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Full text of "Reports and papers of the architectural and archaeological societies of the counties of Lincoln and Northampton"


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Leasingham, Sleaford. 

§tmxnl liubitor: 
Rev. H. I. BIGGE, Hallaton Hall, Uppingham 

Rev. G. T. HARVEY, Lincoln. 









List of Societies in Union for General Purposes. 

The Society of Antiquaries, incorporated 1718. Burlington 
House, London. 

The Eoyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, established 1844. Oxford Mansions, Oxford Street, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Royal Institution, 

The Eoyal Institute of British Architects, incorporated 1836. 
9, Conduit Street, Hanover Square, London. 

The Northern Architectural Association, established 1858. 
Old Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, established 1855. 

The Oxford Architectural Society, established 1859. St. Giles', 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society, established 1846. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, established 1846. Lewes. 

The Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological Society, estab- 
lished 1848. Royal Institution, Colquit Street, Liverpool. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Statistics, and Natural 
History, established 1848. Bury St. Edmunds. 

The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
established 1849. Castle, Taunton. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, established 1858. Chillington 
House, Maidstone. 

The St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1845. Court House, St. Albans. 

The Buckinghamshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1847. Museum, Aylesbury. 

The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, established 1820. 
Philosophical Hall, Leeds. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute. Archaeological Sec- 
tion, Birmingham. 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society, founded 1866. Kendal. 

The Associated Societies' Reports are supplied 
gratuitously to — 

The British Museum. 

The Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

The University Library, Cambridge. 

Lambeth Palace Library. 

The Cathedral Library, Lincoln. 




Forty-second Eeport i. 

Place Names in the Isle of Axholme. A Paper read by 

the Eev. Edmund Yenables, M.A., Precentor of Lincoln 1 

The Isle of Axholme. A Paper read at Epworth, June, 

1885, by Edward Peacock, Esq 12 

Epworth Rectory, 1696-1735 ; or, the Wesleys at Epworth. 

A Paper read by the Rev. Canon Overton 16 

Mementoes of Hatfield Chace and parts adjacent. A Paper 

by John Tomlinson 26 

Archaeological Notes : Discovery of a leaden Papal Bulla... 33 

Discovery of a Pre-Historic Ship at 

Brigg 33 


Forty-second Report xxiv. 

Roche Abbey, and the Cistercian Order. A Paper by 
F. Royston Fairbank, M.D., Loc. Sec. for Doncaster. 
With Illvstrations 35 


Thirty-ninth Report xv. 

Hunsbury or Danes Camp, and the Discoveries there. By 
Sir Henry E. L. Dry den, Bart., Hon. Mem. Soc. Ant. Scot. 
With Illustrations 53 



Thirty-eighth Report xxxiii. 

On the Churches of North Bedfordshire and the neighbouring 
portion of Northamptonshire. By the Rev. A. J. Foster, 
M. A., Vicar of Wootton, Bedfordshire 69 




Thirtieth Report xxxvi. 

Diocess of Worcester, a.d. 1676. (Extracted from the 
Census for the Province of Canterbury, Anno. 1676, in 
the Salt Library, Stafford. W. Salt MS. 33.) A Paper 
procured by the above Society, and forming a complete 
Religious Census for the Diocese of Worcester in the 
year named 



A Relic of the suppressed Ecclesiastical College of Diligen, 
Bavaria. A Paper (with additions) read before the 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society 
on the 26th Jan., 1885, by the Yen. Assheton Pownall, 
M.A., F.S.A., Archdeacon of Leicester, and Rector of 
South Kil worth. With Illustrations 




Roche Abbey: South Transept „ 


The Chapter House, from East . 


North Transept, Interior... 


Part of Corbel Shaft 


Ground Piscina ... 


The Cemetery 


Abbot's Tomb (fragments) 


Twin Capitals 


Hunsbury or Danes Camp : — 

Plate I 


„ 11 


„ ni 


„ IV 


„ V 


„ VI 


„ VII 




Plaque— a relic of the suppressed Ecclesiastical Coll 

ege of Diligen 78 



S C I E T y 



The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lin'coln. 

His Royal 
His Grace 
His Grace 
His Grace 
His Grace 
The Most 
The Right 
The Right 
The Right 

Highness the Duo d'Aumale. 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
the Duke of Rutland. 
the Duke of Portland. * 

the Duke of Newcastle. 
Hon. the Marquis of Bristol. 
Hon. the Earl Brownlow. 
Hon. the Earl of Yarborough. 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Southwell. 

VOL. XVIII., pt. I. 




Sir H, H. BacOiV, Premier Baronet. 

Sir J. H. Thouold, Bart. 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Lincoln. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 

The Rev. the Precentor of Lincoln. 
The Rev. the Chancellor of Lincoln 


The Rev, the Sub-Dean of Lincoln. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 

J. Banks Stanhope, Esq. 
The Right Hon. H. Chaplin, M.P. 
H. Sherbrooke, Esq. 
J. L. Ffytche, Esq., F.S.A. 
B. Huntsman, Esq. 
W. H. Smyth, Esq. 
The Right Hon. E. Stanhope, M.P. 

OThaivmjin of Cx>mmitces. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Nottingham. 


The President. 

The Patrons. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Rural Deans (being Members). 

The Officers of the Society. 

Rev. Prebendary F. H. Sutton. 

Rev. S. AV. Andrews. 

W. G. Lely, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. K. Saunders. 

Rev. F. H. Deane. 
Rev. C. Terrot. 
Rev. J. Wild. 
Rev. A. R. Maddison. 
C. Kirk, Esq. 
J. Fowler, Esq. 
Rev. C. E. Jarvis. 
Rev. J. 0. Stephens. 

Rev. G. T. Harvey, F.S.A., Vicars' Court, Lincoln. 

Rev. Prebendary Moore "> 

Rev, Prebendary Maclean. >• Foi- the Archdeaconry of Lincoln. 

Rev. C. Terrot. ) 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. For the Archdeaconry of Stoio. 


The Rev. Sub-Dean Clements, The Sub-Deanery, Lincoln. 

Rev. A. R. Maddison, F.S.A., Vicars' Court, Lincoln. 

New Members elected in 1885. 

Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 

Rev. T. P, N, Baxter, Hawerby, Grimsby. 

Rev. A. E. Jeans, Haileybury College. 

Right Hon. Edward Stanhope, M.P., Revesby Abbey, Boston. 

Very Rev. the Dean of Lincoln. 

J. E. Lister- Empson, Esq., Ousefleet Hall, Goole. 

Christopher B, CoUinson, Esq., Beltoft, Doncaster. 


Honorary Members. 

His Royal Highness the Due d'Aumale 

Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart., Hon. Loc. Sec, Lea Hall, Gainsborough 

The Eight Honble. Lord Tennyson, Freshwater, Isle of AVight 

J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., 22, Harley Street, London 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq., Rugby 

Life Members. 

Bridges, Rev. Sir B. G., Bart., Goodnestone Park, Wingham, Kent 

Brownlow, The Right Hon. Earl, Patron, Belton House, Grantham 

Browne, Rev. J., United University Club, Pall Mall, London 

Chambers, Rev. W. F., Folkestone 

Chaplin, The Right Hon. Henry, M.P., F.R, Blankney Hall, Sleaford 

Daubney, W. H., Esq., Grimsby 

Drury, Michael, Esq., Architect, Lincoln 

Forster, F., Esq,, Southend, Sydenham 

Ffytche, J. L., Esq., V.R, F.S.A., The Terrace, Freshwater, Isle of Wight 

Goddard, H,, Esq., Architect, Lincoln 

Guest, Methyr, Esq., Brookes' Club, London 

Haig, G. H., Esq., Grainsby Hall, Grimsby 

Huntsman, Benjamin, Esq., F.F., West Retford Hall 

Johnson, T. M. S,, Esq., Spalding 

Keyworth, W. D., Esq., Architect, 54, Savile Street, Hull 

Kirk, Charles, Esq., Architect, Sleaford 

Kirk, Herbert, Esq., Sleaford 

Lister, Rev. J. M. 

Lincoln. Right Rev. Lord Bishop of, Lincoln 

Maddison, Tlie Ven. Archdeacon, Richard's Castle, Ludlow, Herefordshire 

Mason, Rev. J. 

Nevile, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Stow, Lincoln 

Penrose, Rev. J., Craddock Cleve, Uffculme 

Portland, His Grace the Duke of. Patron, Welbeck Abbey, Worksop 

Reynardson, Rev. J. Birch, Careby, Stamford 

Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, Patron, Belvoir Castle, Grantham 

Sharman, W., Esq., Architect, Spalding 

Sherbrooke, H., Esq., F.P., Oxton Hall, Southwell 

Sibthorp, H. W., Esq., 57, Chester Square, London 

Smyth, W. H., Esq., F.P., Elkington Hall, Louth 

Smyth, Rev. Prebendary, Elkington Vicarage, Louth 

Southwell, The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of. Patron, Thurgarton, Southwell 

Stanhope, J. Banks, Esq., F.P., Revesby Abbey, Boston 

Thorold, A. W. T. Grant-, Esq., Weelsby House, Grimsby 

Yarborongh, The Right Hon the Earl of. Patron, Brocklesby Park, Ulceby 

Thorpe, James, Esq., Coddington, Newark 

Trollope, The Right Rev. Edward, D.D.,F.S.A., Bishop of Nottingham, V.R, 

Chairman of Committees, Leasingham, Sleaford 
Trotter, Theodore, Esq., Monk's Tower, Lincoln 
Wood, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., Penrhos House, Rugby 



Ordinary Members. 

Ainslie, Rev. PiebeiKlary, Chingford, 

Alington, Rev. C. A., Swinhope, 

Andrews, Rev. S. W., Claxby, Market 

Bacon, Sir H. H., Premier Barouet, 

Thonock, Gainsborough 
Bartlet, Rev. Prebendary, Lincoln 
Bashforth, Rev. F., Minting, Horn- 
Bateman, Rev. S., Yarborough, Louth 
Baxter, Rev, T. P. N., Hawerby, 

Bell, Rev. J., North Somercotes, 

Blenkin, Kev. Prebendary, R.D., Boston 
Blenkin, Rev. Prebendary, Lincoln 
Bone, Rev. W. M., Winthorpe, 

Boyle, Rev. J. R., Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Bradley, W. H., Esq., 6, Marsden 

Square, Manchester 
Bristol, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 

Ickworth Park, Bury St. Edmunds 
Brodrick, S. F., Esq., Hull 
Burton, J. F., Esq., Lincoln 
Byron, Rev. J., R.D., Killingholme, 

Cameron, Rev. G. T., Heckington, 

Canterbury, His Grace the Archbishop 

of, Lambeth Palace, London 
Caroll, Rev. F., Tallingtou, Stamford 
Cheales, Rev. H., Friskney, Boston 
Clayton, Nathaniel, Esq., East Cliff 

House, Lincoln 
Clements, Rev. Sub-Dean, The Sub- 
Deanery, Lincoln 
Clements, Rev. E., Syston, Grantham 
Clifton, H. R., Esq., Clifton Hall, 

Collinson, Christopher B.,Esq.,Beltoft, 

Cole, Rev. R. E. G., Doddington, 

Constable, J. Goulton, Esq., Walcot, 

Cordeaux, J., Esq., Coates Magna, 

Cracroft, Edward, Esq., Hackthorn 

Hall, Lincoln 
Cracroft, Rev. R., Harrington, Spilsby 

Cross. Rev. Prebendary, Appleby, Brigg 
Crowfoot, Rev. Prebendary, Bishop's 

Hostel, Lincoln 
Dalyson, Mrs., The Hamptons, Tun- 
bridge Wells 
Deane, Rev. F. H., Horsington, 

Deane, Rev. J. "W., Eastcote House, 

Pinner, Middlesex 
Deedes, Rev. Prebendary, Heydour, 

Dolphin, Rev. J. M., Coddington, 

Dolphin, Rev. T. W., Edingley, 

Doncaster, Mrs., Silver Street, Lincoln 
Drake, Rev.W. T. T., Great Gaddesden 

Hemel Hempstead 
Ellis, W. H. M., Esq., Monkstown, 

Ellison,Major, Boultham Hall,Lincoln 
Emeris, R. W., Esq., Louth 
Empson, J. E. Lister, Esq., Ousefleet 

Hall, Goole 
Falkner, E. S., Esq., Newark 
Fane, W., Esq., Melbourne Hall, Derby 
Fawssett, F., Esq., M.D., Louth 
Fawssett, W., Esq., Horncastle 
Field, Rev. T., Bigby, Brigg 
Fitzherbert, Rev. R., Warsop Rectory, 

Foljambe, Cecil G. Savile, Esq., M.P., 

Cockglode, Ollerton, Notts 
Fowler, Jas., Esq., Architect, Louth 
Freeth, Rev. Dr., Fotherby, Louth 
Goddard, F., Esq., Architect, Lincoln 
Goodacre, Rev, F. W., North CoUing- 

ham, Newark 
Gordon, Lieut. -Col. Conway, Lynwode, 

Market Rasen 
Gorton, The Ven. Archdeacon, Kirkby- 

la-Thorpe, Sleaford 
Greenwood, Rev. H., Beelsby, Grimsby, 
Harvey, Rev. G. T., F.S.A., Hon. Sec, 

Hemmans, Rev. Prebendary, Holbeach 
Hine, Mrs., Sleaford 
Hine, T. C, Esq., Architect, Not- 
Holdich, Rev. T. P., Linwood, Market 

Holmes, Rev. J., Swineshead, Boston 


Hood, Sinclair F,, Esq., Nettleham, 

Himtsman, Rev. E. J., Harworth, 

James, F., Esq., 198, Cromwell Eoad, 

London, S.W. 
Jarvis, Eev. C. E., Hatton, Wragby 
Jeans, Rev. G. E., Haileybnry College, 

Kaye, The Yen. W. F. J., T. P., Arch- 
deacon of Lincoln, Riseholme 
Larken, F. R., Esq., Lincoln 
Leeke, Rev. Chancellor, Lincoln 
Lely, W. G., Esq., Carlton Scroox^, 

Lincoln, The Very Rev. the Dean of 
Lloyd, Rev. Lorwerth Grey, Wiston, 

Locock, Major, Elkington, Louth 
Luard, G. A., Esq., Bly borough Hall, 

Luard, Rev. T. L, Perlethorpe, Oiler- 
ton, Notts 
Maclean, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., 

Hon. Loc. Sec, Caistor 
Maddison, Rev. A. R., F.S.A., Vicars' 

Court, Lincoln 
Maples, Augustus, Esq., Spalding 
Marshall, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., 

Holton-le-Beckering, Wragby 
Matterson, W. H., Esq., M.D., Newark 
Maule, Rev. George, Thorseway, Caistor 
Melville, A. S. L., Esq., Branston Hall, 

Melville, A. H. Leslie, Esq., Lincoln 
Melville, Rev. F. A. Leslie, Welbourn, 

Mills, Mr. R. M., Bourn 
Mirehouse, Rev. J., Colsterworth, 

Moore, Rev. Prebendary, iTow. Zoc. Sec, 

Moore, Lieut. -Col., Frampton Hall, 

Moore, Rev. A. W. G., Spalding 
Mowbray, Rev. J. H. M., Knossington, 

Nelson, Rev. Prebendary H., Lincoln 
Nelson, Rev. Prebendary T. S., R.D., 

Nesbit, C. M., Esq., Louth 
Newton, Mrs., Hill Side, Newark 
Nottingham, The Ven. the Archdeacon 

of, Farndon, Newark 
Osborne, Mr., St. Mary's Churchyard, 


Overton, Rev. Prebendary, Epworth 
Peacock, Edw., Esq., F.S.A.,Bottesford 

Manor, Brigg 
Peake, H. A.,' Esq., Sleaford 
Peake, G. H., Esq., Sleaford 
Piatt, Rev. A. M., Croxby, Caistor 
Plum tree, Rev. C. F.,Claypole, Newark 
Reeve, Nevile, Esq., Ashby Hall, 

Reynolds, Rev. G. W., St. Mark's 

Rectory, Cheetham Hill, Manchester 
Royce, Rev. D., LoAver Swell, Stow- 

on-the-Wolds, Gloucestershire 
Salisbury, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 

of, Salisbury 
Saunders, Rev. J. C. K., Friesthorpe, 

Market Rasen 
Sawyer, Joseph, Esq., Holbeach 
Scorer, William, Esq., Architect, Bank 

Street, Lincoln 
Sharp, Rev. J. P. Edeuham, Bourn 
Sibthorp, Coningsby Charles, Esq., 

Canwick Hall, Lincoln 
Stacye, Rev. John, Shrewsbury Hos- 
pital, Sheffield 
Stamford, The Very Rev, the Dean of. 

Market Deeping 
Stanhope, Right Hon. E., M.P., F.F., 

Revesby Abbey, Boston 
Stephens, Rev. J. 0., Blankney, 

Street, Rev. B., Barnetby-le-Wold, 

Sutton, Rev. Prebendary, Brant 

Broughton, Newark 
Sutton, Rev. A. F., West Tofts, 

Mundford, Norfolk 
Swan, Rev. C. T., Sausthorpe Hall, 

Terrot, Rev. C, Hon.Loc Sec.,'Wis^ing- 

ton, Horncastle 
Thompson, Mr. W., 11, Elmer Street, 

Thorold, Sir J. H., Bart., V.P., Syston 

Park, Grantham 
Tumor, C, Esq., Stoke Hall, Grantham 
Venables, Rev. Precentor, Lincoln 
Walker, Rev. J., Averham, Newark 
Watkins, Rev. M. G., Kentchurch, 

Watkins, W., Esq., Architect, Lincoln 
Watson, Rev. W. R., Saltfleetby St. 

Peter, Louth 
Wayet, Rev. Prebendary, R.D., Pinch- 
beck, Spalding 


Welby, Kev. G. E.,BaiTowby, Grantliam 
White, Eev. J., Grayingliam, Kirton- 

White, Rev. Prebendary, Potterhan- 

■\vorth, Lincoln 
AVild, Rev. J., Tetney, Grimsby 

Wild, Rev. M., Newark 
Williamson, J,, High Street, Lincoln 
Woolley, Thomas S., Esq., South Col- 

lingham, Newark 
Worlledge, Rev. Prebendary, Clergy 

School, Leeds 

The Report. 

The past has been an uneventful year in the history of the Society, and your 
Committee feel that they have but scanty materials for their Forty-second 
Report, which will necessaril}'- be a somewhat short one. 

In the year 1885 seven new Members have been elected. Two of these, 
the Bishop of Lincoln, and the Dean of Lincoln are but substitutions for two 
Members removed from us by death. Bishop Wordsworth during his 
Episcopate always took an active interest in the Society, frequently joining 
the Excursions made during the Annual General Meeting. On one occasion, 
at the Meeting at Spalding, held in 1882, the Bishop read a Paper entitled. 
Where was Doclona ? which has been printed in the Society's Annual Volume 
for that year. It afforded a proof, if such were needed, of the versatility of 
the late Bishop's intellectual powers, which were equally remarkable when 
employed either in the exposition of Holy Scripture, or the clear setting forth 
of theological dogma, or in his stores of classic lore, or in matters of archae- 
ological research. While thus regretting the loss of Bishop Wordsworth, 
your Committee have the pleasure of announcing that the present Bishop has 
consented to act as President of the Society, and they hope from time to time 
that he may be able to be present at the Society's Meetings and Excursions. 

The returns of Inventories of Church Plate continue to be received by our 
Secretary, but no returns have yet been sent in from more than 300 parishes. 
It is hoped that the Members of the Society will in their various neighbourhoods 
do what they can to stimulate an interest in Church Plate, as we are convinced 
that the Inventory, when complete, will be the means of checking the alienation 
of plate, and the mistaken zeal of many Clergy, who, not content with chalices 
and patens, which the associations of three centuries of use ought to have 
rendered specially precious, ruthlessly hand over their plate to the melting 
pot of some London ecclesiastical outfitter, to be remodelled so as to suit the 
taste of this age of gothic revival. If this process continues we shall fijad, 
that in time the Communion Cups of the Elizabethan age will become as rare 
as pre-Reformation Chalices, of which but very few have as yet been found in 
this county. 

We have to express our regret that so few Members attend the Meetings 
of the Committee. At the Meeting in January, there were but seven Members 
present ; in March and July only four ; no quorum in May ; the September 
and November Meetings were attended by but three Members. We are loath 
to see in these small Meetings a sign of any diminution of interest in the 
affairs of the Society, but the suspicion does sometimes force itself upon us 
that interest is flagging. What course then are we to adopt to bring about a 
revival, and attract fresh Members ? The rapid progi'ess of Church Restoration 
in the Diocese in the last 25 years has of course rendered the restoration of a 
church in these days a comparative rarity, and so we have few or no church 
plans to submit to our Committee. But our Society does not confine itself 
to Architecture : anything of an archteological character has our sympathy, and 
the Members of the Committee would deserve well of the Society, if they 
brought for exhibition at our meetings any antiquities which they hear of and 
can procure for exhibition. Then again we are of opinion that our Annual 
Volume might be made more attractive, and useful, if, in addition to the 


Papers read at our Annual Meetings, it contained reprints of ancient deeds 
documents, or descriptions of archffiological discoveries made from time to 
time. The volume would then become both a safe repository of much, which, 
without it, cannot fail to be lost, and a mine of wealth to the future historian 
of the county. We have ventured to make these few remarks in the hope 
that they may lead to a development of the usefulness of the Society. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on July 7th and 8th, at 
Epworth. The district round Epworth is not rich in natural beauty or romantic 
scenery, but still has much to attract the antiquarian, while the general, and 
more especially the ecclesiastical portion of the public must ever be interested 
in the home of the Wesleys. Unfortunately, the Election in North Lincoln- 
shire prevented man)'' from attending who would otherwise have done so. 
Notwithstanding this drawback, a numerous congregation was present at 
Epworth Church at the opening service on Tuesday morning. After the 
service the Bishop of Nottingham described the architecture of the Church, as 
he also did that of the other churches visited in the Excursions. Appended is 
the description of the various churches as given by the Bishop of Nottingham : — 

St. Andrew's, Epworth. 

Standing, as this church does, on high ground, and in a central position 
in the Isle of Axholme, it may be regarded as its crown, and the town is also 
remarkable from its connection with the Castle of the Mowbrays, Dukes of 
Norfolk, which once stood very near to the church. One of them — Duke 
Thomas — came to Epworth to bid farewell to his wife before his banishment 
by the order of Richard II. The fabric consists of a tower, nave, aisles, north 
and south porches, chancel, and vestry. The earliest features are the aisle 
arcades of the Early English period, consisting of two large arches on each 
side, and two smaller ones in the north arcade now chiefly connected with the 
tower, and one in the south arcade. At the west end of the north aisle is a 
two-light Decorated window ; of the same period, is a most interesting porch to 
the north doorway. Within this is a shield bearing the de Mowbray arms on 
the right, and on the other side another shield, the bearings of which are 
unknown. The windows of the chancel are Decorated, consisting of two 
three-light reticulated windows in the south wall, and one in the north wall. 
The east window is modern. Of the Perpendicular period is the tower, con- 
taining a fine peal of bells, the building of which, within the area of the older 
nave, has injuriously interfered with the aisle arcades, and the vestry, the old 
oak doorway of which is worthy of notice from its overlapping planking, and 
the large round boss of the handle. Over this, within, has been inserted a 
well carved foliated bracket. Some of the aisle windows are Perpendicular 
and others of the Tudor period. The lower steps and the doorway of the rood- 
loft staircase still remain on the north side of the chancel, and a portion of its 
carved oak screen is preserved in the prayer-desk. When this church was 
reseated another part of its old woodwork came to light again, consisting of a 
carving bearing the device of Richard II., viz., a white hart sedent or couched, 
chained and ducally gorged. Here is a fine old parish chest, and among other 
things are two sixteenth-century chairs, one dated 1560 ; there are also parts of 
two fourteenth-century tombstones, on one of which is incised the handle of a 
sword. Perhaps the most interesting object in the church is a small mazer 
bowl, long used as an alms bowl, mounted in silver parcel-gilt, with a religious 
device engraved on a circular plate in its centre. Externally, on the south 
side of the chancel, the Rev. Samuel Wesley's grave will be viewed with much 
interest. In the parish was a Carthusian Monastery, called ' ' The Visitation 
of the Mother of God," founded by Thomas, Earl of Nottingham, and Marshall 
of England, on 100 acres of land given to him for this purpose by licence from 
Richard II. It was dedicated in honour of God, the Virgin Mary, St. John 
the Evangelist, and St. Edward the Confessor, and its prior and monks were 


to pray for the souls of the Earl and King, their ancestors and heirs. Licence 
also was given to the abbot of St. Nicholas at Angiers to grant to this house 
his manor and priory of Monk Kirby, in Warwickshire, and the manors of 
Newbold-upon-Avon, Ooppeston, and Walton, with their advowsons, and also 
those of Whythybroke, Wappenbury, and Sharnford, to be appropriated to the 
monks of the Carthusian order of Epworth for ever. June 26. Anno regni 20. 

All Saints', Belton. 

This is a fine church, originally of the Early English period, but now 
principally Perpendicular. It consists of a tower, nave, aisles, chancel, and 
vestry. The tower is Perpendicular, and in its west front a shield, bearing 
the date of 1676, has been interpolated. This is probably of churchwarden 
origin, as the tower is certainly of the fifteenth century. In like manner the 
date 1775, inscribed on the face of the porch, simply marks the time when the 
fragments of an earlier porch were put together in their present form. In the 
interior are fine lofty arcades of three bays each, having well-moulded arches 
resting upon Perpendicular octagonal pillars. Above these is a good Perpen- 
dicular clerestory range, raising the nave of this church to a considerable 
height. The aisles overlap the tower, and communicate with it by means of 
an arch on either side. In the north aisle wall are two Decorated reticulated 
windows, and four Perpendicular ones on the south aisle. The statue bracket 
at its east end seems to point to the former existence of a chantry chapel 
there. The original Early English font, in excellent condition, has been dis- 
placed to make room for an inferior one of recent date. On the easternmost 
pillar of the south aisle is the iron frame of an hour-glass. On the south side 
of the chancel are two Perpendicular windows, a door (now built up), and a 
small low vestry of a later Perpendicular character, which is an addition to it. 
The east window is a fine feature. Below this, on the right, is a range of three 
sedilia and a piscina. Below the arch, opening into a chantry on the north 
side, is an interesting effigy, said to be that of Richard de Belwood. He is 
represented, as it were, in his coped coffin, surmounted by a cross, with aper- 
tures in it allowing his head and shoulders and part of his feet to be seen. 
The surface is much worn, but he appears to be represented in chain mail ; his 
small shield bears a bend, and his ieet, as usual, rest upon a lion. The effigy 
is apparently of the last quarter of the thirteenth century. In Belton was a 
cell of Augustine canons belonging to Nostel Priory, founded by Nigel de 
Albini, and enlarged by Roger de Mowbray ; also a Benedictine cell, given to 
St. Mary's Abbey, York, by another of the Mowbrays. This was at Sandtoft, 
where, subsequently, in the reign of Charles I., stood a chapel and a house for 
the use of a Dutch minister, imported by Yermeuden when employed in draining 
the fens of this locality, that he might minister to the Dutch drainers. 

St. Oswald's, Crowle. 

The fabric consists of a tower, nave, north aisle, and chancel. It stands 
undoubtedly on the site of a Saxon church existing in 1086, when Domesday 
Book was compiled. Of that early period there is a most interesting relic 
preserved in the present church, as the lintel of the tower arch. This consists 
of the lower portion or stem of a Saxon cross 6ft. 6in. long, slightly tapering 
towards the upper end. On its face next to the nave are carved two male 
figures facing one another, and below these a man on horseback, and then on 
a little panel beneath this is a Runic legend, a few words of which alone have 
been deciphered, indicating that it was a dedication cross, or perhaps what we 
now call a churchyard cross. The reverse, seen from the tower, is ornamented 
with intertwining work, and at the smaller end a twining serpent is carved, 
with the tail within its mouth. The other two sides were no doubt similarly 
ornamented. During the Norman period this church was rebuilt ; of this 


church there are considerable remains, viz., the lower portion of the tower 
with its arch opening into the nave, in which the above-named Saxon stone 
is now doing service as its lintel beneath a plain semicircular arch, the 
t3'mpanum of which is formed of small stones laid diagonally. Then we have 
the south wall of the nave, in which a portion of one of its original windows 
still remains, and may be seen on its inner surface, and also the grand old door- 
way within the Jacobean porch, added in 1628. This is of three orders, having 
as many pillars on either side in its jambs, and supporting a richly moulded 
and carved semicircular arch of great beauty. Above the Perpendicular 
clerestory of this elevation are the old Norman corbels raised up tliere from 
their original position, and at the west end of the north aisle one of these 
corbels may still be seen in its original jslace. Of the Early English period 
are the lower portion of the tower, with the beautifully moulded window in 
the lowest stage of its west Avail, and a circular aperture above, said to have 
given light as a beacon, and also the responds and a few of the voussoirs of 
the arches of the lately restored aisle arcade of four bays, the chancel arch, 
and a lancet light in the wall of the chancel aisle. Of the Decorated period 
is a three-light windoAv, and a modern copy of this in the south wall. Of the 
Perpendicular period is the upper part of the tower, built with better masonry 
than that below, as is often the case. The chancel was built about 30 years 
ago. In its north Avail is a very wide arch opening into an aisle, no doubt 
originally constituting a chantry chapel. In the external wall of this feature 
appears the lancet windoAV before mentioned, together with two square-headed 

St. Oswald's Althorpe. 

This parish originally belonged to the great family of Mowbray, and then 
through marriage to those of Newmarsh and Neville. Roger de Mowbray was 
the founder of the Hospital of St. John here ; he endowed it with the proceeds 
of the church, and the Knights of St. John or Hospitallers exercised the right 
of presentation to it during the twelfth and two following centuries. The church 
consists of a tower, nave, north aisle, and chancel, and from its position on the 
bank of the Trent is a fine object. The whole is Perpendicular, but the 
character of the tower and chancel is superior to that of the nave. These were 
the work of Sir John Neville, who through marriage was connected Avith the 
NeAvmarshes and the MoAvbrays. Hence on one shield in the west elevation 
of the tower is displayed the bearings of Neville, impaling MoAA'bray and 
Newmarsh, and another quartering the same, betAveen the mantled helm of 
Neville surmounted by the dun bull's head as the crest ; and again on a shield 
on the east Avail of the chancel appears the MoAvbray lion rampant. The toAver 
is a good one of its period, especially enriched by its doorAvay beneath an ogee 
arch, on the jambs of Avhich are carved bold effective ornaments. On an 
adjacent buttress is cut a little floriated cross Avithin a circle, which probably 
served as a consecration cross. Passing along the nave to the chancel, its 
superior work Avill at once be seen in the three side windows Avith a door under 
the central one, and in the imposing five-light eastern one, Avith its hood-mould 
terminating in the head of a king and a bishop. Within is an aisle arcade of 
four bays, some steps leading to the doorAvay of the rood-loft, and a good Per- 
pendicular carved oak screen requiring some restoration. In the chancel is an 
arcade of tAVO arches supported by a central pillar opening into a continuation 
of the nave aisle, Avhich no doubt served as a chantry chapel, as it is supplied 
with a piscina. On the south side of the chancel are three remarkable sedilia. 
These are constructed upon the marble slab of an altar tomb, in which Avas 
inserted the dimidiated figure of a priest, engraved on a brass plate with the 
following legend beneath it : — "Hie Jacet Will's de Lound, quondam clericus 
cancellarie d'ni Regis, cui aie p'pciet Deus." William de Lound Avas presented 
to the Rectory of Althorpe by Joseph Panely, Prior of the Knights of Jerusalem, 
in 1355. Above this tomb was constructed the circular-headed canopies and 
diAdsions of the sedilia. 



St. Martin's, Owston Ferry. 
In this parish once stood a formidable stronghold, commanding the 
channel of the Trent and its ferry, called Kinard Castle, belonging to the 
Mowbrays, lords of the Isle of Axholnie. In it Roger de Mowbray, when in 
rebellion against Henry II. stood a siege for some time in 1173 against the 
Royal forces, but he was at last obliged to yield, when the castle was destroyed. 
The church consists of a tower, nave, south aisle, new porch, and chancel, 
besides a large additional feature looking almost like a second nave on the 
north side of the real one. This was built by Dr. Stonehouse, Archdeacon of 
Stow, in 1844, who left £1,000 towards repairing and beautifying this church, 
whilst Miss Saunderson left the same amount in 1868 for the same purpose, 
besides other munificent bequests for the benefit of this parish. Externally 
the church does not promise much to ecclesiologists, as the tower is only a 
plain Perpendicular one ; a new incongruous porch covers a portion of the 
south elevation, and a large new structure of white brickwork entirely conceals 
all the older portion of the fabric on the north. But within, it still possesses 
several older features of some interest. For instance, the south arcade, of four 
bays, is Early English, as indicated by the long caps of the pillars, and the 
little nail-head ornament on these. The corresponding one on the north is 
Decorated, and opens into the new portion of the church, which has a Decorated 
window at the east end. The chancel is Decorated also, having two square- 
headed windows in its south wall and a doorway, and a similar one in its north 
wall, now opening into the new part of the fabric. The tower is an ordinary 
one of the Perpendicular period. 

Peiory of Low Melwood. 
In the reign of Richard II. Thomas de Mowbray, afterwards Duke of 
Norfolk, founded this Carthusian house, formerly called "The Priory in the 
Wood," or "House of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin." It stood on the 
farm called "Low Melwood," and within its walls was buried John de 
Mowbray, second Duke of Norfolk. At the Dissolution it was valued at 
£237 15s. 2d., and granted to John Candish. 

The Annual Dinner took place at the Red Lion Hotel. 

In the evening a Public Meeting Avas held in the National School-room, 
at Epworth ; the Bishop of Nottingham presided. There was present a 
large and appreciative audience. The Bishop having opened the proceedings 
by a short address, called upon Canon Overton, the Rector of Epworth, to 
read the first Paper— TAc Wesley s at Eimortli. 

Mr. Overton's Paper, which was listened to with marked interest, was 
succeeded by Precentor Venables on Place-names in the Me of AxJiohne. 

Cordial votes of thanks were given to both gentlemen for their Papers. 

On "Wednesday morning, after an early service in the Parish Church, the 
Members of the Society and their friends assembled in the Market-place, 
Epworth, whence they started on an excursion of about 40 miles through parts 
of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire. The weather was delight- 
fully fine, and the drive from Gringley-on-the-Hill to Bawtry was particularly 
enjoyable, the hilly and finely wooded country being a pleasant change to the 
flat and monotonous scenery of the Isle of Axholme. The Bishop of 
Nottingham again described the various churches, which were visited in the 
following order : — 

St. Nicholas', Haxey. 

Haxey is the ancient capital of the Isle of Axholme, and possesses the 
finest church within its area, having a famous peal of bells hung in its lofty 
tower. Besides this tower it consists of a nave, aisles, north transept, chancel, 
and an adjoining chantry chapel. As in many other cases, from a first view 


of this church it might readily seem to be wholly of the Perjiendicular style, 
but such is by no means the case, for on entering we find both late Norman 
and Early English features still incorporated in the present fabric. Of the 
iirst style are three bays of one of the aisle arcades, having round pillars and 
square abaci, but supporting later arches. The westernmost pier also on the 
south side of the nave is Norman. Of the Early English period are the four 
bays of the corresponding aisle. The pillars of this aisle have circular 
shafts and square abaci, except the central one, which has an octagonal 
shaft. The westernmost bay of the north aisle arcade, the chantry chapel 
on the north side of the chancel, and the wide chancel arch which springs 
from corbels also belong to the Earl)'- English period. The above-named 
chapel, communicating with the chancel through an arcade of three arches, 
the transept, aisle windows, fine clerestory range, and roofs of this church 
are Perpendicular. In the chantry is a recumbent effigy of a priest in 
a good state of preservation, and exhibiting his vestments well. This is 
beneath an ogee-arched wall-recess, and represents the priest, as usual, with 
hands upraised in prayer, and his head resting upon two cushions, the one 
placed diagonally on the other. He is represented in a large chasuble, the folds 
of which hang behind on either side of the effigy. 

All Saints', Mlsterton. 
This church consists of a tower surmounted by a low broad spire, nave, 
chancel, and north porch. Originally it was, no doubt, of the Early English 
period, of which there are considerable remains, viz. , the tower, now freshly 
faced, Avith its two receding stages, large lancet light, having a hood-mould 
enriched with the tooth ornament, and the belfry lights above of the same 
style. Of the same period is the nave doorway, which has plain jambs, but 
its head is well moulded, and here, again, the dog-tooth ornament appears. 
The base of the font, on which now stands a very poor representative of the 
original bowl, is of the same period. The north aisle arcade, of three bays, is 
Decorated. This springs from corbels on its piers, consisting of very large 
carved heads, and is supported by octagonal shafted pillars, having caps 
enriched with foliation. The south aisle, also of three bays, is Perpendicular, 
of a plain description. There is an aisle at its east end, giving access to 
another on the north side of the chancel. This, no doubt, served as a chantry 
chapel opening into the chancel by means of an arcade of three bays. In the 
easternmost of these is part of a beautiful carved oak screen, being a remnant 
either of the chancel screen or of one belonging to this chapel. There are also 
fragments of old carving inserted in the modern pulpit. The east window of 
the chancel is a fine bold specimen of the Decorated period, and there are 
several corbels of that style remaining in the church. 

St. Peter's, Gringley-on-the-Hill. 
This church stands on an eminence, and consists of a tower, nave, north 
aisle, chancel, and chantry chapel on its north side. Probably through the 
defective condition of the exterior of the church, it has been almost entirely 
covered Avitli a coating of rough-cast. Originally it was an Early English 
structure, of which the doorway on the south and the aisle arcade, together 
with its continuation eastward, constituting the chantry chapel, are portions. 
The first of these is in a mutilated condition, and has a double heading, and 
the arcade is of three bays, supported by circular-shafted pillars. Of the Per- 
pendicular period is the tower of two stages, surmounted by an embattled 
parapet with the usual angle pinnacles, and the chancel, which led to the 
adoption of a curious expedient with respect to the arch giving access to the 
older chantry chapel on the north side, viz., the erection of another within it. 
The north aisle windows are poor, of the Tudor time, and two modern windows 
have been inserted in this church, one in the south wall of the nave, the other 
at the west end of the aisle. In the south-east corner of the chancel is a 
beautiful pillar piscina, having a foliated bowl and a square hollow within it. 


St. Nicholas', Rawtry. 
As in the case of almost all old parish churclies, so here, there are at least 
some features of interest presented to us, and although externally this church 
does not promise much, within are points worthy of notice. The fabric con- 
sists simply of a tower, rebuilt in the Perpendicular style, surra onnted by an 
embattled parapet and eight pinnacles, a nave and aisles, but no structural 
chancel, the easternmost bay of the nave serving instead of this, no doubt 
originally screened off from the remainder. In the wall of the north aisle is 
a late Norman semicircular-headed archway well worthy of notice. At one 
time the greater part of the fabric appears to have been Early English, of which 
the very peculiar east window remains in a mutilated condition, with a piscina 
on the south side of it, and the north aisle arcade pillars. These are short and 
have circular shafts and octagonal caps, and are now surmounted by later 
arches of an imperfect form. The little intersecting arched window of three 
small lights at the east end of this aisle where there was probably a chapel 
formerl}^ and the arches of the south aisle arcade are of the Early English 
])eriod. These, it will be seen, do not fit upon the caps of the sliort octagonal- 
shafted pillars below, which seem to have been substituted for the original 
ones. The two easternmost bays of this aisle, consisting of well-formed arches, 
supported by a central pillar of a peculiar design, evidently opened into a 
chantry chapel at the east end of that aisle. The windows are poor flat-headed 
Perpendicular specimens, and those in the north aisle wall may be called 

St. Oswald's, Finningley. 

Once a small complete Norman church stood here, of which there are some 
remains, first, the greater part of the tower with its arch opening into the 
nave, then the fine old doorway in the south wall, the plain one in the 
opposite wall, now stopped up but still showing its outline internally, and the 
old tub font. Of an early Decorated period is the aisle arcade and the chancel. 
The first is of three bays supported by octagonal-shafted pillars, and there is 
also a Decorated window at the west end of this aisle, which came from the 
north side of the chancel. The large chancel, now representing the original 
iSmall Norman one, with its beautiful windows, of which the large eastern one 
of three lights, having a circular wheel-like feature in its head, is remarkable, 
whilst within on the south side is a range of three sedilia and another arched 
recess, eastward of these, containing a double piscina. Originally there was a 
chantry chapel on the north side of the chancel. Of the Perpendicular period 
are the following features, viz., the embattled parapet and the angle pinnacles 
of the tower, the square-headed windows in the east and north walls of the 
aisle, and some old carved oak work inserted in the chancel seats. The roofs 
of the nave and chancel are late Decorated, quite of the end of the fourteenth 
century apparently, and although aged are extremely picturesque from their 
character, and especially from their colouring. That of the chancel is more 
i-efined as to design and execution than the other. On one of its bosses is 
c;irved the figure of a king, and on another that of the archbishop, and its 
beams are enriched with painted foliage and gilding subdued in tone, and 
liai-monizing with the tone of the timber work. 

St. Lawrence's, Hatfield. 
This may be truly termed a magnificent parish church, and is by far the 
finest one visited during our two days' excursion. In plan it is cruciform, with 
a lofty tower rising from the centre, the nave and chancel have aisles and north 
and south transepts, and south porch. At first it appears to be of the Perpen- 
dicular period, when viewed from the outside, but on examination there are 
considerable portions of a much older fabric to be found incorporated in the 
l)resent structure, whence we gather that its outer walls were originally com- 
posed of pebble-work, of which portions still remain, viz., at the west end in 


the tower wall, in that of the north aisle, which has a small semicircular-headed 
window inserted in it, and also in the south aisle wall. In this i)ebble-work 
of the tower stands a beautiful Early English doorway, flanked by two pillars 
having abaci on either side supporting a well-moulded arch. Two Early English 
windows, also set in pebble-work, remain in the south aisle wall, and within 
the south porch is a semicircular-headed doorway of the same period, the 
head of which is encircled with a row of balls, and another of knobs. The 
long square-headed windows of the north aisle are Decorated. All the rest of 
the exterior of this church is Perpendicular, Its interior is very grand, the 
massive piers of the tower springing from immense bases, and then passing 
upwards in an octagonal form to support well-moulded arches above, form a 
striking preface to the nave. This consists of five bays formed of an arcade 
on either side, consisting of circular-shafted pillars, having square caps, above 
the arches of which is a fine Perpendicular clerestory range, and a roof of the 
same period. Over the north aisle are arches at intervals between the arcade 
pillars and the outer wall tying these together. At the end of each transept 
is a large five-light Perpendicular window. The chancel is of the same period, 
and in its arch is a remarkably fine canopied oak screen, delicately carved, and 
a similar one, of smaller dimensions, between the north transept and the north 
aisle of the chancel. This last, in common with its corresponding one on the 
south, has a good span-roof, and from their size are imposing features. They 
each have an arcade of two wide arches opening into the chancel, and probably 
both constituted chantry chapels. In the southern one is an altar tomb with 
a reredos, which may have served as an Easter sepulchre, and in the northern 
one various fragments of funereal armour are very properly preserved and dis- 
played. There also are two fine old parish chests. One of these is coffin 
shaped, almost covered with bands and studs, and x)rovided with seven locks. 
The other is in the south aisle of the chancel. 

Before concluding these notes on the Excursion, it may be added that the 
Bishop was of opinion that the Beacon Hill at GringUy-on-thc-Hill was partly 
natural and partly artificial, and must originally have been occupied by some 
British tribe, the higher or circular portion being their stronghold, to which 
was early added an annexe for the preservation of their cattle in time of need. 
At BaiDtry, the verger of the church explained in connection with a tablet to 
the memory of Jane Thistlewood, wife of Arthur Thistlewood, that the latter 
was supposed to be the Cato-street conspirator. The conspiracy, it will be 
remembered, took j^lace in 1820, fifteen years after Mrs. Thistlewood died. 
At Austerficld, though not in the original programme, a stay was made to 
examine the interesting little church, doubly interesting on account of its 
being the worshipping place of some of the Pilgrim Fathers before they left 
England. The Bishop specially pointed .out the rich doorway on the south 
side of the church, and the carving above it. The party reached Epivorth at 
six o'clock. 

The Meeting on Wednesday evening was well attended, and the Blsiiot* 
OF Nottingham again presided. Mr. E. Peacock, F.S.A., was unable to be 
present, but his Paper was read by Mr. Newborn, of Epworth. It was 
entitled The Isle of Axhohne in the Seventeenth Century. 

The next Paper was read by Mr. Jno. Tojilinson, ex-Mayor of Doncaster, 
and author of a book on Hatfield Chase. The Paper Avas entitled Mementos of 
Hatfield Chase, 

At the close of the JMeeting very hearty votes of thanks were passed to 
Canon Overton and the Local Committee, to the Authors of the Papers, and 
to the Bishop of Nottingham. 



The Treasui-cr's Balance Sheet, showing a balance in the Bank of 
£16 6s. lOa. as compared with £32 2s. lid. on the 31st of December, 1884, 
is appended. The above snm is in addition to £110 which is in the Bank on 


£ s. d. 
Balance in liand, Jan. 1st, 

1885 32 2 11 

Entrance Fees (4) 2 1 

Subscriptions 30 19 6 

Composition (1) 10 

Interest on Deposit, £100... 2 

Do., on Current Account... 1 4 11 

J. CLEMENTS, Treasurer. 


._ £ s. d. 
By Deposit of Composition 

at Bankers 10 

,, ]\Irs. Doncaster, April 

Half-year 10 3 

Curtis, Bill 8 

Expenses, Epworth Meet- 
ing 3 13 1 

Mrs. Doncaster, October 

Half-vear 10 

Willianison, Bill for 1884 

Volume, &c 25 15 5 

Subs. Archreological Insti- 
tute, 1884 & 1885 2 2 

Balance in hand, Jan. 7, 
1886 16 6 10 

£78 8 4 

Examined and alloAved March 5th, 1885, 





The LoKD Bishop of Peterborough. 




The Earl Spencer, K.G., Lord Lieutenant of the County of Northampton. 
The Right Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton, D.D., Bishop of Ely. 
The Archdeaco>\s of Northampton and Oakham. 


The Marquis of Northampton. 
The Lord Lilford. 
The Hon. and Rev. L. C. R. Irby. 
Sir Charles E. Isham, Bart. 
Sir Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Peter- 

The Rev. W. Wales, Chancellor of 

The Rev. J. P. Lightfoot, D.D., 

Rector of Exeter College, Oxford. 
The Rev. M. Argles, Canon of 



The Patrons. 
The Presidents. 

The Officers 
Rev. F. C. Alderson. 
Rev. R. S. Baker. 
Rev. H. BiGGE. 
Rev. J. Brown. 
M. H. Bloxam, Esq. 
Rev. H. Crawley. 
Sir Henry Dryden\ 
Rev. T. Eykyn. 


Rev. A. 0. James. 
Rev. L. H. LoYD. 
Rev. W. P. Mackesy. 

I The Vice-Presidents. 

I The Rural Deans. 

OF THE Society. 

C. A. Markham, Esq. 

Rev. F. B. Newman. 

H. 0. Nethercote, Esq. 

Rev. A. W. Pulteney. 

Rev. T. Richards. 

Rev. Canon Roberts. 

T. ScRivEN, Esq. 

R. G. ScRiVEN, Esq. 

Rev. C, Smyth. 

Rev. H. H. Stewart. 

G. L. Watson, Esq. 

^)onorary (Sccr^tariesi. 

Rev. Chancellor Wales. 

Rev. T. C. Beasley, Dallington, Northampton {Correspoyiding). 

Rev. G. S. Howard Vysk. 

Rev. Christopher Smyth. 

Rev. Dr. Sanders. 


S. J. Newman, Esq. 

^sististant flesibcnt iJihrarian. 

(To whom all BooJcs, Parcels, d-c., should be sent.) 
Mr. C. Earl, 8, Abington Street, Northampton. 



Honorary Members. 

Professor E. L. Donaldson, Hon. Sec. 

Forn. Cort. of R.I.B.A. 
W. A. Parker, Esq., Edinburgh 
M. H. Bloxam, Esq., Rugby 
David Rhind,Esq., F. A.I. S., Edinburgh 
Charles Wilson, Esq., F. A. I.S., Glasgow 
A. W. Franks, Esq., British Museum 
P. A. iiardwicke, Esq., Cavendish- 
square, London 
M. De Caumont, Caen, Normandy 
P. Barrow, Esq., British Consul at Caen 

Rev. Dr. Lightfoot, Exeter College, 

Miss Agnes Blencoe 

Miss R. James, Theddingworth, Rugby 

James Parker, Esq., M.A., Oxford 

Very Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton, 
D.D., Deanery, Worcester 

Rev. F. H. Suttcn, Brant Broughton, 

Rev. Canon Yard, Wyggeston's Hos- 
pital, Leicester. 

Ordinary Members. 

(Those marked thus* are Life Members.) 
Where the Post-toivn is not stated, Northampton must he understood. 

Alford, The Lady Marian, Ashridge, 

Great Berkhampstead 
Alderson, Rev. F. C, Holdenby 
Abbey, Rev. A. J. 

Argles, Rev. Marsham, Canon of Peter- 
borough, Barnack, Stamford, R.D. 
Barrett, Rev. D. W., Nassington 
Baker, Rev. R. S. Hargrave, Kimbolton 
Barker, Rev. Canon, Rushden, Higham 

Ferrers, R.D, 
Barton, Rev. Mordaunt, Tiekencote, 

Beasley, Rev. T. C, Dallington 
Bigge, Rev. H. J., The Bury House, 

Cottingham, Rockingliam 
Bigge, M. R., Esq., Oundle 
Boodle, Rev. A., Little Addington, 

Brereton, R. P., Esq., Oundle 
Brooke, Richard De Capel, Esq., The 

Elms, Market Harborough 
Brown, Rev. T. Bentley, Normanton, 

Brown, Rev. J., Milton 
Brown, W. Talbot, Esq., Architect, 

Browne, E. M., Esq., 2, Addison Villas 
Buckley, Rev. W. E., Middleton 

Cheney, Banbury, R.D. 
Burnham, Rev. H. C, Cogenhoe 
Campbell, Rev. A. Leigh, Helpston, 

Market Deeping 
Carpenter, R. H., Esq., 4, Carlton 

Chambers, 4, Regent Street, London | 

Cartwright, A., Esq., Edgcot, Daventry 
Clarke, R. T., Esq., Welton Place, 

Cockayne, G. E., Esq., College of 

Arms, London, E.C. 
Collins, Rev. W. L , Lowick, Thrapston 
Collins, Clifton, Esq., Park Corner, 

Couchman, Rev. J., Thornby 
Cox, Rev. R. H., Hardingstone 
Crawley, Rev. H., Stowe 
Danby, Rev. S., Westou-le-Welland, 

Market Harborough 
Dennis, Rev. P. G., North Luffenham 

Dolben, Mrs. Mackworth, Finedon, 

Dove, Mr., 11, Pytchley Street 
Downes, Rev. J., Hanuington 
*Drummond, Rev. H.,Leckhampstead, 

Dryden, Sir H. E. L., Bart., Canons 

Ashby, Byfield, R.S.O. 
Duthy,Rev.W.,Sudborough, Thrapston 
Egerton, Rev. B. De ]\I., Brackley 
Eland, R. F., Esq., Thrapston 
Eykyn, Rev. T., Pattishall, Towcester 
Freeman, Rev. E. P.Williams, Clapton, 

Gates, H. P., Esq., Peterborough 
Gedge, Rev. H. 

George, T., Esq., Hazlewood Road 
Glover, Rev. J. H., Queen Katherine's 

Hospital, London 




Oray, Rev, C, St. Michael's 
Gregory, Rev, M., Leamington 
Gwyn, Rev. J. B,, Rockingham, R.S.O. 
Halford, Rev. J., Briseworth 
Hamilton, Rev. A. H,, Cole-Chadstone 
Hammond, Rev. C. E., Wootton 
Handcock, Rev. R. G., Quinton 
Harrison Rev. J. H., Bugbrook 
Hichens, Rev. T. S., Guilsborough.R.D. 
Hill, Rev. C, Culworth, Banbury 
Hodgson, Rev. F. G.. Pilton, Oundle 
Holdich, Rev. J., Bnlwick, Wansford 
Holding, M., Esq., Northampton 
Howard, Rev. H., Weekley, Kettering 
Hull, Rev. R. B., R.D.,"A11 Saints' 

Huntingford, Rev. G. W., Barnwell, 

Irby,Hon. and Rev. Llewellyn, Whiston 
Isliam, Sir Charles E,, Bart., Lamport 

I sham, Rev. R., Lamport 
James, Rev. A. 0., Long Buckby, Rugby 
Kniglitley, Lady, Fawsley Park, 

^Lilford, The Lord, Lilford, Oundle 
Law, Edmund, Esq., Northampton 
Lawson, Rev. F. P., Castle Cottage 
Lewis, Rev. G.B., Kemsing, Sevenoaks, 

Lindsay, Rev. Canon, The Rectory, 

Kettering, R.D. 
Loyd, Rev. Lewis H,, Wing, Leighton 

Mackesy, Rev. W. P., East Haddon 
Mark ham, C. A., Esq., Pitsford 
Mercer, Rev. J. F., East Carlton, 

Rockingham, R.S.O. 
Moorei Rev. E. M., Benefield, Oundle 
MuUins, Rev. G. H., West Deyne, 

Northampton, Marquis of, Castle 

Northampton, Archdeacon of, Little 

Nethercote,H.O.,Esq., Moulton Grange 
Newman, Rev. F. B., Burton Latimer, 

Newman, S. J., Esq., Architect, 32, 

Abington Street, Northampton 
Orford, Rev. H. W., Bradden,Towcester 
Orme, Rev. F., Lyndon, Oakham 
Peterborough, The Lord Bishop of 
Palmer, Sir Geoffrey, Bart., Carlton 

Park, Rockingham, R.S.O. 

Parker, Rev. Canon, Oxenden, Market 

Harborough, R.D. 
Paul, Rev. G. W., Finedon, Welling- 
Philips, Rev. J , Weston Favell 
Porter, Captain H., 32, Belgrave Road, 

London, S.W. 
Powys, Rev. W. P., Thorpe Achurch, 

Pulteney, Rev. A. W., Ashley, Market 

Richards, Rev. T., R.D., Hardwycke, 

Richards, Rev. J., Tansor, Oundle 
Roberts, Rev. Canon, Spratton 
Rokeby, Rev. H. R., Arthingworth 
Robinson, Rev. Sir F. L., Bart., 

Cranford, Kettering 
Roughton, Rev. W., Great Harrowden, 

Russell, Mrs. Watts, Biggin Hall, 

Spencer, The Earl, K.G., Althorp 
Spencer, The Countess, Althorp 
Sanders, Rev. S. J. W., School House 
Scott, Mr. W., Architect, 19, Notting- 
ham Place, Regent's Park, London 
Scriven, G., Esq., Castle Ashby 
Scriven, R. G., Esq., Castle Ashby 
Scriven, T., Esq., St. Giles 
Shoosmith, W., Esq., Billing Road 
Skipworth, Rev. R. S., Whilton, 

Smith, Rev. Canon Sidney L., Bramp- 
ton Ash, Market Harborough 
Smyth, Kev. C, Little Houghton, R.D. 
Smyth, Rev. C. 
Mr. Stevenson, Duston 
Stewart, Rev. H. H., Brington 
Stockdale, Captain, Mears Ashby Hall 
Stopford Sackville, Mrs., Drayton 

House, Thrapston 
Stopford Sackville, S. G., Esq., Drayton 

House, Thrapston 
Sutton, Rev. F., Brant Broughton, 

Sweeting, Rev. W. D. , Maxey, Market 

Sylvester, Rev. E. T., Deene, Wansford 
Taylor, Mr. J., College Street 
Thompson, Rev. W. H., Stoke Dry, 

Thornton, Rev. F. M. S., St. Sepulchre's 
Thornton, E., Esq., 92, Gloucester 
Place, Portman Square, London, W, 



Thring, Rev. E., The Hospital, 

Tom, Kev. E. N., St. Peter's 

Townsend, H. Milnes, Esq., Peter- 

Traylen, J. C, Esq., Stamford 

Urquhart, Eev, E. 

Vialls, G., Esq., Architect, 26, Bedford 
Row, Holborn, London, W.C. 

Vyse, Rev. G. S. Howard, Boughton, 

* Watson, G. L., Esq., Rockingham 
Castle, R.S.O. 

^^ ales. Rev. Chancellor, Great Hough- 

Waller, Rev. Horace, Twywell, Thrap- 

Waudby, Rev. W. R. B., Stoke Albany, 

Market Harborough 
Welldon, Rev. C. E., Wood Street 
White, Rev. R. A., St. Giles Vicarage 
*Wickes, Rev. J. Beck, Boughton 
G. Willis, Esq., King's Sutton, Banbury 
Wilson, Rev. R. S., Girton, Cambridge 
Wood, R. H., Esq., F.A.S., &c., 

Penrhos House, Rugby 
Woollcombe, Rev. W. W., 28, Kensing- 
ton Gate, London, W. 
Yates, Rev. W., Cottingham, Rock- 
ingham, R.S.O. 


1. That the Society be called The 
Architectural Society of the 
Archdeaconries of NorthamptOxS 
AND Oakham. 

2. That the objects of the Society 
be to promote the study of Ecclesias- 
tical Architecture, Antiquities, and 
Design, and the restoration of muti- 
lated Architectural Remains within 
the Archdeaconries ; and to furuisli 
suggestions, so far as may be within its 
province, for improving the character 
of Ecclesiastical Edifices hereafter to 
be erected. 

3. That the Society be composed of a 
President,Patrons,and Vice-Presidents, 
and of ordinary Members, to consist of 
Clergymen and Lay Members of the 

4. That Members of the Society be 
privileged to propose new Members, 
either by letter or personally, at the 
Committee Meeting ; and that Honor- 
ary Members be elected only on the 
nomination of the Committee. 

5. That Rural Deans within the 
Archdeaconries be ex e§icio Members 
of the Committee, on their signifying 
an intention to become Members of 
the Society. 

6. That each Member shall pay an 
Annual Subscription of Ten Shillings, 
to be due on the first day of January 
in each year. 

7. That any Member may compound 
for all future Subscriptions by one 

payment of £10 ; and that any Member 
having subscribed for not less than ten 
years, may, upon all arrears, if any, 
being paid, compound for all future 
subscriptions by one payment of £5. 

8. That the affairs of the Society be 
conducted by a Committee, composed 
of the President, Patrons, Vice-Pre- 
sidents, Rural Deans, and eighteen 
ordinary Members (of whom five shall 
be a quorum), who shall be elected at 
the Annual Meeting, and of whom six 
at least shall have been Members of 
the Committee of the preceding year. 

9. That the Committee have power 
to add to their numbers, and to elect 
out of their body the requisite number 
of Secretaries. 

10. That the Members of the Com- 
mittee in any neighbourhood may 
associate other Members of the Society 
with themselves, and form Committees 
for local purposes in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

1 1 . That the Public Meetings of the 
Society be holden in the spring and 
autumn of each year, at such times 
and places as sliall have been appointed 
at the Autumnal Meeting of the pre- 
ceding year. 

12. That the Committee meet at the 
times and places which they may them- 
selves appoint, and that their Meetings 
be open to the Members of the Society 
and their friends, after the despatch 
of routine business. 



13. That the Secretaries be em- 
powered, on any urgent occasion, with 
the sanction of the Patron, to call a 
Special Meeting of the Society. 

1 4. That Donations of Architectural 
Books, Plans, &c., be received ; that 
the Committee be empowered to make 
purchases and procure casts and draw- 
ings, which shall be under the charge 
of the Librarian, at the Society's Room, 
Gold Street, Northampton. 

15. That when the Committee shall 
consider any Paper worthy of being 
printed at the expense of the Society, 
thej^ shall request the author to furnish 
a copy, and shall decide upon the num- 
ber of copies to be printed, provided 
always that the number be sufficient 
to supply each member with one copy, 
and the author and Secretaries with 
twenty-five copies each. All other 
questions relating to publishing plans 
and papers, and illustrating them with 
engravings, shall be decided by the 

16. That the Central Committee be 
empowered to provide, at the Society's 
expense, Working Plans for any 
Member who may request them, for 
repairing any Church in this Arch- 
deaconry with which he is connected, 
provided that the expense so incurred 
by the Society in any one year shall 
not exceed one-third of the funds ; 
and that no such grant shall be made 
unless the majority shall consist of 
six Members. 

The following Resolution has been added .— 
'"That in future the ]\Ieetings of the General Committee be held at 
"Twelve, instead of Two o'clock p.m., on the second Monday in February, 
"and of every alternate month." 

17. That the Central Committee 
shall every year publish for circulation 
among the Members, Transactions, to 
contain descriptions and papers con- 
nected with the objects of the Society ; 
and that tlie illustrations to be given 
in such Transactions, shall, for the 
present, depend on the voluntary 
donations which may be given to the 
Society for that purpose. 

18. That on application being made 
to any Member of the Committee, or 
to the Committee collectively, for the 
advice of the Society in the restoration 
of any Church, a Sub-Committee be 
appointed (of which the Incumbent or 
Resident Minister be a Member) to visit 
the Church, and submit a Report in 
writing to the General Committee. 

19. That all Plans for the building, 
enlargement, or restoration of Churches, 
Schools, &c., sent for the inspection of 
the Committee, be placed in the hands 
of one of the Secretaries of the Society, 
at least one week before the Committee 
Meeting, for the Secretary to prepare 
a Special Report thereon. 

20. That no sum exceeding Thirty 
Shillings be voted towards the objects 
of the Society, without notice being 
given at a previousCommittee Meeting ; 
such notice also to be inserted in the 
circular calling the meeting at which 
the sum will be proposed. 

The Eeport. 

The last Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Monday, December 
8th, 1884. Sir Henry Dryden, V.P., in the Chair, and several Members of 
the Society. 

The Rev. F. B. Newman, Hon. Sec, read the Annual Report, and the 
Rev. G. S. Howard Vyse, the Statement of Accounts, after which Mr. R. G. 
ScRiVEN described the discoveries recently made at Hunsbury Hill, the site of 
a British camp. 

The Society not being able to continue to Rent the Room which they had 
so long occupied on the premises of the Religious and Useful Knowledge Society 
were under the necessity of seeking for new quarters, which they succeeded in 
finding at No. 8, Abington Street. The valuable Library and other Property 
of the Society have been safely transferred to their New Room which they 
trust will enable them to carry on their work successfully. 

iiEPORT. xxi. 

There has been no other change of importance, the Rev, H. J. Bigge who 
had for many years filled the office of Librarian, has resigned, but still retains 
his place on the Committee. The office of Librarian has been accepted by the 
Rev. Dr. Sanders, and Mr. S. J. JSTewman has been appointed Curator. 

Although no great number of Churches in the two Archdeaconries have 
been under restoration during the past year, your Committee have had under 
their consideration the plans proposed to be executed in some interesting 
buildings. Just at the close of the preceding year, plans for the restoration 
of Moulton Church were laid before them. The improvements contemplated 
were thorough and extensive, but owing to the great cost involved only a 
portion of them can be carried out at present. Your (Committee are however 
glad to learn that substantial and important alterations are in progress ; and 
they trust that the promoters of the scheme may ultimately be enabled to 
carry out the designs of their Architect in their completeness. 

Plans for the restoration of Tansor Church (near Oundle), were laid before 
your Committee in June last, by the Rev. John Richards, Rector. Tansor 
has probably long been known to the Members of this Society as one of the 
most interesting in the district in which it is situated ; and it would perhaps 
be impossible to find another church of equal interest in the county, which 
stood in such great need of repairs. The plans were prepared by Mr. Ewan 
Christian, who describes the church as of considerable architectural interest, 
owing to the various dates of its erection, the breadth and strength of propor- 
tion in some of its parts, and the beauty and delicacy of many of its details. 
A large portion of the church was built, J\lr. Christian states, in the latter part 
of the twelfth century, and the remainder of the church in the thirteenth 
century. The plans submitted appeared to your Committee to call for no 
special comment. 

In the month of August the plans of Clipstone Church were exhibited by 
the Rev. F. C. Blyth, the Rector, showing that a general restoration of this 
church amounting almost to a rebuilding, was in contemplation. The plans 
(prepared by Mr. Reeve) called for no suggestions excepting in reference to the 
seats, which were shown as having sloping backs, which in the opinion of your 
Committee, are always unsatisfactory in appearance, while at the same time 
they add little or nothing to the comfort or convenience of the worshippers. 
This restoration is in full progress and will probably be completed in the 
Spring of next year. 

Although not coming in any way under the consideration of the Committee, 
it may be mentioned here that the Cathedral of our Diocese is now rapidly 
regaining its ancient form of beauty, and that the rebuilding is of so solid and 
substantial a nature, as to leave no doubt of its permanent stability. Every 
lover of architecture must rejoice that this fine building has been rescued from 
impending ruin. 

It may also be worth while to notice that the Northampton Eleanor Cross, 
is having an entirely new set of steps, of Derbyshire grit, a very beautiful 
stone, which harmonises well with the cross itself, and that no other 
restoration is at present contemplated. 

The Annual Excursion was made on the 7th and 8th of July to Coventry 
and its neighbourhood. The ground is well known but is so full of interest, 
that it can hardly fail to interest even them who are best acquainted with it. 
A start was made shortly before noon, and a short drive brought the party to 
Baginton Castle. The actual remains of the building are extremely small, 
all that is visible being a small portion of the internal angle of a groined 
springer. Excavation made some time ago revealed the complete foundations 
of an apartment to which it belonged. The site on which these remains stood, 
and which was exceedingly picturesque, were suggestive of a fortified building. 
Not far from this spot stands a church, a small but very interesting structm-e, 
externally remarkable for a very pleasing bell turret, terminating in a small 
octagonal spire, and set at the ridge line at the junction of the nave and 


chancel. Internally the turret is found to be carried by a double arcade of 
three arches in the place of the ordinary single arch. Another curious and 
unique feature is to be observed on the north side, where the original wall has 
been broken through and arches substituted, leading into a second aisle. The 
space between the two arcades is very narrow and the effect very singular. 
The party returned to Coventry by Whitley, and Gosforth Green, where the 
duel between the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Hereford (in the reign of 
Richard II.) was to have been fought. The whole of the afternoon was spent 
in visiting Coventry A fine crypt (under Loyd's Bank), was first inspected. 
The crypt is about 60 feet in length, is divided by a central row of pillars, and 
vaulted with chamferred groined ribs. Mr. G. W. Fretton, F.S.A., who acted 
as guide, stated that there were a very large number of such crypts in Coventry, 
of which that one might be regarded as an excellent example. Palace Yard 
was next inspected. This consists of a range of what is called half-timbered 
buildings around a small quadrangle. The date of such buildings is probably 
about 1550. The banqueting hall, occupying the whole of the first floor on 
one side of the quadrangle, is now used as a carpenter's shop,, but owing to its 
beautifully modelled ceiling retains much of its picturesqueness. In another 
part of the building is a remarkably fine newel staircase. The party then 
proceeded to the site of the Whitefriars or Carmelite Priory — where there are 
considerable remains — now used as the Workhouse. The principal features of 
interest are the cloisters — with some indications of the Chapter House — and 
the dormitories. The windows of the dormitories on tlie eastern side are con- 
structed in a peculiar manner, being splayed on one side only. Mr. Fretton 
suggested that this plan was adopted to enable the monks to catch sight of the 
rising sun. From Whitefriars a move was made for St. Michael's, taking on 
the way the old city walls, of which there are very interesting remains. The 
Church of St. MichaeVs is known as one of the finest in the country. It consists 
of nave, chancel, and aisles, chiefly in the Perpendicular style. Its total length 
is 292 ft., and its breadth 127 ft. The tower and spire, which form its 
principal feature, are 303 ft , and are not only of graceful form, but are enriched 
with most effective carving. The stonework, however, has become so damaged 
that restoration, which has now been undertaken, had become absolutely 
necessary. Closely adjoining the church is St. Mary's Hall, formerly the 
property of the Trinity Guild, but now in the hands of the Corporation. It 
contains many interesting objects. Within a stone's throw of St. Mary's Hall 
stands Trinity Church (next visited), a crucifonn church of fifteenth-century 
Gothic. The tower and spire, although inferior in height to that of St. Michael's, 
are of noble and beautiful proportions, and the two, when seen together, are 
singularly attractive. Dr. Hook — afterwards Vicar of Leeds — was formerly 
an Incumbent here, and the west window is filled with stained glass as a 
memorial to him. From Trinity Church the excursionists proceeded to the 
Free School, which has been used continuously for the education of boys, from 
the time of the Reformation. New buildings are now provided, and the old 
school, which not only possesses many infesting characteristics, but is connected 
so intimately with historical associations, has been happily secured for the 
parish of Trinity. The day was concluded by a visit to Bahlake, where are 
situated Bond's Almshouses, Wheatley's School, and St. John's Church, and 
finally to ForcVs Almshouses, one of the most picturesque spots in the city. In 
the evening a valuable Paper was read by Mr. Fretton on Underground 

The first object of interest visited on the second day was the Church and 
Abbey of Stoneleigh. The principal objects of interest in the church are a fine 
Norman doorway and chancel arch. It contains also a Norman font, originally 
brought from Maxtakc Priory, and the tomb of the Duchess Dudley (wife of 
Richard Dudley, son of Lord Leicester) and her daughter, which consists of two 
sculptured figures — one resting on the base and the other upon a slab supported 
by pillars. 

REPORT. xxiii. 

The Abbey, which was thrown open to the Members by Lord Leigh, with 
the most hearty expressions of good will, contains some iine pictures and other 
objects worthy of inspection. Its chief interest, however, is historical. It 
was a Cistercian establishment founded in the reign of Henry II. The access 
to the monastery wes through a handsome gate-house still remaining. It is 
evident that the cloister court of the monastery and the adjacent domestic 
buildings were, as usual, on the south of the church. Considerable portions 
remain, which are of the Norman style of architecture. The whole church is 
gone except a small portion of the south wall of the south nave-aisle in which 
is a doorway from the cloisters to the church. The usual passage to the south 
of the south transept (the slyppe) remains with its vault. Farther south is 
the chapter-house with a central pillar. Still farther south the vaulted crypt, 
imder, probably, the Abbot's lodging, remains, now used as cellars, &c., and 
originally used for the same purposes. The range of offices, lying east and 
west, on the south of the court is on the site of the old range containing pro- 
bably the refectory. The main portion of the modern house includes the site 
of the west range of the buildings, of which no trace remains. The dormitory 
was in the upper story of either the west or the east range of buildings. The 
cloisters proper have been entirely removed. 

The party then proceeded to Gmfs Cliff, which, by the kind permission 
of Miss Percy, was next visited. The gardens, which are laid out by the side 
of the river, excited great admiration. The Old Saxon Mill was also inspected. 
A short drive brought the party to Warwick. The fine Castle was unfor- 
tunately rigorously closed ; but the Church of St. Mary and the Leicester 
ffosjyital Avere seen with much interest. As is well known, the great feature 
of the Church is the Beauchamp Chapel, with its adjoining library, oratory, 
and confessional. The chapel is 58 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and 32 ft. high. The 
seats are of fine old oak, beautifully carved, their elbows formed of bears, 
griffins, lions, &c. The ceiling is nearly flat, ornamented with groined ribs, 
at the intersection of which are bosses bearing the shields, amongst others, of 
the first Earl of Warwick, the founder of the Chapel. The structure was 
commenced in the 21st year of Henry VI., and finished in the 3rd year of 
Edward IV., a period of 21 years, at the cost of £2,481, at a time when a fat 
ox could be bought for 13s. 4d. 

The Leicester Hospital is one of the best specimens of half-timbered work 
to be found in the country. Here 12 old soldiers find a comfortable refuge 
with an allowance of £80 a year each. Amongst other curiosities may be seen 
here a chair said to be 1000 years old, and in the garden is the ancient vase, 
originally used to measure the height of the hill at Memphis, of the venerable 
age of 4000 years. 

The programme of the excursion was completed by a visit to Kenilworth. 
There being ample time before leaving for Coventry, the buildings were care- 
fully examined — the portions erected at various periods easily recognised. 

Fine weather prevailing during the whole time of the excursion it was 
greatly enjoyed, the only drawback being the extremely small number of 
Members (about 17) who attended. The excursions are planned so as to 
combine, as far as possible, enjoyment and instruction, with a due regard to 
economy, and the Committee express their hope that the Annual Trip may, 
in future years, in this respect, be more successful. 

Several valuable books have been added to the Library, and the whole 
series of reports, some numbers of which were wanting, have been completed, 
one set of the entire series being bound and placed upon the shelves. Dr. 
Sanders, the present Librarian, has promised shortly to re-arrange the books, 
so as to facilitate, as far as possible, its use by the Members. 

There has been a goodly number of new Members during the year, and 
your Committee trust that the Society may continue to be at once a source of 
enjoyment and instruction to its Members, and an element of usefulness in 
the two Archdeaconries of Northampton and Oakham. 




His Grace the Archbishop of York. 
The Lord Bishop of Ripon. 




*Most Hon, the Marquis of Ripon. 
*Right Hon. the Earl of Effingham. 
*Right Hon. the EARLof Mexborough 
Eight Hon. the Earl of Scarbrough. 
Eisht Hon. the Earl Feversham. 

Eight Hon. the Earl Wharncliffe. 
*Eight Hon. Lord Hotham. 
Hon. and Eev. J. W. Lascelles. 
*Hon. Payan Dawnay. 
The Ven. Archdeacon Watkins. 


The Patrons. 

The Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Very Eev. the Dean 

The EuRAL Deans. 

Balme, E. B. Wheatley, Esq. 

Haworth, Eev. W. 

Atkinson, W., Esq. 
Trundle, Eev. G. 
Fowler, C. H., Esq. 
Jones, G. Fowler, Esq. 
LuKis, Eev. W. C. 
Lunn, Eev. J. E. 
Raine, Eev. Canon. 


Rev. W. Haworth. 
For York. 

For Ripon. 
Rev. W. C. LuKis. 

For Doncaster. 
F. R. Fairbank, Esq., M.D. 

For Leeds. 

For Sheffield. 
Joseph Fawcett, Esq. 


Rev. G. Trundle. 
E. Robinson, Esq. 

Rev. G. Trundle. 
Rev. W. Haworth. 




Honorary Members, 

Anderson, Sir Charles, Bart., Lea, 

Bloxam, M. H., Esq., Rugby 
Hugall, J. W.. Esq., Cheltenham 
Markland, J. H., Esq, D.C.L., Bath 
Poole, Rev. G. A., Welford, Northants 
Papworth,W., Esq., 33, Bedford-street, 

Bedford-square, London, W.C. 

Pearson, J. L., Esq., 22, Harley-street, 

Nottingham, The Right Rev. the 

Bishop-Suffragan of, Leasingham, 

Sleaford, Lincolnshire 
Wilement, T., ; Esq., Green-street, 

Grosvenor-square, London 

Life Members, 

Armitage, R., Esq., Eerry Lodge, 

Brook, William, Esq., Ardsall Hill, 

Cantrell, R. D., Esq., 21, Lincoln's 

Inn Field, London 
Chapman, Thomas, Esq., 25, Bryan- 
stone-square, London 
Charlesworth, S. C. D., Esq., Hatfield 

Hall, Wakefield 
Cooper, S. Joshua, Esq.,Mountyernon, 

Crowder, Thomas M., Esq., Thornton 

Watlass, Bedale. 1876 
Dawnay, Hon. P., Benningborough 

Hall, York 
Gutch, Mrs,, Holgate Lodge, York 

Hailstone, E., Esq., Walton Hall, 

Jaques, Leonard, Esq., Wentworth 

House, Pontefract 
Lawley, Hon. and Rev. Stephen W., 

Lewthwaite, Rev. George, Adel, Leeds 
Piatt, Rev. G., Sedbergh 
Raven, Rev. T. M., Crake Hall, 

Bedale. 1867 
Rudd, J. B., Esq., Tollesby Hall, 

Frankland, Lady, Thirkleby Park, 

Tennant, J. M., Esq., Leeds 
Wilson, John, Esq., Seacroft, Leeds 

Ordinary Members. 

Aldam, W., Esq., Frickley Hall, 

Atkinson, W., Esq., The Mount, York. 

Baillie, Hon. and Rev. Canon, York. 

Balme, E. B. Wheatley, Esq., Cote 

Wall, Mirfield 
Bayly, Rev. Thos.,Weaverthorpe,York 
Bell, W. H., Esq., York 
Blanchard, Rev. H. D., Middleton-on- 

the-Wold, Hull 
Boyd, Yen. Archdeacon, Ancliffe 

Rectory, Skipton 
Brewster, John, Esq., Whitby. 1867 
Brodrick, F. S., Esq., Cogan's Cham- 
bers, Hull. 1879 
Brown, G., Esq., Clifton, York 

Crawhall, G., Esq., Burton Croft, 

York. 1881 
Gumming, Rev. A. H., Whoulton, 

Northallerton. 1879 
Cussins, T., Esq., Beverley 
Darwen, Francis, Esq., Creskeld Hall, 

Demaine, J., Esq., 86, Micklegate, 

York. 1874 
Fairbank, F. R., Esq., M.D., Doncaster 
Foljambe, T., Esq., Acomb, York 
Fowler, C. H., Esq., The College, 

Durham. 1872 
Garrett, Rev, T. W., Crake Hall, 

Bedale. 1867 
Geldart, Rev. J. W., LL.B., Kirk 

Deighton, Wetherby 
Gott, Yery Rev. Dr., Worcester. 1868 



Goiigh, H. E., Esq., 6, Queen Anne's 

Gate, St. James's Park, S.W. 
Haworth, Rev. W., York. 1870 
Holmes, Rev. Geo. G.,Vicarage, Holme, 

Hornby, Rev. R. W. B., D.D., Clifton, 

York. 1872 
Jones, G. Fowler, Esq., York 
Lukis, Rev. W. C, Watli Rectory, 

Lnnn, Rev. J. R. , Marton, Ousebnrn 
Marriott, Rev. W., Vicarage, Aid- 
borough, Yorkshire 
Mawdesley, F. L., Esq., Fulford, 

York. 1871 
Newman, Rev. J., Worsbro', Barnsley 
Newton, Rev. H., Horton Rectory, 

Stough. 1868 
Noble, T. S., Esq., Precentor's Court, 

York. 1868 
Norcliffe, Rev. C. Best, Langton Hall, 

North, S. W., Esq., Micklegate, York 
Phillips, W., Esq., 9, Bootham Terrace, 

York. 1881 
Raine, Rev. Canon, The Crescent, York 
Ripon, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 

Studley Royal, Ripon 
Robinson, Edw., Esq., Scarborough. 


Sale, Rev. C. M., Kirkby-hill Vicarage, 

Salmon, Rev. Gordon, Shipton, York 
Scarbrough, Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Tickhill Castle, Rotherham 
Sharp, Rev. Canon, Horbury, Wakefield 
Stephenson, Rev. H, M., St. Peter's, 

York. 1875 
Sutton, Rev. E., Thornhill. 1875 
Tinkler, Rev. John, Arkengarthdale, 

Richmond. 1869 
Trundle, Rev. G., St. Mary's, York 
Watkins, Yen. Archdeacon, Marston, 

Wharncliffe, Right Hon. Lord,Wortley 

Hall, Sheffield 
Wharton, Rev. Jas. C, Rectory, Gilling, 

Wilkinson, Joseph, Esq., Bootham 

Terrace, York 
Woodd, Basil, Esq., Conyngham Hall, 

Woodford, Rev. A. F. A., Swillington, 

Wright, John, Esq., Terrington, York. 

Yeoman, Ven. Archdeacon, Marsh Hall 
York, His Grace the Archbishop of. 

Palace, Bishopthorpe 
York, Very Rev. Dean of 


1. That the objects of the Society be, 
to promote the study of Ecclesiastical 
Architecture, Antiquities, and Design, 
the restoration of Mutilated Architect- 
ural Remains, and of Churches or parts 
of Churches, within the County of 
York, which may have been desecrated ; 
and to improve, as for as may be 
within its province, the character of 
Ecclesiastical Edifices to be erected in 

2. That the Society be composed of 
Patrons, Presidents, and Vice-Presi- 
dents, and of Ordinary Members ; to 
consist cf such Clergymen and Lay- 
Members of the Church as shall be 
admitted according to the subsequent 

3. That new Members be proposed 
by a Member of the Society, either by 
letter or personally, at one of the Com- 
mittee Meetings ; and that Honorary 
Members be elected only on the nom- 
ination of the Committee. 

4. That the Rural Deans within the 
County of York be considered as ex 
officio Members of the Committee, on 
becoming Members of the Society. 

5. That each Member shall pay an 
annual subscription of ten shillings, 
to be due on the first of January in 
each year in advance. 

6. That any Member may compound 
for all future subscriptions, by one 
payment of five pounds. 

7. That the affairs of the Society be 
conducted by the Committe (of whom 
five shall be a quorum), composed of 
the Presidents^ Vice-Presidents, Rural 
Deans (being Members), the Treasurer, 
Auditors, Curator, and a certain num- 
ber of Ordinary Members, who shall 
be elected at the Annual Meeting, and 
of whom six at least shall have been 
Members of the Committee of the 
preceding year. 

8. That the Committee shall annu- 
ally appoint a Sub-Committee to 



consist of the Secretaries, the Treas- 
urer, the Curator, and five other 
Members of the Committee (of which 
three shall be a quorum) who shall be 
empowered to make the necessary- 
arrangements for the Society's Meet- 
ings, and to prepare business for the 
consideration of the Committee. 

9. That the Committee have power 
to add to their numbers ; and that 
they elect the Secretaries, Treasurer, 
Auditor, and Curator. 

10. That the Members of the Com- 
mittee in any neighbourhood may 
associate other Members of the Society 
with themselves, and form Committees 
for local purposes in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

11. That the Committee meet at 
York on Thursday before the Full 
Moon in the months of January, April, 
July, and October ; and that the Annual 
Meeting of the Society be held on the 
latter of these days, when Papers shall 
be read, the Report presented, and the 
Committee and Officers elected for the 
ensuing year ; but if any of the above 
Meetings fall on days for which special 
services are appointed by the Church, 
that the Secretaries change the week. 

12. That two other Meetings of the 
Society be also annually held, at such 
other places and at such times as the 
Sub-Committee shall appoint, for the 
reading of Papers and examination of 
works of Architectural interest ; and 
that Special Meetings of the Society 
may be called by the Sub-Committee, 
at any time and place within the 
County, on the requisition of five 
Members of this Society ; but that no 
matter of business shall be transacted, 
except at York. 

13. That the Secretaries be em- 
powered to call Special Meetings of 
the Committee when requisite. 

14. That each Member be allowed 
to introduce a friend to the ordinary 
Meetings of the Society. 

15. That donations of books, plans, 
casts, and drawings, be solicited ; and 
that the Committee be empowered to 
make such additions to the collection 
of the Society as may seem necessary. 

16. That the library, casts, and 
portfolios of the Society, be under the 
charge of the Secretaries and Curator. 

1 7. That any Member of the Society 
be allowed to take out of the Library 
two volumes of any printed works at 
one time. 

18. That a book be provided by the 
Society, in which shall be written 
down the titles and volumes of the 
works, the name of the borrower, and 
the date of his taking out and return- 
ing the books. 

19. That the borrower be required 
to pay the expenses of repairing any 
works damaged, or of replacing any 
books lost while in his possession. 

20. That the books must be returned 
at, or before, the commencement of 
each quarterly Committee Meeting, 
under the penalty of one shilling for 
each volume ; and that no books be 
allowed to be taken out during a fort- 
night after the January Meeting, in 
which time a Visitation shall be held 
by a Sub- Committee consisting of the 
Secretaries, the Curator, and three 
Members to be elected at the Meeting 
in January (of whom three shall be a 
quorum), who shall examine into the 
state of the books, casts, plates, draw- 
ings, and other property of the Society. 

21. That the Committee shall decide 
what Papers are to be published in the 
Annual Volume, and determine all 
questions relative to plans and illus- 
trations for the same, and the number 
of copies which the Society will require 
in each year. 

22. That no grant of money be made 
by the Committee, unless notice has 
been given, at a previous Meeting, of 
the amount proposed, and the special 
purpose for which it is intended. 

24. That no sum of Money be voted 
towards efi"ecting any architectural 
designs, until working drawings of the 
same have been submitted to the Com- 
mittee for approval ; nor shall such be 
paid till the work has been completed 
to the satisfaction of the Committee. 

24. That in every case when a grant 
is made for a definite architectural 
purpose, a working drawing of the 
same be presented to the Society to be 
placed in its collection. 

25. That any grant be considered to 
have lapsed which shall not have been 
claimed within two years from the 
time when it was voted. 



The Report. 

The Committee regret to state that the Society is again without a General 
Secretary, and that, in consequence of this, no Annual Meeting of Members 
was held during the past year. Dr. Fairbank, who had been appointed to the 
office, reluctantly felt himself compelled to resign it, and the Excursion to 
Roche Abbey, which he was kindly organizing last summer, had to be post- 
poned. Dr. Fairbank has, however, contributed to this volume an account, 
with illustrations, of these interesting ruins, which the Committee believe will 
be acceptable to the Members of the Society — and they are glad to record this 
proof of his continued interest in the Society's work. The Committee have 
reason to believe that another General Secretary Avill shortly be appointed. 

The west front of the ruins of Byland Abbey has for some time past been 
endangered by the Avork of decay, and the Committee have learnt with satis- 
faction that eflforts are being made, chiefly by priv^ate liberality, to preserve 
so interesting and valuable a relic of the past. They hope to be in a position 
to xuiblish in their next Report an account of these ruins, and what has been 
done for their preservation, and also to state that a small grant from their 
funds has been made towards this desirable object. 

The Committee have to regret the loss the Society has sustained by the 
death of one of its oldest Members and local Secretaries, Canon Philips 
always took up with kindly energy everything to which he set his hand, and 
the Committee during a long series of years have been very sensible of his 
kindness, and grateful for his help. 


Archseological Society's Journal. Vols. 
I. — IV. ; X. ; XIII. ; xv. 

ArchfBological Institute, Proceedings 
of. 1845. Winchester 

Architectural Publication Society : 
"Detached Essays," 

Architectural Publication Society : 
"Dictionary." Vols, i., ii. 

Associated Architectural Societies' 
Reports and Papers. Vols, i., ii. 

Atthill. Collegiate Church of Middle- 
ham, Wensleydale 

Bedfordshire, Ecclesiastical and Arch- 
geological Topography of 

Berkshire, ditto 

Blackburn (E. L.). Decorative Paint- 
ing. Fol. 1847 

Blackburn. Decorative Painting. 4to. 

Boutell (C). Monumental Brasses. 
Roy. 8vo. 1847 

Boutell, Examples of ditto, Roy, 
8vo, 1854 

Brandon. Gothic Architecture. 2 vols., 
4to. 1847 

Brandon. Open Timber Roofs of Middle 
Ages. 4to. 1849 

Brandon. English Parish Churches. 

8vo. 1848 
Brasses, Monumental. Parts i. — v. 

(Parker), 4to, 
Ditto. Parts ii.— iv. 
Brevis Notitia Monasterii B. V. M. 

Eboracensis, Sad. Ord. Cister in 

Franconia. 4to. 1738 
Britton. Stonehenge. 8vo, 
Browne. York Minster. 2 vols. 4to, 

Topography of 
Buckler, Abbey Church of S. Alban's. 

8vo. 1847 
Builder, The. 1856 
Bury. AA^ood-carving, Examples of 
Cambridge Camden Society's Transac- 
tions. 4to. 1843-5 
Cambridgeshire, Eccles. and Archaiol. 

Topography of 
Carlyon. Gothic Nomenclature. 4to. 
Cave. Antiquities of York 
Christian (E.). Account of Skelton 

Church, York 
Christian Memorials. Fol. (Worcester 

Arch. Soc.) 
Church Plate, Ancient. Fol. (Parker) 



Collie. Glasgow Cathedral. His. Acct, 
of. Fol. 

Colliug (J. K.). Art Foliage. Roy. 4to. 

Cottage Building, Notes on. 8vo. pam- 
phlet. (Northam. Arch. Soc.) 

Cottingham. Henry the Seventh's 
Chapel, Westminster. Fol. 

Cottingham, Museum of Mediaeval 
Art, Catalogue of. 2 copies. 

Derick. Gothic Church Details 

Designs for Churches and Chapels. 
Part I. Fol. (Parker). 1844. 

Dolman. Ancient Pulpits. 4to. 1842 

Domestic Architecture in England, 
temp. Rd. I.— Edw. IT. 8vo. 1853 

Dorchester Church, Oxford, Memoir 
of. 8vo. 1845. (Parker) 

Ecclesiologist, The. Part i. ; vii.-xiii. 

E. E. T. Society: Simmons's "Lay 
Folk Mass Book. " 

Essex Architectural Society, Proceed- 
ings of. Vol. I., Part 1, 

Exeter Dioc. Arch. Soc, Transactions 
of. Vols, i.-vii. 1842—64 

Reports of ditto. 4to. 1842, 3-5 

Fa\vcett(J.). York City Churches. Fol. 

Fergusson (James). History of Archi- 
tecture. Vol. :. 8vo. 1865 

Fowler. Etchings of Stained Glass, 
&c., at Selby Abbey Church 

Freeman (E. A,). Hist, of Architec- 
ture. Svo. 1849. 

Freeman (E. A.). Essaj'^ on Window 
Tracery. 8vo. 1851 

Freeman (F.). Remarks on Llandaff 
Cathedral. Svo. 1850 

Glass Painting, Hints on, by an 
Amateur. 2 vols. 8vo. 1847 

Glossary of Architecture. 3 vols. Svo. 

Gruner. Terra Cotta Architecture of 
North Italy 

Halfpenny. Fragmenta Vetusta 

Hasely, Great, Memoir of Church of, 

Heraldry, Glossary of. Svo. 1847. 

Jameson. History of our Lord. 2 vols. 

Jameson. History of Sacred and 
Legendary Art. 2 vols. 

Jameson (Mrs). Legends of the 
Madonna. 1867. 

Jones & Freeman. History and An- 
tiquities of St. David's Cathedral. 
Parts i.-iv. 4to. 1852 

Kelke. Churchyard Manual. 12rao. 

Kirkstead, St. Leonard's Church, Lin- 
colnshire, Description of. Fol. 

Knaresboro' Church, Account of 

Liverpool Arch t. and Archseol. Society, 
Proceedings of. 1852 

Lubke. Ecclesiastical Art in Germany. 
Svo. 1870 

Man, Isle of, Orkneys, &c.. Ecclesias- 
tical Notes on 

Minton. Examples of Old English 
Encaustic Tiles. 4to. 

Northamptonshire, Churches of. Svo. 

Northamptonshire, Eccles. & Archseol. 
Topography of. Parts i.-v. Svo. 

Oxford, Architectural Guide to Neigh- 
bourhood of. (Parker) 

Oxfordshire, Eccles. and Archseol. 
Topography of 

Paley. Baptismal Fonts. Svo. 1844 

Paley. Gothic Mouldings. Svo. 1S45 

Papworth. Museums, Libraries, and 
Picture Galleries 

Papworth. Ordinary of Arms. Royal 
Svo. 1874 

Petit. Architectural Character. Fol. 

Petit. Architectural Studies in France. 
Roy. Svo. 

Petit. Principles of Gothic Architec- 
ture. 2 vols. 

Poole & Hugall. Deanery of Don- 
caster, M.S., Notes on. 4to. 

Pooley. Old Crosses of Gloucester- 
shire. 4to. 

Pricket. Historical and Archaeological 
Description of Priory Church of 

Purdie. Mural Decoration. Fol. 

Pugin (A. V/.). Glossary of Ecclesias- 
tical Ornament and Costume. Roy. 
4to. 1846 

Richmondshire, Guide to 

Rickman. Styles of Architecture in 
England. Svo. 1848 

Robinson, Priory and Peculiar of 

Ruskin. Lectures on Architecture and 

Ruskin. Seven Lamps of Architecture. 
Roy. Svo. 

Scarborough, Filey, &c., Account of 
Churches of. 12mo. 

Scotland, Arch. Institute of. Transac- 
tions. Vols i.-iii. 

Scott (G. G.). Gleanings from West- 
minster Abbey. Svo. 1863 



Sharp (Archbishop). Coronation Ser- 
mon (Q. Anne) 

Sharp (R. H.). Papers on Churches of 
Bolton- Percy and St. Peter's, Barton- 
on-Huuiber. 4to. 

Sharp (Edmund), Mouldings of the 
Six Periods of Architecture. 4to. 
3 Parts I. -III. 1871 

Sharp (E.). Architectural Parallels. 
2 vols, and Supplement. Eoy. Fol. 

Sharp (E. ). Decorated Window Tra- 
cery. 1849 

Sharp (E.) Seven Periods of Archi- 
tecture. 8vo. 1851 

Shaw (Henry) Dresses and Decora- 
tions of the Middle Ages. Imp 8vo., 
2 vols. 1858 

Slymbridge, Gloucestershire, Notes on 
the Church of St. John at. Svo. 

Stainboro' and Rockeley, Account of. 

Storer. King's Coll.Chapel.Cambridge. 

Street. Brick and Marble Architecture 

Street (E. G.). Gothic Architecture in 
Spain. Svo. 1855 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 

Surtees Society's Publications ; — 
3. The Townley Mysteries 

5. Sane. Dunelm et Beverlac 

6. The Priory of Finchal 

7. Colologi Vet. Liborum. Dunelm 
15. The Rites of Durham 

17. Hutton's Correspondence 

18. Durham Household Book 

21. Depositions and Eccles. Proceed- 
23. Latin Hymns of the Anglo Sax. 

27. Egbert's Pontificial 
33. Best's Farming Book 
36. Fabric Rolls of York Minster 
57. The Guild of Corpus Christi.York 

59. The York Missal. Yol. i. 

60. The Whitby Cartulary 

61. The York Pontifical. 1173 

62. The Life of Mrs. Thornton 

63. The York Manuel, cec. 

64. The Ripon Chapter Acts 


&Q. The Newminster Cartulary 

68. The Household Book of Lord 
Wm. Howard 


70. Lawrence of Durham 

71. The York Breviary. Vol. i. 

72. The Whitby Cartulary. Vol. ii. 
Taylor (R. v.). Leeds Chm-ches. Vol. i. 

The Condition and Prospects of Archi- 
tectural Art. Pamph. Svo. 1860 
The World's Debt to Art. Pamph. 

Svo. 1863 
Thoresby. The Churches of Leeds 
"Tracts " on Ecclesiology. 3 vols. 
Turner (Hudson). Domestic Architec- 
ture in England, from the Conquest 

to the end of the thirteenth century. 

Svo. 1850 
Tymms (W. R ). Art of Illuminating. 

VioUet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire Eaisonne 

de r Architecture. 10 vols. Svo. 
Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire de Mo- 

bilier Francais. 6 vols. Svo. 1873 
Walbran (R.). Antiquities of Gunford. 

Walcott, Convents and Conventual 

Arrangements. 8 vols. 
Wallan ( W.). Hist, of Round Church, 

Little Maplestead, Essex. Svo. 
Warwick, The Churches of Deanery of. 

Vol. I. (Worces. ArchteoL Soc.) 
Warwickshire, The Churches of. Parts 

VIII. -X. (Parker) 
Webb. Continental Ecclesiology. Svo. 

West (Bishop). Putney Church, 

Surrey, Account of. Fol. 
Wild. Lincoln Cathedral. Fol. 1S19 
Willis (Prof.). Holy Scripture. Svo. 

Willis (Prof.). Architectural History 

of Canterbury Cath. 1845 
Winston. Introduction to the Study of 

Stained Glass. Svo. pamph. 1849 
Winston. Memoirs illustrative of the 

Art of Glass Painting. Svo. 1855, 

Woodstock, Oxford, Guide to Deanery 

of. (Parker) 
Wymeswold, Leicestershire, Account 

of St. Mary's Church at. Fol. 1846 
Yorkshire Architectural Society, Re- 
ports and Papers, with Index. 8 vols. 

Yorkshire, Churches of. Parts i.-xv. 

Yorkshire, Monastic Ruins of. Parts i., 

III., VII., VIII. Roy. Fol. (Sunter) 
Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo- 
graphical Journal. Vols, i., ii. 




For the Year ending December, 1886. 


£ s. d. £ 
Bank Balance, Jan. 

1st, 1885 82 8 1 

Balance in Trea- 
surer's hands ... 3 13 4 


1 5 

Annual Subscriptions : — 

For 1885 25 13 

Arrears 2 10 

Sale of Reports . . 
Interest at Bank 



1 15 


£116 11 11 

Expenditure. £ s. d. 
To Mr. Pickering's Account, 

Postage of Reports, &c. 19 6 
,, Mr. Williamson's Account, 

Printing Reports, &c... 20 15 
,, Subscription to Surtees 

Society 110 

,, Treasurer's Account : — 

Poundage 15 
6 8 

Balance in Bank, 
Jan.lst, 1886 87 10 1 

Ditto in Trea- 
surer's hands. . 5 4 8 

92 14 9 

£116 11 11 

Examined and found correct, 

GEO. TRUNDLE, Auditor 






The Duke of Bedfoed, K.G. 

Col. Stuart. 

Major Cooper Cooper, F.S.A. 


The Lord Bishop of Ely. 

The Duke of Manchester. 

Earl Cowper, K.G., Lord-Lieutenant. 
The High Sheriff. 

W. F. HiGGiNS, Esq. 

G. Hurst, Esq., F.S.S. 

W. M. Harvey, Esq. 

E. Ransom, Esq., Mayor of Bedford. 


Thomas Barnard, Esfi. 

F. A. Blaydes, Esq., F.S.A.* 
J. N. Foster, Esq. 
F. Howard, Esq. 
Rev. A. Orlebar. 

With the Acting Officers of the Society. 

E. Ransom, Esq., F.R.A.S., 

Dr. Steinmetz. 

Mark Sharman, Esq. i C. E. Prior, Esq. M.D. 

T. G. Elger, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

^onontrj) (Secretaries. 
Rev. Canon Haddock. | D. G. Cary-Elvves, Esq., F.S.A. 

Jlgcnt anb ittblisher. 
Mr. F. Thompson. 

^cpwtj) Cttratcr. 
Mr. W. Davis. 

Honorary Member's. 

Ashworth, E., Esq., Exeter 

Barrow, Peter, Esq., Caen 

Bath and Wells, The Lord Bishop of 

Bloxam, M. H., Esq., Rugby 

Boutell, Rev. C. 

Brandon, Raphael, Esq., Beaufort 

Buildings, Strand, London 
Burgon, Very Rev. J. W., Dean of 

Burney, Rev. H., Wavendon 
De Cauriiont, M., Caen 

Fitch, Rev. S. E., M.D. 

French, R. G., Esq., Sussex Gardens, 

Hyde Park, London 
Griffith, W. P., Esq., St. John's-square 
Lee, Rev. T. F., Lancaster 
Mayer, Joseph, Esq., Liverpool 
Nottingham, Right Rev. the Bishop 

Suffragan of 
Smith, C. Roach, Esq., Liverpool 

Street, London 

Ordinary Members. 

Bedford, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., 

Woburn Abbey 
Barnard, Thomas, Esq., Cople House, 

Bassett, F., Esq., Leigliton Buzzard 
Berry, Rev. T. M., Blunhom, Sandy 
Blaydes, F. A., Esq., Bedford 
Blower, W., Esq., Bedford 
Bull, Mr. T., Bedford 
Cowper, The Earl, K.G., Punshanger 
Cary-Elwes, D. G., Esq., F.S.A., 

Cooper, Major Cooper, F.S.A., Todd- 


* Shenstone Lodge, Bedford ; to whom Contributions for Bedfo?'dshi?'e Notes and Queries 
should be addressed. 

Copner, Rev. J., Bedford 

Cuthbert, Mr., Bedford 

Day, Mr. J., Bedford 

Elger, T. G., Esq., F.R.A.S., Kempston, 

Foster, Rev. A. J., Wootton, Bedford 
Foster, J. N., Esq., Sandy Place, Sandy 
Green, Rev. T., Stanbridge, Leigliton 

Green, Rev. Carleton, Great Barford, 

St. Neots 
Gough, H., Esq., Sandcroft, Redhill 
Haddock, Kev. Canon, Bedford 



Harris, Theodore, Esq., Leighton 

Harvey, W. M., Esq., Goldington 

Hall, Bedford 
Haslam, Rev. C. E., Toddiiigton 
Hawkins, J., Esq., Bedford 
Higgins, W. F., Esq., Tiirvey House 
Hill, Mr. R., Bedford 
Hipwell, Mr. W., Jun., Bedford 
Holt, E., Esq., Bedford 
Howard, F., Esq., Bedford 
Hunt, Rev. W. C, Odell, . Bedford 
Hurst, George, Esq., F.S.S., Bedford 
Jackson, T. J., Esq., Bedford 
Jarvis, Mr. L., Bedford 
Jessopp, L., Esq., Bedford 
Lawford, E., Esq., M.D., Leighton 

Manchester, His Grace the Duke of, 

Kimbolton Castle 

Miller, Mr. Jos., Bedford 
Orlebar, Rev. A., R.D., Willington 
Prior, C. E., Esq., M.D., Bedford 
Ransom, E., Esq., Bedford 
Scott, Miss, 79, Chester Square, S.W. 
Sharnian, Mark, Esq., Bedford 
Smith, E. T., Leeds, Esq., Bedford 
Smith, Rev. C. J. E., Bromham, 

Steinmetz, Dr. H., Bedford 
Stuart, Col., Tempsford Hall, Sandy 
Tebbs, H., Esq., Bedford 
Thornton, Miss, 79, Chester Square, 

Thompson, Mr. F., Bedford 
Trethewy, H,, Esq., Silsoe, Ampthill 
Usher, Mr. J., Bedford 
Waller, J., Esq., Luton 
W'yatt, Rev. P. W., Bedford 
Young, Rev. R., Bedford 






S C lETY. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Worcester. 

The Right Hon. Earl Beauchamp, Lord Lieutenant. 




The Right Hon. Lokd Lyttelton 
The Right Hon. Lord Hampton 
Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart,, M.P. 
The Ven. the Archdeacon of Wor- 
TheVen.theARCHDEAcoN of Coventry 

Rev. Canon Wood 
Hon. Canon Cattley 
Matthew H. Bloxam, Esq. 
William Dowdeswell, Esq. 
Sir Harry Foley Yernon, Bart. 

Alderman Noake, J. P. I Rev. J. B. Wilson, M.A. 

F. R. Jeffery, Esq. 

J. H. Hooper, Esq. 


The Officers of the Society 

Rev. T. G. Curtler, 

Rev. H. W. Coventry, 

Rev. W. W. Douglas, 

Rev. R. Lawson, 

Rev. R. Prichard, 

Rev. H. Bennett 

Rev. and Hon. H. Douglas 

Rural Deans. 

Rev. R. R. Duke 
W. J. Hopkins, Esq. 
Rev. W. Gardiner 
Rev. H. Kingsford 
Rev. W, M. Kingsmill 
Edwin Lees, Esq. 
E. Day, Esq. 
John Wood, Esq. 

Honorary Memhers, 

Anderson, Sir Chas. H., Bart., Lea, Gainsborough 

Bloxam, Rev. Dr., Beeding Rectory, Horsham 

Butterfield, W., Esq., Architect, 4, Adam Street, Adelphi, J.ondon, W.C. 

The Due di Castel Brolo, Secretary General of the Royal Academy, Palermo 

Coleridge, The Right Hon. Lord, Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, 

Heaths Court, Ottery St. Mary, Devon 
Dryden, Sir H. E. L., Bart., Canons Ashby, Daventry 
Franks, A. W., Esq., British Museum, London, W.C. 
Freeman, E. A., Esq., D.C.L., Somerleaze, Wells 
Hope, A. J. Beresford, Esq., M.P., 1, Connaught Place, London, W.C. 
Ruskin, J., Esq., Heme Hill, Dulwich 
Trollope, Right Rev. E., Bishop-Suffragan of Nottingham 
White, William, Esq., Architect, 30, Wimpole Street, London 
Wadley, Rev. T. P., Naunton Beauchamp, Pershore 
Wood, Rev. T. W., Eldersfield Vicarage, Tewkesbury 


Ordinary Members. 

Allsopp, Hon. A. Percy, Hindlip Hall, 

Attwood, Miss, Britannia Square, 

Baldwin, A., Esq., Wilden House, 

Bates, T., Esq., 44, Foregate Street, 

Beaucliamp, The Kight Hon. Earl, 

Bedford, Resr. W. K. R., Rectory, 

Sutton Coldfield 
Bennett, Rev. H., Pirton Rectory, 

Binns, R. W., Esq., Diglis House, 

Birbeck, C. H., Esq., Foregate Street, 

Black, Rev. C, Colvvall, Malvern 
Brown, Mrs.,Foregate Street, Worcester 
Buck, Albert, Esq., St. John's, 

Bourne, Rev. J. G., Broome Rectory, 

Blick, Miss, St. Oswald's Lodge, 

Britannia Square, Worcester 
Cattley, Rev. Canon, St. Mary's 

Terrace, Worcester 
Clarke, Row-G., Esq., 27, Great James 

Street, Bedford Row, London 
Carington, Smith-, R., Esq., J. P., 

St. Cloud, near Worcester 
Coventry, Yen- Archdeacon of, Farn- 

borough, Banbury 
Cookes, Rev. H. W., Astley Rectory, 

Corbett, F. , Esq., J. P., Worcester 
Corbett, H., Esq., Worcester 
Cotton, J., Esq., 37, Waterloo Street, 

Coventry, Rev. Canon, Severn Stoke, 

Carr, Colonel, Norton Barracks, Wor- 
Chaytor, Rev. C, Lcndon Road, Wor- 
Cleasby, P. C, Esq., Barbourne, Wor- 
Cuj-tler, Rev. T. G., Bcvere Knoll, 

Chesshire, Rev. J. S., Hindlip Rectory, 

Cooper, Mr. D. A., The Cross, 

Day, E., Esq., St. George's Square, 


Deighton, Miss, St. John's, Worcester 
Douglas, Rev. and Hon. H., St. Paul's, 

Douglas, Rev. A. J., Mathon Vicarage, 

Douglas, Rev. Canon, Salwarpe Rec- 
tory, Droitwich 
Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., Bushley 

Parsonage, Tewkesbury 
Dowdeswell, W., Esq., Pull Court, 

Duke, Rev. R. R., Birlingham Rectory, 

Eld, Rev. F. J., White Ladies, Wor- 
Eld, Rev. J. H., Belbroughton Rectory, 

Gardiner, Rev. W., St. George's, 

Hill, Rev. R. P.,Bromsberrow,Ledbury 
Hooper, J. H., Esq., College Green, 

Hopkins, W. J., Esq., Sansome Lodge, 

Hopkins, T. M., Esq., Lower Wick, 

Jeffery, F. R., Esq., 5, Foregate Street, 

Knott, A. W., Esq., Mayor of Worcester 
Kingsford, Rev. H., Stoulton Vicarage, 

Kingsmill, Rev. W. M., Tibberton 

Vicarage, Droitwich 
Lawson, Kev. Canon, Rectory, Upton- 

Lechmere, Sir E. A. H., Bart., M.P., 

Rhydd Court, Hanley Castle 
Lees, E., Esq., F. L. S., Greenhill 

Summit, London Road, Worcester 
Loscombe, Miss, St. John's, Worcester 
Lett, J. P., Esq., Elmfield, London 

Road, Worcester 
Longhurst, Rev. W\ H. R., Kempsey, 

Lowndes, Rev. E. S. , Little Comberton 

Rectory, Pershore 
Longstaffe, W. H. D., Esq., 4, 

Catherine Terrace, Gateshead 
Noake, Alderman John, J. P., St. 

Mary's Terrace, Worcester 
Perrins, J. D., Esq., J.P., Davenham 

Bank, Malvern 
Pepys, Rev. H. G., Hallow Vicarage, 

Preedy, F., Esq., 13, York Place, 

Portman Square, London 



Preedy, Rev. D. H. C, King's Norton, 

Porter, Rev. A. S., Claines Vicarage, 

Pricharcl, Rev. R., Newbold Rectory, 

Ranken, Rev. C. E., St. Ronan's, 

Roan, H. B., Esq., Rose Hill House, 

London Road, Worcester 
Robinson, Rev. E., Grimley, Worcester 
Rose, John, Esq., Tything, Worcester 
Rowe, Henry, Esq., Foregate Street, 

Sandford, Rev. G. AV., Holm Wick- 
ham, Great Malvern 
Sheppard, Mr. Lewis, Sansome Walk, 

Sheppard, G. A., Esq., Foregate 

Street, Worcester 
Smith, T. Lamb, Esq., Holly Lodge, 

Britannia Square, Worcester 
Thorn, Rev. W., Ivy Gate, Britannia 

Square, Worcester 

Turner, Rev. R. P., Churchill Rectory, 

Thursfield, Rev. R., Rose Bank, 

London Road, Worcester 
Vernon, Sir Harry Foley, Bart., 

Hanbury Hall, Droitwich 
Walker, John, Esq., Westbourne 

House, Cheltenham 
Warner, Rev. C, Clun Vicarage, 

Webb, Aston, Esq., 19, Queen Anne's 

Gate, Westminster 
Wilson, Rev. J. Bowstead, Knight- 
wick Rectory, Worcester 
Wood, John, Esq., 15, Britannia 

Square, Worcester 
Wood, Rev. Canon, College Green, 

Worcester, Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop 

of, Hartlebury, Kidderminster 
Worcester, the Ven. Archdeacon of, 

St. Peter's, Droitwich 


1. That the Society be entitled , 
"The Worcester Diocesan Archi- 

2. That the objects of the Society 
be to promote the study of ecclesiastical 
and other architecture, antiquities, and 
designs, the restoration of mutilated 
architectural remains within the county 
and diocese, and to furnish suggestions 
so far as may be within its province for 
improving the character of ecclesiastical 
and other edifices hereafter to be erected 
or restored. 

3. That the Society further include 
within its scope the collection and 
diffusion of information in the subjects 
of archffiology and county history. 

4. That one of the objects of the 
Society be the collection and preser- 
vation of books, casts, drawings, &c, 

5. That the Society be composed 
of a patron, president, vice-presidents, 
two or more secretaries, a treasurer, 
librarian, honorary and ordinary mem- 
bers ; to consist of clergymen and lay 
members of the Church of England. 

6. That the Lord Bishop of the 
Diocese, for the time being, be requested 
to accept the office of Patron. 

7. That the business of the Society 
be transacted by a Committee consisting 
of the patron, president, vice-presidents, 
secretaries, treasurer, the rural deans 
of the Diocese (being subscribers), and 
not exceeding eighteen ordinary mem- 
bers to be elected at the annual 
meeting ; and that three do constitute 
a quorum. 

8. That the Committee have power 
to supply vacancies in their own body, 
provisionally, until the next annual 
meeting ; and that Members of the 
Committee in any neighbourhood, may 
associate other members with them, 
for local purposes, in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

9. That every candidate for ad- 
mission to the Society be proposed and 
seconded by two members, and ballotted 
for at a general meeting of the Com- 
mittee, or at a general meeting. 

10. That on the election of a 
member the secretaries send him notice 
of it, and a copy of the Rules. 



1 1 . That each Member shall pay an 
annual subscription often shillings, to 
be due upon the first day of January, 
in each year. 

12. That any Member may com- 
pound for all future subscriptions by 
one payment of five pounds. 

13. That all persons holding the 
office of Churchwarden in any parish 
of the Diocese, be entitled, without 
payment, on the recommendation of 
the Clergyman of the parish, being a 
member, to all the privileges of mem- 
bership, except that of voting. 

14. No one shall be entitled to his 

privilege as a member of the Society, 
whose subscription is in arrear. 

1 5. That the Annual Meeting shall 
take place at Worcester in the month 
of March, and that the Ordinary Meet- 
ings of the Society be held at such 
times and places as the Committee 
may appoint. 

16. That Honorary Members may 
be elected, upon the nomination of the 
Committee only, at a general meeting 
of the Society. 

17. That each member be allowed 
to introduce a friend at any general 

The Report. 

The Thirtieth Report read at the Annual Meeting, held at the Guildhall, 
Worcester, on Monday, March 22nd, 1886. 

In presenting their Report for the year 1885-6 your Committee have to 
regret the loss, by death, removal, or otherwise, of many Members since their 
last Report. Among these are the late Dean (now Bishop of Ely), Canon Butler 
(now Dean of Lincoln), both of whom had taken a great interest in the 
practical working of the Society ; also the Rev. T. W. Wood, of Eldersfield, 
who for some years kindly assisted the Society as one of its Secretaries. 
Another cause for regret is the resignation by Mr. J. H. Hooper of the office 
of Secretary. He has been succeeded by Mr. Alderman Noake, as a temporary 
appointment, until some younger Member of the Society can be persuaded to 
accept the office permanently. 


Among the proceedings of the year the Society's two Excursions were, as 
usual, prominent. 

On the 25th of June about two dozen ladies and gentlemen started from 
the College Gates in well-appointed carriages, but in misty weather which 
completely veiled the landscape, and drove to Hallow, where the party were 
received by the Vicar, Rev. H. Pepys. The architect of the new structure, 
Mr. AV. J Hopkins, read some notes on the Church, observing that this was 
the third building that had served for worship in this Parish during the 
present century. The old church — a plain unpretending structure — was 
replaced in 1830 by what was then considered a fair specimen of architecture, 
but which soon became dilapidated, and being also unfit for its purpose, the 
present church was commenced, was consecrated in 1869, and dedicated to 
St. Philip and St. James. The tower was not erected till 1879, and the spire 
which was intended to adorn it has not yet been erected owing to a lack of 
funds. On entering the church the coup d'o&il was charming : the nave is 
separated from the aisles by moulded arches, supported by cylindrical piers 
with richly carved capitals, and the clerestory is pierced with circular windows 
of varied design. In the construction of the nave roof there is a departure 
from the beaten track : instead of the usual wooden principals, massive stone 
arches, resting upon shafts, with moulded caps and corbels, span each bay of 
the nave, and support the roof timbers, the lateral thrust being counterbalanced 
by external flying buttresses, which spring from pinnacles terminating the 
buttresses of the aisle walls. The aisles are also spanned by similar arches 

REPOKT. xli. 

with traceried spandrils. A lofty chancel arch has pierced cusps, which give 
it a trefoil form. The east window is placed high up in the wall, and beneath 
it is a remarkably effective reredos, the gift of Earl Beauchamp ; subject, the 
Crucifixion, with figures of the three Maries and St. John, under a rich pro- 
jecting canopy, having three cusped arches, surmounted by lofty gables. 

Gh'imley was the next halting place, and here the Vicar, Kev. E. Robinson, 
kindly received the visitors, and led them into the old church, which was 
soon to undergo an extensive restoration, with the addition of a new aisle. It 
is a plain structure, the nave without aisles, originally Norman, but altered 
manj^ years ago, and with a square tower of fourteenth-century date. Alderman 
Noake read some illustrative notes, and said that the villages of Grimley and 
Hallow had formed one of the most attractive possessions of Worcester Monastery 
in Saxon days. At the Manor House at Grimley the Priors and their 
attendants frequently recreated themselves, as he proved by amusing illustra- 
tions from Prior Moore's Journal, an old MS. book which he, Mr. Xoake, had 
discovered in the triforium of the Cathedral. 

After the party had been kindly refreshed by the Vicar and Mrs. Robinson, 
the route was resumed to JFitley, where, at the Hundred House Hotel, 
luncheon was served ; at the close of which the company walked to Ahherley 
Hall, tlie residence of Mr. and Mrs. Jones, for the purpose of inspecting a new 
clochium, or bell-tower, which, at a cost of about £20,000, had been recently 
erected in that gentleman's grounds. The machinery of the clock, the great 
bell, and the carillons for playing the chimes, were shoAvn and explained by 
the Rev. Canon Cattley. The tower, which is 150 feet high, is divided into 
nine stages, and bears the inscription ' ' Sol me vos umbra." The most beautiful 
views are obtained from this tower. Afterwards the visitors were shown over 
the Hall, the conservatories, and gardens, and then returned to the Hundred 
House, from whence they drove to Martley, where Alderman Noake described 
the Chm'ch, as consisting of a chancel, nave, and square western tower, with 
much Norman and some fifteenth-century work, to which a handsome new 
porch has been recently added. There are traces of a stoup at the entrance, 
and among other noticeable things in the chancel is the recumbent effigy of a 
knight, said to have been Sir Hugh Mortimer, Lord of Martley, temp. 
Henry VI. There was also a remarkable piscina, and a characteristic copy of 
the Royal Arms over the chancel arch. The nave is filled with high pews 
and a western gallery, all of which should be swept away, and the whitewash 
removed from the walls. In the Rectory an incense cup and a sacring bell, 
found under the pulpit when some repairs were done in 1828, were shown. 
The party then resumed their carriages, and returned home to Worcester. The 
company on this occasion consisted of Canon Cattley, Rev. J. B. Wilson and 
Mr. Hooper (Hon. Sees.), Revs. R. Thursfield, T. P. Wadley, C. E. Ranken, 
and E. Robinson ; Mr. Lees, Alderman and Mrs. Noake, Mr. and Mrs. F. Corbett 
and friend. Miss Wheldon, Miss Blick, Miss Thorn, Miss Attwood, Miss 
Champneys and friend, Mr. Bird, Mr. L. Sheppard, Mr. Hopkins, and Mr. 

Ludlow was the place selected for the last Excursion of the Society, on 
the 17th of September, a charming and beautiful day. Travelling by rail 
through Bewdley and Wyre Forest, this part of the journey occasioned much 
delight on view of the extended forest scenery, lying mainly at a much lower 
level than the railway. Arrived at that picturesque old hostelry, the Feathers 
Hotel, the company consisted of— Rev. J. B. Wilson (Hon. Sec), Mrs. and 
Miss Wilson, Alderman Noake (Hon. Sec.) and Mrs. Noake, Rev. R. Thursfield, 
Mr. C. Thursfield, and Misses Thursfield, Rev. R. R. Duke, Miss Duke, and 
Mr. Guy Duke, Rev. C. E. Ranken and Mr. A. W. Ranken, Rev. J. S. Chesshire, 
Rev. H. Kingsford, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Lees, Mrs. F. and Miss Corbett, Miss 
Harvey, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Hooper, Mr. and Mrs. D. A. Cooper, Mr. L. 
Sheppard, Mr. E. Day, Mr. J. Wood, &c. Mr. C. Fortey, a resident in the 

VOL. XVIII., PT. I. / 


borough, having explained the features of the Feathers Hotel (which at one 
time had been inhabited by the famous Lord Herbert, of Cherbury,) conducted 
the party to the church, where the Rev. Mr. Humphreys courteously received 
them, after which Alderman Noake read some notes he had prepared on that 
fine and interesting structure. It now chiefly presents an Early English 
character, with later additions of the Perpendicular period, and has, on the 
whole, a cathedral-like aspect, being cruciform, with a lofty square lantern 
tower. Large stained glass windows are full of legends of the Saints ; and 
reredos, rood-loft, and other beautiful carvings, are abundant. The whole 
interior has been judiciously restored of late years, but the condition of the 
exterior is such as certainly to call for immediate attention. Returning to 
the Feathers Hotel, an early dinner was served. Rev. J. B. Wilson presiding, 
after which Alderman Noake read a Paper On the quaint 'and quiet Old Town 
of Ludlow, which he described as one of the most interesting in England, 
"its steep streets and black-and-white gabled houses giving one (next perhaps 
to Chester) the best idea we can have of a mediaeval English country town." 
We have no space for the interesting details of this Paper ; and after its con- 
clusion the company rose and passed through the streets to the old Castle, 
which absorbed some hours of close attention, on account of its great historical 
and architectural interest. This was under the guidance of Mr. Fortey, and 
here, also, Mr. Lees delivered an eloquent Address on the origin of that 
beautiful dramatic poem, the "Comus," of Milton, which was written in 
Ludlow Castle, and first performed in the Council Chamber there. Subse- 
quently the party visited the local Museum (which owes so much to Mr. Fortey), 
and after a delightful day they arrived at Worcester via Hereford. 

The following are notes of church work done in the past year : — 


After a complete restoration the church of this parish Was re-opened on 
the 17th of April, 1885, by the Bishop of Worcester. The building is cruciform, 
and an interesting incident connected with the restoration has been the 
discovery of the original consecration stone, which has been replaced in its 
old position beneath the fine Norman doorway of the nave. The chancel and 
transept were restored some years ago, but now the nave has been taken in 
hand, and its walls rebuilt. Cost of the whole, about £1,500. Mr, Preedy 
architect ; Mr. Collins, of Tewkesbury, builder. Many of the building 
materials were given by J. R. West, Esq., Lord of the Manor. A number of 
painted windows have been inserted in chancel and nave. 


A considerable work of restoration has been effected at the little ancient 
Church of Alfrick ; Mr. Aston Webb, of Westminster, being the architect, 
and Mr. Inwood, of Malv6rn, builder. A new transept and vestry have been 
built ; plaster ceiling throughout removed, and replaced with oak waggon 
ceiling in the chancel, while in the nave the old oak beams of the roof have 
been brought to light. The floor-line of the church has been raised and laid 
with encaustic tiles ; roof retiled, new windows inserted, and general repairs ; 
heating chamber and apparatus supplied. The re-opening was on the 24th of 
November, when the Lord Bishop of the Diocese preached. 

Areley Kings. 

This church has been undergoing enlargement and restoration, both on 
account of the dilapidated state of the fabric, and also to meet the requirements 
of an increasing population. The nave has been rebuilt, and an aisle added, 
the chancel and tower remaining as they are until further funds are available. 
The tender of Messrs. Binniau and Son, of Kidderminster, for the work, was 

REPORT. xliii. 

£2,190. During the removal of the old nave some interesting discoveries have 
been made. An ancient piscina in the south wall and the rood staircase in 
the north wall, both of them closed with bricks, were brought to light. 
Within the Norman door-head, about the centre of the north wall, was found, 
walled up on either side, the original oak door, in a state of great decay, but 
the large C-shaped hinges are tolerably perfect, and the massive wooden bolt, 
2 ft. 4 in. long, was still in its natural position. The hinges apparently 
belong to the latter part of the eleventh century. Near this door were found 
in the rubble wall, supporting the aisle passage, a number of flat dressed stones, 
which had evidently been part of a circular step. Close to these were three 
fragments of a circular Norman font, and near the entrance to the chancel a 
fourth fragment of the same. The step stones when placed in position formed 
an almost complete circle of 5 ft. diameter, and on setting upon them the 
fragments of the font which formed the whole of its lower section, a trace of 
lettering appeared on the plinth. The thick coat of paint and whitewash was 
carefully removed, when the following inscription became visible, one letter 
only, the Y, in the middle word, being obliterated by a fracture : — 


The poet Layaman, who lived in the twelfth century, has left it on record that 
he was the priest of Earnley by Severn, and it has latterly been assumed that 
Earnley was the old name of Areley Kings. 

[Some doubt has been thrown on the genuineness of this inscription. 
Layaman, it is believed, would not have permitted himself to be designated a 
"saint," nor was it the custom in the middle ages for priests or other persons 
to commemorate themselves by attaching their names to anything, as persons 
do now. If, therefore, the inscription be genuine it may have been placed on 
Layaman's font some time after his era, and in order to commemorate the fact 
that he had become famous, and as a proof that the font was believed to be a 
relic of his time. The character of the letters is of a later date than the twelfth 


Badsey Church, near Evesham, was re-opened by the Bishop of Worcester, 
in October, 1885, after undergoing complete restoration and enlargement by the 
addition of a new south aisle and vestry. This church was re-consecrated in the 
year 1295 by the Bishop of St. Asaph, then visiting the Abbey of Evesham, but 
there is evidence in tbe Norman architecture still visible in the north doorway 
of the nave and elsewhere that a church had existed on this spot long before 
that period. The ancient building probably consisted merely of a nave and 
chancel, the transept and tower having been afterwards added, the former about 
the end of the thirteenth and the latter during the fifteenth century. The 
work of restoration was from the designs of Mr. T. G. Jackson, architect, and 
admirably carried out by Mr. T. Collins, builder, Tewkesbury. The additions 
comprise a new south aisle with a porch, and a vestry on the north side of the 
chancel, all in character with the latest style of architecture exhibited in the 
old building. The new building is constructed of blue lias stone faced with 
oolite ; the foundations are six feet in depth on concrete, and the timbers of 
the very beautiful roof are of massive oak. 

The venerable Church of St. Leonard, at Beoley, was re-opened by the 
Bishop of Worcester on the 7th of October last, after a restorative process 
from designs of Mr. E. Day, architect, of Worcester, carried out by Messrs. 
Gowing and Ingram, builders, of Birmingham, at a cost of about £1,000. The 
funds available being limited, Ihe work of restoration was confined to the nave, 
the north and south aisles, the porch and the tower, and the east window of 


the Lady Chapel. Sitting accommodation is provided for about 300 worship- 
pers, and new oak doors have been found for the south and west entrances. 
The Church and Lady Chapel are heated by means of hot-water apparatus, 
supplied and fixed by Messrs. Goodman and Ward, of Worcester. The archi- 
tect's aim has been to interfere as little as possible with the original character 
of the work ; and it is worthy of note, as showing the care bestowed, that all 
faced stones which it has been necessary to take down have been numbered, 
and, as far as possible, re-fixed in the positions they formerly occupied. In 
the course of taking down the old porch the eastern foundation disclosed a 
sacerdotal slab of Broadway stone, apparently of early thirteenth-century work, 
and although cracked in two or three places it was in other respects in an 
excellent state of preservation. This memorial slab was carefully removed, 
and has been refixed on the splayed sill of the Lady Chapel window. 


On November 20th, 1885, a special service was held at Crowle Church to 
celebrate the completion of the new tower. The other portion of the church 
was rebuilt four years ago ; and at the same time, in consequence of its 
dilapidated and unsafe condition, the old tower was removed. The means for 
its restoration were not forthcoming until the beginning of 1885, when the 
work was placed under the care of Mr. L, Sheppard, Worcester, who has faith- 
fully reproduced the features of the old tower, and re-used, as far as possible, 
the old stones. The builder employed was Mr. J. Stanley, Broome. The 
tower is built of Bromsgrove stone, and its total height to the top of the 
parapet is 61 feet. The cost of rebuilding, including the rehanging of five 
bells, was about £850. 


This is a remarkable little church, near Pershore, consisting merely of 
nave and chancel, with small porch and belfry. The building is plain, almost 
to rudeness, and is probably of Early Norman date, although some have not 
scrupled to assign to it a Saxon origin. The walls are of rubble, from 2 ft. to 
nearly 3 ft. thick, and coated with plaster within and without. A plain round- 
headed arch, only 4 ft. 4 in. wide, and 8 ft. 8 in. high, separates the nave from 
the chancel ; and on either side of the arch is a square opening, or hagioscope. 
The old windows remaining are deeply splayed and of very primitive aspect. 
Doorways plain semicircular, and there are the remains of a holy- water stoup. 
This little building had fallen into a sad state of dilapidation, and much dis- 
cussion arose in consequence of financial difiiculties and the poverty of the 
chapelry. Some proposed to destroy the old chapel and erect a new one, but 
fortunately there was one point of great interest about the little ancient 
building which pleaded strongly for its jDreservation, and that was a series of 
mural frescoes of the fourteenth century, and some later paintings, which had 
attracted the attention of archaeologists. This, no doubt, mainly aff'ected the 
salvation of the building ; and in 1884 it was placed in the hands of Mr. 
Hopkins, whose well-known reverence for ecclesiastical antiquity rendered the 
work quite safe in his hands. Mr. Nicholas and Mr. Osborne, both of Pershore, 
were the contractors. The sum of £750 \^as spent, of which £150 had to be 
raised when the re-opening took place, on September 16, 1885. The Bishop 
of Worcester preached on the occasion. We have much pleasure in stating 
that not only has a substantial restoration been efi'ected, but that the frescoes 
are_ now secured against further injury by being enclosed under x^late glass. 
This Committee were desirous of publishing coloured drawings of the frescoes 
to accompany this Report, but found that the cost would have been too great 
for the limited funds at their disposal. The late Canon Wickenden has pre- 
served to us a tracing of an ancient diaper in red and green, with which the 

REPORT. xlv. 

walls of the sacrarium were decorated ; he has also left coloured tracings of the 
more important frescoes which he discovered on the walls of the nave in 1855. 
At that time, paintings of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and Ten Command- 
ments, were discovered under the whitewash on the walls of the nave, and to 
these an eminent archteologist assigned the date of 1630. A tracing of the 
Lord's Prayer having been taken, the painting was carefully removed, and no 
less than five frescoes in succession were uncovered on the same piece of wall : 
first, a picture of which enough could not be preserved to trace ; next, some 
ill-shapen black letter, probably hastily painted by some trembling hand in the 
Eeformation period, which shared the same fate as that beneath which it lay 
concealed ; next, a figure of our Lord sitting in His mother's arms, of which 
a partial tracing was made ; then a fresco was found of a saint, robed in a 
kind of surplice or alb and a purple cope or cloak with a cape fastened at the 
neck by a morse. The saint holds in his left hand a yellow crutch, or palmer's 
staff", surmounted by something not unlike a cap of maintenance ; an angel 
of smaller proportions than the chief figure kneels at his side and points to a 
spot edged with red, which we are told may identify the saint as St. Koche, 
with the plague spot on his thigh. This fresco, of which a part may still be 
seen on the wall, had a wide border composed of red dragons in formidable 
number, and church spires in marvellous perspective. But the most interest- 
ing painting of all is one on the surface below this, and consists of a series of 
pictures illustrating the life of our Lord. They are in a double row. In the 
upper the Annunciation and the Salutation occupy the two compartments 
towards the east, while below the Adoration of the Magi occupies the first, the 
Crucifixion and Kesurrection the second, and the Ascension the third. These, 
we are told by a good authority, were most probably painted early in the 
fourteenth century. There are other frescoes still remaining under the paint- 
ings of the Creed and Commandments, indeed on the whole of the nortli and 
south walls of the nave colour is visible through the holes in the whitewash. 
Kemains of a rough painting of St. George and the Dragon appear on north 
wall of nave, at its eastern extremity. The screen between the nave and 
chancel was freshly plastered within the recollection of some of the inhabit- 
ants, so probably all traces of the paintings there have been destroyed ; 
however, just above the edge of the plaster, may be noticed the extreme upper 
part of a painting of the Royal Arms, which some of the older inhabitants in 
1 855 could remember. Below this apppears to have been painted a Crucifixion 
in the same style as the picture of St. Roche, with angels on either hand. At 
that time there also existed fragments of a representation of the Holy Trinity, 
surrounded by adoring angels, on the south side of the chancel arch ; and 
some legs were also discovered in the neighbourhood of that arch, covered with 
red spots of a fiery hue, and suggestive of Purgatory. 

Rouse Lench. 

In this parish the church had been in the hands of the builders for more 
than twelve months, when, on October 13, 1885, it was re-opened in an enlarged 
and beautiful state by the Bishop of Worcester. This work has been owing 
mainly to the exertions of the Patron and Rector, Rev. W. K. W. Chafy-Chafy, 
who initiated and superintended it, who designed much of the furniture and 
fittings, and has been a munificent contributor of the necessary means. 
Originally the building was Norman, but many alterations and additions had 
been made in later styles, and up to the present rfTstoration the structure was 
in a state of much confusion and dilapidation. The chancel was crowded with 
monuments, and it was determined to remove these into a chapel to be newly 
erected for their reception at the cost of Sir Chas. Boughton. This chapel, 
opening out of a renewed aisle, is a beautiful specimen of the Norman style, 
reflecting the highest credit on the architect, Mr. Preedy. The Rouse monuments 


in this chapel are of considerable interest. On the site of the original aisle 
a new one was erected, so as ultimately to increase the seating capacity of 
the church from 100 to about 150. A portion of the nave was rebuilt, as also 
the chancel arch, a bell-cot added, a sacristy and vestry constructed, and a 
painted window given by the parishioners. The latter represents the vision 
of Ezekiel, the design being founded upon RafTaelle's fine composition at 
Florence. It was executed by Clayton and Bell. Some of the above works 
have been completed since the re-opening of the church ; and others, including 
the chancel restoration and the erection of a tower, yet remain to be effected. 
The Rector has introduced here warm drapery, rich colouring, and a few copies 
of Italian paintings, representing sacred subjects, so as to impart to the interior 
of the building a characteristic warmth and refinement ; a permanent throne 
for the Bishop has been set up, furnished with violet curtains, and there are 
two ambos and other medieval furniture. A remarkable feature of the above 
work is that, with the exception of one or two stone-cutters from Bradford, the 
whole has been executed by local men ; the farmers have evinced their interest 
by hauling the materials, Avhile many friends and parishioners have made 
handsome off'erings in kind and otherwise. Mr. Preedy, of London, was the 
architect ; builders, Mr. L. Clarke, Rouse Lench, and Mr. J. Stanley, of Broom. 


This church was re-opened on 15th December, ]885, when the Bishop of 
Bedford preached, the Bishop of Worcester and the Dean also being present. 
The work done here had been undertaken by the Rector (Rev. W. W. Douglas) 
without any appeal for public help, the cost having been defrayed by himself 
and other members of his family. It consists of a new vestry on the north 
side of the chancel , the facing of the chancel walls with stone, the building of 
a new chancel arch, and the reseating of the church with open benches of 
English oak"in place of the old pews. Removal of plaster, a general repair, 
with the addition of handsome furniture and a new organ, are also to be noted. 
The whole done in memory of Rev. H. Douglas, sometime Rector of this parish 
and Canon of Durham, and father of the present Rector, and of Eleanor, his 
wife ; of his brother, R. A. Douglas-Gresley, of High Park, and Rebecca, his 
wife ; and of Frances Ann Morgan, their sister. The architect was Mr. Chatwin, 
of Birmingham ; mason, Mr. Folland, of Birmingham ; and the new seats were 
made by Mr. Bridgmaii, of Lichfield. 

St. Barnabas, Worcester. 

Here we have a new church in the eastern suburb of Worcester, where the 
population has increased rapidly from less than 50 about twenty years ago to 
upwards of 1,600 at present, the great majority belonging to the artisan class. 
This is the fifth district formed out of the great parish of Claines, under the 
provisions of the New Parishes Act, and contains 1,050 acres, which are now 
included in the city boundary. The Rev. J, Davenport was placed in charge 
of the district in June, 1883, the stipend being provided by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners. Thanks to the self-denying exertions of the Bishop (who 
contributed £800), the Rev. Jas. Oldham (who gave the site), Mr. F. Corbett, 
the Curtler family, and the Worcester Church Extension Society, the new 
church was completed and consecrated early in the past year. It is built on a 
commanding site near the Cemetery at Astwood ; and consists of a nave, north 
and south aisles, transepts, apsidal chancel, vestry and organ-chamber, north 
and south porches, with narthex at west end having swing doors communicating 
with porches. Entrances are also provided at the east end of the south transept 
and vestry. Internal length of church, 108 ft. 3 in., by 55 ft. 5 in. wide. 
Height of nave, 48 ft. ; of chancel, 40 ft. Walls built of brick, with pressed 
bricks and Bath-stone dressings. Roofs open framed, covered with green and 

REPORT. xlvii. 

purple slates in bands, and ornamental ridge. Floors laid with Webb's 
encaustic tiles. Seats of pitch pine and red deal, open framed, with sloping 
backs. A handsome font of Painswick stone, carved by Forsyth. There is 
accommodation in this church for nearly 500 persons. The whole of the work 
was by Messrs. Brazier and Weaver, contractors, Bromsgrove, at a cost of 
about £3,500, from the designs and under the direction of Mr. Ernest Day, 
architect, Worcester. The church was consecrated by the Bishop of Worcester 
on St. Barnabas' Day, the 11th of June, 1885. 

St. Paul's, Woecester. 

Although the existing church in this parish was but forty years old, it had 
long been found inadequate to the requirements of this populous and growing 
district ; and when the present Vicar was appointed, his abolition of the pew 
system so largely increased the congregation as to necessitate the erection of a 
new church, as an enlargement of the old one was not practicable. Accordingly 
a piece of land adjoining having been purchased from the Corporation by the 
Vicar (Kev. the Hon. H. Douglas), the foundation-stone was laid by the 
Countess Beauchamp on the 13th October, 1885. Mr. Street, of London, had 
prepared plans for a building which is to cost £8,000 and will seat 1,000 
persons ; but owing to a want of funds, only the nave and its aisles will at 
present be constructed. The style is Early English, and the materials red 
bricks, relieved with bands of blue bricks and Bath-stone. Nave, 90 ft. long 
and 31 ft. wide ; height to the apex of the roof, 55 ft. The seats will be open 
benches of pitch pine, all free. Beneath the seats the floor will consist of 
wooden blocks, with encaustic tiles for the passages. There will be an open 
roof of deal, covered with plain red tiles. North and south entrances will be 
provided. The building to be warmed with hot air. Mr. Inwood, of Malvern, 
is the contractor. The old church will hereafter be utilized for scholastic 


In all parts of the diocese the work of church building, restoration, or 
enlargement, the insertion of painted windows, re-pewing, additions of new 
organs, or other contributions to the furniture, have been most extensive during 
the past year ; and our already overcharged report will only admit of a mere 
notice of a few of the most important of them. Christ Church, Summerfidd 
(Birmingham), is a new church, consecrated April 30, 1885; cost, £10,000; 
architect, Mr. Chatwin. A new temporary church at Edghaston, the gift of 
Mrs. Spooner, as a memorial of her late husband, the Vicar, was opened Sept. 
29, 1885. Corley Church was re-opened April 8, 1885, after restoration and 
enlargement of the nave and aisle. Cuhhincjton Church was re -opened, after 
thorough restoration, on Sept. 17, 1885, by the Bishop of Worcester ; cost of 
the work, £855. Exhall (near Coventry) Church re-oijened Sept. 1, 1885, by 
the Dean of Worcester ; cost of restoration, £1,100. Packwood Church, after 
an entire restoration at the expense of the patroness, Mrs. Wykeham Martin, 
was re-opened by the Bishop on July 15, 1885. Willey — At this church a 
great work of restoration has been completed at the cost of the Kector, 
Rev. F. M. Payler, and his family ; £1,350. Re-opened June 16, 1885, by the 
Bishop. Wollaston — Here the church was re-opened July 5, 1885, after a 
thorough restoration, at a cost of £430. 

In addition to the above, the churches of St. Andrew's, Worcester^ Claines^ 
and Grimley, as also the Cathedral School (the ancient Refectory of the 
Worcester Monks), are now undergoing extensive restoration, the description 
of which must be deferred till after their completion. 




For the Year ending 31st Decemler, 1S85. 

1885. Receipts. £ s. d. 

By Balance on 1884 Account 19 11 1 
,, Annual Subscriptions, 

1885 27 

,, Arrears of Subscriptions 3 10 

£50 1 1 

1885. Payments. 




To Eaton and Co. Account, 

Printing & Stationery 




,, Subscription to Royal 

Archeeological Institu- 

tion of Great Britain 

and Ireland 



, , Subscription to Arundel 




,, Rent of Room at Guild- 




, , Birbeck & Co. , Printing 

copies Report 



,, Subscription to Salt 

Library, Stafford 


,, Excursion Expenses ... 



,, Secretary's Disburse- 

ments, Postage, &c.... 




, , Balance at Bankers 







Examined and found correct, 


January^ 1SS6. 





His Grace the Duke of Rutland, K.G. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of .Peterborough 

The High Sheriff of Leicestershire 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester 

The Right Honourable the Earl Howe, C.B. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Denbigh 

The Right Honourable Earl Ferrers 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Dysart 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Lanesborough 

The Right Honourable Lord John Manners, G.C.B., M.P. 

The Right Honourable Lord Braye 

The Right Rev. Bishop Mitchinson 

Major the Honourable M. Curzon, M.P. 

The Honourable Harry Tyrwhit Wilson 

Sir William de Capel Brooke, Baronet 

Sir Frederick T. Fowke, Baronet 

Sir Arthur Grey Hazlerigg, Baronet 



Sir Henry St. John Halford, Baronet, C, B. 

Sir Geoffrey Palmek, Baronet 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Leicester 

N. C. CuRZON, Esquire 

Edward Finch Daavson, Esquire 

William Unwin Heygate, Esquire 

Colonel F. Palmer 

Major G. T. Mowbray 

H. L. Powys-Keck, Esquire 

T. T. Paget, Esquire, M.P. 


The Patrons 

The Presidents 

All Rural Deans (being Members) 

The Honorary Secretaries 

All Professional Architects (being 

All Honorary Members 
The Rev. C. W. Belgrave 
Francis E. Bigge, Esq. 
The Rev. J. B. Dickson, LL.D. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A. 
Thomas Ingram, Esq. 
S. Knight, Esq. 

The Rev. W. R. Mangan 
The Rev. W. B. Moore 
Fred. R. Morley, Esq. 
G. C. Neale, Esq. 
Thomas NevinSon, Esq. 
The Rev. T. W. Owen 
The Rev. J. E. Stocks 
The Rev. A. Trollope 
John Wade Wartnaby, Esq. 
Captain Whitby 
The Rev. Lewis E. Wood 
The Rev. C. Henton Wood 

"(Eke (Excxivs!i0n cSttb-Committeir. 

The Honorary Secretaries 1 Captain Whitby 

T. HoLYLAND, Esquire I J. W. Wartnaby, Esquire 

^ottornrj) IJocitl (S^cretarus. 

Market Harhorough JJistrict. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A., Cranoe 

Lutterworth District. 

The Yen. Archdeacon' Pownall, 
F.S.A., South Kilworth Rectory 

Melton Moichray District. 

The Rev. A. M. Rendall, Coston 

Hinckley District. 
The Rev. R. Titley, Barwell Rectory 

Wm. Geo. FreTton, Esq., F.S.A., Coventry 

iJ0nonirj3 cS^cr^tjtvtes: of the c§^<^t^tS. 
Colonel Bellairs, The Newarke, Leicester (Financial) 
William Jesse Freer, Esquire, Local Sec. Soc. Antqs., Stoneygate, Leicester 

( Corrcs'ponding ) 
The Rev. William George Dimock Fletcher, St. Michael's Vicarage, 

Shrewsbury (Editorial) 

T. Holyland, Esq. 


Honorary Members. 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester 
The Eight Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ely 
TheRight Rev.EdwardTrollope,F.S.A , 

Bishop of Nottingham, Leasingham, 

Sir Henry Drydeii,Bart.,Canons Ashby 
M. H. Bloxam, Esq., F.S.A., Rugby 
The Rev. Samuel Savage Lewis, F.S.A., 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 

James Neale, Esq., F.S.A., 8, Adelphi 

Terrace, London, W.C. 
Ridgeway Lloyd, Esq., F.S.A., 

St. Alban's 
H. J. Toulrain, Esq., The Pre, 

St. Alban's 
J. E. Weatherhead, Esq., Leicester 
Captain Whitby, Leicester 

Subscribing Members. 

Adcock, Wm., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Allen, Mr. Wm., Market Harborough 
Allen, Mr. H., Leicester 
Armstrong, The Rev. C. E., Stonton 

Arnall, Josh., Esq., Leicester 
Arthur, Colonel, Kibworth 
Baillie, Colonel, Ilston Grange 
Barfoot, Wm., Esq., Leicester 
Baker, Charles, Esq., Leicester 
Barwell, Mr. T., Leicester 
Beaumont, Sir Geo. H., Bart., Coleorton 

Belgrave, The Rev. C. W., North 

Bellairs, Colonel {Hon. Sec.) Leicester 
Bennett, Ewins, Esq., Marston 

Trussell Hall 
Bickley, John Wm., Esq., Acacia 

House, Melton Mowbray 
Bigge, F. E., Esq., Carlton Curlieu 
Billson, Wm., Esq., Leicester 
Bland, Chas., Esq., Gaddesby 
Blunt, T., Esq., M.D., Leicester 
Bouskell, James, Esq., Leicester 
Bragg,W. D., Esq , Market Harborough 
Braye, The Right Hon. Lord, Stanford 

Hall, Rugby 
Brooke, Sir W. de Capel, Bart., Market 

Broughton, The Rev. Canon, Leicester 
Brooks, T., Esq., Barkby 
Brewin, Mr. W. J., Leicester 
Buswell, Mr. Tho., Market Harborough 
Buttanshaw, The Rev. F., Smeeton 

Cardigan, The Right Hon. the Countess 

of, Ueene Park 
Campbell, The Hon. and Rev. A, G., 

Knipton Rectory 

Canner, Mr. T., Leicester 

Chaplin, C. W., Esq., Burrough-on- 

Chaplin, W. A., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Chippendale, The Rev. W., Tilton 
Clayton, The Rev. Lewis, R.D., 

Clare, Ed. L,, Esq., Leicester 
Clarke, Mr. Saml., Leicester 
Clephan, Edwin, Esq., Leicester 
Clerk, John, Esq., Rolleston Hall 
Cox, The Rev. Thomas, Kimcote 
Cox-Hijipersley, W. A., Esq., M.B., 

Cooper, J. H., Esq., Evington Hall 
Crane, Mr. John, Leicester 
Crick, Fred., Esq., Glen Magna 
Crossley, C. R., Esq., Leicester 
Croome, The Rev. W. M., Syston 
Curzon, The Hon. Montagu, Beau- 
manor Park 
Curzon, N. C, Esq., Lockington, Derby 
Cunard, Sir Bache, Bart., Neville Holt 
Dawson, E. Finch, Esq., Launde Abbey 
Dalby, The Rev. R., R.D., Castle 

Dash, W. L., Esq., Leicester 
Day, John, Esq., Wymondham House 
Denbigh, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Newnham Paddox 
Ueakins, Mr. John, Leicester 
Dickson, The Rev. J. B., LL.D., Foxton 
Donaldson, A. B., Esq,, Bitteswell 
Draper, A. T., Esq., Leicester 
Drunimond, Captain, Enderby Hall 
Duncan, Alex., Esq., Knossington 

Grange, Oakham 
Dysart, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Buckminster Park, Grantham 
Ellis, John, Esq., A venue-road, Leicester 



Elmhii-st, The Rev. E., Shawell 
Emberlin, H. E., Esq., Oadby 
Eutwistle, J. B, N., Esq., Kilwortli 

Fast, Mr. J. G., Melton Mowbray 
Faulkner, R. A., Esq., The Ashlands, 

Fawssett, The Rev. R., Smeeton 

Ferrers, The Right Hon. the Earl, 

Staunton Harold 
Fearon, The Yen. Archdeacon, Lough- 
Fenwicke, The Rev. G. C, Blaston 
Ferneley, C. L., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Fewkesj! J. M., Esq., Glen Magna 
Fisher, Edward, Esq., Abbotsbury, 

Newton Abbot 
Fisher, E. K., Esq.,Market Harborough 
Fisher, The Rev. H., Higham-on-the- 

Fletcher, The Rev. John Waltham, 


Fletcher, The Rev. W. G. Dimock 

(Hon. Sec.) St. Michael's Vicarage, 

Fleming, Mr. J., Leicester 
Foster, A. T., Esq., Leicester 
Fowke, Sir F. T., Bart, Lowesby Hall 
Franklin, G. B., Esq., Stoneygate, 

Freer, W. J., Esq. {Hon. Sec), Leicester 
Franks, W. F., Esq., Billesdon 
Freeston, Mr. H., Market Harborough 
Fryer, Colonel, C.B., Aylestone Hall 
Gatty, W. H.,Esq.,Market Harborough 
Gleadow, W., Esq., Leicester 
Goo4acre, R. J., Esq., Leicester 
Goddard, Josh., Esq., F.R.I.B.A., 

Gotchj J. A., Esq., Kettering 
Green, John, Esq., Belvoir Castle 
Grinisdick, G. J., Esq., Kibworth 
Grundy, Chas., Esq., 26, Budge Row, 

Cannon Street, London, E.G. 
Haines, F. C, Esq., Leicester 
Ham el, Miss, 35, YorkTerrace, Regent's 

Park, London 
Hardcastle, Thos., Esq., Bradshaw 

Hall, Bolton 
Harding, Harry Roland, Esq., Kirby 

Hazlerigg, Sir A. G., Bart., Noseley 

Hartopp, E. B., Esq., Little Dalby Hall 
Hanbury, The Rev. T., Church Langton 
Harris, J. D., Esq., Leicester 

Harris, Joseph, Esq., The Fosse, 

Hassall, The Rev. T., Rearsby 
Haswell, Mrs., Rugby 
Herrick, Mrs.Perry-, Beaumanor Park 
Heygate, W. U., Esq., Roecliff 
Headley, R., Esq., Welford 
Hill, The Rev. J. H., F.S.A. (Hon. 

Local Sec), Cranoe 
Hickson, Thos., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Higgins, W. H., Esq., M.B., Leicester 
Howe, The Right Hon. Earl, Gopsall 

Home, The Rev. E. L., Whissendine 
Holyland, Thomas, Esq., Leicester 
Hodgson, The Rev, W. C, Swepstone 
Hunt, Mrs., Holly Bank, Stoneygate, 

Hunt, John, Esq., Thurnby 
Humberstone, R. H., Esq., Leicester 
Ingram, Thomas, Esq.,Wigston Magna 
Ingram, W., Esq., Belvoir Castle 
Jackson, Fred., Esq., Nottingham 
Jackson, Rev. G., Gilmorton Rectory 
Jones, Thomas, Esq., Leicester 
Johnson, R. W., Esq , Melton Mowbray 
Johnson, W., Esq., Saddington 
Johnson, Miss, S, L. R., Stoneygate, 

Johnson, Mr. W. F., Leicester 
Keck, H. L. Powys, Esq., Stoughton 

Kelly, W., Esq., F.S.A. , Leicester 
Kirby, T. B., Esq., Leicester 
Knight, S., Esq., Leicester 
Knox, Rev. E. A , Kibworth Rectory, 

Lanesborough, The Right Hon. the 

Earl of, Swithland Hall 
Latham, W., Esq., Melton Mowbray 
Lakin, The Rev. J. M., Gilmorton 
Lawford, Jas., Esq., Leicester 
Lohr, G. A., Esq., Leicester 
Lyne, R. E., Esq., F.S.A., Dublin 
Manners, The Right Hon. Lord John, 

M.P., G.C.B., Belvoir Castle 
Marriott, The Rev. W. H., Thrussington 
Macaulay, C. A., Esq., Leicester 
Mangan, Rev.W. R., New Humberstone 
Marris, Mr. S. A., The Roselands, New 

Martin, R. F., Esq., Mountsorrel 
Maxfield, M., Esq., Leicester 
Mercer, F. T.,Esq., Market Harborough 
Mitchinson, The Right Rev. Bishop, 

Sibston Rectory 
Mowbray, Major, Overseale 



Moore, The Rev. W. B., Evington 
Moore, The Rev. Cecil, Lovell Lodge, 

Crawley, Sussex 
Morley, F. R., Esq., Leicester 
Morton, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 

Lodclington Hall 
Mott, F. T., Esq., F.R.G.S., Leicester 
Mules, The Rev. P., Belvoir Castle 
Mutch, Dr., Leicester 
Neale, G. C, Esq., Skeffington 
Nevinson, Thomas, Esq., Leicester 
Norman, Geo., Esq , Goadby Marwood 
Norman, The Rev. Canon, R.D., 

Ordish, F. W., Esq., Queniborough 
Overton, Robt., Esq., Leicester 
Owen, The Rev. T. W,, Leicester 
Palmer, Sir Geoffrey, Bt., Carlton Park 
Palmer, Sir Archdale, Bart., Wanlip 

Palmer, The Rev. W. H., Wanlip 
Paget, T. T., Esq., M.P., Humberstone 
Paget, John, Esq., London 
Paget, Alfred H., Esq., Leicester 
Palmer, Colonel, "VVithcote Hall 
Packe, Husse5% Esq., Prestwold Hall 
Peterborough, The Right Rev. the Lord 

Bishop of, Peterborough 
Peach, A,, Esq., Leicester 
Peake, The Rev. T. C, R.D., Hallaton 
Piercy, The Rev. J. M. W., Slawston 
Pownall, The Ven. Archdeacon, F.S.A., 

South Kilworth 
Price, General, The Manor House, 

Pulteney, Rev. A. W. P., Ashley 

Rectory, Market Harborough 
Read, Mr. R., Jun., Leicester 
Rendall, The Rev. A. M. (Hon. Local 

Sec), Coston 
Reeve, W. N., Esq., F.S. A., Leicester 
Richardson, The Rev. F. H., R.D., 

Richardson, Captain J. G. F., Leicester 
Robinson, G. A,, Esq., Leicester 
Robinson, C. S., Esq., Leiceeser 
Rowley, Geo. Fydell, Morcott Hall 
Rowley, Mrs. Dawson, Brighton 
Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., 

Belvoir Castle 
Salt, Sir W. A., Bart., Maplewell 
Sandon, The Rev. W. H., Stanford-on- 

Avon, Rugby 
Saunt, The Rev. F. Barfoot, Melbury- 

Bubb Rectory, Sherborne 
Sforza, The Duchess, Ragdale 

Shaw, George, Esq., M.D., Leicester 
Simpkin, Mr. J. G., Leicester 
Small, The Rev. N. P.,Market Bosworth 
Smith, William, Esq., 10, John Street, 

Adelphi, London 
Spencer, Mr. James, Jjcicester 
Spencer, Mr. Charles Alfred, Leicester 
Spencer, Mr. John, Leicester 
Staff'ord, John, Esq., Leicester 
Stretton, Clement, Esq., Glen Magna 
Stretton, Albert, Esq., Leicester 
Stevenson, George, Esq.. Leicester 
Stocks, The Rev. J. E., Leicester 
Stocks, The Rev. Philip, Great Bowden 
Taylor, Mr. John, Loughborough 
Thomson, C, S., Esq., Barrow-on-Soar 
Titley, The Rev. R. (Hon. Local Sec), 

Tollemache, The Rev. A. F., Whitwick 
Toller, Arthur, Esq., Stoneygate, 

TroUope, The Rev. A., Carlton Curlieu 
Twining, Richard, Esq., Bitteswell 
Twells, The Rev. Canon, R.D.,Walthara 
Upcher, The Rev. H. Berners, Dingley 
Waite, R., Esq., Leicester 
Walker, Theodore, Esq., Leicester 
Warner, Edward, Esq., Quorn Hall 
Wartnaby, J, W., Esq., Leicester 
Watson, The Rev. J. S., Cotesbach 
West, J. H., Esq., Manor House, 

Little Bowden 
Whetstone, William, Esq., Coalville 
Whitmore, T. C. D., Esq., Gumley Hall 
Wilde, R. A., Esq., East Langton 
Williams, J. H., Esq., Leicester 
Wills, J. T., Esq., Husbands Bosworth 
Willes, The Rev. Canon, R.D., Ashby 

Wilson, The Hon. Harry Tyrwhitt, 

Keythorpe Hall 
Wilton, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 

Melton Mowbray 
Winterton, W., Esq., Leicester 
Winterton, Frank, Esq., Leicester 
Witts, J. W.,Esq.,Market Harborough 
Wood, The Rev. C. H., Leicester 
Wood, R. H., Esq., F.S. A., Penrhos 

House, Rugby 
Wood, The Rev. L. W.,Dunton Bassett 
Worswick, Major, Normantou 
Wright, A., Esq., Leicester 
Wykes, Arthur, Esq., Stoneygate, 

Yard, The Rev. Canon, The Confratery, 




New Members elected in 1886. 

Major George Paynter, J. P., Eaton, Grantham. 

Mr. George Spawton Catlow, Wiggeston's School, Leicester. 

Mr. Matthew Pearson, Frisby-on-the-Wreake. 

Members deceased in 1885-6. 

Brooke, Sir William de Capel, Bart., 
Market Harborough 

Ellis, John, Esq., Avenue-rd. , Leicester 

Fearon, The Ven. Archdeacon, Lough- 

Hartopp, E. B., Esq., Little Dalby Hall 

Hunt, John, Esq., Thurnby 

Jones, H. S., Esq., Leicester 

Moore, Rev. Cecil, Crawley 

Ordish, Frederic Webster, Esq., Queni- 

Small, Rev. H. P., Market Bosworth 
Stretton, Clement, Esq., Glen Magna 
Whitby, Captain, Peckleton 


1. That the Society be called 
" The Architectural and Aech^o- 
LOGicAL Society of the County of 

2. That the objects of the Society 
be, to promote the study of Ecclesias- 
tical Architecture, General Antiquities, 
and the Restoration of Mutilated 
Architectural Remains within the 
County ; and to furnish suggestions^ 
so far as may be within its province, 
for improving the character of Eccle- 
siastical Edifices, and for preserving 
all Ancient Remains which the Com- 
mittee may consider of value and 

3. That the Society be composed of 
Patrons, President, Treasurer, and 
Secretaries ; and Honorary and Ordi- 
nary Members. 

4. I'hat Members of the Society be 
privileged to propose new Members, 
either by letter or personally, to be 
elected at the Committee Meetings ; 
and that Honorary Members shall be 
gentlemen who have either rendered 
signal service to the Society, or are 
specially learned in the subjects the 
study of which it is formed to encourage, 
and shall be nominated by the Com- 
mittee at one of their Meetings, and 
proposed for election only at the 
General Annual Meeting of the Mem- 
bers to be held in the January of each 

5. That Rural Deans within the 
County of Leicester be ex-qfficio Mem- 
bers of the Committee, on their 
signifying an intention to become 
Members of the Society. 

6. That each Member shall pay an 
Annual Subscription of Ten Shillings, 
to be due on the first day of January 
in each year. 

7. That the affairs of the Society be 
conducted by a Committee composed 
of the Patrons, Presidents, Rural 
Deans (being Members), all Secretaries 
of the Society, all Professional Archi- 
tects (being Members), all Honorary 
Members, and not less than twenty 
Ordinary Members, of whom four at 
least shall have been Members of the 
Committee of the preceding year. 

8. That the Meetings of the Mem- 
bers be held on the last Monday of 
every alternate month ; that one of 
such Meetings to be held in the month 
of January be considered the Annual 
Genera] Meeting, at which the Annual 
Report and Statement of Accounts be 
rendered and the Committee for the 
year be elected, and such new Rules 
or alterations in the Rules proposed 
and made as maybe thought necessary : 
provided always that due notice of 
such new Rules or alteration in Rules 
be given by circular to each Member 
of the Society at least seven days before 
the Annual Meeting. That in addition 
to the Bi-Monthly Meetings — so in- 
cluding the Annual Meeting — Public 
Meetings for the reading of Papers, 
&c. , may be held as provided for under 
Rule IL 

9. That the Committee (of whom 
five shall be a quorum) have power to 
add to their number, and to elect from 
the Society the requisite number of 



10. That the Members of the Com- 
mittee in any neighbourhood may 
associate other Members of the Society 
with themselves, and form Committees 
for Local Purposes in communication 
with the Central Committee. 

11. That the Public Meetings of the 
Society be holden at such times and 
places as shall be appointed by the 

12. That the Committee meet at 
the times and places which they may 
themselves appoint. 

13. That the Secretaries be em- 
powered, on the requisition of five 
Members of the Committee, tc call a 
Special Meeting of the Society. 

14. That Donations of Architectural 
and Antiquarian Books, Plans, &c., 
be received ; that the Committee be 
empowered to make purchases and 
procure casts and drawings, which 
shall be under the charge of the 

15. That when the Committee shall 
consider any Paper, which may have 
been read before the Society, worthy 
of being printed at its expense, they 
shall request the author to furnish a 
copy, and shall decide upon the number 
of copies to be printed, provided always 
that the number be sufficient to supply 
each Member with one copy, and the 
author with twenty-five copies. All 
other questions relating to publishing 

Plans and Papers, and illustrating 
them with engravings, shall be decided 
by the Committee. 

16. That the Committee may every 
year publish, or join with other Archi- 
tectural and Archceological Societies 
in publishing, for circulation among 
the Members, Transactions to contain 
descriptions and Papers connected with 
the objects of the Society. 

17. That an application being made 
to any Member of the Committee, or 
to the Committee collectively, for the 
advice of the Society in the restoration 
of any Church, a Sub-Committee be 
appointed (of which the Incumbent or 
Resident Minister be one) to visit the 
Church, and submit a report in Avriting 
to the General Committee. 

18. That all Plans for the building, 
enlargement, or restoration of churches, 
schools, &c., sent foi the inspection of 
the Committee, be placed in the hands 
of one of the Secretaries of the Society, 
at least fourteen days before the Com- 
mittee Meeting, for the Secretary to 
prepare a special report thereon. 

19. That the Committee have power 
at any Meeting to make grants towards 
the objects of the Society, provided 
that if such grant— other than that 
for carrying out the objects contem- 
plated in Rules 15 and 16— exceed 
30s. , notice be given in the circular or 
advertisement calling the Meeting. 

The Bi-Monthly Meetings of the Society are held on the last Monday in 
January, March, May, July, September, and November — the Meeting in January 
to be the General Meeting for the transaction of business. 

&c., m THE LIBRARY. 

American Antiquarian, The, edited by 
Rev. Stephen D. Peet. Vol. iii. 
No. 1. October, 1880 

Associated Architectural Societies Re- 
ports and Papers. Vols, i, to xvii. 
1850 to 1885. (In Progress) 

Archseological Institute, Proceedings 
of the York (2 parts), 1846 

Norwich, 1847 

Lincoln, 1848 

Oxford, 1850 

Archaeological Journal of the British 
Archaeological Institute. Vols. i. to 
XLI. 1845 to 1884. (In Progress) 

Architectural Quarterly Review. Vol. 

I. No. 1. June, 1851 
Belvoir Castle. Catalogue of the 

Library at, 1827 
Blaker (Beaver, H., M.A.) Brief 

Sketches of the Parishes of Booters- 

town andDonnybrookjin co. Dublin. 

Part IV. 1874 
Buckinghamshire Architectural and 

Archaeological Society. Records of 

Buckinghamshire. Nos. 1 and 4, 

1854-5; No. 8, 1886. 
Buckler (J. C, Archt.) A Description 
and Defence of the Restorations of the 
Exterior of Lincoln Cathedral. 1 866 



Burke (Sir Bernard). Dictionary of 
the Landed Gentry. 4th edit. 1863 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Re- 
ports and Communications. Nos. 
14, 15, 17-25. Vols, iii.-v. 1865, 
1866, 1878 to 1884 

Supplement to Vol. v. On the Mea- 
surements and Valuations of the 
Domesday of Cambridgeshire, by 
Rev. Bryan Walker, 1884. 

Publications of. 8vo Series 

Ancient Cambridgeshire, by C. C, 
Babington. No. 3. 1853 

The Correspondence of Richard Person, 
M.A., by H. R. Luard. No. 8. 1867 

Notes on Great St. Mary's Church, 
Cambridge, by S. Sanders. No. 10. 

Supplement to the History and Anti- 
quities of the Parish of Bottisham, 
and the Priory of Anglesey, by E. 
Hailstone. No. 16. 1878 

Historiola Collegii Corporis Christi, 
by J. Josselin ; edited by J. W. Clark, 
No. 17. 1880 

The Church Bells of Cambridgeshire, 
by J. J. Raven. No. 18. 1881 

Chester. Journal of the Architectural, 
Archaeological, and Historic Society, 
for the County, City, and Neigh- 
bourhood of. Parts 1, 5 to 9. 1850, 
1856 to 1869 

Collectanea Antiqua, by Charles Roach 
Smith ; Vols. v. and VI. 1861 and 
1868. And Vol. vii. Part 2. 1879 

Creswell (Rev. S. F., M. A.) Collections 
towards the History of Printing in 
Nottinghamshire. 1863 

Deans (Rev. Joseph, M.A.,) Mel- 
bourne Church. 1843 

Domesday Book. Facsimile of the part 
relating to Leicestershire and Rut- 
land, with extension and translation, 

Ecclesiologist, The. Nos. 76, 102, 
110. 1850,1854,1855. 18th Report 
of the Ecclesiological Society, 1867 

Essex. Archseological Society's Tran- 
sactions, 1874 to 1884. Vols. i. & ii, 

Catalogue of the Colchester 

Museum, 1870 

Fletcher (Rev. W. G. Dimock, M.A.) 

Historical Handbook to Loughborough 

The Rectors of Loughborough. 


Essex. Chapters in the History of 

Loughborough, 1883. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 12 vols. July, 

1862 to June, 1868 
Gresley (Rev. J. M., M.A.) On the 

Austin Priory of St. Mary of New- 
stead in Shirwood 
Harleian Society. The Visitation of 

Leicestershire, 1618. Vol. ii. 1870 
The Visitation of 

Rutland, in 1618-19. Vol. m. 1870 
Hartwell, Catalogue of Law Books, in 

the Library at, 1885 
Catalogue of Theological 

Books, in the Library at. 1855 

(And see Smyth) 
Hill (Rev. John ' Harwood, B.A. , 

F.S.A.) The History of Langton, 

and part of Gartree Hundred. 1867 
The History of Market 

Harborough, &c. 1875 
Ilkeston,Derbyshire, Historical Sketch 

of the Church at. 1854 
Jackson (W. ) Kirby Muxloe Castle. 

Jeaffreson (John Cordy, B.A.) An 

Index to the Ancient Manuscripts 

of the Borough of Leicester. 1878 
Jones (Rev. W. H., M.A., F.S.A.) 

An Account of the Saxon Church 

of St. Laurence, Bradford-on-Avon 
Kelke (Wm. Hastings, A.B. ) Notices 

of Sepulchral Monuments in English 

Churches. 1850 

The Destroyed and Dese- 

crated Churches of Buckinghamshire 
An Account of Two Monu- 

mental Effigies found at Chenies, 

On Three Sepulchral Monu- 
ments at Clifton Reynes in the 
County of Buckingham. 

Kelly (William, F.S.A., F.R.H.S.) 
Royal Progesses and Visits to 
Leicester. 1884 

Royal Progresses to Leicester, 

Part 3. A paper read before the 
Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Lancashire and Cheshire. Transac- 
tions of the Historical Society of. 
Vols. X. XII. to XXII., XXV., XXIX ; 
XXX., XXXII. 1857-8, 1859 to 1870, 
1872-3, 1876-7, 1877-8, 1879-80 



Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archseological Society, Transac- 
tions of the. Vols. I. to V. 1855 
to 1881. (In Progress) 

Newspaper Cuttings of Re- 
ports of Meetings, &c. Collected 
by Thomas North, F.S.A. 1857 to 
1876. 4 vols. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, A selection of papers read 
before. 1855 

Report of the Council, pre- 
sented at the Annual General Meet- 
ing. 1876 

Lloyd ( Ridgvvay . ) An Account of the 
Altars, Monuments, and Tombs 
existing a.b. 1428 in Saint Alban's 
Abbey. 1873 

London and Middlesex Archfeological 
Society. Vol. i. Part 1. 1856 

Maclean (Sir John, F.S.A.) History 
of the Deanery of Trigg Minor, in 
CO. Cornwall. ' Part 7. 1873. 

Manchester, Society of Architects. 
Report, 1878 

Marshall (George W., LL.D.) The 
Genealogist's Guide : an Index to 
printed Pedigrees. 2nd edit. 1885 

Melton Mowbray Church, Remarks 
upon the Architecture of. 1849 

Midland Counties Historical Collec- 
tion. Vols. I. and ii. 1854 to 1856 

Montgomeryshire, Collections Histori- 
cal and Archseological relating to, 
1882 to 1885. Vols, xiii.-xviii, 
Powys-land Club. 

Neale (G. C.) On Pasture Land Fences. 

Neale (James, F.S.A.) The Abbey 
Church of Saint Alban, Hertford- 
shire. 1877 

Newstead Abbey, Particulars and 
Conditions of Sale of. 1860 

Nichols (John Gough, F.S.A.) The 
Armorial Windows in Woodhouse 
Chapel. 1860 

North (Thomas, F.S. A. ) A Chronicle 
of the Church of S. Martin, Leicester. 

The Accounts of the Church- 
wardens of S. Martin's, Leicester, 
1489-1844. 1884 

The Church Bells of Leices- 
tershire. 1876 

Lincolnshire. 1882 

Northamptonshire. 1878 

Rutland. 1880 

North Oxfordshire Archaeological So- 
ciety, Transactions, 1877 to 1884 

Oxford Architectural and Historieal 
Society, Transactions and Proceed- 
ings, Nos. 17 to 28. 1869 to 1882 

Paget (A. H.) Shakesx^eare's Plays : 
a chapter of Stage History. 1875 

Petit (Rev. J. L., M.A., F.S.A.) Archi- 
tectural Studies in France. 1854 

Remarks on Church Archi- 

tectui-e. 2 vols. 

Pownall (Rev. Assheton, M.A., F.S.A.) 
Offa, King of Mercia. 1875 

(Veu. Archdeacon, F.S.A.) 

Papal Medals of the Fifteenth 
Century. 1884. 

Powys-land Club. (See Montgomery- 
shire, Collections, &c.) 

Pugin (A. W. N.) Gothic Furniture 
in the style of the Fifteenth Century. 

Reliquary (The). Quarterly Archaeo- 
logical Journal and Review. Edited 
by Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S.A, Vols. 
I. to XXV. 1860 to 1885. (In 

Retzsch (Moritz). Fancies, a series of 
Subjects in Outline. 1834 

Rockingham Forest, Copies of Grants, 
&c. , relating to, made by Sir Wm. 
de Capell Brooke, Bart. 

St. Alban's Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical Society, Transactions. 1884 

Sharp (Samuel, F.S.A., F.G.S.) The 
Stamford Mint, Supplement. 1880 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, Transactions. Vols. 
1. to VIII. 1877 to 1885 

Sims ( Ri chard ) . Manual for the G ene - 
alogist, Topographer,and Antiquary. 

Simpson (Justin). A List of the 
Sepulchral Brasses of England. 1857 

Sinnett (Frederick). An Account of 
the Colony of South Australia. 1862 

Smyth (Vice- Admiral VV. H.) The 
Cycle of Celestial Objects continued 
at the Hartwell Observatory to 1859. 

Storey (John). A List of the Mayors, 
Magistrates, Aldermen, and Coun- 
cillors of the Borough of Leicester 
since 1835. 1879 

Somersetshire Archa3ological find Na- 
tural History Society, Proceedings. 
Parts 12, 13, 15, 19-30 





Suffolk Institute of Archfeology, Pro- 
ceedings, 1851-1883. Vol. I., parts 
5-7 ; Vols. II. to VI. 

Surrey Archajological Society, Trans- 
actions of the. Vol. I., part 1., 
1854-5 ; Vol. ix., part 1, 1885. 

Sutton (Frederick Heathcote, M. A.) 
Some Account of the Mediajval 
Organ Case still existing at Old 
Radnor, South Wales. 1866 

Thompson (James> History of Lei- 
cester, to end of Seventeenth Cen- 
tury. 1849 

History of Leicester in the 

Eighteenth Century. 1871 

The Jewry Wall, Leicester : 

a Paper read before the British 
Archceological Association. 1850 

Toplis (J.) Account of Coins found 
at Nottingham, 1880. 1881. 

Trollope {Rev. Edward, F.S. A.) Hand- 
book of the Lincoln Diocesan Archi- 
tectural Society's Excursions. May, 

Manual of Sepulchral Me- 
morials. 1858. 

Wild (Charles). Twelve etched out- 
lines, selected from the Architectural 
Sketches made in Belgium,Gerraany, 
and France. 1833 

Woodcock (Rev. Edward H.) The 
Monumental Brasses of the Fifteenth 
Century : a Lecture delivered before 
the Leicester Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society. 1857 

Wright (Thomas, M.A., F.S. A.), on 
the History of the English Lan- 
guage. 1857. 

Wroxeter, Salop, Report of the Ex- 
cavations at. 1859 

Wyatt (James). Flint Implements 
in the Drift : a Lecture delivered at 
Bedford. 1860 

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo- 
graphical Journal. Vols. i. to iv. 
and viii. 1869 to 1876 and 1884, 
and Parts 17, 18; 27, 28, 33. 1877, 
1882, and 1885 

Archeeological and Topo- 
graphical Association. Excursion 
to Hedon and Patrington. 29th 
August, 1883. 

Excursion to Ilkley, Otley, 

and Farnley Hall, 27th August, 1884 
Excursion to Aldborough, 

Boroughbridge, and Knaresborough, 
28th August, 1879. 


Wigston's Hospital. Case containing 
thirty-three copies of measured 
drawings of, made by Sir Henry 
Dryden, Bart. 1873-4 

Roman Remains in Bath Lane. Draw- 
ings of, by S. W. T. Stephens. 1877 

found at Barrow-on-Soar, 

Lithograph of, with plan of site, 
and letter of A. Ellis. 1867 

Pugin's Exhibits in 1857 Exhibition. 
Chromolithograph of, drawn by 
F. W. Ordish 

Diagrams of Mechanical Appliances, 
Screws, Levers, &c. 

Sepulchral Brass, 1593, rubbing of, 
mounted on roller 

Ancient Stained Glass, formerly in a 
house in Highcross Street belonging 
to Mr. John Stephens, and pur- 
chased in 1871 at the sale of the 
effects of his son, the Rev. Richard 
Stephens, Vicar of Belgrave, by Mr. 
Thos. North, F.S. A., for the Society. 

Jewry Wall, Elevation and Plan of 
Roman Remains so called. Section 
of same ; and Plan of part of Lei- 
cester, showing position of Roman 
Remains. Restored drawing of re- 
mains of Roman Tesselated Pave- 
ment, Jewry Wall Street. All by 
A. Hall. 1878. 

Note. — The Society's Room is at Messrs. Clarke and Hodgson's, 5, 
Gallowtree Gate, Leicester, where the Library is kept, and is open daily for 
the use of Members. Any Member borrowing a book is requested to enter the 
title and date in the book provided for that purpose. 

REPORT, lix. 

The Eeport 

Of the Committee for the year 1S85, read and adopted at the Annual Meeting 

of Members, held in the Old Town Library , Guild Uall, Leicester, on the 

26th of January, 1886. 
In placing before the Members of tbe Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical Society the Thirty-iirst Annual Report, it is again necessary to mention, 
jBrst of all, the great loss which the Society has sustained in the deaths of Mr. 
Frederick Webster Ordish and Dr. John Hunt. Mr. Ordish was elected a 
Member on the 9th of September, 1856. The last work on which he was 
engaged was the beautiful design of a memorial brass recently erected by this 
Society to the memory of the late Thomas North, Esq., F.S. A., in St. Martin's 
Church. Dr. Hunt, for many years, was a constant attendant at both Meetings 
and Excursions, and although for the last few years ill health jjrevented his 
coming amongst us, he always took the liveliest interest in the Society's 
welfare. During the past year the memorial brass to the memory of the late 
Thomas North, Esq., has been engraved by Messrs. Elgood at a cost of £35. 
It is hoped that a drawing of the brass will be published in the Society's 

The following Papers have been read during the past year : — 1. Dean 
Swift's Mother, by the Rev. W. G. Dimock Fletcher ; 2. A Biographical 
Notice of the late Thomas North, Esq., F.8.A., also by the Rev. W. G. Dimock 
Fletcher ; 3. Danish Place Names in Leicestershire, by Mr. Thomas Carter, 
LL.B. ; and 4. On a Book of the Fifteenth Century, a specimen of Early Printing, 
ivith Some Remarks on the type then used, by the Rev. J. S. Watson. It is 
much to be hoped that next year more Papers will be read by Members, the 
titles of which should be sent to Mr. Freer at least one week before the Meeting. 
Among the interesting objects exhibited at the bi-monthly Meetings may be 
mentioned a silver tankard, seventeenth century, given to Admiral Cramp by 
Peter the Great ; a collection of Saxon beads, found at Saddington ; a leaden 
plaque of the sixteenth century, a fuller account of which will be found in our 
Transactions ; two ivory plaques of the seventeenth century ; and several 
valuable coins and medals. The Committee deeply regret the demolition of 
Westcotes which has recently taken place, in spite of their efforts to induce the 
owner to preserve it. The following resolution was i)assed at the Meeting in 
March, a copy of which was sent to Mr. Harris : — " That tliis Meeting learns 
with much regret that it is intended to pull down Westcotes, and most earnestly 
requests its present owner not to destroy the only remaining historical mansion 
in Leicester." A large piece of Roman pavement was discovered near the 
river, in Blackfriars Street, not far from, and possibly a portion of the Roman 
villa, part of which is in existence in sites in Jewry Wall Street, further partic- 
ulars of which will be published in due course. 

The new church of St. John the, Baptist, Knighton, erected by Miss Barlow, 
of Leicester, at a cost of ii8,000 — the site and fittings, costing £2,500, having 
been raised by the parish — was consecrated by the Bishop of Peterborough, on 
September I7th. The church was built from the designs of Messrs. Goddard 
and Paget, of Leicester. The exterior of this church has the massive and 
somewhat severe aspect of churches in the north of France that were built in 
the early part of the thirteenth centurj'. The general materials of the walls are 
bright red sandbrick from Woodville, and this is relieved by an abundant use 
of Westwood stone for the arches, jambs, strings, bands, weatherings, copings, 
and the faces of all buttresses. The roof is covered with red Broseley tiles, 
and surmounted by a leaden fleche. The windows are plain lancets, or consist 
of plate tracery, and are filled with pale cathedral glass in small squares. 
There are two public entrances on the north side, and one at the west end. 
The north-west and west doorways open into a narthex, divided from the nave 
by an arcade of fine pointed arches, and spanned by cross arches carrying the 


stone floor of a gallery above. The walls are lined internally with white 
Whitwick bricks, banded with bnff, from Euabon ; the stone is from Corsham 
Downs. The cross section of the church presents some unusual features. 
An arcade is carried along each side of the nave, supported by circular 
stone pillars with a slender shaft attached. Each arcade has an upper range 
of lofty pointed arches, which rise almost to the springing of the roof, 
and at a lower level an equal number of flat segmental arches, which carrj^ 
the floor and parapet of a gallery or triforium, that runs round the church. 
The outer wall of the gallery on each side contains lofty two-light window.s. 
Beneath the gallery floor, this M'all is carried on circular stone pillars and 
segmental arches, similar to those already mentioned, and these arches open 
into a narrow ambulatory outside the main walls. The galleries in continua- 
tion of the triforia project into the chancel on each side, and are carried by 
screen walls finished with an enriched stone parapet. The piscina, credence 
table, and sedilia are in the south screen near the east end, and are of fine 
alabaster, as is also the font. At the west end of the north chancel-screen, and 
facing the nave, is the pulpit. This is of stone, and an integral part of the 
fabric, and is of suitable height for a preacher to command the galleries. The 
organ-chamber is behind the north gallery of the chancel, and on a level with 
it. The clergy vestry is placed beneath the organ-chamber, and the vestries 
for choristers adjoin the chancel. The east end consists of an outer and inner 
wall, with a space of 4 ft. between them. This space is occupied on the ground 
floor by the ambulatory, and on a higher level by a continuation of the gallery, 
both of which make the complete circuit of the church. The roofs are simple 
in design and constructed in red deal, left unstained and without decoration. 
The passages are laid with oak blocks, and the spaces with blocks of red deal. 
The chancel steps are of red Devonshire marble, and the spaces with glass 
mosaic. The nave is provided with fixed benches of pitch-pine, stained dark. 
Chairs will be used in other parts of the church. There is a range of large 
capitals to the upper tier of arches of the nave, and the chancel arch springs 
from similar capitals. These have been excellently cut by Mr. Harry Hems, 
of Exeter, in the bold, yet delicate, style of the period. The capitals and 
responds of the narthex, the font, sedilia, credence table, and stalls are also 
carved. The total internal length of the church from east to west is 132 ft., 
and the width across the nave, aisles, and ambulatories 50 ft. 9 in. The height 
from the floor of the nave to the ridge is 60 ft., and to the top of nave 90 ft. 
At Ashhy FolvilU the chancel has been re-floored, and the east window and six 
others re-glazed with coloured glass. St. Peter's Church, Braunstonc, was re- 
opened on the 29th June, by Bishop Mitchinson. The nave and chancelliave 
been re-seated and re-floored, and the tower arch has been thrown open. At 
Kirhy Bcllars the church was re-opened on July 9th. The roof has been 
thoroHghly repaired, the interior walls pointed, and the flooi repaired with 
wood. The tower, south aisle, and porch are, however, still unrestored. In 
Leicester a vicarage house has been built at St. Nicholas', and two Roman 
pillars found at Holy-bones have been placed in the churchyard ; and at St. 
Saviour's the west windows have been filled with stained glass as a memorial 
to the Rev. F. V. B. N. Hutton, the first vicar. Two new stained glass 
windows have been placed in the chancel of St. Peter's Church. The new 
cliurch of St. Barnabas, in the parish of Iluriibcrstone, is in course of erection, 
aad will shortly be consecrated. The architects are Messrs. Goddard and 
Paget. The foundation stone of St. Michael's, Belgrave, was laid last autumn 
by the Bishop of Peterborough. The architect is Mr. Vialls. At Melton £400 
has been raised by subscription, and the roof of the north transept of this grand 
old church has been thoroughly repaired. The whole roof is now in thorough 
oi'der. The work has been carried out under the supervision of Mr. J. Thompson, 
of Peterborough. The tower of Qucnihorough Church has been repaired, 
and the Church at Sotnerhy has been restored at a cost of nearly £700. The 



Committee congratulate the Society upon having secured the able services of the 
Rev. W. G. Dimock Fletcher as Editorial Secretary, and hope that he will for 
many years continue to fill that responsible position. 

In pursuance of a Resolution passed at the May Meeting, the Annual 
Excursion to Lichfield took place on the 26th of June last, when a fair number 
of members and their friends went to Lichfield by the 10.15 train. On arrival 
the party visited St. CMd's Church, where they inspected the repairs then 
going on, and after luncheon at the George the Members went to the Cathedral, 
where they were met by the Rev. Canon Lonsdale, who kindly went round the 
building and minutely pointed out the chief objects of interest. They also 
inspected the remains of the Grey Friars, the Hospital of St. John the Bajytist, 
Dr. Johnson's House and Monument, and Mr. Bridge^nan's Sculjiture Works. 
The excursion was thoroughly enjoyed by all who took part in it. 






£ s. d. 

1885. £ 



Jan. 1. 

Balance from old 

Account 169 11 9 

Subscriptions and 

Arrears received 

Printing and Publishing 
Transactions ; Williamson, 
share of Annual Volume ; 
New Books, Periodicals, 

during the year 89 10 6 

&c 84 



Advertising 4 



Ellgood, Thos., for Mem- 

orial Brass in St. Martin's 

Church to the late Thomas 

North, Esq.,F.S.A.,Hon. 

Sec. to the Society 35 

Sundries 2 


Balance 132 


£259 2 3 




1. Balance in hand... £132 3 11 

Audited and found correct, 



Place Names in the Isle of Axkolme. — A Paper read by the 
Eev. Edmund Venables, M.A., Precentor of Lincoln. 

IHAYE to ask you to favour me with your attention for a short 
time this evening, while I endeavour to trace the derivation 
and interpret the meaning of some of the local names of the very 
remarkable district in which our Society is for the first time in its 
history holding its Annual Meeting. From the geographical position 
of the district, its former complete isolation, and its physical 
character, as well as from its civil history, we should be prepared 
to find the names contained in it of rather unusual interest. Before 
my paper is concluded I think that you will allow that this antici- 
pation is not altogether groundless. It is hardly necessary for me, 
now that so much attention has of late been paid to local nomen- 
clature, to dwell upon the value of place-names as indicating the 



physical features and preserving the ethnological history of a district, 
and enabling us to trace the vicissitudes of which it has been the 
subject. I need hardly remind any of my hearers that old local 
names — I cannot say as much for modern ones — are never, in any 
instance, mere arbitrary sounds, without a significant meaning. As 
Dr. Isaac Taylor has said, " They are always ancient words, or 
fragments of ancient words ; each of them, in short, constituting 
the earliest chapter in the local history of the places to which they 
severally belong." ^ These chapters are often very difficult to read. 
Sometimes we have to give up the attempt to read them in despair. 
We have lost the key, or the lock is so rusted or twisted by time 
and decay, that the key will not turn in it, and the door of the 
chamber of knowledge remains obstinately shut against us. Nor 
can we be always sure that the key we nse is the right one. The 
lock may be forced by it ; not lawfully opened. If he would arrive 
at sure results the local etymologist must work slowly, cautiously, 
and tentatively, and above all things avoid hasty conclusions based 
on insufficient evidence. Local etymology is a science in which to 
the last much must remain conjectural; and we must be content 
that it should be so. Nowhere is it more true that " a little know- 
ledge is a dangerous thing." The follies of would-be etymologists — 
whose confidence in their own conclusions is usually in an inverse ratio 
to their scientific knowledge — have done much to make the pursuit 
ridiculous, and to throw discredit on the labours of the true philo- 
logist. " If," writes Professor Earle,^ " we cannot have the pedigree 
of local names in a manner consistent with history and science 
we had better abandon the attempt. Theological speculation is no 
longer a province of the imagination. The steed of the philologer 
is no longer a winged Pegasus, but a plodding roadster." One of 
our own members, the Kev. G. S. Streatfeild, in his excellent work, 
Lincolnshire and the Danes, to which I am glad to take this 
opportunity of acknowledging my own obligations, has shown us 
in its accurate scholarship and careful deductions the true character 
of local philology. I must also here notice a series of very careful 
and interesting papers by your fellow-townsman Mr. J. K. Johnstone, 
on the very subject on which I am bold enough to offer you some 
remarks this evening, published in the Epioorth Bells in 1881 — 
1882, to which I am also largely indebted. 

To begin with the beginning. The name of this district, " the Isle 
of Axholme," more fully '' the Isle of Axelholme," or " Axeyholme," 
as I have remarked elsewhere,^ presents an instructive example of what 
has been called stratification in local nomenclature, the various ele- 
ments making up the full name indicating the various races that have 

(1) Words and Places, p. 454. (2) Arch. Journ., vol. xix., p. 6G. 

(3) Danish Occupation of Lincolnshire, Reports and Papers, 1882, p. 155. 


successively occupied the spot, in the same way as geological strata 
indicate the successive formations which have gone to make up the 
eartli's crust. The name presents Celtic, English, Danish, and 
Norman elements. The first syllable, " Ax," is the old British word 
for water, uisge, or wysg (Welsh), which, in the mouths of different 
portions of the race, has run through all the vowels of the alphabet, 
appearing as Axe (Axminster, Axeraouth, Axebridge), Exe (Exeter, 
Exwick, Exford, Exmoor, Exmouth, &c.). Latinised into Isca and 
appearing in a similar form in Isis, in the Ock, which joins the 
Thames near Oxiovd, and in the Oke in Devonshire, in the Usk in 
South Wales, and Uxhridge in Middlesex, and finally in the Wish 
and the Wash. Water has ever been a prevailing feature of this low- 
lying district. Described by Leland more than three centuries back as 
" fenny, and marische, and full of carres," at a much later period it 
was covered with water three feet deep all the year round in its 
southern and eastern portion, no less than 60,000 acres being 
constantly overflowed. From this it took its name. When the 
English planted their first settlement on the new ground rising out 
of the swamp in the southern part of the district, they named it 
" Axe-Eye " — "the water island," which name is still preserved in the 
village of " Haxey." The eighth and ninth centuries witnessed the 
Norse conquest and occupation, and the new colonists regarding 
Axey as a local name, added their own " liolm^' ^.e., a rising ground 
insulated in a river or marsh, and called it "Axeyholme." Last 
came the Normans, who, as ignorant of the meaning of " holm " as 
the Norsemen were of "eye," prefixed their '-'Isle," and the place 
attained its complete name, the Isle of Axeyholme or Axeholme, 
containing no less than three synonyms for island, which has since 
lost a syllable by phonetic attrition. 

We pass by a natural transition from the island itself to 
the rivers which make it an island — rivers originally lazily soak- 
ing in labyrinthine ramifications through the moorland, changing 
their course at their own will, and converting the lower flats 
into wide reaches of marsh or broad pools of water, but now — 
thanks to Vermuyden and his successors — curbed and governed 
by bank and dyke, and made to run in straight channels, less 
picturesque but more useful than their old form. It is a familiar 
fact that no class of place-names preserves such ancient elements as 
those of rivers and mountains. In the words of Sir F. Palgrave,* 
they "still murmur the voices of nations long denationalised 
or extirpated " ; and of these two classes the river names are 
the least afi'ected by lapse of time.^ " Towns may be destroyed, 
the sites of human habitations may be removed, but the ancient 
river names are handed down from race to race ; even the names of 

(4) Palgrave, Normandy and England, vol. i., p. 701. 
(5) I. Taylor, Words and Places, p. 195 ; Earle, Arch. Journ., xviii., 348. 


the eternal hills are less permanent than those of rivers." As a 
rule English rivers, like those of Germany, where almost every river 
name is Celtic, bear the names, though often so strangely altered 
and twisted as to be almost unrecognisable, originally impressed on 
them by the earliest race that peopled the land. It is so with the 
rivers encircling the Isle of Axholme or forming part of its water 
system — the Trent, the Don, the Idle, the Thorn, the Humber,and the 
Ouse. The name Trent appears to be only another form of Derwent, 
the name of four different rivers in England, which appears as 
the Darent in Kent and the Dart in Devonshire, and extending 
to foreign lands appear as the Trento, Truentia, in Italy, and the 
Durance, Druentia, in France. The root form is dwr gioijn,^ the 
clear wsiter, or, according to Mr. Eobert Ferguson,^ denvijn, to wind. 
The Don is a still more widely-distributed river name, and like most of 
its companions signifying water in a very primitive form of the 
Aryan speech.^ Besides our own three native Dons, and a Don in 
Brittany, the Don, anciently the Tanais, the Donetz, the Dnieper, 
and the Dniester, in Russia, the Danube, and the Rho-dan-us or 
Rhone, and many others, perpetuate the ancient element in some 
of the chief rivers of Europe, and point to the original Aryan stock 
by which our continent was peopled. The Idle is of less certain 
etymology. We all know the ISTottinghamshire facetious saying that 
"when the Man and the Maid get together" — those being the 
tributary streams whose junction forms the river — " they become 
Idle." But coming to serious philology Mr. Ferguson^ derives the 
word from the root Ed, in Welsh " Eddain," to flow, akin to the 
Eden in Cumberland and Scotland, and the Eider, of Denmark. 
Of the Torn still less can be said. But it is probably another form 
of the root dwr water, akin to the Dor of the two Dorchesters, 
the camp by the water. The Humber'^^ has many related forms, 
in the Italian Umbro, near the Ombrone, the German Amber, now 
the Ammer, and the river of the same name in Derbyshire, familiar 
to us from the ^mbergate station. All these have a common parent 
in the Sanskrit amhu, amhhas water, which is found in the (xreek 
o/jL^pos and the Latin Imher, a shower. The Ouse is the Gaelic 
and Erse uisge^^ — water, represented in Welsh by gtvy or wi/, one of 
the most widely-spread elements in river names, of which I have 
already spoken under its form Axe. 

I come now to the place names of the Isle itself. These 
prove a very interesting series, corresponding with successive 

(6) I. Taylor, p. 200. (7) Ferguson, River Names of Europe, p. 141. 

(8) I. Taylor, p. 207-9 ; Doualdsen, Vanonianus, pp. 55, 56. 

(9) us., p. 35. 

(10) Ferguson, us., p. 29 ; I. Taylor, us., p. 240, inclines to aber, inver indicating the 
point of confluence of a river with the sea, as the root of H umber. 

(11) Usquebaugh (whiskey) is a corruption of uiscje, boy, yellow water. 


waves of population — Celtic, English, Danish, and Norman — 
which have swept over the district, occupying it more or less 
permanently. Of the occu^Dation of the Isle by the Celts (by 
whom, let me say, I mean those who in school histories 
are called the "Eritons." "Britain's barbarous populaces" of 
Tennyson's noble " Boadicea "), in addition to the river names of 
which I have just been speaking, and the Axe of Axholme, we have 
some distinct traces. The most notable of these is Kennard, which 
gives its name to the ferry over the Trent which in former times 
afforded the chief entrance into the Isle, as well as to the strong 
castle of the Mowbrays which commanded the passage within the 
precincts of which Owston Church stands. The name Kiunard 
fare, which the Castle bears in some ancient documents, has refer- 
ence to the ferry, by which persons "fared" or journeyed into the Isle. 
I may be pardoned for remarking, in passing, that the Mowbray's 
Castle was destroyed in 1183 by Henry II.'s natural son, Geoffrey 
Plantagenet, the Bishop-Elect of Lincoln, who on Eoger Mowbray 
having embraced the cause of Henry's eldest son and namesake, 
who, unwilling to bide his time, was revolting against his father, 
headed the forces of Lincolnshire, and crossing in boats to the 
Castle in which Mowbray had strengthened himself, took it, and 
razed it to the ground. Leland at his visit records, " There was a 
castille at the south side of the church garth at Oxton, whereof no 
place now standeth." This word, like Kinnaird in North Britain, is 
compounded of cenn, a head, found in Kenmore, " the great 
summit," and ard, high, the first syllable in the familiar name 
Arthur. It can hardly be said that the rising ground on which we 
stood this afternoon, looking down upon the Trent, quite answers 
to our idea of a lofty headland, but in Lincolnshire, if not inclined 
to " make mountains o± molehills," we have learnt to be " thankful 
for small mercies," and, compared with the broad marshy flat which 
surrounds it, the slightly higher ground of Owston may almost rank 
as an Alp. Mr. Johnstone has remarked that the Kel in Keltield 
has a Celtic look, and perhaps, like Kilkenny, Kildare, Icolmkill, 
and the like, represents cell — the rude hut of the hermit or mission 
priest who was the first preacher of the gospel to the heathen Celts. 
Kel, however, though abundant in Ireland, is not found in English 
names, and we may more probably look for its root to the old Norse 
'kelda, a spring, akin to the German quelle and our own well. The 
name would thus be the same as " Springfield." In the first syllable 
of " Melwood " Mr. Johnstone discovers the Celtic moel, a round 
hill, and in that of " Good-cop " the Celtic coed, a forest. We are 
in surer ground — philologically if not physical — in the word " Boss," 
on the levels to the west of Ellers. This we may safely identify 
with Rhos, a moor, of which the "rush" is the characteristic 
vegetation. Whether the syllable Bel, which occurs in a group of 


names in the very navel of the island, Beltoft, Belgrave, Belshaw, 
Behvood, has any connection with the Bel or Baal worship by the 
Celtic inhabitants is a point on which I should be sorry to pass 
a positive opinion. I must confess I am more than doubtful. 
If not representing the French hexm, hel, beautiful, as in Beaumont 
and Belvoir, and so belonging to the much later period of the Norman 
settlement, it may come from the old Norse hoJ, hoeli, or hyli,, which 
means a farm, or, again, from the O.K.G. " huJiil" or " huol^^ Ou hill. 
But T have been unable to satisfy myself on this point. Passing 
from the cloudland of hypothesis, and omitting the Eomans, of 
whom we have no linguistic trace in the Isle, we come down to the 
more certain ground of Anglo-Saxon, or to speak more correctly, 
Old English and Danish local names. Casting an eye over the map 
we can at once read the traces left by both peoples, and in many 
cases have no difficulty in assigning the name of the race that gave 
it birth. Taking the Anglo-Saxon test forms, liam, a home or settle- 
ment of the family \ ton, an enclosure or fenced-in homestead ; e//, 
the island ; ea, water ; ivortli, a warded or protected place ; liyrst, a 
wood ; field, an open clearing where the trees have been felled ; 
cotes, huts or cottages ; fleet, an inlet of the sea, or river — of all 
these we have examples. To take these in order, ton, the most 
common of the Anglo-Saxon terminations, is not very frequent ; we 
have Belton, Brayton, Luddington (the enclosure of the Buddings, 
or descendants of Lud), Watert-on, and Oivston. The significant 
syllable of the last word, as is commonly the case with compounds 
in ton, is a Saxon personal name. Mr. Johnst'one tells us that in early 
times a famous thane dwelt in Holderness called Hoste, or Oste, 
after whom OAvstwick was named, and whose descendants, by name 
" Owst," are still to be met with in that part of the county. I 
may remark in passing that Owston occurs as the name of a parish 
both in Yorkshire and Leicestershire. Waterton is the last of our 
tons, a name, like " Waterbeach " in the fen land near Ely, very 
appropriate to its aqueous surrounding. Ham appears only 
once, in Burnham, a home by the stream. The contrast between 
the single ham and the five tons is explained when we bear in mind 
that the former is especially a Saxon and the latter an Anglian 
element, and that the settlers in the Isle were Angles. Ey, an 
island, is found in Haxey (Achesm in Domesday, without the 
intrusive aspirate), Godney, and Kelsey. Tetley, as we shall see, is 
a much compressed word belonging to a later period. Worth meets 
us in Cumherivorth and E^yworth. In the latter word the first 
syllable, we are told, represents the Anglo-Saxon heap, which 
means a heap, or pile, and may refer to its position on a hill. It 
also signifies a band, a company of men, a troop, which suggests 
the possibility of Epworth, which we know was always the capital 
of the Isle, having been, in Anglo-Saxon times, a defensive position, 


manned hy its lords' retainers. Ea, water, aj^pears in Ealand, and 
liyrsf, wood, in Hirst Priory, where stood a tiny cell of the Austin 
Priory of St. Oswald's of Nostel supporting a single canon, founded 
by Nigel d'Albini in the time of Henry I., and confirmed by his 
son, Pioger Mowbray, in whose charters we find express mention of 
*' the whole of the wood, which is called hyrst." ^^ Amcotts preserves 
the memory of a cluster of cotes or mud hovels, or cottages, such as 
those which stud the shores of the Humber and the German Ocean, 
Great Coates, Little Coates, North Coates, Summer Coates, &c. 
Ing, a meadow, to be carefully distinguished from "ing" the patro- 
nymic, signifying the descendants of the founder of the settlement 
— as in Frodingham, Messingham, Corringham, &c. — is found in 
the Park Ings, or enclosed meadows ; in the Old Ings, the West Ings, 
lugs Ledget, and the Ings par excellence. Fleet, a word which 
formerly signified a place Avhere vessels could float, but now the 
floating vessels themselves, is of frequent occurrence in its sense of a 
tidal creek or inlet, and afterwards any area covered with water, as 
Neiv Fleet, Carle Fleet, Wroot Fleet, Ouse Fleet, Fleet Farm, 
i.e., a farm on the bank of such an inlet. The first syllable of 
Sidne Fleet, as the Ouse, has nothing to do with the unclean animal, 
but is a personal name, which we can hardly be wrong in regarding 
as a memorial of the Danish Conqueror of England, Sweyn, the 
father of Canute, who as we know, in July, 1013, entered the 
Humber at the head of the whole force of Denmark carried in 
magnificently-equipped ships brilliant with gold, silver, and amber, 
and, sailing up the Trent, pitched his camp at Gainsborough. 
Adling Fleet, on the Don, before it falls into the Trent, may in the 
same way tell us of the Athelings or nobles who followed their 
monarch on his inroad, who made this inlet the centre of their rapine. 
The mention of Sweyn's invasion, by which so large a portion of 
our island became a Danish colony of which our own county was 
a chief province and Lincoln a capital city, leads us by a natural 
transition to the Danish element in the names of which I am 
treating. Long before Sweyn passed Lincolnshire there was a very 
large population of Danish settlers in Lincolnshire. A wave of 
colonists starting from the point where the junction of the Trent and 
Humber furnished a convenient harbourage for their keels, pushed 
southwards and eastwards. The Isle of Axholme could hardly have 
offered much temptation for settlement at that time. Lut the large 
proportion of Scandinavian place-names shows that it was not 
overlooked by the invaders, and that the rare pieces of rising 
ground lifting out of the wide stretching morass were brought into 
cultivation by them and became the seats of permanent occupation. 
It is not a little remarkable that the familiar test word of Danish 
occupation, hy, so abundant in other parts of Lincolnshire, is 

(12) " Tohern nemus quod vocatius hirst," Cast. Hog. Moub., Dugdale, vi., 101. 


conspicuous by its absence in the Isle. It is only found once within 
the actual limits of the Isle, in Keadby. Just outside its boundaries 
to the north we find it in Haldenby and Fockerby. As the term 
hy to a certain extent distinguishes the Danish settlements from the 
Norwegian, ^^ its absence indicates that the Isle was colonised rather 
from I^orway than from Denmark. This is confirmed by the fact 
that tliorp, which is almost S} nonymous with hy, as a small village 
or cluster of houses, which characterises Norse districts as distin- 
guished from Danish, is of rather frequent occurrence, I may instance 
Althorp, the old village, Gunthorp, Garthorp, Derrythorp or 
Deddythorp, and Upperthorp and Netherthorp — the higher and 
lower villages— in Haxey. Gunthorp is a clipped form of the 
compound word Geirulf-thorp, the village of Geirulf,i* ^^ ^]^q second 
syllable of whose name we find the '^ ulf " or " wolf "^^ so common 
in Norse personal names. Another purely Norse element is toft, 
found in Belftoft, Easttoft, Eltoft, Northtoft, Sandtoft. This is 
the Icelandic " topt,"^^ the Norwegian " tuft," originally signifying 
an empty space or clearing in a forest, and then a green knoll, and 
later a piece of ground on which a cottage with common rights stands 
or has stood. Gate is a word which, like " fleet," has changed its 
signification in modern times. Originally meaning a " street," a 
" way," along which one goes, it now occasionally signifies a portal 
or entrance, through which one goes. It keeps its old meaning in 
ancient toArns where the Danish element was predominant ; as in 
the Mickle-gate of York, the Danes-gate, Potter-gate, &c., of Lincoln, 
and the Gallowstreet-gate of Leicester, and is found in the Isle in 
the Nethergate of Haxey, and the Westgate of Belton, and in 
Holgate-hill, which, like Halton Holgate and the Houlgates of 
Normandy, where the roadway passes through the hollowed rocks, 
signifies a hollow way cut through the hill. Garth, which answers 
to our modern " yard," a walled or fenced enclosure, appears in the 
"■ Vinegarths " (vineyards) at Epworth, the site of the mansion of 
the Mowbrays, " Green-garth," the " Coney-garth " at Haxey and 
at Wroot, thought by some to be the " King's-yard," the strong 
enclosure of the Sovereign, but more probably merely the rabbit 
warren of the manor. 

Passing to localities connected with water — '^ Holm," an island, 
a word which seems to be specially applied to river islands, or patches 
of hard ground islanded in a morass, naturally occurs pretty frequently 
in a district of which such insulated spots are among the most charac- 
teristic features, and from which it derives its name of Axholme. 

(13) Ferguson, Northmen in Cumherland and Westmoreland, p. 42, 43. 
(14) Streatfield, p. 73. 

(15) "The Anglians appear to have shared with the Danes a tendency to ignore the 
initial ' W' in such words as ' Wolf,' ' Wood,' ' Week.'— Professor Earle, Arch. Journ., xix., 56. 
(16) The original form was most probably tomt, from torn empty.— Ferguson, iVor^/i/new, p. 43. 


Several of these marsh islands have taken their distinctive title from 
the character of their vegetation. Thus we have Lindholme, the lime 
tree island ; Eller Holme, the island of alder trees ; Hazelholme, and 
Thornholme ; Langholme, the long island, needs no explanation, 
and of Hunbeholme and Hailwaldholme, which I find in an old 
map, I am unable to offer one. Thinholme was probably the island 
where the ISTorsemen held their " thing," i.e., their court of justice 
or local parliament, which usually met on some island, hill, or 
promontory, where its deliberations were less likely to be disturbed. 
Siatlier, which we find at Burton, Flixborough, and Theddlethorpe, 
and Staith (which occurs in the great " staith " at Kennard Ferry, 
" Meredyke Staith," '' Hook Staith," &c.), are all varied forms of the 
Icelandic stod, a harbour or landing place. The picturesque but 
most unsanitary little fishing village of Staithes to the north of 
Whitby takes its name from the same root. Stockivith is the 
palisaded ford, where was a passage across the river defended by a 
stockade. " With," is a softened form of the more usual " Wath," 
which occurs separately as a place-name to the south of Grimsby. 
Ness, a projecting piece of land, or promontory, corresponding to 
the nose on the face, is found in " Dirkness," now vulgarised into 
Dirtness, Redness on the Ouse, and Gunness, now corrupted in 
Gunhouse, with the addition of the etiological myth, for which 
Mr. Peacock is voucher, that it took its name from the Danes having 
stored their guns there. Wick, an inlet or estuary, the word from 
which the Vikings or creekmen were called, is found in Butterwick, 
the inlet or creek of some hardy Norseman, Buthar, or Butar. We 
find it also in Owstwick, and Hardwick. Beck a brook, appears 
only once as far as I can discover, in the " Burnham beck," 
the Danish " beck " repeating the Anglian " burn." Duck- 
ling-lode in Thorn moor preserves the old word lode, lade, a 
stream or watercourse. Corresponding to lode is sike, a watercourse 
or streamlet, frequent in Lincolnshire topography, representing the 
A.S. sic, and the Norse sike. The map gives us Hirstsike, Duck- 
ling Syke, and Syke House. Skiers, which we find in Skiers 
drain, Skiers flash, and other names is said by Archdeacon 
Stonehouse to denote pieces of standing water at which the cattle 
depasturing in the open common came to drink. In a grant of John 
of Mowbray to the freeholders of the Isle in 1360 permission was 
given to steep their hemp in the waters of the wastes with the 
exception of the Skiers in the park of Haxey, which were specially 
reserved for the lord. It probably means a dividing water, from 
A.S. Skeran, to cut, from which we get our " shire " and '' scar." 
It corresponds to Skirbeck, the dividing brook near Boston. The 
lords reserved the artificial cuts to their own use, whilst the natural 
pools were open to all freeholders. Idle stop is a comparatively 
modern term denoting the dam erected by Vermuyden, by which 
the channel was entirely changed, and the river Idle stopped from 
running in its old course. 


I have almost exhausted the chronological succession of place- 
names in Axholme. The Eoman conquest found nearly the whole 
local nomenclature of England fixed, especially in its more 
remote country districts where new settlements were rare, and 
the additions made to the list subsequently to the subjugation of 
England by Duke William are not large. The only place-name 
in the Isle of Axholme of the Noiman origin of which we can speak 
certainly, is Tetley, a small holme near Crowle. Max MuUer has 
somewhere said that the study of local nomenclature is a historical 
as much as a philological exercise. That is, in order to arrive at 
the true meaning of a place-name, we must take it back through all 
its modifications to its earliest form, and be especially careful not 
to draw any conclusions from its modern guise. Tetley is an 
example in point. JSTo word can look more thoroughly English, 
and yet no word is more thoroughly French. In its original form 
it is " Teste de la Hale," the head or upper portion of the hedged 
enclosures or park of the Abbots of Selby, who, as old Leland 
records had '^ a praty wood at Creole," ^^ " Haie " recalls the farm 
of " la Haye Sainte " on the field of Waterloo and the " Hague " or 
Royal park in Holland. Of names connected with religion I may 
instance " God's Cross " to the West of Wroot — '' Wroot out of 
England " as it used to be termed from its remote and lonely 
position — a " mere-stone " or boundary mark set up, where the three 
counties of Lincoln, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire join, perhaps an 
early preaching station of the first Christian missionaries. *' Cross 
Hill " may have a like origin. " Parsons Cross " on the Idle is really 
a corruption of Parting Cross, as that is of Perteney Cross. To 
explain its former name a story has been evolved that it marks the 
spot where Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal of 
England, parted from his duchess when challenged to wager of 
battle by Henry Bolingbroke, the Duke of Hereford, afterwards 
Henry IV., in 1397, to disprove the charge of the utterance of 
treasonable words, brought by each against the other. The pic- 
turesque description of this scene in the first act of Shakespeare's 
" Eichard the Second " — the lists set at Coventry on St. Lambert's 

Then shall your swords and lances arbitrate 
The swelling difference of your settled hate ; 

the sudden suspension of the combat by the king's command, and 
the sentence on the earl — five years' banishment for Bolingbroke, 
and banishment for life for Norfolk — cannot fail to be familar to 
many of my hearers : — 

The hopeless word of never to return 
Breath I against thee upon pain of life. 

Norfolk, I may add, never did return to England, nor did he see 

(17) Itinerary, yol. i., p. 29. 


again his fair lands on the Isle of Axholme. He died of the plague 
at Venice on his return from Jerusalem in 1399, and his body being 
subsequently brought home was buried in the Chapter House of the 
Carthusian Priory of Melwood, where also his son, John, was 
interred. I fear it would be vain to seek for any traces of their 
monuments there now. The Monk's Stone mentioned in 1 607 as 
one of the limits of the Lordshi23 of Crowle points to one of the 
small religious houses of the Isle. The " German closes " in AVest 
Butterwick perpetuate the dedication of the Great Abbey of St. 
German's at Selby to which they were given temp. Richard I. by 
Roger de Mowbray. We have also the " Lady Croft " at Owston, 
and the " Holy Well," near Eurnham, to which in old times sickly 
children were brought and dipped on Holy Thursday, a fair, answer- 
ing to an Irish " patron " being held round the spot. Among 
religious sites I may also mention the Carthusian House of the 
" Priory in the wood " otherwise " the House of the Visitation of 
the B.V.M." founded at Melwood in Epworth in 1396 by Thomas 
Mowbray, the Earl Marshal ; a cell of the great Benedictine Abbey 
of St. Mary's, York, founded for a single monk by Roger de 
Mowbray, temp. Henry III., at Sandtoft, then entirely insulated 
between the branches of the Idle, the extreme loneliness of the spot 
being shown by a special provision that the solitary recluse should 
have a mastiff to guard him and his croft. At Hu'st Priory as we 
have seen, there was a cell belonging to the Austin canons of St. 
Oswald's, Nostell, while Temple Belwood derives its distinctive 
name from the Preceptory of Knights Templars founded by the 
munificent Roger de Mowbray at Temple Balshal, in Warwickshire, 
to which it was given by the founder. The singularly sounding 
names Cralse Lound and East Lound in Haxey, may have a 
religious significance dating from very early times. The name 
" lound " has been identified with " lundr " a sacred grove, while 
" craise " is thought to be the same word as the Old ^orse " hreysi," 
a cairn, or heap of stones, which we find in Dunmail Raise above 

Any notice of the place-names of Axholme would be incomplete 
without mention of the " carrs " with which it abounds. To a 
Lincolnshire audience it is hardly necessary to explain that a 
*' carr " denotes a low-lying piece of land subject to floods, moist 
and peaty, and often overgrown with trees or brushwood. Westcar, 
Carhouses, Turf Car, Haxey Carr, are a few among many examples. 
Star Car, according to Mr. Streatfield,!^ is named from the *' star" or 
" coarse grasses and rushes which abound there, and which when 
gathered for thatching are still called star iliack. " Star " by 
metathesis is the same as the Old Norse stra and the Danish straa 
represented in English by straiv, originally signifying the sedges and 

(18) Lincolns/nre and the Danes, p. 231. 


rushes strewn on the floors of our ancestors' halls and chambers. The 
spread of cultivation is evidenced by the various " intakes," ^.e , 
pieces of land taken in from the waste. Newhig in Haxey, 
corresponding to ^ewbiggin in Scotland, designates a house on a 
piece of freshly reclaimed land. Neivland in Epworth, like the 
district of the same name in the city of Lincoln, describes land 
reclaimed from the marsh, once water now land. The " Beggar's 
Tree " at Crowle Wharf, on the causeway to Althorp, we are told, 
is so called from its having been the accustomed station of the 
mendicants who levied contributions from way-farers. There are 
several curious and interesting looking names still unnoticed. Such 
words as Yousters, Mill Trod, Goodnow Eow, Dowswold Laundes, 
Bull Hassock, Heck Dyke provoke curiosity. But I have no certain 
interpretation of them to ofier, and having already detained you too 
long, I will not tax your patience by vague speculation. 

The Isle of AxJiolme. — A Paper read at Epworth, June, 1885, by 
Edward Peacock, Esq. 

I HAVE heard on good authority that not very long ago, when 
a body of young men were being examined for a certain 
Government Office, that one of the questions put was, " State what 
are the boundaries of the Isle of Axholme, and why is it called an 
island 1 " It is reported that not one of the poor young fellows 
who were on that day under torture could give a satisfactory 
answer to the examiners. I do not think that any one who is 
present to-day will be found in the same state of dense ignorance, 
but if it were so it could hardly be a matter of surprise. For two 
hundred years and upwards the Isle has ceased to be an island, in 
all but name ; and men, who are not antiquaries, may be excused 
for not having ever present before their minds the fact that things 
have not always been as we see them now. 

We must, however, try to carry our imaginations back to a time 
when the Isle presented a very different appearance to what it does 
now. That it was inhabited before the Eoman invasion we know, 
for flint and bronze implements of the former inhabitants have 
from time to time been found there. When the Romans occupied 
England, a great part of it must have been a vast marsh, through 
which the Trent, the Ouse, the Idle, and the Don poured their 
waters by irregular channels. The Wolds of Lincolnshire were 
colonized — probably indeed thickly inhabited — by Roman settlers, 
and there was a Roman Town at Doncaster, and another of great 


importance where Castleford now stands. It was very needful for 
these Lincohishire Eomans to keep uj) communications with their 
friends in what we now call the West Eiding, and it would have 
been a most tedious journey to go round all the way by Lincoln, or 
to pass the, to them, dangerous Ferry across the Humber from 
Winteringham to Brough. Some way across the great Isle marsh 
had to be found. There was, too, a similar obstruction, a compara- 
tively narrow one it is true, in the Ancholme Valley, where that 
river, now confined between banks as rigid and unpicturesque as 
many generations of engineers have been able to make them, then 
flowed in many winding channels into the Humber. The site of 
the present town of Brigg (Glanford Briggs, as it is properly called, 
shewing by the very name that there was a " wathstead " or ford there 
before there was a bridge,) was the narrowest place in the great 
Ancholme bog, and there it may be taken as certain that the Eoman 
trackway crossed the Ancholme. That it would go as nearly direct 
as circumstances would allow we cannot doubt. Whether it passed 
through Scawby, Manton, and Messingham to East Butterwick, or 
whether the line was on the margin of Broughton parish, througli 
Twigmoor, Holme, Bottesford, and Yaddlethorpe to the same point, 
we have no certain means of knowing. I think the latter route the 
easier, and therefore the more probable one. If any of you examine 
a map of the Isle of Axholme, whereon the levels are indicated by 
shading, you will find that the road from West Butterwick to 
Doncaster is upon higher ground than could have been found by 
any other line without making a long detour. In summer, except 
when exceptionally rainy, it would be a safe pathway for men on 
foot or horseback. I doubt very much if the Eoman carts or 
carriages could have gone safely along it. 

Whether there were Eoman dwellings in the Isle I know not. 
If there were, no trace of them has, as far as I know, been come 
upon. As however the Eoman occupation lasted more than four 
hundred years, that is a longer time than from the Battle of Bosworth 
Field to the present day, we may well assume that some of the 
world's conquerors have dwelt among you. 

Of the Isle during the Saxon time there is scarcely a word to 
tell, and if there were, the present moment is not the time to tell it. 
Soon after the ISTorman Conquest it fell to the share of the great house 
of Mowbray ; and part of the vast inheritance of that illustrious race 
it remained until it passed to William, Marquis Berkeley, as heir of 
his mother, Isabel Mowbray. From that time it passed through 
various changes till, in the seventeenth century, we find the Lord- 
ship of a greater part of the Isle vested in the King. 

It is very necessary to remember, if what took jDlace is to be 
properly understood, that the Lordship which the Mowbrays, the 
Berkeleys, or the King exercised was not an ownership of the whole 


lands in the sense that we have come to understand ownership in 
recent days. The lord had lands in almost every parish, called his 
own demesnes, which were as fully and truly his as is the estate of 
any Isle freeholder his own at the present day. Hardly any of the 
land was then inclosed, such as was fit for cultivation was held by 
what the lawyers call copyhold tenure of the lord. The land was as 
fully theirs as if they had the freehold, but payments had to be 
made on a change in the ownership, and sometimes on other 
occasions. As well as these cultivated lands, there were the vast 
commons and marshes where the inhabitants had been accustomed 
from time immemorial to graze their cattle, to dig turves for fireing, 
and bog-timber for posts and pales. The existence of these large 
wastes had been a cause of anxiety for many generations, as it was 
thought that if a system of drainage could be devised, much 
valuable land might be brought into use. A person named Laverock 
seems to have made some proposition to Queen Elizabeth as to 
draining the whole district, including the level of Hatfield Chace. 
It came, however, to nothing. Things remained as they were until 
the reicrn of Charles I., when Cornelius Vermuyden, a Zealander 
from near the mouth of the Scheldt, undertook the work. He was 
born and had been brought up in a country of big drains and vast 
banks, and to him nothing seemed easier than to get rid of the 
water and to reduce the whole Isle to a state of fertility. He would 
probably have succeeded thoroughly in what he undertook had he 
not been hampered at every turn by the officials of the Crown and 
other greedy people. On May 24:th, 1626, the agreement was 
executed between the King and Vermuyden, His pajment was to 
be one-third of the recovered lands. This arrangement was clearly 
illegal, as it ignored the rights of the commonholders over a large part 
of the commons. Objection does not seem to have been taken at the 
time, however, and many Dutch and Flemish families of wealth and 
high position — the Vanvalkenbergs, the Van Peenens, the Vernattis, 
and theBoccards — became shareholders in the undertaking. Numbers 
of Dutch and Flemish labourers came over, and the work at first 
went on rapidly and without hinderance. In 1630 the old inhabi- 
tants first began to complain in legal form. Their allegations, bereft 
of legal verbage, amounted to this — that the new works impeded 
the drainage of their own lands, and that much of the land that 
had never been flooded before was now inundated. Vermuyden 
seems to have acted with little discretion, and soon became involved 
in lawsuits. Much of the new land, however, was reclaimed, and 
had already begun to bear good crops. The Dutch and Flemish 
Settlers, who were Calvanistic Protestants, had received permission 
to build a chapel just outside the boundary of the Isle at Sandtoft. 
Though lawsuits might for a time have continued, it is probable that 
had England herself remained at peace, we should have heard little 
more of these local bickerings, but in 1642 the great Civil War broke 


out between the King and the Parliament. The old inhabitants of 
the Isle, like almost all the rest of the men of Lincolnshire, were, 
in feeling at least, on the side of the Parliament ; the new men, 
Foreigners, or Participants, as they were called, were Eoyalists. 
A report was circulated, whether true or false we cannot now tell, 
that the Isle was to be invaded by a troop of Eoyalist horse from 
Doncaster. This seemed a fit time for driving the Foreigners out of 
the country all together. A mob of persons, professing to act 
under the authority of the Parliamentary Committee at Lincoln, 
but whether really so authorized or not we are at present uncertain, 
pulled up the flood-gates of Snow Sewer, and let in the tides of the 
Trent over a great portion of the Isle. A guard, armed with 
muskets and swords, watched the place night and day, so that the 
damage done should not be set right. This lasted for seven weeks, 
and during that time all law seems to have been disregarded. 
Eeligious fanaticism, added fuel to the flame. Some persons, under 
pretence of zeal for religion, defaced the church at Epworth, tore in 
pieces the ten commandments, which seemed to have been painted 
on canvas, and left nothing standing, it is said, but the bare walls. 
As war was now raging in every shire in England, it was im- 
possible for the concerns of the Isle of Axholme to receive the 
attention which they merited. Time passed on, and the rioters 
received no sensible check. At length the well-known Eepublican, 
John Lilburne, appeared on the scene. He was a man of most pure 
life, and his ideal of human conduct was a very noble and exalted 
one, as his life and his books sufficiently demonstrate, but he was a 
person entirely unfitted for ruling men, and had a rooted aversion to 
obeying any authority whatsoever. 

Lilburne seems to have been a volunteer on the side of disorder, 
and as, though never a member of Parliament, he had gained in 
one way or another a great knowledge of the manner things were 
conducted in that assembly, at a time when the whole of the func- 
tions of the State were under its direction, he was very useful to 
the Isle men, both as a military leader and as an advocate. When 
the Parliament, sometime after this, sent down an order demanding 
obedience, a reply was sent back, the wording of which may safely 
be attributed to Lilburne, that they " were a Parliament of clowts," 
and that the Isle men could make as good a Parliament themselves. 
Things were, however, fast coming to a conclusion. Here, as 
elsewhere in Britain, the strong will of Oliver Cromwell made itself 
felt. The Long Parliament, after a career which, rightly viewed, is 
one of the most wonderful things in history, was dissolved, or 
" dissolved itself," if we may use the words of a once well-known 
Proclamation. Oliver became Protector, and the Isle fell under a 
Military Government. 

Lawsuits continued for many years after concerning the reclaimed 
lands, but the dramatic interest of the tale ceases with the restora- 
tion of order, which has never since been broken. 


Epworth Rectory, 1696-1735 ; or, The Wesley s at Epworth. 
A Paper read by the Eev. Canon Overton. 

JN the year 1693 there was published an Heroic Poem in Ten 
Books, which, to judge by the enthusiastic language of the 
writer's brother bards, was destined to eclipse almost every heroic 
poem which had ever appeared in any language. The Poet Laureate 
of the day, who might be presumed from his position to be a judge 
of such matters, compared the author to one of the ancient prophets 
bursting upon an astonished world : — 

So you, great Bard, who lay till now conceal'd, 
Compiling what your Heavenly Muse reveal'd, 
No sooner quit the shade, but strike our eyes 
With wonder, and our minds with exstasies. 

Other poets, himself the Laureate included, would contentedly pale 
into insignificance before the new luminary, as the stars do before 
the rising sun : — 

E'en we, the Tribe who thought ourselves inspir'd, 
Like glimmering stars in night's dull reign admir'd, 
Like stars a numerous but a feeble host, 
Are gladly in your morning lustre lost. 

Milton himself had found a worthy successor, if not a superior, in 
his own field : — 

Here with whole Paradise Regain'd they meet. 

And Milton's noble work is now compleat. 

Another contemporary pronounces the new poet superior to Virgil : — 

Again the Mantuan genius charms the plains 
With more than mighty Maro's lofty strains ; 

and others wrote with equal enthusiasm. The poet who was greeted 
with all this florish of trumpets was the Kev. Samuel Wesley, 
Eector of South Ormsby, in Lincolnshire. The poem was on a 
glorious but very ambitious subject, '' The Life of our Blessed 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." The writer was conscious of the 
greatness of his theme, and modestly describes the work as being 
** attempted," not " written." Everything that could be done in 
the way of accessories was done. It was dedicated " to Her Most 
Sacred Majesty, Queen Mary," and it was illustrated with 60 copper 
plates, the best of their kind. If the reader turns from the 
panegyrics to the poem itself, expecting to find a rich intellectual 
treat, he will certainly be disappointed. Except in point of 
magnitude the work cannot be called a great work. A single 
specimen, chosen not because it is better or worse than the average, 
but simply because, in cxuoting verses which may possibly raise a 
smile, one naturally selects some which do not deal with the most 
sacred subject of all, will suffice to show this. This is the way in 


which the poet writes of the death of St. John the Baptist : — 

Scarce with long search they found a villain, who 

Was black enough the horrid deed to (Jo ; 

Whom from the dungeon when the Baptist spy'J, 

Warn'd he that moment must for deatli provide. 

Long since that business is dispatch'd he cry'd 

That I was mortal born I ever knew, 

Ann since this debt's from all to nature due, 

The sooner paid the better, gladly I 

In God's fair cause and injured virtue's die. 

And so the writer goes on, projecting upon a Jew of the first century 
the language and ideas of an Englishman of the seventeenth. The 
poem, however, produced more than one beneficial result. It placed 
a deserving man, who was in abject poverty, in better circumstances, 
and it was the ultimate cause of Epworth, instead of remaining an 
unknown place, becoming known by name in every part of the 
civilised world. For we have Mr. Wesley's own authority for saying 
that the living at Epworth was given to him, not, as Mr. Southey 
asserts {Life of Wesley, i., 10) for writing in defence of the 
Revolution, but because he dedicated his heroic poem to the Queen. 
'' It was proffered," he says, " and given without his ever having 
solicited any person, and without his ever expecting or ever even 
thinking of such a favour." As the Queen died in 1694, and Mr. 
Wesley was not presented until 1696, this must mean either that 
he should have Epworth when it was vacant or that he should have 
the next good Crown living that became vacant. At any rate in 
the spring of 1697 we find him in residence here, in prospects that 
under ordinary circumstances might be considered favourable. The 
nominal value of the living was .£200 a year, equivalent to .£800 
at the present tiuie. The house was by no means a hovel, as it has 
been represented, chiefly, it would appear, because like most houses 
at Epworth at the time, it was built of mud and plaster. It is 
described in the terrier as consisting of " five bayes, but all of mud 
and plaster, the whole building being contrived into three stories, 
and disposed in seven chief rooms, kitchen, hall, parlour, butterie, 
and three large upper rooms, and some others of common use, a 
little garden empailed between the stone wall and the south, a barn, 
a dove coate, and a hemp kiln." Its site is pretty clearly marked ; 
it is immediately to the south front of the present house, the gypsum 
foundation lying so near the surface that no flower or shrubs whose 
roots strike deep into the ground will grow there. But Mr. Wesley 
came to Epworth hampered with debt : he had not only a wife 
and young family to support, but in part also an aged mother in 
London. He very foolishly began farming at Epworth, and having 
no knowledge of business of course lost by it. In 1701 he was 
elected proctor for the Diocese in Convocation by his brother 
Clergy — a high honour, but a very expensive one, involving frequent 



journeys to London. He met with frequent disasters by fire ; now 
his parsonage barn, now a great part of the Eectory, now all his 
flax, at that time the staple produce of the isle, was burnt. His 
misfortunes culminated in 1705. The General Election of that 
year turned very much upon ecclesiastical questions, for it was the 
year of the famous " Church in Danger " cry. There were four 
candidates for the County of Lincoln. Sir John Thorold and Mr. 
Dymoke were the old members (both Tories), Colonel Whichcote 
and Mr. Bertie opposed them on the Whig side. All four, by the way, 
were, and are still, names of old county families. We can readily 
understand Mr. Wesley's difficulties about voting; he owed his 
living to the Whigs, and he was a personal friend of Col. Whichcote 
and under obligations to him ; but the other was the Church party. 
So he compromised by promising one vote to Sir John Thorold and 
the other to Colonel Whichcote. But before the election came on 
both the Whigs identified themselves with the Dissenters, and as 
Mr. Wesley valued his Church above all things, he voted for 
Thorold and Dymoke. The result had better be described in his 
own words. " I went to Lincoln," he writes, " on Tuesday night, 
May 29th, and the election began on Wednesday, the 30th. A 
great part of the night our Isle people kept drumming, shouting, 
and firing off pistols and guns under the window where my wife 
lay [at Epworth]. A Clergyman met me in the Castle-yard and 
told me to withdraw, for the Isle men intended mischief." How- 
ever, he escaped. '' But," he says, '' when they knew I was got 
home they sent the drum and mob, with guns, &g., as usual, to 
compliment me till after midnight. One of them, passing by on 
Friday evening, and seeing my children in the yard, cried out, ' 
ye devils ! we will come and turn ye all out of doors a begging 
shortly.' God convert them and forgive them ! " Within a few 
weeks Mr. Wesley was a prisoner in Lincoln Castle. " Now," he 
writes again to his ever-faithful friend, Archbishop Sharp, " I am 
at rest, for I am come to the haven where I've long expected to be. 
On Friday last, June 23, when I had been christening a child at 
Epworth, I was arrested in my Churchyard by one who had been 
my servant and gathered my tithe last year, at the suit of one of 
Mr. Whichcote's relatives and friends, according to their promise 
when they were in the Isle before the election. The sum was not 
£30, but it was as good as £500." From Lincoln Castle he also 
wrote a full account of his arrest to his friends at Oxford. And 
not without effect, for Hearne, whose diary, by-the-by, has just 
been republished, tells us, " Mr. Wesley's letter has procured very 
considerable benefactions, not only in Oxford (where Magdalen 
College has given him 30 pounds, Jesus 16, and most of the rest 
proportionably), but at London and in divers other places, particu- 
larly my Lord jSTottingham (who is reckoned none of the most 


generous) has sent him 30 pounds." Mr. Wesley was back again 
at Epworth before Christmas. His parishioners had treated him 
cruelly ; when he was in prison they had stabbed his three cows, 
and they succeeded in getting him deprived of the chaplaincy of a 
regiment, which he had received in reward for a poem which he 
wrote in praise of Marlborough after the battle of Blenheim, but he 
refused to take his friends' advice to leave Epworth. For the next 
few years he was unmolested, but in 1709 the Eecfcory was entirely 
burnt down, and, it was shrewdly suspected, by incendiaries. 
There is no need to repeat the oft-told tale of the fire ; but I 
must warn you that the pictures of it are more or less fancy pictures. 
Among other disastrous results of this fire was the entire destruction 
of the Parish Eegister, which was kept at the Rectory. This fire 
has become historical owing to the deep impression which his narrow 
escape made upon John Wesley, then a child of six years, who was 
" snatched as a brand from the burning," and never forgot it. The 
Rectory was soon built up again at a cost of <£400, that is £1,600 
according to the present value of money. It may be asked " How 
did Mr. AVesley raise the funds for its erection 1 " Well, we have 
seen that he had many friends, the chief among them being the 
excellent Archbishop Sharp, who was always ready to assist him 
with his purse, and with his influence, which was then greater 
than that of any Clergyman in England. His books were probably 
a small source of income to him'. He had a brother-in-law, the 
eccentric John Dunton, who was a publisher ; and it is as advanta- 
geous for an author to have a publisher for his friend, as for a 
young barrister to have an attorney. The two brothers-in-law, 
indeed, did not always agree, but there is no doubt that Wesley's 
relationship with Dunton helped the sale of his books. The 
education of his children was not so expensive an affair to Mr. 
Wesley as one might have thought, considering that he could boast, 
with perfect truth, that he gave his three sons the best education 
that England could afford. Westminster School had been raised 
by the extraordinarily successful regime of Dr. Busby to by far the 
highest place among the schools of England, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, by the equally successful regime of Dr. Fell, to by far the 
highest place among the Colleges at either University. Two out 
of the three Wesleys were educated at Westminster, all three at 
Christ Church. Samuel and Charles were both.- king's scholars at 
Westminster and students of Christ Church, and the whole cost of 
Charles's schooling was defrayed by that Mr. Garrat Wesley who 
desired to make him his heir and carry him off to Ireland with him. 
John, the middle brother, received a nomination from the Duke of 
Buckingham to Charter House, and thence proceeded to Christ 
Church, and after taking his degree was elected Fellow of Lincoln. 
So it will be seen that, partly through merit, partly through interest, 


the sons cost their father comparatively little, and Samuel, the 
eldest (who by the way seems to me to have been hardly appreciated 
by posterity, for he really was the mainstay of the family), helped 
largely with his purse, as well as his direction, in the education of 
his younger brothers. But Westminster, Charter House, and 
Christ Church combined could not afford a better trainer of youth 
than was found at Ep worth Eectory itself. The early education of 
the three sons, and the whole education of all the daughters was 
conducted, and conducted most admirably, by Mrs. Wesley. No 
doubt she had good materials to work upon^ for every member of 
this remarkable family appears to have had brains above the 
average ; though I think none of them attained the highest rank 
intellectually — certainly not John. But the training given by Mrs. 
Wesley, both moral and intellectual, was so perfect, that her husband 
might have said of his daughters, as he said of his sons, that he gave 
them the best education that England could afford. Her system is 
fully described in a letter she wrote in her own pure and nervous 
style to her son John at his special request, un the subject. So far as 
Epworth Eectory is concerned, we have more to do with the girls 
than with the boys ; the latter were soon shipped off to school and 
college, and saw very little of Epworth, except during their vaca- 
tions ; but the girls were always here. All the seven, Emilia, Mary, 
Anne, Susanna, Mehetabel, Martha, and Lizzie were more or less 
goodlooking (as with such father and mother they could hardly fail 
to be) ; all were blessed with abilities, which were sharpened to 
the finest possible point by their incomparable mother ; all were 
good girls of spotless character ; and, with one exception, all were 
of a sprightly disposition, with a keen sense of humour. The 
brightest of these bright gems were perhaps Patty and Hetty. 
Martha was of a grave turn, the fac-simile of her brother John, both 
in person and mind. Mehetabel, alias Hetty, alias Kitty, was 
intellectually the flower of the flock. Much has been said, but not 
too much, about the mother's training ; but they also owed much to 
their father; among other things, the poetical talents and tastes 
which most of them jpossessed, were clearly inherited from and 
trained by him, not her, and a granddaughter of Mr. Wesley assures 
us that all his children idolised him. They were a most united 
family ; but on two occasions there was a threatened rupture between 
the rector and his wife. The first was in 1701. It appears that 
for twelve years Mrs. Wesley was a Jacobite without her husband 
finding it out. But in the spring of 1701 he observed that she did 
not say "Amen" to the prayer for King William, and being asked 
why, she replied that she did not believe him to be her king. Her 
husband, it is said, answered that if they had a different king they 
must have a different board, rode away to London in a pet, and did 
not return for twelve months. The length of his absence has been 


exaggerated, and it is incredible that he really meant to desert his 
admirable wife. But he had to go to London on the business of 
Convocation, which we know from history was sitting just at that 
time, and it is quite likely that he went off considerably annoyed. 
For Epworth is a Crown living ; King William was his patron, and 
he naturally did not like to hear his benefactor treated as a usurjjer 
in his own household. Moreover, he bad himself been one of the 
first to write in defence of the Eevolution, and it must have been 
rather mortifying to his vanity to discover that his arguments had 
failed to convince his own wife. One more storm seemed about to 
arise ten years later, but it blew over. In 1711 Mr. Wesley was 
again in London on Convocation business. During his absence 
there was no evening service at Epworth, so Mrs. Wesley used to 
read a sermon to her family at the Rectory, and engage with them 
in religious conversation. A neighbour or two then dropped in, and 
by degrees the congregation swelled to 200. Where they put them 
in the Kectory is a puzzle. The curate complained to Mr. Wesley 
that a conventicle was being held in his house, and a correspondence 
ensued between the Rector and his wife, which the latter concluded 
in this characteristic fashion : — " If you do, after all, think fit to 
dissolve this assembly, do not tell me that you desire me to do it, 
for that will not satisfy my conscience ; but send me your iwsitive 
command, in such full and express terms as may absolve me from 
guilt and punishment for neglecting this opportunity of doing good, 
when you and I shall apj)ear before the great and awful throne of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ." Mr. Wesley made no further objection. 
But people of a very lively imagination have seen in this incident 
the whole system of modern Wesleyanism. I cannot see it. 

Epworth was then even more isolated than it is now. With the 
exception of Mr. Hoole, the estimable Vicar of Haxey, a stray 
curate or two, and Mr. Wesley's brother Matthew, a surgeon, who 
made himself rather objectionable when he did come, few guests 
found their way to the Rectory ; and the female part of the Rectory 
establishment rarely left home. Hence, perhaps, the ill-assorted 
matches which most of these fascinating girls made in the dearth 
of eligible suitors; but in the winter of 1716-7 an uninvited and 
very unwelcome guest made his appearance, the famousEpworth ghost. 
Few ghost stories have been told by so many sensible and credible 
eye — or rather ear-witnesses. The two brothers, Samuel and John, 
who were away from home, had the whole story written down for 
them by all who were concerned in it. So we have Mr. Wesley's 
and Mrs. Wesley's account. Sister Molly's, Sister Sukey's, Sister 
Nancy's, Sister Emily's — all but Sister Hetty's ; also ^Ir. Hoole's, 
who was specially brought over from Haxey, as an unprejudiced 
witness, and Robin Brown, the man servant's account to Jack. 
John Wesley also tells the whole story in the Anninicm Magazhie. 
They all tell the tale in the most vivid and racy style, and the 


different accounts take up no less than 36 8vo. pages in the Appendix 
to the first volume of Mr. Southey's Life of Jolin Wesley. Instead 
of repeating, not the thrice, but the ten times told tale, it will be 
better for me to confine myself to the points in which my local 
knowledge of the house and of the mind of the Islonians, and, 
perhaps I may venture to add, my acquaintance with the period of 
histoiy in which it all happened, may suggest. The noises were 
heard in all parts of the house, but by putting two and two together, 
I think we may gather that the attic, which is still called Jelfery's 
chamber (the sprite was christened Jeffery by Emilia, after an old 
man of that name who had died en the spot), was the headquarters. 
JSTow, this room extends over the whole length of the present Wesley 
house, having been built, it is conjectured, to receive the tithes which 
were then jDaid in kind. It is so constructed that any noise made 
on the floor (which is of gypsum, a product of the Isle, of which 
many floors were then made) reverberates in a remarkable way 
throughout the whole house. The room immediately below was the 
nursery — the scene of the ghosts earliest and most remarkable 
exj^loits. Jeffer3^'s chamber has a dormer window, which is easily 
accessible from the outside, and through which machinery could be 
easily let down. Some of the noises heard were as of a jack being 
wound up and as of a mill turning. Now, was it likely that people 
from the outside would wish to play tricks upon the Wesley family 1 
Very likely, indeed. Politics ran then, as they run now, very high 
at Epworth. At the time of Jeffrey's appearance the country was 
intensely excited about two rival claimants to the throne. The ghost 
was clearly a political ghost. He was loudest and most offensive at 
family prayers, when the names of King George and the Prince of 
Wales were mentioned. On the other hand, Mrs. Wesley, who was 
a staunch Jacobite, requested Jeffery to make no disturbance during 
the liour of her own private devotions, that is, between 5 and 6 a.m., 
and Jeffrey did not. It has beeii seen that ten years before, Mr. 
Wesley gave violent offence to the Epwortli people by voting for 
the Tories. But it may be thought that the ghost ought to have 
been pleased at this, for he was a Tory ghost ; he objected to the 
prayers for King George, who was the nominee of the Whigs. True, 
but those who are acquainted with the history of the times, will know 
that the Hanoverian Tory (and that was what Mr. Wesley was) was 
particularly offensive to the Whigs. Such a position seemed to 
indicate a desire to eat one's cake and to have one's cake. If he 
Avas really a Tory he ought not to have prayed for King George, but 
for the king over the water. So it is quite conceivable that the 
same feeling which led to the beating of drums and firing of guns 
in 1705, might lead to the disturbances of 1716. I admit that all 
the phenomena cannot be explained by the supposition that tricks 
were played by the neighbours. But may not imagination have 
played a part? Traces of a credulous ancl superstitious frame of 


mind are clearly discernible in the narratives of all tlie members of 
the family. 

The last twenty years of Mr. Wesley's incumbency passed 
without any striking incident. He held the living of Wroot in con- 
junction with Epworth for about seven years, during which he lived 
more frequently at AVroot than at Epworth. The Wroot of that 
day is stigmatised by saucy little Hetty as 

* ' a place 
Devoid of wisdom, wit, and grace. " 

Under the regime of my friend, the present Eector of Wroot, I 
have no doubt it is possessed of all three. For about two or three 
years John Wesley was his father's Curate, until he was removed 
back to College to act as " Moderator of the Classes and Greek 
Lecturer." This high-sounding title has appeared to the uninitiated 
to indicate some grand position in the University ; but, in point of 
fact, it only meant that he was called upon to do the work of a 
Junior Tutor in his own little College. 

Mr. Wesley's end was accelerated by a fall from a waggon on 
his way to Low Mel wood, where he rented some land, in 1731 ; 
he survived the fall nearly four years, and died in harness in 1735. 
He was buried in Epworth Churchyard, on the south side of the 
Chancel of that Church in which he had faithfully ministered for 
nearly forty years ; and it is a curious fact that the only other 
Rector who is buried in the Churchyard held the living for exactly 
the same period — my much-respected predecessor, the Hon. and 
Rev. Canon Dundas. The epitaph seems to me, with all due 
deference to Dr. Adam Clarke, who thinks it poor and inadequate, 
a singularly beautiful one, worthy of her whose composition it was — 
Mrs. Wesley. What more need be said of any poor mortal than 
that, " As he lived so he died, in the true Catholic faith of the 
Holy Trinity in Unity, and that Jesus Christ was God Incarnate, 
and the only Saviour of mankind " 1 

Mt. Wesley was a pious and faithful Parish Priest, who left 
his mark upon his once turbulent, but by him much reformed 
parish. He was a] so a writer of no inconsiderable merit, though 
he has not won a place among the immortals, and perhaps did 
not deserve to do so. There is a sort of perverted ingenuity 
about most of his literary work. What, e.g , could be expected 
from poems published under the uncompromising, not to say 
repulsive, title of "Maggots," his hrst juvenile work? Who 
could answer satisfactorily such profound questions as, *' What 
became of the Ark after the Flood ? How high was Babel's Tower 1 
What language was spoken by Balaam's ass 1 Did Peter and Paul 
use notes when they preached ] " which are really not abnormal 
specimens of the sort of questions which were asked and laboriously 
answered by Mr. Wesley in the Athenian Gazette, a kind of seven- 
teenth century Notes and Queries. His poem on Blenheim suggests 


invidious comparisons with Addison's " Campaign," few will deny 
that Addison had a far more elegant and delicate touch than Wesley. 
His poem on '' The Life of Christ," and his ''History of the New 
Testament in verse," are wonderful tours de force, but it required a 
Milton to do justice to such lofty themes, and Mr. Wesley was nc 
Milton. The extravagant laudations with which the first of these 
poems was greeted naturally provoked a reaction. The author was 
put on a pedestal from which a fall was inevitable. His poetry, 
instead of being admired, began to be laughed at. And yet 
it was certainly not without merit. His translation of the Great 
Hallel proved that at any rate one thing the great Laureate, 
Nahum Tate, said of him was true ; it is far superior to the version 
Nahum himself has given us, or his last work. His dissertation on 
the Book of Job shows that the writer, if not a poet, was at any 
rate a learned divine and an excellent Latin scholar. By far the 
best of the poems attributed to Mr. Wesley is " Eupolis' Hymn to 
the Creator." But was it Mr. Wesley's "? Dr. Adam Clarke, who 
saw the original MS., tells us that the dialogue in prose which 
preceded it was in Mr. Wesley's hand writing, but most of the 
poetry in his daughter Hetty's, Now the poetry reaches a standard 
which Mr. Wesley never reached, but which Hetty did. Is not 
the presumption that Hetty was the author] This would have 
been Dr. Clarke's oi)inion but for the classical allusions, Avhich, he 
thinks, could only have been made by a first-rate classical scholar. 
This does not quite follow ; a judicious use of Lempriere may make 
a very poor scholar rich in classical allusions. But supposing that 
Eupolis could only have been written by one who was steeped in 
classical literature (as I think we may suppose), are we quite sure 
that Hetty was not % At the age of eight she could read the Greek 
Testament in the original. Is it not likely that so inquiring a mind 
would avail herself of the power she possessed to become acquainted 
with the finest literature which the world has ever produced 1 Here 
is a specimen of the beauty and classical tincture of Eupolis : — 

The feathered souls that swim the air 

And bathe in liquid ether there ; 

The lark, precentor of the choir, 

Leading them higher still and higher, 

Listen and learn the angelic notes 

Repeating in their warbling throats ; 

And ere to soft repose they go, 

Teach them to their lords below. 

On the green turf their mossy nest, 

The evening anthem swells their breasts. 

Thus like Thy golden choir on high, 

Thy praise unites the earth and sky. 

" Liquid ether " is a bold reproduction of Virgil's " liquidum aethera," 
and " soft repose " of " mollem quietem." So far, however, from 
agreeing with Dr. Clarke's opinion that it is without exception the 


" finest poem in the English language,"! doubt whether it is even the 
finest written by its author, supposing Hetty Wesley to have been 
the author. Its classical dress gives a coldness to it which is very 
different from the strain in which she wrote of matters that touched 
her personally. Like most of her sisters she was unhappy in her 
choice of a husband. The story goes that she was crossed in love, 
and rashly vowed to marry the first man who asked her. Presumably 
the first man who asked was Mr. Wright, a plumber and glazier at 
Epworth. There are conflicting accounts about his respectability, 
but all agree that he was quite unfit to be the husband of the refined 
and highly educated Hetty Wesley. She felt herself mated to a 
clown, and he, not unnaturally perhaps, preferred the society he 
met at the public-house to that of his Titania at home. But we owe 
Mr. Wright one good turn. Hetty's sad fate lent a tender pathos 
to her poetry, which otherwise it might not have possessed. There 
are few more touching lines than those in which she apostrophises 
her unappreciative husband. Here is a sample : — 
thou whom sacred rites designed 
My guide and husband ever kind, 
My sovereign master, best of friends, 
On Avhom my earthly bliss depends ; 
If e'er tliou didst in Hetty see 
Ought fair, or good, or dear to thee ; 
If gentle speech can ever move 
The cold remains of forme i' love, 
Turn thee at last, my bosom ease, 
Or tell me ivhy I cease to please. 
The address contains nearly 100 lines, all of the same exquisite 
tenderness as the above. Equally graceful are her " Address to her 
Dying Infant," her epitaph on herself, her address to her sister 
Martha, and her epitaph to her uncle Matthew ; in fact, all her 
poetry. One only wishes there was more of it. Mr. Wesley was 
very anxious that one of his sons should succeed him at Epworth. 
His first choice was Samuel. " First," he says, modestly, " because 
I am persuaded that you would serve God and His people here better 
than I have done ; and, secondly, from gratitude, or rather from 
plain honesty. You have been a father to your brothers and sisters, 
and have showed your piety to your mother and me in a very liberal 
manner, and have even dene noble charities to my children's 
children." But Samuel was in failing health at the time, and he 
persuaded his father to choose John instead. John was at first 
very unwilling, but at last consented, and if the application had 
been successful he would have become rector of Epworth, and the 
whole course of Church history might have been altered. As it 
was, the connection of the Wesleys with Epworth caased with the 
Rector's death, in 1735, and few traces of them now remain in the 
parish. But a special interest will always attach to the place, as 
the home for so many years of a family, every member of which 
was more or less remarkable. 


Mementoes of Hatfield Chace and jjaris adjacent. — A Paper by 
John Tomlinson. 

A LTHOUGH not pictures'j^iie in a tourist point of view, Hatfield 
J\. Chace may justly claim our interest in regard to its ancient 
history. Embedded here in the peat moors and wastes are innumer- 
able trunks of trees, many of which bear traces of axe and fire. 
These marks, without straining of probability, may be safely referred 
to that sanguinary struggle between the native Britons and the 
conquering Romans. 

Passing on two or three centuries to the early Saxon period, we 
find that King Edwin of Northumbria spent part of his life at 
Hatfield and in the immediate neighbourhood. That he had here 
a Royal seat, at which Paulinus, the early Christian Missionary, 
visited, is also probable. Bede recounts the circumstances of 
Edwin's life, and his death on the battle-field of Hatfield. 

Some one may ask, is not all or most of that so-called history a 
compilation of monkish legends % It would display a great want of 
credence to assert that there never was such a person as Edwin of 
Northumbria, or that he never was at Hatfield. AVhat motive could 
the early chroniclers have had in associating Hatfield with King 
Edwin if the connection was not true ] Putting aside as mythical 
many of those miraculous interpositions of Providence as recorded 
by Bede, we may safely accept as facts that Christianity was intro- 
duced into these parts during the reign of Edwin, and that the 
earliest local churches were erected, the first at York, and the second 
at Campodonum, which latter name has been, with good reason, 
assigned to Doncaster (the Roman Camp or Castrum on the Don), 
a town adjacent to the Saxon palace and park of Hatfield. 

We must not forget that the early monks were almost our only 
historians of the period, and that they had access to a large amount 
of documentary evidence which, since the dissolution of religious 
houses, has been lost or destroyed ; aye, and also not a few precious 
manuscripts, which were known to have existed at a comparatively 
recent time, cannot now be traced. "Within about a mile of Hatfield 
there formerly stood an institution of>the religious. De-la-Pryme, 
Incumbent of Thorne (who was buried in Hatfield Church), calls 
Dunscrqft " a little Monastery," and cop>ies from a document, which 
he says formerly belonged to that House, numerous mural inscriptions 
in Hatfield Church, together with descriptions of the shrine, painted 
windows, &c., which matters are full of interest. Pryme says that 
the manuscript was, at the time he wrote, in the possession of Mr. 
Canby, of Thorne. During the present century all enquiry respect- 
ing this document has ended in failure. Erom the loss of written 
evidence, even the very character and connection of Dunscroft have 
become, in our day, questions of dispute. 


The ancient aqueous condition of this neighbourhood is signifi- 
cantly shewn in the earhest-recorded manorial grant to the Church. 
Tithes were then not of grain and herbs, but of eels. " William 
Count AVarren, in his manors of Bradmere, wishes safety. Know 
that I, of my own charity, have granted to God and to the Church 
of Holy ]\Iary of Eoche, and to the monks there serving God, a 
tenth of the whole residue of my eels, of all my fisheries which 
are in the parishes of Fishlake, Hatfield, and Thorne, in pure and 
perpetual alms. Wherefore I command you that the aforesaid tenths 
be possessed by them yearly, without delay at the season. And in 
testimony of which things I send you these my letters patent. 

Instead of corn land, meres abounded ; indeed, within half-a- 
dozen miles north and east of Hatfield, there were enumerated no 
less than twenty fisheries, each computed to yield annually 1000 eels. 

Truly this district was rightly called the " Levels " (the '^ Level 
of Hatfield Chace "), having for many thousands of acres together 
a drainage fall of not more than two inches in a mile ; being, there- 
fore, periodically liable to inundation from adjacent rivers and 
watercourses. And on the Meres were swans, together with incred- 
ible numbers of other aquatic birds. Throughout Hatfield Chace 
and Manors (which eventually had been confiscated by the Crown) 
there were the King's swanniers keeping a general oversight of those 
noble birds, according to certain regulations, marks, and registers in 
the Court of Swainmote ; one of the numerous statutes being that 
if any person or persons put any swans from their nests whensoever 
they breed, or take up, destroy, or bear away the eggs of such swans, 
they shall forfeit to the King £10. 

At first sight it may appear strange that deer were plentiful in 
such a swampy district. Such was the case, however ; and several 
royal huntings are recorded, especially one in which Prince Henry, 
son of James I., was concerned, the incident being thus related by 
one born and bred in the district : — " After one day spent in plain 
stag-hunting, the Chief Eegarder of Thorne and Eobert Portington, 
Esq., promised to let the Prince see such sport as he never saw in 
his life ; so being come to Tudworth, where Mr. Portington lived, 
they embarked in about a hundred boats, and having frightened 
some 500 deer out of the woods and grounds adjoining (which had 
been driven there the night before), they all, as they were commonly 
wont, took to the water, and this Eoyal Navy pursuing them into 
that part of the levels called Brier Mere, and being there up to 
their very necks in water, their horned heads raised seemed to 
represent a little wood, and there, being encompassed about with 
the little fleet, some of the men ventured amongst them, and feeling 
such and such as were fattest, they immediately cut their throats 
and threw them into the boats, or else, tying a strong rope to their 


heads, drew tliem to land and killed them. Having thus taken 
several, they returned in triumph ; and the Prince dined with Mr. 
Portington, and was very merry and well pleased with his day's 

It happened as the party went wading and boating through this 
locality, a bold Dutchman, who was in the retinue of Prince Henry, 
resolved within himself that he would drain it; an undertaking 
which included much hazard and cost, as Vermuyden afterwards 
bitterly experienced. 

The Koyal chace of Hatfield comprised about 170,000 acres, 
more than 60,000 of which were either constantly or periodically 
submerged, and of no practical value except for fishing, fowling, or 
hunting. Still the sparse population, which had been settled for 
generations on little islands or patches of rising ground, and held 
friendly or trade communication by boats, enjoyed a lazy, contented 
life, having free common for their few cattle, but subsisting prin- 
cipally upon what could be captured from the lakes and adjacent 
jungles, looking with more than suspicion — a positive enmity — upon 
all efforts of drainage pioneers. 

Vermuyden went to the King (between whom there appears to 
have been certain monetary transactions), and said that he could 
drain and make profitable the greater portion of waste land in that 
submerged level. Of course, Koyalty being a borrower, had no 
money to part with for any such undertaking ; but this might be 
done — if the projector would take all the lisk and find all the 
means, he should have for himself one-third of the land after it was 
reclaimed, one-third going to such inhabitants as could establish 
rights of common, and the other third part to the King. So a 
contract on those terms was entered upon, which entailed trouble 
and loss upon the undertakers, but resulted in permanent benefit to 
future inhabitants. 

The natives did not at first see the advantages of that gigantic 
drainage scheme, nor for many years alterwards. The King also 
was very cautious, and before anything was done issued a com- 
mission to six local gentlemen, inquiring whether the tenants of 
long time, by clearing and enclosing portions of the waste land, 
building tenements, and destroying game, had done anything to 
jeopardise the Koyal rights and interests ; also whether, in their 
opinion, it was possible to drain the district. The Commissioners 
gave in their verdict that many of the tenants had encroached, but 
expressed an opinion that the Moors and the Meres could not be 
drained. Fortunately, in every age there have been men with 
enougli clearsightedness, courage, and perseverance to do what others 
deemed impossibilities — Dutchmen especially in matters of draining 
and reclaiming waste lands. 

The drainage contract was made between the King and a con- 
tractor alone ; but the latter, although a man of substance, could 


not provide all the necessary capital, so he divided his interest 
among a number of other persons, chiefly his countrymen, who 
thus become partners or '' participants," and they had granted to 
them a Eoyal licence to import, duty free, all such implements as 
might be necessary in the construction of those works. (What 
would the " free and independent " now say if such prerogative was 
exercised by the Crown 1 ) 

The local rivers, with their multiple arms, were narrow, shallow, 
and winding. The chief aim of the drainage engineer was to cut 
straighter and more capacious watercourses, and to fill up the old 
channels or let them silt up. At length, after the district had been 
largely reclaimed and allotted, there came about a hundred more 
new settlers with their families (chiefly Dutch and French Pro- 
testants, who, owing to religious persecution, could not live 
peaceably at home), in the hope of improving their fortunes. Here 
they built a Church and Parsonage, provided a Minister, who 
preached to them in both languages. The people came as emigrants 
to a new-found land, hoping to perpetuate a community, thrive, and 
dwell in peace. But the injured villagers north of the Don (who 
by diversions of streams had thrown upon them more than their 
natural share of flood water) rioted, burning and destroying the 
undertaker's j^lant. Moreover, the disturbed " Isleonians " (inhabi- 
tants of the Isle of Axholme) were irreconcilable as Red Indians 
contending for their native hunting-grounds. They pulled up the 
sluices, destroyed the earthworks, employed sentries with guns to 
prevent their reconstruction, vowing they would make the new 
settlers swim out of the district like ducks. The chief contractor, 
overcome by pecuniary liabilities and litigation, was about the first 
to abscond ; and it is said that Yermuyden died hiding and miser- 
ably poor. After years of conflict others of the participants sold 
their interest in the reclaimed lands for anything they could obtain, 
returning to their own country wearied and impoverished. 

'Now all is altered. Roads, railways, and canals carry through 
this district and onwards immense traffic, where there existed 
previously only marsh and mere, the adjacent lands producing 
agricultural crops, which are rarely to be surpassed by those of any 
locality in England. 

The task of improving locomotion throughout this aqueous level 
has not only been great, but continuous. Whan a boy I heard 
vivid descriptions from the lips of old men concerning the difficulties 
of travelling from one place to another, and also respecting the 
ague, rheumatism, St. Yitus's dance, &c., &c. There were then 
miles of narrow banks or footways, coped with irregular flag-stones, 
and used indescrimately by pedestrians and pack-horses. When 
horse met horse, then came the tug of war, the defeated having to 
turn aside into the quagmire. The road maker had a great repute 


in those days. Before the establishment of Parochial Highway 
Boards such work was left very much to individual impulse and 
private benevolence ; hence we find amongst charitable bequests 
sums of money left for '' mending of the ways." Tradition says 
there were also local road-makers of very questionable character. 
All persons living in that neighbourhood will have heard stories 
concerning William of Lindholme, a hermit residing on a patch of 
ground rising out of the bogs, about four miles from Hatfield. If 
all tales are true, he did some wonderful feats, as, for instance, his 
shutting up all the local sparrows in a barn, when, next morning, 
many of them were found to have turned white with fright, and 
the rest were dead. Hence the common saying, " There are no 
sparrows at Lindholme." Tradition says that the hermit undertook 
to make a road across the Moors as fast as a man could gallop his 
horse, on condition that the rider did not look behind him. But 
after that equestrian had proceeded some distance (probably the 
horse would not gallop very fast through the spongy turf), he heard 
such a noise and confusion that his fear and curiosity got the better 
of his caution, he looked back, and there saw stones and gravel 
flying in all directions, and William, in the midst of hundreds of 
little devils in red jackets, macadamising as fast as possible. The 
terrified observer exclaimed, " God speed your work ! " which put a 
stop to the whole undertaking. 

This latter incident (which you will not righteously believe) 
reminds me that it is almost time to conclude. And yet little has 
been said respecting local ecclesiastical matters. At the Norman 
conquest there appears to have been but one church for that wide 
district afterwards known as Hatfield Chace. That such religious 
provision was inadequate is shewn by the Warrens erecting another 
church at Fishlake, and a chapel at Thorne ; for, besides the con- 
sideration of distance, the inhabitants of Thorne had to come by 
boat across the great mere, and those of Fishlake had to ford or 
ferry across a tidal river. Earl Warren first gave Hatfield Church 
to the Monastery of Lewes, in Sussex, and the monks would then 
exercise their right of appointing the Rectors. From some cause 
which I have not been able to ascertain, the advowson of Hatfield 
came again to the Warrens, when John, eighth and last Earl, with 
the consent of Edward IIL, or as De-la-Pryme puts it, " for the 
health of the souls of King Edward, the Earls Warren of Surrey, 
and for the health of the soul of Queen Phillippa, when they pass 
out of the world, and for the soul of William of Hatfield, their son," 
bestowed this church and its revenues upon the Abbot and Monks 
of Ptoche. So the Archbishop, in May, 1346, appropriated them 
accordingly, reserving an annual payment of £5 per annum to his 
Cathedral. At that period the whole tithes were valued at " £48 
a year, and no more." It may seem somewhat disproportionate that 


the Monks of Eoche, in constituting Hatfield a vicarage, with the 
double duty of supplying the chapel of Thorne, should pay only 
£15 per annum to the Vicar. But we must remember that in 
the reign of Edward III. a penny " went a long way." After the 
dissolution of monasteries the aclvowson of Hatfield came to the 
Crown, and Avas granted by Queen Elizabeth to the famous " Bess of 
Hardwick," afterwards Lady Cavendish, Countess of Shrewsbury, 
&c., &c. Amongst other things, she was noted for building — 
mansions, not churches — and after superintending four husbands, 
died, aged 87. What an example to ladies of the present century ! 
Bess's descendants. Earls and Dukes of Devonshire, retained the 
tithes, &c., until 1730, when they passed to the Portmore family, 
an Earl of that name selling them in 1778 to Sir Henry Etherington. 
From him, through his neice, Miss Mellon (afterwards widow of 
Thomas Coutts, the Banker, and Duchess of St. Alban's, another 
historic woman), they come to the present lay-impropriator, the 
Hon. H. A. B. Coventry. He receives about £3,000 a year, while 
the living is £250 per annum. 

The Rev. Abraham de la Pryme, before alluded to, had no 
respect for lay-impropriations ; indeed the feeling of opposition 
against them would appear to have been more bitter two centuries 
ago, especially amongst the clergy, than it is at the present day. 
Pryme's remarks, whicli I was at much trouble to transcribe from 
his manuscript History of Hatfield, can scarcely be deemed out of 
place for the objects of this paper. He says : — " It was a most 
excellent custom of an ancient time not to suffer any Church to be 
built before that it w^as endowed with manse and glebe for the 
maintenance thereof when it should be finished. And he that 
endowed it thus did most commonly lay the first stone thereof, in 
a most solemn manner, and was called the ' patron ' of the Church, 
who had the advowson or right of presenting a clergyman to officiate 
therein. And as he was Lord of the Manor, so he Avas also possessor 
of the tythe of the parish — not as his own, because he had no right 
to that which belongs to God, and the clergy, and the poor, but as 
being the greatest man in the parish he distributed it to its proper 
ends. Tithe of England in the time of Augustine the Monk was 
divided commonly into four parts, and in the reign of King Alfred 
reduced to three parts, of which a first part was to go to the church, 
a second part to the relief of the poor, and the third part only to 
the maintenance of the parish priest. Hence lords of manors at 
their first building of churches did often allot no more than the 
third part of tithes for an exhibition to the parish priest, and kept 
the other two parts in their own hands for the use of the church 
and poor, until that by degrees they either gave in their two other 
parts to the parochial priest to dispense with as afore done, or else 
did with the Bishop's consent assign them to some religious house 
to dispense. 


" Who is there that can behold without just indignation the 
evils that have not only fallen upon this church [Hatfield], but 
other churches of the land, through not only the ancient but also 
the present alienation of the tithes to religious houses before the 
Eeformation, and most sacrilegiously to irreligious laicks since, 
contrary to the known laws of God and man. In many parochial 
churches of the realm services and devotions were quite left off, by 
reason that the impropriators did not allow to parish curates a salary 
sufficient to maintain them. 

" And yet for all this, when the glorious Reformation of Papal 
errors was made in King Henry 8th, Edw. the 6th, and Queen 
Eliz.'s time, such was the self-interest and covetousness of the 
leading men in Parliament, that they wilfully neglected the refor- 
mation of this grand abuse, and instead of giving tithes to the right 
owners thereof — the poor impoverished churches to which they 
belonged — they got them into their own hands." 

And now, in conclusion, a few words respecting Thorne. 
De la Pry me, minister of that place, gives the circumstances which 
caused Thorne to be advanced from a chapelry to the position of a 
parochial church. Communication from that town to Hatfield was 
possible only by boat across the great mere or lake which Leland 
has described. On one occasion, as a corpse was being taken from 
Thorne to Hatfield for burial, a storm upset the boat, and several 
of the party were drowned. This circumstance, together with the 
inconvenience of ferrying two miles every Sunday to the parish 
church, having been represented to the Abbot of Roche and the 
Archbishop of Yorke, the petition was granted. But funds were 
required for a new Church at Thorne, so in 1326 contributions 
were stimulated by offers of a forty-days' indulgence to all those 
who would thus become charitable. The money somehow was 
raided, and the church was built. 


Discovery of a leaden Papal Bulla. 

THIS was foimd during the present year in the Cemetery at 
Worksop, and consequently within the precincts of its ancient 

It is of the usual type; on the obverse appear the heads of 
St. Paul and St. Peter within borders, on either side of a small 
stemmed cross, with the legend S. PA S. PE above. On the reverse 
is this legend— BONIFATIUS . PP . VIII. ; and as he ruled at 
Eome, whilst a rival Pope Avas ruling at Avignon, from 1389 to 
1404, this bulla is of that time. Cinconius describes Boniface 8th 
as, " unus indglnorum et x>vudentissimorum Pontificum qiios unquam 
Roma visit." These bulla, or bulls, were attached to Papal acts 
such as grants, confirmations, sentences, and absolutions, which were 
hence themselves called bulls. The last class of these was largely 
dispensed for a consideration, by Papal agents in England, hence 
profanely called Pardoners, and was one of the causes leading to the 

Discovery of a Pre-ldstoric Ship at j??'?^'^^/.— Comraunicated by the 
Eev. Prebendary Cross and A. Atkinson, Esq., C.E. 

AN exceedingly interesting example of an ancient boat was 
discovered recently in an excavation then being made at the 
Brigg Gas Works. 

The boat lies a few yards from the old Eiver Ancholme, close 
to the town of Brigg, in the bed of alluvium which occupies a large 
portion of the Ancholme valley. 

The bottom of the boat was about five feet below the surface of 
the land at the bows, and about seven feet below it at the stern. 
The dimensions of it aTe : — ft. in. 

Length over all ... ... ... ... 48 6 

Beam, forward 

„ aft 
Depth, outside, forward 

,, ,, alt 

4 3 

5 5 

2 9 

3 6 

It has been " scooped out " of a single huge oak tree. The scooiDing 
out was carried right through at the stern, so as to necessitate a 
separate stern-board. 

The oak log out of which the vessel is formed (" built " is 
scarcely an appropriate word) was flattened top and bottom, with a 
greater depth at the stern than at the bows, the lower end of the 
tree being usfed for the stern. The bows, as seen from above, are 
almost semicircular, and are rounded-off into the bottom and sides. 
There is a hollow groove at the head, which, it has been supposed, 
was intended to receive a bowsprit, but it is possible that it is the 
result of natural decay. 



The bows, lying as they do nearer to the surface than the stern, 
have probably been longer exposed to the air, and show more signs 
of decay than any other part. In each bow there is a roundish hole, 
ten or twelve inches in diameter, looking like a large hawse-hole. 
These holes are fitted with plugs, the outer extremities of which are 
rounded off. The grain of the wood clearly indicates that these 
were the places where the two first large branches of the tree occurred. 
At the stern the sides are cut obliquely with a slight curve, so 
as to form an over-hanging counter. 

The actual stern-board was not found in situ, but at a short 
distance from the boat. There is a square-shaped groove made to 
receive it, and some of the material used for caulking was found in 
the groove. This, on being carefully washed, was found to be moss. 
It would probably be forced into the joint in a dry state, so as to 
become tight by its expansion when wet. Just abaft the place of 
the stern-board holes have been pierced through the upper edges of 
the boat's sides, apparently for the purpose of lashing the sides 
themselves tightly against the stern-board. Other holes are seen 
in other parts of the vessel for a somewhat similar purpose, and 
when the boat was first discovered, a beam or stretcher was found 
in situ, placed between the gunwales, and near to a pair of holes. 
This stretcher would prevent the sides from closing in, and the 
lashing from hole to hole would keep them from falling outwards. 
The stretcher is not of oak, nor is the stern-board, but of some 
softer wood, and the stretcher fell to pieces when removed. 

In hollowing the boat at the time of its construction, ridges of 
timber have been left at intervals, athwart the floor, corresponding 
with the floor timbers of a modern craft. 

In the starboard bilge of the boat there is a long crack, which 
has been caulked with moss, and further repaired by wooden patches, 
secured to the side of the vessel by having holes bored both in the 
patch and the side of the boat, through which a lacing of cord of 
some description would probably be passed. The largest patch was 
more firmly fixed by having three cleats, which projected on the 
inside of the boat, where a wedge or peg was driven through a hole 
in the cleat. 

The geological evidence tends to shew that at the time this boat 
found its long resting-place an extensive shallow lagoon existed in 
the Ancholme valley. This was slowly being filled up with 
alluvium, and thus the ship would gradually be buried. A section 
of the ground, shewing the alluvium and the peat and forest beds 
which exist here, may be found in the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries for May 8th, 1884, where a notice is given of the very 
interesting Ancient Causeway discovered in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Brigg in that year. This Causeway is about a couple 
of hundred yards to the north-west of the spot where this vessel 
was found, but it is lower down in the strata, below the bed of 
alluvium in which the vessel lies, and consequently of even greater age. 

Roche Abbey — South Transept. 


Roche Ahhey, and the Cisterdmi Order.— A Paper by F. Royston 
Fairbank, M.D., Loc. Sec. for Doncaster With Illustrations 
from Photographs taken by the Author. 

History of the Order. 

THE Abbey of Roche or " de Rupe," as it was called, belonged 
to the Cistercian Order of Monks. 
The Cistercian Order arose in the latter part of the eleventh 
century, through a desire to reform the abuses which had crept into 
and all but annihilated the great Benedictine Order. 


In the year 1098, Robert, the Abbot of the Benedictine 
Monastery of Molesme in Burgundy, impressed with the propriety 
of reform, obtained permission from the Archbishop of Lyons, a 
Papal Legate, to found the new Monastery of Citeaux or Cisterceum, 
for the restoration of the ancient discipline. In accomplishing this 
he was assisted by the munificence of Otho, the Duke of Burgundy. 
As might be expected, he met with great difficulties, and besides 
this, the Monks of Molesme, his old Monastery, petitioned the 
Pope for his recall, and he had to go back to Molesme. Thereupon 
Alberic, the Prior of the new House of Citeaux, was appointed 
Abbot, and continued the work of reform. Alberic was as zealous 
as Eobert had been, and obtained from Pope Paschal II. a confir- 
mation of his Monastery. He died in 1109. To Alberic succeeded 
Stephen Harding, an Englishman, afterwards" enrolled in the 
Calendar as S. Stephen Harding. Stephen Harding must be looked 
upon as the real father of the new Order. Previonsty it had existed 
more in idea than reality, but under him it obtained a corporate 
existence and become a most important confederation. 

The reforms effected were directed to bringing back the Ordel^ 
to the strict letter of the old rule. Simplicity of life and religion 
was its aim. It has well been called the Puritan reform of the 
eleventh century. 

In dress, all habits not mentioned in the 55th chapter of tbe 
rule were to be discarded. The dress might vary according to 
climate, but S. Benedict had considered a cowl, tunic, and scapular, 
with shoes, socks, and stockings, sufficient, and these only in future 
were to be the dress. Garments of furs, or with ample folds, were 
not to be worn, nor were shirts, or hoods separated from the rest of 
the habit. The colour of the greater part of the dress, which with 
the Benedictines had been dark, was in the new Order to be white, 
in honour of the blessed Virgin, in whose honour the new Order 
was founded. 

The ordinary dress was to consist of a white tunic with a black 
scapular ; and in the church and the house was to be worn a white 
cowl, or cloak with a hood, which covered nearly the whole person. 
For out-of-doors they had also a black cloak. 

The diet was also brought back to primitive simplicity. 

In the matter of possessions, they had all things in common. 
They might hold what was necessary, such as lands, monasteries, 
offices, farm buildings, workshops, and live stock. But neither 
Church lands nor tithes, nor large domains, except such as they 
could cultivate with their own hands. The Benedictines had spent 
their time in " the work of God," as prayer and the study of religious 
writings was called, and also in teaching the young, and in manual 
labour. But with the Cistercians, labour — out-door labour — was 
to be a distinctive feature. They were to cultivate their lands 


themselves, and gain their food by the sweat of their brow. Hence 
they acquired the name of Farmer-like Cistercians. The Monks 
proper — the Professed Monks — were helped in this by a subordinate 
class called Conversi or lay-brethren. There had been lay-brethren 
among the Benedictines, but with the Cistercians they acquired a 
better recognised position. 

The lay-brethren or Conversi were quite distinct and separate 
from the Professed Monks, and were precluded from admission into 
their body. They were to pass through a year's noviciate, and such 
only were received as Conversi who could give the equivalent of a 
hired labourer's work. They were not allowed to possess a book, 
nor to acquire any learning save the "Pater Foster" and other 
prayers, which were taught viva voce. This had also been so with 
the Conversi of the Benedictines ; for we find in the Obituary of 
Durham — a Benedictine house — many entries of the services to be 
sung for departed brethren of the Order, such as the following : — 

" 7 full offices shall be sung in the convent, eath priest shall 
" sing for him one mass, and the other brothers shall sing for him 
" one psalm, but the laity, who do not know the psalter, shall each 
''sing 150 Pater I^osters." 

They were to make profession after their year's noviciate in a 
prescribed form. The ceremony took place in the Monk's Chapter, 
and consisted in their kneeling before the Abbot, placing their 
hands within his, and promising obedience to him till their death. 
When once they had made profession as Converts, they were for 
ever inadmissable to the Order as Monks; nor if they left the 
Monastery and became Monks in any other Order, could they ever 
be received again into that of the Cistercians. They occupied a 
portion of the Monastery set apart for them, and had also a place 
allotted for them in the Church. They were superintended by a 
special Master — the Magister Conversorum — who was a Professed 
Monk. Their duties consisted in field labour, to which they went 
at sunrise in summer, and after nocturns in the winter, the same as 
the Professed Monks. Their dress was similar to that of the 
Monks, but brown instead of white. 

Another prominent characteristic of the new OKler was the 
filial dependence of the various houses on those from which they 
had sprung. With the Benedictines there had been no dependence. 
Each house had a separate existence, and was not responsible to any 
common head, but to the Bishop of the Diocese. Eeferring to this 
organisation in the new Order, Cardinal Newman, in his Life of 
Stephen Harding, written when he was a clergyman of the Church 
of England, says : — Stephen Harding might, as Abbot of Citeaux, 
have constituted himself the head of this increasing congregation, 
but his object was not to lord it over God's heritage, but to establish 
between the Cistercian Abbeys a lasting bond of love. And there- 


fore he determined on instituting a system of reciprocal visitation. 
He presented to his brethren in the General Chapter of 1119 a 
body of Statutes which he called " Carta Caritatis." In its pro- 
visions the whole Order is looked upon as one family, united by 
ties of blood. Citeaux is the common ancestor. The Abbot of 
Citeaux was called " Pater universalis ordinis," he visited any 
Monastery he pleased, and wherever he went the Abbot gave up 
his place to him. And on the other hand, the Abbots of the first 
four Abbeys sprung from it visited Citeaux. Besides which, each 
Abbot went every year to inspect the Abbeys Avhich had sprung 
from his own house. Every year also a General Chapter was held 
at Citeaux, which all the Abbots of the Order, except some whose 
houses were in very distant countries, were obliged to attend under 
very heavy penalties. 

The Order was under the immediate protection of the Pope, 
and was free from Episcopal supervision. It was, however, neces- 
sary for the Bishop to give his benediction to the Abbot upon his 
election, and ordination was received also from the Bishop. But 
novices were received by the Abbot, and not the Bishop. The 
Professed Monks were not necessarily in Holy Orders, but in later 
times all Abbots were raised to Priests' Orders if they had not 
previously been admitted. The ordained Monks, though not subject 
to the ordinary, had power to celebrate in the churches belonging 
to the Order. They had power to take cognizance of cases of 
adultery, and were able to prove the wills of their tenants and 
baptise their children. The Order was free from Papal subsidies, 
and also from payment of tithes. 

Within fifty years of its foundation the Order could number 
500 Abbeys, and in the next half-century, 1,800. In the course of 
time the houses numbered 10,000. The Order was introduced 
into England in 1128, thirty years after its origin, when the Abbey 
of Waverley, in Surrey, was founded. Quickly the Order was 
spread over the whole land. What pleasant thoughts and recollec- 
tions do the names of Beaulieu, Netley, Tintern, and Eurness raise 
in our minds ! And in our own county of York how beautiful are 
the ruins of Fountains, Rievaulx, Byland, Kirkstall, Jervaulx, and 
Roche ! All these, and many others witness to the piety of our 
ancestors and the popularity of the Cistercian Order. 

The origin of the Order in Yorkshire was almost exactly similar 
to that of Citeaux itself Certain monks of the Benedictine 
Monastery of S. Mary at York, separated themselves from what 
they deemed the lax discipline of that house, and resolved to adopt 
a stricter rule. The Prior, the sub-prior, and ten monks, with 
Robert, a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of Whitby, retired in 
the depth of winter to the site of what afterwards became the 
beautiful and famous Abbey of Fountains. The site was given to 


them by Thurstan, Archbishop of York, in 1132. At first their 
only shelter was under the overhanging rocks ; but after a while, 
they made themselves a covered enclosure under some trees in the 
middle of the valley. After a while, they sent messengers to 
Bernard, of famous memory as S. Bernard, the Abbot of Clairvaux, 
a Monastery founded direct from Citeaux, informing him that they 
had chosen him their siDiritual father, and in reply a monk of 
Clairvaux was sent to instruct them. I shall not follow their history 
further than is necessary for my story. It was one of great priva- 
tion at first, speedily followed by great prosperity. Within a very 
few years they had built the greater part of the beautiful buildings 
which now remain. So earnest were they in the cause that within 
the first five years a colony of twelve monks, with the aforesaid 
Eobert as their Abbot, departed to take possession of a fresh 
Monastery built for them near Morpeth, which afterwards became 
known as Newminster. These monks of Kewminster in their turn 
within the next ten years sent out colonies of monks to found three 
other houses, of which Eoche was one. This is the origin and 
pedigree of Eoche Abbey ; it sprung from the Benedictine Abbey 
of S. Mary at York, through Fountains and Newminster, New- 
minster being the immediate parent, and the Abbot of that house 
being the Father Abbot and Immediate Visitor, the Abbot of 
Fountains retaining visitorial power. 

Why the colony from Newminster came to this part of Yorkshire 
is not known, but they were well received by two at least of tne 
principal lords of the district. Eoger de Burtli, or Busli, and 
Eichard Fitz Turgis, each of them gave them land, adjoining, divided 
by a stream of water, with the agreement that they might select 
whichever side of the streams they pleased for the site of their 
house. But the selection was not to interfere with both of the 
donors being held to be founders of the house. The foundation 
charters are given in the original Latin in the Monastlcon, and in 
English, in Aveling's History of Roche. The monks chose the 
Maltby side of the stream for their house, or that which belonged 
to De Busli. This was in the year 1147. At first their dwelling 
was of the roughest kind. They appear to have been well received, 
and to have become popular in the neighbourhood, as is proved by 
the fact that the third Abbot, who ruled from 1171—1179, was a 
Tickhill man— Eoger de Tickhill. On entering the religious life, 
monks became known by the place of their birth, so we have this 
Eoger de Tickhill. The next Abbot also was a local man — Hugh 
de "Wadworth. 

In 1186 Pope Urban III. granted a confirmation of the gifts to 
the house. It has been stated that the Cistercian Order was under 
the special protection of the Pope, and tliis is set forth in the com- 
mencement of this deed of confirmation. In it we see exactly what 


were, at this early date, the possessions of the Monastery. They 
were considerable ; it may perhaps be worth while to mention the 
more important of them — 

Wickersley, Lambcote, Brancliffe, Anes or One Ash, Koxby in 
Lincolnshire, Todwick, Innesby, Newsome, Thurnscoe, Wellingley, 
Six Acres, Ashover in Derbyshire, the Grange of Armthorpe, a 
Grange in Barnby and Bramwith, Lands in Winterington, in 
Wadworth, and in Lindric, and in Conisboro, &c. 

The Bull proceeds to mention the exemption from payment of 
tithes which the Order possessed : — Yerily let no man extort from 
you tithes of your labours, or from your lands cultivated or uncul- 
tivated, or of the nourishment of your animals, under pain of our 
displeasure, &c. 

The King of England, Eichard I., also granted them a Charter of 
Confirmation. In it is set forth a long list of burdens from which 
the Order was free. By it they were granted a Court of their own 
over all their tenements, and men. 

Having settled the monks at Eoche, we will consider the house 
they built. 


All the Monasteries of the new Order, with their Churches, were 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, as the Carta Garitatis sets forth : — 
" In memoriam ejusdem coeli et ierrm Regince, Sanctce Marim, fund- 
entur et dedicenturr 

They were usually built in valleys, for there the two essentials, 
water and timber, could be most easily procured. Where the valley 
was narrow the house was built across it, so that the more private 
parts could be more readily cut off from the access of strangers. 

The situation of Eoche Abbey is so beautiful that, apart from 
any other interest in the ruins, it attracts visitors in great numbers. 
Little until the last few months remained above ground to shew 
that there had ever been " a very fair buildod house, all of freestone ; 
and every house vaulted with freestone and covered with lead," as 
the Monastery was described after the dissolution; or one such as moved 
the Earl of Warren in 1345, who " admiring the magnificence of the 
stone work as well in the buildings of the said Abbot and Convent 
as in their Monastery," made them a valuable grant. What remained 
of the buildings at the end of the last century was so improved — I 
suppose I ought to say restored — by a Mr. Brown, a landscajDC gardener, 
who was turned loose among them to do his best and his worst, 
that hardly a vestige remained above ground. He gave us the 
beautiful wych elms and the pond which add so much to the beauty 
of the place ; but he pulled down and filled up till there was nothing 
visible but a small fragment of the church, and the gate-house, 
some distance away. This fragment of the church has been a puzzle 


to visitors, and has been spoken of as all sorts of impossible things. 
It is in reality the east side of the transepts, with a space between 
which was the choir. A few years ago some digging was undertaken 
to ascertain the length of the church, and then the west end was 
exposed. These, until the present excavations were begun last year, 
was all that was known as Eoche Abbey. 

The ruins extend quite across the narrow valley in which they 
are situated; in this respect they jesemble those of Fountains, 
Furness, and Rievaulx. 

During the excavations enough of the buildings has been 
uncovered to prove that the house was built after the plan followed 
by the Order, the parent house of Citeaux being the model. The 
arrangements are the same as at Furness, Rievaulx, Kirkstall, and 
other houses, with but slight modifications ; so that an explanation 
of a ground plan of any one of these houses will throw great light 
on all the rest. 

We take the ground plan of Roche. 

The oratorium or church was the chief building. It was cruci- 
form in shape, in accordance with the statute. It was 210 ft. in 
total length, with a breadth of 99 ft. across the transept. The 
eastern limb or presbyterium was short and without aisles. It was 
36 ft. long. The transepts had no aisle to the west, but they had 
chapels on the east side arranged as an aisle. There was a central 
tower, and a long nave of eight bays. The ritual choir was con- 
structed in the nave, extending from the west pillars of the tower 
as far as the third pillar towards the west. At this point the screen 
dividing it from the nave has been discovered, extending quite 
across the Church. In the choir the stalls of the monks proper 
were arranged like the stalls in Cathedrals, the Abbot occupying 
the seat on the south side of the entrance from the nave. The 
officiating clergy occupied the presbyterium. The high altar was 
under the east window, a few feet removed from the wall. The 
monks entered the Church through a door at the east end of the 
south aisle. The Conversi, or lay brethren, had a place allotted to 
them, usually in the north transept, and where this was the case 
they entered the church by a door in the north end of it. There was a 
door in the south transept leading into the sacristy for the officiating 
clergy ; and there was a flight of steps leading up over the sacristy 
to the dormitory of the monks, for them to descend during the 
night to the services in the Church. The south transept was 
occupied by the infirm, and any monks who were for a time " extra 
choram." The nave was occupied by the guests and the lay public. 
It was entered by three portals in the west end. 

Following the example of Citeaux the domestic and other 
buildings at Roche were placed on the south side of the Church. 
This was always the arrangement where the situation would permit, 


but where the ground sloped away to the north it was necessary, 
for the sake of drainage, that the domestic buildings should be on 
the north side instead of the south of the Church. Where this was 
the case the arrangement of the buildings was precisely the same, 
but the order was reversed. 

!Next to the Church, on the south side, comes the Sacristy, where 
the vestments and plate were kept. It was a narrow building, with 
an entrance into the Church, another towards the east, and one into 
the next building — the Chapter House. There was a descent of 
three or four steps from the Church into the Sacristy. 

The Chapter House was oblong, reaching eastward beyond the 
Sacristy. It was 59 ft, long by 32 ft. wide. It was covered with 
a groined roof, supported down the centre by two pillars. It was 
lighted at the east end by two windows, with two others at the sides. 
The chief entrance was from the cloister. This was usually the 
only mode of access, the entrance from the Sacristy being very 
unusual. There appear some indications of a doorway in this 
situation at Netley, which was afterward sbuilt up."^ The entrance 
was not usually closed by doors, but in the larger houses there was 
a partition of wood a short distance within, as at Fountains. 

Next to the Chapter House came a narrow room or Parlour, 
with an entrance from the cloister and another towards the east. 
This is believed to have been for conversation among the monks, 
anyhow it was called the parlour or locutorium. Next came a 
Passage, and then the long Day-room of the Monks. There was at 
first, at least, no fire-place in this room. It has not yet been exca- 
vated at Roche, so that it is impossible to say whether there was 
one here or not. This completed the range of buildings on the east 
side of the cloister on the ground floor. Over the day-room, and 
other apartments, came the Dormitory of the Monks. It was open 
from end to end with wooden divisions, providing each monk with 
a se'parate cell. As before stated, there was access into the Church 
along a passage across the roof of the Chapter House and the 
Sacristy. Over the Chapter House would be also a chamber called 
the Scriptorium, or Muniment Room. 

On the south side of the cloister came the Kitchen, with a 
flight of steps over, or by the side, up into the dormitory. The 
Kitchen at Roche is small. The excavations at this point are im- 
perfect, so that the dimensions cannot at present be given. 

IS ext to the kitchen came the Refectory of the Monks ; it was 
29 ft. wide, the length is not yet demonstrated. It was here that 
the monks eat their one meal, or at most two, a day. On the west 
side was an analogium or puljDit, built in the thickness of the wall, 
from which one of the monks read a portion of Scripture aloud 
during the repast. 

* See " Remains of the Chapter House, Netley Abbey," Builder, May 8, 1880. 


Next came the Buttery. This closed the south side of the Cloister. 
There is as yet no evidence of any entrance into the Cloister at this 
corner, or a passage. The position of the Eefectory, at right 
angles to the nave of the Church, is peculiar to the Cistercian 
plan. The other Orders placed it length-ways, or parallel to the 
Church. It is believed that the Cistercians placed the buildings, 
on the south side of the Cloister, so as to bring the entrances to 
them more under the eye and control of the Abbot, to better 
prevent irregularities. 

The Cloister was covered with a roof over each of its four walks. 
In the north walk, or that next to the Church, were desks or carols 
for the monks to read at. Here, also, or at the north end of the 
east walk, were book cases. 

In addition to these buildings which belonged to the monks 
proper, were others, as, the Infirmary of the monks, with its chapel ; 
the Abbot's Chamber, or lodging ; prison cells and other necessary 

The buildings on the west side of the Cloister remain to be 
accounted for. They were occuj)ied by the Conversi, and by the 
guests, and were also partly used as cellars. The portion next the 
Church was occupied by the Conversi, and in some houses there 
was a flight of stairs down into the Church from their dormitory in 
the upper story. Then came the entrance to the Cloister, the 
remaining portion being occupied by the Hospitium or Guest 
Chambers, with cellars underneath. 

There was also an Infirmary of the Conversi, and usually also 
an Infirmary for guests, and sometimes a poor-house with its 
Infirmary. There were also brew-houses, bake-houses, stables, and 
many other out-houses. The whole Monastery was enclosed by a 
wall, portions of which still remain. The entrance was by a gate- 
house, which still remains in good preservation, as you will see. 
Here the porter lived, and had strict guard over all who entered 
and left the place. Alms were here distributed daily, and there 
was usually a chapel built near. 

The sanitary arrangements were carefully seen to. A large 
drain ran under the principal domestic buildings. It has been 
partly exposed, and, when discovered, it gave rise to the usual silly 
stories of subterranean passages leading to places miles away ! It 
might just as well have been said to have led to the moon ! 


The Monasteries of this Order were most of them built at the 
time when architectural style was passing from the I^orman, or 
Eomanesque, to the Pointed or Gothic. They are therefore of 
extreme interest in demonstrating the various steps by which this 
change was brought about, and in no other buildings is this so well 


At the time of the foundation of the Cistercian Order the 
Benedictine houses existed in great splendour. Their Churches 
were marvels of construction, and many of them in England remain 
to this day as Cathedrals, exciting wonder and admiration in all 
who behold them. What a wonderful pile is the Cathedral at 
Durham ! We see there, each of the various parts developed 
in great magnificence — arcade, trlforium, and clerestory. At 
Peterborough, too, the Church of a Benedictine Monastery, we find 
similar magnificence, and at Gloucester, and elsewhere. All these 
Churches existed before the rise of the Cistercians, and it was as a 
protest against all this unnecessary magnificence that they made 
their Churches as plain as possible. Unnecessary embellishments, at 
first at least, were forbidden. " Quse deformant antiquam ordinis 
honestatem, et paupertate nostra non congruunt." 

And therefore we find their early buildings " plain but good." 
Very plain when compared with those of the Benedictines. Take 
Fountains for instance. In the early nave, there is no triforium or 
blind story, but merely the arcade, with a row of extremely simple 
clerestory windows above — mere openings in the wall. There is 
the same arrangement at Kirkstall, which was built shortly after. 
At Kievaulx, on the other hand, we find that although the first 
building was extremely plain, the portion which was added about 100 
years after was as beautiful as any Benedictine Church had been. 

At Eoche, which was built after Kirkstall and before the 
enlargement of Eievaulx, we find a very simple triforium introduced 
consisting of a number of arched recesses of a lancet shape. These 
recesses are of further special interest, as they are among the very 
earliest instances of the pointed areh being used for purposes of 

To investigate the ruins of Roche, we will enter the Church by 
the door in the north transept, when we at once see what a change 
has been effected by the excavations. It is as if a magician's wand 
had passed over the place. We feel that we are in a Church, and 
not merely looking at a pretty ruin. The rubbish has been cleared 
out to a depth of about six leet down to the level of the pavement. 
The Church was built quite close to the side of the hill, much closer 
even than at Fountains or Eievaulx. The doorway was in the 
centre of the north end, and was fastened by a moveable wooden 
bar, the holes for which remain. 

This end of the transept was lighted by three tiers of round- 
headed windows, with three lights in each tier. They are of very 
late Norman work, and are deeply splayed both inside and out. 
They contained glass, as is shewn by the groove in the stone for its 
insertion. A passage crosses in the thickness of the wall in front of 
the middle tier. The east side is occupied, on the ground floor, by 
two beautifully proportioned and pointed arches, which lead to the 

Roche Abbey — North ^ansept, Interior. 


two chapels beyond. The pillars are clustered, the principal shafts 
being "beak shaped," the smaller shafts are circular. The capitals 
are plain bells, and the abaci square. Above these arches runs a 
bold string-course right round the Church, on this is a row of 
pointed arched recesses, two in each bay, which do duty for a 
triforium — here literally a blind story — these recesses are interesting, 
as before stated, as being some of the very earliest examples of the 
pointed arch being used for decoration. Above these is another 
string-course which also runs round the Church, and above it are 
the clerestory windows, one in each bay; they are round-headed, 
quite plain, and deeply splayed. Here, also, is the springing of 
the groined stone roof. The object of the groining of a stone roof 
was to collect the pressure at certain fixed points so that it could be 
specially provided for by supporting buttresses. For this purpose 
the roof of the transept was divided into two parts, and the ribs 
were collected in the centre, the principal supporting shaft running 
down tlie face of the wall. Two other shafts, one on each side of 
it, die into the wall above. At the angle of the transept and the 
presbyterium is one of the piers supporting the tower, which, how- 
ever, is gone. It is perfect up to the spring of the arch. The 
clustering of the shafts of which it is composed is very fine. 

Turning into the presbyterium we see two recesses, one, the 
smaller, is believed to have been for an Easter sepulchre for reserving 
the elements of the Eucharist from Good Friday to Easter. The 
larger one was made for a monument which was inserted during the 
Decorated period — fourteenth century. Above, the triforium is 
continued, here it is slightly more ornamental ; in the transept the 
edge of the jamb is simply splayed off", but here it is moulded into 
a small column. There are clerestory windows above, and here also 
the span of the roof, which was pointed, was divided into two parts 
for vaulting. The central vaulting shaft terminates in a beautifully 
ornamented corbel or bracket. The east end was originally occu- 
pied by tiers of small windows as in the transept, and these would 
be filled with white glass according to the Statute, which forbad 
coloured. But during the Perpendicular period — fifteenth century — 
nearly the whole of the east end was taken out and one large window 
inserted, which occupied nearly the whole of it, necessitating the 
building of a huge buttress against the south side. The tracery, which 
had fallen out, has been found lying underneath, and among it a large 
quantity of coloured glass which had evidently been beaten out of the 
lead for the sake of the metal, as hardly any, in fact only small 
fragments, of the lead have been found. This is known to have been 
done elsewhere for this purpose, as at Salisbury Cathedral. The pres- 
byterium extending beyond the transepts, there were small windows 
inserted north and south in the side walls. The base of the high 
altar has been found a few feet removed from the east wall. On 


the south side was a recess for a credence and a piscina. It is 
oblong, and was divided down the centre by a large stone, which 
has been broken away. One half was used as a credence table for 
two sacred vessels when not used. The other contains a piscina or 
drain to empty the rinciugs of the chalice and for other purposes. 
Further west was a sedilia of three divisions for the officiating clergy. 
It was an insertion of the same date as that opposite on the north 
side, and has nearly all fallen out. The south-east pier of the tower 
is broken below the capitals. In the south transept we see exactly 
the same arrangement of two arches, string-courses, triforium, 
clerestory, and groining. The arches here also opened into chapels 
to the east. At the end of this transept we find the door into the 
sacristry for the officiating clergy, and the base of a flight of steps 
up into the Monks' dormitory, as before explained. Above these 
were round-headed windows as in the other transepts. 

The chapels east of the transept were two in number on each 
side. They were divided by a partition wall, about two-thirds 
the height of the piers of the arches. The base of an altar has 
been found in each. A piscina remains in the wall on the south 
side in each transept ; that belonging to the northern altar in each 
transept would be in the partition wall, and therefore it is gone. 
The groining is the same as in the transept and presbyterium. 
Originally all these chapels were lighted by small round-headed 
windows similar to those in the transept. But during the fourteenth 
century those in the chapels of the south transept were replaced by 
much larger ones, which remain, though the tracery has nearly all 
fallen out. The chapels were each separated from the transept by 
a wooden screen, the holes for which remain in the walls. 
• The mouldings of the corbels of the vaulting shafts are very fine. 
One has been found among the rubbish in the north transept. It 
is now placed well out of the way, on the top of one of the pillars 
of the nave. (See Fig.) 

The keystones of the groining arches are well wrought ; one has 
been found, which is decorated with an early attempt at a conven- 
tional representation of foliage. The western pillars of the tower 
are broken down to within some twelve feet of the ground. The 
tower would be a low one, raised one stage above the roof The 
statutes of the Order forbade stone towers, or wooden ones of any 
great height : — " Tiirres lapidecs ad campanas 7ionfiant, nee liguece 
altitiidinis immoderatcB, quce 07'dinis, dedeceant simplicitem" There 
is an old representation of Citeaux, shewing a wooden tower at 
the intersection. But stone towers raised one stage above the 
roof appear to have been the original custom in England, as at 
Eievaulx and Kirkstall. At a later period higher towers were built, 
as at Fountains and Furness ; and at Kirkstall the original centre 
tower was raised. At first the bells were "Major" and ''Minor," 

-'-*;* .iir- 


Eoche Abbey — Ground Piscina. 

Eoche Abbey — Part of Corbel Shaft. 


and those such as could be rung by one person only : — " Campance 
nostri Ordinis de coetero itajiant, ut unus tantum loulset, et nunquam 
duo simul." At a later period the number was greatly increased, so 
that at the Dissolution at Rievaulx there were five and at Byland 
seven. At Meaux the inventory, given in Chronica Man. de Melsa, 
vol. iii., speaks of the " Campana grossa in Campa7iile,^' and other 
bells in different parts of the Church and Monastery amounting in 
all to seven. In the Chronicle itself we are told that Thomas Burton, 
nineteenth Abbott, 1396 — 1399, added three bells, intended by his 
predecessor to have been cast, "ac campance, Jesus dictcB in tono 
comoi'dius sociandis^^ and called them Mary, John, and Benedict, 
respectively. At Roche, also, we find the same increased number, 
for we are told by an eye-witness that there were nine bells hanging 
in the tower a year after the Dissolution. 

The pillars west of the tower are of a more advanced character 
than those in the transept The round shafts have disappeared, 
and here they are all beak-shaped. The walls of the nave are broken 
down below the level of the windows, and therefore it is impossible 
to say for certain what there latter were like. They were probably 
lancet-shaped. As before stated, at the third pillar west the base 
of the screen dividing the choir from the rest of the nave has been 
discovered. It extends the whole width of the Church. The base 
of the stone screen supporting the stalls has also been laid bare 
between the pillars. The choir was entered from the nave by a 
doorway in the centre The base of the jambs remain, of Early 
English date, with dog-tooth ornament. There were no entrances 
in the aisles. The doorway into the cloister from the south aisle 
has been uncovered ; it was by this, as before stated, that the monks 
entered the Church. 

At the point of entrance into the choir from the south transept, 
a large piscina has been found in the ground. Why it was placed 
here is not obvious; possibly there was an altar near. It is 
2 ft. 9 ins. by 3 ft. (See Fig.) Several have been found in the 
chapel of the nine altars at Fountains, and it is believed that they 
were used to empty the rinsings of the chalice before the wine was 
poured in. 

The excavation ceases at the choir screen, but it is being con- 
tinued from the west, where the three entrances into the Church had 
been uncovered. The central doorway was of three orders with 
detached shafts. The side doors were quite plain. If the nave 
was covered with a stone roof, it must have been supported on 
corbels, as no vaulting shafts have been uncovered. Remains of 
colour-wash have been found in all parts of the Church. The surface 
of the walls was coloured white, or pale buff, and black lines were 
drawn to imitate masonry, regardless of the real masonry underneath. 
Some portions of shafts have been found coloured a deep red. Yellow 


also was used. The ornaments of the Church were originally of the 
simplest kind. There was, according to the statute, to be no picture 
but that of the Saviour, and that in one Qolour only. 

The walls of the Chapter House have been destroyed to within 
a few feet of the ground, but enough remains to give a general 
idea of what it was like. There were two lancet windows to the 
east, and one also on each side. To the east of the adjoining 
buildings the roof was of stone ; immense quantities of the groining 
ribs remain. They are of Early English style, and are much later 
than those found in the Church. The roof was supported on two 
pillars down the centre, the eastern one being composed of a central 
circular block, with eight attached shafts round it. The mouldings 
of the base are very fine. The other pillar is quite plain and 
circular ; the base moulding is deeply cut. The roof was supported 
at the sides on brackets in the walls. The entrance has been 
destroyed, but enough remains to shew that there was a small 
window on each side. Next to the Chapter House we see the 
doorway of the locutorium ; it has been built up at some time. 

Of monuments and remains of the dead, not much has been 
discovered. The Statutes of the Order directed that none but 
Kings, Queens, and Bishops were to be buried in the Churches of 
the Monasteries, and that if they preferred it, they might be 
buried in the Chapter House. The tombs were to be level with the 
pavement, so as not to cause inconvenience. The entrance to the 
Chapter House was jBrst of all the place of burial of the Abbots, 
afterwards the interior. At Roche no indications of burial in the 
Chapter House have been found, the entrance has not yet been 
completely explored. To the east of the south transept many 
stone cofhns have been discovered, shewing that here was the 
cemetery. No inscriptions have, however, been found, so that there 
is nothing to fix their date. These have most of them been 
re-covered and now are not visible. (See Fig.) The Earl of 
Scarborough informs me that stone coffins exist on the north side 
of the choir to the east of the north transept also. As before 
mentioned, there is the outline, in the north wall of the presby- 
terium, of a fine monument of fourteenth-century date, but frag- 
ments only have been discovered, and it is not known who it 

The Countess of Cambridge, wife of Eichard Plantagenet, Earl 
of Cambridge, grandson of King Edward III., and grandfather of 
King Edward lY., who, after the death of her husband, lived a 
long life at Conisboro Castle — her dower house — in royal state, 
using the royal " We " in her letters, spent the end of her life at 
Roche Abbey, and there made her "Will a few days before her death, 
on August 26, 1446. She desired to be buried "in Monasterio de 
Rupe, in capella Beat(B Marice coram ymagine ejusdem., situata in 


parte australi ecdesue predidi Monasterii." Now where did she 
mean that she wanted to be buried 1 Clearly on the south side of 
the Church before the image of the Blessed Virgin, situated in the 
chapel of the same. But was the chapel on the south side of the 
Church, or was it the figure which was on the south side of the 
chapel ; and does the word " capella " refer to the eastern limb of the 
Church 1 It has always appeared to me that such is the case : and that 
the Countess wasburied before the statue of the Blessed Virgin situated 
on the south side of the high altar. All the Churches belonging to 
this Order, were according to the Statutes, dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin : " omnesque ecdesice Ordinis nostri in lionore Beatce Marice 
dedicentur et fundentur." Would not therefore the high, or prin- 
cipal altar be dedicated to her ? I am unable to get a satisfactory 
answer to this question from the Clergy of the Church of Eome. 
It would appear, however, that in the Ecclesia Anglicana — the 
English Church-^this was the rule. The Monastery of Guisborough 
was dedicated to Our Lady, and we find the following in the Will 
of Lord Wm. de Latymer, dated 1381, ^' mon corps d'estre en Veglise 
de Prioralte de Gisburn en Cliveland, devant le haut auter nostre 
Dame, ....," Test. Ehor. T., p. 113—116, so that the high 
altar there was dedicated to her. Eev. J. T. Fowler appears 
to take the same view, for in his interesting notes to the 
"Cistercian Statutes, Journal of the Yorks. Ardiceol. Assoc, 
No. XXXV., he says "The Cistercians, however, had no Lady 
Chapel," and refers in proof to " Dist. 1, eap). /." No monu- 
ment remains which can by any possibility have commemorated 
the Countess, so that the only light which could be obtained 
locally, on the subject, would be by discovery of remains 
which could reasonably be considered to be hers. It has been 
supposed that one of the chapels in the south transept was referred 
to, and that the monument stood between the two chapels there ; 
and excavations have actually been made there in consequence, but 
no tomb has been found. It has been asserted that the wall has 
been cut away to make room for the head of a figure, supposed to 
be resting on an altar-tomb below. But on close examination I have 
formed the opinion that the masonry was cut to receive the arch 
stones of an arcade running along the upper part of the partition 
wall between the chapels. There were probably two arches forming 
an arcade with the piscina belonging to the altar in the northern of 
the two chapels. This arcade corresponded in height with the 
remaining piscina in the southern wall, and with the arch of the 
doorway from the south transept into the sacristy. In the north 
transept has been found a twin capital of the same date and style 
as the eastern part of the Church ; and this probably formed part 
of the arcade referred to, which would therefore appear to have 
been double. (See Fig.) I commend the matter to the attention 



of the members of the Society. On the other hand, bones have actually 
been found near the wall on the south side of the presbyterium, which 
seems to point to that being the place referred to. The question is 
of interest on general grounds, and not merely in reference to this 
particular burial. The Countess directed that an altar-shaped tomb 
of alabaster should be raised over her, with a figure of herself : and 
that prayers were to be perpetually offered for her. May her soul, 
and the souls of all others similarly deprived of these holy offices 
suffer no loss ! Other distinguished benefactors are known, by 
documentary evidence, to have been buried in the Church. The 
only remains of memorials to any of the Abbots are fragments of 
an incised slab of, apparently, late fifteenth-century date, found in 
the presbyterium. There are portions of the inscription round the 
verge, "... opicietur D'us," the base of a central cross, with the 
ferrule of a pastoral staff by the side of it, and also the knob of the 
staff on another fragment. 

We will take our leave of the ruins by way of the gate-house. 
It is the latest part of the whole of the buildings, being of early 
fourteenth-century date. 


It lias been my object to include in my paper information which 
is not given by Hunter, or Aveling, and therefore I must refer you 
to them for information on such subjects as the possessions, list of 
Abbots, and so forth — that I have not had time to include, had it 
been desirable to do so. I can, however, hardly close without some 
reference to the Dissolution and subsequent destruction of the 
Monastery. Roche being returned of a yearly value of over £200, 
escaped when the smaller houses came to grief. And during the 
Pilgrimage of Grace, with its stirring scenes in the near neighbour- 
hood, the Abbot managed to keep himself clear, and save his neck ; 
and also his house from confiscation. And indeed when the King's 
visitors made their second visitation of the Monasteries in the year 
1537, the only charges that could be brought against Eoche were 
not serious. True, five monks were charged with immorality, but 
one of those was certainly a novice, and two of the others were 
probably novices also, for at the time of the Dissolution in the 
following year they had left the house. One monk was said to be 
suspected of treason, and was, in fact, at the time in piison at York ; 
but he also was a novice, and was liberated soon after, so he probably 
was innocent. The only superstition reported was the pilgrimage 
to the crucifix on the rock, which was said to be of natural, or 
supernatural formation, with doubtless a little assistance from art. 
We may therefore consider that Roche, even to the end, was a well- 
conducted house. But the Dissolution was general, and all alike 
fell a prey to the hand of the spoiler. On 23rd June, 1538, in the 
Ciiapter House of which we have seen a view, the deed of surrender 

Roehe Abbey — Twin Capital. 

Roche Abbey— Abbot's Tomb (fragments). 


was signed by Henry Ciindal, the Abbot, and the rest of the monks, 

eighteen persons in all, before Dr. Wm. Petre, a Clerk of Chancery, 

afterwards Secretary of State, and the keys delivered up. The 

document is still in existence, and a fac-simile of the signatures and 

a sketch of the common seal, are given by Aveling, 

As compensation for surrender, 

The Abbot received a pension of £33 6s. 8d. yearly, all his books, 

a fourth part of the plate, cattle and household stuff, a chalice 

and complete vestment, with £30 in money. He also received 

a contentment portion cf corn. 
The sub-prior (there does not appear to have been a prior at the 

time) a pension of £6 13s. 4d. yearly. 
The burser an annual pension of £6 Os. Od. 
Eleven monks, who were priests, were each to receive £5 Os. Od. 

per annum, and a half-year's portion (also), ^Os. in money. 
Four novices each received a pension of £3 6s. 8d. per annum. 

Each monk was to have his portion separate. 
The King took all possessions, and paid a small debt of £48 
nett owing by the house. 

In this list no mention is made of Conversi. It is probable that 
they had ceased as a class, and hired labour had been introduced 
in their place. It is stated in this document that each servant was 
to receive by way of reward a half-year's wages, had there been 
Conversi they would have been mentioned. 

Of the house after the suppression little is recorded. Of the 
destruction of the buildings there is a history in a letter written 
shortly after. From it I take the following : — 

Each monk, in addition to his pension and half-year's portion, 
was given his cell or compartment in the dormitory, " wherein was 
not anything of price, but his bed and apparel, which was but 
simple and of small price." The service books of the Church were 
stolen, and the parchment of which they were made was used to 
cover wagon tops. The timber was sold, and the iron hooks were 
dragged out of the walls and stolen. The Church was the first to 
be put to the spoil, and then the other buildings within the Abbey 
walls, and nothing was spared but the ox-houses and swine-cotes, 
and such other houses of ofdce that stood without the walls. After 
the lead had been stripped off the roofs, it was melted and cast into 
fodders for the market. For this purpose the stalls in the choir 
were pulled down and burned, although there was plenty of wood in 
the place without using them. What became of the nine bells in 
the tower is not stated, but the writer of the letter states that he 
saw them himself, hanging there more than a year after the suppres- 
sion. During the excavations a small portion of one of them has 
been found in the rubbish. From this it would appear that one at 
least was broken. 


The list of plate at the Dissolution was very small, even for a 
Cistercian house. It is given as follows : — 
A Cross with shank, parcel gilt. This would be a crucifix, which 

could be placed on a rod when carried in procession. 
7 Chalices, one size. 

1 Pastoral Staff, parcel gilt. 

A Tabernacle, in pledge for <£40. 

2 Salts, gilts, one covered. 

1 Standing Cup, with cover, parcel gilt. 
1 Alte Cup, parcel gilt. 
6 Masers. 
32 Spoons. 

The Abbot of Eoche was on many occasions summoned to 
Parliament. The Abbot, Walter de Wadworth, was summoned to 
the first English Parliament by Simon de Montfort, in the name of 
King Henry III. 

I have not time to say more of the history of the Abbey. I 
have given a number of facts, collected from different sources, 
which are of more or less interest. I fear I have already taxed 
your patience. 

In conclusion, I may say that I am indebted to the Earl of 
Scarbrough for the opportunity of photographing the ruins as the 
excavations have been in progress. 


The walls of the Sacristy are built up against the South 
Transept and not bonded into it. At the time of this passing 
through the press, the parts exposed by the excavation already have 
lost the remarkable freshness they at first had. I would venture 
to suggest to the noble owner, that it would be well to have every 
fragment, as exposed, at once cemented in its place, otherwise, as is 
actually taking place, they will speedily be lost, and the safety of 
the ruins greatly endangered. — F.R.F. 


Hunshury or Danes Camp, and the Discoveries there. — By Sir 
Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart., Hon, Mem. Soc. Ant., Scot. 

THIS is situated If miles south-west from the crossing of the 
main roads at All Saints' Church, in Northampton. It is in 
Hardingstone Parish, on high ground on the south side of the 
valley of the JSTen, on the property of J. A. Bouverie, Esq., of 
Delapre. The river at its nearest approach to the Camp is little 
more than half-a-mile on the north-west, lying there south-west 
and north-east, flowing to the latter. The ancient road, called 


" Banbury Lane," lying west south-west and east north-east, passes 
within 300 yards on the north-west. The ordnance level on the 
road at this point is 343 ft. above the Liverpool datum level. At 
the bottom of the hill near the river is 204 ft. From the road the 
ground rises about 5 ft. to the Camp. 

Another ancient road, the centre of which is the parish boundary 
(a sign of antiquity), skirts the south of the Camp, making a bend 
to the south to avoid the fosse. This road diverges from the 
Banbury Lane above mentioned a little to the west of the Camp, 
points to the north-west part of the Camp, then suddenly bends 
south, and from the south-east part of the Camp goes on towards 
Hardingstone and other places. 

The Camp is now usually known as " Danes Camp " ; but 
evidently it is the " bury " in the name " Hunsbury," and doubtless 
" Huns " is from some tradition of people of that nationality having 
made or occupied it. The Danes have got credit for an immense 
number of military works. 

The whole hill is called " Hunsbury Hill," and sometimes 
corruptly " Huntsbury Hill." 

The Camp is not far from circular, but the diameter of the area 
north-west by west and south-east by south is 560 ft. (the longest), 
and the diameter west south-west and east north-east is 445 ft. 
(the shortest). {PI. I., 1.) The area is about 4 acres, level, and 
has been for many years arable, as is most of the surrounding 
ground. The scarp, fosse, and counter-scarp are about 1| acres. 

It is clear that the defence consisted of one fosse only, varying 
now from 50 ft. to 65 ft. in width from edge to edge. From the 
bottom of the fosse to the level of the top of the scarp is from 15 
to 16 ft. 

In a few places are slight remains of the breastwork or interior 
scarp, most of which was long ago partly spread inwards on the 
area and partly thrown into the fosse. 

The whole of the scarp, counter-scarp, and fosse are, and have 
been long planted, and form a conspicuous object from the sur- 
rounding district. 

There is an entrance to the Camp on the north-west, on the 
north by east, and the south-east — the north one being apparently 
not original. The other two probably are so ; and it must be noted 
that the road before mentioned points to these two entrances, as if 
once it passed through the Camp ; but was nevertheless accom- 
modated to the two entrances, and subsequently to the disuse of 
the Camp was bent to the south along the outer edge of the fosse. 

For full eight years past, digging for iron-stone has been going 
on near the Camp. Smelting Works were put up about 1876 near 
the liver in the valley below. A large area has been excavated 
between the Towcester Eoad and the Camp. About the year 1880 




brorn the Ord^tan/^e .Map : 


V\ 1 



; ! 






excavations were made on the north-west of the Camp and carried 
up to the Camp, a tramway being constructed to the Smelting works. 
Then an entrance was made on the north-west into the Camp, about 
70 ft. to the north of the old entrance. This section is the means of 
shewing accurately the original depth of the fosse, though not the 
original height of the breastwork of scarp. At this point the height 
from the j^^'fsent top of the scarp to the original bottom of the fosse 
is 20 ft. (PL L, 2). The fosse has been filled to the extent of 
5 ft. from its bottom. 

The excavators, from the entrance into the Camp, worked to the 
south within the Camp, digging nearly up to the edge of the scarp, 
and gradually wheeled round towards the north, working from the 
entrance as a pivot. The strata were pretty uniform throughout. 
Uppermost was from 6 ft. to 7*6 ft. of soil, lying on an even surface 
of iron-stone, which was mostly from 10 ft. to 14 ft. in depth, the 
whole of which was taken away. Below this was sandy clay. The 
upper soil was wheeled back on to the space before excavated to 
prepare for the excavation of the iron-stone, the tramway being 
always on the level of the bottom of the iron-stone, 

soil 7 ft. 

soil replaced \ Tram 

iron-stone 12 ft. 

so that the level of the area is lower than formerly by the^depth of 
the iron-stone abstracted. 

In the cutting for the tramway, and for some yards on each side 
of it within about 3 ft. of the top of the remains of the breastwork, 
is a layer of lime-stone about 6 in. or Sin. thick. This stone is 
certainly imported, and its former use is at present unknown. 

Over the whole area of the Camp were found, at a few feet or 
yards apart, pits sunk to the bottom or nearly to the bottom of the 
6 ft. or 7 ft. of soil. These pits varied from 5 ft. to 10 ft. in 
diameter, rudely circular in form, and nearly perpendicular as to 
their sides. They were distinguishable by being full of black 
mould. In them most of the remains hereafter described were 
found. In scarcely any instance did they penetrate the iron-stone. 
(PL I., 3). In all there must have been over 300 of these pits. 
About six or seven of these pits were walled with small flat stones, 
chiefly lime-stone. The inclosed diameter of them was about 5 ft. 

These pits were evidently for the reception of refuse of various 
kinds. When a pit had been used for a time it was filled up and 
another one made ; so that only a small proportion of those found 
were open at any one time. 


As I thought another person was looking after the excavations 
and taking notes and measures, I did not visit the Camp till more 
than half of the area had been excavated, in November, 1884. I 
then made an elevation to scale of the face of the digging, and did 
the same in December, 1884, February, April, and May, 1885. 
The work went on very slowly till April, 1886, by which time the 
whole area had been excavated. The lessee, Mr. P. Phipps, of 
Collingtree Grange, laudably made all the preparations he could to 
collect any remains found, and rewarded the diggers. The Foreman, 
Mr. Law, and the Clerk, Mr. Marshall, also did what they could to 
preserve the objects, which in the first instance were taken to the 
office at the Works. The more portable of them have now been 
transferred to the Museum, on loan. 

The date of this Camp can only be conjectured, but the position 
is such that it is probable that the eminence was occupied in Roman 
times, though, with the exception of some of the pottery, no 
decidedly Roman remains have been found in it. The view from 
it embraces the walled Roman station at Irchester, 1 2 miles to the 
east ; Borough Hill, where many Roman remains, as well as later, 
have been found, 9 J miles west north-west ; Clifford Hill, perhaps 
a Roman watch post, 4 J miles east by north; Duston, a Roman 
settlement, 1|^ mile north-west j the old Lunatic Asylum, where 
sepulchral remains supposed to be Saxon, have been found, 2^ miles 
north-east, and Northampton Castle, supposed to have been formed 
on a British fort, 1| mile north by east. The Roman station of 
Towcester is 6 J miles south south-west. The Watling Street, lying 
north-west and south-east, passes 5 miles to the south-west. 

Many of the remains found at Duston are in the Museum, and 
it will be seen that they differ widely from those at Hunsbury. An 
account of the Duston discovery was published by the late S. Sharp 
in the Arcliceologia in 1871. Most of the objects which he obtained 
are now in the Museum. 

There is no reason to suppose that the remains found at 
Hunsbury differ widely in date from each other, and, if so, probably 
the occupiers were also the constructors of the Camp. Unfortunately 
we have no coins for guides. The pottery is not decisive. The 
scabbards are of forms said to be Saxon, whilst the ornament is 
said to be Celtic. 

There are then two classes of people, to one of whom we may 
attribute the Camp — the Romanized Britons and the Saxons. I 
am not aware of any authenticated Saxon camp of this kind. 

The Plan of the Camp is taken from the Ordnance Survey. It 
has not been thought necessary to give a large plan, nor more than 
one section. 

PLATE •11- 



* ^* 



Bone and Horn. 

Bones. — Considerable quantities of bones were found, chiefly in the pits, 
of human beings, the short-horned cattle, red deer, roe deer, goat, pig, and 

Combs. — Seven in number, formed of sections of large bones, of the form 
known in Scotland as "brough-combs," having been found in many broughs. 
They vary in length from 4^ in. to 64 in. (not reckoning three broken), and in 
width from Ig in. to 1| in., and have from four to nine teeth. {PL II., 2). 

They are supposed to have been used in weaving and in making strings out 
of the sinews of animals. 

Game-pieces. — Six. These are semi-globes, formed of the knobs of large 
bones. They are not heavy enough, nor with holes large enough for whorls, and 
are presumably for games allied to draughts. {PI. II., 5). 

Handles. — Four, of deer's horns, attached to knives and saws. (PI. VI., 
14, 17). 

Horns. — Many portions of red deer's horns, some of them exceeding in 
size any modern ones. One close above the brow antler measures Sin. in 
diameter. Most shew the mark of the saAv. (PZ. //., 1, 3). Hornsof the short- 
horned cattle, eight, measuring about 5 in. on the outer curve. One skull and 
horns of roe deer, and a third horn, and one skull and horns of goat, but none 
of fallow deer. 

Rings. — Two. Formed of transverse sections of bones. One is complete, 
though broken, If in. by If in. and 5-16ths. in. thick and deep outside mea- 
sure. On one side it is smooth, but the other part of the circumference is 
grooved, and each of the two edges ornamented with cross cuts. {PI. II., 6). 
The other ring has been precisely similar, but is imperfect. 

Skulls, Human. — Six in number, and several fragments. In one walled 
pit, near the middle of the Camp, was found a whole skeleton, laid on the 
back, slightly contracted, but in no other case was a skull with the rest of the 
skeleton. No coffin was found. The skulls are of persons of very diff'erent 
ages. There is nothing very remarkable in the forms. One skull, apparently 
of an adult, measures from front to back 7f in., and in width 5|in. In the 
crown it has three holes of | in. diameter neatly drilled in it. {PI. II., 7). 

The human remains, with one exception, must have been disturbed before, 
and their previous history is a puzzle. 

Several portions of skulls of the short-horned cattle attached to horns, but 
none perfect. There are portions of skulls of other animals before mentioned. 

Tusks of Boar. — Two or three. 

Curved Implements. — Eleven, formed of the tines of red deer's horns, from 
4 in. to Q\. in. in length. They are cut at right angles to the length at both 
ends, except two, and most are more or less engraved with lines and small 
circles. All have a hole through them near the thick end. {PI. II., 8-11). 
Jewitt, in Grave Mounds, p. 127, represents somewhat similar ones, and supposes 
them to have been used in pottery or in netting. 

Cylinder of horn, 3| in. long and 1\ in. diameter, with an oblong hole 
through it, ornamented. The use is uncertain. {PI. II., 12). 

Hollow Cylinder of 1 5-16ths. in. long and l^in. diameter, with hole 
through one side of it, and each end moulded. This much resembles one of the 
portions of a Eoman flute found near Shefford, in Bedfordshire, and described in 
the 4to. publication of Cambridge Ant. Soc. {PL II., 13). In that case there 
was no doubt about the use, as all the portions were found. In this case the 
use is doubtful. Another h oUow cylinder resembles a modern bone apple-scoop. 
It is much ornamented with little circles. 

Implement of Deer's horn, 6 in. long by 3 in. diameter, with a square per- 
foration. It weighs 11 oz. {PL II,, 4). 



Brooches. — Three, incomplete. One is of the harp shape, with spring 
made by several convolutions of the wire. {PI. IV., 7, 8), 

Coins. — It is very remarkable that only two have been taken to the proper 
receiver. One is a very small late Roman coin, illegible, and the other modern. 
There is no reason to think that others were found and secreted. 

Pins. — One, 34 in. long, probably part of a spring brooch. 

Rings of Harness (?) — Four, of which two are ornamented with knobs. 
Finger Kings, two, one of which is engraved. {PI. IV., 3, 5, 6). 

Scahhards. — Two. On one sword of iron, described farther on, remained 
the chape and upper locket of its scabbard. {PL III, 2). These are of brass. 
Apparently the main part of the scabbard was of leather, and was very thin, 
as shown by the brass furniture. The chape is of the same pattern on both 
sides, but the upper locket differs on the two sides. The length of the 
scabbard was 2 ft. 2|in. 

The other scabbard is a very beautiful example. {PI. III., 3). No sword 
was found in it or with it. The real scabbard was apparently of very thin iron, 
the outer side being cased with brass. The inner side of the upper locket is 
gone. The chape remains perfect, different on the two sides. Portions of the 
iron scabbard remain attached to the brass. This scabbard has a well-defined 
ridge, but the sword to which the other scabbard belongs has no ridge. 

No means of suspension appear on either. On the outer side of the chape 
are embossed ornaments, of a form said to be peculiarly Celtic. On the inner side 
of the chape and on the upper locket is delicate engraved ornament, of a form 
also said to be peculiarly Celtic. The length is 2 ft. 6^ in., and the weight 
1 lb. 14 oz. The breadth of the sword at its upper part was about 1| in. This 
scabbard is stated to have been found in one of the pits in the north part of 
the Camp. The chape closely resembles one figured by Jewitt in Grave Mounds, 
p. 237, and classed as Anglo-Saxon. 

Spoon. — Only one was found, 2|in. long, and fin. wide. (PL IV., 1). 
Several spoons of this form have been found in other places. Probably they 
were used for medical purposes. 

Several fragments of articles remain, the use of which is not determined. 
One of these is a hollow ring of \ in. diameter, inclosing a circle of 2^ in. 
diameter. This ring clasps a thin plate of perforated brass. (PI. IV., 2). 


In several places was found charred wheat. 


Bars. — None were found in the Camp, but close outside, on the north- 
west, some were found, and in the tramway, from No. 2 Pit, north-east of the 
Camp, were found 5 ; but it is uncertain whether this spot is that where a kiln 
was found in 1875, with two circles of props. Most of the props are in the 
Museum. All the bars are lost except one, in possession of General Pitt Rivers, 
and one from the tramway, given to the Museum by Mr. T. Bull. Somewhat 
similar ones were found at Duston, and much smaller bars of the same form 
have been found in Suffolk and Brittany. {PL V., 2). 

Bricks, triangular. — Of these curious articles probably at least twenty-five 
have been found. Some have been well baked, but others only so slightly 
baked that they had relapsed into a soft clay state. They are all alike, rudely 
made, about 6^ in. on each side, and 2| in. thick, and all have three holes 
through them of about | in. diameter. All shew the effect of considerable 
rubbing on the two principal faces and on the edges. {PI. V, 3). 

Drawings of them have been sent to various persons, but as yet no sugges- 
tion as to their use is satisfactory. Only one instance of their occurrence has 







4: FULL 






I. -mv)] 






^■•FULL- size: 


LiTH? byTGarratt. j 



Q ® 

% LA 

3 • FULL • SIZE 




been ascertained by me, which is at Abington Pigott, in Cambridgeshire, in 
1885, with Roman remains. It appears possible that they were used for 
tethering sheep or cattle. 

Bowls. — None complete have been found, but fragments of many of various 
sizes of grey and red pottery, but chiefly of the former. 

Colander — Two bases remain, one with five holes in it, and the other 
with one hole, of grey pottery. 

IHshes. — See Bowls. 

Pots. — Of these eighteen remain complete, or nearly so, varying fi'om 6 in. 
in height and 6| in. diameter to Ig in. and If in. {PL V., 4-11). The largest 
has two loo^is for suspension. All are of dark grey or dark brown ware and 
unglazed. For the most part it is rudely made, and the ornament, where there 
is any, is of a simple form. Fully two barrow loads of fragments of pots were 
found. Some of these were of large size, perhaps 1 ft. 6 in. diameter. {PL V., 
12, 13). Several loop handles of these large vessels were found. Amongst the 
fragments are pieces of well-made Roman Castor ware, with usual ornaments 
on them. 

One of the smaller vessels is ornamented with rude strokes and dots on its 
exterior and on its bottom. {PL F., 8). 

One approaches what is usually considered an Early British form. Not 
a single scrap of Samian ware was found. 

Props for Bars. — These were were found in 1875, somewhere on the north 
of Hunsbury Hill, and acquired by the late S. Sharp, then of Dallington. They 
are in the Museum. Only two perfect ones were brought him. {PL V., 1). 
See before under Bars. 


Pings. — Five are perhaps to be reckoned as beads. Besides these, one, 
blue, with white knobs, has been lost. One of the rings appears to be of some 
paste of greenish grey colour Avith small circles engraved on it. {PL IV., 10-14). 


Adzes. — Four. One is 7^ in. long and 2 in. wide at the cutting edge, and 
another was about 6 in. long, and the same width. Others imperfect. 
{PL VII., 6). 

Arrow Heads. — Only one found, and this broken. It was Sin. long 
(the point is gone) with socket. It has a leaf-shaped blade without barbs. 
{PL VI., 8). 

Axes. — One, perhaps modern, like a modern stock-axe, and portions of 
two others. No axe of common form. 

Bits for Horses. — Three. One is apparently a modern snaffle of two links 
and two rings. Another is of three links and two large cheek-rings. The 
middle link is bound together by a brass tie. (^PL VII., 8). The width between 
the rings was 44 in. It weighs 11^ oz. The third is a fragment of a similar 
bit. The three-link form is unusual. 

Bosses of Shields. — Two. These are of the common form like many 
classed as Saxon. They are 6 in. diameter with a flat rim | in. wide and a 
spike in the centre, and were riveted to the shield. {PL III., 5). 

Another article is perhaps a boss. It is a semi-globe 4^ in. wide with no 
spike outwards, but with a spike inside, which perhaps held it to the shield. 
{PL III, 6). 

Chisels. — One implement appears to be a stone-mason's chisel, 11^ in. long. 

Darts. — A dart is a weapon to be thrown, and with a blade smaller than a 
spear ; though perhaps some weapons here reckoned as spears ought to be 
classed as darts. Only one is reckoned "dart." It is 3|in. long with socket. 

Brills. — Four. These are about 4 in. long, of circular-iron and pointed, 
apparently fixed in wooden hafts. 

Hoops. — Eight, inclosing a circle from 3| in. to 4| in. diameter. 


Knives, straight. — Twelve. Some of these were fixed in handles by a 
"tang," or spike : others by being riveted through the handle. {PI. VI., 
9-15). The blades are from 2 in. to 5 in. long. One is of a peculiar form, 
which has been found in bronze. Most have a convex edge and are pointed. 

Knives, curved. — Five, hooked. They were perhaps used in cutting up 
animals and in cutting hides. They measure about 5 in. on the cutting edge, 
which is the concave edge. {PI. VII., 1, 2). 

Rings. — Three, of 2g in. diameter outside. 

Saivs. — Three of the same kind and imperfect. They are 1^ in. wide. 
One has a blade complete 6| in. long but only part of the haft, which is of 
deer's horn. Another blade is 74 in. long, without a handle, and perhaps was 
longer. The third is part of a blade 5 in. long. They somewhat resemble 
lock-saws. The teeth are equilateral, not as ours are. Doubtless these are 
the saws used for dividing the horns and bones. {PI. VI., 16, 17). 

Scabbard. — See before under Bronze. There are two fragments of an iron 
scabbard which had brass edges, as is shewn by the verdigris on the iron. 

Spears, — There are sixteen of these, varying in lengtli from 1 ft. 2| in. to 
5| in, {PI. VI., 1-6.) No bronze spear head was found. Of these, three have 
"tangs" or spikes, and twelve have sockets for the shafts, and one is broken 
and uncertain. None have the twist for giving rotatory motion, and several 
have no ridge. 

Sioords. — The sword found with the portions of the scabbard before 
mentioned is 2 ft. 2| in. long in the blade, with "tang" for the handle 
5| in. long. At its widest part it measures 2 in. It weighs 1 lb. 12 oz. It 
has no indication of a guard. {PI. Ill, 1). It is stated to have been found in 
the mixed soil of the breast-work on the south-east of the Camp. 

The other weapon here counted as a sword ought perhaps to bear some 
other name. The blade {which has lost its point) and haft measure in length 
2 ft. 4^ in., but the original length is uncertain. The haft is a socket, and it 
is uncertain whether this had a wooden shaft attached to it. It had no 
guard. (^Pl. III. , 4). The blade is flat and the edges do not appear to have 
been sharp. The greatest width is 1 9-16ths. in. This weapon strongly 
resembles those found at Meon Hill, in Gloucestershire, in 1824. The 
existing fragments weigh 1 lb, 44 oz. Similar weapons in the British Museum 
are supposed to be swords in process of formation. 

Tire of Wheel. — This is in six pieces, which together measure 5 ft. 5 in. 
in length. The width is 14 in. The ends are joined by riveting. 

Of unknown use. — Two articles evidently for the same purpose, though 
not a pair. They have a circular plate 3| in. diameter and \ in, thick, from 
the centre of which rises at right angles a circular shaft 4| in. long, at the top 
of which is an eye through which a ring 3 in. diameter is inserted. This shaft 
is carefully moulded, and on two of the knobs of one is a band of gilding. The 
circular plate has a pattern cut out of it. {PI. VII., 7). There are no signs 
of rivets. Are they brands, and if so, for what ? Three articles which are 
evidently the protecting points of a wooden implement. Possibly they belong 
to ploughs, {PI. VII, 5). 

Five articles, consisting of a flat oval plate 34 in. to 5| in. long, and If in. 
to 21 in. wide, and 3-16ths. in, thick, with shanks about 4 in, square and 1 ft. 
long. Two broken, {PL VII, 3, 4). 


Circular article 2| in. diameter and 9-16ths, in, thick, which may have 
been a whorl. It weighs 114 oz. 

Flints. — There are seven or eight fragments of flint, which must have 
been imported, and have been worked. There are also eleven globular flints 
from If in. to 3| in. diameter, probably for some game. {PL VIII. , 3, 4). 

.Mould. — This is of fine red sand-stone 74 in. diameter and 2 in. thick. 
In it is a circular sinking 4| in. diameter and 4 in. deep, with an outlet. 



Drawn by HDryden 





^ • 4" FULL- SI TIE- 









This sinking is very smooth. The purpose of this is not known at present. 
{PL VIII. , 2). 

Querns. — About 150, more or less perfect, reckoning upper and lower 
stones. They are of several sorts of grit ; but none of plum -pudding stone. 
Most appear to have come from Leicestershire or Derbyshire. The lower stones 
are from 11 in. to 1ft. 2 in. diameter on the top, and 5 in. to 7 in. thick. 
(PZ. Fill, 1). The upper stones from 11 in. to 1ft. 2 in. diameter at 
bottom, and from 9 in. to 10 in. high. All are of the same form, The 
lower stone had an iron pin fixed in its centre. The upper stone 
has a cavity in the top about 4g in. diameter and 5 in. deep, to hold the corn. 
In the centre is a hole about I in. diameter, which works loosely on the pin 
in the lower stone, and through which the corn falls to the top of the lower 
stone. At the side is a hole for the liandle, which is bored through into the 
cavity before mentioned. Xone have holes for two handles. 

Whet-stones. — There are two of these, of which one is imperfect. The 
other one has a hole through it for suspension, [PI. VIII., 8, 9). 

Whorls.— Mght of stone If in. to 2| in. diameter. [PI. VIII, 5, 6, 7). 


In 1875, in the iron-stone digging on the north incline of Hunsbury Hill 
were found, close under the surface, two circles of clay props for kilns for 
pottery — each circle about 4 ft. diameter. The distance apart of the props, 
and their disposition, were not stated. One or more bars were found with 
them. These articles were brought to the late S. Sharp, then at Dallington, 
and the circumstances were described to him. They are now in the Nor- 
thampton Museum. Of the props, two perfect ones remain 11^ in. high, 
8| in. long at top and bottom, and 6 in. wide at top and bottom. Eight 
fragments remain, which probably represent eight props. Some have a hole 
through them of 1 in. diameter. {PL V., 1.) One clay bar was brought him 
1 ft. 3^ in. long, 2|in. by 2 in. in the middle. (PL V, 2.) This was for sup- 
porting the pottery in the kiln. One 3d. brass coin of Claudius Gothicus was 
found with them, and fragments of grey and red pottery. The space under- 
neath was filled up with wood, and a space outside the circle also. No doubt 
there was some exterior wall of earth or stone to confine the heat. If the 
props were, as stated, in two circles, probably the bars radiated from a 
central prop. 

A bar like those found at Hunsbury was found at Castor, but not in 
the kilns described by Artis. Somewhat similar ones were found at Duston. 

Close to the Camp, in the working on the north-west, were found five 
skulls near together, but not with their skeletons, nor in any ascertained 

To the north-east of the Camp, about half-a-mile distance, is No. 2 
working. In this were found five of the clay bars before mentioned, one of 
which is in the Museum, presented by Mr. J. Bull. I was informed that 
they were found together, but there is no account of any other objects beino' 
with them. 

In this working at 126 ft. from its east limit, and at about 850 ft. 
south from the Banbury Lane, was found in November, 1884, a walled well of 
1 ft. 6 in. diameter and 11 ft. deep. Near the bottom of this were found the 
remains of five pots of a close well-made light-grey material not glazed, unlike 
any found in the Camp, and more akin to the grey Castor ware. The largest 
of these, of which the fragments have been fastened together, was llf in. 
high, 9| in. wide in its largest diameter, and 5| in. wide at the rim, which is 
turned outwards and well moulded. With them were four vertebrae of cattle, 
and remains of wood. The purpose of this well is uncertain, as it can hardly 
have held water in summer. 

In Akerman's Pagan Saxondom it is stated that in 1853 a crystal ball 
cut into facets was found in an urn near Hunsbury Hill. 




On the Churches of North Bedfordshire and the neighbouring 
portion of Northamptonshire. — By the Eev. A. J. Foster, 
M.A., Vicar of Wootton, Bedfordshire. 

BEDFORDSHIRE is divided geologically into three different 
belts running across the country from east to west, and the 
ecclesiastical architecture of the country follows these divisions, each 
separate division or helt having its own particular style of archi- 
tecture. To the south we have the chalk downs of Dunstable, in 
the centre are the sandstone hills which run from Sandy to Brickhill 
right across the country, and the northern division which borders 
on Korthamptonshire is a high flat table-land between the Ouse 


and the Nene. Taking the ecclesiastical architecture in the same 
order, we find, first in the south that many of the churches on the 
chalk downs have the walls panelled checkerwise with the flint 
stones of the locality inserted in the mortar, a peculiarity found 
also in Sussex and Hampshire. Secondly, in the central belt we 
have many splendid churches built of the local sandstone. Thirdly, 
in the north, as there are no quarries on the spot, we find that the 
churches are built of imported limestone, brought probably from 
the quarries of Barnack to the north, or those of Totternhoe to the 
south. "^ It is the ecclesiastical architecture of this portion of the 
county with that of the adjacent parts of Northamptonshire which 
forms the subject of this Paper. 

This border land of the two counties is for the most part a 
thinly populated and wild clay upland, forming in Bedfordshire a 
part of the great line of woods which once stretched across this part 
of the country. Many of these woods still remain, and the roads 
which run between them are mostly soft lanes impassable in winter 
except on foot or on horseback. The villages contained in the district 
are, on the Bedfordshire side, few and small, and the bulk of the 
population is to be found on the northern side by the banks of the 
Nene, in Northamptonshire. This Nene valley was an important 
frontier in the time of the Koman occupation, and the flourishing 
towns and villages in the neighbourhood are the modern represen- 
tatives of the Roman camps and stations which once lined the right 
bank of the Nene. Even to the present day an important local 
industry, the shoemaking trade, keeps the Northamptonshire villages 
populous, while the Bedfordshire villages are purely agricultural. 

This being the case it may be assumed that the Northampton- 
shire parishes have always been the most wealthy, and, therefore, it 
is not surprising to find that the Northamptonshire Churches were 
for the most part rebuilt in Early English or Decorated times, while 
the smaller Bedfordshire Churches exhibit architectural features of 
all dates, the result, I conclude, of paucity of population and poverty 
which prevented any complete rebuilding and enlargement. It is 
in Bedfordshire accordingly that we must look for all early examples 
of architecture, but where the dates are the same we find no local 
peculiarities which distinguish North Bedfordshire from Northamp- 
tonshire Churches. There is much greater difference of style 
between the churches of the three divisions of Bedfordshire of which 
I spoke just now, than there is between those of the northern 
division and Northamptonshire, for in the district which we are 
considering, there is a strong family resemblance in all churches 
which are of about the same date, especially in the matter of spires. 
Where the buildings are of the same date, it is only in the richness 
of work and in the magnificence of the examples that Northampton- 

* Introduction to the ArchBeological Topograply of Beds. Royal ArchoBological Institute. 


sMre Churches differ from those of North Bedfordshire; it is in short 
a difference of quaUty and not of principle. 

And so, as Northamptonshire Churches have been rebuilt, we 
must look for all examples of early work, whether Saxon or Norman, 
on the Bedfordshire side of the border. There we have Saxon work 
at St. Peter's, Bedford, and at Clapham, both situated on the Ouse 
to the south, and perhaps at Knotting, which is in the centre of the 
district described. When we look over the border, however, we 
find no Saxon work in the Nene valley. To find examples of this 
style in Northamptonshire we must go further into the county, to 
Earl's Barton, Barnack, Brigstock, and Brixworth, and in the towers 
of the two first-named churches we have the most splendid examples 
of our earliest ecclesiastical architecture to be found, perhaps, in the 
whole country. It is on account, doubtless, of their size and mag- 
nificence that these towers were preserved when Northamptonshire 
Churches were rebuilt in later times. The Bedfordshire Church of 
Clapham, interesting though it is as a specimen of early tower 
building, cannot be compared in variety and style with Earl's 
Barton.^ It is very probable that if Clapham had been in Nor- 
thamptonshire its rude tower would have given place to an Early 
English or Decorated steeple. 

When we pass on to Norman work we find the same facts. As 
a rule, Norman architecture has disappeared from the valley of the 
Nene, but still exists in North Bedfordshire, as at Farnish, Pod- 
dington, Knotting, Pertenhall, and Thurleigh. These are all small 
and remote villages whose inhabitants were unable, I suppose, to 
rebuild their churches entirely, and therefore left traces of Norman 
work behind as they enlarged the buildings. 

In Early English and Decorated examples Bedfordshire comes 
far behind Northamptonshire."^ We may seek in vain in the 
former county for such a glorious line of churches as that which 
stretches from parish to parish in an unbroken line along the south 
bank of the Nene, and comprises Strixton, WoJlaston (the tower 
and spire only remaining, unfortunately), Irchester, Pushden, 
Higham Eerrers, Stanwick, Eaunds, and Hargrave, all of them 
splendid examples of Early English and Decorated work. There 
is very little earlier work to be found in any of these churches ; 
Irchester alone can exhibit some traces of Norman ; but in North 
Bedfordshire, with three exceptions, all the churches are of mixed 
character. The first of these exceptions is Wymington, a unique 
and perfect specimen of Late Decorated, apparently all built at one 
time and unaltered. There is something Continental in its appear- 
ance, which causes it to differ from other specimens of Decorated 

* I have omitted any reference to the Early English and Decorated Church of Felmer- 
sham, as this magnificent example, though in North Bedfordshire, stands on the right bank 
of the Ouse, and I have taken that river as the geographical boundary of my subject. For 
the same reason, I have not referred to the undoubted Saxon work to be found at Stevington. 


work in the neighbourhood. This is explained by the fact that it 
was built by John Curteys, Mayor of the Staple of Calais, who lies 
buried beneath a brass to the south of the chancel. The founder's 
residence abroad probably accounts for the foreign style of the 
architecture. The second exception is Yelden ; '' a perfect specimen 
of Decorated work with but little alteration."* The third does not 
belong to this period, but is the Perpendicular Church of Odell, an 
excellent example, and all built in one style. Of the other Churches 
of North Bedfordshire, it has been said i"^ ^' In fact, to find an 
entire church belonging to one period is not the rule but the 
exception. Hardly any which we enter but contains portions of 
two — frequently three — and sometimes four distinct styles. Take 
for instance, Poddington ; there are Early English pier arches and 
and south chancel wall, Decorated chancel arch and western arch, 
and Perpendicular clerestory and spire. Thurleigh has Norman 
tower, Decorated chancel and pier arches, and Perpendicular 
clerestory and aisles. Tillbrook has Transitional pier arches, Early 
English north wall, Decorated chancel arch, and Perpendicular 
chancel and south wall of nave," But it is on account of their 
mixed character that the Bedfordshire Churches are interesting 
from an archaeological point of view ; and we may hunt in vain 
amongst the neighbouring Northamptonshire Churches for similar 
store-houses of different styles. 

There is, however, one point in which we can compare the 
churches of the two districts more directly — that is, in the matter 
of spires. Whichever side of the border we visit, we cannot fail to 
remember that we are in the Midland counties, and therefore in the 
land of spires, for the tower uncrowned is in both counties the 
exception. But here, again, Bedfordshire comes behind Northamp- 
tonshire ; though not to such an extent, for some of the spires of the 
former county are very noteworthy. They are, however, of rather 
later date than those of Northamptonshire, which are Early English 
and Decorated ; while those of Bedfordshire are, for the most part, 
Perpendicular. The broach of Souldrop is the only Early English 
spire, and the foreign-looking spire of Wymington with its open 
tracery, pedimental canopies, and richly crocketed angles is Late 
Decorated. The short broach of Yelden is an early example of the 
same style. No one of these will bear comparison with the splendid 
Decorated spire of Higham Ferrers on the Northamptonshire side ; 
but if we pass on to those of later date we shall find that the Perpen- 
dicular spires of Sharnbrook, a most striking examjDle, and of Little 
Staughton, Tillbrook, Keysoe, Pertenhall, Colmworth, Harrold, and 
Poddington may rank with those of Northamptonshire. 

* On the Churches of Norths Bedfordshire, by the Rev. C. Airey. Papers of Associated 
Architecttiral Societies. 



Let us compare some of the spires of the two counties together. 
We will begin with Irchester, in Northamptonshire, and compare 
it with a Bedfordshire spire — that of Pertenhall. They are both 
broached and without parapet and pinnacles. Then we have towers 
with parapets and plain spires, as at the two Bedfordshire churches 
of Little Staughton and Tillbrook ; very plain spires they are, with 
only two tiers of lights. Then we come to a third group — that in 
which the towers have pinnacles and sometimes parapets as well. 
In some of the Bedfordshire churches, the pinnacles have apparently 
never been completed ; and only the stumps appear, as at Sharnbrook 
and Poddington. Next where we have pinnacles without buttresses 
we may compare Wollaston, in Northamptonshire, and Keysoe in 
Bedfordshire. And again, we may compare the towers and spires 
of the Bedfordshire churches of Wymington and Harrold with 
Higham J^'errers in Northamptonshire. This last-mentioned church 
contains in its tower and spire all the peculiarities of the groups we 
have mentioned. It has the parapets of one, the pinnacles of 
another, the buttresses of a third, and the cornice under the parapet 
and angle crockets of another group. 

Bedfordshire churches have not been quite so much " restored " 
as those in Northamptonshire; and consequently, we find more 
remains of woodwork in the older and more remote churches of the 
first-named county, especially in the matter of rood-screens and 
bench ends. In Northamptonshire such work has generally altogether 
disappeared, or else has been worked up into other forms in most extra- 
ordinary ways, as at Irchester, where portions of the tracery of the 
rood-screen appear as the balustrade of the modern pulpit stairs. 
Indeed, in the matter of rood-screens, Bedfordshire is very rich, as 
at Deane, Eaton Socon, Bolnhurst, Sharnbrook, Oakley, Pertenhall, 
Roxton, and Tillbrook. The last-mentioned is very interesting, as 
still surmounted by its rood-loft with its balusters, and many of the 
others have fragments of the original colour and gilding. We find 
also many fine specimens of rich roof carving with remains of colour, 
especially at Deane and Keysoe. The same remarks apply to stained 
glass, some fragments of which exist in Bedfordshire, while they 
are not to be found in Northamptonshire. 

Altogether we see that there is a great similarity between the 
churches on each side of the border where they are of the same style, 
though the Northamptonshire Churches are the more magnificent. 
The North Bedfordshire Churches resemble those of the bordering 
part of Northamptonshire much more than they do those in the 
other districts of the county. For instance, the rooms over porches, 
sometimes called Priests' Chambers and sometimes School-rooms, 
foi their use does not seem to have been fixed with certainty, which 
are common enough in the middle district of Bedfordshire, are not 
to be found in the north any more than they are to be discovered 


ill Northamptonshire. And again, nearly every church in the north 
has a spire, but spires are few and far between in the central and 
southern districts. 

ISTot only have the Northamptonshire Churches been more 
generally rebuilt than those in Bedfordshire, but it must also be 
observed that there is a richness of detail and ornament in the 
Northamptonshire Churches which is not to be found in the poorer 
buildings of Bedfordshire, the result, as I have already suggested, 
of the comparative wealth and poverty of the two districts. Indeed, 
such a rich storehouse is Northamptonshire, that Eickman has drawn 
a great quantity of his examples from that county ; and all but one 
of the line of Nene Valley Churches which I have mentioned, con- 
sisting of Strixton, Irchester, Eushden, Higham Ferrers, Stanwick, 
Eaunds, and Hargrave, are laid under contribution to a considerable 

Strixton is noticed for its simple and graceful west front, with 
its lancet and quatrefoil windows, and set of quatrefoil panels. 
Irchester contributes one of its spire lights and its cornice. Eushden 
provides its Decorated west porch and windows ; with the section 
of a pier moulding, elaborate cornice, carved roof, inverted strainer 
arch known as the " Bochar " arch, and screens, all of the Perpen- 
dicular period. From Higham Ferrers we have a drawing of the 
Early English west porch, which may well compare in design and 
execution with the entrances of some of our monastic chapter- 
houses, and a section of the deeply-cut moulding and a portion of 
the diaper work of the same porch. From Stanwick he gives us the 
base of the south doorway, a "general or containing" capital, a 
corbel table from the tower, a sedile, and a beautiful window, all of 
Early English date. Eaunds furnishes an example of the early 
method of forming cusps, the moulding of the west porch, a delicate 
trefoil sunk panel, and the beautiful west window, all of Early 
English work ; its east window of rather later date ; and some arch 
mouldings, and the nave roof, both of Decorated times. Hargrave 
supplies a quatrefoil window of Early English date ; and in addition 
to this list there are many other references to these churches which 
are unaccompanied by engravings. When, however, we turn to 
Bedfordshire, we find that Eickman only refers to one example from 
the Northern part of the county, the Saxon tower of Clapham, 
"principally remarkable," he says, ''for the extreme simplicity and 
rudeness of its construction." 

And, indeed, we cannot wonder at Eickman's selection when we 
look at the extreme simplicity and plainness of the Early English 
and Decorated work in North Bedfordshire, in such specimens as 
Knotting chancel, Sharnbrook north doorway, Souldrop tower and 
spire, Poddington chancel, and even Yelden and Wymington, and 
see how little there is to be chosen as examples of the best work of 


these times, with the ISTene Valley Churches so close at hand. 
Compare, for instance, the Transitional west point of Knotting, now 
hidden by a later tower, with the graceful and beautiful west front 
of Strixton, Knotting is apparently of an earlier date, but the 
idea of the arch and the circular window above it is the same in 
both designs, though rude in the Bedfordshire Church, and finished 
with exquisite taste in that of Northamptonshire. In the same way 
if we were to go through the other examples of Early English and 
Decorated in the two groups of churches which we are considering, 
we should find the same want of detail and finish in the Bedford- 
shire Churches on comparing them with those of the other county. 

But, in conclusion, as we pass from the glorious edifices of 
Northamptonshire to the poorer ones of Bedfordshire, let us 
remember that had all our churches been restored or rebuilt in later 
and more advanced days, we should have lost those specimens of 
early work which now interest us in so many of our country 
churches. The old men of Bedfordshire did what they could. If 
they could not equal the efi'orts of their neighbours across the border, 
they were at least content to go on little by little, adding a tower 
here or a spire there, an aisle to one church, a chancel to another ; 
and we therefore owe them a debt of gratitude, because, by their 
very struggles against adverse circumstances, they have left us 
examples and specimens, valuable in these days for local, as well as 
archaeological reasons. 




Diocess of Worcester, A.D. 1676. ( Extracted from the Census for 
the Province of Canterhnry, Anno 1676, m the Salt Library, 
Stafford. W. Salt, M.S. SS.J—A Paper procured by the 
above Society, and forming a complete Eeligioiis Census for the 
Diocese of Worcester in the year named. 



Confonnists. Papists. Conformists 


87 ... 4 








82 ... 1 


WiGORN Decanatus — continued. 











Witley Parva 
















White Ladies' Aston 


















Seavern Stoake ... 



Shelsley Beauchamp 








Witley Magna 


St. Hellen's, Wigorn 




St. Mcholas, ibidem 




St. Andrewes, ibidem 



St. Clement's, ibidem 




St. Martin's, ibidem 




All Saints', ibidem 




St. Peter's, ibidem 




St. Swithim's, ibidem 



St. Alban's, ibidem 


St.' John's-in-Betwardine 



St. Michaell's, ibidem 




























Acton Beauchamp 























PowiKE Decanat' — co7iHnned 






Hanley Castle 















Malverne Magna 




Malverne Parva 























Liilesley ... 












^' DE WICH. 




... 2000 



Norton Regis 

... 1058 





Hampton Lovett 


Marten Hnssentree 






Coston Hackett ... 










Stoake Prior 




Upton Warren ... 


St. Andrew's in Wich 



St. Peter's in Wich 

■ 72 









Al church 




















Decanat' de Kidderminster — continued. 







Eowley Eegis 





St. Thomas in Dudley 






Elmly Lovette 



, . . 





















Pedmore ... 


Yardley ... 

















Abbott's Morton . . . 


Abberton ... 





Fladbury ... 








Stoake and Bradley 



Breedon ... 



ISTorton-j uxta-Breedon 











Broughton Hackett 





< . . 

Croome Dabitott . . . 


. • . 

Comberton Magna 



Comberton Parva 





• .. 










Cleeve Prior 


Earle's Croome ... 


' i 






Parshore Decai 

stat' — continued. 

Elmly Castle 


Conformists. Papists. 
585 6 


Flivorcl Flavell 







Graffen Flivord ... 




Hill Croome 


















Kington ... 




Naunton Beaiichamp 

North Piddle 





















Upton Snodsbury 

Holy Crosse in Parshore... 





St. Andrew's there 




Bricklehampton ... 
Besford ... 














mA' & BLOCK 


All Sts. in Evisham 




St. Lawrence, ibidem 










North and Middle Littleton 




Hampton Magna... 

South Littleton 




Norton & Lenchwick 




Church Onybourne 



Blockley ... 
Badsey & Aldington 





Decanat' de Evisha' and Blockley— 




... 126 























th 93 



Brayles . . . 









Compton Longa 









Etington ... 







Halford ... 








Kington . . . 








Morton Morrell 



Newbold Pacie 



Oxhill ... 


. . . 

Pillardington Her 
Pillardington Pric 
Uthcotte ... 

sey .. ... 46 

)ry 36 




















Welsborne & Wa 

ItondeVile ... 284 

Hampton Epi' 





-Alveston ... 



Stratford-sup- Avo 

n 584 









... 210 

^er 256 












Pcqnsts Conformists 

Alcester 280 







Aston Cantloe 




















Norton Linsey 


































Eound Alne 








Morton Baggott 







Preston Baggott 






























Temple Grafton 





Wootten Wawen 















St. Maries-in-Warwick 

... 1264 



St. Nicholas there 












Persons ... ... ... 






... ... 





A Relic of the suppressed Ecclesiastical College of Diligent Bavaria. — 
A Paper (with additions) read before the Leicestershire Archi- 
tectural and Archaeological Society, on the 26th January, 1885, 
by the Venerable Assheton Pownall, M.A., F.S.A., Arch- 
deacon of Leicester, and Kector of South Kihvorth. 

DILIGEN is a town of Bavaria, with a population of 3,500, 
pleasantly seated on the left bank of the Danube, 24 miles 
from the City of Augsburg. In ancient times its Castle was the 
ordinary residence of the Bishops of that See. Besides the Castle, 
it formerly had a College, which, in the euphemistic language of a 
sixteenth-century writer, was " Musarum Domicilium laudatissi- 
mum," and the founder of that College was one of the Bishops of 
Augsburg. In the Library of the British Museum may be seen a 
copy of the statutes which the good Bishop drew up for the 
governance of his new foundation.* 

* Statuta Collegii Ecdesiastici in oppido Dilingce, Sic. Romte.apud Antonium Bladum, 
Impressorem cameralem, Anuo Domini mdliii.— 5915, Bagford Collection, p. 171, No. 498. 


Though to us his name is little more than a name, I speak of 
him as the good Bishop, because it is impossible to read those 
statutes of his framing, without some insight into the excellence of 
the motives which led him to frame them. If it may be said with 
justice that '' no one exhibits his own character more completely 
than when he is engaged in pourtraying the character of some one 
else," it may be said, likewise, that he who in those statutes has 
laid down rules of life for others, is sure to have indicated some 
rules which had been found to guard his own. I think the saying 
was exemplified by the statutes which he drew up for Diligen. The 
religious habits of the students, the prayers which were to be said 
by them, their manners at table in the refectory and in church, the 
books which they are to avoid (molles et impuros poetas), rules for 
direction in regard to these things, are all plainly prescribed. Rules 
also for dress, for their sports, for the sleeping chamber, are as 
precisely given ; and woe betided the student, who, when the 
Rector knocked at his chamber door, failed to open quickly, — 
adjudged contumacious, he would be cast into the prison ! Pro- 
bably a comparison might shew them not to differ materially from 
similar rules laid down for kindred institutions, but that they were 
designed to secure among the members of the College staid man- 
ners, and the virtuous habits befitting a religious community, is 
clear ; and, when we call to mind the license of that age, even 
among ecclesiastics, or recollect the internal condition of some 
religious houses of old foundation on the Continent, and at home 
in England at that period, that the Founder of this College at 
Diligen was bent on setting his new creation above reproach, stands 
to his credit ; and thus it is, I conceive, why his statutes pourtray 
the Bishop favourably. Who was he ? The scion of a noble Bavarian 
family, Otho Truches was the son of William, Baron of Waldspurgh, 
by the daughter of Frederic, Count Frustemburgh. Born at 
Augsburg, he was sent as a youth to study jurisprudence in the 
University of Bologna, and there he made acquaintance with, so as 
to obtain the friendship of, a number of men, who in after years 
became eminent in Italy ; amongst these was that Alessandro 
Farnese, who subsequently, in the year 1534, succeeded Pope 
Clement VII., under the title of Paul III., a pontiff whose ways were 
in a large degree the mundane ways of men, in a period of Church 
life, that is certainly not above reproach. Admitted to Holy 
Orders, the future founder of Diligen soon occupied offices of 
dignity, first as Canon of the Cathedral in his native city, then, as 
Dean of Trent ; but the advancement of his college friend, Farnese, 
presently made his own further advancement a certainty. Sum- 
moned to Rome, he was at once appointed to a place in the papal 
household, near the Pope's person ; fresh honours fell to him also 
when in 1544 he was chosen Bishop of Augsburg, and created 


Cardinal Priest. It is not necessary for my purpose to do more 
than give this sketch of his career as an ecclesiastic, up to the time 
when he became Founder of his College. It is enough to say that 
he lived on for twenty years beyond that date, and that when he 
died in 1573, his body, first of all buried in Eome, in the Church 
of Santa Maria Theutonicorum, was afterwards removed to Diligen, 
but any one who may care to inquire further, can read about him in 
the pages of Ciaconnius, wherein is also set forth by a wordy 
epitaph, an account of the Bishop's great piety and beneficence.* 

My purpose in telling as much as this, is simply to bespeak 
attention the better, for a curious object of the sixteenth century, 
which, together with some Italian medals, recently came into my 
possession, and which claims distinct connection with this Bishop of 
Augsburg, his college, and his patron. It is a circular plaque of 
lead, 3J inches in diameter, deserving notice from the excellence 
of its workmanship, and the combination of heraldic devices borne 
upon it. These are happily represented to us in this volume by an 
engraving. Plain on the reverse, on the obverse side the plaque bears 
three coats, one above two. That on the sinister side, is the coat of 
the College, of which we have been speaking — "aPelican, in her piety, 
nurturing her young ; " while inscribed on a label are the words of 
its motto, " SIC HIS QYI DILIGVNT," words which obviously 
form a canting on the name of the town. In them we see the 
College is referred to as another " Alma Mater," setting forth in 
its symbol of the pelican, one signification of the Latin, diligetis. 

On the dexter side of the plaque, in a line with the last-named, 
is another cartouche, which contains the coat of the Episcopal See of 
Augsburg — 1 and 4, per pale (argent and gules), quartered with the 
Truches family arms, displayed thus, — (Or) 2 and 3, three lions 
passant (sable). This is distinctively the coat of Otho Truches, as 
Bishop of Augsburg, above it is the hat of a Cardinal. In that 
volume in the Museum Library which contains the statutes of 
Diligen, an engraving represents these two coats, much as they 
are given here, but with some non-heraldic features in addition ; 
while in our engraving of the plaque, there is to be observed a 
shield, placed underneath papal insignia, and surmounting the two 
first described, only it is larger in scale, and bolder in relief than 
they are. Thus, (Or) six fleurs de lis, 3, 2, 1 (azure). These 
are the lilies of the Florentine family Farnese, but the tiara above 
them proclaims the shield to be the heraldic bearing of Pope 
Paul IILf 

Further, it is to be observed that in 1549, only four years before 
the College at Diligen was founded, his death occurred. Just 

* Vit^ et Res gestae Pontificnm S.R.E. Romse, MDCXXX. 

t A bronze medal of Paul III. in my cabinet, has the same device exactly on the reverse, 
and presents a resemblance to this portion of the plaque, which is remarkable. It is dated 
MDLXix., the year of Paul's death. 


then as by these devices, which are borne on the plaque, it is easy 
to recognize this piece of contemporary work as being in some 
way connected with that Bishop of Augsburg who was the founder, 
as also with his foundation ; so, may we not be reading rightly the 
Bishop's motive, when he added the Pope's arms to the others, 
as the motive of one who desired, by means of them, to identify 
with Diligen not only himself, the founder, but with it also, the 
memory of his patron, and quondam college friend of Bologna '? 

Of this conjecture we have fair proof in the plaque itself. It is 
not so easy to say for what purpose, in the way of ornament, it 
was meant to serve in the College. An ornament of lead, in itself, 
was little likely to be useful, but it might well become so in prepar- 
ing some permanent object in a harder material ; and my own idea 
is that we have here an artificer's " trial," in soft metal, of the die 
which he had made when producing an ornamental object. If this 
be so, we should then possess in the plaque, not the ornament 
itself, which possibly was of silver, but only the workman's 
experimental essay, a "trial" of the design he was engaged in 
producing. Judging from the style of the design, and the workman- 
ship, the artificer must have been a German. 

On a Book of the Fifteenth Century, ^i specimen of Early Printing, 
toith Some Remarhs on the Type then used. — A Paper read before 
the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, on 
the 30th of November, 1885, by the Eev. John Sikes Watson, 
M.A., Rector of Cotesbach. 

LAW, By Eriar Angelo Clavasio. Editio Princeps^ Printed 
(by Request) at Venice, 1487, by Nig. de Erankfort. 

The Yen. Archdeacon Pownall, into whose possession this curious 
volume has recently come, has in the pressure of other business, 
entrusted to me the describing of it for your benefit. 

The use of the name Summa for a book of reference is well 
known from T. Aquinas, and others. That this was distinguished as 

* This description is not wrong : although in the British Museum is a copy one year earlier. 
Both must have 'been in process of printing together, and the letter prefixed to this edition 
shows that the author believed it was now being "given to the art of printing" for the 
first time. 


Angelica, seems due simply to its author's name. This edition is 
the first of eeveral which came out in rapid succession at the end of 
the fifteenth century. Nine editions are in the Bodleian, ranging in 
date from 1487 to 1G15, printed at Venice, iS^uremberg, and Argen- 
toratum (Strasbourg), and there is a later one printed at Rome."^ 
The work must have gained a great name while still in MS. ; and 
prefixed to this edition is the request of a friend, and the compli- 
ance of the author, that the work should be " handed over to the 
art of printing." 

The Alphabetical, or Dictionary form is found in this work in 
very remarkable perfection ; and the numbering of paragraphs, 
coupled with the use throughout of Arabic numerals, makes it pos- 
sible to have, in a small compass, a vast amount of reference, both 
backw^ards and forwards in the work itself, and also to other then 
well known books of similar design. The printing is of great 
excellence, both as regards type, ink, and paper. 

Xext should be noticed the rubrication. It is one of those early 
printed works wdiich hold a transitional position between those 
which left entirely blank squares for coloured initial letters to be 
added by hand, and those which (about 1 500) began to use square 
woodcut capitals. In the earliest printed books, as in MSS., the 
lubricator was often directed what letters he was to paint by faint 
pencilling. That enormous double labour was, however, soon 
reduced by printing, as in this volume, a small letter which the 
rubricator or illuminator w^as to hide Avith his coloured capital. The 
admirable red and blue colours then in use did this well even where 
there was no illuminating. But it was obviously inevitable that in 
a very few years the multiplication of books by printing should 
outstrip all possibility of procuring such manual labour, and the 
added expense must have been even more against it. For a time, 
however, both before and after 1500, in the Venetian Aldine Press, 
amongst others, may be found the small letter in the midst of its 
white square, though it has no longer been replaced by hand-painting 
before the book left the shop. The hand-work in this copy extends 
to the adding, as again, had been usual with MSS., a line of red to 
each capital throughout the page. There is only one illuminated 
initial, viz. : — to the first article in the Dictionary. Each beginning 
of a fresh letter of the alphabet is marked by a blue initial ; and 
wherever two or more of the head-w^ords (which are all printed in 
in larger type) come together, the rubricator has seized the oppor- 
tunity for a bold tall character, which does duty for more words 
than one. This peculiarity does not exist in the Bodleian copy, 
which is evidently rubricated by another hand. The copy in the 
British jNIuseum has no colour except in the spaces left. 

» In the Bodleian Catalogue they stand thns :— Venetiis, Nich. Frankfort, 1487, 4to. ; 
Nuremberg, Ant. Koberger, USS, 4to. ; Veuet. Georg. de Rivabenis, 1489, 4to. ; Argent. 
Martin Flach, 1491, folio ; Venet. Georg. de Ai-ivabeuis, 1496, Svo. ; Nuremb. Ant. Koberger, 
1498 ; Ven. Paganinus de Paganinis, 1499 ; Argent. Renatus Beck, 1513 ; Argent. Knoblauch, 
1615 ;' (Rome, 1C99). In the British Museum are a few more. 



The completeness and utility of the work is enhanced by full 
indexes at the end ; and altogether it leaves to later makers of 
Dictionaries and Cyclopaedias very few points to improve upon — 
unless indeed we speak of what may be objected equally against all 
early printing, viz. : — that strange blind retention of the contractions 
which were natural enough in MS., but which not only added to 
the fatigue of the reader, but must so immensely have added to the 
cumbrousness of the printer's apparatus ; rendering the required 
numbers of different types to be 7na7i?j times more than would have 
been wanted for jmnting at full length."^ 

As to the matter and style, such examination as I have been 
able to make leads me to think the value of the book must havo 
been very great for its day and time — not only for what was doubt- 
less its main purpose, the guidance of spiritual directors and 
confessors ; but also, as the author says, for the use of any man 
desiring to live a praiseworthy life. 

Generally, its answers on debateable points are given with great 
clearness, decision, and authority ; and its morality is very severe 
and uncompromising. 

The bulk of the volume consists very largelj of doubtful points 
introduced by " Utrum" and followed by the answer " Quod sic,' 
or '' Quod non" 

In many ways it doubtless presents a mirror of the manners and 
habits of thought of the fifteenth century, such as ought to be of 
very high value to an antiquary. 

I subjoin a few extracts : — 

Under Balneum occurs the following, curiously illustrative of the 
position of the "Shylocks" of Venice : — (N.B. I expand . abbre- 
viations) " Utrum liceat balneum intrare cum Judeo. Responsum ; 
quod non : ulli'Christiano : et si clericus est, debet deponi j laicus 
excommunicari j qui cum Judeo se balneat." 

(Whether it be lawful to enter a (public) bath along with a 
Jew. Answer : that it is not, to any Christian : and if he be a 
cleric he ought to be degraded ; (or) a layman, to be excommuni- 
cated, whoever bathes with a Jew.) 

II. — Bisextus dicitur quia per duos dies stamus super Sextum 
Kalendas Martii. Et nota quod vigilia sancti Mathie semper debet 
esse die immediate precedenti festo ejusdem, nisi veniret festum die 
lune quia tunc fieret die sabbati. Et secundum consuetudinem 
Romane ecclesie, tempore bisextus, secunda die fit festum sancti 

(Bisextus is so named because for two days we stop upon the 
sixth before the Kalends of March. And note that the vigil of 

♦ It Is curious that this printing of contractions was more used in Latin than in English 
while in the case of Greek it did not finally disappear till within living memory. 



St. Matthias always ought to bo on tho day immediately preceding 
his festival : — unless the festival should fall on a Monday, in which 
case it would be on Saturday, and, according to the use of the 
Roman Church, in leap year, the feast of St. Matthias is held on the 
second day, {i.e., on the second sixth) before the Kalends.) 

N.B. — Tempore bisextus, if that is what was meant to be 
written, is very queer Latin, but elsewhere I find forus for forum, 
and many similar horrors. 

Utrum suspensus per annum possit celebrare tempore bisextus 
ultima die anni bisextilis. R Glo. in d.c. [i.e., Glossa (ordinaria) 
in dicto casu] quosivit quod sic : sicut libertas promissa servienti 
per annum acquiritur si servit 365 diebus. 

(Whether a priest, under sentence of suspension for the year, 
can celebrate, when it is leap year, on the last .day of the year. 
Answer : The Glossa ordinaria in the said case has gone into the 
question deciding that he may : Just as freedom, promised to one 
who remains in servitude for a year, is acquired if he serves 
365 days.) 

III. — Core A, Dancing. — Ecclcsiasticis porsonis prohibetur : ita 
quod credo eos peccare mortaliter : nisi forte modicitas vel qualitas 
corizandi excusaret : puta si secrete et hujusmodi. 

(Dancing to ecclesiastical persons is prohibited, so much so 
that I believe in them it is a mortal sin, unless perchance some 
extenuating circumstance can be pleaded in excuse, as for instance 
that it was done i?i secret or the like.) 

IV. — Under Magistcr there is a quaint direction as to what 
sciences are lawful to be read. These are fixed as seven, Graramatica, 
Dialectica, Eetorica, Musica, Goometria, Arithmetica, Astrologia : 
each having its doggerel hexameter to commend it ]3ut astrology 
means astronomy, as is clear from what follows (among other 

' Utrum mathematica possit legi. R Quod mathesis cum 
aspiratione medio ad oxercitium non licet docere (sic). Quia 

significat artem divinandi Sed alia, matesis, qua3 (quod) 

habet penultimam brevem, bene licita est, unde versus " Scire facit 
matesis : dat divinare mathesis." 

(Whether the science called Mathematica may be read. Answer, 
tfhat Mathesis, with the accentuation of the middle syllable, as a 
practice it is unlawful to teach, for it mc^ins the art of divination. 

But the other form, Mathesis, which has the penultima short, 
is fully allowable. Hence the line : — 

" Knowledge to men can Mathesis impart, 
Mathesis gives them Divination's art.") 

I would gladly have added some extracts which would have 
displayed the best side of this old writer. He has to deal with 
subjects often very solemn and hardly suited for an occasion when 


our object is bibliographic ; but I may say generally that in distinc- 
tions of the comparative guilt of different cases of crime (e.g.), he 
seems to me to show much judgment and clear perception of intrinsic 
right and wrong; giviug its due weight to the animus of the 
criminal, where it can be ascertained. And I think that, making 
allowance for the ecclesiasticism of his day (which regarded, e.g., an 
assault on a cleric as a crime of an altogether different kind from an 
assault on a lay person), he is very fair and equitable, and tempers 
his stern severity with a laudable amount of mercy. 

Let me now call your attention to the outside of the book. It 
is half-bound ; the back-covering of stamped hog's leather, stopping 
half-way on the side boards of beech wood. (To many of you, this 
way of binding may be familiar. I had not seen it, or at least not 
noticed it before ; but when I took this volume to the Bodleian, one 
of the first books that caught my eye, lying out on a reading ledge, 
where it was in use, was one with a very similar binding). The 
uncovered lialf of one board has been replaced more recently with 
oak, which, as you will see, wants the corresponding mortices to 
those on the old board which hold the leather hinges of the old 
clasps. Whether the book had a binding before its present one I 
have not been able to decide : but the stamped hog's leather bindings, 
which I understand to be usually German or Flemish, are additionally 
interesting from often having a date upon them ; and in this case 
1545 is plainly visible on both sides. This is of course the date of 
the engraving of the metal roller which embossed the leather, and 
the binding may be a good deal later. I possess, and have brought 
with me to-day, a volume whole-bound in the same material similarly 
stamped : and bearing in the tooling the date 1550. In that 
specimen the medallions or niched figures are the Evangelists ; but 
in this, while the number is the same, they are labelled, below their 
frames or niches, justicia (bearing a sword), lucrecia (stabbing 
herself), piiuden[cia] (bearing what is perhaps meant for a mirror), 
and then under a similar half-length figure instead of a name is the 
date 1545. The figure bears what may be an olive branch, or a 
palm of victory : but I cannot find any reason for connecting that 
date with either emblem. And the other binding makes it likely 
that it was no more than following the custom of engraving the 
date upon these roller-tools. Just such tools are to be seen in an 
old German woodcut of a bookbinder's shop (given by De Vinne, 
p. 153). 

And here I should have ended, but for a flaw which exists in 
one page, to which, as I have found, an interest attaches greater 
than I should ever have imagined. I did think it interesting and 
curious, and I wrote in June to Archdeacon Pownall saying how it 
seemed to have happened : but when I showed it to Mr. F. Madan, 
the Bodleian Librarian, he was greatly pleased at the discovery, and 


at once told me that the page ought to be photographed, as there 
was one other instance, and onl}"" one, known of the same accident, 
and he then showed me the facsimile of a jDage injured in the same 
manner, and he begged me to send an account of it to the Academy. 
This appeared last August, and is as follows : 

Impress of the Shape 

Of a Metal Type of 1487. 

In a copy of the Summa Angelica (an alphabetical Cyclopedia 
of Cases of Conscience), by Friar Angelo Clavasio, printed (Editio 
Princeps) at Venice in 1487 by Nicholas de Frankfort, a German 
— a volume Avhich has recently come into the possession of the 
Ven. Archdeacon Pownall, F.S.A., — there is a flaw- in the printing 
of one leaf, caused by the accidental presence, on the face of 
the forme, of a metal type. The printing is very neat and 
small (Gothic), with 50 linos in a page of 6 J inches, exclusive of 
margin, and the type (a rather thin one), probably I (1), is just an 
inch"^ long. It must have become inked on its side by the " ball " 
or inking-pad which extracted it and laid it down, and the ink 
(together with its great extra pressure to which from its prominence 
it would be subjected) must have made it adhere to the paper. 
Before, however, the other face of the sheet was printed, it was 
evidently discovered ; and the printer in detaching it (apparently 
with his nail, and doubtless while the paper was damp), tore a 
hole, nearly the width of its impress, and extending a little beyond 
it to a narrowing point. But he did not throw away the damaged 
sheet. To do this it must be remembered might often be to waste 
not that one sheet only, but perhaps one of each of several other 
sheets already printed, for the types used for the earlier sheets 
were distributed and set up again many times over.f 

But even apart from this it was usual in early printing that the 
publishers should make MS. corrections, and so that course was 
adopted, the flawed lines of the text being re-written in full at the 
foot of the page, both on the side where the type adhered, and on 
the other, where the hole caused by its removal partly injured two 
lines of the text. The rubricator has marked with red the capitals 
occurring in the handwriting at foot, just as ho has done in the 
text, thus proving the MS. correction to have been made by the 
publisher, or original bookseller, and not by a purchaser or owner. 

This instance, as many will be aware, is not the first that has 
been found of this particular accident. When the present writer 

* Mr. De Vinne's accurate measurement (see below) makes its length, or more properly 
height, to be a little over an inch. English and American types, though not identical, are both 
under an inch in height. 

t The volume has 800 pages, or 1,600 columns, of 50 lines ; and since there are about 35 
characters to the line, there would be needed nearly 3,000,000 types if the whole were set up 
at once. 

"SUMMA angelica/' 85 

drew attention, at the Bodleian, to the flaw he had found, and its 
apparent origin, he was shown, in the bibliographic work of 
de Vinne (Invention of Printing, London and New York, 1877), a 
passage which he bases on a discovery by a French savant — 
J. P. A. Madden, of Versailles — described in his Lettres d'un 
Bibliocjraphe (Paris, 1875), vol. iv., p. 231. It is in a work eleven 
years earlier than this Venetian one, printed at Cologne in 1476, 
that, as M. Madden has discovered, the very same accidental blemish 
occurs ; and he gives a facsimile of the flawed passage, and the 
following account of it : — 

"Voici comme je me rends compte de Torigine de cette 
empreinte : la balle, recouverte d'une encre visqueuse, appliquee 
avec force sur la page metallique, dont une ligne avait ses lettres 
faiblement serrees les unes contre les autres, enleva de cette ligne 

la lettre t probablement*, et la coucha sur la forme, 

a laquelle elle resta adherente. Comme cette lettre n'a qu'une tr^s 
lente epaisseur, elle n'empecha le contact du papier et de la forme, 
qu'a une tres petite distance a I'entour." 

[This is how I account for the occurrence of this impression. 
The ball, covered over with a sticky ink, and forcibly pressed upon 
the metallic page of type, one line of which had its letters but 
loosely packed, lifted out of this line a letter, probably f, and laid 
it down on the face of the forme of type, to which it remained 
adherent. As this letter has but a very moderate thickness, it did 
not prevent the contact of the paper with the forme for more than 
a very small distance round.] 

To have proof of the shape of the early printers' types is 
interesting for several reasons. The earliest types had not the notch 
or notches which have now so long guided the compositor's finger j 
but M. Madden's imprint shows a depression on the side of the 
type, which he says answered the same purpose. The hole in the 
paper, in the present instance, prevents the possibility of any 
evidence on the existence of this depression, but the outline is 
sufficiently clear to make it almost certain that the notches had not 
yet been introduced. One important improvement, however, may 
with some certainty be now assigned to the ten years 1477 to 1487, 
viz., the substitution of square for sloping shoulders to the type — a 
change of great value for the taking of waxen impressions with a 
view to stereotype, whether first adopted with that object or not. 
As in M. Madden's instance the printing is perfect to within an 
astonishingly short distance of the edge of the super-imposed type. 
The flaw does not exist in the Bodleian copy of the same edition, 
nor in that in the British Museum ; nor was the absence of a letter 

» The present writer ventures to think the lifted type must, from its impress, have been 
not t, but the period point (.), a type which would also be considerably thinner than t. There 
Is surely no necessity, as M. Madden appears to assume, that the type should be one of those 
immediately below the place where it lies. 


detected. But it might be possible, in any such case, to identify 
with certainty the lifted type, if one could compare co]Dies printed 
off before and after the flawed copy. 

The blemished page has been photographed by Messrs. Hill and 
Saunders, Oxford, from whom copies may be obtained by post 
for Is. 7d. 

To this I can now add, that having sent a photograph and the 
extract from the Academy to Mr. De Vinne, through his New York 
publishers, I have received an interesting answer thanking me, and 
pointing out that the length of this old lifted type differs from the 
English, American, and French lengths ; but is identical with that 
which is still in use in Germany. Anyone familiar with printing 
will see that while the length chosen for types might in the first 
instance be a matter of no moment, yet all succeeding founts will 
be made identically the same in this one respect, however they may 
differ in others, because the printer may at any time want to com- 
bine in the same forme passages in different type. 

It is, in fact, very like the perpetuity which has become the lot 
of George Stephenson's railway gauge. Its first adoption was a 
chance ; but its perpetuation became a necessity, because each new 
line wanted to be able to be used by already existing rolling stock. 

But it is interesting to find this unexpected proof of the antiquity 
of this particular length, in the Eatherland whence Nicholas de 
Franckfort probably brought to Venice the implements and apparatus 
of his art. 

End of Part I., Vol. XVIII. 

^xthiitcinxnl (Societies' 













§tnzxni ^xmhnt: 

Leasingham, Sleaford. 

§zmxn\ giubrtor: 
Rev. H. I. BIGGE, Hallaton Hall, Uppingham. 

(^mtxnl ^ecutnrg : 
Rev. G. T. HARVEY, Lincoln. 





Societies in Union for General Purposes. 

The Society of Antiquaries, incorporated 1718. Burlington 
House, London. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, established 1844. Oxford Mansions, Oxford Street, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Royal Institution, 

The Royal Institute, of British Architects, incorporated 1836. 
9, Conduit Street, Hanover Square, London. 

The Northern Architectural Association, established 1858. 
Old Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, established 1855. 

The Oxford Architectural Society, established 1859, St. Giles', 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society, established 1846. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, established 1846. Lewes. 

The Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological Society, estab- 
lished 1848. Royal Institution, Colquit Street, Liverpool. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Statistics, and Natural 
History, established 1848. Bury St. Edmunds. 

The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
established 1849. Castle, Taunton. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, established 1858. Chillington 
House, Maidstone. 

The St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1845. Court House, St. Albans. 

The Buckinghamshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, 
established 1847. Museum, Aylesbury. 

The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, established 1820. 
Philosophical Hall, Leeds. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute. Archaeological Sec- 
tion, Birmingham. 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society, founded 1866. Kendal. 

The Associated Societies' Re'ports are supplied 
gratuitously to — 

The British Museum. 

The Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

The University Library, Cambridge. 

Lambeth Palace Library. 

The Cathedral Library, Lincoln. 




Forty-third Report Ixiii. 

The Recent Discovery of the Foundations of the Apse of 
St. Hugh's Cathedral at Lincohi. By the Rev. the 
Precentor of Lincoln. With Illustrations 87 

An Incident in the Episcopate of Bishop John of Bucking- 
ham, 1393— 1395. By the Precentor of Lincoln ... 96 

On the Tombs in Lincoln Cathedral. By Matthew 

Holbeche Bloxam 103 

Lincoln Cathedral Choir a.d. 1558 to 1640. A Paper 
read at the Annual Meeting at Lincoln, in June, 1886. 
By the Rev. A. R. Maddison, M.A., F.S.A., Priest- Yicar 
of Lincoln Cathedral 110 

On Sculptured " Memorials of the Dead " of i^re-Norman 
type, — (1) coped crosses, (2) flat stones, (3) standing 
stones, (4) pillars, (5) crosses. By Rev. G. F. Browne. 122 

The Pre-Historic Boat discovered at Brigg. A Paper read 
by Mr. James Thropp, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., County 
Surveyor of the Division of Lindsey, on the recently 
discovered Boat at Brigg. With Illustrations 129 

Archaeological Notes : 

Discovery of the Site of an Anglo-Saxon Camp or 

Settlement C?) near AVoolsthorpe-by-Belvoir 132 

Roman Milestone found near Ancaster. By the Right 
Reverend the Lord Bishop of Nottingham. With 
Illustration 134 

Forty-third Report Ixxv. 

Monumental Brasses, with a series of Illustrations of 
Military Brasses, being fac-similes of actual Rubbings in 
Miniature. By F. R. Fairbank, M.D., Doncaster, Loc. Sec. 
With Illustrations 181 




Forty-first Report Ixxix. 

The Missing Termination of Queen Eleanor's Cross at 

Northampton. By R. G. Scriven. With Illustrations. 136 

Ancient Punishments in Northamptonshire. By Chris- 
topher A. Markham. A Paper read at the Annual 
Meetingheldon December 13th, 1886. With Illustrations. 145 


Thirty-ninth Report xcv. 

The Earthworks of Bedfordshire. By C. E. Prior, M.D. 
Read before the British Archaeological Association, July 
23rd, 1881 162 


Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire. A Paper by George Oliver, 
Member of the Worcester Diocesan Architectural and 
Archa3ological Society. With Illustrations 176 


Report xcvii. 

On a Book of the Fifteenth Century " Summa Angelica," a 
specimen of Early Printing, with Some Remarks on the 
Type then used. A Paper read before the Leicestershire 
Architectural and Archa3ological Society, on the 30th 
November, 1885, by the Rev. John Sikes Watson, M.A., 
Rector of Cotesbach. [This Paper was priiited in the 
first half of this volume, hut luas omitted from its list of 
contents.! 79 



Lincoln Cathedral : — 

Plan L Plan of Foundations of Norman Choir ... 94 
„ 11. Plan of Foundations of St. Hugh's Apse, 
and Stone Coffin supposed to have held 

the body of St. Hugh 94 

„ in. Plan of St. Hugh's Apse 87 

Pre-Historic Boat discovered at Brigg : — 

Sketch Plan of Site 129 

Elevations and Sections, Roman Way and planking 130 

Roman Milestone found near Ancaster 135 

Terminations of Ancient Crosses 143 

Ancient Punishments in Northamptonshire — Stocks, 
Pillory, Whipping Posts : — 

Apethorpe, and Gretton 149 

Waltham 150 

Little Houghton 151 

Kilpeck Church. Herefordshire, — View, West Window, 

Gargoyles, Grotesque Figures, &c. .... ... ... 177 

Monumental Brasses : — 

Sir John D'Aubernoun 184 

Sir Robert De Bures 185 

Fitz Ralph 186 

Sir John De Creke 186 

Sir Hugh Hastings 187 

Cobham 187 

Sir George Felbrigg 188 

Lord Dagworth 188 

Sir Thomas Leventhorpe 188 

William Ludsthorp 189 

William Fitzwilliam and Wife 190 

Adderbury 190 

Howden ,. 190 

Thomas Gascoigne 191 







fhe Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 


Highness the Due d'Aumale. 
the Aechbishop of Canterbury. 
the Duke of Rutland. 
the Duke of Portland. 
Hon. the Marquis of Bristol. 
Hon. the Earl Brownlow. 
Hon, the Earl of Yarborough. 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Southwell. 





His Grace 

His Grace 












Sir H. H. Bacon, Premier Baronet. 
Sir J. H. Thorold, Bart. 
Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. 
The Eight Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

The A^ery Rev. the Dean of Lincoln. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 

The Rev. the Precentor of Lincoln. 
The Rev. the Chancellor of Lincoln 


The Rev. the Sub-Dean of Lincoln. 
The Venerable the Archdeacon of 

J. Banks Stanhope, Esq. 
The Right Hon. H. Chaplin, M.P. 
H. Sherbrooke, Esq. 
J. L. Ffytche, Esq., F.S.A. 
B. Huntsman, Esq. 
W. H. Smyth, Esq, 
The Right Hon. E. Stanhope, M.P. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Nottingham. 


The President. 

The Patrons. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Rural Deans (being Members). 

The Officers of the Society. 

Rev, Prebendary F. H. Sutton. 

Rev. S. W. Andrews, 

Rev. Prebendary Bartlet. 

Rev. Prebendary Nevile. 

Rev. J. C . K. Saunders. 
Rev. R. E. G. Cole. 
Rev. J. Wild. 
Rev. A. R. Maddison. 
Rev. G. T. Harvey. 
Rev. C. E. Jarvis. 
Rev. J. 0. Stephens. 
S. F. Hood, Esq. 
Mr. Winn. 

^ottorars Jlcting (Sfcr^tavB. 
Rev. J. C. Hudson, Thorntbn Vicarage, Horncastle. 

Rev. Prebendary Moore. For the Archdeaconry of Lincoln. 
Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart. For the Archdeaconry of Stow, 

The Rev. Sub-Dean Clements, Sub-Deanery, Lincoln. 

Rev. A. R. Maddison, F.S.A., Vicars' Court, Lincoln. 

New Members elected in 1886. 
Life Members. 

His Grace the Duke of Portland, Welbeck Abbey, Notts. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Southwell, Thurgarton Priory, Southwell. 

Ordinary Members. 

Mr. Ernest Leigh Grange, Great Grimsby. 

Mr. R. W. Taylor, 8, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, London. 

Rev. H. F. Cordeaux, Boothby Graffoe, Lincoln. 

Rev. Prebendary Matthew, Lincoln. 

Rev. R. Baker, Fulletby Vicarage, Horncastle. 

Mr. Henry Winn, Fulletby, Horncastle. » 

Rev, J. F. S, Vavasour, Snelland, Wragby. 


The Report. 

In presenting their Forty-tliird Annual Report your Committee have the 
pleasure of announcing that the Society is in a fairly flourishing condition. 
The Member-list is somewhat shorter than it was, but the diminution in the 
number of our Members is apparent rather than real, as a careful examination 
of the list led to the removal of the names of several persons whose annual 
subscriptions had been allowed for some years to fall into arrears, and of 
several, too, whose deaths had not been notified to the Treasurer or Secretary. 

Nine new Members have been elected during the past year : of these the 
Duke of Portland and the Bishop of Southwell are Life Members, and have 
been elected Patrons of the Society. 

Your Society has to regret the loss of one of its oldest and most valued 
Members in the person of the Rev. C. Terrot, Rector of Wispington, one of the 
Annual Local Secretaries for the Archdeaconry of Lincoln. Advancing years 
and failing health have for some considerable time prevented Mr. Terrot's 
attendance at the Meetings of the Committee, many Members of which learnt 
to value his opinion on all matters of taste, while they could not fail to admire his 
remarkable water-colour drawings, some of which adorn the walls of the 
Society's Room. At the Committee, on May 7th, the Bishop of Nottingham 
was requested to write a letter of condolence to Mrs. Terrot, expressing the high 
estimation in which Mr. Terrot was held. 

The Rev. Prebendary Maclean's resignation of the living of Caistor, which 
he had held for forty-two years, has deprived the Committee of one of its oldest 
and most regular Members. Mr. Maclean has left Lincolnshire for the South 
of England, where it is hoped he may yet enjoy some years of well-earned 

The division of the Diocese rendered necessary some change in the title 
of the Society, and your Committee, after due consideration, at the General 
Meeting in January last, adopted the following as the name of the Society : — 
The Architectural and Archaeological Society of the Counties of Lincoln and 

The ground-plan of the eastern termination of St. Hugh's Choir has always 
been a question of much interest, and one often discussed by archaeologists. 
During the months of November and December the floor of that portion of the 
South Choir Aisle, which is eastward of the transept, and the western portion 
of the Retro-choir have been taken up, and the earth was excavated to a depth 
sufficient to show the plan of St. Hugh's Choir. This is hardly the place to 
enter into a full description of the plan of St. Hugh's work, suffice it to say, 
that in another part of the volume for 1886, it is hoped that a full description 
and plans of the excavations will be given by Precentor Venables, at whose 
instance the work was undertaken. Down to the latter part of the seventeenth 
century tradition had assigned a certain place, rightly or wrongly we know 
not, as the resting-place of the body of St. Hugh, and over it, it will be 
remembered that Bishop Fuller placed a table tomb of marble with a suitable 
inscription. The excavations mentioned above necessitated the removal of 
this tomb, and under it, about one foot below the surface of the present floor, 
was found a stone coffin rudely roofed in with three slabs of Lincoln stone. 
On the removal of these slabs was found an inner leaden coffin having a loose 
cover. This leaden coffin contained nothing to lead to the identification of 
its former occupant ; there were no bones, but only remains apparently of 
linen, and some embroidered material, and on the spot where the breast of the 
body may be supposed to have lain was an object, circular in form, about an 
inch in thickness and six in diameter. This was most probably the morse of 
the cope, and had been embroidered, threads of gold being found in it. A full 
description of this will also be found in the current volume. 

On the proposal of the Treasurer it has been determined that all composi- 
tions in lieu of annual subscriptions received since 1886, as well as all future 


compositions be invested in some recognised Trust Security at the discretion 
of the Treasurer and Secretary, or be placed on deposit at the Society's Bankers. 
The Rev. Chancellor Leeke, Arthur H. Leslie-Melville, Esq., the Rev. G. T. 
Harvey, and the Rev. A. R. Maddison have consented to become Trustees for 
such monies, as may be invested under the foregoing resolution. Steps are being 
taken to secure a suitable investment for about £145 of the Society's capital. 

It is to be regretted that much unwillingness is shown by many of the 
Clergy to make returns of Church Plate belonging to the several parishes of 
the Diocese. Since the last Report but few returns have been received, and it 
is feared that, unless personal visits by those interested in such matters be 
made to those parishes from which returns have not yet been received, but 
little further progress will be made with the Inventory. 

In providing accommodation for a new Gasometer at Brigg, a most 
interesting discovery has been made in the shape of a boat of great antiquity, 
which was found at some depth below the present surface of the ground. Careful 
drawings to scale, and measurements have been made by Mr. Thropp, C. E. , of 
Lincoln, who has kindly prepared a paper describing the boat and illustration 
which appear in this volume. 

The design by Messrs. Bodley and Garner for the Memorial of Bishop 
"Wordsworth, to be placed in the Retro-choir of the Cathedral, has been 
decided upon. Its ground-plan is an elongated octagon, surmounted by a 
lofty vaulted canopy, beneath which lies the effigy of the Bishop in full epis- 
copal vestments. The model of the effigy has been seen by some Members of 
our Committee, and has received their warm approbation, both as a work of 
art, and as an excellent portrait of the late Bishop. 

The Committee have to report that the Honorary Secretary at the Meeting 
of the Committee in July gave notice, that he should at the end of the current 
year resign the office of Hon. Secretary, having held it for nearly twenty-one 

The General Meeting of the Society was this year, after a considerable 
interval, held in Lincoln on the 30th of June and the 1st of July, and was 
attended by several Members of the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire 
Societies. After Morning Service in the Minster, a Meeting was held in the 
Chapter-house, under the presidency of the Bishop of Nottingham. The 
Precentor of Lincoln delivered a highly interesting Preliminary Lecture on 
the Architectural History of the Minster, and afterwards conducted the party 
round the church. In the afternoon various places of interest in the City were 
visited, including Newport Arch, the Roman Portico in Bailgate, the Jeio's 
House, John o' Gaunt' s Stables, the Old Palace, the' Court, and several 
churches. In the evening a Meeting was held in the County Assembly Rooms, 
when Papers on archseological subjects were read, viz., one On the Tombs in 
Lvncoln Qathedral, by M. H. Bloxam, Esq., and another On Pre-Norman 
Sculptured Stones, by the Rev. G. F. Browne. 

On Thursday an excursion was made to Canwick, Bra'tiston, Nocton, 
Dunston, Blankney, Navenby, Somerton Castle, Coleby, Harmston, and 
Waddington, starting from the Minster-yard at half-past nine. There was a 
large gathering of Members of the Society and others, about eighty joining in 
the excursion, which may be described as one of the most successful the 
Society has ever made. The interesting and valuable descriptions by the 
Bishop of Nottingham of the several churches, and of Somerton Castle, were 
attentively listened to. A halt of two hours was made at Blankney for 
Luncheon, arrangements for which had been kindly undertaken by the Rector 
of Blankney. We append the Bishop of Nottingham's description of the 
churches visited dnring the tour: — 

All Saints', Cakwick. 

Externally, this church has not a promising aspect for students of Gothic 
architecture, but after an inspection of its interior I feel sure that all will 

REPORT. Ixvii. 

think it well worthy of inspection. Originally it was a small Norman 
structure, consisting of a nave, tower, north aisle, and chancel of the earlier 
part of the twelfth century, of which the aisle, arcade, and chancel arch are 
the principal remaining features. The first consists of a massive circular 
shafted pillar in the centre, having a scalloped cushion cap, and two corres- 
ponding responds, the second is the principal ornament of the fabric, and is a 
grand specimen of its date, from its size and the richness of its carvin». Its 
jambs are relieved b)^ three pillars on either side, carrying a semi circular 
arch of three members, enriched by the chevron and billet moulds. On the 
east wall of the aisle is a fragment of a iSTorman abacus and a springer of an 
arch, probably once forming an arched recess over an altar below. The tower 
apparently stood on the space now occupied by a bay, added to the nave 
during the Decorated period, from the evidence of a small piece of early roll- 
moulding still remaining in the lower part of the western face of the present 
inner wall of the tower. Of the Early English period, we have the arch, 
lately revealed in the north wall of the chancel, springing from corbels, made 
up with plaster below, formerly opening into a chantry chapel now represented 
by the vestry, within which is an Early English reredos, still remaining in its 
original position, ornamented with shallow arcading, below a small two-light 
window of later date. The font, also, is of this period. Of the Decorated 
period are the two large three-light windows in the south wall of the nave, 
the westernmost one being apparently a later copy of the other, and also a 
small two-light window in the tower. The rest of the fabric is modern. 

All Saints', Branston. 

Remains of a most venerable structure are still doing service in the present 
church, testifying as to the antiquity and continuity of our Church of England, 
viz., the south-western angle of the nave, which is of bold long and short 
Saxon work, such as is also found in the same position in the chm*ches of 
Wilsford and Cranwell. The next oldest feature is the IS'orman tower. This 
springs up without any break to a considerable height, when its walls are 
slightly gathered in below the belfry stage, and is finally surmounted by a 
poor Perpendicular embattled parapet with angle pinnacles, and then by a 
spire of the same period. In its west front is a narrow doorway having a semi- 
circular head, in which the roll and scallop mouldings are introduced, and 
small circular shafted pillars enrich its jambs. On either side of this doorway 
is a coeval arcade, the pillars of which have scalloped cushion caps and square 
abaci. Above this was a small Norman window, now replaced by a larger 
modern one, and in the upper stage are four pairs of semicircular-headed belfry 
openings, each having a deeply recessed pillar between them, supporting, as 
usual, a wide impost above. In the lower part of the south wall of the tower 
are the remains of a small Norman window, afterwards nearly destroyed by 
the insertion of an arch of considerable size once giving access to an adjoining 
building that no longer exists, the purport of which is not apparent. The 
outline of this arch may be clearly seen, both within and without. From 
some remaining features we can distinctly see that almost the whole church, 
excepting the tower, was rebuilt during the Early English period, viz., the 
south doorwaj' within the porch, a smaller one near the west end of the north 
aisle, now walled up, the chancel arch, the sedilia, and some of the windows 
inserted in the present chancel. The font, also of this period, is of a peculiar 
character, resembling the one at Canwick, and consists of an awkward-shaped 
bowl clasped by the caps of four circular shafted pillars, and further supported 
by an octangular central pillar. The wide and lofty chancel arch is a fine 
feature of this Early period, and the coeval sedilia of the chancel, with their 
square-headed pillars, are equally eff"ective, from their bold mouldings. Un- 
fortunately the north wall is not relieved either by windows or other features, 
on account of a modern vestry attached to it. 

During the Decorated period this church was nearly rebuilt, as both the 
aisles and their arcades are of that style, 


The northern one consists of three well proportioned arches supported 
hy two pillars, the caps of which are enriched with good foliated carving, and 
plainly-moulded responds. Beyond this is a new second aisle, added in 1876, 
through the erection of another arcade of three bays, consisting of arches sup- 
ported by octangular shafted pillars, erected on the site of the original external 
wall, the windows of which are inserted in the j)resent one. These consist of 
two having reticulated tracery, and another new one like them, and two flat- 
headed ones. The south aisle arcade is supported by one pillar with a foliated 
cap, and another, together with responds having moulded caps. In the south 
wall of this aisle is a small piscina, telling us that there was once a chantry 
chapel there. The east window is an arched four-light one, and at the west 
end is a similar two -light window. In the side wall are two flat -headed 
windows of two lights each. 

During the Perpendicular period the nave was surmounted by a clerestory 
having four three-light windows in each wall, and terminating in an embattled 
parapet with pinnacles between them, together with a good roof of that time, 
both of which still remain. Then also the numerous old carved oak bench-ends 
which are still in use were first erected, which add so much to the appearance 
of this church still. 

There are several monuments of coUvsiderable interest. The first of these 
is a Purbeck marble slab in the floor of the chancel, diminishing towards the 
foot^ incised with a beautiful foliated cross, and bearing this legend, "Icy gist 
Sir Richard de Thiselton iadis person de ceste eglise," cut in Lombardic 
letters. Against the wall of the north aisle, near the west end, is a grand 
monument commemorating Sir Cecil Wray, of Glentworth, 13th Baronet, 
and his wife, prepared by himself before his death. This consists of a 
pyramid of marble Avith busts of himself and his wife on either side. 
He was the builder of Fillingham Castle, the Representative in Parliament 
of East Retford, and subsequently of Westminster ; but he lost that seat 
in 1784, chiefly through the eff"orts of the famous and beautiful Duchess of 
Devonshire in behalf of Fox, and died in 1805. At the east end of the older 
north aisle is the marble monument of Lord Vere Bertie, eldest son of Robert, 
1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, Marquis and Earl of Lindsey, and 
Hereditary Lord Chamberlain of England ; and on the wall of the south aisle 
is another white marble monument, commemorating Lady Mary Bertie, his wife. 

All Saints', Nocton. 
This is an entirely new church, built on a new site, partly by the late 
Countess of Ripon, and partly by the present Earl de Grey, after plans 
provided by the late Sir Gilbert Scott, in the style of the close of the 
thirteenth century. Its most conspicuous feature is its tower, surmounted by 
an octagonal belfry stage and graceful spire, rising altogether to a height of 
120 feet. This is attached to the south western bay of the nave, and its 
lower stage serves as a porch to the church. The whole structure within and 
without clearly indicates that no cost was spared in its erection, which is not 
surprising, as one portion of it was built as a memorial of a wealthy Earl, and 
the other of a Countess. Hence sculpture, and painting, and marble have 
been lavishly bestowed upon the adornment of the fabric, raising it in this 
respect far above most churches, and indicating the unsparing liberality of its 
founders. Perhaps the clustered pillars of the aisle-arcades, with their square 
abaci, are rather too plain and massive to accord perfectly with the rest of the 
fabric, their arches arc too wide and low, and although the profuse carving of 
the caps, corbels, and medallions of the church is admirably executed, we 
should have preferred the adoption of conventional rather than realistic designs 
for these ; but nowhere else to-day shall we see a church so richly adorned 
with painted glass and other ornamental work applied to such features as its 
reredos, pulpit, and font, nor any modern monument such as the one here 
commemorating the late Lord Ripon, through the skill in sculpture of the 
late Mr. Noble. 

REPORT. Ixix. 

St. Peter's, Dunston. 

Only a few ancient features now exist in this church, such as the arch of 
its porch, the tower, and a Decorated monument. The whole of the remainder 
was erected in 1876, chiefly at the cost ot the Marquis of Kipon, and was one 
of his last acts for the benefit of the Church of England before his lamentable 
secession to the Church of Rome. It is a comely edifice, consisting of a nave 
with north and south aisles, chancel, organ-chamber, and vestry, besides the 
old tower. For the information of our visitors I may say that in this parish, 
although distant from its church, stands a pyramidal lofty shaft, commonly 
called Dunston Pillar, erected by Francis Dashwood, Esq., in the year 1751, 
to serve as a light-house to travellers crossing Lincoln heath, which, 
from its size and roadless condition formerly, often led to loss of life. 
Originally the pillar was surmounted by a lantern chamber, which for a time 
doubtless proved a great boon to those who had occasion to travel between 
Lincoln and Sleaford in foggy weather, or by night. Eventually this was 
blown off; but in 1810 the pillar was crowned by a terra-cotta effigy of 
George IlL, commemorating his jubilee, or the 50th year of his reign ; 
now suggesting the fitness of devising another local monument of some kind 
or another, to serve shortly as a memorial of our present Sovereign's jubilee, 
when her beneficent reign has reached the end of half a century, and then, 
as now, we may, in all loyalty and affection, say " God bless her." 

St. Oswald's, Blankney. 

The aisle arcades of this church, the arcade giving access to what was 
originally a chantry chapel, of late happily restored to use, the arch of the 
porch, and a sepulchral slab inserted in the pavement of the sacrarium, are 
the only ancient features. This last commemorates "John de Glori," a 
representation of whose bearded head is carved within a cusped recess of this 
slab, giving the idea of a partly open cofiin. About 60 years ago the greater 
part of this church was rebuilt, and again, with the exception of the tower 
and its arcades, and was almost rebuilt in 1880, as its predecessor had become 
unbearable through the extreme dullness and plainness of its character. Now 
we see here a very comely structure, adorned with good painted glass in the 
windows, by Clayton and Bell, and very tasteful furniture. In it, and also in 
the churchyard, are costly monuments erected in memory of the late Lady 
Florence Chaplin, whose touching death created so much public regret, and 
will doubtless be viewed with general sympathy. 

St. Peter's, Navenby. 

This is the finest church we shall visit to-day, and its site is worthy of such 
a beautiful fabric as this is, notwithstanding the loss of its former tower and spire, 
now represented by the present tower. This catastrophe occurred in the last 
century, and destroyed the porch, the west end of the south aisle, and two of 
the clerestory windows. Besides the tower, the fabric consists of a nave, north 
and south aisles, south porch, chancel, organ-chamber, and vestry. On 
entering, the eye will be at once attracted towards the oldest feature of the 
nave, viz. , the extremely beautiful westernmost pillar of the north aisle, which, 
with the adjacent respond, are of the Early English period. This consists of 
four solid circular shafts, alternating with circular shaftlets, tied together in 
the middle by an encircling band, and having a beautifully moulded cap and 
base, which last unfortunately is not now wholly exposed to view. The whole 
of the remaining portions of the fine aisle arcades are Decorated. These are 
surmounted by a Perpendicular clerestory, having five lights on either side, 
and a richly panelled and embattled parapet above. The present roof is in 
part supported by the old corbels, on which are shields ; one of these bears 
the white hart couchant, gorged and chained, the badge, of Richard II. 
Another, Arg., a fesse vair or and g. between three waterbougets I, for 


Detliicke ; a third, Arg., a chief g. on a bend az. , three escutcheons of the first, 
for Allistree ; and a fourth, Arg., 10 Torteaux a label of three points az., for 
Babington. In the south aisle wall are three intersecting lancet windows, 
the hood-moulds of which end externally with the Cistercian-mask ornament. 
This has been prolonged eastward, to serve has an organ-chamber. The windows 
of the north aisle are poor two-light square-headed ones, only otherwise 
relieved by a now closed doorway. Its western window is new, and made to 
correspond with the one at its east end. The chancel arch is Early English, 
and remarkable from its very slender keel-shaped piers, and its wide and lofty 
arch. On the south side of this arch is a bracket on which are carved two 
large leaves, such as those of a caladium, and a female wimpled head and flower, 
probably required formerly to support some portion of the rood-loft. It must 
have been a noble benefactor who rebuilt the grand chancel of this church, 
which is coeval with those of Heckington and Horton, and disproportionately 
large as compared with the nave. Without, the excellent base mouldings 
of this fine structure and those of its spacious windows are simply admirable, 
and now that the great east window has been again supplied with its lost 
crown, it is indeed a pleasure to look upon the interior of such a church 
terminating in such a chancel, having such an east window, sheltered by a high- 
pitched roof, serving as its canopy. Most beautiful is the memorial of the 
founder of this chancel, on its northern side, rich in delicate carving, ending 
in a bouquet of conventional leaves and pendent berries, serving as its finial. 
And most curious, as well as beautiful, is the receptacle for the Easter sepulchre 
eastward of it. On the left of this is the figure of an angel, and another of the 
Virgin Mary, on the right one of Mary Magdalene, holding a box of ointment, 
and the other Mary. Below are the figures of three Roman soldiers, correctly 
standing on guard, in full coeval armour of the fourteenth century, instead 
of sleeping, which they did not do. On the south side are three sedilia and a 
piscina, effective in design, but far inferior to the founder's monument and 
the sepulchre opposite to these. In this church is preserved a very curious old 
memorial of the thirteenth century, viz. , a piece of Purbeck marble, flat at the top 
and cusped below, on which is cut in Lombardic letters, now hard to read, 
what appears to be as follows, after an initiatory cross ; — " Vs ke passez par 
ici, priez pur Tame Ricardi de We Persone de Navenby, A.W." 

SoMERTON Castle. 

In looking upon the remains of the ancient castle before you, three 
questions will naturally be asked : — 1. Who was the builder ? This was 
Anthony Bee, second son of Walter Bee, Baron of Eresby, born about the 
middle of the thirteenth century, and brother of Thomas Bee, consecrated as 
Bishop of St. David's, at Lincoln, in the presence of Edward I., his Queen, 
Court, and eight Bishops, on the occasion of the translation of St. Hugh's 
body, October 6th, 1280, the whole cost of which ceremonial he defrayed. 
Three years later Anthony Bee was consecrated Bishop of Durham, by his 
brother of St, David's. He was perhaps the greatest of the old magnificent 
Bishops of Durham, and enjoyed the high-sounding titles of Count or Prince 
Palatine, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and King of Man. He took a prominent 
part in the Scotch wars of Edward I., and, at the head of 500 horse, and 
1,500 foot soldiers, led the van of the royal army of invasion in person, when 
he was wounded in the King's service. Yet on three occasions he was severely 
taxed, perhaps we may say fleeced, by him, and once, when viewed with some 
jealously, he wisely propitiated the king with the gift of this castle of Somerton, 
or one of his strongholds, as a proof of his loyalty. — 2. Why was this castle 
erected, and what was its character ? No doubt to serve as a stronghold for 
national and personal defence, when every man, as far as he could, sought to 
make his house his castle, and thus to provide means of defence for himself, 
his family, his tenants, and his property. Very possibly a Saxon stronghold, or 

REPORT. Ixxi. 

defended-house, existed here in Saxon times, as suggested by the name 
*' Toothill," given to a close near the castle, and the existence of a mound, or 
watching elevation, on the western side of the castle site, which may have 
been actually the Toothill. But of this we are quite certain, that the castle, 
of which we now see the site and its remains, was built by Anthony Bee in 
the year 1281, or two years before his elevation to the See of Durham, when 
he obtained a royal licence to " crenellate," or fortify, his house at Somerton, 
which seems to indicate that he had an *'aula," or mansion, here, before he 
erected this castle. It consisted of an area 330 feet long from north to south, 
and 180 feet from east to west, defended at each angle by a circular tower, 
three storeys high, rising from an outspreading foundation, and surmounted 
by a plain parapet and conical roof. The curtain walls were of the same 
height as the angle towers, and enclosed a central court. Portions of two 
more of these towers remain, and the site of the fourth is well defined still. 
The basement storey of the north-eastern tower is polygonal in plan, lighted 
by five small slits, and beautifully vaulted by means of a central pillar and 
wall-corbels carrying twelve vaulting ribs, and happily the south-eastern 
tower remains quite perfect. This is 45 feet high, and contains a vaulted 
polygonal room on the ground floor, and two others above it, each having a 
small lobby attached to it. It has two chimneys, each containing two flues, 
which are early examples of such luxuries, as they were then considered. — 
3. For what was this castle famous ? In answer to which I will say, we have 
all heard the romantic imprisonment of Richard Coeur de Lion in the Istrian 
stronghold of Tenebreuse, but very few, comparatively speaking, have heard 
of the remarkable imprisonment of John, King of France, in Somerton Castle, 
and indeed so little was known of this until of late, that Somerton, in 
Somersetshire, claimed to be the place of his captivity, instead of our Lincoln- 
shire Somerton, which claim was actually allowed by some, but can now never 
be repeated. After the famous battle of Poictiers, fought September 20th, 
1356, and the capture of the great Suzerain of France by the Black Prince, he 
was brought to England in the spring of the following year, and lodged in the 
Palace of the Savoy, but in 1359, when there was some danger of a French 
invasion. King Edward thought it prudent to remove the French king to a 
remote and central spot, and chose Somerton Castle for his residence, and 
Lord D'Eyncourt as his custodian. Accordingly that nobleman conducted 
him from Hertford, and arrived at Somerton on the 4th of August. He was 
accompanied by his son Philip, and forty-two attendants, amongst whom 
were two chaplains, a clerk of the chapel, secretary, a physician, a minstrel, 
three furriers, three wardrobe men, two cooks, a fruiterer, spiceman, barber, 
and washer, and above most of these, "Master John, the fool." Here he 
remained until February 14th of the following year, when, after his captivity 
at Somerton Castle for six months and two days, and fresh fear of a French 
invasion arose, he was conveyed to the Tower of London, where he arrived on 
the 28th of March. Eventually, on the payment of a large ransom, it will 
be remembered he was allowed to return to France, whence he nobly returned 
on the flight of his hostages from his high sense of honour, which led him to 
say, "if justice and good faith should be banished from all the rest of the 
world, these virtues ought still to be found in the word and in the heart of 
kings," and he died in London in the spring of 1364. I am reminded by the 
Rev. H. T. Cordeaux, the present Rector of Boothby Graff'oe, that one of the 
bells of that church is an ancient one dedicated in honour of St. Cuthbert, and 
hence may not improbably have been presented by Anthony Bee after he was 
Bishop of Durham, because St. Cuthbert is the patron Saint of Durham, and 
the Manor of Somerton forms part of the Parish of Boothby. 

All Saints', Coleby. 
This is a most interesting church, from the antiquity of some of its 
features and the beauty of others. At a distance the form of its tower and 



spire is both striking and pleasing, yet they were built at very different 
periods, and the architect of the spire deserves posthumous high praise for the 
manner in which he crowned the very old Norman tower placed in his hands, 
as he has done, with so graceful, and so well proportioned a spire of his own 
Perpendicular period. We only regret to observe that this tower has, from 
necessity, lately been largely braced with iron bands to hold its masonry 
together. It is of about the same date as the one at Harmston, and is pierced 
with two of those peculiar little lights to which, from their shape, the term of 
** key-hole" has been given. The head of one of these is enriched with the 
billet-mould, and the other with the loop-mould, seen in Stow church and 
elsewhere. To this was added, in the Perpendicular period, an upper stage- 
surmounted by a varied parapet and pinnacles, and a very graceful and well- 
proportioned spire, having flying buttresses, connecting it with the tower. 
Within, the outline of its original arch, giving access to the nave, may be 
seen around the head of smaller Perpendicular successors, probably erected 
when the spire. was built. Of a later Norman period is the north aisle arcade. 
This consists of a central circular-shafted pillar, springing from a square base, 
and two corresponding responds, having scalloped cushion caps, supporting 
semicircular arches, on which the billet-mould is introduced. The south aisle 
is entered through a porch and beautiful doorway. Unfortunately, the pro- 
portion of this porch is marred by the after addition of a parvise or priest's 
chamber above it. The arcade of the south aisle is really lovely. Its pillars 
rise from bold octangular bases, originally serving as seats, and are octangular 
themselves, consisting of alternated plain and circular features, carefully 
moulded bases, and varied caps. The westernmost of these are plain, the 
central one most gracefully foliated, giving the idea of the actual springing 
forth of leaves from the stonework, and the easternmost enriched with similar 
ones, which, through a diff'erent treatment, seem to be yielding to the wind. 
The font also is a beautiful one, of rather an earlier period than that of the 
south aisle. It stands on a square base, and appears to be cut out of one large 
block. Its bowl is circular, and enriched with intersecting arcading and the 
nail-head ornament. From the angles of the square base spring up to the 
top of the bowl slender octagonal pillars, the foliation of whose caps trails 
over the surface of the bowl. Some of the old bench ends were brought from 
Hackthorn church when that church was reseated. The chancel Is entirely 
Early English Its arch is very remarkable from the extreme slenderness of 
of the pillars serving as its piers, and the width and height of its arch. The 
small window in the north wall near this arch represents the original means of 
access to the roof-loft. In the north wall of the chancel is an Early English 
arch, that once opened into a chantry chapel, and in the opposite wall is the 
later arch of another chapel. In the east wall are three lancets, the central 
one having a cusped head, and in the south wall is a single lancet, then 
another, and a portion of a third, forming a couplet, part of which is now 
walled up. Here also are two sedilia and a piscina. Until the year 1864 
this church was encumbered with a gallery at the west end, and a plaster 
ceiling, and a variety of box-like pews, when it was greatly improved, out of 
respect for the memory of the Rev. Thomas Trevenen Penrose, the late 
honoured incumbent of this parish, as recorded on a brass plate in the chancel, 
inscribed by the late Sir John 0. Coleridge. 

All Saints', Harmston. 

The only old feature of this church is the tower, which from extreme 
antiquity is interesting, and especially as forming one of a group of coeval 
towers in and about Lincoln and Grimsby, all of which appear to have been 
built soon after the Conquest, probably by Saxon masons working under Norman 
architects. The late church here, was built, apparently upon the foundations 
of its predecessor, in 1717, and this has now for the most part disappeared in 
its turn through its thorough restoration in 1868. Its features follow the fashion 

REPORT. Ixxiii 

prevalent in the latter part of the thirteenth century, when plate tracery was 
commonly used in windows before a further development of such ornamenta- 
tion occurred. Those who remember what the late fabric was, have reason to 
rejoice at the change, and especially with regard to its present internal appear- 
ance, which is in every respect Avell fitted for divine worship, although, as 
chiefly a modern church, it is not so interesting to ecclesiologists as churches 
of past centuries, but few of the older portions having been incorporated in 
the present structure. 

St. Michael's, Waddington. 

"Without, this church is not attractive, and has been sadly marred by the 
re-erection of its tower in the last century, not on the site of the former one, 
but within the westernmost bay of the nave, which sadly shortens it. Within, 
however, it retains some beautiful features of the twelfth century, viz., its aisle 
arcades, each of three bays, and its chancel arch. The pillars of these arcades 
have boldly foliated caps of an attractive character, and one of them is encir- 
cled in the middle by a band, called a "baguette " by French ecclesiologists. 
The caps of the chancel arch piers are of the same date, but the carving of 
their foliation is of a stiffer character. The entrance to the lost rood-loft still 
remains at the east end of the south aisle. The font also is an interesting 
specimen of the same period. The pulpit is a good old oak one of the time of 
James I. On the north wall of the chancel is a mural monument, com- 
memorating the Rev. John Barnard, Rector of Waddington. He was born at 
Caistor, in Lincolnshire, and became Rector of Waddington and Fellow of 
Lincoln College. He married the daughter of Dr. Peter Heylin, a strong 
Roj^list and High Churchman, and was appointed Chaplain to Charles IL He 
chose to write the life of his famous father-in-law, although the Heylin family 
had commissioned Mr. Vernon to do so, and a fierce quarrel ensued between 
them, described by the elder D'Israeli in his Quarrels of AutJiors. He died 
at Newark in 1683. Until 1867 this church was afilicted by a gallery at the 
west end, lofty pews, and wretched aisle windows, having wooden mullions, 
but then all these were replaced by more appropriate features, greatly to the 
improvement of the fabric. The date of the communion plate is 1669, and the 
oldest date in the parish register is 1564. 

An Evening Meeting was held in the County Assembly Rooms at 8 o'clock. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Nottingham was in the Chair, and he 
was supported amongst others by Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart, and Sir Hy. 
Dryden, Bart. A paper was read on A Passage in the Annals of Lincoln 
Minster during the Episcopate of John Buckingham, by the Piiecentor of 
Lincoln, and one on Lincoln Cathedral Choir during the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries, by Rev. A. R. Maddison, F.S.A. 

Before the meeting broke up Mr. James Thropp, C. E. , County Surveyor, 
read an interesting description of the Boat recently discovered at Brigg. 

After cordial votes of thanks to the Chairman, and the authors of the 
papers, the meeting broke up. 


"We append the Treasurer's Report and Balance Sheet : — 


£ s. d. 

Balance in hand, Jan. 5th.. 16 6 10 

Entrance Fees (10) 5 

Subscriptions 109 4 

Compositions (2) 20 

Interest on Deposit (£110) 2 8 
, , Current Account 17 3 

£154 6 1 


£ s. d. 
By Deposit of Compositions 20 
„ 1881-83 30 
,, Mrs. Doncaster, April 

Half-year 10 5 

„ Lincoln Meeting Ex- 
penses 9 8 

,, Mrs. Doncaster, October 

Half-year 10 1 

„ Williamson,Bill for 1885 

Vol., &c 34 4 6 

,, Balance in hand Jan. 5, 

1887 40 7 7 

£154 6 1 

J. CLEMENTS, Treasurer, 

Examined and allowed January 7th, 1887. 

E. NOTTINGHAM, Chairman. 





His Grace the Archbishop of York. 

The Lord Bishop of Eipon. 




*Most Hon. the Marquis of Eipon. 
*Kight Hon. the Eakl of EIffingham. 
*Right Hon. the EARLof Mexborough 
Right Hon. the Earl of Scarbrough. 
Eight Hon. the Earl Feversham. 

Right Hon. the Earl Whakncliffe. 
*Right Hon. Lord Hotham. 
Hon. and Rev. J. W. Lascelles. 
*Hon. Payan Dawnay. 
The Ven. Archdeacon Watkins. 


The Patrons. 

The Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents. 

The Very Rev. the Dean. 

The Rural Deans. 

Balme, E. B. Wheatley, Esq. 

Haworth, Rev. W. 

Trundle, Rev. G. 
Fowler, C. H., Esc 
Jones, G. Fowler, 
Lukis, Rev. W. C. 
LuNN, Rev. J. R. 
Raine, Rev. Canon, 


Rev. W. Haworth. 

For York. 

For Ripen. 
Rev. W. C. Lukis. 

For Doncastcr. 
F. R. Fairbank, Esq., M.D. 

For Leeds. 

For Sheficld. 
Joseph Fawcett, Esq. 

Rev. G. Trundle. 
E. Robinson, Esq. 


Rev. G. Trundle. 
Rev. W. Haworth. 

REPORT, Ixxvii. 

The Report. 

The past year has been an uneventful one in the history of the Society. From 
time to time the Committee have received applications for grants from its 
funds towards the restoration of churches in the county. It should be generally 
known that, even if the Society had larger funds at its disposal, it would not 
come within its scope and work to assist mere general church restoration. 
Occasionally help has been given towards the preservation of some definite 
architectural feature which might otherwise, during the process of restoration 
or by the ravages of time, have been in danger of destruction. Acting on this 
principle, the Committee have made a grant of £10 towards the preservation 
of the west front of the ruined church of By land Abbey. The following par- 
ticulars of what has been done will, it is hoped, be interesting to the Society, 
and justify the Committee in voting the graat, which appears in the Balance 
Sheet. The part of these beautiful ruins referred to was year by year becoming 
more unsatisfactory and dangerous, the seat of the mischief being in the rose- 
window, which in happier times must have vied with its neighbour in the 
south transept of York Minster for beauty and grandeur. On erecting the 
necessary scaffolding it was found that some of the stones of this window had 
been broken, probably by the falling of the roof ; and through the breaches 
thus made the rain was penetrating and damaging the lancet windows below. 
Fresh stones gathered from the building and suitably carved have replaced the 
broken ones ; the north and south pinnacles have been restored ; and generally, 
by the judicious use of cement and the replacement of sound for decayed 
stones where practicable the beauty and magnificence of this west front has 
been in a great measure preserved. Other parts of what remains of this, 
perhaps the largest and most perfect specimen in England of a Cistercian ruin 
have received careful attention. Trees which were damaging the stone-work 
have been cut down, the ivy, completely hiding the tracery of the windows in 
the north wall — which have been said to exhibit one of the purest specimens 
of the very Early English style, — has been cut back, and the floor line of the 
nave has been laid bare by the removal of accumulated rubbish. Major 
Stapylton, the owner of the property, has generously contributed to the cost 
of this work of renovation, and it has been carried out under the superinten- 
dence of Mr. E. C. Munby. The assistance given by the well-known architect, 
Mr. C. Hodgson Fowler, of Durham, in suggesting the line of action, is a 
welcome guarantee that the care and attention bestowed upon this most 
valuable relic of the past have not been injudicious in their treatment. The 
Committee have also great satisfaction in calling attention to the effort which 
is being made by the Dean of York for the thorough restoration of the 
S. Cuthbert's window in the south transept of the choir of the Minster. This 
window has long been known to the lovers of ancient church glass. It sets 
forth in its various panels the history of the saint from his birth to his death 
and entombment. The glass having been taken out for the necessary repairs 
to the stone-work, it was thought advisable to take the opportunity of 
re-adjusting the order of the panels, which it was found had been interfered 
with. A close inspection also disclosed the fact that eleven of the original 
panels were missing, and that seven of their places had been filled in with 
glass from other windows. It is now proposed to make the historical sequence 
complete by the insertion of new panels, where necessary, designed on the 
lines of the old work, the subjects being based on the history of the saint as 
given by Bede and on Torre's well-known description of the window. The 
cost of the window, including a thorough restoration of the stone-work, is 
estimated at from £500 to £600, and an appeal for this sum is being made to 
the public, f he painting of the new panels and the replacement of the old 
glass has been intrusted to Mr. J. W. Knowles ; and the archseological and 
general supervision of the work has kindly been undertaken by the Rev. J. T. 



Fowler, of Durham, who has published a history of the window in the Yorkshire 
Archceological Journal. When completed the window will, it is hoped, as 
regards beauty of colour and historic and artistic interest, form once more a 
fitting companion to the noble S. William's window, placed at a date about 
fifty years earlier in the corresponding position on the north side of the choir. 
The Committee have only to add the great loss the Society has sustained 
by the death of Mr. Wm. Atkinson, one of its oldest members, whose interest 
and ready assistance, at all times available, will long be missed. 



£ s. 
Balance in Bank, 

Jan. 1st, 1886.., 87 10 
Balance in Trea- 
surer's hands ... 5 4 
Annual Subscriptions : — 

For 1886 24 3 

Arrears 4 10 


the year ending December, 1886. 

d. £ 

92 14 9 

Sale of Reports . 
Interest at Bank 

28 14 


1 12 


Expenditure. £ s. d 
To Mr. Pickering's Account, 

Postage of Reports, &c. 18 4 
,, Mr.Williamson'sAccount, 

Printing Reports, &c... 19 15 
,, Subscription to Surtees 

Society 110 

,, Grant for Illustrating 
Paper on Roche Abbey, 

by Dr. Fairbank 10 

,, Grant towards cost of 
preserving west front of 

Byland Abbey 10 

,, Treasurer's Account : — 

Poundage 12 
Postage, &c.... 6 2 

18 2 

Balance in Bank, 
Jan. 1st, 1887 ^ 10 7 

Ditto in Trea- 
surer's hands.. 4 5 8 

80 16 3 

£123 8 9 

Examined and found correct, 

GEO. TRUNDLE, Auditor. 




The Lord Bishop of Peterborough, 


The Earl Spencer, K.G., Lord Lieutenant of the County of Northampton. 
The Right Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton, D.D., Bishop of Ely. 
The Archdeacons of Northampton and Oakham. 

* Note.— On page xv. present volume for " Thirty-ninth Report " read " Fortieth Report.' 




The Marquis of Northampton. 
The Lord Lilford. 
The Hon. and Rev. L. C. R. Irby. 
Sir Charles E. Isiiam, Bart. 
Sir Henry E. L. Dryden, Bart. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Peter- 

The Rev. W. Wales, Chancellor of 

The Rev. J. P. Lightfoot, D.D., 

Rector of Exeter College, Oxford. 
The Rev. M. Argles, Canon of 



The Patrons. 
The Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents. 
The Rural Deans. 

The Officers of the Society. 

Rev. F. C. Alderson. 

Rev. R. S. Baker. 

Rev. H. Bigge. 

Rev. J. Brown. 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq. 

Rev. H. Crawley. 

Sir Henry Dryden. 

Rev. T. Eykyn. 

Rev. G. W. Huntingford. 

Rev. A. 0. James. 

Rev. L. H. Loyd. 

Rev. W. P. Mackesy. 
Rev. F. B. Newman. 
Rev. A. W. Pulteney. 
Rev. T. Richards. 
Rev. Canon Roberts. 
T. ScRiVEN, Esq. 
R. G. Sc RIVEN, Esq, 
Rev. C. Smyth. 
Rev. H. H. Stewart. 
G. L. Watson, Esq. 

^onorarg (Secretaries. 

Rev. Chancellor Wales. 

Rev. T. C. Beasley, Dallington, Northampton {Corresponding). 

C. A. Markham, Esq. 

Rev. G. S. Howard Vyse. 

Rev. Christopher Smyth. 

Rev. Dr. Sanders. 


S. J. Newman, Esq. 

Jlssistaut iiesiiettt l^ibrariatt. 

{To whom all Books, Parcels, t&c, should be sent.) 

Mr. C. Earl, 8, Abington Street, Northampton. 

New Members elected in 1886. 

Binder, A. W. N., Esq., Binton St., Loughborough. 

Gates, Rev. E., P3'tchley, Kettering. 

Grabham, Rev. T., Irthlingborough, Higham Ferrers. 

REPORT. Ixxxi. 

The Eeport. 

The Annual Meeting was held on December ISth, 1886, Sir Henry Dryden, 
Bart. , in the chair, there being fifteen Members present. 

The Rev, F. C. Alderson read a Report of the Summer Excursion to 
Lincoln, and the Report for the year ; and the Rev. G. S. Howard Vyhe, the 
Statement of Accounts. 

Mr. C. A. Markham read a Paper on Ancient Punishments in Northampton- 
shire, and Mr. R. G. Scriven read a Paper on The Missing Tervmiation of 
Queen Eleanor's Cross, Northampton. 

Your Committee in presenting their Report for the past year are unable to 
record any work of importance undertaken by them. But they have met 
regularly and endeavoured to the best of their ability to forward the interests 
of Architecture in the Archdeaconries with which the}^ are connected. 

They most sincerly regret to have to record the loss of one of their Members, 
Mr. H. 0. Nethercote, who was a frequent attendant at their Meetings, and 
took a warm interest in their work, especially in the restoration of Moulton 
and Clipstone Church. 

Plans for the restoration of Irchester Cliurch, prepared by Mr, Pearson, 
were laid before the Committee and approved. This is an important restoration 
and will be carried out in a thorough manner. The chancel will be restored 
by Lord and Lady Wantage. 

The Rev. G. F. Edmonds also submitted plans for the restoration of Preston 
(in Rutlandshire) — small, though interesting — Church. 

The advice of the Committee was also asked in reference to certain improve- 
ments contemplated at Lowick, in this County. 

Your Committee are glad to report the addition of several new Members. 

The Annual Excursion was made in the neighbourhood of Lincoln, in 
connection with the Lincoln Society. It was attended only by a very small 
number of our Society, chiefly no doubt on account of the short time which 
had elapsed since the excursion of our Society to the same district. 

An interesting account of the Lincoln excursion has been kindly supplied 
by Mr. C. A. Markham, a summary of which is given below. For a more 
complete account see the report for this year of the Lincoln Society. 

In response to the kind invitation of the Lincolnshire Architectural Society, 
several Members of this Society, visited Lincoln, on the 29th of June. 

The proceedings commenced on "Wednesday, 30th, with the ordinary Service 
in the Minister at Ten o'clock. After the service the Members met at the 
Chapter House, and heard a most interesting Lecture on the Cathedral, by the 
Rev. Canon Venables, the lecturer being much assisted by some plans coloured 
to show the different periods of the architecture. Canon Venables afterwards 
conducted the party through the Cathedral and Cloisters, and pointed out all 
the x>eculiarities and beauties of the building, showing the remains of the 
first church of Remigius, then the church of Alexander the Magnificent, the 
Choir and Eastern Transept built by Bishop Hugh, the great Transept and 
the most beautiful Angel Choir built between 1255 and 1280 during the period 
between the Early English and Decorated styles. 

After Luncheon at the County Assembly Rooms, the party assembled again 
and walked through the city, visiting first the remains of a Roman Basilica, 
one of the shafts of the building was double or rather two shafts were coupled 
together, a most unusual form of construction in a Roman Basilica, The 
party then went on to the Neivport, an ancient gateway erected by the Romans 
some two thousand years ago ; it is in good condition, and the road still runs 
under the arch, althougli the level is much raised. The walk was then 
continued round the walls and back to the High Street going down the old 
coach road, the steepness of which makes one marvel how they ever went down 
and still more how they managed to climb up again, and passing on the way 
two stone houses of the twelfth century, formerly belonging to Aarou the Rich 
and Belaset of Wallingford, two well-known Jews, who were always obliged to 



have stone houses, instead of the then common wattle and daub buildings, 
because they kept all the money in the house, and were indeed the bankers of 
the town. The doorway and windows being round, with some good zig-zag 
work, the chimney leading up over the door. The Churches of St. Mary-le- 
Wigford, St. Pctcr-at- Arches, St. Peter- at- Gotots, and St. Benedict, all with 
toAvers of the same character with mid-wall shaft in the windows of the belfries. 
Also the large modern Parish Church of St. Botolph. And an old building of 
the Norman period, now used as a Malt House, it is said to have been formerly 
used by John of Gaunt as stables. The bridge over the little river Witham 
is curious, having houses on one side built over the stream in something the 
same way as old London Bridge. After passing through the Bishop's Palace, 
now being built, the whole party was most kindly entertained by Mrs. Harvey 
in the beautiful old Vicars' Court. The Rev. James Mansell's garden was also 
visited, a most charming spot, from which the Cathedral appears to great 

The Annual Dinner was held at the County Assembly Rooms, there was a 
very good attendance of Members, the usual toasts being drunk. After dinner 
the"^ Evening Meeting was held. An interesting Paper on The Tombs in 
Lincoln Cathedral was read by the Rev. G. T. Harvey, the writer Mr. M. 
H. Bloxam, being unfortunately prevented from attending. The Rev. G. F. 
Browne, B.D., also read a Paper on The Pre-Norman Sculptured Stones of 
Lincoln, illustrated by many drawings, which concluded the proceedings. 

On the following day, the party left in carriages, to visit several churches 
in the neighbourhood, and the old and interesting building of Somerton CastU. 

In the evening the concluding Meeting was held at the County Assembly 
Rooms, the Bishop of Lincoln being in the Chair. The Precentor of Lincoln 
read a good Paper on a. Passage in the Annals of Lincoln Ilinster during the 
Episcopate of John of Buckingham, and the Rev. A. R. Maddison read a Paper 
on Lincoln Cathedral Choir during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 
Mr. J. Thropp, C.E., was also good enough to read a Paper on the Ancient and 
Celebrated Boat lately discovered on the Estate of V. D. Cary-Elwes, Esq., at 
Brigg, illustrated by plans and sections. 

This brought the proceedings to a termination. 


From October 1, 1885, to November 30, 1886. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. 


Balance in hand, Oct. 



. 20 10 



... 9 19 1 

Elliott Stock 

. 12 


... 78 10 


. 2 

Interest on Deposit . . . 

... 7 10 

Mercury Newspaper 

. 10 

For Hire of Room ... 

4 4 

^cmZc? Newspaper .. .. 

. 8 


Earl, Postage of Reports, &c 

. 1 15 


£100 3 1 

Kingham, Rent of Room ., 

. 20 


. 9 



. 6 


Earl, 1 qr. Salary 

. 2 10 


. 1 4 


£ s. d. 


. 11 


Total Receipts 

... 100 3 1 


. 10 


... 67 13 


. 6 

Cheque Book 

. 2 


Balance in hand... 

... £32 10 1 


. 2 10 

£Q1 13 

Deposit Account 

... 250 

G. S. HOWARD VYSE, Treasmer. 







The Right Kev. the Lord Bishop of Worcester. 
The Eight Hon. Earl Beauchamp, Lord Lieutenant. 



The Right Hon. Lord Lyttelton 
The Right Hon. Lord Hampton 
The Very Rev. Dr. Gott, Dean of 

Sir E, A. H. Lechmere, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Harry Foley Vernon, Bart. 
Rev. Canon Melville 
Rev. Canon K]s ox-Little 

Rev. Canon Creighton 

Rev. Canon Claughton 

Rev. Canon Cattley 

The Rev. and Hon. Canon Douglas 

The Ven. Archdeacon of Worcester 

The Ven. Archdeacon of Coventry 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq. 

Alderman Noake, J. P. | Rev. J. B. Wilson 

F. R. Jeffery, Esq. 

J. H. Hooper, Esq. 


The Officers of the Society 

Rev. T. G. CURTLER, \ 

Rev. Canon Coventry, ( t>„,. , ■nooT.o 
Rev. Canon Douglas, ( R^""^l Deans 
Rev. R. Prichard, ) 

Rev. and Hon. Canon Douglas 
Rev. R. R. Duke 


Rev. R. Thursfield 
Rev. W. Gardiner 


W. J. Hopkins, Esq. 
G. Oliver, Esq. 
E. Lees, Esq. 
E. Day, Esq. 
J. Wood, Esq. 

The Report. 

The Thirty-first Report, read at the Annual Meeting, held at the Guildhall, 
Worcester, on the 21st of March, 1887. 

Your Committee have to report, for the year 1886-7, a more than average 
amount of success attendant on the Society's proceedings. The usual loss of 
Members from ordinary causes has been compensated by the accession of new 
ones ; and while we lament the death of the late Rev. Canon Wood, who had 
been a Member and Vice-President of the Society from its commencement, a 
period of 32 years, it gives us much pleasure to state that, in addition to the 
election of the Mayor of Worcester (Alderman Holland), and several new 
ordinary Members, we can congratulate the Society on the probably unpre- 
cedented fact that during the past year the very Rev. the Dean and the entire 
Chapter of Worcester Cathedral, as also the new Archdeacon of Coventry, have 
kindly consented to become Members and Vice-Presidents of the Society. The 
Treasurer's Report shows a balance in hand a trifle less than that of last year, 
which is fully accounted for by a printer's bill and some secretarial expenses 
belonging to the previous year having been introduced into the past year's 
accounts. Arrears of subscriptions are not as conspicuous by their extent as 
they have been in some former years, yet nevertheless their prompt payment 
would much cheer the heart of our excellent Treasurer, Mr. Jeffery. 



Considerable interest was attached to the Society's first Excursion for the 
season of 1886, by the fact of its involving a visit to one of the most peculiar 
and interesting Norman churches in the midland counties — namely, that of 
St. David's, Kilpeck, Herefordshire, which took place on the 29th of June, 
when a large party were first conveyed by rail to Hereford, where three 
carriages, well appointed and filled, carried them on a fervid summer day 
amidst the aroma of hayfields and a richly wooded country to Kilpeck. 
Essays have been written, and illustrations published, showing the peculiarities 
of this church and the surprising character of its sculptures, which, with work 
of a similar kind at Shobdon and Fownhope, in the same county, would seem 
to indicate the existence, in Norman times, of an entirely local school of 
artists. No further reference, however, need he, made to this most interesting 
structure in the present Report, as a descriptive and illustrated Paper from 
the pen of Mr. G. Oliver, a Member of the Society, will appear in the 
annual volume. This Paper was read to the Members when at Kilpeck. 

On leaving Kilpeck Church the visitors inspected the Site and Ruins of 
the Castle, formerly the abode of the Lords of Kilpeck, and also the site of a 
Benedictine priory near, after which they drove through the grounds of 
Whitfield, a seat of the CUve family, and on to Kingston Church, a 
Transitional building sadly requiring restoration. Madley, the next place 
visited, possesses one of the largest and finest churches in the diocese of 
Hereford, having a nave partly Norman, an Early English tower, an apsidal 
chancel, aisles, a chapel, and an ancient crypt. The font is very large, and 
hollowed out of one block of "plum-pudding stone." The bells were brought 
here from the dissolved Abbey of Dore, in 1538. Many interesting features, 
both architectural and monumental, attracted the attention of the visitors ; 
and after leaving the church they partook of refreshment at the village 
hostelry, while a few of the party went to explore a Koman road in the 
neighbourhood. Then on to Hereford, dining at the Green Dragon Hotel. 
The company included the Rev. R. R. and Miss Duke, Rev. W. M. and Miss 
Kingsmill, Rev. C. E. and Miss Ranken, Rev. E. Robinson, Rev. R. 
Thursfield, Rev. J. S. Chesshire, Rev. J. B. and Mrs. Wilson, Aid. and Mrs. 
Noake, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver, Mrs. A. W. Knott, Mr. and Mrs. Roan, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bates, Misses Thorn and Elwell, Messrs. Lees, Jefi'ery, Day, Cleasby, 
Binns, and Lamb Smith. 

Our second Excursion took place on Aug. 31, when the churches of 
Spetchley, Churchill, White Ladies Aston, Pcopleton, Pershore, and Stoulton, 
were visited in succession — most of them after an interval of 26 years. 
Spetchley Church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is chiefly interesting on 
account of the Berkeley monuments it contains ; at Churchill there was but 
little to detain the party ; but at White Ladies', Aston, where the church 
showjs much Norman work, the incumbent. Rev. H. M. Sherwood, welcomed 
the visitors, and narrated many particulars respecting the habits, customs, and 
superstitions of the parish, mentioning the murder by Palmer and his 
associate of his mother and her servant, for which they were hung in chains in 
1708. Next to Peopleton, where nothing architectural claimed attention ; 
and at length to Pershore, directing our steps to St. Andrew's Church. Here 
Alderman Noake described and criticised the neglected, miserable, and 
dilapidated condition of this edifice, which contains Norman and Perpendicular 
work, and might be made worthy of the parish to Avhich it belongs. The 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners were about to restore the chancel, and Mr. C. 
Ganderton had made a generous off"er with regard to the rest of the building, 
but the parishioners had not adequately responded. A brief inspection of the 
Abbey Church, close by, and then the company proceeded to the Three Tuns 
Hotel, where a substantial dinner was served ; present, Aid. Noake in the 
chair, Mr. E. Lees, Vice-President ; Revs. R. Duke, H. Kingsford, T. P. 


"Wadley, and E. S. Lowndes, CoL Carr, Mrs. Noake, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver, 
Misses Thorn, Depree, and Blick, and Mr. J. Wood. In proposing "Success and 
Perpetuity to the Worcester Architectural and Archasological Society " the 
Chairman reviewed the Society's operations from its commencement, and 
congratulated all church-people on the satisfactory advance made in ecclesiastical 
matters during the last forty years. He himself had been an humble pioneer 
in the same work nearly half-a-century ago, endeavouring to promote decency 
and good order in our churches — with what effect it was not for him to say ; 
but fortunately he was followed by this Society, and now, instead of cobwebs, 
mould, and whitewash, cleanliness and order prevailed as a rule ; in place of 
dilapidated and unsightly churches, the fabrics were generally in good 
repair, commencing with the cathedral, downwards ; and in lieu of unseemly 
services, with musical accessories of fiddles, bass-viols, and clarionets, 
performed upon with more energy than precision, the services were now as a 
rule rendered more worthy of the conception of Divine worship. Much of this 
improvement was of course due to the great religious movement throughout 
the country about the time of this Society's formation, but that movement 
itself was probably owing in a large measure to the establishment of this and 
similar Societies promoting a deeper sense of what was due to the worship of 
Almighty God. He was sorry to say there were but few of the Society's 
founders remaining. Since Mr. Walker's death, he (the Chairman) had taken 
an active part in carrying out the aim of the Society by furnishing descriptive 
papers of the various objects of interest met with in their excursions, and in 
an unguarded moment he accepted the oflBice of secretary ; bat as his worthy 
coadjutor. Rev. J. B. Wilson, was unable to continue the valuable assistance 
he had hitherto given, the whole work of the Society, Avhich was heavier than 
some supposed, had, with the exception of the treasurership, devolved upon 
himself. He knew not how long he should be able to retain that office, but 
he strongly recommended the Society to look out for a younger and more 
energetic Member to take his place. A generation had now passed away since 
the Society first took the field. Their operations had not been confined to 
this diocese ; and although the home district would in time become exhausted, 
there was no reason why they should not traverse the same ground again, 
seeing that they had nearly a new set of Members and new conditions existed 
with regard to the churches. It was twenty-six years since the Society visited 
Spetchley, White Ladies, &c. , and probably there were not three persons 
present who joined the former Excursion. He congratulated them on the 
proceedings of the day, and said the Society would not have gone thither in 
vairi if its timely criticisms on the Church of St. Andrew's, Pershore, should 
have the eff'ect of hastening on its restoration. 

After some other toasts the party returned homeward by way of Stoulton, 
where the Rev. H. Kingsford kindly entertained them at tea, and led them 
through his church, which, in its Norman and other features, is well worthy 
of careful examination, and loving treatment at the hands of the restorer. 


A revival of this kind of pleasant re-union — which in earlier years was 
more frequently enjoyed by the Society — has taken place during the present 
season ; and although it proved highly successful, and evidently aff'orded much 
pleasure to a sufficiently numerous and influential company, yet the attendance 
of Members was not so good as to be encouraging to the promoters of the 
meeting. It is hoped, however, that the success of the experiment will induce 
Members to set a higher value on their privileges, and likewise may attract 
others to join our ranks who will impart more life and vigour to the Society. 

The conversazione took place at the Guildhall on the evening of January 26, 
when the chair was taken by the Mayor (Alderman Holland), who had kindly 
granted the use of the Guildhall for the occasion. The principal feature of 

REPORT. Ixxxvii. 

the proceedings was a lecture by Mr. Street, Architect, of London, on 
"George Edmund Street, his principles and practice" ; in which address he 
strongly inculcated the necessity of a deeply religious feeling, truthfulness, an 
earnest devotion, and self-sacrificing faith, to ensure success in the work of the 
architect. This proposition he illustrated from the habits and character of 
his father. Tea, coffee, and other refreshments, were served in the old 
Council Chamber, after which Ald. Noake read a Paper on "The Eccentricities 
of modern English," which afforded some amusement. Cordial votes of 
thanks were passed. The Society's collection of beautifully coloured pictures 
published by the Arundel Society, being fac-sirailes of frescoes, painted 
windows, &c., on the Continent, were exhibited and greatly admired. Mr. 
Street also brought many architectural drawings and photographs, and the 
Bev. E. S. Lowndes produced some fragments of pottery found in Little 
Comberton Churchyard, which Mr. Franks, of the British Museum, has 
pronounced to be Roman. 

We now proceed to give a summary of the church-work done in the 
Diocese during the past year : — 

Areley Kings. 

After a thorough restoration and enlargement, which occupied 14 months, 
the above church was re-opened by the Bishop of the diocese on the 21st of 
July, 1886. It is dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and has always possessed a 
special interest to the antiquary, as the church of which, in the eleventh or 
twelfth century, the poet and historian Layamon was said to have been priest. 
The discovery, during the restoration works, of fragments of an ancient font 
alleged to have been tempoi'e Layamonni, was alluded to in our last annual 
report, with some criticism on its inscription. When taken in hand by the 
restoration committee, the building consisted of a small nave and chancel, with a 
tower at the centre of the south side. The re-building of the nave constituted 
the main portion of the work of enlargement, and the church has thus been 
lengthened westwards about 8 ft. ; a spacious new aisle has been added on the 
north side, separated from the nave by four lofty arches ; while the addition of 
a small gable at the north-east corner affords ample provision for a vestry and 
organ chamber, connected with the chancel by an arch. The vestry window is 
the old west window of the nave, and the vestry door is as far as possible a 
reproduction of the old Norman door of the church, the C-shaped hinges being 
copied from the original. The stone door-head has also been restored, the 
defective stones being replaced by new ones. A quarry on the Glasshampton 
estate at Astley supplied the stone used in the enlargement, having been liberally 
presented by the owner, Mr. J. R. Cookes. An open timbered roof was laid on, 
and the floor has been formed of the wood blocks which have been found so 
serviceable and convenient for church purposes. Among the best features in 
the church are the windows, of which, in nave and aisle, there are seven, with 
three lights each, and one with four lights, of the Decorated period, filled with 
what is known as Cathedral tinted glass. Seats of red deal, with panels cut 
from the old roof beams, and bench ends of pitch pine. A pulpit, also made of 
the roof timber, was presented by Miss A. C. Hastings ; and a handsome new 
altar table by an anonymous donor. The altar-cloth was the handy-work of 
Mrs. Chilton and her sister. Miss M. Harrison, and is a model of patient and 
clever needlework. An altar-desk, made of the old oak of the church, with 
panels carved from olive wood brought from the Holy Land, was the gift of 
the rector. Rev. D. Vawdry. The eagle lectern was the result of private 
subscription, in memory of two nurses ; it was beautifully carved by Mr. Clarke, 
of Hereford, who also restored the font ; an alms-dish and bags were given by 
Mr. C. H. Watson ; and the " sounding-board " re-appears now in the shape of 
a vestry table, the gift of the parish clerk. The tower, porch, and passages, 
are laid with Maw and Son's tiles, and a heating apparatus laid down. About 



£3,000, raised by voluntary subscription, was spent in the above work ; Mr. 
F. Preedy, architect ; Binnian and Sons, builders. The church now contains 
nearly 350 (in lieu of 152) sittings, of which 130 are free. 


The church of St. Lawrence, at Bidford, had long needed restoration, as 
an injudicious attempt at renovation was made about half a century ago, when 
church work was little understood, and the result was the total destruction of 
the original nave and its being re-built in the barbarous taste then prevalent. 
At the same time the chancel was remodelled, but fortunately a portion of the 
original work escaped destruction, enough remaining to guide an experienced 
architect as to the character of the old church. The present restoration 
consists of the chancel only, from a careful study of the fragments left. Every 
remaining portion of the old work has been retained, every mutilated feature 
carefully restored and denuded of the stucco and plaster that concealed it, and 
every modern innovation removed, with the exception of the east window and 
reredos ; Avhilst those portions which had been utterly destroyed have now been 
replaced with work of appropriate character and design. The chancel is 41 ft. 
long by 19 ft. wide, and height to the upper portion of the roof 25 ft. A lofty 
arch divides the chancel from the nave. The chancel roof is designed after the 
pattern of the original one, being what is known as a waggon roof. It is 
divided into compartments by moulded ribs, at the intersections of which are 
carved representations of the passion flower, oak leaves, &c. All the fittings 
to the chancel are of oak, as also is the pulpit, on one of the panels of which 
is carved •' The good Shepherd," and the inscription " Feed my sheep." The 
Rev. Canon Whittaker gave this pulpit in memory of his daughter, the late 
Mrs. Evans. The old piscina has been restored, the remains of which were 
found beneath the stuccoed surface of the wall. A new vestry and an organ 
chamber have been erected on the north side of the chancel. A new organ has 
been supplied by Nicholson, of Worcester, principally the gift of Miss Evans, 
sister of the Vicar. New and substantial seats and stands have been provided 
for the choir. Two coloured glass windows have been inserted in the north 
side of the chancel ; one, representing the Resurrection, to the memory of the 
late Mrs. Evans, wife of the Vicar ; the other, to the late Miss Lees, of Prescot, 
patroness of the living, illustrates the Crucifixion. The architect chosen to 
carry out the above restoration was Mr, Hopkins, of Worcester, the Diocesan 
Societies' architect ; and the work has been well executed by Mr. Job Stanley, 
builder, of Broom. The re-opening services took place on the 12th of April, 
1886) Mdien the Bishop of Worcester preached. It is now hoped that the body 
of the church may speedily be brought to harmonise with the chancel, with 
which at present it forms an unpleasant contrast. 


One of the most satisfactory restorations we have seen in this neighbour- 
hood for some years has just been completed at the church of St. John Baptist, 
Claines, which was re-opened on the 10th of February, 1887. The principal 
features of the work are the addition of a new aisle, a new internal roof of oak, 
a new porch, and a vestry and organ chamber on the north side, the removal 
of the galleries and the high square pews, also the plaster roofs and the white- 
wash and other defacements of the interior. Sittings for 103 persons are 
provided in the new aisle, to construct which the north wall has been set back, 
An arcade of four bays divides the aisle from the nave. The new north porch, 
with its little window, is one of the most attractive portions of the new work ; 
and the stone vestry replaces an ugly one of brick. An organ chamber, beyond 
the vestry, will shortly receive the old organ, repaired and improved. Sir 0. 
"Wakeman, the lay rector, restored the chancel at his own cost ; and it is hoped 
he will complete that part of the work by providing a new east window, the 

REPORT. Ixxxix. 

present one being a disfigurement to the whole building. With this exception 
the eye is charmed with the general harmony which prevails throughout the 
sacred edifice, the wall surfaces disclosing the beautiful grey colour of the stone, 
which agrees not only with the timber-work of the roof but with the new 
masonry of the aisle and the Avood seating throughout. In this respect, as well 
as in the design and execution of the work generally, much credit is due to the 
architect, Mr. Aston Webb, and the contractor, Mr. Collins, of Tewkesbury. 
Those who remember the old fittings and appearance of the church, with its 
high square pews, galleries on three sides of the building, walls and pillars 
overlaid with whitewash, and darkness, concealment, and deformity, at every 
turn, will rejoice at the wonderful transformation which has been effected. 
One of the most remarkable features of the new work is the chancel pavement, 
a marble mosaic, of a design frequent in windows, but which we have never 
before seen introduced on a pavement. It is a "Jesse tree," showing the 
genealogy of Christ. Not staying to discuss the question whether the floor of 
a building is a strictly correct site for such a subject — the horizontal position 
being repugnant to the idea of a living tree — we must admit that the effect of 
this work, as a decoration, is exceedingly good, affording, as it does, a subdued 
tone of colouring, in fine harmony with the rest of the building, and such as 
could not have been produced by tiles of gay patterns. Some 15th century 
tiles have been discovered during the restoration ; they are similar to some at 
Tewkesbury Abbey, and bear the arms of the Beauchamps, De Spencers, 
Clares, Talbots, St. Johns, and the Abbey of Gloucester. An old piscina, 
formerly blocked up, and a piscina of the chantry of the blessed Virgin, have 
been discovered and restored -, and the steps leading up to the old rood-loft are 
repaired. Several memorial stones found in the progress of the work have 
been preserved; and the slab containing the recumbent figure of "John 
Porter, which was a lawyer," (date 1577), has now been honoured with an 
elevated position, south of the chancel, after having for many years lain outside 
the church, under the drippings of the roof. Some fragments of a Norman 
church have been disinterred, belonging to the building which existed here 
before the year 1430, when the present structure was erected. They have 
been placed in the tower. By the removal of the western gallery the tower 
has been opened to the church, and has also been converted into a baptistery, 
the font having previously stood in the north aisle. A word must be said in 
praise of the new carved work in the church — the oak screens between the 
chancel and its side aisles, also the choir stalls, which have been partly- 
wrought out of the ancient timbers of the church. Total cost of the restora- ' 
tion, nearly .^"4,000. Special gifts included a reredos, by Sir 0. Wakeman ; 
the holy table and ornaments by Mr. H. Wakeman and Mrs. Porter, Mrs. 
Hughes, and Miss Castle ; the pulpit by Kev. W. H. Curtler ; and other 
offerings by Rev. H. Whinfield, Miss Stansfeld, the ladies of the parish, and 


The parish church of Edgbastou was re-opened on Saturday, Oct. 23, 1886, 
by the Bishop of Worcester. Extensive alterations had been eftected : the 
nave roof raised, and new chancel and chancel arch erected, as also new 
clerestories over the north and south arcades ; these are lighted by- 
Perpendicular windows. South chancel aisle extended to form an organ 
chamber, and base of tower opened to the church. Panelling of roof filled 
with tracery in Tudor style. Stained glass windows inserted in memory of 
the late Vicar, Rev. Isaac Spooner, and the late Mrs. W. Jaftray. New 
pulpit and new oak seats throughout the church, and additional accommodation 
provided for one hundred persons. Architect, Mr. J. A. Chatwin. The cost 
of the restoration amounted to £6,000, exclusive of reredos, pulpit, altar cross 
and candlesticks, and other gifts, many of them of great value. Messrs. 
Middlemore, descendants of the lords of the manor of Edgbaston, mainly 


restored the chancel. The Bishop of the Diocese preached at the opening 
service, which was attended by the leading clergy and laity of the district, and 
the collection was £130. The services continued during the week, the Dean 
of Worcester, and Canon Paget, of Oxford, being among the preachers. 


This parish church, dedicated to St. Edward, an interesting little building 
of the Norman period, was re-opened on Tuesday, May 25, 1886, by the 
Bishop of Worcester, after the restoration of the nave and south aisle, at a 
cost of £600. The Rev. C. Peach (Rector), the Rev. E. J. Houghton (Vicar 
of Blockley), and Archdeacon Lea took part in the service, which was attended 
by a crowded congregation. 


St. Bartholomew's Church, Grimley, was re-opened in May, 1886, after 
being completely restored. A restoration had been effected in 1848, but 
latterly it had been found necessary to undertake a more extensive work, at a 
cost of about £1,400. This consisted of the reconstruction of the nave, with 
the addition of an aisle on the north side, which is divided by three pointed 
arches, springing from piers harmonising with the general character of the 
church, and which partakes of Norman, Early English, and Perpendicular 
work. A vestry has also been added ; and a small gallery at the west end of 
the nave has taken the place of a larger and more unsightly one ; but it is 
hoped that the lesser evil of the two will also disappear in process of time. 
Open-timbered roofs have been supplied to the nave and aisle, adding 
considerably to the height and area of the church, the old roof having had a 
low plaster ceiling. Encaustic tiles are now laid on the floors of the aisles, 
and open benches have been substituted for the old high pews. A handsome 
pulpit of white stone has taken the place of its oak predecessor ; it bears 
carvings representing St. Bartholomew and the Evangelists, and was the gift 
of Mr. T. Garmston Hyde, of Worcester. Embroidery for chancel furniture 
has been beautifully worked by Mrs. Robinson (the Vicar's wife), Mrs. Munn, 
and other ladies. In carrying out the restoration, care has been taken to 
preserve, as far as possible, such parts of the old structure as might be of 
interest, and the work has been done satisfactorily under the supervision of 
Messrs. Rowe and Sons, architects, Worcester ; Mr. Kendrick, builder. 

Little Combeuton. 

At a cost of nearly £1,700, the church of this interesting little parish has been 
restored by members of the family of the late Rev. W. Parker, who was Rector for 
the lengthened period of fifty-nine years. Little Comberton is a place of peculiar 
interest, lying at the foot of Bredon Hill, on which is an ancient camp ; and 
as some Roman pottery has been found in the churchyard, it possibly argues 
an early occupation of the site bj^ a heathen soldiery, if not by a temple erected 
by them. The foundation of the existing church is Early Norman, or perhaps 
Saxon date, the only remains of the original building being in the north wall 
of the nave, the principal feature of which is a curious bit of sculpture on the 
tympanum of the porch, representing seven ball-like forms, ribbed, arranged 
around a plain cross, and supposed; o represent clouds. There is also an 
external sill of a small Norman window (one of three) in the north wall. The 
little windows have been skilfully introduced into the old walls, and harmonise 
well with the Norman tympanum in the porch. The rest of the building is 
mainly of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Mr. W. White, of London, 
was the architect to whom the restoration of this little fabric was entrusted, 
and by him it has been treated in a truly conservative spirit, but little 
alteration having been introduced beyond what was necessary for the 


enlargement of the building. This has been effected by the addition of a 
small aisle north of the chancel, and a transeptal aisle south of the chancel, 
with another aisle leading into it on the south of the nave. These additional 
aisles are separated from the nave by five pointed arches, with pillars of 
moulded stonework, which have a striking effect, adding much to the 
attractiveness of the interior. The chancel arch of oak forms an interesting 
feature. As the chancel is higher than the nave, some small gable windows 
are introduced above the nave roof with excellent effect. The oak choir stalls 
are furnished with carved finials and poppy heads. The porch has been 
rescued from dilapidation, and open timber roofs placed on chancel and nave ; 
gables finished with coping and crosses, and tower newly roofed. Including 
a new altar table, rails, and carved stalls for choir, the chancel fittings are of 
deal, placed on a wood block floor. Old encaustic tiles found in various parts 
of the church have been relaid at the east end of the chancel, and Mr. Godwin, 
of Lugwardine, supplied the rest, being of a similar design. It is believed 
that the old tiles, which are of fourteenth century style, were made somewhere 
in the neighbourhood. A memorial stone on the buttress of the south transept 
bears the inscription, "To the glorj- of God, May, 1886;" and the label 
terminations of the new window near it have been carved to represent the 
Queen and the Bishop of Worcester, Another novel idea was the placing of 
an oak tablet on the north wall of the chancel, recording the names of the 
Rectors of the parish from 1331 to the present time. These number 26, many 
of whom held the living for lengthened periods, but none of them so long as 
the late Rector. Some special gifts were made, including an oak eagle lectern, 
to which nearly every parishioner subscribed. The cost of the restoration was 
nearly £1,700 ; and Mr. Collins, of Tewkesbury, completed the work most 
satisfactorily. Rev. R. R. Duke presented an oak cross, the Misses Paget 
gave lamps, and Mr, Bagnall encaustic tiles. The re-opening took place on 
September 30, 1886. 

St. Andrew's, Worcester. 

Several attempts at restoring this interesting old church have been made 
during the last half century, but owing to the poverty of the parish and the 
failure of funds the work thus accomplished has been incomplete ; and at length 
the necessity for extensive repairs becoming urgent, the Rector (Rev, T. Sharp), 
and Messrs. A. Webb and S, Hulland, the churchwardens, appealed to the 
citizens generally for assistance ; a subscription was set on foot, a bazaar was 
also held, and in the autumn of 1885 the work of restoring the church was 
commenced. Messrs. Rowe and Son were the architects, and Messrs. Wood 
and Son, the builders. £1,500 was the estimated cost of carrying out the 
plans. On the 5th of the following May the re-opening took place, when 
the Bishop and a large number of clergy, together with the Mayor and many 
members of the Corporation, attended. Among the Avorks which have been 
completed the most important comprise the reconstruction of the greater part 
of the south wail and adjoining roof above the aisle. Whitewash and colouring 
which had been accumulating for many years on piers, arches, spandrils, and 
quoins, have been removed, and the natural colour of the stone brought to 
light. Perishing stone in the walls was renewed, and also in the tower and 
spire (the latter being a feature of this church cf which the city is justly proud). 
The roof was repaired, and some portion renovated, as also all decayed wood- 
work and plastering. Open benches instead of the unsightly old pews, and 
benches or stalls in the chancel for the use of the choir, have been supplied ; 
while encaustic tiles now cover the floors of chancel, aisles, and sacrarium.' 
Gas standards, brackets, and fittings, for lighting, the gift of the Gas Company, 
and hot water circulation for warming. That portion of the restoration which 
related to the chancel and the re-seating of the church formed a memorial of 
the late Mr, Josiah Stallard, an old and much esteemed parishioner, and for 


which purpose the sum of £225 had been subscribed. A stone pulpit was given 
by Mr. W. Sanders, a former parishioner, in memory of his wife ; an oak 
reading desk and stand for the lectern were presented by the Rector, who had 
carved them with his own hand, and a handsome brass lectern was given by 
Mr. T. Radford, of Bevere ; Miss Wade, of Richmond, sent brass reading stands 
for the pulpit and communion table, and also service books and a scarlet cloth 
frontal ; Messrs. Webb presented curtains for the vestry, and Mrs. W. Stallard, 
Astwood, bags for alms. The churchyard, too, which greatly needed the hand 
of the improver, has been tastefully laid out, and thus the sacred edifice and 
its surroundings have been rescued from that decay into which they had been 
falling. St. Andrew's parish, at one time perhaps the wealthiest in the city 
when the clothing trade was famous in Worcester, is now unable, without 
extraneous help, to accomplish expensive works of this kind, and we fear that 
a considerable portion of debt still remains on the church. 

St. Paul's, Worcester. 

In our last year's report brief mention was made of the foundation stone 
of this new church having been laid by the Countess Beauchamp. After an 
interval of about twelve months this stately structure was completed, and the 
Consecration Service took place on the 2nd of November, 1886. The edifice 
was designed in a variety of the thirteenth century style. It compi'ises a nave 
and aisles of five bays, a chancel of considerable size, on the south side of 
which is a chapel connected with the chancel by two low arches. On the 
north side of the chancel is an aisle with the organ-chamber over it, both being 
contained in one large pointed arch. The organ-chamber is reached by an 
octagonal staircase at the north-east angle. East of the chancel aisle is the 
clergy vestry, entered from the street and with doors into the-chancel and aisle. 
The general body of the chancel is raised four steps above the church, and the 
sacrarium is raised four steps more. At the entrance to the chancel is a low 
stone wall, on which stands a rich iron and brass screen with gates across the 
passage. At the west of the nave is the baptistery, enclosed under a stone 
cusped arch. The font is of Caen stone, with shafts and steps of Devonshire 
marble. There are three entrances to the nave, two on the north side and one 
on the south. The nave arcade is rather lofty ; it has no caps, but has a 
small cusp at the springing, the shafts being octagonal. The aisle walls are 
proportionately high, and contain large two-light windows with circles in the 
heads. Clerestory low, and windows composed of two lancets and two circles, 
the lancets being in the centre, with a circle on either side. The west wall of 
the church is pierced with three long two-light windows, with circles in the 
heads. The east window is composed of three lancets with shafts internally. 
The other windows of the chancel are of two acutely pointed lights with 
cusped heads and a cusped vesica over them. Three of them are on the south 
side and one on the north. The windows in the side chapel are of three and 
five lancets. The heating apparatus chamber is below the chapel. Open 
Early English framed roofs adorn the edifice. The materials are local red and 
black bricks, and Bath stone for the dressings. Decoration by using the 
different materials in bands has been freely used, more especially in the nave 
arcade. An elaborate tile pavement in the chancel is the work of Messrs. 
Carter, Johnson, and Co. ; chancel screen and altar rail are from the workshops 
of Mr. Barford, of Maidenhead ; font and retable by Mr. Earp, of Lambeth ; 
heating apparatus by Messrs. Haden and Sons, of Trowbridge. These are all, 
like the whole of the church, from the designs and details of Mr. Street, of 
London. Mr. Inwood, of Malvern, contractor ; and the works have been 
carried out under the superintendence of Mr. Sheppard, of Worcester. About 
1,000 people may be accommodated in the church. The old building seated 
between 300 and 400 

Numerous specirl gifts were made towards the erection, decoration, and 
furnishing of the church, but in most cases the wishes of the donors would be 
best consulted by withholding their names from publicity. 

REPORT. Iciii. 


Much activity has been apparent throughout the diocese during the year 
in minor works of restoration or refitting, in supplying new furniture, or in 
decoration. New coloured windows have been obtained for Acock's Green, 
Ansty, BaddzsUy Ensor ; Bearley ; St. Matthias, Birmingham; Castle 
Bromwich ; Holy Trinity, Coventry; St. Thomas's, Coventry; Knowle, 
LadhroJce, South Littleton, Meriden, Walmley, West Malvern, and IVrihbenhall. 
Bells, new or recast, have been furnished for the churches of Seckington and 
Stoke Prior, while at Tysoe the old sanctus bell has been recast, and at 
Shotteswell the belfry has been restored. For the churches of Dudley (St. 
John's J ; St. Catherine's, Birmingham ; St. Thomas's, Coventry ; Oxhill eind. 
Packioood, new organs have been purchased. Various articles of furniture or 
church decorations are also reported from St. Barna.has and St. Nicholas, 
Birmingham ; Brailes, Cleeve Prior, Clent, the churches of Coventry, Enucote, 
Hay Mills, KemjJsey, Knightwick, Malvern Link, Maxstoke, Middleton, 
Moreton Morrell, Suckley, and the churches of IVarwick. Among the partial 
restorations which have Come to our notice are the following : tower restored 
?t Bickenhill ; new vestry at Hagley ; general restoration at Hall Gy-een ; west 
end of Paxford Chapel of Ease extended ; extsricr of Peopleton Church 
renovated and new weather vane ; and lastly, the Church of Stratford-ojt-Avon 
has been undergoing restoration within and without. Considering the archi- 
tectural importance of this fine old church, and the national interest which 
attaches to the honoured remains of the greatest of poets, an early visit of 
this Society' to the Church of Stratford (to which our last Excursion was 
made fifteen years ago) may be thought desirable, as soon as possible after the 
completion of the works. 

Secular Work. 

A building of considerable pretensions is the new Constitutional Club-house 
erected last year in Silver Street, as a City and County Conservative Institution. 
This w^as tlie work of a company, with a capital of £8,000. With great 
ceremony the structure was opened on the 29th of April, 1886. A block of 
old cottage property was purchased and swept away, whereby a Jrontage of 
75 ft. and an area of nearly half-an-acre were obtained. The buildings are 
from the designs of Messrs. Yeates and Jones, architects, Worcester, under 
whose superintendence the works have been carried out. Mr. John Bourne, 
contractor. The style adopted is Renaissance, and the frontage is effectively 
diversified by a massive entrance balcony, centre gable, oriel windows, and 
other minor features, which impart to the elevation at once a bold and pleasing 




For the Year ending 31st December, 1886. 

1886. Receipts. 

By Balance at Bankers at 

end of 1885 

,, Annual Subscriptions, 


,, Annual Subscriptions, 

1887, paid in advance 

,, Arrears of Subscription 

31 19 

25 10 

£63 19 6 

1886. Payments. £, 
To J. Williamson, Share of 
Printing Annual Yol. 

, , Eaton t& Co. , Printing A/c 

,, Kent of Room at Guild- 

,, Excursion Expenses ... 

,, Secretary's Disburse- 
ments, &c 

,, J. Williamson, Share of 
Printing Annual Vol. 

,. Balance at Bankers 

12 9 

2 18 


5 10 
1 19 

3 2 

Examined and found correct, 

. 9 19 

. 28 



£63 19 



13th January, 1887. 






The Lord Bishop of Ely. 

The Duke of Manche.ster. 

Earl Cowper, K.G., Lord- Lieutenant. 

The High Sheriff. 

The Duke of Bedford, K.G. 

Colonel Stuart. 

Maior Cooper Cooper, F.S.A. 

W. F. HiGGiNS, Esq. 

G. Hurst, Esq., F.S.S. 

W. M. Harvey, Esq. 

E. Ransom, Esq., Mayor of Bedford. 



Thomas Barnard, Esq. 

F. A. Blades, Esq., F.S.A.* 
J. ]Sr. Foster, Esq. 
F. Howard, Esq. 
Rev. A. Orlebar. 

With the Acting; 


E. Ransom, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Dr. Steinmetz. 

Officers of the Society. 

Mark Sharman, Esq. j C. E. Prior, Esq,, M.D. 

T. G. Elger, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

^onorarg cSccr^tarics. 
Rev. Canon Haddock. | D. G. Cary-Elwes, Esq., F.S.A. 

^ficut mit ^virbixBhtx. 
Mr. F. Thompson. 

^cpttt2 Curator. 
Mr. W. Davis. 




188 6. 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland, K.G. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Peterborough 


The High Sheriff of Leicestershire 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Leicester 

The Right Honourable the Earl Howe, C. B. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Denbigh 

The Right Honourable Earl Ferrers 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Dysart 

The Right Honourable tlie Earl of Lanesborough 

The Right Honourable Lord John Manners, G.C.B., M.P. 

The Right Honourable Lord Braye 

The Right Rev. Bishop Mitchinson 

Major the Honourable M. Curzon 

The Honourable Harry Tyrwhit Wilson 

Sir William de Capel Brooke, Baronet 

Sir Frederick T. Foavke, Baronet 

Sir Arthur Grey Hazlerigg, Baronet 

Sir Henry St. John Halford, Baronet, C.B. 

Sir Geoffrey Palmer, Baronet 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Leicester 

N. C. Curzon, Esquire 


^Vt&ibtnts — continued. 

James Ellis, Esquire, M.P. 

Edwaed Finch Dawson, Esquire 

William Unwin Heygate, Esquire 

Edwin de Lisle, Esquire, M.P. 

Colonel F. Palmer^ 

Major G. T. Mowbray 

H. L. Powys-Keck, Esquire 

T. T, Paget, Esquire 

T. K. Tapling, Esquire, M.P. 


The Rev. W. R. Mangan 
The Rev. W. B. Moore 
Fred. R. Morley, Esq. 
G. C. Neale, Esq. 
Thomas Nevinson, Esq. 
The Rev. T. W. Owen 
The Rev. J. E. Stocks 
The Kev. A. Trollope 
John Wade Wartnaby, Esq. 
Captain Whitby 
The Rev. Lewis E. Wood 
The Rev. C. Henton Wood 

The Patrons 

The Presidents 

All Rural Deans (being Members) 

The Honorary Secretaries 

All Professional Architects (being 

All Honorary Members 
The Rev. C. W. Belgrave 
Francis E. Bigge, Esq. 
The Rev. J. B. Dickson, LL.D. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A. 
Thomas Ingram, Esq. 
S. Knight, Esq. 

^he (Bxcnxision ,Snh-Qlomm\tUt 
The Honorary Secretaries I Captain Whitby 

T. Holyland, Esquire | J. W. Wartnaby, Esquire 

Market Harhorough District. 

The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A., Cranoe 
Rectory. (Died 3rd Dec, 1886.) 

For 1887. 
The Rev. Philip Stocks, Great 

Luttenvorth District. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Pownall, 
F.S.A., South Kil worth Rectory. 
(Died 25th Nov., 1886.) 

For 1887. 
The Rev. L. W. Wood, Dunton 

Melton Mowbray District. 

The Rev. A. M. Rend all, Coston 

Hinckley District. 
The Rev. R. Titley, Barwell Rectory 

^onoxAX^ CoiTcs^ionbtng ^fmber for Cobcntrg. 
Wm. Geo. Fretton, Esq., F.S.A,, Coventry 

^onorarj) cSccrrtartts of tin ^ocxti'^. 
Colonel Bellairs, The Newarke, Leicester (Financial) 
William Jesse Freer, Esquire, Local Sec. Soc. Antqs., Stoneygate, Leicester 

( Corresponding) 
The Rev. William George Dimock Fletcher, St. Michael's Vicarage, 

Shrewsbury (Editorial) 

Thomas Holyland, Esq. 



Members deceased in 1886-7. 

Bouskellj James, Esq., Leicester 
Crane, Mr. John, Leicester 
Gleadow, W., Esq., Leicester 
Hill, Eev. John Harwood, F.S.A., 

Cranoe Rectory. 
Johnson, William, Esq., Saddington 
Lakin, The Rev. John Marsh, Brooksby 

Latham, William, Esq., Melton 

Macaulay, Colin Aulay, Esq., Leicester 
Pownall, The Venerable Archdeacon, 

F.S.A., South Kilworth Rectory 
Weatherhead, J. E., Esq., Leicester 
Whitby, Captain Alfred, Peckleton 


Archaeological Journal of the British 
Institute. Vols. xlii. and xliii. 

Buckinghamshire Architectural and 
Archfeological Society. Records of 
Buckinghamshire. No. 8. 1886. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Re- 
ports and Communications. Nos. 
26-27. 1885-6. 

8vo. Publications. Tyery's 

Proposals for an Irish Coinage, 
No. 22. 1886._ 

Essex Archseological Society. Tran- 
sactions. 1885. Vol. III. Part i. 

Fletcher (Rev. Wm. Geo. Dimock, 
M.A.), Leicestershire Pedigrees and 
Royal Descents. 1887. 

Kent Archaeological Society, Tran- 
sactions of the. Archeeologia 
Cantiana. Vol. xvi. 1886. 

Montgomeryshire, Collections His- 
torical and Archaeological relating 
to, Powys-land Club, 1885-1887. 
Vols. XIX, XX, and xxi. Part i. 

Oxford Architectural and Historical 
Society, Transactions and Proceed- 
ings. No. 29. 1883. 

Reliquary (The). Quarterly Archaeo- 
logical Journal and Review. Edited 
by Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S.A. Vols. 
XXV, and xxvi. New Series, Edited 
by the Rev. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., 
Nos. 1 and 2. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, Transactions of the. 
Vols. IX and x. Part i. 1886-7. 

Smith (A. C), Guide to the British 
and Roman Antiquities of the North 
Wiltshire Downs. 188 . 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Nat- 
ural History Society, Proceedings. 
Vol. XXXI. 1886. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, Tran- 
sactions of the. Vol. IX. Part ii. 

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo- 
graphical Journal. Vols, ix, and 
X. Parti. 1886-7. 

Note. — The Society s Room is at Messrs. Clarke and Hodgson's, 5, 
Gallowtree Gate, Leicester, where the Library is kept, and is open daily for 
the use of Members. Any Member borrowing a book is requested to enter the 
title and date in the book provided for that purpose. 

The Report 

Of the Committee for the year 1886, read and adopted at the Annual Meeting 
of Members, held in the Old Town Lihrary, Guild Hall, Leicester, on the 
31st of January, 1887. 

In presenting to our Members the Thirty'Second Annual Report of our 
proceedings, we have to lament the great loss Avhich our Society has sustained 
during the past year in the death of some of its oldest and best Members. 
The Rev. J. H. Hill, F.S.A., of Cranoe, was elected in 1856, joined the 
Committee in 1858, and read his first Paper, on a window in Lincoln Cathedral, 


in 1859. From that date lie was a frequent contributor of Papers on all kinds 
of subjects, bringing great archreological knowledge and minute and unfailing 
patience in his antiiiuarian researches. His illustrated books on the Hundred 
of Gartree and other works will long remain an authority on the churches he 
has pourtrayed and described. The Yen. Archdeacon Pownall, F.S.A., became 
a Member of our Society in 1861. His fame as a numismatist was unrivalled 
in this neighbourhood, and his knowledge in this branch of archaeology was 
always at our service in the case of any coin of difficult or doubtful inscription. 
He, as well as Mr. Hill, was punctual in his attendance at our Meetings 
whenever it was possible, and until his time was taken up in the duties of his 
archdeaconry. He read many and valuable Papers on the subjects in which 
he took most interest, but he was learned in many ways, and did not confine 
himself to writing on coins only. Captain Whitby was elected in 1863. He 
was a frequent exhibitor of archaeological objects, and we shall much miss his 
constant presence and help. The Rev. J. M. Lakin, Brooksby ; Mr. W. 
Gleadow, Leicester ; Mr. W. Johnson, Saddingtou ; Mr. C. A. Macaulay ; 
Mr. W. Latham, Melton ; Mr. J. Crane, Leicester ; and Mr. J. Bouskell we 
have also lost during the year. 

The bi-monthly Meetings have been held as usual, with the exception of 
July 26, when there was no quorum, and in consequence a Meeting could not 
be held. A small party of our Members joined those of the Architectural 
Society of Lincoln for the Annual Excursion in June, when the Cathedral and 
City of Lincoln was visited. 

Only one Paper has been sent during the year for reading and discussion, 
namely -.— Thomas Davenport, Mayor of Leicester, 1553-4, by the Rev. W. G. 
DiMOCK Fletchee. a number of interesting objects have been exhibited at 
the bi-monthly Meetings, among which may be noted a brass-plate from 
Great Bowden Church, inscribed with the name of William Wolstanton, and a 
copy of his will dated 1403 ; also, a collection of relics of the great Emperor 

St. Barnabas Church at New Humherstone, has been completed from the 
designs of Messrs. Goddard and Paget, and was consecrated on June 29th. 
The Church of Great Boivden is at present under repair. Numerous paintings 
in distemper have been found on the walls under the whitewash, but nearly all 
were hopelessly decayed. A fine organ has been placed in the Church of St. 
John the Baptist, at Knighton. It was built by the Messrs. Taylor, at a cost 
of £500. At Syston, two new bells have been hung in the tower, to complete 
a peal of eight. The Church of St. Michael, at Belgrave, is not yet completed. 
It will, be seen that we have but a meagre Report to make of the Society's 
work and progress during the past year. It is to be hoped that greater 
interest will be taken in the Meetings during the present year, and that 
Members will step in to fill the vacant places of those we have lost. 






Jan. 1. Balance in hand 132 3 11 
Subscriptions and 
Arrears received 
during the year 104 10 6 

£236 14 5 


Jan. 1. Balance in hand £126 

1886. £ s. d. 

Printing and Publishing 

Transactions ; Williamson, 

share of Annual Volume ; 

New Books, Periodicals, 

&c 102 8 

Advertising, &c. ... , 7 6 6 

Sundries 18 

Balance 126 9 3 

£236 U 5 

1887, January 24th. Examined and found correct, 





The Recent Discovery of the Foundations of the Ajyse of St. Hugh's 
Cathedral, at Lincoln. — By the Rev. the Peecentor of Lincoln. 

THE Cathedral Church of Liucoln exhibits a very instructive 
example of that gradual extension and development of the 
Eastern limb, which the greater part of our English Cathedrals and 
Minsters have experienced. One stage in this development has 
been recently brought to light by excavations carried on in the 
presbytery of the Cathedral at the close of last year, of the results 
of which I now propose to give an account. 

I would ask to be allowed to preface this account with a few 
remarks on the general subject of this eastward development."^ The 
eastern limb of a Minster, as originally planned by its Norman 
architect, was usually of very moderate projection. The then 
existing ritual arrangements did not call for any great length. The 
ritual choir, with the stalls for the priests and ministers, was placed 

* In this and the following paragraph I have ventured to repeat the substance of a 
passage in a paper contributed by me to the late Dean Howson's " Essays on Cathedrals." 



under the lantern or in the first bays of the nave, as we still see it 
at Winchester, Gloucester, Chichester, and JN"orwich, and elsewhere, 
especially at Westminster Abbey, where the original arrangement 
of the Confessor's Church was maintained when it was rebuilt by 
Henry III. The arrangement with which we have become familiar, 
by which the ritual choir is entirely comprised within the eastern 
arm of the cross, lying altogether to the east of the lantern or 
crossing, is not found in England before the twelfth century. The 
" Glorious Choir " of Conrad, as it was called, dating from the 
archiepiscopate of St. Anselm at the beginning of that century, is 
the earliest example of this novel plan that I can recall. At the 
end of the century this plan was adopted by St. Hugh's architect 
at Lincoln, and was followed by Bishop Poore at Salisbury, as well 
as at Beverley Minster, old St. Paul's, Wells, Exeter, York, &c., 
and sooii became the recognized form, the western choir screen, 
not as heretofore stretching across the nave, but occupying the 
eastern tower arch. 

I may remark, in passing, as a fact not commonly recognized, 
that while nearly all our Cathedrals and Minsters have received a 
considerable addition to their original length from east to west, 
this addition has, in almost every case, been made eastwards. 
In almost every instance the nave retains its earliest longitudinal 
dimensions, and the west end stands on the foundations laid down 
by the first builders. In one instance, indeed, Winchester, the long 
Norman nave has been shortened, the western towers and the bays 
connected with them having been destroyed at the time of 
Wykeham's reconstruction of the fabric. The reason of this 
distinction between the east and west is plain. The naves, as 
originally planned, were long enough for their purpose, to afford space 
for litanies and processions, and to accommodate standers-sitters were 
then unknown — at the sermons delivered ''ad populum." But at 
the other end of the Church the case was different. The space 
around the altar and near it was the recognized place for the shrines 
of the saints, whose relics the Church had the good fortune to 
possess. As time went on these shrines increased in number and 
attractiveness, and in proportion as they became the accredited 
centres of miraculous agencies they drew to themselves constantly 
increasing crowds of votaries, some anxious to obtain an interest in 
the saint's intercessions, still more seeking to be cured of their 
physical maladies by contact with his remains. For the reception 
of these crowds, and for the due exhibition of the shrines and their 
sacred contents, increased space was needed, and in one great 
church after another we find the same process of eastern extension 
undertaken, not always in the same way, but always with the same 
object, viz.,to obtain greater shrine-room. This eastward development 
was, generally speaking, accomplished in two modes. In some 


instances, as at Canterbury, the earliest example, as old St. Paul's 
was the largest and most glorious, at York, Ely, Worcester, 
Beverley, and other churches, including Lincoln, the grander and 
more imposing plan was adopted of carrying on the main fabric at 
the same height to the extreme end, the eastern chapels being only 
separated from the ritual choir by a screen or reredos, without any 
constructional distinction. In other cases the accommodation needed 
was provided by the erection of low eastern aisles and chapels, not 
rising to the full height of the building, the Lady Chapel occupying 
the central position. As examples of this less stately, but more 
picturesque arrangement, I may mention Salisbury, Exeter, Chester, 
Hereford, and that which may be regarded as the most beautiful in 
its design and the most skillfully arranged of all such developments, 
the Lady Chapel of Wells. 

After these introductory remarks, I will now proceed to the 
object of this paper, and endeavour to trace the successive changes 
in the eastern limb of the Cathedral at Lincoln. 

The first Cathedral of Lincoln was entirely erected by the first 
Norman Bishop Eemigius, by whom the see was transferred from 
its earlier site at Dorchester on the Thames to its " sovereign hill " 
above the sluggish Witham, and was ready for consecration at the 
time of the founder's death, a.d. 1092. Although the superstructure 
of the eastern arm was entirely demolished at the erection of St. 
Hugh's Choir, at the end of the twelfth century, the foundations 
were fortunately allowed to remain, and were discovered by 
Mr. T. J. Willson, in 1852, beneath the wood flooring of the upper 
range of stalls on either side. From these remains we can discover 
the dimensions and architectural character of the eastern limb of 
Remigius's Church. It was very short, not reaching beyond the 
second bay from the crossing, and was ten feet narrower than the 
present mid-aisle, the new building, according to the sen&.ible 
mediaeval practice, having been erected outside the older one, 
which remained like the kernel of a nut within the shell, so that 
it could be used for service until the new one was ready, when it 
was pulled down. A fragment of a pilaster buttress to the north- 
east, and the solid walls running westward shew that as at 
St. Stephen's at Caen, and originally at Peterborough, it was 
destitute of aisles or procession path. Two rough blocks of 
masonry projecting from the wall, mark the position of the 
piers of the great arch, the "arcus triumphalis " of the old 
Basilicas, which divided the Presbytery from the Choir. 

Exactly a hundred years from the completion of the Church of 
Eemigius, the foundations of the existing Choir of St. Hugh were 
laid, A.D. 1192. The architect was Geoffrey of Xoiers. His name 
looks French. But the late Canon Dimock adduced arguments for 
regarding him as a native Englishman belonging to an originally 


Norman family. Whether the architecture of the choir of Lincoln 
exhibits any traces of French influence has been much debated. 
Professor Willis described the building, with its many singularities, 
as ''the work of a mad Frenchman." His verdict, however, has 
been much called in question, and can hardly be sustained. 
M. Viollet le Due, after careful examination, pronounced against 
it, declaring the work to be thoroughly English, without any 
appearance of French influence. The recent discoveries of which I 
am about to speak, may, however, to some extent, tend to a reconsider- 
ation of the question. Certainly, whatever may be the character of the 
architecture, the plan of the apsidal east end with its appendent 
chapels is far more Frencb, or at least continental, than English. 
St. Hugh's new building embraced the present ritual choir of four 
bays, and the eastern transept with its four semicircular chapels, 
as well as a small portion of the eastern walls of the western, or 
great transept. All these are standing with but slight alterations. 
But the eastern portion, beyond the lesser transept, containing the 
High Altar, was entirely removed for the erection of the new 
eastern limb of five bays, generally known as the ''Angel Choir," 
in the latter half of the thirteenth century. The purpose of this 
" novum opus " was to provide a fitting home for the shrine of St. 
Hugh, whose "cultus" had become exceedingly popular. The 
chapel where he was originally interred had been much extended 
eastwards, and its shallow semi-circular apse had given place to a 
quadrangular termination ; but the enlargement proved inadequate 
for the multitudes who flocked to the shrine, and the extension of 
the choir was undertaken c. 1255, the work being sufliciently 
advanced for the solemn translation of the Saint's remains, in 1280, 
in the presence of Edward I. and his Queen and their royal off'spring, 
and an immense attendance of bishops and nobles, with every 
circumstance of pomp. 

■ What the original form of the east end of St. Hugh's church had 
been was entirely a matter of conjecture until the repaving of the 
choir and presbytery, in 1791, brought to light a portion of the 
foundations, which have been more completely developed during 
the past few months. At the time of the repaving, the celebrated 
John Carter (d. 1818), — the father of the revived interest in our 
national architecture, whose drawings and descriptions have 
preserved to us the record of many buildings that have passed 
away,— happened to be visiting Lincoln, and took notes of the 
discovery. The following year he made a drawing from memory, 
which is preserved among the Gough collection in the Bodleian 
Library. Long forgotten, this rude drawing was discovered by the 
late Mr. Ross, a well-known Lincoln Antiquary, whose collections for 
the History of Lincoln, with copious illustrations from his accurate 
hand, are in the possession of Viscount Oxenbridge (better known as 


Lord Monson), and were by him communicated to the late Mr. Ayliffe 
Poole, who had the plan lithographed and published as an illustration 
to his admirable paper on Lincoln Minster in the vokime of the 
Associated Societies' Reports for 1857 (p. 21). The late Mr. E. J. 
Willson also possessed notes and drawings, which his son, Mr. T.J. 
Willson,has kindly communicated to me."^ Carter's drawings, though 
somewhat rude, sufficiently indicate the original form and arrange- 
ment of St. Hugh's apse. It was seen to have been a semi-hexagon, 
with two sloping side walls and one straight wall at the east end, ex- 
tending no further than the second bay of the existing Angel Choir, 
and to have had semicircular chapels corresponding to those of the 
adjacent transepts appended to the two sloping sides. Smaller 
circular projections beyond these chapels, at the angles of the semi- 
hexagon, are given in the plan. These, it was thought, might 
indicate stair turrets for a "vice" or newel, which w^ould have 
occupied a similar position to the turrets which so effectively flank 
the apse at Peterborough. This idea our recent investigations have 
proved to be incorrect. Small as these projections are they appear 
to have chapels whose existence greatly increase the singularity of 
this remarkable east end. Of the recently discovered hexagonal 
chapel, at the extreme east end, the earlier investigations afforded 
no hint.f 

I now ccme to the recent investigation. At the end of November 
of last year our excellent Clerk of the Works, Mr. J. J. Smith — 
to whose zeal and that of his staff, especially our master mason, 
Mr. Hague, in carrying on the search, and accuracy in measuring 
and planning every fresh feature as it was discovered cannot be too 
highly commended — mentioned to me that a portion of the pave- 
ment at the south-west end of the south aisle of the presbytery 

* Mr. Willson writes, " The foundations discovered in the sides of the High Altar, when 
the old pavement was broken up, ad. 1791, undoubtedly belonged to those parts of the Church 
which had been erected by St. Hugh, of which the choir and the upper transept, with the 
four chapels attached to it, are yet remaining. These foundations indicated that the eastern 
extremity of the building, as then finished, had been of a polygonal form, with semi-circular 
chapels attached to the sides. The addition of the tive arches, beyond the upper transept, with 
all the rich architecture of the presbytery, was made about a century after the erection of St. 
Hugh's buildings, of which the eastern extremity was taken down to make room for the new 
erection. , . . When a grave was made for the Rev. Henry Best, near to the middle of 
the presbytery, some very solid foundations were found, which were taken up with great 
difficulty, These were supposed to be the remains of the Roman wall of the City " [this was a 
manifest error]," but, more probably, had belonged to the eastern extremity of the Church 
erected by St. Hugh, or to a wall erected for the protection of that part of the town in the 
time of St. Hugh, and which was removed afterwards when the Close was enlarged by grants 
from Henry III. and Edward I. Foundations were also found near to the same place, when a 
grave was intended to be made there for Sir Richard Kaye, the Dean, and a fresh place was 
chosen on account of the difficulty of digging through these foundations." 

t Mr. Ayliffe Poole writes thus respecting Carter's drawing, " Here we have a semi- 
hexagon most oddly combined with semi-circular chambers at the two diagonal sides, without 
apparent access either from the church or from the exterior." — It must be remembered that 
only the foundations exist, and it is, I believe, usual to carry a wall below the surface across an 
opening in the fabric, to bind the whole together and strengthen it — " We have no similar 
chapel or chamber to the east " — one such, of a hexagonal form , has now been discovered — '* but 
at the angles of the east side we have nearly perfect circular appendages of ten feet radius, 
accessible from within, and I suppose to be considered i?tair turrets." 


needed repair, and asked my permission to have it taken np and 
relaid. Tliis request afforded the very opportunity I had been long 
eagerly Avishing for. I knew what probably lay beneath that 
pavement, and gladly gave the desired permission, adding that it he 
allowed the workmen to dig a little deeper and extend their work 
a little further than was absolutely requisite, I at least should not 
call him to account. The work began on Nov. 23, and had not 
proceeded far before the foundation of the south wall of St. Hugh's 
polygonal apse was discovered, together with the springing of the 
segmental chapel annexed to it. The search now grew hot, as 
children say ; the interest of our energetic Dean was roused, and 
without any regard to the repair of the pavement, it was determined 
to carry on the investigation, and once for all determine as far as 
possible the form of the termination of St. Hugh's Church. The 
foundations of the southern chapel were traced as far as the walls 
of Bishop Longland's Chantry, which had partly been built upon 
its site, permitted. It was found to correspond exactly both in 
form and dimensions with the southern of the two chapels annexed 
to the south transept, St. Peter's Chapel. It was a portion of a 
circle 18 ft. in internal diameter, considerably exceeding a semicircle 
in form. We then came to the smaller circular appendage, of which 
the void was not more than 10 ft. in diameter. Our pre-conceived 
notion, as I have said, was that it was the foundation of a newel 
staircase. This idea, however, was disproved by the discovery of 
a small fragment of two dressed walls on the eastern side 
forming an angle, with the footing of a small shaft at the junction. 
This was entirely inconsistent with the arrangements suitable for 
a newel stair. To make the matter still clearer, I desired the 
master mason to dig in the centre of the void to see if there was 
any trace of the foundation of a newel; none such, however, 
was found. When we proceeded to the north side with our inves- 
tigations we found foundations of an exactly similar character ; but 
again no trace of a newel. It is a cause of regret that the delicacy 
of the health of our consulting architect, J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., 
prevented his undertaking a journey in the middle of winter to 
examine the discovery personally, but he has devoted much time 
and thought to the plans which have been submitted to him, and 
I have the happiness of being able to present a drawing of the 
conclusions he has arrived at as to the original form and arrange- 
ment of St. Hugh's Choir. He has no doubt that these small 
buildings were actual chapels, vaulted from four wall-shafts, the 
existing fragment being the base of one of them, and approached from 
the aisle or procession-path by a triangular vaulted space, such as are 
seen at Ely in the intervals between the diagonal arches of the lan- 
tern and the nave and choir aisles. Between this small chapel and 
the larger segmental chapel a portion of an angular buttress was 


found still standing. Proceeding in our search, we were rewarded 
with an entirely unexpected discovery. Mr. Carter's drawing 
represented the east end terminating in a straight wall from north 
to south. It was with no little interest that as our digging w^ent 
on we found ourselves developing foundations of an hexagonal 
chapel of 23 ft. internal diameter, occupying the same position 
relatively to our Cathedral that the well-known chapel known as 
^'Becket's Crown" occupies at Canterbury, the existence of which 
had been hitherto entirely unsuspected. This additional building 
would make St. Hugh's Church in internal measurement about 
48 ft. short of the existing Cathedral. The planning of this chapel 
was singularly unsymmetrical. It will be seen from the plan that 
the transverse axis of the hexagon is not at right angles with the 
main axis of the Cathedral, but shows a considerable deflection to 
the south. The foundations showed that there had been projecting 
buttresses at the angles of the chapel. The ground plan on the 
north side of the choir proved to be identical with that on the south. 
We discovered foundations of the same sloping wall, large segmental 
chapel, and smaller chapel with its circular external wall and internal 

The ground plan as finally developed by Mr. Pearson is of very 
remarkable interest. In England the arrangement of the apsidal 
chapels has parallels more or less exact at Norwich and at Tewkes- 
bury, and Mr. St. John Hope's investigations show a somewhat 
similar group of eastern chapels in the great Cluniac church at 
Lewes. But the parallels presented by continental churches are 
much nearer. The ground plans of French churches given by 
Yiollet le Due in the first volume of his Didiunnaire ofi'er several 
curious points of resemblance in the alternation of larger and smaller 
apsidal chapels surrounding the chevet, and the churches of Germany 
present other points of resemblance."^ One point of very singular in- 
terest is pointed out by Mr. Pearson, and becomes very apparent on his 
ground plan. To quote a communication with which he has favoured 
me, " You will observe," he says, " how a triangle curiously gives 
the lines on which much of the work is set out, the base of this 
triangle being a line drawn through the centre of the columns on a 
line with the east wall of the south transept, those just east of the 
crossing. The centres of the little chapels, oddly enough, are almost 
in the centre of the sides of the triangle. It is curious that there 
are some German churches with triangular terminations to chancels 
and chapels, as well as some with an hexagonal chapel added on 

* At Vignory sur Marne, a smaU and very early church, we find three chapels, the plans 
of which, like those at Lincoln, exceed a semicircle, set round the apsidal aisle (ViolletleDuc 
Dictionnaxre, vol. i.. p. 169). Fontevraud. of the twelfth century (p. 171). St Etienne de Nevers 
(p. 173), and Rouen (p. '237), also exhibit three apsidal chapels attached to the chief apse. 
The central chapel at Rouen has been subsequently lengthened, as was the case with St. Hngh's 
place of interment. The plans of Chartres (d. -23.5) and St. Ouen at Rouen (p. 239) offer 
examples of smaller chapels of semicircular or segmental plan, wedged in, as it were, between 
two larger chapels, like those recently discovered at Lincoln. 


and of early date, I think early in the thirteenth century. ■^" "Was 
there," he adds, " any connection between this country and that of 
Bohemia at that time which could have influenced this or that 
country 1 " I am not aware of any such connection. The matter 
however deserves enquiry. 

Eeturning to the recent discoveries, it should be stated that 
through the larger extent of the excavations only the rude concrete 
foundations were found remaining, the upper surface being about 
16 in. or 17 in. below the existing pavement. The places where 
the walling above the original floor line remained entire are dis- 
tinguished in the plan by a different shading. The wall reaches to 
within about 8 in. of the present floor. The most considerable 
fragments found were the the south diagonal wall ot the great 
" chevet," and the springing of the curved wall of the appended 
chapel, together with a considerable portion of the eastern and 
southern walls of the eastern hexagon, and the commencement of 
the curved wall of the small southern chapel. A most valuable bit 
of wall at the north east angle of the hexagonal chapel, 
enabled us to determine with exactitude its form and dimensions. 
The small portion of wall, with the footing of a small shaft discovered 
in the circular projection was still more valuable in demonstrating 
that these foundations were not as had been first supposed, those of 
a newel staircase, but of a small radiating chapel with a curved 
termination, probably covered with a quadripartite vault springing 
from four corner shafts. The circular form of the centre void was 
at first rather perplexing, as it seemed to indicate the well of a stair- 
turret. But it proved to be due to the curve of the outer contour 
of the chapel being continued through the whole of the foundations, 
to give unity and strength to the fabric. A portion of what appeared 
to be the original flooring, constructed of concrete, was found across 
the lines where the hexagonal chapel join the aisle. 

In the course of our investigations, it became necessary to 
violate the sanctity of the tomb in the retrochoir, in which according 
to a post-Reformation inscription on a monument erected by 
Bishop Fuller (1667 — 1675), the remains of St. Hugh were 
reposing. The shrine to receive which the Angel Choir was built 
doubtless stood like all such shrinest in the centre of the church, at 
the back of the reredos. At the Reformation this shrine, in common 
with like " monuments of superstition," would be destroyed, and the 
remains of the Saint re-interred in some convenient spot near. The 

* Grueber's Kunst der Mittelalter in Bohmen give? some of these curious and exceptional 
ground plans. We find chapels with a triangular termination— a two-sided apse, if we may 
call it so — at Hohenfurt (p. 62, fig. 159), and the choir itself so ending at Strakonde (p. 67, 
fig. 159). There is an hexagonal chapel beyond the apse, like that the foundations of which 
have just been discovered at Lincoln, at Hurapolec (p. 43, fig. 75), and an octagonal chapel in 
the same position at Frauenthal (p 44, fig 77). 

t Leland writes " St. Hugh liethe in the Body of the Est parte of the Churche, above the 
High Altare," Itin. viii., 3. In Dugdale's and Sanderson's Survey, 1541, we have the following: 
"North of Dalyson's tomb was the shrine of S. Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, which you may find 
by the irons fastened in the pavement. It was made of beaten gold, and was in length eight 
feet and four feet broad, as is now to be seen. It was taken away by virtue of a Commission 
in King Henry VIII. time, the thirty-second year of his reign. The irons only now remaining. " 
We have similar examples in the shrines of St. Thomas at Canterbury, St. Alban at St. Albans 
St. Etheldreda at Ely, St. Erkenwold at St. Paul's, St. William at York, <Sic. 


On the Foundation of the Choh' of the Minster. 

Plan I. 

The Foundations of the Norman Choir of Lincoln Minster : — 
[N.B. — The ligliter shading represents the Norman foundations 
the black shading, the Choir Stalls.] 

A, portion of an external buttress of the Norman apse. 

B^ B^, the responds of the great transverse Sanctuary Arch. 

C, entrance to the Choir. 

D, Litany Stool. 

a^ a^, b^ b^, e^ C'^, lower portions of the vaulting shafts, 
beneath the floor of the Stalls. 

Plan II. 

[N.B. — The darker shading indicates existing walls, the lighter 
indicates foundations.] 

AA, eastern wall of the main Apse. 
BB, CO, foundations across the Apse. 

D, fragment of ashlar wall and portion of a shaft. 

E, ashlar wall at north-east angle of the hexagonal Chapel. 

F, South Door ; G, North Door : H, Choir. 

Ki L\ K2 U, south and north walls of the Apse. 

M^ M^, segmental Chapels of the Apse. 

Ni N2 N^ „ „ of the Eastern Transept. 

O, Bishop Longland's Chapel. 

Pi P\ small Chapels. 

Q, St. John the Baptist's Chapel, as elongated. 

R^ R^, diameter of the hexagonal Chapel, S. 

T, supposed grave of St. Hugh. 

V, Bishop Russell's Chapel. 

W, X, remains of buttresses of the Eastern Chapel. 

Y, the Angel Choir. 

Z, fragment of Arcade. 

Plan III. 
AA, supposed easternmost piers of the Apse. 

B, K, walls of the Apse. 
CC, reredos wall. 

D, fragment of shaft. 

EE, east wall of hexagonal Chapel, S. 

GG, supposed piers of the Apse. 

H, W, X, buttresses. 

K^ K^, present termination of St. Hugh's work. 

M^ M^ segmental Chapels of Apse. 

Ni N^ N^ „ „ of East Transept. 

Pi P2, smaller Chapels. 

Q, St. John Baptist's Chapel. 

S, hexagonal Chapel. 

N.B. -The piers A, C, G, are conjectural. 


Lirany 5roo\ 

1 9 , , , , |5 , , |0 ^lo |20f=j. 

Plan- I— Tut Foux 

CiioiK OF Lincoln Cathe 

' 1 H "s*^ 



♦ / I \ ♦ 

ANGEIL : Cb\oiR 
>1 ,AX 


■ V...° .' ? ^ 

Srone Coffir,— Supposed ro 

have ricid rhc*Dody of sr^ug^ 


Plan II.— The Pocndations of St. Hdgh's Apse, Lincoln Cathe 

liepnnttdfnm Eljc BuiUtr, May ml, 1887.] 


spot in this case, if we may trust Bishop Fuller's inscription was a little 
to the north of the place of the shrine, corresponding to the north-east 
angle of Hugh's hexagonal chapel. On this spot Bishop Fuller's pious 
care erected a black marble slab, supported on four renaissance legs of 
Ionic character and inscribed with a set of elegiac verses of much 
elegance, recording the fact."*^ When the investigation reached this 
place it became a matter of much interest to learn whether there was 
ere a grave there, and what it contained. On removing the marble 
memorial and opening the ground beneath it, a stone coffin was dis- 
covered within which was another coffin of lead, rather rudely put to- 
gether and unsoldered. On opening this it proved to contain no 
human remains of any kind, not even a fragment of bone. There 
was nothing more than a decaying mass of linen and silken vestments, 
so arranged as roughly to simulate the shape of a human body. 
Microscopical and chemical investigation discovered threads of flax 
and silk, with some fine threads of gold, but nothing of an animal 
nature. t It was however evident from the stains on the sides of the 
leaden coffin that a corpse had once reposed in it- What had become 
of that corpse, and was it that of St. Hugh 1 Who could tell 1 Had 
it been scattered to the winds by the hot zeal of some Puritan 
fanatic, or had it rather — as we would fain hope — been rescued from 
desecration by the pious care of some to whom the memory of one 
of the holiest of England's saints and the most intrepid of England's 
patriots was dear *? Was it with Hugh of Avalon as the story goes 
it was with Cuthbert of Lindisfarne at the great religious convulsion 
of the sixteenth century — 

*• His relics are in secret laid, 

But none may know the place, 

Save of his holiest servants three, 

Deep sworn to solemn secrecy, 

Who share that wondrous grace ? " 

* The inscription engraved on the monument erected by Bishop Fuller runs thus— 

Texerat hos cineres aurum,non marmora, prseda 
Altera sacrilegis ni metuenda foret. 

Quod fuit argentum nunc marmoris esse dolemus, 
Degeneri aetati conYcnit iste lapis. 

Ingenium pietatis hoc est frugalis, Hugonis 
Qui condit tumulum condit et ipse suum. 
The allusion in the eastern lines of the epitaph is to the original shrine of St. Hugh, which 
was covered with plates of gold, and which, with all the other rich treasures of the 
Minster in gold and jewels— the whole of which are recorded in the pages of Dugdale— were 
appropriated by Henry VIII. and his sacrilegious crew. The mention of the " frugal piety " 
of the builder of the monument, and the reference to one common tomb serving for him 
and his sainted predecessor, points to Bishop Fuller's intention to make St. Hugh's 
memorial his own memorial also. This is strengthened by the fact that the lines above 
quoted only occupy the upper part of the black marble slab, leaving abundant room for the 
bishop's epitaph below it. If such was his purpose it was not carried into effect. A ponderous 
altar tomb stands over his grave by the side of St. Hugh's, a little to the south, bearing an 
inscription which records his munificence in restoring the tombs of his predecessors in the 
Bee and his purpose to have done more in that way if death had not cut his intentions short. 

t The following is the report of T Sympson, Esq., F.R.C.S., who kindly undertook the 
task :— " A careful examination under the microscope of materials obtained from a tomb 
reputed to be that of St. Hugh disclosed some of them to be portions of a tissue composed of 
flax, and others of one of silk, and intermingled with them were fine gold threads. Both the 
woolly fibres of the linen and the fibres of the silk came out quite distinctly after the dust in 
which they were enveloped had been cleared off by means of acid." In another communication 
Mr. Sympson reported that there was no trace of animal matter found, nor any particle of bone. 


An Incident in the Episcopate of Bishop John of Buckingham^ 
1393 — 1395. — By the Precentor of Lincoln. 

JT cannot, I fear, be said that the Chapter of Lincoln at the close 
of the fourteenth and the opening of the fifteenth centuries 
afforded an example of that dwelling together in unity which is 
pronounced by the Psalmist to be both good and pleasant. The 
Dean and the Canons were seldom on good terms with one another. 
The Dean used the authority of his office to coerce the Canons, 
while the Canons, on their part, lost few opportunities of thwarting 
and annoying the Dean. These disputes, after simmering for a 
while, from time to time broke out into open violence, and the 
House of God became the scene of unseemly brawls, affrays, and 
even of bloodshed. The long-standing disputes between Dean 
John Mackworth and his long-suffering Chapter are familiar to most 
of us through the celebrated '' Laudum," or Arbitration of Bishop 
William of Alnwick, by which — though to the last the Dean refused 
to accept it — that wise prelate sought to appease the unhappy 
discord, and by which, in spite of the same Dean's obstinate resist- 
ance, our Cathedral in many essential points is still governed. Some of 
us will remember the complaint of the Canons that the Dean intro- 
duced his own armed followers into the Chapter House during their 
deliberations, to awe them into compliance ; and how, when the 
then Chancellor, Master Peter Partridge, refused to yield to his 
arrogant superior, ho was dragged from his stall during Vespers by 
a band of the Dean's servants who broke into the Church with 
swords and clubs, sorely beaten and left half dead on the pavement 
of the choir, with torn and blood-stained vestments, while the 
scared worshippers, like frightened pigeons, were running to hide 
themselves in the remotest corners of the sacred building. This 
feud between the Dean and his Canons, which came to a head in 
these acts of violence and profanity was unhappily no new thing 
in Chapter history. The picture presented to us by the records of 
the visitation of his Cathedral held by Bishop John of Buckingham 
in 1393, which I am about to bring before you, shows that matters 
were little better in the time of Dean Mackworth's predecessor in 
office. Dr. John Sheppey. We shall here see the Cathedral and its 
immediate precincts desecrated by acts of gross violence perpetrated 
by the myrmidons of the Dean on the unoffending servants of the 
Canons and of the Church, acts which, in spite of their confessed 
enormity, the Bishop found it anything but easy to visit with the 
punishment due to them, so great were the obstacles thrown in his 
way by the powerful abettors of the culprits. 

Of Dean Sheppey himself we know but little, and that little is not 
much to his credit. He had been previously Chancellor of Lichfield, 
of which Cathedral Bishop Buckingham had also at one time been 


Dean. In the acts of Bishop Buckingham's second Visitation — 
held in the same year with that of which I am about to give you 
an account — it is charged against Sheppey that in his dealings with 
his brethren the Residentiaries in Chapter business, he " showed 
neither moderation nor complaisance, but used opprobrious and 
insulting language towards them, often addressing them with the 
word Capoldoioe.^''* " He was very remiss in the correction of delin- 
quents, nor would he allow the Chapter to correct them, to the 
great scandal of the Church of Lincoln, on account of presents 
received by him by way of bribe." Among many other accusations 
against Master Dean Sheppey one of the most startling is that he 
wasted the goods of the Church in " voluptuous expenses in dances 
in the campanile " — not a very convenient locality, one would 
imagine, for such amusements — in pictures, play-actors, and the 
like, and that he was in the habit of attending at the wakes and 
shows held on the commons outside the city, and set up wrestling 
matches in the close and palace, and at St. Giles' Hospital, at which 
he acted as umpire, and offered a " cat-o'-mountain " as a prize to 
the best wrestler. Like master like man. The Dean being such, 
he was hardly likely to have a well-ordered household. Among his 
numerous domestics and retainers was one Eobert Pakynton, with 
whose misdeeds and the shifts he made to escape punishment, by 
which he kept the Bishop and subsequently the Archbishop at bay 
for more than a year, the curious and interesting document, the 
contents of which I am now about to lay before you, is chiefly 

The facts were these : — On the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, 
Dec. 27th, 1393, while Vespers were being solemnly sung in the 
Cathedral, the aforesaid Robert Pakynton, of malice prepense, 
violently and atrociously assaulted a certain servant of Master Peter 
of Dalton, the Treasurer of the Church, Thomas by name, causing 
no small effusion of blood. Bloodshed within a Church was held 
to render it polluted, and unfit for the celebration of the divine 
offices until it had been reconciled. This was the first occasion of 
the Episcopal Visitation. Worse, however, soon followed. "The 
beginning of strife is as the letting out of water." The feud between 
the Dean's household and the servants of the Chapter waxed more 
bitter. Five days afterwards, on the Feast of the Circumcision, jSTew 
Year's Day, 1394, poor Simon the Bellriuger, again while Vespers 
were proceeding, was quietly making his way in the growing darkness 
by the north porch of the great transept to Treasurer Dalton's house, 
" ad. offtcium suiim" wdien he was suddenly attacked by a body of 
seven of the Dean's household, " sons of Belial, not having the fear 
of God before their eyes" — large odds, seven, against one — with 
Pakynton at their head, who were lying in wait for Simon in the 

* The meaning of this opprobrious word has not yet been discovered. Various suggestions 
have been made, none, however, at all probable. 


pentice cloister"*^ which then led from the north door to the Deanery, 
armed with swords, baslards,t and daggers. Terrified by the sudden 
attack, poor Simon, " with great difficulty escaping their hands," 
fled back to the Church for shelter. But the door was shut against 
him by one of Pakynton's accomplices, and " entrance was miserably 
denied him." Simon was now at the mercy of Pakynton and his 
band, by whom he was grievously maltreated, " usque ad ej^usionem 
sanguinis, et lesionem enor7ne7n," and dangerously wounded in the 

As soon as it was day, intelligence of this horrible violation of 
the sanctity of the Church and her officers was transmitted to 
Bishop Buckingham, who was residing at his Park at Stow. Without 
an hour's delay, after a short consultation Buckingham started 
post-haste for Lincoln, " incontinenter iter arripuit" to investigate 
the matter. On arriving at the Palace he appointed as his Com- 
missioners John Botlesham, his Chancellor, and John Kele, his 
official, one of the Canons Residentiary,:}: with power to examine 
witnesses. The facts were too evident and notorious to require 
any lengthened examination. In an hour or two the report was in 
the Bishop's hands, who at once proceeded, ^^ personaliter,^' to his 
Cathedral, and took his seat in solemn judicial fashion, '^ judicialiter 
pro trihunali^' in front of the high altar, to deliver his sentence. 
The Cathedral was thronged with an eager and expectant crowd. 
The Bishop addressed them in English, telUng them the reason of 
his coming with all its circumstances, and then proceeded solemnly 
to declare the Church polluted, and suspended it from the perfor- 
mance of Divine Service until on their confession and repentance 
the offenders had been reconciled to the bosom of Holy Mother 
Church. He also decreed that the delinquents should be cited to 
appear before him in the prebendal Church of Stow to answer for 
their misdeeds and receive due punishment. Of this citation the 
guilty parties took no notice whatever. When the day came and 
they had been duly preconized, and waited for for a sufficient 
time, on their non-appearance they were pronounced contumacious, 
and for their contumacy were excommunicated, orders being given 
that the sentence of excommunication should be published through 
tho whole Diocese. The first solemn publication of the sentence 
of excommunication the Bishop ordered, by a mandate dated Stow 
Park, Jan. 5th, to be made in the Cathedral. This was done the 
following day, the feast of the Epiphany, in the presence of all the 

« The stone hook-corbels which supported the rafters of this pentice cloister still remain 
in the west wall of the cloister, towards the Dean's green. 

t A bastard or baselard was a kind of long dagger suspended to the girdle, worn, not only 
by the armed knight, but by civilians, and even by priests. See Promptorium Parvulorum. 

X Of these two officials, Botlesham was at this time Prebendary of Brampton, having 
prevously held the Stalls of St. Mary Crakepool, 1384, and Milton Ecclesia, 1390. In 1400, 
being then Chaplain to Archbishop Arundel, he succeeded his namesake, William of Botlesham, 
as Bishop of Rochester. John Kele was Prebendary of St. Mary Crakepool, which he resigned 
in 1396 for Welton Brinkhall. 


dignitaries and Canons Residentiary, including John Carleton, 
Sub-Dean, Peter Dalton, Treasurer, John N'ewport, Precentor, and 
John Huntsman, Chancellor. The Dean, it is hardly 
say, was absent. He was included in the catalogue of delinquents, 
and he could hardly be expected to take part in his own excom- 
munication. All the due formalities, with " bell, book, and candle," 
were carried out. All the bells hanging in the campanile were 
rung ; candles were lighted, and extinguished, and the delinquents, 
including the Dean himself, were solemnly denounced, collectively 
and individually, " sub una stola, nominatim et in corpore" The 
sentence was ordered to be published on the four ensuing festivals 
in the Cathedral and in all the Churches of the city and Diocese, 
and a copy of it was to be affixed to the gate of the Close. 

Dean Sheppey was not a man to accept such a sentence without 
remonstrance, whatever might be the ultimate issue. He was 
evidently resolved to give the Bishop all the trouble he could. An 
appeal, " licet frivole^' was at once sent up to the provincial court 
of Canterbury. 

Meanwhile the Cathedral lay under an interdict. All religious 
service was suspended ; no mass was celebrated at any of its many 
altars ; the daily offering of prayer and praise was silent. What 
was to be done % Were they to wait for the termination of the 
suit, which was sure to be protracted to the utmost by every legal 
subtlety Avhich Dean Sheppey could put in motion, before the 
Minster doors opened again to worshippers? This would be 
intolerable. So the Sub-Dean, who it may be observed took the 
lead in these proceedings, as the representative of the excommuni- 
cated Dean, together with the other dignitaries, made an earnest 
application to the Bishop, " cum magna instantia^^ to reconcile the 
Church without further delay. The Bishop made no difficulty. 
His consent to the petition is dated from Stow Park on the 9th of 
January. On the following Wednesday Bishop Buckingham came 
to his Cathedral and proceeded to reconcile it according to the form 
in similar cases prescribed, by a Bull of Clement VI. directed to 
Bishop Gynwell and his successors in the See of Lincoln, forty 
years before, a.d. 1354. Holy water was provided in abundance, 
and brushes for sprinkling it, and all the other necessary appur- 
tenances prescribed in the Bull. The next day the Cemetery was 
also reconciled by Botlesham, as the Bishop's commissary. 

The appeal to the Court of Canterbury was meanwhile proceed- 
ing, but not so speedily as the Bishop desired. At length, *' tandem" 
on February 13th, Buckingham and Sheppey appeared before the 
Archbishop, William Courtnay, in the chapel of his Manor of *' Lamb 
Hithe." The case was postponed till the 18th, when the Dean and 
Pakynton being both present, the Archbishop pronounced sentence 
in favour of the Bishop, ordering that the delinquents ^should 
humbly petition the Bishop to remit the excommunication, and 


desiring the Bishop to make no difficulty in acceding to their 
request, The Archbishop, at the same time, gave sentence that, in 
consideration of the Bishop's age and infirm health and the trouble 
and expense he had been put to in reconciling the church, the sum 
of twenty marks should be paid him. The Dean was ordered to 
swear canonical obedience, on the gospels, to the Bishop, and to ask 
humbly for the relaxation of the sentence of excommunication and 
suspension on himself and his servants. The fine, however, was 
remitted by Buckingham out of reverence for the Archbishop who 
pleaded on the Dean's behalf that it was unfair that he should have 
to pay for the delinquencies of his domestics, with which he was 
not justly chargeable. 

The chief delinquent, Pakynton, on this, made his humble 
petition for absolution. The Archbishop, seated in his place, 
granted permission to Buckingham to do so, and the petition was 
granted. The other delinquents, the ringleader, Pakynton, only 
excepted, appeared on several occasions, " diversis vicibns" before 
the Bishop's Commissary, John Botlesham, both at the Bishop's 
London residence, the Old Temple in Holborn, and at Stow Park, 
and expressing penitence, and promising obedience to the injunc- 
tions of " Mother Church," received absolution. Penance had still 
to be done. The Sub-Dean, John Carlton, was instructed to cite 
the whole of the offenders to appear before the Bishop, in his chapel 
at Stow Park, on May 16th, to receive the sentence of penance 
then to be imposed on them. On the day appointed only three of 
the delinquents, Ashley, Eowland, and Milton, presented themselves. 
It was evident that stronger measures were needed, and the remaining 
offenders, Pakynton, Hunt, Curtis, and Parker, were cited to appear 
before the Bishop himself, in the Chapter House of the Cathedral, 
on May 20th. On that day Bishop Buckingham, as before, took 
his seat as judge, ''pro trihunali judiciaUtery The whole Chapter, 
not excepting Dean Sheppey himself, were present. Pakynton 
and his companions appeared, witnesses were examined, the facts 
were proved, and the various degrees of guilt of the offenders were 
determined. There was no question that Pakynton was the chief 
delinquent, and that Ashley and Rowland were next in guilt, while 
the other three, Milton, Curtis, and Hunt, were only chargeable 
with " moderate violence, if any," " modicam violentiam sive uUam." 
These three, therefore, were at once absolved, and all further pro- 
ceedings against them were stopped. The sentence on the others 
was that on the following Sunday they were to walk at the head 
of the procession in the Minster, as penitents, " more penitentium," 
with bare feet and naked heads, each devoutly carrying a wax 
taper, that of Pakynton, as the guiltiest of the three, being 1 lb. in 
weight, those of the others each weighing J lb., which were to be 
humbly offered by them at the high altar. This penitential act 
was to be repeated on the feast of Ascension Day and Pentecost 


next ensuing. The sentence was somewhat mitigated by the 
Bishop, on the petition of the Dean and the other Canons, and the 
three days were reduced to one. The Bishop then went to his 
Manor at Nettleliam, and on the following Sunday his official, 
John Kele, came over to him from Lincoln to notify, by word of 
mouth, "vive vocis suae oraclo/' that Ashley and Eowland had 
fulfilled their penance, humbly and fully, ''humiliter et plenarie," 
but that Pakynton had not done so. On this, Pakynton was 
excommunicated afresh, and the sentence was ordered to be 
published in all the churches of Lincoln, and, on May 29th, he 
was cited to appear before the Bishop or his commissaries, in 
JS'ettleham Church. When the time came, the Bishop's official, a 
notary by name Wenemarus Dubbelsten, signified to the Bishop that 
he had been unable to serve the citation because Pakynton was in 
hiding in his house in Wikford, in the City of Lincoln. A personal 
citation being thus hindered, the document was ordered to be affixed 
to the doors of his parish church, St. Mary-le-Wigford. Still 
Pakynton refused to appear. He was pronounced contumacious, and 
excommunicated again and again, but all to no purpose. Letters 
were sent by the official of the Archdeacon of Lincoln to the Dean 
of Christianity and to the other Rural Deans of the Diocese, 
instructing them not to cease denouncing Pakynton in their 
deaneries till they received other instructions. Meanwhile Pakynton, 
or rather the Dean, the real party to the suit, brought influence to 
bear on the provincial court of Canterbury, by which the Bishop 
vas inhibited from further prosecution of the excommunication. 
Once again there was an appeal to the primate. Pakynton claimed 
to be heard by the Archbishop himself. His claim was granted, 
and the appeal was heard in the Archiepiscopal Castle of Tunbridge. 
The issue of the hearing was that Pakynton was absolved by the 
Archbishop on condition of his fulfilling the penance enjoined by 
his suffragan the Bishop of Lincoln. Pakynton, having obtained 
archiepiscopal absolution, though only provisional, cared little for 
the Bishop's spiritual censures, and to get out of his jurisdiction 
altogether he fled beyond seas to Calais. The Archbishop, as soon 
as he was apprised of this audacious act of contempt of all spiritual 
authority, wrote; o his commissary, Robert Grene, Rector of the 
Church at Calais, to summon Pakynton to show cause why he 
continued contumacious. Of this citation Pakynton took as little 
notice as of the previous ones. The spiritual arm proving too 
feeble to reach so hardened and obstinate an offender, the temporal 
power was now brought into play. The Archbishop applied to the 
King, Richard II., for a writ, " de contumaci capiendo," dated Maid- 
stone, Dec. 13th, 139-4. This writ was granted without any demur. 
" Since the regal power ought not to be wanting to the Holy Church 
in her complaints," the Sheriff of Lincoln was ordered to seize the 
body of Pakynton, and bring him to justice until he had satisfied 


the church, both for his contempt and also for the wrong done to 
her. This writ was given at Scrooby, the palace of the Archbishop 
of York, near BIyth, December 22nd, and was witnessed by 
Edward, Duke of York, the king's uncle, " the guardian of the 
realm." Pakynton was now compelled to give in. " As one beaten 
with his own rod," to quote the original record, he was compelled 
to return to the scene of his delinquencies, bearing a private 
letter from the Archbishop (dated Maidstone, January 14th, 1394), 
to the Bishop of Lincoln, containing a commission to Peter Dalton, 
the Treasurer, to absolve Pakynton on his giving the due caution 
for the fulfilment of his penance. Pakynton accordingly appeared 
before the Treasurer in his own private chapel, on January 29th, 
the Bishop being represented by his Proctor, Eobert Scarle, and, 
having paid his caution money of £20 sterling, for the perform- 
ance of the penance enjoined, and, having given his oath, " ex- 
habundanti," that he would abide by the mandates of the Church, 
the long delayed absolution was pronounced, and the obstinate 
offender was received back into the bosom of his spiritual mother. 

We now approach the end of this protracted story. The speci- 
fied penance was duly executed on the following Sunday. Pakynton, 
with head and feet bare, and his hood laid aside, " capicio eo tem- 
pore omisso," walked publicly before the procession in the Minster, 
to the high altar, bearing in his hands a wax taper of the appointed 
weight in which he had been originally mulcted, which he humbly 
and devoutly offered on the altar. On the 1st February, Pakynton 
appeared before the Bishop in his "great chamber," at Stow Park, 
and humbly craved his pardon for the offences and crimes 
committed by him against the Bishop himself and the Church of 
Lincoln, and thus, "his favour and benevolence being granted 
him," he took his departure, bearing with him letters from Treasurer 
Dalton certifying that he had been fully absolved. So ended 
this tedious business, and what an end ! " Solvuntur risu tabulae." 
The whole machinery of ecclesiastical authority, capitular, episcopal, 
archiepiscopal, had been put in motion. Citations, suspensions, 
excommunications, penances, had followed one another in quick 
succession. At last, all else proving vain, the regal authority was 
called in, and what was the issue 1 The offering of a single wax 
taper, of one pound weight, on the Cathedral altar. Surely the 
old system of ecclesiastical censures and penances had grown old, 
and was ready to vanish away. Things were growing ripe for the 
storm by which the whole system was to be swept away, whether 
for good or for ill. The spirit of revolt against superstitious prac- 
tices, evoked by the teaching of Wycliffe, once awakened, could 
not be laid to sleep. Checked for a while, the lire smouldered on, 
ever and anon breaking forth into a fitful blaze, until it burst forth 
in the tremendous conflagration of the Reformation, for which such 
scandals as that which we have been hearing of, were secretly and 
gradually storing up fuel 


On the Tombs in Lincoln Qathedrdl. — By Matthew Holbeohe 


THE sculptured sepulchral monuments in Lincoln Cathedral are, 
when compared with those in some others of our Cathedrals, few 
in number, and confined to a relative small portion of the Cathedral, 
that of the Retro-choir or Presbytery. The matrices of incised 
brass effigies of Bishops, beneath elaborately worked canopies, and 
of minor members of the Cathedral vested in the choral habit, are 
numerous. These evince to a considerable extent the destructive 
violence and plunder this Cathedral underwent^ in common with 
most other Cathedrals from the fanaticism of the puritan soldiers 
during their occupancy of the Cathedral in the civil wars of the 
seventeenth century. A period of a century had then barely elapsed, 
since the confiscation of the costly plate and jewels, of which we 
have an inventory, and the destruction of images, to which 
veneration had been paid, took place. With the demolition how- 
ever of perhaps one particular monument, the fate and cause for 
which I shall have occasion to notice, the monuments in the 
Cathedral generally do not appear to have been disturbed. 

And here indeed, I could have wished to have consulted the 
account given by Browne Willis of this Cathedral, published in 
1730, as I should have expected him in his Iconography to have 
laid down the position of the several sculptured monuments as they 
existed in his time, and to have referred to his notices respecting 
them. Since however I undertook the preparation of this paper I 
have been unable to obtain access to the third volume of his work 
on the Cathedrals of England, which volume contains his description 
of that of Lincoln. This work was first published in two volumes 
quarto, which I possess, and subsequently with a third, but this 
latter I have never yet been able to meet with, and this I regret, as 
I ttink it most probable that from it some omissions on my part 
might have been supplied. 

I find however that Johan Leland, in his " Laboriouse Journey 
and Seiche for Englandes Antiquites geven of hym as a new yeares 
Gyfte to King Henry the VIII. , in the xxxvii. yeare of his 
Raygne " — that was not long before that monarch's death, visited 
Lincoln, at what period of his journey we are uninformed, but it 
appears to have been subsequent to the dissolution of the monastic 
foundations, and to have taken notes of the Cathedral. 

He first gives us the names of the Bishops from Birinus the 
first Bishop when the See was originally founded at Dorchester, 
A.D. 650, to the Conquest, and then gives — 

" Nomina Episcoporum Lincoln a conquestu," beginning with 
Remigius down to Bishop Longland, who died a.d. 1547. In this 



list he subjoins as to some of the Bishops, the part of the Cathedral 
in which they were severally buried, as follows : — 

Johannes Gynwelle (ob. 1362) sepul. in Occident, par. eccles. 

Gul. Alnewick (ob. 1449) sepultus Occident, par. ecclesce. 

Joan Chedworth (ob. 1471) Sepid. Borecdi parte prope Sutton. 

Gul. Smith (ob. 1514) Sepult. occiden. parte ecclesice. 

Gul. Awater (ob. 1520) Sep2d. occid. ]part. eccles. 

Johannes Longland (ob. 1547) alive at the time of Leland's 
visit, but of whom Leland says, — erexit sacellum cum sepulchro 
similUmwn sepulchro Russelli. 

Sepultukes in Lyncolne. 

Henry Burwasch Bishop of Lincoln buried in the Est Ende of 
the Churche toward the north (ob. 1340). 

There is also buried at his Fete Eobert his Brothar, a Knighte 
of greate Fame in the warrs. 

And there also is buried Barptoleme Sunn to Robert Burwasche. 

In our Lady Chappell at the Est Ende of the ISTorthe Syde of 
the Churche is buried the Bo wells of Queue Eleanor. The arms of 
Castle be on tlie Syde of the Tombe. 

In the Southe Est Chapell next to it is buried one of the 
Lorde Nicholas Cantilupes. 

And thereby at his Hed lyethe one of the Wymbisches, a 
Residensary of Lincolne in a fair Highe Tembe. 

Byshope Fleminge (ob. 1431) liethe in a Highe Tumbe in the 
Northe Isle of the upper Parte of the Chirche in the Walle ; and 
and thereby under fiat stones ly Oliver Sutton and John Chadworth 

Byshope Russell (ob. 1494) and Longland (ob. 1547) now 
Byshop Tumbes be in Chapells east out of the upper Parte of the 
South wall of the Churche. 

Agayne this Chapell is Fitzwilliam Knight buried. In the 
Southe parte of the Presbytery, lyeth in 2 severall Marble Tumbes 
in a CLapell Catarine Swineforde the 3 Wife to John of Gaunt 
Duke of Lancaster and Jane her Dougtar Countes of Westmoreland. 

Byshope Thomas'? lyeth in the highest Crosse Northe Isle 
(ob. ). 

Robert Grosted (ob. 1253) lyethe in the hygheste South Isle 
with a goodly Tumbe of marble and an image of Brass over it. 

(It is much to be regretted that the memorial of this celebrated 
and worthy Prelate should have been lost, incised brass effigies of 
Ecclesiastics of the thirteenth century are rare). 

Byshope Repington (ob. 1419) lyeth under a flate stone thereby. 

In the lower Northe Crosse Isle lyeth Byshope Thomas Wetn© 
(ob. 1347). 

In the lower Southe Crosse Isle laye Byshope Dalberly but his 
Tumbe was taken away nomine super stitionis. 


(This John Dalberby was Bishop of Lincoln from a.d. 1300 to 
A.D. 1320 and was buried in the south west transept where his 
remains were subsequently placed in a silver shrine, Godwin 
observes of him " tanquam sandus colebatur,^' miracles were said to 
have been wrought at his tomb, which in the reign of Henry VIII. 
caused its destruction, and, after his death, unsuccessful attempts 
were made to procure his Canonization.) 

John Multon, Knight lyeth in the body of the Chirche. 

Byshope Gwyney lyeth in the Body of the Churche. 

Such are the notices Leland gives us of the places of sepulture 
of Bishops and others buried in this Cathedral. 

Of the sculptured monuments, on which I propose to treat, two 
are richly canopied, there are the recumbent effigies of two Bishops, 
that of an ecclesiastic vested in the choral or canonical habit, two 
recumbent effigies, one of which is much mutilated, represented in 
armour, and the recumbent effigy of a cadaver in a winding sheet. 
Besides these there is an image of St. Giles, somewhat more than 
the size of ordinary life, on which I shall have to dwell. 

Of post-Reformation recumbent effigies of Bishops, or others 
connected with the Cathedral, there are none, with the exception of 
one of very recent date, of which I do not propose to treat. 

I do not propose to describe the monuments in chronological 
order, but, as more convenient, taking them as they occur in 
position commencing with the sepulchral chapel of Bishop Fleming. 

Of this the altar has, as we might expect, disappeared from the 
east wall, but the accompaniment on the south side, the piscina, is 
left. Westward on this on the south side of the chapel is a plain 
high tomb under an obtusely arched panelled canopy. On this 
tomb in high relief is the efSigy of Bishop Fleming, who died a.d. 
1431, and is represented in his episcopal vestments. His face is 
close shaven, on his head is worn the milra pretiosa, he is vested 
with the amice with a rich embradered parure about the neck, so 
disposed however as to leave great part of the neck visible, next to 
this the inner vestment was the alb, of this the skirt only is visible 
with its parure in front. Over the alb is worn the stole, the 
extremities of which only are perceptible. Next appears the 
dalmatic, the extremities and sides of which are fringed. No 
portion of the tunic is visible. Worn over the dalmatic appears 
the chesible with its orfreys in front somewhat resembling the pall 
of an Archbishop. On the feet, which are mutilated, are worn the 
rich episcopal sandals. Over the left arm is worn the maniple. 
The right hand is gone, it appears to have been upheld in act of 
benediction. There are no apparent remains of the pastoral staff, 
except some small indications of such on the left side. On either 
side of the head of the effigy is the mutilated statuette of an angel. 
This monument appears to nave undergone vicissitudes it is difficult 
to account for. 


On the south side of the recumbent effigy of Bishop Fleming 
and fronting the north wall of the presbytery or retrochoir is a rich 
canopied Lonib, the south front of which exhibits architectural 
features, composed of three open obtusely shaped ogee-headed 
arches, cusped within, and crocketted and finialed above. Within 
this is disclosed a cadaver or emaciated corpse in a winding sheet, 
tied at the head and feet in the mode more or less prevalent in the 
latter part of the fifteenth century, and subsequently. The upper 
surface of the tomb consists of a plain slab, beneath a lofty over- 
hanging canopy of three pointed arches within superincumbent 
tabernacle work in the style of architectural detail of the fifteenth 

This tomb and the near adjoining effigy of Bishop Fleming 
occupy positions difficult to account for, and whether the two have, 
as heretofore generally supposed, any connection, is a point on which 
I do not venture to speak conclusively. Leland does not mention 
the cadaver, and whether Browne Willis has noticed it, and, if so, 
in what manner, I do not know. It is a matter still open to 
inquiry, and I can only wish for a successful result. 

Eastward of Bishop Fleming's Chapel, and on the same side of 
the rectrochoir is a canopied monument attributed to Baitholomew, 
Lord Burghesb, of the 43rd year of the reign of Edward the Third, 
A.D. 1370. This is one of the most tasteful architectural com- 
positions, not to be excelled, for which that reign is celebrated. It 
consists of a high tomb, the south front or side of which is divided 
into six compartments by ogee-headed panelled recesses, cusped and 
foliated within, and crocketted and finialed above. Over this tomb 
is an exceeding rich and graceful j^endant canopy open in front, and 
composed of three ogee arches richly cusped within, and crocketted 
and finialed, the middlemost arch and a portion of each of the 
others springing from pendant corbels richly carved, above each 
ogee arch is an acute triangular pediment, the sides of which are 
crocketted. In the upper portion of each compartment are shields. 
It is indeed difficult to express in writing the marvellous beauty of 
the whole design. 

On the tomb beneath is a sculptured effigy in armour, but of a 
period more than a century later than the tomb on which it reposes, 
being a sepulchral effigy, evidently removed from some other part of 
the church. 

The transposition of effigies of one period to tombs of an earlier 
or later period is not uncommon, but very misleading. I need 
hardly refer to instances. 

The recumbent effigy in armour now placed on the tomb 
represents one bare-headed, with the hair clubbed in the fashion 
prevalent in the reign of Henry the Seventh, whilst the head 
reposes on a tilting helme. The body armour consists of a breast- 


plate with taces annexed, the latter overlapping upwards, to the 
taces angular shaped tailles are attached by straps, and the sword 
belt crosses from the right hip to the left thigh. On the right side 
is a dagger or misericord. The shoulders are protected by epaulieres 
of overlapping plates, the upper arms, elbows, and lower arms, by 
rerebraces, coudes, and vambraces, whilst the hands are upheld in 
prayer. Between the thighs is an apron of mail, the thighs are 
protected by cuisses, the knees by genouilleres, the legs and feet by 
jambs and sollerets, all pieces of plate armour, the feet rest against 
a lion. At the head of the effigy are two statuettes of angels holding 
shields, whilst at the feet is the representation, not uncommon in 
the fifteenth century, of a soul in the shape of a nude child, being 
conveyed to heaven in a winding sheet held by two angels. 

This conventional mode of representation is thus adverted to by 
Becon, one of our early Reformers in his treatise, " The Acts of 
Christ and of Antichrist," a.d. 1564. "Christ was buried in a poor 
monument sepulchre or grave without any funerall pomp." 
"Antichrist is buried in a glorious tomb, well gilt and very 
gorgeously set out, with many torches and great solemnity, and 
with angels gloriously portured that bear his soul to heaven." 

Southward of, and opposite to the last monument is that of 
Bishop Burgess, who died a.d. 1340. This consists of a high tomb, 
the north side of which is divided into five compartments by rich 
ogee-headed arches trefoiled within, and crocketted externally and 
terminating with a finial inserted in a hollow moulding. In the 
spandrels of each arch are shields richly emblazoned. These arched 
compartments are divided by buttressets. Within each arched 
recess are two statuettes, apparently of some monastic order, 
represented sitting, with a small desk between them, and habited in 
the tunic, cowl, and caputium. Of the heads of these statuettes 
eight have been destroyed, two only remain intact. The south side 
of this tomb is divided into four square compartments foliated, 
each containing a shield charged with armorial bearings. On the 
verge of the slab on which the effigy reposes the four-leaved flower 
appears at intervals. 

The effigy of the Bishop is recumbent, and the head is supported 
by small statuettes of angels, the face is close shaven, a somewhat 
early example in the change from the wearing the moustache on the 
upper lip, and the short crisp beard on the chin, to the close shaven 
visage. On the head is worn the mitra pretiosa, much mutilated, 
the dependant redimicula or bands behind appear on the right side 
fringed at the extremities. About the neck is worn the amice, the 
parure of which is very rich. The alb has also on the skirt in front 
a rich parure of four-leaved flowers in lozenges. Over the alb the 
extremities of the stole appear richly fringed. The tunic is not 
visible. The dalmatic is very rich, open at the sides and fringed 


with quatrefoil borders. The chesible is rich and well designed, 
with a border of small quatrefoils, in front is a pall-like orfrey. 
The right arm and hand from the elbow downwards are gone. The 
left hand and arm are also gone, from the latter a rich maniple 
depended fringed at the extremities. A portion only of the pastoral 
staff, bacillus pasforalis, is visible. On the feet are worn the episcopal 
sandals, richly ornamented, and the feet rest against a lion and 
winged dragon, the latter coiled and somewhat mutilated. 

At the east of the tomb of Bishop Burgess is a high tomb 
devoid of any recumbent effigy, but which Leland tells us is that of 
Robert Burgess, Knight, brother to the Bishop, and whom we may 
suppose died about the middle of the fourteenth century. The 
north side of this tomb is divided into five compartments by rich 
ogee-headed canopied recesses, each containing two .statuettes, male 
and female, in the civilian costume of the fourteenth century, the 
former clad in the tunica botonata and supertunic or mantle, the latter 
in close fitting gowns with liripipes attached to the sleeves. The 
south side is divided into four compartments, each containing a 

On the south side of the presbytery or retrochoir on a high tomb 
is the recumbent effigy of an ecclesiastic of a rank equivalent to 
that of Canon, and whom I have met with as variously 
represented as a Residentiary, Sub-dean, and Prior, one Wymbush, 
but when he died I have been unable to ascertain, probably in 
the fifteenth century. The personage represented by this effigy 
appears clad in the choral or canonical habit. This consists of 
the toga talaris or ancient cassock, over which is worn the sur- 
plice, over which appears the almucium aumasse or furred tippet, 
with its two broad pendant bands hanging down in front, and over 
all the cope and hood is worn, at the feet appears a dog and its 
offspring. This effigy has not escaped mutilation, for the head and 
arms' are gone. The head, however, appears to have reposed on a 
very singular canonical shaped cap, with a tasselled scarf at the 
extremity, the like of which I have not met with elsewhere, and it 
therefore requires peculiar attention. 

Eastward of the last monument is a high tomb, on which lies 
recumbent little more than the mere torso, which is all that 
remains of a once fine effigy in armour. Of this appears the collar 
of mail, the epaulieres, rere and vambraces protecting the shoulders 
and arms, and the emblazoned jupon over the breast-plate, with its 
horizontal bawdrick, which bespeaks it to be of the reign of Edward 
the Third. The heraldic emblazonment on the jupon shews it to 
be commemorative of one of the Cantelupe family, Sir or Lord 
Nicholas Cantelupe. 

I have now finished my description of the sculptured monuments 
in the Cathedral, few indeed in number, but not devoid of interest. 


I feel, however, I should hardly accomplish my task did I not direct 
your attention to an image, that of St. Giles, now properly placed 
for preservation, not for adoration, in one of the chapels in the 
principal north transept of the Cathedral. When I was at Lincoln 
eighteen years ago this image, brought, as I have understood, from 
the chapel of the Hospital of St. Giles, near this City, founded in 
the middle of the thirteenth century, was deposited in the cloisters 
of the Cathedral. It then excited my attention. 

This image is about six feet six inches in height, and represents 
the saint bare-headed and tonsured, with the face close shaven, 
and arrayed in priestly vestments. About the neck is worn the 
amice with its parure, the alb is shown with its girdle, and the 
stole appears crossed in front in priestly fashion, the sandals on the 
feet are pointed. At the back of the image is a cope, fastened in 
front by a large fermail or morse nearly four inches square. The 
lower part of each arm is gone, the right hand appears to have 
been upheld in act of benediction, whilst the maniple appears 
suspended from the left arm. At the feet is a hart in a crouching 
position, the emblem of the saint. This image is sculptured in 
very high relief, it is not however of a very early period, it may be 
of the latter half of the fourteenth century, certainly not earlier, 
but I should rather take it to be a sculpture of the fifteenth century, 
as it is wanting in that peculiar pose for which the sculptured 
effigies of the fourteenth century are remarkable. Of the few 
existing images of this description this is the finest and the most 
perfect I have met with. 

Eobert Wynchelsee, Archbishop of Canterbury from a.d. 1294 
to 1313, in one of his provincial Constitutions relating to the 
furnishing of churches with books, vestments, and other appendages, 
mentions images in the body of the church, the principal image in 
the chancel. Imaginem prindpalem in cancello. And this latter 
Lyndwood, in his gloss, declares to be the image of that saint to 
whose honour the church was consecrated. This image I then 
consider to have been the principalis imago of the chapel of 
St. Giles. 

The removal of images generally from our churches took place 
at two several periods. By the Royal Injunctions in 1538 such 
images as were known to be abused of pilgrimage or offerings made 
thereto were directed to be forthwith taken down. Ten years later, 
in 1548, an Act was passed which required the removal, destruction, 
and defacement of all images. It is to that period I attribute the 
removal and partial mutilation of this image. 

In the cloisters of the Cathedral is an interesting !N'orman 
sculpture in relief, of the twelfth century, representing our Saviour, 
with the dove, the symbol of the Holy Spirit. It would be desirable 
if this could be, for more careful preservation, that it should be 
transferred to the chapel which contains the image of St. Giles. 


Several stone coffins of the thirteenth or fourteenth century are 
to be found in the north cloister, from these I conjecture the 
remains of Bishops of those periods have been removed. 

I find it noticed that in 1782 the floor of the Cathedral was 
new paved, which occasioned a great change in the state of inscribed 
stones. Subject to correction, I should infer it was at this period 
that the rifling of the stone coffins took place. Several chalices and 
patens, it was customary to deposit with the remains of the Bishops, 
are preserved in the Cathedral Library, and are properly taken 
care of. 

Lincoln Cathedral Choir A.D, 1558 to 1640. — A Paper read at 
the Annual Meeting at Lincoln, in June, 1886. By the Rev. 
A. R. Maddison, M.A., F.S.A., Priest- Vicar of Lincoln 

IT is impossible for any one who has read English History to 
stand in the Choir of Lincoln Cathedral and look round on the 
beautiful canopied stalls without some thoughts and reflections on 
the changes that have taken place since they were placed there. 
There has been, of course, the obvious change by which the 
successive generations of Canons have passed away into dust, and 
the gaps made in their ranks by death have been filled up. Priest- 
Yicars and Lay- Vicars have succeeded in turn; Choristers have 
been chosen from year to year, ever since Bishop Gravesend first 
regulated their number. 

But the changes that must be in the mind of one who has read 
with any interest the ecclesiastical history of his country will rather 
be those that have attended the settlement of the reformed religion ; 
the changes that brought about the modification of the Mediaeval 
Ritual, and the substitution of that, which, for want of a better 
word, we must call the Anglican. 

How came it about, the question will shape itself, that the 
Ritual under Bishop Longland was suddenly set aside and replaced 
by a much simpler one under Bishop Holbeche % And that this 
again made way for the reaction under the Marian prelates, which 
was in its turn forcibly checked by the succession of Elizabeth] 

Such violent changes, following one another in so short a 
period, must surely have left an indelible impression on the Cathedral 
and its history. 

Certainly the outward appearance of the fabric does, in some 
degree, witness to the changes I have mentioned ; the empty, and 
in one instance it must be confessed, desecrated chantry chapels ; 
the matrices of monumental brasses j the broken gravestones and 


headless statues, bear mute testimony to the truth that times have 
changed ; but what I call the history of the Cathedral, as embodind in 
the Acts of the Dean and Chapter, is provokingly reticent on those 
very points on which one would have imagined it would have been 
most eloquent. The transition from the old Ritual to the new 
seems to have been attended with but little convulsion on the part 
of those who had to practise the simpler rites of the reformed faith 
in place of the gorgeous ceremonies of the Mediaeval Church. Men 
seem to have quietly acquiesced in the new arrangements, and to 
have abandoned chasubles and copes under Edward VI. only to 
put them on again under Mary. Compliancy and versatility seem 
to have infected all orders of society. Bishop Longland set the 
example of obsequious obedience to the Crown. His successor, 
Holbeche, followed him in it. What wonder then that when the 
prelates set such an example the inferior clergy followed suit? 

Accordingly we find no indications of resistance on the part of 
the clergy who ministered in Lincoln Cathedral to the novelties 
continually thrust upon thom. The Priest- Vicars, the Lay- Vicars, 
poor Clerks, Choristers, all followed the lead of their superiors, and 
showed no desire to become martyrs to their religious convictions. 
I am in strict candour bound to say that two entries in the Chapter 
Acts seem to indicate more stability of character than I have hitherto 
admitted. For instance, on the 18th August, 1559, I notice that 
Thomas Paget was appointed Sacrist in the place of George Bewsher, 
dismissed^ and we may fairly assume that Bewsher declined com- 
pliance with the new regulations. So late too as 1580 I find a 
junior Vicar, Henry Horner, brought before the Dean and Chapter 
to be admonished for asserting that it was not derogatory to God's 
honour to invoke the Blessed Virgin Mary or say prayers to her. 
He was ordered to recant, but I can find no record of the result. 
His name, however, is missing in a list of Vicars three years later, 
so we may assume that he too was dismissed. 

The first direct reference to the conduct of divine service is a 
Chapter Order, dated 8 Nov., 1559. The Vicars of the first fo7'm, 
i.e.f the Priests or senior Vicars, are admonished to perform daily 
service before the sixth hour, and the Sacrist is to commence. At 
the same time the Poor Clerks are admonished to ring the bell 
daily before five o'clock in the morning. "While here let me say 
briefly what these terms really signify. The body of Vicars Choral 
was divided into two parts ; the senior Vicars, who were in Priests' 
orders; the juniors, who before the Reformation were in minor 
orders as Deacons, Sub-deacons, and Acolytes, and who after the 
Reformation gradually became simple laymen. With the abolition 
of the Chantries under Edward VI. the necessity for so large a 
number of Priest- Vicars ceased, and from 1558 the number was 
limited to four ; the Junior Vicars being eight. 


Such was the reduced staff after the wholesale sweeping away 
of numerous sources of revenue. The ecclesiastical coat had to 
be cut to suit the cloth, and so the body of Vicars Choral was cut 
down from twenty-four to twelve. 

The Poor Clerks, who were an intermediate link between the 
Choristers and the Vicars, and who previous to the Reformation 
found employment in serving the altars in the Chantries of the 
Cathedral, seem to have varied in number. Six or seven at the 
most appear at this later date, and gradually they became blended 
with the Vicars ; their exiguous resources consisting mainly of the 
rent of a house called Poor Clerks' hall in the Close. It was found 
a convenient mode of augmenting the small stipend of a Lay Vicar 
to make him a Poor Clerk as well ; and so I find even the Organist 
receiving the salary of a Poor Clerk during the two centuries 
succeeding the Reformation. 

Not only were the numbers of the Vicars and Poor Clerks 
reduced, but the Choristers also, and for the same reason. On the 
3rd March, 1560, Thomas Appleby, the Master of the Boys, com- 
plained to the Dean and Chapter of the Choristers' revenue having 
diminished, and on the 19th September of the same year practical 
measures were taken to meet the emergency, by reducing the 
number from twelve to nine. But the number seems to have 
constantly varied — sometimes seven, sometimes eight, and sometimes 
only six. 

We find in the same year a survival of the old religion in an 
order of the Chapter, that the ringers should ring a bell commonly 
called the Ave bell, at six a.m., twelve, and six p.m. 

Still more interesting is the appointment on the 3rd of March, 
that same year, 1560, of William Hemmish, Chorister, to the post of 
thurible hearer, vacant by the transference of George Huddleston to 
the rank of Poor Clerk. A noteworthy fact, for it seems to show 
that though Queen Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, incense 
had not ceased to be offered up in this Cathedral two years after 
that event, and witnesses strongly to the idea that the Reformed 
Religion and Ritual only gradually made its way into the churches 
of the country ; and the reasonable question at once arises — if the 
Cathedral Church was two years at least behindhand, how long 
must it have been before remote villages in Yorkshire wilds heard 
of the great change ? 

In 1565 we find Nicholas Grene, who was appointed Succentor 
in 1556, resigning his office. Possibly the increased stringency in 
conforming the Ritual with the reformed use may have led to this 
step In 1565-6 the Royal Commissioners came to Lincolnshire 
to remove the so-called monuments of superstition remaining in the 
Cathedral and churches of the Diocese. No doubt many of the 
Marian clergy had remained, hoping for a reaction ; but this step 


would discourage any hopes in that direction, and perhaps Grene, 
was thankful to escape from what must have seemed to him a sadly- 
altered state of things. 

On the 24th January, 1568, the Chapter assembled after 
evening prayers at the tomb of William Dalyson, Esq., and admitted 
Chorister Christopher Wormehall, approved of by Mr. William Byrd, 
Teacher of the Choristers — a contrast to our admissions at the 
present day. The Dalyson tomb stood almost immediately opposite 
the south door of the Cathedral. The name of William Byrd, as 
associated with that of Thos. Tallis in the music of the day, is too 
well known to need further remark. 

On the 29th September, 1570, an interesting Act of Chapter was 
passed, directing that the Organist was to set the tune before the 
commencement of the Te Deum, and the Canticle of Zachary at 
morning prayer, and at evening prayer before the Magnificat and 
Nunc Dimittis ; and to accompany the anthem. We may note here 
then that the Psalms were sung unaccompanied, and that the 
Benedictus was sung usually in place of the Jubilate. 

On the 7th December, 1572, Thomas Butler was appointed 
Master of the Choristers and Organist, on the nomination and 
recommendation of Mr. William Byrd, with a salary of £10 per 

On the 7th Nov., 1573, the Chapter decree that the Grammar 
School be brought back to the house of the Poor Clerks within the 
Close. Where was it before 1 Frequent mention is made of this 
Grammar School within the Close all through the Middle Ages, 
but this is the first intimation of its site. The hall or house of the 
Poor Clerks stood on the east side of the Close, nearly opposite the 
Chapter House. '" 

On the 31st Oct. 1576, the Chapter were busy with the admin- 
istration of discipline. Ethelbert Slade, junior Vicar and Curate 
of St. Margaret's within the Close, was solemnly suspended for 
abusing George Huddleston, a senior Vicar. Slade although a 
junior Vicar was in Holy Orders and probably was a Deacon, for 
no one was admitted a senior Vicar until he had taken Priests' 
Orders. He was reinstated apparently in the Chapter's good graces, 
for in 1582 they gave him a Poor Clerk's stipend, wishing to relieve 
his poverty. On the 8th February, 1583, he became a senior Vicar. 
On the 28th August, the same year, Augustine Transonic, one of 
the Lay- Vicars, was brought before the Chapter for striking the 
Dean's servant on the head with a crabtree cudgel ; and on the 
26th of November he quarrelled with one of his brother Vicars, 
John Bacon. 

On the 7th November, 1584, Robert Duffield, alias Hurstcroft, 
servant of the Dean, was nominated to be junior Vicar at the next 
vacancy of a tenor, so we may suppose him to have been the 


victim of the crabtree cudgel, and to have received this preferment 
as a plaister for the wound. At the same time John Hilton was 
put down for the next vacancy of a counter-tenor. 

On the 8th January, 1588, George Huddleston and Ethelbert 
Slade, senior Vicars, were arraigned before the Chapter. Huddleston 
had been insolent to the Precentor, and was deprived for con- 
tumacy, but was restored on the 17th September following. Slade 
had been impertinent to the Dean, but prudently begged pardon 
and was forgiven. 

Little of interest occurs beyond admissions of Choristers and 
Vicars till 1591, when on the 12th of May it was decreed that the 
ancient custom of reading the gospel and epistle be restored, viz., 
that a senior Vicar read the gospel and a junior the epistle. 

On the 21st January, 1593, the Chapter voted 50s. to 
Bartholomew Gryftyn and 30s. to John Hylton for their pains in 
editing two comedies to be acted by the Choristers and other 
scholars of the Church — a very interesting fact, and showing how 
the old mediasval taste for plays yet lingered. This John Hylton, 
who, as has been shown, was admitted into the Choir on the 
vacancy of a counter-tenor, seems to have been an accom- 
plished musician, for on the 26th January, 1594, I find the 
Chapter " as a reward for good and faithful service of John Hilton, 
late Poor Clerk and Organist of the Cathedral, and lately elected 
Organist of Trinity College, Cambridge, allow him to dispose of his 
house in the Close " He must have been really only assistant Oigamist, 
for Thomas Butler, the nominee of the famous William Byrd, still held 
the post, and was admonished for negligence in 1595; but he 
saved J^ie Chapter further trouble by resigning that same year, 
when one William Boys was appointed. On the 14th December, 
1594, a very curious entry occurs. John Eobynson, junior Vicar, 
is deprived for translating the statutes out of Latin into English 
which were kept in a certain book late in the custody of the Dean, 
Ralph Griffin; and on the 21st December, Augustine Transome is 
deprived for the same offence. I cannot conceive what this really 
means : we should not have expected men of this stamp to have had 
education enough for the work, nor to have been able to gain 
access to the document. 

The sixteenth century closes with frequent admonitions to the 
Vicars, both seniors and juniors, from the long-suffering Chapter. 
On the 23rd September, 1598, a new regulation was put forth that 
" the old Vicars Choral to read all publike divine service by turne's 
as well on festivall as on other days except when the Residentiaries 
are by custcme to doe it : and £4 yearly therefore annciently given 
unto them was confirmed, and 4'4 more yearely of favour was 
granted to them upon condition that they should perform that 
service dayly for the yeare to come, which only two of them accepted." 


In the following year, 1599, it is ordered " that the Provost of the 
Vicars is to present every Satturday in the Chapter House to one 
or more Residentiaries between 9 and 10 of the clocke in the 
forenoon upon pain of deprivation, all the faults committed by any 
of the Choir, Vicars, Poor Clerks, and Ministers." 

In 1604 George Moyne was admitted Chorister, and this young 
gentleman's initials G.M. with the date 1606 may be seen scratched 
on the west end of the Choristers' bench on the Cantoris side ot 
the choir. What seems specially to have annoyed the Dean and 
Chapter was the negligence of the members of choir in attending 
the services of the church. Over and over again I find Vicars, 
Poor Clerks, and Organists admonished for this negligence. At last 
things drew to a crisis, and in 1608 the Chapter seem to have taken 
the matter seriously in hand. On the 13th Aug. it was decreed 
" that if any Vicar be absent from prayers above twice in a weeke 
he shall forfeit lid. every time hee is absent. And that if any 
Vicar be notoriously absent from divine service the Dean and 
Chaptre shall suspend him from the benefit of his place all the next 
half year." That if Mr. Cheveley (a senior Vicar) " absent himself 
from divine service above 4 times next weeke he shall be suspended 
from his office and another put into his place." 

" That John Watson " (a junior Vicar) " be suspended from the 
benefit of his office for the next half yeare for his contumacy and 
neglecting to warn the Vicares Chorall to be this day in the 
Chapter House before morning prayers." 

Even so late as 1608 the junior Vicars continued to be Clergy- 
men though not in Priests' Orders. It was decreed on the 21st May 
" that Peter Walter, Deacon, one of ye young Vicars Chorall of ye 
church, should be admitted in common and instituted to the 
Rectory of S. Mary Magdalen in the the close of Lincoln according 
to the ancient manner." 

On the 2nd July, the same year, the important post of Eedell 
of the Beggars in the close was conferred on John Jameson with 
the weekly stipend of one shilling, but this was revoked on the 
18th September following. 

On the 19th Sept. it was decreed "the the Quiristers shall no 
longer have their meat at the Residentiaries' houses that are present, 
but instead thereof the master of the Quiristers shall have as good 
allowance from the Residentiaries when they are present as when 
they are absent." 

Here we see the old order changing. The Mediaeval system of 
" feeding the choir," which figures so largely in Mediaeval Visitations 
of the Cathedral, is exchanged for a fixed money payment. 

Trouble soon cropped up again with the Organist. William 
Byrd's successor, Thomas Butler, had been reproved for negligence in 
1595, and Ms successor Thomas Kingston, who was appointed 


probationer for the Organists place in 1599, proved still more 
troublesome. On the 30th March, 1611, he was arraigned before the 
Chapter " for beating the boys and calling Mr. Dye the master of 
the Choristers an ass ! He confessed all the misdemeanours charged 
against him, and submitted to the censure of the Chapter. Where- 
upon they gave him an admonition and gave him order to amend 
upon pain of being turned out and deprived." 

The following month, April, "John Este, junior Vicar was 
arraigned for throwing down Mr. Cheveley's garden pales in the old 
Vicars' Court and saying he would do it again, and refusing to sing 
in the choir." He too received an admonition " peremptorily to 
reforme on pain of being turned out." Apparently Kingston's 
reformation did not last long, for in 1612 he is ordered never here- 
after "to meddle with teaching the Quiristers." John Este, also, 
again is admonished, and told to live in his chamber in the old 
Vicars' houses. 

In 1613, three Choristers, named Osney, Ward, and Lewis are 
ordered to leave, as their voices had failed, and another called 
Waddesworth is threatened with expulsion for his gross neglecting 
the church. In the same year the " Quiristers " are admonished 
" that in time of divine service they should not runne from seate to 
seate in the Quire unless called or ordered by the Deane, one of the 
Eesidentiaries, Subchanter, Vicechancellor, Master of the Quiristers, 
or some other in authority, on pain of being contumacious." 

It is interesting to find in 1615 a grant of £3 6s. 8d. made to 
a "Quirister," John South, "for his provision going to the 
University of Cambridge." 

The same year another decree was made by the Chapter with 
the consent of both old and young Vicars, " that each Vicar who 
shall be absent from prayers shall pay lid. for each absence, and ye 
Provost who shall be absent and give no sufficient deputy there 
shall pay lid. a time. But hee that shall come before ye Venite 
shall save his mulct. And if one old Vicar be there to begin 
prayers every Sunday and 2 of them be there before ye Letanie be 
ended ye other old Vicars being absent shall forfeit nothing." 

The next year, 1616, it was also decreed " that any old Vicar 
absent from church in ye weeke of his readinge and taking no order 
with one of his fellows to supply his place shall be admonished." 
The same year a complaint was brought by the " Master of the 
Quiristers that he could not teach them song as he ought because 
they came so late from ye grammar schoole." It was therefore 
decreed " that they shall learn sons from 9 to 10, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6." 
On the 28th Sept., 1616, a serious matter occurred. The senior 
Vicars, John Botterill, Peter Walter, Gyles Clement, and Nicholas 
Crosse appeared before the Dean and Chapter " who objected 
against Crosse his striking Clement and abusing him in words, 


although for ye like misdemeanours he had been divers times 
convented, conjured and admonished according to ye customes of 
the church." Crosse confessed ''that Clement abusing him in 
words he did the like to him, and because the blows appeared upon 
Clement's face and hee verified that Crosse did lay violent hands upon 
him and strike him and abuse him with many opprobrious 
words on Thursday last in ye night within ye Baile, they peremptorily 
a third time admonished Crosse that hereafter he should carry him- 
self well in all things upon paine of absolute deprivation from his 
vicaridge, and that he should be suspended from his office and 
benefit till the 19 of next October." He had been arraigned 
for offering violence to John Botterill and others two years 
previously. But what a picture of the times ! Clergymen giving 
each other black eyes in the Bail at night ! Clergymen straggling 
into the Cathedral during the service up to the conclusion of the 
Litany ! And what must the musical performance of the service 
have been when we find the Organist, Thos. Kingston, admonished 
in 1615, on this charge " He ys verye often drunke and by means 
therof he hathe by unorderly playing on the organs putt the quire 
out of time and disordered them." However the two most offending 
members were happily got rid of; Crosse was expelled on the 22nd 
March, 1617, and Kingston was replaced in 1616 by a superior 
Organist, John Wanlesse, who on the 28th October was admitted 
Organist by the Chancellor after Evening Prayers. His salary 
was £20 per annum. A Litany called Wanlesse's Litany still 
remains in MS., and I believe was sung in this Cathedral up to 

Things got very bad, and on the 2nd Oct., 1619, all the Vicars 
Choral were assembled, with the exception of one called Masterman, 
and the Organist, and 4 Choristers were present also, William Hope, 
Edward Skidmore, Hastings Markby, and William Fenby. It was 
objected against Peter Walter, a senior Vicar, " his negligence in 
service " and his "■ bowlinge during service time." He confessed and 
promised amendment. Against John Botterill similar negligence was 

Against all the Vicars, " that they are scandalous in drinkinge too 
moche." Against Stanley, Master of the Choristers, " his negligence 
in teaching them." Against the Choristers " that they do not 
frequent the grammar schoole and also are negligent in ye song 

Against Chorister Hastings Markby, "that he abused Mr. Roberts, 
a Vicar, calling him ' bald-pate,' and that hee had off'ered violence to 
the said Stanley being his master." And Mr. Roberts asserted, 
" that the said Hastings had divers times abused him, and violently 
troubled him and others in knockinge at the gate after nine o'clock 
at night, and did once call him bald-pate. " 


On this terrible bill of indictment the Chapter gave judgment. 

They enjoined the Vicars generally " to abstain from frequenting 
ale-houses and excessive drinkiuge." 

They enjoined the Choristers " for 8 weeks next to frequent the 
song-schoole." Standley is " to whip Hastings in the presence of 
Mr. Eoberts in ye Revestrie, and he is to confess his faults on his 
knees, and to ask Mr. Standley 's and Mr. Roberts' forgiveness. 
Skidmore and Hope, who had run away and sold their gowns, are 
to be lightly whipt and to ask the Dean and Chapter's forgiveness. 
Cheeseman, a Vicar, who is often drunk and readeth absurdly in 
the Church, is to abstain from drunkenness " 

It is not pleasant to reflect on what must have been the moral 
tone of the Clergy and Laity connected with the Cathedral, when 
one reads such entries as these. It must, however, be remembered 
that the ale-house, or tavern, in those days, was the only place of 
common resort ; clubs did not exist ; reading-rooms were not thought 
of; and the Parson naturally took his pipe and tankard with his 
parishioners in the place where he could most conveniently enjoy 
their society. 

In 1622 we read that '' the Bishop's pleasure is that Mr. Botterill 
be displaced from ye Vicarage of St Nicholas, Newport, and it be 
given to Mr. Crisp, another senior Vicar, who is a diligent singing- 
man to encourage him." Not very much perhaps in point of money, 
for it was before the days of Ecclesiastical Commissioners, but still 
" pour encourager les autres," even such exiguous preferment 
would suffice ; and the following year Crisp had the Rectory of St. 
Mary Magdalene bestowed upon him as an additional " encourage- 

In 1625, with the consent of the senior Vicars, the Dean and 
Chapter decreed " le gatehouse chambers in the old Vicars " to John 
Wanlesse, organist, to live in, paying 10s. a year rent. 

This is personally interesting to me, because the gate-house 
chambers are now part of my house, which consists of two houses 
thrown into one. The northern portion, 2.e., the gate-house, front- 
ing the Minster-yard was let as a separate house so late as the end 
of the last century, when the painter Hilton was born in it. 

It is pleasant to find that the turbulent little Chorister, Hastings 
Markby, found favour with the Dean and Chapter after he ceased 
to be a Chorister. In 1623 he was made a Poor Clerk ; in 1624, 
a junior Vicar; and in 1626, we find £5 given to him "for the 
repair of his house in the young Vicars." He seems to have re- 
lapsed however into evil ways, for in 1635 he was suspended from 
singing ''till the Bishop's pleasure be known," and in 1639 he 
was dead. 

In 1631 it was decreed "that both ye old Vicars and young 
Vicars shall put out of their houses all inmates except those which 
have immediate relation from the Church as singing-men. 


In 1635, a pension of 40s. per ann. was granted to Thos. Coats, 
of Stamford, for repairing and keeping in order and tune the organs 
in the Church. 

In 1637, a decree is passed, " that whereas upon a special view of 
the old Vicars' and young Vicars' houses by them, the said Dean 
and Chapter, and finding them greatly ruinated and decayed, £10 
per ann. out of the Vicar's rents is to be applied to the repairs. 

In 1638, a catalogue was made of books belonging to the 

In 1639, the books given by the King, and remaining in the 
Palace, are to be placed in the old Library of the Cathedral ; and this 
is the last entry of any interest previous to the great interval of 
silence between 1640 and 1660. 

Thus e^ds the history of Lincoln Cathedral Choir during the 
century succeeding the Reformation. It is instructive though some- 
times melancholy reading — but of such scanty materials it is im- 
possible to construct a continuous history — it must needs be 
fragmentary — and yet out of such scanty straw a few bricks may be 
made. I have adverted to the gradual displacement of the Mediaeval 
Eitual, and the substitution of the Reformed. I have pointed out 
the survival of bits of mediae valism long after mediaeval times had 
passed away. I have shown the demoralisation of the Clergy and 
Laity under Elizabeth and two Stuart Kings, as evidenced by the 
admonitions of the Dean and Chapter. I might enlarge on the 
well-worn theme that history repeats itself, and never more distinctly 
than in the case of a Cathedral Choir ; for in reading the Chapter 
Acts, down to the present time, we see a continuous reproduction 
of Cathedral life almost identical with that of three hundred years ago. 
The grosser characteristics have happily vanished, but the life is 
substantially the same. 

On Friday mornings you may hear the musical injunctions of 
1570 carried out almost to the letter ; the Organist simply giving a 
chord at the commencement of the Te Deum and the Canticle. The 
very music may be the work of Tallis or Byrd, sung as it was sung 
in the days when it was a novelty. 

The "Ave Bell" is still rung, though the present company of 
" Ringers of the Blessed Virgin Mary " may not know it by that 

Two Priest-Vicars read the Gospel and Epistle respectively now, 
and fulfil the injunctions thereby of 1591. 

The histrionic talent evidenced by the Cathedral Choristers in 
1593, has assuredly been shown to survive in their successors 
in 1887. 

The relations between the Song School and the Grammar School 
have needed re-adjustment, from time to time, as they did in 1616. 



All these details, trivial and insignificant as they may seem, 
point most distinctly to one conclusion, — that the life of the 
Cathedral varies but little in its course. 

I have pointed out, it is true, that the grosser characteristics, 
which belonged to the age, have disappeared; the Vicars Choral are 
not now open to the reproach of '' excessive bowlinge and drinkinge," 
nor do they brawl at night in the Bail as in 16 1 6, but in other respects 
their life, as belonging to the Cathedral, is much the same. There 
is the same course of stated and continuous duties. Services and 
Anthems sung 300 years are sung now. 

It is not surely exaggerated sentiment to say that an element of 
pathos lies in this. " Sunt lacrimte rerum " ; and when we look round 
the Cathedral Choir and think of it peopled with bygone generations, 
now mouldeiing in the grave, who sang and read the very words we 
ourselves are uttering, it is difficult for even the most prosaic mind 
to resist the influence, and to abstain from indulging in the 

Abstracts op Wills of Yicars Choral of Lincoln Cathedral. 

No. 1. 

Thomas Floure or Flower, sub-chanter, will dated 20th August, 

To be buried in the Cathedral " betwixte the pillers nye unto the 
grave of S^ Robert Owbray."* 

To Kinsman Thomas Cartwright, old vicar, " a syluer spone, a 
boke de vita xti, calepyne, catholicon,f destructorium vitiorum." 

To Gervas Fishborne, poor clerk, my " ortus vocabulorum w* all 
my grammar bokes." 

Will proved 9 Dec^ 1555. 

No. 2. 

William fPreman, Vicar Choral of the Cathedral Church of 
Lincoln. Will dated 9 May, 1558. To be buried in Cathedral, 
"nye Mr. Skelton's tomb. "if 

To Custos Petri§ xviii*^. 

Executors are to buy one suit of vestment of green velvet for 
Priest, Deacon, and Sub-deacon; also one of white flowered damask to 

* Robert Owbray or Aubray was a Chaplain of Dean Fleming's chantry, and was buried, 
according to the instructions of his will, dated 16th May, and proved 11th September, 1535, 
beside S. Christopher's altar in the Cathedral, Besides many other bequests he left to Thomas 
Flower his " Legenda aurea." 

t " Catholicon," i.e., Anglicum Catholicon, an English-Latin Word-Book. This very 
MS. now belongs to Vi&count Oxenbridge, and has been printed by the Early English Text 
Society. On the back of the last leaf is the following— " Liber Thome Flowre, Succ. ecclesie 
Cathedralis beate Marie Lincoln." 

t Mr. Skelton, i.e., Treasurer Skelton, whose tomb was close to the south door. 

§ Custos Petri, i.e., the Clerk of S. Peter's altar ; an important post in Mediaeval times. 


remain in the Revestry for the service at the high altar; also one of 
white flowered damask for service in the chapel of our Lady."*^ 

To the house of old Vicars xx^. 

To the fabric of the same vi^ viii^. 

Will proved 10 Jan^ 1562. 

No, 3. 

Robert Hurstcrofte of the Close, young Vicar. Will dated 
2 Jany, 1611. 

To be buried at the east end of the Minster, in the place called 
"the twelve apostles." 

" To my mother my annuity from my mistress Armyne for the 
tyme that is limited in the lease." 

To the Mayor that now is " my byrdinge piece, my sparrowe 
hawke, etc." 

" To George Anton my crab tree stafFe my flowrentyne bo we — 
one lure and all the hoods and belles in my chiste." 

To Mrs. Armyne a ringe the posye of it, " thoughe hands doe 
sever yet love shall never." 

To Mrs. Anne Cracroft " a testament covered with green velvett." 

To Jane Christopher " my bracelittts w^^ nowe I weare." 

Will proved 27 Jan^, 1611. 

This Will is peculiarly interesting because Robert Hurstcroft alias 
Duffeld was the " Dean's servant " who suffered from the crabtree 
cudgel of Augustine Transome, and who was nominated a junior 
Vicar in 1584. He had previously been a Burghersh Chanter, 
admitted 30th Sept., 1564, aged 8. On the 12th June, 1574, he 
was nominated Sub-Sacrist by the Sacrist, Thomas Paget ; the 
Chapter stipulating that he still should attend the Grammar School 
and act as Chorister during divine service. On the 5th July, 1578, 
he was made a Poor Clerk. On the vacancy of a tenor in 1584, 
a junior Vicar. His name appears also in the Will of Robert 
Dymoke, of Friskney, dated 12th Sept., and proved 15th Sept., 
1593. "To my servant Robert Hurstcroft alias Duffeld my hawk 
and a horse and farm in Friskney." Mr. Dymoke was buried in 
the Minster, and his large estates passed to his sister, Mrs. Armyne, 
whom Robert Hurstcroft in his Will calls his " Mistress." She, 
in her Will, dated 23rd May, proved 7th Dec, 1616, desires to be 
buried in the Cathedral " neare unto my laite brother Robert 
Dymoke Esq." 

No. 4. 

George Huddleston, clerk, of the Close. Will dated 11th 
March, 1611. Leaves his wife Mary his household stuff; 
" dornike curtaines " etc. " one silver bowle and two appostle 
spoones of y^ half dosen." Appoints his son Tristram Huddleston, 
executor. Leaves 20s. to the poor at Burton. Will proved 26th 
Aug., 1613. 

* The Chapel of our Lady, immediately under the great east window. 


This man's history can be traced without difficulty. He 
was admitted a Chorister 18th Feb., 1554. In 1560 he was 
made a Poor Clerk, and William Hemmish took his place as a 
" thuribularius." On the lOth I^ov., 1565, he was admitted a junior 
Vicar. He was a senior Vicar in 1576, and on 27th April, 1582, 
was appointed Sacrist of the Cathedral. He held also the Eectory 
of Burton-by-Lincoln. His tombstone leans against the wall of 
the north side of the Cloisters, and has done duty over again for 
another Vicar, John Heardson, in 1660. 

On Sculptured ^^ Memorials of the Dead ^' of pre-Norman type^ — 
(1) coped stones, {2) flat stones, (3) standing stones, {i) pillars, 
(5) crosses. By Kev. G-. F. Browne. 

MY object in this Paper is to call the attention of the Societies 
to large classes of sculptured stones which I call pre-Norman 
in type, though I do not mean by that to claim for all the examples 
I shall mention a date earlier that a.d. 1066. I do not propose to 
enter upon the question of date in this Paper, and will content 
myself with expressing a conviction that we have no inconsiderable 
number of memorials and fragments of memorials dating from the 
time of the Heptarchy. 

The class of stones I mention first are the coped stones. By 
taking them first I do not imply that they are the earliest of the 
five forms, though in some respects they do appear to link them- 
selves more closely to Roman stones — especially some of the Roman 
stones on the Rhine — than the other classes do. The example of 
which 1 shew rubbings was found at Bakewell, in Derbyshire, and 
is now in the Weston Museum, Sheffield. Mr. Bateman figured it 
in his " Antiquities," but he had not a trained eye for this character 
of ornament, and his engraving is of no scientific value. Unfor- 
tunately it has been copied into other books. The stone is of the 
form of the top stone of the tomb of William Rufus in Winchester 
Cathedral, like the ridge-roof of a house with the gable ends inclined 
backwards at the same angles as the sides. My rubbing shews the 
two faces or sides of the stone, and at the end I have pasted on another 
piece of paper, which shews one of the triangular ends. Among the 
defects of Mr. Bateman's engraving, one of the most serious is the 
failure to shew the remarkable hampering of the feet of the quad- 
rupeds. Their hoofs branch out into two bands each, and these 
bands interlace with one another and fo^m a finish for the bottom 


of the panel. The art, so to call it, of this stone is exceedingly poor, 
the only figures at all decently drawn being the two animals on one 
gable end, where the attitude of restraint and resistance is fairly 
good. It is an interesting question why the draughtsmanship of 
animals of English stones, other than dragons, is so very poor, while 
the animals on the Scottish stones are as good as any draughtsman 
of the present day could make them. I shew three Scottish 
examples of coped or cognate stones. One is a stone whose cross 
section is something like that of the back part of a salmon, down to 
a line half way down the side. It is covered with what may be 
meant for scales, and the crest of the stone, or continuous dorsal 
fin, as it were, is formed of a dragon's body covered with a simple 
but effective interlacing pattern, formed of the convolutions of yet 
another dragon. The other two of these Scottish stones are massive 
stones of rectangular section. My rubbings shew in the centre the 
sculptured flat top of the stone, and at the sides the sculptured 
vertical sides. There is a bear, apparently leaving a horse it has 
killed, which I think supports the statement that the Scottish artist 
could represent the distinctive characteristics of an animal as well 
as any one could now. I have not inked in all the outlines on this 
remarkable stone, but enough has been done to show that it affords 
a study of the very highest interest to numbers of persons who 
know nothing of archaeology. The two animals with their heads 
together, one of which is devouring the leg of a man, are exceedingly 
full of life. The four men each grasping a toe of another are a very 
clever application of the interlacing principle, and the shapeliness 
of their legs is astonishing to any one Avho only knows English 
stones. The three serpents, again are an interesting example of 
interlacement. The other of the Scottish stones is in some ways 
even more remarkable. The two magnificent specimens of the 
Bison primaevus have moved the astonishment of naturalists to 
whom I have shewn them, and the remarkable fish on the other 
side seems to take us to some of the finest modern plates of ante- 
diluvian creatures found now only as fossils. The remarkable thing 
about almost all of these creatures is that the Bestiaries, from which 
it might have been imagined that the early draughtsmen worked, 
have nothing nearly as as good as these. Unfortunately the 
draughtsman in this case had not the remarkable skill in delineating 
a horse in action which some of the Scottish stones display ; but I 
think he must have seen a greyhound catch a hare. And though 
his skill in drawing a horse is not equal to that of the draughtsman 
who drew the horses for the stones at Aberlemno in the same neigh- 
bourhood, and many more that could be mentioned, yet in his care 
to shew the hoof, the pastern, and the fetlock, he is ages in advance 
of the men who drew the so-called horses which occur, but only 
exceedingly rarely, on English stones. These Meigle horses are at 


least horses, and in vigorous action ; the horse at Chester-le-Street, 
the horse or ass at Bakewell, and the horse at Stonegrave, are the 
very ckimsiest possible attempts. The horses at Gosforth are 
smaller, and so their uncouthness does not shew so much. The 
coped stones in England are the Bakewell stone I have mentioned, 
several at Brompton, near Northallerton — some of which are now 
at Durham — one at Heysham, Burnsall, Kirkby Malzeard, "West 
Kirkby, Bondgate, &c. 

The next type I have selected is the flat stone, lying on the 
ground over the place where the body lay. The surface of the stone 
is usually divided into compartments, by a line down the centre, 
and usually by a second band crossing this at right angles, and thus 
presenting the appearance of a cross. The compartments, or panels, 
were filled with interlacing work, sometimes merely interlacing 
bands, sometimes bands resolving themselves into dragons' heads and 
tails and claws. I shew one found under the Norman ramparts of 
William the First's Castle at Cambridge, and one which is built 
into the wall of St. Mary Bishophill Church, York. The Cam- 
bridge stone is remarkable for the curious terminations of the 
dividing bands at the two ends ; the form of the cross in the horse 
shoe at the broader end is rather startling for an English stone. 
The horse-shoe terminations recall the similar ornament on 
Roman coffins and slabs. I also shew one from the Museum in 
York, where the interlacing bands end in dragons' heads. A con- 
siderable number of these stones have been found in various parts 
of the kingdom. Several were found at Cambridge Castle in 1810, 
and several fragments have been found under the Norman founda- 
tions of Peterborough Cathedral. The most beautiful example by 
far in England is at Kirkdale, near Lastingham, and it is, I believe, 
the only English stone of the kind left which bears an inscription. 
The Danish stone of which there are two fragments in the British 
Museum must for my present purpose be treated as an exceptional 
foreigner ; it has a portion of a runic inscription on the edge, and 
it had a very striking head-stone, likewise with a runic inscription, 
now carefully treasured in the Guildhall Library. I shew the 
rubbings of tbese undoubtedly Danish stones, partly from their great 
individual interest, and partly in order to make it clear how unlike 
any of our English remains this one Danish monument was ; a 
strong argument against the Danish origin of our sculptured stones. 
The Kirkdale stone, which I shew, bore an inscription in the angles 
of the cross, legible in the time of Mr. D. R. Haigh a few years 
ago, though only one name can be read at present, some others being 
imaginable. The inscription ran, in Anglian tongue. To king 
Oidihvald. It was Oidilwald Avho gave Lastingham to Chad. 
Kirkdale Church and churchyard must at some very early time 
have been a Museum of works of Anglian art. Among them is 


another flat stone, of large size, with more intricate interlacements 
than any Anglian stone I know. I shew, further, two very interest- 
ing stones of this flat character, one of which is in the Cloisters of 
Lincoln Cathedral, and the other is built into the interior wall of 
the tower of St. Mary-le-Wigford, Lincoln. 

I do not feel clear whether the next stone I shew, from Monk 
Wearmouth, belongs to this second class of which I am speaking or 
to the third class, the standing stones of a flat character, i.e., not 
pillars or shafts. The curled ornament at the top, of very Eoman 
character, indicates that the stone stood npright. It is now 
cemented into the wall of the vestry, so that the condition of its 
back and edges cannot be ascertained, and thus one important 
element in the consideration of the question is missing. The 
inscription — Hie in seiyulchrorequlescitcorporeHereheridit Presbyter, 
speaks for itself. Whether this stone was recumbent or not, it is 
evidently the progenitor of the modern head-stone. 

I can only call to mind one undoubted example in England of 
the standing sepulchral stone other than a pillar or a shaft. It is at 
Whitchurch, in Hampshire, and I shew a rubbing of the front, the 
back, and the inscription which runs in two lines on the flat top of 
the semicircle in which the stone terminates, what we should call 
the upper edge of the stone. The front is exactly like one of the deeply 
recessed Roman tomb-stones, with the bust of the person com- 
memorated in high relief; this is of course a very unfavourable 
subject for a rubbing. The figure seems to be an abbess, her hand 
giving the benediction, the little finger doubled horizontally across 
the other two. The back is a singularly pretty adaptation of the 
bifurcating spiral scroll, quite unique so far as I know. The 
inscription runs — Hie corpus Fritlihurgcercquiescit inpacem sepultum. 
I have satisfied myself that the word is pacem. Hiibner gives 
paee with dots enough for a word between it and sepultum. The 
rubbing will shew that there is no room for this. Whether the 
fourth letter of the lady's name is g or th or something else I do 
not wish to say positively. 

In flat standing stones Scotland very far exceeds anything that 
England has to shew. The early Scottish stone cutters did not, 
like their Anglian fellow workmen, cut stones into the shape of 
crosses, with shaft and arms and head. They cut their crosses on 
flat standing stones, devoting to the ornamentation of these stones 
all the skill and care and love that English workmen devoted to the 
shafts and heads of their crosses. And here again it must be con- 
fessed that the skill of the Scottish artist, both the draughtsman 
and the sculptor, greatly exceeded the skill of the English workmen. 
I shew the face and back of a typical Scottish stone at Dunfallandy, 
near Pitlochry, and of another with some unique characteristics at 
Pitfour, near Perth. In neither case have I had time to complete 


the outlining of the intricate patterns, the skill and beauty of 
which are very great. Here again, as in the other Scottish stones I 
have shewn, the curious skill in delineating animals attracts 
attention. The three Pitfour horses are sacrificed to the shallowness 
of the panels as compared with their length ; but even so, they are 
infinitely better than anything England can shew. It may be 
argued with a good deal of force that the marvellous powers of eye and 
hand which produced the " Hibernian " manuscripts of Lindisfarne 
and KeJls, remained with the Celtic people in Scotland for some 
two or three centuries. 

It cannot be considered certain that the Scottish stones were 
memorial stones, that is, memorials of persons as contrasted with 
memorials of events. The difficulty is that of all the large number 
of Scottish stones of this remarkable character, only one has an 
inscription. It is in Irish minuscules, and appears to read Drosten 
ipe voret elt forcus, and that does not give us much information. 
The letters are very clear, but the Pictish language is a sealed book. 
It is, however, fairly evident that this very beautiful and artistic 
stone, unique among Scottish stones in having a classical scroll as 
well as in having an inscription (I do not shew a rubbing), is a 
memorial of the dead. And the names recorded point to an 
antiquity of from ten to eleven hundred years. The stone has quite 
recently ceased to be the only Scottish sculptured stone of this 
character with an inscription, for a fragment of stone with 
ornamental patterns was dug up last year at no great distance from 
it, in Forfarshire, with curious capital letters like those in the Mac 
Regol and Mac Durnan gospels (ninth century manuscripts), spelling 
the words Filii Medicii. 

I next come to what I have called pillars, that is cylindrical 
shafts. These monuments, to which very little attention has been 
called, deserve an exhaustive treatment at considerable length, and 
I have now collected the materials for such treatment. The pillars 
are rather strictly localised. There are two in Wales, one of them 
being the famous pillar of Eliseg, with a long inscription which can- 
not date later than the ninth century. There are several examples scat- 
tered about in various parts of Cheshire and Staffordshire. There are 
fragments of two at Bakewell. There is one very richly ornamented 
example in IsTottinghamshire, and there are two at Penrith. It is 
these two at Penrith that enable me to class these pillars as 
memorials of the dead, for they undoubtedly stand at the head 
and foot of a double grave, the bodies being presumably laid feet to 
feet. I shew a rubbing of the four sides of the upper part of one 
of the most perfect of these stones, so far as preservation goes, in 
the churchyard at Leek, and another and much smaller example 
from the churchyard at Ham. The Leek people have unfortunately 
cut upon the stone on which the pillar stands the four letters and 


the date they found on a stone in the wall of the church, which has 
no connection with this pillar, H. Q. C. C, supposed to mean Hugo 
quintus cestriae comes, Hugh fifth Earl of Chester. It would 
require a somewhat credulous archaeologist to believe that this 
monument was made as a sepulchral memorial so late as the death 
of Hugh Lupus, though there are reasons for thinking that the use 
of these pillars for other purposes may have survived to times as 
late as that. 

It will be seen that in order to give room for sculpturing 
interlacing designs on these pillars, they are cut at the top as a lead 
pencil might be, with four bold cuts, presenting four faces, the 
boundary of each face at its lower part being naturally a portion of 
a circle or ellipse. 

On the subject of cruciform Memorials of the Dead, volumes 
might be written. From a very early date in the Christian history 
of the Anglian race, crosses have been used for this purpose, among 
others. I have no doubt that the stone-cutters whom Wilfrith took 
about with him on his journeys in the seventh century found their 
chief employment in setting up skilfully ornamented stone crosses 
at the various preaching stations their master visited, long before 
there were churches on the spot, or at least churches any more 
durable than wattled sheds. And we know that when Bishop Acca 
died, in 730, ''two stone crosses decorated with admirable sculpture 
were set up, one at the head and the other at the feet " ; and 
Simeon of Durham, writing more than 300 years after his death, 
describes the crosses, and tells us that " on the one at the head is an 
inscription, stating that he is buried there." These two crosses, dug 
up at Hexham where he was buried, are now among the treasures 
collected by Canon Greenwell in the Dean and Chapter Library at 

I shew four rubbings of portions of the shaft at Hackness, which 
must have been a magnificent monument. It bears inscriptions in 
Eoman characters and in runes, commemorating in the most tender 
manner the Abbess Oithilburga. We learn from Bede that when 
King Aldfrid was dying at Driffield in 705, he sent for his sister 
Aelflaed, who took with her Oithilburga, Abbess of Hackness, to his 
death-bed, when he gave his last instructions about the kingdom. 
This identification is of the highest value as bearing upon the date 
of the classic scroll work on Anglian stones. 

I shew a drawing of one of the very interesting runic monuments 
at Thornhill, in Yorkshire, the shaft of a cross in all probability, 
with two dragons like those shewn from York, and with the runic 
inscription below, very cleverly cut, Edred set (this) in memory oj 
Eata : what the last word, inne, means, can only be guessed ; Mr. 
D. E. Haigh guessed " anchorite " or " hermit." 

I shew also the cross at Hawkswell, in Wensleydale, on which 
is still legible a portion of the inscription, Hobc est crux Sandi 


Jacohi. I have shewn elsewhere that this is in all probability the 
cross of the Deacon James, the companion of Paulinus in the North, 
of whom Bede says that the village where he lived was still called 
by his name. Close by, about half-a-mile from the cross, is the one 
house left of a former village, and it is called Aikbar, pronounced 
Yakbur, i.e., Jacohi hurgus. Two hundred years ago there was a 
village, called then Akeburgh, and no doubt pronounced exactly as 
the name of its one surviving house is now pronounced. That there 
were crosses set up in connection with the mission of Paulinus to 
the North, is shown by a charter dated in Edward TI.'s reign, where 
a boundary at Easingwold, in Yorkshire, is given as running up to 
the Cross of St. Paulinus. The fragment found long ago at 
Dewsbury, also, is said to have borne the inscription — Hie Sandus 
Paulinus predicavif et haptisavit. 

I shew, as typical examples, two of the most complete of the 
small crosses I know, almost entire, the larger one from Brompton, 
near Northallerton, a mine of sculptured stones, and the smaller 
from Kirby Moorside, itself a place where there are many interesting 
fragments, while in its neighbourhood are the treasures of Lasting- 
ham, Kirkdale, and other places less known. 

Finally, because in so very many cases we find only shafts and 
fragments of shafts, without cross-heads, I shew one or two 
additional examples of the heads of crosses. One is a very hand- 
some piece of workmanship, from a very unlikely district ; it is at 
Cropthorne, near Pershore, in Worcestershire. The animals in the 
arms, and the bird or bird dragon with a flower scroll running up 
the centre of the cross, are as unique as is the existence of any such 
thing in those parts. Another, of which I shew both sides, is at 
Bilton, near Tadcaster. The four men in the four keys of the 
cross, with their heads to the boss, and their hands joined to make 
a qiiatrefoil, and their legs tied with a figure of eight, are without 
parallel, except that a fragment of the head of one of the magni- 
ficent crosses in the IMarket Place, at Sandbach, shews that a man 
occupied the topmost key, with the appearance of standing upon 
his head. Two cross-heads of rather unusual shape from Sinnington, 
near Kirby Moorside, are well worth attention, especially the 
representation of our Lord, with a serpent under each arm. A very 
fine example of a wheel-headed cross, both sides of which I shew, 
is at Kirk Levington, near Yarm. The lower key and the shaft 
have not been found. The interlacing work is particularly bold. 
It will be seen on a close inspection that I have faintly pencilled in 
the date 1696 and initials, cut with rude irreverence on the figure 
of our Lord. This shews that the stone was above ground in 
1696, and was taken possession of by some one or other, perhaps 
as a memorial of the persons indicated by the initials. 


Finally I shew a large cross, nearly perfect, from Stonegrave, 
with a very fine wheel-head, and with the shaft covered with 
interlacing work, among which two figures and a cross are placed in 
a manner quite unique. The edges of these crosses, which I do not 
shew, are in good preservation, and are the most Celtic things I 
know on Anglian Crosses. 

I have thus slightly scratched the surface of some parts of a 
very large and important subject, behind which lies a mine of 
ecclesiastical, historical, and artistic facts well worth development. 
I shall be glad if my dippings into the large stores I have collected 
attract the special interest of Members of these combined Societies. 

The Prehistoric Boat discovered at Brigg. — The following Paper 
was read by Mr. James Thropp, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., County 
Surveyor of the Division of Lindsey, on the recently discovered 
boat at Brigg, illustrated by drawings to a large scale, of which 
he has made special reductions to accompany this Eeport. 

THE unexpected discovery of an ancient canoe or boat at Brigg, 
Lincolnshire, during the process of excavation for a new 
gasometer at the Gas Company's works at that town, has been a 
most interesting and pleasing incident to lovers of antiquities. The 
premises of the Gas Company are situated on the east side of the 
river Ancholme, about 200 yards north of the market place. The 
boat is made out of the trunk of an oak tree, perfectly straight and 
true j it is 48ft. Sin. long, and varies from 4ft. to 5in. in width, and 
does not appear to have had branches, except near the bow, where, 
I think, two have been cut off. It was found about 40 yards from 
the river, lying due east and west, on what must have been a sloping 
beach, the stern being 9ft. below the surface level, and the bow 5ft. 
Gin. below it. The soil is about 1ft. Sin. deep, and clay both above 
and below the position in which the boat rested, and the continued 
excavation is still in clay. As the work of excavation has been 
carried on, other objects of interest have been found, enabling us to 
decide one or two important points respecting the boat. First, the 
bowsprit was discovered, almost close to the bow, and then, thirteen 
yards in a southerly direction, the sternboard ; also, bones of 
animals. The boat itself was filled with black mud, and at the 
bottom three curious leeches, one six inches long, were found alive; 
they are now preserved by the Gas Company in spirits of wine. 
The groove at the stern was partly filled with dried moss, used 


apparently for caulking. The stern-board fits the end, and will slide 
into the grooves; it is of oak planking, l|in. thick, and consists of 
two boards, one being 17in. wide and the other lOin. by 4ft. in 
length ; the sides and bottom are shaped to suit the grooving. 
What were the tools which the boatwriglits used to finish the 
planking 1 They may have been flint or bronze, but certainly the 
manipulation was of no ordinary merit in those days. From the 
end elevation and longitudinal section, it will be observed that part 
of the stern appears to have been decked, and the boards laid on the 
two ledges, one on either side, which were worked out cf the solid, 
not framed in. Transverse stays were left in the bottom, when the 
sinking or cutting out was done, for the purpose of stiffening the 
boat; three of them are still perfect, and will be noticed in the 
longitudinal section. The bottom of the boat is flat throughout its 
entire length ; the keel, if it may be so described, at the stern, is 
splitting, owing, I believe, to shrinkage and the great strain imposed 
upon it during the removal to its present temporary position. The 
stern and the bow were both strengthened by part of the bottom 
being left more solid, as shown by the longitudinal section. The 
holes at the sides are not all of the same size, they are chiefly 
elliptical, and may have been used for ropes when under sail, and 
partly for stays, of which one has been discovered in almost a fossil 
state. By what means the tree was hollowed out can only be a 
matter of conjecture ; it may have been charred a certain depth, and 
finished with bronze or flint tools. Part of a branch of a tree was 
found, much resembling an adze, and also some flints, which were 
so hard that the Gas Manager cut glass with them as readily as if a 
diamond had been used. It has been suggested that the flints were 
fixed at the curved end of this adze when in use. Whether the 
adze was used in the construction or not cannot be determined 
authoritatively, but it is quite possible it was carried by the ship 
carpenter for executing needful repairs. We can see that repairs 
proved necessary from the discovery of a cleat, 6ft. long and about 
14 inches wide, tapered at the ends, fixed to an old wound on the 
right or starboard side of the boat, shown in dotted lines on the 
elevation. The cleat was cut out of a solid piece of wood, the edges 
are bevelled, and three studs were left so that they might pass 
through the side of the boat and receive, through the circular holes 
cut through them, wedges or pins to bring the cleat '' home," and 
secure a perfectly water-tight joint. The manner o± fixing the cleat 
will be recognised on reference to the transverse section on the line 
A.B. The elevation and longitudinal section of the bow of the 
boat shew the manner in which it was prepared to receive and 
support the bow-sprit. The irregularity of the sides indicate the 
gradual decay which was proceeding, although it is fair to assume 
that some part of the top edges would be fractured in removing it 

Ancient British War Cano e 

Biscovererl Jpril t^d'fi nhr/f r.rrrn gfuiq /fy r/ neu- (rasrme^fr Brir/g das Tier/cs. Li^ic^lnshne 


SIDE ELEVATION -Shewuig Ike pontien iji vrhch tJie boat wa-^^ found 

To cocrry deck heard ^ 

\(irocn'e for Stem Board irt^hich mo.^-s- ^^ddle ot 7)oat Jiclt of hlark cloLV 

\was wurLd. y ^ , 

4<9 a 









^Stem SoarcL 

Honian AVJa> ntAconredm4mJirukyarc/ 
a^ Bnggr WestSid^ cfJnrhdm^ 

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w oi_ 



GRA VEt 7 - 


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SectuTV Bow spnt 

Sketcfi Flan of Boat asJband 
i 4S^ , . -t^ 

I BOAT ~^ ' 


■Sff7-n Hoard 

(fan JJt^-opp, 

■JssocM fnst. C.E 


from its late position to the company's yard. Its removal required 
the utmost care, and thanks are due to the Gas Company, their chief 
ofi&cers and men, for the careful and skilful manner in which they 
have accomplished the self-imposed duty of preserving for the 
benefit of the public, this extraordinary relic of the past. What- 
ever its ultimate destination may be, I do hope that the same 
watchful care it has hitherto received will attend its transit to the 
British Museum or wherever else it may be preserved. It is open 
to doubt whether it has ever been a sea-going boat, but at any rate 
it would be equal to the demands of ordinary weather in the Humber, 
and that it has been a sailing one may be inferred, not only from 
the preparation of the bow for a bowsprit, but from the fact of the 
bowsprit itself being found, but why a bent one was preferred I 
cannot say. I do not think its tranverse strength, on account of its 
comparatively great length, although stayed, would have enabled it 
to bear the great strain of waves such as would be met with in the 
German Ocean. I believe it would carry between 40 and 50 men, 
including the sailors, and would evidently in its day have been an 
enemy of no mean power to an opposing force. With regard to its 
age, supposition from known date leads experts to fix it at not less 
than 2,000 years ; there is every reason to presume that it is of 
ancient British origin. We can scarcely give the Eomans credit for 
so primitive a design. It is, however, possible that it has carried 
Eoman soldiers for, in the absence of other craft, doubtless the 
Eoman would impress into their service whatever came to hand, and 
when it had served their purposes, and finding its sides wearing 
away, they would leave it to to take its chance on the river side, as 
many a craft is now allowed to sink into the sands on our coast, 
whose oak ribs will be imbedded and in thousands of years to come 
when the sea no longer washes the shore, but upheaval and sub- 
sidence have alternately done their work, the generations of those 
days will speculate on the nature and build of the vessel whose 
skeleton they may then discover. It would be an interesting 
speculation and intensely idealistic to man this boat, in fancy, with 
the very men who sailed in it, to speak in their language, to 
know their religion, their habits, descent, their tribal feuds and 
ambitions, to know, too, the name of the boat, the battles it 
carried its brave warriors through, and how it came to be left to rot 
on the river side so ignominiously ; but still it is answering a 
purpose in suggesting to us, 2,000 years later, mysteries it cannot 
tell of the unwritten history of our land. "We know not its captain's 
name, but we do know, from the beauty of its stem lines and the 
manner in which its whole design was executed, even to its repairs, 
that its builders were worthy to be the ancestors of the greatest 
naval power in the world. May our supremacy of the sea be 
preserved, and may oui united Empire continue, in spite of every 


effort, intentional or otherwise, to cause its disintegration. To add 
to the vicissitudes of storm and tempest, of probable battle, of 
desertion on the river side, and its long rest in the harbour of the 
ages gone by, the boat has at length become the subject of a law suit in 
the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, before Mr. Justice Chitty, 
who had to decide whether it shall be the privilege of the Lord of the 
Manor, Mr. Cary-Elwes, or the Brigg Gas Company to present it 
to the authorities of the British Museum, or a more local Institution. 
What would its captain have said, could he, through the horoscope 
of the future, as for the last time he stood on that little deck, have 
seen the grand pile of Street's great achievment, and listened within 
its walls to the grave and learned argument of counsel and the 
judgment of the Bench, and then glance round the nation itself, 
enriched by a greater Britain tied to us by love and friendship, 
marching together in the forefront of civilisation ; truly he would 
have been proud of us, and would have said — stick to the old flag, 
let it brave the battle and the breeze, and let no traitor tear Ireland's 
quartering from the Eoyal Standard of our Queen and country, 
remembering that her blood has helped to build its magnificence, 
and her claims to equality, to justice, and our friendship are 
unanswerable. The drawing accompanying this brief description of 
the boat also comprises the sketch of a planked causeway, discovered 
two years ago, in a brickyard nearly opposite the Gas Company's 
premises, but on the left or west side of the Eiver Ancholme. It 
was found six feet below the surface, and was constructed of oak 
planks 10 feet long and five inches thick. They were staked down 
at each end ; the holes through which the stakes passed were as 
true as if they had been bored with an augur. There was one foot 
of sand below the planks, and then a bed of gravel. Geologists will 
note this trifling fact, and tell us probably that the gravel was the 
bottom or bed of a stream, and build up beautiful theories, and 
present us with fairy pictures, reasoning, as they do, from the 
" known to the unknown." 

Note. — Since the Meeting of the Society, Mr. Justice Chitty has 
given a verdict in favour of Mr. Cary-Elwes, who has taken posses- 
sion of the boat and removed it to a special building which he has 
erected near the Railway Station. 

"ArchcBological Notes ^^ — Discovery of the Site of an Anglo-Saxon 
Gamp or Settlement (?) near Woolsthorpe-hy-Belvoir. 

THE plateau, consisting of the clays and marl-stone rocks of the 
middle lias formation, one mile due east of Belvoir Castle, 
commands, perhaps, one of the most extensive and beautiful 


expanses of country to "be found anywhere in England — embracing, 
as it does, in one immense sweep, Nottingham in the west, and far 
beyond, into the uplands of Derbyshire, the Vale of Belvoir, the 
wide valley of the Trent, as far as Newark, thence to the elevated 
towers of Lincoln Minster, and the whole of the Cliff range of hills 
towards the north. The view in the direction of east and south is 
more limited, but not less pleasing and diversified. It will readily 
be perceived what a splendid situation is here afforded for a camping- 
ground — on the dry soil of the marl-stone rock-bed — with its 
numerous springs of pellucid water. That these peculiarly advan- 
tageous surroundings did not escape due recognition by the 
aborigines and Saxon invaders of Britain has been amply proved in 
the removal of ironstone during the past three or four years. 
Numerous cinerary urns (probably Pagan Anglo-Saxon) broken 
pottery, weapons, brass rings, and buckles, glass beads, and what was 
erroneously described in a previous letter to the Grantham Journal as 
brass cavalry trappings, have been proved, beyond the possibility of 
doubt, to be Anglo-Saxon fibulae — almost identical in form and size 
with those illustrated and described on pp. 478 and 482 (not the 
circular form) 3rd edition of Wright's The Celt, the Roman, and 
the Saxon. These fibulae were found in the Brewer's gravefield, 
north west of the Duke of Rutland's new lodge, and consist of a 
pair (one of them broken) each of 5^ in., one of 4 in., and one of 
2^ in. in length — all of massive brass. There are also two flat 
circular thin brass fibulae, about l|-in. in diameter, with the pins 
belonging to them, but detached. They appear to have been used by 
ladies for much the same purposes as the modern brooch, and the 
larger kind bears a singularly striking resemblance to the present 
safety pin — very much developed and ornamented — and were used 
for fastening the pallium, or mantle. The ancient drift road — in 
this part known as the " Old Mere," or '' Sewstern-lane " — so far as 
at present opened out, cuts through the middle of what has un- 
doubtedly been a very extensive village or camp, of which the new 
lodge at the Duke of Rutland's carriage road is probably near the 
centre, and extending some two hundred or three hundred yards in 
each direction. However, the outside of the site has not yet been 
reached. It is certainly deserving of record that over nearly the whole 
of this extensive area, numerous relics of an ancient people have been 
almost daily found and irretrievably effaced, and it is to be regretted 
that some competent antiquarian has not hitherto investigated and 
recorded such an interesting and rare field for research. Some 
hundreds of what appear to have been rubbish-pits, have been 
found — extending from near Greenwood's barn in the north-east to 
about five hundred yards south-west on the Duke of Rutland's 
home-farm. The pits vary much in size — some are about 9 ft. long, 
5 ft. wide, and 6 ft. deep. The ends of nearly all of them are semi- 


circular. These holes are frequently not more than 4 ft. apart, and 
almost invariably contain a large quantity of black mould, burnt 
soil and ashes, bits of charcoal, broken pottery of large-sized vessels, 
numerous bones of animals, viz., — jaw-bones, antlers of deer, tusks 
of boars, and usually a considerable number of burnt pebbles — 
cracked and broken by the action of fire and water (?). These have 
been chucked into the pits and mixed up with the other matter. It 
would appear that these boulders have been used in cooking the 
food or boiling water — as is still practised by the Maoris in New 
Zealand. At least two stone querns have been found in a perfect 
state, and a peculiar ovoid-shaped " stone muller " of some very hard 
kind of stone. Also a number of iron bosses of shields. These 
were found near the bridge which crosses under the road between 
Woolsthorpe and Denton — where part of a grave is still to be seen. 
It is to be inferred that from the very large number of graves, urns, 
weapons, &c., that the above site was either occupied for a long 
period by a small community, or that it was resorted to at intervals 
by a large force, since there has been no trace whatever of any 
permanent building, and that they were undoubtedly a warlike race. 
In a former letter, I alluded to an immense quantity of charred corn 
in a pit about 10 ft. deep, the sides of which had been exposed to 
the action of fire. Whether this had been employed for sacrificial 
purposes has not yet been cleared up. To come to more modern 
times, I have in my possession a stone cannon ball, weighing 1 lb. 
3oz., and a spherical leaden bullet, of f oz., both found in Brewer's 
grave-field. It is singular that the only coins hitherto heard of 
having been found, are a lion shilling and a few modern coppers. 

Roman Milestone found near Ancaster. — By the Eight Reverend 
the Lord Bishop of Nottingham. 

SOME years ago the greater part of a Roman milliarium was dis- 
covered on the western edge of the Ermine-street, about a quarter 
of a mile north of Ancaster, on the site of a Roman station. Had this 
been perfect, we should have secured indisputable evidence as to the 
Roman name given to Ancaster, now only thought to be " Causennas," 
but, unfortunately, the lower part of the stone was broken off. It 
consists of a rough piece of Ancaster stone, 2 feet 3 inches long, 
1 foot wide, and 7 inches thick. This had been removed from its 
original site, and was found a little below the surface of the ground, 
in company with fragments of human bones, pottery, and part of a 
reindeer's horn, cleanly sawn from the remainder. 



From this cut given of this, it. will 
be seen that it bears the following 
lettering, when properly stopped, — 
IMP • C • FL • VAL • CONS- 
TANTINO • P • F • INY • AUG • 
AUG • FILIO • or, in full, " Im- 
peratori Csesari Flavio Valero 
Constantino Pio Felici Invicto 
Augusto Divi Constantii Pii 
Augusti Filio." Its consists there- 
fore of a complimentary dedication 
to Constantine the Great, who 
passed along the Ermine-street 
before' he had assumed the imperial 
mantle, when, by the aid of 
European Eoman roads and their 
" mutationes agminales," or posting 
stations, he had made a wonder- 
fully quick journey from Nicomedia 
to Gessoriacum, or Boulogue, where 
he arrived just in time to embark 
with his father Constantius for 
Britain, to take part in his campaign 
against the Caledonians. 

On this occasion he doubtless 
rode along the Ermine-street and 
through An caster, and again did so on his hurried return from York, 
after his father's death there, to secure his own succession a.d. 306. 
He was at once proclaimed Caesar and Augustus by the legions in 
Britain, referred to in the dedication on this milliarium, and it is 
well that we have such an interesting record of the past still 
remaining in Lincolnshire ; but now this does not stand alone, for 
last year a more valuable relic of this kind was revealed in the very 
centre of Lincoln, about 41 years more ancient, in the shape of 
another and more perfect milliarium, originally set up and inscribed 
to commemorate the accession of Marcus Piavonius Victorinus, as 
Eiijperor, who had previously been General of the legions under 
Postumus, and whose reign only lasted for two years, when it was 
cut short through his murder by his Generals. 



The Missing Termination of Queen Eleanor's Cross at Northampton. 
By R. G. Sc RIVEN. 

OE twelve or thirteen Crosses erected in memory of Queen 
Eleanor three only remain, and in each of these the original 
termination is missing. At Geddington the Cross is clearly incom- 
plete. At Northampton no record has been found of the state of 
the Cross before 1713, when a jDlain Maltese Cross was placed on 
its summit as part of a restoration undertaken by the County 


Magistrates. This Cross which appears in all the engravings was 
clearly unsuitable and was very properly removed at the last restora- 
tion in 1840, and the structure now ends with a broken shaft, added 
by the architect of that restoration. At Waltham the crocketed 
spire surmounted by a Cross, which now completes the structure is 
undoubtedly modern, as it was designed and added to the Cross in 
1833, and it is not shewn in the earlier engravings. In none of 
these cases is there any drawing or description extant of the Cross 
when complete. 

This Paper is an attempt to collate the entries in the Rolls 
relating to the original terminations of the Eleanor Crosses, and of 
the Cross at Northampton in particular, and to compare the result 
with original heads of Crosses of the same period now remaining. 

Mr. Hartshorne in his Historical Memorials of Northampton- 
shire, published in 1848, speaking of the termination of the 
Cross, writes as follows : — " Much speculation has been afloat 
" respecting the way in which the head of this exquisite work was 
" terminated. It may perhaps be sufficient to set curiosity entirely 
" at rest, when it is stated that nothing has hitherto been discovered 
" to determine this question. How the upper portion was finished 
" can only be a mere matter of individual opinion. There can he 
" no doubt there loas another figure of some kind, because the rolls 
** mention it, but to attempt any further restoration would be both 
" unwarranted by authority, and highly injudicious." 

Mr. Hartshorne returned to the subject in a paper read before 
the British Archaeological Association at Northampton, in 1862. 
He says, " An entry in the accounts leads me to suppose it was 
" finished by a figure, most likely that of the Virgin, as William de 
" Ireland was paid £Q. 3s. 4d. on one occasion for making ^ve images 
" for the Cross at Northampton, therefore it is evident that a figure 
** of some kind was imposed above the four of the Queen's now 
" remaining." 

Lastly the late Mr. E. F. Law in a paper read before this Society 
and published in the Journal of 1863, after quoting Mr. Hartshorne 
as above, goes on to say, " If a fifth figure was made for the Cross 
" at Northampton, where could it well have been placed but on the 
" summit of the structure % And it appears to me that the inference 
" drawn by Mr. Hartshorne is legitimate and probable. 

" In the survey just completed Mr. Irvine and I examined very 
" carefully the broken pedestal now forming the terminus. The 
" upper part or shaft of this pedestal is undoubtedly modern, in fact 
" we know that it was placed there at the time of the restoration 
" by Mr. Blore. The bottom part, or base, of this pedestal, is, 
" however, unquestionably part of the original ; and if a base to a 
" pedestal can be shewn to have existed and proved to be original, 
" that a ;pedestal existed is a natural inference j and if a pedestal 


** existed, it is as natural to infer, and with equal probability, that 
'' the pedestal was surmounted by a figure, and that the fifth tigure, 
" for which money was paid, was the figure required, and which 
" probably formed the termination of this beautiful structure." 

This opinion as to the probable termination of the Cross has 
been generally accepted down to the present day, by all who have 
written or spoken on the subject, and it may appear presumptuous 
to attempt to controvert a statement made on such authority. 
Nevertheless I make bold to assert that a careful study of the rolls 
of the executors of Queen Eleanor has convinced me that there is 
evidence to shew that not more than four figures were made for 
or placed upon the Cross at Northampton, and that consequently 
Mr. Hartshorne's conclusion as to a fifth figure forming part of the 
termination of the Cross is founded in error ; and that there is more- 
over distinct evidence as to the existence of a different termination 
of the Cross which is now missing. The evidence laid before us by 
Mr. Hartshorne and Mr. Law is of two kinds. First the entry in 
the rolls of the payment for 5 figures for the Cross at Northampton, 
and secondly the inference drawn by Mr. Law from the original base 
upon which Mr. Blore placed the present broken shaft at the time 
of his restoration in 1 840. Mr. Law says a base implies a pedestal, 
and a pedestal a figure. Exactly so, but I object to the word 
pedestal, which I think would never have occured to any one unless 
a figure had been previously suggested. I prefer the word shaft, 
which Mr. Law suggests to me. A base implies a shaft, and a shaft 
implies — what ? I will come to that presently. 

Now as to the entry in the rolls. The entry referred to by Mr. 
Hartshorne is not exactly as stated by him in the paper quoted 
above, a sum of £6 3s. 4d. for making five figures, but a sum of 
£6 3s. 4d. in completion of a payment of ttoenty five marks for 
making five figures for the Cross at Northampton. There are three 
previous entries in the roll of payments on account of the same 
work which I have placed in order below : — 
Omx. Item, Willielmo de Hibernia, in partem solutionis 
XXV. marc, pro quinque imaginibus faciendis ad 

crucem de Norhamtona, et alibi v. marc. 66s. 8d. 

Crux. Item, Willielmo de Hibernia, imaginatori, in 
partem solutionis xxv. marc, pro factura v. 

imaginum ad Cruces Eeginae ex. s. 11 Os. Od. 

Crux. Item,Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, imaginatori, 
in partem solutionis xxv. marc, pro factura 
quinque imaginum pro Crucibus Reginae ...c.s 100s. Od. 
Cr2ix. Item, Willielmo de Hibernia, in perpacationem xxv 
marc, pro factura quinque imaginum ad Crucem 
de Norhamtona, per manum propriam, vj. li. iij.s. 

iiij.d. 123s. 4d. 

400s. Od. 


The sum of the above entries is thus shewn to be four hundred 
shillings or thirty marks in marks of 1 3s. 4d. 

Now, I think there can be no doubt that all these entries refer 
to one and the same matter. They all mention the same artist, the 
five figures and the twenty five marks, being at the rate of 5 marks 
per figure ; but the destination of the figures is difi'erently worded 
in each of the entries. The first speaks of the five figures as being 
for the Cross at Northampton and elseivliere, the two next say in 
general terms that they were for the Crosses of the Queen, and the 
last, the one relied upon by Mr. Hartshorne says they were for the 
Cross at Northampton. The first entry contradicts the last, and I 
find it easier to believe that the words " et alibi " were accidentally 
omitted in the last entry than that they were inserted without any 
meaning in the first. 

There is another discrepancy in their entries which raises a point 
of some importance. I had the curiosity to reduce the payments to 
a common denominator of shillings, and to add them up to see if the 
total payments of twenty five marks had been completed. To my 
surprise the sum total of the four payments amounted to thirty 
marks. The result leaves us only two alternatives — either that the 
rate of payment for each figure Avas increased from five marks to six, 
or that the whole of the payments are for six figures at the rate of 
five marks each. 

Either alternative is difficult of explanation as none of the entries 
speak of more than five figures, and in each case the charge is at the 
same rate of five marks per figure. And this rate of five marks seems 
to have been the usual one as I find in another entry, Alexander 
Imaginator was paid a sum of fifty marks for making ten figures 
'■ pro Crucibus Eeginae." The conclusion I have come to is that 
there were six figures carved by William of Ireland, and that the 
explanation is as follows. The first order was for five figures, and 
on the completion of the first figure a sum of five marks Avas paid 
to him on account. This is the payment in the first entry. There 
is a considerable interval of time between the fiist entry and the 
second, and I conjecture that in the interval it was found that six 
figures would be wanted instead of five. On the resumption of the 
work the first figure was written off as paid for and a new contract 
was entered into for five figures for twenty five marks, Avhich contract 
was duly completed and paid for in the two succeeding entries. 
Thus we get six figures in all, of w^hich I believe four figures came 
to Northampton, and the other two went to Lincoln, though I 
admit that this last statement is somewhat conjectural. 

It is founded on the fact, to which I shall presently refer, that 
William of Ireland was engaged at this time on two delicate and 
expensive pieces of Avork, which are stated to be for the Crosses of 
Northampton and Lincoln, and which I am prepared to shew were 


for the termination of the two Crosses, and it seems not unlikely 
that as in the case of Northampton so in the case of Lincoln the 
figures and the termination would probably be by the same hand. 

But that four figures only came to Northampton is very clear 
from the following entry. 

Orux. Item, Willielmo de Bernak, cementario, pro 
cariagio quatuor imaginum ad Crticem Noham- 
tonse, et pro cariagio capitis et lancise ejusdem 
crucis, de Londonia usque Norhamtonam, Ixxiij.s. 

iiij.d 73s. 4d. 

Here we have the four figures distinctly mentioned as having 

been conveyed to Northampton by William de Bernak. The last 

entry referring to the figures does not help us at all as regards the 

number of them but I may as well give it here. 

Crux. Item, eidem Johanni, [de Bello] in perpacationem 
pro meremio ad schafi'oud ad Crucem Norhamtonse, 
et pro virga, capite, et imaginibus ejusdem Crucis 
ibidem assidendis, iij.s. viiij.d. 123s. 8d. 

On reading these two last entries the question immediately 
occurs to us ; what was this head and shaft conveyed down from 
London with the four figures and placed in position by John de 
Bello ? Is this not much more likely to have been the original 
termination of the Cross, than the somewhat mythical fifth figure 1 
It becomes interesting therefore to collate all the earlier entries 
relating to this part of the structure which are fortunately full and 

The first two entries refer to the material, which was marble 
from Corfe in Dorsetshire, now commonly known as Purbeck marble, 
and was supplied by Robert de Blund or Blound of that place. 

Crux. Item, Eoberto de Corf, in partem solutionis pro 
iij. flecchiis, iij. capitibus etiij. agnis, de marmore, 
ad Cruces de Lyncolnia, Norhamtona et Wautham, 

V. marc. 66s. 8d. 

Crux. Item, Roberto de Corfe, per manus Willielmi de 
Blund fratris sui, in partem solutionis pro iij. 
virgis, iij anulis, et iij. capitibus pro Crucibus de 
Wautham, Norhamtona et Lincolnia, vij. marc. 93s. 4d. 

The same stone was used for the Cross at Charing, concerning 
which there are many entries of payments to Robert de Corfe and 
others, '' quarreriis de Corfe, pro marmore." It was brought to 
London by ship, there being a payment " pro fretto navis ducentis 
marmor de Corfe." The portions designed for the Crosses at North- 
ampton and Lincoln then came under the hand of William of 
Ireland whom we have already seen employed upon the figures of 


the Queen. The payments for the two Crosses are so mixed up that 
it is necessary to take them both together as follows. 

Crux. Item, Willielmo Imaginatori, in partem solutionis 
XXV. li., pro factura imaginum ad Crucem de 
Norhamtona, virgse, capitis et anuli,... x. marc. 133s. 4d. 

Crux. Item, Willielmo de Hibernia, imaginatori, in 
partem solutionis xxij. marc, pro factura virgse, 
capitis et anuli Crucis Lincolnise, et cariagio 
ejusdem v. marc. 66s. 8d. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, imaginatori, 
in partem solutionis xxij. marc, pro factura virgse, 
capitis et anuli Crucis Lincolnise, et cariagio 
ibidem x. marc 133s. 4d. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, in partem 
solutionis xxij. marc, [pro] virga, capite, et anulo 
Crucis Lincolnise v. marc 66s. 8d. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, in partem 
solutionis xxv. li., pro factura imaginum, virgae, 
capitis et anuli Crucis Northamtonae, ... v. marc 66s. 8d. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, in partem 
solutionis pro factura imaginum ad Crucem 
Norhamtonss, x. marc. 133s. 4d. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, cementario, 
in partem solutionis pro factura virg?e, capitis, 
anuli et imaginum Crucis Norhamtonse, et etiam 
pro factura virgse, capitis et anuli crucis Lincolnise, 

iiij. li. 80s. Od. 

Crux. Item, Magistro Willielmo de Hibernia, eodem die, 
in perpacationem pro factura virg^, capitis, anuli, 
et imaginum ad Crucem Norhamtoufe, et etiam 
pro factura virgae, capitis, et anuli Crucis Lin- 
colnige, vj. marc. 80s. Od. 

The sum of the above payments is 760 shillings or £38 760s. Od. 

The sixth entry included above might appear at first sight to 
belong to the account already given of the payments for carving the 
figures of the Queen. But as we have already seen the entries made 
to that account exceed by 5 marks the amount of the original 
contract, and to add this payment would only increase the discrep- 
ancy. It is required here to make up the amount of the two 
contracts which even then are not fully paid. The sum total of the 
payments given above amounts to £38 Os. Od. The sum of the 
two contracts (.£25 Os. Od. for the Cross at Northampton and 
twenty-two marks for the Cross at Lincoln), amount's to £39 13s. 4d. 
The difference £1 13s. 4d. or 2^ marks may be accounted for by the 


omission of a small payment, but I think I can suggest a more 
probable solution. The original contract for this part of the Cross 
at Lincoln was twenty-two marks, which was to include the carriage, 
an item for which appears in the first two entries only and not in 
the succeeding ones, in which it is omitted. If we suppose the cost 
of the carving to have been 19^ marks (£13 Os. Od.), and the 
carriage 2^ marks, we may easily account for the difference by 
supposing the carriage to have been otherwise arranged for. The 
charges for carving the head of the Cross at Lincoln, would then 
remain at £13 Os. Od. and for the Cross at Northampton £25 Os. Od., 
and would correspond with the entries already given. 

Before proceeding to what is perhaps the most difficult part of 
our task, which is to attempt to interpret the meaning of these 
entries I must add that another entry shows that terms exactly 
similiar are used as to at least eight Crosses. I have already quoted 
entries referring to Lincoln, Northampton, and Waltham, and we 
have an entry of payment for " v virgis, anulis, et capitibus, ad v 
cruces," four of which are named in another entry as being the 
Crosses at Charing, Saint Albans, Dunstable, and Stony Stratford. 
They are like the three we have mentioned of marble. We have 
therefore to deal with an architectural detail which was common to 
at least eight Crosses, and which may be almost understood to be 
an essential part of the structure. With regard to the terms used 
we find that three of the terms are with certain minor differences 
common to all the entries, while in the account of the Cross at 
Northampton alone a fourth term is introduced which does not 
appear as applied to any of the others, i.e., the word " imagines." 

The first term common to all the Crosses is most frequently 
'" virga " which occurs in the above entries twelve times. In two 
other entries we find suhstituted for it, in one case the word '' lancea " 
which occurs in the entry of payment for carriage from London, and the 
word " virga " in the following entry, for placing in position. Both 
undoubtedly therefore refer to the same thing and convey the same 
meaning. Again the word " flecchia " occurs in the first payments 
to Eobert de Corfe for marble, while in the second payment we 
again find the word " virga." These again refer to the same thing, 
and we are therefore forced to the conclusion that the words " virga/' 
" lancea," and flecchia," are to be considered together as referring 
to one and the same part of the structure. This was the opinion of 
Professor Willis, quoted by Mr. Hartshorne, but Mr. Hartshorne 
himself rejects this interpretation. He seems to have omitted to 
notice that the close connection between the use of the different 
terms shews that their meaning was identical, and translates the 
word flecchia as. vane, " caput " as finial, and virga as shaft. Taking 
the three words together I think it will be found that the word 
" shaft " will apply to all of them, and that this is their proper 

"k. ^^ ? 


• -n.- -r. 

WW.Livr tSms '^An I<ii:ii»ni,)tm 

Fic.l Mead faj , hand i"h] and. shaft fcj of Cross at Chewtx)n' J\/[endip- 
f\G.\\ Me^r.d (a/, dcmd {tj and shaft (c) ^f Cress at Sirhoj^stcny 
FtG.III Jlectd^ of Cross of: Telbsf'ordy. 



The next term is generally " annlus," and in one case only agnus, 
perhaps a clerical error, which I translate band. The third term is 
invariably the same, '* caput " or head. These terms are common 
to at least eight crosses and are always spoken of in the singular 
number ; there is one head, one band, and one shaft to each Cross. 
Can we doubt that this essential part of the stiucture, made of the 
best material, and carved by the best workmen, and as we have seen 
in the entry referring to Northampton raised into position as a 
finishing touch on the completion of the edifice, was in each case its 
termination, and in each case a Cross 1 Lastly, in the accounts 
referring to the Cross at Northampton, there is as I have said one 
item which does not appear elsewhere, the word " imagines," figures, 
which I shall suggest were carved upon the head of the Cross itself. 

There is of course no connection between these figures and the 
five or six figures carved by William of Ireland, and paid for under 
a separate contract as already noted. There is some reason to 
suppose that these figures as well as the anulus or band, were 
decorative detail, not adding much to the bulk or weight of the 
Cross. In the accounts of the conveyance from London, and of 
placing in position, both being purely mechanical, they are not 
mentioned. The words are " pro cariagio quatuor imaginum ad 
" Crucem Norhamtonee, et pro cariagio capitis et lancese ejusdem 
*' Crucis." But in the other items relating to the work of the 
sculptor they are of the first importance and are never omitted. 

The conclusion I have come to as to the missing termination of 
the Cross at Northampton, may then be summed up as follows : — 
It consisted of a shaft, perhaps more or less compound, springing 
from the original base now remaining, with a richly carved band, 
either surrounding it as would seem likely from the use of the word 
" virga " or forming the junction between the shaft and the head of 
the Cross, which surmounted it ; which head was also magnificently 
wrought with a group of figures representing the Crucifixion. I 
have used the words richly carved, magnificenthj wrought, advisedly. 
The amount of money paid to William of Ireland for carving the 
'' shaft, head, band, and figures," for the Cross at Northampton , was 
£25 which is equal to £325 of our money. Its importance may be 
estimated by comparing it with the amount paid to him for carving 
the figures of the Queen, viz : £3 6s. 8d. per figure. 

A study of the remains of ancient Crosses of the 13th century, 
will afford many illustrations on a small scale of what we may 
conceive to have been the termination of the Cross at Northampton. 

The slender shaft springing from the summit of the structure and 
the band of carved work or foliage is an almost essential part of the 
Cross, and in a few cases when any part of the Cross itself remains 
it is not unfrequent to find it carved with figures, as I have suggested 
above. A fine example of a head of a Cross of this kind which 


must have been nearly contemporary with the Eleanor Crosses is to 
be found opposite page 58 in Pooley's Old Crosses of Somerset. 

The Cross at Northampton was certainly then not a headless 
Cross. We have seen the head of it quarried at Corfe, conveyed 
by ship to London, carved by William of Ireland, and put up in 
position by John de Bello. How then are we to account for the 
following extract quoted in "Northamptonshire Notes and Queries " 
from a MS. LiJ)er JolioAinis Stone Monaclii Oantuariensis. 
" 1460. 6 Id. Jul. erat bellum de Northampton Archiepiscopus 
*' Oantuariensis una cum Episcopo LoncUnensi tempore belli stetit 
" in monte qui vocatur crux sine capite. Post bellum venerunt ad 
" Eegem & introiverunt cum eo in domum Sanctimonialium de 
" fratis juxta Norhamton." According to this extract, the Arch- 
*' bishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London observed the 
" battle from a hill called " Headless Cross," and after the battle 
"joined the King and went with him to the house of the Nuns in 
" the meadows, that is, De la pre Abbey. ""^ Are we to suppose that 
the Cross by which the Archbishop stood was the Eleanor Cross, 
and that the head of the Cross was gone % I think it is not unlikely. 
The architects of the middle ages though excellent artists were not 
our equals in practical matters of engineering. Their superstructures 
were magnificent but frequently their foundations were execrable. 
They had not learnt to calculate for wind pressure and they knew 
nothing about lightning conductors. The head of the Cross at 
Northampton must have been high and massive, presenting a large 
surface in proportion to the base to which it was attached. What 
is more likely than to suppose that after having been loosened and 
shaken by the frosts and storms of many winters, it may have been 
finally overthrown by a flash of lightning or fairly blown down by 
such a gale as that we experienced last week, and dashed to pieces 
on the steps below, and if this happened towards the middle or end 
of the 14th century we need not wonder that in that distracted time 
no attempt was made to preserve a copy of it or to have it replaced. 

" It was " as Mr. Green says in his Short History of the 
English People, " a time of shame and suffering such as England 
" had never known. Her conquests were lost, her shores insulted, 
" her fleets annihilated, her commerce swept from the sea, while 
" within she was exhausted by the long and costly war as well as 
" by the ravages of pestilence." This long and costly war was the 
war with France, which had followed closely upon the war with 
Scotland, and was itself followed by the wars of succession to the 
English Crown, commonly called the Wars of the Eoses. In such 
great troubles both foreign and domestic, the fall of the Cross at 
Northampton would pass unnoticed, or perhaps only as a portent of 
near and impending calamity. 

» N.N.Q., vol. ii., p. 116. 


Ancient Punishments in Northamrptonsliire. — By Christopher A. 
Markham. a Paper read at the Annual Meeting held on 
December 13th, 1886. 

Benedict : — 

"Think not on him till to-morrow; 
I'll devise thee brave punishments for him." 

Much Ado about Nothing. 

THE subject of punishment for crimes formerly inflicted by the 
laws of England is a most interesting one ; whether viewed 
as the moral right of the Legislature to punish wrong- doers, and 
felons, or simply from an antiquarian point of view, which indeed 
more nearly interests our Society. 

Many of these penalties and capital punishments carry one back 
in imagination to the very early years of our history. 

Old Thomas Fuller writing in 1660, makes the following quaint 
remark about punishments : — " Vice, these late years, hath kept 
"open house in England. Welcome all comers without any 
" examination. No penance for the adulterer, stocks for the 
" drunkard, whip for the petty larcener, brand for the felon, and 
" gallows for the murderer." 

Until the last century, and even the commencement of the reign 
of Queen Victoria, the most demoralizing and barbarous punishments 
used to be inflicted ; but the general tendency has been to make 
all punishments of a milder and more equitable character, as the 
preamble to a Statute passed in the reign of Queen Mary very 
excellently expresses it, "that the state of every king consists 
"more assuredly in the love of the subject towards their prince 
" than in the dread of laws made with rigorous pains ; and that 
"laws made for the preservation of the common-wealth, without 
"great penalties, are more often obeyed and kept than laws made 
" with extreme punishments." 

The end of all punishment being to prevent the criminal from 
doing further injury to society and to prevent others from 
committing the like offence. 

The present Paper proposes to give a very slight sketch of the 
history of each kind of correction and then to notice the use of each 
in this county. 


*' To be burnt in the hand or pilloried is a more lasting reproach than to 
5^ 5co?«'^ec? or confined." Government of the Tongue. 

In all the Histories of Northampton it is recorded that at the 
commencement of the present century, and previous to the alterations 
that were made in the County Hall, there was on the bar in the 
Crown Court, at which the culprit was placed during his trial, a 


piece of iron machinery resembling a handcuff, used for inflicting 
this punishment of " Burning in the Hand." On the instrument 
was the motto " Come not here again." The iron has since been 
unfortunately lost. This punishment, or rather apology for 
punishment, was a curious relic of the ancient times. As long ago 
as 1487 an Act was passed that men convicted of felony, and 
allowed benefit of clergy, were to be branded on the left thumb 
with the letter M for murder, and the letter T for other offences, 
and this was to be done by the gaoler in open court. Benefit of 
clergy was originally the privilege that was allowed to a Clerk in 
Holy Orders, when prosecuted in the Civil Court, of being discharged 
and handed over to the Ecclesiastical Court, where he was allowed 
to clear himself on Oath, This privilege was soon allowed to all 
who could read and write ; but by the Act of 4 Hen. VIII. a lay- 
man claiming this benefit was to be burned in the hand as described 
before, in order to prevent any person from claiming benefit of clergy 
more than once. 

In 1623, this was extended to women who were convicted of 
taking goods above the value of twelve pence. They were also to 
be branded in open court on the left thumb with a hot burning iron 
having the letter T upon it. These Acts were not repealed until 1 827. 
When Charles Moritz, a young German, visited England in 1782 
he was much surprised at this custom, and in his Diary he mentions 
that a Clergyman had fought a duel with another in Hyde Park, 
and killed his man, he was found guilty of manslaughter, and was 
burnt in the hand, if that could be called burning which was done 
with a cold iron. 

In 1675, Joseph Gilbey was adjudged to be Burnt in TJie Hand 
in Northampton, and many references to this punishment are to 
be found in Ihe Northainpton Mercury. Eor instance. 

At the Assizes held at Northampton in 1720, before Mr. 
Justice Powis :- - 

" Silvester Green, found guilty of sheep-stealing, is burnt 

in the Hand. 

" And James Corby, the Pig Merchant, had the Honour of 

the Brand confer'd on him likewise : 

"Jane Clarke, William and John Green, convicted of 

several Petty Thefts and Larcenies, are to travel for 7 years, 

after the proper Officer has kiss'd their Hand with a Eed Hot 


The undermentioned instances occur in The Northampton 
Mercury, dated the 1st August, 1721. 

" The following Persons were try'd at The Assizes held for 
The Town and County of Northampton, on Tuesday the 26th 
of this Instant. Isabella Chapman and Johu Fielding Avere 


convicted of several Thefts and Larcenies. To be burnt in The 
Hand and whipt ; and afterwards to be transported for 7 years. 
Fielding's Crime was stealing 12 sheep. - - - Isaac 

Emmerton, who was committed on the 21st of May last 

was burnt in The Hand." 


"There stands, my friend, in yonder pool 

An engin, call'd — a Ducking-Stool : 

By legal pow'r commanded down, 

The joy, and terror of the town ; 

If jarring females kindle strife, 

Give language foul, or lug the coif ; 

Away, we cry, you'll grace the Stool 

We'll teach you how your tongue to rule." 
" With R * * * 3' wives it is not so. 

Water we'll have whate'er we do ; 

If this small pool our expectations fails, 

The boundless avon shall supply their tails." 

West's Miscellaneoics Poems, 1780. 
AVritten about the year 1720. 

There is a note added that " to the honour of the fair-sex in 
that neighbourhood [probably Rugby] this machine had been taken 
down (as useless) some years." 

This engine of correction was also called a tumbral, trebucket or 
castigatory ; by the Saxons it was named Scealsingstole, and it was 
described to be '• Cathedra, in qua rixosoe tmdieres sedentes aquls 
demergebantur ; " another name for it was goging stool, derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon, Goughstole; it is mentioned in the 
Doomsday as " cathedra stercoris." 

By the " Liber Custumarum " of Northampton, a book written 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, a Brewer disregarding 
the ordinance of the Town continually, and after been fined three 
times, was "to be jugged to the cuckyng stole, and after to the 

On the 30th June, 1735, John Kinsman, a poor shoemaker of 
Naseby, was suspected of being a wizzard, he was at once dragged 
to the great pond at Kelmarsh, where he was most severely handled 
and ducked in the Cucking-stool there; 

A full report of this performance appears in the Northampton 
Mercury of that date. 

The following excerpt from the Sessions Minute Book appears to 
be the only case of any person having been ducked by Order of 
Quarter Sessions ; no doubt this mode of punishment was generally 
ordered by Mobb Law, and at once carried out, the Cucking Stool 
always being in a convenient place, and ready for service; the 
people being at the same time judge, jury, and executioner. 


"Trin. Sess. 23. car. 2. [1684]. 
" It is ordered that ffrances Mason of Yardly widdow — 
20**. to be of ye good behavio'^. 

•'That sd. ffrances Mason to bee douckt in ye ducking 

stoole in ye towne of ISTorthton, Saturday next between ye 

houresof 11, 12, 1, &2:" 

Doubtless this Frances Mason was a ^^ communis rixatrix" 

being a widow, it is not easy to see why her scolding was 

objectionable ; but the magistrates seemed to think it was so, and 

therefore bound her over in the sum of 20 shillings to be of the good 

behaviour, and to be ducked at three different times on the next 

market day. 

The Cucking Stool is still in existence at Leominster, it was 
employed for the last time in 1809. 



"Most welcome, bondage ! for thou art a way, I think to liberty - - 

My conscience ! thou art fetter'd more than my shanks 

and wrists : - - - - Cymbeline. 

There are no remains now of any ancient fetters or irons in the 
county as far as the writer has been able to discover ; with tho 
exception of some old fetter locks now in the Northampton Museum, 
but these were probably used for horses to prevent them straying ; 
and an ankle fetter lock of several links, which was no doubt used 
for prisoners. 

There is also in the Museum a Thumb-screw, which was found 
some 50 years ago at Biggleswade, Co. Bedford, in a wall of an old 
monastic building, it was in a shoemaker's shop at Wellingborough 
for years and at last presented to the Museum by Mr. John Askham. 

The Knife Grinder — 

' ' They took me before the Justice ; 

Justice Oldmixon put me in the parish — 

Stocks for a vagrant. " 

George Canning. 

The punishment of sitting in the Stocks has been in use from 
time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary it 
was certainly used in the Anglo-Saxon times. 

By an Act passed in the 25th year of the reign of Edward III. 
(1350) any person refusing to work or quitting their own town in 
winter was to be placed in the stocks or ceppes for three days or 
more, and that a set of stocks was to be made in every town and 
village. Or in the quaint words of the Act — 

" Et qe ceux qe refusent de faire tiel serement ou parfourmer ceo 
gils ount jures ou empris soient mys en ceppes par les ditz seignurs 
seneshaux baillifs & conestables des villes par trois jours ou pluis 
ou mandez a la proscheyn gaole a demorer illoegues tanque ils se 


voillent justicer & qe ceppes soient faitz en chescune ville pur 
celle encheson entre cy & la Penticost." 

In 1376 the Commons prayed Edward III. that Stocks should 
be established in every village, in accordance with the Act. 
Shakespeare alludes to this in the " Comedy of Errors " : — 

** Luce : What needs all that and a pair of stocks in the town ? " 
Previous to this Stocks had been erected in the Stocks Market, 
London, in the year 1281 ; but these Stocks being found insufficient 
Sir William Hampton, the Lord Mayor in 1472, ordered additional 
Stocks to be placed in every Ward in the City of London, for the 
punishment of vagrants. The present Mansion House stands on 
the site of the ancient Stocks Market. As recently as 1860 John 
Gamble was placed in the Stocks at Stanningley for six hours. 

In the year 1688 an order was made at the Northamptonshire 
Quarter Sessions that any persons refusing to assist in getting in 
the corn and hay were to be imprisoned in the Stocks for the space 
of two days and one night ; this being supposed to be a long enough 
time for them to think the matter over and to reform their ways. 

By the '' Liher Custumarum " of Northampton a fyssher selling 
bad fish was " to be jugged unto the stokkes openly in the market 

At Northampton the Stocks stood on the Market Square ; they 
were removed in 1691, as appears by the following entry, but this 
was probably only for the purpose of renewing or repairing them : — > 

" The Chamberlain's accounts for the Borough of Northampton, 
1691 : Paid for removing the Stocks, 2s. Od." 

The following is a list of the places in the county at which the 
records of the stocks, or the stocks themselves, still remain : — 

Abthorpe. — The Stocks stood on the green, near the church, 
and were removed in the year 1849. 

Apethorpe. — The old oak Stocks constructed for three men, 
with a seat, and detached whipping-post, remain in the village 
street, having been preserved by Lord Westmorland. 

Aynhoe. — The Stocks here are in good repair, except the seat, 
which is wanting. Eichard Howes, a labourer of the village, was 
placed in them for a few hours for being drunk and riotous on the 
last Coronation Day. It is also said that a man was put in these 
Stocks in 1846 for using bad language. 

Charlton-bt-Newbottle. — The ancient Stocks have been 
almost entirely destroyed. William Hawkins, of King's Sutton, 
was imprisoned in these Stocks for drunkenness and assault about 
the year 1830. He was afterwards transported, and on his return 
he, no doubt very wisely, emigrated to America. 

Corby. — The people of Corby have a curious custom in connec- 
tion with the Stocks. 


It seems that Henry de Braybroc, in the eleventh year of the 
reign of Henry III., obtained a Charter granting him the Liberty 
of Mercate and two fairs, and exemption for himself and his tenants 
from attending on Hundreds and County Courts, and from serving 
on juries throughout the country. 

At the present time the men of Corby hold a fair under this 
Charter, and for some short time during each fair the people, place 
some one in the Stocks, as they say, " To keep up the Charter." 
Indeed a tax is levied on all persons entering the village, and if 
they do not at once pay the money demanded (N B , no change 
given) they are placed in the Stocks until they do so. This fair is 
held once every twenty-one years, the last having been held in 
1882. The old Stocks were destroyed, but a new set have been 
made, and these are placed in the ground for use at the fair time. 

Croughton. — These Stocks were removed in 1870 by the 
jDarish authorities. David French was drunk and disorderly on 
the Queen's Coronation Day, and was accordingly placed in the 
Stocks for punishment. 

Eydon. — The Stocks are still standing at this village ; they are 
in line condition. 

Geddington — The engraving of Queen's Cross in Bridge's 
History of Northamptonsldre shows a pair of Stocks constructed 
for three men, standing in front of the Cross. These Stocks have, 
however, been long since removed. 

Clinton. — A set of Stocks stood in this village until about the 
year 1869, when they were removed. 

There is no record of them having been used in recent times. 

Gretton. — The Stocks at Gretton still stand on the village 
green, they were made to secure three men, and have shackles on 
the post for whipping, they are in a good state of repair. 

Joshua Pollard, of Gretton, was placed in them in the year 1857, 
for six hours, in default of paying fine and cost for drunkenness. 
And Salathiel Warnei, of the same place, in the year 1858, was 
imprisoned in them for the same offence, being placed there by P.C. 
Bennett under a Stocks Warrant, and he remained on guard during 
the six hours Warner was in the Stocks. 

Grimsbury (Warkworth). — The last Stocks at this place were 
erected about the year 1822; very soon after at the village feast 
some men stole a barrel of beer from the Bough House, or house 
where by hanging a bough out at the feast beer was allowed to be 
sold without a licence, Henry Bagley was one of these men, and in 
his drunken frolic he came into collision with the parish constable 
who at once put him in the stocks. After he was released the 
inhabitants nailed the stocks up and they were not used again 
before being taken down in 1846. 

GuiLSBOROUGF. — Until recently a set of Stocks stood on the 
green in this village, but they became dilapidated and were taken 

^ t^l t!*- "j-S 1^-c.2 

^i ""^ %.i 

i £• 



Kettering. — There was a set of Stocks at this town as appears 
by an order made at the Quarter Sessions in 1765 for Ann 
Carmichael, who had previously been adjudged a rogue, to be 
returned to Kettering, publicly whipped at the Stocks there, and 
then discharged on paying her fees. 

King's Sutton. — The Stocks are still in a good state of 
preservation together with the seat. During the summer of 1858, 
James Meadows, a labourer, of King's Sutton, was put in these 
Stocks at 11 p m. for being drunk and disorderly. He was kept there 
until 1 1 o'clock the next morning, being guarded the whole time by 
the two Parish Constables, who are still living. On being liberated, 
Meadows was taken before a magistrate who allowed him to go at 
large ; but directed him to be summoned to the next Petty Sessions 
at Bracklej, and he was there discharged. 

Little Houghton. — The original oaken Stocks are still standing 
in this village, there is a shackle on the side of the post for 
securing the hand of any person ordered to be flogged. There are 
still persons living who remember a man sitting in the stocks some 
fifty or sixty years ago for misbehaviour at the Michaelmas Feast. 

OuNDLE. — At this town the Stocks were situated in the 
Bridewell, which was afterwards used as a police station, they 
remained in the station until 1877 when they were pulled down. 

Peakirk. — An entry appears in the Churchwardens' accounts of 
this parish for 1750 of six-pence worth of wood to mend the Stocks. 
They were removed about 35 years ago. 

Silverstone. — In this village the Stocks stood on a large open 
space near the Church, called Stocks Hill; they were removed in 1866. 

TiTCHMARSH. — The Stocks at this village were demolished some 
years since ; they had a tall post with irons attached for whipping 
purposes. In the year 1859, Wright Louth, of Titchmarsh, was 
charged with being drunk there, the case was heard before a 
magistrate at Thrapston, in the absence of the defendant. He was 
sentenced to pay a fine of 17s. 6d., and in default to be put in the 
stocks for six hours. The Justice issued his warrant, and Louth, 
who had absconded, was shortly afterwards apprehended and placed 
in the aforesaid Stocks by the Police Constable for one hour, in the 
middle of the day, the sentence having been mitigated by the Justice. 

Towcester. — The Stocks stood by the side of the Pillory for 
many years, but they were removed to the north end of the Town 
when the Pillory was taken down, and have long since been destroyed. 

WiCKEN, — These Stocks are situated at the east entrance to the 
village, and are in good condition ; they have a tall post at each 
end, but do not appear to have been used as whipping posts. 

Whittleburt. — In this village the Stocks were in the street 
near the National School, until they were removed about 1860. 

Sketches are given with this paper of Stocks at Apethorpe, 
Gretton, and Little Houghton, and also of Stocks at Waltham. 

vol. XVI il, pt. ii. E 



Launce — 

" Nay, I'll be sworn, I have sat in the Stocks for puddings he hath stolen, 
otherwise he had been executed ; I have stood on the pillory for geese he hath 
killed, otherwise he had suffered for it ? " j,f^^ j,^^ Gentlemen of Verona. 

The use of the Pillory is very ancient, and is one of the most 
interesting modes of punishment, re-calling to one's mind the names 
of such men as Prynne, Bast wick, Daniel Defoe, Williams, and also 
Lord Cochrane, who was sentenced to the Pillory, in 1814, but the 
sentence was not carried out. Dr. Bossey was however placed in 
the Pillory in 1830. 

The pillory being " a wise old institution that inflected a punish- 
ment of which no one could foresee the extent." 

The word is derived from the JFrench "Pilastre" a pillar or 

This instrument was used before the conquest ; in the laws of 
Canutus it is called " Halsfang," and by the Ordinance for Baker's 
incert. temporis, it was ordered that every pillory or stretch-neck 
should be of a convenient height and strength. 

Henry Spelman, an old law writer, says 'tis ^'suppUcii macliina 
ad ludihrium mag is quam poenam." 

By a Statute passed in the year 1266 called ''Judicium 
Pillorie," it was enacted as follows : — " That if a Baker or Brewer 
be convict, because he hath not observed the Assise of Bread and 
Ale, the first, second, and third time he shall be amerced [or fined] 
according to his Off'ence, if it be not over grievous ; (2) but if the 
ofi'ence be grievous and often, and will not be corrected then he 
shall suff'er Punishment of the Body, that is to wit, a Baker to the 
Pillory, and a Brewer to the Tumbrel, [or Cucking-stool] or some 
other correction." 

" Also if they have in the Town a Pillory of convenient strength, 
as apipertaineth to the Liberty of their Market, which they may 
use (if need be) without bodily peril either of man or woman." 

The form of sentence was formerly " that the defendant should 
be set in and upon the Pillory," the reason for using these words 
in and iqjon was that in 1759, Dr. Shebbeare was sentenced to the 
Pillory, and the Sheriff allowed him to stand on the stool without 
having his neck confined, and to be attended by his servant in 
livery holding an umbrella over him. For this leniency, the 
under-sheriff was fined and imprisoned. 

In the ^^ Liher Custwnarum" of ^Northampton, a Miller for 
continued neglect of the Ordinances of the Town was "to be jugged 
to the Pelory." 

This instrument of punishment stood on the Market Square in 
Northampton, it does not however seem to have ever been much 
used in this town. Mr. Scriven can however remember seeing a 
man stand in the Pillory in this town, at the commencement of 
^his century. 


The following Order roade at the Michaelmas Sessions, 1689, of 
the County of Northampton is, probably, the first mention of its 
use locally : — 

" It is Ordered that Thomas Smith of Kisslingbury now 
Prison^ in their Ma*^°^ gaole for this county being convict of 
counterfeiting a Pass under the hands of the right hono^^^ 
Christopher Lord Viscount Hatton and S"^ Roger Norwich 
Bar* be continued in custody till Saturday next and then stand 
in the Pillory in the Publicke Markett place in the Towne of 
Northampton for the space of one hour betwixt the houres of 
twelve and two in the afternoon with a writeing on his Breast 
declaring his crime and be from thence re-conveyed to Prison 
there to remain till the next Quarter Sessions of the Peace to 
be held for this county and till this Court shall otherwise 
Jonathan Hill, of Kislingbury, was for the like offence ordered 
to be placed in the Pillory for the same time. 

At the next Sessions, Thomas Smith, having suffered the 
punishment of the Pillory, was ordered to be released. 

The next order was made at the Adjourned Quarter Sessions, 
19th July, 1696, as follows : — 

" Ordered that W"^ Dawson be sett in the Pillory next 

markett day at Northton for 2 hours in ye high markett for 

speaking seditious words the crime to be wrote over his head 

in capital letters." 

It appears by the Treasurer's accounts that several of the towns 

and villages had Pillories, for use whenever they were wanted. 

The County Treasurer's Accounts : — 
1734.— Paid Do. [Michael Warwick] his Bill of \ 

Expenses in conducting several Prisoners to f ^ ^ ^ 
Weldon Kettering and Towcester to stand in J ^ 

the Pillory ) 

1735.— Pd Michael Warwick a Bill of Expenses | 

relating to divers persons who were set in > 2 19 6 
the Pillory for forgery and Deer stealing j 

In Towcester, the Pillory stood on the Market Hill, and one of 
the oldest inhabitants of the town remembers this well and climbed 
up it many times when a lad. This pillory was painted every two 
years by the constable. 

The aforesaid oldest inhabitant can only recollect one man being 
punished in this way about 60 years ago, and while thus standing 
in the pillory he was pelted with rotten eggs, dead cats, and other 
playful odds and ends. 

About the same time a man was taken through Towcester to 
Brackley to be placed in the Pillory there, and when he returned 


to Northampton his face was bleeding dreadfully having been cut 
by stones, which had been thrown at him amongst other things. 

Until recently the Pillory, which had been abolished in all 
other cases by 56 Geo. Ill c. 138, was retained for the punishment 
of perjury and subornation of perjury. 

The use of this relic of the past was however entirely forbidden 
by an Act passed in the first year of the reign of our present Queen. 

A sketch is given of a Pillory at Waltham, there being no 
remains of any such instrument in Northamptonshire. 

Countess of Kousillon — 

"You were lately whipped, sir, as I think. 
Clown — 

Lord Sir! — Spare not me. 
Countess of Rousillon — 

Do you cry, Lord Sir ! at your whipping, and spare not me l Indeed, 
your Lord Sir! is very sequent to your whipping ; you would answer 
very well to a whipping, if you were but bound to 't. " 

AlVs Well that Ends Well. 

This means of correction is undoubtly the most ancient known; 
having been in use since the time when Moses saw an Egyptian 
smiting an Hebrew, and accordingly slew him ; and a little later 
when the children of Israel were beaten by Pharaoh's task-masters. 

This punishment was used in England from the earliest time, 
and it is still used in many cases with great advantage ; but by the 
usage of the Star Chamber it was never to be inflicted on a gentleman. 

The Old Bailey in London was famous ''for the Whipping-post 
there, a dear old institution, very humanizing and softening to 
behold in action." 

The Sessions Records for the Town and County of Northampton 
and for the Soke of Peterborough, abound in entries of the public 
and private whipping of men and women for the most paltry offences. 
Then, people were like the Poor Fool in King Lear who was whipt 
for speaking true, whipt for lying, and, sometimes whipt for holding 
his peace. 

The first entry is in the Sessions Minnte Book of 1673. 

"24 Car. IL 

Sentenced to be whipt on Saturday next 
betwixt twelve and two of the cloke 

Elinor Child \ in the open mket in the Towne of 

Northt and then to be sent with a 

pass to ye place of her last settlemt. 

/ Sentenced also to be whipt on Saturday 

next, in y^ open mket in the Towne of 

John Bett, of Bowfton -{ Northton from y^ gaole doore round 

about the Towne between twelve and 
I two of the clock." 


In 1699, the following order was made at Quarter Sessions : — 
" It is ordered that John Mondes now Prisoner in their 
Mat^^^ Goale for this connty being this present Sessions convict 
of ffelony be severely whipt on Saturday next the Long 
Round in Northampton betwixt the houres of Eleavon in the 
fforenoon and one in the afternoon and be continued in prisson 
till he gives good security for his being of the good behaviour." 

In 1754, Elizabeth Wormleighton was ordered to be whipt. 
''2^dOctr 27t^Geo. II. 

I It is ordered by this Court That Elizabeth 
Wormleighton convicted of stealing 
Beans and pease be privately whipt and 
then discharged on paying her Fees. 

By the Court." 
Sarah Andrews was also ordered to be whipt at Corby at the 
same time. And in 1785, Samuel Turner was publicly whipped 
the short round at Northampton. 

The course of the Short Round at Northampton was, for 
Borough Prisoners, from the Old Town Hall, under which the 
Borough Gaol was situated, or for County Prisoners, from the Old 
County Gaol, by the Parade, the Drapery, and Mercer's Row. 

The Long Round was by the Parade, Sheep Street, Bearward 
Street, Horse Market, Gold Street, and George Row. 

The time fixed for these floggings at the cart's tail was generally 
twelve o'clock on a Saturday. 

About the year, 1821, Mr. H. P. Markham went to school with 
a Quakeress of the name of Miss Hoyland, who had a room over a 
shop in the lower part of the Drapery. And he well recollects the 
good old lady closing the window shutters and suspending lessons 
whilst old Mr. Walker, who lived in Abington Street, and kept 
cows, was flogging a man down the Drapery. He was the Official 
Elogger of the Town, and wore a special uniform when on duty. 
It was said that he sometimes used to keep some kind of red 
substance in his hand, through which he used to draw the lash 
before each stroke, so that the punishment looked worse than it 
really was. 

At the Sessions held for the Liberty of Peterborough, Joanna 
Bonnor, having been convicted of stealing three pieces of brass 
metal, of the value of ten-pence, was ordered to be whipped, as 
appears by the Sessions Record. 

"Sti^Octr 1757. 

' Whereupon it is considered ordered and awarded by the 

Court here that the said Joanna Bonnor shall be 

Judgmt publickly Whip't on Eryday next and the Fryday 

to be ■{ following at the Parish of S^ Martin Stamford Baron 


within this Liberty each day from the foot of 
Stamford Bridge to M^ Neal's house at' the upper end 
of S* Martins aforesaid." 


In 1758, at the Peterborough Sessions, William Baines having 
stolen a silver watch, pleaded guilty : 

" Whereupon it was considered ordered and awarded by 
the Court that the said William Baines should be publickly 
whipt on the next market day at Peterborough three times 
round the Market Place." 

King Henry — 

"Nay, be thou sure, I'll requite well thy kindness, 
For that it made my imprisonment a pleasure." 

King Henry, VI. 

During the early ages of our history imprisonment was not used 
as a punishment, but only as a means of keeping prisoners until 
trial, when they were executed or otherwise dealt with. 

For some centuries the Northampton Castle was used as a gaol, 
but towards the end of the sixteenth century, the county possessed 
a common gaol in Northampton, situated where the County Hall 
now stands, and if that piece of ground could speak it would tell 
many a sad tale, of prisoners committed to the Common Gaol 
" where they lay in a Dungeon, twelve steps below the ground and 
in the night they had but little air being lockt down betimes, and 
so kept close until the seventh hour next morning ; " and of 
Quakers carried dead out of the County Gaol, where they had 
perished for want of air. 


This punishment was introduced by the Statute 39, Eliz. c. 4, 
but was hardly used until the last century ; the principal statute 
on the subject was passed in 1824, by which criminals were 
sentenced to be transported to one of the colonies for a certain time. 

These unfortunate men were transported by a contractor who 
received a fixed sum a head, and a large proportion died on the 
journey. It was said that some contractors, who shipped the 
convicts at Bristol, landed them at Lundy Island, in the Bristol 
Channel, and thus transported them cheaply if not efficaciously. 

The Treasurer's account books for this county contain many 
entries of sums paid to the gaoler for taking the convicts to Bristol, 
of which the following is a specimen : — 
" 1721. — P^ M^ Chadwick by order of M^ Bateman ] 

& M^' Fleetwood for having the five fellons V 10 : 00 : 0." 
to Bristol in order for Transportation. j 


**No heretics burn'd, but wenches' suitors." 

King Lear. 

This punishment was only used on a few occasions and the 
criminal was no doubt generally strangled before being burnt, but 
this was not always done. 


The first recorded case in this county was in the year 1557 
when John Kurde, a shoemaker, of Syresham, was sent to Northamp- 
ton Castle, for denying the doctrine of Transubstantiation ; he 
was tried in All Saints' Church, and was there sentenced to death 
by William Brinsley, Chancellor to the Bishop of Peterborough. 

Poor Kurde was led through the North-gate, and burned at the 
Stone Pits, in the Parish of Kingsthorpe, in the presence of a great 
number of persons. 

Sir Thos. Tresham, of Eushton, the celebrated Papist, was the 
High Sheriff. Fox's Book of Martyrs contains a full description of 
this execution. 

Nearly a hundred years later, Mrs. Lucas was burned for 
poisoning her husband ; another woman was also burned near 
Queen's Cross, for the same offence; and in 1655, a woman was 
burned at Boughton Green; and, in 1715, Elizabeth Treslar was 
burned for murdering her husband. 

In August, 1735, Elizabeth Fawson was sentenced to death for 
a similar offence. The wretched woman was drawn from the gaol 
on a sledge to the stake prepared for her execution near the Bowling 
Green, on Northampton Heath, she was strangled there, and then 
burnt in the presence of 12,000 or 15,000 spectators. An account 
of this last burning in Northamptonshire is contained in the Mercury 
of that date. 

The killing of a man by his wife, a master by his servant, or an 
ecclesiastic by his inferior, was formerly accounted ^^ petit treason" ; 
the punishment was, if the crime was committed by a man, to be 
drawn to place of execution and there hanged, if by a woman, to be 
so drawn and then burned. 

In 1820 this crime of " Petit Treason" was abolished, and such 
cases were treated as simple murder, and punished by hanging. 
(9 Geo. IV., c. 31.) 



** 1 reckon this always — that a man is never undone till he be hanged." 

The Tioo Gentlemen of Verona. 

In the far off Saxon times capital punishment does not seem to 
have been used at all, and by the Code of Ethelbert all crimes were 
expiated by a fine inflicted on the offender, the amount being fixed 
by the nature of the crime and the rank of the person injured. 

By Athelstan's laws the life of every man, even the King, could 
be paid for at a fixed rate, according to the position of the man slain. 

In 1752, an Act was passed, whereby additional terrors were 
ordained for murderers; this Statute after reciting "that the 
horrid crime of murder had of late been more frequently perpetrated 
than formerly," enacted that persons convicted of murder should be 
executed on the next day but one after the sentence of death had 


been passed, and that the body should be given to the surgeons to 
be anatomized, or hung in chains ; and further that the prisoner 
should be fed on bread and water only, after bring sentenced. 

In 1820, another Act was passed of almost the same effect. 

The sentence passed upon prisoners found guilty of murder 
used to be in the following form :— " That you be taken from hence 
to the Prison from whence you came, and that you be taken from 
thence on the day of next to the place of execution, 

and that you be there hanged by the neck till your body be dead, 
and that your body when dead be taken down, and be dissected 
and anatomized." 

This form of sentence was used until 1861, when another 
Statute was made, directing that any person convicted of murder 
should suffer death as a felon and be buried within the precincts of 
the prison. This of course put an end to the dissection of the body. 

A later Act, became law in 1868, whereby the prisoner 
sentenced to death was to be executed within the walls of the 
prison where he was confined at the time ; an inquest was then to 
be held in the ordinary manner within twenty-four hours and the 
body buried within the walls of the prison. This is the Statute 
under which the punishment of death is now carried out. 

The form of sentence now used by the Judges is this : — 

" That you be carried to the place from whence you come and 
from thence to the place of execution where you are to be hanged 
by the neck until you are dead : and may God of His infinite 
mercy receive your soul ! " 

Dickens mentions that — " The Old Bailey, London, was famous 
as a kind of deadly Inn Yard, from which pale travellers set out 
continually in carts and coaches on a violent passage to the other 
world ; traversing some two miles and a half of public street and 
road,, and shaming few good citizens, if any. So powerful is use, 
and so desirable to be good use in the beginning." 

Formerly the Clerk of Arraigns, before the Judges left the 
Town, delivered a list of the prisoners' names to the Sheriff with 
the judgements written in the margin. 

Thus for the last sentence of the Law the Clerk would write the 
words " sus per coll" on the Calender of the Prisoners, being the 
abreviation for " Suspendatur per collum " ; that being the only 
warrant the sheriff received for the execution. 

In the same way the Clerk would write "To be transported " 
or " To be imprisoned for six calendar months." 

In 3 Edw. Ill (1329) Emmeline Longspe claimed view of frank- 
pledge, correction of Assize of bread and beer, pillory, and tumbril, 
in her manor of King's Sutton. A jury having been summoned, 
presented that Emmeline was entitled to all the privileges claimed, 
but as it appeared that she had punished offenders against the 


Assize of bread and beer by fine of 10s. instead of by the legal 
punishment of pillory and tumbril, the view of frank -pledge was 
forfeited but restored on payment of 20s. to the King. Previous 
to this warrant, William de Lyndsye, and two other men were 
convicted of sheep-stealing in her court, and actually hanged there. 

The same year, John de Cromwell and Idonea, his wife, exercised 
view of frank-pledge, and other rights in their manor of Moulton. 
They punished offenders against the Assize of bread and beer by 
fine of 20d. instead of pillory and tumbril, and had no gallows 
attached to their privilege of frank-pledge, so that when a thief was 
convicted of stealing in their court he was taken to the JN'orthampton 
gallows to be executed. Therefore the view of frank-pledge was 
seized into the King's hands, but restored on payment of half a mark. 

Nicholas de Chaunceus claimed view of frank-pledge and toll of 
fish and salt in the Manor of Upton in 3 Ed. III. But as 
it was shown that ISTicholas had no pillory or tumbril attached to 
his manor for the punishment of offenders, the view of frank-pledge 
was forfeited, but restored on payment of a fine to the King. 

The extraordinary fact of two men having been hung at King's 
Sutton for sheep stealing, shows the great power of the Lord of the 
Manor in the good old times. 

John Cole, in his Manuscript History of TliraiMon, mentions 
that on the 8th of June, 1607, there was an insurrection of the 
people in the county, who destroyed the hedges and mounds in 
Pitchley, Eushton, and Newton ; and as the people would not 
disperse after the proclamation had been read, a skirmish took place 
between the insurgents, and the justices, and gentlemen who met to 
oppose them. In the fray some were killed and wounded and many 
taken prisoners, who afterwards were hanged and quartered, and 
their quarters set up at Northampton, Oundle, Thrapston, and 
other places. 

Touching the use of this means of execution locally, the 
Inrolment of the Commissioners appointed to inclose the common 
fields of Northampton, dated 1779, recited that the "gallows 
erected for the execution of criminals in the County of Northampton 
on the Eoad leading from Northampton towards Kettering," might 
happen to fall in some allotment, and the commissioners ordered 
that the gallows should be removed and erected upon a piece of land 
containing one rood and bounded on the south-east by the public 
road from Northampton to Kettering, on the south-west and north- 
west by the allotment in lieu of the Freeman's right of common, 
and on the north-east by the public road from Kingsthorpe towards 

The last persons executed here were James Cobbett and George 
Walkin, who were condemned to death for uttering forged Bank 
Notes, and on the 26th of March, 1818, the two prisoners were 
carried through the streets in the manner so well described by Dickens. 



Mr. H. P. Markham can well remember the convicts going up 
Abington Street past his father's house sitting on their coffins, and 
one of them, to show his contempt for the punishment awarded to 
him, was sucking an orange. There was, of course, a great 
assemblage of persons to see these forgers executed. 

Shortly after this the N^ew Drop was erected at the lower part 
of the County Gaol, and the late Mr. Grant, the Governor of the 
Gaol, told the Justices that twelve persons could hang there 
comfortably. This statement of Mr. Grant's was soon tested 
though not to its full extent ; for at twelve o'clock, on the 19th of 
March, 1819, William Minards, William George, Benjamin Panther, 
Edward Porter, and John Taffs, were executed together for breaking 
into and stealing from the house of Mr. W. Marriott, of Preston 
Deanery ; there was a very large concourse of persons present, some 
of whom came from a distance. After the execution, the bodies of 
George and Panther were buried in St. Giles Churchyard, the 
bodies of the others being handed to their friends. 

The last person publicly executed in Northampton was Elizabeth 
Pinckard, who was found guilty of murdering her mother-in-law, 
and who was sentenced to death by Sir John Jervis, on the 27th 
February, 1852. As a rule all executions had taken place on a 
Monday, so a rumour was spread that the execution would take 
place on Monday, the 12th of March, accordingly the people came 
together in their thousands, they were however all disappointed ; 
some of them said they wished they had the under-sheriff and they 
would let him know what it was to keep honest people in suspense ; 
and one old lady said seriously that she should claim her expenses 
from the sheriff. However on Tuesday, the 16th March, Mrs. 
Pinckard was executed before an immense number of persons, 
estimated at ten thousand, the day fixed having by some means or 
other got known. 

The Soke of Peterborough holds a Commission of Oyer and 
Terminer, and Gaol Delivery, and a Commission of the Peace. 

The Sessions exercises power over all crime, and within the 
memory of men of the present generation prisoners have been 
sentenced to death. 

The sentence was recorded in the following form in the Sessions 
Book in the last century : — 

"12^1^ Jan. 1757. 
Liberty of Peterborough in i 
the County of Northampton. J 
Judgment to ) 

be hanged, j Whereupon it is considered ordered and awarded by 
this Court that the said George Jeffreys shall go 
from hence to the place from whence he came and 
from thence to the place of execution and that he 
shall be there hanged up by the neck till his 
Body is dead." 


This jurisdiction of the Magistrates of the Liberty to try prisoners 
lor all crime, has recently (July, 1887) been much questioned by 
Mr. Justice Hawkins, when he cleared the Northampton prison, 
and he said it was monstrous that such a power should be given to 

Many of the European countries have ceased to inflict the 
punishment of death for murder ; and in other countries, although 
the power to destroy murderers nominally exists it is never exercised. 
Probably as we become more civilized this, the extreme penalty of 
the law, will never be enforced, and the punishment will be erased 
from the Statute Book. 

This brings the catalogue of pains and penalties to an end, at 
least as far as J^orthamptonshire is concerned, although probably 
other punishments than those mentioned in the present paper were 
inflicted at diff'erent times of which all record has been lost. 




The Earthworks of Bedfordshire. — By C. E. Prior, M.D. Read 
before the British Archaeological Association, July 23, 1881. 

THE student who would seek to elucidate the early history of a 
district by means of its crumbling earthworks must be pre- 
pared to accept a very moderate harvest of results for his toil ; the 
literary material at his command will be found to be of the most 
scanty description, sometimes of less than no utility, — a mass of 
crude conjecture, often backed by incorrect description. 

The small inland County of Bedford has long been noted for 
its flourishing agriculture; nay, it is still, I believe, the most 
exclusively agricultural County in England, the extent of waste 
land is very small ; the hills are of low elevation and susceptible, 
at least until the most recent years, of profitable cultivation to their 


summits ; a state of things more unpromising for the preservation 
of monuments of this character could not well exist ; high farming 
and antiquities have never gone well together, the circles of 
Abury have had to succumb to the fertility of their site, and many 
and many an ancient mound is viewed with no favourable eye by 
the apostles of trimmed hedges and superphosphate ; their doom 
would soon be sealed were it not that there are still left behind 
more powerful voices to pronounce in unmistakeable tones, " Hands 

In taking Bedfordshire as my subject I trust I may be pardoned 
for trespassing in two or three directions a stone's throw or more 
beyond the immediate political boundary, when I find that by so 
doing I can call in the aid of powerful illustrations. 

In the dawn of history we find this district occupied by a tribe 
termed Cassii or Catyeuclilani, at one time the subjects of 
Cunobelin, the monarch who dwelt at Colchester or Verulam, 
and almost the only one as to whose identity we have the valuable 
assurance of coins; but of what description of Celts his subjects 
were composed, whether dark-haired and swarthy like the Silures, 
who were supposed to have an Iberian origin, or light-haired as the 
Belgoe, whether small of stature and trim of figure or overgrown 
and knock-kneed, as Strabo has described the Britons, no man can 
say. Their land was early subdued, penetrated by the great Eoman 
highways, and yielded, I dare say, its quota to their legions as 
readily as it did more than a thousand years later to the armies 
of the Lord Protector. 

At a subsequent period we find a state of matters which would 
be best understood by the aid of a map. The division of the 
Danelagh from the dominions of the West Saxon monarch curiously 
affected the County of Bedford, and in the treaty of Alfred and 
Guthrum (Ethelstan) the Dane of 879, we find the boundary of 
their respective dominions set out as follows : — along the Lea to 
its source ; thence to the Ouse at Bedford and along the Ouse to 
Watling Street ; the line of division will thus follow very much 
that which is now taken by the main line of the Midland Eftilway 
as far as Bedford, and there is a great deal of circumstantial and 
topographical evidence in proof of the assertion that the division 
thus effected was no mere arbitrary and temporary arrangement, 
but one constantly appealed to and marked even down to the 
Norman Conquest. Of the two great Eoman ways the one, 
Watling Street, entered the County to the south of Dunstable, and 
quitted it in the Parish of Pottesgrove; the other entering by 
Stotfold proceeded rather directly to the station of Scdince (now 
Sandy), and left the County near Tet worth in Hunts., proceeding 
thence to Godmanchester. There were three Eoman stations in 
our County, viz. : Magiovintum at Dropshort, near Fenny Stratford, 


Durocohrivce at Dunstable, Salince at Sandy. I am aware that 
the position of all these has been questioned, but I think that 
with respect to two of them we are in possession of irrefragable 
proofs, and the determination of the site of Magiovintum, which 
has been recently further identified by the Ordnance Survey, 
renders that of the station intervening between Magiovlntum 
and Verulam a matter allowing of little deviation or alteration of 
supposed distances. The ancient British Icknield Way traversed 
the south of the County in a direction from S.W. to N.E., and 
crossed the Watling Street at Dunstable. Bearing in mind then 
these points and divisions we proceed to a consideration of the 
earthworks which hungry time, encroaching cultivation, and 
winter storms have still left to us. I approach a critical examin- 
ation of these with some diffidence ; but at all events I will claim 
to have supplied what was too often sadly lacking in our learned 
closet antiquaries ; there is not one of them within the County 
which I have not visited, and several I have inspected repeatedly. 
In a matter of this sort it is not well to attempt to be too 
systematic ; I had thought to take these monuments by periods, 
but the evidences afforded by some are so very vague that I prefer 
to take them as what they appear to be, leaving the nondescripts 
to the last. 

The old British Icknield Way in its course through 
northern Hertfordshire and southern Bedfordshire is accompanied 
at distances more or less remote by barrows or tumuli j of these 
the most remarkable are the five round barrows on the slope of the 
Chiltern Hills, above Dunstable, termed the " Five Knolls." 
These were probably sepulchral, and in the early days of our 
Society, on Aug. 28, 1850, one of them, the most promising, was 
opened, but no discovery of human remains was made. The others 
all shewed evidence of having been disturbed at some previous 
period, and in one the remains of a skeleton were found just 
beneath the surface. 

Immediately on the line of the Icknield "Way and in the 
Parish of Hitchin, Hertfordshire, exists a considerable elevation, 
partly artificial, and termed Wilbury Hill : a mound of this size 
should be well worthy of a visit, but hitherto I have been unable 
to pay one; except in the important particular of the first letter 
the name is identical with that of the most stupendous of the 
barrows of England, Silbury Hill. 

At the time of opening of the barrow on Dunstable Downs it 
was observed that the few animal bones found in it shewed evidence 
of high antiquity, the phosphate of lime of which they were com- 
posed having partially passed into the condition of superphosphate ; 
and this affords one link in the chain by which we can attempt 
to approximate the most ancient of earthworks with the 
most recent of geological periods; but whether the men who 


made these barrows were the round-headed Celts, or their rather 
more remote long-headed predecessors, no evidence exists to decide. 

The next class of memorials to which I would direct attention 
are Beacons or Look-outs, mounds of considerable elevation, 
conspicuous in their position, sometimes apparently isolated, 
generally surrounded by a trench, occasionally in the neighbour- 
hood of other earthworks or their remains. Five of these exist 
(independently of those that are engaged in other monuments) 
at Toddington, Tilsworth, Thurleigh, Eisinghoe in the Parish of 
Goldington, and Eidgmont. Of these the most conspicuous and 
perfect are at Thurleigh and Toddington, each stands at about the 
most elevated point of the district and close to the Parish Church ; 
that at Tilsworth is also in a similar and rather elevated position. 
The Thurleigh mound is known as Bury Hill, the Toddington 
mound as Conger Hill; the etymology in either case is not a 
matter of difficulty, though we gather little from it. Conger Hill, 
as Congres-bury, would probably be the " King's Hill ; " there was, 
even in Saxon times, a considerable population at Toddington, 
and from such a spot the beacon-fire would be widely seen ; and 
more than this, the mound in early days would have afforded a 
defensive position by no means despicable. Major Cooper, pro- 
prietor of Conger Hill, informs me that Sir Thomas Phillips pro- 
nounced it to be an Anglo-Saxon i¥oo2^-/u7Z; and we read in Palgrave's 
" Account of the Manners and Customs of the Anglo-Saxons,'' that 
the seat of justice was called Konings-stuhl, and this was always 
placed in the Konings-gau : I think that Conger is a corruption of 
this word. 

It has been conjectured that what is sometimes called the 
" Castle Mound " at Bedford was originally a work of this sort, and 
it is stated that another, two or three miles down the river, was 
removed a few years ago ; certainly the mound at Castle Mills, or 
Risinghoe, as it has been termed, has suffered fearfully from the 
despoiling hands of the brickmaker. No doubt in former days its 
extent and elevation were much more considerable, and I think 
that I have seen the faint trace of earthworks in the adjoining field. 
The late Mr. Monkhouse bestowed much time and trouble in 
demolishing the theory of Leland, that a castle formerly existed 
here, this we may fairly consent to abandon, and believe with 
Mr. Monkhouse that the mound of Eisinghoe had its probable 
origin as an outpost or look-out of the Saxon inhabitants ot 

We come now to the camps, the most important and interesting 
of our earthworks, and to avoid even the semblance of an attempt 
to systematize we will begin on the extreme south of the County, or 
rather just outside its border, with the great Danish hill-fortress of 
Eavensburg. Such a term seems to imply a rather confident 


assumption, but it is justified by every class of evidence that can be 
brought to bear on the point, while there is absolutely nothing to 
gainsay it. " There are eight instances," says Mr. Flavell Edmunds 
{Names and Places), " of the use of the word Kaven — probably 
derived originally from the celebrated Danish standard — as a prefix 
or a suffix — all within the Danelagh of Danish England, and one 
Eavensarh, Eaven's edge or hill, in Herefordshire, which the 
Danes several times invaded." If these be all, we are fortunate in 
having no less than three of them within our own district, viz., 
Eavensburg, Eavensden, and Eavensholt (or Eaven's-wood) as 
Eenhold is described in an ancient document. We have also within 
our Bedfordshire portion of the Danelagh the Village of Souldrop, 
identical in name with a Danish village of the present day, the 
*' toft," whose name is of Danish origin, equivalent to " lea " at 
Sharnbrook, and Honey or Hogni Hill^ supposed by Isaac Taylor 
to be the possible burial place of a chieftain, Hogni, on the bank 
of the Ouse, not far from Bedford. 

But our views as to the Bedfordshire Danelagh are far from 
resting entirely, or even principally, upon etymological evidence. 
Just anterior to the Norman Conquest the peculiar class of 
freeholders, termed Soclimen, were numerous in all of the 
Counties of the Danelagh. In Lincolnshire there were as many 
as 11,322, in Norfolk 5521, in Nottinghamshire 1565, in Suffolk 
1014, while not one was to be found in any of the other Counties 
out of the Danelagh, excepting nine in Surrey. In Bedfordshire, 
before 1066, there were between 600 and 700 sochmen, of whom 
five-sixths were on the Danish side of the frontier ; they seem to 
have found favour in the Saxon Parishes of Stagsden, Marston, 
Woburn, Battlesden, and Milton Bryant, and thus the institution 
was gradually creeping on towards Buckinghamsliire and Mercia ; 
also many were settled about the frontier in Pulloxhill, Houghton 
Conquest, Elstow, and Wilstead; but the Conqueror appears to 
have rigorously repressed the not particularly grateful tenure within 
its ancient limits — only 96 of the 600 or 700 were allowed to remain, 
and all these within the Danish frontier, excepting two in Carlton. 
I have quoted this as an additional proof of the permanency of 
the divison effected, or renewed, by Alfred and Guthrum, but to 
return to Eavensburg — observe the nature of the site selected, 
surrounded on the north-west, and south by ravines which may be 
termed precipitous, the extent of about ten or twelve acres, so 
usual in Danish camps, or what are believed to be such, the 
remains of the double rampart, and you will admit that the 
warriors of that jDeriod had no mean notion of castrametation. 
If in quest of other evidences they will be found in what is 
recorded of the local traditions of the neighbourhood as they 
existed some 200 years ago, and in the Danish names which still 
cling to two or three of the neighbouring hills and fields. 


In such a district as this it is fair to expect that our best 
examples of castrametation will be those left, not by the settled 
inhabitants but by the invaders, and if I appear inclined to lay a 
little uiidue stress upon the Danish origin of many of our earth- 
works, you must admit that is not without reason. 

We will pass now to a widely different district, and to relics 
which recall rather the names of the Celt and the Roman than of 
the Saxon and the Dane. Whoever has journeyed as far as 
Dunstable has heard of the camps of Totternhoe and Maiden 
Bower, whose rather singular character has exercised, as their 
etymology has puzzled, the wit of antiquarians, from the days of 
Camden to the present time. To enumerate the various derivations 
of these names and the various conjectures as to the character of 
these ancient works might remind us in a minor degree of a little 
book in my possession containing the various explanations of the 
learned, concerning the uses and objects of Stonehenge. To reach 
these camps the Watling Street has, when found necessary, been 
diverted, Maiden Bower has been twisted in Magiovintum, a 
station whose real locality was close to Stony Stratford; while 
others have not hesitated to advance a little farther and to carry the 
station to Totternhoe. In my opinion these theories are quite 
unfounded, the line of the Watling Street is still to be traced along 
the highway to which the last expansion of modern science, the 
great telegraphic line, has returned ; a further evidence of this is 
to be found in the fact that the Watling Street, which in a further 
portion of its course divides the Counties of Warwick and Stafford, 
forms the boundary of the parishes of Tilsworth and Hockliffe on 
the north-east, and of Chalgrave and Battlesden on the south-west, 
during many miles of its course through Bedfordshire ; ancient 
roads were often used as boundaries in this way. 

With a slight mental reservation as to the term " Maiden," so 
often found associated in the ancient military works, I would only 
wish to point out that the more simple etymologies Magh-dun 
buhr, or Madening Bourne, either conveying the idea of a forti- 
fication on a comparatively level site, seem to be as near as we 
can get to the root of this curious, though some may deem it, 
elegant alteration. Maiden Bower bears no trace of other than 
Celtic occupation, but its extent is rather small for what is 
supposed to be the character of a British oppidum. 

A more curious and interesting work than Totternhoe it would 
be difficult to find. Setting aside all ideas of a regular Eoman 
castru7n, even recent antiquarians (and by-the-bye what a curious 
phenomenon it is in this study, that little is esteemed of value in 
comparison with the "latest out") have thought to trace succesive 
occupations by Celt, Roman, Dane, and, it may be, Saxon. 
The name certainly conveys no idea of a Roman occupation : of 


the last syllable there need be no question, bnt what is " Tottern," 
" Totten," or as it appears in Domesday Booh, ** Totene " ? In a 
paper read on the spot by the late Mr. Wyatt it is suggested 
that this may be the Erse "Totam," a name which occurs 
as an affix in some Irish localities, and thus Totternhoe would 
become the hill of the burning or of the beacon, the etymo- 
logy is ingenious, but has the disadvantage that the roots are 
of altogether different origins and languages. I have known 
the name '' toot " or " tute " applied to a similar mound partly 
artificial in a conspicuous situation overhanging the Eiver Severn, 
and thus of Toot-an-hoe we make the hillock on the elevation, a 
name sufficiently expressive of its appearance ; if we accept the 
syllable '^ tot " as the root, we have, according to Isaac Taylor, a 
term diminutive of '' toft," and signifying a cultivated enclosure : 
this would help us little. The best evidence is that afforded by 
the monument itself, and I regret that my visits to Totternhoe 
have been too brief to enable me to make some rough measurement 
of the height of the rampart, and thus to judge as to the probability 
of its being partly a Roman work. 

Eeturuing from the airy heights of Totternhoe and Maiden 
Bower, and recrossing the flats of Bedfordshire, we find immediately 
to the south of the main sources of the River Lea the scanty 
remains of a work termed "Wanlud's Bank;" it would appear to 
have been much more perfect at the time of the Ordnance Survey 
of 1823, and to have been originally a quadrangular entrenchment 
of some ten acres in extent ; the north-east bank lies in a cultivated 
field, and has been recently thrown down so as to be scarcely 
traceable, its situation was however pointed out to me, the south- 
east bank formed the fence of the field and is still of some depth ; 
the north-west bank is entirely gone, I did not see the south-west 
bank,, if it did exist it is partly concealed by a little wood. 
Alfred and Guthrum's frontier extending along the Lea to its 
source, the question naturally arises was not this then another 
Danish frontier camp '? There is a rather promising etymology on 
which however I forbear to enter. 

Taking now a rather wide stretch — for Bedfordshire — towards its 
eastern frontier we come to Sandy, boasting, like Dunstable, its 
Roman station, and, like Dunstable, its two camps, one of which 
bears the rather astounding title of Ccesar's Gamp, the other 
said by the late Mr. Taddy to have borne the name of Chesterfield. 
Of all the camps of Bedfordshire, Caesar's Camp bears certainly 
the most unequivocal evidence of having been a British settlement : 
its large extent, believed to have been upwards of thirty acres, the 
irregularity of its form, the former existence of iumiiU within its 
area, as attested by Camden, and perhaps the character of the 
rampart — if not proofs conclusive of its having been an oppidum 


of the British Celts, and used as a military station by no other 
race — are at all events sufficient to shew that nothing in the shape 
of a Roman camp or station can have existed there, while on the 
contiguous height of Galley Hill (or Chesterfield, if the name 
be still retained,) the proofs of Roman occupation are equally 
apparent in the quadrangular shape, the low rampart, and the 
small extent, being a little over or a little under three acres. 
At present the rampart on the south front is wanting ; that 
of the east front is quite straight and perfect for 140 yards, 
the western rampart is also perfect, but slightly curved when it 
follows the line of the hill. 

Salince is enumerated by Ptolemy among the cities of the 
Catyeuchlani, and, though the Itineraries make no mention of it, 
there has been a marvellous concurrence of old and modern writers 
that Sandy was its location ; this view has received abundant 
proof, not alone from the traces of the Roman highway hither, and 
the local names of Stratford and Chesterfield, but also from the 
discoveries made in digging for the formation of the Great Northern 
Railway and the Sandy Station. Our Society has become possessed 
of a large number of the relics then brought to light. 

In Domesday Boolx', the compilers of which seem to have 
entertained a great contempt for the jargon of the Anglo-Saxon boors 
and villeins who gave evidence before them, Sandy or Saulndy is 
latinised into Sandeia, as Aspley into Aspeleia ; modern etymolo- 
gists seem loth to acceptthe present name as an euphemistic improve- 
ment upon Salinfe, but I am disposed to accept that as its real origin. 

A street near my own dwelling was treated in a similar manner 
by an enterprising Mayor of Bedford about forty-five years ago, and 
Offal Lane was metamorphosed into OfFa Street, an elegant tribute 
to the memory of the great Mercian King, who was supposed to 
have been buried at Bedford. For the benefit of my hearers who 
are not acquainted with Sandy, I may say that the soil is just what 
the term indicates, a bed of gravel overlying sand of all degrees 
of cohesion, some of it producing the earliest vegetables in the 
county ; taken altogether Sandy, or Sali?ice, with its camps forms a 
most interesting group, well worthy of a separate paper j the station 
was probably never fortified, having merely the protection of the 
summer camp on the hill above. 

I come now to another interesting group of works j the small 
camps or posts, generally of about an acre or less in extent, of 
these there are six in the district, viz., the Danewerk at Tempsford, 
Howbury, Mosbury, Warden, Brogborough, and the Danesborough 
in the woods of Bow Brickhill, just outside the County border. 

The Danewerk was introduced to my notice by the proprietor 
of the soil under that name. Tempsford, or Tam-Isc-ford, the ford of 
the broad river (or of the meeting of the rivers) was, as we learn from 


the Saxon Chronicle, a great strongliold of the Danes, from whence 
they issued from time to time to Avage war with the burgesses of Bed- 
ford. The " Danewerk " lies in a field a little way south-west of 
the Church, and is generally called " Gannock's Castle," by which 
name it appears in the Ordnance Map, it is a quadrangular work, 
surrounded by a moat, it is not a perfect square, but about 150 
feet by 135, probable extent about half-an-acre ; there are remains 
of a mound or beacon at the north-east corner, and Dr. Mountain, 
the late Eector of Blunham, told me of " large square stones partly 
buried in debris "; these, however, I was not fortunate enough to 
find ; a rampart runs round inside the moat. It is altogether too 
small to have been the entire Danish fortress of Tempsford, at the 
storming of which a king and two earls were slain (vide Chron. 
Sax.), but it may have been the citadel, there are traces of other 
works about the field. 

Hoivhury. — The name which I have ventured to attach to this 
is not that by which it is at present known, but is that of the neigh- 
bouring mansion and property, in all probability this was the 
original " Ho wbury." The etymology is sufficiently obvious. In 
the Ordnance Map this appears as " remains of an amphitheatre," a 
mistake that has been the source of much amusement to antiquarians 
past and present. In a paper read before our Society the late 
Mr. Monkhouse has set forth with his usual profusion of knowledge 
the claims of Howbury to bo considered a Danish outpost ; whether 
this was a single work, or rather the citadel of a more extensive 
camp, I will not pronounce an absolute opinion ; traces of further 
earthworks, apparently connected with this, are to be seen in the 
adjoining field. Renhold, the adjoining village, was formerly 
known as " Eavensholt," the raven's wood. 

Warden. — This work occupies a strong defensive position on 
the ridge of the hill ; it consists of a very deep ditch (at least 20 ft.), 
of which perhaps two-fiths remain? it appears to have extended 
into the field on the south, and when perfect to have enclosed a 
space oval in form and of one-and-a-half to two acres in extent. 
Flavell Edmunds Words and Places, gives Warden, in Beds., as "the 
enclosed valley," if he had visited the place he might rather have 
followed Domesday Book and put it as " ' Wardone ' or * Wardun,' 
"the enclosed hill " — a very just description. 

Moshury, Mowshury, or Moelshury, for it has been known by 
all these names, occupies a commanding position on a small outlying 
hill two miles to the north of Bedford, the name may be derived 
from Moelsbury, the " fort of the steep hill," the work is irregularly 
quadrangular in form, its extent about one-and-a-quarter acres. I 
am reminded that this might have been a *' moated grange," and I 
am assured that building materials have been found here ; but the 
site is not one likely to be selected for such a purpose, and, until 


I am put in possession of furtlier and better information, I shall 
believe that this was very probably another Danish outpost. 

Broghorough is a work somewhat resembling Warden in its 
position on the ridge of the hill and its oval character. All that 
now remains is the southern portion of the rampart, with traces of 
the ditch extending to the north-west, to the south-west the 
works are entirely obliterated. Within the circuit stands the 
ancient mansion, now a farmhouse, with a garden wall loop-holed 
for defence, the rampart at Brogborough is more elevated than at 
Warden; the site is a very commanding one, the extent of the 
fortification may be somewhat over an acre. In Herefordshire is a 
Bro-bury, held by Flavell Edmunds to signify ''the fortification of 
the district." Brogborough is not very dissimilar to this, placed 
well within the Saxon borders, it may have served as an important 
hill-fort and look-out. 

In the woods of Bow Brickhill, not very far from the borders of 
the parish of Aspley, are the remains of what appeared to me an 
oval entrenchment known as " Danes'-boro." The site is covered 
with fir-wood. My guide had evidently the impression that the 
evil deeds of the ''Lurdane" race had a smack of something 
subterranean about them ; he conducted me to the lowest part of 
the fosse, and " Now, sir," said he, " you are in the Danes' burrow.' " 
As far as any evidence to be derived from castrametation goes, 
this may have been a Danish work, though it is far from the 
permanent frontier, or it may be like " Caesar's Camp," liicus a iion, 
or like the " Devil's Dyke," a reckless shot at the best known of 

Before bringing this paper to a conclusion I would wish to 
draw attention to works of a different and more complicated 
character, some of which have been supposed, with more or less 
reason, to have been the sites of ancient stone castles, presenting 
however features leading to grave doubt on my part whether (1) 
a stone castle has ever existed, or (2) whether it has not existed — 
if at all — in connection with preceding earth-works. 

One of these, Cainhoe Castle, lies about nine miles to the south 
of Bedford ; one, Yelden Castle, thirteen or fourteen miles to the 
north-east ; Meppershall is some ten to the south-east ; Eaton about 
nine miles east by north. 

Cainhoe Castle. — The extent of this work has been estimated 
by me at four or five acres ; the keep, as it is called, partly over- 
grown by trees, as described by Lysons, and rising to an altitude 
of some fifty feet above the marsh, which formerly existed on its 
eastern and northern flank. Lysons gives the following description, 
" The manor belonged to the Barons de Albini, whose castle, the 
seat of their barony, was at Cainhoe in this parish, appears to 
have been a place of considerable strength. The keep, which is 


still called the Castle Hill, is lofty and overgrown with coppice 
wood." So far Lysons. On visiting the spot, however, I fail to 
find, what Leland has called " vestigia castelli," and the Rev. Mr. 
Bosanquet, of Clophill, writes me, " there does not appear any 
sign of there having been anything like a castle there.^' There are, 
however, well-known sites of castles where scarcely a stone is to 
be found, Fotheringhay for example ; in my difficulty, therefore, I 
have looked up the Calendar of Inquisitions post-mortem, and a 
friend has obtained access to the original Inquisitions in the Eecord 
Office, I find that William de Albini died possessed of " Kainhow " 
Manor, Inq. p.m., 46 Hen. III. (1253). 

Inq., p.m. 24 Ed. III. Brien Saffery, deceased, held lands in 
Clophill and Caynho. Nothing said as to a castle. " Manor " in 

Inq., p.m. 49 Ed. III. John Dagenet, Kt., deceased, held the 
Manor of Caynho, parcel of the barony of Caynho. " The houses 
and buildings within the site are worth nothing yearly beyond the 
reprise." Lands described, water mill, fishery, dovecote, cottages, 

What was the site ? 

Again by Inq., p.m. 3 Rd. II. Writ to the Exchequer to 
search the Book of Eees and certify whether the barony of Cajmho 
is held of the king in chief, &c., &c. Return thereupon — Nothing 
as to castle. 

Again Inq. p.m. 8 Rd. II. (15), Walter, son and heir of 
of John Dageney, Chevaler (Walter was under age). Manor of 
[Kaynho % ] held of the king in parcel of the barony of Kaynho, 
&c., &c. 

To sum up, the position and form of the mound at Cainhoe, as 
well as the fact of the Barony, lead me to infer that at one time 
theie must have been a castle here, i.e., a stone castle — if so it had 
fallen into disuse some time before the 49 Ed. III. The mound was 
possibly crowned with a wooden "keep." 

Meppersliall. — Here in a field adjoining the Church are interest- 
ing remains of an earthwork, which apparently consisted originally 
of a beacon mound, surrounded by two hues of entrenchment with 
a considerable space between them, more especially to the south-east. 
The entrenchments end abruptly with the boundaries of the 
field, and it appears to me that about two-fifths of their extent 
must at some time have been thrown down and levelled. I should 
feel disposed to attribute the work to the Celtic period. As to its 
having been the site of the residence or castle of the ancient family 
of Meppershall, there is no evidence to support the view, except, 
indeed, that the old manor house lies betwen the work and the 
church. The site is a commanding and conspicuous one. During 
the first Ordnance Survey the tower of Meppershall Church was 
surmounted by a crow's nest. 


Yelden Castle. — At the bottom of a shallow valley, and not in the 
situation usually selected by Celt or Dane, or Saxon, lie the remains 
of Yelden Castle, consisting of an elevated mound and a rather 
quadrangular moat ; these have been claimed as the works of any 
or all of the races I have named, not forgetting the Romans. The 
Manor of Yelden was held at the Conquest by Godfrey de Trailli 
under the Bishop of Constance, and, although the family were not 
summoned to Parliament after the reign of King John, it continued 
in their possession ; Johannes Trayly died possessed of " Zevelden" 
Manor about the 34 Edward III., it was held as of the Earldom of 
Gloucester by the service of 13s. 4d. yearly. The " site " is stated 
to be all in ruins, but there is nothiug to shew that the '' site " 
was a Castle ^"^ still I am of opinion, taking all the circumstances, 
the position and character of the works, and the nature of the 
Barony, that this must have been, at some time, a stone castle, 
with probably a low keep upon the artificial mound, as was the 
earlier style of ISTorman Castles. 

Eaton Socon. — The work called " Castle Hills " in this Parish, 
lying behind the Church, and contiguous to the River Ouse, is one 
of the most singular with which I am acquainted: It is easier to say 
what it is not, than what it is ; but a glance at the plan, or still 
better, a glance at the work itself, is sufficient to show that there 
are no traces of the Celt or the Roman here. 

"Was it then a mediaeval castle? Lysons, following Camden, asserts 
as much : — "At this place was a castle, the seat of a branch of the 
Beauchamp family." The public records, however, give no credit to 
such a supposition, no castle is mentioned in Domesday Book, though 
there was a large manor granted to Eudo Eitzherbert. In the Inquisi- 

* Inq., p.m., 1, Hen. IV., 42. John Traily Knt., deceased, held several manors ; he en- 
feoffed various persons of Manors of Yevelden and Chelvyngton. The former held of the 
Earl of Stafford by the service of 13s. 4d. yearly. 

"The Earthworks at Yelden" was the subject of a Paper read before the British Archaeo- 
logical Association by the Rev. A. S. Baker, which it would be unbecoming to pass over in 
silence. With great knowledge and considerable ingenuity Mr. Baker has developed the 
theory that Yelden was the locality of the battle between Ostorius and the Iceni, related by 
Tacitus in the twelfth book of the Annals ; it may have been, it may not, the credit of the 
idea is due certainly to Mr. Baker, and as respects distances, he has to an extent the support 
of Brotier, who thinks that the battle may have taken place " somewhere in Huntingdon- 

Tacitus of course had no personal knowledge of the spot, few of the ancient writers, 
Pobybius however is one eminent exception, very few of our own, until the most recent times, 
had that method of critical topographical research which is becoming indispensable to 
modern historians ; partly as a consequence of this several sites of ancient battles remain 
unidentified, though the particulars given us are far more promising than those of the 
engagement with the Iceni ; I will instance more particularly the final engagement with 
Caractacus, described a little further on in the Annals, and the great victory of King 
Arthur at " Badon Hills," about the year 620. 

To my un-military eye Yelden presents few features of a strong defensive position, a 
shallow valley with a small brook, occasionally almost dry, but capable at times of doing 
considerable damage, a high mound, and a somewhat quadrangular moat, or what may have 
been one, these appear to me more like the traces of a baronial site than of anything more 
ancient, but what if anything may have preceded these, what may have determined the 
first settlement of the De Trailys in such an out of the way spot, I cannot conjecture, and 
nothing but close examination aided by the spade of the excavator, can determine. 


tions the manor is repeatedly mentioned, but no castle; thus in the 22 
Edward L, or thereabouts, Radulphus de Bello Campo died 
possessed of the manor of ''Eton"; Inq., p.m., 6 Hen. V., 35. 
Thomas Aylesbury, Chivaler, died possessed of two parts of the 
Manor of Eton, in the right of Katharine his wife still living — 
no castle mentioned. Again, Inquis., p.m., 2 Hen. VI., Wm. 
Bosover, deceased, held the Manor of " Rokesdon," of Lawrence 
Cheyne and Elizabeth his wife, as of their Manor of Eton. 

Let us take another testimony. " Besides these (castles) the 
Saxons most unquestionably had great camps or earthworks. 
Of these Saxon earthworks there is a remarkable specimen at 
Eaton in Bedfordshire. Camden calls the works which we see there 
the ruins of a Castle; and in this account he seems to have 
followed Leland, from whose papers we know his history was 
chiefly compiled, and who says that at Eaton were to be seen 
vestigia Castelli. But surely nothing can be more unlike the 
remains of any Castle ever built of stone than this place is, whilst 
the outworks remain more than tolerably perfect. Nor can any- 
thing be more unlike a Britsh fortress. 

" It is situated just behind the present inn, between the Church 
and the Eiver Ooze, on whose high banks it stands." Edwd King, 
Munimenta Antiqiia^ Vol. iii., p. 264 (London, 1804). 

To a great extent I concur in these observations. If then we 
have not here the remains of a Roman or British work, nor yet of a 
baronial Castle, its origin can only be attributed to one of two 
races, the Danish or the Anglo-Saxon. 

The ground rises slightly from the west to east, and to the 
crescent-shaped piece which forms the out-work of the hills on the 
western side; what use can be assigned to the broad ditches 
behind this, which, even to the present day, are not destitute of 
water, formerly no doubt much broader and deeper, and intersecting 
the fortress in such a manner as to render its defence very embarass- 
ing, without a regular system of drawbridges, of which there is not 
the slightest vestige % In the absence of all reliable information I 
will hazard a conjecture. 

The ISTorth-men, as it is well-known, were in the habit of pur- 
suing their marauding expeditions to an incredible distance along 
our rivers with small vessels of exceedingly shallow draught, and 
hereabouts the River Ouse begins to lose the comparatively 
navigable character which it would have borne from the sea, and 
the shallows of Tempsford, of Barford, and others would have 
imposed the most serious obstacles on vessels of any but the lightest 
burthen, of which a large number could be securely laid up in the 
broad interior canals of this fortress ; the communication with the 
river still exists, and it may once have existed also on the other 
(the northern) side. 


By comparing and re-comparing the extent and character of 
these ancient works, by utilising the fragments which history, 
poetry, or tradition may have left to us, by cultivating — with 
moderation be it said — the resources of etymology we may succeed 
at last in dispelling a good deal of the mist which still envelopes their 
nature and objects ; and the Celt or the North-man begin to stand 
before us, not as the creatures of myth and song, but as reasonable 
and active men, pursuing what they believed to be the objects of 
their existence, with steady courage and with no little skill. 

The landlord who sanctions, the tenant who perpetrates, the 
destruction or mutilation of one of these monuments, is a foe to 
our common country, to Old England, — for what is Old England but 
its history or its associations 1 many an act of Vandalism in recent 
times has sent a painful thrill throughout our nation, but our 
Bedfordshire relics, such as they are, remain, I trust, in good and 
worthy hands. May they long be spared, still gathering in respect 
and interest with our successors, as the lapse of time is more than 
overleaped by the accession of knowledge. 





KilpecJc CJmrch, Herefordshire. — A Paper by George Oliver, 
fe-i*v. Member of the Worcester Diocesan Architectural and 
j^ Archaeological Society. 

THE church of Kilpeck stands on rising ground about nine miles 
from Hereford, on the side of Abergavenny. The Book of 
Llandaff says that a church here was given about the seventh 
century to the See of Llandaff, which retained it until the Conquest, 
when William I. allowed it to be annexed to Hereford. The 
present building, with a Benedictine Priory, now destroyed, was 
founded by Hugh Fitz-Norman, whose father received the manor 
from the Conqueror. The church and priory were given in 1134 
by the founder to the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester — '^ JSodem 


West Window 



etiam anno Hugo flUus Willelmi fUii Normanni dedit Deo et 
Sancto Petro et monacMs Gloucestrue ecdesiam Sancti David in 
Kj/Jpec"— Cotton MSS , Domit. vii., 129, a.d. 1134. The living, 
although in the Diocese of Hereford, is in the patronage of the 
Eishop of AYorcester, and this furnishes the Society with an excuse 
for trespassing into an adjoining County. 

Hugh's great-granddaughter married Eobert de Walerand, a 
partisan of Henry III. against the Barons. The manor descended 
to his nephew, Alan de Plokenet ; and on the death of his sister, 
Joan de Bohun, it passed to the Delaberes, then to the Butlers, 
who lost it on the attainder of the Duke of Ormond in 1715. The 
Duke of Chandos purchased it of the Crown, and sold it to 
J. Symonds, Esq. T. G. Symonds gave it in exchange to the 
Eev. Archer Clive, lately deceased. 

Like the most ancient Christian churches, that of Kilpeck has 
a nave, chancel, and sanctuary. At the west end is a bell turret, 
double arched, and containing two bells. In the Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1789, there is a print, illustrating a paper by Mr. Wathen, 
showing this turret, but with pointed arches. In 1833 another 
print in the same magazine also shows pointed arches. Mr. Cotting- 
ham, in his restoration of the building in 1848, replaced these by 
round-headed openings, and this appears to be the only deviation in 
his work of reconstruction. In that year he took down the entire 
edifice, carefully numbering and replacing every stone, even if 
faulty, and the present building is therefore substantially the 
original church. (See Plate.) 

On the gables of the chancel are two crosses, placed there by 
Mr. Cottingham, as they do not appear in Mr. Lewis's sketches 
made in 1842, nor in the prints of 1789 and 1833. Supporting 
the cornice all round the building are 74 grotesque heads or figures ; 
apparently there are places for 83, but several have lost their faces, 
or were originally left blank. Figures 6 and 7 (see Plate) are 
among the most curious of the above-mentioned carvings. At the 
north and south angles of the west end are projecting gargoyles, or 
monsters of crocodile or dragon character, and a third under the 
centre of the west window. (See Plate, Fig. 2). They project 
about 2 ft. from the wall, as though for the support of an external 
gallery or timber work of some kind. The surprising character of 
these objects, which recals rather the work of the wooden churches 
of Scandinavia than any known designs of Norman builders, has 
excited much speculation. Like the work at Shobdon and Fownhope, 
they were probably the devices of an entirely local school of artists. 
The south doorway, of which there is a cast at the Crystal Palace, 
is decorated with zig-zag, nail-head, and stud mouldings, and the 
wall around it with knights, dragons, birds, interwoven twigs, and 
other patterns This, like the bell-cot, was formerly covered with 


a wooden porch, which Mr. Cottingham did not replace at the 
restoration. Mr. Gage Eokewoode, in Arcliceologia, 1842 (xxx., 62), 
called attention to the knightly figures on the left door jamb, and 
to the remarkable character of the costume. {Fig. 3). Similar 
figures were in the remains of Shobdon and Eardisley churches, 
which are thought to be of nearly contemporary date. But the cap 
or helmet — a sort of Phr3^gian bonnet — is here seen to more advan- 
tage, from the heads being shown in profile. The figures are armed 
respectively with mace and sword ; the close vests, trousers, and 
shoes are of rare occurrence elsewhere ; and he refers to the dress 
of ancient Britons as described by old writers, and figured on some 
Eoman Britannic coins. The tympanum over this door, it has been 
thought, gives a representation of the Tree of Life, but without the 
figures of animals usually introduced. 

The original windows are — the west window (Fig. 1) ; one on 
the north side of nave, nearly opposite the door ; one on the south 
side of nave, near the chancel arch ; and three windows in the apse. 
Subsequent openings are— a pointed window on the north of nave, 
further east ; one on the north of chancel ; and a door and window 
south of chancel, which seems to have had originally no light but 
that from nave and apse. The three windows in the apse, restored 
by the Rev. Archer Clive, contain two pictures of King David and 
the Lamb and Cross. Clerical figures decorate the jambs of the 
chancel arch, the four upper ones probably representing the 
Evangelists, and the two lower are priests or monks with the tonsure. 
The Archceological Institute's Report for 1877 alludes to these 
carvings as being without parallel, supposing them to be figures of 
acolytes, apparently nailed through the ancles, marked with stigmata 
in their hands and feet, and vested as for a procession, each bearing 
an emblem, such as a bell, chalice, paten, key, &c. {Fig. Jf). 
Mr. Bloxham compared them to figures in the west front of 
Rochester Castle and at Shrewsbury Abbey. Both the arch and 
the capitals deserve a careful inspection. The arch between the 
chancel and apse is perfectly plain, which shows to great advantage 
the rich effect of the groining of the sanctuary and the ornamentation 
of its three windows. Mr. Lewis supposes the four faces on the 
boss which marks the union of the groins to be the faces of the 
four Evangelists, but the expression shown scarcely allows us to 
entertain the supposition : J. P. Malcolm calls them '' a group of 
hideous masks." The apse windows are loop-holes, contracting in 
the thickness of the wall and deeply splayed inwards, Mr. Parker 
{Gent. Mag., 1833,) says : " The chancel terminates with a semi- 
circular apse, and has a stone roof in the form of steps, externally 
similar to the temples of the lower Roman Empire, and may be 
considered an unique specimen of this style of roof among our 
ancient churches." This apse is one of the best preserved I^orman 


specimens at present known, and of great rarity in this kingdom. 
In the west Avail of the sanctuary, on each side of the arch, are two 
large square recesses, lined with oak ; and in priests' closets or 
cupboards in the chancel, on the north side, were some stone relics 
dug out of a well within the castle keep, representing the Virgin 
Mary, patron saint of the castle chapel. 

Of the same date as the church is the font ; it is of granite, 
standing on a cylindrical column 10 ft. in circumference, and is of 
unusual size, being 4 ft. in diameter, and is said to hold 40 gallons. 
Baptism by immersion was no doubt the general practice at that 
date. The font seems to be very much out of place where it now 
stands. On the floor of the apse is a curious object, said to have 
been the ancient stoup, which has been carved to represent a human 
body without a head, or an obese monk holding his stomach. 
{Fig. 5). ]S[o pedestal or base remains near the door in the place 
where it might be looked for ; but one may imagine that it was 
originally raised to the usual height, and the upper part, or the head 
and shoulders, may possibly have been suspended from the wall in 
the character of a- canopy. Mr. Lewis says that in 1818 there were 
remains of a large amount of fresco colouring, both on the v\^alls and 
on the sculptured stones, but he had not the opportunity of sketching 
them. These would of course be destroyed at the time of recon- 
struction in 1848, if any had survived to that time. 

At the 1871 meeting of the British Archaeological Society, in 
Hereford, some remarks on Kilpeck and Eowlstone Churches were 
made by Mr. T. Blashill. He had met with quaint figures and 
faces, almost identical, in J^ormandy, Poitiers, and Bordeaux ; and 
he went on to say — "This was the only part of the country in 
which any effort was made to work in that old manner which was 
doomed to disappear before the great artistic revival then taking 
place in Western Europe. Both Kilpeck and Shobdon lie outside 
the ancient boundary of England, as defined by Offa's Dyke. They 
were anciently in Llandaff Diocese, and would thus be under the 
influence of Welsh and Irish traditions. Kow there had been in 
Ireland for several centuries a style of ornament applied to works 
of a religious character distinguished by the great use of fabulous 
monsters, mixed up with lines or stems curiously reticulated and 
intertwined. We see many remains of it in the sculptured crosses 
of Ireland, the Isle of Man, and in the north and west of England. 
But it became spread over Europe in the splendid MSS. in which 
Ireland then excelled all the world. That style of ornament, then 
dying out, was seized by the carvers of Kilpeck and Shobdon, and 
applied to the decoration of those otherwise Norman churches. The 
grotesque heads protruding from the western angles suggest 
traditions of wooden buildings, where the projecting beams have 
been afterwards carved. The ornamentation of the western window 


is almost purely Celtic, and may be compared with the work on 
Irish crosses. The columns at the side are of the same size as the 
roll which is above them : this is quite Irish, and shows a want of 
knowledge as to the relations which a column with its capital should 
bear to the arch it carries. A Eomanesque architect would have 
made the column smaller, and the arch more square in section, 
with a small roll moulding or zigzag ornament on the edge. The 
small figures (on the left jamb) are in Anglo-Saxon costume : an 
ordinary carrer of the period would have put them in Xorman 
armour. The font is of the twelfth century, and similar to one at 
Bredwardine, The stoup, with a pair of arms round it, appears of 
the same age as the church." 

In the Household Roll of Eichard de Swinfield, published in 
1855 by the Camden Society, the Rev. John "Webb, the learned 
editor, makes some interesting remarks which deserve a place here. 
After accepting the general though imperfect account of the fortunes 
of the priory and church, he says — '* It has hitherto eluded research 
whether to William (Lord of Kilpeck) or Hugh his son, or to which 
of its subsequent patrons in Gloucester, posterity has been indebted 
for that rare miniature specimen of Xorman ecclesiastical architec- 
ture in the church that has for centuries decorated this lonely place. 
Long almost unnoticed and unknown, since the revival of genuine 
feeling for mediaeval art it has won the admiration of all who are 
able to appreciate its merits, by the simplicity of its design, the 
richness of its rude decorations, and the solemnity of its interior 
effect. It is no less difficult to determine whether by the church of 
St. David (which is called in Bishop Spofford's Register capella sen 
ecclesia), which Hugh gave to the monks of Gloucester, be signified 
the parochial or the conventual church of the priory, and seated at 
a small distance from it ; perhaps the building was employed for 
both purposes, and it is certain that when the brethren were 
removed to Gloucester the cure of the parish was committed to a 
secular chaplain in their stead." The "Household Roll" records 
that Bishop Swinfield, on March 22nd, 1290, visited Kilpeck, and 
the Prior and his head tenant, Robert le Petyt, contributed to the 
requirements of the Bishop's cortege, the latter finding hay and oats 
for 44 horses, and the former litter and brushwood. As the Roll 
mentions that the Bishop's purveyor brought provisions for the suite, 
it seems probable that the Prior contributed all that his diocesan 
could legally expect. 

Notwithstanding the remoteness of this place, it appears that 
King John visited it in 1211, 1213, and \2\L—Itin. in Descr. of 
Pat, Rolls, 1835. 


Monumental Brasses, loith a series of Illustrations of Military 
Brasses, being facsimiles of actual Ruhhings in Miniature. — 
By r. E. Fairbank, M.D., Doncaster, Loc. Sec. 

THE use of plates of engraved brass for commemorating the dead 
appears to have been introduced into England from abroad 
during the thirteenth century. Mementoes of this description 
were much less costly than the more pretentious and cumbrous 
alabaster figures supported on elaborate altar tombs. When, as 


was usually the case, they -were simply let into a large " thorough " 
stone, they were comparatively inexpensive. Directions were 
frequently given in Wills as to the making of these figures. In 
the ArchcBol. Journ., xv., 268-9, is an extract from the Will of 
Sir John de Foxle, of Apuldrefield, Kent, dated Nov. 5, 1378, as 
follows ; — 

Item, volo et ordino quod executores mei de bonis patris mei 
emant unum lapidem marmoreum pro tumulo dicti patris mei et 
matris mee in capella omnium sanctorum in ecclesia de Braye, 
predicta, et quod faciant dictum lapidem parari decenter cum 
ymagine, scriptura, &c., de metallo ; videlicet, dicti patris mei in 
anuis suis, et matris mee in armis pictis, videlicet, de armis dicti 
patris mei et matris mee predicte, et volo quod quoad ordinacionem 
dicti lapidis executores mei totaliter faciant juxta ordinacionem et 
consensum domini mei reverendissimi, domini Wyntoniensis 
episcopi. Item, volo et dispono quod predicti executores mei 
emant *unum alium lapidem marmoreum sufficientem pro tumulo 
meo, cum sepultus fuero : et quod dictum lapidem parari faciant 
cum scriptura et ymagine de metallo, &c. . . . 

In 1518, John Sixtini, clerk. Doctor of Laws, made his will 

my body to be buried in that part of Paul's (London), 

commonly called Pardon Church Yard, and I will that my grave 
be covered with a marble stone, and a plate of brass on it with 
this inscription : 

"Orate pro anima Johanni Sixtini." — 

Test. Vetus, p. 566. 

In 1524, John Marney, Knt., Lord Marney of Marney, made 
his will .... my body to be buried in the new aisle on 
the north side of the Parish Church of Leyr Marney, in the midst 
of the said aisle . . . over the which vault I will that a tomb 
shall be set . . . . eight feet in length and five in breadth, 
and four feet high, .... and upon it an image of myself, 
like unto that upon my father's tomb, and pourtrayed in coat 
armour, with my helmet and crest at the head, and a white leopard 
at the feet, and on either side of my image one image of brass for 
each of my two wives . . . with their coat armours. — Ibid, p. 627. 

In 1486, William Norreys, of Asshe, Gentleman, made his 

will I will that a convenient stone be set 

in the wall afore my said tomb, under the image of Mary Magdalen, 
there, with an image of the Trinity, graven in brass, and a picture 
of my body and arms thereon, set in like frame, for a special 
remembrance of prayer .... Ibid, p. 385. 

Besides the matter of economy there was another important 
advantage in these memorials, viz. : they did not occupy so much 
space, nor interfere with the movements of the officiating clergy and 
others, as was the case with altar tombs, for they were usually 


placed in the floor. This is especially referred to in the Will of 
William Fitzwilliam, Esq., of Sprotboroiigh, whose brass is figured 
among the illustrations. He ordered that his body should be 
buried in the choir of the Church of Sproteburgh, in such a manner 
that it should not cause any impediment to those going to or 
returning from ministration about the divine offices in the choir 
aforesaid. The figures represented on these brasses are faithful 
copies of the armour, armorial bearings, and costumes of their 
several periods. Many thousands of them appear to have existed 
scattered over the country in Eeligious Houses, Cathedrals, and 
Parish Churches. Most of them have disappeared, the brass 
having been stolen for baser use, or paltry gain, and the slabs alone, 
"with the dispoiled matrices, remain. Unhappily the spoliation is 
still going on, often under the process called " restoration." It is 
believed that about 4,000 medieval brasses still remain in England. 
This number is very far in excess of the whole of those remaining 
in the rest of Europe put together. So many truly laborious 
and reliable works on the subject of Monumental Brasses have 
been published that there is no lack of literature on the subject. 
Most of these works are, however, too expensive to be generally 
bought. It appears to me that it would be very desirable for the 
Antiquarian Society of each County to publish a complete series 
of figures of all the Brasses that remain therein. In this con- 
tribution I give a series of representations of figures of knights in 
armour, which are fac-similes in miniature of actual rubbings of 
the Brasses, reduced by photography by myself. This method of 
illustration is comparatively inexpensive. Perhaps it may become 
more generally adopted. 

Military Brasses. 

I think it better to take one series of illustrations rather than 
to attempt in a short paper to deal with the whole subject. 

Brasses of English make were made up of one or more separate 
portions, and let into the stone in suitable relative positions. Thus, 
the effigies of the deceased was composed of one, or perhaps more 
pieces ; the canopy, which frequently covered it, of another piece ; 
the inscription of a third, and so on. In foreign Brasses it was 
not so — one or more sheets of brass were continuously engraved, 
with diaper work or other ornament between the different portions ; 
a few of this class remain in England, but their number is limited. 
My illustrations are confined to the effigies themselves. 

The earliest figure of a knight still remaining in England is 
that of Sir John d'Aubernoun, c. 1277, 5 Edw. I. The armour 
of this period — thirteenth century — is described by Haines, whose 
description I closely follow throughout, as consisting of :— 
a Hawberky or shirt of mail, reaching nearly to the knees, slit 


up a short way in front for convenience of riding. A Coif de 
Mailles, or hood, which wraps round the neck and head, 
and fastens across the forehead with an interlaced strap. Long 
sleeves terminating in mufflers or gloves not divided into fingers, 
fastened round the wrists by straps. Chausses of mail, encasing 
the thighs, legs, and feet ; Foley ns or Genoidllieres, or knee pieces, 
probably made of leather, usually much ornamented (metal, 
Boutell) ; Prick Spurs, single pointed, buckled round the ankles; 
Surcoat, worn over the armour, sleeveless, with a short skirt, open 
in front, and confined round the waist by a narrow belt or cord ; 
Shield, either large and concave to the body, or small and heater 
shaped, attached over the left arm by a Guige, or ornamental strap 
passing over the right shoulder; a large Sword, with enriched 
scabbard and hilt, suspended from the left side by a broad belt 
buckled across the hips, and hung down in front of the legs ; 
Hauketon, beneath the hawberk, was a tunic of leather, or other 
material, stuffed with wool, cotton, tow, &c., stitched in parallel 
lines, worn to diminish the pressure of the hawberk, and as 
additional protection — it was sometimes worn outside or alone; 
Pourpoint, a similar garment, but of lighter materials, as seen in 
the cuisses of Robert de Bures. (See Fig.) Ailettes. — As a pro- 
tection for the shoulders were square pieces of leather, projecting 
above them, as are seen at Trumpington, Chartham, and Busling- 
thorpe. They were occasionally decorated with the armorial 
bearings of the wearer. Boutell says that those designed for 
actual service appear to have been formed of steel. The first 
mention of ailettes, he adds, which has been noticed in any 
document occurs in the roll of a tournament held at Windsor, 
A.D. 1278 : from this curious memorial we learn that dress ailettes 
were formed of leather, covered with cloth or silk, and bordered 
with -fringe, and that they were laced to the shoulders of the 
hawberk with silken cords. Coif de fer. — Besides the coif de 
mailles, a coif de fer, or skull cap of iron, was worn. Over this 
again was worn, chiefly at tournaments, a Helmet, to the staple 
at the apex, of which was attached a feather, or lady's scarf, 
called a kerchief of Plesaunce. The helmet was, it appears, 
usually attached by a chain to the girdle, to enable the knight 
to recover it, if knocked off in the fray, as on the brass of Sir 
Roger de Trumpington, 1289. On brasses at Minster, in the 
Isle of Sheppey, 1330, and at Aveley, Essex, 1370, the same 
arrangement occurs, but the chain is fastened on the breast instead 
of to the girdle. At Aveley the sword and dagger are similarly 

The figures of Sir John d'Aubernoun and Robert de Bures well 
illustrate the above description. The former is in the Church of 
Stoke d'Aubernoun, in Surrey. The figure is 76 J inches in length, 



and lies embedded in a large slab, bearing this inscription round 
the verge, in Longobardic characters : + SIEE : JOHAN : 
: SA : ALME : EYT : MERCY. On either side, at the head, 
have been small shields, bearing the d'Aubernoun arms, as on the 
shield. The brass shield is lost from the matrix over the left side. 
Mr. Waller says of this brass : — " Considered as a work of art, it will 
be found that the figure is ill-proportioned, but the arrangement 
of the drapery judiciously contrived ; whilst as a production of the 
burin this brass is not excelled by any posterior example ; each link 
of the mail is distinctly represented, and the mere work of the 
graving up so large a surface must have cost many weeks of patient 
labour." Boutell says it is the only military whole length example 
of the reign of Edward I. which is not in the cross-legged attitude. 
A lance is added to the armour of this knight, with a fringed 
pennon charged with arms of the bearer; the lower end of the 
staff rests on the ground, and is grasped by a lion couchant, 
stretched at the feet of the knight. (See Fig.) 

Fourteenth Century. 

The brass of Robert de Bures is of the date 1302. Boutell 
considers this brass " on the whole the finest military brass in 
existence." It occurs at Acton, in Suffolk. The verge of the slab 
is so worn that many of the letters of the inscription, which have 
all lost their brasses, are obliterated. The name, however, remains 
as follows, in Longobardic characters : + SIRE : ROBERT : 
DE : BURES : GIST : ICY : The figure itself is 78 inches 
long. The legs are crossed. The guige in this effigy is so arranged as 
to pass under, and consequently be partially concealed by, the coif de 
mailles ; it sustains a large and concave shield beariug the arms of De 
Bures : — ermine, on a chief indented, sable, three lioncels rampant, 
or ; below the skirt of the hawberk, which is composed of chain 
mail, are seen the gamboised, or padded and quilted trews, denom- 
inated " (mifseaux gamhoisez,'^ which cover the chauses from the 
knee upwards ; this garment, having its surface usually of silk, 
or other even more costly material, is here richly embroidered with 
the fleur-de-lys, and an ornament resembling in shape the Greek 
lyre, disposed alternately in lozenges formed by the reticulation of 
silken cords. {See Fig.) 

Neither the figure of Sir John d'Aubernoun, nor this of Sir 
Robert de Bures, exhibit the ailettes spoken of in the general 
description of brasses of this period given above. These are well 
shewn on the brass of Sir Roger de Trumpington, in Trumpington 
Church, Cambridgeshire, and on that of Sir Robert de Septvans in 
Chartham Church, Kent. 


Edward II. 

The brasses of the reign of Edward II. shew the introduction 
of plate armour, which gradually superseded chain mail. No 
instance occurs among brasses of armour made entirely of mail, 
there is in the earliest a knee piece of leather or steel ; but in the 
reign of the second Edward, distinct plates of steel cover the 
limbs more or less. These consist of roundels or circular plates, 
attached to the front of the shoulder and elbow by tags or arming- 
points; plates strapped over the arms and fore-arms, the former 
called arrlere-hras, or rerebraces, or brassarts ; and the latter avant- 
hras, or vamhraces. The shins were similarly protected by plates 
ca\led jambs, and the upper surface of the feet by soUerets, composed 
of overlapping plates. A good example of these various additions 
is seen in the brass of a Fitz Ealph, at Pebmarsh, Essex, circa 
1320. The figure is under a canopy which has lost its brass. 
It is 67 inches long. Boutell shews this figure nearly perfect, 
the point of the scabbard alone being lost. My figure, however, 
taken quite recently, shews considerable mutilation, — perhaps 
someone has been "a restoring it," — a portion of the coif de 
mailles is gone, as also the greater part of the shield, which 
Boutell shews, bearing the arms of the deceased. The dog also is 
mutilated. It is an extremely fine brass. {See Fig.) 

Circa 1325. 

A little later — circa 1325 — further changes appear. In the 
brass of Sir John de Creke, c. 1325, the sleeves of the hawberk 
reach only a little below the elbows, and are slit underneath. The 
vamhraces completely surrounding the fore-arms, are worn under 
the sleeves of the hawberk. The head is covered by a hascinet, to 
which, the upper part of the hawberk — the cainail — is attached by 
laces. It will be noticed that the mail is represented differently 
from that in the previous figures. The pattern here shewn is what 
is known as handed 7nail, and not the interlaced chain mail. A 
garment similar to the surcoat covers the armour, it is however 
much shorter. It is laced up the sides of the body, and is much 
shorter in front than behind. It was called the cijclas. Beneath 
it appears the escaloped and fringed border of a second garment, 
probably the Gainheson (Boutell), or Pourpoint (Haines). Beneath 
this appears the lower edge of the hawberk, which is pointed ; and 
beneath this is the hauketon. Roioell, or wheel spurs, first appear 
on this brass. {See Fig.) 

Edward III., circa 1345. 

About the commencement of the reign of Edward III. the cyclas 
gave place to the Jupon. It was similar but shorter, and the same 




length back and front. It was made of silk or cotton, and was 
frequently charged with armorial bearings. This is well illustrated 
by the brass of Sir Hugh Hasting, 1347, Elsing, Norfolk, the 
figure is deprived of its legs below the knees. The fragment 
remaining is 44 J inches long. His armorial bearing, or, a maunche 
gules, with a label azure, is placed both on his jupon and 
shield, and is richl}' adorned with scroll-work. The sleeves of the 
hauketon are visible at the wrists. He has a gorget or collar of 
plate over the mail, and a movable vizor attached to his bascinet. 
The knobs or spikes on the genouillieres are characteristic of this 
date. The cuisses are ornamented with studs of metal sewed on. 
About this time the shield ceases to appear, indeed this brass is 
the latest to shew it. The brass of Sir John de Wantyng, 
Wimbish, Essex, is the earliest to appear without it. The brass of 
Sir Hugh Hastings is in many other respects remarkable, but I 
am dealing only with the principal part, viz., the figure representing 
the deceased. {See Fig.) 


After the middle of the century moustaches and beards were 
worn, and the armour became less variable : consisting of an acutely 
pointed bascinet, to which the camail or tippet of mail was attached 
by a cord passed through vervelles, or staples, placed round the 
lower edges of the bascinet, with the ends carried up beside the faces, 
and fastened above in knots or tassels. The hawberk was short, 
with the lower edge straight, over this a breast-plate was probably 
worn, and above all, the jupon, with an escalloped border b5low. A 
haivdric or broad belt, enriched with ornament passed round the hip. 
To this the sword was suspended on the left side, and a dagger, called 
misericorde, anelace, or baselard, destitute of a cross guard, was 
suspended on the right. Epaulets, epaulieres, consisting of overlapp- 
ing plates, usually three in number, protected the shoulders. The 
vambraces and rerebraces usually encircled the arms. Mail armour 
was visible at the arm-pits, and in front of the elbows. The elbows 
were covered by coutes, or elbow pieces, with heart-shaped, or, in 
early examples, circular hinges. The genouillieres before c. 1370 
somewhat resembled pot-lids. 

The changes are well shewn in the brass of one of the Cobhams, 
at Cobham, Kent. The figure is 56^- inches long. (See Fig.) 


Towards the end of the century the hawberk and chausses of 
mail were gradually relinquished on account of their weight : a short 
skirt of mail was attached to the breast-plate and back-plate, and 
gussets or small pieces of mail, were retained at the bend of the 


various limbs, and were sewed to the padded or leathern garment 
worn under the armour. {See figures of Sir George Felhrigg and 
Lord Dagivorth.) 

The jupon had escalloped or fringed arm-holes, and the lower 
edge sometimes was cut into a border of leaves, the genouilheres 
had square plates below, and sometimes above them. The hilt of 
sword was ornamented with cross cords, and the scabbard richly- 

Fifteenth Century. 

The armour of this century showed much greater variation than 
that of the fourteenth century, both in succession and at the same 

The bascinet, camail, and habergeon of chain mail, breast and 
back-plate, jupon, and plate armour over the arms and legs, are 
represented during the first ten years as at the end of the previous 
century ; the chief distinction being the addition to the camail and 
skirt of the hawberk of a fringe of small bunches of rings, probably 
of brass. Eound the bascinet an orle or wreath was worn, intended 
to lighten the pressure of the tilting helmet. Collars of SS occur 
frequently on brasses in the early half of the century. 

Circa 1415. 

To the breast and back-plates was now attached a skirt of five 
or six taces or plates, overlapping upwards, reaching to the middle 
of the thighs, with hinges at their left side, and secured by straps 
buckled over the opening at their right side ; the jupon was now 
discarded, and probably also the hawberk, the edging of mail seen 
below the skirt of taces being probably a mere fringe attached to 
the under garment or to the lowermost tace. Gorgets of plate were 
worn either over or instead of the camail. The epaulieres consisted 
of several pieces; and oblong plates, or circular ones, called 
roundels J were attached by points to the front of the arm-pits, and 
occassionally ornamented with crosses ; roundels or fan-shaped 
elbow-plates for defending the arm when straightened, were placed 
at the elbows. The straps fastening the brassarts are usually 
distinctly visible, and the gauntlets have three joints to the cuffs. 

The transverse bawdric was now succeeded by an ornamental 
belt passing diagonally across the skirt of laces, and sustaining 
the sword at the left side ; the anelace was fastened by a short cord 
on the right side to the lowest tace. The genouilheres have oblong 
plates below, and sometimes also above them ; gussets of mail 
appear behind the knees and at the insteps. {See Fig. of Sir John 

Circa 1420. 

About this date plate armour had entirely superseded mail, 
the bascinet is now less acutely pointed. Trefoil ornament appears 




about the front of the helmet and in other places. The gauntlets 
frequently do not cover the last joints of the fingers. The spurs 
are guarded by a thin plate of steel over the rowells, to prevent 
their entangling or penetrating deep, and the edges of the armour 
are represented by double lines. Roundels in front of the arm-pits 
are rare after 1435, oblong or shield-like jDalettes being now more 
common. Moustaches and beards are now rarely worn. 

A little later small plates, called " tuiles," were buckled to the 
skirt of taces, and hung down over the thighs ; the gauntlets 
were not divided into fingers, the cuffs were pointed, and so were 
the plates below the genouilUeres, About this time also the skirt 
of taces was composed of a few more plates than before. Tabards j 
or surcoats, with skirts covering the taces, and slit up at the sides, 
intruduced about a century earlier, now first appear on brasses. 
They were charged with the armorial bearings of the Avearer,^jthrice 
repeated, once on the breast and skirt, and twice on the sleeve. 

CiKCA 1435. 

About this date additional plates appear about the lower part 
of the neck, fastened by straps to the upper part of the cuirass, 
they were called dend-placards, or demi-placcates^ and similar plates 
were worn at the back, fastened to those in front by straps. 
Epaulieres, composed of splints, or small overlapping plates, nearly 
meeting in front of the chest, defended the shoulders. The left, or 
bridal arm, was additionally protected by large plates on the elbow, 
and in front of the arm-pit, much larger than those on the right. 
They were fastened to the armour beneath by spikes or spring pins 
fitting into staples. The gauntlets had longer cuffs, the separate 
plates of the skirt of taces were often escalloiDcd or curved up- 
wards in the centre, and the rowell spurs were without guards, and 
screwed to the heels. 

Circa 1445. 

About this time knights were generally represented bare headed, 
their hair cropped close, and their hands uncovered. Large plates 
or pauldrons were fastened to the epaulieres to cover the arms. 
{See Fig. of Wm. LiidstJwrp.) 

Circa 1460. 

A gorget or collar of plate now covered the throat, and a 
mentoniere projected in front of the chin, so as to meet the vizor 
when lowered, by which means the face was entirely protected. 
The pauldrons frequently had projecting ridges, and the upper 
edge recurved to enable the arm to be raised. At the right 
arm-pit a gorget of mail is usually visible. The coutes were 
sometimes of large size, attached to the elbow by pins. The skirt 
of taces was shorter, with two large and pointed tuiles, between 
which a baguette of mail was worn. The sword had a hilt orna- 


mented with crossed cords, and was suspended diagonally in front 
of the body. The genouillieres were large, with plates behind 
them, gussets of mail were again visible at the bend of the knees 
and insteps. The sollerets were acutely pointed. Lance rests or 
hooks were now seen fastened to the right side of the cuirass, to 
support the lance when not in use. A few brasses shew peculiarly 
large elbow-plates, and ridges on the left pauldron. {See Fig. of 
Knight at Adderhury.) Helmets, called salades, are not un- 
frequently found on brasses of this period. They reached down 
behind so as to guard the neck, and had vizors in front, which 
lowered and met the mentoniere. {See Fig. of Fitzwilliam.) 

Circa 1470. 

The cuirass had a projecting edge in front called the tapul. The 
pauldrons, demi-placates, and genouillieres were composed of two 
or three overlapping plates. The pauldrons covered the back of the 
shoulders. Motons generally were worn over a gusset of mail at the 
right armpit, and the elbow-plates were of large size. Gauntlets 
had large overlapping plates to cover the backs of the hands, and 
small separate pieces of steel to protect the fingers. The tuiles were 
small and the skirt of taces short ; and often there were small plates 
— tuilettes — between the former. Standards, or collars of mail 
were worn, and also skirts of mail. Solleretes were very long and 
pointed. The feet were often made standing on beds of flowers, &c., 
while the head rested on a helmet with extensive mantlings. {See 
Fig. from Hoivden.) 


The hair was now worn long, the hands bare, the sword generally 
by the side, and the armour less variable, and shews indications of 
changes which followed in the reigns of the two Henrys, VII. and 

Henry VII. and VIII. 

Haines describes the armour then worn, thus : — The defences 
in use in the time of the two kings just mentioned may be thus 
described : the breast-plate had a tapul, the demi-placcate was often 
omitted, and lance-rests (hooks fixed on the right side of the breast- 
plate) were of frequent occurrence; the pauldrons were smaller, 
usually of two plates equal in size, with projecting edges rising 
perpendicularly, that on the left shoulder being generally higher 
than the other. Two tuiles were attached to the front of the taces, 
and frequently two at the sides. Gussets of mail were ordinarily 
placed at the right armpit and instep; the skirt of mail had a 
straight edge, and was often slit up in front. The sword was 
suspended at the left side, and the dagger at the right, the latter 
being larger than in earlier examples ; the genouillieres had very 
small plates above and below them, and the sollerets or sahhatons 
were of a disproportionate size, and with round toes. 


c. 1460. ADDERBURY, OXON. 


Sixteenth Century, 

The armour above described continued to be worn until the end 
of the reign of Henry VIII., with but trifling alterations, the chief 
of which are that the breast-plate assumes a still more globular form, 
and the coutes and genouillieres are often ornamented with small 
rosettes. About the year 1530, the cuirass was occasionally pro- 
tected by one or more demi-placcates, and fluted, or covered with 
scroll-work in imitation of the rich chasing so much employed at 
this period : the pauldrons sometimes nearly met across the chest, 
and to the top of them were screwed pass-guards, or stout upright 
pieces of steel, which more eff'ectually resisted a pass or thrust than 
the raised edge of the pauldrons. Alter the middle of the century, 
the breast-plate was generally without placcates, and had the tapul 
or projecting edge formerly in fashion : the mail skirt had an 
indented edge, frills were worn at the wrists, and the skirt of taces 
was divided at the lower part by an arched opening between the 

About the end of Queen Mary's reign, the upper edges of the 
pauldrons were scroll-shaped : a gorget of plate fitted close to the 
chin : the pass-guards, tuiles, dagger, spur were sometimes omitted, 
and the mail skirt was peculiarly represented. The figure from 
Burgh-Wallis shews many of these pecularities. 

With the sixteenth century Military Brasses lose much of their 
interest. The armourer's art was evidently on the wane, and so 
also was that of the brass engraver. We find as plate armour 
became less of a protection against the missiles in use, it became 
discarded and fell into disuse. 

In the above paper I have done little more than give an abstract 
of the descriptions by Haines and Boutell. My object has been 
chiefly to call attention to an efi'ective and comparatively inexpen- 
sive method of representing accurately this form of memorial. How 
much superior it is to ordinary sketches will be evident on compari- 
son of them. A description, with representations in this style, of 
the brasses of Kent is in course of preparation, and it promises to 
be a valuable publication. Rev. N. W. F. Greeny, of JSTorwich, has 
published a magnificent volume in imperial folio, on the Monumental 
Brasses on the Continent of Euroj^e, with 80 reduced fac-similes. 
With the increased demand for, and appreciation of accuracy in the 
delineation of objects of Antiquarian interest, all efforts of the kind 
will receive whatever consideration they deserve. 

End of Volume XVIII. 

James Williamson, Printer, High Sti-eet, Lincoln 

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