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Edited by 





First Editioity No"tembtt igoi 

Second EtHtin, Afril 1902 

Third Edititi, Stpitmbtr 1903 

Fturth Ediàtm, Novembtr 1904. 

FifiA EdiiiM, Novirnher 1906 

Ordii» queit' Amore, O tu che m'ami. 

jAcoroMK DA Tool 




Edited by 





Ordina quest* Amore, O tu che m'ami. 

Jacopoki da Tom. 


pB.OLOGUE Ci-[i> The poeti hi uè on the low- 
lying shore eajt of the Mouni of Purgatory, and 
Danitì'» eyea, which in Hell have «tiared the misery of 
his heart, become orini more the initnimfots of delight, 
ai he looki inro die cWar blue tlty and sees Vcnua near 
the eastern tioriion (13-11). The South Poke of the 
Heaveni is well above the aouthcrn horiaon, and all ii 
bached in the lighcof the glorious coniiteLiation nf^versees 
since man, at the Fili, was bani*hcd to the Nonhern 
Heflflì^flhe^e (n-17). Turnirg north, the poet per. 
celie* the vcacnibk figure of Cato, hU face illuirtinated 
by the four stari, typifying the four moral nrtuei 
(28-391}. ^^ ehallengei [he poict^ as though fugiclvec 
from Hell [40-48); but Virgil pleads the caDnnamd 
of a Lady of Heaven, una explains that Dante sdU 

Antì- P«i' correr miglior acqui alza le vele 
pnreatorìo g^^i la navicella del mio ingegno, 
che lascia retro a bÉ mar ai crudele. 

E canterò di quel secondo regno, 
dove r umano spirito si purga 
e di salire al ciel diventa degno. 

Ma qui la morta poesi rÌBurga, 
sante Muse, poiché vosiro sodo, 
e ^ui Calliope aJtfuanto surga, 

«eguitando il mio canto con quel auono, 
di cui le Piche misere sentirò 
la colpa tal che disperar perdono. 

Dolce color d* orientai zaffiro, 

che »' accoglieva nel sereno aspetto 
dell' aer puro infino al primo giro, 

agli occhi miei ricominciò diletto, 

tosto eh' j' uscii fuor deli' aura morta, 
che m* 5rea contristati gli occhi e il petto. 


ìhu, and il Kcking that Ubortjr for Iotc of which 
Cau> himKlf had renoooced bii life. He farther 
appekla to him, by hit love of MircU, to fnitber their 
joamtj through hii rodm (49-84). Cato Ii untouched 
by the thought of MarcU, from whom he la now in- 
«irdlj Mvered; but In rerereoce for the hmTcnlj 
■landate he bidi VlrgU gird Duite with the niih of 
hnmilitf and deante bla bee with dew from the auina 
of Hell, that he may be read; to meet the miniatera 
tf HesTcn. The ami, now rlaia^ will teach them 
die aacent <'85-ioS> The poeta aeek the ahore, ai 
the tea ripplea nnder the morning breeze ; and VirgU 
fbllowa Cato'a behest, cleanaing Dante'a face with dew, 
and plucking the mih, which inatantlj apringa up i^in 
■lincnloiuly renewed (109-136). 

To coune o'er better waters now hoists nil the Proem 

little bark of my wit, leaving behind her a sea 

•o cruel. 
And I will sing of that second realm, where the 

human spirit is purged and becomes worthy to 

ascend to Heaven. 
But here let dead poesy rise up again, O holy invoca 

Muaea, since yours am I, and here let Calli- 
ope rise somewhat, 
iccompanying my song with that strain whose 

stroke the wretched Pies ftlt so that they 

despaired of parckrn. 
Sweet hue of orient sapphire which was gather- Atmroi 

ing on the clear forehead of the sky, pure "Daw 

erea to the first circle, 
to mine eyes restored delight, soon as I issued 

forth from the dead air which bad afflicted 

eyes and hearL 



AbU- Lo bel pianeta che ad amar cooforca 

Telando I Pesc\ ctt' erano iù tua icùrta. 

Io mi Tolai a man destra, e posi mente 
ail' altro polo, e ■vidi quattro «telle 
Doo viste mai fuor che alla prima gente. 

Goder parerà il eie) di lor fiammelle. 
O Gcttetitrional vedoio sito, 
poiché prir^to sei di mirar quelle ì. 

Com' io dal loro sguardo fui partita, 
un pt>co me volgendo all' altro polo 
la onde il Carro già era sparito, 

TÌdi presso di me un veglio solo, 
degno di tanta riverenza in Tista, 
ch« più non dee a padre alcun fìgliuolo. 

Lunga la barba e di pel bianco mista 
portava., a' suoi capeglì simigliante, 
de' quai Cadeva al petto doppia lista,. 

L>i raggi delle quattro luci sante 
fregiavan hi la sua faccia di liimc, 
cti' la 'I vedea come il sol fosie davanCe. 

•'Chi siete voi, che contro al cieco liunie 
fuggito avete la prigione eterna ^ " 
disa' ci, m,OT?fida quell' oneste piume. 

** Chi v' ha gjidati ? o chi vi fu lucerna, 
uscendo fiior della profonda notte 
che sempre nera fa la valle inferna i 

Son le leggi d' abisso così rotte ì 
o è mutato in ciel nuovo consìglio, 
che dannati venite alle mie grotta ì " 

Lo duca mio alEor mi die di piglio, 
e con parole e con mano e con cenni, 
riverenti mi fé' le gambe e \\. (A^Uo. 


^■Thc fair plaoct which heartfneth to lovie was The Più 
H making the \».hole Easi to laugh, veiling the """■ 
H FishEs that were iin her trata.. 
" I turned me to the right hmnd, and set my mind The Foui 

on the other pole, and 8aw four Star» never yet ^'"' 

seen Bare by the firat people. 
I The heavens Bcemed W rejoice in their flaines. 
H O Northern widowed clime, «nee thou art 
V bereft of beholding liiem ! 
' When I was parted from gazing at ihem, turning 

me a little to the other pole, there Urheoce the 

Wain hud already disappeared, 

1 «aw near mc an old man soliuiry, worthy of c>iito 

such great rererence in hù mien, ih^t po «jq 

owes more to a father. 
Long he wore hie beard and niingled with white 

hair, ltl(e unto hia locks of which i double 

list fell OQ hia breaat. 
The rays of the four holy lighu adorned, hia 

fece so with brightness, that 1 beheld him 

as were the sun before him. 
"Who arc ye that aigainst the dark atrcani have 

iled the eternal prison ? " said he, moving 

those venerable plumes. 
i"Who hath guided you? or who wai a lamp 

unto yo« issuing forth from the deep night 

that ever maketh black the infernal rale ? 
[ Are ihe laws of the pit thus broken, or ig there 

some new counfltf changed in Heaven that 

being damned ye come to my rocks?" 
IThen did my Leader lay hold on me, and with Vlrell 

Words, and with ha.nd, and with aigna, made 

reverent m/ knrea and brow. 



Asti- PoEcIa rlspoBe luì : " Da iDc ùOù venni. 
jaft»torii» Donna stese del tic]» per li cui preghi 
della mU cpmpagnia cqscuì sovveani^ 

Ma da eh' è tuo voler che più si spieghi 
di nasCrn condizìoa com' ella è vera, 
ee^er non puote il mìo che a. te si n'Cghì. 

Questi non vide mai 1' tlStima aera, 
ma per la sua follìa le fu ii presso, 
die- molto poco tempo a volger era. 

Sì come io disGÌ^ fui mandato ad esso 
per lui campare, e non t' era altra yia 
che qucata per !a quale io mi eon measo- 

Mostrato ho lui tutta la geate ria ; 
ed ora intendo mostrar quelli spirti, 
che porgao iè lOtto la tua balla. 

Come io 1' ho tratto, sana lungo a dirti : 
dell* alto «ccade rirtìì che m' aiuta 
cooduC'erla a vederli ed a udirti. 

Or ti piaccia gradir la ma venuta ; 
libertà va cercando, che è s\ cara, 
come sa chi per lei vita rifiuta^ 

Tu il sai, che non ti fu per lei amara 
in Utica la morte, ore lasciasti 
la vesta che al gran dì sarà bì chiara. 

Non Bon gli editti eterni per noi guasti: 
che questi vive e Mìnos me non lega ; 
ma san del cerchio ove son gli occhi casti 

di Marzia tua, che in vista ancor ti prega, 
o «anto pettDt che per tua la tegni ; 
per Io suo amore adumquc a noi ti piega. 

Lasciane andar per li tuoi KCte rcgùi: 
grazie riporterò di te a lei, 
Bc d* esser mentovato laggiù degni," 






ThcD sAjwered bim ; " Of myself I came oot, VirgH 
AJadycamedown from HeaTcn through whose of*Duit" 
prayera I succoured this man with my company, jounae? 

But since it it thy wilJ that more be tmfoided 
oraur stale, how it truly ia, my wiJl it cannot 
be that choL be denied. 

He hath neVr leen tKe hn hour, but by hit 

madneGA was so near to it, that very shtirt 

time there wan to turn. 
Etcq as I said, 1 was fient to hitr to rcHCue hìm«, 

and no othrr way there v»s bui this a.loDg 

which I hitve Kt me. 
I ha"»? shown him all the gL,ilty people, and novr 

do purpose showing thoK spirits, that purge 

dicm UDder thy charge. 
How I have brought him, 'twere loog to «11 

thee; Virtue descends from on high which aids 

me to guide him to &ee thee and to hear thee. 
Now may it please thee (o be gracioi» unto hii Hl^pririd 

coming: he aCcketh freedom, which il so** 

precious,^ he knows who givethuplife forher. 
Thou knowest it ; since Ìox her sake death was not 

bitter to thee in Utica^ where thou 3efte&l the 

raiment which at the great day shali be bo hright. 
The eternal Jaws by us are no: violated, for he 

doth lire and MifiOs btads me not ; but I im 

of the circle where are the chaste eyes 
of thy Marcia, who visibly yet doth pray thee, 

O holy breast, that thoii hold her for thine 

own ! for lore of her then iocllRe thee unto us. 
Let us go through thy seven kingdoms ; thanks 

of thee 1 will bear ba<;k to her, if thou deign 

to be mentioned thwe below. * 


Marzia piRcque tanto agli occhi miri, 
mentre eh' io fui di la," diss' egli aJlora, 
"che quante grazie volse dia me, fei. 
Or che di là dal mal fiume dimora, 
più mover non mi può per quella legge 
che Tatta t^j quando me d' uscir fuora. 
Ma se donna del cie3 Ci move e regge, 
come tu di', doti c' è mestier lusinghe: 
bastiti ben che per lei mi nchegge. 

Va dunque^ e fa che tu costui rìcinghe 

d' un giunco schietto, e che gii lavi jl tìbo 
sì che ogni sucidume quindi ninghe: 

che non ai converria I' occhio sorpriso 
d' alcLina nebbia andar d^vantt ai primo 
mlriLstro, eh' è di quei di Paradiso. 

Que&ta Ì3oletta intorno ad imo ad imo, 
laggììì, colà dove la batte J' onda, 
porta de' giunchi sopra ij molle limo.. 

Nuli' altra pianta, che facesse fronda 
o indurjiujie, yi puote aver vita, 
però che alle percosse noD seconda. 

FoBcia non sis dì qua Tostm reddiu ; 
lo «ol ri mostrerà, che surge ornai, 
prender Io monte a più lieve lalìta." 

Coni sparì ; ed io &u mi levai 
senza parlare, e tutto nd ritraasi 
al duca mio, e gli occhi a luì drizzai. 

Eì cominciò: " Figliuol, seguì i miei passi : 
Tolgiamci indietro, che di qua dichiaa 
questa pianura a' suoi termini bassi." 

L' alba vinceva I* óra mattutina 
che Higgia innanzi, sì che di lontano 
Cofiobbi il tremolar della marina. 


Marcia was to pUaaing to mine cy^ while 1 Cats' 

was yonder," ^.id be then, ** that every grace "wlìT 

she willi^d of me I did. 
Tow that she dweilH beyond ihe evil itreanif no 

more may she mavt me, by that law which wa$ 

made when I thence came forth. 
lut if a heavenly lady moves and directs thee, as 

thou sayest, no need h there far fiatiery ; let 

it suffice thee tliat in her name thou askcst cne. 
to then, sLod look that tbou gird this man with 

a smooth rush, and that thou bathe his face 

SÙ that alf filth may thence be wiped away : 
r 'twere not meet with eye obacured by any 

milt to go before the first miniater of thoic 

that are of Paradise. 
'hia little isle all round about the very baae, 

there, where the wave beats it, bears rubhes od 

the soft mud. 
lo other plant that would put forth leaf or 

harden can live there, because it yields nut 

to' ibe bufTctiiigH. 
neo be not this way your return ; the sun, 

which DOW is riling, will show you how to 

take the mount at an easier ascent." 
1^ he Tatiishcdi and 1 uplifted me without vif^*B4 
«peakiflg, and drew me all back to my Leader, ^^t» 
and directed mine eyea to him. 
e began: " Son, follow thou my itops: turn we 
back, for this way the plain slopes down td 
its low bounde." 

JiC dawn was vanquishing the breath of moro 
which fled before lier, lo tliat from afar I 
recognised the trembling of the tea. 



Ante- Noi ^ada,*atti per lo «otìugo p'ìlùù, 
J*^'* " coni' uom che torna atla perduta B^tradaj- 
che infioo ad esaa gli par ire ip Fano. 

Quajida doì fumnio dovt h ragizàz 
pugna col sole, per essere in pane 
dove id orezza, poco sì din«ia, 

ambo le mani in su L' erbetta Bparte 
eoavemeote il mio maeslro pose ; 
oad' io che fui scorto di ftu* arte, 

porsi ver lui le guaace lagrìmow : 
<^uivi mi fece tutto discoperto 
(fuel color che 1' infèrbO mi nascose. 

Venimmo poi io aul ìito diserto, 
che mni non vide navicar ?ye acque 
uomo che di tornar fiia poscia esperto. 

Quifi mi cinse si come altrui piacque ; 
O maravigtia ! che qual eg]i scelse 
1' umile pianta, COtal ai rinacque 

subitaTTientc là oade la svelle. 

«," See'iDanle'B Pur^atory," "TheChronolog; 
thi furgaloric," ini the Editorial Nomai the do» 
thì» f olume. 

9- CI. Cillìopc — the Mute of Epic Poetry.-»' 
Pieridcp, the nine daughters of Pierus, l|£ing 
Emathia, haxing challenged: the Musei Lo a con 
of long and ^uHered defeat, WEre changed by t] 

iato m^Stgpies (>i<E Ovid's Afetam. V, I93 '9V')' 

19-si. Venuf wai not actuaUj id PÌKe« In 
spring of ijoo, but Dinte is probably followii^ 
tndilLon ai to the iieiition ot ili tha pUucti at 
momenc of Creation (cf. Inf. I. 37-40). In ttie re; 
acntation of the Creation in the Colleglice Chnrch at 
Gcmignano, Vertus E* d*picttd 4< being in Pisce*, 
diagram on p, 59. 

t3<27: Wr anmme either that Dante \m 
^e$e tour «t^fs, which fa« IcSentiliei With 




7e paced along the lonely pkin» a* one who VtrgQiM 

returns to his lost road, and, till he reach it, °^^ 

seems to go in vain. 
Fhen we came there where the dew is itriTing 

with the $M.a, being at a place where, ia the 

cool air, slowly it is scattered i 
Dth hands outspread, gently my Master laid 

upon the &wcet graaa ; wherefore I who wai 

ware of his purpose, 
liaed toward» him my tear-stained cheelta : there 

made he all revealed my hue which Hell had 

Ve cxnie then on to the desert shore, that never 

saw man navigate [14 waters who thereaiter 

knew return. 
Phere he girded me eveo a« it pleaded Amother i 

O marre! I that such ai he plucked the lowly 

pUnt, even such did it forthwith spnng up 

again, there wheoce he lore it. 

irdinal vinuw— PrudwiM, Jgid»^ Forticude and 
pptrsnu (cf. Pirg- sicix. ijo-iji; xxxi. toj- 
I ; QT tlia: he had learnt the existence «f the 
>iithern Croni From some traveller. — The prima gente 
re probahly Adam and Eye, When uie*e were 
liven from the Eanhlf FaiadJ^e (lituaCcd on the 
immit of the Mount of Purgatory), the southern 
!mÌ4phtfe w^t tielil Co b« uninhabited (tf. Inf, savi, 
17: menda jtma ^"ttA; for iC'Cording to med'ievi,! 
tftgiaphy the whole of Asii and Africa were norrh of 
le equator. 

la. Only a. pinion of the Wain would at Boy time 
t TisiMc In the lupposeJ latitude of Purgatory, and it 
TU now completely b'clow the Korizon. 

31 tfj. Cato tif tj:;ica (born b.c. 95), one «f the chtef 
tpptietltfl of Cznar'g meaBUres. After tlie battle of 
hapfus, he committeil suicide rather thai) fiill itito 
\» enemy's hands fi.c. 46). This was regarded ai 

Afltl- Noi andavam per lo aoliago piano, 
' P^«*'<"^« com' uom die torna alk perdura strida, 

che in^QO ad eesa gli par ire in vu^a. 
Quando noi fummo dove la rugiada 

pugna coi «ole,, per essere in parte 

dove ad orrzza, piKO si dirada, 
imbo !c man! in bu 1' erbetta aparte *•( 

soavemente iJ mio maestro ))Ofle ; 

ood' io che fui accorto di su' arte, 
porii ver lui le guance kgrìmoae : *^, 

quiri mi fece tutto discoperto 

quel color che I' inferno mi naecow, 
Venimmo poi in ?ul lieo diserto, ^J"" 

i:li>e mai naa ride navicar aue acque 

uomo che di tornar eia poscia eapeno 
Quivi mi cinse si come altrui piacque : 'SS 

o maraTÌglia ! ch£ qua! egli scelse 

V umile pianta, cotal si rinacque 
subitameate la onde la svelse. *^ 

%" Sm" Dance's Pargacoiy," "The Chronology ^ 
the J'vf^fltoyifi,'' ijxi the Ediitotial Note it rh^ cbs? o( 
thìi Tolume. 

^-li. etiope — che Muse of Epie PcKtry. — Thi 
Fieddei, the niue daughteis of Picrtt^, XLnjf 0Ì 
Emathia, having chalLenged the- Muses io a. conceil 
pf long and siitFtfrcd defeat, wtii ehanged by thi 
imo magpies (ice Ovid'i Aletam. v. 151] jp^ >)■ 

19-31, VenuB was not aciuallf in Fi*ce> in th( 
iprìng oF IJOO] bue Diince ia probably rollowing j 
tradition ai to the pujiticm of all ihs planet» at Chii 
mfiment of Creaiiou {tf. Inf. i. J7-40}- Tn the «pi 
kentationofthc: Creacionin the Collegiate Ckurch atS: 
Gemignano, Venu» i* d«pict«d m lnùng io PUcei, S( 
diagram on p. $g. 

15.27. Wc BJU1T a«(Dme either that Dante inrents 
these iaai stars, whlcU \i.t \i^nU^^ wit^i Ehc fi 






We paced along the loDely plain, aa one who VUglh 

returns to his lost road, and, till he reach it, '-'**'* 

seems to go in vain. 
When we came there where the rfew is atrÌTÌng 

with the sun, being at a place where, in the 

coql air, atowly it is scattered ; 
both banda outspread, gently my Master Lid 

upon the sWeet grasa; wherefore I who wa.f 

ware of hia purpose, 
raised toward* him my tear-staiined checca : there 

made he alt revealed my hue which Hell haid 

We came then on to the desert ihore, that neyer 

8aw man navigate iu waters who thereafter 

Itnew return. 
There he girded me svto as it pleased Another : 

O marvel ! that such as he plucked the lowly 

plant, even such did it forthwith spring up 

agaiD, there whence he tore II 

nrdind rlrtuei — PradcnM, Juitice, Portitwde and 
TefiipijraoM (c/, J^urg. xxix. ijo-ljl; ituti. 103- 
toft) ; or thil he htd Uimt the exiitennr ot the 
Southern Croi» from Jiome mveller. — The prima gititi 
Vt probably Adam and Ere, When Uiei? Were 
driven from the Earthly Paradise (lUaated on the 
nimmit of the Mount of Purgatorj), ihc iouthern 
hemisphcrt was h^lij to be mil n habited (tf. Inf. sjivi, 
117: mùnJs jiaxa f^e/itAl for according to mcdierBl 
gtagnphy the whole of Alia aad Afriita were north of 
the equ^tPT. 

JO. Only a {xtrdon of the Wain would at any (.ime 
be TUible in che suppoteiì Utituiìe of Purgatory, and it 
wai itow completely below the horizon. 

31 ijg. Cato of [Jtica fborn s.e. 95), on* of the chief 

Opponent! of CKsàr'* m^aiUrL-a. After the TjiEllc of 

liicpew, bn committeit] <ukfde rather than fftll into 
hii ennny's haodx (b.c. 4^^ ThÌ« WU if^ll&cÀ %« 



T Jerusalem day '■ M'ttiog and night liiing, vai 
In Purgatory day riling and njghl letting (i^g); 
ind a.1 the p<aeti, pondering oa their course, are delaying; 
thtif j&urn*y «gdlniC th*ir wjtl, th«y »ee glowing rei 
in [h« eaiC a light iwIftLj approaching them ; whEc 
Virgil «ovn recognlaei as Charon't angelic CQunterpirl 
wlio with itroke of wing guldei a li^ht barque wìÉ 
iti charge of happy toul» to (he mcfuntain o! purifica 
tion { IO-45 ). As they Land the souls chant the paalm < 
the Exoilil!, and with the «ign of the croii their Arige|| 
gaafd departs, lo renew hii mi^alon (^6-^iy. TTt 
riaeu tun now ihooti loll daylight into Chr sky, «hiita 
a ting Capricorn From the senith; the Dew-come fai 
inquire the way and Virgil answers that he and 1^ 
companion are stran gtr» tike themselves (51-6$ 
wiierron th* shadei obncrTc that Dante breathea aa 
is atill iu the fir?( life, and In their eagtrnesi a]iti(JI 
forget ths cltntiaing for which they h«v« cume C 
the mount (£7-75). One espedaliy, the muticÌK 
Casella, preuei forward with a look of such affectio 
that the poet aptaa hii arms tn embrace him, bd 
he only clasps an empty ehade (76-87). Da]ite moi 

Anti- Già era il sole ali' orizzonte giunco, 

pmrgatoria jjj ^.^j meridiaa cerchio coperchia 

Jerusalem col suo piìl alto punto i 

e la notte che oppostca a lui cerchia 
uscU di Gange Fuor con le bilance, 
che le caggion di man quando soperchia: 

■1 che le bianche e Je vermiglie guance, 
là dove io era> della bella Aurora, 
per troppa etnte divenivan rance. 

Noi eravam lunghesso il ni'are ancora, 
come gcoK che pensa buo cammino, 
che va col core, e col corpo dimora ; 


now ex |t) Bin the mystery oi hii a-rtn pment» in that 
pUce while »t)ll in the fleiH, and CaselU in hli turn 
mu»! «xpllin th« Atiij oi many monthi betwren hli 
deich and hit admÌMÌfHl into the boat of the rcdeetned 
that gathert Iti happy charge nI the mouth of Tiber 
.;8S-io5)- Dante'i hrarC and sensei are UlU achin; 
from the xnguiih at HcLl ; and the loTclinei* of tanh, 
tea. and *ky hat c«-awal(enci] hi» perception of the 
hniing ])Ower af beauty. So a great longing camei 
BTsr Uifti once ttttn to hear tht sweec lin^er'i «oi<e 
ttiAt ha> w often toothed him )utd h3ikijh«l all hi* 
earn. Do« that power oF song vvhkb on earth leemc 
atintothrapirii world, hurviip ihegrtati^hange? (106. 
III). Casella'» answer U 10 sing. In tones theiwecC- 
HtM whereof can never dte, 1 song that Dante hìiriself 
had wri!t*n to th« prai» of Wiid«ii>-, wh#T«An Vjrgil 
lod all the othtr lonli gath« eagerly around, till re- 
buked far ihii premature indulgence and reptoie by 
the stern Cato^ vrha bids them to preu farward the 
deonsing; Vfork of the mountain Ct [1-125). Whereon 
they Kud al-ang iht plain like aiarrled d&*e4 (114- 

Already had the sun reached the horizon, whose d^wd 
meridian circle coverà JenjBaiera with ill SC*']^^ 
highest poiqt^ Poi-caM 

and night which opposite to him molreK, from 
Gangea forth wai issuing with the Scales, 
that fall from her hand when ehe lìrevaiii; 

W that ÙAf Aurora's white ami ruddy cherki, 
there where 1 was, through too great ag^e were 
turning orange- 

We were alongside ihe ocean yet, like folk who 
ponder oVr their road, who in heart do go 
aod in body itay ; 


Aatl- ed ecco^ qunl sul prewo del mattino 
paqntoiio p^j. 1^ grossi vapor Marft rostcggia 

giù nel ponente Bopo il suol marino : 

COtal ni' apparre, s' io aacor la veggia, 
un ìuTM per lo mar venir si ratto, 
che il mover suo nessun volar {lareg^a j 

dal qusl com' io un poco ebbi ritratto 
r Dcchiù per domandar lo duca mio, 
rividi! ptil lucente e maggior fatto. < 

Poi d' ogni lato ad esso m' appari» 
UD DQD lapeva che bi^aco, e di sotto 
a. poco a poco un altro a lui uscio. 

Lo mio maestro ancor non fece motto 
iiiifntre che i priiiii bia&cht apparar alii 
aitar che bea conobbe ii galeotta, 

gridò : " Fa, fa che le ginocchia cali ; 
eCcù 1' AngcI di Dio : piega le mani : 
ornai vedrai di b1 fatti ufficiali. 

Vedi che sdegna gli argomenti umani, 
sì che remo noB tuo! aè altro velo 
che 1' ale sue tra liti al lontanL 

Vedi come T ha dritte verso il ciclo, 
trattando r atre con l' eccmir pentitr, 
che nOD si mutaci come mortai pelo." 

Pai come piti e più verso noi venne 
r uccel divino^ più chiaro appariva ; 
per che 1' occhio da presso noi sostenne, 

ota chrinail giuso; e quei sen venne a riva 
coQ UH vasello flnelietto e leggiero, 
tanto che V acqua nulla ne iaghiottiva. 

Ha poppa stava it celestiaE nocchiero, 
tal che parca beato per iscrttto; 
e più di cento spirti entro aediero. 



snd 3oj, 38 oti the approach of mom, tìirougb the the An, 

denae mìsts M;ire buros red, low in the Wpet érA.wa a 

o'er the ocean-floor ; 
neh to me appeared — bo may T eee it agiin ! — 

a light coming o'er the sea so Kwlftl)', that no 

flight is equal la its motJoo ; 
from which, when 1 had b while wiehdrawii 

mine pyea to question my Leader, I saw it 

brighter and bigger grown. 
I Theo OD each side of it appeared to me a some- usine b3s 

thing white ; and from beneath it, little by j^yf * ** 

little, another whìtenew came forth. 
My Master yet did speak qo word, untiJ ihe 

firm whiteneases appeared aa winga j then, 

when well he knew the pilot, 
'he cried : " Bend, bend thy Icneea ; behold the 

Angel of God : fold ihy handa : henceforth 

3ha!t thou kc such miniater?. 
Look how he scorns all human in s.tru mente, lo 

that oar he wells not, nor other sail than his 

wings, between shores so di^tanT. 
See how he hat them heavenward turned, plying 

the air with etemaJ plumes, that are not niewed 

Eikc mortal hair." 
: Then as more and more towardi us came the 

bird divine, brighter yet he appeared, where- 
fore mine eye endured him not near : 
[but I bcDt it down, and he came on to thc^ shore 

with a vessel ao swift and light that the waters 

nowise drew it in. 
[On the sttrn stood the celestial pilot, audi, that 

bietsednesa seemed writ upon him, and more 

than a hundred sptritti sat within. 



Antl- *" In exiiu Itrael dt Egitto," 
''™'* " cantavaa lutti insieme ad uoa voce» 

con quanto di quel salmo è poscia scritto. 

Poi fece il BegAO lor di ainu croce ; 
ond' eì si gictar tutti la su U piaggia, 
ed ci Ben gì, come venne, veJoce. 

La turba che rimase l'i aeJvxggia 
parea del loco, rimirando iaioroo 
come colui che nuore cose assaggia. 

Da tutte parti Saettava il giorno 
lo iBol, eh' avita con le saette conte 
dì mezzo LI eie! cacciato i] Capricorno, 

quando ]a nuova gente alzò ]a fronte 

ver noi, dicendo a noi : '* Se voi sapete;, 
irtostratcnc la ria di gire al monte." 

E Virgilio rispose : " Voi credete 
forse che siamo e&perti d' esto loco; 
ma noi uam peregrini come toÌ siete. 

Dianzi Venimmo, innanzi a VOÌ un poco, 
per altra via che fu bì aspra e forte, 
che \a salire ornai ne parrà gioco." 

L* anime che si fur di me accorte, 
per Jo spirare, eh' io era ancor vivOf 
marsvìgliando diventerò smorte; 

e come a meesagger, che porti olivo, 
traggela gente per udir novelle, 
e di calcar neMup pi mostra »cbÌTO: 

coiì al vi«o mio s' aflisGar quelle 
anime fortunate tutte quante, 
quasi obbliando d' ire a far&i belle. 

le vidi una di lor trarsi davante 

per abbracciarmi con sì grande affetto, 
che mosse me a far lo nmìglì^Dte. 





*/ffl eKftv Israel àt Argypto" «ang they eJI to- Tiwi«ila 

gether wiih one voice, with what of that p«alm J^t^^Sl, 

t» (hereafter written, SAtorr 

Then maxlc he to them the .sign of Holy CroBi, 

whereat they all liuDgthern oa the strand and 

quick evea as he came he went his way. 
The throng that remained there teemrd strange 

to the place, gaziag around like one who 

Mtaytth new thinga. 
Od cve^ry side the lun, who with hin arrows bright 

had chased the Coat from midst of hcaren^ 

wa» ahooiing forth the day, 
when the new people lifted up their f^ceg towards 

ua, saying to us : " If ye know show uh the 

way to go to th« mount." 
And Virgil a^aswered : "Ye think perchance Virju 

that we have experience of this pJace, but Jg**^' *" 

we are strangers CTen as ye arer. 
We came but dow, a little while before you, by 

othe^r way which was so rough and hard, that 

the clinibEDg now wtli Kcm but play Co ui." 
The gOula who had obierved me by my breath- Tlidr 

ing that I was yet alive, marrelling grew ■™"*™ 

and a£ to a messeager, who bears the oHre, the 

folk dr^w nigh to hear the news, and nODC 

ahowj himself ahy at trampling j 
■0 an my lace those souls did fix tbeir gazct 

fortunate every ooe, well nigh forgetting to 

go and make them fair. 

taw one of them draw forward to embrace me 

with wch great affection, that he moTed mc 

10 do the like. 





AfliU- O ombre rane, fuor che neJl' aspetto ! 

e tante mi Toraa.i con eesE al petto. 

Di nuarnviglia, credo, mi dìpinHÌ ; 
per che I' ombra sorrtse e b1 ritrasse, 
ed ìoj seguendo lei, oltre mi pinsl. 

Soavemente disse eh' io poaaaee; 
alior coùobbi chi era e '1 pregai 
che per parlarmi un poco b 'arrestasse. 

Rìspoaemi : '' Cosi com' io t' amai 
nel mortai corpo, cobi t' amo sciolta: 
però m' arresto ; ma tu perchè vai ì " 

" Casella mio^ per tornare altra volta 
là dove son, fa Ìo qUeStù viaggio/' 
diss' io ; " ma a te com' è tanta ora tolta ? " 

Ed egli a me : "NeBSun in' è fatto oltraggio, 9* 
Bc (juei, che leva e quando e Cui gli plaCÉ, 
pili volte m' ha cagato eato passaggio : 

che di giusto Toler Io ano si face. 
Veramejiie da tre mesi egli ha tolto 
chi ha voluto entrar con tutta pace. 

Ot]d' io che era ora alla marina voho, 
dure I' acqua di Tevere a' insala, 
benignamente fui da lui rìcolto. 

A quella foce ha egli or dritta 1' ala ; 
però che sempre quivi si raccoglie 
c|ual verso d* Acheronte non si cala." 

Ed io T "Se nuova legge non ti toglie 
itiÉmoria oso all' amoroso canto, 
che mi so)ea quetar tutte mie voglie, 

di ciò ti piaccia consolare al^iianto 
I' anima mia, che, con la sua persona 
Tenendo qui, è aifanoata tanto." 







O (hades empty Bare in outward ahow! thrice D>nte and 

behind it my hsndi I clapped, «nd ai often ^««11* 

retoTQcd wich them to my bre.iat. 
With wondtr methinks I coloured nie, whereat 

the shsde imiled and drew back, andi I, foJIow- 

ing it, flung irc forward. 
Genily it bade me pau&e : then knew [ who it 

w3Ji, and did pray him tjiat he would Kay a 

whiJe to Hprak to me. 
He answered me ; " Even as I loved thee in 

the mortal body so do I Idtp thtc frcoi ; 

therefore I stay ; but whrrefore £oest thou ? " 
"CaselEa miDc, to return here once again where 

I am, make I this journey," said I, " but how 

hath 30 much time been taken from thee ì " 
And he to me; "No wrong ii done me, if he 

who bear» away when and whom he pleaaei 

hath maoy ttities denied me this passage | 
Sot of a just will hia will is mindi?. Truly for 

three months pait he hath taken, in all peace, 

whoso halh wished to enter. 
Wherefore I, who now was turned to the lea- TheTIhW! 

•hope where Tiber's wa»e growa salt, kjodly ***"" 

by him was garnered in. 
To that mouth now he hath set his wlngo, be- 

caiue evermore are gathered there, they who 

to AchcroD sink, not down." 
And I: **If a new law take not front thee 

memory or elciU in that song of love which 

wai wont to calm my «Tery desire, 
may it please thee therewith to solace awhile 

my soul, that, with its anortal form Journeying 

here, it sort distretted." 





Aoti- " Amar che nella mente mi ragiona^" 
titorio cominciò tg!ì sllor ù dolce-mente, 

che la dolcezza ancor dentro mi suona. 

Lo mio maestro ed io e ([uella gente 
eh' eraa con lui parev^n si contenti, 
come a nessun toccasse altro la niente. 

Noi eravam tuni liasi ed attenti 

aJle Sue note ; ed «ccO' il Te^lio onesto, 
gridando : " Che è ciò, apiriti lenti ì 

VpaX negligenza^ tjuafe stare è questo ? "* 

Correte al monte a spogliarrj Jo «coglia, 
eh' esser non lascia a voi Dio manifeato^*' 

Come iquando, cogliendo biada o loglio, *•* 

li colombi adunati alla pastura, 
queti tenzn mostrar 1' u^aco orgoglio, 

se cosa appare ond' elH abbìan paura, *^ 

subium'ente faAciano star 1' esca 
perchè assaliti son da maggior cura : 

così Tkd' io quella masnada fresca '*■ 

kscìar lo canto, e gire in Ter la costa, 
come uom che va, né sa dove riesca ; 

né ta nostra partita fu men tosta. ^31 

1-9, It is aansct at JMUsaJem ; a.aA midnight on the 
Ganges, Lt, in India [when tht nun is in AriVi. che 
nìgSi is it) the opposite sign of Libra, ot the Sciilei ; 
and Libra fa]ls from the ha^nd oi right at the' lime of 
the autumn «|uinn3C,when the sun enters the ronsteUi- 
tjon.snitthe nighti became («rvgcr than thcdays]; it is 
tlierefore sunrist: in Purgatory (see the diagraini on 
pp. [3, 3+ and 3S> 

46. According to Dante (^Ep, aJ Can, Grane, ^ 7) the 

anagogica! cneaning of this Fsiiliii (ckiv, ) ii >' ihe exit 
of tSc satircified snul from the slavery of this corruption 
to the litierty of eternai glory." CJ. Qtnv. ii. 1 : fij-fij, 
xad set Par. Ks<r. ;j-S7,>»rf- 

JJ-j? and 67, 68. Seeiiit Atoft«i\tì^Vtil«oce,i). ^j^, 
T'lhc iJg-/i^ of the rising yan C'^KkVv vf*i \n K.iXcfi'oifcJ 


" L.ovt fiat in my minJ t&tcourtetb to me^* began CualU 

he then to iweetly, that the «weetneti yet •''***^ 

within me sounds. 
My Master and I and that people who were 

with him^ seemed so glad as if to aught else 

the mmd of no one of them gare heed. 
We were all fixed and intent upon his notes ; Cato wn 

and lo the old man Tenerable, crying : Jj,!^„ 

** What is this ye laggard sjnriu ? 
wbu negligence, what tarrying is this? Haste 

to the mount aod strip yoa oJf the iloogh, that 

lets not God be nunifest to you. 
A« dores when gathering wheat or tares, all 

assembled at their repast, quiet and showing 

not their wonted pride, 
if aught be seen whereof they hare fear, straight- 
way let stay their food» because they are 

assailed by greater care ; 
80 taw I that new company leave the singing, 

and go towards the hillside, like one who 

goes, but knoweth not where he may come 

forth ; nor was our parting less quick. 
blotted Capricorn oot of mid-heavea (Capricorn touch- 
ing the meridian at the moment when Arici touchcf 
the horizon). See disgram on p. 59. 

7$. Cucila, a musician of Florence or of Piitoia, and 
a pnaonal friend of Dante'i, tome of whoie Tcrtei he 
!■ nid to have let to mn«ic, including perhaps the 
eanxoDC Amw du mdU witntt mi rtgiana (>ee verte 
iis^ which was subiequentljr annotated bj the poet 
In toe third book of hii CamiU. 

98. d» trrmrii, i.e., tiace the beginning of the Jubilee 
{tf. hf. xviii. xg.33). 

100-105. SalvAtioD is to be attained odLj in the true 
Qinrch, which hu ita teat at Rome: hence the souls 
flf thoee that are not damned awemble at the mouth of 
the Tiber, the port of Rome. 


WHEN Dante Itas recovered bom hii confbiìon, 
and Virgil froJti l^e lelf-rcprOàch UUied by 
bl9 itioiR^nEArjr ncgkcE of hii charge, the pOc» ÌC«k 
We»t toward th« muUntain. Tbe lUn BhÌD«it behlad 
them »nd throw^s Dante's ahadow right befo're hlm. 
Nqw Tor che first LÌm? he misiei Vhgil'i «hat^ow, and 
thinks that he has ìou hìn companionship ; but Vìr^l 
reassnres him. le is nìnt houre agone since the eun 
rose in the pLaec where Liei that pare of hlm which 
once cast a ihailow (^[-30), The na.liin! of the aerili 
bodJcJ in the spirit wcrld ti unfathgmatile by huiD»n 
philosophy, which yearns In vain for iolucions of the 
mysKries of faith (ji-4S). When they arrirc at the 
foot of the mountain^ the poet» are at a loss bow tu 
ICsle its pTccipices ; but at their left Xtante p^rrelv^t 
a grogp of taaU llowly moving toward them from tiw 
•outh (46-60). With Virgil's sanction they g'o to 
meet them, and hy thua revt^rsing the uiual dlrectioa 

j^pjj Ayvegna che la aubitaoa fuga 
rmrfatodo dispergesse color per la campagna, 

riroUi d montCr ove ragion ne fruga, 

lo mi rtstrmsi zìln din compagna} 4 

e come siire' io d^nra lui corso? 
clii m'avrìa tratta su per la montagna? 

Eì mi [larea da sé rimorso : T 

o difinicosa coscienza e netta, 
come t' è picciol fallo amaro morso ! 

Quando li piedi sjoi litscìàr la fretta, '* 

che I' onestade a.d ogni aito divinagli, 
1^ meote mia, che prima era ristretta, 

lo intento raliargò, sì come vaga ; '3 

e dierfì il viso mi» incontro al poggio, 
che inrerso il ciel più alto si dielaga^ 


whldi the wnli take, following the ran, they excite 
the amaxement of the elect tpiriti from whom tfaej 
hiqnire their vnj (6i>78). Tbe*e iheep vHthoat a 
■hepheid — for they are the aoul* of such aa died In 
contumacy against the Church, and they rout dree 
their rebellion againit the chief Shepherd by thirty 
timee a< long a apace of *hepfaerdte«s wandering — 
are yet more amazed than before when they tee I>zate'i 
diadow and hear from Virgil that lie i> itili in the 
first life (79-99). They make lign to then to 
rereraethdr coorte; and one of them, King Manfred, 
iriien Dante hat iailed to recognite him, telli the itory 
of hit death at the battle of Benevento ; of the pitlleei 
perKcntlon even of hit lifeleu Imdy by the Bithop of 
Cownaa and Pope Clement. He dcclaret that the 
Infinite Ooodnera hath to wide an embrace tliat it 
enfolds all who tnm to It ; explaini the limitation* of 
the power of the Chnrch'>malediction,and implores the 
prayen of hie daughter Conttance (100-145), 

Although their suddeo flight waa sc^toing them The Poote 

o'er the pluo» turoed to the mount where 5^5" '^ 

justice probes us, 
I drew me close to my faithful comrade ; and 

how should I have sped without him? who 

would have brought me up the mountain ? 
Gnawed he seemed to rae by self-reproach. O 

noble conscience and clear, how sharp a sdng 

is a little fault to thee ! 
When hia feet had lost that haste which mars 

the digoity of erery act, my imnd, that ere- 

while Mras centred within, 
widened iu scope as in eager search, and I set 

my face to the hillside which rises highest 

b«Tenward from the waters. 




Autì- Lo io), che retro fiammeggiava roggioi 
'"*'^ rotto Iti' era dinanzi, alla figura 

di' avevi in me de' Buoi raggi V appoggio. 
Io mi volsi dallato con paura 

d' esser abbandonalo, quando io vidi 

■olo dinnnzl a me la terra oscura. 
E il mio conforto : *' Perchè pur diffidi ? " 

a. dir mi cominciò tutto rivolto ; 

"noQ credi tj me teco, e eh' io ti guidi ì 
Vespero è già colà^ dov' è sepolto 

lo corpo, dentro al quale io facca ombra ; 

Napoli V ha, e da Braodizio è tolco. 
Orai se innanzi a me nulla s' adombra, 

non ti fnaravigliar più che de' cieli, 

che r uno all' altro raggio non ingombra. 
A Bofferir tormenti, caldi e gieli 

simili Corpi I2 virtìl dispone, 

che, come fa, non vuul che a noi si aveli. 
Matto è chi spera che nostra ragione 

possa trascorrer h Infinita m, 

che tiene una «ustanzia in tre persone. 
State contanti, umana gente, al jpiia : 

che, K potuto aveste veder tutto, 

mitBtipr non era partorir Maria; 
e diaiar vedeste senza frutto 

tai, che sarebbe lor disio quetato, 

eh' etemalmente è dato lor per lutto. 
Io dico d' Aristotele e di Plato 

e di molti altri." E qui chinò la Fronte ; 

e piìl non disse, e rimase turbato. 
Noi divenimmo incanto al pie del monte ; 

quivi trovammo la roccia $ì cru, 

che indarno vi sarieo le gambe pronte. 












The eaaj that behind ua was fljimmg red, was Dutc t 

broken in froac of me in the figure in which *•*" 

it hid iu beami stayed by mc. 

turned me aside from fear of being for- 

■alcen, whin I saw onfy before me the earth 

And my Comfott began to say to me, turning («t at re: 

full round: " Why dost thou again drstmst J **' ^'^''*'^ 

belicFcst thou not me with thee And dut I do 

guide thee r 
It il already eTcnmg there, where the body buried 

lies within which I made shadow ; Naplei 

possesses it, and from Brìndì»i 'lis taken. 
Now, if before me no ah^dow fal!;, marvel not 

more than at the heavenly ijihereir th^t one 

doth not obstruct the light from the other. 
To suFcr torments, heal and frost, bodies Aucb 

9M theae that jiower dispoeeS) which will» not 

that its worltingB be rc-vealtd to ms- 
Mad is he who hopes that our reason may 

compasf that iolinitude which one subi.unce 

ID three persons fills. 
Be ye coment, human race, with the quui [ 

For if ye hid been able to see the whole, no 

need wan there for Mary to pve birth j 
tad ye have seen such sagesi deaire fhiitleasly^, 

whoEs desire had else bren «atistied, which ii 

given them for eternal grief. 
1 ipeak of Aristotle and of Plato, and of many 

Others-'^ And here he bent hia brow, and said 

oo more, and remained troubled. 
Wf reached meanwhile the mountain's foot : 

there found we the cliff so Hteep that vainly 


would lega be nimble. 

Tbts loot I 
th« Uouat 





Anti- Xrs Lend c Turbia» ta pifi diserta, « 

M J u più romita via e una scala, 

H / verso di quella, agevole ed aperta. 

H ^ Or chi «a da qunl man la co^ta cala," s* 

^B diBse il maestro ttiÌo fermando il pas&o, 

H^ "'SÌ che possa iialir chi va senz' ala ?" 

^^^ E mentirle eh' ti ceneTs i! viso ba«80 m 

^^^B esaminaodo del cammio la mente, 

^^^r ed io mirava auso intorno al saisao, 

^B da man sinistra m* apparì uoa gence s* 

^^^H d' anime, che movieno i pie ver noi, 

^^^H e nqn parev^o, sì venivan lente. 

^^^ "Leva," dm' io, "maestro, gli occhi tuoi: 

H ecco di qua chi ne darà con&iglio, 

H te tu da te medesmo av^r noi puoi.'* 

H Guardò a loro, e con libero pif:lio ^ 

^M risposa : " Aiìdiama in là, eh* et ve^non piaoo ; 

^M e tu ferma lai speme, dolce tigliQ," 

^È Ancora era queJ popol di lontano, ^ 

^^^H dico dopo ii Dditri mille passi, 

^^^P quanto un buon gittator trama con mano, 

^ quando sì strinser tutti ai duri massi f^ 

^m ddl' alta ripa, e steUer fermi e stretti, 

H come a guardar, chi va dubbiando, litassi. 

^^^ ** O ben iìniti, O già spiriti eletti," n 

^^^H Virgilio incominciò, "per quella pace 

^^™^ eh' io cr«do che per voi tutti li aspetti, 

^M ditene dove la moatagna giace, 7^ 

^^^^ sì che possibii sia 1' andare éti suso : 

^^B che perder tempo a chi più sa pii^ spiace." 

^F Come le pecorelle eseon del chiusa n 

^^^ ad una, a due, a tre, e I' altre stanno 

^^^L trmidette atterrando S' occhio e il muso j 

CAirrd ut ib 

TwJXt Lrrìc] acd Turbia, the way moat desolate, Th* luttM-» 

most Golicary, la a. BtairwAy eaey and free, unot 

compared with ihat, 
"Now who knows on which hand iht scarp 

doth slope,'^ said my Master, halting his itepst 

" so that he may climb who wingl^cBs goes ? " 
And while he held hi& viaagc low, Bcarching in 

thought aneat the way, and I was looking up 

about the roc Ics, 
ma the left hand appeared to me a throng ofTheezcvi 
m souia, who moved their feet towards ys, and **"■"** 

yet Bcemed not 10 advance, 80 eiow they came. 
"Master," said I, *■ lift up thJue eyes, behold 

there one who will give \ia counsel, if oi 

thyself thou mayest have it not," 
He looked at them, and with gladrome mien 

answered : " Go we thither, for alowly they 

come, and do thou confirm thy hope, sweet son." 
Aa yet that people were eo far off (I mean after 

ta thousand paceB of ours) as a good »|tnger 
would carry with his hand, 
hea they nil pressed clode to the hard rocks of 
the steep cliff, iind stood motionless and close^ 
as he halts, to gaze around who go« In dread, 
" ye whose end was happy, spirits already 
chosen," Virgil began, "by that same peace 
which 1 believe by you all is awaited. 
tell us where the mouotaia slopes., so that it may 
be possible to go upward ; for time lost irks 
him most who kaoweth moit." 
As sheep corae forth from the pen, in ones, in 
twos, ID threes, and the others aland ail] timid, 
cafitiiig eye and noie to earthy 








Aatìr c Ó^ che fa U primit, e I' altre fanno, 
EUario addOflsaDdoai a lei a' ella s' arresta, 

■empiici e quete, e lo 'mperchè non eanoo : 

ai TÌd' io movere i. renir la. testa 
di quella mandria fortunaia allotta, 
pudica in l^ccia^ e oelC andare ome^stan 

Come color dinanzi vider rotta 

Ix luce in terra dal mio destro canEOf 
fi] che ì* ombra era da me alla grotta» 

rMtaro, e trasser «è indietro alqiiianto, 
e tutti gli altri che venieno appresso, 
non sapendo il [>erchè, fenno altrettanto. 

" Senza Toatra domanda io vi confesso, 
che questo è corpo uman che voi vedete, 
per che il lume del sole in terra è fes». 

Non yi maravigliate ; ma credete 

che, non aenza vìrtCt che dal eie) vegna, 
cerchi di soperchiar questa parete," 

Co»Ì il maestro ; e quella gente degna : >«■ 

"Tornate," dìise, "intrate innanzi dunque," 
coi dossi delle man facendo insegna. 

Ed UD di loro incominciò : "Chiunque 
tu se', cosi andando volgi il viso, 
pon mente, se di là mi vedesti miqye," 

Io mi Tolsi ver Ini, e guardai! fiso ; 

biondo era e bello e di gentile dispetto; 
ma P un de' cigli un colpa avea diviso- 
Quando io mi fui umilmente disdetto 

d' averlo visto mai, ei difise : " Or vedi " 
e mo.strommi una piaga a soTnitlo ÌE petto. 

Poi sorridendo disse : " Io son Manfredi, 
□epote di Costanza imperadrice j 
ond* io ti OTceo che auando tu rie^ 





and what the first one doeth, the others do alio, Tbeucoa»4 
huddling up to her it Ebe st;ind sdii, sìLly iind '"' 
quiet, and know not why, 

rsaw I then %hc head of ihat happy flock moTt 
ta come od, modest in countenance, in nnove- 
meot digntlied, 
WhcD tiiose in front aaw the light broken on the Tbrir 
ground od my right side, bo that the ihadow "^ 
W39 from me to the rock, 
they hsitifd, and drew them hack somewhat; 
and aFI the others that came after, knowiflg 
not why, did the like. 

V Without your cjaeGtion I confess to you, that thil dlapellad 
f is 3 human body ye see, by which the sun's ^^ ""*" 

light on the grouoj is d^ft. 
Marvel ye not, but bellore that not without 
B virtue which comcth from beareHf he seeks 
B to surmcrunt ihii wali." 

Bo my Mailer ; and that worthy people said : 
P "Turn ye, enter then before us," with the 
backs o£ their hands making sign. 
And one of them began; " Whoe»er thou art, MuiTraA 
thuB while going turn thy fece, give heed if 
e'er thou saweat me yonder." 
I turned me to hi m^ and Bteiidfastly did look; 

■ goldrn-haired w&e he, and Fair, ^nd of noble 

V mien ; but one of his eyebrows a cut had cleft. 
When I humbly had disclaimed ever to have 

■ »ecn liim, he said ; " Now look " ; and he 
\m showed me a wound above Ills breast. 
^'hen smiling aaid: *'I am Manfred, gnmdjon 

of Empress Constance; wherefore I pray thee, 
that when thou returnest. 



Ant3- Tfldi a mia bella ^glta, genitrice "f 

r'^i^rì» adi' oùor di Gciiia e d' Aragona, 
e dichi il vero a lei, t' altro sì dice. 

Poscia eh' i' pbbi rotta la perdona "' 

di due puDte mortali, to mi rendei 
piangeado a quei che volentier perdona. 

Orribil furon lì peccati miei ? ■•* 

ma. la boutk inJiilita ha sì gran braccia 
che preode ciò, che si rivolge a lei- 
Se iJ pastor di Cosenza, che alla caccia "* 

I di me fu messo per Clemente, allora 
avesse ia Dio ben letta questa faccia, 

1' osAa del corpo mio sarìeno ancora **t 

in co' de) ponte pressa a Benevento, 
sotto la guardia della grave mora^ 

Or le baigna la pioggia e move il vento '3= 

dì fuor del regno, quabi lungo il Verde, 
dov' ei le triianiiiicò a lume .'spento. 

Per lor maledizion ti noti si perde, *a 

che non pOsea tornar E' eterno amore, 
mentre che la speranza ha fior del verde. 

Ver è che quale in contamacia muore 'i* 

di lanta Chiesa, ancor clie al (in si penta, 
stargli convien da questa ripa in fiiore 

per ogTii tempo, eh' egli è itato, trenta, '» 

in tua prrsunzlon, «e tal decreto 
pii3 corto per buon preghi Don diTenta, 

Vedi oramai se tu mi puoi far lieto, M" 

rivelando alla mia bjona Costanza 
come m* hai vialo, ed anco esto divieto : 

che qui per quei di là molto s* avanza," '« 

ij-ij. VeiptTs il th« Un ai []ie four division! of the 
Jty; from 3 to 6 r.M. ^tf, Ctn>, iti, t : »o ; ìv, 13 ; "jJ- 


thou go to my £ùr daughter, parent of the glory Tbeexcom- 

of Sicily and of Aragon, and tell her sooth, "»^»*« 

if other tale be told. 
After I had my body pierced by two mortal 

Btahe, I gaTe me i^) weeping to him who 

willingly doth pardon. 
Horrible were my traosgressiona ; but infinite 

goodness hath such wide arms that it ac- 

ceptetb all that turn to it. 
If Coaeoza's Pastor, who to chase of me was 

set by Clement, then had well read that page 

in Godf 
the bones of my body would yet be at the bridge- Muifred't 

bead near Benevento, under the guard of the ™"*' 

heavy cairn. 
Now the run washes them, and the wind stirs them, 

beyond the Realm, hard by the Verde, whither 

he translated them with tapers quenched. 
By curse of theirs man is not so lost, that eternal 

lore may not return, so long as hope retaineth 

aught of green. 

True is it, that he who dies in contumacy of Holy The 
Church, even though at the last he repent, needs {"h^Sjom- 
must stay outside this bank mnuicat* 

thirtyfold for all the time that he hath lived in 
his presumption, if such decree be not shortened 
by holy prayers. 

Look DOW, if thou canst make me glad, by reveal- 
ing to my good Constance how thou hast seen 
me, and also this ban : for here, through those 
yonder, much advancement comes." 

WfacQ it is 3 P.U. In Itftly, it is 6 r.u. at Jeniaalem and 
( 4.11. In Purgatory (tee diagrams od pp. 34 and 3$'). 




17, Thin tradition U recorded by Virgil'a ttio^rapt 
DooaCus lad Suet'O'EtiiiB. The body waa traosferre^ 
order of Augustu* {i/. Pi-r^. v\\. 6j. 

37. Be aaiLsfied. skat it h, wlttiotiC asking the rei 
ui^^y, ^' Oemonstracion l« Ciitf'a-fi^Id ; the on^ A^a 
iCiates by means of the cause, and is called prapUr 
. ^ . the other l^y meam of the etì~ecb, and is ealled 
4emo[i9tr3.tLon qus.i '' f ThomaB Ac|ui[>3isV 

38, J9. Had human rea^aii been capabk of penel 
ing chc£e mystcriee, tlier^ would have be'en no 1 
for the revelation of the Word of Go(5. 

49. Lericr and Turbia are at the Z. and W. 

tremLties uf Liguria, reSpei^tivdy. 

Bj, ■90. Thii mountain wa» on their right, and 
SUI] nn their left. 

105-145 Thin ia Manfred {ta. H51-1166), gran^ 
of the EmpCrOr Henry VI, and of V\% wife Consti 
[ibr whom sec Par^ iti. 109-110^, and nate 



fVffCjt' matkiag jmuiiannut heats at itiffirrnt rigioas of 
rttrihi 7"^ if^ifO^f ckanpes of hauFj tftt reatfrr Jnnif iflfd 
tkt rim tftht clsci lo rfvalvc crantirilKi^iir, vfAiJf iht 
hands rtmain jtatSmary, òr itit habdi tH rtVllvi Jùci^ 
vuAilc ihf rint re'itaint -tialivnar^. 



the Emperor Frederick 11. Manfred'i wife, Beatrice 
of Saroy, bore him a daughto- who (In i t€i\ married 
Feter UL of Angon (for whom and for wbo*e ion* 
■ee below, Canto vU. iit-isj; t/, aito fsr. xix. 
130-158). Manfred became King of Sicily in 1158, 
luurping the rightj of hlf nephew Conradln. The 
Pope> naturally opposed him, ai a Ghibelline, aod 
excommtinlcated him; and In 1165 Charlei of Anjou 
came to Italy with a large army, on the invitation 
of Clement IV., and was crowned as counter King of 
Sicily. On Febmary 16, 1x66, Manfred wa* defeated 
by Charlei at Benevento (wroe thirty milei N.E. of 
t^ple*), and «lain. He waj buried near the battlefield, 
beneatn a huge caim (each toldier of the army con- 
tributing a stone); but his body was disinterred by 
order of the Pope, and deposited on the banks of the 
Verde (new the Garlgllano, ^. Par. vlii. 63), outside 
the boondarlet of the Kingdom of Naples and of the 
Church States, and with the rites usual at the burial of 
those who died excommunicate (v. ty»). 

Ì 4 ^ Ì 

ft.. #M •-' t^ 





4S" o' 





IN che «agcrntss of his atiencion to Manfred's tale, 
Dance cakts no note of the paiiìng time, and 
theceby fufflwhcs a prattical reliitation of the Platonic 
dvclrine of lUi pturàlìty ot tOìÀi ; for if tlli; »Oiil thai 
pmJ'il^s over hearing were cne, aad che botA chat ootet 
the passage o[ time another, ihen the izDjnplete» 
ubaorpiìon of the former could not sa involve the Utter 
kt to prevent ii from «vercJsing it» own special function. 
!t is three STiA » h&lf houfi from sunrise when the touEi 
point owt the narrow cltfi by which the pilgnm» ar* 
ED aacetid tlie iTiQUotafn ; afcer which they > their 
leave of them (1-14)' It is only the wtngs of longing 
and hope that euabk Dante to overcome the impedi- 
ments of ihe ascent, and bring him chraugh the deft 
to the open jlope of the mounta-irir which he hreait« 
at Virgil's direction (l^ough it lies at an angle ai nQK 
than, ibrty-hve degrees (lJ-41). In answer to his 
weary plea for a pause, Virgil urge» liim to gain a 
terrace that circles the mount a little above them (43- 
51). There they rest, and, lonking east, survey their 
ascctit, after the complacent fashion of montiti- 
cUmbCr»; bat Dante ii gmascd to ^EVÌ thai ihr ton 
ii nortll of the eqU3t4r atitl >trike« o» hjs t«ft ^loulder 
(51-60). Virgil explains that thlt ia because the; 
are in the southern li^jnisphere, at the antipodes al 
Jerusalem. Were the sun in Genaini instead of Aries, 
be would he further to the north yet C^ ''7S)' Dante 
riihti^rsi^s and expands the lesson Virgil has 
him, ?nd then (having meajiwhile apparently (i 
west, facing the slope) mafcei inquiry as to the hi 
of the mountain (76-S7). Virgil, without mi 

Aati-'Qii^i<io per dilettanze ovrer per doglie, 

ÉBTgatoria ^jjg alcuna virtù no&tra compreiìd 
1 I I' anima bene ad ea^a bl raccogliej 


Bj -direct answer, chetai his weary cocnpanian hy' 
Msuring him chat as thej mount higher, the aicent 
b^Cnmcs cvet Itsi arduous, tlH aitnintlfig Up becomes 
tf spoDtan-eQiI^ 4* thr fnf'VtiavDt o( a ihip drii-ppìng 
down «treacn ; 3ad thrn coAie» reit (S9-g&J. Whcrrat a 
Tfflce luddecily riling from behind a gnat itone l)rlng 
HDth or thicm, intimale* co Dante that he will probablj 
«[■erience a keen desire for reaC ii/nrrc that t^oniumma- 
tion (j^-j-191). Whereon the poets moTe to the •hitdj' 
or KiDthcTP BÌfìe g/ the rocit where tJiej «e «ill» whcwe 
■tpentancc hM becij cteferreid to the ino'tncnt of death, 
ttretched in attitudei af indolence, And in p3rticula,r 
Sciacqua, an old friend of Dante'i., sica bugging lili 
kfi<£i liVe Siotti's own brother tt is ite who had. 
given Dante hts mocking waning, atiJ who now jn 
the aame vein taunt» him with hii rcadincH to reproach 
Bthen loT theit itoLh the moment after he himself had 
tniploredV1r(>il towaitforhiitt ; and alto with hla^low- 
neti to understand the sstronomiml phenomena of the 
^puihem heareni {loj-iio). A «mile of relief and 
imilscment lightens Dante*» fa« as he findi his friend 
among the M«ed, and «till hit old leif. Cannot even 
the spirit Ijfe check fain nimble wic oi itii hia siuggidi 
Diemben ? (tzi-ixCj, !But fitilacqua answers sadly that 
unles!; aided by the prayer of some soul la grace, he 
must live aa long eTcliideff frocn purgation a; he had 
lived in th.E teir-excluejn'n of impcnìten-ce itpon earth 
(117-135). It. is now noonday in Purgatory; night 
reigns from Ganges to Morocco ; and Virgil urges hii 
charge to continue the ascent ( ij^fi-ijg). 

When through im[iresaion of pleasure, O'f of pain, Thel.- 
which flome one of our faculties receives, the ""'0^'=** 
eaul is whoJly ctntred on that facali^f^ 






par che a nulla potenza p\ò intetida ; 

e cjTJffsto è contra quello error, che crede 

che un' anima, SOpr' altra in. noi b' accenda. 
E però, quando s^ ode cosa o vede 

che tenga forte a sé 1' anima Tolta, 

vassene ìl Cempo, e 1' uom non se n' avvede 
eh' Rltra potenza è quella che 1' ascolta, 

ed altra quella che hz 1' anima intera; 

questa è qua&ì legala, e quella è sciolta- 
Di ciò ebb* io esperienza vera, 

udendo quello spir(o ed ammirando : 

elle beo cinquanta gradi salito era 
lo sole, ed io non m' era accorto, quando 

Tenimmo dove queir aoime ad una 

gridare a noi: "Qui è rOatro damando/' 
Maggiore aperta molte Tolte impruna, ^9 

con una forcatelJa di sue spìn^, 

V uom della TÌlla, quando 1' uva imbruna^ 
che non era la calla, onde saline ■■ 

lo duca mio ed io appreso, ioli, 

come da noi U schiera si partine. 
Vasai in SanleOf e diecendesi in Noli ; "9 

montasi bu Bismanto^a in cacume 

con esso i pie: ma qui COnrien eh' uom volt; 
dico con 1' ali snelle e con 9e piume ^ 

del gran disio, di retro a quel condotto, 

cKe speranza, mi dava e facea, lume. 
Noi nalivam per entro it sasso rotto, 3* 

e d' ogni lato ne stringea ìo stremo, 

e piedi e man voleva il suol di sotto. 
Poi che noi fummo ìo su T orlo suprenia 34 

dell' alta ripa^ alla scoperta piaggia; 
Maestro mio/' diss' io, "che via faremo?^* 




it itctns tìiai it gÌ¥M heed w no other of its 

powers ; and this ia contrary to that error, 

which beiievee that one aou.[ above another is 

kindled within us. 
And therefore, whea aught is heard or «kq 

which holds the soul Btrongly bcnC to it, the 

time passes a.way and we perceive it not ; 
for one faculty ia that which note» it, and another 

that which possesses the undivided sout ; the 

former is as 'twere bound, the latter free. 
Of thii I had true experience, while hearing that 

Bpiric and marTelliag ; for full Eifcy degrees had 

the sun, and I had not perceived ic, when we came 

to where those souls with one voice cried out 

to m ; ** Here is what you ask." 
A bigger opening ma>ny a time the peasant hedges 

up with a little forkful of his thornsj when the 

grape ia darkening, 
than wafi die gap by which my Uader niouDied, 

and I alter him^ we two alone, when the troop 

parted from aa. 
One Can walk at Santeo and get down to Noli % 

one can mount Bismantora to its aummitjwith 

feet atone ; but here a man must fly^ 
I mean with the swift winga and. wkh the plumes 

of great desire, behind that Leader, who gare 

me hope, and waa a light to mc. 
We were climbing within the cleft rock, and OQ 

either side the surface pressed against us, and the 

ground beneath required both feet and hands. 
After we were on the upper edge of the high cliff, 

out on the open hillside, '* Master mine/' said 

I, '*what Way shall we take? " 

manic* tft 

Dante '■ 



Tbt pdOt 

leave the 

DifficnltT * 
the » scent 



Aotl- E<t egli a me ; " Ncwun tuo passa caggU ; 
ptireA. a J monte retro a me acquista, 

nn cne □ appaia alcuna acorta saggia. 

Lo sommo er' alto che vincca la rista, 
e la costa superba pìù aaBai 
clic da mezzo quadrante a centro li^ta. 

Io era laeso, quando corainciat ; 
"O dolc'e padre, volgiti e rimira 
com' io rimango sol, ac noD ristai." 

"Figliuol mio," disse» "infin quivi ti tira," 
additandomi un balzo poco io sue, 
che da quei Iato Ìl poggio tutto gira. 

Sì mi spronaron le parole sue 

eh* io mi sfoi'zai, carpando appresso ]ji, 
tanto che il cinghio sotto i pie mi fae. 

A seder ci ponemmo ivi ambo e dui 
volti a levante, ond' eravam saliti : 
che suole a riguardar giovare altrui. 

Gli occhi prima drizzai a' bassi liti ; 
poscia gli alzai al sole, ed ammirare 
che da sinistra n' eravam feriti. 

Ben s' avvide il poeta, che io stava 
stupido tutto al carro della luce, 
dove tra noi ed Aquilone iatrava. 

Ond' egli a me: " Se Castore e Polluce 
fossero id conipagsiia di quello specchio^ 
che su e gii) del suo lume conduce, 

tu Tederesti il Zodiaco rubecchio 
ancora all' Orse più stretto rotare, 
ne non uscisse fuor del cammin vecchio. 

Come ciò sia, se ìl vuoi poter pensare, 
dcntto raccolto, immagina Stoo 
con questo monte in au \a. tctia %ia^t^ 









And he to me: " Let no step 0/ thine d^ac^end, Danu'i 

ever up the mount behind mt win thy way, ""*■■■ 

until Home wise escort appear to us," 
So high was the top that it Kurpa^sed my sight, 

and the slope steeper fkr than a line from mid- 

[[uadrant to centre. 
Weary waa 1 when I began : " O sweet Tather^ 

turn thee and look how I remain aJooe, if thou. 

stay not." 
" My aon," laid he, " bo far as there drag thee," 

poiating out to fne a. terraCe a little higher up,, 

which on chat Bide circles che whole moutiCain^ 
Se did hia words spur me on, chat I forced me, 

creeping after him, eo far that the ledge was 

under my feet. 
There we both did sit us down, turned towardi The posa 

the East, whence we had ascended ; for CO '*" 

look back is wont to cheer men. 
First mine eyefl I directed to the shore» below; J''*?"'* 

then did raise them to the sun, and marrelled ,nn " 

that we were smitten by it on the left sideL 
Right well the Poet perceived that I was all 

astonidicd at the cbario^t of the light, where 

'twas entering between us and the North. 
Wbereiipon he to mc : '* If Castor and Pollux «piaiciod 

were in company of that mirror, which purreys * ^ 

of his light upward and downward, 
thoQ wouldst see the glowing Zodiac revoWe 

yet closer CO the Bears, unlesa It Etrayed from 

i» ancient path. 
If thou wo^jldai have power to conceive how that 

tray be, rapt within thyself, imagine Zion and 

ibis mount to be pigccd on the cartVv 



Aotl- BÌ che ambra e àae haano uà aolo orizzon 


e diversi emìsperi; onde la strada, 
chs mal aoa seppe Carreggiar FetoDr 

vedrai come a costui convien che vada 
dall' un, quaado s. colui dalj' altro Ranco» 
K 1* ìnulletto tuo beo chiaro bada." 

"Certo, maestro mio," disa' io, "Laquanca 
non vidi chiaro ai com' io disceroo, 
là dove mio CDgegnO parsa manco, 

che il m^zzo cerchio del moto superno 
che si chiama Equatore in alcun' arCe, 
e che aempre rìman trail sole e il remo, 

per la ragion che di% quinci si patte 
verso secceotrion, quanto gli Ebrei 
Vedevaa Ili verSO la calda parte. 

Ma se a te piace, volentier Siiprei 

quanto avemo ad andar, che il poggio sale 
pili che B^lir noa posson gli occhi miei." 

Ed egli a me : "Questa montagaa è tale, 
che sempre ai cominciar di «otto è grave, 
e quaata uom più va eti, e meci fa male. 

Però quand* ella ti parrà soave 

tanto, che il su andar ti Ria leggiero, 
conte a seconda gtusO andac per nave^ 

allor sarai al lìn d' eeto sentiero : 
quivi di riposar I' affanno aspetta. 
Pilli cion ritpOLido, e questo eo per vero." 

E, com' egli ebbe sua parola detta, 
una voce di prcMO sonò ; " Forse 
eh? di sedere in prima avrai distretta.'' 

Al HUOQ di lei ciascun di noi ai torse, 
e rcdemmo a mancina un gran petrocic^ 
del qual né io né ei prima s' accorse. 












■o that both have one sole horizoD aad di^er^nt virali cm 

hemispheres ; wherefore the way, which, to ^^^ 

his hurt, Phaeton knew act how to drive, \ 

thou «halt see must needs past thii on the one 

nde when it passe» Zion on the uthcr, if thy 

mind right clearly apprehend a. "^ 
"Of a surety, Masier mine," said I, "never 

•aw I so clearly as I diBcenii there where my 

wit leeined ut fault, 
thai the median circleofthe heavenly motion, which 

it called Equator in one of the acience«, aod 

which erer remaina 'twixt the sun and winter, 
for the reaaoD that thou tellest, departs here 

towards the North, aa. Far a.a, the tiebrewi used 

to see it towards the hat climei. 
But if it please thee, willingly would I know how 

far we have to go, for the hillside ri«e« higher 

than mine eyes can reach." 
Anil he to me: "This mountain is such^ ihat^q^telli 

erer at the beginnitjg below 'tis toilsome, and ai^at b* 

the more a. man ascends the 1cm it wearies. comes «i 
Therefore when it shall seem to thee so pleasant 

tha,t the ascending becomes to thee easy, even 

as ITI a boat to descend with the alream, 
then shah thou be at the end of this path : there 

hope to rest thy weariness. No more I anawer, 

aad this I know (or truth." 
And when he had said his word, a voice hard The L«ti 

by sounded : "Perchance ere that thou wth b*,^^^*^ 

have need to sit." 
At KJund of it each of us turned him round, and 

we saw on the left a great mass of stone, which 

neither I nor he perceived before. 

AaU- La ci traemmo ; ed ivi erao perstme 
***^""' che si stavano all' ombra dietro al sawo, 
com' uom per neglLgenza i star ei pone. 

Ed un di ]or, che mi sembrava lasso, 
sedeva ^ abbracciava le ginocchia, 
tcnfiido il viao giù tra esse b^ss». 

" O dolce signor mio," diss' io, ** adocchia 
colui che Rioatra sé più negligente 
che se pigrizia fos&e aua. .sirocchia." 

Allor eì rolae a. noi, e pose mente, 
nioveado il viso pur su per la coscia, 
e disse ; *' Or va hu tu, che Se' valente." 

Conobbi allor chi era ^ e quell' angoicìa, 
che m' avaccisTa un poco ancor la lena, 
non m' impedi T andare a lui ; e poscia 

che a lui fui giunto, alzò la testa appena, 
dicendo: *'Hai ben veduto come il sole 
dall' omero sinistro il Carro meoa? " 

Gli atti suoi pigri e le corte parole ' 

mOJSOn le labbra mie un poco a riso ; 
poi cominciai: " Belacqua, a me non duole 

di te ornai ; ma dimmi, perchè assiso ' 

quiritta sei ì attendi tu iscorta, 
pur lo modo usato t' hai ripriso ì " 

Ed ei : " Frate, 1' andare in su, che porta ? 
che non mi lascerebbe ire ai martìri 
r uccel di Dio che siede in eu la porta. 

Prima convien che tanto il ciel m' aggiri 
di fuor da essa, quanto fece in vita, 
p«rch' io indugiai al fine ì buon sospiri ; 

K orazione in prima non m' atta, 
che surga su di cor che in grazia viva; 
1' aìtr^ che vai, che In cle.\ aon è udita ì 






Thidicr drew wt- on ; and there were persons, 

lounging in the shade behind the rock, even as 

a ina.D ietdes him to rest for \az\aeaa. 
And one of them, who wemed to me weary, was 

aittiDg and damping his kneed, holding his face 

low down betWiteo them. 
■' O swce: my Lord," said I, '* set ihine eye oa 

that one wiio ahows himself lazier ihan if Sloth 

were his very siater.*' 
Then turned he to u& and give heed, moving hii 

face only Drer hid thigh, and said: "Now go 

thou up who an valiant." 
Then knew 1 who he was ; and that toil which 

still oppressed a little my breath, did not hinder 

my gomg to him ; and after 
I had got to him, hie head ht itcarce did lift, aay- 

Èng : " Hast thou truly &een how the bud drives 

hi? chariot on thy left aide? " 
HÌH lazy actions and the brief words moved iny 

lips tosmile:! little; then I b^gan : "Bclacqua, 

it grieves nke not 
tor thee now ; but tell me, why arc thou seated 

bere^ dost thou await eacort, or haet thou but 

resumed thy wonted habil?" 
And he : •■* Brother what avaih it to ascend ? 

For God's winged angel that aitit at the gate, 

would not let me piss to the turmcnts, 
PirK Tnust the heavens revolve around me out- 
side it, HO long as they did during my life, 

because I delayed my healing sighs to the end: 
unless before, a prayer aids me, which may rise 





dp from s heart that lives in grace: what proljti 
another that in Jieaven ta not heatd! " 



Anti- E già il poeta innanzi mi udirà, '3^ 

^ * e dicea : " Vienne ornai, ■sedi eh' è tocco 

meridian dal sole, e dalla ripa 
copre [a notte già col pie Marrocco." '39 

5, È. "Plato aaserCec] that there were divers somI* 
with dittincr organs in one and the *iune bo<iy " 
(Tliamas Aquinas), On the Ariitatelian doctrrne of 
the thrte kinds ofsoiil — vegetative, aoinnal, and ntionil, 
*ee below, CantQ xxr. «v, ji «^y, 

IX. Par thl> use of quutii and quclia^if, Pirg. xxt, {4. 

I J, ThesiJn traverse» ftftecTi degrees «very hour; tt 
il thej'efDTe now 9.1a a.m. 

15', 16, Sanlror in the terrluiy of UrbJna; Noll: 
on the ctìiiC of Liguria, bemven Savona ami Albcnga; 
Bbm^rlPis: a hiU in. the EmilU, about tweaif mUe» 
S. nf Reggio. 

40, 4I- The ang'le of the quadrant (qnartef af «. 
circl«) 11 90° ; that of a half quadrant ti tl^erefore 4j''. 

j7. Tliey were locking east, and [herefore had the 
north to their left and the scnith to their rig;ht. South 
of th« equator ihe «quinoctiiil sun 1« n<]rth ol ihc 
lenith at mi^àìj, for thv »aine reason that north oF 
the equator he is south of it. 

6^-66. £e« Argumitl, Cascor and PoSlux = the 
Twin» (cf. Fur. «»«», gS and nvif), which sign U 
further north of the equator than Aries. The lun is 
called '^«cAw (like Saturn in /"^r. xxi. iSJ, because, in 
common with the other planets [for the jun = a planet, 
^ Inf. i. 17, noff], he refitives the divine light from 
abov;. the eplieri?! Int^rvirniiiig, and r^ftpirCi it ddim- 
wards (cf. Par. xxiiil. IJ7) ; and this \& probably the 
attribute of the bud referred to in *, 6j, though sorne 
commentat'or» take the line to mean that he illuminates 
the n'>['them and southern hemisphere alternately. 

The Z-tHoco rMl>ccchie = t\\i.t part of (11* %<tÀÌaC In which 

the sMTi is. The Qrie indicati? the IMorth Pole. 

fiE-71. Consider that ì'urgaEory i« at ihe exact 
antipndeiof JerU!ialem. — Thej/rmfo— tticpathofthesiiii, 
thee;:]iptic. Fat Phaeton, see lit/, xrii. lofi-ioS., lutt. 

8x84, The equator Ìh equi-distant from Jerusalem 
atid from the Mount of Purgatory, 



And already the poet was moundng before me, Th« Lat< 
aod saying : "Come on now, thou seest the 'P"'**' 
meridian is touched by the sud, and Night 
already with her foot covers from Ganges' 
banks to Morocco." 

98. The Florentine Belacqiu.a friend of Dante's, wiu 
a maker of mnRical instrumeots, notorioui for hiitlotfa. 

123, Seeing that thou art on the road to lalvacion. 

157-139. It i< noon in Purgatory, sunrite on the 
Gangea (the rnta), and sunset In Moroccos Spain (see 
the aiagmna on p p. 34, 35, and below). 

Sktwimg tkt p»rtMu <f the mmaUat» ututer Ugkt and 
lÀade at upo^day. Cf. Purg. iy. 136-139, xìì. 81 (e»m- 
farexxU. 118-130 toifj XXV. 1-3), xxxiii. 103-105. 


AS they pa.sB up Che mounEairi, Dan(e'i shadow tdll 
excites the amaiement of ihe bouLb ; but Virgil 
bid» him pay HÙ hted ttì their eselamation» (i.u). A 
graup of iQ\lU ch»n(iiig the Minrert break» into a 
cry oE wonder, and when two of tht4ti, kShC out a» 
mefiiengers, have ivceiTed Virgil's «tatemcnt lli^t 
Dante is still in the firit liTe, the whole group crowd 
around him (ai -^i). They ttU him ihat they are 
soula of the violently slain, who repented and made 
thtir paace with G>od at the last moment. Virgil ìiHf 
Dante pursue his path, but eiilTers him to promiK to h^ar 

n Cot io 


lo era già da quell' ombre partito, 
e^ aeguitav.a 1' orme del mio duca, 
quando di retro a me drizzando il dito, 

una gridò ; " Ve' che non par che luca 
io raggio da ainistra a quel di sotto, 
e come vivo par che si conduca." 

Gli ocelli rivolsi al «uon di questo motto, ^ 

e vidil? guardar per maraviglia 
pur me, pur me, e il lume eh' era rotto, 

*' Perchè i' animo tuo tanto s' impiglia," »" 

disse il maestro, '* che I* andare allenti ? 
che ti fa ciò che quivi si pispiglia? 

Vien retro a me, e laecia dir le genti ; »j 

sta come torre ferma, che non crolla 
giammai la cima per so/Iìar de' vtDti : 

che sempre l' uomo, in cui pcEsier rampolla '* 
Bopra pensier, da sé dilunga il Begno^ 
perchè la foga 1' un dell' altro insolla." 

Che poteva IO ridir, se non : " Io pegno ì " ^9 
Disailo, alquanto del color conspereo 
che fa r uom di perdon tal volta degno. 


' theie aaols to thek friendi on earth and implore 
their praje» (A-y^i)- D^'Ute hearg the tale of Ja<^opa 
del Casiero (64.-84). Then Bucbf^Onte d» Moote Feltro 
teli» the (tory of bi« deatli 4C Cainpildino, the tiniggle 
of the angel and the deril for hi» scuL, and the face of 
hii deaerted body (Sj-iiy). And Lastly Pja rehearnes, 
m britif pathetk words, the tragrily of her wedded 
Uie, uid imploT» the poft when he ii re*ced /toiti 
r\à» Umg journey to bethlnlt hìm ot her (i^a-i^i). 

I WM already prted from those eSadts» and *as The Luti 
followtng my leader's footsteps, when behiodl "^P*""" 
me, pointing hia Eioger, 

one cried: "See, it seemeth not that the light Their 
sbince 00 the left of him below, and he "'•■"°'' 
appears to demean, himEelf like one aJive." 

Mine eyes I t^jrned at fiuund of theae words, and 
aaw them gazing in astonishment at me alone, 
me alonef and at the light that was broken. 

"Why IB thy miod bo entangled," eslA the Vlrga 
Master, "that thou sEackenest thy pace? what dmw'St 
matters it to thee what they whisper here? tirtylag; 

Follow me sad let the people ulk ; stand diou 
as a firm tower which n^rer Bbakes ita euminit 
for blast of winds: 

for ev«r the man in whom thought wella up on 
thought, Bets hack his ma^rk, hecauae the one 
Baps the force of the other," 

What could I answer, «ave : " 1 come " ? This 
t laid, sufTueed «omewhat with that colour 
which oftniraeB makes a man worthy of pardon. 
n 19 



AaU- E ÌQtanto per la costa di traverso 
fmrj:» a y^nivan genti innanzi a noi un poco, 
cantando M'uertre a verso a verso. 



Quando s* accorser eh' io non darà locu,, 

per lo mio corpo, al trapassar tie' raggi, 

mutar lor canto in un ' oh ' lungo e roco } 
e due di loro ir forma di messaggi 

corsero incontro a noi, e duinandarne : 

"Di Vostra condition fateoe saggi." 
E il mio maestro : "Voi potete andarne, 

e ritrarre a co^or che vi mandia^ro, 

che il corpo di co4tuì è vera carne. 
Se per veder la sua ombra restaro, 

com' io avviso, assai è lor rìsposm ; 

fàcdangli onore, ed esser può lor caro." 
Vapori accesi non vid' io eì tosto 

di prima notte mai fender sereno, 

né, sol calando, nuvole d^ agosto, 
che color non tornasaer suao in meno ; 

e, giunti là, con gli altri a noi dier volta, 

come schiera che corre senza freno. 
*' Questa gente che preme a noi é motta, 

e veogoflti a pregar, "^ disse il poeta; 

" però pur va, ed in andando aiscolta.*' 
**0 anima, che vai per esser lieta 

con quelle membra, con le quai nascesti," 

venian gridando, "un poco il passo queta. 
Guarda se alcun di not uncjue vedesti^ 

sì che di lui di iài novelle porti : 

deh, perchè vai ì deh, perchè non t' arresti \ 
Noi fummo già tutti per forza morti, *■ 

e peccatori infino all' uhim' ora: 

quivi lume del cìel Ufi Ecce accorti 







And meanwhile aCroaa the mOuntaio slopi? came The L&t« 

people a little in front of us, chanting the ^iq^^oJ^ 

Mtiertrt Tcree by verse alterne, «laiJi ' 

When they perceired that I gave no place, because j 

of my body, to the passage of the rayB, they jl 

changed thcirchaaitCtacOh! long and hDarGc; 1 

and two of them in the guise of meaacngera ran They ' 

to meet ua, apd asked of ut ; " Make us to (^'«y "*l 

know of your condition. 
And my Master; "Ye may go hence and bear 

back to those who Bent you that the body of 

this maa ìh very flcsb. 
If they stayed for seeing \ài shadow, aa I opine, 

enough is aQBwered: let them dq him fagnoiir 

and he may be preciouia to them." 
Ne'er saw 1 flaming Tapours so swiftly cleave 

the bright sky at eaily night, or Auguat 

douds at Ktting sun, 
but that they returned upward in less, Aod, arrived 

there, with the othera wheeled round to u!, 

like a troop that hastca with loosened reia. 
*'ThÌ8 people that preasei on to ue ia many, and 

they comete entreat thee,*' said the poet | ** but 

go thou erer oo aitdr while goin^, liatea." 
« O soul, that goest to be glad with tJiose 

members which thou wabt bom witli/' they 

caitie crying, "arrest a while thy step. 
Look if e'er thou sawest any one of us, so that thou 

cnayat bear tidings of him yoFid>er: ah, where-^ 

fort goest thou i ahrwhcrefore stayeet thou Ilot^ 
We were all «Iain by rioleacc and »ÌDaer6 up to 

the last hour: then light Irom heaven made 

ua Ware 



_ Aati- sì che, pentendo e perdonando, faùti H 

P»fffB.t9 ^j ^j[g uscimmo a Dio pacllicati, 

chfi del dialo di sé veder n' accora." 

Ed io : " Perchè ne' loatiì visi guati, ** 

DOD rìconoBco alcun; ma, se a voi piace 
cosa eh* io po&sa, spiriti beo aiti, 

TOi dite [ ed io farò per quella pace, *" 

ch,e, retro ai piedi di ai fatta guida, 
di mondo in moiido cercar mi ai face." 

Ed uno incomiaciò: ** Ciaaciin 6Ì fida ^ 

del beneitcio tuo eeoza giurarlo, 
pur che il voler aonpossa non rìcida. 

Ond* io, che boIo innanzi agli altri parlo, ^ 

d prego, se mai redi quel pseae 
che siede tra Romagna e quel di Carlo, 

(the lu mi sie de* tuoi pregln corceae 7» 

in Fano $ì che ben per me s' adori, 
perch' io possa purgar le gravi offese. 

Quindi fu' io; ma li profondi fori, H 

oodc uscì il «angue in sul qual io «dea, 
fatti mi fijiro in grembo agli Anteoorì, 

]à dov* io pili BÌcuro esser credea. 7* 

Quel da Est! il fc' far, che m' arca in ira 
aesat più là che dritto non voLea. 

Ma b' io fosai fuggito in ver La Mira, *» 

quando fui «opraggiuoto ad Orìago, 
ancor rare! di là dorè iì spira. 

Corsi al palude, e le cannucce e il brago ** 

m' impigliar ■! eh' io caddi, e \\ vid' io 
delle mie vene fafiai in terra lago." 

Poi disse un altro: " Deh, se que! dieio •) 

« compia che ti tragge all' alto monte, 
eoe buona pleta-te aiula \l mio. 


JO that, repeating anJ pardoiiLtig, we came forth The l-«tfl- 
fron» life reconciled with God, who penetrates tìdC^j- 
us witVi desire to behold hira." •I»'" 

And I : " How much soever I gajle in your 
facE-Bj I recognise none; but tf aught 1 can do 
may please you^ yc apirits bom for him, 

■peak ye; aad I will do it Eoi the sake of that 
peace, which, following the steps of «uch a 
guide, makes me pursue it from world to world/' 

Aad one began : " Each of us truàts tii thy gtiod Jacopo del 
officea without thine oath, if only want of "**" 
power cut Dot off the wiil. 

Wherefore I, who merely speak before the others, 
pray thee, if e'er thou see that country which 
Ijea between Romagna and that of Charles, 

chat thou be graciouS' to me of thy prayers fn 
Pano, &o that holy orison be made for me, 
thae 1 may purge away my heavy offcncea, 

Thence sprang I ; but the deep wounds whence 
flowed the blood wherein my life was set, 
were dealt me in the boBom of the Antenori^ 

there wheie I thought to he mast secure. He 
of Estc hnd it done, who held me in wrath 
far beyond what justice would. 

But if I had fled towards La Mira, when 1 was 
surprised at Oriaco, I should yet be yonder 
■ where meo breathe. 

Bran to the marehes, and the reedj and the mire 
entarfjled me so, that I fell ; and there saw I 
a pool growing on the ground from my veins." 

Then said another: " Prithee,— and bo be that Baraconto 
dfsire Batisfied which draws thee iip the Iqft:^ {««luc 
mount — with kindly pity help my aewte. 




Aati-llo fui di Montcfeltjo, io eon Buonconte ; 
««rfit>»Ha| Giovanna o altri non ha di me cura; 

per eh' io vo tra costor con bassa TroDtc." 

Ed io a lui : ** Qual forza, o qual veniura 
ti cra7E<^ ai fuor di Campaldino 
che non si eeppc mai tua sepoltura?" 

•* Oh," rispos' egli, "a pie del Casentino 
traTerea un' acqua che ha nome 1' Archiano, 
che «Opra r Ermo nAsce in Apenotao. 

Dove II Tocabal ano diventa r^ao 
arriva* io forato nella gola, 
fuggendo a piede e eaDgiiioanda il piano. 

Quivi perdei Ja viata, « la parola 
nel nome di Maria finii ; e quivi 
caddi, e rimase la mia carne aoU, 

Io dirò il vero, e tu il ridi' tra i y'm ; 

I' angel di Dio mi prese, e quel d' inferno 
gridava : * O tu dei ciel, perchè mi privi ì 

Tu te ne porti di costui I' «creo 
per una lagrimeCta che il mi toglie ;. 
ma io fiirò dell' altro altro governo.' 

Ben sai come nelP sere si raccoglie 

quell' umido vapor, che in acqua riede 
tosto che sale dove il freddo il coglie. 

Giunse quel mal voler, che pur rial chiede, " 
con 1' intelletto, e mOHae il fummo e il vento 
per la virtii, che aua natura diede. 

Indi h valle, come il à\ fu spento, 
da Pratomagno aJ gran giogo coperse 
di Debbia, e il ciel ài sopra fece intento 

al che il pregno aere in acqua si converse : 
la pioggia cadde, td ai fossati venne 
di Jei ciò che la terra non Bofferae ; 









I was af Montefehro, I am Buoncontr ; Giovanna, 
or any other hath do care for me ; wherefore 
I go among these, with doWnCast brow." 

And I to him: "What violence or what chance 
made thee stray so far from Campaldlno, that 
thy burial place ne'er was known Ì " 

" Oh," answered he, " at Casentinu's foot a 
itream crosses, which is named Archiano, and 
rises in the Apcnninefi above the Hermitage. 

There where its name is loRt, did I arrive, pierced 
in the throat, flying on foot^ and bloodying 
the plain. 

There ioat I uisian, and ended my wordd upon 
the name of Mary ; and there fell I, and my 
fle«h alone was. ]t^lt. 

I will «peak Booth, and do thou respeak it among 
the living ; the angel of God took, me, and one 
from Hell cried; 'Othou from Heaven, where- 
fore robbcist thoL me? 

Thou bearest hence the eternal pari of thia man, 
for one little tear that snatchea him from me; 
but with the other will I deal in other fabhion,.' 

Thou knowest how in the air that damp vapour 
gathers, which turns again to water snon as it 
AfiCcnds where the cold conidcnscE. it. 

He united tliat evil will, which seeks ill only, 
with intellect, and adiTed the roi%% and wind 
by the power which his nature gave. 

Then when day waa «pent, he cohered the valley 
from Pratomagno to the great mountain chain 
with mist, and the sky above made lowering 

EQ that the raturittcd air was turned to water: 
; rain fell, and to the water-rillfl came what 
it the earth endured not ; 



fights for 





Anti. e tome a' rÌTÌ grandi si convenne, *" 

' ver lo fiume real tanto veloce 

eì ruina, cKe nulla la ritenne. 

ho corpo mio gelato ìa su la foce "^ 

trovò 1' ArchiaD rubesto j e quel Boapiose 
nell' Arno, e sciolse al mio petto la croce, 

eh' io fei di me quando il dolor mi vinse ; '■? 
Yoltorami per ìt ripe e per lo fondo, 
poi di Hua preda mi coperse e cinse/' 

■*Deh, (Quando tu sarai tornato al mondo, '^ 
e riposato della luDga via,'^ 
seguitò il terzo spirito al secondo, 

"ricordio di me, che son la Pia; W 

Siena mi fé', diafecemi Maremma : 
jalsi colui che ìonanellata, pria 

diEposando, m' avea con la sua gemma." *3* 

14, "l'he Aliifrirc — Pealm lì. 

37-39. Medieval rden.c« held falling stani and 
neaiher light ning^ ro be due to" flaming vapours," 

6y%i^. Jacopo del Caesero [probably relal'sd to the 
Guido of Inf. Kjiniii. 77), a Guelf of Fano (lìtaated in 
the mark oE Ancona, bMw«?nRainag:na and tlirkingJom 
of Naplep, whicli wa& ruli^il by Charles [1, ai Anjcu) wa« 
Pi>destii, of Bologna in 1196. Having incurred the 
wrath of Azeo VHI, of Eite Tfoc whom see Inf. xii. 1 10- 
1 1 > ; if. also FwjT, XB. So ), whose designs on the city 
he had frustrated, he hoped to escape hi* itn^tnatt by 
excha,n:g:ing the office at Bolo^ni fnr ?. tiniikr one at 
Milan fitjS). He was, h-i)wever, murdeied by Azzo'i 
Orden [nmcng the aasa^Eini being Eticcardo da Cam- 
mino, lot whom see P^ir. ìx. 49-51] while on his waj- 
thither, at Oriaco, betweeti Venice and Padua [the 
FaiJuani are called Antenori in *. 7;, from t^oit 
repured founrler AnKnor, for whom ue Ixf. xxxil. 
SS, Btiei hji escape to Italy afrcr the Ekll of Ttoj, 
MiA hi» huildine of Padua aire recorded bt Vlrril 

ind as it uDited into great torrenM, »o swiftly it 

ru&hed towards the royal Htr?ani, that caught 

hdd it back. 
My frozen body at na mouth the raging Archian 

fouad, aod swept it into the Arno, and Joosed 

the croas on my breast, 
which I made of me when pain o'crcame mc ; 

it rolled me aEong itt banki and ovcf its bed, 

then coTcred and wrapped me with itBapoils." 
" Pray, when thou abak return to the world, and 

art rested from thy Inng journey," followed 

the third spirit after the second^ 
*' ELexnember nie, who am La Fii : Siena made 

me. Maremma unmade me : 'tis known to him 

who, first plighting troth, had wedded me with 

his gem." 

^t- ^, >•).> '^-Jj- Otiaco Is rituated in a marshy 
conntry, while La Mira would have been easier of 
aneaa to Jacapo id hii ilight [w. 79-Si). 

Sj-lt^. Euoflr'snc? fii Monrefcltro, «on ol the 
GullIo who^r death furms the Aub}ect of a icrj «Linilat 
episode in /ir/l xxTii,, and, like hn father, a Ghibelline 
lH;3.der. tie was in cominand of tbc Aretine; ivhen ihey 
tfCTc defeated hj the Florendjie Goelfs ac CsmpaldLno, 
on June ii, 11Ì9, and was htmnelf anunn^ the slain. 

Ktccording to Srvmi^s te»cirn&<iy, Came took part in 
iR battle an the Cuelf sLde; nee In/, nxi. g4-9'6| 
■off]. GiaTanna. («^ 89)^33 Buonconce's wife. Cam- 
pildinQ !■ in tlie Upper Val d'Arno, or district of 
Ca.KDtino (boundi:d by the mouanias of Pratomagno 
STI thewesr and by r he prindpal chain of the Apennints 
Oil the east— V. It6; i/. Inf. jiXX. 65, and /''"x- xi'. 
4jj, betwi.'en. Poppi and Bilibicna. At the la'.ter piare 
the Archiano, wtiieh rise» in the Apennines at the 
monuter/ of CamaldoH (y. jg ; cf. Par. j;xii. ^g, nvU), 
Fall» Into the Amo (tw. 97, 114-116). — With w. 10.9- 

111.^ furg. XXTtii. 1:1.11 

Hie Lat 


Hi» devi 


La. Piai 


i^a-i^^. Until recently the story of la Pia, u gWen 
by the Tarioua cammen [aiors, waa xs Fallows; — The 
unrortimatie lady belonged to the Siencse family of the 
Tdiimei, and rnanieil Nello tSìngKiramo dei Pautioc- 
chieschi CPudeeti of VolFerm in 1177, and or Lacca in 
1314; captain ai the Tuscan Guelfi in 11S4; itili living 
in I ]=i ]. She wai put to death by h^r husband in 1 295 
■t tbe Castello della Pietra^ iii the Slc^neie Mareimma; 
WBie lay that the was tlirown aat of i window, by 
Nello'v orders, Dlh«r« that >he <^ted Ir «Pine mysterious 
nay CwhJch probably gave rise to the Iradititm that che 
unhealthy mai's-hes of the (iiotrict were interded (C'infili 
actually did, hill her). Nello's motives are rarioutly 
giren: according to some account» he was jea bui (with 

or withbilt *aUs«) ; acCOrdihg tO óthcfl he wished Co ^t 

rid oi hh wtfe in order to b*^ able to marry the CDuntesi 
Margherita degli AldobrandcRchi, the widow of Guy 
of Montforc- — in the y«ar tSSS this, identification of 
ia J^a yfit proved (bj Banchi) to be impus«ible ; and it 
IB diiììcult Co «ay how much truth there may be in the 
kgendd clustering round her name, till fre^h document* 
concerning her aneartfied. 

Shewing tkt kùurt al xukUh the ttveral tig" aftht Zodiac 
ttglM ta rue at the ipring eguiitox. Each iign ifgim ft l*t 
twelve homrt after it htgint te rite. The ipectater ii loohti^ 


LIKE 1 siiccessful£EFer who musi deave hia traf 
hy paymenra through th* host whoie quickened 
«Miat H>f fti^nd'^Hip o»erflpw« in obstnicLive congracula- 
tioas and rtm ini ace sices, so Dante must pAf bis vmy bgr 
promises througSi tlie crowd of souls to whom he has 
power of granting luch predai]) baaDa{i- 12). Of Bocne 
if ihrit iemh he telLs u» new^, nac without tide thructi 
of warni-ng- or reproach at the living [[i3*34). When 
agiin free to tonwcne with hi? gtiiiJc, Csnic aslce tiiin 
to explain the- Kcming contradiction betweeo the 
anxiety uf these loule for the prayers of orheri, and hii 
(Virgil'a) declaration that the divine Fate» cannoc be 
bent by prayer (ss-jj). Virgil expkinH, tirstlf, that 
BO betidiflg^ of tbi; divine ■will i» involved in the gnot- 
ing of prayer; siegojidly, that hU «huk* wa» nttered 
to sauis not: in grace; and, finally, that, the complete 
tolucion oi such qiucaci-ons ii not for him (^Virgil), bucfor 
Beatrice (34-48^ ■, at the mention nf whnic name Danta 

And- Q'^si'do 81 parte il giuoco della zara, 
piirratoiio colui che perde sì riman dolente, 
ripetendo le volte, e tristo impara; 

con l' altro ae ne va tutta la gente : + 

qaal ra dinanzi, e qua! di retro il prende, 
e qua! da lato gli ai rec^ a meat£. 

Eì non b' arresta, e questo e quello intende j 1 
a cui porge r^i man piil non fa pressa ; 
e così dalla calca si difeode. 

Tal era io In quella turba spessa ; •• 

volgendo a loro e qua e là la faccia, 
e promettendo, mi sciogllea da essa. 

Quivi era I' Aretin, che dalle braccia *l 

fiere di Gliin di Tacco ehbe h inorte, 
e I' altro che annega correndo iti caccia, 



vrìshce lo jnake greater spet;i] Ifl aicetljing ihe moua- 
tSJQ, whereto VjrgU answers that the jonraej Ìi of 
more dayi than one (.49-$7)- The poet», now In the 
shade of the mountain («ince ttie^ tae od Iti eaitem 
slope aad the van is already west of north} so- ihat 
Cant's no longer casu a ■haiio'w, and is rherelon not 
iastultlj to be n(«c:ig;liiiecl a a living tnin, t>ern:ive the 
Mul of S(iid«Uo gazing U)^i>n them like S. couching lion j 
but on heariag that Virg'il ia a, Mantuao, he break.! 
through ail mcire and embracEs him as hii fellow- 
eountryman (s*-7S)- The lo»e of theae two feliow- 
citizeni caJlt back to Qante'j heart th« miserable 
^Ì3«ea»LonB that rend the citi» oT Italy, and the 
callouBnesi with which the Emperon leave them to 
their fate (7&'). But from the reproaches thui 
laODched againat the Italiani, Floreacc is lariratticall}' 
excepted, till the lareasm breaki duwn in a wail of 
reproachful pity ( 1 17- 1 j 1 ). 

When the game of dice bre^ke upi he who losei TheLau 
stays aorrowing, repealing the throws, and sadly viofeno^^ 
learns : =^'0 

with the other all the folk go away: one goes Ttiey 
in front, another plucks him from behind, and rou^ 
another at hi* aide recalls htm to his mind. Danti 

He halts aOt and aUends to this one and to that: 

I those Co whom he stretches forth his hand press 
Qo more ; and 10 he savcs him from the crowd. 
Guch was I to that dense throng, turning my face 
to them, now here, now there, and by promia- 
iBg freed me from them. 
There wm the Aretine who by the Mvagc arma BmIbc 
of Ohiii dì Tacco met his death ; and the 
Other who wbb drowncd aa he ran in chase- 
i - 



AatU Quivi pregava con le mani Bporte 
«.ntiLtorio F,.j^rico Notaio, e quel da P'^ 

che fé' parer lo buon Marzucco forte, 

Vidi Cont' Orso ; e 1* anima divisa 
dal corpo suo per selìo e per inveggù, 
comf dicea, non per Colpa Commisa — 

Pier dalla Broccia dico: e qui proYVfgg,ia, 
flitntr' è di <ju3, la donna di Brabanie, 
BÌ che però non aia di peggior Ef^^ggi^- 

Come libero fui da tutte e c^uante 

quell' ombre, che pregar pur eh' altri preghi, 
HI che h' aracci il lor divenir sante, 

io cominciai : *• E' par che tu mi neghi, 
Jace mìa, tapresw lo iìcQn te&co, 
che decreto del cielo orazion pieghi ; 

e questa gente prega pur dì questo. ; 

Sarebbe dunque loro «pcmc vana ì 
o non m'è il detto tuo ben manifÉBta t" 

Hd egli a me : " La mia HcriUura è piana^ 
e là speranza di cosEor non falla, 
se hen si guarda con la mente sana. 

Che cima di giudizio non s' avvalla, 
perchè foco d' iinnor compia ir ud puDCo 
ciò che dee satisfar chi qui s' aatalla; 

e la dov^ io fermai cotesto punto. 

Don ai ammendava, per pregai", difetto, 
perchè il prego da Dio era disgiunto. 

Veramente a eoaì, alto sospetto 
non ti fermar, se quella dqJ ti dice, 
che lume fìa tra il vero e l' intelletto. 

NoQ so se intendi: io dico dì Beatrice ; 
tu la vedrai di sopra, in tu la vetta 
di questo monte, ridente e felice." 










There was praying with ouUtretched haniU 

Federigo NotcHo, and he of Pih who made 

the good Mdrzucco thow fortitude:. 
I saw Count Orso, and the soul severed from its 

bùdy through hatred and envy, so it «aid^ a.nd 

no: for any sin committed — 
Pierre de [3 Brosse I mean ; and here let the Lady 

of Bnbant take heed, while she is on earth, so 

that for this, ihe be not of a worser herd. 
When I was free from all ihoee ahadcB whose one 

prayer was that others ahould pray, so tliat their 

way to blessedaess be sped, 
1 began: **It seemeih that thou, O my Light, 

deniestexprrssjyta 3 certain passage, that prayer 

may bend heaven's dei^ree; 
aod these people pray but for this. Can then 

their hope be wa ì or are not thy words right 

clear to me i " 
Aad he to tne i ** My writing is plain and the 

bope of the^m is not deceived if well thou con- 

Biderest with mind whole. 
For the height of justice is not abased because fire 

of love fulfils in one moment the sattsfaction 

which he owes who here is lodged : 
and there where I aifirmed that point, default could 

not be amended by prayer» because the prayer 

was «e?ered &om God. 
^m do not rest in so profound a doubt except 

abe tell it thee, who shall be a light betweeo 

truth and intellect. 
fl know not if thou understand : I apeak of 

Beatrice ; thou shah see her ^bore, oq the 

summit of this mount, smiling and blessed." 

The t^ti 



Federico . 

F armata 
CoBJit Orcfl 
.and PicT d( 






_ Aùtì- Ed io: " Signore, andiamo a maggior fretta; W 
parfatorQ ^j^^ g^^ ^^^ m'affatico come dianzi; 

e vedi ornai che il poggio I' ombra getta." 
"Noi andenem con questa giorno innaDzi," 

rispose, "quanto piii potremo omai ; 

ma. il fatto è d' altra forma che non stanzi. 
Prima che sii lassi), tornar vedrai 

colui che gik si copre delia costa, 

b) che i suoi raggi tu romper non ftà. 
Ma vedi la un' aDima, che, posta 

wk soletta, verso noi riguarda; 

(Quella ne iriGegnerk I2 via più tosta." 
Venimmo a lei. O anima Lombi^da, 

come ci stavi aicera e diedegnosat 

e DcI mover degli oCchi ùattta. e tarda ! 
EJla non ci diceva alcuna cosa; 

ma Easciavanc gir, solo aguardando 

a guis^ di leon (jUando si posa. 
Put Virgilio si trasse a lei, pregando 

che ne moatTasse la miglior salita.; 

e quella non mpose al s^uo domaodo $ 
ma di nostro paese e della vita 7^ 

e' inchiese. E il dolce duca incominciava: 

" Mantova," ... e l' ombra, tutta in sé lomiLa, 
«urse ver lui H^1S|ìb ^ "y^Q" ^ «lava, n 

della tua terra." E J' un 1* altroThJ'^"'^"- 
Ahi serva Italia, di dolore ostello. "* 

oon donna d. pr,>vi.d., ma bordello l 
yuell anima gentil fu cosi presta. 
8^1 per Io dolce .con della sua terra, 
ai iare ai cittadin suo quivi feoJa * 




And I : " My Lord, go we with greater haaie ; 

for already I grow not weary as before, and 

look, the hillaide doth now a «hadow cast." 
"We with this day wilJ onward go,*' answered 

he, "so far as yet we may ; but the fact in 

other than thou deemeat. 
Ere thoQ art above, him shak thou Bee return that 

DOW is being hidden by the B.!op«, so that thou 

rtiakeai not his rays to break. 
But SL<e there a soul which, placed alone, eohtary, 

lookelh towards ua ; it will point out to US the 

quickest way." 
We came to it : O Lombard sou], how wast thou 

haughty and disdainfùJ, and in the movement of 

thine eyes majestic and slow ! 
Naught it said to us, but allowed ua to go oti, 

watching only after the &Bhior( of a lioEl when 

he couches. 
Yet did Virgil draw on towards it, praying that 

tt would show to UH the best ascent ; and that 

ipiric answered not hie demand, 
but of our country and of our life did stk us. 

Aad the sweet Leader began: "Mantle," 

. , . and the shade, all rapt in self, 
le^pt towards him from the place where fir«t it 

wafl, saying ; " O Mantuan, I am Sordello of 

ihy city." And one embraced the other. 
Ah Italy, thou slave, hostel of woe. Teasel with- 
out pilot ia a mighty storm, no mi&treBS of 

provincea, but a brothel ! 
That gentle spirit was thui quick, merely at the 

sweet name of hia city, to give greeting there 

lo his fcUow-citizeo ; 








AnU- ed ora in te non «anno senza guerra 

di ((uei che un muro ed una fossa serra. 

Cerca, misera, intorno dalle prode 

le tue marine, e poi ti guarda in scao, 
ae aJcuna parte in te di pace gode. 

Che Tal, perchè ti racconci^Bse iJ freno 
Gìusuniano, se la Bell± è votaP 
Senx' p^so ^ora. Ja vergogna meDo. 

Ahi gente, che dovresti esser devota, 
e lasciar seder Cesar in la sella, 
ae bene intendi ciò che Dio ti nota! 

guarda com' caia fiera è fatta fella, 
per non eBser corretta dagli sproni, 
poi che ponesti mano alla predella. 

O AJberto Tedesco, che abbandoni 
costei eh' è. fatta indomita e selvaggia, 
e dovresti inforcar li suoi arcioni, 

giusto giudizio dalle stelle caggia 

supra il tuo sangue, e eia nuovo ed aperto, 
tal che il tuo successor temenza n' aggìa: 

che avete Cu e il tuo padre soflertOt 
per cupidigia di COfità distretti, 
che il giardia dell' imperio sia diaeito. 

Vieni a veder Montecchj e Cappdlcuì, 
Monaldi e Filippeachi, uom senza cura; 
color già trisii, e costor con sospetti. 

Vien crudel, vieni, e vedi la pressura " 

de' tuoi gentili, e cura lor magagne, 
e vedrai Santaltor com' è sicura. 

Vieni a veder la tua Roma che piagne, " 

Tederà e sola, e dj e notte chiiima: 
*' Cesare mio,, perchè non m' accompagnc ? " 









aod DOW In tbee thy liring abide aot without war, Dute 
and one doUi rend the other of thpac that one ^^uj^ 
vfaii aùd one foH shut! in. I*^ 

SfJ.rch, wretched one, around thy seacoasis by 

the ihorek, and then gaze ta thy bosom, if any 

part of thee enjoy pe2Cc. 
What avails it that Justioìan should re£t thy bridJe Tie 

if the saddle it empty ì But for that the ahamc ^'*P*'*' 

were Ie«B. 
Ah people, that «houldst be obedient, and let 

Cassar sit io the saddle^ if well thou under- 

eundeat whit God wrìteth to thee ! 
ice how this beast hxttt grown vicioiu, for not 

being corrected by the spun, eiace thou ha» put 

thy hand to the bridJe. 
O German Albert, that doat foreake her who is 

become wanton and iavage, and that OUghtest 

to bestride her saddle-bow, 
may juai judgment fall from the lUr^ upon thj 

blood, 3;>d be it strange and manifest bo that 

thy EUCceGSor may have fear thereof: 
for thou and thy father, held back yonder by 

CDTetousneaa, have Buffered that the garden of 

the empire be laid waste. 
Come iod see Montagues and Capulcta, Mooaldi 

and Filippeschi, thou man without care : thoEe 

already sad, and these in dread. 
Come, cruel OAe, come, and sec the oppreasion 

of thy nohlea and tend their sores, and thou 

ah2:lt set Sancafior how secure It h. 
Come and see thy Rome that weepeth widowed 

and alone, and day and night doth cry: 

*' CxBar mine, wherefore doBl thou not coni- 

Asti- Vieni a veder la gente quanto s' ama ; 
•™^"*^ e He nulla di noi pietà ti move, 

a vergognar ti vietj delia twa fama. 

E se licito m' è, o sommo Giove, 
che fosti in terra per noi crucifìsso, 
ioa li giusti occhi cuoi rivold altrove ;■ 

è preparazion, che dcII' abisso 

de] IMO conaiglio, fai, per alcun bene 
ÌD tutto dall' accorger nostro 9C1990 ? 

Che le città d' Italia tucte piece 

aon di uranni, ed un Marcel diventa 
ogni villaTi che parteggiando viene, 
/ Fiorenza mia, ben puoi esstr contenta 
/ di questa digression che non ti tocca, 
mefcè del popol tuo che a' jrgDmcQta. 
. Molti han giustizia in cor, ma tardi icocca, 
I per nOQ venir senza consiglio all' arco ; 

cna il popol tuo r ha in sommo della bocci 

Molti rilìutan lo c&mune ìncarco; 
ma il popol tuo aolkcito risponde 
senza chiamare, e grida : ** Io mi lobbanx 

Or ti fa lieta, che tu hai ben onde : ^H 

tu ricca, tu con pace, tu con unno. ^H 
S' io dico '1 Ver, 1' effetto noi nasconde. 

Atene e Lacedemone, che fenno 
r antiche leggi e furon b5 civili, 
Fecero al viver bene un picciol cenno 

verao di t^, che fai tanto sottili 

provvedimenti, che a mezzo novembre 
tLon giunge quel che tu d' ottobre fili. 

Quante volte del tempo che rinierobrej 
legge, moneta, officio e coMume 
hsi tu mutato, e rinnovato racmbre t 


E fili. •! 


and see how thy peopte love one another j DMit» 
if no pity Tor ua move thee, come and A^^iLt 
■ne lh« for thy &nic. 1*»*^ 

fit be permitted me, O higheat Jore, who 
earth for 12s v/ast crucified, are ihy juit 
t turncKl elsewhither ; 

t preparation which thou jirt making in the 
ths of thy couDseIr for some good cod 
>]Iy cut off firom our rinon ? 
ic citi» of Italy arc all full of tyrants, and 
'y cloWn tha.t cofnes to play the partizan 
jinea a Marceltus, 
FJorence, thou indeed maytl rejoice at thii (n«f^M 
'easion which touches thee not, thanki to 
people that reasons bd well. 
hare juBtice ìq their hearts, but slowly it 
rt fly, for it comes not without couaeel to 
bow ; but thy people hath it «Ter on its lip*. 
refuse the public burdeaft; but thy people 
.vers eagerly without call, and cries out : "I 
1 me to the charge. '^ 
nake thee glad, for thou hast good reason : 
1 rich, thou at peace, thou bo wise. If I 
ik BOOth, the facta do aot conceal it. 
a and LaCedcmOn, that framed the Uwa of 
and were so grown in civil arts, ^ve s 
e hint at well living 

thee^ who doat make such subtle proTision, 
to mid-November r«acheB not what Hhou 
ictobef spinneit. 

often in the time which thou remembereit, 
if coinage, oflices, and cii^toms ha»t thou 
iged, and renewed thy membenl 



*"t'- E ae ben ti ricordi e Tedi lume, 

vedrai te Bimigliante a quella infentia, 
che non può trovar posa in su le piume, 
Ola con dar volta suo dolore scherma. 

t. Zara, i. game tìf chance pliyed with three dice. 

ij, 14. "The Aretine" U BeBincau da LkEcrin 
who, Ai judge co the PQ>de!ità af SLena, condemned 
death a T«la.tive of Chin di Taccoj a natorious hig 
ws]-inail. The latter lubjequendy HT^nged hlms 
bj murdering Bi^nlacaia, while he wai aìcting aa 
tnagìfTrate at Roine^ 

lyij. " The other Ar«Ciae " il Gucuo of 
Tarliti, whèrh family was ar the head of the Gh 
line» oF Arezio. He n-aa diowned in the Ama ; iccoi 
ing to same accoun», while engaged in purauin^ t 
BoMplI (a faixiilj of exiled Alatine GilelTs, who .■ 
taken refuge in the Castel di Rondine), accordingjl 
other!,, whil-e Ineing pursued by them after the baiti 
of Ca[t>p4ldLni> (for which *ee the pneceding canCcr), 
Federico NoTellcr, a mEinl>ec of the great Conti Gnl 
family, waa liain by one of tlie Bo«toIi at Campaldii 
while astiiting the Tarlati. 

17, i3. Et «cctfis probable that Marzucco, of ' 
Pisan ScornigUnt family, "showed hi» fortitude*^ 
pardoning llnie murderer of hii ion (the jusl Ja P^ 
though other lutharitlei dec| that be slew ; 

19. This murder points to a continua tion of 
feud between the brotherc Alessandro and Napolea 
degli Alberti, alluded (o jq Jjif. ijixu. ^t-$p: ( 
Count Orso wa^ ihe son of Napaleone, and 
murderer Alberto the 9t>n of Alessandro. 

19-14. Pierre de la Brosae was inrgeon and & 
iv^irdi chaintiGflain of King Philip til. of Pnni 
On the Budden death^ in ii76,of LovLs, Philip's » 
by hia first wife, and heir Co the throne, titi Bcroi 
wife, Mary of Brabant, wu suspected of hifli 
palaaneà hrm, lo th&t her own son might au 
Amcag her accuiBTK wat. P\tTK de la Browse. 




And if thou well bethink thee, and see clear, thou Dante 
■halt behold chee like unto chat ilck one, M>hù ^gZS,* 
can find no rcBt upon the down, but by turning 't"'? 
about abuD» her pain. fiomdm 

dctennined to poison all mEndi a^bIiih him and 

ifing ibcrnt hti downfall, AfM^aniiitg to populaf 
tnditioii she accuKd hjim of hiving made an atiirmpt 
en. her honour ; but as Pierre was (^venrually (in 
■ t^^S) liangcd ufi a diargc of treuonable coi-reipon-d* 
eac« with Philip'» enemy, Alionia X, of CaHLle, il 
•cerna more probable that ihe aiiained her end by 
<tiiiing tb«»e iv»tn to be fotg4d. 

ftS-30, 40-4S, Among the penom JEtiftì meet» in 
hell ja hii former pilgi, Palinurui, who, having been 
dntvncd ai 5«a., U not allowed to croit ihe Acheron 
Tara hundred yean; char being the penalty impoi^d 
40. th« soul* of ihvK WÌW haie not bmn duly interred. 
He entreat» ^nea« to take Eiim across the ri»er, vuliere. 
Upoil tllc Sibyl leliubei him «vkh the worda : " Ceaie 
Eo hvpf ilist th? deem» of <J^e God» arc la b» alLered 
hy prayerji''(jBff. vi. 37»). These words are addrcieed 
la A liifathcn and to a ipirit in hejl, Note that .^nciiB. 
nho«e aid ii invoked by Palinunis, ia a. hnithen, too, 
and doe* not fulfil the conditions of Purj. if, < JJ-I5J 
" 33 

5S jfj. Sordella, one of the moit diitingni«h$d 
among the Italian poets who elected tv write in 
Provencal rather than in their moth croton gue, wai 
b«ra at GoitO| some ^ea in!]e« fraili Mantua, about 
ch« ye»r 'ZOO He led a che^^uvred and wandering 
life, ihe L3.lter partion of which wat devoted to the 
leriice of Chariee of Anjou» by whom he wa* well 
rewarded. The latest record of him that has come 
down to u* ia dated ii6a. To the Dante iiudem 
one episode of Sofdello's life and one of hi* pocmj 
are of special ijiwre»! Between the year? Mx-j-iit^f 
while staying at Treviao with Ezzelino 111. of Romano, 
he had a liaison with the latter** sister Cnniztjb (lee P^r. 
i%. zj-36), whff was the wife of Count Ricciardo di San 
Bonin£Ìt), but whom Sordello had abiduetcd (fat ^oRxiiaX. 



reaMM^ at (he request of her btother, Wlieti t£e 
latter diicovered the iauig-ue &orcl>:ll[} was lotixd to 
Ree to Provenre. About the yuar 1140 he wrote a 
wry Rnepituici for «ong of lapiefHaCion) on the dcatb 
of JJlacati, fiiniKlf a poet and one of the baroni of 
Count Raymond Berengcr IV. [n th.!« poem the leaii- 
ing iorercigni and pTÌnci>« of Europe are exhorted te 
eat of the dc^d mun't heart, *o that their coura^ tray 
increase, and they he fired on to n^ble dif«d«. Thei» 
Teriei may hare indirectly inipired the patriotic oiit- 
bnrjt for which the appearatice of Sardello is made the 
pretext ; and they certainiy itidueed Dante t<j. a,.tiign t» 
bordello the task of pointing uuc the jìrìncea in (he 
faLlawing canto. — There ia a reference to SordeUd is 
the fii/f, ^/dj. i. 15; cj-14. 

88, 3^. One of the fliHny p^uagc; to be found 
througlioDi Dante't work», whEch show that wbal 
wu really in hii min-d when he spoke of the RamaB 
Ejnpire wa» an cx«cuti»e power adequate to enforce 
Roman law. (For Justinian in this connection, c/. Far. 
71., /ir^umintY Much conFuiion In mcdieTal thou^t, 
and much difficulty in underatandin^ Dante's poaitioQ 
ariaes from the fact that tlie King of the Gerinans wai 
the feudal head of the teirltorial nohilify who represented 
the invaderà and conquerors of Italy, w^hereaj the £m> 
peror of Rame wa» the traditional champion of Roman 
Jaw and ci«ilii3-llo>n which repreftsnt th? native LiatlM 
ajpirationi; and since the King ai Germany and the 
Emperor of RiiKit were one and the same per»on. it 
W3i popiiijie to regard him ai the rep re*en tati 'e of 
either of the two conflicting tendencies and iidealt, on 
the claah of which th« whole medieval hiitory of l ali 

91-96. Thete lines are add rawed to the prfetti, 
ihouLd leave all lecular mie lo (he Emperor. 



105. Both Rudolf (iaT wham tee rht F<nllowiii|; 

w. g+'sS) »nd hi* ton Albert I, (Empi^ror 
iigS-ijoSI neglected Italy {vt>. 103-105]: the 
r 4t*ottià nil atr«ntion I'D Auitrìi knd Suabìa, 

a specimen ot the iatter'i acCÌ«ìt)' i* gi^en in 
li». 115-117, VerseB loO'ioi refer, hy amicipa- 
EO Albert's irioIcnC death, at the kdndt of M* 
w, Jolin. Albert waf succeeded by Henry VII. 
tcmhur^ (y. 101), on whom Dame rrited ali hii 
(Me Ciardnef, pp, 30-34 ; ^., e*», iht foUowirvg 

V. 96, and Par. zrii. I3; kxx. 133 'fj-)- 

, 107. Shakespeare hai io famllìariced tu with 
ud af the Vefonete Moutaguei and Capulcb, 
L liiat from the olJ commentatoir» Io the effect 
he MonaLili and Fiilìppe^ehi were hoiTÌle famìlìei 
'Wtd it 9UtEci,ìiD[ rù asiiiré ut that Dante il hete 
[ IM tWD Bxajnpiei of the internai itrìfe 10 common 
ICBiian tllicB of thoie day». The reference appean 
to party itrìJe in general, not to the ^ctinrij ut 
lueLF» aad Ghibetlines in pairtkular. A more 
Interpretation, according to which all the four 
I Ur th^te oi Chibelline families belntigtng: CO 
DE towni and requiring che aid of the Emperor, 
) the ground, became at least one of the families 
lionaldi) wai certainly Guelf. 

. Santafior^ — a. county èn the -SieueK Marenibia, 
□T almost iiru renmnea by the great ChibuHìue 
r of the Alclobfandeaehi (see below, Canto si. 
J.). Theie were conaUtxitly at war with the 
jne of Skna, till the year 1 job when an agree- 
PTM arriieil at, 

, Marctt, fv<,,anoppon?n! of the empire [Marcd- 
E Roman comul, wai one of Cx»r'i most rioleat 


A FTER repeatedly embracing' Vir^gil; only becaose 
■f^ Ile il a Mantuan, SordelIoqueiiCi'Snihim further; 
idJ on hearing who Ke ì», after a inoinent'i paase, 
a.mazcd and ]iilf-ii|CmJli|o(i£| fsilf ^t Kìi fpet to embrace 
hi» k.neei (i-ij). In aniner to Sordello, VlrgìL 
rehearses in wonls of deepest pathos ihe nature of tiii 
oiÌMioa and the aCate ol' the aoula in Limbo wlio 
practisnl ttie moral, but were never clad wìtJi the 
thtologica], tittaej fifi-jfi). In iisswer to Virgil'i 
qi]fisti4RÌrtg cOtaccroing the fvUf, SpfddJO CK^nun>ì* 
the law of ttte mount which lullèrs no Kill tt> aicend 
while the lun is faelaw the horizon ; and he oiferi to 
lead the pligrìmi, ere the now approaching lansetjto 
a fitting place of mt, where they «h^ll find noteworth}^ 

Aetì- Poscia che 1' accoglienze Oneste e liete 
tmttMtaii9 f^j^p iterate tr« e quattro ToUe, 

Sordel ai trasse e disae: "Voi chi siete 

"Prima che a q^ueato moote foaser volte 
P iaciiTTie degne di salire a Dio, 
fur r ossa mie per Ottimo sepolte. 

Io aoD Virgilio ; e per nuli' ìltra rio 
lo ciel perdei, che per non aver th" i 
COSÌ rispose allora il duca mio. 

Qual è colui che cosa iTinaQzi aè 
Bubita Tede» ond' et ai maraviglia, 
che crede e do, dicendo : " EU' è, non 

tal f^TTc quegli, e poi chinò le ciglia, 
ed umilmente ritornò ver lui, 
ed abbracciollo ore il miaor s' appiglia. 

*' O gloria de* Litio," diaae, "per ciù 
mostrò ciò che potea la lingua nostra, 
pregio eterno del loco ood' io Bii, 





37-69). [q a little kp «r d«U of the mounuin 
tbtj find the peDtife loolt of Uap iù^ fulrr* whc> had 
ncgli^ct-ed th«ìr higher functioD» fpr wifigh case «i 
•elfish war. Noir thify ire surrounijerd by every sooth- 
ing bcaatf of nature ; bot relief from the wrious corea 
et life, which erst they sought unduly, ia now an 
ingnish Co thun, an-d their yearaiag goes forth to 
the ■«!»¥ purgation of the ipvrn teir^c^s of torment 
tbttte them. With the enumention of the king» — 
old enemiet singing in harmonj, and fath^ra mourning 
OTCT the sins of their BtiU Living soni — ara mingled 
tribute! to the fporth, or giben at the degeneracy of 
the KJgnlng monarch», and rcllectioni on the unlike- 
aesi of sons and faTh«ra{70-i36) 

After tht greetinga dignified and glad had been The Lau 

repeated ihree and four limes, SordclJo drew {^f;^^^ 

him back, and said : " Who art thou ? " 
"Ere to thig mount w^PP turned those spirits 

worthy to ascend to God, my bones by 

Qct^fian had been buried. 
I am VIrgi] ; and for ao other àa did I Iok 

heaven than for not hanag faith " : thai 

aniwcred then my Leader. 
As oflc who seech suddenly a thing before him 

whereat he marvels, who believes, and believea 

□otf aaying : " It ii, it i» not " ; 
«uch seemed he, aT;d forthwith bent hia brow, and 

humbly turned ba<:k towards my Leader, and 

embraced htm where the inferior clasp». 
"O glory of the LatÌQ8," said he, *' fay wham 

OUT tongue showed forth all its power, O 

eternal praÌBe of the place whence I sprang, 







And- qval meritQ (jual grazia ini ti mostra j' 
pBiB*torio g! jjj ^p d'udir le tue parole degno, 

dtmmi se vieo d' iofemo, e di cjusl chioatra." 

" Per tutti i cerchi del dolente regno,** "■ 

rispose lui, ''ìDD lo di qiu Venuto. 
Virtù del ciel mi mosBc, e eoo tei vegaa. 

Non per far, fiw per con far ho perduto 
di veder I' alto Sol che tu disiti, 
e che fu tardi da me coDOBciuto. 

Loco è laggiù non tristo da martìri, 
ma di tcuebre solo, ove' ì lamenti 
D[}n suonar) come guai, ma sdq sospiri. 

Quivi 8tq io coi parvoli innocenti, 
dai denti inorai della morte, avante 
che foBser dair umana colpa esenti. 

Quivi sto io con quei che le tre sante 
Tartìl ddd si vcftiror e senza vizio 
conobber 1' altre e seguir tutte e quante^ 

Ma se tu sai e puoi, alcuno indizia 

da noi, per cKe vepir posBÌa.m più tosto 
là dove Purgatorio ha dritto inizio." 

Rispoae : " Loco ceno non e' è posto : 
licito in' è andar suso ed intorùo ; 
per quanto ir poaso, a guids mi t'accosto. 

Ma vedi già come dichina U giorno, 
ed andar su di notte non si puote ; 
pcrd è buon pensar di bel soggiorno. 

Anime sono a destra qua rimote ; 

K M mi consenti} io ti merrò ad esse, 
e non senza diletto ti fien cote." 

" Com' è ciò ì " fii risposto ; " chi volesM 
salir di notte, Torà egli impedito 
d^altrui ? o non aarria che non potense ì " 








what merit or what favour aheweth thee to me i rue Lkt« 
l( I am worthy to hear thy words, tell me if ^'^ 

Vligii audi 




thoucDinen from HelJ, and from whatcloi^ter. 
"Through all the drclcB of the woeful realm," 

answered he him, "came I here. A virtue 

from heaTM moved me, and with it I come. 
Not for doing, but for not doing, hare I iost the 

vielon of ihe high Sun, whom thou deajre^t, 

and who too ]at£ by mc w^t known. 
Down there is a place □□(. saA with tormects, Limbe 

but with darkneu alone, where the lamenta- 

tioDB eouQd not as wailinge, but are sighs. 
Thiere do I abide with the innocent tubes, bitten 

by the fangs of death, ere they were exempt 

from human blo. 
There dwell I with those who clad them not 

with the thr« holy rirtuc3, »ùd without 

offence knew the others and fallowed them all. 
But if thou koowest and canst, give ub «ome sign 

whereby VJt may mOst quickly come there 

where Purgatory has right beginning." 
He answered : " No fixed place ia set for us : 

'tiB permitted to me to go up and around ; so 

far as I may go, as guide I place me beside thee. The lam 
But sec now how the day is declining, and ascend ^^^ "«"t^ 

by oight we cannot; therefore 'tia well to 

think of some fair resting-place, 
Here are aOula ob the right apart j if thou allow 

it I will lead thee to them, and not without 

joy will they be known to thee." 
•'How is that?" was answered f " he who wished 

CO ascend by eight, would he be hindered by 

others, or Would he not ascend becauae he 

could not ? " 


AdU' H il buon Sordello in terra fregò il dito, s* 

•"**'*"* dicendo: "Vedi, sola «jiieBta riga 
noD yarchcresti dopo il &ul partito ; 

□oa però che altra co«a desse briga, si 

chp la DOtturna tenebra, ad ir auso : 
quella coi Qon poter k voglia intriga. 

Bea si ;>oria con lei tornare io giuso, ^ 

e paase'ggiar la coata iotorao errando, 
meotre cb« 1' orizzonte il dì tien chiujo. " 

Allora il mio flignOE', i^uasi aimniraDdo: '* 

"■Menane, dunque," disse, "là ove dici 
che aver ei può diletto dimorando." 

Poco allungati e' eravam di liei, ^* 

quand^ io m' accorsi che ìl monte era scemo, 
a guì&a che i rallon II sceman quici. 
'Valle " Colà," disse qjcll' Ombra, "li' anderemo ** 
dove la costa face di Bè grembo^ 
e quivi ìl nyoTO giorno atienderemo," 

Tra tfto e piano era un sentiero sghembo, »" 
che ne condusse io fianco della lacca, 
la dove più che a mezzo muore il lembo. 

Oro ed argento fiilBf cocco e biacCaj Ti 

ìndico legno lucida e sereno, 
fresco smeraldo ìp 1' ora che ai fiacca, 

dall' erba e dalli fior dentro a quel seno ^ 

poati, ciascun sana di color vìnto, 
come dal suo maggiore è vinto il meno. 

Non avea pur natura ivi dipinto, W 

ma di soavità dì mille odori 
vi Ècea UD incognito e indistinto. 

Salvi) ReginOf in sul verde e in sui fiori ^ 

quivi Bcder cantando anime vidi, 
che per la ralle non pareao di fuoii. 


And the good Sordvllg drew his liiig'er acrOstTlwL^ 

the ground, saying: "Look, even lhÌB line "P*"**! 

thou wouldst npl cross after (he sua ir set ; so^aS 

not for that aught else thao the darkness of Dight 

gave hindrance to going upward : that hampers 

the wUl with lack, of power. 

Truly hy night One might return downWardi, and 

walk, wandering uround the mountain side, 

whJJe the horiron iioida the day closed," 

Then my Lord, as tho* marrelUng, aaid : '* Lead 

uB therefore where thou sayeat we may have 

delight in tarrying." 

Short way had we thence advanced, when 1 per- 

CMved thai the mount was scooped out, after 

the faahLon that valleys scoop them out Kere. 

" There,*' said the shade, " wc will go where the The Talli 

mountain-8Ìde makes of ilfleif a bosom, and n«BiiBBa 

thete will await the oew day." RnSer» 

Neither steefj aot level was a winding path, that 

led na to the aide of that hollow, there where 

the valley's edge more than half dies away. 

Gold and fine Eilrer, craOioifiy and white, Indian 

wood bright and clear, freah emerald at the 

moment it la split, 

would each be eurpaased in colour by the grasa 

and by the Bowers placed within that fold, as 

the leaa is aurpassed by the gfeater, 

Not only had Nature painted there, but o{ the 

«weetncBS of a thousand acenta made there 

one, unVnown and indefinable. 

There, seated oq the grass and on the lowers, 

ain^Dg Sa/ve Regina, aaw I bquIs who bc- 

Caoae of ihs valley were not seea from without. 


Aiit:£- •* Prima che il poco sole ornai b' annidi," ■* 

piirE«torì« cominciò il Mantovan che ci avea voJti, 
"tra color non vogliate eh' io ¥Ì guidi.. 

Dì questa balzo meglio gli atù e i Tolti *^ 

coDDGcerete voi di tutti e qiumì, 
che ntlla lama giù tra essi accolti. 

Colili, che pili sied* alto e fa 6>L>mbiaiiti V 

d' ater flegletto ciò che far doTca, 
e che non move bocca agli dtrui canti, 

Ridolfo imperador fu, che potea *t 

sana.r le piaghe eh' hanno Italia morta, 
a) che lardi per altri si ricrea, 

Lf' ^tro, che nella vista lui conforta, 4? 

res&e la tciTa dove 1' acqua nàsce,, 
che Molta in Albia ed AJbia tn mar ne portai : 

Ottacchero ebbe nome, e nelle fasce '"* 

fìi meglio aBEsi, che Vlncielao suo figlio 
barbuto, cui lussarla ed ozio paace. 

E quel nasetto, che stretto a consiglio "i 

par con colui ch' ha SÌ benigno aspetto, 
mori fuggendo e disfìorando il giglio : 

guardate la come si batte ti petto, »«* 

L' aJtro vedete eh' ha fatto alla guancia 
della sua palma, sospirando, letto. 

Padre e suocero 80n del mal di Francia; «* 

■anno la vita sua viziata e lorda, 
e quindi viene il duol che bÌ li iancta. 

Qu^el che par si tnenibnito, e che s' accorda "' 
cantando con colui dal maschia naso^ 
d' ogni valor portò cinta la corda. 

E se re dopo lui fosse rimató *«s 

lo giovinetto che retro a !ut siede, 
bene andava il valor di Ta«o in vaso ; 





"Ere tht little sun now .sìnka tn hio nest," be- 
gan the Mantuan who had led ui juiide, 
'■defttre aot that I guide you among them. 

From ihia terrace ye will better kaow the acts 
and faces of them all, than if received among 
them down in the hollow. 

He who siUt higheat, and hatki semblance of having 
left undone whjt he ought to have done, and 
who moves not hia Lips with the others' aOngs, 

wai Rudolph the Emperor, whomighthave healed 
the wounds chat were the dead) of luly. to that 
too late through another is she succoured. 

The other, who looks to be comforting him, ruled 
the land where the water risei which the 
Moldau cairiefi away into the Elbe, and the 
Elbe into the kz: 

Ottocar for name had he, and tn swaddling 
dDChef was better far than bearded Wericcsbs 
hifl fton, whom lust and sloth consume. 

And that snub-nosed one, who seems close in 
counsel with him that hath bu kindly a mica, 
died in flight and deflowering the lily: 

look there how he la beating his brejut. The 
other KCf who, ugbiog, hath made a bed for 
his cheek with the palm of his hand^ 

Father at:d father-in-iaw arc they of the pUgwc 
of France; they know his wicked and foul life, 
!Qd hence comes the grief that pierceth them so. 
He who aeems bo stout of limb, and accords his 
ringing with him of the virile nose, waa begirt 
with the cord of CTery worili. 
Atid if the lad who sits behind him had re- 
mained king after him, the worth would in 
truth haTc passed from rcftftcl to rcsael ; 


NcorUeuife I 





son J 


Asti- che Doa si puote dir dell' altre erede, "^ 

fargttanti Jacomo e Federico haiiDo i reami ; 
^ del retaggio miglior oeMun possiede. 

ilade f-olte risurge per li rami ■" 

l* umana probitate : e questo vuole 
quei che la dà, perchè da luì sì chiami. 

Anche aJ nasuto Tanno mie parole, •■4 

non men ch'ai!* altro» Pier, che con lui canta, 
Onde Puglia e Provenza già &i duole 

Taut' è del seme auo minor la pianta, "7 

quanto, più che Beatrice e Margherita, 
CoBtanzai di marito aacor ri vanta. 

Vedete it re deUa semplice vita u» 

seder là solo, Arrigo d' Inghilterra: 
questi ha Qe' rami suoi migliore us^cita. 

Quel che pLÌl basso tra costor b' atterra, *33 

guardando in .sugo, è Guglielmo marchese, 
per cui ed Alessandria e la sua. guerra 

fa pianger Monferrato e CanaTese-" *3fi 

6, OW-jWwo, the Smper^r Aug>i9til> (if, abo««, Culto 

iii. 17, Itali'). 

7, S aiid BS-3'fi. See In/, ir. 25-41. 

44t 49-57. The symbalism is clear if we bear in 
mind tht analogy between, the jud (v. 54) ana God. 

Si. Siitvi Scgina^ the famous antiphon invoicing the 
aid of die Virgia Marj. It u ning after respert. 

JI-IDÌ. 1''he Emperor BLudoJf 1. f iziS-iz'^i-isqi ' 
lee the preceding canto, w. joi-ioj) twgaxL bf «emuig 
under Oitocsr II., King of Bohemia ^1153-1178^; but 
on hh «InKtion a« Enif>eripr he asserted his supremacy. 
Otti>car'GrefuBi.l toacknowl^dgeLigaverlse to hoiiilicìei 
which ended in hii licfeac and Ji^ath. in a. bittlr Tiea.r 
Vi«nni (117S}, Ottocar'j «on, Wrncc*laj IV, (ilji- 
13.05), was jiefmlcted to retaia Bohemia (w. 9S, 93), 
but had to yield Auitria, Styrìa, Cannthia and CaraioU 



wHicìi ma; oot be iald of the other hetn.. James 
and Frederick have Che realms : of the better 
hent3ge doqc bath ponscsstoD. 

R.%rcly àùih humafi probity riic through the 
branches: and this he wills who giveth it, so 
thai it 11127 ^ prayed for from him. 

Also to the big-Dosed one my words do go, aOt le»a 
than to the other, Peter, who is singing with 
Ijim, wherefore ApuHaaod ProTCDCc now moaù. 

So much la the plaat degenerate frotn iti seed as, 
more than Beatrice and Margaret, Constance 
yet boasts of her husband. 

See the Icing of the simple Ji&, sittiDg there 
alone, Henry of England : he in his branches 
hath better issue, 

That one who lower down hombleth himtelf 
among them, gazing upward, is William the 
Ma t<^uis, through whom AleBBaodria aad its war 
make Monferrato and the CanaveBe to weep. 

ta Rudolf, wKo pUcrd them under the rale of hi» owa 

Mm, AlSert and Rudolf. 

lej-cii. Philip HI,, the Bold, of France (i»4i- 
1170-1*85), the jiofi-KA, wu to ijjj d^TeWwi (v. lOj) 
kj Rog«r ui Loria, the adtniral of Peter [11. of Aragoa 
(mc the foUawing note), whose crown he wa,^ attcimpt' 
ine tP ^ixe on behalf of his ton, Charlc* of Vaioli, and 
with [he -connivance of Pope Marcin IV. Philip'i son., 
Philip IV., the Fair (iiÉ-S-tiSs-i 514; one of Dante'* 
pet avemon»: t^« Ji/. Xix. E;i Parj, r^i. qt ; xxxii. 
ijt; Par. six. iiE-LioJ, marrjied Joan, thedaughter of 
Heìity, the Far,of Kivirre (ia7D^i£74 ; «, 104}; and it 
{t the young man*» wickednesi that Ì« hfirf ilniting hll 
bihtf and hb iather-iu-law In a common sorrow. 

111-114- P^ti^r III- of Ara^n (117G-1185) and ht« 
Her aiemj, Charlei I, of AdJoli {1210-iiSs; King 




■Od at 

of Anjou 






of NapleH Had Sieilr, ix^e-ilSlj, reapectivftty. When 
CKarle* vriki. drivtn from the throne of Sicily after the 
teirible outbrealt knoi^n io- the "Sicilian Veifien/ he 
wa.t succeeded by Peter, whoic claim to tìic crovrn 
WM haud on nil marria.^ ^th Conacanre, the 
daughter of Manfred, Pmo^ gf SiciJy, In npice of strenu- 
ous effort), Charles waa never able to rc^in the ^ing- 
rtouL — Note that Peter HI. and both hi» French foes, 
Chad» I. <fi An'toa and Philip 111. (iande md nephew), 
■U aiti in the jtame year, IZS5. 

11J-11.0. Peter ill. of Arkgtin had thnx sont, 
AlfoiiJO Ell. (King of AngpiL, 11B5 - lagi), the 
pirniiMti James 11. (Kin^ of Sitily, 11X5-1196, King 
of Aragon, iit)i-i3»7); mi Fre^erttk H, (King ^ 
Sicily, 1196-1337). In the present passage Alfonso 
]■ praised, vrhilc the other two are termed degenerate. 
The bl^me iirepeaW in^ir, liic. 130; m, $3 ; Conv. 
■*. 6; De yvlg. SS. i. iz. Bat I'urg. iii. ii6 raises 
a dilli inilty. The vene tanaot apply Co Alfonio, who 
wi* ncref K!tlg' df Sicily. The antr of Sicily is 
generally taken to be Frederick,, and the Mr^r nf 
Aragon, Jamei> There is no incoDssstency here If 
we consider that Manfred ts ipeaking of hi* grandsons, 
and assume chat the view expressed it his rather than 
Dance's: Some scholars reject this theory on the 
ground that it it Inadmissible to renrd th<i repentant 
Manfred ai displaying a mere family pride, and hold 
that, at a certain period of hi* life, Dante lapsed into 
RD unprejudiced and just estimate of James and 
Frederick. To those who cxnnoi conAcientiauUy aub- 
leribe to either of these two theories, it nia.y bt ppint«d 
out that, in any case, there Is no de&niCe hlsiorical 
inacrutacy. For it wa* Frederick's very devotian to 
Sieily that led him to neglect the wider imperial 
In^ereit* of itilj, an omlssiion which probably account* 
for Daiite'i adverse judgment in the other passages (^, 

the note to Par. lix. [JO-131J1. With r^ard (o 

James, it is true that his conduct in Sicilian athiirs wai 


dbbonoimble ; but he ma» hxve ruled well In Spain, 
dte bla rabjecta would not htre called him « the Jnit." 
80 that it 1b, at a suctch, poseible to explain the 
words mmt £ Gdtia € JAragma, eren If we take them to 
repreeent Dante's own cona̫tent riew. 

1x1-1*5. On the ntbject of heredity see Par. vlit. 

I34>IZ9. Chartea 11. (1x43-1309), King of Naplei 
(=Apalia) and Count of Anjou and Provence, !• ai 
tnibior to bis father, Charles I. of Anjon (the Mwsta), 
ai thii Charles I. (the hnaband first t£ Beatrice of 
ProTCOce and then 01 Margaret of Bnrgnndy) is inferior 
to Peter HI. of Aragon (the husband of Constance). 
Dante frequently Inveighs against Charies II. (see Pmri. 
zz. 79-Si ; Par. xlx. 117-1x9 ; xx. <x, 63 ; Cmn. iv. 
C: tia, 3 ; Dt Vulg, El. L tx : 36-38) ; in retnin for 
vridch be once gives him a word <n pnise {Par, viU. 

130-13X. Henrr III., the pious King of England 
(iii6>ixx6-ix7x}, who formed so strong a contrast 
to bli active and waiiike son, Edward I. (ix39'iX7X- 
1307}. It is w«th noting that Henry's wife, Eleanor 
H Provence, was a sister M tlie Beatrice mentioned In 
V. 1x8. 

135-136. WiUbun, Matquii of Montferrat and 
Canavese (1X54-1X9X), at one time favoured Chailes I. 
of Anjon, bnt rabaequently became the chief of a 
fannidable league against him, which was joined by 
wveral important towns, including Alessandria (in 
Piedmont). Some of these towns at times rebelled, 
and Id 1x90 Alessandria rose against him. While 
attempting to quell this disturbance, he was captured 
by the citizens, and exhibited by them In an Iron cage 
lor seventeen months ( tilt his death In 1 X9X). William's 
•M, John I., tried to avenge his father; but his cfibrts 
ended in failure, for the Alessandrians invaded Mont- 
Ctmt and captured several places. 





— 13. 




























AT the p«niÌT« hour of lunect the iquls devout 
join in t)i«ir evening hjmn, with tj9t apLiTted 

to hmten (i-iB). At though to n:inind iheoa tha,i 
whi]« outiide the gate of the true Purgatory theii 
willi are not lnirin»ii:^ly above the reach ol teiiipu< 
lion, but ire guarded only by the tJtprtM ÌTiIcrtcntioi 
and protection of diyin* grace, tVO auge!) descend alK 
■tand on either bank ol the dell to guard them againii 
the Krpent who would enter this counterpart of Edei 
(19-39}. At the mention of the lerpenr Dam-e ^ahrinki 
eliMeup to Virgil; butEordello invite* them to descend 
ai the twilight deepeni, into the little rale, where Danti 
ineeti hia frichd Nino, Judgie at Gallura, and in aniWW 
to his question tell* hLm that he Ìi still in the Snt liil 
whereon both he and Bordello start baclt io amazemeof 
Nino suRimoni Conrad Malaspina to wLtneaa ihl 
wonder of God'a grace, and then turning to Danti 
again, implorei him to obtain the prayer! of hi 
daughter; for hii wife, weeded to a Visconte, ha 
iHRfly forgotten him (40-84). Dante, looking ti 

I AnU- Era già 1' ora che volge il disio 
•*•****'* ai DavigaDti, e intcneriace il core 
I "^ lo dì ch° han detto ai dolci amici addio 1 

e che lo QUOTO peregrin d" amore 
1 punge, se ode squilla di l^mr^oo, 

J che pain it giorno pianger clie si more: 

* quand' io iDcominciai a. render vano 

V udire, ed a mirare una dell' alme 
9ima, che 1' ascoltar chiedea con mano. 
EUa giufìK e kvÒ ambo le palme, 
ficcando gU occliì verao i' oriente, 
come dicesse a Dio : " D' altro non calme. 


heiT«n.i note) that in this leaM-n of repoie the four 
[•tira thtt reprejent tint maral viftuei hare vanished 
' bchicilì tbe mountaiD, Rita the- ttiree that repreiCQt 
the theological TlrCn» shine in the tkjr. Thlt li 
one of the (naoy indicatioas that the proper bugineH 
of Pur^Iory ia e'thlcal, the TvcoTeiy of the Bound 
monU wlIL The UMon in which the souli 
miy actually uhdiI Is tht one ovar trhidi the four 
iBn pietide (85-93)' MoUiwttile the dreaded ier|jeiit 
approachei, but lehe ajig«li fProop liJte ccleitiol hawk* 
upon It, anil having put it to flight return to their 
potta (94-ioS), During the whole usauh Connd 
hu not cea^ieil to gaze on Dante ; and he now a»k« him 
for newt of hii country af Valdemagra, and of hJi 
kl&*folk thsrej, to which Danti replie* ih?* he hai 
nerer fi^Ited tho»? pyrt>, bvt the aohì* character pf 
the Malaspini lingn thrnugh all Europe (109-132); 
whereon, he reccirei the aLgnihcanr commenE that ere 
til year» are gone he shall know the worth of the 
M^latplni better than repordcigly (tSJ-'l^)- 

'TwM now the hour that turn» back the desire Tbe 
of chose who S3,i] the seas and melta thtir heart, R^JEJ^f^ 
that day whtn they have said to their nwcet Snn»« el 
ftieci'd* aditu, £*ta** 

and that pierces the new pilgrim with Iotc, ifpn^i.toi:] 
from afar he heart the chime* which axm to 
moum for the dying day ; 

when 1 began to annut my sense of hearing, and 
to gaze on one of the (pirita, uprisen, that 
craved a listening with ita hand. 

It joined and lifted up both ita palms, fixing ita 
eyes towards the east, as though 'twere saying 
tu God : " For au^bt else I catfc noi." 






" Te lucit ante " si deTounnente 

le uscì di bocca, e con sì dolci nou, 
che free me a me uscir di mente. 

E !' altre poi dolcemente e devoie 
Seguitar lei per tutto 1* inno intero,, 
avendo gli occhi alle superne rote. 

Aguzza qui. Iettar, ben gli occ^i al vero, 
che il velo t! Ora biru tanto sOttiLc, 
certo, che il trapassar dentro è leggiero. 

Io vidi quello esercito gentile 
tacito poscia riguardare in aue, 
quasi aspettando pailiido ed umile j 

e vidi uscir dell' alto, e scender giue 
due aQgeli cod due spade afocate, 
tronche e private delle punte sue. 

Verdi, come fogliette pur mo iiate, 
eraDo ia reste, che da verdi peone 
percosse traean dietro e ventilate. 

L.' un poco sopra ooi a star si venne, 
e 1' altro >5ctf«e in I' opposita sponda, 
al che la gente in mezzo si contenne. 

Ben discerneva in lor la testa bionda ; 
ma celle facete V occhio si suiarria, 
come virtù che al troppo et confonda. 

"Ambo vegnon del grembo di Mariai," 
disse Sordello, " a guardia della valle, 
per [o serpente che verrà via via.'* 

Oad' io, che non sapeva per qual calle, 
mi volsi intorno, e stretto m' accostai 
tutto gelato alle Jìdate spalle. 

E Sardtllo anco ; '* Ora avvalliamo ornai 
tra ìe gritndì ombre, e parleremo ad eue 
grazioso £& lor vedervi aaBau" 






" 7t luds ante" so devoutly procNded from ita The 

mouth, and with Buch aweec muaic, that it rapt h^^'J*" 

me from my vtry bcpsc of eelf, Bveoijij 

And the others then sweetly and deToatly ac- "'™' 

companied it through the entire hymn, having 

their eyes fised od the Bupernal wheclB. 
Reader, bere aharpen we^ll thice eyes to the 

truth, for the reil now is incJeed m chin, 

that of 9 surety to pau within U ca&y. 
I saw that QobJe army thereafter silencly gite 

upward, as if in expectancy, pale and 

lowly ; 
and I tiaw two angels come forth from on high Tw« 

and descend below with two liaming sworda, j^gj'j 

broken short and deprived of their points. ^'^ 
Green, as tender leaves just born, was their 

raiment, which they traikd behind, fanned 

aad Biniiten by green wings. 
One came and alighted a little ^hove ua, aod the 

Other descended on the opposite bank, bo that ^m 

the people was contained in the middle. H 

Oearly I di^CerDed the fair hair of them ; but in 

iheir facea the eye was dazed^ like a faculty 

which by excess is confounded. 
*^ Both come from Mary's boHOm," said 

Sordello, *'aa guard of the vale, because of 

the serpent that straightway will come." 
Whereat I, who knew not by what way, 

turned me around, and placed me all icy h 

Cùld cloK to the trusty shouldeis. H 

And Sordello again ; "^ Now go we into the vale 

among the mighty shades, and we will «peak to 

them; greatly will it be to themto Bcevaa.'* 



Aotl- Solo tre passi credo eh' io cceadeBse, 

'"*** e fui di BotW, e vidi un che mirara 

VjOI* ' 1 

pur me, come conoscer mi volesse. 

Tempo era già che 1' aer »' annerava, 
ma non sì che tra gli occhi suoi e ì mici 
non dichiariBse ciò che pria aerrava. 

Ver me si fece, ed io ver lui mi (ei : 
Giudice Nìq gentil, quanta mi piacque, 
{{uando li vidi non easer tra ì rei ] 

Nullo heì sa]uur tra noi si Caci^ue i 

poi domaodò : "Quaot' è che tu vcniw 
a. pie del monte per le lontane acque ? " 

*' O/' diBB' io lui, *'per entro ■ lochi tristi 
venni stamane, e sono in prima vita^ 
ancor che 1' altra 8Ì andando acijuisti." 

E come fu la mia risposta udita, 
bordello ed egli indietro si raccolse, 
come gente di aubito Emacrìta. 

L' uno a Virgilio, e 1' altro ad un bì voÌk 
ch& sedea lì, gridando: "Su, Corrado, 
vieni a veder che Dio per grazia volse," 

Poi Tolto a mei "Per quel singuUr grado^ 
che tu dei a colui, che ai Daeconde 
lo suo primo perchè,, che non gli è guado^ 

quando sarai di lài dalle larghe onde, 
di' a GiovaoDa mia, che per me chiami 
là doTc agi' innocenti si rispoode. 

Non credo che la sua mndre più m' ami, 
poscia che trasmutò le bianche bende, 
le quai convien che misera ancor brami. 

Per lei assai di lieve 8Ì comprende, 
quanto in femmina foco d' amor dura, 
se J' occhio o iE tatto spesso non 1' accende. 










Only three Btepa raechmlcB t desceDded, and waa Tb« 
below, and saw one wlao was gazìùg only at h^J^*°1 
me, as tho' he would recognise me. niqo de' 

'Twa« Qow the time when the air was darkeniDg, *"°°" 
yet QOt so dark but that what betwecMi his eyes 
aod mioe before was hidden, now grew clear. 

He advanced towarda me, and I to him :: Noble 
judge Nino how did I rejoice wh>eii I saw 
ihee,. and mot among the damned ! 

No fair greeting was lett unsaid between U9 ; then cUicotirai 
h* asked : *' How long is it etnee thou earnest '*''^ ^^ 
to the foot oi^ the mount over the far waters,'" 

" Oh," Baid I to him, '* from within the jilace» of 
woe came I thia morn, 2nd am In my first life, 
albeit by this my journeying 1 gain the other," 

And when my answer was heard, Sordello 
and he shrank back like folk suddenly be- 

The one turoed to Virgil, and the other to one who 
waa seated there, cryiag : " Up, Conrad, come 
and see what God by his grace hath %willed." 

Then turning to me: " By that cepecial grace 
which thou Owe^t to him who go hidcth hi» 
first purpose that there is no ford to it, 

when tbou art beyond the wide watem, tell my 
GioTanna that she pray for me there where the 
innocent are heard. 

1 do not think her rnother loves me more, lircc 
»he hath changed her white wimpJes, which 
hapless she must long for once again. 

By her right easily may be known, how long 
the £re of love dath last ia woman, ii' eye 
and touch do cot oft rekindle it. 





AnH- Non [e farà ai bella sepoltura 



la vipera che i( Milanese accampa, 

com' avria fatto il gallo di Gallura." 
Così dicea, segnato della stampa 

nel ano aspetto di quel dritto zelo, 

che: misurata meo te in core avrampa. 
Gli occhi miei ghiotti andavan pure al cielot ** 

pur là dove le stelle som più tarde, 

M come rota piìl presso aflo stelo. 
E il duca mìo ; '* FiglJuol, che la&Bil guarde ? " ^ 

Ed io a lui : " A queUe tre facelle, 

di chip il polo di qua tutto quanto arde." 
Ed egli a me : " Le quattro chiare Btellej 

che vedevi staman, bod di là basse, 

e queate son saJite ov' eran quelle." 
Com^ ei parlava, e Sordello a sé i! trasse 

dccendo : "Vedi là ti nostro avreraaro " ; 

e drìtzò il dito, perchè in là guardasse. 
Da quella parte, Onde non ha riparo 

la piccìola vallea, era una biscia, 

forse qual disde ad Eva il cibo acuaro. 
Tra 1' erba e i fior venia la mala strisciflf 

volgendo ad or ad or la testa al dosso, 

leccando come bestia che si liscia. 
Io non vidi, e però dicer noD posso, 

come mojscr gli astor celestiali, 

ma vidi bene e 1' uno e T altro mosso. 
Sentendo fender I* aere alle verdi ali^ 

fuggì •' serpente, e gli angeli dier volta 

suso alle poste rìvolaodo eguali. 
!_.' ombra, che a' era al giudice raccolta 

quando chiainò, per tutto quell' aAsaJto 

punto non fu da me guardare aciolta. 






CANTO vin 




The Tiper that th^e Milsnese hJazona on his 
shield will not mike her so fair a tomb aa 
Gallura'fl cock would have done." 

Thus spake he, his countenance sumped with 
the (airk. of that fighleouH zeal which in due 
measure glowa in the breast.. 

My yearning eyes were again turned towards 
heaven, eren there where the stars arc bIùwcbI, 
like a wheel nearest the axle. 

And my leader: "Son, what gaieat thou at up 
there?" And Ito hiiti: " At ihgaethree torches, 
wherewith the whole paJe here is flaming," 

And he to me: "The four bright stars which 
thou sawest this mora are low on the other 
side, and these are risen where they were." 

As he was speakings lo Sordeilo drew him to hlm- 
selfj iiying: "See there our adversary," and 
pointed his finger ao that he should look thither. 

On chat aide where the little Tate hath do 
rampart, was a snake^ perchance Juch aa gave 
to Eve the biiier food. 

Through the grass and the flowers canve the f»il 
reptile, tunviirg round now and again its head 
to itfiback, licking ]ike a beast that sleeks itself. 

I Hw not» and therefore cannot tell» how the 
celefitiaJ falcons mored j but ftiU well I saw 
both in motion. 

Hearing the green wings cleave through theair.the 
serpent fled, and the angels wheeled around, 
flying in ec^ual measure hack to their posts. 

The «hade that had drawn close to the judge 
when he ca,lled, through all that assault waa 
not loosed a moment from gazing at me. 






But to 
Iglit by 
the Aug:* 

Cod rad 




_ Alili- '* Se la lucerna che ti mena in alto 
pwFKtorio ^|.jj^^ j^^i ^^jQ aròitrid tanu cera, 

quant' è mesitiero ìnfino al sommo amalto/' 

COTninciò ella, " se novella vera 
di Valdimacia o dì parte vicina 
■ai, dilla a me, che già grande là era. 

Chiamato fji Corrado Malaspina : 
coD soD 1' antico, ma di luì discesi j. 
a' miei portai 1' amor che qui raffina.*' 

'* O," diaa' io lui, •' per 11 vostri paesi 
giammai noo lui ; ma dove si dimora 
per tutta Europa, eh' ci non sicn palesi ì 

La fama che la vostra caga onora 
grida i signori e grida la contrada, 
sì che ne sa chi non vi fu ancora. 

Ed io vi giuro, a* io di sopra vada, 
cl>e vostra gcctc onrala non li «fregia 
del pregio della borea e delta spada. 

Uso e naturai sì la privilegia, 

che, perchè il Capo reo lo mondo tarca, 
sola va dritta, e il mal cammin dispregia." 

Ed egli: " Or va, che il aol non ai rìcorca. 
sette volte nel lelto che il Montone 
con tutti e tjimttro i pie copra ed inforca^ 

che cotesta cortese opinione 

ti lia chiavata in mezzo deUa testa 

con maggior chtovi che d' altrui Bermone, 

•e coreo di giudizio non s* arrena." 









I>6, 4^-ji, Ste diagram on p. loj. 

1 3. The AmtiroBian hyian, Te iutii •uh ttrmìman, lUhg 
■ t Oompline (tlti^ l^B,; Q^cn of the ^^^.y^, 

i9'39* In addition io ttie geneniL explaivation given 
\b ììic Argument f the: \o\iavtTez pointt nhould be nored, 
Thf gr^p rpbe»an<l wing> uf the jngdsipe^k of hope 

CANTO vin 



**So may that light which guideth thee on high, 
doà io thy will as much wax as ia needful to 
reach the enamelled Bummit," 

it began, "if thou know true tiditigs of Va Id i- 
macra, or of uHghbcruriiig parts, tell it me who 
once was mighty there. 

I was called Conrad Malaapina: not the elder 
am ], but dcsccQded from him: to mint own- 
I bore that love which htre ia purified,"' 

■* Oh," said I to him, " through your knds 1 ne'er 
haTe bcÈQ, but where do men dwell through- 
out Europ to whom they are not renowned ? 

The feme which honours your house proclaims 
abroad its lords, and procbimis the counci-y, ta 
that he knows of h who there hath never been. 

And I swear to you, so may I go on high, that 
your honoured race stripn not itaelf of the 
glory of the purse and of the fiword. 

Custom and nature so do privilege it, that for all 
that the guilty head acts the World awry, it 
aloTie goeth straight and scorna the path of evil." 

And he: " Now depart, for the sian goctli not 
to reat veven times in the bed which the Ram 
COTCrs and bestrides with at! four feet, 

ere this courteoua opinion shall be ndlcd in the 
midst of thy head, with bigger nails than other 
men's words, if course of judgment be not 

The paiiifle«)i ^cword» are unuallf taken to indirete 
jwtke Icraptred with rtevcy (i/. below, Canto xsnt. 
1,1, (lo'i); but perhap« they mean iliai the batde is In 
truih ilicàdy decided, the deadly thrust t\o long'er 
Opcded, and that the aword-cdgi- alone i> adequai* 
(ttt below, CiJilo sKxi. s, 3). 






br Conrad' 

102 NOTES 

47>S4. Nina' dt' Viaconti of Pira, {for whom ^ee Jaf. 
ZXlL 83, nsle, »ticl iciLxiil. 1-90, ubIh) was appoinCf^d by 
the Pinan» to the jud^ushLp of Gallura in S2.rJinia, in 
the list decade of the ijtS century. He married 
QenCrice of £ste (»», to the Inftrim vonLume^, ihe 
table on p. 137; and, above, t!io»B on pp. 90, 91), 
by whom he had a daughter, GiaTanaa [«. 71 ; it 
i» iDtereiilng to note Uiat in 131$ the Con^mune o£ 
Florence voted a. penaion of 100 fUeaii Jiarìiù to ihis 
Giòvanoa^ an account of her father's faith and dcToCÌon 
to FWen.ce and the Guelf party, for the injuries and 
vcxaitDDj he had sufTered, from the Ghìbeltìnea, and 
la COR) pen sat ion far the Bpaliation of all her goods 
by the Ghl bell lines]. After Uif d>eàth, Beatrice 
married Galeazzo Vlscontij of Milan; the formalicies 
were prahabLy complered by Saater, 1300, hat the 
cerenwny did not actually take pUce till June of 
that year. Verse 74 refera to canting off the garb of 
widowhood Cblaclc robe and white veil), and <>. 75 to 
the mitfortUnea of the Mil^tie^e Viaconti, which date 
from [301-, The viper and the cock [w. 3o, 81) in- 
dicate the arms of the Milaneie and Piun. Viftcontj, 
[«piettively. These two familifl» 9]9p«iT ta have b-eea 
in no way connected with each other ; the former w>er« 
Ghibelline, che latter Guelf. 

Xj-93. It must he steadily borne in mind that only 
half the heavens are riaible to Dante at thii point of 
{h« juurney. The steep wall of fvrgatory cat» olTthe 
whole portion of thtim weil of the meridian. The four 
bright stars are tiear the south pole;, but in the latitude 
of Purgatory the pole itself ■» only about 32' above the 
horizon, and the scan are now behind the mountain 
and beneath the pole. 

6j, 109-139. Currado I. of the Malaapitia fajihlljr 
(fantka of V. 1I9) wai grandfather of the three couaina^ 
Currado IL (d.u, ]Z94}i che present speaker; Moroello 
III, (d, la. 1315), to whoin Dante'j third epistl», 
accompanied by C^nione 3.Ì., i* probably addresMd, 
aad for whom tee Inf. xxiv 143-150, rbu\ and Frwi- 



ceicbino (d. between 1313 and 1311), who wa> 
Dante's host at Sarzana, in Lunigìana, in the autumn 
of 1306 (w. 133-139 : ^•^'f than seven years — the sun 
now being in Aries — from the moment at which 
Currado » speaking). The Malaipini were for the 
most part GhibelUnes; but MorotUo III. formed a 
notable exception. f^aUimacra {v. it 6): the Macra 
dowa through Lunigìana (north-west of Tuscany), 
which formed part oi the territory of the Malaspini 
{if, Iitf. zxiv. 145 )• — Atableof the Malaspina family 
will be found on p. 141 ; see, too, the table on p. 89. 

Cmi (v. 113)' material to feed the flame (lucerna) of 
God's grace ; the tammo tmalla being either the summit 
of the Mount of Purgatory or the Empyrean. With 
V. 131 compare xvi. 94-112; though some refer the 
wordb apecificaily to Boniface VIII. 

Sktmmg tht pwtiwt ^ tlu Mumtain under light md 
JuA at 6 •*ttaek f,m. Cf. " Purgaltria," vili. 1-6, 
49-ji ; XTiL 1-7X; xzvii. i-6g. 


is now about two and a half hours since silnseL 
* The S-corpiun. hu bigua to pajj the honzon, and 
the lunar aurora js already whitening in the east, 
when Dante, reclining' in the bosom of the valley, 
resting From hij foar-nighr 'watch an-d the toil and 
anguish of his jùUrtiey, drop* into a deep sleep (i-il}. 
Id the lnc>rning' hoUr 'when dreamt ace true, he veeOi* 
to Ik cSaspe'd In the talons of an eagle — the symbol 
a C once orjuackeand oi bsptismal regeneration — and 
to be borne up into the iphere of 6rc, the burning of 
which B'wabena him; and he itarts to find himtell' 
sloae with Vti^l, higher on the moUHC, nigh to the 
gate of Purgatory proper. He learns from hi* guide 
that, a^i he slept, Lueia. bore him a'way from Sordello 
and the other denizens of the Tallcy, and placed hìm 
here (13-83). Hia dismay is thus turned into delight 


Antl- La concubina di Titone antico 
pnega. omo ^-^ ^, j,„(jjaj,(.jyj, g] (jako d' tuicnte, 

fuor delle braccia del ano dolce amico ; 

di geiDme la «uà ironie era lucente, * 

poste in figura del freddo animale, 
che con la coda percote la geote ; 

e la notte de' passi, con che sale^ t 

fatti aTea due nel loco ov' eravamo, 
e il terzo già chinava in giuEo 1' aie ; 

quand' 10, che meco avea di c^uel d' Adamo, •* 
Tinto dai sonno, in 8U l'erba inchinai 
ove già tutti e cinque sedevamo. 

Neil' ora che comincia i tristi tai *J 

Is rondinella presso alla mattina, 
forse 3. memoria de* suoi primi giiai« 





u he follows hii guide lo the narrow piorUl with Iti three 
lecpa and !ti zag'el guard, who first cKalkn^i the pil- 
grims, bacon leamlri^ their dLiineauthorhygiveitbem 
courC^oUB wdcortiic (^4-^^). On the «tcps of tlhccllty, 
coRtrition and Idtc, the poet inouiits to the g'ate and 
throwB himself at the feet of it» ^ardian to implcre bJ- 
miuian( 94- 1 11 J. The angel carnea on Dante's trowBcren 
P's, the symbol of the leren deadly sins (^peceata), whkh 
iTt putged on the terracei ahoTc^ and then turbini; the 
g-olden and the silver key which he holdi in c^har^ 
t^nt t'ftter, he admit» Dance; with the Bo]«n)n warn' 
irtg that he U not to lof>i. t«hind ti]m, when once i^ait 
chegatefiis-iji). The «eLdom-turned hin^ei grate at 
the portal nwingi, and a halTheard song of praise co 
God it the hirst BDund that falli on the port's ear within 
the glie, dnwing hi* heart upwari! (I33-14S}- 

Now waa the concubine of aacieni: TithonuB at Thftfirit^ 
casiem ttrracc growing whilt, forth from her p^'jl'jj 
sweft lover's arms:;. beg^i ; 

with gema her (brehcad waa glitteringj &et !□ the 

(arm of the cold ^nicna] that strikes folk with 

its tail ; 
Mid Night, in the pJace where we were, had made 

two of the Steps wherewith she climbs, and the 

third was already dowD-stooping its wings ; 
when I, who with me had somewhat of Adam, andD 

ranquishcd by iilcep, sank doWH on the gfaas '*'l*Ì?h! 

where already aH wc five were seated. 
At the hour when the «wallow be-gioi her sad 

lays DÉgh UDto the morn, ]>en:hance in memory 

of her former woes. 





t cbe U metite nostra, peregrina 

più dalta carne e meo da' pensìer presa, 
alle sue vision quasi è divina : 

in Bogno mi parca veder sospesa 
uà' aquila neE ciel con penne d* oro 
coù t' ali Bp^rte, ed a calare intesa. 

Kd esaer mi parca là dove foro 
abbandonati i Buoi da Ganimede^ 
quzoda fu ratto al somnio cansistoro. 

Fra me pensava: "Forse questa fiede 
pur qui per uso, e forse d' altro loco 
disdcgtta di porta.rnc suao in piede." 

Poi mi parca che, roteata un poco, 
terribtl come folgor discendesse, 
e me rapisse suso ioliaoal foco. 

Ivi pareva ch^ elta ed io ardesse, 
e ti V incendio imaginaco cosse, 
che CDQVenne che il hùrtio si rompeBse. 

Non altrimenti Achille si riscosse, 
gli occhi svegliati rivolgendo <a giro, 
e non sapendo là dove si fosse, 

quando la madre da Chiron a Schiro 
trafugò lui dormendo in le sue braccia, 
là onde poi li Greci il diparliro ; 

che mi scoas' io b\ come dalla faccia 
mi fuggi il »o(ino, e diveltai ismarto, 
come fa 1' uom che spaveatato ^igghiaccia. 

Da lato m' era solo il mio conforto, 
e il sole er' alto già piìl che due ore, 
e il viso m' era alla marina torto. 

" Non aver tema,** disse il mio signore j 
" fatti sicur, che noi mmo a buoD punto ; 
DOQ stringer, ma raJlarga ogni vigore. 












aod whcD ouf mind, more of a wanderer from the Danu 

IH Ita. 

drcHJart ot 
the EukJ* 


flesh and less pcisDDed by thoughts. 

visions il almoat prophetic ; 
in a drtam mciJhùught I saw an eagle poised in 

the sky., with plumea ol gold) with winge out- 
spread, and int&Dt to swoop^ 
Aod raeseemed t£» be there where hie own people 

were abandoced by Ganymede, when he waa 

snstchtd to the high coaaistory. 
I thought within me : '^ Haply he fitiikes ùnly here 

through cuatom^ aod perchance scornech to bear 

aught upward from other place ia his taloeis." 
Theo meeeenied that, having wheeled awhile, 

terrible as lightning, he deacesded and snatched 

me up fa:r as thi^ fiery aphcre. 
There it seemed that hcaidd I did burn, and the uidfewKb 

visionary Same so scorched that needs was 

my ftltìmber broken. 
Not otherwise Achillea Btaitl'ed, turning his 

awakened eyes around, and knowing not 

where he might be, 
when his mother carried him away sleeping in 

her arms from Chiron to ScyroSj there whence 

the Greeks afterwards, made him depart, 
than I startled, soon as sieep fled from my face, 

and I grew pale evcE as a nwn who freezei 

with terror. 
Alone beaide me wai my Comfort^ and the sun 

was already more thin two hours high, and 

mine eyes were turned to the sea. 
" Have no fear," aaid ray Lord, " make thee 

»ecure, for we arc at a good .spot ; hold not 

back, but put out all thy strength. 



'Hifutoil* Tu se' ornai al PurgaEorio giunto: 

vedi là U balzo cKe il chiude d' intorno ; 
Tedi 1' entrata là 've par disgiunto. 

Dianzi, nell' alba ctie precede al giorno, 
quando V anima tua dentro dormia 
sopra li fiori, onde laggiil è adorno, 

renne una dontia, e disse: * Io son Lucia ; 
lasciatemi pigliar costui che dorme, 
I) I' agevolerò per la sua via.' 

Sorde( rimase, e 1' altre gentil forme. 
Ella ti tolse, e come il di Fu chiaro 
aen Tenne suso, ed io per le Bue orme. 

Qui ti poaò ; e pria mi dimostraro 

gli occhi suoi belli tjuell' entrata aperta ; 
poi dia e il soQDO ad una se n' ^ndaro." 

A guisa d' uom che io dubbio si raccerta 
e che muta, in conforto sua paura, 
poi che la verità gli è discoperta, 

mi cambia' io ; e come senza cura 
videmi il duca mio, .su per lo balzo 
sì mosse, ed io di retro in ver l' altura. 

Lettor, tu vedi ben com' io innalzo 
la mia materia, e però con piìl arte 
non ti maravigliar s' io la rincalzo. 

Noi ci appressammo, ed eravamo in parte, 
che là dove pareami in prima un rotto, 
pur come un fesso che muro diparte^ 

vidi una porta, e tre gradi di sotto, 
per gÉre ad essa, di color diversi, 
ed un portier che ancor non facea motto. 
E come 1' occhio piiì v'apersi, 

vidil seder sopra il grado soprano, 
taì Della fàccia, eh' io non lo soffersi ; 












Thou art now irrived at Purgatory ; aee there VlrgU 

the rampart that comp^isfletit tt around; seet[,^'g,^ 

the entrance there where it seems cleft. haarMclM 

Krewhile, in the dawn which pKCcde'S the day, 

when thy sou! waa sleeping within thee upon 

the flowccit wherewith down b^low is adorned, 
came a lady and said : * I am Lucy, Jet me uke 

this man who aleepeth, bo wilt I prosper him 

OD his way.' 
SofdclLo remained and the other nohle forma, borne 

She cook thee, and aa day was brightj came Luty"''' 

on upward, and I followed in her track. 
Here ahe placed thee; and first her fair eyes 

did show to me chat open; then she' 

and sleep together went away." 
As doth a man who in dread is reassured, and 

■who changes his fear Co comfort after the 

truth is revealed to him, 
rl changed me; and when my Leader aaw me The poet 

freed from care, he moved up by the rampart, So^'^af 

and I follawing, towards the height. 
Reader, welE ihou seeat how I exalt my sub- 
ject, therefore marvel chou not if with greater 

art 1 susta ti] it. 
We drew nigh, and were at a place^ whence 

there where first appeared to me a hreak juat 

like a fissure which divides a wall, 
[1 espied a gate, and three atepa beneath to go to and reac^ 

it, of diyers colours, and a warder who as yet p^^f^tw 

epake no word. 
Aad as more 1 opened mine eye» there, I saw The 

bini seated upon the topniosi gtep, such in his Aagei' 

countenance that I endured him not ; 

del ed una. ipada nuda aveva in mano, 
**^ che rifletteva ì raggi sì ver noi, 

eh' io diriz^aya spesso il risa in Vìao, 

" Dite costinci, che volete toì ?" 

cominci'à tgli a dire : "^ or' è Ja icorta ? 
Guardate che il venir hu non vt noi ! " 

"Danna del ciel, di t^uesTe cose accorta/' 
rispose il mio maestro a luì, *'pur dianzi 
ne disse : ' Andate là, quivi è la porta.* *' 

" Ed ella i pasat vostri in bene avanzi," 
ricominciò il cortese portinaio; 
"venite duni^ue a' nostri gradi ìannozi.*^ 

Là Ve venimmo, allo icaglion primaio, 
bianco marTiio era s1 pulito e terso, 
eh' io Tnì specchiai in esso quale Ìo paio. 

Era il secondo tinto più che perso, 
d'una petrina ruvida ed arsiccia, 
crepata per lo lungo e per traverso. 

Lo terzo, che di sopra ^anuTnassiccia, 
porfìdo mi parca ai lìamni'eggiante, 
come sangue che fuor di vena spiccia, 

SopTi questo teneva ambo le piante 

1' angel di Dio, sedendo in au la aoglia, 
che mi eenibiava pietra di diamante. 

Per li tre gradi su di bjona voglia 

mi trasae il duca mio, dicendo: "Chiedi 
umilemente che il serrarne Bcioglia." 

Divoto mi gittai a' santi piedi ; 

misericordia chie&ì che m'aprisse; 
ma pria nel petto tre fiate mi diedi. 

Sette P nella fronte mi descrisse 

col punton delia spada, e : " Fa' che lavi 
quando Se' dentro, «queste piaghe," dijse. 




and io his hand he held a n^ked sword which 

reflected the rays bo towards us, that I directed 

mine eyea to it oft in v^ic. 
"Tell, there where ye staod, what would ye ■■ *' 

he began to aay ; " where ia the escort .' Be- 
ware iest coming upward be to your hurt! " 
" A heavenly lady who well knows these thingB," 

my Maater answered him, "even now did say 

to us: 'Go ye thillicr, there is the gate.' " 
"And may she speed yoUr steps to good," 

again brgan the courteous door-keeper ; 

"come then forward to our stairs." 
There where we came, at the first step, was 

white miirble so polished and smooth that I 

mirrored me ihctftn a9 I appear. 
The oecond darker was than perse, of a stone, 

rugged and calcined, cracked in ics length and 

in ibi breadciu 
The third, which ls massy above, eeemed to me 

of porphyry eo flaming red aa blood that 

spurts fi'om a vein. 
Upon this God's angel held hoth his feet, sitting 

upon the threshold, which seemed to me 

HdamantinC stone. 
Up by the three steps, with my good will, my 
I Leader brought me, saying: "Humbly ask 

that the bolt be loosed/' 
DcTouily 1 flung me at the holy feet j for mercy 

I cra«d that he wouJd open lo me; but first 

on my breast thrice I smote me. 
SeTen P's upon my forehead he deacribedl with 

the point of his Bword and : " Do thou wash 

these wounds when thou art within," he aaid. 


steps of 

the ^ta 




Porta del Cenere terra che secca ai cavi 

urgra ono ^t ^p QoÌQj' fura col suo vesdm'entD, 

« di sotto da quel trasse due chiavi. 

L' una era d' oro e ]' altxa era d' argento ; 
pria eoo la bianca» e poscia eoa la gialla 
ìeCe allz porta £Ì ch' io fui contento. 

" Quandunque 1*^ una d' cBte chiavi falla, 
che noD ai Tolga dritta per la toppa," 
diss' egli a noi, "aoa a.' apre questa calla. 

Tib cara è 1* una ; ma 1' altra vuol troppa 
d' arte e d' inge^ao aranti che disserri, 
perch* eU' è qjella che il nodo dìsgroppa. 

Da Pier le tengo ; e diaserni ch° io erri 
Anzi ad aprir, che a tenerla serrata, 
pur che Sa gente a' piedi mi a' atterri." 

Foì pioae V uscio alla porta sacrata» 

dicendo: "Entrate; ma facciovi accorti 
che di fuor torna chi 'adittro ù guata." 

K quando fur ne' cardini distorti 
gli «pigoli di quella iregge sacra 
che di metallo son sonanti e forti, 

non rugghiò sì, oè sì moatrò sì aera 
Tarpeia, come tolto le fu il buono 
Metello, per che poi rimase macra. 

Io mi rivolai attento al primo tuono, 
e Ti Dmm ìaudamut m parea. 
udir in voce mista al dolce iuoiio. 

Tale imagine appunta mi rendea 

ciò eh' io udLTa, qiial prender si mole 
quando a cantar con organi ai stea ; 

che ur sì or no s' intendon te parole. 










i-S- Dante never 4JiIingiihhe* between ihe ligui 
■nJ the canatelUtioiii a£ ttve Zodiac ; tbu la to jar» 



Aahes, or eanh which is dug out dry^ would be of The Au^:*! 
one colour with his Twture, aad from beneath t^taj^ 
it he drew forth two keys. 

One was of gold and the other was of silver; 
fir*t with thf white and then with the yellow 
he did 80 to the gate that I W3B aitisHed. 

" WheoBoever one of theiie keys fails so that it 
turoi not aright in the lock," laid be to lu, 
** this passage opens not. 

More precious is one, but the other requirea ex- 
ccedi&g art 9sd wic ere it unlockj, because it it 
the one which untiea the knot. 

From Peter I hold them ; and he told me to err 
rather in opening, than io keeping it locked, if 
only the p«ip!e fell prostrate ac my feei." 

Then he pushed the door of the sacred portal^ uhI op«ag 
Baying: " Enter, but I make you ware that '*'■ •""^ 
he who looketh behind returns outside again." 
, And when in their sockets were turned the pivots 
of that sacred portal, which are of metal ring- 
ing and Btrong, 

Tarpeia roared not 60, nor showed her so harsh^ 
wheD good Metellus was talteo from her, where- 
by she after remained poor. 

I turned me intent for the first soqpd, and TV 
Deuui laudamui meseemed to hear In a voice 
mingled with sweet music. 

Jest such impression gare me that which J heard, 
sa we are wont to receive when people are 
singing with an organ, and now the worde 
are clcar^ and now are not. 

btdiixvgardi tile pheiLomenii which he held Ca be the 
prvpcT moiion of the sphere of the &lars ^c/. Va» 



tFumOf^ JL 9-tSRn>d Cbhv. ii. 3 ; 3^-4f ! <S' ioi-til). 
It ii the phcnomcnoti ktiOWfi in modem astrapomy «a the 
precession of the eqdnoxes. Peihaps Che reason wh} 
Dante did not in3k.e this corfectioD was that he 
regarded it %» eoiuntErbaianced by the error of the 
Julian calendar (see Par, EXiii. 1.41, 143, *i4r), in the 
other direcdcm. Thus, he would regard the Avf on 
which, by the uncorrecCcd caleCidàC, tne «iin Cjiter^ tVit 
Cinsttltatiaa ai Aries aj coinciding' with the day on 
whicb, by the corrected CB.Iendar, he would be in the 
real equinpx, >.', th« first point of th» ji^ of Arit'i. 
He chase, thiiTvfare, to take hie idi'd equinox rather by 
calendar and constelUtion than by che strici anrona- 
nicai etjuinoctial point. This leem; Co he the m<^a.Ti- 
ing of Inf. i. 38-40, and ina.y account for hit cru-ating' 
cbe scalen]let^c chat the cun vvaiacche equinocclnl point 
at the tim« of lìÌ9 jiùttny nùyg it id ék^CI stalemelit 
(^Pirr. Ji, 31-33), &nd now as an approximation (Par. i, 
44), Thii prerni^d, a reference to the chronolo-gtical 
qpte at the dps? of this «■oliiime wiU show that the 
recarda,doa of the moon now amounted ta two houn 
and chircy-six miniitres, and that nhe was therefore in 
the CoueteiLatJon of -ScorpÌQ. Of the six hour* in 
which the night riass, two were ffone, and the third 
had ju*t passed the suitimtt of Its cour*t The lunar 
auTPti «va» th^ri^fore on ihe horizD'U. By * somewhat 
odd analogy she is caLled the " mistress^' of Tichcniie 
because ihe is a tpuHous aurcra, 9Pd tbc gCatlilM 
Aurora was the " wife" of Tithotiua. 

ij. See below, C«iito xvii. itf-ii, noU, 

> 9-}3- l*^^ n^M^e, in the " fiestiaries," is said to flj 
up in Tiis old age into the cirde of Inre, where he bumi 
off ail his featherfl and falls blinded inta a fauufain a( 
water, -whence he iiiu^a with his youth renewed. 
This il a symbol of baptismal regeiieracion. And 
here Dante, true to the ethical note which pervade^ the 
["lirgAtoryi Conoects him with moraL rather than with 
ceremonial puri ficaCion by cannertjng him with Troy, 
i.i. Rome, i.e. the Eittplne, lawi and justice ; for Gany- 
Énede (whose beauty had attracted Jupiter, and who, 
having been borne aloft byaneaglewhilehuntingwich 




borer of the Goda) wm the mid of Troi, an AnccROf of 

Th» Ù the fi»t of tiiTe« dinami or ri»ian< (for the 
schera kc below, C&ntoi kìx. and xxvit.), uch of 
wliii;h titket pUcC thcrtljF br^lùtt d^wci (the time beitig 
iadicated La z Icrci^j beginning' with the woidi AW 
era — see above v. 1 3, and, in die other canroi, ««. t and 
94, respect i' el)') and is a. forecaiC of Ul« eventi Im- 
mediateiy following, 

J4']9> ^^ ^f/"' x*vl. 6-7, Aolf. The amazement of 
Achii1«« Ì» recorded hj StatiaBlAiAil!. i. 14,^ ■'Jf-}- 

44. See the diigram pn p, 15, 

55- For Lucy, who must be more or ks» cloKÌy 
ìdetnìiied with the eagie of Dante'a dreun^ lee laf, ii. 
91, 9*. ""'' 

78. ferifir. Thii sngel reprcienti the prìe»C con- 

31-84. ^'^^ «word of DiTine Jujtlce, whoie wayi 
are inscrutable ito men. 

59. frtfrala, perhaps because cantntion break» the 

stubborn ne>i of che heart. 

104^ lOj. The scone of adamaat possibly indicate* 
the firmneu and eanatancj of the confesjor. 

rii. Eraue connecti the Kveo P'l not only with the 
(even ftceiita, buE with the aeren «crutiniea as well, 
«rhich figured in the Roman LiCai-gy (ill the end cif ifie 
iwh century, and formed: part of the serTice on the 
scTen Sundays trom tht^ first in Lent to Eaater Sunday. 

115, ii£, This hue appears to be a token of the 
huokility with which tke confcMor shaold exercise his 

K7-1I9. ly. Par. T, 5J-J7,n<il«. 

1^6-138. MeteUss, a follvwer of Pompey, made a 
btile enort to protect the Romati treai-ury tk.ept Iti the 
Kinpl4 of Saturn on Mens Tarpeiu*) ig3.init Cziar 
{%c 49). Lttcan (J'kari. tij. ij;3-i6S) lays ipecial 
•tre» on the noise made by the opening of the temple 
jaCe> OD this Occ^tiOn. 

140. Tlie fa^mouB Ambrosiao hymn, lung at matlni 
and on aolemn oecMÌoti». Some commentatori refer to 
trai xw. loj amt contiKt the present ringing «f th« 
hymn with the^nriT^ afa soul into PurgUOT^. 


THE cloiìng door rlngi behEml the poeti, but 
Dante, mindful of the warning', looks not back 
(i-6). The cleft tht'ùug;h whieh the pilgrSm» mount 
if f-i tumultuoLii 3.» the hfasing' tea, anil it ii three 
luHirs after suari&e ere they istile ilpgn (he £nt terrace, 
tome eighteen feet in brtiadtli, itrGCching unirorml^ u 
far u the eye may Ptacti in eitlier diiectlon (7-*7}. 
The outer rim of the terrace verges utiprotecced upon 
cbe pK(!ÌpLtoiiB d.own' elope of the monne. The 
innsT «ide ii ft tii^shk, cut verckalljr cai of th< laoan- 
taia, aad carved with <cen«4 from «acred and pa^n 
history, Ulumrative of humility, seeming to live and 
apeak in thtir bcautifii] and comprLling reality [iS- Pol rummo dentro al soglio della: partz, 
Girfloe ^.jjg jj j^jIq ^j^jjj. jJ^^p g^-jjjj, disusa^ 

perch'è fa parer dritta la vca torca, 

sonando la srntu easer richiusa ; 
e i' io avessi gli occhi volti ad essa, 
qual fora stata ai fallo degna Gcusa ì 

Noi iialiram per una pietra fessa, 

che si oiovevd d' utia e d' altra parte, 
sì come 1' onda che fugge e s' appressa. 

" Qui ai convien us^e un poco d' arte," " 

cominciò il duca mio, " id accoEtarai, 
or quinci or quindi» al lato che si parte." 

E ciò fece 3i ncscri passi lursi ^3 

tanto, che pr:a lo sc«nio della luna 
rigiunse al Ietto auo per ricorcarsi, 

che noi fossimo fuor di quella eruca. ^^ 

Ma quando fuitiinO liberi ed aperti 
su dorè il monte indietro si rauna. 


9S). As DftRte ì* Siting untiailaied upos th« fniagiios, 

Virgil bidi htm look to the lefi^ where he beholdi 
itrange objecii appfoiching him, which hit eye* ca.[in0C 
It first duentangle, bat wtii{!h pKseatij revali thera- 
téyt» ali hufflaa formi hent under hnge burdeni of 
Itone, cruDipLed. up ia po»tui«i of agoni«ed diicomfort 
(^^•iia). These are tl)e formi of ihe proud, mere 
Urvnr net yet developed Into tilt anguUc image, who 
had none the leas eialired themielves on eartti in un- 
■eitcnaiblf pride; and cow wail only that the lìmiti 
of chclr itfength cpahle chem co bear no more and 
bend no It^wer LD Ùitit humìUcy (iii-ij^). 


WbcDwe wer« within the threshold of the gate, xbe 


which the evil Jove of aouIs disuses, because it f£^. 

makea the crooked way seem straight, 
bj the ringiTig sound F h^ard it was shut again ; 

and had I turned mine eyes to it what would 

have been a. fitting eXCuee- for the fault ? 
We climbed through a cleft rock, which wasandUicr 

moring on one side and on the other, even a« ^"'"'^* 

a wave that recedes and approacheG. 
"Here we must use a little skill,"^ began my 

Leader, "in keeping close, cow hither Dow 

tbitherr to the eide that is receding." 
And this made our steps so scant, that the wan^ Monaieg 

ing orb of the moon regained its bed to sink ^i^^^^ 

again to rest in Pv^ga, 

ere we were forth from that needle'a eye. But 

when we were free and on tbe o^ct^ abo^t, 

where the mount is xt back. 


Gb«u I io stancato ed ambedue incerti 

di nostra via, rìatemmo su in un piano 
soliDgo piti che strade per diserti. 

Dalla ^u^ sponda, ove contine il vano, 
al pie dell' alta ripa, che pur aale, 
misurrebbe in tre volte un corpo umano; 

e quanto 1' occhio mio potea trar d* ale, 
or dal sinistro ed or dal destro lìaaco, 
questa cornice mi parca cotale. 

Lassù non ersn tnossi ì pie nostri anco, 
quaad' io conobbi quella ripa Latamo, 
che, dritta, di salita aveva manco, 

e3Fer di manno caTidido, e adorno 
d' intagli s\ che non pur Polìcreto, 
ma ]a natura li avrebbe gcomo. 

L' angel che venne in terra col decreto 
d^lla niolt' anni lagrimata pace, 
che aperse il ciel dal suo lungo divieto, 

dinanzi a noi pareva ȓ verace 
quivi intaglisi in un atto soave, 
che non sembiava imagine che tace- 

Giarato « aarìa eh' ei dicesse^ : ^vi, 
però che ivi era imaginata quella, 
che ad aprir l' alto amor volse la chiave. 

Ed avca in atto imprùssa esca favella, 
^cce aiuilla Dei, propriamente, 
come Egura tn cera ai suggella. 

" Non tener pure ad un loco la mente," 
Alsac il dolce tnisstro, che m' avea 
dai quella parte onde il core ha la gente ; 

per eh* io mi mossi col vieo, e vedca 
di retro da Maria;, da quella coffta 
ocde m' era colui che mi movea. 








CANTO X 119 


1 wearied and both uncettair of our way, we Tb« Drow 

stood etijl On a ictvi pJiice more solitary thaa 

roads through deserts. 
From it« edge where it borderà on the void, to 

che foot of the high bank, which sheer aEcends, 

a hitinaD body would measure in thrice; 
2nd so far as mine eye could wing its flight, now 

on the left now Oa the right side, Buch thll 

cornice appeared to me. 
Thereop our feet had not yet moved, when I 

disceraed that circlÌDg bank (which, being up- 

right, lacked means of ascent,) 
to be of pure white marble, and adorned with B**iBjgM 

aculpturea dO that not only FolydrClis, but '™"'*'n 

Nature there would be put to shame. 
The angel that came to earth with the decree of Thi 

peace wept for »Ìnce many a year, which opened u^r 

heaven from ita long ban, 
before u8 appeared so TÌ7Ìdly grsTen there in 

gentle mien, that it seemed not ad imag£ wl;ich 

u dumb. 
One wouM hare ?woro that he wa» «aying ; ^v ,- 

for there she was fashioned who turned the key 

to open the supfeme love. 
And in her attitude were imprinted these word?, 

Ecce analla Dà, as expre&»]y aa a figure n 

stamped on wax. 
I** Keep not thy mind only on one place," «aid the 

BWeet Masterr who had me on that aide where 

folk haee the heart; 
wherefore I moved my face about, and saw 

behind Mary, on that side of me where he 

vas who was urging me on, 


FGInnal lu' altra storia ncJIa roccia imposta: 3a 

per eh' io varcai Virgilio, e fpinmi prenao, 
acciocché fosse agli occhi mici disposta. 

Hra tntagtiato lì nel marmo sterro " 

lo carro e ì buoi traendo 1' arca aanu, 
per che ai teme officio lìon commesso. 

Dinanzi parea gente? e tutta e quanta. S' 

partita in aetcc cori, a' du^e miei sensi 
faceva dir 1' un " No," 1' altro "Si, canta." 

Stmilemente, al fummo degl' incensi *' 

che t' era imaginato, gli occhi e il naso 
ed ì\ sì ed al no discordi f«asi. 

Li precedeva al benedetto vaso, *♦ 

trescando alzato, l' umile aalmista^ 
e più e tnea che re era iti quel caso. 

D' incontra effigiata ad una vista *7 

.-LI A* un gran palazzo Micol ammirava, 
si come donna dispettosa e trista. 

Io moasi i pie de! loco dov* io stara, f^ 

per avvisar da presso un' altra storia 
che dì reiro a Micol mi bia.ncheggiava. 

Quivi era storiata I' dta gloria 13 

del roman priricipato, il cui valore 
mosse Gregorio alla sua gran vittoria ; 

io dico di Traiano imperadore ; T* 

ed una vedovella gli era al freno, 
di lagrime atteggiata e dì dolore. 

Intorno a luì parca calcato e pieno ff 

di cavalieri, e V aquile nell' oro 
aopr' esso in vista al vento si movieno. 

La miaerella intra tutti costoro '■ 

parea diceri " Signor, fammi vendetta 
del mio figlìuolch' è morto, ond' io m' accoro." 



CANTO X ' lai 

another atory set in the rock, wherefore I crossed Th«_ 

by Virgil and drew me nigli, that it might be Hnafff* 

displayed to mine eyes. DatW 

There wa» graven on the very marble the cart 

ATid the oxen drawing the sacred ark, "whereby 

we fear an office not committed to its. 
In front appeared people ; and the whole divided 

into aeren choirs, to two of my BcnaeSf made ttic 

one aay *' no," the other, " yes, they do sing." 
In like wiae, at the smoke of the incense which 

there was imaged, eyes and nose were made 

discordant with yes and no. 
There went before the blessed vessel the lowly 

Fsalmistr dancing, girt up; and more and l«ss 

than king was he in that case. 

Figured opposite at a window of a great palace 

was Michal, looking on cren aa a woman 

■cornfiil and sad. 
I moved my feet from the place where I stood. 

Id scan closely another sTory which behind 

Michal shone white before me. 
There was stoned the high gloi-y of che Roman Ttkju 

pnnce^ whose worth moved Gregory to his 

great victory; 
of Trajan the emperor I speak ; and a poor 

widow was at his bridle in the attitude of 

tears and of grief. 
Round about him appeared a trampling and 

throng of horsemen and the eaglea in gold 

above him moved visibly to the wind. 
The poor creature among all theae seemed to sav : 

"Lord, do me vengeance for my son who is 

sUin, whereby my heart b pierced." 






Ed egli a lei riepondere ì " Ora aspetta ■* 

tanto eh' io tomi." Ed quella: " Signor mio,*' 
come persona io cui dolor i' affretta, 

"se tu non toroi ì " Ed ei: "Chi fia dov' io *■ 
la ti farà," Ed quella; " L' altrui bene 
a te che 63, se il tuo mctd io obblio f " 

Ond' egli : " Or ti conforta, che conTiene 9' 
eh' io solva il mìo dovere, anzi eh' io mova : 
giustizia Yuoie e pietà mi rkieae." 

Colui, che mai non vide coe^ nuova, 9* 

produsse esCo visibile parlare, 
novello a. noi, perchè qui non ai trova. 

Metitr' io mi dilettava di guardare 
le imaginidi tante umilitadì, 
e per lo fabbro loro a vedec carc ; 

" Hcco di (^ua, ma fanno i passi radi," 
mormorava U poeta, "molte genti; 
questi ce invieranno agli alti gradi." 

Gli occhi miei eh' a mirar eran intenti, 
per veder novitadi onde son vaghi, 
volgcndoui ver lui Add furon Icotì. 

Non vo' però, lettor, che tu ti smaghi 
di buon proponimento, per udire 
come Dio vuoi che il debito si paghi. 

Non attender la forma del martire ; 

pensa la succession ; pensa che, al paggio, 
oltre la gran eentenza non puà ire. 
Io cominciai : " Msealro, quel eh' io veggio 
mover a noi, noa miscmbraD persone, 
e non eo che, sì nel veder vaneggio." 
Ed egli a me : " La grave condizione 
di lor tormento a terra li rannicchia, 
sì che i miei occhi pria n' ebber tenzone. 




And he to answer her: "Now wait uutiiJ I ilicprai 

mura." And ehei like a penoa in whom 

^rief U argent: *'My Lord, 
if xhoa do QDt return ? " And hr : " One who 

ahali be tn my place will do it for th«.** And 

ahe : ** What to thee wiU be another's good 

deed if thou forget thine own ?" 
Wherefore he; "Now comfort thee, for needi 

must I fulfil my duty ere I stir; justice wIUb 

and pity holds me b&cL" 
He, who ne'er beheld a new thing, wrought thiE 

TiBible gpeech, new to us becauBC here it is not 

While I was rejoicing to look on the images of 

hiimiiitiea 30 grtat and for their Craftsman's 

^ke precious to tee, 
"Lo here," murmured the Poet, "much people, Vlryll'* 

but few they make their stcpH j these will send ^""•^ 

U6 on to the high stairs/' 
Mine eyes, that were intent on gazing to lee new 

thingB whereof they are &in, were not slow in 

turning towards him. 
1 would not, reader, that thou he scared from a 

good puq>oac through hearing how God wills 

that the debt be paid. 
Heed not the form of thc^ pain ; think what 

foUoweth, think th^t Rt worst beyond the 

great judgment it cannot go. 
I began : ♦' Master, thai which I lee moving 

towards us aeems not pereons to me, yet I 

know not what, to wandera my sight." 
And he to me: "The grievous aUte of their 

torment doubles them down to earth so that 

mine eyes at first thereat were tX ?,ttVfe.. 



Glroacl Ma guarda fiso là, e disviticchia 

col viso quel che rieo sotto a (juei saBBÌ ^ 
già BcorgLT puoi come ciascun fii pìcchi,!." 

O superbi Crì&tiaa miseri lassi, 

che,. d«Jla rista della mente infenni, 
fidanza avete ne' ritrosi passi ; 

non v' accorgete voi, che noi aiam vermi 
nati 3 formar 1' angelica farfalla, 
che vola alla giustizia aenza achermi ! 

Di che 1' animo vostro in alto galla, 
pot siete q^uaai entomata in difetto, 
8^ come verme, io cui forniazion falla. 

Come per soatentar solaio o tetto, 
per mensola taJToIta una iìgura 
BÌ vede giunger le ginocchia at petto, 

la, qual fa del non rer yera rancura 
nascere a chi la Tede : così fatti 
vid' Ìd calor, quando poeì ben cura. 

Ver è che piti e meno eran contratti, 
eecoodo eh' avcan più o meno addosso ; 
e qual ]>lìi pazienza avea negli atti, 

piangendo parra dicer: ''Più non posBO." 

3. ti male amir. Sec below, Canra ivii. iB3-Laj', 
33. The Greek aculptar pDlycl«iis(r:d, 452-41» ucC 
il lauded by a number Of cta^siul writer» ki^owii in the 
Mi-ddle Ages, and his act in eilolled by ItalUn poeti 
pnof to Datile. J 

34-45, The AfinuneiaTÌòn (lee Lute i.). Note cha 
the hcft example «f the virtue appased to th« vice 
piiniilnied on the^ wen terraces (here, humility ai 
Oppose t0 pri'it-'} ià, in ^tfh case, an episode < 
from the life of ttiB Virgin Mary. 



S5-^S- ^'"' David dancing before the Arli, 



But laok steadily there and disemwine witK thy Tbcpnmi 
sight wh^t IB coming beneach Lhoae bIddph ; 
already thou caaet discern how each one beau 
hia breast.'^ 

O ye proud Christians, wretched and weary, 
who, iIcIl in mental tìsìqq, put truat in back- 
ward steps, 

perceive ye not that -w^ are wormg, born to fonn 
the angelic butterfly chat flieth to Judgment 
without defence ? 

Why doth your mind war on high, ftìnce ye are 
ai 'twere imperfect insects, even aa the grub 
Id which full fonti ia warning ì 

Ab to Hupport ceiling or roof is KametìmeB Th«Ir 
seen for corbel a figure joining Itneea to Pitti*!»»* 

which of unreality begetteth real discomfort in 
him wKo beholds it ; in &ach wise saw I 
these when I gare good heed. 

Trie it ia that more and lesa were they con- 
tracted, according as they had more or lesa 
upon them, and he wl^o most patience in 
his bearing, weeping Kcmed to say : "1 cao 
DO more-" 

73-93. Thi» ver&ion o( Ihe popular Trajan bCoryia 
apparently derived from the fiore di F'daiofì, whi'Ch used 
%o be «rroneously attritated [o Emin^'tta Catini. The 
ineidenC Ì> ag^in alluJed coìti Par. xi. 44, 4;. The 
educai biearings of the legend that Pope Grtgtìry'* 
interceasion tiroughc about Trajan's tgc3.11 from HcLI^ 
M tha: che Emperor might hav-e d re-epUe for repi;at- 
ance (yv. 74, 75], are dtscuaied in Par. xi. 106.117 
fjee Moifiy Tlitr reference in vu. So, Bi, il 
ia che metal (gnltS^bronzc} eagle, the outspread 
wingi of whicli mLghc ieem co be tìucterìftg in the 



THE hmnbW lonli pppniuJi, wItK a panphfu^ of 
the Lord'" PtncT upon th«ir lipi, th« p«ticioii 
for protection against temptation being uttered far the 
Bake of dioie chey have left behind, whether on earth 
or, perhapi, in the anTi-purg&tiiry, «nee kiuU iaside the 
gate art beyond its reach (1-30) ; which loving office» 
of prefer tlic living atiùuld tui^f reciprocate far thoie 
^rliD are dow piltging ihetìiatl*** ( J 1 -36). fn answer to 
Virgil'» iciqmry, one of che souls direct* the pilgrim» 
to turn to the right, elrding the mount with the tun 
(]7'5')- '*- '* '^^ Sien-ene Omberto, whose iasoleaee 
had; made him little better than a hrigscd, and had 
Inyolicd all hif race in rVin ($l-^2j. A« the poet 
benda down to hearlten, another aoul^ paLafull/ turolog 
beneath his burden, gazes upon Dame who recognfKt 
him as the miniature painter, Odensi, now willing to 
admit the superior eKcellence of hli rival Franco, atid 
fdly 4en«ibk of the empty md transitory nature of 
huaian glory. Ctmabue's tchool ot painting li supef- 
leded by Giotto'i ; the oliJer poetic ichool of Guittone, 

Qinatl *fO Padre nostrO;, che nei cieli stai, 
^_ Dun circoDHcrìtto, ma per più amore 

B che ai primi effetti di laesù tu hai, 

^1 laudato eia il tuo nome e il tuo vatore 

^H da ogni creatura, com* è degno 

^M di render grazie al tuo dolce vapore. 

^M Vegoa ver noi h pace del tuo regno 
^M che noi ad esi^ doei potem da noi, 

^H ■' eìla non vìen, con tutto nostro iogegno. 

^K^ Come del suo voler gli angeli tuoi 
^^^L fan sacrìlido a te^ canUFida Onaana, 





or GulJo, of Ar«zo and hl« n>tnpanlcins ha* been 
luperacded bj^ chat of Guido Cuìnicellì, to which Guido 
CaTalc&nd ind Dinta tiimM^I/ belong ; »ni who knowi 
**he^b«r (he founder i?r yet aiidtlicr schiwl Lhat ihall 
relegiite thtixn a.U to nb^curiif , may nr>t alreadj bi- burn I 
(7J-J9> Worldlj repiitation ia always of the same 
empty quality, [hough the iriomtntaiT object to which 
it attachel itulf chang'e*, one rmptj' reputation differ- 
ing from another only in name, anc| at] of them 
jwallown) up in the course of years, what mailer 
whether few or many I One of the heroea uf Monca- 
perti and victim* of Colle di^ Valdelaa, who is pac- 
ing before them, ii alreadj- all but forgotten on the 
Tcrj acen^ Af liil iriotnplii Hnd defeat!. What arc ht< 
mputaCJoD »nd hi» pride to him now, whejre the onlj 
act of hia life Lhat avails him li hia «dr-humiliation in 
begging ranBooi far hia friend, in the market place 
of Siena? an act which Dante himself ehall learn 
better 10 appreciate In the dafi of hli own angnlih 
of humiliation [ioù-141^. 

••O our Father who art in heaven» cot circum- 
scribed, but through the greater love thgu 
ha«t for th; first works od high, 

praised be thy name and thy worth by every 
creature, ai 'tis meet to give ihanke. to thy 
vweet effluence. 

May the peace of thy kingdom come upon us, 
for we cannot of ourselTCfl attaiD to it with all 
our wit, if it come not. 

An of their will thine asgels make sacrifice to 
thee, singing Hosanna, so may men m-Ae 
of thehs. 


aa; toe 





Girone I Dà Oggi i coi h cotìdiana- maona, 

BeDza la qua! per questo aspro diserto 
a retro va. chi più. di gir b' affanna. 

E come noi lo ma! che avem sofferto 
perdoniamo a ciascuno, e tvi perdona 
benigno, e non guardare al nostro merto. 

Nostra virtù che di leggier &' adopa, 
non sperini.'iitar con i' antico awersaro, 
ma libera da lui, che sì la sprona. 

Quest' uttima preghiera. Signor caro, 
già non ai fa per noi, che nùn bÌBogna, 
ma per color, che retro a noi restaro.*' 

Cobi a sé e noi buoQa ramogna 

quell' omhre orando, aodaran eotto il pondo, 
BÌmile a quel che talvolta si eogna, 

disparmcnte angosciate tutte a tondo, 
e lass? su »er la prima cornice, 
purgando le caligini del mondo. 

Se di là Gcmpre beo per coi li dice, 
di qua che dire e far per lor si puote 
da quei eh' haivno al voler buona radice? 

Bea BÌ dee loro aitar kvar le note, 

che portar quinci, sì che mondi e lievi 
posfano uscire alle stellate rote* 

" Deh! se giustizia e pietà ■n disgravi 
tosto, &ì che possiate mover l'ala, 
che secondo il disio vostro vi levi, 

mostrate da qual mano ìd Tcr U BcaJa 
ai va più corto ; e se e' è più d' un varco, 
quel De insegnate che meo erto cala : 

cbè qucfitì ahs vien mecci, per P incarco 
della carne d' Adamo ond 'ei sì veste, 
aj montar su, coDUa. ixìa lo^lia, è ^co. 












Give ul this day our daily mciniia, without whicli Tbe proa 
he backward gors through this rough deeert, iTord^* 
who most toileth W adTancc. Prkyu- 

And 33 we forgive every one the evil we hsTe 
8iid*erecl, do ibou forgive in loving-kindoeas 
aad regard Dot our desert 
Put QOt DUf virtue, which lightly is subdued, to 
triai with the old adversary, but deliver ua from 
him who Ao prickft it. 
This iast prayer, dear Lord, ii not madt t'of 
us, for Deed is not, but for thofie who have 
remained behind us,"' 
Thua thow sliadei, praying good speed for thtna 
and for us, were going under their burden, 
like that whereof we aometErrieB dreaTn, 
unequal all io anguiflEi around amd weary, along 
the first cornice, purging away the foul misti 
of the world. 

If there ever a good ward for ua is said, what Admoufd 
can be said and done for ihem here, by those tSe^d^d 
who have their wilt rooted in good Ì 
Xnily we ought to help them to wash away dieir 
suiDB, which they have boroc heace, so that 
pure and light they may go forth to the starry 
•* Pray ! — so may justice and pity sodd unload VTrgii 
you, that ye may spread the wing which may ^arofS 
uplift you according to your desire, — 
■how us OD which hand we go quickest towards the 
«tairw.iy ; and if more than one paaaage there 
be, tell us that which least steeply ascends; 
for he wiio cometh with me, because of the weight 
of Adam's flesh wherewith he 13 clad, at 
climbiug up ij alow against tus w\lW* 

'Gtiaii«3 Le lor parole, che renderò a qucate, 
che dette avea colui cu' io seguiva, 
Don fiir da cui rentss^r manifeste; 

ma fa detto ; " A man deetrs per ìì riva 
con noi TCnite, e troverete il pasBD 
possibile a salir persoDa viva. 

E b' io non fofisi impedito dal sasso, 
che la cervice mia superba doma, 
onde portar convienitiì il riao baàSfi, 

coceBti che ancor vive, e non ai noma, 
guardere 'io, per veder »' io 'I conoKO, 
e pr farlo pietoso a questa soma. 

Io fui Latino, e nato d' un gran Toaco: 
Gltgtklmo Aldobrandesco fii mìo padre ; 
non so se il nonne suo giammai fu Yoeco. 

L' antico sangue e 1' opere leggiadre 
de' miei maggior mi fer ai arrogante, 
che, non pcnEando alla comune madre, 

ogni uomo ebbi in dispetto tanto arante 
eh' io ne mori*, come i Sanesi sanno, 
e lallo in Campagnatico ogni fante. 

Io sono Omberto; e non pure a me danno 
superbia fa, che tutu i miei coDsord 
ha ella tratti seco nel malanno. 
- E qui convien eh* Io questo peao porti 
per lei, canto che a Dio si BattGfaccia, 
poi eh' io noi fei tra' vivi, qui tra' morti/ 

Ascoltando, chinai io gii) la faccia; 
ed uQ di lor» noa c^uesti che parlava, 
si torse sotto il peso che to impaccia ; 

e vtdemi e eonobhcmi e chiamava, 
lenendo gli occhi con fatica fidi 
a me^ che tutto ehm con \oio «ndanL 




From whom carne the wortls which were re- Tfaepr 

tumed to thoae which he 'whoin I wa« 

foLlowiag had eaid^ ma not manifest, | 

but it wne said: "To the right hand along the Ombcrto' 

bank come with us, And ye shRll find the pas» br^tid 

possible for A livlog; persoti to ascend. replie* I 

Ajid if I were not impeded by the «one which 

lubducs my proud neck, wherefore needs must 

I carry my TÌaage low, 
bim who is yet alive, and names not himHeLf, 

would I look at, to see if I know him, aùd to 

make hira pitiful to this burden. 
I was Italian and aon of a great Tuscan: u.dt«ll>] 

Guglielmo AldobnndcBco was my father j I '"' ■«"T| 

koow not if his name was ever with you. 
The ancient blood and gallant deeds of my 

aaceator* made me so insolent that, tliinking 

not of our common mother, 
dl men I held in such exceeding scorn that it 

waa the death of me^ as the Sieoese know^ 

and every child knows in Campagnatico. 
I am Humbert ; and not to me alone pride works 

lU, for all my fclJaws hath it dragged with it 

to mishap. 
And here must I therefore bear thia load among 

the dead, until God be satisiied, since I did It 

not among the living." 

LUtenine I bent down mv f>ice ; and one ofOderlsl 
, * , , 1 ■ • I 1 • Gubbio 

therUf not he who %as apcakmg, twisted him- 
self beneath the weight which encumbers him ; 

and saw me and knew me and waa calling out, 
keepmg his eyea with diHicuky &x.ed upod me, 
who aJJ bent was goiog witb them. 






Glftniv 1 ** 0," dissi lui, '* noA sei tu Odedsi, 

1' OBOI d' Agabbio, e 1' onor di quell' arte 
che < alliimiaare ' è chiamata in Parisi? " 

•* Frate,'* diss* egli, " più ridon le carte 
che pennelleggia Franco Bolognese ; 
ì' ODore è tutto or sud, c mìo in parte. 

Beo non sarc' lo stato sì cortéw 

mentre eh' io tìbsì, per lo gran disio 
deir eccellenza, ove mio core intese. 

Di tal superbia qui be paga il fio ; 
ed ancor non sarei qui, se non fosse, 
che, pOBseodo peccar, mi froUi a Dio, 

O vanaglona dell' umane posae, 
com' poco verde in su la cima dura» 
se non è giunta dall' etaù groue ) 

Ccedette Cimabue ndla pittura 

tener lo campo, cd ora ha Giotto il grido» 
£1 che la fama di colui è oscura. 

Così ha tolto r uno ^V altro Guido 97 

la gloria della lingua j e forfie è nato 
chi 1' uno e i' altro caccerà di nido^ 

Non è il mopd^n romorc altro che un fiato i» 
di Tento, che or rien quinci ed or vien quindi, 
e muta noniE, perchè muta lato. 

Che fama avrai tu piC), Be vecchia scindi 
dia te la Carne, che se fossi morto 
innanzi che ksciasBi il pappo e il dindi, 

pria che passin iniir anni ? eh' è piìl corto 
spazio all' eterno, che un mover di ciglia 
al cerchio che piQ. tardi in cielo è torto. 

Colui| che del caininin hì poco piglia 
dinanzi a me, Toscana sonò tutta, 
ed ora a. pena in Siena »en pispiglia, 








•* Oh," said I to him, "an thou not Oderisi, Thaproi 
the honour of Gubbio, and the honour of that Oderlii 
art wtiicli m Paris is called 'iUuminatinig' ?" 

*' Brother," aaid he, "more pleasing are the leaves 
which FraaCi> fiologafSE paints ; the honour 
DOW is aJl hiB and mine in part 

Truly I &hou]d not have been 60 courteous while 
I lived, because of the great deaire of excel- 
ling whereon my heart was bent. 

For auch pride h^fc the doe ia paid ; ajjd. I should 
not yet be here, were it not that haTing power 
to sin, I turned me to God- 

O empty glory of human povera! How short TbtOcId* 
the lime ito gfeen endufes upon the lùp, if it p^^J* 
be not oTertakea hy rude agea! 

Cimabue thought to hold the 6eld in paiating, 
and DOW Giotto hath the cry;, so that the fame 
of the other is obscured. 

EvcD 10 one Guido hath taken from the other 
the glory of our tongue ; and perchance one 
ii born who shall chaae both from the nest. 

Earthly fame Is naught but a breath of wiad, 
which DOW Cometh hence and now thence, 
and changes name because it change» direcciotl. 

What greater fame shah thou have, if thou «rip 
thee of thy flesh when old, than if thou hadst 
died ere thou wert done with pap and chink., 

before a tbouiand years are passed Ì which is shorter 
space to eternity than the twinkling of an eye to 
the circle which slowest is turned in hcaTen. 

All TuBca.ny rang with the sound of him wlio PioT«ua 
move» eo slowly along the way in front of me, SalTMi 
and now hardJy is a whisper of him iu Siena, 

^(PfOQcI oùd' era sire, quando fu distrutti 
la rabbia, florendna, che superba 
fii a (jijcl tempo, sì com' ara è putW. 

La voierit nominanzB è color d' erba, 
che Tiene e Ta, e quei la discolora, 
per cui eir esce delia terra acerba." 

Ed io a lui : "Lo tuo Ter dir m' incora 
buona umiltà, e gran tumor m' appiani ; 
ma chi è ({uei dì cui tu parbvì ora ì '* 

"Quegli È," rispose, "Provenzan Salvani j 
ed è qui, perchè fu presuntaoao 
a recar Siena tutta alle sue mani. 

Ito è cobl, e VÀ senza riposo, 

pai che morì : cotal moneta r^ode 
a Batiefar chi è di la tropp' ojo." 

Ed io: **Se qaelEo spirito che atlecdc, 
pKa eh* ai penu, J orla della TÌca, 
ìaggìì) dimora e quassù non aecendc, 

K buona orszion lui non aiu, 

prima che passi tempo qua.nta tìssc, 
come fii k venuta a iui largita?" 

"Quando vivea più glorioso," disse, 
" liberamente nel campo di Siena, 
ogni vergogna deposta, b.' affisse ; 

e lì, per trar V amico suo di pena 
che BOfttenea nctìa prigioD di Carlo» 
ai condusse a trema:r per ogni rena. 

Più non dirò, e acuro so cht parlo ; 
ma poco tempo andrà che i tuoi vicini 
iranno » che Cu potrai chioftarto. 

Qacflt' opera gli tolse quei cantini.** , , .. 





H whereof he was lord, when the rage of Florenct- Thaproi 
H waa deBtroyect who at that time was proud even OdoH»! 
H 31 DOW she ia dfgr^ded. 
W Your repute is ai the hue of grass which comcth 

and goech, aod tie discolours it through whom 

it «pringeth green from the ground." 
I And I to him : *' Thy ituv «aytng filU 1117 heart 

I with holy humility, and lowers my swollea 
pride, but who ia he of whom hut dow thou 
wasi speaking J" 
"Thai," he answered, "is Provenzan Salrani ; re&Mau 
aod he is here because in his presumptioa he u^^ 
thought to bring all Siena in his grasp. 
Thus he hath gone and goea without rest since he 
died ; &uch coin he p^iyj back, to jatififaction 
who yonder is too dating," 
And I : " If thai spirit who awaits the brink of 
^ lilii', ere he repeats, abides there below, and 
H mounts not up hither, 

DSlcsj holy prayers aid him, until so much time 
be passed as he hath lived, how has the coming 
here been Touchsafud to him ? " 
'" When he lived in highest glory," said he» " in 

I the market-place of Siena he stationed himself 
of hii free will and put away all shame 4 
and there, to deliser hii friend from the pains he 
was suiffering in Charles's prisoa, he brought 
himself to tremhle m every vein, 
I Ko more wiJI I tell, and darkly I know that 1 
speak, but short time will pass ere thy neigh- 
bours Will act BO, chat thou shah be able to 
mterpret lu This deed released him fraiQ 
those conlinea." 





i-ii. A paraphrase of the Lord's PiaycF (_Ai>ill. ni. 
q-fj f X-uic si. i-4].=-The ^riwJ e£Hti of *. 3 are the 
heavens and the sngclh For tinituriilff (v, l), ■«« 
below, Canto xs«. 8S. 

49-71. Omberto, Count oC Santafiora, in the Siene» 
Miir^iniTia, -wn» n member o{ th^ AldabrandeacKl family 
for which sec abave, Canto vi. Ili, mote. He wai pot 
to death at CampagnaFÌco in i25'9 hjr ihe SkneiK, who 
had long hc«Ei at watfafe with the fainiiy and were 
anviou» to be rid of their mtiiority. The mode of 
Omherto'i death is TarLOUsly given. 

74 sqj. Oderìji (of Cubbto in UmMa), an lUomin- 
ator ifiA miniature paiater. He apfitafi to have hcta. 
at Rifme in 1295, for the purpose («o »ay" YaiariJ of 
illuminating some MSS- in the Papal Library for 
Boniface Vili. According to the lame authority, the- 
work on that occasioa woe shared by Frani» of 

51-93. A reputation does not inrviTe the genera- 
tiod in which it fva.a bljilt Up, Uinlcji a ^rois ani] 
UD en lighten ed age happen to foElow, 

94.-9&. The works of the Florencine painter Cimabue 
(<d. iX40.eK. 1301) are inaiinct witli^titu^ and mark a 
Considerable a<l>Éince Oti thv atitf Byi^i^nlinc school; 
but it was reseTTcd for his pupil, Giotto (1x6^-133$^ 
to draw hit Enspiration at the Count of Mature herBeu, 
and tu b^f^ome tht faihcr of rcmijerfl painting. — Giotto ia 
laid to have been a. friend of Dante's, and the well- 
known Qargello portrait of the poet is doubtfully 
attributed to him. 

97-99. The interpretation of tJieKC ier»ei eiven in 
the Arpumait ii not the one usually adopted ; the riew 
generally held bcinf^ that the two Guidot are Guit)>o 
Guinii^^-Lli (mt bdow. Canto savi.) and Guido 
Cavalcanti (see Inf. x. 60, mft),inà that Dame himself 
ia the poet deseined to eclipse the latter. A^ai;n*t 
thij DOiore obtic-it« incerpfetatioo, it may be urged, that 
It would be out of keeping with the genital tone of the 
paisage ; and speciliraily with niL 7-9. MotBover, 
there is (IO indication ia Óaote'» work? of hi» reganllEig 
Guido Ouinicelli a a suipcrseded wnnhy, or >dittin- 



guiihing between the schools of chese tma Guidoi ; 
although h.c tepcaCeidiy contrasEs tlie ichool oif Guido (<ft 
Guicto-ne) qì Arezzo wich die new ichool mi whjch Ke 
regarded Guido Guinitellt aA the chicfi and Guido 

^ Cavalcanti »nd hirtiacl/ àa i^iaciplcs (xxvì, 97-99 ; MC, 
further, xitiv. S5-5j. krvì. 114.-116; ZJa ^'f- Et. i. 
13: 7, fi; ii. 6: .85-89), On the oihw hand. It rrny 
be s-fÌTSineed In favour of the more popular ihw-ry, ihal, 
vrliaiever Dance may t^y in other patcaget, Guido 
Cavalcanti and ilie atKer Fiorentine* aetn-alTy did write 
poetry ■upcri'nir Co that al Cmdip GuinìceLli; ihai a 
■ pupil may surpass his Teacher and yet TL-gard him with 
l^iffeccion and admintLlon; that Dance would probably 
'Jia.Te uhhI the itetm. Gaiita"' in ihj' paspagw, 10 u to 
make hia ncaning dear; and chat che prophecy may 
well refer to oor poet himneli', «ho, though in the 
circle of th« Proud, is prpbaMy as caniciuus 0/ ]iis 
literary gr^tnesa cow as he was la Limbo (see /i>/". 
Uie. 100-I05J. 

io$. Before you left off your child's pnctte: fafp» 
jmjw, bread, and £nJÌ = danìiiri, money (_cf. ixf. 

109-IJ8. Proretiian Sal»ani, a Ghibelline, was ehief 
in authority ainong the SScticse at che tiene of the 
battle of Montapsrllj and alter the defeat ti the 
Florvntines he wa« the irronges; advocate in faTotir 
of the- dwtfMEion af their diy (vp. II1-I14; *m 
Iif^ X. S5-&7f gi-93i msIm). He once Immbled hlm- 
»elf by afTc^eEÌng the garb and inanner of a beggar in 
the nurJlBt-pSace of Siena, nj ai to procure ihe money 
wherewith to «anMWi a friend, who was tlie prìaonerof 
Charles of Anjou. Provenza» we.» eventually dereaced 
and alain (June liGj) in an engageai«^nt with th< 
Florentines at Cotle, in ValdeEsa (see below. Canto 

É116. fiTM^cheuun. 
12.7-131. See above, Canto It, 130-135, 
IJ9-14*- A prophecy of Danit's esile from Florence 
I'ljol). The poet Will knew frfl^fti hitter eiiperietic« 
what it It to Itve on the charity of others (^ Par. 
nil. i^.toy 


DANTE hat bent down In a. af mpattietlc atdEade of 
hiiinilhy to canrerse with OderÌBÌ, and when 
Virgil hid) him make better «pt<(t he ht e «■ hi* 
ptnon u) far m needful to wOipLf, bue «till Kmaim 
bowni down in h(?in, ihom of hit prelum ptucrns 
ifaooghc.) ('~9)' -^^ ''^ itrp& forward with a good 
wlllj Virgil bids him once more look dowTi al (he 
pavement which he ii treaJin^, and there h« »tea ai 
it wfcre the lineamentt of the d'efested proud, fnm 
Lucifer and firiareus W Cyrus and Holofemei and 
^IvrJ, Th« proud are laid low upon the paremenE am 
(he humliEe were exalted to the upapringin^ mountaf n- 
tìde(to--jiy, Awide icretch of the mauntaLn li drded 
ere thei^ eom^ 10 th^ ^ntle angel of this terrace of the 
proud, wlio*e glory i* tempered a» a morning ttar, 
an<! who promÌK^ Lhem an eaiier aicent henceforth 
{73-9GV A (tcoke of hi» w^lng Couch» (he poel'i 

QlcMw 1 Di pari, come buoi che vaoao a giogo. 
m' andava to con quplla anima cafc^r 
fin che il soffer&e il dolce pedagogo. 

Ma <]uando disse : *' Lascia lui, e Twca, 
che qui è buon con la rek e coi Temi, 
quantunque può ciascun, pinger lua barca " 

dritto, sì come andar ruolai, rìfc' mi 
eoo la pwaoaa, aTvegna che i ppnaleri 
mi rimaneaaero e chinari e scemii. 

Io m' era mosaOf e scguìa Tolcncieri 

dei mia macatro ì pasfii, ed ambo e due 
già mostraraTO come erayam teggieri, 

quando mi disici "Volgi gli occhi in gius : 
buon ti sarà, per tranquillar la via^ m 


v»H.r 1, 


browp who then appraachei lucfa a stair u was made 
to ea«e the ascent to San Miniato in the goad old difi 
when weighu and meagiiret wrre true and public 
records ungarbleid (97'io8). Aj they mount the 
BtBÌr the blcifirg af thi^ poCt in ipiiit fails on th-sLr 
cars, wi Ut iDuiid how different froin the wild Incnenti 
of Htill I And Dante naiei iicw the steep ancent 
teems far more 'Cajy chan the leve] terrace af a moment 
back (log^iio). It u because the P of pride wm 
eiu«4 b^ ihc Etfake of the angel'i wing, 4ij]J ihen-on 
all the other six became ahallower, Th[i Dante, at a 
hint from Virgil, ascertain* by feeing hw brow with 
outspread fingers, and in innocent deljght at the dii- 
carerr of the cause oF hia lightened steps, he looks 
into Virgil's fa« which answers with » diìlle of 


Even in step, like oxen which go in ihe yoke, "^"P"* 
I went beside that burdenetl npiril» bo long u 
the (weec pedagogue aufTered it. 

"But whcD he said : " Leave him, and presa on, for 
here 'tis well thai with «ail and with o^rs, each 
one urge hIa biirk along with aill Kia might" ; 

I erect* eveo aa i^ rec^uired for walking I made me 
agiain with my body, albeit my thougbM re- 
mained bowed dowD and shrunken. 
I had moved me, and willingly waa foltowaog 
my maner'e. ateps, and both of us aiready 
were ihawing how light of foot we were, 
when he aaid to me: "Turn thine eyes down- 
ward; good will it be, for Bolace of thy way, 
CO see the bed of the sole^ of thy feet." 




il Come, perchè di lor memoria «ta, 
Sopra i eepo3u le tombe terragne 
pottan legnato ^uel eh' elti emn pria; 

onde lì moke volte se ne piagne 
per U pilatura delta, rimembraaz^ 
che solo ai pii dà delle c^lcagne: 

■ì TÌd' io li, jrn di miglior «tnbianzi, 
Becondo I' artìHcio, figurato 
cjuanto per via di fuor dal monte aTiìnza< 

Vedea colui, che fu nobil cmto 
piil eh' altra creatura, giù dal ciflo 
folgoi'eggiaado scendere da UD lato» 

Vcdea Eriareo, fitto dal telo 
celestbl, giacer dall' altra partt, 
grave alla terra per lo morta! gelo. 

Vedea. Timbreo, vedea Fallade e Mane, 
armati ancora irtorno al padre loro, 
mirar le membra de' giganti aparte. 

Vedea Nembrot a pia del gran laTOrOf 
quaM smarrito, e riguardar le genti 
che ia Gi^uaaar eoa lui superbi foro. 

O Niobe, con che occhi dolenti 

Tederà io te, aegnata ìn ju la strada. 
Ira Bette e sette tuoi figliuoli speatì ] 

O Saul, come la su la propria spada 
quivi pareri morto in Gdboè, 
che poi non aentì pioggia né rugiada! 

O fotte Aragne» sì vedea io te 

già meiza aragna, triaca in su gli stracci 
dell' opera, che mal per te ai fé' ! 

O Rohoam, già qod par che minacci 

quivi il tuo segna ; ma pien di tpaveoto 
nel porta un carro prima che altri Ìl cacci I 





ol Piide— 



!□ order that tbere be memory of tKem, th* 
inbs on the ground orer the bun«d beai 
Igured what tbey were before ; 
refore there, many a time men wwp for 
em, becAUK of the prick of remembraace 
hich only to the pitifut givea spur ; 
w I sculptured there, but of better similitude 
ccording to the craftsmaiDskip, all that which 
T road projects from the mount. 
Inw him who was created nobler hr than 
btber creature, od one side desceudiog like 
lightning from heaven. 

IV BriareuBt transfixed by the celestial boU, 
Id the othfr side, lying on the earth heavy 
prith the death chill. 

law ThymbrxuB, I mw Pallas and Mars, Tba GlMti 
irmed yet, around their father, gazing on the ^M 

catterfd limbs of the giants. ^1 

vw Nimrod at the foot of hts great labour, NCaina 
■a though bewildered, and looking at che 
people who were proud with him io Shìiutr. 
Niobc, with what eorrowing eyes I saw thee iflobe 
graven upon the road between aeven a ad 
(even thy children slain ! 
SaiU, how upon thine own sword there didst 
Lhou appear dead on Gilboa, which thereafter 
f«lt nor rain tior dew Ì 

mad Arachne, bo saw I tfaee already half AncUiw] 
ipider, sad upon the ehredB of the work which 
to thy hurt waa wrought by tbee ! 

RehoboEim, now thine image there seems no Rebeboan 
more to chrcaicn ; but full of terror a chariot 
leareth it away ere chase be given ! 




CLnaiu 1 Mostrava ancor lo duro parimeato 

come Almeon a Bua madre fé' cara '< 
parer lo sventurato adoniarncnto. 

Mostrava come i £gli si gittaro 

Bopna Sennacherib dentro dal tempio, 
e come, mono lui, quivi il Jasciaro. 

Mostrava la ruìna e il crudo scempio 
che fé' Tamiri, «quando disse a Ciro ; 
"Sangue Hitiati, ed io di saogue t*einpio>" 

Mostrava come in rotta sì fuggirò 
gli Aasiri, poi che fu mono Oloferne, 
ed anche le reliquie del martiro. 

Vedeva Troia in cenere e in caverne s 
O IlioD, come te basso e vile 
Mostrava il segno che 11 si discerne I 

Quaì di pennel fu maestro o di atìle, 
che ritraesKe l' ombre e i (ratti, eh' ivi 
mirar farìeao ogn' ingegno sotdJe ? 

Morti li morti, e i vivi parean vivi ; 
non vide me' di me chi vide il vero, 
{^uant' io calcai lìn che chinato givi. 

Or auperbitef e via coi viso altiero, 
figliuoli d' Eva, e non chinata il volto, 
6Ì che veggiate il vostro ma! sentiero ! 

Più era già per noi del monte volto, 
e del cammin del bù1« a^sai più speso, 
che non stimava I' animo Don sciolto ; 

quando colui, che sempre inn^tizi atteso 
andava, incomiaciò ; *■ Drizza la testa; 
non è più tempo da gir eì so^pesO' 
ì Vedi cola un ^ngel che «' appresta 
per venir vetao noi ; vedi che torna 
/ dai «rrvigio del d\ l* ancella iegta. 


It ahowed— the iiard pavement — again how 

AJcTTisctia made the luckle-ss oroamem leem 

coeciy to hia mother. 
It ebowfd how hiH aoDs flung Etiemselri?' upon 

Seaoacherib within the temple, and. how, him 

slain, there chey ìefi him. 
It ahowed the dedtrucdon aad the cmd slaughter 

which Tomyri» wrought when she Eaid to 

Cyrua : '* For blood thou didst thirst and with 

blood I fiil theei" 
It showed how in a rout the Aseyriana fled, after 

Holofemea was iskin, aad also the relics of the 

aasaSKi nation. 
I law Troy in aahca acd in mine: 

O Ilion, thee how base and vile fdiscerned ! 

It shoW'ed — the sculpture which there i» 
What maaier were he of brufih or of grader, who 

drew the shades and the linEamentSi^ which 

ihere wouJd make ■every subtle wit stare? 
Dead seemed the dead, and the livingf living. He 

saw not better chan I w ho saw the reality of all 

that I trod upon whil<^ I wan going bent dawn. 
Now wax proud and on with haughty visage, ye 

children of Eve, and bow not down your faces, 

IO tliat ye may see your evil path f 
Already more of the mount was circled by ub, 

and of the sun's pjith much more spent, than 

the mind, not set free, e&teemed ; 
when he, who ever in front of me alert was 

going, began ; " Lift Up thy head, this is no 

lime to go thua engroGsed. 
See there an angel who ia making ready to come 

towards ub; look how the sixth handmaiden 

is returning from the day'p aervicci 

Tfa« pntd 
ol Pride- 







si Di riverenza gli atti e il viso adorna, 
sì cKe i diletti lo innarcì io suso : 
_,^ pensa che cguesi^o di mai non raggiorna." 

Io era bea del sud ammoDÌr ubo, 

pur di non perder tempo, b\ che in quella 
materia non potea prlarmi chiuso, 

A Doi TCfiìa la creatura bella 

bianco vestita, e nella faccia quale 
par tremolando mactutins stella. 

Le braccia aperse, ed indi aperse V ale ; 
disse : *' Venite ; qui son pr«^o i gradi, 
ed agevolemente «mai sì sale." 

A questo invito vengon molto radi, 
O gente umana per volar su nata, 
perchè a poco vento così cadi ì 

Menocci ove la roccia era tagliata; 
quivi mi b^nttèo 1' ale per la fronte, 
poi mi promise sicura ]' andata- 

Come a man destra, per salire al monte, 
dove siede la chicBa che aoggioga 
la bea guidata sopra Rabaconte, 

BÌ rompe del montar 1' ardita foga, 
per le GCalee, che sì fero ad etade 
eh' era sicuro il quaderno e k doga : 

così a" allenta la ripa che cade 
quivi ben ratta dall' altro girone; 
ma quinci e quindi i' alta pietra rade, 

Noi volgendo ivi te nostre perEione, 
'■^ Beioti pauperet ipìrìtu** voci 

caniaron z\ che noi dina sermone. 
Ahi I quanto lon diverse quelle foci 
dalle infernali : che quivi per canti 
»' entrar ^ ^BAul v^^ laiueDti fc^roci. 





.dorn with reTcrenc? thy bearing and thy face. The Aanl 

ao that it may delight him to send us u]>ward; ""«"i 

thiak that this day never dawns again." 
tight well was I used to hi» mOnicicins ntrer to 

lose time, no that in that matter he could not 

speak tQ me darkly. 
^Qua came the b^auteouH creatura, robed in white, 

and in his countenance, such aa a tremulous 

star at morn appears. 
lis arms he opened aud thiPn outspread his 

wings; he said 3 "Come; here nigh «re the 

steps, and easily now is ascent made." 
'o this annourcement few be they who come. 

O human folk, born to fly upward, why at a 

breath of wind thus fai] ye dtjwn ? 
Je led us where the rock was cut; there he 

beat his wings upon my fi:>rehead, then did 

promiise me my journey secure. 

ks OD the right hard^ to ascend the mount where NlEut» dC^ 

stands the church which, over Rubaconte, '^"^ ' 

dominate» the wclUguided city, 
tic bold acarp of the ascent is broken by the 

steps, which were made in the times when 

the recorda and the measure were safc- 
Vm BO ia the bank made easier, which here 

right steeply fella from the other cornice, but 

on this aide and on that ilie high rock grazes. 
?hile Wt Wer« turning there our perjona, " Beaii The first 

pauserei tf>iritu" voices so sweetly sang, that no ^"** 

speech woiJd tell it, 
kh Ì how diCTcrent are these openings from those 

in Hetl 1 for here we enter through aongs, and 

dowoi there through fierce wailings. 



SUIUftl Già monuvam su per li icagLion santi, "f 

Quene ^j esser mi parca troppo più Jievc, 

k che per lo pian non mi parca davanti ; 

H ond' io : '' Maestro^ di', qual cosa gtere ■■' 

H levaU &' è da me, che nulla quasi 

H per me facica andando ai ricevei" 

K Rispose; "Quando i F, che son rimasi ■■■ 

^^K ancor nei voEto tuo gjreHso eh' «stinti» 

^^V saranno, come ]' un^ dei tutto rasi, 

V Gen li tuoi pie dal buon voler si Tinti, ■■* 

H che non pur non fatica patiranno* 

H Ria Ei diletto loro esser su pinti." 

I Allor fee' io, come color che vauao ■*> 

H con cosa in capo noci da lor caputa, 

H se non che i cenni alerai sospicar fanoo ; 

t^ per che k mano ad accertar s' aiuta, '3» 

^^^ e cerca e trova, e quel!' ofiìcio adempie 

^^^P che non ai può Tornir per la veduta ; 

K e coti le dica della destra scempie ^M 

^^^ trovai pur sei te letcere, che incìae 

^^H quel daJle chiavi a me sopra le tempie : 

^^^ a che guardando il mio duca sorrise. '3' 

H ij-i?- Satan (c/I Ziiàt X. iS}._Not only are tht 

H Eiainples of the vicen drawn alternately From «aei^ 

^H linci profilic history lilc-e chosc of the vìrtUVt ; bui, 

H witliiJD ceruin limits, ai Dr M»oTe hai pointed out, 

H the tvia 8i."ti of esainpie* on «eh terrace corrt^ipond 

m nameiinWy. Cu the fitti, third, fourth, ind oeTentb 

H teiraces, the «nrespondence le exact; an the letand 

K iad fifth it becamcs to, it we ilividc tbe «eoond art 

H into grgupa [disUnguithed, in the preienc Lnfiance, 

H by the three groupi of terKtne, beginiiiDg with Che 

H words FeJea, 0, and Mitrava— w. 15-60, and «umm^ 

H u; in a Goal ffrsriu— w. 61-65] t while on the tilth 

H there II apparently aa attempt at carrying out chedcKiga, 




Now were we mounting up by the sacr^ «tepi, TIi««ki 
and mcsetiiled I Was exceeding lighter, tliaa ^^ 
mcBPcmcd before on the :6at ; 

wherefore I ; " Maswr, say, what heaty thing 
h» been lifced from me, that acarcc' any toU 
IB perceived by me io journeying ? '* 

He answered : "When ihe P'b which bare re- 
cnainf^d still nearly extinguished on thy face, 
ahaJl, like the one^ be wholly rased out, 

xhy feet l'hall be so ?an(]uished by goodwill, 
that not Only will they feel it no toil, but il 
shall be a delight to them to be urged upward." 

TheQ did I, like those who go with soinechiflg 
on their head unknown to them, save that 
another's sign» make ihem suspect ; 

wherefore the hand lends its aid to make certain, 
and searches, and finds, and fulfils that office 
which cannot be furnished by the sights 

and wiih the fijigers of my right hand outsprMd, 
I found but six the letters, which he with the 
keya had cut upon me over the templei; 
whereat my Leader looking did smile. 

iS-JQ. Driary«S (for whom, see ìn/i iixL 98, mult) 

muac be leparatetE fr>oni the othtic giants. Th« paralldi 
are, Lucifer :; Briareus ; the Giants: Nltnrod. 

jtj-ji. Jupiter, Apollo (called. Thymlljrseus, from his 
temple at Thymt^ra in ihe Troad), Miner*» ind Man, 
haling defeated and iLain the giants, are gxzing upon 
their KAttered limbi, 

34-3'6. For Nimrftd, tee Inf, «nxi. 46-31, nulf. 

ji-jg. NSobc, the- wifeof Amphion, King of Thebei, 
wta.1 w proud gj her fourteen eSildr*Q that ihe offended 
Lataaa, who had onlf two — Apallo and Diana. Theie 
Utter, in rcBeo^ lAiot all the Fourteen with their 



arrow», and Nfobe h&rstlf waa changed by Jupiter ItiCd 
a stone ±:ta,tu«, lifeless rave for Lhe tear* ic «hied (let 
Oridj Mctam. YÌ. 146-311). 

40-42. Salili, Sifter hii defeat hj tfie PhiliitLnes at 
Mount Gillioa, ■■ rtwk a sword and fell ugian It" 
(i 5*11». Kixi. 1-4). Vtr»!» 41 refers to the wardi 
of I>aTÌd'£ lament on the death oi Saul; "Ye 
n^ountains of Gilhoa, let there be no dew, neither 
let thei'e bt rain, upon yoil, not Fieldift of offering! " 
(x Sam. i. il). 

44-45. Arachne of Lydia, having boarted of her 
skill in WL-aYing {ef, !^/. «vii. iSj, and challenged 
Mi:ner>ra to k Coltieat, vrdl KtcnVanWy changed by the 
goddeM into a spider for her presujnption (see Ovid, 
Metam. ri. 1-145), 

46-48. The ten rribea revolted a^insi Rehohoam, 
King of Ipraelf because he tefust'J to lighten thdr 
taxee. "Ttic-n King Rehoboam sextt Adoram, who 
wai over the tribute; andai! Uric\ «toned him w^ith 
■ton#s, that he died. Therefore King'Rehoboain made 
speed to get him up to hit chariot, cd Jiee to Jerusalem " 
(i Kia^i \ii. i-iS). 

4g-ji. See Far. \v. toj, 104, nnu. 

51-^4. Sennacherib, Kins' °^ Assyria-tWaj defeateil 
by Heiekiah, King of Judah, and aub»equentLy lUin by 
hie awn irong (z Kin^i six. 37}. 

55-57. Cyrui, founder of the Persian Empire 
(560-519 B.c)f treacherously murdered the ion of 
Toirtyfi*, the ScythiaR <ju.ecfi, whereupon he wai 
hlma'tdf defeated and «lain b; the outraged mother, 
She had hi» head cast into a Tediel filled with hl>Ood!, 

qnd Rcoffed at ic, laying: Satia te lanauSnt frnm /itìiti 


offui p*r amm tributa iiualMèilii fertevtratti (Orollui, 
a. 7, 8 6). Cf. Dt Jlfw, ii. 9 : 43-48. 

58-6o. When Hotofernei, one of Nebuchidneizsir's 
captains, wu bedeging Bethnlla, the Jewish widow 
Judith obtained acceu to hii tent and cut olT h(i head. 
Thia ihe had diaplared on the walls of the city ; where- 
apon the Assyrian host took to flight, purtued by the 
Jew» {Judith x-iut). 

61-63. Cf. Imf. i. 75 ; XXX. 15-15 ; see, too, Mn. Ul. 
3, 3 : Ceeiilitque sufertum Ilium, 

Si. It is therefore juu past nixiD. The conception 
of the hours as bandmaidens serving the day is repeated 
below, in Canto xxii. \\%. See the diagram on p. 47. 

S7. wmtttdima itiUa has been rendered "a star at 
mom," rather than "the morning ttar," because the 
tatter, being a planet, doe* not twinkle. 

loo-ios. The church of San Miniato commands 
Florence atroti the Rubaconte bridge \i.i. Miniato is 
not ahem the bridge]. — la tern guidata, as applied to 
Ploience, la, of course, ironlcaL 

105. See Par, XTÌ. j6 and loj, noia. 

xio. " Blessed are the poor In spirit ; for their'* it 
the kingdom of heaven " {AtaO. v. 3). Towards 
the end of Dante's sojourn on each terrace, he hear* one 
of the Beatitudes from the Sermon on the Mount. In 
«sch case, except the present, the angel of the re- 
spective circle i* specially named as uttering the 
words. It has therefore been *uggested that the angel 
la speaking here, too. But the word van constitutes a 
ooDsiderable difficulty, nor I* this difEcutty removed by 
a reference to the voti of Canto xxii. 5, 


TUB poeti monnt to the secoad ttltite ; af iitk 
rockr ten.antleM la far a.» the «ye cm itretcli, 
and withoat mark, or indication of any kind (1-9). 
Virgil apoicraphlses th« sun, and in luck of *aj coiinter 
itajoii, determinei to follow him from east to wwt 
(lo-Xi). ATtcr a time roiccl ring thfOUgth th^ tir 
in praiK of generoaltjr, the rirtue counter Co enrj ; 
and Virgil a.ntEcipat« the direct warning a^inst thit 
lice ere they leave this the clrd-e of ita puri ficai ion (tt' 
41). Me-anwhile th*y encoum^r the on» snTioui 
jpfriti, d]ipcalin^ with FilEI confidence to the Ufigrudg- 
Log loTc of Mary, of the angeli, and of the sainti. 
The en<rIoi]i eyes that oatx found fooil for bitter- 
neii in all «ighti of beauty and joy, muit ncnr in 
penance refrain from drinking' in the gladncsi of kx 
and sky and human ìùvrt, fot the lidj sre drawn 
together With neh a «uturc of wire as i« ilscd to tame 
the wildnesf of the untrained hawk ;. and their in^'ard 
darkneti U match»! by their lobcr raiment. They 
lean one againsr another in mutual love aad for 
cnurual Rupport, and uptttrn their ji^btleta counten- 
intei like the blind beggars that gather rownd chiireh 
pOTtzb (4]-yi). Dante is ihamed, a* though be Wttre 

sDfl II Noi erjTamo al aommo della scala, 
ove secondamente si riaega 
lo monte, che s&lendo altrui diainala. 

Ivi COBI um cornice lega * 

dintorno il poggio, come ìa primaia, 
K noa che V arco !uo piìl tosto piega. 

Ombra non gli è, né BCgDO che bì paia ; f 

par sì la ripa^ e par sì la vìa schietta 
col livido color ddla petraia. 


taking angvaeroat adnaU^ ot thoK whom he wei, 
but who camoQC know hit preaence; and, having 
gained Vicgjl'» Inre, addreoje» che louil» In wordt 
bF MMthing beauty and aipifatinn. lb amwer to 
hi» i^iiestiDn whether gay &f thciti are of Latianij 
$»pb the Si«i)<;j»r, t«lU chat the^ are all ciliztnft of 
one true citj ', but that ghe, amoug'iit otheri, had ilied 
in her earthly pilgrimage in l^iinm (73,^108), She 
telii the itary of her «vii jjoy at thf deWt of the 
S{ene*« hy the Florentine» at CoUe In ValJeli*, and 
atteri her thanki to lh« humble aai4it whoK pnjren 
have eecUT^ her admitsloa to expiatory «ulTcring 
earlier than the eli« appoiotetl time (109.119). In her 
turn SipU qaesdoni Dante as to hii Journey, — with 
open eyci a« ihe j.udgei, and with tiireath- formed 
»peeeh, — around thU Cifcle 5 and he aiijwers that 
he Cod »hall on-e day have hia eyei closed there, but 
not for long, aince he hat «inncd far \e»a Ehrough 
etify than through pridcftjo-ijS), He further reveal» 
to her the wonder of hig pilgrimage and recelTei her 
petition for hii own prayers, an4 her commJuion to 
bear newt of her to her kinsfotk HOioiig the lain sod 
light minded Sienete Ci39-i54> 

We were at the top of the stairway where a The 

secoiid time the muunt is cut away whichj by *■"*"■ 

our ascent, freei ub from evil. 
There a cornice bimis the hill arouad like unto 

the first, lave that its curve more sharply 

No ihade ia there, dot ligtiTe wliich Tiisy be Bt^en ; 

ao naked the bank appears «nd cvta so the way, 

with the lÌTid^ue of the stone. 




BInBBlI *'Se qui per domdndsr gecte b' aspetta," 
ragtonava il poFta, " io temo forse 
che troppK> avrà d' iodugio noatra eletta." 

Poi fisarnent'e' al sole glì occhi porae; 
fece del destro lato a! mover ceotrOi 
e la sin i atra parte di tò Iùtk. 

"O dolce Ijme, a cui Sdanza i' entro 
per lo nuovo cammin, tu ne conduci," 
dicca, "come condur si tuoI qulnc' eotro : 



tu Gcaldi il mondo, tu Bopr' esso luci i 
b' altra ragione in conirarto non pronta, 
eeser den sempre li tuoi raggi duci." 

Quanto di qua per un miglialo si conta, 
tanto di U eraram noi già iti, 
con poco tempo, per la yoglia pronta ; 

e Terso noi volar furon sentiTf, 
non pera vjad, Spiriti, parlando 
aJla mensa d' amor cortesi inrìti. 

La prima voce che passò voiando, 

" Vìnum rion haèfnt^' altamente dissCf 
e retro a noi I' andò reiterando. 

E prima che del tutto non b' udisse 3* 

per alluTigarM, un' altra : *' lo aono Oreste " 
passò gridando, ed anco non b' ailìs&e. 

*'0,'' dias' io, "padrCf che Toci son queste?" ^ 
e cam' io domandava, ecco la terza 
dicendo ; " Amate da cui male aveste." 

E '1 buon maestro : "Qcpstq cinghio sfèrza 
la colpa dell' ìnTÌdia, e però sono 
tratte da amor le corde della ferza. 

Lo fren vuol esser del contrario suono ; 
credo che r udirai, per mio avvÌEO^ 
prima che giunchi al passo d^ perdono. 



CANTO xrii 



•'If here we awaìc people to aak of,'^ the poet 
wai saying, " I fear perchance that our choice 
may have too great delay." 

Then fixediy on the sun his eyes he set ; he 
EDiiiie of his right side a centre of movemcDt, 
and the left part of him did turn. 

'*0 aweec light, in whoee tniat I enter on the 
ocw way, do thou lead ue," said he, *^a» we 
would be led here withio ; 

thou givest warmth to the worJd, thou thine&c 
upoD it ; if other re^aon urges not to the con- 
trary» thy bearne must ever be our guide,"' 

As far ai here counu for a mile, aa far there had 
we a!feady gone, in thatt time, by reason of 
our ready will ; 

and, flying towards ua were heard, but not aeen, 
«pirits, speaking courteous inrititions to the 
table of lore. 

The first voice which pasied by in its flight 

loudly said, " Prnum non haleni/' and went 

on repeating it iwfiind us. 
And tre it had whoUy passed out of hearing 

through diitaoce, another passed crying : " I 

am Orestes,'' aod ^Iso stayed not. 
•' O Father," satd I, " what voices arc these ? " 

and as I was asking, lo the third saying : 

"Lose them from whom ye have suffered evil." 
And tKc good Master : "ThÌH circle doth 

scourge the sin of envy, and therefore the 

cords of the whip are drawn from love. 
The bit must be of contrary sound ; I think thou 

wilt hear it, as I opine, ere thou reachest the 

Pass of Pardon. 



ut FratsT' 

Tbe Vlrgl 







GlRHiftll Ma ficcagli occhi per 1* aer ben liso, 
« vtdrai gente inaaDlt a tioi s^dcnìf 
e CÙbcuii è lungo la grotta assiso." 

Allora più che prinia gli occhi apersi ; 

guarda' mi innanzi, e Tidi ombre con manu 
aJ color della pietra non diversi. 

E poi che fummo un poco pò aranti, 
udì' gridar: "Maria, ora per noi,*' 
gridar " Michele, e Pietro, e tutti i SaotL" 

Non credo che per terra yada ancoi 
uomo SI duro, che noa foase punto 
per compasBÌOD di queJ eh' io vidi poi : 

che, quand' io fui sì presso di lor giunto 
che gli atti loro a me ycoÌt3.a certi, 
per gli occhi fai di grave dolor munto. 

Di Til cilicio mi parciin coperti, 

e F un sofTeria 1' altro con la spalla, 
e tutti dalla ripa eran Boffertì. 

Cosi li ckchi, a cui U roba falla, 

stanno ai perdoni a chieder lor bisogna, 
e 1' uno ti capo sopra 1' altro avvalla, 

perchè in altrui pi«tà tosto si pogna, 
non pur per Io sonar delle parolr, 
mi per la vista che non nienq agogna. 

E come agli orbi non approda ti «ole, 
così all' ombre, là *v io parlav' ora, 
luce del ciel di sé largir non 7uolei 

che a tutte un fil di ferro il ciglio fora, 
e cuce b1| come a sparvier selvaggio 
si fa, però che gueto non dimori:. 

A ra« pareva andafld& fare oUraggio, 
vergendo altrui, non essendo veduto: 
per eh' io mi volsi al mio cotiatgìio saggio. 










CANTO ziir 



But fix thìoe «yes through che air fati steadily, Ttae 

itìd thou thiit tee people sitting down in front *'"^''" 

of UB, and each one aJong the citff i» icated." 
Theo wider than before mine eyes I opened ; I 

looked before me, and «3.W ebade& with cloakg; 

not different from the hue of the stone. 
And after we were a little further forward, I 

heard a cry: "Mary, pray for us"; a cry: 

"Michael, and Peter, and all Saint».'' 
''I believe not that on earth there goeth this day 

a niafi so hardened] who were not pierced with 

compaaaioD st what I then saw ; 
for when I had leached so nigh to them that 

their Jv3.turet came diitinctly do mc, heavy 

grief wai wniog fi~om mine eyes. 
With coafBf haircloth they seemed to me covered, Their 

and one was mpponing the other with the P'"^^'^ 

shoulder, and all were supported by the hank. 
Etcd bo the blind, to whom means are lacking, 

sit at Pardons begging for their needs; and 

one sinks his head upon the other, 
■o that pity may quickly be awakened in others, 

Dot only by the Bouod of their words, but by 

their appearance which pleads not haa. 
And as to the blind the sun protits not, so to 

the shades there where I was now speaking, 

hcaTeo's light will not be bounteous of itself; 
fbf all their eyelids an iron wire pierce» and 

itjtches up, even as is dune to a wild hawk 

because it abideth not hUI. 
I seemed to do them wrong as I went my way 

MCing othere, not being aeen i wherefore I 
tnraed me w my wJK Coiinse], 








Glro'iu I Ben laper' ei^ che volca dir !o muco ; 
e però non attese mia doinanda, 
ma disge ; " Fgrla, e !Ì3 fereve ed arguto." 

VirgUw mi venia da quella banda 
deJEa corni ce, onde cader sì puote, 
perchè da nulJa sponda s' inghirlanda; 

dall' altra parte m' eran le derote 
ombre, che per I' orribile costura 
premeTan HÌ che bagogvan le gotc- 

Volsimi a loro, ed; "O gente sicura,'* 
incominciai, '*di veder 1' alto lume, 
che il disio vostro aoto ha in sua cura ; 

■e tosto grazia reaolra le sc!iiiiin« 
dì Toatra coscienza, ai che chiaro 
per egaa scenda della mente il fiume, 

diiemì, che mi Jia grazioao e caro, 
11' anima è qui tra voi che aia latina ; 
e foree a lei sarà buon, a' io I' appro." 

" frate mio, ciasciìiia è cittadina 
d' una vera città; ma tu vuol dire, 
che vivesse in Italia peregrina." 

Questo mi parve per Hspoata udire 9t 

più tnaaDzi alquanto, che là dov' io stava ; 
ond' io mi feci ancor piì) là sentire:. 

Tra 1' altre vidi un' ombra che aspettava **" 

in vista ; e, se volesae alcun dir ; " Come ì '* 
lo meDto, a guisa d' orbo, in &ii levava, 

" Spirto," dia»' io, '*che per saJir ti dome, 
8e tu ee' quelli che mi riapondeili, 
fammiti corno o per loco o per nome." 

*' I' fui Saneae/' rispoae^ **e con questi 
altri rimondo qui la vita ria» 
/agriiììando a Colui cWe aè ne presti. 






T^]ì ÌLDtw he what che dumb would lay, and Tb« 
therefore awaited not ray qjeatiantng, but uid: **'"•'** 
Speak and be brief and lo the point," 
I Virgil wai coming with mc on that «idc of the 
Cornice whence one m^y fall becAuse il ii 
surrouiuled by no parapet ; 
OD the other side of me were ihc deyoui ihadet, 
who, through the horrible fieam, were pre-ssiag 
forth tears »o that they bathed their cheekt. 
|I turned me to them and began; "O people D«nte 
aHBufed of seeing the Li^ht above, which alone Jrf^h^B,) 
yosir deaire hath ip its c^re; 
I» may grace (juicWy cle^r away the iCum of your 
coQBcience, that the Btream of memory may 
de&cend clearly through it, 
teU me (for to me 'tvili be gracious and dear) if 
any soul be atnong you thiit is Italian, and per- 
chance it will be good for him if I Icnow of il." 
"O brother mine, each OQC is a citizen of a true 
city ; but ihou wouldeac lay, that lived a pilgrim 
in Italy." 
, This meaeemed to hear for answer somewhat 
farther oq than there where I waa; whcre- 
fare I made tne heard yet more that way. 
i Among the others I saw a «hade thait was e?c- S>.pla 
pectant in look, and if one woald ask, *'how 
■o?" itH chin it lifted up after the manner 
of the bli nd. 
I " Spirit," said 1, "that dost subdue thee to mount 
Bp; if thou art that one who answered me, make 
thyself known to me by place or by naoie." 
\vax a Sienese," it answered, "and with thete 
thers here do cleanse my ainful life, weeping 
voto Him that he lend himself to us. 



Wnat II Savia dod fili, avvegaa che Sapia 

foBii chiamata^ e (ìli degli aJtrui danni 
pio lietA aapai, che di ventura mìa. 

E perchè tu dod credi eh' io t' itigaiiDi, 
odi se fui^ com' io ti dico, folle. 
Già discendendo ]' arco de' mìei anni, 

tran li cittadin miei presso a Colle 
in campo giunti coi loro avversarìr 
ed io pregai Iddio di i^uel eh' ei yoUe. 

Rotti fur quivi, e void negli amari 
pasaì di fuga, e vcggendo la caccia, 
ìeuzia presi a tutte altre dispari i 

tasto eh' io Tolisi io aa T ardita faccia, 
gridando a r>io : ' Ornai più non tì tema 
come fa il merlo per poca bonaccia. 

Pace Yolli con Dio iu su. lo stremo 
deJla mia vita ; ed ancor non sarebbe 
lo mio dover per pniterza scemo, 

te ciò fion fosse che a memoria m' ebbe 
Pier PetEÌnagno in sue sante orazioni, 
a cui di me per cariiate increbbe. 

Ma tu chi 8e', che nostre coDdiziùni 

vai domandando^ e porti gli occhi sciolti, 
sì come io credo, e spirando ragiooi ? " 

" Gli occhi," diss' io, '" mi Geno ancor cjm 
ma pìcciol tempo, che poca è 1' offesa 
fatta per esser con invìdia volti. 

Tropp è più la, paura, ond' è sospesa 
r anima mia, del tormento di sotto, 
che già lo incarco di laggiù mi pesa." 

Kd ella a me : ** Chi t' ha dunque condotti 
quassù tra noi, 56 giù ritornar credi ? " 
Ed io : '* Costui eh' è mtco, e non ia m 

CANTO Itili 




SapicDt was I DOC aibck Sìptì 1 W34 aamed, Th« 
and o£ otherfi* hurt I was far more glad cbao " '*°' 
of min* own good fortune, '■'^* 

And that ihou inay»t noe think 1 deccire thee, 
hear if I was mad as I tell thee. Already 
when the arc of my yea» was descending, 

mf townsnlca, hard by Colic, were jolaed in 
batile with their foeB, and I prayed God for 
that which he bad wiiled. 

There were they routed, and rolled back in the 

bitter flteps of flight, and seeing the chase I ^ 
took joy exceeding all other; ■ 

•o much, that 1 lifted up my iuipudeot face, 
crying to God : ' Now I fear thee no more,' 
aa the blackbird doth For a little fair weather. 

I would hare peace with God on the brink of 
my life ; and my debt were not yet reduced by 

had it not been that Peter the Combaeller re- 
membered me ia his holy prayers, who in hit 
charity did grieve fur me. fl 

But who art thou that goest asking of our state, " 

and beared thine eyea unsewn, as I beìicTe, 
and breathing dost speak ? " 

"Mine eyea," said I, "from mc here shall yet Di.nt*'i 
be taken ; but for «hort time, for small ia the '^^"^ 
oifencc they did through being turned in euvy. 

Greater far is the fear wherewith my aoul ia 
fluipended, of the tornient below, for even 
now the burden down there weighs upon me." 
And she to me : " Who then hath led thee up 
here among us, if thou thimkeat to return 
below?" And I: "He who is with me 
and nith no word ; 






GìKiiwli e VITO soao : e perà mi richiedi, 

spirìln eletta, se tu vuoi cbi' Io mova 
di là per te ancor Ji mortai piedi," 

" Oh questa è ad udir sì cosa nuova," 

rispose, "che gran segno è che UÌd t* ami 
però Col frego tuo talor mi giova. ^^ 

E chieggioti per quel che tu più brami, ^B 
se mai etichi la terra di Toscana, 
che a' iniei propinqui tu ben mi nol^Tni. 

Tu li cedrai tra qudla geate vana 
che Bpera in Talamone^ e perderagli 
più di speranza che a trovar U Diana ; 

ma più vi perderanno gli animiragli." 

IX, The exprcission "io far ac here counti fo: 
miìe" ("that ìb to say, "if yon think of walking i m 
yi>U will g&t t!ie right impreisian "% Ì!< an indjcst 
which should he carefully noted, that we must 
«xpecc to he able to arri it at any coniisrent repreier 
Ùon by txact matLei-cif-racC in«'a«ur«!nii.*ntt in Hitrll ■ 
Purgatory. Dance wa.s well a-cquainCed with 
approiimace size of the tafth (Cani: iii. 5 : loo-i 
■ nd elsewhefc), and «tinot represent himKlf, 
example, as luTing literally dimbe-d from the- centn 
th-e cirfumference in s-omethin^ iind^ 14 hoi 
He 14 cautent to avoid all glaring' errore of princi; 
and to tnafce the WTcral scenes realisable (if. Inf. x' 

86, 87, B«!f.) 

Xi-34. At tht ma!tÌ3.g(^ in Cana. '' And wItqii tl 
uanted wine, the mother of Jeiui said unCo hica, Tl 
hare no wine" {Jshn ti. 3), 

ji, 3]. Orettea, the son of Agamemnon, rejiow. 
For hi* M^nJship with Pflades, Wh«n Otrettet ' 
condemned to i^eath, PyUdei wished to take hit pi; 
saving that he w3» Orestea. Cicero aUudea to thit 

cidetit in a passage of the lit Jfmitìtia f^ 7), whtcb ' 

cert^iiuJy known to JJante. 

SS' S^ "But I say unto jroii, Loie yoQr enen 

and I am living, and therefore do thou ask of The 
me, apirit elect, if thou wouldit that yonder I ^^'"^' 
lift yet for thee my mortal feet" *■"'* 

" Oh xhn il IO new a thing to hear," the answered, 
"that 'ti& a great token that God loveth 
thee J therefore profit me sometimei with thy 

And I beseech thee by atl thou most deaireit, if 
c*er thou tread tJic land of Tuscany, that thou 
restore my fame among my kinsfolk. 

Thou wilt see them amoog thai raiia people who 
put their trust in Talsimonc, and will lose 
there more hopei than In finding the Diana; 
but the admirals shall lose most there-" 

bt»i them that cune jrou, ^o gq^od to them that hate 
you, mnd pray for them wliich deapiCefulLy uie fou, a.tidl 
ptrsceutt you " (Malt, v, 44). 

3J-41. Th* en-ample* of cjiarjcy ire the ^'-wtiip," 
thcesampin of cut y, the ^'bk" ff/, bekw. Canto ni», 
14.3-147J; and for the "Pati ol Pardan" (of wliich 
there is, of coiir»c, one on each terncej, t^, iq Uie 
preienC caae, Ciuito iv. jj^ j6. 

51, ji. The Lhan; i>r the Sain», in which, after thfr 
Trinity, an? in»oked the Virgin Mary, ttif archangel 
Michael with the other angels, St Peter with the other 
iposde», and finally the other <aint«. 

lOO 'vf- Sapii, a noble lady -of Siena, th« wifi^ df 
Viriano del SarRfini., lord of Casti gli An cello. She tviu 
filled with eavy oi her fellow-eLiìzetui, and rejoiced at 
iheif dcrcat uflderProfitojan Salvaniat Colle{»ccaboTej, 
Canto xi. lo^-ijS, *tU)- In [i$J ihe a«siited her 
husband In founding' a ho«pice for wayfaren, ajkcl after 
Eli» d^th (^itèq") the made a grant of hi» cantile to the 
Ecmmune of Siena. These acta of generoniiy nipply a 
gtau to ««. is.|>, is; ;. and the latter of the two alto 
pn>rei that the ihutt have bÉC&mc TiM:oaci|e<j to the 
Sieneae ihordy after their rout ( 1 26^). 

loS. Cy. Ptr. 1, 11. 

1 62 NOTES 

114. Cf. Inf. i. 1, m>lr, 

111-1*3'' According to a jiopular lEslliin Eradidan 
and proTccb, the btackbtrd, a[ (he cLose of Janaaiy, 
criei out : " 1 fear chw no more, O Lord, now that the 

winter is bchijid fnt." Sapta meant tu iinpl} thai, biiw 
she had ohtainH the di^arcst wi»h of her heart, «he had 
no more nwd or fear of God. 

117- 129. Ptcr, a. natJic of Chiami, wa.3 & Franciicai) 
who had settled at Siena, where he died in 11S9. He 
was renowned for hU piety, and long venerated as a 
lainC, hh leiltTal being oH^cjaUf tetnginited in ])t8 

I3J-I3E. Seartaizini, ever an)i[inui to whitewash his 

hero, IPg^niouslf quotei Piaim iixiii. J, to acirount 

for Dante'» )elf-aci:ij»tÌon of en»y: " Fori waa ea^ious 
at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the 
wicked."— With regard Co cur pO«l*> pride, hii life 
and worki afTord ampl« proof thereof. ViiUnl, amon^ 



oihen, sayi ai hlin {ìx, 136): "On account af héi 
leMning, lie was Mmewhat prtdtufflptuoui, Ind harsb, 
ud diedainful." 

iSi-tS4. Siena itili preserve» two <iaciimenti, dated 
1195 and 1303 rsspwtiveljr; the fomner of which vvhrt 
to a teKolutioD to i«arch for the stream of Diana, wliich 
wa9 nippoe^d to flow beneath che ctry; and |h« latter, 
W the piirchiie (for Sooo gold florjiii, iram the Abbot 
of San SaKatore) of the jmall port of TaUmonc (on 
the 'Tyirhcman Sea, S.W, of the Sich-cic Marcinma), 
«rfaich wnuLd have been a. ukÌuL outlet to the mo, if 
only the creek <:fluld have been kept clear of nnà and 
mud. Both prnjcCls bil«l (at aiiy nte in Dante's 
time) ; and in the latter enterprise a nuinber of 
admirÀli [prrhapB=contra:^tors, as lumc early com.- 
meiltat^jri thìnt], i)irL>ctiigg thr dredging- op*ratioin, 
Imi their liret (v. ij4j>owin^ to the tinhealthinest of 
the pia». 


A& Zzante canTencJ vritìt Sapìa,, reT«aliii^ 
tvop^rCDi eondicions of hii -own pllgtij 
■nd the Diystenou» presane» of hii guìile, he i< 
heard by tw^? spirit* wltP arc leaning for lupf 
against another ac hli Hg'ht. Neareet to him U G 
del Duca of Btrtinoro, wha I» the chief apeakcr, 
other being Rinieri rfa Calboli of FotIì. They 
chiefly to each Other, but draw Doatc into tli«£ 
TETsatLon, qufitioning him &■ to his orig'ìri j ■.D-d 
he indicate! by a cimmlocution that hi» birti 
lies upon the Arno, Rlnierì oj^ka Guido why 
conceala the name undei ^ark hints ae^ though ii 
a Bhameliil thing ; whereoa Guido approrea of Q 
ihrinlcmg h^ra esipres&iy naming thi^ acciii-ie4 
which rise) in the m4,H. ot brutL^hncii, and 
iwirU throdgh tieeper pooh, tìnit ever fiercer or 

Gitimi lì " Chi è ccvstui che il nostro monte cerchiai 
prima che mone gli abbia dato iJ volo, 
ed apre gli occhi a sua Toglia e coperchìi 

" Non so chi sta ; ma so eh* ei non è uAo 
domiodal tu che più gli t' avvicini, 
e dalcemeate, sì che parli, acco* lo." 

Così due «pirli, 1' uno all' altro chini, 
ragionaran di me ivi a man dritta, 
poi fer li risi, per dirmt^ supini ; 

e diese 1' uqo : " O animai che fìtta 
nel corpo ancc^ra, in ver Io ciel teo vai^ 
per carità ne conaola, e tie ditta 

onde vieni, e chi aei ; che tu ne hi 
tanto maravigliar d^Ua tua grazja, 
quamo tuo! cosa che Don fu piò mai," 


igiuded neEghbpTira, till it raache* the crowning in- 

my of Ptaa (t-54)> There loilcwe a predicrion of 

woei frhich Rinieri'i relative Fulcierì ihall wivak 

Florence in ijoj (SJ-?*)- Decpljr iiirred by ihelr 

fUTKi patite qiMrotions th« ipirÌLi at t« thcir own 

I xnd Quido accàoipiaiM hli aniwer by a laBictit&- 

OTcr ihr degenencT of the RanikndkU from which 

f both spring; and implDcvi Dante- io pan npon 

way ini leatc him to weep iindiiiurbed (7yit6), 

,nà that th«y are pursuing ihe right way, linee 

gcacianty ol theie >once eavioag «ouli would cIk 

notiÉcd ihem ftf th«lr miitafce, the two poet» 

e their way, at th« warning «O'icei igiimt «nry, 

kipated by ViFgil, ring in their car»; to which Vkgll 

id» hn nd reflectionri on the thingi which humui 

jce rcUnqolihei ajid the things It ^nupi( 137-151). 



Guida del 
Duca uid 


ho a this that circles our mount ere d?ath 
ve given him jlight, and opens and ihuts his 
taathis wilt?" 

know not who he may be, but I know that RfnJerida 
U not alone; do thou que&tion him who 
Wt nearer to him, and geatly greet him that 
he may speak." 
'hua two spìnt^T one leaning againit the other, 
were discoureing of mc there on the right 
hand ; then held up their faces to apeak to me ; 
nd one said: *'0 soul, that fixed yet in thy 
body doit journey towards heaveii, for chanty 
conutc ue^ and tell us 
rhedce thou comest, aod who thou art ; for 
diou dost make us marvet sa greatly at thy 
grace, ai needs must a thing that never was." 




fUtmt II Ed io : ''Per mezza Toscana si «pazia. 

un fiLmicp] che nasce id Fa.]t:croQa} 
e cento miglia di corso doI tsizia. 

Di sopir' esso rech' io questa persona ; 
dirvi eh' io sia» earìa parlare indarno, 
che il dome mio ancor molto con suoca." 

** Se bea lo inteodimenEo tuo accarao 
con la innelletta/* allora mi rispose 
quei che prima dicca,, "tu parli d' Arco." 

E l'altro disse a lui : " Perchè naicose 
educati il TOCabol cti quella riviera, 
pur com' uom fa dell' orribili cose ? "■ 

E I' ombra, che di ciò domandata era» 
ti fidcbìtò così: ''Nod ao, ma degno 
ben è che il oome di ul ralEe pera ; 

che dal principio suo, dov' è »1 pregno 
1' alpenro monte, ond' è tronco Pelerò, 
che la pochi lochi pausa oltra quel segno, 

iofin là 've li rende per rietoro 

di quel che il ciel della marina asciuga, 
ond' hanno i Humi ciò che va con loro, 

Tirtù coal per nimica ai fuga 

da tutti, come biscia, o per STentura 
del loco o pei mal uso che li fruga: 

ond* hanno sì mutata lor natura 
gli abiutor della misera ralle, 
che par che Circe gli aveaw io pastura. 

Tra brutti porci, pili degni di galle 
che d' altro Cibo fatto in uman ubo, 
dirizza prima Ìl suo posero calle^ 

Botoli trova poi. Tenendo gìuBO, 
ringhiosi più che aon chiede lor possa, 
ed a lor, disdegnosaj torce il muso. 












And I ; "Through the midat of Tusciny there Th* 

spreada a «ream which rÌBea id Faherona and '" *'™' 

a course of a huodried mileB latiatcE it not. *■* Amq 

From ita banks I bnog this body j to teSl you 

who I may be were co speak in Tiioj for my 

name Ha yet dounds act for mLch." 
" If I pen^tiate trufy thy meaning with my 

understandingj" then answered me he who 

first ipakCf "thou art talUag of the Arno**' 
And the other aaid to him: *'Why did he 

conceal the name of that river, even ax one 

does of horrìblÉ things Ì ** 
And the shade who was aeked this (question, Ita v*It«T 

acquitted him thua; " I know not, but TcriJy 

'ti« meet that the oame of such a rale perish ; 
fbrfrom its beginning (where the rugged mountaio- 

chain, whence Pclorui is cut off, i» $o fruitful 

that in few places it exceed» that mark) 
at far as there where it yields itself to restore 

that which the sky soaks up from the lea, 

whence rivera bave that which flows with them,, 
irirtue IB driven forth as an enemy by all, even 

IS a «nakc, cither because of the jll-favourcd 

place or of evil habit which incites them ; 
wherefore the dwellere in the wretched tale hare and tboM 

H changed their nature that it aeems ai iftbw-ein' 

Circe had them in her pasturing. 
Among filthy hogSj more worthy of acorns than The 

of other food made for use of man, Et first '-*"*'^'™ 

directs its feeble course. 
rheD, coming downward it finds curs snarling the 

more thao their power warrants, and from them *■"'='"•• 

scomfally turns aaide ita anout. 



'paa 11 Va.6iÀ cideada, e, <]uanto elk pia Logrossa, 
tanto più troTa di can far^i lupi 
la maledetta e STenturata fo«fta. 

Discesa poi per più pelaghi cupi, 
trova le volpi, sì piene di froda 
che non cernono ìogegDO che le occupi. 

Nà lascerò di dir, perch' altri m' oda ; 
e buon sarà a costui, se ancor s' animenta 
di ciò, che KTO Bfrirto mi disnoda.. 

Io veggio tuo nipote, che diventa 
cacciator di quei lupti in su la riTa 
del fiero fiume, e tutti gli sgomenta. 

Vende la carne loro, essendo viva ; 
poscia gli ancide come antica heira ; 
molti dì vita, e sé di pregio priva. 

Sanguinoso esce deSla trista selva ; 
kscìala taJ, che di qui a mìlt' anni 
Qello stato primaro non si rin&elva." 

Come all' annunzio de' dogliosi da^nui 
«i turba il viso di colui che ascolu, 
da qualche parte il periglio lo aisanai : 

coaì vid' io r altr' anima, che volta 
stava ad udir, eurba.rsi é farsi trista, 
poi eh' eU>e la parola a sé raccolta. 

Lo dir dell' una, e dell' altra la vista 
mi fc' Voglioso di saper lor nomi, 
e domanda ne fei con pieghi mista : 

Twr che lo spino, che di pria parlami, 
ncomincià: " Tu vuoi eh' io mi deduca 
nel fare a te ciò, che tu far non vuo' mi ; 

ma da che Dio in te vuol che traluca 
tatìU sua grazia, non ti sarò «carao : 
però sappi eh' io son Guido del DuC3- 



On it goes in i» detcent, nùà, the greater its ThA 

ÌQcreaK,the more ÌE finds the dogs growing to «'"'*'™* 

WoItcS, thJ! accurst and ill-fated ditch- Floreati» 

Having thcD descended throughmanydeep gorge*, wid iba 

it findj the foxts, to fuli of fraud that they tear "" 

DO wit that iaa.j tap tbem. 
Nor will I ceaee epeaking, for all that another 

may hear ice ; aod it wi!l be well for him if 

hr mind him again of what true prophecy 

unfolds to me. 
I SfC thy gnandjoa, who is becoming; 4 huQKi of FnldMi 

tho»e wofvcj on the hank of the fierce river, " ^ 

and fltrilces them all with terror. 
He sella their flesh while yet alive 5 then ilaughlera 

theni Hke worn-oiit cattle: many he deprivea 

of life and himself of honour. 
He Cometh forth bloody from the sad wood 5 

he learcs it luch, that hence a thousaod yean 

it re-woods not itaeEf to its primal state." 
A« at the announccmeot of grievous ilia the face 

of him who liat&ni h troubied^ from whatever 

side the peril may assault him;^ 
90 saw I the other soul, that had turned round 

Co hear, grow troubled and sad, aiter it had 

gathered these words to itaelf. 
The speech of the one and the other's coiinte- 

naoce made me long to know their names, and 

question I made of them mingled with prayer»: 
wherefore the spirit that firat spake to me, beg^a 

again : " Thou wouldst that I condesceod in 

doiTig that for thee which thou wihnotdo for me ; 
but since God wills that so much of his gtaCe 

shine forth in thee, I will not be chary with 

thee ; therefore know that I am Gatdo del Duca. 




raioni li Fu il sangue mio d' iaridìa t'i riarso, 
che. He Teduio avt^sai uom farsi lìeUr, 
viaco rn' avresti di livore aparsc- 

Dì mU BenienCe COUl paglis mieto, 
O gente umaDH, perchè poni il core 
là '7'' è megiier di comaorto divieto ? 

Questi è Rinier, quest' è il predio e I' osare 
della casa da Calboli, ove nullo 
fatco *' è crede poi def suo valore- 

E Qon pur lo suo sangue è facto brullo, 
tra il Po e il monte e la marina e il R^do, 
del bcQ richiesto al vero ed al trastullo ; 

che destro a questi termiri è ripieno 
di venenofti sterpi, si che cardi 
per cohivarc ornai verrebber meno. 

Ov' è il buon Lizio ed Arrigo Mainardi, 
Pier Traversaro e Guido di Carpiona ? 
O Romagnoli tornati in bastardi J 

Quando ld Bologna uà Fabbro si raUigna ? 
quando in Faeoza ud Beroardin di Fosco, 
▼erga gentil di picciola gramigna? 

NoD ti maraviglia;r, i' io piango, Tosco, 
quando rimembro con Guido da Prsta 
Ugolin d' Azzo che vivctte nosco, 

Federico Tignoso e sua brigata, 
la casa Traversara e gli Anastagi 
(e r una gente e 1' altra è dirccata], 

le do&nfi e i CaValier, gli scanni e gli agì 
che ne invogliala amore e corteaia, 
la dove i cor bod fatti sì malvagi. 

O Brettiooro, che noa fuggi via, 
poiché gita le n' è la tua famìglia» 
e molta gente per dOo esser ria! 

CANTO XrV 171 

My blood W34 so inflamed with envy, that if I Tlie 

had Been a man make him glad, thou wouldw *°* ™* 

have seen me suffused with liridneei. 
Of my flowing Buch amw I reap. O humif 

folk, why aet the heart there where eKclusioD 

of pactoerGhip is DeccB&ary? 
This is Rinier ; thia is the glory and the honour 

of the House of Calholi, wh«r? aoQe cince 

hath made himself heir of hia worth. 
And not only hia Mood be(w«o the Po and the 

mounCaias, and the seaaliore and the Reno, i& 

•tripped of the good required of truth aitd 

for inside these boundartes ia choked with Invectiir* 

poijonouB growths, lo that tardily now would rStS^tm 

they ht rooted out by cultiTatLon. 
Where ifi the good Lizio, and Arrigo Mainardi^ 

Pier Traversaro aad Guido di C^rpigaa ? O 

ye R-omagnol* turned to bastards ! 
WhcQ ia Bologoa ahall a. Fabbro take root again ì 

whea ia Fatùts. a Bernardin dì Fosco, noble 

Hcioo of a lowly pianta 
MsTFel thou not, TuBcan, if I weep, when I re- 
member with Guido da Prata, UgoJiii d' Azzo 

who lived among U8, 
Federico Tignoso a^nd hi» fellowship, the House 

of Traversaro, and the ActaAtagi (the one 

race and the other now without Keirsj^ 
the ladies and the knights, the toils and the 

Sporta of which love and courtesy enamoured 

UB, there where heariB are grown eo wicked. 
O Breitinoro, why dost thou not flee away, since 

thy household ta gone forth, and much people 

ia order not to be guJEty Ì 

lacavalt che non nhgJia, 
e mal fa Caatrocaro, e peggio Coaio, 
che di figliar lai canti più s' impiglia ; 

1)^ faranno ì Pagan, dacché il demoTììo 
lt>r Ben giràj ma tiOu però che puro 
giammai rimanga d' e«si testimonio. 

O Ugolìn de' Fantalin, sicuro 

è il QOTne tuo, da che piìl non s' aspetta. 
chi far Jo poasa tralignando oscuro. 

Ma va TÌa^ Toscoj ornai, eh' or mi diletta 
troppo dì pianger piìl che di parlar?, 
si m ha nostra ragion ia menre sirecta/' 

Noi Bspcvam che queir anime care 
ci «entlrano andar; però tacendo 
faccvan noi del cammio conUdarCb 

Poi fummo faui soli procedr^ndo, 
fùlgote parve, quàfldo V aer Ecnde, 
Toee che giun&e d* incontra, dicendo : 

'' Aociderammì qualunque m' 3{>preDde " ; 
e fTuggl, cometuoD che si dilegua, 
le subito la nuvola scoscende- 

Come ài lei 1' udir nostro ebbe tregua, 
ed ecco 1' altra con 3] gran fracasso, 
che BomigHò tuonar che tosto segua ; 

" Io SODO Aglauro che divenni sasao " ; 
ed allor per rìatriugcrmi ai poeta^ 
indietro fcei e non innanzi il passo. 

Già era l' lura d' ogni pane queta, 

ed ei mi disse : " Quel fu il duro camo, 
che dovrìa 1' uom tener deDitro a «uà meta. 

Ma VOI prendete V eSCì s'i che I' amo 
dell' antico avversario a né vi tira ; 
e però poco vai (reno richiamo. 







Well doth Bagnacaval that bearicth no mort Barn, 

aad ili doth CastroCaro, and Conio worse, that 
yet troubleth to beget such Count» ; ^ 

the Pagani will do well when their Demoa s6iR 

goawa^; but oat indeed that ixnaullied witness 
may erer remain of them- 
O Ugolin de' Fanfollin ihy Dame is safe, 

unce no more expcctatioo ia there of odc who 

may biackeD it by degenerating. 
But now go thy way. Tuscan, for now it delightt 

me far more to weep than to talk, so hath our 

diflcourec wrung my spirit." 
We kaew that thoie dear wuls heard ub going ; 

therefore by their silence they made ub con- 

fideoc of the way. 
After we Were left alone JDunieying on, a voice, 

that peemed like lightning when it eleares the 

air, emote against us, sayiDg: 
*• Everyone that findeth me shall slay me " j and 

fled like a thunderclap which peals away if 

fuddeuly the cloud burets. 
WheQ from it our hearing had truce, lo the AsrLaun» 

secocd, with such loud crash chat 'twas like 

thunder that follows quickly: 
"1 am Aglauros who was turned to atone" 

and then to press me dost' to the Poet, I made 

a step hack, and not forward. 
Now waB the air quiet on every aide, and he 

said to me: "That wa« the hard bit which 

ought to hold man within his bounds. 
But ye take the bait, so thai the old adveruary's 

hook drswg yo^ to him, and therefore little 

arailfl bridle or lure. 


of «OTT— 



,11 Chiamari il cielo, e iatorno ri u gira, 
moBtmndovi le sue bellezze eterne, 
e r occhio Tostro pure a. terra mira; 
mde ii batte chi tutto ducerne." 

I jfj. Thcicwdrdi are tpoken by Guliìo del Duci 
(who lieari the' brunt of che npeakìrg throughout the 
tanta) and Rinicr ija Cilboli (whc* doei most of 
UateningJ, mpèCilvily, 

GuiiJo ad Duca^ a Ghibelline of Bertinoro, belonged 
to the Onesti famUy of Ravenna (other memben of 
■which were Pietro and Romiialdo; jce Par. ixi. and 
xxiiji- In 1 199 he was judge Co the Podestà of Rlmirti. 
For fviit (frami izqi* or even cacUer) he wai an 
adherenc of the Ghibelline leader, Pier Traversaro (v, 
gi), In IllS, Pier, aided! prittdpaLly bj (he Mainardi 
(v. 97) of Seriinoro, obcained ihe chief power at 
R.a.venna, and drove out Che Guelfs; whereupi>n the 
latter attacked Bi'Ttinoro, dettroyed the hauie* of th4 
M^nardJ, and expelled Pier's adherents. Among 
chcAi? was Guido, wli& followed his chief to Itavenna, 
and the kit pfeserred ftcertd of whom ia s deed li^nvd 
by him in that city In iii-g. 

Riuier, belonging Co the Guelf family of da CalboU, 
of Forlì, was Podestà of Faenta( 114,7), of Parma ('*S*J 
and of Ravenna (1^6; ; and again to 1141). In 1176 he 
attacked Porli (assisted by other GueCls^ among them 
Lizio da Valbona ^ v. 97) ; but the force had to retire 
to Rinier'j eait]« of Calboli (in che valUf of MontcAO- 
where they surrendered to Guido of Moniefdtro, the 
Captain of Forlì, who destroyed the atronghold. When 
Rinier ira* re-eleCtcd Pode^sti of Fiiienz.a. in Iiot., the 
captain of the city was Mainardo Pagana (v. iiS). 
The citizens, lupp-orted by chdr leadt^r», opposed a 
tax Uvit^à iJSI thsjn by thfr Count of Romagii*. The 
ex]]edition agaiast hioi and the Ghibtilinea on his 
side {induding Che Count of Castrocaro, v. 116J waa 
entirely tucceiafiil. Id 1 194 thi« da CaJl>olÌ, lArho were 
becoming too powerful in Forlì, were ejLpelled by the 
G/tibellijiei; hnt they returned, together with other 
fxilcd Guelfi, in ii'jfi, vjImd the Wit of their eneiniei , 






The heaven» cai! Co you^ and cirde around ^ou, Tbe 
diaplaying uiito you thcir eteinal spleodourB, ™^'" 
and your eye gazea onJy to earth j, wherefore 
be who diaceroB all chinga d&th buffet you." 

wi$re >bient on an cuptditiCiti against Bplagtia. 
Shordy afterwardi, lioweTer, die Guelfi were again 
routed and expelled by ttte GhibiiUinei, led among 
nthen bj one of thv Orà^iktR. On thU Occasion the 
aged Rinier wa« «lain. 

Goido's invecdre agaiiut Ramiig'Da (yv, 91-1x3 of 
the present cantoj ihould be compared with In/, xavii, 

16, lS and 31-36. Palterona ii a suminit oftheTuecaa 
ApcnnincB ( N.E. of Florence), where the Arno ha» iti 
twrce. Pregna. » appli<N3 to Falterona, may refer 
etdier tu the riven, or to the Mcondary moujicain 
chains, springing from it; taken In conjunction with 
V. j3, the Latter il, geogfaphically, the chore cotreci 
interpretali on, Peloro (the modern Cape Faro; ^ 
Par- viii. 68} is at the N.E, extrfmlt}" of Sicily, lieing 
««pirated from the end of the Apeimincj only by the 
Stmit of Mcaama ; gU'ologJcaUy, the Sicilian muuntaiM 
are, of course, only a continual ioti of th« Apennrne«, — 
After a coUr^'C of aboiK i jo tnilce, the Amo flovri int? 
th,e Mcditerranmn -Sea ^M^n /i, V, 54^35 far as the sea: 
for the Tupouri eshaled by the sea through the heat of 
ihe (UH cime duviTi again a* rain, «well the risers and 
■re thun eventvaliy restored to the sea — w. J4-36). 

J7>J4. Dante conceives the inhabicanti 0/ the Val 
d'Arno to have b«en, as it w(!r>e, traosformed jiita 
beuu by the enehantresi Circe, who was endowed witin 
this power. Thui the people of Cancntino (nee above, 
Cthto' y. 8j-t t9, uple) have become hogs, the Aretine* 
— cur», (he Florentines — wolves, and the Pisani — foKei. 

5l-f6. Rinier's grandjon, Fulcteri da Calboli, wai 
P^idesti of various, cities — ^Milan, Panqa °a.aA Mcid^nj, 
Wt il chiefly siozoTÌaui for his tenure of that ollice at 
Flotenre (1303), whtre he proved hi in self a bitter fcK 
of the Whites and Ghibeliloti (see Villani, viii. 'Jg'V"" 
(■^(v. 6n)=yioTeoee f ^f. Inf. 1. 1, naif. 



36, S7. See Che following canto^ w. 44-Si. 

91-1I3. The pcDpLe mcnliDncd in these Jind 
all Snhabkanci of the Romagna (ttie iJmitR of 1 
arc dcGiml in v. >gi, U [he Po an.d iht t\pen.n\at 
Ailiiacic and the Renv ; for the latter tf. Jn/. xvU 
For Eome of ihe nameB iee above, iute a v, 1 1^, 

IvUlq 4a Vdlliana, a Guelf nobleman of Btinino) 
foUawer ot 3dn\et da Calboli ; he died between 
mn& ijoo. — Arrigo Mainardi, a Ghibetllne o 
tEnari) and adherent of Pier Travenaro, [ag«th«|> 
whom he wai captured by Che people of Faer 
1170; he wassiill aliv-e in laiS, — Pier Traversal 
114.5-1115), the moit iJistingUished member 6 
Ghibelline family of the caia Travmara {v. 107)1 
was repeatedly Podeità of hin native city, and pli 
a lading par't in the jiolirics «f Ramag'na for n 
yean. — Guido uf the Carpe^na [a noted family «et 
in the district of Mantefeltra) was renowned foi 
liberality. =-> Fabbro^ one of the GhibL'liline L.a|Ti 
tazii of Bologna, was Podeità of aeveraj eltie». i 
his death, in. 1159, hi» miis had a bitter Feud witi 
Gert^mei [se* fn/. iCKlii, ISI, 11I3, irri?> — Bernardi 
Fesco disting-uished hiiHEtilf in the siege of Fai 
againit the Emperor Frederick, il, (1140) ; hia fa 
was a. field labourer, — ^Guido da Pr^la (d. (H, II 
native of Ravenna, near which eity he appeari 
owned considerable property. — Ug-olin d'Ai 
wealthy JnhsbitaDt of F.aenza, one of the Ubaldini 
below, Canto raiv. 19, nati). He marrtedl Bua 
Laneìa, the daughter of ProTcnian Salt^ani fsce ab 
Canto xi.)8Tid died at a great age id 1393. — Fredi 
Tignoso! a nobknvan of Rimini, noted for I 
□sky, who appear* to have lived in the Stit ì)-t,lf 
ijth century, ^ The TraverHri and Anastagl'i 
noble Ghibelline families of Ravenna. On thej 
o( Pier Triveriaro, hii Ion Paolo Eunieit Qig 



v»tìt-fati that tocn undermined th« ìnHueiice of the 
fim lfy. About (h; micldt* of the ■3th 'Centijrjr, the 
AB»tagi were very nmch io the fore, owing io ttieir 
«tnf« with the Palentani and oih«r Giidir>^f Rìvenna. 
A recoD'cilta.tion wi» «jTected 4:v< ^i^Si^ind iifter thw 
dOitc there l« no rneniiou of chem in Lhe record^. — 
BretCinarO' ( nAi? tìtrcinoro), a Little town herweeo 
Fedi siiJ Cewfia; ita inhabitant», leverai of whom 
Agnra in this canto, had a great repuution (or hers* 
piCBlity. Dante il apparently aliudlrg here to the 
compubary exodiu of ilie Ghib«lliii?i from che town 
\6et ab-ove, ttett od Guida del Duca), and rejotdng thai 
tKcy Were spaced the jpectailc of the pU^c in ft* 
presene condìLinn.^The MaUvicini, Counta of Sxgni- 
cavailo (between Imola and Ravenna), were Ghibei- 
)]■>?■• '<< li-lg they droie Guido lia Potenti, and L)Ib 
fellow Guelfi from Ravenna. Subfcqiieatly thej were 
nocorlous For their frequenC change of pairty- — 
CiJCronro Pttd ConJO: itivrngholds near FoiJi; the 
count* of the rormer place were GhibtdUnea, thc«e of 
the latter Guelfo. — The Padani were Ghibellinei >af 
Pat^nja (^or EiC'qU). For Mainardo lee /n/", x^rìì, 
49-51, »«t (ff. Villani, vii. 149)- Accoirding to 
Bcnienuio, he was called "devil" benu*e of hi* 
cunning. — Ugoìti» de' F^niolmi fd, 1117I) did not 
take part in public atTaìri, bui IliI an honourable 
Ktifed life. One af hin ioni wai killed at Forlì 

i\i%i) in the epgagernent with Guido of Monte- 
dtro (see InJ, xxvii, 43, 44], and the oihei died before 

I4S-I jj. The words of Cain, after he had slain his 
brother Abel {Gm. ir. 14). 

137-139. A^iauroK, the daugtitei of Cecropi, King 
of Athens, being Jealous of Mercury's love for her 
lister, Hi;rs.G, wai changed by the God into «tgn@ (•£<: 
Ovid, MiUm: xiv, IJ9), 

^ ^.SP^^^ PVRGATOm 

~ "-abitanti tj. 
IT II three u v-, ^j^ i.. . ^_^ ^^ ^^ gtzam, wc! ' 

* (having circled ni^-'f >'<"■ t.._j, .f^nlipin of the 
Had reached its northern ilope} fit"?''- -. (niag [Jh 
ing sun, vrheo Chv diaziling liigbil ot the 3li^....nv>il 
of the circle warm chem that they hare Bppra 
the nest ascent ([-33]- They are welcomed 
«air far teds *teep than tho» they ha»c aX^ 
surmoDJited, and hear the blessing o( the merd 
tDgetber wi^h aojiga of lofcy en courage men t, chai 
be)iind them as they mount (34'39). Daote's 
goes back to words in wh[ch Guido del Duca, 
confeisin^ hit ewn efiiions dÌ9posit[on on eanh. 
reproached mankind for fixing th«lr hearts ot 
things which exclude partnership ; 9n4 rto- 
quutiona V£rgil aa to che meaning of thit i 
(40~4j). Virgil aniweri fim briefly, and tfaeal 

GimE II Quanto tra I' ultimar dell' ora terza 
e il princìpio del dì par d^Ua spera 
che sempre a guisa di faociullo scherza. 

Unto pireva già in ver la «era 

«Bere al boI del suo corso rìmaso : 
Teapero là, e "^ui ntezza Dotte eri- 

E i raggi ne feriao per mezza il naso, 
perchè per noi girato tra ai il monte, 
che già dritti andavamo in ver 1' occaso, 

quand' io Benti' a nae gravar la frante 
allo splendore asBai più che dì prìmaf 
e atupor m' eran le coat non conte : 

Dnd' io levai le matti io ver la cinia 
delle mie ciglia, e fecimi il solecchio, 
che del lopcrcbio vidìbile lima. 

CANTÒ *xy 


derail, iJiac the more of any material thing one mm 
hii, [he loi df it (here ta Tor Citlien ; whert!^! the 
inc>re p«ace o;* kno'wliciìge or Iotc one ina.n )ia^ the more 
there ia for zU the ocliera, Hence enff disturba men'* 
hesrti ojily because- tbey are filed an material inatcad 
or rpiricual things. If this esposicion Aoet noi utiifj 
him, let hjm await further Light from Beatrice^ and 
meonvrhilc let hifti mak.e all tpced upon his jourPUT 
(4Ì-8i> On this ihef reach the third turrace — thai of 
the wratJifnl — wherewn Dante in ec'tatic * ision beholdi 
examples of mccVneiB and patience ( Si- 1 14 ^, Wak ing, 
half-be wEId^red, from h!ii trance, he h railed to him- 
telf by Vir;gil (115-138)» and the twn walk, toward 

the cveniag ^un, till a dirk flomi of «moke roUiag 
Krwardi (hem, plunge* them Into the blacknea* 0/ 
more than night (ijcjfi^.^). 

As much aa between die end of the third hour The 

add the beginning of the day appe;irs of ihe «"«J*»* 

sphere which ever eporta after the fashioa of 

a chifd, 
ao much appesied dow to be left of ilie aua^a Aftemosd 

courae towards cTcning ; it wa» vespers there, '''^**'*. 

and here midnight. day la 

And the rays were smiting on the middle of out ''***''"1 

□oseB, for the rtiouni. was so in circkd by us, 

that we oow were going straight to the w^st, 
when 1 feU my brow weighed down by the 

aplendour far more than before, and amazeni'eDt 

to me wi^re the unkauwn things ; 
wherefore I raised my hands towards the cop of 

my eyei, and made nx the shade which duIU 

the excess of light. 

om*U Come quando dall' acqua dallo specchio 
salta lo raggio ali* opposita parte» 
8a]eQdo tM per lo modo parecchio 

a quel che scende, e unto si diparte 
dal cader della pietra Ìd egual traita, 
si co[»« mostra esperienza ed arte : 

così mi par?c da luce rifritta 
ivi dinanzi a me esser pcrcoesu, 
per che a fuggir la nua vieta fu ratta. 

*< Che è quel, dolce padre, a che noD poaio 
schermar lo viao tanto che mi vaglia," 
dm' io, " e pare in ver Dot esser mosw ?"'i 

"Non ti maravigliar, se aocor t' abbaglia 
la famigtia del cielo," a me rispose ; 
" mesEo è, che viene ad invitar eh* uom 

Tosto sarà che a Veder queste cose 
non ti Jìa grave, ma £ati diletto, 
quanto Datura a mentir d di&po&c" 

Poi giunti fummo all' angel beaedetto, 
cuQ lieta voce dts&e : " Entrate quinci 
ad Uù dCaleo vie mefi che gli altri eretto." 

Noi modlavam, già partiti da linci, 
e " Baiti mumcorties *' fue 
cantalo retro, e " Godi tu che vinci." 
bliU^ Lo mio maestro ed io soli ambo e due 
'^°*" suso andavamo, ed io pensava, andando, 

prode acquistar nelle parole sue ; 

e dirizza' mi a luì ai domandando : 
*'Che volle dir lo spirto di Romagna, 
e * divieto ' e *con6orto' mcnzioDando?" 

Per eh' egli a me : '* Di sua maggior magagna 
conosce il danno; e perd noD a' anatniri, 
tu □£ riprende perenta men win '^^na. 




As when a ray of light leg-pi from the water or 
from the mirror to lUe opposite direction, at- 
cendiog at aa angle similar 

to that at which it dcsccDiJB, and departa aa far from 
the line of the falling stone Ìd an equal «pace, 
even as experiment and ucience showB, 

BO I aeenied to be pmitteti by reflected light in 
front of me^ wherefore taioe eyea were swift 
to flee. 

*' What is that, Bwect Father, from which I can- 
not Bcreca my flight Su that it may avail mc," 
said I, ''and scema to be moving towards u»? " 

»' Marvel tlaou not if the heave^ly hcusehold yet 
dazes thee," he answered me, "'tis a messenger 
that cnmeth to invite U8 to aecend. 

Soon will it be that to behold these thangB afull 
not be grievous to thee, but ahdl be a joy to 
thee, aa great as nature hath fitted thee to feel." 

When we had reached the blessed angel, with 
gladsome voice, he aaid : " Enter here to a, 
■fairway far lesa steep than the otheie." 

We were tnojonng, already departed thence, and 
*' Beali mùericor/ief " was fltjog behind, and 
** Rejoice thou that oyerconieftt. " 

My Master and I, alone we two, were mounting 
up, and I thought while jouraeytng to gain 
proht from his worda ; 

and I direcwd mc to hiin ihua asking: "What 
meant the spirit from Romagna by mentioning 
' exclusiun and ' partnership ' Ì " 
Whereupon he to me : "Hc knoweth the hurt of 
hisgreaieat defect, and therefore let DODemairvcl 
if he reprove it, that it be less niouroed for- 







rnjiu Ji 


Alidi is 

SiLtUml Perchè s' appuntao li vostri diairi 
'*'"*'" dove per compagnia parte il ftcema, 
invidia more il mantaco ai soapìrì. 

Ma ae 1' amor della spent suprema 
lorcesBse in >u,«o il desiderio vostro, 
non ri earebbe al petto tj^uella tema: 

che per iquanti ai dice piil 11 noatro, 
tanto possiede più di ben ciascuno, 
e più di cantate arde in quel chioatro.*' 

" Io son d' esser contento più digiuno," 
diss' io, " che k mt fossi pria taciuto, 
e più di dubbio nella mente aduno. 

Com' esser puote che un ben diatributo 
i più pcMScditor Faccia pia ricchi 
di sé, che se da pochi è posseduto ì " 

Ed egH a me : " Perà che tu riliccbi 
la mente pure alle Cose terrtae, 
di Tera luce tenebre dispicchi. 

Quello infinito ed ineffabii bene 
che è lafisù, così corre ad amore, 
come a lucido corpo raggio rieoe. 

Tanto lì dà, quanto trova d' ardore, 
sì che quantunque carità ai estende^ 
cresce sopr' esaa 1' eterno valore; 

e quanta gente più hsaft a' intende^ 

più v' è da bene amare, e plCl vi s' ama* 
e come apecchio 1' uno all' altro rende. 

E se h mi3 ragion non ti disfama, 
vedrai Beatrice, ed ella pienamente 
ti torrà queliti e ciaGCun' altra brama. 

Procaccia pur che tosto sieno spente, 
come son già le due, le cinque piaghe, 
che ai richiudon per esser dolente." 




Forasmuch as your desires are centred where the ytrsO"» 

portion is lesKneil by partoerahjpj enry movn oa^^id 

(he beUowa to your 8Ì£h«. «Jid 

■' BULIerMl 

fiut if the loTe of the higheit sphere wrested go^di 

your dcdire upw^rda, that fear would oot be at 

your heart ; 
for by so nrnoy more there »re who my *otU's,' 

ao much the more of good doth each posaess^ 

and the more of lore burneth in thai cloiscer." 
**I am more fa&uag from being sacLsJicd," laid I^ 

*' than if I had ki^pt «ilent at first, and more 

perplexity I amaa» in my mind. 
How caa it be that a good whea «liarcd, shall 

make the greater number of posgesMrs richer in 

it, than iF it is possessed hy a lew ? " 
Aad be to me : " fìecau&e thou doat again fix 

thy mind merely on things of earth, thou 

drawest darknew from true light. 
That ioftoite and ineffable Good, that is on highf 

speedeth to ta lore as a ray of light comes to 

a bright body. 
Ah much of ardour as it finds, bo much of icaelf 

doth it give, so that how far iotrcr love ex- 
tends, eternal goodnesa glvech increase upon it ; 
ind the more people on high who comprehend 

each other, the more there are u> lore well, 

and the more love is thej%, and like a mirror 

one giveth back to the other. 
Aod if my discourse stays not thy hunger, thou 

shalt Bee Beatrice, and she will free thee wholly 

from this and every other lunging. 
ScrÌTe only that a^oon, even as the other two ^rc, 

the five woundiB may be rased oot, which are 

healed hy our sorrowing.*' 

UrtùBlIl Com' 10 Tolevi dicer : ''Tu m' appaghe^" 
Tidinii giimCo in su V altrù giroae, 
si che tacer mi fer le luci vaghe. 

Iri mi parrc ìù una visione 
estatica di subita esser tratto 
e Tedtre in un tempio ptù persone ; 

ed una donna ìd tu I' entrar con atto 
dolce di madre dicer : *'Figlìuol raiof 
perchè hai tu così verao noi iatto ? 

Ecco, doLeod, lo tuo padre td io 

ti cercavamo " ; e come qui ai tacque, 
ciò che pareva prima diapirla. 

Iodi m' apparve un' altra con quelle acque 
giìl per te gote, che il dolor distilla 
quando dì gran dispetto in altrui nacque ; 

e dir : " Se tu ae* aire disila villa, 
del cui nome ne* Dei fu tanta lite, 
ed onde ogni ecienza diafaTilla, 

reodìca te dì quelk braccia ardite 

che abbracciar nostra églba, o Piaistrato." 
E il signor mi parea benigiiD e mite 

risponder lei ctìn viso temperato : 
« Che làrera noi a chi mal ne distrai 
«e quei, che ci ama, è per noi condaDaato 

Poi vidi genti aCC'Cse in foco d' ira, 
con pietre un ginvinetto ancider, forte 
gridando a sé pur: " Marcirà, raartita ! *' 

e lui vedea chinarti, pei- la morte 
che 1' aggravava già, in ver la terra, 
nu degli occhi facea Kinpre al ciel porte, 

orando ali' alto Sire ia tanta guerra, 
che perdonasse a' suoi persecutori, 
con queir aspetto che pietà diaserra. 









A* I was about to aay : " Thou dost aalìsfy^ me," 
L I saw mc arrivEd on the next circuit, bo that 
H my eager eyes made me Bilent, 
■ There mescenied to be auddenly caught xip in a 
H dream of ecsucy, and to see njRny peraoai in 
^k a temple, 

^Hfttt a woman about to enter, with the tender 
^g atutude of a itiother, «flying : " My sod, why 
V hast thou thus deak wiLli ut-i 

Behold thy father and I sought thee aorrowtng"; 
and as here she was silecc, that which first 
appeared, disappeared. 
Then appeared to me another womao, with those 
wateri adown htt checks which grief distHA 
^ when it rises in one by reason o( great anger, 
B acd aaying : "If thou art lord of the City for 
' whose name <f/3i so great strife among the gods, 
and whence all knowledge aparkleSj 
iYefige thee of those daring arms whicJi embraced 
our daughter, O Fiaisiratus. And the lord 
■cemed to rac kindly and gently 
to aoBWtr her with placid mien ; " What ahall we 
do to him who desires ilT to us, if he whO 
loTeth us is condemned by v.ii " 
Then saw I people, kindled with the fire of anger, 
slaying a youth with stones, nnd ever crying 
out loudly to each other : " Kill, kill Ì " 
and him saw I sinking' towards the ground, be- 
cause of death, which already was weighing 
him down, but of his eyes eyer made he 
gates unto he^ren, 
praying to the high Lord in such torture, with 
Ùiat look which milocks pity, that he would 
forgive Ml pereeCutora. 


a( geatle- 





Olnwclll Quando V asima mia tornò di fuori 
alle cose, che boq fuor di lei vere, 
io riconobbi ì miei non falsi errori* 

Lo duca mio, che mi pùtea vedere 

far ai com' uom che dal HonTio si Blega« 
disse ; "Che hai, che non ti puoi tenero 

liia se' venuto più che mezza lega, 

v«la:ndo gli occhi e con le gambe avvolte 
3 guisa di cui Tino eonno piega? " 

" O dolce padre niioj se tu m' ascolte, 
io ti dirò/' disa' to, " ciò che mi appaiv< 
quando le gambe mi furon ȓ tolte." 

Hd ei : " Se tu aressi cento hrre 
sopra la f^ccìas ooD mi sarien chiuse 
\t tue cogitazion, quantunque parre. 
, Ciò che vedemti fi), perchè non scuse 
I d' aprir lo core all' acq^ue deUa pace 

r che dall' eterno fonte aon diffuse. 

Noli domandai, * Che hai,' per quel che fw 
chi guarda pur con V occhio che non red 
quando disanimato il corpo giacff ; 

ma domandai per darti forza al piede : 
così frugar convienfli i pigri, lenti 
ad usar lor rigìita quando rìede." 

Noi andavsm per Eo veBpero, attenti 

oltre, quanto poceap gli occhi alluogarsìf 
coDtra i raggi serotini e lucenti ; 

ed ecco a poco a poco un fummo tarsi 
verso di noi, come la notte oscuro, 
né dà quello efa loco da cansarsi. 

Questo ne tolse gti occhi e Paer puro. 

1-6. The Zodiac, which is improperly deicrl 
k lph«re (in«Eead of a. zOdc òr ^rcat circle 




When my soul returned outwardJy to the things Th« 

which ace tnic outside it* I recognised my not !^'* 
[ fid&e errare. Duita 

My Leader, who could see me acdag like a man 

who frets hitneelf from aleep, &aid : '« What 

aiieth thee that thou caoat not control thyself, 
but art come mare than half a league, velliog 

thine eyei, and with staggeriog Icgs^ after the 

maaaer of him whom wine or elcep oTcrcomes ? " 
** O sweet Father mine, if thou liBlen to me, 

I will tell thte/' md I, *' what appeared to 

me when my tegi were thus taken from me." 
And he : " If thou had^t a hundred masks upon 

thy &ce, thy thoughts, howeFer alight, would 

not be hidden from me. 
What thou ftawegt was in order that thou have 

no excuse from opening thy heart to the 

watera of peace, which are poured from the 

eternal fount- 
I asked Hot : *■ What aileth thee/ for that reason 

which he asks who looks but with the eye chat 

jeeth not when 8ensel!eE& the body lies, 
but I asked to give strength to thy feet ; so must 

the slothful be goaded who are slow to use 

their waking hour when it returns," 
We were joarneying on through the evening, 

rtrainiTig our eyes forward, as far as we could, 

a^iDst the ef'eoing and shining rays ^ 
and lorliicle by !ittle,a smoke, dark as night, rolling 

toward» ua, nor any room wag there to c«apc 

irom it. This reft us of sight and the pure atr. 

Sphere), ii caiupared to i skippini child, faeeau«e in 
the «tune of the day its eaitremitiei on the horizan 



pUf up and down, and the aemi-circle above thi 
llonzAO b now all nortS of the equator, now all soi^th, 
and now crossing it from north to south, or from south 
to north. At the equinox a quarter of it «roswi the 
eaitsrn Koriz.oD between Bil:iiri»e and Rine o'clock, 
Dante teLs us, therefore, ch-at, at the moment of which 
he is Bpeaking', a quarter of it had to cross the 'w&Btcm 
horr^OQ b^fdt^ »u\wft, i.e. it was. three o'clock ITi ihS' 
afternoon (here, \a Italf, it mat cnidaight, for Roman 
time is nine hours later than Purgatary time, and there 
it 'wai Vespers., ot 3 f.h. ; sec abore, Canto lii., 
irivand diagrams on pp. 34 a.nd jj). 

f-^. The representations- of the Mount of Pargatory 
given in the editions of the Cammedia u^uaiiy ftepìct 
the poet» a» havitig circled the whoi« tiioaAtaixi In th« 
course of their jouritef. But tbl* is erroneous. They 
circle only the northern or sunny side, from east to 
w«t. Here, tijwjrdi the dose of the day, ihejf are 
travelling almost due weit, uid are almosi: at the 
northern potni of the mountainL 

3^, 39- "Blessed are the merciful, for they ihall 
obttiB merey " (Matt. w. ^). — The woTdli Gotì tu th» 



vinci are TarìousLy referred to JUait. <r. 11; Jiem. 
jtii. »i ; or Hev. Il 7. 

44, 45. Sec the pr«ceijin^ cajita, w. S6, B7. 

8j-i)3. Mary'i vtordH to the cKild JtlUt, after he had 
"carried behind in Jerus3]pin,a]3d Joseph and hit mother 
knew not of jt." See tuir ii. 43-50. 

94-105. Pitiitraliu AthfKÌtitiium tyranmmi [m, feg-jt^ 

•vCl, fif aAJfieau ifuidutB, amere Jilm tfm virgiiiii 
Mtania, in fubiia stvil" tilii fiftanf t'tulltiu tntt, hertantt 
KiCiTt, mt ail is capitati iitfpluium iumfrtl, retfùnJit : " Sf 
tKf fVJ itu iMBMttff inJerpcÌMnej J qtd// kit Jacfomus^ auìpMt eJià 

limili f" (Valerius MuLmui, fad, et £cl. mm. vi, i.) 
Ve»e 9S alluder lo the strUe between Minerva and 
NepTUne, ai to which df ihbAi «hould eiAtnc the city of 
Aihen* («e Ovid, Mttam. ti. 70 »pf.). 

to$-i 14. The itoning of Stephen (>^»j^ tH. J4-60). 

Il 7. Dante re-rognifled that the scensa wliich had 
pK«et! before hlm wew cnere!^ viiioria ((rrorf), though 
liiions of events that hail actual!]' occurred in time* 
gone b]' (therefore, natjaliì). 


CLOSING his eyes againat the gross an-d bitter fog, 
Ih) bj Virgil like s blind ina.n, Dante hear» the 
har m uni mil and tender chaiit of Che " Làmb of God " 
aiiae from the lips of the once wrathful «piriti (fi4j. 
One of them, who has himnl DanCe'i CDni>ersati<>n wìtà 
ViTgìL^ queatiooi him and turns back with hini to 
Eiear hii -woridrous tale. The spirìts in orher circlet 
have recognised the ipeetal ^ce ghowTi to tSanie in 
tiij oDticipatcd «ifrion of v-n^^n ttnin^ ; and to this 
grace Dante- himielf now appeals to wia fro-cn lilt new 
compaiiion an account of himself, and direction! u 
to the joumey; far meeting tlte^e soai» circling front 
west CO east ralses^ a doubt in Ìiii mind whecher he «nJ 
ViigiL ha^i^ i>^s ri^ht in stiU fo-llowtng the lun ii;i> 
45), The aptrit reireals himjeif as Marco Li^inhardo, 
refers, as other epirstB had done, to the degenera cy o{ 
the times, reauiiirea Dante ai Co the course he is taking 
and implores hi» prafcra (46-51). Dante, while friviing 
him the required pledge, catches at this Tene^wed insial* 
mtt on the e^ili tibie*, and ^Ict wh«th«r it ti due to 
onfavo-nrable conjunctions In the heavenn or to Inhereot 
degeneracy of sarih (5a-fij), Marco heaves s deep 
ligh at the blindnest implied in such a question ; u 
if man were handed, oier helplessSy to planetary 

Slrone III Buio d' inferno c di notte privata 
d' ogni pLaoeta sotto pover cielo, 

Lcjuant' esser può di nuvol tenebrata. 
Don fece al viso mio si grosso fch, 
come quel funiEno eh' ivi ci coperse, 
uè a sentir dì così a^pro pelo ; 
cbè 1' occhio stare apiario non aof^rse ; 
onde la scolta mi^ ^aput^ e fida 
mi h' accostò, e I' omero ra' offerse. 


nftnencn t Ab if he had no Ine vili and no direcc 
dependence lipon God, which may maki; him superior 
tfr ill macenal iTiHuencL'^I (64-Si). The cauuj at 
degeneracy musi, be sought on earth and will be fdand 
"w the abicnrt of any true governor who perceive» 
at leaaC the turreCa of the true city, sn4 id can lead 
the guilelcBS and Impresiionab-le eoaU of men on the 
right path. And thts e»il spring not from corrupc- 
OMs of huinan nature in general, but from the worI<]IU 
Aei» ai)<l BmF)itian of the clergy who have grafted the 
iword upon the crook, m> that the two light» o-f the 
world that puce «hone in Rvire have quL'nehed each 
other ; and the tempural and ipLritual powers, con. 
founded together, have ceaied to guide and check each 
other. Hence the world is so degenerate that ooty 
thr^ good old men reiriHin a» a rebulia to the living 
genera-tion (ili-iij). Uante accepts the «ad wisd^n» 
sf Marco'» diacourK, only requeiting a word at 
penonal explanation as to one of the three Btill cur. 
wing types of antique virtue ; and tliereon he begins 
to nee Che light struggle through the enveloping dark' 
SMI, and 11 told tha.C the a.ngeL guardiu) of the next 
itair it a.t baad {130-145). 

Gloom of Hell asd of a flight berefi of every The 

planet uader a meaere iky, dirkeced bv cloud "" 
^ . . , Tbiair 

3» much as it can be, pi 

made not to my tight &o thick 3. t«I, nor of a 
pste BO harah Co the feel> as that Bnioke which 
there covered ui ; 

for it suiTcred aOl the eye to stay Opea : wbefS' 

fore my wise and trUEt^ Racort closed up to 

me. xai oflered me hit fihoulder. 



Knuic Itt SI come cieco Ta dietro a sua guida 

p«r noti frmarrirsi, e per dod da^r di coz 
ED cosa che il molesti o forse ancida : 

m' andar» io per 1' aere acqaro e aozzo, 
AACùlundo il mio duca che diceva 
pur : Guarda che da me tu non me ttloz 

Io «entia voci, e ciascuna pareva 

[>rfgAr, per pace e per miacrìcordia, 
' Agne] di Dioj che te peccata leva. 

Pure "^nuj Da" eran le Joro ewdia «i 
una parala in tutti era ed un modo, 
sì che parea tra esse ogni coDcordia. 

"Quei sono spirti^ itiHestro» eh' Ì' odo? " 
diss' io. Ed egli a me: "Tu vero app 
e d^ iracondia van aolrendo il nodo.*' 

" Or tu chi ee', che il nostro fummo fencfij 
e di noi parli pur come se tue 
partissi ancor lo tempo per calendi ?" 

Cosi per una voce detto fiie; 

Onde iJ maestro mìo disse : " Rìepondì, 
e domanda ee quinci gì va sue-" 

Ed io ; " O creatura, che ti mondi, 
per tornar bella a colui che d fece, 
maraviglia udirai se mi secondi." 

"Io ci segiiiterò quanto mi lece," 

ri spose ; "e se veder fummo non lascia^ 
1' udir ci terra giunti io quella vece," 

Allora incominciai; "Con quella fiBcia 
che ta morte dissolve men vo bubo, 
e vecni qui per la infernsle ambascia; 

e, se Dio m' ha in iua grafìa richiuso 
tanto, che vuol eh' io veggia la sua corti 
per modo tutto fuor del modem' uso, 





Htcd aa a blind man goeth behind hh gutd? io Th« 

order Dot to etray, and not to butt against aught *™*'™' 

that TOAf da him hurt, or perchaacc kill him, 
•0 went I through the bitter and foul air, listea- 

ing to my Leader who was saying ever t 

" Look that thou be not cut olf from me." 
I h'fard voices and each Ode SccOied to pray for Th«; ehm 

peace and for mercy, to the Lamb of God Afaui. D| 

that taketb away ains- 
Only "jignui Dei " were iheir beginnings ; one 

word was with them all, and one measure; so 

tbat Mi concocd lecmed to be among tbem« 
** Are thoBc spirits, Master, tbat I hear?" ssiid 

I. And he to me : " Thou apprchendeet 

truly, and they are untying the knot of anger." 
•' Now who art thoL that cleaveat our smoke, Muco 

and Gpeakest of ua eren aa if thou didat still 

measure time by calends Ì " 
ThuE by a voice was said; wherefore my 

Master said: "Answer thou and ask sf by 

this way we go upward." 
And I : "O creature that art cleansing thee to 

return fair unto hm who made thee, a marvel 

«halt thou hear if thou follow me." 
"I will follow thee so far as is permitted me," 

it answered, '^and if the smoke lets us not see, 

hearing shall keep us in touch in its &tead." 
Thcc began I: "With those Bwathings which 

death dÌBsolvea I am journeying upward and 

here did corae through the anguish of Hell ; 
and if God hsth received nie so &r into his. grace 

that he wills that I may behold his court ia a 

manner tjuite oataide modem use. 



u III non mi celar chi fosti anzi la morte, 

ma dilmi, e dimmi i' io to bene aJ varco ; 

e tue parole fien le nostre acorte." 

" Lomba-rdo fui, e fui chiamato Marco ; 
de] mondo seppi, e quel valore amai 
al quale ha or ciascun dìatemo V arco ; 

per raontar *u dirittamente vaL" 

CobI rispose ; e BOggiunEC : ** Io ti prego 
che per me preghi, quando tu esrai-" 

Ed io a lui j " Per fed^e mi ti lego 

di far ciò che mi chiedi ; ma io scoppio 
dentro a un dubbio, s' io non me ne spiego. 

Frlma era scempio, ed ora è fatto doppio 
nella sentenza tua., che mi fa certo, 
qui ed altrove, quello ov' io 1' accoppio- 

Lo mondo è ben così tutto diserto 
d' ogni virtute, come tu mi suone, 
e di malizia gravido e coperto ; 

ma prego che m* additi la cagione, 

sì eh' io la Teggia, e eh' io la mostri altrui : 
che ne] cielo uno, ed un quaggiù la pone." 

Alto lo&pit, che duolo Btrinie ìa " huì ! " 
mise fuor prima, e poi comincid : ** Frate, 
lo mondo è cieco, e tu vien ben da lui. 

Voi che vivete ogni cagioa recate 
pur ■uso al cielo, si come se tutto 
moveBse seco di neceeìtate. 

Se coh'ì fovie, in voi fora distrutto 
lìbero arbitrio, e doq fora gioiStizia 
per ben, letizia, e per mal>e, aver lutto. 

IiO cielo ì voBtTi movimenti iniiua; 
BOD dico tutti, ma, posto eh' io il dica^ 
lume V* è dato a bene ed a malizia, - 





hide not from me who thou wast before death, but 
teU it met and tell me if I am going aright for 
the paw ; and thy words shsll be our escort." 

" A Lombard was I aad was called Mark -, I had 
knowledge of the world, and loifed that worth 
at which now every one hath unbent hia bow ; 

for mùuntlag up thou goest aright." Thua 
answered he, and added : *' I pray thee that 
thou pray for cne, when thou art above." 

And I to him : " By my faith I bind rac to thee to 
do that which thou aakest of me^ but I am burst- 
ing within at a doubt, if I frte me not ffom it. 

First 'twaa simple, and now in made double fay 
thy discourse, which makcfr Certain to rac, both 
here and elsewhere, that whereto I cou)de it. 

The world is iodeed so wholly desert of every 
virtue» evcQ as thy words sound to me, and 
beayy and covered with sin ; 

l>Bt I pray that thou posot the cause out to mc, 
so that I Toay see it, and that I may show it 
to others \ for one places it in die heavens and 
another here betow." 

A deep sigh, which grief compreaaed to*' AIbb! '" 
he first gave forth, and then begao : " Brother, 

Ye who are Siving refer every cause up to the 
heaveoB alone, even ai If they swept all with 
them of meceBsity. 

Were ii thua, Freewill in you would be destroyed, 
and it were not just to have joy for good and 
mourning for evil. 

The heavens set your impulsee in motion; I say 
not all, but suppose I said it, a light is given 
you to know good and evil, 




th« OHM 
Qf rice 





Glcim« III e libero roler, che, Be Fatica 

nelle prime battaglie col ciel dura, 
poi vince tutto, se ben fii nutrica. 
A maggior forza ed a niigHor natura 
liberi Bog^cete, e quelU cria 
la niente io voi, che il ciel non ha in ava. Cura. 


Perà, ae il mondo presente disfia, 

in voi è la cagione, in voi bì cheggia, 
ed io te ne sarò or vera spia. 

Eace di mano a lui, che la vagheggia 
prima che sia, a gui^ di fanciulla 
che pìaDgendo e ridendo pargoleggia, 

1' anima semplicetta» che aa niJla, 
aalvQ che, moaea da lieto fattore, 
Totentier toTHEL a ciò che la trastulla. 

JDii picciol bene in pria &enie sapore ; 
quivi s' inganna, e retro ad e$so coire, 
Be guida o fren non torce suo amore. 

Onde convenne legge per fren pone ; 
convenne rege aver, che dieccrnessc 
della vera cittade almen la torre. 

Le leggi soD, ma chi pon mano ad esse ? 
Nullo : però che Ìl pastor che precede 
ruminar pu5, ma non ha 1' unghie feBse. 

Per che la gente, che aua guida vede 
pure a quel ben ferire oad' eli' è ghiotta, 
di quel ai pasce, e più oltre non chiede. 

Ben puoi veder che la mala condotta 
, è la cagion che il mondo ha fatto reo, 
e non natura che in voi «a corrotta. 

Soleva Roma, che il buon moodo feo, 
due soli aver, che 1' una e 1* altra strada 
facean vedere, e del mondo e di Dea^ 














and Freewill, which, if it endure the stracn in ita 
firn baulings with the hearens^ at leagth gains 
the whole victory, if it be Welt tmrtured. 

Ye lie Bybjecc, in your frcedom, to a greater power 
and to a better catuce ; a.nd that creates in you 
ntiod which the heavens have cot In their charge. 

Therefore, if the world to-day goeth astray^ in 
jou is the cauBc, io you be it lought, and I 
now will be a true scout to thee therein. 

From his hands who fondJy loves her ere she ia 
in being, there iitsucd, after the fashioo of a little 
child that aporta, now weeping, now laughing, 

the simple^ tender bouÌ, who knoweih naught save 
thatr sprung from a joyous maker, willingly «he 
tumeth to that which delights her. 

Fint ahe tastei the saroor of a tridisg good ; 
there she is beguiled and runneth after it. If 
guide or curb tmn not her [qtc aaidc. 

Wherefore 'twa* needful to put law ai a curb, 
needful to have a nder who might diBcem at 
least the tower of the true city. 

Laws Lhere are, but who pmteth his hand to them Ì 
None i because the shepherd that leads may 
chew the cud, but hath not the hoofs divided. 

Wherefore the people, that see their guide aiming 
only at that good whereof he ia greedy,, feed 
on that add ask no fuither. 

Clearly canit thou sec that evil leadership it the 
caute which hath made the world Binful, and 
pot nature that may be corrupted within you, 

Rome, that imade the good world, was wont to 
ba:ve two B\ms, which made plain to sight the 
one road and the others that of the worid, and 
that of God. 











Glroae III L' uD I' altTD ha spento, ed è gìuau h spìdi 
coE pastorale ; e I' uq con I' altro insieme 
irer TÌ73 forza riial convien che vada ; 

però che, giunti, l'un 1' altro non teme. 
Se Don mi credi, pon meate alla spiga, 
eh' ogni erba bì conosce per Jo semef 

Ed aiJ paese eh' Adige e Po riga 
Bolea valore e corteaìa trovarsi, 
prima che Federico avesse brigai 

or può sicuramente iodi passarsi 

per qualunque lasciasse per vergogna 
di ragionar coi buoni o d' appressarsi. 

Bea v' en tre vecchi ancora, in cui ra^mpogEU 
1' antica età la niiova, e par lor tardo 
che Dio a miglior ma li rìpogna : 

Corrado da Palazzo e il buon Gherardo 
e Guido da Castel, che me' ai Doma 
francescamente il aemplice Lombardo. 

(Di* oggimai che la Chie3:i di Roma^ 
per confondere in sé due reggimenti. 
Cade nel f^ngo, e sé brutta e la SOitia." 

" O Marco mio," diea' ioj " tiene argomenti 
ed or discerao, perchè da retaggio 
li figli di Levi furono cBenti ; 

ma qual Gherardo è cjuel che tu, per Baggio| 
di' di' è rìntaso delia gente spenu, 
in rimproFerio de] secol selvaggio ì " 

*' O tuo parlar m' inganna o e' mi teoiaj" 
rispose a me j "che, parlandomi tosco, 
par che del buon Gherardo iiulla senta. 

Per altro floprannome io noi conosco, 
s' io noi taglie^si da aua jìglia Gaia. 
Dio aia con voi, che piCi non vegno voacc 




One hath quenched the other ; and the awora is Tbe 

jaioed to the crogk ; ^od the oac together with '*™*'^^ 

the other must perforce go iti j 
becM«e, being joined, one fearcth not the other. 

If thau believest me ùot, look weH at the ear, 

for erery plant ia known by the seed. 
Over Cbe knd which the Adige and the Po Marccr 

water^ worth and courtcBy were wont to be ^"^°^ 

found, ere Frederick met opposicion ; ruptlondl 

now, safely may it be trarersed by whornBoever ^^ 

had, through shaltie, Ceased to hold cùnrerBe 

with good men^ or to draw near them- 
Tmly three cidera yet are there in whom the olden 

tinier rebuke the new, and it accmi to them 

long ere God removes them to the better life: 
Corrado da 'PAzizit, and the good Gerard, and 

Guido da Cast?t, who is better named in 

French fashion the guileless Lombard. 
Say hencelfbrth, that the Church of Rome, bytoRom«' 

confounding two powers in herself^ falls into ^'j^* 

the mire, nad fouls herielf and her burden." temp«r«i 
"O my Mark," said T, "well thou teasoneBt, ^°" 

and now I perceive why Levi's sods were 

exempt from inheriting ; 
but what Gerard i« that, who thou sayest ia left Garard 

behind for eosamplc of the extinct people, in *"* 

reproof of the barbarous age?" 
** Either thy speech beguiles me, or it tempts me," 

he answered me, •' for thou, speaking to me in 

TuBcar, seemest to know naught of the good 

By other surname I know him not, except 1 

take it from his daughter Gaia. God be with 

you, for no further I come with you. 



'A/ùas ni Vedi V aibdr, che per lo fummo raia, •<■ 

E |;i~a bÙDcheggiare^ e me convieD partirmi, 

H V angelo è ivi, prima ch^ io gli appaia." 

H Cwì tornò, e più poti volle «dirmi. >« 

H *7*'9- See i/dAn 1. Sig ; chough the reference here ìb 

^È rather » the prayer in the MiMi—^^nus iJcì jai lo/tit 

^m fttcaia Mundi, maerrrc jioju, dona ncMffaeem. 

^K ''5' ''77' '^'^^ ipeaker k Marca Lombardo', of Venice, 

H a learned and honourable courtier, noted for hit 

V liberaìity, who fiourìihed in the latter hUf of the ijth 
H century. 

H 17. As though thou were «tilt alire. In the £t«nu! 

H region!) human meaEurementi of time do not apply. 

H 3.^. Colt ^ìieSta fascia^ Le. Yfìth my body. 

H f.1. lisUofuer dit tsodm^ kiO. See Itif. W. 1 3-30. 

H So. The free will by iti nature seeks g'ood ^fart 

H X^ixiil. H53, ftc), arid «iJiM God iir the supreme ^ooiJ, 

H the free agent i» subject to l^i[n in the senee thiit th^ 

H vhole course of hie action i& determined by him as iti 

^ft «rpal. Gut thii iletermi nation of I he mil to good. If 

V the fulfilment, not the rescri^ions of Liberty. The idu 
^ ji funliiar to ui from the words of the Prayer Book : 
^v- . . . " whoK aerrice la perfect freedDm." 

H 97. Sc« s>boT«, C&nto f J. SS-'90, nv^f. 

V 9^1 99' " NeTcrcheleas these shall ye not «t of them 
^B tha.t cnevi the cdd, or of them that divide the hstoi; 8( 
■ the camel] because he chewcth the rud, but dividcth 
H not the hoof; he ii unctean unto you ^ {Le^. x3. 4)^ 
H According to Thomas A^^uinai th« " cheiVing of the 
H cud" signifies meditation and understandin^g of the 
H Scriptures; while ih« ■< dc^ren hoof itaods for the 
^H ppwer Co discern and distinguish becweea certain aacred 
^1 things — here used apparently of th« «pjritual and 
H temporal pow«r (which ar*, of cowrie, aot inentiO'ti«l 
H by Aquinas). 



See the lightf that beama through the amoke, now The 
waxJDg bright; the angel \s there, and it ^*''*^ 
behove? me to depart ere 1 am seen of him." 
So turned he back and iio more would hear me. 

TiS>ii7. LoTTihardy, or, in the wider seniB, Upper 
lUly— a veritaLle hot-bed of rlUstfisien, hf it*(OTi of 
the struggle between tEi« Emperor Frederick Tl. and 
the Pope. 

114-116, 13,3,-140. Curniflo da Pabjiti, a Guelf of 
BreiCLA, Vitar for Charles of Anion at Florence (i 17'fi), 
Podestà oi Siena, (11^9) ajid of Piacenza (ilS&J. 

Gherardo da Cammino, Cap tain -Generai of Ttstìio 
from iiS] cill hi» death ia rjo(> (whea he waa luc- 
ce«ded by his «od Riccardo^ pe« J^.jr, ìl(^ 50 i^^-). 
The commentators dJETer ai to whether his daugnter 
Gala {v. 140), who died in iju, wai rennwned for 
her tirtue or notorious for her loose morda; probably 
the latter is che correct incerpretatfan. Dante once 
SZ?in tak.^9 {rherardo aS. A tfpe of nobilÉtr In th e 
Ctnv. iv. 14: 114-113. 

Guida da Castel was a i^entleTnan of Trt^viio, Tamed 
for hj« bounty afid hotpiCaliCy. 3ome think that 
V. 1x6 refers co the fact that the French called all 
Italians Lomhart; but Guidia -woj a Lomhard, sa chat 
there wQuld be no point in thi» unless we lay ibe 
stress OD the imiptru, and assume that he was known 
to them as " the limpie Italian," Mr Toynbee'» iheorr, 
that Jtmfilia Lombardo = " honest UBurefp ' Is ingenious ; 
the French often used the appellation LambaH for 
'' usurer," atid so this nickname might have been 
playfully givea to Guido., with reference to hb 
g«aeroiity. Guido Is alluded to in the Case. It. 16; 
fi7-74> ^7 't'a; °f wntrait with the Asdcnte of Inf, 
XX. tiS. 

131. 131. So chat they might conlin« themeelvu 
I ipiritual affairs. See Niim, xrlii. 10, Dcat. sviii, 
Jft>A. zllL 14 ; and ^ Dt Mm. ill. i], «4-7«, 


AS ÙiR ratiti clea.TB on a niiDUnlain aide and reveftl 
the prospect, lo «he cloud that iwathed the 
Wrathful òpcfied, Slid the poets looked ors the icttitig 
■un, as the ihadow of night -wat already creeping up 
Che slope ( I -11^. Visions of the wrathful, correspondiug 
to the Tiaiene of the placable and peaceful already seen, 
come upon Dante (t j-39); ftom which he is awakened 
by cht shitiijig light and the glad lummooi of th« 
afl^l of the ICair, fn whose spontaneous invitfttiotl th« 
poeW gkdly respond [40-63). Op the first step Dante 
kvU again the stroke «f the angelS wing and iitan 
the blessing of the peace-makers. Bat already, 'cvhcn 
they mich the summit of the stair, the shadow hu 
passed beyond them, the rays of the tan fall only on 
the higher reaches of the mount, and in aocordauM 
with the law q! the place they cat) na* no higher 
while night reigns (£4-78), After listetiing in vain for 
any sflund in the new circle, Dante questioni his gnide 
SB to the nature of the oflencc purged there. Virgil 
an»wcn that it j>t sloth, and cakes ocrasioti to expound 
the B;etieral syjtem of l^urg^atory. Not only the Creator, 
but CTCiry creature also, is nioved by JoTe, Nature 
lore, as that of heavy bothies for the centre, of lire for 
the citcumfer-ence, or of plants for their natural habitat, 
is unerring ; but rational love may err by heEn^ mii- 

UI Ricorditi, lettor, se mai neJl' alpe 
ti cols? nebbia, per h qua) redeari 
non altrimenti che per pelle talpe, 
come, quando i vapori umidi e spesai 4 

A diradar comtnciansi, la spera 
de! eoi debilemenice entra per easl : 
e Sa la tua imagine leggiera t 

in giiigoere i ye-der^ com' io rÌ7ÌdJ 
lo sole in pria, che già nel corcare era. 



^ÌT«cEei); or by b«ing diiproportionatt, bjr defect or 

9%Qi;m. Laic dÌK£t6d to prìiriil ani] esienttg.1 e'Po4| 
sr ID B«cand&[y good in due measure, caanot lead Co 
iIb; bnt perverse xed dUpropartioned love U tbe seed 
at ail sin, jmE ai niD>ch ai rightif directed and measured 
love ìs the seed of all TÌrtue. A human bein^ who hai 
ctìt become a mamttt eannoc love (that ia, fanitec bc 
drzWn towards and lake delight in) evìi td himself or 
e«!l to the God on whom hia very being' depends, AUl 
perbene rejoicing, then, must be rejoicirg' in the ill of 
eat neighbour, act! thii may be caused by prLde, «nry, 
or inger, whieh are purged on the three tirdes alreailir 
pUsed (7$-il6). Apart from these evil gmti^cationi, 
everyane ban at least lome coDfujtcd apprehension of a 
mpreme good wherein the loul CEin rent, and ereryone 
therefore seeks Co gain it. But ibJs supreme loie, 
wbicb il no uth'er than the love of God, may err by 
def«?ti «ilher ipeH^uhcivcOr pncLical; and the ilothfiil 
who have thtii crfed reccv-er (heir lost tone in the circle 
the pilgrimi have new reached (ily-i^lj. The inno- 
cent or needful enjoyment of which ihc bodily frame ii 
the seat, cannot confer true bliia and may be puraued 
with diiproportionaie keenneis, or In neglect of the 
dÌTinely ìmpoKd reitntjnti, Such lin» are p^rgej In 
the three uppi^rjiioit circS«i. C'33''39)' 

Reader,ircver in the mountaÌDa a mist hath caught -p^ 
thee, through which thou sawest not otherwiae wathhl 
than moEes do through the akin, remember i^Sne**f«t 

how, when the damp and <i>tn9e rapours begin lo f^J™ s**" 
melt away, the sphere of the sun enCerft feebly 
through th^m : 

and thy fancy will lightly come to see how 
fìm I beheld the sun. again, that now was ai 
the setting. 


ikoiw til Si^ pareggiando i mie! co' [>assì Eìdi " 

del mio maeetroj UBcii fuor di tal oubcj 
ai raggi, morti gik od bd.ssì lidi. 

O immagì nativa, che ne rtibe >9 

tal voka al di fiior, eh* uom non «' accorge, 
perchè d' intorno suodÌd mille tube, 

chi move te, se il senso non ti porge ? ** 

Moveti lume, che nel cìel s' iororma 
per aè, o per voler che giil lo scorge, 

Dftll' einpiczza di lei, che mutò forma "9 

Tiell' uccel che a cantar più bì diletta, 
nelL' imaigioe mi^ apparve l' orma.; 

e qui fu la mia meate si ristretta ■" 

dentro <ia sé, che di fuor non venia 
COBB che foGEe allor da lei recetta. 

Poi piovve dentro all' alta fkiiitaeia 'J 

un crocilts^o, dispenoco e fiero 
nelEa sua vista, e cotal st morii. 

Intorno ad eaao era il grande' AflBuerq, *' 

Eeier sua sposa e il giusto Mardocheo, 
che fu aJ dire ed al far così intero. 

E come questa imagine rompeo 3* 

sé per sé Btesaa, a guisa d una bulla 
Cui manca 1' aCqua Botto qua) ei feo, 

suree ■□ mia visione una fanciulla, 34 

piangendo forte, e diceva: "Ò tegioa^ 
perchè per ira hai voluto esser nulla? 

Aociaa^ t' hai per non perder Lavina { 31 

or m' hai perduta; io soa essa che latto, 
madre, alla tua pria ch'ali' altrui ruioa." 

Come HI frange il sonno, ove dì butto *^ 

Ouova luce percote il viso chiuso, 
che fratto guizza pria che moia tutto : 


Sot mrasuriog mine with the tniHty steps of my Tbe 
Master, I issued forth from euch a cloud, to "^'' 
the rayc already dead on the low sham. 

O ^ntaiy, that at times dost ho snatch VB out of Bsdraplu 
ourseWeB thai we are conaciouB of naught, evtn "' ^•''■t'l- 
though a thousand trumpets aound about uj, 

who moTca thee, if the bcdjcs set naught before 
thee? A light moves thee which ukea its 
form in heaveii, of itself, or by a will that 
aendeth it down. 

The traces of her impiety, who changed her form Procw 
into the bird that most deJighu to siiig^ ap- in my fancy ; 
here my miod was eo restrained within itself, 

that from outside came naught which wae then 

received by it. 
Then fell within my lofty fantasy one crucified, Hamwi 

acor;iful and fierce in mien^ and even so was 

he dying. 
Round about him were the great Ahaiuerus, 

Esther his wife, and the just Mordecai^ who 

in epeecb and deed was so sincere. 
And as this fancy broke of itaelf, after the faabioEi 

of a bubble to which the water fails wherein 

it was made, 
there arose io my vision a maiden weeping sorely, Am&U 

and ahe was saying: "O Queen, wherefore 

through wratli hast thou willed to be naught Ì 
Thou hast slain thee not to lose Lavinia ; now 

Rie hast thou lost ; I am she that mouTD, 

mother, for thy ruin rather than for another^s." 
As sleep is broken when on a sudden dcw light 

strikes on the closed eyes, and being broken, 

qniters ere it wholly dies away ; 



■ tu CDS] 1' imaginar mio cadde giuoo, *3 

tosto eh' un lume il volto mi percosse, 
maggiore assai che quello eh' è in oOltr' ubo. 

Io mi volgea per vedere ov* io foBae, i^ 

quand' una voce disBC ; "Qui si monta," 
che da ogni altro intento mi rimosse; 

e fece la mia. voglia tanto pronta « 

di riguardar chi era che parlavaj 
che mai non posa, se non sì raffroota. 

Ma come al bo], chr nostra viata grava, S* 

e per loperchio &ua figura vela, 
così la mia virtù quivi mancava. 

^*Qgesti è divino spinto, che ne la SS 

via d' andar su ne drizza senza ptego» 
e col suo lume sé medeamo cela. 

Sì fa con coi» come T uotn sì fa sego : s* 

che quale appetta prego, e V uopo vede, 
malignamente già si mette al T>egOi 

Ora accordiamo a tanto invito il piede: «» 

procacciam di salir pria che s' ahbuì, 
che poi con si poria, ee Ìl di non rìede." 
StMtSi ai Cosi disse il mio duca, ed io con lui ^ 

itronslV volgemmo i nostri paesi ad una Beala; 
e tosto eh' io al primo grado fui, 

«enti' mi presso quasi un mover d'ala, ^ 

e ventarmi nel fÌbo> e dir : " Beati 
facijkif che Bon senza ira mala." 

Già crac jopra noi canto levati v» 

gli ultimi raggi che la notte segue, 
che le stelle apparivan da più lati. 

"O virtìl mia, perchè sì ti dilegue ì " l% 

fra me Jìteeso dicea, che mi sentiva 
k pOMa delle gambe poita in tregue 

CANTO xvrr 



80 my imaginsiion fell down loon ae a light t^lo^e 

OD my face, greater far thaa chat which is in 

our use. 
I turaed me to see where I was, whea a voice 

which reiiiDFed me from every other Intcot^ 

aoìd : " Here one aacendn '* ; 
aod it gave my desire Co behold who it was that 

spake. Such ea.gerae»s u txter reati until it seei 

face to face. 
Biit, as at the EUD which oppresses our sight, and 

veils his form by excess, so my virtue there 

was failing me. 
" This is a divine spirit, chaC directs us to the 

way of aaCent without our prayer, and conceale 

itself with its own light. 
It doeth unto us as a man doth unto himself; for 

he who awaits the prayer and sees the need, 

already lets him unkindly towards denial. 
Now accord we our feet to such an iavitadon ; 

strive we to ascend ere the night cometh, for 

then we conid not iipcil the day return." 
Thus spake my Leader, and I with him dtd 

turn our footsteps to a stairway; and soon as 

I was at the first step, 
near me I felt as 'twere the stroke of a wing, »nd 

my face fanned^ and heard one lay: "Beati 

patìfici who are without evil wrath." 
Now were the last rays whereafter night follow- 

eih 80 far risen above us that the stars were 

appearing on maay sides. 
" O my virtue^ wherefore doat thou pass away 

from me thus?" I said within mc, for I felt 

the power of my legs put in truce. 

All gel of 

Tbe third 

Bigbt la 


Hroaa IV Noi eraTam dove più non ssùm 1^ 

la scala BUf ed craTama aAiBéi^ 

pur come nave eli' alla pi^iiggia arrìVA; 

ed io attesi un paco s' io udissi 79 

alcuna cosa nel nuovo girone j 
poi mi voUi al maestro mio e dissi : 

'* Dolce mio padre, di', quaic ofFenMonc '' 

eì purga qui ne! giro, dove Kino ì 
Se i pie ai Etanao, non stea tuo sermone.*^ 

Ed egli a me : " ÌL* amor del bene, scemo ^^ 
di suo dover, quiritta si ri»toca, 
qui si ribatte il mal tardato remo. 

Ma perchè più aperto intendi ancora, ^ 

volgi la mente a nie, e prendergli 
alcun buon frutto di aomA dimora." 
I " Né creator uè creatura mai," «■ 

/ camincìò ei, "figlino]} fu senza Amore, 

' O naturale o d* animo ; e CU il sai. 

Lo naturai è sempre eeaza errore, 9* 

ma V altro puoce errar per malo obbÉetto, 
o per poco per troppo di vigore. 

Mentre f h' egli è ne^ primi ben diretto, 97 

e ne'*iBecondi aè acesso misuraj 
etntr non può cagioa di mal diletto ; 

ma, quando al mal ai torce, o con più cura "^ 
o eon meo che non dee corre pel bene, 
contra il fattore adopra sua fattura. 

(Quinci comprender puoi eh' esser conviene '"J 
amor semeola in voi d'ogni virtutc, 
e d' ogni operaz.ioa che merta pene. 
I Qr« perchè mai non può dalla laluce **^ 

/ amor del suo suggetto torcer viso, 
dall^ odio proprio son le cose tute; 





We stood where the stairway aBceaded no higher, Th« 

and were fixed even as a uhip which arrive» ■Iwtóftil 

oa the shore : 
aad I gave heed awhite if I might hear aught Ìd 

the new circle i then did turn me to my 

Master aod «aid : 
*' Sweet my Father, tell, what oSèoce is purged 

here in the circle where we are ? If our feet 

are stayed, vtay not thy dÌECDuise." 
A-od he to nic : "■ The loVe of gacxl Bcaitt of its 

duty» juflt here restores itself; here is plied 

again che ili-sUckeaed oar. 
But that thou mayeGt understand yet more 

plainly, turn thy mind to me, and thou shalt 

take gome good fruit from our tarrying." 
He began : " Nor Creitor, nor creature, my ViiarU 

Bon, wa» ever without love, either natural or ^r Lore 

rational ; and this thou knoweet. 
The Datura] is always without error; but the 

other may err through an evil object, pr 

through too little or too much rigour. 
While it is directed to the prim^ goodA, and in 

the secondary, moderates itself, it cannot be 

the cauK of sinful delight; 
bvt when it is turned awry to CTil, or speeda 

towards the good with more or less care th^n 

it ought, agaiu&t the Creator his creature works. 
Heace thou mayst understand that lore must be 

the seed of every virtue in you, and of every 

deed that deserves puai^hment. 
Now iuasiiiuch as love can never turn its face 

from the weal of ite subject, all things are safe 

from Klf-hatred; 




Otroue IV e perchè intender non bì può dmso, •"< 

~ e per fiè stante, alcuno esser dal primo, 

da [|uello odiare ogni alTetto è decìso. 

Resia, ae dividendo bene citìmo, "■ 

che il mal che i' ama è del prOBBimo, ed iasù 

^ amor nasce in tre modi in FOBtro limo. 

E chi per esser suo vicin sopprewo "^ 

spera eccellenza, e bo\ per quieto brama 
eh' e' sia di sua grandezza in basao messo ^ 

è chi podere, grazia, OQore e iama 
teme dì perder perch' aliri Bormonti, 
onde s' attrista sì che il contrario ama ; 

ed è chi per ingiuria par ch'adonti 
sì che si fa della vendetta ghiotto^ 
e tal coavàe'Ei cbe il male altrui impronti. 

Questo triforme amor quaggiil di sotto 

si piange; or vo' che tu. dell' altro iotende, 
che corre al ben cod ordine corrótto. 

CiascuD confusamente un bene apprende, 
nel qual ai queti Ì' animo, e dìsira : 
per che dì giugner lui ciadcun contende^ 

Se lento amore in liu veder vi tira, 
a luì acquistar, questa cornice, 
dopo giusto penter, ve ne martira. 

Altro ben è che non fa 1' uom felice ; 
non è felicitai non è la buona 
essenza, d* ogni ben frutto e radice. 

L' amor, eh' ad esso troppo s' abbaadona, 
di Bopra Qoi sì p^iange per tre cerchi ; 
ma come tripartito sì ragiona, 

lacciolo, acciocché tu pi^r te ne cerchi." 

1-71. S«« djagram on page 103. 
jS. Through the influence al the nlvrty or hj 
Divine wiLL 








.and because no being can be conceived as exist- The 
ing alone in ÌBolacion from the Prime Being, ''^^'^ 
«Tery affection is cut off from hate of him. 

It fbllowa, if I judge well in my divifiion^ that PemitM 
the evil we love is our neighbour's, and ihtB Lova- 
]ove arises in three ways io your clay. 

There is he who through his neighbour's abade- PiUb 
ment hopes to excel, and solely for ihiB 
deeires that he be cast down from his grcatness i 

there is hewho fcafa to low power, favour, honour Ehtt 
and fame because another is eKahed, wherefore 
he groweth ^ad so that he lovea the contrary; 

and there is hs who seems to be bo shamed through «mt Wm 
beitig wronged, that he becomes greedy of veti- 
geance, and such must needsseek another's hurt. 

Thi» threefold love down below ia mourned for : 
now I defiire that thou understand of the other, 
which hastes toward good in faulty degree. 

Eiich one apprehends v,iguely ai good wherein the 
mind may find rest, and desires itj wherefore 
each one strives to atuin thereto. 

If lukewarm love draw you towards the vision neCecUw 
of it Of the gaining of it, thi* cornice, after ^j^ 
due penitence, torments you for it. 

Another good there is, which maketh not men BxcottiTi 
happy J 'lis not happiness, 'tis not the good '■*'*" 
essence, the fruit and root of all good. 

The love that abandooB itself too much to this, it Avanco, 
mourned for above us Iq three circles ; but how ^ód^LiS 
it IB distinguished in three divisiona, I do not 
say, ia order th^t thou search for it of thyself.*' 

19-11- Procne's hutband, Tcreui, dishonoured her 
rfiter Philomela, and cue out her tongue, 10 u to 


ensure htf iìlwcc The injured pri, hawever, im- 
parted to her aiiter the knowledge of what hid 
happened by means of a piece of tapestry ; whereupon 
PlTQcne,. in a ffenzj', slew^ htr son ^Cj', and rn?.dt 
Tereui unwitcirgly pamke of hh flesh at table. 
On diicovering^ che truth he puriued iJi« jUtert with 
an sue, bent an 4a;tn;g^ them ; but at their prayer all 
three were ctLanged into bird». According tD Ovid 
(JVfff. li. 4 1 x-É^S^i whom Dante follows, Procnt 
beirame a nightingale, and Philoinela a Bwallow [we 
abave, Canto \x. 14, tj). 

2J-30. See Milhtr lìì.-tÌì. AhaatieruB, King of the 
Perfrianxn advanced Haman to high honour», till the 
Latter was aC'Cdsed hy Esther of having designs qn the 
Life ii Mordecai, "So they haoge-d Hajxian oa the 
callowa that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then waj 
Ule kiùg'* Vrttb paeificd" (/.f., vii, lù), 

H'lfj- L.aTinia, daughEer of Latinui and Amata;, 
wag nrit tetrothed to Turnu;-, and then promised 
to ^neas \ whereupon hoslilici-ei brake out bettreta 
tha Wo beroe*. In the eourie of these. Amata (wh* 


wu opposed to the marriage with Mneu), thinking 
that Tnmus w» killed (though, in point of foct, he 
wa* not yet slain) hanged nerielf in a frenzy of 
dcapair (JEm, xli. 595 /ff .)- 

6a, 63. See above, Canto tIì. 44, 53-60. 

68, 69. " Blesied are the peace-makeri : for they 
■haU be called the cbUdren of God " (Matt. y. 9.). 

91-139. A careful itudy of the Argummt, and of 
the fecond paragraph Id the « Note on Dante'i Purga- 
tory" at the close of this Tolume, will make uls 
ifflportant passage dear. See, too, Gardner, pp. 107 
and no. 

aanri iPanimo (w. 9S, 93)=coascious desire, as dis- 
tinguished from the unoonscious trend of inanimate 
bongs [both of which impulses are regarded as 
"loTen ; with these lines tf. Gmv. Ili. 3, and Par. 1., 
MpedaUy w. i iS-iXo. — m' frimi itm (v. 97), towards 
Ood and Tirtne; w' jwmd («. 98), towards worldly 


\ /IKOIL'S discourse hai su^gciied to Dante'i mil 
* ihe question an to- the nature of iove which tt 
group of poet* to which he belo!iig*d wefe inceugnti 
JlKUMing- Wonid VjigiL K*efi[ aa irrelevant 
ilippant A queitian Ofi thi« tub)pcc7 Or nEghc b 
(D^Dce) ulcc ihif unlqQ« opportuni 1 7 of learning dh 
true annwer ? C'*^)- Virgil e-ncouisgeft (fuetti o 
and th?n proceeds u aniwer ic Lore tmplics 
potential attraction to the lofed object, Wher first 
!i preienied to the mind, the mind gwaj^i toWardi I 
and then tht? experience of delight in cotnwianioa wll 
It confinns the original attraction ; and the desire ehi 
^vafc.ed ca.n only Eve atilltid. by fruition. Thus, vi'hJ 
the rapadty far love, that ii to say, eeneltivenesB 
general, ti the «ign of a higher or;^anifin, and therefa 
^rQ^, it is » profound mEsconEeption to regard 4vei 
act of lote aa itself good, «nee love ol ìqyos sort ia tl 
root af alL evU aa of all good ci^nducc (7-39J. Dam 
fO'llowG keenly ; but this univgrsality of lore as 
motive power, this necesaity of the preaenration froi 
without of its. object, and this jpontaneoiu tespon 
of the correj:ponding and pre-CKi^tiag làteot iinptlll 
within, leem to obliterate all merit or d'emedt (40-45 
VirgiJ ref'Cri to Beatrice for the linai aniwer, but di 
clares meanwhile that eiery human soul has a cena) 
lateilectnal and emotional constìtutìon (for which 
deiencB neithef praise nor blame) \s\ rirtiie of whieh 
cannot h«ip bclicriog the supreme eruthi(chc axiomi 

OKrvM IV Posto svfR. fine a! suo ragionamento 

r alto dottore, ed attento guardila 
nella mìa vista, 3' Io parea contento; 
ed io, cui nuova sete ancor frugava, 

dì fuor taceva e dentro dicea: " Forse 
troppo doma.Ddar, eh' io fo, gli grava-" 
alt. m 


vnà loving the tuprcmo fiwd (God). IntelUctuil 
ftierit begins ^lien we refuie to beitele tEiing» that 
prcKnt ChemKlves to ui wUh a apecioua appearance o¥ 
Enidi but cannai rvally be aflillate^l la the axiomt. 
AnJ )o moral in>erit begins when we refuse to love a.nd 
fallow things chat are spedouA]^ ariraci^lve but cannot 
be affiliated Co th« love of God, It U hot in loving 
God, then C«r1iich U natural to man), but in rejectEog all 
impuLsei which do not harmoniie widi that love that 
maa'9 moral freedom TÌndieattjii Itself; and it is thereiti 
ihat hia meril: consists (4'£-7J.) It la now near mid- 
night ; che moon hai been sùjne hoyrn Ab«ve the hori- 
lOQ, but being weU ad^^^anced in Scorpio, she has risen 
south of east, and has th-ereforu not yvt been visible to 
ihe poets who are fanng dae north, and who tommand 
no portion of the somhtm SÉ of the horizon ; 
sow the «merges from behind the moantalli (■fS-Si']. 
Dante i* dropping into a contented «tuinber, when he is 
re-awakened by di« ruth al the once slothful «ouli ; 
who will not susptTid their act of penaTi» even in 
order Co secure the prayers of the living which would 
huteti the fruits of their penitence; so they shout 
ibeir -direcCioEts and their answers to the questions 
they hare been ask.ed, together with clie rehearsal of 
«rcooraging: and warning; examples, as they hurry pant 
(9i-T3&') Then Dante *inka thfcugh 1 succession of 
changing' thoughts into dream and «Icep (139-145)' 

TKe lofty Teacher had put an end to his The 
argument, and wai looking intent tr my face, ^^^^ 
if L leemed satisfied ; 

aiid It whom a new thirst was yet tormenLing, was 
sileot outwardly,ard ■within said ; «Perchance 
the too great questioning which t make irke him." 



GIrau IV Ma quel padre verace, che s' accorte 
del cÌTTiido voler che dod a' apriva, 
parlando di parlare ardir mi porsc^ 

Ond* io : "^ Maestro, il mio veder s'avviva 
sì Del tuo lume, eh' io cEiaqeFQO chiaro 
quaat.0 la tua raglan porti o descriva ; 

però ti prego, dolce padre caro, 
/ che mi dimostri amore» a cui riduci 

agni buono operare e il iuo Contfaro." 

** Drizza," disEc, " ver me 1' acute kcì 
dello intelletto, e ficti m^mfcsto 
1* error dei ciechi che sì fanno ducL 

Lr' animo, eh' è creato ad amar preEto, 
ad ogni cosa è mobile che piace, 
tosto che dal piacere in atto è desto. 

Vostra apprensiva da esser verace 

tragge intenzione, e deotrù a VOI la spiega, 
«ì che TaDinio ad essa volger face. 

E se, rivolto^ in ver di lei ai piega, 
qu«l piegare è amor, quello è Daiuia 
che per piacer di nuovo in voi ei lega. 

Poi come il foco movesì ìo alcura, 
per la sua forma, eh' è nata a salire 
la dove più in sua materia dura: 

coal 1* animo preso entra in disire, 
eh' è moto Spintale, e mai non pota 
fin che la cosa amata il fa. gioire. 

Or ti punte apparer nuant' è nascosa 
la veritade alla gente, eh' avvera 
ciascuno amore in sé laudabiJ cosa] 

perà che forse appar !a Aua matera 

scmpr'eiter buona ; ma non ciascun ugno 
è buono, ancor che buona sia la cera.*' 








rBut that true Father» who perceiTed ihe stirink- Tjne 
ing desiiT -which disclosed not iiaelfj by ■••'*'^''^' 
■pcalcing put courage in me to *pcik. 
Wherefore I ; " Master, my vifiion is »o quick- 

tetied in thy Jight, that I discern clearly all 
th0t thy diocourne import» or deacriljea ; 
therefore I pray thee^ sweet Father dear, ttiat 

(thou define love to me, to which thou dojt 
reduce every good work and (tl opposite." 
"Direct," B3id he, *' toward* me the kern eyea m^ll 
of the underatanding, and the error of the blind y^ H4Mr 
who niake them guides shall be manifest to thte. <rf Lore 
The miad which is created quick to love, is 

IrcBponaive to everything that ia pleasing, soon 
as by pleasure it is awakened into activity. 
Your apprehensive faculty draw» an impressioo 
from a real object, and uiafoEds it within, you, 
to that it makes the mind turn thereto. 
And if, being turned, it ÌDcIinee towards it, that 
inclination ii love ; that is naturcj which 
through pleasure i« bound anew within you. 
Then, eveQ as Bre moves upward by reason of 
its form,, whose nature it is to ascend, there 
where it endures longest in its matenal ; 
so the enamoured mind falls to desire, which is 
a spiritual niovemenii, and never rests until the 
object of its love makes it rejoice. 
Now may be apparent to Lhee, how deeply the 
trutli is hidden from the folk who aver that 
erery act of love is in itself a laudable thing, 
becauae, forsooth, itJ material may seem always 
to be good; but not every imprint is good, 
albeit the wax may be good. 




Gli^iie IV " Le tue parole e Ì\ rata seguace ingegno," 
risposi liii, ^* m' banco amor dbcoperto ; 
ma dò m' ha fatto di dubbiar più pregno ; 

che, &' amore è di fuori a qoÌ offerto 
e I' anim» tioiì va con akro piede, 
se dritta O torta va, non è suo merto." 

Ed egli a me : ** Quanto ragion qui vede 
dirti posi' io ; da indi in là t' aspetta 
pure a Beatrice, eh' opera è di fede. 

Ogni forma Bu&tanzìal, che setta 
è da materia ed è con lei unita, 
speci5ca virtude ha in sé colletta, 

U qua) senza Operar dOQ è «entità^ 
né b1 dimostra ma* che per effettO) 
come per yerdi fronde in pianta TÌta, 

Però là cade TCgna lo intelletto 
delle prime notizie, uomo non sape, 
né de' primi appetibili l'affetto, 

che sono in roi, ii come studio io ape 
di far lo mele ; e questa prima voglia 
merto di lode o di biitsmo dod cape. 

Or, perchè & questa Ogni altra ai raccoglia, 
innata v' è la virtù che conBÌglia, 
e dell' asscBJD de' tener la soglia. 

Questo è il principio, tà onde ei piglia 
ragion di meritare in voi, secondo 
che baoni e rei amori accoglie e viglia. 

Color che ragicnando andaro al fondo 
B* accor&er d' eata innata lifaeitate, 
però moralità lasciaro zi nuondo. 

Onde, {>Dgaani che di neceaBitate 

wrga ogni amor che dentro a toì s'accende, 
di ritenerlo è io Toi la poteatate. 








^ Thy words and my attendant wit," I answered The 
him, " have made love plain to me, bat that * 
has made me more teemidg with doubt; 

for if loTe is ofTered to ua from without, anti tine 
ioul walks with no other foot, it it no merit 
of hers whether ahe go straight or crooked." 

And he to me z " So far as r^aEon bcch here, I Virgil 
CBD tell ihee ; from beyond that point* ever ldt**»** 
await Beatrice, for 'tis a mattar of fiiith. FreewiU 

Every substantia] farm, which is distinct from 
matter ^nó is in union with it^ has a B]x;c:iiic 
virtue contained within itadf 

which IB not perceived aave in operatÉon, nor ia 
manifested except bj* its effects, just as life ia 
a plant by the green leaves. 

Therefore rnan knowa not whence the under- 
standing of the lirEt cognitions may come, nor 
the inclination to the prime ohjecta of appetite, 

which are in you, even as the instinct in beea to 
make honey ; and this prime will admite no 
desert of pfaise or of bianie. 

Now in order that to this will cvcfy othet may 
be rcfated, innate with you is the virtue which 
giveth cctun^e], and ought to guard the thres- 
hold of assent. 

This is the principle whence is derived the reason 
of desert in you, according as it garners and 
winnows good and evil loves. 

Those who in their reasoning went to the 
found at io Ut perceived thts innate freedom, 
therefore chey left ethics to the world. 

Wherefore suppoie that every love which is 
kindled within you arise of necesstty, the 
power toarrent it Ìb within you. 





ane IV La nobile virtù Beatrice intende 7% 

per Id libero arbitrio, e p^rò guarda 
che l' abbi a mente, s' a parlar ten prende." 

La luna, quasi a meiza notte tarda, r* 

facea Le stelle a noe parer piìì rade, 
fatta coni' un secclhione che tutto arda| 

e correa contra il ciel, per quelle strade M 

che il sole iafì^Enina allor che qutl da Roma 
tra i Sardi e i Corsi il vede quando cade. 

E quell' t>mbra g^ntilj per cui si noma *" 

Pietola piti che villa Mantovana, 
del mìo carcar depoatoarea la soma: 

per eh' io, che la ragione aperta e piana 
sopra le mie questioni avca ricolta, 
stava com' uom che sonnolento vana. 

Ms questa jionnolenza mi fu colEa 
subitamente da gente, che dopo 
le Dostre spalle a noi era già volta. 

E qnale Ismene giz vide ed Asopo 
lungo dì sé di notte furia e calca, 
pur che i Teban di Bacco aveaser uopo : 

cotal per quel giron fruo passo falca, 
per quel eh' io ridi di color, venendo, 
cui buon volere e giusto amor cavaJca. 

Tosto fur sopra noi, perchè correndo 
bì mov^a tutta quella turba magna; 
e due dinanzi gridavan piangendo j 

"Marta corse eoo fretta alla montagna," 
e: "Cesare, ppr HOggiogare Ilerda, 
pun^e Marailìa e poi corse in Ispagna-" 

" Ratto, ratto, che il tempo non sì perda 
per poco amor," grida van gli altri iippresao, 
"che Kudio di ben far grazia rìnverda." 






Sjr the nobJc virtue Beatrice ilndcrstand^ FrcewilL, 

aod therefore, look that thou have thia in mind, 

if ihe betake her to s]>eak with thee thereof." 
The mooD, almott retarded to midnight, made 

the Stan appear more thin to as, fasJiioned 

like 0. bucket all burning ; 
and h'Cr course against: the heaTena waB on those 

paths, whichi the sun inflames, when they in 

Rome see him between the SairdiniaasaDd the 

Coreicans at his letting. 
And thai noble ttiade through whom PletoU it 

more renowned than any Mnntuan town^ had 

put off the burden I had laid upon him ; 
wherefore I, who had garnered clear and plain 

reason* to my questionings, stood like one 

who i* rambling drowsily. 
But this drowiineas was taken from me on a 

suddcD, by people who behind our backi had 

already come round to ug. 
And eren aB tscnenu* and Asopus saw of old a 

fury and a. rout along their banks by night, if 

but the Thebans had need of Bacchus, 
auchwise along that circle, quickening their pace, 

were Coining, by what I saw of them, ihoiie 

whom good will and juBt love bestride. 
Soon were they upon ut, because all that great 

throng was moTÌog at 3 ran; and two in frost 

vere shouting in tears : 
"Mary ran with baste to the hill country," and 

" C^Esr to subdue Herds, Slabbed Marseillee 

and then raced to Spain." 
"Haste! Haoce I let oo time be loat through 

little love," cried the others afterwardt, '(that 

striving to do well may renew grace." 





Tina VUi 



UroBe IV tt Q gente, in cui fervore acuto adeaao 
ricompie forse negligenza e indugio, 
da voi per tepidezza ia bea far messo, 

questi che vÌTe, e certo i» non vi bugio, 
vuole andar au, pur che il eoi ne riluca. ; 
però ne dite ov' è presso il pertugio." 

Parole furon queste del mio duca ; 
ed un dì quegli spirti disse : " Vieni 
di retro a noi, e troverai la buca. 

Noi fiiam di voglia a moverci sì pteiii, 
che ristar non potem ; però perdona* 
se Tillania Destra giustizia tieni. 

lo fui abate in San ZeoO a Verona, 
sotto lo imperio dei buon BarbaroMa, 
dì cui dolente ancor Milan ragiona. 

E uie ha già V un pie dentro la fossa, 
che tosto piangerà quel monastero, 
e tfisto Ita d' averne avuto poisa: 

perchè suo figllo) mal del corpo intero, 
e della mepw peggio, e che nisì Tiacquc, 
ha posto in loco di buo paitor vero. 

Io non eo se piìl dìese, o g' ei si tacque, 
unt' era già di là da noi traicorso ; 
ma questo inteii, e ritener mi piacque. 

E quei che m' era ad ogni uopo aoccorao 
disse : "Volgici in qua, vedine due 
venire, dando al]' accidia dì morao." 

Di retro a tutti dicean : " Prima fue 
morta. la gente, a cui il mar ■' aperse, 
che vedesse Jordan le erede sue "j 

e : " Quella che 1' affanno non sofferse 
6do alla fìne col ligliuol d' Anchise^ 
sì stessa a. vita aeaz^ gloria offene." 









CANTO xvrri 



" O people, in whom keen fervour now perchcilice 

dgth make good negligence and delay used by 

you through lukewarmQcsi in well-doing, 
this ace who Uvea, ^nd tatciy I lie not to you, dc* 

sires to ascend^ if but the sun shine to ub aggiri ; 

therefore tell us where the opening is near." 
These were my Leader's words ; and one of 

thoBe spirile said: "Come behind ub, and 

thou ihalt find the cleft. 
We are so jjllcd with desire to speed us, that 

Blay we cannot 5 therefore forgive, if thou hold 

our penance for rudeness. 
1 was Abbot of San Zeno at Verona, under the 

rvJe of the good Bacbaroaaa, of whom Milan 

yet discouTflÉs with sorrow. 
And one I know hu already a foot in the grave, 

who soon shall mourn becauseofthaCmoniisrery, 

and sad will be for having had power there ; 
because hig son, deformed in hi& wholt: body and 

worse in mind, and who was born in shame, 

he has put there in place of ita true shepherd," 
If more he said, or if he was silent, [ know not, 

so far already bad he raced beyond uh; but 

this I heard and wa» pleased to retain. 
And he who was niy succour in every need, 

said : " Turn thee hither, see two of them 

that come biting at sloth." 
Last of them ail they aaid : " The people for 

whom the sea opened, were dead ere Jordan 

saw its heirs "; 
and: <*That folk who endured not the toil to the 

end with Anchisc»' soni gave them up to a 

life inglorious." 


fbe Abbi 

dellii Su 

fii ilotn- 





I tv Poi quando fur da. noi canto dirise 

<fieìì' ombre che veder piò Don poter«^ 
□U070 pensiero dentro a me 8t nuK, 

del (^ua) più altri aac(]uero e diverti ; 
e tanto d* uno in altro rameggiai, 
che gli sechi per vaghezza rìcog>erai, 

e il pfDisameDCo in sogno trasirutai. 


11, ij. The apprehcniìv* faculty receives the im- 
presuDH (inienmimi) of the c-onciete thing, form and 
material alike (see the nob -□□ intemxii ia Fur, xxÌt. 75, 
for tii:M v/ttfà with a different lenae). According If 
Albertus Ma^us, '<the iot«nti<3n ie noC part of the 
thin? 13ke the form, but rather the appearance of the 
whole thirig A* apprehended," [Thtu, the fonn of 
a. statue would not he ilfected by the naiur« of the 
material — marble, bronze, &c. ^ but the IntenHon 
wgold], — C/. l'or. iv. 41, 4.t, noil. 

tg, /arwfa, i.i. Iti esKntial principle. 

^jo. The circle of fire, 

31. All ch&nge or Mtloa [) rcgjtnled In thtt AHi- 
totelian philoKiphy a» motion. The act of 1ot« ia 
a (piritual ai dUtinct from a Local movement. 

49, JO, These linei cctntalu a d^iSnltioi] ol the 
human saiiL Thomas Aquinas safs that "rational 
IQuU " arc " forms which are in a certain lepK 
leparated, but yet have to abide in material " ; which 
he explains by adding that the intellect b separated 
inaunuch a> it l« not "the aeC of i.ny hoJily organ, 
as the rimai power ia of the eye" (see below, Canto 
xitT. 66, noli), but ia nererchekjs the vital principle 
*f 3 (hiimati) body. ii^.. further, Bonaventura, 
"Spiritual subnancee [r,;, beingi} are either com- 
plettLy joined to bodiee, as i* the case with brute 
fouls, or i«in«d i^narabiy to them, at are rational milt, 
t>r completely ceparaced frani them, as are celerital 



Then, whca those shaiiea were bo far parted from The 
UK) ihal they could be seen do more, a new °* 
ihoughE was bci within me, 

wherefrom aizny and dircra olhers sprang ; and ^^*'. 
10 from one to another I rambled^ that 1 IsIiw^SmJ 
cioacd mine eyes for very wandering, and 
thought I transmuted into dream. 

■piHti, which the philoioplien call Intelligence, and 
wt ctU angeli." 

(1. A power specific ta it a.» a. human «out, i.t. 
beiun^ing to iM hum^n louU and to thein onlj. Thli 
specitic power t» that of the " posaJble intellect," 
betUf known to «tu den U of Engliih literature at Th« 
" diiGUiiiT-e ^ intellect, that ia, tJie iatelJect wlitdn 
proceeds conitmetiveLy from ttie known to the un- 
known, develop» luelf and paiiei liatn otic obiect t» 
Anodicr; ai distinct from che "intuitive" intellect of 
angels, which un^lericanda without proce» of thought 
«iid »mhrace« all ohjectj of con re in piaci on ac vncf 
(e/. Par. xxix. 3.1, 3}, Mrf<; X)t Men. i. 3: 45-65: 
CtMV. I'll 3: 34, 35 ; Parajiu Last, v. 4S6-490; and 
ten bclotr, Canto XICV. f,^-6è. itoti.'} 

56, J7. primt ritiÌKÌt = \ht primol Or supreme c«ji- 
ceptJaiM or notions = the ■txio'mip primi a/ipeiiiiii = fhe 
primal or supreme objects of desire = God, The 
plvral form is doubtl^-ai uieil bec^vie the SDpremc good 
HìUV present itself 10 misiy forma (goodnesir pertect 
and noble things, bleJsediUM, truth, tupreme ti. 
ift^ncr, lupreme unity, etc. etc.), but ^1 of these 
■'supreme objects of desire" ajre not rWaJs bat rayi 
meeting and coinciding in the focui, God. 

C3. Ought to be absolutt; master, whether the will 
x*««nt or disicot. 

73, 74- Note thai the Italian idiom reversei our 

own, (^, Vita Nurua,^ Jf): U mart ÌKiinda ptr CaMtlita, 

" by the beatt I inean the appetite," 

79-Ri, The letEiog of the •un between Sardinia and 
.Corsica cannot be actually awn froDi Rome, so tl^at 
fthe accuracy of this datum would depend 00 a rather 



(l4kbara.t« ciiculation, and waiild be licnic^d bj th( 
acciir3<7 of DanCe'i knovrìed^e at ch« exaicC latitude 
and LongituxJe of the places in qnesrioD. Th« modern 
a^tTonomeri give SagittftrEus, but SenvenUCo da. Imola, 
who perhap4 better reHecta the- «tate of knowledge ia 
Dante"» tiin*, giie» Scorpio as thie position of the moon 
indicated, The Utter agfee* wUh eur fither Ana. 

7J. Sec Par. «. 1^ ijf. 

33. Pietola is identical with the classical Andes, 
Virg'iil's birthplace. 

gi-93. The- ThebaD4, when iuToking the aid of 
Bacchili for their vineyards, were wont 10 crowd to the 
banks of the EsmenuJi and Asapuj, rivers of Boealia, 
atar Thebea (i/! Statlus, Thct. ix. 434. jjj). 

too. After the Aanunciàtioa. "And Mary aroic 
in those days, and went into the hill countiy w^th 

hutt!. Into a city of Joda " (Znti: i. 35). 

ici, loi- In order to save rime, Cisar left the siege 
of MarseilJes, -on whiiK hi had been engaged, in the 
hands of Brutus, and rushed off to Elerda (the modern 
LertJa.J id Catalonia, where he defeated Afraniui and 
Petreius, the lieuteniints of figmpej ^B.c. 49'.) Lucan 
(P/ioti. i. [ji-154), speaks of Czsar aa a thunder^ 


113-1x6. The speaks U a certain Abbot of Saa 
Zeno (a chnrch and monaiterj at Verona), probably 
Ohenriio IL, who died in 1117 (during the reign of 
Frederick BarbaroHA, 11 51-1 190 ; Milan watdeitroyed 
by the Emperor in 1162, and rebnilt in 1169.) He 
npbraida Alberto della Scala (d. 1501 : «. tii), for 
appmntlng hit illegitimate (ehtmal imcjw, v. i>j) and 
depraved son, Giuseppe, to the abbacy of San Zeno. 
Giuseppe held the office from 1S91 till 13141 lo that 
Dante may have known him during hìi first sojonm at 
Verona (i303-i304)- Fo'' ^e Delia Scala &mUy, see 
the table In the Infirma volume, p. 333. 

133-13$. The Israelltea who, after being delivered 
from Pharaoh in the Red Sea, still murmured and 
Rfnsed to follow Moses, whereupon they perished In 
the desert, before reaching the Promised Land (the 
Jordan s PakstineO See -£>• xiv- lo-xo ; Nim. xiv. 
1.39 ; Dnrf. i. x6-36. 

136-13S. The Trojans, whom JEneas left behind in 
SIdiy with Acestei — " as many of the people as were 
willing, souls that had no desire of high reiwwn " 
{Mm. V. 604 *fq.\ ^. C«iru, iv, x6: ^t'^ó, where the 
inddent is quoted in proof of .^neai' solldtude for 
eld age). 


A S FPOi"iiìri.g approaches Dante hai a vieiptl of che 
J* Sirea, wIidev filthineso Virgil, at the exhortation 
of 1 lady from ht;a«en, expaces (i-Jj)- Dante in touaed 
bj Vlrg'U's repeated summoDB. The oun ]s FuUy up, 
ud the pllgrim, deep in tliought, advances tl^ the 
next StaiCj where once again he fccll ihe breath ai 
tbe angel'a wing, and hears the blessing of chem chat 
mourn (34-51)- Dance it stil] plunged in his reTerìe-, 
from which Vjrgif rouaei him by qiiestJon, esplanatìon, 
and admoaltian. They who hare yielded to ih» Sirea, 
—foul but seeming fair,— -mmt expiate their offence» in 
the three remaining circles. Let Dante cread the earth 
like a man and raintt his «yea Co che hea-ven ahofc. And 
■o they reach the fifth circl-e. There the souls o( the 
aTj.rtaouA and prodiga] cleave to che pavepient, no 
longer in «ordid love, hut In th» anguished eense thzT 
they are uowortihy ti? look npon alight more fair; and 
the limbi which had bound themielTes on tarith. a re now- 
held ID hetplesi capcivity Cs«-7S3- VlrgU inquires the 
w^y, stld ffcm thefo'rm in which the answer ii ^ÌT«n 
Dante gachers the law of Purgatpry, hereafter to be 
moie fully confirmed, which permiU «ouU W pat» 
wilhouc delay or scathe through any circles of the 

Gli«fl« IV Nell* ora che dod può il Calor dìurco 
intiepidar piCl iJ fretldo della luna, 
vinto da terra talor da Saturno; 

quando ì guainanti lor maggior foirtuna 
vcggiono in oriente, innanzi all' alba, 
aurger per via clic poco le tu bruna.: 

mi renne in aogno una feniminEi, balba, 
negli occhi guercia e sopra i ptè distorta» 
con Iic man nionche, e di colore scialba. 

mounC vrlìvrtàa. Bini ite purged by (vhich they them- 
(elres are unttained. H« silently atks Virgil'i leave to 
jtiy and queetion the soul that has spoken (jS-ij) 
It is Pope Adrian V who f*r liticle OFCf Ji rttonth bore 
the -weight ai the papM m^ntJe, Scarce tglerabk- to him 
who would keep it froAi dehleme-nt; an^ in answer to 
Dante's tender entreaty he e'xpound* the nature of the 
penalties of this drclt. He himself had bevn given 
ti»e( tu avarice till he reached the summit of human 
grcatn«:»9, WW JM ersiptiaeii and turned in penitence Io 
Orni (Si^'il6). When. Dante !<peak« again. Adj-ian 
perceivet that h«has knelt down, in reveteriice Co Peter's 
lucceMor f whereon he bluntly bids him straighten hit 
Icgf, and explains chat no fnrtnsl or officiai poiìtion as 
TcìiXÌOB, however cìost or howeier august, has pÌAtt in 
the spirit world, where penonallty U «tripped of office 
(117- 1 3!,). Tiien he nrge» Dante to paas on and leave 
hia peaitence undi^Lurbed, making a reference ta hit 
niece who had married one of Dante'i future friends 
the Malaipini ; which refertnce the pilgrim may, If tie 
ID ehOtìic, interpret as a request for prayer» (01 the 
depirtwl soul (i]$'i45)> 


Id the hoot when the day's heat, overcome by The 

Earth or at timea by Saiufii, can no more 'lo'^oi 

warm the cold of the ruaon ; 
when tlie geomancerB see their Fortuna Major, 

rifiiog in the Eist, before the dawn, by a way 

which short time remiiins dark, to k, 
there came to me in a dre^m, a stuttering womap. Dante 

with eyes a&quint, and crooked on her feel, the^^en. 

with maimed hands, and of sallow hue. 




GirgoalV Io la mirara ; e, com'è il ar>l coaforta 

le fredde membra che la notte aggrava, 
COSÌ lo sguardo mio k facc2 scorta 

U lingua, e poscia tutta la dnzz^ava 
in poco d' ora, e lo smarrito Tolto, 
come amor vuol, cobi le coìoww^. 

Poi eh' eli' avea il parlar coaì disciolto^ 
comincia^va a cantar sì che con pena 
da lei avrei mio intento rivolto. 

" Io son," cantava,, "io son dolce Sirena, 
che i marinari in mezzo mar diemago ; 
tanto SOd di piacere a Sentir piena. 

Io voUi Ulisse del suo carumiD vago 
col canto mio ; e qua! meco %i a^ufa 
rado sen parte, al tutto ]' appago." 

Ancor non era aua bocca richiusa, 

(jaaodo una donna apparve santa e presta 
lunghcaHo me per far colei confusa. 

*' O Virgilio, a Virgilio, ehi è questa ? " 
6er.3mente diceva ; ed ei venia 
con gli occhi fìtti pure in quElla onesta. 

L' altra prendeva, e dinanzi 1' apria 

fendendo j drappi, e mostravatiii il reotre; 
quel mi svegliò co] puzzo che n' uscia. 

Io mossi gliocchì, e il byon Virgiho : " Almen tre m 
voci t' ho meBse," dicea j *' surgt e vieni, 
troviam ì' aperta per la qiial tu entre." 
uta aJ Sti mi levai, e tutti eran già pieni 

dell' alto di i giron del sacro monte, 
ed andavam col sol nuovo alle reni, 
juendo lui, portava U mh fronte 
ne colui che ì* ha di pensier c^rca, 
' ià dì sé un mezzo arco di ponte. 










I gazed upon her ; and, as the dUn comFoIteth The 

the cold limbs which night weighs down, bo "'" ', 

my look made reidy drea!ms 1 

her tODgue, and then net hfi full atraiglit in*^*''"^'^ 

■hon time, and her pallid face even a» JoTC 

wills did colour. 
When she had h« tongue thus loosed, she biCgan 

to sing, so that with d.tiHcuIty should I hare 

turned itiy .attention ffom her. 
•* I am,*' she aatig, " I am the eweet Siren, who 

leads rn^nners astray in mid-Be^, so full am I 

of pleaBantDcES to hear. 
I turned UtyBses from his wandering way with 

my song, and whoao livclh with me rarely 

departe, bo wholly do I Satisfy him." 
Her mouth was not yet shut, when a lady 

appeared h^ly atid alert alongaLde me, to put 

her to confusion. 
•'O Virgil, Virgil, who is ihis?" angrily she 

«aid; and he came with eyes ever fixed on 

that honest one. 
He seized the other, and, rending her clothes, 

laid her open in front and showed me her 

be!ly; that awakened mc with the stench 

which issued therefrom. 
I mmed my eyes, and the good Vtrgil said : 

"At \tut three calU have I uttered to tbee ; 

arise and came, find we the opening by which 

thou inayst enter." ' 

Up I lifted me, and all the circles of th^ holy Mamiiw 

mount were now filled with the high day, and d^t'^ 

■Wc Journeyed with the new sun a.t our backs. PiiTK&tofi 
Following him, 1 was hearing my brow like one 

that hath it burdened with thought, who makes 
' himself half an arch of a bridge, 



Sallt» al quanti' io udì' : " Venite, qui sì varca," 
°"* parlare in modo soave e benigna, 

qual noD ai sente in questa mortai marca. 

Con ' ali Bperte che parean di cigno, 
volficci io su colji che iì parlannc, 
tra' due pareti del duro macigni. 

Mosse le penne poi e Teprilanne, 
^aì iugmi affermando esser beali, 
eh' avran di consobr 1' anime donne. 

" Che hai, che pare tn ver la terra guati ? " 
la guida mia inComiil'Ciò d dirmi, 
poco ambo e due daìF Eingel Bormootati. 

Ed io: "Con tanu suspizioTi fa irmi 
novella Vman eh' a eè mi piega, 
ai eh' io non posso dal pensar partirmi." 

["Vedesti," disse, "quella antica strega, 
che sola aOpra noi omsi ai piagne ì 
vedesti come 1' uom da lei si slega ? 
BoBtici, e batti a terra !e catcagnc, 
gli occhi rivolgi al logoro, che gira 
lo Rege eterno con le rote magne." 
Quale il falcon, che prima ai pie si mìni, 
indi si volge al grido, t ei protende 
per lo diEia del pasto che la it tira : 
tal mi fee' io, e tal, quanto fi fende 
la roccia per dar via a chi va suso, 
n' andai tnfìno ove il cerchiar si prende. 
Girone V Com' io nel quinto giro fui dischiuso, 
vidi gente per esaO che pLangea, 
giacE^ndo a terra tutta volta in giuso. 

Beati' dir lor con ai alti sospiri, 
che la parola appena b' intender. 








when I heard: "Come, herr is the paaa," Th« ad^é 
spoken la i tose &o gentle and kind an is not "^ ^*^^ 

heard in this mortai confine. 
With outspread wingb which swaqlUe Beemcd, 

he who thus spoke to ua did turn u« upward, 

between the two walla of the hard atone. 
He Btirrod his pinions thcrt, and fanned at, ait^rin- The foartl 

ing qui lugcnl to be bleiaed, for they «hall ^eititaito 

have their bouIb rich in consolation. 
[»'Wbat aileth thee, that thou gazest ever to the 

ground?" ray Guide began lo say to me; both 

of U8 haviiDg mounted a Itctle above the angel. 
And I : "In auch dread I am made to go by a Doftte's 

atrange vision, which bends me to itself, so mfaim-d 

that I cannot keep me from thinking thereon." ty VLr^ 
" Saweat thou," he aaid, *' that ancient witch 

becsuBeofwhomalone above usnow cliey weep? 

Sawe&t tbou how man frees him from hcr^ ttist SuHice thee, and aputn the earth with 

thy heels, turn thine eye* to the lure which 

the eternal King epinneth ri9UG.d witb th» 

mighty ftpherea." 
Like the falcon, that fìrst gazes at his feet, then 

cuma at the call, and spreada hia wiiiga with 

desire of the repast which draws him iliere, 
8U£h 1 became ; and, far a« the rock ia cleft to 

give passage to him who mounts, eucli I weni, 

up CO where the circling i» begun. 
When i Was in the open, on the fifth circle, I The 

saw people about it who wept, lying on the *^ l'I* 

groutid all turne-d downwarda. prodiff»! 

" /tcUsaent pavimento amma men" I heard them 

«ay with such deep ligha that hardly were tht 

Words underatood. 






' Girone V ** O eletti dì DÌO, li cui soffrìri 

e giustizia e speranza fan ttifu duri, 
drizzate noi verso gli ahi Baliri." 

♦' Se Toì venite dal giacer sicuri, 
e Totete trovar la via pììl tosto, 
le Tostre dettre sÌcq sempre di fori." 

Cosi pregò il poeta, e ai risposto 

poco dinanzi a noi ne fu ; per cb' io 
nel parlare avvisai 1' altro nascosto, 

e volli gli occhi allora al eigsior mìo : 
and' egli m* assentì con lieto cenno 
ciò che chieder la vista del disio. 

Poi cb* io potei di me fare a mio bkitio, 
trassimi sopra quella creatura, 
le cui parole pria notar mi fecno, 

dicendo: "Spirto, in Cui pianger matura 
cjuel H^nza U qiia!e a Dio tornar non puoasi, 
sosta un poco per me tua maggior cura. 

Chi fosti e perchè volli avete i dossi 

al su, mi di', e se vuoi eh' io t* impetri 
coaa di là, ond' Ìo vivendo mosai." 

Ed egli a me : "Perchè i nostri direCrì 
rivolga il cielo a eè» saprai ; ma prima, 
tiiat qmd tgQ fui luCceitor Pttri, 

latra Siestri e Chlaveri si adimx 
una fiumana beSla, e del suo nome 
lo tìtol del mio sangue fa sua cima. 

Un mese e poco piìl prOva' io come 

pesa il gran manto a chi dal fango il guarda, 
che piuma sembrao tutte 1' altre Eome. 

La mia conTerELone', omè ! fu tarda ; *^ 

mij come fatto fui Roman Pastore, 
così scopersi la vita bugiarda. 





"O cboaea of God, wlioae Bufferings boih The 

justice and hope make Icag Sard, direct us ^^the 

towards tlie high ascenu." prodigal 

"If ye come secure from lying prostrate, and Pop" 

desire co find che v/3,y tnaet quickly, let your 

right h^ods be ever to the oubaicie." 
Thus prayed the poet, and thua a little in. front 

of OS wag answer madci wherefore I noted 

what else wms concealed in the words, 
and turned mine eyes then to ray Lord ; where- 
at he gare assent with glad tign co what th« 

look of ra.y dEsire was CraTing. 
When I could do with me according to my own 

mind, I drew forward above that creature 

whose words before made me take note, 
saving: "Spirit, in whom wt^eping xnature^ chat 

without which one cannot turn to God, »tay a 

while for me thy greater care. 
Who thou wast, and why ye have your backs 

turned upward, tell me, and if thou woulda 

that I obtain aught for thee yonder, whence 

livmg I iet forth." 
And he to me : " Wherefore heaven turneth uJura-tM 

our backd co itself frhalt thou know ; but first, ^^"*^ 

scio-i quod ega fui succeisor PeirL 
Between Seatri and Chiaveri flows down a feir 

river, and from its name the title of my race 

takes origin. 
One month, and lici!e irjore, I learned how the ] 

great mantle weighs on him who keeps it from 

the mire, ao that all other burdens seem feacliera. 
My CODVcrsiou, a.h mc ! waa late ; but when I 

was made Pastor of RomC] so 1 discovered 

the life which is false. 



Oi-oooV Vidi che lì non si quctaya il core, "9 

dÈ più salir potcasL in quella TÌtai 
I per che di questa in me a' accese amore. 

I Fino a que! punto misera e panita ■" 

■ da Djo anima fui^ del tutto avara ; 
I or, conie vedi, qui ne san punita. 

L Quel eh' avarizia fa qui sì dichiara *« 

^^L in purgazìon dell' anime converse, 

^^f e nulla pena il monte ha più amara- 

W Si come 1' occliia nostro non a' aderse *^ 

I in alto, lìsao alle cose terrene, 

I cosi giustiziai qui a terra il merac. 

I Come avarizia apense a ciascun bene »■ 

I !o nostro amore» onde operar jM-rde' gì, 

I C08Ì giuecixia qui strettì ne tiene, 

K ne' pitdì e eelk man legati e presi j «•* 

^^^ e quanto da piacer del giunto Sire, 

^^f tanto staremo immobili e discesi." 

■ Io m' era inginocchiato, e Tolta dire ; "? 
I ma com^ io cominciai, ed ei s' accorse, 

I solo ascoltando, del mio rìrerire, 

^^B •* Qual CTigion," disse, " Io giù cosi ti torse : " '3° 

^^^C Ed io a lui : " Per vostra dignitate 

^^ mU cOBcierza dritto mi rimorse/' 

^ "Drizza le gambe, levati lu frate/' *M 

^^ft rispose; "non errar, conservo sono 

^H teco e con gli alvri ad una potenate. 

m Se mai quel sanlo evangelico suono O* 

m che dice ■• Neqsu mibenl ' intendesti, 

I ben puoi veder pcfcb'' io co&i ragiono. 

■ Vattene ornai ; non vo' che piti t.' arresti, *» 
^ che la tua stanza mìo pianger dilania, 

^^L col qual maturo ciò che tu dicesti. 





that there the heart was not ai rcat, aor Tiie 

Id Onemoaat higher in that life ; where- ^^'jg"'*' 

love of this was kindled within me. prodieri 

thac moment, I waa a. soul wretched and 
ed fram God, wholly avariciouG ; noWj as 
I B«Bt, here 3m I punished for it. 

aTaricc^ works, here i» declared ia the The tonni 
;ation of the down-turned loulsj and no po^fabmeot 
e bitter penalty hath the mount eipJaJuoJ 

)s our eye, fixed on earthly things, did not 
itself On high, go here justice hatli aunk it 

aricc quenched oar Jove for every good, 
refore our work» were lost, so justice here 
I hold us hvt, 

and isciscd by Feet and hands ; acdso long ad 
all be die pleasure of the just Lard, so long 
I we lie here motionlefls and outstretched." 
koeciicd down, and was shout to speak ; The Pope 
IB I began, and he percdved my reverence d^^j 
;tv by liflteninEi reveMote 

„ f . , , . , tor bii 

Lt reason, he eaid, " Owm bent thee persia 
ai " And I to him ; " Because of your 
ity my conBcience smote me for Btandingi" 
e straight thy legs, uplift thee, hrolher," 
nswefed ; '"err not, a, feljowserrant am I 
I thee and with the others unto one Power, 
t ihou didlst ninderjtand (bat hallowed 
el Bound which «lith, ' Nequt nuicnl,' well 
t thou tiee why thus I speak. 
Et thee hence ; I deaire not that ihou Stay 
er, for thy tarrying disturbi ray weeping, 
reby I mature that which thou didst say. 





ClfODcV Nepote Ko 10 di là ch^ ha nome AJagta, 
buoQa da -sé, pur ch* la tiostm essa 
HOD faccia lei per esemplo matragia ; *■ 
e questa sola di là m' è rimaBa." 

1-6. An haiir h-efore dawn "when the last sEx 
A<iuai[ivi« and ttie first of fisce* wuuid ha»e risen, 
portiana of the -consLdlatian) [tidicate-d stay be 
Ctived in the form ! I " ■ ■ this bsing' tht t 
t-ermed Fortuna JUaJtfr In gecinaR<7(an 'OCCnit K 
by which events are predicted according to p 
pUci^d in certain podlioni]. Verse 3 refer» « 
coldnea; oÌ the earth before dawn, -and of the i 
Saturn fVirgil's Frìgida Strfurni . . . ttdUa., Geo, 
jj6; cf. Par. KvjU. $3, anil XXii. 1,^.6, wf^Ji takr 
when thii pEiinet is on the hoirixon. 

7.-33, SS-^3' Dante's second dream, that o\ 
Siren (l»^!!^!!»] Pieasure) h3« icfeience to the three 
that remain to be purged (v. f^); ava.nce, gluii 
and lust being iMmceiTeti as due 10 the wiles o\ 
Siren. Th* donna of v. 26 probably «Candì for the 
of reaaoji^ which iinitee with human wisdom (Vi 

vu. lS-31; cf. Inf. i. Sj, note) in nho-wipg I)4})C< 

emptiness of sensual delights. There is a. diliicul 
*. zi: for, according to Homer, Ulysses, of cc 
wlihatood che Sirens, Dr Moote suggests that Da 
knowledge ol the episode is derived from a passaj 
which Cicera, c-om,irenting on Homer'* Song oi 
Sirene, impties that lllys^es wai «nsnarcd by them 
finiimi, V. 18). For the rest, rf. In/, xxvi. J3-75 



See above, diagram on p. 13. 

51, "Blri»ed are thty that mourn; fot 

■hall be comlorced" {Matt. v. 4.J. 

73. " My soul dcafeth DIit« the diltt" 
Gxix. Ij). 

79, The speaker li Pop* Adrian V. (see below 
to V-. 97 jyy.> 



Adriani' ( 
alee e 

A niccc baTC I yoDder, by name Alagia, good Th* 
in herself, if but our house mak* her notaJIdth," 
e^il by nuample ; and «he alon^ ia left me p^dipal 

S4.. Th'ia line hai been much dIscniKd We take 
the " coociaJeJ " or "implied" thing, which wai In- 
TolTed In the dinct an*wcr t^ the i^ueiitEoo, to be a 
tcn^lation of the fact chat jauli are purged in as many 
cirtlt^ ai may be neceiMiT, but char «onie may past 
ffw Through «rlain circles, if tliey have no: been 
guIlTf ot (he sing purified in them. This is che first 
mijica^cion Id the poem of thig fact ; bat it ■> itlu«cratt4 
liter on by Scaiiui rising froca ihe circle of the 
Ataricious and maltinp hi» way icraight thTOUgh the 
tWr> that are left, pcrhap>i ddaf ing hi» CòUric somewhat 
for cbe lake of Virpil's. company (xiiv. 8, 9), but not 
retarded to endure the penalties of che cirdes. Dante 
IsM ilreaiir (fldJcated f*iii, tj^-Ejg} his &titicili)ICl0^n 
of the nifcessity of sinful bouLs bein^ pureed seTi-rally 
In the successive teira-ces, and Statius' conr»s]>cin. (xxi. 
6t • Kiii, i^j) ■ubff^qu't'ntly confirniB it, Qui t^iis Is 
fir^t passage wiiich indicates the- passi hilltj of 
hIh passing ttirough any circle without enduring^ ìu 
en al ties. 
97 taq. Ot t'abusino de' Fìeachi (of Genna^ who 
' j, while: Cardinal, buo sent to England as Papi] 
pte fi?6K), was ejipcted Pupe^, a» Adrian V,, on 
Ify la, 11-6, and died on August 18 of the »ame 
(■V. '03J' The FSeschi were Counts of Lavagna, 
I derived theit title from a little river of that name, 
fiowi inTo the GuLf of Genoa between Seitri 
^nce and Chiavari (vo. loo-i&i). Tht word* in 
(" Know that i was a euccetwr of Peter ") are 
in Latin, ai the i>fficlal language of the Church 

nan's niece-, Alagi^ (w, 141-14J), was the wife of 
ilo in. Malaspina (for whom tea above, Canto 
J- I 3^, aof!). Otic of her si^tteri, Fictca, married 
?p belonging to a liiffeTent branch af the Mala- 
^amily; and the aih«r, Jacogiina, was [he wife 
txo IL of EiM («e« iiboK, the tabin «i pp. 



IS^ a,n(I ^t, lEie oae Oppoiìte, aoid the aoe on p. 137 

of the Ih/traa volume), 

13^138. The Sadducee», having (old J«aus 9/ a 
woman who tiad mairried SL-vcn broiherg in tuccesiioo, 
and a^kcd him: "ThfreEore in the resurrt^ction nhoje 
wife ^hnll she be of [he ttVKix ? fCff thi;^ aJI had h«r. 
Ji!«u» answered and aaid unto thenir Ye do err, not 
knowing' the scripiureB, nor the power of God. For 
In :he resuriegtion chey neither marry, nor i<re given 
in marriage, but aire 4S the angel» of Gud in heav«D " 
(jlfuM. xxii. ij.go; Afdr-j xii, iK-zs ; Zmìc jcx. jj.35). 
The passage is usUi^lly (iikcil to refer specifiraLlf to ilie 
Pope as the tpouse of the Church {ff. Inf. xLx. j6, 57 ; 
i'lfi'^. amiv, as). But surely it may be taken with a 
wider reference, Mairiagt^ is regarded a the closeie 
instance of special relations which have some legal or 
oBicia.1 «anction oiEr and above the purtLy peraand 
re]4tipTi3 on which thty are based, or which spring 
out of ihem. All such nslations arc abolished in the 
jpiril world (^ P^iit. vi. 10, aad other passagei], 

141. The fmk of rcp«nt>ace (lee above, v. 91^ 







< ^ 





< s 

< '? 


S ^ 






— O m 

S 111 




UNWILLING to break ihort hi* confenace, bat 
more unwillmg yet huther to trespui oa the 
coBrteoua forbearaTice of hii in cerio cu tor, Dante puset 
ainitng the weeping louU, thraug'h who^e efes that 
curM of all tJi^ world ii diitillLng itself a.way 1 When 
will H>e come who shall chaie ttie ^obf of anarìce from 
mrthF (i-^i). Dante hears one of the prosCiatc sooli 
rehearse «xamplei of genercMis poverty (i6'-3S)i ^i><] 
learns chaC tie ii the ancestor of the royal line of 
Franw, rhe root -of that eril tree chat darkeni all 
the Christian knds fviih ita shadow. Cacn;[>ata[ÌTelf 
hannlsH in its earlier gtDÉtatkm», thU houi« had 
^th«red evL as it gathered strength^ hero and niat 
alike hare been its victims; it couched che lance of 

Gina*V Contra miglior voler voler mal pUgm: 

onde contra il piacer mio, per piacerli, 
traaai dell' ac-^ua con sa^ia la spugna, 

MoBsimi ; e il diicA mio BÌ moBse per li * 

lochi spediti pur lungo la roccia, 
come ai va per muro stretto ai merli : 

che la gente, che foiade a goccia a goccia ' 

per gli occbi il mal che tutto il mondo occupa, 
dall' aJtxa parte io Ttior troppo s' approccia. 

Maledetta .sic tu, fatica iupa^ **> 

che più di tutte l'altre bestie hai preda, 
per la tua fame senza édb cupa. ! 

O elei, nel cui girar par che ai creda "> 

le condizioa di i^uagjgiù trasmutarBi, 
quando y&ù. per cul questa disceda ^ 

Noi andayam con pasei tenti e acarai, ** 

ed io attento ali ombre eh' io eeatia 
pietosamente piangere e lagnarsi i 




Judu agaiCkgC Florcoccj id own Heah and blood 
Knd the ncred orderc of chivalry ar« alike rcgai-ded 
by it ftft chiagi to coin ; and ch« rery p«r9on 
of the VEcar of Christ has been crudfied by it 
while thieves were left alÌTe, At lueh deedt wratli 
would tgrturt the 4ivin< peace ìtKÌi were it not 
loothml by the prio*pect of vengeance {34--^6). Warn- 
ing examples «f avarice uttered at aight baUnFe the 
daily red Cat eon of the rirtuoiis counterparts (197-IJ3). 
The mountain naw ihakcs ai with an earthquake, and 
a mighty cry of ■' Glory to God ip the highest " riw* 
fr&cn all iti terra^'ei; startle-i and petplex^d by which, 
though bidden by Virgil not to fear, Dante swiftly 
pursuen bis path (124-151). 

Against a better will the will iighta ili, where- The 

fore, againat my pieasure, to please him, I 1^3. thf* 

drew the sponge from the water unfilled. prodig*! 

I moved on, and my Leader moved on by tlie 

free fipace&, ever along the rock, as one goes 

by a wat) eloee lo the batdenieata ; 
for the people who dÌGtill through their eyes, droj> 

by drop, the evil that fills the whole world, 

on the other aide approach too near the edge. 
Accuret be thou, ehe-wolf of old, that hast 

more prey than all the other beastSj for thy 

hunger endlessly deep! 
O heaven, in whose revolution it seems that 

cottditions here below are thought to be 

changed, when wiW he come through whom 

«he ahall depart? 
Wc wcQt Oil, with step* s3ow and scant, and I 

intent on the shades that I heard piteously 

weeping and complaining; 


Girone V e per ventura udì' : '* Dolce Maria," 

dinanzi a noi cihiamar così nel pianto, 
come fa donna che in partorir sìa ; 
e leguitar ; " Povera fosti tanto, 

quanto veder bì pud per quell' ospizio, 
ove Spatlesti il tuo portati] santo." 
Segueatemente intesi : **0 buon Fabbrizio, 
con povertà volesti anzi virtutc, 
che gran ricchezza posseder con tìzio." 
Queste parole m'eran si piaciuEe, 

eh' io mi trsHÌ oltre per aver contezza 
di quello spirto, onde pareaa venute. 
Essa parlava ancor della larghezza 
che fece Nlccolao alle pulcelle, 
per condurre Eid onor lor giovinezza. 
" O anima che tanto ben Svelle, 
dimmi chi fosti," dissi, "e perchè «ola 
tu queste degne lode rinaovelle? 
Non fia senza mercè la tua parola, 

s' io ritorno a compier lo c^mmÌQ corto 
di quella vita che al termine vola." 
Ed egli : ** Io *l ti dirò, non per conforto 
eh' io attecda di ìz, ma perchè tanta 
grazia m te luce prima che sii morto. 
Id fili radice della mala pianta, 
che la terra cristiana tutta aduggia 
ai che buon frutto i^do ee ne schianta, 
Ma, se Doagio, Lilla, Gua.nto e Bniggia 
poteaeer, tOEto ut saria vendeiia ; 
ed io la cheggio a lui clie tutto giuggia. 
Chiamato fui di la Ugo Ciapetta; 
di me sou uati i Filippi e i LrUlgt, 
per COL novellamente Francia è retta. 







34 S 

with tears 


[and by chance I herard oae in froot of oa calìiag The 

of Powei "_ 
a.nd Lib«r 




traYill J 

CTen as a woman 




continuing: "So pf>or wast thoa, as may 
be Hcpn by that hoatelry where thou didat lay 
down thy hnly burdens- 
Following I heard : '* O good Fabricius, thou 
didst desire to possess virtue with poTtrty, 
rather than great riches with Iniquity." 

These words were so plcaaing to nte, that I drew 
me forward to have knowledge of that «pirit» 
from whom they seemed to have come. 

It went on to speak: of the bounty which 
Nicholas gave to the maideas, to lead their 
youth to honour. 

"O spirit, that discouraest so much of good, 
tell me who thou wasti" aaid I, " and where- 
fore thou alone renewest these worthy lauds Ì 

Thy wordfl shall not be without reward, if I 
return to complete the short way of that life 
which is Rying to ita end." 

And he : "I will tell it thee, not for any solace 
that I expect from yonder, but because so 
much grace shineth in thee ere thou art dead. 

I was the root of the evil tree which over- 
shadows all ChriGttao lands, so chat rarely i« 
good frijit plucked thercfi-om. 

But if Douay, Lille, Ghent and Bruges had 
power, soon were vengeance ukcn (of it, aad 
I beseech this from him who judgeth all. 

Hugh Capet was I called yonder ; of me are 
bortl th'C Philips and the l.ewììes by whom 
of late France ia ruled. 






<i4»u V Figlio fu' io A' un beccaio di Parigi. 
Quando li regi antichi ycnner meno 
tutti, Rior eh' ìiD, renduto ia panni bigi, 

trOTaimi stretto nelle mani il freno 
del governo del regno, e tanta possa 
di nuovo acquiate, e sì d' amici pieno, 

eh' alla corona vedova protnoBsa 
la testa di mìo figlio fu, dal qu^Ee 
cominciar di costor le sacrate ossa. 

Mentre che la gran dote Provenzale 
al saligne mio non tolse la vergogna, 
poco vaJea, ma pur Don facea male. 

Lì cominciò con forza e con menzogna, 
la SUA rapina ; e poscia, per ammeoda. 
Ponti e Normandia prese e Guascogna. 

Carlo venne in Italia, e, per ammenda, 
vittima fc' di Curradlno j e poi 
ripinse al ciel Tommaso, per ammenda^ 

Tempo Tegg' io, non molto dopo aDCOÌ, 
che cragge ud altro Carlo fuor dì Francia, 
per far conoscer meglio e sé e 1 suoi. 

Senz' arme n' esce solo e con la lancia 

con la qual giostrò Giuda ; e quella pgnta 
si, eh' a Fiorenza fa scoppiar 3a pancia. 

Quindi non terra, ma peccato ed onta 
guadagnerà, per eè Eaato più grave, 
quanto piìt lieve strail danno coma. 

L' altro, che già uscì preso di nave, 
veggio vender sua figlia e patteggiarne, 
come fanno i corsar dell' altre schiave. 

O avarizia, che puoi tu più farne, 

ptHcii eh' hai lo mio sangue a te si tratto, 
che non bì cura della propria carne ? 











Son was I of a butcher of Paris. When the 

ancieot kings came to an end, al] save one 

given over to grey garmenta, 

fourd tight in my hands the reins of the 

goveronient of the realm, and eo much power 

from new poasesaions, and so rich in friends, 
lat to my son's head che widowed crown was 

promolcdf from whom beg^ the consecrated 

bones of those. 
lO long an the great dowry of Provetice had. DOt 

taken shame from my race, it was of litttle 

worth, but yet it did no evi!, 

here hy force and fraud its rapine began j 

and then, for amende, Ponthieuand Normandy 

it seized, and Gascon y. 
Charles came to Italy, and, for amends, made a 

victim of Conradin ; and dien thrust Thomas 

back to hcaveiii, for amends. 
, time I see, DOC loQg after this day, that 

brings another Charles forth from France, to 

make both him and hie better kcowti. 
brth he corner, alone, without an army, and 

with the lance wherewith Judas jousted ; and 

that he couches so, that he makes the paunch 

of Florence to burst. 
fheace shall he win, not land, but sin and 

ahame, for himself so much the more grievotUf 

as he the more lightly counts such wrong. 
The other» who once came forth a captive froill 

a ship, I see selling hia daughter, and haggling 

oTM her, as pirates do with other bondwomen. 
D avarice, what more canst thou do to us, since 

thou bwt so drawn my race to thee, that it 

hath no care of its own flesh Ì 


and tl]« ! 
prodigAJ ' 

Tlie 1 



of Anjoti 


the Luse 



GlniaB V Perchè men paia il mal futuro e LI &tto» 
veggio in AlagE3 eatrar lo fiordaliso, 
e nel vicaria SUO Cristo esser catto. 

Veggìolo un' altra vetta esser deriso ; 
Teggio rinnoreIJar 1' aceto e il feIe^ 
e era tìtì ladroni esser anciao. 

Veggio il QUOTO Filato sì crudele, 
che ciò no] sazia, ma, sen^a dccretOi 
porta Tiel tempio !e cupide vele- 

Signor mio, cjuando sarò io lieto 
a veder la vendetta, che, oascosa, 
fa dolce I' ira tua nel tuo segreto ? 

Ciò eh' io dicea di quell' uoica sposa 
dello Spiriw Santo, e che ti fece 
verso me volger per alcuna chiosa, 

tant' è risposta a tutte nostre prece, 

quanto il dì dura; ma, quand' e' a' annotta 
contrario auon prenderne in quella vece. 

Noi rìpetiam Pigmalione allotta, 
cui traditore e ladro e p^tricid^ 
fece la voglia sua dell' oro ghiotra ; 

e la miseria dell' avaro Mida, 

che segui alla s-aa. domanda ingorda, 
per la qtial sempre convien che sì rida. 

Del /olle Acain d^scuu pChi si ricorda, 
come furò ìe spoglie, si che I* ira 
di Josuè qui par eh' ancor lo morda. 

Indi accuaiim col marito Salirà; 
lodiamo ì catci ch^ ebbe Eliodoro ; 
ed in infamia tutto il monte gira 

Polioeatar eh' ancien Polidoro, 

Ultimameote ci si grida: 'Crasso, 
dicci, che il sai, di che sapore è l' oro i ' 








that the ill to come and past, itiiy "^*rtd*ui 
JCcm less, I «e the flcui-de-lys enter Alagna, J^d th» 
and io hi» Ticar Christ madt capttTc. prwitjiJ 

A Kcond time I see him mocked -, I «ee ihe the f^, 
vinegar and the ^ii\ renewed, and him siain Jj^^","^ 
between living thieves 
I we the tew Pilate eo cruel, that thia uteth 
him not, but, lawlessly, he bear» Kw greedy 
sails into di* temple. 
O my Lord, when shall I rejoice to see the 
_ veDgeance, which» being hiddto, malteth sweet 
• thine anger in thy eecret counsel ? 
^that I was saying of that only Bride of the 
Holy Ghost, and which made thee turn 
toward me for some glaai, 
BO raucli is the answer to all our prayerB, aa long EMmplM 
as the day laste; but -when the night cometh, |^,_ 
a contrary Bound we take up instead of that. 
Then we rehearse Pygmalioii, whom iriBaliate Pyicmalien 
lott of gold made traitor, thief» and par- 
and the miierjr of the avaricloUB Midas, which «1<1»« 
followed his greedy requeat, because of which 
'tfa right we forever laugh. 
The mad Achaa then each odt recalls, how be *«*" 
Btolc the spoils, so that Joahua'a wrath seems ^ 

here yet to bite him. " 

TheT, we accuse Sgpphlra and her huabaad ; we s*^^^" 
praise the kicks which Heliodorua had ; and a|id.^^^^^ 
all the mount doth circle in infamy 
Étfolymnestor who slew Polydorua. Last of all ^^^.-^ 
Kbere we cry: 'Cras3U3, tell us, for thou c- 
^■^kjnst, of what «avour la gold ì m 






CHfoaeV Talor parla V un alto e T altro bas&o, 

secondo !* aJFezian cW s. dir ci sprona, 
ora a. m^^ggiore, ed ora a nuDor pasao ; 

però al bea che il dì ci eÌ ragioDa, 

dianzi non er* io sol ; ma qui da preaao 
non alzava la voce aJcra peraona.' 

Noi eravajn partiu già da esso, 
e brigavaTTi di soperchiar la strada 
WMu, quapto aJ podcr n' era permewo ì 

quand' io sciiti', come cosa che cada, "' 

tremar lo monte : onde mi prese un gelo, 
tjuat prender auot colui che a morte Tsda. 

Certo non sì scotea bì forte Deb, ^*' 

pria che Latona in kì facesse ìl nido 
a partorir li due occhi del cielo. 

Poi cominciò da tutte parti un grido ^^ 

ta! che il ntaestro in ver di me si feo, 
dicendo: "Non dubbiar, mentr' io ti guido." 

•* Gloria in excehu" tutti, " Deo** «1* 

diceao, per <iuel eh' io dai' vicin compresi, 
onde mteuder lo grido si poteo. 

Noi ci restammo immobili e sospesi, 

come t pastor che prima udir quel canto, 
fin che il tremar cessò, ed ei compièsi, 

Fpi ripigliammo nostro cammìn aanto^ 

guardando 1' ombre che giacean per terra, 
tornate già in su l* usato pianto. 

Nulla ignoranza mai con tanta guerra 
mi fé' desideroso dì sapere^ 
sc^ la. menìoria mia in ciò non erra, 

Quanta pare' mi allnr pensando ayere; 
né per la fretta domandarn' er' oso, 
né per me lì potea coaa vedere : 
così m' andava timido e pensoso. 'S* 










Sometimes we disCourSE, the Due loud die other Tb« 

lov, according to tllie impulse which spurs ds to ^J the 

speak, now with greater, now with lesser force> vcoHg^l 
therefore at the good we tell of here by day, 

I was not alone berore, but here, near by, no 

otlier person was raJBing his voice." 
We were already parted from him, and strÌTlDg 

to Burmouat the way so far as waa permitted 

to our power, 
when I fttt the mountain quake, Hke a thing ^o 

■which Ì& falling ; whereupon a chÌ!I gripped stwkH 

me, as is wont to grip him who is going to deadi. 
Of a surety, Deloa was not shaken so violently^ 

ere Latona made her neet therein to give 

birth to heavto's two eyes, 
Xhen began on all sidea a. ihoat, auch that the 

Master drew toward me, saying : " Fear not 

while I do guide thee." 
** Gloria in excehit Deo** all were saying, by 

what I understood from those aear by, whose 

cry could he henrd. 
Motionless we stood, and in suspense, like the 

«hepherds who first heard that hymn, uctil 

the quaking ceased and it was ended. 
Then we took up again our holy way, Eooking 

at the shades, tbnt lay on the ground already 

returned to their wonted plaint. 
No ignorance, if my memory err not in this, did 

ever with so great assault give me yearning 

for knowledge 
aB I then seemed to have, while pondering ; nor 

by reason of our haste was I bo!d to ask ; nor 

of myself could I see aught there; thus I 

went on timid and pensive. 



3, lo-IJ. The mal and the aitiha lufut an, of COUIK, 
Avarice (a«e !af. i. 49-60; 94-soi); while the de- 
lÌTCf^r anxìausiLy alluiled ta in v. 15 eorrcsponds co 
the vltrn pf /n/i i. iOE-I > >, ttioueh the indication here 
Is leaa defmitc than In [he earlier passage— peihapi 
becauK Danre wai beg'inning; to lo^e hnpe at the time 
of the compoBition of the picaent Canto? 

ij, 14. See above, Cinto ivi. 67 tyj, 

19-24. "And the brought forth her first-born »on, 
and vrrapped him in ewaddling clmhes, and laid hln 
ia a. tnanger ; becadie there W4i Ho twjin lot theCn In 
the inn" (Luii ii. 7). — With vv, 19-11, cf. Par. at, 

IJ3.IJ5, and nolt. 

1S-Ì7. Caim Fabriciti*, th* Roman Connal (*■& 
iSi) and Censor (175), refused the gifts of the Samnitej 
□n tectling teriris of peace with them, and, ftubsequentif, 
th* bribe* of I*jTrhiL«, K.ifl|; oi Epirea, when negotiating 
with him eonceraing an exchange of friends. Virgil'i 
words in this conncccinn — parumfur petnrtfm Faii-hìum 

f^^n. TÌ, 844) are qaotcd in the Hi Man. ii. J ; 90-99 ; 

and in the Cam. iv. j; ityj-iia, there \a a furlbef 
^oiLon to PabrtcLUB' refusal of the bribes (here he It 
incntJon«<J tojathet with Cutiai Dentatui 5 u by Lttcan, 
Ffurj. X. 151, who quotes the pair for their simplidtj 
of mannera and contempt of luxury — d nomina faupcrù 

ttvì J^alrrUÌBj Gvriojoijt pravei\ 

51-33. Nicholas (fourth century. Bishop of Myr^in 
Lyeia) saved the three daughter» of a fellow- towns man, 
who was in diJ* S1t3Ìt« of povcrtj-, frotn leading li»ei 
of ihanif', by eecretly throwing into their window at 
night bags of gold, which serrcd them as dowries and 
enabled then» to rnarry (»« the l,egtmi« Aarea itxd Brtf. 
Rom. ad 6 Deeemb.). 

40 tjq. The tpealier is Hugh Capet, King of 
France [987.99Ì] ; but a» jome of the details giwd by 
EhioCG can «pply i^xilj to hi» fether, Hugh the Great 
[Duke of the Pranks, etc., and CotJni of Pans, 
d, 956), It is plain that the poet has confused theK 
two personage*. In v. j2 we find a tegend very 
generally accredited in those day», but always referred 
Co the father, ntTcr trt the son. Vct«s 53-59 state that 
when the Carlovingian dynasty came to an end (with 


LduìI v., d, 9^7), Om *p«>ik«r'4 ton ItKccéded, whereai 
in reality it wa« Hugh Capet himself wh» aucceeded. 
And it wu Hugh Capet who founded iht Capctian 
ijiiMtj (w, 59, 60), not hJB «on and lucceiior, 
Robert L 

46-4S. The treadiery of Phtlip the Fair and hii 
fcrothcfChariiaof Valoii tawardu tht Countof Fland^ri 
in 1399 (Viilam, vjii, ^ij was 3*Mig^ed three ypan 
later at the battle of Courtmi, In which the French 
were completely routed by che Flemish fVUIwiJ, *UÌ. 

50,51. Between the year" !o6o and 1300, the French 
throne wai occupied esdusiieiy by fourPhiJIps (l.-IV.) 
and foUf Loci» (yi-lX.), 

54. Wh«n Louie V, died in 987 without children 
thci-e was only dfif: formidable Carlovljigian Uft — 
Charles, Dulie of Lomixie, the ion. of Lani* IV. Hugh 
Capeit, leeinig the danger, promptly had him put into 
ptitoti, whcic he died in 9^1. D&nte i» wrong In lay- 
ing that Charlea waa a monJn ; there ia probably a con- 
fuiion with Childeric Ell,, the Late of the Meruving!an«, 
who was deposed inyjl and ended his dajs ip a tonvent. 

61, After the death of CoUHt Raytnotid B^rtngar 0/ 
Provence, Charles I. ni Anj-ou married, in 124.6, his 
daughter, Bratrin, who had inherited the county (im 
Above, Canto vii, ni, and Par. vi. 1*7-141, nalfi), 

6^, Xote the irony of the f*r aBimiaJa, ihrice re- 

>6G> A reference IÙ the Engibh chrooicle* and 
hiitoriei will ihow that Dante does not adhere itrktiy 
10 titf oorrecc chrnnolngy in this line, and that the 
origin of thediffereuoe» between the Ftench andEngliik 
Kinga alluded to goe» back bo a date earlier than that 
of the FT'"! Ate priniaiiaii. Howe-ver, tie ii right in all 
the eucntial fact», wbicli held good, as stated by him, 
for manp years, Thue, Villani 1371 that Edward 111., 
whca on tlie point ■C'f invading France In 1346, told 
hi* baron» that the French King " wa< wroegfuH/ 
occupying Gaicany^ and the county of Ponthieu, 
whicb came tP him [Edward] with the dowry of hii 


mother, anJ chat h>e was holding Normandy by fraud" 

fiy, ■68. For Charlei of Aojou'i eyp*Jitien to iLlly, 
leu abave, Canto ni. io]-i45, »ale: oxid for the batcU 
af Tagliacozzo, in which he defeated Conndin, th« 
lait oF th?, nee Inf. xxviiL c-^, iK, fufr. Or 
Oct. 19, iiGS, two inPDChj ^ter hLa defeat, Con[a<3ia, 
who was In Nil KTent«enCh jear, irai beheaded by 
Cbarlei^ Qiòeiè. 

69. Danu here fo-Llovve a popular but erroneoui 
craditian (^ee ViUaiii, ix. 218), according to which 
Thomas Aquina», whiile proceeding to the Council of 
Lfoni in 1274., wai poisoned id ihe Abbey of Fojia- 
DuoTa, at the instigatioii of Charles of Anjou. 

70-78. Charles of Valois, the brother of Philip the 
Fair, entered Florence, -witti tome noble» and 500 horsC' 
men (». 73), on November i, 150T, and teft the city on 
April 4^ of [hs foUowing vtar. For the sDceeai of th« 
fiUcka oTtrt the Whites, whicli was «oldy due to the 
Favour he ireachcHnisly (w. 73, 74,) showi^d to the 
former party (at the instigation o-f Boniface VII]., who 
had sent him to Fivrence o>ten?ibly a»" peacemaker "), 
Bee- Inf. TÌ. S4<G9, mtr, and Gardner., ^j», 2i<aj. ChaTles 
wat nicktiamed Sejisaierra = '^'Laek-ìanà" (^v, '^6)t per- 
haps because of the ignc^minione^ J^iLute of his expedi- 
tion CO Sicily In 13QI, or because he was a younger 

79-84. While Cbarlc4 the Lame (see abore, Canto 
tH. H4-119 ; Par, vi. lofi-ioK, niiti, etc.) was iissiBiiog 
his father, Cliarlea I. of Anjou, in his futile attiempt to 
ireCOver Sicily, he was defeated byE.<>gerdi Loria, the 
admiral of Peter III. of Airag^n, and taken prisoner 
fjTmeii84). In 1 joj he martiedhi^ youngest daughter, 
Beatrice, to A«o Viri, of Este, who wa,» her «en]or by 
many year». We have no record of the monetary 
transaction which excited Dante's wrath. 

i^-qQ, For Bonìlàce VliL (the cause of inoit of 
Dante's troubles, whom the poet invariably condemns, 
but whose death !b In the ptvsent passage tr^ted 
at an outr4g« on the Holy Scc) sec Inf. vi. 69, xix. 
51-57, aiTii. 70-ni; Parg. Tiii. 131 (?}, ixsiL ijo, 

axxiii, 44; Par. vii. 15-17, 9Q1 xvii. 4j-$E, xxTÌi, 

il-2f, xxx. i4ti-t4S. 




"Sclam Colonna and Williun de NògareC, [the vhii 
ladraaif v. 90] in iHe name of Philip the Fair [ttie 
f^ntalii", V. S6] icizcd hoiùÌAùt VIH. at Anagtii [the 
Pope-'s btrchpiace, about forty mi9«4 5. E. of Rome] 
■nd Irealed the oCd P-ontifT whh mch barbarity that 
I he died at Rome iip a few days, October uch, ijoj" 
(Gardner,^. z6j g» Villani, viii. 63.), 

^1-93. Philip the Fair (who la caLied nvav Pilaia 
because he ddivered Bonirarc to hi» -enemies, the 
ColoimeitU csen %t Pilate ddifercd J«»Hi CO the will <it 
ehe Jews) cauied che Order of the Templara to be per- 
Mtute^, from the year 13,07- According' to Villani 
(vlii. 91)1 n>any people h«]d that the a-ccuiations levied 
agaiiiLst chcm were unjust, and prompted only by die 
deiirt to obtain their treasure. 

94.9£. Cf. Par. xxii. 16-1.8. 

I 97-55 and iiS-iaj. Hugh it answering Cante'i 
qneitton contiiined in w. 35, ^■fi gtici relating to the 
example drawn from the fife of Mary (v. 19 j^;.). 
among others. 

I io^iqq. According to Dr Moore (sec ahorei Casta 
lit 15-17, loi'), the group» of the «xampl«t ftf tì«, on tbìj fifth terrace, marked off by "putting 
together two or more in-stancej from Profane and Sacred 
Hi»[ary rciJ^tetÌTely, inatead of inilcing the instaneei 

1173-1105. Pygmalion, the brother of Dido, and 

I mitrderer of her husband (their uncle), Siehaeui ; " He, 

iHLpiOUir XbA blinded with the toieofgold, having talten 

Sichaeue by surprise, secretly asAasBinarea him before 

the altar, regardless of hii lijti^r'g great affection " {Mi. 

I9<S-tg3, QaccKus waa to gratefiil to Midan, King 
of Phrygia, for the kindness he had shown to his friend 
Silenus, that he promised to grant him any requeit- 
Midas wished everything he touched to be turned la 
gold, but sotin bn^gged Bacchus to relieve him of thii 
privilege, wheti he foilnd thaC e'^cn hil food chuig'ed 
into the precioui metal. It ii somewhat strange trial 
D&nte should consider this incident laughable; the 
«nlj KI1II7 fuBfiy thing About Midu (which however, 



kv norliing to Aa with greed of gold) being the aiies' 
cart, that were be»tow«d on him bj Apollo, for pre- 
tunning to decide sgainst him and m bvour of Fan 
after a. singing COntcSt. (Sm 0«id, Mel. XÌ. lùQ 'pf.). 

lo^-iti, At the capture of Jericho, Joshua ordered 
all the ireasure to be eoii«eCcated tc^lheL«rdj which 
decree having been disregarded by Achan, he and hij 
familf weit ttORtd and burned (Jui. ri. 1$, and 

II a, After the Apostk-ii had preached tO' the people, 
" the multiiufie of them that believed were of one he&rc 
ifid of one aoul : neithei* said any of chem that ought 
of the thingi which he po^aeued wsi his own ; but 
they had all thing) common . . . and great graee wvi 
•Qpan tb^m all, Neither wai there anj among' [hem 
that lacked : for a« many as were po^sciiori of lands or 
houaes gold them, and brouj^itr tlie pricea of the tilings 
that vtere lold, and Uid thciii down it the apo&t]es' 
fece : and dittribution wx4 made unto every man ac- 
cording aj h\i had need. And Joiea , , . having land, 
told it, and brought th« money, and Laid it at the 
apoetLee' feet. 3ut a certain man namuil Amaniu, 
with Sapphira his^ wife, 3old a poatesaion, and kept 
back part of the price, ili» wife aSaO being priry to it, 
and. brought a certain pan, and laid it at the apottlei' 
feet." Ananias and his wife were rehnked by Peter 
for their hyppcriiy, and fell down dad, (Sec Atli ir. 
31-37; ». i-ii.) 

1 1 3. Heliodoru«, the trea»urer of King Seleocus, 
having gone with his guard to the Temple of Jerusalem, 
to remove the trearars, " there appeared nmo th«in an 
haree w£th a terrìbile rider upol^ him, and adorned with 
a tery fair coTering, and he rati fiercely, and smote at 
HeUodu'rus with hlit forefeet, and It wemed t}l4t be 



^K ihtt tat vpcn the horse had complete harneii of gold " 

iij. "Thi* Polfdore unhappf Pri^ini Kad formerij 
Knc In Kcrecj, with a great weight of gold, t(t be 
brought Up by che Kljig of Thrice [PoJymnieiW]-]!, 
when he npvr began to di*tnut the arm* of Troy, And 
taw the city with cLow akge blocked up. He, aj loon 
a» ih* power of the Trojanj was cnwKtd. and their 
fortune gone, espousing Ag3,nieninan'a inCrr^^t and 
rictorious afm«, brtaIcK every n-cred bon<3, ast^iiiin.iki«i 
poljdore, and bji VLoleacc poisexiei hji gold, Cuned 
thirst of go3d, to what do» thon nm drive the hearti 
of men I " (jSjì, iir, 49 t^f.) 

11&, 117. Marcui Licìniui CrasKUi^ surnamed Ifivu, 
tbe Wcaltl^y, was irìurnfji with Czaar and Pqmpey, 
a.c. 60. He Wit iq notorioui- for hh love of gold, that 
when he had been ilain In a battle with the Parchiani, 
theic Kinff, Hyrodei,haJ molten gcild poUred down hi* 
rhroBt. Flonai {Epilamt, ili. 11) nyi lliM hU head 

, . . hnJiorin JmUj nffvf iMjigirt. jiurvm cnim HeulJvm m 
rittum tri' iafiiium til, ut lojui animut ar/trffl auri aifidiSati, 
^ui rlium mortitum a txiangut carfiui aare vrintur, 

128. See the folkiwSng canto, v^i. 40-71. 

110, t>< Juno, being jealoU* aì Jupjter'i love for 
t^tona, drore the latter from place tv place, till she 
reached DelchB, which had b«en a floating island, UMiìng 
about In the bch, till Jupiter itiftde it fut in order to 
reteirc her. Here she bo-re Kim two childrtrn — -Apallo 
and Diana— the lun and the moon (5^. Pat. x. 57, xxii 
13J, xxi». i). See Owitl, M'i, vi, ig^ /jj, 

136, 140. Gioriii itr ixctiiti ft*, fax iamtniinr ìmMr 

miumialir. (■•GSory tO Qod In the higheit. and on 
euth peace, good will toward men.") S-eeLniih. i-i^ 



WITH the thir" for knowledge, which God 011I7 
can ll^fce, keen wichliii him, hiiltcnEng' alùag 
iht impEded path to keep pace with hii leader, and 
pierced with sympathetic grief for the louli at hJr 
htt, Dance pursues his wajr, till a. ihide coming 
behind them g'irea ihem the saluCation of, to 
which Virgil aoBweri fi-ij)- They are on the 
western side of the mountalo, and the «un ttill 
ncighbc-ur* the eait, t» that Dante cmm sa shadow, 
and the aeW-coni'e Soul does not fecogalse him oi 
onestili ILvtng In the first life; and ic be gatherafrom 
the wordi of Virgil'» beciedktion tliac he and his 
CiOUfianiiih alike are souls excluded from bliss (i6-xi). 
In aniwer to the qtìCiltoii that hereon anie*, VUgil 
explains hC« own ttate and D^ote*» ; tua ì<y the keen 
laCisfactivT of the Utter, aak; la hit turn for an 
explanation of the earthquake and the shoLC (zE-39). 
The shade answers that no material or eaiual thing 
can affecE che «acred ways of the mouDC. It trembles 
only when some soul rises from lying prcne with thf 
svariclouB, or «torts from »ny other point of the 
moLFit to ascend to the earthly ParaillEe (40-60). 
The repentant souls, though (tiey wish to gaia the 

Girotte V ^^ ^^te caCoral che mal qoq sazia, 

EC non con V acciiia. onde k femmirietta 
Sammaritajia domandò la grazia, 

mi travagliava, e pungt^ami la fretta 
per la impacciata via retro a) mìo duca, 
e condoleami alla giusta vendetta ; 

ed ecco, ai come ne scrive Luca 

che Cristo apparve ai due eh* erano in via, 
già Burto fuor della eepulcral bucd, 


term and fr^thcr Che fruit of thtìr penance, are muii- 
while ai kpcii to aufTer aj «nee they were to lEn ; 

ind whta thtìr preKDt ImpalK unltei with th«lr 
ultimate detirc ard create» the iniCant will to riie, 
eh» ia itielf il a tok^n and aiiiarxnce that th«ir 
purgation U camplece, and the whole mountain tiagi 
with the pnisea of the spirit». May they, coo, «non 
he *ped iipaa their way I ffii-jS). Virgil aow iiVi 
the ihadc to itteiì himself, and Icarn.t that he 14 the 
poet Statini. He cOilibiQei With an ea'ucnera.tion 
*fl hi> owa work» a glowing tribute to the ^neid 
aad Ita author; Co have lired on e3.rch wJth whom he 
would accept anocher ye-iir of esile (79-101). Virg'il'» 
gluice checks the amile that riiif* on Dante'i htt at 
thcie wOrd«r ^Ut not till StaCiui ha« eaughc ite Hsfrh 
upon hi« featur?i, Prcireil on (fttJiier fide, the poet it 
Ènalij relcMedfrom VirgiFi prohibicign, and ìafoi-mt 
Staiiui Chat he ii indeed in the presence of that very 
oac who itreng'thened him to aing of men atid ^odi 
(103-119)1 wherecn ScatEua, forgetiln;^ that he arnj 
Virgil are empty shades, dropi st hit d«ar niaicer** 
feet to ki" them (130.136), 

The Datural thir« which never is sated, tare The 

with the wstcr whereof the poor Samaritan ^J^he" 
womaD asked the grace, pcodlgoJ 

wa& burning wÉthia me, and haste was goading me 
along the encumbered, way behind my Leader, 
and I was grieviog at the just penance ; 

apd lo, even as Luke writes to us that Chrisl 
appeared to the two who were od the way, 
already risen from the mouth of the tomb, 





CLrone V ci apparve un' ombra, e retro a noi venta ^ 
da pie guardando U turba che giace ; 

■ De ci addemnio di lei, ») parlò pria, 

H dicendo : "Frati miei, Dio vi dea pace." u 

I Noi ci volgemmo subito, « Virgilio 

I reode' gli ti cenno eh' a ciò si conface. 

^L^ Poi cominciò; "Nel beato coacìlio *" 

^^ft li ponga in pace la, verace corte, 

^^V che me rilega aell' eterno esìlio." 

V "Come," diaa' egli, e parte andavam forte» ** 

I "se voi siete ombre che Dio au non degni, 

H chi v' ha per !a sua scala tanto scorte i " 

I E il dottor mio ; " Se tu riguardi i segni ** 

I che questi parta e che 1' angc! profila, 

I ben vedrai che coi buon convieo eh' ci regni. 

^^ Md perchè lei che di e notte fila "s 

^^K non gli avea tratta ancora la conocchia, 

^^V che Cloto impone a ciascuno e compila, 

m V anima sua, eh' è tua e mia etrroccliia, *> 

^^_^ venendo bU, non potea venir sola, 

^^^K perà eh' al nostra modo non adocchia: 

^^^ ond' io fui tratto fuor dell' ^mpia gola S 

H d' inferno, per mostrargli, e mostrerolli 

■ oltre, (guanto il potrà meoar mia scuola. 

K Ma dinne, se tu lai, perchè tai crolli a« 

^^^■* die dianzi ti mont^, e perchè tutti ad una 

^^^K parver gridare infìno ai suoi pie molli ì " 

m Si mi die domandatido per la cruna. 3t 

H del mio di»o, che pur con la speranza 

H li fece la mia sete men digiuna. 

H Quei cominciò ; *' Cosa non è che janza •■ 

K ordine aenta la religione 

^^^ della moDUgna, o che sia fuor d^ utanza. 



a sbade appeared, to uà, and came od bcbind lu, 

gaziag at ìu feet on the prostrate crowd, aor 
did we perceive it undl it fir« spakci 

■ayiug: "My brotheri, God give you pcact." 
Quickly WE turned ue, and Virgi] gave back 
to him the; sign that is fitting thereto. 

Theo began : ** May the ime court, which tnads 
me in eternal exile, bring thee in peace to the 
council of the blest." 

*'Hqw," tiid he, and meantime we went sturdily, 
"if ye are ihades that Cod ddgna not above, 
who hath escorted yoy bo far by hit staira J " 

And my Teacher : '* If thou lookest at the marks 
which this man beara^ and which the angel out- 
lioes, clearly wilt thou tec 'tis meet be reign 
with the good. 

But since she who apias day and eight, had not 
yet drawn for him the fibre which Clotho 
charges and packs on the distaff for each one, 

his spirit, which ia thy tUtcr and mine, coming 
op, could not come alone, because it sees not 
aher our fashion : 

wherefore I was brought forth from Hell's wide 
jaws to guide hicn, and I will guide him on- 
ward, 30 far as my school Can lead him. 

But tell iJ8^ if ihou knoweet, why the mount gave 
before euch jhakingB, and wherefore all seemed 
to shout with one voice down to its soft bAse." 

Thus, by asking, did he thread the very needJe's 
eye of my desire, and with the hope atone my 
thirst was made led» faating. 

That spirit began: "The holy nJe of the 
mount Buiferetb naught that is arbitrary, or 
t is outside custom. 

ftnd tho 

Statini 4 





Gbooe V Libero è qui da ogni altefazioUfi ; 

di quel che il ciel da sé in aè riceve 
csierci puote, e aon d' altro, cagione : 

perchè Qoa pioggia, aoa graiidù, non ntfe, 
non rugiada, non brina più lu cade 
che la acaletta dei tre gradi brere. 

NuTolc apease non pùon, né rade, 
oè corruscar, uè figlia dì Taumante, 
che di là cangia eot^me coatrade. 

Secco ■va.poT non aurge piCi a.vafite 

eh' al sommo dei tre gradi eh' io parlai, 
07* ha LI vicario di Pietro le piante. 

Trema furae più giù poco od assai ; 

ma, per ventc^ che in terra si nasconda, 
non so come, quasai!t non tremò mai. 

Tremaci quando akuDa anima monda 
aenteflif si che Burga, o che bì mova 
per salir su, e tal grido seconda. 

Della mondizia sol volet fa prova, 
che, tutta libera a mudar convento, 
I' alma sorprende, e di voler le giova. 

Prima vuol bea ; ma non lascia il talento 
che divÌDa gìuatizia contra voglia, 
come fii al peccàfr pone al tormento. 

Hd io che lon giaciuto a. qucita doglia 
cinquecento anni e più, pur mo sentii 
libera volontà di miglior soglia. 

Però eentisti il Eremoto, e li piì 
spiriti per lo monte render lode 
a quel Signor, che toato su gì' invii." 

Così ne disse ; e però eh' ei bì gode 
tanto del ber quant' è grande la icte, 
lOD saprei dir quaDt' ei mi fece prode 






Here it i« free fcom all terrestrial change ; thu 

which Heaven receives into itaelf from itseìf 

may here operate as cauae, and naught else ; 
Ànce tieither rain» QOf baiJ, not tnav, not dcv/, 

nor hoarfrost, falls any higher than the ahoii 

little fluirway of the three stepi. 
Clouda, dcDSc or thin, appear not, nor iightniag 

flash, nor Thauraas' daughter, who yonder oft 

changes her region. 
Dry rapour nees not higher than the top of the 

liiree steps which I gpake of, where Pcter'( 

TiCar hath his feet- 
It qoakeB perchan&e lower down little or much, but 

by reason of wind which is hidden ìq the earth, 

I know not how, it has never c^uiked up here. 
It (}uakcs here when some loul fi^ieleth herself 

cicariaed, so that she may rise u]), or set forth, to 

mount on high, and such a shout follows her. 
Of the cleansing the wil! alone gives proofs which 

fills the «cui, all free to change her cloLster^ 

sod avails her to wilL 
She wills indeed before, but that desire permltfl k 

QOt which divine Justice sets, counter to will, 

tou-ard the penalty, even as it was toward the 

And I who have Iain under this torment five 

huadrcdl years and more, only now felt 

free will for a better threshold. 
Therefore didst thou feel the earthquake, and hear 

the pious spirite about the mount gite praises 

to that Lord — soon may he send them above." 
Thus he spake to ua ; and eince we enjoy most 

the draught in proportion as our thirst is great, 

I could not tell how much he profited me. 


aaà the 


disc our M 
on Ihe 





Gtroae V E ti savio duca t *' Ornai veggio la rete 
che qui yi piglia, e come n scalappa, 
per Che ci trema, e di che coDgaudeic. 

Ora chi fosti piacciati eh' ia sappia» 
e, perchè tanti secoli giaciuto 
^ìiì sei, nelle parole tue mi cappia." 

" Nel teinpo che il buon TJto con 1' aiuto 
del HOTtimo Regc veodicò le fora^ 
and' u&cì il saaguic per G-iuda vendutD;^ 

col nome che più dura e più onora 
eri io di là," rispose quello spirto, 
*" famoGO assai, ma. noa con fede ancora. 

Tanto jìi dolce mìo vocale apirto, 
che, ToEosano, a sé mi trasse Roma,, 
dove mertaì le tempie ornar di mirto. 

Stazio la gente ancor di là mi Doma ; 

Cantai dì Tebe, e poi del grande Achille, 
ma: caddi in via con la seconda soma. 

Al mio ardor fin seme le faville, 
che mi ecaldu, della divina fianuna, 
onde sono allumaù pLÌI di mille : 

dell' Hneida dico, la qual mamma 
fummi, e fummi auuicc poetando f 
senz' essa non fermai peso di dranuna. 

E, per easer vivuto di là quando 
risse Virgilio, assentirei un sole 
pio che non deggio al mio uscir di bando." 

Volser Virgilio a me queste parole 

con viso che, tacendo* ditea: "TacL" 
Ma non può tutto la virtù che vuole : 

che riso e pianto eon tamto aeguaci 
nlla pusioa dì. che ciaficun si spicca, 
che men «e^uon roìer nei pìiì veraci. 












And the wiw Leader : " Now I see the net chat Tht 

caEches yoa here, uid how one breaks through, ud^° 

wlierefore it quakes here» lanid whereat ye make pf*dte*l 

gkd together. 
Now m^y it please thee that I know who thou 

wan ; and why thou taio here ao many 

ages, let me learn from thy ivordft." 
" What time the good Titas with help of the StHtin» 

Highesi King avenged the wounds whence hL»huf«rt 

isftued the blood by Judas sold, 
with the name which moiSt endures^ and honours 

most," auBwered that spirit, *'l was yoader, 

great in fanie, but not yec with faith. 
So sweet W49 the mus^ic of my words, chat me, 

a ToulousiaD, RoiU'C drew to heraelf, where I 

did merit a crown of myrtle for my Iwow, 
St^tiu» folk yonder still do name tnt ; I sang of 

Thebea, and then of the great Achilles ; but 

I felt by the way with the second burdeil- 
The spark», which warmed me, from the divine Mi« 

flamie whence more than a thousand have been b^UvU 

kindled, were the Heeds of my poetic fire ; 
of the ^Acid I apeak, which was a mother to 

me, and wan to me a nurae in poesy ; without 

it I had not stayed the weight of a drachm. 
Asd to have liycd yonder, when Virgil was alive, 

I would consent to one sun more than I owe 

to my coming forth from exile.*' 
These words turned Virgil to me with a look 

that silently said ; ** Be Bilcnt." But the 

virtue which wills is not all powerful; 
for laughter and team follow ao closely the 

pupbn from which each springs, that they 

leait obey tLe will in the mosit truthM. 


Oinu V Io pur sorrisi, come V uom eh' ammicca: 

per che L' ombra si tacque, e riguardommi 
Degli occhi, ove il Berabiante pia si ficca- 

E "Se tanto lavoro in bene assomcnt," 
disse, " perchè la faccia, tua testeso 
un lampeggiar di tUq dimostrommi ? " 

Or aon io d' una parte e d' altra preso : 
I' una mi fa tacer, 1' altra Bcongiura 
eh* io dica ; ood' io sospiro, e sono inteso 

dal mio maestro ; e " Non arer paura," 
mi disW) "di parlar ; ma parla, e digli 
quel eh' el domanda con cotasta cura." 

Ond' io : •* Forse che tu ti itiaravigEi, 
antico spirto, de! rider eh' io fei j 
ma piti d' ammiranon to' cbe □ pigli* 

Questi, che guida in alio gli occhi miei, 
è quel Virgilio, dal qua! tu togliesti 
forza a cactar degli uomini e de' Dei. 

Se cagione altra al mio rider credesti, 

lasciala per non vera esser e credi 
' quelle parole che di lui dicesti." 

Già ai chioava ad abbfacciar li piedi 
al mio dottor ; ma egli disce ; " Frate, 
non far, che tu ee' ombra, ed ombra vedi." 

Ed el 3urgendo : "Or puoi la n^uantitate *JJ 

comprender dell' amor eh' a te mi scalda, 
quando dismeoCo nostra vanitate, 

trattando 1' ombre come cosa salda/' *1^ 

I. Dance be^lnii hi; Cmvift hj quoting- Aristoile'i 
'^irorilt (Afffd^J^n'ci, ]. i\ rhftt "ali men natuntty 

cjdirc knowiedge." 

1, j, $« AAh !», 7.15 ; " WhsifleTM drioketh of 
the water thvt 1 ilialL gire hlm ihull n«*er thlnt; 







T did but amile, like one who makee a atga ; 

whereat the shade was silent and looked at 

mr m the ryea, wliere moat the u>ul U Exed. 
And he said : "So may Bucit great toil achieve 

its end ; wherefore did thy face but now 

display to me a flash of laughter ? " 
Now am I caught on ieither siicle ; one makeji me 

keep BileTice, the other conjures me to speak ; 

wherefore I ligh and am uodere^toad 
by my Master, and he said to me, "Have no fear 

of speakiogr but apeak, and tell him that which 

he atketh with ho great deaire," 
Wherefore I : " Perchance thou dost marrd, 

aacient spirit, at the laugii I gave, but I desire 

that yet greater wonder seize thee. 
He who guideth mine eyea on high, is that 

Virgil from whom thou drcwtst power to 

sing of men and gods. 
If thou didst believe other cause for my laughter, 

set it aside aa uatrue, and believe it was those 

words which thou spakest of him." 
Already was he stooping to embrace my Teacher's 

feet i but he said : '* Broclìer, do not so, for 

thou arc a shade and a shade thou scest." 
And he, rising : " Now canst thou comprehend 

the measure of the love which warms me 

toward thee, when I forget our noihingness, 

and treat ahades as a solid thing." 


, The woman uith ynto him, Sir, gin me thU 
water, that I ihiric not . . ." 

7-9. i^irxKlv, 13-15: ■* And, behold, two of ihem 
went that tame day to a Tillage called EmmaiUi, which 
wa* from Jcrusaleni about tlir-eeuD-rc furl'Ongt. And 



ther tilLcd together of kll theie ttiinei which haA 
happened. And it cune to pasi, th^it, while thej 
commimed together and reasoned, Jeitii himsdif drew 
near, and *ent with Chcln." 

io i^. This U the pott Statiu*, who reaiain» with 
Dante cilL ttie end oi the Canlita (nee belovr, Caoto 
xxxiii. I J4, ijs). He wai horn aC Kaplei about the 
year jtì, and died tSert ct. jS, iJl making fitaLiu^ b 
native of Tonlouxe {v. S9) Dante followi; a coininoD 
medieval error, probably due to a confuiion with Dht 
poft'i. contemporary, Luciui Statiui, the rhetplicisn, 
whu re^ly w;l9 born at Toulou», The poet lived 
moillf at Rume («. 89) during ihc rei^n o( Veipaiian 
(69-79), ^l>^<c 9Qa, Tltllt, capCijred Jeniialem in the 
year 70 (wj. Si. 84 ; ef 7'ar. eì. 9s, 93 aod vii.). The 
nomi of <r, S$ il, of course, tSai of poi^t. Scatiai wai 
author of the Thfisid and of th« AMilrid, a Frugment 
(w. tf%, 9j), which deal with the expedition of the 
Scrcti agaJoar Th«t>ei and (he Trojan wiir, fetpcc- 
tifely, and with which Dante wa» well acquaitited. 
[The MS. oE [he SUvat was not diuovered rill the 


bezlonlng of the 15th century]. For v. $S, aee the 
IbUowing csnCO, «v. gt, 93. — ma n»n am f^ anara (v. 
I7) : we the fbllowlDg; cuite, ««. 59-91 • 

15. The early conmenuton, who probably knew 
beat, lay that the regular " oonntenlgn " con- 
riitéd of the ironi>— A turn iftrku tut, " And with 
thy qiirit." 

tj-xy. Clotho prepared the thread of life, which 
waa span by Lachesii and cat by Atropoi (^. Imf, 
usili. s6 ; J'yrg. xxr. 79). 

30. Bting «dll chained to iti body. 

33. ty. abore, Canto xriii. 46-48. 

44. A haman ioni (tee aboTe, Canto xri. 85 


go, 51. Irli, the daoghter of Thaninai and Electra, 
In clawical mythology she penonified the rainbow, 
and was repreiented ai the meawnger of the god> 
(^. Far, xii. lo-ix, xXTÌii. 31, 33, xxxlil. 118). 

6^ Compare the dlttlnction made between the 
abaoiote and the practical will, in Par, ir. 100-114. 


THE pilgrimi Kifc iìit^j begun to moant the 
ilair ttiat leadt to Che fìitth ciide. ADC[ii«r 
P ha» been itrnck ì>j an angeUwiog' From Dsnte'i 
brow, xnd the h\e»aìng pronounceij on thoic thai 
thlrkt after righieouine» (ie-£), Vir^l, with friendly 
iq^ìitancf, prenci to kocw hj>W io great a aoul 3« 
that of Statini cpi^ld bare harhonre4 »o pan^ a tìm 
ai Biarice ; w^hereon the oiher acknowLedges with a 
imile the tender friendlineis which this very per- 
plexity impliei, but aniwcrs that the keen teeai of 
A^aixSihip il thit time fallowing' a faiie track, far it 
il prodigality, not avarice, that hai kept htm mort 
than Etc hundred years a priaoner in the fifth circle, 
where the two oppoiitig «ini are punished togrrher. 
Kor had he eo-caped the pain* of HeLl For his offt;nee, 
though committed in Égnoranec, had he not read a 
hidden Warning In linei of VJrgÌ!'aùWft (7-54). Virgil 
g'trei on Co ask how Statiu-i becaine a Chriatian, for 
there ia no indication in ht« poema of hii conversion ', 
and Staciui aniwen that It was Vlrgil't aelF who, 
like one paiitng through the night, bearing a lantern 

SaJits al Già era !* angel retro a noi rimaao, 
°^'*°' ^' r aogel chfi a' aTca volti ai sesto giro, 

aTeDdomi dal viso un colpo raso ; 
e quei eh* hanno a giustìzia lar disirp, 

detto n' avea beati, e le sue voci 

con jitiunt, aenz' altro, ciò fornirò. 
Ed io, pili lieve che per 1' altre foci, 

m^ andava iiì che sc^aza, aEcun bbore 

seguiva ÌQ Bu gli spìriti veloci ; 
quando Virgilio cominciò ; "Amore, 

(acceso di virtù, sempre aScro accese, 
par che la fiamma aiia paresse fiiore ! 




behind bim, bad lightened the pith lai the feel of 
otfaeri, chough not for hli own. It wai that pro- 
phetic £cÌQgÈi£ •nhicii hid rcTcaled the truth to him, 
and won hi» «ympathy fur the ptrtecuwd «iinU ; 
but he concealed hit fsàtlx, And had atoned for hli 
laggard love in the circle ol the jloChfiil for over 
four hundiied yean Hyjl). Statiui In hii turn 
now queitioni Virgil ai to the tare of other Latin 
poeti, and Virgil telli him of the *»d and noble life 
ÌD Laxnbo, of Ihtf Creek and Latim poeta there, and 
of the heroic bduU whose itory Stadtii hìin«elf had 
told (94-1 14)- It i» pail [en o'clock In che morning 
when the pilgrimi issue upon th« Mxih terrace, and, 
with the tacic «pproral of scatim, follow their u*ubI 
course with the «yo connMr-r|ockw)c«, DanW eagerly 
hearkening to the cpuvene of the two LÉatln poete 
(11J-119). Thii il che circle of the gluttons; and 
1I1G pitgrimi encounter a wondrooi tree, fruit- lad« n , 
and btAtwei 'with clear water from a neighbouring 
fall, from the inid$t of the fdlU^e of wbich » rolc« 
recites example! of abidnence (t3ci543- 

Already was the angel left beliiTid us, the angel The 

that had turned us to the sixth circle, having ^S?"'?*— 

tj Lio^fiiity 

erased a scar irom my lace, 
and had said to us that those who hare their de^ Tbc Gftb 

sire to righteouaneas were b!e3i«d,aiid his words ^"*»''^** 

accompliabed that with liliunt, and oaugbt else. 
And I, lighter than by the other passages, went on 

m that without acy toi! I was following the 

fleet spirits upward^ 
when Virgil be^an : "Lore, kindled by virtue, 

hath ever kindled other We, if hut its (lame 

were shown forth : 



SaJIU al onde, dall' ora che tra Doi diecese 
* *" nei limbo dello inferno Juvenale, 

che la tua aflfezioo mi fé' paleae, 

mìa benvoglieaza inverso te fu quale 
più strinse mai di non vieta persona, 
st eh' or mi parrsti corte queste acale. 

Ma dimmi, e come amico mi perdona 
se troppa sicurtà m' allarga il freno,. 
e come amico ornai meco regiooa : 

Come potè tjovai dentro al tuo seno 
loco avarizia, tra cotanto senno 
di quanto, per tua cura, fosti pieno ? " 

Queste parole Stazio mover fenno 
UD poco a. liso pria ; poscia riapoàc: 
'* Ogni tuo dir d' amor m"^ è caro cenno. 

Veramente piìl volte appaion cose, 
che danno a dubitar falsa matera, 
per le vere ragion che sono ascose. 

Ls tua domanda tuo creder m' avvera 
esser eh* io foaai avaro Ìq t' altra vita, 
forse per quella cerchia dov* io era. 

Or sappi eh' avarizia fii partita 
troppo da me, e ifueati dismiaura 
migliaia di lunari hanno punita ; 

e, K non fo96C eh' io drizzai mia cura, 
quand* io intCBi la dove tu esctame, 
crucciato quasi all' umana natura: 

* Perchè non reggi tu, o sacra fame 
dell' oro, 1' appetito de' mortali?' 
voltando sentirei le giostre grame. 

Allor m' accorsi che troppo aprir 1' ali 
potean le mani a speodeie, e penie' mi 
cosi di quel come degli altri mali. 









CANTO XXn 273 

wherefore &om ihat hour wheo Jureoal, wboTbeaini 

madp thy afTection maniiiest to me, descended 

amoQg UE in the limbo of HelJ 
my goodwill towards thee hath been such as 

aever yet did bind to an unseen peraon, so that 

now these stairs will seem short to me- 
Bm tell tne, and ss a friend forgive me if too 

great coofideacc slacken my rein, and talk wil^ 

me now ae with a friend : 
How could avarice find place in thy breast^ amid 

ao much wisdom as by thy diligence thou wast 

filled with;" 
These words first moved Statins a little to 

laughter ; then he answered : " Every word 

of thine is a precious token of love to me. 
Truly many times things appear that give fals* 

matter for doubting, because of the true reaaons 

which are hidden. 
Thy question profea to me thy belief to be, that 

I was avancious in the other life, perchance 

becauBe of that circle where I was. 
Now know that aratrice wa* too far parted from 

me, and this excess thousand^ of moons hare 

pusiahed ; 
aad were it not that I set straight my inclination, 

when I gave heed to the lines where thou ex- 

daimest, apgered as 'cwereagainschumaD nature: 
'Wherefore dost thou not regulate the luM of 

mortals, O hallowed hunger of gold i ' — at the 

rolling 1 should feel the grievous jousts. 
Then I perceived that our hands could open 

their WLQgs too wide in spending, and I 

repented of that aa well aa of other sins. 





Salita, al Qusnli riaurgeran coi crini ecerai, 
Glfoo* VI pg^ igEorania, che di questa pecca 

toglie il pnter viveodo, e negli eatrenii ! 

E sappi che I3 colp, che rimbecca 
pef drttUi opposizéone alcun p«cc3to> 
con esso insieme quì suo verde secca. 

Però, e' io son tra quella gente stato 
che piange l' avairlzia, per purgarmi, 
per Io contrario suo m' è incontrai»." 

*• Or quando tu csatasti le crude armi 
delk doppia tristizia di Jocaata,'* 
disse il cantor de' bucolici carmi, 

" per quello che Clio tcco II itajta, 
non par che ti fecesae ancor fedele 
la fé, senza la qual ben far non basta. 

Se cosi è, qua! sole quai candele 
te fitenebraron sì, che tu drizzanti 
poscia di retro al peecator le vele?" 

Ed egli a luì ; " Tu prima m' inviasti 
verso Parnaso a ber nelle sue grotte, 
e poi appresso Dio m' alluminanti. 

Facesti comequri che va di notte, 

che porta il lume retro e sé noa giova, 
ma dopo sé fa le persone dotte, 

quando dicesti ; ' Secol si rinnova j 
- toma giustizia e primo tempo umano, 
e progenie discende dal ciel nuova.' 

Per t€ poeta fui, per te cristiano ; 

ma percKè veggi me' ciò eh' io diaegao, 
a colorare ste^nderò la mano. 

Già era il mondo tutto quanto pregno 
della vera credenza, seminala 
per li messaggi dell' eterno regno ; 









How many will rifie again with shore locka^ The tlD 
through igDoraoce, which takcth away repeat- ****™ 
aace of thia bid during lifp and at the last hour! 

And know that the ofTeoce which repels any ud 
by ita direct opposite, here, together with it» 
dries up its Ìiix.uriance. 

Therefore if I, to purge me, have been among 
that people who bewaiE avarice, this hath 
befallen me because of its contrary." 

"Nt>w when thou didat aing of the savage strife HEscoo- J 
of Jocaata'a twofold sorrow," raid the singer chiit"**] 
of the Bucolic layij tlanlty J 

"by that which Clio touches with thee there, it 
emtiE Dot that faith had yet made th«e faithful, 
without which good works are not enough. 

If diiB ^ so, what sun or what candles dispelled 
the darkoess for thee, «o that, thou didst there- 
after set thy Baila to follow the Fisbennan ? " 

And he to him : " Thou fjrst didst send me 
towards Paruoaiua to driok Ìq ita cavee, and 
then didst light me on to God. 

Thou didst like one who goes by night, and 
carries the light behind htm, ajid profits not him- 
self, but maketh persons wise that follow birT3> 

when thou saidst : ' The world ia renewed, 
juBticÉ returns and the first age of man, and a 
new progeny desceads from hcaTen-* 

Through thee I waj a poet, through diee a 
Chrictian, but that thou mayst see better what 
I outlinel will put forth myhand to SH in colour. 

Already the whole world was big with the true 
belief, «own by the aposdes of the crerlaatiog 
kingdom ; 



SAllta al e la parola tua iropra toccata 
*" 31 consonava ai nuovi predicanti, 

ood' io A visitarli presi usata. 

Vennermi poi parendo tanto santi, 

che, quando Domiziaa li perseguette, 
senza mio lagrimar non (ut lor pianti. 

E mentre che dì là per me si stette, 
io li sovvenoi, e lor dritti costumi 
ter dispregiare a me tutte altre sette ; 

e pria eh' Ìo conducessi i Greci ai filimi 
dì Tebe, poetandoj ebb' io battesmo ^ 
ma per paura chiuso Cristian fu' mi 

lungamente moscraodo pagariesmo ; 
e i^uesta tepidezza il quatto cerchio 
cerchiar ini fé' più eh* a] quarto centesmo. 

Tu dunque, che levato hai if COpCfcihio 
che m' ascondeva quanto bene io dico, 
mentre che del salire avecn soperchio, 

dimmi dov* è Terenzio nostro antico, 
Cecilio, Plauto e Varrò, se lo sai ; 
dirami se son dannati, ed io qual vico." 

"Costoro, e Peraio, ed io, e altri awai," 
rispose il duca mio, '*dam con quel Greco 
che le Muse lattar più eh' altro mai, 

nel primo cinghio dd carcere cicco. 
Spesse fiate ragioniatii de] mùnte, 
che sempre ha le outrici nostre seco. 

Euripide r' è nosco ed Antifonce, 
Simanide, Agatone ed altri piiìe 
Greci, che già di lauro ornar la fronte. 

Quivi si veggioD delle genti tue 
Antigone, Deifile ed Argia, 
ed Ismene a\ trista come fiic. 








and thy words, touched oa above, harmoDtscd no SUkHu' 

with the new preachers, that the habit took tocES? 

me of visiting them. tUnJtr 

They then became so holy in my sight, that 

when Oomitian persecuted thÉio, their wall- 

ixigs were not withouc teara of mine. 
And whiJe by me yon world wan trod, I succoured 

them, acd thdr righceoiu lives made me despise 

all other sects j 
iutd ere in my poem I had brought the Creeks 

to Thebea' rivers, I received bap ti aid, but 

through fear I was a accret Christian, 
long time pretending paganism ; and this luke- 

warmness made me &péeJ rouod the fourth circle 

more than four times a hundred year<B. 
Thou therefore, who haet lifted the coTersng The 

which hid from me the great good I tell of, l^tiqn*^ 

whUe we have time to spare on the' asceat, 
tell me, where h our accienc Tereoce, GjcclIìug, 

Plauitus, and Varrò if thou knowest ; tell me 

if they are dsmned, and In what ward." 
"They, and Persius, aad I, and maay others," 

my Leader answered, '* are with that Greek 

to whom the Muses gave &uck more than to 

any other, 
in the first circle of the dark prison. Oftlimes 

we talk of the mourn which hath our fo^ter- 

mothcra erer with it. 
Euripides is there with us, and Antiphoo, 

SimoDidea, Agathon^ and many other Greeks, 

who once decked their brows with laurel. 
There are seen of thy people Antigone, 

Deiphyle and Argia, and Ismene so sad as 

ih e was. 








Vedesi quella che mostrò Langia ; 

evrii la figlia, di Tìresìa, e Teti, 

e con te Huore sue Deiidainta." 
Tìcevanai ambo e due già ti poeti^ 

di nuavo attenti a riguardare intorno, 

liberi dal Balirc e dai pareti ; 
e già Jc quattro aacelle erati del giorno 

rimase addietro, e la. quiota era al temo, 

dfÌEZando pure in B11 1 ardente corno ; 
qiiafldo il mio duca : *' Io credo ch'alio estrema '" 

le defltre spalle volger ci convegaa, 

girando Ìl monte come hr solcmo/' 
Così 1' usanza fu Ij nostra ioBegna, 

e prendemmo la via con men sospetto 

per 1' assentir di quell' Bnicna degna. 
EUi giran dinanzi, ed io soletto 

diretro, ed ascoltava t lor sermoni 

ch^ a poetar mi davano intellecto. 
Ma tosto ruppe le dolci ragioni 

un arbor che trovammo in mezza stradai 

con pomi ad odorar soavi e buoni. 
E conte abete in alto si digrada 

di ramo io ramo, così quello in gius», 

cred' io perchè persona su non vada. 
Dal lato, onde il cammla nostro era chiuso, 

cadea dell' alta roccia un liquor chiaro, 

e sì spandeva per le foglie auso. 
Li dufr poeti all' arbor s' appressaro ; 

ed una voce per entro le fronde 

gridò ; "Di questo cibo avrete caro-'* 
Poi disEC : " Fili pensava Mariìi onde 

fbsser le nozze orrevoli ed intere, 

eh' alla sua bocca, eh' or per voi risponde. 








There ia sevcq «he who showed Laagia ; there it 
Tiresiaa' daughter, and Thetis, aod Deidamia 
vnih her wster*." 

Now were bunh poets sUcat, intent anew on 
gazing around, freed from the ascent aad 
from the walJs i. 

and diready four handmaida of the day were 
left beliiadf and che EìftS was at the chariot 
pole, directing yet upward its flaming horn, 

when my Leader : *' I think it behoves ua to 
turn our right shoulders to the edge and 
circle the Ttiouut as we are wout to do." 

Thus cuBtom there was our guide, and we took 
up our way with leas doubt because of the 
assent of that worthy spirit. 

They journeyed on in front, and I, solitary, 
behind ; and I hearkened to their discourse 
which gave me understanding in poeay. 

But soon thf sweet converas vrm broken by 
a tree which we found in the niidat of the way, 
with fruit wholesome and pleasant to smell. 

And even at a pice tree grows gradually less 
from bough to bough upwards, go did that 
downward? ; I think 50 that none may go up. 

On the side where our path was blocked, a clear 
spring fell from the high rock and spread 
itself above over the leaves. 

The two poets drew near the tree ; and a voice 
from within the foliage cried : "Of this food 
ye ahali have scarcity." 

Then it aaid : "Mary thought more how the 
weddiDg-feast might be hoDourable acd com- 
plete, than of her own mouthr which now 

answeri for yau^ 





ereu aii' 
three pa 

by a. tree 

from whid 
are f^f tied 


vt T*nipMi 









GiKine VI E le Romane antiche per lor bere 

contente furon d' acijus, e Daniello 

■ diopregid cibo ed acquietò sapere. 
H Lo seco) primo quant' oro fu bello ^ 
H it' saporose coD fame Le ghiande» 
V e Dettare con sete ogni ruscello^ 

W' Mele e locuste furon le vivaade '5' 

^^^ che nutrirò Ìl Batista ne] diserto ; 

^^H per eh' egli è glorioso, e taato grande 

^^^ quanto per 1' Evangelio v' è aperto." 'h 

^M 4'6. Mate, t. 6 ; Beali fai \iiiiriuiil ct~\ tiliunl 

H pulUiam ; " Slettci AIE tticj which Aù [liun^er uid] 

H thirtt a.fter righte»iu»n«i." The wordi of thit 

■ Beatìtmle chat hare been pUced in square brackets 
B iff reserved for the Ang^l of the lijtth {«rate t»ct 
H below. Canto axir. 151-154). 

H iJl Juvcjial, the satirist, lifed ea. 4.7-130; he 

H prai«e« StatEu» in theieventh Satirt;, «. 8x j^^. 
^B Ì7'4'- ^mt« fretjuently mi^undentood the cÌAiiical 

^P Latin ivriteri. He cTidently read them with the urne 

H cBie and iiccuriry and the lame k«en appretiatii^n but 

K frequent mÌEConcepCion with ^vhich an EngUihoiai], 

^L who ha« m^de nti special aiudy nf Elizabethan 

^^ Engliih, readi Shake-ipeare, But if he really took 

^f Virgil'a ^tiid nsnmarttìlia pielara ii^ii Auri lacrajanri f^^K, 

H iii. j6, 57) to mean tnar a moderate,, and therefore 

H hall-3wed, desire far wealth ought to modetate ci* 

H tnf^gance, it constitute» * moK purCentoi]! (blunder 

H in Latinity thao any othEF that can be brought home 

^M to him. Many ingenious attempti liave been made 

H to es-cape this; but Che only legitimate (>ne is to 

^t tuppDse that Dante, while underetanding the kuk 

Wt in which Virgil udered the ivr>rds, eoosidfred him- 

^t self }ujdfi>ed in luppoiing that his writings, like the 

^p Scripture, had many sennea, and that for purpoiei of 

B edilic4tIoti wff miasC look into all the posilbU mean- 

^p ingi that any passage Jnight have apart from Che 

■ ecntevt in whieh it o«ut<. [P^r the context of 
H the paisag« tn question, s^ee sboTe, L'ani'^ %^. it{, 

■ •»/»], And, a» a matter of fact, thi» wa 





And the Roman women of old were content 

with water for their drinkt and DanieE deepiicd 

food aod gained wiedono. 
The first age waj fair as gold i it made acomo 

Bavoury with hunger, and every atream nectar 

witb thirsL 
Honey and locusts were the meat which aouri&hed 

die Baptist in the wilderneBs i therefore he is 

glorious, and eq great as in the Gospel u 

revealed to yoc. 

generally received theor; ia Dante'* day, —Vene 41 
iijlufjes to the pltninhmcilt of tht ATi.r!ciùui and 
Prodigal ID HeU («e Jiff, fii, 11 jj^,), 

46. C/. Inf. Tii. jé, 57. 

4.9-51^ The idea of Tirtue b-eing' the mean between 
tWa extrcDiiC* ia, of CODfU, the g'ULiJIng prindpU of 
Anicode'i Elhift, but ft dpe« not ti>rpii>iil9« w«tl 
with the Christian scheme, wKi-ch reg'airdcd many 
«itccmtl th^t Ariitode actually or hypothetically 
coademned, 11 virCa». In thv Chriitian ictiemc, lor 
initance, there eould be no exoeii aF lelMeniil or of 
immilitf. In kfs kbstrmct ethical tfrnpftthici, if not 
in hli concrete initijict», Dante if far mote Chrlitlo-n 
thin Aristotelian, and can thcTefore find no room fur 
the coDpUttn t appLie»tton of the Aii»t»{clbn doctriiv^, 
which it indeed conspicuoui try Itt absence frcm. t|je 
Commedia. But here, where he (indi a concrete 
in ftanC4 which apptali to him, he tak^i th« oppor- 
tunity of expteiaing It as a general principle. 

55-60. locaua, the mother, and afterwards Che wife, 
bf Oedipus, by whom she had the two tona alluded 
Id in Inf. axvi. ^j, 54 (»ee nv!t). Virgil (hefe cabled 
Jokfui- dà' biicaiiii carmi, probably in anticipation of the 
TcficA from his Fourth Eclogue quoted below) is not 
referring to the invocation to Clio, the Muic of 
History, wilh which the Thebaic begins, but to the 
pagan theme and entirely pag^n tre&ttnent of the 
whole poem, 

€3. ftieaier, "the FJiherman," Ài. St Ferer. 

Sfi-TJi ^Bfim ab iairgra i^tkUftim nait^r «n/n 
wedit it virga, rcdstmi Saturnia regwa; Jam navu firegciir 
etla demitlttuT alia (Virgil, Eclogue i», 5-7). No ont 
whiO read» Virgil's fourth Edugue can fail to b« 
Lmpresaed bj ita simìlarìtj'' tt> " M««s]anlc" paisign 
of che Old Tutacnenc, partteularl}- Tuiah. I[ j« eaij 
to uDdentand thai it wai uniTcrjalSf accepted is a 
4ÌTÌiiely iaspired prophetic utterance in the Mlddlf, 
Age». It Memi probable that, as a maiter oT fact, 
the poem t* an tnJlrecC imiCation o( Isaiah, for the; 
Jcwi of Alexandria wrote a number of Sib;liine< 
renei; chat is to «ay , Greeik heKain«ter« embodyja^^ 
[hcitr religloui ideai, and Idfjtlj' basfd Oil ScripCure. 
which Chey put into the mouths af the Sihyli. Soms 
of these date From pre-Chriitian time», and Virgif 
may well hs^e COM* fffMt them, hft'C been struck 
bj them, and have combined them with feature* of 
the pagan cradicion in chis remarkable poem. 

83. The Emperor Domitian (8i-g6J ii accused bf 
Euiebiua and Tertulliaa of having cruelly pertecuted' 
the Chriitians ; but there it no concemporary evideno^ 
of this. J 

S8, 8'9. With these wards Scatiua is generally cnpJ 
poied to indicate che entire TilrjaiV, not any particnUf 
episode in the poem. We hare no record of StAlius' 

97-iaS. All these writers, divided into [wq gfoupi, 
Romaci and Greel^ respectively, are Ln Limbo, togechei , 
with Homer (*». lot-toj). Verse» 104 and iofj 
Ttiei^ of coarti, to Mount Parnassui and the Mutei. 

Terence (■95"i$9< 9<c.)> Caecilius Staciu«(d. lil,. 
B.C.), Plautus (254-184, B.C.}: eam'\c pnecs; Vartd' 
Jobs 8j, b-c); author of epics arnj satires [pethapi 

e reading «houEd he Farla; in which caie the. 

'reference is 10 Lucina Varius Rufiis, author of \i 

tragedy and epics, who lived in the Augustan Agel 

and ia mentio-ned hy Horace, Ar> J'tct., 54., 5J, 

together with Caerilius and I^lautut^ ; Perabui 

t'(j4-gi); the satiHst. — Euripides (480-441, b.c.), 

'Antiphon and Ag'athan (*a. 44E'4cX3, i.e.): tragic 

poets; Simonides (ot. 556-467^ B.C.): lyric poec. 

ioq-it4. The ùiMti of Statina are thp peOpU 
eelebratesin the neiaiJand AikiHiid:— ~ 





Aatigo"*! "i4 Ism^Tie : dau^l^teri of Oedipus, bj 
hii mother Jonata, uid *isters of Eteoclei tad 
Polyniccs fiee aboTCt-wr. $^-6a, nifi)\ Tteìphìlt (the 
motherof Dionicd)aAd ArgU f che wife of Pol^nLccì): 
daughicrf af Adraitua, King of Argai; Hypiipyle 
f«. Ili; cf, /*/. svEii. 9>-9<) 'o whom Lycorgia» 
had eoCrutlfrd hit lon, Ar<>>«moriLB, directed tbc 
KTcn heroeg who fought igaingt Thebea to k founiaia 
called LangJB, and, The child haYÌng been kill«l by a 
•erpent In her ahaenqe, LycurgH» wouJd hai* ilain 
her. had not her «Dfij came to th» rescue (stt bHoir, 
Cinta zxvl. 94, r|;,3n>d l/. Curo. III. 1 i; i6^-t6i)]; for 
Tiresiat and hli daughter Manto, ten Iwf. xx. 40-4$^ 
51 ti{q. and j;-93, hbhx for Thetii and Deidamia, 

lee /a/"- XXTÌ. él, £>2, ante. 

1 1 8- 1 10. U il paaC tc A.M. (/. aboT«, Canto iH. 
«. Si. 

tji-ijS. Some commentatori hold that beeauae 
the companion tree, 4i;tiated at the ead of the ternce, 
waa railed from the tree of knowledge of good and 
enl (*cc below, Canto xkIt. 116, 117), the pretent 
tree must h»»? aome connection with the tree "^f life 
{Gca. li. 9). But this appear! lomcwhat doubtful. 

141- 144. Dante hai used ttiiiiaeident onccalreadj,. 
ai ai> example of generasity (leE abare, Canto xiil. 
a!- JO). 

14s, 146. Thomai Aquinas, in a pitiage recoin- 
ipending »obrietf 10 women an-d young people, 
qaotea the i^ordt of V^tleriuf MaxImuB (II. i. j.);: 
^uti tttut ttim ram/atu ^feminù igiutvijuil. 

145,147. Sue l>aii.'\.%i 17; " But Daniel purpoaed 
ifi hit heart ihac he would not defìlc hiimcLI with 
the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which 
he drank. : . . . and Daniel had underi tan ding in all 
*J)ioni and dreami," 

148-150. For the Golden Age, ^. I^. xìt. 9.6, !0* 
&nd iix, and Purg. xxvul. 13(1-144. See, too, Orld, 
Mh. 1. 103 iqq,, whose description Dante may have 
hid in mind. 

151154. For the locusts and honey eaten by John 
the Baptist, see Mait. ili. 4, Miri 1. 6 ; and for hit 
glory and greatness, see Mitit. xi. II, Liukr fti, 18. 


DANTE'iS eyu mrch the falUge of the tree dll 
he IB luininDned to adrance by VirgiL Then 
he heari th« cry, at once grìevoui an4 toothing-, i>l the 
ionie who pretently overukc ch« cnivelkrs and torn to 
look lipon (hcm 3.1 they pi-tt, though vrichout pf.uaiuG' 
Ci-31). Thea« are the once glutCoxioui «auEt, withi 
facei DOW dra^n by thirst and hunger, so emaciated 
that the evrremcBt exampltti of faoiiae io aacred or 
profane recordi rii»h to Dante'i mlod. Their ejf. 
tOifkets arc Like rings ihat have lost thpir gems ; snd 
he who reuji gurc fhomo ) ^p% on th^f face of mini wquJc] 
find the three acrokes of che ■■ writ plain enough id 
the gannt boneiof che^k and noie (sS'Sj)- tiovf eia 
the fruit and trickling water work in such £uhioD 
on the shadowj Tùrmi? (34-39)- One of them tttrUi 
hi* ^jt* from i)«?p (to'wn in the aockcc* upon Dante 
who, when he spea.ks, recognisei hii old companion 
Poreie; and each of the asconiahed frlenda demiJida 

Cerone VI Mestre che gli occhi per La fronda verde 
ficcava io co6Ìt Come ùc Suole 
chi retro a^li uccellili aua vita perde, 

b più che padre mi dicea : " Figtiuole, * 

TÌenne oramai, che il tempo che e' è imposto 
più utilmente compartir ei vuole." 

Io Tolei il viso e il passo aon men lOBto '' 

appresso ai aari, che jrarUvan sìe 
che 1' andar mi (acean di nullo costo. 

Ed ecco piangere e cantar s' udie : ■" 

'^ LaùifJ mea Domine" per modo 
tal che diletto e doglia parturle. 

'* O dolce padre, che è quel eh' i' odo ? " 's 
comincia' Ìo ; ed egli ; " Ombre che vanno 

r' forie di lor dover solvendo il nodo." - ^h 

ri4 ^1 


priority pf ntÈsfactlon for li» own aHiazcd carìoiit'y 
("40-60), Fprwe ticpUini that there ^re pther tree» 
like to thii, and that each ren«wt ch« pain of the 
purging louU; naj, richer their aolue; for they 
ei:u|t! in crucifying with Christ the old Adam in 
thepi (fit-7S)- Pott»c fliriKei' ghowj hew he own 
to bia -nidoired Nella hij «Ijccdy pi^inotlon to th? 
iWMt biUernes» of torment. She ii lU the dearer to 
God \a proporElon to the lonelineii of her virtue in 
the place of inittmy in which die li vei (7^-96). Fore» 
proceed* to denounce the dliiolute fiahiom of the 
wamen of PlofCiiCe (97-tIl). Dante mnit DOW In 
hit tunv unfold the Utrj of how he hid been rescued 
I from the wnrldlf life which he and PorcM had once 
IJTed CDj^cthei, of the itraage journey on which 
Virgil hai conducled lilm, of tlie promiie that he 
■hatl meet Bevtilce, «nd of the manner In which 
they h«re eacoUntercd Staiiu» (ifl-cjj), 

Wiiile [ was thai fixing mine eyed through the Tlie 
1 green leaver, cten as he i» wont to do who*** *"' 

throve away his life after birds, 
I my more than father said to me; "Son, come 

now oDward, lor the time which is aJlotted to 

us muBt be more usefully apportioDcd." 
I tucQcd my face, and my step not lees (juickly, 
1 towards the Rages, who were diBcour^ing so 
I that they made the going of no cost to me. 
I And lOf in tears and song was heard : " Labia mea 
I D^minft' tn such maoner that it gare birth to 
I joy and grief. 

I *'0 BWipet Father, what is that which I hear? " 
I began I ; and he : " Shades that perchance 
I go loosening the kaot of their debt." ^| 



drone Vi Sì come i peregrin peoaoai fanno^ >* 

I giugoecdo per cammÌD gente non nota, 

■ che ai volgono ad essa e non ristanno : 

H così di retro a noi, più tosto mota, v 

H veneodo e trapassando^ ci amiiiìraTa 

H d' anime turbs tacita e devota. 

^^^ NegH occhi era ciascuna oscura e cava, m 

^^H pallida nella fai::cia, e tanto SCCDU 

^^V che dall' ossa la pelle b* mformaya. 

W Non credo che così a buccia Btreoia ■* 

^^m Eresitene fo&ee fatto secco^ 

^^H per digiunar, quando piìl □' ebbe tems. 

^^^ Io dicea fra me sceaso pensando : " Ecco ■* 

I Ea gente che perde Jerusalemme, 

H quando Maria nel figlio die' di becco," 

I Parean r occhiaie anella senza gemme : 3*. 

■ chi nel viso degli uomini legge omffj 
m ben avria quivi conosciutQ 1' emme. 

B Chi crederebbe che 1' odor d' un pomo 3* 

^^^ si goTeroasBe, generando brama, 

^^H e quel d' un' act^ua, non sapendo comò ? 

^^^ Già era in ammirar che $] gli affama, t 

H per la cagione ancor non manifesta 

■ di lor magrezza e di lor triuu squama ; 
^^_ ed ecco del profondo della testa 4° 
^^B volse a me gli occhi un' ombra, e guardd fiso, 
^^^ poi gridò forte : ** Qual grazia m' è questa ì " 
I Mai non 1' avrei riconosciuto al vira ^ *t 
^^H ma nella voce aua mi iìi paleee 

^^B ciò che r aspetto in sé avea conquiso. 

W Questa favilla tutta mì raccese 4* 

^^^ mia conoscenza alla cambiata labbia, 

^^m e ravvisai la faccia di Forese. 



Krcn as raueing wayfarers do, who od OTcr- The 

takiBg strange folk by ihc way, turn rouod to *^ " " 

them and atay not, 
so behind ub, moving more quickly, conung, 

and passing hy, a throog of spirita, ait^at ajid 

devout, was ga.zÌEg upon us la wonder- 
Dark aad hollow-eyed, waa cach one, pallid QfThcit^ ^ 

face, and so wasted away that the >k.ìa took ^'"' 

form from the bones- 
I do Dot believe that EryfiichthoD became thus 

withered to the very skin by hunger, when 

greatest fear he had thereof. 
I said in thought withia me; "Behold the 

people that Jose Jeriuilem when Mary fed oo 

hcf child." 
Theij eye-BOcket& seemed gemless riogH : he who 

reads ' omo ' in the face of man would cleairly 

have recogoiaed there the • m.' 
VP^ho, not knowing the reaEon^ would belieTe 

that the Bcent of fruit and that of water had 

thus wrought, by begetting desire? 
Already I was in i^stonishment at what thus 

famtehes them, because of the reasùo not yet 

manifest, of their teannee^ and of their sad scurf, 
when lo, Irani the hollow of the head a shade Fgnn 

turned ItB eyes to me and fixedly did gaze; 

then cried aloud: "What grace ie tbie tome f '* 
Never had I recogcùsed him by the face, but ia 

hii TOLCc,, wsA revealed to me, that which was 

blotted out in his countenance. 
This «park rekindled within me all my know- 
ledge of the changed features, and I recogaìsed. 

the face of Forese. 




,Vl "Deb HOD cDDEendere all' uciutu acabbia, 
che mi scolora," pregava, *' la pelle, 
uè a difetto dì carne eh' io abbia ; 

ma dimmi ti ver di te, e chi non i^atìit 
due anime che la ti fa,nno «corta ; 
non rimaner che tu non mi favelle-" 

" Lz faccia tua, eh' io lagrtmai già mortai 
mi dà di pianger mo doq minor doglia." 
rispos' io lui, " Tcggendola si torta. 

Però mi di', per Dio, che si vi sfoglia; 
non mi far dir mentr' io mi maravigiioi 
che mat può dir chi è pien d' altra voglia'" 

Ed egli a me: *' Dall' eterno consigEìo 
cade virtfl nel)' acqua, e nella pianta 
fiiQ^a retro» Ond' io &ì m' asaottìgEio. 

Tutta està gente, che piangendo canta, 
per seguitar !a gola oltra misura 
ÌD fame e in sete qui sì rìtà sanu. 

Di bere e di mangiar d' accende cura 

1* odor eh' esce del potno, e dello Sprazzo 
che sì distende su per la verdura. 
-E non pure una volta, questo spazzo 
girando, SI rinfresca noitra pena, 
io dico pena e dovrei dir sollazzo ; 

cLè quella voglia alF arbore ci mena, 
che mena Cristo lieto a dire : ' Eli»' 
quando ne liberò eoo la sua vena." 

Ed io a lui : " Forese, da quel di 

tiel qual mutasti mondo a miglior viu, 
cinqu^ anni non son voEtl inftno a qui. 

Se prima fu la poeaa in te finiu 
di ptccar più, che eorvenissc I' oca 
dei buon dolot cV a "D'vo nfc ràwMWi, 



t" Ah «are not," be prayed, " at the dry leprosy Th« 

which dbcolouri my skio, nor at any default R™ttoacraj 

of flesh that I may have, Daa^' ' 

but tell me sooth of thyself, and who those two 

spirits aie that there make thy escort; abide 

thou not without speaking to me." 
"Thy face," ansiArcred 1 him, "which in death 

I wept for once, gives me now not leas grief, 

even unto tears, seeing it flo disfigured- 
Therefore telj me, in God's name, what strips you 

bo; make me not talk while I am marvelling, for 

ill can he speak who ia full of other desire." 
And he to me: "From the eternal counsel virtue 

derScendfi into the water, and into the tree left 

behind, whereby I thus do waste away. 
Atl this people, who weeping sing, sanctify 

themaelvea agaiin io hunger and dbijat, for 

haviiig followed appetite to excess. 
The »CE£it which is^ass frQcn the fruit, and from 

the apray that ia difFuaed over the green, 

kindlcB within ub a desire to eat and to drink. 
And aot once only, while circling this road, is 

our paia renewed, I saiy pain and ought to 

say solace ; 
for that desire leads us to the tree, which led 

glad Christ to say : • Eh ' when he made 

us free with his blood." 
And I to him: *' Forese, from that day on 

which thou didfit change the world for a 

better life, Dot Uve years have revolved till now. 
If power to ain more came to na end in thee ere 

the hour supervened of the holy sorrow which 

weds na anew to God, 



Glr6ne Vi Come se* tu quassù venuto l Ancora 
io ti credea trovar laggii di sotto, 
dove tempo per tempo si riatora/* 

Ed egli a, me : ** SI tosto m' ha condotta 
a ber la dolce assenzio de' [ìsartiri 
la Nella mta cpl auo pianger dirotto ; 

COD suoi preghi devoti e con sospiri 
tratto in' ha della costa ove &' aspetta, 
e liberato tn' ha degli altri giri. 

Tant' è a Dio piC) cara e piìl diletta 
la vedovella mia, che molto amai, 
quanto in bene operare è più soletta : 

che la Barbagia^ di Sardigna assai 
nelle femmine sue è pili pudica 
che la Barbagia dov' io la lasciai. 

O dolce frate, che vuoi tu eh' io dica ? 
Tempo futuro m' è già nel cospetto, 
cui non sarà quest' ora molto antica, 

nel qual sarà in pergamo interdetto 
alle sfacciate daune Fiorentine 
r andar mostrando COD le poppe il petto. 

Quai Barbare Tur mai, qtiai Saracine, 
cui bisognasse, per farle ir copertCf 
o spiritali altre discipline ì 

Ma ee le svergognate fosaer c«rte 

di quel che il ciel veloce loro ammanna, 
già per urlare avrian te bocche aperte : 

che, se r antiveder qui non m' inganna, 
prima fien triste che le guance impeli 
colui che mo si consola con nanna. 

Deh, frate, or fa che piò qod mi ti celi ; 
vedi che non pur io, ma questa gente 
tutta rimira là dove il sol veli." 







CANTO xxni 



Ikùw art thou come up here f I thought to fini 
thec yet down below, where time for time is 

And he to me; ^'Thus loon hath led me to 
drinik the aweet wormwood of the tormentB, 
my Nella by her flood of tears ; 

by her pf^ycfB derout and by «ighs she hath 
brought me from the borderà where they wait» 
aod set ni< free from the other circlw. 

So much more precious and beloved of God is 
piy dear widow, whom I lov«l so well, as she 
U the more loocly in good works ; 

for the Barbjigia of Sardinia cb far more modeat 
in ita women thar the Barbagia where t left 

■ O sweet brother, wh^t would&t thou have me 
fsiyi Already in my vision is a time to 
come to which this hour shall not be very old, 

when the hrazcn-faccd women of Florence shall 
be forbidden from the pulpit to go abroad 
■bowing their breasts with tlit paps. 

What Barbary, what Saracen women ever lived, 
to whom either spiritual, or other discipUoe 
were necessary^ to make them go covered^ 

But if the shameless creatures were assured of what 
iwift heaven is preparing for them, already 
would they have their mouths open to howl : 

for if previsioQ here beguile me not, they shall 
be sorrowing ere he shall clothe his chccllS 
with down, who now is soothed with lullaby. 

Pray brother, look that thou hide thee no longer 
from me ; thou seest that not only I^ but all this 
people are gazing where thou reilett the sua." 





bla wife's 

witb tbe 
vic«a oi ti 





m Vl Per ch' io a Im : *' Se ti riduci a mente "S 

qual fosti meco e canale io ceco fili, 
ancor fia gra^e il memorar prtieote. 

Di quella vita mi volse costui "* 

che mi va. ioQanui, 1' alcr' ier, quando tDOcU 
TI si moatrò la suora di cgluì — -" 

(e il aol moaU'ai). "Costui per la profonda "' 
notte menato m* ha da' veri morti, 
CDQ questa vera caioi che il aecoada. 

Iodi m' han tratto su Ei tuoi canforti^ '** 

saJeodo e rigirando La montagna^ 
che drizza voi che Ìl moado fece torti. 

Tanto dice di farmi sua compagna, ^'^ 

eh' io MTÒ la dove fia Beatrice ; 
quivi convien che aenza lui rimagaa. 

Virgilio è questi che cosi mi dice *3* 

(e addita' loj, e c[ueHt* altro è quell' ombra 
per cui aco&se dianzi Ogni pendice 

lo vostro regno che da sé lo sgombra." *i3 

11, '-'O Lord) open thou oìj lips; and my muuth 
jhall Rhcw forth thy pnisK" (A. li. ijj, [AÌl the 
office^ begin Witti the ìnrocalion jttminr latìa auu 
ufi ir hi. ] 

15-27. The TEieEitalLanr Eryiichthan, cut down an 
□ak in the iKCfed ^fore of Cerei, wheHupon the 
gaiicK punished hlm t>y making him endure «uch 
hunger ihu be vra» reduced to gciawing hli owd 
fleih; of which, hj that cime, there wa» so little left 
thlt his hunger opened the yet more teirible proapect 
of death by ttarvaiion (0»id, Mit. tììì. 738-874;. 

38-3,0. During the liege of J«ruadi!m hy Titutj the 
FaAiioc became t9 tnàbìt, tk^t ^ Jewe»«. nuncd 
Mary, killed her child aad devoured it (see Joiephu», 
Dt BilUJud. vi. ]). 

]S, 3j. Losgfellow quotet an Jaterettltig puiag« 
from a «ermon of Brother Berthold (a PranciiciD 



Wherefore I to him: *'lf thou bring back to The 
mind what thou hast been with me and what K'nt'*"* 
I hare beco wiih tJiee, the prcBCiit memory [>^^^ 
will stiCI be grievous. 

Froni that life he who goeth before me did 
turn me» the other day, when fijll waj shown 
to you the sister of him," 

(and I poioted to the sun). "This one through 
the deep night hath led me from the truly dead, 
is this Bolid fleih which follow» him. 

Theoce his comforts hare brought me up, sHCcnd- 
ing and circling the mount, which makes you 
atraight whoiii the world made crooked. 

So loDg he tatka of making me his comrade, 
UDtil I ahall be there where Beatrice will be ; 
there must I remaio bereft of him. 

Virgil IB he who xhw «peaks to mc (and I 
poioted to him] and this other is that shade for 
whom before in every scarp youi realm did 
sh^ke which now disdiarges him from itself." 

frisr who lived at Rrgcnibu.TH' in the lith cviiEurT}i 
which proTca, what it indeed inipUea In Dante a 
words, thai tlii* conception was current at the 

40 ijf. Thii is Dante'i friend, Forcic Donati, the 
brother of Corso («ee the following canto, w. j^- 
90) and of Piccarda (lee the fallowing canto, w. 10, 
ij-iji and Par. lit. j+ »pj., esptdnUy «hs ncCi (o 
V. 49). ForcM, who bore the nickname of fiicei 
Napello, died on July tS, 1196 (v. 7E). Ft>r hi» 
relation* with Dant^, tvhich throw colt si de rib Ic 
light on Che «otntwhat unedifying but highlf 
intereiting and important period of our poet'i life 
that fnllawed tht death of BnCliee, tee w. 115-ltgi 
ind^/. Gardner, p. 14 '7. 

73'7S- " ^"'^ about the ninth konr Jenii ericd 



with a. loud Toice, JSifiag, Eli» Ell, lama labachtbani 7 
that il la ia.y, My God^ mj God, why ha«t thou 
forgalitn me?" (jif"". «Jiviii. 46, JH^iri «v. 34). — 
gufila vaglia — the derire to conform aur will (« the 
wi]l ùf Clod 

79-S4. • If you delayed repentance till the lut 
moment, how (• it ttiat you ate not «till in the 
Antipurgatorio ? ' 

^S'93- '° ""* ^^ ''^^ lOaneiB referred to beiow 
{moti to *if. iis-ii9)Dante describe* Fon't»**» neglefi 
of hi« wife, Nella, but with a coarnene»! that is well- 
nig'h incredible. The present passage may bare ivecn 
intended by the poet to atone in b meaiiire fi>r that 
poctn, and to oiler tli^ widow tome consolation by 
r«preientÌTig Forese, In his new condition, ai one of 
[he tendcrcst df hllibandl. 

94-iTI. Dante compare-t thi ihame1eitn«H of the 
FWentine n'-omen with that of the women in Bar- 
bagia, fa monti tainoui dijtrict in the south of Sardinia), 



who »rr "jJ to have hMn dMcended either from iht 
VancUU or ihe Sancem. Wetiave bo contemponry 
record of Bermang o^rdecrtei relating ta thit tubject. 
A law Jealiog with a kìnilrtid maltpr— the luxury of 
the women — ii mentioned by Villani fix. 145) ai 
haTing been paiicd in IJ14. See- Far, zr. 99 i^j. 

Ilj-iig. Thcie renei ifTard a clear proof ChitC Che 
Life from whkh Virgil r««cu«d Dante wan not merel7 
ooeot philoaophi'Cal or religious error, ai hat been 
contended, but of moral unworlKine». Thtte i) 
iiill extant a. poetical corretpondence bciwtien Dante 
and Forese (conriiting of three tonncti by tKe former 
and two by the Uttec} OA a leTcl i^1lil« beneath any- 
thing else that we poiieii of Daate'j. The two 
friendi rail at each other in a vein which may have 
been melai pUyfuUy. but ll ex,tietnel!r «llngiDg and 
anything but refined. 

iig, lie See Ik/, xs, ia7<iji). 

is7-ia<g, See /y. i. iii-tiG 


THE touln gather in imazemeiit round the lirÌDg- 
man ; 'wh-o iittcH > aumiiie to his friend that 
St&tiuA il perchance Itn^erin^ on hi* wij br the 
tìtke al Virgil'a coftipaaionshij) ; and th«ii qtseitiom 
him concerning hii liater PJccardZ] ind learni thaE 
(he il already in heaven (i-ij). The ioain are io 
emaciaced ai to he barely recognisable, and Forese 
Dame» a nnoibier ot them as he points them out Eo 
Dante; an office which they accept with ccpmplacencf, 
for feco^itloti ckn bring- no added «hunc, but mtj 
bring sympathy cr aid to touli in Furg^tprj (16-33). 
Amcngst them is Buonag-iunta da Lucca, a poet of 
the old school of Ouittane of Arezzo, who mutler* a 
prophecy concerning a child of the name of Oentucca, 
whose graetoui olC^ei to Dante when she eomci to 
woEDan'i estate, «hall give hLni («ndef sHociatloor 
with that city of Lucca which lie and othera hft*e 
io fiercely denvuneed (34-48). Then he question» 
I>ante at to the lecteC of the new school of TtiiCAti 
pectry which has superseded the one to which he 
belonged, and learnt thac k lies In the prEnctple of 
trying not to «ay thlogi beautifully, but to say 

GCnueVI Né il dir r andar, uè 1' aodur lui più lento 
facea, ma ragioDandù acdavam forte, 
ni come nave pinta da buon tceiU}. 

E I' ombF'C, che pareao cose rimorte» 
per te fosse degli occhi ammirazione 
traean di me, di mio vivere accortc- 

Ed io, conticmando il mio aermooe, 
diui : *' Ella sen ra »u forse più tarda 
ciic Don farebbe, per 1' altrui cagione. 

CANTO xxiy 

besatlfhl thingi truly:; a critìciim In whkh he 
Écquieicei with full eohCenl aiid utìifiiction (^^-^^X 
Then ali the other jouLs iweep forwar>l, while 
Fnrne, lik.e a, iCraggler from a caravan, remiini 
E»eliind Co qaeition Dante » to hia expected term 
of lìiici to hear hìi lameatacioni over the itate oF 
Florence, to utt» a prophety of che death of Mi 
Kladre Cono Donati, and thea to «pMd iaewjri 
to rejoin hii coinpRnLoni, Icatlng^ DanEc Id foUow 
the two great poeti (ti4-9<|}. The pilgrimi now 
put another tree like the one already en^iountered 
They hear that it ii a ihooC from the one whereof 
Eve caK«d the fruit; and from amongti iti fc^lia^e 
irning examplfi of g'lu[Ean«'U« cjifeiA are r^hearaej 
loa-isg). AfteraJerigtJieiKd march iaiileoUbottght, 
are itartled bj the blinding glory of the ang^el 
piardian, whose wing wafti ■ fareath laden ai with 
perfume of iloweri on a May morning upon Dant«'i 
inntr ; and the pilgrima hear the hleuing pronAupced 
IP thaae whole hunger II meaiured bf rig'hceouiineii 

either did our speech make the gulag, aor the The 
going, it more slow ; but, talking we went piitto»»» 
brarely oq, ctcq as a ship driTcn by a fair 

Aod the Hhades, that Beemed things twice dead, 
drew io wonderment at me through the pit* of 
their eyes, aware of my being alive. 

And I, continuing my disconrse, aaid : "Per- 
chance he goeth upward more «lowly thin he 
would do, for anotiher's sake. 





Girone Vi Ma dimmi, «e tu M sai, ov' è Piccarda ; 
dimmi s' so reggio da notar persona 
tra questa gente che sì mi riguarda/' 

** La mia sorella, che tra bella e buona 
non ao qua,! fosse più, trionfa lieta 
Dell' itÌEo Olimpo già di sui corona." 

SI disse prinia, e poi : " Qui non si vieta 
di flominair ciascun, da eh' è si miMCa 
nostra sembianza via per la dieta. 

Questi (e mostrò col dito) è Eonagiunta, 
Bonagiunta da Lucca ; e quella faccia 
di là da lui, più che 1' altre trapunta, 

ebbe la santa Chieaa tn Se sue braccia: 
dal Torio Fu, e purga per digiuno 
1* anguille di Bolseoa e la vernaccia." 

Molti altri mi noma ad uno ad uno ; 
e del nomar parean tutti coDUntt, 
a\ eh' io perà non ridi un atto bruno. 

Vidi per fame a voto usar li denti 
Ubaldio dalla Fila, e Boui&ziio 
che pasturò col rocco molle genti. 

Vidi messer Marchese, eh' ebbe spazio 
già di bere a Forlì con men secchezza, 
e 3I fu tal che non si sentì sazio. 

Ma, come fa chi guarda e poi 9' apprezza 

più d' un che d' altro, fé' io a quel da Lucca, 
che più parea di me aver contezza^ 

Ei mormorava, e non so che " Gentucca " 
sentiva io là ov' ei seutia la piaga 
della, giustìzia che si li pilucca. 

»* O atiima," diss' io, " che par il vaga 
di parlar meco, fa sì cb' io t'^ intenda, 
e te e me col tuo parlare appaga. "^ 








But teU me, if thou iLDOwest, wberc PiccucU i> i 
leU me if I kc aoy person to be noted amoDg 
this people who gaze ao at me." 

"My lister, who, whether she were more fair or 
more good I know not, now triumpba, rejoic- 
ing in her crown on high Olympus," 

Tbu» Ayakt he at Hiit, aodi then : " Here 'tit 
QOt lorbiddcD to Dame each utie, since our 
feature» are bo wrung by ahatinence- 

This (and be showed with hia fìnger) is Bom- 
giunta, BoDSgiuata of Lucca ; ana that visage^ 
beyond him, shrivelled more than the others, 

held Holy Church within its arms ; from TouTsi 
sprang he, and by fae^cing purges the eel» of 
Bolsena and tlie sv/cet wine," 

Many others he aamed to me, one by one, and 
aU did seem glad at the naming, bo that I 
&aw therefore Dot one black look. 

I law Ubaidino della Pila using his teeth for very 
hunger on the void ; and Boniface who pastured 
many peoples with the rooÌL. 

I saw Messef Marchese, who oDCe had leisure 
to drink at Forlì with less thirst, and yet was 
00 craving chat he never felt lated. 

But as he doth who looks, and then esteems one 
more than another, bo did I to him of Lucca 

►who Seemed to have moat knowledge of me. 
; was muttering, and something like "Gen- 
tucca,*' I heard there where he was |-ee)ing the 
«ouods of Justice, which m doth pluck them. 
'^O soul,'' said L, '"that seemetb yearning so to 
talk with mcj speak w that 1 may understand 
ihee, and satisfy me and thee with thy speech." 


pkce Ili 

t>QÌB.ta ant 


of Loecft 

Had Po pel 




D&ate and 




GinweVi " Femmina è nata, e non porta ancor benda," « 
cominciò ei, "che ti farà piacere 
la mìa cittàt come eh' uom la riprenda. 

Tu te n' andrai con questo anuvedere ; *• 

se nel mio mormorar prendeati errore, 
dichlariraTiti ancor le cose vere. 

Ma di^ a' io veggio qui colui che fuore « 

trasse le nuove rim?, cominciando : 
' Donne, eh' avfle ìnteiletlù d' Amerei " 

Ed io a lui : " Io mi boti un che, quando *• 

amor mi spira, noto, ed a quel modo 
che ditta dentro» fo signilicandoi." 

*' O frate. Issa 7cggìo," dÌMe, *• il nodo 's 

che il Notaro, e Guittone e me ritenne 
di qna dal dolce stil nuovo eh' i* odo, 

Io veggio ben come le vostre penne s" 

di retro al ditlator «en vanno strette, 
che delle nostre cereo non avvenne. 

E qua! più a guardar oltre si mette, 

non vede piìl dair uno all' altro itilo ** ; 
e quasi contentata ii tacecte. 

Co'Tnc gli auge! che rernaa lungo il Nilo 
alcuna volta ia aer fanno schiera, 
poi volan piò in li-etta e vanno in Alo : 

cob'i tutta la gente che li era, 

volgendo il viao, raffrettò tuo passo, 
e per magrezza e per voler leggiera. 

E come I' uom che di trottare è lasso 
lascia andar li compagni, e ai {passeggia 
fio che si sfoghi 1' a^oUar del casso ; 

•I [ascia trapalar la santa greggia 
Foreae, e retro meco kq venivaf 
dicendo: "Quando lìa eh' io ti rireggia ? " 






••A «ornati is born and wears not yet the 
wimple," he began, " who will make my city 
pleaifiing to thee, however maa may rebuke it. 

Thou shalt go hence with this prophecy ; if thou 
haBt taken my muttering in error, the real facta 
will make it yet clear to thee< 

But tell if I »ee here him who inTented the 
□cw fhymes begiociiDg : ^ Laditt that have 
intMgeace of L.avc^ " 

And I to him: "I am one who, when Lo*'e 
iaapires me take note, and go setting it forth 
after the fashion which he dictates within me.** 

" O brother,** said he, " now 1 see the knot which 
kept back the Noury» aad Guittone, and tne, 
short of the BweeC new style that I hear. 

Truly 1 Bee how your pens follow cloae after 
him who dictates, which certainly befell not 

with OUTB. 

And be who sets himself to search farther, has lost 

all sense of differeacc between the one style and 

the oihfr " ; aod, aa if satisfied, he was silenu 
As birds that winter along the Nile £ometimcj 

make of themselves ati aerial squadroni^ then 

^y ID greater haste and go in lite^ 
BO all the people that were there, facing round, 

quickened their pace, fle«E through leancess 

and desire. 
And as one who is weary of runniag lets his 

comrades go by, and walk^ until the panting 

of his cheat be eased ; 
so Forese let the holy flock pass by, and came 

OD behind with me, sayiag : " When shall it 

he thai I see thee again ^" 




with Du 
DD poetrt 





Girone VI " Non ao," riRpos' io lui, " quant' io mi viTa j ?• 
ma già aoD fia il tornar mio tanto toMo, 
eh' io Doii &ia col voler prima alla rtTa : 

però che il loco, u* fui a virer poeto, t9 

di giorno in gìoroo pii\ di ben si spolpa, 
ed a trista ruioa par disposto." 

"Orva,"dÌB8'ei, "che quei che più n'ha colpa '• 
Tegg' io a coda d* ima bestia tracco 
in ver la valle, ove mai qod si scolpa. 

La bestia ad ogni passo va più rattOj 

crescendo sempre, fin eh' ella il percuoic, 
e lascia il Corpo vilmeiLte disfatto. 

Non hanno molto a Folger quelle rote, 

(e drizzò gli occhi al ciel) che ti fia chiaro 
ciò che il mio dir più dichiarar aoo puote. 

Tu ti rimani ornai, che Ìl tempo è caro 
in questo regno, ti eh' io perdo troppO', 
venendo teco si a paro a paro." 

Qua] esce alcuna volta dì galoppo 
lo cavalier di schiera che imvaicht, 
e va per farsi onor del prìnao iacoppa, 

tal si parti da noi con maggior valchl ; 
ed io rimasi in via con esso i due, 
che fur del mondo hÌ gran itialiscalchi. 

E quando innanzi a noi entrato fue^ 
che gli occhi miei ai fero a lui seguaci 
come la mente aile parole sue, 

parvermi ì rami gravidi e vivaci 

d' UD altro pomo, e non molto lontani, 
per esser pure allora volto ÌQ laci. 

Vidi gente sott' esso alzar le mani 
e gridar non so che verso le ft-oade j 
quabi bramosi fantoliai e vani 





"X know not," answered I him, " how long I may Ttie 
live, yet my return will not be so &oon but that ^ " t**"'""* 
I be not before with my desire ac the bank : 

for the place whtre I was put to live, is day by TbemEsery 
day more stripped of good, and seems doomed dneto'^*" 
to woeful ruin." n'"'^ 

"Now go," said he, "for him who is most in whoaa 
fault I see dragged at the tail of a beast, p^JJ^^j 
towards die vale where nin Ìh neyer cleansed, by Forese 

FaGtcjr goes the beast at tiTcry &tcp, iocrcasiog 

ever till it dashes him^ and leaves hie body | 

hideously diefiguired, ^H 

Yon wbeeU (and he lifted his eyes up to the ^H 

heavens) have not lon^ to revolve ere th^c ^^È 

shall be deaf to thee which my words may ^H 

no further declare. ^H 

Now remaJTi thqu behind, for time is precioufl in ^H 

this realm, so that I lose too much coming with ^H 

Lhee thus at equal pace." ^H 

As a horaenun nametimes comes forth ax. a gallop ^H 

from a troop that is riding, and goes to win the ^H 

honour of the first encounter, ^^M 

r parted hs from us with greater Btridea ^ amd I ^H 

was left by the way with the two who were such ^H 

great marshal» of the world. ^H 

And wheQ he h^d advanced so far ahead of us, ^^M 

that mine eyes made such pursuit of him, u ^H 

my mind did of his words, * 

the laden and green boughs of another tree ap- A. second 
peared to rae, and not very far away, for I waa ^^^ ' 

but then conic round thithef. ' 

I saw people beneath it lifting up their hands^ and ^H 

crying out somethÌTig towards the foliage, like ^H 

H »poi1t ;ind greedy children, ^H 


raran* VI che pregano, e il piegato non risponde, 
ma. per fare tMtt htù h voglia acuta, 
dea alto lor difiio r noi nasconcle. 
Poi ù partì ai conte ricreduta ; 

e DUI venimmo al grande arbore adesso, 
che tanti preghi e lagrime rifiuta* 

"Trapassate oltre aeoza farvi presso} 
legno è più bU che fu morso da Eva^ 
e <|uesta piaota bì levò da esBO.^* 

Sì tra le frasche dop bo chi diceva ; 

per che Virgilio e Stazio ed io, ristretti, 
oltre aodavam dal lato che sì leva. 

** Ricordivi," dicea, "dei maledetti 
Dei nuvoli formati, che satoSli 
Teseo combatter coi doppi petti ; 

e degli Ebrei, eh' al ber si mostrir molli, 
per che no' ì volle Gedcoo compagni, 
quando ver Madian discese i colli." 

SI accostati all' im de' due vivagni 
passammo, udendo colpe della gola, 
Beguite già da miaeri guadagni' 

Poi, rallargati per U strada sola, 

ben mille passi e più ci portaro oltr^ 
contemplando clascuD sen^ parola. 

" Che andate pcn&ando sì Toi sol tre ? " 
subita voce disse ; ond' io mi acoasi, 
come fan bestie spaventate e poltre. 

Drizzai U testa per veder chi fosai; 
e giammai non si videro la fornace 
vetri o metalli aì lucenti e ios$ì, 

com' LO vidi un che dicea : " S' a voi piace 
montate in su, ^ui si coavien dar vofta : 
«quinci ai va chi vuole andar per pace." 









who beg, and he of whom they beg, anewera not, 

but to malce their loagÌDg toll keeti, holds 

what they cteslre od high, znd hidcB it not. 
Then they departed as though andeceivcd ; and 

now we came^ to the great tree which mocks 

BO maay prayer» and tears. 
" Paae onward without drawing nigh to it| higher 

up ifi a tree which was eaten of by Eve, and 

thifi plajit was raised from it." 
Thus amid the branches some one «pake ; where- 
fore Virgil aod Sutiys and ], cloee together, 

went forward by the side which rises. 
*' Remember,'* he said, "the accursed ones formed 

in the clouds, who when gorged^ fought 

Theseus with their double breasts j 
and the Hebrew» who showed thcmoclTcs soft 

at the drinkiug, wherefore Gideon would have 

ihe/n POt for comrades when he came down the 

bilk to Midian." 
Thua we passed close against one of the two 

imrgios, hearing sin» of glunony, once 

followed by woefiil gains. 
Thep, spread out along the salitary way, full a 

thousand paces and more bore ub onward, each 

in contemplation without a word. 
"What go ye thus pondering on ye bne three," 

fludden voice did say ; wherefore I startled 

Af frightened and timid beasts do. 
I raised my head to see who it was, atid ntver in a 

furnace were glasses or metale seen so glowing 

and red, 
as 1 saw one who said : " If it please you to 

mount upwardj here must a turn be given ; 

hence goeth he who desLrea to go for peace." 


Prom %be 

Are neltfld 



The Aug «1 
of T«m]>er- 



CSfoae VI L' appetto SUO m' avea la vista tolta : 

per eh' io mi volsi retro a* miei dottori, 
com' uom che va secondo eh' egli ucolu. 

E (juaie, anounziatrice degli albori, 
r aura dì maggio movevi ed olezza, 
tutta imjKegnata dall' erba e da' fiori : 

taJ mi «entiì un vento dar per mezza 
k fì'onte-, e ben senti' mover la piuma, 
che fé' sentir à' ambroìia i' amia., 

E Benti' dir : " Beati cut alluma 

tanto di graiia^ che !' amor del gusto 
nel petto lor troppo dinir dod lùma., 

eaonenido sempre quanto è giusto." 






IO, IJ-IJ. Ff*T Piccartla, "e Par. Hi. 34 ijq. 

19 j^. Bonagiunta Orbicnaaì degli Overardi, k 
LuC'f^heBe po^r, vrho was ilill living' in tx^i. See 
beidw, nptt to ve, Ji-Aj. 

10-14.. Simon de- Brie was Pope, as Martin IV., 
frpm iiSi till IzSj. See VillsDÌ, vii. jB. and 10$ ; in 
th« UtCer pBiaagti we leatn Chat "h« wat a good mui 
aad reryfafourabU to Haiy Church and. ta choie of 
the htiU»* of FrftnCc, bicause He Waj dota Touri." 
Martin died ef siting loo matif celi from the Lake 
of Bellina ctfewed En Vernaccia wine. Hìi epitaph 

ran ; G^itidtiii anguìthr, ynìa morttim' hit jaffi Uh Q/lì plori 
m irti rcai cxtariairat tai. 

SQ. 01 tr^aldin dalla Pila, a member of the Tutcan 
Uhlbelline family of th« Uhaldini, we knavf that he 
Wai a glutton, and tiiat he wu brother of the 
Cardinal Otta ria no f/j^. x, ilo), father of theArch- 
biihnp Roger of Pisa {^"f- xxxili.), and uncle «f 
Ugolino d^Ano («ee aboTe, Cacito xE*. 105). 

19,30, Thiiii probably BonE&iio dei Fi^uhl, wha 
wail Archbishop of Ravenna (1S74-1X9J), We have 
no record of hli greedtnesa. — Soett referi ro dw oma- 




HÌ9 counteD3Dce had bereft me of sight ; where- The 
fore I turced me back to my Tieacher», like ' 
one who goeth according as he iJGtens. 

And as the May breeze, herald of the dawn, Btira 
and breathes forth sweetneas, all impregnate 
with grass and with flowers, 

■uch a, wind felt I givt Od the middle ot my brow^ 
and right well I felt the pinions m.ove which 
wnAed ambroiiai fragrance to my ttaxa ; 

And I heaid t^y : " Blessed are they who are T^bt lixU! 
illmnined by bo much grace, that the love of ** 
Catte kiadlcth not too great desire \ù their 
breaBt8,and who hunger alwaya so far as is just." 

aifnt, ihiped like a rook Jt chcM, at the rap- oF the 
ancicfil panoral ilitTof ch« Archbiihopi of Ravenna, 

JI-J3. Mcsser Marcile», £>f Forlì, who bclongfd 
cither to the ArgogUoii or to the OrdeUffi fsunit^, 
wa» Podestà of FaenM. in ji^fi. When told that he 
WM Av/aya drinking he retorted by iiying that he 
vf»a alwayt tfairiiy. 

37-48. A much dLacuiPEd pania.g'S, A few of the 
early commenta com, loimeirhit ihiunll^, toak gcirtuca 
as a subitantive, the pejoritiv? of gmtr. It «eema 
probaMe thai Minutoli'e identification ia correct, and 
that the U4y in queation was Gentneca MotU, the 
beautiful wife of Coiciorìno Fondnni, of Lucca, Ir 
ivliaiewill(i J17) iKe is mentioned. The friendship., 
forauch it auuredlj- was, may be pUccd b^tweg-n the 
yean 1314-1316, whun Dante ii matit Ukely to hare 
bccaat i'Ucca.(HeOardneir,p. 3:5). In ijocGentuco 
was still quite young' and Unmtrried.and therefore dM 
not yet wear the ienJa {v, 4]], which waiireaenred for 
marriijJ women (and, when white, for widows, lee 
above, Canto tIÌì. *. 74], 

ji. The 6ni line qÌ a canzone contiiaed in the 
^ita N'iàcva, g xix. 

ji.{i}. liallan lyrlcaL poetry before ijoo maj^ be 


rOBcblv dÌTiiitti) into thre? jchooLt. (a) l'Eie Sicilian 
■cho»l (continued in Central half), wbicli wai baaed 
on Proiren^al craditioni ; to this belong Jac^opo di. 
L^ntinQ, CQmnionly^ called if Nfiai», Don^giUDU, a,tld 
Guicton'C of Arezzo Ln hli first period. (£) Tlie 
philoaophicBl •rhoo!, wtiich may be lepresenttij by 
the later poem* of GuiCCùne snd iwhieh r«ac]ie(l [» 
cUmaE in the work) cf Guida Gumicelli ot Bologna. 
[^(} The Plorentine school of the diUtt ilii tmuva, the 
mPVt dtitU>E!uishe4 repreientatives of which 
Guido CaTaleantt and Dane*. Their puttry \» 
itrongty inHuenced by t!ij.t a{ Guido GutnìceUi, but 
ihowi more genuine iniipirution than it\j tbat hstt 
gone before in Italy, See above, Canto sd. w. 77-7gi 
matt, [BonagiiintawroK a poem in derìiìon af Guida 
OiiLnicGlli ; and if, ai »eem* probable, th\% ynvsa 
induced Dante Co Felect Bcrnagianta for the purpoie 
of making him «at humble pic in the pretenc ifinw, 
WK Have anothet piece of eridence in farour of tlie 
theory thaC the two Guidoa are Guittone of Amxo 
ind Guido Gu ina eel li. J 

79-90. Corso Donati, P>ode>cà of Bologna fi2Sj, 
iiiiS) and of Pistoja f 11^9), audi head of the Floren- 
tine Blacks, WD-i from all accounts a very dLstinguiah^ 
man ; but lie mined !iiniself and wrought in<cakiiUMir 
barm to other* through hi» ainbiCion, When the 
dUturbance» of Florence became la unbearable, in 
13C0, chat the head^ of both factions weft exiled, he 
went to Rome and induced Boeii&ce to send Charlei 
of Vaiola to the^ city aa peacemalcer. The latter 
favoured ibe Blacks, who exiStd their CPCmUf 4nd acted 
relentlessly towards them for many years. Corto 
fin&lly iTÌed to obtain supreme authority, and being 
■Uipeeted oi a treacheroui iptrigue witFi hU father- 



In-Law, the Clùbelline Ugucciont deUi 
figliuoli, hi wai tandemned to dtath. He attempted 
ta escape but •nan captured cjn the way • VrhcreiXpoa, 
rather than mtei so ìgoomlnioui an end, b« Let bim- 
aeU ilio from h'\» hone aJid waa killed (Oct 6, ijo2), 
See Villani, ml 56 ; f/, !«/. fi, 64-6^ anJ fwi^. xx. 

io]-ti7, S&e}Te, Canto skH, ijr-ijS, ndti-, 

ici-113. The Centauri {born al Ixion aind a cloud 
in the ihapc of Hera), wcfc ptCMUt at the wcddilig 
of th»r haEf'brother, Pirkbou», King of the Lapithae, 
and Hippodame, Oneof cheirnumber, Gurytu», heated 
with wine, acteispted to carir off" the bHde, and the 
T«it foliovried hi* example with the other wcmen. 
Th«iieui, the friend at Pirithnus, having rescued HLppo- 
daire. 3 genieral light enaUed bet'Hreerii the Lapìthae 
t.nd the Ceniaura, in which the latter were vanquiiihed 
(•«Ovid, Mtt, xii. 110-5 js)> 

114-116. See Jtidgn Til. 1-7: . . , "and the Lord 
•laid unto Oide-on, £verj' one thai lappeth of the water 
with his tongue, u a dcg lappeth, him «halt thou ml 
by himneir; likewise every one that boweth down 
upon his kneri t« drink. And tht number vt them 
that lapped, putting their hand to their mautha, were 
three hundred men : but all the rett of the people 
bowed down upo» their knc^s to dHnk ^iCi-t. ^nd 
the Lord «aid unto Gtdeun, By the three hundred 
men that lapped will I save you, and deliver the 
Midianitei into chLne hand: 4nd let all the other 
people go i^rery man unto his place." 

151-154- " Bleiaed are they which do hanger [axid 
tbirit] after ri^hteouaneia : for they iball be filled" 
{Matt. 1. 6]. See abort. Canto xiLI. 4'&, "oii. 


•T'HE pilgrimi pursue their vr^j up the «t^ir in 
' Biogle file (■•9). Al tbe little storia longs but 
«eucurea doE to tiy iti wings, 10 Dame fedi the 
question ft* to the cneaning of what he has seen eier 
kiniUcd by longing and •quenehed bif diCGdence on his 
lip* (ro-ij); till, encouraged hj VifgiL, h« eeeki for 
instruction >a to how the sha.dow7 forme which need 
no lustenanw can present the appeatiuice and ex- 
perience the lenaatioTiB of g'nawjng hunger (16-11). 
Vlrpl hint! by analogie» from pagan itory and from 
natural phild^opHy that our own e^tperì^ncct and 
««niAtloni maj well reflect themidvei in UnsUbitanttal 
appearances; or may be connected with phyucal 
ehiUigea in matter other than that of eur bodies af 
flesh and blood; but refen to Statiui, hli ChriitÌBn 
counterpart, lor fuller eipOjiUon; for la truth thii 
matter, thiMgh ae pare of Christian revdatio!], y« 
lerget Cn those injisterioui and intricate poitioos of 
Ariitotle'i doccrine which none save ChHsciau philo- 
iopher» have had niion dear enough troLy to cxpound 
ft-i-%a). 5 tat Eui^ after a polite disclaltner, proceeds to 
expound the Aristotelian doctrines of generation and 
(mhri-^logy, «hvwing how the htiman fcecu» pasM» 
throug^h every stage, dilìèrìng only from the lower 
forms of plant, polype, or animal, in thai it posseses the 
potentiality of further dereiopinent ; whereas they 
hare reached their goal (;i-6oi}. At the critical 

Siuu >i Ora tra onde il Jalir non Tolea storpio, 
**"" che il sole avea lo cerchio di merigge 

UsciatQ ai Tauro e la notte allo Scorpio. 
Per che, come fa 1' uora che non &' affìgge, 
ma vaeei alla ria &ua, checché gli appaia, 
■e di bisogno stinìolo il trafigge ; 

CASTO ics:y 

[loinC now ttatEÌted, AthtoSì hioitelf went wrong, for 
finding no organ in the hiuman body appropriated ro the 
{mroateiial principle oT inteUigence, he conceived It (o 
bt OO pati of the individual lif« of mani liiiE a unireHal 
aii-ptmilng psititipU ; whef«iii In tntih the hnn^an 
will or life Et inbj«athed ^ir«ct by Goi IqCo th« 
perCeci anJmaJ form at the man that la to be; and 
thereon it drawi lata Itcelf ill the tower ileal functioni 
already active there ffit-jS). Therefore when the 
body di^ the pit» o( ieni« are indeed cloied ; but the 
»onl itwl/ which came from without r«maiiii wfth the 
purely immaterial powers of memory, intelligence, and 
will, JioIaCed Indeed from intereoune with outward 
thing!, but in themKlrei more vivid than ever (79-84). 
Then the «oul drops at once to the bank of Acheron 
or the mouth of Tiber, Iwcomei awart of iti 
deatination, and reflecCi itaelf upca an aerial body, 
flame- or rainbow- lilt e. and thriiugh the inatriimentiJlty 
of thi* aerial body renew* i» ìntereourK with the outer 
world and the experience! of aenie (Ej-ieS^. They 
hive now reached the topmoii: circle, which Ta filled 
with fiainet, iavc a narrow outward fnar^n on which 
the poets march, single (lie, and whereon Dante muat 
take good heed to hii ateps ; so that he ci.n give but 
hroltca attention to the «ouls who coirmemontE 
examples of chastity from the mld»C ot the glowing 
hiat (loi)-!],^^ 

'Twas an hotir when the aBCcne brooked no ira- Aftemoo: 
pedimcDt, for the bud w the Bull, and night ^^^ ^ 
to the Scorpion, had left the meridian circle. Paifaioi 

Wherefore u does 3 man who halts not, but goes 
OD big way whatever may appear to hiin, if the 
spur of Qecff4Ìty pricli him, 




SkllU aJ COSÌ eotrammo noi per la callaia, 
^^* uno innanzi altro, preadendo la scala 

che p?r ertezza i s?]ìtor dispaia' 

E quale 11 cicognin che leva 1* ala ■* 

per voglia di volare, e aon a' attenta 
d' abbandonar lo nido, e giù ia cala. : 

tal era io eoa voglia accesa e spenta n 

di domandar, venendo infino aìV atto 
che fa colui eh' a dìcer s* argomenta- 

Non lasciò, per 1' andar che fosse ratto, »* 

lo dolce padre mio, ma dfsse : ** Scocca 
r arco del dir che inaino al ferro hai tratto." 

Allor Ficorameote aprii la bocca, *» 

e cominciai : " Come bì può far magro 
là dove r uopo di nutrir non tocca ? " 

" Se t' ammectassi come Meleagro " 

ai consumò ai con&umar d^ nn atizzo, 
non fora," disse, '* questo a te sì agro ; 

t K pensassi come al vostro guizzo n 

guizza destro allo specchio vo&tca image, 
ciò che par diiro d parrebbe vizzo. 

Ma perchè deatro a tuo voler t' adage, 
ecco qui Stazio, ed io lui chiamo e prego, 
che sia or saoator delle tue piagc," 

** Se la veduta eterna gli dislego," 
rispose Stazio^ " là dove tu sie, 
discolpi me non potert* io far nego." 

Poi cominciò : " Se le parole mie, 
Jrglto, la mente tua guarda e riceve, 
lume ti fieno al come che tu die. 
Sangue perfetto, che mai noa al beve 
dair assetate vene, e si rimane 
quasi alimento che di mensa leve. 






K> -we entered by the gap, one in front of the 
other, mountiag the stairwa.y^, which by its 
Btraitaess parts the climbers. 

And like the tittle Btork that lifta iw wing through 
desire to fly, aad, venturing not to abandoo the 
nest» dropa it dowii) 

even so wae X with desire to aik kindled and 
quenched, going so far ^ the movement which 
he makes who is preparing to speak. 

My sweet Father did not ceane, even though the 
pax:£ was swift, but aaid : *' Diachaige the bow of 
thy speech which thou haat drawn to the iron." 

Then securely I opened my mouth, and began ; 
" How can One grow lean there where the 
need of food is not felt i " 

"If thou wouldst call to mind how Melcager 
was CQiDAiuiied at the coDsumingofa Jirebrand,''' 
aald he, "thifl wouJd sot be sodifficnlt to thee { 

and if thou wouldat think how, to your every 
movement your imagi; flits about in the mirror, 
that which seems hard would seem easy to thee^ 

But in order that thou, mayst find rese in ihy 
deeire, lo here Statius, and him, I call and pray, 
that he now be the healer of thy wound»." 

"If," answered Statius, " I unfold to him ìn thy 
presence the eternal tbtngs he baa seen, let 
my excuse be that I may not deny thee." 

Then he began : " Son, if thy mind heed and 
receive my worde, they shall be a light unto 
thee on the how which thou utterest. 

Perfect blcMxi, which never \6 drunk by the 
thirsty veins, and is left behind, as "'twere food 
which thou remoTest from the table, 

doubts ca. 
centLiic U 

thfr ipEilta 


vrho dls- 
cohtbcs 01 




^ S»!H«yl ptend* nel core a. tutte membra umaoe 
virtute iniormstiva, come quello 
eli' a farsi quelle per le rece vane. 

Ancor digesto, sceatte ot' è più bello 
tacer che flire ; e quindi poscia g?me 
lOpr' altrui sangue io naturai vasello. 

Ivi e' accoglie 1' uno e 1' altro iosteme, 
1' un disposto a patire e P altro a fkre, 
per lo perfetto loco onde ai preme ; 

e, giuato lui, comincia ad operare, 
ctiagulaudo prìmar e poi avviva 
ciò che per bui materia fr' constare. 

Anima fatta la vertute atbva, 

qyal d* una pianta, in tanto diifcreate, 
che quest' è ìa vìa e quella à già a rìri, 

tanto opra poi che già ai move e sente, 
come fungo marino ; ed indi imprende 
ad organar le posse ood*^ è Bcmeute. 

Or 81 spiega, figliuolo, or ai distende 
la virtù eh* è dal cor del gerjerapte, 
DTe natura a tutte membra intende ; 

ma come d'' animai dìvegna fante, 

non vedi tu ancor ; quest' è cai pnnlo 
che più savio di te fé' gii errante : 

b\ chcr per sua dottrina, fé' diagiunto 
dall' anima: il possibile intelletto, 
perchè da lui non vide organo assunto. 

Apri alla verità che viene il petto, 
e sappi che^ ai tosto come al feto 
1' articular del cerebfo è perfetto, 

lo Motor primo a lui si volge, lieto 
sopra tanta arte di natura, e spira 
spirito nuovo di virtt) repleto. 











icquirea id the heart a virtue potent to ioform SutlsB 
all human mcmbere, lilce that blood which ^^^^'ij 
flows througb the veina to become those. 

Refined yet agaio, it deicends there whereof lo 
be silent is more sernily thaQ to apeak, aod 
thence afwrwardB dinilg upon other*» blood, id 
natura] vessel. 

There the one is mingled with the other ; ooe 
designed to be passive, the other to be active, 
by reason of the perfect place whence it springE ; 

and), joined thereto, it begins to operate, firat 
ctngulating, acd tlien giyiug life to that which 
it had BoUdiEied for ita own material. 

The active virtue having become » soul, like that 
of A plant, in so far diiFereat that the former ii 
on the way, and the latter is already at the goal, 

then effects ho much that now it moves and fi^eU, 
like a aca-funguB ; and then seta about develop- 
ing orgaDS for the powen whereof it n the germ- 

Now, BOD, expanda, now distends, the virtue 

which proceeds from the heart of the begetter, 

where Qature iuteods all human membera ; 

but how from an animal it becomes a human "■■< o" '^ 
1-1 1^*1 iufTuioa of 

bemg thou seeet not yet j thie is that point the ratioi^ 

which made one wiser than thou to err 5 SH.*"}** ' 

»a that by his teaching he made the intellectual 

faculty separate from the bouI, beeauae he S3W 

no organ occupied by it. 
Open tliy breast to the truth which ia coming, 

and know that so bodel as the organisatton of 

the brain Is perfect in the embryo, 
the First Mover turna him to it, rejoicing over 

Buch handiwork of nature, and breathes into 

it a Dew spirit with virtue filled. 



s«iit* al che ciò che trova attiva quivi, tira 
l^roneVli j^ ^^^ sufttafizii, c fassì uo' aliQa sola, 
I che vive e sente, e sé in sé xì^m, 

E) perchè meno ammiri la parola, 

guarda il calci del sol che si fa vino, 
giunto air umor che dalk vite cola. 

E <^iiando Lachcais non ha più lino, 
«olveei dalla came, ed in Tirtute 
ne seco porta e 1' umano e iì divino: 

r altre potenze, tutte quante mute ; 
memoria^ Èntellìgeaza e volontade, 
in ittto molto pii^ che prima acute. 

ScDz' arrestarsi, per sé stessa cade 
mirabilmente all' una delle rive ; 
tjnùyi cQiioBce prima le sue strade. 

Tosto che loco 11 la circoDicrire, 
la virtìl formativa raggia intorno, 
casi e quanto nelle membra vive; 

e come I' aer, quand' è ben piomo, 
per r altrui raggio che in eè si riflette 
di diversi color diveata adorno, 

così V acr vicia quivi ai mette 

in quella forma che in [ui suggella 
vinualmeQte 1* alma che ristetK ; 

« aimìgliante poi alla fiammella 

che §egue il fiiaco là 'vuaque si muta, 
segue allo spirto sua, forma novella. 

Perà che quindi ha poscia sua p3ruu, 
è chiamai' ombra \ e quindi organa poi 
ciascun sentire infiiio alla veduu. 

Quindi parliamo, e quindi ridiam noi, 
quindi facciati) le lagrime e i sospiri 
che per lo moute aver sentiti puoi. 



after dut 


vhìch draws into ìts Bubatance that which it lìadH sutìni, 

active there, and becomes one ningle bouI,, that dl^Jjf:^ 

liTCB, and feek, >ind turns round upoa itself. the soui 
And that thou mayat marvel ieea at my words, 

look at the 8un'fl heai, that {9 made wine when 

combined with the juice which ^ows from the 

And whcD Lichesis has no morr thready it frees 

itself from the flesh, and bears away in potency 

both the hyman and the divine ; 
the other powers, the whole of them mxJte ; 

memory, intelligence and will, Veener far in 

action than they were before. 
Staying not, it falls of itself in wondrous wise 

CO one of the ahorcs ', there it first learns ite 

Soon as it ie circumscribed in place there, the aad with 

formative virtue radiates around, in form and f"?.*" 

quantity as m the Living niemberB; 
and as the sir^ when it is full saturate, becomea 

decked with divera colours through another's 

rays which are reflected in it, 
BO the neighbouring aEr sets itself into, that form 

which the soul that is there fixed impresBea 

upon it by means qf its virtue ; 
aod then, like the iAame which follows the lire 

wheresoever it moree, the spirit la followed by 

ita DCw form. 
Inasmuch as therefrom it afterwards has its aein- 

hlance, it La called a shade ( and therefirom it 

forms the organs of every sense even to sight. 
By this we spealt, and iby this v^e laugh, by this 

we make the tears and the sigha which thou 

mayst bare heard about the mount. 



GmneVtl Secondo che ci afHìggODO i dlsiri "^ 

e gli aJitri affetti, I' ombra ai figura; 
e (questa è la cagion di che tu ammirii." 

E già veauto a.)]' ultima tortura '«^ 

e' era; per noi, e volto alla man destra, 
ed eravamo attenti ad altra cura. 

Quivi la ripa fiamma in fuor baleetra, "■ 

e la coraioe spira iìato in niuo, 
che Ja riflette^ e via da lei sequestra : 

onde ir ne convenìa dal Iato schiuso **i 

ad uno ad uno ; ed io temeva il foco 
i^uipci, e quindi temea cadere in giuso. 

Lo duca mio dicea : " Per q^uesto loco 
BÌ vuol tenere agli occhi stretto il freno^ 
però eh' errar potrebbegì per poco." 

**Summai Deui tUmentiae" nt\ seno 
al grande ardore allora udii cantando, 
che di volger mi f^' caler non meao ; 

r vidi spirti per la JiìamiDa aodando : 

per eh' io guardava loro ed a' miet passìt 
compartcado la vista a quando a qua^ndo. 

Appresso il fine eh' a quelP inno tassi, 
gridavano alto : " flmm non cegaotco '^ j 
indi ricomindavan I' inno bassi. 

Finitolo, anco gridavano ; " Al bosco 
si tenne Diana, ed Elice caccioone 
che di Venere avea aendto Ìl tosco." 

Indi al cantar tornavano; indi donne >u 

gridavano e mariti che fur casttj 
come virtute e matrirrionio imponnc. 

E questo modo credo che lor basti '3* 

• per tutto il tempo che il foco gli abbrucia: 
con taE cura convìen, con cotaì pasti 

che la piaga dasjezzo si ricucia. *n 





he shadt ukes ita form according a» die desìrea The ItutAil 
and the other afTectìoriB prick, us, and this is the 
cau» of that whereof thou marvellert." 
And Qow had we come to the last turaing» and 
had wheeled round to the right hand, aod were 
intCDt on other care. 
There the baoic ilashcs forth flames, and the Tiwtf 
cornice breathes a blaJt upward, which bends P""'»'»»*"* 
them back» and keeps them away from it; 
nrherefbre it behored ua to go on the side which 
I Wit iree ooe by one; lad on thit side I feared 
I the (ire, and on thctt I feared to fall downward. 
My Leader said: "Along this place the rein 
muBt be kept tight on the «yes, because lightly 
a false step might be taken." 
" Summae Deuj cltment'iaf " I then heard aung in 
the heart of the great burning, which made me 
DO leiu eager to turn aside ; 

td I aaw spirits going through the flames; I 

wherefore I loolited at them and at my steps, 1 

with divided gaze from time to time. 
— fter the end which is made Co that hymn, they E»m;»Leidi 

cried aloud : " Virum nan cognMco " ; then ^i'^ll^T 

/• , , , , . * The VLrsia, 

soiUy began the hymn again. Uwt i 

It being (ìnished^ they huther cried: "DignaDluu. 

kept in the wood, and chased Helice forth 

who had feit the poison of Veaus." 
Then turned they to their chanting ; then cried 

they women and huisbaads who were chaste, 

as virtue and marriage rei^uire of uSl 
And this fashion I think suffices them for all the 

time the fire bums them: with «.uch treatment^ 

And with «uch diet^ must the list wound be 




I'j. In PurgsUiry it ii two o'clock m., or Uter. 
Aries buDg on the I'lirgatory meridian at bdod, the 
mcceedlng sign of Taunii balia that poiUion at } g.ti, • 
while at the ome time Scorpio (the «ign opp^jÌLe 
TftUfas) Ù an the jDeridtan of Jeruialum, whve il 
ia conrequently i a.m. 

iB-it. The itork, in the " Bestiariei," ii th€ tjpc of 
obedience. It doe» not attempt to !\y out of Iti nest 
till iti mothio- gift) it l«ave. 

13, 2j, At the birth of Meleagec, ton of Oeneua, 
Kin^ ofCalydon, and Althaea, the Facea pieiJicC^ that 
he would Uve a» long as a 4:erCain Ipg of wvod was 
not conaumed by hte. Subiequently he ilew the 
CilydùnJan. boar, and ^ve the skin to hii mj^tfci^ 
AtsuanCa. Hii uncle» (Althaea's brothers) having taken 
It from her, he killed thtm^ too; whereupon Althaea 
in a rage thrcv» the lùf; 00 the fire, and brought about 
htT son's death (Ovid. Mri. fiii. 445-515). 

57, j8. With this,eoD]part; 6'<ui«. if. 11; 18-4.S. 

jl, 5J, 6l. The threi: bouIb, vegetaiire, anima] and 
ntional (cf. above, Canto iv. j, 6.) 

64-fiS. Brutes have no iiteUie-lm. Mtin'i inuUect ii 
" posAibli;," i.e. \\iii poVrerE undeveloped or fiat in 
action; whereas the ajigelic imelleci is coniinuounly 
and perreictly "actualised " {ef. Far. v, 11-14; **'** 
76-81Ì H<n« "no frcatmre iave msn, either aCwTC 
or kielow him, apprehends by possible intellect" (i}/ 
JUoii, i. 3: Si'SS)' It fo'Lloni that noaeof the eorponl 
organs which are common to cnen and aJiimaU can be 
the seat of intellect. Whence *' the pussible intcUecc 
is «ailed separate became it \» not the act of a corporal 
organ " (Aquinas). For the erroneous inferences (ad- 
verse to the doctrine of personal immortality) which 
Aserrocs drew from thli faci, lec ArgumiM. C£., too, 
tbovv, Canto Kviii. 51, "Wj, 

75, Qji the «abject of self-conscious nest there is aome 
confusion in the writings of the schonlmen. Dante 
with H>und Lneighc folion's Aierroci io making it the 
tpedal rrharacttdstic of the rational or intell«:iual toul, 
u life il of the regetabLe, and seCjatLon of ihe antnta] 
*0\ll^ "The aclioii of the intellect as likened to a 
drcle, because It tarns round upon itaelf and unde^ 
Hands iuelf " (ATerroei) 



79. See aboie, Ca.nto xai. 25-171 wte- 

S3. ^ /"ur. Tiix. ja. 

S5.87, Set /i^, ìi). 70 jjy, («.^, tii->ig)j md /""ry. 
li. iD0<io5. — [l has bi«ii pomted oui that In dealing 
with Th«iwo MonriffeltToi [Inf. xktìÌ., i^urr. T.)Dant9 
/ollowi the pi^pular iàas rendered JaEnjlìar by re- 
prcBcnutlona in art, but not itrictly reconcilable with 
the dticirine here laid down. 

SS. iirfimtrtve, "A thing 1; said to tw ia ipace ^_y 
eirciiaticriptìM, when a b«};inniiig, middle and end can 
be a«»igfleil ya it In ipace, or if iti partj are me^iuredl 
hy the part* of Apace ; and in thift senesi; the t^J^ la in 
space. A thing la said to he in ipace % J/fiiriiim, when 
it !■ here in tuch a M;n»e a» not tc» be elfcwh^te ; And ifi 
this MDie Angclt are in t-pace, for an ^/^ngi^l Ì9 wh'cre 
he is aperitive. And, acoordJng to DamaKsnui, thii ii 
the cm itliO with diicmbodlcd Muis. 1 ULy dltcnboili^ 
because the soul when united with the body is in the 
tame place a.9 the person in, his toralkr. A thin^ii 
KBÌd to he in spacf ripltlivily, hecau^e It lilla «pact ; 
thus God Is said to be In ereiy place becauic he filli 
cTcry placo" (Alberru* Magnonj, (^ ^'"'g- t^- *t 
far. xiv, 30. 

iit-127, ii^'ijo, 133. The hymn sung by the Iu»c- 
' fui i>egan -with th« Tcrte quoted by Dante io hTs d^iy, 
and tor some chn^@ hundred after hi* tiipe [lilt th« 
BrcKiary was revised by Pops Urhan Vili, in ifijij. 
Thii may he seen by a. reference to the ancient " uaes," 
» Dr MoOrc point» out. The hymn is «ntirfly appro- 
priate to the ocirupanta of this terrace, the third verse 
running — Lumkùij^surqiu muriiJum Piammij aduri angruii, 

X1&. "And, behold, thou shall conee̻e in thy womb, 
and bring forth a son, and ehalt call his name Jesus, 
. . . Then nid Mary Ulito thr Aiigd, How shali this t>e, 
•ecing I know not a man ? " (Luii i, 3 1-34}. 

130-132. Helicc or CaHlisto, one of Diana's nymphi, 
hiring boline Jupiter a son ['ttaincd Areas), wu dii- 
miased by Dians and changed into a beat by Juno, who 
was jealoiti of her. In that form she was being puriued 
by Areas, when JtlpitCr set both the mother and the 
•on in the sky asconsteUations (see Ovid, Met. ii, 4.01- 
jjo, and (/. Per. xxil. 31, 33). 

^^^^^^^ rVRGATORIO ^ 

TH£ Hamtfi redden und^T Dante's ihadftw and the 
^_ maiainj cauU g&tber to him, careful, hOwew«r, oot 

^H taiteue from the flame (g-ij). Qaeof them hai barelf 

^H qneBtioned Dante, when a group, circling the monDCaln 

^H in the opposite direction, meeti them with a brief 

^H iiJuta.tioti , and eath gtocp alike proelaimi a warning 

^M esample of Imt; sJttt which they *weep paw each 

^B other like Rock» of birds, and continue to Uie«r tile 

^H watl and song auiced to their state (16-48]. But th» 

^H ilo«3 not prevent their drawing again to Dante, who 

^H tcUs them his tale and qusiStiona them aa to their itate 

^H 'C49-^^)- When the souIb haTC somewhat recorer^d 

^M troni their ama^em^or, on^of ih«m «xplains that the 

^H group accompanying the pMt fftiled to restrain ttieiir 

^H camal appetites within the limiti preicrLbed bj the 

GiroB« VII Mentre che sì per 1' orlo, uno ÌDDanzi altro, 
ce d' andavamo, e spesso il buoa maestro 
diceva: "Guarda ; giovi eh' io ti ecaltro." 

Feria mi il sole in su 1* omero deetro» 1 

che già, raggiando, tutto V occidente 
inutava in bianco aspetto dì citeatro ; 

ed io facea cob 1' ombra più rovente 7 

paicr \z lìamnu; e pure a tanto indizio 
vìd*^ io molt' ombre, andando, poner mente. 

Questa fii lai cagion che diede inìzio '" 

loro a parlar di tat ; t COmiocisrsi 
a dir : '• Colui non par corpo fittizio.*' 

Poi verso me, guanto potevan (arsì, 1 

certi si feron^ sempre coti riguardo 
di DOQ u&cir dove non Jbseero arsi. 

"Ora che vai, non per esser più cardo, *• 

ma forse revercate, agli àliri dopo, 
rispondi 3 me che in sete ed in foco ardo ; 



■ocial irutitutìonji of humBn.Jt]r, wheri^as the oiher 
£Ti>up h-ad w\<n even -obftrr^ tht' lawi laid down by 
nature (67-87). Dante's interlocucof ii Guido Guìnì- 
cellì, the Founder (or pfeeunor) of the acw «t^W of 
TuKan pMtry, the father <if Diate and of hìi bette»; 
Id ^^honi Datiti render) hit pauloiute ho-magi: of affec- 
tion and loyalty (38-114.). £»' ^^ points to the shade 
of the Troubadour Amaut Daniel ai niperior to himMlf 
and mperiDr to alL PrOTcnc^aJ rìdala by as oiuch a.s the 
nev? Toscan ichAo) enee!* the old icin»! of Guittooe 
of Anziv ( 1 15-1 1!>)' Then, with a petition for Dante's 
prayers, he yield* hie plai:e to Arnaut himBclf; who 
tells of hi» atale. In his own Provenfal toirgue; and 
in hi* turn implores Dante'» ptarers (ii^-iiX). 

While we were thus advasciog^ one in front of the The hu 
' other, aloQg the brink, often the good Master 

iaaid : *' Giirr heed, Eet my skill avail ihee.*' 
Od my right shgulder the mm was beating, that 
already with his rays was changing the whole 
face of the west from azure to white ; 
. 4nd with my ahadow, ruddier I made the flamei 
appear, and even at ao slight a. sign many 
shades I saw, as they pasaedf give heed. 
, This wwthc cause which gave them an opening to 
speak of me 1 and one to the other they hcgan 
to say : " He doth not seem a shadowy body," 
\ Thes certain of them made towards me, bo far ae 
j they couid, ever on liieir guard not to come 

forth where they would not be bcmedi 
I "O thou that g,oe«t behind the others, not for beiùg 
L ^ilacker but perchance for reverence, miake an,= 
^^kiiper unto me who in thirst 3.nd €re do bucn ; 






rlrofl* VII uè k\o a me la tua. riapasta è uopo : 

che tutti questi n' hanno m^gglof Sete 
che d' acf^ua fredda Indo o Etiope. 

Dinne com' è cJie fai di te prete 
al soli, come se tu non foesi ancora. 
di morte entrato dentro dalla rete.'* 

Si mi parlava un d* esai^ ed io mì fera 
già manifesto, i' io aon foSai attéeo 
ad altra novità eh' apparve allora : 

che per lo mezzo del cammino acceso 
venia gente col viso incontro a questa, 
la qua] mi fece a rimirar sospeso. 

Lì veggio d' ogoi parte farsi presta 

ciaacun^ ombra, e baciarsi luia con unag 
senza restar, contente a breve festa : 

cosi per entro loro schiera bruna 

B.' ammusa 1' una eoa 1' altra formica, 
forse ad espiar lor via. e lor fortuna. 

Tosto che partoQ 1' accoglienza amica» 
prima che il primo passo lì trascorra, 
sopragridar ciascuna b' apatica; 

la Quova gente ; " Soddoma e Gomorra," 
e 1' altra : '* Nella vacca entra Pasife, 
perchè il torello a sua lussuria corra." 

Poi come gru, eh' alle moatagce Rife 
volatser parte, e parte ia ver ì' arene, 
queste del gel, quelle del sole schife : 

r una gente sen va, I' altra Ben viene, 
e tornan lagrimando ai primi cauti, 
ed al gridar che pii) lor si conviene ; 

e raccontar» a me, come davaDti, 
cbbì medesmi che tu' avean pregato, 
attenti ad ascoltar nei lor sembianti. 






Dor alone to me ìb thine answer needful, for all Tlwliui 

tlteie have greater thirst for it than Indiao or 

Ethiop for cold water. 
Tell us how it ts that thou cnalceai of thee a wall 

against the sun» aa if thou wert not yet caught 

within death's net." 
Thus spake one of them to me, and already would 

I bare rerealed myself, hid I not been intent 

on another strange thing which then appeared i 
for through the imidat of the fiery path, people ' 

Were Coming with their faces oppoBÌtt io these, | 

who made nie pause in wonderment. 
There 1 eee on either aide each shade make 

haate, and one kiss the other without staying, 

satisfied with short greeting: 
even so within their dark battalions one ant 

ruhs muHzSc with aQOthery perchance to spy 

out their way and their fortune. 
SooD as they break off the friendly greeting, ere 

the first step there speeds onward, each one 

ptrires to ahout loudest, 
the new people, "Sodom and Gomorrah," and 

the other : •' Pasiphae enters the cow that the 

youQg bull may haste to her IubL" 
Then hke cranes that should fly, some to the 

Rhipean mountaims, others towards the sands ; 

theae shy of the frost, those qf the bud, 
tbe oae people passes oti, the other comes Bway, 

and weeping they return to their former chants, 

and to the cry which moat befits them ; 
and ^ose very same who had entreated me, drew 

close to me as before, intent on lietening in 

their appearance- 



«rene VII Io, che due volte aTea visto lor grato, 
incominciai : '" O aaime sicure 
d' aver, quando che sìa, di pace stato, 

doa sdq rimase acefbe uè mature 

le membra mie di là, ma non qui meco 
col sangue buo e con le Bue giunture. 

Quinci su TO per non esser pìi!l cieco ; 
donna è di aopra che n' acquista grazia, 
per che il mortai pel rostro mondo reco« 

Ma, fit la tOstra maggio]" voglia sazia 
tosto divegna, si che il ciel v' alberghi, 
eh' è pien d' amore e più ampio ai spazia, 

ditemi, acciocché ancor carte ne verghi, 
chi siete voi, e chi è quella turba 
che 6C ne va di retro ai voitri terghi ì " 

NoD altrìmeati itupldo si turba 

lo montanaro, e rimirando ammuta, 
quando rozzo e salvatico s' inurba, 

che ciascun' ombra Tece in sua paruta ; 
ma poiché fliron di stupore scarche, 
lo qml Degli alti cor tosto s'' attuu, 

" Beato te, che delle tiostre marche," 
ricomincio colei che pria m' inchiese, 
"per viver raeglio, eaperienza inbarche! 

La gente che non vien con noi olFese 
di ciò per che già Cesar, trionfando» 
' Regina ' contra sé chiainar b' iatese: 

però ai paJton ' Soddoma ' gridando, 
rimproverando a eè, com' hai udito, 
ed aiuUQ 1' arsura vergognandoi. 

Nostro peccato fa ermafrodito ;, 

ma perchè non jervammo urna "• legge, 
«eguendo come bestie V appetito, 









[, who twice had eeen their desire, began : "O Th* 

jOuls, Certain of haying, whcnevl^^ it may be, 

a Slate of peace, 
my members hn^e not remained yonder, green or 

ripe, but here are with me, with tiieir blood 

and with their joints. 
Hence upward I go to be blind no longer ; Inhere il 

a lady above who winneth grace for us, wherefor 

I bring my mortal body through your world. 
But — BO may your greater desire soon be Batisfied, 

so that the heaven may house you which is 

filled with love aad broade&t spreads — 
ttll me that I may yet trace it on paper, wbo are 

ye and what is that throng which Is goiog 

away behind your backs ?" 
Not otherwise the dazed highlandergrowu troubled 

and stare» about jpeechlesa, when rough and 

savage he eaters the city, 
than each &hade did in its appearance; but after 

they were unla,deD of their bewilderment, which 

in lofty hearts booh is calmed, 
** Blessed thou," began &g$.ìù the shade that fii'st Guida 

did ask of me, " who, for a holier life, an em- ^""^1» 

barking knowledge of our borders ! 
The people who come not with ua offended in 

that for which CfE-sar of old m his triumph 

heard ^ Regina' called out against him ; 
therefore they part from ua crying out ' Sodom ' 

reproving themselves as thou hast heard, and 

aid the buTDing by their shame. 
Olir sifl waa hermaphrodite j but because we ob- 
served not human law, and followed our tustf 

like brute beaste. 




rkeaeVIl b obbrobrio di noi, per noi si legge, 
quando pardamci, il nome di colei 
che B* imbeetiò Deli' imbcBtiace schegge. 

Or sai noetri atti^ e di che Rimmo ra ; 
ae forse a nome vuot saper chi semo, 
tempo ùQù è da. dire, e Qad ia^teL 

Farotti ben di me volere scemo : 

Bon Guido Guinizelli, e già mi purgo 
per ben dolermi prima cb* all' estremo." 

Quali nella tristizia di Licurgo 
si ter due figli a riveder la madre, 
tal mi fec' io, ma ood a tanto insurgo, 

^uand' i* odo nomar sé etesao il padre 
mio, e degli altri miei miglior, cbe mai 
rime d^ amore usar dolci e leggiadre ; 

e senza udire e dir pensoso andai, 
lunga fiata rimirando lui, 
aè per lo foco in là pia m' appreseai. 

Poiché di riguardar pasciuto fili, 

tutto m' offersi pronto al suo eerTÌgio, 
con [' affermar che fa credere altrui. 

Ed egli a me: *'Tii lasci tal neatìgio^ 
per (juel eh' Ì' odo, in me e tanto chiaro, 
che Lete noi può toT^ né farlo bigio. 

Ma, HE le tue parole or ver giuraro, 
dimmi che è cagion per che dimostri 
nel dire e nel guardare avermi caro." 

Ed io a lui : '* Li dolci detti vostri 
che, i^uaiiio durerà T uso moderuo, 
faranno cari aucora i loro inchiostri." 

•* O frate," dìiBse, ''questi eh' io ti scemo 
col dito " (ed additò un spirto innanzi) 
"fa miglior fabbro del parlar materno. 









Oof \o£a.iìiY by Us is rcad, when wc part oa, Thvluatfi 

the name of her who imbrutcd herself in the Guido 

bnutic-iike frajnework. 
Now kaow&t thou our deeds and what we were 

guilty of; if haply thou wouldist know who we 

are by name, there is do time to tell, nor could I. 
Xhy desire of mi:, I will indeed make to wane: 

Guido Guiniceìli aro I, and already purge me, 

bccaiMC I ftdl repcntaocc made before the end," 
Ag it) the sorrow o£ Lycurgua two sons became Duite'i 

on beKoIding again cheìr mother, so became (|7h^°^* 

I, but not to such height do I rise, toreninn 

when I hear tame himself the father of me, and 

of others my betters^ who ever used sweet and 

graceful rhymes of loTC ; 
and without heariug and speaking, pondering I 

I went, long time gazing at him, nor because 

of the fire drew I njgher thither. 
When I was filled with beholding, I offered rae 

all ready to his service, with the oath which 

compels another's belief. 
And he to me : " Thon leavest, by that which I 

bear, traces so deep and so clear, that Lethe 

cannot take them away, aor make them dim. 
But if thy words just dow sware truth, tell me, 

what ta the cause wherefore thou showest in 

epeech and look that thou hofdest me bo dear.." 
Aud 1 to him : *' Your sweet ditties, which so 

long as modern use shall last, will make their 

Tcry ink precious." 
" O brother," said he, '• this ore whom I dis- Gnidch 

tinguiBhtotheewLthmyfinger" (and he pointed S.^Mt"" 

to a frpirit ia front) "was 3 better crafbman of Duiei 

the mother tongue. 



GiraaeVii Versi d' amore t proce di romanzi 

goperchiò tutti, e lancia dir gli stold 
che ({nei di LemosL credon eh' avanci. 

A voce pid cK' al rei drizzan li Toki, 
e cosi fermali sua opinione 
prima eh' arte ù ragion per lor a' ascolti. 

Così Ter molti antichi di Guittone, 

di grido in grido pur luì dando pregio, 
En elle r ha vieto il ver eoo più perBone. 

Or, se tu hai si ampio privilegio, 
che licito ti aia 1' andare aJ chiostro, 
nel i^iUJe è Cfiato abate del collegio, 

fagli per me un dir di an paternostro^ 
quaato bisogna a noi di questo mondo, 
dove poter peccar ùqù è più naatro." 

Foif forse per dar loco altrui secondo, 
che presHo avea, disparve per lo foco, 
come per 1' acqua pesce andando al fondo* 

Io mi feci al mostrato innanzi un poco, 
e disai eh' al suo nome il mio diaire 
apparecchiava grazioso loco. 

Ei cominciò liberamente a dire : 

" T'ari m' ahelis "vwtre corfif deman^ 

qu itu na-m puucy tii-m vati] a vot cobrire. 

Ita jtfi j4rnaut^ que ftfor e vau cantati ,- 
iùnt'troi va ìa pniiada faiarf 
t vnjavten le jam, qu' etper, dinaa. 

Ara vos prtit pf aqniììa valor 

que VOI guida al ìom dt l' esralina, 
lovegna tioj a iemp$ de ma dnlar*' 

Poi b' ascose nel foco che gli affitia. 









ifi Iff. The speaker 1| {juido Giijnicellj (fa. IllO" 
fd. 1276; me ^t>ovp. netti to Csinton xì, 97-99 and xhìt. 

CANTO xrvi 


In Tcraea o( love, and prose talea of romance, alt Ttat lutfl 
he surpasKd, aod let foots ullt, who think that 
he of Limogea excel». 

To. nimour rather than to truth they turn their 
faces^ and thus do fix their opinion ere art or 
reaaon Is listened to by them. 

So did many of our fathers with Giitttore, shout- 
ing in nirn and praising him alone ; but truth 
has prerailed at length with most peraons. 

Now if thou haat such ample privilege^ chat 'tis 
permitted thee to go to the cloister wherein 
Christ J8 abbot of the college, 

do me there the saying of a Pater Noater so far Guido 
as i« oeedfiil to ub of this World, where power "^^q|L 
to sin is no more Dur«.'^ 

Then perchance lo give place to another follow- 
ing close, he vanisibed through the flamea, like 
a fish going through the water to the boctom. 

A little forward I drew me cowarda the one he Arn&iit 
had pointed out, aad said that niy desire waa "*"■"' 
preparing a grateful place for hia name. 

Willingly he began to say : " So doth your 
courteoUH request pleaue me chat I cactiot, nor 
will I, hide rae from you. 

I am Arnault that weep and go a-singing ; io 
thought I see my past madneaB, and I «ee 
with joy the day which 1 await before me. 

Now I pray you, by that Goodneaa. which guideth 
you to the summit of the atairwày^ be mindfiil 
in due time of my pain." Then he hid him 
in the fire which refines them. 

{1-63), a member of the GhibfrLtine Princìpi family, of 
Bologna Lictle li known af his life, nvc chat he wn. 



Po<3«(à of Cattelfranco in 1170, and thit he was aSeó 
in 1174, Cdgietlier wtth the LambeTtiiii (if. Inf, xxaii. 
IIS, 123; PuTg. rir, 99, ICO, miti); the city of hJi 
■«EnKeand death may have been Verona. A« a poet, 
Guiqo bfgan >■ bji iniiCatat ot tìlc later ipethoi] q! 
Ouittone d'Areizoi, but he iodei oucihone hia model 
(vvl 124126), and his heat warki [notablT the famaui 
Canioae A! (or gtnid ripara lemprt Amw*, which may be 
»aid to mark xn epoch ia Icaliui litera.ture), inspired 
much of The poetry of the Florentine ichool (>«. 
97-99). For Gpido see, in addition to tl^e referencef 
given above, I>c y>àg. £1. Ì. g, 15; i3, j, 6^ Cmv. ]v. 
so ; Fita Native, Sonnet x. «. z (iJ S^io). 

4.0 and 79. For Sodom and Gomomh, see GtK. 


41, 4.1 and 86, Sj. Fur Paaipha^ who attained her 
end bf entering an artificial uow, made bjr Daedalus, 
see /b/*. xiL ii-tS, iw^<r. 

4], 44. ''TheRhipean tnouataina " — a. gentntl teim 
willi m^ieval geographer! aad ivrtterSp to expreH 
mountain» in the north of Europe and Aita; "the 
nanda," i.e. those of the African desert. 

Ktj, £d. Some hold Chat I^antc ia alluding C<^ Beatrice 
(Iti/- li. 52 'il-)] others, that the reference ii to the 

virgin Mary (it., 94 t^^.'y 

6j, 63. The Emp^rtran ; «ee Par, X-Hli. jg fff. 

77, 78. Thi» opprobriou* ephhet wa^ given to 
Cxaar on accoant of bia relationa with Nicoraedei,. 
King of Bithynia, See Snetflnius' CWmr [49I:; thougli 
Dante'i immediate source "wai probstiy rather the 
Iifti^Jiae Derrvaliamt of Uguccione da Vita, t.v. 


31-S7. Their «in was indeed bi-sexual ^iriKjfrcibia - 
Hermaptiodltus, having excited Che jove of « uytDpb to 
which he remained indifferent, »he prayed that their 
bodiej might be joined COEeTher for erer; and the god» 
granted her prater — see Ovid, Mtt. i», l8S-]SS], and 
■0 far natural and ^tatriijliif humao \ but inasmuch. 
ai it transgresied the iprciUcallif human law of marriage 
■"■ce the preceding canto, v. ijs), there wai an element 

J bniHihiiMi in it. Busialili ia iii«d iby Dant« in 
Minj diFemit jen»6B; bat ^wayi u opposed to the 
ipecifically human element m man. En general t«rin:) 
bit speeificaLly human eleiR>ejit !■ rcsuian.inil th>«rc(<ire 
nlittìti (like the French tltirt) h wmetiniM med for 
'«tupiditf^ or " tvAHl of intelligence," a«. for ex- 
mple, in Carv. it. 14: 107. Here i[ implic» «implj 
□egicct of the *pecirici]ly Eiuman rcgulaCionR of a 
clntton which h not specifically human in iticlf, 

94-i)£. Thou and Euneoi, the soni of HypiipyJe; 
X tht incident, c/". above, Cantò' xxil. nz, «nd ice 
itatiiu, 7^'t. if. ji} Iff., ", 499 Iff, 

lot. L«th^, tb« rifer of foi-^ctiulaeiiii 1 see below, 
'anco zzviiì. 150, etc. 

115. ifg. Amadt Duiiei, a diitingyishcd Proren^ 
lOet, Houririhed ^g. tiSo-iiaa, Among hit patroni 
rli Rlrliard Ca;ur'de-Li<dn. He was 2 master of the 
o-czlled ('"W c/w, or obimre style of poetry, which 
erelled, beiides, In difficult rhymes and other compU- 
Med devices. A* «och, he wa* f#ry ti^itinlly " ca*iarv 
Dthe general"; and the iinei in which Dante deali 
rich the popular preference for Cuiraut de BornelJi 
jnei é L<mMÌ I c. iij^^ca, iiig; caiW by bit 
ontemponirl» '^mai^terar the troubadours"] are easier 
9t m to anderannd than his own evident blai tn 
iTOur of Armaut. For the best niodccn criticiim aoi 
nlf plaus Guiraut weU above Amauc (whoie fame 
|i >C a Very \omt ebb), but it aLinoit unaeimotui In 
tning him at the h>ead of all th«i troobadoun ; til 
njy rival, if nial he hare, being Gemart de Ventadarn 
whom Datile wcr irertionB), — Vtrw» ii*. 119 
lean, cot that AmauC wrote better lore long* and 
etter prose roirancei than anyone elle (for it it 
irwitlcally certain thai he wrote no prose at aliV, but 
bat he surpassed every writer in Fratiic«, not only 
^E troubadours of the South, but also the authori ol 
tie prose romances Ln ihc North [in. Dt t^ilg. El. 
o: ia-161 Dante speakt of prost works a« the special 
rovine» of the lnKgiit if til, or Northern French]. — For 
Lmiut, ef. lit f'ti/g. El. ii. 1, li, to, ij; and For 
■uiraui, fé-, i. 9; iu a, 5, S. 


V] IGHT had already FaUen on the foot of the au 
'^ tain when the ang^el of the circle greetfd 
pctcti and prondunceic! the ble«jmg an the pun 
bes^rc (1-9)- When «unuDoaed to croii the Q 
iJanie recàlU with horror the ii^ht he had ere 1 
wltnesied «f men burned to death ; and reniaLni< 
to all Virgil's appeala, till the utwrance of BeaCn 
name at lait oTercomes his relu^tasce ; vthe 
VErgil, for reasons of hii own, imtleji a;s wt n 
ai a ehildl that know* a^i wh^t he «eek» (it^^ 
Then Virgil, Daale and Staiiua enter the ai 
burning, Dante comforted by Vtrgil's diicouril 
Beatri(!e and by the welcome and blessing of 
angel at the furthei side (^^6-60). Meanwhile 
■hadow of night buj been CT«piog up the mounl 
and before tlicf bave ascended many of the *l 
which [hey are now climbing, it swallow» the pi 
shadow^ and he is bereft of power further To sk 
(6i'-ji), Each of the pilgrims makes a *E»Ìr 

Glione VII SI came quando i prìmì raggi vibra 

là dove li suo Fattore il satigue spara 
cadendo Ibero sotto I* alta Libra, 

e 1' onde Ìd Gange da nona fanc, 

sì stava il sole : onde il giorno sen gì^^ 
^ua.ndo r angel di Dìo lieEo ci aj)parse^ 

Fuor della hamitia stava in su la riva, 
e cantava : " Stati mujtdo curde," 
va voce a.SBai pii) che ta nostra viva. 

Poscia : " Più non si va, ae pria non me 
anime sante, il foco ; entrate in eseo, 
ed al cantar di Ik non siate sorde," 


conih, and Dinie, titcc a goat becwten twd ihepherdi. 
»ee« the great itan «bine brighter than their woat, 
M he dropi imo such > ileep n aeei tbe ihJngi thic 
are to be (7^-93^ Toward» daybreak he hii a 
tiiion of Leah, the tfpe of the active life, singing 
of hcTielf and her tiscer Rachael, rht type- of ihe 
<Ofit4mpliiti?a life (94-109J1. Now ni^h to hit im^ 
Biediatt goal, ht awake* >vith the morning, and 
Virgil cells hicn that he iv at lait to gather that 
fniii of liberty n'hich he liai lo long been seeking; 
and when he haa mounted eagerly to the tammii of the 
stair hii guide informs him that his functi&n t* now 
dii-charged, for thry hai« reached the goal of l^utva- 
tory. Dante ha» recovered from the dire effects of 
che fall of man } hia will U free, unwarped and 
•ound; he has no further need of direction or 
directive inslicutions; he has rescKed the goal of 
all imperial and eccleitastical organixatit>B mad !■ 
king Had btsiurp of hiitisclf (log-i,}^»}. 

As whcD bt shoots forth hia first beams there 
where hia Creator shed his blood, while Ebro 
falls beneath the lofty Scalea, 

aod Gangea' waves by noonday heat are scorched, 
so stood the Bun ; wherefore the day was pass- 
ing away when God's glad ^ngt] appeared to us. 

Oatfildc the fiaines oa tlie bactk he wan siaodiiDg 
and aingiug " Bfati mando cord: '^' in a voice 
more piercing iss than oura. 

Then: "No farther may ye go, O hallowed 
90UÌB, if iSrBt the fire bite not ; enter therein and 
to the aiaging beyond be not deaf," 



The Initfa 

Sunset «( 
the third 
day in 
TIla AuM 





Pun> cL dis&e come ooì gU fummo pre&so ; 
Vhom^ P^'' '^^' i^ diveonì tal quando lo lotcBÌ, 
uguale è colui che della foBsa è me&io. 

Iq su le man commesse mi pratesi, 

guardando il faco^ e ìmm^giDaiidci forte 
umani corpi già veduti accesi. 

VolserBi verso me le buone scorte, 
e Virgilio Oli disse: ** Fìgliuol mio, 
qui può esser tormeato, ma non morte. 

Ricordati, ricordaci . . » e, k io 
sopr' eeeo Gerion ti guidai salvo, 
che fero ora presso più a Dio ? 

Credi per certo che, se dentro all' alvo 
dì (questa fiamma «tessi beo mill' anni, 
non ti potrebbe far d' un capei calvo ; 

e se tu credi forse eh' io t' ingaani, 
fatti ver Iti, e fatti far credenza 
con le me mani aJ lembo de' cuci paaaL 

Poh gÌH oitiai, pon giù ogni temenza; 
volgiti io qua, e vieni oltre sicuro." 
Ed io pur fermo e contro a coscienza. 

Quando mi vide star pur fermo e duro, 
turbato un poco disse : " Or vedi, figlio, 
tra Ikatrìce e te è questo muro." 

Come al nome di Tìsbe aperse il ciglio 
Piramo in su la morte, e rìguardolla, 
allor che il gelso diventò vermiglio : 

così, là mia durezza btta solla^ 

rai volsi al savio duca, udendo il nome 
che nella mente sempre mi rampolla. 

Ofld' ei crollò la teau e disse : "Come? 
volemci 6tar di qua ? " indi sorrise, 
come al fanciul si fa eh' è vinto al pome- 











he said to us when we were nigh to him ; where- Virgil 

fore I bccAOiE whcQ I htiii him, such as one oi^ 

who is laid, id the grave. t^ P**' 

I ixnt forward over my clasped hands, gazing at tfaeBama 

the fire, and vividly imaginiog human bodies 

once fleen bufnt. 
The kindly escorts turoed tJieni toward me, and 

Virgil said to rnc ; " My bod, here may be 

tormcDt bat not death. 
Rernember thee, remember thee, . . . and if 

OD GeryoQ I guided thee safely, tehat ahall 1 

do DOW nearer to God ? 
Of a surety believe, that if within the womb of 

theae flames thou didst abide full a thousand 

years, they could aot make thee h»ld of one hair ; 
aod if perchance thou thinkest that I beguile 

thee, get thee toward them^ and get crtdedCt 

with thy hands on the hem of thy garmeata. 
Put away now, put away all fear ; turn thee hither, 

and onward come securely." And I, yet 

rooted, and with accusiDg conscìeace. 
When he saw me stand yet rooted and stubborn, 

troubled a little he said : " Now look my BOQj 

twixt Beatrice and thee is this wall.*^' 
Afl at Thigbe'fi Dame Pyramue opened his eyes 

at the poiot of death, and gazed at her, when 

the mulberry became red, 
iO, my stubbornness being softened, I turned cne 

to my wiee Leader ou hearing the name which 

ever springe up in ray mind. 
Whereupon he shook, his head, and daid : ** What! 

do we desire to stay this Bide ì " then smiled as 

□ne does to a child that is won by an apple. 






Poi dentro al foco innanzi mi si mise, 
pregatido Stazio che veniew retrOj 
che pria per Lunga strada ci divise. 

Come fìii dentro, in uà bogliente vetro 
gittato mi earei per rìnfrca^carmi, 
tane' era ivi lo incendio senza metro. 

Lo dolce padre mioj per coTifortarrni, ** 

pur di Beatrice ragionando andava, 
dicendo : " Gli occhi tuoi già veder panni." 

Guidataci urna voce che cantavi ss 

di là ; e noi, attenti pare a lei, 
TenÌEnnio fuor la dove bì monc^va. 

« Vfniie Uuedieli pulrii Mfi," s' 

Bond dentro ad un luiTie che lì era, 
tal che mi vinse e guardar noi potei. 

** Lo Bol sen va," soggiunse^ " e vien la sera ; *' 
non t' arrestate, ma studiate il passo, 
mentre che l' occidenW roB s' annera." 

Dritta fialia la via per entro il saesa, ^ 

verso tal parte, ch^ Ìo toglieva i raggi 
dinanzi a me del sol eh' era già basso- 

E di pochi frcaglion levammo i eaggi, 

che il sol corcar, per I' ombra che ei spenae, 
sentininìQ retro ed io e li miei ^aggjp 

E pria, che in tutte le sue pan! immenBC 
fosse orizzonte fatto d' un aspetto, 
e notte avesse tutte sue dispense» 

ciascun di Qot d' un grado fece letto : 
che Ib natura del monte ci aflranee 
la possa del salir più che ili diletto- 
Quali si fanno ruminando manse 
le capre, state rapide e proterve 
■opra le cime, avanti che sien pransci 








Then he entered iato the firc in front of me, pray- Tbe 
ing Statiue that he Would come behinct, who ^^^ 
for 3 lo>cig way before had sepanited US' tbeAuns 

When I was within, 1 would have flung me iato 
molten glasa to cool me, eo iinmeasurable there 
wu the bumiagL 

My Bweci Father, to encourage me, went on dis- 
coursing ever of Beatrice, «aying : " Already 
I aeejn to behold her eyes." 

A voice guided ua, which WM singing où the 
other side, and we, intent onjy on it, came 
forth, there where the ascent began. 

"f^emft beniiTtcH jfnUrLt mei," rang fbrih from 
within a light which waa there, so bright that 
it vanquished me, and look upon it I could not» 

" The aun is siniing," it added, "and the even- ^^ 
ing Cometh ; stay ye not but mend your pace ^^k 
while the west grow» not dark.'* ^^B 

Straight the way mounted through the rock, Th* I 

toward such a quarter, that in front of me I tlTMpwfl 

II ^ f . I ] 1 resume 

Stayed the rays or sun w»0 ^ready waj low. iheli-way 

And of few steps made we a&eay, when I and my halt fur 
sages perceived that the aun had ftet behind ub, "P*"** j 
because of the shadow which had vanished. i 

And ere the horizon in all Hs stupendous range I 

had become of one hue, and night held all her I 

dominion, I 

each of ui made & bed of a step i £ùt the law of I 

the mount took from us the power, rather than I 

the desire, to isscend. I 

As goat& tliat have been agile and wanton upon I 

the height! ere they are fed^ grow tame while ^J 

ruminating,. ^^H 




Splits id tacite all' ombf^ mentre che il Bùi ferte, 
TeniiiTe guardate dal pstor, che in su la verga 
poggia» s' è, e lor poggiaw serve ; 

e quale il iiia.QdriaD cbe fìiorì alberga, 
luogo il peculio suiO queito pernotta, 
guardaado perchè fiera non lo sperga : 

tali eravamo tutti e tre allotta, 
io come capra ed ei come pastori, 
fasciati quinci e quindi d' alta grotu. 

Foco potea parer Lì del dì fuori ; 

ma per quel poco vedev' io le stelle, 
di lor solere e piìL chiare e naaggiori. 

Si ruininando, e bì luirapdo in quelle, 
mi prese il sonno : il sonno che sovente, 
anzi cbe il fatto eia, sa le novelle. 

Neir ora, credo, che dell' oriente 
prima raggia nel monte Citerea, 
che di foco d' amor par sempie ardente, 

giovane e bella io aogno mi parea 
donna vedere andar per una landa 
cogliendo fiori ; e cantando dlcea : 

'* Sappia, qualuQqU'^ il mio dome domaoda, 
eh' io mi son Lia, e vo movendo intorno 
le belle mila a farmi una ghirlanda. 

Per piacermi allo apeccbio qui m' adorno ; 
ma mia suora Rachel mai non si smaga 
dll Suo miraglio, e siede tutto giorno. 

Eir è de' BUOI begli occhi veder vaga, 
com' to dell' adornarmi con !e mani : 
lei lo vedere, e me 1' oprare appaga." 

K già, per gli splendori aotelucanii, 
che tanto ai peregrin aurgon più grati 
guanto tornando albergan men lontani. 
















rilcDt in the ahade, when the euh ia hot, guarded Daate 

by the herd who has leaned upon his aiaff, ^i^jn,^" ' 

and, leaning, minds thcin ^ 
and tike the shepherd who lodges in the open, 

hoidfi silent vigil by night longside hia flnck, 

watching leat a wiJd beast scatter it ; 
rach were we then all three, I as a goat and 

they 29 shepherds, bounded by the high rocit 

on this side and oa thàU 
Little of the outside Could there be seen, bnt 

through that little I saw the star? brighter 

aad bigger than their wont. 
Ab I waBthusrmiiiaatÌDg,and thus gazing at them, 

«leep fell on me, aleep which oft doth know 

the news ere the fact cOme to pasa. 
In the hour, mcthinlta, when Cytherea, whoaaddicu 

seeni'eth ever burning witli fire of Iotc, first tndof 

beamed from the east on the mount, Rachel 

meBeemed to behold iq a dream, a lady, young 

and fair, going aloog a plain gathering flowers ; 

and ainging she said : 
•* Know, whoso asketh my name, that I am Leah, 

and go moving my fair hands ^oiind to make 

me a garland. 
To please me at the glass here I deck me ; but 

Rachel my aister nt'w stiri from her mirror, 

aad sitteth all day. 
She is fain to behold her i^ir eyes, as I to deck 

me with my bands : her, contemplation ; me, 

action, doth satisfy." 
And now, at the brigtitnesa ere dayspring born, 

which rises the grateEitller to wayfarers ae on 

their return they lodge lesa far ftom homc^ 





I !e teoebre iuggian da tutti i lati» "■ 

' e il sonno mio con essse ; ond' io leva' mi, 

vergendo i gran maestri già. levati. 
"Quel dolce pome, che per tanti rami 

cercando va la cura dei mortali, 

OEgi porrà in pace le tue iamì." 
Virgilio inverso me quenle totali 

parole usò, e mai non furo «Trenne 

che fosser di piacere s queste eguali. 
Tanio voler HOpra voler mi venne 

dell' esaer su, eh' ad ogni pa^eo poi 

al volo mi Bentia crescet ie penne. 
Come la scala tutta eotto noi 

fii com, e fummo in eut grado superno, 

in me ficcò Virgilio gli occhi suoi, 
e disse : " Il lemporal foco e 1' eterno 

veduto hai, iigìio, e sei venuto io part« 

dov' io per me più oltre non discerno. 
Tratto t* ho qui con ingegno e con arte j 

Io tuo piacere ornai prendi per duce ; 

filar Bei dell' erte vie, fiior eei deSP arte. 
Vedi là il sol che in fronte ti riluce ; 

vedi 1' erbetta, i fiori e gli orbuecclli, 

che qui la terra eoI da sé produce. 
Mentre che vegnan lied gli occhi belli, 

che lagrimando & te venir mt feoaD, 

seder tt puoi e puoi andar tra elH. 
Non aspettar mio dir più, né mìo cenno- 
Lìbero, dritto e sano è tuo aftntria, 

e fallo fora con fare a suo senno : 
per ch^ io te eapra te corono e mitrio." ^^ 

I-j. Il wBs Bunnae at J^rmalem, inìilni^hc In Spain 
(where Libn, the fign oppcMiie to Arìn, would be on 







^m CANTO XXVI[ 343 

the shades of night vrsre flc^eing qh every aide, and Dante 
ray aleep with them ; wherefore I arose, see- ■""*■ 
ing the great Maaters already risen. 

*' That ftweet fruit whereof ihc care of mortals 
goeth in «caj-ch on so maay boughs, this day 
«hall give thy hungcrings peace." 

Words such as these did Virgil use to me, and 
never have there been gifts that were equal in 
gweetnesa to these. 

So greatly did desire upon deaire conie orer me 
to be above, th^t at every step after I felt my 
piniona grow for the flight. 

When the stairway was all sped beneath us, and 
we were upon the topmost step, on me did 
Virgili fix hiH eyes, 

and said ; " Sod, the temporal (ire and the eternal, Vkflfi 
hast thou Been, and art come to a place where 
I, of myself, discern no further» 

Here have I brought thee with wit and with art [ 
now take thy pleasure for guide ; forth art thou 
from the Bleep ways, forth an from the narrow. 

Behold there the sun that shineth on thy brow, be- 
hold the tender gtass, the flowers, and the shrubs, 
whichthe ground hereof itself alone briuga forth. 

While the glad fair eye* ?re coming, which weep- 
ing made me come to thee, thou canst sit thee 
down and canst go among them. 

No more expect my word, nor my sign. Free, 
upright, and whole, ifi thy wi[],aud 'tu/crc& fault 
not to act according to itB promptiug ; where- 
fore I do crown and mitre thee over thyself. 

the niBi'idian.) and Doon in India: iC WSi, thert't-orc, 
mniet it ihe baie of th« Mounc of Hurg'atary f*w 



dUgrami on pp. J4 and 3$). But (here wsis still in 
Inucnal before tuniet at the IwJ^iiC th« pcmtt ha4 
reached (cf. above, Canio xvii. v. iz). — See diagnm 
OD p. tty 

6. As this angel corresponds to the angeli rkat 
welcome and dkect DamtP V the end of tiie journey 
through each of the ocher drEleSj we must lUppoEc 
thl^C hs iinick che lajc P from Dani:«'« hrow with his 
wing', it ia vain, therefore, to oeek for any personal 
confession in Dante's «tatemenc chat he had to paw 
through the flatiic. Tlie same i* true of Statius, for 
whoje final liberation the bouU of Purg-atory had 
already Bung their hymn of glory to Cod. The fact 
leeiM* to he that this Rame, in addition to beìiì^ cite 
initnimeTit of purification oa the Kventh dx de, does 
duty for the wall of fire, whÌ4!h» according to lome 
rfpretentations, surroands the GanJen of Eden. 

S, ■" Bles*ed are the pure in heart: for they »hal1 
s«God"(JMiH. ». i). 
JJ. 5rt /n/, JC*ii. 79 »yy. 

37-39- ^hlle Thltbc vras waiting fdf her Iprer, 
Fyramus, near a mulberry -tree, a lione» came up from 
which ihe dea, dropping a garment in her haite, 
Thi« the hea*t ^taLittd with blood, hiving jilit devoured 
an ox. When Fyramui cxiue up and saw it on the 

Sound, he thought that Thisbe was dead and «tabbed 
mtelf Thiibe rettlrTied just in time tP We her 
loTer die and then slew her«eif too; whereupon the 
«olour of the tnulberrie» changed from white to red. 
Dante knew the story ffum Ovid, Mel. It, J5:-i66, 
and refers here specially to w. 145, 146; AJ unman 
TiSfifi omioj jam merir gravaiia Pyrami/i miàt, vijapit 
receniSdll ilia. Sit b«loff, Cin» JTBlUii. $^, and c/. Se 
Men. il. 9: 30-3^. 

43-4.J. En mcnCiuntng Beatrice, Virgil ii appealing 
to a higher motive than any he hat yet urged; but he 
knowt that Dante lak?i (hf. reference on a Jower plane. 
As yet Dante Jinowa nothing of the ceiestiaL Beatrice, 
and it ia an earthly emotion, howcTcr pute, that 
mpondi to Virgil's heaTcnly appeal. Hence a kind 
of half pathetic amuiement on Virgil'» part, on seeln|: 




CANTO XXVn 34.5 

tile CUgcrn^*! with whifh Danit reipnndii, not to tbt 
nigher pl«t he urgetl, but to the lower pLn he tug- 
gei ted - 

j8. The wards t^ be )pok.en tc the rcgKteous at 
the hitt Judgment; "Tbeji «hall the King say unto 
Uiem on hii right Ittnd, Come, ye blegsed of my 
FithcT, inherit the kirgdom prc^pared for you from 
tKe fótìndatioB of the world " (Mutt. stv. 34). 

91-93. QT Im/. xxvL 7, and fwrg. Ix. iti-iS. 

95. Venus Is often calkd Cytherea by VÌTg[], from 
the inland Cytiheca, near whirh she rose from th<! sta 
and where the wa> worshipped with special v«ni/(a- 
tion. For the poiition of the planet Ycnui ia Plueea 
(the canBteUatiioti preceding Arie» or dawn), tee ibore. 

Cinto i. I^-ll, HBit. 

97-ioS. This third and last vision of Xlante'i, in 

which L'?^ and Rachel, the Ofd T'ei.tBiTLijnt types of 
the Active and Con te mp lati «^e Life (Cm, xxIx. vos, j 
appear to him, ia a forecast of the posttioni Matilda 
and Beatrtee will ùCCapf m the Earthly Paradise. [It 
should be n a led that MrGardner,wlio9e liew ia shared 
by others, hotdt that Matilda's "counterpart, at Rai^hcl 
to Le^ah, l» not Beatriice, as lometimes nuppoeed, t>nt 
St Bema^td, jn the closing cancoe of the Parafo."] 
In the New Testatnent the typirs are tvpresented hy 
Martha and Mary ; «e Ci/nv. iv. 17 : 8j-lil: "Verily, 
it is 10 he ktiown that we can have in. this life two 
hipptncues by rollcwrng two different toads, both 
good and excellent, wtiich It-ad to them ; the one is the 
Active Life and the other h the Contemplative Life, 
ivhich (although by the Active Life one may attain, 
ai h^ been t-aid, to a good state of happineas} leads us 
to cupreme happiness, even ai the philosopher proves 
la th« tenth book of the EthifJi and Christ afTtrDis it 
with his own lips in the gv^pel of Luke, «pe4l;ing to 
Martha^ when ri^plying to her : ' Martha, Manha, thou 
art anzioU^ ahd trOWbled about many things: Verily, 
oDc thing alone is needful,' meaning, that which thou 
hast in band ^ and he adda : ' Mary has chosen the 
better put, which ihill not be tzken from her.' And 
Mary, according to that which ii previously written 



in the gospeil, «ittiug at ^e insi «f Christ, «howed no 
care for the semce at che house, but lEiteaMl onLjrto 
the worJs of the SiTiaur. Por i/ we wLU expUin thì* 
in the inorai! tenie, our Lord wished to show ihereh^ 
that the Contemplative Life was supTtmdy gwod, al- 
thoD^h the ÀciÌTe Life might be gnnd :, thi« ei erid^nt 
tt> hìm wh-D wil£ give his mind i-o the wordji of the 
gojpel." See, too, Canv. tv. i; ijti-ifii. 

Ilj, The ^om/' ÌB the tummani l/anum. peace with 
God, as Dpposeil to the many false Ideals of men on 

earth, Cf. P^r.Tt,\. i-ij,and Caan iv, ij; ijS-xai, 

ll^-t^x, N-ote that Vir^L'i mijiian !> OT«r when 
he ha« brought Dante to the Earthly Paradiw, which 
il the immediate goa9 of the aouls in Purg'atoTy. Si^oic 
diEBculty hu been foilnd in ch-e last lines of the cSDtO, 
because it ii said that Virgil nnnot make Dance bSsliop 
ai well » king of hlniAeLf ; but wì5 learn, from the i>c 
Mvn. iii, J; 107-117, that in Uaotf'i Opinion man 
would not have needed the Church, u an organued 


■nftitntlon, way mot* thaa tho Empi», had he not 
Edlen from the iute of innocence. Aecoràlngìj, when 
he teeoTera that (tate he ii abtolved from the ipiritnal 
M well u from the temporal rule. The inatitutioot 
of the Enpire and the Church are, of coarse, to be 
dlMingnithed from the human and divine reaaon, or 
mUwophy and Revelation, of which they^ ought to be 
nudiuu and exponent!. The condndin^ diapter of 
Uw Dr Mm. show* na rery clearly the distinction 
between the eiaeatial means of temporal and *plritnat 
hbmiliWM (human reason a* developed by the phllo* 
•ophersi and RereiatloD as declared by the writen of 
Siriptitre) on the oae hand, and the eztemat inadtn- 
tlona or rumens on the other, founded to check the 
perrenitj which perpetually drives mankind out of 
th« troe path thua indicated. 

For •. 153, ice the diagram on p. 13 ; and with w. 
i54-i]5 conpare the following: canto, «v. 69 and 
1 1 8 /ff . 


DANTE ent«ri the Garden of Eden from the w««, 
h-cing the risin;g sun, and meeting a «west breeze 
laden With the odòiif« ùf Paradite and full of the H>ng 
of blrdi to which ihc itivei ùf the dJTine fofMt 
murmur a pedal baas (i-lt }. On the' oippOHJig haak 
of a iireatni that Row» puce xander the forest shade, 
he pcrci^ivei a lady gathering Howers and linking, ai 
enamoured (la-^i). It i» Matilda, the genln» of 
Eden ; and in aOtWcr to Dd^iite'* peUUon mht tp- 
pTOAches the itream with downcast efit, the tong oo 
her lips growing ever mare ariicul&te. Then, her 
hands still buB^ with the flowers, the fling» upon 
him the blaze of her laughing tfei (^j-fi^), At a 
rt^iponstie rap^ire vw;ik.«K in Da.nte'g hgaft, the 
initiatei him ioto the frank snd innocent lore and 
joy of Eden, and proHers all further •errlce he may 
delire (70-34). In answer ta hit question ahe con- 
firm) what Siatlui had already said a« to tKc higher 
re^iong of the mount above the gate being unaffected 
by meteorological phenomena. The stream and the 

Patadifo Vago già di cercar deotro e dintorno 
Terrestre i^ divina foresta ipcsea e viva, 

eh* agli occhi temperava il nuovo giorao, 

aenza più aspettar lasciai ìa riva, * 

prendendo U campagna lento lento 
8U per lo suol che d' ogni parte oliva. 

Un' aura dolce, Bensa mutamento t 

avere in uà, mi iVria per la fronte 
con di più colpo che raave vento, 

per cui le froncEe, tremolando pronte, *■ 

tutte e quante piegavano alla parte 
u' la prìm' ombra gitta. il santo monte; 



CANTO xxvin 

ire«e, therefore, are not «ucli as ithoie on earth. 
The breeze is caused by the nweep of the atmatpherlc 
tfiTClAp« of the ea.rth, from eait to weir, with (be' 
prlmum mobile; amJ It beari with it germ» from th* 
diTine foreit ; vrhEch may CKpl&in the ■eeming ipon- 
taneouH genentioa of wondroui pianti on earth. 
And the water of the icream does not rise from the 
polsatl-oni af any mist- and rain-fed rein, but iaiutl 
firom s fguntain which drawi mppljei for thii and 
a compsnioD «treun dir«t from the will of Ood. 
The<e itreajna are Leche and Enti&e, the one of 
which waihei away all memory of ain, and the other 
rcatores the memory of all rightcoui doln^ ;: and for 
the full eltect to be evperieacfd, both alike millt be 
tasted, So mijch in 3.Diwer to Dante's queitioni. 
But Matilda further delight» her pupil by auggeiting 
that jiotnt confuted tradition of the itate of innocence 
Ity brhjnd thedfeatpi of the classical pottiwho lang 
Ofthe Golden Age ; whereon he teei a imile of recogn- 
ition Ughtea the face! of Virgil and Staiiui(Sj-i48}. 


ow eager to search wkhtD aod around the dÌTÌne DattCf 
forest dense and verdant, which to nune eyes Sri"* ^* 
was temperine the n€w day, foraitat 

- T » J L J ™'^" 

wiEhout waiutig more 1 Eett the mountain-giae, 
crossing the pLaiii with licgeriDg itep, over the 
ground which givea forth fragrance on every &Ìdc. 

A sweet breeze, iteelf invariable, was Jtriking on 
my brow with ao greater force than a gentle 

before which the branchea, responaively trembling, 
were all beading toward that quarter, where 
the holy moant casts iu 6r8t «hadow ; 





PktwUhi a(ja però daJ lor euct dritto spartE 
*"* tanto, che gli augelletti per Se cime 

laBciawer d' operare ogni lor arte; 

ma con pieaa letizia V óre prime, '^ 

cantando, rìcevièno intra k foglie, 
che tencran bordone alle sue rime : 

tal qual di rama ìd ramo si raccoglie *v 

per la pineta in sul lito di Chiassi, 
quaod' Eolo Scirocco ftor dùcioglie. 

Già m' avean trasportato i leoci passi ™ 

dentro alla selva antica tanto, eh' io 
non potea riredere oad' io m* entraisi ; 

«d ecco il più andar mì tolee un rio, '^ 

che in ver ainisEra con sue picciole onde 
piegava l' erba che in sua nn ubcÌo. 

Tutte r acque che son di qua più moade >> 

parrìeao avere in sé mistura alcuna, 
verso di t^ueUa che nulla nasconde ; 

avvegna che si mova bruna, bruna 3* 

sotto V ombra perpenia^, che mai 
raggiar Don lascia eole ivi, né luna. 

Coi pie ristetti e con gli occhi passai M 

di là dal lìumicello, per mirare 
la gran varìiazion dei freschi niai ; 

e là m' apparve, sl com' egli appare 97 

auhitRmente cosa che dtivia 
per maraviglia tutt' altro pensare, 

una donna soletta, che m già ^ 

cantando ed isceglìendo fior da fiore, 
ond' era pinta tutta la «uà vìa. 

" Deh;, bella donna, eh' ai raggi d' amore *' 

ti Bcaldij b' io vo' credere ai sembianti 
ch« aoglion e«er Cestimon del core 




yet not so far hem aside troni their erect state» 

that the little birds ia Lh? tops ceased to 

practise their every art ; 
but, ainging, with full gladness thty welcomed 

the first breezes within the leaves, which were 

murmuring the burdeo to their ioaga; 
eves such aa from bough to bough is gathered 

through the pine wood on. ChiasHi'g iihore, 

when Aeolus looses Sirocco forth. 
Already my slow steps had carried mc on so far 

within the ancient wood, that [ could not Bee 

whence I had entered ; 
and b, a stream took from me further pa&sage 

which, toward the left with ila little waves, 

bent the grass which sprang forth on ia bank. 
All the waters which here are purest, would seem 

to have some mixture in them, compared with 

that, which hideth nought ; 
albeit full darkly it fiows beneath the everlaating 

abade, which nerer lets bud, nor moon, beam 

With feet I halted and with mine eyes did pass 

beyond the rivulet, to gaze upon the great 

diversity of the lender blossoiDS ; 
and there to me appeared, £vco as on a sudden 

aomething appearB which, through amazement» 

sets all other thought ajtray, 
a lady Bolitary, who went along singing, and 

cuUing flower after flower, wherewith all 

her path wa» painted. 
" Pray, fair lady, who at love's beams dost warm 

thee, If I may believe outward looks, which 

are wont to be a witne^as of the heart, 





Pa^^dlM Tcgnati voglia di trarreti avanti, " 
"" dias' io a lei, " verflo questa riviera, 

tanto eh' io possa intender che tu canti. 
Tu mi fai rimembrar, dove e qual era 
Proaerpina nel tempo che perdette 
la m^dre Id, ed ella f>rinurera," 

Come si volger con le piante atretCe 
a, terra ed iatra se, donna che balli, 
e piicde innanzi piede a pena inette, 

voleesì ìqi lui vermigli ed m sui gialli 
fioietti verso me, non altrimenti 
che Tergine che gli occhi onesti avvalli ; 

e fece i preghi oiiei esser contenti, 
si Apg3rcesB.ndo sé, che il dolce s^uono 
veniva a me co^ suoi inteodcmeati. 

Toato che fu là dove i' erbe sono 
bagnate gJa dall' onde del biel liumCf 
di levar gli occhi suoi mi fece dono. 

Non credo che splendesse tanto lume 
sotto le ciglia a Venere trafitu 
dal figlio, fuOf di tutto aUo costume. 

Ella ridea dall' altra riva dritta, 
traendo piti color con le sue mani, 
che 1' alta terra senza seme gitta. 

Tre paGfil ci facea Ì\ fìume lontani ; 
ma. Ellesponto, dove passò Xerse, 
ancora freno a tutti orgogii umani, 

più odio da Leandro noo sofferse, 
per mareggiare intra Sesto ed Abìctot 
che quel dà. me, perchè allot non s' aperse. 

" Voi aiete nuovi, e forse perch' io rido," 
cominciò ella, "in questo loco eletto 
all' umana natura per suo nido, 












may it please thee to draw forward," «aid I to Daouao^ 

ber, "towards thiB stream, so far that I may * 

understand what thou singe&c. 
Thou makeet me to remember, where and what 

Pro&erpine waa id the time her mother loet 

htr, and she lost the «pmg." 
As a bdy who is daDcicig tmù» her round with 

feet ctosp to the ground and to each otlier, 

aad hardly putteth foot before foot, 
she turned toward me upon the red and upon 

the yellow flowerets, not otherwiBC than a 

virgin that drop|>eth her modest eyei ; 
^nd made my prayers aati^lipd, drawing go near 

that the sweet sound reached me with its 

Soon as: she was tnere, where the graes is already 

bathed by the waves of the fair riverj ihe 

TOuchEafed to nise her eyes to me. 
I do not belieTE that so bright a light shone forth 

under the eyelids of Venus, pierced by her son, 

agaiaei all: his wont. 
She smiled From the right bank opposite, gather- 
ing more flowers with her hands, which the 

high land bears without aeed. 
Three paces the river kept us distant 5 but 

Hetleflpont, where Xerxes crossed, to this 

day a. curb to all human pride, 
endured not more hatred from Leander for ita 

mrbident waves 'twixt Sestos and AbydoB, than 

that did from me, because it opened not then. 
••New-comers are ye," she began, "and per- 
chance, because I am smilmg in this place;, 

choten for nest of the hamaa race. 






Pacadiisa maraTÌgliando tlenvi alcun sospetto^ 
T>emitf« pj^ jjji^ rende il aalma Ddeetaitì^ 

che puote disaebbiar vosero ìotelletto. 

E tu, ch'e sei dìoanzl, e mi pregasti, *^ 

di' a' altro vuoi udir : eh' io venni presta 
ad ogni tua queBtIoc, tanto che basti." 

" L' accjua»" diaa' ìo, *' e il suon deJla foresta, ** 
impugaan deatro a me novelJa fede 
di cosa, eh' io udi' contraria a questa." 

Ond'eUa: " Io dìcerò come procede 
per Bua cagioa exit eh' ammirar ti face, 
e purgherà la nebbia che ti fiede. 

Lo sommo Ben, che solo esso a sé piace, 
fece r uom buono, e a bene, e questo loco 
diede per arra a lui d' eterna pace. 

Per aua diffalta qui dimora poco ; 

per sua diJTalta \ù pianto ed in afT^imo 
cambiò onesto riso e dolce gioca. 

Perchè il torbar, che eotto da aè faDtio 
r esalazìoD dell' acqua e della, urrà, 
che, (juanto posaon, retro al calor vanno, 

all' uoTTio noe facesse alcuna guerra, 
questo monte saJìo vereO '] cicl t^JltO ;, 
e libero n' è d' indi, ove gì serra. 

Or, perchè in circuito tutto e quantg 

. r aer ai volge con la prima volta, 
ae D-an gli è rotto il cerchio d' alcun canta, 

in (questa alcezz», che in tutto è disciolca 
celli' aer vivo, tal moto pcrCoie, 
e fa suoTiar la selva perch' è folta; 

e la percossa pianta tanto puote, 

che della «uà. virtute l' aura impregna, 
e quella poi girando intorno scote; 




■Qmc doubt doth hold yOu m^TÈllìng ; but Uie MAtUdk- 
psalm Delectojti giveth light which may clear ^Jt^*^ 
the mist from your understanding. windU^ 

And thou, who art in front, and didet entreat puadM 
me, say if aught else thou wouldst hear: for \ 

I Came rtady to 2II thy qacstiooiug till thou 
be satislred." 

*"Tbe water," said I, *'and the mueic of the 
foreet, are comhatting within me a new belief 
in a thing which I have heard contrary to this/' 

Wherefore she ; " I will itli from what cause 
that arises which makes thee maiTet, and I 
will purge away the mise that offends thee. 

The higheat Good, who himself alone doth pleane, 
made man good and for goodnesa, and gave 
this place to btm as an earnest of eternal peace. 

Through his defauìt, email time he sojourned 
here ; through hie. default^ for tears and sweat 
he exchanged honest laughter and awtiet play. 

Id order that the atornia, which the exhalatioo^ of 
the water and of the earth cause below it, and 
which follow so far as they can after the heat, 

should do no hurt to man, this mount rose thus 
far towards heaven, and stands cle^ of them 
from where it is locked. 

Now siioce the whole of the air revolves in a 
circle with the primal motion, unlets its circuit 
is broken in aoine direction, 

fuch motion strikea on this eminence, which is 
all free in the pure air, and naalces the wood 
to sound because It is dense ; 

atld the smilteTii plant has such power that witit its 
virtue it Linpregnates the air, and that in its 
revolution then scatters it abroad ; 



pyradliA e 1' altra terra, secondo eh 'è degna 
J?*""*** per sé e per suo cid, concept e figlia 

^m di dircrse rìrtìi dÌTerse legna. 

V Non parrebbe di là poi marariglia, 

I udito questo, quando alcuna pianta. 

B senza seme palese vi s' appiglia. 

^M E saper dei che la campagna santa, 

V ove tu Bei, d' ogni semenza è pictia, 

H e frutto ha io sé che dì Ik Don ai «chiantii, 

H L' acqua che redi oon surge di vena. 

K che ristori TEpor che gièl coa^erta, 

^M conie fìtime eh' acquista e perde lena ; 

^r mi esce di fontana salda e certa, 

I che caato da] voler di Dìo riprende» 

H quant' elk rerea. da due partì aperta. 

H Da quesu parte con rirtìi discende, 

H che Coglie altrui memoria del peccata ; 

H dall' altra, d' ogni ben facto la rende. 

H Quinci Lete, eoa! dall' altro lato 

H Eunoè si chiama, e non adopra, 

H ae quinci e quindi pria non è guatato. 

H A tuct' altri sapori esto è dì sopra ; 

H ed arvcgna eh' assai possa esser Bazia 

H la sete tua, perch' io più non ti scopra, 

H darotti no corollario ai^cor per grazia ; 

^B né credo che il mio dir ti sia men caro, 

^M te oltre proitiiesion teco si spazia. 

H Quelli che acticamence poetaro 

H I' età deir oro e suo stato felice, 

H forse in Parnaso osto loco «ognaro. 

H Qui 6ji innocente E' umana radice ; 

H qui primavera è sempre, ed ogni frutto ; 

H nettare è questo di che ciascun dice." 








'and the other land, according as it is worthy of 

itadf and of ita climMc-, conctives md bring! 

forth divers treea of divers virtuea. 
Were chiQ underatood, it would not then aeem a 

marvel yonder when some plaat cakri root 

there without manifest seed. 
And thou must know th»t the holy plain where 

thou art, is fui] of every seed, and be^rs fruit 

in it whicb yonder is not plucked. 
The water which thou aecBt wells not from a 

iprÌD;g that is fed by moisture which cold con^ 

denses, like a river that gains and losea volume, 
but issues from 3 fount, constant and sure, which 

regains by God's will, 10 much as it paure 

forth freely on either aide. 
On this aide it descends with a virtue which takes 

from men the memory of sin ; on the other it 

restores the memory of every good deed. 
On this aide Letlie, as on the other Eunoe 'tis 

called, and warke not except Grst it ie tasted 

on this aide and on that. 
ThU exceedeth all other savours ; and albeit 

thy thirGt may be fuJI sated, even iho* I 

reveal no more to thee, 
I will give thee yet a coroHsry as a grace ; nor 

do I thiuk that my words will be less precious to 

thee if they extend beyond my promise to thee. 
They who in olden times sang of the golden age 

and its happy atate, perchance dreamed in 

FamassuB of this place. 
Here the root of man's race was icnocfflt; here 

spring ia everlasting, and every kind of fruit ; 

this is the nectar whereof each one tcUi." 

and of 
in the 

&ad ofl 





PuodUe Io mi Tolsi di retro iitlorn tutto 
""^ * a' miei poeti, e sìdi che cod riso 
udito avcTan 1' ultimo costrutto ; 
poi alla bella donna tornai il viso. 


II, [J, Totvarda the west. 

ic^-si. The inournful Liùte^ heard En the pin^-ba^i 
uf Ravenna, «n the Adriatic sihore [Chia-asL, near 

RaTenna,±^che Classi^ of the Roman*, who used ÌC bj a 
naf^l iWtirtn artj hartonr ; iiì Chritti^n time» 5 fortrtiS 
w»i bulh there}, >«hen Aeolux, Xing of the winds 
(^n. i. ji ifT-)i let* looie the otrocco, or S,E. wind 

SfV PfToa't Jjan Jum, iv. IcJ. 

40, Thii 5i MatiliJii (t«e below, Cmto xnxiii. 1 18, 
iig), in sll probability to be taken m the type nf 

the Actiwe Life fir. 80), Historically, It is aafeai to 

identify her with Matelda, the Grancamiriia of Tuscaiiiy 

^1046-1115)5 the luppurtercf Pope Gre (fory VII., the 
Friend and bounteous benefactor of the Holy See and 
Churck Ochcr attempi^ at id4::n[ìlìCa.Cidn hsi'e been 
madti, sojnc of them, Tratably Cdschel's and Pre^r's, 
Smtiit of ^eat inpenniiyj but here, as so often, we 
(hull do best ip follgjwing the e^arly comments lor?. 

49-ji. While gathering- fiowers in a. lovely nieadow, 
Proierpina was carried off by Pluto (rf. la/, iji. 44, x- 
Sq), in the presence o-f her mother an-d compaciiq-ns. 
A TcFLTence Co Ovid, Met, v. jSj i^j, and Co Pjr. xxx. 
6, wiit show thar primavfà means the "spring 
flfl>*^rii" tJiiit fell from her tunic, wh«n Pluto bore 
her olT in his car. 

'64.EG. When ihe bccami! enamoured of Adarie. 

See Ovid, Aid. tt. 515. 51S: Namtjur phantTalai dum 
liat f/utr e^rvia mairi, In-'fmt iKtiamti Ahriimii arnitifiii* 

71-75. When XerKCB, King of Penìa (485-4S5 t-C.) 
erpBsoit the Hl'I Its port (tiie ttiwJt^rn DardanelW) over 
a bridge of boats, to invade Greece, he hiid nith hiin 
a ho'iC of a million soliiicrs ; an his return, in a. AdKjng' 
bodt, lie WiiE scc^nipftaied by a few men only [Onfiius, 
whom Diinle proljably foUow», point* a «irnllnr moni 


Then did I turn me right back to my poets, and OmU 
saw that with smiles they had heard the last ^ 
interpretatioii ; theo to the kit Lady I tiuned 
my &ce. 

— ii. g and lo]. Tbs wine itrait Mparatcd Leander 
from ni> mlstrew Hero ; in order to aee her, h« nram 
acroM It many timM and wu erentuallf drowned 
(tee OTld, fftnii xfUi., xix.). 

So. Dilettaiti mt, Damim, in fattura tua. ..." For 
thou, Lord, halt made me glad through thy work; 
I will trlnmph in the works of thj handa" fPt. 
XCÌÌ. 4). 

87. See above, Canto xxi. 45 iqf. 

102. From the Gate of Purgatory (»ee above, Canto 
ix. 76, 130 /yy.> 

103-108. "The air al«o flowt in a circle, became 
it il drawn along with the circulation of the whole " 
(Aiiatotle). — "And thus that air which exceeds the 
greateit altltade of the mountains flows round, but 
the air which is conuioed within the altitude of the 
mouDtalni is impeded from this flow by the im- 
moveable parts of the earth " (Thomas Aquinas). 

IQ9-117. Here Dante gives a sort of supernatural- 
rationalistic explanation of what was in his day an 
accepted fact. " And the tame holds with plants also, 
lince lome are produced by seed, others spontaneously 
by nature" (Aristotle> 

121-123. For the formation of rain on earth, rf. 
above, Canto v, 109-111. 

124-126. See Gnw/ù ii. 4-6 and 10 /^f. : •'Theseare 
the generations of the heavens and ofthe earth when 
they were created, In the day that the Lord God made 
the earth and the heavens, And every plant of the field 
before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field 
before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to 
rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till 
the gromid. But there went up a mist from the eartli. 

360 .NOTES 

And watered the whole face of the ground. . . . And 
a river went out of Eden to water the garden ; and 
from thence It was parted, and became into four 
headf. ..." Q^ below, Canto xzidlf. w. 112-114, 

128. For Lethe, see Ii^. xxxÌt. 130 and F^rg, 

130-13X. It would be natural to noderatand thb 
panage as auerting that the drinking of Lethe pR>> 
duced no effect until Eunoe had been aUo drank ; bnt 
we lee from zxxiii. 9 1 -99 that this ii not the cate. We 
are therefore compelled to interpret the paaaage more 
nibtly. It appears, then, that the true function of the 
twofold stream it to sift out evil and sinful memories 
from the sources of ]oj and gratitude with which the; 


. iotepanblf mixed up on eirth. For instance, 
me nnklndncM or neglect of our own has been 
i of repealing to ui the beautr %nd generotit)' 
ler*! character ; or when the shock consequmt 
me error or sin that we have committed has 
rithin us the powers of resistance and aspln. 
broaght us into contact with some strong and 
soul, it appears that the immediate effect ok 
r Lethe Is not to separate out the good and 
to engulf in the forgetMness of all evil, into 
: throws the soul, the memory of all Incidental 
at was connected with It. See bdow. Canto 
1I-99, Jici<r. 

f4 For the Golden Age, see above, Canto 

AS ihe elianti l btcisirg on thoae wKojc ■!□■ are 
''> f&rgjveii, MaCilld^ takes hcf wa,y ali^ng on« 
bank of the itreain, while Dante lieepi pace witb 
heron che other; till the air, kindltng with aplen- 
daur and lulen with iweec strains of (OJig, fills Dinte 
at once with the rapture of the Evrthlf Paradise and 
a ien»e of indigtìs^tion agilitist the act of «n which 
haiJ bereft him and mankind qf »ucti 4elighu — 
delight! which aU the 'waters of Helko'n can scarce 
enahie him Co set in vecce (1-42). Dante ii pacing 
eastward, with the «ream on his left hand Bowing 
towards him, and on the other side of the stream a 
divine pag'e^anc approachei him; the lietaiUoFwhieh, 
together ^th words of so^Ki "-''^ graduatly diicn- 
tangled by eye and ear. But when he turn* to Virgil 
tor enlightenment, hia faithful teather can no longer 
laSitmeE him; these are things heyond the reach ot 
his art (43-57). Seven lights leave the air painted 
with »ei>cii great eaiubow ^tteameri cf colanr «retch- 
ing away as farai the eye can reach, throw^ing their 

Fara.c{ìBa Caotindo coitie doDsa inn^ marcita, 

Terrestre continuò col fin di Bue parole: 

" Botili, quorum (fCld sutil Recata'' 
E come ninfe che si givan sole * 

per le salvatiche ombre, disiando 
qual di veder, qinl di fuggir lo solf, 
i|,>llor si mosse contra il fiume, sfidando T 

Bu per la riva, ed Ìo pari di lei, 
picciol passo eoa picciol seguitando. 
Noa cran cento tra i buo' paaei e i miei, *° 

quando le ripe igualniente dier volta,, 
per modo cb' a levante mi Kndeì. 


Elt^lT oier tbe hcBveo and g-lu'wing upon che striKiin, 
Tbe7 repreient the leTcnfold (fife» of the »pirit, and 
beneath their giory fiead faut Btid tWctiCy cLdefk, 
crowned with Jiiliea, repreaeJiting the booka of the 
Old Testament, chanting bbiiinga on Che Virgin 
[58-87). They are followed by the four Gojpel 
iicastf ai described by Ei>e)iiel and John, encloilng 
between them the triumphal chariot ct thcChufch, 
retting' on ihc two wheel* of the con tcm [ila ti ve and 
letiTc life, drxwn by a grifon whoee twofold nature 
represents the two nature! in one perion of Chriil 
(8S-1I4). The lun itself haj rot ao gkrioua a 
icha.rlat. By the right wheel the three cheological 
TJrtuei dance, and by the left the Fùur cardinal virtuei 
(115-131). Then cooie two elileri, then four, then 
one, crowned witb roiei, representing the remaining 
booki of the New Teatament (133-150). When 
Dattte il juit opposite the car, a peal of thumter 
^rreaCÉ the whole pro»MÌon (IJI-1J4). 


At the end of her words, singing Tike an Dante 

eoamoured. lady, she cQPtmued ; "Bca/t, quorum Matlld* 

teda sunt ficcata." 
And, aa nymphB who used to wend alone 

through the woodland shades, one desiring 

to see, another Co flee the sua, 
•he then adranced againat the stream^ walking 

DQ the bank, and I ahreasC of h^f, Eittle step 

answcrÌBg with little step. 
Not a hundred were her steps with minp^ when 

both banka alike made z. bend in such wise 

thai I turned me to the east. 




Paradljo Né ancor fti COSÌ oostra via nwita, '3 
enei « quando la donna tutta a me si torse, 

I dicendo : " Frace rnioj guarda^ ed aacolta." 

I ed ecco UD lustro cubito trascorae ^ 

I da tutte p,arti per la. gran foresta, 

I cai che di balenar mi jniee in forK- 

^t Ma perchè i! balenar, come TJen, resta, '» 

^^H e quel durando pììt e più ^lendera, 

^^T nel mio pensar dicea : ** Che cosa è qtiesta ? " 

[ Ed una melodia dolce correva " 

^^1 per 1' aer luminoso ^ onde buon zelo 

^^P mi fé' riprender E' ardimento d' Evs, 

■ che^ là dove cbbidia h terra e il cielo, •-' 

I femminn, &ola, e pur testé formata, 

I non sofferse di star sotto alcun vdo ; 

I BDtto il qual, ee devota foBsc stata, ■* 

I avrei quelle incfTabili delizie 

I sentite prima, e più lunga fiata, 

I Mentr' io m' andara tra tante primiii* » 

^^a dell' eterno piacer, tutto aospeso, 

^^M e dÌ!;ic>so ancora a più letìzie, 

W diaaazi a tiot, tal qaale un foco acceso, w 

I ci si fé' V aer sotto ì verdi rami^ 

I e il dolce suon per canto era già inteso. 

^^ O sacrosante Vergini, ee fami, 3t 

^^fe freddi o vigilie mai per voi soffersi, 

^^ cagion mi sprona, di' io mercè ne chiami. 

I Or convìcc eh' Elicona per me versi, ** 

^^B ed Urania m' aiuti col suo coro, 

^B forti cose a pensar mettere in versi. 

W Poco più oltre sette arbori d' oro 4i 

fc fabava nel parere il lungo tratto 

^B del mezzo, eh' era ancor tra doì e loro ; 

Canto xxrx 



Nor yet was our way thus very far, when the 

lady turned her hll round to me, joying, 

•* Brother mine,. look and hearken." 
And lo, a Budden brightness fiooded on all eidei 

the great foreet, auch that it set me in doubt 

if' iwere lightning. 
But since Hghtiiing ceases eren ae it comcth, and 

that eadurifig, brighter and brighter shone^ in 

my mind I Baid : " What thing is thia ? " 
And a sweet melody ran through the lumitiouj 

air; wherefore righteoua leal made me reprove 

Eve's daring» 
who, there where heaven and earth obeyed, a 

woman alone and but then formed, did oot 

bear to remain under any veil, 
under which, if ihe had been devQUt, I should 

hiTC tasted those ineffiibie joy» ere ihla, and 

for a longer time. 
While I was going amid so many first-fniiis of 

ithe etemd pleasance, all enrapt and still yearn- 
ing for more joys, 
the air in front of us under the green boughs, be- 
came even aa a flaming fire to us, and the Gwcct 
sound was heard sls a chant. 
O holy, holyj Virgins^ if e'er for you I have 
etidurcd fastiiiga, cold, or vigils, occasion spurs 
rae to crave my reward. 
Now 'tis meet that Helicon for me stream forth 
and Urania aid me with her choir to set in verse 
things hard to conccirc. 
A little Farther on, a dehaive acmblancc of aeren 
tree» of gold was caused by the long space 
that wai yet between us and them ; 

Aùprancb i 



or the 

The seven 
Candì e- 





P&radUo ma quando fìii sl presso dì lor Tatto, 
Terrestre ^^ ji ^{jiji^pfgi comuii, chc il seciHo ìitgani 
Don perdei per distanza alcun suo atto, 

la virtìl ch^ a ragìoQ discorso ammaTiaa 
si com' dli eraa candelabri apprese, 
e nelle voci del cantare, "Otunrta," 

Di sopra Eìammcggiava il bello ameac 
più chiaro a^sai che luna per sereno 
di mtrzza notte nel auo mezzo mese. 

Io mi rÌTolsi d' ammirazioti pieno 
al buoa Virgilio, ed esso mì rispose 
eoa vista carca di Gtupor non mcoo. 

Indi rendei 1' aspetto ali' alte cose, 
che si moveano iaconCro a noi sì tare 
che forao vinte da novelle spose. 

La donna mi sgridò : " Perchè pur acdì3 
BÌ Dcir aspetto delle vive luci^ 
e ciò che viea di retro a lor non guait 

Genti vid.' io allora com' a lor ducij 
venire appresso, vestite di bianco : 
e tal candor di qua giammai non fiici*i 

L' accj^ua splendeva dai sinistro fianco^ 

e rcndea il me la mia bai»tra costa, 

fi' io riguardava in lei, come specchio anc 

Quand' io dalla mia riva ebbi Cai poot^ 
che solo il JTume mi facea disunite, 
per veder meglio ai passi diedi aosta, 

e vidi le fiammeUe andar darante, 
laEci^ndo retro a sé 1' aer dipìnto, 
e Ji triitti pennelli avean sembiante ; 

?i cbe li aopra rimanea distinto 
di selle listej tutte in quei coEori, 
onde fa T arco Ìl sole e Delia 11 cìntq 





whea 1 had drawn $0 mgh to them chat the Tiie OM 

general similitude of thlnge, which deceipea the 'f*""^ 

senses, lost not by distance any of ÌM feawres, c«bcU*^ 
the faculty which prepares material for reason, "ticks 

distinguished them as candJeaticka, even aa 

they were, and ia the worda of the cham, 

" Hasan nah." 
Above, the fair pageant was flaming forth, brighter 

far than tlie moon in clear midnight sky iin her 

mid month. 
Full of wonderrnent I turned me to the good 

Virgil, and he answered me with a face not 

less charged with amazement. 
Then I turned mycountenaoce back to the sublime 

things, which mored towards us bo alowty» that 

they would he vanquishtd by new-wedded brtdes. 
The lady cried to me : " Wherefore art thou ao The «w 

ardent only for the vision of these bright lights, ■"""■'^ 

and heedest not that which conieB after them?" 
Then 1 beheld people, clad in white, following 

as after their leader» ; and whiteness so pure 

here never was with Ub. 
Bright shone the water on my left flank, and re- 
flected to me my left side, if I gazed therein, 

even as a mirror. 
When 1 was ao placed on my hank that the 

river alone kept me distant,, to see better I 

gave halt to my atepa, 
snd I saw the flames, advance, leaving the air 

behind them painted, and of trailing pennants 

[hey had the semblance ^ 
BO that the air above remained streaked with 

seven bande, all in tlioae colours whereof the 
1 makes his bqw, and Delia her girdle. 





Paradiso Qucsti osteadali retro tran maggiori '9 

«XT41 e ^jjg ]^ jj^j^ TiBtai e, quanto al mio arvìso, 

dieci passi distavaa quei di fuorì. 
Sotto coal bel citi, com' io dirìsD, 

ventiquattro acDioci, z due a due, 

coronati veniap di fiordaliso. 
Tutti cantavan : " Benedetta, toe 

nelle DgHe d' Adamo, e benedette 

sieno in eterno le bellezze me," 
Poscia che i fiori e V aJtre fresche erbette, ■* 

a rimpetto di me dall' altra sponda, 

libere fiir da queUe genti elette, 
si come luce luce Ci cìel seconda, !" 

vennero appresHO lor qi^ttro animdi^ 

coronato ciascun di verde froada. 
Ognuno era pennuto di sei ali, !» 

le penne piene d' occhi ; e gli occhi d' Argo, 

se foBser tlvì, earebber cotaii. 
A desicrivcr lor forme piìì non ipaTgO V 

rime, lettor ; eh' altra spesa mi strigne 

lauto» che a quesu non posso ejser largo. 
Ma leggi Ezechielr che li dipigne •" 

come li vide daJla fredda parte 

venir con vento, con nube e con igne; 
e quali i troverai nelle sue carte, 

tali eran quivi, aalvo eh* alle penne 

Giovanni è meco, f da lui si diparte. 
Lo spàzio dentro a lot quattro contenne 

un carrDi in ku due rote, trionfale, 

eh' aJ coUo d' un grifon tirato vende. 
E»BO tendea in su 1' una e 1' altr* ale 

tra la mezzana e le tre e tre liste, 

EÌ eh' a nulla fendendo facea male. 







Tbeu bannerfi au-eamedl to the rearward far Th« Di 
beyond ray sight, and as I might judge, the ^■■' 
oucermost were tea paces apart. 
BtDCAth so fair a sky, as I describe, came iour The four! 
and twenty eldera, two by two, crowned witli Eld«i« 

AU were singitig t " Blessed thou among the 

daughtera^ of Adam, and blessed to all eternity 

be thy beauticB." 
When the flowers and the other tender herb» 

opposite to me on the other bank, were free 

from those choEea people, 
evcD as star follows stai in the heaveni, four TIm four 

creatures came after them, each one crowned *"** 

with grceD leaves. 
Everyooe was plumed with sin wings, the plumes 

fidi of eyes ; and the eyes of Argus, were they 

Liviag, would be .such. 
To describe their form, reader, I spilli no more 

rhymes ; for other charges bind me so, that 

herein I caonot be lavish. 
But read Ezckiel who depicts them an he saw 

rhem coming from the cold region, with 

wbirLwind, with cloud, and with ^re ì 
and Ì8 thou shalt Itnd them ia his pages, such 

were they here, save that in the pinions John 

is with me, and differs from him. 
The apace within the lour of them coDtaiaed a The 

car triumphalj upon two wheels, which came ^^"g 

drawn at the neck of a grifon. Grifo» 

And he £tretched upward» one wing and the other, 

between the middle and the three and three 

bands, ao that he did hurt to none by dcaTing^ 



Tanto ealìvan, che noo eran viste ; 
r^Fitre ^^ membra d' oro avea, quanto era uccello, 
e bianche 1' altre di Tcrmiglto miste- 

Non che Roma di cafro coa'i bèllo 

rallegra&Be Afiricaro, o vero Augusto, 
Cui quel del sol earia pover con elio: 

quct del lol, che «viando fij combusto, 
jwr 1' orazion della Terra devota, 
cjuaado fu Giove àrcaiiaOiente giusto. 

Tre donne in giro, dalla destra rota, 
▼enìan danzando: I' una tanto rosaa 
eh' a peni fora dentro al foco nota; 

1' altr' era come se le carni e 1' ossa 
fossero state di smeraldo fatte ; 
la terza p-area ncTc testé itioasa ; 

ed or parevan dalla bianca tratte, 
or ddla rossa, e dal canto di quetta 
V altre toglicafi r andare e tarde e ratte. 

Dalla sinistra quattro fàceao festa, 
in porpora Teatite, dietro al modo 
d' una di lor, eh' avea tre occhi in testa. 

AppreBBO tutto il pertrattato nodo, 
vidi due vecchi in abito dispari, 
ma pari iù atto, ed ontsto e sodo : 

V un sì mostrava alcun de' famigliari 
di quel sommo Ippocrate, che nACUra 
agli animali fé' cb' eli' ha piCl cari; 

mostrava 1' altro la contraria cura 
con una spada lucida ed acuta, 
tal che di qua dal rio mi fé' paura. 

Poi vidi quattro in umile paruta, 
e di retfo da tutti un veglio solo 
venir, dormendo, con la faccia arguta. 

















So hlgii they rase that they were not seen ; hia The Dj^li 

memberH had he of gold, so far as he was a bird, -f**"* 

and tht Dthers white micglcd with vermilion, Ch^riM 
Not only Africanus, nor in aooth, Augustus, e'ef ^f^' 

rejoiced Rome with a car so fair, but that of 

the suo would be poor beside it, 
that of the sun, which straying was consumed at 

che devout prayer of the earth, when Jote uras 

mysteriously just. 
Three ladiea came dancing in a routid by theTheThw 

right wheeE ; one bo red that hardly would v^« 

she be noted in the tire i 
the next was as if her flesh and bone had been 

made of emerald ; the third seemed new fallen 

and now seemed they kd by the white, now by 

the red, and from the song of her the others 

tool: mcsBure dow and quick. 
By the left wheel, four clad in purple, made J,^\, 

festival, following the lead of one of them, VTrtnos 

who had three eyes Id her head. 
After all the group described, I saw two aged ^1^' *"* 

men, unlike in raiment, but like in bearing, 

and venerable and grave : 
one showed him to be of the familiars of that 

highest. Hippocrates whom nature made for 

the creatures she holds most dear ; 
the other showed the contrary care, with a 

aword giitteriog and sharp, auch thai on this 

«ide the stream it made me afeard. 
Then saw I four of lowly semblance i and "^ke 

behind all, an old man solitary, combg in a 

traocef with visage keen. 




Puftdlio E questi sette col prlmaici atuolo 
Tuiutre erano abituali ; ma di gigli 

diùtorao al capo non facepan brolo, 
anzi di rose e d' altri fior vermigli: 

giurato avria poco lontano aspetto,. 

che tutti ardeaser dì sopra dai cigli. 
E quando il carro a me fu a rimpetto, 

UD tuoD &' udì ; E quelle genti degne 

parvero aver 1' ^ndar più isterdetto, 
fermandos' ivi con le prime insegae. 




3. ■' BlcMed ìi hic 'whose ci^ntg^restio?) it forgiTeo, 
whuic »ia is covered " (i'z. xxkìì, i). 

17. Cf. Par. kH- 4^1 mtc. 

3,7-41. With thia InTocation to the Muse», t/l Inf. 
il. j-g, xxKÌl. IS, ij; ^'"7- '■ 7~*' ' ^'"'- ■- '^1 <7i 
li, 9, XTLÌI. ii-ì^.—HeUcan was in rtalittra mBaHiain 
io. Bpeotia, sacred to the Mu$e9 (fn>in wiiìch iprang 
VKo fountains oMociited with them — Aganippe and 
HIppocrcne). Urania — the Muae of Mtronobij-and 
ilea veal/- thing». 

43i io. . . . ''And being turned, 1 saw levea 
golilen ca.n dies rick» . . , and che leveji canitlotjtll* 
. . are the ierea churches" {Jttv, u iz, 10) , . , 
"and liiere were seven lamps burning; before the 
throne, which are the seven Spirits of God " {Rfu, jv, 
5). Dante «eetne Xo h^vi; a,ni:iil,g-aniati?d tli«fie fviQ 
patsa.ges for the purp-oie ef hit aLleg'oiy. See, too, 
Coni. iv. 11; lao-iis: '■ B7 che Theological n-ay 
it is pcfsiihie to tay that, when the lupreme Deity, 
that is God, Bcea hi» creaiure prepared to receive hit 
good gifc, in freelf he imparcs It to hia creaniFC in 
proportion ai it is prepit«id to rcccive it. And 
because these gifts proceed from inefrable Love, and 
the Diiine ì.,ùvt'ii appropriate to the Holy Spirit, 
therefore it, i* that Xhej trt calird the gifts of the 
Holy Spirit, which, even as the Prophet Isaiah dì stin> 
gulshes ih«m [fallali, si. X, 3I, are seven, namely, 
WildoniiUnderiLaniling, Counsel, Might, Knowledge, 
Pity and tlie Fear of the Lord." 
47. The "propef "<ibjecn of the lenic* arc those 

And these aeven were arrayed ns the first 
company; bue of tities a.rouncl their heads no 
garland had they, 

raLher of roses and of other led flowera ; one who 
viewed from shore distance would sworn 
that all were aflame above the eyea. 

And when the car was opposite to me, a thuader 
clap waa heard; and thost worthy folk Seemed 
to have their further march forbriddenj and 
halted there with the firet enijgns. 

which are perceived by ane tense only, «i coloor hj 
(he light, ioun-i] bj the hearing, aivo'ur bj the taite; 
and iti the<4, according to AriitDtle, the icntet i;p.iiQOt 
be deceived, *' But the comniDn obj«cta are motion, 
reit, number, Ehape, siie; for inch chingi an not 
the proper abject* of any ii^nsc, biit arc coifncnan (o 
all," and ^ich reipeci to them the teniei ribj en. 

49. Probably the appreheniÌTe faculty fiee above, 
Canttì %vìu. 11. 15, /iflfej, — Mr Sntler «juolei Hamttt, 
\. 11 "A beaiBt that wants diicnurse of reason." 

ji. "HoBBuna," the ■word with which the Jewi 
hiiltid Jeiui on hi> eatcj into Jeruiajem (Mail, xil. 4 ; 
Mara xi. 9 ; Jthii xii. 13); here used by the twenty- 
fonr elder» (*«. £4,83) preceding Chrlic's charioL 

7]-Sl. The iCT^n bandf or pennons trailing hehinii 
the candieiticki may be taken as the neven tacramenti^ 
or, perhaps betrer, ai the working of the «even gHfti. 
The efilowri of the rainbow uni vi the moon'i halo 
[I>Una was bom on the island of Deloi] may have 
been suggested by Rcn. it. 3 : '-■ . . . aiiii there wii 
I. rainbow about the throne in »ighl like unto B,n 
emerald," — The paces of v. St probably indicate the 
ten comin and menti. 

Xj, 84. Theie elder* repteaent the l'Are nty-fvur 
books of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch, the 
hiittìrìcal boùks find the three Aicribcc! to Sotomon 
counting as one each). Their foices and their white 
garments (emhitxnancal ol Faith; see Heinwi i,L) 
\vere referred to above in w. ;t, (>4-$(> ; aoil the 
whole coneeptiDn n{ them was derived byl>ante from 

The DI 





•'.\iidl round abùQt iht ihl 

IT'. 4 ; " And round abùQt Ittt IH rone v*Ere four 
and twenty a«3is ; and npon the leati I saw faur and 
twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and 
they had on their head» crown» ot gpid/^ The 
rrowns of " flower-de-luce" «uggest the purity of 
their faith and teaching. 

8j, a, " Bl^ised ai'E thou among wopcitn *' — ihe 
words of the an^el and a( Elizabeth to Mary {Lvh 
Ì. »R, 41); here addreaied either to Mary or to 

Qt-i-oj. See th-e descrip'tion of Cheie iour beaiti ia 
E*r:i. i. 4-14 and Jt,^. ir. 6-g. The F3.res of the 
man, liCn, OX (or calf) ami ea^le represent Matthew, 
Mark^ Lake, and John, rcipectively. The green 
leaves indicate Hope [" Lord Jesus Christy which !■ 
our hope" J 7™, i. il. According Co Pietro di 
Dame the beast's six wing* are the rìx laws — 
natural, Maiale, prophetic, evangelieal, Apoitolic 
and canoDÌcalf {>ri Mntii'l Vi reid thai "evetyoDE 
had four vrings;''' while John says that "the four 
beattj had each of thejn ììk wings abonc hliii "1, 
Tne ey«9 iniijcate the ii;nowledg:e of things past aod 
future; [for Argus, with the hundred ey«s, see 
below, Canto xxxit. £4-65^ n«r(]. 

107. The two wheels have beea explained in many 
different ways, the in te rp retati •>n adopted in the 
Ar^sitntnt being one of the moat latìiftetory. Accord- 
ing CO other», they indicate the Old and the New 
Testament ; the orderi of the Dominieani and 
Franciscanii, etc., etc. 

1091-111. "Laol^iag to Pii. kxxtÌ, and Ivii. and 
comparing verses 5 and 7 of the formeT with 1 and 
II of the latter^ it iccfns that Wc ftiUit Understand 
them [the wings] as denoting' — the one mercy, the 
other truth or jiiatice. Then cheir position with 
regard to the hsnct» will be made inteUigtblc by i. 
referenire to Pi. xxuvi. 10: <0 stretch forth thy 
tnercy over those that know thee [iritiaia\, and thy 
justi-ce over them t^at are of a rlpht nea.rt W^miHtim^ '" 

tij, it4. "My beloved is white and ruddy, the 
ehieicst among tea thousand His head is as the 
most fine gold . . . {Svng 9/ Sslemait, t. 10, tl)> 

It j, 1 16. The an uted b7 that and &II Tictofioui 
Koma.n gcn«r9!« in their " tciBinplii." 

117-IXC. For Pha^coD lee /a/I xtIL tofi-ioS, ndj«. 

Il£-iig> Faith (wtiiCe), Hope (green) and Charity 
[red); (f, aboTe, Canto TJfi. E9-9J. The MOg of 
Charily leadi the measure becauae, according to 
t Cor, XÌÌÌ. 13: ", , . now nbideth faith, hope, 
charitfi these three ^ but the greatest of theie ii 

130131. For the moral or cardino] TÌi-tuei, *tc 
aboTc, Cantc i. w, lyij, itìt.—Evta ìn the CeavUo 
fir. 17: 77-B4), whete Dante followB Ariitotle (tn 
whoie ifstrem Prudence il an Intellieccual ilriae), he 
feeU constrained to laj: "By many, Piudeace, that 
il Wiidorn, ù wfLl asierted to be a inorat TÌrtute; 
but Afistatle nutnben that ajnutvg&t the inuUeetual 
rlrtue», although it il the guidv of the iponl, »nd 
poinif auc the way hy whlen they are fortned, and 
without which they cannot be." The three eye 1 of 
Prudence have reference to the paiE, present and 
futtiTc, and the purple ^arb of Che four lirtuea to the 
Empire (^. below, Canto jtxxii. w. JS, j(i, mtt). 

134-141. Theie two are Luke (considered ai anthoi 
of thiB Actj") and Paul. Paul deicribei Luke (in 
Cfi- >*. 14} ■! " the beloved phyiician " ; he ii 
therefore regarded ai a ipiritual Hippocratei [thii 
being the name of a famoui Greek, phyiician J. Thff 

airiwiali ol u. i ^S of COUriG=maiiki]ld. The expUnd- 

tkon of Faul'a «word is to be found either in his 
own words {Efh. vi. 17): "... the sword of the 
Spirit, which il the word of God"; or in the circHm- 
stance that he was alwaya repreteoted with one (in 
reference to hi* martyrdom by sword). 

141. Juincs, Peter, John and Jude — the authofi of 
the four ciuonlcal epistles, 

■ 43] 144. John, considered as author of Jtivsiatint 
— a tifisi -of viiioni, concerning thìngi that iquit 
shoctly come to pan: hence he U Tepreeented a» 

iirmtnJa and con lafàiita argktà. 

145-150. We laW that Vt>efii>rJaHio(v, 84) Wlt« em> 
bleoiatical of the pudty ot the Old Testament ; now 
the charity of the New Testament is indicated fay ths 
rerf And aJlriJur vtrmi^U. 



W 1 A/HEH the »T arreni ìxaelS, all the elderi vho 
I ' ' had preceded it, turn and face roDttd to it; 

I and when one of them invokec the bride of LrbanoD, 

K bleiied spirit» rise up around it) as men sSall riie tt 

■ the la»C da^. Flawcra are Aung in a cloud from theif 
I handl ai they utter lilei&inga, culled from Chriltiaft 
I and Gentile ccrjpturei i and a farm clad ia the colaun 
I of the three thenlogicai riituei ri>ea lìlie the lun 
I in their midst fl-jj). Dante without further testJ- 
I many tram his cyei, recogniKs the tokens of the 
I anci>ent flame, and like a temfied child torn* rounid 
I to ash confort md support froai Virgil (h-*')' ^''^ 
I Virgil hai ^Oue, and not even thfr jof< of the Earihlf 

■ Paradise can prevent Dan te'j cheeks, tho-ugh cleanted 
I by the mountain. de«r, From darkening again ivitb 
I f*ars (45-54). But the leate of outward lost when 
I bereft of Virgil i» aoan l'willoiwòd. Up iti the icnjie O'f 

■ inlaid Idbs caui-ed by his own faLtblelfnecf- and lis ; 
P Far Beatrice sternly recalls tiim to bee his own 

Faiadùo Quando il Bettentrion del primo cielo, 
.Tura ^j^^ ^^ occaso tnaì seppe nè orto, 

uè d' a-Itra aebbia che di colpa vcLo, 

e che faceva lì daflcuDo accorto 

di suo dover, come il più basao face 
qua! timon gira, per veaire a porto.. 

ierma si affisse, la gente verace, 

veDitta prima tra il grifone ed esso» 
al carro volse ȏ, come a sua pace ; 

ed uo di loro, cjuasi da ciel messo, 
" Vftti, fpoma, di Libano" cantando 
gridò tre volte, e tutti gli altri appresso 

Quali i beati al novissimo bando 

surgeran presti ognun di sua caverns, 
la rivestita voce alleluiando, 


CANTO xxjr 

inmltcdand outraged ideil (55-75,). Berefcof Virgil'i 

(uppartwhen he laoki;iround,cncouiit«rìng hiiawA 
ijnagc Iti the 4tr«adi «vhen he lo<pk» down, litce « child 
befor-e ^a angered mother, Dante feeli hls heart at firit 
fraien hj reproachei, itten melted by the pleading 
■BierccMÌan of the angeU( 75-99). But Beatrice ii itili 
unbending; and turning to th« angctic pttttaca iht 
rehra.ri«t the promijKt vf Dante's youih ftnd the un- 
wDrthlDct' <?{ hit ininhood, the- gracioui and fleeting 
beauty of hi« earlir tuwi, the punuit of falae good to 
which lie then surrend'cred himself, her own unarail. 
Ing pleadings with him, and hU fall, »o deep that 
naught »are the «iigioti ofthercgloD ofthelo»!, Won for 
him by her prayer» and teart, could aTail to lave him 
i'ios-141}. The deep fate of God were brolten 
ihould he taate of the higher jays, sccesi to which 
■he had won for him, without paying tome icoc of 
peBiteotiflJ teari (I4S-I45). 

When the waia of tbe first hearen which setting Tbe Divi 

■ Dor rietog never knew« nor veil of other mitt, **""* 
than of sIq, 
' and which made there each one aware of h!a 
dutyi even as the lower wain guides him who 
turns the helm to come into ^n, 
had stopped stili, the people of uruith, who had 
first come between the grifon aod it^ turned 
them to the car as to their peace ; 
and one of them as if sent from heaven '*t^gai 

■ jpcftj^a de L'éano" did shout thrice in soDg, 
and all the others after him. 
' Ab the saiota at the last trump shall rise ready 
I each one from his tomb, with re-clad voice 

H singing Halleluiah, 

^^ 319 


PimdiMi cocaltf iQ su la diviaa basterna, 
"'*'' ' fli levar cento, ad vocem tanti tenii^ 
ininistri e measaggicr di vita eteroa. 

Tutti dicean ; " BeneJiclus, qui venis " 
e, fior gittaodo dì sopra e dtncomo, 
" Manihiu o dati Hliit pUnU." 

Io vidi già ael coinìtiCLar del giorno 
I3 parte orienta! tutta rosata 
e I' aJtro cicl di bel Sereno adoino^ 

e la Ciccia del sol aaBcere ombrata, 
lì che per temperanza di vapori, 
I' occhio k sostenta lunga fiata : 

cos\ deatro uda nuTola di fiori, 
che dglFe mani angeliche saJìva 
e ricadeva ia giù dentro t di fuori 

«opra candido vel cinta d' oliva 

donna m' apparve, aocto verde manCOt 
vcfitiu di color di fiamma viva. 

E lo spirito mio, che già cotanto 

tempo era &tatQ che alla sua presenza 
non era di stupor, tremando, a^rxnto, 

aenza degli occht aver più conoacenia, 
per occulta virtù che da lei mosac, 
d' antico amor stati la gran potenza. 

To&co cbe nella vista mi percosse 
I' alta virtìi, cbe già m' avea trafitto 
prima eh* io frtor dt puerizia fbaae, 

Tolaimi aEla sinistra col rìspitto 

col cjuale il fantolin corre alla mamniia, 
qitando ha paura o quando egli è afflitto, 

per dicere a Virgilio : ** Men che dramma 
di saague m* è rima»>, che tion tremi i 
conosco i segni dell' antica fiamnia." 



eh oa the divine cliariot rose up a hundred aJ Tha DItìm 

vp^tm tanfi leniif ministers and OKSKDgCTB of ^**'"* 

life eteroal. 
All were saying: "Benedktuj jui vtnit" ; and j 

strewing flowers above and around, '*Miiiiibiu 
L o daie lilia plenis," 
E&re BOW liave^ I Been, at dawn of day, th? 

eastern par: all rosy red, and the rest of 

heaven adorned with fair c!«ar Bky, 
and the face of the sun riee sliadowed, ho that by 

the tampering of the mists che eye long time 

endured him : 
so within a cloud of flowers, which rose from i 

the angelic hands and fell down agaia within 

and without, 

rve-cfowned over a white veil, a lady appeared Bantfjcc 
to m^, clad, under a green mantle, with hur 
of living flame. 
And my spirit, that now bo long a time had 1 

passed, aioce^ trembling in her presence, it 

had been broken down with awe, 
without having further knowledge by mine eyes 

through hidden rirtue which went out from ' 

her, felt the mighty power of ancient love. 
Soion av on my iight the lofty virtne smote, 

which already had pierced me ere I was out \ 

of my boyhood, 
I turned me to the left with the tnut with which ' 

the little child runa to his mother when he is 

frightened or when he is aiBictedj 
to eay to Virgil i *■ Le&s than a drachm of blood \ 

ia left in me that trembteth not ; I recognisa '^ 

the tokens of the ancient flame." 



PvKdiso Ma Virgilio a' arca, lasciati scemi 
.fMTMtre ^ ^^ Virgilio dolcJsaimo patre, 

Virgiiio a cui per tnia saFutf die' mi ; 

né quantunque perde V natica niatre 
Talee alle guance nette di rugiada^ 
che l:igrìmaDdo non tornasBero atre. 

"Dante, percLè Virgilio se dc vada, 
non pianger ancoj non pianger ancora : 
che pEanger ti convicD per altra apada." 

Quaei ammiraglio, che in poppa ed ìa prora 
Tiene a veder la gente che iniHÌatra 
per gli altri legni, ed a ben hr h incuora, 

in Bu la sponda del carro sinistra, 

quando mi volsi a] suon de! nome mioi, 
che di necessità qui si regi>sta, 

vidi k donna, dhe pria iti' appario 
velata sotta 1' angelica festa, 
drizzar gli occhi ver me di qua dal rio. 

Tutto che il vel che !e flcendea di teata, 
cerchiato dalta fronde di Mioerra, 
QOQ la laaciaBse parer maùLfeata, 

regalmente nell' atto ancor proterva 
continuò, come colui che dice 
e il pif) calda parlar di retro serra: 

•'Guardami ben: ben fion, ben aon Beatrice. 
Come degnasti d' accedere al monte i 
non sapei tii che qui è 1' nom fehce? *' 

Gli occhi mi cadder giù nel chiaro forte j 
ma, veggendomì in esso, ì cra&st all' erba, 
tanta vergogna mi gravò la fronte. 

Cobi la madre al figlio par superbaj 

com' «Ha parve a me; pcichè d' amaro 
sente 'I sapoT delta pietàde acerba. 




But Virgil had left us bereft of himself, Virgil JJJSm» 

sweetcBt Father, Virgil to whom for my weal 

I gave mt up ; 

Ear did all that our aocient mother lost, avail to ^M 

keep Tny dcw-waehed ch^ek^ troni turning ^H 

dark again witli tesra. ^M 

"Dante, for that Virgil goeth away, weep not ^H 

yet, weep not yet, for thou must, weep for ^| 

other ftword." ^M 

Even aa so admiral, who at stern and at bow, ^| 

com» to aee the Folk that man the other ehipsi ^| 

and heartens them to brave deeds, ^M 

80 on the left side of the car, when I turned me ^| 

at sound of my name, which of necessity here ^H 

is recorded, ^| 

1 »aw the lady, who first appeared to me veiled ^| 

beocsth the aTigcHc fenival, directing her eye» ^M 

to me On this side the stream. ^M 

Albeit the veil which fell from her head, crowned ^M 

with Minerva'? leavcB, did not let her appear ^H 

manifest, ^H 

queenlikp, in hearing yet 8tern, she continued^ ^| 

like one who speaks and holdcch back the ^M 

hottest words till the last : ^| 

^LQakatmewel];veriLyamI^ven3yam I Beatrice. ^M 

B How didst thou deign to draw nigh the mount ? ^| 

H knewest thou Dot that here man is happy - " ^| 

B>ttne eyes drooped down to the clear fount; but ^| 

beholding me therein, I drew them back to the ^M 

grass, so great a shame weighed down my brow. ^M 

So doth the mother seem stern to her child, as i 

she seemed to me s for the savour of harsh pity ' ^ 

■ taateth of bittemesB. ^| 



pMftiiE«o Ella gì tacc)ue, e gli angeli c^aiLaro 
Twcsl^e di lubito : " la ìt, Dominr, operavi " \ 
ma oltre **pfdti mot" dod patsaro. 
I Sl conte nefe tfa Ic rivc travi 
I I per lo dosso d' Italia ai congela, 
/ soiììaia e atretta dagli venti schiavi, 

poi lique^tta Ìd aè Bteesa tra]>el3, 

pur che la terra, che perde ombra, spirii 
sì elle par foco foodef la Candela : 

cosi fui SCOIA lagrime e eoEpiri 

anzi il cantar di quei che notaa sempre 
retro alle note degli eterni ^i. 

Ma poÉ che intesi nelle dolci tempre 
lor compatire a me, più che te detto 
avesser : *' Donna, perchè sì lo stempre ? *' 

lo gel che rn' era Intorno aJ cor ristretto, 
spirito ed acc^ua feasi, e con angoscia 
per k bocca e per gli occhi uscì del petto. 

Ella;, pur ferma in su la detta coscia 
del carro stando, alle mistaozie pie 
volse le SCIE parole Cosi pOacia : 

*■' Voi vigilate nell' eterno die, 

SI che notte né boddo a voi non fiira 
paaAO che faccia il aecol per sue vie ; 

onde la mia risposta è con piiìl cura 

ch& rn' iDCeoda colui che di la piagne, 
per che sia colpa e duo] d' una misura. 

Non pur per opra delle rote magne, 
che drizzan ciaEcun aeme ad alcun fine, 
secondo che le steile ioa comparse ; 

ma per larghezza di grazie divine, 
che eì alti vapori hanno a lor piova 
che nostre viste là non van vicine* 







She was silent^ and straightway the angela aang : Beatrice 

"In te. Domine, iptravi ; " but beyond '*pedet '^^~~' 

tBfot" they passed not. 
A» the snow amid the living rafter» along Italia's 

back is irozen under blast and stress of 

Slavonian wind^, 
then melted tricklea down through it»etf, if but 

die land ùnt loseth shade do breathe, >o that 

it seemB fìre melting the candle, 
io without tears or sighs wns I before the qcng 

of those who erer accord their notes after the 

melodies of the eternal npheres. 
But when I heard in their sweet harmO'nies their 

compassion qq me, more than if they had said 

*' Lady, why dost thou so shaine him ? " 
the ice whiqh had closed about my heart became 

breath and water, aud with anguish through 

mouth and eyes issued from my breast. 
She, standing yet fixed on tlie said side of the 

car, then turned her words to tl^e pitying angels 

thus : 
** Ye watch in the everlasting day, so tKat nor 

night nor sleep stealeth from you one atep 

which the world may cake along it* ways ; 
wherefore my answer is with greater care, that 

he who yon side doth weep may understand 

me, ao that ain and sorrow be of one measure- 
Not only by operation of the mighty Bpherea that 

direct each aeed to some end, according ai the 

stars are its companions, 
but by the bounty of graces divine, which have 

for their rain rapouirs so high that our eye* 

reach not nigh them, 

Z B 


Pu-fLdiBo queaii fu tal neHa sua viu nuova "* 

TiTtua! mente, eh' ogni abito destro 

fatto averebbe in lui mirabi] prova. 

Ma tanto più maligno e più Silvestro '^ 

d fa il terrcD col mal seme t noD colto, 
quant' egli ha piìl del buon vigor terreetro. 

Alcun tempo il soatenni col mio volto ; '"■ 

ntastratido gli occhi giovioeCti a lui, 
meco il menava in dritta parte volto. 

SI tosto come in su la eoglìa fui 
di mia seconda ctade, e mljtal vita, 
cjuesti si tolse a me, e diessi altrui. 

Quiindo di carne a spirto era salita, 
e bellezza e virtù cresciuu m' era, 
fu' io a [ui meo cara e men gradita ; 

? Tolse ì passi auoi per via non vera^ 
imagini di ben seguendo fdse, 
che nulla promissìon rendono intera. 

Né impetrare spirazìon mi valse, 

coQ le quali ed in eogno ed aUrinienti 
lo rivDcai ; BÌ poco a lui ne calse. 

Tanta giiì cadde, che tutti argomenti 
alla salute sua eraa già corti, 
fuor che mostrargli le perdute genti. 

Per questo visitai 1' uscio dei mortii, 
ed a colui che V ha quassù condotto 
li preghi miei, piangendo, furon porti. 

Aito fato di Dio sarebbe rotto, 
se Lete si passasse, e tal vivanda 
fosse gustata senza alcuno Bcotto 

di pentimento che lagrime epinda," '*i 

1-6. The "wain of the firit heaven "are the sercn 
canttlestìcki, which are che «pìncud! guidei of the 









thii man was such io his new life potentially, Beatrice 

that eyery good talent would have made "^ "* 

wondroua increase in him. 
Bat so much the more rank uid wild the ground 

becomes with evil seed and untilled, the more 

it hath of good strength of soil. 
Some time I sustained him with my counteoance ; 

showing my youthfbl eyes to him I led him 

with me turned to the right goal. 
So soon as I was on the threshold of my second 

age, and I changed life, he forsook me, and 

gave him to others. \ 

When I was risen from flesh to spirit, and beauty I 

and virtue were increased within me, I was less \ 

precious and less pleasing to him ; 
and he did turn his steps by a way not true, 

pursuing false visions of good, that pay back 

no promise entire. 
Nor did it avail me to gain inspirations, with 

which in dream and otherwise, I called him 

back ; so little recked he of them. 
So low sank he, that all means for his salvation 

were already short, save showing him the lost 

For this I visited the portal of the dead, and to 

him who has guided him up hither, weeping 

my prayers were borne. 
God's high decree would be Iwoken, if Lethe 

were passed, and such viands were tasted, 

without some scot of penitence that may shed 


righteous ; even aa the leTen itara of the SepteBtrio 
0r Uru Minor direct the mariner making for port. 



7, 8. The iwenty-four elden. 

ID, II, The elder representing (he booki 
SnlDcnnn san|^ aloud three cijnei che warda of the 
Sortgi^ So/eBum (l*. i) : ■" Cemtì With me fcom Lebanon, 
my ipouse, with me from Lebanon." 

ly, eS, 'rhese are identical with the an^eLt 'pf vv, 
19 and Ei ; ad vmtm iauii imh^ "at ihe voice ol io 
gre&t an elder.'" 

19. ■'Blessed art thou that coaiest," See Ma». 
Kxl. 9, JUari ri, 9, £,Mit xÌK. 3S, /«4n xiì. 13 ; and ^/. 
che preceding canto, v. ji, naif, 

XI. "Oil, with full liandi give Ulìea " (^n, vi. 

31-33. Thia il Beatrice, Not* the cotout-s of 
faith, Hope and Charity, In the f^ifa Nu-e-vo Tlhe 
whole of which should he read in conjunction with the 
present and the rnllowsog canto; »cc, too, Gardner, 
pp. B, 9, 13-151 45'i']]i Beatrice appears in red xad 
^hite, bii( never in green. The olive wraJ sacred to 
Mlnetva, the GoclJesg of Wìidon (v. 68), 

34'4S, The -appearance of Beatri-ce hu the jame 
efTifct on Dante now ai in the days of the l^ia fifira^t^ 
(§ ÌÌ. 19 jfj., li., XÌV, Z4-49, xxJT. 1-14), Cetani» 
tcmfià (m, 34, js) i: ten year»— tigo-i 300 ; see below, 
nirl< to w. 114, t£j. Dante Erst met Beatrice when 
he w^aa in hit ninth year (v, 42), jihe being also eight 
years old, but some month» joangtr (Fila Nuò^hì, gli.), 
V«[^ 48 i« a transUtit^U of Virgil't Agnaiet vtttrii 
vtltigia JiantBfj (Xn. IT. Z3). 

5*. The beautiea <>£tbe Earthly Piradiae, 

jj. See abore, Canto i. 95 j^i^. 

5j, ^3. Thie only instance in which Dante'i name 
occurs in the Cvmmciiia (tor in Par. xavi. 104, da tt 
U almoHt cef tainly the correct reading}, in the F'Oa 
Numia, C01V. ahd Dr Moti, he duci not name himsGlf, 
either^ And in the J>t ^"Ig- ^^' ^^ Z"^* '^"^ "^ ^^* 
way 10 call himtelf luiieiif Cini at aiiui FiarentinMt. The 
explanation of thji circumitance (which would put 


onnodced with slmoat «ny other suthor, but which 
Is curious in the case of so personal and subjectire a 
writer as Dante) Is to be found in the Cow. (i. i), 
where we learn that " it appears to be unlawful for 
any one to speak of himself"; and that "one does 
not permit any rhetorician to speak of himself with- 
out a necessary cause." In his epistles, which are 
personal communications, not posinz as literature 
(thong'h they have since achieved uterary fame), 
Dante does not follow this rule. 

83, 84. See i>/. xxxi. 1-8: "In thee, O Lord, 
do I put my trust . . . thou hast set my feet In a 
lar^ room. 

8C-90. These lines describe the snow on the rid^s 
of the Apennines, first congealed, when the winds 
blow from the north ; and then dissoWed, at the time 
of the wann and gentle breezes that come from Africa 
(" where twice a year, at noon, the sun touches the 
xenith of each point ; so that the shadow of an opaqnc 
body, In a vertical position, falls at Its base and ap- 
pears nowhere." — Aiitoiulli). 

93, See Par.i. 76-84. 

loi. ituttuixit. See above, Canto xviii. 49, 50, nat*; 
KiAtf. Par. vii 5, etc. 

109-111. Cf, Jnf, XV. 55 t^q., and Purg. xvi. 73 tf^, 

III-II4. Cf. Par. XX. 118-120, xxxii. 65, 66. 

115. The use of the phrase mte nueva in this line li 
relied on by those who understand Dante's work 
which bears this title «Imply as a record of his 
"Early Life"; but It is better to reverse the ar^- 
ment, and cake this verse to mean ; " but In the new 
life into which love led him, had such power," etc. 
For though there are many cases in wliieh «««« ok 
means " early life," none has been produced In which 
Mva «ifo has that meaning, and Dante's elder contem- 
porary, Dante da Majano, whose language evidently 
had a considerable influence upon Dante Alighieri, 
uses the phrase (in the poem which begins Gitvam 
jMuia deMif at tw mi tUde) in such a way as to leave 



no room for ambiguicy ; GJì ifiifti inaast^tàti tmi 

Qarila Zar nova vita (" ihc enaniaUrcd apirttB, wll 

thin new lite of theiri delighiij. 

111-11]. For jixteen year*, from 1274, the year tu 
which Dante firir met Beatrice, till 1x90, the year of 
her deatii. 

II.4-TIJ. Geairicc was twenty-five y^an old when 
ihe di«d — 3. i^eriod that covets the lirit of Oa^nte'i 
lourages. " The first is called Adolescence, that ii 
the growth of life. . . . Of ttie first nA one doubtJ, 
bnc each wise man agrees that it U^ts eieo to the 
twenty^Rfth yea.r; and up to that time aur soul walli 
tor the increase and the emhelliahment of the hojy" 
(Cdhv. iv. 14.: 1-4, Il-lj). 

is^-ijt. These lìnea refer to the period of Datite'i 
life (^ii^o-ijaa) which has already been touched an 
in cc^njiection with Forese Dcmatl (ace &bove, Canto 
xxiiL^. Verses IE7-119 (like «w. is.30, 49-63 of the 
following canto) nave a very perKOnaL ring, 'and 
would aeem to refer not id mUch lo the Jgttj gcniilt 
at the f^iia NuBnn, ■§ xxsvi. jqq. fwhether alU^gorl- 
eally or liteFally, &rà whether, in the latter capacity, 
itie Ije GetnmaDoriati nr anothvr), »« Co thoie other, 


leM credluble, iiifidelitle* to Beatrice'» memory, of 
which onrpoet wa> undoubtedly guilty » thli time, 
snd to which teTeral of hi> minor poema and P^rg, 
udii, bear witne». On the otherhand, w. 150-131 
posribly allude to Dante'a temporary indlHèrence to 
reunion, due to hi* philoiophical atudiei during this 
period ; and may therefore be connected with the Jbhiw 
gmtiU of the Fita Nuova, who It, in the Cemv. ii. 13, 
Identified with Philosophy, 

'33''3$ '" 'V"'- A Tiaion of thia kind, and 
apparently the last, is described in the f^ta Nuova, 
§ xl., where Dante tells how hit " heart began paln- 
ftilly to repent of the desire by which it had so basely 
let itself be possesaed during so many days, contrary 
to the constancy of reason. And then, this ctìI 
deaire being quite gone from me, all my thoughts 
turned again unto their excellent Beatrice. And I 
■ay most truly that from that hour I thought con- 
■tantly of her with the whole humbled and ashamed 
heart; the which became often manifest in sight, 
that had among them the name of that most gracious 
creature, and how she departed from us." 

136-141. See In/, ii. jt 1^. 

TUKNINO direct to DaLi[er, Beatrice r?ceirea 
broken cojifcMion of how he fell away ui luun 
ai her countenance was hidden from him (i-jfi). 
Whereon she *how« him hnw that verf loss of her 
bodil/ pt-e«cnce, wlilch he UfgeJ «J the CiUte of hi* 
defeccton, ihould have taug'ht him the «nptineit o/ 
all earthly and miortal beauty, ^irea.ned his heart from 
eirth and gi^en ti to het in heaven (37-63^- Like a. 
chidden, chitd) dumb with ihame, confeesing and 
rtpetstlqg, Dafpie iWfldt ; hm Beatrice will not suffer 
him to take refuge in chHdiih pleas or excus««, «id 
Id the Tery tenni whereby fhe suinmons him to look 
on her, reiniind him that he has [«ached man'i estate, 
and ahould Long have put away cbildith thin^i. 
Whereon, in yet deeper nhamet he wrenches ap hii 
downcaac face to Look on her, and leei h«r turpstfing- 
her forroer "elf more now than erit she «grpasifd "11 
oLhers. The paaiion of hie penitence and his hatred 
of all those thing* which had enlic>ed him away from 
her iti vanquish hUn that he falls Bcnselest to th? 

^rmiaéiso " Q cu chc Bti di Ik da] fiume wcro," 
Terrestre , , , 

rolgenda SUO parlare a roe per punta 

che pur per taglio m* era paniLo aero» 

ricoiTìtDcÉò, 6Cgin;ndo Hpnza ciuita, * 

"di', di', se questo è vero ; a tanta accuaa 

tua confesBion conviene esser congiunta.'* 

Era la mìa. vinìl tanto confusa, ' 

che ]a voce si masfie e pria ai Bpeose 

che dagli organi suoi fosse discbiuu. 

Poco sofferBCj poi disse ; "Chepenae? ■* 

Rifpondc 3 me : chà le memorie triste 

in te non sono ancor dalP acqua offenoe." 



ground (64-90). Dante comei to himiell neck-deep 
in the itream. Into which he plungei hfi head, of 
which he drìnki, and which he crouei, by Matilda'* 
miniitration. After which he i« drawn Into the 
dance of the four itar-nympha who promise to lead him 
to the light of Beatrice's eye* ; into which their three 
riiteri, Faith, Hope and Charity, will strengthen 
him to gaze (91-111). They keep their word; but 
Dante's passionate renlnlicences and longings are 
awed by the august impersonation of Revelation, 
whom he has found where he looked only for the 
Florentine maiden he had lost on earth. The diTine 
mnd human nature of Christ are flashed alternately 
from the reflection in her eye* though ever combined 
in the mysterious being himself, while the three 
aymphs Implore Beatrice to turn their light upon her 
fidthfnl pilgrim and uoTeEl to htm the beauty of her 
smile (111-13S). Nerer was poet who could utter in 
words the splendour that now burst* upou him 


" O thou that art yon side the sacred stream," Beatries 

her speech directing with the point towards me, ""' °*"*' 

which even with the edge had seemed sharp 

to me, 
she began again, continuing without delay, ** say, 

say, if this is true ; to such accusation thy 

confession must be joined." 
My virtue was so confounded that the voice 

stirred and was spent ere it was set free from 

its organs. 
Short time she forebore, then said : *'What thinkest 

thou Ì Answer me, for the sad memories itt 

thee are not yet destroyed by the water. 




Pkradiici ConfusioDe e paora insieme miste 
*" icL piQBero un tal "al" fuor della bocca, 

al tonale intender fiir mesficr le viste. 

Come balestro frangCj quando scocca 
da troppa te'sa, la sua corda e I' arco, 
e con men foga V asta il eegao tocca: 

BÌ scoppia' LO SDtt' ESSO grave tiaTcù, 
fuori sgorgando lagrime e Bospiri, 
e 1^ voce allentò per !o suo varco- 

Ond' ella a me : *• Per entro i miei disiri, 
che ti menavano ad amar lo beae 
di la dai qua! non è a che e' aspiri, 

quai fossL attrar<:raati o qiiai catene 
irovasd, per die del passare innanzi 
dovessiti COM spogliar la apene? 

E qinli agevolezze o quali araozi 
nella fronte degli altri si niostraro, 
per che dovessi lor passeggiare anzi.' " 

I}opa la tratta d' Un sospiro amafO, 
a pena ebbi la voce che rispoBCi 
e le labbra a fatica U forraaro. 

Piangendo dia^i : " Le presenti cose 
cot falso lor piacer volner miei [kibbi, 
tosto che il vostro viso ei nascose." 

Ed ella : ** Se tacessi, o se negassi 
ciò che confessi, non fora men nota 
la colpa tua : da tal giudice sìmu 

Ma quando scoppia dalla propria gota 
V accuaa del peccato, in nostra corte 
rivolge sé coatra il taglio la rota. 

Tuttavia» perchè mo vergogna porte 
dd tuo errore, e perchè altra volta 
udendo le Sirene sic pììl fortd 





^onfllBÌOD and fcar, together mingled, drove forth Bealrtee 

friùm my mouth a "Yea"' such that to " 

underBt3,nd it the eyea were needed. 
)ft.B a cross-bow breaks, when shot at too great 

tenaion, both its string and bow, and with leas 

force the bolt hits the mark, 
K> burst I under this heavy charge, pourmg forth 

a torrent of tears and Bighe, and my roice difd 

away in its passage. 
Wherefore she to me : " Within thy desirci of 

me wliich led thee to love the good beyond 

which il nought that may be ajpired to, 
irhai pits didac find athwart thy path, or what 

chains that thuu needi: must strip thee of the 

hope of passing onward ? 
ftnd what allurcmcnca or what advantaged Wcfe 

displayed to ihet in the aspect of the othera, 

that thou must needs wander before them ì " 
A-fter the heaving of a bitter sigh, scarce had I 

voice that answered, and my Up with labour 

gave it form. 
Weeping I ftaid : " Present thiagi with their 

false pleaflure turned away my steps soon a« 

your face was hidden." 
And ahe ; " If thou wert silent, or if thou hadst 

denied what thou confesaest, not less noted 

were thy fault ; by such a judge 'tie known. 
&ut whcQ BcIf-accuBatiaD of sin bursts from the 

cheeka in our Court, the grindstone is turned 

back against the edge. 
Howbeit in order that now thou mayst bear 

Bhame for tliy transgresS'iDn, and that other 

time bearing the SirenB thou be of stouter heart, 



Pu>.dlm poD giù il seme del piangere, ed ascolta: 
Jtncttrt g| uiliraì come \a contraria parte , 

mqver doveati mìa carme Eepolta. 

Mai non t' appresentò natura o arte 

piacer, quanto le beUe membra io eh' io 
rinchiusa fui, e godo in terra spairte ; 

e se i] Ecimnia piacer sì ti faLlio 

per la mìa morte, cjual cosa mortale 
dovca poi trarre te pel suo disto ! 

Bea ti dovevi, per lo primo Btrale 
delle coBe fallaci, levar buso 
di retro a me che non era più tale. 

Non ti dovcaa gravai^ le penne in giu»> 
ad aspettar piiì colpi, o pargoletta, 
o altra vanita con sì breve uao- 

Kuovo augelletto due o tre aspetta ;, 
TDa dinanzi dagli occhi dei pennuti 
rete ?i spiega indarno o si saetta." 

Quali i fanciulli tcrgognando moti 

eoa gli occhi a terra, stannoai ascoltando, 
e sé riconoscendo, e ripentutì, 

tal mi Ktav' io. Ed ella disse : " Quando 
per udir Bei dolente, alza la barba, 
e prenderai pìùi doglia riguardando.''' 

Con fata di resistenza si dibarba 

robusto Cerro, o vero al nostra! vento^ 
vero a quel d'ella tcrr& di larba, 

eh' io oca levai al suo calmando il mento; 
e (quando per la barba il visg chiese, 
ben conobbi il vcien dell' argomento. 

£ come la itiia faccia si distese, 
posarai quelle prime creature 
da loro aspersion J' occhio comprese i 


pat away the Bced of weeping, and hearken ; so Butiic« 

sfa^t thoQ hear how my tmried flesh shoold "^ ^'"^ 

hare mored thee towards a contrary goal. 
Ne'er did nature and art present to thee pleasure 

so great as the &ii members wherein I was 

enclosed, and are scattered to dust ; 
and if the highest pleasure thus failed thee by my 

death, ^at mortal thing ought then to hare 

drawn thee to desire it Ì 
Truly ougbtest thou, at the first arrow of deceit- 
ful things, to rise up after me who was such 

no longer. 
Yonng damsel or other vain thing with so brief 

enjoyment, should not have weighed down thy 

wings to awut more shots. 
The young Irird waits two or three, but before 

the eyes of the fuU-iledged in Tain the net is 

spread or arrow shot." 
As children, dumb with shame, stand listening 

with eyes to earth, self-confessing, and re- 
such stood I. And she said : '* Since through 

hearing thou art grieving, lift up thy beard and 

more grief shalt thou receive by looking." 
With leas resistance is uprooted the sturdy oak, 

whether by wind of ours, or that which blows 

from larbas' land, 
than at her command I lifted up my chin ; and 

when by the beard she asked for my hce, well 

I knew the venom of the argument. 
And when my &ce was stretched forth, my 

sight perceived those primal creatures resting 

from dieir strewing. 




Fu-ddicD e is m'it lucl, SQCOr poco «icuTC, ff 
Turectre ^jj^^, Beatrice volta ia su la fiera, 

I cb' è Gola una persona in due nature 

I Sotto suo velo ed oltre k riviera ^' 

■ vìncer parearai più sé stessa antica, 

I vincer che 1' aJcre qui quand' ella e' era. 

K Di penter sì mt punse ivi I' ortica, ^s 

^^^ cbe di tutt' altre cose, qual mi torse 

^^V piìl nel suo amor, piìl mi si fé' nimica. 

■ Tanta riconoscenza il cor mi morse, ** 

■ crh' io caddi vìnto, e quale allora femmi 
I salai colei che la cagion mi porse. 

I Foi^ quando il cor dì EÙor Vlrtìt rcDdcmmi> ^' 

I la donna ch^ io avea trovata sola 

I sopra me vidi, e dicea ; "Tiemmi, tienimi." 

^ Tratto Iti' avca nei fiiame infino a gola, 9^ 

^^B e., tirandosi me dietro, sen giva 

^^V SDpr' CE30 1' acqua, lieve come spolai 

■ Quando fui presso 3JI2 beata riva, V 
I "jfrfvrgei me'* sì doJcemeniie udissi, 

I cb' io noi 80 rimembrar, non di' io lo scrìva. 

I La bell:i douEia nelle braccia aj-jrissì, '«> 

I abbraccìommi la lesta^ e mi sommerse 

■ ove convellile cb' io 1' actjua inghiotbaai ; 
^^^ indi mi tolse, e bagnato ni' offerse '"' 
^^H dentro alla danza delle quattro belle, 

^^V e ciascuna dd bràccio mi Coperse. 

W " Noi Htam qui ninfe, e nel ciel si-Tmo stelle ; "^ 

^^m pria che Beatrice discendesse al mondo, 

^^P fummo ordinate a lei pct sue ancelle. 

■ Menrenti agli occhi buoi ; ma nel giocondo '^ 
ft lume eh' è dentro aguzzeranno i tuoi 

^^L le tre di là, che miran pìd profóndo.** 


and mine eyes, as yet hardly stead&st, saw Beatrice B«atric« 

turned toward» the heast, which is one sole ""' ''"" 

person m two natures. 
Under hn* veil and beyond the stream, to me she 

seemed to surpass more her ancient self, than she 

surpassed the others here when she was with us. 
The netde of repentance here bo did stmg me, 

that of all other things, that which turned me 

most to lore of it became most hateful to me 
So much remorse gnawed at my heart that I fell 

Tanquished, and what I then became, she 

knoweth who gave me the cause. 
Then when my heart restored to me the sense of MatlliU 

outward things, the lady whom I had found l)ute titt 

alone 1 saw above me ; and she said : '* Hold Let*»* 

me! Hold me!" 
She had drawn me into the river up to my neck, 

and, pullmg me after her, went along over the 

water light as a shuttle. 
When I was nigh unto the blessed bank 

"^tperget me '* so sweetly I heard that I cannot 

remember it much less describe it. 
The fair lady opened her arms, clasped my head, 

and dipped me where Z must needs swallow 

of the water ; 
then drew me forth, and led me bathed within The hand- 

the dance of the four fair ones, and each did Beitric"' 

cover me with her arm. 
" Here we are nymphs and in heaven are stars ; 

ere Beatrice descended to the world we were 

ordained to her for her handmaids. 
We will lead thee to her eyes ; but the three on 

the other side who deeper gaze, will sharpen 

thine ejres to the joyous light that is within." 



Paradiso Cosi cantando cominciaro ; e poi 
_Tnreitre j] p^^yj ^^j grtfon Bcco menarmi, 

ove Beatrice volta stava a noi. 

Dìaser: " Fa che le viste non risparmi ; 
posto l' av£m dia^nzì agli smeraldi, 
ond' Amor già ti crasse le sue armi.** 

Mille dìsiri più che ilamma caldi 
dtrtaserml gli occhi agli occhi rilucenti, 
che pur sopra il grifoDe atavan saidi. 

Come ìq lo apecchio il sol^ non altrimenti 
la doppia licra dentL'o vi raggiala, 
or con udì, or con altri reggimenti. 

Pensa, lettor, e' io mi maravigliava 
quando vedea la cosa in sé frtar queta, 
e neir idolo suo si tramutava! 

Mentre che, plciia di stupore e tJEta, 
V anima mia gustava di quel cibo, 
che, saziando di sé, di sé asseta j 

|iè dimostrando di più alto tribo 
negli atti, I' altre tre si fero avanti, 
danzando al loro angelico caribo. 

" Volgi, Beatrice, volgi gli ocelli santi/' 
era la lor canzone, " al tuo fedele 
che, per verderti, ha mossi passi tanti. 

Per grazia fa noi grazia che dlsvcle 
a lui la bocca tua, ai che dlscema 
la seconda bellezza che tu cele." 

O isplendor di viva luce eterna^ 
chi pallido ai fece sotto 1' ombra 
sì di Parnaso, o bevve in sua cisterna, 

che non paresse aver la mente ingombra, 
tentando a render te qual tu paresti 
là dove armonizzando il ciel t' adombra, 

quando nell' aerg aperto ti solvesti^ 









Tbofl BmgÌDg tfaey began ; and then did lead me Chrlit 

with them up to the breast of the grifon, where [^^^^ 

Beatrice itcùd turned towards as. oTBMt 

Thty said: "Look that tbou spare not thine 

eyes ; we have placed thee before the emeralds 

whence Love once drew his shafts at thee." 
A tboosand desires hotter than flame held mine 

eyes bomid to the shining eyes, which remained 

erer fixed upon the grifon. 
As the son in a mirror, not otherwise the twofold 

beast was beaming within them, now with the 

attributes of one, now of the other nature. 
Think, reader, if I marvelled within me when 1 

saw the thing itself remain motionless, and in 

its image it was changing. 
While my soul, filled with wonderment and glad, 

was tasting of that food which, satisfying of 

itself, causes thirst of itself, 
the other three, showing them to be of the 

chiefest order in their bearing, drew forward, 

dancing to their angelic roundelay. 
"Turn, Beatrice, turn thy holy eyes,*' was their 

song, " to thy faithful one, who to see thee 

hath moved so many steps. 
Of thy grace do us the grace that thou onveil 

thy mouth to him, that he may discern the 

second beauty which thou hidest.*' 
O glory of living light eternal, who that so pale Beatric 

hath grown beneath the shade of Parnassus, or ■'"*"•' 

hath drunk at its well, 
that would not seem to have mind encumbered, on 

trying to render thee as thou appearedest, when 

in the free ait thou didst disclose thee, where 

heaven in its harmony shadows thee forth ? 
2 c 



11, The w»tcr of Lctlic (see abav«, Cuito Kxviil. v, 
iiS ; nnd «v. 94.-101 of at tiie present caiDto). 
13, 19. i^nt—God; d/frf [^Hr] = W0[ldlf Ideali. 

iX, Confeiisloil, by loft^aing the DÌTÌne i*rath, 
biunU the edge of the jword of Juitìce. Cf. ahajt, 
Canto fiii. "u, 16, J.-J, and the fir« InUrpre cation 
given [n the nule io thote linci. 

59, Lt 3«:«ms bete noi CO ttcicmpt CO Identify ibe 

61. due atre [u, eBÌpf\. 

61, 63. Cf. Pruv. i. 17, in the VtiìgatC; Fruilra 
jicitur nti aatc atuloj pennAtorum. 

71, 71. mulrjtl venie — the wind blowB fiom the 
aorth pf Europe (che continent ia which lta.Iy 11); 
^uel delta terra £ lariii—t'ns touLEi wiod coming from 
Africa, called " larbai' knd " from the Libyan king 
of that name, one of Didù'i «lUltOTl («ec JEt, it. t^(^ 

77, friine freatare, the angeli 5 ef. Inf. vii. 95 ; Purg. 

9S. "Purg« mc with hffwp, «nd I (hall be clein: 
wuh me, and I ehall be whiter ttiaa maw" (A. 
11. 7), 

106. See aboT«, Canto i. Jji-171 "ote. 

107, 10&. It il quite natural for thoK who argue 
that ileatrice is a purelf allegorical cbaract«T to 
inaiac -on this passage ai implying her pre-4.-xiflt«nce 
in hearen, before her incarnation ai an earthly 
maiden. The passage, however, doei not neceHarily 
imply tbii, for it U only carrying 3. little turthtr the 
familiar language employed ity Dame in, th(> i^/# 
Nupoa, xxTt, , Hnei 7 and 8 cf the lonaet; Cniv. \i. 


18: 5-10; Purg. XX. 68, 69; xxl. 44; Par. xxx. 114 
— ali indicating tliat the loul cornei from heaven. 
From the auertion that the ascent to heaven at death 
i> a rwlarit, it la but a veiy tmall ttep to detcribe the 
birth as a itttnt to the world. 

116. The eyei of Beatrice are called ■< emeraldi," 
not with reference to their colour, but became of 
their brightneii (o«U r>/»Mt//, v. 119). 

117. (^. Vtia Nutva, % xxi, the fint line of the 
sonnet: " My lady carri» love within her eyec." 
Tbia idea occort elsewhere in Dante'* poemi and ii 
a commonplace with hi* predeceaaor* and contem- 

iii-is6. Thii paiiage ii to be taken in a purely 
allegorical ■en*e. ' We may read in Revelation now 
the divine and now the human attribute* of Chriat; 
but the human mind ia incapable of combining them. 
Ai we contemplate Revelation we may aec now one 
and now the other, but not both at once.' 

is8-ia9. Cf. the word* of Wiadom In SttUi. xxiv. 
XI : "They that eat me shall yet be hungry, and 
they that drinit me shall yet be thirsty." 

ijg. See vv. 55-58 of the canzone in the third 
book of the Convito, which run aa follows ; " Her 
aspect shows delight of Paradise, Seen in her eye* 
and in her smiling face ; Love brought them 
there as to hi* dwelling-place." From Dante's 
commentary to the word* Due negli aetU t nti 
ttit daia rin (ii, chap. 8), it seem* probable that la 
tttaiida iellemma, to which the theological virtue* are 
now leading Dante, is the tmiJt of Patrice ; the car- 
dinal virtues having guided him to her ^/(see atwve, 
w. io(-iii) 


THE eager gaie with which D&nte quenchei hi» 
ten yciaM' tbì»t, i« tot a mcmeac hUndttd bj thi 
glorj-os which he lacks (i^gj. W^heo he reccren 
hlifull power» of riiion he perceiTc* the prpceHioD 
deplayini^ noith, towird lI)« nooo-day sun ; ^aà he 
and Statiui Cake their places by the right wheel of the 
chariAt; ifd p&lioa, tf the «ccampaniment of angelic 
■ong, through the (atett. til] S^atrige àvSQtadt 
(lO-j6). They approach Che tree of the knowlciige 
of good and evil, which repreiem» the principle of 
O'bedien.ce, and therefore of the Empire, whereas the 
car from which Beatrice hai ileaceftded reprCMCLII 
the Church; the ideali rdationt between which two 
powen are repreieoted by ihe reverence of the grlhia 
lor the tree, che binding of the pole of the chariot t« 
it, and the Jipring beauty that at once fail* on It 

»tf*Jl*ù Tanto eran gli occhi miei fissi ed attenti 
Twreatre ^ disbramarflì la decenae esttf 

che gli altri aenai m'eran tutti ipenlj ; 

ed essi quinci e quindi 3veaE parete 
di DOD caler, cos'i lo santa riso 
a sé traeali con I* antica rete ; 

q^ndo per forza mi fu Tolto Ìl vise 
ver la sinistra mia da quelle Dee, 
perch' io udia da lofo un "TrOppg Sw." 

E la difposizìon, eh' a. veder ee 

negli occhi pur testé dal boI percoasi, 
lenza la vista, alquanto ciser mi fee ; 

nia poi che aJ poco il vi^o riformossi 
{io dico al poco, per rispetto al molto 
sensibile, ondt a forza mi rìmoasil, 


CANTO xxxn 

(57-So). Here ilumber falli upon the poet, from 
which he wakea bewildered, like the apoitlea after the 
tnnifigu ration, to find Beatrice bereft of all her 
floriou* e*cort tsTe the teren nymph*, bearing in 
their handa the ieren tapers (61-99). Here, in thli 
deserted Earthly Paradise, which would be thronged 
with inhabitant! had Church and State been true to 
their mission, Dante beholds an allegorical portrayal 
of the perrerse relations between the two, and of the 
disasters and corruptions of the Chnrch, of her per- 
•ecutloDs, of the heresies that threatened her, of the 
yet more fotal farour of Christian emperors, of the 
great schism of Islam, of the foni corruption of the 
Court of Rome, and the Babylonian captivity of 
Avignon (100-160). 

So fixed aod intent were my eyes on satisfying Dante'a 

their ten years' thirst, that al! my other senses '*'* '*** 

were quenched ; 
and they on either side had a wall of unconcern, 

80 the holy smile drew them to itself in the 

toils of old ; 
when perforce my face was turned toward my 

left by those goddesses, because I heard from 

them a: "Too fixedly." 
And that condition of the sight, which is in eyes 

but just smitten by the son, made me remain 

a while without vision ; 
but after ray sight re-formed itself to the lesser (I 

mean the lesser in respect to the greater object 

of sense wberefrom perforce I turned me away) 




PuadiiQ vidi in ftul braccio destro cssec rìroltù 
*"*' * Io glorioso eaerclto, e tornarsi 

col Bole e con, !e spcte fiamme a\ volto. 

Come sotto gli acudì per salyarsi 
Tolgesi schiera, e eè gira col segno 
prima che possa mtta in sé mutarsi : 

quella iiaÉIÌ2.ia del cdcatc rtgtiti, 
che g]reced>fva, tutta trapa&sonnc 
pria che piegasse il carro il primo legno. 

Indi alle rote si tornar le donne, 
e il grìfon mosse il beoedetto carco^ 
ai che però auila penna crolloone. 

La bella donna che me trasse al varCo, 
e Stazio ed io seguttaram la rota, 
che fé' 1' orbita sua con mÌTiore arco. 

Si passeggiando V alta selva, rota 
colpa di quella eh' al serpente crese, 
cempraTa i passi un' angelica nota. 

ForBc iu tre voli tanto egizio prese 
disfrenata saetta, quanto eramo 
rimossi (quando Beatrice scese. 

Io sentii mormorare a tutti : *' Adamo " ; 
poi cerchiaro una pianta dispogliata 
di fiorì e d' akra fronda in ciascun ramo. 

La coma Buaj che tanto si dilata 
pili quanto più è su, fora dagl' Indi 
nei boschi lor per altezza ammirata. 

H Beato sei, grìfon, che non discindi 
col becco d' esto legno dolce al guata, 
poscia che mal si torce il veacre quindi," 

Cosi à' intorno all' arbore robusto 
grìdaron gli altri ; e 1' animai binato : 
"SI >i conurra il «eme d' ogni giusto." 






r saw the glorious host had wheeled upon the 

right flank, and was rcttirntog with the «un 

and with the eerea Barnes in ita face. 
f^ under ita shields a troop turns ahout to 

retreat, and wheels rcnind with the itandard 

ere it can wholly chaDge frant, 
;hat aoldiery of the heavenly realnif which was 

ID the YSLz, passed all by as ere the car turned 

its pole. 
Then to the wheels the ladies teniroed, and the 

grifoQ iQOfed the hallowed burdeo, so that 

thereby no plume of it was ruffled. 
The fair lady who drew tne aerosi the ford, and 

Sutius, and I, were following the wheel which 

made its orbit with the lesaer arc. 
So pacing the lofty fareat, empty through the 

fa.ult of her who gave credence to the EerpCDt, 

a melody of angeli gave measure to our step^. 
Haply in three flighte so much apaice an arrow 

shot forth bad covered, as we had advanced 

when Beatrice descended. 
I heard all murmur " Adam ! " Then did they 

surround a tree despoiled of flowers, and of 

other foliage, in every bough. 
TtB crowQ of foliage, which more expands the 

loftier it is, would be marvelled at for its 

height by Indians in their woods. 
*' Blesaed art thou, griibn, that with thy beak 

dost read naught from this tree ?weet to taste, 

since ill writhes the belly therefrom," 
Thtis round about the sturdy tree the others 

cried ; and the beast of two natures : " Thui 

U preserTcd the «eed of all nghtcousoesfi. ^' 


The Db 


Tbe inyi 

Pu-Ldlao E ¥o!to al temo eh' egli avea drata, ■« 

*traHre trajj^jo ^^ pj^ della v^ova frasca ; 
e quel dì lei a lei ludo legato. 

Come le nostre piente, quando casca 1^ 

giò la gran luce miachiaca con qucUà 
che raggia retrO alla celeste laBca, 

turgide fansi, lepoi BÌnDooveila il 

di suo color dascunaj pria che il sole 
giunga Ji suoi corsier Hott' altra stella : 

men che di rose e più che di viole S* 

colore aprecdot s' inaerò la pianta, 
che prima arca If ramora &) sole. 

Io noD lo intesi, e C|ui non à canta '' 

l' ìnpo che quella gente allor cantaro, 
né la nota sofFerBÌ tutta quanta. 

S' io potessi ritrar come aesonnaro *4 

gli occhi B[>ietatr, udendo di Siringa, 
gli occhi a cui più vegghiaT CoStò b1 caro : 

come pittar che con esemplo pinga, *7 

disegnerei com' io m' addormentai : 
ma qua! vuol aia die I' aasonnar ben fìnga. 

PerO trascorro a quando mi svegliai, i" 

e dico eh' un splendor mi squarciò il velo 
del SonaO, ed Un chiamar : " Surgij che Ùìì " 

Quale a veder dei fioretti del melo, li 

che del suo pomo gli angeli fa ghiotti 
e perpetue nozze fa nel cielo, 

Pietro e Giovanni e Jacopo condotti, I* 

e vinti riiornaro alla parola, 
dalJa qual furon maggior sonni rotti, 

e videro scemata Eoro scuoia, » 

così di Moitè come d' Elia, 
ed al maestro tuo cangiata (itola : 



And hnvtng turned to the pole which he had Tho nrctle 

drawn, he dragged it to the foot of the wlctonvcd ^'** 

bough ; and to it left bound that wliich came 

from it> 
Ab trcea of our land wben the great light ffitla 

down mipgled with that which txama behind 

tlie ceCestiai carp, 
burgeon forth, and each then is declted anew 

with its colour ere the sun yokes his atecds 

beneath another constelUtion, 
opening out into a. hue,, Lesa than of rosea and 

more than of violets, the tree renewed iteelf» 

which before had its bough» so na!ked. 
I underatood it not, nor here i» sung, tbe hyniD 

which then that people sang, nor did I eadtire 

iu melody- outright. 
If I could pGuftray how the pitiless eyes did 

slumber hearing of Syrinx, the eyes whose 

longer Tigil cost ho dear, 
u 3 primer who paints Troni a. model, I would D^tt 

depict how I feel aaleep ; be he who he may ^JSi^S, 

that can rightly image drowaine^. 
Wherefore I pass on to when I awoke, and I 

say thaL a bright light rent the veil of my 

sleep, and a call : •* Arise, what doest thou ì " 
As to behold some flowerets of the apple tree^ 

which makes the angels greedy for its fruit, 

and makea perpetual mrtrriagc feast io heaven, 
Peter and John and James were brought, and, 

tbeiTig overcome, came to themaelvea at the word 
by which greater slumbers had been broken, 
and saw their bund diminished by Moses, as 
well ad by Elias, aod dieir Master's raiment 



PurLdLafr tal torna' io, e ridi queIJa pia 
T«rrMtre gopja me stareij che condadcrice 

I 61 de' miei passi Lungo il liuiiie pria. 

I E tutto in dubbio dissi : •' Ov' è Beatrice ? " *J 

■ ond' eUa : " Vedi lei aotto Is fronda 
I nuora sedersi in su la. sua radice. 

^ Vedi la compagnia che I3 circonda ; * 

^H gli altri dopo il grifoD stn vanno sìiso, 

^^r con più dolce canzone e più profcmda.*' 

W K as pio fu lo euo parlar diflliao P 

■ non sa, però che già negli occhi m' era^ 

I quella ch' ad alitro iiitcuder m' area chiusa. 

I Sola sedeasi ic su ìa terra vera, iH 

I come guardia lasciata li del plaustro, 

I che legar vidi alla biforme £era. 

^L In cerchio le facevan di sé claustro W 

^^m le sette ninfe, con quei lumi in mano 

^^r che son sicuri d' Aquilone e d' Austro. 

[ ** Qui sarai tu poco tempo eilrano, »"• 

^^H e aarai meco, senza fìue, ciré 

^^KT di queJb Roma onde Cristo è Romano. 

■ Però, in pro del mondo che mal vire, "i 
I al carro tieni or gii occhi, e quel che vedi, 

I ritornato di là, fa che :u scrÌTC." 

^^^ Cosi Beatrice ; ed io, che tutto ai piedi "* 

^^H de' suoi comandamenti era derotOi 

^^^ la miìDte e gii occhi, ot' ella volle, diedi. 

M Non scese mai con si veloce moto "^ 

^^m foco ài spessa nube, quando piore 

^^P da quel confine che pttl ra remoto, 

■ com' io ridi calar 1' uccel di Giove »" 
^ per r arbor già, rompendo della Hcorzn, 
^^^ DOQ che dei Eori t delle foglie niiore ; 






eveo BO I came to mynelf, and law that pitying Duit« 

one bending o'er me^ who before wbb guide ^j jj„ 

to my Htepa aloQg the aiream. Beatrice 

And all perplexed I said 1 " where is Beatrice I " w diMi 

and ahe : ** Behgid her Bitting beneath the 

new foliage upon its root. 
Behold the company that encirdeth herj the 

otheri are mounting up after the grifon with 

sweeter and pfofòundtì" aong," 
And if her words extended farther I know not, 

because now before mine eyes was «he, who 

had shut me ofTfrom heeding aught else. 
Alone sat she upon the bare earth, !eft there as 

guardian of the chariot, which I had aeen the 

beast of two form^ make fast, 
"The seven nymphs in a ring made of them a fence 

about her, with those lights in their haada which 

are secure from north wiad and from south. 
" Here Bhalt thou be short time a foreewr, and Dante'^a 

with me evcrlaailngly Hhah be a ciUzeQ of that "**'"' 

Rome whereof Christ is a Roman. 
Therefore to profit the world that iiveth ill, fix 

□ow thine eyes upon the car, and look that thou 

write what thou seest, when returned yonder." 
Thoa Beatrice ; and [, who was all obedient at 

the feet of her commands, gave micd and 

eyea whither ehe willed. 
Ne*er did fire from dense cloud deecend, with Ti* 

motioii 90 awift, when it falls from that coQiiae 

which is moat remote, 
as I saw Jotc'b bird awoop down through the 

tree, rending iti baric, likewise its flowers 

and its new leaves ; 




p&rBrUso e ferì il carro di tutta lua forza, "i 

àXtrtttìn ond' ei piegò come nave in fartnna. 

Tinta dair onde, or da poggia or da orza. 

Poscia TÌdi sTventarsi fidU cuna "■ 

del trionlfa.] veiculo una rolpe, 
che A' ogni pasto buon parca dij^iuia. 

Ma, riprendendo lei di laide colpe, "* 

la donna mia Ea volac in tanta futa, 
quanto sofferaon 3 'casa ^nzs polpe. 

FoEcia, pEj indi end' era pria venuta, 
l' aquila vidi scender giù nel!' arca 
del carro, t lasciar lei di sé pennuta. 

E qaal esce di cor che si rEtnmarca, 
tak voce uisci del Gl'eco, e cotal disa?: 
" O navicella tnia, cora' mal nei carca ! " 

Poi pafrc a me che la terra s' aprisse 
tr' ambo le rote, e vidi uscirne un drago, 
che per lo carro su la coda fiaac; 

«t come vespa che ritragjje V ago, 
a sé traendo la coda maligDa 
trassedei iondo e gisgen vago vagO< 

Qud che rimase, come di gramigna 
vivace terra, della piuma, offerta 
forse con intenzion Eana e benigna, 

si ricoperse, e funnc ricoperta 

e V una e 1' alira rota e il temo, in tanto 
che pio tiene un soapir la bocca aperta. 

Trasformato coaj il dilìcio santo '■*' 

mÌB.e fuor teste per le partì sue, 
tre aopra il temo, ed una in ciascun canto. 

Le prime eran cornute come bae ; '*s 

ma te quattro un boI corno avean per fronte : 
cimile mostro visto ancor non fiie. 







and he imote the cu with all ìxìb might ^ whereat rhe Ba^ la 
I it reeled like a vessel in a Btpnn, beaten by the 
I wares, mow to stajboard, n.cvr to larboard. 
K'hen saw I a ahe-fax, that eecmnl fiLsting from Tb« Fas 
P all good food, leap into the body of the 

triumphal vehicle. 
But, rebuking her for foul sins, my Lady put 
her to flight, ae swift as the flcshlees bones 
did bear. 
Then, from theace whence he fìrst had come, F Tbe 
saw the eagle descend down loto the body of the second* 
car, and leave it feathered with hia plumage. -iMeecit 
And an a voice comes from a heart, that sorroweth, 
such voice came from heaven, ajid thus it spaJcc ; 
L^ " O my liult bark, how ill art thou laden !" 
EThea it aeemed to me that the earth opened twixt Th* 
the two wheels, and I saw a dragon come forth °''"f "^ 
that fixed his tail up through the car ; 
and Uke a wasp, that draws Irack her sting, draw- 
ing to hiir bÌ9 «jntefu] tail he wrenched out pan 
of the bottom and went his vagrant way. 
That which remained, — even aa teeming land The 
with grass, — with those plucnea, haply offered traoi-*' ' 
with sincere and kind intent, tormatio.» 

did again cover itself, and both wheels and the 
pole were cohered again by them, in such time 
that a »igh keepa the mouth open longer. 
Thus transformed, the aacred edifice put forth 
. heads above ia parts, three ùv£r the pole, and 
' one at each corner. 
The first were horned like 3D DX^ but the tour 
had ÙQC single born at the forehead ; such 
monster never yei was aeen. 




Panico Sicura, quasi rocca Ìp sito monte, 
^*mstrt gedei- gopr' esso una puttana HCiolta 

m' apparve eoo le ciglia iatoroo pronte. 

H, Com'è perchè ddd gli foise tolta, 
vidi dì costa a lei dritto un gigante, 
tL bacìava^nsi ìoBicme alcuaa votta ; 

ma, perchè 1' occhio cupido e vagante 
a me rivolse, quel feroce drudo 
la flagellò dal capo ìnfio ]e piante. 

Poi, di sospetto pieno e d' ira crudo, 
dÌBCtolse il moalro, e traSBel per I3 Aelra 
tanto, che sol di lei mi fece scudo 

ìlla puttana ed dia nuova bclra. 






1. Clf. ibcft. Canto »-»x, ilt-llj, Hthi, 

Sf. " [l'hou alt ga:ttii£ on EtatriM] cwj fii.Hllj." 

16, 17. Theie linci pechap» meaa chat ChriiT 
guidei Hii Church, not by force oc etternal racani, 
bue with the fplrlt only. 

£g, io. The right wNccI ; far the whole proceuSon 
had turned Ed che right (v. iti). 

37. HtBtviararf = " reprpachfnUy jnurmurr" See 
Ram. V. ES: " Wherefore, as by one man «d 
entered jnio the world, and deith by nn ; antj »o 
dcatti pa.sseij upon all men, for that all hife aianed," 

38. Fpr thif tree, j« Gt*- >«. 9, and c/, «bore, 
Canto Kzii. iji-i^S^ "oit. 

+0-41 Cf, the following canto,, tnj, £4-66. ~-lt 
leenii probable that Da.nte'i coDcepCion of the hcjfhc 
Df trees En India was derived frain Virgil, Giarj. U. 

43. " T'hui"' — naniely, by not allowing ih^iplrituU 
•nd leCillar powers to encroach or each other. 

4^^5:1. According co legend, the croii wae made al 
wood taken from the tree of the Itnoirledge of good 


Seated upon it, secure as a fortress on a steep The bariot 
hill, a shamelefls harlot appeared to me, with ^^ 
eyes quick around. 

And, as though she should Dot be taken from 
him, a giant I saw erect at her sidci and from 
urne to time each kissed the other ; 

but, because her lustfiii and vagrant eye she turned 
upon me, that fierce paramour did scourge her 
from head to feet. 

Then filled with jealousy and cruel with rage, he 
loosed the monster, and dragged it so far through 
the wood, that of this alone he made a screen 
between me and the harlot and the strange beast. 

51-54. In apring, whtn the ann ia In Aries (the 
tign folloTring Piacea — here called <• the celeatlal 
carp "). 

58-&>. The pnrple of Empire (tf. abore, Canto 
xxix. 131}. 

63-65. The ■< all-tceing " Argn* (^. above, Canto 
axix. 95) was let by Juno to watch over Io, whom 
•he had, in a fit of jealoaiy, changed Into a cow for 
yielding to Jupiter, The goddeaa aelected Argua 
because he was able to keep awake longer than 
others (/lii veggUar), reating some of hi* eyes while 
the others were watching. The monster was lulled 
to sleep (and then slain) by Mercury, while listening 
to the god's recital of the story of the nymph Syrinx 
(who, when pursued by Pan, was at her prayer 
changed into a reed ; see 0«id, Mel. I. 568 t^j-). 

6£-8i. The Transfiguration ; see Matt. xvli. 1-8: 
'* And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James and 
John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high 
mountain apart, and was transfigured before them ; 
and his face did shine a* the sun, and his raiment 
was white as the light, and, behold, there appeared 
unto them Moses and Ellas talking with him. 



Tlien anewcTed Peter and 9aid unto JeEui, Lard, it 
il good for ui to be here: if than m'lt, lei ui make 
hert three wbernBcle» ; one for thee, and cae fot 
Mosei, and vac for Elìai. While he yet ipake, 
behuld, a bright cioud oferthadowed them: and 
behpld 3 vùiiec out of the cloudy which ia.iij, Thii 
il my^ bclaved Son, in wliom I am well pleated ; 
hear ye him. And when the dìaciples heard it, 
thcT fell on their face, and were aare afraid. And 
Jeius came and touched them, and laJd, Ariie, aad 
he not afraid. And when tfiey had lifted up their erei, 
thej eaw Hi} man. «a^e JeiBt onìf." Jeaui ■« allied 
"(he Bjiple tree" in v, 73, according to the allegarj 
of the Sang efStloBian il. J (" Al the appk tiee among 
the trew of ch* wood, m> ii my hejored amotig th« 
■ona "y. 

86, 87, and 94-96. DÌtìob Wisdom ii leated at thi 
root of the ti-ee (Rome, the seat of thr Empire); 
and LD the ahadow vf " the new fnljage/' which 
blaiiomed forth when the Churrh {who4e seat {■ «t 
Rome, tPO) WW Utiited to the E.mpire fiee above, w, 
49-60), she il left to guard the intereiti of that 
Church (the frlaifstrÉ 0/ v. ■95). 

100. Mr Butler hold» that fif« "aignifieJ 'in thU 
■world,' denoted by the Earthly Parajiie"; and hs 
quatCB rfrom the Dt Man. iii. IJ : 45-47^ : ieatuJincm 
. . , hvjiti iiitas, quii . . . bet Itrtiilrcm Par^Jiiutt 

109-117. The ten periecwtiona of tht Chritti«ft 
Church, instigated by the EEnperon, from Nero t» 
Dioeletian (^4-314). For che eagle^ g^. E^tt. itTiÉ. 3; 
and see Far. xvìÌì,-kx, 

iiS-ixj, The)iere«i«i which thmtened the early 
Church, but which were eventually anppresied by 


the writing! of the Fatheri and more Tiolent meftinrei. 
With the fox, cf. Lam. V. 18, etc. 

124-129. Thii lecond descent of the eagle indicate! 
the "donation of Conitantlne " ; see Far. xx. 5J-60, 

150-135. The dragon, In all probability, repreienti 
the great ichltm wrought by Mohammed (who figures 
among the "sowers of discord" in /«/. xxTiii.). 
Though Dante's dragon was undoubtedly suggested 
by the dragon of Rtv. xii. 3, it is not necessary to 
assume that the two beasts hare the same symbolical 
meaning, (The Biblical monster was in the Middle 
Ages Identified with Satan.) 

1 36-141. According to Mr, Butler, the fresh feathers 
signify " the further gifts of territory made by Pippin 
and Charles." 

142-147. It seems best to talie these seven horned 
heads (which were evidently suggested by Rev, xvii, 
3) as the seven capital sins, 

148-160. The harlot (see Rev. xvÌÌ, 3 /^, and cf. 
Inf. xix. 107 tqq.') represents the Papal Court in its 
corrupt condition under Boniface VIII, and Clement 
V. The giant Is the French dynasty, notorious for its 
intrigues with the Popes ; the Iting specialty referred 
MO being undoubtedly Pliillp the Fair. He it was 
whose bitter feud with Boniface, after pseudo-alli- 
ances for political ends (o. 153), was crowned by the 
Pope's death (v, 156; 1/". above, Canto xx. 85-90, *»<#); 
and, again, it was with Philip's connivance that 
Clement V. transferred the Papal See to Avignon (wr, 
15S-160; cf. Inf. xix. 79-87, nati). — Verse 155 is 
very difficult. It is perliaps safest to take Dante as 
occupying here the position he represents through- 
out Uie entire poem— that of the typical Christian. 

X D 


THE aeveo vErtues En alternate serains now procLiim^ 
vriih tear<i, that the lorcei ai the warid have 
fatinJ iheir hoar; and Beatrice declare* that tHnJtlg-R. 
her glory will for a tlfne be withdrav^n from th*in, ii 
Il bui for a^ ^eanan (l<]l)^ Then liie slgni to MatlliJa., 
to Dame and to Statini io roUDw her; but after only 
a few step», gTUfUiu&l]r Kummona Dante ti> her side, 
bids him dro|) a.11 (^IfGdence, interpreti the things he 
has ju«t leen, and hinti it the politi-cal ^les&iili wKo 
ihall restore the due nslatioiii pf Church and State aod 
purif]' them both (13*45)- But h«r coinmenC la fsr 
darker than the test. So at least the knowi tt will 
seem to Dante's dull and OTer-cruitetl mind ; whereftuT 
the itainp Kaa been impressed upon hia efe rather than 
on hii Uui-eCcptive intellect (^6-it), Dante ^ntly 
expoitulalER with her fpT Uttering hcMelf only in 
inextricaMe «aigmai. She answers that she doea ho 
to show lilm huw ijiadequale has been the training 
of che teaching he has taCely follofred ; but he, whi>, 
«inte he dratik of Lethe, ha* forgottefi all the inter»»! 
between hU loss of Beairti^ upon earth and hii finding 
of her ag'ain tu Eden, an^twers that he cannot mind 
him of ever having wandered from her 01 being in 
need af any other school than that of her wi^duni ; 

radisD " Dfai, vinerant genles " aitemacdo, 
ferrartro ^^ ^^^ ^^ quMtro, dolce salraodia 

le donne incorni nciaro, e lagrimando ; 
e Beatrice Bospiroaa e pia 

quelle ascoltava sì fatta, che poco 
più alla croce si cambiò Maria. 
Ma poi che 1' altre Tcrgìnì djer loco 
a lei di dir, levata dritta in pie 

rispose, colorata come Foco : 


upon which ihe reminds him that this forgetfuinen 
of CTcr hsiTing left her la a sign that it waa tainted 
with eril ; for only the memory of what li ao tainted 
is washed away by Lethe. Finally ahe promisea that 
henceforth ahe will vex him no more by yelled dia- 
conrse, but will apeak with the naked simplicity that 
hia untrained powers demand (Si-ioa). The snn is 
now In high heaven, and they reach a fbuDtain whence 
two ttreami flow, and seem loth to part from each 
Other. Dante has forgotten all that Matilda told him 
about them, not so much that -Lethe haa washed away 
the thought, for surely it was untainted by any evil, 
as that before Eunoe Is tasted and secures every good 
Impression from being obliterated, auch all-abaorbing 
experiencea as have but now been Dante's, may ob- 
literate from the memory even the most beautiful 
thoughts that have preceded them. Henceforth, how- 
ever, all fair memories of good, whatsoever their rela- 
tive significance^ shall be secured against oblivion and 
shall take their perfect place in the perfect whole ; for 
Dante, followed by Statius, drinks of the stream of 
Eunoe ; and thence with life fresh as the leaves of spring 
he issues, inly equipped and cleansed for his further 
journey to the stars (103-145). 

** Deutf venerunt gmtei " : now three, now four, Beatrice 
alteroately and weeping, a sweet pralmody the JJ^' 
ladies began ; rirtnts 

and Beatrice sighing and compassionate was 

hearkening to them so altered, that little 

more did Mary change at the cross. 
But when the other virgins gave place to her to 

speak, uprisen erect on her feet, she answered 

in hue of fire : 



Pu-Adlu *' Moiucmrij tt nun vidghtth mt, ' 

T«TMtre ^j iurum, sorelle mie dilette, 
modtcumf et voi videb'uù me." 

Vo\ le si miae ioDanzi nitu e sette, 
e dopo aè, solo accennando, mosse 
me e ]a donna e il savio che riarette. 

Così seo giva, t dou credo che fosse 
lo decimo suo passo ìd tena. posto» 
quando con gli occbi gU occM tnl percosse ; 

E con tranquillo aspetto ; " Vien più tosto," 
mi disse, *' tanto che h' io parlo teco, 
ad ascoltarmi tu eie ben dispoeto." 

SI com' io fui, com' io doveva, «eco, 
dii&semi t " Frate, perchè non ti attenti 
a domandaimi ornai venendo meco? " 

Come a color, che troppo reverenti 
dinanzi a' suoi maggior parlando sono, 
che fion uaggon La voce vira ai. denti, 

avvenne ,1 me^ che senza intero suono 
incominciai: "Madonna, mìa bisogna 
voi conoscete,, e ciò eli' ad essa è buono." 

Ed ella 3 me : " Da tema e da vergogna 
voglio che tu Dinai ti disviluppe, 
sì che non parli più com' uom che sogna. 

Sappi che Ìl vaso, che ìl serpente ruppe, 
fu E non è, ma chi a' Eia colpa creda 
che vendetta di Dio non teme suppe. 

Noti sarà tutto tempo senza creda 
r aquila che Ugcìò le penne al carro, 
per che divenne mostro e poscia preda ; 

eh' io veggio certamente, e però il aarro, 
a darne tempo già stelle propinque, 
■icure d' ogni intoppo e d' ogni sbarro. 









" MaJkvnif et non vìdebidi me, et iterum, my 

beloved sisters, modieum, et voi videhilis 

Then she placed them all sevea ■□ front of her, 

and, merely by her Qod, modooed behind her, 

me aud the Lady aod the Sage who had stayed. 
Thus she weot on, and I belJcFC not that her 

tenth step was put on the ground, when with 

her eycH miu'C eyes she emote ; 
and with tranquil mien did say to rae : " Come 

more quickly eo that if I speak with thee, thou 

b« well placed to liGteD to me." 
Soon aa I was with her» as 'twas iny duty to be, she 

said to me: *'' Brother, wherefore coming now 

with me, venturest tliou not to ask of me ? " 
Aa to tho&e, who in preaeuce of their betters are 

too lowly in speech so th3.t they bring not their 

voice whole to the lips, 
it happened to rae and without fij!! utterance I 

began : "My Lady, my need you know, and 

that which is good for it." 
And she to me; "From fear and from shame I 

would that now thou unbind thee, bo that tliou 

apeak no mor& [ike one that ìb dreaming. 
Know that the veaael which the serpent broke, 

was, and is not; but let him whose &ult it is, 

believe that God'a vengeance fears no Bops. 
Not for all time shall be without heir the eagle 

that left the piumiage On the car, whereby it 

became a monster and then a prey ; 
for of a surety I see, nnd therefore do tei! it, stars 

already nigh, aemre from all impediment and 

from all hindrance, that shall bring us time» 


Bjid the 





tlie futun 






Pt(ii4i»o ne! quale un cinquecento diece e ciDque, 
TetTMtre j^^^gy ^^ pj^j^ anciderà la ftiia 

con t^uel gigante che con lei delinque. 

E forse che la mia narrazion, buia 
qual Tenii e Slinge, men ti persuade^ 
perch' a lor modo lo intelletto attuia ; 

ma tosto fien Is fatti le Naiade, 

che solveranno ^u^Ato eDtgma forte, 
senza danno di pecore o di biade. 

Tu nota ; e, si come da me aon porte, 
così queste parole segna ai tÌtì 
de] viver eh' ò un correre alla morte ; 

ed abbi a menic, quando tu le scrivi, 
di non celar qual hai vieta la pianta, 
eh' è or due volte dirubata quivi. 

Qualunque ruba q,ueUa quella schianta, 
con bestemmia di fatto offende a Dio, 
che solo all' uso sno U creò «.nta. 

Fcr morder quella, m pena ed in disio 
cinquemili' anni e piti 1' aaima prims 
bramò Colui che il morso in sé punio. 

Dorme lo ingegno tuo, ae non estima 
per singular cagione eesere eccelsa 
lei tauto, e sì travolta nella cicoa. 

E, se Btati non fùasi^iù àCqua d' Elsa 
li penaier vani incorno alla tua mente, 
e il piacer loro tio Piramo alla gelsa, 

per tante circostanze solamente 

la giustizia di Dio, nello interdetto, 
conosceresti all' arbor moralmente. 

Ma, perch' io veggio te nello intelletto 
fatto di pietra ed, impietrato, tinto 
BÌ che t' abbaglia Ìl lume del mìa detto. 








wherein a five bundred ten and fiv?, aéat by God, 
shall alay che thief, with that giant who ama 
with her. 

And perchaDce my prophecy, obacure aA Themis 
and Sphinx, doth !e&s persuade thee, because 
after their JashioQ It dirkens thy n;iad ', 

but 800Q die facta shall be the Naiadea that, will 
solve this bard riddle without Iosa of flocka 
or of corn. 

Note thou ; and even aa these words from me are 
bornt, so do thou sigaify them to those who live 
that life which is a race unto death ; 

and beaj in mind when thou writeet them, not to 
conceal how thou hast seen the tree wbi^h 
DOW twice haih been despoiled here. 

Whoso robs that or that doth rend, uith blas- 
phemy in act ofFendeth God, who aJone for 
hiB service did Create it boly. 

Foe eating of that, in torment and in desire, 
five thouaand ycare. and more the fir&t aoxil did 
yearn for him who punished the bite in himself. 

Thy wit aleepelh if it judge not that tree to be 
ft>r special cause thus lofty and thus trans- 
posed at the top. 

And if thy idie thoughts had not been Elsan 
waters about thy mind, and their pleiaantneas 
a PyramuB to the mulberry, 

by ao many circum stances alone thou wouldat 
recognise id the tree morally, God'd joatice 
in the ban. 

But because 1 see ihy mind turned to atone and, 
atonelike, aucb in hue that the light of my 
word dazea thee, 

the futura 
ol t]>« 
Church i 


disc UHM 

on the 1 

of tb& Tré 



PvaiUjd voglio anche, e ee non scritto, almen dipinto, 
— BfrevtTc ^]jg j^ ^ jjg porti dentro a te, per quello 

che di reca il bùrdoD dì plEnu ciato. " 

Ed io : " Sì come cera da suggelloj 
che la figura impressa non trasmuta, 
segnato è or da toi Io mio cerfello. 

Ma perchè tanto sopra mia veduta 
rostra parola disiata vola, 
chiG più k perde quanto pili b' aiuta ? " 

"Pefchè conoschi," dis^e, <' quella scuola 
eh' hai seguitata, e veggi sua dottrina 
come può seguitar la mia parola ; 

e veggi rostra TÌa dalla divina 

distar cotanto, quanto ai discorda 
da ttrra il ciel che più aito festina." 

Ond' io risposi lei : " Non mì ncorda 
eh' io straniassi me giatnmEii da voi 
oè hoDne coscienza che rimorda." 

" E ee tu ricordar non te ne puoi," 
sorrìdendo rispose, "or ti raniraeilla 
come bcTssd di Lete ancot ; 

e se dal fiirjirao foco s' argomenta, 
cotesta oblivion chiaro conchiudc 
colpa nella tua voglia altrove attenta. 

Veramente oramai saranno nude 
le mie parole, quanto conTcrrassi 
quelle scoprire alla tua rista rude/' 

E pii^ corrusco, e con piò lenti paesi^ 
teneva il 5ole il cerchio di merigge, 
che qua e là, come gli aspetti, Tassi, 

quando s' afiìsaer, sì come e* aJìigge 
chi va dinanzi a gente per iacorta, 
te trov2 novitate o sue vestigge, 






I also will that thou bear it away wtthtD thee, B«Ktfica 

and if not written at least outlined, for the "^ D"»*« 

reason that the pilgrim's staff is brought back 

wreathed with palm." 
And I : '* Even as wax under the seal, that 

the imprinted figure changeth not, my brain 

is now stamped by yon. 
But why doth your longed-ibr word soar so far 

beyond roy sight, that the more it stratneth 

the more it loses it ? " 
"That thou mayat know," she said, «that 

School which thou hast followed, and see how 

its teaching can keep pace with my word ; 
and mayst see your way so far distant from the 

divine way, as the heaven which highest 

speeds IB removed from earth." 
Wherefore I answered her ; " I remember not 

'lat I e'er estranged me from you, nor have 

I conscience thereof that gnaws me." 
*' And if thou canst not remember it," smiling 

she answered, ** now bethink thee how thou 

didst drink of Lethe this very day ; 
and if from smoke fire is argued, this forgetfiil- 

ness clearly proves fault in thy desire other- 
where intent. 
But now my words shall be naked, so far as shall 

be meet to discover them to thy rude vision." 
Both more refulgent, and with slower steps, the Noon in 

sun was holding the meridian circle, which ^^^' 

varies hither ^d thither as positions vary, 
when did halt, even as he halts who goes for 

escort before folk, if he finds aught that it 

strange or the traces thereof. 



paradiso le sette doDne al lìn d' ud' ombra smorta, 
Twnatre ^^^ ^^^^ foglie Tcrdì e rami nigri 
Eopra Buoi freddi rivi 1' Alpe porta. 

Dinanzi ad esse Eufratea e Tigri 
veder mi parve uscir d' una fontana, 
e quasi amici dipartirsi pigri. 

" O luce, o gloria della gefite umana, 
che acqua è questa che qui si dispiega 
da uo principio, e aè da sé lontana ì " 

Per cotkl prego detto mi fii : ** Prega 
Matelda che il ti dica " ; e quì rispose, 
come fa cbì da colpa si dislega, 

la bella donna ; " Questo, ed altre coae 
dette gli soa per me ; e son sicura 
che r acqua di Lete non gliel nascose." 

E Beatrice : " Forse maggior cura, 
che Bpeaee volte la memoria pma, 
fatto ha la mente sua negli (»:chì oscura. 

Ma vedi Eunoè che là deriva : 

men^o ad esso, e, come Cu bèi lisa 
la tramortita sua virtò ravviva.** 

Com' aùima gentil che qoa fa scusa, 
ma fa sua voglia della voglia altrui, 
tosto eh' eli' è per segno fuor dischiusa ; 

coal, poi che da essa preso fui, 

la bella donna mossesi, ed a Stazio 
donncBcamcQte disse : "Vicn con lui." 

S' io avieSBi, lettor, piti luogo ipazìù 
da scrivere, io pur canterei in parte 
lo dolce ber che mia non m' aTria; sazio ; 

nu perchè pietie koq tutte le carte 
ordite a questa Cantica wconda:, 
non mi lascia piìi ir lo frcD dell' arte. 









those Beren ladies at the margin of a pale shadow, Dw 

such as beneath green leaves and dark boughs, ^ 

the Alp casu over its cool streams. Ew 

In front of them I seemed to behold Euphrates 

and Tigris welling up from one spring, and 

parting like friends that linger. 
" O light, O glory of human kind, what water 

is this ^at here pours forth from one source, 

and self frxim self doth wend away Ì " 
At such prayer was said to me : " Pray Matilda 

that she tell it thee ; " and here made answer, 

as he doth who frees him from blame, 
the f^r Lady : " This and other things have 

been told him by me, and sure am I that 

Lethe's water hid theni not from tum." 
And Beatrice : " Haply a greater care that oft 

bereaves of memory hath dimmed his mmd's 

But behold Eunoe, which there flows on ; lead 

him to it, and as thou art wont, requtcken his 

ftinting TÌrtue." 
As a gende soul that maketh no excuse, but makes 

her will of the will of another, soon as it is 

disclosed by outward ngo, 
so the fair Lady, after T was taken by her, 

set forth, and to Statius with queenly mien 

did say: " Come with him." 
If, reader, I had greater space for writing, I 

would sing, at least in part, of the sweet 

draught which never would have sated me ; 
but fr)raBmuch as all the pages orduned for this 

second canticle are filled, the curb of art no 

frirther lets me go. 



Puidiso lo ritorna] dalla. Baotieaim' onda 
ramiir» nfàtto s\ come piante novelle 
rioTio'veLUte di novella fronda, 
puro e disposto a ealirc alle stelle. 

t. Pi. IxkÌx., b«gìiiDÌng ; "O God, ihc heathen 
are come li^lo thinc luherLtance ; ehy holy tempie 
hitre thvT deliledi thty bfrc l^H Jcrasalext» od 

to-i£. ChriJt'f worit to hìi disciplei: " A Kltlc 
while, and jc ihall nat ite me: and again, a litde 
while, and j« shall tee mv, beccute ) ga Co th? 
Father" (uTa^ii x^i. iS). 

34i 3J- ^^^ ^'^^ preceding canto, w. ija-i^j. 
Ipanc^ appitei to the Church (ctìrrupied ai it was in 
hli itine) the words med ìty John in Jiiv, ktIÌ. 3: 
" The beatt thou sawest was, and ii nat." 

35, jfi. " In the oldeti lime in Florence, if an 
aisa,iiin could cantrivt Cd t&t A iDp of brea4 In)] 
vrine at che grave of che murdered man^ within nine 
daj-s after che murder, he wai free from the vengeance 
of che family ; and td pr&tteDC thlt they kept tVatch 
It che totnh, There ii no evading the vengeance o( 
Gùd in chi» way. Such i* (he interpretation of tW» 
paijsage by all the oEd commenta ton " (Lvngfellow i. 

57. lenKa treJa. In tlie Cinv, i*, ] : 33-43, Dante 
ipeakjof Fri'dericlE 11. fd. iz5o)aa " thelaat Emperer 
of the Romani ([ la.y ' laat ' with respect to (he pre- 
seni ti Rie, no twithg landing that RudDlf,and Adolpboi, 
and Albert vrere elected after hii death and from hU 

3!, 3g, Seethe preceding catico, m, tt'4-It9i "id 
1 41- 1 So. 

40-45. Another of the lo-called Kiùr* pMUget (tf. 

Inf. 1. 101-105, "°''< '"^'^ **^ abOTe. CaAtD XK. \, 

10-15, mtt). The numbert of w, 43 are generally ex- 
plained ajt DVX^Uader (o-n the analog of the 
ituniWrt in Jìro. Jtlii. ig, which Indicate Nero); btit 
■ursiisei aj £0 who Chat leader might be (whether 


I came back from the most holy waves, boro Dante 
agaia, even as new trees renewed with new ^r Us* 
foliage, pure and ready to mount to the ''"*™^ 
stars. ^cent 

Can Grande, or Henry of Lnzembnrg, or another) 
are entirely futile. For w. 44, 45, tee the preceding 
canto, TO. 150-160. 

46-51. When CBdipna had loWed the fatnout riddle 
of the Sphinx, lliemis (renowned for her oracle) wai 
so enraged that she lent a wild beast to work havoc 
among the herds and fields of the Thebans. See 
OTÌd, JHei. TÌÌ. — The Naiads had nothing to do with 
the solving of riddles ; Dante followed a corrupt 
reading in v. 759 of the passage in Ovid, where 
Heinsius' emendation of Laiada (for Naiadit) is now 
almost universally adopted [Z(M'M!r<=(£dipus, the son 
of Lai us]. 

57. First by Adam, then by the giant : for the 
wood of the chariot-pole came from the tree (see the 
preceding canto, v. 51), and the chariot was dragged 
away by the giant (it. w. 157-160). 

61-63. Dante follows the chronology of Euaebius, 
according to which Adam was on earth for 930 years, 
and in Limbo far 430» years, making 5131 yean in 
all. Cf, Per. xxvi. iiS-iio. With v. 6% tf. Par. 
vii. 15 iqq. 

64-66. See the preceding canto, -ov. 40-42. The 
height probably indicates the vast extent and might 
of the Empire ; while the widening towards the 
summitmay be compared with v. 135 of Canto xxli,, 
and taken to denote the inviolability of the Empire, 
as desired by God. 

67-69. These lines arc glossed by w. 73-75. The 
Elsa is a Tuscan river, whose water has, in certain 
portions of its course, the property of turning objects 
to stone ; and the hues of the mulberry (pure white 
changed to guilty red) are explained in the note to 
Canto xxvii. w. 37-39. 

78, 79- f-" f'i^, aa.mety, Io fhow tjiac thou h»tt 
been in the Earthlj^ t'arailiie. Cf. f'l/a Nvma, § xl. 
44-46: *' The J are calW palmifr» whc g<? beyond ih« 
leas eaftward, whence often <hej bring paUn- 

J> rail thus. " 

^-99. Great iireu U rery nacurally laid dpon thii 
passage by Wine and hia Inlloweri, who maiatained 
that Dante'* lin cansleled, primarily at any rate, not 
iti inurbi bai in philotaphical ab&rrai:i<^n<. Tb«}' 
undersund Beatrice to teproacl» Uante wiih baring 
ItiUowi-d Philosophy innlead oS Religi>:>n, and, an bit 
dlficlaring' tbat he had no recollection of Jiny itch 
thing, to antwec that it it became he has drunk a^ 
Lethe and forgocten all efilactioni. But the patsage 
cannot teally be cited to nilpport thLf ricw. The 
■cbiH)l thai Dante hai rollowed just before comìnp lo 
fleairice, and which hat ta tmperrtctly prepatedliim 
to iindcrsand her, h the school q( Vireil (see above, 
Canto xxi. v. 33), And it ia impoesìble to lupjaiiK 
that Btatnet r^proachica Dante for having followct) 
Virgil, who wae her own pmiaaary. He wa» the 
initial instrument of Dantc'n salvation froTn I1Ì11 errnr, 
not (be si'duccr who li^d Kijn into it. 

Wtì muBt apparently suppose that when Dante 
drank of Lethe, he forg-ot hJs fall and at! the »tepi 
that led Co hU recovery I'rgm it, which re<|UÌml Tor 
their understanding a consciout reference ta it. 
Therefore, when BeacriM ipealti of the inadequac; 

CANTO XXXin 431 

(Dot the perversity) oF the training he h«s had a* 
yet, he mlaunderstandi the reference ai an ini- 
pUcation that he had wandered from her to some 
other school. Beatrice takes him up on his own 
ground, and replies that, for the matter of that, 
so he did desert her, and guiltily too, else he would 
not hare forgotten it. 

When Dante has further drunk of Eunoi!, he will 
remember all the incidental good of Virgil's faitliful 
lore and guidance ; but it will no longer be painfully 
associated with his own sin ; and that iin he will re- 
member again, but as an external thing that does not 
now belong to his own personality. It wilt dwell 
in his mind merely as the outward occasion of the 
love manifested and the blessings secured to him. 
(^. Par, \x. 103-105 ; and see above, Canto xxTlii. 
w. 130-131, nolt. 

103-10J. See the diagram on p. 4.7. 

109-111. At the edge of the forest, whose shadow 
resembled the shadow cast by the trees at the foot oÌ 
the Alps on to the streams below. 

112-114. Dante was probably thinking not of Gtm. 
U. 14, but of Boethius' verses {De Cttu. Phil. v. metr. 
I.); 7}grù tt Suphratet una it fonte rtithiunt. Et man 
e^unetu JÙiMÌa/itur aguii, 

III, 112. See above, Canto xxviii. w. 85 tfj. 

H. O. 



The key to the comprehenilon of DanteV rtpreienta- 
lion of Purgatory is to be foujid in ttir conn-cctioii of 
the inountain with the Earthly Faradùe, or Gardtn nt 
Eden, situsttd st it* suiwmif. W* leara from carcFul 
reading of ihie lost lÉne& of Hit Infima that (he mounUin 
of Purgatory wa» thrown up flike a mole-hill, if one 
fnay U»^ inch am illustration) nrEien l3a.tan wa.< hurled 
doi^'n from heaven to the centre of die earth, Kif 
upper bulk was thrust into Hell, which wai already 
•Alene to rtccive him ; and bcneAch the MoUnt f( 
fiirgatorf the earth cLused up behind hìin, leaving a 
huge cavern, into which hii nedier limbs «trctched up. 

So th« fail vi SsUn w^v the i^cc^ai^n for a potilon 
of the substance of the earth to leap up heaveawatd 
above ail iht elemental perturbation* ef the iowcr 
ailinDsphere, thus making itadf worthy to become 
the ^eat of thai hunnao race which mat. to replace 
the: fnilen angels. 

Now the life ol Eden, had man perievered, wu to 
have been an leartiily life^ including what may be 
thought of aj natural relLgiion, — a conM'EoUanctB of the 
love and nearness of God, a perfect spontanieity cf 
hujnan joy and jjoodnesa, nnd a knowledge of all 
earthly v/U-iom. But the higher rcv*!!atÌQn» whcth 
would complete the liTe af man, noL as an earthly but 
iiS a heaveiLl]' being, were ca hare hten ^ubtequeDlIy 
Glided. Therefo-re, when man fell he forfeited im- 
mediately the perfect earthly Life, and ultimately che 
perfect heavenly life. HI» first ta«k, then, qi^it be 
to reeover the life of the Earthly P^tadiie; and as 
purgatiun, or recovery from tlie fall, eonaists primarily 
In regaining ILdcn, the mùUntatn pedestal of tli; 
(>:tr>den cf Eden becomes by a itec«ssitj ot tymboltc 


.Dgtc tlk<:«ceneBrptirgaCÌDn. Phyiically an4 ipirituaJly 
man muac climb back to the ■" uplifted garden." Hctict, 
the key-no«e of the Purgitory ii prlmanlf atliical, and 
oniy by jEViplicacion «pìritud. Odta, the type of the 
mckral iririuiis, is the guardian of tÌK plice ; Virgil, the 
type of human phUoxaphy, is the guiiJe ; acid che 
Earthly paradite, the type of the " blessedneH of thi» 
life" (£•• Man. Lii. 16; 4.3-51). " the ìtnmtdìate goal, 
Bea.trice it anly realhed bj Ditntu a.i he h^d Juiown 
her in the Edcn-lìke "new life "of hii youth, and by 
DO means a» the august impeijonatioc o[ revealed truth. 
She app(-'<irs to him in due course, lurrouniltd by her 
wcoit, when he has reached tlie «Cate of earthly per- 
fectiun ; and thi vacancy of that region oi earthly biln 
!■ explained ro him by the Vision of false and confused 
government, Vfherein i« portrayed the failure of Church 
asd State to bring man back to the life of Eden, 'io 
th« Church ai an earrhly organila tlon, or regimen, the- 
grace of God hii eommi^t^td by an tki pa ti on tueh re- 
realed cmth at 19 necessary to help the enfeebled will of 
Biict to recover the itate of Eden. But the Church, as 
a regjcnen, h not to be confounded with ReifeJatiorr 
(BeaCrke) heneif. The proper oRice of the Church, as 
a regimen, endt when the proper office of Heacrice 
vliegln», See De Mmarchia, iii, 4: i-OJ-ill. 


ThedetalSsof the eecond cantica follow thegenerd 
icheme ; based on three, sub. divided into «even, railed 
hy unlike addition^ LO nine, and by a (ttill m^tuber aa, 
a totally dLlferent plan?, I» ten,^ 

The thrcefalid diTision, whidi is expounded at length 
\n Canto xvii,, resti on thediltiuctlo]] between (i) per- 
verse, (ii) defect ire, and (iii) exceealve love. By perverte 
love is meant a delight in ihirtga which ought to grieve 
Ui, and of the three natura] objects of l<iv«i, Ciod, >peU, and 
neighbour, the two lit» are «ecured (except in case 
of such monstrous perversion a* is punished in Circle 
7 of HdO from liste. (1) PervcTse love, then, laaat 
consiEt In taking a delight In evil that hefaJin others. 
The prood man deiires to eseel, and therefore rejoices in 
defeating the jiHempt» ol others (i ]. The envious roar 
hatei being over-sha^dow^d and made to think meanly 

2 % 



oF hicnself anJ hli beLan^ir^i, and therefore rvjoicei b 
thcm{9ffttcifl[ieiofofh«s(i]3. The angty mah wishain 
hli indignicìon lo make iliose vrho ha>r ofTendei! him 
«mart, and lo findi a aatii fact ion in their ffu^{!ring'i(ili), 
(11) They wlicj ar^ jpiHtualiy and inceUef^cuaLEy «luggijh 
jntheconCemplation of [he di*lnegoodnes.<,o[ iluggiib 
in the will to pur&ue it, are alike guilty of iloth, ar 
jn^deiiuatc Lave (it), ('IH) And thoir who pUnlit 
wealth (vj, or the pleasure* of the taWe (tì;. oc canal 
appttltc (vìi), without ohierfing due limttationi, art 
guilty ofexCcMifeandill-regul^led loTcfor thingi wHti 
sliauld only take a aecondaiy place in their areclioM. 
Hence the threefold dtvisjan, hy anb-diuiMon of iwei- 
creme lavmbevt, hai giteli ui « lerenfvld divisii?» which 
calneidea with the- s^'ven deadly aim of the Catholic 
Chnrch. Besldei this vit have on the island at the Iiik 
of the mounnain ltio!ie who hare died in contunviej 
against the Church ; aTid on the ilopes of the moiml 
belijw tb* gife WS have the late- repentant. Thew 
two eLassBs raise seven Co n;in« ; and at the t<^p of the 
mountain we have the Earthly Paradise, not pwt rf 
Pxrgatpry at aU, but the goal to which the purif 
wuh are led. 


T il near sunrise when the poeti isaue at the eutem 
M«e of the Mount of Purgatory (i. i9->i)i and dose 
ipon sunrise, 6 a.m., as they leave Cato (i, 107-117). 
The stars in mid heaven hare disappeared when the 
ouls are discharged from tlie angel's boat (iL 55-57). 
hough shadows are not yet distinctly visible since the 
ouls recognise Dante as a living man only by his 
ureatbing (ii. 671 68). The sun is up and the hour 
^ Vespers, 3 p.m., has already arrived in Italy, as 
he poets turn westward again towards the mountain 
UL 16-26). The conversation with Manfred Is over 
ibout 9.20 A.M. (iv. 15). It is noonday when Dante 
las finishedhis conversation with Belaqua (iv. 137-139)1 
hat is to say, the sun Is in the north ; and since the 
xtetB are almost on the due east portion of the 
nountain, it is not long ere the sun disappears behind 
he hitl (vi. 51). So Dante casts no shadow, and is 
lot recognized as a living man by Sordello, with whom 
l^irgil converges till day is declining (viL 43) At 
runtet the souls in the valley of the kings sing their 
tvening hymn (viii. t-iS); very soon after which the 
>oets descend (descent being possible after sunset, 
jiongh they could not hare ascended, tf. vii. 58, 59) 
Sto the «alley, as twilight deepens (viii 43.5i), 
~ 'Jng the moment of Ml moon to have been at 
: Ml the Friday morning, it is now 3x14. hours 
moon, and the retardation of the moon is 
13x51 m!nutes=ahours 36 minutes; and the 
'hercKire, has passed through the Scales and 
minutes deep in Scorpion. The lint stars ot 
jn, then, and the glow of the lunar aurora are 
.e horizon, and it is just over S.30 p.m. o i what 
a the reservations itidicated in the chronological 
2 E* «S 


nate on the Itifirn») we may call Monday evening, 
wtii^n Daate falLi asleep fiK. ■•ii], Before dawn, on 
the next pioirnlng D&ntc hag a tÌbìoii of itie engle, 
and \^ in paint of fact carried op hj Lucia near to 
the gate of Purgatory (\x, tj-fij), where he awakes 
3t about S A.M.. (Ix. 44), The rvtardation of the moon 
it now ] Kours and 1 ininutie<, and whttn thef iuut 
Upon the- first lerraetr she ha» already *« [»■ iJ-'S). 
U ia ^heiefore about -g .a.u. About 11 d'ctock Dooa 
they reach the stair to the second circle (kìb. So, 8c^. 
When the poeta pass from the second to the third 
terrace they are walking westward and have therefoM 
rcacSed the ntirtliern quartier of the mount, and it ii 
I o'clock in the aftertioon (xv. l-^) ; and their direct ion 
h&^ not sensibly chajige:il when th'ey meet the wratlifut 
(xv. IJ9). The sun has already let at the base of 
the i]ioit(lta,lTi l^XTii, 13) when th« SukI vidons of 
the cic-cle of the wrathful come opon Dante^ and 
he sets to the pneta, high up an the mountain, 
just ai (hey haie completed the alcent of the itair to 
the fourth circle (xvii. 70-75). By comparing ihe»e 
data, it will be Ken that the poets tfaverAe poTtidni 
of the first three GÌrcle«, cooitit'DtiDg akogether a 
qaadrant or a littSe morel, during thin day. Thcj 
start Ort tht easLern side of the mountain, and end at 
the north, or a Little west of it, and have «pent aliout 
three hovirj in each circle. Ahont three hours more 
ara occupied by Virgil's di«cdiirs«, whìth «nd» towards 
midnight, when the moon, which rost; at 9.1S, a good 
may south of east, now firftt appears due ea^t, or a 
trilie north, of due eaa^t, from buhind the inoiintain 
tKTÌEi. yé-Si) Before dawn (xix. i-tì) on what we 
may call Wednesday, Dante hai his v t»EoTi of the Siren, 
nnd it Ì9 ^1 diiyl);g;ht when he wakef. They itiil 
travel dne, ar nearly due, we.9t, with the newly riien 
lun at their batkii (xiit. 37-39). They swiftly pui 
the fourth circle and reach the fifth, in which they 
■ lay 10 long that It ia after ten when they reach the 
siith circle (sxi!, tij-iio). Though they are now well 
to the west of the mountain, the lun hai travelled with 
them, sa that Dante caits a ahado'w (xxiii. 1 14), In- 
deed it Is after two o'clock vrhen they peaicb the itlir 
which lead* to the sheath circle (xk*. 1-5), k> that by 


is time shadowi are vUible on the mountain from 
ar the north-east to near the south-west of Its 
rface. As Dante converses with the shades on the 
renth terrace the tun is ahnost due west ; the poet la 
liking nearly due south, the sun on his right and 
e flame giowing redder under hii shadow at the left 
XTÌ. 1-9). And the position is not perceptibly changed 
len the angel of the circle appears to them as the 
a sets at the base of the mountain (xxtìì. 1-6) ; nor 
Te they mounted many stairs after passing through 
e flame, before the tun, exactly behind them, sett on 
i higher regioni of the mount where they now are 
ZTii àt-69). Before sunrise (xxvil. 94*96) on the 
J we may call Thursday, Dante sees Leah in his 
Ion, and wakes at dawn of day (xxvii. 109-114^ 
ic sun shines full upon their faces ai they enter the 
[fthly Paradise from the western point, facing east 
XTii. 133); and it la noonday (xvxiii. loj-iosjasthey 
ich the source of Lethe and Eunoe. 
*. - For the time references in the ParaSt», tee Parad, 
vii. Si, 84, Arpiiintì ifte and map. 

P H. W. 


The prtttni tdiiUn of tht " Purgatorio," um/trm tbHA 
tlu " Inferno " and " Paradiso " aireaJg iumd in " The 
Temple Classics," ioj òten tdUtd by Mr H. Oelsner, 
M,A., Ph.D., «fj« M raponiihU far the Italian text 
(kued en the e£tioni of Witte, Moore and Casini), 
imd Jtr the notti at ike end of each tanto. The JSnglJtA 
vertion h by Mr Thomas Okey, joint autkar {vntk Mr 
Bolton King) af " Italy To-day," Irani/ator ifMa*%Mi 
" Eaiaya," i^c. The Argumenli have been written iy ih* 
Rev. Philip H. Wicksteed, M.A., wia has alto contri- 
buted the matter on fagei 4-3Z-437 (uniform with the torre- 
ifionding papere from hit pen at the thie ^ the other tv>o 
voluMtt'), and by -wham moit of the diagrami have again bein 

I. G. 

Oetober 14, 1901. 



The tranelatloiii of the Purgatoria here oHcrsd tQ 

the public ha» b«en unciercaKen «oleLy co enable the 
publiaheri to compiere their iesue of the dujua^Jia 
in TAt I'emfit Ctaniti, itt atm Ì9 to lend a helping 
liaiDiI to those who, a.lreaidy puss-eBsing gome know- 
ledge of Latin or of i kinjctd linguagi?, tnajr delire 
to read tlip poen) in the prigifjal Italian, It i« not 
Intended la eumpete witii, stllL Sess to lupersede, any 
evlatln^ translation. Some experience iii introducing 
Dante to English studeula t)aE convinced the writec 
how eia-ential it is, if interest and enthnaiann are Co 
l>e maintained, that the u%t «liquid he KtudEed in 
Italian. Few »re they who begin their author in a 
trantlacion but who bood decide, either to drcp the 
fltndy, ar to learn to read him in the original, Thfr 
diiGcultiei that beset the reader ol the Cvmnudia arc 
not somnch pihilolagicalaiexegeeìcal Of the iupremc 
pùcti none loses «o much by translatiati as Dante; 
none so qui>;kly repays a «tudy of the original lest, 
Many passagea indeed are clearer in Italian than in 
tngltafi. It wilt be foi*nd that text and tranaUtlOa 
correspoLid coniiBtently terzetto tat Urxiliv, but not 
Line foT line, and that for greater clearnesa the text 
has generaUy been conitruied In accord Tvith tbc 
English rather than the Italian idiom. Where a 
literal rendering would convey no meaning a para- 
phrase (ut in vxiK. 47j hM been tiatar^J^d, and ttie 
technical eqiuivalent, when thought neccseary, gÌTea 
and explained in a notCL 

The rrantlacor Is keenly coniciouB hew far he hat 
fallen stiort of achievement, and will wetcome any 
nig'geitiona for the improremenc of his work, He 
hope« that at lea«t Kìh labours %vill facilitate ibie 
passage of a few pilgriiXiK through tlie ntnnda regne^ 
and further in tome tmall w^ay the ever-growing 
interest in Dan.t« studies in England. 

T. O. 



I ouiRE to acknowledge once igatn m^ speciit In- 
debtednecs (in the way of references and hiitorical 
data) to Mr Paget Toynbee') Danti Dietianary, a work 
to which all Dante students and scholars must turn 
vrith gratitude ; and to express my heartiest thanks to 
Mr Wicksteed for a number of valuable suggestions 
(relating especially to astronomical, philosophical, 
and allegorical points, and to the finer shades of the 
poet's meaning), which, I feel, impart to my 
Purgatoria notes any distinction they may be found 
to possess. Dr Moore kindly consented to my 
reproducing the diagrams on pp. 34 and 35 from his 
Ttme-Reftrencti. The map of Upper and Central 
Italy is copied, with certain alterations, from the one 
prepared by WItte for Kannegiesser's German trans- 
tation of the Commedia (Leipzig, 1843). Reference 
should be made throughout to Mr £. G. Gardner's 
Dantt in the TanpU Frimcrt. A useful handbook for 
the numerous historical passages illustrated by 
Villani is Selfe and Wicksteed's StUttiom fnm VHianei 
CAronicit. For the general scope of the notes the 
reader Is referred to the Editorial Note at the close of 
the Tolume containing the Faradito. 

H. O. 




(a) The Coubsk op the Pom kound and up 


(li) The ioktions or the Mouktain under 

Ufurr AND laADE AT é o'clock A.U. . . 13 

(«) The poktioni of the Mountain undek 


(J) The Po&TioMa oi the Mountain onde> 

UOHT AND SHADE AT (i o'clock P.M. . .10} 

DiAORAHS Illvbtkatinq Stncueonuiu . 34, 35 

Showing the Hours at which the ievrral signs 
or THE Zodiac begin to rue at Tbi Sfring 
EfluiNox 59 

Pamilt Tabus .... : 86-91, 241 

Maf or Upper and Central Italt 376, 377 



3 2044 019 290 972 


Harvard College WIdener Library 
Cambridge, MA 021 38 {617)495-2413