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Bulletin 256 February, 1924 ^3
ACmCOLTORAL EXPERIMENT STATION
NEW HAVEN, CONN.
W. E. BRITTON, Ph.D.
The Bulletins of this Station are mailed free to citizens of Connecticut
who apply for them, and to other applicants as far as the editions permit.
CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
OFFICERS AND STAFF
BOARD OF CONTROL.
His Excellency, Charles A. Templeton, ex-offido, President.
James H. Webb, Vice-President Hamden
George A. Hopson, Secretary Mount Carmel
W. L. Slate, Jr., Director and Treasurer New Haven
Joseph W. Alsop Avon
Charles R. Treat Orange
Elijah Rogers Southington
Edward C. Schneider Middletovm
E. H. Jenkins, Ph.D., Director Emerilus.
Administration ^- L. Slate, Jr., B.Sc, Director and Treasurer.
Miaa L. M. Brautlecht, Bookkeeper and Librarian.
Miss J. V. Berger, Stenographer and Bookkeeper.
Miss Mart Bradley, Secretary.
William Veitch, In charge of Buildings and Grounds.
E. M. Bailey, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge.
R. E. Andrew, M.A. 1
C. E. ShEPARD [ a ■ . . r'l
Owen L. Nolan [ Assistant Chemists.
Harry J. Fisher, A.B. J
Frank Sheldon, Laboratory Assistant.
V. L. Churchill, Sampling Agent.
Miss Mabel Bacon, Stenographer.
T. B. Osborne, Ph.D., Sc.D., Chemist in Charge.
G. P. Clinton, Sc.D., Botanist in Charge,
E. M. Stoddard, B.S., Pomologist.
Miss Florence A. McCormick, Ph.D., Pathologist.
G. E. Graham, General Assistant.
Mrs. W. W. Kelsey, Secretary.
W. E. Britton, Ph.D., Entomologist in Charge; State Entomologist.
B. H. Walden. B.Agr. 1
M. P. Zappe, B.S. I , ■ . , IP , 1 ■ ,
Philip Garman, Ph.D. f Assistant Entomologists -
Roger B. Friend, B.Sc. J
John T. Ashworth, Deputy in Charge of Gipsy Moth Work.
R. C. BoTSFORD, Deputy in Charge of M osquito Elimination.
Miss Gladys M. Finley, Stenographer.
V^''alter O. Filley, Forester in Charge.
A. E. Moss, M.F., Assistant Forester.
H. W. HicocK, M.F., Assistant Forester.
Miss Pauline A. Merchant, Stenographer.
Donald F. Jones, S.D., Geneticist in Charge.
P. C. MANGELBDOEr, M.S., Assistant.
M. F. Morgan, M.S., Investigator.
C. M. Slaqq, M.S., in Ch-irge.
Thb Wilson H. Lee Co.
Twenty-third Report of the State Entomologist 225
Report of Receipts and Expenditures 225
Summary of Inspection and Office Work 226
PubUcations of Entomological Department 226
Department Staff and Work 228
New Equipment 230
Entomological Features of 1923 230
Fruit Insects 231
Vegetable Insects 232
Shade Tree and Forest Insects 234
Miscellfemeous Insects 236
Summer Field Meeting 237
Inspection of Nurseries in 1923 239
Oyster-shell Scale 240
Spruce Gall Aphid 240
Poplar Canker 241
Pests Found in Nurseries 241
List of Pests Found in Nurseries in 1923 242
Nursery Firms Receiving Certificates in 1923 243
Inspection of Imported Nursery' Stock 245
Pests Found on Imported Nursery Stock 246
Inspection of Apiaries 247
European Foul Brood 248
American Foul Brood 248
Apiaries Inspected in 1923 249
Registration of Bees 252
Report of Gipsy Moth Work : 253
New Equipment 253
Windham County 254
New London County 255
Tolland County 257
Hartford County 259
Litchfield County 260
Middlesex County 261
New Haven County 262
Statistics of Infestations 262
Summary of Statistics 265
Parasites Liberated in 1923 265
Financial Statement 266
Experiments in Dusting versus Spraying in Connecticut Apple Orchards
in 1923 267
Orchards Under Experiment 267
Apparatus Used 268
Number and Time of Applications 268
Recording Data 268
Milford Orchard 269
Station Orchard, Mount Carmel 273
Tests of Sodium Hypochlorite for Control of American Foul Brood of Bees 275
Further Experience ■with Paradichlorobenzene as a Remedv for Peach
Borers '. 276
224 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
The European Corn Borer in Connecticut 277
Scouting by State Men 278
Scouting by Federal Men 278
Source of Connecticut Infestations 279
Federal and State Quarantines 280
Quarantine Order No. 5 280
Infested Areas 281
Prevalence of Oriental Peach Moth 284
Summary of Life History 286
Control Measures 287
The Larch Leaf-Miner or Case Bearer 288
Injuiy to the Trees 288
Life History and Habits 289
Natural Enemies 290
Control Measures 290
The Asiatic Beetle 291
Swarms of Aphids 293
Mosquitoes and Human Welfare 294
Life History of Mosquitoes 296
Different Kinds of Mosquitoes 297
How to Distinguish Malarial from Other Mosquitoes 298
The Mosquito Plague of Connecticut 299
Control or Relief Measures 300
Individual and Community Effort 301
Salt Marsh Mosquito Problem a State-Wide Matter 302
Benefits of Mosquito Control • 302
Mosquito Control Work in 1923 303
General Conditions 305
The Work by Towns 305
Miscellaneous Insect Notes 310
Swarms of Butterflies 310
Giant Water Bug. 310
European House Cricket 311
The Birch Leaf-Skeletonizer 311
Spruce Leaf-Miner 311
European Pine Shoot Moth in Connecticut 311
The Box Leaf-miner 312
Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer 312
Swarms of the Chain-Dotted Geometer 312
FHght of Cotton Moths 313
A Japanese Weevil in Connecticut 313
State Entomologist of Connecticut.
To the Director and Board of Control of the Connecticut Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
I have the honor to transmit, herewith, my twenty-third annual
report as State Entomologist of Connecticut. Except for the
financial statements which cover the fiscal year ending June 30,
1923, this report relates the activities of the department for the
calendar year of 1923. It contains the usual somewhat detailed
account of work prescribed by the Statutes, such as nurserj^ and
apiary inspection, mosquito eUmination and gips}^ moth sup-
pression. The account of the gipsy moth work is given in con-
densed form. The results of studies of the raspberry fruit worm
by Mr. B. H. Walden, have already been pubKshed as Bulletin
251, and of the European red mite, by Dr. PhiUp Garman, as
Bulletin 252 of this Station. Special papers in this report deal
with the results of experiments in dusting versus sprajdng apple
orchards in 1923, the European corn borer, Oriental peach moth,
the Asiatic beetle, the larch case-bearer, further experience with
paradichlorobenzene as a remedy for peach borers, tests of sodium
hypochlorite for the control of American foul brood of bees,
swarms of aphids, and notes on miscellaneous insects.
W. E. Britton,
State and Station Entomologist.
INSECT PEST ACCOUNT.
Report of Receipts and Expenditures of the State
From July 1, 1922 to June 30, 1928.
From E. H. Jenkins, Treasurer S13,025.34
Account of 1922, Balance 1,089.53
State Comptroller, Gipsy Moth Accoiint 218.80
Interest on Bank Deposits 42.31
Various Soiu"ces (automobile mileage) 49.02
For Salaries and Wages $8,111.28
Printing and Illustrations 363.13
226 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Stationery , $ 211.51
Furniture and Fixtures 127.95
Library (Books and Periodicals) 1,011.93
Laboratory Supplies 692.38
Spraying Supplies 105.00
Machinery, Tools and Supplies 255.73
Scientific Apparatus 593.16
Express, Freight and Cartage 32.11
Automobiles: Insurance • 105.71
Supplies and Equipment 175.88
Repairs • 218.72
Traveling Expenses 267.07
Miscellaneous . . . ; 785.88
Telephone and Telegraph 1.55
Heat and Light 1.00
Rental and Storage 42.85
Balance, Cash on Ha^d 1,032.99
ikfemorandum.— This account has been audited by the State Auditors of
Public Accovmts. The item of $218.80 received from the State Comptroller
is in effect a transfer from the appropriation for suppressing gipsy and brown-
tail moths and for inspecting imported nursery stock, and covers the time and
automobile mileage of members of the department staff while engaged in the
work of inspecting imported nursery stock. The item of $785.88 under miscel-
laneous expenditures includes interest on bank balances, automobile mileage
and other miscellaneous receipts paid over to the Station Treasurer and by
him returned to the State Comptroller.
Summary of Inspection and Office Work.
224 samples of insects received for identification.
114 nurseries inspected.
108 regular certificates granted.
85 duphcate certificates furnished to be filed in other States.
60 parcels of nursery stock inspected and certified.
31 orchards and gardens examined.
35 shipments, containing 179 cases, 1,981,895 plants, imported nursery
15 shipments or 42.8 per cent, found infested with insects or fungi.
725 apiaries, containing 6,802 colonies inspected.
17 apiaries and 25 colonies found infested with European foul brood.
7 apiaries and 22 colonies found infested with American foul brood.
2,283 letters written on official work.
663 circular letters.
368 post cards.
53 reports to Federal Horticultiu-al Board.
857 bulletins, etc., mailed on request or to answer inquiries.
86 packages sent by mail or express.
19 lectures and addresses at institutes, granges and other meetings.
Publications of the Entomological Department, 1923.
By W. E. Britton:
Twenty-second Report of the State Entomologist of Connecticut (Bulletin
247) 118 pages, 8 figures, 16 plates; 10,500 copies distributed in October,
PUBLICATIONS OF ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 227
The Aleyrodidae and Coccidae of Connecticut. Reprinted from Bulletin
No. 34, Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, 48 pages,
3 figures, 4 plates, June, 1923.
The European Corn Borer Quarantine, Bulletin of Immediate Information
No. 25, 5 pages; 3,000 copies, Jime, 1923.
The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Bulletin of Immediate Information
No. 26, August 15, 1923.
Registration of Bees, Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 27, 200
copies, September 15, 1923.
The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Proceedings 32nd Anaual Meeting
Connecticut Pomological Society, page 21, 1923.
Rapid Spread of the Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Hemerophila pariana
Clerck, Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 16, page 207, April,
The Gipsy Moth, Proceedings of Conference at Albany, N. Y. November
16, 1922, Bulletin 148, New YorK State Department of Agriculture, page
44, December, 1922.
Swarms of Aphids, Journal of Economic Entomology', Vol. 16, page 395,
Report of Committee on Injurious Insects, Proceedings 32nd Annual
Meeting, Connecticut Pomological Society, page 5, 1923.
The Arbor-Vitae Leaf-Miner, Tree Talk, Vol. 5, No. 2, page 24, 1923.
The Work of the State Entomologist, Hartford Daily Courant, Sunday,
October 21, 1923.
Insects Attacking Vegetable Crops in 1922 (Insect Part of Report of Com-
mittee on Diseases and Insects), Report of Cormecticut Vegetable Growers
Association for 1922, page 83.
Recent Developments in the Use of Insecticides, Part II, Bulletin 242,
By W. E. Britton and G. P. Clinton:
Spray Calendar, (Bulletin 244) 44 pages with card, illustrated, 11,500
copies. May, 1923.
The Winter Pruning of Fruit Trees, Bulletin of Immediate Information,
No. 19, March 14, 1923.
Dormant Sprays on Orchard Trees, Bulletin of Immediate Information
No. 20, March 21, 1923.
The Pink Spray for Apple Orchards, Bulletin of Immediate Information
No. 22, May 1, 1923.
The Calyx Spray for Apples and Quinces, Bulletin of Immediate Information
No. 24, May 21, 1923.
By W. E. Britton et al: The Hemiptera of Connecticut, Bulletin No. 34,
Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, Projected and
Edited by W. E. Britton. Text by J. F. Abbott, A. C. Baker, H. G.
Barber, W. E. Britton, W. T. Davis, D. M. DeLong, W. D. Funkhouser,
H. H. Knight, A. C. Maxson, Herbert Osborn, H. M. Parshley, E. M.
Patch, L. A. Stearns, J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, E. P. Van Duzee and H. F.
Wilson; 807 pages, 169 figures, 20 plates, June, 1923.
By M. p. Zappe and E. M. Stoddard:
Results of Dusting rs. Sprajdng in Connecticut Apple and Peach Orchards
in 1922 (Balletin 245), 17 pages, June, 1922.
Comparative Results of Spraying and Dusting on Apples and Peaches,
Proceedings 32nd Annual Meeting Connecticut Pomological Society, page
By Philip Garman:
Work -with, the Control of the European Red Mite in 1922. Proceedings
32nd Annual Meeting, Connecticut Pomological Society, page 13, 1923.
Notes on the Life History of Clastoptera obtusa and Lepyronia quadrangu-
laris, Annals Entomological Society of America, Vol. XVI, page 153;
10 pages, 1 figure, 1 plate, June 1923.
228 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
By B. a. Porter and Philip Garman:
The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Bulletin 246, 20 pages, 3 figures, 4 plates ,
By Samuel T. Sealy:
Recent Development of Mosquito Work in Connecticut, Proceedings of
the Ninth Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination
Association, page 94, 1922.
Accomphshments in the Past Year in Anti-Mosquito Work in Connecticut,
Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito
Extermination Association, page 91, 1923.
DEPARTMENT STAFF AND WORK.
W. E. Britton, Ph.D., State and Station Entomologist.
B. H. Walden, B.Agr., Photographic and General Work. 1 a t' f nt
M. P. Zappe, B.S., Inspection and General Work. \ vlhL^ni^n->\f^
Philip Garman, Ph.D., Research Work. J ^rilomoLogisls.
John T. Ashworth, Deputy in Charge of Gipsy Moth Work.
James A. McEvoy, Assistant in Gipsy Moth Work.
RobeS C. I'otseord,^ } D^P-'y '^ Charge of Mosquito Work.
Miss Gladys M. Finley, Clerk and Stenographer.
H. W. COLEY, Westport, \ a^„^.. Jrt^'np'rtnr'i
A. W. Yates, Hartford, / ^^^"^V Inspectors.
Mr. Samuel T. Sealy, who has served as Deputy in charge of
mosquito work for three years, resigned to take effect April 1, 1923.
Mr. Walden was placed in charge of this work temporarily. Mr,
Robert C. Botsford was employed to work with Mr. Walden and
on becoming famihar with the situation was appointed Deputy
Mr. J. LesHe Rogers was employed from July 1 to December 1
to aid in inspecting nurseries and after that work was finished, to
search for the European corn borer. Mr. T. F. Cronin was em-
ployed from June to Sepitember as assistant in inspection of
nurseries. Mr. M. J. Hubbell was employed during November in
the construction of the addition to the insectary and in building
some out-door breeding cages.
Besides giving Ms attention to the mosquito control for three
months, Mr. Walden was able to complete his studies on the rasp-
berry fruit worm, the results of which have been pubhshed as
Bulletin No. 251.
Dr. Garman has continued with experiments to control the
European red mite, Paratetranychus pilosus Can. & Fanz., and his
results of four seasons' work in Connecticut against this pest have
been published as Bulletin 252. Dr. Garman has given consider-
able attention to a study of the mites, has worked with Mr. Zappe
on the investigations of the plum curculio on apple and Anomala
1 Resigned April 1.
2 From July 1.
DEPARTMENT STAFF AND WORK. 229
orientalis, and has completed the manuscript of a monograph of
the Odonata or Dragon Flies of Connecticut to be published in the
near future by the State Geological and Natural History Survey.
Mr. Zappe has been in charge of the inspection of nursery stock,
and of scouting for European corn borer. In co-operation with
Mr. E. M. Stoddard of the Botanical Department, Mr. Zappe has
continued the tests of various dusts in comparison with sprays
in apple and peach orchards for the control of the various insects
and fungous pests. The work this year was chiefly for the purpose
of trying some of the new copper dusts, but in most cases insecti-
cides were added and the results so far as they relate to insects
may be found in the following pages of this report.
Dusts were also appKed to potatoes at the Station Farm in com-
parison with the usual spray of Bordeaux mixture and lead arse-
nate. Mr. Zappe has further experimented with Paradichloro-
benzene as an agent in controlling the peach borer.
The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenwphar Hbst., has proven a
serious pest of apples in Connecticut, often disfiguring a large pro-
portion of the fruit and is seemingly difficult of control. In order
to learn more of its habits and to devise some more effective control
methods a five-year program has been adopted. Some progress
has been made during the past season b}^ Messrs. Zappe and
The gipsy moth control work has been continued as for the past
few years, the field work being in charge of Deputy John T.
Ash worth, aided by his Assistant, Mr. J. A. ]McEvo3\ About
twenty-five other men have been kept busy throughout the year
in scouting for egg-masses and latvae, and in spraying during the
latter half of May and June. This work is performed in co-opera-
tion with the Federal Bureau of Entomolog>^
The apiary inspection work has been done as in past j'ears by
Messrs. H. W. Coley and A. W. Yates on a per diem basis.
The Entomologist, besides directing the work of the Department
and attending to the correspondence of the office, has continued
to serve as Associate Editor of the Journal of Economic Entomol-
ogy, and as Chairman of the Tree Protection Examining Board.
He has also continued to aid the Federal Bureau of Entomology
by gathering data and submitting reports for the Insect Pest
Survey. Several years ago he organized and projected the work
on the Hemiptera of Connecticut, which has just been published
as Bulletin No. 34 of the State Geological and Natural History
Survey; he is the author of that portion deahng with the white
ffies (Aleyrodidae) and scale insects (Coccidae) and has edited the
entire volume of 807 pages. Some of the drawings for the text
figures were done by Dr. Garman and the photographs were
arranged and most of them made by Mr. Walden. The index and
much of the proof reading was done in this office and altogether
considerable attention has been given to it during the year.
230 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
During, the year the equipment of the Department has been
substantially increased. A new insectary 10 x 20 feet with
boarded roof and sides covered with cottage wire netting has been
built at the Station Farm at Mount Carmel, and has already been
used in connection with the plum curculio investigations on apple.
The out-door insectary at the Station, which was 10 x 16 feet in
size with shingled roof has been moved about one hundred feet
northward, and an addition 12 x 14 feet built, with glass roof and
sides covered with chicken wire netting. The original portion has
the sides covered with fine mesh copper wire, and will be kept as a
separate compartment. Both insectaries are shown on Plate IX.
Two new binocular microscopes (one of portable type) and a
Bausch & Lomb photomicrographic stand with accessory lens and
Hghting equipment, and a Wales adding machine have been
purchased for the laboratory. A new self-recording thermometer
was also obtained to use in the insectary.
Several important additions have been made to the library,
including the insect portion of the Biologia Centrali-Americana
and a complete set of the Bulletin of Entomological Research of
ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. .
The season has been abnormal and quite the opposite of 1922,
in that little rain fell between July 1 and October 1. Many crops
were below the usual yield on account of the drought. Particularly
were apples under size. The first of the season was cool and moist
and there were several hard frosts in April, but no early hard frosts
in the fall.
Perhaps the most outstanding features of the season, so far as
insects are concerned, were the general injury of apple trees in
July by the apple and thorn skeletonizer, Henierophila pariana
Clerck, which caused nearly all unsprayed apple trees throughout
the central part of the State to turn brown, the increase in the
Oriental peach moth, Laspeyresia molesta Busck, and the discovery
of the European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn., in Groton in
October and in East Ljone in December.
There has been no important increase in the territory infested
by the gipsy moth as was the case in 1921, caused by wind-spread,
though a few additional towns were found by Federal scouts to be
infested. For this reason the towns of Goshen, Litchfield,
Cheshire, Meriden, Middlefield, WaUingford, Old Lyme and Old
Saybrook have been placed under Federal quarantine.
The brown-tail moth has not again appeared in Connecticut^
and not a single nest has been seen since 1919.
entomological features of 1923. 231
The pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Forst., caused the usual amount
of damage and was particularly prominent in a pear orchard in
Southington in July.
The San Jose scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst., is somewhat on
the increase, though no such serious injury has been seen in
Connecticut as has been reported from southern Illinois and
The false apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reut., was not promi-
nent and generally caused less injury throughout the State than
The pear leaf blister mite, Eriophyes pyri Pagst., was received
from Hamden and Waterbury.
The European red mite, Paratetranychus pilosus Can. & Fanz.,
was responsible for rather wide-spread damage to Baldwin apple
orchards during the season, probably more than in 1922. The
results of Dr. Carman's experiments for the control of this pest
may be found in Bulletin 252.
The rosy apple aphid, Anur aphis roseus Baker, caused less
damage than usual though some injury was reported from Haddam
and Deep River. Eggs were rather abundant on the fruit spurs
in March about- New Haven.
The green apple aphid. Aphis pomi DeGeer, was present on
water-sprouts and terminal shoots, in usual abundance.
The rose leafhopper, Empoa rosae Linn., seemed to be more
abundant than usual on apple trees, and on May 8, nymphs had
just hatched from eggs at Milford.
The rose chafer, Macrodactylus subspinosus Fabr., was scarce in
some locaHties and abundant in others and injured the developing
fruit by eating holes in it.
The tarnished plant bug, Lygus pratensis Linn., caused some
injury to the terminal twigs of apple and peach nursery stock and
its work was observed in several nurseries in different parts of the
State early in August.
The tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americana Fabr., is still in-
creasing and may be expected to be very abundant throughout
the State in 1924. Eggs are now present everywhere on the twigs
of apple and wild cheny. During the year specimens of this in-
sect were received from Clinton, Southport and Wasliington, with
special reports from Danbury, Meriden and ^lansfield, and from
Fairfield, Litchfield and Windham Counties.
The apple maggot or railroad worm, Rhagoletis pomonella
Walsh, was fully as abmidant as usual though in our experiments,
apples sprayed or dusted with lead arsenate after July 1 were
almost free from injury. Specimens were received from New
Haven, Cheshire and Berlin.
The plunr curcuHo, Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst., was more
232 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
abundant than in the average season and caused much injury to
The Oriental peach moth, Laspeyresia molesta Busck, was more
abundant than it has ever been before in Connecticut. The larvae
tunneled in the twigs of peach trees, and were found in the fruit
late in the season. This insect was first found in Connecticut at
Stamford by Federal scouts in 1918, and it is not known to occur
anywhere in the State except in Fairfield and New Haven Counties.
In 1923 a few infested peaches were found at the Station Farm at
A cocoon of the bag worm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw.,
on quince was received from New Haven, May 1. The eggs
hatched and the larvae were fed and reared to maturity and the
The grape vine tomato gall, Lasioptera vitis 0. S., was abundant
as usual, and specimens were received from West Hartford, June
14, and from New Britain, June 19.
The red-humped caterpillar, Schizura concinna S. & A., was
present in usual numbers, and specimens were received from
Bloomfield, July 16, and from East Hampton, August 14.
On account of the cool and damp weather in May and June
the seed did not germinate promptly and there was considerable
injury by the seed corn maggot, Hylemyia cilicrura Rond. One
field of corn in Milford was seriously injured in June.
Wireworms (Elateridae) caused damage of varying extent in
three fields of corn on one farm in Woodbridge, visited on July 6.
In one small field 50 per cent, of the corn had been destroyed.
Cutworms caused the usual amount of injury throughout the
State, but serious injury to tobacco plants was reported from
Portland, June 22, where there was 15 per cent, damage. The
owner used poisoned bran mash, but also poisoned the plants and
There was, perhaps, more than the usual amount of injur}^ from
the stalk borer, Papaipema nitela Guen. Records of injury to
corn came from Somers, Torrington, Waterbury, Hamden and
Derby. In Windsor it attacked tobacco, and in Stratford,
tomatoes and peppers. This insect occurs over the entire State,
and may tunnel in any kind of herbaceous stem — even weeds.
No remedy is known other than destroying the borers when found.
The corn ear worm, Chloridea obsoleta Fabr., was present in a
number of fields late in the season, as it was in 1922, but was
nowhere nearly so abundant as in 1921.
The turnip aphid, Aphis pseudohrassicae Davis, killed or
seriously injured turnips and kale in many parts of the State in
June, July and August. Specimens were received from Meriden,.
Danbury, Harwinton, Hamden and New Haven.
ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 233
Colonies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne hrassicae Linn.,
started on cabbages in New Haven and did some damage, but
The pea aphid, Illinoia pisi Kalt., was also present on garden
peas and caused perhaps the usual amount of damage. This
damage was serious in some fields, one grower near New Haven
reporting a total loss on three acres. In certain parts of Hartford
County, a forty per cent, infestation was observed on June 22, and
reported by County Agent South wick.
The potato aphid, Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashm., also appeared
in many fields and caused considerable injury. Samples were
received from Wallingford on July 30, with the tips badl}^ infested.
At the Station Farm, Mount Carmel, a potato field was moderately
infested, though the bulk of the aphids came later in the season
than usual. They were abundant on August 7, but by August
24 had all disappeared.
The squash vine borer, Mellilia satyriniformis Hubn., the squash
bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer, and the striped cucumber beetle,
Diabrotica viitata Fabr., were all present in usual numbers, the last
being reported as being very al)imdant at Storrs on June 22.
Considerable injury resulted from the attacks of the potato
or cucumber flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris Harr., and four per cent,
damage in Woodstock on June 19, was reported by County Agent
In September, tobacco fields were severe^ injured by having the
leaves partially eaten by the red-legged grasshopper or locust,
Melanoplus femur-rubrimi DeGeer. This damage was estimated
as amounting to between forty and sixty per cent.
The brown colaspis, Colaspis brunnea Fabr., caused some injury
in Hamden and Durham b}- feeding upon the leaves of beans. The
observations were made by J\Ir. Zappe.
The European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn., was dis-
covered at Groton by Federal scouts on October 25, 1923, and a
few days later another small infestation was found farther east-
ward in the same town. All corn stalks, weeds, grass and rubbish
on these small fields was burned. On December 14, another small
infestation was found by Federal scouts in the village of Niantic,
township of East Ljane. These infestations are described more
in detail on page 278.
The Asiatic beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, which was
discussed in last year's Report, pages 277 and 345, has caused
considerable damage to lawns in the vicinity where the adult
beetles were first discovered. The larvae eat the roots of the
grass, kilHng it. A more complete account of this introduced pest
will be found in the following pages of tliis Report.
White grubs devouring the grass roots of a lawn in Sahsbury
were sent by the owner to the Bureau of Entomology at Washing-
ton, and identified hy Dr. Boving as Anomala marginata Fabr.
234 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
This is a species occurring in the southern Atlantic States and was
not known to be present in Connecticut. Mr. Zappe visited the
place and gathered material on September 25, and an attempt
will be made to rear the adults.
Shade Tree and Forest Insects.
The woolly maple-leaf scale, Phenacoccus acericola King, con-
tinues to infest sugar maple trees in villages and cities, but has
not been observed in abundance on maple trees in the open country.
Specimens were received from New Haven, Thompsonville and
The oyster-shell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., is without doubt
the commonest scale insect in Connecticut, and infests not only
shade and forest trees but also fruit trees and ornamental shrubs.
It is the commonest insect found by inspectors in nurseries, and
though perhaps not more abundant than usual, it seems to be
fairly abundant year in and year out. As a rule, the growers pay
little attention to it, except to destroy infested stock in nurseries
when directed to do so.
The arbor- vitae leaf-miner, Argyresthia thuiella Pack., which
caused considerable injury to arbor-vitae trees and hedges around
New Haven in 1921 and much less in 1922, was not injurious in
that region in 1923, though it was reported as causing serious
damage to trees in New Canaan and Stamford.
The white pine weevil, Pissodes strohi Pk., still continues to in-
jure small trees in the open with marked regularity. Specimens
were received from Southington, Kensington and Windsor.
The imported pine sawfiy, Diprion simile Hartig, is present here
and there but not in great abundance. Specimens were received
twice from New Haven during the season, and the insect was
reported from Deep River.
The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella luteola MtiU., caused more
injury than last year throughout the State, but it was particularly
severe in Fairfield County, and its work was observed in Glaston-
bury and Wethersfield.
The imported poplar and willow beetle, Plagiodera versicolora
Laich., which first appeared in the State in Greenwich and Stamford
has spread eastward and is now found in New Haven and Yales-
ville. Some of the infested trees in Greenwich were entirely de-
The oak leaf-roller, Tortrix quercifoliana Fitch, was prevalent
particularly around Hartford and Stamford on pin oaks. Certain
trees in the vicinity of Stamford were nearly defoHated.
The larch leaf-miner, Coleophora laricella Hubn., was prevalent
in some parts of the State and nearly defoliated the larch trees in
June. Specimens were received from Canaan and New Canaan
and the work of this insect was observed elsewhere.
ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 235
The spruce leaf-miner, Recurvaria piceaella Kearfott, was
received on May 7 from New Canaan, where it was causing some
The larch leaf aphid, Chermes strohilohius Kalt., was present on
larch leaves, especially of the European species. Specimens were
received from New Canaan, June 7, and the writer observed this
insect in New Haven.
The pine leaf scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae Fitch, continues to in-
fest the leaves of several species of pines in sheltered situations.
It was received from Manchester, August 22.
The beech leaf aphid, Phyllaphis fagi Linn., is nearly always
present on the leaves of the European beech, especially the purple
leaved form known as the copper beech. Specimens were received
from Danbury, May 29.
Two periods of aphid swarming occurred in the cities of the
State, one in June and the other in September. The June swarms
consisted of Euceraphis deducta Baker, and the September swarms
were Aphis hetulaecolens Fitch. Both species infest birch trees
and no doubt they came from the gray birches which grow
abundantly in most parts of the State. They are certainly com-
mon near New Haven, Bridgeport and Waterbury where these
swarms were particular^ noticeable.
Late in the season willow trees throughout the State were in-
fested with brown aphids, Melanoxantherium sp. Mr. Zappe ob-
served them especially in New Canaan, Darien, Woodmont,
Yalesville, Cromwell and Manchester, while inspecting nurseries,
and the writer saw them on a large willow tree in New Haven on
August 30. The twigs werp covered with large brown wmgless
aphids, and thousands of such aphids were crawling about on the
fence, porch posts and rails and on the painted woodwork of the
house. Wherever an aphid was crushed there was a purple stain,
and these aphids in such abundance were a perfect nuisance.
Honey dew had dripped from the branches upon the grass and
fence imderneath and both the tree and the ground were fairly
swarming with bees, wasps and flies, attracted b}- the honey dew.
The owner was advised to spray liis tree and house with nicotine
solution and soap to kill the apliids.
A wooll}^ aphid, Prociphilus tessellata Fitch, on maple, was
received from Torrington, July 30.
The walnut caterpillar, Datana integer rima G. & R., was reported
as being common at Chester in early fall.
The European pine shoot moth, Evetria huoliana Scliiff, was
received from Tarrj^own, N. Y., on October 3, and from Ridge-
field on November 24. This insect had attacked the Norway or
red pine and its shoots were crooked and deformed as is charac-
teristic of the injury caused by this insect.
The birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb.,
was fully as abundant as in 1922 and defoHated birch trees here
236 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
and there throughout the State. Many thought it to be the same
insect which skeletonized the apple trees.
The fall canker-worm, Alsophila pometaria Harr., was rather
abundant in some localities and the larvae fed upon the leaves of
shade, forest and fruit trees. Around Saybrook and New Haven,
this injury was rather prominent, and apple, elm, poplar, birch
and walnut (Juglans) leaves were eaten. During November and
December the gray male moths were unusually common, fluttering
about the base of trees, and we may expect considerable injury
from this insect next season. The females have no wings and
must crawl up the trunks of trees to lay their eggs. Only early
spraying with some arsenical poison will prevent damage next
The fall web-worm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, which makes
nests on the ends of branches the latter part of the season was
also especially prominent in Hartford, Tolland, Windham and
New London Counties. Specimens were sent in from East Granby,
Meriden and Plantsville. Roadside, woodland and fruit trees
were attacked and many were entirely defoHated.
The house centipede, Scutigera forceps E,af., was sent to the
office October 2 from Southport, where it annoyed the inmates of
a dwelling house.
The basement of an apartment house in New Haven became
overrun by the European cricket, Gryllus domesticus Linn., and
both owner and tenant applied to the writer in April for advice.
The black carpet beetle, Attagenus piceus OHv., causes consid-
erable damage each year by eating holes in clothing hanging in
closets. During the season specimens were received from Meriden
and Farmington. If small pieces of wool cloth are kept on the
floor, the larvae will often feed upon them instead of attacking
The chrysanthemum gall midge, Diarthronomyia hypogaea Loew.,
was sent to the Station, April 10 from some commercial green-
houses at Rowayton where the small potted plants had galls on
A small leaf beetle, Nodonota puncticollis Say, was reported as
eating the buds of roses in Bridgeport, June 19, and specimens
•were sent to the office.
The Euonymus scale, Chionaspis euonymi Comst., was received
from New Haven on April 3 on Pachysandra terminalis, a low-
growing evergreen plant used in shady situations by landscape
gardeners. This is the first time that I have ever seen this plant
The four-hned leaf bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus Fabr., was
common in 1923 and attacked the growing tips of many different
ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 237
kinds of plants. Specimens were received on currant from Ham-
den, June 23, on currant and chrysanthemum from West Haven
June 26, and on peony and spearmint from Stratford, July 2.
The rhododendron borer, Sesia rhododendri Beut., described in
the Report of this Station for 1922, page 347, is still causing injurj^
in rhododendron plantations and the growers are interested in
methods of controlHng it. Specimens were received from Yalesville,
June 16 and from Springfield, Mass., June 28.
Geranium plants were received from New Haven, August 3
which had been injured by white ants, Reculitermes flavipes Kollar.
The ants had tunneled in the stems ruining some of the plants.
On November 23, specimens of box twigs were received from
Waterford. The leaves were badly infested with larvae of the
box leaf-miner, Alonarthropalpus huxi Labou. If possible some
experiments will be conducted for the control of this pest.
Larkspur plants on the grounds of Miss A. B. Jennings, Fair-
field, were severely injured by the mite, Tarsonemus pallidus
Banks. Dr. Garman visited the place on July 3 and found that
many of the buds had been deformed and had turned black and
some leaves were deformed.
The more important of these insects mentioned above, together
with accounts of the experimental and control work of the Depart-
ment are described in greater detail in the following pages of this
Summer Field Meeting.
An important entomological event of the season was the summer
field meeting of the entomologists of the northeastern United
States, which was held in Connecticut Jul}^ 26 and 27. The
members gathered in New Haven on the afternoon and evening
of July 25, the Hotel Taft being the headquarters. The trips to
various points were made b}^ automobile. On the morning of the
26th, they visited the Entomological Department of this Station
and the Station Farm at Mount Carmel, then West Rock Park,
Yale Bowl, Harkness Memorial Quadrangle, and the orchard of
Frank N. Piatt, Milford, where spra3'ing and dusting experiments
were being conducted. From this point the party proceeded along
the coast to the State Park at Hammonasset Beach, Madison.
Following the luncheon, there was a baseball game (Worthley,
umpire); some of the entomologists went bathing while others
collected insects along the beach. Late in the afternoon, the party
went northward, passing Wesley an University at Middletown,
stopping at the large greenhouse and nursery estabhshment of
the A. N. Pierson Co., Cromwell, viewed the gigantic ehn tree in
Wethersfield, and then to Hartford, where at the Hotel Bond a
dinner and evening meeting had been arranged.
238 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
An interesting lecture on the Japanese beetle, illustrated by
lantern slides, was given by Mr. Loren B. Smith of Riverton, N. J.,
in place of Mr. C. H. Hadley, who could not be present. Friday
morning the party drove through Keney Park to the tobacco
sub-station at Windsor, and visited the forest experimental plots
at Rainbow, returning via Elizabeth Park, to Hartford, where
luncheon was served in the State Capitol. After luncheon the
visitors were shown about the Capitol and the State Library,
then drove, via Rockville, to the Connecticut Agricultural College
at Storrs. Here a demonstration of high-power spraying of
woodland and orchard trees was given by the gipsy moth forces.
After supper there was a baseball game between the Connecticut
gipsy moth men and a team picked from the visitors (Burgess,
umpire). In the evening motion pictures were shown in the
armory, including those on the European corn borer, and the
gipsy moth, prepared by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Besides members of the Station Staff, the following were present :
H. A. Ames, Somerville, N. J.; E. A. Back, Washington, D. C;
D. N. Borodin, New York, N. Y.; H. L. Blaisdell, Melrose, Mass.;
F. E. Brooks, Washington, D. C; A. F. Burgess, Melrose High-
lands, Mass.; C. W. Collins, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; C. R.
Crosby, Ithaca, N. Y.; S. M. Dohanian, Somerville, Mass.; E. P.
Felt, Albany, N. Y.; Hugh Glasgow, Geneva, N. Y.; F. W.
Graves, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; Melvin Guptill, Sudbury,
Mass.; T. L. Guyton, Harrisburg, Pa.; E. A. Hartley, Melrose
Highlands, Mass.; G. W. Herrick, Ithaca, N. Y.; T. J. Headlee,
New Brunswick, N. J.; H. E. Hodgkiss, State College, Pa.; C. E.
Hood, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; J. L. Horsfall, Bustleton, Pa.;
J. F. Jamieson, Riverton, N. J.; R. W. Kelley, New York,
N. Y.; G. H. Lamson, Storrs, Conn.; F. H. Lathrop, Highland,
N. Y.; M. D. Leonard, Albany, N. Y.; Q. S. Lowry, Boston,
Mass.; J. A. Manter, Storrs, Conn.; C. W. Minott, Melrose
Highlands, Mass.; F. H. Mosher, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; H.
L. Mclntyre, Albany, N. Y.; A. H. Parkins, Boston, Mass.; Alvah
Peterson, New Brunswick, N. J.; D. M. Rogers, Boston, Mass.;
J. V. Schaffner, Melrose Highlands, Mass. ; A. F. Schulze, Storrs,
Conn.; R. A. Sheals, Providence, R. I.; L. B. Smith, Riverton,
N. J.; A. E. Stene, Kingston, R. I.; W. R. Walton, Washington,
D. C; H. I. Winchester, Melrose, Mass.; R. Woolridge, Melrose
Highlands, Mass., and L. H. Worthley, Arlington, Mass.
INSPECTION OF NURSERIES. 239
INSPECTION OF NURSERIES IN 1923.
The General Statutes provide that ''all nurseries or places where
nursery stock is grown, sold, or offered for sale, shall be inspected
at least once each year by the State Entomologist or one of his
deputies, and if no serious pests are found, a certificate to that
effect may be given." Consequently such inspection has been
made each year of all growing nursery stock so far as the existence
of such nursery stock is known to the State Entomologist. In
1923, two nurseries were inspected in the spring and again late in
the summer. The annual inspection was commenced on July 26
and finished on September 26, except for one nursery learned
about later and inspected on October 11. This work was in charge
of Mr. M. P. Zappe, who was assisted by J. Leslie Rogers and T. F.
Cronin. Mr. E. M. Stoddard of the Botanical Department and
Doctors Garman and Britton helped one day each. For the most
part these nurseries were given a rather more rigid inspection than
usual, for, on account of the wide-spread infestations of the gipsy
moth, it seemed almost necessary to make sure that none of the
nursery stock was infested with that destructive pest. The weather
was extremely favorable and as the whole period was one of pro-
tracted drought the work was not delayed on account of rain.
On the whole the nurseries were in good condition and fairly
clean. Some owners are always more careful than others about
such matters. Where the stock is kept clean it is not only easier
to inspect, but the amount of stock to be treated or destroyed
after inspection is reduced to a minimum.
At a hearing and conference before the Federal Horticultural
Board at the State House, Boston, Mass., Aug-ust 17, 1923, the
point was made by the Board and confirmed by several of the
nurserymen present that the nurseries must be kept comparatively
free from serious insect and fungous pests. This idea should be
reiterated and emphasized again and again. Clean stock only
should be sent out from nurseries, and the customer has a right to
expect it. Quarantine and inspection officers ia other states are
watcliing and may cause the destruction, treatment or return of
stock found infested. Moreover, a large number of infested ship-
ments from one state into another may lead to regulations prohibit-
ing shipments altogether.
The understanding reached at the Boston conference is to the
effect that a nurseryman must hold a state certificate before the
Federal gipsy moth inspection will be granted. Id the quarantined
area this inspection and certification are necessary if one wishes
to ship out of the infested area; but if the owner is not ^vllHng to
clean up sufficiently to enable him to obtain a state certificate,
the Federal inspection will be refused. Hence it behooves all
nurserymen to co-operate cordially, promptly and thoroughly
with the state inspectors, otherwise they may not be able to do
240 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
business because of these conditions. Several Massachusetts
nurserymen stated that every tree and shrub in their nursery had
been sprayed thoroughly with arsenate of lead.
However, there are pests other than the gipsy moth which must
receive attention from the nurseryman. For instance the oyster-
shell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., is the commonest insect pest
found in the nurseries, and the spruce gall aphid, Chermes ahietis
Linn., and the poplar canker, Dothichiza populea, are also close
seconds. Both of these insects may be readily held in check by
contact sprays made at the right time. The former has only one
generation and the latter two generations each year in Connecticut.
The spruce gall aphid attacks only spruce trees, but the oyster-
shell scale infests a large number of different kinds of trees and
The oyster-shell scale lives through the winter in the form of
white oval eggs which are formed under the shells during Septem-
ber. These eggs do not hatch until about the last week of the
following May. The young then crawl out from underneath the
old female shells and establish themselves on the bark. They
soon begin to suck the sap and do not move afterwards. Each
forms a shell, but these shells are very thin at first and gradually
become larger and thicker. The proper time for the most effective
treatment is soon after the eggs hatch and before the shells become
heavy enough to protect the insects from the application. Thus a
thorough spraying about the first week of June with kerosene soap
emulsion, or with nicotine solution and soap will kill nearly all of
the young scales. It is always advisable to cut and burn all
branches or stems which can be spared and which are badly in-
fested. The oyster-shell scale is particularly prevalent on willow,
poplar, ash, birch, black walnut, butternut, lilac, maple and apple,
and often occurs on many other trees and shrubs.
Spruce Gall Aphid.
The spruce gall aphid occurs only on spruce trees and two
species may be found in Connecticut nurseries. The more common
one, Chermes ahietis Linn., attacks Norway, black, red and white
spruces, and sometimes hemlock, making a cone-shaped swelHng
or gall at the base of the new growth. On the Colorado blue
spruce, much larger galls occur which are caused by another
species, Chermes cooleyi Gillette. The young females hve on the
twigs through the winter and in spring mature, lay their eggs and
die. On hatching from the eggs in May, the young crawl to the
tips of the twigs and settle at the base of the leaves where the
INSPECTION OF NURSEHIES. 241
new growth is just beginning to form. The cone-shaped gall is
here developed, the young being inside and sucking the sap.
Becoming mature in August, the nymphs excape from the galls,
which later turn brown and die, often killing the shoot beyond
the gall. The insects molt after emerging and are then provided
with wings. They crawl over the leaves where the females lay
stalked eggs which hatch in about two weeks and this generation
is the one which lives over winter on the twigs in a partially
On small trees in the nursery the galls may easily be chpped off
in June and burned. This treatment has already been practiced
in one Connecticut nurserj^ where many conifers are grown, and
resulted in few galls being found at the time of the annual inspec-
tion in August.
Spraying in April with a contact spray to kill the over-wintermg
females is one of the best control methods. In Massachusetts,
whale oil soap, one pound in two gallons of water, proved so
effective that no insects could be found afterward upon the trees.
For several years in one large nursery the spruce trees have been
sprayed in April with miscible oil, one part in twenty parts of
water. The same treatment has also been applied late in the fall,
and both spring and fall applications have been effective in con-
trolling the spruce gall aphid. There has never been any injury
to the trees from the treatment except once, and this was probabh^
due to not mixing the contents of the original package thoroughly
before diluting with water.
From our records it appears that poplar canker was first found
in Connecticut nurseries in 1918, when six nurseries were infested.
Though each year infested trees have been destroyed, it has
increased in abundance imtil in 1923 it occurred in 34 nurseries.
This is an infectious disease caused by a fungus which grows in
the bark in a manner similar to that of the chestnut blight, forming
cankers and often girdling branches or the main trunk and killing
all tissues above or beyond the point of attack. In nurseries,
cutting and burning the diseased trees or branches is the remedy.
Pests Found in Nurseries.
In 32 nurseries no important pests were found. These were
mostly newly estabHshed nurseries where the young stock has
not become infested or small nurseries where special stock not
commonly infested is grown. Following is a hst of the principal
pests found with the number of nurseries infested by each :
242 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
List of Pests Found in Nurseries in 1923.
Aphids, apple, green 15 Mite, European red 4
woolly 4 on box elder 1
on chestnut 1 SavfQy, Diprion simile 2
pine 1 on arbor- vitae 1
spiraea 1 „ . , ^'^^^^ A
Chermes abietis 28
Scale, elm 10
7 . q Lecanium corni 1
^ , oak gall scale ( Kermes) .... 1
Apple and thorn skeletonizer. ... 18 oyster-shell 42
Arbor- vitae leaf -miner 1 p^j^g jg^f 8
Birch Bucculatrix .' 6 j-gse 12
Borer, lilac 1 San Jose'.' .'"'"!''' ^ !'.'.'.'. '. 20
peach 1 scurfy 5
poplar 2 tulip tree 4
Curcuho, poplar 1 West Indian peach 1
Lace bugs 2 white elm 1
Laspeyresia molesta 2 Tarnished plant bug 1
Lina scripta 1 White pine weevil 17
Apple scab 3 Mildew on rose 4
Bhster rust , 6 Mosaic, raspberry. 4
Cedar rust 8 Poplar canker 34
Crown gall 3
Fire bUght 3 Uninf ested 32
From the preceding list it may be seen that the oyster-shell
scale is found in a larger number of nurseries (42) than any other
pest on the list, though the poplar canker comes next, being found
in 34 nurseries.
In order to show how the figures of 1923 compare with those
of preceding years, the following table shows the comparative
abundance of the principal nursery pests for the past six years:
Six Year Record of Serious and Common Nursery Pests.
Pest 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923
Oyster-shell scale 39 38 38 36 44 42
San Jose scale 18 19 11 28 19 20
Spruce gall aphid 15 19 21 31 21 28
White pine weevil 5 5 1 1 19 17
Apple and thorn skeletonizer . . . . . . 1 '18
Poplar canker 6 5 13 21 31 34
Blister rust 1 .. .. 2 9 6
No pests 32 32 46 36 36 32
One nursery has gone out of business since last year, three have
changed ownership, and fourteen new names appear on the Hst.
One nursery has been inspected twice. The list contains five
more names than the list for 1922. Six other nurseries were
INSPECTION OF NURSERIES. , 243
inspected but have not reported that the infestations have been
removed. These have no certificates and will violate the law
every time they make a sale.
In addition to the inspection of the nurseries, 60 separate
packages of nursery stock have- been inspected to accommodate
individuals who wish to ship, and in some cases inspection of
parcels has been made and certificates issued to nurseries which
have not received the regular form of certificate covering their
The nurserymen's list for 1923 contains 106 names, as follows:
Nursery Firms in Connecticut Receiving Certificates in 1923.
Name of Firm Address Acreage Issued cate
Barnes Bros. Nursery Co Yalesville 150 Sept. 25 1421
Barnes Nursery & Orchard Co WaUingford 45 Oct. 8 1437
Barton Nursery Hamden 1 Sept. 21 1411
Beattie, Wm. H New Haven 1 Sept. 21 1412
Benbow, A Norfolk 1 Oct. 1 1430
Bertolf Brothers Greenwich 25 Sept. 18 1402
Brainard Nursery & Seed Co Thompsonville 10 Sept. 27 1424
Braley & Co Biunside 1 Sept. 11 1390
Bretschneider, A Danielson 1 Sept. 18 1404
Bristol Nurseries, Inc Bristol 16 Oct. 15 1439
Burr & Co., C. R Manchester, Ellington
and Durham 500 Aug. 1 1363
Burroughs, Thos. E Deep River 3 Sept. 14 1396
Chapman, C. B Groton 1 Sept. 24 1419
Chapman, C. E North Stonington .... 2 Sept. 27 1427
Clinton Nurseries (Warren Richards,
Mgr.) Clinton 1 Oct. 31 1452
Conine Nursery Co Stratford 50 Sept. 8 1387
Conn. Agricultural College (Prof. S.
P. Holhster) Storrs 1 Nov. 17 1460
Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. (W. O. Filley,
Forester) New Haven 1 Sept. 18 1401
Crofut & Knapp Farm Norwalk 20 Nov. 23 1462
Cross Highway Nurseries Westport 6 Nov. 28 1464
Crouch, Alden Mystic 1 Apr. 7 1361
Dallas, Inc., Alexander Waterburj' 1 Sept. 22 1414
Dawson's Nursery Willimantic 2 Aug. 24 1369
Dowd, F. C Madison 1 Sept. 7 1386
Dunlap, Daniel S Cromwell 1 Aug. 30 1378
Edgewood Nursery, Vidal, Inc Stamford 5 Sept. 14 1398
Eldredge, Charles F. (2) Niantic 1 Sept. 24 1417
Elm City Nursery Co., Woodmont
Nurseries, Inc Woodmont and New
Haven 155 Aug. 27 1373
Evergreen Nursery Co Wilton 5 Sept. 7 1384
Fairty, C. H New Canaan 1 Dec. 7 1466
Falcon's Fhght Farms Nursery
(B. Austin Cheney, Prop.) Litchfield 1 Oct. 6 1436
Eraser, G. W Willimantic 1 Aug. 24 1370
Gardner's Nurseries Rocky Hill 5 Nov. 13 1459
Geduldig's Greenhouses Norwich 1 Sept. 14 1397
244 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
Name of Firm Address
Glenn Terrace Ornamental Nursery
(James H. Everett, Prop.) Mount Carmel
Heath & Co Manchester
Hilhard, H. J Sound View
Hiti Nurseries (J. H. Bowditch, Prop) Pomfret Center ....
Holcomb, Irving Simsbury
Hoogendoorn, C Yalesville
Horan & Son, Jas Bridgeport
Houstons' Nurseries Mansfield
Hoyt's Sons Co., Inc., The Stephen. . New Canaan 300
Hunt & Co., W. W Hartford.
Isselee, Charles Darien
Jones, WilUam Norwalk
Kelly, James J New Canaan
Kellner, Herman H Danbury
Keso Nursery (J. J. Kelsey, Prop.) . . Clinton
Ladd & Nichols Greenwich
Laddin's Rock Nursery (Est. of W. L.
Langenbach, F.J Norwich
Leghorn, John J Cromwell
Mallett Co., George A Bridgeport
Maplewood Nurseries (T. H. Peabody,
Marigold Farm (H. Kelley, Prop.) . . New Canaan
Meier, A. R West Hartford
Millane Tree Expert Co., The Middletown
Myers, C. B Milford and Rowayton
New Haven Nurseries Co., The New Haven
New Haven Park Commissioners
(G. X. Amrhyn, Supt.) New Haven 30 Aug; 24 1371
New London Cemetery Association
(Ernest E. Rogers, Pres.) New London 1 Oct. 29 1447
New London County Nurseries
(W. J. Schoonman, Prop.) New London
North-Eastern Forestry Co ^. . . Cheshire
Oakland Nurseries Manchester
Outpost Nurseries (L. D. Conley,
i Prop.) Ridgefield 25
Ouwerkerk & Van der Stam Yalesville
Park Gardens Bridgeport
Park Hill Flower Shop Manchester
Pequod Nursery Co. Yalesville
Phelps, J. Wesson Bolton
Phelps & V. T. Hammer Co., The
J. W Branf ord
Pierson, A. N., Inc Cromwell
Pohsh Orphanage Farm (Rev. L.
Bojnowski, Mgr.) New Britain
Pomeroy, Edwin C Northville
Reck, Julius Bridgeport ........
Rockfall Nursery Co. (P. Marotta,
Ryther, O. E Norwich
Saxe & Floto Waterbury
Scheepers, Inc., John Sound Beach
Schleichert, J. L Bridgeport
INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK. 245
Name of Firm Address Acreage Issued cate
Scott, J. W Hartford 5 Nov. 6 1456
Seely, C. H Darien 1 Oct. 1 1431
Sierman, C. H Hartford 5 Oct. 10 1438
South Wilton Nurseries South Wilton 5 Sept. 7 1385
Stamford Seed & Flower Co Stamford 1 Oct. 1 1432
Steck, Charles A Newtown 3 Oct. 2 1433
Steck, Jr., Charles A Bethel 1 Oct. 31 1454
Steck, Mrs. Chas Bethel 1 Oct. 31 1453
Stratfield Nursery Co Bridgeport 6 Dec. 17 1467
Stratford Nursery Co. (C. A. Cooper,
Prop.) " Stratford 1 Sept. 20 1410
Stratford Rose Nurseries (John
Barrow, Prop.) Stratford 3 Sept. 20 1409
Tanner's Nurserj^ Co Manchester 1 Oct. 16 1445
Upson, R. E Marion 1 Sept. 25 1422
Vanderbrook & Son, Chas. L Manchester 5 Sept. 11 1391
Van Wilgen & Co Branford 15 Sept. 6 1381
Verkade's Nurseries New London 8 Sept. 24 1416
Vidbourne & Co., J Hartford 7 Sept. 2S 1429
Wallace Nursery Wallingford 2 Sept. 6 1382
Watrous, Arthur J Meriden 1 Sept. 18 1400
Wild, Henry Greenwich and Nor-
walk 16 Oct. 6 1435
Wilson & Co., C. E Manchester 50 Sept. 14 1395
Woodruff, C. V Orange 1 Sept. 21 1413
Yale University Forest School New Haven 1 Sept. 28 1428
Young, Mrs. Nellie A Pine Orchard 1 Oct. 31 1451
Zack Co., H. J Deep River 2 Oct. 16 1444
Total acreage 1,731
INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK.
The nurserj^ stock entering Connecticut from foreign countries
during 1923 consisted of 35 shipments, 179 cases, and 1,981,895
plants. This is a larger number of shipments and cases than last
year, but a smaller number of plants. The following table shows
the quantities of such nurser}^ stock inspected at destination by
State inspectors during the last four 3^ears :
No. of No. of No. of
This stock consists of IManetti rose stock and fruit seedlings to
be used for propagation, — budding and grafting. More than one-
half, mostly rose stock, was consigned to one firm. The inspections
were nearly all made by Mr. Zappe.
The time required to inspect this stock amounts to 264 hours,
or 1.35 months of 26 working daj^s of seven and one-half hours
246 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
each. The total cost of this work including time of men and
traveling expenses amounted to $289.11.
The sources of this imported nursery stock for the year were as
Sources of Imported Nursery Stock, 1922-192.3.
No. of No. of No. of
Country Shipments Cases Plants
France 14 74 1,009,700
Holland 14 79 720,195
England 5 21 212,000
Italy 1 2 13,000
Unlcnown 1 3 27,000
35 179 1,981,895
The following table shows the quantities of stock as inspected by
No. of No. of No. of
Month Shipments Cases Plants
November 2 5 58,240
December 4 25 251,500
January 13 69 796,000
February 8 40 459,555
March 7 29 312,600
April 1 11 104,000
35 179 1,981,895
In addition to the stock inspected and reported above, there were
eight shipments containing 40 cases and 415,800 plants which were
reshipped to other states and not inspected in Connecticut.
There were nine shipments consisting of 16 cases of seeds which
entered Connecticut but were not inspected here. One shipment
of one case containing 5,000 apple seedlings was received which
had already been inspected in New York, and consequently it was
Of the 35 shipments inspected, 15 or 42.8 per cent, were found
infested with insects or other animals or plant diseases, some of
which are well-known pests. For instance, if Aporia crataegi Linn,
should become established in the United States, it would add
another to the already large list of pests which feed upon the
foliage of fruit trees and rosaceous plants. Details of these in-
fested shipments are given below.
Pests Found on Imported Nursery Stock.
15 Shipments Infested.
Aporia crataegi Linn, on fruit seedlings. (1 shipment) A. Choplin, Maze,
Emphytus cinctus Linn. (13 shipments) Fa. As. Ouwerkerk, Boskoop,
Holland; W. Fromow & Sons, WindJesham, Surrey, England; M. Gielen,
Oudenbosch, Holland; B. Hugo, Ltd., Dedemsvaart, Holland; W. C.
INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 247
Slocock, Woking, Surrey, England; P. L. Renault, Orleans, France;
Hemeray-Aubert, Orleans, France; D. G. de Jonge, Sappemeer, Holland;
Felix & Dykhuis, Boskoop, Holland; S. Bide & Sons, Ltd., Farnham,
Surrey, England; N. Levasseur & Fils, Ussy, France.
Lepidopterous cocoons. (2 shipments) P. L. Renault, Orleans, France;
N. Levasseur & Fils, Ussy, France.
Spider's eggs. (1 shipment) P. L. Renault, Orleans, France.
Crown Gall on Manetti rose. (6 shipments) W. Fromow & Sons, Windle-
sham, Surrey, England; R. C. Noteult, Woodbridge, England; W. C.
Slocock, Woking, Surrey, England; Hemeray-Aubert, Orleans, France;
S. Bide & Sons, Ltd., Farnham, Surrej^, England.
INSPECTION OF APIARIES.
As in preceding years, the work of inspecting apiaries has been
done on a per diem basis by Messrs. H. W. Coley of Westport and
A. W. Yates of Hartford. Mr. Coley covers the southern half of
the State, Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex and New London
Counties. Mr. Yates covers the northern half, Litchfield, Hart-
ford, Tolland and Windham Counties.
This work required a total of 131 man daj^s, and the entire cost
for the season was SI, 849. 80.
Fewer apiaries were inspected in 1923 than in each of the three
years preceding. This was due, in part at least, to the fear that
bees would take to "robbing" if disturbed, on account of the extreme
lack of moisture.
The following figures show the number of apiaries and colonies
inspected, and the average number of colonies per apiar}^ for the
past three seasons:
Year No. Apiaries No. Colonies per Apiary
1921 751 6,972 9.2
1922 797 8,007 10.04
1923 725 6,802 9.38
In 1923, inspections were made in 119 towns as against 125
towns in 1922. No apiaries have ever been mspected in the town
of Union, Tolland Countj^, because the inspector has never been
able to learn of bees being kept in that town.
In 1923, inspections were made in the following 22 towns not
visited in 1922: Fairfield County -.D'anhxivy, Stratford and Trumbull;
New Haven County: Derby, Meriden and Orange; Middlesex
County: Cromwell, East Haddam, East Hampton, Haddam,
Middlefield and Middletown; New London County: None; Litch-
field County: Bethlehem, Harwinton, New Hartford, Watertown
and Woodbur}^; Hartford County: Farmington and Rocky Hill;
Tolland County: None; Windham County: Chaplin, Eastford and
248 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
On the other hand, in 1922 inspections were made in the follow-
ing 29 towns not visited in 1923: Fairfield County: Bridgeport,
Newtown and Weston; New Haven County: Bethany, East Haven,
Middlebury, New Haven, Oxford and Woodbridge; Middlesex
County: Westbrook; New London County: Colchester, Lyme and
North Stonington; Litchfield County: Bridgewater, Canaan, Corn-
wall, Kent, New Milford, Norfolk, North Canaan, Salisbury
and Sharon; Hartford County: Avon and Hartford; Tolland
County: Tolland and Willington; Windham County: Ashford,
Brooklyn and Scotland.
European Foul Brood.
Out of the 725 apiaries and 6,802 colonies inspected in 1923,
17 apiaries and 25 colonies were found infested with European
foul brood. This gives a ratio of 2.34 per cent, of apiaries and
.36 per cent, of colonies infested, as against 4.14 and .85 per cent,
respectively in 1922.
European foul brood has gradually decreased in Connecticut
since the inspection was begun in 1909. In 1923 this disease was
not found at all in Fairfield, New Haven and Tolland Counties.
European foul brood was found in the following towns in 1923:
Middlesex County: Durham and East Hampton; New London
County: Norwich, Old Lyme and Stonington; Litchfield County:
Winchester; Hartford County: Glastonbury and Suffield; Windham
County: Killingly, Plainfield, Pomfret, Putnam and Sterling.
Last year 33 apiaries and 68 colonies were found infested with
European foul brood. Compared with these figures, the infesta-
tions in 17 apiaries and 25 colonies in 1923 are quite encouraging.
American Foul Brood.
Of the 725 apiaries and 6,802 colonies inspected in 1923, seven
apiaries and 22 colonies were infested with American foul brood.
This is a ratio of .965 per cent, of apiaries and .323 per cent, of
colonies as against 1.38 and .27 per cent, respectively in 1922.
American foul brood was not found in Connecticut until 1914,
Since then there has never been much of this disease, but the
percentage is spasmodic and erratic. It fluctuates irregularly and
has shown no such gradual change as has been the case with the
decrease in the European foul brood.
In 1923, this disease occurred in the following seven towns:
Fairfield County: Greenwich and Trumbull; New Haven County:
Derby, Seymour and Wallingford; Middlesex County: East Hamp-
ton; Windham County: Kilhngly.
The statistics of the apiaries inspected in each of the 119 towns
visited, arranged by counties, are given on the following pages, and
summarized on page 252.
INSPECTION OF APIARIES.
Apiaries Inspected in 1923.
New Canaan 2
New Haven County:
Beacon Falls 2
Branf ord 2
North Haven 7
West Haven 1
East Haddam 11
East Hampton 10
Middlesex County — Coro.
New London County:
East Lyme .•
Goshen . .
East Granby. ......
* 1 colony with Parab
t 4 colonies with Paralysis.
INSPECTION OF APIARIES.
Hartford County — Con.
East Hartford 3
East Windsor 8
New Britain 8
Rocky Hill 4
South Windsor 7
West Hartford 15
Windsor Locks 2
Tolland Coimty :
Pomfret. .• 12
2 colonies with Paralysis.
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
O 12; Iz;^
Fairfield 16 81
New Haven. ... 17 103
Middlesex 1.3 66
New London. . . 12 45
Litchfield 15 94
Hartford 25 199
Tolland 9 42
Windham 12 95
^P :z;^ ;z;q
No. Apiaries No. Colonies
Inspected 725 6,802
Infested with European foul brood 17 25
Per cent, infested 2.34 .36
Infested with American foul brood 7 22
Per cent, infested 965 .323
Sacbrood 4 6
Bee paralysis 5 6
Average number of colonies per apiary 9.38
Cost of Inspection ' $1,849.80
Average cost per apiary $2.55
Average cost per colony .27
Registration op Bees.*
Many beekeepers are not complying with the law in regard to the
annual registration of bees. They seem to think that if they
register once, they need not do so again, but the law requires them
to register each year before October 1st. This law is Chapter 174
of the Public Acts of 1919, and reads as follows:
"Section 1. Every person owning one or more hives of bees shall, annually,
on or before the first day of October, make application to the town clerk of the
town in which such bees are kept, for the registration of such bees, and such
town clerk shall issue to such applicant a certificate of registration upon the
payment of a recording fee of twenty-five cents, which certificate shall be
in the form prescribed and upon blanks furnished by the commissioner of
domestic animals and shall be recorded in the office of such town clerk.
Sec. 2. A record of such registration with the name and place of residence
of the registrant and the definite location in the town where bees are kept by
him shall be recorded in a separate book in the office of the town clerk, which
records shall be accessible to the public.
Sec. 3. Any owner of bees who shall fail to register as required by the
provisions of this act shall be fined not more than five dollars."
*Published as Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 27, September 15,
1923, and sent to the newspapers, all town clerks, and to all beekeepers
where inspections have been made during the past four years.
■REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 253
An amendment to this law was passed at the last session of the
General Assembly (see Chapter 129, Public Acts of 1923) as
"Section two of chapter 174 of the pubUc acts of 1919 is amended to read
as follows: A record of such registration and of the name and place of residence
of the registrant and the definite location in the town where bees are kept by
him shall be kept in a separate book in the office of the town clerk, which
record shall be accessible to the public. Each town clerk shall file wath the
state entomologist of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station a
complete hst of such registrations and locations on or before the first day of
February of the year succeeding such registrations. Any town clerk failing
to perform such duty shall be fined not more than ten dollars."
Therefore in order to comply with the Statutes, each beekeeper
should register his bees each year before October 1st, with his town
clerk, and each town clerk must send to the State Entomologist
before February 1st, a list of the beekeepers who have registered
in that town.
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK, s
Year ending June 30, 1923.
By John T. Ashworth and W. E. Britton.
This work has been conducted in about the .same manner as in
former seasons and the methods were described in considerable
detail in the Report of this Station for 1922, pages 290-32S. The
satisfactory co-operation between the State and Federal forces has
continued, the Federal men for the most part working along the
outside border of the infested area with a view of expenduig a
major portion of the Federal appropriation in preventing the
further spread of the pest. The present writers hereb}' express
to Messrs. A. F. Burgess, in charge of moth work, and Harry E.
Blaisdell, in charge of scouting and extermination work, their
cordial appreciation of the aid received from Federal sources.
During most of the season 30 men have been employed bj^ the
State on gipsy moth work. Except for the wind-spread of a few
years ago, which greatly increased the area infested and rendered
the fixed appropriation inadequate to cover the territory, the pest
has been kept well in check. There has never been any stripping
of trees or noticeable injur}^ in Connecticut caased by the gipsy
Details of the season's work will be found in the following pages.
Two new Ford Hght trucks have been purchased during the year
and are used to transport scouting crews back and forth between
the field and the boarding and lodging places. One Ford touring
car was replaced by a new one in September, 1922.
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
This County, situated in the northeastern corner of the State
and bordered as it is by Massachusetts on the north and by Rhode
Island on the east, was the first part of the State to become
generally infested, and is now as in former years the most heavily
infested portion of the State, although no stripping has ever been
found in Connecticut up to this time. The work of the past year
in Windham County was all done by the State forces except in the
towns of Thompson, Putnam and Pomfret; these towns were used
as schools to teach and break in new men for the Federal Govern-
Figure 9. Map of Connecticut showing territory quarantined in 1923 on
account of gipsy moth
ment, our own foreman being in charge but on the Federal pay roll.
The table of statistics on page 262 shows the degree of infestation
in each town.
In the towns of Canterbury, Chaplin, Hampton, Plainfield and
Sterling, the infestations were all small and not worthy of partic-
In Ashford, one colony of 107 egg-clusters was found in woodland
on the western side of Biglow brook on land owned by G. H. Myers
of Union, Connecticut.
Brooldyn had one colony which was considered dangerous, 47
egg-clusters being found on an oak tree in an open pasture owned
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 255
by Patrick Moran near the junction of the State road and the
Allen Hill road.
In Eastford two large colonies were found, both woodland
infestations, one of 191 egg-clusters just south of Crystal Lake
on land owned by Andrew Chilkott, and the other on land owned
by Mr. Floating about two miles west of Eastford Post Office on
the eastern edge of Nachaug River, containing 249 egg-clusters.
KilHngly was not entirely scouted as the egg-masses were hatch-
ing before the work could be completed. One colony of 40 egg-
clusters was found in a pasture orchard owned by C. W. Williams
and situated along the Quinebaug River near what is known as
Pomfret as stated above was used as a school to train men, and
the scouting was not completed; all colonies found were small.
In the town of Putnam the conditions were similar to those in
The worst colony in Scotland, though one easily handled, was
found in an orchard owned by Mr. B. Ashley on the road leading
off the State road just west of where Merrick brook crosses the
State road; 26 egg-masses were found here.
Sterling was scouted the last of the season, and all infestations
found were small and not considered dangerous.
Scouting in Thompson was not completed on account of lack
of time, men, and money. Most of the work was confined to the
western half of the town, and conditions were found to be about the
same as last year. One colony of 135 egg-clusters was discovered
in an old orchard owned by D. H. Cortiss just north of his home.
The other infestations were small and easily handled.
Windham had two large colonies, both of wliich were found in
orchards owned by Mr. W. A. Standish in North Windham, one
of 31 egg-clusters in cherry trees and one of 84 egg-clusters in apple
trees. Both of these colonies were very easy to spray and watch.
New London County.
With the exceptions of the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme and East
Lyme, all work in New London Coimty was done bj'- State crews
this year. The above named towns were scouted by Federal
In Bozrah one old egg-cluster was found near the Norwich town
line. on Wawecus Hill.
Colchester was scouted only in the eastern half, one colony of
five egg-clusters being found on land owned by Barnet Rabenowitz,
situated south of the Norwich-Colchester State road, near the
Lebanon town fine.
There were two groups of colonies found in East Lyme. One
group contained two infestations situated in the northeastern part
of the town near the Montville line: one of these had 10 egg-
256 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
clusters and waaon land owned by Peter Trasco. The other group
was in Niantic in the southern end of the town along the coast line;
two colonies in this group were considered dangerous, one of 15
egg-clusters on land owned by F. E. Temple and one of 13 egg-
clusters on land owned by H. B. Morton, both being found on
apple trees in the Niantic section of the town. Forty trees were
banded in the spring by Federal men.
In the town of Griswold two bad colonies were found, both in the
vicinity of Hopeville and both on apple trees, one of 44 egg-clusters
on land owned by William Lord, and one of 20 on land owned by
In scouting Groton this year, the town was found practically
free from the gipsy moth, except in the villages of West Mystic and
Groton where a number of infestations of one and two egg- clusters
were found. One colony of 37 egg-masses was found on apple
trees owned by E. D. Bengemor and C. R. Heath in the northern
part of West Mystic.
One colony of 20 egg-clusters was found in Lebanon. This
colony was in a large oak, on land- owned by Mr. Sam Lubetsky
in the western end of the town about one mile south of Brewster
All of the colonies in Ledyard were small, an infestation of six
egg-clusters being the largest.
Lisbon had one colony of eight egg-clusters on two white oaks
in the southern end of the town between the railroad and Quinebaug
River, on land owned by James McCanne.
None of the infestations found in New London were large or
dangerous, one of five egg-clusters being the largest; this colony
was found on three maples at Mrs. Gutri's home on the lower
The infestations in Norwich were all in the southeastern part of
the town, with the exception of one of five egg-clusters found on
apple trees on property owned by Joe Lamoth in Taftville; the only
colony that was of any size was in two apple trees in the yard of
Philip Werster in the western part of the city section, 17 egg-
clusters being found.
The usual roadside scouting was not done in North Stonington
this season, but some woodland work was done early in the fall;
one colony of 17 egg-clusters was found in woodland near the
Westerly town line in the southeastern corner of the town.
Old Lyme had three colonies, two of them being large for .this
territory. One was found on the north side of the State road near
Rogers Lake in some pasture oaks owned by Ernest Rogers, where
16 egg-clusters were found; the other was a colony of 12 egg-
clusters in apple trees around a house owned by Walter H. Hanems,
situated in the Black Hall district. Sixty-one trees were banded
and spraying was done at all of the infestations by Federal men.
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 257
On account of the lateness of the season the scouting in Preston
had to be done in a hurried manner and one colony of 35 egg-
clusters was found in woodland owned by S. F. Pierce, situated
in the eastern part of the town along the west branch of Broad
Brook; the other infestations were all small.
Salem was scouted but no trace of the gipsy moth found.
In Sprague, all three of the infestations were in the northeastern
part of the town near Hanover. One of 17 egg-clusters was found
in a roadside orchard owned by William Westburg ; another of five
egg-clusters in a roadside white oak owned by Nicholas Kaletchi.
Both of these colonies were sprayed. The other infestation was
small, two old egg-clusters being found there.
Stonington was found to be generally but not heavily infested.
Two of the largest colonies are herein mentioned: one of 71 egg-
clusters found on a large oak in a pasture owned by Silas Wheeler
in Old Mystic; the other was in an old orchard in the Wequetequock
section where 27 egg-masses were found.
In Voluntown, the infestations were all small, the largest being
one of 15 egg-clusters on two apple trees located near the Sterling
line, owned by William Jar\as. One of 12 egg-clusters in an apple
orchard near the center of the town might be mentioned, but the
rest were all very small.
Three infestations were found in Waterford ; all were small, three
egg-clusters being the largest.
Lyme was scouted but nothing was found.
All work in Tolland County this year was done by State
crews. The towns along the northern edge of the county, on the
Massachusetts border, were the most heavily infested; the rest of
the county being comparatively free from this pest, some of the
towns having only a single infestation.
Two colonies were found in the northern part of Andover, one
of nine egg-clusters in white oaks owned by George Terstin and D.
Keefe; the other of 12 egg-clusters was in apple trees owned by
A. E. Samuels.
One colony and a single egg-mass were found in Bolton. Both
were in apple trees. At the colony 16 egg-clusters were fomid in an
orchard owned by B. Andsaldi near the Hebron town line.
Two small colonies and a single egg-cluster were found in
Columbia ; all were near together in the southwestern corner of the
town near the Hebron town line. These colonies contained three
and four egg-clusters respectively and were found in apple trees
owned by Mr. C. L. Robinson and J. Kemvitz.
The scouting in ElHngton had to be stopped on account of deep
snow, but later in the season the work was taken up and the town
finished; in fact all the crews in this district were moved at this
258 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
time to the southern part of the State around New London.
Three of the largest colonies are herein mentioned. One of 79 egg-
clusters was found in an orchard owned by Frank Gotcha about
one mile south of Soapstone mountain; another of 46 egg-clusters
was in apple and oak trees owned by Charles Thompson in the
northwestern corner of the town. The third was one of 36 egg-
clusters found in an oak owned by Clarence Clark near the Elling-
ton railroad station.
Nothing was found in Hebron, but while scouting the town,
some of the men got over the line into the northeastern corner of
Marlborough and found three old egg-clusters in a white oak on
land owned by Joseph Soglio ; it was a question whether they were
in Hebron or Marlborough, but the foreman charged them up to
Somers was found to have infestations distributed over the
entire town, none of which were very large. Two of 36 egg-clusters
each were the largest. One of these colonies was in an orchard
owned by Mr. Miller just west of Bald Hill; the other was found
in two white oaks in a field in the village of North Somers. An-
other colony of 37 egg-clusters was found in a white oak owned by
M. Keeney in the southwestern part of the town. These three and
a number of smaller infestations were sprayed in the spring.
By looking at the table of statistics any one would think that
Stafford (with its 142 infestations) was literally covered with gipsy
moths, but such is not the case; the town is generally infested but
not so badly as it seems. Single egg-clusters were called infesta-
tions in this town, and as there are a great many of them, it makes
the degree of infestation look more serious than it really is. The
largest colony contained 170 egg-clusters in apple trees and one
maple tree owned by John Kellog located about one and one-half
miles south of State Line pond. This was easily handled. Another
large colony of 63 egg-clusters was found in a white oak in a
woodland margin about one mile southwest of the West Stafford
Post Office. Though the above mentioned colonies were the
largest ones found, there were four other of 40 egg-clusters and
several smaller ones wliich were all sprayed by State men in the
Three small colonies were found in Tolland in addition to a
number of single egg-cluster infestations. Fifteen egg-clusters
were found in an orchard owned by Mike Barezczski, and another
of 21 egg-clusters in five oaks owned by Jolin E. Clough, both of
which were situated a Httle north of Tolland village. The third
colony was one of 21 egg-clusters in one apple tree and a stone wall
on land owned by Charles Wockomocker, about one mile west
of the South Wilhngton railroad station.
In Union two large colonies were found in the extreme north-
western corner of the town, both in apple trees, one of 41 egg-
clusters on land owned by Myron Heck, the other of 77 egg-
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 259
clusters on the property of A. B. Wells. The largest colony found
in the town was on the north shore of Mashapaug Lake on land
owned by Dwight L. Crawford, 80 egg-clusters bemg found.
The other 23 infestations in the town were small, containing from
five to eight egg-clusters each.
Ninety-five of the 129 egg-clusters found in Vernon this season
were on one apple tree owned by Peter Swanick in Rockville. The
rest of the infestations were all small and in the Rockville section
of the town.
The towns of Willington and Mansfield were not scouted this
year on account of shortage of men and lack of time.
Part of the work in Hartford County was done by Federal men
and part by State men. Some of the towns which were scouted
last year were not covered this year on account of a shortage of
trained men and money, as the towns along the Massachusetts
border further west had to be given attention.
BerHn was scouted by Federal men and three infestations found,
all of them in the southern part of the town. One infestation of
six egg-clusters was found on a walnut tree owned by James Derby;
another of three egg-clusters in an oak and apple tree owned by
the Connecticut Orchard Company, and the third of seven egg-
clusters in apple trees owned by John T. Molumphy.
Federal men also did the work in Bloomfield, where five infesta-
tions were found, two of which were large colonies; one containing
40 egg-clusters was found on a large oak on land owned by J. S.
Lagan, and the other of 15 egg-clusters was in an orchard owned
by W. J. Cooley. All five of the infestations were in the southern
end of the town along the Hartford and West Hartford borders.
Twenty-three trees were banded and later 40 trees sprayed by
All work in Bristol was done by Federal men and two small
colonies found. One colony of 20 egg-clusters was found in the
extreme northeastern corner of the town on apple trees owned by
William Harding, and the other colony was one of eight egg-
clusters in an orchard owned by M. Levinska, located about half
way between Bridge pond and the Bristol reservoir. Ten trees
were banded and 50 sprayed in the spring.
The work in Enfield was done by State men, nine infestations
being found, of which two were large for this section of the State;
one contained 29 and the other 15 egg-clusters. Both of these
colonies were found in apple trees owned by George Hardiman
and Eugene Quinn, and both were in the Thompson ville district;
the other infestations were all small.
State men did the work in East Windsor, where most of the
infestations were small. Two, however, were very bad. One of
260 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
109 egg-clusters was foimd in five apple trees in a dooryard on the
Simon Miskill Estate at Broadbrook, and the other in a white oak
at Warehouse Point owned by William Trombley, where 163 egg-
clusters were found.
Newington was scouted by Federal men and two infestations
found; one contained 29 egg-clusters in an apple tree owned by
Mrs. Mclncony on Robbins Avenue, the other eight egg-clusters
in oak and walnut trees owned by Peter Albersom on Church
Street. Spraying was done by Federal men at both places.
Two large colonies were found in New Britain by Federal men,
one of 11 egg-clusters on Maple Street in mixed growth on the
property of P. J. Curtiss, and the other was in the center of the
town on land owned by Peter Kalashenok, containing 83 egg-
clusters. Thirty-six trees were banded and later 12,000 trees
sprayed by Federal men.
In Rocky Hill two colonies were found, one of four egg-clusters
on willows on the Connecticut River bank in the southeastern
corner of the town, and the other of two egg-clusters was on
Parsnig Street on apple trees owned by W. F. Griswold. The
work in this town was done by Federal men.
State men found two colonies in South Windsor which are
worthy of mention. One of 18 egg-clusters occurred in maple
trees in the center of the town, and the other, containing 12 egg-
clusters, was in the northwestern corner of the town on poplar
trees owned by Mrs. Louis Speny. The other four infestations
were all small and not dangerous.
No roadside scouting was done in Simsbury this year, but early
in the fall 1,247 acres of woodland were scouted and nothing found.
Other towns in Hartford County that were scouted and found
free from the gipsy moth were Plain ville, Southington and Sufiield .
The work in Litchfield County was done by the Federal forces.
Six towns were found to be infested with the gipsy moth, namely:
Canaan, Goshen, Litchfield, Plymouth, Salisbury and Winchester;
these towns were very slightly infested.
In Canaan three colonies were found, the largest being one of
eight egg-clusters in apple and elm trees owned by Miss Ida L.
Root, about one mile west of Wangum Lake; the other two were
found in willow trees owned by N. C. Dean and W. E. Shepard,
both in the Falls Village section of the town. At N. C. Dean's
place the colony contained four egg-clusters, and that at W. E.
Shepard's had seven egg-clusters.
One colony of eight egg-masses was found in Goshen on a willow
tree owned by F. S. Johnson, just south of the Goshen Post OfSce.
Both colonies found in Litchfield were in the northeastern
corner of the town on the State road between Litchfield and
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 261
Torrington; one had 12 egg-clusters and the other only a single
egg-cluster, all on apple trees in a pasture owned by F. W. Fuesse-
nick and P. C. Burke.
In Plymouth one colony of 16 egg-clusters was found in some
oak and maple trees owned bj^ H. Mahoney, this colony being
located in the southeastern corner of the town near Hancock
Two large colonies were found in Salisbury on land owned bj^
T. Burnetti about one mile north of Salisbury Post Office on the
western side of Moore Brook; one m white oak growth contained
31 egg-masses and the other in apple trees had 21 egg-masses.
Two other small infestations were also found in this town, one a
single egg-mass on an apple tree owned by C. C. Lansing in
Amesville, and another of three egg-clusters in a white oak owned
by F. E. Howd about one mile north of Lakeville.
In Winchester one egg-cluster was found on an apple tree in
Winchester Center, owned by E. W. Esenlohr, and a colony of
eight egg-clusters on apple trees owned bj^ W. W. Greene in Win-
In the spring and early summer 166 trees were banded and later
113 trees and five and three-fourths acres of woodland were
sprayed at the above mentioned infestations.
The following towns in Litchfield County were scouted but no
gipsy moths found in them: Kent, Morris, North Canaan, Sharon,
Thomaston, Torrington, Warren, Watertown and Washington.
The entire County was scouted, except portions of the towms of
East Haddam and Killingworth, wliich were not completed, al-
though considerable work was done in them. Two towns were
found infested with gipsy moths. Old Saybrook and ]Middletown.
In Old Saybrook two single egg-clusters w^ere found, one on the
Frank Negrelli Estate in the northern part of the town, and the
other on propert}^ owned by Mrs. Bogue about one mile southwest
of Saybrook Junction.
In Middletown two infestations of two egg-clusters each were
found in the southeastern corner of the town on land owned by
August Strom and the Green Meadow Club. Two infestations,
one of two and another of one egg-cluster, were found on land
owned by C. L. Johnson near Bear Hill. The last infestation was
a single egg-mass on land owned by C. S. Wadsworth near Long
The towns of Chester, Chnton, Cromwell, Durham, East
Hampton, Essex, Haddan, Portland, Saj^brook and Westbrook
were scouted but no trace of the pest found. The work in this
County was all done b}^ Federal men.
262 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
New Haven County.
Four towns were found infested with the gipsy moth in New
Haven County this year, namely : Cheshire, Wallingford, Water-
bury and Wolcott, one colony being found in each town.
The colony in Cheshire was one of 31 egg-clusters found in
maple trees owned by A. H. Northrop, in the northeastern corner
of the town near the Southington line.
The colony in Wolcott was a reinfestation from last year's
colony, and was in oak trees owned by Peter Fontano about one
mile north of Wolcott Post Office, containing seven egg-clusters;
last year 19 were found and it is hoped that this colony has now
The Waterbury colony was one of eight egg-masses in maple
trees owned by Mike Jenity of 792 Highland Avenue.
The gipsy moth has again made its appearance in Wallingford,
but not in such abundance as in 1909, when more than 8,000 egg-
clusters were creosoted. This year only three egg-clusters were
found in an orchard owned by George Scards about a mile west of
At the above mentioned colonies, 33 trees were banded and 26
sprayed in the spring and early summer.
Other towns in this County which were scouted and not found
infested were: Hamden, Meriden, Middlebury, Naugatuck,
North Haven and Prospect. The work in this County was done
by Federal men.
The foregoing summary has not covered the spraying done by
the State department. The reason for this is that the Federal and
State departments have a different method of reporting this
branch of the work.
During this spraying season the weather was very favorable,
practically no time being lost on account of rainy weather. This,
together with the generosity of the Federal Bureau in lending the
State a complete spraying truck and driver, are the two factors
that enabled the State department to spray all of the infestations
which needed spraying in the Counties of Windham, New London,
Tolland and Hartford, east of the Connecticut River. The table
of statistics shows the number of colonies sprayed in each town.
Statistics, op Infestations.
No. No. Egg- No. No. Lbs. No.
Infestations Clusters Colonies Poison Larvae
Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Used Killed
Windham County— 1.5 Towns Infested.
Ashford 19 400 7 169 240
Brooklyn. 25 329 21 237 40
Canterbury 6 98 5 22 3
Chaplin 7 86 6 105 26
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK.
Statistics of Infestations — Continued.
Windham County — -Concluded.
New London County — ^17 Towns Infested.
Bozrah 1 1
Colchester 1 5
East Lyme 9 52**
Griswold 17 144
Groton 33 137
Lebanon 3 27
Ledyard 9 27
Lisbon 3 10
New London 10 25
Norwich 7 36
No. Stonington 1 17
Old Lyme 3 32
Preston 3 40
Sprague 3 24
Stonington 25 367
Voluntown 12 53
Waterf ord 3 6
Tolland County — ^10 Towns Infested.
Andovei' 2 22
Bolton. 2 17
Cohmibia 3 8
Ellington 21 284
Hebron 1 3
Somers 41 360
Stafford 142 1,281
Tolland 11 67
Union 26 467
Vernon 13 129
* In Woodstock, only woodland scouting was done, in late summer.
** Plus one pupa.
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
Statistics of Infestations — Continued.
No. No. Egg- No. No.
Infestations Clusters Trees Larvae
Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Destroyed
Hartford County — 10 Towns Infested.
Berlin 3 16 32
Bloomfield 5 68 40
Bristol 2 28 50
East Windsor 10 298 66 359
Enfield 9 74 97 347
New Britain 2 94 1,200
Newinpton 2 37 1
Rocky Hill 2 6
South Windsor .. . 6 39 113 14
Windsor Locks ... 1 4
No. No. Miles
North Canaan. . . .
-6 Towns Infested.
Middlesex County — -2 Towns Infested.
Chester . .• "
East Haddam ....
East Hampton ...
Middletown . . . . . . 5 8
Old Saybrook .... 2 3
* Also 2.5 acres of woodland sprayed; and 175 acres of woodland scouted
in Berhn and 1,247 acres in Simsbury.
** Also 5.75 acres of woodland sprayed.
REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK.
Statistics of Infestations — Concluded.
No. No. Egg- No. No.
Infestations Clusters Trees Larvae
Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Destroyed
New Haven County — 4 Towns Infested.
Cheshire 1 29 8
Waterbury 18 8
Wolcott 1 7 10
4 47 26
Summary of Statistics.
New London 20
New Haven 10
753 9,321* 273 1,775 2,915 340 8,579 3,203
Parasites Liberated in 1923.
Full details regarding the parasites of the gipsy moth and their
distribution in Connecticut may be found m the Report of this
Station for 1922 (22nd Report of the State Entomologist), page 313.
The Japanese egg parasite, Schedius kuvanae How., is mentioned
on page 315. During 1923, large numbers of these tiny parasites
were sent into Connecticut from the Government Parasite Labora-
tory at Melrose Highlands, Mass., and put out by Mr. McEvoy
in the more thickly infested gips}' moth territory in the eastern
part of the State, particularly Windham and New London Coun-
ties. The number of individual parasites Hberated in each town
are as follows:
* Also 1 pupa .
t Also 2.5 acres woodland in Hartford County and 5.75 acres in Litchfield County,
Also 1,422 acres of woodland scouted in Hartford County.
266 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Somers 20,000 Stafford 24,000
New London County.
Colchester 4,000 North Stonington 4,000
East Lyme... . 17,900 Norwich 24,000
Griswo.d 40,000 Old Lyme 12,000
Groton 20,000 Preston 12,000
Lebanon 9,850 Sprague 12,050
Ledyard 12,000 Stonington 28,000
Lisbon 20,000 Voluntown 32,000
New London 28,000 Waterford 12,000
Windham County 465,850
Tolland County 44,000
New London County 287,800
Total liberated in 1923 797,650
" " " 1922 904,000
" " " 1921 1,598,775
Total liberated in Connecticut 3,300,425
The appropriation for the biennial period ending June 30, 1923,
was $60,000.00. On account of the extensive increase because of
wind-spread, it became apparent that more money would be
needed and the legislature then in session was asked for an addi-
tional $10,000.00. This was granted in the form of a deficiency
appropriation and became immediately available for the remainder
of the fiscal period. The legislature also granted the full amount
requested ($100,000.00) for the biennial period ending June 30,
Gipsy Moth Suppression Account.
Appropriation for biennial period ending Jime 30, 1923 $60,000.00
Expended, year ending .June 30, 1922 30,301.77
Deficiency appropriation, 1923 10,000.00
Classified Expenditures for the Year Ending June 30, 1923.
Salaries and Wages . . $31,163.59
Printing and Illustrations 32.65
Telegraph and Telephone 19.66
Insurance (supplies including horse sprayer) 51.40
Sprayiag Supplies 2,200.60
EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 267
Machinery, Tools and Supplies $ 280.11
Express, Freight and Cartage 63.51
Rental and Storage 441.00
Automobiles: New $1,240.44
Supplies and Equipment 730.40
Traveling Expenses 229.94
Inspection of Imported Nursery Stock 288.11
Heat and Light 55.10
EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING VERSUS SPRAYING IN
CONNECTICUT APPLE ORCHARDS IN 1923.
By M. p. Zappe and E. M. Stoddard.
The experiments with dusts in comparison with sprays for the
control of various insect and fungous pests of apple and peach
orchards begun in 1920 have been continued each year since.
In 1923, only apple orchards were treated, and though the results
so far as the control of insects are concerned do not differ greatly
from the results of preceding years, it seems best to present them
here as a matter of record.
The results of preceding experiments along this line ma}- be
found in the publications of tliis Station as follows: Report for 1920,
page 168, results of 1920; Bulletin 235, results of 1921 ; Bulletin 245,
results of 1922.
The writers are indebted to Mr. Frank N. Piatt of Milford for
the use of his orchard, power sprayer and for other assistance in
conducting these experiments. Mr. George Graham helped in the
application of the spray and dusts and in the worlc of harvesting
and scoring the fruit. Messrs. B. H. Walden, J. L. Rogers, T. F.
Cronin and S. R. Hamilton also helped in harvesting and scoring
Orchards Under Experiment.
Only two apple orchards were used for this work in 1923, and
both have been used in the prior tests. The largest of these was
the orchard of Frank N. Piatt, Milford, containing 285 trees, 19
years old. The other was the old orchard at the Station Farm,
Mount Carmel, containing 40 trees about 47 years old.
268 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
The spray outfit was the same as used in preceding experiments,
a Friend power sprayer with tank of 200 gallons capacity. Two
lines of hose were used with two nozzles on each rod, carrying
between 175 and 200 pounds pressure. The duster was a Niagara
power outfit purchased new in 1923. It was mounted upon skids
so that it could be readily transferred to an automobile truck.
It is similar to the duster used in preceding experiments except that
it is lighter, has an improved type of engine and blower and so
probably gave somewhat better results.
For the spray solutions the following materials were used :
Lead arsenate 3 pounds
Liquid lime-sulphur 3 gallons
Casein spreader f pound
Water 100 gallons.
Only two kinds of dust were used in the tests in 1923. One was
a sulphur-lead-arsenate dust containing fine sulphur, 90 parts, and
lead arsenate, 10 parts. The other was a copper-arsenic dust
containing 5.75 per cent, of metallic copper and 2.75 per cent, of
metallic arsenic. The percentage of Kme was not determined.
When applied to moist foliage this dust immediately turns a bluish
color, indicating the formation of a Bordeaux mixture on the
Number and Time of Applications.
Seven applications were made in the Milford orchard on the
1. Delayed dormant April 25-26.
2. Prepink, treatment May 4.
3. Pink, treatment May 10.
4. Calyx, first after blossoming May 24-28.
5. Second after blossoming June 12.
6. Third after blossoming July 6.
7. Fourth after blossoming August 1.
At the Station Farm, only dusts were used, three applications
being made after blossoming, on May 29, June 13 and July 12-13.
Trees which blossomed freely were selected as count trees. The
fruit was kept separate and each apple scored for insect and
fungous injury. AH injuries on each fruit were recorded, even
though slight, and often several kinds of injury were noted on a
single apple; in such cases all types of injury were recorded sepa-
rately. Later these figures were tabulated and percentages ob-
tained. Altogether this work necessitated the separate handling
and scoring of 144,895 individual apples, equivalent to about 362
EXBERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING.
The experiments in this orchard inckidecl four varieties: Graven-
stein, Mcintosh, Baldwin and Greening, but only the Mcintosh
■■ \ \ \
Figure 10. Plan showing arrangement of experimental plots in orchard of
Frank N. Piatt, Milford, where experiments in dusting and spraying were
conducted in 1923.
produced a good crop of fruit. The other varieties bore a very
Hght crop and in some plots there were not enough apples of one
variety to give adequate data. The plots were so arranged that
each plot contained trees of each variety.
270 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION . BULLETIN 256.
The arrangement of the plots is shown in Figure 10, and was
as follows: beginning on the east side, the first four rows were
sprayed. Rows five to seven were dusted with sulphur-arsenate
dust. Rows eight to 11 were dusted with copper-arsenic dust.
Row 12 was sprayed and acted as a barrier to keep the dust from
being blown from row 11 to row 13, which was untreated and used
as a check.
The first treatment in this orchard was the delayed dormant
spray of Kme-sulphur which was applied over the entire orchard on
April 25 and 26. Liquid lime-sulphur, 1-9, was used on the south
half of the orchard, and Sherwin-Williams dry lime-sulphur,
25-100, on the north half.
The next treatment was the prepink application on May 4 on
the Gravenstein, Mcintosh and Greening varieties in the copper-
arsenic dust plot only. The other plots were not treated until the
The pink application was given to all varieties in all plots on
May 10. The spray was applied first because it was too windy
for dusting. Later in the day towards sunset the wind subsided
and the dust was applied.
The first treatment after blossoming was applied to the Mc-
intosh trees on May 24. All other varieties in all plots were
treated May 28.
The second treatment after blossoming was appHed on June 12.
The foliage was damp when the dust was applied but had become
dry before the liquid spray was applied. There was almost no
wind blowing on this date.
The third treatment after blossoming was given on July 6,
covering all except one row in each plot, and these rows received
no further treatment. The copper-arsenic dust plot began to
show considerable scab infection on both the leaves and the fruit.
It appeared as though the copper-arsenic dust would not control
the scab, so the 90-10 sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted.
The last or fourth treatment after blossoming was appUed on
August 1, to all except two rows in each plot. The untreated rows
included those not given the preceding treatment and one additional
row. As before, the sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted for
copper-arsenic dust in the copper-arsenic dust plot. Fungous
injury was very light except in the case of scab on Mcintosh, on
all the treated plots and all such injuries are hsted under the
heading of "all fungi", except in Table 1.
Table I. Results of Treatments. McIntosh.
No. of Codling Other
Applications Aphis Red Bug Moth Curculio Good Insects Scab
3 .29 .29 4.22 93.1 .94 1.55
4 .51 .09 2.79 91.5 1.3 3.8
5 .36 .02 1.78 96.7 .402 .825
EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 271
4 cop.-ars. 1
1 sulp.-ars. (
4 cop.-ars. |
2 sulp.-ars. /
Discussion of Data in Table I.
In nearly every case, plots receiving four and five applications
produced a slightly higher percentage of perfect fruit and a lower
percentage of injured fruit than plots receiving fewer applications,
except in case of the copper dust, where the differences are much
greater. Comparing the spray and dust treatments, the former
gave slightly better control of all insects, and much better control
of scab than either of the dust treatments.
The sulphur-arsenate dust proved more effective against scab
than the copper-arsenic dust. Mcintosh is a variety much subject
to scab attack, and though it was seeminglj^ not a serious scab
season, the check or untreated trees showed 96.5 per cent, of scab
injury. Where copper-arsenic dust alone was applied this per-
centage was reduced only to 74, but where sulphur-arsenate dust
was substituted for one application the scab injury was cut to 54,
and where sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted for two applica-
tions, scab injury was still further reduced to 27 per cent. As
scab control was the chief aim on this variety, the copper-arsenic
dust alone proved very inefficient. On the other hand, where
sulphur-arsenate dust was applied in every application scab
injury did not go much above seven per cent., while on the sprayed
trees it was less than four per cent. The sulphur-arsenate dust
was sHghtly better than the copper-arsenic dust for the control of
all insects, though not quite equal to the liquid spray.
The data regarding Gravenstein are presented in Table II.
Red Bug Moth Curculio
.5 .18 16.3
.72 .07 20.8
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
4 cop.-ars. 1.03
4 cop.-ars. 1
2 sulp.-ars. J 11.5
No treatment .65
4.05 6.95 49.
Discussion of Data in Table II.
As the Gravenstein trees bore a light crop of fruit, the data
shown in Table II were obtained from comparatively few apples,
but are given here for what they are worth. The plots receiving
five applications of sulphur-arsenate dust and four applications of
copper-arsenic dust bore no apples, so no data are available for
these plots. In general the sprayed plots gave a slightly higher
percentage of perfect fruit and lower percentages of insect injury
than either of the dust plots, and the sulphur-arsenate dust gave
rather better results than the copper-arsenic dust. Fungi were
inconspicuous on the treated plots, but were conspicuous on the
checks, especially Brooks fruit speck.
Similar data on Greening are shown in Table III.
. Results of Treatments. Greening.
Red Bug Moth Curculio
2.54 1.78 14.2
2.56 1.08 7.15
2.3 .35 12.1
.82 1.37 12.1
.07 .96 6.9
1.46 23.5 75.
.036 1.81 23.1
8.37 36. 63.6
Discussion of Data in Table III.
The Greening crop was also very light and no counts of fruit
could be made in the sulphur-arsenate dust plot receiving three
appUcations. There was little difference in the percentages of
perfect fruit between the plots treated with liquid spray and with
sulphur-arsenate dust; both were better than the copper -arsenic
*Very little fruit in this plot.
EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 273
dust plot where the percentage of perfect fruit was very low, due
largely to curculio injury which ran high. Injury by fungi was
best controlled by the spray and sulphur-arsenate dust.
The data on Baldwin are given in Table IV.
Table IV. Result.s of Treatment. Bald-wt;n.
No treatment .22 .44 8.95 42.7 19. 13.8 37.2
Discussion of Data in Table IV.
As was the case with Gravenstein and Greening, the Baldwin
crop was light and in the plot receiving four spray applications
and that receiving four applications of copper-arsenic dust plus
one of sulphur-arsenate dust there were no trees which bore fruit;
consequently no data could be gathered for these plots. There is
little difference here between the hquid spray and sulphur-arsenate
plots, and both gave better results than the copper-arsenic dust
plots. The percentage of fungous diseases was negligible in the
treated plots, but ran quite high in the check plot.
Station Orchard, Mount Carmel.
In this orchard both sulphur-arsenate dust and copper-arsenic
dust were used but no hquid spraj^ was applied. Only two varieties,
Baldwin and Greening, were under experiment, and on account
of the light crop of fruit, the data from both varieties are included
in Table V. Each plot received onty three treatments of dust, all
after blossoming. The calyx treatment was made May 29, and
the subsequent applications made June 13 and July 12 and 13.
Such data as were obtained are given in Table V as follows :
Table V. Results of Treatment. B.\LD^aN and Greening.
Codling . Other All
Treatment Aphis Moth Curculio Good Insects Fungi
Sulphur-arsenate dust. 7.36 5.95 40.1 43.1 5.74 1.32
Copper-arsenic dust... 2.42 4.48 36.6 54.4 4.1 2.07
Check 6.2 22.4 72.5 15.5 6.62 4.45
274 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Discussion of Data in Table V.
In this orchard for some unexplained reason the copper-arsenic
dust gave shghtly better results in the control of curculio, codling
moth and "other insects" than the sulphur-arsenate dust. This
is at variance with the results obtained in the Milford orchard
where the sulphur-arsenate dust treatment gave higher percentages
of perfect fruit and lower percentages of insect injury than the
copper-arsenic dust. Fungous troubles were not prominent,
though reduced shghtly by both treatments.
In 1923, as in the preceding seasons of 1920, 1921 and 1922, when
similar experiments were conducted by this Station, the liquid
spray has given somewhat better results in the control of injurious
insects and fungi on apple trees in Connecticut than any of the dust
mixtures. The difference has not been so great in the control of
insects as in the control of fungous diseases. The highest per-
centage of perfect fruit was obtained from the experimental plots
■ treated with liquid spray.
The sulphur-arsenate dust gave fair control of insect pests and of
fungous diseases, particularly apple scab.
The copper-arsenic dust in most cases gave nearly as good control
of insect pests as the sulphur-arsenate dust, but was much less
effective in controlling fungous diseases, though much better than
The season of 1923 was characterized by little rainfall and con-
sequently fungous diseases were not so prevalent as in a normal
season or a very moist season. It seems to the writers quite
probable that in a dry season like 1923, the dust mixtures would be
far more satisfactory than in a wet season or even in a normal
season when fungous diseases are more prevalent. It is also
probable that in the presence of a greater amount of moisture the
copper-arsenic dust would be changed into a sort of Bordeaux
mixture on the leaves and might under such conditions compare
more favorably with the sulphur-arsenate dust than was the case
in this unusually dry season of 1923. It is also probable that in a
dry season with rather high temperature hke 1923, the sulphur-
arsenate dust would be more effective as a fungicide than in a cool
Any orchardist wishing to grow choice fruit should not discard
his spraying outfit in favor of a dusting equipment and should not
skimp in the number of the apphcations and quantity of spray
appHed. On the other hand, if orchards are on elevated slopes
with good air drainage and not seriously attacked by fungous
diseases, a fair grade of commercial fruit can be grown by the dust
treatment. Where the water suppl}'' is not convenient and help is
diflBicult to obtain, the dust method might be followed advantage-
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR FOUL BROOD. 275
TESTS OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR CONTROL OF
AMERICAN FOUL BROOD OF BEES.
By Philip Gakman.
Two different substances have been advertised recently as
cures for bee diseases. Sodium hypochlorite solution sold under
the trade name of "Be-Helth" was recommended so liighly for this
purpose that it was given a trial.
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an electrolized salt, the disin-
fectant property of which depends upon the ease with which it
gives up its oxygen to oxidizable organic matter. After oxidation,
sodium chloride (NaCl) is left, and this being ordinary salt is
harmless to bees. Sodium hypochlorite is used in the dairy in-
dustry for sterilizmg milk pails, etc., and it is also the principal
constituent of Daldn solution used m treatment of wounds during
the recent war. It is a product costing a few cents a gallon to
manufacture according to various chemists. Its bleaching action
is quite marked, being similar in this respect to calcium hypochlo-
rite or bleaching powder. It is also the principal constituent of
"Labarraque solution" used by scientists for many years in dissolv-
ing or softening chitin contained in the hard parts of insects. This
dissolving and bleaching action make it theoretically ideal for use
against bee diseases where it is necessary to dissolve dead scales
and penetrate masses of diseased tissue.
Four frames of brood badty diseased with American foul brood
were obtained from our inspectors, Messrs. Yates and Coley,
during the summer of 1923. Three of these combs were removed
from the frames and the frames sterilized by spraying with a
concentrated solution of "Be-Helth". The fourth comb was not
removed from its frame, but was sterilized by soaking for 24 hours
in the concentrated solution. It required nearly three-fourths of a
gallon for this purpose, but special care was taken to fill every cell
with the material. For experunental purposes two three-frame
nuclei were used and one disease-free ten-frame hive of Itahan
bees. In one of the nuclei, two of the sterihzed frames with new
foundation were placed together with a health}^ frame of brood
from another hive. The fourth frame with new foundation was
placed direct in a ten-frame hive know^n to be free of disease. All
this was done July 17, 1923.
Examination of the two nuclei and the ten-frame hive on August
9 showed one queen cell (in the nucleus containing treated brood
comb) with tj^ical American foul brood. No sign of the disease
was seen elsewhere.
Examination August 29 showed American foul brood in every
frame of the nucleus containing the supposedly sterile brood comb .
None was, however, found in hive or nucleus containing brood
frames only. The nucleus containing foul brood was destroyed
276 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
and close watch kept upon all other treated colonies, but no disease
developed in any other place.
While no definite conclusions can be drawn from the results
obtained, they indicate the risk involved in attempting control in
comb actually containing American foul brood. The manufac-
turers no longer recommend its use for that purpose, in fact, but
are advocating sterilization of super combs and hive equipment
for which it may be successful as indicated by our experience with
infected frames without comb. The greatest difficulty lies in the
extreme thoroughness with which the work must be done to insure
success. Thus even with the greatest care it is almost impossible
to reach all parts of a comb with sufficient solution to kill the
organism. It has been demonstrated by White^ that the spores of
Bacillus larvae causing American foul brood are very resistant to
chemical disinfectants, and this together with the information
above should make one cautious about placing too much con-
fidence in the use of the material.
Analysis of "Be-Helth"^
Grams per 100 cc.
Available chlorine 3 . 77
•Total chlorine 3.81
Sodium hypochlorite 3 . 96
Available chlorine was determined 33 days after the first analysis
and was found to be 3.70 grams per 100 cc.
FURTHER EXPERIENCE WITH PARADICHLORO-
BENZENE AS A REMEDY FOR PEACH BORERS.
By M. p. Zappe.
For several years this material has been recommended and used
to destroy the larvae of the peach borer, Synanthedon exitiosa Say.
When applied properly, good control is obtained, and it takes less
time to make the application than it does to "worm" the trees.
Usually it is customary to clear the ground of weeds and rubbish
near the base of the tree, then sprinkle about an ounce of the
granular paradichlorobenzene in a circle around the base of the
trunk and about an inch from the bark and not touching it. Soil
free from rubbish is then banked around the tree covering the
insecticide and packed closely against the bark.
The first test of this material was made at the Station Farm at
Mount Carmel in September, 1921, and the results pubHshed in the
1 White, G. F. American Foul Brood. U. S. D. A., Bureau of Entomol-
ogy, Bulletin 809; 1920.
^Made by the Department of Chemistry, Connecticut Agricultural Ex-
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 277
Report of the Station for 1922, page 331. In the fall of 1922,
another application was made. These trees had then been set
11 years. There were five rows of peach trees with 30 trees
in each row. Four rows were treated and one row was left un-
treated for a check. The material was applied October 4 and 5,
and was allowed to remain until the following spring without being
On June 14, all trees were carefully examined and records kept
of all borers found. The results appear in the following table:
Treated . . ,
The results show that all borers below the surface of the soil
were killed by the treatment, and that the only ones remaining
alive were those above the surface of the soil where the fumes of
the paraciichlorobenzene could not affect them. A few dead borers
were fomid above the surface of the soil, but probably their burrows
opened below the soil surface so that they were penetrated by the
fumes. In the untreated row onlj^ one dead borer was found and
that was above the soil surface.
THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN CONNECTICUT.
Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn.
This destructive introduced pest, first discovered in this country
in eastern Massachusetts in 1917, has continued to spread in that
locality until the infestation involves full}^ half of Massachusetts,
southwestern Maine, southern New Hampshire and a large portion
of Rhode Island. The pest is also present in two large areas in
New York State, one around Alban}^ and Schenectady, which has
spread into two towns in southwestern Vermont, and the other
in western New York, tliis latter area extending along the southern
shore of Lake Erie through the lake portions of Pennsylvania,
Ohio, a few towns in Michigan and a large area in Ontario.
According to the understanding of the ^^Titcr these infestations
around Lake Erie are all connected.
It has been expected that the margin of the Massachusetts
infestation would soon extend far enough to reach the north-
eastern corner of Connecticut, but though Federal scouts have
searched for it m Thompson and Putnam, during September, they
did not find it. On the other hand, late in the fall of 1923, Federal
scouts discovered three small separate infestations along the
shore region of Connecticut, two in Groton and one in Niantic
in the town of East Lvme.
278 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
Scouting by State Men.
Mr. M. P. Zappe was in charge of this work and was assisted by
J. Leslie Rogers. The coast region of the towns of West Haven
and Milford back two miles from Long Island Sound was scouted,
and in addition corn stalks were examined throughout the seed
corn growing areas of Milford, Orange and Woodbridge. Similar
seed corn growing regions south of the village of Wethersfield and
the Long Hill section of Middletown were also scouted. This
scouting was done in October, November and December, and the
time expended on this work was equivalent to 46 man days. In
this scouting work no signs of the European corn borer were found.
Scouting by Federal Men.
According to data received from Mr. L. H. Worthley, expert in
charge of European corn borer control, the Federal scouts began
work in Connecticut on August 21, and continued through the
remainder of the calendar year. They scouted the coast line two
miles back from the shore from the Rhode Island State line
westerly to West River and including New Haven, and from the
Housatonic River to the New York State line. The section from
New Haven to the Housatonic River was covered by State men
as has already been explained. Mr. Arthur Viall, a Federal scout,
worked for a few days with State scouts in Milford and Orange, as
otherwise he would have been alone and without automobile
Federal scouts worked in Thompson from September 6 to 22,
and in Putnam from September 19 to 25. Thus altogether the
Federal men worked in Connecticut 319 man days, during which
they traveled 4,430 miles, and scouted 4,876 corn fields having an
area of 3,982 acres, and covered a territory estimated at 703 square
miles. Three small and recent infestations were discovered along
the shore in the eastern half of the State.
The first sign of infested material was found by Federal scouts
in Groton on October 25, 1923. This was in a small patch of late
sweet corn on land owned by Mr. C. A. MiUer, Plant Avenue,
opposite Golf Club House. Here 13 larvae were collected, though
there were others in the corn stalks. It had every appearance of
having become infested during the past season, and that these were
the first brood larvae to appear in the vicinity. So far as could be
ascertained all were in the corn plants as none could be found in
weeds or other vegetables growing in the garden close by.
In company with Mr. Zappe and with Federal men, Messrs.
Richardson and Leach, the writer visited this infestation on
November 10 to become famiUar with conditions. Mr. C. Doer-
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 279
ing, caretaker for Mr. Miller, who lived on the place, offered full
co-operation with our men in an attempt to clean up this infesta-
On November 27 and 28, Messrs. Zappe and Rogers attempted
to clean the field of corn stalks, stubble and weeds at this infesta-
tion, but the material was so wet that it burned with difficulty.
Consequently it was left to dry out before finishing the job. On
December 4, Messrs. Zappe, Rogers and the writer met Mr.
Worthley and Messrs. Richardson and Kellj^ of the Federal force,
and made further attempts to burn the remaining corn stalks and
trash. As it was still difficult to burn this material Mr. Worthley
suggested that he send down from Arlington, Massachusetts, a
large automobile power outfit for burnijig, and that we pay for the
oil. This work was done on Friday and Saturday, December 7
On December 3, another small infestation was discovered in
sweet corn in a garden patch near the residence of James Pringle,
on Poquonnock Road in Groton, some two miles east of the first
infestation. The burning machine was used to clean up both of
these infestations, all plant material above ground and corn stubble
being burned. Altogether, the time devoted to this clean-up work
by State men was equivalent to 10 man daj^s.
Plates XIV-XVI show conditions before and after burning at
both of these infestations.
On December 12, a third infestation was found in a garden in the
village of Niantic, town of East Ljone. On the Charles Cone
Estate, occupied bj^ Chester Beebe, a small patch of sweet corn
was slightly infested, only a few larvae being foimd. These were
sent to the Corn Borer Laboratory and identified as Pyrausta
nuhilalis Hubn. At this ^Titing, clean-up measures have not been
carried out, but this will be done later.
Source of Connecticut Infestations.
The question at once arises, how did these Connecticut points
become infested? From the Federal men, we learn that the
American broom corn crop was Hght in 1922, and that it was
necessary to import raw material to keep the factories in operation.
Consequently, broom corn was imported from Europe, and a ship-
ment arriving at the port of New York was found to be infested
and was ordered fumigated. The large fumigating plant at the
Bush Terminal in Brooldjoi had so much material awaiting treat-
ment that this shipment was ordered reshipped to Boston for
fumigation in the Cambridge plant. En route the boats put into
the harbors at Bridgeport and New London, and waited several
hours in each harbor on account of storms. Before the cargo
reached Boston the moths were foimd to be emerging. It is
believed that these infestations originated in this way. There is
also an infestation on Fishers Island about four miles off shore
from Groton which may also have come from this shipment.
280 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
Federal and State Quarantines.
On account of the danger of transportating this pest in shipments
of vegetables other than corn, the State quarantine was revised,
effective June 1, 1923, and the quarantine order with explanations
was published as Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 25, and
distributed under date of May 28, 1923. This publication is
reproduced in the following pages.
European Corn Borer Quarantine.
The European Corn Borer, Pyrausta nuhilalis Hubner, which
was first discovered in Massachusetts in 1917, and which has since
spread throughout the eastern portion of that State and into Maine,
New Hampshire and Rhode Island, now menaces Connecticut and
may at any time appear within its borders, especially as the margin
of the present infested area is only a few miles distant from the
northeastern corner of Connecticut. In addition to the infested
territory mentioned above, there is a separate infestation in the
vicinity of Albany, N. Y., and another in western New York
extending along the shore of Lake Erie, through Pennsylvania,
Ohio, and into Michigan, connecting with an infested region in
The pest is believed to have first entered the United States and
Canada in broom corn imported from Europe and distributed at
at least three and perhaps more different points. As the pest is
now known to attack a large number of different kinds of plants
including common vegetables which are shipped long distances,
there is great danger that this insect may be transported and new
colonies formed in this manner. Though the natural spread of
the insect is several miles each season, it may be carried hundreds
or even thousands of miles in commercial shipments. Hence
quarantines have been established to prevent these commercial
jumps. Connecticut first established a quarantine against this
insect on September 20, 1918, and revised it on June 1, 1920. As
there is much new infested territory not covered in the former
quarantine, a new quarantine order has just been issued, effective
June 1, 1923. This order follows:
STATE OF CONNECTICUT
Agricultural Experiment Station
New Haven, Conn.
QUARANTINE ORDER No. 5.
Effective June 1, 1923.
Whereas a very destructive insect, known as the European Corn
Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner, exists in certain portions of the
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. ~ 281
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan, and threatens the
corn growing industry of the country; and whereas there is grave
danger that this insect may be brought into this State by the trans-
portation of infested plants or parts of plants from the infested
Therefore, pursuant to the provisions of Section 2106 of the
General Statutes, it is hereby ordered that no corn on the ear,
stover, or other parts of the corn plant, broom corn, including all
the parts of the stalk, all sorghums, sudan grass, celer}^, green
beans in the pod, beets with tops, spinach, rhubarb, oat and rye
straw as such or when used in packing, cut flowers or entire plants
of chrysanthemum, aster, cosmos, zinnia, hollyhock, and cut flowers
or entire plants of gladiolus, and dahlia, except the bulbs thereof,
without stems, shall enter Connecticut from the infested areas men-
tioned below, unless each shipment, car, box, bale, or package bear
a valid certificate issued by an authorized Federal inspector, stating
that the contents thereof have been examined and found free from
infestation by the European Corn Borer. These restrictions do
not apply to dry shelled kernels or cooked and jDreserved products,
or products grown in non-infested territory passing through
infested areas in transit.
Maine : Sebago in Cumberland County; Acton, Alfred, Ber-
wick, Biddeford, Buxton, Cornish, Dayton, Eliot, Hollis, Kenne-
bunk, Kennebunkport, Kittery, Lebanon, Limerick, Limington,
Lyman, Newfield, North Berwick, Old Orchard, Parsonfield, Saco,
Sanford, Shapleigh, South Berwick, Waterboro, Wells and York
in York County.
New Hampshire : Alton, Barnstead, Belmont, Center Harbor,
Gilford, Gilmanton, Laconia, Merideth, New Hampton, San-
bornton and Tilton in Belknaj) County; Brookfield, Effingham,
Moultonboro, Ossipee, Tuftonboro, Wakefield and Wolfeboro in
Carroll County; Alexandria, Ashland, Bridgewater, Bristol,
Groton, Hebron, Holderness, Orange and Phinouth in Grafton
County; Amherst, Antrim, Bedford, Bennington, Brookhne, Deer-
ing, Francestown, Goffstown, Greenfield, GreenviUe, Hancock,
Hillsborough, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Ljmdeboro, Manchester,
Mason, Merrimack, Milford, Mount Yernon, Nashua, New Boston,
New Ipswich, Pelham, Peterboro, Sharon, Temple, Weare, Wilton
and Windsor in Hillsborough County; Allenstown, Andover,
Boscawen, Bow, Bradford, Canterbury, Chichester, Concord, Dan-
bury, Dunbarton, Epsom, Frankhn, Henniker, Hill, Hooksett,
Hopkinton, Loudon, Newbury, New London, Northfield, Pem-
broke, Pittsfield, Sahsbury, Sutton, Warner, Webster and Wilmot
in Merrimack County; Atkinson, Auburn, Brentwood, Candia,
282 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Chester, Danville, Deerfielcl, Derry, East Kingston, Epping,
Exeter, Fremont, Greenland, Hamstead, Hampton, Hampton Falls
Kensington, Kingston, Londonderry, New Castle, Newington,
Newton, New Market, Northampton, Northwood, Nottingham,
Plaistow, Portsmouth, Raymond, Rye, Salem, Sandown, Seabrook,
South Hampton, South Newmarket, Stratham and Windham in
Rockingham County; Barrington, Dover, Durham, Farmington,
Lee, Madbury, Middleton, Milton, New Durham, Rochester,
Rollinsford, Somersworth and Strafford in Strafford County.
Massachusetts: Barnstable, Bourne, Brewster, Chatham,
Dennis, Eastham, Falmouth, Harwich, Orleans, Provincetown,
Sandwich, Truro, Wellfleet and Yarmouth in Barnstable County;
Acushnet, Attleboro, Berkley, Dartmouth, Dighton, Easton, Fair-
haven, Fall River, Freetown, Mansfield, New Bedford, North
Attleboro, Norton, Raynham, Rehoboth, Seekonk, Somerset,
Swansea, Taunton and Westport in Bristol County; Amesbury,
Andover, Beverly, Boxford, Danvers, Essex, Georgetown,
Gloucester, Groveland, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Lawrence,
Lynn, Lynnfield, Manchester, Marblehead, Merrimac, Methuen,
Middleton, Nahant, Newbury, Newburyport, North Andover, Pea-
body, Rockport, Rowley, Salem, Salisbury, Saugus, Swampscott,
Topsfield, Wenham and West Newbury in Essex County; Acton,
Arlington, Ashby, Ashland, Ayer, Bedford Belmont, Billerica,
Boxboro, Burlington, Cambridge, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord,
Dracut, Dunstable, Everett, Framingham, Groton, Holliston, Hop-
kinton, Hudson, Lexington, Lincoln, Littleton, Lowell, Maiden,
Marlboro, Maynard, Medford, Melrose, Natick, Newton, North
Reading, Pepperell, Reading, Sherborn, Shirley, Somerville,
Stoneham, Stow, Sudbury, Tewksbury, Townsend, Tyngsboro,
Wakefield, Waltham, Watertown, Wayland, Westford, Weston,
Wilmington, Winchester and Woburn in Middlesex County;
Avon, Bellingham, Braintree, Brookhne, Canton, Cohasset, Ded-
ham, Dover, Foxboro, Franklin, Holbrook, Hopedale, Medfield,
Medway, Milhs, Milton, Needham, Norfolk, Norwood, Plainville,
Quincy, Randolph, Sharon, Stoughton, Walpole, Wellesley, West-
wood, Weymouth and Wrentham in Norfolk County; Ahin^toii,
Bridge water, Brockton, Carver, Duxbury, East Bridgewater,
Halifax, Hanover, Hanson, Hingham, Hull, Kingston, Lakeville,
Marion, Marshfield, Mattapoisett, Middleboro, Norwell, Pem-
broke, Plymouth, Plympton, Rochester, Rocldand, Scituate, Ware-
ham, West Bridgewater and Whitman in Plymouth County;
Boston, Chelsea, Revere, and Winthrop in Suffolk County; Ash-
burnham, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Boylston, Chnton, Douglass,
Fitchburg, Gardner, Grafton, Harvard, Holden, Hubbardston,
Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury,
Northboro, Northbridge, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, South-
boro. Sterling, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westboro, West Boyl-
ston, Westminster and Worcester in Worcester County.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 283
Rhode Island: Barrington, Bristol and Warren in Bristol
County; Little Compton, Middletown, Newport, Portsmouth and
Tiverton in Newport County; Cumberland, East Providence,
Lincoln, North Providence, Pawtucket, Providence and Woon-
socket in Providence County.
New York (Eastern): Albany, Berne, Bethlehem, Cohoes,
Colonie, Coeymans, Guilderland, Knox, New Scotland, Rensselaer-
ville and Westerloo in Albany County; Bleecker, Broadalbin,
Caroga, Ephratah, Johnstown, Maj^eld, Northampton and Perth
in Fulton County; Coxsackie, Greenville and New Baltimore in
Greene County; Benson, Hope, Lake Pleasant and Wells in
Hamilton County; Amsterdam, Canajoharie, Charleston, Florida,
Glen, Minden, Mohawk, Palatine, Root and St. Johnsville in
Montgomery County; Cherry Valley in Otsego County; Bruns-
wick, East Greenbush, Grafton, Hoosick, North Greenbush,
Petersboro, Pittstown, Poestenkill, Sand Lake, Schaghticoke and
Troy in Rensselaer County; Ballston, Charlton. Clifton Park,
Corinth, Day, Edinburg, Galwaj^, Greenfield, Hadley, Half Moon,
Malta, Milton, Moreau, Northumberland, Providence, Saratoga,
Saratoga Springs, Stillwater and Wilton in Saratoga County;
Duanesburg, Glenville, Niskayuna, Princetown, Rotterdam and
Schenectady in Schenectady County; Carlisle, Cobleskill, Esper-
ance, Fulton, Middleburg, Schoharie and Wright in Schoharie
County; Luzerne in Warren County; Cambridge, Easton, Fort
Edward, Greenwich, Hebron, Jackson and White Creek in
(Western) : Ashford, Dayton, East Otto, Ellicottville, Franklin-
■vdlle. Freedom, Leon, Little Valley, Machais, Mansfield, Napoli,
New Albion, Otto, Perrysburg, Persia, Salamanca and Yorkshire
in Cattaraugus County; Arkwright, Charlotte, Chautauqua, Cherry
Creek, Clymer, Dunkirk, Ellery, Elhcott, Ellington, French
Creek, Gerry, Hanover, Harmony, Mina, Pomfret, Portland,
Ripley, Sheridan, Sherman, Stockton, Villenova and Westfield in
Chautauqua County; Alden, Amherst, Aurora, Boston, Brant,
Buffalo, Cheektowaga, Clarence, Golden, Collins, Concord, East
Hamburg, Eden, Elma, Evans, Grand Island, Hamburg, Holland,
Lancaster, Marilla, Newstead, North Collins, Sardina, Tonawanda,
Wales and West Seneca in Erie County; Alabama, Batavia,
Darien, Pembroke and Stafford in Genesee County; Cambria,
Hartland, Lewiston, Lockport, Newfane, Niagara, Pendleton,
Porter, Royalton, Somerset, Wheatfield and Wilson in Niagara
County; Arcade, Attica, Bennington, Eagle, Gainsville, Java,
Middlebury, Orangeville, Perry, Sheldon, Warsaw and Wethers-
field in Wyoming County.
Pennsylvania : Beaver in Crawford County; Amity, Conneaut,
Corry, Elk Creek, Fairview, Frankhn, Girard, Greene, Greenfield,
Harbor Creek, Leboeuf, McKean, Mill Creek, North East, Presque
284 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Island Peninisula, Springfield, Summit, Venango, Washington,
Waterford and Wayne in Erie County.
Ohio: Ashtabula, Austinburg, Conneaut, Denmark, Geneva,
Harpersfield, Jefferson, Kingsville, Monroe, Pierpont, Plymouth,
Saybrook and Sheffield in Ashtabula County; Cleveland, Dover,
Euclid, Independence, Mayfield, Middleburg, Newburg, Rockport,
Warrensville and West Park in Cuyahoga County; Berlin, Huron,
Kelleys Island, Margaretta, Perkins, Portland, and Vermillion in
Erie County; Chardon, Chester and Thompson in Geauga County;
Concord, Kirtland, Leroy, Madison, Mentor, Painesville, Perry,
and Willoughby in Lake County; Amherst, Avon, Avon Lake,
Black River, Brownhelm, Elyria and Sheffield in Lorain County;
Jerusalem, Oregon, Toledo and Washington in Lucas County;
Allen, Bay, Benton, Carroll, Catawba Island, Clay, Danbury, Erie,
Middle Bass Island, North Bass Island, Portage and South Bass
Island in Ottawa County; Townsend in Sandusky County; Lake
and Ross in Wood County.
Michigan: Bedford, Berlin, Erie, Exeter, Frenchtown, Ida,
La Salle, Monroe and Whiteford in Monroe County; Brownstown,
Detroit, Ecorse, Gratiot, Greenfield, Grosse Pointe, Hamtramck,
Huron, Monguagon and Springwells in Wayne County.
The regulations of this quarantine order are subject to modifica-
tion to include additional territory, if such is found infested and
in general will be interpreted as conforming to, rather than as b3ing
at variance with, the regulations of the Federal Horticultural
Quarantine Orders No. 1 relating to this insect, and issued
September 20, 1918, and No. 3, issued June 1, 1920, are hereby
This order shall take effect June 1, 1923.
E. H. Jenkins,
Director, Connecticut Agricultural
Approved: Experiment Station.
Chas. a. Templeton,
PREVALENCE OF ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH.
Laspeyresia molesta Busck
The reappearance of the Oriental peach moth in Connecticut in
1922 and 1923 has already been mentioned on page 232 of this
Report. The first information regarding the presence of this pest
in Connecticut was received in '1917, when specimens were sent to
the Bureau of Entomology by Mr. C. C. Lawrence of the F. A.
Bartlett Tree Expert Company of Stamford, and identified as the
Oriental peach moth. Mr. Lawrence also sent material to this
ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 285
Station, but it was badly crushed and could not be properly iden-
tified. In the absence of the writer, Mr. Quincy S. Lowry, then
Assistant Entomologist, answered the letter and suggested that
more material be sent for examination. Meanwhile the reply from
Washington specifically identified the insect, and a short report
of the pest was included in the Report of this Station for 1917,
page 315. Beginning April 1, 1918, Mr. Ernest D. Brown was
employed by the Federal Bureau of Entomology to search for
this pest in Connecticut in order to ascertain its exact distribution.
Mr. Brown worked in Connecticut for six months and found the
larvae of this insect only in Stamford where it was discovered in
1917, although he found twig injury in each of the four southern or
shore counties of the State. He did not find this injury far inland
or in the northern counties, nor was he certain that it was wholly
caused by Laspeyresia molesta, because the peach twig borer,
Anarsia lineatella Zell., causes similar injury and is also present in
the shore region of the State. An account of the Oriental peach
moth with a report on the scouting done by Mr. Brown was pub-
lished in the Report of this Station for 1918, page 298, and
following this article in the same Report (page 306) is an account
of the peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella, giving its distribution
in Connecticut based upon the collecting done hj Mr. Brown.
In 1919 and 1920, visits were made to the locahty in Stamford
where larvae occurred in 1918, but no signs of this insect could be
found. Injury caused by it was not observed anywhere in the
State in 1921, though entomologists from this office traveled about
the State and were on the lookout for it.
During the autumn of 1922, considerable twig injury was noticed
in the southwestern corner of the State, which was thought to have
been caused by the Oriental peach moth. In the summer of 1923,
twig injury was noticed in a number of orchards, and later during
the annual inspection of nurseries in August and September, twig
injury was found on peach stock in a few of the nurseries in Fair-
field County, and on some orchard trees near the nursery stock.
Perhaps the most serious attack observed was in the peach
orchards at Conj'-ers Farm, Greenwich, which the writer visited in
companj^ with Dr. Garman on June 25. Many of the new shoots
were brown and had been tunneled by the larvae, though in most
of them no larvae could be found. During December, Mr. A. T.
Henry informed the writer that he observed considerable twig
injury in his orchard at Wallingford, and on January 8, 1924, Mr.
Arthur J. Watrous of Meriden, brought to the Station several
peach twigs which had been tunneled bj^ this insect during the
growing season of 1923. Recentty reports have been received
from the orchard of Ehjah Rogers and Son of Southington, indi-
cating that this insect has injured some twigs there.
The latter part of the summer the larvae were found in fruit at
Conyers Farm, Greenwich, where the manager estimates that fully
286 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
50 per cent, of the fruit was injured by the larvae, causing a money
loss of at least $5,000.00 in damage to crop, not to mention injury
to reputation on account of having wormy fruit. The late varieties
such as Hale, Elberta and Belle of Georgia were damaged more
than those varieties ripening earlier in the season. A number of
infested peaches were observed at the Station Farm, Mount
Carmel, and Mr. Watrous also reported that he found infested
peaches in his orchard in Meriden.
According to fruit growers and entomologists, this pest caused
serious damage in 1923 in Pennsylvania and in New Jersey, where
in some cases 80 per cent, of the late peaches were infested.
Though the larvae attack apples and other fruits in the Middle
Atlantic States, only peaches have been found infested by it in
Summary of Life History.
The eggs of the first brood are probably laid the latter part of
May or early in June on the under surface of the leaves. They are
laid singly and hatch in four to seven days; the larvae go to the new
shoots and tunnel in them, causing them to turn brown at the tips
as is shown on Plate XVIII. They often leave one shoot and enter
another, and this explains why injured empty shoots are so abun-
dant in a badly infested orchard. It is not known how many
generations occur in Connecticut, but in Maryland, Dr. Garman^
found four generations, only about 26 days being required for the
entire life cycle. Wood and Selkregg^ found a partial fifth genera-
tion near Washington, D. C, but Stearns^ found only four broods
in Virginia. In Maryland the first two broods were fairly distinct,
but the third and fourth overlapped so that it was hard to separate
them. In New Jersey according to Dr. Peterson, the last three
As the season advances and the new growth hardens and becomes
woody twigs, the larvae attack the fruit. In late summer the
newly hatched larvae apparently go directly into the fruit, and
often several larvae are found in one peach. The larva has the
habit of biting into the tissues and laying aside the first few mouth-
fuls, then eating its way into the twig or fruit. For this reason the
larvae cannot be controlled satisfactorily by applications of
The larval period averages about eleven days and the pupa stage
lasts about ten days. When mature the larva eats out cavities
in the sides of twigs or whatever surface is near at hand and
suitable for the purpose, and there makes an inconspicuous cocoon.
Those maturing late in the season usually enter crevices of the bark
^ Bulletin 223, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, page 113, 1917.
2 Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. XIII, page 63, 1918.
3 Technical Bulletin 21, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, 1921.
ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 287
at the base of the trunk or in similar situations higher up on the
tree and are very difficult to detect. The hibernating larvae
pupate in these cases in the spring, and the moths soon emerge
to lay eggs for the first brood of larvae.
Altogether some 15 different parasites of the Oriental peach
moth have been reared in the United States. Of these 12 belong
to the Hymenoptera and three to the Diptera. In Dr. Garman's
studies in Maryland^ two important parasites were obtained. One,
a Braconid, Macrocentrus sp., was reared in small numbers from the
larvae, and the other, a Chalcidid, Trichogramma minutum Riley,
parasitized about 80 per cent, of the eggs. Wood and Selkregg^
recorded six primary parasites belonging to the Hymenoptera and
one belonging to the Diptera.
Professor E. N. Cory, State Entomologist of Maryland, estimates
that about 60 per cent, of the larvae and about 50 per cent, of the
pupae are parasitized in Maryland. Stearns^ reports that on the
average only 20 per cent, of the larvae of the three summer broods
were parasitized in Virginia in 1920, and fully 85 per cent, of the
hibernating larvae came through successfully.
The Oriental peach moth is a difficult pest to control. Many
tests have been made with various Kquids and gases to kill the
over-wintering larvae in their cases, but these cocoons or cases are
almost impenetrable, so the larvae for the most part pass through
the treatment uninjured.
After pruning the orchard, it is advisable to burn all twigs for
this maj^ destroy some of the hibernating larvae.
Stearns^ finds that spraying with nicotine solution diluted at the
rate of one part in 500 parts of water, will kill the eggs in Virginia^.
A caseinate spreader at the rate of two pounds in 50 gallons of
mixture increased the effectiveness of the treatment. Only 4.7
per cent, of the untreated eggs failed to hatch, whereas from 75
to 85 per cent, were killed by the treatment.
The approximate periods of heaviest egg-laying in Virginia were
from May 8 to 16 for the first brood, from May 31 to June 7 for the
second brood, and from June 27 to 29 for the third brood and from
August 1 to 10 for the fourth brood. The spray treatments should
be given with reference to these dates. Egg-laying dates have not
been ascertained for Connecticut.
1 Bulletin 209, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, 1917.
2 Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. XIII, page 70, 1918.
' Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 14, page 337, 1921.
^ Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 14, page 340, 1921.
288 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
THE LARCH LEAF-MINER OR CASE BEARER.
Coleophora laricella Hubn.
On June 4, Mr. H. W. Hicock, Assistant Forester, brought to the
laboratory from the town of Canaan, branches of larch which had
been attacked by the larch leaf-miner or case bearer, Coleophora
laricella Hubn. The newly formed leaves had been mined and
injured to such an extent that the foliage of the entire branch had
a gray appearance and later turned brown. According to Mr.
Hicock, the specimens came from a large swamp a mile or so in
extent, and the trees were distinctly brown on the day of his visit.
This swamp is situated near the road connecting Canaan with
South Canaan. Injured foliage is shown on Plate XIX, a.
On June 7, larch received from New Canaan also showed the
attacks of this insect. The writer noticed shght injury to larch
trees on private grounds and in public parks in New Haven and
various other parts of the State. Never before in recent years has
this insect been so abundant in Connecticut.
The larch case bearer is a European insect and on the continent
it has caused damage to the larch trees of the forests, particularly
in Germany. When the larch was introduced into the British
Isles, this case bearer soon appeared in England and Scotland.
Later it made its appearance in America and probably was brought
across the Atlantic on nursery stock. It has been reported from
Canada and the northeastern United States.
Injury to the Trees.
The young larva is a leaf-miner at first and tunnels the distal
half of the needle. It cleans out this hollow needle and then cuts it
off at the base of the excavated portion and uses the latter as a case,
carrying it about when feeding, and resting in it much like the
cigar case bearer, Coleophora fletcherella Fern., and other case
bearers. The appearance of this case is shown on Plate XIX, b. As
the partly grown larvae pass the winter in these cases on the
twigs, they are ready to resume feeding on the first leaves that are
put out in the spring. Consequently when the larvae are abundant
the leaves are eaten about as fast as they can grow, with the result
that the trees look sickly and brown by the first of June, instead
of green and vigorous. Even though more leaves are put out, they
are mined later in the season. Thus severe attacks weaken the
trees, and Dr. Patch^" writes as follows: "The injured needles often
continue to grow but the clusters are ragged and many of the
needles brown and dry. Small larches in the vicinity of Bangor
and Orono which have been subjected to an attack of at least three
seasons, died this summer from no other apparent cause than the
presence of great numbers of the case bearers which kept the
needles eaten off. Many large larches infested by this insect look
yellowish and unhealthy."
LARCH LEAF-MINER. 289
Life History and Habits.
The eggs are laid upon the leaves during the first part of June and
on hatching, each larva bores directly through the bottom of its
shell and into the tissues of the leaf, where it continues to burrow,
usually tunnehng out the distal half. It has the habit of packing
its excrement into the burrow in the mined leaf. By September
the leaf has been completely mined, and the larva being small
and only partly grown, cuts off the distal portion of the leaf; then
it cleans out the excrement from the basal portion and uses this
for its winter case. Sometimes it goes into a new leaf and some-
times makes its case of old leaves. The inside of each case is lined
with a thin layer of silk. The larvae continue to feed for three or
four weeks after making their winter cases, then fasten them with
silk to the branches and twigs where they remain throughout the
winter, as shown on Plate XIX, b. The outer end of the case is
closed with silk and somewhat contracted. Usually this migra-
tion to the twigs occurs in October, and they remain there for
about six months.
On the approach of warm weather, usually in April, the larvae
dislodge their cases from the branches and migrate to the buds,
where they are ready to partake of their first meal after their long
winter fast. As soon as the new leaves are of sufficient size they
fasten their cases to them or use them to enlarge their cases. This
is fully described by Herrick^ who states that this is the period
when the insect does its greatest amount of damage, for each
larva may feed upon more than one leaf, and being larger, destroys
more leaves than before hibernation. The larvae continue to live
in these enlarged cases and pupate in them in ^lay, attaching
themselves at the base of short side branches and in the center of
The pupa stage lasts from 14 to 20 da^^s and the adult moths
emerge the last of May and following. The moths are active
during the day and when at rest, the wings are folded closely over
the body, and the antennae are extended forward.
Apparently there is only one generation each yesiT, as is usual
with most other case bearers.
Egg. — Eggs though small are visible without a magnifying glass.
They are reddish-brown in color, nearly hemispherical in shape
with 12 to 14 radiating ridges extending down the sides from the
Larva. — Length, about five mm. when fully grown, dark reddish-
brown, head, thoracic and anal shields, black.
Adult. — Wing expanse about nine mm., silvery gra3dsh-brown
or ash-gray in color, both front and rear wings narrow and bear
290 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
long fringe, characteristic of the family Elachistidae to which this
Herrick^ bred three species of parasites in New York but only in
small numbers; these were identified only provisionally on account
of a lack of material. One belonged in the genus Pachyneuron,
one to the Pteromalidae, and one to the Tetrastichidae. He
reports that nine parasites have been recorded from Europe.
There is no practical method of controlling this insect in forests
or large plantations, but on shade and ornamental trees and in
small plantations on private estates where cost is not an important
matter, some attempt at control is feasible.
The most extensive experiments of which we have record are
those conducted by Professor G. W. Herrick^ in Ithaca, New York,
in 1911. Trees sprayed with lead arsenate April 25, and even
given an additional treatment May 5, were just as badly injured
as the trees not treated.
Home-made concentrated Hme-gulphur, testing 29° Beaume,
was diluted at the rate of one to seven and the tree thoroughly
coated with the mixture on April 7, before the buds had begun to
swell and before the larvae had left their winter positions. This
tree was badly infested. An examination on April 27 showed that
the buds had started and that on unsprayed trees the larvae had
moved to the leaves, but not one had moved on the sprayed tree.
On May 5, many larvae were examined. Only two were found
to be alive; the others were dead and shriveled. Consequently, in
view of these tests, it seems advisable to spray shade and ornamen-
tal trees with lime-sulphur, as for scale, late in the spring just
before the buds open.
1 Felt, E. P., Memoirs N. Y. State Museum, 8, page 170, 1905. (Life history
- Fernald, H. T., Can. Ent., Vol. li, page 264, 1919. (Injured trees in North-
ampton, Mass., same spot where Hagen reported it in 1886. Describes
egg and habits of young larva.)
3 Fletcher, J., Report of the Entomologist and Botanist, Central Experimental
Farms, page 191, 1905. (Brief account).
^ Fletcher, J., Thirty-sixth Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 90, 1905.
(Reports insect in moderate numbers at Experimertal Farm, Ottawa,
Can., and beheves this the first record for Canada.)
^ Gibson, A., Forty-first Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 14, 1910.
(Reports insect not abundant at Ottawa imtil 1910.)
^ Hagen, H. A., Canadian Entomologist, Vol. xviii, page 125, 1886. (Abun-
dant on European larches at Northampton, Mass.)
ASIATIC BEETLE. 291
^ Herrick, Glenn W., Annals Ent. Soc. Am., iv, page 68, 1911. (Describes
habits and partial life history: original observations, Ithaca, N. Y., 1910-
8 Herrick, Glenn W., Cornell Agr. Ejcpt. Station, Bulletin 322, 1912. (Com-
plete h'fe history, habits, natural enemies, control, bibUography.)
^ Herrick, Glenn W., Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 5, page 172, 1912.
(Treatment with lime-sulphur.)
i» Patch, Edith M., Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Bulletin 134, page 218, 1906.
(Brief account of habits and Life history. Mentions death of trees.)
" Patch, Edith M., and Johannsen, O. A., Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Bulletin
195, page 239, 1912. (Mention as being abimdant on American Larch in
" Swaine, J. M., Forty-third Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 88, 1912.
(Mentioned as being abundant on European and American larches in
Ottawa in 1912.)
" Theobald, F. V., Report on Economic Zoology, page 111, 1905. (Brief
" Weiss, H. B., Ent. News, Vol. xxaoi, page 424, 1916. (Not extensively dis-
tributed in N. J. Probably introduced on nursery stock.)
THE ASIATIC BEETLE.
Anomala orientalis Waterhouse.
In the Report of this Station for 1922, page 345, ■ is a brief
account of this new pest which has apparently become estabUshed
in Connecticut. Since this note was prepared for pubHcation,
further developments have occurred which warrant further
mention here of the undesirabiHty of this insect.
Late in the fall of 1922, one of my neighbors, Air. H. M. Bowman,
complained to me that white grubs were injuring his lawn at 228
Alden Avenue, and on November 2, 1 visited his place and collected
a few specimens. These grubs had killed the grass in a patch
perhaps eight by ten feet in the front lawn near the sidewalk. By
digging in the soil, we found some of the grubs, though Mr. Bow-
man stated that thej^ had recently descended and were much
nearer the surface a short time before. Evidently they had gone
down for protection during the winter. These grubs were quite
active and though varying considerably in size, all were rather
small. Otherwise they looked like ordinary white grubs, and at
the time we took them to be the larvae of Ma}^ or June beetles
(Phyllophaga sp.) These grubs all died probably ha\T[ng injured
each other with their mandibles, as we afterward learned they are
apt to do when confined together with little soil. The grubs are
shown on Plate XX, b.
The ne.xt spring other residents of the neighborhood complained
of similar injury to lawns. ]\Ir. Robert S. Scobie, corner of Central
and Edge wood Avenues, particularly had been troubled by them
and had reseeded his lawn, only to have the new grass also eaten
by the grubs. Mr. Wilham E. Woodmansee and Mr. Clarence M.
Blair of Edgewood Avenue had also gone through similar exper-
iences. An injured lawn is shown on Plate XX, c.
292 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Mr. Scobie accommodated us on May 17 by collecting a con-
siderable number of grubs with a good supply of dirt. These were
promptly separated so that they could not injure each other, by
putting only a few larvae in each of several cages and supplying
them with plenty of food and soil. On July 24, adult beetles
emerged and proved to be Anomala orientalis. Prior to the
emergence of these beetles, specimens of the larvae were sent to
Professor John J. Davis, Agricultural Experiment Station, La-
Fayette, Indiana, who had formerly been in charge of the Japanese
Beetle Laboratory at Riverton, New Jersey, and prior to that had
made a study of white grubs and various larvae of the beetle
family Scarabaeidae. Professor Davis repHed that he had sent his
collection of larvae to Washington and was therefore unable to
identify our material. He therefore forwarded it to Washington
and in due time a report was received stating that it had been
examined by Dr. A. Boving and identified provisionally as Anomala
orientalis. Of the reared material, some specimens are Hght brown
with very faint markings and some are black, as is the case with
the native Anomala lucicola Fabr. Between these two extremes
there are all gradations. This variation is shown on Plate XX, a.
More material was collected in the field in 1923. The adults do
not fly but are found in the grass and weeds near the ground or
crawling up the stems. This habit retards the dissemination of
the pest and simpHfies materially the problem of control. Messrs.
Zappe and Garman treated small areas of infested soil in the lawns
of Mr. Woodmansee with calcium cyanide compound, carbon
disulphide emulsion and some other materials. The first killed the
larvae and also the grass and weeds. The other materials in the
proportions used were not effective in destroying the larvae.
No very thorough survey has yet been made to ascertain the
present distribution of the pest. The preliminary survey shows
that the injured lawns are all within five or six city squares or
blocks, but as a certain number of larvae may be present per square
yard without injuring the grass above ground, the distribution is
probably much greater than indicated. It would be necessary
to dig through the turf in thousands of places to ascertain its real
distribution. Moreover as this infestation apparently was
caused by nursery stock being imported with balls of earth from
Japan, before the prohibition of such shipments by the Federal
Horticultural Board, there is also a strong probabiHty that this
insect has hkewise been sent out from the nursery to other points,
perhaps nearby or far distant. This nursery has now been moved
to Woodmont some six miles distant, and possibly the insect has
been carried there also. The grornid where the nursery formerly
stood has all been sold for building lots and residences have been
built upon it. In excavating for cellars and in grading, the upper
soil has nearly all been moved, and this must have had some effect
on the larvae in the soil. The lawns most seriously injured are
SWARMS OF APHIDS. 293
those across the street (Edgewood Avenue) from that part of the
nursery where the adult beetles were first collected in 1920.
The parasite, Scolia manilae Ashm., which was so successful in
reducing the infestation of Anomala orientalis in Hawaii a few
years ago, has been imported into New Jersey to be used in con-
trolling the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, but does not sur-
vive the winters there. Consequently we cannot hope for much
help from this insect in controlling the infestation of Anomala
orientalis in Connecticut, but there is a possibihty that some of our
native species of Scolia or Tiphia may attack the grubs.
SWARMS OF APHIDS.
During the season there were two separate swarms of aphids,
one in June and the other in September, both of which should be
recorded here. A similar swarm has been mentioned in the Report
of this Station for 1919, page 203.
The aphids were so abundant and noticeable in and about New
Haven, Bridgeport and Waterbury in June, 1923, that the news-
papers printed notes regarding the matter. The following account
of the June flight was published in the Journal of Economic En-
tomology, Vol. 16, page 395, August, 1923:
Swarms of Aphids: During the week ending June 9, news-
papers and telephone inquiries reported that swarms of aphids
were present in the cities of IMeriden and AVaterbury, Conn., and
on June 8, specimens were received from Waterbur}-. On June 8,
Mr. Zappe collected specimens at his home, ]\Iount Carmel, where
they were so abundant in the air that his little daughter said to
him: "Daddy, it's snowing". During the week ending June 16,
similar swarms of aphids appeared in the center of the city of
New Haven, and the writer observed them on Ehn Street on the
afternoon of June 16. The tops of automobiles and clothes were
literally covered with aphids and pedestrians were brushing
them from their faces. Air. Rogers of this Department states
that in Bridgeport swarms of aphids have been present for
three weeks, and one day in the city in catching a butterfl}-
he also caught two or three hundred of these aphids in the net.
Even at the date of this writing (July 3) aphids have not all dis-
appeared in New Haven, and this morning Mr. Rogers ran into a
swarm on Winchester Avenue. It is not certain that all of these
aphids were of the same species, but those examined seemed to be
identical and material submitted to Dr. A. C. Baker of the Bureau
of Entomology has been identified as Euceraphis deducta Baker,
a species described from Maine in 1917 (Journal of Economic
Entomology, Vol. X, page 427). Birch is the host of this species
and the swarms probably came from Betula populifolia, which is
abundant around all of these Connecticut cities. In 1919, I
recorded the presence of swarms of Calaphis betulaecolens Fitch
294 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
(see Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 12, page 351) in New
Haven, Conn., and at first I supposed the swarms of the present
season were of that species. A microscopic examination, however,
showed them to be different. Dr. Baker writes that "it is very
interesting that this recently described species should become so
This species, Euceraphis deducta Baker, had somewhat the aspect
of a woolly aphid. That is, each individual bore some wax secre-
tion in the nature of white filaments.
From September 19 to 25, aphids were again swarming in the
streets of New Haven, and it was several days or perhaps weeks
before they entirely disappeared. Specimens collected showed
this to be Calaphis hetulaecolens Fitch, a species devoid of the white
wax filaments, and the same species observed in the city in 1919.
Both of these species live upon the leaves of birch trees, and it
is not known whether they have alternate hosts, but perhaps like
many other kinds of aphids, they were migrating to other host
plants, which explains their presence in such number in the center
of large cities. Birch trees are common on the uncultivated land
around the outskirts of nearly all cities of Connecticut. The
species of the September swarm, Calaphis hetulaecolens Fitch, is also
recorded from linden ( Tilia) but evidently its full life history has
not been determined.
MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE.
Mosquitoes have been known and recognized as a pest since the
earliest times. Writers have mentioned them; armies have been
attacked by their hordes; large military and civic operations have
been abandoned because of the great abundance of mosquitoes.
Today mosquitoes occur throughout the world, from the tropics
to the polar regions; all countries and all climates have been pre-
empted by them and all races have been attacked by them. Not
only do they attack persons, but also the larger animals, blood
being necessary for the development of their eggs.
Certain kinds of mosquitoes through their bites transmit yellow
fever, other kinds carry malaria and in no other way can these
diseases be communicated from one person to another, except
possibly by direct inoculation.
All kinds of mosquitoes annoy mankind, prevent property
development, and therefore cause a tremendous economic loss to
community, state and nation. Moreover, their abundance is
Where Do Mosquitoes Breed?
Only in stagnant water. Until they reach the winged or adult
stage, they can live only in fairly still water, where they are able to
MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE.
obtain air at the surface. The beHef of many persons that mos-
quitoes breed in grass, shrubbery and vines, is wholly false, though
the pests hide and rest in such places. Water is just as essential
for the wrigglers (larvae and pupae) as it is for trout or codfish,
and if there were no standing water, there would be no mosquito
nuisance. Permanent and deep pools and streams are usually
stocked with fish and do not breed mosquitoes, because the fish
will eat the wrigglers, should any hatch there. Rain water pools,
barrels, buckets, tin cans, bottles and clogged ditches and gutters
are common breeding places for fresh water mosquitoes, and the
Figure 11. Section of rain barrel showing eggs, larvae and adults of the
rain barrel mosquito.
shallow depressions on the salt marsh are typical breeding places
for salt marsh mosquitoes.
Only the Females Bite and Sing.
Male mosquitoes are verj^ puny creatures and are not able to
puncture the human skin. They five onty a short time, and make
no singing or humming noise. The common sound known as the
"song" of mosquitoes is made by the females which are also respon-
sible for all the mosquito bites. They bite in order to obtain blood,
without wliich they are unable to develop eggs.
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
Life History of Mosquitoes.
Most mosquitoes lay their eggs on the surface of the water,
either singly or in raft-Uke masses which float upon the surface.
On hatching, each larva drops into the water and during its larval
existence swims about with a jerky motion, most of the time
holding its head downward. It has a large head with a tube or
siphon at the tail, and every two minutes or so it comes to the
surface and inhales some fresh air through this siphon. It feeds
upon the minute particles of organic matter in the water, from six
days to three weeks, depending upon the temperature, when it
Figure 12. Eggs and young larvae of the house or rain barrel mosquito,
Culex jnpiens, Linn. All enlarged. (After Howard, Bulletin 25, Bureau of
Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
transforms to a peculiar hunchback pupa. Breathing is now done
through two siphons on the thorax instead of one at the tail. In
about two days the skin cracks open along the back, and the adult
winged mosquito emerges, and after resting on the old shell and
drying its wings, soon flies away. Only about a week is necessary
for a mosquito to develop from egg to adult in hot weather. The
stages in the life of a mosquito are (1) egg; (2) larva; (3) pupa;
Flight of Mosquitoes.
With the exception of the salt marsh mosquitoes, a few hundred
feet is tlie extent of the distance traveled by most mosquitoes.
MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE.
Salt marsh mosquitoes (two species) migrate or are wind-borne for
many miles. In New Jersey they have been found at least thirty
miles from their breeding place, and in Connecticut eighteen miles.
During strong winds they seek shelter, but in warm foggy weather,
gentle breezes may aid them in going inland for several miles.
After obtaining blood, they return to the salt marsh to deposit their
Where intensive breeding takes place in polluted streams, the
Figure 13. The house or rain-barrel mosquito, Culex 'piplens Linn: 1. adult
female; 2. palpus; 3. anterior, 4. middle, 5. posterior claws of male. All en-
larged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey Mosquitoes.)
house mosquito has been found a mile from its breeding place, but
usually this species does not go more than one-fourth that distance.
Different Kinds of Mosquitoes.
There are known to be about 500 different kinds of mosquitoes
throughout the world; about 100 kinds occur in the United States.
Nearly 50 species have been recorded from the State of New York,
and about 25 kinds occur in Connecticut. Of this number, only
five kinds need here be considered.
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
RAIN BARREL OR HOUSE MOSQUITO
1. Culex pipiens
SPOTTED OR MALARIAL MOSQUITO (2 Species)
2. Anopheles pundipennis
3. Anopheles quadrimaculatus
SALT MARSH OR MIGRATORY MOSQUITOES
4. Brown salt marsh mosquito, Aedes cantator
5. White-banded sali marsh mosquito,
Breed in fresh water; fly
only short distances; en-
ter houses and bite after
Breed in brackish water;
fly long distances; do
not enter houses, and
bite promptly in the
Figure 14. The banded salt marsh mosquito, Culex sollicitans Walk.:
1. adult female; 2. palpus; 3. anterior, 4. median and 5. posterior claws of
male. All enlarged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey Mosquitoes.)
How TO Distinguish Malarial from Other
Malarial mosquitoes have spotted wings, the beak and body are
nearly in a straight Hne, and it "stands on its head".
Other mosquitoes do not have spotted wings, the beak makes a
greater angle with the axis of the body and the body is parallel
with the surface upon which the mosquito stands or rests.
Larvae or wrigglers in the water may also be distinguished by
their different shapes. Malarial species are green or gray, He
horizontally at the surface of the water, and move to other posi-
MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE.
tions on the surface without dropping downward into the water.
Moreover their bodies are nearly as thick at the tail as through the
head and the breathing tube or siphon is very short. Other
mosquito larvae hold their heads downward when breathing at the
surface and if disturbed drop downward into the water. The head
and thorax are large, from which the body tapers toward the tail
end, which is furnished with a long siphon. The color is usually
dirty white or gray.
The Mosquito Plague of Connecticut.
The great mosquito plague of Connecticut is caused by the
abundance of only a few kinds of mosquitoes. A few 3^ears ago
Figure 15. Larvae of Culex and Anopheles, showing the characteristic position
of each at the surface of the water. 1. Anopheles; 2. Culex cantator.
in the southern half of the State, the salt marsh mosquitoes were
the most prominent, and this is true today except in certain
sections where the salt marshes have been ditched. In these
ditched sections and in all other parts of the State, the rain barrel
or house mosquito is the chief offender.
At present about one-third of all the salt marsh areas of Con-
necticut have been ditched and the ditches have been maintained in
working condition. There still remains some 12,000 to 14,000
acres of salt niarsh to be ditched before we shall be rid of the
nuisance of migratory or day-biting mosquitoes.
The rain barrel mosquito is local in its distribution and breeds
in rain water pools, receptacles, polluted streams, etc. A single
bucket of water will furnish enough mosquitoes to infest the
300 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256.
Control or Relief Measures.
Rain Barrel Mosquitoes. — Fill or drain all depressions which
may catch or hold water during the summer months. See that no
receptacles collect and hold rain water about the premises. Small
swamp areas and deep depressions which cannot be filled or drained
except at great expense, may be dredged to form permanent pools
and stocked with fish.
Malarial Mosquitoes. — See that edges of springs and streams
are cleared of vegetation and have steep banks. Screen all houses,
and particularly all persons having malaria.
Salt Marsh Mosquitoes. — Cut narrow parallel ditches through
the salt marsh, from the hard land to the central creek or outlet.
These usually need to be about 150 feet apart, but the distance
depends upon the character of the marsh and the amount of breed-
ing. Special work, such as building dikes, tide gates and deepen-
ing major outlets are necessary in some cases. In general these
narrow ditches cost about ten dollars per acre. A slight expense
each year must be incurred to examine the ditches and remove
Wherever mosquitoes are found breeding in water, it is possible
to kill all of the wrigglers by spreading a film of oil on the surface.
This prevents their access to the air and they suffocate. The oil
also penetrates their respiratory system and injures their tissues.
Kerosene is the cheapest oil for this purpose which is readily and
universally available. Light fuel oil may be obtained from oil
stations in the larger cities. Old cylinder oil from garages may
be used if mixed with an equal quantity of kerosene. A spray
pump is the common agency for spreading the oit; though in small
pools a sprinkling can or saturated sawdust may be used. One
fluid ounce of kerosene will cover about 15 square feet of surface.
OiUng is only a temporary expedient and should not be practiced
except in special cases. On the salt marsh in a single season it
would cost about one-fourth as much to oil the pools as it would to
cut ditches, but the ditches would last for years and make further
Fish feed upon mosquito wrigglers, particularly small fish such as
"minnows" and "killies" which eat animal food and feed near the
surface. By cleaning the banks of deep pools and sluggish streams,
and stocking with these fish no mosquitoes will breed there. There
are also many aquatic insects which devour mosquito larvae.
MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE.
Individual and Community Effort.
The control of the fresh water species hke the malarial and rain
barrel mosquitoes which fly only short distances, is a matter for
each individual resident and property owner, though far more will
be accomphshed if all individuals work together toward the same
end. This is largely a problem of house to house inspection, with
control measures practiced where needed.
It is a commendable line of activity for local civic and village
improvement associations, boy and girl scouts and women's clubs
Figure 16. A malarial mosquito, Anopheles jmndipetinis. 1. adult female;
2. palpus; 3. genitalia; 4. part of mng vein, sho-ning scales; 5. anterior, and
6. middle claws of male. AH enlarged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey
to co-operate with the Experiment Station. Surveys can be made
in each neighborhood to ascertain where mosquitoes are breeding.
When mosquitoes are especially troublesome, specimens should be
collected and sent to the Station for identification. There is al-
ready legislation (Section 2408 of the Re\ased Statutes) declaring
accumulations of water in which mosquitoes breed a public
nuisance, and authorizing the health officer to order them abohshed.
302 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
Salt Marsh Mosquito Problem A State- Wide Matter.
As the mosquitoes of the salt marsh are migratory and often fiy
long distances, isolated individual or even community effort counts
for but little in controlling the plague. Even efforts involving
entire townships, though commendable, do not bring the maximum
degree of reHef unless other towns also act in the matter. Some
towns will take no action, either on account of cost or because the
people do not expect effective results. Consequently when left
entirely to local initiative, the work is apt to be spotted and dis-
connected if any is done at all. Thus the salt marsh area of
Connecticut has been ditched from the New York line as far east-
ward as Westport, which is still unditched, Fairfield, Bridgeport,
a part of Stratford, West Haven, New Haven, a part of East
Haven, from Branford River to Hammonasset River with small
areas in Old Saybrook and Groton, have all been ditched. Some
of the areas mentioned above are not yet under State supervision.
In order to make the work continuous and to obtain the full
benefit of the ditching already done, the towns of Westport, Strat-
ford, Milford, parts of East Haven and Branford, Clinton, and all
towns to the eastward should have their salt marshes ditched.
Legislation has already been enacted (see Section 2409 of the
ReAdsed Statutes and Chapter 68, Public Acts of 1923) providing
for, and authorizing the Director of the Connecticut Agricultural
Experiment Station to ditch salt and fresh marshes and maintain
the same. He can make investigations and furnish estimates,
supervision, etc., upon request. In case the ditching work has
been accompUshed, he will inspect it upon request. If it merits
his approval, he will accept it officially and see that it is properly
maintained at State expense.
Benefits of Mosquito Control.
Health. — Eradication of malaria bearing mosquitoes will
prevent the spread of malaria in any community, town or state.
Other native species of mosquitoes, though not known to carry
disease-causing organisms, are a detriment to health because their
bites sometimes become infected, and because of the irritating
effect on the nervous system.
Comfort. — No person can be comfortable when attacked by
hordes of mosquitoes. Whole regions have been developed,
neglected or abandoned because of the absence or abundance of
Increased Property Values. — Wherever the mosquito nuisance
has been controlled, substantial increases in property values have
followed. This is a logical result of making building sites more
desirable because people can be more comfortable there. The
increased population means increased business, increased trans-
MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 303
portation, and better yet, increased taxes for the town and for the
Increased Crops. — Wherever salt or fresh marshes are ditched
the quahty of the vegetation is improved; it makes better hay.
The quantity is also increased, giving a greater yield. It has been
shown in New Jersey that by ditching the yield of salt marsh hay
has been increased from two to twenty fold.
Send Specimens For Identification.
If anyone is interested in the mosquito problem of his locahty
and wishes to know whether malarial mosquitoes are present, he is
requested to collect adult mosquitoes and send them for identifica-
tion to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New
Haven, Conn. They should be mailed in a pill box or vial, well
packed so that they will not becoms crushed in transit. Mosquitoes
which are badly worn or broken cannot readily be identified, but
if the material is fresh and plentiful (10 to 20 specimens) there
should be no difficulty in identifying the species.
MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK.
Season of 1923.
By R. C. BoTSFORD.
The State law providing for the ehmination of mosquitoes.
Chapter 21, Pubhc Acts of 1919 (see 1919 Report, Connecticut
State Entomologist, page 194) was amended by the 1923 Legisla-
ture to read as follows :
Section 1. Section 2409 of the general statutes is amended to read as
follows: The director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
may make rules and orders concerning the ehmination of mosquitoes and
mosquito breeding places, and he or his agent may enter upon any swamp,
marsh or land to ascertain if mosquitoes breed thereon or to survey, drain
fill or otherwise treat, or make anj'- excavation or structm-e necessary to
eliminate mosquito breeding on, such land, \\lienever funds have been
provided by voluntary contribution or by appropriation by the state for the
ehmination of mosquitoes or mosquito breeding places said director may order
the execution of such work upon notice as herein provided. At least thirty
days before commencing such work, said director shall file a copy of such order,
with a description of the place or area affected and a statement of the proposed
plan thereof, in the to'mi clerk's office in each town in which such place or
area is located. Said director shall pubUsh a copy of such order once each
week for two successive weeks in some newspaper ha-ving a circulation in the
town or towns in which such place or area is situated, and shall maU a copy of
such notice, postage prepaid, by registered mail, addressed to each record
owner of land whose name and address may be ascertained by a reasonable
inquiry from the assessors of the town in which such land is situated. Said
304 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
director may, and upon application of any person affected by such order or
plan, within thirty days after such pubhcation, shall, assess damages sustained
by the owner of any such land. Such assessment shall be filed by said director
with the clerk of the superior court of the county within which the land
affected is located, and said clerk shall give notice of such assessment to each
such property owner, by maiUng to him a copy of such assessment, postage
prepaid. Any person claiming to be aggrieved because of such order or pro-
posed plan or such assessment may, within ten days after notice, apply to the
superior court in the county in which such land is situated, or any judge
thereof, for relief, and said court or such judge may, after notice to said
director and parties applying for relief, and hearing thereon, make any proper
order concerning such order or proposed plan, or make a reassessment of
damages. Said court or judge may view the land claimed to be affected by
such order or plan and may take any evidence in his opinion material. The
order, plan and assessment as hereinbefore provided for shall be conclusive
upon all parties affected thereby, and the state treasurer shall pay to any such
owner the damages assessed by said director or by said court or judge, as the
case may be, upon certification of the amount by the clerk of said court. The
pendency of any appUcation for the assessment of damages shall not prevent
or delay the execution of the work for the elimination of mosquitoes or mos-
quito breeding. Upon the completion, to the satisfaction of said director, of
any such work, said director shall certify to the comptroller, with proper
vouchers, the amount of such costs, and the comptroller shall draw his order
on the treasurer for the payment of the same.
Sec. 2. Section 2410 of the general statutes, as amended by chapter 21
of the pubhc acts of 1919, is amended to read as follows: Whenever any
swamp, marsh or other land has been drained to the approval of the director
of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, he shall keep the same
in repair and free from obstruction, and construct or repair tide gates or other-
wise treat such areas so as to make such work effective. Said director may
appoint one or more deputies to supervise the work done under the provisions
of this and the preceding section, who may exercise the 'authority granted to
such director. The expenses of said director and said deputies in carrying
out the provisions of this and the preceding section shall be paid from funds
provided by voluntary contributions or from funds appropriated by the state
for such purpose. The comptroller may advance to said director such amounts
within the appropriations therefor, as are necessary to meet the current ex-
penses for labor authorized under the provisions of this and the preceding
section. Any person obstructing the work of examining, surveying or ditching
or otherwise treating such mosquito breeding areas, or obstructing any ditch,
canal or drain, or the natural outlet of any marsh forming mosquito breeding
areas, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more
than ninety days or both.
Approved April 17, 1923.
Under the old law, the cost of maintenance, not to exceed one
dollar per acre in any one town, was paid by the State, and the town
wherein the work was done reimbursed the State for three-fourths
of the amount so expended for maintenance. This added about
$2,500.00 to $3,000.00 to the regular appropriation.
The new law, which went into effect on July 1, 1923, provides
that the State pay all expense of maintaining drained areas which
have been approved by the Director. The sum of $12,000.00 was
appropriated for mosquito elimination work during the two-year
period from July 1, 1923 to June 30, 1925.
The total expenditure for the year was $8,944.87. Owing to the
change in law this year, a detailed account of the above would be
MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 305
too bulky to be included in this report. The Director's Report for
1923 covers the first half of the year, and his 1924 Report will in-
clude the remainder.
Mr. S. T. Sealj^, who has served as Deputy in Charge of the work
for three years, resigned to take effect March 31, 1923, and Mr.
B. H. Walden was placed in charge of this work temporarily. On
July 1, 1923, Director Slate appointed the writer Deputy in Charge.
The general spring inspection showed much of the drainage work
in poor condition. Many of the culverts at beach outlets were
badly damaged and in some cases completely destroyed. The
tide gates and dikes were found to be in fair condition, with the
exception of the Stony Creek dike, which was badly damaged.
Although it is unlawful for any person to interfere with the free
flow of water in any drainage system under State maintenance,
the usual number of obstructions in cUtches were found, caused by
the careless dumping of rubbish, and by farmers and trappers. In
many cases the outlets of ditches became clogged by a thick growth
of sedge grass. The result is that some sections of the ditch tend
to fill with mud, upon which grass takes root, the water is held
back upon the marsh and breeding pools form. Thus in one season
a neglected ditch may become a source of mosquito breeding.
For recutting ditches, a simple trimming tool was made con-
sisting of two hay knives bolted to a light brace wliich held the
blades in a parallel position the width of a ditch. A longer handle
was attached for ease in operating. With this tool (shown on
Plate XXI, a) both sides of a grass grown ditch could be trimmed
at the same time. Several thovisand feet of ditches were reclaimed
The absence of rain was a factor in preventing marsh pool
breeding, although in some localities the continuous high tides
offset this advantage. In every case where breeding was dis-
covered, measures were taken to destroy the larvae and make
their recurrence impossible.
The success of the anti-mosquito work this season is largel}^ due
to individuals, associations and towns contributing money and
reporting mosquito infestations, also the co-operation of city
departments, town officials, the board of health and others.
The Work By Toaatsts.
The salt marsh mosquito breeding in this section was confined
to an area in the Quinnipiac marsh north of Little River, the tide
water being held back in about 80 acres of marsh by stones under
Little River bridge at Middletown Avenue. The Bridge Depart-
ment removed some of the stones and the water was lowered about
ten inches. More stones will be removed next year.
306 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
No breeding was observed on the West River meadows. The
harbor marsh and the ditched sections at Morris Creek were also
kept free. Scattered breeding occurred at Fort Hale by reason
of grass grown ditches and the high tide gate sill at the moat outlet.
Upon request, the Park Department lowered the tide gate sill
about seven inches. All of the ditches south of the Fort Hale
road were recut this fall.
There was practically no mosquito breeding in other park
property this season, although some Anopheles (malaria mosquitoes)
larvae were discovered in Edgewood Park. The drainage system
being installed at Beaver Swamp by the Park Department has
eliminated the prolific Anopheles breeding there. One pool in that
locality breeding Culex (house mosquito) was oiled. Many
possible breeding places in the city parks have been filled.
Before work could be started this season a large brood of mos-
quitoes developed in the Old Field Creek marsh and infested the
town. The tide gate at Beach Street was found badly damaged
and blocked with a quantity of large stones. A large sand bar
beyond the gate had completely closed the outlet to the harbor.
The marsh above was flooded and much sewage was present.
These conditions were ideal for mosquito breeding. Much labor
was expended in this area keeping the outlet open, the tide gate in
working order, and cleaning and recutting grass grown and mud
filled ditches. In spite of our efforts, which were hampered by
lack of funds, some scattered breeding was present throughout the
season. The drainage system in the marsh is difficult to maintain
on account of the frequent closing of the outlet by "shifting sand.
This results in the ditches filling with mud which in turn quickly
grasses over. The outlet from the gate to the harbor should be
deepened about two feet and a sluiceway installed to extend beyond
the sand bar. A new tide gate is required and the creek should be
dredged from Beach Street to Peck Avenue.
The other marshes in this section were kept free from breeding.
The two ditched areas of salt marsh in this section under State
maintenance, one at Morris Creek and one at Silver Sands east of
Carohne Creek, were kept free of mosquito breeding during the
whole season. There was considerable breeding in the marsh near
West Silver Sands not under State maintenance. These mosqui-
toes were troublesome periodically throughout the treated as well
as the untreated areas.
The Town of East Haven has installed 978 feet of 18-inch corru-
gated iron pipe in Cosey Beach Avenue, extending from the
property of Philip Smith to an extension of Caroline Creek.
MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 307
The Connecticut Company has completed the filHng of its marsh
area at Momauguin including the ditch between this property and
Philip Smith's which formerly carried the drainage water from a
large swamp north of the road leading to South End. Adequate
means of handling this water are to be provided by the property
owners and connected to the 18 inch pipe laid by the town.
The State Rifle Range was inspected on June 12. Owing to the
lack of rain nearly all of the depressions that hold water in an
ordinary season were dry, and no mosquito larvae were found.
There were many fresh water mosquitoes present which had
emerged earlier in the season. These were especiall}^ abundant
in the wooded or brush areas. In the open spaces many salt
marsh mosquitoes were observed which had undoubtedly come
from the undrained salt marshes in the southern part of the town .
Labor for maintenance of this section was furnished by ]Mr. L. E.
Rice. In some cases mosquitoes got on the wing before the areas
could be treated. At Sunset Beach the natural outlet was found
to be closed by large rocks which were removed at considerable
cost. The Sybil Creek marsh north of the tide gates on the Indian
Neck road was covered with water. This situation was partly
corrected by lowering the bed of the creek under the road bridge.
Many of the ditches in this area were filled with soft mud and
grassed over, creating breeding pools on the marsh surface and in
ditches. Several thousand feet of ditches were recut and deepened.
No breeding was discovered on other marshes in this section.
The large marsh at Stonj^ Creek has been flooded all the season
due to a broken dike. Presumably there was some l^reeding on
this marsh which accounts for some complaints of mosquitoes in
Stony Creek Center. State funds were insufficient to repair this
dike, but the meadow owners and some public spirited summer
residents contributed generously and the dike was repaired. The
ditches in this marsh are badly damaged, and it is doubtful if they
can be reconditioned next spring in time to prevent early breeding .
The tide gates at Hubbard's Bridge on the Branford River need
Maintenance work was started promptly in this section by Mr.
Frank Blatchley and continued throughout the season. No
breeding was discovered and no complaints received.
Several hundred feet of ditches were recut in the vicinity of Shell
Beach and a bad leak under the tide gate sill at Great Harbor
stopped. The labor was furnished by one of the summer residents.
The area of this section is too great to be properly maintained by
one man, and some of the ditches have become grass grown and
308 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
filled with mud. This condition will produce breeding pools in a
The only serious outbreak of mosquitoes in this section occurred
early at the Hammonasset State Park. These were troublesome
periodically throughout the first half of the summer. Oil and labor
were furnished by the State Park Commission and millions of
larvae in clogged ditches and marsh pools were destroyed. As
soon as the offending ditches were cleaned and graded, no further
breeding occurred. Plans are under way to carry on a vigorous
anti-mosquito campaign at Hammonasset next year in co-operation
with the State Park and Forest Commission.
No breeding was discovered in other marsh areas of this section,
and no complaints were received. Much additional labor will be
required to recondition some of the ditches, which during a nor-
mally wet season will no doubt become a source of mosquito
The most important part of mosquito control work in this section
consists of keeping the several beach outlets open. This was
accomplished during the entire season by Mr. Russell Bartlett and
but little time remained to patrol the marsh sections properly.
This section is too large for one man to maintain at this time owing
to gradual deterioration of the drainage works.
The culverts at the beach outlets have been damaged or totally
destroyed at some previous time by storms. When these are
replaced the labor expended in opening these outlets every few
days will go far in reconditioning and maintaining the ditches in
the potential areas.
This year the Town of Westbrook appropriated $1,000.00 to
start mosquito elimination work in this section. This amount
has been increased by generous contributions from a few public
spirited citizens. The money was turned over to the Connecticut
Agricultural Experiment Station, under whose supervision the
ditching of the marshes will proceed.
The long search for suitable labor delayed the start of ditching
until December 12. Work was begun on December 12 in Rushy
Meadow at Middle Beach. In order to remove the surface water
from this flooded and soggy area, about 1,770 feet of old ditches
were first recut and deepened. The old ditches were not sufficient
to remove all of the pools and 756 feet of new ten inch ditches were
cut. Later these ditches will be deepened as required. The out-
let of this marsh will require the installation of a 100 foot culvert to
carry the water beyond the point of moving sand.
MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 309
On the small marsh east of the property owned by Mr. Thomas
Fisk, 441 feet of old ditches were recut and 510 feet of new ditches
dug. The creek bed was widened and graded. A culvert will be
required here as at Middle Beach. At the athletic field, 681 feet
of old ditches were recut and 291 feet of new ditches dug. A total
of 5,112 lineal feet of ditching was installed this year, much of which
will require deepening to secure proper drainage.
Ditching was begun on the Broad Creek marsh and on the Lewis
marsh south of the railroad track. All the new ditches in this
section are being cut with hay knives, using a plank ten inches
wide as a guide for cutting the sides of the ditch. The sods are
pulled out with potato hooks and a satisfactory ditch is obtained
after the bottom is graded.
The drainage work of Rushy Meadow and the Fisk marsh will be
completed early next season if no further difficulties develop.
These two marshes were found to be the most poorly drained salt
marsh areas in Westbrook. Thej' will no doubt prove to be the
most costly to drain per acre and the most costly to maintain.
As soon as the drainage of an area is completed and approved by
the Director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,
the drainage works of that area will be maintained at State expense.
The other Westbrook marshes are dotted with stagnant pools
and it is doubtful if much rehef from mosquitoes will be afforded
by the present expenditure.
A small ditched marsh area at Fenwick under private mainte-
nance was inspected this fall, but owing to the high tide at that time
the exact condition of the ditches could not be determined accur-
The ditched area at Groton Long Point under State maintenance
was thoroughly patrolled. On account of the foot bridge over the
marsh outlet ha-\dng been washed away, large stones had been
rolled in for crossing. -This interfered with the free movement of
water and the stones were removed each trip. A road culvert was
found closed due to careless dumping of rubbish, and some breed-
ing resulted in the flooded area. Some of the ditches will be recut
The drained salt marsh areas in this section under State main-
tenance were kept in good condition throughout the season by Mr.
Nicholas Matiuck, with an average cj'ew of two men. Nine hundred
gallons of light fuel oil were purchased from the Standard Oil Com-
310 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
pany by contract. Breeding places in salt marshes and especially
in the fresh water areas which could not be otherwise treated were
oiled throughout the season. The breeding of salt marsh mos-
quitoes has been reduced to a minimum.
The fresh water problem of this section is under the immediate
supervision of Dr. V. Havard, Secretary of the Fairfield Improve-
ment Association, with Nicholas Matiuck in charge of the field
In 1922, a survey of the fresh water breeding places was made in
this section including an estimate of the amount of labor and
material required for treatment. Much public interest was aroused
and generous contributions were received. During 1922, $1,081.94
was spent by the Association to treat these fresh water areas. All
of this fresh water work was instigated and carried out by the Fair-
field Improvement Association, to which great credit is due. The
oil and the services of Nicholas Matiuck were contributed by the
In 1923, the Town of Fairfield appropriated $2,000.00 to carry
on the work. The anti-mosquito activities in Fairfield have
proven very successful and other towns are recommended to
follow its example.
The salt marshes in this section were carefully patrolled by
Nicholas Matiuck with an average crew of two men. The ditches
were kept open and marshes were properly drained the whole
The City of Stamford continued its treatment of the fresh water
MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES.
Swarms of Butterflies. — On August 25, specimens of the milk-
weed or monarch butterfly, Anosia plexippus Linn., were received
from Mrs. Edw. B. Rogers, Southport, who wrote that these
butterflies were extremely abundant and lighted upon maple and
other trees. These butterflies often migrate in large numbers and
there are several accounts in entomological journals where swarms
have passed the night on trees and shrubs.
Giant Water Bug. — On July 19, Mr. Pierrepont B. Foster of
Hamden brought to the Station a large aquatic bug which had
attacked and killed a gold fish in liis pool. This bug was Letho-
cerus americanus Leidy, known as the giant water bug or electric
light bug. It is aquatic during its immature stages but when it has
reached the adult stage, it often leaves the water and flies about
arc lights at night. It is predaceous in all stages.
MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 311
European House Cricket. — On April 14, specimens were brought
to the writer from an apartment house on George Street, New
Haven, of the European house cricket, Gryllus domesticus Linn.
(See Plate XXIII, b) . This insect was said to be extremely abun-
dant in the basement of the building. The individuals could be
found in the cracks and crevices of the masonry walls and the
tenants were greatly disturbed on account of the infestation. After
conferring with the writer, the owner made applications of some
prepared roach powder with a blower, and reported that the treat-
ment seemed to be successful.
The Birch Leaf Skeletonizer. — This insect has continued to be
prevalent and has skeletonized the leaves of gray birch trees
throughout the State. Other species of birches were attacked
but were not so conspicuously browa as were the gray birches.
The injury was about the same in 1923 as in 1922, and is caused
by a small moth called the birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix
canadensisella Chambers. The life history of this insect has not
been completely worked out. It is the larvae feeding upon the
leaves which cause the injury, and if choice shade trees are sprayed
with lead arsenate late in July or early in August, this injury will
Spruce Leaf -Miner. — On May 7, spruce twigs were received
from the F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company of Stamford, the
leaves of which had been mined by the spruce leaf-miner, Recur-
varia piceaella Kearf. Descriptions and life history notes regard-
ing this species may be found in a paper b}^ W. D. Kearf ott in the
Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. XI, page
151, 1903. It is said to attack red spruce in the New England
States and black spruce in northern New Jersey. The larva is red
on dorsal lateral and ventral surfaces, with a dark green patch on
the dorsum of each abdominal segment. Head and thoracic
shield, pale brown. No remedy is known.
European Pine Shoot Moth in Connecticut.— On November
24, Mr. Filley brought to the laboratory from Ridgefield, some
twigs of red or Norway pine, Pinus resinosa, which had been
deformed and the buds eaten in the manner caused b}^ the Euro-
pean pine shoot moth, Evetria huoliana Schiff. No insects were
found in this material, but on October 13, twigs of the same species
of pine injured in the same manner were received from Tarrytown,
N, Y., containing two brown larvae which we were able to identify
as E. huoliana. The larvae destroy the buds and this induces the
lateral shoots to grow, and many of them become curved, twisted
and distorted. Though it seems to prefer the red pine here, it
also attacks other pines especially the Scotch, white, Austrian and
312 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
The Box Leaf -Miner. — On November 23, specimens of box
twigs were received from the Harkness Estate, Waterford, in-
fested with the box leaf-miner, Monarthropalpus huxi Labou.
The infested leaves were somewhat curled and showed on the upper
surface some indications of irregular mines within. On dissecting,
the upper epidermis separated easily from the lower and there were
many small whitish green maggots between the layers as is shown
on Plate XXIII, a. Dr. Garman visited the place a few days later
with a view to studying the insect and testing control measures,
but the conditions were not quite suitable for this purpose. The
remedies recommended are to spray the foliage thoroughly about
May 1 with a miscible oil, one part in 20 parts water, to which is
added one pint of 40 per cent, nicotine sulphate per each 50 gallons
of mixture. This treatment should be repeated about a week
later. In Maryland, success was obtained by spraying the fohage
at the time the adults emerge, with molasses diluted one part to
three parts of water, this mixture entangling the flies as they
emerged or before laying eggs.
Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer. — Full information regarding
this insect may be found in Bulletin 246 of this Station, issued
in June, 1923. During the season of 1923 there has been abundant
opportunity for observing the work of this insect, which has now
spread over the entire State. " Professor A. E. Stene, State Ento-
mologist of Rhode Island, informed the writer that the pest occurs in
Rhode Island. The writer observed injury to apple trees beside
the highway in going between Westerly and Providence, R. I.,
on August 16, which he attributed to this insect. At a conference
in Boston, Mass., August 17, apple twigs injured by it and collected
on the Massachusetts north shore were shown to the writer. There-
fore it has spread throughout southern New England in three or
The latter part of July during the summer meeting of the Ento-
mologists of the Northeastern United States, which was held in
Connecticut, the apple trees between New Haven and Hartford
were brown from the feeding of the larvae of the second brood.
Certain trees near New Haven, however, were not so seriously
injured as in 1922.
Swarms of the Chain-Dotted Geometer. — On the evening of
September 27 and for a few nights thereafter, swarms of thin
whitish moths gathered around the "white way" Hghts in the center
of New Haven. The attention of the writer was called to the
matter by one of the newspapers, and on investigation the insect
was found to be the chain-dotted geometer, Cingilia catenaria
Drury. Smaller numbers of these moths were found during the
daytime clinging to lamp posts, the walls of buildings or on the
sidewalks. The caterpillars of this moth feed upon the leaves of
MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 313
bayberry and sweet fern, when abundant, often defoliating these
shrubs. They are slender yellowish larvae, with two conspicuous
black spots just above each spiracle, and dorsally striped length-
wise with faint narrow lines. When fully grown they are from oixe
and one-half to one and three-fourths inches in length. The pupa
is enclosed in a loose net fastened to the leaves. The moth has a
wing-spread of about one and one-half inches, is white, with chains
of black dots across the wings. Larva, pupa and adult are shown
on Plate XXIV.
Flight of Cotton Moths. — On September 12 and 13 there were
swarms of cotton moths, Alabama argillacea Hubn., in New Haven,
Bridgeport, Stamford and doubtless other cities and towns of the
State. They fluttered around the stronger hghts during the night
time and in day time were resting often head downward on the
plate glass store windows, walls of buildings and lamp posts.
Similar flights have been noted in former vears, and in the Report
of this Station for 1911, page 339, and for 1912, page 217, are
notes regarding the appearance of this moth in Connecticut in
those seasons. The moth is a uniform light reddish brown with
white discal spots on the fore wings. When resting the wings are
folded in the shape of a double roof (a) and the moths present a
trim and attractive appearance. The caterpillars are known as
''cotton worms" in the southern States and are not known to feed
on other plants. In some seasons the}' are extremeh' numerous
in the cotton States, and the adults migrate northward often in
enormous numbers and are sometimes reported from many of the
northern States and Canada, usually in September and October.
This insect is not known to hibernate in the United States, unless
possibly in Texas. The adult is shown on Plate XXIV, d.
A Japanese Weevil in Connecticut. — On July 29, 1920, Messrs.
Zappe and Walden while inspecting nursery stock in a nursery
in New Haven, collected some curious fat brown weevils which
were new to the Station collection, and which were unfamiliar to
Mr. Zappe. Mr. Zappe collected more of the same species on
July 26, 27 and 30, 1921, and on June 24 and July 21 and 27, 1922.
Mr. Walden also collected one specimen on July 21, 1922. In
1923, some collecting was done in the vicinity but no specimens of
this weevil were obtained. Specimens were sent to ]Mr. H. C.
Fall, who repHed that it was probably introduced from some other
country. On May 15, 1922, the writer took some specimens to
Mr. E. A. Schwarz at the U. S. National ^luseum, Washington,
D. C. Mr. Schwarz stated that the species was not represented
in the National Museum and that it might be difficult and take
considerable time to identify it. On May 28, 1923, IMr. Zappe took
some specimens to the American Musemn of Natural History in
New York City and left them with Mr. A. J. iMutchler, who said
314 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256.
he would show them to Mr. C. W. Leng and possibly between them
they might be able to fix its identity. Not succeeding, Mr.
Mutchler afterward sent it to Dr. G. A. K. Marshall of the British
Museum, London, who replied in part as follows :
"The insect is, as your information suggested, a Japanese species, Pseudoc-
neorrhinus setosus Roelofs. I am not aware, however, that anything has been
recorded with regard to its habits or hfe history. I trust that it has not yet
estabhshed itself in the United States."
According to the observations of Mr. Zappe, the adults feed
upon the leaves of burr marigold, Bidens sp. So far we have been
unable to obtain any information about the immature stages of this
insect. The adult is shown on Plate XXIV, e.
For bibliographical purposes all notes and articles in this Report (Bulletin
256) should be credited to W. E. Britton, except where otherwise indicated.
The illustrations in this Report (Bulletin 256) are from the following
sources: text figures are all from drawings as follows: Fig. 9, map drawn by
A. E. Moss, shaded by Stoddard Engraving Company; Fig. 10, drawn by
B. H. Walden; Fig. 11 drawn by Philip Garman; Fig. 12 after Howard, Bul-
letin 25, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Figs. 13,
14 and 16 after Smith, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Fig. 15
drawn by L. H. Joutel. The plates are all from photographs from the follow-
ing sources: XXI, c, and XXII, b, by R. C. Botsford; XI, a, and XIII, by
W. E. Britton; XIX, a, XX, c. and XXII, a, by Philip Garman; X, b, by
G. H. Hollister; XIV, XV and XVI by J. Leslie Rogers; XVIII, a, by
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture;, all others by B.
Aedes cantator, 298, 299
Alabama argillacea, 313
Alsophila pometaria, 236
Anarsia lineatella, 285
Anomala lucicola, 292
orientalis, 228, 233, 291
Anopheles punctipennis, 298, 301
Anosia plexippus, 310
Anur aphis roseus, 231
Aphids, birch leaf, 235, 293
green apple, 231, 242
larch leaf, 235
rosy apple, 231
spruce gall, 240, 242
woolly, 235, 242
Aphis betulaecolens, 235
Aporia crataegi, 246
Apple maggot, 231
Apple scab, 242
Argyresthia thuiella, 234
Aspidiotus perniciosus, 231
Attagenus pi.ceus, 236
Bag worm, 232
Beetle, Asiatic, 233, 291
black carpet, 236
ehn leaf, 234
poplar and willow, 234
rose leaf, 236
striped cucumber, 233
Birch Bucculatrix, 242
Blister rust, 242
Borer, European corn, 228, 230, 233,
peach, 229, 242, 276
peach twig, 285
squash vine, 233
stalk, 232 *
Brevicoryne brassicae, 233
Brown colaspis, 233
Bucculatrix canadensisella, 235, 311
Calaphis betulaecolens, 293
Cedar rust, 242
Chain-dotted Geometer, 312
Chermes abietis, 240, 242
cooleyi, 240, 242
Chionaspis euonyyni, 236
Chloridea obsoleta, 232
Chrysanthemum gall midge, 236
Cingilia catenaria, 312
Colaspis brunnea, 233
Coleophora fletcherella, 288
laricella, 234, 288
Conotrachelus nenuphar, 229, 231
Corn ear worm, 232
Crown gall, 242, 247
Cucumber flea beetle, 233
Culex pipiens, 296
Curculio, plum, 228, 229, 231
Datana integerrima, 235
Diabrotica vittata, 233
Diarthronomyia hypogaea, 236
Diprion simile, 234
Dolhichiza populea, 240
Emphytus cinclus, 246
Empoa rosae, 231
Epitrix cucumens, 233
Eriophyes pyri, 231
Euceraphis deducta, 235, 293
European house cricket, 236, 311
European pine shoot moth, 235, 311
Evetria buoliana, 235, 311
Fall canker-worm, 236
Fall web-worm, 236
False apple red bug, 231
Financial Statements, 225, 266
Fire blight, 242
Four-lined leaf bug, 236
Galerucella luteola, 234
Giant water bug. 310
Gipsy moth, 230, 239
statistics of infestations, 262
Grape vine tomato gall, 232
Gryllus domesticus, 236, 311
Hemerophila pariana, 230
CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION
House centipede, 236
Hylemyia cilicrura, 232
Hyphantria cunea, 236
Illinoia pisi, 233
Inspection, Apiaries, 247
Imported nursery stock, 245
Japanese weevil, 313
Lace bugs, 242
Lasioptera vitis, 232
Laspeyresia molesta, 230, 232, 242, 284
Leaf-miner, arbor-vitae, 234, 242
box, 237, 312
larch, 234, 288
spruce, 235, 311
Lepidosaphes ulmi, 234, 240
Lethocerus americanus, 310
Lina scripta, 242
Lygidea mendax, 231
Lygus pratensis, 231
Macrodadylus subspinosus, 231
Macrosiphum solanifolii, 233
Malacosoma aniericana, 231
Melanoplus femur-rubrum, 233
Melanoxantherium sp., 235
Mellitia satyriniformis, 233
Mildew on rose, 242
Milkweed butterfly, 310
Mite, box elder, 242
European red, 228, 231, 242
Monarthropalpus buxi, 237, 312
Mosaic, raspberry, 242
Control work, 300, 303
Moth, brown-tail, 230
gipsy, 230, 239
Oriental peach, 230, 232, 284
Nodonota puncticollis, 236
Oak leaf-roller, 234
Papaipetna nitela, 232
Paratetranychus pilosus, 228, 231
Pear leaf blister mite, 231
Pear psylla, 231
Phenacoccus acericola, 234
Phyllaphis fagi, 235
Pissodes strobi, 234
Plagiodera versicolora, 234
Poecilocapsus lineatiis, 236
Popillia japonica, 293
Poplar canker, 240, 241, 242
Potato flea beetle, 233
Prociphilus tessellata, 235
Pseudocneorrhinus setosus, 314
Psylla pyricola, 231
Pyrausta nubilalis, 230, 233, 277
Railroad worm, 231
Raspberry fruit worm, 228
Reculitermes flavipes, 237
Recurvaria piceaella, 235, 311
Red-humped caterpillar, 232
Red-legged grasshopper, 233
Rhagoletis pomonella, 231
Rose chafer, 231
Rose leaf hopper, 231
Sawfly, arbor-vitae, 242
imported pine, 234, 242
Scale, elm, 242
Euonymus, 236, 242
Lecanium corni, 242
oak gall scale, 242
oyster-shell, 234, 240, 242
pine leaf, 235, 242
San Jose, 231, 242
tulip tree, 242
West Indian peach, 242
white elm, 242
woolly maple leaf, 234
Schizura concinna, 232
Scolia manilae, 293
Scutigera forceps, 236
Seed corn maggot, 232
Sesia rhododendri, 237
Skeletonizer, apple and thorn, 230, 242
birch leaf, 235, 311
Squash bug, 233
Synanthedon exitiosa, 276
Tarnished plant bug, 231
Tarsonemus pallidus, 237
Tent caterpillar, 231
Thyridopteryx ephemeraefor?nis, 232
Tortrix quercifoliana, 234
Trichogramma minutum, 287
Walnut caterpillar, 235
White ants, 237
White grubs, 233
White pine weevil, 234
Field insectary at Station Farm, Mount Carmel, at the time of the
Entomologists' field meeting.
b. Enlarged insectary at Station.
a. Female and male gipsy moths. Natural size.
b. Treating an egg-mass with creosote.
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK.
a. Gipsy moth caterpillars. Natural size.
b. Egg-clusters and pupae on inside of loose hickorj- bark.
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK.
a. An innocent looking bird house.
b. Inside of the bird house containing about 107 cocoons and 35 egg-masses.
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK.
h4 ' *'• 7"-7*'Ja^V,'^^K^'^^'^
a. View in garden where first infestation was found in Connecticut,
Groton, November 10.
b. Another view in same garden.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER.
a. Burning weeds and rubbish with Federal burning truck, infestation
No. 1, Groton.
b. Burning weeds and rubbish at infestation No. 2, Groton.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER,
a. Weeds at infestation No. 2. Groton, before burning.
b. View of same field after burning
EUROPEAN CORN BORER.
a. Burning corn stalks with the aid of oil applied with hand sprayer,
infestation No. 1, Groton.
b. Burning weeds with power outfit, infestation No. 2, Groton.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER.
a. Slight injury to ear of sweet corn, Groton.
b. Female, male, larva, pupa and burrow in cornstalk. Slightly enlarged.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER.
a. Infested peach cut open to show larva. Somewhat
enlarged. (After Quaintance and Wood, Bureau of Ento-
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
b. Peach twigs which have been injured by the larvae. Natural size.
ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH.
a. Appearance of injured leaves in June.
b. Winter cases fastened to twigs, four times enlarged.
LARCH CASE BEARER.
a. Adults showing variation from light brown to black, twice natural size.
^ 'W «?''
b. Larvae or grubs, twice natural size.
c. Lawn injured by grubs. Grass has been killed in the foreground but
back towards the house it is uninjured.
Modified hay knife for recutting
ditches in salt marsh.
b. Potato hook with prongs
covered with wire netting, for
removing mud from ditches.
c. Instating a metal culvert through a sand beach to drain the marsh
MOSQUITO ELIMINATION WORK.
a. Broken dike, Stony Creek.
b. New dike, Stony Creek,
MOSQUITO ELIMINATION WORK.
a. Box leaf-miner. White spots on leaves indicate infestation. Lower
epidermis ha;; been removed from two leaves, sho'vvang maggots. Natural size.
b. European house cricket. Somewhat enlarged.
BOX LEAF-MINER AND EUROPEAN HOUSE CRICKET.
a. Chain-dotted geometer. Adult male and female, natural size.
c. Larvae, natural size.
b. Cocoon, natural size.
d. Cotton moth, natural size.
e. Japanese weevil, four times enlarged.
CHflN-DOTTED GEOMETER, COTTON MOTH AND
... , J JA^NlESE WEEVIL.