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Full text of "Reports"

■nita 




Zhc 'national diission 

of 

■Repentance anb Ibope. 



REPORTS 

OF THE 

ARCHBISHOPS' COMMIHEES 
OF INQUIRY. 



1^ 



T'H» fcJNOOOM OI*OOr us at H/^ND.-^ 
R.BFIEST VT AKT^WIJm^ Tift G06HEI 



A 



1^ 



T' HE KINGDOM Ot-GODIS- AT HAND-*. 
REPENT YE v\ND BELIEVE THEOOSPEL 



The National Mission 

of 

Repentance and Hope. 



Reports of the 

Archbishops' Committees 

of Inquiry. 



1^ 

_4a 



^e - 



q'^ 



Published for the National Mission 
hj the 

Society y9r Promoting Christian Knowledge 

LONDON 

1919. 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2009 witin funding from 

University of Toronto 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/reportsarcliOOarcli 



CONTENTS. 

The Teaching Office of the Church. 

Being the Report of the Archbishops' 
First Committee of Inquiry. With 
Appendices. 

The Worship of the Church. 

Being the Report of the Archbishops* 
Second Committee of Inquiry. 

The Evangelistic Work of the 
Church. 

Being the Report of the Archbishops' 
Third Committee of Inquiry. 

Administrative Reform of the 
Church. 

Being the Report of the Archbishops' 
Fourth Committee of Inquiry. 

Christianity and Industrial 
Problems. 

Being the Report of the Archbishops 
Fifth Committee of Inquiry. 



The Teaching Office 
of the Church 

Hhl.Nu ilih KLi'ORT OF 
THE ARCHBISHOPS' FIRST 
COM\TITTFr or TXQTTtry 

WITH \ppFN:r>TrF<^ 



FOURTEENTH THOUSAND 



JNDON 

i ' LSLIbUl ; THE NATIONAL MISSION 

iiY THE 

OCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE 

1919 



, y^.. ,!)_ (M,-.. ..X fn. -.;.,-,.-.._ 

\' 
U> \. ... ... liamcs, Sc.D., F.R.S., Master of the Temple. 

M > G. M. Bcvan, S.Th., Secretary of the Archbishop of 

Cantfi: ' '' ligation in Tl: ' for Women). 

Vcn. E. .1 . M.A., Arch.. i Wilts. 

Rev. A. (J. liouquet, M.A., S.C.F., Barnwell and Cherry 

Hinton Military Hospitals, Cambridge. 
Rev. A. CaUlcoott. D.I.itt.. D.D.. Prcbtndary of St. Paul's, 

Miss/ ic Student Christian 

Movement. 

I Rev. C. F. Garbfif- AT A Vif.ir f>f Pf.rfs.u TTon rniiMi. r>f 

Winchester. 

Rev. H. L. r anon oi I'^iv, I'niicipui ' 

Theolo^ri, 

Rev. A. C. ' 1, DA)., Rccrius Proftssor of Divinity, 

Canon of L mn-li. Oxford. lat. K- l»iivr-iiKi! of T\in"'s 

College, London. 
^*Rev. II. Scott Iloliann, i/.ii., lair iv«j;iiis i'roirsM»r oi 
Divinity, Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. 

Rev. the Hon. Edward Lyttelton, D.D., lately Headmaster 

of KtoM C"oll( JJC. 

Rev. A. W. Maplesden, LUD., Secretary of the Diocesan 

Schools Association, Hon. Canon of Southwark. 
Mother AiT"'"^ Mason, S.Th.. Mother Superior of the Com- 

V ' ly. 

Miss I or in Education in the Univer 

sity of M r. Principal elect of Whitclands C 

♦Rev. A. H. ... .,^.,<j, D.D., Regius Professor of Divwuiv, 

Trinity College, Dublin. 
^A. S. Orlcbar, M. A., Licensed Lay-Reader in the Diocese of Ely. 
The Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Gore). 
fThe Bishop of Ripon (Dr. Drury). 

Rev. T. Guy Rogers, M.C., B.D., Vluar ui »Wsi ii.nn, v iiai)i;im 

to the King. 
Mrs. Roman«s, HcadofSt. C ■ " 'T 

Rev. A. J. Tait, D.D., Princip i, n il, Cambridge. 

Rev. W. Temple, M.A., D.Litt., lately Rector of St. James', 

Piccadilly. 
Rev. J. Vaughan, M.A., Canon of Winchester. 

* Prevented from attending any but Uie earliest meetings of the Com- 
mittee. 

t Prevented from attending the meetings of the Committee. 



FOR F WORD 

BY THE ARCHlil:5llOP OF CANlhKBURY 

THIS Report belongs to a series : it is one of five. They 
have the same historic origin, and that origin should be 
s*' ilily in the thoujjhts of those who read them. 
Twvi vciPs li^o, in this grave crisis of our nation's history, 
after much thought and prayer, we called the people of England 
to a National Mission of Repentance and Hope. 

First, during 1916, came the preparation of the Church 

itself. In every Diocese and Parish we sought fresh guidance 

of the Holy Spirit to reveal to us our own failures, both as 

iii'iividuals and as mtmbers of the Church and nation. Then 

1 :.. . ry corner of the land, the Mission-call to cor- 

and to hope in Christ as the living answer 

to our needs. The call told : not, of course, universally, but 

.TV widely. We found that people were ready to face familiar 

r.i IS afresh : that a new spirit was breathing upon dry bones : 

th kt we must, and could, be up and doing. As we appraised 

the outcome of the Mission-call five subjects in the life of Church 

.lood out with obvious claim for our rehandling. 

. _r and manner of our teaching : our worship : our 

.tic work : the discovery of removable liindrances to 

ti,. Church's cflicicncy : the bearing of the Gospel messjige 

,, , t' ' '- ! problems of to-day. 

I , . cs of our best and strongest were accordingly 

apiwintcd to deal with these, and 1017 was given to the task. 
Ut no one regard as a disji; ' thing the pause which 

,1 .» I ijlKTation involved. 1. |ir<>vi- l)v its nsulfs. to 

;i the most fruitful time of all. 
And now in 1918 the five Reports arc in our hands. They 

A a 



IV FOHEWOKD 

arc not ofllcial documents, but whether we accept the con- 
clusions or not they have the hijjh authority which belongs 
to the opinions of specially qualified men and women who 
have devoted long montlis to their elaboration. The roadway 
to right knowledge and effective action is now 0{)en. It is a 
roadway which is offered not to those f)uly who a])proach it 
as churchmen and churchwomen, but to the English people 
as a whole. It is the most important stage of the National 
Mission. With all earnestness I invite, for these Reports, the 
study and thought of men and women n'" ' vill. We shall 
not all agree about the various rccomn uis. We want 

critics as well as advocates. Let there be quiet reading of all 
that they contain. Let there be meetings large and small. 
Let there be sermons and addresses and study circles, that 
we may perceive and know what things we ought to do, and 
tliat together, as the needs of our day demand, we may " go 
forward." " It is not a vain thing for us : it is our life." 

Randall Caktuar : 
Lent, 1918. 



Terms of Referksce 
L Is 

II. A: 1 . : 

III. Causes of Failure 

A. Gcnrral 

B. Spi'ci.i' 

1. ' ire ... . 

*2. i - ikness of the Clergy 
3. NNVakmss of the Church in the Univer- 
sities . . . . . . . . . . 10 

i. Special Training of the Clergy . . 10 

5. ] ' Distribution of Functions . . 12 

6. 1' Laitv 13 

7. ' " 1-. 

8. i < ^^ ^ i .'' 

1\. 1'koposed Reforms and Reconstruction .. 16 

1. I" ' H" .f the Church .. .. 17 

2. tual Effort .. . . 19 

3. ! ties ..21 

4. lolyOrdirs 22 

5. 'n of the CIcrgv after Ordination 24 

6. i 4 of Adults " 27 

7. Work of the Liiity 'J I 
K. Unity among Ch^istia<l^ . . 

V. The Reform of I^n roiois Education . . 

1. ^ ••;•■'. 

2. 'lous Ediii;iliMii :; i 

3. tion i"> 

4. I Religio4i^ iii^ii.iv 11 M :;'.« 

5. I hers H 

6. ' Teachers . . l.'> 

7. - . . . . VJ 

8. 50 

9. t .; ics 53 

10. on .. .... .. 54 

11. 1. — , i - .idling in SocNwwI.irv «;/.li..,.i< 55 

12. Work of Sunday Schtxjl.s . 56 
\ ! i.usioK . . .... 59 



APPENDICES • 

1. Thr Ministry of the Clergy as Teachers. B^ 

the Bishop of Oxford <'7 

2. The Ministry of the Worp 

(1) Uv Dr. n. S. Holland . 72 

(2) Hy Dr. A. J. Tait 75 

(3) liy Dr. K. W. Bam< 78 

8. The Teaciiin' of thk C'hukch in Uki^tion 

TO THE Um ii:s. By Dr. A. C. Ileadlam . . 8(5 

4. The Training of Candidates foe Holy Ordern 

(1) By thr Bishop of Oxf<»r<l •! 

(2) Bv Dr. E. \V. Barnes . Jt 

(3) By Dr. A. C. Ilcadlara 102 

5. Examination for Ordination. By Dr. II. L. Goudgf ' ' •' 

6. The Teaching Office in the Parish. By the Rc\ . 

Canon Garl>ett . . . . . . . . . . 121 

7. The Training of Secondahv ^fiw.m Afi^riM smsi 

By Miss G. M. Bevan -'6 

8. The Training of Nos-iitui j .^^ional ciilkcu 

Teachers. By Miss G. M. Bevan. . .. .. 181 

9. The Fiieer Use of Churches. By the Rev. A. (' 

Bouquet 

10. Religion and Art. • By Dr. Lyttelton and the Re\ 

*T. Guy Rogers 110 

11. Educational Appendices. By members of the 

Educational Sub-Coniniittee : 

(1) ReUgion in Public Seh(K)!- 145 

(2) Church Schools for Girls i 49 
(8) Church Secondary Schools 154 

(4) Undenominational Schools for Girls 154 

(5) MctluKls of T ' the Catechism 1.56 

(6) A Children" of the Bible ;5S 

(7) Work Amor 159 

(8) College for b. . ., .102 

12. Preparation for Confiruatiok : 

(1) By Canon Garbett lUl 

(2) By Archdeacon Bodington and the Rev. T. 

Guy Rogers .. .. .. .. ..164 

13. The Use of the Tfs: rnxtxtAVUMWr-; J\\ til. 

Bishop of Oxford <i6 

14. Teachin ; of the Oia> TE.->TAiitNT IN Schools. 

Bv Dr. A. Nairne 168 



Societi(- , .:.. mentioned in the Report 173 

* For thtwe only tb« writ«ra are rMpoa«iblu. 



REPORT OF THE COM MITT El. .il'rolS'TED BY 7 
ARCIIRI SHOPS OF CASTElililUY AND YOui^ 
ON THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH. 

To ths Archbishops 0/ Canterbury and York, 

YouH Gracrs, As a result of the National Mission, and in 

nnU'T thnt th-- -rf,.,.! .,(" " " ' 1 effort t" ■,■••* 

not \h' lest, v.iu !■■.•.< as a C«' ; 

Ave Committees so appoiuieti, with the following reference :| 

' r and rc| fi methods by which the 

Tf . of the can be more effectively 

exerciMKi," 

You at the same time iuivi- i;iihuu u> m our dehotTiiuons by 
drit\vmg our attention to some words which you used in a 
recent letter to the Clergj' and Laity of the Church of England : 

*' We look forward to a time when the Kingdom of 
God shall be in actual truth the goal of all effort and desire, 
and tin- til ' ' ' the Kingdom of God the controllini,' 
th ii! 'It Is, We look forward to a time wluii 

sections of the 
^ ice for the good 
tian law of tellowship and mutual help 
. :a the whole operation of our social 
r it be viewed in its moral, political, or 
ci'uiiuiniL ii^jM.cl. The vision is yet for many H — 
yet we dare b<^lieve tlmt its fulHIment is not unattaii 
if we sci2e the opportunity of the present to staii afrcsti. 

And you specially d-- * ■- to bear in mind as the aim and 
purpose of these C* -, : 

"t. 

opinion in the Church as to the things which ought to be 
and can be done." 

In •CCOrdanCC with these instnu^fionc vi,- t.ov». nrr*;^r.f fn Vi^iir 

Graces the following Report. 

^^ from t 

C. Our ; 

f-.n-.-As. w 

to C<)\ rr, - 

work of : with wl. 



Jrt. \N 



2 TILE TKACUING OFllCE OF VllK LUVHLU 

i- s of the Committee who had special 

k 

in prcpanng our Heport our aim has been to concentrate 

attention on what have seemed to us the most salient points. 

Our first duty has been to weigh carefully the severe criticisms 

which have I ' in the manner in which the Church 

exercises its t , and to estimate tlic extent to wluch 

it hi \Vc have then ;• 1 to arrive at thr ■ 

oftli failure. Aftei tli minarv ciiriuiries 

to thr remedies that we have to suggest. 1 ird 

both to failure and to reconstruction, is ti iion 

tlevotcd to the subject. So far as regards the body of the 

Report we have confined ourselves to those recommendations 

which seem to be of special importance, and on which we wish 

>. We have left 'ions as to detail to be 

lie memoranda \\ inserted as Appendices. 

\\ iuic tile Ixxly of the RepoiL u presents our considered 

juflL'tncnt, the Committee as a whole is not responsible for the 

udices, which express the opinions of those only who 

. tluni 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Teaching Office of the Church is twofold. On the one 
hand the Church's function is to set forth the truth of the 
Divine revelation consummated in Christ, as contained in the 
Scripture, and as interpreted and evolved in the past. It has 
the duty of preser\ing and handing on to future generations a 
II i)f Divine origin and of trail ' for the 

ufthe human race. Thisn ^cribed 

as the Gospel of Christ, the Word of God, the Faith of the 
Church. On the other hand it has the duty of interpreting 
this gospel for each generation ; of expressing it in the thought 
and language of the times, and in the hght of advancing 
knowledge ; and of presenting it to the world as a living 
faith. While the delivery of this message is the function 
of the whole Christian society, there has been from the begin- 
ning, and there is at the present time, a body of thos^ ; dy 
and ollieially appointed for e^irrying out this olTice as i ita- 
tives of the Church. They are described as ministers of the 
Gospel, as ministers of Christ ; and although the Teaching 
Office cannot and ought not to be confined to thera, it will 
largely depend upon their '•fTw..v-,inx- ^vV><>ther the Church is 
fulfilling its work proper!} . 



rilE ALLKGtl) FAILURE 8 

It is fl ^ that the Church bjis done for nearly t'"*^© JjJ^J^* 

thousand . md the message that it has delivered is one of 

the basts upon which the whole of our modern society has been 

reared. It is true that at the present time, if wc take the whole 

world within our purview, we observe that the number of those 

' ctiy influenced by the Christian faith is far 

ever been previously : but that faith is far 

: the whole or em 

. or even in tli icly 

m comparison with other organs of mental or 

— vity the Church is failing in its task. This is the 

II tliat we have first to examine. If in this Report 

* n is confined not merely to the Anglican Com- 

within this Communion to the Church of England, 

'• consider that our commission to enquire 

s is limited to that body. We have 

questions connected with the 

ise wc understand that they are 

II the hands of the Central Board of Missions. 

II. 
THE ALLEGED FAILURE. 



It is widely stated that the Church fails in the task of giving TheaUntd 

on is threefold. ^titoch..! 

A ith intellectual failure. It is stated 

iiat the ol Clu-istianity, at any rate as delivered, is 

'» "f tou. .. ,. ..a the thought and ideas of the time ; that the 

h is therefore ineffective; that it docs not mould or 

public ••■ is it has done in past ages. While 

rt that ' ire is due to the inherent defects of 

!, there are others who ascribe it rather to 

Church in fulfilling its double function of 

' and interpreting it. The Church, it is said, lacks 

r of handling its inherited wealth of Christian truth 

and courageously ; it fails to elucidate the right relation 

... . I. . .... .,reat forces of tradition and science ; it lacks 

on ; it docs not present the truth in a living 

!>rnrtiral fniliirr, and comes fh)m the (IDPtmuml 
■s of the faith and 
I . iiat the Church has 

^fully Its definite creed and its system 

it IS [K>int<-d out for example tluit in 

. while 70 per cent, of the soldiers arc described as 
<. <M K.," only an insiu' ' * proportion has either any 
•al knowledge of whiit n nan is supposed to believe 



Tin-. I I -Avili.M. *>rriv.b wr liiL, LllLll' 



Alieaatioo ot 
' roonc- 



Failure ot 
th« elenry. 



Points to be 
noticed in 
order to do 
jnstice to 
t ht Church. 



or any ' " - of the Sa<r 

Kvcn l! it of thosf 

known u^ " C. t>f IC," i 

grnuiiR" members of the i 

siKnificant. The Church cannot be stud to hiive at t 

which it set before itself at the Reformation, niiin 

laity should be really instructed in CImstian faith 

A third charge is that of failure in the spirit oi v 
It proceeds mainly from thost- who would aim at tran 
our in so as to make it n 

of ! Now brotherhood ■ 

idea. But tile mass of Christian preacliers unci people i 
failed, it is asserted, to make it felt tluit Christianity st; 
for spiritual equality, brotherhood, and mutual consideratun. 

For these and similar reasons the Church tails, it is uv 
to hold or attract the more earnest and thoughtful of the y 
men and women of the country. These are for tli 
full of aspirations — religious, political, social, litei 
Their ideals are largely drawn from Christian sources, and I 
would respond to wise and sympathetic guidance. WH 
however they should find leadership, they find, it is asserted, 
only obstruction ; where they should find sympathy, they ar- 
met with discouragement; their enthusiasm is damped an<i 
they turn aside to movements which are often criti<al of or 
antagonistic to organised Christianity. The Church is failing 
now, as it has failed in the past, to attract to itself the pro- 
gressive forces of thr dav. 

More irge of failure dir 

clergy ( tid. On the one - 

to be often deficient in conviction and force and spintual 
vitality ; they fail, o\ving to their professional habit of mind, to 
understand the religious life of their people. On the other side, 
they are said to be out of touch with the normal intellectual life 
of the time. Compared with the modem standard of intellectual 
attainment in the country, they relatively take a much I 
place than they did ; for this reason amoM?st others 
pre • to be C( 'ace and e; and tliey 

fail i>ecause, \' standaru hing has been 

raised, they have taken no advantage of new methods. They 
are deficient in intellectual alertness and intellectual courage. 

In estimating the truth of these charges there are certain 
points to be noticed. In the first place it is remarkable that 
these severe criticisms come not only from those outsirle the 
Church or from those opposed to it, but from 
While there is a good deal of half -ex pressed ci I 

discontent among many who are not markedly Churchmen, it 
is from those who are most anxious for the wellbeing of the 
Church that the criticism chiefly comes. These are so conscious 



THE ALLEGED FAILURE 5 

he message, 

I, or received 

■il of those who arc entrusted with its 

. lu. ^^ ..cral corporate action of the Church. 

much onticisui at the present tune springs 

' : ' "\ on the part of the 

vet it has btcome a 

of tlu Ciiuich, its mlni^t^y and its 

due to the fact that the war has 

I thi. I't of men in many directions, and a 

awakcu-.. cience is sometimes deficient in dis- 

*n and in sense of proportion ; it is partly due to 

II of these aaxious months which tends to produce 
of inipaticiice. At such a time then- is more than 

ty and * " int. It is also 

note of k of the Church 

linics when the critical 

live. Though we gladly 

lay a real desire and effort to construct as well 

, there are, none the less, many accustomed to 

I the manner and the substance of the Churches 

would be quite unable to state positively how 

(•s wish the Chureh to teach, and, if th«^y under- 

1, would ! tn 

of the ( of 

ust notice that, although the message of the 

Church is not received or listened to as much as 

. 1 that it ought to be, yet the influence, direct or 

ct, of Christianity, in this country at any rate, is great 

h<i would definitely state * ' y have 

>m it. Many f)f those v \sr the 

ird 

' oa 

ty often come from rival creeds which owe much to 

■ iir 

. we desire to guard against an exaggerated view Buitb«i»unr» 
*■ the Church in the dcliv- ' its message. 

alaruiiiiir fratnri'« wc i the wide 

mg 

lad 

t the eicrgy, and the existence 

Yit wc- fill that there »s much 

in the charges. The Church has not the influence 

'»>» to have attn* ' •■■ **' "'-ral life of the country. 

many in cn Uout the nation who do 

' ' I would resent the 

1 who arc ready to 



8 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

listen aiid yet feel that they do n()t get what they need. The 
Church often fails to give its message effectively, and many of 
the clergy are deficient in spiritual earnestness, in intellectual 
capacity and outlook. 

It is uur duty to investigate the causes of this failure and to 
proixjse such remedies as are in our opinion likely to be effective. 



III. 



CAUSES OF FAILURE. 



SaaanU ommm 
Other olaims 
upon the 
miad and the 
will 



leriectot 
Sond&r. 



The causes of failure are of two kinds, general and special. 
A. General Causes. 

The general causes of the failure of the Church to obtam a 
hearing for its message at the present time lie in certain ten- 
dencies of the age. There has been a gradual severance between 
the sacred and the secular as department after department 
of life has risen into independent activity. Religion has 
become one department among many, instead of the animating 
and guiding spirit of the whole ; and religious thought is in 
danger of being crowded out by a multitude of rival mental occu- 
pations. It must be remembered that the scope and capacity 
of the human mind are limited, and it is quite possible for many 
men, or for a whole generation, to be so absorbed in a particular 
aspect of life that they liavc no thought left for other things. 
To the manifold intellectual interests nmst be added the 
practical demands of life. The growth of we I of the 

means of communication, the wider area of ion, the 

greater rapidity with which things can be done, have increased 
the demands on the time, the energy, and the power of a large 
section of the people. Many men have to work far harder than 
in old days to obtain a livelihood or to conduct a business ; 
and, when the day's work is over, they have little capacity or 
time for thought on other things. There has also been an 
excessive devotion to the pursuit of pleasure and amusement. 
Such absorption in material aims is a great danger to a country. 
It destroys its spiritual life. The duty of the Christian Church 
has always been to warn the nation against the cares, the 
riches, and the pleasures of the world. 

To give only one example, these tendencies have led to 
widespread neijlect of the right use of Sunday. When life is 
much occupied, a day of suspended business appears wasted, 
and work and pleasure alike have encroached ' ^ observ'- 

ance to an excessive degree. Although the old-i i Sunday 

was no doubt marked by formality and dulness, }• t tfiis 
breaking dovm of old customs has had an unfavourable intiut roe 



CAUSES OF FAILURE 7 

on the spirituiU life of the country. Whiit is required is a real 
sense of th - '-'Us value of the day and wisf teaching as to the 
right nu f l)ser\'ance. 

Til ' • ' rionand 

thf t' pmont, 

f' bly 

I . ^ ..led 

>ut from the educational curriculum. Further, as wc shall 

, .V. t.. M.^i.it ..lit tl».. divisions among Christians and the fear 

lice undoubtedly deprive the Church of 

IKS i(ir gi^ iMg its message as part of the education of 

try. Morrover, the absorption of the mind, especially 

l>le, in secular or utilitarian subjects 

become greater, and it is increasingly 

diilKult for ! I for that which docs not appear 

t . \>r of imn , 1 advantage. There is no doubt 

the severe pressure of examinations has tended in 

.14. .....1^ direction. 

But while th«re are these general causes for which, as arising 
11 the spirit of the age, no direct remedy can be suggested, 
are other more special causes which we have now to 
cotuiider. 

B. Special Causes. 
1. Theological Failure. 

It hAs been represented to us that behind all defects and ThMiociMi 
!ig in an unfortunate manner t a of the Church *^'*'* 

ological failure. It is somew cult to estimate 

• of this criticism, because exceptions arc apparent 
if ( mi tit that we may make. There is in the Church of 
rablc volume of wise, reverent, and thoughtful 
, »nLnu by those who are in close touch with the life 
ly. -Yet it remains true tliat there is a large body of 
.ud a mu< ' r body of the laity, who have not 

'ita<»t wi' 
1 t o rely too much on the authority JJjJKJIfSiif 

'" ^ onal exp<rience. Too often the nit. 

w has been emphasised without a full 

;..< ...iiig work of the Spirit. The right relation 

the life of faith and the use of institutional nuans of 
}" ' 11^ nr.t l)ecn observed. By many people thtrefore 
nliL'i II li V ,• riir to b«* r«*^rded a* a separate department of 

ticts and to certain times 

' rrr*ojjni??r h'>w essential 

Go5|)el. 

t can be 



THE TEAaiING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 



laUllwtat] 
•loUi. 



Want ot 
proportion. 



Uck of ability 
in the clerfT. 
Md itii oaoM^ 



spoken of as " the good news " : it is not always fitted to be an 

instrument of the Spirit forproducinga living fuith. T^' •' '• ■< 

been u tendcney to contrast the intellect iiul with the 

instead of realising thiit God's Spirit works in man l»y ii 

ing all his powers, and that the hij;h«st spiritual wo; 

iiit The result Hkn been a de|>i' 

th< . [K-ration of the intellect, rtt 

been discouniged, the minds of the clergy liave been cramped. 

and their authority weakened. 

Many people, especially among the clergy, owing to intel- 
lectual sloth and indecision, never seriously endeavour to makr 
up their minds on disputed questions, such, for instance, as 
Biblical criticism. Sometimes they shut their eyes ai ' ' 
to allow that such questions exist at all. Many p 
owing t of intellectual courage, ignore great snl 

whieli r i nt is needed, such as the Atonement 

eternal consequences of sin, because they fear to 
antagonism, and thus integral parts of Christian teaci...^ ..._ 
entirely omitted. 

In particular it is felt that the interest of the clergy is often 
drawn away to questions of secondary importance. They are 
engrossed in minor matters of Church tradition. ' ' t 

speak in a real and living manner on great and 
problems which are exercising the minds of n 
at the present day. They are apt to speak in a < i 

language which wearies and irritates their hearers. A general 
complaint is that behind the devotional teaching, the pastoral 
work and the wide activity of the clergy, there is not a reasoned 
theology which can build up the religious life of the laity. The 
cause of I his lies, as we proceed to show, in the intellectual 
failure of the clergy. 

2. Intflleciual IVeakness oj inr c kt'^j. 

As stated above, while there has been an increase in the 
intellectual attainments of the people, the intellectual capacity 
and equipment of the clergy have not increased in a like pro- 
portion. This is due partly to the fact that fewer able men seek 
ordination, partly to the fact that the interest of the Church 
has been turned from the intellectual problems. The 'jr^^Hter 
demand for men to serve the Empire and the country, * 
prospect of a living wage offered in the Church, the n 
influence of the Church in the Universities, and the inadequate 
training of the clerg>' idike contribute to this result. 
' A hundred years ago the Church had few competitors 
for the sei\'ices of the a>)lcr men of the middle and upper- 
middle clas.ses. The political, intellectual, and industrial 
changes which have come over the world have profoundly 
altered this. The complexity of modern hfc and the vast 



INTELLECTUAL WEAKNESS OE THE CLER(. 

vdopmcnt of civil administration demand a lurpt* and 

c ' "-T of the bi'st men. T" " u has 

h' t prof»^<;<!ion. Srifnco. i , an^j 

c ' jit number of 

ct <• ; and in the 

Ct lurch fails. It was one of the defects of the 

^'' '" ♦'"' nineteenth century that its clergy 

y from one class, and that it was 

o II >Mtn im MM>er middle and workiii ' s. At 

t\. it day there is an opfx>rt unity for i: ' this, 

of ..... ^^ ,|;j^^ ^j^ j^^ 

r rs of the \V( , lor 

uirements of the time. 

.. -vercly handicapped by 

lefor thi' larger number of its ministers, even a 

Ic a certain number of the most able and 

be attractefl to tJje scr\ice of religion quite 

II I liny worldly ;i ' 'c. there are many who 

a I by fhr d'ltiht w icy will ever rrceive a 

»»i ' own 6UpjK>rt or for their family 

o)' 1 indeed does not directly concern 

us ; it com II the reference of another committee. But 

wp firx! if t.. f mnhusi/,e the fact that unless a clergy- 

m ; y or duty has a reasonable hope 

• 'ji lut Church an income sufficient to 

■ le to expect that an a(lc<|uate numbtrof 

»<c orders ; and any reforms 

the uncertainty that 

I tianity aiid matters of 

th m the tVirmativc period of their lives. Perhaps 

•' ' ""t :..r,.Mism is less active, and there is a greater 

I for truth ; yet there prevails a feeling of 

1 .fton checks . i table men whose 

' them to seek >n. 

have r ' • ri»c«oi 

there i . , ^ ^..^liS"* 

tual mt crests. Too 
., ^ little time to the 
Y For I they exhort people to 

.'.. 'withai i-y which '* ' comes 

ti acts tia A < , "but th ,i ^ve 

' ^'aching oi 1,0 

arc oi ^. 

ility, and unable tu aruuse mtcrest 

", we believe, chiefly to be found in the 
» - .rch in the Universitiea, in inadequate 



Th« linivmi- 
Um: 
i.) Old. 



ii.) N«w. 



Fmflare ot the 
Church to 
provide ior 
the edacAtioD 
of tb« clernr. 



!• Tire TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHLKLll 

special training of the future clergy, and in a bad or inadequate 
distribution of functions. 

a. Weakness of the Church in the Universities. 
u..- K'nat cause for these tendencies lies in the weakness 
of the Church in the Universities. A hundred years ago there 
were only two Universities in England and Wales ; in both 
the learning of the country was closely a-ssocmted with the 
Church and at least as an institution the Church had a strong 
hold on the educated classes. It had not merely a strong 
Dosition, but almost a monopoly. But this excessive influence 
tended to exclusiveness and kept outside the Universities an 
increasing part of the thought of the country. In the earlu r 
years of the nineteenth century the older Universities fnil-l 
to respond sufficiently to the scientific movement of t 
and newer Universities were developed largely on 
and to some extent anti-clerical lines. The monopoly of th. 
Church of Enjrland in Oxford and Cambridj^c disappeared , 
and although this has proved in itself beneficial both to th« 
Church and to the nation, yet it has meant u " 

in the number of able men from the Un 
ordination. Meantime throughout the count r | 

up a large number of new Universities in v ^ 

tiaching And research are little represented. Ihe result .s_tliHt 
religion; as compared with other subjects, >s presented with far 
less intellectual authority to the nation. While the endow- 
ment of theological study outside the older Umversities . 
slight, science, arts, and technical studies are fostered b.. 
private funds and public benefactions, and a large a asing 

number of men are devoting themselves to s^ and 

literary research. Science has much learning behuai it; the 
weight of learning in the Church of England is inadequate, and 
therefore the Church's authority is weakened. 

4. Special Training of the Clergy. 

But the intellectual failure of the clergy is not only due to 
those causes of which we have spoken ; it is the consequence 
even more of the training which they actually receive. T^c 
Church of England, in a way without parallel in other 
Christian communions, has in its corporate capacity done 
practically nothing to provide an adequate education for ite 
ministry.'^ If, as we desire, the ministry is to be fairly recruited 
from all classes, its training must be treated as one of the hrst 
and most essential charges upon the resources of the Church. 
A sound general education is of course absolutely necessar> : 
if it has not been obtained, special education narrows the mmd 
But for all who desire to be ordained as pnests a full special 



INADEQUATE ITIAINING OF THE CLERGY 1 1 

ig — moral, intclIectiiaJ, devotional, and practical — must 

1 I . I ^^Q years should be regarded as the 

II of time to be devoted to it. Though, 

ir, we have s iis to m;ike as 

ition now j;i :\Tf convinced 

ti ttcuipU at nfurm will he in vain he Cljurch 

r - in u IK w way its corj)orate n -, iity in the 

r. An i ' nt ministry not only brings the Church 

'^-'"nt ci>... i..(.i, but it endangers its future by discourag- 

■st men from taking Holy Orders; and, until the 

■ ' s to its duty, the danger of an incompetent 

trmain. 

We would particularly note the following three points 

-,' i« inadec^uate. Under cxi.st- ^^JJiauiufy 
iilx*r of those who are ordainetl inuninc. 
(1 or Cambridge; and it is probable 
I rsity courses wliich do so Httle to 

llect of the weaker men, or to rouse interest in 
..w. . ,.. ,., :,ive gtKid habits as these schools. Their standard 
low ; they make very little demand upon the time or the 
'V of the students. As a result of this 
iml requinment, the plain fact is that 
tnd we mast ly of those 

. leave the Li. with their 

t and capacities hardly awakenetl. 

. mbered that a large number of those who go 

.ind Cambridge have no desire for education. A man 

^'' ' ■ 'is e(»mpanions there a spirit of in- 

As long as this spirit n^mains no 

II avail. In t' ''lie 

r\TO oj>en t. la. 

lis attitudi- to c.-dueati(Hi are 

'-)ut on almost evtri- sidr of 

^.. .... , ..'((•graduate theologieal .stutlmt:* 

from the 1! i-y of their general education. A 

' ' *" I the time when I' ' >\e 

'r- nf tw«>T)ty-on<- V- 

■, tli<ir • !i. 

! has }■ ^ a 

IS the inadequate develop- 



(ii.) The jiecond rause is the ^ of the jipecial prepara- ***'**jjji 

■ ■ - , - T T ' Ti 

* nmff it 

li.ivr t I 



12 lliil* liV\Llnrsii yjf r i\^tj yjir i IIE CHURCH 



^d they 
upon a 



(*cd a sense 

i,„n ...so they have 

faith. But the work of th s done in the face 

of many dif " and di - They are often 

poor and th small .i 'f. The time given 

to special ti • ■ \ . [^ js far 

too short. > irchasa 

whole, the ii "*•» 

to thescvcni! _ . ' '■^■" 

fore often inclined to work on nflrr(»w iinis. and the men in 
them at an impressionable period of life lock that corrective 
of individual bias which comes from association with men of 
. ' " il from their own, and from contact with the 

C'hnrrh. Thus the pre_sent system of special 
U'udb It) ' 

il, but (I 
ill prepared to think out with vigour and ri«,'htiul i uce 

the questions which are sure to confront them, an . > be 
confined in their sympathies and in their general outlook. 
ordinaUoD ^"'-^ '^^^ ^^^^^ "*"^ ^^^ ^ found in the cluiracter of the 

•lar^ntiioni, ordination examinations. Their subjects are not always wisely 
chosen : they arc out of keeping with the' ' nal develop- 
ments of the time, and tend to compel lo are being 
trained for Orders to substitute " cranmung " for sound 
intf llrcliiiil training. 

5, Inadequate Distribution of Functions. 

cofM-o! th. \\ hile a considerable body of the clergy are thus hampt red 

■•fleet of itudy. jjy . ' ip work without sufficient intellectual or 

tlu , they are not after«'ards able to make up 

thi^ y. Some suffer from the ov< ' 

of ti ^ ochial work. There is an in;. 

of functions, which has led to some of our best scliolars bt ing 
burdened and almost crushed by administrative work, either 
diocesan or parochial, and to the accumulation of secular dut its 
upon the parish clergy. There has thus been a neglect of their 
ordination vow of study. 

It might s( cm natural for tlie Cliurch to look to the country 
clerg}' to help tli* ir ov»rlmrdfiKd brethren of the town in the 
maintenance of t ' 

interest. But m; . 

We have a deep sympathy ^^ith the many clergy in rural 
districts who year after year have to combat the depressing 
influences of small and isolated parishes and too often of the 



FAILURE OF TIIE LAITY 18 

«n\ >vcrty. The loss of heart due to 

''' '" ii.». 11. . 'li .| stunulusnot seldom 

i(!y, to the xreat loss 

I >re consK'ientious 

.•;• • ■ ' 1 

' It 1.S ill 

light to I , 1 

It is not that they suffer from want 

... id«als are lacking in proportion. Their 

d. On the other hand, in cases very 

' in-fn T !i. s. f hr ri-«ji!irt<l riMT}»y itsi'ir ; ''iT- 

Th' r>' arp two othrr causes which only in concern 

tugh they p fcct the 

n. The on<' ice of a 

ion and sufxraiinuation scheme. Under present 

...rs it Is the niisfj)rtune and not the fault of many 

n that they hold important offices long after they 

' * ' ' ' '■ riy performing their functions. 

lie work of their office thera- 
fpim sui 
rk. Th 
III <if \) . I ly. 

. y from t ^ the 

I ley will never attain the opportunity to do their 
f" <!-•• ^hcir ability to its full *^-* "» 

''. Failure of the Laity. 

We have dwelt at length on the failure of the clergy. It is £*,?;"'*'• 
' '*. It is the hr»t weakness "jl^^ 

Hut it would not be just or 
> on the other side. There are many 

'ving clergy; there are many gcxxi 

1; Wivrv IS much admirable teaching; but 



I _ 



s a 
of 



of the 

I . .1 >., as in 
. there lias been on the part 

.....i . .. ".•■ ■.»•■•> f '■•■•• '"ipacity 

Jtf it or which 

iie Church, and aL)A» 
IS a hi. 'fie 

/ilso acl< ^ _ id 

Ba 



t! for which the whole body of the Churun u* 

T' ... 

One ..1 '" 

the early <i . ' "^ 

the new converts imparted to others the good new td 

received. Moreover, teaehing given by laymen often < ith 

it special weight and influ< nee amonjr many who are repelled 
bv what t! id as the professional teaching of the clergy. 

e)r f.nnre ' TTnfcTi i he laity, men and women alike, arc not taking 

they sh(mld in tli ' We arc faced 

ily with alaekol - chool teachers, 

lay readers, and lay v iierally, but with the even more 

serious fact that the g: k (.f the laity are quite unable to 

give an intelligent answer to those who challenge them for the 
grounds of their faith, and show no initiative in attempting to 
instruct others in the truths which by their Churehmanship 
they profess to accept. There is a deplorable contrast between 
the enthusiasm of CliHstian Scientists and certain Socialist 
bodies in trying to convert others to the ^ they hold 

and the half-heart edness or complete n wee of the 

majority of the laity of the Church in bearing intelligent witness 
to their faith. 

The causes of this failure arc twofold. In tlu first place it 
is due, as we have already seen, to the failure of the clergy to 
instruct the laitv. In the second place it is due to the apparent 
. f of the Church to give even the instructed laity 
responsibility in the work of teaching. Tht re is a 
widespread impression among many eager and intelligent 
Church people— among the intelligent younger women especially 
— tliat the Church does not offer them scope for the use of their 
tjdents in the ser\ice of Christ. The clergy, with the too 
trencral acquiescence of the laity, appear to have taken the 
n sponsibilitv for spreadinjj the message almost entirely 
upon themselves. It is seldom that the duty b urged upon 
the laity, either as congre^'ations or as individuals; sermons 
lav stress. ri«:htly but ineessnntly. <»n the conduct of 
individual lives, but except in mis- rmons it is very rare 

to hear the evangelistic duty \m[ as a corporate and 

therefore an individual responsibility. Lay men and women 
do not seem to be wanted, and they slu-ink from pushing them- 
selves forward. There can howc^'e^ be little doubt that many 
more would give their services if the duty were brought home 
to them, and if they were personally invited to take part in the 
work. 

In all these ways the Church has failed to readjust itself to 
modern conditions. It has not given the laity sufficient share 
in its coimcils, nor in an increasingly complex society has 
it thought out the place of the laity in its work. Though 



FAILURE OF HOME INFLUENCE 15 

such tn-k ition hardly comt* within the purview 

• ' '" ' ..wuld it-- ■■'•'•• ■■•';■>'• •. ■,'?• the importance 

• of rtsj) the laity for the 

spri'.nnu^ ul uic 

1. i uittt'c i/j li'/uic iriiiticllCC. 

The work of the Churoh should begin in the life of the family : 
tliero f.iilui- ily conspicuous. 

It !>> too ,,. .a that religious training can safely bcTb«r«i«ws 

left In- pan lit s to lnx)l teachers and clergymen. The truth •''^""'^ 
" ' . 1 . "..irovin>: ' livilegc, 

mind«Jti t (iod — 

. liu Vi Nof 

ipoti th' i hey 

wi-ie II' The schools arc not fitted to 

p' m' ' . . ;aay help to foster its growth if it 

: is also being fostered at home. Thus an 

■ ' 1 ' . - ...• ...iiorc of the Teaching Oftice of the Church 

rt all> m\ ol\ cs the problem of renewing the spiritual life of the 

md of restoring the essential 

I for the young — viz., a godly 

10, and a freedom from that 

which at the piiM at timt. 

l)rt . id wide. 

A II in tiomcs where rcUgiwu:* edueaUw.. ., <.,,.» >• 

vcn, an idea of religion, deeply riM»ted in 
it to be intr ' ! to children 
imce on the i which tln^y 

f inter- 

s up to 

a-* soiuetiuiig divorced troin such 

of joy, sympathy, venturcsomencss, 

and th< ity. This s^^iise of IxMiuty is given 

'■•' ♦''•• )...i... ., ... ,. i.y we may approiich God ; but it 

and. when it misses the training, it either 

■ ■ ■ . ' -'i.Kl. 

it of sacred 
■lose 
iiing 
a deep though sdciit prejudice agauist religion. 

V DivUiont Amvng, Christians. 

\ 'to the Church n '■ "o' 

"' !'»m. At th'* \r 



p in religion i.s seen to bc 
'"■ of religions ooiumuoiun 



ti.irltf 



1« THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

is felt to be equally disastrous within the limits of the EnffUsh- 

s}>cakinj^' nic ' <• rtpres< ■ " ■ T 

and t»r thr 'lie nr** 

on tin field <,l baltk. TIk- ( 

it speaks with a tiividcd \i i 

spring from the division of the Church ol England among 
the difftrent ])artics within it. For the great body of 
the i^coplc of this country what is needed is rehgious 
trarhing which is at once definite, simple, human, and uncontro- 
\( lAial. lint ihf adiuTents, both rliricaJ and iuy, ol tlic ^'reat 

• (J in tl" 
• points ■ 

. . - - ... -da- 

Diuntai, and ought to be kept to the front in the thought and 

teacliing of the whole Church, anrl especially of the clergy. 

We do not deprecate in the Church of England a wide com- 

' ' ' ■' • ,,c(> of niarkcdly i! " ' ools 

to ».trenfrth<'n tli ind 

ich 
1 we 
\ lid urge on Churclimen of ail schools of thougiit the duty of 
leaching positively rather than negatively, constructively 
rather than controversially, and, in the sense that those words 
have conic to bear among us, with due regard to the proportion 
of faith. 

IV. 

PROPOSED KEFORMS AND RECONSTRUCTION. 

The ciit ol In thc forcfront of the following section of our Report, 
,b,«.n,r., ^^.jjjpjj (ieals witl) pr ' ' we desire very briefly 

itut with ;ill possiltir less our eonvirtion that 

in rc^'anl to its 1 c liic Church's ^' f at 

this time is a tru< ^ al belief in the pro thc 

IKjwer of the Holy Spirit. The gift of the Holy Spirit on thc 
day of Pentecost was bestowed upon the whole society of those 
who bclicNcd in the Loid Jesus Christ. That gift has never 
It '• ' i^^^l or diminished. What therefore is before all 
iry is that the whole Church should realise that 
ihe I lit of the Spirit, having beci ^ is 

now ii as in the first days its true } uat 

thc >^lu)le Church should lx?licve in that eudownient, cluiiu it, 
and use it. In other words, the Church's receptivity is the 
only limitation of the Divine gift. At this point we wish 
clearly to say that in the sequel we do not speak of the work of 
the intellect as though it were in antitliesis to the work of the 
(Spirit. For the intellect, like the will and the affections, is 



THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE^CHURCH 17 

fMtentially an instrument of the Spirit, who can transform all 

", . ' '' ■ 'nature at ' ' ' * ' :" - wer 

•. The ra- 

,.d. 

-ith 

iid- 

_ . . sire 

ons in conscious remem- 

LUC iJiiMiuse 1. 1 tui; i .uak;itU' • " IT" ^ 'v.!! t-^rich yOU 
•I 

1 . Teaching Office of the Church, 

out to thenhadef »■•« 

itly done iu'"*""^'"' 

K-d by C'firist, and 

. ... ; t, to proclaim to all 

ration a certaiit word or message of 

1,1) 1. .. •'• *. ...K...,. riMjj^h YfQ (Jo not mean 

o[ily til' I with a special force, 

»urd and S . its." 

Kit " th*' CM . the 

..'• It 

to share 

of f»ill initiation into the wiiolc trutli and the 

,.r ♦.♦;,, and discrir"'" ' '" ' The books of 

e no doubt . s. The function 

* ' — rs. As we have 

re-cminentlv the 



>rtuaity for delivering the n. Uow is it to be 

. ? 

IW the R 



,1 .. 



tudy of the word of God. ** God, who in manyi^^ff^*^ 
- -- '• • ' ' ♦' ■K-8 unto the fathers, ecttoWot 



Wort 
vho was more than a ••*•*• 

or '•• ■ r 



i'his i^ ti 



the ii ri and 

•.,.,1 ,1. K,. T ,..-1 


II of th 
u1 the ^ 
.V Tcstu 


i a scncs 


or word of 


It is the 



ttMOltiM 
duMM 



■■:"(■■.■ '' , 'V. ■' '.Liiii. W c 

' ffort to 

htudy it, ami tu i ' •»»* He 

inuy enlighten tli ' •*• 

<>« (ii.) There is also a continual movement of the Spirit of 
r.«iDt«^ratl Cod in the world. Again and again it 1ms been the enlighten- 
ment and conscience of the age wliich have forced a reluctant 
Chiiirh to reform itself, when its teaching was corrupted or 
had deteriorated, and it was " making the wtjrd of God of 
none effect by " its tradition. In our day there is, wc believe, 
a Divine movement in the development of science and hi*;torical 
study, and in the progress of democracy. Antwh leas 

occupies the minds of men and women, and constitu; <ry 

fabric of their thought. It is the business of th(? Church and of 
the teachers who speak for the Church to interpret the old 
cathohc message in terms of current thought and aspiration. 
There is no doubt much in the spirit of the age which is bad, 
and must be conibated and repressed, but in it there is nmch 
also of real knowledge and vision. Our business is to study it 
in literature of all kinds and in the minds of men, to leani to be 
good listeners so tliat when we teach wc may know what is in 
the thoughts of our hearers. The spirit of obscurantism is not 
to be found in the Bible. The disciple of Christ is to welcome 
truth i>f all kinds ; the teacher is to stimulate enquiry rather 
than to repress it, and to speak as a leader of those who arc 
themseh : guided by the Spirit. 

The t- list be himself a free enquirer. He must face 

the great questions. He must find his way, even though not 
without bewilderment, to a clear answer, or at least to a position 
where he can wait for an answer not yet given. Only so can he 
encourage in his hearers the spirit of free enquiry and learn to 
disencumber his message from all which is contrary to wliat is 
true in science and criticism and in the moral and social 
aspirations of the best minds of our time. It is of the greatest 
imiH)rtance to know, and to be able rightly to declare, what 
*' the Church teaches." But it is not enough, especially when 
the Church by its divisions is disqualified for teaching with 
authority. The more thoroughly we have thought things out 
for ourselves, the more simply and humanly we shall be able to 
teach so that all may understand. 
II. ofitady (iii.) The clergy and the lay teachers ahke must make fresh 
oit^fainc. efforts to be adepts at teaching. True, we need special 
organisations for the purpose of providing preachers, evange- 
lists and teachers. But every priest and minister of Christ must 
seek with a new devotion to become not only an effective 
preacher, but also an export in teaching, capable not only of 
taking a class of children but of conducting a study circle and 
of stimulating and guiding a debate. All will not do it with 



NEED FOR INTELLECTUAL EFFOUT lu 

ess ; but each Inu^tt make a viguroas effort to do it as 

..^ can. 

(iv.) At best, however, the ofTicial teachers of the Church will '*^,g J^*' 

* ' ' ug all that is needed, and the laity must cease oiik«kucy. 

\ upon the pulpit for their knowledge of rc- 

ulpit was almost the only instrument 

\n\t now. when all can r<ad, and 

reasonably I' 'I'd 

■ udy. Particii _ i'>es 

reverent study of the Bible which is one of 

..v^itions of a vigorous faith. 

2. Need for Intellectual Effort. 
We desire to impress upon the Church how important in>port»nc* <j« 

<m IS. This IS not Icctnal postioa. 

i I means the spiritual 

IS are known by their fruits, that questions of 

,,...ii>sophy are of secondary importance and the 

1 them eonfmed to a few, that rcUgion is of the heart 

■ 'f the head. There are elements of truth in all 

ion based only on the intellect would have little 

iiikind. But, unless the reason is > - d, 

for an emotional appeal to be p> tly 

, and tins is true, not only of individuals, but aUo of 

I men. People generally, though their reasoning is 

<• and not formal, are profoundly if unconsciously 

.V . d by the spirit of the age, and a message whi'*'' '^"^ "'^* 

iid to their mental wants will pjiss unheeded. 

' ' " * ' from Church History the iiujv>ri;iiirL ut i. 

I. If we f'xaminf the process by which h,., ,, 

lit world, we shall 

1 1 to do so was the 

1 of a thfoiogy (expressed m the current philosophical 

\vlii( li 1m tti-r than any other eontemporan*' system 

ied to the needs of the time. This tbeo* 

»i. ^.. I .^^^^^ jjy^ mainly to the cate- 

1. growing up in the greatest 

rsity toN^li, 

II with all 

iiuble. A in the 

was cont' ^ urs of 

n. 

' r».r.\ti ,,. >hcologv supply in different ways 

. the Roman world was fallinc 

<•! tri' ms St. Augustine prt»videa 

Dri R ti leh men ftlt to satisfy their 

Christian Chun*h to Ik come 

I. I pire. Thr thfology wlueh the 



to THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

Church formulated, mainly under his guidance, h"-"-"' iscd 
with the piety and practical needs of the centuries th; d, 

n ^ thus able to build up the medircval system oi me and 

ti. 

Again, the >f the mediseval Church 

\v IS made jh > un were able to combine 

tianity with Aristotelian ism and thus to express their 

.... ..a^ in the philosophy of the day. The names of Anselm, 

of Abelard, of Aquinas, to take only the best known, are those 
of the men who were not only the ' ^ - . . — ^ theologians 
of the time, but also the leadrrsof 1 Jit. In this 

\> ' of the iucdia:val Universities 

(i, ativity. 

Since the passing away of the i of intellectual 

supremacy held by the Scholastic i »phy, and the 

I ; iscence of learning, first literar}' and then scientific, and the 
di >Uuction of the unity of Western Christendom, it is probably 
true that no section of the Christian Church and no school of 
t ■ " 1 able so to interpret Christianity as to be fully 

( > its own day and to dominate intellectual 

life. Kra-sinus made the attempt, but his 1 ere 

brushed aside by the religious passions of th ion. 

Many theologians since then have had wide influence, but it 
probably remains true that the gap between the two systems 
of thought — secular and religious — has, at any rate until 
recently, continued to widen and has thus produced the duality 
of modern life. 

Every great period of religious advance might supply us 
with fresh instances, but we will take one only on a more 
limited scale belonging to our own days. If we select the 
Cambridge Scliool of Theology, it is because the founders 
of it, Lightfoot, Westcott, Hort, have passed away and we 
can speak freely. These men were confronted with certain 
critical problems which closely affected men's estimation of the 
truth of Christianity. They met with great learning ' wer 
the problems, in the form in which they were | i to 

them, and within the limits they assigned to themselves 
tfieir success was conspicuous. Their work resulted in 
a strong Christian movement during their generation at 
Cambridge, which passed on to the country and had there also 
wide results. So far as their investigations were sound, 
their influence was considerable ; so far as they were limited 
in their scope and failed to touch all the modem problems, 
their influence also was limited. In the wide complexity of 
modern thought, it is not likely that a single theologian, or one 
school, will be able to solve every problem ; and we must in 
these days seek such a solution in the corporate action of the 
whole Christian society. 



THE CHURCH AND TUE UNIVERSITIES SI 

hat it is not jXissible for us to m ' - ~om- 
h wit! rn^iun- tin- rise of a tli or 

iiid mlLllcctual 

M of thr present 

it und Unijfen did tor their ^' n. The 

'M <lo IS to draw attention to 11. ^ tyof the 

se the necessity that the ciiurch should 

•tual life, and to point out the conditions 

U- of its duty can be most adequately 



{M:rloriu« 



3. 'Hu I Hid Vie i es, 

uf.w ill I and NN \en Universities Dutr of th« 

s. All of these are centres of intel- S5J,'^*J^' 

> ....>v schools of Arts and Science which 

the thought of the day, and are enabled by 

' ' ' ' ■ • ■ k with authority. 

. and engineering 

i to such studies may tend to 

ices of the day. They are 

)r the trainmg of future teachers. In these centres of 

lal life the Cliurch of England should be strongly 

t cd. Many of them are in large cities, where they are 

''''^'"' I, but with the social, 

• ■ Church and nation. 

Is for its healthy 

I sueh an atmo- 

" the 

- - ^ "gilt 

1 be beneficial both to the development of the 
and to her own well-being, 
of this r< commendation wc would draw attention 

... r ....:, -^I^S 

I on- 

• 1 

if, and \\ and that they 

•"■<-..». v.^.v.w,,...vat of the Theolo.r > 

s, as at London and > r. V\c 

• " ' '"' ' -' • i^uiarkablc 

!(• that their 

'\rf thut the 

, (I.) OM. 



reli, but 



V with iiitlu< 

( Hill t r'\ I ti 






1 II 1 I IK i 

< of the 



THE ILALiilNu ul^llLii OF TllE CHURCH 

■' nthcr 

"•>"••• [; - c tliat 

^' '^i Nh«»uld co-operate with other com- 

'" ^ ir,,iHf l»Klics of thc<jlojfical teachers in 

accordance with the c. offered in each ; and that, for 

'f- "«rt, the Church oi hnyia.id should in " T' .jj 

ish institutions to be homes of tl h 

iWKi iiuming for the tf nid thf ' ,-c 

clerv'V, to {rive opjvirtn i instru( i ^ w- 

'' ' ^ teachers, and to supply centres 

*'' i' 'n the Universities. 

Our iiope IS that in this way the Church will be enabl. 
indirectly to meet many of the serious difficulties by which it 
IS confronted. A considerable body of clergy will be devoted to 
theological study, and will be working in close contact with 
modem intellectual life. These colleges will be places of 
edueiition for the future clergy, who will thus be brought into 
contact with students of other subjects and with men of 
differint opimons and interests. The Church will be in close 
contact with able Nonconformist teachers, and thus the way 
will be prepared for the restoration of Christian unitv. It is 
needless to say that the establishment of ' t" ty 

centres, with teachers receiving an adequate ],. 
will demand a large sum of monev ; but wt tl this 

should be the first claim upon the endowments < > imreh 

in any financial readjustment, and are confident in our beli. 
that the money will be forthcoming. 

4. Training of Candidates for Holy Orders. 

I'J,'^^'^ ' ,^.y^ P^i^s next to the training of the clergv. On th, 
While the Committee was agreed on many points, , 

w'"^ Ti,''^'^]' **'^''*-* "^'^ * considerable and ' probably 
irreconcilable difference. " 

This difference was mainly concerned with two points, tlu 
value of resident Theological Colleges not situated m Univer- 
sity to^^^ls and the importance of a University degree. 

As to the first, two views were expressed. Some of th. 
Lominittee desired to see the existing Theological Colleges, whe, 
approved, retained as an integral part of the svstem of 
Church and would have the special training of the cl. . 
conducted both at institutions in a University and at Theologic^al 
Colleges away from the Universities but not therefore uncon- 
nee ed Mith them. Others, while recognising the necessit^ 
that some candidates for Holy Orders should have their sp. , i / 
training away from the Universities, desired to see the who^ i 
such training normally conducted at the Universities. 

On the second point, all were agreed as to the inadvisability 



THAINING OF CANDIDATES FOR HOLY ORDERS 23 

of a ri|fid uniformity in the training of if*. But 

some did nut wi>h to i-x'-''"'' <*!■,, m tlu- tli. ,.' mtni- men 

who had not recti vrd a I ' re «.f 

opi"" " *' * *' ' ' :i Mii>uiii ;um ;ii iiuikiii^ iih- |n»N>fNSlon 

of ' he noriiinl rt-quirfment. 

I 'i von by ■ ■ ' 

b<>; . on v<»t 

wa* luuiul II tlu' C' V 

divided. <> uch the C i 

were able to amvc at the following conclusions : 
' '"'' * *' »_-;-:--, j-Qp ^Ijp ministry should be the ct»im m roiauoii 
' (fate capacity, and should be made one 
' --• ntial cli 
ii V in view . 
the Church hopc-s henceforth to draw from the indu-strial 
tiasses. 

ii.) That the supervision of the training of the clergy 

' ' ' ' * d to a body such as the Central Advisory 

tive of the Church as a whole, and that 

<\ for the training of the 

loval of this Council. 

That all Theological Colleges, even those which arc not 

' ••^ University towns, should be as closely associated 

rsitics as circumstances admit. 



I iiiethotis oi and tti parluulur 

>ound knowl „ i the view of the 

modem science pres<nts to us. We think that 

f »i... f ..;... .^ ;♦;... »,. ........... t\.u ;.. » v. .>f 

.1 
lid adolescence has been parsed in school 



I That training should include some study of (a) the 
.rtice of ' ' '" - ' ' ' 

; (c) c. 

II e;iiulid.ift s for Onlers should rccci\ ' ^ 

! than has been usual 
^ 11. .,1 lasting at least two 

I course ' ' least thn-e v«ars. 



I arc 
. and 



24 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

dill 

of 

cori itiU'ili'ctuai equipment huve tailed m t 

paiv Aork. No ndvance m the inlellcoturti stui 

of the clergy will avail, unless they have a wltoi 

.1..... ..,....♦.. ("i.„;. » I II.. 1.1. .. I, 

6. Education of the Clergy qfter Ordination. 

The training r n is but the ' 

the making of 1 1 . , i its value \m 

tested by the clearness with which those who have received it 
rccogiiise its inadequacy. The word of God and the rifiht 
raethtxl of preaching it are the study of a lifetime. No on- 
ind( ' ' lid be ordained who has not a sound foun<] " 
kn' roady for imnudiate use. Rut it is e\ 

imi 1 who is < 

sorii I of the k, 

have a definite plan for its attainment. lie should ha\ 

both how to study and what to study. Otherwise, i .; 

good his intentions in this matter, they are little likely to be 
realised. 
Trmiuin* durin« First comcs thc qucstion of the training to be received during' 
t • Motuu. ^j^p diaconate. A man when newly ordained is prohnl 
receptive of impressions than at any other time of hi'^ 
first year of parochial work will go far to 
thc end. It is thu«^ most nfctssary that ii 
in good hands during this, all-important period, and, however 
great the needs of a parish may be, no parish priest should be 
allowed to give a title to a deacon unless there is reason to 
believe that he can and will give him a suitable training. Care 
must be t.aken in the firjt place that the deacon is encourajred 
to J' • in those habits of prayer and meditation .ind 

wor- ich, if he has been properly trained, he will already 

have begun to acquire. He will need in the second place 
instruction and supervision in parochial visitation, especially 
in dealing with the sick. Moreover, he should be helped in the 
preparation of his sermons and in his work for children and 
Bible cla.«iscs. The clergy to whom deacons are entrust< d 
ought ( " to remember that it is their duty to train 

them, fi I »y be, ff»r all parts of ministerial service. Thc 

time of luuly ordained clergy ought not to be almost exclu- 
sively devoted to one or two branches of work, such as the care 
of the youMfj, for this will narrow both their mental outlook and 
their practical experience ; nor ought their preaching so to be 
confined to mission churches that those responsible for their 
training seldom hear them. But the training of deacons is not 
simply a matter for the individual clergy in whose parishes 



EDUCATION OF THE CLERGY AFTER ORDINATION 30 

t of the general work of the Church. It 

:i to incumbents, to whom fi.imn-. are 

ily of the (leucon's time can to 

>^(MiN. ;iiiii iiiat the Uishop retains a suhstunLi.ti • laim 

I lor the puipose of wider trainintf. lu each diocese 

■ for 

1 to 

>ts. 

uld 

to feci that he belongs, not only to the particular 

;,wl. Iw. crves, but also to the diocese and to the 

ifore he must look beyond liis immediate 

tc both his reading and his teaching to 

the Church as a whole. 

' tainment of better opportunities The duty of 
y, and of tr:iinirif» thrm when "^ '' 
>n as priests, n ive 

- - :;ght exercise of ti _; .. _• of 

b. But it will be a step only ; and it will have been 

body recognise in a new way 

as a whole the necessity for 

' ' 'ton 

in 

the 

aid 

If so to do, the Lord being my 

seems to fail, laziness, that 

of " the study of the flesh," and absorp- 

" the study of the world," have no doubt 

>wer. But there arc other rpaJ»ons» with 

' T' . clergy 

; they 

r wliat to read ; they ure over- 

: and they do not always r< ct Ive 

H-nt. 

the fact, so well pointed fut ^^ 
!iun have as a rule little interest 

md 
a\ 

.llitll It ijjc 

'. Ir i,. 'lie 

for 

.. .vil. 
US %vill 

the 

'y 

it 



..;., 




.,!., 


ss the cli 


it. 
you 






I 


Wl 


. and th 


iiK 


Tf 




he 



2r. TIIE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 



a genial tcnce, which mokes no demands U{K>n them, 

<<• i>i' 1 il keenness, wluch asks them to think, is 

wliich best shows the evil of our present ways. 
\\i m. Mwi III course forget that among a minority of the 
rlergy there is a real intellectual activity, or tlmt a minority 
r I.' ' ' - ' " ! Mi-uter intellcetujil h<lj) fi' 

\e. But the intclketual . 

is to-day far too much directed 

. 'f from the everj'day needs of 

ortiinarx' men. What is lacking to us is that comprcheasive 

knowledge of the Bible, of Christian theology, alike doctrinal 

and moral, of Christian etliics, and of the best means of training 

the spiritual life, which makes the competent parish priest. 

Th« re is imperative need that there should be in the Church 

^ adequate guidance given to the clergy in moral 

ut it they cannot be rightly equipped for 
dr.iliii;,' with riionil pn)l)knis, or for personal dealing with souls, 
and th« easts of conscience which arise in it. But it is esp<'cially 
important that our moral theology should take accoimt of 
English ways and conditions, and not simply b<' borrowed from 
the manuals of the Roman Church. The ministries for which 
it is chiefly necessary are not appropriate to \ 
and the study of it should not therefore t 
to the diaconate. It should in part belong to Uic earlier 
training and in part be dtfcrred till after ordination to the 
priesthooil. 

Particularly does the duty of .study rest upon the younger 
clergy. It is the young who learn most easily and most easily 
retain what they leam ; while their pastoral visitation is less 
valuable than that of older men, whose exp<'ricnce is wider. 
It is for the younger clergy a disaster lifelong in i loe s 

when they devote that share of their time nv i be 

sacred to study to such parochial activities as the working of 
philanthropic clubs. In many cases the habit of study has at 
the time of ordination been very imf>erfectly formed ; and once 
broken it is not recovered. It is the very liighest motives to 
which our appe-al must be made — the love of God and of the 
souls of men. 

What suggestions can we make for the help of the clerg}' in 
this most important matter ? Firstly, we appeal for more 
encouragement from those in authority and from the scholars 
of the Church. For most men continued study of a profitable 
kind is almost impossible without human sympathy and 
intelligent guidance. How much can be done by the Bishops 
has been already shown us. The gatherings of their clergy 
arranged by them at their palaces, for lectures, for discussion, 
and for social intercourse, have been of great value. More use, 
we think, might be made of Diocesan Conferences. They 



^EDUCATION OF THE CLERGY AFTER ORDINATION «7 

should not be, as sometimes they are. entirely devoted to the 

lid also be 11 ' ' r 



*n of the parochial clergy. Diocesan libraries 

uli. r.- tli. A' (Jo not H^ i.i^< V-' Tit exist, and they 
t'ofsom r of the cathedral 

' ' lostrr III --•'--- way the 



11 at Oxfoiii 

^'txl, wc hope, 

it • s. It ought to be made possible for 

t li' ... .*.nd these lectures "without the sacrifice 

r annual holiday ; and the lectures, like 

riods of the ycnr, so 
K'P. Once more, we 



scs of study and suitabl 

— , -. 1 to the n.«(ls of the p 

rl< ruy. on why the work of f ty does not grow 

I' ^ire is that the needs of ill.. >i »>i»o can give much 
• are kept too exclusively in view. When what is 

le, little attention is 
[ ' <\ in the published 



US agnJii 



<.s — in whicli the 

will r-dnii' lii>fiiri» 



II. Teaching of AduUx. 



We have spoken, at an earlier stacfe of our Report, of the 

'the 



»f the best I 


'•rs. 


1 and no" • 


I. ••ui iii.ii -"iii-jtil \T\ 


ity of C: 


\ up with the rthirious 


11 of ti. 


ah 


In tl. 


1 on 




C 



S8 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHUUCIl 



DiOCM*. 



many sides, in view of mnny past nii-itakcs, that lal 

-^ as much to be c'"'"' '"ltd in women as M nd 

is no distinction ' d by Christianity in respect 

of rr.tai)in of rnqnirv Wtw.. ,, in- ii and women. 

(i.) In the Pansh.—U is important that in the pansh 
deniiitr 'lid be given not only to the 

pl,,l,lr,.,, , liiX)!. and to the udolcseents in the 

Hi- class, but also to adult men and women. Th' - ns 

ul tiiousands whose religious education ceased with ms 

taught in their childhwd. The Church cannot hope to relam 
the more inteUigent of its members unless it gives them much 
full, r and more careful instruction than has hitherto been the 
,■:-■. This lucessarv tesirhing can be given in various ways. 
1 ir t and foremost, a largrr use should be made of the oppor- 
tunities given on Sundays for carefully thought out. ' ' ic, 
and consecutive courses of sermons implying «'■ us 

study. In connection witli these subsidiary m "Id 

be given bv outside agencies— for example, by u\ 

the schools'. Lectures should be given, especially m Lent and 
Advent, in the church or in some room. We recommend 
in this connexion that freer use should be made of the nave 
and transepts of parish churches for lectures and conferences, 
and for suitable representations with a view to teaching. In 
studv circles the laitv should help one another l»y mutual 
discussion. The methrxis of the Workers' Educational Asso- 
ciation should be used more largely than has been the case in 
the past in the teaching of theology. Open conferences on 
such subjects as Bible problems, Christian evidence, and moral 
and sorinl qi: may prove most useful if conducted by 

people of real iice. Where such conference is impossible 

the employment of a question-box gives the teacher the oppor- 
tunity of knowing the dilTieulties in the minds of those whom 
he addresses. , r,, i_ i 

(ii.) In the Diocese.— It is felt that the Church has 
not sufTiciently realised her duty towards the cultured 
and intellectual laity. Through the medium of the Press, 
through high-class literature, through reviews and maga- 
lines and other |. ' ' ' -ns, all manner of questions 
bearing on the p- it of Christianity engage the 

attention of tli - They are not ignorant 

of the results ol i • Tluy know the HitlKMilties 

connected >vith science and philosophy. They r^ the 

inadequacy of much teaching which passes for xy ; 

and thev not unnaturally desire that the light of knowledge 
and sound learning should be thrown upon religious questions. 
It is in this connection that we feel that a wider use should 
be made of the ajieneies which already exist in many dioceses, 
and especially such as adopt the methods of study circles and 



THE TEACHING OF ADULTS 29 

Uni%'crsity rxtension If^lures, which hnve proved so con- 

.- , ■ . ■ ■ 'ts. 

and similar '^'^•*» 

r thf puriMisc ot n > in the- IJiMr, the gmtnOf 

t li. and the life and hi : the Church mif^ht be 

in many parts of the country. Experience 

...^ ., ..VI... i such opportunities, intended for the 

lay members of the Church, can be usefully combined 

like nature which we shall advocate 

r and summer holidays would, as a 

; cimvenient times, and the gatherings 

V days only or for three or four weeks. 

H<.tli men and women should be admitted. These schools 

should he of different grades, some for advanced teaching, 

\vhi< h shmild be given by lecturers who have made a special 

stutiy cf '■ - ubject, and these should be held preferably 

at the 1 ics. In others the lectures should be of a 

!, but they should be given in every case by 

cturers. The appreciation shown by students 

s for instruction, their keen desire to 

ireely and critically what is taught, make 

It well worth while to secure the best lecturers available. 

xi.^K r, .n,. ri,,„. ...;.»ht bring fresh life into many towns where 

ct of Cluistian teaching is at present 

II. 

rod students, anxiouv to Ik* h*>tt<^r !n«?tructed in 

rses of • e with 

rs shoul. - !,ts may 

thcr the time nor the means for attending vacation 

; no lectures may be within their reach, and they 

feel unable to apply to their own clergy. It is most 

-♦ Mt that it should Ik? made widely known that in such 

' ion by eorresfKuidcnee can be ohtainefi. 

^ by which the r " ] be 

* of Hoiis.-v^ ^vh \ en 

iitl Ik- a g«Mui theO- 

I '>n new religious or 

'uld l>e given — f.g.. Spiritualism, 

.-, .. ... V. Such Houses would l>c useful 

town. In some Houses which already exist 
p<»mt is that there is no fo: ' ' ' 'he pro- 

no hint nf fxaniinationK, f f King 

it the r- of 



(\ to 



rr 



of Books ami T.iltrniiirr — Tf 
rt that \ 
>f theologi\ .11 iitt i.iiiii V i<ii .1 



80 niE TEAniING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

im is the output, much more still requires to be done. It is not 
r ' k of first-rntc book* deahng with 

. and rtlijjion ; it is that they are 

.,^, I,,,, n'icult f«ir them to make their 

I I oiilv thr rhfiip manuals, but 

some even of th 

ortli nation, arc si ;. • • » » 

intcrprttation of Scripture, and often d«rret U) 

.controversies, rather than to the living issti lay. 

r if for the clergv it is hani to know where to tind what 
tlu V uquire, still more is it hard for the laity. We can hardly 
doiibt. in view c.flhc vast outi>«it of thcologieal and devotional 
litrraturc. that the needs of almost every cla '" ' -^ ■'' 
somewhere supplied. But it appears to be no , „ . . 

the crain from the chaff. We arc of opinion tU.ii the b.l .L.lv. 
should be dcvd(>i>ed so as to be a publishing society representa- 
tive of the whole Church, and an intellectual centre of its life. 
The publishing department should be developed on the lines on 
which . xi»;insi.>n has sc. happily begun. Thus («) bm,ks should 
be published from different points of view, and those offered 
should not be rejeeted. unless thev are considered not worth 
publishing or el insistent with the re I teaching 

of the Church .; ' , -d. (6) Standaixl th. works of 

all tvpcs should be published at low prices, (t) Ihe Soeiety 
should request comjK'tent writers to fill recognised gaps in on 
theological literature, whether the need be for popular 1 
or for those of the highest scholarly and philosophical t, . 
Moriov.r it should see f fiat its defx^ts contain the Ixst Viooks < 
other publishers, and of other communions, as well as those ( 
the S.P.C.K., and should organise a large central library r 
Loui\on with reading rooms, and also branch libraries ar 
rciwling rooms wherever ^hev are tliou«hl to be needed. I 
ought not to be left to Christian Scientists to provide reading 
rooms for the studv of religious problems ; it should hr done 
bv the Church. Above all, as we have already 

nv ' uld be found of discovering what are the [ ^^. ' 

b(. V to be helpful to different classes of readers. >\cr 

this (i ' come to possess a supply oi 

books people, which might cither be 

borrowed, or read in the tliureh itself. Lists of s' 
mtght l)c inserted in diocesan calendars and parish i. 
and grants made to poor parishes. 
IT.) Th. (v.) The Prcw.— The imporUnce of the Press as a means « 
^'^ promoting religious knowledge is great. The Chuich must take 
pains to CO operate with it. Where the Press is not in the hands 
of those who are delinitcly opix>sed to religion or are quite 
indifferent, it is now accustomed to place before its readers 
valuable reports of Chureh meetings and conferences, and 



niE WORK OF THE LAIT7 



81 



reviews of noteworthy bo<^k<t. 



into pr 



\1 

>' < 

uf r 



rit to be 
I it is »)> 

Ts \' 



' V , ...... thf cori"^' "" 

I of theoloijical ' 
ii'iMo III. Ill in ours. It ^ 
just as it is tfo<><l for eve; 

in a CO 



We have seen of Ute some very 
s upon 

^'^. in nt ! 

Wrjl tl' 1 l>c dlS- 

lly to I : Jitors of 

rs to supply artich-s in explanation 
»n tho sul>jrots which from time to 
before the public mind. In the direct 

■ ' '" * ' ' 'o be 

rcjy 

to litii iicrally. 

il to th h mind 

ly conducted as private enterprises, 

I use of these that the widest circles 

I. It is sufTicient, for the present at 

'-*• ' :ld exist between the con- 

f the Church as to make it 

'rachinij 

> . It is 

i|>crs on the 

. HI the homes 

nfurmist denommations than in those of 
• that a more intelligent 
obtains in their house- 
' 't- to affirm that, 
. ■ up some piece 
. .so it is good that 
interest in wliat is 
.t in the high sphere of 

■oiititrv Mrii? fill ii\.T tlw 



7. Work of the Laity. 

The Report ha* already t*^ forth its proposals for the better 

now to • of the 

in the ti „ of {hr 

1 'n'licvi- fli.it ffin T.'iifv when "«''•"««"♦■ ,, li.iiii. ,1 

:nities ei ^' in church. 



Here there is room for far pr 



ire 

Jar 

ty. 

gut ion 



«2 TIIK TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

could often be given, if Inymcn were authorised by the Bishop 

of the (V * •"•-•• -Monally on the Sunday at the 

re^ulur lii'ld for some special purpose. 

( ,,i itclui ! ' ' men in church on 

vs. In ' I ty* of the Com- 

mit t iruiix the • 

iiivt ime authorit\ 

ment should be given to women in the exercise ol' tlie teaehiiig 
ofTiec m church. 
i>0uM4« Secondly, we recommend that the clergy should invite the 
tiMCbaith. ijjjj^y ^Q co-operate with them much more fully in the work of 
instruction which takes place outside the actual walls of the 
ihurcli. The importance and the necessity of assistance in the 
Sundav school are now universally reeogniscd. But far more 
frcqu( iitly liiblc rlass( s might well be handed over to the 
charge of jaynu ii or laywomen ; the clergy often retain in their 
own hands classes for which among the Nonconformists the 
laity are more generally made responsible. While the pastoral 
instincts of the parochial clergy will make them anxious always 
themselves to prepare the candidates for confirmation, there 
arc occasions in large and understaffed parishes where it would 
l)e right to arrange for laymen and laywomen to undertake 
st)nK- of thise classes. Addresses at junior and adult classes, 
lectures on Church history, instruction classes for teachers, 
and conferences of adults on social and moral problems, are 
examples of the kind of work in which the laity should in- 
creasingly share. 
PtwMoi Thirdly, we wish to lay great stress on the importance of the 
Jh2,«. i'ldividual work which can be done by instructed layni< n and 
laywomen. In the workshop, in the club, or in the drawing- 
nK>rn, laynun and laywomen hear diflieulties and objeci i 
which are not so generally discussed with the clergy. It i 
these o«,-casions that they can do invaluable scr 
removal of misunderstanding and by setting forth a 
statement of Christian truth. The faith of the Church is often 
condemned through the lack of those who can state and 
defend it. A special effort should be made to gather togethci 

sni 1 ' ' .omen for the discussion of the 

reli_ t often raised in the society to 

which Hkv bcloiij,', .su tiiut wlien the opportunity ari 
may be ready to hi Ip the enquirer and to answer the 

h. 6f«<i(/ among Christians. 

Diffleuiiy o! Much as we feel the evils of the disunion of Christendom and 
m«u***" of partisan spirit within the Church, we recognise that there 

• Fourteen mt-mbcrs of the Committee were in favour of this change, 
five were aj^itLst it, while two did not vote. 



UNITY AMONG CHRISTIANS 89 

IS no easy or short cut to doing away with conditions which have 
' • ' • result f* ...-.,,, (,f estranffrnunt and con- 

It is that men will always look 

up [1 nliijion ; ts of view, and that 

th.T" ui!! |.. \\ !iion in the future. It 

of aii for unity, 

of the ( , and by the 

^' of conditions whicii may bring Christians 

f'lT tluit any change can be ex|)ccted. We MMosior Um 

1 of Churchmen with Nonconformists 535?*** "* 

1 Muo\ HI liic sanjc r - tics has already pre- 

.:iy for a better utu; i)g and that similar 

I the tuturc. All mt r f the 

_' as t" the extent ai c to 

I that a part at any rate 

_. uuld be at the University, 

• IS true as regards teachers. \Vc think that this 

"••Mon ground of Churchmen belonging to different 

t, and of Churchmen and Nonconformists, may 

ig down of barriers, and to greater harmony 

\V«! further urge : 

(1; '1 '• ' ' - Ml till- \_iiarcii (u iMigiarid >ii(iui(i co- 

:s of other aenomuiations, Roman and 

^^ Illation, maintenance, and propa- 

iicc 

- - L - .-i.uns, 

: through mutual knowledge prepare the way for future 
u...t y. 
(8) That so far as they are able, without compromise of 

■ ' ' ' ' 1 take their 

.. We feel 

the SUident Christian 

i to take their full share 

l.C.'V. and Y.W.C.A. arc similarfy 

onaJ policy, and on that under- 

wc cordially recijmraend co-operation with them also. 

V. 
THK REFORM OF RKLIGIOUS EDVCATIOS. 

I . Need of Reform, 

•h« 

ing 

voung 

r'. .k^ 



84 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 



Tb« Ckurcb 
r«caH«d M KB 
obfUel*. 



Thrre can be no doubt that the Church is very en 

— ' ! as an effective obstacle in the way of edu- - 

That it should l)c even »o n'gardcd is deeply tnijio 
wiica ^^ iii)cr that the Church was carrying on the 

gcnrmi 1 of the country at a time when the State had 

no t ing it. Any • . .^^^^ 

betw 1 and the e<i ^ in 

part been due to suspicion of the Cimixli in some < 
the fear "^ i'\ir'\-n\ predominance, and in purl to i; 
anion",' < ^ which have prevented them from pr 

an uniUd iiM.L. But we believe that in so far as i 

jjround for this prejudice apainst the Church (and we fear that 

r , -v, r ... ,1 th^j chr- ' '•■■■ 

d with : 

of idurah.Mi which lu every other sphere than rcligiuii are 
entinh ()l)s«)lcte. ^ ' 

But' the netd of reform does not end here. '■■ the 

Church has undoubtedly been deprived of manv ( : , .">r- 

tunities which it once possessed of giving its m part of 

the education of the country, splendid opportune.. . .-..il remain 
to it. and we cannot but led that the results of its educational 
are far from c< ' ' !»t have 

1 view of the cam h many 

of Its members have displayed. Our duly is to discover the 
causos i)f f Ills. Hiid to suggest adequate remedies. 

Meaning of Religiotu Education. 

The first cause of failure is tlrnt the true nature of rchgious 

education h;i " >n sutliciently recognised. The expression 

••religiou-s **- 'is in fact <mj>l<>ytd in two different. 

senses. On tiie scribe an cduca- 

ti(>n which is per: , i . . s; on the otlier 

hand, it stands for instruction m tlie principles aiu 'I 

religion. Each is important, and the Church, we c ar, 

has failed in hot h directions ; but it is necessary at the outset to 

be clear as to the distinction between the two and as to the 

relation which exists between them. It is the former which is 

TbeinietimTithe inopc i(n|)' tt aiit. True education is always concerned with 

of»dac«tion.,jjjj^. ^vfi-! !. :■; of niMn ancl nr.t only with one part of it. Its 

aini -bodily, mental. 

and , . . i i is to be regarded 

not as a means only, but as an end in itself. In other words, 

the function of education is the training of the sons of God. 

From tliis two results immediately follow : one is that the aim 

of education must aluays be spiritual and not utilitarian ; the 

other is that it must give a right relation to the world of 

1 nature, to the world of human history and endea voiir, 

lie world of spiritual life. This is the old triple division 



Twort«a*M ot 

ralifioai 

•dacatioa. 



REFORM OF RFXIGIOUS FJ)UCATION M 

of Soirnce, the Ilumiuiitie*, and Religion. If thenc three 

'- * ' — ' -' — *- ii-nts which can be isolated 

at once created. There are 
'the 



r of uli IIkm- ; if wi- du it t ' 

Iv itne department of life it i> ii it 

hy I will be found for it at all. Indeed 

♦'■ . ,.,... iS relipious or non-religious: a child's 

!iere is affected by the religious or non-religious 

>i .111 the |)e<)plt' with whom he has to do, and by 

of " «w-rn la r " thin'js in his surroundings. Religion 

life, running through all ; 

ious and secular. ^Ve have 

111 tin been making an attempt to regard 

I .-. Oin etiueational system is supfMKxd to 

! as regards religion, the latter being added 

0. That is an impossible method. Religion 

•d to a separate department. A general eduea- 

'• ■ is in its effect atheistic or agnostic; 

♦ to !^nv€> thf rnndHmf-ntal cjucstions 

The effect 

a of special 

IS mstruction, or by the existence of a school 

-...,. T>iii^/,rv services. The r<'i"i""< instruction 

must \m ing into explicit < n the spirit 

'■ ' ' IMC process of education througnout lU course and 

.se«. 

i: ■ ■ ■ ■ - • ,,„^t 



. I,,. Tlu pla< • 



Th« Chwak 
ftod rra«r*l 
in •ducattoa. 



'i«»n. On this topic 

, _ i a in the report of the 

^•e on the Church and Industry. There has of late 

" ♦ '• ncy in the Church to acquiesce in tlje false 

reference has l>een made, and to leave general 

attcntic' ' ' '.„. 

">n. Til- x'ti 



in the matter. I, is not cliietly 

fir<?ir fir fii ••fTici#^Mif r ii tliiviiiTh thcSC 



I, a far 

'ViiM'ii III ail tluit we 



a niiitd. 
lieligwus Instruction. 



56 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

given. Three mistakes, we believe, are c< 

There is a tendency to rely too much upon ti 

instruction ; Christ Himself is not given His true place ; and 

th.K is itisunicicnt respect for the individuality of those who 

arc t ;ill;,'ht. 

(i.)M«ihod>ot NVitli regard to the first point, education, as we h ' ' ' 

■Mjrtin.truo- ^^^^ ct)ncerncd with the mind alone. If we con^ 

only with memory and intclJiffencc we shall none th' 
iiilluencing the oilurr parts ot human nature, and )■ 
inUuenciii},' th<ni for evil rather than ^'ood. A child may have 
a good deal of religious knowledge and be none the better but 
rather the worse, just as he might be the worse for knowing 
physiology if he were allowed no exercise. Instruction in the 
Hible and the Creed should make an organic whole with the 
i f ice of prayer and of duty towards God and our 

oj and family prayers, ohiireh services, the 
s of the -I or 

.,; out in r> ruc- 

tion and a wholesome proportion kept between them. A boy 
or girl in a Church boarding school, for instance, can whole- 
somely assimilate more divinity teaching than a child in a 
provided elementary school. Where the environment is not 
within the control of the teacher the teaching should be thought 
out in relation to it and ordered accordingly, both in quantity 
and kind. 
(IL) The pitee With regard to the second point, the main bii '" the 

nof?nd«-"*' Church as an educator is to receive into itself tin , ility 

itood. of Qur Lord and let that personality be presented in its fulness 

alike of majesty and of graciousness. Inasmuch as we are 
Christians, we believe that the " master light of all our seeing " 
is the revelation of God in Jesus Christ, whose life and death and 
resurrection are the pivot about which all human history turns. 
Hire then we have the supreme test by which the Church's 
discharge of its teaching office must stand or fall.- 

Just as Christianity is the one religion which claims a Founder 
who is always living, so the presentation of Christianity is the 
presentation of Christ. St. Paul would have drawn a \'ital dis- 
tinction between " preaching Christ " and preaching about 
Christ ; and just so far as the Church is content with the latter 
alternative, failure both in evangelisation and in edification 
must ensue. For the Christian teacher the one central and 
tra! * fact in the world's history is the coming of the 

Son II the likeness of men, and the Person of the Incar- 

nate Son of God must hold the same central position in thought 
and doctrine as in history. Subsidiary lines of teaching are 
helpful only so far as they find their focus in Him, and the 
aphorism that the good is the enemy of the better was neve 
more true than here. All instruction on matters of religion 



of 


men 


th< 


!• Wi 


p. 

1 ■■ 


r>"ii, 



RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 8T 

which finds an cud in itself or distracts attention from the one 

t •- ' ' 1-... ...;(., jj couiitcrfcit of the (Jospel of Christ. 

ion. compatible with perfect humility (as 
If to be I 1 1 lowly in heart and 

II the u . oil <-Mrth), nnist be 



;> which is liis due cannot be offered until 

mes conscious of His presence as a real 

ly m the theological sense, but in the broad 

' t term. He nmst l>c brought near; He 

^ter-Companion ; otherwise we have only 

""»ut Him. "Until Christ be formed 

St expression of the purpose as well 

.i^ ' itiein of tile Christian teacher's labours. 

1 1 . y of those traits of His character which would 

present a paradox were He not what He claimed to be, but 

,. ; j. ,.^ iliin are complementary and not contradictory, has 

ttion for the human mind when once the reality of 

!ias been ' '1, and this fascination is one 

p>tent which the teacher possesses. 

1 i small children say they 

■ the clue to the needs of 
s. Those needs will perhaps 

. d passes, but their permanence 

of the teacher's creed. 

1 ir l.ord's ethical • ' ^r^ which might result 

in 1/ tual homage if a d as an end in itself 

prior ri i ui ili.s lity, has its 

n fis th' nee of t< ila " Verily, 

' to the student. When 

our Lord thus spake with 

/, the delight with which they hear of His acts has its 

i..irt in the de'i"** "'th which they read His sayings. 

I I' r, the Bible ' must be in all {>oints illuminated 

' f ' ise He is ' ' i|)lc- 

.'ri. Wli .-. in 

1 the taught, (Ui.) tamtm^ nmt 
only on the ISJSSA^. 

- , , -.. - lion. If the 

who tench in the name of the Church is 
iw, liuiii. another is reverence /or the individuality 
whom they teueh. 
i •(• of test i I 

i' of mo<i. 



18 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF ' MK CHURClf 

r' ' " '' ■ : ss ; for ^U' II rcscnrrb r 

rnnry arwi in n spirit of s\ 
aiui rcvtriiicc. iiul, v>lul' 
real progress cuiild t)c ii 

syllahu.scH and methods iu the light of c&labii!>hcd iruUts of 
child btudy. 

As we have said, in order that this central place may 
l)e effectively jfivcn to our Lord, all teaching must centre 
in His Person, teaching;, and work ; but this must be 
prescnttHl with due rej^ard to the pr ' ' ' ' n of 

the j^rowiiifif mind of the child or n< rent 

asjH'cts are nm ' 

for instance in >: ■ > 

some adolescents, there should not be any |^eat enj[)hasis 
on the physical suffering of the Passion. VV<- slw.nld follow 
here the reticence of the evangelists. Pictures rcat 

anguish should on no account be shown to chiliuuu. i m v arc 
liable to horrify rather than to evoke sympathy. In all sueh 
' 'uidfince from observation of the 

I ! normal children, and to present 

Christian truth iti the on.ler ada|)ted to the sik 
their growth rather than in tlit urdcr of logic as n . . ' 

by the mature Christian. 

ourUrd'i We w<»uld UTgr iilso ih» ...,. i ^< of studying our Lord's 

owTi methods of teaching. His use of parable is one example. 

It raises questions ; it does not close them but stimulates the 

mind to further thought. It api>eals to the common knowlediyc 

of those who hear it ; it is pictorial, c<merete, n 

Precisely these qualities are needed in the U 

children. In relij^ious instruction, as in all teaching, 

must be encouraged to think for themselves, to ask qu 

to find their own answers and to express their own thoughts. 

Indeed the best means of assimilation is the effort of the 

learner to state in his own words what he has learnt. To leam 

by heart the most excellent definitions and formulae is no 

substitute for thi^, nnd may, if practised tmwisely or in excess, 

even prove ' u phrasr 

they are in ;i rstood, su 

of the truth for which they stand is as a general rule rendered 

more difficult. For this reason definite instruction, which 

assuredly is needed, may yet fail in its purpose because its 

substance is not assimilated. 

It is also necessary, esix-cially in the earliest stages, that the 
teaching should be related as far as possible to the children's 
own experience, and that it should be intimately connected 
with those two great natural bases of life 

and contact with Nature. When these foui. ung, 

the difficulty of the teacher's task is immensely increased. 



mtthod. 



METHODS OF TEACHING 80 

But. b^si.-Ie thf parable, there is the authoritative statement ^J|{jJ^y„ 

of r-' ■' ! truth, profound in thought but simple in form, •uiwawk 

Til 1 and intclli-ctual life of a child is nourished not 

' ' ' ' iiry, but also by the 

1 nr!.t presentment he 

cs when we wish to lift 

ir own iintnt-iliute experi- 

vuc< . till t ir iito contact with thouj^hts which they 

ru.i > ! ' , , - 1 bttter than they can express. There 

urc ji-s in the Bible which will nourish the child's 

iiir. iiithou^h they transcend his experience. Great 

idd l)e taken to stKct such passages as will find some 

ination or experience, so that 
\>v minimised, 
i like his own inv( is and apply 

til- I Ajf; wc would I'l ite the path 

aUmg which we believe reform in the methods of religious 
instruction must proceed. Our choice of methods vitally 
affects our end. Christ is our rnd ; Christ must be our way. 

t. Somg Elements of Religious Instruction. 

It IS ! «se hfre to make a complete :ion 

of th" ^ of the religious teaching ii ven. 

' ose features oidy which seem to us to 

I a Tke Teaching of the Bible. — The pn^gress of Higher ThcUMhiBc 
Crir;, r,i h;is crtutcd a situation of ditliculty for teachers. Jjj^**** 
ho are vaguely aware that its conclusions ore im- 
' ' ' ive not the time or opportunity for study, 

rtaintv ami so lack inspiration in their work. 

... . ^ 

riKuie, alllu»ugli llie>e ure in 

^ •-, of learning. The intt IHlh lit 

' of the lltitU' at any time demands a store of h 

.-..I .,..1 I,..., ...., i...... I...I,... and at present, u..^ .. ...<■■ 

' is more than ever impera- 

■ 1 1 r II. 1 



irch, and we ho{ie to tee it 1 in 

'. MitiV iiiii.»fi.iii>. viliMri<.t • [U-.t 

ut of the Old T. 
IS m wmeii u undoubtedly un»ali>ji»i i.^y 

.,,., -ii* R»Udon of ik« 

t,> the fathers in the um T»itMs*ai 
pr. .r« manucns. hath •t,J:j[.'';„',';^""'« 



40 Tlib ir..\i_ iiJ.NU ijirii.r, vtt iim liiCivtn 

the Mid of '" ' ' us ii) hU «on.'* In tli^ 

lipht of this hf OU\ Trstfim<»nt. The 

utmost . t Im- takrii I 'Ml per- 

ceive a '1 ion of value !• i of old 

time " and the teaching of our Lord. At present it is only 
too evident that we have not succeeded in makiri" ♦'' ■♦ dis- 
tinction clear. A widespread and deep-seated < of 
ethical standards is daily displayed. Partly we Ix m \r this 
to he due to our failun; in the past to make our Lord the 

lUit \\c- iiiivc f.i -to 

I . the Christian si of 

ciiaraettr and curuiuct and those displayed in the in 
books of the Old Testament. As a child's religious corif . 
deepen, many of the Old Testament stories challenge his develop- 
ing conscience. The teacher must secure that the Christian 
ideal is kept before him, and guard against any kind of forced in- 
terpretation which might lead to confused or untruthful thinking. 
As soon ns children have passed the age appropriate to mere 
story-t(l' 1 1 care should be taken to rcc« >" 

the prill f progressive revelation. In< 

has been done \n the past by a failure to recognise the " divers 
manners " and " divers portions " by which men have heard 
the voice of God's revelation. Unless care is taken, the 
practice of illustrating the Commandments and the other 
parts of the Catechism by stories drawn at pleasure from any 
part of the Bible leaves the impression that it is a h' ous 

collection of moral teachi-ngs. Such an impression iHy 

dangerous, since those who retain it are not in any way | ' 

to resist the shallow attacks on Christianity which .^ 
made by quoting inpidents and passages from the Old Testa- 
ment which are alien from the spirit of our Lord. Children 
under fourteen years of age are too young themselves to trace 
the principle of development within the Old Testament with 
any clearness, though they can grasp the broad fact that 
" God hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in 
his son." It is essential however that the principle should 
be clearly grasped by the teacher, and should mould and 
colour the teaching that he gives. Older scholars can under- 
stand more fully the meaning of the great passage from the 
Epistle to the Hebrews which we quoted above. Clearer 
teaching can be given to them on the progressive revelation of 
God in history and ( ( e, on the continually developing 

expectation of a di vi i : ; I )eliverer, and on those dominant 

ideas of the Old Testament which form the starting point for 
the New Testanui^t teaching. 

'^, We {would strongly urge one practical reform — the pre- 
paration of a children's edition of the Bible. The format of 
the Bible is recognised as one of the greatest difficulties in 



llfE TEACHING OF HIE BIBLE St THE CATECHISM 41 

itcrestini; children and leading them to read it for themselves. 

i» ■ ■ ' ' ' ' ' ■ ' • ■• •• int, the 

ii lice of 

si school 

h Bible 

liS " a (iuil book. " An edition specially designed for 

••n would do much to give our teaching a new start. The 

would be read with a new interest, and that in itself 

' - ^v inspiration. Not only would children read 

but they would take it home and interest 
Ihe ii* <1 in a family by the books 

V hfn U'i' lid take home with them, is 

a 

present value of the Catechism, Two »!•»• oi 
rrs of the Committee were rather sharply divided. i**uf*cr**** 

the one hand, the Catechism is criticised as regards both mitt** 
•d and contents. Teaching by formulated question and ••j^|^«»'«»«»"'- 
r, it is said, is now di ' ' ' ' ' ' ii ; and 

not desirr tn «;*••■ its Motion, 

i; r^t 

or (T. 

•^ re IS a danfjtr lest the hxed answer should become a 

s ,., for thought, whireas, as the child's mind grows, the 

lit of his ideas widens and deepens. His response at 

'■ -lid be markedly different from that at > ' ' ' ■ ars 

I answer may prevent the effort at re- ii, 

a xpress ideas is in itself an importfiL iknient 

if 

it is c! fiat the Catechism has (U.)r»»oor- 

i.trkable i. ty of consent from all ****■ 

s<- m the Church, and has frequently proved to 

'' ... irument of iastruction. Formulatr'' •'- -fs, 

I used aright, are not substitutes but \ .»r 

1 formulas being not rigid bir ly 

'ne f)f thr most urGi-nt iircds ifi i ;i. 

■ ■ ■ " ^ he 

♦^ for want 

< ' . , ^ i , ;. inctorily or 

fitly it may he worse than useless ; and this has f>ftcn 
te. WVll taught, the Catechism proves a delight to 
n at the tinu" of their studying it and a betlrock of 



in th*' Committer Js mninlv one of 



ru $im itt» i 



If 

K', 



'f the C k, II most apparent when it 

n l>>tll. ..r «)<<■ .fr..l■t^/l t<, be 



.'IS :« I'll 



48 THE TEACHING Oi F1(JE Ul- llilu LllUKLlI 



ral knowlcdgr and ot Chnstiun thought since 
la- V..H- V ...^... ...IS drawn up reduces its vaJuc for this y»iiii.,,s. 

Wc believe that an opjKirt unity might In; sought to 

the possibility of offering teachers a more complete suiiimi.h^ 

of Oir'stiHfi doctrine, less diflicult in its wordiitj;, simpler in 

1 lintaining substantially in< 

( .n. NVe do not conten. i i 

summary slumid be cast into the form of quistii.n ami 
or that it should be memorised by children. Further, a i ., 
of the Committee is of opinion that there is need of radical 
revision in the present Catechism and f' ■♦ m •!> -.»;.;,.,. v],,.uld 

rh«T«j Com- '"^" i»ii<l<rtakeu at once* 

mtndmenu not (e) The Ten C< 'nents. — The promiiKiit piacc (tccupicd 

M m"ram.M by the learning I'en Commandments in schools where 

uaShm"'" ^^^ Catechism is not studied n M;inite treat- 

uao IDC T^QixX of them here. Of all tin .to children 

it nmst be asked, as we urged a^K^ve, Docs it s<TVe the main 
purpose, the knowledge of and devotion to the Person of 
Christ ? Much time and effort is expended on teaching the 
Com ' M nts to children, but do they in the end enforce 

the lly Christian virtues ? In all the teaching should 

bo h lid the call of Christ, "Follow Me." Children can 
kihIiIv und«rstand such a call to Iqvc and to action. They 
respond quickly to a positive ideal of service towards which 
they must grow ; the teaching must appeal not only to th( ir 
understanding, but to the spirit of adventure which is strong 
in them. Here again the Gommandments fail to help ; tluy 
are mainly negative. Thus the spiritual nature of a child is 
not braced by their guidance, nor his ideals of conduct stimu- 
lated by their standj^rd. 

In m. ''Mcs have been rer. ' ' 1 

gkilful .r 1 ;o to interpret tlu 

ments to clnUircn in the light of the teaching of our Lord. 
There are however serious dilficulties in this method. The curt 
simplicity of the commandment is well understood by children 
and the knowledge easily retained. They do not always 
remember the explanations so readily, nor indeed do they 
alw - r • • • ition. The framework of 

the < 'ne remembered and the 

Christian in '. .:^t the same time it ninsl 

l>e rcmemlx ' be perfect, which I think ^vill 

not be this long while," the Commandments will have a j)! 
though a secondary and supplementary place, in the Chru^ii u 
teaching of practical relitjion and morals. 
Th«ir tnu ast. While the Ten Commandments arc still taught, they should 

* Ia favour 10 t against 6. 



TIIE TEN COMMAXDMEXTS 4« 

he u^H. Jt^ in thf 55crmnn on the Mount, as points of departure 

'" Sermon on the Mount is of course 

rn of rtligious instruction and sh(»ul<I 

•e in any scheme of teaching. In their 

^dments naturally fall ir>to their right 

but none the le?5s helpfully, a dilTi- 
1 I'jr n. ' ' • • • fi^p,^ ^^ 

«nr T. to Old 

of ail tiiat would be 
iirht to them in definite 
•n with th<>«r daily lives and experiences, and perhaps 
,i .... .. .1 to the memorising of the two great Commandments. 

\Vf are aware that by the course which we arc here advo- 
' - - ' *' nrk of religious instruction more 

♦ions must b<' taken in connection 

irther help to teachers on the part of 

•d. the Lord's Prayer, and the two 

< were memorised, teaching would to a 

_ _ _ ! iiDon tlir ri<T^(>n;i] nrrivtr.it ion of tlie 

♦ • u-her. 

♦ V e WOUlll wi'J- iii'^i -Mi'MiLjiN iu.ii. ii>' im iiii'ii-N >iioiim: (h . 

withdrawn until others had bet n fully worked out to n place 

' ' ........... . . j^ teach 

' in one 



i.< Nv in. i new SI ire best introduced as volun- 

■ >' ^ ..:s in th(»„ . is in which the teachers are 

to try them and in which their value can be carefully 

tOIJMI. 

(d) Church IJiMont and Mittionary Study. — Especially Tb«va)n«oi 

I to C'»'»«'» ■*»"" 

TV. 

t has la I 

11 that t ' , ; 

lis. and tliat the stirring history of the Church 

.. ,!»«• Bible record. The tt-aching of Church History 

• forward from the Acts of the Ai>ostlcs. and set forth 



re powerfully affected b\ 

o by tales of herr»i«jm, i , y 

are mort»»ver ket-niy sensitive 
•e and for devot ' i Iradcr. 
'• of personal e<v \ t«» the 

i'Mt v., Sectiom «<8. 

D 



44 THE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE LllLltLii 

service nf C'hrist must he H n «'• ^^^ -• 

*• -r'casionnl lesson on ni: vnlue ; m 

imtic teaching can wc expect any permanent result. 
^ . I . ,.«:ion iirro wc cannot but sav a few words as to the preparation of 
(In^rm.w.n'^cftndidntes for Confirmation Passing hv the question of the 
proper aue for C " ion as one which requires a more 

detail, a disrussioi. '^nn crive to it. we wish to plead that 

the Rcneral instruction ii ' m hclirf and Chr' n- 

duct. which commonlv f. staple of the i -n 

given, oucht at that time to be otit of place. Such -n 

is too often necessarv because it has been hithcrt. <d 

in the religious education of the candidate. That which is 
fiallv necevsarv at this time is to prepare the candidate 
. k from God with intellicent faith the pift of the Holy 
Spirit. If he has be« n led to tralise that his duty as a Christian 
is to believe in God as revealed in Christ, to love Him, and to 
learn to do His will, he will know his need of the help which 
comes onlv from the indwelling of the Spirit of God. It is 
essential that Confirmation sliould be taught, not as the end 
of a process of education now finally completed. l»ut as the 
beginning of a new life of full Church membership, in which 
there is need for constant learninff under the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit. Thus the reffiilar instruction given to the children 
of the Chureh ought not to come to an end when they havr 
been confirmed. Their instruction should continue as long as 
possible after Confirmation, with a view not only to Holy 
Communion but <" ♦'- "hole of their life in the Church and 

in the world. _. , , . *. i.u 

We wish to add one etni)h.itic word. The teaching about the 
Spirit of holiness will necessarily give an opportunity for 
t, t. simple, plain-spoken— about purity and 

h Each Confirmation class of girls and young 

women should ii\ our judgment have at. least one instruction 
frf.ru !i rrrifirl nnd wise woman. 

5. Thf Provision oj Teachers. 
From the character and content of religious education we 
^s on to consider the teachers who are to conduct it in the 
> inentarv and secondary schools of the country. Here wc 
...ust first speak of the -^ r,f teachers, with its serious 

menace to that education; ' for which we wait and hope. 

The situation is grave: evert the educatiorr " (unities now 

presented are jeopardised, and advance is in Not only 



ell n 
m 



ers 



must the depleted ranks of secondary and element 
be filled, but two new t\7>es of schools— Nursery >^ nd 

Continuation Schools— will in the near future call for teachers. 
Two things are necessarv. On the one hand, the adequate 
payment of teachers must be secured and the conditions of their 



TIIE PROVISION OF TEACHERS 45 

work Improved ; on the other, the community must realise the 
of the duty which I' ' '* re it. I ' lucation 
'*s hftv*" obviously a ity in tl. r. The 

K's. Tluy have done 

! arrns. to prr«;ent the 

' young 1 They 

aarics in U. d appeal 

and girls of school ape, but also to those of 

iij-ri years. Such efforts lu)\vcvcr on the part of 

Is are not all that is required. On all who have the 

f the nnf heart lies the duty of considering this 

r for the or for those with whom they have 

!ritlucnc«:. 

6. Training of Professional Teachrrs. 
Here the Church has conspicuously failed to respond to the F«ihi»oi 
nrrrls of fhe titiic. u.«v«ui^. 

Althoutrh ruither knowledge nor training can supply the 

place of ' ' rightly conceived and directed they 

may nou vn it, and far too few teachers in the 

past hii\ itain thi preparation for the 

A Tr. T IT. In < !i£j from a religious 

t the prepfiration of teachers wc are met at once by the 

... that, although the vast majority of elementary 

icrs are asked to give religious instruction in the schools 

torn- is no guarantee that any preparation for this work has 

Iwrn provided. 

r ■ • . r •■ ..i„g 

' iK'd. 

ling Colleg<-s, and m i'ollrges for 

. very little is oRjeially done, 

ible amount of valuable help is given volun- 

.... rs of the staff and thrtjugh the work of the 

tian Movement. A jrreat and far-reaching change 

It is til ' ' ' f ' ' ' ■ , to 

more ;i' iM'ir 

u III the |>ii>l. aiid to rnnoXr the 

just siH^ken. The call which comes 

Id. We must make the fullest use of the oppor« 

fj exi''^ jirirl Ui- Mii|v.t nfi.vii?.. ■nwl n>.il... iiwo .^f 

i>pportuniti< 

•oraes the question oi the gcacrui education ul our 

as we ' d, 

II the is 

I by a belief in the value of of the 

:n.ii> t..r-,,ii, .lity, and is thusdi; I>iritual, 

nd not I: It is thus a part of Christian duty to 

secure for .m « no mtnid to be teachers as liberal an educatitm as 

Dt 



•dOMtiOB 



4« THE TEACHINU UtMCE OF THE UlLULIl 

]■ • It is I - - • .... ,^^^^ 

I ') th'" r.T as 

;. el:, ' U) 

1m- t, : , _ ^ ^ . ' ^ . . j'air 

•rtion of lh<m through the Universities also, before 
iH -iinini; the work of special preparation for their profession. 
Our ( iisificrution must here be limited to that period of 
i, ... - . jy proffssional ; and, for con- 

\ twecn University graduates and 

(aj luates. — With University graduates the 

period of profissional training occupies a year of post-graduate 
study for a diploma or certificate, spent at the University or at 
a seeontJary Training College. In the case of those trained 
ui) !i r the regulations of the Board of Education, the professional 
tr.i Ming may be combined with the preparation for the 
(i» L'r( c. and extended to a fourth year of p«»st -graduate work. 
In rither ease the Univer?4ty is the centre from which the 
leetures required can be most c fly provided. The 

maintenance in each of our Um of a strong theo- 

1' "_'i*al faculty would provide the basis of reform. It should be 
tlu reeognise<l duty of such a faculty to provide, in co-operation 
with the University Training Colleges or neighbouring Training 
r. " i.f lectures on the matter and the methods of 

1 _'. Thus every studi'Ut in trsiining. either at 

tlu- Univn>ity or at a n- ' '' " !•>. could avail him- 

self of the course or cour al to him and most 

useful for his future work. At present numbers of graduates 
pass into the teaching profession without having met with any 
opportunity for inereasing their knowledge of the subjects of 

rclicious instruction. - *"■ - ''• ' ■"" *'' *" * ,..,.« i,,.r|c ,,f 

fir.iling with them. 

(b) Non-Graduate Htxiaenls. — 1 lie case of i raining C oiirge 
students who do not study for a degree and are not connected 
with i\n\ I iiJM r^ity differs in several particulars from the case 
of gra(iii:it»' ^t luit'iits. 

The length of their special training is usually two years, and 
during that time they study not only the methods of teaching 
those subjects ordinarily taught in an elementary school, but 
]> 1, vue further their own work in these subjects. From these 
< < ges come the far larger proportion of the trained teachers 
in elementary schools, and in the reform of religious teaching 
in the country at lnrL'c it is evident that they occupy a strategic 
position. The ( ur jnirpose be divided into 

two groups: (1 ) t : -s, (2) the Colleges controlled 

by municipal or other public bodies. 
The Church (1) Thf Cfiurch Collcges.—JleTC the first necessity is the 
coUtffw. maintenance in the fullest efficiency of the Colleges themselves. 



TRAINING OF rnnrr.s«;TnvAT. TFArHF.n>; 4? 

till witl.iti irs. tho Church throUL'h thtm Ixnv the 



c ul piuatxTs. The uioi 

' il by local education aut 

arc .ihit t. , ().,., ;,f I ii. mlt equipment and a more liberal scale 

' ' K li staffs. It is imperative ^hat the Church 

. which claim to give a distinct, vely Cliristiaa 

' / assisted to place their work on 

—to adopt iner<"a<ic<l scides of 



tioi) as may be needed to develop their mteUectual and spiritual 
I lie. 

But we are here especiull> concerned with preparation for 

the •■ -': • - I. • u'liing. In thej>e Colleges tiiere exists 

ail of providimj lor tluir students an 

ad< . A cofi ' iionoftiii 

ft!' I- t!«»n of t L' in the 

. I Ling it to einldrcn. 

lid the religious Ide 

I the Co >el. hut the importance of tlus period "SjJ^ 

' ■' ri t].v ^. . > .upment of the minds and characters 

of ! ichers, and the opportunities possessed by the 

< ^ 1 . • i^Ij, ^i^j^j^ their wc^rk should be 

and the oistinctive religious 
revitfll 

from su i 

.1 and too narrow 

;, - . r^ iicod teaching on 

and there should be abundant oppor- 

' *' fundanu-ntal elements of the 

lip. Manv at present leave 
of the ! 

ti their ' 

. 111. 

'Its 

bmad. Although tlie lelorni of the t^hurch 

'•- n subject •■•' '"-< ■• ■• " --t.uice, we do not 

r into t ion of d The Sub-Com- 



y lie ni it out the i iity 

ij» by aii . lun sound tea ^ "n a 

wiile syllabus of work, sucU as is suitable for students of College 



l.r. 


>.v 


- . : 1 1 ■ " ; . . , 


tu 


III! 


e» iV.r t 


f.ii 


th 


under 


th 


ir 


r. '■ 


r.-v 


M't 


k 



48 THE TKACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

am.. \\r wniild emphasise their reconimtndation that each 

," ubmit its own s^ " ' and that the work 

s . I.v un int<Tiial ■ 'ion conducled with 

the assistance ol Ui would our 

one furtlicr rccoiu i "" pnpiiration of t 

in n hu'iuus knowlid^e is best undcrtaktn hy a regular inenilnrr 
of the College- staff, who has special qualifications for the task, 
and is from his position in close touch with the students and 
with all asjucts of their common life and work. For posts in 
the women's Colleges there are already eligible women 
well qualified in theology who are desirous of finding work 
of exactly this kind where their spi-cial training would be uf 
value. J L ■ 

Tv«in.Dc (2) Training Colleger Maintained by Local Education Authori- 
Md^Vh.*" '»^* <^^ ^^^^^ Public Bodies.— lli^Tc we recognise tliat m many 
Mau^i o*f cases courses of instruction in the subject matter of the Bible 
iii.oharoh ^^^ J .^^ ^j^^ methods of presenting it to chUdren are provided, 
and it is ck-ar that much valuable teaching has been given. 
But the conditions arc precarious ; there is no guarantee tlmt 
such instruction will not lapse even where it is now estab- 
lished ; and there are Colleges where no such instruction is 
provided. Here evidently is a field for int. ! 

co-o|>t ration. We would urge that int. : 
action be taken to convince the Govcniment of the necessity 
for giving to relit^ous instruction its pro|Hr place in the 
curriculum of all 'Iraining Colleges under the safeguard of a 
consciei: . We should wish to see the religious instruc- 

tion, as i>oth its provision and its supervision, put into 

the hands of an intcrden(.minational Council or interdenomi- 
national Councils on wliich the religious bodies and the 
authorities of the C-oUeges and the teachers would all be 
represented. 
MMdoi The Continuous Training of Teachers.— There rcmaini 

'ta't^" **^« extremely important question of the continuous 
* training of teachers. Many who enter the teaching pro- 

fession take no pr / period of special preparation. 

It is for example « v rare for a man who joins the 

staff of a pubhc school to take a course of training. .Similarly 
many women graduates pass straight from the Universities 
to the staffs of girls' schools. Again, there is a large body of 
untrained teachers in the elementary schools. It is necessary 
that there should be ample opportunities even for teachers of 
some experience to gain k d to receive guidance and 

inspiration. Every true i I to revive his own powers 

from time to time' by contact with fresh sources of inspiration 
and knowledge, and especially is this true of those who are 
remote from the great centres of intellectual life. 

In the past there has been no provision oi a systematic kind 



FURTHER TRAfNlNG OF TEACIIKRS 49 

for helping; such teachers Here and there a course of lectures 

ha- • • • 

rci V 

ofi. „ ' ■ ■ 'i 
f». >th III ir; 

Til T' ;> . , .. ..... .. .. .wafined to teachers, f<»r 

;i.l\ I It .i - jious teaching;. This may well In? supplied by 

Ic-ct']: .. f 1 i / rir-' i tutorial classes, radiat ' n 

thi? n«'\v f ir It ' > ■" which we hopt* to see cs i 



I e establishment of Th. t.ij. » . 

»p )nc for men and one for women, where teachers Cou«f« »«» "u» 

ctiu.w varying periods of time, and study intensively 

the suli ter and the methods of reiiijious teaciiinjr Such 

A { ol' J ' i, ,11, hut must be 

near s.imf .ag where appro- 

pri i)c arra,iit4cd. The j)eriods of 

iJU i vary in length and in pur- 

pose, .ts might enter for two years and study 

for a til . ^. .. ^.ploma ; probably a larger numlxfr would 
come for a one term course, obtaining s{>ccial leave of absence 
for thf piirjiox-. ilitrrats 'or iitiilc<l study uikI coijn<«,-i d . ' ' 
be held for week-ends in terra time, and for longer per 
in the var-itioiis. 

^^/ tliesc \aried means the needs of many types of teachers 
>« provided for, and a new standard of devotion and 

' 111- SI f I : . f 'ii- r ' I If! 1 II I V t . . . -ti; ti r in ! fi, ^.•'i. .. .1 ^ 

i. » .vf oj ^"yprcKn^t i eacuers 
While a great effort must be made to extend sound learnincr -.^ ,, . , 

. Ill ■••« OF a ■•(it- 

aiTi" L,' t I 1 it must at the same time be secured that their uu»« rWorin, 

p.A r. ir a,.ci to the best ad'. • — in the schools. We 

IhIi •.. t : tt one of the most b reforms imnjcdiatcly 

' ■ u to 

For 



tiK-ntar)' acbools are concerned, must be 



iroviiioa w*« iiumImI t* l^Mtuum witMrsw^l* Mivl«>r 



UmV 



50 Hit. ll.AUll.NG OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

JjJJ2««J Grave e<l must always result when all 

iMohar*. ttaohf rs .in . h all subjtcts. At present, with 

a <1 11 simultuneouiiy given to all the cla^^es, it ii 

ditli'- a for those teachers who actually object to -;• ;-- 

the lessons not to be overborne by circumstances. Si 

'' '• '^ •»rc now l)tin}» rr ,| in otiar sth«Mj| subj- cis r»y 

; vv education ;> s; and, if tht-y are not 

eiuniiraged in religi.. t work will be still 

further han)i)cred. i of Scripture could 

l)c III.. re easily advised t-i atUmJ eonlcrences, lectures, etc., 
and lljcir continuous training would be more possible. 

We arc not unaware of the existence of forcible argumenti> 
for leaving so vital a subject as religion in the hands of the 
form or class teacher, who is best acquainted with the par- 
ticular group of boys or girls, .. ' • lid most easily eomniand 
their eonlidence. We realise .; the arguments against 

t'x" 'isi- oi r:, iur religious instruction are 

'' ' ' luentary schools than in that of 

the si(..iKl;tiy >eiiuois, where the use of sjK-ciaiist teachers 
lor otiur siibjecU is widely adopted. When the form or class 
tciicher is competent to teach Scripture and desires to do so, 
t he best arrangement has been reached ; and in every case 
the head teacher must of course determine the balance Intween 
the two methods. 

Church school* In parti<nilar, Church schools should show the way in empluv- 
to iMul tht way. • ,. ,- •'..*- 

'"K '^ rs. It more opf)ortunities ior 

'^u^h iibt more wonien would take the 

III < . ssary course of traimng. They would then be eligible for 

h -her tcrtciiing work of all kinds, not only in schools but 

also as theological lecturers on the staffs of the Church 

Training Colleges, and in the theological faculties at the 

Uni versifies. 

N. Training of h on- Professional Teachers. 

Th« probi.m We cnnnot pass from the subject of the training of teachers 

lit the importance of providing further help for 
non-professional teachers to whom tl.. -l. J>f of 
the Church IS so great. According to the Church of En r- 

book, Sunday-school teachers alone in 191 G numbered ^\ii,nr>2. 
rhey are to be found in every parish throutdiout the kinj?dom, 
and upon their efforts hundreds ari<i ■ -id 

adolescents, and, in the North of F. . ilt 

men and women also, depend ' , ly fur tJieir instruction 

in the main truths of the Chn wth. Unfoitunatcly the 

training of these teachers has not kept pace with the demand 
for their services. The vast majority are women, and the 
employment of women to give Church teaching outside their 



TIIALNING O*' NON-PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS 51 



iwn hnineit HW not t*ke pince on any con«ii»k'ml»lc scale until 

V a 

in- 

sniaij III t'ul 

- ^ . - , - '■ ^ larircilU.. .., , .(Jo 

)U at all, and many more 
1 :is would be considered 
!_' >f any other subject than 



work v«ithoui any 



vvii 

r- : 



.ih 



^ucil pr^i'.i.. 
c for the te. 



!S a twofold one. The j»reat mnjority 



of — and twofold 
(L) Ordiaary 
Snoday-Mbool 
tMcbcn. 



ion 



. tiiere 

llll-lit :■ 



by 



rs ol the lndu^>t^al class m givins; no 

- ., leisure to teaching in Sunday schools 

produce a very real and deep impression ujxjn 
' * *' vsarily made by 

Wc do not see 

1 much prelimi- 

:,'ins. Ill many 

II by the elerg>' m the instiuction of 

- -hers, and in thtir case the close 

their instruction with the lessons which they are 

IS not only necessary but desirable. Hesidt* this, 

rtunities for the instruction of the laity which we 

' ' ' : our Sun ' !i.)ol 

will b< , to 

thus provided. 

TIL' the women 

have Co: 1.' time for 

who are c..,. 4' acquiring 

<.nce, wliieh will fit them for 

' ' - " - \ Not 

skilled 

iig 

'US 

4^. - nt- 

xiiid to 
ctually 



are 

. lilt 



many 

V it li III 



who 



-\ <*Z K. 

or adol< 



1 were to be found u: 
Sur-h work as this 
ftninller iiuuiiMT of wt-ll 

' r the uii ' ■ 

liUl be i 



., be no 

' »f I ir ii-i 

and a<i 

i4lght to itr ^iru^v 



I teachers than 

; ana We b»-liive that 

fur more to it if they 

for 

I. in 

it m the luture far 

. II lli.iii ill fill- fuist 
(id 
.i>d 



(U.)ThoM 
eavabit of 
rMoiTiac 
much tuilar 
pnparatloB. 



52 



iii±^ ii:uALiii>iu uiTiLiL, OF THE ciiuln-ii 



Pr*Mnl ud 
^atar• oppor- 
luaitiw. 



EaiaaMrattoa 



rcacii t (lard, but each »huuid be cimbied tu reach 

the hi;^i. - - ,!>lc. 

We are far from wishing to suggist that nothing has thus far 
been done. Not only are theological lectures open to women 
at several of the Universities, but for those to whom a Univer- 
sity course in theology is not possible other i; " ■^' 
are provided. There are several Church ii. i 
undertake to train women, and from several of the Ui. s 
certificates of religious knowledge may be obtained. .M , 
in lUOj the Archbishop of Canterbury instituted an cxamma 
tion in theology of an Honours standard, for which students, 
while remaining at liome or while carrying on other work, may 
be firepared by expert teachers. Candidates who are successful 
in the examination receive the Archbishop's Diploma in 
Tin ■ lid holders of the diploma may also receive from the 
Art his licence to teach theology, if they are com- 
municauls who desire to make Church t 1 
work and the Archbishop is satisfied as t< ' . s 
and teaching capacity. IJut we think that more is required. 
We venture to hope that Bishops may consider the possibility 
of instituting a diocesan certificate in each diocese to be 
conferred on some such conditions as the Archbishop's lie- 
but for a less exacting standard of knowledge. Every cami 
should be ' i to show a s.i' v knowledge of 
the Old J .t, the New Tt i] and Christian 
doctrine as a minimum, other subjects being also studied, if 
that is desired. 

We wish in this connection to draw attention to the scheipc 
which is in contemplation for establishing a Central Church 
College of University standard in which women may receive 
special training to become teachers of theology, missionaries, 
or parochial and social workers. It is proposed that the 
College should have a resident st. liSed teacli<rs 

and that it should be situated wi . ' "f University 

lectures. The aim will be to provide the best possible prcpara 
tion on a basis as wide as the Church itself and suited to th' 
special requirements of each student. It is hoped that such ;i 
College will attract many of the most able younger women and 
raise the whole standard of the work done by women for the 
Church. The scheme has received the general approval of th< 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and there is reason to hope that tht 
College may be founded as soon as possible after the conclusion 
of the war. 

One point remains. It is impossible to overlook one serious 
obstacle in the way of improving the training of Churcli 
teachers — viz., the scale of the remuneration which is offered 



CO-OPERATION WITII OTHER RELIGIOUS BODIES 63 
t'» women who serv^ the Church. For tho^ who have no 



( ii ! make si -ion for sickness and old age, much 

1 ... for the L^,.v...v of training. Wc hope that, as the 

loe of the work of women teachers conies to be more 
I u ' this reproach to the Church will no longer be 

ail>_' .lue. 

9. C<M>peration with other Religious Bodies. 

\Vr» dr^in* thnt the Church should zealously maintain thf E*w«ti<»*i 
;ind secondary, in which the ♦ i^t?oS«r" 

; given, and press upon the Govl: • r«UfioajfcodJ««, 

th<- i;i of giving denominational schools, both 

' secondary, their recognised place in the 

m of the nation, without subjecting them to 

xulion, due regard being pai ' is liberty 

Hut it is certain that a la: i of our 

r be n<' !, nud lor cili these we 

l>e that .. . will be found which all 

!is of Christians may accept. If such a policy were 

- "M>d reason to liDpe that the Government would 

■ ■ it ; and we desire that advantage shouhi be 

t "^ - ' - . - 1- , ^vhich at present exists 

;i ich an acrreed policy into 

■n of iBttftaliM •! 
f>,^ iBlartMMBiaa- 
^'. Mooal OooaeUa. 
llje educational authori- 

, , . uld be represented ; and 

N^ ■ .s lid have the regulation and supervision of religious 

ri^trii • ■•" ■ '^ i ijnational schools put into their hands, 

it til • ivcly — that is, so far as each Local 

' ' " ' iiiit it to them. We 

• rijjht «»f i'i'iiiin^ to 





s. 

. rlrtailv K*>oniiv.'' we understand that 


th.r. tr 


seekmg to work out 


111. ■ 


r sucii .III 


1 


no doubt -s in securing common 


a'-t..i;, , . 


.;.:■.'..■*'■■■■■■ ■ " ■ . ^ ■ • . 


f r .i 1,1 


.. . ' : . 


U . f 





uiiorntiitioii to clergy, to teaeherH, and to people 
conferen*— •'^ ♦h^ various localities. 



54 niE TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

10. Administration. 

ab iiduounD ill vii->Y im i iic jifornincnt place which cd^. reform 

SlVcKJ^h'*" >* to occupy in national affairs, the n«<-<| will I for th** 

C! iirch to be provided with a ss 
ous question, and indtcd . 
1, tcrs gcncrully. We would sugKcst tlie formation of a 
]«'iriuincnt "Education Department" for the Church. The 
Council should be composed of Churchmen and Churchwomen 
of recognised authority, and experienced in the best educa- 
tional methods; and it should .nclude niembers who are con- 
mt w th the cond tions of secondary education, drawn both 
1 the schools of the Church and from undenominational 
sch.xjis. To this body might be entrusted the task of defining 
the policy of the Church and of acting as its central executive. 
Moreover, if any agncd plan were to be accepted by the Ouirch 
of Kn^'land and the Free ('hurch«s, this body would naturally 
represiiit the Church of England in regard to the general 
principles of administration in connection with it ; it might hold 
joint meetings with representatives of the Free Churches with 
a view to framing, or moililying, or carrying Ihrm out. In anj' 
case, a policy which was known truly' to represent the most 
c d Church opinion, and to be based upon sound 

J . ^ L and wide experience, could hardly fail to carry 
weight. It might indeed go far to reniov<v.the suspicions 
which have proved so formidable an obstacle to religious 
education in the past. 

But this central council would not in itself suffice. Diocesan 
(or in some cases archidiaconal) organisations for the main- 
tenance of religious education already cover the field, but in 
many instances have fallen behind the times and are concerned 
only with the welfare of Church elementary schools. They 
need fresh blood and a wider outlook. It is essential that they 
should include persons who have attained eminence in the 
teaching profession, and that their sense of responsibility 
should be commensurate with the extending conception of the 
sphere of education. 

The task of considering by what means existing diocesan 
o! ions can be made adequate and eflieient might well be 

u. - n by su« h a Church " Education Department." The 

matter is one in which each diocese will desire to retain its own 
independence of action ; but criticism and counsel from a central 
body, speaking with the authority of intimate, knowledge of edu- 
cational ideals and conditions, should be able to effect much. No 
advisory or subsidiary councils however can of themselves do all 
that is needed. The final control rests, and must always in 
large measure rest, with the local education authorities. 
Churchmen and Chun therefore should be ready and 

anxioui toserveon puh ational bodies, on the county and 



KELIGIOUS TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 55 

bon^uffh counciU, and also on the |^>vrming bodies of schools 

uld everywhere have the 
to it that the religious 
t-icinctit tti etiucatiuu is ailuwtcl full scope. 

11. Religimui Teaching in Secondary Schools. 
\\V ficscirr fi» r :ill ittentlon to a serious and continuous loss of ^^^UMta'*' 
lite Church teaching in Secondary Schools. SMoodary 
' Act, 18G9, does not interfere with the ***^"- 
rrli- uls which are maintained out of the 

1 or Collegiate Church, or upon 

loter has been impressed by the 

requirinjj the scholars to 

mlaries of any particular 

Church, provide<i that such terms shall have been observed 

tintil the date of the Act. For all other Endowed Boarding 

Sc1k)oIs the Act provides a Conscience Clause requiring that a 

i»t from ; ' ious instruction or obser- 

vith Hk- '' .'lis parent or jiiiardian. 

Schools permit the giving of 

le it is required or not pro- 

: s of the foundation, but only to those 

u; ! mike written request for the same. 

The <i ri this latter Conscience Clause and 

■'"••* '1 .^>ii>'«>ls Act should be carefully noted. It 

iching exceptional instead of being a normal 

viijeneies and in order to obtain 

\' as a result of schemes 

icr the Charitable Trusts 

Arts, a number of ancient Church SelKM)ls have, during the past 

f,- A V, .rs, l)cen inlnr^.'i '>r ,, .t, w^.-H^d to accept the limitations 

by the ^ I Regulations and have thus 

I . 1^ ^. ,.u;ir-i,.j,.r . ^up parents have been unaware 

lits, and the rilij»ious ttaeiiing ha-s become 

.al." 

I n of thr srrf>nd Conscience Clause for the " 

i! ' r, but the situation becomes 

I li were exempt from change 

oJH Act cease to make provision for 

V i>.i..i..ii .. . iiing except to a minority of their 

Such »ehfH>ls. in contravention of the intention of 

- • ■ ' • • •. ■ ".ive 

.ii'n- 

) hat in all secondary schools receiving public money 
I be rexjuind thiit nligious instruction for not less 
, h.inrv. n \K...\t should be part «>f •*••• '•■•j^ar schooi 



S6 THE iisAi iiK>u OFFICE OF THE CHURCIT 

' in till' CH ' ' 

biKly, SI 
under the cli ntinutional CwuiiciU, to wlticii 

reference lia- 

The unfair competition to which foundations desiring to 
pres«rvf the terms of tlieir trusts have been subjected, not by 
Statute, but by administrative action, has recently been 
rendered acute by tli >al to increase very substantially 

the grants to those y schools which conform to the 

Hegulations. While by no means grudging these institutions a 
greatly increased revenue, we cannot conceive that an 
eniitjlitcned educational policy would desire to crush out of 
existence other schools, already subject to an equitable con- 
science clause, but preserving the intentions of their original 
foundations. While the State recognises the place of denomi- 
national elementary schools in the national system of education, 
it wniild lu- '" ■ as well " ' r:d for it to compass the 

extinction ui national y schools. 

12. Sunday Schools. 

▼•>"•«' Present difficulties in securing teachers, in maintaining the 

la M •"••'attendance of scholars, and in " carrying on " generally, have 

revived doubts as to the value of our .Sunday-school system. 

It is therefore necessary to determine the criterion by which the 

Sunday school should be judged. 

If the test is merely " educational " in tow sense of 

the term, the results must be pronounced uting. The 

contribution which the .Sunday school makes to the sum total 
f)f the knowledge possessed by the nation must always rrmiin 
small, however desirable its increase may be. 

Ihii the Sunday school should exist to teach religion. ... 
teach about religion. There is therefore no cause for dismay 
if the amount of kn<»wledge and of intellectual deveU>pment 
traceable to it is meagre. The presence within the school of 
sincere and honest teachers, known in the neighbourhood to 
be living a conscientious Christian life, has a great value 
apart .iltMirc ther from their intellectual equipment; No small 
part of the failure of our religious teaching in the past has been 
due to the delusion that the spiritual nature can be adequately 
developed by storing the memory and stimulating the intellect. 
Undoubtedly spiritual development implies mental effort, but 
it involves other forms of activity and of self-expression ; and 
it should be one of the main purposes of the Sunday-school 
system to provide opportunities for these. 

llenee, to take one example of spiritual activity, a Sunday 
school which makes no systematic provision for training in 
worship is seriously defective, and the deficiency should receive 
the most earnest consideration in view not only of the general 



SUNDAY SCHOOLS 57 

nnciple but of the conditions of the day. The particuinr 
f( hip will tftke will depend 

Ui lie and pnicticc prcvailinj^ 

in th r it of the utmost iiniwrtance 

that ti ide primarily with a vitw to the 

spiritual luc^ls of the chiUlnri themselves and in roco^ition 
of the fact that a ..J.-m^ - i — ... - ..,,f ,.,. i.,,,.,.a..r. r.,,.. ,.r 
a man's ri-lii^ioi). 

"" ' n ot 1 rii- Arc-ni)isni'p oi t aiiu rmiry s 

y Schools awaits presentation to the 

ft and rondirs iinntcosnry at the present 

vt'y of the (juestioii. Accordingly wc confine 

our s s to some factors of the problem which have 

>"•• n .,,1 by recent events. 

illv every diocese has now one or more trained 5J?2S" 

• I 1 I wawwnt. 

^»^>^K•■l■^ whose business it is to assist local attempts to keep 

Sunday schools ort the lines of the j/eneral educational advance 

a* hon. Kutthepri a iinot be considered 

$; t lenst f'Vfry lar of population has 

it «»r Sunday-School teachers. 

I' ^ (I that efforts to raise the 

ml of Sunday schools depend for their efficiency upon 

.,....ie work"; and that larj.'e gnthcrincs <»f teachers, and 

en training weeks for the comparatively few who possess 

I' * * !:e the place of patient labour among small 

pr oarish by parish. The bfst results hitherto, 

a' ;uj 

n 'is, 

not only on <• who 

. Icrate success ' vering 

who have the means and the capacity for extended 

•' -ntion. 

1 St. Christopher's College, to which most of the 

' ' i»l organisation owe their 

resent ; but as soon as the 

!, the attention of 

l«*d to the need of 

' such assistance, that every populous area may have 

I V, r(.';,...s of an adviser and instructor of Sunday -<''i'>"l 

- *' ' ■ '• part of the equipment «.i m 

and no reliance upon prepared 

••: ■ ■ • ■ ■ M-r 

:iS 

iy 

i.lS 

I to lie a student cannot remam for long a successful 

r «^ll,l. ..f ,f . ..<.'.«;. .fw n< «tw. Clillr.l. U..i,1iiwr ^.. .•;>•!%• 



->8 THE TEA( KING OFFICE OF THE I HUIU H 



will (1.) wril t 
of tr.'ir'i' r-, 

ill <\ 
Til. . ..->. 



N»«d o( crMUr 
adapiAbility. 



they rixn meet 

( >r i\ f i-.'i i'Ik ix 



iiitirc t>f Kixjuiry aci 



•d^ 



Lutrnetion for 
the ohUdrea of 
the mlddl > and 
■ppet cUiMt. 



whic-h the Archbishoi 
ni»\v ill ( ■ 
th.ir itft 

st'hiM»l effort 111 
K. W'v d«i not iul 
(t priori prineiplcs, but the bodies just namcci ha\ c cxccptionjil 
opix>rtunities for watching and even ini» ;>»;"" .viwri??). •?!*•? ^' 
v\ lich the path <>f advance can best l> 

The examples which follow indicate ii »!<.- 

blems which we lliink require close and ro n. 

(1) All • - . 

in its cai 

no instiluli«iii will in luture if ty, it it is tit 

m lintain its place. Even am , , m Jl .i^ tlu- 

hour of meeting needs reconsideration in view of tl ii< 

ment of the dinner hour, due to Sunday mornin ' m 

l.iifjc centres (jf ]>opulation. Modifications in the au) 

1 ' ' f the children and adolescents, likely to rrvuii irom 
uff educational reforms, will react ]>owcrfully on tbr 
Suud.kV sch.Mil ;'.tid will maki* a rijjid adhcreif 
methods impossible. In particular, the pro] 
pulsory attendance at. continuation classes must profoundly 
modify the methods by which the Church is to exercise influence 
over adolescents. Fresh opportunities are likely to leather 
round the continuation .school, and the Church should be pre- 
pared to make the most of them. We would also call the 
11 of the clergy in every diocese to the facilities V* 
y Care Committees already afford for r< 
valuable service to children at a critical age. 

(2) The principles of co-op< rativc study, which have been 
applied with marked success to senior students, must find a 
place (with ncces.sary modifications) in Bible cla.sses and similar 
organisations. 

(8) If we are justified in our belief that the Sunday school 
has been too much isolated in the past and n<eds to be 
more intimately ronncetcd with other religious Mm 

pioneers to whom we must look in future will be i ik h 

specialists in Sunday-school organisation as persons eajmble of 
co-ordinating all forms of religious work among adolescents. 
Thus the leaders themselves will require a wider training than 
that hitherto attempted. 

(4) There remains the important question of instruction on 
Sunday for the children of the middle and upper classes. 
These fall into two wcJl-marked divisions — those who att« rifi 



SUNDAY SCHOOI^ 



59 



Id 

to be what is s< 

" privuU" h 
but th«- '^N^' 
par 
sue 



municipal and coonty schools and those who are tauf^it at 

home. The tatter — '" inris up to the age of " i and 

boys too vf>Mnj^ ft i —arc sr>nu'tiines tan <• or 

ruessfs tire not usually chosen for tiicir know 

ind not many parents have both ability and 

us instruction. 

•" i>crinicnt in meeting their need appears 
called, for want of a better name, the 
• ,ol." Mr" '. ' " 

vstera is t . 

urs' children to their iiouj>ej. lor 
-e, and instruction as would be 
provided on Sunday afternoon for the younger meml)ers of 
a devout and intelhgent family. Beside this, more formal 
Sunday schools have been carried on from time to time here 
and '' - vith marked success. But such efforts are sporadic 
ami ttent, depending on individual initiative. 

1 Is of Church boys and girls in municipal 

an'i l.ir efforts are being made; but tli» y 

UTr ;ii)ir lo iMiirii . ■: , i • ii!! nT';- rtiou of thc 

ThtTf ean hardly he in ♦ h' whnli ti' hi "i i ducation a mo' , 
ini,' duty for the Church than to make careful and systematic 
proN ■ •'• f'^r the teaching of these children. Sunday schools, 
in ^ :>e or other, should be provided for them just as for 

*' ' ryschot)!- '\', systematically, and 

any n« ■ lay. If possible, the 



I hing in secondary schools have already 

. : iVlii[J.itl)y in «il''l> :iii nndiThilrinf -infj \vi> ur«> 

of their co-operation. 

CONCLUSION. 

It is to all of us a solemn and moving thought that, as our 
work was drawing near to its close, two of our number were 
taken from us by death. 

Few men were more widely knovm and honoured in the 

(•}^„...i. .1. .. lY.. c. .. II ii...,j When our Com mi ttr. first met 
\v. his counsri. It seeitnd that our 



.Mr. ( / 

thov 1 . 

tun 

br »i<iu':n nu- 



ll .1 liiv r 



>1 hiiii. ' y a 

n our (!■ '>as. 

-•■titrd among us 

s to county and 

s we know that 

OS own iMirish he 

B 



(\u TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

carried out with Mnpular simplicity and faithfulness. No one 
, .1 I „ . _.^tp ^yjtj^ him, as \vc have done, without rcco|fnisinjf 
lOtivcly rcjfardtd all questions from the highest 
C-liiistKui jjiiint of view. 

Wi- dt oply realise how ^ent a loss we like many others 
have sustained by the death of these two fellow-labourers. 

We desire now to lay before our brothers and sisters in Christ 
the result of our common labours. We know that in what we 
thus put forth shortcomings and imperfections will be found. 
Many of these are due to our own lack of spiritual insight and of 
int.lketual grasp, others to the difficulties inherent in the 
(• s of our work. It is not easy for a large committee 

( >[ of persons of very various opinions to attain to 

aj^Tcrmcnt on details in such a subject as that entrusted to us. 
Moreover^ the peculiar circumstances of the time have made it 
impossible for us to work with such speed as we ourselves 
desired. 

Doubtless each one of us could point to statements or 
opinions contained in the Report which personally he would 
have expressed in other words ; each, too, would probably in 
Pertain parts of it have himself spoken with an emphasis or a 
proportion different from that which commended itself to the 
Committee as a whole. Within however the limits thus 
mdieatid and apart from recorded reservations, our Report is a 
1 1 n. in i moils Report. 

In our closing words we desire with the utmost clearness and 
emphasis to put on record two convictions which have grown 
deeper and stronger in us as our work has progressed. The 
one is concerned with thought, the other with action. 

In the fu^t place, we have from time to time given explicit 
expression to our assured belief as to the matter of the Church's 
teaching, a belief which, we trust, is implicit in every recom- 
mendation which we have made. It is this. The message 
which the Church is charged to deliver is not primarily a 
philosophy or a system of ethics. It is essentially a Christian 
theolofry.' It is (to use other words) a Gospel about God, based 
on a revelation which God has gradually unfolded, and which 
has been gradually apprehended by the mind and the conscience 
of man. This Gospel about God has its climax and completion 
in Christ. The Holy Spirit convinces men of its truth and of 
its power. To know Christ therefore with a knowledge which 
grows fuller and deeper, to exalt Christ as Saviour and as Lord, 
that is the final aim and ambition of thcTChurch. And the 
prayer of the Church must be that all the manifold powers of 
intellect and of feeling, which are the endowment of its several 
n may be continually quickened, enlightened, and 

: by the Holv Spirit of G^kI. If that prayer is faith- 



SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS 61 

fully off^T^fl to GoH nnrf answered by Him, the Chtiwh will 
bt<' •» in the past or in the pr 

^'* S; • itself to appropriate ftnd t 

to traoh others that Christian theology with which it has been 

Cntnr-t. '' 

> we are deeply impressed by what we believe to be 

th " ^'V ' Muit the Church " ^ r!" 

^^ ' ion but imnx-dijit 

our ;u imr K 

h.i i by auti . . 1. 

fu 1 . hich \sv offer to the Churcli needs correct 1 1 1 _' 

an But the time for academic criticism ami 

f'>t \>n is pjist. These days in which we brin^' 

our .v. "...., i.,, .... cad arc days of unspeakable anxiety ; they 

arc also days of transcendent hope. Wc arc face to face with 

au i)ortunity ; and our r< 'lityfor**!; 

<»[• i«J» we beliovr. <jr' ri anv : 

wh ' ' tc-r ruse tr«'m 

til 1 Church niiiNi 

in.: ;y and tlunk ; but its study and its thou<;ht must 

1> The Church must plan as men plan for a great 

arl\ itice the app4jinted hour for which is already striking. No 
line knows better than wc that a far-reaching reform oair: t 
in all its parts be carrietl out at once. I Jut wc must not tl 
to iM'ijin. Havi " " " 1 

without rf*st. ! 

^1 re part, . -d, will eoiiic 

J».i' ^ Mil the lilV r country, for 

the Siike of which they arc ready to give their lives. In past 
vr.\r^ viJ, .t they have felt to be the immobility and the pn)- 
< r . of the Chtirch, in face of grave need of reform, has 

l)f«i, i I uhliiiL' Mock in their way. That Decision (»f fallini' 
\v<- miisf ip,\s i. i\r. When these men, if CJo<l will, are • 
rrv , we must l)c able t , 

ii'iiewal of our spirit h 
t H' ' their part to bring to |)crfection. The Church 



SVMMAUY OF PRISCIPAL RKCOMMESDATIOSS. 
1 . The Church and the Universities. 

Wkj Md: 

(1) T' ' should be in connection with the thmln^nral 

f.K.Mjli!. > it <)\t<)nl and Cambridge a further dt ^ 

post->rraiiu.iie schools, not only for the pur|)ose i.; ^.,..* 

r. s, vnh. but also with a view to the further training of the 
clergy, the future clergj*, and other religious teacher.. 

s2 



' That in the new Universities the Church of England 

(a) Create, in co-operation with other communions, strong 
Ijodies of religious teachers ; 

(b) Establish its own institutions as centres for : 

(i.) Theological research and learning ; 
(ii.) The further training of the clergj-, the future clergy, 

and teachers ; 
(iii.) Religious life and worship in the University. 

2. The Training of Candidates for Holy Orders. 

We recommend : 

(1) That the training for the ministry should be the concern 
of the Chureh in its corporate capacity, and should be made one 
of the first and most essential charges upon its resources. 

(2) That the Church should take more decisive and adequate 
steps without delay to overcome the fmancial difficulties which 
prevent many of the more able and spiritually minded members 
of the working class from presenting themselves as candidates 
for ordination. 

(8) That the supervision of the training of the clergy should 
be entrusted to a body such as the Central Advisory Council, 
representative of the Church as a whole, and that every institu- 
tion or hostel accepted for the training of the clergy should 
have received the approval of this Council. 

(4) That all theological colleges, even those which are not 
situated in University towns, should be as closely associated 
with Universities as circumstances admit. 

(5) That care should be taken that every theological student, 
if possible before his special theological training begins, is 
acquainted with modern methods of thought, and in particular 
has acquired some sound knowledge of the views of the 
universe which modem science presents to us. We think it is 
the duty of the Universities to secure this in the case of all their 
students. 

(6) That training should include : (a) the principles and 
practice of education ; {b) some study of moral, social, and 
economic questions ; (c) comparative religion and the philo- 
sophy of religion. 

(7) That all candidates for Orders should receive a longer 
and more adequate theological training than has been usual in 
the past. Graduates need a course lasting at least two years. 
Non-Graduates a course lasting at least three years. 



Sl'MMARV OF PHINriPAL RECOMMENDATIONS fiJJ 

3. The Training qf the Clergy during the Diaconate. 

We reoommend : 

^ needs of a parish, no Vicar should be 

> a deacon unless tlun- is nason to 
l>elieve that he can give him a suitable training'. 

1. The Training of Lay Teachers for Religious Instruction. 

\Vc recommend : 

' ' > That the Church Training C'ollegt > ih .mi «jualrly assist* u 

Central Church Funds to maintain themselves in high 

it the nforin of the religious training given in 

1 on tiic lines laid down in the Rt[K)rt r»f \hr 

c on Church Training Colleges. 

^ " *•• ffort be made to secure in all I iii»«iMi> 

Mg Colleges a definite place for religious 

is, and in ways that will conmiend 

s of the staff and to the students. 

5. The Teaching of the Laity, 
We recommend : 

it (a) eonfrrenccs be promoted on religious questions, 

fh. .liMiission with the preacher of sermons, (6) 

s to be formed on the model of the 

><>iMi> 1 ,1111 .11 i.iii.u Association. 

(2) That the S.P.C.K. should AjUow the example of other 
ing a large central library in Ixindon with 

_ . d bnuieh libraries ami ri ;i<liti<» riM.rns uln ri- 

iiey are thought to be needed. 
■" "" ' ■ uld be 11; . and the 

as fur 1» < . I w .. . ii'nces and 

r bUitablc reprrM-iitaliuiui with a view tu teaelung. 

0. The Work of the Laity. 

We reeommend : 

Tliut the Church should encourage duly authorised laymen 
■ • teaching in ehureh to a much greater extent than at 

M • lit. 

N W. The following resolution was passed by a majority ; 

subject to further light to be exiMcted from the 

•• Nv investigating th- .......;.. \\\\s Committee is 

ree that whaJ is r i vn\\\ regard to the 

uiimg oiiicr of laymen uppli< s ais<> lu \s<»men." • 



64 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

7. KHaHon to Other lUligious Bodies. 

We recommend : 

(1) That members of the Church of England should co- 
operate with members of other denonn: ■ . Roman and 
NonciMiforrnist, for the explanation, ni- < smd pr<»i)a- 
^ation of Christian principles. 

(2) That, wherever it is possibii ki c.xjjh-vs freely and fully 
their whole belief. Churchmen should take the opportunity of 
l^iving their contribution and witness to interdenominational 
movements. 

8. Religious Educ<Uion» 
We recommend : 

(1) That the Church should do everything possible to main- 
tain in the highest efliciency and increase its own schools and 
Colleges, where it has the control of the religious teaching and 
life, and therefore some guarantee of their quality. 

(3) That a great effort should be made, in response to the 
present activity of the State, to co-opt*rate with other n-h 
gious bodies in impressing upon the nation a lofty ideal ol 
education. 

(8) That interdenominational Councils should be formed t< 
regulate and supervise the religious instruction in all non 
denominational Training Colleges and schools, both elementar\ 
and secondary. 

(4) That the religious instruction in all schools should b< 
entrusted to teachers who have been trained for thr work, 

and thrvt fr-nplif-rv. t(i ♦rainc'.l t;Vi(iiilf] Kc n rin< li rit i 'H in ;ill Inrfrg 

school^ 

(5) Thiit the words in Section 7 {a) of the Education Act 
1870, which confine religious instruction in elementary school 
to the beginning or end of the school meeting should be repealed, 
so that such instruction might be entrusted, where necessary, 
to those members of the staff who possessed special aptitud' 
for it. 

(6) That attention should be directed to the great injustice 
inflicted upon Church secondary schools by the Conscience 
Clause in the Regulations for Secondary Schools and to tin 
inequitable distribution of grants which results from it. 

(7) That a radical revision of the present Catechism should 
be undertaken without delay.* 

* Id favour 10 : agaiuak fi. 



SUMMARY (W PRINCIPAL RKCOMMENDATIONS «5 

9. Sunday Schools. 
We recommend : 

(1) That renewed effort should be made to give effect to the 
■"" - 1 . . of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Committee 

(2) That steps should be- taken to bring the Church's work 

amon" -.♦ ' -rfnts into right relation to *' - -luisation which 

the I 1 Bill proposes^to crcat xiliary to the 

>n Schools. 

- :t opportimities for the rehgious instruction of children 

educated at homo and in the county an' I launicipal schools 
should be provided by the Church, and that, if possible, religious 
instruction for children in secondary schools be arranged in 
oo-operation with other religious bodies. 



We recommend 

That a - 
be formed 
women of r 
pdurational m. ... 



10. Administration. 



f Church :!d 

I of Churc ii- 

lUthority and experienced in the best 



F. H. Ely. 

Annie Louisa. C.S.M.V. 
E. W. Rnmes. 

G. M. Hrvan. 

E. J. Bodington. 
A. C. Bf)uquet. 
A. Caldeccjtt. 
Zoe Fairfield. 

C. F. n • 
H. L > 

A. C. Hcadlari 



Jonii V.'oigiinn. 



Edward Lyttelton. 
A. W. Maplesden. 
Agnes Ma.son, C.H.F. 
Winifred Mcrcier. 
A. H. McNeile. 
C. Oxon. 
T. W. Ripon. 
T. Guy Rogers. 
E. Romants. 
Arthur J. Tail. 
W. Temple. 



APPENDICES 

APPENDIX I 

The Ministry of the Clergy as Teiachers 

1 imi 

VI. ' ■ ■ ted 

s wc will quote tl»c words of Estius,* the wise Roman 

I Commentator on St. Paul's Epistles. Commenting 

MI><iii 1 Tim. iii. 13 he writes: — 

" It may l)c asked why, among the other things which the 
apostle requires from the bishop and deacons, he makes no 

its, of the altar, and 

icr and at which the 

I ... But there is u ready reply. The 

I' ^unction on these subjects — first, because 

\Ur\ ,ir< r i.)cr, and therefore of less importance, if the ofli c i»f 

lii^hop aiui deiicon be regarded as a whole. For it is not the 

< i-<-. as the mass of men think, that the episcopal or pastoral 

* ' " •> nferring of Holy Orders at their' 

>n fit chutcht's, thf confirming of 

!lts 

>i' the mass lor the living and -d ; but the 

a of the bishoj) and of any shc^ ^ouls is tlu- 

: of the Word of God." 
♦' ' •■' ■■■•■ 'if-ation of the New Tc-.-mi. i... i..rn 

t in a continuous prtK*ess culminating 

-?; ■ • • • ... ,^,^ 

' in- 

irc 

I ine 

tor It. ih live revelation a whole 

iitli tiiiliitl: I in.ii> I-. »n iilf -ix-jxilable 

ii the 

•m the \ st 

ut 
he 

> hurch and the sacramcnti. This constitutes the body of 

• W Vaa Brt. Prof«MOff M Douai. di«d 10IX 

I 



r.s Ti: Adiixc; okfick of the church 

truth which it is the function of the ministry of the Charob io 
muinlain. This we must say is the function of t" 
minimi ly m!i whic}» in the New Testament htmI in lb" 
the in<> ' ! L;itcr it w;i ' 

the tniii: i is (Icfined in i ■ 

aeti'tits which they ami th»y nnly could val dly |)<'rli»rin. il»< 
priest was defined by his relations to the cucliarist and to absolu- 
tion, the bishop by his relation to ordination. And thoij«,'ht 
followed along the lines of these definitions. This constituted a 
[{rave |>eril by throwing the function of teaching into a subordi- 
nate place. It was the desire of all the wisest minds in the 
sixteenth century to restore the teaching ofiice of the ministry 
to its primary position of importance. Certninly this was th 
intention of those who remodelled the ancient ofliccs for out 
Prayer Book. Thus in our ordinal the teaching office is given 
all its ancient prominence. Thereby, as well as by th'- <'lv in - 
back to the people of the " open Bible," the Church in 
was to become pre-eminently a well-instnicted < muk n. 
Ignorance and superstition were to be banished. But th< 
outcome of all this effort of the Reformation has been pro 
foundly disappointing. It is irresistibly borne in upon oui 
minds to-day that the ordinary member of the Church ot 
England knows less about his religion than the Presbyterian 
from Scotland or the Roman Catholic from Ireland. Thus v,< 
are all agreetl that a fresh beginning li - «< '^ made in realisin;_' 
the teaching oflficc of the ministry. 

2. The function of the minister is to prc;un the Word of God. 
the message of salvation, as the ai)ostles first delivered it 
That is the sacred tradition, the deposit of the faith. Th- 
minister may be a prophet, but at least he is to be a teacher o! 
" the faith once for all delivered" for the maintenance of which 
the Church stands. The original idea of the a|)ostolic succession 
centred upon the maintaining of the tradition. But th< 
tradition of any society — and history shows that the Divim 
society, the Catholic Church, is no exception — always tend 
t«>wards deterioration. It becomes stereotyped, hardened 
corrupted. The warning is upon all Churches — "Thus have y 
made the Word of God of none effect by your tradition." Foi 
the Christian Church the chief remedy for this natural defect u\ 
tradition is the constant recourse to Scripture. The origin;i 
inspiration of prophets and apostles and evangelists is to be Ih' 
constant source of renewal for the teaching of the Church all 
down the ages. It is to be kept true by constant recurrcne( 
to the original type. But also God is still at work in the hearts 
and minds of men. The spirit of the age ' ivs in it, i 

if overlaid with error or distorted by ex.; <t», a me 

of God. The teacher must assimilate the^current needs of 
.I'ul the current tcachinfj df science, philosophy, poetry, roni;i 



IIIV. LLtAH.Y AS Tl.Ai:ill.l(;> «W 

the mind oi :'■ as well as the 

rnoss.Tirc. H preach the old n. 

• wants, discoveries and aspirations ot the age. Thus 
•ii'v .lul form his mind upon (a) the tradition .«r tin 
( liii uire, (c) the mind of his own time. 

iiiion of Uw (' — ' ■ re series of duj^MHiii it- 
It cjin be < is and articles. But 
;ub ul .1 body. The creed of the 
I : one intelligible principle. The 

and man, about sin and 

(I coherent elements, which 

t«»||ow one Injm the other as inevitable consequences of the 

central faith al)out God and man, which is the teaching of 

I hrist. Tlure have been times when the Church has made too 

' ' authority and been toil content to ask for 

I what '■ the Church tf^irhes." That is 

!it or of 1 1 ' Man 

the tea< i: t'ecl 

inity uf all the articles of the fuith and shall impart 

» arc taught the sense that our Lord has given us a 

— a central iK-lief about God and man — from which as 
■ntral |K>int of view we see the whole of life in a true 
ve. Euch Christian teacher must meditate on the 

r the faitl dis- 

ist " is tl, 'ing 

is itlrdiTcd to life-long study of Ou Bible. It is an old 

hould plan our life as men who will live to be 

,. I,.. I. mI.,. villi (In- to-morrow. Ever>' priest 

it to have in imut of him a 

ij(i\ Kir a lifetime. lie ought to Ix; 

at every one of the b<K)ks of the Old 

in : for ■ "its own 

• d«» this in days 

tioiis III dispute and 

\ ! > of the clergy are 

d by bit>lieal enticism and lose all real power ol 

♦'" I'' '■ I. MM- they shrink fnwu decisions. They 

r minds, f<»r instance, whether or no 

■ f ^ history 

(t0l|V«« 

; :»uelt .> 
n-al!v 

K'tion about 

1 . If is not 

^ to be a great scholar in order to > itit 



.11. , . I.... ...» I. 



he must Icani 
hi 



70 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

to know what people arc thinking about. He can learn this 
partly from contcmjX)rar\' literature, but at 1.- .,t n-^ much by 
. .Itivatinij the art of ^'ctting people of all to 

tall; or t 'loir minds. Opinions and v,.imiimim> m.vv be 

, ,,i,lc. \,.. re none the lc>s wortli iisteninfj to, if they are 

u'lnuine. Tlicv help us to understand what is going on in 
pe(»ple's minds. .\nd the art «>f the Christ inn t(»arh<T musi 
always be the art of k(rcping 1 
and on the thoughts and tempt 

to whom he is preaching. His function is that ol an mtcq)retcr 
from one language to another who must know both languages 
thoroughly. He must interpret the language of the Christian 
tradition 'into the la. ' v. The clergy are ver\' 

commonly avoiding n .— sufh as Hell. Ongmal 

Sin, Atonement by tiiu UUhkI ul Ciin ''»ey 

areditlicult. Hut they are there as coi 'he 

New Testament doctrine. What anyone whcj a>| - h 

teacher is bound to do is to see what exactly th ii is 

committed to, what exactly the New Testament really requires 
t)f us, and also to see w hat the requirement of the best conscience 
and science «>f to-day really means, so as to be able, by the hoJi> 
ofthebt rs find his own meditation, to I ' ' " ;ent 

faitJi in i ' compatible with present -du} irid 

the soundest conscience of the time. 

3. He can acquire a real insight into the best spirit of the 
times by reading and by sympathy. But most of all he will 
gain the teacher's j^wer by facing honestly his own doubts and 
ditliculties — by asking the great questions in his own mind and 
spending all his strength in seeking an adequate answer for his 
own sake. It is only by feeling the diflicultics for himself that 
he can learn to help others. It is only by ' •■ i" 

his own heart to underst^md the Word of ( ■ i'" 

to interpret it to others. But while he thus m "I 

his own spiritual experience, he must not let his in* 

unduly subjective. The cycle of the-Church seasons, and the 
cycle of scriptures provided for the seasons, should always be 
allowed to dominate his teaching and restrain it from becoming 
a one-si.' ■ favourit. ' S. Nothing has been 

more di i in " En 1 ' or " Catholic " or 

" Liberal ■ circles, Lhun the imdue cinpluisis on favourite toi)ifs. 
.\dherence to the thougnts suggested by the cycle of the CIhin 
tian year will keep our teaching both central atid broad. -And 
good sense will suggest to ever}- teacher that each address should 
have one subject and should deal with it comprehensively and 
<letirly, and seek to leave on the minds of those who hear it one 
(lefmite impression. . 

4. The object of the Word of God i ' "v practical. It is 
t lu r( d<mption of man from sin and .- -, and the attain- 



TTTE CLERGY AS TEACHERS 71 

raent of holinf^it and brotherhood. The reveUtion of truth i« 

■ It wil! 
trs. us *' k 
lute truth ui an i; mirror. 

fiiMis which tht ct raises 

vclution, l)ccausc the answer 
^ iioi ii-nu .» ... iii.iN< i.iiih ill God fimi, or ho[>c sure, or 
vc. Therefore th« y t-an wait till we know even as we 
vn. It is l> ' 111 this pra<'tiral aim of 

i> whieh uii MS to prr;ich a simple 

. "I thank 

uou hast hid 

and understanding and hast reveale<l 

i .. .^ means that the Gospel is a Gospel for 

. or those who are e<^>ntcnt to Ix; treated as common 
M l1 the burden of life and want to be equip|>ed for 

_'-mmI Ii\ 111- " The end of the ernnmandment (charm') is love 

iiple 
t nt till- iiuiiiiik- - t i(»ii. 

til- (hii li.iii III :.. . 1 iip himself to be 

IS kinds. Probably our chief aim 

.. .... 1^ .1.... .. ... i.i,j,'Iand must he to Ix'come tolerable 

' — who really believe in the pulpit as an instrument for 
. . • . . ■ • ■ r it 

me 

,1 r>. 
It in the art of manag^in^ 

, ;iy for the younger adults. 

lue for all children from 14-18. 

. II 111 . v.i\ j..jn->h must be cquipjjed t. ' T«.ace 

lur sehoolini;. Finally, we need to cqii \es 

' ti\. 

»H' 

I as H whole is (o i rlv 

I'ultivate and cxmseii , lal 

will need ' orders for priests who, as 

'"•- ""' at large, sluill sj)ccially 

meditation .ind pnaehing. 

.III. 

in«- 

id. 

■r*. 

sh 

•ral othec which they nhar- 



ri-Ailli.NU uFliLE OF THt. LlluUtii 
APPENDIX IT 

ihl. MiMSTKY OK THi: Wwim \ii 

Tlu- Ministry of the Word has b<'hind it a vital experience. 
It starts from the appichonsion of a supreme faet. It is in 
itself the effort to interjjrct the cxpericnec of wliat that faet 
liad Ix-en. Its law is jjivon onec for all in the j^reat openin<: 
of St. John's Kpistle : " The life was nianilVsted an " \r 

seen it and bear witnt-ss and show unto you that < ;te 

which was with the Father and was manifested unto Ub ; tliat 
y« also may have fellowship with us." 

In taking this position it ranges itself alongside all artieulatc 
t hought, for all thought is eonditioned by exjx*rienec. It starts 
from the Given. It is the inter|)rttatiou of what has l>een felt. 
It is govcnied by the fact. *' Kxperienee itself is the only 
ultimate first princ-ipleof philoso|)hy : and the end of philosophy 
is an experience ; and this fin of the | ' k r 

returns for verification to the • ; the oni iii 

from which it arose. This is the test ol the achie\'enR-nL ol the 
philosopher : that his philosophy should 1m? adequate to the 
( xpericnce of life."* If this holds in the highest and most 

ab.straet fornix ■'• *» '•♦ •♦ '"-''N -■• '- ->»- ---i- •■♦ •■" 

other grades. 

Experience i^ in u> luii siris<- a hk iipnvNn;!!, noi .i j»s\(ti<. 
logical term. It implies something more than an impression 
a subjective naetion. For ixperience is the coming t/>gether 
of ourselves with something else. It contains by its very 
nature two elements — an inward and an outward. It always 
comiotes reality. Exj)erience is the way in which reality comes 
witliin our consciousness : it is the witness to our" contact with 
things. We know them through our exjK'rience of what th« \ 
arc. So we caimot go beyond it : we have got to the Ix-droi k 
We ha\ e no other standard of what we mean by fact and by 
reality. So it is in this instance of the exjHrience referred to 
bv St. .lolm. It expresses the conviction tliat something 
happened. It happened to him and others with him. They 
all saw, heard, handled the same thing. It came within the 
compass of their united ^'xperience, and now they declare wliat 
it was that they found it to have been. It had ImpfH-ned like 
that : it was manifeste<l, and it t<M)k them into its fellowship. 
It made itself theirs. Its reality pji-sscd into their life, into 
their blood. 

And, moreover, it is possible to pa-ss on that experience, {>'■ 
it is still in action. It can be felt and known by those who 
HL'\ er had seen what they had seen, but who might still enjoy 
their fellowship with the Father and the Son. For there is 

* A'ssav OH Pertottalily. \V. Uicliniuiid, p. 4; of. aIm) 8hid%4» in tk» Uisi 
of \(tt. ftttohgy. C. C. J. Webb, pp. 160, 192. 



rilK MINISTRY OF THE WOKI) :.i 

\'in£: power at work brtn-wn thr Word Who had hvcn so 

' ' which i d itito 

. - >, .. which ci>! ill Him 

Ilim present and alive to those who 

.1. > . ... ili^. and shows it unto them, and they by 

iiis can iiin the authoritative ex|KTience. They can 

' I be born ai»ain. They 

1 n His Own Son to die 

His death. ♦ ' tn- 

• power of Hi^ i > 'ii. 

can know that soriuthinj? has happened to them which 

not have come al>out through the blood, or <li< will ..f flu- 

or the will of man. but oidy by God. 

" " - " . to which the Apostolic Banu u.iu j-m u^m 

w itself, then, and authenticate itself in all 

'I to its incoming. And this ever- 

rxixrifncf constitutes the undying 

up the I Body. Therefore, this 

own n»i lid degree take up and 

the unlading ministrj' of the Word and declare, "It 

.. aat they said who saw with their eyes and handled the 

1 of Life. For the same life has been manifested to us, and 

' ' ind can show utit<» you that eternal life which 

' r and was manifested to them, and, through 

'o us." The Ft I ibides Ix'causc 

.iml the exiK-rieih • s to the reality 

t on which it rests. 

fli' exjK'rienccd fact which the s}K)ken word declares 

. In its primal form it is recorded in the Book 

• r ever the declaration and interpretation given to 

'• by tliat unique body of witnesses who were 

i)|)ened. TJieir witness to what 

: wc can only know the lact frt)m 

! it U^> In- and to m<an. That is the 

inch the actual exiM-rienee can offer 

IS, tor them to test and verify. The Fellowship. 

^. -i>t in their rilHiff :ii|ilv, til f III Ir \\ i( Hiss f lir fiirf h<T 

<»f a bfxly ot nd 

' "'U| COrroiM»r;i iriKiii i'\ ii\iii^ 1 1 si inn iliy. 

the Word h id it, as it goes out on its 

' . . . ij^ 

oiils Ih gotten 

^ iim. ^^ f know 

nsc wc now dwell m Him. And He h.is gi\< n >>( His 

<i " we luive Men aiul do testify tliat tl- 1 'l' > ■ r»t 

» be the Saviour of the world." " \N vn 

nd iM lu vcd the love tliat (lod hath * " ' 



74 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

experience we know that " the Son of God has conn- and liath 
jjivcn us an understanding that we nmy know Him ♦» ■< !^ 
true." " This is the true God and ctrrnal life." 

Love is, tl ' iiidofkiii ' ' AVc know 1»n iomh^ 

and wp lovi Imvc « I thr fact that Gucl 

I<>\(<1 lis. So " rootvtl and ^Tonntitil wi lo iv Im- ahh- to 

ronipn hcnd what is the breadth and 1< i I doi)th and 

hoipht." 

The \Yord. then, can only lx> fully intelligible to those wh<» 
love. Only from within can you know. This is what lies 
behind the startling saying of our Lord, " Except a raan be 
born again he cannot see the Kingdom of God." Only by being 
inside the Kingdom ran he sec what it is. There is no way of 
remaining outside as a sjioetator and giving judtrment upon it. 
This sounds hard, but, of course, it is n' true about 

everything that really matters. No one \ never loved 

can give decisions on love. Nothing is really known except 
from inside its atmosphere and its conditions. You must 
believe that the imi verse is rational if you are ever to read its 
secret. This is the truth held in the formula " Credo ut 
intelligam." It is obviously and emi)hatieally the case when- 
ever character or personality come into play. You must lov< 
a man in order to understand him. Until you trust him. can 
for him and believe in him he is a closed book. This must bt 
true again in its highest sense of God. the supreme personality, 
and of His Kingdom, which is a realm of persons. 

What follows from this for the Ministry of the Word ? Well, 
it must mean that any attempt to persuade an outsider to come- 
in can only pretend to offer probabilities. The proofs must 
follow, not precede, the act of cntr>-. Inside the man must sec 
for himself whether the i)romise does or docs not verify itself. 
He is the judge of what liapi>cns then to him ; but he can onl> 
judge by trying. He must make a venture : he must run a 
risk. When all has been said and urged it will still require an 
act of faith to make the experiment. 

And on what will that act of faith depend? On a pre- 
liminary experience, on a prevenient act of God in the secret 
recesses of our being. This is a matter on which great stress is 
laid in the Fourth Gospel. The author is sure that Christ made 
His appeal to a hidden movement of the Father upon the soul 
of him who was coming to Him. Without that movement His 
own ap))cal would be impotent. The soul could not by itself 
make the effort to arrive. It must be secretly subject to a 
drawing of the Father. * It must be impelled by an act of tin 
Father, which has given it to the Son. This is a universal 
condition of belief : " No man can come unto Him unless God 
the Father draw him." This is not a limitation of the drawing 
to the elect, but a statement of the one and only law by which 



THK MINISTRY OF THE WORD 75 

nil m<*it ArtffMilntp nnd <'«ms<*i«>us IK-Iief luu behind 

ricnre of th< 

The ori;;iii 

"I tilth, then, lias had a bo^iniung in tins |)rtv( nu nt act of (im) 

lion itsto it, ami its conscious arrival at dccland belief is a 

\M'! to the reality of this prcvenient act. "All that He 

" ' " ' >T and hinj that comcth 1 will in no 

if unhindered by us, is absolutely 

s es him \^ ' s is one with 

:\vs. Till 1 the believer 

lut tlie will ol the Father and llu w ill of tlu- Son 

Tu b(- :{])]<■ fo In ;ir flic Son i^ iMnof tliaf Noii 
.m 

—is always a nsult. It discovers wliat has liappcned. It 

' * 'to what is there. It discloses and verifies an 

doubt it naets on what it rehearses. It 

that were not understood. It reveals what 

1 1 expands, sifts, blesses, orders, elarilies. 

Hut all tliis work is ilone u})on the (iiven in which it 

id in which a^ain it finally ends. The nnnistry of the 

Won], tlnnfore, presup|Kises an environing activity within 

. ; . 1 . ,^^i^ to work — an activity compassing it about, ov<t- 

t. uphoUliiii; it. limiting it. confirming it, testifying to 

i ion the Fellowship is the 

!> which is the Company 

^ uf» this exixrience, 

to it that they have 

' ^K' true to His \> ord and to the reality of this act. 

M, lu . ..f tliis action personal conversions are the 

and sacraments the reitcrate<l pledge. 

Ill oi this enduring action is the Holy S])irit. 

I him who s|x*aks the Word to utter it ami them 

mcl to respond. H<tween tli" ual 

I vibrjit(s, Spirit answrring ; as 

' lei-p to tit^'p. 

Hkniiv .S( (in Hoi.ij^M). 



The MiNisii me Word (2) 

For th* purjHisc nf thl» Mt^mnrandum th<» phm*< 

ol Uk 

ill the 

ml oral or v ;,' 

. .1 ill till- nil' '. . 1 ni 

ion from th iit in the Luril 



' TEAiiilMj ul-i-lLh ui' iJii'. liilkch 

tcr of n ^Ml. ii. 15 f.) and the jf nm 

thrrmirh >ii (1 Cor. xi. 20). It i> t i in 

rxpo^itinii ratht-r thuii in character and action with which wr 

arc now concerned. The distinction is not obhtcratcd by the 

il" [KMidcncc of the witness of th«;^hps upon the witness of the 

' ■ ictcr, for, however much wo allow for the fact that actions 

k more loudly than words, we still have to recognise the 

(»f t ha Word as having it roper functi<»n.s. It 

11 essential part of the ol Ilini Who was 

llmisiU the Incarnate Word (John \. '-:4, vii. 10 f., xvii. 8). 

•J. For the purpose of appreciating the position, in ntspcet 
of the operations of Divine grace, whicli is assigned in the New 
IVstanient to this articulation of the Word through words, 
the following passages are noted for consideration : Matt. xiii. 
T.i and parallels : John xiv. 28-26, xv. 7, xvii. K, 18-17 ; Acts x. 
H ii. ; Rom. i. 13-17, x. 4-15 ; 1 Cor, iv. 15 (to be compared 
with i. 14), XV. 1 f . : 2 Cor. iv. 8-0 ; Gal. iii. 1-7 ; Ki)h. i. 18. 
17 ff., vi. 17-20; Col. i. 25-29, iii. 16: 1 Thcss. i. 5; 2 Thcss. ii. 
13-15 ; 2 Tim. i. 8-14, iii. 14 ff. ; James i. 18-22 ; 1 Pet. i. 23-2.'i : 
2 Pet. i. 2, iii. 18 ; 1 John i. 1-5. 

In this connection the designation of Christians as *' the 
believei-s " in Acts, corresponding to the basic position assigned 
to " faith " in the Gospels and Epistles, deserves attention. 

3. The functions of the ministry of the Word, according to 
the testimony of these and like passages, are : 

(a) Renovation of nature (the term" " ivoidexl 

as iK'ing susceptible of various inter|)r< 

{b) Edification. 

(r) Instruction in the Faith. 

(d) Defence of the Faith. 

In (a) and (b) the minisli* ■- «..ii. .i.uii ..mi >|Miii,i... 
t xperience : it has for its objective the affections and will : it 
is addressed to the mind as being the means of access to tin 
lieart. 

In (r) and (d) the (»bjective is intellectual - iit, the 

mental aj)prehension which is necessary for th< nt use 

of th<' Hf>ly .Scriptures, the Creeds, the Sacraments, the Services 
ftf the Church, and for the apj>licatioii f.f the princip'*^ of Hu 
Christian revelation to conduct. 

In connection with (a) it is to In immki tliat thr nmi ^nx 
•l he Word is associated not only with mans action in turning • 
(Jod. but also with God's renovating work in man. Sec, e.g., 
.lames i. 18 ff. : 1 Pet. i. 22-25. In connection with (6) it is to 
be noted that the growth in grace is associated with the growth 
in the kiiowli (Iltc of the Lord. See, f.g., Eph. i. 17 ff . ; 2 Pet. i. 
•J -4. 

TIk -v^ ... .,^......w.. . are ca4)able of psychological explanation 

are demanded indeed by the laws which govern human naturt 



THE MINISTRY OF THE WORD 77 

I ultimately determines the activities 

>. Faith and l(»vc depend ultimately 

1 some dcjjrec, of the object to which they ;ir<^ 

(I. i<> ^ay this is not to ign«»rc the fact and necessity «»f 

i>rk (»r the Holv Spirit, for it may he assumed that the 

'rdanee with tin- laws of His own 

ion the Exhortation t>f the Hish»ij> 

for the Priesthood, sections 3 and t m 'li. 

<l. is most vi<rnifK*ant.) 

I ritual vision depends ujK»n the j)ossession of the 

,..>...». ....i,.io ; but spiritual nature is known to us under the 

nns of faith and love, and they depend essentially for their 

"»ri eomtn ' u of the lijjht. 

'h in ki <»f tlu; truth depends upon tin- 

I to wh.. .'ly known of the truth, bnl 

■•* h the t(» some measure of nifTit.il 

Mil). 

tlition .. .. \\ ... Sucranicu; lu 

loe is such that neither is complete witlnmt the 

i '"1 "hile, on the one hand, the Word is not com])lete 

it the Siicraments, seeing tliiit they are the authorised 

it were, and the instnunents of visible donation 

jal of the blessinirs declared to all men by th«- 

NN other hand, the \V(»rd is not absorl)cd in the 

S . us lo Ijc re*;far<led as lieinj; a nierej)rej»aration 

tat ion of them. For the Ciosj)el is the ;^ood 

lion of God in Jesus Christ an<i of life through 

l> of Him, and cxp«rience shows that the jireaehin;; 

' ' its <jwn proj)er function and jxiwer inde- 

iientul actions, whereus sucramental actions 

jiiritual experienee 

'I the Holy .Scriptures to the ^V^!rd is such 
)th distin^ruishcd fn»m it and identified with 
must be distiniruished from it, l)ceause th«- 

iy the revelation of which the Scrijittin-N 

II the written cxprvsMon. They can b<* identified with 

and p<rnianent nmn in 
• n n'cordcd and throiir^h 
• rations 
I to 1k" I. 
n, nor is j>ermanenee oi rvpern in . 

, III iiir iif ciinecjition or < V 111. , i.ii, 

I and c\ 1 are deternn 

imiion and » ii\ n ' - '■• 

r with different 



t8 TEACmNG OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

tlie theory of the verbal inerrancy of Holy Scripture or Creed 
can make the conception and language of the inspired writers 
anything else than the conception and hmgiiage of their own 
day and generation. The ^ ' ' for example, upon 

which the use of the Fourth I t «ir thr Inijirrrnton' 

psalms in Christian worshij) cuii l>c 
munent clement of truth is to be fouin i 

conception (»r expression, but in the enshrined idea. 'i'in- 
inlicritcd Word must be translalnl info flu " mk uf.il .ud 
moral speech of our own time." 

0. The Christian revelation is .. .iiii.>. . ..i in- 

personal revelation of God through the niiin i of the 

Incarnate Son. interpreted by the Holy S])aif. Hence it 
follows that all religious teaching and j>rMHiec mn^^t be relfltoH 
to this as the centre. Departmental . 
Jind teaching must give way to thr iin 
conccjition of God. 

7. These considerations suggesi .... ... . .wid means <•! 

increasing the efficiency of the Church's teaching work : 

(a) There is need of a revision by preachers and teachers oi 
the character, content and objectives of their teaching ministry. 

(b) More attention should be paid to th< i of the mind 
in religion, and to the relation of kn«)wle(l race. 

(r) There is need of increase of effort on the part of the 
Church's teachers in the matter of their own spiritual vision, 
with a view to the deej)ening of their eonseioiisness of the 
Ijin-den of the prophet, and the consequent increasing of 
assurance on the part l)oth of the teacher and of those whom he 
teaches. 

(rf) There-is need of more fundamental thinking >\'ith a view 
to securing a truer pro])ortion in teaching, and this particularly 
in rcs])cct of the essentials of Apostolic witness ; also with a 
\ icw to a more careful discrimination between the permanent 
and the transitory elements of transmitted doctrine. 

(e) Above all, there is need of a larger conception of the 
ivtM-.- MTul means of tlio operations of the Holy Spirit. 



The Ministry of the Word (8) 

The Church of Christ exists to explain to men why the Uni- 
verse was made and how it is ruled, to show men why they an 
what they can know themselves to be, and to teach them how 
they must live if they would be worthy of the purpose for which 
they were created. In all these matters it says that the view 
of the world and of man's nature and destiny which was held by 
Jesus of Nazareth is the truth ; that His way of life is the perfect 



THK MINISTRY OF THE WOHI) 70 

wnv ^thic-li ;ill men should try to follow ; aiid, par^y because 
! )ve were perfect, it alBrms that He was no mere 

,,, > ■ .. ■♦ •"!» tluit He was God, Who to teach and 

help, t.. ify mankind, became man and dwelt 

i ^ts to give men the Gospel of 
( . the good news that the world 

Lhcir hopes of ctenml hap])inesN 

vain, and tliat they om coaijuer 

aiul SMI whieli make them false to the possibilities 

. ..i if they trust and love and serve our Lord. It is 

of all memlx?rs of the Church, and not solely of the 

> preach this Gospel, " to proclaim the Word of God " 

ti and life. To suggest how they may do this work 

t of this Appendix. It is well 

wf such a task seems more than 

IS can be seen, at the end 

IS outlook has been un- 

. Our present object is to state brielly how, after 

it seems to us "v-f Matural to present our faith to 

len. 

1 of Christ's t md life, and of the religious 

tankiiid whu i'<l the way for His coming, 

< ' ii is the society 

Christ's work it 

an the Hible, and it nmst continually use 

^ . i;,'e of mankind to re-alfirm, respite, or, if 

. reject, the results of similar study in the past. 

... .ii -^ '• .ife to accept the conclusion of nineteenth- 

•entur>' I research that man has become what he is as 

: 111 .1 \ .1 ' ' ' ' ■''''. st forms 

\V«' s«-r. lorn and 

Lj. \Vc IkIkai lUikl this |>ru< iidcd by the 

of (;«)d ; in other words, th.i i ii who seek 

I the Holy Spirit. We have only to read 

^'s of th'- "r. if nniiiliifs of Israel to see 

1 1 aid was given in 



1 a: 




to them, 
as a res 
wc hold. 


The 


1 


1. G<xi. 


ult of 

chose 

..rid 

Old 










to 










1 is 


and how 


they came 
Kingdom • 


to 

. 1 I ; 


« Xprc 

,..? .... 


t timt 

..M il.. 



uth. 

I', '>' ' '•' ■ ." .'I t.i:u .> .- It ... 

' h \ of the ancient 

J- y^ itt It wcic liiially galhcrtU Ujgcthcr by Jewish 



m J KACHING OFFICK OF THK CHLKCH 

:>choUri>*Hnd religious leaders about the time of Christ. They 
are of varj'ing value. To know the real worth ' 
them we need to know when and uikUt what cii 
was written ; to discover, if jms lUthor and i 

his ability and the sources of 1. j:lif. The b< 

tlwrrfon he examined like ar»y oUkt i»ld writinj,'s by iA|HTt 
scholars and historians. As a result of their labours such men will 
often disagree in details. But, because in their work, if it I 
honest, they willbe guided by the Holy Spirit, we accept .i 
true the conclusions which gain from experts general assent 
even though these conclusions differ from views which pr' 
viously we thourrht to be correct. During last century' ih(\ 
was an inir dvance in scientific 1 

say, in our k iljc of the machinery o) 

At the same time a new and powerful method ot iiterarj' and 
historical criticism arose. In addition, discoveries in Ass\ riu 
and Kg>'pt gave men a new idea of the two civilisations n 
greatly influenced the thought and life of Israel. The i» ... 
has been to revolutionise the way in which men regard th 
Testament. We have come to understand that the 1 ' 
contain scientific errors and mistaken history. But w< 
see more clearly than our fathers did how n 
that of their neighbours was the moral and : ^ 
of the Jews, and how truly the whole of this progress led up t 
Christ. The Old Testament to-day must be so taught, and cai 
more effectively than ever before he so taught, that men sec ii 
it how God in His wisdom slowly prepared the way for tlv 
coming of our Saviour. 

The New Testament is a collection of writings which differ 
widely from that which forms the Old Testament. All tli' 
books in it were written within the space of a hundi 
All tell of Christ or of His influence. All owe the a 
which their {>osition gives them to the fact that Christians, n 
the early centuries of the Church, found them helpful as the\ 
sought to know, serve and worship Christ. We think it riglii 
that these books should, like those of the Old Testament, \)> 
critically examined by scholars and historians. In particular 
because the four Gospels contain almost all the ki *i 

we have of the teaching and life of Jesus, we v > 
effort which is made to reveal Him as He was, conlident thai 
He will appear greater and more certainly Divine the mor( 
truly we can, know Him. While we believe that the writers oi 
the Gospels sought and received the help of the Holy Spirit W( 
know that they were men and that, like other men, the\ 
sometimes made mistakes. In the years that ' !' 

Christ's Crucifixion and before the earliest of our 
vsTitten some of His teaching was forgotten ; almost 
some had been originally confused by the hopes and 



TIIK MINISTRY OK THF WORD Hi 

His follow.rv. <r>mf conflirtinj; details of His life ^ven by the 

•ion 

ling 

t-nquiry ix.is provt-d timt the writers were honest und careful 

!■>' '> . .1 •'! it the general picture of Christ which they jjive is 

ly true. We are in no doubt as to the main facts 

ni s life and death ; we are quite certain as to His 

of the nature and purpose of God. and of man's duty 

lien. As ' ' ' lual 

I of the I "ns 

irs wc jilhrui both tli in 

1 it His moral and sj)n the 

linest thiit tver has been or, so far as we can see, ever will be 

.,'i\''n to nicn. 

NMit 11 we reflect upon the origin and development both of 

' universe, which it is the business of men of science 

', and of the moral and spiritual instincts and 

to have, we feel convinced that 

tion of them all was that which 

I and tauglit : ni brief, that all things visible and 

: -• made by God, >Vhom we can best think of as a 

ither. Who is all-powerful and continually active in 

111 »...id. No r- ' ' tem of metaphysical thought can we 

rt^ard as more *ry ; none so well interprets man's 

jKJU ' s. liiis view of God we accept not only 

fvi<> . to us with tho authority of ("hrist, but b<.'eause 

r that has been 

'i evil, but other 

rise to even more grave intellectual diftieulties. 

.1 til it jtroblcm we are content to remember that 

is finite ; that there are some things 

*' :"; and that in all s{K-eulative enquiry 

tlirr 1 wc must have the faith and tmst 

flint G<hI is ever 

' that He guides 

thul II ta our worshi]) of 

I IN He in li liotn thinks lit. He 

III \ver» our . In the experience of the Church in tlu* 

' '■"' '■' '1. .. i kV we find conclusive evidence of the truth 

which lie at the very root of Christian thought and 

nil-. 

-Moreovep, we uflinn that modem study cif the rcoirds of the 

,. ... . . . • ^ ... 



I : 

fiirthir tint tli. 

l)V til- - • I ■ 



tiuit 11« 


hirvNUW' 


• ■1. w, 


iK-lieve 




j)n>vcd 



S2 TKACllINU UJllCL UV llll. LIU Id M 

suffice to convince us that Jesus wa« tlic Divine 

All the teaching of Jesus as to the relation of man to God i*. 
bound up with liis authoritativ*- <irt .inty that man's per- 
sonahty survives death. It is admitted that the 

standards of conduct which Jcsiis |ii<>i launed in the Sermon 
on thr Mount arc a beautiful ideal ; but our reason justifies 
thii r with Iliuj, \ i this life as .1 

anoi [ sliall begin ath. Two ki 

convince us of the truth ul tins wlea. Christ 1 i 
that He would show His disciples that after 1 
He was still alive. He fulfilled His promise, and therefore we 
have good reason to believe His oft -repeated assertion that 
after death men will continue to exist in another spiritual world 
in which they will enjoy or suffer the consequences of the good 
or evil which they have done on earth. But there are also 
most weighty moral arguments for human lity. If 

God be good He must be just. Yet in the woi know it 

the circumstances of men are such that we can only think that 
God is just if life on earth is but a fragment of the total life that 
each man hves. Again, men know good and evil ; and, the 
more civilised they l)ccome, the stronger is the instinct that 
makes them seek goodness even at the risk of worldly well- 
being. This instinct cannot be explained if death means 
extinction. Again, we thirst for knowledge, and through its 
increase comes human progress. But if all the knowledge of 
truth which a man has laboriously gained perishes with his 
death we remain perplexed that God should sanction such 
waste. Moreover, the best men wish to be holy : they are 
passionately eager to know and serve God. We cannot assum< 
that those who have known Him have pcrislicd. " He is not 
the Gcxi of the dead, but the God of the living." Thus reflection 
and argument confirm Christ's teaching that man has an 
immortal soul ; or, in other words, that his personality, with 
its thought, will, feeling and memory, survives the di 
of the body. We see no reason to reject this view 
biological science shows that at some epoch in the past, j)ossibly 
250,000 years ago, man was evolved from lower forms of animal 
life. Such evolution means that in animal life a new element 
then appeared. This element showed its presence in moral 
consciousness, in instincts for knowledge and hoHness. To 
explain it we nmst admit that the supernatural then entered 
into the natural order : the spiritual became associated with 
that inexplicable organising power that we term life. Th« 
beginning is obscure to us : so are all Ixginnings, whether <>\ 
time 6r matter or the stellar universe or terrestrial life. \V( 
must be content to argue from what we can observe ; and our 
arguments confirm Christ's revelation. The purpose for which 



THE MINISTRY OF THE WORD R8 

^Ollls v|l ^ of 

; M.i t.. 

f.il; 

ill II till D'u'iN in. II Jisiis \>;is iiu' i*i\iiu' 

Son of I ti lias an immurtal soul wc study the 

it. We funl in them the 
•i'» of th*' !if<' ;ifid (!»-Mth of 



Lord's life and dtafh tuui not our own views of the physical 

IV.. rM fi>, ;r .TMritn ,1 , v , .. ri.i w.. « .. ,!,.,> and truc, and their 

I especial imporUince, 

»> < UK i,M 'it;i>tii '.JCofthe ' J 

attfm}>t of Iv to uti : ancl fu; 

>t. At • 

.ys be in tlic very 

- - „ . . - natural result of 

imu N at(< tnpt to know the ascended Lord and to gain from 

th' 1'^ ' i.,«,... -..i;,.. •■I •nee and moral strength. As 

\vr inption wc begin with the fact 

tiiic ana uar sin. They know that it 

i (i<»d and they want to overcome this 

' from their sins, to h^ive the sens- nf 

lit "salvation" which is joy in tii. 

■ 1. We see, too. from our study of history and of 

... m our own time, that all human progress comes 

I the travail of those who seek truth, thnmgh the 

• '" • I men. A ' ' uise Christ, the |>erfectly good 

r riifht« ' we with the Aj)ostles believe 



mce of such i _! power. 

. .. ;ice ami our kj. ..,,, ,.^\ of tliat 

'»' * ' Christ was the supreme example 

•I • ' " _'. It i.s ' 

Ui! - that II 



As w 



,. ... ;..„,. .., , ..,, ,,, ,, 

«»urs. A« we .share in fl 



SI tl:.\(Iiin{; ori k k of thk ciiijiuii 

<- thus received should 

All Christian worship includes an attempt to use the still 
living jMiwer of the righteousness of Christ to hring men nearer 
to God. Hut there is one particular form of worship whicli 
i.illy helps men to do this : the Sacrament of Holy Coni- 
<u. In this Sacrament wo " chi show the Lord's <lcatli 
till He eoini'." We trace the S it back t ' s final 

lucal with Ilis discij)les. We i .aturc <\ ., hO far 

as an cx])lanati<»n ran Ik- given, in the Fourth Gospel. We 
know that St. Paul thought of it as the bond by which Christians 
bind themselves together in brotherly love. It is rooted in the 
idea that God's help can come through material channels, and 
this idea is one of the most profound instincts of humanity. 
It apjjears in primitive magic, in such ' ms«- 

enjoined by the Lcvitical code, in the ' 
that nourished in the Roman Empire in the early days of 
Christianity. ^Ve hold that whatever was true and valuable 
in this ])rimitivc instinct was a preparation for the Sacrament 
of Christ's body and blood. The authority of the Apostles 
and the continuous witness of the Church confirms our own 
experience of the value of the Holy Communion. We find that 
in the Sacrament we are given the Real Presence of our 
Ascended Lord, if we come to it repenting of our sins, anxious 
to lead more worthy lives, T\ith prayer and confident trust in 
the love and mercy of God. But the Sacrament is not a magi( al 
way of getting help from God. That Christ is present in the 
bread and wine which we receive we believe to be true because 
the literal meaning of His words at the Last Supper is confirmed 
by the spiritual experience of many of the best of His followers. 
Rut, though He never fails to show the power of His presenee 
tf» everyone who can rightly ask His help. He only comes to 
st I, guide and purify those who li 1 to make 

th ^ worthy to receive Him. Any t a))out the 

Sacr.iment that seems to imply that Christ can be mechanically 
summonetl by any action or form of words we reject, for there 
is nothing to warrant such a view either in the New Testament 
or in our own experience. In this denial we agree with our 
forefathers, who did good service to the .cause of true religion 
by teaching that the Sacrament brings God to those alone to 
whom He wills to come. 

We have now briefly set out the way in which we think that 
ill the light of modern knowledge the Church can " prodaim 
the Word of God.'" Clearly we have to abandon some views 
almost universally held by members of the Church in former 
ages. But the changes made necessary by the recent growth of 
human knowledge are much less important than is commonly 
supposed. It is not the spiritual truths of Christianity but 



iiui. » » iif-iir\ fi rum t r\ m |ii|i 

I of H C'lX'tHl. to explain how tlic\ 

Holy Si I «.f the htlp 

'■• !ir»tiir 'M to }\'^r th«' 

\ 1 . . 

The A I N that Christ "descended into hell " 

jiiid '■ Hr>y^ .1... .» ..i.w .. .vi.cn." Yet the Atonement is none the 
less real to us who know tliat the story of the Fall is a legend. 
NN<rei;a '-' ■ ' '' Mo, and use it as \v ' '! 

ti«v<- iiiH :i any ni.'iM, know 

i. « \ il. Ik IhIIs. So a' i, iii 

.'ion, dcvi'lo])cd a moi 'nd 

I as men disolnyj-d the laws of righteousness of 

i.. . i.inc conscious. Thus the new knowledge 

ted a new relation l)etween man and God. 

I i»y his own actions to be estranged from iUnl. 

•f M»me |>ower which would reconcile him with 

v to ha\ < ' iven to humanity 

it is pro true that 'as in 

niiuic alive." Similarly 

1 urist can he redeemed by 

limi and that He is One with (jod are no less certainly true for 

us who know that heaven is not a place in the sky above nor 

h«|| a plarr within the earth. If men keep clearly in mind 

*' ■ ■' ' ' ' '" th must grow as the human race progresses 

. that th«- Church Iwis rttntinunlly t(» learn 

IS to 

\\ay 
ify »viTe written, men «mld e .'ir faith 

'1 (. 1 . i>t. The Creeds, in fact, an .jal docu- 

III' nt«. As we repeat them we give our assent to the spiritual 
(ru»t'- .. I.W.I. •»■ ,se who frameti them meant to convey and not 
t" 1 ken views of the phy>ieal universe which they 



I tut 

. of 

on of sjMeu- 

, , , J »''■•>>«- "f an 

lat has pavscil away. It is thus I i to 

j ' ' to the (mining of those wlm stiny the 



hi^t'it. Iiought. 

I 



vvwrl.l. 



It should s<rk lu preserve the best tn iU own piui 



TEA( HINC. OFFICE OF THE C HITRCH 

dcvclopmenl : if ought lo um- all human km* lo take 

iiccounl of all human struggles and aspiratin'-- ■ >U!>ne&s, 

Ixouusr all can. and nuist, be used in ' icc. A 

Xatioiial ( ' ' Ii as our own, is ideally ' >elf 

in its int .1 union." The duty of i' tn 

s« (k lo n,ili>i lit.il uU'iil coriijilctrly li\ 
tLitiuM lo hrolhcrliooil in ( lirist. Hy llu- I' 
;ind love which they show in their lives Churchmen ought to 
jjersuad*- their fcllow-citiztms that all that is best in the race 
the Church e^m foster, and that what is evil it can by the help 
of the Holy Spirit restrain and purify. The Church should 
thus be alike the guardian o( righteousness and religious truth 
and the scr\'ant of the nation in its > ir to know and 

serve God It should be orjc with th in the spiritual 

h every i)e(»ple must make il ' Ix* 

1 • hopes and visions of its gn.i i is in 

love the Church should always labour that it may m the end 
lead the whole nation to enter the Kingdom of Go<l. Because 
such is its ideal of service it will have the same aim as Christian 
Churches in other lands whenever all are true to Christ. 
Hi'euusc they love a common Master national ( hurches. as they 
bring out the best in their members, shoii' in- 

iti a loving understanding that knows no . us. 

h is called to proclaim Christ as King of the whole eartli 
NO to niaki ITiiii in xcrv tnifli flic Prince of Peace. 

E. W. Barnes. 



APPENDIX III 

liii 11 iM\ Oi KICK OF THE Church in T?i ivik 

THE UotVERSITIES 

The ( liurch is unable to exercise its Teaching Ollitre ade- 
quately miless it can express its message in accordance with the 
thought and in the lang\iagc of the day and in close touch with 
its intellectual life, and imless it commands resiK»ct by its 
learning and philosophic thought. These conditions are now 
only partially fulfdled. Much of its t " " however excel- 

lent, is expressed in antiquated phr, often most im- 

perfectly explained, and in forms of ihoughl which are not 
those of the present day. Mtmy of its clergy are not in touch 
with the thoughts f>f those they are addressing ; they have an 
undue fondness for stating in an over dogmatic form just 
those truths which seem most doubtful to the ordinary man, 
without giving, or perhaps Ix-ing able to give, adequate explana- 
tion or proof. The result is that people simply do not believe 
them. They go elsewhere to find a solution of their theological 
questionings. Nor docs the Church of England take the 



IN RELATION' TO THK UNIVKRSITIKS 87 

position that it has done in the world of knowledge. There 
' ' •' ' in the English Church at the 

I". 

1 li in 

r<f and 

from t' roiii tlir L niver- 

;?' , ,, two Universities 

In both there were well-endowed 
i I i<l the Church of England hud in both 

;i I . Apiu-t from certain circles which 

li.n. ' r the eountr\' wa 

av^ > liold on th«' • 

\ it had not 
; , juid the < I 

J m the Lniversities iccpt out of them an increasing 

, Uk' tlioiii'lit of the country. The older Universities 

t;iiled to rcv ticiently to the seientific movements of the 

tiinc; . • ' iilt of these causes the new Universities 

\\< rt «1 ly on scientific and anti-clerical lines. In 

v of edu< iiion 

ten to ; I of 

)no- 

I ' I ^ has 

and the 'al Faculties have the oppor- 

;■; in clo.v .w....u-t with representatives of all 

it in the countr>' and of all classes of society. 

' ' ' now its influence would 

md and iho upper «'la<«;rs 



^ of the new 1 ii still existing, arc 

i!iif out. Th«<'l.. ifcn created in some, 

i Ii any ( i have fair play; almost 

' liliatti theological colleges. 

I ...... .J.. 



with the « 



88 nCACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCn 

There is a poorly endowed Faculty at Durham which i> un- 
fortunately st'jmrated by l<K'uIity from the schools of science 
Hiul incdicioc ut Newrastlc. There is a j)oorly endowed 
Faculty at Kind's ('ollr)t(e whi«h has the advanta^'r of Iwiug 
in close contiK-t with the other Facultiis of a ' 'y 

Collcy[«'. Ai>art from these there an; only theulogit j«s 

with l« w endowments, wholly inadequate staffs, and sectional 
ideals. All this destroys completely the proj)er batanct 
of thought. Science has much learning and researcli behind 
il and riiu therefore speak with authority. The learning 
behind the Church of Kn^'iand is inadequate, and therefore it 
does not do so. A consid« i 'y of the representatives of 

Arts and Science are ad< trained. The clergy arc 

inadequately trained. The Liii\crsities. the /oci of learning, 
arc for the most part in secular hands, and the Church takes 
no steps to take its proper place there. And this evil is accen- 
tuated by the fact that intellectual qualifications are less and 
less considered in the appointment to bisho])ries, and even to 
• Icaneries. There are few bishoj)s on the l>cnch who can speak 
with any nn eight or authority on matters of .science or learn- 
ing : even on Theology the utterances of many would not l)c 
attended to. 

To meet this position it is a fundamental necessity to develop 
tlie work of the Churoh in relation to the Universities, and 
unless this is done the work of this committee will Ix; largely 
futile. If the message the Church has to give is sound intel- 
lectually, and just as far as it is so, it will j)cnetrate every- 
where. If it is not so the constant repetition of it will only 
make its unsoundness more aj>parent and will produce taedium 
and repulsion. 

This will mean the two following practical steps : 

(1) The development of the Faculties of Theology of Oxfoxi 
and Cambridge as great graduate schools not only for '!M'< 
logical research, but also for the traiiting of the clergy. 

(2) The creation of strong bodies of theological teachers in 
all the new Universities in accordance with the (conditions of 
each and the facilities offered. 

The lundameutal condition must l>c the recognition of tin 
freedom of the Univci-sity. The Church of England would b' 
in a position of equality with any other religious lj<jdy. Tlr 
only superiority it might claim would be that of having teacher 
of greater learning and ability. On the other hand, althougii 
the faculty will Ix; undenominational or interdenominational, 
there is no desire to create undenon. ' \ 

Church of England college w<»uld be ;. 

ciated with a University ai ''»thepa is 

of each, and on the same i > other th ^ ;cs. 

But its teachers would be appointed by itself and would be 



i 



I\ UKLATION TO THK UNIVERSITI^:s 80 

' \iMi t, .1 fn \tc mcmhefs of the Church of England. If then- 

' Ijcr mrmh^Ts of that Faculty in 

' If t}^' T'iiivor«ity rcroi^nisis 

-tuully rajml)Ic. If 
, ajipoin! mint wil! 

their capacity. 

Hi and students <>i -..v.. „ v..llcge will lu.ii i.umi 

1 students in the University, on e(|ual terms. 

\Mii II ;im how other men think. They will have a fair 

where intelle«'tii;il ideas h.ive full sway. If, as we Jwlieve, 

if and fi I !i f)f Knijland ("v .m 

iTid repr m of it, the tiltin ult 

n must bt; a great opportunity and a wide 

ce. 

If if they are to d<» their work pro}>erly, must 

liavc ;..,, ...iM... .ii^ charaeteristics : 

(I) They must be ade<iuatcly endowed. They must each 
' five or ■ > of the status of Professors with 

""^ «»f ••<■ ;<K> a yenr, and if possible lar;rtr. 

!-) Tlv for Professors. 

'•'' '' • be rf presentative of the 

iid, of academic interests, of the teachers, 
I not ])repondcrately lay. As the college 
V the Church and University alike to be a 
the members of the ijovi • 
i-mbtrrs »if the CImreh «»» I 

• ii 
. me 
•Vll, i»r at any rate the greater number, would 
I file Church of England. 

^ must be free to teach in accordance with 
"•-• If they are heUi guilty of teaching wliat is 

and arc removed, it must lie by a pro|>er e«Mistitu- 

, ,. . . . , ■ . . _ . .^ 

h 

lie ua{)«»>sdj]e. 
• ws : 
I I I centre ot I ^l Research and Learning. 

' M ..r U., n.. ■"h is to Ik! kep* - lit 

I nous and di ' <] 



•r the training and teaehini; of thi 
i not be dwelt on at present, as it will be 



I..»..r 



TEACHING OFKICE OF THK CHURCH 

(8) To give instruction in religious knowledge to ul "g 

f, ' .1. .1. ,. Secondary or EUMucntc-^ i" " 

h»ns of the University. 

{V} To lull; ' ' for rfligU'U^ im- m tin.; I 11'- 

\ersitv. It ''*'«' *" associate the thco- 

l..'M<'al i-(>llo;^'e wtlU the m r\ i 'ine church in the im- 

inrdiatr iK-ijjhbourhood of the I i y . It is of thf- jTn*Htcst 

mijxtrlance that in association \si\\\ each Unr "»" 

lacilitits for rchgious worship and inlUience should i ' <i- 

It will bring the teaching work ()f the Church in contact with 
a large nunilK-r who would otherwise he far reinovetl from its 
lifo, and who will often be holding in after life positions ol 
im])ortancc in many parts of the world. 

In order to create these colleges adequate endowment* arc 
required ; probably not less than £50,000 a year. '^ 'cy 

is there and might be made available for this ] by 

legislation. It must be obvious to anyone who exannnc^ the 
condition of the Church of England that it cannot be properly 
fittt'd for its work in the future Unless there be a careful and 
thorou^'h overhauling of its resources. It lias, I believe, 
tliroii^'h its tndowments and voluntary contributions quite 
sulliciont, if they arc properly used, to do all H . (juircd. 

As regards this side of our work, the Kc( ! l Com- 

missioners have now a surplus income each year ot between 
£000,000 and £700,000. Of tliis sum I believe that £400,000 
might quite safely (under cert-ain conditions) be used as income 
instead of being re-invested, and ought to be so used. This 
sum, if wisely employed, would go far to supply the defect in 
the eciuipmcnt of the Church. 1 should propose that of this 
t50,000 a year should be set aside for the endowment of these 
colleges. If this were done it would do much to 'H. 

balance which at present weighs heavily against tlr .t( 

rcreognit ion of learning in the Church. 

In conclusion I would say that these pro}>osals are not put 
forward in support of any particular set of opinions. All the 
different sections of the' ilhurch contain elements in their 
teachii.g rcsjionsive to the needs of the day. The two great 
sehf)()ls''of theology, the Evangelical and the T n, both 

had their homes in Univci-silies. No ecelesiu ty also 

has li monojmly of narrowness and intolerance, ai. '^^ 

those who claini most to be liberal and modern an i - 

tific in their theology. My purpose is to secure that any 
views consistent with' the teaching of the Church of England 
should be represented if supjwrtcd with ade<}uate learning, and M 
that the theologieal problems of the day should be approached -l 
by men of different aims and training in a position where they | 
could not be isolated from the thought of the time. 

Arthuii C. IIeadlam. 



THArMNG OF CANDIDATES 01 

APPENDIX IV 

TiiK Training of Candidates for Holy Orders (1) 

I ' I'l of the Report 

"I .on the whole, 

1 1 tlie reecnt past 

\ 111! (1 MM nil «ni^'>. .iiiu 1 .il;h<. wholeheartedly 

irc of the Committee (1) that alike in the case of 

- the course of special training 

l>y on«* year — i.r.. to a minimum 

- in the 
-cr pro- 
vision UMuU lor tli< rr|M n ot Angliean theology and 
»•■'■ tr.;,.;,,- M, )i, .i.M ..,„,. .illy post-graduate training-- 

i and new ; (8) that all the theological 

' I "vision of the Central 

: y (or whatever other 

' niay bt 1 in the 

I as a coi. ■'[' its re- 

staff, Irum the educational jKJuit of view, 

iid plant, and also adequacy of spiritual 

t and moral discipline ; and, further, so as to afford a 

- >• ♦ »(, the Church as a whole tliat each recog- 

onductcd in real loyalty to the standards 

' :!id. The existing Central Advisory 

« iiowirti; itself, in my judirinenti well 

-urancc 

it, pro- 

ys not less tlian one year at each college, to 

of prcfjaration between different colleges or 

ns. Thus I would allow a man one year of post- 

*■• '■ * * V and one year of six-cial training 

from the university, though, in 

IS soon as he is ready to 

[».'iss t<» the t!ifo!f)ifical 

at 

^ . ilSt 

ion. My reason lor this advice 
♦ T - '» ibout the exceeding value 

t \sa< 

he 
;ee 
1h! 
irc 

Wid 

iiid 



IKALUl.NU UIl let OI Tin: CHURCH 

^wtJl Ctuldcsdinj in 

iiiuintaiii with nn k-ii 

who contemplate tukinff Orders it is dosirablc tliat as soon as 
they have comi)leted their general training (which may with 
advantaf^c inchide some work in the world, beside their school 
and college training) they should embark on their special 
training for Orders in an atmosphcn* such us is provided in 
tlicolorrical roll(£Tos away from the university. I have known 
very tn;iiiy younj; men who have gorjc relucUmtly to a thco- 
loijical colli LTc, perhaps after stru^ijling to be ;illowcd to be 
"•niiiimcl at <iMce or to remain at Oxford, who would in retrospect 
declare that they " owe their .souls " to the theological college. 
There is not amongst us any enthusi.ism for any kind of school 
or ccfllege greater than the enthusiasm of the '' old students " 
for their theological colleges. There they hiive I Jly 

converted or really st t upon the path of spiritual t)i. >s. 

There they liavc found, for the first time, a lij) 

of the most profoundly Christian kind. Tli< nit 

the meaning of worship and something at least of the secrets of 
the spiritual life. And all this depends not merely on the 
institutions and discipline of the college but on the absence of 
the former associations of the university, which tend so Com- 
monly to undisciplino and spiritual shallowness or dissipation. 
Intellectually, moreover, at the theological college they have 
felt for the first time — what is one of the greatest and most 
illuminating of all intellectual exjierience — the coherence in one 
irvliscerptible body of truth of all the " articles " of the Chris- 
tian faith. Nothing can be a substitute for this intellectual 
experience. Freedom of criticism and the free experience of 
different points of view are necessary to any full intellectual 
life ; but, in our generation, the peril is that we should begin to 
criticise before we have really learnt to aj>j)reciate. NVhatex er 
be the portion of the Church to which a man belongs by inherit- 
ance or strong personal aflinity, he had better learn the meaning 
<»f its message at its best first of all. Hegel was quite right 
about this — viz., tliat the real intellectual force of the modern 
student is apt to be dwarfed by premature criticism. A real 
intellectual impoverishment is the inevitable consequence of 
learning a variety of conflicting views about religion before we 
' made real and deep acquaintance with one coherent 

HI, which in each case should be the system to which one 
iiiiirally owes allegiance. Tliis primary appreciation of the 
tin ology of the Church as a coherent system is what students 
get at theological colleges and what they have very little 
prospect of getting at the universities as they now are, where 
the power of criticism, valuable as it is, greatly overbalances the 
power of constructive and coherent thought. And if a man is 
to mix with members of other religious bodies .it all on equal 



TKAININC; OF CANDIDATKS '»3 

> Mrith a view to mutual understanding and mutual 

r;,..»i ..,?ir.. •.!;,... ;» iv ...v..,,ti,| that he should r.r-» -.f ^iii 

<> at its best. 

1 insist that, while tii< <.ciiir;ii 

I securing tliat all mir rorojjniscd 

within ll \ 'U 

It.ithrj.. ..h 

h tluT. yet that thirt- ^il(>uid 

' ' _ ll " school of thought " — 

A, I athohc, ()r by whatever name it is called — to have 

■•'•• its own atmosphere on the whole prevails. I do 

•vc that anyone thinks it jiracticabic effectively 

'f the Evangelical colleges s(» as to destroy 

: but there is much more hostility felt 

' ' 'trs. Now it is 

I ttcr case which 

<? former. And, apart from what is possible^ 

. ,y of *' atm«>spheres " in the different colleges 

» be, under our existing circumstances, desirable 

»< iii.iL the great majority of the Principals and other 

> of the eollecos with which I have l)cen intimately 

"minded men, and tliat 

oxisted has l)een due, 

f" ill, to til tudriits themselves 

at Ml short J ing, and has been 

in I m sjwle of, rather tlian arisen in consequence of. 

•' '"- of the authorities, while any successful attemjit 

. '* modenitc " or " colourless " or " mixed " 

' ' the vitality «>f all. Meanwhile, I bi ' 

work irj tlje I'lmreh as a whole wli . 

t re not ineffectively 

()rcsent that tin ic criticisms which 

! Illiiill f )lc( ill M'li 'cs s.l|cli :iv. that 

' ion of 

•11 "I III' ^]>iiii I'l iiiiKi'in iii>u>rical 
encouraged cramming, or that the 



It Is the severest reprowh ui»i>n Uxlord 

jcy VI ml i.iii (T vii.i »\ »li.. i.i.i..ii»\ ..r 

with their 

. -. 1 _ . I ■ , 

ll 

,,d 



{K TF.Ai lii.>t. Uti-lii. 'H ilir. i lit Ki ii 



' t the mnr 

and let us lay upon the univen»ities and not upon tli ^ed 

theological college this '1m»» '•' j)relirain!''^ "'' 

awakening. 

If this Ix? done before- iiu: miui' ' ' ^jucmi 

training, and if the sj)ccial training bt i t to two 

years of j)ost-graduatc study (and three •• of 

non-graduates), and if thcsr things ran iiout 

delay, then I believe the theological coll< li an: away 

from the universities may fulfil their tru< , . ^ al and intel- 
lectual function — apart from the universities but not out of 
connection with them. And if it be true that some of these 
theological colleges are too small, yet for my ow7j part I do not 
ilesire to see them nn ' ' more than 40 to 50 ' ' 

There is only one (J : irk which I should di : ikf 

and I will make it in tlic words of Dr. Holland, who, but lor his 
illness, would have made his innuence d«rej)ly felt on otir 
Committee : " It is strange," he writes, " that in our Report 
we have not considered the two great ventures which have 
proved themselves so remarkably successful in drawing on new 
areas of supply for our clergy and in giving them exactly the 
training that is required by the fresh class drawn upon — Mirfield 
and Kelham. In both these institutions the thing has been 
actually done. It has been found that there arf^ nnmhfrs of 
lx)ys and young men in the class that do not no Mi- 

universities who can be given a thoroughly elln nid 

religious training in five years. By the Mirfield scheme, tw(» 
of the years arc spent in a hostel at Leeds University : for the 
other three they are near the Community House at Mirfield. 
Kelham has no university period. It is our own seminar}'. 
Yet its product has none of the vices and iiifirmities of thf 
•Seminarist. It turns out men who are natural 'd 

open-mindt'd and humane. I do not think tli.i . > "i 

ours could afford to pass over in silence these two noticeable 
rn<1t>:i\i>iir'. ill (](, (v.-wflv what we desire. ' 

(. OXON 

Thf. TvAiNiNO of Candidai-es fob Holy Orders (2) 

Preliminary 

In the prrstnt appendix the wTiter outlines a plan 
he thinks that the Church of England could recruit ai 
factorily train candidates for its ministrj'. As will be seen 
from the body of the Report the scheme herein set ..nt li;i«; not 
been accepted by the Committee as a whole. 



i 



TRAINLN'G OF CANDID ATKS 95 

The qy^tion* *« to th« niithority uncler which ordinandi 

rsc, 

the 

not sith f ho 

iV particix - , int. 

? ies, somewhat simihir to the present, 

1.1 i\i>i. In a healthy Chureh theological 

111 be acti%'C : spiritual vitality will naturally lead 

ritual pereeption luul to . ' to 

of worship. Tlipro is : in- 

>ns proviiii-il an 



i II J ..>!•..> I .\r. r.i>> .^ > 1 1 1} 



1. 1 r,v i ^ 



Thr Churrli . .f Enijland needs to attract more men and better 
,'y. At present the supply of ordinands 

,....u, and as a consequence men arc sonw?- 

■d who are unsatisfactory in ability or moral 

* ' ^ ' ss. Means whereby the supply 

eould ho increased are indicated 

•f every type of 

''1 he trninofl t<i 

•us 

igh personal intercourse with men who 

^. For this reason it is advisable that a 

iurinff the whole of his pre-ordination life, 

' only with fnernliers 

•'•h of Eni;laiMl. but 

. 'Hy 

' at a t , a young man is 

, il riii.i .ti..i. r,»r his life's 

I (1 with the 

'I 111' II wini-M- I I'limi Mis (iiiiiiHiK is not his 

i -eil to examine closely the assumptions 

' " ■ , „, ,„|. 

s He 

m 

ine able to rxplaui the more 

,, ir triifj,. The sauK" result 

' tttnrs acts the jwirt 

1. A sli battle. 

\ modem noMli.i • < \\jlli pu-tun-vum. i \.Lii^> ration .» 



Ofi TKACHING OFFICE OF IHK (IirH( II 

truth which must huve been bomr in upon all who have clobdv 

studied thr iiuitua] (h'vcloi ' k-h : "I 

to woiuh.T whither it nm a man i 

long as he meets enough nica ^ho have been tau}{ht soim - 

thing else." 

Now, at present many eandiiiates for the ministry are, as 
young men, isolated during a most important part of their 
training at relatively small theological eolleges which are 
renjotc from centres where the intellectual life of the nation is 
active. The result is unsatisfactory. Their sympathies are 
often narrowed : the minds of some beeoni' .More- 

over, these colleges arc not elements of u e< i whole. 

In fact, if not in theory, they belong not to tlie Church, hut 
to parties within the thureh. Their (inan<'ial status is, at 
times, somewhat precarious. Their efllcien<'y, often, indeed 
their v<rv existence, depends upon their numbers being main- 
tained. They nnist necessarily rely upon the support of 
pji-st members and of those to whom their distinctive '* colour " 
is eonginial. As a result, the young men who go to a particular 
I hroloi,'i«;d college have initially much the sunw bias. Their in- 
llu(riec upon one another is unhealthy in so far as they are not 
brought into intimate intercourse with f>ther young men who 
hold different views. The observed result is that students at such 
colleges are more extreme than those responsible for their 
training. They tend to ignore the fundamental problems 
which perplex thoughtful lay Churchmen and Churchwonun, 
and emphasise tninor matters by which the laity are irritated 
or to which they arc indifferent. These facts will hardly be 
denied. Obviously the)' tend to imperil the unity of the 
( hunh and to impoverish the teaching efriciency of its ministers. 
With rtgard to the latter point reference may be made to a 
recent report of the Girls' Special Conunitti*- df tli. C. nfiil 
Committee of Women's Church Work.* 

A i-liiiri:^!' of tittiiiulc is ii])|)»niit in this •ft'iienttioit tAJvvaitls all (iiu.ttidiii, 
<if r<li;,'ii>ii iiiiil iiioralM, and towards titf C'linr<-ti us rcj>r«-vn»«-d by th<' 
\ ; tills cliaiiiir is laryily owinjj to tin- (|i ' ■ |Kinl«nc-<' 

•iiylit as a ifsult of rdnration, :uul tin- - I l«ir.[»<r 

|. 1 . Mliiijj tlif \vl>o|«' of life; acoordirifr to lii. -i..i. ..m m^ i..Ti\«d, flu- 
'jiiiiiuii is tliat the clcriiy as a lioijy s«cni to hav«' fail<'<l In luiapt f lu m- 
^^lv^s lo lliisf new iinuiitions ; vrirls umiplain tlial tlic-y «Io not n'<'o;.'ni'< 
or iindi-rstjuid t iH'ir diniciilti<-s in these and otiier tXMiicft.s. 

Wiuit of courage in deahn).' witli prcMnt-day [?n<l)hin.s on tin- purl ■•! 
the cler<!y produces, our e<)rres|ion<lents «'«insi«kr, hd iinpres.sion of nn- 
rrality :nid lack of intell<<-tual honesty, an»l show* |i«»w ninny ck-rpy 
fail to realise the mental envimntneiit of IIm)-^' -s. This 

has Iteen shown in tlxjrdea lint's with moih-ni '• < n which 

l\\v have- s|tr*ken with any (t-rtiin voiiT. A o< i.i.umi i- ui.hii i't definite 
instniction in the Faith, and for tlir honest faring of difficult rjiiestions in 

-iTnions. which could Ix- il^< "I nmrli im.n- lli:iii tli(\ :ir. f< , i I.m.I.ii.., 

Ixith biblical and doctrin:< 

• Yo%mftr_Wom4n and thr i nuf i, uj t.uijKii^a, p. ;.t) v>. !•.»>. iv. iwni. o<i 



I HAINING OF CAXDIDATKS 97 

The writer wouid add. after quoting these criticisms, that 

' ■ ' ' ■■ 11 thost 

X under 

i. But 

_ Miprovc- 

I! 'it in the means at their disposal and m the quahty of the 

I!) whom they have to mould. 

Tiir Si F'pr.v of Candidates for the Mimstrv 

If« a y survey of institutional Christianity 

H <r,,ti K. .. "•- : '* As to England, there is a marked 

lie in tli I and the scholarship of the average 

' ric. Ill, ^latement seems to be accurate. As 

I nricfin. a 'iimilar niovomont ean he observed in 

I and North 

'tir duty to 

1. .Vs nganis v, p. it is probable that the 

■V :irr iciually litt >vell-read tlian they were 

but this implies that their standard of 
t has de<'lined in no small degree relatively 
unity as a whole. W'v have to devise 

the din)inution 

iich consequent 

tlic war there was general 

:' r I'niversities in a position 

re were not enough young men of the middle 

,1 1..>^ .. f,. vi .'f fl,, '{ministration, professions 

^' such men the numb<-r 

'X aiir.icttii i>v ,1 II' ncai \<M-;ition is diminishing. We 

. then, ncruit thi- riiiiiistr\' of the Churrh from other 

try 

'I by til The i-< ces ol this 

f vi f ' <iuately i ^. .^t-d by the 

done by private initiative, by 

••• I • 'by diocesan effort. The results 

^'11 not we follow the example of all 

f . I . Ill and 

.r thr 



iiiaiiU be a ljn»t charge on the corporate funds of the Church. 

Tmk Skcular Kducatiom oi who I>rrF.Ni> to .Skf.k 

TfoiY < 

(a) 7 atili at school 

I' — -nS to w, ^ • •» - ' ' .y 

out frOli ;i 



»« TLAClllNC Ull ICK Ok IIU. CUUllCH 



Such Iwys do not now enter the ministry bt-cause of lack 
of means. Individuals between thcagtsof 15 and 18, at«- nfliiKf 
secondary schools and continuation classes, should be n< • 
by the parochial clerpy and, after canful cncjuiry, th« im m mi 
them should be approved by Diocesan Hoards. The Church 
sho'i" ■ ■ I to, or to rot i at, 

a St . >. Then th' ! by 

similar aid to tin- lui-al I'luversity; or, li ' 

circumstanri d to make it dfsirable, funds sli 

provided to enable them to go to Oxford or Cambrid;»e. After 
three years at a University candidates would take a degree. 
It would probably be advi.sable to make a rule that more than 
one failure to pass an examin ' ^ any stajje of the Univer- 

sity course would mean thr iii of (in;m<'i;il help from 

the Church and tlu- iication. 

Selected candidates in any 

subject of study con*;enial to them except theolo;,'^y. Tliey 
should not be pledged to enter the ministry, and no demand 
should be made for repayment of moneys in aid if they failed 
to do so ; but wheii a candidate was initially accepted it should 
be only on the understanding that he desired to seek Holy 
Orders. If candidates were wis(! ' ' ' ' .mid 

l>e small, and the Church could r. not 

as wasted but as a contribution to tl. 

the nation. While reading for a I i 

candidates should, so far as the economy which tliey would 
have to practise admitted, live under the same conditions as 
other students. They should be supervised by some officer 
appointed for the purpose by the Church, but should not hi 
segregated into Anglican hostels. In this way somethiiL' 
might be done to check the tendency of clergy to 
themselves as a sej>aratc caste. This tendency is im-i 
resented by the majority of educated men and women. The 
experience of other religious bodies seems to show that it is 
increased if boys arc set apart for the ministry at an early age, 
or if, as candidates for the mini.stry, they are encouraged to 
study theolog}' as a preliminary to a degree. The " Thcologi- 
crals " at Scottish Universities are said by com|)ctent observers 
to be impopular with the more religious of the other students. 

(6) Those who first seek ordination after they fiave left school. 

Such a mode of recruiting the clergy as has been s 
will be incomplete unless provision is made for seen i 
services of those who. at some period after they have left school, 
feel|impellcd to seek Holy Orders. The " pious boy " of 15 
or 16 who decides to enter the ministry is, as a rule, less likely 



TKAINING OF CANDIDATKS 90 

;i later life to be an - tfian the man 

'- ' ' - *^' ' rovidcd 

- of his 
on, 
• rs* 
the 
and 
ired to ( 1 begin 

■^ ""•i^, *'"" ..ould be 

at of a c. Careful 

' yi other 

le. At 
that boaic of the older mcu who are 

Theological Colleges in the Future 

When their st « ulir training is ended candidates for the 

'•■'♦-■ should ' "'■ •— "fl to a Theological College. 

G< s wo as indeed they have alreatiy 

' ' itiul 

iud 

•\rv 

1^1 ve 

are advocated iii the present Report. 

!\- < vv^'ttial to S -^ til if fTi(> rnllpfres 

a firm be 

irch in i her 

or, by : its, 

; icr- 

n>e 



i\ Com- 

'l-hed 

iild 



ly of such a status thiit each i sed 

as v i.nivcrsiTV n arjicr. 

TufSv"" t.. .,v,v,- of Candidates por the Diaconate 
At n ♦ the *^ncation of rttident^ should be 



100 TEACHING OFFICE OF TIIK ( HURCH 

the principal and his staff. The < 
colltge must be vigorous. The _ 

calling " of the ministry must be constantly emphasised. An 
atmosphere of devotion must be established and maintained. 
The interest of students in moral and social problems must be 
• luickened. By example and f they must be taught 

th t through prayer, metl and sacrament come 

spirit u.il guidance and streugtli. They must, in short, 
l)c trumcd to realise and value the presence of God in 
their souls and to show the love of Christ in their lives. 
Such knowledge is co^veyed, not by a system, but by 
men who liave gained it for themselves. Fortunately there 
is no reason to fear that the Church will ever lack a 
supply of such men wh6m it can put in charge of its theo- 
logical colleges. 

The intellectual education of candidates for the ministry 
must become more thorough than it is at present if we are 
to improve the theological scholarship of the clergy and to 
make them better able to teach persujisively. Ideally, the 
period of training should be of not less than three years' 
duration. It would probably be expedient that the courses 
at the various colleges should be standardised by the National 
Board to such an extent that candidates could pass from one 
college to another. They should spend not less tlian a year 
in each college ; but, just as men training for the secular 
professions are, to an increasing extent, educated at more than 
one University, so candidates for the ministry might be 
advantaged by coming under the influence of different teachers 
and of varied types of spiritual activity during their three 
years' training. Students should be encouraged to take an 
active share in the thought and life of the University where 
their college is situated. They should attend TTnivcrsity 
lectures in theology, whether given b\ ' hsli 

Church or not, and should <ontiiiuousl .. lis 

for the ministry of other Christian bodies. Besides those subjects 
of study which are generally deemed essential to a sound theo- 
logical education, candidates should be trained in elocution, 
the writing of English, social economics and probably 
psychology. It is by no means easy to settle what knowledge 
of languages, other than English, should be demanded. 
Probably each student of Class a (U) should study Latin, and 
one or more of the Greek, Hebrew, French and German 
languages. Probably, also, students of Class b should, if 
they desired, be excused any foreign language. There 
teems good reason to believe that a majority of those 
now ordained have no real knowledge of any language but 
their own. 



TRAINLNG OF CAXDTDATES 101 

OtDiNATTON Examinations 

At every theolo^cal college examinations should be held 

"v at the close of the academic year, and the standard 

)ut the countr>' should be uniform. The examination 

' ' ' . Ic by a body of 

.1 Board and in 
le final < 
rj a stU'. 
oi)t.iiii d this diploma any further Bishops' cxaminHt > i 
pn hniiiiary to Deacon's Orders would be unnecessary. Tiic 
Ntuirit would normally be under an obligation to seek ordina- 
itn the Bishop of the diocese, if any, which had con- 
i to his support. The Bishop would naturally in 
r a series of such, satisfy himself as to the 
, i.-ss in respect of character, orthodoxy, etc. 

But the prcs<iit system, whereby each Bishop has his 
8<-t "f examinin;,' chaplains, and his own examinati 
should be abolished : with the multiplication of dioo< s. ^ 
it l<;i<ls to waste of enefgy and inequality of standards. 
It would probably be advisable that examinations to test 
th- " the priesthood should be co ' " ' 

in under the auspices of the 

B< 

N without a theological diploma should normally 

rc< tn as a Deacon. Exception might be mai! 

the -..-T,, V. a of marked intellectual power, of candid- .. 

who were already trained ministers of other denominations 
1 ^ r^ vrho had as laymen done missionary work of 
: value. All such should be approved by an 
ad tioc C'oiuraittce of the National Board. 

Conclusion 

Were such a system established as has been outlined we 

nuu'ht uet an atlcquatc sir • ' •• - *" •• " *- 'tied clergy. Under it 
a rnaii \soiild normally -on at the age of 24. 



I our Church, initially linaneial 

.'iiiountablc ; but the change v.>m1.I 

r to the intellectual and spiritual li 
? , I 1 no vigorous religious body need i v. r 

lii.iL r. raise the money necessary for its U- ' . ii' 

QCCilft. 



E. W. Uamnki 



Th< 


1 of the 


hns f< 


' \mr «>ori 


Ji 





lot TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

Thk Tiuikino or Candidates won, Holt Okdsu (S) 

I 

In 

1 ol' tt ( r 

training ol caiulidatcs for Holy Orders. That Committee 
investi;^atcd the subject with rrtr if thcronrTliiwvv; and it is 
unnecessary to repeat their irn not pre- 

pared to endorse all their rcioiiuin ii(i,ui<>u.->, i uuuld refer 
to tliis report as containing a large amount of valuable and 
useful information, and as giving the lines < [>- 

ment hrx'^ eontinucd since then. The fi ir 

rcconi ns : 

1. '1 normal course of education preparatorv' to the 
Priesthood should be deemed to be (1) a Secondary 1 

up to the age of 17 or 18 ; (2) a Higher Educatioi^ ■♦ 
sity or elsewhere ; (3) a Professionjjl Training. 

2. That steps should be taken to place such a roiirsr <ii 
Education within the reach of all who may be selected as 
suitable C.I for Holy Orders. 

8. That -uld be done by treating the Education of 

the Church's Ministers as a fundamental department of Church 
Finance. 

4. Tliat a Church Finance Board should be created having 
for its object the provision of means for the training, main- 
tenance, and superannuation of the Ministers of the Church. 

5. That funds should be made available f< " " Ic 
candidates to obtain a Secondary as well as . 

tion and Prof< 

6. That a r should bo rnrardcd as a pre- 
liminary to, not an alternative for, a Pi ig. 

7. That provision should be made at li.^ I ... . > . ,....,.., ior the 
care and supervision of candidates for Holy Orders by ac- 
credited representatives of the Church. 

8. That in order to obtain a high and a uniform standard of 
qi .n for Holy Orders, a three years' course ' r 
K« 1. followed by a two years' course of Pi il 
Training, should be ultimately required, as a rule, of candidates 
for Holy Orders. 

9. That as a step towards this standard all Graduate Candi- 
dates shouid be required to receive one year of Special Training, 
and that all other candidates should be required to pursue a 
course of studies extending over four years, part of wlii ' ' Jd 
be devoted to Higher Education and part to Pi il 
Training. 

10. That steps should be taken to provide more Church 



TRAINING OF CANDIDATES 106 

HmUls at our inodem Universities, to wiiich students of 
X 'logical Colleges should have access for a 

11 i: a ( tral Candidates' Council should be created 

to tt-is. r. ' ' ^' the supply, recruiting, 

ari • •: ' > • 1 .: - ■ rs. 

" t 

III f 
til 

lli , .. i .c 

i\' cd in the laying down of two 

rt Holy Orders : the first, that 

ti ites of some University; and 

til ,,>.... ,^, 

th , .i 

c> uid di&cuiikiou, aiid have 

!>' -ng- 

* aed has been the establishment of 

a I ... ^ w,.,.v.l on the training of the ministry. 

Th. Hi M>r t work that this council has so far accom- 

pliNinti IS tn:i^ begun a system of ii ' n of the 

existing thcolt„ '^es, and that that a has in 

certain cases led to action. 



II 

Th" «»xistmg arrangements for theological t^ftching and the 

tr ' • I - 

I-.- .. " . • .•. 

K .; ( •• and iiighbury Coiicge, London, which arc 
>' ii ! 11 t • University of London; thirdly, St. David's 
C ' , I ! tcr ; fourthly, between twenty and thirtv theo- 
I ' '*'— n --';-'* -I 7" v';;*^- -ind others 

.., il for the 

■ .1 

h 

I 

( _ _ .^; :.....: , _._ ■ .1 

> of whom had not. The special t' 

' 'MJy by the different theological vw.v^v ., 

.1 US that we would first consider. 



in N 
the w 

wanting in Uic Church bcluic ; that Ihcy were Ihc tirst ui^tUu- 



104 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

tions to uttempt to create an ideal for the trainin|f of candidntes 
for Orders ; av 'o 

them in the lU \ if 

time the system vvlinh thty nprr.">cnt iiii«> grave delects. It 
docs not, I beUevc, represent the Unes on whieh the training 
of the clergy should be developed, and there should not be any 
extension of theological colleges unconnected with the rn-'-- 
sities. There are in my opinion grave defects both in r« i 
to the teachers and the students. They have been in all cubc s 
small, and in consequence the staff that they have had has been 
quite inadequate for the variety of subjects that mti 
taught. The greater part of the lecturing has had to be n; 
taken by the Principal, and, as he has to cover so much ground, 
it will be most diflicult for him to carry on independent re- 
search and work in the manner whieh will make his lectures 
most stimulating to the student. But, further than that, his 
position, removed from the University, will deprive him of that 
element of criticism wliich should always be present in the 
mind of every teacher. He will not be in any close touch 
either with the teachers on other subjects or v who 

are teaching the same subject as himself, and unl< i man 

of great intellectual force and originality, there will be danger 
of his teaching and his views becoming stereotyped. 

While the effect upon the teacher will thus have a tendency 
to be narrowing, there will be a danger of that amongst th< 
students being more partisan. Instead of being tiiiight by a 
variety of teadiers who will inevitably approach the subject 
from different points of view and, by the divergencies between 
them, will arouse a certain amount of the spirit of criticism 
and inquiry, they will be likely to take the views that arc given 
them on the authority of their teacher without criticism, and 
the tendency will be to make them dogmatic and prevent them 
from having the habit of mind which will make them naturally 
commend their teaching to those who think differently. 

A similar criticism may be made against the spiritual atmo- 
sphere of such a college. It will, of course, be the case that 
many men, especially those who for the first time come under 
definite spiritual influence and theological instruction, will 
have both their mind and their spirit stirred, and they will 
feel that they owe a great debt of gratitude to the college. It 
must be remembered that this will be the case whenever 
young men are brought under definite religious influence. It 
is true again, that they may be able to learn sometli it 

an ideal of Christian worship. But it may be <] 1 

whether in both cases they will not suffer from such iullucuees 
coming upon them in too narrow an atmosphere. When a 
small body of men are collected together, under circumstances 
somewhat isolated from other religious bodies, from the com- 



1 RAINING OF CANDIDATES 105 

mon life of the people and from any atrnrwphere of intellectual 
cri' viTOw 

fr.i , not 

only th' ir :;il but their spiritual hte will be develojx «1 

on lm« - remote from others, and they will oltcii 

fail in 'Ji other forms of religious life, even within 

the Cii . . !. and in *' 'v for commending 

th'-iP • >-k • ■ I whom t . 

l:i 1 ' tfjical 

(.•oil _■ uion, 

wh. r'i r .ii;?h, low, or brood, is most uulortunate and quite 
uu: -v, and to it, I l)elieve, is largely due the excessive 

iK it of party spirit within the Church. I have myself 

St : ... . — q( associating students representing very 

(Ir linion in one college. I am convinced that 

on H'forms in the Church is that the 

tr. be i-ntirelv removed from anv 

SL- ' 'i 

Il<i , , .. ' : . ■ . I . ,- [i- 

riK II. but as ministers ot the Church of England. 

Wliat I should desire to emphasise is that it is just in the 
N|iint)i:il tr.uiiiug on which so much emphasis is laid that the 

luist.ikr o! • - ' " ' *' ■■' - ' "■ :jes is most con- 
s|>i( uous. the clergy should 

\h ... ^ 

th u 

of ol tlieir lellow-cou 

Tli ._ - h laity are often old -I.. i, 

but they arc genuine and sincere. The future clergy should 
f<*arn, above all, to understand and sympathise with them, 
but often they st-em rather to leani to adopt towards them an 
att ' ' 'y and to u' them by 

n I •i>le df> not u I. 

I; , . ;..r • ., i . . . ; , .■ I ■■ ■ i any 

'■\^ ■,•,■■ • ■ ■■ .. Hi s;. >t<iu <>, .. and 

\^' the development ot theological education 

IS tliat the existing theological faculties 

' ' « • " ' - ' " t there sfv •:" 



id renin 



ot i)!;ir i'o do this «t . much 

tiioii. \ :iiii,i .„ ,M-.. i, and this shoulili-v - ....vnbutetl b> ...^ 

( iiur.il r. :i whotc ; and with financial sup|)ort must go control 
bv the Church as a whole. 



100 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHUHCH 

These institutions, therefore, must be administered by govern- 
in ■ ' ' <; in the r • ly as other University Co" - for 

tl status ; .t have; they will, in fn< i- 

^c tipon enoh of th«»e points. 
t, tiic I paid 

^ sors. 'Ik ^ v uro- 

tcssor of thcoloj^ ; he must be iii touch with, .-. 1 

with, cverytliing of importance thiit is being ^..1.^,.. .,.. liic 
subject, and he must be in a -position to carry on original 
iii'> ■ ' ■' '■ ' self; it is only tl. ' ' in 

ol will cnul>!i> liini ; h 

autlionLy aiiti to luid ua iidcquate s -i 

possible unless at least five or six 1 ul 

position and authority are provided, ai: ust have sueh 

a stipend as will enable them to give .ves «>n in the 

study of the subjects which they teach. It is obvioi s 

cannot be done tmless the theological f " — y 

large, nor would it be wise to separate s s 

of " " them away froi t 

ill (hnreh were 1o y 

on be in those places 

w i , _ _ _ _ _ 

Secondly, there are further advantages in associating these 
colleges with the Universities. There are many subjects of 
study subsidiary to theology in which the University would 
provide quite adequate instruction. Those who are bemg 
trained in theology would l>e able to attend loctuns on art*, 
scientific, or ecoin' ts. In ^ Uni- 

versity now has a j . of Educi ild be 

easy for arrangements to be made for theological students 
to receive instruction in that department. 

Thirdly, as regards the government of such a college, it is 

recognised that in all University Co" *' ' hers should 

have considerable weight in its i in most 
Univer ' " icis on 'u<^ 
body . Then . c 
adequate re]jrcseni »vvcvcr it is provided, of l h 
as a whole. It is . , it also to secure some m;. <• 
of the traditions of the institution, and that will probably 
be most adequately done by arranging that there shall be 
representatives of the old students of the college on the govern- 
ing body. The point which it i^ ' ' ' ■ cr is, that 

if the institution is to receive co m Church 

funds, it must have a governing body rcj 'le 

Church as a whole, and if it is to fuUil the n ls 

properly the teachers must have a sufficient simre in the 
government. I do not in any case thinl. ih-.ii the control of 
the Advisory Council would be sufficient. 



TRAINING OF CANDIDATES 107 

V 

1 i. <>tion tias been raised as to what the relations of 

til .. .1^ be to the I 'nivcrsity in con: ' *'■ 

^^l The answer must Ijc. tliut 

\<T'. • •■ . • 



^\ ' Lculty, and ol the tea 

wl.o.w VI „.L.. i.iv.M. J ..V .arrangements, for exai I. 

for tht ; and liturjfical training, and for such stiborh- 

would he in the ha 
ira! Throjoiry at Oxt 

• I irty teachers 

^ ! be made for residence in the 

r» 1^ ,. ^ cd for Orders must be a matter 

ol liirtljcr eonsidenition. It is possible that, and as part of the 

i\ * r or more theological colleges or residential hostels, 

wi, 1 give the advantage of corj)oratc life, miijht be 

: of the ca 
.)uld not be r 
lid iiave a liirge staff. Any 
juld be ni;iinl\ personal and • . 
iii; *r any other • connected with tl: m 

H' irt in the gtn^Kw work of the Faculty. 

Su V exist both at Oxford and Cambridge. 

'1 i ' -' .-.■•• '■•■ 

alrr.. ./, 

collegia, St. Ciiad s uini .^t. Joim'.s, '.'. i to 

suppff^nif lit til* -vViirk of t!ir l':\i\-< r,;tv ; kts. 

A it. The 

t h' . .w. v.. . ii\ .Tvif V 

III <U the t: 

'TU on • '.r-' >i ..; 

.. A sii 
other I'l 
rk out. 

' . : '. be couii 

I of development, and no particular uniformity should 



V! 

11 ' riKifli fur fllf« cnnir rri-<v1i im n < rirTup«|v 

8h<''' ' »■♦ . VV f tinvt.- uiirawjr mcrrfu lu inv mi'i iiiiii .i 



108 TEACHING Ol-TICE OF THE CHURCH 

resolution passed by the Bishops would require all candidates 
for Orders, with certain < h1 

tljcrc is a hirgc body of oj)i! ,- 

logical study ttt 

whether any V ; i^'* 

able. It will probably be found that at least three different 
courses of study must exist. 

1. There can be no doubt that, especially for the abler 
men and for those who are capable of getting real r ' ' ^e 
from a full University course, the ideal would be a I ty 
course in arts or science or son: three 
or four years, followed by a sp . .>f not 
less than two years. The general training should be as varied 
as possible. The study of theology may be equally well 
approached from the side of languages and literature, of history, 
of philosophy or of science, according to the interests of the 
student. 

2. But, secondly, there is another point of view which has 
been put forward. It is pointed out that many men j»ct little 
or nothing from their University course, es|» i pass 
course. If their interests are in theology, it is m d that 
they will gain their intellectual training and the broadening of 
their mind best by being taught the subject which they really 
desire to learn, but being taught it in a scientific manner. 
This is the line which has been adopted by the University of 
London, and is in accordance with the modern tendency to 
educate by specialisation. In London there are eight different 
Faculties. A student desirous of being an engineer, for 
example, or a doctor, is not trained in general knowledge ; 
it is supposed that he has already acquired a sufficient amount ; 
but he is given a wide and thorough course in his own subject. 
It is carefully thought out, and it is specially adapted to give 
him both the general and special knowledge which will be 
necessary. In London, following these lines, the course for 
the B.D. is not a post-graduate course, but one for the first 
degree, and the intention is that it should include sufficient 
arts training. It may be suggested that probably the less 
able men at Oxford and Cambridge, who cannot really get much 
advantage by the present pass course, would spend their three 
years much better if they went through a graduated course of 
training in subjects preliminary to Orders, including both 
arts and science, but directed throughout to a particular end. 

3. Then, thirdly, it is doubtful whether it will ever be possible 
to staff the Church of England suitably for all the work that 
it has to do, unless there is room for the tr;: lu 
are, for various reasons, unable to obtain a ' ^ <-• 
A degree course is not a good one for older men. It may be 
suggested that here, too, a carefnUv Hi<»ught-out and graduated 



TR.\1NING OF CANDIDATES 109 

cuurse is what is required, and that much of the advantage of 

T ' , ued 

icrc 
h a 

L :Mty 

t>ut a I y training, in general, it must be 

■^\ that ...V ^...irch has need of men of varied types 
. and the training that it offers must also be varied 

in Lii.i.^cter. 



VII 

If the policy which has J>cen outlined, of concentrating the 
grr ,se connection with 

tlii. ' 1 arises, what should 

be the use or purp<jse of the existuig theological colleges ? 
It is probabl*' ff' -f n..re is no reason for the continued existence 
ulsoraeoftl. ones. Some of them are already situated 

mar to a Liu>ii;>jLy and affiliated with it. St. David's 
C"!ltjfe, Lanipettr, should be removed to Bangor, and be 
i with the University. The remainder might 
th the various University centres of theo- 
I t perform useful functions. A 

tiuning its junior branch in the 

>>p Its senior branch in close relation to a 

• Iways some students who have wasted 

c at a I V, and feel tliat a new start elsewhere 

There a ' rs who, 

. would ' rue rest 

We t! ^lon 

i<: for b' > of 

, and that the existing theological colleges would 

> «• a useful function to luliil. They would not in any 

< .1 ' r ij ii!' large staffs to teach theology, and the greater 

]' irt 1 ;ii teaching would be carried on at the Universities, 

ill I til T lining at such colleges would be mainly personal 

and tutorial. 

Vili 

" MibjecLs of syllabus ^............m..... i ,.v* 

.k in detail. I should endorse all or almost 

i Slid by Dr. Goudge on the subject of the 

Hu- (K-riod that I Ifctun-d at Kiiit?'.s Collrj'r 



«• a >«i 

Altboug! 



110 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

most imperfect, I am convinced of the grcut superiority of that 
method, r ni-4v add that so far as we were aole to miake our 
teaching ory at King's, it was because we entirely 

ignored tiic j^ . .. . ... ^^^ 

1 would, how( c'fc 

i'iuloikOphy of lidigiua ami the 

•n, 

U lb not, liowcvcr with details that 1 would < 11, 

but with general principles. Within certain linii.„ . .!< 

variety should be allowed in the different courses, an. y 

as to the order in which different subjects sliould i»c jtarut, 
and the relative importance ascribed to them. Anything 
hke a general syllabus should be avoided. The ■ of 

subjects which might be included in a course of t iur 

Orders is ' :c for any one student to learn thcia uii, or 

any one i on to teach them all. It would be quite 

natural that, partly as the result of tradition, partly owing to 
the influence of individual teachers, at one University more 
stress should be laid on the study of the Uible, at another on the 
Philosophy of Religion, at another on Church 1 ' " 

The second point 1 would endorse is tliat th' ^ must 

be throughout of the kind that we arc accu tc 

with an Honours Course, that it must 1^ Is 

stimulating the mind rather than preparing ibr a a, 

and that it should not h& merely academic or i- fe->h— ^^ 

character, but concerned with the serious interests of life and 
the future work of those who are being taught. 

Thirdly, in order to fulfil these aims, it is necessary that the 
present system of examinations be changed. As Dr. Watson 
says, speaking of Oxford : 

" Let us offer them a worthy diploma : and let the Bishops 
accept it. Their present system of examination is not satis- 
factory ; some of the subjects in which it tests knowledge are 
useless for the primary purpose at which the Bishops aim ; 
the answers reveal nothing about the man himself. And, in 
any ciise, the examination is of that bad type which is derived 
from instruction ; and, furthermore, the diocese is too small a 
unit."* 

The main part of the intellectual testing of theological 
students should be not by the Bishops and their chaplains — 
although these will, of course, Ixave to supplement all other 
tests by a more intimate enquiry of their own — still less by 
such Central Examinations as that which is called the Univer- 
sities Preliminary, but by the Universities. If the scheme 
outlined in this memorandum were to be carried out the bulk 

• So6 The Training vj the Clergy in Orjord. By E. \V. WaUson, D,D., Regitu 
l'rof«fi>i>or of Ecclusiasticiil History and Canon of Christ Cborch. Loodoo : 
Longmans, Oreon & Co. 1917. 



TRAINING OF CANDIDATES 111 

of the tesehing of theology would be fnven by Univcreitiet or by 

collept's in > -lose association v' 
thnii ' f . ■; Itictcd cither hv • 



The procedure would necessarily 

I ii.ii - ;■ ■*'rs. At Oxford and Cambridge 

or the 1 il Faculty would issue the 

1 ' ' 'i as it is at ■ \ 

but the in 



c laid on the completion of a proper course of instruc- 

.M on the examination, and that the teachers them- 

s< ' . ^ si I. ;I<I be intimately associated with the examination. 

I'n!. >s th:it is .loii.' it is ' ^ '' ' '"' " '' ■- •'-"iction should 

h.' of th :.t t %-'..- 'A ^'^■': 'X 

It hi . > .. : 

ieges a < for Urtlers niijitht obtain a part, 

. . Alu»Tf> n logical training. For the purpose 

of cs could be associated with or 

anijiai'u lAjii « I. r ' diversity College and their teachers 

would assist in ng the diploma examinations of that 



University or 



CO. 



IX 



It r-'M r ^ ' > - I'r if the Central Advisory Council. Any 
..'■-'■ ' , Mjj liii«i been outlined requires such a 

' ty rather than unifori: 
.iL. it »s jinijiosed that the course^ in lin 
s and Universities should be developed freely 

■ " 'tlCCS 

mds 



^ and colleges themselves will have to l>e 
., .. :. , examine and report on th" ".-;♦< ,,f ti„.<f. 
hyavc trained. To inspect, to c«> » 



: il aasiitanoe. Its < ion and constitu- 

licfviore, kiMMild be carefully cAuiiiiiirt.1. 



11" TEACHING OFH^t. vm jui. CHURCF 

i would emphasise, in r<. ' ... - . 

of great value if the aim til te 

variety in ♦ < I if it dots not .i *y any central 

iVstem ol IS, or by rijjid - s, to pmdtiee 

uniformity, if it were to build up a bureaueratie a 
tion of education, and stereotype methods of theologii 
tion, it might become a great danger to the Church. 

AiiTHUR C. Heiaulam. 



KaamiNATIOX for OrDIN.aiidn 

The purpose of this Appendix is entirely practical. It is 
assumed that in the future, as the Heport so strongly urges, 
every ordained man will have received before his ordination 
two years' special training for his work. Our question then 
is this : What should be the character of the examination 
which he must pass before his ordination as deacon ? A 
further examination will lie in front of him before he can be 
ordained as priest, and every priest should be, in a greater or 
less degree, a student to the end of his days. But the training 
received before the first ordination is the key of the position. 
Very few will be students after ordination who have not 
already both learned the value of study and learned how and 
what to study. Now, the character of the training depends 
largely upon the character of the examination, which will 
follow it. Candidates for ordination will not devote much 
time or attention to subjects in which they will not be examined. 
The weaker candidates cannot afford to do so ; the stronger, 
whose ideals of knowledge are higher, will think that they 
cannot afford to do so. The Examination Syllabus and the 
subjects studied must conespond the one to the other. Let 
it then be observed what the aim of the two years' course 
should be. It should be to give the ordinand (a) a sound 
foundi.tion of knowledge for immediate use, and {b) a desire for 
further knowledge, and a plan for its attainment. It may be 
difficult *o do this adequately in two years, but it is impossible 
to do more. Every hour devoted at this stage to other things 
is time stolen from the study of what is necessary to the study 
of what is comparatively unimportant. In di^ - as to 

the training of the ministry' this is sometimes W The 

work of the clergy touches life, or should touch it, at s>o many 
points, that it is difficult to think of any form of knowledge 
which will be entirely useless to them, while very many forms 
will seem little short of essential. Those whose special ex- 
perience leads them to appreciate the special value of a par- 



i AA.>11.NA11UA t^Jli. UtUJlSAHUS I 13 

Ur ■ '- • ■ • ■ ■ ■ J 

kt. 

be on rs pf their own craft, and the 

y^ " .. ^, , ,...,.. ^ - .-V framed vrith that end in view. 

iin : nihil hunianum a me aUenum puto " is an 

* ' V have come to undcr- 
-< lis one before this has 

f' duty it is to train the 

1 1 at random, impress u[)on 

tl the value of understanding the view of the world 

^^ i m science presents to us, the value of a knowledge 

i>i s, and the value of the best poetry and fiction, but 

tilt .N\ iiai.iis should pass sueh things by. 

Is then the present Syllabus satisfactory? It will be here 
nri^ui (1 that it It is far too academic, taking little 

aer, .'Hit of the j , work of the ministry. It attempts in 

s< ' to cover too much ground, and so encourages 

sui ty. It tiikes little account of modern knowledge 

and nuxif rn needs, and too often directs attention to dead 
jss>>- r.ti. r than to living ones. Above all. it omits much 
\v tely necessary. Let it be understood that to 

att ' is not to atf ' ' actual t ious, 

th-" I'ielve**, or tl os. In tli^^ 



s' 1 V with its requirements. A man 

ta ..: lie fear that he will fail to pass the i.. , , 

'■v 1. Moreover the position of the Bishops in the 

nil I lot easy. The Syllabus is the Syllabus of the T'li 

vcrMtMs Pi. Iifninary Examination: it was not origin 



ral scheme to be adopted in all : 
-J.:-. . .f,. candidates, who read dur'"* 

their t. I '.P.E. camiot be expectt 

fJ"" ' ' ' ' s place. 1 ii( 

' ' >r individual 



will come m 

. the ('< iif ml 

lis of the Til 

*^-..^K-'^* ..,..,..,; vlicir use, and a< .»).'. d 

with very slij^ht^i ns the Syllabus sugge&ted. Ihit, 



i i /^v^riii^o OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

.S' ■'■■■;,■' ■/, rif.r li.Ti- '. fS, SUbstn '' " 's 

tl 'rmors W' II 

C: li tins .\ I 

til' \ ilms in tl; 

new. It must, however, be clearly understood thut n 
the pri"'.;,..,]. (,f the TI>">1'>'m<. .1 r,.ll, .„., nor the C.A.C. ..-.. 
any r< lity for 1 1 will be offered, except 

in so f ' turynu' ' ■ 'riinly implica them. 

I. old Syl lays stress upon 

tl hblc, and — : ' ■ ' ' 

<; of it; and ;i 

ticular |X)rtioii study in detail of [xjrliont* o. i 

is of great imji Candidates for ordination n i 

both wliat is involved in thorough study of a book of the i 
and how frujjtful such study is. It is thus that they are i.... .,, 
to be led in after life to apply the method they have learned 
to all the more important books of Scripture. One caution, 
however, is necessary. The special books or portions selected 
si: t be too long, or contain what i '1 un- 

p! If this is forgotten, both thoro T f\Tid 

the educational value of thoroughness are sure to be !. 

But the weakness of the present Syllabus does not lit .. A. 

in the lack of dcfmiteness as to the character of the g« ; i 
knowledge of the Bible which is required. This indelmiU- 
ness has probably resulted from a false view of the Bible as all 
equally the Word of God. It leads in practice to much time 
being wasted in acquiring knowledge of the details of Bible 
history, and in getting up "Introductions" to bo h 

there is not time to study. Moreover — and this is n. r 

serious — it leads, like the false view upon which it seems to 
rest, to the Old Testament receiving far more than its due 
share of attention because of its greater length. During 
the two years' course the study of the Bible should centre 
round the life and teaching and work of the Lord. Much 
more luld be given to the New Testament than to the 

Old i lit, and the latter should be regarded primarily 

as the record of the preparation made for the Lord and His 
Truinrrlom by the call and training of the people of God, and 
radual purification and development of their theology, 
iiK ir worship, and their moral standards. Thus (a) the ele- 
ments of Old Testament criticisms must be grasped, since the 
real '1 is frequently obscured by errors as to the 

date w books, (b) The history of the people of 

God from tiie earliest days to the birth of the Lord should be 
taught in outline, the Maccabean period being by no means 
omitted. It is the centuries immediately preceding the Lord's 
birth which are of chief importance for the understanding of 
the^story of the Gospels, (e) The crowning revelation in the 



i.-N„\.Ml.NAilU.N i UU UliUlNATlU.N 



1 1 



I. 

CI' 

ni 

of u 
SO far 

frr-,- 



i 

ow 

I 



Kpist 

t\ 

ti: 



t. 

l.r 

tl 

\\ 

(•'. 

ill 

in 



|.- t. 



\' ooncf| 

fJuty, wL. :.. 

ic to revelation. r conceptions 

f>rk of rcvclutnui u> ii<u>ir us. What- 

nt is contrarv' to the mind of Christ is 

-a 

i, by {iointinf; 

vivc. not only 

ns, but among Christians themselves. The 

.....>>u is obviously not required in the New 

as in the Old Testament. But here too the 

' ' ve more : ' It is not to be desired 

>r d^ar. rs should mrmori'^e the 

, or attcr 

iic Apor 

• and t( the Lord 

■h the h^., 1 the i;M,f 

them ; the diff 
kviiiiiu iwuuu 111 1 11". .\i \> i ( >tamcnt should be min- 
and the development of doctrine, morals, and 
r.iced. 

>t of Theology. — Here the present Syllabus 

What should be the aim of the 

hould surely l>c to teach men in 

m the closest relation to life, the faith of 

. .n,T< ..oMfr...t..,| ^vith tho-- f-i-- -;-— 1-- 

iiid to ex 

;m and to 



never 
us? ' 

the T 
H 

of 
:i' 

fi- 
t' ■ 
t.) ,. 

lit" 
« \ 



1 life. If men do not 

1 nr(i1):i1)ilif V flif^v Mill 



'u 'SCI I 
ICS. " 1 ) 



K in I Iir- 

arc not 
I 



nfi TKACHTNG OFFICE OF THE CITURCH 

unknown which oontnin prftrtically no questions upon funda- 
mrntnl Hortrinc nt nil. Srrondly. as to the text. To acquire 
a drtailrd knowlrdpo of the text, of the Thirtv-nine Articles 
is qtn'te unneressnry, and oeeiipies a prent deal of time. The 
Articles are largely occupied with eontroversie«! that are no 
loncer of the first importance, and. though here -f they 

cf)nt'iin admirnhle statements of truth, their 1. is not 

the lanffuape which we *;l ould use to-day. No doubt, as long 
as *' assent " to the Articles is required of candidates for 
ordination, it is their dutv to assure themselves that such 
assent as is nctuallv required mav properly be jjiven. Very 
little time will suffice for this when the principles of Christian 
theoloEr\r have once been grasped. The present association of 
Creeds and Articles in the paper on Christian doctrine has the 
.same resiilt as the present association of Old an^^Vw Testa- 
ments in the Bible paper. The longer and less important 
comes to overshadow the shorter and more important. Men 
devote themselves to the Articles, as if they were a handbook 
of Christian doctrine, and take the Cree^ls by the way, v hen 
they arrive at Article VITI. Now the Articles cannot possibly 
be treated as a hnndbook of Christian doetriue. Not only do 
they not correspond to our needs to-day, but they distract at- 
tention from those needs. No doubt it may be possible, by a 
misplaced exercise of ingenuity, to fit all nerr ssar>' truth into 
the scheme — if we may call it a scheme — which the Articles 
provide. It may also be possible to fit almost all that the 
Articles say into another and an independent scheme. But 
why should we complicate a task which is already difficult by 
demandinfr the solution of either of these jip-saw puzzles ? It 
was surely not the purpose of those who framed the Articles 
to pro^'^de a handbook of Christian doctrine. The Articles 
plunpe at once into theology, i^-ithout any attempt to explain 
what the nature of theology is, or what is the use which should 
be made of it. Moreover, they lay no solid foundation. No- 
thing is more important to-day than the fundamental prin- 
ciples of Christian Theism. Yet the Articles devote to them 
but the first half of the first Article, and our most popular 
Commentary on the Articles dismisses even this in a few 
sentences. Where are the great truths of the Divine Fnther- 
hood, of God's immanence and transcendence, of IT 1 

purpose for the world, of the kingdom for whose n- 

ment He calls us to co-operate with Him ? Let us pass to 
the doctrine of man. Here the Articles begin with Original 
Sin. Surely a strange beginning ! Where is the doctrine 
of man*s glorious nature, of the image of God which he bears, 
of his freedom — so important to any true theodicy — of his 
place in the Divine purpose, of the eternal life for which 
he is intended ? What should we think of the wisdom of 



EXAMINATION FOR ORDINATION 117 

trftphinET morhid patho!ojrs' to mrdical students, before they 

ny or pi ? But 

,. iLleassisL t^acliing 

• of sin. Of Actual Sin — the grvat fact to be 
I tiie conscience — the Articles say little; their 

;icy is to lead us to rteard it as an unavoidable 

..... ... .„. . , ... . ^jjg 

lice 

r, even the 

We have 

)i< r- .1 ( m to face as well as a theological problem, 

• .V.c, .v^ ..wj>.s us neither with the one nor the other. 

r, its harshness is intolerable. Original Sin is, and 

' I to the Divine pity, and not to 

'11." What we need to know is 

1 toward.** us a.s personal l)oings, with 

:\\] OUT di.sadvantaijcs, and not the 

a the abstract to our corrup- 

ruct. Our Lord's attitude to 

les. His life laid down for us, His Spirit 

.^ . i ■> i>. .« >t.j>v exactly the revelation which we require, 

aiul it is jiist this which the whole scries of .\rticles on " grace " 

How docs our Fat) i ar ? Out of the 

^ which our Lord < to describe the 

• ui a criminal court — is 

IS a kind of moral con- 

tf(MN by an ideal standard 

. Lw our possibilities. What has 

ice, of which the Bible story is 

]'■ 11 1\ lu;^ CI >M ■ ' » . .,.1 I. ... , .. _.. .. i . j^ ijg 

Him and \ le ? 

' ■ ion 

ord 
•rie. 

I' ■ ' .: uce 

oi our Lord's human nature, and that in the v ay. 

Thrrc is no word of ""»• •^niritual change w?!- •' j^.^^sed 

ov<r it, or of any ir. • wliich it may 'or our- 

ion, 
do 
t of 
.lly 
ion 

it of any relation to < of 

-. w. ,,,, . :,wrt all this V- <■ vully :»»".«>-. the 

it of theolog\', nor in he r; ><•<! by the wcll- 

Mn am riiorts of < Mmni' ut.itoi ■> fu -\, iia it away. So we 

la 



118 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

'"««l»t ffo on. What kind of outline of the doctrine of the 
Spirit do the Articles supply ? Where is the doctrine of the 
last things ? Do we to-dny hold any such view of Holy 
>- as the \ ' ," ,.s,t.^ 

t :ncnt of ; fur 

l>etter — the sacramuuts, indeed, owiuK to iiie ' of 

the time, fill an altogether dispro{X)rtioned plu are 

considering^ the Articles regarded as a handbook of theology, 
and regarded in that way there is little to be said for them. 
The theological teaching of many clergy shows us the conse- 
quence of so n ' them. It will be found on v>. ion 
tliiit it is exa e great trutlis which the Art to 
tejich that many clergy also fail to teach. "If re 
are a good many people who Ix'lieve in the Blcs iit, 
but do not believe in Almighty God." The conclusion is 
plain. The detailed study of the Articles should be frankly 
abandoned, and the study of Christian theology substituted. 
Probably it is not desirable that any one text-book should be 
imposed, though, when the Syllabus lias been reformed, text- 
lx)oks will soon be multiplied. It is enough that students 
should be told briefly what they are to study. They should 
study the nature of religious truth, its evidence and its autho- 
rity, the Christian doctrine of God, in His Unity and Trinity, 
in His dealing with the world and with man in creation and 
providence, in revelation and redemption, the Person and 
Work of Clirist, the Person and Work of the Holy Spirit in the 
Church and in the individual, the doctrine of the Church and 
the Sacraments, the doctrine of the last things. They should 
he distinctly told that they will be expected to ' iid 
truths, not only in relation to the controvei the 
past, but in relation also to the life and thought of the present, 
and to be able to express them, not in the language and fornis 
of thought of the Hebrews of the first century, or of the Greeks 
of the fourth, but in those of their own day. 

III. — Christian MoraU. — The neglectof this subjectisprobably 
t V ' evil of the present system, and the evil is now widely 

1 I. The clergy for the most part have never had their 

atteatioii directed to the full moral implications of their faith. 
What is the consequence ? They suppose too often that 
human duty is the same for all, and clear to all without any 
teaching, though the grace of God may be needed in order to 
perform it. Now Christian morals have their basis in Christian 
doctrine, and there is no other basis broad enough and strong 
enough to support them. The duties of the people of God to 
Ilim and to one another dej^cnd upon their sp' to 

Him, and upon the Divine acts, by which the ri en 

established and is maintained. Thus the attack upon Chris- 
tianity to-day is passing from doctrine to morals. As Euckcn 



I 



KX.\MINATION FOR ORDINATION 11© 

says, the i lict is between ways of living; the i 

ler*" ' 1- .111 affair '*" >•■»•■'•♦' So far from it U...^ 

tr Ml reject Chr: y and retain Christian 

mora; , . .stmn tlr 

(.'liri-»; .' of us 

\N 

w- ^ - • ,. " 

p. .-It..'-. y noticeable — affected by the 

]i.ti ' ; i! i'^ ., from which the clergy mainly 

vji! r _'. 1 i why we fail so grievously to set 

f"t'!. the Cnri-u;in idcai <>i brotherhood, and to take our place 
m t i f van of smnal n^form, is not that we are ignorant of 
t ve failed to grasp the moral prin- 

r .over the weakness of our moral 

ur doctrinal teaching, since we fail to 

^!i Lf leads. Now all this must at once be 

ri-ni' ili'-'l It t!!(' Church is to do its work in the new age. Just 
us full I k ' '^- of Christian morals must be required as of 

ChIl^ti;ul Such old standard books of English 

)n on The Creed and Nelson's Fasts and 
! -al effort to exhibit the moral bearings of 

t ! ' which have taken their place do not. 

NN ^ ik not merely of sin but of sins, not 

merrly <«t conduct, but of what in detail it requires, 

of the nau .lues and duties, of the spmally Christian 

ideals, and of the basis supplied for all alike by the revelation 
gi - f 1 \^ ,ver, we miist be taught the causes 

a ire, why men sin in this way and in 

t! by conn md how ly 

I' It is, ■, but a ig 

w :()n, but it must be a nal 

1 ...-- - icmand that it be made. 

— Here the broad principles of 
V u: , l;. ■ luj' Mj. uiiu oc substitutcd for the history of the 
Hook of Coinnion Prayer. The first thing necessary is that 
st 1 1 Icurii wh;it Christian worship is by tracing its 

o wth in thf r!\r!y centuries. It is useless to 

r:; -han^cs ive taken place in the English 

1' '-r.rc ti. ^ iples are understood by which 

t! /ed. This does not mean that the English 

p ' i"« M..r,K./>f,.-i . on the contrary, a fuller 

k . than has been required in 

tl - siudicd as a practical manual, in 

o: value and its limitntionft. 

^ s a dangerou ^c 

u ' . .story of the v is 

siun that ecclesiastical affaira and have 

b..._ li tnorf I ir^cly in the history "f *'>• iU has 



120 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

Ha-h actually the case. But the present Syllabus is doubly un- 
iriate. It demands the study of General Church History 
n. 881, and of the history of the English Church to the 
1 of Queen Anne. This unhappy choice lies at the root 
«)f many evils, (a) It leads to excessive im r being 

attached to the Christianity of the fourth cent , to this 

Ijcing erroneously identified with primitive i ty. 

St. Athanasius is, of course. ab(»ut as far from ti, ^ i les 
jis we are from Hooker. But far more is known about the 
fourth century than about those which preceded it, and so 
it comes to fill most of the horizon. Perhaps the chief lesson 
of the fourth century, though not of its great saints, is what 
to avoid, {b) It leads to our strange over-estimate of 
the importniK-e of the Enf,'lish Cliurcli, as compared with 
the other historic Churches of Christendom, and with the 
great Nonconformist bodies, (c) It thrusts the missionary 
calling of the Church into the background. In the history of 
the English Church we stop short before missionary activity 
1m i:'ms. {(l) It leaves the present situation unexplained. The 
j.ir.ont situation in England has grown out of the successes 
and failures of the eighteenth and ninetc " md 

these are precisely the centuries which th cts. 

Thus many of the clergy know far more about Anaiiisni than 
about Roman Catholicism, far more about the Nonjurors than 
about the Wesleyans. What, then, should the Syllabus ask ? 
It should ask that the history of the Christian Church should 
be taught in outline from Pentecost to the present day. No 
line should be dra^^-n between the history that falls within the 
Acts of the Apostles and the later histor>'. Special attention 
should be directed to the following points :— -(a) Missionary 
expansion, and the causes which have forwarded it, or hindered 
it ; (6) the continuity of the Church in East and West ; (c) the 
origin of the divisions of Christendom, and the obstacles to 
reunion. What is necessarj' to be known about the Creeds and 
other Confessions of Faith vnll find its place i"- • • ' *»^» 
causes of the religious situation to-day. 

VI. — Ministerial Training. — This it is not easy u> km ny 
examination. But the Syllabus should point out what it 
should include, and examiners should see that the necessary 
work has been done. Voice production, elementary psycho- 
logy, method in tcacliing, the composition and delivery of 
sermons, leadership in worship, whether formal or informal, 
should all be included. Far more ^^nll be demanded of the 
clergy as teachers in the days to come, and they must be pre- 
pared to meet the demand. -j 

One question remains. How should candidates for ordina- 
tion be examined ? The answer is not quite easy. On the 
one hand, it appears to be an accepted principle of modem 



IN rHK IVMtfsH ijl 

ini L>c con- 

1 aal exaini- 

d. Tlii system of 

• isi in pi.. > too great 

> ot standard in difiercnt diocc':>es. It mubt be 

...cicd that the clergj' pass freely from one diocese to 

i>.T, and that the odintsMon of the incompetent is thus an 

.1 . 1 — i^ j^ j^ whole. On the other hand, the 

;>ected to allow the exaniuiation of their 

.Uon to be taken altogether out of their 



II I' 



:i I; . to take account of other tlian purely 

ts. Perhaps a solution may be found 

^ .. lunation into two parts, the one bemg 

by the teachers in conjunction with external 

■id the ot!v - *" ♦'"• liishops and their Chaplains. 

II. L. GouDus. 



.\PPENDIX VI 

TuE Teaching Office in the Parish 

Tlic Ilcport has dealt fully with the training of the clergy 

a ^, but as, in the vast majority of cases, the parish 

w... . * •Id in which they will exercise the teaching ollice 

it is at to see wliat opportunities for instruction 

a! . * and how far they aux be developed. Men 

<j inf» iisctul instruction often do so on a very 

I > have failed to recognise 

t ted in the average parish. 

i ot this memorandum is to indicate methods by 

>*. iiiii" should l>e provided in the parish for children, 

a. s in accordance with their ages and 
■•-i-it. 

iundation of all parochial teaching. 

i; il wiii ■ • instruction for children 

1: ceil. (. Hiul trouble liave been 

>j i ' . . • ;,. ^ . kkjIs, but 

tl. a . r. ■ >; ; in .i ;. . -ifs of the 

* i 

N mil taith IS a serious retlection on 

til ..v.iutions. The retention of obsolete 
n. i in the elementary schools, has largely 

c< *ion of the teachers. It is now 

g* Sunday seliool mu-^t be reformed 

oi. ■• s — the !• 1 

— .1 icnr — tiQii » 
applianocs ot teaching. Hctr, only two points need Ut if 



122 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

mentioned. First, the grading yn\[ cover the period I 
the child's admission tu» an infant to the departure for ;i.t 
Bible class at fourteen ; tlie infant department may be for 
children from four to seven; t' ' ' ' ' ■ « 

for children of seven ; and the i 
eight ti 
it is e- 

instruction m tlie week on the lesson they arc expected to 
give on the Sunday ; this will be gi\ i n ii' possible, orally, in 
a class at which questions and su^j arc invited, but 

often it will liave to be supplemenlcu >miii a stencilled copy 
of the outline of the lesson for those unable to be jjresent. In 
the te;i ' i>n the clergy have a Hible 

adults .. M frive far fuller instructioii 1! 

is required to the < 

From tin lass to til 

Where the method of the Catechism is used it may be possible 
to retain scholars over fourteen in the same organisatio?' n*- 
younger cliildren, but it is generally fatal to attempt to i 
boys or girls in the Sunday school when they have reached im 
age at which they leave the element arj' school. But to allow 
them to drift away usu./ 'i;it they < 

teaching they have ali cl, and : 

to the Church or to any other religious or^ 

classes must be ready to receive them, in ^\l - , 

given instruction on more advanced lines tlian that which 
they have had in the Sunday school. But here again grading 
is necessary ; lads of fourteen and eighteen will not mix 
together ; classes ought to be provided for those below and 
above sixteen. Courses of addresses will be given in 1' "'li 
grades on the Bible, on the Church, on conduct ; in t 
class it is advisable that some simple evidential _; 

should be given, as at this age the lad in the town districts 
will be frequently hearing so"^- -<' ihc objections urged against 
Christian faith. 

During the time the lads ana girls are m the Bible r'- 
they will probably come forward as candidal es for Conlimi 
The ill! L' of this opportunity for > 

be cxa^ i. All tluit they have b. ♦ 

is now concentrated in a few classes ; the teacher > 
made to the emotions, mind, and will at the most impi* < 

age. Now will be driven home, with practical apphcation to 
life, the fundamental truths of the Christian faith. Not less 
than fourteen classes will be necessary if this opportunity is to* 
be used fully, and they will be supplemented by private 
interviews at which it will be possible to tind how far the 
candidate has real! d the teaching he has h> i. 

After the first Co a the newly confirmed ^ .c 



IN THE PARISH 128 

idmitted into ^ilds or classes which, month by month, meet 
^ well as for devotional prejmration for the 

In the alwve manner a more or less comjilote system of 

' "^''^nisations for teaching purposes is arranged for all from 

;igcs of four to twenty-one. But here, unfortunately, the 

. inpt to provide systematic instruction oHen ends, and 

< or n«ithinfj is done to continue the teachinp of those who 

I • ■ ■ ,,,1 j4,j(j yv , to 

some re, I ner, 

h;i\c received no delinilc rclij;i<>us teaching in their younger 

> ' .rs. In the ordinar}' parish all degrees of ignorance or 

i^e arc represented. There is the nucleus of those who 

kiii.x^ .liid value their faith, and could, if challenged, give a 

reason for it. There is next the much larger body of those 

■'ly claim their positidi ' ' uen, 

. r the nature of the * th ; 

with the I hurch is more • -A than 

»re content with repeating j : acquired 

, but they could not ex])lain their creed to an enquirer 

w. . ' •* igainsc a critic ; they have accepted unreflectingly 

all t nave been taught, and either through simplicity 

•I interest have failed to co-ordinate it with the 

(•es of later life. Again, there is the multitude of 

'ion with the Church is 

. :\]y,\r\ from all organise, i 

wlial tl :i teaches, often they attack wlial 

c to Ik* ' .iity, but is really its caricature; 

often t!i(y seek satisfaction for their spiritual needs in some 
(juasi r.-Ii^'iMus movement, because they have never Icamt 
tint th< (hurch contains within it some truth which they 

ind in thrisl or the New 

then, can l* .ch the vast 

uuiustruct<^ luity of all degree:> of intelligence and 
... f 

I 1! 1 , f ir more importance should be attached to the sermon 
as u nit.^iii. of instruction. Few have such an oj)jH)rt unity 
as the clergy of the Church of England in the Sunday sermon. 
It i * ' rind valued by the aver '' ' It 

1st; • arc a few who repeal ml A is 



ol ii ; Ml dcc])ly 

rx| it its abandoiiiii I 

nx in the size of the c* on ; what is 

wai ' »■••• »-'•■- ■ '!"' *■ ..i^- 

Sax 

purj * irciuiiy iuuui;ui oui onu i^:.icuuiUc 



124 II AClii.>u uii-icb Ui iilr. ».iiliu n 

'^ * ■ I. inc 

■A more 
oi the • th. 

1 ' ^ ^ ^ . . or for m '>nc 

subject IS taken, such as the Teaching of Our Lord, some book 
of the Bible, the Apostles' Creed, or the meaning of Christianity, 
the effect of such a continuous course is very great. This 
is especially the case if the subject is announced befo ' ' md 
books are recommended which can be used by the c on 

in pr- for and T rsc. 

Ol ibject t;i itial. No fear of suggest- 

ing 1 ; stand in the way; there are few who 

even , - agregations have not had some experience 

of the criticisms directed against Christianity, and those who 
have never known the pangs of doubt are unlikely to be troubled 
by sermons in defence of the faith. Sometimes, too, definite 
instruction in quite short should be given on some of 

the religious and moral pri uch as, the Life after Death, 

the >' Laws, or other subjects which are at the time 

discu cly in the Press and are much in the minds of 

thinking people. There are really no congregations whicli 
are too simple for courses of instruction provided that the 
preacher keeps close to life, stating actual difficulties and 
giving honest answers, not in the language of the u • — '^ics 
but in terms most familiar to those whom he is g. 

The ordinary churchgoer is not above feeling a m- is- 

faction when the preacher assumes he can follow an ;. it ; 

experience shows that a congregation is far more likely to be 
attentive if the sermon is addressed to it as an assembly of 
thoughtful men and women rather than preached down to the 
level of the least intelligent person it may contain. Incident- 
ally, such courses of sermons are of value to the preacher as 
well as to the ' ition, they encourage him in consecutive 

study and su: him from the waste of time so often 

involved in the search of a subject for the next S >ii. 

Besides the Sunday sermons many other o^^ of 

public instruction in church present themselvas. Lectures 
can be given in church at one of the mid-week services. It is 
often useful, especially in the larger parishes, to invite to the 
Confirmation classes adults who wish to re\ i\ e their memory 
of the teaching they received in the past ; there are parishes 
in which the C onfirmation class for adults held as an after- 
meeting on the Sunday evening is largely attended both by 
lapsed communicants and others who have been confirmed 
years before. Monthly classes should be formed for the 
continued instruction of adult communicants as well as of 
those who have been recently confirmed. Instruction by 
dialogue is valuable if it is used carefully and not too frequently ; 



I.N THE PAlUbil 125 

It 'T on a wtL at an 

af Conducts < es by 

s; and concisely some doctrine ; he is then 

c: iiiist ioiuil l>v ;in c )l)ii-ct nr, probably one of his 

c 1 must be those which 

a: will ^iiiuivi ! fairly and stroT ■'" ■ 

q < r must boll fully prepared I 

li ity it is imporLaiit 

t' he case. 

ii and lor >\omea should ■ - 

I' ^: ; for the women, in the ;. n. 

The a w^ili be more didactic and less hortatory than 

the Su. .<».., v.rmon. Above all, at these classes there should 
be discussion and questions, the members being encouraged 
' ' '' 'ribution to the subject. 

• is of a different nature to the ordinary 
1' li have been mentioned arc 

u- jy ; but the Study Circle should 

be taken by the laity with a leader chosen from their own 
number. The National Mission gave a great impetus to the 
m< th xi ! i. it ruction, and Study Circles sprang into existence 
111 inviiv jiui ii< \ Numerous excellent books with appropriate 
qw<-ti..ii 1 I 1 iission are now provided for use at these 
CI! ■ ■ ■ ,.rk out for tli " s 

ti. lit than by at e 

a' >ugh the nature of the case, they 

ivc knowledge of the methods of the Workers' 

"•'*'"' *^ '>-''♦" ^ce its system of tutorial classes 

u y in the parish. Encouraging 

fx luive been ma4e recently, especially 

1 hed in most 

'11 «) place in it _ > 

■ir of the sermon <m any religious matter on which 

" is required. Many who are afraid of exposing 

t! by a viva voce question will gladly slip their 

(ii^ <• > .n ^'ucd into this box. The question should be 
arisu. r.<l - ith. r on some special SundiiV of the month instead 

"[' '' ■ ' ■■ • ■ ■ 



iich vivith Uie diUiculliUi ol liic ctingrcgutiuii 



<ts of teaching which we have mentioned 
an. „ (h any iv" it »hosc who are already in 

■omc \ i with ' I'h. The Sunday seriimn 

will noL I ' the i>ii»ie « : . " * ' *' 1 

by tbo^e \s : t in ft spirit 



120 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHUUCIl 

' irch. F' 'cn 

t or Bib ' . in 

some form or another will gain the attendance of many who 
are determined not to identify tlierasclvcs with a?'*- '■'•'"nous 
organisation. In its simplest form it consists of a up 

of men or women invited by the > ' ' " ;^i) "> meet 

and discuss freely some of the \ \\ they arc 

<1; the ' 
I _ icar or si' , _ 

to tl What, in a well-to-do parish, is a sni. mg 

of cu — ,; people after dinner in a study or dra — ^^ -'Oa, 
becomes a large Sunday afternoon conference in a parish of 
a different type. In this latter case the conference is advertised 
as open to all, probably there is not even a roll of membership. 
After a hymn and prayer the lecturer ( " 'ike 

Bible difTioulties, Christian eWdence, Social . ms, 

') is of general interest and un \\hicli the 
i ^ needs to be stated. >Vhen the lecturer 

has finished, any of the audience may rise to question, criticise, 
or support the views he has expressed. The freest expression 
of ojjinion is allowed, subject, of course, to a time limit ; at 
the end the lecturer replies to questions and cr ' v. Such 
conferences are of the greatest value in workin stricts ; 

cy has a passion for free and open n ; the 

i . t that the clergy are prepared to sul r views 

to an audience which is allowed to express its opinions freely 
helps to remove preliminary prejudices. Many, too, in these 
conferences have for the first time the chance of discovering 
what really is the Christian iK)sition, while the speaker gains 
by hearing criticisms which are urged against views he has 
uttered so often, unchallenged, from the pulpit. 

The question of literature has been left untouched in this 
memorandum ; books should be recommended from time to 
time in the parish magazine or by references in sermons. 
Where possible, books and useful leaflets should be on sale 
at the entrance of the church, or when this is inadvisable at 
some conveniently situated bookseller. In some cases small 
parochial libraries might be formed, from which, at a nominal 
lee, the books might be obtained. 

C F. G ARBEIT. 

APPENDIX Ml 

The Tkm.>i.>^. of Secondary Sciioui. ..ii>ini.--.r. - 

{This paper is rvriUen under the disadvantage of uiicertainiy as 
to changes which may be made in the /. if for Secondary 

Schools and Training Colleges by the nei^ . Uwn measures.) 

This Appendix deals with one aspect only of the training of 



TRAINING OF MISTRESSES 127 

"^(•hm)I Mistresses — vir., that which concerns t' 

< n r. ,,r r. litrliin. Fof UuS DUFpOSC WC havr 

coiisid' r w . are affordca thcra during their 
c<n:- , and what opportunities nrv 



> ' ar- . \:i on with the training of tli 

' ' .>,... .. v,...,iderable number arc tca^.., , 

ols. I have also received much valu 
! V • -:rs which I recently a' '- 

tM lools and Heads of ^ 

lo : (a) schools in which CJli 
irt of the school curriculum, i 
{b, -aided schools,* in most of which some kind 

of i .1' is given but in which "no catechism or 

forrntilary c of any particular religious denomina- 

tion " [! ' , with the exception that, unless prohibited 

by the : ;»der which the school is governed, denomi- 

naf led by the governing bo(l\ 

an> ' st of the parent or guart. 

Su 1 from funds other thuu 

}»r.i 1 or any local authority.! 

It IS in these undenominational schools that the greater 

number of secondary school girls are educated. Very many 

arc the children of Church parents and baptised members 

f>f \ ' ' ^ rti(»n of their teachers arc 

( r led in most cases from 

;ch tcU' ^ of 

for (A ilual 

by the power of their own fuith and 

I t Ik ir ufhiril tcacliiinf. 

^' i by the Board of 

K<i ijiT 11 imii.mu <iL win. \'i i iic I'ni vcrsitics. It 

is ' 



t.-.: T 



for them to receive any special training for 



fttt 


>ai. 11 


o 


,f fl.,. .-, 


I'l 




OUI. 


HI t(i lUKi; I'lN 


! • 


iiu.'U. In oaft-" 



it is usual for a d 



128 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

the Greek text and matter of two Gosp<-ls, nnd the sul 
matter of another Old Testament or New Testament \m.*.'k. 
Students who intend to tcaeh reliirion sometimes take cither the 
theology school or . " ' ' under a tutor. 

From the Univ( ' of the trnininjj 

colleges which exist prinmriiy for trauiiiiji in the • <1 

mctiiods of education, not for imparting the m . l 

In some training colleges the training is purely secular. In 
some, lectures on the Bible are arranged for any students who 
wish to attend. If a college receives a Government grant the 
profession of a particular form of religious belief may not be 
required of any member of the teaching staff or governing body 
or of any student.* 

What opportunities a teacher may have for giving religious 
instruction when she joins the staff of a seli 'ic 

Head Mistress. There is no doubt that the (j us 

education is engaging the very serious attention of Head 
Mistresses at the present time. Many feel their responsibiity 
so deeply that they prefer to keep the religious teaching in their 
own hands. A Head Mistress may or may not possess the 
special qualifications required. A few have appointed wonien 
holding the Archbishop's diploma in theology, as Divinity 
specialists on the staff of their schools. And many take much 
care to ascertain which of their stiiU are qualified by character, 
conviction and adequate knowledge to be entrusted with the 
teaching of Scripture. But as grant-aided schools are pro- 
hibited from requiring that the teaching staff .should belong 
or not belong to any particular denomination, a Head Mistress 
may find it difficult to make such inquiries as will satisfy 
her that the assistant mistress has the religious convictions 
which are essential if her teaching is to be vital and effective. 
And if a Head Mistress is indifferent, a teacher who has no 
religious belief or knowledge of the subject may be asked 
to undertake the Scripture lessons in her Form. Many con- 
scientious mistresses decline to teach Divinity on the ground 
that they have not received the special training which is 
considered necessary for teaching other subjects. The Head 
of a training college states that she finds a - '" ?- 

ness among students to teach Divinity, not I i't 

for the subject itself, but from an ever-growing eouviction of 
the seriousness of religious instruction and a sense of their own 
unworthiness to handle the subject well. 

A less conscientious mistress may agree to give the Scripture 
lessons without any previous study or serious thought, content 
to " get up " her subject at the time, and to teach it in a lifeless 
and perfunctory manner. But in many cases much painstaking 
care is devoted to the preparation of the Scripture lessons, and 

• R*auiations for f'>* Tmmit.o "f Teui)^ert joT Rtt(ji\dary School*. Ch. II. 17. 



nUINING OF MISTRESSES IM 

a mistress trained in habits of study, even if she have little 
' ' ' ' ' ' ■ ith, may become in the end, with 

hook*!, a competent teacher of 

life. M.. s join a course for the 

'V by « -c, or nttonrl Vacation 

study. Some Head M make 

., to crivr their staff time to iK^oIopy, 

;ui<l t. \>. rk f r -ii ■ t li • ■! 'Lrical examination. Hut the exi- 

■ si'|»<Kil i'ijrii<ulum often leave no time for thco- 

. and in anv case it cannot be considered satis- 

* • ' lid be left to the 

I ess has entered 

U]i' rk. 

1 i ng of relipon demands no less careful preparation 

than is n<juired for teachinjj any other subject, and demands 

' ' ♦ion special qualifications which teachers of other 

ire not required to possess. Hence such deficiencies 

' ' . has been made are the more serious. 

to which they arc due, the following 

r.ie. 

ffair of everyone so every 
in earnest can teach religion dies hard. Spiritual 
r,.. .<rnis<(l as of paramount importance, but there 
n of many Church people the assu m ption 
s. HMMii to be found in conjunction with scholar- 
it therefore specialists in religious education are 
.1. 

•re is the dis!ik*» of so-called religion*? " tests." and the 

♦ on thf really f' 'f-rs 

«'d, and that as <; inal 

controversy it is safer to keep to " simple 

> ....,1 that for "simple Bible teaching" no 

ons arc necessary. The fallacy of such an 

• • it by "The Educational Settlement 

>uji Quexlion in Public Education^ 

if the words 

i.crs. "We 

. . . the gravity of the present position 

f f( i( h< rs are passing into our public 

I to handle the Bible or to 

' ♦- •' 'Midren. And we 

upon tl ity of adequate 

r \hr iuuiv is i<i r>c" I' ■ l>ook of 

T oWl hnrd-nnd-fii'st r. «< have 

' m. 

1 of 

ire now cjuitr at 
■ Hv those of the 



180 TT^ACHING OFFICE OF THK LiiLiau 

<^' ' ■ ■ li are the ' " .to 

' It is ill t of 

licli lias become so cxtmordiniihly to 

I 'simple teaching' which has been l. - iined 

into what the ordinary reader finds so perplexing a tangle of 
history and r''i'",>,.v.'» 

(c) Head ^: s not unnaturally shrink from introducing 
into secondary scnools the '* religious difficulty '* which has 
caused much trnnhle in the elementary schools whrrp it hns 
been used for th« ' 

they are aware 1 1 

element of strong suspicion of religious teaching, and as a Head 
Mistress who has the confidence of the Board is often given a 
very free hand, she may fear to raise the question lest suspicion 
should break out into active opposition. 

(d) There is a tendency to feel that the Church has failed to 
' (' the spiritual importance of the work of secondary 

. to provide adequate means of help, and to show a 
synipathetic interest in their difficulties. 

(e) But the parents must be regarded as primarily respon- 
sible. It is the experience of many mistresses that parents 
as a rule show no concern about the religious instruction in the 
schools to which they send their children, and that even 
Church parents seldom take the trouble to ascertain what 
teachinfj is provided, or whether it is given by qualified teachers. 
This indifference is indeed part of the larger problem which 
confronts us, i.e., the unsatisfactory condition of public opinion 
generally on the subject of religious education. No reforms 
that can be suggested will prove effectual unless the supreme 
importance of training in spiritual ideals is much more keenly 
felt throughout the countr}', and unless the religious t ' ~t 
in schools is reinforced by Christian teaching and ( 

living in the homes. Hence in any recommendations this must 
be placed in the forefront. 

Recommendations 

(1) If Church parents could be brought to realise their 
responsibility, the right they possess to secure Church ^ — • - ^ - 
their children (at any rate in many of the und( ; 

" ' could be much more widely used. And they could 

. that those who teach Divinity (in Church schools no 

less tlian in undenominational schools) should be as well 

equipped for their work as are those who teach history or 

science. 

(2) The appointment of at least one Divinity specialist on the 
staff of every large school should become general. 

(8) Much " tttention should be given to the preparatory 

training of in the colleges, and emphasis be laid on 



NON-PROFESSIONAL TEACIIEllS 131 

the M<!cntinllr «;piritual character of the teacher's profes?;inn, 
an ' .)r the maintenance of her own 

thi- .. liitur In the college should be given :-^ , 

and I) 1 the great principles of religion, the 

pr •" I lie iLMiiiLion contained in the Bible, the cardinal 

tr le Christian Faith and their intimate bearing upon 

hu';. .:. ..: 1".! . \! ' ' ■' rnal facts and 

is..|.itrii [Ml :.ks ,,; ii in Clairdi 

hit ly nrl; img the niissioiiary and " s of the 

( fiuri fi in til'.' present day) should be pr il Church 

^t: i its, and there should be an extension of the opportuni- 
• , ,r fr .,,^;„rT ir. ^itMng rcHgious instruction, 

;ninational basis should no longer dis- 
'iuai.i college for receiving a Government ^i V 

pn-virji ,| t :er respects it reaches the required stai 

of . 

nts and those already teaching could be encouraged 
t" gical examination at the University, or for 

the .1. .. , . .Jiploma and Licence. Assistant Mistresses, 

even if not required at the time to give religious teaching, may 
"} th !i ' ' ich a course of study if they should be ap- 
.>s and become responsible for the religious 



nr 

I' ■:■.'<■■[ 



by some iTiistresses for more good 



^T; .n.i.ii-i^ Djiw,,.,. ,„ i.w.ii. i-. bring about a closer i^i^ 
tion between the Church and secondary schools, but such 
' ! have to ' " " ' ' - ' 1 

;iuns 
it is 
< L many ardently desire that the Church 

M w fuller on of the responsibility of their 

•^ of the ^ iracter of the teacher's oflicc, as 

I" tially orit; uciuirtmcnt of the spiritual activities of 

th' 

G. M. Bevan. 



APPENDIX VIU 
rnAiNiNo or NoN-PnoPES8ioNAL Cruucii Teacheks 

IVomrn 

One of the tno%t striking and encouraging developments of 
Church hfe in recent times if the extent to which the laity, 

K 



182 TEACHING OFFlCEiOF^TlIE CHURCH 

and v women, liavc come to take tl 

ing : the Church. As teachers of t ^ 

of liiblc classes und guilds for yotu)g men and women, of 
children in Sunday schools, as lecturers and wTitcrs, as speakers 
in connection with various societies, as leaders of study circlet, 
many thousands of women arc nc 
instruction, in addition to the pii 
It is not too much to say that without the liclp ol tli 
professional teachers the work of the Cliurch in many i 
could hardly be carried on. And it is probable that they will 
be called to take a larger part and greater responsibilities in 
the future. The progress in the education <>f wonien, their 
keener sense of public duty, their increasing share in national 
service cannot fail to affect in a very marked degree the place 
of women in the ser%'ice of the Church and the scope and the 
character of their work. The war constitutes an additional 
and urgent call for the employment of a mucli larger number of 
women teachers in parishes understaffed through the with- 
drawal of clergy and through the loss of those who would have 
been the clergy in years to come. 

When the responsibility of the teacher's work is considered 
the provision of adequate training appears as a matter of 
primary importance. Yet it cannot be said that this has been 
generally recognised, or even seriously considered, in the Church 
at large. Various attempts have been made to give some kind 
of help to women teachers, but for lack of any organisation to 
deal with the whole question of the training of women in a 
systematic and comprehensive way the help offered is uncertain, 
its range is limited, and many teachers remain altogether out- 
side its scope. Moreover, in contrast to the careful preparation 
which is considered ; ! y for the teaching of any other 

subject it has been * umed that for teaching this, the 

most important of all, no preparation is needed. 

The work in Sunday schools has devolved largely upon 
women who have had very few intellectual advantages or 
opportunities for the study of the subject which they are 
expected to teach. That the work of these untrained teachers 
has in m s been productive of spiritual results wluch the 

best trai s not always ensure is a proof of the paramount 

value of peibonal faith and personal character, and ' tve 

often proved a }X)tent influence in the lives of the s. |.i«>- 

ducing an ineffaceable impression of the love of God and of the 
wonder and beauty of our Saviour's life. But that these women 
should j)rove competent teachers of the Bible and of the doc- 
trines of the Christian Faith is a different matter, and it is not 
reasonable that this should be expected. For women who are 
engaged in other occupations throughout the week any training 
which would be adequate for work of such difliculty and respon 



s; '" ' the Ch'; lid be tlie poorer 

if f their li In any schemes 

<»f rt-iorm d in what way tlicir pers(jn;il 

rare for tii . .1 char(»e and the power of their 

mllucnce can f>c retained, but tlie regular and systematic 
instruction of the children in the Bible and the doctrines of the 
Church should be committed to women who, in addition to 
sp ■ ' ■ also the necessary 

111 ial tniinin;;. 

iL »!. alrcatiy dillieult <nouj»h to secure 
Si, -*, and that it would be impossible to 

Hnd a r number of more highly qualified teachers. On 

th'- ot: .....1 it may be suggested that women of ability and 

(Ik aion would be far more ready than at present to offer 
It. '■ *■ '' V were convinced of the necessity of these 

(\ ^ mday-school teaching, and if they regarded 

It !ity, but that this is not likely to be 

. much higher standard of knowledge 

iired in those to whom the teachi'ig is committed. 

. Iirije body of such qualified teachers is a matter 
<if uru'-nt : They are needed not only for raising the 

standard ui iL.iming already carried on by women and for 
maintaining it at a higher level, but that they may be ready 
t ■ " ' ! iiands and to avail themselves of oppor- 

t . the teaching work of the Church into 

f' 

iiereforc, urge that the training of Church teachers 

should be the concern of the Church as a whole, and that it h 

a M,.f»,r which needs to be dealt with on broad and com- 

I lines, careful consideration being given to the 

fl - I r » 1 _ j-Qj. ^Ijqp^ provision has to be made. 

a le to each. Such training should, 

\^ it IS pws>iblc, include a cours' ling in the art 

« ' \'f n^ wrjl as a course of tl li study. Th*- 

n ! then be offered to every woman 

- - . - iurch teacher. None should be 

it with less than the best possible preparation which is 

* '^'"ir reach. A far larger number might take a course in 

it one of the universities or studv for the Arch- 

I '■■■■'■ ■ -r ' ' ': ■■'•.:' '. re 

f^ '.d 

Me 

i.d 

^ at the universities in preparation for the 

- .,.. ition, or enter for it after taking a university 

• TTw fmtninr rrf Tf-nrhrn to Kupply tl»r iir|icnt ncc«U of our ColonJra 
n' ' '')!«• nubjrct wliioh docn not oome within 

t 

Ka 



11 lll^ALlllMj Ulf iLr^ Ul- lilt. LllLUtll 

iia 

he 

■|) his licence to tcacli ti it" he is of 

_ — jis in other respects, woin .. ncrs arc i. ... the 

lirst time accorded a recognised status by the highest ecclcsi- 
♦••ril authority. Such a.^iovcment is full of h' • '' - the 

t ry of women teachers. 
'Jiher ( ' ■ . . . j^i^^ 

London I oiip R 

of the C the Kcltgious 1 l^e 

Section ol ^ , the new Diploma i ^ -us 

knowledge for women m Dublin University, and the new Oxford 
Diploma in Theology. For the last of these the candidate 
is required to follow a course of instruction in theology approved 
by the Board. For those examinations for which no definite 
course of study is prescribed, facilities for study under the 
guidance of qualified ( of theology by personal coach- 

ing or coaching by coi ience are now offered by various 

organisations. Examinations of different grades are held by 
the Sunday School Institute, and it is possible even for Sunday- 
school teachers engaged in industrial work, and with little time 
for study, to pass them with credit. Classes to prepare them 
for the exatnination might be more extensively organised. It 
would be Well that arrangements for the regular sind 'tic 

instruction of Sunday-school teachers should be mat ry 

parish where it is possible to find a competent teacher, and this 
is a field in which the services of well-qualified woim n tuight be 
s'peeially ust-ful. 

Classes and lectures for Sunday-school teacher.-. c».^ arranged 
by the Diocesan Councils, and great attention is being given 
to the improvement of the methods of teaching. But it may 
be questioned whether the leaders of the movement for reformed 
Sunday-schools have not made the introduction of new methods 
too prominent at the expense of instruction in the matter to 
be taught. Some idea may be gained of methodf in the course 
of half a dozen classes. Instruction in the subjects to be 
taught is the work of years. Yet without knowledge the best 
methods are unavailing. 

Several Church institutions have made attempts to supply 
the need of training. In this they have undertaki ifh 

neglected task, and within certain limits have aci .cd 

their purpose. In most, however, the attempt is inade to 
combine training in the teaching of Divinity with training 
for various other kinds of parochial work. It is said that the 
demand for workers comes chiefly from parishes which do not 
require women who are highly qualified as teachers, but women 
who know something of the varied activities of the ordinary 
parish. Thus there is a danger that in the training-home. 



FREKU USE OF CHURCHES 

clubs, district visiting, etc., may tend to encroach upon the 
time h" ', of the student's 

strrn;' fit. 

;a 

a- . .t 

•nly t ' ; ; . :■ ; : :;;^ but to give their students help in the 

u' i ; il.*ii spiiitual life, and some students find in the 

' fc of work and prayer the preparation which best 

III ' But it is c^ *' t the training in these 

h ly to tho«;e - to whnm the general 

1) 

\'. r Church teachers. 

.....: institutions which make the training 

oi' their special aim should be in connection with an 

cu I centre, so that there should be a guarantee of the 

St . f the teaching provided. The theological teaching 

shuu..; : !io have an expert knowledge of the 

stihjtct. I . few students and small funds 

iiii^'ht be unable to secure teachers of the necessary capacity 
ai. ] ittainments, but if situated in or near a university town 
ht be p<.>ssible to have the help of well-qualified outside 
. -rs, and attendance at university lectures would be 
p • iWIe for the students. 

I ' is given by t ' ' " ';t 

t; \ if the stn .'s 

111 d tlie subjects 

^^ ; view, to gain 

.1 ' a just sense of proportion. Indepen- 

d :jc encouraged, so tliat convictions should 

\)i- ! .rrn- d \s Inch are based on knowledge and reality, free from 
n 1-- I'es and party spirit. As the aim of the best 

t' -e above all to inspirit a love of Truth, so in the 

tr "of Truth should be 

<* ng every part of their 

tr knowledge of Truth as the supreme end of 

ai; 

G. M. Betan. 

APPENDIX IX 

The Freer Use of Churches 

M. P.iu! Sd . . - - . Francis, wri' 

" l.r> '• itli'-d' iTques dM tr- 

B 
la 
grciiirrs <! chnrabres de commerce, puiuis dc 



186 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

^talent tout cela en m^c temps." No doubt he has somewhat 
i'l ' ' in this ' 'oii, but in s- - spects 

h :h a visi uy of future ; >n. It 

ib true that no t»ne would wi.sh to rcprc»<lucc the scenes from 
the hfc of Old St. Paul's which figure in the pages of Stow and 
Defoe, and make Our Father's h(»use a house of merchandise 
or a fashionable promenade. But there arc ample precedents, 
if any require them, for a much freer use of our cathedral and 
parish churches tlian obtains at the moment. The representa- 
tion of the Council of Trent in .session attributc<i to Titian 
shows how a great conference in wliich laymen were certainly 
permitted to speak was conducted rijjht in front of the high 
altar of a cathedral. The acting of miracle plays in churches 
is no unheard-of occurrence, while consistory c»>urts have sat 
in consecrated buildings right up to our own day, and I can 
refer to at least one English diocese where a lay Chancellor 
publicly admits churchwardens in the nave of a parish church 
and delivers a charge to them. 

The main object of this memorandum, however, is not 
precedents so much as suggestions ; to indicate, in fact, some 
ways in which a freer and mure elastic use of Church-buildings 
may help the Church to a more effective discharge of her 
teaching functions. In spite of the growth of large towns, 
the majority of English parishes are still rural ones where the 
church is the only building of any size capable of accommodating 
in its nave (and transe|)ts, if it has any) the bulk of the local 
population. Every endeavour, therefore, should be made to 
see that full use is made of it, and that oil Christians in the 
neighbourhood become familiar with it as the main centre of 
Christian teaching and fellowship, even if some of them hold 
aloof. The doors of the nave should be o[)en, and offer welcome 
to i\ny sincere enquirer. 

The aim of Churchmen should be twofold. 

(a) To encourage people to use their church buildings more, 
and to be more at home and less strange, ^'>^' i'"! iwLw.ird 
in entering them. 

{b) To teach people better when they arc in church. 

With regard to the first point, various methods of encourage- 
ment will be suggested incidentally in the course of this paper. 
But a strong protest must be registered at the outset against 
two practices which seem to the writer clean contrary to 
Christian principles. The one is the selling of seats at services, 
commonly called the collection of pew rents. The other is 
the turning of cathedrals and other large churches into tem- 
porary concert halls, and the selling of tickets of admission. 
Both practices are revolting to the consciences of many earnest 
Church-folk, while they an- •• -♦•Mnbling-bV""^ ♦" *^^" 'vorking 



niKKU USE OF CIIUUC'IIES 137 

mAn and fair game for critics. All churches should b« free and 
open. 

With rejranl to the second point 
Teaoliinc! may proceed 

1. Hy the eye. 

2. By the ear. 

8. By ;»cneral association of ideas. 

Thr thin! mcthwl involves questions of the conduct of 
•;tr\ . OS, the reform of the Prayer Book, and evangelistic efforts, 
nhi. !i arr ilrcady in the hands of other committees. One 
iii'-'l ::r. -.v here that the value of services which can be 
lit (even if he is without great educn* 

;i;. its, furniture, hymns and musif» ^ 

are ai ■ and seemly, can hardly be overo 

Life is _ 'isiness, and we are concerned not mei i 

the conversion of jx'ople but with their f^radual edification, 
and especially with maintaining and renewing their perseverance 
in a career as Christians which shall include intelligent social 
worship and daily social service. 

Teaching by the eye. 

Lantern services are now a widespread institution ; but 
they need far more scientific organisation. Bad pictures do 
h**"" ♦'• "hing falsehood even if they do not actually disgust 
a; 'e. The Church should standardise good sets of 

p: " ' :te the New Testament, Church History, 

(hri fiiTi .\\ and Missionary suhjerts. A kind of 

••'■ ' ■ ' ■ - . 

I' 

"! th'- parish ciiurrh d<-aliiij^ with any subject kindred to 
r> !i • :i if it is treated in a reverent manner : such for instance 
a- .iicc, social ethics, organic evolution, or the story 

of iments.* 

rn and other tableaux, if presented by really devout 
C h kCt of woi V ' ' ' ' ' ' '• 

al' -a^e* to t 

I the 

ch'i iitly, 

but regarded as a home where everything they see 

ftfifl 1w lt Ii i< -ifi ii nwuriiiic hiwI t>lays somo par^ i" 

th :g. Church-^' 

on tur lines 1)1 .»ii.ss i iiismiir N immh a\ bc Cncoura^jra, 

• I iwTi n-r •pp* 1 • . '(n -1 n f thn r'w.r ; T .:hur«-h, ftlth 'Jt*;. I 

• ij. •. - .- ■ .. — ~ ,. .u ITunutu.- ... 

on -tMd With hn* iir»wtnga Mid phntn(r»pha," bjr Ih* IM* 

M. , 



13^ TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

and this, of course, is an additional reason for strictly controlling 

church ornaments, stained glass, statuary, etc., so that nothing 

' :.^ht by the a; ' ' > tlic eye. All 

of Our Lo: 1 be banished 

a.s fur as possible. 

In a cathedral or collegiate church, such for instance as the 
great central churches at Nottingham, Stockport or ^' e, 

every effort should be made to represent all depaii... of 

civic and industrial life. It is perhaps too much to hope that 
ever)' trade and craft will have its own chapel, but at least 
something ought to be done to make the great mass of labouring- 
f'"" " ■ " ■ ■ 'rig is their spiritual home. Cit; ' 'les 

e\ .ijods which have c<;ised to be lal 

should Him, if possible, at a week-day ministry among business 
men and mechanics. 

Teaching by the ear. 

There is still considerable scope for a wider use of courses of 
popular lectures and instructions, such as have figured for many 
years in the annual propramme of Westminster Abbey and St. 
Mnroarct's, ai\d other L<jndon ' " -, and such « ' i^ 

St. Ann's, Manchester. But, as n pointed out ^er 

memorandum, a very large number of people strongly resent 
always bcin^ restricted to the position of listeners. They regard 
the pulpit as six feet above contradiction, and even if they do not 
denounce it as a coward's castle, they would honestly welcome 
conferences and the opportunity for sober discussion. One 
is well aware of the dangers of such conferences if they are 
improperly controlled. Brawling, flippancy and irreverence 
may creep in. Nevertheless, where spiritual matters are 
concerned, it does not seem desirable always to shift the 
conference into a public hall, and to regard the aid of tobacco 
as inevitable. It ought to be possible for religious questions 
to be discussed reverently in the nave of a church. A carelessly- 
conducted choir-practice is much more likely to prove a fruitful 
source of cviL 

[TIaving had recent experience of both sorts of conferences I 
can perliaps speak with some confidence. Last winter we held 
frequent gatherings of men in the military hospital at which 
I am working. The occasional " smoking conference " of 
150 to 200 men was of course found useful, but the tone of 
those gatherings which were held in the chapel was immeasur- 
ably superior. The latter were sometimes attended by 60 
or 70 men, and it must be admitted that late comers occasionally 
had to sit on the floor round the altar. We opened with a 
collect and closed with night prayers, before which anybody 
could leave who liked. Very few used to depart, and the 
temper of the most irreconcilable and unorthodox was never 



FREER USE OF CHURCHES 189 

'i persons never failed to attend, 

.. ^ atcst possible frankness. One of 

tlu took the chair, but the laity were allowed 

Laiu'c and small conferences or study-circles for communi- 

ion. \Vt' ' . ' .' ' ;i 

• laitv Ti^ 



vestry or adjacent hall, but m the country this would not m 
many cases be possible, nor do I think it necessarily desirable. 
Our task is to make the layman feel at home in his church, 
and not to snub him. 

For the same rejison, with due regulation, lectures and 

ri by laymen 'n in the 

been dealt n c by the 

cnmiijittcc. One need only refiT by way of illustration to 

the recent experiments made at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 

Trafalgar Square. 

Sunday schools have sometimes been held in church. There 

is no doubt a horrible heresy attached to the Sunday school — 

. fy is something which one goes and 

_•. either in church or school, by the aid 

u -< riiKMi* or lei>aon!>. Having mastered it, one ceases to 

uttt-nd. It is like the old custom of pre-war Territorials, who 

put in the requisite number of drills, and were then excused 

f,ir»lv, r t,.rwi,.. \V.. ran only break down this heresy by 

rn >1 severely subordinate to the worship 

<>t lucted at least xveekly in church, so that 

til and familiar in the use of the church as 

I [ilocc uf prayer, and continue to frequent it as long as they 

Ii\ e. 

I'herc remain three miscellaneous topics. 

1. Church libraries. 

2. United service*. 

8. Retreats for the people. 

A ft ■ V " ufflcc. 

1 !• to Chrivtian scientists to provide 

"osses* a 
1 borrow 
or spot. 1 
in iil;irs. ar ,„ _. ^ . . ^ , 1 

th< id, and not merely cheap. 

A 1.. .. ., u, 1 ' : • • '•• ■ •■: 

a i><'iiu\ . Ail\nf 

isU lu sil m tiic 



140 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

2. The practice of ir Day, or ng 

services for trade-guild . .^ rs, etc., afforu at 

special op})ortunities of teaching. The experiment might 
also be tried, if it could be done without sacrifice of principle, 
of gathering representatives of the separated lx>dies once a 
year into church for a kind of united " family prayers." There 
are, no doubt, obvious difficult ies in the way of doing this, 
1' must b<- :iid not shelved. The cl< • ild 

r< I their oi i vow to " maintain and ^ ^rd 

. . . quietness, peace, and love among all Christian people." 

8. Retreats and quiet days or half-days for busy folk should 
be much encouraged as opportunities for teaching. Large 
isolated country churches and rectories might here be brought 
into effective use. Pilgrimages might be made to them by 
groups of commu and these would often encourage 

and stimulate pri' infj in lonely places. It would also 

be well if army chaplains \ r, to try to organise 

reunions, either at the uii vhere, of men with 

whom they have come specially mto touch, for the purpose 
of conference, T-r.f,,,>vi,t>w..,f .,,.1 r/.„..«..i of friendships. 

A. C. BOLQUET. 



APPENDIX X 
Relioion and Art 

The complexity of the problem of religious education becomes 
manifest when the question is raised whether religion is one 
subject among many or a form of life which inspires and 
quickens all subjects of education. Roughly speaking, the 
influence of the Renascence established the value of what is 
still thought of as secular knowledge : such knowl< " "ad 

previously been given only as part of religious i n, 

and by the agency and authority of the Church. For the last 
400 years there has been a marked tendency to separate 
literature and art from religion, while in the last century 
science asserted its claims, not only as independent of religion, 
but often as antagonistic to it. 

The result has been to disjoin great departments of man's 
mental life which yet we instinctively feel ought to be united 
with each other. If science discovers truths about Nature, 
how can it be in conflict with religion, which is concerned with 
the author of Nature ? or with Christianity, which was taught 
by Christ, the Way, the Truth and the Life ? Again, literature 
can hardly be separated from religion, since the greatest 
religious Book in the world is a supreme monument of literary 
power. Art also is dependent on man's sense of beauty. 



which is a Divine gift, and cannot be thought of as a 
mcr - ' :H of cvohition, as if it fitted man for the struggle 
for . and luui Uon brought into bcin^ by the proceu 

of t ' . It has all the ; ce of being not only 

a ^' ( . I to man, but u : a also of one of the 

Dix 

N .the separation of these subjects from rehgion 

HI ' and in popular religious thought is a fact : and if, 

;i> . w, Mvvc, it is tt mischievous fact, it is worth while to 

c. 11 i.i r how it may be modified. Now, with regard to littra- 

. has never been acute ; while in respect 

. so Hcwtf thnt much of value has already 

cct in education, and we 

1 the relation of scientific 

to r< „i u- t! ith than was commonly the case fifty years ago. 

But lliL- gull ihat divides the artistic from the religious world 

is very wide, and shows no signs at present of being likely to 

be spanned. 

Ihii^. if a boy shows a marked artistic gift it is generally 

■ he will not be much interested in 

sf is ffit if he develops into a com- 

' r at Ch: ■/. Even 

many ct i; m-cn the 

id of worship and the most potent quickener of 

^.....^ emotion, are as often as not quite aloof from anything 

th.it could be called Churchmansiiip, and give no more than 

;i 1 '" ' • ' to ttjiy ecclesiastical activities. 

I this state of things is radically 

>n to the subject before the 
1 it Gtxi ha^ joined has grown 
I)'; remedy. 

M M'tf. r tiiii'lit be written on the history of 

litis uhiaMiril it would not be difficult to 

fraiiu ih :!.^ 'i lum phases of reUgious opinion 

fis luiMiii,' ss in Church life and banished 

■ In. Ill ■••. • .. i . i; .* we cone V it this t' : ' ' 

• ■■M !:i!;:- t ■'■ '' • fjjrnt in ulix wli; 

at 

So , ,: , : 

ii;,'k' I, and quite brictly to in remedy. 

i... >.rii,ti,r.. ..V ♦,, nmn's dej». ^ on the 

Holy .S; i by a Pelagian view of 

^ wiiMM ninn evolves powers and 

I to work «»ut their own develop- 
on as a poMible aid. 
Yet even in pagan 
•wn 

:> its 



I'KACHING OFcir-K OF TlIK r UllUKLil 

piiinc was r ' ^ of the 
hoiid and th' - a love 
of display, and a strained fc'< i the lung deca- 
dence. Something similar hu; , , .. ... i Renascence. On 

the other hand, a religious revival, in spite of being attended 
often by a rise of asceticism, has generally been marked by a 
renewal of artistic vitality, and many individuals who have 
been through the experience of a C' 1 testify 

that in it they woke up to a new perc 

" A livelier emerald sparkles on the grass, 
A purer sapphire melts into the sea." 

But the point need not be laboured. Even agnostic artists 
would admit that religious fervour^ gives a real stimulus to 
artistic production and perception. While from Scripture 
we learn that the Holy Spirit acts directly on human faculties, 
and the Christian position is that no such faculty can maintain 
itself in health if it is believed to be independent of the Divine 
rig, and is employed for any reason o\\ for the 

sion of a portion of God's revelation of i to man. 

If this is so, a vigorous Church hfe may be expected to 
express itself artistically. Where there is a failure in this 
resf>ect the cause is not so much that the artistic powers In 
a country are feeble and perceptive faculties rare, as that art 
is divorced from religion, and both suffer : art from an inde- 
finable barrenness of message and tendency to aberrations; 
religion by being shorn of much that should constitute the 
most attractive element in its appeal to ordinary minds. 

If the last remark is justified the loss to the Church due 
to the estrangement of the artistic world must be enormous. 
It can hardly be doubted, indeed, that in this country thousands 
of young people are fitted by nature to be dra^vn to a know- 
ledge of God by means of an appeal to their sense of beauty ; 
and that if that appeal is not made they are unable to respond 
to the severity of what would be nowadays called a purely 
religious challenge. Whether this state of things is as it ought 
to be is doubtless a moot point, but for practical purposes it 
need not be discussed. We find by continuous experience 
that a minority of young men and women come, through 
moral lapses or by a special endowment of religious ardour 
or because of a signally favourable environment, to a really 
Ni^Mrous participation in the life of the Christian community. 
liicv are filled with a sense of God's love, and show their 
gratitude by love to their fellow-men. 

But what about the majority who are either rather lukewarm 
conformists or wholly indifferent ? 

Our contention is that a considerable number of this majority 
would be brought to participate in the life of the Spirit if the 



Itltp 
t.' • 

a! 



RELIGION AND ART 148 

JO >ion were more constantly and faithfully 

I'r If the mirthful instincts of youth an 

lid be, and sometimes are, called upon 
ivine summons by interpreting hfe joyously 
tone of such an appeal as the Epistle to 
the L. Ihe new instinct for religion which is so 

often ! !'• by side with n. new sense of the radiance 

a: n who li My fallen 

'I natural rt.. i rehgion 

t' -s. Now, if this be true, and it is certainly beheved 

t I i" to-day, it is more obviously true of the sense of 

' •;. "i.'li, of course, that sense requires to be fostered. 

' i. ft of mirt hfulness requires rather to be humoured 
.11. . 

H :;. .;. case and in the other, however, it is tr : 

•! * '': il injunction, "Mortify your cormi 

and St. John's warning against " the pride of 
— . that the principle is not simple. It has to be 
r- • ised in relation to what seems at first sight a contra- 
tlu tiuii, and in history has often been thought of as such. 
y But the contradiction only appears in regard to one of the 
t^^ " not be ' ' d. It is flatly contrary 

' >tainent assume that our inborn 

1 is a "corrupt affection." That assumption 

"I t nt i>eriods has been left unquestioned has 

underiam the d a; ; . val of the Church in the matter of 
art. Art severed irom religion worked as an antagonistic 
force, or was thought of as so working, though much analysis 
would 1 ... ,t on the point could 

be pa6 to ob<vprve that all 

kinds ( ! 

witi. 

junt. Thus I IS how to train the 

scriic ol beauty in m:...., ,. v a with religion. 

Clearly it is a question mainly for parents in the home. 
A few i-.'--'- nly can be p" 're. If all aj : -' * , 

God w- il as joyous . as they cei 

to be, ami < 
to make all 
giving. 

What Christ taught was the unfaiUng bounty and lovinp- 
kjmiii'ss of God. As this is leanit, the resj>onse ' 

|]Jf vr. rw) II.. .r.. « k/. .. v,~.p..c V I. .1. ,.f i.r..« .(■<.(.. \ ...... .. « , 

for 



up witi. 
Holv .Siu 



liO TEACUINU ()K^ •' K Ol TliJ- < i ii«-iu ii 

IS, of course, the implanting ot the love ot the pure and gooa 
and entirely wholesome before the flashy and the vulgar 
have had time to exercise their baneful spell. The regular 
reading aloud of good simple literature, the constant drawing 
of attention to scenery, ; ' ' " ' r with really 

good pictures, ull trash \> : talks about 

Church architecture and occiisiuual visits — all without pre- 
tence, yet with the didactic element hidden, and all contem- 
plation being taken as a matter of course as active drinking in of 
nourishment and gladness — these arc only some of the practical 
devices for winning young souls by the pathway of things 
beautiful to a knowledge of God. Common sense is needed, 
and is very generally withheld in this matter. For instance, 
a dutiful pilgrimage to the National Gallery, and an hour's 
wandering among the glories of human creative skill are 
generally the certain preamble to disgust and tedium. Yet if 
the eye has been trained even to a very slight extent to con- 
template fair scenery, landscape paintings will be a joy, especially 
if they have been explained beforehand, and strictly on the 
condition that only a very few works of art are looked at on 
each occasion, some ten minutes being ordinarily given to 
each picture or statue. Doubtless there is a demand on the 
parent. He must know a little about the matter, and may 
well be but a late and tardy learner ; but as long as he is 
learning he cannot fail to teach ; and art training in early 
years consists chiefly in familiarising the eye with beautiful 
objects, and ensuring that the beauty is perceived. Th»"re 
remains the precaution that no innocent enjoyment should 
be allowed to pass without thanks being offered for it at 
evening prayers, else the deadly severance between sacred 
and secular is bound to set in. 

Efforts in the same direction should be made in parish life. 
The hideous covers which enclose the pages of the ordinary 
parish magazine suggest to many minds that parochial life 
is cheap and tawdry. Any art student trained in a technical 
institute can easily design sometliing which is simple and 
sincere, and should be called upon to do so. How can we 
expect Church people to be interested in supporting a cam- 
paign to get rid of the vulgar pictures which disfigure our 
public hoardings if our o\vn parochial hoardings are inartistic. 
The illuminated addresses which vicar and churchwardens 
present on behalf of the congregation to esteemed parishioners 
on their departure from the neighbourhood are often no better 
than the silk cards sent home from France by the thousand, 
and specially manufactured to suit what is supposed to be our 
British taste. We are far too nmch in the liabit of saying 
that a thing is "not obscene but only vulgar," and leaving 
it at that — as if a vitiated taste were no offence against the 



IlKLIGION AND ART 148 

k'' ■ ■ " ■■ ■ ■ "- ■ 

ex 

ri ; make any rial lovt-r ot Iiiu 

\N . - .nary ap{K'aI by divorcing tht . ic 

from t tic, and limit our influence accordingly. Much 

of thv 1.1 .ic- produced by our great religious societies still 
srtiiis t.. take it for granted that if only the right moral is 
ilutji not count in the trta ' if the sul ' 

.ni: is a simpler matter the m< ' 

1. , and can i u 

b< 1 i iice it is well ; , 'I 

hfc ; but there ought to be a far more urgent insistence on 
the part of parents that sight-reading shall be taught regularly 
in the schools. Because of prevailing indifference, born of 
ic* an immense opportunity is daily being missed in 

t; :itory schf>oIs alone; and the loss is all the greater 

K ;'al appreciation is remarkably 

ri 1 some 400 years. 

By way ol suininary we may quote the weighty words of 
Dr. Hort : " -Ebthetic perception is part of sympathy. The 
iiiL'l >t act is that which most weaves together sympathies of 
Various orders — i.e., is in the truest sense sacramental." And 
again : " All our knowledge is affected by our personality, and 
tills rr,il!\ ' knowledge. The naked reflection of a 

111! r ." If this be so, the attempt to sever 

s bjects in education can only result in 

K , it ; for whatever concerns sympathy or 

J' is part of the work of the Holy Spirit, co-operation 

\\ ill is religion in action, guided by the fact that while 

?• 1 : rs may plant and water God alone gives the increase. 
As 'in as this principle is n . nerally recognised the 

n^hi ir.tcUco H-ill soon he ■ d. But it must be 

rcalis<^' !i so fun or the start to 

be ma.i .< home { s to be any n - 

fulness in the work of the schools. 

... i.^TTELTON. 

r. Guy Uogeks. 
XI 
I.UUCATIONAL AFl'KNDlCfciS 

ivEuoioN IS PuBUC Schools 

" " ■ ■ ,t 

r 
• ' : ■' As ran sec the problem in » 

1' v.ict .11, .. uf «»ur i>ti)lil«rn Tii lt;i! ^ 

men who ir -us in the 

' ■ • a sound < mim .n i mwiid. Your 

[•r .1 I rn in » <rned with the (jurstion, how to 



146 iEACilKNG UFFICK OF TUK CHURCH 

ird and i 
On l! 
in .\ Ik Mic case with Italy, this observation points to tht- 
' 'lom of our religious teaching in <<• •■ -'Ifir)' Schools 
il.irly in those foundations j. known as 

I'iumh >rii.n»l.s. For the most p.-irt, it may m- s;iid that their 
moral principles are sound, th.it they inculcate tho idea of 
1 h as a ru! i a! outlook i 

<• the uu . img of what 

s« I \ uc tti the community is also grievously limited. To a 
grc.it extent they succeed in achieving what is generally 
regarded as goodness of character, with little or no direct 
reference to a man's need of God. 

The problem before us divides itself into certain natural 
heads. We may t ' t the Divinity tc.i<r -iiol 

hours. This has con'^ivtrd in .^n the 

h ■ I facts o! ippcr loriu:> ou the 

* idr.thed ^ ■ . '^- It is easy to speak 

too V \' of the value of this work. A working,' knowledge 

of lii: ^tory and an intimate acquaintance witii the actual 

text of two or three books in the New Testament is an admirable 
foundation for religious teaching, but in itself it is as yet hardly 
religious teaching at all. For boys who come from religious 
homesorarel" us in ten nt it will supply 

fuel to a fire 1 as, but > t will kindle no 

fl.mir. That can only be done by the welding together of the 
inM.^j and religious life of the individual, and by religious life 
we mean the knowledge of Christ as a living Saviour, not only 
as a sublime historical figure. This has l)cen seldom achieved. 
The majority of schoolboys do not think of Christ as a living 
Redeemer, still less as a Mediator, and consequently their moral 
efforts are directed on lines independent of the rolicjion they 
have been taught. What is to be done ? W( it 

is ])ossible to divide a Public School into three li is : 

Forms below the Fifth, the Fifth Form, and the Sixth Form. 
In the lowest Forms it is necessary to continue the instruction 
now being given in the actual facts of Bible histor}% but it is 
desirable that this should be done with far fuller understanding 
than at present of what the Bible really is, namely, the record 
of God's objective revelation of Himself in history, becoming 
more and more complete and more and more free from miscon- 
yeptions as the revelation progressively does its work in the 
minds of those to whom in the first instance it was given. To 
teach the Bible as mere " history " is to encourage a wrong 
fi ,nip of mind towards it, for, if we judge it by the standards 
sted by other historical writings, it seems to be merely 
iui( nor history. It must be remembered by the teacher 
throughout that the secular historian is always trj'ing to answer 



ilKLlCilUN LN I'UliLlL iJCIIUOLS 147 

1 or 

at is 

>n : What was tiod purjxjsing 

. . , 4..: ; that? It should be rcmcm- 

r thiit uiio aim of studying the Bible history is that 
rn to study all other history from the same point 



of \ (1 



at . 

itii He is uot yet ready ior the 

t!i' X of it. Now is the tim the 

i»n so often created by religious instruction of the 

h which we are familiar, that God was very active in 

!d until about 66 a.d., but that lie lias done little or 

''i.it religion is first of all concerned with 

ipo. Thrre should be at this point some 

'•. nearer to our own < 

loji of Christianity in . 

luni-. cs of great missionaries, the account of 

'" '" ' John Wesley's movement, arc far more 

o boys at this stage than definite Bible study, and 
• -Ti the regular school course would give a sense 
to the whole idea of religion. 
.andgeip nong bo> 

' '»frankl ical. Tii 

' encss, but a 

1 as a cohereu . 

\v iiolc. It may be based upon great summaries of faith, such 
i)w. rr...A. ,,r upon a broad study of the development of 
> taken as a whole, or, again, upon the study 
' 'ic book adopted a 
i>o<ik, but as a s .. . 

*onc of the teaching. 

us matters, most 

— ;-.. 1'^ and secular 

n thiit h tns are con- 

•»---. '■*'■- • ' ' (\ of 

th. If . r of 

n a 

• :in 



long to cl.i 



npnri th. 1 



148 TEALlllAU UlllLi. Ui IILL LilLllLll 

pA'ensoi! 1. The Psalms and T < 

should '^eii. The aim of ti 

general should Ijc to present <»ur Lord as a livmjj force in the 
world and in the souls. Boys of the Puhlic School age are very 
silent and inarticulate about religious matters, hut at least the 
older of them have a strongly m irked tendency in the mystical 
direction, though it would be very bad for them to become 
aware that their a^i t, or emotions were i I in 

quality. The ideal i i should be the very . not 

gradually leading up to st>mcthing higher which n»ity be pre- 
sented later. The generosity of youth responds to the claim 
for devotion of the heroic kind. Besides the general school 
services there should always be certain voluntary services, 
whether in the form of preparation for Holy Communion or 
some other. At these there will be present only those boys who 
care enough to come. This is the opportunity for a more 
precise and definite instruction in Christian faith and practice, 
and in the value and use of the Sacraments. 

One si>ecial opportunity is afforded by Confirmation. This 
is too often regarded as a Heaven-sent cliance for a moral 
spring-cleaning conducted in such a way as to make a boy 
morbid in proportion as he take's it seriously. That there 
should be very careful self-examination at such a time is no 
doubt important, but the main purpose should be concerned 
not with the Baptismal vows of renunciation, nor with the 
ratification of promises once made, but with the gift of the 
Holy Spirit, by whose help alone we can truly keep these 
promises. A distinguished clergyman once said that, after 
hearing many Bishops' Confirmation charges, he desired to ask 
whether they had so much as heard if tljcre be any Holy Ghost. 
Probably the question can be addressed with far more per- 
tinence to those who prepare Public School boys for Con- 
firmation. 

A minority of young men destined for Public School work 
are not unwilling to receive instruction provided that it involves 
no long delay in their earning a salarj' and it is not over 
ecclesiastical in tone. The situation also requires that the 
minority of parents who are desirous of good religious teaching 
should give encouragement to Headmasters who have to 
contend with apathetic or actively interfering Governors. 

A special kind of Training College is therefore wanted. One 
of the evacuated Church Training Colleges could be used for 
the purpose. The appointment to the Principalship should be 
in the hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury'. But an Advisory 
Committee of Headmasters should be appointed of men inter- 
ested in the project and ready to keep in touch with the College 
and to give encouragement to some of their newly appointed 
masters to attend the College for a period of not more than three 



UlLUUi 5LUUULb 1-UU UlltLS U9 

m->iitliN ; for a shorter 

p^' i ! i to thirty. the 

^t not Ik* more th in a i^rmoip.il and a Vice-l*rincipal. 

J I v modenitr «ii<l iw m. nt ^oiild :»unicc, and the fees 

<pt low. 
I II' •.^i^ ii-Nioie pur|>o>i <>i iiu V .unM-c would be to familiarise 
the stutirnts with the pruMem of religious teachiug in class, 
n ' ' ... J ^^^j ^^ ^^^ show the 

<1 ; if vieu , the Christian 

I' vu j>umt uf view^, which at present are very 

•i- 

- not only would the students get some idea of how to 

. but also of what to teach ; and they could hardly fail 

i: t h :ii;s went well to leave the place with a livelier feeling of the 

' *ticir vocation than they acquire at present. 

that tho Fnivorsiti«*s are able to give the neces- 

they have manifestly failed 

^ ite and diflicult problems 

y require a more concentrated and 

( - , , :....u any University could hope to give. 

A^M.i!i, there need be no apprehension on the score of narrow- 
II. .s or cre'csi isticism or the seminarist spirit. These dangers 
wnuiii \>c III. r by the tone of the lay students, and still more 
•■f' ("hools to which they would 

^' akin to '* semiiuirism " 

1 to .-i sr>ecial Training College for Secondary School 
^' tive is presented of its being Denominational 

'" • lonal. VVe have not been able to discuss this 

'!"' ^' '!' ^ , the decision of which lies, perhaps, beyond 

■V, 
1>« done to focus and utilise such reli- 
U- M every district for the support 

"^ ip of parents were to consult 

I' i^" \v to CO I with the local day school 

i»g the in ite wishes of other parents, 

: upon him for a high standard of religious work, 

1 save hin: ' -— ' he vox clamantis in deserto. 

'1 be rt that we have little warrant for 



II 



^ II. 

'" atu-n 

'. rr:il 



ol 



improvement is to be made. 

(2.) Church Schooi.s foh timus 
Enov'»' I- U-cn said in the Ixnly of the llepi»ri ci tn. mnis 
*wl j of religious education in general. (*hurch 

La 



150 i.VLHiiNLf ui-Jpii-ii- ur iiii^ Liiuin.ii 



secure teiichcrs wh<»se heart is i; 

girls arc sent to thc-m, generally , ^. 

secure for them a religious educutiou ; and so the home in- 

f supplements the work of the school, or at least d'>es not 

t . And sueh schools are free to dev<:Iop their o>vTicon- 



Tlic licM 1-. . .t ■.' 

If the sch'i ... nt, 

that is the part of the school where ]> 

care should be given; for the famous .... ...^ . - 

Jesuits undoubtedly expresses a great truth : " Give us a child 
until he is seven, and after that we do not care who has him." 
The things which little children liave learned through their 
sun. tion are the ?' hich all f ' •■ 

life X least a ba( t<> ftll tJ 

subset jut'iiUy umjuirc. And little eh' 
not only to impressions but also to dn 

truth than children over the age of eight or ten. They have 
not learned to make a sharp and hard .i!-*;>"t;.... l..tM..fn 
visible and invisible ; and they are not pi 
own doings, but are ready to receive wii;i<»ul uug 

whatever is given them of teaching by word or or 

practice. They love God as naturally as tl -ur the 

King ; they follow the story of our Lord's life .-. li with a 

fuller happiness because they know without doubting that He 
is with them now. 

There has been a general impression that anyone could teach 
little children. That error has been all but banished ; but it 
is not yet fully seen that the very best teachers, with not only 
the best methods but also the most li' ' ' 1 the 

clearest religious thought, should be ( the 

kindergarten and transition classes. 

From the age of about eight or ten to fourteen girls are, gene- 
rally speaking, interested not in the great questions of the world 
and God, but in particular facts and practices which they want 
to get hold of and make progress in. They want not to be 
babies, but to exercise their own master>' of difficulties ; to 
try their teeth on everything that comes to hand. So the 
instruction and the general education shoul'l 
At this stage skilled teaching and power < 
needed in the teacher ; and the teacher must have and shew a 
keen interest in concrete facts. 

At the age of about fourteen or later girls come back to 
wondering about the world as a whole and what it may contain 
for them; and, between that age and the age of eighteen, 



CHURCH SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS 151 

i^iiiilitice in ex{)«nment, free discussion, encouragement to face 
di:' * :ire most necessary in their upbringing. 

I se stAfrcN it ratist be steadily borne in mind that 

'ay and ' ' ' 
;y, opp. 
{<<: li togtrthcr aua 

in . c ''^s elements in 

d be given their weight, not by their umount, 
c taken to safeguard their inviolability. No 
: : ever be allowed to crowd out the time allotted 

' .us instruction. 

;ld be ^iven as other instruction is 

'" but as little 

>ary both to 

indetimte statements give neither 

- - - . -^... - - stimulus to the imagination. It is 

only on a detinite statement that children can get a grip. 

Get a grip they should, and then they can advance. And 

it is the teacher's business to help them to gain this prip, 

tffttint,' them to discuss the statement all round UTi" ' '• 

provisiunally made their own discover}' of its i J 

v.ilue. Then they have acquired, not only so much luiurnia- 

tinn. but also so much training in thought. This Socratic 

ir.i h rig has stimulated and guided and given food for thought, 

.ff • ins, and will. And this is the best ^^•'^' -^^ '••=iming 

*■ li ks by heart,* even for infants. 

Ur%r An§ k* baart htm iakma far too l«rfv • pl*M in tvUgiota iMtraction, m 
>t urnf Hi odoaAUOB fn w Uy. but th«re *lir»7« wi& b« • e«t«ia tue for it. SiuaU 
•bildr*& sanaot b# pr> y n > >d from fearaiafl hy b*Art, mod tboir a\ii%(fry rhymea, 
•*«■, tm utimOx rrmMnb«r«d to old af* i ao thia aptitude vhould b*> uu1i«<k1 hj 
taa chi of tbmta wtMt ia votth itmnhmixtg. Bui after tha ag» of Un or riavao 
laafttiaf by haart ia. for moat ahildraa, • rMltar wtmtmtvl and tmproAtabla proaaaa. 
Oo tha ocW bAod. tba ratanticB ia tba otiad of fonnoUtvd phnana, by whatarer 
p r oo i aB iaaraad. ia aa indi«paa«bla to raady and fruitful thoa«ht and rommnmca- 
ikn aa tba mtailmt rat^n'ion tt daajm woitia. The phraaa " know thv«Fl/." r.g., 
baa dMM aa moab for tbooffat aa tba aortaapimding word ** arli-knuwrcHl^." and 
oar eonuaae prorerba offvr many abort eata lor aocamanieation. Formulatad 
f b r a i n ara aot «ubaUtut«a btU yahialaa for Ihaibt Oood fonnalaa ar« oot 
lifid. but inrlianilaly aspaaaiva. 

Ia f«<liatioai >d o aa ri oa tba mo*t importaot ol aucb formtilatad phiMaa ara, of 
eouno. tbn yi'st'l* id i})n Lur>i'« Pr«*cr. H«rp thr •xij«.i»iv«iiM»a it »vidaat. A 

b» krow* by it. 
word* adaquaU 
• xprvva ni< iifvuuim. so mr* inny aiway* totma nj iiiiiijinii Biniaartiig wbat- 



r«r MMM** raNfioaB atpatia»»M baa pot to agpraaa. 
B aai d aa lb» Our Fatbar. 



•varyona aboold laan tr }>oart in rarlv tluliihtiui}. or 
hr otbar matboda lat«r. varwa of tba Bibla, «» ; 

iMr tttaaa. mic ObUdraa abould ba anaoata« i 

'. lf-'«. Kr^n tboucb aaab aw da naay ba disaapa aiiu nmit utrgtMira in onuumry 
ii' t). V « i h* taady to maka raUgiaa afHiwiktii in tteaa of atnaa or daafar. 
At (Drb 'uiv ' «T«at and «lmpl« worda. hovavar in*d^aat*If apprt>hrnd«<} b«forr. 

%hinr kj 1 IT, 11(1 '. li«*> r>'M,s. t. n'r h 1 !•'- 

aofbt to .-ua la ito* baad m cpinlual tBUila t..<vn<ii:< t»iniui«> ■»«•< m >ur 
Qwai bava tba aataa anMMiva qaattty. *' I taCava ia tba Haly OlMat," a.f. . 
viU a^aaUy baip a kby fwi M>d a i^aat laadav ia Cboivh ar ■tala.j 



152 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

It should go without saying that such teaching must be 
absohitely honest. If a question i« asked which the teticher, 
for any reason, cannot adequately answer, she should say so, 
and if possible ^ive the reason, always if it is i;; And 

no child should leave sehc»ol without havinj,' > hooled 

to face the fact that there are different answers given to impor- 
tant questions in religion and morals. In a Church school 
the teacher should even go out of her way to ensure this ; and 
if her teaching is wisely given the children will be the more 
firmly rooted in their belief. To doubt this is to doubt the 
greatness and convincing force of the truth. 

Religious teaching, it is true, m.ik<*s more demand on the 
teacher than any other teaching, \i he j)ersonal element 

is stronger in it. and the will and a; take a larger place 

in the apprehension of the truth. The interest of arithmetic 
is almost entirely intellectual, while the interest of a state- 
ment about duty or about God depends mainly on the presence 
of the love of God and of His will in teacher and child. The 
teaching is more than instruction : it is the opening out and 
development of the relations between the whole young per- 
sonality and God her Father and Saviour and Sanctifier (" The 
child of God ") ; of the relations between her and other human 
beings ("A member of Christ ") ; and consequently between 
her and the rest of God's creation (" An inheritor of the kingdom 
of heaven ") ; that is to say, it is the personal unifying of all 
which through the rest of her teaching she is coming to know 
and love and make for. 

And this teaching, with the practical training of which it is 
the complement, will be given as a beginning. Education 
does not end with school nor even with college. To see 
nothing further to learn is to be dis-educated. " Finishing 
schools " for girls are out of date. To-day the aim of the 
best type of school is to be an unfinishing school. So much 
instruction is to be given in a certain number of subjects 
as to put into girls* hands the key of varied attainment ; and 
it is to be given in such a way as to whet the appetite for more. 
Immediate results are thought less of than promise, both in 
knowledge and in action. 

So it is with religious education. It is no adequate test of 
success that the girls can pass divinity examinations, however 
badly set. It is not unheard of that in schools which did well 
in examinations there should be no " religious difficulty," 
simply because the examination work left no time for teaching 
religion. It can hardly be too strongly said that the aim of 
religious education is not to impart a maximum of information 
in Bible history or theology or an^'thing else. Rather there is 
a serious danger of making children sick of the whole subject 

by giving ♦li'^rn tnr. rriiicli i,C \f Jf \< u Tulllt Oil thc rigll^ --i'l*' 



M 



CHURCH SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS 158 

tw tlian they would like; rind so it is with 

il' TIk- t.^t of success, the educational aim, 

Is til it ti 1, shall have been so taught 

("h ii< iu.M I '^- to go on learning more; 

s. ' r that 1 1 r to go forward in the 

kii olit; ;ma s' *" their duty towards 

th "V will not at without giving 

m; y can offer, in their own 

h. . -s. 

If 1 11, t)ecn a reproach not only to elementary but also to 
s,,-.. idary Church schools, and especially to those which 

ir t)n by some who are keenest about Church teaching, 

that iiu-y ixave not cared for efficiency in other directions, nor 
even tak«^n sutliiMrnt pains to equip themselves for giving 
}>' >n, and that they 

h. -Ifcd. At one time 

tli> ■'! w . ibie ground lor this n-proach, but as the 

ichi'-U \ui\ to understand that they were injuring the 

very cause they existed to serve, so, within the last twenty 
years or so, they have broken up or made efforts to improve. 
Yet the reproach is still not in all cases undeserved. It is a 
Lji ■ •■• the Church that there should be any truth 

k' h schools, just because they are Church 

I) abreast of the times 
Hi .; "US and secular teach- 

ing, and in equipment, and to deal generously with their staff. 
S<» most are. Many are as good as schools can be ; and Church 

' h ' ,|s for girls, as a whole, now stand at least as high in the 
<■'{ ' rid as undenominational schools, and they are 

t rigorously. 

~, more particularly boarding 
. ' more careful than they (-{'m- 
ru'iuy an* to asei-rtam whether the religious and moral v<' 

ti'iti ;,Mv«'n i^ .^^ 'ood as the secular and physical. \' 

■<<'ii»« (hi are too ready to send girls to any sch(X)l 

whr '■ • i,u- religion they want, without caring for 

' !' !icr directions, a great many more care too little 

\\hii iT I is taught. Some do not even inquire (r^.) 

wfi.fh- '• I 'ol is !i Chureh school «>r not. Th«^ \w<t 



II ii'T all, of these which receive th 

and N"'"' "■'""'•Tnists have " '•""^■'•'■^ v 

aims ; in.iuy girls < i without hurt of 

kind: m. " convrrsmn . or bitter ii • 

and St 1 hile at sehool. < and maun' r v- 
to. And the Lagluh Church is seriously 
W( racticc. 



154 TEAClliiNG OFFICE vn mi. vnuKCil 

(8.) ■ ' ARY Schools 

In spite of the < ime by Cluirrli teach- 

County Council schools it is essentially i . that in- 

creased support be given to the denomiiiati*..i.i. - i tools which 
are exposed to competition wth the State schf)oIs drawing 
from public funds. K " in Lcnulon the position of the 

girls' high schools i^ ' nio^t rritioHl. They cannot 

pay their t • rival 

scht)ols ; (I ; and 

the whole equipment betokens straitened resources. They 
start, it is true, with the advantage of taking very young 
children, whereas the L.C.C. schools cannot take any under 
ten years of age. But many children are transferred at that 
age, and the preference of the parents for the better equipped 
' ■ ■ nents is very hard to combat. 

ing could be done if the local clergy took up the 
cause of these schools in good earnest, but there is no reason 
to anticipate more than a slight mitigation of the diflTuiiltv 
from this quarter. 

It is incumbent on Churchmen to make it quite clear tw .... 
increasing number of citizens who are awaking to the claims of 
education that we are as anxious as they are that our schools 
sh(juld be as well equipped and as efTiciently staffed as those 
under the direct control of the Local A s. We do not 

want to fall short of the requirements in ii by the Board 

of Education, and it is greatly to be deplored that the attitude 
often adopted by Churchpeoplc in the past has given grounds 
for the contrary impression to prevail. 

At the same time it must be recognised that the maintenance 
of Church secondary schools will constitute a serious drain on 

the energy and resources of many h ' is 

to be adequately or nearly adequate : y 

|X)ssible effort made to bring home to each }>arish and diocese 
the true meaning and importance of these schools, especially 
in their work of training elementary school teachers. 

We recommend that to the question of help being afforded to 
these schools from provincial or diocesan funds serious and 
prompt consideration be given. 

(4.) Undenominational ScHoo..- l^■.^ t......^ 

As there is a half- confessed feeling in the minds of many 
teachers inEiv - - ir-y 

rather than a is 

the value of such lessons, both spiritually, socially and in- 
tellectually. This attitude probably arises from : j^' » 

(a) An insufficient knowledge of and experience in handling 
religious truth. 

(6) An overcrowded time-table. 



UNDENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS 155 

III t!i' jr- w' . of scho' is taught 

th- iasa"b .. J. _ _y teacher* 

.11 \g bodies appear to be of the same 

> III the standard of papers set. Scriptural 

i ' cen " crammed " in preparation for external 

< '1 in the pupils' minds both to 

r. i! as]>c<^ and also to daily life. 

\'' i' intellectual effort 

. . , -es." 

.re certam great schools, both denominational and 

♦'"nal, of which this criticism is not true, because 

t : t he care of teachers who have given time, thought 

I I to the substance and form of their lesson and 

nd of their pupils. These teacher*; have been 

\ , 1 , • V the conditions laid dowi> "^S 

hi als, and, though often * n 

, have gained the entire confidence of parents and 

I : prieing to various religious bodies. The experience 

t;i * w .< rs should be of immense value in drawing up 

upon broad lines, dealing rather with great Scrip- 

i*ts. than with isolated lx)oks of the Bible. 

*N ' of the \\ ■ * st 

i\ ! in nn<! d 

gi\cn in 

. governing 

Such rightly considered as opening the way 

it may fu. ..i . .-c sought, is to many thousands of girls 

1 source of inspiration for good. 

ice of such a teacher in und * d 

Sh** makes frir^nd^ with n«' Is 

* e 

' ' ■ .- ■ . ■■'/ 

II iress, she can make \t easier for them to 
I' m. In giving religious instruction she can 
t- . sts many things which they would pro- 
1' 1 a chji|>cl, but which will ' * ' * * *» .- 

I' tlum morr rnlii?htcncd and 



I a way as to \vh' fe for more, as all teaching 

■ '"■ ^ • '' r n ... all to the good. 

I'ractxral Suggestiont 
In Undenominational Schools generallv there is need 



156 TEACiii.>»j «jriiLh wi- lim »„iiLivLH 

(b) For a ' i of '* cxtf nial " and * i 

ex»iiniri ih'Miv teacher* of the rhiltlren .tc 

Nvitli iier. 

fr !t of exporicnrrd trninrd trnrhrr; nf 

'US kao\vlcdj»t*. 

^ ,, For an adequate rccogniti< 
violability of the Scripture period. 

(5.) Methods of Teaching thi: Cati.chi5>m 

Ttie Catechism in our Prayer Book has been hallowed by 
tradition since 1549, when the first part was composed (the 
later part about the Sacraments dates from 1604). But it is 
an instrument of teaching which it is very easy to misuse. 
Apart from t]\ " ' 'here are certain d " i its composition 

and forms of t n which make it , that a revision 

will before very long be undertaken. Hut till that is accom- 
plished the old version will continue to be used, and it is hoped 
that the following hints may be found helpful for any parents 
who have had no experience in teaching. 

Not many years ago the practice prevailed of making children 
learn by heart. Various subjects were so treated — poetry, 
historical dates and the Catechism. It was generally useless 
and often injurious, as it was not accompanied by any active 
intelligence on the part of the child. The reaction against it 
however has gone too far. Children certainly ought to leam 
good poetry by heart and plenty of it, though the full under- 
standing of it must come later. The same remaric applies to 
such pieces of composition as our Collects, which have many of 
the qualities of the best poetry ; and no one can limit the good 
effect of the mind being stored with sacred thoughts clothed in 
noble language at a time when the memory is strong and the 
reflective faculties mostly dormant. 

But the Catechism is meant as a guide to the thought of a 
boy or girl growing out of childhood, and if it is to serve its 
purpose it must be understood ; othcr^vise it will be merely 
wearisome and tend to choke the tender appetite for sacred 
knowledge. 

Now the understanding of anything means the mind actively 
apprehending or taking hold of it. It does not mean new 
notions being j>ound in by someone else : that is only a 
caricature of t Before the mind can grasp the new idea 

it must be int m the subject and eager to learn. Hence 

the ideal way of teaching the Catechism would be to wait till 
the child put questions leading up to the formulated answers, 
and to postpone giving the actual form of words till the child 
had f tried to express the idea himself. This is not always 
possible ; ' but, in any case, the mind should be very gradually 
introduced to the fundamentals of Christian doctrine, and led 
on from point to point, roughly speaking, as follows : 



MKTHODS OF TEACHING THE CATECHISM 157 

[ learns of the existence ot God 

th , . "g- In answer to his questions 

th <)td : our creation, preservation, and all tlie 

^)ll . ...c " : t »"*•'-» definite idea of God should be 

that . : .1 1 -en loviti — i.r., not a governor or task- 

in . Givcr of Liu. men follows the story of Jesus, 

to. iioh rev«T<Muv- thut th«» child naturally imbibes the 

id irs of age 

tii itar}' idea 

111 rd s Divimty, His Sacritice, and His perpetual 

I'r .. th .in, J in the Church. The preparation for Con- 

finiiat 1 n, the age to be between fourteen and sixteen. 

Would brill. -hing into close relation with experience of 

sin and to: . but, more important still, would aim at 

d« i<le to God for 

H; for showing 

till Word. 

^ • . ui perpetually 

the raemben>hip ot ciich individual in the society, the 

^ .., in ways not dissimilar to those we employ to quicken 

the instinct of patriotism, and by teaching about Baptism. 
. ^ ' ' ' I of life and teaching must be assumed 

tj< uld be madf of the Catccliism. If the 

pi > of the <I ited lu- could 

k'f III in a 1 ;»e during the 

y< say, ten to fourteen ; then, witli a certain amount 

of il explanation, the first portion of the Catechism 

fdiil i \,v u.M 1 r.t4>od and perhaps learnt by heart with profit. 
•OThe jxjft: • ■' niing the Sacraments should be deferred 

till after C' <n, but dealt with similarly by the under- 

lyi: ' ;<• ■ iiid underst(X)d. 

1 i J ' 1 way of leaving the 

tacraiucntal teai I the sci it as 

if it were sometii ; oranajij i i. f the 

Catechism should come as the formulated expression of such a 
prr^. t,t itl.iti ,,»" If. ic vi..ij1(J make it sacramental asjKct 
pr> i)Ie, and unless it has been led up 

to IV 11. wiii D- iaK< ri out of its due p< ^ * ve. 

^ ichcs the working of the .Spirit th; itter and 

»s !uil 1 :. I ' s. If any child 

" «.)Utwaril > ! - <n{jn " thnn !>y ■ 

graof " thnf I . 

upward. Thus'. • . _ .. .^,, j:- 

the coping>stone to vrars of training in the meaning of natural 

scenery as t^— ••-•- <" t.w ,..;...i ;^ »»,.. $acramrntn! 

▼iew of our . etc.. ani 

coarse, nm> " tiu^ 

sbouM^hc i l^'lit 



to be witnessed occasi t ■ ticc in 

usinp nutivnrd thintr^ ;,' ns to 

h ,; in liis i'cTson, and tiic sacramental 

id... , ..ic two rnir.iclfs rccordcd in John vi. l-2i. 

Thus, just as in all good ' two principles are essential, 

first, the t — '• - must be luwujuj^iily at home in the subject; 
secondly, 1 must be interested in the rudimentary ideas 

which un« formul " 'it the formulas 

should co;< ..;Ulyand. stage in a long 

process. 

One cardinal error should be avoided. Let no teacher look 
on the Catechism as a complete statement of even the outlines 
of Christian doctrine. It is an aid to teachers and learners 
towards the realisation of the fact that the Church has a body 
of truth to pass on to each generation of young people. 

E. Lyttelton. 

(6.) A Children's Edition of the Bible 
The essential features of a children's edition would seem 
to be : — 

(1) The retention of the text of the Revised Version with the 
omission of unsuitable parts. 

(2) The type, punctuation, arrangemt;., , ... of an ordinary 
well-printed book, with a plain but attractive cover. 

(3) A new u icnt into chapters according to subject 
matter, each c ■ arincr its own title. 

(4) The placing of r their historical 
content, and where po 

Such an edition would do mnrh to pr«ve our teaching a new 

start. The old n> '^ would cease, 

and with it a great ''^r. Tho Hihle 

would be read with a new mtercst. and that in it^ ng 

a new inspiration. The use of abstracts as a suL ' tie 

Bible itself would not be necessary were a most intelligible 
format adopted and proper indexes supplied. 

We would suggest the formation of a small Committee to 
deal with the practical production of the edition. 

Three groups of question'; would ny>r^ar to arise for their 
settlement : — 

O) How far any ex: ndium 

of selections could be use in 

schools. 

(2) What exact omissions and rearrangements are most 
necessary and desirable. 

r.* (3) What financial and r--'^'-^ ■ro; ,i irrangements ^lir.ulrl be 
made for its issue. 



(7.) \. 

This nucstii'ji i he immediate 

and c iiioii uj Is. It is 

really i..v .,.. cm of th. .. , whether 

I(K ikcd at from of view of the pv kage of young 

p* '^ . of moral s, or of the 

e> iiriipf for wli i-n are looking 

it! tS 

in kl 

r.iac,- Mri. \'.iiifh of necessity s our systems of 

rtliu'i'U^ ( iui atiou, does not su. _.ifercntiate between 

liulJrrti iitid' r twelve ivnd adolescents over twelve, and it is 
prol. iblc, thcrtf— ^ •' • the work done after the age of twelve, 
whctlier in el' day schools or Simday schools, etc., 

Is " ly it is doing more 

h. for Confirmation 

m 

sp:: . . • 

More possibilities of expression, both for mental and ph; 
^rn'Ttries, must be provided. Freedom and outlet for crc^^L.... 
'11 : . must be equally emphasised, with the need for discipline. 

r . /'vL- m .' * ' ' ' ".';n. 

1 It 11^ I, we are suffering from an 

wi,; i'-.; J .■■ .. ..I til'- U<' - ■• ? There 

. :■' ' ia> ;. ' ' -ir- i .':'.; -ij^people, 

• I ' on the t . ;t 

W'Jic, L..,.- ^.,.. ... that Tif.' ;:. y 

are becoming conscious. 

The Training of Adolescents 
' ' / s of the r 

i: ncsK of ; 

k^'i . 
v< 
m I of the r the tii; 

[f . If .iriii !■ fiilK .i I 

to and 

w . I . i>u ill ■ •Miir*"'."'' 

tK :<ny)our and unn 

arni ji 

n'' . ^ I 

g'- disturbed by the feehng of the 



re it it not Uiught Christianity almost inevitably is 

prc-fiiicd as a t i . .- u i r, ... -. :^g 

no promise of s- 



100 TEAciiiASo orlii ii il 

sion . ' uTous rea ' ' -r aii!Ui>ti< to 

be oi it thi> tu . uiid as ;i r .in- 

ceivcd of ao an iilicii mtiu-.i«»u into life's real luU itf>U, autl the 
claims of man are set higlur thin tliust- of Ciotl. Therefore 
the seooiid grand requirement is the satisiaetion <»f the craving 
for action, for social service and membership in a common 
cause. All of which can be sufiplied by the teaching of Church 
membership and the self-conquest which it involves. Kut, if 
not apprehended as a corollary from the union with Christ, the 
call to social s«*rvice is easily Uikcn as a summons to u barren 
endeavour for the making of the world a more comfortable 
place of sojourn. 

At the same time religion, to be made operative for the normal 
English boy or girl with growing capacities and increasingly 
complex psychology, will not express itself in any great outward 
show of feeling. Appeals to excitement at the time of adoles- 
cence must be avoided. Even moral dangers hu*k in their 
wake. To secure what is needed — a nliu^ious atmosphere, 
objective, natural, but pervasive and i ' ri- 

ence of the world concentrated in the In i rch 

is unrivalled. The system of the Sacraments, if made real and 
central, will make religion as natural to the boy or girl as the 
air they breathe — i.e., they will take it for granted. This will 
avoid the danger of a religion mainly subjective. It will 
embrace the normal youth no less than those of marked religious 
temperament. In its continued presentment of grace, whether 
in Confirmation or in the Holy Communion, it will afford pre- 
cisely the help he needs in moments of stress — without any fuss 
— and it will guard h\u\ from further perils alike of self-sufficiency 
or despair. 

To turn next to ..,;..- t ♦* ■• "^ -«^ 'fiportant of the practical 
measures lately started : 

Co-operative Methods of Study 

The success of the many forms of co-operative study, such as 
reformed Sunday scho(»l work, study circles, discussion classes, 
tutorial classes, all point to the importance of the encourage- 
ment of mental activity and of the spirit of courageous inquiry 
and the provision of means of self-expression. 

They are all based on the theor}' that it is equally important 
that young people should think and inquire as that they should 
receive instruction. It is really much more important, because 
it is only when they have thought and inquired and faced per- 
plexities for themselves that they really desire and assimilate 
instruction. Such instruction must be provided by seniors who 
understand this principle, who honestly welcome inquiry and 
encourage free discussion, and who are ni.t in too great a hurry 
to supply answers to every question. 



WM 



Wuiiiv .\,>HJ.^u AiiULt.5Li^Ni'S 161 

T" • •■.•■. 
Ic. 

htiT.iturv tttx- I ^ til tllf r«i-o|KrrHtivc 

ni'th ..!. All m»tlioti, whuh is not 

:\\ <d, IS tho pn)mi»tion of fellowship. The 

stu -...ccssful thain individual .study, not only 

IxtMu- ! opportunities for the exchange of ideas but 

li«< vu « .! . .' .. ,\y5,|jjp j^fjfj n^ay thus 

I >< I i>im- :i lit of the idea of the 

Church as the great FelloUbhip uf Believers. 

Care and Afier-Care Committees 
AUl»,.ii,r]i fli.- vf itutory Care Committees begin their oj^f-r-x. 
ti ^ in elementary schools, they have sp« 

in [K-riou of adolescence, and the work begun by timn 

1^ : to be continued and extended by the After-Care 

C' "' ' "if opinio; • Churchmen ' t yet 

r« t nn ex* Church is r- ic for 

th wliich, while depeuticut upon 

"l! .to enlist the assistance of the 

in iuiiold voluntary agencies for promoting the well-being of 
the younger generation. So long as the parochial system re- 
mains, the Church winnot stand aloof from such social efforts 
\'> *' ' lion of duty. Moreover, it has been 

t distinctively pastoral work is in no 
w.. ; on 

th' ... uities 

' : uning personal relations which should 

pl\ . . in r. (Tuiting for 'Rilil.- -•1hv<i»>. ,ti<T f.if 

Confirmation. 

Opportunities OJftted by the Nexc Lducatiuu Bill 

.>^ ' t-iun 17 of the Education Bill now before Parliament 
proposes to confer upon Local Education Authorities ver>' 

th 
pn 

ot 

;»ii \c to the d< at and welfare of 

an . .„, cdu''»'"" ♦i.v WV...V is, or will sh"^*'*' 

J" The of the clause is C(j 

r« • K.r lis w .'*' ' ' ' ' ; 

In ■ covers • 

III' 

'• mcthini ol co-opcration rather tiuin by the 
I'hat this proposal o|)ciis a new era of op{)ortunity for 



162 TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

Churchmen in their civic cu . ' ' " ' it 

ithould drt more to bring t he 

ill any j<i sal 

1) it is , 1 in 

the .spirit m wiiich it has been conceived : (2) the voluntary' 
bodies whose assistance is invited rise to the occasion. The 
necessity of stating these provisoes arises from the facts ( 1 ) that 
the clause is permissive only and confers the ev- ' ■ ' ' *ion 
upon Local Education Authorities, (2) that its ra- 

tion will involve an almost ctimy ies 

for promoting juvenile welfare. \V< ol, 

whether elementary, secondary, or continuutiou, is I to 

be the paramount centr6 of influence in the life of t. .. i or 
adolescent, and that the various philanthropic and religious 
agencies, so far from competing with it. must be built up around 
it. To regard the school rather than the Church as the nexus of 
parochial agencies for the welfare of the youi. at 

first, be an easy matter for Churchmen, but i of 

this will enable them to make full use of the opportunity 
presented. 

A discussion of the regrouping necessary to adjust parochial 
efforts to the new conditions would be premature. It will 
suffice to insist that the Church will be called upon to show 
an adaptability and resourcefulness which have not always 
been displayed in meeting changed situations in the past. We 
may add that the offer of these opportunities will be a distinct 
challenge, and the nation at large will jud<?e the Church by the 
use which is made of them. 

(8.) College foe Special Tkaininoj 

Should such a college be on an inter-dcnominational basis, 
or should it be promoted by the Church of England for teachers 
of her own communion ? Obviously this is the first and most 
important question that arises. 

On the one hand, it may be urged that the work con- 
templated could only be successfully carried on in a common 
life of religious fellowship, centring in a college chapel, and 
that depth and directive force would be given to the studies of 
the students by a definite denominational position. 

On the other hand, it ii clear that the scope of a Church 
of England college would be limited. Teachers in Church 
secondary and elementary schools would be attracted to it, 
but municipal and other governing bodies would not readily 
recognise the benefits of its course for the teachers in their 
employment. This limitation of scope would tend to react 
on the intellectual and spiritual life of the college. Width of 
interest, intellectual keenness, sympathetic insight, are apt 
to wane in a community which is composed too exclusively 



F»RKP\RATION FOR CONFIRMATION IfiS 

a( \ls of one type and outlook, and above all ti 

it .> inuMtant that surb •-. • "' .re should stand f"' '^'■■'^ :•"• 
lectual and spintual fiil nt. 

An i na\ r.iK go would in thi nrst place 

servf the wnW of all t^nohors who are 

dr- 

nv. day in rt'ligious education do not 

Iif> _ : denominations, but in the common 

f.iil':r. <)f the ChriNtian bodies to make their teaching a living 
n-aiity to nuissts of men. A new venture should appeal to 
the new sense of Christian unity which is now stirring, and 
fmJxvlv .1 ... effort to improve religious 

I'diici*!'"; .untry. 

I Lhtr Suniiay seliool differs vitally from 

of I ">l, for it definitely aspires to lead the chil 

into the fellowship of their own communion ; but the tea- 
who would attend at the college we contemplate are to \s. .. 
in day sch<x)ls where, in the vast majority of cases, teaching 
' * ' ' * ' ' *ian cannot be given. 

k will l>est Ik? carried 
.,iit ,,, national 

• iiff. : -^ -1 and ini' 

til ;. 1 I. . . diffenng pomts of view, and to 



APPENDIX XII 
Pkeparation I ok Conkikiiation (1; 
In th*" prejwrntion for Confinnation a yreat opportunity 

IS • 

.in 

t I «• iK'cn given m the previous r^ 

, ,! ! 1 < • liiit tfii r.icl iiiii>t be ., 

u! r are still deplorably 

III iiu iiii I IK i iiristian faith. In the 

y may ha\ the opportunity of receiving, 

1 ; or it may 
" arou***' inv 
rt ; of I 
-y were < 
may Ix tli»-rc can be no doubt ti nice of 

fK, ,,.. .,,,,f ....A practice "^ • .. 'f the :ii 

IS very - among th< 

luu pr>. ti it Uaa> aUo bn»uglit 

M 



164 I KAi HING OFFICE OF THE CHURCTT 

encourafTcmcnt ; for it hn- ' "' t in the (oniirm«non 

clrtsscs n quit*' unique oj., hirj^j is given. Thr 

cc of the c.i Ml that they are 

I irn. Innnai _ ycr and revcrtnt 

expectancy they are exceptionally responsive to an inteUigent 
presentation of the Christian faith. -'I*hey arc in an attitude 
in which they may gain some comprehensive vision of what is 
meant hy the Christian C'rced and Church ; old truths become 
clothed with life ; forgotten teaching springs again to th«- 
mind; formal assent bee< ' I assent. Often in the period 

of preparation more is int' > undcrsto<xl of the Christian 

faith than in the whole of the previous experience of the 
candidates. 

Neither time nor trouble should be spared in the work of 
preparation. The scheme of classes should be carefully 
thought out, so that, according to their ages and capacities, 
the candidates should have set before them the great Christian 
truths and duties. If this is to l^ done at all thoroughly, 
the number of Confirmation classes must l)c considerably larger 
than is often the case ; it is difficult to see how the instruction, 
if it is to include (as it ought) teaching on the Holy Conmmnion, 
can be given in less than tliirteen or fourteen classes. Frequently 
it is desirable to supplement the classes by recommending 
books for the candidates to read on the Christian Faith. In 
the private interviews they should be encouraged to discuss 
any difficulties felt by them, while the conductor should be 
able to give additional teaching on those matters where the 
candidate seems especially weak. 

Such instruction must not be regarded as the substitution of 
a series of lectures in the place of a devotional preparation foi 
the coming of the Holy Spirit. It must never be forgotten that 
this is a time of solemn preparation for the gift of the Holy 
Spirit. \Vhatcver the subject of the class may be the thoughts 
of the candidates should be directed to God the Holy Spirit. 
It is not the intellect alone but the whole personality that 
must be prepared so that the Holy Spirit may kindle the 
emotions, strengthen and direct the will, enlighten the intellect, 
and tlnis roiisferafc the whole life. 

C. F. Gabbett. 



Pheparation fou Confihmation (2) 

1. There appears as a fact to be increasing agreement 
among us that Confirmation is the gi^'ing and receiving of 
the Sevenfold Gifts of the Spirit, or at least an increasing of 
those gifts ; more than a ratifying or confirming of vows and 
promises. At the same time we are all agreed that (1) Infant 



PREPARATION FOR CONFIRMATION 165 

Baptism inukos some sort of " personal nffjnnation " at a later 
♦ — sseutial ; (2) such atlirmotion vlwuM romcidc with the 
for the Spirit's Gifts in Com i ; but (8) what 

'-■^n for V oiiiirination is not to 
itself. 
lUrch Uut-s not hold that Divine (" 
i':\ h> ; and it lays stress always on n 

.ns. The preparation for Coiitirmalii' 
shotild eonsist in |>art of earcful exj i i 

m1 ital rite itself, in part of striving? to help on the 

.|r\ Miiirm III the candidate of healthy repentance, faith and 
(.1). (lit iiec to the Divine Will. But jx-rvading all and tran- 
r.ition must be the effort so to present 
! our I^>rd that the Holy Spirit may 
has. ti y through our teaching of " glorifying " 

Christ J Way, the Truth, the Life in the eyes of 

every candidate 

8. Confirmation should be regarded far more as a beginning 
than as an end. Life lies before the candidate, though in 
Coi," ' ' have entered a new phase. 

1 propositions certain practical deductions 

bc;i on of can " seem to us to follow. 

\\ te our ; in preparation for 

C'oi 11 on (1; Confirmation itself — that is, expl 

Ml!-: ^ it up to life and ex|)crienee as welT as to C i 

*' '•' " l«(2) an appeal equally through intellect, affections 

ujui Hill to ♦' lidate to respond to the offered Gift. 

For this i t he subject-matter of the thfec Baptismal 

■ i be tail ' ' ■ ' ,, J, not wiTli any idea of 

m the r r months nt our disposal. 

oltheCI If. 

soul to i I 

Chnst and illuminating in outline the meaning of the Christian 

life. (8) On prcluninary help for the after-Confirmation life, 

alike on the ethical side, on the side of worship (especially Holy 

Vxr (I on the side of work for Christ in His Cluireh 

ai; I. 

I • ;. this: P 

ti<( lid not 1 

the wi iiid of the ( i faith and lili, Itsi 

attem; more in quai actually achieve th« i 

Mere s (as such i would Ik* apt to become) 

wo-' ' ., . ,isc of the nun. ..... ..igent candidates, be lif'I'«-« 

rr< .>ns of what they knew l>eforc, and in the ca 

th' Id by reason of this coin! ' 

tc> Mff or intrrr^t, Tlie rr- 

riw' tiun lit I . 

Gil 1 of diK.t i 



166 TKACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCU 

teaching givcn7at this moment in the life of thr Christian 
must be governed by this consideration. Further instruction 
must come aftcr\\i ' I eandidates should b< " ht 

the obligation of more fully whnt th ud 

praetisc. The provision of Study Cir' ' ' ^es, or 

weekday Services where courses of in r^i^'cn, is 

of the greatest importance for young confirmees, but to discuss 
these would carr\' ■>- >>--.'-„., i ♦!,. •>'-.^'^rilK'd hmit of this 
memorandum. 

E. J. BoDrNcT 
T. GiJY Ro. 

APPENDIX XIII 

The Use of toe Ten Commandments 

The position of importance given to the Decalogue in our 
Prayer Book, propounded as it is as the constant standard for 
self-examination, recited at every celebration of the Holy 
Communion, and required to be learnt by heart by every 
baptized person, is certainly not primitive. For many cen- 
turies of the Church's life the Decalogue held no place apparently 
in the instruction of catechumens or in the services of the 
Church.* I can find no instance of all Christians being ordered 
to leani it before the thirteenth century — the constitutions of 
Bishop de Kirkham (1255) and of Archbishop Peckham 
(Ignorantia sacerdotum, 1281), and the Synodal Statutes of 
Norwich (r257).t Thus Peckham ordains "that every parish 
priest four times in the year — that is, once every quarter — on 
one or more days of solemn observance, sliall exj)ound to the 
people in the vulgar tongue, without any fantastic conernlment, 
the articles of faith, the Ten Commandments of the ! lo, 

the two Commandments of the Gosjx;! of Love to (- to 

man. the seven works of mercy, the seven deadly sins with their 
offspring, the seven princij)al virtues and the seven sacraments 
of grace," and to help the clergy he gives a Christian interpreta- 
tion of the Commandments. Similar directions are common 
after this date. 

* Contr*ry statemont^ are often made : see t.g., the Bishop of Maachetiter'e 
Pa»tor$ and Tfcuhtr.- (I.nncmrni- . I(M12) p. 82 : " Thi ■ fthr rn-orrlination nf Trtvd 
Lord's Pray ■ t" 

tia from tho h1 

lectures," a;.-. ,.. .>^.. .... ■ »i. 

But this i." qtiit« a mistake. St. ■ <ir 
teaching for catech-i-Tjptip ar<^ fr>'i- t, 
which are again : 'ar 
baptism. Six of im- 
moral precept- • - .p ., ,-,^,...-6). 

which were iaBtnieuon« tor catechumens. 

t See Wi! .1^. i. p. 704. p. 731. ii.p. 54. Pcckham'a oooBtitution wan 

repeated by •.'aniiuAi >\ olsey in 1618 tor the provinoe of York. Willdns Cof%eHia 
m. pp. ««J. 684f. 



ITSE OF niE TEN COMMANDMENTS 187 

AKo it the same i"»eri«>d the Creed, the Decalogue, the Lord's 

Prayc^^, ;u: " ' * ,• the basis of 

I)n{>fil '.' \< ,;icil of Treut, 

15' III. xn.; >tulf> that "our uiicc^tor> most wisely 

»ii under these four lieads — the Apostles' Creed, the 

S I . the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer — the whole sura 

.11 iiee of sacretl doctrine." tirightman calls this "a 

• I'i I! statement," and certainly, as far as the Decalogue 

' ' its a comparatively rec« lit tradition. 

ither, alM)ut 1580, drew up manuals 

I ;n the way of question and answer 

1' s, under the name "Catechisms." * 

A !e was followed. These and the like precedents 

ac . ..- use made of the Deciilogue in the Prayer Book. 

But it is certainly not jirimitive. 

f>f „ ..._.,p^ from the Ix'ginning the Divine authority of the 
I) \?as recognised. And its })osition is thus described 

^)^ iv. Ifi. 3-4 : ' It was to prcjiare men for the 

li ith Kimself and fellowship with men) that 

the L words of the Dcciilogue to all alike, 

and ti II in forcr amongst us, receiving 

extension and addition, but not dissolution, through His 
i-oiniiig in the flesh." But the fact thjit the Decalogue repre- 
sents an early stage of the Divine law, and that before it can 
re.. ^ '' ' ' '' ( ' t's teacliing it needs profound d' u'. 

e^ • tatinn, seems to make it qu. c 

^^ '>ro})ouiidcU as 

tl. le. If we are 

to iuiw the Divme ]>niliibitions constantly thundered over us 
it would seem as if we should have them in the f(»rm in which 
they apply to ourselves rather than in the form in which they 

wf ••■ ♦•> the i>eoplc of Israel at a very early stage of itj» 

eri 

t the reiteratctl "Thou shait not" has been very 

But what arc the things ^vliirh in the Decalogue 

(I ? The Si ' pro- 

l« I ny image or i ^ ' I. and 

as It stands it ignores the difference which has tjcen made by 

Ihr Tii«'arT»utioii. TIm- Fourth Commandment in its literal 

• ' ■ ; ! ros the observance of the Sabbath, has 

' ' '\' in a '* mystical " sense. t The 

I very fundamental <l«'fj>ening 

' ' h it to 

I \cnth 

^ oiniiuuidincnls prohibit only murder and adultery, uul 

imti, Kn^luh Uiu, pp. sxzv. civi. (f. 
ti*b Oflle*. 1037 : ' A«oord>ng to lb* n]r»ue*l nwMuiig o( ibm mmU 



lOS IhAllli.NL. UlliLll. Ut ml'. vHIULU 

require an ii ition which is H"' 

niiiui l»rfnn- i hf triki'n to pr< 

law I 

'II; C'ommandracnts without 

note or comment has, 1 ctinnot but feel, created in part a falsi- 
conscience amon|^t our people, and in part c<»ndoncd much too 
slack a conscience. No doubt these Ten lommandmcnts have 
been interpreted in the st 'of our duty to God and our 

(hity to (tur nei^jhbour in liism, but the intcrjirefation 

is not much in the mind »»t lUc j 'icra 

connected with the jKirticuiar C<> . it 

cajj hardly be denied that the insistence \u the " Duty t<)wards 
my neighbour," upon oliedience to superiors and humility antl 
reverence to " betters " (which word certainly means those 
above us in social station) is not suflicieiitly Ixdanced by an 
equal insistence u])on the duties of the stronger towards the 
weaker and the true principles of Christian equality and 
brothcrlincss. I cannot but think that th«- kind «>f criticism 
which is commonly heard of the " Duty to>\ ir," 

as tending " to keep the i)Ci)plc down," and i»ur 

of the upper classes," though it is often aceom]>amed with a 
misquotjition (" that state of life unto which it /ios plea.scd God 
t-o call me," instead of " that state of life into which it shall 
please God to call me ") has yet a gootl deal of justification. 

Thus (1)1 w«iuld have the Church cease from the constant 
recitation of. the Commandments at the beginning of the 
service of Holy Communion. (2) I would fiave them occasion- 
ally recited, as Anrhbishop Pcekham enjoined, with an inter- 
pretation like his, in the full Christian spirit. (3) I would have 
the interpretation in the Catechism so modified as to be more 
impartial and to express more adequately the true principle of 
the equal woilh of every soul in God's sight. It is obvious that 
any Christian interpretation of the Conmiandments drawn up 
by authority would, because it was Christian, he more positive 
and less negative than th( Decalogue as it stands. 

C. Oxon: 



APPENDIX XIV 

Teaching of the Old Testament in Schools 

The new learning is no longer academic. It is for public usl-. 
Sonic opinions have become convictions. Hence a new method 
of teaching is rrquired. ^^ ith the critical inquiry pupils need 
not be troubled, but their instruction must be based on true 
principles, such as the following : Genesis and Exodus are not 
to be treated as exact history ; the Law (whatever its origins) 
enters Israel's life effectively after, not before the prophets, and 



THE OLD TESTAMENT IN SCHOOLS Iflfl 

wc should k^p this order in our t^nchin^ ; the Old Testament 

d'M • • <■ -♦' Christ in iirbitrary ty|>cs, but iis the ideal to 

\vi ly approximates ; the whole revelation of 

thi U' . Ixtth ill faith and in morals, 

afid iv -jv^l. hut it is r«v«>lation mfid^' 



• xj' '■' : and then eoines m the mystery of the miraculous, 

• - t" '" vvi.i.,1. rliwrly, not coarsely, handled. 

se principles to the teaching of little 
liiiuit. i Ills however seems elear. They should be 

• of the Gosi>cl and mueh less of the Old Testament 

tnary. The first " rs of Genesis 

a. Norarethepi ii the deli ver- 

>L IS. A good selection lrt>m the lives of the 

of Moses would be a desirable text-b<K>k. A 

::. .. ..I t. 1. Ik r who will make this for himself is still more to be 

wishttl lor. Always, as far as possible, he would keep to the 

very words of Scripture. Is not a consideral)le part of jK)pular 

' due to tin* targums of the infant school ? And 

will breathe grace, not law. There is a stern note 

he ears of the innocent — while the Bride- 

L.'i -need not be prematurely inured to it. 

1 ix>ys and girls a plain course can be more definitely 

Let them learn the history of Israel and Judah 

I to the fall of Jerusalem, using a text-book of lull 

*'v selected series of passages from Samuel, Kings 

ii't ( , and the prophets from Amos to Jerenuah. 

a well pr' r; but so does every 

e. !!• have felt the thrill of 

' ' t t«ll it m his own words 

<d. He will show whtre 

rai prophets enter the dnima ; will disentangle their 

fi-,i,, »},e luxuriance of their Ixwks. He >vill have 

• idea of what prf)phetie inspiration is, and will 

' ' ' " irage, wisdom. ho|)e, 

. they laboured, the 

luLnbuUuti which each made to the building of 

of GikI — so much nobler a 

- ,.:ig of rules, will come in more 

re as the story is unfolded, till at last in the strong, 

••"V of Jeremiah the tnn* faith will be seen 

lie (iosp<l, if ;ts hour of drf<-at. But all will 
■■■■. The unnahty of the Ol.l " 
o many rlnnv*;, will {>rov«" !\ !' 



ITO TEACHING OFFICE OF THE CHURCH 

Iho^ who are not at once responsive to spiritual iinptiUe, and 
even of those the most part will h** sfirK <1 niorc deeply In fnrf 
the end is reached. 

And let it be noticed that thi.s i.ituu m. p- • >— \ a>. iiu 
well-spring of our Old Test^micnt teaching; is in i(,*e with 

the tradition of the Church. Cainon V m a paper on 

the trachinjf of the Old Trstaincnl pn a The Guardian 

of July 15th, 1016 :— 

" Nor must it bo forgotten that our Lord's attitude towards 
the old relij^ion of Israel was that of the prophet rather than 
the priest. The fulfilment of the Law of which He spoke was 
essei\tially prophetic in character. He breathed into it fresh 
life, decpc!ied and extended its moral significance and claim. 
And, alx)ve all, He took up a position of soverei£fa freedom. It 
is in the prophetic Script I ir late 

expression of His own M > in 

Isaiah liii. The people instinctively rccc»;;mM-d in tlie new 
teacher the voice of a prophet. And in fact the whole character 
of the Christiati movement depicted in the New Testament is 
prophetic. The Day of Pentecost marked the outpouring of 
the prophetic spirit and gifts. ' TIic testimony of Jesus is the 
spirit of prophecy.' " 

Is then the Law, so fundamental in Judaism, to be neglected 
in our study of the Old Testament ? No ; but let it enter our 
education as it entered Judaism, not first but last. Prophecy 
was the vital element in the growth of Israel. The Law was an 
element in that rich life of faith which we have inherited from 
the post-exilic Jewish Church. Here is a fine subject for the 
highest class in our schools. The history of Josiah and 
Jeremiah will have drawn attention to the book of Deuteronomy, 
that glorious sermon on the love of God. That in turn will 
have obliged us to compare the simple law given at Sinai of 
which Deuteronomy contains a revised and enlarged edition. 
The deliverance from Egypt, the " redemption,*' on which even 
the early prophets base their trust, will already have come into 
our ken. Now the " Comfort ye " prophecy will be read as the 
flower of all old prophetic idealism and the mature interpreta- 
tion of that doctrine of redemption. Then Ezekiel will be 
studied as the deeply spiritual interpreter of that third law 
book, Leviticus, which is soon to serve the restored Israel as 
their manual of sacrifice. Serious theology, the true significance 
of sacrifice as the purifying of life by offered Ufe, not as satis- 
faction by penalty, will now be explained to our advanced 
pupils. Now, too, they >vill be fit to read the hymn of creation 
in Genesis i. with real appreciation, and in many another 
early chapter they will be able to penetrate through the letter 
to the spirit. TTien they will be led on to appreciate the 
bvoad sympathies of the Wisdom writers as another element in 



THE OLD TESTAMENT IN SCHOOI^ 171 

Judean Churchmanship. And yet another will present itself in 
the drvt»tioii:il fervour of the Psalter. The adding of I^eviticus 
to p' nt, r. Moiny, the ^^radual gathering and final composition 
of t r will afford an easy introduction to the idea of a 

Can«»ii 11 .-»i ripturc h - ^ '•med, not at one blow but bit by 
bit, Tlie extension in to the Greek world will lead on 

to ti ^lons ul Holy Scripture ; the •! icnt 

uf ' : the use and limits of tran ^ a 

means "^ference between the sacred tev 

and t! > to reading, arrangement of 

tit! d, etc., to which we are accustomed in a '* Bible." 

Aiui 1.1 .,;,,» those things are not in themselves that knowledge 
of G(xl to attain which is the aira of all our study, these things 
ignored have ht( ' ' itj a cause of superstition and prejudice, 
a hindraner t<. i *he higher aira. 

N t he Alexandrine books, the Apocrypha, 

\\\.\ il in England, be suffered to continue. 

V will something be shown of the piety of Wisdom and 

1 isticus, but the immortal story of the Maccabees (as 

told in 1 Mace, i.-vii.) will be heard — how gladly by adventurous 

*' and'tfTe significance of Daniel will be explained in this 

•n, and the apocalyptic preparation for the Gospel, 

gtx>d news of ti T' ' " C ■ will also be 

M. That will int' anic doctrine 

i> in niu&t intimate spiritual 

•-• New. 

1 ion of our Old Testament course is, no doubt, 

too ; V... rked through in a term or even a year : it would 

need sii 1. As for its difficulty, the sixth form of a 

pu^' 1 li.irdlv ho afraid of it. Rather would they 

h« I ' t II I that Holy Scripture could engage 

classics. In tary 

ijrh some qu ^' of 

. for last studies might fairly be expected to result 

•norc provident direction of first studies. But if 

ly no place for these last studies in the elementary 

i I Item he committed to a continuation class. Such 

would be well attended as soon as we lifted Scripture 

1, and it may \yc expected 
lerrase in thorf>iij»hne«;s. 



ruth, excite rid interest is kept up as 

♦ ftiitwr iv ^^n,■,\ which co-ordittatcs 

very. 
II' m till iiij^her ^andard of 
( red. But there, too, if th« call is 

nuuii. Will ^rwUibly be eager. The characteristic 



172 TEAnilNG OFFICE OF THE CHURCH . 

virtue of the teaching profession ought to be enthtisiasm. 
Knthusia.sm dies when it is relej^atr<l to the barren prescr>'Htion 
of siniphcity. It brightens when a new field op<*ns. And our 
1 the Did Testament in sehools is largely based on the 
11 that a new field may l>e opened for it if we will be n 
little bold. Tlie teaeher krows the true simplieity, the elear 
uneonvcntidnal expression of aeeumulated knowledge vivified 
by continued thought. Nor is it the teacher of Holy Scripture 
only who knows that real thought must be faith and piety. 
Let him or her read Rol>ertson Smith's Prophets of Israel and 
The Old Testament in Die Jewish Church ; Driver's Ideals of the 
Prophets ; Ui'\nu'< Jenisalem Under Die High Priests. 'I'hese 
fftur b<x)ks, I will make a good start possible on the 

triple eours>< 1 aboye. 

A. Nairne. 



17« 



SOCIKTIES, ETC.. MENTIONED IN THE REPORT. 

('. 'itral Advisor)' Council of Traininp for the Ministry. 
V ' ' ' l>. <1 in 1912 as the result of resolutions passed by the 

I - of Canterbury and York {see above, p. 28). 

'V of Sacred Study for Clergy of the Church of 
t : To brine the parochial clergy into touch 
'< d in the study and teaching 
, >1 elsewhere. F'ounded by the 

lati Dr. S»v. u. H arden, tin* Dean of Christ Church, Oxford; 
<;.■,■:' Strrrtary, Dr. Kidd. St. Paul's Vicarage, Oxford; 
'•. the Rev. J. K. Mozley. Pembroke College, Cam- 
It. 1). (sre above, p. 27). 
'ill Workers' Educational Association "The Association 
'J agencies and devises fresh means by 
of all kinds may be raised educationally 
uislii they are able to take advantage of the 
•h are and may be provided by the Universities." 
111. U pit r .1 I'Ms is in course of preparation ; price 8d., post 
tr< . , Ad<lr< ss ; \u Hurpur Street, Red Lion Square, London, 
W.C.I (gee abme, p. 28). 

lirpnri of the Committee on the Church and the Problems of 
hu!u stnal Life. This Report will be published by the S.P.C.K., 

II 'i; with this R< I above, p. S5). 

i:, n ,rt of the Stib ( c of the National Society on the 

' ' 'ig uf Teacfiers. National Society's Depdt, 

', Hiinover Square, W.l (temporary address). 

.' :r. p. 48). 

• f Canterbury's Examination in Theology, 

1 1 ' V I was instituted in 1905 for those women who 

the Archbishop's Diploma of " Student in 

I.) or the Archbishop's " Licence to teach 

'iry, Miss Revan, S.Th., 80 Evelyn 

p. SI). 

./ ted 

to ll ' . _ < , _ i ;;iry^ 

I'JI i. Published by S.P.C.K., price 8d. net {set above, p. 57). 



The Worship 
of the Church 



BEING THE 

REPORT OF THE AReiiiilbHOPS' 

SECOND COMMITTEE 

OF IXOriRY 



TwentY'tftond Thousand. 



LONDON : 

I'LBLISHED FOR THE NATIONAL MISSION 

BY THB 

; FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNO\VLED(.! 
1019 



COMMITTEE. 

The Dean of Christ Church, Chairman, 

Rev. W. C. Bishop 

Dr. Walford Da vies 

The Head Deaconess, St. Andrew's Community 

Rev. II. P. Dempsey 

Canon F. Lewis Donaldson 

Rev. W. H. DuAPEK 

Rev. W. U. Ikere 

Miss M. C. GoLLOcK 

Archdeacon Gresford Jones 

Rev. F. A. Iremongf.r 

Mr. H. E. Kemp 

Cnnon F. B. Macnutt 

Archdeacon Southwell 

Miss L. V. Southwell 

The Bishop of Stepney 

Rev. N. S. Talbot 

Miss Talbot 

Rev. F. Underhill 

Rev. F. S. Guy Warman 

The Dean of Wells 

ViM?OUnt WOLMER 

Note. — The Head Deaconess of St. Andrew's Community 
and Miss L. V. Southwell were unfortunately oblijjed to with- 
draw from the Committee owing to ill-health. The Dean of 
Wells, for the same reason, attended none of the meetings. 
Arehdcacon Southwell is at the front, and I have been unable 
to obtain his final opinion on the report. The rest have 
approved it, and four members have appended reservations 
upon one or two points. 

Thomas B. Strong. 
Chairman. 



FOREWORD 

BV TTTi' \T?rTiBT«;nnp nv r avtfrrttry 

THIS Report belongs to a series : it is one of five. They 
Iiave the same historic origin, and that origin should be 
steadily in the thoughts of those who read them. 

Two years ago, in this grave crisis of our nation's history, 
after much thought and prayer, we called the people of England 
to a National Mission of Repentance and Hope. 

First, tliiriiiL,' 1916, came the preparation of the Church 
itself. In every Diocese and Parish we sought fresh guidance 
of the Holy Spirit to reveal to us our own failures, both as 
individuals and as members of the Church and nation. Then 
f(»llowc<l. in every comer of the land, the Mission-call to cor- 
porate re{)entance and to hope in Christ as the living answer 
to our needs. The call told : not, of course, universally, but 
very widely. We found that people were ready to face familiar 
facts afresh : that a new spirit was breathing upon dry bones : 
that we must, and could, be up and doing. As we appraised 
• of the Misfion-call five subjects in the life of Church 
: <vtood out with obvious claim for our rchandliiig. 
The character and manner of our teaching : our worship : bur 
i-\ . work : the discovery of removable hindrances to 

tlu- i iiur. (IB ef' -- ■•• : the be nr-" ■ •" ♦'■-■ Otspel message 
on the industri.i us of to ■ 

Five Committees of our l>est and ttron ordingly 

i\piK)inted to deal with these, and 1917 Wiui ^ivca to the tusk 
Ix*t r»(» '"^ • "-"fird as a disappointing thing the pause whuh 
that dr. .11 involved. It may prove, by its results, to 

hare hreti thr most fruitful time of all. 

And now in TJIS thr five Reports are in our luuids. They 



4 FUUhWUKlJ 

are not ofTicial documentu, hut whether we accept the con- 
clusions or not they have the Iiigh authority which belongs 
to the opinions of 8i)ecially qualified men and women who 
have devoted long months to their elaboration. The roadway 
to right knowledge and effective iiction is now open. It is a 
roadway which is offered not to tttosc only who approach it 
as Churchmen and Churchwomen, but to the English people 
as a whole. It is the most important stage of the National 
Mission. With all earnestness I invite, for these Reports, the 
study and thought of men and women of good-will. We shall 
not all agree about the various recommendations. We want 
critics as well as ad\ ocatcs. Let there be quiet reading of all 
that they contain. Ixit there be meetings large and small. 
Let there be sermons and addresses and study circles, that 
we may perceive and know what things we ought to do, and 
that together, as the needs of our day demand, we may " go 

fiirvvsiril " * It is; ru»t i\ \n\i> tliiiiif fur nt • it n; oi|r llf»^ " 

Lent. 1918. 



TouE Cracks— 

THIS Coniiiiittce was appointed in uocordanre with a 
letter, datcti Kchruary 7tli. llH7,fr«»iii the Archbishops. 
The reference of the Coniiuittce is as follows : — 
"To consider and report upon ways in which the public 
^\.l^v}lip of the Cliurch can be more directly related to the 
!( ' ••ds of actual lile at th«i present time. It is desired that 
t i ' ■ II : (rt) to n 

Iv on the He\ . 

"! . {b) to opuitwits and desires expressed by 

ill , y and in tlic Army." 

It held its first meeting; on March 2drd, and has held ten 
^i" ite. At the first two meetings a paper of incji : 

uj ibjrct of the HlK»vr r<f<rcnce was drawn up ; . 

II was sent round to Hm.tl 

I >' ^ N i 11 (lommittces, and others, 

I I iiiig to the recommendations of the various Bishops. 

II , I tninittee obtained by this means a large amount of 
111! I, and desires to express its sincere gratitude for 
th' i ,iiis and care with which the questions were treated. It 

III hid the advanta<_'c of readint; a rept>rt made bv Chap- 
l.i ' ' p of K< ! and 
a , tins tt> tli' 1 - who 
art- uicMibcrs ol the Committee (the Archdeacon of Lewes, the 
Hev. N. S. T..!Im.I and the Uev. Canon F. B. Macnutt).* A 
paper on in the Prayer B<iok. published under the 
fnispiff's ol iin i iiurchmen's Union, has also been before 
' I nmiittee. On the basis of the information derived fr«>m 
" ' ' s, tJje (■ irawn up the 
i" it now I. nit. 

It i> < I' ir that certam conditions prevailm;; widely through- 
out til' •'•^• liave a very direct bearing on the question of 

public The first part of the Report, therefore, is an 

attrriif- il with f these. The C" " 

r'i'i\'<i 1 tiiiilMT of s is find eriticisfn^ 

tl.. ■ 1 

M" 

til liar questions nl 

t'l i... .,. Mid and third cha; 

of ort contain the opinions of the Committee uml. r 

til' I 'mHs. Chapter IV. deals with the dtfBeult question 

i>f Cliurih !iii. 11 . 

• l*nut«d tjriow, pp. 8U full. 
6 



TIIE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 



fiQimot 
tlMtndi- 
Uooot 
Obanh 



Ptlrate 



CHAPTER 1 

GkNKKAL CUNSIDKIIATIUNS 

Tlic Conuuiltoc is mw it the outset of I' ■ 

the grave fact that tli at for worsliip li j. 

diminished in the |)eo|)le as a wiiole. In some it exists, but is 
pcnertcd : it fulls short of its true object, and fails to uplift the 
hearts of men above the level of worldliness ; in others it can 
hardly be said to exist. Among the reasons for this fact some, 
no doubt, are directly coimected with the public worship of tin- 
Church and the existing pcrH of it. But r " < not 

alone account for the fact, .. . necessary, , to 

inquire into other causes as well. 

Church attendance has had until lately the support of 
popular tradition and custom. A certain sense of obUgation 
as well as social, domestic and religious considerations were 
involved in this, and convention to a large extent made up 
what was lacking in devotion. It must not be fi r " that 
in the sixteenth century a statutory and legal < u to 

attend Church was imp' ^ 

tended to overshadow tii i > 

far this policy was ever successful in securing the presence of 
the whole nation at public worship it would be ditficuit to say. 
The object of the State in imposing the obligation was rather 
to detect religious malcontents than to encourage the rest. 
But it is evident that whatever measure of conformity was 
secured tended in time to diminish. The dci' ue about 

in different degrees and at a different pace _' to cir- 

cumstances. For example, the habit of a! i 

longer in villages than elsewhere, while the , „ i 

town populations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
in areas inadequately provided with opportunities of worship 
ended in the formation of large districts in which no such 
tradition existed.* Even where the habit existed it steadily 
lost its force, and by the beginning of the present century very 
little of such a habit survived. It may be no gt' t 

churchgoing as a mere conventional custom has li 
but in such circumstances it is urgent that a better sense of 
obligation should be re-established which may rest not upon 
law or convention but on devotion and a sense of spiritual need. 

It is to be feared that the habit of f)ersonal and private 
prayer has also greatly weakened ; and where this fails, public 
worship cannot long survive.^ Many causes hav( 'uttd 

to this weakening. It would involve too long a > n lu 

investigate them ; but some lie plain upon the surlace, such 
as the spread of materialistic ideals, the overpressure of 
* See below, p. 18. f See below, p. 23. 



THE i»rf:sent conditions 7 

industrial life, the weakening of home life in Reneral, the 

' - - »: 1 -i ft - 1 conse<}uent upon all these, a 

:ic)us matters. It seems char 

ust \k' ac< ! f iu)t 

on of p< > of 

li' \"i loii, tutil lluit the Church umsl attack the probkai at this 

jHllIlt. 

Nor must the factor of (^unmon prayer in the family circle rvaOrTnsts. 
h*' iirnored in H'-'>>>-;mi,' the problem. It serves as a link 
!•< ♦ s ri person. '»n and public worship. In some form 

..r ' IS if the traditional and decaying ones 

,r ry — it must Ix? revived and extended, 

i!: i uLs contribute lUi quota to the genersU recovery of de- 

\ u * ; ' • • i . 

I .t{K' for uuy considerable ( i the practice f^^^.^ 

I.I up so long as men are un< > - of the para- t^btdoif 

iiH 1 of (Jod upon their lives, and the duty of expressing *" 

lii, 11 .. . w^uition of tliis claim in worship, public and private. 
But. rx tu if they arc unconscious of this claim, they luive not 
! the natural (I f men for God as their only full 

: Tu>r i<» the . tor worship, which, though in 

w s, is cujjiiaon to all His children, as yet 

. n I them. It is this instinct which lits at thr 

rtwit ot ail devotion. Untrained, it renwins a cnidt 
■ iM, r ' iHf i.i.lv from fiinc to time under special eircui 

) and demanding only some crude imd 
rui ; iiiiirN iiiiMiuM X ry real methods of prayer for the satis- 
larti.ii of its neetis. Trained by painstaking effort and 
,ji; '''.'>' ' ' force that U)''^" i 

t., ! ; for its sji' 1 

it t ill II <i' In.lll'l^ ' 1 more ' . ' 

lit tiru'KMl uor-iiiji, tiitional i , I 

appin.ich to God. Kvcn when atrophied it is capable of 
r, , <. r. ,.,.,1 ;» ... .y be of very rapid recovery, when the causes 
ot ved, when the will is turned to God and the 

: use tt> His love. 

s of failure in full would be to pass 
! the Con 
an hvthff 



111 M of this wider cpiestion, the i om- 

fii ion to certain conditions prevail iil 

at they hinder the natural growth «»f 

til ' ire, on tli * ' '' * 

bl.. iigs into 

\uks been appointed tu iiu|uirc. 



I IK WOHSlllP OF THE THURCU 



Mnesdca. 



NMtssit; of 

ioprovement 

ia Ibt idM and 

■caettMol 

Eiltgioas 

Itutrnctioa. 



llMiilacof 
B«Uk10(U 



.... V ,>inmitt<c .- w. .,,,. ....... ...... ..... ... .i ...., 

causes of the failiirr of the Services of the Church is the lack of 
icIiLjious traiiiin;; in the nl '" vouiijj. In old days 

t Ik |ko|)Ic to whom the l*i m tiear, even though 

thy could not read and no duultt did nut understand a ^ood 
li. al of what they heard in church, were, so far as th« y w<re 
eilucati-d at all, not only tniincd in knowled;,'c of 1? ry 

but were also tau^dit to some extent the claims of rci „ jon 

their lives and tlic duty of public worship. The Church 
Catechism formed tlie basis of such relifjious instruction as there 
was. and wherever there was e<lueation at all there was also 

' ious instruction. But in the last lialf-century religious 

action has taken a secondary place over a large part of the 

try; its character has changed, and in the majority of 

M»ls it is no longer based ujK>n the teaching of the Prayer 

liuok. One of the effects of this is that, to persons so trained, 

r« l!._fion does not appear to be in any sense a necessity, nor is 

[ i_'ious training presented as an essential part of life. It 

jij»]>ears as an appendage to the secular curriculum, and takes 

its place with other secondary interests, and depends for its 

' " ;il upon successful rivalry with them. Further, the lack 
my common basis of teaching, such as the Catechism 
jilicd, has disconnected religious instruction, where it 
( M^ts, from the practice of rehgion. 

The Committee is of opinion that no machinery, and no 
revision of the existing services or provision of new ones, will 
have any lasting effect so long as the nature and claims of 
religious instruction arc so imperfectly understood. At present 
public worship is criticised because it fails to create a need. 
Its function is really not to crwite. l)ut to satisfy a need already 
in existence, and ])resent educational conditioiLS are not only 
definitely unfavourable to the development of a really religious 
impulse but even tend to steriUze it in the young. 

If we may refer for a moment to the general discussions on 
religious education with which we have all been familiar for so 
many years the above point will become fairly plain. The 
difliculties created by the divisions in the Church have driven 
out of sight what may he rall<d the religious aspect of religious 
education. It would be \ admitted that the belief in 

God involves certain reli^; nits ; but the nature of these 

depends upon the nature of the belief in God. A remote Deity 
who is not conceived as having any precise connection with the 
course of the world, or intimate relation to the souls of indi- 
vidual men, could scarcely claim more than the coldest and 
most occasional acts of reverence. But one of the most charac- 
teristic features of the Christian faith is that the life of man is 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

til' •,• connection 

wii Lliurch. In ■ 

wonis. the i. hristmn is I into a spiritual environment, 

;i!ii! lie lives in it consi. ..,., and actively, as the ordinary 
riti/. M lives in contact with his physical and iK>litical cnviron- 
ni' ii!. It ; Mtial to the coriii ' ' - of his life as the 

l>li\ -!■ il I t)u- »;iM'i«tv ill iif livp«i ; RnH no 

•■ : " .f 



' whicli WHS drar to the theorists of the 

i-i "id the evil results arc now apparent. 

The !►< d l>etwecn school-attendance and 

(•hnrr«h ...., ,i,,., i^i worship is to many a thiiij; entirely 

t] of children the So« tabled to 
' the physical and Koowkdia": 
i" tn Church should 

'" , „ _ 1 lu- Christian child. 

n< -liouiti U- lauu'ht n<»t merely the history of the Jews or the 
hi>-t..r\ contained in the New Testament, but he should l)c 
!'r nj'ii into direei and conscious relation icith the Christian 
- ' " ^ ' " 'h the study of the Bible and the 
C t hincT of this si>rt is done, organised 

I li!i :. .:. ill ahva\ ♦<> be more or less unintcl- 

li-'i'' •' > an uif and accidental thinj;, as 

•» ut above, needs vcr>' little training. It is 

! IX rs<»ns who luive little definite association 

p God " as well m the open air " as in Butthaou 
-■»■'<. Hut it is organised Christian worship |S^2}}^ 
5 1 hat full and varied response to man's religious n i i i tj ?" 

' iwcr. 

r»e<d 

•■' loulti II' 

d' I M to havr 

and a< a really : ..n. Its policy should 

*x* *" ' -■ t every ei the right to edurjition 

•" and not merely in ** religious knowledge," and, as 

'^ u-W ol the 

'• a Church 

.1 llu b. h will 

" It is « ! V. at 

•'■ '*ns, to pnivide for th<- 

^t' tn understand. Hut it \ . . 

be a fatal mistake to r icd with providing m r\ urs of 

this sort fiful trninifii: ..u to this alone. Th« 

of till ( hun h mil t I- t,, ir.ul |)coplc on from the sin 
stiig* s to th. ..rj^'iiii < .1 laitli and developed worship ol Uic 



10 



Tilt: woiismp OF the church 



Etous traciiittx 
io the Week- 
d«r Scbook. 



Prep4ration lor 
OaaSnnttioD. 



Church. It would be intolerable to deprive those who are 
capable of understanding such services , r" »- . - - »«- • 'ads 
up to th('in. and of thr privilcf,'(-' and h! in. 

\\"i I so far <•" ii.uuly II. > f n 

in » 1 Hiit n to the \ ca- 

tion in s (11, juul the Conn to 

cniphasi/ _ iriitc education in _ nets 

and training m religious observances must be continued to the 
end of school life. 

Children who attend Sunday Schools or Catechisms have a 
loou further opportunity of training in worship. Val ' ' s this is, 
ill '][ must !>«' nijardcd as a snppltnu-nt to thr ti .vvn on 

iid not as a 'f it. For it ii> \n these 

. probably, tli « c can best be established 

between the three motives which underlie all such worship. 
There is first the sense of obligation to God and the Church not 
to be absent from the great assembly ; secondly, the sense of 
privilege in being admitted each one to his place in the Court- 
in attendance upon the King ; and, thirdly, the joy tliat is 
found in its fulness in the presence of God. Put in these 
surroundings it would be possible to concentrate much more 
fully upon this practical side of religious education, if the 
rudimentary instnieti(»n in Christian Truths were better 
secured in the week-day schools. 

Such training is naturally to be carried on to a further stage 
by the special preparation for Confirmation and First Com- 
munion. The Committee desires to emphasise the importance 
of this opptjrtunity of instruction not only in Christian Faith 
but also in Worsliip, and to urge the continuance wherever 
I>ossiblc of such instruction after the Confirmation when this 
branch of the teaching can receive special prominence. It 
seems probable that Holy Communion would by this means 
acquire a deeper and more lasting place in the devotional life 



Onaatutaotorr 
potlUoa of the 
taitriaUM 
Chofoh. 



n 

Another potent cause of lack of interest in the worship of 
the Church arises, in the opinion of the Committee, from the 
unnatural and unsatisfactory position of the laity in the Church. 
This is more than a question of detail. It involves a real 
misapprehension as to the position of a Christian man or woman. 
The terms used in the New Testament of the members of the 
Church (the Saints, the Brethren) beyond question cover the 
laity. Every Christian man who is admitted a member of the 
Christian body is in the sense of the New Testament one of the 
saints. It is outside the purpose of the Committee to enter 



POSITION OF THE LAITY 11 

upon the way in which this primitive idea of the lay '^Christian 
has been al' ' ' ' t lust. But there ia no doubt that 
the pre«ent lailv is verv far indeed frcnn that 

1(1- ^ ' The I.i 

j»r 'Pch in t, 

M ' ^ Spirit IN given tu tliciii ; and ihc 

>|) o the olliec-bcarers of the Chureh 

IS lis. and docs not distinguish the 

nsc from the lay brethren. 
i on order rather than disorder, the ^S^St 
Iii oHicials cannot be performed by Mtg. 

til !t for Mich functions is not ^iven. 

Hi ' t t and effc<f i 

di ^ .nr point. Th 

Church, indeed, »s .still unchanged ; but in practice the lay 
|K-u|)le fall very far sliort of obtaining that influence and 
effective power which they may fairly exi>ect to possess. It 
h;ii " ' -. ^1^^^ jn dealing with a people of the 

eli tjf the Kn(;lish it is ini{M)litie to attempt 

t- :naUcr.^ lu which th< ^ rued without con- 

n. It is not, of cou: <1 that the broad 

1> r of the service in th ed worship of 

. . ()e at the mercy of a c t )te in a parish 

qr even in a representative council of the Church. But, as 
things are at present arranged, the whole details of the services 
in ehurch are entirely in the hands of the incuml>cnt, and he is 

,flf.: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■!(-. 

I t hat the aiitocra^'V of the Edatioa ot 

' , ,.. Wtftoctae 

Ml .\ iaIhafML 

di 

times «i by the co not infrequently 

b*—" •-■ . .r reasons of ........^ liavc in the result 

w at improvements in the order and bi-auty of the 

stTMi' , iind it is largely owii - ' Micse that the worship 

of th«- rimrcli is not more I y inadi'quate to the 

11' ' r, it must be frr 

sa irrh ufKin all itti i: 

\h t me and worship has lUiiiust 

divi^i .i>. tiMi, is a serious depar- 

tun- Iruiii I of the < iiid depnves it of the 

positive uiiit ..gw. '■* ' it should look to l.'iv- 

men. There is a \ liiiiec as to the a» tu.il 

work doll' ' •' which nuiy ac<t>unl 

for the c*>\ :ii stage and in tUtion. 

It is evHcii- luity should realise their 

respomiibiln 

But when du made for all of this, there 



V2 THE WOIISUIP OK THE CHURCH 

remains the problem of securing a better co-operation between 
iiylor dergy and people in all ni.i" f worship. Means must be 

found for rurlWng rlrri<*al y. At present if the in- 

inioerMy— cuiubcnt < down by the rubrics 

or by the * .. effectively to control 

his freedom. But it is not only the cases of uetual infringe- 
ment of the law which the layman is impotent to control. 
He is at the mercy of the incumbent in matters as to which 
the law leaves a considerable margin of freedom. A new 
incumbent coming to a parish can upset the whole of its tra- 
ditions, whatever may be the opinions of the persons who live 
in the parish. No doubt there are parishes which are the 
better for a considerable change from time to time, and, when 
that is really so, it is probable that only a minority of the 
parishioners would persistently resist all change. But, in 
view of the long experience of the English people in the conduct 
of business, there is a strong probability that such parochial 
situations would be dealt with most easily, and with the least 
friction, if there were granted by Statute to the laity such a 
definite and effective legal voice in regulating the services of 
the Church as is suggested by and within the limits of the 
Report of the Archbishops' Committee on the relations of 
Church and State. 
-»nd for (ririat Nor is it dcsirablc to restrict the functions of the laity to 
taUMooadoflt counsel, and approval or disapproval of the proposiils of the 
^^Jl^j^ia incumbent. The actual share of the laity in the conduct of 
Uymm— public worship has j)rofitably increased in the course of the last 

Imlf century, and there is room for further increase. The 
Committee holds that, with the sanction of the incumbent, 
laymen or laywomen should be encouraged to conduct services 
of intercession and other devotions which do not re<iuire the 
ministry of a priest : and it would welcome such extension of 
the power of preaching and instruction both to laymen and 
-and womeo. womcn as may be judged consistent with Catholic order and 
the needs of the times. 

Evidence has been before the Committee which shows clearly 
how strong and valuable a force is available in a Church 
wlun the laity arc encouraged to take a serious and 
responsible interest in its work. The Committee, therefore, is 
clearly of opinion that a great step forward would be taken 
toward-, the recover)' of interest in the services of the Church if 
the powers and functions of the laity therein could be re- 
organised. Indeed, it is improbable that any changes in the 
services themselves would secure more than a temporary im- 
provement in habits of worship unless this deeper mischief is 
corrected. It is true, of course, that the Church will always 
hold its treasure in earthen vessels. The clergy will, as before, fall 



INDUSTRIAL CO^a)ITlONS 18 

short of the absolute ideaJ. The criticisms made upon them by 
the laity will still in some cases bo unreasonable. Objections 
to details in the ser\'iccs will still at tinus be fntty, and will be 
pressed all the more vi' s important they are. 

But the way to reduce ; t permanent elements 

of weakiu'ss in the Church is by |)r(Klucinp a vijjorous and free 
Church'lifo and by boldly providing constitutional facilities for 
protest and redress. Small andjinsij^ificant details get dispro- 
portionate attention when they are not corrected by the larger 
and more liberal atmosphere of public discussion. 

Ill 

Amonjj the deeper causes which have harmfully affected the ^^JJLJf** 
W' the Church in its relation to the people at large are kiniiiii 

th' - -h spring from the nature and influence of the SSS?©?" 

industrial system, which began to dominate F^ngland in the i«Mi««wthip 
earlier decades of the last centur>\ The Church of that period 
did not. or could not, cope quickly enough with the masses of 
pe ■ . h the rapid n h of our i- 1 cities, under 

th' c- of the fact em, gatli ^'ether. Thus 

til' n and habit ol public worship were broken for 

mi ho never recovered them either for themselves or 

their children. Nor has the Church, in such centres of |X)pula- 
tion, ever overtaken the arrears, in spiritual oversight and 
provision, which had accumulated in that period. In spite of 
th< ' . " • of the Church in the last half-century, 

P'* with one or two clcr<fN' in charge, arc 

" that 
• long 



tf 



.... ....:...L ;,. ;;.. .wclustrial system, thus 

d< If increases the evil. The persistent pressure of 

it"" "^«- prnrr r'nerated in the people a spirit and 

^*" 'n frt)m v nature of the Church's worship, 

**>"!'. Ill oMi the bitter realities of the 

p,.«»pl«- >- ! IP in their eyes an artificial 

'■^' V more and more r« 

^^ < while the materi 

whi( M the indn i in the nation plaveil 

hav4>c with th.. ,,». ,..„,,(,.„.,.> of life which - * il 

to a consistent u : < p of God — e.g.. the idea of ;> 

which is an essrrjtuii < liat wors) : < < n 

lari;r|y lost thmueh i nnd ai u of 

claMes r 

I^UTi . ■ t^bat sentimental 

alienation of the poorer classes fmm the Church which largely 



U THE WOIISIUP OF THE CIIUUCH 

accounts for t up. It is their 

hearts which V i << has an institu- 

tion governed by and administered lor comparatively small 
circles of the well-to-do classes steadily took root in the mind of 
the people, and completed the process of alienation which the 
industrial system began. 

Moreover, in the earlier years of the industrial era, and even 
now in our own time, the conditions and cir< -es 

resulting from the competitive system rendered f l.ir 

fulfilment of duties in regard to Church worship excessively, 
if not impossibly, arduous. Long hours of daily labour react- 
ing upon the body, continuous occupation in mechanical pro- 
cesses reacting upon the soul, housing conditions often un- 
healthy and morally deleterious, " speeding-up " of factory 
machinery inducing "industrial fatigue," toj^'ether, with other 
untoward circumstances operating throughout the week upon 
life, are greatly inimical to the offering to God <> ys 

(particularly on Sunday mornings) of a free-will oli la 

holy worship of " ourselves, our souls and bodies " in the case 
of the wage-earning classes, 
'^uik "^'^^ Committee, therefore, is convinced that, while even 
t under such conditions many individuals among these classes, 

by noble effort of will, may continue steadfast in the duties of 
religious worship, yet only by removal of the w< of 

our social and industrial system, or even byara. in 

the system itself, will the way be made clear for the return of 
the nconic to tlie oiihlie worship of thf Church. 

IV 

The Committee is of opinion that the total effect of the 
recommendations in the ensuing^ chapters of this Report, if 
these are wisely and consistently put into practice, would be 
greatly to simplify and improve the services of Church worship 
and to make them more congruous with the real needs and the 
best aspirations of the people ; it desires, nevertheless, to 
emphasise the conviction already expressed that not in such 
things as defects in the Prayer Book or in the rendering of 
Church services lie the deeper causes of the alienation of the 
people from public worship, but rather in the lack of religious 
education, in the failure to use the gifts of the laity, and in 
those perverted conceptions of life among all classes which it 
is the duty of the Church to correct, and those social and in- 
dustrial wrongs which it is the duty of the nation to redress. 



BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER 15 

CHAPTER II 

SlTCiiKSTIONS IN RpnARD TO THE BoOK OF COMMON 

Prayer 

The Committee has received a very large number of 
' ' ' • ' '•,, ' "" itions of the Prayer Book. 

I -t a large pro|X)rtion (^f them 

d itt the report of Convocation 

\ I.rtfer of Business. The Committee 

does not prof>ose to (\\ in in detail ; but there are certain 

(>oints upon which it . ible to make some comment. 

One ver\' Inrjjc section of opinion deals with the Communion Th« 

•Scnice. It is almost universally felt that the Communion 

.Srrvice has fallen out of its pro^)cr place in the s<*hcme of 

■" ' "to mean attendance 

and the floly Com- 

> thf |MjMtion of an nal 

lite convictions and sjii orts 

such as are not expected of the average member of the Church. 

It is clear that this is a serious misfortune. 

In the first place, the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper is defi- ua iiMciB 
• ^ ' > ..,'♦. and hiis then-fore a greater claim on ^"^^ 

MS thaii any other serviet- that can be 

to be no doubt that the 

' i-mand for intellectual effort 

tnon- directly the sj)iritual impulses than such 

Morning and Evening Prayer. Thirdly, the whole 

of the Church is in favour of making this service in 

-J ntral. 

I* . however, arise as soon as it is attempted to Pnaat 

In a very large i mww^-. 

hotirs of the ' 



of com ig naturally affects the time 

.-■- i ♦'- <^'- .-..,., is held. 

The t not firoposc to make any definite 

— " \Mii' II ' ' ' ' - to all chiirches without 

hour of ■ u»n .Srr\'ici'. thr dc-trriH* of 

it js nf: of 

--minefl and 

t . . .T, T. • it iMMs The question of 

1' aiiii t' <iii(sfion of evening 

^ o' of soiM' rovcrsy, 

aud:.. \edinthi ,....,„<....>; w. i« rmin*ng 

how to 1 back to its proper place. The 

Committei- cMirr tnc im *nbution 



1« THE WORSHIP OF THE CHITRCH 

towards a settlement. It has clear evidence that valuable result 

it) t' of both \^ " ' ' 

par. 'in a Coiii 

fcttturrs cflrbratcd each Siuulay (in adiitlioti lo earlier » 
brations), at which comparatively 'cw persons communieu 
that in others a special Communion Service held at rc);fular in 
tervals, which is definitely recognised as a corporate parish celc 
bration and at which a large number of parishioners would com 
munieate, has proved successful. In this case a large nun ^ 
of the communicants would not be fasting. In •Jome pi 
a choral Celebration held every Sunday at 8 or !' 
the best desires both of those who wished to < 
at the service and of those who did not. In some Ciises a ser\ ici 
at which the majority of worshippers are children has proved 
a valuable training-ground in worship for future commimicants. 
whilst in other cases it has been found preferable that children 
should be brought to the service by their parents, and the 
family worship together. The Committee has also had 
from chaplains at the Front * and from certain town 
at home of the value, imder special conditions, of j 
for the Holy Communion on Sunday evenings. Those i 
of the Committee who had experience of these services were of 
opinion that if the Celebration follows the usual evening service 
it should be clearly separated from it, beginning at a definitely 
stated hour, and ordered with all solemnity and dignity ; with- 
out omission, and with such music as may be appropriate. 
With these and other alternatives available, the el lias 

been said, must be left to the parish. But the ( t- is 

unanimous in holding that the act of Commimion is the true 
centre of ali Christian worship and the bond of union between 
communicants, and as such is the duty of all Christian people. 
These facts have been obscured in recent times, and one of the 
most pressing necessities of the day is that they should be 
brought vividly into the consciousness of the Church. The 
need will have to be met in various ways according to the 
requirements of the parish ; and the changes involved will cause 
considcrablealterationsof English practice in hours and methods. 
Moralag uU ^^^^ answers to the <piestior)s of the Committee display a very 

^y*"« widely spread dissatisfaction with the daily services of Morning 

and Evening Prayer. This dissatisfaction depends largely 
upon the modern practice of using the Morning Prayer, the 
Litany, and the Conununion Service in immediate succession. 
It is obvious that this difficulty can be rectified with corrrpara- 
tively little trouble. But it would appear that there is a strong 
feeling also that the services themselves are unsuitable for 
general purposes, in that they make too heavA^ a demand upon 
• Sue p. 40, belo^. 



PSALMS AiD LESSONS 1.7 

•e and k ■ of the congregation. It is also 

..: the pri thtxi of reciting the Psahns, and 

nt selection of Lessons, arc both in the highest degree 

1 tliat there arc questions of principle as well as n^rndtf oi 

"I'd in these in the JJ^*** 

:<-e, it is ini i aguish unaMdlw 

\ 111- railed t hr i(<,Milar systeiuatie worsliip of jJlrT 
I the provision of scr%Mces for persons who 
• It-d as instructed Christians. It would be a 

....... ...ill' if these two aspects of the question \vcre 

It can hardly be denied that it is the boundcn 

the Church to present in systematic order, through 

urn of its services, the whole content of its message to 

• is to say, it is hardly possible to conceive 

vcr br ri!»hf to forgo altogether a daily and 

ce eorr- ' to the Church's year. It is 

it the pn ..- thod of dealing with the Psalms Th«p«itac. 

is an unhappy one, and attention is called to the report now 

"* I by both Houses of Ihe Canterbury Convocation. 

I port it is proposed to appoint Proper Psalms for each 

to omit certain pass^iges whieh cause 

id criticism ;* to recite the Psalter con- 

is, on the days of the week ; and 

!• in regard to the selection of 

t ion of the minister. The Committee 

•visions would go a long way towards 

f "I to the present use of the Psidter. 

Ill iiM iii.iiim r till- iwo Houses of Canterbury Convocation ru 
have accepted a report cont^iinint; a n«*w Lfotionary. This J^«**«"*^- 
' on one • \ o( two— 

rned In il year, and 

nut |»ai ; partly by the civil 

>■•■ «r. 1 I i IS as well as Proper 

First K< SS..IIS lor all . Holy Days, and Kves of Holv 

r>'^ It also sup)>l.. . .....rnative Second Lessons for ail 

. and it has got rid of a larce number of the most 



from wl ' ' I 

T. that .,ns 



rs. 



tairly b<- e\ i attend the 

I'll. As is u ., wi. the Old 

ivt in th' years has undergone serious criticism. 
•* V . annot Ik- s.ii.i 1.1. ii '' rural opinion of the Church at 

•Sninr nunitirpi of iltr d r 'n.fielv nl.j«flr.| In ihr «>iiii%iii«>n« 

ptopoaad. 



la T1IE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

the present moment in regard to the Old Testament is settled. 
The opinion that every word of it is verbally inspired, that its 
sUitcrnents and stjindanls nw hindinfj in matters of history, 
seience, and ethies, still ^ ils. It is <)1>^ 

fore, that any system of !■ i from the 01. 

must eause a certain amount of perplexity to the minds of 
some who hear them. 
■wiwMoool A Committee of the two Houses of Canterbury, which 
to Um Old reported on the Lectionary, has made a sujjjjcstion of consider- 
J^JJI"' able imi>ortance. It is tliat the clerj^' shotild be at liberty 
to introduce the L( ' \ some short cm ' ' ri of its 

nature; and it was s i by the Committ book of 

such introductions sliould !> I under y. The 

Lower House of Canterbury' (li oapproN< ;;,'estion: 

and it is probably true thiit an authorised series of such intro- 
ductions would be extremely difficult to construct, and might 
be indecisive and somewhat ineffective in character. Further, 
such a plan would imply a definite approval by the Church of 
one particular method of interpreting the Bible as a whole : 
this would be a new dej)arture. On the other hand, the existing 
confusion in the Church would be greatly increased if it were 
open to any clergyman to set out at that point In 
\icws as giving the reason why such-and-such a j 
selected. This would not be the same as the liberty of preachuig, 
for there the preacher is recognised as setting forth his ovm ex- 
position. But an introduction to a Lesson, such as is contem- 
plated by the Conmiittec of Convocation, would seem to be 
more authoritative than a sermon, and could not therefore be 
left so largely to individual discretion. It is prob " 'no 

final solution of the difficulty of the use of the Old 1 t in 

public worship will be attainable until (1) religious idue^tion 
such as this Committee has already demanded is more wdcly 
prevalent, and (2) opinion of the Church upon the Old Testa- 
ment has settled down more completely. The Committee, 
while recognising both the dangers and the advantages of the 
plan suggested by the Joint Committee on the Lectionary, 
would welcome the provision by competent scholars of short 
prefatory' introductions \o the Lessons for optional use.* 

The answers sent in re])ly to the questions of the Committee 

raised a number of points affecting generally the services of 

the Church and their rendering : the Committee thinks it 

desirable to invite the attention of the Church to the following : 

The ciefKT ia ^ • ^^''^ position of the Clergy. — It is ob\'ious that the quality 

^JJ« and attractiveness of the worship will depend to a great extent 

• An attempt to supply such introductions to the Psalms has \H-vn made 
by Dr. Sanday and Mr. Emmet. Ti' P^m,,,. Am/,,,,,^// MiKorrl 
Oxford University Press. One shilling. 



RENDKRTNG OF SKRVICKS 10 

upon the rfml^rinp of the scr\n>cs by the clrrjjy. It is impos- 

^;i.i-, f..- .. ♦ ^^ to expect people to att' ' '' '— ♦" "♦♦'■"^r»t*to 

1 which the priest's part Mble 

' ■' ' ■ ' ,ieh 

1 or 

aiid lii il, or lou^ and 

mnv pv s in the way of 

us to attend. Evcr\' service 

— cd, should proceed in a digni- 

r, and shoidd be rendered in such a 

*•"" " n hear nr ' - * r into it. A 

or mcf performed 



the 

or many of the dcforts to which attention has been 

,...,, . , icre arc ffood reasons for monotoning in a ver}' large 

church, irulced it is difficult to be audible without some such 

' ' ' " ' * ' " : but it would surely be better, 

tiding, tn use the natural speaking 

fhr training Jjj^ 
of ' full tr s more ottht 

t)n. 1- other ( .....-: ... d desir- *"***' 

iiention one or two matters that directly concem'public 

>■> < M -.III 1 '. 

Thf Committee n^irards it as an essential thing that arrange- ■*'*** 

,..,-.,.. Yor 

. it 



i M- 

nf '1 







I humai' 


■ tgy 












'Ml .'\(1\ 1 


:i<ii 




1 


1 other s 


•<'rs 


It l:> 




" 


all 


pMt t' 


'II : nor 

'1 or ii 




•tm 
ity. 

'v«*S. 




from )'• 




• of 



r 1 r 



\ u'ad wprr con»iderrd by the fg*— * 

• tkv p. «l, briow. » ii V iii 



W THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

Committee. A majority of the members were in favour of 

jfiving the Bishop |)owcr to refuse institution to ' tee 

to H living, on the ground that he was not a si od 

preacher for that particular parish. All wei ng 

that some discrimination should be used i to 

their first parish, thiit those who had no special aptitude in 
preaching when ordained should be licensed only to parishes 
in which facilities were available for further instruction in 
, preaching and teaching, for instance, by means of lectures and 
studies debates. It is desirable that every encouragement should be 
»tu|r given to the clergy, espocially in the earliest years of their 

ordained life, to continue their studies and obtain further 
degrees or diplomas in theology, and in other matters which in 
modern conditions have a powerAil rffect on the religious ideas 
and impulses of the people : it should be part of the work of the 
Diocesan organisation to provide opportunities by lectures 
and other such means, and attendance should be compulsory 
for Deacons. No individual, of course, can hope to cover all 
the ground ; particular tastes and gifts will, no doubt, guide 
each man i!i his selection of subjects of study : but it is not too 
much to expect that each man who is appointed to preach 
should deliver a message that is in some live relation to the 
thoughts and problems of his age. 
importsnc* The Committee desires to lay great emphasis on the import- 
ooGAdooai ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Occasional Offices in the system of the Church, 
offlecs. They are used by many peo])le who are not ordinarily church- 
goers, and it will certainly make a great difference if such 
persons find themselves courteously welcomed and the services 
performed with care and dignity and reverence. The Offices 
themselves appear to the Committee to be difficult and to need 
a revision of phraseology more drastic than that proposed in the 
Report of Convocation. The Exhortations in particular are 
long and their language somewhat areliaic : it would be a 
great advantage if they could be redrafted so as to bring them 
home to the minds of an average congregation. 
Sermons. 2. SermoriJi. — The Committee is of opinion that the position 

of the sermon in the services has become unduly stereotyped 
and that much more freedom is desirable in this respect. It 
was agree<l that when a sermon is preached in connection with 
In on- Matins or Evensong it should be lawful to put it either at the 
ne^oB beginning or end of the service, or preferably after the Third 
lonMU Collect : if preached in connection with the Holy Communion it 
' might be placed at the beginning of the service instead of after 

the Creed. The question of sermons is closely connected with 
that of the length of the services. The Conmiittee is convinced 
that an hour, or, at the very most, an hour and a quarter, is 
the limit of the power of attention in ordinary congregations. 



iifTio#« 



SERMONS 21 

Locnl rirrnm«;tancr«? shotjid determine the way in which this 
till ' a<lv;mta;,'c : and it may be .sat< ly 

assi ; iied in coiiiuction with any loriiial 

servuf should be quite short. Their subject should be closely 
rtlut* tl to the prayers and other elements in the service : if this 
condition were fulfilled, it should be possible in a short address, 
if . ' ' red, of ten or fifteen minutes in lenjjlh to 

fix '11 to the lesson of the purtieular service on 

an iciy. 

> »rt discourses, however, could not be regarded as Ap«rtiroa 

fiiltilling ttic preaching function of the Church. The faith of nrao«. 
Chi'i-t IT. iv ides a system of thought as well as a rule of life, and 
it 1 t importance that the whole faith should be set forth 

in - — Vor the better performance of this task, the 

Co tluit in many places, at some convenient 

ho "id, in which the bulk of the time 

sh- J. It should consist of one or more 

hyiiiii!) iir . a liiiiding Prayer, with intereessions or 

devotions, :. nnon of some length and elaboration, fol- 

lowed by a few short prayers and the Blessing. The Conunittee 
is aware tliat such a plan might be dillicult or impossible in 
many places, csixcially in the country. But there would not 
be the same dilliculty in towns : almost any large town would 
supj>ort a series of sermons of this kind at least in speeial 
seasons, and t' '<• of them would be verj' l' 

Such a plan «• , no doubt, much study and < 

on the part of the clergy, but some of the dilliculty would be 
riK f I IV Tree eo-oiKTatioii amoug the clergy of a large ttjwn. j^ . 
al was made to the Committee and ap2)roved that it Uymeast 
1 u ii.iwjc that laymen should be invited to lecture from time SSSJJS*' 
to tune to candidates at Theological Colleges, so as to bring 
til >]s more directly before those who are to be 

OF' filso suggested that Bisfiops nii;;ht ask 

p- i to St I f the 

Mr _ iiarishcs, - , I ' ., and 

that the liishops might u.se such cntieisms for the guidance of 
the IK-aconii. Such a practice obtained in the l)itM;esc of 
Durham in Bishop Westcott's time, and is still found valuable 

I . 1 _ 

en'M Services. — The Committee has alrendv railed SJJtIS.' 

tl.. 

but even ent of tins end would not justily the 

Chun li in ,^. it most im{xirtant part of its work for 

ti The t ' c is strongly of opinion that the 

Ciiumi .^.iould pv)\ -T-ritic teaching for the children in 

the various {kih^Iii s, .i this should be so arranged a« to 



SI THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

avoid the discontinuity which marks the present syfitem. 
■ ■ ' ■ -fhe 

aticl it Wius ^ I tlml it > native ^crvtces 

iniglit be pre i the pr«'] ^ ^ t to the Prayer 

liook : such services should contain suitable hymns. It was 

'-■■ pointed out that some system ol" grading is required in 

li to services for the young. In present conditions there 
i> iu> stage between that whieli ' ' ' .... ,j.^,^ 

aiul the services lor adults: it u tee 

fhe needs of box i llurLccu to seventeen 

old should be 1 ^ ^ met. Great emphasis 

wtis laid upon the necessity ot lull and careful preparation by 

111. flexgy for the dilhcult and responsible task of teaching the 

1 en. The Committee resolved, further, that an alternative 
V anAliism is required, much simpler in language, so as to be 
suitable for children, and much wider in scope. 
Pr»7«r. i. Methods of fostering the spirit of pru idence 

l)efore the Cominittee, especially that of ti, to the 

Forces, has proved clearly that there is a very ad 

tleeay of the practice ofsjirivate prayer as well a- , ilic 
worship. The complete remedy for this will no doubt be 
found in a fuller, more systematic, and more continuous 
education in religion. But much might be done by providing 
suitable forms of prayer. The ("' ' ^ write: "Contact 
with all and sundry of British maul. revealed the crying 

of a simple form of devotion, known from clu! the 

Mon and famihar possession of all. This would i c a 

nd to the Church." In the meantime the Committee 

cs to call attention to the help that has been found by 

simple people in a method of devotion such as the Chaplet 
of Prayer. This consists in meditations upon the events of 
i>ur Lord's life, with prayers repeated at intervals. It would 
be suited for ordinary use, and not merely r " or 

occasions, and might proWde a form or p. ite 

ion. There is also a strong feeUng that the Holy Week 
invaluable opportunities, and that a cycle of services 
of a dramatic and devotional character is desirable for this 
season. The Conunittee discussed the extra-hturgical use of 
the Reserved Sacrament ; but there was considerable difference 
of opinion on the subject, and it was decided to record this 
tact without further comment. 

In this connection it seems desirable to refer to a serious 
criticism upon the Order for Morning and Evening Prayer, 
which formed part of the communication of the three members 
of the Committee who are Chaplains to the Forces. It is 
urged that the order of the thought in these services is un- 



CharctaM. 



THE USE OF CHURClll'lS 23 

!iatisfiictory, by reason of the einpiiasis uyton the penitential 

' ' " ' et : that the average man needs to realise the 

I more fullv than he tloes before he l>eijiiis to 

■ • ■ , I ■• r . • ■ -;,■. 

pt'ii >n to a later pari ut i : 

wou. ._. more complete recoil 

than any tliat lias yet Ijcen suggested ; but the Connnittee 
thinks that it deserves careful consideration. 

In view of all the evidence before the Connnittee under this g,^ i„ 
1 that li v should be en< • i. ««*■• 

'1 of the; icrs, to make ex| 

kit I \ oii Sunday evenings uihIct tlic 

sail I > of vitiil importance to find out, 

if (Missiblc, what arc the actual desires which need to be satisfied, 
and. ill view of the great variety of spiritual and intellectual 
attainments in different congregations, the Committee holds 
that it is only by great freedom in experiment that the discovery 
can b«* mailf'. 

^ ' fully the nrnQMor 

<p». worship. 

It ^sary l«* urge that churches sliould be k- ;♦ 

ope _ - ; this is now very connnon. But a great 

deal of the advantage of the open church is lost if it has all 

•' ■ -nice of l>eing closed, if entrance is possible only by 

ioor discoverable by research, and if the church 
I ry and uninhabitetl appearance. Chui' ' 
\. , obvious! v, and hospitably o|mmi : n 

\Ni 

|)laces It might .seem desirable to make provision — e.g., tor tlr 

,.,tiri.. <ir {\n- deaf. Strangers should Ix; made wcleome : 

.s and hymn-books iKing available for their use. 

i I. ..»: . ' ;ld l)e en - d to feci themselves 

rrs M-r maint >>( the fabric and the 

the chun li ; and u>' 
••♦•t of th«" fhnn-h !■ 

1 by tlic 

iigs : it is 

pr' lit the war will liavc the effect, in many places, t»l 

re . I ...,.li r, V IV .1 .Iw.iil,! I" welcomed. TheCom- 

iiir ion for private pr i\' r 

ur !• ill ail eiiurehes. aU'I '' ' 

<i| ! I>e provided. If s» ■ 



might be held tlicrc, witliout any real danger uf loss uf reverence. 



Vettf* 



24 



THK WORSHIP OF TliE CHURCH 



CoDfOOatfOB 

and RmMob. 



ABM>i«4iM(ie 
nIoiiB wfllb« 

■oon nccetsary. 



0<doaUlaiid 

minioiuxT 

chiucbcc. 



and with the valuable result of helping; the people to concentrate 
their interests and affections u|M)n their church. 

6. Prayer Hook Hevision.-'Vhv Committee was instructed 
in the terms of its reference to coiusidcr tl. for 

Prayer Book Rcvivion which were- ufid«T <! the 

Convocation of ( ry. These \v 

Nos. 501 (the L- , ), 50i (the n. 

Book of Common Prayer), 510 (the Psalter), iktwecn the date 
of the letter of the Archbishops and the meetings of the 
Committee in July the Houses of Convocation of Canterbury 
considered and approved with some moditications all these 
Reports. This fact naturally affected the attitude of this 
Committee to them. It seemed unnecessary to consider each 
Report in detail. The Committee found itself in general 
agreement with the Reports and was gratilied to find many 
suggestions of revision which seemed desirable anticipated by 
Convocation. Tlie additional proposals which here follow 
are made in the hope that they may be of service to Convo- 
cation ; but the Committee is anxious that the progress of any 
movement for bringing into operation the changes projwsed by 
Convocation should not be delayed. 

It is understood that Convocation does not, at present, 
propose any alterations in the text of the Prayer Book, but 
aims at the provision of a supplement to the existing book 
with legal sanction, by means of which the opinion of the 
Church and the value of the proposals might be adequately 
tested. It is probable that this course is the most likely to 
lead to definite action in the neai future. But this Committee 
does not wish to be understood as if it considered the Convoca- 
tion proposals complete or adequate. From evidence which is 
before the Committee it would appear certain that many per- 
sons have entirely outgrown the Book of Conunon Prayer in its 
present form, that the book does not satisfy a number ol 
requirements which have come into existence in recent years, 
and that the task of revising it in a more drastic way cannot be 
very long post|)oncd. 

The need of revision is felt with special acuteness in colonial 
and missionary churches in which the connexion of the Prayer 
Book with the controversies of the sixteenth centur>' has no 
particular value or importance. The reference of this Com- 
mittee can hardly be said to cover the problems of these 
churches, and it is desirable that they should have considerable 
freedom in dealing with them. But they are likely to look for a 
lead to the Church at home, and their requirements add urgency 
to the question of a bold policy of Prayer Book revision.* 

• Tlie coinnu'iit.i mid udditioiiul rt'coiiinundutiuiis of the Committee 
are uppeiided in the order of the Hesolutiouii of Convocation. 



PROPOSALS OF CONVOCATION 25 

'I <^s the general preliminary resolution 

in K , V, , '' '»fultcrjitiou of the Services by the 

lncuMttx;nt without tion of the imrishioners, though 

there were s mix rs wlio objected strongly to the pro- 

|M>sal in it•^ form. It is lu)j>«><l. howrver, that the 

' have regard 

services. 

I >t tliu Conumttcc upon tlie Lectionary and 

Psal'- I'll ;il>(>\ e. 

The ( >cd no opinion upon the Kalendar, or 
•••"•'*' • MolyjDays, or u[)on the Ornaments 

I Ld the alt« ,i in the 

Or.' • when the II lollows ; 

1 be given to 
' lor purity. A 

maj«)rity ol the Committee desired that the tirst seven verses 
of the Venitc might be used without those concerning the 
IsrurUtes in the wilderness. It was agreed that it is desirable 
to i" " - ' '" *' - invocation in the Prayer for the tie r<:> 

in ^! Prayer, and to include in it a petition 

■ work of the Church. The ( 
'wr ciuling projKJscd for Ever. :^ 
Prayer and the Lale K\ ■ 

A iii.ii.irity of the C<'i ired that Quicunque vult 

nIj- rdered to be said on Trinity Sunday only, with an 

ex) ■■'••• V •'■ s that in the Convocation Book of 1872. 

I 1 1 mends that a petition for Christian 

'i ■' ' , and that the prayers for 

th. I. 

' " (Ts and 

Til i.hould be 

pr tlir form of short litanies, available for use at the 

cuil . "" Mr Kveniri" Pr iv .t or at other times. 

A ni 1 the CVp wished that the requirement 

to*: ^ 111 the Holy Comnn ~^ ; \ li . 

oil I be withdrawn, and 

Mr -I 

1 ,.-.,,.> 

iir' 'U in the Huly Communion Service wa« 

Other minor iis with regard to the service for Holy 

ConmiMiiion Mr. ,.<wi» : (1) Tli;* : • •• • ' * ■■ 

rubrir lor )> .ilm , lis mtis or anthcni 

.s< rvir. ; ! 

That th. < > 

Exhortation* khoulU be lurlhcr rcviM.Hi, lh<; tlurd bhurtcncd 



30 Till: WUKiJlill' Ol TUli CUUHCH 



bo adopted. (5) Thut a standing positmii l>e rt'oognihcd, as a 
relief from long kuccliog — «^., from Sursuju Cord.i *•> *f>' end 
of the Sanctus. 

The Committee is of opinion that the CoUcrt amr the 
I^iying-ou of Hands in the Connrumtiun office should contain 
a more definite r ii of the gift of the Holy < the 

puriK)se of CV)nl The Committee also j </ a 

majority the folhtwin tion : That this Committee, while 

concurring with the a ■ to the Office of the Burial of the 

Dead recommended by the Lower House of Canterbury Convo- 
cation, wishes to see a mor^ adequate provision made in the 
Prayer Book to guide and satisfy the widespread desire for 
Prayers for the Dead. 

The Committee approved a proposal for a different arrange- 
ment of the Prayer Book Ollices : it suggests that t r for 
Holy Communion be printed first, followed by Moi lyer 
to the Third CoUect ; the Litany ; Evensong ; Prayers and 
Thanksgivings; Occasional Services; Ordinal; Collects, Epistles 
and Gospels ; Psalms. It also suggests that the Book should (in 
certain of its editions) be numbered in sections from l>eginning 
to end, for convenience of reference. 



CHAPTER HI 

Chuech Music 

Among the .iii-.Mors received by the (Jonmal.cc .i ■.n^c 
number concerned the use of music in the church. It appeared 
to the Committee that this is a matter upon which so much 
confusion prevails that it has seemed desirable to deal with it 
at some length in a sei)arate section of the Report. _ 

TwotTPMot Church music must be dealt with under two heads. (1) 

otaanh muite. 'j'|jgj.g jj. music in which the part of the congregation is only to 
listen, and (2) there is music in which the congregation should 
be expected to take a vocal part. No treatment of the question 
of Church music will be of the sUghtest use unless it accepts this 
distinction as fundamental. 
iiiuictowWoh I. Mtisic in which the congregation takes part by • 
tioii*Usu»r*" otily. - It is a real and serious mistake to assume t , 

congregation has an unim|>ortant part in music of this kind. 
The purpose of such music is to express in musical shape tlie 
ideas and aspirations of the words or parts of the service to 
which it is set as an illustration. When such music attains its 
purpose it quickens and intensifies the effect of the words, and 
brings them home to the spirit of the li^tene^ in a more iimne- 



iOflatty. 



CHURCH MUSIC 27 

diatr an the 

nuri'-. I -> is 

ly kiiiii ul' inu.Ntc 

, .III music makes a 

il derive more (teliiiite religious impression and 
h.'M. ... ■■..Ill li.Mti nmsic to which they only hsteii than from 
iiuisic in whicii they take active part. To such Hsteners there 

!'. between the religi": " ' of 

Mass in B minor, or li ii's 

1), or liiahiiKs ilc4iiicm, or the greatest ot Wesley's 

,'ui(i the effect of a hearty congregational service. 

I itions are, no doubt, extreme ones, but they serve 

'„■ i.r..v*Mit point. It is essentiiil, however, that 

tions, and such compositions as those of 

liool contains so many fine sj>eeimens, 

l>erformed, and that their performance 

led by the casual caroUings of individuals 

c are not less out of place in a Church 

1 thi» type than they would be iu a secular concert or 

- , -^• 

It follows from this that a complete service of this 

■' * not be presented in all churches, as it can be in 

^, where suflieient skill, time and money can be given 

' o justify it artistically as 

;it music of this sort are 

1 ve been a great 

1 the Tractarian 

it It was desired to improve the order of the service, 

Iral type of service was hastily adopted in churches of 

id. While, therefore, the Committee strongly main- 

" ' • " iral ideal may be a valuable one, 

iknin the use of it in all churches, 

for the pro I mcc of 

lU" art, nrid ly pre- 

ri-ason 

- , _ . in this 

m.iit. r, ;ilt with in tins Kei>ort, the 

• •' ' ■Mimt of further education 

rceiate Church music at 

t of {»ivinf» fh<» very b<^t rlnsHicHJ music in 
I ■ ■ r-th 

I to 

tiie rno itc anthem or (. hun-h cantjita, 

..III it-. ,!• with the riri. itiin-d versions 

iy find Ul on. There 

iiic uircuu^ liiuii^ patislics, VBpcvittlly aniOti^ Mini if^ hnVC SC'^t 



28 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

their choral societies to take part in eompetiti I 

these inelude ver} i>iuall piiri.shcs iudettl -in ^ 
possible at the «;reat seasons to present works ot tiie lines t 
order; and the choir would not only find its proper function ii 
so doing, but it would derive great interest and incentive to work 
from the task. The Committee thinks it probable that such 
works should be produced at special services, not at those in 
the regular course. For such purposes Church choral 
consisting of musical members of the congregation— I 
and women — should be formed to help and to ensure Liu 
nmsical result of which the parish is capable. If .such a \>' 
were followed, the expert or non-congregational music at th' 
regular services would rightly be reduced to such anthems oi 
set canticles (of a simpler but no less line order) as are within 
the powers of the choirs and appropriate to the service itself. 
It is obvious that great care is needed that no music be uu(l< r- 
taken which will be travestied tlirough lack of material or 
lack of proper rehearsal, 
■tuic in which 1 1* Congregational nrnsic, in which the congregation takes an 
S)n°taifi'**' «^'"'^ V^^^y would, of coursc, be of quite a different type from 
vocal part. that Considered under the first head. But there is no reason 
why such music should not attain as high a standard in its own 
line as expert music. It cannot be denied that in the last fiftN 
years, owing to the failure to draw a clear line betweci 
kinds of music, a condition of things has prevailed in i 
tional music which can only be described as chaotic. It h;. 
come about accidentally, without any definite policy on the par 
of anybody ; and it has been possible, partly because there is . 
widespread disbelief in the existence of any real differenc 
between good and bad music, and partly because bad music cai 
so readily be loved not for what it is but for the associations it 
evokes. We are now acting, as it were, in a vicious circle. It 
is maintained that what happens to appeal to the feelings is 
the only test of what is good and bad in music. A certain type 
has no doubt acquired great predominance in the Church ; and 
it is now argued that this type of music is so completely 
establishetl that it is wrong to attempt to dislodge it. The 
claim that the Church should use only familiar tunes is one way 
in which this second contention is expressed. But a very lift 1 
reflection shows the feebleness of these contentions. The 
prevailing type of music represented by the names Barnby and 
Dykes is not more than fifty years old. It has come into 
existence within the life and memory of a large number of 
people of the present day. No doubt it is catching, and clearl 
this does not mean that it is all bad. But it is certainly true 
that one strong reason for the familiarity of the tunes thus 
described is that they have crowded out splendid tunes of 



ByM 



CONCiKfcUATlU.NAL bl.NulNG 29 

h is happH the numbt-r of 

w tir niiitTf dj^r of conjjre- 

ga Tht-rcurca 'S 

ot , ^ „': but it bt. „'ly 

difficult to find hynin-tuncs which an average congregation will 
know. There are • -■ •• ways in which this lack of apprecia- 
tion can be met. ice in the Army during the war has 
si) > nu ililticulty in tjcttinp lar^e hixlics of men 
t.' and to sinir thefii with new ht-artiness which 
us rhurch at home. Con- 
gr^ 'I type might well give 
way to Co 'nal '* hymn smg-songs " of the Anny type. 

'•■'■• . ..t first, vcr}* homely affairs, but by no process 

.me taste more rapidly be developed. The 

' " ' ' ^ feasible to train the intelligence 

in such a way as to enlarge the 

range of ; to enable them to join intt^lli- 

ircntlv in 'irt of the services. Congrega- 

' music hius its own ideals, and may be, in its own way, as 

, it as the more elaborate type of music spoken of above. 

But it will have no nicnt, and little spiritual value, unless 

...:.,. j^j^ taken about it and some coherent policy adopted in 

i to it. It is sometimes said (and there is truth in the 

*) that people whose taste is uneducated get real 

'^\n f>iit of pf>or ninsie. This is tnie of all kinds of 

• t«» aim higher. 

ievelop Knglish 

and p<"rception in musicxil matters, and the Church, 

has so great and unbroken a tradition of musical achieve- 

ought not to be behindhand in this respect. 

"" ^ ' pf detail on which the Committet- posmon of ibt 

lis. (n A nuniber of answrrs to the ^'/J|""' '""^ 

'• choir 

ts and 

! soiial interests in the servicrs ; but we 

II that the solution of the practical 

<* lies in the direction of supiH>rting 

i^i III..., .111.1 not less. The whole position of the 

in in a very unHatisfactory state. In many 

' sith a taste for iniisic, 

'.il prineiph's of philan- 

I is very itc 

irch ; ail 'at 

lent numl)erof traiiw ' iiis 

t -mtw-.M nf t.iililic \r , , • IJlll 

i I more 

iKCiy to tlcHi rigntiy wit n tnr |irnoirni oi I inircii mii>i< i li;iti thr 



80 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHITRCH 

cler^^yninn, unless he also is a trainod musician. Great mischief, 
no doubt, has been done by incompetent or^janists ; but not 
less mischief by clergj'men who, without any adequate know- 
ledge of the subject and only personal prediletrtion to f^ide 
them, claim to deal with a high hand with the musical part of 
the services. What is really wanted is to diminish the pow< 
of the incnmblc RniHteur, whether he be organist or priest. 
Tb«vftta«of ('^^ "*^ concerns the value and j *.itc of 

oiMin. choirs. It I hat any church in which i if was 

conducted as suggested above would give less scope in the 
ordinary services for the indej>endent activity of the choir ; 
and the drift of what has been said above might suggest, as has 
been proposed in some of the answers to the Committee's 
questions, the discontinuance of the present surpliced choir of 
men and l>oys. On the other hand, there is c<<' ''le 

evidence before the Committee, which cannot be di <1, 

tending to show that the training which a boy gets b a 

choir is of great and pennanent value to him in his ret v. . le. 
Doubtless there are many facts which bear an opposite inter- 
pretation. But it still seems to the Committee that there is great 
value in a choir of men and boys properly trained and looked after 
by clergj'men and organists, and that it is an instrument which 
ought not to be neglected or hastily thrown aside. It is not 
intended to imply that the ; edification of boys or men 

should be a reason for adnu; --m to. or retaining them in, 

the choir : their position there should depend on musical 
considerations, and the spiritual training of the children of h 
congregation should be wholly independent of their capacity * 
sing in the choir. The cure for present inefficiency seems to tlu- 
Committee to lie rather in the quickening of the musical 
energies of the congregation. 
Tniniagoitha This might be done in two ways: (1) The congregatioi 
«•»"«•**"»• should have more practical control of and responsibility for 
the music, through a Church Music Committee. (2) A Church 
Choral Society might be formed, consisting of those men and 
women in the congregation able and willing to join, who wouH 
help, not only on all great musical occasions but in the ordinal^ 
music of the church. A Church Music Committee in a p 
would necessarily contain the clergy, chiu-chwarden*;. orj 
and choinnaster. There might be also two i 
choirmen and a certain number of elected m( i: 
congregation (men and women). The vicar would natural 1\ 
choose the hymns, which should be selected in relation to tli 
services over which he has control; the choirma.ster woul 
naturally choose the tunes and other music ; but it^Hvould b 
desirable that both hymns and tunes .should be passed b} 
the committee. It is possible that, at first, especially in the 



PmIim. 



INTONlNi. .%..i> ^liANTlNG OF T!l , .^aLMS 

pt - ' ' ' '• ' ■ • • such a coiniiimoc 

*^ if w«>n!fi '^f^urc the 

V rt, 

a .) corporate control. Such a committee 

" ; to aiid check u]Kin the choirmast«r mu] 

ion in a definite musical poHcy. 

I (ir iiiiri iiMiit is not |>crhaps exclusively music. 

:ns the clertj\'. It is felt that intonint? and the s , . . 

ill ■ ■ ' " ■ ■ . y 

Mm notes ut uncertain 
, , i that every religious 

w lid be mitural, reverent and entirely audible 

♦ ' ''irch ; and it is clearly better to use the s|>eak- 

than to sing defectively and unnaturally. 
I of the chanting of the Psalms remains a OuBtiac oi ib* 

•nUM- it is so har<l to sing them well, whetlu r 

t s. Whether they t 1. 

til it far greater ati Id 

be paid to the utterance (»t the words themselves. The tinely 

vnrii rJ sf», I < li-rliv thms in the Praycr-b<K)k version are so often 

h< ed or otherwise distorted, in fitting them to 

ai *• Miat they cease to be bi-autiful and 

4»f Me. Tlic three ijreat needs seem 

ol ........ .J 

IJ! .-, 

W! I luwtr scn>e, but wlueli i> mitlier 

h» .:li to be unanimous, wc-re niled out, 

much nught t>e iUmr quickly to improve matters. Since 
..«twr» ,]...;r. find that ""'» .......i ...» i>r<ictice makes well-sung 

ble, it is to s]H>iUc them heartily 

\y - ^^ - . 1 ,. j^jj^ coi; ' >n 

III "xl plan IS 

i*- -hant or tune. 

T s arc .sung, a 

r — jis between few picked 
oiH- ( xncrt solo \iiiiv .iiiil 
vital. 

'•■• •'■- < ..,,.,,,,,.. 
Ile<l : — 



ni ''^ht be ni«»re weltHUuc thait 

m 



82 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

narrow compass : tunes whirl' "-^ -^ntside an octave ar" ""» *n 
prove unmanapfcablc, and nn . arc apt to be dis. i 

by any note above D. A usciui rniimn of the tunes ii 
A. and M. transposed into lower keys is published an ! 

be better known. 

(3) The disuse of women singers in choirs is much to be 
rej^rctted. It would probably be convenient that a mixed choir 
should not sit in the chancel, but in the west end of the church. 

(4) The disappearance of local orchestras, especially in 
villages, is to be regretted. 

(5) It was suggested that a Diocesan Diploma might be 
created for organists and choirm a ho had i ' ' 
study of Church music. The ('■ vcntiii' 

an earnest desire that in- ; luii shot; 

aspect of music by the i ;^'(' of Or;^; 

accredited institutions. 
summaiToi To sum up. it sccms clear (1) that a definite line must be 

tioa^ drawn between congregational and non-congregational music ; 

(2) that in the former the urgent need is for wh' ' sim- 
plicity and reasonable variety in choice, and for li uul 
imanimity in utterance, whether of the simplest rcsi 
(s{>oken or sung) or of the most adventurous hymn-ti 

(3) that in the matter of anthems, set canticles, and all musi( 
for the choir alone the primary' need is for frank recognition 
both of present limitations and future possibilities ; and (4) 
in the matter of choirs and the organisation and regulation of 
them, and of the choice of music to be used in the church, sonr 
system (such as that of a choir committee already si; !; 
should be adopted which will give the whole commui, ii 
res|Kinsibility and eontrol of the musical ventures of tli' 
church. Such responsibility and control might be expeetr' 
to act benefieially in both congregational and non-cont' 

tional departments, because it would promote both the sin 

and the listening interest of the worshippers. (5) Finally, th < 
need is strongly felt in this as in other departments of a high<i 
st-andard of musical education in the clergy and of a fuller 
training for Church choirmasters in the requirements of their 
profession . 



83 

iCTiT».'Mr.Ai ... THKKK MKMHKIJ> o. .ii,, vii.M- 
K SKKVING AS CHAPLAINS WITH THE 
isKiii^il KXPKDITIONAKV FORCE. 

Veil. Archdeacon H. K. Soithwell, Assistant Chaplain- 

GeiuTiil. 
Rev. Canon F. B. Macsutt, Senior Chaplain to the Forces. 
Rev. Neville S. Talbot, Assistant Chaplain-General. 

1 1 us to try to make a con- 

tril) 1 i)ers of the Committee on the 

Worship of the Church. To that end we have asked for the 
views of a considerable number of chaplains who have, we 
believe, a right to speak owing to their experience and work with 
the men. We have also our own experience to go upon, as 
well as views, which we have extracted from officers and men 
with whom we are in contact. 

2. We find it very hard to come to clearly defined conclu- 
M 'US which we can confidently j)ass on to the Committee. 
\\ Mfk nt the Front is distinctly baflling. It is easy just to be 
iinp t'' ut and restless. The lay mind is a very elusive thing. 
It »:> at many stages of development from apathy upwards. 
It is seldom articulate on any religious topic, and when articu- 
late it i often critical than constructive. Very few 
gemrali JnMit it can cover the gulf which divides the 
more or K->w m»t md sentimental nuiss from the lively- 
n»in<l'(l and im^ few, or the scarcely-attached and 
' majority from the instructed and " faithful " minority. 

ak it is true to say that nearly all men have found it a 

comfort to have services at the Front which obviously aim 
at fxing simple, real and short. And we believe it is fair 
to artjiic that a great number of men at the FVont will vote 
that, I' ' rs at home if conducted in pre-war 

fashion hose (]ualities. 

a. NNr writf as mku who long for great though sensible 

rl, ii ' s, who believe that those who do not wish for reform 

) do so, and that a refusal to reform has meant, and 

» an, the alienation from the Christian religi<m of the 

irnjx»rtant minority of men of all classes who are in some 

' " alive. We would press 

. wr h«*!ieve, the opinion 
ot .' M I • ,i,t that such 

fxi' ^ . ■ III' II wi siiall be unable 

to go I r ir old pre-war groovcH. Wc arc sure 

that Ui ... i\\h,„ii naturally wc know Ix* • '^ 

have at schools and uni —if wc may say so I 

most from the Prayer H«h>k, arui to a large fringe of int< in,: t 



84 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

but vaguely-perplexed and dissatisfied men, evidence that the 
old Church was willing and able to revise and adapt her old 
equipment would afford deep and delighted surprise. 

4. On the other hand, there is undoubtedly a certain number 
of chaplains and of faithful laymen who are av( *" ' 
because they are deeply attached to the Pi i 
because they fear that chari" ! mean 1 

dilution of what is already di ^ fluid in i 

and the throwing away of what the Church ol England pos- 
sesses in the way of distinctive life and familiar practice. 
Opinions differ as to how widespread is this love of the old 
ways. It is hard to say how much is due to appreciation 
and understanding of Prayer Book services — how much to 
association with " home." Anyhow, we think it is plain 
that men have a liking for " ordered " as against " fancy " 
It seems certain that the Holy Spirit does not 
< ily give to Church of England clerics the gift of 

improvisation and extempore adaptation, and that the British 
temperament is most at home in an ordered form of t/rx ;,.« 
in which all concerned know where they are. 

5. We feel, then, that changes would be harmful if they were 
not designed to build upon what we already have of Prayer 
Book cultus and Anglican liturgical tradition. There is in all 
this the usual tension between conservatism and reform. 
But we believe that we shall best conserve and increase the 
influence of what we would conserve by sensible and aiifliori- 
tative reform. 

6. If reform is tv» i*^ sane and fruitful we venture i.. r,ny 
that the Committee must come to a common and a clear mind 
as to the use of the Bible in public worship. One of the root 
causes of Prayer Book services being iminstructive and mis- 
leading to some, irritating and alienating to others, is that 
the minds which moulded the Prayer BcMjk viewed the Bible 
very differently from the way in which men view it to-day 
(and, so to say, with a different Biblical sense of humour). At 
present Prayer Book services tend to authorise and to per- 
petuate a view of Scripture (and therefore of the Christian 
religion) which is untrue and is offensive to any lively conscience 
or intelligence. No doubt Dean Paget and Dr. Bright on 
either side of Christ Church choir could make intelligent allow- 
ances about, and find mystical meanings in, any part of the 
lectionarj' and psalter. Not so the vast majority of people. 
We shall go on losing our young manhood in successive masses 
so long as our services do not have on their face the fact that 
the Church understands the Bible differently from those for 
whom tradition had crj'stallised it in all its stages and parts 
as everywhere the absoIute^Word of God. We urge the Com- 



llULl LUMKL.MU.N 35 



a case of " all or or that discrimination by the 

living mind of the Ci. impossible. 

Opinions nmonp chaplains at the Front is, wc think, quite 
unanimous about the need of a modiflcation in our present 
use of Lessons and Psahns. We have all been forced to use 
the Bil' ■ ' "v, to choose lessons which shall 

play in' •*. of the sermon, and to introduce 

w(i" >n. Only the old dogma 

ofl: whole Bible could justify 

the prevailing use of lessons and psalms. Take that dogma 
away and Morning and Evening Prayer (always overloaded 
with Old Testament matter) become like cakes which are too 
ricli ' • stible and even repellent. On the other hand, 
to services in nerordnnce with a sane and sincere 

1 will be to M for the Church of England 

jc of her spct 1 tion in Christendom — namely, 

the appeal to Scripture whether for doctrinal or liturgical 
purposes. 

7. We pass to more particular j)oints : 

(A) The Holv Communion 

1 lUK-h di^ *inent felt by chaplains in regard 

to ' ct of II inunion by the majority of men 

at tiiv; In-iit. At th< saiiK time it ) ts power 

and it wins its wnv, and we think ; tins will 

rttuni ! to make this service the main, corporate, 

family. ., ^ nal act of worship and fellowship. All, 

wv think, uiiiild come together in the desire to maintain the 
prinuiry connt ction of the service with communicating. 

It has become very usual to substitute our Ix^rd's Com- 

fhc Ten f idments, and to pray for the 

(in the , .r the Church Militant ). It 

;• to tin- u 1.1 ling man to have the service 

111 ran ^;l^l;\ t. .Jlow its normal course — with 

ti»e ioi; us and special prefaces printed at the 

<n(l. 'I . .ur the Church Militant is an instance of 

wIk r-- t . r liook needs both simplifying in language 

and 'I. 1 * ' '• ' ■ '1" • ,. j,f 

pr.'iv r war 

: itc III breadth of view tu the accds of the Common- 

\ (jards the m fure of the oflk'c, we have little 

1' 1 to say that »>] anything but cons, rvnf !\c. Hut 

thert- Is some feeling, brr<i of using thr Holy ('■ i service 

^•"' ♦* — •• "' •■ ♦ • ' '■••riiliar with it as i onj^u gntioni at 



8<J THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

home, that it cor ' ably with the Scottish oflicc 

in fulness and pi. ng. 



(B) Other Services 

(1) Morning and Evening Prayer 

The experience of chaplains has been among a represen- 
tative mass of all sorts and conditions of men. The con- 
clusion forces itself upon us that there must be changes as 
regards uniformity in services. We cannot go on with such 
a narrow range of method. Something far more rudimentary 
is needed for the many who are at present far below the level 
of instructedness that the Prayer Book assumes. At the 
same time, for all sections of the public, *services must be 
(1 and unloaded in respect of Old Testament prc- 

c :i('e. 

The task before the Church is : (1) The moclification of the 
offices of Morning and Evening Prayer for the inner circle ; 
(2) the framing of proper devotional exercises for children 
and for the outer circle. Only experiment can decide how 
much (1) can achieve the aim of (2). 

In regard to (1) there is a very prevalent testimony 
chaplains to the hold that Evensong has on Church of J > 

men. This must be due in part to subjective considerations, and 
not to the office itself — that is, to the fact that in the evening 
people are more in the mood for a service than at other times 
in the day. If it is partly due to the association of Mattins 
with church parade, evening prayer is also rather shorter 
than morning prayer. There is a good deal of opinion in 
favour of the abolition of Morning Prayer. (We should like 
to refer to the scheme of Morning Prayer followed by Holy 
Communion as sketched by Dr. Frcrc in " Principles of Litur- 
gical Reform." It avoids the many repetitions — e.g., four 
Lord's Prayers, two confessions and absolutions, two (Ireeds, 
four prayers for the King.) 

Whether in Morning and Evening Prayer much might be 
effected by : 

(fl) Adding new sentences as introits at the ' 'ng — i.e., 

special sentences for Advent, Christmas, I i _ ^, Lent, 
Easter, Ascension, Whitsuntide, Trinity, All SainUi, striking at 
once the keynote for the service. 

{b) Alternative shorter and simpler forms of exhortation, 
confession and absolution. 

(c) Revised Psalter, with re-translations of obscure passages : 
proper psalms for every Sunday in the year, fewer in number 
and harmonising with the proper thought for the day. 

(d) Only one recital of the Lord's Prayer. 



SPECIAL SUGGESTIONS 87 

(e) Proper 1st and 2nd Lessons for each Sunday n- '' 
Day. Shorter and, especially as regards Old Ti- 
more careftjlly stlectod Ussons, in all cases harmonising with 
the proper thought for the day. 

(j) Arrangement of service after the 8rd Collect : — 

Instead of State Prayers, etc.. Intercessions arranged as 
follitws : — 

Mses, Collect. 
i\ iiid Royal Family, Clergy and 
People, and others should be included in Prayers and Thanks- 
ffivings upon several occasious, modelled as above — Bidding, 
Vcrsicles, Collect. 

These should include — e.g.. The Kingdom of God, Missions, 
Labour, Harvest Thanksgiving, Parliament, All sorts and 
coi ' of men, as well as others {e.g.^ Rain, Famine), all 

reii 

Gciitral 1 • (to be said by all). 

Other Til ^ „ . modelled on the lines of the inter- 
cessi<jns — Biddmg, Versicles, Collect. 

p. .^ . r ..f <t Chrysostom. 

';' ■ (1 for the main act of intercession to 

be t after the sermon, by methods of 

Bi.: r • ■ 

( congregational by every 

means, witiunit intoiun^j (except m special places and circum- 
stances), without wide use of anthems and services sung only by 
the choir, and with development of hymn-singing. In hymns 
th<r'- is ri n ally living and popular element m British Chris- 
ti imt \ \\ - hope that in any report the Committee may make 
it \ ■ " ■ it commii " 

att I s to r- 

ii obt4iiii in ( ^. Tlic over- 

\' \ ( rv seeoii'i Mird rate, kills 

devotion and turns the W' n.t . a spectator of the 

or^»?>"!^» '"id choir. We sh* .. • vTwri"" nts made 

in' ression of choirs. 

11. .. ^*' TV ■,. 

(j) I .]ilinc in the Prayer Book as an 

alternative itrvicc for the cvenmg. 

(2) Senice» other than Morning and Eicniitj^ J'raijrr 
Ci>i\\:ii\ with all and sundry of British nmnliood lias 
r«\ ' crying need of a simple form of devotion, known 

frt»iii < iiiHiluKxl, and the comni' ' familiar i ■ 'U of 

all. This would indeed be a < to the At 

present the masses are entirely unprovided ssiiu really 



88 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

popular devotions. They have no primary liturgical structure 
pT .-- • f1 in their miiids : this makes them almost entirely 
t; it on the clergy to "take a service." Is it beyond 

llic jjiJWcT of lit I ists to frame an act of devotion, 

the test of which W that a child could learn it? In 

tliis act of devotion Ihi t of thi tor 

should be reduced to a nil: of the c ion 

raised to a maximum. It should liavc a rigid plan or skeleton. 
The aim of the act should be to bring the congregation into the 
presence of God and to maintain it there. Coimju)nly acts of 
mtcrcession start and remain on the pedestrian level of petition. 
For ii»tro<lucti<)n to and maintenance in the presence of God, 
the j)icture of Christ (as the Son r< ^' ' be 

brought up before the mind, antl i'ole 

devotion, which should proceed from the known liic and known 
desires of Christ, and concentrate the mind thereon. Silence 
should be used, not for particular intercessions, which use is 
very difficult for most people, but in order to grasp and realise 
the presence or picture of God. Only second to this primary 



ss God ward should be emphasis on fellowship. The act 
le to be shared in by all. Tliis should be brf»ught out by 
vcrhiclcs and responses, hymns in which 'ity 

the iiKJst shy will join. Thus mainly si of 

devotion can contain within it praise, penitence, and prayer, 
the latter being variable according to subject, circumstances, 
and need. 

If we remain \nthout a generally accepted and loved popular 
devotion which corrects what is lacking in present forms and 
Iltjiiiics put out by ; ly, (1) sole emphasis on 

jx tition, (2) absence < icssed simply to God, (8) 

no interweaving of the life of Christ, (4) no F' > of the 

Holy Spirit or conscious brotherhood, (5) no i of the 

communion of saints — increasing resort to Roman systems of 
devotion (the Rosary, Reservation and Benedictir<"^ will be 
likely to follow. 

8. There are several other suggestions which we have 
gathertii from chaplains which we wish to bring before the 
Committee. 

(1) The sending round to parishes by tiie Bishop monthly 
of prayers and thanksgivings dealing with current events and 
interests, for use after the 8rd Collect or Sermon. 

(2) The worth of the Book of Common Order (Scottish 
Presbyterian) as a source of prayer which connects worship 
with " the daily round," etc. {c.f. the wealth of prayer for all 
occasions in the Book of Common Worship published by the 
Presbyterian Synod at New York). We have found striking 



SPECIAL SUGGESTIONS 89 

evidence that many men feel that the Prayer Book, as at 

prrsrut usrd, is n-tiKi' ' life. 

/Si I'll it .. r\ .<•. V ion should end with an 

U all join — should end on a note of 

ic need to study the American Prayer Book as 

; vision of lessons, especially in regard to greater use of 
• • ha I 

' Praver followed bv Holv Communion — the plan 

paged 

altic !i »er\ icfs. 

{(], J n ^ ! ^'Prayer. 

(5) The need for special Collects, Epistles and Gospels for : — 
\f..., ..... I*, .-.I. <■ ''rncmoration of the Departed, 
1 Missions, Harvest Tlianksgiving, 

ill' , iiic i ransfiguration. 

(I .. :. Percy Dearmer's "The Sanctuary.") 

ol the } -some of which include the 

i'auline [< 

9. \\ c have not touched upon the occasional Offices, but 

al.iir.I .iif iisi- iu)dcr strange and pathetic circumstances has 

(ts of the Burial Service, and we are sure that 

'•."en at the Front will never wish to go back to 

d- A shorter alternative lesson, a change in 

V. 1-11— ^d: a direct and 

oul of th d to GtKl, and a 

prayer fur the bereaved !>huuld be added. 

(Signed) II. K. >»oi;tuwell. 
F. B. Macnutt. 
N. S. Talbot. 

.Vdoitignal Statemekt by Bev. N. S. Talbot. 

I 

\ tangle our Christian legacies 

le to an agreement upon 

.,.. iv..^.,... ... .v..!ly from our predecessors, 

t way more in a< with the mind of Christ ? I 

' .'what I ' ' ' " r the (.r ' ? 

the Iav I be hf 



do not bring people Ant of all to God, do not help them mto 



40 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

His presence or to a sense of His goodness and glory, do not 
bring before their minds His Kingdom and Will, do not link 
them in fellowship with others called to His Service as His 
children. 

All this may be implicit in present practice. It is not 
explicit. The Prayer Book is deficient in introductions as the 
first things. It assumes so much as " going without being 
said." The effect is to let people into worship at an upper 
storey and not on the ground floor. We need to be resolute in 
opposition to current minimising of sin, and to remain certain 
that there is no entry into the riches of our inheritance of 
Christ except by way of penitence. But all the moro does the 
preliminary attraction implied deser\'e attention— ' the 

Front brings before one a great wealth of una]^ ^ ted, 
unattracted vitality. 

I suggest that it should be recognised that the Holy Com- 
munion is the occasion for " general confession," and that the 
Offices of Morning and Evening Prayer should not (as before 
1552) begin, as at present, with confession and absolution. 

As regards the Holy Communion few things have emerged 
more clearly in the war than the importance of the hour at 
which the Holy Communion is celebrated. Frequently no, 
or small, attendance at a celebration has been due to the fact 
that the hour has been suitable for chaplains or officers, but 
impossible for the men. This experience in war must lead to 
enquiry into like facts in peace, in regard to both rural and 
industrial life. If, as is probable, such enquiry points to the 
need of Holy Communion in the evening, it will be important 
to secure that it is always a service by itself, for those who 
cannot come at other times, and not a sequel to another service 
from which individuals stay on, on the spur of the moment. 
The discipline of preparation and fasting need not be overthrown 
in principle by the application (as regards time) to the Holy 
Communion of our Lord's judgment that the Sabbath was made 
for man and not man for the Sabbath. 

(Signed) N. S. Talbot. 



BIEMORANDA BY MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 

While most cordially concurring in the Report in general 
wc desire to ap|>end a further note as to our position with 
regard to Prayer for the Dead and Non-communicating attend- 
ance at the Holy Communion (pp. 9, 14, 18 in the Report). 

While anxious, according to the^evident intention of the 

articles of 155*2. to secure liberty as regards Private Prayer, 

wc !i' t the reserve of our Lord ai\d of the New 

Test. , while not '^^)recluding,' dtxs "not 'enjoin 

Prayer i > ad : and that the present need is best met by 

some si I lyer of Commendation and Commemoration 

such as ted by the Convocation of Canterbury (No. 

504 § li*j r;iiiier than by detailed Prayers, binding upon 

all alike, which seem to go beyond the revealed mind of Christ. 

With regard to the re. " lit of our Morning Worship, 

as suggested on page 9, \\ that through a revival of a 

inmuniou lies the way to a deep spiritual 

' 11. By a true conception we mean a real 

t lion, all uniting, all partaking, all in the fullest way 

to enter into holy fellowship with Christ their Lord, 

I His Church militant on earth and triumphant above. 

S>< that the ■ " " ' > . , t amount 

to * iss " as ' e, with 

V, and, in • iicc, its 

I will, if it is 1, bring 

grave loss to the Church. It will either keep people away from 

Church, or it will lower the standard of Holy Communion, and 

so check that recovery of fuller spiritual life which we desire. 

H. • I 

F. .- •■ 

PuBuc WoRSBip Committee 

There arc three pR«;Migei« in th«» Report to which 1 feel bound 
to take exceptior: 

[I, '. ■■ to -J I. 

Tlie Report of the .\ , < umittec on the Relations 

h and State gives to the laity in the Representative 

I I ' " •■'VfT of decision whie^ '"'" •" '"^ *"m known 

in It! II (h; and in the r i iwwcr 

nf intcrtercnce iixeiy seriously to hamper tue worn m the in- 



42 THE WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH 

cumbcnt. I am convinced that the granting of such powers 
would exacerbate rather than ri lii vi fix- -^if uififitw fn wlnrh 
reference is made. 

(2) Page 16, lines 9 and 10, and 18 to 26. 

Non-fasting Communion and Evening Communion are un- 
known to the Cathohc Church save in the most unusual circum- 
stances. In my opinion, what the nation wants of us is not 
less discipHne in spiritual matters, but a stronger insistence on 
the discipline we already possess. 

(8) Page 80, lines 25 ff. 

I greatly doubt the wisdom of putting the control of the music 
of the church in the hands of a committee of the congregation. 
The present situation is not always happy ; the effect of the 
proposal in the Report might be disastrous. 

F. UsT^vnn'i I,. 

Page 24, bottom. 

1 object very strongly to the general resolution on page 8 
of Report 504. I admit to the full the need of a remedy for 
the present confusion in the Church, and the evil of arbitrari- 
ness in the conduct of public worship ; but it seems to me that 
the present proposal will probably lead to far worse arbitrariness 
than any from which we suffer at present. In the past direc- 
tions given by the Bishops as to public worship have far too 
frequently been dictated by the expediency of the moment 
rather than founded upon law or principle. 

Even when these directions have been " within the bounds of 
what is legal," they have frequently disregarded the strictest 
obedience to the law of the Church in favour of compliance 
with prevailing custom or ' ,' the linf ic)st 

expedient under the circui 11 TheBi , reed 

their own personal opinion as to the law of the Church, instead 
of seeking the opinion of experts. 

The present proposal omits all mention of any appeal to 
law or principle. It offers no guarantee whatever against 
arbitrariness, substituting merely the " arbitrary " decision 
of the Bishop for the " arbitrary' " decision of the parish priest. 
At the present time it is to be hoped that most of our Bishops 
would desire to act upon principle, yet the resolution lays 
upon them no obligation to do so ; nor does it offer any 
guarantee that " within the bounds of what is legal "^they 
shall decide according to principle. 

It seems to me absolutely necessary to lay down (1) that 
varieties of ceremonial shall^be'allowed in every church where 



MEMORANDA » J 

it is desired ; (2) that that particular variety which is in accord- 
th the strictest interpretation of the law shall not be 

........ ..CM. 

Page 16, line 21, sqq. 
I •>' for any recommendation as to the 

W. C. Bishop. 
F. Under HILL. 



The Evangelistic 

Work 

of the Church 



ni INI. I UK 

REPORT OF THE ARCHBISHOPS' 
THIRD COMMITTEF '^^ INQUIRY 



LONDON : 
! UBUSHBD FOR THB NATIONAL MISSION 

n\ TKK 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDCI 



COMMITTEE 

Tub Lord Bishop op Southwaek (Chairman). 

Tub Uev. Cyril C. B. Barimlky. 

TuK Rev. Canon C. C. Brll. 

The Hkv. Canon Bickebstkth, D.I). 

The Rev. A. Butterwortu. 

Mr. a. p. Charles (rpsignc<l). 

The LoRii Bishop op Chelmsford. 

Miss J. M. Douglas. 

The Lord Bishop of Dover. 

The Rev. Canon Peter Green (irsigiicd). 

The Rev. Canon Cyril Hkpiier. 

Mr. G. a. Kino. 

The Lord Bishop of Kingston. 

Mrs. Montgomery. 

The Rev. Canon A. W. Robinson, DJ). 

Miss W. M. Sedgwick. 

Head Deaconess Siddall. 

The Rev. W. B. Trevblyan. 

The Rev. Canon Willink. 

.Mr. J. Dover Wilson (rt«ijfnc<l). 

The Rev. E. S. Woods. 

The Rev. D. F. Carcy, A.C.G.. and the Rev. G. A. St uddert- Kennedy, 
C.F., were added to the Coniraittee after its first meeting, but owing to 
tlieir duties they were unable to take any part in its work. 



FOREWORD 

BY THE ARCHBISHOP OK CANTERBURY 

THIS Report l>< k.n^^s lu ;i m m n : li is onc of five. They 
hiivc the same historic origin, and that origin should be 
steadily in the thoughts of those who read them. 

Two years ago, in this grave crisis of our nation's history, 
after much thought and prayer, we called the peo])' "'' F>(i»land 
to a National Mission of Repentance and Hope. 

Firstt during 1916, came the preparation of the Church 
itself. In ever)' Diocese and Parish we sought fresh guidance 
of the Holy Spirit to reveal to us our own failures, both as 
individuals and as members of the Church and nation. Then 
followed, in every comer of the land, the Mission-call to cor- 
p<.! ' * and to hope in Christ as the living answer 

to 1 = call told : not, of course, universally, but 

very widely. We found that people were ready to face familiar 
facts afresh : that a new spirit was breathing u|>on dry bones : 
tluit we must, and could, be up and doing. As we appraised 
the outcome of the Mission-call five subjects in the life of Church 
and nation stood out with obvious claim for our rehandling. 
The character and manner of our teaching : our worship : our 
evangelistic work : the discovery of removable hindrances to 
the Church's eflrtciency : the bearing of the Ciosp-1 message 
on the indu.<(trial problems of to-day. 

Fiv<- Committees of our best and strong- ■>( wi i. ,i < Miilmrfly 
apjx'infr.l t,. <l«-al with these, and 1917 wu^ j^mncu t.> flic task. 
Let no one regard iis a disap]K)inting thing the |iause which 
that delil>rration involved. It may prove, by it4 results, to 
have been the most fruitful time of all. 

And now in 1018 the five Reports are in our hands. Thry 



IV FOREWORD 

are not official documents, but whether we accept the con- 
clusions or not they have the high authority which belongs 
to the opinions of specially qualified men and women who 
have devoted long months to their elaboration. The roadway 
to right knowledge and effective action is now open. It is a 
roadway which is offered not to those only who approach it 
as churchmen and churchwomcn, but to the English people 
as a whole. It is the most important stage of the National 
Mission. With all earnestness I invite, for these Reports, the 
study and thought of men and women of good-will. We shall 
not all agree about the various recommendations. We want 
critics as well as advocates. Let there be quiet reading of all 
that they contain. Let there be meetings large and small. 
Let there be sermons and addresses and study circles, that 
we may perceive and know what things we ought to do, and 
that together, as the needs of our day demand, we may " go 
forward." " It is not a vain thing for us : it is our life." 

Randall Cantuar : 
Lent, 1918 



T 



INTRODUCTION 

HE terms of reference which directed and limited our 
inquiry were as follows : 

" To consider and report upon the facts and lessons 

which the exjHiricnce of the National Mission has 

1- •• 'ht to light as to the evanjjelistic work of the 

h at home, and the l>cst methods of imjiroving 

and extending it." 

At the outset of the in(]Uii\ li iniiiHK- tn ,u th.il tin- Com- 
mittee had to discover what precisely it understood by the 
t< nil •' . \ work of the Church,' and in the li^ht of that 

to .'■•••'!'- ' of tho inr|Miry — that is t(> say, evaiijjelistic 

w what we believe them to be, 

wi , . is of our own time which only 

e\ c work can satisfy ? Where do we find gaps in the 

Cli^.i-.. ^ ivangelistic work? Wliat kind of work is telling 
mo^t ? It was illuminating to see how tentative deliuitioiis 
bi ' ' ' to the minds of the members of the ( '< e 

tl * in our own ffenemtion the most j e 

i)eal is t! 

nf the > not directed to some 

ai It the evangelistic work of the Church 

oi. , . at exi)erience. It was realised that its 

labours could be fruitful and effective only in so far as it was 

(11 il.l.d to '■ - " ■ ' if Church i)eople t! - ' ut the 

laml. Ill \ ;md different voi -n the 

<}>■ '!i.il Ml,s;,.ti revealed to us of 

o iii.i i.iiiiiiis, our hopes and 

1" 

once brought face to face with the 
j;r ling evidence which would be sufliciently 

<•■ i\. It spared no pains to do thi^ ' 

lis HejK)rt to l>earinmind that its 
II :' oy nu- ('<»!■ '•* to the best of i' v 

ii> :td only in tl of th** evid«Mirr d 

to 111. :.;. 1 Ut 

inrri ly t.. ns 

of a M who riprtstnt no 

om- 111. i , •_ , ...^ i full to til. 'r.iDnd. 

I often vague, feeling luis b< d 

.. . .- .\.m.Muii li .11. There is, no doubt, a dif{<i<im of 

ojiiiuon as to the su >. . of the Mission, but the result ]ia> 

certainly shown the unpreparcdncss of the Church for it> 



vi INTRODUCTION 

opportunities, the immense reserves of service which have 
never been used or even thought to be avaihible, the {laltriness 
of the demand which the Church has been making of its 
mt! r|>orate r« 

and » l>eforc i 

its great vocation. Hcnec it follows that, whether ti 
prise called the National Mission be welcomed or coii< ;, 

Church j>eople, and indeed many of our fellow-countrymen who 
stand outside the Church, are feeling that the time is past for 
mere tiUk and criticism ; that the Church as a body of pledj^'rd 
members must set itself to make good its mission to the life of 
England : that there is something to be done here and now, 
some n - at of Church life to be made, which t' ! 

and heu! Church, if only it could express itself, r< 

as the tiling to do or to begin to do. 

With a view to the fullilment of the Committee's task sub- 
committees were formed to obtain evidence by interviews and 
by circulating definite questions in regard to evangelistic work. 
Tile Committee also received great assistance from a representa- 
tive body of missioncrs who met in confer ' ' ' 
out of their experience many valuable sul 
different points of view. A circular of questions wati issued 
to the dioceses through the diocesan Bishops.* 

As was natural, the Committee very soon found itself face 
to face with the subject of work among children. There is no 
need to dwell upon its vital imp>ortance : but the more the 
subject was considered, the more deliberately was the con- 
clusion formed that evangelistic work among children and 
young people requir< iient, and should be (!■ '* 

with by a body s_ ted to consider it. i i 

Committee earnestly hopes that the subject may be taken up 
and treated in this way without delay. 

It has to be admitted frankly tiiat the Committee has not 
been able to collect all the information it desired. Yet none 
the less there has been abundant material to work upon. 
Nothing could have been more impressive that the way in 
which evidence from all quarters accumulated to prove a 
deep and general desire for some definite c ^ 

on the part of the Church in its corporate < i: ^ 

new and real demands ui>on all its members. This seemed 
to be the inevitable sequel of what the National Mission had 
attempted, and done, and failed to do. The Committee 
therefore attach the most serious importance to the outstanding 
recommendation urged in Part III. They are convinced that 
to respond to such a call is Vie task which lies immediately 
before the Church : a duty not to be discussed or evaded 
or postponed until circumstances are more favourable, but 
• See Ap|X'ndix C. 



IXTKODLtTION 

to be disohiirjjcd y and counigcously. The effort 

should not be iwui^ ^ii"g to a progmmrne devised and 

imp<>«vcd by a central body, but should l>e stimu!iite<l by the 

w<'"' * -*hcr of parish, deanery and diocese, each feeling 

liii -. own need and its ovm resources, and devising 

it. 

t. hurch is 
su I " at this time. 

In<; _ >,-, be unconvincing 

unless the ear of the Church is trained to hear, trained through 
pr.iyer to tuul the right judgment und to be lilled with the 
boldrjess whuh comes through strength bestowed. We have 
bc' ' ' ' ' ' I low much value our gi ! ' ' 1 been 

se' _:-. that are tawdrv . and 

hiiUuvv all . h*>w life !; and dis- 

traetf-d : sense of fei <i\ service 

h.i i or lost. We must recognise that the fault lies 

ult ii the Church, for it is the Church's mission 

always t<» n line and uplift the life of a people, to bind and 

hold It ♦ • •' - •' -'■ " ' ive of the things that arc true 

and pi; 1 rejiort, and to unite all in the 

ct>- ,] hold fast the-jc thinirs. 

home to us our great and 
pr ly severe. We arc being 

ti „ of our Lord Jesus Christ, 

tr . ir motives, standards, and relations to one 

aiu ;>ecn i ••.>. '.tibly unworthy and unconvincing. 

Yet the Spirit is t is that through this discipline we 

ar' ' > ' V and to declare that the life of 

CI. . ice is the highest human jt)V. since 

It n 

th , 

of the hving Chnst. 

lIl'llKIlT M. SolTIIWARK. 



CONTENTS 

CUAl>TRh ^ rAOK 

Historical Introiiuction. By th*» Arplil»ithop of rAnlrrt>iiry IH 
iNTRonucnoN. By Die Cliainii:> 

PART om: 
Present CovtirnoNS ok Kvanoeuhtic Work 

I. TllK llKLir.lo ION S 

Cli III MiiL' < -. Akxiftiou* from organised n*ligion. 

>l>M;rvaiice. Home religion. Attitude of youngrr 

II. l.\ A.M.l.I.l.-. iH ' - . . . . . ,5 

I^u-k of I it. Defective witnem. Lock of 

r " "I t( ucliinK. IJiok of Bibfc teaching. 

HI. Fill N'atio.nal Mission .... 9 

IV. Tim - 11 

I tl of service. Woric of 

V, TiiK Ai'pno.\cH ... .15 

Tlic call to soda! service. 

PART TWO 
Mkn ani> Mean 
I. The Clerov ... 18 

Tniining of tin- dtrjLrv. IX'VOlional im- m iin in rj;\ . 

II. TiiK Laity . . " ". .21 

TIk' slan<l:'rii nf >.i..ini-r^i.ij>. Rcligioii and daily life. 
I^kity (<) • V vungelists. Training of the 

liiitv. E\ 1 n'. 

III. Mkthods . . . . ■ 25 

Visiting. Small meetings. Open-air work. Parochial 
iMJvMoiis. Teaching missions. Permanent misKioas. 
Litcr.iturc. / 

PART TFI ' I 

CoNSTHLi I 
I. To .AWAKKN THE KvANGELISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS ... 81 

Preparatio natigelica. C"f>r>rfntnitioii iijKin P!vanpf ligation. 
One nuutcr motive. 
II. Rk-kvanoki.isation . 35 

T • .ij.. ii<.^ 

\vor>hip. 

'• <-•'- ^•^- 

lUty. 
in. Isii li . . . .41 

Spintuai iifc of tlic clergy : 

Private pmycr. Retreats. " Refresher courses." 
Spiritual life of the laity : 

Meetings for prayer. Silence. Lay retreats. Parochial 
conventions. 
Conclusion. 

Api'E.ndix I. Lessons to \)c learned from the History of 
}{eligious .Movements and Revivals in the Past. By Canon 
.\. W. Robin.son ........ 47 

Appknoix II. Memorandum on evangelistic work from Secre- 
taries of the Student Christian Movement of Great Britain 
and Irelimd ........ 60 

Appendix III. Questions asked by the Committee in their 

inquiry ......... 71 



THH EVANGELISTIC 
WORK OF THE CHURCH 

PART ONE 

PRESENT CONDITIONS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK.. 

THE National Mission has been entered upon with the 
f " f is the will of God. The war has 

I : and vivid revelation of need and 

what is wilt Hi ' in our life and civilisation, 
ith the In ik uj) of old conditions there 
is r.»me an unparalleled opiwrtunity for reconstruction. 
The inrr-"-'— • recognition that the world's hope lies in the 
doniina- iritual forces rather than material o|K'ns afresh 

I fi<- presentation of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
tho oxten«;ion of Ilis Kingdom. The National 
he part of the Church of I I 

If and then to the couiu 
twofoiil rii- ^^.l.,'^• of repentance and hope. The summons to 
unrl r? ik ;r \s IS <nvcn by the Archbishops and Bishops after 
m«. and careful consultation. In the Church 

at 111- t.ri ^xt". widespread agreement that some new 
ventun- should l)0 made, but on all sides there were doubts and 

i 

ruin 

ion ? 

.More than i the spiritual life of the Church* equal to 

th'- *<^l^ or . .' In the end loyalty to the leaders of the 

Cli I and the call of authority was answered. 

'III! aunuiin tnontlts whcn the message was ' ' ' ! 

to Ijc not so much a tinu* of liarvcst as of i 

■ . , - •■ T" , 

1 

I c in many direct k! is. 
' s. .•! di-sire to s( r\ I 
better than in the past, and a i i the lessons 
whv-l- ''-■ -..r .. 1.. I ».. ,., i,„ ,_jI| f,,r - 

'I'l \v more rradv t«» i 

Its 

Th 

in lt.s Work. 

■»f 11m? irrm " Churrli " rrfrrn to llic Cliurvli of 



KVANGELISTIC WORK 

CHA1>TEH I 
The Rkuoious Situation 

Though the Church is ready to confess that many of the 
obstacles which hinder its evangelistic work arc of iU own 
makinjj, yet that is but half the truth. It is evident that 
oryaaised Christianity is faced with real and new difficulties 
whieli arc largely inherent in the conditions of our time. 
All lypes of Churchmen, as well as rejjresentatives of Non- 
(•(inroiniist bodies, ar it material, i ual, 

and even spiritual eli lag in a mai ree 

evtry side of evangelistie work. These changes arc not 
entirely due to the war, though some of them have been 
accelerated and accentuated by it. The break-up of old habits 
and traditions and the general unsettlement evident in every 
department of life arc making the work of all religious bodies 
except ionall y difficult. 

Among all classes material things have assumed an exag- 
itod and false importance, which the ^ ion, 

1 If too often secular in its ideals, has d( m ct. 

To thousands ]K)pular education has opened new interests in 
life, by no means alien to Christianity, though tending to dis- 
tract attention from spiritual things. New forms of amuse- 
ment, larger facilities for travel, and the growing influence of 
the secular Press are all factors which help to dissipate interest. 
Preoccupation, from one cau>e or another, itly 

mentioned in the evidence laid before us as . the 

' ulty of evangelistic work, as is also the fact Liiat so many 
M not willing to spare time and trouble for religion. Further, 
the Church has to meet the competition of social and religious 
movements which attract to themselves the loyalty and 
enthusiasm tliat in earlier days would have found their satis- 
faction within its borders. It must be admitted that many 
find in the Trades Unions and Friendly Societies, the Labour 
Movement, the Women's Movement, or in religious cults such 
as Theosophy and Christian Science, the inspiration of a great 
ol)j( ctive wliich they do not find in the Church. It is undeniable 
that the Church's own record in the past stands in its way to-day. 
Labour is conscious that it has worked its way upwards with 
little help from the Church. Old abuses — child labour, sweated 
labour, the intolerable conditions of housmg and the monstrous 
evils of the slums — long continued to exist with scarcely a 
protest fn-m the Church at large, whose silence and inaction 
have been the more marked by contrast with * ■ voices 

raised from witliin its own borders. The dep result is 

that the Church is now regarded by thousands as the hereditary 
enemy of the ideals of the working classes. 



THE RELIGIOUS SITUATION 8 

The most common attitude of mind, however, is now one of JU^S*"' 
al«" * ■ ,-•■ ' g^ugioB 

re!'. 

m:t I 

wh' ' . .; . . ' 

but the Gospel as it is often presented to them awaicens no 
res|>onse. There is often a deep spiritual hunger, but vast num- 
bers (»f i>eople have neither the time nor inelination to think 
thiujjs > ' '' ' ' (.Ives, and so are merely at the mercy of the 
\n^t \*i< Tvful or the last speaker they have heard. 

" ty, a reji'" '" 

use to ai : 

J li there I 

do :.,: is an inui 

in an interest, however, which often prefers to run 

in ii.w, },^wiient and sometimes unorthodox channels. As in 
the Army, so also at home, there is a preat deal of " inarticulate 
reliptm." A character which i 'ially Christian is ad- 

mi>-»<i, hut its dependence up^m ' ity is not recf>(:nised. 

!. and n 1 

'o ho ind 
ot tJK I hn>tian Faith, is the result of < i 

infill,!,. On the other hand there is \ , ..—. .^ e 

of :i and misapprehension of its meaning. Christianity 

is ' y supposed to be a self-centred, self-saving concern, 

ra* I lift- and power, with the Kingdom of God for its 

goal. 

The war at first had the effect of makinp it easier to reach 
ni. 
It 

crphble to rehgious i: . and there is a widespread 

l(iM;:iii;» for sf>me more tci..... ..upc of a future life; but, as the 

war IS |.r<il< ii;,'« d and its metho<ls become less civiUsed and 
nn ..... 1 i .(landcn' " ' ', 

ai I use, as ' 

III 

I d by ail religious Ix .1 the p! 

|m; ^ < hi flu- decline. Tli^ ...ofSuru!.- ""• 

V; , at Church and Sunday .S«*hfK>l. \ 

III Ik- Church a grcjit op[><»rtunit\ 

hr in all classes alike. al)s< tit tl 

fn ■ • ■ 
(lit 

UK 

fr. 

s(r\:- <s but rui 

pauick all wor^i ! 



I EVANGELISTIC WORK 

worship is too litur;;iral and others that it is not litur^cal 
lu'h. Without (1< " ind coiin 

h tof) often chai - rob th« , 

lij; power. 'I'ht* subject of worNhip is, however, beiug 
d in detail by another Committee. 

'J'he prevailing uncertainty and divergent views regarding 

Q. ,..,]..,• -^'i-.-rvance perplex the minds of many who sincerely 

I > the day aright, and provide an excuse for general 

I If LMowiiitr secularisation of the day is regarded 

\vi li will' It .i (..Mcrrn. Definite teaching on this question 

ir, and i' - d that 

-u. n ■ :-;i;.i n i ■ > . : . ' i iitT than I: , laying 

stress upon the recreative value of a day consecrated to worship 
and rest, the sacred obligation of the public recognitiou of God, 
and the need of due consideration for others. 

The love of home has proved more powerful than any 
other religious influence at the front. Headmasters of our 
public schools and leaders in the Student Christian Move- 
ment testify that the greatest force in the building up of 
Christian eli ^ the Christian home, while on the other 

hand a careli undermines and thwarts other influences 

for good. The relative efficiency of our educational methods 
has led parents to rely unduly on religious teaching given in the 
school. The week-end habit among the well-to-do, the growing 
independence of wage-earning boys and girls, and the multi- 
plication of evening clubs, cinemas, and other places of amuse- 
ment, liave all contributed to tlie spirit of restlessness and the 
disintegration of home life. 

The duty of heads of households to their don; vants is 

very imperfectly recognised. Masters and n s often 

display but little concern for the spiritual and temporal welfare 
of their servants, and sonutimes do not realise that they are 
bound in Christian duty to enable them to fulfil their religious 
obligations. The customs of family prayer and of saying grace 
at meals, so distinctive of the Christian home, have been 
droi)pe(l in many households. The revival of family prayers 
has been one happy result of the National Mission in many 
parts of the country. We would urge the importance of the 
avoidance of formalism and the useof the right kind of devotions. 

The evidence shows, however, that much of this present de- 
tachment from religious observance is due not to deliberate with- 
drawal from things religious, but to lack of opportunity and 
favourable conditions. We are reminded that the conditions 
under which hundreds of thousands of our fellow-countrymen 
and women Uve and work make fulness of life, in the moral and 
spiritual as well as in the more material sense, practically im- 
possible. The anxieties and cares of life, as well as its riches and 
pleasures, do in fact constitute a barrier between the people and 



EVANGELISTIC DEFICIENCIES 6 

God. The present housing conditions, for example, are a serious 

"^^ - to the moral anH • »••• : -al welfare of vast numbers of 

The duty and : 'ilitv of the landlonl. no less 



• 



Ilia: <\ [1IH-; ■ ' ■ ' ion. 

T - ' iml AWtodtrf 

Toaam 

n-s. The younger people of our time are far from being 
..i.. '>'•' ♦'» r. Infli.u^ but they have changed and are changing 

wit; ' y than any other class. The Church needs 

to -s to present to them effectively the de- 

luji ness of Christianity. They arc admit- 

^'le. If " ire to be cast 

! action si- needed take 

outofmuti icncc be- 

„ _ r.ition. The it i tlierLsing 

generation are in part the result of their inipatienee with 

f^'^*'"" abuses and in part the result of the Church's own 

: in the past. If the Church would boldly follow up the 

^ of its own Gospel it would gain their eager and 

l>ort. 

CIL\PTER II 

EVANOEUSTIC DeFICTENCIES 

It is impossible to make any study, however slight, of 

.-..^.iwiona affecting the Church's evangelistic work, without 

with some of the outstanding defects of that work in 

T [!■■ I'.l^t. 

'I'Im first ha« been the lack of mis.<iionarv spirit, shown in the *'^Jf*"'- 

'' '•) At Boat 

111 any sense ot y tor the e\ 

country. It ap{> , • i-vidtnee th - , h 

uuu and women were !>' n r rted has kH-cn abnormal. 

I' - . ... Jinj, not 1k<u j^jivtii when the clergy liave 

r in Clmptcr or on other occasions that the 



s of 

ti>o 

I, ami His love tor individual 

1 fiv. II 1. i'.-,i..ii.itr cdiist raint. 

Ap.ilhy I i «»f the <MAWoM 

Church at imim. i' s »><)ri<i ii>inMii^-»i"ii, stundt 

in the wav of the n of our own pari^ht*, anJ 

*li with by ComntitUc No. V. 



6 EVANGFXISTIC WORK 

involves an incalculable loss of spiritual power. It is liifflcult 

to r • - ite the extent to which th ':acss of the Church 

at bound up vntYi the \v I and continue*! 

neglect ul this p: " We have received I 

of evidence to v ■ spirit of adventure '■ i 

work c\ of all h 

porters " ^ ^ illy the nv 1 

in parochial service. The objective of the Church is the 
establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth. Whether its 
field be at home or abroad, evangelisation is one and the same. 

Defective Christian witness, on the part of clergy and laity 
alike, is revealed as a great stumbling block which thp Church 
has reared up in its own path. " Christianity is sn \ 

the liick of personal recommendation." In spite «)i 
high level of devotion the clergy themselves admit failure to 
commend the cause of Christ to England. A considered report 
from one diocese on the causes of the Church's weakness speaks 
of tlieir " ineffectiveness in maintaining a standard of Christian 
witness and example." 

The laity are also deeply involved in the same indictment. 
Men are offended not so much by the Christian mf'ssaw**, or even 
the Christian Church, as by the personal i' "on- 

sisteney of so many Christians. The chi< k in 

the way of the reception of the Gospel lies in the failure of the 
Church as a whole to exhibit a life consistent with its creed. 
Christ, Whom the Church exists to reveal, is hidden by the 
conventionalities of its worship and by the lives of its members. 
The Christian life to-day does not bear the same marks of 
sacrifice nor show the same disti ' ne as in the 

early days of the Church, and c ^ not compel 

men's attention as it did then. " The rwil cause of the weak- 
ness of the spiritual force and moral witness of the Church 
seems to us to be the widespread failure of Church people to 
exhibit in their lives the power of Christ working through 
them and in them to cleanse and set free and uplift."* 

Nothing appears more distinctly in the evidence than 
that the lack of fellowship within the Church is at 
once a cause of stumbling to those without, and a source 
of weakness to those within. Men and women of the better 
type are convinced that a real Gospel must touch the whole of 
life, and above all must condemn those evils which are a sin 
against fellowship. They ask to see a greater spirit of justice, 
brotherliness and kindness among Christian people. The idea 
of the Church as a fellowship is almost non-existent. Men do 
not see in the Church a brotherhood where those who worship 
together regard themselves as belonging to one family in Christ. 

Evidence reaches us from all sides that unless the Christian 
* Quoted from a diocesan report. 



EVANGKLISTIC DEFICIKNCIES 7 

message is illustrated and sustained by the spectacle of a living 

fcllo ' --- * ' nmc the new converts the words that 

art ' le attention. One of our correspond- 

ents. .1 to lilt: J "■ > : " Trmlcs Unions, etc., 

hr\y<- s<: 'o the v - the idea (new to them) 

I the war has int I 

I it the only form i i 

'ver appeal to them will be on these lines." We 
i.,..v .... V,. ;;1'» ♦'' '♦ this is true, not for any one 'i-i^^ ,.L.i.,. 
but for all ci 1 all typos of men and women 

11 ' ' ' 'own by the Church in questions aiicci- 

luc fijous instance of failure to exhibit the 



IS. Labour is scfking for a r ii of the 

eation, and fails to find it in l:- : h whose 

Head was once the Caq^enter of Nazareth. The things with 
which t)- * '■■•••» - — t keenly concerned arc not the thin^irs 
which li m the working man, and the lack of 

commuruiy oi ii nds to widen the gulf l)ctwecn them. 

Tlxre is ft wi 1 impression that the Chun'h is the 

'lan of \. 

'V and !' . _ 1 

t have a comni s and ideas 

lU .»r sltiiMir -ii, . ._ iucation, and 

ii money tend to gravitate 

■ ncn and women often 

not a fair share in the 



I I ' i arc Lurds," " i in- 

("'M> s, 1,' " are phrases «. j.s of 

ntjiiiy. in these represent real convictions they are 

serious b'"r , .. fi... oi, r,,, ..,(1 the people. These and 

«»ther 'I ration, such as the pew 



disliiu-ti(>u> in the Church, and which arc preiudiciai to its 
life. 

It htis U'cn pointed out again and again that the Church's (*> 

o«.. f. ■!...•. ♦.> • I. I,.......!.. >T»siblc for numerous*" 

V from its meml>cr- 

1' i I • if the truth as a 

whol* . , ,Mt of prn^p and a 

LTiptCtlVC. 

iouots as t« 



8 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

result of an inadequate and distorted idea of the Faith, and 
many others are sulTiciently affected by an atmosphere of 
doubt to lose spiritual joy and power without being able to put 
their difficulties into words. The clergy generally arc not 
trained to teach, or to meet intellectual doubts and difTiculties. 
An apfK-al to the authority of the Church ti in<l 

reasoning frequently gives excuse f«>r tli the 

Church is obscurantist and afraid of new light. On the other 
hand, the fact that a large liberty of thought is permitted and 
that a great variety of opinion finds expression in the pulpit 
is often misunderstood as pointing to the inability of the 
Church to face real issues and to speak with authority. There 
is a loud call for clear and definite teaching which will face 
genuine difiieulties. Continuous teaching; on fundamental 
truths is asked for rather tluu ns.* 

In recent years this need of i of truth has 

been painfully emphasised by the fact that such religious cults as 
Christian Science and Thcosophy have made a |K)werful appeal 
to many minds which the Church has failed to win. That their 
faulty philosophy, combined with their attitude towards 
our Lord, should commend itself to thoughtful men and 
women may, at first sight, seem inexplicable. But it is not 
improbable that such persons have for the first time come into 
contact with a system of thought which seems to have some- 
thing definite to teach, and offers to its disciples real touch with 
the unseen world and an attractive idealism, as well as a means 
of escape from the prison of physical suffering. That this 
should be so is little to the credit of the Church, and emphasises 
the need for definite, clear presentation of the Faith, which, 
if taught in its fulness, includes all that is good in such cults, 
and also supplies motives and aids to holy living of infinitely 
superior force, while the devout and instructed use of the 
sacrament of Holy Communion would bring men into conscious 
union with the Lord of the unseen world, and would oi)cn to 
them an incomparably greater source of spiritual power. It 
is clear that the Church'needs to restate or to recover the fulness 
of the truths to which these cults bear partial witness. Ethical 
teaching alone, or a creed which, on the one hand, seems to take 
no account of material ills, and on the other apparently ignorc> 
the unseen world and its inhabitants, is little calculated to 
appeal to the best and most thoughtful minds of our time. 
(»)Lackoi Many believe that difficulties are also due to the fact that 

BiUcTeMblng systematic and devotional reading of the Bible is so seldom 
practised to-day. It is constantly afTirmed that this is in 
part the result of a vague but widespread idea^that the Bible 
has lost its authority, and of misconception regarding the 
results of scholarsliip in recent years, due to the fact that th( 
• See Report of Committee on the Teaching Office of the Church. 



FIRST FRUITS OF TIIE NATIONAL MISSION 9 

negative aspects of criticism have reached ordinary folk, but 
not •* " -'ive contribution. 

^^ . it is not the usuai method of the parish priest to 

ve way. Few of 

'• of thr pa^-^i/' 



also iH'cn point* is that the choice of lessons to be read 

in «l.Mr. h uid ti. .......acr in which they are read is of great 

i'n[ The present system of religious instruction and 

of 111 II 1 of teaching the Bible in Secondary and Elc! 
sch(X)Is, as well as in Sunday Schools, is often most 

^o the autiiontics 
ao proper system 
"t lite means of training those who 

are ^ _ : jUired. 

In view of the evidence they have received, it is impossible 

for the Committee to be silent with regard to the attitude 

towanls even the most obvious and reasonable Biblical criticism 

■ ' ' ' ' ^t and sp; •• ' ] 

o arc ni" 

V of 

ting 

those they wish to help. A veteran 

..jii preachers, who has l>een used for the 

few others in recent years, writing on this 

.fi.iiiy of thfriiovt cnrnf'^t ntid sy)iritn.t!lv-minded 

'fourtiiii'- I'i"!'' .Ill li';:"* .ii> .t"'!:'.- ' ■> M iscrvativr 

.iTr injijf lou . ' !f, !ii ,,' ,:,. Me criti- 

'•i;«'ri . . . n • r , , , - .[ subject 

r stand- 

ss. .All 

tins cnatr-, a pIc, leadiAg 

''"'"'"■'■"'■ ^v...^ w. .... ..,,;.-♦ V -f Mjose 

. and earnest rep ives 

' alt, 

^*^' ion 



''■"'. J . calls 'the word of the 

(russ, r _ ^ ^ ^ ever, * th.- i.ow.r of Gtxl 

unto salvation unto every one that bclicveth.' 

CIIAITER III 
FiB«T Faurrs or tue National .Mission 

\\ ' • - 

nui. , . ., 



10 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

vital stiiiTo. In the liRht of that experience the Church has set 
i' * ud its ways. Five Com- 

'.\u(\ now present their 
!<>thcAr ^. liul iioccsan efforts at re- 

lion havi ^ There i ii an increase in the 

number of diocesan evangelistic councils. In several eases bands 
of mission clergy have been either re-estjiblishcd or inaugurated, 
and in some centres the Committee of the National Mission 
has become a permanent evai ' • council for the district, 
while many plans are heintj f> 1 locally. In nearly all 

the dioceses such t\ as the Pi! of 

Prayer or itinerant nil ■ ave been plai the 

future, and in some places parochial missions ami teaehmg mis- 
sions are to be held for the purpose of deepening the effect that 
was made at the time of the delivery of the message. Deanery 
evangelistic councils have been formed in some places, and in 
one diocese training lectures for young evangelists have been 
held, and have proved most valuable. 

With regard to mission work overseas, almost the first 
of the National Mission was the planning of a great 
I ry convention in London. This hud to be given up, 

owing to war restrictions on travelling, but careful plans have 
been made for similar efforts in some dioceses. There is more 
thought to-day about the great commission of the Church than 
there has been for years The value of all this to evangelistic 
work at home cannot fail to be considerable. 

No class in the community has derived more benefit from the 
National Mission than the clergy themselves. Its demands have 
brought home to them the responsibility of their position. 
Many have realised their own and the Church's failure to 
commend Christianity to the nation, and have heard the call 
to fresh consecration in their own lives. As a result of their 
experience in retreat, and of sharing in the delivery of the 
message, either as messengers or as parish priests, many have 
gone forward in their ministry with renewed hope, and some in 
the joy of having discovered gifts of which they were before 
unconscious. 

Fellowship between men of different points of view has 
widened their sympathy and strengthened their faith. Clergy 
and laity who represent different schools of thought or who 
have been separated from one another for other reasons, have 
been knit together in new fellowship as they have met for 
prayer and conference, and have discovered the power of 
common purpose and united action. 

We find that the desire for fellowship among the members 
of the Church has also been strengthened. The plan of 
group study and prayer which has been so widely adopted has 
had a r«iiiarkal»l( effect on manv congregations. People have 



THE MF:SSA(;K FOK to-day 11 

learni'd to know one another as they never did Ixfore ; shyness 
in spcakinij about spiritual things has been broken down. A 
ffreat hope for the future lies in this simple method of fellow- 
ship. 

A strikinif feature of the movement has been the amount of 

■ • • ;ty. Th" ■ ' re is 

eaks of ' J use 

t which hiu» Intti one of the main causes 

Kept many of the laity from Ixinfj '* made 

use of," on the whole co-operation between clergy and laity is 

increasing in the Church, to the benefit of all, and in dealing 

with common problems they are being drawn closer together. 

r ' *' Church has been in some degree aroused to a 
new II of it«> own aims and possibilities in relation to 

1 life. Church reform is increasingly seen as a 
al urgency by many who have never before realised 
its intimate connection with evangelistic work. A new interest 
is growing in questions relating to labour and social recon- 
struction, and their spiritual importance is being better under- 
stood. The National Mission has already done much to pro- 
duce in the Church conditions which arc wholly favourable to 
listic work, and the Church in conse- 
• is better able to Ix'ar its part in the 
greiil ii^k of the cvaugeli.sation of England. 



' UAl'TEU 1\ 

lliL .MllSSAOE FOR To-DAY 

1 1, \ 'T' ' " ■ ■ ' lit ujKjn the 

rw'y- ■• In view of 



f)rilcd to consider wt t of the eternal Gos|kI meets the 

!i« ' <U of thi«- .»- 1. r .f ,. .^^. ctenial element in the Clu-istian 

rii'ssngr is ing. Salvation in its widest sense and 

' roiii ill! tluit hint! - -:tual life and development 

be the Ivart of <'l that we preach. Hut 

element in tlu wliich changes with 



undrr a: 



>f all sort or no sense 



12 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

of sin there is often a deep spiritual hunf^er : and many of the 

o' ' ■ ' " ' ■ ' — ses 

( ist 

bt' \ 1 '-of our lime. 

If t . li to this generation an evangel which 

will grip, it must come, in some real sense, as news — news 
powerful \'nough to change the whole mental and spiritual 
outlook. Good advice is not the same thing as good news. 
Men are longing for good news ; they are hungry for spiritual 
things, and the growing desire for nearness to the spiritual world 
is a large factor in the e\ ion. Cot or 

unconsciously many men a: king to s .ud 

to come into touch with Hun. Tlie preaching tliuL cleaves 
them a way to His presence through the maze of difliculties and 
perplexities is the preaching to which they will most readily 
respond. 

An overwhelming amount of evidence from many sources 
shows that there is to-day little or no conscious sense of sin. 
There is a latent sense of something wrong, but of sin as guilt 
there is very often no sense at all, and little conscious need of a 
Saviour. That this is to some extent due to defective presenta- 
tion and consequent misunderstanding of the meaning of salva- 
tjon is undoubted, but it may also be due to the lack of a posi- 
tive ideal which can through very contrast produce the sense of 
sin. Ideas which dominate the national life always affect the 
thoughts and ideals of the individual, and the failure of the 
Church to impress the nation with its own thought of God 
probably accounts in part for the inadequate sense of sin. 

In the report of a Midland diocese on the causes of the 
Church's weakness the following passage occurs : " The root 
cause of the Church's weakness is a seriously blurred sense of the 
Majesty of God. . . . This has resulted in the displacement 
of religion from its true place in life. The average man has come 
to believe in a God of indolent good nature, a God of no great 
importance compared with, e.g., education or modern science, 
in the practical affairs of life ; a God towards Whom anyone 
can accord an otiose ' belief,* but a God Who is simply not 
worth being converted to." Against such a background men 
are brought with difficulty to a sense of sin. 

Superficial ideas about evolution, with a notion that every- 
thing is coming right in the end, a shallow fatalism, and easy- 
going ideas about judgment and the character of God do not 
tend to make a man say, " VV'hat shall I do to be saved ? " It 
would seem, therefore, that while, as ever, repentance and 
remission of sins must be preached in Christ's name, we must 
at the same time remember that the fear and horror of judg- 
ment and the punishment of sin, which has been in all ages such 
a powfi-ful incentive to repentance, is to-day perhaps weaker 



Tire MESSAGE FOR TO-DAY 18 

than ever before. The profound difTlcuIty of finding a 
.f*c and aniondtnent that will appeal to 
it the root of much of our ineffective 
eviir 

III d times there was deep in the consciousness of those n* AmmI 
who listtnt'ii to r< vivjil preachers a terror of God the Avenger «"•••*»■■* 
.•.!i,l tJ,, fear of lull. The overwhelming reaction when men ^""^ 
vinccti that God had forgiven them and that they were 
' *' ' I" haraet eristic feature of many move- 

was what men wanted : the Gospel 
. lluit came as glorious news and was accepted 

i \ j^pp ^Q show 

th.'i' 1- to consider 

tr J ' i;il, the old motive of safety has been largely dis- 

I'l.n .il. Men are not afraid of hell, because they have left 

behind the old thought of it, and have not yet realised that sin 

^ ' ud terrible results. The real just!" i for 

tifj of h(av< n and hell was that i: itly 

i of eternity, thus providing 

ling, for salvation from sin. 

to whom the direct message 

ae most powerful appeal, and 

s the knowledge of Christ as the Deliverer 

- f their wounds, it seems to be true tlxat 

v. certainly to tlie younger generation, 

' ■ lire; service that gives 

" •' • ' •• t of himself into a larger 

of the God for 

' .-: 1 can meet that 

I. ■ xl news for which multitudes are waiting 

I ' t Iiat the call of missions overseas has such 

}H)W. i ui lui jiir .. Ml time. It is remarkable that among the 
rn«n at the front the ciill to service is l>cini; fnund U^ liuve more 
iirrrstiui; power ''' i uj^a 

of tt|.- .'r. ,n.. -. , t as 

tory of t md 

1 of the i md 

native t ikc a deep ir: i on 

all, the i V ,,ri^t upon the s«.i . ^ ^ of all 

ane has a wonderful |X)wer of attraction and 

II. I M( re i.s a ir ' * ' i>resrnt tinu* 

ug to the world • hrifv n( the 

'ivc 
-is 
uiu: of iJic imonL Valuable methods of evangelistic approach 
to dav. 



U EVANGELISTIC WORK 

Work oi lb* There is a widely recognised need for a greater emphasis 
Holy ipirii upon the Person and work of the Holy Spirit, and for 
a development and restatement of the Church's teaching 
on this subject. On the one hand there has often seemed 
to be a failure to recognise the work of the Spirit in 
conversion, and in the development of the inner life of union 
with God. On the other hand there arc not a few who think 
that the poverty of our thonpht of God is due at least in part 
to a too narrow conception of the work of the Spirit, not only 
in the Church, but in human society as a whole. There arc 
some who believe that they see signs that we are approaching 
an age of the Spirit. The wider recognition of the divine 
indwelling in the soul of man, the longing for the development 
of latent spiritual powers, the reaction from the materialistic 
influences of the nineteenth century towards all forms of religion 
which offer men experience of the spiritual world, the increasing 
perception of the operation of the Holy Spirit in all that 
ministers to the artistic and imaginative side of life, to the 
health of the body and to the light of the mind, would seem to 
be preparing the way for an epiphany of the Holy Ghost. 
Men arc*coming to see that the various movements for health 
and recreation, as well as all efforts to build up a more just and 
friendly order of society, are due to the inspiration of the 
Spirit, " Who divideth to each man severally as He will." .\n 
extended connotation of the word " spiritual " and a fuller 
recognition of the presence and power of the Holy Spirit and His 
working through things material is a nv ng need to-day. 

.\fter all, the fundamental need of th i is that she may 

be full of faith and of the Holy Ghost. It was the vivid sense of 
His presence among them that gave to the early disciples that 
courage and distinctiveness which impressed the world around. 
They were able to witness because His power had come upon 
them. To-day we draw too little upon that power, ever 
present in the Church. If once more there are to be men 
and women saintly in their lives and apostolic in their 
labours, if again her councils are to say with natural conviction, 
" It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us," there must be 
a new faith in Him, a new understanding of His gifts, a new 
dependence upon Him in her ministry, a new venture of 
prayer, a new expectation of His manifested power. 

We need to proclaim the Gospel of the Lord the Life Giver 
as the source of the Divine fellowship of the Church of Christ, 
and as the spring of all human progress, and to draw from Him 
the motive power of all our evangelistic work. 
varTioc There will always be need of varj'ing emphasis in the 

ftnphuis evangelistic message. To a thoughtful audience some 
of the appeals that touch the ignorant are worse than 
useless ; but to all alike the message that tells of God's near- 



THE APPROACH 16 

ness to men and of His eternal provision for brinj^ng them 
to Himself that they may find the fulness of their life in Him, 
needs to be presented with all the urgency at our command. 
Never more than to-day do we need to uplift the Cross of 
Christ, and t<» glory in nothing save in the Cross of our Lord 
Je^^ must be allowed to overshwlow this; 

n«)' r*e. But to many the message of the 

At I until by the work of the I' 

S|>i . re led to fuller knowledge of C i 

and Ingm to feel their own un worthiness and their need of His 
cleansing and redemption. The attraction of Christ as a heroic 
Leader is more immediately powerful. It is noteworthy that 
alik t sea and at the front religious feeling 

is s not «v> much of desire for salvation as 

for men and women the message 

of t r by the presentation of Christ 

in His i and His Kingship, as One Who calls to men 

to-day L- and follow Him. At the same time it must be 

made clear, however gradually, that the companionship of 
Christ is a deep and m> stical relationship, wrought by the Holy 
Spirit of God, and makin? great demands on the life. 

There is ' iie Cross for wl ' n are 

waitingto>, itinl answer <i: .mity 

to the fact and the proWltut li^. There is 

healing at the Crr^ss for the su as the sin of 

humanity. The Cross is our only assurance that suffering is 
not meaningless, and from the Cross there springs str< i»<'fh t.. 
endure, and a light which transfigures pain. 



CHA1»TEU V 

TiiK Approach 

wide agreement, and this not only within the 
and, as t" ♦'" .f....r,i ii<"ffcctiveness of the old 
ipp-aU »o t iich the a wc must always re- 

in ' *ii ui<' n- an mat man belicveth unto 

n tluit to-duv more thiu\ in the past the 

h. ■ " ad. Tli t 

>t than li' i 

If icies of I 

f« It _ . work for 

ariti Sal\ ati'»ii Army, as well as by vicars in p > 

In! ' '••• -v-^-- ■: V ^•.. .!.•..». ■ 

It 

u\< 

in liu 



^^ EVANGELlS'llt WORK 

t nought them through, and speak m simple and untcchiiicoi 
lanj^'uage. 

Direct appeals to the n ! to be 

resented, and religious cx< «i with - 

Yet emotion plays an important part ui the spiritual life, nor 
do we forget that the note of joy marks the first reception of the 
Gospel. \Vhile there is a superficial and temporary emotional- 
ism which isrightly discredited, there is alsoa deeper movrrri • * 
of tlic spirit which accompanies the acceptance of the mt^ 

This desire for an evangelistic appeal that touches f I 
is in line with the preat demand f< r definiteness. It ni. 
surpris •<• of freedom like our own there should 

be a di I ute and authoritative message, but it is 

the desire of a restless age for something that it can depend 
upon ; of an age which, though impressionable, is extraordi- 
narily critical, for something which is above criticism. Much 
of the phraseology that has cr}'stallised round the great truths 
of the Gospel has little meaning for this generation, and re- 
interpretation with authority is a crying need in e\ ic 
work. The passion for reality makes people to-day . t 
of conventions, whether moral, social or religious — a ttiujK;r 
of mind that has its dangers, but for which the Church may be 
thankful. The dead weight of indifference is a greater obstacle 
than the impatient thinking of those who seek, even if in strange 
fashions, the knowledge of truth. 

There is need to lay stress upon conversion and the nee* ' 
for a real and fundamental change of life. There has bcti 
on the one hand through not emphasising it sufTieiently, and 
on the other through not giving it a wide enough content. The 
demand for reality, for a religion wliich works and makes a 
difference, may partly account for the fact tliat the Labour 
Movement is to some a kind of religion. It stands for some- 
thing living and practical, and as such has a great appeal. A 
religion at once more practical and more spiritual is called for on 
all sides. 

Social and industrial problems and questions of Church 
reform are being dealt with by other Committees, but it 
falls witliin the scope of this Conunittee to point out with 
the greatest possible emphasis that such questions are vitally 
related to the evangelistic work of the Church. It 
is not sufficient to give the message, however wisely and 
earnestly ; it is also essential to see that as far as possible no 
barriers exist which prevent its reaching minds and hearts. 
It is not the business of the Church to seek popularity with 
any class, nor indeed to provide an economic programme or 
policy, nor must it be said that the Church will undertake 
social work of a palliative nature in order to gain a hearing. 
But we are sure that when we have arrived at a larger and 



niE APPROACH '7 

m<ir ' iK't ir (>uti(.K»k, and have vindii-aicii tiu- Mjvcnigiii y 

of : ovtT ever\' part of our common life, one of the 

gn rj will hjive Ixcn won. 

I' !i find living to the common 

• . The t 
idcred fr 
motives IS a true preparatw eiiwgelica, and a presentation of 
tiic Gospel which ignores the social obligations of Christianity 
will not receive serious attention from increasing numbers of 
people to-duy. Only a Church which reveals the wide com- 
passion t>f Clirist nnd His care for the whole life of men will 
T m. It cannot be stated too clearly ai'l 
y and communicants who regard mm iii 
»cr o part of their spiritual ministry have failed to 

ap[ !u full content of the Gospel and the full meaning 

of : 

^^ll. ii ijit ini<. meaning of social service la uiiderstood, 
workers in this cause are seen to be some of the most im|X)rtant 
in •' ' ' rch. It needs to be recognised o|>enly and |>ersis- 
teti fdl social service done with a Christian motive is 

es5' of the < work. At the present ♦ 

»oti e.g., Sci re Committee workers, h< . : 

visitors, wt lliirc workers — otten feel that their work is regarded 
as purely secular. Those who are engaged in social service 
have access to every home, and by their sympathy and 

•elf * * V their trained mind and careful methods, thry 

ar< ' to the force which is fighting Christ's bat'l . 

Tl. ')ften exists between them and tlic 

pii to weakf-n in their own minds and 

in ' rtf their vocation, 

ani; ^ , y suffers from t(X) 

great an exclusiveness and too narrow a conception of Christian 
service. 

Such, the II. ar f the coiui.' i ^ • . u t n< t iiunli 

is fact'd tod.iv re the hii; i: i;. Iiavr itnptdtcl 

so of 
.s n-- 
•' ■ - her. V\c I 

r< -jr the great ' .^ ^ v 

lur how far they are , liow far they are in need of 

inif^ ' ' nt and extent",, .i liic Church is to use the pn - ■ ' 

opi , and fulfil more truly her vocation in tliis cot. 

no icj»^ man acroM the sc«a. 



• 8 L> AiNui!.Li:3liL wuiiK 

PART TWO 

MEN ANT) MEANS 

To et^angelue is so to present Christ Jesus in the 
porter of the Holy Spirit, that men shall come to put 
their trust in God Oirough Him, to accept Him as their 
Saviour, and serve Him as their King in the fellowship 
of His Church. 

The Church must be lirst aiui last a ini.ssionary i luirch. 
This is gemnilly understood to mean the evanpclisation of 
the world ; it involves no less the evangelisation of Enjjland. 
Though this eannot be accomplished until the Church in her 
members exhibits a complete loyalty to Christ in every 
department of life, her spiritual resources are adequate to the 
task, however great the difficulties and however strongly 
'-n^'-' Mched may be the opposing forces. 



CHAPTER 1 

The Clergy 

The all-sufficiency of the Church's spiritual resources is 
a challenge to its constituted leaders, whether clergy or 
laity. Much depends upon all who take a leading part in 
Church life, but the ultimate res|X)nsibility rests with 
the clergy. Their influence upon local Church life is of neces- 
sity so great that if they do not quicken they actually deaden 
it. The system which under inspiring leadership is full of 
glorious potentialities may without it become a positive 
hindrance. It is part of the experience gained in the National 
Mission that, as one man has made fresh ventures possible and 
has called forth a spirit of expectancy and prayer which has 
borne much fruit, so one man has been able to hinder or even 
to block altogether, through inertia and want of faith, response 
to the call which has come to a whole parish or district. 
TrainiiKoi Thc training of the clergy is dealt with in the report 
th«ci«rfy of t^jjg Committee on the Teaching Office of the Church, 
but it comes within the scope of this Committee to 
make certain observations on the subject, so far as it con- 
cerns evangelistic work. The first object of our prayer and 
effort must be that the clergy should be full of the Holy Ghost 
and of faith, and that they should have personal knowledge of 
the Gospel which they teach. Wide in their outlook, large- 



THE CLERGY 19 

hearted in thrir sympathy. nnd inspired by tho love r»f the Good 

Shephr 

thcaffo 

In a sinful world they must fulfil a ministrj' of rcconcilia 
The minister of Christ must ever seek to bring into 1: ^ 
relationship with Christ those who are separated from Him. 
He is ' ' " ' s ministr}' when he preaches the love of 
God an ; tivr work of Christ ; when as the " discreet 

and leariu. ' Goil's Word " he is dealing with the 

sinner who liis grief that by the ministry of God's 

Word he n ' the benefit of absolution, together 

ghostly cou: - . 1 advice," or whenever he is seeking to 1' 

the wandering home to God. It is essential that no man 
should enter upon this ministry without specific training in 
(I ; ling with souls. This will involve at least some knowledge 
of moral ai ' "leology and of the psychology of con- 

version RTi ; »n. 

} who is to Iv --s must himself be 

at. i^'s. He mu- uiied in pniyer nnd 

meditation as well as familiar with the Scriptures. M I 

training must also include the study of the more ;i_^ e 

methods of carrying the Gospel to those who stand outside 
in^* ' '■ ' - ' - ■ — > IS the organisation and conduct of 
op s and demonstrations, and similar 

m' -' study of the history of 

m' to sec the subject in true 

p. > include the study of 

(h ways in which to meet the 

IK . (Is ;in<i s of the nnxlern mind. It is desirable also 

tlu4t t very ....... ..Jio is himself an evangelist should b. on the 

alert to discover in others the same gifts. 

^' ' ' ' •! ' ... J., of the methods auu jm.ii- 

ei ; i a place of real im|>ortancc 

in .... - 1^ 

H d 

ii' I. 

lie question of training, we would point 
I. lie of tlic nimt frequent hindrances to an eff' 

nuiii-i. > II the ' - " •inn's remoteness from, and incxpti 
of, common hu is ordinary men have to live it. ^ 

clergy apfv . ■ . » ,. . i ._ 

hood. and 
I,. 1 

Ww I. 

and when they do n(»t turn to them in their tli The 

laity have a right to ex|>ect of their elerg)- the k: ^<- and 

' xp«Tience of their profession. Sometimes it seems to them 

* S«« Apiirmllx I . 



20 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

that behind the use of professional formula- and a non-committal 
attitude the clergy are endcavourinj; to hide th' •- •• ' ility to 
deal with diflficultics instead of frankly acknowl' This 

is fiitai to any rc.il fellowsli ' l luily. It has 

also been urged u\H)n us : ul be recruited 

from all classes. A man's birlh in any rank of society need not 
preclude him from the closest fellowship with men and women 
of other classes. It adds strength to the corporate life of the 
Church and enriches it-, understanding and symi)athy, when 
its ministry includes those who in early years have been 
wage-earners, and who appreciate the temptations and 
dillieulties of the labourer and artisan. We would here urge 
the importance of a long and thorough training being given 
in such cases. 

Of equal importance with the training of the clergy is the 
fostering of their devotional life throughout their ministry. 
The necessity of this is keenly felt by many among them. 
" The chief hindrance to our work is ourselves," expresses 
the thoughts of a large number. The clergy need encourage- 
ment and help. Only those who liave passed through the 
experience know how difficult it is, in the hard and often 
lonely routine of parochial work, to maintain the spirit of 
hope and constantly to seek and expect conversions. 

During the preparation for the National Mission retreats were 
held in every diocese, and were attended by a large number of 
clergy. It is greatly to be desired that an annual retreat should 
be recognised as part of the normal life of every clergyman. As 
a means to this end we recommend that each diocese should 
have a Retreat House, which could be used not only by the 
clergy, but also by the laity, where it might be possible for any 
men or women who desired it to spend a day or more apart with 
God. 

The cultivation of a truer spu-it of prayer on the occasions 
when they meet together officially and as members of Societies 
would bring new life into clerical work. A report from a 
Northern diocese says : " One of the methods of helping the 
clergy to maintain within themselves that devotion to the 
Person of our Blessed Lord which is the secret of all joy in the 
ministry is that more use be made for devotional purposes of 
the existing system of official and unofficial meetings of clergy. 
Chapter meetings, for instance, might be preceded by a Cele- 
bration of Holy Communion. ' We seem more at our ease in 
discussing problems of business than problems of piety, and 
one has even known clerical gatherings where it would have 
seemed out of place to have spoken in some simple way of Christ, 
or to have advocated some course of action solely on the ground 
that it accorded wth His principles.* Those words are written 
by one of the leading priests of our diocese ; if they are true. 



THE LAITY 21 

what must be the effect upon those clergy whosr only times of 

fell, • ....... •• .^VM 

I litTto unused 

Mtu luund to thfir 
.'•thor place as evangelists, 
or own people from the new standpoint, 

th> lor the task. Many of them are ready 

to s for further evancclistic work. It will be 

'' I in V imrch to place at their service the special 

which more ex|HTicnccd missioners have gained. 
iius .i.:i r ' ' " "or group of 

'ii'»^»^<s Hs K>!s " nuu'ht 

as they 
loped, as 
th« ily would, the fellowship of a common work. 

i.. — . do not perhaps realise how much their own attitude 

and exjKctation react upon the life of the clergy. They ought 

to bear in mind that incessant external activities do not 

determine the value of any ministry and that the clergy need 

from men and th God. It is frequently 

thrm tn rrrx'm t' ^ary time for prayer and 

' mate demands of committees 

_, .-..:. .: ... h ought certainly to fall upon 

the laity. 

Most of all, the laity owe to their clergy a constant inter- 
cession. Turlve days in the year have been set apart in the 



I'hcir better um; would surely brin|{ us better clergy. 

Cn.\FlER II 
The Laity 

It is a delusion to imagine that upon the clergy aJonr lies 
the rcM 

To |o«M 



•hip. The for an tic clergy is indisputable: 

nor I.-vv V,. , !,.♦,,. I , 



scr\ I' » 



'h have helped to call forth the ttoiiM 
■ * ' »beforgor ' • •»'"-* 



the vcr f, it th« 



22 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

he is a mfinljcr of the IJody of Christ, and that , how- 
ever small his fuiietion may seem to be, lie is i 1 to the 

wcll-hcinj; of the whole. Baptism has too often been ad- 
'I indiscriminately without the safeguards that 
lip was inti-nded to provide. Its more public and 
ilimiiliid administration would ~ k- place 

in the mind of the avcragi.* ( i ; of in- 

corporation into Christ. Confirmation would tlu-ii \)c rccojifnised 
not only as the receiving of tlu- gifts of the Holy Spirit for a Hfe 
deliberately consecrated to the service of God, but as the 
coming of age of the Christian, and as his entering into the 
freedom of the City of God, with all its privilege and glorious 
responsibility. 

The witness of the Church will always be most effectively 
l)orne by the laity interpreting Christianity in daily life and 
work. So long as there is a sliarp distinction drawn between 
" religious " and " secular "; so long as religious work is 
thought of mainly in terms of parochial and diocesan service, 
men and women will not realise the high responsibility and 
spiritual opportunity of their daily avocation. One thing that 
will convince the world of the reality and power of the Christian 
faith is the application of the principles of the K ' of 
Jisus Christ to the whole of life — to industry, i-e, 

municipal and public life, in a word, to all things great i>r bmaU, 
to recreati(»n and social intercourse, and no less to the dealings 
of nation with nation. A religion no longer conventional or 
formal, seen as a reality in daily conduct, would bring about 
the conversion of multitudes who have ceased to regard the 
Christian faith as a working force. We believe that the right 
understanding of Christian discipleship lies at the very heart 
of the problem of evangelisation. If we arc to make new 
converts to Christ and 1 1 is Church evangelistic work must be 
the concern of the whole body of the faithful. From many 
quarters evidence is given that conversions to-day are effected 
not so much by large gatherings as by personal influence and 
individual witness. Those movements which are making con- 
verts rely chiefly upon the personal witness of convinced 
disciples, who declare that they have found for themselves 
enlarged knowledge and m w life. The twentieth-century man 
respects the personal experience of those who know that they 
have been in touch with God, and arc convinced that they can 
draw upon an unseen Power and count upon an invisible 
Presence to carry them through every emergency. The witness 
of men and women who have this conscious experience of Christ's 
sa\ing power, to whom His })resence is a reality, and who 
can speak of Him with a contagious enthusiasm of belief, is 
the witness that will lead others to the same knowledge and 
experience. The supreme evangelistic need of the Church is 



ETUgvUati 



THE LAITY 28 

reality in it* members. With such higher standards of member- 
' • confidently go forward to an 

It IS itc any movement of extension tattno 

unless t:. umand the entire strength and ■*•■••* 

service of the laity. They must not be ashamed to confess 

♦ '-• * "rucifietl with their lips as well as in their lives. The 

man. s)K>nkini; in an unconventional manner of his 

have a power that is denied to the 

f th«' effort of si>eech be costly. The 

1 ideas of the ministry 

y. More venture on both 

siiles would make a profound difference to the whole work and 

influence of tlic Church. 

If we arc to have the fullest service of the laity, women must W( 

liave adequate sco\K' for the use of those charismatic gifts which 

they so often jmjsscss.* A {rrcat proi)ortion of the Church's 

lt done 1 II power of their 

^ been oi. 'S in its spiritual 

hlc. \\c iuivo recfivcd evidence to show that the Church is 

I<^^iIl_' the services of many women who feel tliat an untrue 

i>n has been drav^Ti between men and women who are 

"• ♦*" ^ame spiritual society. This evidence reflects a 

liat the time has come when the whole question 

' ' 'in the (I ' 'lould l)e s 

nresi^nt ■ IIS reino 

non-lit' I.e., 

under a u of 

such as exists in the case of laymen. 

' liiat the wlioli work of the Church, and not 

l« i>t « V work, has serious loss through the 

l""i:' ' -' •': ^ Ki, and their exclusion from 

t '>' '•, deanery anil parish. These, 

however, urc maticri wiucii can only be dealt with by authority. 

•Many \.v from ministerijU work Traintocef 

thrrm^'h <u:i , inex|KTicnee, and they »fc»i^«» 

an- unwilling to take up work unliss they feel able to 

do it witli u nrfniti m. .vnr.. . .f i(Ti, -i... wi- '|'i,, •... q^^ alrcadv 
many n who intend 

to dCVt)ti iin II mil iiiiii' i"> iiir sit\ 1ft- ki til'' V ' ' " > 

are now \tcmit taki n to provide a Colletje ot 

linerl in various k 
' It would be 
il? over 

iic alrcau .. , ... i 

trainin ' courses would include lectures on tiible >tudy 

* Sm Paul III, p«|{r M. 



24 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

and Church doctrine, and practice in giving addresses, and 
they should " for conference, and ample 

time for quit ! a. 

But there is htiil ncttl of ^oIlie training for the men and 
women who have a real desire to share in the evangehstic work 
of the Church but who cannot devote their full time to it. 
While the duty of witness rests upon every disciple of Christ, 
the parish priest should always be alert to discover thase who 
have special gifts and keenness for evangelism, and should 
devote time and thought to fitting them for it. He should be 
careful to arrange for the preparation of Sum ' rs, 

the instruction of district visitors, and coui on 

personal work and the life of prayer. This provision might 
well be made by parishes in co-operation. Devotional Con- 
ferences, in which all may take part, having as their chief aim 
equipment for service, will also be found valuable. In the 
ordinary Sunday services members of the congregation are in 
one sense passive, and a natural result of this is that too many 
of them never attempt to express or define their faith evf-n to 
themselves. If in such Conferences as have been si i or 

in smaller prayer groups and Bible-study circK nal 

matters could be freely and simply discussed, many of the 
difficulties so keenly felt at present would disappear, and the 
tongues of the laity be unloosed. Out of this sharing of religious 
experience the spirit of fellowship in our parishes would grow, 
and be to-day, as in the first days of the Church, a striking 
evidence of the reality of the Christian life. 

In the course of inquiry the Committee has tried to discover 
what are the conditions which create an atmosphere favourable 
to living and continuous evangelistic work in any parish or 
district. In the first place such an atmosphere is the result 
of the influence of those who are living members of Christ and 
bear courageous witness in the world. We find, too, that 
enthusiasm for foreign missions tends to deepen spiritual 
life and call forth general evangelistic zeal. 

It IS also to be observed that iu a parish where much evan- 
gelistic work is going on there is always a spirit of prayer. Our 
Lord opens to us the boundless possibilities of the prayer of 
faith. The early history of the Church reveals an entire 
dependence upon prayer. The power which rested upon the 
apostles and the first disciples as they testified to Christ was 
the power of the Holy Ghost bestowed in answer to prayer. 
Every succeeding spiritual movement has resulted from the 
secret communion with God of some of His servants. If we 
could use to the full the capacity for prayer in our congregations 
religion would become a life-giving, transforming power among 
the people. The National Mission has done much to^^call forth 



ki I rvi 1 1< !"« 



METHODS 35 

yer 

need for development m this direction, and 

nniv.r m. ctings arf' eriitlv to be desired. 

lat t he w t of evangelistic 

>ii |M 1M1^ ujiwu the inttniNMim behind it. 

Closely connected with the calling forth of prayer is the 

* ' ' ' Bible — " the oil that feeds the lamp of 

mnny lessons which the Church at home 

lission fields is the true place 

-<. The whole experience of 

recent • s in India and the Far East, 

"^'" '• '' „... fruitful in results, is deserving of 

•ion by the Church here at home. After the 

I r.iiin lias hr, ii simply stated at large meetings, those 

re to invi • ' ' it further are aske<l to studv the four 

• as 

' ' ind 

, to accipl lliiu at any cost. If there were given to 

y of the Bible at home a position of like importance, 

!! tluTc were the same searching of the Scriptures, we should 

inevitably be led to a deejter knowledge of God's purpose and 

so to a marked increase of evangelistic work. 



CHAPTER III 

Methods 

We would preface our remarks on certain well-known methods 

■'' '" ''^*'<^ work h- •-- ' . r . ,,j p^^. 

oforifai .t their 

: uiily III :>o f.ir .i ire 

way n-nliscd. 1 :tv 

workof the ( iiureh 

' t new organisations ; 

• to end their existence when they are 

M.I r. ,,, I, riMrr true service. 

it is impossible U) deal com- 

<>i evni; ■ "V ':xi\ 

ir to Us ,re 

'V at the prcM'iil tunc. 

II, A parish pncst of ex- ii»Tytou. 

IS m many miiuU when he sjud at 

r, irr.iiM'.d by the Committee, 

i hr men u i n- not the Ust preaehrm 

•r the iK'st III ..., ,.^. .,,.1 .,n ,,,,.|i wh(, visit. I believe 

• hat the ircret of evangelistic work today "s ' {>rny and vi«t. 

c 



26 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

pray and visit,* And visitinj; must not merely mean talk 
about anything and ever} ut it must be carried on with 

the definite intention of ! ^ ^ souls to Christ." Numbers 
of chaplains in the Navy and Army, whose answers in reply 
to questions sent to them by the National Mission Council have 
been summed up in a valuable rep<irt, declare that a very 
large number of the men have never been in any touch what- 
ever with thoir parochial clergy, and they plead " Visit, visit, 
especially vi en in the evening." 

In other d' itions, where before pastoral visitation was 

not regarded as a primar>' ministerial duty, its value and 
necessity are becoming widely understood to-day. It would 
be a tragedy were we of the Church to let go in any degree 
what in the past has been a fruitful source of evangelistic 
infliicnce. 

The visiting of the clergy should be supported and supple- 
mented by that of the laity. The value of men and women 
visiting others of their own class with some definite ueh 

as the promotion of family prayer or inviting at i r at 

group meetings, has been proved in the National Mission. Visit- 
ing was in many eases undertaken by business and professional 
men who had never made such a yenture before, and a great 
impression was made on visitors and visited alike. The possi- 
bilities of lay visiting were further illustrated in the Pilgrimages 
of Prayer. The visits of women pilgrims to farms and < 
with the single aim of teaching about prayer met with si.. 
results. The National Mission in this and other ways has reveal«-tl 
the readiness of the people, more particularly in country 
districts, to respond to evangelistic efforts. It^would seem to be 
right for the Church at the present time to give careful and 
active consideration to evangelisation in the rural ^districts. 
<ii» Small We have already pointed out that evidence received shows 

MMtinn that the true hope of evangelistic work at present lies less in 
large mass meetings than in concentrated personal work and 
devotion. Without denying the value of great assemblies, 
many are finding that smaller meetings have a high value. 
Those which]^havc been suggested to us vary in cliaracter — 
" salons " in private houses, groups for Bible, missionaiy and 
social study, informal conferences, and cottage meetings with 
definite and consecutive teaching. 

The Church has made a great mistake in the past in so 
largely limitingVvangelistie work to the industrial cla.sses, a fact 
of which they are well aware and not a little resentful. It 
cannot for a moment be maintained that one class of society 
alone stands in need of, and is ready to welcome, the Gospel of 
Clirist. A Church in which distinctions of rank or wealth^do 
not exist must show equal care for all sorts and conditions of 
men. 



METHODS 27 

In connection 'Aie National Mission a great deal ofiiit Opm- 

work was done in the open air, l>oth in preparation and at*^'^"* 
the time of *' ' 'ivt-ry of the message. Widespread scepti- 
cism has t ; for some time past as to the value 
of •" The fact that it is no longer a novelty 
hn its tlTicacy, and so much open-air work 
lattractive character, that a prejudice has been 
it. It is not therefore surprising that pro- 
mi- >T scr\'iccs no longer commend themselves to 
mai... .. ,.., ^.trgy as a wise and fruitful method. On the 
other hand, when these services are related to the regular 
work of the parish, when every detail of 
and singinj? is rrv.r»*Tit and rnrcfully \)i 

and apj m by many v,ho would never 

f*ntcr a .ffcr them the opportunity of 

and pubhc prayer, and they are at least an 

ic Church cares for the people. Open-air work 

undertaken for apologetic purposes also offers great oppor- 

• . and has been found to be of evangelistic value in the 

f the right men. During the National Mission com- 
igs in the market places of country 
r.ij plfico in Inrjrc industrial centres, 
"^ - air work. Pro- 

of comnjunicants 
. Iiave still the :i of novelty in many 

. ...V respectfully rect.,v.. ... the passers by. 
ii-s have of late been erected in streets and public 
I ig the names of t! '" " ' ' v. both living 

li, who hav<' off i.jr conntrv. 



»f the Cross of Christ out mto the open. 

Mich as have often been held at these 

^»avc ill many people. Again and again we 

n told ti, .. -.1. ji pr;i* ■- ' •» c niade a drr- - nrcs- 

II any atldress. In th of sorrow an " the 



N^ 



.111',' 



Mils ..;is arc lc»8 than they were in itt^»m 

hi M itsider. One .>i tnr most distir, ' ! m - ! r, 
• f n ' nt years writes as follows: "I , li,;, j.irfK 



(... 



bc^ivtc new lu the nias.MTs of the people 



28 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

The nrimher of really powerful cvanffelistic preachers was 
iiall, ana such preaching was a novelty that 
' \ and awakened interest. . . . All this is 

altered now. Great evangelising organisations such as the 
Church Army and the Salvation Amiy have come into exist* 
ence ; special evangelising missions have been multiplied both 
in the Church and among NoncoriT ' .... I cannot 

help thinking that as a result of all this » w)spel preaching 

a i:<M)(l many people are what may be called Gospel -hardened ; 
\viiil». a still larger number, having found out that missions 
mean real spiritual business, and with mimy have resulted in 
an entire change of heart and life, arc shy of putting them- 
selves in the way of spiritual influences that may produce 
similar effects upon them." 

But, on the other hand, there is evidence that missions stiJI 
exert great influence upon the spiritual life of our c<ji tns. 

No mission fails to achieve the Divine purjiose, thoiJ_ nay 

be other than our expectations, if prayer has preceded il, and 
if men have been at pains to prepare the way. But a mission 
cannot make up for a parish priest's neglect of his proper 
evangelistic work. Without denying that there is a place in 
Church life for ^general missions in a town or district, it must 
not be forgotten that there is a time to sow and a time to reap, 
a time to hold a mission and a time to refrain. A vicar ought 
to have his finger on the pulse of his parish, so as to discern the 
psychological moment when a mission is needed. 
(»> Tetchinc 'Ihc teaching mission is addressed in the first place to 
^^^oot that very large number of people who are quite convinced 
that they ought to be good Christians, but who want 
plain and depnite instruction in the Christian life — in 
prayer, Bible reading, and meditation, self-examination and 
confession, intercession, worship and C< mmunion. These 
missions have often proved to be evangelistic in their results, 
and have awakened in the hearts of those who have long been 
indifferent to the call and claims of religion a desire for living 
union with Christ. 
(«ri)P«nnt- Permanent missions in overcrowded districts are a 
constant witness to the evangelistic spirit of the Church. 
Noble woik has been done, and is being done still, by 
men living in the midst of the people, but how far they 
have succeeded in winning those for whom the missions 
were designed is open to question. There often appears to be 
a marked tendency to attract from other neighbourhoods, to 
become eclectic rather than to make converts, or for the 
converts to become a settled congregation. The few adherents 
won from the slums are soon lifted out of them into better 
conditions, to their own great advantage, but at the cost of 
ceasing to leaven their old surroundings. In a word, the 



M 



METHODS 20 

inivuon becomes a srttln! congregation^ aiid in the process too 
often ceases to be ev;i 

We heartily concur m lm. verdict of the Student Christ i:iti 
Movement* that htcrature has an inuncnse part to play in any 
cvanjfeli ' nt of the day. 'I' " ^ of 

the pa'^f 'ml to .John \V< i\^-n 

iing 
' by 
voice an e they could not reach. Ot late years a revo- 

lution iui. .......1 place in cheap literature, and innumerable 

tr.icts, well written, well produced, are already in the hands of 
the people, prf sentinj? the Christian Faith from the different 
auL'K ^ <»t \ I. \v within the Church of Kntfland. There is, however, 
r * s that now present 

in. The remarkable 

d tri • The Times *" may well 

ic literature. The Church's 

M\s n ii I ijK'rs, which are so important a place in its life, will 

r ; - ■ . I higher service as they devote themselves less to 

and party ends, and more to the supreme cause of 

* '11, and arc able to <! ' and more the 

ic charity l>elitting th Christian press. 

At this point we draw to a conclusion our survey of the 

and their possible extension and 

lie evidence laid before this Com- 

e. We illy du'ect the attention of your Graces to 

'"' ■• •" u^ iieport, which we offer to the Church in the 

' hofK' that it may be found to contain the 

' ' ■ lit task 

;4t Ihifc 

laumcitUiU^ liouj- uf lU lii.ilors 



80 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

PART THREE 

CONSTRUCTIVE 

What, then, in the evangelistic situation in England 
to-day ? There lies before the Church an unparalleled 
opportunity. It is a time of upheaval and transition, of 
rapid movements of mind, of bold and ven' iction : 

it is therefore pre-eminently a time of c\ le op- 

portunity. Everywhere men are rising to hij^hcr levels o 
life, inspired by the call to service, self-discipline, and sacrifice ; 
inspired, that is to say, by an ideal of which the life of Christ 
is the supreme exhibition. Yet at the same time the great 
majority of the people are without any conscious or explicit 
rt ((((^ftiition of Clmst as Saviour and King. All but a compara- 
ti\ ( ly small minority of the nation arc out of living touch with 
any form of institutional Christianity. 

Ours is the golden age of evangelistic opportunity, yet in 
fact it is a time of evangelistic impotence. So far from gaining 
new converts to our Lord, organised Christianity is found to hv 
shrinking. Nor is the cause far to seek. The Church, awakened 
and advancing in many aspects of her life and work, is as yet 
asleep to her evangelistic duty to masses of our countrymen. In 
some degree conscious of her mission to e\ the world, 

the hears but faintly the nearer call which is ii inseparable 

from her world mission. 

Will the Church of England rouse herself to this paramount 
obligation ? Will she so draw it into her consciousness that her' 
meetings, great and small, her Chapters and Conferences shall 
ring with its challenge, and her altars be the places where the 
divine fire for the conversion of England to a conscious devotion 
to our Lord burns in the soul of every communicant ? 

Men are not indifferent to the Christian Church to-day. They 
are watching it with critical and often unfriendly eyes. They 
demand of the Church plain evidence of the vital power of the 
Christianity it professes. They ask to see within the Church 
more sacrifice, more fellowship, more heroism, more brother- 
hood, more zeal for the uplifting of human life and for the 
regeneration of the whole social order than they can discover 
beyond its border. That is the standard by which they are 
judging the Church in the midst of them. Only by exhibiting 
a capacity for great and noble change of mind and renewal of 
heart will the Church in England escape the danger, now 
threatening her present and future influence, of losing, ruinously 
and shamefully, the greatest opportunity ever set before her 
by the providence of God. 



ETUffaiiM 



THE EVANGELISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS 81 

1 <) Awaken the Evanoblistic Consciousness 

i !i Mtuation is ti ' gravv", but our immediate duty 
is rltur. Tfi*- ( hm 'ift itself to awaken the evan- 

gelist io i<ncsi> lit ii: ' members and in the 

IkxIv ' The ev;i mn of England must 

pass from the margin to the centre of the mind of the 
Cbnrrh. If is a question of corporate right tliinking, and of 
con a, for a time with disproportionate emphasis, of 

the "Hi- attention of the Church upon a neglected duty. 
The National Mission and the evidence of the conditions of 

■ 1 by the war both point the 
. . a {>eriod the teaching of otir 
15 of our Eucharists and ; 
<i on platforms and in confer 
to ( upon the evangelistic obligation of the Church uiul 

of i..^ ...Jividual. Evangelisation in its complete sense 
which sees as one the home and the foreign field must dominate 
thr *• ' • •-^' '"hurch. 

i >• for such an effort. The effect of ^""^ 

Uui> wurM u.ir upon the thought and life of ordinary 
mon and women luis been far-reaching. Big ideas and wide 
I the nc and are the common topic of 

: a. Life u ..^cipline which thousands at home, 

nil kss than in the Services, are now leading, the free and 

elittrfu! '•—■ncc of hardship and strenuous toil, and the 

rtady u <■ of suffering and death, are a powerful pre- 

jmratiu t .. . . , - ^^. ^^^ noble qualities 

liH\' it , wliich iK'fore were 

Un and women in millions 

for the service of their 

on that was thought to be enfeebled by 

lulgence luis, under the stimulus of war, 

in the contrary virtues. If love be the first 
•j 1 uji> (II an evangelist it r- -' * -it to be difficult for the 
(hurch to love more ardent nmititudes of men and 

1. ItisdilKcult 

have won such 

of England 

for them in 

tilt < ;,rs of men. The return of our annies to civil life may 

i, ,', r ,.r niore distant than we anticip*- '"♦ •' M.r, ,v, v 

!y the urgency of the cn 

»>ii';i ■ .' ' ",rri' ' ' '' *' * ' \j>rririirr <ji w.ir 

th< V will I)' . . They will KK>k 

to find in it a brutheriiooU Mualin^ lu receive them into its 



82 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

fellowship, and a religious life which will bring them the siiiritunl 
succour that they uill need in a time of dangerous reaction. 
They will demand reality of the Church. The world, the flesh 
and the devil will be ready for their return. The Church must 
not be found wanting. It will not be enough to welcome 
them home with ' Iresses of grati- 

tude. We must _ IS wc have made 

to supply their needs, both temporal and spiritual, the love and 
power of the Gospel. 

The diagnosis of the soul of the British citizen-soldier from 
the pen of the " Student in Arms " has taught us to see in the 
virtues of our fellow-countrymen a real though inarticulate 
Christianity. Little as they themsclv< ' i<ct 

of their admiration and therefore of t as 

Cluist — and Christ alone — is perfectly. IL is precisely the 
duty of the Church to manifest and to preach Christ so that 
men may learn to know Him as their Saviour and King Whom 
unknowingly they already worship, 
concentrauon Every thoughtful man is asking how we may preserve 
craoKditaUon through the inevitable reaction of the return to peace the 
new levels of life which war has brought to millions. It 
is only by such showing forth of Christ as He is, that a motive 
can be found, not less powerful in jK-ace than in war, to evoke 
the latent instinct for high adventure and self-sacrifice. The 
Church exists to exhibit Jesus Christ alive and operating 
upon earth in the fellowship of His mystical Body. An 
evangelistic Church at such a moment in the history of the 
world may well feel bound to subordinate all her activities 
and interests to this primary purpose. It is not impossible 
that the future of our race, it may be of the world, will be 
cd by the use of, or the failure to use, the present 
1 ^^ I stic opjxjrtunity. 

But how is this concentration of the Church's mind to be 
effected ? Here the experience of the National Mission sug- 
gests the way. It was then found that by a clear call from 
the highest central authority in the Church such concentration 
might be attained. 

Whatever adverse criticism the National Mission has so far 
deserved or received, it is at least undeniable that during the 
autumn of the year 1916 one idea took possession of the Church 
of England to a very remarkable degree. There came to the 
Church a new consciousness of obligation to the service of the 
nation's highest life. It was characteristic of the National 
Mission that the whole movement found itself but gradually. 
The existence of the present Committees of Inquiry is a proof, 
if proof were needed, that the activities of those months were 
the initiation and not the climax of a movement destined, 
if God will, to exert a lasting influence on Church and nation. 



THE KVANGELISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS »» 

But «i iM. iiid of the first -»"-- of the National Mission there 
had not yet iincrjjcd the mitiatinf; call to the Church 

\ ' ' ■ ' s is t. : .nl as flic vojce of God. We 

...a -«.'••!"''(!:• h hftve an itnp^Tative 

ly, but \'^ se : 

• _ • JfsUS •»(' _ s of 

men that they may find in Ilnn not only the perfect mtcr- 

,.r. ».»;,,., 41,(1 example of the life of work, discipline, service 

to which already they are attracted, but also 

j ►owcr and inspiration. Uf)on that evangchstic 

I ! urt h must now concentrate its whole thought and 

icLivity. 

We desire to see as the means to this concentration a further 
call from the Archbishops to the Church, summoning it, by the 
all-powerful aid of the Divine Spirit, to nothing less than the 
evangelisation of England and the English people. 

F " upon this call by authority \ ■ st the 

estu: in ev«ry diocese of an evaii_ L'ouncil, 

where not already exist. These councils 

should live lay represe«tation of women 

as w<ll as HUM, and a more youthful element — for the 
voiiti,' rriiisf mIw ivv Iw f hi- iii<>»;f IioiL-fnl xui thc most important 

1 is commonly found 
III iirmaj ;mij oiin lal class predominate. 
1 be not only to undertake sfjocific cvan- 



iii' . The f on uf our I'l 

\v;l) be bc»t - sur\'ey of .; 

irKtift'iMi) of deiitutc action. Such councils should appoint 
* ■ ' ' '•'>nunittees ♦" '••■•d with different agencies and 
> of cva work — e.g. the spiritual life of 

iii' '- ' ' .'■ s (»f I*ra\ ( r, MM n's aiiil ■• 



m the deliberations of run* 

I -ilcrenccs. 

It uould be the timt care of Diocesan Mis heir 

assistants to awaken this evangelistic ouns< ihey 

wonl.l tour the deaneries for this end. Tl M uiute 

^^ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' in greuf inisc 

' ' Mt. fvaii;: 

clergy v\,m 
U|)on the '^ 
neeil and duty. They would not be content with occa- 



84 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

sional pulpit reference — it would become in every ehurrh in 

the land the principnl subject of Lcutm t' 
Throughout the ycur in study circles, c 
like, the sanie subject would be pursued. Most of all, inter- 
cession would be drawn to this one end. War intercession 
would not cease, but be linked to this single aim as indeed the 
climax of the Nation's war purjjosc fnr England and the world. 
This alone would bring new life to intercession that has irrowTi 
war- weary, and would reveal to the sorrowful m ' ived 

something of the real purpose served by the all and 

sacrifices of the war. 

The Church, were it thus to concentrate upon one primary 
purpose the thought and prater of its millions of memWrs, 
would be able profoundly to affect the mind of England. 
But we do not contemplate any such limitation of the 
scope of our concentration. The federated nations which 
form the British Empire arc in different degrees influenced 
by the Eccksia Anglicana, and pjUglishmen all over the 
world, certainly tliroughout the Empire, as the experience 
of the war has proved, arc from the spiritual point of view 
wonderfully alike in the same glorious instincts towards a 
deeply Christian ideal, and the same startling failure to discern 
Christ in that ideal, the same readiness to accept, contrary 
to what might have seemed to be their whole natural bent, the 
life of discipline, service and sacrifice, and the same wide 
separation from organised and institutional Christianity. 
Such a concentration of mind, ])urj>ose and prayer, not merely 
nation-wide, but ultimately spreading throughout the entire 
Anglican Communion, if undertaken under the sense of a Divine 
urgency and call, aiul therefore in living faith in the Holy 
Ghost, could not but move the soul of our race, and might be 
the means in the hands of God of consecrating afresh, as war 
passes into peace and a new era dawns u|K>n the world, a 
victorious federation of free peoples to the direct service of the 
Kingdom of God and of His Christ. 
on*MuUr Do wc then recommend a new organisation involving 

"*"*•• more committees, more meetings, more words ? On 

the contrary, less organisation but better. The Evangelistic 
Councils would in some dioceses and in almost all deaneries 
be a new departure, but they would make for simplifica- 
tion, co-ordination, and unification upon one single purpose. 
W^e contemplate and desire to see a temporary abandonment 
of all organisations that cannot be directed to the single end 
of the Church's primary purpose, evangelisation. Complexity 
is the undoing of enthusiasm, diffusion is fatal to power. In 
the natural order the secret of power is concentration. W^hcther 
in electricity, hydraulics, steam or explosives, concentration 
precedes expansion and is the condition of dynamic energy. 



RE-EVANGELISATION 85 

I »rii<. r^rtl.» spiritual world. Thf\..> ♦••Mcity 

le Church's thought has di her 

' >ng too many ol>j< cis, has 

■ seen to emhrar** all in a 

tion 

the 

it would unify all her operations. It 

' . i this Committee tliat again and again, 

as we have been considering the evangelistic work of the 
Church in the lifht of the evidence which has come before us, 
uc lia\f had to remind ourselves that another Committee of 
I ' ' ■' ' int. We have found 

h»» othf»r Committees 

tile fell ^ in the 

iirehto\N : ^htwms- 

to our inquirv' as to be in some sense 

- - ,— - ^ ^ .i.^tic work. 

\Vf do not, indeed, believe that it is ()ossible to organise 

revival. The Spirit bloweth where He listcth. But 

111. II i> no argument agaiiLst purposeful thoui' ' I prayer 

directed and controlled to the single end, evat ii. We 

I except such as wil the 

finfl snp<rs<'de by g;i mto 

W'c de>«re to see 

t the thought, inter- 

•' English Church upon tlie evaiigelisation 



CHAFrER II 

Re-evanuelisatiun 

How, tlun, do wc propose that the Church, having deter- 
mined ui.-". itii- ../...,.. ..fr ....... t.fjuld scta^•'•;♦ ♦' - ' vangeli* 

sjititm I 

(iur MiKiy oi tri. .\ ; ' ' in our D lattrMMl 

lea/b us to put fir^^t fh !y of it' Wlta«i 

Preae): r. l>ut tli 

"f -i . of Chn 

force than any words. 

Ih the evidence of a Non- 

r: "If wc could fix'us all the Christian 

u.. ..I liritain upon getting a saint in • -• '^ * rv in 

:, and then put a wiint in each room •.•rv 

a great • »..(.; 

iiid worn r\ \ 1- 

u^luuttcd tu confeu Ciirist as their Kutg, krtn < :;.. .^i, i,, atm 



M EVANGELISTIC WORK 

at the rf>n>ersion of individuals among their companions, and 
their religion by lives in which joyousness and 
,, Jis conspicuous as kindness and unselfishness — 

these are the essentiaJ evangelists of our time. 

It is evident to us from the testimony we have received that 
the conversion of England will be brought about mainly 
through a Christian laity whose life in Christ is their principal 
argument, but who will not refuse a j)Hrt in more public and 
open testimony and proclanuition. For the moment the clergy 
are regarded with suspicion by those outside the Churches as 
the paid and prejudiced advocates of a joyless, powerless, and 
worn-out Church system, whose record of inertia in the face of 
great social movements is its condemnation. 

Laymen and lay women who will speak and witness for Christ 
have an altogether different reception and greater opportunity. 
That they have the necessary evangelistic gifts if only they can 
be encouraged and be free to use them has been notably proved 
of late. We have in the past suffered grievous an 

insufficient recognition of the gifts of the Spirit, i isa- 

tion has its charisma not necessarily conveyed by ordination, 
not limited to the three-fold ministry, and not restricted to one 
sex. There is often given to women a power to touch the heart 
and awaken the conscience no whit inferior to that of the most 
gifted men-evangelists. The Church of Him who was born of 
woman must find tlie way to use to the full the powers that 
God has given so generously to womanhood. 

Nothing could better describe the evangelistic obligation 
resting on every singl<i member of the Church than the form of 
reception into the Church at Baptism. Op>en confession of • 
Christ crucified, enlistment in an aggressive crusade against 
vice, devilry and the spirit of the worfd are the positive obliga- 
tions of life in a Church of which every member is pledged to 
be Christ's soldier and servant. 

But individual witness must be backed by visible fellow- 
(ii) Fiiiowthip gj^ip 11 Successful evangelistic results are the outcome 
of the presence of a satisfjictory Clu-istian union in a college 
much more than of special evangelistic efforts," says the 
considered evidence of the Student Christian Movement. 
" Where the Christian Union is a real fellowship in Clirist into 
which people can be brought, there practically continuously 
students will ally themselves with Christ. W'e note in our 
experience that the spirit of prayer is practically always 
present in a Christian Union where this is happening. Special 
evangelistic efforts are sometimes immediately successful in 
arresting the attention of men and in making them declare 
their desire to become Christians. . . . But it is- a mere flash 
in the pan unless the Christian Union is strong and able to 
give real friendship and help to those who want to begin the 



RE-EVANGELISATION 87 

Christian life." This evidence, though limited to students, 
ap[>cars to us to be generally true. It could hardly be other- 
wise in a time like our own, when men evorywhcrc are finding 
escape from a narrowly individualistic outlook upon life into 
a new sj-ns* ' ' solidarity. The power of the Church 

to unitr sip to one common life was the first effect 

of Poiitirost, ikiid j>Ull retains its converting and attractive 
force. 

It must not be forgotten that the strongest bond of the 
Christian fellowship, according to the intention of our Ix)rd 
Jesus Christ and in the experience of Mis Church at the begin- 
ning, is the Communion of the Lord's Body and Blood. It is 
here tliat our fellowship in Christ must find its supreme ex- 
•f renewal. 

>c as we contemplate may unify not <*«) ■•»!»»« d 

only tlic tht.ugiit and activity of the Church, but its "**■«*• 

members, .\lrcady such a process is begun. We are 

growing weary and ashamed of all that makes for division, 

of the bitterness and contempt of party strife, and of 

narrowness of mind or heart. Slowly we are learning that the 

truth no less than the love of God is " broader than the measure 

of man's mind." One single aim pursued \\ith concentrated 

purpose ■ trn our own unity both of thought and heart. 

Our ( '" is concerned with the evangelistic duty of 

the Chui rl, but we would guard ourselves from any 

appearm ij; to arrogate to our own Communion an 

• xcliisiv«- ( \ mission to the English people. We desire 

»,. r. . . rjii^^^^ ;..^ K.at part in any such task which must be 

y other denominations. We have received notable 

ly and generously given to us in our inquiry by dis- 

(\ leaders of other religious Ixxlies. Those of our 

• • not likely to forget 

II which we were able 

Her, without a dividuig word, the problem of 

11 of r.ii"I:»ii(|. It would not befit us to offer 

to Iht'in our own ct- c |>olicy, but we cannot conceal 

tlir hope that the coii.iiii..i.> which have brought us to this 

s. i,M- of divine call may lead their own thought and activity 

' ' iw us c\" thcr in unity of 

•, rvn!)j;i . 

Aii'.ii I I mittcir i> h the reform of abuses 0»i Etlowi 

iti lli>- ( liurrli. We li .re only to Iwar our •***"■"• 

witness to the vital necessity of »|K'«iy reform if the 
( !, ir.li is t.. .v III..'. !is.- T'li fl .!.<? It is not by ailopting the 

>cialism of the day that she 
^''111 "in ill i\.ii > HUM. out by exhibiting in her own 

life the Spirit uti of hrr Mjister, fn)m which uU that is 

noble in Sociahsni is directly derived. " It Lh only by being 



88 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

more spiritual that the Church will win the industtial c1«!«?m»," 

is the witness of a T r. So long as tli ■» in 

her own life tolerati md inequalities uks 

from the sacrifices wluch may be nccdetl to end tiicin, she is 
not likely to convince England that sli« is tlie divinely accredited 
representative of Christ. 

But it will not be sufficient to imiw^e - ' ■'■; in her own 

life. She must exhibit the fulness and ; n of Christ, 

which can only be ; " n in individual hvcs. The 

Church ought to be i. i from the world by the type 

of common life into whicli iicr members are ■ i life of 

simplicity and self-discipline, of practical up and 

brotherhood, in which the joyous and affectionate atmosphere 
of a Christian family is extended to the congregation worship- 
ping at a common aJtar, and beyond that to the whole b'.<dy of 
the Church. This must be her challenge to the present social 
order — no mere denunciation of wTongs, but the exhibition in 
the communities of men and women worshipping in her churches 
of the power of Christianity to establish a new eartiily rolnt inn- 
ship reflecting a spiritual unity which transcends nl 
distinctions of class ,or wealth. Tlu-ough such a divine < ^ 
corps she will convince the world of the Presence of Clirist in 
His Church, and will rebuke by life as well as by word the 
social injustices unworthy of a Christian nation. Such a 
common life, could we attain it, would a magnetic 

attraction, invaluable to her work of evai n. 

(»)_w«B»ii Yet another Committee is dealing with worship. Our 

duty, therefore, is performed when we have emphasised 
the evangelistic value of the Christian worship. The 
common worship of the Church when it is pure not only 
attracts but converts. Where men gather together in one 
place wth the one purpose of approaching God, if they are 
sincere in their intention there falls upon them the Spirit of 
Pentecost. The atmosphere of pure worship is the evidence 
of the Presence and reality of God. As at Corinth, " if there 
come in one unbelieving or unlearned he is convicted by all, 
he is judged by all ; the secrets of his heart are made manifest, 
and so he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring 
that God is in you of a truth." The detached visitor of our 
Christian worship is not commonly disposed to deny reality, 
when it comes within his experience, though he is a sharp 
critic of it. Worship which is in the Spirit and in truth has 
greater power to convince of God than the most eloquent 
preaching. The evangelist of to-day is learning that perfervid 
appeal has less power to carry men to inward change and 
decision for Christ than the still small voice which is heard not 
only in solitude, but in the fellowship of common worship 
when '♦^ i^ truly in the Spirit. The Eucharist, concentrating 



•I Wocriiiy 



KE-KVANGELISATION 89 

the fhotfijht of thf»<;r ^Thn worship in it npon the tm^ren Presence 
of !f in th«- 

sa< ; , . J .lis fmwcr 

of soli rimisiiicT and arresting appeal. A Church which is 
(x»ti*«i.t t(» allow the Communion of the Body and Blw^d 
of Christ, priM-humini? to the world the Lord's death till He 

iid, is immeasurably impover- 

w • • 

I"' 

Is i rent from church-pointj. Students declare that 

til' the impression, when they go to churcli, that 

wh -ig is very real to those who arc taking? part in 

it. »i u-ii iiK V are ' - - ^nj have the right to ask of the 
Church, can only (o n an intensive movement, but its 

result will be pre-enuuLUliy evangelistic. 

To the eler^'V of n Church which tlu'ough its parochial 

iccepts ' for every individual soul in the 

. istornl \ jinot be other than a bounden 

duty. There are vcr>* few doors closed against the parson. 

^ •"""-'' ibly, numbers of people who stand outside organised 

only welcome their parish priest, but expect and 

' ' ' ' ! visit them. If our pari ' are 

convince them that th man 

' judge, and very 

V. 

N '. It is 

•"•' ..,:. _..„..:. ,.,,,.. ly. The 

■• -' 1 ' ' in must take with him the best that he has to 

k'i\t. il. 1.1.-. sec in every house neighbour souls to whom 
li< is sent by the Lordj^VVho in him enters their dwelling. .\ll 

f be at their service. To the i 
I show n d^'liente oourtesv a 

.of 

ines 

I war, the parish priest will lind, 

lie is ready t«» - vt, i,,i t,. i.iv t...oplc 

ng to them : of 

IS ii %' II the Cross t*l \ nnsij a urw wiiV 

t.s for th of our Ix>rd. 

' \ f urged the important «• of 'M TiwObw* 

'(•• the op-n. In this pluee """O*- 

'y of t! to hiT care 

IS a gr ftir her in 

. but we mUKt not for^tt that (ujr 

t.> ,,...„. in. In regard to open-air 

u "rk ]M I Til lit US coUHigr, a ehoiee of the 

sfratrtfi ' I' 'lilt ^, ,1 1 1 1 m, and care m preparation, 



40 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 



not only of the address but of the whole settinp in which it is 
to be given. In one place the n Ixtter, in 

another the more dignified and ■ . the more 

arresting. Nowhere is the Church's own manner of worship 
more striking Mian out of doors. The vogue of the brass band is 
worn out, while the older manner of St. Augustine's litanies is 
to-day more novel and suggestive, more hkely to draw into 
the churches, and nothing less than that can be the aim of a 
^ ital Church. Beautiful music is often the best means 

ling a crowd, and, what is not less important, of sug- 
^'i>ting even to the passer-by the appeal of religion. The 
singer out of doors may attract where the speaker cannot. 
Our choirs may yet find here a directly evangelistic vocation. 

The evangelistic value of cathedrals and great churches 
may be considerable. The history of the Wesleyan Central 
Hall movement is the proof that there is an attraction for 
many in the assembly where the individual escapes notice 
in the crowd, where he can hear a message and unite in the 
prayer of a multitude without thereby committing himself to 
the Church, as in a smaller assembly is almost inevitable. We 
believe that in the long run the Church would be the gainer did 
she use to the full the great evangelistic opportunity of the 
cathedrals, rather than restrain their use in the supposed 
interests of the parish churches. The inspiration of a great 
number, of beautiful music, noble buildings and historic associa- 
tions, is powerful to-day. It may be that our age is re-dis- 
covering the evangelistic value of iK'auty. 

But the function of the Cathedrals is wider than to provide 
nave services and the liigher ministry of spiritual music. Heirs 
as mo.st of them arc of old monastic foundations, they still 
should be, at the heart of every dioces«f, centres of continual 
intercession. Cathedral Chapters do not fulfil their vocation 
merely by providing opportunities for specialisation of ministry 
in the oftices of Chancel lor- Instructor or Missioncr-Canon 
whose field of activity is the diocese ; they are essentially 
fellowships of prayer. Ideally they are a learned and a con- 
centrated clergy, with leisure for God, gathered round the 
daily celebration of the Holy Mysteries, the recitation of the 
Church's Offices, and the ceaseless cycle of divine praise. 
Their ministry of prayer should radiate Irom the central Church 
of the diocese to its most remote corner. In the life of the 
Cathedral should be represented in just pro|)ortion the evan- 
gelistic duty of the Church to the masses of our countrymen, 
and that intensive concentration upon God which can alone 
sustain it. 

With the wider spread of education the number of those 
VtJne of Beauty who respond to the influence of the beautiful is rapidly in- 
creasing. If our task be the recall of the multitudes to in- 



INTENSIVE MOVEMENT il 

»tit«t!onnl rrliijion, to the common worship of the Church 

an*i icc of the Sacraments, then whatever h« Ip^ 

or it return is pnjjH'r to our inquiry. Beauty 

or . of it in our churches uad their worship exerts 

NC or repellent force upon all who have the 

ind the hearing; car. Drab and dreary churches. 

' ' ' ' ' ul in the way of 

I anrl ht-nufy are 

I'.ilsc ami 'I is 

> dull and jo\ i arc 

ruM driven • Church by what is to tlicm an outrage 

upon tli'ir •>; Oil til. <iflior hand, beauty in form 

and scr. XI and appeal more and 

mqrc m in.n mv i .%t ni beauty nas its f)crils is 

not to 1 1. but it is of God. and must be claimed for His 

•h. RiL'! ' ' >t as an end in its* If 

, but as : 'it of the Holy Spirit, 

it . -s men to A 

Chi. li in its inh< r ml 

an< iparablc beauty, and a prayer book not 

unu ^s, may w'-'' ^•^'] ">■•'! ♦•« riiri^f }.v iJir 

lamp of consecrated beauty. 

CHAPTER 111 

lNTEN8i\rE Movement iv the Cm ucu 

It is evident, tlicn, that at the heart of the whole problem of 
<»n lies the necessity of a more int' lual 

ii: .•> L-hurch hcr&elf. How else should her l- ..p be 

I i . !ied or her worship attain a higher level of purity and 
p.uM? If iw rise can she ar' " *■ - -' — ' , 

ic :i'. iM" Ai:i,.sses of the I 

. ai oi our I.urJ, tlif 
I the closed dofifs f>f 
II. ■■ V iwer, wl 

'On \ciii My witii 

i . and unto the uttermost part of 

' of the evari:-''^'"- - -•••-•• — 

day to a lik 



■ >f 



Mi « IIIU •^IMIII. K'l lli< 



1. Ui 
'id thr 

the e<ni 




to .1 

1 . .lllg- ll>.i»ll..ll .fi . 


I 

'III 1. 1 ill I. 

D 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 



I 
Spiritual Life of the CUrgy 

If the evangelisation of England depends mainly upon Uie 
Christian witness of the laity, the more intense life of the Chureh 
out of whieh that witness must inevitably spring depends all but 
entirely upon the cicigy. Under God they hold the life of the 
Church in their hands. The influenee for good or ill of the 
personal life of the clergyman is incalculable. In ten years a 
j,'(n»d parish priest can raise and a bad priest depress the life 
of his parish, and can thereby heighten or destroy the entire 
evuiigelistir [)o\v(.r of the Church in that place. We venture 
to urge upon those to whom is committed the oversight of the 
Church's pastorate the supreme importance of the fostering o( 
the spiritual life of the priesthood. The first years of a clergy- 
man's life commonly set their impress upon his entire ministry. 
It is much to be desired, therefore, that in every diocese the care 
of the spiritual life of the clergy in the first years of their ministry 

ion, and some scheme t ''^d, 

is, by which the youi rgy 

riuiy be cMC(}uragi«i in the formation of the life of disciplined 
devotion that befits the sacred ministry. 

Vital in its influence upon the daily life of the priest 
is his own private prayer. He is bound as a clergy- 
man of the Church of England to the daily recitation of the 
r of Morning and Evening Prayer — a welcome obligation 
i), devoutly used, by psalm and Scrii)ture and noble form 
<4 j II aver, attunes^ his thoughts to the mind of God. He is 
priviliMfcd to approach more frequently than is possible for 
most men the sacramental mysteries. But he will scarcely 
escape the peril of fonnality unless day by day he opens his 
soul to God in yet more personal and intimate communion. 
The morning watch, the daily meditation, the prayer of silence, 
by whatever name men call it or in whatever fashion they use 
it, a full half-hour consecrated to uninterrupted communion 
with God is indispensable to the minister of God and is the 
secret of spiritual power. 

For many years a certain number of the clergy have 
used the opportunities of retreats offered cliicfly through 
private or Community initiative. For the priest the retreat 
is a most powerful means of renewal and repentance. In the 
fellowship of its disciplined silence he finds a remedy against 
the perilous effect of familiarity with holy things, and the 
hardenin«7 influence of routine. Here he may recover lost 
vision and idejiis, and surrender himself in his retirement to 
be filled again with the Divine Spirit of courage and sacrifice. 
From the retreat he returns to his parish cleansed and purified 



OooiaM' 



INTENSIVE MOVEMENT /8 

with new courage and hope. The vcaHv retreat is a most 
- stiylife. W.' ■ ' - .. 

'd. Nothiri.- .1 

to • ■ ■ !. 

I> > that we need. Some way "Brfn«h« 

must be found by which the clergy may gain a more 
specJuhscd and scientific knowledge of the work of thoir 
profession. In the Army in France what are called " Refresher 
Cours<>s " have proved extremely valuable. Oflicers are drawn 
totjether in some place behind the line for brief periods of 

1 by that means not only are 

kept in memory, but gaps in 

ltd and lucn kept in touch with the most 

;vr. If that is necessary in a body like the 

Army, where men are in the closest touch with one another, 

it i\ likely to be even more necessary in the clerical life, with 

its frequent isolation and often long service in a single place 

out of touch with ideas at the centre. The cler ' ' ! ' 

drawn together in »itli<T diooesan or smaller gro . 

Monday to the Saturday. Each day they would r 

reeeive the Holy Cojiiinunion and unite in silent pr, >i 

riuditatioH at apjM>inteil hours; reel* ther ^lattms and 

K\<ii '.ruf : riu.tiii' :it mid-day for . ,^^ion and at night 

for lectures during the day on theology, 

l*ar >i.c work, preaching, the use of the v( ice 

in let of Divine service, visiting, and dealing 

witn II ' ' ■ iv. tliis 

m^anv • ving 

stir' 

wh 

the Church and increa-se its power of evangelistic witness. 



I! 

SpiritwU Life of the Laity 

I of the e' 

ei i. t the sai 

iiio\. Ill' !it I i.wi 1 : fi the laity. Many have been lost to 
the ( i.urcii hre.iust. Ilis-V havc failed to find in the teachin;' ■•!* 
th. rirrgy that hcJp in the interior life of prayer that ' 
IP-. ' ' 

i ^ learnt (,n)y by teaching but through MMttmlar 

\ alone but in '**'•' 
l>e too niu 'h 



u 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 



to be desired, therefore, thnt our people should gain frreater 

Tr ' ' ' ill God. We desire to sec a li ival 

I. m which tlie lay folk may I ^po 

frt>iu that .stif-coiiht'i' scnis tir 

and imi)cdcs the ui The sj 

|)owci of such meetings has been constantly cxi)crienccd in the 
past. In them the fire has been kindled and the life of the 
parish been quickeiied, and those who have met for prayer 
have gone baclc to their work with faith and hope str -*' ud. 

Of late the intensive j)owcr of corporate silence ine 

widely kno^\^l and valued : groups of men and women 
. or without clerical Icadersliip, liave met, usually in 
church, to claim the Presence of our Lord promised to those 
who meet in His Name. Sometimes a common subject of 
meditation is chosen, and si>ccial needs of intercession are 
named. In experience this has been found to be of value in 
leading men to a deeper consciousness of the divine Presence 
and a fuller experience of a more interior prayer, thus serving 
directly the quickening of the inner life of the Church. Still 
more widely the value of intervals of silence in the ordinary 
services, if not too prolonged, and if their purjHise be explained, 
is being realised. Such silences, more especially at the Eu- 
charist, but not only then, help to create that atmosphere of 
awe and worship which lifts our common prayer to higher levels 
of power and intensity. It would be diflicult to exaggerate 
the value, if not the necessity, of quiet to the over-driven 
town worker who lives and works under conditions which 
commonly preclude any solitude or silence ; and no less the 
agricultural labourer would find new jxissibilities in the long 
and enforeed silences of his work, if the ix>wer of spiritual 
silence were interpreted to him. 

It ought not to be impossible to extend the use of retreats 
to men and women of all classes. The experience of the 
Roman Catholic Church in Belgium in the years pre- 
ceding the war is striking evidence of the attractiveness, even 
to those to whom it is an entirely new experience, of the 
atmosphere of the spiritual world which the common silence 
and fellowship of retreats bring. Wc doubt wli ere 

exists any spiritual method more likely to produce ,)est 

penitence and conversion than the method of retreat aimed 
directly at leading men to the consciousness of God. Such 
«" retreats for the people " would need the freest adaptation to 
■ 'ish conditions, and to the varied types of spiritual outlook 
.me within the Eng|ish Church, though we would suggest 
retreat has lost its real charac* ikI 

(i have given way to laxity and i. 

Earlier in our report is recorded the evidence laid before 
us that ten days' missions no l()ni,'cr make anv i/rcat appeal 



INTENSIVE MOVEMENT 45 

to the outsider. The very word ** miiision " not infrequently 

n I ' ' average- T' ' ' - , . . , j^^^ ^j^^ 

(li of tho lifr I fxiwi-rful, 

jx-riiaj.- ; ■ 'If 

uaiii' '>! r 

mis>ion " to t .1 in a nortlu-rn 

diocese; its u.,.:. . ^ _ j a temjKirary 

trl!f>UNhip all sorts and conditions of men and women for the 

[)iir[)<>>r of • - - and mutual edification and instruction. 

( »tr«ls of : lip are issued in advance, and tokens dis- 

tr .. tho!>e who have attended the whole 

sr . last for eij;ht days — Sunday to Sunday 

— aiiii rt;ach a climax in a Corporate Communion on the second 
.Siiiuliiy. 

If is, we believe, in such ways as these that the spiritual life 
bot; f .If r,fv and laity would be quickenctl by the powers of 
til •. and from the more intense life of the Church 

wijum >|)riiig liie power to re-evangelise our country. 



Ill 

We HT.- \vi 11 ii\v;iri flijit what we are asking is no light matter. 

The c- which wc here lay before the Church 

Wf ••' ' .11 IV .mi-i t many of her activities and would leave 

I)' a few permanent chanires in her fxilicv. But we 

ir ■ • ■ ' !ld be 

II m the 

' to u.>. driiw all her 

;i' and to i ritly upon her 

e\ ' duty, she must have faith m the goal. She must 

b< i. . , . the ffmnii'T of th*' K'"-"'"'" "f frod upoQ cartli not 

Jis a far-i.ff (In irn. i.;;! a^ ,. ' y. 

\\ . ar^- pcrsu.i.it ' • ■ ' ■■!-' Jcsus Christ. 

.Mf!i an- I. . con. Ill" ,1 of GcmI. It 

>s ' id. In < 

a! li they \ 

('(liar utt!n lur IS li • i no less than the 

I' . • M They ut it gtHnl mwv 

if bring thtm to the Unseen Presence. In i 

.M...... i> taken into God. In Ilim alone lies the >- 

our victor>' over evil. There is no hostility to Jcv 

It ■ " •• — ' ' • • ■• 

t n '[ 

I -■ ' 

a! . 

1^ th the 1 

.: . Hv .if 



46 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

peace. We Imve askcH of mm les? than they were ready to 
pive, and by our din 'uivc rob' '" 

the strcuffth and jnv c For 

to whioli Christ . i is the standard of the Cross. To ali 

who will enrol tli' .in His service He offers the reward of 

eternal life through the joy of a great adventure. And if, ba 
the fnn't of her concentration upon her cvange-listic duty, the 
Church hcrjielf catches the spirit of sacrifice and adventure, she 
will havr ' st after Christ 'sown heart. There 

are not \ .^ that days of fiery trial will test 

the belief uf tlu Churcl) of ! I in the Go??pel she pro- 

claims to the world. If she u> herself to this concentra- 

tion of thought, prayer, and action upon her call to evangelise 
the great people to whom she is sent, ^h<' will Cnn- the future 
braced, strengthened and prepared. 

Not by might nor by power I Though we cannot organise 
spiritual revival it is possible to direct the thought of the 
Church to one end, and of thought there is born desire, of 
desire prayer, and by prayer the Kingdom of Heaven will 
come. We have sounded the note of grave ur<;ency under the 
sense of the immeasurable loss were the unrivalled evangelistic 
opportunity of our time to be thrown away. But if high 
vocation is the mark of tiie favour of God, we cannot doubt 
that despite her failures He yet sees in the Church of the 
English people the capacity for glorious service to His Will. 



Remeniber, O Lord, what Thou hast wrought in 
us, and not what we deserve ; and as Thou hast called 
us to Thy service, make us worthy of our calling. 



j: 



APPENDIX I 

iiiE Lessons to be Learned from the History of nEUcious 
Movements and Revivals in the Past 

By Dr. A.W. Robinson. 

Itj order to derive lessons from Religious Movements and 
Hivivalik in the past we must (jet clear ideas as to the historical 
facts. For our immediate object it will be enough that we 
shotild tliicfly concern our ' vith the movements in our 

rn<M|(rn world, and more : rlv with those of our own 

I;. t that 

tl ted as 

rtviviU work plainly visible in the earliest as in 

the later man: 

** At the missionary addresses of the Apostles or Evangelists, 
or at the ser\ice> of the churches which they founded " — to 
quote from a well-knoM-n account of " The Expansion of 
•y"* — "sudden * of rapture are ex- 

man v of thorn ' ifu-ous sei/nres ; these 

d 
1 _ to 

itv . \ «s. The simple question ' What must I do to be saved ? ' 
I i'-»s iiTMin the mind with an elemental force." 

S . .11' Lin we read in the Church History of Eusebius,t "A 

L- > _f..i .]^^ of i]^Q Holy Spirit were wToufflit 

I h the pupils of the Apostles, so that 

'^ • ' • ly 

;ie 

In us much tn enter upon detailed dcscrip- 
movements, as these can 
L . Isus. or from the reports of 
> ; but if we did so we should 

I : .1. .,._ I. .11 I - * I. „j, 

S _ 

ur 

iiur iiio , und ainttii); 

and ch more nearly 

our own. Kven •o, we can only attempt to give 

....itivc illustrations. 

un begin with the remarkable description by John 

• lly Dr. Iliinmrk. \-ol. i. p. 261 . 

t iii. 37. 



t ue extra- 


\ d from t... 


t -cs of the M 


,,, ^ .>. -. :. .. o 



Richard Green of what luu 
latter part of the eleventh u 

centuries. At that time, he says, there occurred " the first 
of those great rchgious movements which England was to 
experience. . . . Everywhere in town and country men 
banded themselves together for prayer, hermits flocked to the 
woods, noble and churl welcomed the* austere Cistercians, a 
reformed outihoot of the Benedictine Order, as i : ' ver 

the moors and forests of the north. A now sf ion 

woke the slumber of the religious ' ike 

to the home of the noble and of t . its 

full share in the great revival. The City was proud of its 
religion, its conventual, and more than a himdred parochial 
churches. The new impulse changed, in fact, its very aspect. 
The revival left its stamp on the fabric of the Constitution 
itself; the paralysis of the Church ceased as the new impulse 
li'iuad the prelacy and the people together, and its action, 
' !' fi at the end of Henry's reign it started into a power strong 
11,'h to save England from anarchy, has been felt in our 
try ever since." * 

In the thirteenth century " the coming of the Friars " was 
again " a religious revolution," especially in the towns. They 
were the itinerant preachers whose fervid appeals and familiar 
stories brought religion into the fair and the market-place. 
The IJIack Friars of Dominic and the Grey Friars of Francis 
received with delight. Of the methods of the latter many 
■ iints have been given. Here is one which describes their 
mission work in its original Italian surroundings : 

" Someone began to sing a hymn — one of those simple 
canticles set to popular catcliing tunes which were so common 
in the earlier stages of the Franciscan movement — and the 
whole assembly joined in the singing. Then came another and 
another. Not one but several days were spent in tlie rapture 
of sonfr, of brief, fervent prayers, and of stirring addresses. 
The ; '( red, listened, joined, came forward and made 

their There was no order of service ; no appointed 

leader of devotions ; no one selected to edify the brethren. 
Men sang or prayed, or spoke as they were moved by iiiward 
impulse to do it, and the sense of spiritual power and presence 
was felt by all."t 

At first no stress was laid upon the intellectual element in 
religious life, very much the reverse ; but by degrees " the 
j>opnlarity of their preaching led them to the deeper study of 
and ere long they were established as readers and 
1 in the big to\vns and at the Universities. It is 

interesting to be assured that " the University of Oxford, 

•Short History, pp. 91/. 

t From an article by Dr. Lindsay in the Contemporary ReoUw 



RKLIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 49 

whicb had fallen under the direction of their teaching, stood 

first in its rr ' to papal rr---'-—.s, and its claim of English 

Ijherty " ; ;i it " the i the towns on whom the 

i iuui,[ ilircctly were steady sup- 

it the Harons' Wflr." • 

A > not in 1 iiik next 

of I 1, with \v . t revival 

tliroii-^hout the lihmeland in the middle ot the fourteenth 

.. Mf i^ TTiv vtory is of the type often repeated. While a 

r, he was convinced by a layman that he did 

l^t 11 Kiiow Christ intimately enough to deliver His 

Two years of silence and of meditation followed, 

ion. At last, after lying 

he cume to himself filled 

wilii u hud never known before. When he again 

Ix^an t he broke down in tears. Not for some time 

WHS he A by his superiors to make another trial. In 

that !»«ii, wv lold his hearers that " the joy of the bride with 

the bridrt^room is so great that no man can conceive it." At 

in in the audience cried out " It is true," and 

I tie. The impression spread and the movement 

•s were given, usually in churches, 

le, or in the market-places of to\uis. 

d to talk with the preacher and his 

was the enrolment of the converts in 

" p; met at each other's houses for prayer 

1 n.ii>i i>.inuu. Letters still exist that were read 

t, the father of German mysticism. These praying 

usttd through t' nth and int nth 

\\.- r;m wrll i iuit " the fo . . St. 

iLcd the greatest revival that ever 

NVe euii <1.» no more than (Ulude to the remarkable religious 

,,,,.v . r,,. ut which took place in England in the fourteenth 

, when the enthusiasm and credit of the Friars had 

' ' ' It was connected with Wveliffi- und his 

hers, the " sinjph- prirsts,' whose work 

in a f^^ timt 

' : rnrt li,; s. 

N . even in a ^ >rm, 

t!. , t.f the r. •!. s. 

. v..< .,. ,^ i 

on and the I 



/ . |). U7. 

ihf Agf of WychJJe. Hy <;. .M. Ttrvchun. p. 134. 



50 EVANtiELISTIC WOKK 

of some fresh spiritual tit by that time was grcBi 

indeed. " Never had i seemed at a lower ebb." 

" Everyone hiughs," wrote a foreign visitor, " if one talks 
of religion." Then it was, to quote from Green again, that 
" a religious revival burst forth which changed in a few years 
the whole temper of V ' ' «>ciety. The Church was restored 
to life and activity. i carried to the hearts of the poor 

a fresh spirit of moral zcai, while it purified our literati 
our manners. A new philanthropy reformed our \ 
infused clemency and wisdom into our penjil laws, abt>lished 
the slave trade, and gave the first impulse to popular education. 
The revival began in a small knot of Oxford students." 

Then follows a striking description of the " ^'' ♦ *>'';-♦-" \V- 
can quote only a sentence or two : 

"Their voice was soon heard in the wii(i< si aim most uar- 
barous corners of the land, among the bhak moors of North- 
umberland, or in the dens of London, or in the 1' rics 
where the Cornish miner hears in the pauses of hi> the 
sobbing of the sea." " Whitefield was above all the preacher 
of the revival." His preaching was " such as England had 
never heard before, theatrical, extravagant, often common- 
place, but hushing all criticism by its intense reality, its 
earnestness of belief, its deep tremulous sympathy with the sin 
and sorrow of mankind. It was no common entl who 
could wring admiration from the fastidious Horace , or 
who could look down on 20,000 colliers, grimy from the iJristol 
coal-pits, and see as he preached the tears ' making white 
channels down their blackened cheeks.' " " But it was John 
Wesley who embodied in himself not this or tH.at side of the 
vast movement, but the very movement itself." * 

The main characteristics of the revival, as also of the " Evan- 
gelical Movement " which followed it, and of the " Oxford 
Movement " which supplemented this, are too familiar to 
require a detailed description. We may conclude this part of 
our report, therefore, with some references to certain later 
religious manifestations of the kind that are more commonly 
associated by us with the term " Revival." Some of these 
have occurred within the lifetime of persons now living, and of 
others our fathers have told us. 

And first we must look to America, for it has been from the 
West tliat our spiritual weather has sometimes come to us, as 
well as climatic conditions of another sort. Time would fail 
to tell of the remarkable work associated with the philosophic 
thinker, and Calvinist preacher, Jonathan Edwards, in 1742. 
And it must suffice to say that no one who is concerned to 
understand the varied types of revival methods should neglect 
to read the biography of Charles Finney, whose teaching, by 
• Green, op. cit., pp. 717/. 



RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 51 

the wnv, p«\'e its first dir<Ttion to that of the Snlvation Armv. 

Mv ' ' ' ■ ' 

I J 

ini; i-port with iiiufli 

nil ; .1 of the revival (lu_, • 

years ISjT 59. It started in a prayer- meeting in Fulton Street, 

New Y' •' ' immediately passed on to the north of Ireland, 

and to I and Wales. I will quote a few extracts : 

: up to tl ' - . . .^^ been, and still 

•r the I rica, unparalleled 

It has p' 
ligion, but h 
th< : God to be heard in the busy scenes of trade, the 

coll arr.wifr f hc Tcsorts of fashiou, the ships, the schorik 

thr drawn hundreds of thousands, incln 

■ ' *ics, all dcnon ■ '• -.^ in relij^iwu, 
lis. Homan ' s, and even 

Jews, 1 " :t .salvatUMi. 

** In i the work began in .^meriea, 

II Ireland. In both ' * ' 

^ ^rne." "Four young i : r 

snecml prayer *' in a town in Antrim. " S«on others joine<l 

them. For some time it was simply the prayer of faith and 

hope : at length the answer came. A spirit of seriousness 

' ' ■' ■' irhood, deep solemnity attended the 

il>er!» flnoke<l to them, conversions 

• from 

^ ..t-r." 

Hetore ion;; il ciMii.i In- . tliat " the work hatl rearlud 

nearly every district of ' ilies Antrim and Down, many 

itj 1)< rry, Tyrone, Monaghan, Armagh, and some in Donegal 
and Cavan ; and that thousands and tens of thousands had 
l)cen convinced or converted." * 

r ■ ■ ' iiatl not • 

\h-> . . itit from . 

. y< 

!ie conviction as to its mental pr«><<ss n aches the 
(Tl r !' ,^'h weakness is unanle to sit or stand, 

a(i"i ' iii.^ down. A great number in this town 

a Mil M and now. I believe, in all directions in 

■' ^ iiicrc\ ■ ' ' - 'mitten down' as 

ill as fi I and powerless. 



tome degree of e m Christ is found ; then the look, 

* A(tdf«M by .1 M ' ' - • •' f -.(injtJith.rrt' " • ■ -, 



52 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

the tone, the gestures instaiitW change; the ns|>ect of anguish 

and despair is c\ ' ' '" r that of " de and ti 

and adoration." il and so isofth< 

.other : " M and ni 

I ' n, men M'< j to th< 

iiuhfferent to tlie niovenKiit, or hostile to it, have all concurred 
in l)earing witness to the change on the face of society ; to the 
ahnost entire disappearance of certain vices, to the sobriety 
and honesty that eliaracterise all chisscs." 

I miglit quote much more, and tell of the similar manifesta- 
tions in Scotland, and Wales, and in \ " *' ' tid. 
"In one country parish in Wales, ci OOO 
! tly miners, immorality and vice of c\try kind have 
'1 _ . , while there is not a person of suflieient age who 
is not a communicant." 

It was a different type of revival which some of us remember 
as taking place in the seventies under Mr. Moody in Scotland, 
in various parts of England, and eventually in London. No 
one who witnessed the tens of thousands that gathered in halts, 
often speeially constructed to hold them, and h< ng, 

or listened to the tramp of the feet of the tiat 

poured through the streets in the early hours of i ing 

to attend the prayer-meetings, and who noted the < ork 

of the inquirj-room, will ever forget the impressions received. 

This revival differed from tliat which took place in the fifties 
in two important respects. There was little violence of 
emotional and physical excitement. Certainly no encourage- 
ment was given to artythi ng of the sort ; on the contrary, 
determined efforts were made to check such ns. 

** The first person who broke into outcries was at oi i«-d, 

and the movement in consequence [)reserved a rational 
character throughout its course." 

The other change was noticeable in the character of the 
preacliing. The Love of God was made the motive, rather 
than the fear of hell. Little as he can have known it, Mr. 
Moody was translating into popular l;i ' " ''^g 

in homely ways, much of the teaeliin .<'e. 

The effcet was like thai of sunshine i Hiic. The new 

presentation of the Gospel of the Fat i : of God quietly 

melted away what remained of the hardness of Calvinism, 
and altered the whole temper and method of evangelistic work. 

We must conclude this survey with some account of the 
extraordinary revival movement which visited Wales about 
twelve years ago. Out of a mass of descriptive material, it is 
difficult to select what will convey at once accurately and 
briefly a just impression of that which took place. We may 
begin with a quotation from the very remarkable I -.r- 

ticle that appeared in " The Times " on the Good Fri<i >5: 



lU-ILICilOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 58 

" There arr Ion? p^rioHs dMrinjj which the prophot has to 
confess 'I ' 

fllllUX'fIt (1. 



by * a 11 bones come 

toi»< * ' 1' 1^ lilUi>jnitann.- iii.i* V*"- -nnKS 

air< 

,j .. .. 

on to say : 

" The Rishnn of T.oiidon would be the first to admit that for 
sheer u. »r its inevitable us of Pcntc- 

'^ » •' t in the valleys ai.v ....trial centres 

>t." 
n • • "i<- work had its beginning in 

jT!' '. had prayed for four years 

on Wal' lie 

rd or Ca the 

u<.: to human instrumentality, but from 

ti,, .. The answer canu- in tlu' dctmhi of 

ts, a young miner of his own < 

■ * *■ his preaching .mw .. 



• fS^ itac* } 



rcli' 

' ' ' >n of Christ, con- 

fo< fo win others to 

ich- 

our 

l.<inj, <>!t.!. If. A- into tears as he desenbes the Divuie 

>uff«rm^', urj<. ^ iiuii who hn^- '•>>■• ml led to lie reconciled, 

and, iiist.ul of directly a secular amusement or 

. s'cks to draw men m-m ixindjige to the world by 

rinr Love of Christ. He professes to know when 

>« lit iir. tig the Spint by curiosity, or hard- 

. . r- \\r will go to no chapel or town 

iiiii 

I rived at the time from a 

n r he says : 

■ wu. ... 1...,. ,,.•....: . . t into o»f Miiilfli't 

too. hours btforr it bc^'an ; Lv into 1 



God ; I 

I-rf r _ L-r written at thc'timc by 

n r in Wales who bad appealed for 

IK . '11 V. I '11' ^»- . 



54 K VANG RUSTIC WORK 

" The Revival is a truly wonderful thing ; within a few weeks 
politics, Education Bill, and all have been !""♦ c;.,!.^ ,,f^ ^^d reli- 
gion has suddenly become the one point of pi ^ (Til. Every- 
boily is ready, even exi>cctant, to hear about spini u ' " rs." 

The extent of the spread of the movcrjicnt may t led 

frtHMtlu ' 'iff •• Ev«riin;,' Exprrss " found »t worth 

while (.. i londay 120,000 copies of a "Revival 

Edition." 

Among the outstanding features were these : The services 
consisted of praying and hymn singing, and the telling of 
experiences. There was almost no formal preaching ; indeed 
the movement was in large measure a protest against the 
i ■ " -:il and political sermons which lit ' ' non 

u .miconformist ministers. One mii. for 

five months he had not been allowed to pieacli la his own 
chapel. Very significant was the prayer of an Anglesey man : 
" We thank Thee, O Lord, that Thou hast shunted our ministers 
to the side-line, that we, the people, might come to the front. 
But, Lord, do not keep them there too long, for fear they may 
get rusty."* At the outset and throughout the greater part 
of its course it was a lay movement. 

The Church took a considerable share in the work. In many 
places the churches would not contain the people, among whom 
wefe great numbers of Nonconformists who declared that they 
were longing for definite instruction. As some of us know, very 
remarkable Church Missions were held in which the great 
congregations were deeply and soberly responsive. 

Unhappily, as the work went on, no attempts were made to 
control emotional and hysterical outbursts ; nor were the 
restraints of ordinary propriety always strictly enforced. The 
strain of the excitement told upon the leaders, as u|K)n others. 
After a while the fire seemed to have burnt itself out, and the 
track of the revival was marked by most painful signs of 
exhaustion. But it is riot possible to l>elieve that the good 
effects of such a movement have entirely passed away. It 
cannot have been for nothing that the gaols were nearly 
emptied, that men long estranged had been reconciled, that 
debts thought to be irrecoverable had been paid, and that 
(Irunkenness had almost disappeared. Perhaps it is worth 
to quot< 1 article in the '" Saturday Ueview '" which 

I stcd po- ^ of ultimate results, even if there is as 

yet little evidence to show of their attainment. Speaking of 
the character of the movement as a whole the writer said : 

" The underlying ideas seemed to be the public confession of 

sin, and the salvation, not so much of the individual, as of the 

community. In a word this remarkable revival is a protest 

against an individualistic and sectarian conception of religion, 

* The Welsh Religious Revival, by J. V. .Morgan, DJD., p. 40. 



RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 55 

and a <tni«!»le to return to a corporate and positive Christianity. 
' ' "' ! can never a^ain be 

en in the past ; and 
thf ' ion of Chnstiamty which the revival has 

reiiiL: \\ales may in time have ecclesiastical and 

pohtieal consequences of lasting importance." 

Here we tiuist end the first part of our treatment of the sub- 
ject. We have traced, all too cursorily, the history of religious 

' 'ing our attention more partiou- 

1 world. We noted the monastic 

Lh in twelfth century England : the 

• a the Continent and in this country 

during the t i and following century; of Wycliffc and 

his " simple , ' ; of Wesley and Whitefield ; and then, 

nearer to our ow^n days, wc traced the main features of the 

.\m -■ ' i- ' revivals; dealing finally with the work of 

.Mr. :-nuinely spiritual, if also largely psychical, 

manirc.staliuii:> la W ales. 

II 

We must now attempt to deduce the lessons which it most 
concerns us to liarn from these facts. Let us begin with thr 
more obvious lessons. The first may well be that there are 

■ ' a.fofis oj e ' -7/7/ actiiHti/, abnormal and catastro- 

in the o; of Grace as well as in the w«)rkings 

u'. .N.iturc-. 

It wris a profotmd remark of the philosopher Lotze that the 
tru' ! 

1st I 

is the -e. of the nussion which mechanism has to 

fulfil in I... > . ..(lure of the j^orld."* There is a corresponding 
truth that we liave to learn as to the life of the Church. Organi- 
sation, ' hanism, is absolutely necessary to its stnicture 
anfl wi but its " cr«*ativi* ••volution " is wrought out 

ifined within 

I most u-sed 

to . wc art- startled by the arrival 

"t ■ . visitations appear to be sudden, 

il: "li '^1 •" fovcr that they too had their antetxdent 

«ji4Usvs uiid .... -...>ject to some higher laws. What we see 

IS that for a while, instead of the gently falling dews of the 

'\' grace, wc have to reckon with ' ! the 

or at all t-vrnts with h»*nvy r the 

u li -Is, until th' ' ^s •' iis t 

HI ;i)i." The »i kI long i 

Mjb-conscious powers of the soul are made to break forth with 

• yiir rn extamu*. Inlrcx|iirti<in. 



EVANGELISTIC WOKK 

rushing noise. Any serious study of the history of revivals 
nuist convince us of this. 

The next obvious lesson is that these abnormal mavementx have 

;tle 
iiulmaliou to do hii\ tiling else than deplore their occurrence 
and prevent their repetition. 

To the lovers of the settled and well-regulated — happily they 
are numerous amongst us — the upsetting of that to which they 
an- accustomed is most painful, and they are quick to fix upon 
what seems only < ' . ';ince and wreckage. They are ready 
to ascribe the ph' . to tht; excitement of the Hesh rather 

than to the inspiration of the spirit ; or, if they recognise the 
presence of any spirit, it is not the good Spirit. 

But what can such critics make of the evidences of moral 
reformation, often on a vast scale, and how are they to account 
for the fruits of good that are eventually to be seen in the life 
of the Church and of the Nation ; fruits which have been 
declared to be " among the most permanent things in history " ? 

Unless we are careful, we find ourselves confronted by the old 
dilemma — " If Satan cast out Satan, how shall his kingdom 
stand ? " It is wiser to s when 

"the Kingdom of Heaven violent 

take it by force." 

But to admit this docs not mean that we are to be blind to the 
perils that beset these exceptional outbursts. Without doubt 
the psychical has often been mistaken for the spiritual by those 
who had not even the elementary knowledge of the psychology 
of crowds, which is all we can as yet claim to ] Symp- 

toms were imitated and reproduced; that mt , .vali>m. 

The yearning for excitement increased, and aftei u while a 
condition was reached in which people refused to go back to 
the normal because they preferred, as was once said, to be 
" blown up " rather than " built up.' Reaction inevitably 
followed, and it was well if for many " the last state " was not 
" worse than the first." 

None the less, we must be cautious as to how we draw our 

■ns. George Herbert used to say that "Sermons are 

as thin<^ ' ; and the same can be said of Revivals. 

T nquestionably they are dangerous things; and those who 

lou;^ for them ought to pray that the right preparation may be 

made, and that the right work may come after. 

But let us not forget that, in the case of revivals, as of 
sermons, there are dangers for those who decline to be affected 
by them, as well as for those who have been swept off their 
feet by their influence. Persons on the spot who have watched 
the course and noted the af' n of revivals have again 

and again borne witness that no resisted the movement 





1 . 


— 1 


if ever, 

vital ac< 


Aiul ! 
rninH 


It JS 


IS \ 

th' 




tijcin fr< 












. . I ^ 



IlfiUGlOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 

•:•'•* ■'■* — -'•- *'> "My scriou-s «n/i/. -- 

■ • .! in 
..sed 

titeV .siK>ulii go 

have restrained 

Again and again it has happened 

......JUS of having received spiritual 

in a time of revival have formed themselves into 

' s, with *' "^ > fold result tlxat they have 

\cs by II, and have weakened the 

I grfeatly the gainer if only it 

i\ ' c that these are the lessons obviously 

iml ) of revivals. We must go farther, 

k how Wf should apply them for our guidance in the 

...». ♦ nre before us. Only so shall we arrive at results 

of value. May wc not say that our conclusions 

two ill ' r? We should resolve to think 

the jv> >f revival work ; and we should 

it we may avoid its extravagances 

i 1, we should try to think hop 

Ucv -^ .1 us can remember well the [j:\,..-. 

that there was at one time against Parochial Missions. The 

. I. .1 „ie frofp . ...... outside our own* borders, and for 

t was di manv. And the thinj? for which 

.1 •■ 'T" / . .','.■ I 
f.- 



unknown to the ordinary hymn-bouk, while extraordinar)- 
efforts were made by public addresses .i" • '" f-^onal appeals 
m unlcr to brini; men and women to r< —it was all 

* ' I not a few hen ' ' \ 

t the harms of 



I ut° us ,'ree limt the 

h to its ' 
\\iii" .! 1 now Ik* called to . it-iclf to the 



daims ol higher itieal.s, when tiicsc arc cffectivciy prr^rntcd ; 

B 



5.K KVANGELISTIC WORK 

but it is still evident that large seetions o( our cultured people 
have yet to take their plaees in the schof)l of Christ ; and, if 
statistics of church attendance are to be relied uj>on as affording 
any safe indication of spiritual condition, overwhelming 
rtiiiiilKTs of the working classes sadly need to be roused to a 
(•((nrcrn for the things of the soul. 

AVe have tried all manner of means to off' iai 

reforms, but the old obstacles stand like i nig 

and darkening the way of progress. Intemperance, impurity, 
covctousncss, selfishness — these, in spite f»f all we have learned 
and have suffered, still mock at our most zea'ous attempts. 
We can ^ee that, if only England were a really Christian 
country', its opportunities in the future would be such as no 
nation has ever yet dreamed of. When, if not now, should 
we be stirred to cry, " Wilt Thou not turn again and quicken 
us — Wilt Thou not revive us again — that Thy people may 
rejoice in Thee ? " ? 

For our encouragement we may remember that great hap- 
pcnirjgs in Providence have often been accompanied by the 
exceptional w^orkings of Grace. What if the Spirit of the Lord 
were to move among us mightily in these days ? Is it past 
believing that the first signs would be seen in the gathering of 
the faithful for expectant prayer, and that expectation would 
widen and strengthen until the Churches, the Press, the Clubs, 
the Universities, the Convocations, and the Houses of Parlia- 
ment became aware of a change in the spiritual barometer, as 
big drops began to fall, portending showers which would not 
cease until once again the river of God was full, and the old 
high-water marks of progress had been left far below and 
behind ? It would mean a new day for this country, and 
perhaps for Christendom, if the sober and restrained Church 
(.! (1 were to accept with courage and hopefulness the 

ji . and necessity of Revivals. 

But, if this is to be, we shall have to take to heart for our 
warning that other lesson which the history of such movements 
has always proclaimed aloud. From the earliest days of the 
Church in Corinth it has been made plain that the best elements 
and the worst can be terribly mingled. If we are satisfied to 
be content with the second-best we may, no doubt, escape from 
a risk of the more tragic disasters; but it will be at the cost of 
surrendering the hi iriency. We shall be r' Ic, but 

we shall not prodin s. nor shall we win v'u i faith. 

It can never be an easy task to refuse the evil and to cho<>se 
the good. Nay, it will have to be something more than a task. 
It^must be made into a science, and an art. We have learned 
the mistake of supposing that an emotional temperament, and 
certain gifts of popular speech, are all that are needed to fit 
any spiritual man to be a Missioner. We shall have to learn 



RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE PAST 59 

fhat rrioro than these are demanded if there is to be a tnie 
mi nff and a riglit direction of revival forces. 

i' .y the ♦"•-* ^♦' " ♦" '" ♦nken should be the forming of 

Schcxjls of the 1 wc not begin with " Summer 

Sch<H)ls ** r^ ' WHO (usirf to be Ev ' 's? It is not 

difficult t«i ihc sort of subjects tl i be included 

in ' III. 

1 t ^vml1d ^tudy the drfails of the history much 

nv in a survey like the 

pf' ^ the trustworthy signs 

of working of the Divine Spirit. They would 

reUimi tin <. ',, VI. Lious- of prevailing prayer. Attention would 
be paid to the matter and manner of preaching, and to methods 
of personal dealing. Earnest th ' sould be given to the 
place which onpht tn hn s«rured i in the Living Christ, 

m !' present k :._"i'>Mi, and His return 

f«»r 11 would li<- !;!( t (i as to what are 

the best ways of enforcing the motive of holy Fear. There 
might be conT. r. nr«s to deal with the psye'><>I«><'v <>f conversion, 
the way of t ^s, the meaning of juv i, the relation 

of feeling t and the relation of uiuuuiual gro>vth to 

corporate w 

I " ' IS of the " " " 

a « and th« 

of ijive to be c< ly ^tudied. 

I ion to the .m , on that it is 

unspintual to apply brains to religious work. It has to be 
real'"^' '' ♦^^ it, in God's order, grace is never intended to be a 
sul) >r effort. The larger the gift the more, not the less, 

is t ' ' If we are to I ^ ■ 

of f are to be u 

iir piirl 
1 \vr ore 1 
^'^ of Kcvivids, 

a«»'' , ..utb, we must 

have a I take us at our 

wof'* " ,,> mighty or lasting 

w^f ,11. we were wanting 

'as when 



We hn Htm to the normal — a 

d and .\ill l)c the aim and 

' I' of all work. When we cliampion the 

'" the cX' " -*- - ' ry, we n ' ♦ 

it that lir nnd ; 

iuerc may be sound rca^uiui tor luyiinj u:>idc the regular aud 



60 KVANGELISTIC WORK 

habitual for a while, but healthy life cannot consist wholly of 
holiday and recreation. The exceptional is good in i n 

as it proves to us the value of ♦'" ni'*-, and sends u — to 

<»ur ordinary ways with a new m and hope. 

Few of our leaders have undi i>i<'>><i the science of Missions 
and Revivals better than did Archbishop Benson. lie used 
to say that wliat the Con i after the 
exhaustion produced by r^ emotions, 
was the i ■: of Ba|>liMnal i. It is only 
when a Ci ^ a firm hold on md the Sacra- 
ments that it can safely tlirow itself with fervour and abandon- 
ment into evangelistic effort. While, therefore, we plead for 
a bolder acknowledgment of the need and blessing of such 
work, we do it with a full understanding ^hat its function is 
subsidiary, and that its appropriate results will be seen in the 
strengthening of regular order and discipline. If a Church 
desires to be true to the primitive pattern, it vnW see that it 
has a place for its " ev ." but it will pro- 
are followed, as at the i „. ug, by "pastors ai 

We may sum up the results of our inquiry by saying that 
there is the exceptional and there is the normal ; that each 
has its blessings, and each has its perils ; and that we must 
praise God for both, as we endeavour to use them to the honour 
of our Lord and for the advancement of His Kingdom. 

APPENDIX 11 

-Mkmoravdum on Evangelistic Work from :5kckktahiks 
OF THE Student Christian Movement of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

In the Student Movement the ev > ' runs 

through all our work ; a great deal of it ^distic, 

while much that is not designed to be so, such as the work 
of our Bible Study department, has very important evangel- 
istic results. We regard evangelism as something which 
is cumulative, the outcome of a process. While a certain 
numl)er of students begin consciously to live the Christian 
life as the outcome of special evangelistic effort, a far larger 
proportion do so as a result of the cumulative effect produced 
by attending Christian Union i T^ ' ' Study 

Circles, possibly in Social an<i s, and 

attending conferences. Salvation is positive, not negative. We 
must call men to somethiii*; rather than away from something. 

From our point of view evangeli>tic work is to present 
Christianity in such a way that men and women will come to 
put their faith in God through Jesus Christ, to accept Him as 
their Saviour and serve Hira as their Lord. As a rule, it is only 



STUDENTS AND EVANGELISTIC WORK Gl 

aft^r lh*y have made up their minds that they want to follow 
Jfsus Christ ;iiul tiftef they have yielded themselves to Him, 

tfii' *' ' ' ' • • very deep sense (if sin. This, of 

« There arc those who have taken 

that their lives have 

U) Christ ; but in our 

U»c majunly of those with whom 

, for the most part, normal and 

ded young men and women who are living a decent 

.... ..vv ..v..i4^ to the ordinary standards of society around them, 

and what attracts them to Clirist is not so much a sense of 
' ntation of Jesus Christ and 11 

a some concept i*>n of the Kiii 

and 

. To 

their suis and about the need for 

: , — . , 1 done, produce some results, but not 

many ; but to talk to them about the Kingdom of God, about 
Christ, and what we may learn of God from Him, of Christ and 
what He desires to make men. of Christ as the Redeemer of 
society as w " ' ' ' " > the imagination 

and makes i. 

"' How far do you fitid that those wliom you seek to reach are 
accessible to the evangelistic message f " 

We find in the colleges tliat accessibility to the Christian 

message on the part of the general Ixxly of students depends 

' ' ' - ' '' Christian Union — i.f., the local branch 

• fruits of the Spirit are heini; inani- 

■ T" ■ 

i will pay attention to 

will attend in large 
s that ti! rd. The things that 

* i.v.,... ,.„ *. hristian Uni(m should 

»— disunion of any kintl is fatal. 
» be presei»ted with due ri 

!»< " It's. It is rwccvsiirv tli 



H \Vlll i,,ud of 

.:ion of III oQji 

cxpericxicc wc would rwfcr tlic Coiiuutttee to The Jesus of 



62 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

History, by T. R. Glover. Before this book wa» nnlillsluvl 
Dr. GIovtT delivered the matter printed therein as 
students in more than one student eentre with good uxm^.. 

" IVhcU art' 0IC spccinl fllfJlniltifs ami iirr!ufIir/'\ nunitni //<#■»» 

which have to he met f ' 

Some of the most s( ii slund in the way 

of students becoming ( ult of their eontaet 

with the Churches. We do not find any substantial difference 
between those who have been in touch with the Church of 
England and those who have been in touch wth the Free 
Churches. Priniarily the difficulties we have to face lie inside 
and not outside the Church. Practically all students have had 
some kind of religious training — in S School, Day School, 

Boarding School, or at home. Inei ., we would remark 

that those among whom we work represent not only the public 
schools, but also both Secondary and Elementary Schools. It 
should be remembered that there are normally about 45,000 
students in the British Isles, and that the majority of these 
have been educated in Secondary Schools, although there are 
two other large groups, one of these havii from the 

Elcmentarv Schools and the other from the V < >ols. We 

find that almost all students who wish to live liic Christian life, 
and also to understand what Christianity is, have a great deal to 
unlearn. It is probably true to say t liat in the case of a very large 
number what they have learnt tends to be a hindrance rather 
than a help. Crude ideas about God, unchristian theories of the 
Atonement, ignorance of the Bible, irrational theories of inspira- 
tion, confused views about the Person of Christ, seem to be the 
result of such religious training as fl ' <■ had. 

Among the better and most th ^W^ of student 

prejudice against the Church is very stron-,'. I "or them the 
Church is represented generally by the con;;r(^'ation or the 
congregations with which they have been in touch, and very 
specially any clergy they have kno>vn. If the Church is judged 
to a large extent by the clergy, the clergy are to a large extent 
judged by their sermons. Students feel that the clergy are too 
conventional and formal in their teaching, that most of their 
discourses are very vague, not dealing >vith an\^hing very mucli 
in particular except the exhortation to people to be " good " , 
the subject-matter of them has very little to do with everj'day 
problems and life ; the language in which they are delivered 
is often higlily technical. There is a suspicion that there is a 
good deal of intellectual dishonesty in the pulpit, and that the 
clergy are concerned by every means in their power to press a 
particular point of view, and if anyone wants to study the 
pros and cons for this point of view the clergy are apt to be 
resentful and to press the authority of the Church. Young 



STUDENTS AND EVANGELISTIC WORK 

people are very suspicious of anything they are asked to accept 
on the basis of authority of any kind. To urge authority seems 
to thrin an attempt very often to evade real issues. It would 
probably be easier to present Christianity in the colleges if the 
majority of * ' '^ liad heard very many fewer •- " 

they have 1 i. The cumulative effect of t 

th« 1 a liiiidraucc 

rat . tiien can be 

na: ir, have drawn students to their 

chii ..ts, but if the list of such nun were 

compiled from all the denominations in this country, so far as 
the evidence we have is available, it would not be a long list. 
It should be added that there is a great deal of prejudice 
* the Church because of its attitude J^o stx-lal problems. 
>; as a ejass share with the workers the view that the 

in in the 

>n of the 

5o< [js of Christianity by the Church would change 

the _ . many students to the Church. 

What is said in the preceding paragraph needs qualification 
if the situation is to be truly represented, in that some of the 
best people we get and those from whom a larj?e proportion 
of ' ' ' ■ ' id a Christian tr 

mf lives. Themajd 

The ; of the Christum home is 

' far as t < rch has helped to protluce 

and sustain the Christian home its influence is of inestimable 

vaJuc. Further, wc would like to say that we are fully aware 

that a movement like ours drtiws its sustenance from the 

Christian Church. It is to the Cliristian Church as a whole 

that wc look. Its experience, tradition, arul thouL'ht we 

•u for help and ;.' Its le ' 

• !m>k tn for 1 at our i 

's; its great writers we turn to lor 

tion. At first sight this may seem 

tiat has been written above, but on re- 

•• •" - ^ n that this is not the case. The Christian 

(■hiir( h as a whole has wliat we need to live upon, and by a 
tii.^' ' ' lectionu' ' ' ids to an atteii 
«>f ! anrl !< dr"<»s we i 



ud the dross, of which unfortunately 

I the Christian Church, is th ■ 

apparent to him. H«nec at a summer conference, for « 
where stUilcnts are aware of the g ' ' " '^ • ' j,j,, 

dross of their parish church or > . ns 

it seems to them, the dross of the cliurch or cJiupcI u u product 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 

of the Church, so also is the gold of which they are aware at 
the conference. 

As far as Church services are concerned, taken all round, 
do not ti ' ■ Milp to make the aver " u'c man or 

ai more le to tijc Christian i; In every 

culiij^e there arc students to be found who arc rcjular church- 
(focrs and who derive mueli lielp from this practice, but the 
majority arc put off by the absence of a sense of worship in 
tnost churches ; by the formal and unnatural way in which 
t he services arc rendered. Students will say frankly, " If 
you go to church you don't get the impression that what is 
liappening is ver>' real to those who are takiiii; part." There 
is a good deal of 'T ' ior 

people who are i> iss 

feeling, petty quarrels, c> vis to the 

tragedy which is the outi _ ire on the 

lives of masses of people — these things among regular Church 
members are a grave stumbling block to many students. 

P>om the above it will be seen that the most serious diffi- 
culties we actually find in practice arise from the fact that the 
Cliurch is not good enough, rather than because men and 
women are too bad to care about religion. Nowadays there 
arc large numbers of students who do not go to church at all. 
There are some of these who cjire very deeply about religion. 
They are distressed by the formality of public worship. They 
cannot understand why the services of the Church of England 
are not made more relative to the needs of actual life, and 
they dissent vigorously in the interests of truth from the 
which they hear given from the pulpits of a number of 
This cJass of student who docs not go to church, 
not because they do not like religion, but I hey do not 

like the kind of religion they find in the < , is a class 

which is growing rathcar rapidly at present. 

We would like to say that we do not find indifference is 
the main hindrance to evangelism. We occasionally find in 
visiting the Christian Unions that they are inclined to put 
down their failure to reach students for Christ to indifference 
on the part of students, but closer in ion and careful 

experiment convince us that this is sc! cause. There 

arc larLT iiuiibrrs of students who liave their periods of 
iiKiiffmiK t — liays and months when they are concerned with 
other things and are temporarily ina ccssible, as it seems, to the 
Christian message — but the amount of thoroughgoing indiffer- 
ence to religion is little. Students take a deep interest in reUgion. 

" To what extent have recent conditions affected the recep- 
tion of the evangelistic vxessage, and how far have these con- 
ditions affected your presentation of it? " 



STUDENTS AND EVANGELISTIC WORK 65 

The cifect of the \v;ir h.is been to make students more 
It has I : their corporate sense, and an 

..; " ♦»••"> to U\^ ... .^..<h a way as to be a positive help 

to • ity meets with a ready response. They are 

sptii.i!! to any : ' ' ' '" 1 better- 

ment, r the ff I , strong. 

iti message 

. ntion. The 

home at once. The war has 

y and suffering that it has made 

ible than usual to the religious appeal, 
I ii4>. «.. r this is also true, and there are some 

ve been i and numbed by the suffering of the 

;u^. 

al might be said about the effect of the attitude 

of ■ war on the student class. They arc 

vrr sin of war, and are completely and 

• hy with clergy and ministers who make no 

.... .)f war mdess it be to lay the entire burden 

of sin upon Germany. The majority of our members who 

'•'• * ' ■' ' ' • ' ' ^ that England chose the 

() enter the war, but that 



1h >, tlay Were not thinking ut" tilings like Suji- 

f}'" and the drink trafTic, but rather of the 

t what was most worth aiming at which are cherished 

,, .L.rit, -.(■ T . ,,i>.t...,en, ideals which i- -^ • "jr nation 

" than of God. It d to the 

• : ' a \Ui- I iiureh li.. ' ' ' ' ' ' > 

I • it war. It has (. 

been .. ; of 

' the out I onjc 

t|ui»ncrB a »irong desire to see the Church hnd new leaders. 

" What methods have you found most successful f ' 

<♦•■' ..-....>. is JujS bcr- *•-• ' 'in wliat 

iilr ssful cv ire thr 



il ally t .t. We note in our 

■,!«t (},,- . W...II, ..I,. ,, ,.r.. ♦ 

III . 

istl. . 

tlu- rif 

to 1)(( ..luc CliTutUiiiA, whtrc ^nic effective kpeitkcr i» brought 



66 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

in for a swic^s of m*»etJn^ but it is a more fls^h in the pan 

' I ' n is stri 'r1 

> >cwho\v;i ifc. 

Nothing sccnjs to us more important than that there should 
be rich and progressive thought Hfe in the Christian Union. 
It is when the members of the Christian Union are facing 
big questions, are thinking about hfe in a big way, when they 
are refusing to take stereotyped views, when they are not 
afraid of new ideas, when the whole intellectual < 'ere 

is alive and vivid, that it is likely to be most effi « an 

evanffrlistic force. Where the Christian Union maiafebts this 
kind of life it always produces |ii(>plc who get into touch with 
their fellow-students, get to know them and their difficulties, 
and get opportunities to help them to become Cliristians. 

Hundreds and hundreds of students every year are led 
into the Christian life by their fellow-students. This does not 
come about through the kind of personal work that is described 
in many books and pamphlets on the subject v^Titten by 
evangelists. There is not much button-holing of students 
by one another, but let a man or woman, or a group of men 
and women, in a college come to have a strong faith in Christ, 
a real belief in the Kingdom of God, and whatever their failings 
may be, however many unsolved problems they may have, 
they will get somehow into touch with fellow-students who will 
talk with them about these great things, who will be led most 
probably to join a Bible study circle, who may po«{sihly be 
brought to a summer conference, and who, without !> to 

explain exactly how it has come about, will find ves 

looking to Clu'ist. Where this kind of thing is going on in a 
college a series of three or four meetings on successive days, 
backed up by the whole Christian Union, is likely to be found 
very effective. Students who, under the influence of the 
Christian Union, have been thinking about the claims of Christ 
are led to decide to follow Him. It is valuable to give an 
opportunity for decision. 

" To what extent do you use the Press and special literature 
in your eiangelistic work, and how far is it effective f " 

We use literature a great deal, and the tendency is to publish 
more and more in connection with the Movement. Books and 
pamphlets which help students to understand Christianity 
are of real value ; also anything that helps to make clear the 
IT '.f the New Testament is very useful. We publish a 

C( ,l>le number of Bible study books. We also find our 

magti/.uie, The Student Movement, useful. We have had only 
quite recently some interesting testimony to the value of articles 
in it deaUng with the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. We 
expect to make ever-increasing use of our publishing depart- 



ami 

/ 


The 
,1 Ai 


■0: ■ 






1... ; 
hdfj 


.ful 

1 . . » - 


iiiul even 
who have 


It 



STUDENTS AND EVANGELISTIC WORK 67 

meat. Fr»>m time to time we fin'^ K.w.ls ©f other pubUshers 

which urt- ot sjKcuil use to us. 1 c The Facts of Life, 

' ' '*i by i^r. V .iriiegie Simpson: The 

ry Dnitnmond ; Letters to His 

y in the 
1 htcrature, of the 

Mi.iunt of r<- ., is un- 

4. Wc constantly come across 
■ 1 iii.uit red and not help'^-i *"• ♦*••• ^""'J--* 
ive been placed in their hands. 

.' is the proved value of social work in relation to evangel- 

I MIC iLurK r 

Wc Jirc not ouite sure what this question means. Does it 
ial service is undertaken on behalf of people 

I,.,, c w .w . .. V may be a means of leading them to Christ ? If 

so, we would like to say that we feel rather suspicious as to 

K i .' ' s a bait. Has not the Church too often 

imply with a view to acquiring an opi>or- 

!e ? We think that this puts a 

y say the Church will take up 

il work • lure if it will give her an opjx)r- 

. ty of pr ^ : , , .(•, but she will not deal directly 

uith uTAM' N^H i;i| evils and injustices just because they are 
<-vil> aitd injustices. 

** Arc you securifig the services of educated xvomen as paid 
ti<iiii;fli.\tic workers, and what status is given to thein t " 

\N I mil; liw ion in principle lx-t\vcen men antl 

\% I I • ne kind of work is done, som<times 

•s by women, in the colleges. While we 

arc effective speakers to students than 

c in our ranks a certain number of women 



it i> 

•U-. A 



tve no ( 
V <if the 


, . 1 : 1 

■ \v(»rk ul 


/„..; 


■\ or 


pr. 


rit. 



nre nof (!> 



In a very real sense 

. ,. . , ..,„ w. w.i. ., . ., > ..,- .. .,..-.;. ,. i his official titl»- '•'"^- *"•. is 
;i man or wonmn who has a cure of souU. Our \^ r< - 

'irics II 1 ■' ■' ■ ' • ''*' the 

HI.. . ^ the 

lire 
ler- 

iitioii. 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 

" Is there any direct connection hrfrrren (ran^rlistic work 
at home and abroad? Do the coh est 

on home missionary xvork 'h> iiii,:_^.. , ,„ ., and 

does interest in foreign n- 7 work tend to deepen the 

evangelistic spirit in home uutn 1 

We find a very close relation between cvanjfeli«5tie work 
in college and an interest in foreign missions. Th m 

Unions which are adding steadily to their mem , in 

college are those which are likely to produce most volunteers for 
the mission field. Everything turns on a sense of vocation. 
If individuals have a sense of vocation they tend to communicate 
it to the Christian Union. If the Christian Union has a sense 
of vocation it means that it will be conrfriH'd with the pro- 
motion of Christ's Kingdom. At the , owing to 
the war. there is a tendency to place in upon how 
to promote the cause of Christ in Engl.and and Europe than 
how to promote His cause throughout the worhl. But it is 
interesting to note how there seem to be, in the great majority 
of Christian Unions, people who are watching the tendency 
and who are trying to get students to extend their vision until 
they take in the whole world. It has been one of the dis- 
tinctive things about the Student Movement that sincf* its 
foundation it has had the world outlook. There is r .i,'e 
between people who intend to work in the foreign ni Id 
and those who intend to work for social betterment at home. 
As a matter of fact, our student volunteers — that is to say, those 
who have declared their purpose to be foreign missionaries — are 
often leaders of the interest in social questions while at college. 

" What in your judgment are tiie chief reasons why exangel- 
istic work generally throughout the Church is so limited f " 

The Church has not a clear message. She centres her 
teaching far too much round the Ten Command m^^nts with 
their negative outlook rather than round the j utlook 

of the Sermon on the Mount. She gives her m too 

much to anti-social sins, though they receive much less attention 
in the teaching of Christ than do the sins of the spirit — anger, 
jealousy, selfishness, snobbishness, class feeling, and such-like 
things. The Church is too much take up with preaching 
negatives. Christ's message is in the highest degree positive. 
Success in His view consists not in the absence of wt ' ilt 

but in the positive and passionate practice of r, :,'. 

The Church's message needs more edge. She need* to be 
concerned more with God, and to consider what kind of God 
it is she believes in and is seeking to make known to people. 
The God often preached in the churches is very little like the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Another great hindrance is the lack of anything like a real 



STUDENTS AND EVANGELISTIC WORK 69 

riiri>ur.\tr M)Iritii:il life In tin- ijr«'at mAJority of conpfTcgations. 

who know one another, who 
,1. ........ ....w ,.i, ..»nding together in the greatest 

. the cause of Christ. In the majority of congre- 

is no ;iT' " * ' the coiil n or the 

t<, or «\ 'them, .. hip for 

>\(\ : ( 1 ) there is no 

to work for Christ ; 

or their ri or trade may be, their 

lor the • f the Kingdom of God, 

>■ are mcmt>ers of a : i) all of whom have this 

(2) The other ic>mi .> that if individuals do seek 

iristand lead others to Him there is no living vital 

' -<' they win. People 

y need the comfort 

i home ; but they do not 

le. We do not want to 

it we do want to be honest in answering the Committee's 

, , , f^nd we feel bound to say that we all of us arc con- 

stii •;. ; 1, to our own great distress, by students who are 

*^' ^ now they are going out of the fellowship 

n they do not know what to do because 

?n. We are 

lowship as a 

' btxly of people 

, ,1 mixed crowd in 

> the Church really trying very hard to be 

'•*'"'•- ' •'••"■<• .md is she trying to 

unit' fti. II I'l I ?s the fruits of the 

" " 'in itself 

n sum- 
u*e<l 
rcc : 
(< "C deiivcred, 

(f' - p. 

(<•) 111' t- 1 the clergy. When they are the right 

'• ' • 1 exceca their value, but too large a 

'ht JKjrt. 

s, especially 



U tl' 



lime pou any tpeciai (nit to make to the Committee 

ui the Church among all classes t " 

\\ ...r.- .f », f>t ..... I. ».. }... ,.iv—l 

ii;i\ r •)' vio T' < Mildtlic 

arc gi. ice in u is. Wc 

suggest that much ulteuljuii iiccU.s to be given tu hcipuig young 



70 EVANGELISTIC WORK 

people to enter upon the Christian life. The teachinf; of 

reh'tfioii in all kit: ' ' Iiools crir ' ^ r rrform. Tfi' ' I 

rolipious instriK ' 'h is nf' ;, by people 

not personally greatly i i in what they arc ' 

frequently does more liurii od. \>"e want living i i 

women with a living message to teaeh in the schools. Uetter 
have no religious teaching than purely formal teaching. The 
whole Sunday School system needs to be overhauled, and the 
valuable experience of thinkers, writers, and those who have 
experimented in the Graded Sunday School should be made 
available th ' it the Church. The clergy should be 
trained to t< ' ns teachers are, and should he required to 

give much niort :i to work among yoti 

We believe tlir success as wc have ha : Student 

Movement is due in no small measure to the lact that the 
Movement calls on all its members to express themselves in 
some shape or form. It is typical of the Student Movement 
that it does not have Bible classes but Bible circles ; that is 
to say, it does not have a class of students where someone with 
more experience comes and teaches them, but it has a circle, 
where students meet together to search for truth, and to 
express to one anotlier what they have found. It is this 
constant demand on students to express themselves, to become 
articulate, to make a positive response, which is so immensely 
helpful in developing them. This demand that they shall 
not be passive is made to them in countless ways. When they 
go to Christian Union retreats thej' arc expected to take part 
in the discussions ; when they go to conforenees there is a 
certain amount of open conference ; when n Union 

holds meetings it is not always to hear a<i - also to 

ask and answer one another's questions. A member of an 
orrlinary congregation can sit passively Sunday after Sunday 
listening to exhortation from the pulpit, and he can either 
listen to or take part in the devotions which are led by someone 
else. • The result is that the average Church member, just 
bceause no demand is made uix)n him to express his faith, very 
often never does express it, either to himself or to anyone else. 
He does not get hold of it, and it does not lead to adequate 
results in his life. The Christian Union member cannot escape 
in this way. He finds himself constantly in Bible, missionary, 
or social study circles, or prayer meetings, or at conferences, or 
sharing in other activities of the Christian Union which demand 
that he shall play his part ; and herein, we believe, lies to no 
small extent the secret of such success as the Student Movement 
has had, not only in our own country, but til it the world. 

We think that the evangelistic motive sh more in the 

' u'round in the ordinary Sunday services of the Church. 
M ^t people will not go to special missions and such-like thinjjs 



QUESTIONS ASKED BY THE COMMITTEi: : i 

in thf first in-^tftncf*. Whnt thfv Ho !«! to f^f» to rhnrrh on 



lie and upper-class pcof>ic 

,,.,,, ,. >, ,, ;;ian is the case at present. 

\ r in the hope that it will be of some service 

to ' '" <». If some of the thinps we 

ha i we would ask the Committee 

fii rite as a jjroiip of nen and 

\vi. is limited, which wii. t for our 

crt! ve write, we hope, not buniptinusly, but only 

.. :• ^m for the subject in which we are deeply 

this accounts for the boldness of some of the 



APPENDIX III 

For the ptirpose of correspondence and inteniews the 
of the chief questions asked, but it was 
ir intention was not to limit the area of 

lllSCIlSSIdll. 

1 " • r u . ,..u finr^ *^"* H" '• whom you seek to reach 
art e to the eva: -^ge ? 

•J. »s *' .11 (iiiiicuines and prejudices amon|{ 

them %^! '*t ? 

M Tn uj»at 
r-i'( t • ■ n of th' 

..fitV 

1. ... . M.sf successful ? 

5. Have you found any ni work which 

have been successful in the j'.i-« hmui. hm i..-,i.»y, an'' "'' '^". 
liv w li.it new mcthmls have they been replaced T 

«i ' * ■ ■ ' ' ' r ial literature 

ill ve ? 

7 under vour 

inf! •/ 

>■ .«• proved value of »ociai work in relation to 

0. Ar (iive features about the work in parishes 

wh'-n- ' ■ * ' 'nee ? 

1 1 ' \ ' s of educated women as paid 

, , , ■■■■",? 

I fir work 



ry work tend to deepen the 



EVANGELISTIC WORK 

12. What in yonr judjrrnont htc tlio ohicf r<»ftv>n"5 why «»vaii- 
gelistic work ;' ' 

13. Have \ ■ rii- 
tjiittoc with regard to cvangchstic work in the Church among 
all classes ? 

The (.'ommittcc suggci»ted as their reference to the dioceses 
the following questions : 

1. What efforts are made centrally in the diocese, or in rural 
deaneries, to attempt evangelistic work or to keep it constantly 
in view ? 

2. What IS the extent and nature of evangelistic work now 
going on ? \N'liat classes are being reached ? Hy whom is it 
being done — t^.g., official organisations, societies, parishes, 
communicants ? 

8. How far has it been successful, and how far has it been 
altered, or requires to be altered, to meet present conditions and 
needs ? 

4. What changes and (]• 'Ut are felt to be needed ? 

5. To what extent has < tic work been done through 

Pilgrimages of Prayer ; 
Crusades of Prayer ; 
Itinerant Missions ; 
Church Army Flying Squadron ? 
V). How far is the Bible to-day being used as a converting 
force ? 

7. How far is prayer being used as a converting force ? 

8. What approach has l)een found most effective : 

The personal appeal to " get right with God," an 

individual conversion ; 
The call to service ; 
Emphasis on membership of the bwly — does the 

corporate appeal lead to individual conversion ; 
Confession and Absolution, and the whole sacramental 

appeal ? , 

9. In what ways can the evangelistic spirit be fostered 

among 
(a) The Clergy — e.g.^ How far have retreats been held 

and to what extent are they going to be held in 

the future ? 
(6) The Laity — e.g., by retreats. Are they held in your 

diocese for laymen and women ? 

10. What special contribution has the service of women made 
to the Church's evangelistic work in recent years ? 

11. Does your exi)erienee show that this service can be 
extended and developed ; if so, in what direction ? 

12. To what extent has the call to share in evangelistic work 
abroad fostered the spirit of evangelism at home, and how far 
.,r.. ti,« fii-,^ T>i.,vi-^.,i f/, K,. <">nnected ? 



ADMINISTRATIVE 

REFORM OF THE 

CHURCH 

BEING THE 

REPORT OF THE ARCHBISHOPS' 
FOURTH COMMITTEE OF 
INQUIRY 



TtrELFTH THOUS^SD 



rt'BMSffKn FOR THE NATIONAT. MISSION 

•Y THK 

1 . i->i. 1 i.>>.M<>ilNG CHi*i7>ii/\N i\.>i »\\ i.KDGB 
LOM'ON : 6« Havmakkkt. S.W.I 



l*n«« ad Ml 



COMMlTTliI . 

Bishop of Southwell (Chairman) 

Mil. RaiJ'H IUnkks, K.C. 

HisHOF OF Birmingham 

Dean of Carusle 

Lord Hugh Cecil. MI'. 

Mrs. Creiohton 

Mr. Douglas Eyre 

Mr. p. Lytteitmn. r.i i i. 

Mr. II. HoDGi. 

Dean of Lincoln 

Dean of Manchf^ter 

Rev. C. H. S. Matthews 

Mr. E. Newton 

Sir Charles Nichoi^on, M.P. 

Mr. W. Peel 

TiSSINGTON TaTLOW 

\V. Temple 

IT. S. NV00LLC(»M15K 



l.\ 



FOREWORD 

..I i.M Mx^HBISHOr OI CANTERBURY 

THIS Hi {)ort belongs to a series : it is one of five. They 
luive tii« same historic origin, and that origin should be 
sttiulily ill the thoughts of those who read them. 
Vwo years ai,'o, in this grave crisis of our nation's history, 
after much thought and prayer, we called the people of England 
tu u National Mission of Repentance and Hojie. 

First, during 1916, rumv the preparation of the Church 

itself. In every Diocese aiul Parish we sought fresh guidance 

'if the Holy Spirit to reveal to us our own failures, both as 

' ' mIs and as membeis of the Church and nation. Then 

I. in every comer of the land, the Missiou-caii to cor- 

|Htrate repentance and to hope in Christ as the Uving answer 

to our needs. The call told : not, of course, universally, but 

"TV widely. We found that people were ready to face familiar 

^ afresh : that a new spirit was breathing upon dry bones : 

ill' > must, and could, l>e up and doing. As we appraised 

' !i •' I' omcof the Misfion-call five subjects in the Ufe of Church 

luii nation stood out with obvious claim for our rehandling. 

The eluiracter and manner of our teaching : our worship : our 

■ \ KigcUsUo work : the discovery of removable hindrances to 

i, ( ' ■ s efflcieiicy: the bearing of the Gospel message 

L rial problenis of to-day. 

Five Committees of our best and strongest were accordingly 

appointed to deal with these, and 1917 was given to the task. 

T.'-* v^ f>ne regard as a disi4>pointing thing the pause which 

ilicration involved. It may prove, by its results, to 

have been the most fruitful time of all. 

.\nd now in 1918 the five Reports are in our Iwuuls. They 



4 FOREWOIID 

are not official documents, but whether wc accept the con- 
clusions or not they have the high authority which belongs 
to the opinions of s|)ecially qualified men and women who 
have devoted long months to their elaboration. The roudwuy 
to right knowledge and effective action is now open. It is a 
roadway which is offered not to those only who approach it 
as Churchmen and Churchwomen, but to the English people 
as a whole. It is the most important stage of the National 
Mission. With all earnestness I invite, for these Reports, the 
study and thought of men and women of good- will. Wc shall 
not all agree about the various recommendations. We want 
critics as well as ad\ ocatcs. Let there be quiet reading of id\ 
that they contain. Let there \Sc meetings large and small. 
Let there be sermons and addresses and study circles, that 
we may perceive and know what things we ought to do, and 
that together, as the needs of our day demand, we may " go 
forward." " It is not a vain thing for us : it is our life." 

Randall Cantuar : 
Lent, 1918. 



To the Archbi«ihops of Canterbury and York. 
Your Graces — 

Till, imnMMii:,' is the Ht'iH>rt of the Coiniuittcc appointed 
l)v the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to con- 
V ■ 1 n'jxjrt u|H>n the questions : 

1. \Vi, .rs in the existing; administrative system of the 
Churi'h, imluiliiig patrorta<;i' and ciuiownicnts, seem to them 
to hinder the spiritual work of the Church ? 

2. How can the reform or the removal of such hindrances 
be most effectively promoted ? 

Other CoMmiittces were simultaneously appointed to deal 
witt •' Teaching Office of the Church, Public Worship, 
Kv Work, and the relation of the Church to the 

{.r.i!>I. uis of Industrial Lite. This Committee has therefore 
avoitl.<l the discussion of some subjects which would otherwise 
have si'cmed to l>e within its reference, l>ecause they were 
within the scmjik* of one or another of the other Committees. 

Furthei, this Committee have felt that their task differed 
somewhat from those allotted to the other Conunittecs. For 
them it is nattmil to review the whole field of the problem 
bt-r ' ■ ' least in its main outlines. To deal in that way 

wit real or alleged, in the administrative system 

of ' land would require several different 

Con iiix>sed of ex|>erts. We have felt that 

our most useful service would be to take some of the main 
divisions of the subject and lay down general principles of 
reform. Some of these are points on which careful enquiry 
has been made by Committees of Convocation and others ; at 
the end of our Report will be found a list of these Reports, 
which may Ik* consulted by those who wish for a fuller dis- 
cuninn than wr have offered. 

I' ly understood that we regard our function 

as I of tiropositions which may in our judgment 

Ik- 1 to the consideration of the Church. 

W. !.»;»-. i.wM.wiir.c in what we now report 

to :\j proposals which wc 

thinK I ri<- 1 min-n sriniiiu < ouskmt im or<nT that, whether by their 
adoption or by their njci'tion, it may arrive at a deliberate 
poll ing. 

( 1 . ssity deal vrith mnttrr* of 

adi irid we believe that the ! 

efliL!: . :- v; m many ways greatly h . I 

by anomalies in the existing administrative system. But it 



6 ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM 

is equally true tliat no rectification or adjustment of machincjry 
can of itself make the Church that spiritun' in the 

nation which we desire to sec it become. In I vision, 

when the scattered bones were gathered together and !)uilt 
up into a perfect skeleton, and even when the skeleton was 
clothed with flesh and blooti, there was still no life until Go<i 
breathed into the body His breath of life. Where His Spirit 
is, there is life and power; where His Spirit is nbs(>nt there 
can only be imi>otcncc and death. Hut be know 

that the Spirit is within the Church bestowing . i of life, 

we claim that the organism of the Chureh be purged of what 
hampers or stifles that life and be built up, so far as the Holy 
Spirit Himself may guide us to do so, into an adequate instiu- 
ment of His purpose. 

Division of the Subject 

\\ c turn, then, to the actual system of the Church a.s it is 
at work to-day. As dealt with in our Report it divides itself 
into three main parts : Parochial, Capitular, Diocesan, though 
these three overlap eonsiderably, especially in so far as the 
diocesan administration is concerned with both parishes and 
cathedrals. Further, each of these main divisions has three 
natural sub-divisions : Appointment to Office, Tenure of Oflicc 
(the Work and its Conditions), Vacation of Office. 

There are other matters falling within the scope of this 
Committee's enquiry, which will be dealt with at the most 
appropriate moment in the course of the Report ; the Re|)ort, 
however, will follow the general lines indicated by the divisions 
and sub-divisions given above. 

(A) Parochial 
/. Method of Appointment of the Incumbent 

It would be natural to deal first with a matter of primary 
imi>ortancc, namely. Preparation for Olficc before considering 
Ap|K)intmcnt to Office. But this subject is being handled at 
length by the Committee on the Teaching Office of the Church. 
We therefore proceed to the question of Appointment ; and 
here the matter which falls within the reference of this Com- 
mittee is the method of appointment or, in other words, the 
system of patronage. 

(1) Sale of Advowsons. — The most obvious abuse in this 
eonnection is the present system of the sale of advowsons. 
That it should be possible to buy for money the right to 
appoint a man to the cure of souls in a parish is a gross scandal. 
But an advowson is a form of property which has been legally 
recognised for centuries, and its value cannot be merely con- 



AI'HOINTMKNT OF INCUMBENT 7 

(. — ». I ,. ,ti, ,. ;..;ii.»:/M. Wii^f yfc need is to secure tliat 

lined by some pro|>cr Church 

fori recommend that the 

/,,-/ t irrpt to Church bodies 

'u\ that 

' lapters, 

anii I > • i>J Fitutnce. 

1 h 1 -rrc with the Resolution of the 

I^»w.r II ition of Canterbury (No. 498, i., 2) 

• tf, i* 1' ..... -.,..il still pass as an integral part of the 

• when that estate shall give an owner a sub- 
he parish." 
/ onage. —We desire to see estabUshed in l^^j^^ 
i l*atn>nage Board, which shoiild >)c empowen-d 
udvowsons, to be held by a Diocesan Trust. In 
ire folli)win;i; the Resolution (II.) of the Lower House 
•tiiry C«»n vocation, but we desire to add that the 
i: 1.1 Ik" mainly representative of the laity. Our 

'// /I Pairnnttge Board l>e founded in each diitcexe 
>v tli.in t.,n Ihirdjt he Initff. and that it be einjymvered 
w .;;('/ 'ithnicise oci; r to a Dincexau 

I 7 </'/-;.-;, thai it i^ '/aire; and that 

; ' . / legally free from the necessity of licence 

lui I !irr, we earnestly hope that other ad vowsons 
ited to the Board, which will thus become a repre- 
iMKJy which may deal with questions of patronage 
lit of thf n<<'ds and n'sources of the diocese as a whole. 
\iii S/,.trf ' /;/ !iitp and of Parishioners in Appointment 
"f I' \\ '<v\ timt the parishioners Imvr a right to 

irtl to the apjjointment of an inciunlK*nt, 

iur a system ofelection by the parishioners. 

ider that the Bishop should have jx)wcr to refuse 

a in.iTi whom h- thinks ill-suited to the parish, 

• w r !i . ill \« < 'iistitutional and not arbitrar>\ 

f' Parinh' ' <■ ■ Council 

■ nppofnt ■ ultents ; 

pmpn.std PittrotMgr 

I: , ' '"/ Church Council 

lUd sit :cilh the IHocenan Hoard for that itccasion; 

. .'.. ti ;....... .,/■*;.- ^^\; ;t ':. ...,.L.;r.,},L- tf,^ 

■ sun uitmifuUed% 

rd of At iumn, 

fiail not 

ngnieh 

again, 

I ■'ltd turn 



8 ADMINISTRATIVE RKbT)RM 

thaUt after Hm fnanOu, l^Vf* ^ '^ Bi^thrp. This should apply to 
all parochial benefices. Where the ohjrrtion is made by the Bishop 
and is not supported by the Parochial Council, there shall be an 
appeal to the Archbishop against refusal to institute. 

(4) Facility in Exchange of Bentfices. — As things stand, a 
parson, once presented and instituted, is there for life if he s<i 
pleases, unless he bring himself under the action of the law by 
scandalous conduct. The ** parson's freehold " is one of th< 
oldest of English institutions, and we recognise the advantriL'' 
secured by it in the way of freedom from either arbitrary a< t 
by the Bishop or the agitation of parishioners. It is not 
desirable that an incumbent should bi- dismissible at tht 
pleasure of either the liishop or the parishioners. But we hold 
that the advantage is purchased at too high a cost. Very often 
a man remains in one ])arish for very many years to his own and 
the people's loss. The l>est men will be encouraged in their 
ministry by the knowledge that they are. not irrevocably fixeti 
in one place. We are not now dealing with questions of disei 
pline, to which we shall refer later, but to the danger of mer< 
stagnation or the indefinite continuance in one parish even of .1 
man who may be an excellent priest. We therefore pro|M)M 
thai institution to a benefice should in future be for a term of years 
say ten years — and require reneival, on the understanding thai the 
Church makes itself responsible for the life and xcork of the meti 
ordained to its ministry. It would, of course, otily be proposed to 
apply this system to irummbents instituted in future. These 
incumbents would be instituted for ten years, and would at the 
termination of that period be in the same position as a nominee to a 
benefice after he had been presented by the patron and before he has 
been instituted by the Bishop. But the |)ossihility of making this 
reform is dependent on a sound scheme of finance and a central 
or diocesan control of Church property, and aKo h pn»p< rly 
organised system of exchange of incumbencies 

(5) Other Points Affecting Patronage. — We dtsirc to ncord 
our opinion that it is undesirable thai a Bishop or Dean and 
Chapter, or other ecclesiastical persons, should hold patronage 
in any other diocese than their own, provided that the patronage 
of the Archbishops be not interfered with. Wc arc also of opinion 
that it is undesirable to limit the patronage of Deans and 
Chapters to clergymen who have served for five years in th< 
diocese. 

//. Tenure of Office ; Conditions of W ork 

(1) Financial Conditions. — It is no failure to realise tli' 
spiritual nature of a parson's work which leads us to pii 
filrst the financial conditions under which that work is done. 



Watt 



CONDITIONS OF WORK • 

Mtrn anH often a parish priest is hum|M*rc*d and harassed by 

t'.i which hv ought to bt* altogether free. The present 

«li 1 I if our endownu'MtH, deterininrd as it is by no 

r to the work that has to be done, is not 

■ ..11 Ml tlie eyes of those outside but results in serious 

hi to the spiritual work of the Church in many parishes. 

T! ' ' 1 1 to some parishes ; 

ot : any man without 

pi ()ility for diiapida- 

ti<' mirden. This may 

prevent a man from leaving a parish when his work in it is 

:ilr.udy done, or taking up \v-»rl- f..r which he is altogether 

i. 

*' rcfore desire to n «<ir(i <>iir eonviction that in thi> 

1 thr firfit tircesgittf ix to secure for everif clergyman 

a ■ ■ ■ .... ^^^ 

iff ,(l 

I r able union of 
b* i be ejffected and that to attain such union of bene- 

^ " ""rr<T* should be given ; 

tme end a large measure of redistribution of 

xcage rnnnot be secured wiihoui greatip 
/ 6n an oi system ; 

i meehanii "rmity, Uu 

i ' 'I thai the powers of diminishing super- 

fl'< increasing deficient endowments^ now 

p' (d Commission^ should be eaetended ; 

tht ,r..,.„. ...„,,.,„ .^„.„nii iutKti effect according to a scheme prepaid 
by a ninrenan Hoard and submitted to the Eedesiastical Conmnith 
*ion. This scheme should ii, ' >ravi*ionfor readjustment of 
area» and for d^4ng witfi ( v in places from which the 

P"' •'/. 

riTui Glebe we arc of opinion : 

ity for dUapidaHons requires large 

' it is of the utmost importance that it should be made 
,„.^,j ... .,.,jusi the parson ■• ' ' " income and needs of the 
hencHee : 

'■ T' ■'-'." ' 'trationof " d 

mtral o' n 

U'< tU U is demiruble thai Ihtrr ;>• 

ti 

p of the Property of thr Church. It i.n vUn • w* 

♦ ' alt would be greatly f- •!■• tril if iiutcad of tlu "^ 

u. bv whieh the ox . of the Church's 



10 ADMINISTRATIVK RKFOKM 

property i* vested in many persons and bodies of persons, all 

were held t. ' If <»f the Church as a whole. Thosr 

who from .. lie Ihunh for having a parish witli 

virtually no |Mi|iulutu)ii nehly endowed, while close by thickly 

|M>pulated parislies are starving, do not generally realise that 

there is at present no means of efftx'ting a redistribution. The 

great mass of the Church's endowments are the property of the 

several Bishoprics, Chapters, and Incumbencies. In the case of 

the Episcopal endowments, however, the difficulty has been got 

over by the estuMisliincnt of the Kcelesiastieal Commission. 

We desire that tlie same precedent be now followed and tin 

same principles applied with regard to the whole of the Church's 

property. Consequently we go so far as to recommend that the 

ownership of all tithe, land, and houses belonging to the Church — 

Parochial, Capitular and Episcopal — should be vested in the 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and that in every diocese there 

should be a represrutative Board of Management acting under 

the EccUsia.sticnl Commissioners, and that this Board should be 

competent to submit schemes of rearrangement to the Commissiofi. 

It is clear that this recommendation would have far 
consequences. The main points that we would en 
here are two : it would relieve the incumbent, or other tem- 
|K>rary {assessor t>f an official Church residence, of all responsi- 
bility for wluit are generally known as " Landlord's Repairs " ; 
and it would facilitate, or even for the first time make possible, 
the redistribution of income which we have already reeitni 
mende«l. The Diocesan Board of Management would supply 
the local knowledge of conditions and diminish to the vanislniiL' 
jKjint the danger of bureaucracy. We presume that such a 
Diocesan Board would levy upon every incumbent or other 
occupier of an official ecclesiastical residence an annual sum, 
being his fair contribution, under a prop<*r insurance scheme, 
to the fund which will have to bear the expense of the dilapi- 
dations. 

With the same object of unification, and the consequent 
convenience and economy, we recommend that Queen Anne's 
Bounty Board and tJie Ecclesiastical Commission he united. 

We recogni.se, however, that these proposals throw upon the 
Ecclesi.istical Commissioners a vastly increased burden o 
responsibility. This makes it desirable that the constitutio 
of the Commission should be more representative than it now 
is. We therefore recommend that the Representative Church 
Council, or later the Central Church Council, be emporcered to 
elect lay representatives to serve on the Ecclesiastical Com- 
mission. 

In suggesting that the Commissioners should accept this new 
burden and in suggesting changes in the constitution of the 






K«Bti 



PAROailAL CmiRCH COUNCILS 11 

Commisnon wp »lr«5?rr to express our very keen appreciation 

' I Corntnissioncrs have already done 

I our hojH.' tlmt far mure will be accom- 

ir din-ction in the future ; and in particular 

-^ ready, where union of benefices is not desirable 

' r» no solution, to meet by grant betief actions from the parish 

-' - - rv of not less than £50 ivith an equal sum with a view 

income up to the minimum ofSLAOO a year. 

J film of Sittings. — In niunv 

< nt and the fund for Churck 

ik-nts. Wc have no doubt that 

However the system may be 

' d, it gives the impression of privilege allowed to the 

.. to-do in the House of God. In some places the abolition 

f Pew R«nts has been successfully carried out. We recognise 

' ' .1 - -ishes no change in this matter can be made 

s are rarritd out ; but we hold that it is in the 

h Pew Rents. 

-^ for whieh no money is paid is 

!• <• it dfHS not differentiate against the 

I" I a part of our concern should be for those 

^ ho are not as yet members of any congregation, we shall 

'"^•t an arrangement which makes them in many cases 

lis of iroiiiu to church. Wc therefore hold thai it is 

' ' ' all legal appropriation of sittings. 

i'urrh Cnnticih. — One of the main obstacles pm^y^ 
t' Church in many parishes is ^"^^ 

»' 1 the Church's work. The " "* 

led to stand aloof, accepting or refusing to accept 
• i by the parson, but <iften doinj; little to help. 
V causes. But we l>clieve the chief remedy is to 
' * ' ' 'rnent of Parochial Church Councils. 
^ upport to the proposals in the Report 
'<• ''■ with regard to the formation 
< '* Councils. These are, of 

i lit cluu-acter. But while giving to those 

I" . d support wc desire to recommend that it 

thould be r competence of the Parochial Church Council 

U> consider .f.^ us connected with the services and ornaments of 

the Church. In case of disagreement between the incumbent and 
" ' rjjority of the Parochial Church Couf ' ' matter should be 
d to the Bishop^ whoie decision shi-u ml. 

• gard to the position of ■ we arc of 

iU the imeumbent should /> < man of the 

I' Church Council, but that . bishop of Oxford 

v tn his Memorandum in A iJij( hilt J \ 1 1, of the Church 

'd State Report) every Parochial Church Council should have a 



Coaacila 



W ADMINISTRATIVE RKFt)RM 

lay xnce-chainnan riveted by itself, tchose duty it should be during 
the vacancy of the benefice, or at any time on the request of two 
members of the Council, to summon a rnerling of the lay members 
of the Council, and that for all purposes " 
tati^ns to the Bishop as regards {\) the sit, 
presented to the Bishop to be instituted to the in, i. (2) 

aiteration in services and ornaments, (3) the affairs , ' liurch 
and cure of souls in the parish, or (b) making complaint or taking 
proceedings against an incumbent, this meeting shouh' '■"■ - nil the 
rights of the whole Council. 

The Parochial Church Councils cannot, of colIr'^(•, be put 
upon a statutory basis apart from legislation. But part of 
the ad vantage to be expected from them can be obtained from 
Voluntary Councils, and these may provide useful experiene* 
for the giiidancc of the Statutory Councils when they are set up. 

We therefore consider that pending the establishment of 
statutory Parochial Church Councils voluntary Parochial Church 
Councils should he formed, to -chich should be given functions 
similar to those proposed for the statutory Councils. 

(5) The Position of Women. — We do not propose to concern 
ourselves with the Councils of the Church in any other con- 
nection, because the whole matter has been dealt with in 
the Church and State Report. But we take this opportunity 
of expressing our opinion that whereas it has been a serious loss 
that the voice of women has not been heard in the Councils of the 
Church, women should have the right to vote for and serve on all 
Councils of the Church which include representatives of the laity. 

III. Discipline and Vacation of Office 

(1) Discipline. — From time to time scandals arise and it i^ 
necessary that there should be adequate means of dealing witli 
them. In this connection the Committee first considered 
the discharge of Pastoral Duties and a general support was 
given to the Resolutions of the Upp)er House of Canterbury 
Convocation on Inadequate Performance of Pnstoml Duties 
No. 495, p. 11, viz. : — 

1. That in cases of negligence where other methods have failed 
the Bishops are recommended to proceed more often under the 
existing Acts. 

2. That for the purpose of such proceedings the following shall 
be taken as included under the head of the inadequate perform- 
ance of Clerical Duties : 

(a) Such absences from the parish as make it obviously im- 
possible that the duties of the clergy can be adequately performed, 
even though these absences may not exceed the statutory three 
months. 






QUESTIONS OF DISCIPLINE 18 

(b) The negkd 'to prepare and present candidates for Con- 
firmation wkerg it can be shmcn tluU such cemdidates should 
undar the OOtttdiHons of thr vnrLsh hi- rnrthroming rcrre the vnrish 
efficiently zcorkni. 

'■ ''" neglect to it fit tnr sicn not oniy •i/trri srnt fur, out 
re^ I raxes nf chronic illtuss, and to visit the uhole in 

pursuance ' deacons at their ordi- 

nation, anii ' s of priests. 

•\. That when atnctidments of these Acts are possible, the 
,j,jj£nces under them xhould be scheduled. 

To this, howcvrr, the Cuniinittcc desire to add the 
for 

( / ition for rieglect of duty should in ail cases be followed 
Inj t/if I unition of Parsonage and Glebe ; 

\li) Tiuit "■ • ''ficuUy of maintaining the dijut^unt .y ihe 
Church is I ic to the persistent umvillingness of tlie laity 

to a ■ ■ ■• 

1 » lot coneemcd with scandals only. The conduct 

of Dmne V forms the subject of a most important 

part of thi I .. . ;i's system of discipline. It is univcrsidly 
admitted that in this res|xx;t there is abundant room for 
improvement. The law is in fact larj^ely disregarded. This g*|«|* 
is partly Vx^i-ausc many of the clergy do not recognise the 
authority of the Judicial C -e of the Privy C'onmil. 

which b at present the s tribunal in such easts. 

Whether they arc right or wrong lu tliis view, the fact that they 
take it must be borne in mind. The question of the judicature 
is therefore relevant to the particular problems which this 
0>mmittee are asked to consider, but it scarcely falls within our 
province to deal with it in detail. We therefore content our- 
selves with this observation. We believe there is urgent need for 
revision of the system of ecclesiastical judicature, but the chief 
difficulties of the vreserU situation viwtld be removed if the Church 
reeooered its freedom of legislation. 

The fact is tluit the law as is in many ways obsolete. Mi 

The Bishops have to determ . nch parts of it are to be 
enforced. Their intion in so determining is bound under 

the present eon ••" : of the Church to be their own alone, 

so far as Irgiij l.ility goes. The clergy therefore f( el 

that thry an- ran. ' ' ' a law of un ' 

Authority rior iiri ii v th«* who}. 



a.s 

for 1 „ : ;. ., ;. 

Church of freedom to make, i lodify, its own laws. 



14 ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM 

II. Vacation of Tenure 

Great harm often results from the long continimnoe in a 
parish of a parson who is for one reason or urn •' ' I to 

it. But we have already recointncndcd tiiat t . t he 

Bishops should be strcn<rthcned in disciplinary cases, and slmll 
later on make further recommendations with a view to enabling 
them to act more easily and effectively. Where there is no 
question of discipline, but the man is unsuitably placed, our 
recommendation that in future institution be for ten years only 
would go far to meet the difficulty. The remaining cases where 
reform is needed are those in which the incumbent is past his 
work through old age or through physical or mental failure. 

(1) Pensions. — We consider that these coses cannot be pro- 
perly dealt with until there is established a universal and 
adequate Pension System ; and we hold that this cannot be 
done until there is secured to all parsons a living wage. But 
wc have already urged the adoption of a minimum stipend, 
and our first recommendation, therefore, in the present con- 
nection is that {subject to tlie securing of a living wage) contri- 
bution to a Pension Sclietne be compulsory, but it should not be 
pernii8sU)le to take a pension out of the living. 

(2) Age of Retirement. — Subject to the provision of an 
equitable Pension Scheme we consider that there should be 
a compulsory age of retirement for all clergy, including Bishops. 
Those who reached this age would still find ways of continuing 
to serve the Church. But we recognise that in some instances 
the loss from insisting on retirement at any fixed age would 
be greater than the gain. Consequently it was agreed that 
the Committee is in favour of the principle of a compulsory age 
for retirement for all clergy {including Bishops), and that the age 
be 70, but that there be a poxoer in some competent authority to 
grant a temporary extension. 

(3) Mental or Bodily Deficiency. — There is at present no 
means of insisting on the retirement of a Bishop or incumbent 
who is suffering from mental or bodily deficiency. We are 
therefore of opinion that provision should be made for securing the 
vacation of sees or incumbencies in case of mental or bodily 
deficiency. 

(B) Catheobals 

In the great inheritance of the Church of England nothing 
more precious has been handed down to us by our for s 

than the Cathedrals. They are in themselves a pti t 

witness to the Church's faith and deliver their message from 
generation to generation. But just because they are so nobly 
ntted to be sources of inspiration, there is the more reason 



I 



CATHEDRALS 15 

to take carr that they are doinp for each jfenerati'in all that is 
f'-^Ihle. 

Vhr r.tthpdral should be the spiritual metropolis of the 
I in particular, a centre of enlightenment and catbHrmi 

it to the town in which it stands. The phrase, 

" I ' I city," oujfht to supeest at once a place where 

tual and intellectual life is to be expected ; ^m 

' ' there should po out to the city, and beyond it 

fse, a stimulus to mental and spiritual enerpy. 

(Tgy should he. or at least should contain 

Hc-hcJan and students of Theolo{T\', who in the 

\i\ elsewhere would put at the disposal of the 

Church the best thoticht and learninjj of the time. 

Tr, ,.r,?. r tlittt the Cathetlral may become truly the centre of 

sc it should be more closely associated with the 

HiMjup ; the Dean, the Residentiaries and Non-Residentiaries 

should form an Advisory Council to the Hishop, while the 

< of lx)tl' ■ lid be defined in relation to 

>. The 1. s should have as far as |x>s- 

M san, rather than |mnK'hial, work to do, in addition to 

th ' • iiedral work ; and thus in ever}' way the uiiitv of 

l^ishop, Cathedral and Diocese should be secure<l. 

To secure these objects \v v the following rrcoiiuuctuin- 
lons : 

(n) It is desirable that the relation of the Bishop to the Cathedral 
f made more intimate. //« should have ordinarj/ jurisdiction. 

(h) Re s/umld at stated times be able to take joint counsel with 
the Dean and Chapter : and he should be aide to preach and per- 
form all the (tnlinanees and cerenumies of the Church whenever 
he mat/ think proper and to reamre the use of the Cathedral for 
ftny special sen-ice in akidk he lUnudf takes part. 

(c) A /(reater Chapter^ eonsisting of Dean^ Residentiaries, 
\on-Resid' arid Archdeaeons, should exist in each Dioeese 
<tM a Coutu isers to the Bishop on all matters of permanent 
import to the IHoeese and should meet at least onee a year under 
his preiridency. 

(d) It is detirable that a set of modd statutes should be framed 
for all Calktdralt {admHting local variety in non-essential points) : 
these MbiOn tkauld be drawn up afitt fuU enquiry by a strtmg 
eommiUMt vpMdb ihould indude repreeentatifes of the laity. 

(e) These tkHates should 

(i) Define the powers and poeiHon of the BiAop in rdo' 
tion to the Cathedral ; 

(ii) Define the powers, didies, and residence of the 
Dean: 



6 AD.MlMSTltATlVK KKIORM 

Drjitu th^ pozcrrs, duiits, conditiotis and length of 
;: /ICC of liesidrntiarufs. 
I It w suggested ifuit the Residentiaries should reside for 
eight {or nine) months, but tfiat recognised diocesan icork 
or work at a University {with consent of the Bishop) should 
count as residence, subject to Cathedral diUies being per- 
formed for a (defined) part of the year.] 

(0 Every Catht dd have a skilld "fed 

by the Residentiat ( ^proved by Uie B' 'rly 

report should be sent by them to the Bishop and la the Kcciexiaxlical 
Commission, as well as a xtatemeiU of their action upon it. And it 
should be the duty of the Bishop and Commission to see tltat 
sufficient funds are reserved for Uu maintenance of the fabric. 

(g) A copy oj accounts, audited by a chartered accountant, 
should be sent yearly to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and to 
tfie Bishop, and either sfiould have the pmver to institute enquiry 
thereon. 

( h) Whilst it is of importance to maintain the beauty and dignity 
of the Cathedral services, ice are in serious danger of prejudicing 
the future of our choristers Ity sacrificing their general education 
to Music. Such education should be not inferior to that of a good 
secondary school. {This could be facilitated by having Matins 
sung in Plain Song by men only, save on Sundays and Saints' 
Days, and putting Evensong a little latere so thai the boys might 
attend a good secondary school.) 

{\) A general reconsideration oj Cathedral Endowments is 
desirable with a view to re- arrangement. 

(j) It is not desirable that parochial livings should be held 
by Cathedral dignitaries : each shotdd have his Diocesan and 
Cathedral duties. 

(k) All Priest-Vicars' and other minor Cathedral Corporation.^ 
should be abolished : all Priest-Vicars or Minor Canons should be 
in the position of Curates, with reasonable security of tenure. 

(I) Lay Clerks should be available for any service held in Hie 
Cathedral and be liable to dismissal for unsatisfactory work. 

(m) No Chapter-Clerk should hold a patent- office for life. 

(n) All Priest-Vicars, singing men, and the Cathedral working 
staff on permanent service should, with fhr Chnptrr '•"•''' '"V 
contribute to a pension scheme. 

(o) Loss of power is involved in the excessive number oj pariMi 
churclies and parochial services in the immediate vicinity of some 
CatfiedrcUs and drastic reform is needed in this matter. 

(p) Being aware of the advantages of Crown patronage in 
relation to the appointment of Canons, in the interest of the 
comprehensiveness of the Church of England, we are of of Anion 
thai this should be better distributed as between the various 
Cathfdrals. 



API*01NTMENT OF BISHOPS 17 

(C) Episcopal 

/. The Appointment of Uishopa 

The method by which liishops of the Church of England are 

chosen is udniittedly open to criticism. In days when the 

power of the Cn>wn has larjrely passed to the Prime Minister, 

r "^I may be of any reli^jion or none, it 

lira I or appropriate that he should be 

il resj)onsibility of advising the 

^ y that the existing method has 

led of the Church tlux>ugh the inclusion in 

''" ' X ^ i.ay men of outstanding quaU ties who would 

not have been selected by any method of election. 

Ixn ui - * system leaves the Prime Minister to choose 

liis own and it is easy for a belief in the existence of 

seer and to create anxiety and discontent. 

^^ iid that an Advisory Council cotisisting ^ 

Iforta of representatives of the Episcopate, the clergy and oouaa 
be elected by the Representative {or later on the Statutory 
< Church Council to advise the Prime Minister xoim 

• t . tn the recommendation of Bishops to the Crown ; in each 

>-,iM- nj (i> iincy tico representatives of the Diocese concerned, one 
<-l,ri,,il ami ,,tn Uiit. '' '-»' appoiit! ' 'he Dioccsc to sit 

:■'!'' i>" i'l " ' >■ for Cm c purposes, the 

ith the CroiLH. 

i>h to retain the realities under- 

' and the pnKudure incidental to the eonfir- 

tion of nishops (though these have often been 

i . ii Micly, the assent of the Chapter and of 

'' ' < lieve that cases might arise 

! be exerted. 

//. Conditions of H'ork 

i 1 ) Episcopal Kesponnibilities. — The functions which devolve 

^ ^ be summarized as follows, and 

Mild Im- dirreted as far as possible 

liargc. 

IS resjx>nsible for the spiritual 

uioese. It falls upon him (so far fi* 

""ft) to provide for a supply 

I lay workers, and to secure 

I l> M<esan otfifanisation the 

|iliryM»vr and t«» siipplc- 

I • he 

"rts 

iiy exiifting law he cndravoura to exclude those who 



18 ADMINISTRATIVE RRFX)RM 

are incompetent, tn hrinj; his personal influence to bear on 
those who arc <li i\, unwise, or negligont. to restrain 

irrejfularitics niul , and to exercise such discretion as 

is entrusted to him in matters of ceremony and do<'trine. 

It especially devolves upon the Bishop to provide (by the 
creation of new parishes or otherwise) for the spiritual needs 
of newly populated districts and to maintain missionary 
work amonjj the practically pagan population which is being 
created by the decay of reliijious instruction in , ' ' " ,„l. In 
this respect the Bishop's effectiveness is serioi. ted by 

the absence of an orijanised Diocesan system of coulribution 
from parishes which are in the enjoyment of cliut(li< s. en- 
dowments, etc., provided in the past. 

(b) The Bishop is also char£?ed by statute or cu.;..i,. ,, ith 
various semi-secular responsibilities which make considerable 
demands upon his time. 

(c) The Church of England having grown up as a Federation 
of Dioceses, it devolves largely upon the Diocesan Bishops in 
co-operation with the Archbishops and each other to maintain 
unity of method and practice, and to provide for the welfare 
and growth of the whole body. 

(d) Finally it devolves upon the Bishop to be the leader, 
advocate, and spokesman of the spiritual interests of public 
and private life within his Diocese — concerned not merely 
with the convinced and faithful laity, but also with the spiritual 
welfare of all who welcome his co-operation, and specially 
responsible for the extension of God's kingdom among the 
increasing population in his Diocese. 

(2) Problems of Diocesan Administration. — It is clear that 
it is impossible for one man to discharge adequately such 
responsibilities, if the area of the Diocese is very large. The 
Committee considers that the chief hindrances which impede the 
efforts of Diocesan Bishops in the fulfilment of their responsi- 
bilities are the following : 

(a) The excessive area and population of the larger Dioceses, 
which overburden the Bishop, weaken Diocesan vitality, and 
prei^ent close contact between the Bishop and tlie parishes. 

There is a prima facie case for readjusting the boundaries of 
any Diocese if it greatly exceeds 800 parishes, and if it also 
extends beyond the boundaries of a single county or county 
borough, provided that it be possible to form new Dioceses based 
upon such boundaries, or upon large industrial areas united by 
the common interests of the people. 

The Committee consider that the existing evil can best be met 
by an increase of the Diocesan Episcopate and cannot be met 
by the appointment of suffragans. The subdivision of a Diocese 
should be a matter for decision by a central authority and 



EPISCOPAL ADMINISTRATION 19 

netiker the iniHaiion, refiual nor method of any scheme for /At.f 
pmpoH should be left to the individual Bishop concerned. 

{The Cnrnmitttc ore agreed that the retention of the snjjragan 
xygtrtn ix un/irsirahlf.) 

adequate staff, both clerical and lay, devoted 

an work. Provision for this is mainly 

>iocesnn Maintenance Fund, but it should be 

tn^the closer co-operation between the Bishop 

and the Cathedral ChapUr which it proposed by the Committee. 

(i- / ' ' 'pon the Bishttp's power to refuse 

insli ^if, to suspend or remove those who 

are JuunU tu Uc mejficuiil, negligent, discreditable, irregular, or 
eriminnus. 

''he imperfect co-ordination between the Cathedrals and 
I ' -i organisations. 

(8) Legal Expenses. — At present the Bishop has to pay out 

of his own pocket the expenses of any legal proceedings which 

he is called upon to take. This may at times make it very 

' " ■' for him both to discluirgc his responsibility for the 

• of tho Church and at the same time administer 

he rccei^ riully as stipend but 

r I rns a r i»lc part of it) as a 

h - i!» Fund. The Comm rcforc are agreed that the 

Ih^/i'jp ougfU not to be persona. .^ .-..jIc for expense incurred by 

action taken to maintain the discipline oftfie Church. 

(4) Administration. — Reference has already been made to the Myic i 
dilficultirs t li.it urise throuffh the fact that the Bishops have to 
choose u ' " ' 11 enforce and which parts 
mwy H«- iidc. In this connection 

uiid — TItai there m great objection felt to the 

<fftJie Bishops ; this is largely due in history to 

the I tf ecclesiastical legislation, resulting in the necessity 

"'' ■■ .tint of discretiorutry action. When the Church has 

f self- government, legislation can be adapted to 

' " ffi.thop will be guided in his action by the 

i ticilM of the Church, so thai his discretion 

'''•an nam, though of necessity ii 

fiture. 

1 m all matters where the Bishop 

i- ' V tiii!» 111 sTitiiild be guided by the 

<t of the >i the opinions of the 

lj.u.v.. > ••^"- - .' ■-* DiooeMD. 

(5) /' ved a larger 
part in incomes 
and hoii i<i taken 
into '• of 
con-< and 



20 ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM 

in any casf the life should be simple. A large house and the 
work connected with the Bishop s orHciul residence will, of 
ooursc, always require a large staff to serve it. The question 
of the maintenance of Bishops' residences has already been dealt 
with on page 10. 

The Committee considered the whole question and it was 
resolved : 

(a) That it would remove tnisconccption, if it is practically 
possible, to distinguish betxceen the official admit^'^'r'-i-' "»</- 
goings and Die personal income oftlie Bishop ; 

(b) In this connection would arise the desirabiltly uj rcduciitg 
certain episcopal incomes, the standard adopted for the new 
Dioceses being followed. How far this could be done must 
depend (1) upon the value of money after the war ; (2) upon the 
question whetfier the larger episcopal residetu:es are retained. 
The Committee are of opinion that soon after the conclusion oftlie 
war the question of tliese houses should be seriously considered 
xoUh reference to the circumstances of each particular Diocese, and 
that iftfie larger liouses are abandoned the larger incomes should be 
reduced with due regard to the real value of money at t/ie time ; 

(c) That episcopal resideruxs which are neiUier close to the 
Cathedral nor in a chief centre of population should be abandoned, 
but houses of historic interest should be retained, if possible, for 
some purpose connected with the life of the Church ; 

(d) That the name of Bishops' residences deserves consideration 
and tliat tlie use of the words " Castle " and " Palace " be dis- 
continued ; 

(e) l^hat the real scandal consists in the disparity between 
the large incomes, not only of some Bishops but also of some 
other dignitaries and incumbents, and the miserably small incomes 
attached to otlier posts in tlie Church. 

III. Vacation of Office 

It is proposed that the recommendations made earlier in our 
Report with regard to retirement should apply also to Bishops. 
But provision should Ik; made for a suitable pension for a 
retiring Bishop, which should in no case be drawn from the 
official stipend of his successor ; we consider that this should 
be a charge upon the funds of the Ecclesiastical Commission. 

(D) Provincial Obganisation 

The separation of the two Provinces of Canterbury and York 
lias been a cause of great friction in the past, and if it now no 
longer leads to friction, yet it causes endless delay in ecclesi- 
astical legislation. The only authoritative bodies are the 



PROVINCIAL OKGANISATfON 11 

two Convocations. These contiun no representatives of the 
lait 'h in Imth Provinces a House of I^aymen has been 

ass' with the C'onvoeation. The Lower House of 

Convoeatiun represents only the beneficed clergy, and tliat 

too • ') numbers as to leave the ex-officio element strongly 

pr( ting; this is more true of the Southern than of 

th' II Convoeation. Any measure of Church legisla- 

ti«> i-s the two Houses in each of the two Convocations, 

sittuig lit i.i>ii(lun and in York. It may pass backwards and 
forwards Ixtwcen them many times. The establishment of a 
Statutory Church Council would largely diminish this didi- 
eulty, but we anticipate tliat the Convocations will still have 
business of their own to do. Meanwhile the separation of 
the two Convocations is a serious hindmncc. 

\Vc therefore rect>mmend : — 

(a) That Convoeation be reformed in smch a way as to make 
the Lower Hotue* more represtrUaOve of all clergy who hold a 
Bishop*t licence ; 

(b) That pending the creation of a Statutortf Church Council 
the Convocatioru of Canterbury and York have the right to sit 
together as one body, for the handUng of matters affecting the whole 
Churehf legally recognised. 

On tlic other hand there arc many matters affecting only 
M than Diocesan eoneern. Forsueh pur- 
'♦f !i spiritfi.'d movement or campaii:ii. 
tilt n \^ III by larger tnuts 

than I) 1 I ices, and particu- 

larly that of Cantcrbur\', are far too large for such pur|>oscs. 
It is elrar that to nuiltiply Provinces, if there is no Central 
Church Coiiiuil, will only augment existing dimeulties ; but 
if by till- rst.ihlishment of a Statutory' Church Council a single 
Icgislativi- iisscinbly is secured, we think great gain would 
it of our Provincial system. We arc 
/ it ix firxirnhlc to increase the numlter 
uf I ( iitral Church (tovernmcnt 

fro .: rs, and the Metro|K>litans, 

wl I with any large amount of detailed 

lul .. .<>,,,. u natural iKxIy of advisers to the 

Ar -rbury, whose Primacy nuist be prop<*rly 

s.it< ^'11 ini' <\. 

FiNANCR 

It is clear that many of our recommendations involve great 
(in.iri<iul cluinfles. We that these shouhl h> ! 

to the CentralBoard ol i ' or to a Committee ; n 

appointed by them. We should desire to refer to such a 



22 ADMINISTRATIVE R*:F0HM 

Committee thr present sysl< ni of fct s paid tn l<j;nl and other 
oflBcers as well as parochial fees, which wc regard as unsatis- 
factory. 

Conclusion 
\Vc have concluded our review of the problem submitted 
to us. We have said nothing of the relations of Church and 
StAtP, nor of the present difficulties in carr}'injj., through 
e< ' 'elation, because that whole section of the 

j)! iv been dealt with in the Rcjwrt of the Arch- 

bishops' Committee on Church and State. But it is clear that 
our proposals tend towards such a scheme us that outlined 
in the Report of that Committee. If our recommendations 
are studied it is clear that those requiring legislation are not 
only the more numerous but also by far the more important. 
It is not easy to conceive Parliament, overburdened as it is with 
imperial and domestic questions, giving the necessary time to 
deal with all the matters that we enumerate ; nor would it, as 
now constituleil, be spceially fitted to do so. 

We have alluded in our Report to the state of confusion 
and disorder that comes from the large amount of discrctionarj' 
action which, in the present state of the law, the Bishops are 
bound to take. Yet upon the Bishop alone, as things now 
are, administrative responsibility in the Church must rest. If 
the Church could in its own properly representative assemblies 
define its own law, the task of the Bishops would become far 
simpler and the claim of the law upon both cler<Ty and laity 
would be undeniable. We therefore close our Report with the 
recommendation, to which we would give all possible emphasis, 
that the Church should at the earlieat possible moment recover 
freedom of Icgislafioii through its orcn representative assemblies. 

Edwyn Southweli., 
Ralph Bankks. 
Louise Creighton. 
♦Douglas Eyre. 
*T. C. Fry. 

♦Phi UP Lyttelton Gell. 
Harold IIooge. 
E. Newton. 
♦C. H. Nicholson. 
Walter Peel. 
♦H. Rashdall. 

TiSSINGTON TaTLOW. 
W. I'EMPLE. 

J. E. C. Welldon. 
H. S. Woollcombe. 

♦ Subject to Reservations stated in Memoranda printed 
below. 



NOTK ■*« 



Note 

The rollowing lleports may be consulted : — 
The Dioceses of the Province of Canterbury. (Longniaiiti, 

Green & Co.) 
Convocntion of Cuutcrbiiry. Uppor Tfouse, 

N Injult<piJitf IVrforni I 'iistoral Duties. 

Con - 1 (»r Catift-rbury. Lo\v i' <•. 

No. 402. i of Proctors. 

No. 476. i;. -.y...ttion of Benefices. 

No. 498. Church Patronage. 
Coil 1 of Canterbury. Both Houses, 

.\ Ecclesiastical Dilapidations. 



U ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM 



MEMORANI)\ HV MEMBERS OF THE COMNfriTKF 

1. By Mk. Douglas Eyre. 

I have signed the RejMjrt subject to the following Reser- 
vations : — 

1. The proposed transferees of advowsons should not, I 
think, include Archbishops, Bishops, or Deans and Chapters. 
I see no reason why the legal estate in advowsons should not 
be transferable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners ; otherwise 
the transferees should l>e confined to an Incori)orated Trust 
or Board of Finance for the Diocese in which the benefice 
to which the advowson relates is situated. 

These bodies should, I think, be accorded compulsory 
powers of acquisition of all advowsons on terms of so many 
years* purchase of the net annual value of the benefice as may 
be determined by State authority. 

2. A Diocesan " Board of Patronage " should, I think, be 
composed of an equal number of clergy and laity and be 
presided ove by the Bishop. I am not in favour of the 
continuance of appointments to parochial cures by Arch- 
bishops, Bishops, or Deans and Chapters. I think that all 
rights of presentation, public and private, should ultimately 
become vested in a representative Diocesan body. 

8. Concurring as I do in the suggestion that the use of the 
terms " castle " and " palace " in connection with Episcopal 
residences he discontinued, I would further suggest that she 
use of such terms as "benefice," "patronage," " incumbent," 
" parson " be also discontinued. 

4. In my opinion all corporations sole and minor corporations 
aggregate within the Church should be dissolved, and their 
properties vested in the bodies referred to in 1 supra. 

5. I suggest that institution should be for a maximum 
period of seven years and that the practice of induction become 
a thing of the past. 

While vested interests must be respected there should be 
a plan for enabling all bearers of office in the Church to which 
a freehold tenure is attached to adopt the new system con- 
sensually and divest themselves of their freeholds. 

6. As regards discipline and vacation of office I regard the 
machinery of the Common Law and Statute as altogether 
unsatisfactory, and not to be perpetuated. An entirely fresh 
machinery' should, I think, be set up on the lines of that 
embodied in the systems of other branches of the Anglican 
Communion. 



MEMORANDA 85 

7. The Bishop should, I think, be the head of the Inner as 
well as of the Outer Chapter. The Dean (if there be one at 
all) sh""-i '" "•» l'»ti,r,.r ca|)able of acting in any capacity but 
one •' 'o the Bishop. 

8. 1 am Moi in i;i\ our of the continiiunec of Crown patroni^ 
in relation to cathedral eanonries or parochial cures. In 
f ■ T would refer to the action of the Crown in 
I f the EstabUshed Church of Scotland. The 
t rown w d to place its several rights of patronage 
at thr li , i'urliauient, and Parliament thereupon 
\rsti.l tiKiii in th.it Church. (Church Patronage (Scotland) 
All, 37 and a«s \ »e. cap. 82.) 

9. With reference to the appointment of Bishops, I cannot 
regard any reform as satisfactory which does not concede 
to earh diivesc the freedom of electing its Bishop in a Uepre- 

' <>cesan Synod, Council, or Assembly, convened 

of a C(mgi d'ilire, or a mandate issued by the 

The name of the Bishop elect to be submitted 

L II for approval as long as the Establishment is 

iiiiiirit.iMied. One or more names might thus be submitted. 

I' I ii,'lit. also, I think, to be open to the electoral body of the 

^« to refer the ttpiK)intmcnt to a Synod of conprovincial 

111 iiops. who ;Uso become the electoral l>ody in cose 

'• lij.sr. i< «>n would follow u|K)n election in the case 

( \i r< is< li\ the electoral body of the diocese and should 

>Mic a rralitS . 

The act of homage might be retained, even though the 

......1;,.,. ,.f ■••Miowments l>c completely effected and the desirable 

it to the abolition of what remains of the feudal 

scopacy is secured ; inasmuch as homage involves 

. by the appointee of the supremacy of the Crown 

•here and that no foreign prelate or 

1 >it within this realm. 

V\ ith regard to the ap)x>intmcnt of the Primates, they should 
in my view be elected by the Bench of Bishops ; and each 
should have a Bishop Coadjutor, for the Diocesan work apper- 
taining to his ^ ''-etcd as in the case of Diocesan Bishops 

l»y the rc|»i c Diocestm Inxly. The election of a 

Primate u...; ; iM-.f f<> the approval of the Crown one 

f>r ?iiorr I '> > ),. ' :.i;..,; ;<d as suggested in the case of tlu* 

!> Bisiiop — and the act of homage would 

10. i I .«rms so urgently needed for the 

I'Mriw.x .. acy of the Church are so numerous 

I would urge the need of the prompt 
Kilt, II iiiHi >wii n the rcquis te sanction has been 
i. of the amended system of Church povcmmcnt in a 



S6 ADMINISTRATIVE RE1<X)RM 

new s«t of constitutions and canons, the old law being retained 
for nppli<>ati<)(i only to such holders of vested interests as refuse 
to come into the new scheme. 

Douglas Eyrk. 

II. By the Dean of Lincoln. 

I still hold as regards advowsons with the Convocation 
of Canterbury (cf. A.I. 1) subject to the right of a parish to 
be consulted. I also agree generally with Mr. Kyre's reserva- 
tions, Nos. 4, 6, 9, 10. 



III. By Mr. Lyttelton Gell. 

While in full accordance with the leading principles of the 
Report, I venture to submit that the following points require 
further consideration : — 

1. Advowsons. — I cannot concur with the Rc|K)rt in dis- 
agreeing with the Resolution of the Lower House of Convocation 
of Canterbury. The Committee's proposal forbids the ]>atron 
who sells the estate to convey the advowson to the new 
OMmer. This must result in the divorce of advowsons from 
local responsibility and interest, without necessarily even 
securing their tnuisfcr to Church bodies. ITie practical 
advantages of the support constantly secured to the Church 
through private patronage, especially in rural districts, wen; 
recognised by Convocation, while the objections (which must 
also be recognised) can be controlled if, as pro|)osed in the 
Report, the Bishops have authority to refuse institution for 
sufficient cause. The latter precaution must automatically 
extinguish " traffic " in advowsons and minimise their 
pecuniary value. 

2. Limitation of Tenure of Benefices. — I submit that the 
Committee's proposal will alienate the majority of the clergy 
and seriously discourage candidates for ordination. As 
regards " the Parson's Freehold " we cannot be too resolute 
in asserting the historic principle that every " benefice " is 
held upon the " tenure " of regulated, legal service. It is a 
conditional tenure, having for its object the spiritual welfare 
of the parishioners, and the Church is entitled to claim that 
the conditions shall be enforced, and, if necessary, revised 
from time to time. 

But if the principle of temporarj' tenure is once established, 
it vnW become the standard upon which clergy and people will 
work. The clergy will be less disposed to labour for new 
parochial buildings, or new organisations ; they will certainly 
be less disposed to spend their private funds on their churches 



MEMORANDA 27 

and parochial objects — and thus an immense source of bene- 
factions to the Cimrch will be discouraged. The closing years 
of the period will Ix; clouded by a diminishing sense of responsi- 
bility. The parishioners and parochial staff will instinctively 
Ix ' " change, and even if the change 

si 1 (as the Committee's Resolution 

w Ix'cn unsettled. I do not 

<i ic relation between pastors 

a! I tally in parishes where the {xipula- 

fi.. ■. 



I it that the objects in xiew <:an be secured without 

* fin and without waiting for legislation, when an 

em of organised Church Finance has been 

1 m u diocese. A Diocesan MaiIl^ Finid, out 

rvf-ry Miiderpaid benefice will b« l up to a 

Atipciai !>• I'd to t! rtance of the parish, will 

make it !■ to offer p >ii, and to adjust desirable 

exchanges, without reganl to tlie comparative endowment of 

!„.■,.(,.. . Since all diocesan additions to stipends would l>e 

c< > I Ufjon the sjitisfaetory discharge of parochial duties, 

til ' '■ " ' '^ against which a statutory 

t« brfmght under control. 

'/ and /.'< '/ Church Properties. — 

I in al.so t; a view can be attained 

Ml tiv«iy by systematic contributions to the Diocesan 

M « I'll IK I than by legislation. Broadly s{)eaking, 

pr 1 II. (1) 6, c, r, and (2) and (3) are merely 

' M.Mi-, I., j-iiiiii. , rather than to cure, the fundamental defect 
1 modern Cliureh ori/anis ition— i.^., the reliance of Church- 
people U| - which have liecome in- 
sufRHfnt, ibute systematically to the 
c«>' ,> is required in the Dominions 
nil It is just and desirable that 
parochial nid be redistributed where |)opula- 
tint! I. .w 1, lualise the stipends of old and new 
P-' I or industrial district. Hut rural 
C" When the parson s[>ends his tithe 
tti li hi« r«'si<J»»ncf is iHunlly |Kiptilar. 

> CCUUUii! ^ I'd 

>r in par: rs 

(-< lly, the panshionrrs will be aggrieved, and will lose 

a' f ill !»res< rviiiLf them from scculaiisation. The 

^ menta will not only fail to produce 
.-., .,,.., |j is desired, but it will posi^-'v 



at' 



abolition of pew ' hh kn- 

ive lyttem of (I. iuuic« 



38 ADMINISTRATIVE ttEI'X)KM 

has been established. Pew-rents have obvious drawbacks. 
But since the abolition of church-rates they have represented 
the only organised system of church maintenance, inaei>cndcnt 
of ancient endowments, which has existed. Throughout the 
nineteenth century Church extension in the residential 
suburbs of great cities hiis been built up upon systematic 
vohmtary contributions, paid in the form of pew-rents ; and 
millions of people have Ix-nefited gratuitously by the rhunli< s, 
the clerg}', the services and the parochial organisation tlm^ 
provided by Church-people who did their duty in this wa> 
Neither is it possible to discard without consideration tli< 
ancient custom of appropriating sittings to habitual worshipi)crs. 
The custom may be unsuitable in the churches of industrial 
districts, and in such churches it need not exist. But thc\ 
do not constitute the majority of our congregations. Witlmiit 
appropriation family church-going is seriously discoura;,'. d. 
The attendance of children and young girls becomes dependent 
upon the convenience of their ciders. The attendance of 
schools is impossible, and it must be remembered that pio- 
vision must be made not merely for Sunday schools, but for 
the innumerable small l>oardihg-schools for girls and I)oys 
which exist all over the country. The invalids and the aged 
have also to be considered. 

Doubtless, appropriation must be carefully guarded, and 
must never imply monojwly. But the total alxjlition proposed 
would discourage church-going in many ways, without any 
real prospect of securing the additional worshippers who are 
(in theory) excluded by the consideration shown to regular 
members of the congregation. 

Philip Lyttelton Gell. 

IV. By Sir Charles Nicholson. 

I do not think the pension of a Bishop should be a char^' 
upon the funds of the Ek:clesiastical Commission as proposal 
in §111. on page 18. This would only mean taking money 
from one purpose where it is much required and givinij it t' 
another. Is it more important that a Bishop should have 
pension provided in this way or that the stipcndsof incumlKiit 
should h^ raised ? I do not see why a Bishop's pension couli 
not be provided by insurance. 

C. H. Nicholson. 

V. By the Dean of Carlisle. 

I disagree with certain of the Committee's recommendation 
and can assent to certain others only with some qualification 
I should like briefly to state ray reasons for this dissent. 



MEMORANDA 90 

RrCOICMENDATIONS not AaSENTU) TO. 

•' of Bishops. — I am ' .i^inst any inter* 

r< lie present system of a: , -iH Bishops or other 

<li The Prime Minister represents the pubhc opinion 

oi ,,..; ion, and even of the Church of England in its narrower 
^< Ms. . mueh iN-tter than a body of advisers apix>intcd by a 
iiiitnU C'hiir.-h Council would be hkely to do: and for the 
prriwnt syititn tn be «'ff»'<'tive it is necessary that the Prime 

'his recommendations. \)c untram- 
his general responsibility to Parlia- 
ment and th« . . It would be difficult for the Prime 
Miiiisti r to .' ..1 the recommendations of a formally 
ni >f advisers, and the position of a Bishop 
ajip'MiKM III .1. nance of them would be still more difficult. 
The value of the present system de|x;nds largely upon the 
Prime Mill ' ' the initiative in the appointment, and 
in his h> make ap|x)intments which represent 
ni iUid laity- minorities which |)erhaps would 
ha secure even a minority voice on a board of 
advisers il such a body as the Representative Church 
Council, an.. ...... ii would never command a majority on such 

a board. It seems further to be suggested in the Report that, 
even after selection by the Prime Minister and his advisers, 
an al)solute veto should Ik* reserved to the Chapter and the 
M T" vstcm would be positively worse than 

oi What is wanted is not more caution 

bi h appointments. The greater the 

ni<. M-s whose consent is required, the 

smaller is the chance Uiat a man of marked individuality or 
unconventional opinions should escape veto by one or other 
of them. In cathedrals of the new foundation a free veto 
by the Chapter would give too nuich power to five persons ; 
while in rathedrals of Ute old foundation, where a large body 
of T < lanes vote at elections, the greater Chapter (con* 

SI 'k'cly of old men) would probiJ>ly be more cautious 

and conservative than even a diocesan Synod. F^or the Metro- 
polit.'iii iilnne to possess a power of arbitrary rejection would be 
t<> loe into the Church of England one of the worst 

d< the Papal system. No appointment likely to create 

a 1 M,. 'ir even in a small but noisy section could survive 
s<> haooes of rejection : > itation of the dominant 

Il ind " safe *' men woiii jKilise the cpis(K>pate. 

Ap p o utt KH n U ^f Jne mmbtni s for Ten Veart. I totally dissent 

from tWs rrcommendatkm. I do not think that the majority 

o! ippreciate at all adequately tlie value of the 

■' . liiought and action secured to the parochial 

the fact that he is removable only after legal 



80 ADMINISTRATIVB REFORM 

trial. I am heartilyjn favour of increased precautions against 
the appointment of unfit or unsuitable persons, and of increased 
facilities for removing criminous or negligent clerg>'meii ; 
but I should strongly object to bestowing upon a Bishop, or any 
diocesan Committee, the power of getting rid at tho md of 
ten years of a clergyman who had created en- 
account of the independence of his conduct or 
of his social, politicul, or religious opinions without causr 
assigned by the easy method of allowing his appointment to 
lapse. Moreover, I doubt very much whether the system 
would really be workable, so long as the present system ot 
patronage is retained, even in a modified form. If all appoint- 
ments were in the hands of one and the same diocesan authority, 
and all the benefices in the diocese became vacant everj' tfu 
years, the system would no doubt be possible, and ^v 
have its advantages ; but, under anj'thing like the exis 
conditions, it would be quite impossible to secure that the mi: 
removed, possibly for hjs virtues, at the end of ten year. 
would have the chance of receiving another appointment ol 
even approximately the same value and importance wit' < 
any assignable period, while during the interval the cxtn. 
incumbent would have to warehouse his furniture, ucci pt 
some wTctched pension, or take up a succession of tcmi)orary 
jobs until it pleased some patron to appoint him to a vacant 
benefice. The independence and security of tenure possessed 
by the beneficed clcrgj'man, when once a benefice is scciu-ed, 
constitute one of the chief attractions which, in spite of thr- 
great and increasing deterrents to the clerical career (not all f»i 
a pecuniary or worldly nature), still attract some men of hif?h 
education and strong character to the ministry of the Church. 
New Provinces. — Putting aside the case of Wales, I have net 
heard any arguments in favour of the proposed increase ot 
Provinces, except a vague desire to multiply ecclesiastical 
offices, assemblies, and machinery which to some minds seems 
to be strangely associated with increase of efficiency and 
modernity. 

RECOUMEHijAiiKj.yo Accepted wiih Quauhcations. 

Increase of all Benefices to £400. — I should be very glad to see 
the income of every Incumbent raised to a minimum of £400 ; 
but if this is to mean the abolition of all separate parishes 
when this income cannot for the present be secured or the 
reduction of all incomes over £400 in order to supply the means 
of such increase, I should not favour the immense revolution 
which this would involve in all rural and vnany urban dis- 
tricts ; £300 would be a safer minimum to %\m at in the near 
future. 



1 



/./l-./l 


■ ■ ,' 


^^||Il,( ;i 




\ , . . . 

oil on ti 




1 J « I. . 




.t 


IC 



Mi .SiiiiiAMi.A .>i 

I should prt-ftr tliat for the present 

1 i to the tVntral Church Council. 

r admission to the lower Church 

... le aid to the formation of pubhc 

At present such a measure would go 

>Miich the change would be gcturally 

IC opinion. 

J Incumbents. — 1 hcarl" rove of the pro- 

!-' apoo the Parochiul l . .i voice in the 

^ at oi Incumbents to benefices in private patronage — 

in that term coU^es and boards of trustees, but I 

A ould be lx,*ttcr for Uic present not to extend this veto 

,f,.,...fv },y the Crown, the Bishops, or other pubUc 

ace gained in the working of the new system 

ic iK'fore extending it to cases in which no 

I nee or abuse at present exists. It is a 

the Crown, the Bishop and other public 

I ivr the right to make some appointments 

V. It wi isy to point to cases in which a new 

i . x.imed by . , _ authority would certainly Ivive been 

' d, but in which he has in a year or two obtained the 

- -^ -'•■■T'athy of his parishioners. I think the Bishop's 

A I lid not be an elected Patronage Board, but a 

' ial character, not all of them selected 

.ce. 

<: of all tkdenattical Property to the EccUeiastical 

< «. — I am not satisfied that so sweeping a change 

I should like the house, the garden and any 

.. ::i^ of land in the immediate neighbourhood of an 

: or other house of residence to remain the actual 

' *'-- 'cdesiastical owner. There is nothing in this 

cnt the transference of liabihty for landlord's 

tirs to 8<>: 'lie authority, just as in 

ar^ r»- for the repair of the 

i»uu»-« . i i in part by a 

(l< " !>• to man's position, 

ling should I <led to the 

i»t. 

v.- This seems to me the most 
ndcd, but I can see no reason 
sent during any discussions 
'•nts. 



'her 



age— 
icn it 



I. whic 

/' I do not diN rccom' 

-,-— -f theL«.. ......ov 



M ADMINISTRATIVK RKFORM 

those who ure found to be inefficient, negligent, discreditable, 
irregulai, or criminous l)c made effective under <■ I 

safeguards, provided that this vague hinu^'afje I 
to make an InciunlK'nt romoviible without l< : ;ui«l tin- 

possibility of an appeal to a higher court. 1-. ' leal pro- 

ceedings should be madt; easier and cheaper, but 1 flo not look 
with favour upon any proposal which practically makes an 
Incumbent removable on grounds too vague to be susceptible 
of legal proof. 

Gekeral Remarks. 

I agree with the general approval given to the creation 
of a Central Church Council with some power of sulxirdinatc 
legislation, but I should wish to record the fact that many ol 
the recommendations of the Archbishops' Committee on the 
relations between Church and State seem to me and other 
members of this Committee highly obj 'le. The 

powers proposed to be conferred upon the Ctui in to me 

far too vague and extensive, and I wish to reUiin a really 
effective Parhamcntary veto. The wish that " the Church 
should at the eailiest possible moment recover freedom of 
legislation through its own representative assemblies " seems 
to involve the very questionable historical assumption that 
the Church of England ever possessed such powers of legisla- 
tion as are contemplated ; even the freedom enjoyed by unes- 
tablished Churches is by no means unlimited. Nor do I 
sympathise with the desire to increase the jjowers of the 
Episcopate as a whole (as distinct from those of the individual 
Bishop in his own diocese), and to abolish the jurisdiction of the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which is suggested 
in various passages of the Report, though not emlxxiied in 
any s|Kcifie recommendation. That jiirisdietion lias been 
the great security for the comprehensiveness of the CI ' r 
England in the past, and its retention was never more u 
than at the present moment. The distinctive views ot c.uh 
recognised party in the Church in turn have been condemned 
by the purely ecclesiastical Courts, even though those courts 
have been for the most part presided over by lay lawyers, and 
in every case their condemnation has been reversed by the 
Judicial Committee. 

Beyond these general remarks, I do not think it necessary 
to indicate all the individual phrases or sentences in the Re|)ort 
which seemed coloured by theories or assumptions which I 
do not share. 

With these reserves I heartily agree to all the specific recom - 
mendations contained in the present Re|>ort from which 1 
have not expressly dissented. 

H. Rashdall. 



Christianity and 
Industrial Problems 



BEING THK 

REPORT OF THE ARCHBISHOPS' 
FIFTH COMMITT^^ OF INQUIRY 



P.IRT 1 



Ttttnty-^/tk TkiiuanJ 



! WBUSHED FOR THE NATIONAL MISSION 

•Y THE 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTINC. CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDCt 
LONDON: 6 St. Mastin's Placs, W.C 2 



COMMITTEE 

Bishop or Winchester (I)n. Tauiot), Chdirinnn. 

Master of Baluol (Mr. A. L. Smith). 

Mr. H. Barran. 

Rev. G. K. A. Bell. 

lx>Ri> Henrv Bentinck, M.l'. 

Mr. S. Bostock. 

Mr. W. C. Bridoeman, M.I'. 

Miss Irene Cox. 

Mr. M. J. 11. DUNSTAN. 

Mr. W. a. Dlbnford. 
Mb. F. W. Gilbertson. 

CotONEL HeSKETII. 

Mr. W. L. Hichens. 
Mr. F. Hughes. * 
Rev. R. R. Hyde. 
Mb. H. E. Kemp. 
Mb. G. Lansduby. 

Bishop op Lichfield (Db. Keupthobne). 
Canon I^vett. 
Mb. Albert Mansbbidge. 
Bishop of Oxfobij (Db. Gore). 
Bishop of PETEBnoBouon (Dr. Woods). 
*Mb. C. E. B. Russell. 
.Mb. R. H. Tawney. 
Mb. Cubistopueb Tubnob. 
Miss Constance Smtth. 
Dean of Yobk (Dr. Nobris). 
Rev. J. B. Seaton, Secretary. 

• The Committee were deprived of the valuable asvi^tancr d Mr. 
C. E. B. Russell, owing to his lamented death, at the outset of their work. 



FOREWORD 

BY THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

THIS Rciwrt Ixlongs to a series . .. ., ,,..> uf five. They 
liave the same liistoric origin, and that origin should be 
steadily in the thoughts of those who read thcni. 
1 wo years ago, in this grave crisis of our nation's history, 
alter much thought and prayer, we called the peop!'- "f F'«"' "id 
to a National Mission of Repentance and Hope. 

First, during 1016, came the preparation of the Church 
itself. In ever)' Diocese and Parish we sought fresli guidance 
of the Holy Spirit to reveal to us our own failures, both as 
individuals and as members of the Church and nation. Then 
followed, in every con»cr of the land, the Mission-call to cor- 
porate repentance and to hope in Christ as the living answer 
to our needs. The call told : not, of course, universally, but 
\ - ry widely. We found that people were ready to face familiar 
facts afresh : that a new spirit was breathing upon dry bones : 
that we must, and could, be up and doing. As we appraised 
the outcome of the Mission-call five subjects in the life of Church 
and nation stood out with obvious claim for our rehandling. 
Tlv >er and manner of our teaching : our worship : our 

cva; ., J work: the discovery of removable hindrances to 

the Church's efBcicncy : the bearing of the Gos|)el message 
on the industrial problems of to^ay. 

r '' 'tees of our best and stroll;,'^! w. r. .n . ..r,ii[ii,'ly 

a|>i' d with these, and 1017 was ^nv» n t.« the task. 

Let no one regard as a disappointing thing the pause which 
that d< :i involved. It may prove, by its results, to 

have U . •• . ..< luost fruitful time of all. 
And now in 1018 the Ave Rc|>ortH are in our hands. They 



an' iKM (MlK Ml iifxumiiiis imit \si;Mrnr «» arci |»t t !if roii- 
rlusions or not they hiivr tlu- hiyh .uitliority whirU lx"Ii)i>>fs 
to the opinions of s|K'cially (|unli(ie(l men nnd women who 
have devoU'd lonjjj months to their elal)i)rution. The roadway 
to rijjht knowledf»e and effective action is now o|H'n. It is a 
roadway whieh is offered not to those only who approach it 
as churchmen and churchwomen, bi|t to the Envlish p<'oplc 
as a whole. It is the most important stajfc of the National 
Mission. With all earnestness I iavitc, for these Reports, the 
study and thou>;ht of men and women of good -will. VVc shall 
not all aj^rec about the various recommendations. We want 
erit'cs as well as advoeatcs. L« t there Ik* quiet reading of all 
that they contain. Let there be meetinj^s lar^'e and small. 
Ix?t there be sermons and addresses and study circles, that 
we may perceive and know what thin/ijs we ought to do, and 
that together, as the needs of our day fiemand, we may *' go 
forward." " It is not a vain thing for us : it is our life." 

I{ wi) \i I. Can'TUAU : 
Lent, 191 S. 



CONTENTS 

c IIMTKK ,.^Oj. 

iNTBUDtCTION . . iv 



I ThK CaLI- to TIIK ClIlTIK 1 1 

I I ClIRIMTIAN PRlNClPLKfl AXD THEIR SOCIAI. APPLICATION 3 

(i.) IntrrKlucton 

(ii.) The gfiierul «iiiii;u it r <>i < misnan ttachinj^. 

(iii.) The cxatuplc of sIaviT>-. 

(iv.) The nature of the Church's witness. 

• ' Thr social teaohinj? of the Church an cssi'ritiHl 
part of its witness. 

(v:.) Christ tan Kthics bin(iin}r u|M(n social relations 

as well as ujMin individual conduct, 
(vii.) The teaching of the New Testament with 

rejjiirtl to material wealth, 
(vlii.) The teaching; of the New Testament with 

rejjard t<i the sanctity of |m i 
(ix.) The teaching; of the New I t with 

regard to the duty of servii-e. 
(\ t Th*" teaching of the New Tcstaj tli 

rcjpird to corjioratc responsibility. 

iM j I Of siK'ial f uf the Chun-h only one 

fwrt of it 

) The im|)oriancv of cliaracter. 

> Conclusion. 

.\ppende<l note on certain objections to the 
application to industry' of Christian prin* 
riples. 

III. SoMK IlisTOMiCAi. Illcstrations OP CiiRiimAN Thouoiit 

ON S(H lAI. liKl.lTIONNIIIPtt ... 26 

(i.) IntnMhictor>'. 
(n.) The teachinK of the New Testament. 

(Ill > '11.. I mil the M Church. 

(IV.) Til. ■ of the II .il IV..ii..m\ 

(v.) Heeent dc\rlopfnents. 

\\ ' HAV Lint AND IltDUtli .v» 

(i.) Infr 
lit \ Tlx I nru' spirit in rvrtm mii- life 



vi CONTENTS 

CIIAPTKR PAOK 

(tii.) The danger of acquiescence in familiar evils, 
(iv.) The treatment of human beings as '* hands." 

(v.) Tlie over-en 1 1 )li;isis of tlic motive of m-IT- 
intercst. 

(\i.; i III" CO-exist«iicc oi ])u\(r(\- ;imi nciio. 

(vii.) The evil of insecurity and unemployment, 
(viii.) The antagonism between employer and 
employed. 

(ix.) Co-operation for public service, not com> 
petition for private gain, the true principle 
of industry. 

(x.) The establishment of a living wage and of 
adcfiuate leisure. 

(xi.) The prevention of, and provision for, unem- 
ployment. 

(xii.) The protection of children and young persons. 

(xiii.) Association of workers and of employers. 

(xiv.) The indu.strial employment of women. 

(xv.) The need of a new attitude towards profits. 

(xvi.) The development of local government, 
(xvii.) Housing, 
(xviii.) The parish priest. 

(xix.) Summary of conclusions. 

V. Education . . lOD 

(i.) Introductory. 

(ii.) The meaning of education, 
(iii.) The signiflcancc of education for Christians, 
(iv.) The importance of a liberal education for all. 

(v.) The physiC'll wvlf.-irc nf clillflr. fi MUfl voiinir 

persons. 

(vi.) The training oi the senses aiui tne slrengiMening 
of character. 

(vii.) The educational ladder and the educational 
highway. 

(viii.) The need of a new attitude towards education. 

(ix.) The necessity for more generous public expen- 
diture on education. 

(x.) The necessity of niising the remuneration and 
status of the teaching profession. 

(xi.) The reduction of the size of classes in elemen- 
tarN' ';<^v>''"^''^. 



('OXTf:NTS vii 

CHArTBR FAOB 

(ni.) The lengthening of the period of ftill-time 
* attendance at school. 

(xiii.) The establishment of compulsory continued 
education up to the age of 18. 

(xiv.) Rural continued c<lucation. 

(xv.) Non-vocational adult education. 

(xvi.) Rclijjious adult education. 

(xvii.) Sumniary of conrliisions. 

\ I Conclusion ' B6 

Appendix '88 

A Short Bini.iooBAri . lU 



TNTRODUCTION 

Tlil llcH in this R»|)t»rt wiil U- nto^niM (I 

I- lu jHiint alikf of diflirulty and of ini- 

|K»itaiur. 1 DT it is conri-rncd with the rt-latioM of 
th»* Clinrrh ».» »h» tumral hf*- artxind it, and, it must \x- added, 
to hfe whieh are commonly regarde<i as 

l<'i' i'lritual in(hi«-nees. 

The Ke|Mirt npn-st-nts the beUef that the time requirts 
H ?i«w Ix'f^inninK <hj the |)art of the Chureh in defining its 
at fit nil- tt> the teonomic and stK'ial Hfe of the nation. To 

■ ' .1 new beginning is tf» imply that sonu- 

1 the past, and to aeknowledge a need 
! i<v. The atiniission and the acknowledgment are 

'» \ made in the Report. 

i 'rr for rejK-rjtanee has l>een in part an undue 

^'1*' "f the Church to the |)ossessing, emploNnng, and 

K<>veni! s of the past. It was the temptation of the 

♦'"" ' - «■<»• temptation of the coming days will be that 

"' »nee to the elass<-s that ai"e eomitig into j>ower ; 

'' 'I ' 'Ik force whieh social temptations of every kiiul 
< u I V with th# n» : and too often it was not resisted. 

Rnt ; the Church's deeper fault may ha\e b«-en a 

want i<\ III its own principles, the principles of the 

M.ivt. r\ teaciung. It required no little faith and courage 
to stand up to what seemed a generation or two ago to be 
the voictr of s<-i«nee and even of philosophy, bidding men 

•"■■ * *' -' !ig of "natural laws" to yield, though at a 

. the lx*st attainabli- nioral n-sults. 
I ^ will not now r 

! with F<»litieal 1 . 

much and altered nuich. it has abandoned 
tioii of the economic man moved only by 
>n. It ricogniscH that moral and spiritual 

■ . I hat econonue science only makes its own 
d contributi<»n to the common aim of Inunan 

\\ • Nliall have support from economics in starting frtim moral 
I" U'tnimts and 

'" III. In such 

of the livmg wage, with adequate leisure and 
• Mil, Ml the status of thi worker within »»•• 
|"'i '' (ks, the provision of full opiHirtui 

'"' 'K.ulhan' ' \nu, moral principles w ■ 

* '' <»r re< elaim lo dirtati 

^s nmst 

• f«r rVf 

intuai ■ 
ml b\ . 



X INTRODUCTION 

Eraycr. But it is tht way of faith, and to follow it is. vrc 
elievc, to rctuni to the best tradition of Christian f 

It is a dilliculty inherent in a mutter of the kind thii'i . : , . 
must neither be too abstmet and merely lay down general 
principles, wliich may easily mean little or much, nor be too 
concrete in detailed practical recommendation. The Com- 
mittee have at' 1 to do their duty by both sides of the 
matter, hut th -tron</ly f<lt it tluir duty, in a time like 
til on the bi thantoo ictical 
su_ 1. The I ^ ^ niay, > -s, be 
amended in many respects, but tiiey will have done their work 
if they make the discussions on the Report more living and 
active, and if they show the strong conviction of the Committee 
that the coming time is not one for speech and thought only on 
these mutters, but for considered and vigc^rous action. 

The Committee are well aware that there is much in the 
Report which will come to many Churchmen as an unwelcome 
challenge and demand. They only ask not to be charged with 
putting it forward in order to be popular. It is, indeed, likely 
enough that the Report will, for various reasons, not be wholly 
acceptable to any section of the community in the kind 
of way which secures popularity. But they are not afraid to 
say that they have tried to do something to take out of the 
way of large numbers of God's people stumbling-blocks which 
have made faith in God and the reception of Christ more 
diihcult for them. 

The Committee, it will be observed, included representatives 
of several different points of view and of varying industrial 
experience, and the fact that they have signed the Report must 
not be taken as pledging them individually to every detail in 
the recommendations. But as its Chairman I may be allowed 
to testify that there was a common tcnijKr in all its members 
which made possible and largely successful the attempt to reach 
agreement not by way of compromise, but by the gradual 
reconciliation and interpretation of differences in the course 
of argument and discussion. 

They regard their work as, at the best, merely opening a 
gr^at subject. They cannot say too strongly that its practical 
value will wholly depend upon the way in which it is made the 
subject of quiet, temperate, and penetrating discussions by 
Christian people, both among themselves in conference, 
reading circles and the like, and wherever they have or make 
opportunities of intercourse and exchange of thought with 
others. t, - 

For the Committee hope that the Report may be of some 
service both within and without the Church, making some 
contribution to the common Christian mind which Christians 
of many ditferent kinds are alike seeking, and also giving 



INTRODUCTION x. 

oprv»rt unity to those who wish to come into fair and friendly 
c< th the Chnreh's thoughts and aspirations. 

i ... .. ,- a man'ellously wide area of ajjreement that, in spite 
of all Christian unfaithHilncss and mistake, Christ is the centre 
of the Ik- ' and the mainsprinff of the best forces 

in th'« W( ^ a still wider consensus that the twin 

P' kii vahie and human comradeship are the 

m le process. It may be left to history to 

say whether the Gospel of God-in-manhood and of Love 
hum m -xnd Divine is not the one sustaining source and 
it I of these principles. The coming democracy will 

h«v' ' ' opportunity, and will bring fresh eagerness, 

for til n to social life. The Church, on the other 

h Itself to have the full secret of what it has 

<>^ • apply or hn" applied fas it must in fairness 

h . The world's 

h' pect of better 

under • between the two. If this Report should make 

opi^- ... Jlest contribution to that understanding the 

r will be satisfied and thankful. 

It !>. nnportant to observe that the Co' ''■•'-r. confined their 
attention to indiistry in its pre-war < Tlie figures 

■■•s. 

' ' no attempt to deal with *5neh subjects 
H '. etc., which, tl !y 

a". .. ^ • 'rial, as of all oth . . . j)t 

seem to the Committee to lie within the area indicated by the 
term<! of th'^ir reference, and which were very probably being 
han.JI'.l (itlwr by one of the other Committees or in other 

,'l'' '.V.lVS. 

*.ii»oes have caused more difficulty and delay in 
'i ith the the subject which concerns rural 

J' The ( <> have preferred to publish the 

R« fMirt as it -t ! with the hope that it may be possible to 
,,M > T?iir ,1s incnt at a later date. 

were appointed m December, 1916. Thev 

- - ' - - • • by the 

V lor, at 

\. our of 

r im, in 

N I third mrrtmi; > r lines 

•^ '■ . „ by the kind arr^:.„ :- it and 

,4.f much Indebted t** ♦*•-•- «-«--»«'- Mie 
Rev. J. \\ ; and. as Assistant S ir. 

ICss D. \N . .i ' ' d them invaiuai>ic service with 

eqiial courtesy "" " 

EDW. WINTON. 



TERMS OF REFERENCE 

To consider and report upon the 
ways in which the Church may 
best commend the teaching of 
Christ to those who are seeking to 
solve the problems of industrial life. 



CHRISTIAMTY AND 
INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

LiiAPTER I 
ikii. Call to the Church 

WE desire to begin our Report by affirming our summary 
conclusion and presenting it in its practical aspect. 
This summary conclusion of all the reflection and 
discussion and prayer which we have given to the important 
gi i to us is the desire that a call as of 

a; .v> the Church to reconsider the moral 

and »ucial meaning and bearings of its faith, and, having 
estimated afresh their importance in the full presentation of the 
Christ Kin lu' :>sage to the world, to be prepared to make the 
sacnlicis i:i\ (lived in acting frankly and fully upon the prin- 
ciples of broflierhood and of the equal value of every single 
human Ijfe. We cu * iceal either from ourselves or from 
othirs that the t ^ prejudices and customs of the 

y of our country have in 
II. , les even flagrantly, and that 

th' ivoived in making a fresh start will be great and 

dul. ... . .1 it is for a fresh openness of mind and a fresh 

reality of sacrifice that we desire the tnxmpct-call to go forth 
to thr Church. 

We rccjill with thankfulness the immense debt which the 
(I t has owed in past ;tions both 

t- iiid to individual c .:is. Upon 

ti o enlarge. But also we are conscious 

ol ire in the Church's recent witness. It 

has Kibour* ii itard m the cause of personal character and in the 
causr of chanty. Now, personal character is certainly the 
ui<ii>{)< Usable requisite for the wholesome working of any 
sy!»tcui ; but personal cha-. '— depends largely upon the 
general principles and ass ^ of the society to which 

the ii ■ •>, and it is these general ] ' ' -s 

and u I have been in some unportan ls 

Strang ty, again, in its truest sense means 

a sort ^ , and looks at least as much to the 

previ-i vU as to Its cure. But our " charity " has meant 

far t.« ' •••v what may be called ambulance work for 

rna!ikiii<l ,.ing up of the wounded tuid the curing of 

thtir%\ . v\ h,i\( 11' ulcctcd to attack the forces of wrong. 

Wc ha . V, .. i the ambulance work when we ought 

to have i' :iA the strongholds of c^ ^> have 

allowed a\ ^iflihnfw and grinding > 'on to 

• 1 



2 CimiSTL\NITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

work li ^i»» broad ^ '" "* 'V mt • 

gtrenu' ' inn of t ; nnd 

brother •■] <.\ i V I \ ' :\ 1' jcirtmeiit of ht. 

2, In sc ,4 ■ •..■ !tii^ call nii;,' m the cars of th' ii 

we wish to say at starting that we use the word Church without 
any controversy and in the largest possible sense to mean " all 
who profess and call themselves Christians.** We know and 
deplore the divisions of Christendom, and we do not in ' ' ' t 
underratethe diflicultirs involved in healing ancient wo i 

restoring violated f- ;>. We do not underestuuatc the 

thet)l«»gical and con> il questions involved. Uut we say 

deliberately that in the region of moral or social questions we 
desire all Christians to begin at once to act together as if they 
were one b<xly, in one visible fellowship. This could be done 
by all alike without any injury to theological principles. And 
to bring all Christians together to act in this one department of 
lift* as one visible body would involve no loss and manifold g;iin. 
We should get to know and trust one another : we shouhl irarn 
to act together : we should thus prepare the way for fuller 
unity : and. on the other hand, we should win for our action on 
social questions in town and country a weight and effectiveness 
which it is idle t«j ex]>cct from the action of a variety of sect4i 
and bodies. What we desire to see in towns, counties and 
villages is the organisation of all who share the Christian 
profession to act together in the name of Christ for the mnking 
of a better England through the courageous application tx> the 
present-day situation of the fundamental ethical principles of 
our religion. 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 



CHAPTER n 

Chustian PaiNaPLEs and tu£ib Social Appucatiok 

(i.) Introductory. 

(ii.) r haracter of Chruti&n teachmg. 

(ill.; . ol ilavcry. 

(iv.) i «ic tialurc ut tile Church's witness. 
(v.) The !»uciai teaching ol the Church an essential part of its 

witnei»^. 
{\i.) Chri&tian Ethics binding upon social relations as well as 

upon individual conduct, 
(vu.) The icachmg ol the Mew Testament with regard to 

niutenal wealth, 
(viii.) The teaching ol the New Testament with regard to the 
sanctity ol' personality, 
(ix.) The teaching of the New Testament with regard to the 

duty of service, 
(x.) The teaching of the New Testament with regard to 

corporate responsibility, 
(xi.) The social teaching of the Church only one part of ita 

witnc*ss. 
(xii.) The ini|K>rtance of character, 
(xiii.) Conclusion. 

Appended note on certain objections to the application 
to industry of Christian principles. 

(i.) Introductory 

The first duly ol the Chnstian Church is to witness to its 
M.4>.U r, J«*sus C hrist ; its srroini, to transmit and expound the 
Christ t of the 1* aith coninntted to 

it. '1 1 , ■ , , Its IS not, of course, eoiilined 

to membcn ol the Church or even to those who hold the 
Chr.stian Kaith. The story of Jesus Christ, His example, 
eliar.icter, life, and words, arc open to all in the New Tistameiit. 
lii!i name is, therefore, widely known and honoured as that of 
tile supreme teueht-r and leader of muiikiiul. even among 
m.iny \^ho «1<» not eull ti i ; and current 

nior^iiit) has lor .i^< -v l>e« ii < ' d by principles 

Mil ill lire Christian m their origin and eiuirueter. 

\\ hile the Church claims no monopoly of the witness to 
J< I 1 . claim that Its wiincM shall be heard. It luu 

rrerxi^cii liic Gospels and the gospel which they contain, 
t urge's their aceepLance and study. It claims to have aQ 
ui i from th . from the tin»t 

a, ■ ; ... Spirit, I . Jutus Chrut, 

B3 9 



4 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

pondered His %V' ' .d schooled thcmselvc» by Hib ^ ' vr- 
The Church kh it has much to givt- and to tt .1 

Ji t uhich, witiiout its help, nmy be Dusscd. liul it 

rc< nunc the less that its interpretation may both 

neglect and disfigure certain features of the original, and it 
owns freely that this has been, and often is, the case. Nor 
docs it forget tluit men outside its pale may, in regard to the 
application of Christian principles, sec points which have not 
been discerned by Christians. In such mutters the Church is 
ready, therefore, to learn as well as to teach. But it is sure of 
the truth of Jesus Christ, and of its special resjx)nsibility and 
commission to teach it. 

(ii.) The General Character of Christian Teaching 

The principles of Christ are to be sought in three principal 
ways. They are to be ascertained from His direct teaching, 
from the teaching which He accepts, fulfils, or makes complete 
by His own words, and from the gradual leavening of human 
life both by His own example and teaching and by the society 
which He founded. In the first place, there are the recorded 
sayings of our Lord, such as those, for example, with regard to 
the supreme and equal value of every human life, with regard 
to brotherhood and the duty of each man to his neighbour, 
with regard to riches and poverty and the stewardship of 
wealth. In the second place, there is His acceptance and 
confirmation of those moral and social teachings of the Old 
Testament, in the Law and in the Prophets, which made man's 
life more humane, more just, and more free, and which were 
partial expressions of principles fully uttered by Jesus. In the 
third place, there is the influence upon subsequent ages of His 
person. His example and His teaching, working through the 
presence of His Spirit in the Church as a whole and the 
individual members of it. 

This threefold teaching of our Lord leads men not by rules, 
which may be superseded, but by a spirit, whose influence is 
perpetual because of itself it creates the hunger for its more 
perfect application to the life of man. It offers a standard with 
which the social institutions of every period may be compared 
and by which they can be judged. It suggests principles of such 
a kind that, while themselves paramount, they are capable of 
being embodied in different political or economic forms to suit 
the needs of different ages. It stimulates progress, for these 
principles are capable of constantly larger and more ample 
application. It leaves large liberty to men in giving them 
practical embodiment in the circumstances of the period and 
country in which they live. It thus increases both their 
responsibility and their power to discharge it. They have often 
been too slow, and sometimes too impatient, to keep pace with 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 5 

the mrth.wl of th«*ir Master. They have treasured old bottle* 

vf wine of life : 
1 new ones were 

not yet available. 

(iii.) The Example of Slavery 

' ' both of the general leavening of society [)y 

I '•«!, and of the apathy by which that process 

se of si . wc think, ve. 

' rj'areiiK , ole, for Christ fat 

itor. Implicit in the value which He set on every 

1 ''fe, in the new significance given to each human soiil 

i member of His Ixnly, and in the great and funda- 

' -'' nitual un '' ' - ss which He taught, the 

on of C ty to slavery was dis- 

■y iJL Taul when he said, " There is neither bond 

. . . for ye are all one in Christ Jesus."* But 

i not lead a movement for em . >n ; nor 

u - . - , , though full of His spirit, and N'^ i rage to 

face any dangers, conceive that to be their duty. The early 

Ch-istians had, indeed, no control of the political system, but 

>. universally suspected and generally hated. Hence the 

*■ r an organised movement had not yet arrived. It is 

ind'''''!. that it might have been postponed by an 

and that tli the disciples to 

:•• by Jesus c have been lost 

or i.t)s( iired in the stni ' ' t r one of its aj' s. 

Thuugh, however, th ;tles did not in... . . .ic emancipa- 

tion of slaves, it i- • the less trye that the effect 

f / I _ .; -ty ^nf ^j nitniify and undermine slavery. An 
cess was begun through which Christian principles 
>on social life an" us. On the 

n between the ( ter and his 

and tra i, as the absolute civil 

{'•r was o:, -d antl controlled by the 

V of both.f On the other hand, acts of 
""•• frequent on the part of Christians, and 
Church was employed to promote them, 
I . c.r of r ' :re. When Christianity 

• • I ;:i um Kmpire in the age 

;• hoiild I le forward 

I ! v;' r i!f. Utit rch became 

i ■.'. I ■ f r ,•• it a change. 

li ; 'rf. du:. „ ... Dkfk una Middle Ages, 

the influence of Christian teachmg was felt less in any general 

• n ^ S 

* < < KpicUe to PhllcBoa Md hla ialaao * t<— to aMtoia ia 



6 CHRISTIANITY ANP INDUSTRIAL PROnLEMS 

movcTTient than in the encouragement of individual manu- 
missions, ami also, perhaps, in rnusinj? the substitution of 
serfdom for shivery and the gradual liheration of serfs. 

It is retnarkahie, indeed, how hesitiitingiy the essential 
Christian prineipie of freedom was applied. The converted 
Anglo-Sjixons attempted with a simplicity and directness 
bcy«>nd any of the new nations to transform the Gosprl 
pree«pts into declarations of law. Yet for 300 years (dc»wn to 
Ethelrcd) the .\nglo-Saxon laws did not forbid the selling of 
slaves except when they were sold into a heathen natif»n, 
** that those souls perish not that Christ bought with his own 
life." Two centuries later the Papacy denounced on the same 
grounds the V<"netians' trading in slaves. The great dis- 
coveries of the fifteenth century, and the opening of the New 
World in the sixteenth. led to a new form of slave trade which 
even professed a religious sanction ; Sir John Hawkins, when 
he made a fortime by selling negroes to the Spanish Colonies, 

f>rided himself on bringing the heathen of Africa into Christian 
ands. Even in our own country men were openly sold to be 
slaves in the plantations after Monmouth's Rebellion in 1685. 
It was not until 1782 that the English judges in the case of 
the negro Somerset decided that any slave setting foot on 
English soil becomes a free man ; a ruling which now in the 
Red Sea and the Persian Gulf takes the very practical form 
that a slave is freed by getting hold of a rope from a boat 
belonging to one of our warships, as such a warship is a floating 
piece of British soil. But it is well to remember that in Cuba 
and Brazil slavery was legal almost to the present generation ; 
that Livingstone could still describe the African slave trade 
as the great open sore of the world ; and that as late as th^ 
American Civil War treatises were being written to defend 
slavery as a novitiate or apprenticeship for inferior races, as a 
necessary stage in the development of new countries, as a 
universal and therefore Divine institution, or as an execution 
of the Divine decree that Ham should serve his brethren. 

The truth is that a frightful set-back had taken place when 
zeal for the inspiration of the whole Bible led to the fatal 
mistiike of piitting the inspiration of the Old Testament on an 
equality with that of the New. What had been allowed to 
** them of old time " before Christ was regarded as on a level 
with the New Law which He had pointedly contrasted with it, 
and the Christian tradition of personal freedom was submerged 
by the Levitieal and other precedents which were freely quoted 
as justifying the slavery of the coloured man.* But, though 
submerged, that tradition was not obliterated. It proved its 

• For Ml illnminatinjf di«rniisinn of crrtain iwipi«ct« of th^ trarliinft of 
the 0!d Tfstamrnt and of Cliri^tianitv with ngand to <laverv «<t G<'ltlwin 
Smith, Does the Dibie Sanction American Slavery f 1868. (Parker.) 



CimiSTUN PRINCIPLES 7 

vitality by reasserting; itself in the aptation ai^ainst the slave* 
tnwlr ; and. conibininjf with <! ' ^ of civil and political 
liJxrtv, it prridufN-d Rt last, la roufjh th«' infliionro of 

f."^ :i and \N 'n 

< ' way for at, 

1 tmentai immorality of slavery was at length fully 

^ are bound to fight against the remainders or 

rv»iv . ^v-. or reversions to it. without being called 

upon ' tnnations, which would often be Pharisaical, 

\y tiaas of an earlier age. The it last 

V. it. Hut it is pasy to see that done 

s J)een more faithftil, and if 

tt ty more truly Christian. 

Ifie lesson is one which ought to be remembered. For, 
Hr> irf from Christian influences, recrudescences of slavery, 
• p i.illy where white men deal with backward races, are only 
'' ''Ic. The older form of Kanaka recruiting has been 

')' itsrribrd as negro slavery over again. A Hit tire age 

^^ n some features of our ind vstem 

^^ same feelings which arc in us 

when we - iries which it has taken to 

make a pr ' ,;.J apply Christi.in nrinciiiles 

to the case of slavery. 

(iv.) Th€ Nature of the Church's Witness 

In view of the general character of Christian teaching and 
of pas* r ■. ■ - ■ r«' are. we submit, four 

main- f the Church " to those 

who lire !>c'<.kiiig to solve the prublcuis of industrial life " must 

rr, !v. 

vitness to principles which touch some- 

, r than social or itulustnal needs. Life is 

I • 1 , and human beings are men before they are 

witness to principles by which all social 

' "d. Christians < it 

t ' human activity \ le 

f'l' M''.'i' ** Conscience in an inciustnal 

s"' ' ' '• , , i>f the Committee on Industrial 

VrnJirm. -/ tht l.r'.'rih Conference of BisHops of \S07* "will 
l(-.k t.r inorul guulance on economic matters. Kcnnomic 
w 1- ! . <• does not claim to give this. . . . But we brhrvr that 
Christ our Muster docs give such guidance . . . and therefore, 

"' ' ■* ' " ' ' '* ^ '\cnn Cunmtunion. Tfnhlrn at 

I' I Lrttcr from Ihr IlUtiotMi. with 



' iiia.^iiAMTV AND INDUSTRIAL i'iwni.i'.lnr^ 
u 1 : r Him, Christian authority must in a measure do the 

riiird, it must be a witness to prineiples wli ys 

I irissinp, by the force that is in them, for fuller en ud 

application. Thus the principle of human value must work 
towards more complete equality, both of ojiportunity and 
consideration : ' each counts for one and not more than one.' 
The principle of service by each and all as the ideal of human life, 
expressed in the words " I am among you as He that serveth,"* 
must result in a greater abolition of privilege ail iio- 

rity on the part of individuals or classes, and t< m- 

ment or management of all by all. The principle of love and 
brotherhood must inspire a fuller organic unity of human 
society. The principle of the sanctity of personality must 
achieve a fuller and more abundant life, both spiritual and 
material, for all human beings. 

Fourth, it must be a witness to principles which make any 
social arrangement, tchile it lasts, work humanely, and as fairly 
and respectfully to each human being concerned as its limita- 
tions allow. They must, for example, be such as to cause 
employers to be thoughtful in detail about the conditions under 
which employees work, employees to be considerate of the 
problems and difficulties of employers, and the general public 
to reveal by its practical action its consciousness of its respon- 
sibility for the circumstances in which the goods supplied it are 
produced. 

(v.) Tfu Social Teaching of the Church an Essential Part of 
its Witness 

10. The social principles^ of Christianity, therefore, must be 
general in character and capable of progressive a] n. 

But they are general because they are universal, ii' ise 

they are indefinite. They are not the less obligatory because 
they often demand a corporate, as well as an individual, effort 
for their fulfilment. They are not a mere deduction from, or 
corollary to, the Christian Faith. They are an essential part 
of it, and to insist upon them is an indispensable element in the 
witness of the Christian Church. From the Faith committed 
to it the Church derives a distinctive conception of the nature 
of man, of his relations to God and to his fellow men, and of the 
principles upon which his life, both individual and social, ought 
to be based. The ethical teaching of Christianity does not. 
therefore, merely inculcate moral goodness, for some kind of 
goodness is inculcated by many other religions. It indicates 
the sense in which moral goodness is to be interpreted by 
Christians, and the qualities upon which special emphasis 

•St. Liike xxii.27. 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 9 

should be laid by theni. Founded upon the life and example 
of a u'^ " ' n. th« Christian Church claims to offer a 

spiritu «?ntly definite and comprehensive to supply 

a rr •■ s. It is a So- 

wlii> fi but for a v.. 

iife. 

The - r ■ 'J application of Christian ethics have been inter- 
pri f< <1 in more than one way in the past and are interpreted in 
more than one way to-day. The space at our dis{x>sal docs 
not allow us to enter upon a detailed consideration of the large 
questions involved. But we venture to lay down five main 
p )Mfi 'i;s wliu h we believe to be at once a vitnl part of the 
Christian I'aith, and to be too generally disr ] both in 

the presentation of Christian teaching and in uomic life 

of Christian communities. 

(vi.) Christian Ethics ' upon Social Relations as vceU 

as upt . ; dual Conduct 

11. (a) In the first place, then, we think it our duty to point out 
th ' "" ' " ' ■ a body of moral teach- 

ing iimis in their personal 

and doiuot < h to 

judge their i, and 

their social >ns. Though to many of our readers such a 

statement v.... „,.,,car the truism which it is, it is nevertheless 
not unimportant to insist upon it, because to tolerate its 

n- ' * - *,) give occasion to the >' . tis error which consists 

in Tce of religion from iie&s of practical life. 

W< . f irse, suggest t i, .: : ..^ error is i " r 

th' r^ Jl classes wii. rarry the spirit </ 

int. t 'ustry and conimercc. But l* i 

d'T ;il» nt, that it is supported by j ;! 

cur ion, and that it creates an environ- 

tu' . iiibodiment of Christian ideals in the 

!»<>• communities. 

w (;i ntiman affairs which draws a sharp dis- 
tir r» thr life of the individual and the organised 

ar- '., 

:t 1 

, an employer, a mcr- 
... ^ as a moriil Ix Ihl' mul 
til 1 which they iiree 

:tr..; .-. Mil.- ini former should l>< 

by th< ily, the latter must be j 

other < .^cu ill lis lUMD moderate form ' 

implies. it i^, no ! Mi.t r{r<tirnbl<* thrtf » m 

et! .1 



10 CimiSTIANTTY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

tianity, is not always compatible with the practical exigencies 
of business life, and is a matter of c_<)nvcnicnce rather than of 
positive obligation. Pushed to extremes, it suggests that 
society, and in particular its industrial fabric and economic 
activities, are to be judged not by moral principles but by 
economic results — that they are analogous, in fact, to a mecha- 
nism to which spiritual considerations are irrelevant because 
its primary function is the attainment of economic efTieiency 
and the 'uctive power. A Christian com- 

munity 1 red, in short, to be one in which 

individuals must endeavour to conform in their personal lives 
to Christian teaching, but in which they may nevertheless 
take industrial arrangements and social institutions for granted, 
without inquiring how far they are compatible with the ethics 
of the New Testament and of the Christian Church. 

12. " Christian opinion," stated the Committee of the Lambeth 
Conference of Bishops of 1897, " ought to condemn the belief 
t(i if economic conditions are to be left to the action of material 
caust's and mechanical laws." This conception of the nature 
of society and of the scope of religion is one which Christians 
cannot accept, and which would probably, indeed, be repudiated 
by the better mind of all who reflect upon its implications. 
It would tend, if dominant, to the exclusion of Christian ethics 
from the whole world of economic activity and of social relations, 
and would result in the triumph of the economic Machiavellisra 
which says that " business is business," as some nations have 
said tliat " war is war." It need not, indeed, be denied that 
such a view of life produces results which are outwardly brilliant 
and imposing, in the world both of polities and of industry. By 
relieving men of the moral restraints which control the strong 
and protect the weak, it simplifies their problems, and enables 
them to concentrate on the organisation of power, power to 
govern or power to produce. It converts society into a potent 
engine for the accumulation of material wealth, because it 
encourages a single-minded concentration on the pursuit of 
economic eflieiency. It is the natural creed of the Napoleons 
and Bismarcks of the world, whether their sphere be war or 
politics or industry. That industry is a mechanism in which 
methods of organisation and social relationships are to be 
determined by considerations of economic expediency — this 
doctrine has for a century had a wide influence in moulding 
industrial organisation and social life. Those who yield to 
its glittering allurements have their reward. It offers them 

^ power, affluence, material comfort, " all the kingdoms of the 

^ world, and the glory of them."* 

13. The appeal of this conception is impressive. But, whatever 
spectacular achievements it may have to its credit, the spirit 
• St. Matthew iv. 8. 



CrmiSTIAN l'Ui.NLli'LJ:J> 11 

•onomic from religious con- 

arui ]) uiu'hnstiaii. It is 

• I tjjy III lU fuiluri's but f \ en more in its succcjises. 

I" ; 1 -i-tipt the idt'uU of the New Ti-stanient and fail 

t'> H't iin them. It lias an ideal which is different, and which, 
tally per Imps, is m<»re plausible. For Christianity 
Mtruty. not as a machine, but as an association of 
I ' t of which is to promote the dcvelop- 

iii * ' and its prrpsirntion for the Kiiijjilom 

(il (.'1. In that |)i s t»t and preparation 

tl. ;' vision of the iii.it I riHi : >tencc plays an indis- 

and honourable part, since they are the necessary 
1 ::on of a full and vigorous life. But they are its founda- 
tion, not its completion, and to give them pre-eminence in 
' " tion is to confuse the purpose of life with its accessories. 
• and economic activity are not, therefore, ends in 
pursued without reference to the main end of 
or hy methtKis inconsistent with it. They 
which is nothing U'&s than the gnidual 
, i,' of man, and their character must 

be judged by \ts conformity with the end to which they are 
means. '* All things work together for good to them that 
lovi- Go€l,"^ and the satisfaction of man's material needs, which 

i Lrht to be ennobled by the spiritual 

'<'S. 

1 : . nC, that such considerations can 

a! ' it to the minds of all who arc 

.' more than that the spiritual ends 

; . . irricd on can always l>e consciously in 

tin lI.l'^i^ if those who are cngaijod in the teaching profession. 
lint wiirn the question is raise<i of the place of industry in 
the community, uf its ethical standards, and of the rights and 
^ i individuals engjiged 

t that the ultimate 
\ ity and of 
;j of Christi- 
anity. llivorc<*d from spiritual standards, itulustry is only 
tfv. lik'lv- to degenenite into a struggle to escape poverty or to 
olif I w » . iK-ij, in which v>me of the finer qualities of Kuman 
' •' ' of beauty, and the trm|Mr of 
Kfl bv A vin(»lr nvrn?>Hstiring 

old- 

the 
t t/> be judgrd. Industry is, 

:. ought to Ik* carried on, in the 

words of Uacoii, for ** the glory of the Creator and the relief 

• Romaot rUi. S8. 



12 LllRliiTlANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

of man's estate." * Its character, n- • ition and methods 

ought to be such as to make it unnn to obscr\'ers that 

it is a I ictical activity of a Ciirisium < ity. We 

think, ' . that it is the duty of the Ch !p avoid- 

in;' > the prerise methods of a i 

pri 'ry, to insist that Christ ;^ 

binding upon econoniic conduct and industrial organisation 
as upon personal conduct and domestic life. By so doing it 
would modify the assumptions which men bring into the tran- 
sactions of economic life, and would cause them to judge in- 
dustry and industrial success by moral, not merely by economic, 
criteria. Such a ji - nee of moral over material < 

siderations is in ac* . . , it will be agreed, with the .^j 
of the New Testament. 

(vii.) The Teaching of the New Testament with regard to Material 

Wealth 

14. (b) The second point which we desire to emphasise is 
the teaching of the New Testament with regard both to the 
right employment of wealth and to the subordinate place 
which should be occupied in human interest by the pursuit of 
material riches. That teaching is explicit and n 
and cannot too constantly be present to the minds 
It is sugjjested, on the one hand, that more than a siiiall measuri 
of material wealth is a hindrance, rather than a help, to the 
Christian life, and, on the other hand, that those who possess 
riches are bound to regard them not as a property which they 
may use for their personal satisfaction, but as a stewardship 
which they must justify by administering it for the good of thf 
community. 

It is not that in the New Testament the rich are dc 1, 

for such denunciation often implies that they are }» 
enviable. And they are not envied, they are pitied. They 
are pitied, because it is suggested that the desire for mat^^rial 
riches is a terrible temptation, that riches ought to occupy 
a quite minor place in men's thoughts, that to take them 
very seriously is to starve the life of the spirit, that the man 
who directs his life primarily to laying up treasures on earth 
sins both against himself and against his neighbour. There is 
little emphasLs, indeed, in the New Testament upon the ascetic 
merits of poverty, such as appears in some later periods in th( 
histor)' of the Church. But there is an austere and reiterated 
warning against undue preoccupation with what would be 
called to-day economic considerations. That the transcendent 
importance of the spiritual life makes any concentration upon 
material gain, in excess of that required for maintenance, a 

* Bacon, The Adoancement of Learning. 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 18 

positive evil, that the Kini^dom of God must come dnt and 
all otiur intrrsta Second, that the Ufe most f^ ■ to 

si.irii: i ' wLh is one which is not concerned, i: -. .^n is 

. with the pursuit of riches, that wealth is a respon- 
•.vucrs, not a luxurj" to be used as they please — 
igain and again both in the Gospels and in the 
Ay s. 

1 thoMc»ht survived, as we point out in a lRt<»r 

jvi: • part of ♦ ! 

< r.i ^ .ce and i' . i 

cu! iS. If It appears alien to some ciiaractcnstic 

H^[ modem civilisation, if it causes men to be 

" u 1 out of measure,"* that fact would appear to make 

' '' / :^ ':i!d be emphasised. When 
ice are at variance, the 
;..; r ; r, not the former to the 

IktNr; lat avarice, in the sense of 

Ml imiu' i :i, is a j>m which Christian tradition 

f' ;;.irJ> Us ; ^ . than some others which to-day 

arc more generally condemned.f It can hardly be doubted, 
indeed, timt the common assumption that the attainment 
of rn hcs b one of the main ends of man, and that the criterion 
of sociul organisation is its power to fad' ' * Mie pursuit of 
til' rn, is not so much unchristian as a: '\nu; for it 

l< .i(i ,. wh-i. i.tothe- iol'tlicr 

sj';r f • ■ I f t:;un. i iild save i i 

1 ■ is to be true to the spirit of the New 

1 : I . -. bubmit, spare no effort to teach man- 

k:i .i : lit the true wealth of a society is to be measured by the 
(iu.v!,;y uf the human beings who compose it, and that undue 
' .[I. ;.t ration upon the prizes of this world is a grave danger 

ftch thi^, not in the interests of any particular clans, 



18 more tluin meat, and the body tt lont. It will not 



I TW I 



fh 



hi' <i.t.i,.I l>,.vv/v.r (?. ,t at all ti; , ..ad prc-en'i 

m , where the rewards of s' i 

<:.■ licrcist:"* * ! of such ti . 

1 ' un end I > s an atin j:.' ic 

III \'... ., . i}']<\ .i'.i'i in 

«!... :. .t , : ■ . ■ , ♦.. 

11/ . r ':. 1. 

M ,1. ' ■.' 

to r the parsmiony wi 



•M 



..uiian purposes, or the 



•St. M»rk X. M. 

f CuloMiaiu Hi. 3. I Conritltiaa* 



14 CHRISTIANITY AND iNDtJSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

which diverts human < - " ' '" " ir tothemiiltipH- 
cation of luxuries, it I . tilu's, too ollcn, 
indeed, which glorilicb, the buboiiiumliun ol huiimn beings to 
considerutious ol UHitcrial success. It siKiety is to be the muster, 
not tlie servant, of the forces which it luis hberated, il it is to 
escape the danger of succumbing to the very success with which 
it has appUed science and oigunisation to the conquest of 
nature, it must possess some standard of values superior to 
economic expediency, and be guided by some ideal more 
absolute than the shifting currents of supply and demand. 
Such an ideal, such a standard the Christian Faith offers in a 
sentence : " What shall it proht a man, if he shall gam the 
whole world, and lose his own soul ? "• 

(viii.) The Teaching of the Sew Testament nun regard to the 
Sanctity oj I'enonality 

17. (c) The New Testament emphasises, as we have already 
pointed out, that every soul is of uiiinite and equal value, 
because all men are children of one Father, it reiterates in 
different ways the sanctity of hmnan personality. It suggests 
that even the most venerable uibtitutious are secondaiy to 
personality, and that they must give way when they conlhct 
with it, because institutions arc a means and personality is an 
end. This paradoxical valuation upon individuality is ex> 
pressed by the word " love " m such saymgs as " Ood is Love." 
It brougnt. It may be suggested, a novel element into the 
thought of the world, or one at least winch it would be dillicult 
to had expressed in classical writings with the siiiiie inteiiMty 
and vehenience as in some passages ol the Sermon on the Mount. 
And it is an idea which was not easily aecipted then and which 
is not easily accepted now. For it is in perpetual conti i 

with those elements in human nature wiueh desire to «. 
or subordinate individuality in the interests of the smooth 
routine of an orderly and ethcient system, whether political 
or economic. It is the miier faith of which liberty is the out- 
ward expression, because it places the development of the 
human spirit above all material convenience, it empluisises 
freedom rather than power, quality rather than quantity, 
spontaneity rather than system. The apostolic precept to 
*' honour all men " has perhaps received di^propui tionately 
little attention either m tUe presentation of Chii:>tiau doctrine 
or in the practical organisation of social life. 

if It IS true — and who can doubt it r — that the sanctity of 
personality is a fundamental idea of Christian teachmg, it is 
evident that Christians are bound to judge their uidiistnal 
orgamsatioa by that principle and to ask whether in modern 

• St. Mark viii. 86. 



cmilSTIAN PniNClPLES 15 



I \ IIUIII.IM 



beings are regarded always as ends and never 
as iiK aiis. \Vc do not venture to give a dogmatic answer to 

'"■ ■ ■ "tiiit that the criticism which the 

ipon the economic systcni is that 

.iid lu» class as instruments of pnxluction, 

Nin is a very weighty one, bccuusc it cuts 

to the root both of modern industrial relationships and of 

modem social etliics. 

18. It would not be fair to blame individuals for evils which 

r^ r them deplore, and which as individuals they are often 

^s to alter. We recognise that the relations between 

r and ei itre frequently marked by a spirit f)f 

'y, of f''! ■<•, and of mutual consideration and 

Nor do we forget that the community as a whole, 

tn.ind it is that ultimately sets the wheels of industry 

1 ; ' at least as large a responsibility for its methods 

i as do many of tho^e who appear to be more 

let with it. But the criticism to which we 

stion than that of individual 

: claims of the diffirent parties 

It ftfcfs to the general character and 

istrial system. It suggests that, except in 

ti nes in which, by prf»longed and repeated struggles, 

tlu ^. . . have forced on society the fact that they are men, 

not machines, they are still too often liable to be treated, of 
" ~ ' ive said, with many exceptions, as cogs in the 

aiism. 

f, no doi ' (dern industry' which 

i I'-nt om its, there are others 

ti' \\(i: • M t I, T' ! :;i t.i;' i\ .idriutted to be applicable, and 

\V( thuik it iui> to muiii siibslaiice to be lightly dismisseil by 

the cotjscuncc of Christians. Workmen arc often cnga^jed 

when lIuTc is work and dismissed when there is not. They 

are employed casually, if casual employment is economically 

T' ' ■ ; i\v or by tratle «i! 

Ill hours, to Iw i 



That Huch n< must prtK^uee fH)ver1y 

V !<n\ «• the v\ ; .lumbers of the con'">""»» v 

I nst the downward thnist of « 
liul iJiiii i<i not the gr«ve\t strieturv to Ix j'avsui 
ni. The fundiirnrnt.il objection to thrm is that thcv 

• ■ . . ■ Y 



anti-Christian. 



16 CmilSTIANlTY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

10. 'It may be said, indeed, that some of the evils to which we 
have referred above, and which we shall discuss more fully in 
Chapter IV. of this Report, have in the past been accepted by a 
considerable body of economic thouf^ht as almost inevitable 
incidents of economic progress. But economic science, like 
other seienres, is conceriud [)rimarily with what is, not with 
whi' to be, and the Church must not allow itself to be 

intii by the alleged doctrines of political economy, 

wrongly understood as those doctrines often have been, into 
subordinating Christian ethics to economic considerations. It 
ought to reiterate that the welfare of human beings, including 
not merely material comfort, but scope for initiative and 
opportunities for self-development through education and 
through labour, and freedom to take part in the control 
of industrial organisation and direction of economic con- 
ditions and pohcy, must be the first condition of any 
industry carried on by Christians. It ought to insist that 
no economic convenience justifies any oppression. It should 
not wait to speak till evils are monstrous and full grown, 
for when they are full grown they are often almost incurable. 
It should make war on the spirit which produces them. That 
it cannot pretend to solve the detailed problems of economic 
organisation is, indeed, as obvious as that it could not in past 
ages have been expected to invent a police system to check 
robbery on the highways. But it can insist that it is the duty 
of Christians to solve them, just as it insists that it is the duty 
of Christians to prevent theft. It can assert the supreme 
authority of Christian principles as the final criterion of the 
social order. It should not simply denounce. But it should, 
on the one hand, appeal to principle, and, on the other, so 
far as is possible, point towards the remedy. As long as there 
are good men who believe that with such cj Christianity 

has no direct concern, the full message oi uureh is mis- 

apprehended, and its witness to social righteousness is in- 
complete. 

(ix.) The Teaching of the Neto Testament tvith regard to tlie Duly 

of Service 

20. (d) The emphasis which the New I< t iays upon 

individuality is counterbalanced by the cu, .... which it lays 
upon the fact that Christians are members of a society. By 
itself the former might lead to an extreme individualism. But 
the New Testament corrects that tendency by reiterating that 
as members of a society, the Kingdom or the Church, Christians 
are bound to each other by mutual obligations. It insists 
upon the duty of service, upon the importance of what may be 
called the non-competitive temper, on meekness and humility, 
on mutual kindness and forbearance. The spirit of personal 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 17 

self-a&Mrtion, of rivalry, of pride it discountenanced. It it 
tuggcs* ■ " operate body, the member* 

of wb r in a close union, and to 

subor . K'uod of the whole. In using 

raoder : , , t , no doubt, to avoid expressions 

which are habte to be coloured by misleading modem associa- 
tions. But we think that the ethical spirit of the New Testa- 
ment may reasonably be described as co-operative rather than 
CO ' ' c. The iilea that men are justified in driving hard 
hi th t^tich other, in graspinp all that the law allows, or 

in . »e of their neighbours* ■ v, is, im- 

(1 • it. St. Paul in a wcl : passage* 

exh-rts the Christian to "labour, working with his hands 
tlu thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that 
rv ! th." It is the message of the New Testament that work 

IS .1 duty whirh is : * nt upon all, that the members of a 

Christ; va '.•n;i!Mr. 1 aim at giving rather than getting, 

luJ that thy vh.uid seek the service of others rather than 
th'- T>' r-^'.ii.il pT'^iit of themselves. 

• I'i IS f rrn part of the social ethics of mity. 

rt.iMt. th<Tefore, that the Church should ' , se the 

(iiity . t •pi'ying them to industry more persistently and more 

\; ii' itiy than it does at present. It must recognise not 

11' r iy that men's practice falls below their theory in these, 

a> 111 " '* r, matters, but that, as sometimes presented, 

t.h- t lodcrn industry itself requires profound motiifi- 

.1 IS to 1' ijj of the New 

I In pri lies advanced, 

th I I ' own, that all men 

tr i Hi : . .^ _:_ A i ^ .. .ry interests to the 

; . nt allowed by law, and that social wcll-bemg will 

III .L.ii.y, but certainly, result from their efforts to further 

til- ir own self-interest, is definitely anti-Christian. 

' ' this spirit has given a 

\'. It would appear, 

ii ty. If this ii 

s V society how 

f noi to be 

■ 1 . ...., -rusting its 

It i^ |)ossible that society may have to choose 
Uiw « u i.cing (^^ - * - ' I - . - -i^ ^ ij^ other ages men 
have h:ul to mity and prosfx rty, 

!• I . S 

vl 

if 

to them. Among other considerations tending to support 

• Kphr<iiin« IV. 3S. 



18 CimiSTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLF.MS 

such a conclusion it is important to remember that, if it be 
true that any restriction upon the opportunities of acquiring 
vast fortunes would remove or wejiken an undeiiial'I us 

to industrial devtlopnunt. it is also triip that the 1 ng 

of the opportunity to aetjuire a rt eonipi-tt-nec so as 

to inelude the whole mass of the w*' d tiu-ir admission to 

a share in the management of industry would supply a stimulus 
to industrial activity over so wide an area as would be likely 
to compensate for anything which would be lost through the 
restriction upon the power of the few to acquire unlimited 
wealth. It is not for that reason, however, that the Church 
must teach the social ethics of the New Testament. It must 
teach them because they are right. Its duty is to let material 
riches take c»re of themselves, and to preach the Gospel 
committed 16 it without regard to consequences. It must obey 
the call of its Master : " Let the dead bury their dead, but 
go thou and preach the Kingdom of God."* 

22. Such considerations should result, we believe, in increased 
emphasis being laid by the Church upon the social message of 
Christianity. It is important for it to insist, for example, 
that thcduty of personal work is incumbent on all, that idleness, 
and institutions which encourage idleness, whether among 
rich or poor, are wrong, that the primary function of industry 
is social service, not merely personal gain, that a man is bound 
to judge his economic activities not by the profits which they 
bring to himself, but by the contribution which they make to 
the well-being of others; that it is wrong to take advantage 
of the necessities of the public or of private individuals to 
drive a hard and profitable bargain ; that it is wrong to 
adulterate goods or to charge exorbitant prices for them ; that 
an industry which can only be carried on by methods which 
degrade human beings ought not to be carried on at all ; that 
property is not held by absolute right on an individual basis, 
but is relative to the good of society as a commonweal ; that 
if an institution is socially harmful no vested interest is a 
valid plea for maintaining it. 

23. Accepting the view that such implications are involved in 
Christian ethics, the Church would regularly and publicly 
call attention to the temptations of economic life, as it does to 
temptations of another kind. It would point out to its mem- 
bers that if they are living idly, whether on charity or on 
inherited wealth, when they are able to work, they are com- 
mitting a sin, that luxury and waste in any class of society 
are not only correspondent to, but largely responsible for, 
the want and destitution which are a blot on that society, 
and that this connection of cause and effect needs to be clearly 
indicated to those concerned. When it saw men making large 

• St. Luke ix. 00. 



CHUISTIAN PRINCIPLES 19 

fortune* out of public nctrssitiM It would remonstrate with 
them. When it saw one class bikinjif advnntnge of another 
and nil ' ' ' l.iss it would point out tluit this was wronj?. 
Nor w -eh ronfifir itself to warnings of a negative 

chirti ttr. It ■ the duty of strenuous and 

h. >!' >t work, ti A\ men to observe a high stan- 

d.ird mT ti'iioiir, of public spint, and of h«inmnity in their 
cc transactions, and their moral responsibility for the 

or n of industry and for the standard of social life 

obi.vwui;; lit the society of whieh they are members. Above 
all. it would seek t«» impress upon them the convietion that 
in' . a social function carried on for the benefit of the 

w --mtiity. and would tejuh them to seek satisfaction, 

ti 'lare of the common tat>k, but in dis- 

f! lily. 

not necessary to do more than give examples of 

thi , ,)le that the economic life of Christians ought to be 

inspired by the motive of ser\'icc. If the Church em})hasises 
that principle, if it examines existing institutions and practice 
in the light of it, it will have no dilliculty in stating further 
Bj>;>Ii. ;ilions of it. M ■ t. it will encourage indi- 

vi! . i!v to find such . for themselves. It will 

n' ir rcast)n and stmiulate their conscience, and thus 

li ome for its message in the quickened spiritual life 

c! ^ men and women, " by manifestation of the truth 

com.i,.- ,. .Mtj; " ourselves "to every man's conscience in the 
tight of God."* 

(x.) The Teaching of the Neva Tesinment xcilh regard to Corporate 
Htspnnaibilihj 

*4. {e) The New Testament does not only emphasise the duty of 
the members of the Christian society to the society. It also 
en • ' the duty of the s<xMety to its members. This 

^' involve*! in the very idea of the Church as a true 

T' ■'<• b(Kly. ** The social ortler . . . must be 

t' • in which it seetircs ft)r each frec<lom for 

h . and distributes, as 

^v , . 1(1 vantages and «»ppor- 

tii; • s.*'f it follows, therefore, that Christians have a 

corj>.»r,ite p ''Mhty for seeing that all numlK-rs of society 

have the oi y of a good life. IIuw that opportunity is 

to * o I hem is. . ' >'•, a mat' ' ' ' ' 

()[' ^fcr. But Ih ic no diff 

M t4> ttu- duty of seeing timt it is secured. U i* cviUcut 

^ i'>pi nf thr Afifflimn • n. Iloklrn ti 

1^1 I ilv. 1SU7. Kdrvclinil 1- ui Uie llisbopi 

With Ujc iinuluUMu and lirpofU (SJ'jCJv.). 

ca 



20 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

that it is not, even approximately, provided at present. 
Thousands of children and yoiinj? persons suffer, as we show 
in Chuptcr V, from i which undtrmine 

their physique and in '■■ and aro stunted, 

both m b(xly and mind, by work in th 

excessive and premature.* Muny hui: en 

are paid wages which make a life of honourable independeace 
very difficult, and labour for hours which leave but the 
scantiest leisure for rest or reflection or recreation. Nearly 
one-tenth of the whole population are housed under conditions 
which do not, indeed, prevent the growth of noble character 
— for nothing, apparently, can do that — but which make the 
words ** Lead us not into temptation " a pirp<t(iJil mockery. 
In some districts of our great industrial towns la ns 

are employed with an irregularity which is pnj ice 

to their morale and to their economic welfare. And, while 
large classes of our countrymen are exposed to the temptations 
of excessive poverty, another and a smaller class is surrounded 
with the temptations of excessive riches. 
25. To some of the practical problems raised by such social con- 
ditions we return in the subsequent chapters of tl rt. 
But we would point out here that the task of > he 
attention of men to the duty of bearing each other's burdens 
is involved in the very nature of the Church as a corporate 
society, and that it is its function to awaken their consciences 
to the importance of removing both the one temptation and the 
other. It is important, also, for it to insist on the duties of all 
members of a corporate body ; that what is wrong for each to 
do individually cannot be right for the collective body ; that 
business companies, trade unions, colleges, chapters, and 
similar associations receive legal privileges from the community 
and are bound by corresponding obligations to the community ; 
that, in fact, the new conceptions of corporate responsibility 
which are growing up should be emphasised as a part of our 
duty to our neighbour. 

The Church, in short, is a society which must insist upon the 
obligation of its members to maintain the distinctive standard 
of social ethics revealed to men in the New Testament. It 
should not merely preach brotherhood ; it should be a brother- 
hood. The test which the individual can use to determine 

* See Chapter V of this Report and Report! of the Chief Medioal 
Officer of the Boani of Education for 1915 (Cd. 88.'^) and 1916 (Cd. 8746). 
The lattrr Report slatf« : " A year ago a moderate computation yielded 
not less than a million children of school age ... as bcin^ no physically 
or mentally defective or diseased as to be unable to derive reasonable 
beneflt from tlir education which the State provides. . . . There are no 
grounds for believing that the figures here quot«<l are otherwise thwi 
a moderate pstimate or imder-estimate of the existiii^' condition of things 
to-day." 



CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES 

whether the social conditions of his neighbours are such as 
can be approved by the Christian conscience is, after all, a 

lin-'-' It is whether they are such as he would desire 

f« ''. for his own children, and for his own friends. The 

ta>k icn to ai> ^ with 

wfiniii t, by re I i that 

thi-y art- lamni; us l i;. ! -^ \\\i v \, •■ to the full 

such ruran? its they ni;i_ , ^ -.1 ^'uunii;,' Ihc luatcriul con- 

ditions of a gcKxi life for mankind. " A Christian community, 
as a whole," stated the Report of the Lambeth Conference 
quoted above, " is morally responsible for the character of its 
own economic and social order." 

(xi.) Tfu Social Teaching of the Church only one Part of it* 

IVitmsg 

implied in the preceding pages of this chapter that the 
a will, in our belief, be discharging an urgeut part of its 
witiH ss by inviting those concerned in solving the problems of 
industry to consider how Christian prin^ ' ' ' nr upon those 
prv)hl» ms, how they suggest ever better of them, and 

now til ;t and ei which efforts to 

•olve t made. er, we think that, 

by em . f 1*; ' , the Church will 

off<r h d i>T til' vitness which it is 

T' for giving. For the witness of the Church upon 

s tions can never be its whole witness to any class 

or K' !>' r.ition of men. Life is deeper, larger, more sacred, 
rn r t r .' " , s<x:ial arrange ' ■■ <• * 

fh- Ait.r '1 upon social 

th'iu_'h ;i \ ', of itii larger spiritual Wit m>>, 

W'.iil i 1,. t i ,t less disastrous than that of 

th ' who would ignore its social witness altogether. 

(xii.) The Importance ofCharaeUr 

W Further, the Church must commend its witness by laying due 
streiM u|x)n the importance of character. The Gospel was, 
infl'-rd, inf r. ..lured to men by character — the supreme cnaracter 
<'f I 1 * I' t. It mmle its way by the character of those 
'<\' society into which they were 

j' weak where it has lost its 

1 1 l>crs have had little or nothing to 

■>'■ r • _ .1 it always carries the sccn-t of 

chiri. tcr, and the power by which character is formed, 

^tn ;i tlieneti and pnitcctcd. For it witnesses, ■ *^ - "find. 

to (. i's prcM-ncc and judi^nent, to the sarr i, in 

*>.i ! ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ t. to tlu 

an - . and, on l r 

h a iu i, to Uic Spmt of God a« the power who enables man to 



OT CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

be what by him$clf hr cannot be— to be, indeed, his true self. 
S'>ci.'il hivtory is pnrtly the roc<»rd of how characttr in noble 
men and women has Ud and nfhievcd n'forms, and partly al^o of 
how proniiMntj Kch'-mes of liberty and comnulcNliip have been 
wrecked by wiukiusb and treachery, or through lack of the 
charnrt(r neoessar\' to give them effect. Scwial reformer 
cannot afford to ncplcct the teaching of the Church which, after 
all confessions and allowances have been msule, must be pro- 
nounced to be the greatest school of character that the world 
has known. 

(xiii.) Conchuion 

28. Once more, therefore, the Church may commend its witness 
by abkin£f the comrades with whom it joins in asserting the 
fundamental principles of social welfare and progress to 
recognise the real spririgs and securities of those principles. 
The sacredness of each human life, the rightfulness of claims for 
liberty of development and for equality of opf)ortunity and 
consideration, the duty of mutual help and corporate service — 
these are the indispensable and sovereign things. They 
depend, to a degree which is easily overlooked, upon the 
fundamental human faiths which Jesus Christ finally made the 
property of the race, that God is, that Gixi and mutj are akin, 
that I lis Love gives value to every least human life, that He 
has taken acticm for man's redemption in Jesus Christ and 
established His Church to be the home of human brotherhood, 
that the power which really works to carry human development 
onward to its goal is the power of God Himself working through 
Christ in the consciences and efforts and characters of men. 



amiSTI.\N PRINCIPLES 28 

Appended Note 
On Certain Objections to Uie Application to Industry of Christian 

Principles 
29. Anv attempt to state the appiioation of Christian teaching 
^ 'rial and social life U met at the outset by three 

(1) It is said that there is no social tcachinfj in the Cosprls. 
Thf appeal of Christ was to the individual, and to the individual 
only. 

(2) It is said that if there is any social teaching in the New 
Totamcnt it is not applicable to thr modem world. Circnm- 
«;' I the Gospfl of peasants is not likely 
' im and Manchester. 

1" it if there is any social teaching in the New 

1 ' I :i' : i better be made the basis only of a moral 

li il to the individual, and not applied to the organised 

' life of a .motlern nation. To seek so to apply it, by 

ition or otherwise, is inevitably to degrade it. The 

viiuieh must not tune its pulpits. 

These three objections are often used to stop further inquiry. 

T' "iiN. 1) I rc"quire much learninc and 

^]' <■■■■■. ! ions contain some truth, yet 

^(■lves so conclusive as to relieve men of 

.Mdering whether there is such a thinp as 

Chrivtiiin social ethics, or of the obligation of considering liow 

t<j apply them in legislation. Our conmion principles must be 

the bi-vis and background of legislative activity. 

80. On (1) it may be said: (a) Granted that the appeal 

of Christ was to the Individual, yet individu.il and social 

arc not sha titict. Nor would the teaching 

' apjx-ar to i the division l)etween personal 

and social Uhaviour, Ix'twccn the relation of a man to 

bis iii.tiH,?; ,tc circle and his relation to the outer world 

'■' which is often made to-day. It does not, 

* ' * nil, because it assumes the whole existing 

u', the Iwiw and the I*r<»phets, antl takes 

'■» put a ! it into it. But 

icn are u rs, that a nuin 

'I li>vr (.im1 if he docs not love his brother, and that to 

'>v Hun it rii.u be necessary to revoluti«)nise established 

I all ts and (• ns. (A) The interpretation of Christian 

t, .in<r ».. • 1..- a„fj by later authorities does not, it 

" rt the view that Christianity has no 

( 'A ' ' «rn it han, 

\^ 1 •' ' in various 

IS. Hut it 

iv that the 

traditional interpretation exdudcf from thrihtiai) teaching all 



24 (JilUISTlAM'lT AND LNDLSTHiAL I'UUliLEM.S 

th.. : '-e 

in Christian teaching frequently recurs. Leaving the last two 
centuries on one side, and admitting the present impossibility 
of a connected history of Christian teaching on social and 
economic subjects, one may suggest that the volume of the 
references to such subjects is too great to sanction the view that 
the interpretation of Christian tear! - it entirely to 

individual conduct, as distinct (if i n is possible) 

from social relations. Tradition is on the side of giving it a 
wider reference than that, however indeterminate, fluctuating 
and lacking in precision that reference may be. 

As to (2). This objection is powerful. It is not probable — at 
first sight — so the objection runs, that modem industrial com- 
munities have much to Icam from Galilee. No, it is not 
probable. Cultivated Greeks and Romans thought much the 
same. But if, like many good people, one thinks it is so 
improbable as to be incredible, one ceases, we suppose, to be a 
Christian. Perhaps, therefore, it is not necessary to discuss this 
view here. The hypothesis of this Committee involves the 
acceptance of what, speaking humanly, is improbable. 

As to (3). This objection is of practical importance. Honest 
and independent men see (or think they see) that the Church 
may be tempted to preach a Gospel agreeable to the mtiltitude. 
They resent this, and their resentment is justified. It is as 
wrong to flatter Caisar when Cecs&r is a democracy as when he 
is a king or an aristocracy (though hitherto the Church has 
flattered the two last more often than the first). No self- 
respecting teacher will stop to consider whether what he says 
will be popular. 
SI. But those who urge that ChristianityNias a social Gospel 
which the Church should preach are not actuated by any 
desire that it should say what is agreeable. They desire it to 
say what is right. They desire it to say what is right in all 
circumstances and relations of life, not omitting those to 
which ideas of right and wrong are regarded by custom as 
having little application. If the result is that one group of 
men approves and another disapproves, that is not any impu- 
tation on the independence of the Church. It is in the nature 
of things. Christ was accused of courting the mob, because 
His teaching was accepted by the people more readily than by 
the powers of this world. His followers must run the same 
risk. They must rebuke what is w^rong and uphold what is 
right, and let men approve or disapprove as they please. 
Their safeguard is that their message is too broad and deep 
permanently to divide or unite men on lines of class. The 
proper attitude for the Church is, not to consider what kind of 
teaching is popular or unpopular, but to teach what is right, 



CHKISTIAN PRINCIPLES 25 

irrespective of < "-^-irnces. Nor docs it escape the charge 

of " tuning its : ' merely by silence. Just as there are 

circuiiist.'ini't s y., , ., •. inHct i, in is ^ " ' " , • ■ ,f 

kimi -ot ;ic ;.,;,, s, , ;..,"<■ uVi ( .r. ;., , e 

IS (I kind — perhaps a wrong kind — of teachijig. It is no more 
" unluascd * to support a status quo than it is to work for a 
rcvwliition. To ignore what is wicked in industrial life is 
nut to be impartial. It is to condone wickedness. 

We submit, therefore, that the prima facie objections to the 
t;,iT_3P<» ->■ Mt is desirable to ascertain whether Christianity 
• ^ ' message with regard to social ethics are not 

some weight. They suggest • 
I 1. Hut they do not relieve C ; 

•>f fully whether Christianity contams 

"' - ' t applicable even in the complex 

' <'s of modem industrial communities. 

Li.ii i.ii-. IS, indeed, an understatement. While those who 
are not Christians may often be in doubt, not merely as to the 
dctailetl ' ' " , but as to the \ 

nature as to the existen. • . i 

"»"T":iI are more fortunate. 

^*i' ^' ^'^ * .. , they accept a certain 

f hfe, mdicatcd though not fully described by the New 
1\ >t,i,:aent, as the only life of absolute importance to men, the 
only life in which they can And peace and happiness. That 
I iff srrves as a kind of canon or standard by which th- 
'h Ives and human soctctv, Th«'V mav oftrn be i 



IS no sense in i^ icty 

.. V the kind of corn; chit 

desires to encourage. Christians may fairly, we think, be said 
to know the kind of conduct and life involved in membership 
of the Christian Church. hi>wever uncertain they may be as to 
the purficu!;ir dutirs i' ' ' " tti on f', r 

i-nv.-ixliiris, utl.l h i\S r'. « r <1 it tO (' . 

■■- \^li''' 1' '^1' y . u thercf 

.IS, j. .ss.-ss n st;i:i : .: ^ ndLrf th< > 

and their conduct in society. 



[ThU Chapter mas entnisted by the Committee to the Master of 
Balliol jcho has associated ivith himsrif other memhrrs of the 
Committee in the work. For some of the material thanhi are due to 
Mr. C. G. Coulton. Mr. A. G. Little and the Uev. A. J. Carlyle. 
For the use made of it they are nut re.spotisible.] 

CHAPTER III 

Soke Historical Illi-stkatioxs of Christian Thought 
ON Social Relationships 

(i.) Introductory. 

(ii.) The teaching of the New Testament, 
(iii.) The Fathers and the Medijcval Church, 
(iv.) The influence of the new Political Economy. 

(v.) Recent developments. 

(i.) Introductory 

88. '¥' T is impossible for us in the present chapter to attempt to 
I give anything like a connected account of the development 
A^ of Christian teaching ui>on the subject of social relation- 
ships and the ethics of industry. Such an account would b< of 
the utmost value, both as a chapter in the history of thoiiu'lit 
and as helping to dissolve the prejudices which are an obstacle 
to the wise conduct of practical affairs. But the materials for it 
have, as yet, been hardly digested. Nor, even were our 
knowledge fuller than it is, would the space at our disposal 
admit r)f our attempting ^-detailed survey of a very intricate 
and per])lexing subject. 

84. Our purpose in the following pages is a humbler one. It is 
not to write a history, but to recall to the minds of our reatlers 
that there is a historical background which should be borne in 
mind in any attempt to formulate the application of Christian 
principles to the practical problems of our own nation and of 
the present age. Such a reminder is most needed, perhaps, by 
those to whom it seems least necessary. It is the natural 
disposition of each generation to identify Christianity with 
those aspects of it which, for one reason or another, happen 
at the moment to receive most emphasis, to exclude or minimise 
as unessential or impracticable those elements in Christian 
thought which it finds uncongenial to its temper or inconvenient 
to its habits or disturbing to its peace of mind, to place, as 
it were, its own gloss upon Christian teaching and to regard 
that gloss as the only natural, sometimes, indeed, as the only 
conceivable, interpretation. Of the errors arising from that 

26 



SO>fE mSTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS '>'' 

prrvcis of selection und omission, of ovrr-cmphnMN ni f.nc 

{» 'It f and undfr-ompho&is at another, knowUdpr of the past 

i^ ' fom-ctivc. For even a ^' "of the 

f I t<» *.h«»w that the int»T[ i upon 

' ' file Nfw Testament huvt- b»-tii various 

• ' >tent, that the ideal of the Christian hfc 
•^ ' >tirtn •ioeiety has been regarded as involving 
'! ' ^ of praetical conduct and so<'iaI orj^aiiisation in 

' ' that moral principles whirh at one time were 

titwuuii; !.. >f.ind at the very centre of Christian teaehinj; have 
at another been thrust to the circumference or n'.»atuloned 
'i' -. that, if Christian ethics have permeated the world 

il activity, they have often been diluted to suit its 
succuml>ed to its standards, that the more 
f ice of principles which arc called Christian 

' r the danpcr that they may have become acceptable 

' '' ^' have ceased to be disturbing, and that it is 

I'^ <■ aspects of social life which are most readily 

t '^ • ' ' -slavery in antiquity, serfdom in the middle 

•'-' ^ sm at the present day — of which the exam- 

'' ht of Christian teaching is at once most 

I i most difficult. Thus even the briefest 

• ry upon the interpretations put by past apes upon 

• ;ition of Christianity to social life has something 
I a merely antiquarian interest. It should help to 

ii»i..ti iiic mind frt)m undue acquiescence in the assumptions 
of the prei»ent. by off* ring a standarrl with which the present 
" ' " and thus tuni the flank of prejudictrs which 

^' y a frontal attack 

(ii.) The Teaching of the Sao Testament. 
85. T'; f of Christian ethics is the account given 

»'i til' -N - Mient of the teaching and Person of Christ, 
the teaching of the New Testament writers, and the practice 
..f .1.,. ^rjy Church. It has been aptly said that " Chnst 
SfKrial phenomena from «lv>vc, in the light of 
' •'• He - 'les th'm from within 

' nt of p. He judyrs them in 

' ' to ih<- II of God." Four 

fe' clearly i . .... teaching. C(hI is 

our Father and all men arc our brethren. The Kingdom of 
0<-l i«i at hand. Life is the measure o** true value. All 
<1 i>lcs arc stewards. Wh le in some passages a sudden 
" ' ■ f y • : j^j, teaching 

' !)nmfm •.fM-u-ty 

1^ \ 

a of 

social ngbtco; iciivcrcd by the propbcU of the Old 



28 CHRISTIANITY AMD INDUSTRIAL PKOBLKM.^ 

Testament. God's Kinp^om implies God*8 rt-ign over the 
whole of human conduet, and curries with it a fellowship 
ani(»r)g His subjects. There is to be a ( .a 

People of God, a Chureh, which shall b»- ilt, 

th( l( ;iv( n of human life. But this Society is rather the means 
of rruli;>ing the Kingdom than the Kingdom itself. Life, at 
its highest, is the knowledge of God, but all human life 
comes within our Lord's purpose. Life itself is carefully 
distinguished from the material means of living; the service 
• if .Mariinion is typical of the spirit of the *' Kingdom of this 
aL" " Wi.ilth IS dangerous; and detachment from pre- 
.n with wealth is the first mark of the of 

ingdom. Men are responsible for their fclii , i for 
the use of the gifts which they themselves possess. ** He 
that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much." 
In every station and position in life there must be fidelity. 
The Incarnation is a revelation of human duties. As the 
Son of God took man's whole nature upon Ilim, nothing can be 
alien to Him. Man in the f f his nature is capable 

of fellowship with God, and tl ion of the spiritual must 

be extended over the whole of man's life in the world. The 
solidarity of the human race is implied in the universal manhood 
of our Lord. All the distinctions which cause division — 
nationality, class, sex — are merged in the Incarnate Son of God. 
" Ye are all one in Christ Jesus." Thus the Incarnation is 
the inexhaustible spring of brotherhood, and the Cross points 
to self-sacrifice as belonging to the very nature and character 
of God himself. Not self-development, but unselfish service, 
is the law of human life. The union of God and man, once 
accomplished, is continually effective. Men strive in depen- 
dence on a living God. " God has taken Humanity to Himself, 
and man redeemed in Christ is called to work out his destiny 
in reliance on the Holy Spirit." 
8C. These central ideas found expression in the teaching of tht 
New Testament writers and in the practice of the Early Church. 
Personal relationship with God is emphasised as essential. 
Christ " saves " men and " reconciles " them to God. The sin 
fnun which they are saved is self-assertion in relation to God, 
sellishness in relation to man. The Commandments are 
summed up in the Commandment of Love, which is " the 
first of the fruits of the Spirit Who dwelleth in us." Thus a 
right relationship with God carries with it a right relationship 
with our fellow-men. " Fellowship with the Father " implies 
p with one another. The sacrament of Baptism, for 
. which is the sacrament of men's membership with 
Clirist, brings with it their incorporation with the Christian 
Society. The sacrament of Holy Communion is the sacrament 
not only of their renewed and perj)etual fellowship with God in 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 2» 

Christ, but also of their fellowship one with another. " Brotherly 
love " exi>t.s j>nrii.irily in the Christian Society, and, when the 
gTv"* ' ■ lun of Jew and Gentile has been settled, the aim of 
th . is to bring all men on equal terms within its borders. 

Hut : i» fi ' *■ ' ' "those who are 

With it • knows no liniita- 

ti .;-. l; this 

•^■■■T.'l^ / , ; _ il at 

J' r;i > y in regard to method, was per- 

nuui.i.t ;:i .- 1 lur the poor is emphasised as vital. 

Our LirilVi w.irning with respect to the danger of wealth is 

echoed by St. Paul, and even - -^Icarly by St. Jimies. The 

duty of honest labour is { d, and luxury is plainly 

ri L' ird. (I . ■ ■ r ir a Lliri^tiun. Htncc, though there is 

Hi • N ao hint of revolutionary chujiges in the 

• > i Mxual order, though St. Peter and St. Paul 

CI. i-nce to the "powers that be," unless 

oi J Gtxi is clearly inconsistent with obedience to man, 

ai. . — wj,ii the institution of slavery is not explicitly con- 
dtrnnid, Very powerful solvents of the established social 
syst. la were nt ' ' ' ' . work. Thi ' ' tion that 

all rii- rj are of re G<>d, the t down in 

n • - - ■ It 

" ■ . . .-••■■'** 

dcstaied in time to bnng such ci. )OUt. 

(iii.) The FaUurs and the Mediaval Church 

87. To w*^ '♦ • ■'^^nt have ♦' ■ --"vil implications of the teac'^-'c 
of the N anient \> loped by the Christian th' 

of ^ • ; ' '. 

I) 1 

V 

pi. u 

iueh a IS to imply, if, however, tliat di>tmetion 

Ix* H<< .. ^ms true to say that in most jH-riods the 

Clir ■ ; ! . il has been interpreted, though with varying 

^1 • il as well as a per • "' 

HI . which to try th 

•rhap*;, to be 

.1: 

I; 

A II. It wa.H, t it to 

» matic b<''" wa« 

K I it to n t the 

W'.r. . 1 - * .: , Ir •.■. .iftef 

thrC<'UiP ..II rtrur: -how 
that the Chrutuut hfc was regarded fu invulviug .'i dulinctivc 



ao CHRISTUNITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

attitude towards questions of property, of wealth and poverty, 
and of ocnnoinic cortduct, winch was tn aritithcMs to some of 
t" liliii^ practices of Rnnmii civit 

d in part by the thought i>. . 

GoNpii," in the wurds of liarnHck, " Lliu» bvcuiite a itoc'tal 
message. The preac-hing which hiid hold t)f the outer man, 
detaching him from the world and uniting him to hn> God, 
was also a preaching of solidarity and brotheriiness. The 
Gosp<-l,it has been truly said, is at bottum both individualistic 
and socialistic. Its tendency towards mutual aj>sociation, so 
far from being an accidental phenomenun in its history, is 
inherent in its character. It spiritualises the irresistible 
impulse which draws one man to another, and it raises the 
connection of human beings from the sphere of a convention to 
that of a moral obligation. In this way it serves to heighten 
the worth of man and essays to recast ct>ntemporary society."* 
89. Sentences isolated from their context are apt to be mis- 
leading. But it would not be dilhcult to quote from the works 
of the Fathers passages illustrating the application of Christian 
thought to soc.al relationships during the earlier centuries of 
our era. '* Thou shalt share all things with thy neighbour and 
shalt not say that they are thine own projKrty ; for if you are 
sharers in the things which cannot pa^s away, how much more 
in those that can ? "t " Observe tliose who are iieterodox 
concerning Christ Jesus's grace, which came to us, how contrary 
they are to CJod's rule. They have no regard for deeds of 
chanty, for the widow and the orphan, the oppressed, the 
bound, the hungry or the thirsty. "J *' We must treat servants 
as we do ourselves, for they are men like ourselves ; and 
God ... is equally the God of all, both to free men and to 
slaves."§ " God Who begets and inspires men has wished 
them to be all equal, that is all on a level. . . . Neither the 
Romans nor the Greeks succeeded in maintaining justice, 
because they kept men divided from each other by various 
gradations of rank, ranging from poor to rich, from humble to 
mighty, from pnvate [xrsons to the highest powers of royftUy< 
For where all are not on a level there is not equity. The 
mere fact of inequality excludes justice, the very essence of 
which consists in making equal those who entered this life by 
an equal lot."|| " The harshest form of covetousness is not 
even to give things perishable to those who need them. To 
whom do I do injustice by keeping my very own ? Tell me, 

• Ilamftck, The Afission and ^pension of Christianity in the FirM 
Thrrr Cfiiturirx, vo|. |, pp. l«4-j. lyuM. (Williuiiib and Norgatt.) 

ITlw lipistlc of BaniaUift, xix. 8. 
St. I>;iiatiii>. Ad Sinynt, vi. 
C'k-niciit of AJfXiUidriH, Paedagogua, Ui, c. 12, 93t 
I LuctaiiUiw, Ut JtuuUia, Lib. V. 15. 



I 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 81 

whftt i^ rwir own ? Whcncf did you ppt it and acquire it for 
>*' ■' It is exactly as if a man scir.'d a theatre scat and 

<lr ' uJio cainc to it, ciaiminf; as his private pro| erty 

^* ■ : for the common use of all. Such are the nch. 

Tl.. , ^. w.. <,(n.ii the common heritage and make it priva c by 
their pre-<x^'upation. But if every man took what sufliced for 
^'' ' »d left what is over for the needy, no one Would 

^ one poor. . . . He who strips a man of his 

Is not he %v to clothe 

orthyofthe^ ? It is 

thr huMi,'ry man's bread you hold ; it is the raiment of the 
naked you lfK*k in your cupboard."* " Poverty and riches, 
what wr call freedom and slavery, and similarly named things, 
nrr Ii» r ' ff rts in the race of men. Tluy arc the common 
'i havf faljrn upon our baseness. . . . He Who 

and a masUr, bound only by 

"t *'It is not yours that you 

, it IS his. For what was given as common for 

, 'U alone usurp. The earth is all men's and not 

the property of the rich ; but those who use their own are fewer 

than those who have lost the use of it. Therefore (in giving 

alms) you pay a debt, you do not be>towa bounty." J " Let us 

a'' I 1, my br ' " • rty. or ' 

'! of it. if iid'thusii 

^ ' j " In "Mc Way must llu-y be ailnionislu-d 

\^ 1 other men's goods nor bestow their own; 

in another way, those who give what they have, but cease not to 

seize other men's goods. Tliose who neither covet other men't 

goo<ls nf»r Ixsfow their own are to be warned that they should 

anx ' ' ;id that the land, the source of their revenue, 

» ' rj, and for that reason Imhts its fruits fi»r 

t'^ of all. In vain, th< !o th«y thmk 

• i who claim Cod's corn; ; as privati tn 

^' ... For when ter any sort of n 

I ' . ly wc only give t: :... ir own, we do nui . 

on them what is ours. Wc are discharging a debt of justice ; 

- - • ■' --orks of ch ■■••• "'I 

Iv such -> must, of course, be read 

■ ' ■ ' .t 
y I 

; liut li IN vKaily 

' ' . „ ral <if the Father* 

I that by Divine or naturai law ail property is common, and 



• >- id furtr lU^tr 

t n Of. xiv. ii. 

\, .... >. 1 , 

|bt. Ungtir>, lU^uUi I'lUtotiUu Lunr, X.\I. 



W CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

that private property is tolerated as a concession to the weak- 
ness of human nature, that riches are a danger to the soul, if 
not a ptjsitivc evil, and that the assistance of those who need 
aid is one of the first duties incumbent upon the brethren — an 
act of justice rather than of charity. " To the Fathers," 
writes Dr. A. J. Carlyle,* *'the only natural condition is that 
of common ownership and individual use. The world was 
made for the common benefit of mankind, that all should 
receive from it what they require. They admit, however, 
that human nature being what it is, greedy, avaricious, and 
vicious, it is impossible for men to live normally under the 
condition of common ownership. . . . Private property is 
allowed, but only in order to avoid the danger of violence and 
confusion ; and the institution cannot override the natural 
right of man to obtain what he needs from the abundance of 
that whi irth brings forth." 

41. Such . - of patristic teaching upon subjects bearing 
some analogy to that referred to us could, if it were worth 
while, be greatly increased. What is significant and of per- 
manent instructiveness in them is not so much the specific 
conclusions reached, as the frank application of Christian 
principles to social relationships and institutions as well 
as to individual conduct ; to property, to riches and poverty 
and the stewardship of wealth, and to what would to-day 
be called economic questions. It is not ( d that 
these questions fall outside the sphere of C; . i ethics, 
or are matters of indifference. On the contrary, it is sug- 
gested that there is an attitude towards them which is 
distinctively Christian, in the sense of being different from 
that prevaJcnt in the non-Christian world, and that this 
attitude it is the duty of Christians to practise and of the 
Church to preach. 

42. As the teaching of the Fathers contributed one element 
to the intellectual \ ind of the mediaeval church it 

had an importance c-\ ^' beyond the centuries in which 

it was formulated and the particular conditions to which 

griraarily it referred. What effect, if any, such conceptions 
ad upon practical conduct, cither when they were first 
developed or in later periods of history ; how far, if at all, the 
Christian tradition influenced economic conduct and modified 
social relationships in what are called the middle ages, are 
questions to which very different answers are given by 
different authorities. 
48. The mediaeval church did not speak with one voice, and it 
is easy, by selecting witnesses, to present a picture which is 
consistent with itself, but untrue to the facts. There is much 

• " The Theory of Property in McdUeval Tbeoloj?y," In Propertu : lU 
Dutie* and Rights, edited by ths- Bishop otOxIoTd. 1915. (Macmfltan.) 



SOMK HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 88 

evidence t«> •iupport the view of thos«* who arjjiif* that in 
ec" >cial matters it d in 

wh . ted. The Chunii ^ I, l,v 

its own traditions and theories. Its \iew, not only of reli. 
but of society, was static. The possibiUty of extensive cha 
in material conditions was hardly conceived; and t 

^h ** 'ht of State and Church as proj»ressive commun; 

tcr -come more or less definitely heretical or, at I< .t, 

in*. ricaJ. It wjis igii' ■ 
i|: r ' , ;is a whole, Were li 

hy and it hardly seemed worth while to !■ "k 

f<^Ji i which might end to-morrow. The ( uc 

thiiiLf that mattered was eternity. It was enough to remind 
th' |)'.<»r that he might go to heaven if he willed, and the rich 
that in .1 cumulating more than was sufficient for churches 
ami ' ' ' ran a terrible risk of hell. Nor, i 

int continue, was the practice of the n 

its theory. 1 ■ ' I'l-U' ■>> ,•■ r, 

:''r, bought ni . ;i he i.. .n^'ht 

re are few, if any, examples of a mediaeval 

- ^)unced serfdom. Manumissions of ecclcsi- 

i^Mcal, as of lay, bondmen do, indeed, occur, but they are 

ither very numerous nor always disinterested. There were 

rfs on some English monastic estates almost up to the 

a some French r ites till just 

)n. What the " in peasants 

teni 

llCIlt 

>h»n, by the liundschuh revolts, and by the 

rtt Xf, ,,.,,. i,,,r,.n in 1525. The mediscval 

■ "" '1 >^ I '! ♦. ii . ^ been suggested, democratic, 

tiiat 11 N- ' uive. No doubt some of 

i sympa' ; the poor. But, as the 

ity, it r 'ood terras with the 

n with ^' mates of noble birth 

s is a proof of its com- 

I the commonest charge 

t by contemj at least from the middle 

I e-ritiirr-, " li .ii avaricc. Popes, it was 

Haul, ai'i I i ' ; '.. : money given for crusades 

parishes. Parish 
mortimrifi, which, 
eal 

been rii,Mr(l.<i 'ion. True, churchmen 

<i)Mk, rnii, h ft ... ly, daucd avarice amonff 

. and occaMonally panished 
Uir ijMi • But was the rigour 



of tlu: 




ve of 

If I! 


t 

>h»n 


U ,1 !! ♦. 


MT» 





m of ! 



84 CHRISTIANITY AND EsDUSTRUL PROBLEMS 

of the Church more beneficial than its laxity ? In encouraging 
thr uivinj; of alms it did nothing to nmovc the causes of 
poverty, and hclpid to make nundicancy a i ' ri. Its 
tcachiriK as to povtrty was not tasily rtr<^>iii ith an 

el;dx)ratc hierarchical system or with endownunts. \Vh<n St. 
Francis brought that tcachinc from sermons into life he wa« 
defeated by the ofriciai Church, which virtually made the 
friars a posscssionatc order like the rest. In less than a 
century after his death It was made a formal count of heresy 
against friars that they obstinately clung to doctrines of 
poverty which it is certain that St. Francis had held, and on 
those, among other, counts they went to the stake. The 
author of Pirrn Flotcman knew very well who had driven 
charity out of the Church — charity which had bt-en there in 
the days of St. Francis, but which now lingered in his order only 
among " poor fools " who were persecuted for their pains. 
The teaching of the Church as to usury was based partly upon 
the Bible, partly upon Aristotle, partly upon practical ex- 
perience of the effects of moneylending in a community com- 
posed predominantly of peasants and craftsmen. But when 
economic relations grew into something faintly resembling 
their modern complexity, as in the commercial cities of 
Italy they did even in the latter part of the twelfth 
century, the ecclesiastical prohibition of usury was either 
evaded in practice or qualified by multitudinous excep- 
tions. In its general nile, ** Lend, hoping nothing in re- 
turn," the Church looked backwards, not forwards, and in 
order to maintain the principle it was compelled to connive 
at casuistical expedients which preserved it in name but 
undermined it in fact. If the relief of the poor and the 
foundation of Monta de PiiU ought not to be forgotten, 
neither must it be forgotten that poverty was accepted 
as part of an unalterable order, and that the Church drove 
into heresy the Waldenses, the poor men of Lyons, and the 
Ilitmiliati. 
4i. This, in bald summary, is one side of the picture. But 
there is another side. If the Church had not in some measure 
stfKxi for social righteousness its influence would be unmtell- 
igible, and the crash would not have been so long deferred. 
Granted the truth of the charge of greed and worldly ambition 
brought against many of its officers, yet the Church itself 
hud helped to create the standards by which it was condemned, 
and the very fervour with which, in the later middle ages, 
its corruption was denounced both by lay and ecclesiastical 
writers is an indication that it had not failed to inspire an 
ideal of Christian conduct in men's minds, however deplorably 
it had failed to realise that ideal in its own practice. If most 
churchmen accepted the prevalent view which regarded 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 83 

society as stAtic, identified equity with custom, and held 
existmu class r(*latiunships to hv part of a divinely appointed 
system, yd the idea of status itself had more than one applica* 
tiun. It offered protection as well as imposed disabilities, and 
a fitivc affe may do well to remember that, while it 

1 he npportiiiuties of self-advancement, it ^avc the 

s> st the downward thrust of economic 

churehmen protested apainst the 
n- Church did little to abolish serfdom, 

iiuse it. There is some evidence that, 

t, peasants enjoyed easier terms on the estates 

..; I < MM.i^i M ,11 ixjdies than on th*>se of lay landowners, and 

much Ui show that they were often gravely prejudiced by 

t' (• revolution which ace< A the seculari- 

s •nastic profx-rty. More i: . ,t. the teaching 

iiurch, that, though differiMit cla.>ses h '. iit 

. yet all classes have ngliLs and all <i ivc 

ti I i an importance which can hardly be exaggerHted. 

icu .in equal in the eyes of the Creator : " Honto fervtut 

tu ucundum corpun, non auirm secundum mentem."* 

\> \r it is true tluit the preoccupation of the Church 

w.'fi the next world often implied indifference to the wrongs 

lis, it is that it was the occasion of lessons 

• nrh i that their authority is fleeting and 

sh with them, and of warnings not 

. as fully the children of God as them- 

^. and who, though their inferiors on earth, may be their 

-lors in heaven. The teaching of Chaucer's purson is 

il of the thought of a medueval churchman u|>on rural 

** Of ct>vef' come these hard lordships, 

h ni»*n bf* (i I by tallages, customs and 

is. And eke they 
1 might more reason- 

clcp<tl extortions than amercements 

. ..i'-^ lordships do wrong, that bereave their bond-folk 

th Mirs they never gave them Lords should not 

gl .r fv th ' > in their lonlships. since by natural condition 

til \ If of thralls, for that thralldom oonuth first 

1 I of sin Tl' 'hy 

t i . <!*% p^-oplc, for huni' .Is. 

.... Think eke that of such churls spring, 

r>riii'j lonls. As well may be the eh :- .id as his lord. 

ith that taketh the churl, such death taketh the 

ton*, 1 re<|c, do nght so with the churl, as thou 

' thy lord did with thee, if thou were in his plight. 

til in is a churl of sin I wot well 

lixive degree, as reason is, and skill it is that men 

• M. i h n. i« AiuiiuM. Skmum Tluol.im, Sat, q. 104^ Mt. i. 



86 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

do their devoir, thcreas it is due. But, cartes, extortions and 
despite of your underlings is damnable."* 
45, It is true, of course, that in the api ' * *" ' " 

conceptions, as in the application of } 
to ' ' society there was in the iiiui 

a p: n theory and practice. Btit. 

it might be said, the teaching of the Church is m<> 

than its practical action. It was the greatest II ^ 

in existence ; its thought wound into men's minds by a huiuind 
channels, and its influence must be judged by its indirect 
effect in modifying opinion, rather than by its direct inter- 
vention thr ■ • tion or judicial action. That indirect 
effect was ( . ven in the sphere of social and econnnii< 
affairs. Mtduival thought did not allow that there 
any department of life which lay outside the scope of Chn^ 
ethics, and which was to be guided by a purely naturalistic 
morality, such as that to-day expressed in the phrases, '* the 
struggle for existence," or the "survival of the fittest," or to be 
regarded as the sphere of mechanism rather than of morn' ' 
In theory the Church aimed at spiritualising industry by rcl 
it to the central purpose of man's life, his preparation for Ihc 
Kingdom of God. Economics were one branch of ethics or 
politics; ethics and politics were one branch of thee' 
As presented both in the schoolmen and in popular sermon ._ 
note of mediaeval thought upon economic relationships is 
that economic activities must be estimated by the contribution 
which they make to the welfare of man as a spiritual being, 
and that economic conduct is one branch of moral conduct 
which must be judged by the same principles as are applied 
to conduct of other kinds. What sanctifies or < ^ the 
pursuit of wealth is the purpose for which it i 1 on. 
** The law of Divinity is to lead the lowest through the inter- 
mediate to the highest things." Riches are not an end but a 
means. The acquisition of them, if not laudable, is harmless 
as long as it is regarded as one rung, and a low rung, in th*^ 
ladder of human life ; as long as it is duly subonlinated to it 
main spiritual purpose. Thus trade is honourable, when a man 
" refers the moderate gain that he seeks from trade to the 
sustenance of his family or to the relief of the distressed, 
or when he applies himself to it on behalf of the public interest. 
that the necessaries of life may not be wanting to his country 
and seeks gain not as an end but as the wages of his labour.' 
But the desire for gain is a sin "if it leads to the despising < 
eternal good for temporal " or if it causes another to be in 
want. " For temporal goods are subject to man, that he may 

♦ Chauoer, The Persones Tale, 5§ 64-66. 

t St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theol. 8a, 3ae, q. 99. art. 4. 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 87 

use them for his nt-r* ssity, not that he may set up his rest in 
them, or be idly - about them.*** 

Hence the shaij. n.i.ilism between personal conduct — the 

sphere of monUity — and economic transactions — the sphere 

' ' ' ichissoii ' ' <• of later thought, 

to mo'-t or is denounced 

vcre 
1 ;rm 

World ; but re certainly different. A of 

wlmt is now j, ,. as enterprise would have h. iicd 

by till m as covetousness. A good deal of prudence would 
havf lutn called avurice ; of thr *■" .(ss, charity, and of 
pLMni l)u->!i;<ss, extortion or fort^ r usurj'. Mediaeval 

" to be controlled 

.)tle, but because 

;• L did not ngard the economic world 

; 1 :. -. _ , inent of life with standards of its own, 

jod it by principles derived from current ethical and 

conceptions. That is not to say, of course, that these 

s were not often abandoned in practice. But in 

;: ' knew they v- trly and 

w r !g by their n( > onduct 

^'> I jn"ound that " ]; ^s.*' 

I.'. iiought, there is a . ''ty, 

f "T ' I n designed for the common advantage of two 

P' ' pk .: wt bear heavier upon one than upon the other, 

fir.'l the contract between them should proceed upon the 

- ',, of equality.'*t There is a just price, the price which 

lual advantairc to bnvor and to sellrr. There is a fair 

'■iary 

laui hiniM-ll" and v in his 

- , ' ty, and whirh i for his 

; for his labour. The man who tll^ n- ot his 

ir'» necevsity to exact more, Un iii.i.. |".list, the 
'•r. the forestaller, is guilty of sin. He is guilty, above 
ill.. :kr th< II ur- r, he exacts i' ' " ' ' r of his own. 
|",,r w -k H il.'.v. and "to \ ir#T. to live 

ir ; < •() natiiri-.'I Lii 

i.- tc. kinds of contr; 

' f usury was dincted against aini 
■ ... :>argain, not only Ixtwrrn Ixirrowtr and lii.^. .. 
i buyer and seller and landlord and tenant. It was 

' xampic of '• unreasrr '' - - ' '* 

.' to which all n 

•<ma TkfOt 2n, 2a<-, q. 55, art. A. 
1 . 
: <>^r»oii, de CoHtrttri, pur*. 1, ran*. IB. 



88 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

were referred. Nor were these conctptions mere theories. 
Munieipal reeords show that they were the a.sMin)ptioiis of 
phiin men who sat on juries and made good ordinanees for th( 
government of boroughs. They had their praetical foundations 
in the economie circumstiinccs of vdlage and town What 
the Chureh did was to work them into a system, by relating' 
even the details of economie hfe to the universal principles vi 
the Christian faith. The eharaeteristic of niediirval thought 
on social relationships — the thought not only of the "thinkirs " 
but of some part at least of th< practical world— was the 
attempt to regard all economic questions as a sub-department 
of the grand intenst of human life — religion. 

47. The essence of the d ff». ri^ice between these ideas and modem 
economic opinion is the disappearance of tliat characteristic. 
It has been txpressed in a variety of ways, as the substitution 
of science for ethics, or of reason for authority, or of enlightened 
self-intt rest for the ruJe of custom, or of economic rationalism 
for religious tradition, or of imptrsonal laws for jxrNtdial 
morality. The change was a gradual one, a transformation 
extending over centuries, the beginnings of which can l>e dis- 
covend in the fourtfcnth century, if not earlier, and the full 
implications of which were not evident until the middle of the 
seventeenth. And it did not take place, as is sometimes sug- 
gested, at the Reformation. The Renaissance and the Refor- 
mation gave, it is true, a tremendoas impetus to the rexHsion of 
accepted economic, as well as of accepted political, assumptions. 
But in Kngland, at least, there was in the sixteenth century no 
sharp or definite breach vnih the traditional view, which 
held that economic activity was part of ordinary moral conduct, 
and, as such, to be judged by moral considerations. Indeed, 
the very reaction produced by swift economic changes, the 
confusion caused by the enclosures and the spread of pasture- 
farming, the increase in vagrancy, the confiscation of monastic 
estates and of part of the property of gilds, the growth of 
foreign trade and of an international money market, gave a 
shock to accepted ethical standards which caused the traditional 
conceptions to be reaffirmed with the heightened emphasis 
of a doctrine which is menaced. Faced with problems created 
by the transition towards capitalist agriculture and capitalist 
industry, writers and preachers repeated the arguments of the 
schoolmen against *' uncharitable " dealings, unreasonabN 

{)riccs, unconscionable rents and fines, the " bringing of the 
ivings of many into the hands of one," and the damnable 
sin of usury, because the schoolmen had systematised sentiments 
which had their roots in popular instincts. 

48, Not only were such ideas reaflfirmed, but tentative attempts 
were made to apply them. Ecclesiastical courts appear to have 
continued to deal with certain economic matters throughout 



1 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 80 

the sixteenth century. StTular authorities us<>d new machint-ry 
to turorec ancient traditions. HLa^tons of Slate btip|Hti into 
the til h{ wlucb wa-s gradually bt-ing vaoatid by tht-olojjy, and the 
fact tliat the obji-<*t> of itatfsnicn in intcrft-nng witlj (cononiic 
life Wirt- in reality of a st-veniy practical charactir did not 
pri-wnt their bvinj; normally ixprcssrd in the customary 
p't ^ of nli;jioii. If the man who by coniprlitive 

ni turUd tustomary relationships, who raised rents, 

or ■ t " farms, or coriicnd the wheat supply, or 

charjfeu _ cionable usury was, from one point of view, 

guilty of sin. he was, from anotht r. a disturber of the peace ; 
a bad neighbour who was un(>opuiar in liis own locality, a 
troublesome citizen whose con<luct nuijlit lead to a not. Hence, 
in s ' in rurallifc prixluced by the dissohiti.n 

of >rj(ov'ernmentj» endeavoured to enliree 

tr V lards, partly because to enforce tradition was 

tfi »y to enforce order, partly because statesmen 

hi.i ifi.i r i<d from the Church the conception that there was 
a stoiid-ird of equity in econonnc transactions which oujjht 
to be maintaine-d, and. however practical or even Machiavellian, 
could not step outside the circle of ideas into which they were 
bom. Pre-ambles of statute-sand prixlamations an- bad evidence 
f r v'l.it men did. but tluy are jjtxKJ evidence for what men 
^ L they ou^ht in deeeiicy at least to ap|x.'ar to believe ; 

i . i<- mixture of motives is illustrate-d by the legislation 
a;^a 1. I depopulation, the statutes forbidding, and then limiting, 
Usury, and the attempts of the Privy Council to control prices, 
to prevent engrossing and fore-stalling, and to enforce on 
reluctant panshes the maintenance of persons in distress. 
If^ *-'!'?' I'l' '" '• with econonnc activity was un|x>piilur 

^ 'I' '' ' and financiers, the activity of juries in 

prcseiir rs and moneylenders suggests that it was 

in ac( ,1 the opinion of the peasants and small 

111 1 t r> wno lonii.d the bulk of Elizabethan se)ciety. and who 
r' • . . <i the nicdia-vad distrust of the un-neighbourly conduct 
(1 • ii man who was " a great Uker of advantages." liunyan't 
e- : ' Uf)on the economic im. of Mr. liaiii 

1"^ I expression of sentimci ti lingered n. 

I' ' after ' d be-en ex)Klkd 

- by the i ucc of "Political 

• tic." 

i.r roiirsf. hv the middle of the »eventernth century 
uned to dep<»M-, first n lgi«ms, and then 
'" ' l.lll..ll-^ irom their position of tli' * ' prc- 

fi'ii ' ' ' ' ' 'in standanJ bv which tconomic tnu wire 

to l" tried. Ill ■ ' ■ ■ " 

gruutli of for* ;. 
agriculture aad capilaUt mduslry, made it diihcuit to treat 



40 LHKISTIAMTY A^U 1^DUSTU1AL TKUULtMis 

life as am of 

ic and covetd . . ''^'" 

merchant and customer were neighbours, and master and 
ser\'ant lived in the same house. As these conditions spread, 
economic conduct is no longer regarded as laudable or blame- 
worthy, for men are no longer responsible for it. They are 
like men thrusting one another in a throng, or like the wheels 
of a clock, in which " the first wheel, beiii^ stirred, drivrs the 
next, and that the third, till the last moves the instrument 
that strikes the clock."* And as economic activity escaped 
from the sphere of morals, it entered that of objective science, 
which is concerned not with right or wrong, but with facts, 
and the laws of which are generalisations, not precepts. The 
forces which had fostered economic rationalism in Florence in 
the fourteenth century fostered it in England in the sixteenth. 
In 1550 it was still something of a novelty, in literature though 
not in practice. Sixty years later Biicon e< - it witn 

some remnant of the older tradition. By th- of the 

seventeenth century it set the tone of economic thought. Its 
progress in the Elizabethan age may be traced in the debates on 
the statutes against depopulation, or still more in the debates 
on the usury laws, in which quotations from St. Augustine and 
the Psalms jostle appeals to practical exi>erience of the opera- 
tions of economic self-interest.t Naturally, the new science 
was individualistic, for its essence was the denial of any 
authority superior to the individual reason. Naturally, also, 
the Church came to accept it as a substitute for its traditional 
teaching as to social ethics. For the Church no longer was an 
intellectual leader, but went to school with the world, both 
when it was wise to do so and when it was not. It 
had no independent authority, and no distinctive inter- 
pretation of social rights and obligations. By the end 
of the seventeenth century the ground had been prepared 
for the triumph of the mechanistic individualism of the 
' teenth, and it was probable that when that triumph 
i( k place the Church, which was the client of the dominant 
aristocracy, would have no alternative theory of society to 
oppose to it. 

(iv) The influenct uj utc ncu. Political Economy 

50. To understand the cause and the effects of the severance 
between the religious and economic aspects of the modern 
world it is instructive to study their severance during the 
period when it was most marked. That period may be con- 

• The Common Weal of this Realm of England {r. 154D), f. R6. Ed. 
F.. Latnond (Cambridjje University PitRs), 

t D'Ewes, Journal of the House of Commons, 1571. 



SOMJhl UISTOUICAL ILLUSTRATIONS ii 

wniently dated from 1776, the publication of Adam Smith's 
U'ealth of Nation*, to 1869, when >' w over the wages 

fund theorv : nru! the central idea o: :. ^ riod may be found 
in the lai theory, *' the obvious and simple system 

of natural ii..v.i_>. " "Liberty" was invaluable as a means 
of breaking down the barriers and restrictions which, as an 
iri! ( of the Middle Ages, were h; '' w life. 

(" nnd indti'^try had foimd tl i and 

< ' ' by a wire < of j>r*»ttctive 

<i - fixing of w:i es. The new 

■ loctrine was the heavy artillery which blew all this 
I ...a away. The wealth of nations was shown to 
<<in>ist, like the wealth of individuals, in producing more 
f' - — V r\nd to depend upon mutual service between 
^ , not upon an internecine bargain snatching. 

A ages and prices, trade and industrj' 

il level. This was almost the only 

t liu- ru ■ ' from Adam Smith."* His 

41! liiy uncon . „• uneiation of the Corn Laws 

and other protective duties, of Combination Laws against 

workmen, and Settlement Acts restricting the freedom of 

In! Hi' if, his proposal to tax ground rents and not food, were all 

d. 

lith hftd denounced the payment of wages 

;. 1 . i. increased population, 

I'l: 'r dictates of reason" 

' ^i ' ' i rate the hours of labour; that "our merchants 

■ i.iiii of the bad effect of high wages say nothing 
•' 11 effect of high profits." But these views of his on 

iuUjiir \*t re equally ignored. Tlie governing classes adopted, in 
short, those parts of the economists' teaching which apjKared 
I'- "US to themselves, and tended to neglect the 

When in 1795. Whit Im-nd tirjjed in the House of 
I mm war 

' ' . , . . , IK" grouiiM 

ht to bo allowed to find their " natural " level, and 
IMI j« . .;if"' • '' 'I the di-^"-**-'''?- ..!♦. r,. .tjvc of lavish out- 
rcUef. W ! > i wit h t ) - y produc<d by t he 

new Cf ' ' (1 iiM.iii weavers begged in 

1808 t ne to fix minimum rates, 

t? '" ■ .1) 

r 'f 

(I to pr 
!. and. 11 , 
! of the II .."t When. 

"T I i I on from 1 -, Iik «<'iMiig classes en*!- ii>"„KAi 

• lift: lul. The Trr ! ' urtr, 17«W>.1»a?. 1017. (I/>npTitnM«). 

t AV, 7 . H<.;rf. 1 -^M. lUul 1811. 



42 CHRISTIANITY AKD INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

to protect thcms<*lvcs by combinntion. Parlinmcnt, by the 
Comhinution Ltiivs of 1799' and 1800, mudf mt-mbcrship of 
a combination a cnminul «»ffi nee. Sueh ninnunts uf an 
industrial eodt- as survived fn»ni an earlier apt' wire alH>lished 
in drfrrenee to the posfK-l i)l frre eoniprtition, almost at the 
very moment that Parlianu-nt pnK'i-ttlcd to protect ajjneulturt 
by a njore strmgtnt Corn Law, In 1M5 it forbade the im- 
portation of foniifn wheat m» long as thi price of wheat in the 
home market did not rise above 80s. It repealed the wage 
clauses of the Statute of Artificers in IHia. and the appren- 
ticeship clauses in 1814, both of which had probably long 
been virtually inoperative, but the enforcement of «hieh htid 
been demanded by consideral)lc numlxrs of the workmg 
classes. In 1824 the last remaining Acts fixing wages, the so- 
called Spitalfii Ids Aets, were rejxaled, although not only the 
majority of employers and workmen in the industry concerned 
who had given evidence about their working, but the Parlia- 
mentary Committee which had reported on them five years 
before, had staU'd that they had prevented the appearance in 
London of the paufx*rism whieh characterised the other silk- 
weaving districts, and had recommended th<ir continuance.* 
68. Parliament was as slow to extend new mi t hods of legislative 
protection as it was quick to abolish the old. As early as 
1784 "public attention was drawn to the state of working 
children ... by that most effectual of all reminders, an 
infectious fever " in one of the cotton districts of Lancashire, 
md a committee of Manchester doctors, in pointing out the 
causes, called attention " to the injury done to young persons 
through confinement and the long-continued labour, to wliich 
. . . the cotton mills have given occasion."! Yet it was not 
till 1802 that Parliament lim ted the working hours of pauper 
apprentices in cotton factories to twelve a day. When, in 
1819, it returned to the subject, it again restricted its inter- 
ference to cotton mills, fixed the age limit below which children 
might not be employed in them at nine years, and forbade any 
person under sixteen to be employed for more than twelve 
hours a day exclusive of meal times. It was not till 1838 
that factory inspectors — four in number — were appointed, 
and not till 1847 that a ten hours' day was established, nomi- 
nally at least, for women and young persons in the textile 
trades. Lord Shaftesbury's account of the struggle to obtain 
factory legislation is well known : " Out of Parliament, there 
was in society every form of ' good-natured ' and compassionate 
contempt. In the provinces, the anger and irritation of the 
opponents was almost fearful. ... In very few instances did 
any mill-owner appear on the platform with me ; in still fewer 

• Rrport of Committee on RUibon Weavers, 1818. 

I Uutchins and Uarn»on,/iutory o/i-'ac(ory Legislation. 1011. (P. S. King). 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTIL\TIONS 48 

thr ministcw of any irligious denomination. At fir^t not one, 

t thf Riv. Mr. Bull, of UruTUy, near BrHclfun! ; and, even 

IiiNt, vrry few. so riiwtd were th« y (t»r in thtmselves so 

•) by the overwhelming influence of lh( cotton lordt. 

more aid from the nudieal than from the di\Tne pro- 

n."* Thus it came about that the new economic world 

I : -r '■ ' ' J and II nil rtvoliitions was not 

II ' ' i\ i xclusivti . luc idea*;, but that those 

ttd H Very narrow aiui ont -sidrd part of eeono- 

I < unconsciously a mere refltclion of a short -sighted 

view of their int*Tests taken by the ruling class of landlords 

and manufacturers. 

54. Can we now begin to answer the question : how could the 

n^ » ' ,te tliosf abusi-s which are sickening even to read of? 

li Id men who were really religious, men sincerely 

{>.i;! r.. i!mI |)< r^Mi.illy benevolent, how could men even of 

r. .MUI1..II N. Mm il. friiil as a quitc natural state of things such 

f.K fN as children of six kept at work in factories from 5 a.m. 

t '» p.m.. girls under eight crawling thrt)ugh coal seams 

en inches high, boys of four sent up flues seven inches 

-•■ju ire, in " a country renowne<i for its humanity " ? 

35, There are several considerations which answer this question. 

(1) Men took the world around them for granted, as we 
are <l'»!n^ in this our own age. They assumed that the pr(»per 
t to accept that station io life unto which it had 

J .<»d to call them. 

The Bible was taken as inculcating resignation in this world 
with the expectation of justice and rect)nijxnse in the world 
to come, and Christianity as not a standanl by which to judge 
iiistit ' 'itjt a.<t a Uivme warrant for submission to tlum. 

Ti rforee, in his Practical Virw t laid down for the 

" tliat their more lowly path has been 

/ tlie hand of Cod ; that it is their part 

f to diikcluirge its duties, and contentedly to bear its 

u. -..ifnces; that the present state of things is very 

•hort ; that the obj(*cts about which worldly men conflict 
»n farrf-rlv nrr not worth the contest ; tliat the peace of mind 
^vii l< r . r» fifftTi indisenminately to all ranks affords 
r ' than all the expensive pleasures which 

n !ian'» rt*ach ; that in this view thf poor 

I that, if their sti|x-riors « re 

ii 1' y arc also cxfxised to many t. as 

fn)m which the inferior classes are happily exi-ni|>ted ; that, 
* liaving food and raiment, they should Ik* therewith content,* 

•ll'xl<lrr. Lift and Work of tk» S^tmOi Ettrl o/ SSnfUtlmr^. 1M7. 

(('.v— 11). 

t N> illtf-rfnrrr, Pmetieal Viem of Ik* Spolem qf Projntd CkritHoM Oh»> 
tratutl trixA Ktai CkrUtkanit^. 1797. 



44 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

since their situation in life, with all its evils, is better than 
they have deserved at the hand of God ; and, finally, that 
all human distinctions will soon be done away, and the true 
followers of Christ will all, as children of the same Father, be 
alike admitted to the possession of the sam- ily inhcri* 

tance. Such are the blessed effects of Cii y on the 

temporal well-being of political communities." 

Paley actually argued that the poor were better off than 
the rich, who lead a languid, satiated existence, whereas all 
the provision which a ptKjr man's child requires is industry 
and innocence . . . *' frugality is itself a pleasure, and the 
nccfssary care and forecast to keep expenses level form an 
agreeable engagement of the thoughts." 

^^- (2) Not only was the social c silenced by the 

theory that " liberty " was '* the order," and that 

any practical " inconveniences " were only temporary and 
certain to be cured as the liberty became more complete and 
competition more unrestricted, but the theory crystallised 
into an accepted maxim that all might safely be left to the 
" enlightened selfishness " of employers ; " landowners and 
farmers by following the dictates of their own in* ' wie 

in the natural order of things the best trustees ns 

for the public " (House of Commons Commit tr(. i,si7). Burke 
said : " It is plainly more the farmer's interi st tlmt his men 
should thrive than that his horses should be well fed, sleek, 
plump, and fit for use " ; and **the benign and wise Disposer 
of all things obliges men, whether they will or not, in pursuing 
their own selfish interests, to connect the general good with 
their own individual success." 

This was the principle invoked against limiting the children's 
working day to eleven hours ; '* the employer is the person 
who knows the different degrees of strength and is the most 
likely to avoid overworking them." Similar arguments may be 
heard in the wool and the cotton industry to-day, backed 
by similar phrases such as ** the indispensable requirements 
of British trade against foreign competition," and " the 
impossibility of free contracts being onerous to either party." 
It is still actually the. case that " young persons " between 
14 and 18 years of age may lawfully be employed for the 
same hours as adult women — namely, 65 J hours in textile 
factories and 60 hours in non-textile factories and work- 
shops. 

57. (8) Another influence which acted as an opiate to the social 
conscience was the teaching of Malthus. This was far from his 
intention. He wrote in 1798 to combat the dangerous optimism 
of Godwin, who would lead men to expect " the perfectibility 
of man " in a near future and by an automatic social process. 
Malthus, on the contrar>% depicted human progress as dogged 
by the menarinc shadow of increasing population ; " man 



SOMK HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 45 

multiplies up to his food . . . the numbers are cut down by 
famine, disease, and vice . . . this is the sharp surgery of 
ProvifT •'!.•.• the ru medieatrix naturce.*' It is true that in his 
secoii I this warm-hearted and generous thinker relieved 

this ' f the stnigjfle for f<>>d in a purely animal society 

^>y 1- J thp hiirmin qiialitif*^ of foro»iifrht and r*»H«w>n ; 

in a f -cje 

•gp. \ . 'ie 

pi^itu- ■(! < ks .,t \ I'-f, misery, disease. But what was really 
a-1 nit' .1 t)v fi was the crude doctrine of the edition of 

!"'»>>; t!i .1 lis introduced in 1803 got little hearing. 

Thus it iKcaiii. <». v.(>ted that poverty was a sort of Divine 
sif- fv-valve to society; evil is allowed to exist that it may 
' ' us to activity; and Mai'' ' ' - • • • :,,^^ 
r I If yv>nr rrr»?\t»xi tho povii c'd 

' ' had, since 171>5, been aetinj? on the 

r ; were to be made up out of rates, 

and ' r salve to the social conscience. But 

gradi: . 1 .. ..u^ian teaching made its way, and was at 

last I in the Act of 1884 abolishing outdoor relief 

to th. u ' d. 

This p . defended as being, if drastic, yet probably 

wholesome. Uut, to be defensible at all, it required as its 
logical complement the repeal of the Com Laws. The Com 
Laws, however, were not repealed till 1846, and an interval of 
twelve years thus was left in which the labourer was thrown 
upon his own ciimings, while the price of bread was increased 
threefold and fourfold by legal enactments supposed to be for 
the landed interests. It is significant that this interval 
witnessed the rise of Chartism. Is our own Poor Law system 
so much moff sntisfHotorv ? After spwnty-five years* ex- 
pcrirr >n that two millions 

^^ P ' ' (KK) a year, besides 

' the children, the sick, 

.s ...ite a severe indictment 

■'^ ' 'I. The Commission was unanimous in 

IK 111- «..ikhouse, t*v n as area, the election 

ms. and the existing i f out-nlief and medical 

r ' I'l fh V it Llic reform of 1834 tried to 

•■"''' !' t • n', whereas we now see tliat 

' 'lis are I •, remet! n'storntivc 

The r< : md the ' rat«>rs (and 

of us have served m tli . tried to carry 

'i. ir nriiwM.vi. V vi.r.. unc4>i. .,...,.-. > ......x...^ the cconomic 

ion, and even poverty, were due 
• T, and II * * ''ten 

on. "!' iiie 

e, or vice, utul eun Lk.- by 

' e •* ... ••to turn the ii. itut 



46 amiSTIAXITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEIklS 

labourer into a pauper, all that is required is to offer relief 
without eoiiditions ; conversely, to turn a puup<-r into an 
independent labourer, all that is required is to offer relief 
only on harder conditions, to make tlu- lot of tht- pttU|K.T less 
eligible than that of the irulept-ndent labourer." We see Ixttcr 
now the ludienius as^K'et of thei»e complacent himplificutions 
of the economic pn»blem. 

58. (^) It was Ricardo's economics which completed the final 
stnije in making social evils tolerable to the cotiNcienee even of 
the Ix'st men in the generations from 1770 to 1869. The laws 
regulating pn)fits and wages were, like all scientific laws, fixed. 
The pnce of labour depended on the supply of it and the 
dt-mand for it ; this market price of lalxjur tended towards 
the natural price of lal)our — that is, the minimum of sub- 
sistence. This was taken to be the " iron law of wages '* ; and 
thus science seemed t<» put its seal on the " irremediable poverty 
of the ptK)r." "Thus came the Wages Fund theory by a 
combination (as it has been well put) of Malt bus's Law of 
population and Ricardo's theory of values, each in a crude 
form." There was by this theory a fixed fund devoted to 
wages, the amount available for each individual Ix'ing simply 
the quotient of the total sum divided by the numlxr of 
recipients. No human fffort could altrr this, for at any time 
it was the mere ratio of capital to population. All that human 
effort could do was to alter the relative distribution of the 
shares — that is, to interfere between the recipients, and this 
interference would be unjust. Thus the influence of this theory 
during the peri«Kl from about 1820 to 1870 was imalculably 
great in staying social pnigress, in lulling the conscience of 
the educated classes, and therefore in encouraging a violent 
class antagonism. 

59, When all these currents of thought are taken into account, 
it becomes intelligible how gocwl men could tolerate appalling 
social conditions. Many such men, like Sadler and Buxton, 
felt the respi^nsibilities of wealth. Many, like Romilly and 
Whit bread, were ardent reformers. But all of them, and 
society as a whole, were the victims of the divorce of economics 
from etnics. Moreover, economics was not merely non-ni(*ral, 
it was even non-human, and therefore narrow and misleading 
even in the economic sphere. Nowadays we begin to see 
this, and our task is first to accept the modern economists' 
work in putting their science on a broader human basis, and 
then to keep economies in its proper [ilace as a subordinate 
study in a wider social conscience. It was all painfully wrong. 
But it belonged to a time when spiritual life in the Church was 
at its lowest level. Hence there was no spirituni force strong 
enough to make the stubborn protest of faith and chanty 
against what seemed to be deference to the strictest scientific 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 47 

tcarhin?. After that, spiritual life was absorbed in the effort 
t< I its ftet attain, and hence it was only after th»- dis- 

tiu- : . ., spiritual n-vivals of the different movements that 
the Chureh bi-x^^n in the way that is described b<*low to occ-upy 
itself u •' i.il policy and nform. The mistjtke may well 
recur n come in ver^' different forms if popular tlieories, 

lal. are not controlled by spiritual forces. 

p> which laid the foundations of modem 
I. ice of the Chureh as a witness to social 

r._ . it IS hunlly an exaggeration to say, aintost 

n J.' „ \Ac. It help<*d, throujjh th'? establishment of the 
Na- i.ul Society, to sow the s«-eds of what afterwards became 
H iw ' iMial system of elementary educatitMi ; and individual 
( i . like Sadl»r. Shaftesbury, Oastler, and Bull, the 

\ H rl» y. foujiht for tact«>ry lejjislation in the lace of 

ar Iminjj body of coniplM<ent indifhrence or 

eii V. But against the prevalent materialism 

of the a^c, with its sacrifice of human welfare to the rage for 
productivity, its reverence for the rights of pmperty and its 
contempt for the rights of men and wome-n, against the indus- 
trial oppn-ssiun whieh ground the workers in factory and mine 
and the jKilitieal oppression which culminated in Peterhxi, the 
Church raistd no voice of warning or protest. Nor indeetl, 
with a fiw cxjii>pieue»us exceptions, does it appeur to have 
n I 1 that a wurninp was rttpiired, or that spiritual issues 
%v r ivolved in the reshaping of social relationships under the 
p- p- of the new economic forces. The Chuich carrud 
ii*l«* :J»e strange and turbulent world of modem industry the 
ea^y-going ai-ceptanec of the estabUshed order whieh had 
ff. ' d it in the • ' * fh century, and repeated the 
^^ '^f that nril ift«T it h»(\ Kjjun to be dis- 

\ icy. it shared 

NM'ii 'hill ti France had 

inspired. It was hardly more indep<ndent int'-llectually than 
it w.k K<k inlly. It is the fatc of those who have not any ilear 
n ' • >n of social rights and obligations to be at the mercy 

( f vtho have. Uninspired by any distinctive conception 

( f il Values draw^n, as such a coiut ption miL'ht have b« ra, 

f ■ 111 th« ( ' ' !«• rest of the 

M iiw-r <liisv. • ^. who th''m- 

k' '• t" >-.s< vsf (I. UK ! id of religum ; hi 

5, ,Mw J to c'>iilirm • \v that moral con j 

im It vant to industry*, lliat social misery was an inevitable 
innd'-nt in ecnnumic progress, and thut attempts to remove 
l.y I. islative intervention the e\i|s of the economic syslern 
ti.'i ' !i- .iM' udc<l by ctmwquencrs di^ to all, miuI 

j> ir^' ivtrouH to th«»sf for whoM intervrnJi.n 

wa» designed. The natural cotutequencc wa« a presentation 



61 



48 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

of religion which offered it to til ' ' is a preset .' f .< IaI 

order and to the poor as a coii . for a mi a as 

' " '• in an i t world. "The > ht 

mer not ! <! with nature; 'ht 

1 hjm not to quarrel with the dispensations of God. For 

u 11 minds Christianity was not a standard by which to 

judge the institutions of society, but a reason for accepting 

them."* 



(v.) Recent Developments 

We have to confess, then, the failure of the Church to give 
a faithful witness in the face of the moral problems which the 
Industrial Revolution brought forth. Can we say that the 
Christian conscience of the present time is awake to social 
duty ? At least there is a movement away from selfush 
individualism, a consciousness that a religion which is 
'* drenched with self-regard " cannot be a genuine Chris- 
tianity, a growing conviction that the one purpose worth 
striving after is the Kingdom of God, and that no region of 
life, least of all the sphere of human industry, can be excluded 
g2. from His sovereignty. 

Apart from the strong and effective protests of individual 
reformers, like Lord Shaftesbury, against the worst evils of the 
new industrialism, the first attempt to substitute the Gospel 
of the Kingdom for the " gospel of self-interest " came from 
the Christian Socialists, among whom Frederick Denison 
Maurice and Charles Kingsley hold the place of honour. The 
name did not imply any collectivist economic theory ; in 
Maurice's words : " Anyone who recognises the principle of 
co-operation as a stronger and truer principle than that of 
comjHJtition has a right to the honour or the disgrace of being 
called a Christian Socialist." 

Other teachers, such as John Ruskin, proclaimed their 
prophetic message ; other reformers gave themselves to 
practical effort. The leaven was at work and the Christian 
conscience was beginning to rebel against the postulates of 
the older individualism. Then, in the year 1889, a group 
of Churchmen, among whom Brooke Fosse Westcott and 
Henry Scott Holland were leaders, endeavoured to concentrate 
and organise Christian opinion on social duty, and the Christian 
Social Union was formed. Its objects were described as 
follows : 

1. To claim for the Christian law the ultimate authority to 
rule social practice. 
• 2. To study in common how to apply the moral truths and 

• Hammond, The Town Labourer, 1760-1882. 1W7. (Longmann.) 



1 



SOME HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 49 

principles of Christianity to the social and economic difficulties 
of t ! nu*. 

H . Christ in practical life as the living Master and 

King, the enemy of wrong^and selfishness, the power of right- 
eotisnrss and love. 

NVhile many members of the Christian Social Union have 
(i« \. .♦. (I th ' ' to practical social work, its main function 
h.i^ \« . ri f (i 1. In its various branches throuf^hout the 

(I serious study, and its published 

work of experts, covers a wide field 

<»i >. .. I il refj)rm. Other Christian communions have followed 

its 1. I, I in the formation of social unions or guilds, and an 

t ii(ir;i\ ,,ur has been made, with considerable success, to draw 

tlK>.c' union*; * — •'■ - •' - f^rence and united action. Mention 

should also ties, such as the Church S<x;ialist 

^ ■ hcmselves more closely with 

\\ 1 i;r*anceofthe^ e organisations, 

but ii< ' (it an awakening conscience. 

It int that, at the Pun-Angliean Congress in 1908, 

til' which dealt with social subjects aroused the widest 

p 'piilar mt. r, >t. So far as the leaders of the Church are 

'utions of the Pan-Anglican Synods in 1888, 

red to elsewhere in this Report — are strong in 

refonn. Nor need the Bishops who 

• of Lords be ashamed of their record, 

' 1 ird to their voices and votes 

i I'l.il- '1 i _ / cts. And with regard to the 

L'- it body f»f Christian |)eople, we may fairly claim that at 

1 it <<>m" of the driving force wliich has made for a better 

I ! r lias come from those who beheve "that each 

i!i ' ' ' the translation of a 

fr.: 

' of the war has 

rvcning the social 

<•« of Christians. All arc restilved that the sacrifice 

st fM»n shall not have been in vain, and that among the 

Ti : ' I f • i; f be a new and better order in which justice 

ami III. ii.ixliip ' ! :" - - ^|' '"'—■, tians are convincetl that 

this new order i^ n the principles of Christ 

. \\c know our past failure in 

1 now it is too much to say that 

red to work Christ's 

: ' o mukc the saonftccii 

!»cy require, but there is a dawn of hope, and the 

, r.t;.... r., .V- Iw.ff.... J,..- 



CHAPTER IV 



Urban Lifb and Industry 

(i.) Introductory. 

(ii.) The ru-ed of a new Kpirit in economic life, 
(iii.) The danircr of acqtiii'scence in faniilinr 

(iv.) T)ie treatment of human beings as " ha 

(v.) The over-emphasis of the motive of self-interest, 
(vi.) The co-existence of |)overty and riches, 
(vii.) The evi! of insecurity and unemployment, 
(viii.) The : ' loyer and employed, 

(ix.) Co-oj (f, not competition for 

privatt- L'Jiiii, tiie true principle of industry, 
^x.) The establishment of a living wage and of adequate 

leisure, 
^xi.) The prevention of, and provision for, unemployment, 
(xii.) The protection of children and young persons, 
(xiii.) Association of workers and of employers, 
(xiv.) The industrial employment of women. 
(xv.) The need of a new attitude towards profits, 
(xvi.) The development of local government, , 
(xvii.) Housing, 
(xviii.) The parish priest 
(xix.) Summary of conclusions. 

(i.) Introductory 
*^« In the preceding chapters of this Report we have emphasised 
the applicability of Christian teaching to all aspects of social 
life ; we have endeavoured to indicate the principles which, in 
our judgment, should inspire, not merely individual Christians, 
but the social institutions and conduct of a Christian com- 
munity ; and we have given a stimmary sketch of the interpre- 
tation placed upon those principles and of their practical 
application or partial neglect in some preceding periods of 
history. What we have already said in general terms we desire 
to repeat with special rcfeience to the practical problems which 
are the subject of this chnpter. Christians cannot regard any 
interpretation of Chri<:tianity. or any conception of economic 
life, which would divorce the theory or practice of industry or 
commerce from the ethical traditions of the Christian Church, 
as representing more than, at best, a temporary phase of social 
thought and development. It is tnie, of course, that the 
primary appeal of Christianity is to the individual conscience. 
But the individual is a member of a society : his faith is to be 
known by his works : and the expression of the Christian faith 

50 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 51 

held hy individuals ought to be a society which reveals the 

.1 '-ofit* faith in its motives, its corfjorate life. itspracticaJ 

of conduct and its institutions. Among those 
1 ■ tr\' and <■' ' ' ce. 

\\ .'that tl. M^ 

I V in thiir |ki uduct. but 

II activity and ' _ n. and that 
it is the duty of the Christian Church to urge that considerations 
of Christian morality must be applic' ♦- '>" '^iich social 
relationships. 

(ii.) The Need of a New Spirit in Economic Life 

'6, T\\< it such general considerations and turn from 

thrni ri the main features of the economic civi'isa- 

t iround them cannot fail, wc think, to feel 

a . ;is to some of the motives by which it is 

III ;iirrd, of the methods which it adopts, and of the results 
ui ]f Mr, uln<»t.$. We recogni^, indeed, that many of the 
• ' from the era of almost revolutionary economic 
<• ii hardly more than a century ago, transformed in 
t'.' i-i thi" vi-ry fahrir of social life, and laid u|>on a 
I ns of our modern industrial 
^ i ; that partly thn»ui:h the 
i: 'ive of public spirited inciividuals, partly throufjh the 
grvvth of voluntary combinations, partly through legislation 
such as, to give only one example, the Factory and Workshops 
Acts, there has been, since the early part of the nineteenth 
century, a marked improvement both in the material well- 
^ ■ ^ '' '«• and in the moral si " ' 'in 

Mt is, indeed, prrri h 

'• which i-r 

I >grcss in r- 

:id quHlities of skill, endurance and initiative 

u. . ,,.. ..i(»n in the existing organisation of industry, 

or the general confidence and mutual gcxxl faith upon which 

'' " ' ' . Wc do not forget thjit, of those engaged 

1 ire many in nil rUss/'s who cnrrv fh** motives 

♦o the 
; ipic is 

1 f«»r gixnl among ail with whom they are 

■ i''t. We have endeavoured to avoid the 

I to any particular economic onler what are 

'i ult-. wi ,i neies of human nature, or of allowing the 

I i uUi\ and excejitional featun^s of industrial life to prcju* 

<1. ' ir , ' ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ ics. 

67. i:^' r the 

^ he 

>:. . . _, : la 



52 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

whatever, we, nevertheless. And it impossible to resist the 
conclusion that, in certain fundamental respects, that system 
Itself is gravely defective. It is defective not merely in the 
sense that industrial relations are embittered by faults of 
temper and lack of generosity on the part of the < 
of the employed, and of the pentTal public alike, bu 
the system itself makes it exceedinjjly dilticult to carry into 
practice the principles of Christianity. Its faults are not 
the accidental or occasional maladjustments of a social order 
the jfeneral spirit and tendency of which can be accepted as 
satisfactory by Christians. They are the expressions of certain 
deficiencies deeply rooted in the nature of that order itself. 
They appear in one form or another not in this place or in 
that, but in every country which has been touched by the 
spirit, and has adopted the institutions, of modem indus 
trialism. To remove them it is necessary to be prepared for 
such changes as will remove the deeper causes of which they 
are the result. 
68. We cannot, therefore, agree with the view sometimes ex- 
pressed which would allow Christians to take for granted the 
general economic jc ly, and %«• 

their attention to ^ ntal shor li 

relieving individual distress, in the belief that if men will live 
conscientiously within the limits of established industrial 
arrangements, without seeking to modify them, the result will 
be such a society as can be approved by Christians. Nor can 
we accept, without large qualifications, the suggestion that the 
attempt to modify them is impracticable, on the ground that 
any other arrangement is " contrary to human nature." " We 
recognise, indeed, that the large changes which are necessary 
must be carried out gradually, in a spirit of tolerance and of 
mutual charity and forbearance. But wc think that it is 
precisely the general economic organisation of society which is, 
in some respects, defective ; that the efforts of Christians 
should be directed not merely to attacking particular evils as 
they arise, but to discovering and removing the roots from 
wh'ch they spring, and that Christian teaching supplies a 
sufficient motive to make practicable any change which is right. 
It is not enough, therefore, merely to cope with those defects 
in our economic life which have become so clamorous or sensa- 
tional as to attract general attention, for by the time that they 
are sensational they may have become almost incapable of 
peaceful removal. It is necessary to make such changes in 
the normal organisation of society as may prevent them from 
arising. The solution of the industrial problem involves, in 
short, not merely the improvement of individuals, but a 
fundamental change in the spirit of the industrial system 
it«elf. 



I 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 58 

(iii.) The Danger of Aeqmeeeenee in Familiar EviU 
We shall endeavour, in a subsequent part of t his chapter, to 

state t* - • -*iplcs upon which, as we think, such a fundamental 

chan^ i be based, and the direction in which it should 

proceed, it ^' " Hy what v. to 

say later, at r n for put ice 

t ' : id ol s»ocial 

1 . , . , itc gain by 

whi< li It tends, at the present time, to be too commonly 
governed. But there is a danger lest grave social evils should 
meet w^ith acauiescence precisely because they are well known. 
Before* therefere, we approach these larger issues we would 
urge our readers to reflect once more upon certain aspects of 
modtr ir minds but which 

yet ca isly by the Christian 

consc ciiee. \Vc would ask them to put from them for the 
moment the whole b<Kly of assumptions and presuppositions as 
to the objects, nuthcMJs and consequences of our industrial 
society, wliich habit lias made a second nature, and to approach 
thr^e commonplace phenomena of economic life with the 
<1' ' ' nt of observers who are introduced to them for the 
t and to whom long custom has not reconciled their 

lied their anomalies, no;* blunted the edge 

( iv.) The Treatment of Human Beings as " Hands " 
We would call their attention, in the first place, to the 
ir niwl .1^ \v«' think, unjustifiable position of tuh. vrrTna- 
' i wage-earners are placed by the o: )n 

ot jinHlrru jiiuu Miy, CX' ' ■■ o far as it has been nu>uimii by 

law or by voluntary co: n. We do not allude, of course, 

to th< '- s and 

re^ila .iking, 

\ but js one of 

:i mind is the 

! he has emanci- 

\^>-'- liis fellows, the 

worker is 1 idenee for his livelihood 

"r - ■ ' iiiisation he 

i^ i(>s even to 

■•ss 

.!.d 

he 

.m. We do to 

\^ -i-s in 

til II' r. nt muustnes ana in aiiiercnt pans oi tnc countr}'. But 



54 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTHIAL PROBLEMS 

we think that the common description of workers as *" handi '* 
summarises aptly an aspect of their economic position wliieh it 
Qottiie less degrading because it lias hitherto met with too general 
acquiescence. '1 he suggestion is lliat the worker i-. an accessory 
to industry rather than a partner in it ; that his physical 
strength and manual dexterity arc rcqu.red to perform its 
operations, but that he ncithtr has a mind which require:* to be 
Consulted as to its policy nor a personahty which demands 
coiisiderutiun ; that he is a hired servant whuse duty ends with 
implicit obedience, not a citizen of industry whose virtue is in 
initiative and mteUigence. , 

71. Nor, indeed, is the evil merely a matter of words. Current 
phraseology relleets only too laithfully certain common features 
of cuirciii pruetiee. It is true, of course, that in most tirms in 
some .ndustries and in some lirms in most iiidu>>tr>es the 
workers arc gradually being conceded a different status by their 
employers, or are wiimmg it for themselves. In an increasing 
number of trades practical experience of the actual working 
of trade uiuoiusin is leading employers to understand the ad- 
vantages ol combination, and trade unionists to understand 
the problems and dilhculties of employers. There is good 
hope, as we jKunt out in section (xiii.) of this chapter, that 
these improved relations will form the basis of such seheiiies of 
closer eo-operation as have been suggested in the Whitley 
Report,* and in other similar proposals. Moreover, it is right 
to acknowledge with appreciation the attempts which are 
being made by an increasing number of firms to intro<iuce 
into industry more humane and intelligent relations than 
those of the " cash-nexus " denounced sixty years ago by 
Carlyle, through the development, in various forms, of what 
has come to be called '" welfare-work." Provided sueh 
cxixTiments are admiiustered m a spint, not of patronage 
but of equality and mutual consideration, they deserve nothing 
but sympathy and approval. 

72. But the orgamsed workers form a minority f of the whole 
working population, and something more, indeed, than 
organisation, as hitherto understood, is necessary if the worker 
is to enjoy n(»t merely better material conditions, but an 
economic statas of greater dignity and independence. We 
desire to avoid exaggeration, and we recognise that, as we 
have already said, the workers in certain industries are in a 
much stronger position than in others. We think, ncverthc- 

• Utconstruction Coniniittce. Sub-Coniinittce on Halations Beiwet-n 
E^ipluycrs aiid Eiupluycd. Jnlerim tUporl on Joint bUiudiitg Councils, 
1917. [Ul.bOOtf.J 

t ill* ioi;ii iiiuiibcr of tnule unionisu in the Unit* • 
\3f-T, 1013, was given by tt»e Board of Tnwle Sev' "/ 

Labciir StatisliCii of ttM' United Kiugdnru om 3,9b7,115, tuid uu ixuiitbec 
AUl, 1917 (inciiidiMg i;)U,UUO teacben) it !■ cetunuted from auotbtr bOUrc* 
as appro sdniateiy 4,950,U0n. — 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 65 

l«ss, that it would not be unfair to say that large numbcn 
of workuig poopic are at the present time employed on terms 
wl. ' ! that they are means to the pnxiuetioa 

ot r than thLiib»elvc$ the human end lor whom 

wr.iiiii i> 1, They too often liave eau>e to feel 

th kt rf; \ ctcd by an industrial autoeruey, which 

is d. both kmdly and capable, but whieh is 

fi , ._ ......1 preeihcly because it is an autocracy, and 

(>t r ui>e, in so far as it controls their means of iivtlihuod, it 
aJvj, not the less certainly because often unconsciously, con- 
trols tluir livrs. The conditions i>( their work may be deter- 
ni I. but for tlu-m, and may be determined by 

til -.ts of persons who are resp«)nsible neither 

to them iKir Ui the community and whose pnmary interest 
niay not be the welfare of the workers but the prolitableness 
>f the business. In sucii circumstances workers are emp'oyed 
when trade is active : they are dismissed when trade is slack. 
Piece-rates m some industries may be arran;;ed and rearranged 
w,' being consulted, ami on no principle tliat they 

c. i. If boys are eheajK'r than mm, mvn may l>e 

1. . iiicd by boys, to the ultimate disad 
1 !i • 1,'h it is happily true tliat in certain u, 
r;i .^ have been made by employers' avsociations and trade 
u ^ for obviating the displacement of lal>our by machinery, 
!' !ill t(x> often the case that the livelihooil of a group of 

rs may be alxilished without corn|>ensation by tlie intro- 
11 of a new pnvevs or machine. Employment may l>e 

ise it would be less convenunt 

■■ regular staff, and, as a result, 

I t may be demoralised ; and since casual work 

!' . - iiabits, some of those who suffer fn>m it most 

I time ctivnc even to prefer it to regular employment and 

.,r,,T-tN:ih for it» diminution or ab«>lition. The 

'• in his craft is often deiktroved bv its subdivision 

!• ' .';■'■. st 

1'. :s 

I •• 

* >c 



..... .«v.._....^ ;..^ ..4.k,..L w.' ..,., v..>uomio 

re which leads to such methods of or industry, 

u , fi'- frrqii'i.r : .' ' * * r. • * ' *'i( xcry individuala 
tiii . Ml mIn() that It IS by 

Do ni ilu n l.> ^t 

only I n and - I, 

off'': '.'■ equid extent. iH-tweeii d 

itliiu^try a c. alul Im f vvii-n dlffennl . _ U. 

Om the one hand, tlu public, ss or 

n^-'^ \xck of thought, in viui V vajo apt to tu^iav inui lU uciUAod 



56 CHIUSTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

for cheap and expeditious service shall be met without regard 
to the reaction of its requirements upon the different classes 
engaged in industry. On the other hand, there are industries 
in which it is the practice for one class of workmen to be en- 
gaged, not directly by the management, but by another class 
of workmen. In some such cases it has happened that the 
sub-contractor, who is himself a workman, has shown to the 
human interests and well-being of his fellow-workmen pre- 
cisely the same selfish indifference as he resents when it is 
shown to him by his employer, and that sometimes members 
of a society organised to sell their own labour dear have even 
used their power to insist on the labour of another and more 
helpless class being offered to them cheap. Such facts show 
only too clearly that there is no one single class in the com- 
munity to which alone the responsibility for social evils can 
justly be ascribed, and that the remedy must be one which 
touches the springs and tendencies of human conduct in every 
section of society. What is on trial is not only the short- 
comings of individuals, but also the quality of a system. 

74. If all classes, however, have some responsibihty for these 
evils, it is the more necessary for all classes to do their utmost 
to remove them. If individuals are often helpless the need 
for a united effort is the greater. Industry exists for man, 
not man for industry, and we cannot believe in the stabihty 
of any society, however imposing its economic triumphs, if 
it cripples the personality of its workers or if it deprives them 
of that control over the material conditions of their own Uves 
which is the essence of practical freedom. Christianity above 
all religions has fostered a keen sense of the value of every 
individual, and Christians cannot acquiesce in the undue 
subordination of human beings to the exigencies of any 
mechanical or economic system. 

(v.) The Over-EmphasU oj the Motive oj Self-interest 

75, {b) The second point which we desire to emphasise is one 
which is connected with the tendency to allow the motive of 
tconomic self-interest excessive influence in the conduct of 
industry, and, indeed, in social life as a whole. We recognise, 
of course, that practice is often better than theory, and that the 
rigour of economic systems is tempered by the conscience and tiie 
kindliness of individuals. But the tendency of the whole body 
of opinion, which assumes that, ^vithin the limits imposed by 
law, individuals and classes are justified in driving the best 
barjjain for themselves which they can, is strangely at variance 
with the traditional ethics of Christianity, and Christians accept 
it too lightly when they regard it as so inevitable as to be hardly 
worth discussion. It may be conceded that the anticipation of 
large financial gains has been a powerful incentive to the 



UllBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 57 

jnrrca'^r* in productive power which has been the most^con- 

t of the it of the last 

hough it : . ( of the most 

improvements have been the work of 

. , ,., . . ...^.rs whose interest in their financial result was 

siiuiii. Hut, wliile it is e\'ident that the economic stimulus of 

1 profit is one cause which has elicited the increased 

on of wealth required by the community, it is also 

''it it is not by itse'f a guarantee that, when • 

anv group of producers are at variance with it. 

I I t n- e greater interest will be preferred to the less. 

K( :•:...- ... ...cs are good servants but bad masters, and the 

(1 u. • r of a society which exalts them unduly is that it may 
evoke a spirit which it cannot control. 

Few who have observed the present tendencies of industrial 

I is altogctlur 
"ver undt >!r- 



coii^uiaer and of the commuiuty seems to be yielding to one 

in which the community is confronted by producers some of 

whom find their interest in close combination. While such 

Cf ir.' * ns have unquestionably great potentialities of 

L' may also, unless inspired by an ideal of public 

•>ted to give private i 

.. Nor can it be .s . 

h IS always resisted at the present tune. On 

(1, there is the fact that in some industries the 

output a] jM I , sometimes to be unduly limited by concerted 

aetion anioiiK' certain classes of workers. On the other hand, 

ti; re is the fact tliat concerted action between manufacturers 

in eert.i: ' " ' ' ' to secure prices 

which . the cost of pro- 



rtamiy do not desire to imply that un- 

is n. .-. ss.irilv t,. I..- i>referred to com- 
, a not unnatural 

icsuii oi tiie eii'Mi i<i avoiii i; ":"'■' upon profitS 

and wages of excefisive coti re to escape 

■ uiger 

•ce- 



of the t 

*^ danger u. ^.....^ 

tlic n^'ti.' m undue pre-cmincnec in 

the coninii anci tiim'tnm oi inaiisiry. 



58 aiRISTUNITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

77, The function of industry is to provide the matorial means of 
a giM)il social life. It is of high importance, thtrtforc, that it 
should be conducted in the manner best calculated to achieve 
this end, that the most elFicient machinery and organisation 
should be used in the production of wealth, that every section 
of producers should give uiigr; ' v the l>est ser\ " iiich 

it is capable, and that no <■ siiould be ii. ! by 

private interests to deprive tikc euiuinuiiity as a vnIi. -, 
increasing benefits which it ought to derive from pr' c 

improvements in the methfxls of prtxluetion. If that con- 
dition is realised, a country reasonably endowed wth natural 
resources is likely to acquire and retain the means of material 
prosperity. If that condition is not realised, it is likely to be 
without them. It is clearly, therefore, the duty of each class 
to contribute what it can to that end, and clearly wn»ng to 
impede its attainment. It lias a right to fair treatment and 
adecjuate payment for its services. It has no right to any- 
thini,' more, or to attempt to extort more by holding the com- 
munity to ransom. Such considerations are relevant to the 
conduct of all classes, both to organisations of workpeople and 
to organisations of employers. It is as unjustifiable for a 
gn»up of workers to restrict the outjjut, or to scamp their work, 
or, because they supply some indisj>ensable article, to use their 
strong economic position to tax the community, as it is for 
manufacturers to do the same by combining to raise prices. 
Nor can such conduct be condoned merely because, in the one 
case as in the other, it sometimes orii;inates as a measure of 
self-defence against undesirable conditions. If the conditions 
are such as to constitute a grievance, there is, indeed, good 
ground for altering them. The community should disjilay an 
anxious solicitude for the welfare of all its members, and, in 
the event of its faiiling to intervene, it is obviously reasonable 
and necessary, under present conditions, that any class should 
be able to exercise the right to self-protection by using in the 
last resort the power which they possess of withlioUling their 
services. But measures of self-protection must not be such 
as needlessly to jeopardise the public welfare, which includes 
that of large classes unprotected by any o 'i(jn. In 

themselves such practices as have been ment jovc are 

plainly anti -social, and the public conscience bhuuid set itself 
against them. 

78^ Such a statement of principle will probably meet with general 
acceptance. But the growing movement towards the substi- 
tution of combination for unrestricted competition makes it 
specially important to emphasise it at the present time. That 
movement, which was visible in certain industries before the 
war, has rjjccived an additional impetus from the re< 
ment of united action to meet both the diiilcuitics o. 



miBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 50 

-y and the problems which will arise on the cnnoluston 
It IS not nccesM»iiry for us to enter into dttail ufwn 



r of con. 


in 


are uit 


iitti- 




(iii, und tiiat !>uch 




tioa by the Govern- 



a lent. 

it will K«---. "v L ^. tliat it woulil be very regrettable 

f thjs tendency towards closer combination between different 

" ■ ' rs were to result in crushing out of existence 

. to which, though they may not occupy so 

ice in tlie public eye as their larger c«jiin>cti- 

• wes much of the clastieity and uilHptabihty 

riai organi:>ution ; nor, indeed, since combined 

iy in most cases to stop short of complete ainniga- 

'»n, will such a result necessarily follow. In itself, the 

' •' r Co-operation between firms which have 

tors sectn^ to offer, apart from the obvious 

a li likely to effect, the possibility of certain 

There are few more im}Mirtant reforms, to 

i m a deliberate attempt ou the part of 

iry so to regulate it a?« to avoid over- 

11, with Its concomitants of overtime and excessive 

one period, and industrial slackness, with itji resulting 

nieiit, at another. In so far as a more exact and 

' * lit of supply to demand i 'by 

, riKlu<»T>, it i»iit,'lit to bet blc 

a Uiore ! level t>l luu for 

>ns of a. j and d< ^ i which 

been characteristic of many, if not most, of our 

It IS e . wevcr, that while the growth of combinations 

' ' Mii.il in facilitating a more stable and ellicient 

<»f iiidustr>-, It is hkely to cause the relations 

I industry and the e«)mmutiity to be 

!<•»• It n»;iy n-sMlt in th*- finstinier 

or 

ion, but for empluisising that increased power and 

must be correlative to, and balanced by, increased 

n%. It makes it peculiarly imiHirtant to insist tliat 

' ' all thing* a ' ' .1 those 

'lit not to s< nt the 

.It, 

c% 

Vkliii ii th< y oiler. 1 ; [ r.)- 

tr( tit»n has the commu....^ ..„ >, . uuli ss 

pubhc opiiuou m all chiMcs recognises that the claims of kocicty 



60 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

as a whole i lior to those <" " ' ' ' ' L 

Christians; j aire the pos; 

to the comiuon ^ood ? What aJi > to the 

struggle of groups for riches and ' -rpt their 

oommon subordination to the principle of public service ? 

(vi.) The Coexistence of Poverty and Riches 

81. (r) If such considerations seem unduly theoretical to some c 
our readers, the same cannot be said of the extreme disparity <> 
income which is the ' ' ' .iat to which we desire to call their 
attention. The co in modern society of riches anc! 
poverty is the tritest thcnic both of the economist and of th' 
reformer, and we do not desire to repeat a miserable and thrice 
told tale. But we would urge our fellow Christians to ask 
themselves once more whether an economic system which 
produces the striking and, as we think, excessive, inequalities of 
wealth which characterise our present society is one which is 
compatible with the spirit of Christianity or in which a 
Christian community ought to acquiesce. 

82. There is a sense, no doubt, in which poverty has in the past 
been the lot of all nrankind to a far <;rcater extent than it is 
to-day. The earth must be conquered before it yields its 
material riches. Man wins his living in the swjat of his brow. 
There is a natural poverty arising from the niggardUness of 
nature which is the condition of most primitive communitie 
If it is no longer sought by the saint, it is borne without hi"^ 
ness of spirit by the fisherman, the colonist, and the pea 
Individuals may be exceptionally unfortunate or ill-qu;i 

by character to maintain the effort needed to secure a I 
hood, but in such conditions individual suffering follows oi 
individual deficiencies. The connection is evident and tli 
responsibility unmistakable. Such poverty is a fact, which 
like other facts, must be cither endured or overcome. It is n(»i 
a problem. Or, if it is a problem, the problem is the technical 
one of discovering the methods by which to conquer the recal 
citrance of nature, not a social problem concerned with th 
relation of man to his fellows and with the economic organisa 
tion of societi'. 
88. But this natural poverty is not that which is characteristi 
of modern industrial communities, and which we are calk 
upon to consider in the present Report. Productive powr 
has been greatly increased in the course of the last tw 
centuries. But the social problem is more acute, not less acute 
than when peasants tilled their own strips of land with thci 
home-made ploughs, or wove woollen cloth in cottages with 
rough hand-loom. It is, no doubt, of high importance that 
the production of wealth should be still further increased, by 
science, by oi^anisation, by energetic and wisely directed 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 61 

.i!)..ur Out the mere increase of production cannot by itself 

m of the social problem wliich arises in thofc 

> III re productive power has already been increased 

d the point which would have been believed possible 

i<je. The problem of poverty in the niodcrii world 

problem not m»T»ly of the amount of wealth 

aspect of it is), but of the 

«'d ; and a mere increase in 

h left the proportions unaltered, would not 

— , in. It might indeed cause it to be felt even 

lore acutrly than it is at present. 

The qn ' ■ M-day is not simply why nature is niggardly 

r why i: > fall into distress. It is why large numbers 

wumen, who have > " "' n into exceptional 

ve a meagre and i is livelihood from 

ir to yield another and a smaller number 

The evil of poverty, in short, is 

lot merely that many have too little for a life worthy of 

■ "^. It is that many have too little, while others have too 

1. It is, of course, precisely because the social problem 

'y one of iii' ' tive power, but of 

i\ acoordanr< of right the wealth 

to 

cry 

I,' men to be rich. It is concerned very much 

M to !>c just. 

We do to enter in detail into an account ot the 

•*'nl d»-^iiiiMiiM>ii of wealth which existed in Great Britain 

• the war. and which will exist again, it is to be presumed, 

terit. But 

' from each 

to corro- 

' <i by great 

of income. The evidence is, in some respects, 

• Oie facts vary to some extent from year to year ; 

• all existing; standards have been temporarily 

' " ' r ' ' t think that 

- ity can be 

• - from Ihf ^^IfTtr fr. IWW.jm.Txil.-wdli., 

^■'- ll-nrv 
>. The 



faniiUrs 1,35(1,000, rrcriwd i^^.ixNi.iMXt. 



e2 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 



86. 



wriously contested. It i's. indfnd, visible to all eyes for which 
long familiarity has not blurrt-d its si^iiificAncp with the nnitral 
tint or custom, and is tfunfirmed by such statistics as ar*- 
avH liable. 

Tlic most extensive inquiry ever made into eaminjfs ana 
hours of labf>ur in different industries in Gnat Hritftin wa.s 
that conduet<d by the Hoard of Trade in lJ)(»fl. Tlir fitrires 
then obtained were in some respects, no doubt, incomplete, 
and since they were publislu-d cireumstances have widely 
chanjjed, both before and diirinf; the war. In \'iew of the 
assistance which exact information can pive to the formation 
of a wise judement upon soeiul questions, it is important that 
such information should be repiihiriy placet! at the disposal of 
the public, and we think that the Department concer- ht 

Well enlist in that task the co-operation of the 1 -il 

Councils suuj,'ested later in this chapter. While, however, 
partifular items in the Report of the Enquiry of 1906 may be 
questioned, the figures supplied by it have been generally 
accepted by competent authorities as giving, on the whole, a 
reliable picture of the conditions obtaining at the period to 
which they refer. The average wages in certain staple indus 
tries in 1906 were stated in that Report • to be as follow ; 



Cotton 

VVooUrn and worsted . 

Tnilnrinp (Ix-spokc) 

Boot and sJux* . . 

B<iildin(; tnuies 

PuMic utility services. . 

Mftal •■n;rin<'cringand shipbuilding 

Railways (other tlum eli-ctric) 



Cotton 

Woollen and worsted . . 
Unen . . 

DrfRs and millinrry (workshop) 
Shirts, undrrrjolliinc. etc. 
Tailnrins (rrauly-niadc) 
Laundry- (factorj') 

• Boani of Trade Report of Enquiry into the Earnings and Hours ' 
Lal)Our oX Workpeople of the United Kingdom : I., Textile Trades in lOoo 



Avernpr wages 


Percentage 


of Adult 


getting 


Malen in one 


less 


rcpn-x 


rnfative 


than 808. 


wee 


kof 


per week. 


1906 or 1907. 




8. 


d. 




29 


6 


60-7 


26 


10 


67 4 


83 


6 


40 1 


28 


8 


58-9 


88 





871 


28 


1 


61-7 


88 


11 


41-0 


26 


8 


7V5 


Ave rape Wages 


Percentage 


of Adidt 


getting 


Wontcn 


over 18 


less 


in one week of 


than 20s. 


Septentber. 1906. 


per week . 


•. 


d. 




18 


8 


50-8 


1» 


10 


91-0 


10 


9 


99-8 


1.3 


10 


85 8 


18 


4 


91-7 


12 


11 


931 


12 


10 


98 •« 



UBBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 68 

87. Wp An nnt. «iiffg#»st, of course, that thrsc statistim pve nn 

thr situation that rxists in 1918. S 

l>oth mnnfy-M'njji's anH pn'rev have* r: 

^\ ' 1 • I as the most fli'ihlr ofRcial ncconnts of the 

C(<>ii< fill!. 1- si'ion of th«* workinurlasses in thedcraHt- preceding 

the war. They indicate the normal social conditions of our 

ape and country, which the subsequent sudden revolution in 

economic standards makes it more important, rather than less 

nbef. What th«'y show is that in each i>f 

•s morf than one-third of the adult ni.ile 

>s. per week, that in two prrat 

ri{j less than 80s. was ovrr 

two-thirds, and in three others more than one-half. To 

put it otherwise, if these earninffs had been maintained for 

everv week throuijhout the year, the averape yearly income 

of Tffilt men in the b<^t paid of these eipht industries would 

fi \ ' . f-n b<'twfen £8.S and £>*9. the average yearly earnings 

• men in the worst paid wouUI have been between 

CTO. It IS, of course, perfectly tnic that some workers 

in ' " 1 ■ ! ; * -v. and many workers in some industries, were 

carniii:: c .u-id! rably above the averaee. But that fact itself 

shows that many other workers must have been obtaining 

extremely low earnings in order to reduce the averncres to the 

t ires iriven above. And. of course, to calculate the yearly 

'''-,"■ s would give an unduly 

m to them, it is true, 

.' ^^t l>c nindr fur the extra of overtime. But 

f i.it fact is more than count» r d by the deductions 

which must be madt! for short time, sicluiess, and unein« 

nl"»"" nt. 

Rgiires do not stand alone. They are supplemented 

* ' ' the later and more detailed researches of 

We need not allude to the works of Mr. 

•r Mr. Ilowntree, which laid the f ' 

: nt inquiries, but which are now. p r r 

te. But we would refer our readers to the exhaustive 

'if the economic position of the working classes in four 

fowns given by the well-known statistician. Dr. Bowley, 

I til ins intok, LivcUhood and Poverty.* As the facts describ<*d 



luon (IVII) [Ot. 58141; VII., ttnitwatj iVrrtr* in 

• l)<>w|«<v Mid num(>tt-H«ir«t. LioeHkpod and Pacert^. lOI.t. fBrll). This 

rwt'ilt mulr workm In thr«r four townn (Nr^rthMnptoa, 
g and Stanky), ooiuidrrrd m m u»!'» ^'i >-•' ""'t "r 



64 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

were collected in 1912 and 1918, the work offers the most 
precise and authoritative picture of the social conditions of 
four towns, ' " lomic character, and in 

geographical iie war. 

89. Itissi (J thai the waives r)f an adult workman 
are norm . . bring up his family in decency, that 
the causes which bring men into poverty are within their own 
control, and that the children of the working classes have as 
good a chance of a life of independence and health as have 
those of the well-to-do. The evidence* of Dr. Bowlcy's 
inquiries, which is in agreement with that collected in 1899 by 
Mr. Rowntree for the City of York, indicates that these sugges- 
tions arc at variance with the facts. As far as it extends, 
what it proves is that in four towns taken together just tmder 
on^-third of the working classes — 82 per cent. — were earning 
prior to the war less than 24s. per week, that between one-sixth 
and one-neventh — 16 per cent. — of the persons in working-class 
households, in one town more than a quarter — or 29 per cent. — 
were in receipt of an income so low as to be insuflicient to 
provide the necessaries of healthy physical existence, that by 
far the most important single cause of poverty was low wages, 
and that about a quarter of all working-class children — 27 
per cent. — were living in households below what is commonly 
called " the poverty line." 

90. Poverty such as this is imperfectly apprehended if it is 
considered only in terms of money. It should be interpreted 
in terms of health and sickness, house-room and overcrowding, 

almost exactly one-third, were earning less than 24«. per week, irrespective 
of any deduction caused !■ mcnt. 

(6) That of all the \v ui these town* 18^^ |x;r 

ptrit.. and of nl! " ' ' " ' - ' • inj 

in a condition i >" 

low a>j f" !x ' .......... wi. ...V. .,c,..,., , .-. .......... ,.■.._. .iial 

■ \ i' of it to be spent in the most economical 

,. !!• ! ;, . ;i|nne). 

(e) Tliat in the case of the households living in poverty the cause of their 
poverty was to be found in the death of the chief wage earner in 14 per 
cent., in his illncRSOrage in 11 percent., in his uneniploynient in 2 percont., 
in the irrrfTuhirity of his work in 2 per c««nt., in the fact that hvi income 
ttxM i " ' for his family of three children or Uss in 26 per cent., in 
the f u income was iiisufTieient for his family of four children or 

morr- ... -,., ,,■ i i-f-nt. 

(d) Thiit 27 fxr f»nt. of all the cliildren in these towns {in one town 47 

i*rr cent, of tfir -scfionl children and 45 per cent, of the infants) were living 

I to reach the low standard taken as necessary for 

• It is uut, of courst, 1 as to the conditions in England as a 

whole, since it omits the t ns of I^nra«;hipp and Yorkshire on the 

one hand, where wages arc r^ there is much 

casual labour, and the rural d west. But it 

indtides two towns (Nortlmnipi.-Ti vmu V.i-n .-..im. < ; m Ti.ioh wai»es ar>- 
relatively high and labour is strongly organised in trade unions. 



I 



UllliAN U¥K AND INDUSTRY 66 

'■ ' less and nental anxiety, 

' a of the i born into the 

\N I il 110 per thou:»and die, on the average, under one year of 

ix^u,* over 200 per thousand in some districts, partly because 

of poverty and of the conditions which poverty creates. It 

nv in> tliat t! !^ of working-class parents pay nearly 

lifth nf t ime in rent, and then cannut obtain 

' d for health and decency. It means 

• should be at home and children work 

it school. It means that many working* 

'^ : .. . aiicr years of labour have not the savings to 

meet a month of sickness or unemployment, cannot afford to 

t:ik'- a holiday, to visit a relative, or to buy books, and fear 

I • iiig so much as the loss of employment which will cause 

Mer. 

, it is true, and bring up 

Will o\*uLiuuc to exist also. They exist. But 

' Yet if they arc condemned to struggle with 

|>overty, it is not that society does not possess the 

n. : producing the necessaries which they arc without. 

For before the war cut short wasteful expenditure, part at 

least nf t!ir pr )ductive power of the nation was appHcd 

■ . s which, if harmless, were not always indis- 

f- were catered for because I he 

of one income of £10,000 

1 the market as the effective demand of one 

of £100. Is there not some grave error of 

the normal lot of many hundred thousand 

"*■••■ ident and industrious citizens, the men who 

have .<[ in the fiehl and the factor}', the men who, 

indeed, t. nd, is one of constant poverty in spite of 

constant i 

W. It • aggregate national income 

'■^ 'i^i- ts per family to an average 

s ol that now received by most 

1 se-em to many insignificant. 

But t l; as a plea against diminishing 

■fi ■ '■ i. ii uic nation's total ii. II, 

' ommunitv toltratr rxti ty 

II ' d. 
fti. . Jie 

• Avcrnjrr of yitin 1911.14. indiistve. The avrrmffr infanlilc morlatity 
imte ficr i.JHXi »«■•-" •'• . I .. .. . ,,^^ 

IBS : St.avh.i.i »rd' 

«• • 
I titUl MoiUtity at A^i^ — 6, la KaikUimI aihI Wtiir*, l»lfl 



W aUUSTIANITY AND IKDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

proviKion of luxuries, before it has been used to supply the 
material conditious of a good life to the whole popuiuUon. 

(vii.) Tlie Evil of Insecurity and Unrrnployment 

98, i^) The poverty which is cuuscd by low wujjes, scriuus as it is, 
would be less intulerable if those wages were regular, ond could 
be earned month by month and year by year wjtl .iniate 

certainty. In I'act, however, the eannngs of lai, rs of 

w !c not only low but mseeure, and then li^ is 

pr ^ and uncertain. In ni(xlcrn society the i; wd 

worker is nurmully unable to earn a living without access to 
plant and material which do not belong tu him. Ue is, there* 
fore, in the ]x)sition of a fenant-al-will whose continued 
employment depends ujKjn his serMces cuntinuing to be dej»irid 
by the per&ou, usually the penonu jicta of a company, who 
empluvb hnn. lience it is inevitable that his position should 
be, and .should be lelt to be, one ol greater precariousness than 
that of an owner ol projH-rty, who even it he is equally poor, is 
not to the same extent dependent for hist livelihood U]ion 
the convenience, good will, or solvency ol some one else. Cases 
in vvhicli the worker loses his employment through some com- 
paratively trivial or unju.stitiable caui>e, a quarrel with a fore- 
man, an indiscretion or blunder, a reputation for being an 
" agitator," may not be common. But they certainly occur, 
especially in the trades where trade unionism is feeble or non- 
existent, and the lact that they occur creates a spirit which is 
not compatible with nmtual confidence, nor with social 
freedom, nor with industrial elliciency. Such insecurity of 
tenure is not merely a material evil ; it is a moral grievance. 
It causes men to feel that they are not fully masters of them- 
selves, and that they live at the will of another person, who 
may act towards them in an arbitraiy manner. 

04. lint individual cases ol arbitrary- dismissal are comparatively 
rare, we believe, m the organised industries, and are only a minor 
aspect ol the problem arising from the precariousness ol the 
workers position. A graver practical evil is the heavy burden 
which the irregularity of industry' itself imposes upon thim. 

The facts of the problem of unemployment have beeu more 
thoroughly investigated than have those of any other social 
problem, and it is not necessary for us to do more than refer 
our readers to the stan<! ks upon the subject.* \Neneed 

only point out that li i all industries at some time, 

and in some industries at almost all times, there is a margin of 
unemployed workers who not only undergo, in the persons of 

• In partintlMr the Royal dcmimlsston on the Poor Laws and Rrlfcf oi 
Dibtn^ Mujority licf/on (\'oK. J. mid II.), AJinorittf Report (Vol. 

III.); i . V nmtployrmrUf lOUO (Longmaiu) ; Htm, CanicU Labour 

tU 0*4 i'w.m), iviti (licU). 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY «7 

themselves and their faniilio«, severe physical privations and 

aout " iij, but wli ■ ' ! 

of ! > The I V. 

' toii of liic iarjjcr llu - of 

' lore the war, liut ti ^ » ral 

_:h a valuable measurement of the cyclical increase 

, ..V ..^.c of uncmpluyntcnt, are no adequate measure of its 

Noliime. Not only is* there the fact that the abnormally 

' uent in certain in ' ' . rismp sonntinies to 

.is concealed in : ral total ol all indus- 

and that the !>hort time which takes the 

Kill u) some others* is not revialitl by 

iro* at all. There is also the fact that evcji in normal 

-ic workers in some trades — for example, building — 

li !<-n;o a hin^ [)criod of scaM»nal unemployment, ^h>st sig- 

•ant of all these is the prevalence in cerUiin industries of a 

t < of ort?anisiition wlueh makes regular employment the 

I the rule, because it reposes upon a basis 

. labour. 

05. Ill ut-url> uii iar^'r jxtrts, to give only one example, uncmploy- 

m<iit i> not mc.tsmnal, it is chrome; li>r the nuth«Kis of 

( -nt and orgunisation arc such that, instead of the' 

u ..,.., bting employed regularly, the work to be dt»ne is 

distributed over a large number of men, of whom a coiisidcr- 

l * '' ae to four days work a week. 

little work. He ^;«ts up at 

fit ; he < 

1 togiveuj 

'.. but he says that would look as if he were la/.y." ihis 

ire of the day of a casual labourer, given by his wife, is only 

rue a description of the misery of thousands of men. When 

' loyment exists uj>on the scale in which it is 

and Liver(K)ol. what it means is that whole 

' ;lmt 

lor 

ijlilaiii wiirk tii-iiiiiiTuw, or 

ill, that murned women and 

•rk long hours for nmcrablc wages, in order to 




lye flgiim are a* fn||ow« >-> 








Year. 


Pcrornugt 




T«M. 


I^rrotrtage. 


lOTH 


eo 




1909 


7 7 


1908 


50 




1910 


47 


itoe 


••« 




1911 


•-U 


1807 


97 




I9ia 


88 


1008 


7-« 




I9ia 


«1 




'*i4VtMMMW Jtttti 


mm^ u 


tbtmSk 


KMto V'Mr Ummt 



7Taa|.i 



M CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

supplement* the irregiilar eamin^^ of their husbands and 
fathers, that wages are reduced by the " ii 

for employment, and that permanent io 

difBcult bceause employment itself is without i icc. The 

picture is not overdrawn. It can be corr<i from the 

official reports of the Poor Law Commissioners, or from the 
works of private inquirers. The facts are well known. They are 
shameful. And, on the whole, apart from certain minor 
changes, they are still \v' ' " v were when attention was first 
called to them.f An .ion of industry which allows 

men who are capable of working and willing to work to be 
deprived of adequate means of livelihood through no fault 
of their own is contrary to the first principles of justice, and is 
therefore contrary to the principles of Christianity. 

(viii.) Tfi€ Antagonism between Employer and Employed 

^•» {e) We have deferred to the last a reference to the subject 
of industrial disputes, which occupies almost the most pro- 
minent place in such public attention as is given to social 
questions, because we believe that it can be considered with 
advantage only after a review of the conditions which form the 
soil whence disputes spring and the atmosphere in which they 
are conducted. The prevalencej of an attitude of mutual 
antagonism and suspicion between the different parties engaged 
in industry, though qualified by the cordial relations which 
exist in more than a few instances, is, no doubt, a serious 
matter from the point of view of the community. It involves 
material loss and moral bitterness. Like war itself, industrial 
disputes inflict almost as much suffering upon non-combatant 
and neutrals as upon the parties to them. 

07j It is not through any lack of appreciation of the grave issu( 

• For the coniirction of marri«d women's work .'• lalx)ur s' 

Howarth and Wilnon. West Ham, 1907 (Dent), aiid \ . The Ilomr 

worker and Her Outlook, 191« (B 11). 

t As Innjr a^n as 18S7 Miss Bi-atrioe Potlcr (now Mrs. Sidney Wcbl 
dcscrilxd thi- stripclf for work at the I>ondon Docks. Scr -' - " Hrj^nrij 
of the iMbouT Cotnmvtsion of 1891. The last writer on t Nl'. 

•V- 

of r ... - . ,v ; ■ - 
eit.) 

X Number of AjZgrrp»t''dMmtlon 

Year. disputes bcjjin- in ^"• ^f* 

ning each year. < 

1010 5ai 

1911 008 ! 

1912 857 4u.^.M,,*,.:k2 
1918 1,497 11,030.789 

080,000,000 due to coal strike. 
{Board of Trade Report on Strikes and lock-Ottli and on Coneiliation 
and Arbiirati'} Boardjt in the Untied Kingdom in 1913 (1914) [Dl. Tfl.-WV) 



iir. kt wr siy • ... • r, 

of \IVV SOtli' vl 

<}u< St, ns i!> to view the pnibltrn m a lalsr pcrsptTtivc. it is 
ntirnioJly unpn>fitable to blanir cither of the two parties con- 
cerned. The whole community shares their res|)onsibility. 
On the one hand, it is responsible for the continuance of the 
conditions which help to produce disputes. On the other hand» 
it ' ' ■ ' ' of industrial life as a 

>t .]) is justified in taking 

^^! i'y jj« r>ua,su>n or threats. As long as 

til' ' ic and that conception is dominant, it 

is, in our opinion, idle to anticipate that disputes will not occur. 
It may, indetd, be said that industrial disputes arc a form of 
wjir, that peace is one of the highest of public interests, and that 
th.'r.f(.re the parties concerned should subordinate their 
!• r ts to those of the community. But though combatants 
I! ive way to a principle or cause superior to 

ti ; reasonable to exjx^ct them to give way to 

it is precisely that common principle of public 
. IS we have already suggested, receives in modem 

ry no emphasis sufficiently obvious and unmistakable 
t»> ji...ke it of cogent authority. 

On one aspect of industrial disputes there is, indeed, no 
room for ii ' i. It is true, of course, that the methods 

by wliir-h <; ire s/'ttled will differ frt)m industry to in- 

du inion as to the proper 

ma' ; be adopted for the 

purpose of rut [jrcements. But it is obvious that 

agrvements ont^ d upon must be regarded as binding; 

for the period ff)r wluch they were made. The strict obser- 
vn- ~ '' >'-:•;- > •• - tracting parties is one of the moral 
f V, and that principle is as absolute 

when lliL ' Hs it is when 

th» y nr*' v l» is of gn at 

lit of the whole 

gotiation Ixtwcen 

.1 'loyers and trade union.H. The growih of 

.. .,...^..,...iig, with the apparatus of representative 

•ion« on which it reposes, is one of the mt>st striking 
'\ j'Us of the practical |x*litieal genius of the oniinary 
(it / ,■l^ of our nation. It has serv< <1 thi-m as a srhool in the 
art oi;. It luis P' 

thiiri a; iiient u( the I 

both t! position and tl< inde|M'r f 

the w , v, nnd to the i :...... m or ex; . a 

s<tf)'!n«nt of the minor causes of industrial friction, whieh, 
without such n-pri'sentative nmchinen,', niight have devel' — ' 
into serious disputes. Few changes would contribute i 



TO amiSTUNITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

t" ' ~ •' -^ ^^ than the extension of the '■-'' of the 

»rics to those which are m d, and 

wlucli sliJl iiu liulc the jfreater number of workers. 
W. It is eviiUat. however, th.it the fx)ssil)ility of colfeetive 
baruniuinc re[M>ses, to a p<*culiar defrree, tijx>ri the jfoo<! Tiith 
of those who tak<* part in it. Its further progress, an<l indeed 
its very existenc**, depends upon the wiHinijncss of both pjirtiea 
to abide by the terms of lIu* ajfrix'mcnts whieh they have made, 
and to seeurc the observance of them by all the members of 
the assoeiations to whieh they belon<j. Tlierc is no use in 
entering upon neqotiati(»r\s if the resulting settlement is liable, 
before it expires, to be jettisoned by those who an Tied 

with it, and anything whieh undermines the ol> of 

ajfTcements undermines also the whole prineiplc of the adjust- 
ment of industrial questions by the eollective action of 
employers and workers, of which binding; agreements are one 
result. It is probable, indeed, that in the vast majority of 
cases the terms settled by negotiation are honourably observed 
by the parties whom they concern, and it is, of course, true 
that d'vputes may arise over the interpretation of the best 
1 "igrccment, which must not be confused with the 

r ion of the agreement itself. But instances of such 

repudiation have occurred, and have occurred on a sc^le too 
conspicuous to allow of their being waved aside as insignificant. 
It is, we think, essential that the public opinion of employers, 
of workers, and of the whole community, should make it 
plain that it r<'gards the departure from the terms of a settle- 
ment, during the currency of the period for which the settle- 
ment was made, as the grave offence against so<iety whieh 
it is, and that the organisation eoncemed. whether of em- 
ployers or of workers, should dissociate itself formally from 
any member who may be guilty of such conduct. 
100. But agreements are made for a period which, whether long 
or short, is limited. When that pcriofl has elapsed, it is not 
sufTieient to suggest, as a condition of industrial peace, the 
maintenance of the xtattis quo, or reasonable to i)li)me the 
party whieh disturbs it as wantonly initiating industrial war. 
Whether it is desirable to maintain existing cf)nditions def)end8 
upon what the actual nature of those conditions is. Apart 
from the minor and perhaps unavoidable c;ises of friction, 
industrial disputes are not rightly understood when they are 
rcgard< d as isolated outbursts. They must be considered 
in niation to their baekgrf>und. and judged with reference to 
the events whieh f>recedc and follow them. To large numbers 
of working people their present position in industry seems 
dcgratling and unjust. Looking back on such progress as 
they have achieved in the course of the past half century, 
it appears to them that the priacipai instrumentm securing 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 71 

it has been ortjnniscd pressure. Lookinj; forwarrl. they hclicve 

th it f'l mjrr nttcntion for their ' * f. «r 

h-**. r nnti l:tfx»»ir will bo prtM tu 

. wliu'h tlicy arr able to supjv»rt tiimi. Tlicv 
«>f fh«- waste invoIvM in a prolonjffil «*rs^nti"n 
nt A k (irof the sufferinss whieh they inflict upon thems'Ives, 
tli ' : imilics and the commmiity. Hut lh«*y rejjnnl »h«'ni as 



in 



ifs in a pr^ilongcd cvimpniijn, and b<-|icve that unl<'ss 
tl. Mitv is pn-|>a red itself to secure an adeipintr ' ' I 

■ t ill its eiti/i-ns. then different pn)ups nf rif 

j" '2 to secure it for th«mMl\ts. even 

aJ rrmporary loss upon the eomnuinitv. 

101. It is scjround of suspicion antl dissntisfaetion which 

must I. . in mind if a reasonable judsrment is to be 

r ' I of the best way in which to work for l)etter rclritions 
in ihtlustry. That all aj^recments are binding for the period 
for which they were made, that all parties to disputes ouL'ht to 
sli ' ■ ' ■ ■ • • • • ^. 

0. I 

t! il and cannot be too 

•' » hem effective as coun- 

I peace only if it also makes it evident that all 

"-•• consideration for their reasonable claims 

■^ ' war. Runyan's parable of the broom 

I \*ii:« il >iMst and the water which laid it is one which 

i the pti lid Ibv to heart. If disputes b<*enme less fre 

qufni M the future, they will } ■ \ 

n'»t tf ' «?, or menaces, or denui^ il 

' tlv to prohibit thrm, but throuijh 

t operation and of social service, and 

ti h the removal of the industrial conditions which at 

prc>.t iit foster industrial unrest. 

'ix.^ Co-dneration for PithUe Srn^ice, not Comprtiiinn fnr Prn nU 
Gain^ the True Principle oflndwttrij 

of this chapter we said Uv.ii v\! •• 
to be misrd to a hii'^u-r level i ' 



t nf Chri&tian teaching, upon thf 
I we have jfivcn a suniman*' drser 
Ic. to acree with us that, thoufh «i< 

' ■ " .t bv tl: 

. itself 



72 ( HULSTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROHLEMS 

altogether, and certain permanent spiritual laws, which are 
too generally disregarded, must receive more effective 
recognition. 

108. To the question in what direction such a change should 
proceed, we would answer that it must he based ujjon n fuller 
acceptance of two principles. The first is that industry is ^a 
social function, and is carried on to serve the community. 
The second is that the relations between the different parties 
engaged in it should be determined by considerations of right 
anil justice, not merely by economic expediency or economic 
power. An industr}', when all is said, is based UjKjn the 
association of men to obtain a livelihoml by providing society 
with some service which it requires. Whether its organisation 
is simple or complex, whether it consists of peasants ploughing 
tjicir own fields, or of craftsmen labouring with hammer and 
chisel, or of armies of mechanics aided by machines which are 
miracles of scientific invention, its function is senicc, its 
method is association. Its relation to the community should, 
therefore, be one of subordination to public needs, and it 
realises its purpose in proportion as those engaged in it do not 
endeavour merely to obtain the most advantageous terms for 
themselves, but take a pride in providing the best and most 
economical service which they are capable of rendering. Its 
internal organisation should make some appeal to the spirit 
of brotherhood and be determined by moral principles, not 
merely by considerations of economic convenience or by the 
immediate self-interest of its members. It should, in short, 
be social in purpose and co-operative in spirit. 

104. Such a conception of the place of industry in society is one 
which would meet with the approval of all thoughtful and 
public-spirited members of the community. It is not a 
novelty which requires to be supported by elaborate arguments. 
It is a truism, the validity of which men already recognise in 
the inner forum of their conscience, a standard to which they 
already feel allegiance in their hearts, and which only re(|uires 
to be publicly unftildcd for them to rally round it in increasing 
numbers, and to make it supreme in their social life. They 
desire a more visible brotherliood, a life of more disinterested 
service, and the desire is not confined to those who suffer 
most from the practical effect of social disorders, but is found 
in all classes of society. But if the conception of social ser\ace 
as the inspiration and guide of economic activity is to be 
realised in practice, there must be, as we have said, a funda- 
mental change in the spirit of the industrial system. For 
though it is true that this conception influences the conduct 
of individuals, it would be idle to pretend that it finds at the 
present time any adequate expression in the actual organisa- 
tion of industry. 



LUliAN LlFt AND INUUbTUV 7» 

\\ 
sh- 

by all t an attitude towards ccoiionuc life which we 

rt't'""' illy unsound and unchristian. The priii''"'" 

of service has to contend with a rival print 

wimn i.xi i>ii<n overpowers it. That rival is the idea tn.u 
the end of industry is the jK-rsonal pr<)fit of those by whom it 
is ri, that the nuasurc of its su 

r- • !i it yields thcni, and that, [ 

I i\v, any method of or; ur ceun 

j>,.ii. y iiv \ 1 fh.it return is increas« d jim.s.--^' s, at any i 
a prima Jtii ation. We recognise, of course, that there 

ar-" in fill < -. .ijen whose primary interest is the efficient 

ill ;i . J : service which they have undertaken, and who, 

f .1 high imfxjrtance to pecuniary profit, do so 

m . in th^ existinij cimumstances of industry, 

:? cethatt' 

ii not, we t 

fil^I' i;r(i that the prevalent tendency is to underestimate the 
a^ if industry as a service, and to encourage unduly the 

^ spirit which, in the excessive importance which 

iL jiii.n II' s to private gains, docs not weigh, as it should, the 
social cost at which such gains are often obtained. Those 
>^' i higher ideal are off s 

if from which tln-y f 
. Ivcs, to 

a and t<>. .v 

. which I of it not as a social function, but 

•rise conU... r the personal advantage of private 

and as needing no higher credentials than the 

' ' * " " Tliat a ' .n is 

-., and. /I it is 



othi-r (' tictns, it mak(*s indn 

rU'-'Ir ' :il <»:iin, toO oftcn of ., 

rty: it opfxises tl. 
II' < iiiiiis of the commiitiii> *iiui 
and it causes the influence of 
mdustry into the general 



■it »..-.f 


a too 


.: ■! .t 


wor-t 


in society of . 





» to-uiy. i jic I ' ' ■ :i i> ill'- 

nature by skill •' for the 



74 CHillSTlAMTY AND INDUSTIUAL TUOULKALS 

8c rimn, is f ' Id 

hr ic. It sli _ (if 

intense and sometimes embittered rivalry. It shoutd find 
HKHH in tlic qualities whirh it demands for something! of the 
ehivalrous s^'lf-sacrifiee of the soldier, of the disinterested 
devotion of the scientist, or dortor, or administrator, of the 
temper of loyalty and mutual eonfulem'e wliieh spring's from a 
life of c<»rj>oMte endeavour and aehicvement, and should app<'al 
at onee to the artistic faculties of the craftsman and to the 
statesmanstiip of the orj»aniser. We cannot doubt that such 
qualities exist in abundance in the world of business and 
labour, and that if they do not set its tone and ^uide its organi- 
sat ion, It is not because they are uncommon, but because the 
economic environment allows them too little opportunity of 
■ II. All work which is ncce.ssary is ' " ' ' le. 

f that, just as men honour in the s cr 

not the title or the decoration, but scIf-sacriUt iu<i» lal>our and 
devotion to duty, so they are prepared to honour in the mer- 
chant, or the workman, or the orj^aniscr of industrj', not the 
ri.h. s which prove that they have outstripped their rivals in the 
^:lc for ativanccment, but work honestly performed, and 
ciiiii' iilties skilfully overcome, and the disinterestetl service of the 
community whichcan be rendered as fully and faithfully in indus- 
try and commerce as in any other department of! tivity. 

107. That the true Ufe of man is the life of brotl, not of 
strife; that the true wealth of a body politic eon.si>ls in the 
persons composing it, to whom the use of all forms of property 
should be subser\'ient ; that industry rightly conceived is a 
social service, not a selfish competitive struggle ; that all men 
who labour have the right to live honourably by their lalx>ur, 
and all nt ' Iity to labour in order to live ; that there is no 
moral ju i for the burden upon the community of the 
idl- or s«.ir-iiuiulj»ent, or for social institutions which encourage 
thiin ; tiiat the resources of a Christian community must be 
used to provide necessaries for all, bt^fore they are api)r:ed to 
providing luxurie." for a few ; these truths we hold for self- 
evident, and we believe that the economic life of a Christian 
society must be based upon them. 

108. We are concerned in this Report with principles rather than 
with pr<".' . and it is obviously impo- • - >,r 
upon an . \e discussion of specific i. i. 
But in order to indicate the direction in wliicli, as il :.ctnis to 
us, a Christian community should move, we proceed to state 
certain practical conclusions which, we think, may be deduced 
from these principles, and some of the particular changes in 
our industrial system which may reasonably be supported by 
those who are anxious that the social life of our nation should 
be inspired more deeply by the teaching of Christianity. 



(z.) 2 ' hriunt of a Living fVage and of AdcquaU 

Lrirurf 

'>o<ly of c 

tr . ry to n ; , n 

a (i . I ;i )n of workers whi» arc un(](*r)>ni(l. ovcr- 

w .....y employed, the whole e«)nccf)tior) of srK'icty 

Ns > as normnl and iuevituhk* the co-existence of 

ri ' rtv, instead of retr^irdinji it ;is the 

fch .1 brothirlMK)d wliich it is, muvt he 

r- s and ahiindoned by the conuiir 

\N i<- duty of the nation to tike wit 

(i • may he necessary in order to secure a full 

li . — . .L<ionahle hours of labour to alt workers in 

\u '. I »ry. and that it is the duty of Christian men and women 
t ' ss for the establishment of such conditions by all means 
i;! ♦ 1 :r p<iwer. By a livinjj wajje we mean not mcrelv a wajje 
w - - ,hysieal existence, but a \^ 'e 

t r. his wife and family i . d 

}i . him to ilispensc with the sub^tdiar]^ 

'Vi' iii.ru up to the a^e of sixteen years. By 

r- rs we mean hours suPTiciently short not merely to 

! . .1. \hausted. but to allow him sufTK-ienl leisure and 

r . for home life, for recreation, for the development throuirh 

^* " ' ' wid tpirit, and for participation in the affairs 

'I for such 

industry. 

V^ aware. itide«-d. that it is sometimes obji'cted that there 

'-t'-i.-^ It) uhich it is not practicable to establish such 

c lent and labour withfiut dama^^n^ their 

I ng their expansion. It is tnie. of course, 
t! 1 which wanes are already relatively li 'li, 

diiction ( 

s may. ; 

T with the eff<< t of lowrrin<,» the 

r' _ -f workers. But we are eomtnu'd 

in th'H vction of our Heport with those workers wh<*se eamin^ 

•re barely aN>ve the level, or even Ulow the level, needed to 

maiiilain thrrn in health and efncicncy ; and in the CHse of 

s'l ' rs the «>' that any in»prov<n»< nt in working 

rwusf ir or probably, incn-ase the c<»st 

'. we think, neither by pnut « al 

thcftry. On the one hand wni^s 

i !%• rn-en rjiiscd in a lartfr niimlxT of industries thrntii;h the 

]^T' irc of trorlc untonitm, and in a sniRller iuindK*r of 

II •! ; nes by the Tnide Boards descriU-d below, without 
iw \ I sastrous '- — '■ ■ ■" nn the industrial prnsix-rity ( f ''-^ 
c<<u:.rry. Ou t id« it is not true that low wa^ 



7fi UUliisTJLVMXV AM) INDUSTRIAL PUuiiiJ:.JttJ) 

excessive hours necessarily, or even probably, imply a low 
cost of protluction, or that the cost of priKiuction, which 
dtptnds on numerous factors of organisation, machinery, and 
human efficiency, is necessarily raised when wages are increased 
or hours are reduced.* The teaching of principle is in this 
matter supported by the teaching of exiK'rience, and the 
burden of proof is upon those who argue that industry cannot 
afford to offer adtquate wages and r. ' " ■ to the 

workers, not upon those who urge tl. -ns arc 

one element, and a not unimportant cUiiKut, in industrial 
eflicicney. If, prior to the war, a large numlx?r of workei-s 
were underpaid and overworked, the reason was not the 
economic impossibility of establishing proper conditions of 
labour, but the fact that the community had not taken the 
steps needed to secure that such conditions were established. 

111. The only body of adult men whose hours are limited by law 
is the miners, in the case of whom they are 48 hours per week 
for underground workers and 54 per week for surface workers. 
The hours of adult women and of young persons under 18 
are limited by the Factory and Workshops Acts to 55 J per 
week in textile factories and 00 in non-textile factories and 
workshops. The legal maximum working week for young 
persons in shops is 74 hours. For considerable numbers of 
women and young persons, for example those employed as 
clerks or in the transport industry, and for all adult men, 
except miners, there is at present no legal hmitation of the 
working week. We think that the time has come when the 
whole subject of factory and workshops legislation might well 
be reviewed with the object of extending the protection of the 
law to those classes of workers who arc at present without it, 
of establishing so far as is practicable and with due allowance 
for the varying conditions of different industries, a normal 
working week of 48 hours, and, in particular, of reducing the 
hours of young persons between 14 and 18 who are at present 
liable to ix; gravely injured by working for hours beyond their 
strength. 

112. At the same time, it is necessary that steps should be taken 
to raise the wages of the more poorly paid workers. To 
indicate upon what lines such steps should proceed, we 
would refer our readers to the experience derived fn)m the 
administration of the Trade Boards Act of 1909. Under that 
Act Trade Boanls consisting of representatives of employers, 
representatives of the employed, and of members nominated 

• On the rcliition of wac«s to the cost of production ne*' Oregon Minimum 
Wage Casts, by F^-Iix Frankfurter and Josrphine Goldmark, rfprinted 
by the National Consumers' ly-ajzue, 289 Fourth Avenue, New York 
Citv, VJSA.. On the n>lation of hours to output sec Health of Munition 
\ynrkers' Committee Memos 5, 7 and 18, and G<^»Idmark, Fatigue and 
F.Jfuimey. 1818. (Russell Sage Foundation, New York). 



ii;i. 



lUBiLN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 77 

I • of Labour, have been *■ ^vith int lum uun of 

ii u rates in certain i: . which, after due 

n en, have the force ul law, and the payment 

Oi cd by olTic<'rs of the H')!ird. Siirh Trade 

Boards* httvc now been 1, 

and five in Ircl.uul. aiM id, 

to be con increased in the near future. They have 

plnvf^ ax\ ....,'. v^nt part in stimulating and giving practical 
rff . t to the pubhc opinion of the trades in which they are 
f • ■ > ' ^ ^ve enabled the higher standards of certain 

(1 he lower standards of others. They have 

1 the earnings of a large number of poorly 

J i the approval both of those employed and 

< \crs. By establishing a minimum 

l.i ^ lut be driven, they have enabled 

\v .rktrs who previously were too poor or too helpless to 
c - ■ * — • -t themselves by combination, and to obtain 

i rates considerably above the minimum fixed 

I 

I dr-monstration thus given of the possibility of 
r L- intervention, without any undesirable 

(. ;id of enforcing the minimum fixed by 

the Board, up|x ;irs to us to be of the utmost importance. We 
think tluit such Boards should be established in all industries 
in which the workers are not efficiently organised or in 
wl ' ■'. y arc not receiving a full hving wage; that 
t :ld have power to -fix minimum rates of payment 

and I I hours of labour, and such other ' Us 

of ctii it as it mny from time to time apj ir- 

able to thetn to ; ; and that the miiiinmin wages, 

maximum hours u . . .i.r conditions thus fixed should be 
- iif ,r>cd by law. Overtime and Sunday labour, in partic- 
ular, bhould be reduced to the minimum. The wrong which 
is done through the underpayment and overwork of large 
numbers <if ti ' 'plcNS memlnrrs of the c' ty 

is grav*'. *>f |<.r <• and ntmiistnkablc. Tli Is 

li re known, and hiivc been 

t > . that Cluistian men and 

'•\ u|K)n the community their immediate 

ikiid jjrwj;;!._»vi'. c .i{Ji>licatioa. 

*T>v f'tl'Wiii" Triulr* nnarrl^ •rt now (Julv. 101R1 in r xl ?■ ner : — 
I Tmde 

I' Tnwie 

J', :,.g 

T t 

l -V. 

i' ). 

Ul. V . ..■.. ,4,. , . , •!»• 

RoUow-w«n> Tn. »hc Kmbr .Ir Bnarri 



TB crailSTlANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

(xi.) Th£ Prevention of and ProvUion for Unr"--' rmt 

114. The principle of the living wage involves not < juate 
puyuiCMit during employment, bul continuity ol cmpluynicnt. 
In the second plucc, therefore, we desire to expre^>8 our 
conviction thut it in the duty of Chri&tiuns to co))e, by all 
meanjt in their power, with the problem of unemployment. 
Their first uiin must bo t«) prevent its ocx'urrence, their second 
to make the ude(]U<ite maintenance of the un* i purt 
of tiie normal provision of all industries whi» i triim 
unemployment. Unemployment in mure than miv form is, 
as we have already {HJinted out, a nurnml feature of our 
imlustrial system. Though for the moment it has been 
thrust out ut sight by the emergency created by the war, tlic 
causes which have created it in the past, unless they can be 
removed, will continue to create it in the future. Young 
persons will drift from " blind alley " occupations into irregnlur 
or casual employment. Adult men will be displaced by the 
introduelion of machinery or of new processes. In certain 
industries and districts clinmic casual labour will, unless 
deliberately prevented, continue, as it has done liithcrto, to 
dej^rade whole {Xipulations. In the future, as in the past, most 
industries will go through a period of seasonal unemployment. 
In the future, as in the past, widespread unemployment will be 
created in a large number ul different industries by the jK-riodical 
depressions which have occurred at intervals of years since the 
first tjuarter of the niactceuth century, and of which tlie last 
culniinatcd in lOUO. 

115. An evil which ha.s several different aspects must be attacked 
from several different sides. We refer beltiw* to the subject of 
what has been called " blind alley " employment, and we need 
not here do more than pt>uit out the paianmunt importance 
of so organising industry that ail young persons, before they 
reach the age of manhood, .should receive the training needed 
to qualify them for a life of regular employment. A more 
important, though still a minor, phase of the j>roblem is tliat 
created by the introduction of machinery and new processes. 
The individuals affected may not at any one time be large, 
but the material distress and mental suffering of the specialised 
worker who sees his livelihood taken from him, and himself and 
his family rnnied, through a cause which he cannot c«ii ' 
are often acute, and we think they are considered too I 
when they are regarded as inevitable incidents in 
development. Industrial changes must, of course, I 

But the path of economic progress ought not to be strewn 
with innocent victims. The worker who has given his life to 
a trade has acquired a vested interest, which ought, in the 

* Sci- Scxnion (xit.) Of ttib diapter. 



URBAN LIFE AXD INDUSTRY TO 

name of humanity, to be respe ted. In oertam indnstries, 

' '' " ' " .idc, that prin- 

1. in th«' form 

do 

ry 

is to be iniruducctl and liit* pruviMuii to be nmdc tor workers 

afr.it.. I liv it Suclx armnycnicnts are obviou.Nly ju^t, and 

Ic that they should be widely extended. Wo 

. Liiat there is a strong obh^ution on uii who 

.^try to take such steps, whether by shortening 

result in the miiiintum 

. by tile intruduetiun of 

, as vtc state below, we think tliat 

1 all cases be precetied by an a^^ree- 

betwevn the workers and tlic nuinagenieiit as to the 

upon winch it is to be introduced, and that in such 

.'■lent pro|Kr provision should be made to sale^ard the 

iiii r> who may be ilirealeiied with di- nt. 

\^ h. i«*y " occupations nnd the displ of 

V are not sui i ro- 

HI uiui the ui ^h 

^ of industnaJ activity. Of all Ibiins 

.„.ual ialxiur is ni some ways at once the 

, the most nt^lectcd, and the most easily 

, lilt, most mischievous bcx^ause it is not recurrent, 

nic : the most iic>;l«ted. because those whom it 

■ ^;.ie. 

by 

I that or^^'aitisa* 

by coiii|M.-tent 

... castialisation of labour, whether brought 

y for tlK' convenience of employer*, who 

' * ' ' ' t their dts]>osal, 

at loll, drsrrvcS 

!iat 

■■ afii made towartU 

.... r was again exposed 

tor it n:. iincU by the late Poor Law 

• >•. ij a grave t'l^. M^^m our national life. \\c do 

■<*vf to ciiLrr ufMin a diseu^Hion of the economica of 

■ Mo 
rid 

ior 

rVO 

IS required to meet the muximura 
i'hiit i<i brought about by the iiidc> 



80 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

pendent action of the separate enoployment agencies each seek- 
ing to retain a following of labour as nearly as possible equal 
to its own maximum demand."* Dock workers in London 
and Liverj)ool are engaged at different " stands " in different 
parts of the Docks. Little effort is made to employ the same 
m u regularly; indeed, foremen often prefer to in' hi* 

supply of comjjetitors for employment by attracts uil 

workers by occasional doles of work. There is little communi- 
cation between different parts of the Locks, with the conse- 
quence that men are kept waiting round one " stand " who 
might get work at another.t The result is that instead of the 
work of an industry being done by a body of workers who are 
regularly employed, it is spread out over a lar;^' ' , each 

of whom is casually employed or under-ti The 

surplus of men not engaged over men seeking wuik at the 
Docks was estimated before the war as at least 10,000 in London 
on an average day and as at least 7,000 in Liverpool on a bu.sy 
day. J It is, we think, the duty of employers, of workers, and 
of the State to aim at substituting regular employment and 
wages for casual employment and wages. To achieve tliat 
result three chanf»es are necessary. The first is that instead 
of men I) 1 casually as men are wanted, without 

regard to ut the needs of the moment, the largest 

possible numljcr ol men should be employed as a permanent 
staff upon weekly wages. The second is that when, owing 
to the varying exigencies of trade, it is necessary to engage 

• Bovfridee, Unmiployment, p. 9^, 1909 (Lonpmnns). See also Royal 
CortimLssioti on liu Poor Laws and Relirf of Distreiu Majorihf and \finority 
Reports, 10<J8, and Mess, Caxuai iMbour at the Docks, r ■ h 

in tin- lat«-st study of dock labour in Loudon. For L > 

1{ ' " ■ ' ' - - i .1 - ,■ iHiQii of LdOtJur til tin- i.iLtr- 

l -lid R. Williams, The Liver- 

I "" > 

f T. wharf in London 

and t . 11 lu of the system : 

Ideal of I < I)} ut the calls here, the men 

It wad iiU' iic r side din ctiy the lorfinan 

ap|>. .ir... III. walks up and du\v:i Lla iiui, inspecting the nun cxsxotly aa 

though tht-y wore cattle, luid oh they are passed over they nin along to 

take up a position farther on to get another chance." 

Number 







of .Men 


N'lniljer 


Not 


Date. Time. 


Plooe. 


waiting. 


till.' ri on. 


taken on 


18.1'i.l8 lOajn. 


Lower Thames St. 


»X> 


iA) 


140 


10 a.m. 


II »» 


150 


•i:; 


105 


10.. 




150 


40 


110 


1' 




50 


16 


84 


aO.12.18 7 ...in. 


»» *9 


80 


56 


24 


8ajn. 


HighSt., Wapping 


900 


70 


130 


lOajQ. 


»» i» 


00 


30 


80 



QSieaB,op.cU,p.3«.) 
X Me»«, op. eU., p. 86. 



UKBAN LIFE AM) INDUSTRY 81 

t - 1 -~— tjencies, those men should be engaged 

it . vniifes, in touch with a large number 

yment, in order thiit workers 
i .V, to intervals of unemployment 

, may be enabled to pass rapidly and 

it re of employment to another.* Thinlly, 

it the abolition of casual labour causing dis- 

V. .^ v.. -.c already engaged in the industrj', the docks 

I be closed to new comers, on the principle partially 
' ■ '. until the surplus of existing workers 

h ; -nth or by the ordinary process of attri- 

! !s are to be effective, they must 

ii . ii)ove, but must be planned and 

carriid out by some body representing the various interests 
!',. I.ril \Vi- tliiiilv fh.rcfore, that it is desirable that an 

is suggested in Section (xiii.) of this 

hed in the Transport Industrj', with 

the principal centres of cmplojTncnt, 

■ I have as its first duty to prepare 

. oyraent and earnings among all 

. ut in the different forms necessitated 
' urns of different industries and different 

. >..i in the substitution of regular work and 

fur the degrading system of casual employment 

^^ in some industries at present. It might well 

' itfii, in many cases, by the encouragement of 

<i ; in particular, by the combination of in- 

• 1 ujv>n ihr land, a possibility tn which too 

1 been paid in I i. The 
... -. :. labourer, the clc I .office, 

I have acccAs to land. They should be able to get a 

f upon which they can spend th<"- •■ -• time, and 

.1 they would otherwise be out of < nt. Such 

! ' ! - ■ ' I'-asant 

kI for 

I not Ii. le- 

m. if pr ' d, 

' the year. 

....- .-..,......,... ... its. though 

:to exact flgurca ore available. Tii why there 

• Thta. to idiM a eooorete cxampte, tlwi* ai« at prment about 1 .'• 

' ;•!•€«• at which mm are «ogafr<l at tlH Vieioria aiiii 

br«t plan would b« that at all the " ciUb " men 

tjn.)thO' uT 

,i« .J _ •, _■ «od I oVi . .urn 

vhnitki tir rniiim<>ti mil at 13 •t«nfi«, but at %mr or tWO MtrphH atMHl* tm\\. 



»-z Lliia:5iiA>iiTy AND INDUSTRIAL iiiuiiU-.^ir) 

should not be some five million nl >s, the total yield from 

whiih would reach the sum t)f i- '0. 

110. How such a plun may Ik* t>ystrmuticiiily worked out is shown 
by the example of l*ans, with its exteiiNive mnrket Riirdens, 
or of Atituurp and Iliimburu. in ixith of whiih dttck lalxturers 
possess ulltitmcnts wliieh they cultivate at times when their 
services ure not ntpiin-d in unloading vcsmIs. In most 
continmtid towns some >ueh dovet<iiliii^ of iiidu>try and a^ri- 
cnlture obtains; and there is no reason why it should luit 
beciime ecju.dly geniral in this c«)untry. Indeed, attempts 
have idready been made to acehniatise it lure. U^uler the 
pressure of the present crisis sti-ps have l>een taken on a larfje 
scale to increase the op|H>rtunities for working on the land 
which are o|xn to dwellers in cities, and such efforts should 
not be (dlowcd to lapse with the termination of the present 
emergency. In the methodicid planning of town development 
which will become, it is to be hopid, increasinylv .n in 

the future, it should be the normal policy to set its of 

land for productive pur|M)scs which could J>e Used fur a^'ri- 
cultural allotments of various sizes, from those of the inmost 
zone, which would normally contain only a few rods, to those 
of the medium zone, which might amount to a quarter of an 
acre, and those of the outer zone which might reach the size 
of a small farm. Few things are more destructive of character 
than enforced idleness, or more invigorating than a few hours' 
work upon the land. We agree with those who urge that 
the pr(» vision of largely incn^ased opjxjrtunities for such a 
sui)>idiiiry occupation would at once increase the amenity 
of town life, and be a valuable resource against the effects 
of such kinds of unemployment as camiot be prevented by 
better organisation. 

120 Hardly less serious than casual labour is the unemployment 
caust-<i by recurrent industrial slackness. Methcxls li n 

suggestc<l by eminent authorities* by which the Go\ t 

and U>cal bodies, by concentrating a considerable part t»l tlnir 
demand for gcxxis in periods in which the normal industry of 
the country is depresswl. could diminish the fall in the aggre- 
gate purehiising power of the community, which at once results 
from and intensifies such depressions, and thus avert or mitigate 
their effect upon employment. Accf)rding to evidence sub- 
mitted to the recent Poor Law Commissionf the difference 
between the total wage bill of the United Kingdom in the 
best years and worst years of a trade cycle was before the war 
about £10,000.000, and the total loss of wages over a period 

♦ lioi/itl Commission on the Poor Lawn and Relief of Distress, Minority 
BrpoTt, \\H)9. 

t lioyui CommLfsion on the Poor Laws and Relief of Distrets, 1010. 
Apjicudix, Vol. VIII. .Miuut( s of EvhJence with Apfxriclix [Cd. 5066]. 



imUAS LIFE AND INDUSTRY M 

of ten yeftw npproximated to £40.000,000. Moreover, apart 
fn>m MJ IS of iiiduNtry, thfte are the wt-ii- 

knoMti ^ I fiuploynunt, of wliich the most 

fuiinhur iru»tancf is that given by the building trudi s, i>ut \^hich 
affift in a grt'ttter or less* degree a wide range <;f induNtrieit. 
\N hilr we do not imply that it i<> practicable entirely to !»m(M>th 
GUI such coiit ' i> and expansions in the v«)lurne of empluy- 
nunt. It is i t, we think, that every eff(»rt should be 

' dinuuuii Hum by UMiig tin- purchases of publie iMniies 

ISC a c«)Unter<ictiiig (»r coin[H'nsatin;; inlluenee in the 
manner descrilncl by the Minority K«iM»rt of the l*(K)r Law 
Commissioners. Apart from the ju'culiar circumstances of 
the present emergency. Departments of State and Local 
Authorities are in normal times purchiusers upon an extensive 
•eale of a great variety of goods and si-rvices. There are, 
indeed, itively few industries which are unaffected 

by the i of the Admiralty Contracts and Purchase 

' the Arlmiralty Works Department, the War 

t Home Ollice, the Post Odice, the Ollicc of Works, 

the India Ollice, the Stationery Ofhee, the Commissioners of 
Wuods.the Commissioners of Public Works, the Metropolitan 
police, the Road R^Nird. tlu- Development Commission, the 
Prison Commivsif>ners and the County Borough and District 
CouMcds of the kingdom ; and in vi« w of recvnt extensiunii 
of State artiv^ity. the numlM-r of industries infliieneid by 
the »>rd» rs of sueh public authorities will prove, it is prolmble, 
to be rorisidcrably larger after the war than it was iii 1014. 
While some «if the requirements of these and similar Uidies 
must bt met when thtv arise, there are others which are 
callable of being postponed until a p< rirnl of slack trade sends 
up the |M-rr<fitMge of iineni|)loycd. The execution of e<»ntracta 
fttr IK w buildings, sueh as seh(M>l<i, post ofliees, barraeks, for 
repairing old buildings, for the clothing of the army, navy, 
p<ilice, tran i. and oth« r public servants, could in 

time nf p( u Ik- dtfirre(l to the worst years of 

the il cycle, anil, if m> deferred, would do somi thing 

to ci — :. . ialancc the decline in the demand for lalKiur which 
Would otherwitv take |>lacr. It in clearly in the public interest 
thitt this (lolicy should, when practicable. Ih- iidoptcd Ixith by 
the Central Depiirtincnts of Stiite and by th«- lAtcni Authorities. 
121 lint while it is . ' t 

should Im- given to 

We think it <■ that only tune iin>. 

na-m ciin p' m1 that it is in the m 

indiN|xnsMbir to t^ike imnu'iiiute nii'asures to ensun- that the 

next dcnrrssion of trade diH's not 'Hnd the oiinv "^' un- 

prrpareu. The right |M>liry we Ix'licve to be < 1 in 

Part II. of the Ineuruioe Ant, though we do Boi diqu our> 

01 



M CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

selves to an approval of all the <1 ' ' T that measure. The 
principle of that Act is that the i:. iice of workers duri .,' 

times of industrial slackness should l>c defrayed out of fuIlll^ 
accumulat<d durinj» jxriods of industrial prosfjcrity. 'Ihit 
principle we consider a sound one, and we think it should 
i^ extended in two directions. In the first place, it should 
be applied to all those trades, including women's occupations, 
to which it does not at present apply. In the second place, 
the l>enefit paid to the unemployed worker should Ijc increased, 
and the period during which it can be drawn should be 
lengthened, the mcessarj' financial readjustments being made 
to permit of that increased sum Ix'ing available. 
122, If workers are indispensable foV industry when it is active, 
it is, in our opinion, right that they should be atlequatcly main- 
tained when industry is slack. The spectacle of the man who 
is capable of working, and willing to work, but who is deprived 
of the opportunity of earning his livelihood by circumstances 
over which he has no control, is a constant challenge to the 
conscience of Christians, which, hitherto, they have done too 
little to meet. To leave the unemployed workman to struggle 
unaided with his misery is unchristian : to offer him doles is 
an insult. We submit that it is the evident duty of Christians 
to press upon the community ._^r^, the adoption of such measures 
as are likely tf) diminish unemployment, and, tecond, the 
provision of adequate and honourable means of maintenance 
for all workers, who, in spite of such preventive measures, may 
be from time to time unemployed. 

(xii.) The Protection of Children and Young Persons. 

128. In the third place, we would emphasise that it is the duty 
of employers, of workers, and of the whole community to take 
special pains to ensure that the organisation of industry shall 
be such as neither to impair the health nor to prejudice the 
education of children and young persons. We shall deal with 
education in a subsequent chapter, and we do not propose to 
anticipate here what we have to say upon that subject. But 
the possibility of establishing an improved system of education 
depends in no small measure upon the recognition by all classes 
that children and young persons must be regarded primarily 
not as wage-earners, but as potential parents and potential 
citizens, and that a great sin is committed when the develop- 
ment of their physique, their character, and their intellectual 
capacity is sacrificed to the exploitation of their immediate 
economic utility. 

124. The record of our country in this matter, with its per- 
mission in the past of cruel and brutalising overwork, its 
timid intervention to protect those least capable of pro- 
tttoting themselves, its tolerance even at the present time 



URBAN Lll'E AND INDUSTRY 85 

of the sacriflce of human potentialities to the alleged exif^endes 
of industry, is, on the whole, a dis- one. Though 

•ome of the worst evils have been aL :, others remain. 

It is no exacgeration to say that even to-day there are many 
indu.sthes which have as their foundation the labour of chil- 
dren, who are not the less children in their helplessness, their 
need of : 'M, and their immaturity of mind and body, 

because' f thf*m are, in the eyes of the law, " young 

We w i.it not only are children who 

r partial <\ 1 to work in the mill at 13 

years of age, but that at 14 ail young persons are allowed by 
law to work the full legal hours of 55j (textile factories) and 
60 (non-textile factories and workshops) per week, and that 
it has recently been stated in an olliciaJ report* that of the 
numerous young persons employed in industries where there 
baa as yet been no legal limitation of hours, some are working 
for asi much as 90 hours per week. 
125. Further, we would call special attention to the different 
but h irdly less grave evil aptly described as " blind alley " 
lent. In certain industries part of the work is per- 
... uy young persons between 14 and 18 years of age, who 
no prospect of permanent employment in the firm, or 
''1 ill fhr In lustry, who receive no training which will 
'lire employment, and who nre dismi«!sed 

•us 

i in 

i ivc left by a fresh relay of adolescent 

irly dismissed in their turn. "Between 

13 and 18 years of age," litated the Rcptjrt of the Inter- Depart- 

"^ ••• ' '" '-e on Partial Exemptionf in speaking of the 

. " the greater part of the l>oys leave the 

mg 

lOt 

tJd 

to create casual and unskilU-d male labour." " New develop- 
ments of the fact«)ry system," said the Consultative G>mmitte« 
of th«- Ho.ird of Education in its Report on Attendance at 
^' ' " ' ' . "are multi|)lying «)p|>»rtunities of non- 

it, both for l>oys and >;irK. rlurm^ ndo- 
1 I ks . . . boys' wf»rk, t>r ;• rk, 

rnpftrtm'-nt which gives . of 

yment outside it. . . . 

' „ i^: ^i: L-Js^cu to check them, Ukw 

* Tt'fird of FiklttoHmt Report ^ Drptirhnmlitl r<fmmittet on Jui^tnttt 

in Rektiion to Bmphifmmi ofir 
of the JfOfT-Dqianmenkil < t%on 

frum i>(hool Attmtiamet, Vol. t., 1900 [Cd. 47Ui]. 



M CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

devrlopments of factory i 'n nnd of the tran'sport trndes 

will caiist j»ravf arul liisti to tin- natioiwil lift." *' The 

iTiJiss of lJiKrnj)loynu'ul," n.|X)rtr(l the .Miii«»rily of the Royal 
Con>inissi»>ii on the P(M»r Laws uiid Rtluf of Distrrss. ** is 
continually lKin/» recruited by a stream of yciuiig men from 
induNtries which nly upon unskilled boy lalxiur, and turn 
it adrift at munluNKl without any siH-ciul or general induNtrial 
qualification." " Their occupations," reiterates the hist l{cfx>rt 
on the subject, that of the lioard of Kdiuration Departmental 
Committ<e of 1917 .on Juvenile Education in Ildation to 
Employment after the War, " give them no kifid f)f industrial 
traininj,' which will fit them for skilled adult cmplr>yment, and 
in many cases not even that general training of the faculties 
which makes the intelligent and adaptable, even though 
unskilled, labourer. Nor are these occupations necessarily 
an avenue even to unskilled employment within the same 
industries. Most of thf>se following them will be dismissed 
whenever they l)cgin to ask for an adult's wages. Tliis is not 
because they arc inefficient workers, or for any oth<'r personal 
or accidental reason ; it follows regularly and inevitably from 
the way in which the industries arc organised. Either they 
have no adult workers or practically none, or they can only 
absorb in employment a small pnjportion of th(»se employed 
as juveniles. The rest drop out " (often) " to join the ranks 
of the p<*rmanently or intermittently unemployed." Van 
l)oys, doffers in textile factories, oven- boys in bakeries, drawcrs- 
off in saw mills, machine minders in furniture factories and 
in certain branches of the engineering trade — these are a few 
examples out of a much larger numl)cr of juvenile occupations 
to wi»ich the official descriptions quoted above are often 
applicable. This misuse of the nation s youth is not excep- 
tional, but common. It is not an unexplored problem, but 
an evil which has been repeatedly diagnosed* by experts. It 
has not been substantially diminished since attention was 
first called to it, but continues almost unabated either by 
Conscience or by law. Indeed, the present emcrgt;ncy has 
caused it to increase to even more disastrous dimensions. 
126. Christians cannot undo the past; but they are bound to 
Insist that this bad chapter in the nation's history shall be 
closed at once, and closed for ever. We submit that the past 
and present use of children as wealth-producers stands con- 

• Reports of UQ]fnl Commission on thr Poor Ijtim nvd Relief of Dinlresa, 
1909. •■srvriWIv of Mr. (mow Si') Cvril .J.ickson, on Boy l.oljour, ApiKtulix, 
Vol. XX. {C4. -kWSl : Bonrti of Etfucation Rrpori of Consiilfitivr Corrtmiltee 
on AUrndnnce. Compulsory or Othrrrrisr, at Cot>tinnniinit SrhonLs. H»<>0 
[Cd. 4757 I ; Rrpnrl nf Inlrr-Drpnrtmrnlnl Committee on Partial I i 

from Sch»)l iUenttance. Vol. I., 1909 [Cd. 4791); Borird of > 

Report of Depnrtmentnl Committee on Juvenile Education in hiuiiwu to 
Employrntnt after UieWar, 1917 [Cd. 8512]. 



URBAN' LIFE AND" INDUSTRY §7 

dfmnM both for folly and injustice, and that the demands of 

rniKt not Ik* HJIowrd to prevent anv ohild frim (»h- 

t . ull opp«>rtun!tie<j of education as « human bcmg and 

a I'ltiA' II. It is. we think, the duty of employers, aetin? in 

« ,.. .»..,^ ^itji organised lab«>ur. to make the fullest use of 

1 ry and mrth«)ds of on^anisatjon as may diminish 

i.-rsons employed in what we have 

" occupations. Furtlvr. as we suj»- 

t* r V. of t)ur Rei>ort. there should be rejfular 

between Juvenile Advisory Committer's, or 

'-e of Kmployrnent C()mmittees, and parents, teachers, 

layers, and tnide unions, with a view to assisting yoimg 

• »ns to find the employments for which they arc best 

>uil«*d. 

1*27. Hut. apart from that nartietilar evil, there remains the larjer 

task of - nent in industry shall not conflict 

w fh »h ., development of all children and 

:>«r>oiiN. \Vr HMfinly wele<»nu' the EHn<Mtion Act 

^v IS just b<-come Inw. tmdcr which all exemptions tinder 

the miv of 14 are abolishf-d, and attendance at continuance 

»chiH»|s i«i made obli|jat<»ry on all you?>e pers^ins b<'tween 14 and 

is for either 7 or R hours per week during the first seven years 

of the Act's op-rntion. and suhs«qu.ntly for 8 hours per werk. 

At the vflnw time for reasons which w»» exp'ani m fMir chapter 

n we believe that on educational grounds the 

'•i!M>ry full-time nttcndMnce at seh<K>| sh<>u!d be 

rais«d in tmie to 15. and ultimately to 16. and that the ideal 

t., K. limed at is that, between the ajp* at which full time 

<e at sch<»n| rease^t and that of 18. all young perstma 

>ged in oocufwitions which are themselves directly 

ml should spend, ultimately, not less than half 

' ' Mcd seho*»I edit. If 

ndustrt' must Ix ed 

V Hs no . rest u|K»n a biisis f>f lli. lti)>oiir 

I iiid y«ni? _ MS. We th'tik that the duty of 

U(i<l<-rtakmg such a nor'»anisati»»n, and of linking tip<m the 

p.... ...11... ♦v. »i, .f ,f sh ill tn* uttdtrtnkcn. Is one which ou:»ht 

il appeal to the conscience of Christian men 
;;: : worn'Mi. 

(xtii.) A'unrutinin of Wtyrlcrrt and of I «. 

128. (ff) The fourth point which wr desire to « Is the 

t and ind»*e«l |>t ijt part in the i trn 

in m* ('hriNtian . whi< h mav be , by 

>ns Whatever the sjvciflc mnisnrr> of 

.1 ivi t- il hii> Ik" intro<Iuce<i bv the action of the c«>m» 

, ty. the character of indu<(trtMl life must In the last resort, 

depend iDAuily upon the idodi and pmetioe ol tbote tin* 



-^ vilRlSllANlTY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

mediately engaged in it. In the long run it will be wV ' ' 
make it. And if the idea of co-operation for public 
to replace that of competition for private gain as its 
prinriple, that principle must not merely be an 
standard imfxised by public pressure u|>on a reluctant r 
of producers ; it must find practical realisation in the i 
life and ordinary organisation of each industry, and, in<i 
of each individual workshop. It must not merely rc^.ii.. 
in compliance with rules imjK)sed by law, but must mould the 
internal structure and orgiinisation of economic life. 
129» It is mainly, we believe, tlu-ough a wide extension of the 
principle of association that such a spirit is to be fostered. Of 
that principle the Church is itself intend<d to be the greatest 
expression, and its development among those cng;>g<d in 
industry should command the sympathy and practical support 
of Christians. Experience suggests, we think, that unre- 
stricted competition among workers and among employers 
tends to result in social degradation, and that trade asso- 
ciations includmg all workers, both men and women, on the 
one hand, and similar associations including all employers 
on the other, are the best foundation of mutual under 
industrial peace and social progress. No one who < • , 
the conditions obtaining, for example, in the cotton industry 
to-day with those which characterised it in the middle of 
the nineteenth century can doubt that organisation, both 
among workers and among employers, has been a potent 
force in the civiUsation of industrial life, or fail to desire 
that its influence should be widely extended to include t" 
classes of workers, such as most agricultural labourers, i 
women, and large bodies of other poorly paid who are, 

at present, without the protection of any org . u. 

180. If, however, associations of workers and of employers are 
to render the full services of which they are capable, something 
more is required than a mere increase in their membership. 
We do not pretend, of course, to the special knowledge needed 
to define the proper relations between the different parties 
engaged in industry. But there are many indications ' 
public opinion among all classes is ripe for far-reaching cha 

in industrial relationships, which must be a matter of the 
deepest interest to all who accept the teaching of Christianity 
as the guide of social life. In particular, there is, we think, 
a growing conviction that the organisation of industry must 
be such as not merely to yield a life of security and comfort to 
all engaged in it, but to admit of their exercising a genuine and 
increasing control over the conditions upon which their liveli- 
hood depends, and over industrial policy and organisation, 
in so far as those conditions are affected by them. 

181. Whatever may be thought of that conviction, its existence is 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 89 

a fait which rrtiiiires to be weighed by all concerned with the 
iind with the improvement of social relation- 

.... ...1 hand, it is increxkNingly felt that tl viv^ng 

>ii of industry often confirs upon the r: or 

'' king life of hundf' ' «s 

it'n tntt ^I'ut to ! to 

On tlR- other 

. has |)roved its 

ifju witij the tasits hitherto uiidertiiken by it, 

rument through which the worker may obtain 

an II share in the control of industry. The social 

movtiiMin oi our day is, in short, incorrectly undcrst<x)d. when 

it b assumed to seek only an improvement in the material 

c ' ' ' slri.J life. It I f bottom a demand, 

V in volume v. for the gradual 

d : ve and respon- 

Si which, if it 

|i iTt m the earlier ' industrial 

dt. V to be neither nccc,™.^ .. .r desirable 

,, in a <! ic and educated community. 

■ "■ Ujx>ri in« ; - ' hility of this aim and of the methods 

sug(reste<l for 4 it, we are not in full agreement with 

c ' - I viinc of u ' ars that economic progress 

H m he s< Illy through the tiltimate 

T> : ujMJii questions of indus' cy 

a- . i.i'in .^ now, in the hands of 1; ils 

iifettered by 1 it ion to any suj)erior authonty ; 

.f .1. ♦i,at ,^,, ,, ,.... responsibility for industrial 

t to be < I U()on the orgaiii<ied bodies 

t "t tlir workman 

H !ucn, v\lt . ftllow-servant 

01 Hut ''> th«" ntnoter 

id< I, we • !ii«'nt as to the le. 

We think I'liiil for an iiii ...^ "rol 

of th 'US up'm which the livelihotxl of the 

work" i w j ■ M-i:» t^ Din which ought to be met. What is 

rr«iiiir«d is s.ifne change in status such as we endeavoured to 

if-r fMirt of this KefMirt when we said that his 

'• that, not of a hMn<l, but of n riti7«-n of 

inge of ^' 'it 

r« ritv . as 

a whok. and the iiu-thiKJHof or. <i in individual 

u,.rLN>i.>t.s iirr mattem which I j^rrs as much as 

ni, and tliat they should have an equal op|M>r> 
t ■ -t, through their rtprescnta ivcs, in the 

(i d questions and the scttlrment of Id* 

dustnai cuuUi As a step in this direotioa we think : | 



90 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

188. (1) That it should be the nnrmal prnrtirp in orj^aniscfl traHef* 
for rrp espntativfs of employers and workirs to c»»rifer at 
repular intervals upon surh c|ucstions affectinjj the trade m 
may be Huitable for cofunion oojisiil«Tiiti«»n. 

184. (2) That repre»eiitative« of the workrrs should b? nomially 
and permanently assr)ciated with the nianai/ement m matters 
affecting their livelihood and c«»mfort, and the welfare of the 
business, ^ueh as the flxing and alteration of pieee-rates. the 
Improvement of proeesses and machinery, and the settlement 
of the terms u|w>fi which they are to be inh P 
dis(Mpline. and the establishment of the i-. ie 
security of employment. 

185. So far from ham|)erinp industry, this system of Industrial 
Parliaments and Workshop Committees would, we believe, 
increase its efficiency. It would result in valuable suirjiestions 
being made, and would remove the minor causes of friction 
before they arose. But efficiency, though inifmrtant, is 
not the ultimate consideration. Most int|M)rtant of all. the 
worker would obtain greatly increased control tjver the con- 
ditions of his employment. lie would no lonj»er have rea.son 
to Ix'lieve, as in certain industries he has to-rlay. that if his 
weekly carnmgs merease his piece-rales will In- rcduceil. He 
would \ye protected ag.-iinst arbitrary dismissal by having an 
appeal to a committee on which he was represented. He would 
take part, through his representatives, in discussing the larger 
questions of the industry, such as the regJilarisation of emphiy- 
ment and the abolition of casual labour, the systems of wage 
payment, the improvement of the tjclmique of prmluetion 
and methods of preventing the introduction of machinery from 
displacing workers who have spent their whole working life in 
the industry and who, if displaced, will he ruined. 

186. The development of such a system would tend, we believe, 
to raise the status of the worker. It is probable that it would 
also do something to diminish both the frequency and the 
bitterness of industrial disputes. That the social life of any 
civilised nation slu>uld be such as to cause the recurrence of 
iomething like industrial warfare, with all its incidental 
misery, to be regarded almost as one of its normal features, 
ought to arouse profound dissatisfaction among all who believe 
that industry should be inspired by the ideal of co-operation 
for public service. It is evidence both of the existence of 
deeply rooted social evils and of the weakness of the link 
which at present binds different classes and different industries 
to the service of th' inity. We cannot believe that such 
perpetual tension r ^ a condition either natural to man 
or such as can be accepted with apfjroval by Christians. 

187. In order, however, to promote industrial peace, it is not 
enough to deplore industrial war. There must be a two-fold 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 01 

^'hjinjf? in the rH»tion« at pre«rnt ntistinif brtwen> eiirh In- 
duct rv nni\ thr jf(n< ml public. Prartirul Mppl'mtidn tnu^\ be 
U vi II fi> th«' pnnrtpU tlmt hII r»jpji«»t«| m iinluNtry luiw obll- 
^iitmtis to thf I'Mninitinity and that th(> community, in its 
tuni. hA% r--'' -^ •f'ns to hII rn^nf^cd in ind'istry. On the one 
hand. th« - of earh iiidtiNtry must br prcparrd to ^ub- 

Or ■ •;.;'• ' ■ ■ imblic, 

a' „" •« for 

tl > at tlif itisi of (M'lUilMiig the ctirisuiiMr. On the 

ot . !. th« public muxt n-c<>pni»e its duty to make every 

effort to aJI \l% membcrH the opportunity of obtaining 

th" " . . onditjons of a pood life, so that every ela>s may 

b' it that it Can secure retire<JH for its grievances without 

an iijijf .11 to force. It is not reasonable to denmnd that, of 
the two parties imnie<liately concH-rned in a dispute, either 
employers sii«i way to workmen or w»>rknun to em- 

p|f»y«rs. !t ts le to require that both should j»ive way 

ti or to a eau-e, or to the higher interests of tl>c 

b*-><- <h bf>th are nn mtx'rs. In so far as, and only in 

so far as. industry becomes Unmistakably organised for the 
•er%*irf «»f the public, the e<»mn»unity will be in a position to 
Insist that the d'siigrecments of the different sections eng;igcd 
in it muxt be sub* ird mated to the piililic service. 

188. Whih- w«' b'luve that such an iden! is not unattnlnnblc, its 
a'' ' must be a matter of tin For 
ti; ut at hast it must be r» < s will 
e<iiitiMue to occur, though many of those anMnc from trivial 
eau^'s will b<- prevented. Wi- think that it would Ik- advan- 
tjig'ous if the ass*>cialions which we have described were 
coiiipicted by their federation in a larger and more n presi'n- 
lativr IkmIv. a natifmai industrial Parliament representing the 
it > ' ■ r>irties concerned in industry, to which 
d ■ b«» rrfern-d by individuni trades for 
if 1. We believe that f ' ons of 
»\: ■ rapidly conie to be r- ^' by all 
parties as linU. it in. of course, important that, whatever the 
mm'hi'iery adopted, the auevtifms suiimitted should be ex- 
amintfl and decided with tlie least possible delay, and that, as 
we have already stated, agreements ouce made should be 
strictly observed. 

(xiv.) The Indu^riai Emptoymmi of fVomm. 

189. ^'^ '" which wi- have advaneni nbovr y "-d 
lo fl >nt of a full living wapr. the pre uf 
tj • and the rncoiiragrment u( a more ctunprrhen* 

%i\x .ii on'sm. apply, of course, lo women as well as to 

men. The economic jHwilion of women wi»rlterx in the majority 
of Industnes was, before %bm war, ooe of peculiar unpoteooa. 



92 CHRlSTIANirV^ AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

Entering industry at an early age, and for the most part without 
any spi cific training, expcctinj? very (iftcn to leave industrial life 
aft( Til few yenrs on their nv ilirgeiyi' il 

trades, and often restricted lice and c 

to low-skilled branches of industry umbers of women 

Workers accepted before the war \v ^ iiieh, as the figurci 
quoted alx)ve* show only too clearly, were often insufficient to 
provide even the bare necessaries of physical existence, and 
were sometimes insufficient to provide even them. Like men, 
they suffered from fluctuation of employment, but, unlike 
some men, they had no accumulated funds upon which to 
draw when their wages ceased. Outside the cotton industry 
only an insignificant proportion were protected by trade 
unionism ; and indeed the wages of many women workers 
were so low, and their industrial position so precarious, as to 
make effective membership of a trade union almost impossible. 
Apart from the special case of women's trade unionism in 
Lancashire, the one bright spot in the recent history of women's 
industry is the striking improvement in the wages of women 
workers in the occupations in which Trade Boards were 
est i under the Act of 1909. Desirable for a' 'le 

wi I ised workers, a legal minimum wage is incii ^ !( 

to women. All occupations in which a large number of women 
are employed, unless the workers are sufficiently well organised 
to protect themselves, should, therefore, be scheduled under 
the Trade Boards Act, and Part IL of the Insurance Act. 
amended on the lines which we have suggested above, should 
be made applicable to them. 
140. But while these measures of protection are as necessary for 
women as for men, there ought, we think, to be a change in 
the attitude of society towards the industrial employment of 
women commensurate with the importance of the part which 
they have played in the war. During the last three years large 
numbers of women have undertaken work hitherto reserved for 
men, and new standards with regard both to wages and to the 
other conditions of employment have begun to grow up. It is 
important, wc think, that after the war these new and better 
standards should be maintained. It is, of course, indispensable 
that where individual men, whose place has been taken by 
women, have been promised reinstatement, they should be 
reinstated. Further, both employers and the Government 
have given an explicit promise to restore trade union conditions, 
and that promise, unless waived by those ^^^th whom it was 
contractetl, must be observed. But, apart from these special 
obligations, it ought, we think, to be recognised that in future 
the economic position of women must not be determined 
merely by an appeal to previous custom or by considerations 

• See p. 62. 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 98 

of profH. Women are entitled not merely to *' equal pay for 
eqii 1 the work which t ) ' ' ' '' d 

d' ■ equBJ frpcdoni iri 

ti< II, aiui an et|UHi \oict: in 

c« iicnt. Provided that these 

o .iity obtain, the comparative eflTiciciicy of 

nu.. . . /s work should generally serve, in nom^nl 

times, to delimit their rcs|xx'tive spheres. We reco. 
inf ' *' ' '» - iTc certain occupations which are manii- 
ui rioujj to women, in which, in spite of ti. ir 

UJ rjtinue to be employed. But 

wr ^ are to be closed to women on 

tht-. -' - !. 1 I r women themselves have 

be«-n ct irisijif I (1, tiy i: ■ ■ ^ .ion. 

141. There is one aspect of women's employment in industry which 
ia at once of special gravity and of special difficulty. We allude 
to the work of married women. On the one hand, it cannot be 
do ' * ' 'Jiat the - ' ' in industry of women with 
y< iren is ot il both to their families and to 
til On tlic other hand, exctpt, perhaps, in the 
tt\ it is true to say that married women's labour 
is rtaken thrr)ugh the economic necessity of 

%\xi, ^ :. low or irregular earnings of the husband, 

and that it nourishes most in those parts of the country in 
which the earnings of men arc inadequate and their employ- 
ment intermittent.* It is, in short, a bad alternative to a 
worse evil, and can be diminished not by direct pr ' ' ' n, 
but only by rHi-inp the wages of men to n point v i| 

enable n their families i; 

ing ca 1 by providing a 

during unemployment. Were such conditions of industry 
established, married women's labour would diminish, because 
it« main causes would have been removed. Mt>reover, those 

ma- — ' I who do not work in industry ought not thereby 

to a worse finaneial position than those who do. 

\\ ' • - M 

bi .1 

for ;lcct the hUppurt of their 

wi\ . 

(XV.) The Seed of a New AUu rrofiUt, 

142. (/) In the fifth place wc think that some n >>n it 

neeessary in the attitude of the community is the 

profits of industry. The principle upon which the industry of 

, • s . n< %• ^ -cutl and I 

trial I'r.^'.lr". poor tji. 

Hrhi-f of Uui'r^t II.; ■ 1111(1 Mr. Ui<iiu«« 

jon< 4 Dtt the Efffci of St CondUionn tf Em- 

loymuut. iwrv AntK 



04 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

the country has been conducted since the middle of the latt 
century is that the individual should be free to buy in the 
chriifu'st and st-ll in the dc»ire!»t niurkct, and to apply thi- profit 
aK lit* |)UaJ>i^ Thougii the most ^urcessrul niun of buMMisa 
may havi- been the IcuNt "icriipuloUN. yet hit long us lu ktpt 
uitliin thr limits wt by law. ht- nirurrc-d no rtspoiiMbility Tor 
the wtailth uhieh he uceumnlaU d. The nornuil unit ol the 
argi r !nilu>tries of the country, with the exctption r»f Hgri« 
eultiire. ib the iinnted company; and a limited company, 
with its impersonal organisation, makes it ditliiult lor the 
shareholder to feel any re<'ponMbility cither to the work* 
people uho contribute to the earning of hu dividends or to 
the eomm unity hh a whole. 
148. Moreover, the subjtet of profits is a complicated one. In- 
dustry offers differnig degrees of security at different times; 
losses are made as well as profits ; and what might be con- 
sidered a fair return in one industry may fail to attract capital 
in anotiier, in which the security is less and the chance of lost 
greater. It is well known that in almost every industry the 
profits of the diff<Tent firms included in it vary greatly at any 
one time, often even to the extent of large profits being earned 
by those at one tnd of the scale and losses made by those at 
the other. Frequently, indeed, the profits are made by 
successful buying and selling, and in that case they must be 
regarded as the result of speciilatiim rather than of manu- 
facturing. While the abnormal profits derived from combina- 
tion and monopoly cannot be morally justified, it must not 
be forgotten that, in the absence of partial or compit te mono- 
poly, a limit to profits tends to be set by eompe tition. and that 
it is essential to the progress of industry, partieularly in a 
country wheri- industry eng;iges the majority of tin population, 
that adequate stimulus to enterprise, to initiative, and to the 
highest eltieiency of work should be maintained. Nor, finally, 
is it cvsy to judge what the scale of profits in an industry may 
actually be. The rates of dividends are not a sure guide, aa 
they depend upon the nominal capital upon winch they are 

Eaid. and the nominal capital either may be infiated, or may 
e less than the real capital employed, as is th<* case with those 
firms which continually reinvest in their bi; 
144. The problem is therefore complex, and, * much un- 

certainty obtains about it, too many industrial controversies 
are battles in the dark. We think it important, therefore, in 
the first place, that steps should be taken by the Hoard of 
Trade, or by some other Department concerned with industry, 
to place at the disposal of the public the fullest information 
which it can obtain with regard to the profits of different 
industries. In particular, U" in future, as seems not impossible, 
the State should encourage the formation of combinations, it 



VIUIAS LIFE AND INDUSTRY 9B 

would be roiisonable, we think, to require that their profits 
sh I by an extension of the costing system 

at! war, and by u public audit of their ueeounts. 

Ill ^ . HN ui utlur departnii tits of social life, une great 

»a -' iltl^t tuisundiTstunduig i^ to be found in complete 

pi. n i!» often the result of ignorance. If it if 

til .. ,. ..^ ,. ^...t times allt|^(d. that the proHts in most in- 
duct ms art* inconsiiierable, they ought to be known in the 
III' ' ' *' .f thf sluiTt holder and «»f industriiil peace. If 
tl ive, tluy ought to be known m tlie uiterchtb of 

of the general public. 
lie facts caiuiot be btated exhaustively or with 
pni ision, the principle f«»r which Christian men and women 
bhould sLind is not, we think, open to dispute. It is that 
there is no moral justification for profits which exceed the 
amount needed to pay for adequate salaries to the management, 
a fair rate (»f interest on the capital invested, and su<h reserves 
as i lin the highest eirieiemy of 

pr III growth of the industry. 

Judgid by U icird, the profits obtained in certain 

industrial un<i j^ are, we eannot doubt, excessive. 

Though there are, no doubt some difiieulties m any inethtxi 
by which it may be sought to give practical application to 
thi% principle, the policy of taxing surplus profits beyond a 
ccr^ 1 4 _ I standard has been found practicable, and 

h^ ittjt in its favmir. VVc do not suggest, of 

c«' to this principle should be used to 

p< jiacity or effort, as prt»gress and enter- 

pr to the welfare of the community. Hut the 

ini] uraiging such qualities d(K>s not constitute 

an argument in favour of the large divid<*nds distributed to 
the khareholdcn in certain undertakings which they are free 
to consume on their perMjnal expenditure. It constitutci 
raf ' 'A them. Christians are ! to 

di ans in their powrr the iij it 

or ^. and tt( the 

gr.i iss in which it 

may t^ They d to insist that, since industry 

is H " ''<>»« '" ^ are entitled to an income ftir 

\^' I. and that it is the duty of thone 

eh li i.. ..in * iiii i-ommunity the best service trehni* 

ca l)|e at the lowest price compatible with adequate 

pi> II It t ' it and with the growth and 

ext' Mvi'.n 

I ■•■% 

an 
whicti ' large prolitA arc desirable, ami v 

riiilv to apply at ^'>- ""•> nLnviir.. H 



96 CHRISTIANIIT AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

arising ftrom participation in an exceptionally prosperous 
undertaking, is, indeed, strikingly at variance with the spirit 
of brotherhood which should characterise a Christian com- 
munity. ** Puhliro f-gcstas. privatitn opujrntia " was the judg- 
ment of an <M ■ - . which spent 
lavishly upon , public needs, 
Mtxlern ci\ . wiiieh has a nobler uieai to inspire it and 
a more ex.i ^ mdard with wliich to conform, ought not to 
fall under the same condemnation. It is the duty of Christians 
to urge that after the necessary charges upon industry, men- 
tioned above, have been met, any surplus should be applied to 
the benefit of the whole community, and to ha "v such 
demands as the community may make upon t , . that 
purpose. 

(xvi.) The Development of Local Government. 

147. {g) While the specific refonns which we have indicated would, 
we believe, contribute to the humanising of industry and to 
the maintenance of a higher moral standard in economic life, 
the only permanent security that society will be guided by 
Christian ideals is an intenser spirit of brotherhood and a more 
general devotion to the service «)f the community. That spirit 
and devotion cannot be created merely by legislation : to foster 
them is one of the tasks of the Christian Church. But they 
must work through institutions ; and one principal institution 
through which men and women of goodwill and public spirit 
can co-of)erate to serve the well-being of their neighbours 
consists in the organs of local government, especially those of 
our great cities. 

148. The intimate contact of these local public bodies with 
the daily needs of the people should make them at once a 
school of good ci' >. and the most potent influenee 
to improve the c is of social life. Though much 
valuable work has been done by Local Authorities in the course 
of the last half century, much remains to be done. There is 
a marked difference between the standards of civic duty recog- 
nised by different local communities and by their representa- 
tives. While some among them make the fullest use of their 
existing powers, others, it is only too evident, are content 
to comply merely with the minimum obligations imposed 
upon them by statute, and in such matters as education, the 
improvement of public health, and the proWsion of adequate 
housing accommodation, allow the service of the community to 
be thwarted by public apathy, by a narrow and short-sighted 
parsimony, or even by the sectional interests of influential 
individuals and classes. Tliat unselfish and energetic citizen- 
ship is incumbent upon Christians is a point which ought 
to be too obvious to require emphasis. There are few matters 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 



97 



upon which an increased attention and understanding by 
Christians might be made more fruitful of immediately prac- 
tical rcMiUs. It should be their ta<ik to awaken the public 
oonsci< ■ -nee of ' 1 evils, to c< 

with ah r snriul n less, and to st , .. 

by tlnir ( nee the consciousness of brother- 

Ji' .? >(1 .c responsibihty without which the 

;strative system is but lifeless mechanism. 
. jwiiin r, that in view of the conspicuous services 
. many of the great Local Authorities, a wider view 
f their f s, and that their powers 

'vi to -nd with it. In par- 

tis 1 more ; '■ 

in ^ .^ ' in time to e 

desired by the ■ a horn they serve. At present they can 

do only what I ;.-.,, ...^ expressly authorised to do by Act of 
Parliament. They cannot purchase or hold land except under 

?Dwcrs given by legislation or for the purposes specified in it. 
hey cannot urulcrtake the supply of foodstuffs or of fuel, even 
though the e.-isiLst way " ig an undue rise in the price of 

the nr-cessnrif's of liff n . offer the consumer the alter- 

na' irum a public body. They cannot 

es' :nt, rest and recreation, which may 

offer ai .tivc to the public house. They can undertake 

Ithe bii... ..^ r houses, since powers to that effect have been 
conferred upon them ; but they cannot undertake operations 



It 



y or supi 
.>sh pow 



ive been natural 



!■ ■ 




C>.. 




COilUiK 




access: 




exccv« 


Jiturc, t< 


of .fr., 


.....list t}.- . 


15 


thcjc < 


pr.:. 1 


■ '■•> b»- ill.'. 


1 1 


. what t 


T 1 1 
ti 




th 




to 





iry to building houses. 
•an only do so, except 
t has m ( " i 

iiy the ' «■• 

n. 

Local Authorities 

ish municipal 

- —irt of the 

and now 

• J 

r 

:> 

V 



08 amiSTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

tions and powers the more likrly are they to command the 
•crviccs of able ami public-spirited men, and to become the 
visible expression of a lofty idfal of citizenship. Wc think, 
tlu rcfore. that in order to f(»f«T rjvic patriotism and public 
S|)irit. the lar^jrr Lm'al Aw (for example. County 

Borouffhs) should be free to ke such services as the 

inhabitants of their respective areas may desire, subject to such 
central control and appnival as may be needed ^'^ tf-r^ure 
efficiency and to check exorbitant borrowing. 

(xvii.) nmt.<ting. 

151. {h) In conchi»iion we desire to urpc with all the emph.'i«;is at 
our conini;u»;1 the |,n'avc evils which arise thnni^li thi- pr<>\ision 
of inmlcqujite or unhealthy house accomrniHlation. and the 

Cuniinnuiit import-incc that ininit-diate strps should be taken, 
oth by l»>cal binlies and by the Central Govtrnment, to increase 
its su|)f»ly and to improve its quality Christian teaching 
has rep«"atedly emphasised that it is through the influence of 
the family that character is trained, and the setils implanted 
from which the qualities of the p>od citizen and the Christian 
may liter develop. Hut the condition of family life is a home 
which is at once physically healthful and not too cn)wded to 
permit of rest after labour, of conversation and reflection, and 
of mnijcent recreation. It is no exajij^eration to say that that 
condition is one which several hundred thousand of our fellow 
countrymen ure without. Families which arc obliged to live 
with an a\era<;e of more than two persons in each room may 

{)ossess shelter, but they can hardly be said to have the homes of 
luman boinjfs. Yet as long ago as 1901 the Census showed that, 
in Knj.'land and Wales alone, there were then no fewer than 
2,GG7,5(>G [>ersons living more than two to a room.* And even 
this figu revives no indication of the extent to which overcrowding 
prevailed in those areas in which it was most serious. In Glasgow 
557 jHT cent, were living more than two persons to a room, 
and 27 9 per cent, actually more than three p<*rsons to a room.j 

152. Nor is there, unfortunately, any reason to believe that the 
situation has improved since 1901. The Census of 1911 shows 
that 91 per cent, of the total populati<m of England and 
AVales, and 17*7 per cent, of the population of the County of 
London, were overcrowded.^ in the sense of living with more 

• Cfnnu-^of Fnglnndand IVnln, 1971, Vol. VIII,; Trnmu-nls in Adminis- 
tivc Counlie-s avd rrhan and Rural IHstrirUi. 10i:i ^Cd. 0010]. 

t Census oj ScitlUind. 1911 ; lirport on the Tier If ih Decennial Census of 
SeofLind. Vol. I.. |»ar{ 2. Citv of (Jhsijow. 1912 [(M. 0097). 

t The p<Teentii|{«r ovprcrowdc»l in tlifTtrt-nt di'^trirts of I>ondon wa^, of 
course, much higher. Tliiis in Fm^biirv it was 39-8, in S' ' * ' "" '^. in 
Stepnry 35, In B<>thnnl Crrrn, .3:J-2. Outside lyiruion ti 'a* 

highest' in Gatcsliead (:W-7), South Slueids (32-9), Su..^..4 ..-«), 

j^wcasOe (31-7), Tynenioultj (30 8). 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 00 

than two persons per room, and that 89-1 per cent, of the 
p- M were housed in temruciits with over one but not 

n two ptn»ons |)er nnjin. In Kii^land and Wales, 

tl r eent., nearly one-half of the |>opulation 

V ;. 1 Ls with more thun one person per nxjni. In 
i^ the situation was even worse. In 1911, 43*6 per 
Cxiii. "I iJic |M>pulution were living; more thmi two in a rtx)m, 
21.1 per eent.— over a fifth — were living more than three 
ill 1. wlijlc 8.3 per cent. — one in twelve — were uetually 
1 •• thiin four in a rtK>ni. The in(|uiries of Professor 
I; M-h we have already allude*], sliow that in 1HI2-13 
tl _ ,'e overen»wded in Northampton, \Varnnj,'ton, 
\\e*t .Stanley, and I<eadui«; wa* resptvtively «•?, Ill 7, 5O0, 
and l.'J 3 jv-r eent. Sinec I9I4, exeept in eertain munition 
nr< ;is. I.ijii.liii;; \ins almost come to an end. The President 
of th' ' ' •>venmu nt Hoard ha-s, sinc"<* the b< pnnmp ol the 
war, I the defieieney of working-elass dwellings and 

'^ t half a million. 

lion not only makes ovcr- 
e le, but lias two other results which are 

h On the one hand, it causes rents to rise 

till tlu y ah^t.rb iK'twcen one-fifth and one-sixth of the income 
of the p» Hirer working-elass families.f On the other hand it 
causes the continued occupation of premises unfit for habita- 
ti " ' 'int to leave i fy 

]r !«ty it. wlvn i i;i- 

t >ii li, u\ , ill fact, 

l<i I ven of olent men 

to a (i uf housi n, in town and cotmtry 

alikr*. :• <Mil«.- ;.i ...M hcaithy national and 

p< rNorial hfe. 
'i. 'i he effects upon muiri mid character of residence in in- 
&anitar\' and overerowdeil |)rt)perty are st) evidently disastrous 
a upon Christians the duly of remedying tlu in by 

• ifi th«-ir jwtwtT In his chissinMl work tii>on 

i' re 

b , .- ^ lie 

i: tion and among r twelve months of 

ii -.ill the degree of u*.. ^ m which they live, 

^^ If. of course, is eh«tly connected with the family 

in 'I During the ton \ ' T ■ : I90() the infantile 

ni'rt .lit\- rit« of London li 10 |Hr cent, of 

thr I' I wa.s o\eren»Atliii 1,000; where 

• ' - .</rt'i<f, I 'Ml tlr/Ktrl on ! , •rMaUtI fnifUJ (^ 

s I. II.. ivi "U. 

nn.f n- I, Lirttihoo4 and Porrrty. 1015 (Ilrll). 

V (1 u/ owrrni«(iing ia BUglitly mora ttrtafnBt 

tl, 

; N, ui,,..n. /■ ■'■ '--r ■•! '• ^ ■ 

M2 



100 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

15-20 per cent, was overcrowded the infantile death-rate wm 
106 ; where over 85 pcr_ecnt. was overcrowded it wat 228 ; 
and, of course, for one infant which dies, many survive with 
health underminctl and faculties inipairrd. Nor is the dostruc- 
tion of life and health the only evil r n- 

tinued failure of the community to seen iis 

of life for its urban fxipulation. The. chara<:ter of the environ- 
ment in which they live has an intim;ite effect upon both the 
mental development and personal morality of children and 
young persons. 

155. At the present time, as far as housing is concerned, that 
effect, we ftar it must be said, over large areas and in many 
places, is almost wholly bad. On the one hand, in the over- 
crowded areas of our great cities, children are divorced from 
all contact with nature, and are too often deprived of the 
opportunity of healthful recreation. They find their play- 
ground in the street, and the stimulus which their imagination 
craves in the picture-palace. On the other hand, it is well 
known that overcrowding fosters some of the worst vices of 
adults among boys and girls who are little more than children, 
but who are forced by the conditions under which they live 
into a precocious acquaintance with aspects of life from which, 
in a healthy society, they would be shielded. 

156. There are two main lines along which, we think, reform 
should proceed. On the one hand a higher standard of 
sanitation must be enforced by the community, and houses 
which are unfit for human habitation must be condemned 
as rigorously as food which is unfit for human consumption. 
To enforce that higher standard must be, in the main, the 
task of Local Authorities and of the State. But if they 
are to be assisted in the performance of it, as they should 
be, by a more exacting and sensitive public opinion, it is 
essential that the public should be sufficiently informed as 
to the vanous parties who have a legal interest in urban land 
and house property, to enable it to fix responsibility upon those 
upon whom it ought to rest. At present that information is 
not available. Property is let, and sublet, and sublet again. 
It is impossible in many cases to ascertain the different parties 
interested in it ; and even if the name of the ultimate owner 
of insanitary' property is knoA^m, it by no means follows that 
it is the ultimate owner who derives the profits from its con- 
dition or who ought to bear the responsibility for it. It is 
this atmosphcn* of secrecy which enables those who derive an 
income from letting insanitary premises to escape the public 
odium which ought to attach to a practice so clearly dis- 
honest and anti-social. Publicity is an antiseptic for many 
evils ; and in order that an appeal may be made to the con- 
science both of individuals and of the public, complete publicity 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 101 

in these ipatten If, It seems to us, essential. We think, there- 
fore, that the names and addresses of all owners of urban land 
and house property, and of other persons having a legal interest 
in th. rrj. >-}iMuld be rcpistorcd with the local Public Authority 
an ' ' ' ' ' 'v accessible to the public. 

157. ty of much existing accommodation is only 

01: of the Housing Problem. The deficiency in its 

qii >. as we have alreatly pointed out, even more impor- 

tant, lor it is difljcult to maintain a high standard > y 

unless the supply itself is greatly increased. If that < y 

—no novel or transient evil — is to be overcome, it must be faced 
by Christian men and women with a courageous determination 
to end conditions which make a life of health, or even of decency, 
air ' Ir by so many of their countrymen. Some- 

til . have been done to remove one cause of 

0% ag if wages, as we have alread' -ted, are raised 

f u to enable the worst paid \^ ■ » provide the 

n» - of a healthy life for themselves and their families 

Wit.. I., ^img compelled, as now, to economise on house-room. 
But it is not enough to increase the effective demand for 

ari Nation : it is necessary to increase the supply. The 

fir il need is a large, and, as far as practicable, a rapid, 

ill ' actual number of houses within the reach even 

of incomes. 

168. uiti CO! ': the technicalities of housing 

r* * it with ti which should be supported bv 

CI The right principles are, wc think, simple, though 

til rition will demand much disinterestetl public $er\'ic«, 

8« lui devotion. They are, first, that land should be 

maor II . . J !«• for the erection of houses before the need for it 
U so ur-' rf is to cause existing acconimo<lation to l)e over- 
crowded ; wcotid. <' ' (>t 
merely ke<|) pace w k, 
then flip-, Jirst. that iii ortl« r tn > le of 
holding land from the market I< ; „ i)le in 
the interest of the community, unuseti urban land should, 
aft^r ..,!,, ,,,,.f.. ,>,-.. virion has been made for open spaces, be 
N] rated ; tecondt tlmt loeiil authorities 
h) ' * *' . ntral control and 
flj purposes as they 
n '-■ tc 

•1 .g 

ft' a 

d' , , , ."« 

Q: g the buildmg of houses in those districts in which 

tl •- ' - •" IL •'•• ♦■> »-• • ' i-itr. Sur^- - -l.l.»...r,te 

at f ft grov "0 

•eemi lo ui tne moispensabie conmtion of a heaitny Kociai U|!e 



102 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

in an urban civilisation such as that of Great Britain. The 
urban pdpiilation iiu'rt'.is<s decade by <lccade. There is on the 
outskirts of most jfn>\virit( t<»\vri.s a belt of land which is iin» 
occiipieti by h<)us<s, while those nearer to the centre are over- 
crowded. Yet, at the present time, in spite of the increased 
powers conferred upon them by the Housing and T«>wn Phmning 
etc., Act of 19(»9. it is still diflicult for LcK-al Authorities to 
provide for the needs of the future by buying land in advance 
of the demand, which can be held and built U|>on as neid arises. 
We believe that, if the policy which we rcconmicnd were carried 
out, lan<l would be brought more readily into the marktt ; 
public bodies Mould be able to anticipate the housing require- 
ments of their areas ; house rents would be kept at a level 
which would not impose an excessive burden upon families <rf 
small means ; and local revenues would be increased, as in 
many towns, both in foreign countries and in the Daminions, 
through the appreciation in the value of land caused by an 
increasing population. But we arc not concerned merely, or 
even mainly, with the material benefits which would f(»llow a 
resolute attempt to cope with the Housitig I*rf»blem. In* 
sufheient and insanitary housing is the source of moral weak- 
ness and spiritual degradation. It undermines the health of 
childhood, weakens the bonds of family life and impairs the 
comfort of old age. There arc few more urgent duties for 
Christian men and women than to play their part in removing 
this great and inveterate evil from the life of the community. 

(3rv'iii.) The Parish Priest, 

159. While the duty of witnessing to these principles and of 
promoting these reforms is shared by the whole Church, it is 
clear that a special responsibility is laid on the clergy. From 
whatever view their ministry is regarded, they may rightly be 
expected to take the lead in the application of the Christian 
Faith to social and industrial practice. To them, as priests, 
the ministry' of reconciliation has been entrusted, and when 
men are really reconciled to Gmi, they enter on that way of 
justice and love which leads to reconciliation among themselves. 
It is also evident that the two great Sacraments of the Gospel, 
of which as priests they are put in trust, speak of our fdlow- 
sliip one with another in Jesus Christ. As prophets they take 
their place in the long line which began with Amos and Isaiah, 
and if social righteousness is not part of their scheme they are 
false to the best traditions of their order. Df)ubtless there have 
been, and still are, prophets among the laity ; and certainly 
there arc g'Kxi pastors who are not endowed with great pro 
phetic gifts. But they have their special commission as 
ministers of the Word. They are teachers, if not prophets. 
They are bound to show the relation of Christian truth to vital 



URBAN Lira AND INDUSTRY ^ 108 

issues and the application of Christ's principles to the actual 
farts of oiir moilcrn life. 

l<k). Th« y will <rrtjiinlv fnil t/> do this unless they are interested 
in • liicts. It IS tlurif(»rp of 

til s they should possess the 

p<i :t ot i(it(lit(;cnt sympathy with every class in the 

ct-: y uherc tluy are culk-d to serve. Those clergy — 

and they are very numerous — who ministt-r to workinjj-r ass 
pMr •' •• --s arc bound to try to understand the aims and 
a ; of the workers. If poverty and simplicity of Jite 

ar ' ■ ■ (• whose menus are small, 

C' qtialiiication, while tlure 

ar . mi lies wliifh count the parson 

til s the opiiuon seems to In- rom- 

monly held that the cicrpy — with some notable exc<ptions — 
are on the side of the capitalist classes. Plainly the clergy, 
from whatever grade of society they come, ou^'ht to be outside 
"class," and to live in equal synipathy with all sorts of men 
and womrn. It is probably true that some of thim find it 
di' \ es free from sr»cial and political 

pr red. Hut it is also true that here, 

as ill many «»tlu'r rases, the memory of an unhappy past history 
lingers in the popular mind, and that the clergy of to-day are 
credited with the attitude of the clergy of a fornur generation. 
We are bound, however, to confess that the clergy as a whole 
have done far better work in the alleviation of degrading 
P" * "'uin in the effort to prevent it, and there are cases 
H arc more interested in det:iils of Church ord«r than 

in the w.rk of redemption and rccouciliation for which the 
Chun h <-xi t.. 

161. A few Ml .-. They lay no claim to novelty. 

(i.) It is J .. :,...; the clergy* sh<iuld br drawn frtim 

every class, and that far more opportunities should b<* open 
for boys of the working class to rrc'-ive that wide education 
And that speeial truining which will qualify them for the 
ministry, i ■ • |» 

b«>ys PMM ' le 

*■ ' the sp( I s Kiul 

T- , pring. bLx^:. .i._.:, should 

ktly multiplied. 

iu- It is dirtirult en'-""'» ♦'> add to the mrrietilum of the 

.sh It training which ni' . at present reetive. Hut some 

tr ^ .' ■• ' ..J 

ii t 

»a .f 

cl 



*< t>y the rffcx-tjvci liior ouni&try to God 

til re Id nun. 



and 



104;CHRISTlANITy AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

16t. (iii.) If the clerfry entered on their ministry with some know- 
ledge of the facts of industrial life they would soon have ample 
opportunity of acquiring fresh knowledge in the school of 
practical experience. Doubtless there arc many subjects the 
expert treatment of which should be left in th( ' f the 

laity ; it is, for example, only in rare instances tl. can 

successfully act as mediators in trade disputes. On tljt other 
hand, the clergy and their fellow- workers have a priceless 
opportunity of acquiring a first-hand knowledge of urban 
conditions, and there can be no doubt that means should have 
been found for placing that knowledge at the service of the 
community. It ought, for example, to be possible for many 
clergj'mcn to take a leading part in promoting well thought-out 
schemes of housing reform. They know where the present 
conditions are deficient, and if they give intelligent study to 
the subject, they should be well qualified to help in find 
remedy. Moreover, much which the clergy (or the greater 
ber of them) are unable to do themselves they may most n 
press as duties upon lay people. This applies, for exainj/.v, 
to the duty already referred to, of active participation in civic 
or municipal work, and of helping to give practical effect to 
legislative reforms by the supply of the voluntary effort 
necessar}' for their successful operation. 

164. (iv.) It is probable that in many parishes the clergy ought 
to make a radical readjustment of their time and a reorganisa- 
tion of their scheme of work. They need more time for prayer, 
for thought, and for personal contact with the men of their 
flock. If they are to obtain it, they mus-t devolve upon the 
laity of the parish some of the details of the complicated 
machinery with which, at present, they are often overburdened. 

(xix.) Summary of Conclusions. 

165. We may now summarise the conclusions of this part of our 
Report : — 

(i.) The teaching of Christianity is binding upon men not only 
in their personal and domestic conduct, but in their economic 
activity and industrial organisation. It is the duty of the 
Christian Church to urge that considerations of Christian 
morality must be applied to all such social relationships. 

166. (ii.) While it is evident that industrial relations arc embittered 
by faults of temper and lack of generosity on the part of 
employers, employed, and of the general public also, an exami- 
nation of the facts compels the conclusion that the existing 
industrial system makes it exceedingly difficult to carry out 
the principles of Christianity. The solution of the industrial 
problem involves, therefore, not merely the improvement of 
individuals, but a fundamental change in the spirit of the 
svstem itself. 



URBAN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 105 

(lii.) The fundamental evfl of mo<iem indnstrialUra is that it 
cncouragrs competition for of co-operation 

f(ir Dubhc service. This p< >stcrs : — 

n) An organisation of industry which treats the workers 
u h deprives them of 

':■ um to exercise over 

the con mier wii « am their livehhoo<i. 

{fA 'I nee of rt , iity on the part of those 

em; r the permanent results of their industry and of 

hur rest in the work which they do : evils which arc 

int !>y the mechanical and monotonous character of 

mn nd dutieji required. 

'> part of some of those engaged in 

tape at the expense of the 

lo output, raising the prices, 

or ' ity of the work which they perform. 

(u, I. „ ;,; i ..crty which do not arise from indi- 
vidual defects or from natural scarcity, but which exist side 
by side with — ive riches. 

(e) An or ii of industry which creates a condition 

of ! -T the workers and which makes their 

liv« and uncertain. 

0; Au u jol antagonism and sxispicion 

between tlu . ^ engaged in industry. 

•8. (iv.) The cnncpption of industry as a selfish competitive 
It' m. Industry ought to be regarded 

j) < Tvice, based on the effort of every indi- 

vidual to discharge his duty to his neighbour aod to the 
community. 
109. (v.) The duty of service is equally obligatory upon all. 
There is no moral justification for the burden upon the com- 
miiiiity of the idle or self-indulgent, or for social institutions 
whi<h em " ' ' ' ' >■• • ,.jm 

(ji«.jvnvo ng 

} vn 

\ let 

ciety and wasteful 

L...... ^ 

70. (vi.) The first charge i ry industry should be the 

— ■— ' - ' - - .n. :.. . .. II.. tjjp worker to maintain 

our, with such a margin 

nf n .ii (i!!i! t ' ' ' 'p- 
:....;:•- ,,1 v. . .id. 

. uvcrUme and Sunday laix>ur 
,! im. 

171. (vij.) The principle of the living wage involves not only 

||f]f>^|||^f<. r^ri VTiifiit itiiniii* r f iii^h iVnf lit rillt fnftf ilillit \ r\f 



10« CHRISTIANITY* AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

employment. The dclil)erote casiialisaiion of labour merely 
for the convenience of employers is strongly to be condemned. 
It is the duty of employers, of workers, and of the State to aim 
at substifutinj; rt'mji.ir cmploynicnt and wajjcs for casual 
employment and wajjes. Provision should be made for the 
adequate maintcnarjce of the \v(>rker durm^ a time of industrial 
slackness by an extension of the system of insurance against 
unemployment and by any other means which may seem 
desirable. 

172. (viii.) Profits in some industrial undertakings are exces- 
sive. The re is no moral justifieution for prolits which exceed 
the amount needed to pay adequate salaries to the management 
and a fair rate of interest on the capital invested, and to ensure 
the growth and development of the industry. 

178. (ix.) After the charges on industry mentioned in (vi.), 
(vii.) and (viii.) have been met any surplus should be apphcd 
to the b<"ncfit of the whole community. 

174. (x.) The past use of children as wealth producers stands 
condenmcd for folly and injustice, and in future the demands 
of industry should not be allowed to prevent any chiki from 
securing full opportunities of edueatiou as a hutnan iK'ing and 
a citizen. The organisation of industry ought to aim at be- 
coming such as to allow young persons (a) to attend school full 
time up to 15. and, ultimately, up to 16 ; (b) to spend, unless 
engaged in occtipations which arc themselves directly educa- 
tioniil, not less than half their working time in continued 
sch<M)l education between the age at which they cease full-time 
attendance at school and the age of 18. 

175. (xi.) Exfiericnce suggests that unrestricted competition 
among wf»rkcrs and among * > tends to result in social 
degraclation, and that trade .. )ns, mcluding all wf)rkers, 
both men and women, in each industry, and similar associations, 
includmg all employers, are the best foundation of mutual 
understanding, industrial peace, and social progress. 

176. (xii.) It is desirable that those industries in which ex7>erienc« 
has shown organisation to be impossible or very dilfieult slunjld 
be regulated by Trade Ufuirtls on the principle of the Trade 
Boards Act of 1900. Such Hoards should have i>oWcr to fix 
minimum rates of payment, maximum hours of labour, and 
other conditions of employment as it may from tmie to t 
appear to them desirable to regulate. 

177. (xiii.) It is desirable that the discussion in common of 
industrial questions and the collective settlement of industrial 
conditions should be widely extended, and that with this 
object ; — 

(a) It should be the normal practice in organised trades for 
representatives of employers and workers to confer at regular 



URB/VN LIFE AND INDUSTRY 107 

int<»rva?H, not hmtpIv npmi w«ff*Hi and working conditions, 

it- 
inj; indivuiuuJ iridustnes might be ft-dcratwl in a lar^^cT and 
more n prcs<-ntativc Uxly — a nnticmal lndu<>triul Parliament 
rrprescntmg the statesman^liip of all parties concerned in 
industry. 

(b) Rcpresrntatives of the workers in different workshops 
" l)e normally and p< r 1 with the 

•I 'f'Tit in matters aff«.(t nl eomfurt, 

■ of the hubiiiess, surh ai* ihr lixirj^j and 
, (*e-rates, the improvement of processes and 
maehmery. and the settlement of the terms upon whieh they 
are to Ix? intn^hieed. workshop disciphne and the establish- 
ment of the maximum possible security of employment. 

(< " . effort should be made to avoid all delay in the 
•ct' >fdisputf*s. 

( . ; s in any individual 

iml matter in dispute, 

the disputed pomt should be referred to the Industrial 
Parliament, comfxisetl of representatives of all industries, for 
inquiry, report and de<Msion. 
'"8. (xiv.) In order to facilitate the provision by Local Authori- 
ties of such services as the inhabitants of different areas may 
r' ^ ■ \ ■ Id in future be free to undertake 

b .entrul control and a|)pn)val as 

I -edcd U> tuaiulttin clltciency and to check exorbitant 

l> 
179. (XV.) In order to secure the publicity whieh is essential to the 
realisatif>n of s^K-inl res[)onsil>ility, the names and addresses of 
all ownrrs of iirhan land and house property, and of all other 

:•■' (xvj.) 1 'h 

' '( t'lwris ! ,iid 

1 puqxises as they may deem pn»fvr. 

T^^ , i r to discourage the with'ioldmi; from the 

t of land m, or on the outskirts of. towns in a way which 
1^ . "iitrary to the public intt'rest, urban land, subject to 
adequate provision beuii? made for open spaces, should be 
v: 1. 

182 of per«on^ in Great Dritnin are at 

arc a prnvr menaee to 
^ It is the duty of the 
and of Li>eal Authorities to ensure the provision of 
kw...^ icnt and healthful hoM ''<,• > •'>,,nim(Mlation : — 

(a) Uy oompuUonly n and holding land, a< stated 

above. 



MO vUivi-^iiAMTV AND iiNDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

(ft) By planning? the de\ ' nt of towns with'* due 

regard to the provision of ■ s es. 

(f) By thcmsch i^ the huildinf^ of housM In 

those districts in \m .ply of houses is or is hkcly to 
be inadequate. 

188. (xviii.) It is the duty of the clcrg}' to teach the appHcation 
of the Christian Faith to social and industrial practice. It is 
desirable, therefore — 

(a) That they should ac- ' .-,.<; 

in their power with the s(» ^ i <■ 

to whom they minister, 

{b) That they should be dra\^^l from all classes in the 
community, and that no boy who has a vocation for the 
ministry should be prevented by poverty from entering it. 

(c) That the preparation of the clergy for the ministry 
should include a training in economic and social science. 

{d) That the clergy should regard the maintenance by 
their example and precept of a high standard of cit 
and social morality as part of the duties of their oti i 

should, when practicable, take the initiative in promoting 
reforms. 

(e) That they should consider the advisability of devolving 
upon the laity some of the duties of parochial administration 
which now fall upon them. 



CHAPTER V. 

Education 

(f.) Introductory. 
(ii.) The meaning of education, 
(in.) The sijjnificancc of (ducation for Christians, 
(iv.) The importance of a liberal < ducatiun for all. 
(v.) The physical welfare of children and young pen»(in«. 
(vi.) The training of the senses ai»d the streitgthening of 

<■ ' 
(vii.) Th- onal ladder and the educational highway, 

(viii.) The iirrci uf a n«w attiti; rds education. 

(ix.) Thf ruftsMty for more - public expenditure on 

education, 
(x.) The necessity of raising the remuneration and status of 

the teaching profession, 
(xi.) The re<! "*' ' lasses in <' * hools. 

(xii.) The lei., I of full '. .ace at 

school, 
(xiii.) The establishment of compulsory continued education 

up to the age of 18. 
(xiv.) Rural continued tducation. 
(XV.) Non-vocational adult < ducation. 

(xvi.) Religious adult ' ' - 

(xvii.) Summary of eo:, 

(i.) Inirodnetory. 

• we have -• ■ '•''.« 

, -c the ^ if 

a ' • e 

St:. ..-- - : ....:... .-.^cs 

which wc think n«(vssrtry in order that th may 

receive a pn)jfrcssive application in the ecou. .u.u u. nt 

of our own day. It is evident, however, that no pr^ n 

of ' ■ ' ■ '■■■'" 1, at 

It wards 

Ci: n 

vt\ ' V 

regard them, nevenh<i»ss have, il 

coiwfTTi K 111 lulidi'r- li.iux'vcr va' r 

ii . of a vi> ic 

nK'.i'^wi' I i" '' »>iii>, jiiti^;iij i'\ iin Illy 

intell* ctij.i tl have often a profoundef 

insight iti tied, ait<' 'g 

which is feu .lanoeof n 



110 amiSTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

must be taken to imply that wc overestimate the importance 
of intellect uul acquisitions or undcr\'aluc those spiritual qualities 
Tthicli are often found, in their noblrst form, in men and women 
who have had little opfwrtunity of formal instruction. 

185. But the mere accumulation of infornmtion is not education, 
and we do not think that in devoting to this subject a s|nri ;1 
chapter of our Rci>ort we shall incur a serious danger of Ixiiig 
thou;ilit to exalt intellect at the expense of character, or to 
forj»et lliat the m(»>t potent influence for pood in the lives of 
human Ixinirs is. and oujjht to Ik\ the home. The antithesis 
bi'twcen intellect and character is, indeed, something less than 
a half-truth, and if the home can do more for children than the 
best school, a ^(mkI srh<K)l can help the best home. If in a 
rep(»rt eonceriu'd with the social pririciples of Christianity we 
six'ak at sonje length U|)on the subject of education, it is not 
in order to exaj^'gerate the importance of intellectual culture, 
but to e^:phasi^e the wide diffusion, amon*; all classes of the 
population, of capacities which await cultivation, and the 
duty of Christians to take part, aeeordinp to their means, 
in securing that fuller opportunities of such cultivation are 
provided than exist at present. We omit all reference to 
the qucstif»n of religious instruction in schools, not because 
we underestimate its importance, but becatise it will be con- 
sidered, we understand, by the Committee on the Teaching 
Ollice of the Church. 

(ii.) The Meaning of Education. 

186. ^ Education is a word of various connotations. But the object 
of the education considered in this Report is simple, though its 
methods may be as complex as educationalists like to make 
them. It is to assist human beings to become themselves. 
They cannot become themselves with 'iit an effort of mind and 
will, and the discipline by which that effort is stimulated and 
guided is education. Because they cannot become themselves 
in isolation from their fellows, education is a social thing. 
Because their fundamental human aflinities are more imp<jrtant 

" than their individual differences, education is the witness to 
equality. Because their complete development involves not 
blind or unreasoning obedience, but their intelligent eo-opcra- 
tion in purposes which they themselves approve as good, 
educaticm is the foundation of democracy. Education is, in 
short, the organised aid to the development of human beings 
in a society. In the words of Milton, it is " that which fits a 
man to perform, justly, skilfully, and magnanimously ail the 
offices, both private and public, of peace and war."* 

* lliKon, Tractate on Education. 



EDUCATION] 111 

(III.) Tfu Significance of Education fnr Christian*, 

187. Tl !i should occupy 

a (H : IS j>f all who arc 

coMcrrneti for the application of Christian principles to social 
life. It can contribute much which will assist thtnri : they 
CAR corjtnhute niuf-h which will develop it. On the one 
h ''•'•' niritnal insii.'ht to prasp the significance of 
I _' and the sclf-sncrificinif devotion to apply it 

di (I .1 ! Ill thv l;ist H'sort upon the qtiirkcninj; of intelligence 
nn ! ••tu!'>''l' mcnt of character amonij individual men and 
\v.> :i I, w ' 1) it is the spci'ial funetiofi of rdiicif ion to promote, 
() 1 til', '"th' r hant). the inipnls<: to ovcrconir tht- moral liniita- 
ti IN. the intellectual apathv. and the material dilfuMiltics 
h at pre^icnt prevent education from cK-cupyinj; its riijhtftd 
on in tho life of the c»mmunitv, should derive from the 
• i ri '. .r f'i istianity incxhaiistihlo inspiration. 

l'^'> I' I '>f''<>urv-f. that the prrd'»minant influence in 

t 1 in the niodrrn world has b<*en 

t ^ y. The Churches have, indeed, 

done much to assist education, and its indebtedness in particular 
to the Nitional Schools ran harflly be overestinjated It 
shi^uld not be forjjotten that for the tn^ater part of the first half 
of the nineteenth century almost all thr sehrn^ls of the country 
were oro\i(lcfl on its own inifintive bv the Church through the 
N or by other religious bfxiies. But they have 

(I ;ir»2 to hinder it. This has no doubt been 

\nr<j< Iv due to corifiiets arisinji bi'twecn the State and the 
Chiirth, or the Church and the Nonconformists, over the 
control of rt lijrious instruction. Thus, if the first Education 
IMI in?n)<!»:f»<l into the Hritish Patliament was ins is often 
mimI ) otn . I bv the Archbij^hop of Canterhur>'* it must not be 
' "at that time oceupied in the fouitdation 

v which short I V <'m\« red the country with 
if he op|)«»sed the IMI it was not b<eause of 
he Mipfx»rted) hut Ix-cause he insisted on 
iiff the Hiithonty of the Natitmal Church to control 
..... ;t in the int< rests of rcliffion.f Ntverthelcss. Condorcct 
in one Ofiitury, and Ilu.xicy in ancither. are a n-niinder that 
the impt'tus to f-V * • ^ vement. thouph its motive 

has often Jx-rn In us one. has also often c<mic 

frofti men by whom ( r repud by 

wli .in it wai but li;^^ ini of . mU 

• UMt»»rr»d'« nm. Inlmdurrd |n IfinT. which n">P'>«Hl to rpukf It 

~ ' -■■■ "" ' ' - • '- •- ■ •- '-voting for th« 

' hr Iluuac of 

♦ "^ rd July, 

iei8 



112 CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

endeavour has been fed from several different sourceii. We 
desire neither to extenuate the shcrtcominffs of some who have 
called themselves Christians, nor to underrate the services of 
some who have not. 

189. But while it is true that the educational record of the 
Christian Churches is a cheqiiered one, it is none the less true 
that the promotion and diffusion of education is a cause which 
oujjht to make a special appeal to all who accept as authori- 
tative the ethical teachin*; of Christianity, The ultimate 
object of education is the development of personality, and on 
the sanctity of human personahty the New Testament lays, 
as we have suj;f{»csted in a previous chapter, peculiar stress. 
Each man is of supreme value in the si^ht of God, because all 
men are children of one Father, immorL'iI spirits whom Christ 
has redeemed. The fruit of a wise system of education is to 
fit men for the unselfish service of their fellows, by ' ' 
them to subordinate their individual ambitions to the - 

good. The duty of service, the oblifjation to bear one another s 
burdens, which springs from membership in a common society, 
and which is the foundation of citizenship both in the Church 
and in the State, lies at the very centre of Christian teaching. 
The gravest obstacle to the progress of education is the 
materialism which would subordinate the cultivation of human 
faculties to the exigencies, or alleged exigencies, of industry, 
which two generations ago condemned children of ten to 
inhuman toil in factories and mines, which still permits many 
thousand young persons to be stunted in body and mind by 
excessive and premature toil, and which regards the sug- 
gestion of increased educational expenditure as an inroad upon 
its riches or a menace to its comfort. 

190. Against the temjjer, less common than it was, but still too 
powerful, which would postpone t ■ " :s of the spirit to the 
pursuit of material gain, the war the New Testament 
are constant and unmistakable. The Ciiristian who considers 
the power to develop character and to stimulate capacity 
inherent in a generous system of education, and who reflects 
upon the condemnation passed by the New Testament on those 
who misuse the talents given by God or cause Ills children to 
offend, cannot be in doubt as to his duty. He is no more bound 
to be an educationalist than he is bound to enter any particular 
profession. He is bound to do his best to aid, according to his 
opportunity, the pronress of education, because, after the 
Church, education is the most formal and public recognition 
of the claims of the spirit which the world has allowed. In 
ages in which the activities of the State were non-existent 
or but little developed the Church was itself the greatest, 
indeed the only, educational agency, and its influence was 
felt in many spheres of intellectual activity besides that of 



EDUCATION \19 

iosiructiun of a "«pcoificttUy religious character. Now that the 
provision has been undertaken by t' - •. it is 

the duty chcs, in addition to per their 

special work ot rclii,'ious instruction, to insist that public 
«iua>itiun shall be as generous, both in conception and nictliod 
as the resources of the community can make it. 

(iv.) The Importance of a Liberal Education for All. 

"■' ' "* * ' of Christianity, through the cmpliasis 

»naHty, should prepare the community 

t. luc ui)t>n education, it al- some criterion 

"' to which educational - ur should be 

'f the principles by which it should be guided. 

ts, in the first place, that the primary object 

lUst be a spiritual one. The Christian view of 

^.M ,. . > 1-. una men are first of all men, not animals, sen'ants 

or tools. The first aim of education, therefore, must be to 

makf. not more <fVi(i r^kers. but better men, better 

cjtiicens, and b«tt<r ( Much emphasis is laid at 

the present t ribution which education 

mav rn.ik!' t<> y, and we do not under- 

«•-' :i rtance of technical and professional training. 

B. -. . . . >; .i^ .Mich training is in its own sphere, it cannot, 

howc\ <r highly it may be developed, relieve the community 

of the duty of cultivating through education those faculties 

of initiative, of judi^nent, and of intelligent sympathy with 

w' ,t. which. be< ' ,y 

'letivf* of nn ir 

;.t 

■ ■'_,. 'le 

ble only for those entering the pro- 

timatc the success of the edue'*'"- 

ty of the population by its a 



;ir 




F^' 


III p' 


th 


- .nlv.iri 


or litxr.il 


1 










<y 




h. 




f< 




di 


or of 11 


a L 


. for »h«- 



f Uif- 

'■, not 

is 

. . :!ic 

«lo<-tor that he til IV '!( \< |. I p|ay a reasonable 

part in th'- " - '" *'u' column. niv. 
108. To lay t a for such an education should be the 

fu irv scKm. ,1, ;iii.I i' ' ' ''.ertcd 

fr ,-,'. , |, .1,. I .r ' • ition. 

.\ n 

iri IN 

s' it, we think, with 

th ....J — _... ..:lirm that the only 

^ound basis for technical training if the cultivation of mental 



114 CimiSTIANITY AND INDUSTRUL PROBLEMS 

alertness, judpnent, and a sense of responsibility by means of 
ediicntinn of a pcneml and non-utilitarian character. A nation 
which aims primarily at dcvolnpini! to the fullest possible extent 
the character and intellect of its »irizcns may find that material 
prospj nty and commercial success are added to it. A nation 
which regards c<lucation prinmrily as a means of converting 
its members into more erRcicnt instruments of production is 
likely not only to jeopardise its mond standards andcihacational 
ideals, but in discover that by such methods it cannot attain 
even the limited sneccss at which it aims. The exhortation, 
**Seek ye first the Kinjidom of GckI.'** is one which has a special 
relevance to all who are enpajrcd in the work of education. 

(v.) The Phifsical Welfare of Children and Young Persons. 

104. (h) The condition of a vi|roroas mind is normally a healthy 
botly. If a line is to be drawn between the spiritual and 
material as])ccts of education, the cultivation of a sound 
phvsitpie lies on the spiritual side of it. In the second place, 
therefore, we think it important to emphasize the necessity 
of piviii«j a prominent place in otir conception of education to 
a matter which till recently has been ncplccted in England, 
and which, even at the present time, docs not usually receive 
the attention which it deserves. We allude to the necessity 
of making adequate provision in the schools for the physical 
welfare and traininjj of the children. It is evident that 
instruction and practice in the laws of health is in itself an 
important kind of education, and no intellectual training 
can be rcijardcd as satisfactory which is not built upon the 
foundation of sound physical health. Rut in the case of a 
very larue number of children attending the elementary' schools 
of Ench»nd aj>d Wales that foundation does not at the present 
time exist. The annual reports of the Chief Medical Officer 
of the Hoard of Education, whi<'h summarise the results of the 
medical inspection carried out under the Education (Adminis* 
trative Provisinns) Act of 1007, give a tragic picture of the 
prevalence of ill-health among school children. 

195. The revelation of preventible suffering and crippled capacity 
which is contained in the figures f published by the Board 
• St. M'^»th' w \T. n.i. 
tThr fo|lf>wini» fi<»iiTT^ nrp taken from the Frport of the Chief Medicai 



Q/r..., ..f ,1., ;?,,,-.! ,.r /•,/>, ,,.(,Vi. 


, f.^r tJ.j. ,„„r Id 


14 I'M 8<«.->.-l. 




P' 




irri {rmttine innpection 


or „ 




.', for i 91-1 /or 80 ar<ra«. 




Nnnilipr 


NuniJirr 


Per cx-nt. 


Defect. 


in^p-rted. 


defretive. 


defei*tive. 


Drfrrtive vision . . 


_ 


H or,.? 


10 58 


Marked adonouh 


. . 


:;.744 


1-40 


Tertti (four nr more) decayed 


.. i;;»- .::;» 


7.'), 902 


25 05 


Extcmul «ye disease 


. . 8<l7..'i«2 


7,826 


2 55 


Skin disease 


. . 20I.<><)0 


5,775 


1 08 


Riugwonn (tiead) 


. . 272.078 


827 


0«84 



EDUCATION 115 

■ee m s tn n^ to br on^ of thr pro vest blot's upon our national life. 
It it the physical health 

of , , luinity is bting under- 

niiM< '1 in the years of childhood in which it 4)u;;ht to receive 
S|K-. Ill att«*ntion, and that much of the c<lucational effort 
ex|)(nde<< in the elementary schools is wo-Ntrd in a vain attempt 
t<' * chihiren who are not physicnily fit to profit l»y 

e<i ind who. before they can he inst meted by a teacher, 

n' *')r or of a nur^c. Mi»vt uf the nilnxnts 

r« ; are, the Chief Medical Olficer of the 

H us, euruhle, and it is satisfactory to observe 

t^ :r"sult« which have accrued from the schemes of 

t r li arc being undertaken by an increasing number 

of . '\ ; ' M' 'I M n>. 

190. Hut there are still a considerable number of Education 
A " " i.ittly, the 

p. \ t he Act 

of l'Ji)7.* Itui -rt t ^f tl»^* ^ "cr of 

the j^Jard of 1 mws that inn to the 

war only just over one-half the children requinnjr medical 
care were known to be receiving it. In 1917 it was still possible 

• <V ;^1T F/1"mttnTi A'tthi^H»i<-<; tTrntmrnt nf 4omc fonn wns itrnlrrtnkrn 
in nt at scIm 

ail. »»^> in tti> 

Mr.h.ai Tnaiment oj S< '.ren. 

Na:uL>cr of arvu making pi ..i 1914. 

County Urban 

f'^"^l♦l'^" Cbuntlea. Bonxigtis. Borough*. DUtncta. Total, 

M 28 68 86 27 'KH 

I> .24 41 45 20 130 

l> . . 40 56 Tl 28 IttS 

IV ^\ft 24 40 60 S2 165 
EiiU(|^tl U/umU aod 

iulrf»oia« .... 14 29 64 10 86 

Rin (Worm (X-ray) 10 81 15 12 68 

(I'i'.artl nf Fji'irtillon. j4nnval Tte/fort for 1014 of tht ( hirf Medical 
Offlrrr of the Hoard of hdumlion, 1013. [C<1. 8<»55.J» 

t The proportion of nm diable defecU adcqoatrly dralt with in 56 
ecpmmtative mtcam wa« «» follows v~ 

Numtjer 

in Prr. 

nertl of Numtwr Prr- crntage 

Irral* Numhrr rrn»r- crttfng*" n-me« 

Condition. mcnt. treated, dlrd. timtrd. dird. 
I>{<r^««r« of now and 

tl.nul 17.648 7.060 4,nS.'J i 

F.«'. n M|rvrdiM«ae« 4.645 8.8'iO 2..WJ 

SV -» .. .. 7.062 7.021 S,KH3 n- . . * x. 

1> too and aqulnt 21.764 11.U60 lo.t'ju so 7 465 

\1 



ll« CHRISTIANITY AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

for the Chief Medical Officer of the Board to state in his Annual 
Report that only 5H per cent, of the children proved to be ailing 
received ti t. "Less than half of the Au ' ' >.," he 

writes, " h le any attempt whatever to \ dental 

treatment, uud, with one or two exceptions, tiic provision 
made by the 146 Authorities " (wiio do provide it) " is wholly 
inadequate. There are still approximately 100 Authorities 
which have done nothing for minor ailments or defective vision, 
and 200 have done no