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Full text of "Report of the State Entomologist of Connecticut for the year .."

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Bulletin 256 February, 1924 ^3 



CONNECTICUT 
ACmCOLTORAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



TWENTY-THIRD REPORT 

OF THE 

STATE ENTOMOLOGIST 

OF 

CONNECTICUT 

1923 



W. E. BRITTON, Ph.D. 
State Entomologist 



The Bulletins of this Station are mailed free to citizens of Connecticut 
who apply for them, and to other applicants as far as the editions permit. 



CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

OFFICERS AND STAFF 

February, 1924 



BOARD OF CONTROL. 

His Excellency, Charles A. Templeton, ex-offido, President. 

James H. Webb, Vice-President Hamden 

George A. Hopson, Secretary Mount Carmel 

W. L. Slate, Jr., Director and Treasurer New Haven 

Joseph W. Alsop Avon 

Charles R. Treat Orange 

Elijah Rogers Southington 

Edward C. Schneider Middletovm 

STAFF. 

E. H. Jenkins, Ph.D., Director Emerilus. 

Administration ^- L. Slate, Jr., B.Sc, Director and Treasurer. 

Miaa L. M. Brautlecht, Bookkeeper and Librarian. 
Miss J. V. Berger, Stenographer and Bookkeeper. 
Miss Mart Bradley, Secretary. 
William Veitch, In charge of Buildings and Grounds. 



Chemistry 
Analytical 
Laboratory 



Biochemical 
Laboratory 

Botany 



Entomology 

Forestry 

Plant Breeding 
Soil Research 



E. M. Bailey, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge. 
R. E. Andrew, M.A. 1 

C. E. ShEPARD [ a ■ . . r'l 

Owen L. Nolan [ Assistant Chemists. 

Harry J. Fisher, A.B. J 

Frank Sheldon, Laboratory Assistant. 

V. L. Churchill, Sampling Agent. 

Miss Mabel Bacon, Stenographer. 

T. B. Osborne, Ph.D., Sc.D., Chemist in Charge. 



G. P. Clinton, Sc.D., Botanist in Charge, 

E. M. Stoddard, B.S., Pomologist. 

Miss Florence A. McCormick, Ph.D., Pathologist. 

G. E. Graham, General Assistant. 

Mrs. W. W. Kelsey, Secretary. 

W. E. Britton, Ph.D., Entomologist in Charge; State Entomologist. 

B. H. Walden. B.Agr. 1 

M. P. Zappe, B.S. I , ■ . , IP , 1 ■ , 

Philip Garman, Ph.D. f Assistant Entomologists - 

Roger B. Friend, B.Sc. J 

John T. Ashworth, Deputy in Charge of Gipsy Moth Work. 

R. C. BoTSFORD, Deputy in Charge of M osquito Elimination. 

Miss Gladys M. Finley, Stenographer. 

V^''alter O. Filley, Forester in Charge. 
A. E. Moss, M.F., Assistant Forester. 
H. W. HicocK, M.F., Assistant Forester. 
Miss Pauline A. Merchant, Stenographer. 

Donald F. Jones, S.D., Geneticist in Charge. 
P. C. MANGELBDOEr, M.S., Assistant. 

M. F. Morgan, M.S., Investigator. 



Tobacco Sub-station 
at Windsor 



C. M. Slaqq, M.S., in Ch-irge. 



Thb Wilson H. Lee Co. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Twenty-third Report of the State Entomologist 225 

Report of Receipts and Expenditures 225 

Summary of Inspection and Office Work 226 

PubUcations of Entomological Department 226 

Department Staff and Work 228 

New Equipment 230 

Entomological Features of 1923 230 

Fruit Insects 231 

Vegetable Insects 232 

Shade Tree and Forest Insects 234 

Miscellfemeous Insects 236 

Summer Field Meeting 237 

Inspection of Nurseries in 1923 239 

Oyster-shell Scale 240 

Spruce Gall Aphid 240 

Poplar Canker 241 

Pests Found in Nurseries 241 

List of Pests Found in Nurseries in 1923 242 

Nursery Firms Receiving Certificates in 1923 243 

Inspection of Imported Nursery' Stock 245 

Pests Found on Imported Nursery Stock 246 

Inspection of Apiaries 247 

European Foul Brood 248 

American Foul Brood 248 

Apiaries Inspected in 1923 249 

Summaiy 252 

Registration of Bees 252 

Report of Gipsy Moth Work : 253 

New Equipment 253 

Windham County 254 

New London County 255 

Tolland County 257 

Hartford County 259 

Litchfield County 260 

Middlesex County 261 

New Haven County 262 

Spraying 262 

Statistics of Infestations 262 

Summary of Statistics 265 

Parasites Liberated in 1923 265 

Appropriations 266 

Financial Statement 266 

Experiments in Dusting versus Spraying in Connecticut Apple Orchards 

in 1923 267 

Orchards Under Experiment 267 

Apparatus Used 268 

Materials 268 

Number and Time of Applications 268 

Recording Data 268 

Milford Orchard 269 

Station Orchard, Mount Carmel 273 

Conclusions 274 

Tests of Sodium Hypochlorite for Control of American Foul Brood of Bees 275 
Further Experience ■with Paradichlorobenzene as a Remedv for Peach 

Borers '. 276 



224 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Page 

The European Corn Borer in Connecticut 277 

Scouting by State Men 278 

Scouting by Federal Men 278 

Infestations 278 

Source of Connecticut Infestations 279 

Federal and State Quarantines 280 

Quarantine Order No. 5 280 

Infested Areas 281 

Prevalence of Oriental Peach Moth 284 

Summary of Life History 286 

Control Measures 287 

The Larch Leaf-Miner or Case Bearer 288 

Injuiy to the Trees 288 

Life History and Habits 289 

Description 289 

Natural Enemies 290 

Control Measures 290 

Literature 290 

The Asiatic Beetle 291 

Swarms of Aphids 293 

Mosquitoes and Human Welfare 294 

Life History of Mosquitoes 296 

Different Kinds of Mosquitoes 297 

How to Distinguish Malarial from Other Mosquitoes 298 

The Mosquito Plague of Connecticut 299 

Control or Relief Measures 300 

Individual and Community Effort 301 

Salt Marsh Mosquito Problem a State-Wide Matter 302 

Benefits of Mosquito Control • 302 

Mosquito Control Work in 1923 303 

Legislation 303 

General Conditions 305 

The Work by Towns 305 

Miscellaneous Insect Notes 310 

Swarms of Butterflies 310 

Giant Water Bug. 310 

European House Cricket 311 

The Birch Leaf-Skeletonizer 311 

Spruce Leaf-Miner 311 

European Pine Shoot Moth in Connecticut 311 

The Box Leaf-miner 312 

Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer 312 

Swarms of the Chain-Dotted Geometer 312 

FHght of Cotton Moths 313 

A Japanese Weevil in Connecticut 313 



BULLETIN 256 
TWENTY-THIRD REPORT 

OF THE 

State Entomologist of Connecticut. 



To the Director and Board of Control of the Connecticut Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. 

I have the honor to transmit, herewith, my twenty-third annual 
report as State Entomologist of Connecticut. Except for the 
financial statements which cover the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1923, this report relates the activities of the department for the 
calendar year of 1923. It contains the usual somewhat detailed 
account of work prescribed by the Statutes, such as nurserj^ and 
apiary inspection, mosquito eUmination and gips}^ moth sup- 
pression. The account of the gipsy moth work is given in con- 
densed form. The results of studies of the raspberry fruit worm 
by Mr. B. H. Walden, have already been pubKshed as Bulletin 
251, and of the European red mite, by Dr. PhiUp Garman, as 
Bulletin 252 of this Station. Special papers in this report deal 
with the results of experiments in dusting versus sprajdng apple 
orchards in 1923, the European corn borer, Oriental peach moth, 
the Asiatic beetle, the larch case-bearer, further experience with 
paradichlorobenzene as a remedy for peach borers, tests of sodium 
hypochlorite for the control of American foul brood of bees, 
swarms of aphids, and notes on miscellaneous insects. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. E. Britton, 
State and Station Entomologist. 

INSECT PEST ACCOUNT. 

Report of Receipts and Expenditures of the State 
Entomologist. 

From July 1, 1922 to June 30, 1928. 

Receipts. 

From E. H. Jenkins, Treasurer S13,025.34 

Account of 1922, Balance 1,089.53 

State Comptroller, Gipsy Moth Accoiint 218.80 

Interest on Bank Deposits 42.31 

Various Soiu"ces (automobile mileage) 49.02 

$14,425.00 

Expenditures. 

For Salaries and Wages $8,111.28 

Printing and Illustrations 363.13 

Postage 17.77 



226 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Stationery , $ 211.51 

Furniture and Fixtures 127.95 

Library (Books and Periodicals) 1,011.93 

(Binding). 8.10 

Laboratory Supplies 692.38 

Spraying Supplies 105.00 

Machinery, Tools and Supplies 255.73 

Scientific Apparatus 593.16 

Express, Freight and Cartage 32.11 

Automobiles: Insurance • 105.71 

Supplies and Equipment 175.88 

Repairs • 218.72 

GasoUne 199.25 

Oil 64.05 

Traveling Expenses 267.07 

Miscellaneous . . . ; 785.88 

Telephone and Telegraph 1.55 

Heat and Light 1.00 

Rental and Storage 42.85 

Balance, Cash on Ha^d 1,032.99 

$14,425.00 

ikfemorandum.— This account has been audited by the State Auditors of 
Public Accovmts. The item of $218.80 received from the State Comptroller 
is in effect a transfer from the appropriation for suppressing gipsy and brown- 
tail moths and for inspecting imported nursery stock, and covers the time and 
automobile mileage of members of the department staff while engaged in the 
work of inspecting imported nursery stock. The item of $785.88 under miscel- 
laneous expenditures includes interest on bank balances, automobile mileage 
and other miscellaneous receipts paid over to the Station Treasurer and by 
him returned to the State Comptroller. 

Summary of Inspection and Office Work. 

224 samples of insects received for identification. 

114 nurseries inspected. 

108 regular certificates granted. 

85 duphcate certificates furnished to be filed in other States. 
60 parcels of nursery stock inspected and certified. 

31 orchards and gardens examined. 

35 shipments, containing 179 cases, 1,981,895 plants, imported nursery 

stock inspected. 
15 shipments or 42.8 per cent, found infested with insects or fungi. 
725 apiaries, containing 6,802 colonies inspected. 
17 apiaries and 25 colonies found infested with European foul brood. 
7 apiaries and 22 colonies found infested with American foul brood. 
2,283 letters written on official work. 
663 circular letters. 
368 post cards. 

53 reports to Federal Horticultiu-al Board. 
857 bulletins, etc., mailed on request or to answer inquiries. 

86 packages sent by mail or express. 

19 lectures and addresses at institutes, granges and other meetings. 

Publications of the Entomological Department, 1923. 

By W. E. Britton: 

Twenty-second Report of the State Entomologist of Connecticut (Bulletin 
247) 118 pages, 8 figures, 16 plates; 10,500 copies distributed in October, 
1923. 



PUBLICATIONS OF ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 227 

The Aleyrodidae and Coccidae of Connecticut. Reprinted from Bulletin 

No. 34, Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, 48 pages, 

3 figures, 4 plates, June, 1923. 
The European Corn Borer Quarantine, Bulletin of Immediate Information 

No. 25, 5 pages; 3,000 copies, Jime, 1923. 
The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Bulletin of Immediate Information 

No. 26, August 15, 1923. 
Registration of Bees, Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 27, 200 

copies, September 15, 1923. 
The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Proceedings 32nd Anaual Meeting 

Connecticut Pomological Society, page 21, 1923. 
Rapid Spread of the Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Hemerophila pariana 

Clerck, Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 16, page 207, April, 

1923. 
The Gipsy Moth, Proceedings of Conference at Albany, N. Y. November 

16, 1922, Bulletin 148, New YorK State Department of Agriculture, page 

44, December, 1922. 
Swarms of Aphids, Journal of Economic Entomology', Vol. 16, page 395, 

August, 1923. 
Report of Committee on Injurious Insects, Proceedings 32nd Annual 

Meeting, Connecticut Pomological Society, page 5, 1923. 
The Arbor-Vitae Leaf-Miner, Tree Talk, Vol. 5, No. 2, page 24, 1923. 
The Work of the State Entomologist, Hartford Daily Courant, Sunday, 

October 21, 1923. 
Insects Attacking Vegetable Crops in 1922 (Insect Part of Report of Com- 
mittee on Diseases and Insects), Report of Cormecticut Vegetable Growers 

Association for 1922, page 83. 
Recent Developments in the Use of Insecticides, Part II, Bulletin 242, 

page 163. 
By W. E. Britton and G. P. Clinton: 

Spray Calendar, (Bulletin 244) 44 pages with card, illustrated, 11,500 

copies. May, 1923. 
The Winter Pruning of Fruit Trees, Bulletin of Immediate Information, 

No. 19, March 14, 1923. 
Dormant Sprays on Orchard Trees, Bulletin of Immediate Information 

No. 20, March 21, 1923. 
The Pink Spray for Apple Orchards, Bulletin of Immediate Information 

No. 22, May 1, 1923. 
The Calyx Spray for Apples and Quinces, Bulletin of Immediate Information 

No. 24, May 21, 1923. 
By W. E. Britton et al: The Hemiptera of Connecticut, Bulletin No. 34, 

Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey, Projected and 

Edited by W. E. Britton. Text by J. F. Abbott, A. C. Baker, H. G. 

Barber, W. E. Britton, W. T. Davis, D. M. DeLong, W. D. Funkhouser, 

H. H. Knight, A. C. Maxson, Herbert Osborn, H. M. Parshley, E. M. 

Patch, L. A. Stearns, J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, E. P. Van Duzee and H. F. 

Wilson; 807 pages, 169 figures, 20 plates, June, 1923. 
By M. p. Zappe and E. M. Stoddard: 

Results of Dusting rs. Sprajdng in Connecticut Apple and Peach Orchards 

in 1922 (Balletin 245), 17 pages, June, 1922. 
Comparative Results of Spraying and Dusting on Apples and Peaches, 

Proceedings 32nd Annual Meeting Connecticut Pomological Society, page 

30, 1923. 
By Philip Garman: 

Work -with, the Control of the European Red Mite in 1922. Proceedings 

32nd Annual Meeting, Connecticut Pomological Society, page 13, 1923. 
Notes on the Life History of Clastoptera obtusa and Lepyronia quadrangu- 

laris, Annals Entomological Society of America, Vol. XVI, page 153; 

10 pages, 1 figure, 1 plate, June 1923. 



228 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

By B. a. Porter and Philip Garman: 

The Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer, Bulletin 246, 20 pages, 3 figures, 4 plates , 
June, 1923. 

By Samuel T. Sealy: 

Recent Development of Mosquito Work in Connecticut, Proceedings of 

the Ninth Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination 

Association, page 94, 1922. 
Accomphshments in the Past Year in Anti-Mosquito Work in Connecticut, 

Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito 

Extermination Association, page 91, 1923. 

DEPARTMENT STAFF AND WORK. 

W. E. Britton, Ph.D., State and Station Entomologist. 

B. H. Walden, B.Agr., Photographic and General Work. 1 a t' f nt 

M. P. Zappe, B.S., Inspection and General Work. \ vlhL^ni^n->\f^ 

Philip Garman, Ph.D., Research Work. J ^rilomoLogisls. 

John T. Ashworth, Deputy in Charge of Gipsy Moth Work. 

James A. McEvoy, Assistant in Gipsy Moth Work. 

RobeS C. I'otseord,^ } D^P-'y '^ Charge of Mosquito Work. 
Miss Gladys M. Finley, Clerk and Stenographer. 



H. W. COLEY, Westport, \ a^„^.. Jrt^'np'rtnr'i 
A. W. Yates, Hartford, / ^^^"^V Inspectors. 

Mr. Samuel T. Sealy, who has served as Deputy in charge of 
mosquito work for three years, resigned to take effect April 1, 1923. 
Mr. Walden was placed in charge of this work temporarily. Mr, 
Robert C. Botsford was employed to work with Mr. Walden and 
on becoming famihar with the situation was appointed Deputy 
July 1. 

Mr. J. LesHe Rogers was employed from July 1 to December 1 
to aid in inspecting nurseries and after that work was finished, to 
search for the European corn borer. Mr. T. F. Cronin was em- 
ployed from June to Sepitember as assistant in inspection of 
nurseries. Mr. M. J. Hubbell was employed during November in 
the construction of the addition to the insectary and in building 
some out-door breeding cages. 

Besides giving Ms attention to the mosquito control for three 
months, Mr. Walden was able to complete his studies on the rasp- 
berry fruit worm, the results of which have been pubhshed as 
Bulletin No. 251. 

Dr. Garman has continued with experiments to control the 
European red mite, Paratetranychus pilosus Can. & Fanz., and his 
results of four seasons' work in Connecticut against this pest have 
been published as Bulletin 252. Dr. Garman has given consider- 
able attention to a study of the mites, has worked with Mr. Zappe 
on the investigations of the plum curculio on apple and Anomala 



1 Resigned April 1. 

2 From July 1. 



DEPARTMENT STAFF AND WORK. 229 

orientalis, and has completed the manuscript of a monograph of 
the Odonata or Dragon Flies of Connecticut to be published in the 
near future by the State Geological and Natural History Survey. 

Mr. Zappe has been in charge of the inspection of nursery stock, 
and of scouting for European corn borer. In co-operation with 
Mr. E. M. Stoddard of the Botanical Department, Mr. Zappe has 
continued the tests of various dusts in comparison with sprays 
in apple and peach orchards for the control of the various insects 
and fungous pests. The work this year was chiefly for the purpose 
of trying some of the new copper dusts, but in most cases insecti- 
cides were added and the results so far as they relate to insects 
may be found in the following pages of this report. 

Dusts were also appKed to potatoes at the Station Farm in com- 
parison with the usual spray of Bordeaux mixture and lead arse- 
nate. Mr. Zappe has further experimented with Paradichloro- 
benzene as an agent in controlling the peach borer. 

The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenwphar Hbst., has proven a 
serious pest of apples in Connecticut, often disfiguring a large pro- 
portion of the fruit and is seemingly difficult of control. In order 
to learn more of its habits and to devise some more effective control 
methods a five-year program has been adopted. Some progress 
has been made during the past season b}^ Messrs. Zappe and 
Garman. 

The gipsy moth control work has been continued as for the past 
few years, the field work being in charge of Deputy John T. 
Ash worth, aided by his Assistant, Mr. J. A. ]McEvo3\ About 
twenty-five other men have been kept busy throughout the year 
in scouting for egg-masses and latvae, and in spraying during the 
latter half of May and June. This work is performed in co-opera- 
tion with the Federal Bureau of Entomolog>^ 

The apiary inspection work has been done as in past j'ears by 
Messrs. H. W. Coley and A. W. Yates on a per diem basis. 

The Entomologist, besides directing the work of the Department 
and attending to the correspondence of the office, has continued 
to serve as Associate Editor of the Journal of Economic Entomol- 
ogy, and as Chairman of the Tree Protection Examining Board. 
He has also continued to aid the Federal Bureau of Entomology 
by gathering data and submitting reports for the Insect Pest 
Survey. Several years ago he organized and projected the work 
on the Hemiptera of Connecticut, which has just been published 
as Bulletin No. 34 of the State Geological and Natural History 
Survey; he is the author of that portion deahng with the white 
ffies (Aleyrodidae) and scale insects (Coccidae) and has edited the 
entire volume of 807 pages. Some of the drawings for the text 
figures were done by Dr. Garman and the photographs were 
arranged and most of them made by Mr. Walden. The index and 
much of the proof reading was done in this office and altogether 
considerable attention has been given to it during the year. 



230 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

New Equipment. 

During, the year the equipment of the Department has been 
substantially increased. A new insectary 10 x 20 feet with 
boarded roof and sides covered with cottage wire netting has been 
built at the Station Farm at Mount Carmel, and has already been 
used in connection with the plum curculio investigations on apple. 
The out-door insectary at the Station, which was 10 x 16 feet in 
size with shingled roof has been moved about one hundred feet 
northward, and an addition 12 x 14 feet built, with glass roof and 
sides covered with chicken wire netting. The original portion has 
the sides covered with fine mesh copper wire, and will be kept as a 
separate compartment. Both insectaries are shown on Plate IX. 

Two new binocular microscopes (one of portable type) and a 
Bausch & Lomb photomicrographic stand with accessory lens and 
Hghting equipment, and a Wales adding machine have been 
purchased for the laboratory. A new self-recording thermometer 
was also obtained to use in the insectary. 

Several important additions have been made to the library, 
including the insect portion of the Biologia Centrali-Americana 
and a complete set of the Bulletin of Entomological Research of 
England. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. . 

The season has been abnormal and quite the opposite of 1922, 
in that little rain fell between July 1 and October 1. Many crops 
were below the usual yield on account of the drought. Particularly 
were apples under size. The first of the season was cool and moist 
and there were several hard frosts in April, but no early hard frosts 
in the fall. 

Perhaps the most outstanding features of the season, so far as 
insects are concerned, were the general injury of apple trees in 
July by the apple and thorn skeletonizer, Henierophila pariana 
Clerck, which caused nearly all unsprayed apple trees throughout 
the central part of the State to turn brown, the increase in the 
Oriental peach moth, Laspeyresia molesta Busck, and the discovery 
of the European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn., in Groton in 
October and in East Ljone in December. 

There has been no important increase in the territory infested 
by the gipsy moth as was the case in 1921, caused by wind-spread, 
though a few additional towns were found by Federal scouts to be 
infested. For this reason the towns of Goshen, Litchfield, 
Cheshire, Meriden, Middlefield, WaUingford, Old Lyme and Old 
Saybrook have been placed under Federal quarantine. 

The brown-tail moth has not again appeared in Connecticut^ 
and not a single nest has been seen since 1919. 



entomological features of 1923. 231 

Fruit Insects. 

The pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Forst., caused the usual amount 
of damage and was particularly prominent in a pear orchard in 
Southington in July. 

The San Jose scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst., is somewhat on 
the increase, though no such serious injury has been seen in 
Connecticut as has been reported from southern Illinois and 
Indiana. 

The false apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reut., was not promi- 
nent and generally caused less injury throughout the State than 
usual. 

The pear leaf blister mite, Eriophyes pyri Pagst., was received 
from Hamden and Waterbury. 

The European red mite, Paratetranychus pilosus Can. & Fanz., 
was responsible for rather wide-spread damage to Baldwin apple 
orchards during the season, probably more than in 1922. The 
results of Dr. Carman's experiments for the control of this pest 
may be found in Bulletin 252. 

The rosy apple aphid, Anur aphis roseus Baker, caused less 
damage than usual though some injury was reported from Haddam 
and Deep River. Eggs were rather abundant on the fruit spurs 
in March about- New Haven. 

The green apple aphid. Aphis pomi DeGeer, was present on 
water-sprouts and terminal shoots, in usual abundance. 

The rose leafhopper, Empoa rosae Linn., seemed to be more 
abundant than usual on apple trees, and on May 8, nymphs had 
just hatched from eggs at Milford. 

The rose chafer, Macrodactylus subspinosus Fabr., was scarce in 
some locaHties and abundant in others and injured the developing 
fruit by eating holes in it. 

The tarnished plant bug, Lygus pratensis Linn., caused some 
injury to the terminal twigs of apple and peach nursery stock and 
its work was observed in several nurseries in different parts of the 
State early in August. 

The tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americana Fabr., is still in- 
creasing and may be expected to be very abundant throughout 
the State in 1924. Eggs are now present everywhere on the twigs 
of apple and wild cheny. During the year specimens of this in- 
sect were received from Clinton, Southport and Wasliington, with 
special reports from Danbury, Meriden and ^lansfield, and from 
Fairfield, Litchfield and Windham Counties. 

The apple maggot or railroad worm, Rhagoletis pomonella 
Walsh, was fully as abmidant as usual though in our experiments, 
apples sprayed or dusted with lead arsenate after July 1 were 
almost free from injury. Specimens were received from New 
Haven, Cheshire and Berlin. 

The plunr curcuHo, Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst., was more 



232 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

abundant than in the average season and caused much injury to 
apples. 

The Oriental peach moth, Laspeyresia molesta Busck, was more 
abundant than it has ever been before in Connecticut. The larvae 
tunneled in the twigs of peach trees, and were found in the fruit 
late in the season. This insect was first found in Connecticut at 
Stamford by Federal scouts in 1918, and it is not known to occur 
anywhere in the State except in Fairfield and New Haven Counties. 
In 1923 a few infested peaches were found at the Station Farm at 
Mount Carmel. 

A cocoon of the bag worm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haw., 
on quince was received from New Haven, May 1. The eggs 
hatched and the larvae were fed and reared to maturity and the 
adults obtained. 

The grape vine tomato gall, Lasioptera vitis 0. S., was abundant 
as usual, and specimens were received from West Hartford, June 
14, and from New Britain, June 19. 

The red-humped caterpillar, Schizura concinna S. & A., was 
present in usual numbers, and specimens were received from 
Bloomfield, July 16, and from East Hampton, August 14. 

Vegetable Insects. 

On account of the cool and damp weather in May and June 
the seed did not germinate promptly and there was considerable 
injury by the seed corn maggot, Hylemyia cilicrura Rond. One 
field of corn in Milford was seriously injured in June. 

Wireworms (Elateridae) caused damage of varying extent in 
three fields of corn on one farm in Woodbridge, visited on July 6. 
In one small field 50 per cent, of the corn had been destroyed. 

Cutworms caused the usual amount of injury throughout the 
State, but serious injury to tobacco plants was reported from 
Portland, June 22, where there was 15 per cent, damage. The 
owner used poisoned bran mash, but also poisoned the plants and 
practiced hand-picking. 

There was, perhaps, more than the usual amount of injur}^ from 
the stalk borer, Papaipema nitela Guen. Records of injury to 
corn came from Somers, Torrington, Waterbury, Hamden and 
Derby. In Windsor it attacked tobacco, and in Stratford, 
tomatoes and peppers. This insect occurs over the entire State, 
and may tunnel in any kind of herbaceous stem — even weeds. 
No remedy is known other than destroying the borers when found. 

The corn ear worm, Chloridea obsoleta Fabr., was present in a 
number of fields late in the season, as it was in 1922, but was 
nowhere nearly so abundant as in 1921. 

The turnip aphid, Aphis pseudohrassicae Davis, killed or 
seriously injured turnips and kale in many parts of the State in 
June, July and August. Specimens were received from Meriden,. 
Danbury, Harwinton, Hamden and New Haven. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 233 

Colonies of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne hrassicae Linn., 
started on cabbages in New Haven and did some damage, but 
later disappeared. 

The pea aphid, Illinoia pisi Kalt., was also present on garden 
peas and caused perhaps the usual amount of damage. This 
damage was serious in some fields, one grower near New Haven 
reporting a total loss on three acres. In certain parts of Hartford 
County, a forty per cent, infestation was observed on June 22, and 
reported by County Agent South wick. 

The potato aphid, Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashm., also appeared 
in many fields and caused considerable injury. Samples were 
received from Wallingford on July 30, with the tips badl}^ infested. 
At the Station Farm, Mount Carmel, a potato field was moderately 
infested, though the bulk of the aphids came later in the season 
than usual. They were abundant on August 7, but by August 
24 had all disappeared. 

The squash vine borer, Mellilia satyriniformis Hubn., the squash 
bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer, and the striped cucumber beetle, 
Diabrotica viitata Fabr., were all present in usual numbers, the last 
being reported as being very al)imdant at Storrs on June 22. 

Considerable injury resulted from the attacks of the potato 
or cucumber flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris Harr., and four per cent, 
damage in Woodstock on June 19, was reported by County Agent 
Davis. 

In September, tobacco fields were severe^ injured by having the 
leaves partially eaten by the red-legged grasshopper or locust, 
Melanoplus femur-rubrimi DeGeer. This damage was estimated 
as amounting to between forty and sixty per cent. 

The brown colaspis, Colaspis brunnea Fabr., caused some injury 
in Hamden and Durham b}- feeding upon the leaves of beans. The 
observations were made by J\Ir. Zappe. 

The European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn., was dis- 
covered at Groton by Federal scouts on October 25, 1923, and a 
few days later another small infestation was found farther east- 
ward in the same town. All corn stalks, weeds, grass and rubbish 
on these small fields was burned. On December 14, another small 
infestation was found by Federal scouts in the village of Niantic, 
township of East Ljane. These infestations are described more 
in detail on page 278. 

The Asiatic beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, which was 
discussed in last year's Report, pages 277 and 345, has caused 
considerable damage to lawns in the vicinity where the adult 
beetles were first discovered. The larvae eat the roots of the 
grass, kilHng it. A more complete account of this introduced pest 
will be found in the following pages of tliis Report. 

White grubs devouring the grass roots of a lawn in Sahsbury 
were sent by the owner to the Bureau of Entomology at Washing- 
ton, and identified hy Dr. Boving as Anomala marginata Fabr. 



234 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

This is a species occurring in the southern Atlantic States and was 
not known to be present in Connecticut. Mr. Zappe visited the 
place and gathered material on September 25, and an attempt 
will be made to rear the adults. 

Shade Tree and Forest Insects. 

The woolly maple-leaf scale, Phenacoccus acericola King, con- 
tinues to infest sugar maple trees in villages and cities, but has 
not been observed in abundance on maple trees in the open country. 
Specimens were received from New Haven, Thompsonville and 
Norwalk, 

The oyster-shell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., is without doubt 
the commonest scale insect in Connecticut, and infests not only 
shade and forest trees but also fruit trees and ornamental shrubs. 
It is the commonest insect found by inspectors in nurseries, and 
though perhaps not more abundant than usual, it seems to be 
fairly abundant year in and year out. As a rule, the growers pay 
little attention to it, except to destroy infested stock in nurseries 
when directed to do so. 

The arbor- vitae leaf-miner, Argyresthia thuiella Pack., which 
caused considerable injury to arbor-vitae trees and hedges around 
New Haven in 1921 and much less in 1922, was not injurious in 
that region in 1923, though it was reported as causing serious 
damage to trees in New Canaan and Stamford. 

The white pine weevil, Pissodes strohi Pk., still continues to in- 
jure small trees in the open with marked regularity. Specimens 
were received from Southington, Kensington and Windsor. 

The imported pine sawfiy, Diprion simile Hartig, is present here 
and there but not in great abundance. Specimens were received 
twice from New Haven during the season, and the insect was 
reported from Deep River. 

The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella luteola MtiU., caused more 
injury than last year throughout the State, but it was particularly 
severe in Fairfield County, and its work was observed in Glaston- 
bury and Wethersfield. 

The imported poplar and willow beetle, Plagiodera versicolora 
Laich., which first appeared in the State in Greenwich and Stamford 
has spread eastward and is now found in New Haven and Yales- 
ville. Some of the infested trees in Greenwich were entirely de- 
foHated. 

The oak leaf-roller, Tortrix quercifoliana Fitch, was prevalent 
particularly around Hartford and Stamford on pin oaks. Certain 
trees in the vicinity of Stamford were nearly defoHated. 

The larch leaf-miner, Coleophora laricella Hubn., was prevalent 
in some parts of the State and nearly defoliated the larch trees in 
June. Specimens were received from Canaan and New Canaan 
and the work of this insect was observed elsewhere. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 235 

The spruce leaf-miner, Recurvaria piceaella Kearfott, was 
received on May 7 from New Canaan, where it was causing some 
injury. 

The larch leaf aphid, Chermes strohilohius Kalt., was present on 
larch leaves, especially of the European species. Specimens were 
received from New Canaan, June 7, and the writer observed this 
insect in New Haven. 

The pine leaf scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae Fitch, continues to in- 
fest the leaves of several species of pines in sheltered situations. 
It was received from Manchester, August 22. 

The beech leaf aphid, Phyllaphis fagi Linn., is nearly always 
present on the leaves of the European beech, especially the purple 
leaved form known as the copper beech. Specimens were received 
from Danbury, May 29. 

Two periods of aphid swarming occurred in the cities of the 
State, one in June and the other in September. The June swarms 
consisted of Euceraphis deducta Baker, and the September swarms 
were Aphis hetulaecolens Fitch. Both species infest birch trees 
and no doubt they came from the gray birches which grow 
abundantly in most parts of the State. They are certainly com- 
mon near New Haven, Bridgeport and Waterbury where these 
swarms were particular^ noticeable. 

Late in the season willow trees throughout the State were in- 
fested with brown aphids, Melanoxantherium sp. Mr. Zappe ob- 
served them especially in New Canaan, Darien, Woodmont, 
Yalesville, Cromwell and Manchester, while inspecting nurseries, 
and the writer saw them on a large willow tree in New Haven on 
August 30. The twigs werp covered with large brown wmgless 
aphids, and thousands of such aphids were crawling about on the 
fence, porch posts and rails and on the painted woodwork of the 
house. Wherever an aphid was crushed there was a purple stain, 
and these aphids in such abundance were a perfect nuisance. 
Honey dew had dripped from the branches upon the grass and 
fence imderneath and both the tree and the ground were fairly 
swarming with bees, wasps and flies, attracted b}- the honey dew. 
The owner was advised to spray liis tree and house with nicotine 
solution and soap to kill the apliids. 

A wooll}^ aphid, Prociphilus tessellata Fitch, on maple, was 
received from Torrington, July 30. 

The walnut caterpillar, Datana integer rima G. & R., was reported 
as being common at Chester in early fall. 

The European pine shoot moth, Evetria huoliana Scliiff, was 
received from Tarrj^own, N. Y., on October 3, and from Ridge- 
field on November 24. This insect had attacked the Norway or 
red pine and its shoots were crooked and deformed as is charac- 
teristic of the injury caused by this insect. 

The birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb., 
was fully as abundant as in 1922 and defoHated birch trees here 



236 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

and there throughout the State. Many thought it to be the same 
insect which skeletonized the apple trees. 

The fall canker-worm, Alsophila pometaria Harr., was rather 
abundant in some localities and the larvae fed upon the leaves of 
shade, forest and fruit trees. Around Saybrook and New Haven, 
this injury was rather prominent, and apple, elm, poplar, birch 
and walnut (Juglans) leaves were eaten. During November and 
December the gray male moths were unusually common, fluttering 
about the base of trees, and we may expect considerable injury 
from this insect next season. The females have no wings and 
must crawl up the trunks of trees to lay their eggs. Only early 
spraying with some arsenical poison will prevent damage next 
season. 

The fall web-worm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, which makes 
nests on the ends of branches the latter part of the season was 
also especially prominent in Hartford, Tolland, Windham and 
New London Counties. Specimens were sent in from East Granby, 
Meriden and Plantsville. Roadside, woodland and fruit trees 
were attacked and many were entirely defoHated. 

Miscellaneous Insects. 

The house centipede, Scutigera forceps E,af., was sent to the 
office October 2 from Southport, where it annoyed the inmates of 
a dwelling house. 

The basement of an apartment house in New Haven became 
overrun by the European cricket, Gryllus domesticus Linn., and 
both owner and tenant applied to the writer in April for advice. 

The black carpet beetle, Attagenus piceus OHv., causes consid- 
erable damage each year by eating holes in clothing hanging in 
closets. During the season specimens were received from Meriden 
and Farmington. If small pieces of wool cloth are kept on the 
floor, the larvae will often feed upon them instead of attacking 
the clothing. 

The chrysanthemum gall midge, Diarthronomyia hypogaea Loew., 
was sent to the Station, April 10 from some commercial green- 
houses at Rowayton where the small potted plants had galls on 
the leaves. 

A small leaf beetle, Nodonota puncticollis Say, was reported as 
eating the buds of roses in Bridgeport, June 19, and specimens 
•were sent to the office. 

The Euonymus scale, Chionaspis euonymi Comst., was received 
from New Haven on April 3 on Pachysandra terminalis, a low- 
growing evergreen plant used in shady situations by landscape 
gardeners. This is the first time that I have ever seen this plant 
infested. 

The four-hned leaf bug, Poecilocapsus lineatus Fabr., was 
common in 1923 and attacked the growing tips of many different 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF 1923. 237 

kinds of plants. Specimens were received on currant from Ham- 
den, June 23, on currant and chrysanthemum from West Haven 
June 26, and on peony and spearmint from Stratford, July 2. 

The rhododendron borer, Sesia rhododendri Beut., described in 
the Report of this Station for 1922, page 347, is still causing injurj^ 
in rhododendron plantations and the growers are interested in 
methods of controlHng it. Specimens were received from Yalesville, 
June 16 and from Springfield, Mass., June 28. 

Geranium plants were received from New Haven, August 3 
which had been injured by white ants, Reculitermes flavipes Kollar. 
The ants had tunneled in the stems ruining some of the plants. 

On November 23, specimens of box twigs were received from 
Waterford. The leaves were badly infested with larvae of the 
box leaf-miner, Alonarthropalpus huxi Labou. If possible some 
experiments will be conducted for the control of this pest. 

Larkspur plants on the grounds of Miss A. B. Jennings, Fair- 
field, were severely injured by the mite, Tarsonemus pallidus 
Banks. Dr. Garman visited the place on July 3 and found that 
many of the buds had been deformed and had turned black and 
some leaves were deformed. 

The more important of these insects mentioned above, together 
with accounts of the experimental and control work of the Depart- 
ment are described in greater detail in the following pages of this 
Report. 

Summer Field Meeting. 

An important entomological event of the season was the summer 
field meeting of the entomologists of the northeastern United 
States, which was held in Connecticut Jul}^ 26 and 27. The 
members gathered in New Haven on the afternoon and evening 
of July 25, the Hotel Taft being the headquarters. The trips to 
various points were made b}^ automobile. On the morning of the 
26th, they visited the Entomological Department of this Station 
and the Station Farm at Mount Carmel, then West Rock Park, 
Yale Bowl, Harkness Memorial Quadrangle, and the orchard of 
Frank N. Piatt, Milford, where spra3'ing and dusting experiments 
were being conducted. From this point the party proceeded along 
the coast to the State Park at Hammonasset Beach, Madison. 
Following the luncheon, there was a baseball game (Worthley, 
umpire); some of the entomologists went bathing while others 
collected insects along the beach. Late in the afternoon, the party 
went northward, passing Wesley an University at Middletown, 
stopping at the large greenhouse and nursery estabhshment of 
the A. N. Pierson Co., Cromwell, viewed the gigantic ehn tree in 
Wethersfield, and then to Hartford, where at the Hotel Bond a 
dinner and evening meeting had been arranged. 



238 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

An interesting lecture on the Japanese beetle, illustrated by 
lantern slides, was given by Mr. Loren B. Smith of Riverton, N. J., 
in place of Mr. C. H. Hadley, who could not be present. Friday 
morning the party drove through Keney Park to the tobacco 
sub-station at Windsor, and visited the forest experimental plots 
at Rainbow, returning via Elizabeth Park, to Hartford, where 
luncheon was served in the State Capitol. After luncheon the 
visitors were shown about the Capitol and the State Library, 
then drove, via Rockville, to the Connecticut Agricultural College 
at Storrs. Here a demonstration of high-power spraying of 
woodland and orchard trees was given by the gipsy moth forces. 
After supper there was a baseball game between the Connecticut 
gipsy moth men and a team picked from the visitors (Burgess, 
umpire). In the evening motion pictures were shown in the 
armory, including those on the European corn borer, and the 
gipsy moth, prepared by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Besides members of the Station Staff, the following were present : 
H. A. Ames, Somerville, N. J.; E. A. Back, Washington, D. C; 
D. N. Borodin, New York, N. Y.; H. L. Blaisdell, Melrose, Mass.; 
F. E. Brooks, Washington, D. C; A. F. Burgess, Melrose High- 
lands, Mass.; C. W. Collins, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; C. R. 
Crosby, Ithaca, N. Y.; S. M. Dohanian, Somerville, Mass.; E. P. 
Felt, Albany, N. Y.; Hugh Glasgow, Geneva, N. Y.; F. W. 
Graves, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; Melvin Guptill, Sudbury, 
Mass.; T. L. Guyton, Harrisburg, Pa.; E. A. Hartley, Melrose 
Highlands, Mass.; G. W. Herrick, Ithaca, N. Y.; T. J. Headlee, 
New Brunswick, N. J.; H. E. Hodgkiss, State College, Pa.; C. E. 
Hood, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; J. L. Horsfall, Bustleton, Pa.; 
J. F. Jamieson, Riverton, N. J.; R. W. Kelley, New York, 
N. Y.; G. H. Lamson, Storrs, Conn.; F. H. Lathrop, Highland, 
N. Y.; M. D. Leonard, Albany, N. Y.; Q. S. Lowry, Boston, 
Mass.; J. A. Manter, Storrs, Conn.; C. W. Minott, Melrose 
Highlands, Mass.; F. H. Mosher, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; H. 
L. Mclntyre, Albany, N. Y.; A. H. Parkins, Boston, Mass.; Alvah 
Peterson, New Brunswick, N. J.; D. M. Rogers, Boston, Mass.; 
J. V. Schaffner, Melrose Highlands, Mass. ; A. F. Schulze, Storrs, 
Conn.; R. A. Sheals, Providence, R. I.; L. B. Smith, Riverton, 
N. J.; A. E. Stene, Kingston, R. I.; W. R. Walton, Washington, 
D. C; H. I. Winchester, Melrose, Mass.; R. Woolridge, Melrose 
Highlands, Mass., and L. H. Worthley, Arlington, Mass. 



INSPECTION OF NURSERIES. 239 



INSPECTION OF NURSERIES IN 1923. 

The General Statutes provide that ''all nurseries or places where 
nursery stock is grown, sold, or offered for sale, shall be inspected 
at least once each year by the State Entomologist or one of his 
deputies, and if no serious pests are found, a certificate to that 
effect may be given." Consequently such inspection has been 
made each year of all growing nursery stock so far as the existence 
of such nursery stock is known to the State Entomologist. In 
1923, two nurseries were inspected in the spring and again late in 
the summer. The annual inspection was commenced on July 26 
and finished on September 26, except for one nursery learned 
about later and inspected on October 11. This work was in charge 
of Mr. M. P. Zappe, who was assisted by J. Leslie Rogers and T. F. 
Cronin. Mr. E. M. Stoddard of the Botanical Department and 
Doctors Garman and Britton helped one day each. For the most 
part these nurseries were given a rather more rigid inspection than 
usual, for, on account of the wide-spread infestations of the gipsy 
moth, it seemed almost necessary to make sure that none of the 
nursery stock was infested with that destructive pest. The weather 
was extremely favorable and as the whole period was one of pro- 
tracted drought the work was not delayed on account of rain. 

On the whole the nurseries were in good condition and fairly 
clean. Some owners are always more careful than others about 
such matters. Where the stock is kept clean it is not only easier 
to inspect, but the amount of stock to be treated or destroyed 
after inspection is reduced to a minimum. 

At a hearing and conference before the Federal Horticultural 
Board at the State House, Boston, Mass., Aug-ust 17, 1923, the 
point was made by the Board and confirmed by several of the 
nurserymen present that the nurseries must be kept comparatively 
free from serious insect and fungous pests. This idea should be 
reiterated and emphasized again and again. Clean stock only 
should be sent out from nurseries, and the customer has a right to 
expect it. Quarantine and inspection officers ia other states are 
watcliing and may cause the destruction, treatment or return of 
stock found infested. Moreover, a large number of infested ship- 
ments from one state into another may lead to regulations prohibit- 
ing shipments altogether. 

The understanding reached at the Boston conference is to the 
effect that a nurseryman must hold a state certificate before the 
Federal gipsy moth inspection will be granted. Id the quarantined 
area this inspection and certification are necessary if one wishes 
to ship out of the infested area; but if the owner is not ^vllHng to 
clean up sufficiently to enable him to obtain a state certificate, 
the Federal inspection will be refused. Hence it behooves all 
nurserymen to co-operate cordially, promptly and thoroughly 
with the state inspectors, otherwise they may not be able to do 



240 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

business because of these conditions. Several Massachusetts 
nurserymen stated that every tree and shrub in their nursery had 
been sprayed thoroughly with arsenate of lead. 

However, there are pests other than the gipsy moth which must 
receive attention from the nurseryman. For instance the oyster- 
shell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., is the commonest insect pest 
found in the nurseries, and the spruce gall aphid, Chermes ahietis 
Linn., and the poplar canker, Dothichiza populea, are also close 
seconds. Both of these insects may be readily held in check by 
contact sprays made at the right time. The former has only one 
generation and the latter two generations each year in Connecticut. 
The spruce gall aphid attacks only spruce trees, but the oyster- 
shell scale infests a large number of different kinds of trees and 
shrubs. 



Oyster-Shell Scale. 

The oyster-shell scale lives through the winter in the form of 
white oval eggs which are formed under the shells during Septem- 
ber. These eggs do not hatch until about the last week of the 
following May. The young then crawl out from underneath the 
old female shells and establish themselves on the bark. They 
soon begin to suck the sap and do not move afterwards. Each 
forms a shell, but these shells are very thin at first and gradually 
become larger and thicker. The proper time for the most effective 
treatment is soon after the eggs hatch and before the shells become 
heavy enough to protect the insects from the application. Thus a 
thorough spraying about the first week of June with kerosene soap 
emulsion, or with nicotine solution and soap will kill nearly all of 
the young scales. It is always advisable to cut and burn all 
branches or stems which can be spared and which are badly in- 
fested. The oyster-shell scale is particularly prevalent on willow, 
poplar, ash, birch, black walnut, butternut, lilac, maple and apple, 
and often occurs on many other trees and shrubs. 



Spruce Gall Aphid. 

The spruce gall aphid occurs only on spruce trees and two 
species may be found in Connecticut nurseries. The more common 
one, Chermes ahietis Linn., attacks Norway, black, red and white 
spruces, and sometimes hemlock, making a cone-shaped swelHng 
or gall at the base of the new growth. On the Colorado blue 
spruce, much larger galls occur which are caused by another 
species, Chermes cooleyi Gillette. The young females hve on the 
twigs through the winter and in spring mature, lay their eggs and 
die. On hatching from the eggs in May, the young crawl to the 
tips of the twigs and settle at the base of the leaves where the 



INSPECTION OF NURSEHIES. 241 

new growth is just beginning to form. The cone-shaped gall is 
here developed, the young being inside and sucking the sap. 
Becoming mature in August, the nymphs excape from the galls, 
which later turn brown and die, often killing the shoot beyond 
the gall. The insects molt after emerging and are then provided 
with wings. They crawl over the leaves where the females lay 
stalked eggs which hatch in about two weeks and this generation 
is the one which lives over winter on the twigs in a partially 
developed state. 

On small trees in the nursery the galls may easily be chpped off 
in June and burned. This treatment has already been practiced 
in one Connecticut nurserj^ where many conifers are grown, and 
resulted in few galls being found at the time of the annual inspec- 
tion in August. 

Spraying in April with a contact spray to kill the over-wintermg 
females is one of the best control methods. In Massachusetts, 
whale oil soap, one pound in two gallons of water, proved so 
effective that no insects could be found afterward upon the trees. 
For several years in one large nursery the spruce trees have been 
sprayed in April with miscible oil, one part in twenty parts of 
water. The same treatment has also been applied late in the fall, 
and both spring and fall applications have been effective in con- 
trolling the spruce gall aphid. There has never been any injury 
to the trees from the treatment except once, and this was probabh^ 
due to not mixing the contents of the original package thoroughly 
before diluting with water. 



Poplar Canker. 

From our records it appears that poplar canker was first found 
in Connecticut nurseries in 1918, when six nurseries were infested. 
Though each year infested trees have been destroyed, it has 
increased in abundance imtil in 1923 it occurred in 34 nurseries. 
This is an infectious disease caused by a fungus which grows in 
the bark in a manner similar to that of the chestnut blight, forming 
cankers and often girdling branches or the main trunk and killing 
all tissues above or beyond the point of attack. In nurseries, 
cutting and burning the diseased trees or branches is the remedy. 



Pests Found in Nurseries. 

In 32 nurseries no important pests were found. These were 
mostly newly estabHshed nurseries where the young stock has 
not become infested or small nurseries where special stock not 
commonly infested is grown. Following is a hst of the principal 
pests found with the number of nurseries infested by each : 



242 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

List of Pests Found in Nurseries in 1923. 



Aphids, apple, green 15 Mite, European red 4 

woolly 4 on box elder 1 

on chestnut 1 SavfQy, Diprion simile 2 

pine 1 on arbor- vitae 1 



spiraea 1 „ . , ^'^^^^ A 

spruce gall, 
Chermes abietis 28 



Scale, elm 10 

Euonymus 2 

7 . q Lecanium corni 1 

^ , oak gall scale ( Kermes) .... 1 

Apple and thorn skeletonizer. ... 18 oyster-shell 42 

Arbor- vitae leaf -miner 1 p^j^g jg^f 8 

Birch Bucculatrix .' 6 j-gse 12 

Borer, lilac 1 San Jose'.' .'"'"!''' ^ !'.'.'.'. '. 20 

peach 1 scurfy 5 

poplar 2 tulip tree 4 

Curcuho, poplar 1 West Indian peach 1 

Lace bugs 2 white elm 1 

Laspeyresia molesta 2 Tarnished plant bug 1 

Lina scripta 1 White pine weevil 17 

PLANT DISEASES. 

Apple scab 3 Mildew on rose 4 

Bhster rust , 6 Mosaic, raspberry. 4 

Cedar rust 8 Poplar canker 34 

Crown gall 3 

Fire bUght 3 Uninf ested 32 

From the preceding list it may be seen that the oyster-shell 
scale is found in a larger number of nurseries (42) than any other 
pest on the list, though the poplar canker comes next, being found 
in 34 nurseries. 

In order to show how the figures of 1923 compare with those 
of preceding years, the following table shows the comparative 
abundance of the principal nursery pests for the past six years: 

Six Year Record of Serious and Common Nursery Pests. 

Pest 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 

Oyster-shell scale 39 38 38 36 44 42 

San Jose scale 18 19 11 28 19 20 

Spruce gall aphid 15 19 21 31 21 28 

White pine weevil 5 5 1 1 19 17 

Apple and thorn skeletonizer . . . . . . 1 '18 

Poplar canker 6 5 13 21 31 34 

Blister rust 1 .. .. 2 9 6 

No pests 32 32 46 36 36 32 

One nursery has gone out of business since last year, three have 
changed ownership, and fourteen new names appear on the Hst. 
One nursery has been inspected twice. The list contains five 
more names than the list for 1922. Six other nurseries were 



INSPECTION OF NURSERIES. , 243 

inspected but have not reported that the infestations have been 
removed. These have no certificates and will violate the law 
every time they make a sale. 

In addition to the inspection of the nurseries, 60 separate 
packages of nursery stock have- been inspected to accommodate 
individuals who wish to ship, and in some cases inspection of 
parcels has been made and certificates issued to nurseries which 
have not received the regular form of certificate covering their 
nursery stock. 

The nurserymen's list for 1923 contains 106 names, as follows: 

Nursery Firms in Connecticut Receiving Certificates in 1923. 

No. of 
Certificate Certifi- 
Name of Firm Address Acreage Issued cate 

Barnes Bros. Nursery Co Yalesville 150 Sept. 25 1421 

Barnes Nursery & Orchard Co WaUingford 45 Oct. 8 1437 

Barton Nursery Hamden 1 Sept. 21 1411 

Beattie, Wm. H New Haven 1 Sept. 21 1412 

Benbow, A Norfolk 1 Oct. 1 1430 

Bertolf Brothers Greenwich 25 Sept. 18 1402 

Brainard Nursery & Seed Co Thompsonville 10 Sept. 27 1424 

Braley & Co Biunside 1 Sept. 11 1390 

Bretschneider, A Danielson 1 Sept. 18 1404 

Bristol Nurseries, Inc Bristol 16 Oct. 15 1439 

Burr & Co., C. R Manchester, Ellington 

and Durham 500 Aug. 1 1363 

Burroughs, Thos. E Deep River 3 Sept. 14 1396 

Chapman, C. B Groton 1 Sept. 24 1419 

Chapman, C. E North Stonington .... 2 Sept. 27 1427 

Clinton Nurseries (Warren Richards, 

Mgr.) Clinton 1 Oct. 31 1452 

Conine Nursery Co Stratford 50 Sept. 8 1387 

Conn. Agricultural College (Prof. S. 

P. Holhster) Storrs 1 Nov. 17 1460 

Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. (W. O. Filley, 

Forester) New Haven 1 Sept. 18 1401 

Crofut & Knapp Farm Norwalk 20 Nov. 23 1462 

Cross Highway Nurseries Westport 6 Nov. 28 1464 

Crouch, Alden Mystic 1 Apr. 7 1361 

Dallas, Inc., Alexander Waterburj' 1 Sept. 22 1414 

Dawson's Nursery Willimantic 2 Aug. 24 1369 

Dowd, F. C Madison 1 Sept. 7 1386 

Dunlap, Daniel S Cromwell 1 Aug. 30 1378 

Edgewood Nursery, Vidal, Inc Stamford 5 Sept. 14 1398 

Eldredge, Charles F. (2) Niantic 1 Sept. 24 1417 

Elm City Nursery Co., Woodmont 

Nurseries, Inc Woodmont and New 

Haven 155 Aug. 27 1373 

Evergreen Nursery Co Wilton 5 Sept. 7 1384 

Fairty, C. H New Canaan 1 Dec. 7 1466 

Falcon's Fhght Farms Nursery 

(B. Austin Cheney, Prop.) Litchfield 1 Oct. 6 1436 

Eraser, G. W Willimantic 1 Aug. 24 1370 

Gardner's Nurseries Rocky Hill 5 Nov. 13 1459 

Geduldig's Greenhouses Norwich 1 Sept. 14 1397 



244 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



Name of Firm Address 

Glenn Terrace Ornamental Nursery 

(James H. Everett, Prop.) Mount Carmel 

Heath & Co Manchester 

Hilhard, H. J Sound View 

Hiti Nurseries (J. H. Bowditch, Prop) Pomfret Center .... 

Holcomb, Irving Simsbury 

Hoogendoorn, C Yalesville 

Horan & Son, Jas Bridgeport 

Houstons' Nurseries Mansfield 

Hoyt's Sons Co., Inc., The Stephen. . New Canaan 300 

Hunt & Co., W. W Hartford. 

Isselee, Charles Darien 

Jones, WilUam Norwalk 

Kelly, James J New Canaan 

Kellner, Herman H Danbury 

Keso Nursery (J. J. Kelsey, Prop.) . . Clinton 

Ladd & Nichols Greenwich 

Laddin's Rock Nursery (Est. of W. L. 

Marks) Stamford 

Langenbach, F.J Norwich 

Leghorn, John J Cromwell 

Mallett Co., George A Bridgeport 

Maplewood Nurseries (T. H. Peabody, 

Mgr.) Norwich 

Marigold Farm (H. Kelley, Prop.) . . New Canaan 

Meier, A. R West Hartford 

Millane Tree Expert Co., The Middletown 

Myers, C. B Milford and Rowayton 

New Haven Nurseries Co., The New Haven 

New Haven Park Commissioners 

(G. X. Amrhyn, Supt.) New Haven 30 Aug; 24 1371 

New London Cemetery Association 

(Ernest E. Rogers, Pres.) New London 1 Oct. 29 1447 

New London County Nurseries 

(W. J. Schoonman, Prop.) New London 

North-Eastern Forestry Co ^. . . Cheshire 

Oakland Nurseries Manchester 

Outpost Nurseries (L. D. Conley, 

i Prop.) Ridgefield 25 

Ouwerkerk & Van der Stam Yalesville 

Park Gardens Bridgeport 

Park Hill Flower Shop Manchester 

Pequod Nursery Co. Yalesville 

Phelps, J. Wesson Bolton 

Phelps & V. T. Hammer Co., The 

J. W Branf ord 

Pierson, A. N., Inc Cromwell 

Pohsh Orphanage Farm (Rev. L. 

Bojnowski, Mgr.) New Britain 

Pomeroy, Edwin C Northville 

Reck, Julius Bridgeport ........ 

Rockfall Nursery Co. (P. Marotta, 

Prop.) Rockfall 

Ryther, O. E Norwich 

Saxe & Floto Waterbury 

Scheepers, Inc., John Sound Beach 

Schleichert, J. L Bridgeport 



BULLETIN 256. 






No. of 




Certificate ' 


Certifi- 


icreag 


;e Issued 


cate 


6 


Nov. 30 


1465 


5 


Aug. 1 


1365 


1 


Sept. 24 


1418 


9 


Aug. 30 


1374 


1 


Aug. 30 


1379 


1 


Sept. 6 


1383 


1 


Oct. 15 


1440 


4 


Nov. 3 


1455 


300 


Sept. 20 


1406 


10 


Sept. 26 


1423 


10 


Nov. 24 


1463 


1 


Aug. 30 


1375 


1 


Sept. 13 


1394 


1 


Sept. 27 


1425 


1 


Sept. 10 


1388 


2 


Sept. 24 


1415 


5 


Aug. 24 


1372 


1 


Aug. 24 


1368 


1 


Aug. 30 


1376 


1 


Oct. 15 


1441 


1 


Nov. 9 


1457 


6 


Nov. 21 


1461 


1 


Oct. 19 


1446 


1 


Nov. 12 


1458 


6 


Oct. 15 


1443 


10 


Sept. 15 


1399 



5 


Oct. 


15 


1442 


20 


Aug. 


20 


1367 


5 


Aug. 


1 


1364 


25 


Sept. 


12 


1393 


7 


Sept. 


6 


1380 


1 


Sept. 


20 


1407 


1 


Sept. 


12 


1392 


15 


Sept. 


11 


1389 


1 


Oct. 


29 


1448 


2 


Oct. 


29 


1449 


50 


Aug. 


30 


1377 


1 


Sept. 


25 


1420 


1 


Sept. 


27 


1426 


1 


Oct. 


31 


1450 


4 


Aug. 


1 


1366 


6 


Oct. 


3 


1434 


1 


Sept. 


18 


1405 


6 


Sept. 


18 


1403 


1 


Sept. 


20 


1408 



INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK. 245 

No. of 

Certificate Certifi- 

Name of Firm Address Acreage Issued cate 

Scott, J. W Hartford 5 Nov. 6 1456 

Seely, C. H Darien 1 Oct. 1 1431 

Sierman, C. H Hartford 5 Oct. 10 1438 

South Wilton Nurseries South Wilton 5 Sept. 7 1385 

Stamford Seed & Flower Co Stamford 1 Oct. 1 1432 

Steck, Charles A Newtown 3 Oct. 2 1433 

Steck, Jr., Charles A Bethel 1 Oct. 31 1454 

Steck, Mrs. Chas Bethel 1 Oct. 31 1453 

Stratfield Nursery Co Bridgeport 6 Dec. 17 1467 

Stratford Nursery Co. (C. A. Cooper, 

Prop.) " Stratford 1 Sept. 20 1410 

Stratford Rose Nurseries (John 

Barrow, Prop.) Stratford 3 Sept. 20 1409 

Tanner's Nurserj^ Co Manchester 1 Oct. 16 1445 

Upson, R. E Marion 1 Sept. 25 1422 

Vanderbrook & Son, Chas. L Manchester 5 Sept. 11 1391 

Van Wilgen & Co Branford 15 Sept. 6 1381 

Verkade's Nurseries New London 8 Sept. 24 1416 

Vidbourne & Co., J Hartford 7 Sept. 2S 1429 

Wallace Nursery Wallingford 2 Sept. 6 1382 

Watrous, Arthur J Meriden 1 Sept. 18 1400 

Wild, Henry Greenwich and Nor- 

walk 16 Oct. 6 1435 

Wilson & Co., C. E Manchester 50 Sept. 14 1395 

Woodruff, C. V Orange 1 Sept. 21 1413 

Yale University Forest School New Haven 1 Sept. 28 1428 

Young, Mrs. Nellie A Pine Orchard 1 Oct. 31 1451 

Zack Co., H. J Deep River 2 Oct. 16 1444 



Total acreage 1,731 

INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK. 

The nurserj^ stock entering Connecticut from foreign countries 
during 1923 consisted of 35 shipments, 179 cases, and 1,981,895 
plants. This is a larger number of shipments and cases than last 
year, but a smaller number of plants. The following table shows 
the quantities of such nurser}^ stock inspected at destination by 
State inspectors during the last four 3^ears : 

No. of No. of No. of 

Year Shipments 

1920 17 

1921 21 

1922 30 

1923 35 

This stock consists of IManetti rose stock and fruit seedlings to 
be used for propagation, — budding and grafting. More than one- 
half, mostly rose stock, was consigned to one firm. The inspections 
were nearly all made by Mr. Zappe. 

The time required to inspect this stock amounts to 264 hours, 
or 1.35 months of 26 working daj^s of seven and one-half hours 



Cases 


Plants 


87 
126 
159 
179 


814,491 
1,228,560 
1,997,595 
1,981,895 



246 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

each. The total cost of this work including time of men and 
traveling expenses amounted to $289.11. 

The sources of this imported nursery stock for the year were as 
follows : 

Sources of Imported Nursery Stock, 1922-192.3. 

No. of No. of No. of 

Country Shipments Cases Plants 

France 14 74 1,009,700 

Holland 14 79 720,195 

England 5 21 212,000 

Italy 1 2 13,000 

Unlcnown 1 3 27,000 

35 179 1,981,895 

The following table shows the quantities of stock as inspected by 
months : 

No. of No. of No. of 

Month Shipments Cases Plants 

November 2 5 58,240 

December 4 25 251,500 

January 13 69 796,000 

February 8 40 459,555 

March 7 29 312,600 

April 1 11 104,000 

35 179 1,981,895 

In addition to the stock inspected and reported above, there were 
eight shipments containing 40 cases and 415,800 plants which were 
reshipped to other states and not inspected in Connecticut. 

There were nine shipments consisting of 16 cases of seeds which 
entered Connecticut but were not inspected here. One shipment 
of one case containing 5,000 apple seedlings was received which 
had already been inspected in New York, and consequently it was 
not reinspected. 

Of the 35 shipments inspected, 15 or 42.8 per cent, were found 
infested with insects or other animals or plant diseases, some of 
which are well-known pests. For instance, if Aporia crataegi Linn, 
should become established in the United States, it would add 
another to the already large list of pests which feed upon the 
foliage of fruit trees and rosaceous plants. Details of these in- 
fested shipments are given below. 

Pests Found on Imported Nursery Stock. 
15 Shipments Infested. 

INSECTS. 

Aporia crataegi Linn, on fruit seedlings. (1 shipment) A. Choplin, Maze, 
France. 

Emphytus cinctus Linn. (13 shipments) Fa. As. Ouwerkerk, Boskoop, 
Holland; W. Fromow & Sons, WindJesham, Surrey, England; M. Gielen, 
Oudenbosch, Holland; B. Hugo, Ltd., Dedemsvaart, Holland; W. C. 



INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 247 

Slocock, Woking, Surrey, England; P. L. Renault, Orleans, France; 

Hemeray-Aubert, Orleans, France; D. G. de Jonge, Sappemeer, Holland; 

Felix & Dykhuis, Boskoop, Holland; S. Bide & Sons, Ltd., Farnham, 

Surrey, England; N. Levasseur & Fils, Ussy, France. 
Lepidopterous cocoons. (2 shipments) P. L. Renault, Orleans, France; 

N. Levasseur & Fils, Ussy, France. 
Spider's eggs. (1 shipment) P. L. Renault, Orleans, France. 

PLANT DISEASES. 

Crown Gall on Manetti rose. (6 shipments) W. Fromow & Sons, Windle- 
sham, Surrey, England; R. C. Noteult, Woodbridge, England; W. C. 
Slocock, Woking, Surrey, England; Hemeray-Aubert, Orleans, France; 
S. Bide & Sons, Ltd., Farnham, Surrej^, England. 



INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 

As in preceding years, the work of inspecting apiaries has been 
done on a per diem basis by Messrs. H. W. Coley of Westport and 
A. W. Yates of Hartford. Mr. Coley covers the southern half of 
the State, Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex and New London 
Counties. Mr. Yates covers the northern half, Litchfield, Hart- 
ford, Tolland and Windham Counties. 

This work required a total of 131 man daj^s, and the entire cost 
for the season was SI, 849. 80. 

Fewer apiaries were inspected in 1923 than in each of the three 
years preceding. This was due, in part at least, to the fear that 
bees would take to "robbing" if disturbed, on account of the extreme 
lack of moisture. 

The following figures show the number of apiaries and colonies 
inspected, and the average number of colonies per apiar}^ for the 
past three seasons: 

Average No. 
Colonies 
Year No. Apiaries No. Colonies per Apiary 

1921 751 6,972 9.2 

1922 797 8,007 10.04 

1923 725 6,802 9.38 

In 1923, inspections were made in 119 towns as against 125 
towns in 1922. No apiaries have ever been mspected in the town 
of Union, Tolland Countj^, because the inspector has never been 
able to learn of bees being kept in that town. 

In 1923, inspections were made in the following 22 towns not 
visited in 1922: Fairfield County -.D'anhxivy, Stratford and Trumbull; 
New Haven County: Derby, Meriden and Orange; Middlesex 
County: Cromwell, East Haddam, East Hampton, Haddam, 
Middlefield and Middletown; New London County: None; Litch- 
field County: Bethlehem, Harwinton, New Hartford, Watertown 
and Woodbur}^; Hartford County: Farmington and Rocky Hill; 
Tolland County: None; Windham County: Chaplin, Eastford and 
Putnam. 



248 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

On the other hand, in 1922 inspections were made in the follow- 
ing 29 towns not visited in 1923: Fairfield County: Bridgeport, 
Newtown and Weston; New Haven County: Bethany, East Haven, 
Middlebury, New Haven, Oxford and Woodbridge; Middlesex 
County: Westbrook; New London County: Colchester, Lyme and 
North Stonington; Litchfield County: Bridgewater, Canaan, Corn- 
wall, Kent, New Milford, Norfolk, North Canaan, Salisbury 
and Sharon; Hartford County: Avon and Hartford; Tolland 
County: Tolland and Willington; Windham County: Ashford, 
Brooklyn and Scotland. 

European Foul Brood. 

Out of the 725 apiaries and 6,802 colonies inspected in 1923, 
17 apiaries and 25 colonies were found infested with European 
foul brood. This gives a ratio of 2.34 per cent, of apiaries and 
.36 per cent, of colonies infested, as against 4.14 and .85 per cent, 
respectively in 1922. 

European foul brood has gradually decreased in Connecticut 
since the inspection was begun in 1909. In 1923 this disease was 
not found at all in Fairfield, New Haven and Tolland Counties. 
European foul brood was found in the following towns in 1923: 
Middlesex County: Durham and East Hampton; New London 
County: Norwich, Old Lyme and Stonington; Litchfield County: 
Winchester; Hartford County: Glastonbury and Suffield; Windham 
County: Killingly, Plainfield, Pomfret, Putnam and Sterling. 

Last year 33 apiaries and 68 colonies were found infested with 
European foul brood. Compared with these figures, the infesta- 
tions in 17 apiaries and 25 colonies in 1923 are quite encouraging. 

American Foul Brood. 

Of the 725 apiaries and 6,802 colonies inspected in 1923, seven 
apiaries and 22 colonies were infested with American foul brood. 
This is a ratio of .965 per cent, of apiaries and .323 per cent, of 
colonies as against 1.38 and .27 per cent, respectively in 1922. 
American foul brood was not found in Connecticut until 1914, 
Since then there has never been much of this disease, but the 
percentage is spasmodic and erratic. It fluctuates irregularly and 
has shown no such gradual change as has been the case with the 
decrease in the European foul brood. 

In 1923, this disease occurred in the following seven towns: 
Fairfield County: Greenwich and Trumbull; New Haven County: 
Derby, Seymour and Wallingford; Middlesex County: East Hamp- 
ton; Windham County: Kilhngly. 

The statistics of the apiaries inspected in each of the 119 towns 
visited, arranged by counties, are given on the following pages, and 
summarized on page 252. 



INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 



249 



Apiaries Inspected in 1923. 



.2'S 
p.-" 

. a 

II 

Fairfield County: 

Bethel 5 

Danbury 1 

Darien 1 

Easton 6 

Fairfield 9 

Greenwich 7 

Monroe 4 

New Canaan 2 

Norwalk 5 

Redding 7 

Shelton 2 

Stamford 7 

Stratford 6 

Trumbull 8 

Westport 6 

Wilton 5 



< g 

6.2 


St 


O § 

0.2 


1" 


o— . 


o 
o 





22 

















15 

















16 

















120 














1 


83 


2 








2 


4 


27 


7 


6 





1 





77 

















29 

















63 

















29 

















34 

















162 

















37 














1 


100 


2 


2 











56 














1 


75 


1 








1 



81 



945 



12 



New Haven County: 

Beacon Falls 2 

Branf ord 2 

Cheshire 3 

Derby 4 

Guilford 2 

Hamden 5 

Madison 2 

Meriden 14 

Milford 6 

Naugatuck 7 

North Haven 7 

Orange 5 

Prospect 5 

Seymour 2 

WalUngford 26 

Waterbury 10 

West Haven 1 






38 

















10 

















47 














1 


33 


6 


6 











34 

















57 

















24 

















99 

















78 

















52 

















87 

















33 

















79 














1 


33 


2 


2 








2 


154 


3 


1 





2 





115 

















7 















103 



980 



11 



Middlesex County: 

Chester 7 

CUnton 2 

Cromwell 1 

Durham 9 

East Haddam 11 

East Hampton 10 

Essex 2 

Haddam 8 

Killingworth 2 






44 

















17 

















3 














2 


147 


4 





4 








226 














3 


100 


4 


2 


2 








29 

















74 

















11 















250 CONNECTICUT 


EXPERIMENT STATION 


BULLETIN 


256 


Apiakies 


Inspected 


IN 1923- 


-Continued. 








to 


o 


£ 


m 


T3 


-0 






■ft-g 


ft ^ 

< e 


OS 


P 




§2 


a 
o 
o 




. ft 




. ft 
13 




Eg 


5§ 




Middlesex County — Coro. 
















Middlefield 


5 





56 














Middletown 


1 





1 














Old Saybrook 


3 





58 














Saybrook 


5 





24 
















66 


5 


790 


8 


2 


6 





New London County: 
















Bozrah 


2 





17 














East Lyme .• 


3 





47 














Franklin 


3 





35 














Groton 


3 





23 














Lebanon 


4 





44 














Montville 


3 





36 














New London 


2 





24 














Norwich 


7 


1 


566 


1 





1 





Old Lyme 


2 


1 


45 


2 





2 





Preston 


9 





66 














Stonington 


4 


1 


23 


1 





1 





Waterford 


3 





20 
















45 


3 


946 


4 





4 





Litchfield County: 
















Barkhamsted 


1 





18 














Bethlehem 


1 





8 














Colebrook 


2 





9 














Goshen . . 


4 





16 














Harwinton 


1 





3 














Litchfield 


20 


1* 


175 


1* 











Morris 


7 





45 














New Hartford 


1 





5 














Plymouth 


6 





17 














Thomaston 


10 





76 














Torrington 


6 





54 














Washington 


2 


1* 


76 


1* 











Watertown 


18 





92 














Winchester 


10 


2* 


61 


6* 





5 





Woodbury 


5 


1* 


50 


1* 













94 


5* 


705 


9t 





5 





Hartford County: 
















Berhn 


17 





199 


U 











Bloomfield 


5 





54 














Bristol 


15 





74 














Burlington 


2 





13 














Canton 


9 





68 














East Granby. ...... 


6 

>^sis. 





32 














* 1 colony with Parab 




t 4 colonies with Paralysis. 















INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 



251 



^5 
Hartford County — Con. 

East Hartford 3 

East Windsor 8 

Enfield 6 

Farmington 18 

Glastonbury 19 

Granby 8 

Manchester 11 

New Britain 8 

Newington 6 

Plainville 3 

Rocky Hill 4 

Simsbury 4 

Southington 8 

South Windsor 7 

Suffield 12 

West Hartford 15 

Wethersfield 2 

Windsor 1 

Windsor Locks 2 



TED 


IN 1923- 


-Continued. 






Its 

! a 
. » 


o S 


'S 

0.2 


S o 


-a 

3 O 


T3 

o 
o 





18 

















81 

















38 

















68 














1 


144 


1 





1 








87 

















71 

















118 

















74 

















7 

















25 

















45 

















40 

















32 














1* 


93 


3* 





1 








74 

















10 

















9 

















11 















199 

Tolland Coimty : 

Andover 6 

Bolton 6 

Columbia 3 

Coventry 13 

Elhngton 4 

Hebron 4 

Mansfield 3 

Somers 3 

Vernon 1 



1,485 



4* 






36 

















15 

















7 

















61 

















14 

















26 

















28 

















14 

















13 















42 



214 



Windham County: 

Brooklyn 2 

Canterbury 2 

Chaplin 1 

Eastford 6 

Hampton 11 

Killingly 13 

Plainfield 20 

Pomfret. .• 12 

Putnam 5 

Sterling 2 

Windham 7 

Woodstock 14 






176 

















18 

















3 

















18 

















60 














2 


46 


4 


3 


1 





1 


111 


1 





1 





1 


88 


2 





2 





1 


32 


1 





1 





2 


8 


3 





3 








67 

















110 















95 



2 colonies with Paralysis. 



737 



11 



252 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



Summary. 



O 12; Iz;^ 

Fairfield 16 81 

New Haven. ... 17 103 

Middlesex 1.3 66 

New London. . . 12 45 

Litchfield 15 94 

Hartford 25 199 

Tolland 9 42 

Windham 12 95 






%1 

Q £ 
. P. 



945 
980 
790 
946 
705 



2 1,485 
214 
7 737 






^P :z;^ ;z;q 



12 
11 
8 
4 
9 
4 

11 



G O 

8 
9 
2 







-a 
c ° 

|£ 

o— . 
3 o 



6 
4 
5 
2 




119 725 



33 6,802 



59 22 



25 



No. Apiaries No. Colonies 

Inspected 725 6,802 

Infested with European foul brood 17 25 

Per cent, infested 2.34 .36 

Infested with American foul brood 7 22 

Per cent, infested 965 .323 

Sacbrood 4 6 

Bee paralysis 5 6 

Average number of colonies per apiary 9.38 

Cost of Inspection ' $1,849.80 

Average cost per apiary $2.55 

Average cost per colony .27 



Registration op Bees.* 

Many beekeepers are not complying with the law in regard to the 
annual registration of bees. They seem to think that if they 
register once, they need not do so again, but the law requires them 
to register each year before October 1st. This law is Chapter 174 
of the Public Acts of 1919, and reads as follows: 

"Section 1. Every person owning one or more hives of bees shall, annually, 
on or before the first day of October, make application to the town clerk of the 
town in which such bees are kept, for the registration of such bees, and such 
town clerk shall issue to such applicant a certificate of registration upon the 
payment of a recording fee of twenty-five cents, which certificate shall be 
in the form prescribed and upon blanks furnished by the commissioner of 
domestic animals and shall be recorded in the office of such town clerk. 

Sec. 2. A record of such registration with the name and place of residence 
of the registrant and the definite location in the town where bees are kept by 
him shall be recorded in a separate book in the office of the town clerk, which 
records shall be accessible to the public. 

Sec. 3. Any owner of bees who shall fail to register as required by the 
provisions of this act shall be fined not more than five dollars." 



*Published as Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 27, September 15, 
1923, and sent to the newspapers, all town clerks, and to all beekeepers 
where inspections have been made during the past four years. 



■REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 253 

An amendment to this law was passed at the last session of the 
General Assembly (see Chapter 129, Public Acts of 1923) as 
follows : 

"Section two of chapter 174 of the pubUc acts of 1919 is amended to read 
as follows: A record of such registration and of the name and place of residence 
of the registrant and the definite location in the town where bees are kept by 
him shall be kept in a separate book in the office of the town clerk, which 
record shall be accessible to the public. Each town clerk shall file wath the 
state entomologist of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station a 
complete hst of such registrations and locations on or before the first day of 
February of the year succeeding such registrations. Any town clerk failing 
to perform such duty shall be fined not more than ten dollars." 

Therefore in order to comply with the Statutes, each beekeeper 
should register his bees each year before October 1st, with his town 
clerk, and each town clerk must send to the State Entomologist 
before February 1st, a list of the beekeepers who have registered 
in that town. 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK, s 

Year ending June 30, 1923. 
By John T. Ashworth and W. E. Britton. 

This work has been conducted in about the .same manner as in 
former seasons and the methods were described in considerable 
detail in the Report of this Station for 1922, pages 290-32S. The 
satisfactory co-operation between the State and Federal forces has 
continued, the Federal men for the most part working along the 
outside border of the infested area with a view of expenduig a 
major portion of the Federal appropriation in preventing the 
further spread of the pest. The present writers hereb}' express 
to Messrs. A. F. Burgess, in charge of moth work, and Harry E. 
Blaisdell, in charge of scouting and extermination work, their 
cordial appreciation of the aid received from Federal sources. 

During most of the season 30 men have been employed bj^ the 
State on gipsy moth work. Except for the wind-spread of a few 
years ago, which greatly increased the area infested and rendered 
the fixed appropriation inadequate to cover the territory, the pest 
has been kept well in check. There has never been any stripping 
of trees or noticeable injur}^ in Connecticut caased by the gipsy 
moth. 

Details of the season's work will be found in the following pages. 

New Equipment. 

Two new Ford Hght trucks have been purchased during the year 
and are used to transport scouting crews back and forth between 
the field and the boarding and lodging places. One Ford touring 
car was replaced by a new one in September, 1922. 



254 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



Windham County. 
This County, situated in the northeastern corner of the State 
and bordered as it is by Massachusetts on the north and by Rhode 
Island on the east, was the first part of the State to become 
generally infested, and is now as in former years the most heavily 
infested portion of the State, although no stripping has ever been 
found in Connecticut up to this time. The work of the past year 
in Windham County was all done by the State forces except in the 
towns of Thompson, Putnam and Pomfret; these towns were used 
as schools to teach and break in new men for the Federal Govern- 



i 
i. 




■V 


m~' 




— 


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Figure 9. Map of Connecticut showing territory quarantined in 1923 on 
account of gipsy moth 

ment, our own foreman being in charge but on the Federal pay roll. 
The table of statistics on page 262 shows the degree of infestation 
in each town. 

In the towns of Canterbury, Chaplin, Hampton, Plainfield and 
Sterling, the infestations were all small and not worthy of partic- 
ular mention. 

In Ashford, one colony of 107 egg-clusters was found in woodland 
on the western side of Biglow brook on land owned by G. H. Myers 
of Union, Connecticut. 

Brooldyn had one colony which was considered dangerous, 47 
egg-clusters being found on an oak tree in an open pasture owned 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 255 

by Patrick Moran near the junction of the State road and the 
Allen Hill road. 

In Eastford two large colonies were found, both woodland 
infestations, one of 191 egg-clusters just south of Crystal Lake 
on land owned by Andrew Chilkott, and the other on land owned 
by Mr. Floating about two miles west of Eastford Post Office on 
the eastern edge of Nachaug River, containing 249 egg-clusters. 

KilHngly was not entirely scouted as the egg-masses were hatch- 
ing before the work could be completed. One colony of 40 egg- 
clusters was found in a pasture orchard owned by C. W. Williams 
and situated along the Quinebaug River near what is known as 
the Ox-bow. 

Pomfret as stated above was used as a school to train men, and 
the scouting was not completed; all colonies found were small. 

In the town of Putnam the conditions were similar to those in 
Pomfret. 

The worst colony in Scotland, though one easily handled, was 
found in an orchard owned by Mr. B. Ashley on the road leading 
off the State road just west of where Merrick brook crosses the 
State road; 26 egg-masses were found here. 

Sterling was scouted the last of the season, and all infestations 
found were small and not considered dangerous. 

Scouting in Thompson was not completed on account of lack 
of time, men, and money. Most of the work was confined to the 
western half of the town, and conditions were found to be about the 
same as last year. One colony of 135 egg-clusters was discovered 
in an old orchard owned by D. H. Cortiss just north of his home. 
The other infestations were small and easily handled. 

Windham had two large colonies, both of wliich were found in 
orchards owned by Mr. W. A. Standish in North Windham, one 
of 31 egg-clusters in cherry trees and one of 84 egg-clusters in apple 
trees. Both of these colonies were very easy to spray and watch. 

New London County. 

With the exceptions of the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme and East 
Lyme, all work in New London Coimty was done bj'- State crews 
this year. The above named towns were scouted by Federal 
men. 

In Bozrah one old egg-cluster was found near the Norwich town 
line. on Wawecus Hill. 

Colchester was scouted only in the eastern half, one colony of 
five egg-clusters being found on land owned by Barnet Rabenowitz, 
situated south of the Norwich-Colchester State road, near the 
Lebanon town fine. 

There were two groups of colonies found in East Lyme. One 
group contained two infestations situated in the northeastern part 
of the town near the Montville line: one of these had 10 egg- 



256 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

clusters and waaon land owned by Peter Trasco. The other group 
was in Niantic in the southern end of the town along the coast line; 
two colonies in this group were considered dangerous, one of 15 
egg-clusters on land owned by F. E. Temple and one of 13 egg- 
clusters on land owned by H. B. Morton, both being found on 
apple trees in the Niantic section of the town. Forty trees were 
banded in the spring by Federal men. 

In the town of Griswold two bad colonies were found, both in the 
vicinity of Hopeville and both on apple trees, one of 44 egg-clusters 
on land owned by William Lord, and one of 20 on land owned by 
Mr. York. 

In scouting Groton this year, the town was found practically 
free from the gipsy moth, except in the villages of West Mystic and 
Groton where a number of infestations of one and two egg- clusters 
were found. One colony of 37 egg-masses was found on apple 
trees owned by E. D. Bengemor and C. R. Heath in the northern 
part of West Mystic. 

One colony of 20 egg-clusters was found in Lebanon. This 
colony was in a large oak, on land- owned by Mr. Sam Lubetsky 
in the western end of the town about one mile south of Brewster 
pond. 

All of the colonies in Ledyard were small, an infestation of six 
egg-clusters being the largest. 

Lisbon had one colony of eight egg-clusters on two white oaks 
in the southern end of the town between the railroad and Quinebaug 
River, on land owned by James McCanne. 

None of the infestations found in New London were large or 
dangerous, one of five egg-clusters being the largest; this colony 
was found on three maples at Mrs. Gutri's home on the lower 
boulevard. 

The infestations in Norwich were all in the southeastern part of 
the town, with the exception of one of five egg-clusters found on 
apple trees on property owned by Joe Lamoth in Taftville; the only 
colony that was of any size was in two apple trees in the yard of 
Philip Werster in the western part of the city section, 17 egg- 
clusters being found. 

The usual roadside scouting was not done in North Stonington 
this season, but some woodland work was done early in the fall; 
one colony of 17 egg-clusters was found in woodland near the 
Westerly town line in the southeastern corner of the town. 

Old Lyme had three colonies, two of them being large for .this 
territory. One was found on the north side of the State road near 
Rogers Lake in some pasture oaks owned by Ernest Rogers, where 
16 egg-clusters were found; the other was a colony of 12 egg- 
clusters in apple trees around a house owned by Walter H. Hanems, 
situated in the Black Hall district. Sixty-one trees were banded 
and spraying was done at all of the infestations by Federal men. 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 257 

On account of the lateness of the season the scouting in Preston 
had to be done in a hurried manner and one colony of 35 egg- 
clusters was found in woodland owned by S. F. Pierce, situated 
in the eastern part of the town along the west branch of Broad 
Brook; the other infestations were all small. 

Salem was scouted but no trace of the gipsy moth found. 

In Sprague, all three of the infestations were in the northeastern 
part of the town near Hanover. One of 17 egg-clusters was found 
in a roadside orchard owned by William Westburg ; another of five 
egg-clusters in a roadside white oak owned by Nicholas Kaletchi. 
Both of these colonies were sprayed. The other infestation was 
small, two old egg-clusters being found there. 

Stonington was found to be generally but not heavily infested. 
Two of the largest colonies are herein mentioned: one of 71 egg- 
clusters found on a large oak in a pasture owned by Silas Wheeler 
in Old Mystic; the other was in an old orchard in the Wequetequock 
section where 27 egg-masses were found. 

In Voluntown, the infestations were all small, the largest being 
one of 15 egg-clusters on two apple trees located near the Sterling 
line, owned by William Jar\as. One of 12 egg-clusters in an apple 
orchard near the center of the town might be mentioned, but the 
rest were all very small. 

Three infestations were found in Waterford ; all were small, three 
egg-clusters being the largest. 

Lyme was scouted but nothing was found. 

Tolland County. 

All work in Tolland County this year was done by State 
crews. The towns along the northern edge of the county, on the 
Massachusetts border, were the most heavily infested; the rest of 
the county being comparatively free from this pest, some of the 
towns having only a single infestation. 

Two colonies were found in the northern part of Andover, one 
of nine egg-clusters in white oaks owned by George Terstin and D. 
Keefe; the other of 12 egg-clusters was in apple trees owned by 
A. E. Samuels. 

One colony and a single egg-mass were found in Bolton. Both 
were in apple trees. At the colony 16 egg-clusters were fomid in an 
orchard owned by B. Andsaldi near the Hebron town line. 

Two small colonies and a single egg-cluster were found in 
Columbia ; all were near together in the southwestern corner of the 
town near the Hebron town line. These colonies contained three 
and four egg-clusters respectively and were found in apple trees 
owned by Mr. C. L. Robinson and J. Kemvitz. 

The scouting in ElHngton had to be stopped on account of deep 
snow, but later in the season the work was taken up and the town 
finished; in fact all the crews in this district were moved at this 



258 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

time to the southern part of the State around New London. 
Three of the largest colonies are herein mentioned. One of 79 egg- 
clusters was found in an orchard owned by Frank Gotcha about 
one mile south of Soapstone mountain; another of 46 egg-clusters 
was in apple and oak trees owned by Charles Thompson in the 
northwestern corner of the town. The third was one of 36 egg- 
clusters found in an oak owned by Clarence Clark near the Elling- 
ton railroad station. 

Nothing was found in Hebron, but while scouting the town, 
some of the men got over the line into the northeastern corner of 
Marlborough and found three old egg-clusters in a white oak on 
land owned by Joseph Soglio ; it was a question whether they were 
in Hebron or Marlborough, but the foreman charged them up to 
Hebron. 

Somers was found to have infestations distributed over the 
entire town, none of which were very large. Two of 36 egg-clusters 
each were the largest. One of these colonies was in an orchard 
owned by Mr. Miller just west of Bald Hill; the other was found 
in two white oaks in a field in the village of North Somers. An- 
other colony of 37 egg-clusters was found in a white oak owned by 
M. Keeney in the southwestern part of the town. These three and 
a number of smaller infestations were sprayed in the spring. 

By looking at the table of statistics any one would think that 
Stafford (with its 142 infestations) was literally covered with gipsy 
moths, but such is not the case; the town is generally infested but 
not so badly as it seems. Single egg-clusters were called infesta- 
tions in this town, and as there are a great many of them, it makes 
the degree of infestation look more serious than it really is. The 
largest colony contained 170 egg-clusters in apple trees and one 
maple tree owned by John Kellog located about one and one-half 
miles south of State Line pond. This was easily handled. Another 
large colony of 63 egg-clusters was found in a white oak in a 
woodland margin about one mile southwest of the West Stafford 
Post Office. Though the above mentioned colonies were the 
largest ones found, there were four other of 40 egg-clusters and 
several smaller ones wliich were all sprayed by State men in the 
spring. 

Three small colonies were found in Tolland in addition to a 
number of single egg-cluster infestations. Fifteen egg-clusters 
were found in an orchard owned by Mike Barezczski, and another 
of 21 egg-clusters in five oaks owned by Jolin E. Clough, both of 
which were situated a Httle north of Tolland village. The third 
colony was one of 21 egg-clusters in one apple tree and a stone wall 
on land owned by Charles Wockomocker, about one mile west 
of the South Wilhngton railroad station. 

In Union two large colonies were found in the extreme north- 
western corner of the town, both in apple trees, one of 41 egg- 
clusters on land owned by Myron Heck, the other of 77 egg- 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 259 

clusters on the property of A. B. Wells. The largest colony found 
in the town was on the north shore of Mashapaug Lake on land 
owned by Dwight L. Crawford, 80 egg-clusters bemg found. 
The other 23 infestations in the town were small, containing from 
five to eight egg-clusters each. 

Ninety-five of the 129 egg-clusters found in Vernon this season 
were on one apple tree owned by Peter Swanick in Rockville. The 
rest of the infestations were all small and in the Rockville section 
of the town. 

The towns of Willington and Mansfield were not scouted this 
year on account of shortage of men and lack of time. 

Hartford County. 

Part of the work in Hartford County was done by Federal men 
and part by State men. Some of the towns which were scouted 
last year were not covered this year on account of a shortage of 
trained men and money, as the towns along the Massachusetts 
border further west had to be given attention. 

BerHn was scouted by Federal men and three infestations found, 
all of them in the southern part of the town. One infestation of 
six egg-clusters was found on a walnut tree owned by James Derby; 
another of three egg-clusters in an oak and apple tree owned by 
the Connecticut Orchard Company, and the third of seven egg- 
clusters in apple trees owned by John T. Molumphy. 

Federal men also did the work in Bloomfield, where five infesta- 
tions were found, two of which were large colonies; one containing 
40 egg-clusters was found on a large oak on land owned by J. S. 
Lagan, and the other of 15 egg-clusters was in an orchard owned 
by W. J. Cooley. All five of the infestations were in the southern 
end of the town along the Hartford and West Hartford borders. 
Twenty-three trees were banded and later 40 trees sprayed by 
Federal men. 

All work in Bristol was done by Federal men and two small 
colonies found. One colony of 20 egg-clusters was found in the 
extreme northeastern corner of the town on apple trees owned by 
William Harding, and the other colony was one of eight egg- 
clusters in an orchard owned by M. Levinska, located about half 
way between Bridge pond and the Bristol reservoir. Ten trees 
were banded and 50 sprayed in the spring. 

The work in Enfield was done by State men, nine infestations 
being found, of which two were large for this section of the State; 
one contained 29 and the other 15 egg-clusters. Both of these 
colonies were found in apple trees owned by George Hardiman 
and Eugene Quinn, and both were in the Thompson ville district; 
the other infestations were all small. 

State men did the work in East Windsor, where most of the 
infestations were small. Two, however, were very bad. One of 



260 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

109 egg-clusters was foimd in five apple trees in a dooryard on the 
Simon Miskill Estate at Broadbrook, and the other in a white oak 
at Warehouse Point owned by William Trombley, where 163 egg- 
clusters were found. 

Newington was scouted by Federal men and two infestations 
found; one contained 29 egg-clusters in an apple tree owned by 
Mrs. Mclncony on Robbins Avenue, the other eight egg-clusters 
in oak and walnut trees owned by Peter Albersom on Church 
Street. Spraying was done by Federal men at both places. 

Two large colonies were found in New Britain by Federal men, 
one of 11 egg-clusters on Maple Street in mixed growth on the 
property of P. J. Curtiss, and the other was in the center of the 
town on land owned by Peter Kalashenok, containing 83 egg- 
clusters. Thirty-six trees were banded and later 12,000 trees 
sprayed by Federal men. 

In Rocky Hill two colonies were found, one of four egg-clusters 
on willows on the Connecticut River bank in the southeastern 
corner of the town, and the other of two egg-clusters was on 
Parsnig Street on apple trees owned by W. F. Griswold. The 
work in this town was done by Federal men. 

State men found two colonies in South Windsor which are 
worthy of mention. One of 18 egg-clusters occurred in maple 
trees in the center of the town, and the other, containing 12 egg- 
clusters, was in the northwestern corner of the town on poplar 
trees owned by Mrs. Louis Speny. The other four infestations 
were all small and not dangerous. 

No roadside scouting was done in Simsbury this year, but early 
in the fall 1,247 acres of woodland were scouted and nothing found. 

Other towns in Hartford County that were scouted and found 
free from the gipsy moth were Plain ville, Southington and Sufiield . 

Litchfield County. 

The work in Litchfield County was done by the Federal forces. 
Six towns were found to be infested with the gipsy moth, namely: 
Canaan, Goshen, Litchfield, Plymouth, Salisbury and Winchester; 
these towns were very slightly infested. 

In Canaan three colonies were found, the largest being one of 
eight egg-clusters in apple and elm trees owned by Miss Ida L. 
Root, about one mile west of Wangum Lake; the other two were 
found in willow trees owned by N. C. Dean and W. E. Shepard, 
both in the Falls Village section of the town. At N. C. Dean's 
place the colony contained four egg-clusters, and that at W. E. 
Shepard's had seven egg-clusters. 

One colony of eight egg-masses was found in Goshen on a willow 
tree owned by F. S. Johnson, just south of the Goshen Post OfSce. 

Both colonies found in Litchfield were in the northeastern 
corner of the town on the State road between Litchfield and 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 261 

Torrington; one had 12 egg-clusters and the other only a single 
egg-cluster, all on apple trees in a pasture owned by F. W. Fuesse- 
nick and P. C. Burke. 

In Plymouth one colony of 16 egg-clusters was found in some 
oak and maple trees owned bj^ H. Mahoney, this colony being 
located in the southeastern corner of the town near Hancock 
Station. 

Two large colonies were found in Salisbury on land owned bj^ 
T. Burnetti about one mile north of Salisbury Post Office on the 
western side of Moore Brook; one m white oak growth contained 
31 egg-masses and the other in apple trees had 21 egg-masses. 
Two other small infestations were also found in this town, one a 
single egg-mass on an apple tree owned by C. C. Lansing in 
Amesville, and another of three egg-clusters in a white oak owned 
by F. E. Howd about one mile north of Lakeville. 

In Winchester one egg-cluster was found on an apple tree in 
Winchester Center, owned by E. W. Esenlohr, and a colony of 
eight egg-clusters on apple trees owned bj^ W. W. Greene in Win- 
sted. 

In the spring and early summer 166 trees were banded and later 
113 trees and five and three-fourths acres of woodland were 
sprayed at the above mentioned infestations. 

The following towns in Litchfield County were scouted but no 
gipsy moths found in them: Kent, Morris, North Canaan, Sharon, 
Thomaston, Torrington, Warren, Watertown and Washington. 

Middlesex County. 

The entire County was scouted, except portions of the towms of 
East Haddam and Killingworth, wliich were not completed, al- 
though considerable work was done in them. Two towns were 
found infested with gipsy moths. Old Saybrook and ]Middletown. 

In Old Saybrook two single egg-clusters w^ere found, one on the 
Frank Negrelli Estate in the northern part of the town, and the 
other on propert}^ owned by Mrs. Bogue about one mile southwest 
of Saybrook Junction. 

In Middletown two infestations of two egg-clusters each were 
found in the southeastern corner of the town on land owned by 
August Strom and the Green Meadow Club. Two infestations, 
one of two and another of one egg-cluster, were found on land 
owned by C. L. Johnson near Bear Hill. The last infestation was 
a single egg-mass on land owned by C. S. Wadsworth near Long 
Hill. 

The towns of Chester, Chnton, Cromwell, Durham, East 
Hampton, Essex, Haddan, Portland, Saj^brook and Westbrook 
were scouted but no trace of the pest found. The work in this 
County was all done b}^ Federal men. 



262 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

New Haven County. 

Four towns were found infested with the gipsy moth in New 
Haven County this year, namely : Cheshire, Wallingford, Water- 
bury and Wolcott, one colony being found in each town. 

The colony in Cheshire was one of 31 egg-clusters found in 
maple trees owned by A. H. Northrop, in the northeastern corner 
of the town near the Southington line. 

The colony in Wolcott was a reinfestation from last year's 
colony, and was in oak trees owned by Peter Fontano about one 
mile north of Wolcott Post Office, containing seven egg-clusters; 
last year 19 were found and it is hoped that this colony has now 
been eradicated. 

The Waterbury colony was one of eight egg-masses in maple 
trees owned by Mike Jenity of 792 Highland Avenue. 

The gipsy moth has again made its appearance in Wallingford, 
but not in such abundance as in 1909, when more than 8,000 egg- 
clusters were creosoted. This year only three egg-clusters were 
found in an orchard owned by George Scards about a mile west of 
Pistapaug Pond. 

At the above mentioned colonies, 33 trees were banded and 26 
sprayed in the spring and early summer. 

Other towns in this County which were scouted and not found 
infested were: Hamden, Meriden, Middlebury, Naugatuck, 
North Haven and Prospect. The work in this County was done 
by Federal men. 

Spraying. 

The foregoing summary has not covered the spraying done by 
the State department. The reason for this is that the Federal and 
State departments have a different method of reporting this 
branch of the work. 

During this spraying season the weather was very favorable, 
practically no time being lost on account of rainy weather. This, 
together with the generosity of the Federal Bureau in lending the 
State a complete spraying truck and driver, are the two factors 
that enabled the State department to spray all of the infestations 
which needed spraying in the Counties of Windham, New London, 
Tolland and Hartford, east of the Connecticut River. The table 
of statistics shows the number of colonies sprayed in each town. 

Statistics, op Infestations. 

No. No. Egg- No. No. Lbs. No. 

Infestations Clusters Colonies Poison Larvae 

Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Used Killed 

Windham County— 1.5 Towns Infested. 

Ashford 19 400 7 169 240 

Brooklyn. 25 329 21 237 40 

Canterbury 6 98 5 22 3 

Chaplin 7 86 6 105 26 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 



263 



Statistics of Infestations — Continued. 



No. 
Infestations 
Towns Found 

Windham County — -Concluded. 

Eastford 44 

Hampton 7 

Killingly 13 

Plainfield 4 

Pomfret 18 

Putnam 22 

Scotland 10 

Sterling 4 

Thompson 78 

Windham 18 

Woodstock* 7 



282 



No. Egg- 


No. 


No. Lbs. 


No. 


Clusters 


Colonies 


Poison 


Larvae 


Creosoted 


Sprayed 


Used 


Killed 


1,211 


15 


278 


961 


89 


7 


87 


262 


193 


9 


85 


189 


68 


11 


82 


100 


145 


7 


37 


843 


311 


18 


115 


346 


57 


2 


10 


3 


56 


12 


102 


26 


1,361 


19 


390 


543 


233 


9 


65 


63 


207 












4,844 



148 



1,784 



3,645 



New London County — ^17 Towns Infested. 

Bozrah 1 1 

Colchester 1 5 

East Lyme 9 52** 

Griswold 17 144 

Groton 33 137 

Lebanon 3 27 

Ledyard 9 27 

Lisbon 3 10 

New London 10 25 

Norwich 7 36 

No. Stonington 1 17 

Old Lyme 3 32 

Preston 3 40 

Sprague 3 24 

Stonington 25 367 

Voluntown 12 53 

Waterf ord 3 6 



143 



1,003 












1 


4 


5 











6 


47 


41 


10 


60 


21 


3 


40 


2 


2 


15 


15 








375 


4 


34 


26 


3 


9 


1 




















1 


12 


410 


2 


25 





15 


184 


71 


2 


7 


817 


2 


6 


33 



51 



443 



1,817 



Tolland County — ^10 Towns Infested. 

Andovei' 2 22 

Bolton. 2 17 

Cohmibia 3 8 

Ellington 21 284 

Hebron 1 3 

Somers 41 360 

Stafford 142 1,281 

Tolland 11 67 

Union 26 467 

Vernon 13 129 



262 



2,638 



1 


7 


4 


1 


6 





2 


12 


5 


9 


75 


lc6 


1 


25 





16 


149 


28 


25 


233 


2,038 


1 


7 


1 


14 


154 


146 


4 


20 


19 



74 



688 



2,397 



* In Woodstock, only woodland scouting was done, in late summer. 
** Plus one pupa. 



264 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



Statistics of Infestations — Continued. 

No. No. Egg- No. No. 

Infestations Clusters Trees Larvae 

Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Destroyed 

Hartford County — 10 Towns Infested. 

Berlin 3 16 32 

Bloomfield 5 68 40 

Bristol 2 28 50 

East Windsor 10 298 66 359 

Enfield 9 74 97 347 

New Britain 2 94 1,200 

Newinpton 2 37 1 

Plainville 

Rocky Hill 2 6 

Southington 

South Windsor .. . 6 39 113 14 

Suffield 

Windsor Locks ... 1 4 



No. No. Miles 
Bands Roadway 
Applied Scouted 



42 



664 1,599* 



Litchfield County- 
Canaan 

Goshen 

Kent 

Litchfield 

Morris 

North Canaan. . . . 

Plymouth 

Salisbury 

Sharon 

Thomaston 

Torrington 

Warren 

Washington 

Watertown 

Winchester 



-6 Towns Infested. 



19 
1 


13 



16 

56 






9 



83 


5 




15 







10 



720 



14 
23 
10- 




36 

1 















84 



63 

20 


13 



22 

59 



12 




11 



67 
3b 

104 
79 

102 
40 
37 
53 
40 

110 

60 

3 

10 

*743 



52 
95 
15 
51 
44 
19 
79 

105 
5 
55 
58 
33 
38 
93 

112 



13 



114 



113^ 



200 



854 



Middlesex County — -2 Towns Infested. 

Chester . .• " 

Clinton 

Cromwell 

Durham 

East Haddam .... 

East Hampton ... 

Essex 

Haddam 

Killingworth 

Middlefield 

Middletown . . . . . . 5 8 

Old Saybrook .... 2 3 

Portland 

Saybrook 

Westbrook 



11 













37 





37 













23 







23 



37 
52 
42 
64 
14 
18 
37 

125 
76 
35 

167 
36 
69 
33 
36 

841 



* Also 2.5 acres of woodland sprayed; and 175 acres of woodland scouted 
in Berhn and 1,247 acres in Simsbury. 
** Also 5.75 acres of woodland sprayed. 



REPORT OF GIPSY MOTH WORK. 



265 



Statistics of Infestations — Concluded. 

No. No. Egg- No. No. 

Infestations Clusters Trees Larvae 

Towns Found Creosoted Sprayed Destroyed 

New Haven County — 4 Towns Infested. 

Cheshire 1 29 8 

Hamden 

Meriden 

Middlebury 

Naugatuck 

North Haven 

Prospect 

WalUngford 13 

Waterbury 18 8 

Wolcott 1 7 10 

4 47 26 



No. 


No. Miles 


Bands 


Roadway 


Applied 


Scouted 


4 


93 





48 





96 





76 





86 





20 





35 


17 


116 


6 


142 


6 


53 



33 



765 



Summary of Statistics. 



No. 


No. 


No. Egg- 


No. 


No. 


No. Lbs. 


No. 


No. 


No. Miles 


Towns 


Infes- 


Clusters 


Infestations 


Trees 


Arsenate 


Trees 


Larvae 


Roadway 


County Covered 


tations 


Destroyed 


Sprayed 


Sprayed 


Used 


Banded 


Destroyed 


Scouted 


Windham 15 


282 


4,844 


148 





1,784 





3,645 





New London 20 


143 


1,003* 


51 





443 





1,817 





Tolland 10 


262 


2,638 


74 





688 





2,397 





Hartford 15 


42 


664 





l,599t 





84 


720 


743 1 


Litchfield 15 


13 


114 





113t 





200 





854 


Middlesex 15 


7 


11 





37 





23 





841 


New Haven 10 


4 


47 





26 





33 





765 



100 



753 9,321* 273 1,775 2,915 340 8,579 3,203 



Parasites Liberated in 1923. 
Full details regarding the parasites of the gipsy moth and their 
distribution in Connecticut may be found m the Report of this 
Station for 1922 (22nd Report of the State Entomologist), page 313. 
The Japanese egg parasite, Schedius kuvanae How., is mentioned 
on page 315. During 1923, large numbers of these tiny parasites 
were sent into Connecticut from the Government Parasite Labora- 
tory at Melrose Highlands, Mass., and put out by Mr. McEvoy 
in the more thickly infested gips}' moth territory in the eastern 
part of the State, particularly Windham and New London Coun- 
ties. The number of individual parasites Hberated in each town 
are as follows: 

Windham Counti\ 



Ashford 64,000 

Brooklyn 56,000 

Canterbury 24,000 

Chaplin 24,000 

Eastford 96,000 

Hampton 40,000 



Plainfield 20,000 

Pomfret 60,000 

Scotland 32,000 

Sterling 17,850 

Windham 32,000 



* Also 1 pupa . 

t Also 2.5 acres woodland in Hartford County and 5.75 acres in Litchfield County, 
sprayed. 

Also 1,422 acres of woodland scouted in Hartford County. 



266 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Tolland County. 
Somers 20,000 Stafford 24,000 

New London County. 

Colchester 4,000 North Stonington 4,000 

East Lyme... . 17,900 Norwich 24,000 

Griswo.d 40,000 Old Lyme 12,000 

Groton 20,000 Preston 12,000 

Lebanon 9,850 Sprague 12,050 

Ledyard 12,000 Stonington 28,000 

Lisbon 20,000 Voluntown 32,000 

New London 28,000 Waterford 12,000 

Windham County 465,850 

Tolland County 44,000 

New London County 287,800 

Total liberated in 1923 797,650 

" " " 1922 904,000 

" " " 1921 1,598,775 



Total liberated in Connecticut 3,300,425 

Appropriations. 
The appropriation for the biennial period ending June 30, 1923, 
was $60,000.00. On account of the extensive increase because of 
wind-spread, it became apparent that more money would be 
needed and the legislature then in session was asked for an addi- 
tional $10,000.00. This was granted in the form of a deficiency 
appropriation and became immediately available for the remainder 
of the fiscal period. The legislature also granted the full amount 
requested ($100,000.00) for the biennial period ending June 30, 
1925. 

Gipsy Moth Suppression Account. 
Financial Statement. 

RECEIPTS 

Appropriation for biennial period ending Jime 30, 1923 $60,000.00 

Expended, year ending .June 30, 1922 30,301.77 

Balance $29,698.23 

Deficiency appropriation, 1923 10,000.00 

$39,698.23 

Classified Expenditures for the Year Ending June 30, 1923. 

Salaries and Wages . . $31,163.59 

Printing and Illustrations 32.65 

Postage .50 

Stationery 41.73 

Telegraph and Telephone 19.66 

Insurance (supplies including horse sprayer) 51.40 

Sprayiag Supplies 2,200.60 



EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 267 

Machinery, Tools and Supplies $ 280.11 

Express, Freight and Cartage 63.51 

Rental and Storage 441.00 

Automobiles: New $1,240.44 

Insurance 172.86 

Supplies and Equipment 730.40 

Repairs 878.49 

Gasoline l,/29.39 

Oil 78.47 

$4,830.05 

Traveling Expenses 229.94 

Inspection of Imported Nursery Stock 288.11 

Heat and Light 55.10 

$39,697.95 

Balance .28 



$39,698.23 



EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING VERSUS SPRAYING IN 
CONNECTICUT APPLE ORCHARDS IN 1923. 
By M. p. Zappe and E. M. Stoddard. 

The experiments with dusts in comparison with sprays for the 
control of various insect and fungous pests of apple and peach 
orchards begun in 1920 have been continued each year since. 
In 1923, only apple orchards were treated, and though the results 
so far as the control of insects are concerned do not differ greatly 
from the results of preceding years, it seems best to present them 
here as a matter of record. 

The results of preceding experiments along this line ma}- be 
found in the publications of tliis Station as follows: Report for 1920, 
page 168, results of 1920; Bulletin 235, results of 1921 ; Bulletin 245, 
results of 1922. 

Acknowledgments. 

The writers are indebted to Mr. Frank N. Piatt of Milford for 
the use of his orchard, power sprayer and for other assistance in 
conducting these experiments. Mr. George Graham helped in the 
application of the spray and dusts and in the worlc of harvesting 
and scoring the fruit. Messrs. B. H. Walden, J. L. Rogers, T. F. 
Cronin and S. R. Hamilton also helped in harvesting and scoring 
the fruit. 

Orchards Under Experiment. 

Only two apple orchards were used for this work in 1923, and 
both have been used in the prior tests. The largest of these was 
the orchard of Frank N. Piatt, Milford, containing 285 trees, 19 
years old. The other was the old orchard at the Station Farm, 
Mount Carmel, containing 40 trees about 47 years old. 



268 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

Apparatus Used. 

The spray outfit was the same as used in preceding experiments, 
a Friend power sprayer with tank of 200 gallons capacity. Two 
lines of hose were used with two nozzles on each rod, carrying 
between 175 and 200 pounds pressure. The duster was a Niagara 
power outfit purchased new in 1923. It was mounted upon skids 
so that it could be readily transferred to an automobile truck. 
It is similar to the duster used in preceding experiments except that 
it is lighter, has an improved type of engine and blower and so 
probably gave somewhat better results. 

Materials. 
For the spray solutions the following materials were used : 

Lead arsenate 3 pounds 

Liquid lime-sulphur 3 gallons 

Casein spreader f pound 

Water 100 gallons. 

Only two kinds of dust were used in the tests in 1923. One was 
a sulphur-lead-arsenate dust containing fine sulphur, 90 parts, and 
lead arsenate, 10 parts. The other was a copper-arsenic dust 
containing 5.75 per cent, of metallic copper and 2.75 per cent, of 
metallic arsenic. The percentage of Kme was not determined. 
When applied to moist foliage this dust immediately turns a bluish 
color, indicating the formation of a Bordeaux mixture on the 
foliage. 

Number and Time of Applications. 

Seven applications were made in the Milford orchard on the 
following dates: 

1. Delayed dormant April 25-26. 

2. Prepink, treatment May 4. 

3. Pink, treatment May 10. 

4. Calyx, first after blossoming May 24-28. 

5. Second after blossoming June 12. 

6. Third after blossoming July 6. 

7. Fourth after blossoming August 1. 

At the Station Farm, only dusts were used, three applications 
being made after blossoming, on May 29, June 13 and July 12-13. 

Recording Data. 

Trees which blossomed freely were selected as count trees. The 
fruit was kept separate and each apple scored for insect and 
fungous injury. AH injuries on each fruit were recorded, even 
though slight, and often several kinds of injury were noted on a 
single apple; in such cases all types of injury were recorded sepa- 
rately. Later these figures were tabulated and percentages ob- 
tained. Altogether this work necessitated the separate handling 
and scoring of 144,895 individual apples, equivalent to about 362 
barrels. 



EXBERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 



269 



MiLFORD Orchard. 

The experiments in this orchard inckidecl four varieties: Graven- 
stein, Mcintosh, Baldwin and Greening, but only the Mcintosh 


















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Figure 10. Plan showing arrangement of experimental plots in orchard of 
Frank N. Piatt, Milford, where experiments in dusting and spraying were 
conducted in 1923. 

produced a good crop of fruit. The other varieties bore a very 
Hght crop and in some plots there were not enough apples of one 
variety to give adequate data. The plots were so arranged that 
each plot contained trees of each variety. 



270 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION . BULLETIN 256. 

The arrangement of the plots is shown in Figure 10, and was 
as follows: beginning on the east side, the first four rows were 
sprayed. Rows five to seven were dusted with sulphur-arsenate 
dust. Rows eight to 11 were dusted with copper-arsenic dust. 
Row 12 was sprayed and acted as a barrier to keep the dust from 
being blown from row 11 to row 13, which was untreated and used 
as a check. 

The first treatment in this orchard was the delayed dormant 
spray of Kme-sulphur which was applied over the entire orchard on 
April 25 and 26. Liquid lime-sulphur, 1-9, was used on the south 
half of the orchard, and Sherwin-Williams dry lime-sulphur, 
25-100, on the north half. 

The next treatment was the prepink application on May 4 on 
the Gravenstein, Mcintosh and Greening varieties in the copper- 
arsenic dust plot only. The other plots were not treated until the 
next appKcation. 

The pink application was given to all varieties in all plots on 
May 10. The spray was applied first because it was too windy 
for dusting. Later in the day towards sunset the wind subsided 
and the dust was applied. 

The first treatment after blossoming was applied to the Mc- 
intosh trees on May 24. All other varieties in all plots were 
treated May 28. 

The second treatment after blossoming was appHed on June 12. 
The foliage was damp when the dust was applied but had become 
dry before the liquid spray was applied. There was almost no 
wind blowing on this date. 

The third treatment after blossoming was given on July 6, 
covering all except one row in each plot, and these rows received 
no further treatment. The copper-arsenic dust plot began to 
show considerable scab infection on both the leaves and the fruit. 
It appeared as though the copper-arsenic dust would not control 
the scab, so the 90-10 sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted. 

The last or fourth treatment after blossoming was appUed on 
August 1, to all except two rows in each plot. The untreated rows 
included those not given the preceding treatment and one additional 
row. As before, the sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted for 
copper-arsenic dust in the copper-arsenic dust plot. Fungous 
injury was very light except in the case of scab on Mcintosh, on 
all the treated plots and all such injuries are hsted under the 
heading of "all fungi", except in Table 1. 

Table I. Results of Treatments. McIntosh. 

No. of Codling Other 

Applications Aphis Red Bug Moth Curculio Good Insects Scab 

SPRAY. 

3 .29 .29 4.22 93.1 .94 1.55 

4 .51 .09 2.79 91.5 1.3 3.8 

5 .36 .02 1.78 96.7 .402 .825 



EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 271 



SULPHUR-ARSENATE DUST. 



3 





1.26 .17 


4.4 


87. 


1.37 


5.27 


4 





1.21 .08 


3.72 


87. 


1.21 


7.09 


5 





3.14 .06 


4.3 


87.5 


.68 


4.29 






COPPER-ARSENIC DUST. 








4 cop.-ars. 


.06 


6.2 .19 


9. OS 


19.5 


3.26 


73.7 


4 cop.-ars. 1 
1 sulp.-ars. ( 





4.7 .11 


5.1 


39.1 


2.28 


54.5 


4 cop.-ars. | 
2 sulp.-ars. / 





5.52 .165 


8.13 


51.5 


2.63 


27.1 






CHECK. 








No treatment 


.134 


8.05 9.7 


51.0 


.335 


12.8 


96.5 



Discussion of Data in Table I. 

In nearly every case, plots receiving four and five applications 
produced a slightly higher percentage of perfect fruit and a lower 
percentage of injured fruit than plots receiving fewer applications, 
except in case of the copper dust, where the differences are much 
greater. Comparing the spray and dust treatments, the former 
gave slightly better control of all insects, and much better control 
of scab than either of the dust treatments. 

The sulphur-arsenate dust proved more effective against scab 
than the copper-arsenic dust. Mcintosh is a variety much subject 
to scab attack, and though it was seeminglj^ not a serious scab 
season, the check or untreated trees showed 96.5 per cent, of scab 
injury. Where copper-arsenic dust alone was applied this per- 
centage was reduced only to 74, but where sulphur-arsenate dust 
was substituted for one application the scab injury was cut to 54, 
and where sulphur-arsenate dust was substituted for two applica- 
tions, scab injury was still further reduced to 27 per cent. As 
scab control was the chief aim on this variety, the copper-arsenic 
dust alone proved very inefficient. On the other hand, where 
sulphur-arsenate dust was applied in every application scab 
injury did not go much above seven per cent., while on the sprayed 
trees it was less than four per cent. The sulphur-arsenate dust 
was sHghtly better than the copper-arsenic dust for the control of 
all insects, though not quite equal to the liquid spray. 

The data regarding Gravenstein are presented in Table II. 



Ap 


No. of 
plications 


Aphis 


Codling 
Red Bug Moth Curculio 

SPRAY. 


Good 


Other 
Insects 


AH 
Fungi 


3 
4 
5 




8.62 

3.9 

2.26 


.5 .18 16.3 
.72 .07 20.8 
.22 18.1 

SULPHUR-ARSENATE DUST. 


73.7 
74.4 
79. 


1.19 
.59 
.101 


.25 
.13 
.11 


3 

4 




3.64 
12.8 


.178 26.3 
26.4 


70. 
60.8 


1.07 
2.48 



.22 



272 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



COPPER-ARSENIC DUST. 



4 cop.-ars. 1.03 

4 cop.-ars. 1 

2 sulp.-ars. J 11.5 



No treatment .65 



.079 

.222 

1.9 



.55 79. 
31.6 

CHECK. 



17.3 

56.3 



7.35 

3.22 



.44 
.21 



5.6i 



84. 



4.05 6.95 49. 



Discussion of Data in Table II. 

As the Gravenstein trees bore a light crop of fruit, the data 
shown in Table II were obtained from comparatively few apples, 
but are given here for what they are worth. The plots receiving 
five applications of sulphur-arsenate dust and four applications of 
copper-arsenic dust bore no apples, so no data are available for 
these plots. In general the sprayed plots gave a slightly higher 
percentage of perfect fruit and lower percentages of insect injury 
than either of the dust plots, and the sulphur-arsenate dust gave 
rather better results than the copper-arsenic dust. Fungi were 
inconspicuous on the treated plots, but were conspicuous on the 
checks, especially Brooks fruit speck. 

Similar data on Greening are shown in Table III. 





Table III 


. Results of Treatments. Greening. 




No. of 
Applications 


Aphis 


Codling 
Red Bug Moth Curculio 

SPRAY 


Good 


Other 

Insects 


All 

Fungi 


3 


4.32 


2.54 1.78 14.2 


72.6 


2.52 


.81 


4 


5.07 


2.56 1.08 7.15 


83. 


.9 


.16 


5 


1. 


2.3 .35 12.1 

sulphur-arsenate dust 


80.6 


1.95 


1.4 


4 


.68 


.82 1.37 12.1 


79. 


3.65 


1.5 


5 


.25 


.07 .96 6.9 
copper-arsenic dust. 


81.9 


1.71 


1.5 


4 cop.-ars. 





3. 36. 


52.2 


17.2 


.74* 


4 cop.-ars. 
1 sulp.-ars. 


1 ° 


1.46 23.5 75. 


8.8 


3.68 


6.87* 


4 cop.-ars. 
2 sulp.-ars. 


J 


.036 1.81 23.1 

CHECK. 


60.5 


5.43 


3.47 


No treatment 


8.37 36. 63.6 


.24 


30.5 


43.9 



Discussion of Data in Table III. 

The Greening crop was also very light and no counts of fruit 
could be made in the sulphur-arsenate dust plot receiving three 
appUcations. There was little difference in the percentages of 
perfect fruit between the plots treated with liquid spray and with 
sulphur-arsenate dust; both were better than the copper -arsenic 

*Very little fruit in this plot. 



EXPERIMENTS IN DUSTING AND SPRAYING. 273 

dust plot where the percentage of perfect fruit was very low, due 
largely to curculio injury which ran high. Injury by fungi was 
best controlled by the spray and sulphur-arsenate dust. 
The data on Baldwin are given in Table IV. 

Table IV. Result.s of Treatment. Bald-wt;n. 



No. of 
Applications 


Aphis 


Red Bug 


Codling 
Moth Curculio 

SPRAY 


Good 


Other 

Insects 


All 
Funj 


3 
5 


.81 
.16 


.32 

.44 


.16 12.7 
1.26 31.7 


85. 
65.9 


1.05 
1.13 










SULPHUR-ARSENATE DUST 








3 
4 
5 


.71 

2.54 

.09 


.98 
1.88 

.86 


1.23 19.3 
.94 31.9 
.23 16.4 


75. 

56.4 

80. 


2.8 

4.23 

2.1 


.7 

.01 






COPPER-ARSENIC DUST. 








3 cop.-ars. 


.59 


4.27 


1.57 33.5 


51.7 


7.7 


4.02 


3 cop.-ars. 
2 sulp.-ars. 


/1.87 


4.56 


.04 22.7 

CHECK. 


72.3 


2.2 


.61 



No treatment .22 .44 8.95 42.7 19. 13.8 37.2 

Discussion of Data in Table IV. 

As was the case with Gravenstein and Greening, the Baldwin 
crop was light and in the plot receiving four spray applications 
and that receiving four applications of copper-arsenic dust plus 
one of sulphur-arsenate dust there were no trees which bore fruit; 
consequently no data could be gathered for these plots. There is 
little difference here between the hquid spray and sulphur-arsenate 
plots, and both gave better results than the copper-arsenic dust 
plots. The percentage of fungous diseases was negligible in the 
treated plots, but ran quite high in the check plot. 

Station Orchard, Mount Carmel. 

In this orchard both sulphur-arsenate dust and copper-arsenic 
dust were used but no hquid spraj^ was applied. Only two varieties, 
Baldwin and Greening, were under experiment, and on account 
of the light crop of fruit, the data from both varieties are included 
in Table V. Each plot received onty three treatments of dust, all 
after blossoming. The calyx treatment was made May 29, and 
the subsequent applications made June 13 and July 12 and 13. 
Such data as were obtained are given in Table V as follows : 

Table V. Results of Treatment. B.\LD^aN and Greening. 

Codling . Other All 

Treatment Aphis Moth Curculio Good Insects Fungi 

Sulphur-arsenate dust. 7.36 5.95 40.1 43.1 5.74 1.32 
Copper-arsenic dust... 2.42 4.48 36.6 54.4 4.1 2.07 

Check 6.2 22.4 72.5 15.5 6.62 4.45 



274 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Discussion of Data in Table V. 

In this orchard for some unexplained reason the copper-arsenic 
dust gave shghtly better results in the control of curculio, codling 
moth and "other insects" than the sulphur-arsenate dust. This 
is at variance with the results obtained in the Milford orchard 
where the sulphur-arsenate dust treatment gave higher percentages 
of perfect fruit and lower percentages of insect injury than the 
copper-arsenic dust. Fungous troubles were not prominent, 
though reduced shghtly by both treatments. 

Conclusions. 

In 1923, as in the preceding seasons of 1920, 1921 and 1922, when 
similar experiments were conducted by this Station, the liquid 
spray has given somewhat better results in the control of injurious 
insects and fungi on apple trees in Connecticut than any of the dust 
mixtures. The difference has not been so great in the control of 
insects as in the control of fungous diseases. The highest per- 
centage of perfect fruit was obtained from the experimental plots 
■ treated with liquid spray. 

The sulphur-arsenate dust gave fair control of insect pests and of 
fungous diseases, particularly apple scab. 

The copper-arsenic dust in most cases gave nearly as good control 
of insect pests as the sulphur-arsenate dust, but was much less 
effective in controlling fungous diseases, though much better than 
no treatment. 

The season of 1923 was characterized by little rainfall and con- 
sequently fungous diseases were not so prevalent as in a normal 
season or a very moist season. It seems to the writers quite 
probable that in a dry season like 1923, the dust mixtures would be 
far more satisfactory than in a wet season or even in a normal 
season when fungous diseases are more prevalent. It is also 
probable that in the presence of a greater amount of moisture the 
copper-arsenic dust would be changed into a sort of Bordeaux 
mixture on the leaves and might under such conditions compare 
more favorably with the sulphur-arsenate dust than was the case 
in this unusually dry season of 1923. It is also probable that in a 
dry season with rather high temperature hke 1923, the sulphur- 
arsenate dust would be more effective as a fungicide than in a cool 
moist season. 

Any orchardist wishing to grow choice fruit should not discard 
his spraying outfit in favor of a dusting equipment and should not 
skimp in the number of the apphcations and quantity of spray 
appHed. On the other hand, if orchards are on elevated slopes 
with good air drainage and not seriously attacked by fungous 
diseases, a fair grade of commercial fruit can be grown by the dust 
treatment. Where the water suppl}'' is not convenient and help is 
diflBicult to obtain, the dust method might be followed advantage- 
ously. 



SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR FOUL BROOD. 275 

TESTS OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR CONTROL OF 
AMERICAN FOUL BROOD OF BEES. 

By Philip Gakman. 

Two different substances have been advertised recently as 
cures for bee diseases. Sodium hypochlorite solution sold under 
the trade name of "Be-Helth" was recommended so liighly for this 
purpose that it was given a trial. 

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an electrolized salt, the disin- 
fectant property of which depends upon the ease with which it 
gives up its oxygen to oxidizable organic matter. After oxidation, 
sodium chloride (NaCl) is left, and this being ordinary salt is 
harmless to bees. Sodium hypochlorite is used in the dairy in- 
dustry for sterilizmg milk pails, etc., and it is also the principal 
constituent of Daldn solution used m treatment of wounds during 
the recent war. It is a product costing a few cents a gallon to 
manufacture according to various chemists. Its bleaching action 
is quite marked, being similar in this respect to calcium hypochlo- 
rite or bleaching powder. It is also the principal constituent of 
"Labarraque solution" used by scientists for many years in dissolv- 
ing or softening chitin contained in the hard parts of insects. This 
dissolving and bleaching action make it theoretically ideal for use 
against bee diseases where it is necessary to dissolve dead scales 
and penetrate masses of diseased tissue. 

Four frames of brood badty diseased with American foul brood 
were obtained from our inspectors, Messrs. Yates and Coley, 
during the summer of 1923. Three of these combs were removed 
from the frames and the frames sterilized by spraying with a 
concentrated solution of "Be-Helth". The fourth comb was not 
removed from its frame, but was sterilized by soaking for 24 hours 
in the concentrated solution. It required nearly three-fourths of a 
gallon for this purpose, but special care was taken to fill every cell 
with the material. For experunental purposes two three-frame 
nuclei were used and one disease-free ten-frame hive of Itahan 
bees. In one of the nuclei, two of the sterihzed frames with new 
foundation were placed together with a health}^ frame of brood 
from another hive. The fourth frame with new foundation was 
placed direct in a ten-frame hive know^n to be free of disease. All 
this was done July 17, 1923. 

Examination of the two nuclei and the ten-frame hive on August 
9 showed one queen cell (in the nucleus containing treated brood 
comb) with tj^ical American foul brood. No sign of the disease 
was seen elsewhere. 

Examination August 29 showed American foul brood in every 
frame of the nucleus containing the supposedly sterile brood comb . 
None was, however, found in hive or nucleus containing brood 
frames only. The nucleus containing foul brood was destroyed 



276 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

and close watch kept upon all other treated colonies, but no disease 
developed in any other place. 

While no definite conclusions can be drawn from the results 
obtained, they indicate the risk involved in attempting control in 
comb actually containing American foul brood. The manufac- 
turers no longer recommend its use for that purpose, in fact, but 
are advocating sterilization of super combs and hive equipment 
for which it may be successful as indicated by our experience with 
infected frames without comb. The greatest difficulty lies in the 
extreme thoroughness with which the work must be done to insure 
success. Thus even with the greatest care it is almost impossible 
to reach all parts of a comb with sufficient solution to kill the 
organism. It has been demonstrated by White^ that the spores of 
Bacillus larvae causing American foul brood are very resistant to 
chemical disinfectants, and this together with the information 
above should make one cautious about placing too much con- 
fidence in the use of the material. 

Analysis of "Be-Helth"^ 

Grams per 100 cc. 

Available chlorine 3 . 77 

•Total chlorine 3.81 

Sodium hypochlorite 3 . 96 

Sulphates Trace. 

Available chlorine was determined 33 days after the first analysis 
and was found to be 3.70 grams per 100 cc. 



FURTHER EXPERIENCE WITH PARADICHLORO- 
BENZENE AS A REMEDY FOR PEACH BORERS. 

By M. p. Zappe. 

For several years this material has been recommended and used 
to destroy the larvae of the peach borer, Synanthedon exitiosa Say. 
When applied properly, good control is obtained, and it takes less 
time to make the application than it does to "worm" the trees. 

Usually it is customary to clear the ground of weeds and rubbish 
near the base of the tree, then sprinkle about an ounce of the 
granular paradichlorobenzene in a circle around the base of the 
trunk and about an inch from the bark and not touching it. Soil 
free from rubbish is then banked around the tree covering the 
insecticide and packed closely against the bark. 

The first test of this material was made at the Station Farm at 
Mount Carmel in September, 1921, and the results pubHshed in the 

1 White, G. F. American Foul Brood. U. S. D. A., Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy, Bulletin 809; 1920. 

^Made by the Department of Chemistry, Connecticut Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 277 

Report of the Station for 1922, page 331. In the fall of 1922, 
another application was made. These trees had then been set 
11 years. There were five rows of peach trees with 30 trees 
in each row. Four rows were treated and one row was left un- 
treated for a check. The material was applied October 4 and 5, 
and was allowed to remain until the following spring without being 
uncovered. 

On June 14, all trees were carefully examined and records kept 
of all borers found. The results appear in the following table: 



Treated . . , 
Untreated , 



No. of 
Trees 

107 


Total No. 
of Borers 

71 


Li\-ing Borers 

Above Below 

Soil Soil 

23 


Dead Borers 

Above Below 

Soil Soil 

7 41 


21 


42 


34 7 


1 



The results show that all borers below the surface of the soil 
were killed by the treatment, and that the only ones remaining 
alive were those above the surface of the soil where the fumes of 
the paraciichlorobenzene could not affect them. A few dead borers 
were fomid above the surface of the soil, but probably their burrows 
opened below the soil surface so that they were penetrated by the 
fumes. In the untreated row onlj^ one dead borer was found and 
that was above the soil surface. 



THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN CONNECTICUT. 
Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn. 

This destructive introduced pest, first discovered in this country 
in eastern Massachusetts in 1917, has continued to spread in that 
locality until the infestation involves full}^ half of Massachusetts, 
southwestern Maine, southern New Hampshire and a large portion 
of Rhode Island. The pest is also present in two large areas in 
New York State, one around Alban}^ and Schenectady, which has 
spread into two towns in southwestern Vermont, and the other 
in western New York, tliis latter area extending along the southern 
shore of Lake Erie through the lake portions of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, a few towns in Michigan and a large area in Ontario. 
According to the understanding of the ^^Titcr these infestations 
around Lake Erie are all connected. 

It has been expected that the margin of the Massachusetts 
infestation would soon extend far enough to reach the north- 
eastern corner of Connecticut, but though Federal scouts have 
searched for it m Thompson and Putnam, during September, they 
did not find it. On the other hand, late in the fall of 1923, Federal 
scouts discovered three small separate infestations along the 
shore region of Connecticut, two in Groton and one in Niantic 
in the town of East Lvme. 



278 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

Scouting by State Men. 

Mr. M. P. Zappe was in charge of this work and was assisted by 
J. Leslie Rogers. The coast region of the towns of West Haven 
and Milford back two miles from Long Island Sound was scouted, 
and in addition corn stalks were examined throughout the seed 
corn growing areas of Milford, Orange and Woodbridge. Similar 
seed corn growing regions south of the village of Wethersfield and 
the Long Hill section of Middletown were also scouted. This 
scouting was done in October, November and December, and the 
time expended on this work was equivalent to 46 man days. In 
this scouting work no signs of the European corn borer were found. 

Scouting by Federal Men. 

According to data received from Mr. L. H. Worthley, expert in 
charge of European corn borer control, the Federal scouts began 
work in Connecticut on August 21, and continued through the 
remainder of the calendar year. They scouted the coast line two 
miles back from the shore from the Rhode Island State line 
westerly to West River and including New Haven, and from the 
Housatonic River to the New York State line. The section from 
New Haven to the Housatonic River was covered by State men 
as has already been explained. Mr. Arthur Viall, a Federal scout, 
worked for a few days with State scouts in Milford and Orange, as 
otherwise he would have been alone and without automobile 
transportation. 

Federal scouts worked in Thompson from September 6 to 22, 
and in Putnam from September 19 to 25. Thus altogether the 
Federal men worked in Connecticut 319 man days, during which 
they traveled 4,430 miles, and scouted 4,876 corn fields having an 
area of 3,982 acres, and covered a territory estimated at 703 square 
miles. Three small and recent infestations were discovered along 
the shore in the eastern half of the State. 



Infestations. 

The first sign of infested material was found by Federal scouts 
in Groton on October 25, 1923. This was in a small patch of late 
sweet corn on land owned by Mr. C. A. MiUer, Plant Avenue, 
opposite Golf Club House. Here 13 larvae were collected, though 
there were others in the corn stalks. It had every appearance of 
having become infested during the past season, and that these were 
the first brood larvae to appear in the vicinity. So far as could be 
ascertained all were in the corn plants as none could be found in 
weeds or other vegetables growing in the garden close by. 

In company with Mr. Zappe and with Federal men, Messrs. 
Richardson and Leach, the writer visited this infestation on 
November 10 to become famiUar with conditions. Mr. C. Doer- 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 279 

ing, caretaker for Mr. Miller, who lived on the place, offered full 
co-operation with our men in an attempt to clean up this infesta- 
tion. 

On November 27 and 28, Messrs. Zappe and Rogers attempted 
to clean the field of corn stalks, stubble and weeds at this infesta- 
tion, but the material was so wet that it burned with difficulty. 
Consequently it was left to dry out before finishing the job. On 
December 4, Messrs. Zappe, Rogers and the writer met Mr. 
Worthley and Messrs. Richardson and Kellj^ of the Federal force, 
and made further attempts to burn the remaining corn stalks and 
trash. As it was still difficult to burn this material Mr. Worthley 
suggested that he send down from Arlington, Massachusetts, a 
large automobile power outfit for burnijig, and that we pay for the 
oil. This work was done on Friday and Saturday, December 7 
and 8. 

On December 3, another small infestation was discovered in 
sweet corn in a garden patch near the residence of James Pringle, 
on Poquonnock Road in Groton, some two miles east of the first 
infestation. The burning machine was used to clean up both of 
these infestations, all plant material above ground and corn stubble 
being burned. Altogether, the time devoted to this clean-up work 
by State men was equivalent to 10 man daj^s. 

Plates XIV-XVI show conditions before and after burning at 
both of these infestations. 

On December 12, a third infestation was found in a garden in the 
village of Niantic, town of East Ljone. On the Charles Cone 
Estate, occupied bj^ Chester Beebe, a small patch of sweet corn 
was slightly infested, only a few larvae being foimd. These were 
sent to the Corn Borer Laboratory and identified as Pyrausta 
nuhilalis Hubn. At this ^Titing, clean-up measures have not been 
carried out, but this will be done later. 

Source of Connecticut Infestations. 

The question at once arises, how did these Connecticut points 
become infested? From the Federal men, we learn that the 
American broom corn crop was Hght in 1922, and that it was 
necessary to import raw material to keep the factories in operation. 
Consequently, broom corn was imported from Europe, and a ship- 
ment arriving at the port of New York was found to be infested 
and was ordered fumigated. The large fumigating plant at the 
Bush Terminal in Brooldjoi had so much material awaiting treat- 
ment that this shipment was ordered reshipped to Boston for 
fumigation in the Cambridge plant. En route the boats put into 
the harbors at Bridgeport and New London, and waited several 
hours in each harbor on account of storms. Before the cargo 
reached Boston the moths were foimd to be emerging. It is 
believed that these infestations originated in this way. There is 
also an infestation on Fishers Island about four miles off shore 
from Groton which may also have come from this shipment. 



280 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

Federal and State Quarantines. 

On account of the danger of transportating this pest in shipments 
of vegetables other than corn, the State quarantine was revised, 
effective June 1, 1923, and the quarantine order with explanations 
was published as Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 25, and 
distributed under date of May 28, 1923. This publication is 
reproduced in the following pages. 

European Corn Borer Quarantine. 

The European Corn Borer, Pyrausta nuhilalis Hubner, which 
was first discovered in Massachusetts in 1917, and which has since 
spread throughout the eastern portion of that State and into Maine, 
New Hampshire and Rhode Island, now menaces Connecticut and 
may at any time appear within its borders, especially as the margin 
of the present infested area is only a few miles distant from the 
northeastern corner of Connecticut. In addition to the infested 
territory mentioned above, there is a separate infestation in the 
vicinity of Albany, N. Y., and another in western New York 
extending along the shore of Lake Erie, through Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and into Michigan, connecting with an infested region in 
southern Ontario. 

The pest is believed to have first entered the United States and 
Canada in broom corn imported from Europe and distributed at 
at least three and perhaps more different points. As the pest is 
now known to attack a large number of different kinds of plants 
including common vegetables which are shipped long distances, 
there is great danger that this insect may be transported and new 
colonies formed in this manner. Though the natural spread of 
the insect is several miles each season, it may be carried hundreds 
or even thousands of miles in commercial shipments. Hence 
quarantines have been established to prevent these commercial 
jumps. Connecticut first established a quarantine against this 
insect on September 20, 1918, and revised it on June 1, 1920. As 
there is much new infested territory not covered in the former 
quarantine, a new quarantine order has just been issued, effective 
June 1, 1923. This order follows: 

STATE OF CONNECTICUT 

Office of 

Agricultural Experiment Station 

New Haven, Conn. 

QUARANTINE ORDER No. 5. 

Effective June 1, 1923. 

Whereas a very destructive insect, known as the European Corn 
Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner, exists in certain portions of the 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER. ~ 281 

States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan, and threatens the 
corn growing industry of the country; and whereas there is grave 
danger that this insect may be brought into this State by the trans- 
portation of infested plants or parts of plants from the infested 
area: 

Therefore, pursuant to the provisions of Section 2106 of the 
General Statutes, it is hereby ordered that no corn on the ear, 
stover, or other parts of the corn plant, broom corn, including all 
the parts of the stalk, all sorghums, sudan grass, celer}^, green 
beans in the pod, beets with tops, spinach, rhubarb, oat and rye 
straw as such or when used in packing, cut flowers or entire plants 
of chrysanthemum, aster, cosmos, zinnia, hollyhock, and cut flowers 
or entire plants of gladiolus, and dahlia, except the bulbs thereof, 
without stems, shall enter Connecticut from the infested areas men- 
tioned below, unless each shipment, car, box, bale, or package bear 
a valid certificate issued by an authorized Federal inspector, stating 
that the contents thereof have been examined and found free from 
infestation by the European Corn Borer. These restrictions do 
not apply to dry shelled kernels or cooked and jDreserved products, 
or products grown in non-infested territory passing through 
infested areas in transit. 

Infested Areas. 

Maine : Sebago in Cumberland County; Acton, Alfred, Ber- 
wick, Biddeford, Buxton, Cornish, Dayton, Eliot, Hollis, Kenne- 
bunk, Kennebunkport, Kittery, Lebanon, Limerick, Limington, 
Lyman, Newfield, North Berwick, Old Orchard, Parsonfield, Saco, 
Sanford, Shapleigh, South Berwick, Waterboro, Wells and York 
in York County. 

New Hampshire : Alton, Barnstead, Belmont, Center Harbor, 
Gilford, Gilmanton, Laconia, Merideth, New Hampton, San- 
bornton and Tilton in Belknaj) County; Brookfield, Effingham, 
Moultonboro, Ossipee, Tuftonboro, Wakefield and Wolfeboro in 
Carroll County; Alexandria, Ashland, Bridgewater, Bristol, 
Groton, Hebron, Holderness, Orange and Phinouth in Grafton 
County; Amherst, Antrim, Bedford, Bennington, Brookhne, Deer- 
ing, Francestown, Goffstown, Greenfield, GreenviUe, Hancock, 
Hillsborough, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Ljmdeboro, Manchester, 
Mason, Merrimack, Milford, Mount Yernon, Nashua, New Boston, 
New Ipswich, Pelham, Peterboro, Sharon, Temple, Weare, Wilton 
and Windsor in Hillsborough County; Allenstown, Andover, 
Boscawen, Bow, Bradford, Canterbury, Chichester, Concord, Dan- 
bury, Dunbarton, Epsom, Frankhn, Henniker, Hill, Hooksett, 
Hopkinton, Loudon, Newbury, New London, Northfield, Pem- 
broke, Pittsfield, Sahsbury, Sutton, Warner, Webster and Wilmot 
in Merrimack County; Atkinson, Auburn, Brentwood, Candia, 



282 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Chester, Danville, Deerfielcl, Derry, East Kingston, Epping, 
Exeter, Fremont, Greenland, Hamstead, Hampton, Hampton Falls 
Kensington, Kingston, Londonderry, New Castle, Newington, 
Newton, New Market, Northampton, Northwood, Nottingham, 
Plaistow, Portsmouth, Raymond, Rye, Salem, Sandown, Seabrook, 
South Hampton, South Newmarket, Stratham and Windham in 
Rockingham County; Barrington, Dover, Durham, Farmington, 
Lee, Madbury, Middleton, Milton, New Durham, Rochester, 
Rollinsford, Somersworth and Strafford in Strafford County. 

Massachusetts: Barnstable, Bourne, Brewster, Chatham, 
Dennis, Eastham, Falmouth, Harwich, Orleans, Provincetown, 
Sandwich, Truro, Wellfleet and Yarmouth in Barnstable County; 
Acushnet, Attleboro, Berkley, Dartmouth, Dighton, Easton, Fair- 
haven, Fall River, Freetown, Mansfield, New Bedford, North 
Attleboro, Norton, Raynham, Rehoboth, Seekonk, Somerset, 
Swansea, Taunton and Westport in Bristol County; Amesbury, 
Andover, Beverly, Boxford, Danvers, Essex, Georgetown, 
Gloucester, Groveland, Hamilton, Haverhill, Ipswich, Lawrence, 
Lynn, Lynnfield, Manchester, Marblehead, Merrimac, Methuen, 
Middleton, Nahant, Newbury, Newburyport, North Andover, Pea- 
body, Rockport, Rowley, Salem, Salisbury, Saugus, Swampscott, 
Topsfield, Wenham and West Newbury in Essex County; Acton, 
Arlington, Ashby, Ashland, Ayer, Bedford Belmont, Billerica, 
Boxboro, Burlington, Cambridge, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord, 
Dracut, Dunstable, Everett, Framingham, Groton, Holliston, Hop- 
kinton, Hudson, Lexington, Lincoln, Littleton, Lowell, Maiden, 
Marlboro, Maynard, Medford, Melrose, Natick, Newton, North 
Reading, Pepperell, Reading, Sherborn, Shirley, Somerville, 
Stoneham, Stow, Sudbury, Tewksbury, Townsend, Tyngsboro, 
Wakefield, Waltham, Watertown, Wayland, Westford, Weston, 
Wilmington, Winchester and Woburn in Middlesex County; 
Avon, Bellingham, Braintree, Brookhne, Canton, Cohasset, Ded- 
ham, Dover, Foxboro, Franklin, Holbrook, Hopedale, Medfield, 
Medway, Milhs, Milton, Needham, Norfolk, Norwood, Plainville, 
Quincy, Randolph, Sharon, Stoughton, Walpole, Wellesley, West- 
wood, Weymouth and Wrentham in Norfolk County; Ahin^toii, 
Bridge water, Brockton, Carver, Duxbury, East Bridgewater, 
Halifax, Hanover, Hanson, Hingham, Hull, Kingston, Lakeville, 
Marion, Marshfield, Mattapoisett, Middleboro, Norwell, Pem- 
broke, Plymouth, Plympton, Rochester, Rocldand, Scituate, Ware- 
ham, West Bridgewater and Whitman in Plymouth County; 
Boston, Chelsea, Revere, and Winthrop in Suffolk County; Ash- 
burnham, Berlin, Blackstone, Bolton, Boylston, Chnton, Douglass, 
Fitchburg, Gardner, Grafton, Harvard, Holden, Hubbardston, 
Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, 
Northboro, Northbridge, Princeton, Rutland, Shrewsbury, South- 
boro. Sterling, Sutton, Upton, Uxbridge, Westboro, West Boyl- 
ston, Westminster and Worcester in Worcester County. 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 283 

Rhode Island: Barrington, Bristol and Warren in Bristol 
County; Little Compton, Middletown, Newport, Portsmouth and 
Tiverton in Newport County; Cumberland, East Providence, 
Lincoln, North Providence, Pawtucket, Providence and Woon- 
socket in Providence County. 

New York (Eastern): Albany, Berne, Bethlehem, Cohoes, 
Colonie, Coeymans, Guilderland, Knox, New Scotland, Rensselaer- 
ville and Westerloo in Albany County; Bleecker, Broadalbin, 
Caroga, Ephratah, Johnstown, Maj^eld, Northampton and Perth 
in Fulton County; Coxsackie, Greenville and New Baltimore in 
Greene County; Benson, Hope, Lake Pleasant and Wells in 
Hamilton County; Amsterdam, Canajoharie, Charleston, Florida, 
Glen, Minden, Mohawk, Palatine, Root and St. Johnsville in 
Montgomery County; Cherry Valley in Otsego County; Bruns- 
wick, East Greenbush, Grafton, Hoosick, North Greenbush, 
Petersboro, Pittstown, Poestenkill, Sand Lake, Schaghticoke and 
Troy in Rensselaer County; Ballston, Charlton. Clifton Park, 
Corinth, Day, Edinburg, Galwaj^, Greenfield, Hadley, Half Moon, 
Malta, Milton, Moreau, Northumberland, Providence, Saratoga, 
Saratoga Springs, Stillwater and Wilton in Saratoga County; 
Duanesburg, Glenville, Niskayuna, Princetown, Rotterdam and 
Schenectady in Schenectady County; Carlisle, Cobleskill, Esper- 
ance, Fulton, Middleburg, Schoharie and Wright in Schoharie 
County; Luzerne in Warren County; Cambridge, Easton, Fort 
Edward, Greenwich, Hebron, Jackson and White Creek in 
Washington County. 

(Western) : Ashford, Dayton, East Otto, Ellicottville, Franklin- 
■vdlle. Freedom, Leon, Little Valley, Machais, Mansfield, Napoli, 
New Albion, Otto, Perrysburg, Persia, Salamanca and Yorkshire 
in Cattaraugus County; Arkwright, Charlotte, Chautauqua, Cherry 
Creek, Clymer, Dunkirk, Ellery, Elhcott, Ellington, French 
Creek, Gerry, Hanover, Harmony, Mina, Pomfret, Portland, 
Ripley, Sheridan, Sherman, Stockton, Villenova and Westfield in 
Chautauqua County; Alden, Amherst, Aurora, Boston, Brant, 
Buffalo, Cheektowaga, Clarence, Golden, Collins, Concord, East 
Hamburg, Eden, Elma, Evans, Grand Island, Hamburg, Holland, 
Lancaster, Marilla, Newstead, North Collins, Sardina, Tonawanda, 
Wales and West Seneca in Erie County; Alabama, Batavia, 
Darien, Pembroke and Stafford in Genesee County; Cambria, 
Hartland, Lewiston, Lockport, Newfane, Niagara, Pendleton, 
Porter, Royalton, Somerset, Wheatfield and Wilson in Niagara 
County; Arcade, Attica, Bennington, Eagle, Gainsville, Java, 
Middlebury, Orangeville, Perry, Sheldon, Warsaw and Wethers- 
field in Wyoming County. 

Pennsylvania : Beaver in Crawford County; Amity, Conneaut, 
Corry, Elk Creek, Fairview, Frankhn, Girard, Greene, Greenfield, 
Harbor Creek, Leboeuf, McKean, Mill Creek, North East, Presque 



284 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Island Peninisula, Springfield, Summit, Venango, Washington, 
Waterford and Wayne in Erie County. 

Ohio: Ashtabula, Austinburg, Conneaut, Denmark, Geneva, 
Harpersfield, Jefferson, Kingsville, Monroe, Pierpont, Plymouth, 
Saybrook and Sheffield in Ashtabula County; Cleveland, Dover, 
Euclid, Independence, Mayfield, Middleburg, Newburg, Rockport, 
Warrensville and West Park in Cuyahoga County; Berlin, Huron, 
Kelleys Island, Margaretta, Perkins, Portland, and Vermillion in 
Erie County; Chardon, Chester and Thompson in Geauga County; 
Concord, Kirtland, Leroy, Madison, Mentor, Painesville, Perry, 
and Willoughby in Lake County; Amherst, Avon, Avon Lake, 
Black River, Brownhelm, Elyria and Sheffield in Lorain County; 
Jerusalem, Oregon, Toledo and Washington in Lucas County; 
Allen, Bay, Benton, Carroll, Catawba Island, Clay, Danbury, Erie, 
Middle Bass Island, North Bass Island, Portage and South Bass 
Island in Ottawa County; Townsend in Sandusky County; Lake 
and Ross in Wood County. 

Michigan: Bedford, Berlin, Erie, Exeter, Frenchtown, Ida, 
La Salle, Monroe and Whiteford in Monroe County; Brownstown, 
Detroit, Ecorse, Gratiot, Greenfield, Grosse Pointe, Hamtramck, 
Huron, Monguagon and Springwells in Wayne County. 

The regulations of this quarantine order are subject to modifica- 
tion to include additional territory, if such is found infested and 
in general will be interpreted as conforming to, rather than as b3ing 
at variance with, the regulations of the Federal Horticultural 
Board. 

Quarantine Orders No. 1 relating to this insect, and issued 
September 20, 1918, and No. 3, issued June 1, 1920, are hereby 
revoked. 

This order shall take effect June 1, 1923. 

E. H. Jenkins, 

Director, Connecticut Agricultural 
Approved: Experiment Station. 

Chas. a. Templeton, 

Governor. 



PREVALENCE OF ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 

Laspeyresia molesta Busck 

The reappearance of the Oriental peach moth in Connecticut in 
1922 and 1923 has already been mentioned on page 232 of this 
Report. The first information regarding the presence of this pest 
in Connecticut was received in '1917, when specimens were sent to 
the Bureau of Entomology by Mr. C. C. Lawrence of the F. A. 
Bartlett Tree Expert Company of Stamford, and identified as the 
Oriental peach moth. Mr. Lawrence also sent material to this 



ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 285 

Station, but it was badly crushed and could not be properly iden- 
tified. In the absence of the writer, Mr. Quincy S. Lowry, then 
Assistant Entomologist, answered the letter and suggested that 
more material be sent for examination. Meanwhile the reply from 
Washington specifically identified the insect, and a short report 
of the pest was included in the Report of this Station for 1917, 
page 315. Beginning April 1, 1918, Mr. Ernest D. Brown was 
employed by the Federal Bureau of Entomology to search for 
this pest in Connecticut in order to ascertain its exact distribution. 
Mr. Brown worked in Connecticut for six months and found the 
larvae of this insect only in Stamford where it was discovered in 
1917, although he found twig injury in each of the four southern or 
shore counties of the State. He did not find this injury far inland 
or in the northern counties, nor was he certain that it was wholly 
caused by Laspeyresia molesta, because the peach twig borer, 
Anarsia lineatella Zell., causes similar injury and is also present in 
the shore region of the State. An account of the Oriental peach 
moth with a report on the scouting done by Mr. Brown was pub- 
lished in the Report of this Station for 1918, page 298, and 
following this article in the same Report (page 306) is an account 
of the peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella, giving its distribution 
in Connecticut based upon the collecting done hj Mr. Brown. 

In 1919 and 1920, visits were made to the locahty in Stamford 
where larvae occurred in 1918, but no signs of this insect could be 
found. Injury caused by it was not observed anywhere in the 
State in 1921, though entomologists from this office traveled about 
the State and were on the lookout for it. 

During the autumn of 1922, considerable twig injury was noticed 
in the southwestern corner of the State, which was thought to have 
been caused by the Oriental peach moth. In the summer of 1923, 
twig injury was noticed in a number of orchards, and later during 
the annual inspection of nurseries in August and September, twig 
injury was found on peach stock in a few of the nurseries in Fair- 
field County, and on some orchard trees near the nursery stock. 
Perhaps the most serious attack observed was in the peach 
orchards at Conj'-ers Farm, Greenwich, which the writer visited in 
companj^ with Dr. Garman on June 25. Many of the new shoots 
were brown and had been tunneled by the larvae, though in most 
of them no larvae could be found. During December, Mr. A. T. 
Henry informed the writer that he observed considerable twig 
injury in his orchard at Wallingford, and on January 8, 1924, Mr. 
Arthur J. Watrous of Meriden, brought to the Station several 
peach twigs which had been tunneled bj^ this insect during the 
growing season of 1923. Recentty reports have been received 
from the orchard of Ehjah Rogers and Son of Southington, indi- 
cating that this insect has injured some twigs there. 

The latter part of the summer the larvae were found in fruit at 
Conyers Farm, Greenwich, where the manager estimates that fully 



286 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

50 per cent, of the fruit was injured by the larvae, causing a money 
loss of at least $5,000.00 in damage to crop, not to mention injury 
to reputation on account of having wormy fruit. The late varieties 
such as Hale, Elberta and Belle of Georgia were damaged more 
than those varieties ripening earlier in the season. A number of 
infested peaches were observed at the Station Farm, Mount 
Carmel, and Mr. Watrous also reported that he found infested 
peaches in his orchard in Meriden. 

According to fruit growers and entomologists, this pest caused 
serious damage in 1923 in Pennsylvania and in New Jersey, where 
in some cases 80 per cent, of the late peaches were infested. 

Though the larvae attack apples and other fruits in the Middle 
Atlantic States, only peaches have been found infested by it in 
Connecticut. 

Summary of Life History. 

The eggs of the first brood are probably laid the latter part of 
May or early in June on the under surface of the leaves. They are 
laid singly and hatch in four to seven days; the larvae go to the new 
shoots and tunnel in them, causing them to turn brown at the tips 
as is shown on Plate XVIII. They often leave one shoot and enter 
another, and this explains why injured empty shoots are so abun- 
dant in a badly infested orchard. It is not known how many 
generations occur in Connecticut, but in Maryland, Dr. Garman^ 
found four generations, only about 26 days being required for the 
entire life cycle. Wood and Selkregg^ found a partial fifth genera- 
tion near Washington, D. C, but Stearns^ found only four broods 
in Virginia. In Maryland the first two broods were fairly distinct, 
but the third and fourth overlapped so that it was hard to separate 
them. In New Jersey according to Dr. Peterson, the last three 
broods overlap. 

As the season advances and the new growth hardens and becomes 
woody twigs, the larvae attack the fruit. In late summer the 
newly hatched larvae apparently go directly into the fruit, and 
often several larvae are found in one peach. The larva has the 
habit of biting into the tissues and laying aside the first few mouth- 
fuls, then eating its way into the twig or fruit. For this reason the 
larvae cannot be controlled satisfactorily by applications of 
arsenical poisons. 

The larval period averages about eleven days and the pupa stage 
lasts about ten days. When mature the larva eats out cavities 
in the sides of twigs or whatever surface is near at hand and 
suitable for the purpose, and there makes an inconspicuous cocoon. 
Those maturing late in the season usually enter crevices of the bark 



^ Bulletin 223, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, page 113, 1917. 

2 Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. XIII, page 63, 1918. 

3 Technical Bulletin 21, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, 1921. 



ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 287 

at the base of the trunk or in similar situations higher up on the 
tree and are very difficult to detect. The hibernating larvae 
pupate in these cases in the spring, and the moths soon emerge 
to lay eggs for the first brood of larvae. 

Altogether some 15 different parasites of the Oriental peach 
moth have been reared in the United States. Of these 12 belong 
to the Hymenoptera and three to the Diptera. In Dr. Garman's 
studies in Maryland^ two important parasites were obtained. One, 
a Braconid, Macrocentrus sp., was reared in small numbers from the 
larvae, and the other, a Chalcidid, Trichogramma minutum Riley, 
parasitized about 80 per cent, of the eggs. Wood and Selkregg^ 
recorded six primary parasites belonging to the Hymenoptera and 
one belonging to the Diptera. 

Professor E. N. Cory, State Entomologist of Maryland, estimates 
that about 60 per cent, of the larvae and about 50 per cent, of the 
pupae are parasitized in Maryland. Stearns^ reports that on the 
average only 20 per cent, of the larvae of the three summer broods 
were parasitized in Virginia in 1920, and fully 85 per cent, of the 
hibernating larvae came through successfully. 



Control Measures. 

The Oriental peach moth is a difficult pest to control. Many 
tests have been made with various Kquids and gases to kill the 
over-wintering larvae in their cases, but these cocoons or cases are 
almost impenetrable, so the larvae for the most part pass through 
the treatment uninjured. 

After pruning the orchard, it is advisable to burn all twigs for 
this maj^ destroy some of the hibernating larvae. 

Stearns^ finds that spraying with nicotine solution diluted at the 
rate of one part in 500 parts of water, will kill the eggs in Virginia^. 
A caseinate spreader at the rate of two pounds in 50 gallons of 
mixture increased the effectiveness of the treatment. Only 4.7 
per cent, of the untreated eggs failed to hatch, whereas from 75 
to 85 per cent, were killed by the treatment. 

The approximate periods of heaviest egg-laying in Virginia were 
from May 8 to 16 for the first brood, from May 31 to June 7 for the 
second brood, and from June 27 to 29 for the third brood and from 
August 1 to 10 for the fourth brood. The spray treatments should 
be given with reference to these dates. Egg-laying dates have not 
been ascertained for Connecticut. 



1 Bulletin 209, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, 1917. 

2 Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. XIII, page 70, 1918. 
' Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 14, page 337, 1921. 
^ Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 14, page 340, 1921. 



288 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

THE LARCH LEAF-MINER OR CASE BEARER. 
Coleophora laricella Hubn. 

On June 4, Mr. H. W. Hicock, Assistant Forester, brought to the 
laboratory from the town of Canaan, branches of larch which had 
been attacked by the larch leaf-miner or case bearer, Coleophora 
laricella Hubn. The newly formed leaves had been mined and 
injured to such an extent that the foliage of the entire branch had 
a gray appearance and later turned brown. According to Mr. 
Hicock, the specimens came from a large swamp a mile or so in 
extent, and the trees were distinctly brown on the day of his visit. 
This swamp is situated near the road connecting Canaan with 
South Canaan. Injured foliage is shown on Plate XIX, a. 

On June 7, larch received from New Canaan also showed the 
attacks of this insect. The writer noticed shght injury to larch 
trees on private grounds and in public parks in New Haven and 
various other parts of the State. Never before in recent years has 
this insect been so abundant in Connecticut. 

The larch case bearer is a European insect and on the continent 
it has caused damage to the larch trees of the forests, particularly 
in Germany. When the larch was introduced into the British 
Isles, this case bearer soon appeared in England and Scotland. 
Later it made its appearance in America and probably was brought 
across the Atlantic on nursery stock. It has been reported from 
Canada and the northeastern United States. 

Injury to the Trees. 

The young larva is a leaf-miner at first and tunnels the distal 
half of the needle. It cleans out this hollow needle and then cuts it 
off at the base of the excavated portion and uses the latter as a case, 
carrying it about when feeding, and resting in it much like the 
cigar case bearer, Coleophora fletcherella Fern., and other case 
bearers. The appearance of this case is shown on Plate XIX, b. As 
the partly grown larvae pass the winter in these cases on the 
twigs, they are ready to resume feeding on the first leaves that are 
put out in the spring. Consequently when the larvae are abundant 
the leaves are eaten about as fast as they can grow, with the result 
that the trees look sickly and brown by the first of June, instead 
of green and vigorous. Even though more leaves are put out, they 
are mined later in the season. Thus severe attacks weaken the 
trees, and Dr. Patch^" writes as follows: "The injured needles often 
continue to grow but the clusters are ragged and many of the 
needles brown and dry. Small larches in the vicinity of Bangor 
and Orono which have been subjected to an attack of at least three 
seasons, died this summer from no other apparent cause than the 
presence of great numbers of the case bearers which kept the 
needles eaten off. Many large larches infested by this insect look 
yellowish and unhealthy." 



LARCH LEAF-MINER. 289 



Life History and Habits. 



The eggs are laid upon the leaves during the first part of June and 
on hatching, each larva bores directly through the bottom of its 
shell and into the tissues of the leaf, where it continues to burrow, 
usually tunnehng out the distal half. It has the habit of packing 
its excrement into the burrow in the mined leaf. By September 
the leaf has been completely mined, and the larva being small 
and only partly grown, cuts off the distal portion of the leaf; then 
it cleans out the excrement from the basal portion and uses this 
for its winter case. Sometimes it goes into a new leaf and some- 
times makes its case of old leaves. The inside of each case is lined 
with a thin layer of silk. The larvae continue to feed for three or 
four weeks after making their winter cases, then fasten them with 
silk to the branches and twigs where they remain throughout the 
winter, as shown on Plate XIX, b. The outer end of the case is 
closed with silk and somewhat contracted. Usually this migra- 
tion to the twigs occurs in October, and they remain there for 
about six months. 

On the approach of warm weather, usually in April, the larvae 
dislodge their cases from the branches and migrate to the buds, 
where they are ready to partake of their first meal after their long 
winter fast. As soon as the new leaves are of sufficient size they 
fasten their cases to them or use them to enlarge their cases. This 
is fully described by Herrick^ who states that this is the period 
when the insect does its greatest amount of damage, for each 
larva may feed upon more than one leaf, and being larger, destroys 
more leaves than before hibernation. The larvae continue to live 
in these enlarged cases and pupate in them in ^lay, attaching 
themselves at the base of short side branches and in the center of 
leaf whorls. 

The pupa stage lasts from 14 to 20 da^^s and the adult moths 
emerge the last of May and following. The moths are active 
during the day and when at rest, the wings are folded closely over 
the body, and the antennae are extended forward. 

Apparently there is only one generation each yesiT, as is usual 
with most other case bearers. 



Description. 

Egg. — Eggs though small are visible without a magnifying glass. 
They are reddish-brown in color, nearly hemispherical in shape 
with 12 to 14 radiating ridges extending down the sides from the 
apex. 

Larva. — Length, about five mm. when fully grown, dark reddish- 
brown, head, thoracic and anal shields, black. 

Adult. — Wing expanse about nine mm., silvery gra3dsh-brown 
or ash-gray in color, both front and rear wings narrow and bear 



290 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

long fringe, characteristic of the family Elachistidae to which this 
species belongs. 

Natural Enemies. 

Herrick^ bred three species of parasites in New York but only in 
small numbers; these were identified only provisionally on account 
of a lack of material. One belonged in the genus Pachyneuron, 
one to the Pteromalidae, and one to the Tetrastichidae. He 
reports that nine parasites have been recorded from Europe. 



Control Measures. 

There is no practical method of controlling this insect in forests 
or large plantations, but on shade and ornamental trees and in 
small plantations on private estates where cost is not an important 
matter, some attempt at control is feasible. 

The most extensive experiments of which we have record are 
those conducted by Professor G. W. Herrick^ in Ithaca, New York, 
in 1911. Trees sprayed with lead arsenate April 25, and even 
given an additional treatment May 5, were just as badly injured 
as the trees not treated. 

Home-made concentrated Hme-gulphur, testing 29° Beaume, 
was diluted at the rate of one to seven and the tree thoroughly 
coated with the mixture on April 7, before the buds had begun to 
swell and before the larvae had left their winter positions. This 
tree was badly infested. An examination on April 27 showed that 
the buds had started and that on unsprayed trees the larvae had 
moved to the leaves, but not one had moved on the sprayed tree. 
On May 5, many larvae were examined. Only two were found 
to be alive; the others were dead and shriveled. Consequently, in 
view of these tests, it seems advisable to spray shade and ornamen- 
tal trees with lime-sulphur, as for scale, late in the spring just 
before the buds open. 

Literature. 

1 Felt, E. P., Memoirs N. Y. State Museum, 8, page 170, 1905. (Life history 
and habits.) 

- Fernald, H. T., Can. Ent., Vol. li, page 264, 1919. (Injured trees in North- 
ampton, Mass., same spot where Hagen reported it in 1886. Describes 
egg and habits of young larva.) 

3 Fletcher, J., Report of the Entomologist and Botanist, Central Experimental 
Farms, page 191, 1905. (Brief account). 

^ Fletcher, J., Thirty-sixth Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 90, 1905. 
(Reports insect in moderate numbers at Experimertal Farm, Ottawa, 
Can., and beheves this the first record for Canada.) 

^ Gibson, A., Forty-first Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 14, 1910. 
(Reports insect not abundant at Ottawa imtil 1910.) 

^ Hagen, H. A., Canadian Entomologist, Vol. xviii, page 125, 1886. (Abun- 
dant on European larches at Northampton, Mass.) 



ASIATIC BEETLE. 291 

^ Herrick, Glenn W., Annals Ent. Soc. Am., iv, page 68, 1911. (Describes 
habits and partial life history: original observations, Ithaca, N. Y., 1910- 
1911.) 

8 Herrick, Glenn W., Cornell Agr. Ejcpt. Station, Bulletin 322, 1912. (Com- 
plete h'fe history, habits, natural enemies, control, bibUography.) 

^ Herrick, Glenn W., Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 5, page 172, 1912. 
(Treatment with lime-sulphur.) 

i» Patch, Edith M., Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Bulletin 134, page 218, 1906. 
(Brief account of habits and Life history. Mentions death of trees.) 

" Patch, Edith M., and Johannsen, O. A., Maine Agr. Expt. Station, Bulletin 
195, page 239, 1912. (Mention as being abimdant on American Larch in 
1911.) 

" Swaine, J. M., Forty-third Annual Report, Ontario Ent. Soc, page 88, 1912. 
(Mentioned as being abundant on European and American larches in 
Ottawa in 1912.) 

" Theobald, F. V., Report on Economic Zoology, page 111, 1905. (Brief 
illustrated account.) 

" Weiss, H. B., Ent. News, Vol. xxaoi, page 424, 1916. (Not extensively dis- 
tributed in N. J. Probably introduced on nursery stock.) 



THE ASIATIC BEETLE. 

Anomala orientalis Waterhouse. 

In the Report of this Station for 1922, page 345, ■ is a brief 
account of this new pest which has apparently become estabUshed 
in Connecticut. Since this note was prepared for pubHcation, 
further developments have occurred which warrant further 
mention here of the undesirabiHty of this insect. 

Late in the fall of 1922, one of my neighbors, Air. H. M. Bowman, 
complained to me that white grubs were injuring his lawn at 228 
Alden Avenue, and on November 2, 1 visited his place and collected 
a few specimens. These grubs had killed the grass in a patch 
perhaps eight by ten feet in the front lawn near the sidewalk. By 
digging in the soil, we found some of the grubs, though Mr. Bow- 
man stated that thej^ had recently descended and were much 
nearer the surface a short time before. Evidently they had gone 
down for protection during the winter. These grubs were quite 
active and though varying considerably in size, all were rather 
small. Otherwise they looked like ordinary white grubs, and at 
the time we took them to be the larvae of Ma}^ or June beetles 
(Phyllophaga sp.) These grubs all died probably ha\T[ng injured 
each other with their mandibles, as we afterward learned they are 
apt to do when confined together with little soil. The grubs are 
shown on Plate XX, b. 

The ne.xt spring other residents of the neighborhood complained 
of similar injury to lawns. ]\Ir. Robert S. Scobie, corner of Central 
and Edge wood Avenues, particularly had been troubled by them 
and had reseeded his lawn, only to have the new grass also eaten 
by the grubs. Mr. Wilham E. Woodmansee and Mr. Clarence M. 
Blair of Edgewood Avenue had also gone through similar exper- 
iences. An injured lawn is shown on Plate XX, c. 



292 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Mr. Scobie accommodated us on May 17 by collecting a con- 
siderable number of grubs with a good supply of dirt. These were 
promptly separated so that they could not injure each other, by 
putting only a few larvae in each of several cages and supplying 
them with plenty of food and soil. On July 24, adult beetles 
emerged and proved to be Anomala orientalis. Prior to the 
emergence of these beetles, specimens of the larvae were sent to 
Professor John J. Davis, Agricultural Experiment Station, La- 
Fayette, Indiana, who had formerly been in charge of the Japanese 
Beetle Laboratory at Riverton, New Jersey, and prior to that had 
made a study of white grubs and various larvae of the beetle 
family Scarabaeidae. Professor Davis repHed that he had sent his 
collection of larvae to Washington and was therefore unable to 
identify our material. He therefore forwarded it to Washington 
and in due time a report was received stating that it had been 
examined by Dr. A. Boving and identified provisionally as Anomala 
orientalis. Of the reared material, some specimens are Hght brown 
with very faint markings and some are black, as is the case with 
the native Anomala lucicola Fabr. Between these two extremes 
there are all gradations. This variation is shown on Plate XX, a. 

More material was collected in the field in 1923. The adults do 
not fly but are found in the grass and weeds near the ground or 
crawling up the stems. This habit retards the dissemination of 
the pest and simpHfies materially the problem of control. Messrs. 
Zappe and Garman treated small areas of infested soil in the lawns 
of Mr. Woodmansee with calcium cyanide compound, carbon 
disulphide emulsion and some other materials. The first killed the 
larvae and also the grass and weeds. The other materials in the 
proportions used were not effective in destroying the larvae. 

No very thorough survey has yet been made to ascertain the 
present distribution of the pest. The preliminary survey shows 
that the injured lawns are all within five or six city squares or 
blocks, but as a certain number of larvae may be present per square 
yard without injuring the grass above ground, the distribution is 
probably much greater than indicated. It would be necessary 
to dig through the turf in thousands of places to ascertain its real 
distribution. Moreover as this infestation apparently was 
caused by nursery stock being imported with balls of earth from 
Japan, before the prohibition of such shipments by the Federal 
Horticultural Board, there is also a strong probabiHty that this 
insect has hkewise been sent out from the nursery to other points, 
perhaps nearby or far distant. This nursery has now been moved 
to Woodmont some six miles distant, and possibly the insect has 
been carried there also. The grornid where the nursery formerly 
stood has all been sold for building lots and residences have been 
built upon it. In excavating for cellars and in grading, the upper 
soil has nearly all been moved, and this must have had some effect 
on the larvae in the soil. The lawns most seriously injured are 



SWARMS OF APHIDS. 293 

those across the street (Edgewood Avenue) from that part of the 
nursery where the adult beetles were first collected in 1920. 

The parasite, Scolia manilae Ashm., which was so successful in 
reducing the infestation of Anomala orientalis in Hawaii a few 
years ago, has been imported into New Jersey to be used in con- 
trolling the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, but does not sur- 
vive the winters there. Consequently we cannot hope for much 
help from this insect in controlling the infestation of Anomala 
orientalis in Connecticut, but there is a possibihty that some of our 
native species of Scolia or Tiphia may attack the grubs. 

SWARMS OF APHIDS. 

During the season there were two separate swarms of aphids, 
one in June and the other in September, both of which should be 
recorded here. A similar swarm has been mentioned in the Report 
of this Station for 1919, page 203. 

The aphids were so abundant and noticeable in and about New 
Haven, Bridgeport and Waterbury in June, 1923, that the news- 
papers printed notes regarding the matter. The following account 
of the June flight was published in the Journal of Economic En- 
tomology, Vol. 16, page 395, August, 1923: 

Swarms of Aphids: During the week ending June 9, news- 
papers and telephone inquiries reported that swarms of aphids 
were present in the cities of IMeriden and AVaterbury, Conn., and 
on June 8, specimens were received from Waterbur}-. On June 8, 
Mr. Zappe collected specimens at his home, ]\Iount Carmel, where 
they were so abundant in the air that his little daughter said to 
him: "Daddy, it's snowing". During the week ending June 16, 
similar swarms of aphids appeared in the center of the city of 
New Haven, and the writer observed them on Ehn Street on the 
afternoon of June 16. The tops of automobiles and clothes were 
literally covered with aphids and pedestrians were brushing 
them from their faces. Air. Rogers of this Department states 
that in Bridgeport swarms of aphids have been present for 
three weeks, and one day in the city in catching a butterfl}- 
he also caught two or three hundred of these aphids in the net. 
Even at the date of this writing (July 3) aphids have not all dis- 
appeared in New Haven, and this morning Mr. Rogers ran into a 
swarm on Winchester Avenue. It is not certain that all of these 
aphids were of the same species, but those examined seemed to be 
identical and material submitted to Dr. A. C. Baker of the Bureau 
of Entomology has been identified as Euceraphis deducta Baker, 
a species described from Maine in 1917 (Journal of Economic 
Entomology, Vol. X, page 427). Birch is the host of this species 
and the swarms probably came from Betula populifolia, which is 
abundant around all of these Connecticut cities. In 1919, I 
recorded the presence of swarms of Calaphis betulaecolens Fitch 



294 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

(see Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 12, page 351) in New 
Haven, Conn., and at first I supposed the swarms of the present 
season were of that species. A microscopic examination, however, 
showed them to be different. Dr. Baker writes that "it is very 
interesting that this recently described species should become so 
abundant". 

This species, Euceraphis deducta Baker, had somewhat the aspect 
of a woolly aphid. That is, each individual bore some wax secre- 
tion in the nature of white filaments. 

From September 19 to 25, aphids were again swarming in the 
streets of New Haven, and it was several days or perhaps weeks 
before they entirely disappeared. Specimens collected showed 
this to be Calaphis hetulaecolens Fitch, a species devoid of the white 
wax filaments, and the same species observed in the city in 1919. 

Both of these species live upon the leaves of birch trees, and it 
is not known whether they have alternate hosts, but perhaps like 
many other kinds of aphids, they were migrating to other host 
plants, which explains their presence in such number in the center 
of large cities. Birch trees are common on the uncultivated land 
around the outskirts of nearly all cities of Connecticut. The 
species of the September swarm, Calaphis hetulaecolens Fitch, is also 
recorded from linden ( Tilia) but evidently its full life history has 
not been determined. 

MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE. 

Mosquitoes have been known and recognized as a pest since the 
earliest times. Writers have mentioned them; armies have been 
attacked by their hordes; large military and civic operations have 
been abandoned because of the great abundance of mosquitoes. 
Today mosquitoes occur throughout the world, from the tropics 
to the polar regions; all countries and all climates have been pre- 
empted by them and all races have been attacked by them. Not 
only do they attack persons, but also the larger animals, blood 
being necessary for the development of their eggs. 

Certain kinds of mosquitoes through their bites transmit yellow 
fever, other kinds carry malaria and in no other way can these 
diseases be communicated from one person to another, except 
possibly by direct inoculation. 

All kinds of mosquitoes annoy mankind, prevent property 
development, and therefore cause a tremendous economic loss to 
community, state and nation. Moreover, their abundance is 
wholly unnecessary. 

Where Do Mosquitoes Breed? 

Only in stagnant water. Until they reach the winged or adult 
stage, they can live only in fairly still water, where they are able to 



MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE. 



295 



obtain air at the surface. The beHef of many persons that mos- 
quitoes breed in grass, shrubbery and vines, is wholly false, though 
the pests hide and rest in such places. Water is just as essential 
for the wrigglers (larvae and pupae) as it is for trout or codfish, 
and if there were no standing water, there would be no mosquito 
nuisance. Permanent and deep pools and streams are usually 
stocked with fish and do not breed mosquitoes, because the fish 
will eat the wrigglers, should any hatch there. Rain water pools, 
barrels, buckets, tin cans, bottles and clogged ditches and gutters 
are common breeding places for fresh water mosquitoes, and the 



4 



n. 




Figure 11. Section of rain barrel showing eggs, larvae and adults of the 
rain barrel mosquito. 

shallow depressions on the salt marsh are typical breeding places 
for salt marsh mosquitoes. 



Only the Females Bite and Sing. 

Male mosquitoes are verj^ puny creatures and are not able to 
puncture the human skin. They five onty a short time, and make 
no singing or humming noise. The common sound known as the 
"song" of mosquitoes is made by the females which are also respon- 
sible for all the mosquito bites. They bite in order to obtain blood, 
without wliich they are unable to develop eggs. 



296 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



Life History of Mosquitoes. 

Most mosquitoes lay their eggs on the surface of the water, 
either singly or in raft-Uke masses which float upon the surface. 
On hatching, each larva drops into the water and during its larval 
existence swims about with a jerky motion, most of the time 
holding its head downward. It has a large head with a tube or 
siphon at the tail, and every two minutes or so it comes to the 
surface and inhales some fresh air through this siphon. It feeds 
upon the minute particles of organic matter in the water, from six 
days to three weeks, depending upon the temperature, when it 




Figure 12. Eggs and young larvae of the house or rain barrel mosquito, 
Culex jnpiens, Linn. All enlarged. (After Howard, Bulletin 25, Bureau of 
Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 

transforms to a peculiar hunchback pupa. Breathing is now done 
through two siphons on the thorax instead of one at the tail. In 
about two days the skin cracks open along the back, and the adult 
winged mosquito emerges, and after resting on the old shell and 
drying its wings, soon flies away. Only about a week is necessary 
for a mosquito to develop from egg to adult in hot weather. The 
stages in the life of a mosquito are (1) egg; (2) larva; (3) pupa; 
(4) adult. 

Flight of Mosquitoes. 

With the exception of the salt marsh mosquitoes, a few hundred 
feet is tlie extent of the distance traveled by most mosquitoes. 



MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE. 



297 



Salt marsh mosquitoes (two species) migrate or are wind-borne for 
many miles. In New Jersey they have been found at least thirty 
miles from their breeding place, and in Connecticut eighteen miles. 
During strong winds they seek shelter, but in warm foggy weather, 
gentle breezes may aid them in going inland for several miles. 
After obtaining blood, they return to the salt marsh to deposit their 
eggs. 

Where intensive breeding takes place in polluted streams, the 




Figure 13. The house or rain-barrel mosquito, Culex 'piplens Linn: 1. adult 
female; 2. palpus; 3. anterior, 4. middle, 5. posterior claws of male. All en- 
larged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey Mosquitoes.) 

house mosquito has been found a mile from its breeding place, but 
usually this species does not go more than one-fourth that distance. 



Different Kinds of Mosquitoes. 

There are known to be about 500 different kinds of mosquitoes 
throughout the world; about 100 kinds occur in the United States. 
Nearly 50 species have been recorded from the State of New York, 
and about 25 kinds occur in Connecticut. Of this number, only 
five kinds need here be considered. 



298 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



RAIN BARREL OR HOUSE MOSQUITO 

1. Culex pipiens 

SPOTTED OR MALARIAL MOSQUITO (2 Species) 

2. Anopheles pundipennis 

3. Anopheles quadrimaculatus 

SALT MARSH OR MIGRATORY MOSQUITOES 

4. Brown salt marsh mosquito, Aedes cantator 

5. White-banded sali marsh mosquito, 

Aedes sollicitans 



Breed in fresh water; fly 
only short distances; en- 
ter houses and bite after 
dark. 

Breed in brackish water; 
fly long distances; do 
not enter houses, and 
bite promptly in the 
day time. 




Figure 14. The banded salt marsh mosquito, Culex sollicitans Walk.: 
1. adult female; 2. palpus; 3. anterior, 4. median and 5. posterior claws of 
male. All enlarged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey Mosquitoes.) 



How TO Distinguish Malarial from Other 
Mosquitoes. 

Malarial mosquitoes have spotted wings, the beak and body are 
nearly in a straight Hne, and it "stands on its head". 

Other mosquitoes do not have spotted wings, the beak makes a 
greater angle with the axis of the body and the body is parallel 
with the surface upon which the mosquito stands or rests. 

Larvae or wrigglers in the water may also be distinguished by 
their different shapes. Malarial species are green or gray, He 
horizontally at the surface of the water, and move to other posi- 



MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE. 



299 



tions on the surface without dropping downward into the water. 
Moreover their bodies are nearly as thick at the tail as through the 
head and the breathing tube or siphon is very short. Other 
mosquito larvae hold their heads downward when breathing at the 
surface and if disturbed drop downward into the water. The head 
and thorax are large, from which the body tapers toward the tail 
end, which is furnished with a long siphon. The color is usually 
dirty white or gray. 

The Mosquito Plague of Connecticut. 

The great mosquito plague of Connecticut is caused by the 
abundance of only a few kinds of mosquitoes. A few 3^ears ago 




Figure 15. Larvae of Culex and Anopheles, showing the characteristic position 
of each at the surface of the water. 1. Anopheles; 2. Culex cantator. 



in the southern half of the State, the salt marsh mosquitoes were 
the most prominent, and this is true today except in certain 
sections where the salt marshes have been ditched. In these 
ditched sections and in all other parts of the State, the rain barrel 
or house mosquito is the chief offender. 

At present about one-third of all the salt marsh areas of Con- 
necticut have been ditched and the ditches have been maintained in 
working condition. There still remains some 12,000 to 14,000 
acres of salt niarsh to be ditched before we shall be rid of the 
nuisance of migratory or day-biting mosquitoes. 

The rain barrel mosquito is local in its distribution and breeds 
in rain water pools, receptacles, polluted streams, etc. A single 
bucket of water will furnish enough mosquitoes to infest the 
premises. 



300 connecticut experiment station bulletin 256. 

Control or Relief Measures. 

Rain Barrel Mosquitoes. — Fill or drain all depressions which 
may catch or hold water during the summer months. See that no 
receptacles collect and hold rain water about the premises. Small 
swamp areas and deep depressions which cannot be filled or drained 
except at great expense, may be dredged to form permanent pools 
and stocked with fish. 

Malarial Mosquitoes. — See that edges of springs and streams 
are cleared of vegetation and have steep banks. Screen all houses, 
and particularly all persons having malaria. 

Salt Marsh Mosquitoes. — Cut narrow parallel ditches through 
the salt marsh, from the hard land to the central creek or outlet. 
These usually need to be about 150 feet apart, but the distance 
depends upon the character of the marsh and the amount of breed- 
ing. Special work, such as building dikes, tide gates and deepen- 
ing major outlets are necessary in some cases. In general these 
narrow ditches cost about ten dollars per acre. A slight expense 
each year must be incurred to examine the ditches and remove 
obstructions. 

Oiling. 

Wherever mosquitoes are found breeding in water, it is possible 
to kill all of the wrigglers by spreading a film of oil on the surface. 
This prevents their access to the air and they suffocate. The oil 
also penetrates their respiratory system and injures their tissues. 
Kerosene is the cheapest oil for this purpose which is readily and 
universally available. Light fuel oil may be obtained from oil 
stations in the larger cities. Old cylinder oil from garages may 
be used if mixed with an equal quantity of kerosene. A spray 
pump is the common agency for spreading the oit; though in small 
pools a sprinkling can or saturated sawdust may be used. One 
fluid ounce of kerosene will cover about 15 square feet of surface. 

OiUng is only a temporary expedient and should not be practiced 
except in special cases. On the salt marsh in a single season it 
would cost about one-fourth as much to oil the pools as it would to 
cut ditches, but the ditches would last for years and make further 
oiling unnecessary. 



Mosquito Enemies. 

Fish feed upon mosquito wrigglers, particularly small fish such as 
"minnows" and "killies" which eat animal food and feed near the 
surface. By cleaning the banks of deep pools and sluggish streams, 
and stocking with these fish no mosquitoes will breed there. There 
are also many aquatic insects which devour mosquito larvae. 



MOSQUITOES AND HUMAN WELFARE. 



301 



Individual and Community Effort. 

The control of the fresh water species hke the malarial and rain 
barrel mosquitoes which fly only short distances, is a matter for 
each individual resident and property owner, though far more will 
be accomphshed if all individuals work together toward the same 
end. This is largely a problem of house to house inspection, with 
control measures practiced where needed. 

It is a commendable line of activity for local civic and village 
improvement associations, boy and girl scouts and women's clubs 




Figure 16. A malarial mosquito, Anopheles jmndipetinis. 1. adult female; 
2. palpus; 3. genitalia; 4. part of mng vein, sho-ning scales; 5. anterior, and 
6. middle claws of male. AH enlarged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey 
Mosquitoes.) 



to co-operate with the Experiment Station. Surveys can be made 
in each neighborhood to ascertain where mosquitoes are breeding. 
When mosquitoes are especially troublesome, specimens should be 
collected and sent to the Station for identification. There is al- 
ready legislation (Section 2408 of the Re\ased Statutes) declaring 
accumulations of water in which mosquitoes breed a public 
nuisance, and authorizing the health officer to order them abohshed. 



302 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

Salt Marsh Mosquito Problem A State- Wide Matter. 

As the mosquitoes of the salt marsh are migratory and often fiy 
long distances, isolated individual or even community effort counts 
for but little in controlling the plague. Even efforts involving 
entire townships, though commendable, do not bring the maximum 
degree of reHef unless other towns also act in the matter. Some 
towns will take no action, either on account of cost or because the 
people do not expect effective results. Consequently when left 
entirely to local initiative, the work is apt to be spotted and dis- 
connected if any is done at all. Thus the salt marsh area of 
Connecticut has been ditched from the New York line as far east- 
ward as Westport, which is still unditched, Fairfield, Bridgeport, 
a part of Stratford, West Haven, New Haven, a part of East 
Haven, from Branford River to Hammonasset River with small 
areas in Old Saybrook and Groton, have all been ditched. Some 
of the areas mentioned above are not yet under State supervision. 
In order to make the work continuous and to obtain the full 
benefit of the ditching already done, the towns of Westport, Strat- 
ford, Milford, parts of East Haven and Branford, Clinton, and all 
towns to the eastward should have their salt marshes ditched. 

Legislation has already been enacted (see Section 2409 of the 
ReAdsed Statutes and Chapter 68, Public Acts of 1923) providing 
for, and authorizing the Director of the Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station to ditch salt and fresh marshes and maintain 
the same. He can make investigations and furnish estimates, 
supervision, etc., upon request. In case the ditching work has 
been accompUshed, he will inspect it upon request. If it merits 
his approval, he will accept it officially and see that it is properly 
maintained at State expense. 

Benefits of Mosquito Control. 

Health. — Eradication of malaria bearing mosquitoes will 
prevent the spread of malaria in any community, town or state. 
Other native species of mosquitoes, though not known to carry 
disease-causing organisms, are a detriment to health because their 
bites sometimes become infected, and because of the irritating 
effect on the nervous system. 

Comfort. — No person can be comfortable when attacked by 
hordes of mosquitoes. Whole regions have been developed, 
neglected or abandoned because of the absence or abundance of 
mosquitoes. 

Increased Property Values. — Wherever the mosquito nuisance 
has been controlled, substantial increases in property values have 
followed. This is a logical result of making building sites more 
desirable because people can be more comfortable there. The 
increased population means increased business, increased trans- 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 303 

portation, and better yet, increased taxes for the town and for the 
State. 

Increased Crops. — Wherever salt or fresh marshes are ditched 
the quahty of the vegetation is improved; it makes better hay. 
The quantity is also increased, giving a greater yield. It has been 
shown in New Jersey that by ditching the yield of salt marsh hay 
has been increased from two to twenty fold. 

Send Specimens For Identification. 

If anyone is interested in the mosquito problem of his locahty 
and wishes to know whether malarial mosquitoes are present, he is 
requested to collect adult mosquitoes and send them for identifica- 
tion to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New 
Haven, Conn. They should be mailed in a pill box or vial, well 
packed so that they will not becoms crushed in transit. Mosquitoes 
which are badly worn or broken cannot readily be identified, but 
if the material is fresh and plentiful (10 to 20 specimens) there 
should be no difficulty in identifying the species. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 

Season of 1923. 

By R. C. BoTSFORD. 

Legislation. 

The State law providing for the ehmination of mosquitoes. 
Chapter 21, Pubhc Acts of 1919 (see 1919 Report, Connecticut 
State Entomologist, page 194) was amended by the 1923 Legisla- 
ture to read as follows : 

Chapter 68. 

Section 1. Section 2409 of the general statutes is amended to read as 
follows: The director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 
may make rules and orders concerning the ehmination of mosquitoes and 
mosquito breeding places, and he or his agent may enter upon any swamp, 
marsh or land to ascertain if mosquitoes breed thereon or to survey, drain 
fill or otherwise treat, or make anj'- excavation or structm-e necessary to 
eliminate mosquito breeding on, such land, \\lienever funds have been 
provided by voluntary contribution or by appropriation by the state for the 
ehmination of mosquitoes or mosquito breeding places said director may order 
the execution of such work upon notice as herein provided. At least thirty 
days before commencing such work, said director shall file a copy of such order, 
with a description of the place or area affected and a statement of the proposed 
plan thereof, in the to'mi clerk's office in each town in which such place or 
area is located. Said director shall pubUsh a copy of such order once each 
week for two successive weeks in some newspaper ha-ving a circulation in the 
town or towns in which such place or area is situated, and shall maU a copy of 
such notice, postage prepaid, by registered mail, addressed to each record 
owner of land whose name and address may be ascertained by a reasonable 
inquiry from the assessors of the town in which such land is situated. Said 



304 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

director may, and upon application of any person affected by such order or 
plan, within thirty days after such pubhcation, shall, assess damages sustained 
by the owner of any such land. Such assessment shall be filed by said director 
with the clerk of the superior court of the county within which the land 
affected is located, and said clerk shall give notice of such assessment to each 
such property owner, by maiUng to him a copy of such assessment, postage 
prepaid. Any person claiming to be aggrieved because of such order or pro- 
posed plan or such assessment may, within ten days after notice, apply to the 
superior court in the county in which such land is situated, or any judge 
thereof, for relief, and said court or such judge may, after notice to said 
director and parties applying for relief, and hearing thereon, make any proper 
order concerning such order or proposed plan, or make a reassessment of 
damages. Said court or judge may view the land claimed to be affected by 
such order or plan and may take any evidence in his opinion material. The 
order, plan and assessment as hereinbefore provided for shall be conclusive 
upon all parties affected thereby, and the state treasurer shall pay to any such 
owner the damages assessed by said director or by said court or judge, as the 
case may be, upon certification of the amount by the clerk of said court. The 
pendency of any appUcation for the assessment of damages shall not prevent 
or delay the execution of the work for the elimination of mosquitoes or mos- 
quito breeding. Upon the completion, to the satisfaction of said director, of 
any such work, said director shall certify to the comptroller, with proper 
vouchers, the amount of such costs, and the comptroller shall draw his order 
on the treasurer for the payment of the same. 

Sec. 2. Section 2410 of the general statutes, as amended by chapter 21 
of the pubhc acts of 1919, is amended to read as follows: Whenever any 
swamp, marsh or other land has been drained to the approval of the director 
of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, he shall keep the same 
in repair and free from obstruction, and construct or repair tide gates or other- 
wise treat such areas so as to make such work effective. Said director may 
appoint one or more deputies to supervise the work done under the provisions 
of this and the preceding section, who may exercise the 'authority granted to 
such director. The expenses of said director and said deputies in carrying 
out the provisions of this and the preceding section shall be paid from funds 
provided by voluntary contributions or from funds appropriated by the state 
for such purpose. The comptroller may advance to said director such amounts 
within the appropriations therefor, as are necessary to meet the current ex- 
penses for labor authorized under the provisions of this and the preceding 
section. Any person obstructing the work of examining, surveying or ditching 
or otherwise treating such mosquito breeding areas, or obstructing any ditch, 
canal or drain, or the natural outlet of any marsh forming mosquito breeding 
areas, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more 
than ninety days or both. 

Approved April 17, 1923. 

Under the old law, the cost of maintenance, not to exceed one 
dollar per acre in any one town, was paid by the State, and the town 
wherein the work was done reimbursed the State for three-fourths 
of the amount so expended for maintenance. This added about 
$2,500.00 to $3,000.00 to the regular appropriation. 

The new law, which went into effect on July 1, 1923, provides 
that the State pay all expense of maintaining drained areas which 
have been approved by the Director. The sum of $12,000.00 was 
appropriated for mosquito elimination work during the two-year 
period from July 1, 1923 to June 30, 1925. 

The total expenditure for the year was $8,944.87. Owing to the 
change in law this year, a detailed account of the above would be 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 305 

too bulky to be included in this report. The Director's Report for 
1923 covers the first half of the year, and his 1924 Report will in- 
clude the remainder. 

GBisTERAL Conditions. 

Mr. S. T. Sealj^, who has served as Deputy in Charge of the work 
for three years, resigned to take effect March 31, 1923, and Mr. 
B. H. Walden was placed in charge of this work temporarily. On 
July 1, 1923, Director Slate appointed the writer Deputy in Charge. 

The general spring inspection showed much of the drainage work 
in poor condition. Many of the culverts at beach outlets were 
badly damaged and in some cases completely destroyed. The 
tide gates and dikes were found to be in fair condition, with the 
exception of the Stony Creek dike, which was badly damaged. 

Although it is unlawful for any person to interfere with the free 
flow of water in any drainage system under State maintenance, 
the usual number of obstructions in cUtches were found, caused by 
the careless dumping of rubbish, and by farmers and trappers. In 
many cases the outlets of ditches became clogged by a thick growth 
of sedge grass. The result is that some sections of the ditch tend 
to fill with mud, upon which grass takes root, the water is held 
back upon the marsh and breeding pools form. Thus in one season 
a neglected ditch may become a source of mosquito breeding. 

For recutting ditches, a simple trimming tool was made con- 
sisting of two hay knives bolted to a light brace wliich held the 
blades in a parallel position the width of a ditch. A longer handle 
was attached for ease in operating. With this tool (shown on 
Plate XXI, a) both sides of a grass grown ditch could be trimmed 
at the same time. Several thovisand feet of ditches were reclaimed 
this fall. 

The absence of rain was a factor in preventing marsh pool 
breeding, although in some localities the continuous high tides 
offset this advantage. In every case where breeding was dis- 
covered, measures were taken to destroy the larvae and make 
their recurrence impossible. 

The success of the anti-mosquito work this season is largel}^ due 
to individuals, associations and towns contributing money and 
reporting mosquito infestations, also the co-operation of city 
departments, town officials, the board of health and others. 

The Work By Toaatsts. 

new haven. 

The salt marsh mosquito breeding in this section was confined 
to an area in the Quinnipiac marsh north of Little River, the tide 
water being held back in about 80 acres of marsh by stones under 
Little River bridge at Middletown Avenue. The Bridge Depart- 
ment removed some of the stones and the water was lowered about 
ten inches. More stones will be removed next year. 



306 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

No breeding was observed on the West River meadows. The 
harbor marsh and the ditched sections at Morris Creek were also 
kept free. Scattered breeding occurred at Fort Hale by reason 
of grass grown ditches and the high tide gate sill at the moat outlet. 
Upon request, the Park Department lowered the tide gate sill 
about seven inches. All of the ditches south of the Fort Hale 
road were recut this fall. 

There was practically no mosquito breeding in other park 
property this season, although some Anopheles (malaria mosquitoes) 
larvae were discovered in Edgewood Park. The drainage system 
being installed at Beaver Swamp by the Park Department has 
eliminated the prolific Anopheles breeding there. One pool in that 
locality breeding Culex (house mosquito) was oiled. Many 
possible breeding places in the city parks have been filled. 

WEST HAVEN. 

Before work could be started this season a large brood of mos- 
quitoes developed in the Old Field Creek marsh and infested the 
town. The tide gate at Beach Street was found badly damaged 
and blocked with a quantity of large stones. A large sand bar 
beyond the gate had completely closed the outlet to the harbor. 
The marsh above was flooded and much sewage was present. 
These conditions were ideal for mosquito breeding. Much labor 
was expended in this area keeping the outlet open, the tide gate in 
working order, and cleaning and recutting grass grown and mud 
filled ditches. In spite of our efforts, which were hampered by 
lack of funds, some scattered breeding was present throughout the 
season. The drainage system in the marsh is difficult to maintain 
on account of the frequent closing of the outlet by "shifting sand. 
This results in the ditches filling with mud which in turn quickly 
grasses over. The outlet from the gate to the harbor should be 
deepened about two feet and a sluiceway installed to extend beyond 
the sand bar. A new tide gate is required and the creek should be 
dredged from Beach Street to Peck Avenue. 

The other marshes in this section were kept free from breeding. 

EAST HAVEN. 

The two ditched areas of salt marsh in this section under State 
maintenance, one at Morris Creek and one at Silver Sands east of 
Carohne Creek, were kept free of mosquito breeding during the 
whole season. There was considerable breeding in the marsh near 
West Silver Sands not under State maintenance. These mosqui- 
toes were troublesome periodically throughout the treated as well 
as the untreated areas. 

The Town of East Haven has installed 978 feet of 18-inch corru- 
gated iron pipe in Cosey Beach Avenue, extending from the 
property of Philip Smith to an extension of Caroline Creek. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 307 

The Connecticut Company has completed the filHng of its marsh 
area at Momauguin including the ditch between this property and 
Philip Smith's which formerly carried the drainage water from a 
large swamp north of the road leading to South End. Adequate 
means of handling this water are to be provided by the property 
owners and connected to the 18 inch pipe laid by the town. 

The State Rifle Range was inspected on June 12. Owing to the 
lack of rain nearly all of the depressions that hold water in an 
ordinary season were dry, and no mosquito larvae were found. 
There were many fresh water mosquitoes present which had 
emerged earlier in the season. These were especiall}^ abundant 
in the wooded or brush areas. In the open spaces many salt 
marsh mosquitoes were observed which had undoubtedly come 
from the undrained salt marshes in the southern part of the town . 



BRAN FORD. 

Labor for maintenance of this section was furnished by ]Mr. L. E. 
Rice. In some cases mosquitoes got on the wing before the areas 
could be treated. At Sunset Beach the natural outlet was found 
to be closed by large rocks which were removed at considerable 
cost. The Sybil Creek marsh north of the tide gates on the Indian 
Neck road was covered with water. This situation was partly 
corrected by lowering the bed of the creek under the road bridge. 
Many of the ditches in this area were filled with soft mud and 
grassed over, creating breeding pools on the marsh surface and in 
ditches. Several thousand feet of ditches were recut and deepened. 
No breeding was discovered on other marshes in this section. 

The large marsh at Stonj^ Creek has been flooded all the season 
due to a broken dike. Presumably there was some l^reeding on 
this marsh which accounts for some complaints of mosquitoes in 
Stony Creek Center. State funds were insufficient to repair this 
dike, but the meadow owners and some public spirited summer 
residents contributed generously and the dike was repaired. The 
ditches in this marsh are badly damaged, and it is doubtful if they 
can be reconditioned next spring in time to prevent early breeding . 
The tide gates at Hubbard's Bridge on the Branford River need 
repairs. 

GUILFORD. 

Maintenance work was started promptly in this section by Mr. 
Frank Blatchley and continued throughout the season. No 
breeding was discovered and no complaints received. 

Several hundred feet of ditches were recut in the vicinity of Shell 
Beach and a bad leak under the tide gate sill at Great Harbor 
stopped. The labor was furnished by one of the summer residents. 
The area of this section is too great to be properly maintained by 
one man, and some of the ditches have become grass grown and 



308 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

filled with mud. This condition will produce breeding pools in a 
wet season. 

MADISON. 

The only serious outbreak of mosquitoes in this section occurred 
early at the Hammonasset State Park. These were troublesome 
periodically throughout the first half of the summer. Oil and labor 
were furnished by the State Park Commission and millions of 
larvae in clogged ditches and marsh pools were destroyed. As 
soon as the offending ditches were cleaned and graded, no further 
breeding occurred. Plans are under way to carry on a vigorous 
anti-mosquito campaign at Hammonasset next year in co-operation 
with the State Park and Forest Commission. 

No breeding was discovered in other marsh areas of this section, 
and no complaints were received. Much additional labor will be 
required to recondition some of the ditches, which during a nor- 
mally wet season will no doubt become a source of mosquito 
breeding. 

The most important part of mosquito control work in this section 
consists of keeping the several beach outlets open. This was 
accomplished during the entire season by Mr. Russell Bartlett and 
but little time remained to patrol the marsh sections properly. 
This section is too large for one man to maintain at this time owing 
to gradual deterioration of the drainage works. 

The culverts at the beach outlets have been damaged or totally 
destroyed at some previous time by storms. When these are 
replaced the labor expended in opening these outlets every few 
days will go far in reconditioning and maintaining the ditches in 
the potential areas. 

WESTBROOK. 

This year the Town of Westbrook appropriated $1,000.00 to 
start mosquito elimination work in this section. This amount 
has been increased by generous contributions from a few public 
spirited citizens. The money was turned over to the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station, under whose supervision the 
ditching of the marshes will proceed. 

The long search for suitable labor delayed the start of ditching 
until December 12. Work was begun on December 12 in Rushy 
Meadow at Middle Beach. In order to remove the surface water 
from this flooded and soggy area, about 1,770 feet of old ditches 
were first recut and deepened. The old ditches were not sufficient 
to remove all of the pools and 756 feet of new ten inch ditches were 
cut. Later these ditches will be deepened as required. The out- 
let of this marsh will require the installation of a 100 foot culvert to 
carry the water beyond the point of moving sand. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK. 309 

On the small marsh east of the property owned by Mr. Thomas 
Fisk, 441 feet of old ditches were recut and 510 feet of new ditches 
dug. The creek bed was widened and graded. A culvert will be 
required here as at Middle Beach. At the athletic field, 681 feet 
of old ditches were recut and 291 feet of new ditches dug. A total 
of 5,112 lineal feet of ditching was installed this year, much of which 
will require deepening to secure proper drainage. 

Ditching was begun on the Broad Creek marsh and on the Lewis 
marsh south of the railroad track. All the new ditches in this 
section are being cut with hay knives, using a plank ten inches 
wide as a guide for cutting the sides of the ditch. The sods are 
pulled out with potato hooks and a satisfactory ditch is obtained 
after the bottom is graded. 

The drainage work of Rushy Meadow and the Fisk marsh will be 
completed early next season if no further difficulties develop. 
These two marshes were found to be the most poorly drained salt 
marsh areas in Westbrook. Thej' will no doubt prove to be the 
most costly to drain per acre and the most costly to maintain. 
As soon as the drainage of an area is completed and approved by 
the Director of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 
the drainage works of that area will be maintained at State expense. 

The other Westbrook marshes are dotted with stagnant pools 
and it is doubtful if much rehef from mosquitoes will be afforded 
by the present expenditure. 



OLD SAYBROOK. 

A small ditched marsh area at Fenwick under private mainte- 
nance was inspected this fall, but owing to the high tide at that time 
the exact condition of the ditches could not be determined accur- 
ately. 

GROTON. 

The ditched area at Groton Long Point under State maintenance 
was thoroughly patrolled. On account of the foot bridge over the 
marsh outlet ha-\dng been washed away, large stones had been 
rolled in for crossing. -This interfered with the free movement of 
water and the stones were removed each trip. A road culvert was 
found closed due to careless dumping of rubbish, and some breed- 
ing resulted in the flooded area. Some of the ditches will be recut 
next season. 

FAIRFIELD. 

The drained salt marsh areas in this section under State main- 
tenance were kept in good condition throughout the season by Mr. 
Nicholas Matiuck, with an average cj'ew of two men. Nine hundred 
gallons of light fuel oil were purchased from the Standard Oil Com- 



310 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

pany by contract. Breeding places in salt marshes and especially 
in the fresh water areas which could not be otherwise treated were 
oiled throughout the season. The breeding of salt marsh mos- 
quitoes has been reduced to a minimum. 

The fresh water problem of this section is under the immediate 
supervision of Dr. V. Havard, Secretary of the Fairfield Improve- 
ment Association, with Nicholas Matiuck in charge of the field 
work. 

In 1922, a survey of the fresh water breeding places was made in 
this section including an estimate of the amount of labor and 
material required for treatment. Much public interest was aroused 
and generous contributions were received. During 1922, $1,081.94 
was spent by the Association to treat these fresh water areas. All 
of this fresh water work was instigated and carried out by the Fair- 
field Improvement Association, to which great credit is due. The 
oil and the services of Nicholas Matiuck were contributed by the 
State. 

In 1923, the Town of Fairfield appropriated $2,000.00 to carry 
on the work. The anti-mosquito activities in Fairfield have 
proven very successful and other towns are recommended to 
follow its example. 

STAMFORD. 

The salt marshes in this section were carefully patrolled by 
Nicholas Matiuck with an average crew of two men. The ditches 
were kept open and marshes were properly drained the whole 
season. 

The City of Stamford continued its treatment of the fresh water 
areas. 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 

Swarms of Butterflies. — On August 25, specimens of the milk- 
weed or monarch butterfly, Anosia plexippus Linn., were received 
from Mrs. Edw. B. Rogers, Southport, who wrote that these 
butterflies were extremely abundant and lighted upon maple and 
other trees. These butterflies often migrate in large numbers and 
there are several accounts in entomological journals where swarms 
have passed the night on trees and shrubs. 

Giant Water Bug. — On July 19, Mr. Pierrepont B. Foster of 
Hamden brought to the Station a large aquatic bug which had 
attacked and killed a gold fish in liis pool. This bug was Letho- 
cerus americanus Leidy, known as the giant water bug or electric 
light bug. It is aquatic during its immature stages but when it has 
reached the adult stage, it often leaves the water and flies about 
arc lights at night. It is predaceous in all stages. 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 311 

European House Cricket. — On April 14, specimens were brought 
to the writer from an apartment house on George Street, New 
Haven, of the European house cricket, Gryllus domesticus Linn. 
(See Plate XXIII, b) . This insect was said to be extremely abun- 
dant in the basement of the building. The individuals could be 
found in the cracks and crevices of the masonry walls and the 
tenants were greatly disturbed on account of the infestation. After 
conferring with the writer, the owner made applications of some 
prepared roach powder with a blower, and reported that the treat- 
ment seemed to be successful. 

The Birch Leaf Skeletonizer. — This insect has continued to be 
prevalent and has skeletonized the leaves of gray birch trees 
throughout the State. Other species of birches were attacked 
but were not so conspicuously browa as were the gray birches. 
The injury was about the same in 1923 as in 1922, and is caused 
by a small moth called the birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix 
canadensisella Chambers. The life history of this insect has not 
been completely worked out. It is the larvae feeding upon the 
leaves which cause the injury, and if choice shade trees are sprayed 
with lead arsenate late in July or early in August, this injury will 
be prevented. 

Spruce Leaf -Miner. — On May 7, spruce twigs were received 
from the F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company of Stamford, the 
leaves of which had been mined by the spruce leaf-miner, Recur- 
varia piceaella Kearf. Descriptions and life history notes regard- 
ing this species may be found in a paper b}^ W. D. Kearf ott in the 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. XI, page 
151, 1903. It is said to attack red spruce in the New England 
States and black spruce in northern New Jersey. The larva is red 
on dorsal lateral and ventral surfaces, with a dark green patch on 
the dorsum of each abdominal segment. Head and thoracic 
shield, pale brown. No remedy is known. 

European Pine Shoot Moth in Connecticut.— On November 
24, Mr. Filley brought to the laboratory from Ridgefield, some 
twigs of red or Norway pine, Pinus resinosa, which had been 
deformed and the buds eaten in the manner caused b}^ the Euro- 
pean pine shoot moth, Evetria huoliana Schiff. No insects were 
found in this material, but on October 13, twigs of the same species 
of pine injured in the same manner were received from Tarrytown, 
N, Y., containing two brown larvae which we were able to identify 
as E. huoliana. The larvae destroy the buds and this induces the 
lateral shoots to grow, and many of them become curved, twisted 
and distorted. Though it seems to prefer the red pine here, it 
also attacks other pines especially the Scotch, white, Austrian and 
Mugho pines. 



312 CONNECTICUT EXPEEIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

The Box Leaf -Miner. — On November 23, specimens of box 
twigs were received from the Harkness Estate, Waterford, in- 
fested with the box leaf-miner, Monarthropalpus huxi Labou. 
The infested leaves were somewhat curled and showed on the upper 
surface some indications of irregular mines within. On dissecting, 
the upper epidermis separated easily from the lower and there were 
many small whitish green maggots between the layers as is shown 
on Plate XXIII, a. Dr. Garman visited the place a few days later 
with a view to studying the insect and testing control measures, 
but the conditions were not quite suitable for this purpose. The 
remedies recommended are to spray the foliage thoroughly about 
May 1 with a miscible oil, one part in 20 parts water, to which is 
added one pint of 40 per cent, nicotine sulphate per each 50 gallons 
of mixture. This treatment should be repeated about a week 
later. In Maryland, success was obtained by spraying the fohage 
at the time the adults emerge, with molasses diluted one part to 
three parts of water, this mixture entangling the flies as they 
emerged or before laying eggs. 

Apple and Thorn Skeletonizer. — Full information regarding 
this insect may be found in Bulletin 246 of this Station, issued 
in June, 1923. During the season of 1923 there has been abundant 
opportunity for observing the work of this insect, which has now 
spread over the entire State. " Professor A. E. Stene, State Ento- 
mologist of Rhode Island, informed the writer that the pest occurs in 
Rhode Island. The writer observed injury to apple trees beside 
the highway in going between Westerly and Providence, R. I., 
on August 16, which he attributed to this insect. At a conference 
in Boston, Mass., August 17, apple twigs injured by it and collected 
on the Massachusetts north shore were shown to the writer. There- 
fore it has spread throughout southern New England in three or 
four seasons. 

The latter part of July during the summer meeting of the Ento- 
mologists of the Northeastern United States, which was held in 
Connecticut, the apple trees between New Haven and Hartford 
were brown from the feeding of the larvae of the second brood. 
Certain trees near New Haven, however, were not so seriously 
injured as in 1922. 

Swarms of the Chain-Dotted Geometer. — On the evening of 

September 27 and for a few nights thereafter, swarms of thin 
whitish moths gathered around the "white way" Hghts in the center 
of New Haven. The attention of the writer was called to the 
matter by one of the newspapers, and on investigation the insect 
was found to be the chain-dotted geometer, Cingilia catenaria 
Drury. Smaller numbers of these moths were found during the 
daytime clinging to lamp posts, the walls of buildings or on the 
sidewalks. The caterpillars of this moth feed upon the leaves of 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 313 

bayberry and sweet fern, when abundant, often defoliating these 
shrubs. They are slender yellowish larvae, with two conspicuous 
black spots just above each spiracle, and dorsally striped length- 
wise with faint narrow lines. When fully grown they are from oixe 
and one-half to one and three-fourths inches in length. The pupa 
is enclosed in a loose net fastened to the leaves. The moth has a 
wing-spread of about one and one-half inches, is white, with chains 
of black dots across the wings. Larva, pupa and adult are shown 
on Plate XXIV. 

Flight of Cotton Moths. — On September 12 and 13 there were 
swarms of cotton moths, Alabama argillacea Hubn., in New Haven, 
Bridgeport, Stamford and doubtless other cities and towns of the 
State. They fluttered around the stronger hghts during the night 
time and in day time were resting often head downward on the 
plate glass store windows, walls of buildings and lamp posts. 
Similar flights have been noted in former vears, and in the Report 
of this Station for 1911, page 339, and for 1912, page 217, are 
notes regarding the appearance of this moth in Connecticut in 
those seasons. The moth is a uniform light reddish brown with 
white discal spots on the fore wings. When resting the wings are 
folded in the shape of a double roof (a) and the moths present a 
trim and attractive appearance. The caterpillars are known as 
''cotton worms" in the southern States and are not known to feed 
on other plants. In some seasons the}' are extremeh' numerous 
in the cotton States, and the adults migrate northward often in 
enormous numbers and are sometimes reported from many of the 
northern States and Canada, usually in September and October. 
This insect is not known to hibernate in the United States, unless 
possibly in Texas. The adult is shown on Plate XXIV, d. 

A Japanese Weevil in Connecticut. — On July 29, 1920, Messrs. 
Zappe and Walden while inspecting nursery stock in a nursery 
in New Haven, collected some curious fat brown weevils which 
were new to the Station collection, and which were unfamiliar to 
Mr. Zappe. Mr. Zappe collected more of the same species on 
July 26, 27 and 30, 1921, and on June 24 and July 21 and 27, 1922. 
Mr. Walden also collected one specimen on July 21, 1922. In 
1923, some collecting was done in the vicinity but no specimens of 
this weevil were obtained. Specimens were sent to ]Mr. H. C. 
Fall, who repHed that it was probably introduced from some other 
country. On May 15, 1922, the writer took some specimens to 
Mr. E. A. Schwarz at the U. S. National ^luseum, Washington, 
D. C. Mr. Schwarz stated that the species was not represented 
in the National Museum and that it might be difficult and take 
considerable time to identify it. On May 28, 1923, IMr. Zappe took 
some specimens to the American Musemn of Natural History in 
New York City and left them with Mr. A. J. iMutchler, who said 



314 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 256. 

he would show them to Mr. C. W. Leng and possibly between them 
they might be able to fix its identity. Not succeeding, Mr. 
Mutchler afterward sent it to Dr. G. A. K. Marshall of the British 
Museum, London, who replied in part as follows : 

"The insect is, as your information suggested, a Japanese species, Pseudoc- 
neorrhinus setosus Roelofs. I am not aware, however, that anything has been 
recorded with regard to its habits or hfe history. I trust that it has not yet 
estabhshed itself in the United States." 

According to the observations of Mr. Zappe, the adults feed 
upon the leaves of burr marigold, Bidens sp. So far we have been 
unable to obtain any information about the immature stages of this 
insect. The adult is shown on Plate XXIV, e. 

Authorship. 

For bibliographical purposes all notes and articles in this Report (Bulletin 
256) should be credited to W. E. Britton, except where otherwise indicated. 

Illustrations. 

The illustrations in this Report (Bulletin 256) are from the following 
sources: text figures are all from drawings as follows: Fig. 9, map drawn by 

A. E. Moss, shaded by Stoddard Engraving Company; Fig. 10, drawn by 

B. H. Walden; Fig. 11 drawn by Philip Garman; Fig. 12 after Howard, Bul- 
letin 25, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Figs. 13, 
14 and 16 after Smith, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station; Fig. 15 
drawn by L. H. Joutel. The plates are all from photographs from the follow- 
ing sources: XXI, c, and XXII, b, by R. C. Botsford; XI, a, and XIII, by 
W. E. Britton; XIX, a, XX, c. and XXII, a, by Philip Garman; X, b, by 
G. H. Hollister; XIV, XV and XVI by J. Leslie Rogers; XVIII, a, by 
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture;, all others by B. 
H. Walden. 



INDEX. 



Aedes cantator, 298, 299 

sollicitans, 298 
Alabama argillacea, 313 
Alsophila pometaria, 236 
Anarsia lineatella, 285 
Anomala lucicola, 292 

marginata, 233 

orientalis, 228, 233, 291 
Anopheles punctipennis, 298, 301 

quadrimaculatus, 298 
Anosia plexippus, 310 
Anur aphis roseus, 231 
Aphids, birch leaf, 235, 293 

brown, 235 

cabbage, 233 

chestnut, 242 

green apple, 231, 242 

larch leaf, 235 

pea, 233 

pine, 242 

potato, 233 

rosy apple, 231 

spiraea, 242 

spruce gall, 240, 242 

turnip, 232 

woolly, 235, 242 
Aphis betulaecolens, 235 

pomi, 231 

pseudobrassicae, 232 
Aporia crataegi, 246 
Apple maggot, 231 
Apple scab, 242 
Argyresthia thuiella, 234 
Aspidiotus perniciosus, 231 
Attagenus pi.ceus, 236 
Bag worm, 232 
Beetle, Asiatic, 233, 291 

black carpet, 236 

ehn leaf, 234 

Japanese, 293 

poplar and willow, 234 

rose leaf, 236 

striped cucumber, 233 
Birch Bucculatrix, 242 
Blister rust, 242 
Borer, European corn, 228, 230, 233, 

277 

lilac, 242 

peach, 229, 242, 276 

peach twig, 285 

poplar, 242 

rhododendron, 237 

squash vine, 233 

stalk, 232 * 



Brevicoryne brassicae, 233 
Brown colaspis, 233 
Bucculatrix canadensisella, 235, 311 
Calaphis betulaecolens, 293 
Cedar rust, 242 
Chain-dotted Geometer, 312 
Chermes abietis, 240, 242 

cooleyi, 240, 242 

strobilobius, 235 
Chionaspis euonyyni, 236 

pinifoliae, 235 
Chloridea obsoleta, 232 
Chrysanthemum gall midge, 236 
Cingilia catenaria, 312 
Colaspis brunnea, 233 
Coleophora fletcherella, 288 

laricella, 234, 288 
Conotrachelus nenuphar, 229, 231 
Corn ear worm, 232 
Crown gall, 242, 247 
Cucumber flea beetle, 233 
Culex pipiens, 296 

sollicitans, 298 
Curculio, plum, 228, 229, 231 

poplar, 242 
Cutworms, 232 
Datana integerrima, 235 
Diabrotica vittata, 233 
Diarthronomyia hypogaea, 236 
Diprion simile, 234 
Dolhichiza populea, 240 
Emphytus cinclus, 246 
Empoa rosae, 231 
Epitrix cucumens, 233 
Eriophyes pyri, 231 
Euceraphis deducta, 235, 293 
European house cricket, 236, 311 
European pine shoot moth, 235, 311 
Evetria buoliana, 235, 311 
Fall canker-worm, 236 
Fall web-worm, 236 
False apple red bug, 231 
Financial Statements, 225, 266 
Fire blight, 242 
Four-lined leaf bug, 236 
Galerucella luteola, 234 
Giant water bug. 310 
Gipsy moth, 230, 239 

parasites, 265 

statistics of infestations, 262 
Grape vine tomato gall, 232 
Gryllus domesticus, 236, 311 
Hemerophila pariana, 230 



316 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION 



BULLETIN 256. 



House centipede, 236 
Hylemyia cilicrura, 232 
Hyphantria cunea, 236 
Illinoia pisi, 233 
Inspection, Apiaries, 247 

Imported nursery stock, 245 

Nurseries, 239 
Japanese weevil, 313 
Lace bugs, 242 
Lasioptera vitis, 232 
Laspeyresia molesta, 230, 232, 242, 284 
Leaf-miner, arbor-vitae, 234, 242 

box, 237, 312 

larch, 234, 288 

spruce, 235, 311 
Lepidosaphes ulmi, 234, 240 
Lethocerus americanus, 310 
Lina scripta, 242 
Lygidea mendax, 231 
Lygus pratensis, 231 
Macrodadylus subspinosus, 231 
Macrosiphum solanifolii, 233 
Malacosoma aniericana, 231 
Melanoplus femur-rubrum, 233 
Melanoxantherium sp., 235 
Mellitia satyriniformis, 233 
Mildew on rose, 242 
Milkweed butterfly, 310 
Mite, box elder, 242 

European red, 228, 231, 242 
Monarthropalpus buxi, 237, 312 
Mosaic, raspberry, 242 
Mosquitoes, 294 

Control work, 300, 303 

Legislation, 303 
Moth, brown-tail, 230 

cotton, 313 

gipsy, 230, 239 

Oriental peach, 230, 232, 284 
Nodonota puncticollis, 236 
Oak leaf-roller, 234 
Papaipetna nitela, 232 
Paratetranychus pilosus, 228, 231 
Pear leaf blister mite, 231 
Pear psylla, 231 
Phenacoccus acericola, 234 
Phyllaphis fagi, 235 
Pissodes strobi, 234 
Plagiodera versicolora, 234 
Poecilocapsus lineatiis, 236 
Popillia japonica, 293 
Poplar canker, 240, 241, 242 



Potato flea beetle, 233 
Prociphilus tessellata, 235 
Pseudocneorrhinus setosus, 314 
Psylla pyricola, 231 
Pyrausta nubilalis, 230, 233, 277 
Quarantine, 280 
Railroad worm, 231 
Raspberry fruit worm, 228 
Reculitermes flavipes, 237 
Recurvaria piceaella, 235, 311 
Red-humped caterpillar, 232 
Red-legged grasshopper, 233 
Rhagoletis pomonella, 231 
Rose chafer, 231 
Rose leaf hopper, 231 
Sawfly, arbor-vitae, 242 

imported pine, 234, 242 

willow, 242 
Scale, elm, 242 

Euonymus, 236, 242 

Lecanium corni, 242 

oak gall scale, 242 

oyster-shell, 234, 240, 242 

pine leaf, 235, 242 

rose, 242 

San Jose, 231, 242 

scurfy, 242 

tulip tree, 242 

West Indian peach, 242 

white elm, 242 

woolly maple leaf, 234 
Schizura concinna, 232 
Scolia manilae, 293 
Scutigera forceps, 236 
Seed corn maggot, 232 
Sesia rhododendri, 237 
Skeletonizer, apple and thorn, 230, 242 

312 

birch leaf, 235, 311 
Squash bug, 233 
Synanthedon exitiosa, 276 
Tarnished plant bug, 231 
Tarsonemus pallidus, 237 
Tent caterpillar, 231 
Thyridopteryx ephemeraefor?nis, 232 
Tortrix quercifoliana, 234 
Trichogramma minutum, 287 
Walnut caterpillar, 235 
White ants, 237 
White grubs, 233 
White pine weevil, 234 
Wireworms, 232 



PLATE IX. 




Field insectary at Station Farm, Mount Carmel, at the time of the 
Entomologists' field meeting. 




b. Enlarged insectary at Station. 
NEW EQUIPMENT. 



PLATE X. 




a. Female and male gipsy moths. Natural size. 




b. Treating an egg-mass with creosote. 
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK. 



PLATE XI. 




a. Gipsy moth caterpillars. Natural size. 




b. Egg-clusters and pupae on inside of loose hickorj- bark. 
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK. 



PLATE XII. 




a. An innocent looking bird house. 




b. Inside of the bird house containing about 107 cocoons and 35 egg-masses. 
GIPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK. 



PLATE XIII. 




h4 ' *'• 7"-7*'Ja^V,'^^K^'^^'^ 



a. View in garden where first infestation was found in Connecticut, 
Groton, November 10. 




b. Another view in same garden. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 



PLATE XIV. 




a. Burning weeds and rubbish with Federal burning truck, infestation 
No. 1, Groton. 




b. Burning weeds and rubbish at infestation No. 2, Groton. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER, 



PLATE XV. 



/ 



■ v;. 




**•#:•«;■ 






m 



a. Weeds at infestation No. 2. Groton, before burning. 




b. View of same field after burning 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 



PLATE XVI. 




a. Burning corn stalks with the aid of oil applied with hand sprayer, 
infestation No. 1, Groton. 




b. Burning weeds with power outfit, infestation No. 2, Groton. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 



PLATE XVII. 




a. Slight injury to ear of sweet corn, Groton. 




b. Female, male, larva, pupa and burrow in cornstalk. Slightly enlarged. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER. 



PLATE XVIII. 




a. Infested peach cut open to show larva. Somewhat 
enlarged. (After Quaintance and Wood, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 




b. Peach twigs which have been injured by the larvae. Natural size. 
ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH. 



PLATE XIX. 




a. Appearance of injured leaves in June. 




b. Winter cases fastened to twigs, four times enlarged. 
LARCH CASE BEARER. 



PLATE XX. 




a. Adults showing variation from light brown to black, twice natural size. 



^ 'W «?'' 


^.ji.VIV|^^ 




^^;i3&- 







b. Larvae or grubs, twice natural size. 




'•"^■^"^ 



c. Lawn injured by grubs. Grass has been killed in the foreground but 

back towards the house it is uninjured. 

ASIATIC BEETLE. 



PLATE XXI. 





Modified hay knife for recutting 
ditches in salt marsh. 



b. Potato hook with prongs 
covered with wire netting, for 
removing mud from ditches. 



£■4^ 



._ji^ri[iiiiiiir 







c. Instating a metal culvert through a sand beach to drain the marsh 
beyond, Westbrook. 

MOSQUITO ELIMINATION WORK. 



PLATE XXII. 




a. Broken dike, Stony Creek. 







b. New dike, Stony Creek, 
MOSQUITO ELIMINATION WORK. 



PLATE XXIII. 




a. Box leaf-miner. White spots on leaves indicate infestation. Lower 
epidermis ha;; been removed from two leaves, sho'vvang maggots. Natural size. 




b. European house cricket. Somewhat enlarged. 
BOX LEAF-MINER AND EUROPEAN HOUSE CRICKET. 



PLATE XXIV. 




a. Chain-dotted geometer. Adult male and female, natural size. 




c. Larvae, natural size. 



b. Cocoon, natural size. 










- 




^ 






m 


",^^^^^ 




p 









d. Cotton moth, natural size. 



e. Japanese weevil, four times enlarged. 

CHflN-DOTTED GEOMETER, COTTON MOTH AND 
... , J JA^NlESE WEEVIL. 






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