 
those who prefer to from choice. There never was any founda- 
tion in fact for the charge. As one of his colleagues^" well says: 
"I would he slow to believe any story which reflected upon your 
honor. ' ' 

It may truly be said that Judge Doolittle was an ambitious 
man. Ilis ambition, however, was of the worthiest kind, and a 
worthy ambition is the welcome condition of every noble soul. 
It was an ambition that would freely sacrifice the hope of posi- 
tion rather than do violence to his conception of public duty. 

In many respects Judge Doolittle was a remarkable man. He 
possessed a large fund of general information. His ability to ab- 
sorb knowledge was intuitive. His grasp of political problems 
and matters of state was strong. His constructive ability in the 
halls of legislation gave him at once the statesmanlike quality. 
He was resourceful in debate. He was a fearless advocate of 
justice. Ills conception of public duty would not permit him to 
temporize with sound political principles. He could knowingly 
do no wrong. His moral courage was, therefore, strictly hercu- 
lean in its nature. Admittedly an am])itious man, he would 
never permit his ambitions to lead him from right principles. 
Always intense in what he said and what he did. he was still un- 
selfish and forgiving. It was his joy to be the counselor of the 
poor and the oppressed, and sometimes this cost him political 
prestige and power; but he cared little for that. It was quite 
enough for his purposes that he was right. 

It is true, and the statement is made with deep regret, that 
much of the vituperation and abuse of his time was heaped upon 
his innocent head, and he felt it keenly. He did not fear just 
criticism; indfod, he invited and expected it. In a representative 
government, like our own. the servants of the people must be pre- 
pared to meet it. Intelligent and helpful criticism is, however, 
one thing; unjust and unreasonable abuse and condemnation, is 
quite another. It was the latter that aft'ected him deeply, as 
many of his home letters show. In spite of it all, however, he 
did not hesitate to do his full duty as he saw it. 

The author of this paper has had the good fortune to person- 
ally examine many confidential letters written by Judge Doo- 

10 Thomas Ewing. of Ohio. 


Wisconsin Historical Society 

little ; and liis good fortune has extended to the reading of other 
letters addressed to him by his contemporaries and friends. 
These disclose the character of the great man as nothing else can. 
The language of eulogy cannot add one iota to, nor can the voice 
of censure take one iota from, the reputation which is securely 
his. These letters and the whole record of his busy life amply 
confirm the greatness of the man. The ultimate judgment of 
history will place his public sei-v'ices among the most valuable 
that in his time were rendered to the nation and the State. 


Index to Historical Papers 

Includes only pages 107-296 

Adair. James, traveler. 145, 15.3; Ilis- 

tory of American IndUins, 155^ 
Adams County, organizcJ. 202; origin 

of name, 219. 
Aishton, R. H., at Gretn Bay celebra- 
tion, 109. 
Albany, Indian conference at. ]32. 
Alden. Lo.uise. of Waukesha County 

Historical Society. 12o. 
Alexandria (Va.), threatened by British, 

Allen, Ethan, letter to Indians. 120. 
Allouez, Claude. .Jesuit missionary. 219. 

Alto township, added to Fond du Lac 

County, 271. 
American Archircs, 12."-150. 132, 13.3, 

137, 13S, 140. 
American Fur Company, operations of. 

Ill : post. 226. 
American Historical Rcvicir, cited, 145. 
American Museum, cited, 146. 
Appleton. paper-making in. 274. 277, 

278; Sulphite Investment Company, 

Arcade, early name for Partford. 272. 
.\rcadia. settlem<-nt of. 246-2.'l. 
Amdt. Richard, (Jreen P.ay pioneer, 263. 
Ashland, site, ISS. 
Ashland County, organized, 214 ; origin 

of name, 219. 
Astor, John Jacol). head of American 

Fur Company, 111. 
Atlas Paper Company, at Applrton. 279. 
Anhry. M., leads Indians, 125. 
Augusta County (Va.), militia, 130. 

B.\ncocK, Havllah, Xeenah manufac- 
turer. 276. 

Bad .\x County. See Vernon. 

Kn-nsch, Kmil. addr.'ss. 116. 

Bailey farm, in Or.'en Lake County, 262. 

ISallou. H. II.. Mfuaslui manufacturer, 

Banks. Joseph, president of Royal So- 
ciety, 153, 154. 

Bannister. John. Fond du Lac pioneer, 

Baraboo, ceremony near, IIS ; Twentieth 

Century Club, 119. 
Bardon, James, president of Superior 

Historical Society, 120. 
Barlow. Mary, t-arly Connecticut settler, 

Barn Bluff, site, 248; called Gage's 

Bam, 251. 
Barnes-. Dr. H. L.. in Ripon, 253. 
Barntown. early name for Arcadia, 250. 
li.'rnum. P. T.. circus. 239. 
Barron, Henry D., sketch. 219. 
P.airon County, organized, 213; origin 

of name. 219. 
Bartlett, John Russell, describes books, 

1 45, 
P.attles: Blackburn's Ford, 121. Bull 

Run, 121. Mauassas. 290. Plains of 

Abraham. 125. Point Pleasant, 131. 
Baxter, Ak'xander, aids Carver, 150. 
Bayfield. Henry W., sketch. 220. 
P.ayficld, settled, 220. 
Bayfield County, organized, 200. 201 ; 

oriuin of name. 219. 220. 
P.ays : Checiuamcson, 219. Green, 108, 

2(i:!. La Pointe. 214. Long Island, 

Bazeley, William. Grem Lake County 

.pioneer, 270. 
Beall. Samuel W., Green Lake County 

settler. 252. 260. 
Beaser. Martin, Ashland pioneer, 219. 
P.caver Dam, trail to. 270. 
Beckwlth, Asahel Lane, in War of Se- 
cession. 121. 
P.eckwith. Fdward Seymour, sketch. 121. 
P.fdell, Kd.. at Manitowoc historical 

celebration, 116. 
Belmont, early days in. 223. 243. 
Beloit, iron works at. 270. 
P.eiiton. mining town. 237. 
Bi'Tizonl. Girolaino. ni.ttnr;/ of yew 

^ynr!>l. 147; Book of Sir John Manile- 

viUc. 147. 
Bersstrom Paper Company, at Xeenah, 




I'l rkcley County (Va.), militia, ISQ. 

llibliotlicra Aiiiericana, cited, 145. 

Ill- Itonc I.icU (Ky.), Shawnee visit, 130. 

"15ig Knives," Indian term for Ameri- 
cans, 132, 135, 139. 

UiK Soldier, Winnebago chief, 2GG. 

lUsliop, Collins, Arcadia pioneer, 248, 

Illfhop, Mrs. David, names Arcadia, 250. 

lUssinger, Frank, on committee, lOS. 

lilesch, Mrs. F. T., on committee, 107, 

Bleyer, Henry W., Milwaukee pioneer, 

Blue Mounds, visited, 236. 237. 

IJoilvin, Nicolas, Indian interpreter, 247. 

Boonesborough (Ky.), frontier town, 136. 

Boston Chronicle, cited, 143, 149, 152. 

Bourne, Edward Gaylord, "Travels of 
Jonathan Carver," 145-149. 

Boyd, Thomas A.. Indian agent, 247. 

Bowles, William, Green County pioneer, 

Bradley, Almon, at Markesan, 253. 

Bradley, Daniel E., father of pioneer, 

Bradley, Francis, early Connecticut set- 
tlei-, 122. 

Bradley, HcTiry, sketch. 122. 

Braums, August, aid acknowledged, 110. 

Bri'w.ster, Mrs. Virginia Allen, of Wau- 
kesha County Historical Society, 123. 

Brigham, Ebenezer, at Blue Mounds, 

Brisbols, Joseph, early Trempealeau 
trader, 247. 

Biodhead, Daniel, letter to. 125, 142. 

Brothertown Indians, reservation, 194. 

Broughton, James, Arcadia pioneer, 24S, 

Brown, — , in Grant County, 235. 236, 

Brown, Charles E.. letter, 123. 

Brcwn, Jacob, sketch. 220. 

IWown, Mark, meets U. S. Grant, 245. 

Brown, S. M., Xeenah manufacturer, 

Brown County, organized, 185, 186 ; ori- 
gin of name, 220: judge. 112. 

Biiilianan, James, presidential campaign, 
282, 280. 

Buffalo (N. Y.), markets, 237. 

BufTalo (Wis.), site. 246. 

Burralo County, organized, 209; origin 
r>f name, 220. 

Bunnell. L. II.. ^Vinona and Us En- 
virons, 248. 

Bunnell, Wlllard B.. early Trempealeau 
trader. 248. 

Burling. Henry, In Ripon, 260. 


Burni'tt, Thomas P.. sketch, 220, 221. 
Burnett County, organized, 211, 212; 

origin of name, 220. 
Butler, Henry S., secretary of Superior 

Historical Society, 120. 
Butte des Morts, trail, 253, 269. 
Butterfield, C. W., History of Green 



History of Racine 
History of Vernon 

C.M.OKiA (111.), in fur-trade, 224. 

Cairo (111.), visited, 234. 

California, gold-fields, 240. 

Calumet, military road, 268. 

Calumet County, organized, 194, 195 ; 
oiigin of name, 221. 

Calvert. Edmund, of Sauk County His- 
torical Society, 119. 

Crimeron, D. E., early Milwaukee pub- 
lisher, 273. 

Cameron, Simon, Pennsylvania senator, 

Cannon, John, letter to, 141. 

Carleton, Guy, commands Indians, 129, 
132, 134, 141. 

Carver, Jonathan, reliability, 143-155; 
bibliography, 15.5-183 ; sketch, 143. 
144 ; letter, 149-151 ; maps, 157, 221 ; 
Xrw Unircrsdl Traveller, 145 ; Trav- 
els, 143-155, 177, 178; Treatise on 
Culture of Tobacco Plant, 145. 

Cass, Lewis, governor of Michigan Ter- 
ritory, 112. 

Cassville, pioneer of, 220 ; Dewey at. 

Catlin, — , Green Lake County pioneer, 

Centralla, paper-mill near, 279. 

Charlevoix, I'ierre Francois Xavier de, 
writings, 145, 146, 153; Journal of 
Voyage to Xorth America, 155. 

Cheek, Philip, 'Sauk County in the Civil 
War," 118. 

Chequamegon, French post, 220. 

Cherokee Indians, habitat, 128 ; 
threaten setileraents, 138 ; Shawnee 
visit. 136. 

Chevalier. Marinette, sketch, 226. 

Chicago, laid out, 223 ; stage route to. 
236 ; paper market. 273. 

Chicago & Nortliwestern Hailway Co.. 
erects mt-morial tablet. 107-109 ; 
route, 236. 

Chipriewa County (Mich.), organized, 

Chipp'wa County (Wis.), organized. 109, 
200 ; origin of name, 221. 


Chippewa Indians, migration, 221 ; habi- 
tat, 246 ; language, 225, 229 ; at 
treaty, 126, 127; message to, 13.5; 
threaten Fort Pitt, 139. 

Christiansen. Fred, at historical meet- 
ing, 116. 

Cincinnati, markets, 237. 

Clark, A. W., Wisconsin pioneer, 221. 

Clr.rk, Charles B., Neenah manufacturer, 

Clerk County, organized, 209; origin of 
name, 221. 

Clark, George Rogers, campaign, 142 ; 
sketch, 221. 222. 

Clark, John G., visits Madison, 244. 

Clark. Satterlee, early Trempealeau 
trader, 247 ; farm site, 253. 

Clay, Ilonry, homestead. 219. 

Cleveland, Grover, presidential cam- 
paign, 294. 

Clinton, Henry, papers of, 126. 

Cobb, Nathan, early paper manufac- 
turer, 274. 

Cole, Orsamus, chief justice, 243. 

CoUaraer, Jacob, Vermont senator. 288. 

Colton, J. H., Emifjranfs Guiile. 270. 

Columbia (Pa.), improvements, 233. 

Columbia County, organized, 201 ; ori- 
gin of name, 222. See also Portage 

Columbia Straw Paper Company, 274. 

Columbus (Wis.), settled, 222. 

Coc'stock, Noah, Arcadia pioneer, 249, 

Conant's Rapids, paper-mill at, 279. 

Connolly, John, commands Fort Dun- 
more, 129; intrigue, 130; at Pitts- 
burgh treaty, l.'U. 

"Consolation", early steamer, 257. 

Cook, James, expedition (1768-1771), 

Cook. Samuel A., Neenah manufacturer, 
277, 278. 

Cornish, In Wisconsin, 240. 

Counterfeiters, early, in Green Lake 
County, 269. 

Cowie, George, Trempealeau pioneer, 

Crawford, William H., fort named for, 

Crawford County, organized, 186-188; 
origin of name, 222; oil found, 241. 

Creeks : Flk, 248. Pigeon, 248. Pike, 
settlement on, 225. Silver, settlement 
on, 202. Twin I-ako, mill ou, 260, 

Crombif, J. II., early Whitewater nianu 
facturer, 274. 

Crown I'oint, letter from, 127. 

Cunningham. G. H., History of yeenah, 

Gushing, William B., birthplace, 124. 

D\KiN place, in Green Lake County, 

Dakota, part of Wisconsin Territory, 

Dallas County. See Barron. 

Darrty, Winnebago chief, 264-266. 

Done, Nathan, statesman, 222. 

Dane County, organized, 190 ; origin of 
name, 222. 

Darling, Dr. Mason C, Fond du Lac 
pioneer, 259, 271. 

Dart, Anson, Dartford pioneer, 252, 
270-272 ; sketch, 259. 

Dart. Charles, Green Lake County pio- 
neer, 254. 

Dart, Eliza Catlin, Dartford pioneer, 

Dart, George, Green Lake County pio- 
neer, 258, 270. 

Dart, Oliver, Green Lake County pio- 
neer, 208. 

Dart, Putnam, Green Lake County pio- 
neer, 254, 270, 272. 

Dart, Richard. Green Lake County pio- 
neer. 254. 272 ; sketch, 252 ; "Settle- 
ment of Green Lake County," 252-272. 

Dartford. origin of name, 271 ; site, 
255, 270. 

Dartmouth, Lord, letter to, 120. 

Davis, — , early Arcadia carpenter, 250. 

Davis, John R., Neenah manufacturer,, 

Dclafield, historical meeting at, 123. 

Dclavan, founded, 230. 

Delaware Indians, at treaty, 126, 127,. 
129. 132, 140: right to lands, 136;: 
chief, 137 ; friendly, 131, 142. 

De Neveu family, Green Lake Countjr 
pioneers, 270. 

Dennison & Turner, early Whitewater 
manufacturers, 274. 

Dent, Julia, marries U. S. Grant, 244. 

De Peystcr, A. S.. letter, 134. 

Detroit, British governor, 222 ; espedi- 
tloii against, 12S, 141, 142; defence, 
134 ; spy at, 137. ' 

Dewey, George, Arcadia pioneer, 249. 

De\\ey. Nelson, governor of Wisconsin, 

Dodge, Gen. Henry, governor and In- 
dian agent, 247 ; reminiscences of, 
242 ; sketch, 222. 

Dodge County, organized, 192, 193; or- 
igin of name, 222. 



Doilgevlllo, founded, 222 ; on military 

rond. 2:56. 2.:7. 
Duolittle. Capt. IIi>nr.v, mentioned. 200. 
Doolittle. James Rood, appreciation of, 

Dcor County, organized, 204; origin of 

name. 222. 22.}. 
Douglas Couut.v, organized, 210 ; origin 

of name. 22:}. 
Draper. Lyman C. suggests county 

name, 221, 222; MSS. cited, 12.j, 131. 

141, 221. 
Drews, Otto, "History of Kossuth," 115. 
Duliuque (lowat, first railroad, 2:}8. 
Dulutli, Daniel Greysolon, explores Wis- 

con.'^in. 227. 
DuDinore, Lord, on frontier, 12G, 129; 

fugitive. IP.O : intrigue. 1:^0. 1.31. 
Dunmore County (Va.), militia, 139. 
Dunn. Charles, chief justice, 243 ; 

sketch, 223.. 
Di.nn, Kate, married, 242. 
Dunn County, organized, 210 ; origin of 

jiJ>me, 223. 

Eaglf (Wis.). Open Door Club, 123. 

Kami's. Wilberforce, aid acknowledged, 
143; cited, ITS. 

Knst Arcadia, landmark in, 2."0. 

Eastman, Ben C, member of Congress, 

Eau Claire County, organized, 212; or- 
igin of name, 223. 

Elgin (111.1. stage route to. 230. 

Elkhom, settled. 122; library, 121, 122. 

Elmore, James IL, on committee. 107, 

Empire township. De Xeveus in. 270. 

Eaglish. in Northwest, 12.".. 120, 128, 
129; at Green Bay, 107; relations 
with Indians, 132, i::3. l.;0. 140-142. 

English, Mrs. J. E., "Newport to-day," 

Esses (Mass.), Gazette, 144, 152. 

E\ans. Jonathan Henry, sketch. 232, 
233 ; anci'stry. 23(5 ; "Reminiscences of 
Early Grant County," 232-245. 

E.^iitFiFi.p (Conn. I, early settlors. 122. 
F'alge, Louis, of Manitowoc County 

Historical Society. 110. 
Farnsworth. William, fur-trader, 22(5. 
C<'nniiu"re. site. 24."'>. 
FIncastle County (Va.). defense. 139. 
Fislier, H. I)., assigns nnmes, 22.}. 
Florence (^ounty, organized, 217; origin 

of name. 223. 
Flcw.-r, Frank \., Ilixtom of Waukcuha 

Co until, 2:'. I. 

Fcrd, John R., Neenah manufacturer, 

Forest County, organized, 218; origin 
of name, 223. 

Forts : Blair, burned, 120. Crawford, 
built, 222. Cumberland, [jlan against. 
130. Detroit, site, 125, 120. Dun 
more, garrison. 129. Fincastle. at- 
tacked, 130. Gage, garrison, 130. 
Howard, dedication of memorial tab- 
let, 107-109; early festivities, 112 
Kaskaskia, site, 123. Pitt (1775), 
site, 120; endangered, 130; defended, 
130. Randolph, defended, 139. St. 
Vincent, site, 125. Ticonderoga, cap- 
tured, 129. Wheeling, defended. 139. 
Winnebago, trail to, 253 ; Indian 
agent. 247 ; officer, 204. 

Fond du Lac, pioneers, 252, 259, 270 ; 
military road to, 208. 

Fond du Lac County, organized, 193, 
194 ; origin of name, 223. 

Fountain City, early visit to. 240, 250. 

Fowler, Smith, Green Lake County pi- 
oneer, 270. 

Fos, James J., on committee, 108. 

Fox Indians, habitat. 224. 227. 231 ; at 
treaty, 127 ; join British. 142. 

For River P.nper Company. 2~f<. 

Frambach. Col. H. A.. Kaukauna manu- 
facturer. 278. 279. 

Frederick County (Va.). militia, 139. 

Freoport (III.), stage route to, 230. 

Frees, B. M.. Whitewater settler. 274. 

Fremont. John C, presidential candi- 
date. 2S5. 

Fiench, relics of coiircurs de iois, 109 ; 
in Northwest. 125, 120, 132; at 
Green Bay, 111 ; in Trempealeau val- 
ley, 24G. 

Frink. — , proprietor of stage line. 230. 

Fur-trade, in Northwest, 125 ; in Wis- 
consin, 246, 248. 

Gage, Gen. Thomas, instrtictions, 129, 

Galena (111.), visited, 234: shipping 
point. 2.;t;-23S ; IT. S. at. 244. 

Gannett. Henry. "Place Names," 219-22.'^. 

Gates. John L., county named for, 228. 

G:'tes (^nInty. S. e Rusk. 

Germaine. Lord George, letter, 1.''.8. 141. 

Gilbert. William M.. paper manufac- 
turer. 278. 

Gilbert & Whiting. M<Tiasha pap^^r firm, 

Girty, Simon, interpreter, 131. 

(Jb'ason. — , earlv Cireeu Lake trader, 

Glencoe Ridge, visited 249. 




Goodhue, James R., lawyer, 24.3. 

Grand Prairie. Staple on. l'.".">. 

Grand Rapids (Wis.), paper mills, 270; 
mayor, 231. 

(Jrant, .Tamos, fur-trader. L'i;4. 

Grant, Jesse, leather merchant. 24.3. 244. 

Grant, Simpson, death, 244. 

Grant, I'lysses S., notice of, 243, 24.". 

Grant County, or.sranized, l'.M5 ; origin of 
name, 223 ; reminiscences of, 2.".2-24r>. 

Great Kakalin. See Kaukauna. 

Great Lakes, Indians on, 120, 132 ; sur- 
vey of, 220. 

Greeley, A. W., Explorers and Travel- 
ers, 140. 

Green Bay, early settlers, 107, 111, 
22."> ; land claims. Ill; visited. 2."i2 ; 
paper-mills at, 27S ; historical celebra- 
tions at, 107-113; land district, ISo, 

Green County, organized, lOG ; origin cf 
name, 224. 

Green Lake County, organized. 212, 213; 
origin of name, 224 ; early settlemint. 

Greenbrier (W. Va.>, frontier town, 120. 

Greenhow, Robert, Oregon and Califor- 
nia, 140. 

Gregory, John Goadby, "Jonathan Car- 
ver," 140. 

Griffith, Edward M.. state forester, 

Grignon, Antoine. Indian interpreter, 

Grignon, Louis, diath of. 112. 

Grignon, Pierre, early Green Bay set- 
tler, 111. 

ri>BnEr.nER. Otto, address, 110. 

Ilagerstown tMd.), Connolly captured 
at, 130. 

Ilr.Idiraand, Frederick, letter to. 134. 

Hamlin, Ilannilial. Maine senator, 2.S8. 

Hall, — , captain of -paoli,'- 144. 

Hamilton. — , early Dartford lawyer, 

Hamilton, Henry, governor of Detroit, 
120, 13.3-1 3S. 141, 142, 222. 

Hampshire County (Xa.). militia, 130. 

Hancock, John, h'tti'r, 1,30, 14 0. 

Hastings. — , at >(anitowoc County His- 
torical Society. IK). 

Hathaway. Joshua, early surveyor, 225. 

Hawks, Nelson, letter, 124. 

Ilaynes. Myrnn 11. L\. early paper man- 
ufacturer, 274. 

Hrzel (inen. early roads, 23."?. 

Hinnepin, Louis, voyage. 220; works, 
145. 150, 153; .Ycir Discovery, l."i5. 

Ilfnry, Patrick, letter, 140. 
Ilensel. Julius, Arcadia settler, 24.S. 
Hewitt, Henry Jr., Kaukauna manufac- 
turer, 27S. 
Hewitt. W. I*., Kaukauna manufacturer, 

Hill, James II., address. 118, 110. 
Hthart, John, Green Bay manufacturer, 

Ilr.dgp. V. \V.. '"Handbook of .Vmerican 

Intlians," 221, 225, 227. 
Holand, Hjalmer R., address, 110. 
Hollidaysburg (Pa.), improvements, 233 
Holmes, Thomas A., early Trempealeau 

trader, 248. 
Hooper, Moses, early paper manufac 

turer, 274. 
Horner, Gov. John S., Rlpon pioneer, 

253, 202, 271. 
Ilovard, Charles B., Menasha manu 

facturer, 278. 
H<-we. George, letter, 138. 
Howe, Timothy, candidate for sena 

tor, 245. 
Hi'ghitt, Marvin, aids Green Bay coin 

mittee, 107. 
Ililst, Florence, names in honor of, 

Hulst. N. P.. mining expert, 223. 
Huntington, J. T., "Rafting on the 

Wisconsin," 118. 
Hyde, — , pioneer innkeeper, 245. 
H\zer, E. W.. address, 100. 

Illinois, as boundary, 185, 180. 180; 
Indians of, 125 ; captured by Clark, 
222; Morgan In, 130; settlers from, 
234 ; early stage lines, 2.30. 

Indiana, settlers from. 234 ; territory 
oiganized, 184; as boundary. 185. 

Indians : vessels and tools. 100 ; hunt- 
ing methods, 200; "winter wigwams" 
(mounds), 207; trails. 234, 235, 240, 
253, 200 ; confederacy, 138 ; maraud- 
ing. 113, i:!4-13i;, 140; relations with 
English, 120. 132-130; with Tnited 
States, 118. 110. 128. 1.30. 140, 142; 
land cc^ssion.s, 247, 253 ; reservations, 
104, 105. See also Treaties. 

Iowa, part of Wisconsin Territory, 100; 
government land In, 232 ; stage lines, 

Iowa County. org:inized, ISS, ISO; or- 
igin of name. 224. 

Icwr. Indians, at tr<'aty, 127; In Brit- 
ish employ, 142 ; migrations. 224. 

Iron County, organizeii, 218; origin of 
name, 224. 



ItcQuois Indians (Six Nations). in 
Northern Department, 12S ; neutral- 
Itj. 127 ; message to, 135 ; at treaty, 
140; take prisoner, 136; blaclssmiths, 
137 ; with Carver. 149, 132. 

Island Paper Company, Menasha firm, 

Islands : Apostle, 201, 214. Madelaine, 

Jackson County, organized, 20G. 207 ; 
origin of name, 224. 

Jacobs. John B., fur-trader, 226. 

Jiimes, James xVlton, "Indian Diplo- 
macy and Resolution in West." 12o- 

Jamison, John, early paper manufac- 
turer, 274. 

Janesville (Wis.), stage route to, 236. 

JtflVrson County (Wis.). organized, 
190 ; origin of name, 224. 

Jerniain & Brightman, Milwaul^eo pub- 
lishers, 273. 

Jesuit missionaries. In Wisconsin, 226. 

Johnson, AndreTV, president, 291, 293. 

Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth, nee Dart, 

Johnson, Guy, incites Indians, 127, 132. 

Johnstown (I'a. ), improvements, 233. 

Jones, A. A., address. 119. 

Jones, Ambrose, '"Directory of New- 
port," lis. 

Jcnes. David, Green Bay pioneer, 262. 

Jones, George Wallace, reminiscence. 

Jones, Grace P.. address, 124. 

Jourdain, Joseph, early Green Bay set- 
tler, 112. 

Jourdain, Madeline, marriage, 112. 

Juneau. Solomon, sketch. 224. 225. 

Juneau County, organized, 211 ; origin 
of name, 224, 225. 

Kansas, In politics. 2S6, 287. 

Kflskaskia (111.), captured, 142. 

Kaukauna, paper-making in. 278 ; mili- 
tary station. 254. 

Keating, William H., Long's Expedi- 
tion, 224. 

Keene, Mrs. Mary, nee Dart, 257. 

Kelley, Tim. proposed speaker, 116. 

Kellogg, Louise P., "Wisconsin Coun- 
ties." 1S4-2.',1. 

Kelton. D. II., Annals of Fort Mack- 
inncj 227. 

Kendall, location, 232. 

Kenosha County, organized. 202 ; origin 
of name, 225. 

Kentucky, threatened by Indians, 138; 
settKment. 140; Wisconsin settleis 
from, 234. 242. 

Kfttonhoffen, Nicholas, donates monu- 
ment, 115. 

Kewaunee County, organized, 206 ; or- 
igin of name, 225. 

Kickapoo Indians, at treaty, 127. 

Kioder, Rev. Samuel T., interviews 
Richard Dart, 252. 

Kill ourn, ceremony near. 119. 

Kill ourne. Sarah, married, 233. 

Kimberly. J. Alfred, Xcenah manufac- 
turer, 276. 

Kimberly, John A., Jr., Neenah manu- 
facturer, 277. 

Kin berly, Clark & Company, Neenah 
manufacturers, 275, 276, 278. 

Kimberly (Wis.), paper-mill at, 277. 

King. Preston, New York senator, 288. 

Kinzic. Mrs. John II., Waitbun, 256. 

Kittaniiing (Pa.j, frontier town, 126. 

Knaggs, James, early Oshkosh trader, 

Knaggsville, site, 253. 

Kn.'ipp, Gilbert, founder of Racine, 

Kcssuth (Wis.), history, 115. 

L.i CnossE, pioneers of. 249. 

La Crosse County, orgnnized, 205. 206 ; 
origin of name, 225. 

Lac Verd. See Lakes : Green. 

Lafayette County (Wis.), organized, 
2<il, 202, 232; origin of name, 225; 
Historical Society Report, 114. 

Lnhontan, Louis Armand de Lom 
dWrce, writings, 145, 146, 153 ; Neio 
Voyages to North America, 155. 

La Ices : Chetac, as boundary, 188, 200. 
Court Oreille, as boundary, 187, lOS. 
200. Green, French name for, 224 ; 
outlet, 255 ; settlers on, 253. Huron 
described, 144. Long, as boundary, 
187, 198. Michigan, as boundary, 
185, 189; affluents, 229; Indians on. 
126; described, 144. Pepin. as 
boundary, 187, 197 ; origin of name. 
227 ; location, 149. I'uckaway, game 
on, 260; trader, 26D. Rush, early 
visit to. 254 ; game on, 260. Sha- 
wano, origin of name, 229. Spring, 
in Green Lake County, 253. Su- 
perior, as boundary, 184. 186, 108. 
200 ; survejed. 220 ; sandstone of. 
116; dfscriljed. 143. 144; Carver on. 
150-152. Twin, mill site, 25:1; game 
on, 260. Winnebago, as boundary, 
185 ; location, 223 ; Included In coun- 



Lakes — Continued. 

ties, 194, lO.j ; Indian vmag<> on, 
221 ; military road by, 2r>7 ; visited, 
254. Yellow, as boundary, 19S, 2<i0. 

Lciicaster, mining town, 236, 237 : 
Dewey at, 243. 

Lnrglade, Charles, siietch. 225. 

Lriiglade County, organized, 215, 210; 
origin of name, 225. 

Lapham, Julia A., report of Waukesha 
County ni.<torical Society, 123, 124. 

La Pointp, origin of name, 210, 220. 

La Pointe County. See Bayfield. 

La Potherie. Bacqueville de, Canadian 
historian. 221. 

Laurens, Henry, letter, 134. 

Lawson, Publius V.. "Paper making in 
Wisconsin." 2T.3-2S0. 

Lead mining, decadence in Wisconsin, 
240, 241. 

Lee, John Thomas, "Bibliography of 
Carver's Travels," 143-183. 

Legler. Henry E., at Green Bay cele- 
bration, IhO; "Place Names in Wis- 
consin," 220. 227, 231. 

Lemoult, Richard, at Detroit, 12.".. 

Le Uoy, Fran<;ois. at Portage, 2.''>0. 

Le Roy, Pierre, sketch, 25G, 270 ; farm, 

Leslie. See Belmont. 

Ltttsom, J. C, editor, 143, 140, 153- 
loo ; "Some Account of Captain J. 
Carver," 147, 154. 

Lircoln, Abraham, presidential cam- 
paign. 293. 

Lincoln County, organized, 214, 21". ; 

origin of name. 225. 
Linclot. Godefroy de, leads Indians, 

Long. A., Green Lake pioneer, 26S. 
I.oid, Hugh, at Fort Gage, l3n. 

Lorraine, — , liiiuor draler, 245. 
Loiii&ville (Ky.), grave at, 2.;4. 
Lrr.irgton &' Garland, early landowii- 

ers, 273. 
Luther, E. L.. president of Kipon Ilis- 
tcrical Society, 117. 

Mri\\RTHY. Francis D., Taychee.lah pi 

oneer, 270. 
Mcrormick. — , Bay manufacturer, 

McTntosh. Gen. Lachlan, at Fort Pitt, 

Mack.nac. fur trad. rs. Ill, li:"., 224: 

early settler, 225; Carver at. 148- 

l.-.O. 152. 
Madison (Wis.), visited, 236: military 

read to, 2:'.ri. 237 ; federal fonst lab 

oratory. 2m>. 

M:in:to\voc County, organized, 195 ; ori- 
gin of name, 225, 220; pioneers. 110; 
transportation activities. 115 ; Histor- 
ical Society report. 115, 110. 

Manitowoc Rapids, Chief Mexico's mon- 
ument, 110. 

Marathon County, organized, 202, 203; 
orig:n of name. 220. 

Marest (Marais), — , Jesuit missionary, 


Marinette County, organized, 216 ; ori- 
gin of name, 220. 

Mark<-san. pioneer of, 253. 

Maniuetti>, Father Jacques, explorer. 

Marquette County, organized, 195, 190; 
origin of name. 220 ; population 
(18401. 270; township changes, 271. 

Marshall, W. S., address, 119. 

Marston, Capt. — , experience with 
Dandy, 204-200. 

Martin, Deborah B., at Green Bay cele- 
bration, 109. 111-113. 

Martin. John F., address, 110. 

Martin, Morgan L., plats Milwaukee, 

Mei.asha, paper-making In, 277, 278 ; 
P.-ess, 275. 

Menominee Indians, habitat, 229 ; vil- 
lage, 221 ; hunting grounds, 246 ; 
land cession, ISO, 195, 197, 201 ; 
payment, 225 ; language, 227 ; wife 
of white man. 111. 

Menominocville (Green Bay), early set- 
tlement, 112. 

Mercer. Mrs. Charles, formerly Mrs. 
David Bishop. 250. 

Mi-rrill. paper-mill at, 279. 

Metomen township, added to Fond du 
Lac County, 271. 

Mertzke. Mrs. Emma, address, 110. 

Miami Indians, at treaty, 120, 127. 

Michigan, territorial governor, 112; 
Pioiurr mill Historical Collections, 
125, 120. 134. 135. 1.30, 141. 142. 

Michillimackinac. See Mackinac. 

Michilimackinac Countv (Mich.i. ori^an- 
Izod. isi. 1S5: as boundary. 180. 

Miller. Warner, paper manufacturer, 

Milwaukee, fur-traders at. 224. 225; 
lake port. 237. 238 ; stage line to. 
2.10 ; paper-making at. 273, 274 ; sol- 
diers' home, 121. 

Milwaukee County. organized. 180; 
origin of name. 220. 

Mini'ral Point, pioneer at, 230; cop- 
per mines, 237. 

Mii.j:o Indians, at treaty. 120. 127, 
120. 132; migrations, 130; un- 
friendly, 13S. 140. 

[ 303 ] 


Minnosota. part of Wisconsin Terri- 
tory. I'JO, IMS. 200. 210, 212: His- 
torical Collections, 221. 

Missouri, settlers from. 234, 242. 

Mitchell, S. I)., near Green Lake, 268. 

Monongalia County ( W. Va.), militia. 

Monroe County, organized, 210, 211 ; 
origin of name. 227. 

Montague (Mass.), Carver's home, 144, 

Montfort (Wis. i, military road, 237. 

Montgomery County, proposed. 180. 

Montour, John, visits Wyandots, 137. 

Moore, Jascph, «earjy TrempeaU'au 
trader, 247. 

Mcrgan, George, Indian policy, 128 ; 
Indian agent, 1.3G, 1.37, 140-142; 
letters from, 126-12S, 134-136, 138, 

Morgan. Maj. Willoughby, builds fort, 

Morris, Lewis, letter to. 12G. 

Morse, Jedediah. geographer, 14G. 

Movry, Duane, "An Appreciation of 
James Rood Doolittle," 281-20G. 

Mount Trempealeau, Indian namts for, 

Mur.see Indians, at treaty, 127, 140. 

Xavdowesse Indians. See Sioux. 

N'ebraslia, Indians in. 235. 

Neenah, paper-making in. 274-277. 

Xekoosa, paper-mill at. 270. 

.Nevillo, .Vrthur C, report of Green Bay 

Historical Society. 107-111. 
New County. See Langlade. 
New Diggings (Wis.), mining town, 

Now England, in French and Indian 

War, 143, 152. 
Newman, C. Xoenali manufacturer. 

New Orleans, markets, 237. 

Ni'wport (Wis. K homecoming. 118. 110. 

New York Indians, removed to Wiscon- 
sin. 227 ; settlors from. 234. 

Niagara (Wis. >, paper-mill at. 277, 278. 

Nicola, Gen. — , papers of. 12G. 

Nlcolet. Jean, arrival in Wisconsin, 

Nixon. (Jen. John, papers of. 12G. 

Noah's Bluff, near Arcadia. 2.'il. 

.\'o(,ti;m & McNaf>. early Milwaukee pub- 
liKhers, 27.'5. 

"Northern Belle," Mississippi steam- 
brat, 2SR. 

Nov.. 11, Winslow A., early manufac 
tvrer, 273. 

OcnxoMowoc, reminiscences of, 124. 

Oconto County, organized, 203, 204 ; ori- 
gin of name, 227. 

Ohio Indians, at Pittsburgh treaty, l.'^l- 

Ohio County (W. Va.). militia. 140. 

OP'^^ida County, organized, 217, 218; or- 
igin of name. 227. 

Oreida Indians, in Wisconsin, 227. 

Oitcn, r. A., report of Lafayettu 
County Historical Society, 114., pioneer miller, 229 ; pioneer 
ferryman. 270 ; early name for, 2.">3. 

Ottawa Indians, at treaty, 12G, 127 ; 
threaten Fort Pitt. 139. 

Outagamie County, organized, 204 ; ori- 
gin of name, 227. 

Ordinance of 1787. framer, 222. 

Ozaukee County, organized, 208; origin 
of name, 227. 

Paxthkrs,- in Wisconsin. 257. 

"I'aoii." early vessel. 144. 

Paper-making, in Wisconsin. 273-280 r 
methods. 275, 276. 

Piiquettc, Moses, at Green Bay, 2G4. 

Pnquette. Pierre, early trader. 256. 200. 

Pa-.kman Club PiihlirnUons, cited. 146. 

Paul, Alexander. Menasha manufac- 
turer, 27S. 

Patten, A. W., Neenah manufacturer, 

Peckham & Krueger. Fox River manu- 
facturers, 276. 

Pc(lii-1-. S. M.. report of Ilipon His- 
torical Society, 117. 

Peiinsylvania. boundary dispute. 130; 
internal iinprovem-^nts. 233 ; Indian 
troubles. 135, 141; currency, 12S; 
settlers from, 234 ; Colonial Records, 

Pennsylvania Railway, built. 232, 233. 

Pepin (Wis.), pioneer of. 219. 

Pepin County, organized. 212; origin 
of name. 227. 

Perkins, — , leather merchant. 244. 

Percival. James Gates, sketch, 241. 242. 

Pewaukee, early history, 124. 

Philadelphia. Indians visit. 137, 140; 
injprovi ments, 232. 2."..3. 

Philbrook. Mrs. — , Wisconsin pioneer, 

Plioi nix. Samu'-l F.. founder of Dela- 
van. 2.".o. 

Pier family. Fond du Lac pioneers, 270. 

Pifrce, Klien Houglas, "Settlement of 
.Xrcadia." 24t">-251. 

Pierce, Guy C, address, 119. 



Pierce County, org.iniz'd, 208 ; origin 
of nanu', I'JT. 

Pike. Zobulon M.. oxplorer. 22.',. 

I'iiling, Janu's Constantinf. Bih'i- 
oijiaphu of titc Alijoit'iiiin La )i>7iiii ;/<'<. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.). Indian treaty at, 129- 
137. 140. 141: markets. 2:57; im- 
provemtnts, 2.".2. 2.!."; : Evans at. 2.'?4. 

Platteville (Wis. i. pioneers. 2.'!2-2:;4. 
2.36, 242. 24:". : U. S. Grant at. 24.") ; 
enrly roads. 2:57. 2.';s ; bank, 2.'!2 ; 
acadomy, 2.;2. 

Pliiggy's Town (Oiiio), Indian cruel- 
ties, 127, 140. 

Phinih, R. O., report of Manitowoc 
County IIi.storical Society, 11.";, 110; 
address, 110. 

Polk, James K., presidential campaign, 

Poik County, organized, 20S ; origin of 
name, 227. 

Pcnd, Peter. Journal, 147, 14R. 

Porlier, .lacfjues. in Torlier-Tank cot- 
tage, 107, 111-11.3. 

Porlier, Marguerite, garden of. 112. 

Port Kdwards. paper-mill at. 279. 

Pert Gilbert. See Racina 

Portage (Wis.), Indian council nt 
(]S:i6), 247. 

Portage County, organized, 190-192 ; ori- 
gin of name, 227. 228. 

Portages : Fo.^-Wisconsin, 1S.">. 227, 22S. 
Plover, 22S. 

Pcrto des Morts. origin of term. 22.3. 

Potawatomi Indians, habitat, 22(J, 2.".-'> ; 
ac treaty, 12(5, 127; l.inguage, 2.31. 

Potosi (\Vis.'», mining town, 2.37. 




Jumis, Green I.ake pioneer, 
Peter, early Wisconsin trader. 


224 ; 

William. early 

trader, 2H!). 
Powell's spring, trail, 2.".3. 
Prairie du Chien. in furtrade, 

Indian agent at, 220 ; stage 

226 ; oflicers, 243. 
Preston township. 249. 2."><i. 
Price, William T.. sketch. 228. 
Price County, organized. 210 ; origin of 

name, 228. 
Prlcger, Kmest, & Company, Milwaukee 

manufacturer^. 273. 
Prl. St, .\. W., Kaukauna manufacturer, 

Pritchard. .1. F. ••Railroad History of 

Manitowoc County," 115. 

Q( TBRO. .\nvr; an operations again-: 
129; governor at. 13,"i. 


Racine, founded, 228; United States 
senator from, 2S1-2S4. 

R;icine County, organized. 190; origin 
of name. 228. 

Rardall. — , Wisconsin giant. 239. 

Randall. .Me.Kander. candidate for sen- 
ator, 24."'). 

Ra.A-euI, M.. Indian partisan, 12."). 

Red P.anks. Nicolet at. 107-110. 

Reed. .Tames. Trempealeau pioneer. 247. 

Rhinolander, paper-mill at. 279. 

Rice, Henry M.. promotes town. 220. 

Richland County, organized. 199; origin 
of name. 228. 

Ricklin, I,. A., at Green Bay celebra- 
tion. lOS. no. 

Richmond Brothers. early Appleton 
manufacturers, 274. 

Ridgcway (Wis.), military road, 237. 

Ripon. site, 213, 271 ; pioneers, 253, 
209; Historical Society report, 117. 

Rivers: Alleghen.v. 120. 132. Bacque- 
ville ; see. Chippewa. Bad Ax, 230. 
Beef, 199 ; see also Buffalo. Black, 
as boundary. 188. 109. 20.J-207, 210, 
211; trail to, 249. Black Bass; see 
Oconto. Bon Secours ; see Chippewa. 
Buffalo, as boundary, ISS ; origin of 
name, 220. Chippewa, as boundarv, 
188, 19!), 209: different appellations, 
221 ; tributary, 223. Eau Claire, In- 
dian terra for. 223. Fo.-c (111.), 231. 
Fox (Wis. I, as boundary, IS.". ISO, 191, 
192. 201 ; pioneer voyages. 2."i4 ; paper- 
making on, 274, 270. Grand Forks, as 
boiindary. 187. Grant, Indian name. 
224. Juniata, canal from, 233. 
Kanawha, fort on, 120, 140. Ken- 
tucky, Indians on, 136. Kewaunee, 
early name, 225. Lemonwelr, as 
boundary. 19], 202. Manitowoc. In- 
dians on. 115; origin of name, 225. 
220. Maumee, Indians on, 125. 
Meadow, as boundary, 187, 198. Me- 
nomone', paper-mills on. 273. Miss- 
issippi .ns boundar.v. 180. 188. 189, 
198. 109, 209, 210; discovery. 220; 
explorations. 143. 152, 224; descrip- 
tion, 14 1; .nffluent.s, 149, 150; route 
via, 23 1, 2:!5 : post on. 125; steam- 
ers. 237. 2.38: Indian.s. 224. Mis- 
souri, Indians on, 224. Monongahela, 
s.-outing on. 135. .Montreal, as boun- 
dary. 187. 198, 2fiO. Muddy Island, 
as boundary, 1!)8. 2u(i. Muskingum, In- 
dians on. 120. Oconto, early name, 
227. Ohio. Indians on, 125. 120, 129. 
139; attack via. 132; scouting on. 
135; settlements on, 140; steamboats, 
234; transportation, 237. Peckaton- 
I'-a. Indian camp on. 2.'.5. I'latte, In- 



Rivers — Continued. 

dian camp on, 235. Porcupine, as 
boundary, 1S7, 197. Pucl:ayan, Green 
Lake outlet, 254. Rod Cedar, as 
boundary, IS", 198. Rocli, origin of 
name, 22S ; mill on, 270. Root, ori- 
gin of name, 22S. Rush, as bound- 
ary, 198. St. Croix, as boundary, 
198. St. Lawrence, surveyed, 220. 
St. Pierre, Carver on, 149. Scioto, 
Indians on, i2G, 127; explored, 152. 
Susquehanna, affluent, 135 ; canal. 
233. Trempealeau, as boundary, 205, 
209, 210 ; origin of name, 230 ; ford, 
249 ; French traders on, 246. Tur- 
key, Indians on, 268. Vermillion 
(Ind.), Indians on, 127. Wabash, 
trail via, 125 ; Indians on, 127. Wild 
Bulls; see Buffalo. Willow, game 
on, 260. Wisconsin, as boundary. 
18.J-192, 201, 202. 211 ; rafting on, 118; 
paper-making, 219 ; watershed, 237 ; 
historical celebration, 119 ; see also 
Portages. Wolf, as boundary, ISO, 
196, 203 ; Indians on, 227 ; portage, 
228. Wood ; see Kewaunee. 
Rivieres : De la Roche ; see Rock. Dos 
Boeufs ; see Buffalo. Des Kickapoo ; 
sec Rock. Des Sauteurs ; see Chip- 
Robbins, Abigail,, marries Carver, 143. 
Robinson, — , Neenah paper maker, 275. 
Robinson, Dr. N. S., early paper manu- 
facturer, 274. 
Rocheblave, Noel, fur-trader. 111. 
Rock County, organized, 19G ; origin of 

name, 228. 
Rock Island (111.), site, 228. 
Rocque, Augustin, early Trempealeau 

trader, 246. 
Rogan, Pete, Rock River pioneer, 270. 
Rogers, H. J., Kaukauna manufacturer, 

Rogers, Robert, commandant at Mack- 
inac, 150. 
Rollln, Charles, Ancient History, read 

b" pioneer, 239. 
Rountree, John H., mhie owner, 240- 

Roy, .\mable, early Green Bay settler, 

Roj, Jean, Indian interpreter, 247. 
Roy, Joseph, early Green Bay settler, 

111, 113., Jeremiah M., sketch, 22S, 229. CcHinty, organized, 219 ; origin of 

name, 22S. 
Russell, Frank T., Neenah manufacturer, 

S.VEIN, Joseph, Dictionnrxj of Books Re- 
lating to Aynerica, 145. 

St. Cosme, J. B. Buisson, explorer, 

St. Croix County, organized, 196, 197 ; 
origin of name, 229. 

St. Croix .Falls, pioneer, 219. 

Sr. Louis, Evans at, 234 ; Grant, 244. 

St. Paul (Minn.), early journalism, 243; 
Grant at, 244. 

Sandstone Bluff, near Green Lake, 
253, 256. 

Souk County, organized, 198, 199; ori- 
gin of name, 229 ; in War of Seces- 
sion, 118; Historical Society report, 
118, 119. 

Sauk Indians, significance of name, 
227 ; habitat, 224, 229 ; at treaty, 

126, 127; favor British, 142. 
Sauteur Indians. See Chippewa. 
Sawyer. Philetus, sketch. 229. 
Sawyer, W. P., address, 123. 

Sawyer County, organized, 217; origin 

of name, 229. 
Schoolcraft, Henry R., on place names, 

226 ; Journal, 147 ; Indian Tribes, 

127, 142. 

Schumacher, John P., at Green Bay 

celebration, 108. 
Seneca Indians, at treaty, 126, 132. 
Scrvis, Mrs. C. H., Neenah manufac- 
turer, 277. 

Servis, Mrs. E. A., Xeenah manufac- 
turer, 277. 

Seymour family, genealogy, 121. 

Shattuck, Frank C, Xeenah manufac- 
turer. 276. 

Shawano County, organized, 207. 208 ; 
origin of name, 229. 

Shawnee Indians, significance of name. 
229; at treaties. 126. 127, 132. 140; 
Morgan with, 137 ; at Big Bone Lick, 
136; friendly, 131, 142; hostile. 138. 

Shea, John G., Early Voyages, 226. 

Sheboygan County, organized, 193 ; or- 
igin of name, 229. 

Shelley, George, Arcadia pioneer, 248. 

Shpplierd, David, Revolutionary pioneer, 

Sherry, Hugh, Fox River flour miller, 

Sherwood, John, Green Lake County 
settler, 271. 

Shippenshurg (Pa.), Evans at, 232. 

Shoemaker, II., Neenah manufacturer, 

ShuUsburg (Wis.), early roads, 233. 




Sia-mons, Reuben, Taycheedah pioneer, 

Sioux (Xaudowesse) Indians, described, 
144, 149-151; language, 230; French 
post among, 246. 

Six Nations Indians. See Iroquois. 

Sirith & Van Ostrand, Neonali manu- 
facturers, 275. 

Smitti, Kdward, early paper manufac- 
turer, 274. 

Sn^th, Hiram, early paper manufac- 
turer, 274. 

Smothers, William, early Trempealeau 
trader, 24S. 

Snyder, J. H. Jr.. report of Walworth 
County Historical Society, 121, 122. 

Sogey, Louis A., at Green Bay celebra- 
tion, 109. 

Southport, early name for Kenosha, 

Sonthworth, Mrs. E. D. E. N., novelist, 

Sprnlards, on the iiississippi, 150. 

Staple, Deacon — , on Grand Prairie, 

StPel, Frank, Appleton manufacturer, 

Steele and Foltz farm, trail to, 253. 

Stennett, W. H., Place Xamcs, 231. 

Stewart, I. X., address, 124. 

Stinson, Orin L., report of Sauk County 
Historical Society, US, 119. 

Stockhrldgc Indians, at Fond du Lac, 

Strange Paper Company, Menasha firm, 

Stratton, Charley, in Barnum's circus, 

Sturgis, Betsey, mother of Henry 
Bradley, 122. 

Sullivan, Daniel, Revolutionary spy, 

Superior, site, ISS ; report of Histori- 
cal Society, 120. 

Swain, G. G., "Old Newport." 118. 

Tank. Nils Otto, at Green Bay, 107. 

112, 113. 
Tayclieednh, pioneers, 2.'9. 270. 
Ta\lor, Lowther, Green Lake settler, 

Taylor, Gov. William R., sketch, 229, 

Taylor, Zachary, at Prairie du Chien, 

Taylor County, organized, 215 ; origin 

of name, 229. 
Terhuno, William F., Wisconsin judge, 


Tl'.ilmany. William W., Kaukauna man- 
ufacturer, 278. 

Thwaites, Reuben G., at Green Bay 
celebration, los, 110 ; addresses, 114, 
IIG. 119; interviews Evans, 232, 
233 ; Dunmore's War, 130 ; Henne- 
pin's yew Discovery, 151, 220; Revo- 
lution on Upper Ohio, 12G, 129-130, 
139. 140; Wisconsin, 231. 

Tomahawk (Wis.), paper-mill at, 279., Robert, Georgia senator, 28S. 

Treaties: Camp Charlotte (1774j, 129. 
Fort Stauwix (17GSi< 134. Pitts- 
burgh (1775), 129, 131-137, 140. 
Williamsburg (Va.) (1775). 129. 
With Winnebago (1837), 107, 247. 

Trempealeau, settled, 248. 

Trempealeau County, organized, 210; 
origin ot name, 230. 

Trumhull, Lyman, Illinois senator, 2SS. 

Turner, A. J., Family Tree of Colum- 
hia County, 222. 

Turner. Frederick J., at Green Bay cele- 
bration, 110. 

Tuskola County, proposed, 193. 

I'xiTKD St.\tes : Indian jiolicy, 125- 
142: congressional committee, 139; 
land commissioner. 111 ; Bureau of 
Ethnology. Bulletin, 144, 221 ; Geol- 
ogical Survey, 219; Journals of Con- 
tinnttiil Congress, 128, 131. 134, 13G, 
i:',7, 139, 142 ; Papers of Continental, 120). 

V.\.v BrnEN. Martin, presidential cam- 
paign. 28.'>. 

Vr.n Nortwicks. Kaukauna manufactur- 
ers, 278. 

Van Ostrand. D. C. early paper manu- 
facturer, 274, 275. 

Vernon County, organized, 205 ; origin 
of name, 230. 

Verwyst, Chrysostom, on place names. 

Vetting, Emil, of Manitowoc County 
Historical Society, IIG. 

Vicksburg (Miss.), siege, 244. 

Vieau, .Tacciues. fur-trader, 225. 

Vilas. William P.. sketch, 230. 

Vilas County, organized. 218. 219; ori- 
gin of name, 2.:o. 

Vincennes. captured liy Clark. 222. 

Vineyard. .Tames U.. Wisconsin Icglsla- 
lator, 243. 



Virginia, boundary dispute, 130 ; fron- 
tier threatened, 12G. 13S, 341 ; treaty 
commissioners, 131-133 ; settlers from, 
234 ; sends message to Indians, 135. 

Viroqua (Wis.), pioneer, 220. 

Voelter, Christian, inventor, 279. 

W/LKER, — , proprietor of stage line, 

Walker, Thomas, treaty commissioner, 

Walworth. Reuben H., sketch. 230. 
Walworth County, organized, 190 ; or- 
igin of name, 230 ; report of Histori- 
cal Society, 121. 122. 
Washburn. Cadu-allader C. candidate for 

senator. 24.5; sketch. 230. 231. 
Washburn County, organized, 217; ori- 
gin of name, 231. 
Washington, George, interest in West, 

125, 128. 
Washington County, organized, 193 ; 

origin of name, 231. 
Wars: 1S12-1."'). participants. 222. Black 
Hawk. 222. 223. 247. French and In- 
dian, Carver in. 1-52. Revolution, in 
West, 12.5-127, 129 221 ; Indians in, 
129 ; Carver in, 143. Secession, par- 
ticipants, 229-232. 248; statistics, 121. 
Watertown. early settlement. 270; saw- 
mills, 200. 
Waukesha, reminiscences of, 123 ; post- 
master, 219. 
Waukesha County, organized, 201 ; ori 
gin of name, 231 ; report of Histori- 
cal Society, 123, 124. 
Waupaca County, organized. 204. 205 ; 

origin of name, 231. 
Waupun, Wilcox in. 270. 
Waumegesako (Mexico, Wampum), mon- 
ument to, 115. 
Waushara County, organized, 204 ; or- 
igin of name. 231. 
Wausau. papi'T-mill at. 279. 
Wehrweln, George, proposed speaker, 

West Augusta County (Va.), commit- 
tee of correspondence, 131 ; militia. 
Westmoreland County (Va.), committee. 

13S; militia. 13'.i. 
Westgate, F. J. E., proposed speaker. 

Westover. George F.. of Waukesha 

County Historical Society. 123. 
Wheeler, E. P., on place names. 220. 
Whiti'wat'T, paper factory in, 274. 

White Eyes, Delaware chief, 137. 
Whiting. Col. George A., Neenah man- 
ufacturer, 277-279. 
Whitney, Daniel, Green Bay pioneer, 

Whitney, Mrs. Helen A., gift. 123. 
Whittier, — , Green Lake pioneer, 2."3. 
Wilcox, Seymour, Waupun pioneer. 270. 
Willi.Tms. P:ieazer. marriage, 112. 
Wilson, William, trader, 137, 13S. 
Winneliiigo County, organized. 100. 197 ; 
origin of name, 231 ; County Prcsa, 
Winnebago Indians, habitat. 224, 231. 
235 ; language, 230 ; mounds, 267. 
20S ; hunting grounds, 246 ; Nicolet 
with, 107: land cessions. 247. 253; 
deported, 256, 2(;S ; outbreak, 222. 
Winona (Minn.), Sioux at, 240. 
Winship, George Parker, aid acknowl- 
edged, 143, 157. 
WLsconsln : Counties organized, 1S4- 
219 ; territory, 1S4. ISO, 1S8, 190, 
19S, 235 ; game, 239, 240 ; forestry. 
279, 280 ; mines. 237 ; pioneering 
days. 238. 258-260 : oldest house. 
Ill; roads, 257, 268; stage lines, 
236 ; internal improvements, 232, 
233 ; Indians removed. 235 ; paper- 
making. 27.3-280 : in War of Seces- 
sion. 121, 232; Masonic order, 233; 
normal schools, 232, 233 ; Archipolog- 
ical Society. 110; State Historical 
Society, holds celebration, 107-110 ; 
University, 230, 231 : Academy Trans- 
actions, 226. 
Wisconsin Central Railway Co., in 

Manitowoc County, 115. 
Wisconsin Paper Company, incorpor- 
ated. 273. 
Wolcott, Oliver, cited. 140. 148. 
Wood. James, treaty commissioner. 131. 
Wood, Joseph, sketch, 231. 
Wood County, organized, 211 ; origin 

of nam». 231. 
Worth, Col. William J., commands 

Fort Winnebago, 200-208. 
Wurtzback, Fritz, makes wood pulp, 

W:andot Indians, at treaty, 126, 127, 
132; hostile, 130. 137. 

Ykf.i.ow Tul'XPER, monument to. US, 

Yf.hogania County (Pa.), militia. 140. 
York (Va.). Dunmrire at, 130. 
Youmans, Mrs. 11. M., address, 123. 


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