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Full text of "The Repository of arts, literature, commerce, manufactures, fashions and politics"

LIBRARY 

OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA 

MUSEUM 

OF ART 



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v 3tvtCi/( fitrraturr, Utnnmrnx^ 

Manufactures, I and Politics. 







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THK 



Bepoattorp 



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ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures , Fashions, and Politics, 



For JANUARY, 1809. 



Stjr iriwc .Rumbrr. 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 

1. Tico whole-length Figures of London Fashions for the Month. 
'2. The Repository of Arts, 101, Strand. 

3. Fashionable Furniture. 

4. Sporting Vignettes. 

5. Allegorical Wood-cut, Kith real Patterm of British Marruf^, 



CONTENTS. 



PACE 

Introduction to the History of 

the Arts 1 

Method of computing the Begin- 
ning of the Year 2 

Art of War 3 

Naval Architecture 4- 

Writing-— Printing 5 

Stereotype 6 

Foulis and Tilloch— -Specification of 

their Patent 8 

Chemistry .10 

Imitation of Pindar ...... 1 4- 

History of Fan-hy-cheu . . . . 15 

Method of making Coflee in Ger- 
many {with a Wood-cut) . .17 
Apparatus used for unrolling Papyri 

[xsith u Wood-cut) .... 20 



PACF 



Description of a mourning Ring of 

William 111. {with a Wood-cut) 22 

Law Report 

Retrospect of Politics for 1808 . . 23 

Literary Intelligence 3d 

Medical Report || 

Agricultural Report 51 

Fashions for Ladies and Gentlemen 5'A 

Repository of Arts 5J 

Fashionable Furniture 54 

British Sports 50 

Allegorical Wood-cut, with Patterns 

of British Manufacture . . .58 

Poetry 5 q 

Markets. Fairs, Ac 00 

London Prices, Markets, Sec. &c. 

ib. 01, 6-\ 63 
Meteorological Journal ; . . . *4- 



■- A *** 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

WE have received two Letters inclosing Specimens of Poetry, and sliull be glad to 
have a personal communication with the Writer. 

Three Letters, under the signature of A Well-wisher, Vn Ami, and A Man of 
I .i>hion, (ex'idently written by the same person) aje received. The Editor proposes 
to adopt the policy of Frederic the Great with respect to all Communications of this 
nature. 

The Account of Montreal shall appear in oumext. The Communications of this 
Writer, on the Natural History of that part of the world, will be received with 
pleasure. 

We have been reluctantly obliged to abridge some of the Papers for this Month 
notwithstanding we have given Sixteen Pages of Letter-press more than the prospectus 
announced. This has arisen in some degree from the late period of the Month in 
which they were communicated. Our Correspondents will particularly oblige us by 
.sending, in future, such Communications as are intended for the following Month, 
before the 15th, 

Hints for the Improvement of Beauty are received, and will appear in our next ; 
also, a Letter on the real Causes of the Situation of the West India Planters, in re- 
ply to some Observations in the Monthly Review for last Montis 



TO THE PUBLIC. 

WE propose to begin the Deaths, Marriages, Bankruptcies, and some general 
Tables, from the 1st January, 1809. 



THE 



3&rpo£ttorp 



OF 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures^ Fashions^ and Politics^ 
For JANUARY, 1809. 



%fyz j?ir0t Jtambrr. 



-The suffrage of the wise, 



The praise that's worth ambition, is attained 
By sense alone, aud dignity of luind. 



Armstrong. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE USEFUL AND 

POLITE ARTS. 



At the commencement of a new 
year*, it seems natural to pause, and 
look back upon the period which 
has just been completed, to review 
the more important events, to exa- 
mine their causes and consequences, 
and to form some kind of estimate 
of their relation to ourselves indivi- 

* The computation of the beginning 
of the year has been varied at different 
periods of our history, and was never le- 
gally settled for civil affairs till the par- 
liamentary alteration of our calendar. 
From Bede's time down to the Norman 
conquest, the constant practice was, to 
compute the year from Christmas-day. 
After the conquest, Gervaise, a monk of 
Canterbury, mentions several different 

No. I. Vol. I. 



dually, or as the}- tend more gene- 
rally to affect the aggregate of hu- 
man happiness. Feelings of a si. 
milar nature lead us, at the com- 
mencement of a new work, which 
embraces so w ide a circle, to trace 
the map of literature, to examine 
the progress of discovery in the arts 



ways of computation during the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries; some from the 
Annunciation, the Nativity, the Circum- 
cision, and others from the Passion of our 
Lord: but he chu>es to fix the commence- 
ment of the vear to Christmas-dav ; " be- 
cause," says he, " we compute the age of 
men from their birth." Matthew Piris 
and others prove this uncertaintv for 
manv vears afterwards. T. VYalsinsrham, 
B 



8 



INTRODUCTION TO THE 



and sciences, to follow Ihoir respec- 
tive boundaries, to ascertain their 

extent, and finally, to form some 
opinion of their value, as they affect 
our morals and our manners. It is 
universally admitted, that to culti- 
vate a taste tor the arts, and an ac- 
quaintance with the sciences, is a 
pleasure of the most refined nature : 

but todo this without regard toits in- 
fluenee upon the passions and affec- 
tions, is to '• tear a tree for its blos- 
Boms, which is capable of \ ielding 

the richest and most valuable fruit." 
The cultivation of this taste may and 
ouirht to be subservient to higher 
and more important purposes : it 
should dignify and exalt our affec- 
tions, and elevate them to the admi- 
ration and love of that Being an ho 
i> the author of every thing that is 

one of the most accurate of the monkish 
writers, begins the year sometimes from 
tin Circumcision, and at others from 
Christmas. There is reason to believe, 
that the custom of computing from the 
Annunciation began about the year 
1+50. 

Thomas Chandler, who was chancellor 
of Oxon from 1 t58 to lMi'2, in his short 
account of William of \\ ickhani, printed 
by Warton (Aug. Sacra, h. 355.) begins 
this year with the Annunciation. Bishop 
m, who wrote at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, computes from 
the first day of January ; but then he 
wrote for the use of foreigners, who had 
no other way of computation. 

At I;. Reformation the commencement 
of the year was fixed to the feast of the 
Annunciation, by adding the following 
rubric to the table of movable feasts for 
forty year-, viz. 

" Note, That thesupputationoftheyear 

of our Lord in the church of England be- 

tk the 25th of March, the same day 

supposed to be the fir at day upon which the 

World was created, and the day when 



fair, sublime, and good in nature. 
Indeed scepticism and irreligionare 
hardly compatible with that sensi- 
bility of heart which results from an 
intimate knowledge of, and a lively 
relish for, the w isdom, harmony, and 
[ order subsisting in the world around 
us. In the discussion of subjects 
which occupy so much of our at- 
tention, and exercise so large a por- 
tion of our ingenuity, it is natural 
to begin with the most curious as 
well as interesting. Indeed 

u The proper study of mankind, is mm " 

he is the center round which the 
arts and sciences may be said to re- 
volve, for whose comfort they were 
bestowed, and by whom they are to 
be enjoyed. The mind, accustomed 
to a beginning of things, feels an 
anxiety to trace him in the rude and 



Christ was conceived in the womb of the 
virgin Mary." It stood thus down to the 
Savoy conference, soon after the Resto- 
ration, when it was thought proper tore- 
tain the order and drop the reason ; in 
this shape it was continued until the alte- 
ration of the calendar. 

In civil affairs, the vcar of the kind's 
reign seems to have been the general 
date even in common deeds, till after the 
Restoration. 

During Cromwell's usurpation the^r«r 
of our Lord was introduced, because 
tbey did not choose to date by the years 
of the king's reign; and this was after- 
wards continued for convenience. 

The Scotch had from time immemo- 
rial observed the 25th day of March as 
the first day of the year, till November 
27, 1599, when the following entry was 
made in the books of the Privy Council : 
" On Monday, proclamation was made 
by the king's warrand, ordaining the first 
of January in tyme coming to be the be- 
ginning of the new year ;" which they 
have constantly followed ever since. 



I q I I I, ^Ml 1'OMTK A UTS. 



earliest stages of society , when the 
first dawning of the arts gleamed 
upon the universe. Writers, not- 
withstanding they agree almost ^c- 

uerallv in opinion, that man II a 
social being, have, in their specula- 
tions, described a slate of nature, 

which certainly never had any ex- 
istence but in their own imagina- 
tions; and they appear fo have (alien 
inlo (his universal error, from a w ish 
to exhibit the advantages of society 

in ■ stronger point of view, by con- 
trasting them with a fancied state 
of u ildnesSj as painters give effect 
to light by opposing large mnnnrn of 
shadej or as (lie beauty of melody 

is more sensibly felt w hen succeed- 
ing to the imperfect harmony which 
results from the proper management 
of discords. These philosophers 
seem as generally to have omitted the 
acknowledgment) that such a state 
of nature in which they arc pleased 
to consider man in the abstract, 
never had, or could have had, any 
actual or physical existence. 

It is obvious that some of the 
more useful arts must, from neces- 
sity, have been coeval with the first 
of the human race. The means of 
procuring food, raiment, and shel- 
ter, even in their utmost simplicity, 
imply a certain extent of knowledge 
in the arts ; some of them arc so ob- 
vious and necessary, and at the 
same time their antiquity is so re- 
mole, that even tradition does not 
furnish us with the names of their 
inventors. At a period when the 
occupations of mankind were li- 
mited to the attainment of what was 
necessary to existence, there was 
neither time nor occasion tor the cul- 
tivation of l host- arts which were to 
promote the conveniences, or mini- 
ster to the luxuries of life. But ve- 
ry soon the shepherd state afforded 



not only the time, but was falcu- 
lated to excite a desire for the 'i « - 

ful arts : and the gradual improve* 
nienis oi agriculture furnished the 

means of lupplying food lor lliosir 

who, relieved from the necessity of 

bodily labour, weie employed in 
the useful arts, ;ind afterwards in 

cultivating Mich as contributed t.» 
the enjoyments «n amusements <>i 
mankind : accordingly, we find tin- 
arts first made their appearance in 

the East, under a genial >ky and in 

a fertile soil. The bow and arrow, 

those necessary appendages of the 

first hunters, are attributed to & \ - 
thus, the son of Jupiter ; and spin- 
ning, the most useful perhaps (.tall 
the arts, has usually been ascribed 
to some illustrious inventor ; by the 
Egyptians to Isis, by the Greeks to 
Minerva, by the Peruvians to .Mama 
Ella, wife to their first lovereign 
Mango Capac, and by the Chinese 
to the wife of their emperor Yao. 
The first attempts at architecture 
were necessarily rude and simple, 
and the hut of the savage was rival- 
led iu neatness and accommodation 
by the commodious habitations of 
the more sagacious brutes. To a 
state of society naturally succeed- 
ed the appropriation of property, 
which as naturally led, first to indi- 
vidual trespasses, and afterwards to 
the mutual encroachments of dif- 
ferent tribes upon one another. The 
means of attack and defence appear 
to have been among the first assaj s 
of human invention, and the mise- 
rable art of w All 
has, perhaps, in succeeding a_ 
called forth the powers of the human 
mind in a greater degree than any of 
the aris of peace. Totheclub and the 
dan succeeded the bow and arrow. 
The employment of iron was a later 
discovery : even at thesiegaofTi 



INTRODUCTIO.V TO THE 



brass was more generally used. 
Menestheus, who commanded fifty 
Athenian vessels upon (hat occasion, 
is said to be the first who marshalled 
an army. Tin- earliest fortifications 
were trees interlaced with boughs; 
to which succeeded the wall, with 
holes left for missile weapons. The 
battering- rum was opposed to the 
wall by Pericles, the Athenian, 
and brought to perfection at the 
siege of Gades by the Carthagini- 
ans. To oppose this invention, 
parapets were introduced, which 
were counteracted by covers pushed 
close to the wall, to secure in its turn 
the assailants. This again was ren- 
dered ineffectual by deep and broad 
ditches, vshich creating the necessity 
for, led to the invention of machines 
to throw weapons from a distance, 
to employ the defenders of a forti- 
fied place so as to afford an opportu- 
nity of filling up the ditches : the 
use of these engines led also to other 
modes of fortification, which ena- 
bled one part to flank another, and 
to the construction of round, after- 
wards improved to square towers, 
erected upon the salient angles of 
the walls. But the invention of 
cannon created a great revolution in 
military architecture. They were 
first made of iron bars, united by 
rings of copper; and their size was 
afterwards reduced by the employr 
ment of iron instead of stone for the 
balls : these destructive engines 
were at length completed by mak- 
ing them of cast metal. To resist 
their force, ingenuity was employed 
in the construction of bastions, 
horn- works, crown- works, balf- 
innuns, &c. ; but the arts of attack 
having at least kept pace with those 
of defence, have rendered these 
boasted inventions of little use. 
In modem times, the experiment 



has been tried, of associating with 
military tactics the science of poli- 
tics, and the moral nature of man 
has been successfully employed to 
convert the members of the same 
society into instruments of mutual 
destruction. Indeed, the vicissi- 
tudes of public opinion, or the pub- 
lic spirit arising out of public opi- 
nion, have had more effect in the re- 
volutions at a late period, than even 
the collisions of armies ; and the 
lightening which blasts, has not 
been more powerful in effect, or 
more rapid in communication, than 
the solar rays which sustain the 
universe. 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

Naval architecture (a subject upon 
which no Englishman can be un- 
interested) has had its gradual 
progress to a state of improvement. 
The first vessels were constructed 
with beams, joined together, and 
covered with planks. To these suc- 
ceeded trees hollowed out by fire 
and manual labour, called mo- 
noxyles ; and the Greeks formed 
other vessels, which were made of 
planks fastened together so as to 
imitate them. A prow for the head, 
and a movable helm for the tail, 
with oars for the tins, which was 
the next improvement, seem to 
have been suggested by the idea of 
imitating a fish. Sails were after- 
wards added ; an invention of so re- 
mote antiquity, that the author is 
unknown. Before the middle of the 
sixteenth century, English ships of 
war were built without port-holes, 
and had only a few guns placed 
upon deck : even in the sixteenth 
century, a voyage to the East In- 
dies on this side the Granges, allow- 
ing the time necessarily spent in the 
country lor unlading and relading, 
was three years ; but such is the im- 



USEFUL AND POMTf. ARTS. 



I 



provement of navigation, accompa- 
nied by the advance! made in ma- 
rine astronomy, the knowledge of 

fides, winds, and currents, and in 

geography, that at present it is no 
more than a voyage of eighteen 

months. Ffom Bombay and Madias 

(o Falmouth, voyages have been 
frequently performed in less than 
four months. These circumstances, 
connected with the arts of writing 
and printing, facilitate the inter- 
course of men and minds, and ac- 
count in a great degree tor (lie ac- 
celerated progress of knowledge at 
(he present, beyond all former pe- 
riods. These arts enable the learn- 
ed of all countries (o supply mutual 
deficiences, to correct mutual er- 
rors, and, on subjects of common 
investigation, to enlarge the know- 
ledge of facts, which, since the days 
of Bacon and Galileo, have convert- 
ed the learned world from visionary 
theorists into rational enquirers. 
As these two important arts (writ- 
ing and printing) are (he means by 
which we are principally acquaint- 
ed with all human knowledge, we 
shall say a little respecting them. 

WRITING. 

To write, or, in other words, to 
express the thoughts to the eye, was 
early attempted in Egypt, by means 
of hieroglyphics: these were figures 
of animals, parts of the human body, 
and even mechanical instruments ; 
as the former were made choice of 
on account of the peculiar proper- 
ties or quality of the animals, so they 
are said to have represented similar 
qualities in the gods, heroes, or 
others to whom they were applied. 
These images being placed in their 
temples, gave rise to a strange sort 
of worship ascribed to these peo- 
ple ; and that homage and venera- 
tion which had fust been paid to 
the heroes themselves, was insensibly 



transferred, without any great vio- 
lation of propriety perhaps, to (he 

animals by irhich they were repre- 
sented. The meaning! of some of 

these hieroglyphics are preserved. 

The Supreme Deity was repre se nted 

by a serpent frith (he head of a 

hawk : (he hawk Wastbc hierogly- 
phic oi Osiris ; (lie river-horse, of 
Typhon; the dog, of Mercury ; (he 
Cat, of (he moon, &C. But these 

were not confined i<> Egypt : figures, 

composed of fathers, were em- 
ployed (o express ideas in Pen ; and 
Montezuma received intelligence oi 

ihe invasion of his kingdom by the 
Spaniards, in this way. In Peru, 
arithmetic was composed only of 
different coloured knots. The next 
step in the progress of writinir, ap- 
pears to be the expression of a word 
by a single mark or letter, which 
is the Chinese method of writing. 
They have upwards of sixty thou- 
sand of these marks, w hich they em- 
ploy in matters of science. Instead 
of using marks to represent words, 
which are infinite, we employ let- 
ters to represent articulate sounds, 
which compose words. Their infe- 
rior and wretched mode of writing, 
readily accounts for the state of li- 
terature among the Chinese, and 
their relative superiority in respect 
to (he ar(s, which being imitative, 
may be acquired by practice or oral 
instruction. The art of w riting seems 
to have been known in Greece w hen 
Homer composed (he Iliad and 
Odyssey ; and cyphers, invented 
in Hindostan, were brought into 
France from Arabia about Lhe ei d 
of the tenth century. 

r R I X T 1 \ G . 

The mode of iniprei arcs 

upon silk and cotton, which (accord- 
ing to the accounts given u^ by the 
Jesuits) had been practised by the 

Chinese many centuries before print- 



IVTRODTTTIOV TO TIIF! 



mi? 2T was known in Europe, seems (o 

have been the first step towards the 

hstroduetion <>t' 1 1 1 is. art to the know- 
ledge of mankind. The invention 
of ends, which took place towards 
the latter end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, was an intermediate st«^j> be- 
tween block and letter-press print- 
ing. They were originally painted, 
bat, about the year MOO, a mode 
was discovered of printing them from 

blocks. The books of images suc- 
ceeded : they are likewise printed 
from blocks, and the text is placed 
below, or on each side of the print. 
Mr. Iff. Lambinet mentions seven 
ofthese: 1. Figures Tijpiecc Veteris 
aique Antittfpk a \<>xi Testament i. 
There is one copy of this work in 
the Bodleian Library, and another 
at Chiist's College, Cambridge. — 
2. Jlistoria S. Joannis Evangi- 
listce, ejus que Vis tones Apoealypti- 
CO-. o. llistoria sen Providentia 
Virginis Man'w, ex Cantico Can- 
ticorum. 4. Ars Moriendi. h.Ars 
Memorandi Sotabilis per Figuras 
EvangiHstarum. 6. Donatus, seu 
Grammatiea brecis in Usum Sc/to- 
iorum eonseripta. 7. Speculum 
Hum ante Sahutionis . 

The bards are said to have carved 
their poems upon bars of wood, ar- 
ranged like a gridiron. All these, 
which appear to be so many degrees 
of stereotype printing, naturally 
prepared the way for letter-press; 
but the origin and history of this 
invention is involved in so much 
obscurity, that with respect to its in- 
troduction, particularly tothis king- 
dom, aotbing satisfactory either has 
or can be said. The honour of hav- 
ing given birth to it is claimed bv 
the eities of JIaerlem, Strasbourg, 
and Mentz ; hut the evidence pre- 
ponderates in favour of Strasbourg, 
where Guttemburg certainly first 



used movable types. It secmsequal- 
ly clear, that lie afterwards carried 
on the business of printing at Mentz, 
where he was born. The nanus of 
the oilier competitors for the honour 
of this invention were, John Faust 
of Mentz, John Mental of Stras- 
bourg, and L. J. Kosterof Haer- 
Iem. When Meniz was taken, in 
the year 1462, by Adolphus, Count 
of Nassau, Faust and his workmen 
dispersed, and the art of printing 
became in consequence spread over 
the Continent, In Rome it was prac- 
tised in the year 1367 : and in 1 168 
it is said to have been introduced 
to this country by Thomas Hour- 
cliier, archbishop of Canterbury. 
He sent persons to the Continent, to 
make themselves masters of the art, 
who induced workmen to come over 
and practise it in England. Accord- 
ingly a press is said to have been 
soon after established at Oxford, 
thence removed to St. A (ban's, and 
ultimately to Westminster Abbey. 
Great doubts, however, have been 
expressed, as to the authenticity of 
these circumstances ; but the fact 
still remains, that about this period, 
and particularly at the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, the Ger- 
mans, the Italians, and the Dutch, 
who had continued to engrave on 
wood and copper, now printed with 
movable types, and the art spread 
itself over a considerable part of 
Europe with astonishing rapidity : 
nor should this circumstance be 
a subject of surprise, when we con- 
sider what an alteration this art al- 
most immediately produced upon 
the mind, by rendering that know- 
ledge accessible to all ranks, which 
formerly was a luxury of which the 
rich and thcgrcatonly;:ould partake. 
But we are more surprised, that, in 
the nineteenth-century, thers should 



USEI'L'I. AM> roMTr \l 



be found among ih<- enlightened le- 
gislators of this country, advocates 
for confining the meant <>f know* 
ledge and improvement ; men who 
an- ib little acquainted with the 
theory of the human mind, a- to op- 
pose (lit- diffusion of letters among 
the lower orders <»i society, lest it 

should eventually render them dis- 
satisfied iindera government which 
is the noblest monument <>l buman 
wisdom, and which the accumulated 
experience of ages has contributed 
to rear. What are we to think ot 
men who contend that we arc little 
indebted to the art of printing, lie- 
cause it is produ< live of SO many li- 
terary abortions, anil multiplies thi' 
means of propagating false science, 

which is worse than ignorance itself? 
From what has been said, it fol- 
lows, that we consider stereotype, 
or those kinds of it usually known 
by the description of block or plate 
printing, to have been anterior to 
letter-press, or printing with mov- 
able l v pes ; but the great modern 
improvements which have been 
made in stereotype, almost entitle 
it to be considered as a new branch 
of the art. The French claim the 
merit ot' the invention ; and A. C. 
Camus, in a memoir read at the Na- 
tional Institute, assures us, upon the 
authority of Lottin, that stereotype 
was used by Yallayre, a printer, at 
Paris, in the seventeenth century. 
The Dutch certainly printed with 
solid types more than a hundred 
years ago : but we doubt very much 
whether any specimen can be pro- 
duced equal to Fermin Didot's ste- 
reotype. The Dutch types were 
the invention of J. Vander Mev, 
father of the well-known painter. 
\\ m. Ged began to prosecute the 
art in 17^25, and in 1730 obtained a 
privilege from the university of 



Cambridge, to pi int biblei and p 
er-books ; but he was unable to pro- 
ceed] in consequence ot a combinav 
Hon betwft n the < ompo iton and 
pressmen. It appears, however, 
from his memoirs, that, in 1736, he 
stereotj pi J Salla i. a ith tl 

ance of hi son, w ho •• vt up the 

forms in \\it- night-time." ^lr. 
Tilloi h, the ingenious editor ot 
the Philosophical \Iagaxine t has 

not only ■ copy of this work, 
but also one of the plates, as well 
as others of Mr. dVs manufac- 
ture. Mr. TiUoch stales that, about 
fifty years afterward-, he made a si- 
milar discovery, without having 

any knowledge of Ged's inventions 
In 1784, letters patent* weregraat- 



* The Biographical Memoirs of YYm. 
Ged were published in 1781 : the lira 
part dictated by Ged; the second pari by 
his daughter ; and the third n i .i oopy •>/ 
proposals that hud been published l>y Mr. 
Ged's soil, in 1751, for reviving ms fa- 
ther's art ; and to the whole was added 
.Mi. M< re's narrative on block-printing. 

In tht: Philosophical Magazine, No. 39, 
Mr. Tilloch says 

" In the mean time, we learnt that our 
art, or one extremely similar, had been 
practised many years before by lie 
Ged." 

Again. " At the tim« of the discovery, 
I flattered myself that we were original 
and with these sanguine hopes, which are 
natural to a young man, indulged the 
hopes of reaping some fame at least from 
the discovery; nay, I was e\<n weak 
enough to feel vexed when I afteni .rds 
found that we had been anticipated by a 
Mr. Ged, of Edinburgh, who had printed 
books from letter-press plates about fifty 
years before. The knowledge tf this 
fact lessened the value of the di-c. * 
so much in my estimation, that I felt but 
little anxiety to be known as the I 
inventor. 

" Though we had reason to fear, from 



tVTIlODUCTlON TO TI1F, 



ed to Mr. Foulis and Mr. Tillocli, 
which expired in 1798. Several 
works were stereotyped by these 
gentlemen ; bwt Mr. T. havingset- 

Ued in London, the concern was 
dropped ; and Lord Stanhope (upon 
the recommendation of the late Mr. 
Elmsley, the bookseller), entered 



what we found (Jed had met " tin, that our 
etlbrts would experience a similar oppo- 
sition from prejudice and ignorance, «t 
persevered in our object for a considerable 
lime, and at last resolved to take out let- 
ters patent for England and Scotland, to 
secure to ourselves, for the usual term, the 
benefit of our invention : for the discovery 
was still as much our own as if nothing 
timilar had been practised before; Ged's 
knowledge of the art having died with his 
s< », whose proposals for reviving it, pub- 
lished in 1751, not having been followed 
with success, he went to Jamaica, where 
he died. The patents were accordingly 
obtained, nay,' they are even expired ; 
and yet we hear people who only began 
their stereotype labours yesterday, taking 
to thenivehes the merit of being ihe first 
inventors." Again Mr. T. says (speak- 
ing of Didot's claim to the^merit of this 
invention), "The facts I have stated shew 
with how little justice this claim is made. 
It is true, he may have discovered, for 
himself, the secret of the art ; but it is 
hardly credible thut he could be ignorant 
of Ged's progress, and of our's, espe- 
cially as it is well known, that when pa- 
tents are obtained, a specification of the 
progress is obliged to be put upon record, 
of w hich any one may obtain an office 
copy at a small expence." 

There is at least great inaccuracy (to 
sav nothing more) in this sta'ement. It 
appears Messrs. Tilloch and Foulis were 
not ignorant of Ged's pi ogress in 1781, 
nor of the difficulties which he had en- 
countered in prosecuting his invention; 
but the knowledge qf HIS ap.t having died 
uith his son, they determine to take out 
letters patent to secure the benefit of their 



into a treaty with Mr. Foulis, and 
ultimately purchased from that gen* 

(Ionian whatever information it was 
in his power to communicate re- 
specting the stereotype art. It was 
his lordship's intention, in making 
the purchase, to communicate this 
valuable art to the public, without 

oivn (our J invention : in order to obtain 
which, they must, first, distinctly state the 
invention itself, of which they swear 
themselves to have been the first and ori- 
ginal inventors. Secondly, specification 
of the process is obliged to be put upon 
record. The invention itself is stated in 
the patent in the following words : 

" Now know ye, that, in compliance 
" with the said proviso, we, the said An- 
" drew Foulis and Alexander Tilloch, do 
" hereby declare, that our said invention 
" of a method of making plates for the 
" purpose of printing by or with such 
" plates, instead of the movable types 
" commonly used, which is performed by 
" making a plate or plates for the page 
" or pages of any book or other publica- 
" tion, and in printing of suth book or 
" other publication at the press, the plates 
" of the pages to be arranged in their 
" proper order, and the number of copies 
" wanted thrown oil) instead of throwing 
" the impression wanted from movable 
" types, locked together in the common 
" method." 

If this description amounts to any thing 
intelligible, it is a claim of the invention 
of making plates for printing, instead of 
printing with movable types. The pa- 
tentees then describe the process as fol- 
lows : 

" And such plates are made either by 
" forming moulds or matrices for the page 
" or pages of the books or other publica- 
" tions, to be printed by or with plates, 
" and filling such moulds or matrices with 
" metal, or with clay, or with a 7inxture 
I " of clay and earth ; or by stamping or 
! " striking with these moulds or matrices 
" the metal, clay, earth, or mixture of 



L AND 1'OLITL A UTS. 



9 



remuneration ; l"ii liis lordship 

found il so defective in manj es- 

seniial parts, thai lie considered if 
unworthy and unfit to be communi- 
cated in that slate, as a process to 
be advantageously emploj <d. 

In consequence of this disappoint- 
rnent, his lordship has employed no 

"clay and earth. In witness whereof, 
" &C. fcc. 

" And. FoULU, 
" Ai.i m. TlLlOCH. 
"'Dated 8th June, 178 t." 

If we cannot impute a very imperfect 
degree of knowledge to these gentlemen, 
w ■«• must confess there appears to be an 
inexplicable obscurity in this specifica- 
tion, which merely states that moulds an 
to be formed (of what? gypsum, &cr 
nosuchthingmentioned), andsuch moulds 
are to be filled with metal, or with clay, 
or with a mixture of clay and earth. 
There is nothing stated of the previous 
operation of composing the page, in the 
usual way, with movable types ; and 
what can be intended by filling the 
moulds with clay, or a mixture of clay 
and earth, we cannot divine. But if this 
mode should not succeed, the alternative- 
is presented, of stamping or striking with 
these moulds, or matrices, the metal, clay, 
earth, or mixture of clay and earth. We 
do not wonder that our ingenious neigh- 
bours treat this invention with so little 
ceremony. Indeed, we think the conclu- 
sion drawn by Mr. Tilloch, "that it is 
hardly credible Didot could be ignorant 
of Ged's progress and ours," is bv no 
means logical : if Didot had procured this 
specification from the Petty Bag-office, 
could he possibly have discovered any 
similarity between the process thus spe- 
cified, and the process invented by Ged, 
or practised by himself and others in 
France ? and docs not Mr. Tilloch him- 
self tell us, " That several small volumes 
were actually printed by himself and Mr. 
Foulis, and the editions were sold to the 

No. I. Vol. I. 



trifling degree of labour add 
pence in prosecuting the discovery 

of ;i new prOO IS, D} R hi' h the for- 

mei disadvantages attendant upon 
stereotype are completely obviat- 
ed. This process has been adopted 
by the two universities, who con- 
trade, without any intimation of their bc- 
ing printed out of the common u 

I here is a o n< ealment in thi -• ti ins- 
actions for the avowed pur| 
ing the effects of any jealousy the trade 
might feel at this " ■ try ,•'* 

and we do not blame the artifice: but 
it it was calculated to impose upon bro- 
ther printers at home, how much 

likely was Didot to be unacquainted with 
the progress of Messrs. Foulis and Til- 
loch, and what becomesofMr. Tilloch's 
" hardly credible" conclusion ? 

In the memoir of A. C. Camus to the 
National Institute, published in Memoircs 
de Litterature, he has enumerated several 
persons who have practised this beautiful 
art, beginning with Yalleyre. In 17 10, an 
almanack was stereotyped by J. Michel 
Funckter at Frfort, a place since rendered 
so famous by a meeting of the emperors 
of France and Russia. In 177S, books 
were stereotyped at Frankfort. In 1786, 
Hoffman, a native of Alsace, published 
in France, and likewise Abbe Rochon. 
In 1791, Jos. Carez published two vo- 
lumes of one thousand pages each, large 
octavo, and beautifully executed. In 
1793, Pingeron practised this art. In 
1798, Louis Etienne Herhan, Fermi n Di- 
dot, and Nicolas Mari Gatteaux, all ob- 
tained patents for it. Afterwards, Pierre 
Didot, brother to Ferrain, published his 
prospectus. In the same year, a small 
quarto was printed by Bouvier in mono- 
type : these plates were made bv a dif- 
ferent process from the -tereot\ pes. and 
cast in copper; it is a beautiful specimen 
of printing. Since that period, several 
other wxuks have been stereotyped ia 
France. 



10 



iSTnODTTTlOV TO THE 



traded with Mr. Wilson for the I 
monopoly of the unproved stereo- 
type, al the sum of je?4000 each. 
The term ol this contract (being only 
for two or three years) is expired ; 
and we arc given to understand 
that, at no distant period, liis lord- 
ship proposes to communicate this 
discovery to the public : the stere- 
otype art having now attained that 
state of perfection which authorizes 
his lordship to indulge the flatter- 
ing senti nent, that, in presenting it 
to the public, he shall deserve the 
grateful acknowledgments of his 
country and of mankind. It should 
be observed, that his lordship has 
permitted Mr. Wilson to avail him- 
self of any benefit to be derived from 
the prosecution of this art, and also 
from his engagements with the uni- 
versities, in order to remunerate 
Mr. \V. for the ex pence and trouble 
of establishing the manufacture of 
plates in London ; but his lordship, 
With that generosity which forms a 
prominent feature of his noble mind, 
lias invariably declined the oppor- 
tunities of reimbursing any part of 
the large sum (exceeding five thou- 
sand pounds) which he has expend- 
ed in the prosecution of experiments 
to bring the art of stereotype print- 
ing to its present improved state. 
Jiut it may be truly said, that 

CHEMISTRY 

l- indebted more than any other 
science to modern discoveries. Its 
importance and utility appear suf- 
ficiently obvious to these who have 
al all considered the extent of this 
department of knowledge; but for 
the sake of those of our readers who 
are yet unacquainted with it, we 
shall take a short view of the objects 
which it embraces, and the advan- 
l s that may be derived from the 
study of it, whether in explaining 



many of the striking phenomena 
of nature, or improving the arts of 
civilized life : for, in the midst of 
the infinite variety of objects from 
which man must derive the means 
of his comfort, his luxuries, and (it 
might be added) his very existence, 
this science affords him the most im- 
portant aid. Whether his researches 
be carried into the mineral or 
animal kingdoms, the study and 
cultivation of chemical science be- 
come essentially requisite for the 
successful progress of his investiga- 
tions. Of the knowledge which we 
possess of the vegetable kingdom, 
chemistry furnishes a very large 
share ; it is this science which ac- 
counts for the phenomena of vege- 
tation, germination, the growth, the 
ripening, and the death of plants. 
The nature of the different manures 
necessary for the various kinds of 
vegetables, the influence of light, 
the different temperatures, the na- 
ture and quality of moisture, the 
preservation of seeds, roots, and 
plants, are all founded upon che- 
! mica! principles. 

In considering the application 
of chemistry to the improvement 
of the useful arts, a wide field of 
contemplation opens to our view. 
So extensive indeed are its influ- 
ence and importance, that, inmost 
of the arts, the processes that arc 
employed, depend on chemical 
principles. Barely to mention some 
of these arts, will afford ample il- 
lustration of its extensive utility : 
for the art of extracting metals 
from their ores, of purifying and 
alloying them with each other, and 
of forming instruments and uten- 
sils, whether for useful or orna- 
mental purposes, almost all the pro- 
cesses are purely chemical. The es- 
sential improvements which modern 



isr.i ri. \ n i) poT.rrn *bts. 



n 



chemistry has introduced in (lie ails 
of turning, brewing, distilling, 
bleaching, dying, in the manufac- 
ture of glass and porcelain, &c. 
slicw its importance and utility in 

the ails of civilized life. 

Prom the extensive application of 
chemical science, those who have 

nol considered the objects which il 

embraces, will be enabled to judge 
of the importance or this branch of| 

knowledge to every individual. 

But, however much one may be 
interested in observing* and admiring 
the beneficial influence of this si i- 

ence on the arts and manufactures, 
if we extend our views, and consi- 
der chemistry as a science or subject 
of philosophical investigation, it will 
command a greater share of our ad- 
miration and study ; ibr, perhaps, 
there is no branch of knowledge bet- 
ter calculated to promote and encou- 
rage thai generous and ardent love 
ot' truth, which confers dignity and 
superiority on those who success- 
fully pursue it ; and it is surely no 
small recommendation to the study 
of this science, that while we store 
the mind with interesting truths, we 
add something to the stock of hu- 
man knowledge, which is perhaps 
immediately applicable to the most 
important purposes of life. It is ; 
ihns that the value of any science 
may fairly be estimated ; namely, 
in proportion as it interests our 1111- ' 
derstanding, as it enlarges our re- 
sources, augments our industry, our 

7 3 */ J 

commerce, and our power. 

With regard to the history of 

chemistry, it is not necessary here 

. . . i 

to trace the principles of this sci- 
ence to remote periods of antiquity. ' 
Man indeed could not exist long 
without some knowledge of chemi- 
cal processes ; and as he improved 
in civilization, this knowledge must 



also have improved or become ex* 

(ended. 

Tubalcain, who is mentioned in 
the Sacred Scriptures asaworkei in 

metal, and w bo is supposed Id ' 

given rise lo the fabulous stoi 
V ulcan in ancient mytholog j . i-. 

considered by BOmC BJ the first ' - 

niisi whose name has been transmit- 
ted to the present time; and altho 1 
the working of metals, the kindling 
of /ires, the baking of bread] 
burning of clay into pottery, the 

processes of (he violate, and many 
other operations which owe their 
invention to the immediate wants of 
mankind, and which are absolutely 

chemical, must have been coeval 

with the earliest slate of society ; yd 
the mere knowledge and practice of 

these arts do not deserve to be 
nifiedwith the name of a science. 

A carpenter may erect a piece of 
machinery arranged and constructed 
exactly similar to what he has Men, 
without the knowledge <>f a single 
principle of architecture; but the 
man of science, who can neither 
handle the axe nor the chisel, 
observes, accounts, and estimates 
the power and operation of the mov- 
ing parts, and ascertains precisely 
the effects of the whole machine : 
and is it not more plausible to sup- 
pose that a science, so much de- 
pending on the civilization of man, 
and the experience of a_ r . ». could 
not have been cultivated as a sci- 
ence in such a remote period ? Nor 
will it afford us much instruction to 
enquire whether Mom's, who i- said 
lo have been skilled in all the wis- 
dom of the Egyptians, and who 
burnt the golden calf: w aether Cle- 
opatra, w ho is said to have dissolved 
a pearl; or whether Noah, who 
made wine from his grapes, under- 
stood chemistry or not : but as it 
C 8 



K' 



INTnoTH'CTIOV TO THE 



would be unpardonable were wenot II 
(o notice the outlines of the history 
ofthe b :iencc, we shall shortly trace j| 
the a?ras of the progressive disco- 
veries which led to the establishment 
of chemical philosophy. 

The Israelites acquired all (he in- 
formation which may be called che- 
mical, in Egypt. It was (here that 
Mioses learnt the properties of me- 
tals, the art of extracting oils, the 
preparation of balsams and per- 
fumes, the dying of linen, the mak- 
ing of wine, the art of gilding, the 
fabrication of pottery, &c. 

The Phoenicians arc spoken of 
as being acquainted with the mak- 
ing of glass, with which they traded. 
They invented the art of tinging 
garments with a purple-coloured 
matter, said to be produced by a 
species of shellfish. They were also 
skilled in the working of metals ; 
they made artificial gems, perfumes, 
and odoriferous balsams ; the}- in- 
vented the art of preserving the fruits 
of vegetables and plants. They first 
distinguished the metals by the 
names ofthe planets, which they re- 
tained lor many centuries. 

Among the Chinese (if we may 
believe their historians) many che- 
mical ar/s were known from time 
immemorial. The}- were acquainted 
with nitre, borax, alum, gunpow- 
der, verdigrease, sulphur, and co- 
louring matters : nor Mere the arts 
of dying linen and silk, paper-mak- 
ing, manufacturing of porcelain, 
unknown. They were also skilled 
in the art of alloying metals, and in 
the working of ivory and horn. 

The Carthaginians, who were a 
colony of the Phoenicians, learnt 
their arts. 

Fewer traces of chemistry are 
found among the Greeks, although 
they derived their knowledge of 



many of the arts from the Phoeni- 
cians. The ancient philosophers 
of (Greece, as Pythagoras, Thales, 
and Plato, were more devoted to the 
cultivation of mathematical and 
astronomical knowledge, than the 
physical sciences. It is natural to 
suppose that the obvious difference 
or change of bodies that surround 
us, could not remain unnoticed by 
a people of so philosophical a turn 
of mind as the Greeks ; hence, both 
Aristotle and Empcdocles taughtthe 
doctrine of the four supposed ele- 
ments, air, /ire, earth, and water. 

The Corinthian brass has been 
much celebrated. Tyches knew the 
art of tanning leather ; Plato de- 
scribes the process of filtration ; 
Hippocrates was acquainted with 
the (so called) process of calcina- 
tion ; Galen speaks of distillation ; 
Democritus, of Abdcra, examined 
the juices of plants ; Aristotle and 
Theophrastus treated of stones and 
metals. 

The wars in which the Romans 
were almost constantly engaged, and 
the spirit ofenterpriscwhich prompt- 
ed them to military affairs, gave 
them neither time nor taste to culti- 
vate and improve the arts of peace. 
After having conquered and subju- 
gated almost the whole of the civi- 
lized Avorld, they then arduously 
applied themselves to the arts of 
their early masters, the Greeks. 
They understood the art of making 
excellent wines and spirits ; they 
knew the application of manures ; 
they prepared incombustible cloth, 
for wrapping up the dead bodies 
which were destined to be bumf, in 
order to preserve their ashes distinct 
from (hose ofthe funeral pile; they 
were acquainted with almostallthe 
metals, and the modes of coining 
them : (hey were skilled in the cu- 



i i PtTL and por.rn: Mn . 



i; 



Unary art ; theif cooks prepared de- 
licious sauces for their tables : ;m<l 
the remains of their aquedut is, and 
other works of architecture, evince 
the incomparable perfection of their 
cements. 

But all (lie ails, the sciences, and 

literature of the Romans and (.neks. 
were destined to sink into oblivion. 
Hosts of barbarian conquerors de- 
scended upon them from the North ; 
the energies of civilization wither- 
ed at their touch, and their works 
were destroyed before them. 

The arts and sciences, driven as 
il were from Europe, obtained an 
asylum with the Arabians. The at- 
tachment of this nation to magic, 
and their inclination to the mar- 
vellous, soon increased the myste- 
ries in which the arts were then al- 
ready involved ; and hence alclu- 
my 9 or the art of transmuting base 
metals into gold; took its rise. 

To us it may appear somewhat 
singular, that chemistry, now of such 
universal importance to mankind, 
should be indebted, in some measure, 
tor its origin as an art, and for some 
parts of its progress, to one of the 
less noble or generous of the human 
passions; yet, in its early dawn, it 
Was cultivated by men who were 
instigated by avarice to prosecute 
and study it. It was, certainly, na- 
tural enough for men who observed 
the remarkable changes produced 
by chemical action, to be struck 
with their effects ; and overlooking 
the variations ami differences in the 
result of their operations, which 
were the consequences of partial or 
inaccurate observation, to flatter 
themselves that their power over 
the substances on which they ope- | 
rated, was only limited by their 
wishes. 



Ii was one of the principl 
the alchemist -. that all metals arc 
composed of i he same ingredii 

or thai ill-- substanci ■> w hi'li entef 
into (lie composition of gold, are 

found in all metalf, but mixed v. ilh 
many impurities, from which, by 

certain pun esses, they mi:' ht b< 
parated: and as they never seem to 

have thought of < in i< liintr them- 
selves by their great discoi i i 
they were loo generous to monopo- 
lize the wealth ol the world ; h 
they offered their gervu es t<> o'lirrs, 
and liberail} propesed to communi- 
cate the fruit of their lubours for a 
moderate reward. 

As this delusive dream of the 
imagination held out a bait to ava- 
rice, it soon acquired a train of fol- 
lowers. The research was pui 
with an ardour which nodisappoint- 
ment could damp, and the mania 
spread from one country to another. 

The ambitious man to procure; 
riches that he might increase his 
power, and the opulent man to add 
to his wealth, employed and encou- 
raged the alchemists in the prosecu- 
tion of their extravagant scln 
These flattering hopes, it will be 
supposed, were never realized ; the 
rich prospect tied before them, and 
the golden prize, which they often 
supposed wa»just within their reach, 
eluded their eager grasp. The 
magnitude of the plan, however, 
fired the imagination, and produced 
something like conviction in U 
minds of the possibility, and even 
certaint}-, of obts^ning the object of 
their wishes and all their labour?. 
With unabating ardour, with unex- 
ampled assiduity, they pursued their 
researches, persuading therns* 
and their employers, that they were 
ou the point of being soon in pes 1 1 



H 



IMITATION OF riXDAIt. 



•ion of unlimited wealth. But the 
alchemists beholding man by anti- 
cipation possessed of immense riches t 
saw that son ething more was requi- 
site, that he might be secured in the 
uninterrupted enjoyment of (hem. 
Experience fatally taught them, that 
the feeble frame of man was subject 
to (he languor of disease ; that gold 
could neither allay the (hirst of fe- 
ver, assuage the agonies of pain, or 
purchase for its possessor the bless- 
ings of health. 

Thus another most desirable object 
Was held up t<> view, and deluded 
the visionary enthusiasm of their 
minds with the false hope of attain- 
ing it. This was the universal medi- 
cine which was to cure all diseases, 
and not only to cure, but absolutely 
to prevent their occurrence. 

Thus fortunate in the enjoyment 
of vast riches, thus blest with un- 
broken health, the desires of man 
were yet unsatisfied. Another seem- 
ing evil still remained, which was 
naturally to be dreaded as the de- 
stroyer of this fancied scene of en- 
joyment and felicity. The melan- 
choly reflection, that it was limited 
by the short space of human life,rous- 
<il the alchemists again into exer- 
tion, and produced new efforts of in- 
genuity in their labours; and in ima- 
gination they had discovered the 



means of prolonging life at pleasure. 
But the age of visionary philosophers 

did not cease with the alchemists. 
In the last decade of the eighteenth 

century, the progress of discovery, 
particularly in chemistry and mine- 
ralogy, had become so great, and 
the reign of art over nature so exten- 
sive, that some of the same philoso- 
phers who set up for political re- 
formers, believed not only the period 
was approaching, when men were 
to be governed by the purity of their 
own minds, and the moderation of 
their own desires, without any ex- 
ternal coercion, but when the life 
of man might be prolonged ad infi- 
nitum, and philosophers, if they 
choose it, become immortal. 

In Egypt, alchemy attracted the 
attention of the government. The 
exact period of the origin of this 
study is unknown, nor can it now 
be ascertained what progress it had 
made, or to what extent it was cul- 
tivated among the ancients. Diocle- 
sian, apprehensive that the dreams 
of the alchemists might be realized, 
ordered their books to be burnt, and 
prohibited all chemical operations, 
that he might subdue them with more 
facility. After this period, the al- 
chemists were strongly opposed by 
several able and learned men. 
(To be continued.) 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE 

Sin, 

lv Pindar's celebrated de- 
scription of the eagle, which must 
be familiar to your classical readers, 
after lie has described the flagging 
Bftng', he adds, 

by which I understand, " he gently 
raised his buck," conveying the 



REPOSITORY OF ARTS, &c 
idea of breathing softly. In Mr. 
West's translation we have the ruf- 
fled plumes ; and Mr. Gray, in his 
imitation, has followed Mr. West in 
preference to the original. Perhaps 
some of your readers may be able 
to account for this. By inserting 
this in your Repository, you will 
oblige Ckito. 



THE STORY OF FAN-HY-CHE1 . 



Translated l>v a Gentleman in China, and pn anted to the Editor I . I . C 
Esq. who accompanied Lord Macartney in his emb n. 

DntiM. the reign of Kien-yen, II chung-ye Mid In I'mi-hy-r in g, f 
and in the 87th year of the current have been taught thai no rirtnow 



cycle, f'iii-i/f// raised the standard 
of rebellion at Kicn-chcu; and in 
consequence of a dreadful (amine 
w Inch then afflicted the country , 
above an hundred thousand were 
persuaded to listen to his voice and 
tiff lit under liis banner. 



woman can set re two luubands : 
since we arc united by lawful 
monies, I shall ever owe to you the 
duties of conjugal obedience and 
fection. Your, « itj is now almost 
defenceless, ■ rictorious enemy will 
soon overcome all resistance | 



In the course of the following you are the son of a distinguished 



leader in the rebellion, youi 
seems inevitable : suffer i 
now to end my life w ith Ibis 
that J may not live to witness my 
busb ind's death. 

i'(ui-h:/-( In h. interrupting her, 
said, It i> not from inclination that 
I am now unhappily a rebel. Tho' 
you were unjustly forced away from 
him on the journey, unhappily fell your noble parents, do not now, by 
into their hands. , seeking to put an end to your < 

At this time, the leader, Fan-jin/, lence, aggravate my crime and iny 
had a son, named Fan-/u/-c/uit, a misfortunes. The imperial army 
yOBDg man of good abilities, and now in the field against us, is from 



spring, it happened that the Man- 
darine Leit'Chung-ye was appointed 
from Quan-scc to the office of col- 
lector of the customs at Fio-cluu, 
and he was obliged to pass Kiot- 
chctt in his road thither. A party 
of the rebels intercepted his reti- 
nue, and his daughter, a young lady 
about seventeen, who accompanied 



about twenty-five years of age. He 
never had been married, but on see- 
ing the fair captive, who was deli- 
cately beautiful, he was smitten with 
her charms ; and learning that her 
family was noble, he chose a fortn- 
jiate day, and having received the 
consent and approbation of hi> fa- 
mily, she soon became, by all the 
rites and ceremonies of espousal. hi> 
lawful wife. 

In the winter of the same year, 
the emperor sent one of his own 
sons, the Prince JIan-kitiu-ianj/, 
with a great army, to put an end to 
the rebellion. 

On hearing this intelligence, the 
daughter of the Mandarine Leu- 



the North : the soldiers arc your 
countrymen: you will underhand 
their language; you may perhaps 
even meet with your family and 
friends : live therefore for then, 
i and be comforted. 

Be assured, she rejoined, that 
your wife will never submit, during 
life, to the embraces of another hus- 
band: 1 tear, however, the brutal 
violence of the soldiers, and have 
resolved to die rather than to be dis- 
honoured. 

Thi> proof, v-iid Fan-hy-cheu, of 

VOUI faithful attachment tome, shall 

not prove unrequited, and i here 

| solemnly penalise you never to take 

J another partner to my bed. 



16 



STORY OP PAN-HV-CHBU. 



It happened indeed thai the im- 
perial general hail long known the 
Mandarine Lpu-chung-yc, and hav- 
ing halted with his army at Foo- 
cheu, he offered him a command 
near his own person : and soon after 
they proceeded together against the 
head-quarters of the rebels, atKien- 
chcu. After a siege of ten days, the 
town was taken bj assault: Fen-hy- 
c/ki/ disappeared in the general con- 
fusion; but his wife, the daughter 
of Lewchung-ye, terrified at the ap- 
proach of the soldiers, attempted to 
destroy herself in an interior apart- 
ment. Among the foremost was her 
own father, and he fortunately ar- 
rived time enough to prevent the 
melancholy catastrophe. With care 
and attention, she was gradually re- 
stored to life, and the meeting of 
the father and daughter was alter- 
nately a scene of joy and grief. 

Alter the capture of Kien-cheu, 
the rebellion was easily exlinguish- 
ed,andtranqnillity restored through- 
out the province. 

The Mandarine Lcu-chung-ye 
thought it a good time to propose 
a second marriage to his daughter; 
but no entreaties could prevail on : 
her to comply i What, said he an- 
jrril \ , do you still regret that rebel: 
from whom we have delivered you ? | 
Alas! she answered, although yon 
call him a rebel, he was nevertheless 
a man of integrity and virtue. Af- 
ter I had the misfortune of being 
separated from yon, 1 fell into his 
hands: in the midst of rebels he 
was distinguished by act ions of cha- 
rily and benevolence. Under the 
protection of Heaven, he may pos- 
sibly be still alive. Let me beseech 
yon, my father, to excuse mc from 
entering into a second marriage, and 
snifer me, as a dutiful daughter, to 
parents at home. 



l.tu-shif continued with her pa* 
reins in this manner several years. 

In the 29th of the cycle, Leu* 
chung'Ve was promoted to the rank 
of commander in chief at Fong- 
t licit ; and soon after, an officer of 
rank, named Kiit y arrived from 
Qucmg-cheou with dispatches from 
that government. Leu-chung-yc 
provided an handsome entertain- 
ment for his guest ; and after hi« 
departure, his daughter accosted 
him, to enquire who was the stranger 
that had lately arrived ? 

It is an officer, said he, with dis- 
patches from Quang-cheou. — But 
his voice and footsteps, added she, 
remind me strongly of the son of 
Fan-juy t the rebel of Kicn-cluu. — 
Do not deceive yourself, said her 
father smiling; this olliccr's name is 
Kin. What connection can there 
possibly exist between him and the 
rebel of Kicn-chcu ? — Jjcu-shy had 
nothing to reply to this, and retired 
in silence. 

Haifa year had elapsed when the 
officer Kiu again arrived at Fung' 
cIku upon public business. Ltu~ 
chung'Ve entertained him in the 
same manner as before. Leu-shy 
hearing- of his return, placed herself 
near a crevice, through which she 
had a view of what was passing in 
the outer apartments, and the mo- 
ment she saw the stranger, was con- 
vinced that he could be no other 
than Fan-hy*cheu, her former hus- 
band. This she communicated toher 
father, who accordingly, after the 
stramrer had dined and drank wine 
with him, entreated that, he would 
confide to him his real history. 

Theollicer Kiu blushed, andsaid, 

' I have to confess that my real name 

1 is Foil, and that my father, Fan-jity, 

was a noted leader of the revoltcrs, 

' and that I was one myself amon^ 



Mr.Tiron of making COFFEE in BERMA 



17 



them. The rebeli were, however, 
completely defeated by the impe- 
rial army; our city submitted to 
the yellow banner. I made my 
rsca|)e,anil knowing that in y Life w.i I 
forfeited on account of my revolted 
Family, I changed mj name to thai 

6f KtUj in onler to eltnle pursuit. 

Soon after I enlisted in the imperial 
army a( Yo»chung»heuitt i and we 
were ordered to take the field against 
the rebels of the South. We had 
many engagements, and I fought in 
Che foremost ranks, and endeavour- 
ed to distinguish myself against the 
enemy. My exertions attracted the 
attention of our general, and alter 
the province was reduced to tran- 
quillity, and the army disbanded, he 
determined to reward my services 
by nominating me second in com- 
mand at Ilo-clnu , from thence I 
rose to the first command, which I 
afterwards quitted for the situation 
I now hold under the governor of 
Qttang-cheou. 

May I further ask, said the Man- 
darine Leu-chung-ye, the" name of 
your lady, and whether you have 
not entered into a second marriage ? 

Alas ! answered he weeping, I 
once was married to a mandarine's 
daughter, who fell into our hands 
-when I lived in the rebel camp ; but 
the same year that our forces were 
routed, and our city taken by as- 
sault, we were unhappily separated : 
but, in the hope of living to meet 



n, we mutually rowed to remain 

h lie and faithful to '• •' li otli, r. 

I since accidentally found 
aged mother at Sin-cheu 9 tothei 
of whom / have constantly de 
my attention, instead of turning my 

thoughts to man LagC, and — lieie his 

words were interrupted by Id I 
I., t-ckung»yi shed tears ofjoy 

and gratitude at this providential 
discovery, and hurrying to the inner 
apartment, he bad the happiness of 
bringing together the husband and 
wife, who had been bo long sepa- 
rated. After some days.it was a 
sary that Fan-hy-chi u should re- 
turn to his station at Qtumg-cheOU : 
hut he returned to his father-in-law 
as soon as the period of h is appoint- 
ment had expired ; and the govern- 
ment of I a u-e/u/Jig-j/L terminating 
about the same time, they both fix- 
ed their residence at ^'i/i-c/ieu, 
where Leu-chung-ye obtained the 
office of judge, and Jan-hy-cheii 
that of the collector of the customs. 

THE MORAL. 

Fan-hy-cheu was not justified in 
revolting, or Leu-shy for following 
him ; but their offence was palliated 
by the natural love of life, and the 
almost inevitable necessity of the 
case. View ing their mutual attach- 
ment and fidelity after separation, 
Heaven had compassion upon them, 
and brought them together again in 
the extraordinary manner which has 
been related. 



METHOD OF MAKING COFFEE IN GERMANY 



ITS MEDICAL PROPEKTIES. 



It is well known to our reader-. 
that a few months since. tin 1 situation 
of the planters, in consequence of 
the low price of West India pro- 

No. I. Vol. I. 



'duce, excited a considerable shr*re 
of public attention both in ami out 
of parliament ; and however th 

1 lision of different interests ruav have 

' i) 



IS 



Minion 01 making corirr. in glrmanv 



prevented a perfect agreement as to 
the mode of doing it, yet all parties 
seemed to unite in opinion, that the 
planters were entitled to as much 
relief as could be extended to them, 
without doing injustice to inter* i 
of equal, if not of more importance. 
Without adverting to the assertion 
industriously propagated at the pe- 
riod to which we allude, that a sa- 
crifice hml been made of the landed 
interest, by permitting the distillery 
of Sugar, we shall at present merely 
advert to that portion of relief which 
the reduction of the duties upon 
coffee was intended to afford them. 
This reduction has naturally led to 
a verygreat increase in the consump- 
tion of that article ; and we are in- 
clined to think, that if the mode of 
preparing it were rendered more 
simple for the lower classes, it would 
tend to lessen the enormous impor- 
tation of thirty million pounds of 
tea, for the purchase of the greater 
part of which specie is now sent out 
of the kinodom . We feel much 
obliged by the following letter. 



To the Editor of the Repository, dfc. 
Sin, 

All travellers who have vi- 
sited the different parts of the Con- 
tinent agree, that the Germans pre- 
pare coffee in the best manner, but 
lew have troubled themseh <s to en- 
quire how they prepare it. The 
writer of this (a native of that coun- 
try) has, ever since her residence 
in England, continued to drink cof- 
fee as good as she used to do in 
Germany, by following the simple 
method practised by her country- 
women. Having been requested by 
several of her English friends to 
communicate the German mode of 
preparing colli.-, she requests the 



editor of the 7krpnsitor?/ofArf9,Sfe. 
to insert the following information 
upon this subject. 

The first, and in fact the chief 
object 1 . to procure the best coffee, 
and to roast it at home in small 
quantities at a time. This opera- 
tion is best performed in a roaster 
of the annexed construction (Fig. 
!.), it being easily turned, opened, 
and shut : whatever size the roaster 
may be, it never should be more 
than half filled, otherwise the cof- 
fee, which swells in the roasting, 
cannot be properly turned and 
shook, in which case a considerable 
part of it will remain raw, whilst 
the remainder will be burnt. The 
roaster should be enveloped in the 
tire, which should be as lively as 
possible : if the coal does not burn 
very brisk, chips of wood should 
now and then be thrown into it. 
The time necessary for roasting it 
cannot accurately be stated, as much 
depends upon the fire, and the quan- 
tity, and even the quality of the 
coffee. The roaster should be turn- 
ed slowly at the beginning, and 
quicker as the operation proceeds, 
taking it often from the fire and 
shaking it : when some of the beans 
begin to crackle, the roaster must be 
opened, to examine if the coffee has 
acquired a light cliesnut colour; if 
not, a few more turns over the fire 
will be necessary. When it has ac- 
quired f h is colour it should be thrown 
out into a clean coarse napkin, and 
shook in it till the coffee is almost 
cold ; after this, if may be kept in 
clean glass bottles, or in seasoned 
canisters well closed. The sweat- 
ing of coffee after the roasting ought 
to be prevented, as it gets damp, 
which renders it tough, and the 
grinding a few days after more dif- 



MI i I! «il) OF MAKIVi, COFPEE f *• C 



19 



ficull ; over-roasting ii Bhould be 
carefully avoided. The common 
t in poi for boiling it should not be 
used lor any thing else l>uf coffee, 
and should be targe enough to con- 
tain about double (lie quantity that 
is wanted, in order (o prevent if boil- 
ing over. One ounce and a half of 
coffee is sufficient foi a pint of water; 

if it proves tOO Strong, i( may easily 

lie weakened to every body's taste 
by pouring boiling water into their 

cups. To clarify il I lie sooner, a 
small quantity of isinglass, or a fe^i 
hartshorn shavings, may be boiled 
aviiIi the coffee. At first the coffee 
■will rise to the top of the pot ; it 
should then betaken off the fire, and 
this should be repeated till the cof- 
fee falls to the bottom, and a huge 
clear bubble forms at the top: when 
this takes place, it is sufficiently boil- 
ed) and will settle very soon, parti- 
cularly alter it is poured into the 
coffee-pot, in which it is to be served. 
To this last ma\ be iitted a strainer 
of tin, or a small sack of fine bolt- 
ing cloth sewed to a tin circle (Fig. 
2.) ; all other stuffs, such as linen, 
cotton, flannel, &c. make bad filters 
for coffee. Molasses and brown 
sugar give to good coffee a very bad 
taste, and refined sugar should al- 
ways be preferred. The cream or 
milk that is to be taken with coffee 
should invariably be scalded. Those 
who have not been accustomed to 
prepare it in this way, can scarcely 



Fia. f. 



be aid to have drank L r <>"d Coffee. 

/ am yoiu humble servant, I). T. 



It was ob ei ved 
by Dr. Percival, in In Pi / ///- 
col, l/< dical 9 and Expi t inn ni< 
toys, that coffee n as used as a beve- 
rage u iiii peculi u propriety by the 
Turks and Arabians, because it ope- 
rates as an antidote to the narcotic 

e||. < | of opium, to the Use ol'u Inch 
these nations are particularly ad- 
dicted, lie likewise states, that 
having understood from sir John 
Pringle, that an ounce of the best. 
coffee, ground soon alter it is roasted, 
and made into one cup. and taken 
without milk or BUgar, was the 
abater of I he paroxysm of the peri- 
odic asthma, he had recommended 
it with considerable success, din 1 1- 
ing this quantity to be repeated at 
the distance of about half an hour. 
It is observed, that Sir John Floyer, 
after the publication of his book 
upon asthma, had contrived, during 
the latter pari of his life, to relieve 
himself from, or at least to live with 
tolerable comfort under that disor- 
der, by the use of coffee. 

A severe head-ache is soon relieved 
by taking about eighteen drops of 
laudanum, ami drinking immedi- 
ate!)' afterwards three strong cups 
of coffee. In about half an hour 
the pain will abate, without induc- 
ing drowsiness or even an inclina- 
tion to sleep. 




D2 



i?0 




«j fat 



DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS USED AT PORTICI FOR 
UNROLLING THE HERCULANEAN PAPYRI. 



WITH A WOOD-CUT, 



The discovery of a considera- 
ble number of ancient manuscripts 
among the ruins of Herculaneum, 
;it the foot of Mount Vesuvius, was 
hailed at the time by every lover of 
antiquity throughout Europe, as an 
event which promised lo add to our 
classic literature many an author 
whose works might hitherto have 
been unknown, or, if known, lament- 
ed as lost ; or at least to afford the 
means of supplying the chasms with 
which a barbarous age had handed 
(<> us some of the most invaluable 
remains of the learning of Rome and | 
(j'reec e. Unfortunately, these fond ; 
hopes have to this day remained; 
disappointed. The progress made 
in unrolling them, although perhaps 
co.; mensurate with the difficulty of 



the task, has hitherto been insignifi- 
cant ; and the emigration of the 
court of Naples to Sicily, with, as 
I am credibly informed, the most 
perfect part of the papyri, is not 
calculated to encourage any very 
sanguine expectations. 

As, however, a few of the best 
preserved rolls are at this moment 
in England, and in the possession of 
an august personage, whose love for 
literature will not suffer such a trea- 
sure long to lay dormant, I con- 
ceive it may be acceptable <o the 
classic scholar, to know the method 
which has been adopted at Portici 
for unfolding (heir contents. That 
process certainly is of the most te- 
dious nature, but, as vet, no other 
has been successfully attempted ; 



APPAKATliK roil UNROLLING THE UERC1 LAN1 IM PAPYRI. 21 



and when it is considered, thai any 
new mode can only be fried on an 
original and perhaps inestimable 
manuscript, and that such ;t (rial 
may possibly cause the irrecoverable 
destruction of thevery treasure we 
arc in search of, we shall naturally 
be induced to use die utmost delibe- 
ration before we venture <>n an in- 
novation attended with such mani- 
fest danger. A precipitate experi- 
ment with steam upon one of Un- 
rolls now in England has at once 
annihilated its substance, by de- 
stroying in the space of two minutes 
the little cohesion of texture which 
it had possessed befpre. 

Previously to my entering upon 
the detail of the machinery used for 
unrolling the manuscripts, it maybe 
necessary to premise, that, from the 
effects of volcanic heat, they un- 
reduced to a perfect coal, liable to 
be crumbled into a black dust by a 
very i'eeble pressure of the fingers, 
such as might be the state of a tight 
roll of paper alter being exposed to 
the action of an heated oven, with- 
out being absolutely ignited : with 
this favourable difference, however, 
that, instead of paper, they had been 
written on papyrus, a substance 
much stronger and glutinous than I 
our present writing-paper. They ] 
had, like all books of that age, been | 
rolled up with the writing inwards, 
divided into rectangular spaces, 
much in the manner of the pages of : 
modern books. 

As the different lamina of which ; 
the roll is composed, would break 
oil* with the slightest touch, a fresh 
back is successively formed by the 
application of gold-beaters' skin af- 
filed with gum-water. But such 
is the damaged state of the material. 
that without using very minute 



patches of gold-beaters' skin (gene- 
rally not exceeding the sizeof a com* 
mod pea), an upper stratum would 
iifii n be glued to one or more undei 

oiio, through the little holes or 

breaks which sometimes penetrate 

Several Of the lamina. Bat in oid.r 
to render myself as intelligibl 

possible, I beg leave to refer the 

reader to the annexed drawing, 

with its accompany ing scale. 

A JJ C is a wooden frame whi< h 

may be placed on a common ta- 
ble. 
//Two brass rods, supporting 
t e Two brass rests in (he shajie o{ 

half-moons. On these rests 
MM The manuscript is placed, with 
g g 9 some raw cotton, to guard it 
from being injured by the con- 
tact of the metal. 
// // // is so much of the manuscript 
roll as has already been furnished 
with a fresh back of patches of 
gold-beaters' skin. 
.\s soon as a sufficient extent of 
back is thus secured, 
///, silk strings, arc fastened to the 
ends by means of dissolved gum 
Arabic. These strings are sus- 
pended from 
ikikik, a row of pegs (like those ofa 

^ iolin) going through 
o o, an opening in the top of the 
frame. 

In proportion as the laborious 
operation of forming a new back 
proceeds, the work is gently and 
progressively wound up by turning 
the pegs, until one entire pagi 
thus unfolded, which i-« forthwith 
separated from the roll and spr< 
on a (lai board or frame. A draughts- 
man, unacquainted with (he lan- 
guage of the manuscript, ma!, 
faithful fac-simile of it, with all its 
chasms, blemishes, or irregularit 






KING WILLIAM 8 ft 1 \ < , . 



The taking of this ropy is no less a 
work of extreme patience and nicety. 
as it is only by a particular reflec- 
tion of light, that tin- characters, 
whose black colour differs very little 
from (hat ofthe carbonized papyrus, 
can be distinguished. The lac-si- 
mile is next handed lo an antiqua- 
rian, who separates the words a ml 
sentences, supplies any hiatus, and 
otherwise endeavours to restore the 
sense of the original. Bj a like pro- 
cess the succeeding pages are unroll- 
ed ami deciphered, if I may be al- 
lowed to use the expression, until 
the work is completed. The whole 
is afterwards published, both in let- 
ter-press and correct engravings of 
each page, at the expence of the 
government. 

In this tedious andcostly manner, 
one work (a treatise of Philode- 
muson the power of music) has been 
recovered and published. Unfor- 
tunately, it was both the first and 
last with which the lovers of ancient 
literature have been gratified ; and 
the contents of even this were far 
from compensating for either the 
r rouble or expence bestowed upon 
it. Some years ago, the hopes of the 



learnrd were revived by the mission 
of a literary gentleman from Eng- 
land to Naples, for the express pur- 
pose of superintending the establish- 
ment ofPortici, which, by permis- 
sion of the court of Naples, he actu- 
ally conducted for a considerable 
time previous to the invasion ofthe 
French. Hut hitherto none of the 
fruits of his labour have met the 
public eye, although the expecta- 
tions ofthe classic scholar were from 
time to time kept alive by notices of 
that gentleman's progress, inserted 
in some of our periodical journals. 

I cannot close this article without 
expressing a hope, that the manu- 
scripts now in England will ere long 
meet investigation, confident as I 
am, that the ingenuity of our Eng- 
lish artists will be able to suggest 
a more expeditious process for un- 
rolling them, than the one above de- 
tailed ; and that, if the task were at- 
tended with success in this country, 
the court of Palermo might be pre- 
vailed upon to furnish a succession 
of new materials to enrich our stores 
of classic literature. 

PALiEOriULUS. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY, &c. 



I *r.M) you a drawing of a ring, 

supposed to be one that belonged to 
William 111. and which is noticed 
in Ra pin's J/isfony of England. 
A fter giving an account ofthe king's 
ill ;uh, the historian thus continues : 
" A.8 BOOH a, the breath was out of 
his body, the Lords Lexington and 
Scarborough, who were then in wait- 
ing, ordered Koujat to take oil' from 
the king's left arm a black ribbon. 



which tied next to his skin a gold 
ring, with some hair of the late 
queen Mary, which shewed the ten- 
der regard he had for her memory." 
This ring is of pure gold, its breadth 
is | inch, and its length is $ inch. 
Instead of a chrystal, it is covered 
with what is called a picture dia- 
mond, beautifully cut. This draw- 
in «• is enlarged in the wood-cut, for 
the sake of shewing the device, of 



f. \u nr.ro rts. 






which the lighl parts are I very ac- 
curate representation: t h< » >•■ parts 
which are shaded, represent the hail 
of queen Mary, which forms a dark 
ground lor the workmanship : the 
black ribbon, by which if is fastened 
to the king's arm, passes through 
two small loops ;ii the back of the 
ring, the gold of which is almost 
worn through : the workmanship is 

very good, not It) say elegant, lor 

the period in which i( was done. 

It lias been many years in the pos- 
session of the ancestors of Thomas 
Street, Esq. ofHampstead, to whom 



it has descended, and who i 

ii | in it \ satisfactorily thro* his fami- 
ly i onnections ttptoRoujat, who 
• ant-surgeon io William III. 




3Uto Reports. 



L'bi ingcuio non rrat locu<, cone testimonium pronienii--i' ront.ntii- 



It will be unnecessary to say much 
upon the utility of reporting im- 
portant judicial decisions, or the ne- 
cessity of strict accuracy in the his- 
tory of judicial proceedings. The 
courts of justice which administer 
law in particular cases, are bound 
to state the principles and construc- 
tion upon which those decisions may 
be founded, which are to govern 
analogous cases in future. The al- 
most infinite modifications of which 
property is susceptible, and the 
multiplied combinations which arise 
out of these in a commercial coun- 
try, are beyond the reach of positive 
laws, because they are beyond the 
powers of human foresight. The 
wisdom of our constitution has there- 
fore very properly left to the expe- 
rience of our judges, the task, of de- 
ducing from its general propositions , 
such corollaries as come w ithiu the 
range of its intent and meaning : 
these deductions, in time, become 
part of the law itself. Notwith- 



standing its importance, the care of 
collecting these decisions, and the 
principles by which they were 
veined, has been rather accidental 
than established. The record- of 
the courts are indisputable evidence 
of the judgments, and at a remote 
period the reasons of the judgment 
were set forth in the record, but 
this practice has been long discon- 
tinued. According to modern li- 
the most important points of law are 
brought before the courts in tin- 
shape of motions for new trials, or 
cases reserved. In these* rhich 

form so considerable a part of the 
law of England, we depend entirely 
upon the fidelity and accuracj 
reporters, as well for the acta 
the arguments and reasoning of the 
counsel and the court. 

The Year Books are the earliest 
reports we have, altho' the names 
of the reporters themselves, 01 
precise nature of their office, cannot 
now be a- I. This office has 



u 



Law nF.ponr*. 



not been exercised since tlie early ; 
part of Henrj the Eighth's reign, 
but the industry of voluntary re- 
porters has in some measure supplied 
the deficiency . Some of the ablest 
judges of the sixteenth century set 
the example, and by committing the 
more important cases and decisions 
to writing, at the same time digni- 
fied themselves, instructed posteri- 
ty, ami improved the science^ These 
gnat luminaries have been followed 
by other reporters of unequal merit. 
The office of reporter was again re- 
new ed, at the instance of the Lord 
Chancellor Bacon, in the reign <>i 
.lames I. but does not seem to have 
been productive of any material ad- 
vantage, and was soon discontinued. 
In the early part oi' the reign of 
Charles II. an act passed toprohibit 
the printing of law books without a 
licence of the chancellor, the two 
chief justices, and the chief baron, 
which was renewed from time to 
time, but finally expired in the reign 
of King William. The custom of 
fixing the imprimatur was continued 
for many years after the necessity 
fbrit had ceased, and till the judges 
came to a resolution not to grant 
them any longer. Of late years it 
has been customary for the propri- 
etors even of diurnal publications, 
to employ short-hand writers, for 
the purpose of presenting the pub- 
lic with reports of cases of consider- 
able importance or interest ; and it 
has grown so much into practice, 
that they arc constantly expected. 
I ^ whatever is said in public, 
and regards the public, becomes the 
right of the public to repeat and re- 
port : anil whether it be the argu- 
ment of counsel, or the decision of 
the judge, it is public property. 
Words have w ings, and they are no 



r uttered in public situations, 
than they are irrevocably passed to 

all mankind, who are interested in 
them, and can no longer be confined 
to place, to age, or to country. Wc 
know that the O' reeks in general, 
and the Athenians in particular, de- 
lighted in the vehicles ofdiurnal in- 
formation ; and the Romans, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, were not less 
partial to them : Diurua populi 
Rotnani per provinciasj per ever- 
citus, curatius aguntur 9 qttatn 9 ut 
tin// noscatur quid Thrasca fectrit* 
— Tac Ann. lib. XI i. 

If, in spite of our extreme desire 
to be accurate, we should fail in any 
part of' our reports, it is some conso- 
lation, that even such reports may 
have their use, in as much as it was 
the opinion of a very great lawyer, 
that, for the purpose of furnishing 
an argument, one bad report was 
worth an hundred good ones. We 
shall easily obtain credit for the 
truth of the declaration, that our 
ambition has an higher object, tho' 
an humble one, and wc shall have 
attained our utmost aim if wc can 
merit the praise of useful accuracy. 



Before Sir A. Macdonald and a special 

Jury. 

THE KINp V. ROHIIRT MAURIS. 

18th September, IS07, an extent 
issued against the defendant, at the 
suit of J. S. for .£l0,0 l ->2. 

Same day, inquisition taken and 
debt found. 

Sheriffs return, cepi corpus, and 
had seized lands, &C. 

Plea, Michaelmas Term, 1S07. 
— The said defendant, by his attor- 
ney, claimed the property of the 
several goods, &c. mentioned in the 
inquisition to the said writ of extent 



LAW II M'o || Ti. 



fto belong to him ; and he prayed 
oyer of the laid writ and inquisition, 
which being by him heard and un- 
derstood, complained that he had 
been greatly vexed and molested un- 
der colour of the premises ; be< ause 

Protesting that the said writ jnd 
inquisition were respectively insuf- 
ficient in law, where unto he had ao 
occasion, nor was he hound by the 
law of the land, to answer : never- 
theless, 

/•'or Pit (i as to the writ and inqui- 
sition, he saith, that before and at 
the time of issuing the same, the said 
J. S. was a person carrying on trade 
and commerce in copartnership, to 
wit, in copartnership with one T. 1'. 

Protesting, that nothing wai 
due from him, he further says, that 
if any thing reus due from him to 
the said J. S. the same was due to 
J. S. and his copartner, and not to 
J. S. alone; but the said J. S. un- 
justly and to oppress the said de- 
fendant, did wrongfully cause the 
extent to issue against him ; under 
colour that a large sum was due to 
J. S. alone, did wrongfully cause 
the said writ to issue, and the lands, 
Sec. of the said defendant to be seiz- 
ed, and the defendant to be taken 
and detained in prison ; without this, 
that the said defendant, on the day 
of issuing the said writ, was justly 
indebted unto the said J. 8. in 
10,022/. or any part thereof, in man- 
ner and form in the said inquisition 
supposed ; all which he was ready 
to verify : wherefore he prayed judg- 
ment, and that the hand of our lord 
the king should be removed from 
the possession of the said goods, &c. 
of the defendant. 

Replication, 29th Jan. 1806. 
— And as to the pleas of the said de- 
fendant pleaded in bar. Sir V.Gibbs. 

No. I. Vol. I. 



his majesty's attorney-general, on 

behalf of his in i jest y, 

8ayt| that by reason of anything 

in the defendant's plea alleged, the 
hand of our lord the kingshould not 
be removed from the land-. eYc. of 
the defendant, and that the defend- 
ant ought not to be restored to the 

possession thereof; becaa 
Pro rsiTiNG thai the plea of the 

defendant, and the matters therein 
contained, were wholly insufficient 
in law to remo\e the hand of our 
lord the king from the said lands, 

&c. ; yet, for replication as to the 

plea of the defendant as to the said 
writ and inquisition, 

Saith, that the said defendant 
was, on the day of issuing the same, 
and making the seizure aforesaid, 

indebted to the said J. S. in the said 

sum of 10,022/. and he prayed it 

might be enquired ofby the conn rj . 

JoiNDca, 3d Feb. 1806.— And 

the said defendant, as to the said 
plea of the said attorney-general, 
pleaded in reply to the plea of the 
defendant by him pleaded in bar, 
and whereof the s;iid attorney-gene* 
ral prayed might be enquired ofby 
the country, Sec. saith, 

That the said defendant doth the 
like. 

From the evidence produced, the 
court was of opinion, that the fact 
of the debt being due to .'. Bk was 
clearly established : upon which the 
counsel for the defendant called u poa 
the crown to prove the quantum of 
1 he debt: but it was contended, that 
it was not incumbent upon the crown 
in this case to do so : here 

1. The quantum of debt was ad- 
mitted by the protestation. 

2. The inducement to the tra- 
verse, asserting a partnership, and 
stating; the debt, if due at all. sraa 

E 



26 



LAW REPORTS. 



duo to the firm of S. and Co. anil I 
not to S. alone, narrowed the tra- 
verse] and confined it to the single j 
question, to whom the defendant 
as as indebted ? 

In answer to these object ions, the 
defendant's counsel said, 

1. That protesting nothing <•:</* 
due, was a strange way of admitting 
i lie whoh was due. 

'J. That it is not averred in the 
traverse, that the debt was due to S. 
alone, and that the words, " or any 
part thereof," in the traverse, which 
alone was to be looked to, were 
wholly inconsistent with the sup- 
posed admission. 

". That the issue, if double, should 
have been demurred to: no objec- 
tion of duplicity can be taken now ; 
it must be tried as it is. — To this it 
was replied, 

1 . That this teas the constant form 
of a protestation, to keep the issue 
to a single point : it must be consi- 
dered as an admission in the cause; 
though, inorder to prevent the party 
from being concluded afterwards, it 
necessarily takes the form of a denial 
of the fact. 

2. That the traverse, or rather 
the issue, is not to be taken alone, 
but as it is narrowed and pointed by 

inducement. 
The defendant had it in his power 
to deny either the qaantum of the 
debt, or that he owed any thing to 
the person named in the inquisition, 
but that lie could not do both. lie 
had here chosen to do the fatter, and 
; r that purpose admitted the quan- 
tum by his protestation ; and had 
further stated such fact in the in- 
ducement, as restrained the gene- 
rality of the word*, used in tlietra- 

B 3 and confined them to a single 
point, namely, " the person to whom 



the money was dnC," as much as if 
the word "alone" had been in the 
traverse. 

That no argument was to be drawn 
from the Avoids, ii or any part there- 
of," which had been artfully intro- 
duced ; but their effect had been 
foreseen, (hat the// :ccrc dropped in 
tlu replication, and therefore formed 
no part of the issue. 

That the issue, and not the tra- 
verse, was the matter to be tried. 

The common form of replication 
was, " indebted modo et forma;" but 
here the precise sum is mentioned, 
because it had been admitted in the 
pleadings ; and for the same reason 
the words, "• or any part thereof," 
had been left out. 

3 . That it is begging the question 
to say, " that the traverse was de- 
murrable." If restricted (as con- 
tended for on the part of the crown), 
it is good ; but at all events the re- 
plication confines it. 

The court determined, that it was 
not incumbent on the crown in this 
case to prove the quantum of the 
debt. 

For the crown the Solicitor- 
General, Uampier, & Daunct. 

For the defendant, HoLROYDand 

A BBOT. 



Before Lord Ellenborough and a special 
Jury. 

THE WET DOCKS. 

Chesnaut v. Bayncs, Knt. 
This was an action against the 
\\ el Dock Company, charging them 
with having taken into their docks 
2~5 puncheons of brandy belonging 
to the plaintiff, and with having 
kept it so negligently that the plain- 
tiffsustained a loss of 509 gallons, 
there being that deficiency in the 
quantity detween the period when 






i. \w nr.ponT?. 



17 



the brandies were ganged l>v the 
< ccise gangers and the deliver) froin 

tin- docks. The plaintiff insisted 
that thii deficiency was occasioned 
by pillage, ami that the Dot :h ( loin- 
pany being bound to keep all mer- 
chandise secure and sale, were liable 
to nake reparation for the loss. — 
The Dock Company, in their de- 
fence, endeavoured to Bhew that the 
deficiency arose from natural causes: 
first, that the brandies were landed 
on their quays in hot weather, and 
consequently liable to evaporate 
from the rays of the sun; and 
condly, thai the puncheons being 
made of soft Hamburgh timber, open 
and full of veins, the liquor had ex- 
uded through the pores and a great 
loss was sustained by Leakage. 
This last point was replied to by 
stating, that it' the puncheons were 
in the condition stated, it was the 
duly of the Dock Company to have 
given notice of the fact to the plain- 
till', and to have seen that they were 
properly coopered. The plaintiff, 
however, Avas convinced that the 
imperfect state of the puncheons 
was an after-thought ; and it would 
be monstrous, it was said, if it were 
otherwise, as the Dock Company 
had charged the plaintiff between 
2 and 300/. for warehousing, coop- 
ering, and keeping safe the brandies 
in question. Another proof of its 
being an after-thought was, that the 
deficiency in some of the puncheons 
was 10, l"2, and 13 gallons, and in 
others only one : however, as there 
might be some loss by leakage, the 
plaintiff was inclined to make an 
allowance of one gallon in every 
puucheon. and take a verdict for 



the remaining lost. Thii 

sidered to be ■ fair proposal bv hi-c 

lordship, who said, be wished the 

Wet Dock ( Sompanies to understand 

that they were bound to give d 
to the merchants of the imp* 
state of their pum ' id pack- 

ages; to cooper and preserve them, 
if necessary; and, in inert, to give 
ev( r\ requisite car.- and atto 
the merchandise in their cost 

should require. The jury found 

for the plaintiff for a deficiency of 
illons, and thedutj , amount- 
ing: to 220/. 



\ motion was made in ih<i Court 
of Chancery, Dublin, for an attach- 
ment against an attorney, for pub- 
lishing in the newspapers the- pro- 
ceedings of that court in reversing 
the decree of another, as it casi re- 
flections on some of the pa: 
and introduced matter which was 
hurtful to their feelings. 

His lordship said, he was proud 
to find the proceedings of courts 
published, and he wished to see a 
great deal more of thorn, as they 
answered most salutary purposes. 
It shewed the people how to guide 
themselves when similar cases would 
occur: and, if judges acted urong, 
the proceedings ought to be pub- 
lished, lie, for his part, wished 
every decree he bad,or would make, 
was in every newspaper in the Id 
dom : if the press were I 
God knows where il would end. 

Such language does honour t » 
the head and the heart of the n 
and learned lord. 
.Motion 
E2 



'> 



GENERAL RETROSPECT OF POLITICS, FOR THE YEAB 1808. 



Is the present eventful period of 
the history of tlir world, there has 
been scarcely any \<;ir more pro- 
ductive of important occurrences, 
than the year which has just, elaps- 
ed. Nothing could have been 
more gloomy than the prospects of 
the Continent ami of Great Britain 
at the dote of the year 1807. \s 
Austria had shewn herself too weak 
ever to attempt a diversion, while 
the common enemy was breaking 
down the power of Prussia, and 
bumbling Russia, it was impossi- 
ble for those who wished most ar- 
dently for the deliverance of Europe 
to conceive by what power, or com- 
bination of powers, it could here- 
after be effected. Prussia appeared 
not only to have been conquered, 
but even (as Mr. Burke once s-nd 
df France) to be blotted out from the 
list of nations and from the map of 
Europe. Her great military power 
was not only taken away from the 
strength of Europe, but the greater 
part of her celebrated army was 
incorporated with the armies of 
those vassal states, which the com- 
mon enemy had created for the 
purpose of forwarding his views to 
universal empire. The pride of 
Russia has been completely hum- 
bled at the battle of Friedland, 
and by the disgraceful treaty of 
Tilsit. The Emperor Alexander 
convinced the world, that no hopes 
were to be formed from any thing 
offirmness or vigour, which had hi- 
therto been supposed to belong to 
his private character. Before his 
territories had been invaded, or the 
energies of his country tried, he ac- 
cepted such a peace as a sovereign 
who possessed any portion of the 



spirit of Peter the Great would not 
have signed if the French army had 

been before Petersburgh. By this 
treaty he agreed to give up Molda- 
via and Wallachia, which he had 
conquered from the Turks : he also 
agreed to give up the mouths of tin- 
Cattaro, the Russian forts in Dal- 
matia, and the island of Corfu; 
by this means surrendering the 
claims and views which Russia had 
so long entertained for the dismem- 
berment of Turkey, to the French 
Emperor, who had professed to take 
that country under his high pro- 
tection. If it was degrading to the 
sovereign of forty millions of peo- 
ple to purchase security from at- 
tack by such great sacrifices, the 
Emperor Alexander was still more 
degraded by what he was obliged 
to take from his conqueror, than in 
what he gave up. He accepted of 
a part of the dominions of his ally 
the King of Prussia; a part which 
was too small to give any sensible 
increasctothestrength of Russia, but 
sufficiently large to shew the world 
that he was no more restrained by 
any feelings of honour or of princi- 
ple, than the French Emperor. 
Having consented to share in thr 
spoils of his ally, he was admitted 
into Bonaparte's legion of honour, 
and consented to receive, as French 
ambassador, Caulincourt, the mur- 
derer of the Duke D'Enghien, a 
worthy representative of his mas- 
ter. When it is recollected, that 
the murder of the Duke D'Enghien 
w;is the circumstance which first 
induced the Emperor of Russia to 
take up arms against France, it is 
hardly possible to conceive a great- 
er personal humiliation than to be 



RETROIFECT OF POLITIC -. 



89 



obliged to receive in the honoina- 

B 

hie character of ambassador, (lie 

man who was llie principal instru- 
ment in that scene. It would bare 

been a less humiliation to have hern 
Obliged publicly, anil in the face of 
Europe, to beg pardon ol Bona- 
parte lor having expressed L r ri<t at 
the death of that unfortunate prince, 
than to be obliged to hold daily 
conferences with one of his murder- 

an. It was nc( -css.-irv, however, 
for the policy of Bonaparte, that 
Alexander should always feel his 

inferiority; that his mind should ; 
be fully impressed with the idea, 
that it was only by following the; 
system which France should die- j 
tale, that he could entertain any 
hopes of gratifying his own private ; 
ambition. While he continued lo 
act as an obedient vassal, Bona- ; 
parte allowed him to pursue some 
of his favourite schemes of ambition. 
Although France had stipulated 
at the treaty of Tilsit, that Molda- 
via and Wallachia should be re- 
stored lo the Porte, she allowed 
the Russian armies still to occupy 
them, and pointed out a new ob- 
ject of ambition to Alexander in 
the conquest of Sweden. In con- 
sideration of tho*e advantages, 
Alexander was obliged to enter com- 
pletely into that system of vassal- 
which is called by Bonaparte. 
the system of the Continent; to cut 
off all commercial relations with 
Great Britain, and afterwards to 
declare war formally against this 
country. The Russian declaration 
of war is one of the feeblest state 
papers that we have ever seen. 
The attack of Copenhagen, and 
the not assisting her allies in the 
war, were the principal grounds of 
reproach against this country. His \ 



majesty's answer to this declaration 
completely refuted the frivolous 
accusations which formed the sub- 
stance of it, referred to the -.i.if <• 
papers published at the time, which 

justified the expedition on 

ground of aecessitj , self-defi 
and treated the Russian de< lara- 
tioa as merely dictated by France. 
It concluded by declaring, that his 

majesty had BO hostility to Re 
and that as BOOfl as that power 
should emancipate herself from her 
dependaBce on France, the old re- 
lations of peace and friendship be- 
tween the two countries might be 
immediately restored. 

ka to the attack of ( kroeohagen,tl 
has been completely justified upon 
the principle of absolute necessity, 
in as much as not only the known 
character of Bonaparte, but positive 
information from Portugal, left our 
ministers no room to doubt, hut that 
it was the full intent ion of the Frem h 
ruler to unite nil the fleets of tin- 
continental powers in an attack upon 
these islands. The opposition in 
parliament condemned the measure 
violently, on the ground of its being 
inconsistent with that morality for 
which the British nation had always 
been so justly distinguished. It 
retorted upon them by minister-, 
that (when in power) they did not 
seem to be guided by that new mo- 
rality, w hen they attacked Constan- 
tinople, ami endeavoured to carry 
oft'the Turkish fleet, nor when I 
seised Alexandria, nor yet when 
they gave instructions to Lord St. 
Vincent with respect to the Portu- 
guese fleet. These recriminations 
were not otherwise important than 
as tending to shew, that tl 
meats employed by opposition in 
the course of debate, were nut the 



30 



Rrrnnspi:fT op roi.nics. 



principles which had governed them 
when in power. The only doubt 
thai now exists of the measure being 
perfectly justifiable, is, with re- 
spect to the extend and degree of 
danger to this country from allow- 
ing the Danish fleet to he armed and 
equipped ; for if the capture or de- 
struction of that Heel Mas essential 
to the security of this country, all 
the world must acknowledge the 
measure to be justified by the neces- 
sity in v. hich it originated : self-de- 
fence, which is the first law of na- 
ture, is also the first principle of 
morality, and there is no maxim in 
politics more universally assented 
to, than that " salus popvli supremo. 
lev est." As to the other reproach 
which was thrown out against this 
country by Russia, and in the jus- 
tice of which all Europe agreed, 
that we were the first to stimulate 
others to war, and the last to expose 
ourselves to the dangers of it, this 
reproach appeared but too well 
sounded, ft was certainly impossi- 
ble for England to send armies to 
the defence of the Continent equal 
to those which France could pour 
forth for its suhjugation ; but it by 
no means followed, that because we 
could not he principals in a conti- 
nental war, we should therefore 
give no military assistance to those 
who were fightingthe battles of Eu- 
rope; nor docs it seem to be a neces- 
sary consequence, that because we 
unable to do every things that 
therefore we should do nothing. It 
was utterly inconceivable to the 
people of the Continent, that this 
united kingdom, with its population 
of sixteen millions, with an immense 
army upon paper, and having abun- 
dant means to equip and ships to 
convey her armies, should yet s- e 



nation after nation overthrown with- 
out making the slightest effort to 
si\e them. Bonaparte took advan- 
tage of this feeling upon the Con- 
tinent, to calumniate the British na- 
tion, to describe them as worthless 
and dangerous allies, and to make 
all other nations at least indifferent 
about the fate of this country. On 
the 1 7th of December, 1 807, he pub- 
lished his celebrated decree at Mi- 
lan, declaring the British islands in 
a state of blockade, and denationa- 
lizing the ships of any neutral power 
which submitted to be searched at 
sea by British ships of war. At this 
time there was not a spot ofthcCon- 
t inent of Europe open to British com- 
merce except Sweden ; and the Unit- 
ed States of America had, by their 
1 non-importation and embargo laws, 
entered into the viewsof Bonaparte. 
This country was threatened not on- 
ly with the loss of its commerce, 
with famine in the case of a bad har- 
vest, but with the physical force of 
all Europe, combined and directed 
by the genius and energy of the 
ruler of France. 

Such was the situation of the 
country at the conclusion of the year 
1807. On the first day of the 
year 1808, theAusf rian ambassador, 
Count Sfahremburgh, presented a 
note to Mr. Canning, the secretary 
for foreign affairs, stating that he 
was authorized (but not mentioning 
whether by his own master or Bona- 
parte), to propose that this country 
should sendplenipotentiaries toParis 
to treat for peace. Thcanswerofour 
government was, that we were also 
disposed for peace, but that before 
plenipotentiaries were appointed, it 
wasneccssary to know on what terms 
France was willing to treat. A few 
days after receiving this answer. 



IlETnoSPr.CT 01 POLITIC!. 






Count Stahremburgh applied foi bis 
passport and left the country. In 
both the overture of Count Stahrem- 
Ijur^Ii and the offer ofRusiia tome* 
diate after the treaty of Tilsit (in 
which a month was the time speci- 
fied for England to express her as- 
sent), Bonaparte seemed (<» adopt a 
tone more resembling a summons to 
the garrison ofa besieged city, than 
n proposal of sincere peace i<> a great 
and equal power, [f ministers had 

discovered an eagerness to welcome 

proposals offered in such a tone, 
they would have compromised the 
honour and security of the country ; 
for every Briton must feel, thai 

there could be neither honour nor 
security in any treaty which im- 
plied a superiority in our enemy. 
He had some grounds for assuming 
a tone of superiority over those con- 
tinental nations which he had con- 
quered, but certainly not towards 
this country, over which no triumph 
had been obtained. The conduct 
of ministers on these occasions was 
arraigned in parliament by some of 
their opponents, whoseeraed to think 
peace upon any terms desirable, and 
who appeared to be so dazzled with 
the genius of Bonaparte, and the 
splendour of his successes, as to con- 
sider him invincible. The present 
ministers, however, in this mosta- 
larming crisis, did not despair of 
the fortunes of their country, and 
the result has already justified their 
hopes. There can be no doubt that 
the prospects of this country and 
of Europe are brighter than they 
were at the close of the year 1807, 
or than they won hi have been it 
England had condescended to ac- 
cept what Bonaparte had been 
pleased to dictate under the name 
of peace. 



The principal events which marl 
the history of they eai 1808, are the 
attempts made by the Emperor of 
Russia t under the dictation •/ Bona- 
parte) to subjugate S\sf<\<-u, 
attempts of Bonaparte i" make him- 
self absolute master of Spain, Use 
expulsion ofthe French troops from 
Portugal, the incorporation of the 
Papal territories and Tuscany with 
the French empire, the arraanx 
in lustria, and the revolutions in 
Turkey. The general result oi the t 
operations has been, th;tt Russia in ■ 
whole year has not been able lot on- 
(pier Sweden, or advance beyond 
the province of Finland ; while, on 
the other hand, she has lost a fled 
at Lisbon, and has been defeated in a 
naval action in the Baltic. The 
French Emperor, who governed 

Spain completely by his iniiin 

bas put every thing to hazard inorder 
to obtain the appearance only «•: .> 
more complete and absolute domi- 
nion over that country : in this at- 
tempt he has experience I . 
losses, and whatever may be tl 
rial issue of it, it appears als 
certain, that Spanish Aroei 

probably the Spanish navy, will be 
w ithdrawn from his influence; while 
Spain will, for many years, arbeth r 
victorious or beaten, employ a e 
siderable portion of his armies. ( 
the side of Austria and TurL 
rope appears to h;:\ e gain* : 
derably in strength during the year. 
Austria has at lengthy learned iu 
school ofadversitj , that regularar- 
mies are not sufficientto save a coun- 
try from such an enemy as Bonn- 
parte. The Emperoi of Austria has 
appealed to the spirit ofhis people, 
and they have answered his utn 
wishes. By the immense levies « !;ii h 
have been made, ".nu tiic 



at 



RETKOSPECT OF POLITICS. 



of their national militia, thedefensive 
force ofAastria has been nearly don- 
bled in the course of the present 
year. The Turkish empire, which 
appeared sunk to the lowest degree 
of weakness, has gained consider- 
ably in strength bj ils last revolu- 
tion : and by the energy and talents 
displayed by its grand vi/ier, ftfus- 
tapba Bairactar, it is no longer that 
feeble country over which a French 
army might march without opposi- 
tion to the conquest of Persia and 
India. Turkey, like Austria, now 
presents to view a great nation pre- 
p Rling itself for an important crisis. 
The prejudices of ages have yield- 
ed to the necessity of the times, and 
Eastern Europe may yet present a 
formidable barrier against the uni- 
versal empire to which Bonaparte 
aspires. To these events we must also 
add,tbeexperiment which (lie Unit- 
ed States of America have made, of 
starring Europe into compliance 
with their terms, by the operation 
of their embargo act : an experi- 
ment which, however, has complete- 
ly failed ; for, besides that they 
have been the principal, if not the 
only sufferers, they have taught our 
West India planters to appreciate 
their own resources, and have lent 
a fostering hand to the more extend - 
ultivation of our own Trans- 
atlantic dominions. From these con- 
siderations it will appear, that the 
prospects of the world are some- 
what brighter now than they were 
at the close of the year 1S07. 

The war which the Emperor of 
Russia commenced against Sweden 
in (he beginning of 1808, was not 
preceded by any provocation or 
cause of complaint on the part of 
the Kiii', r of Sweden. The Empe- 
rpi Alexander (under the dictation 



of Bonaparte) invited him to join in 
a confederacy against England : he 
refused to do so, and the emperor 
unmediatelypublished a declaration 
ofwar against him, on the ground, 
that ,k (he relations between Russia 
ami Sweden must be no longer un- 
certain." The court of Denmark 
also about the same time published 
a declaration ofwar against Sweden, 
containing the sameexpression. This 
phrase was evidently of French ori- 
gin, and meant that Sweden must 
resign its own independence, and 
act in the same manner that Bona- 
parte prescribed to his other vassals. 
The King of Sweden answered the 
Russian manifesto with great firm- 
ness, and stated that he had resisted 
an offer made to him in the last year 
by Bonaparte, of recovering all the 
provinces which Charles XII. had 
lost to Russia, if he would join 
the continental confederacy against 
England. Formidable preparations 
of war were made both by Russia and 
Denmark. A very considerable Rus- 
sian army entered Swedish Finland 
in the month of February, and 
threatened nothing less than to 
inarch to Stockholm in the course of 
the campaign ; a combined French 
and Danish army threatened to cross 
the Sound, and invade Sweden in 
that epiarter : fortunately, however, 
for the King of Sweden, the capture 
of the Danish licet in the preceding 
year rendered this measure imprac- 
ticable. He, on his side, made vi- 
gorous preparations for carrying on 
the Avar against both Russia and 
Denmark : he sent a considerable 
army into Finland, and another 
force to invade Norway. On the 
side of Norway, the Swedish troops 
had at the commencement of the 
campaign considerable advantages, 



ri;tro'-im ( i OF for. i nr -. 



33 



1 i ;il'i( wards obliged to re- 

turn lo tbeii old positions. ( m the 
side id Finland, f he Swedish armies 
have foil-!. i with considerable spi- 
:mk1 have often defeated the 
I'd lianarmics; but they were never 
able to repair the losses thai bad 
lined in the first irruption 
oftbeRu sinn army, which advanc- 
ing nnexpci tedly, and with an im- 
mense superiority of force, occupi- 
ed the whole of Southern Finland, 
and captured the strong town of 
Sweaburgh, in the first two months 
of the wsii The Swedish troops 
have, however, shewn the most dis- 
tinguished bravery, and the Rus- 
sians appear unequal to the execu- 
tion of their threat ot marching to 
Stockholm. When it was known 
in England, that the Emperor of 
Russia had thus unexpectedly de- 
clared war against our ally, and thai 
Sweden Mas threatened on all sides 
by enemies, no time was lost by the 
present ministers to send a consider- 
able force to his assistance. Alex- 
ander had chosen the season of u in- 
ter for his attack, both because the 
morasses of Finland are then frozen 
over and present no obstacles to the 
march of an army, and because at 
that season of the year no British 
auxiliary force could enter the Hal- 
tie. The fortress of Sweaburgh for 
the same reasons \\a.> unable to oiler 
any effectual resistance, and the 
grand Swedish flotilla, which was 
locked up in the harbour by frost, 
fell into the hands ;■! the Russians. 
No sooner, however, was the Baltic 
open to a British fleet, than it was 
entered, not only by a considerable 
naval force, but an expedition con- 
sisting of near 1500 men, under 
Ike command of Sir John Moore, 
arrived at Gotfenburgh. This force 
No. 1. Vol. 1. 



for, bul (he dan- 
it. At the time of tl l 
• difference of opinion aro e be- 
n the King <>. 

.nt the 

empfc ps '• all thai 

iv publicly known oft! 
that the King of Sweden, i tmslder- 
ring his frontiers safe on the sic 1 
Norway, and not fearing an mv i n 
from Copenhagen, wbhed to em- 
ploy the British troops in lial and, 
upon expeditions which appeared 
to Sir John Moore to be very im- 
prudent. The King of Sweden 
irritated at the opposition 10 bis 
. and the British army return- 
ed. It has never been publicly 
stated what were the proj 

petitions of which Sir John V 
disapproved, but it was et idenf, 

that upon (he arrival of the British 

force at Gotteuborgh, Su 
not on that side exposed to so much 
danger as was apprel ! '• I 
that the continuance of a British 
force in that neighbourhood would 
be unnecessary. The return of the 
British expeditiondid not, however, 
alter the disposition of the King of 
Sweden, who continued the war with 
great firmness, and accepted with 
thankfulness the naval assistance 
which this country afforded him. 

The ver.t, however, which 

marks the history of the year I 
and which (it Providence so wills 
it) may form a new ara in the his- 
tory of the world, i-. the rising of 

Spanish nation against Bona- 
parte. Although the French tr 
have a second time entered Madrid, 
the final issue of that stniirirle has 
not been yd determined : and if 
the jnst cause of 9p tin should ulti- 
mately p; ndenceof 

F 



HETROSPECT OF POLITICS. 



the other nations of Europe may 
yet be secured, ami ultimately be 
freed from the apprehension of fall* 
Ins; under the degrading yoke of an 
upstart military adventurer, an h<> 
boldly and without disguise avows 
his intention of reducing all nations to 
an obedience to his will. The prin- 
cipal events of the Spanish revolu- 
tion arc so fresh in the recollection < 
of our readers, that it will be un- 
necessary to repeat them, and it 
would much exceed our limits to 
dwell upon the events A\hich have 
recently taken place in that country. 
There can be no doubt but that there 
has tor many years existed among 
the grandee* of Spain an ardent 
feeling for the honour of their coun- ' 
try, and a deep-rooted indignation ' 
against that upstart favourite, the 
Prince of the Peace, whose base po- 
lity had reduced Spain so low as to 
be considered by Bonaparte as a 
part of his federative empire. The 
inarching of French armies through 
Spain under pretence of occupying 
Portugal, and afterwards the trea- 
cherousoccupationof Barcelona and 
Pampeluna by the French, opened 
the eyes of the Spanish nation. — 
The tumult at .Aranjuez made the 
old king think it prudent to abdicate 
lii> crown, ami his son was welcomed 
to the throne and proclaimed with 
the greatest enthusiasm all over 
Spain. The treachery by which 
Bonaparte persuaded the royal fa- 
mily of Spain to meet him at Bay- 
onne, their forced abdication, and 
subsequent imprisonment, the en- 
trance of the French into Madrid, 
and the massacre of the 2d of M >v. 
are e\ ents tush in the recollection of 

c\ery body. The consequence has 
been, the simultaneous rising of all 

the provinces of Spain, the capture 



: of Dupont, the defeat of Monrry, 
the noble defence of Saragossa, and 
the struggle which Spain is now 
maintaining against the whole pow- 
er of Bonaparte. 

The great success which the Spa- 
niards had in the beginning of the 
J war, and the defeats and losses w hicb 
1 the French armies sustained in 
Spain, raised the public feeling in 
this country to the highest enthusi- 
asm, and to a confident hope that 
the time had at length arrived, that 
would witness the overthrow of the 
gigantic power of Bonaparte. Ho 
was considered as already conquer- 
ed, and our politicians argued, with 
considerable shew of reason, that if 
the Spanish people were able to do 
so much unorganized, undisciplin- 
ed, and unarmed, they would be 
infinitely stronger after they had 
had six months time to be armed, 



equipped, and organized. They 
also thought, that Bonaparte had 
been quite intoxicated with his for- 
mer successes, and that he had com- 
muted a capital error in endeavour- 
ing to conquer by force a country 
which he before ruled completely 
by his influence. Whether this 
last opinion be well or ill founded, 
must be determined by the result; 
but there is no doubt, that having 
taken the resolution absolutely to 
Conquer Spain, he took his measures 
with great craft and ability. Under 
the shew ofmarchingthrough Spain 
(o Portugal, he took care to seize 
the strong fortresses of Barcelona 
and Pampeluna. By fraud and 
treachery he got (he whole royal fa- 
mily of Spain in his hands, and 
prevailed on them to abdicate their 
rights to the throne. He also got 
a number of the first personages in 
I Spain to a^ree to the constitution 



RFTnosPLC r oj i-f.i.i iim. 



m 



which was settled at Bayonne, and 
which was certainly better than the 
wretched form of government before 
subsisting in Spain. He offered (his 
constitution with his brother ,lo- 



withthe Spanish nation werenoto- 
rioui to nil En rope j and that he 

should not depart from them. He 

■poke with great indignation ol the 
indecorum ol calling the a bole Spa- 



seph for their kin«-, ami threatened nisli nation insurgents, and expi 



them with subjugation in the event 
of tin ii refusal. The army \\ fii< li 
lie had in Spain was either not suf- 
ficiently numerous, ->r sufficiently 
well directed, to crash a general 
rising of the Spanish nation, but 
ha was conscious of the great re- 
serves which he could bring up. 

Austria was in the mean time mak- 
ing the most formidable prepara- 
tions. Thi' destruction of the Pa- 
pal power, the seizing the persons 
ol the royal family of Spain, and 
the avowed intention of conquering 
that country, made Austria clearly 
tea the danger a Inch awaited her if 
she continued any longer inert. 
Bonaparte perceived how formida- 
ble a diversion the Emperor of Aus- 
tria was capable of making, and 
what a chance there was of the rest 
of Europe following the example of W bether his armies are sufficiently 
Spain : he therefore left the Iron- numerous to occupy all Spaii . 
tiers of Spain, and went to Erfort whether the Spanish nation has sul- 
in Saxony, to meet the Emperor of ficient spirit ami resources to >■■ 
Russia. In these conferences he his armies a second time, remains 
established his ascendency over yd to be decided. 
Alexander, and all Europe were in- . The grand question now with re- 
formed that the two emperors act- sped to British politics is this: Has 
ed in the most perfect concert. Their the country done its duty ? or ! 
imperial majesties, however, chose ; ministers done their duty in gi 
to act the farce of offering peace to adequate support to the cause of 
England ; but the terras of it were to I Spain? There is no doubt but tint 
be, that the Spanish nation (whom '■ we have been liberal in granting all 

manner of supplies, of money, amis. 



ed surprise at finding tin- I.'n i 

of Russia so blindly led by the 

French E m peror, as to sanction the 
most monstrous asurpation \ i 

' had ever been known in the history 
| of the world. Sucfa a deelar rtion 

certainly did great credit to the 
feelings of the government, ami 
might be productive of great benefit 

to the cause of Spain, if that < 
is not already too far gone, li 
parte advanced rapidly from Er- 

fortto the frontiers of Spain, and 

took the command of the great ar- 
my which had been march in; 
that country while he was holding 
conferences with the Empen r of 
Russia. His campaign has hitherto 
been brilliant : In- has defeated the 
armies of IJlake and Castanos, 
entered Madrid as a conqueror. 



they were pleased to designate as 
insurgents) should be abandoned. 
His majesty's ministers, however, 
^ery properly rejected such an over- 
ture: ami a declaration has been 
issued, stating that the engagements 
which Lis majesty had contracted 



and ammunition: Spain has 
knowledged this service with the 
sincerest gratitude. As to our ar- 
mies, the Spaniards did not in the 
instance wish for their co-ope- 
ration. The junta politely 

F 8 



C6 



T.i rr.nAnv INTELLIGENT! B. 



refused the offered co-operation of 
General Spencer's corpq with tbatof 
Castanos in the attack of Duponl ; 
and the junta of Gallicia, even after 
the unfortunate battle of Rio Seco, 
did noi wish Sir Arthur Wellesley 
to co-operate u ith their arm v under 
Blake. Neither the great Northern 
nor the great Southern arniyof Spain 
wished our direct co-operation, and 
each of them pointed out, thai the 
most effectual service we could ren- 
tier Spain, was to expel the French 
from Portugal. This service has 
been rendered, but not in a manner 
i ttisfy the first expectations of 
the nation. A public inquiry has 
been instituted into the causes of 
theconvention by which the French 
were allowed to evacuate Portugal 
with their arms and baggage; and 
as far as public opinion can judge, 
on the evidence which has been laid 
before the Court of Inquiry, its re- 
sult must be, that Sir Arthur Wel- 
le -ley would have made the victory 
of \ emiera most glorious and deci- 
sive, if he had not been restrained 
by Sir Harry Burrard ; and that by 
the favourable opportunity bein<T 
lost, the situation of the French was 



so much improved, that, in the 

opinion of all the other lieutenant- 
generals, as well as Sir Hew Dalrym- 
plc, they were entitled to the favour- 
able terms of the eon\ enlion. .As 

far as the question relates to minis- 
ters, it is now reduced to this : who 
was it that recommended Sir Harry 
Burrard to be emploj ed, and there- 
by superseded Sir Arthur W ellesley 
in the command of our army in Por- 
tugal r Whether there has been m.y 
unnecessary delay in marching the 
British army from Portugal into 
Spain, does not as yet appear. The 
feeling of this nation for the cause 
of Spain is so general and so strong, 
that we may venture to say, the 
point upon which \hc merits of any 
administration could be now con- 
sidered to turn, is, whether they 
had doneenough for Spain ? or whe- 
ther it was not possible for them to 
have done something more than (hoy 
have done ? On these questions, the 
opinions of the ablest men in the 
nation will be pronounced in the ap- 
proaching parliament, and in our 
next publication we shall be able to 
enter more fully into the consider- 
ation of them. 



LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. 



Tire Medical and Chirurgical So- 
ciety of London will shortly publish 
the first volume of their Records. 
It -will contain some very valuable 
contributions from practitioners of 
lirst-rale eminence in the metro- 
| 

Mr. C'eorGT Montagu's supple- 
ment to \\i*JIiston/ of British She /is 
I-. nearly r> ■ Ij for publication. 

Th I . R. Wares will shortly 
put to pre^s a Dictionary of the 
Middle Language- of England, or , 



the Ageof S/iaksprarc, on (he plan 
of Johnson's Dictionary. 

Dr. ('. Burnej has nearly com- 
pleted, at the Cambridge press, his 
very learned work on the Chorusses 
of JEsehylus, and it will soon be 
published. 

Mr. Beloe's third volume of 
i l/ucdo/e s of Litt nil I' 1 1 and scarce 
Books will appear in the course of 
this month. 

The author of the Military Men- 
tor is preparing for publication 



I.i i i;i: \ ;: . i.k.i m i.. 






three volumes of Essay i on tin 

Jil of liar, and On Modem Wi- 
lli an/ Tact. 

Mr. John Murdoch of !! irt« 

street, has nearly i 01 ipleted a work 

which he intends to publish by 

rip t ion, i<> be entitled the hit - 

tionarj/ of Distim 

consist of three alphabets, contain- 
ing, 1. Words the same in sound, 
hut of different spelling and 
oification, including such as have 
any similarity of sound. 2. Words 
that vary in pronunciation ami 
meaning, ;i> accentuated or < oni 
cd. S. The changes in sound and 
sense produced by the addition of 
the letter e. 

The Board of Agriculture pro- 
ceed in their design of completing 
the County Reports. Berkshire; 
Leicestershire, Oxfordshire, and 
Derbyshire, are in the press, and 
expected to appear shortly . 



We allow a greater proportion of 
room to our examination of the two 
following articles, because we think, 
their merits are not sufficiently 
known or appreciated. 
Commercial Arithmetic, or a 
method for teaching that science 
with facility, and of enabling 
learners to instruct them selves 
without atnasti r. By Christopher 
jDubost, 1 vol. I'Jmo. pp. 228. 
St. 6d. 
The Elemei imercc, or a 

treatise o i diffi rent ctt \ ula ions. 
operation? of exchange, arbitra- 
tion* of ( Xi k an i . 'atioms in 
exi indbanking operations, 
exchange circulations, operation* 
of i d bullion, pars of ex- 
change and coins, practical s 
culatiom in merchandise, de- 
scription of monies, weights, and 



mea ■ } i 

andmea f logarithms, 

I of < 'ini- 
one. 
author, 2 vols. 8vo. \>\). 
!/. . 

>ng the /"• a publication 
h hicfa the < i.-iM c i.i nui 
has bad to bo • ears 

the aboi «' two works h< ar a 
prominent rank. To those stu 
w ho valuemathematical kne 
as much on account of the prai 
use oj its i - for the habit of 

demonstrative deduction which the 
\ oung mind imbi] 
step by step, the chain of unerring 

evidence on which its the. inn. 

progressively founded — Mr. I)u- 
bost's Commercial Arithmetic will 
prove a most useful and Interesting 
production. The author apjp 
very justly, to differ in opinion 
from the g« Q( rality of our w i 
on elementary arithmetics, wh 
judge from their works, conceive 
that to he tin- easiest D idl- 

ing mathematics] which (dispensing 
with all reasoning) drily and me- 
chanically dictates rule after rule, 
and depends on the credulity or 
confidence of the pupil for taking 
upon trust a volume of nhstract 
precepts without any evidence of 
their truth : or which (advancing 
one step farther) ventures to add in 
abstruse algebraical notes _ 
ly overlooked by the learner,) the 
proofs of the rules given in the I 
methods which reduce the moat 
elevated, and indeed the only cer- 
tain branch of human knowk 
to a mere mechanical oper it in, ai.d 
cannot he too soon or too -;i 
ly discouraged, beennac they are 
founded on error : for experi 
s shewn, that the pupil will more 



38 



MTr.R AK V 1 INTELLIGENCE. 



readily understand, and more firmly 
retain, thai of which the truth hai 
been brought home to his under- 
standing, than a chaos of rules. 
which lie has been made to learn by 
rote, however carefully and neatly 
he may hare recorded the whole 
man in his cyphering-book. 

We do not apologize to our read- 
en tor this apparent aberration. 
It is the pedantic manner of teach- 
ing arithmetic of many ofour'nrj- 
xate seminaries (for most of our 
eminent public schools consider any 
thing but Latin and Greek, and 
mathematics in particular, either 
below their dignity or beyond their 
province) : it is, we are convinced, 
this pedantry of system that creates 
the disgust in our youth for nu- 
merical science, and launches them 
into the counting-houses or public 
offices so totally ignorant of a 
branch of knowledge, the want of 
•which they feel at every step in 
their career, without then having 
either the application or the time 
for supplying that chasm in their 
edncation. 

Mr. Dubost's Commercial Arith- 
metic sets out from the first elements 
of the science, and gradually leads 
the learner from one problem to 
another, through every rule neces- 
sary for the purposes of a commer- 
cial life. J lis method, although 
singularly concise, is perspicuous ; 
and his demonstrations will be 
found intelligible to the most com- 
mon capacity, being unincumbered 
by algebraical notations. Thi 
manner in which he introduces the 
doctrine of decimals at the very 
outset of (he work, by combining it 
at once with our numeral system. 
i- novel and ingenious; the rule 
given for division of decimals (a 



stumbling-block in many arith- 
metical treatises) is both simple and 

well explained. The chapter on 

fractions is divested of it ^ usually 

mysterious and dry complexion, 
and the rules tor their multiplication 
and division are well defined and 
demonstrated. The ride of three 

is, as it ought to be, built upon 

geometrical proportion ; and from 

the same doctrine Mr. I), has de- 
duced one of the most important, 
though least understood, rules in 

commercial arithmetic, the rule of 

equation ) or. as it is g nerally term- 
ed by Mich of our English arithme- 
ticians as have noticed this species 
of calculation at all, conjoined pro- 
portion, upon which, as he justly 
observes, the principal calculations 
on business are founded. 

The few pages devoted to tin? 
article of exchanges are sufficient 
to give correct ideas of a subject 
which, in most elementary treatises 
we know of, is little more than a 
confused compilation of antiquated 
and erroneous statements, copied 
from preceding works equally loose 
and incorrect in that respect. A 
short chapter comprehending the 
first rudiments of algebra closes the 
work. Here the lew analytical 

questions appear tous so judiciously 

chosen, and their solut ion developed 
in so clear and systematic a manner, 
as 10 persuade us that this little ap- 
pendix will tend, not only to remove 
the tenor with which young begin- 
ners in mathematics are accustom- 
ed to view that science, but even 
I., stimulate their ardour lor the 
attainment of ulterior perfection 
therein. 

Such are the leading features of 
this valuable little treatise. It is 
but justice due to its author, whom 



T. itt. riAnr i\Tt i.r.ir.r. \i r . 



I 



xvc have not the pleasure of know- bost : he not only tppetn f<> have 
ing, to give our rooit cordial appro- diligently consulted many <>f » Ji-- 
bation i<> his efforts, and strongly above writers, but r.i o to haw 



/" recommend liisCommei cialAi ith- 
tnetic ax a standard work both for 
our seminaries and for private or 

self instruction, convinced as wi- 
nn', that it will not fail to extend 
and diffuse mathematical knowledge 

■ 

among the rising generation. 

Mr. Dubost's Elements of Com* 
merce maj be looked upon as the 
sequel to Ins ( ommerciaL irithmetic. 
lis principal contents will !>e found 
enumerated in the title-page. That 
a work of this description, involving 
<hc whole theory of commerce, 
should so long have remained a 
desideratum ina country where trade 

has been carried to (he greatest 

extent and highest degree of per- 
fectibility, has, iii some measure, 
the appearance of a paradox ; but 
it ought to be remembered, that 

the best treatises on subjects of any 
particular science have rarely ema- 
nated from the country where that 
science has been most successfully 
cultivated. The publications both 
old and modern, exclusively treat- 
ing of exchange, monies, weights, 
and measures, which, from time to 
time, have been published in this 
country, do not contradict our as- 
sertion. The greater number ofi 
them term with errors of incorrect- 
ness or ignorance, nay, frequently 
■with downright nonsense, copied 
from the nonsense of preceding 
publications. Their authors have 
preferred such a mode of writing to 
the trouble of searching into the 



obtain* d much original information 
from personal ei pei iem e and ob- 
servation, embracing the mi 
changes in different cotmti i 

It is not v. iihin our limits to pre- 
sent our readers n ith s regular ab- 
stract of the contents of a work so 

elaborate and comprehensive as fhe 

present tn atise ; we therefore shall 
content ourselves with tracing a 

short ski teh of the author's plan. It 
sets out with an exposition of the dif- 
ferent calcu la I ions or. urring in mcr- 
cantile transactions, as Tare, Tret, 
Commission, Insurance-, Interest, 
Discount, &c. exemplified by ap- 
posite practical questions. This 
chapter, as well asevery subsequent 
one, is preceded by an appropriate 
and in many instances philosophical 
introduction, setting forth the nature 
and primary principles of the par- 
ticular subject under consideration. 
Mr. J), next proceeds to the sub- 
ject of exchange, which he prefaces 
by a full illustration of the neces- 
sary arithmetical rules, and parti- 
cularly of the Rule of Equa 
universally adopted throughout his 

work. After elucidating theopera- 

tions of exchange for every com- 
mercial place of note throughout 
the world, in upwards of 200 pages, 

he enters on the important doctrine 
of arbitrations of exchanges, and 

illustrates, by copious and well se- 
lected examples, the mode of de- 
ducing a proportionate rate of ex- 
change between two places, from 



classic works of a Knee, UerhareU, ' the known quotations of the courses 
NeUkcnbrecher^ P<utct<w,I!ircard. ' of one or more intermediate cities : 
Grrenudeaif, and others on the same and in the next chapter, on banking 
subject. A reproach of this na- ; operations. Mr. I). points out the 
rare does not attach to Mr. Du- '| rules for computing the profit or losti 



40 



T, I T I. !t \ !l V INTELLIG1 



on projected ipeculations in mat- 
ters of exchange by meani of arbi- 
trations. 
The first volume concludes w ith ;i 

> icw of /.,/'.;,. < < illation*, 
which ;ir'' t lassed under two h 

u 1. Operations by which the 
posg smi;>, of limited capital ai 
abled to undertake and sustain con- 
cerns of thr greater magnitude, or 
by \\ bich a compel, acy to future re- 
sponsibility is made subservienl to 
immediate or ultimate advantage. 

c< 8. ( Operations to which govern- 
ment and publicestablishmentshave 

occasional recourse, either to fulfil 
subsidiary treaties, or to procure the 
importation of bullion and specie. 
or to effect a rise or fall in ex- 
changes." 

As an instance ol'a speculation of 
the latter kind, Mr. I), gives a very 
interesting account of an operation 
by which Spain was enabled to dis- 
charge hei subsidy to the French 
government in the year 180 J, at a 
time when the resources of that pe- 
ninsula had, by epidemical disease, 
famine, a parabzed commerce, and 
tin- non-arrival of the expected gal- 
leons from America, been reduced 
to the lowest ebb of insolvency, and 
when the modern Attila, unmoved 
by such accumulated distress, stern- 
ly insisted on the immediate? pay- 
ment of his tribute. En this dilem- 
ma French ingenuity, which has 
perfected the art of rapine and plun- 
der into a system, was not deficient 
in expedients. An exchange cir- 
dilation, in which Loudon itself! 
acted a prominent part, was i'orth- 

with set on toot between the princi- 
pal commercial cities in Europe, 

w ho-e wealthy merchants supported 
the operation with their capital and 

credit. Bills were drawn from one 



place on a second, from a second on 
;i third, and so on. For these bills 
France obtained present cash, while 
the period consumed by their circu- 
lation enabled Spain to await the 
arrival of bullion from her colonies. 

and thereby to appropriate in time 
sufficient funds for the discbarge of 
the debt afloat ; an object which 
appears to have been attained in the 
end with even considerable advan- 
tage to Spain. 

[n the second volume Mr. I). pro« 
reeds to the operations of specie and 
bullion. The examples given under 
this head, embracing not only the 
principal gold and silver coins of 
every country, but also the mode of 
estimating those metals in bars, are 
copious and (dear. His definition 
and illustration ofParofExck4mge i 
an expression so frequently used and 
so little understood by many nun- 
chants themselves, are at once no- 
vel, correct, and intelligible to any 
reader of common sense. A sepa- 
rate chapter on practical specula- 
tions in merchandize is next intro- 
duced, and immediately followed 
by the important subject of monies, 
weights, and measures, alphabeti- 
cally arranged according to the 
names of the countries and places 
which have any pretensions to mer- 
cantile notice. The republican in- 
novations in the monies, coins, 
weights, and measures of France, 
are here fully explained under their 
proper heads ; anil other modern 
changes relating to this subject, are 
duly noticed in their respective 
places. Eleven voluminous tables 
are added, exhibiting at one view 
the coin parativeproport ions between 
the monies of exchange, coins, mea- 
sures, and weights of foreign coun- 
tries, and those of England. And 



MTERAK Y IN I I: I i 



41 



this volume, fin ill;, , Concllldci Willi 

.1 i.i ief expoi ition of the doctrine ol 
logai itbmti,ai lain ithmical 
especially adapt* .1 to this treatise. 
Sik li an appendix u u necessary i<> 
the plan of the author, since, wher- 
ry i-i his calculations throughout the 
work could be abi idged bj the um 
of logai iiliii'.s, he has availed him* 
seli of their assistance; not, how- 
ever, without explaining the na- 
ture of (heir application in every 
i i fully u to enable the student 
to adopt them in any other corre- 
sponding calculation. 

Su< li are the outlines of a per* 
formance which reflects the highest 
degree of credit on its author* We 
feel pleasure in taking upon our- ! 
selves the responsibility of an un- 
qualified recommendation, and sin- 
cerely hope Mi. Dubosl's labours 
Will be rewarded by the introduc- 
tion of his Elements of Commerce 
into every counting- house of respec- 
tability in this country. 



There arc but few of the musical 
productions of the ! isl year that can 
supportanypretensions beyond those 
of humble mediocrity* That the 
English nation can be pleased, or 
even amused, \\ Ufa the wretched ope* 
ratical oli^s which have been pre* 
.' 1 during this pei i< 
proof (if others ft ere wanting), that 
our taste for music is on the decline. 
That we have exchanged melody 
for counterpoint, and difficulties of 
laboured execution for substantial 
harmony^ has long been observed 
and regretted ; but since the revi- 
val of a uste for music in this 
country, we have seldom had the 
opportunity of noticing composi- 
tions so destitute even of novelty. 
It will afford us much higher satis* 

No. I. Vol. I- 



■ ommend the efFu 

Of t e tC arid s ( i.n< e. I li.iri f.i n 

go the di udgi 

ductiom i'\ olting . pi m< i- 

p] ■ 1. 1 bothi W e shall onlj d 

a t- w. 

The music ofth< 
bj Braham and |{. eve, is inferior to 
their former productions. The only 
pieces entitled t<» praise are. '• - 

sad is my heart," Mrah uu\ ft 

i * Slow broke the morn," and ■ 

this cold Unity rock." The qu.tr- 
i.'ii at the end of the lirst act is alio 
well managed i 

The Jew of Mogadore. The 
music of this opera is in the woi t 
sty le of compilation by Kelly. With 
the exception of Bfahara 
" Relics of my faithful crew," . . 
is nothing worth notii 

The L.rilc. Mr. Matzinghi 
serves considerable praise for the 
Know ledgeofinstrumentalcffect that 
he has displayed in \\\c overture 
to this melo-dramatic 
slow movement is particularly good. 
We are sorry we cannot be 
equal commendation on the I 
part. Tiie two Bongs by Mr-. 
Dickons are the only good ones in 
the piece, and these suffer much by 
the affected manner in wl 
sings them. Th 
would produce m< 
were to determine not to suffer her 
naturally good taste to be viti 
by the present mire for exutx 
Ornaments and un mean ingflourisbes* 
We think the too 

J instruments in 
oe, produces 
a monotonous - 

■don are not at all 
adapted to the ofhispow I 

to advar.t i 

Venoni. Kc. n f 

G 



49 



L1TCUARV INTELLI6EK< E. 



line opening to the overture of this I 
piece : the transition to the key of 
D flat is masterlj . and prepares the 
hearer for something superior to the 
usual, trifling, contemptible style of 
modern overtures; but it ends in 
disappointment, as the allegro move- 
ment i- a mere collection of com- 
mon-place, vulgar passages. The 
alee sung by Mr. Smith, Masters 
Durousset and Iluckel, is pretty, 
but the melody too closely resem- 
bles the air of "The Beggar Girl," 
and some part of " All's well." 
M ster Durousset possesses an <'x- 
cellent voice, particularly in his 
lower tones ; he has also a very line 
shake : but his ear appears to us 
very defective, as he is sometimes 
nearly half a note too sharp. Mr. 
Smith has a fine voice, but his style 
is neither chaste or polished. 



The Rev. Dr. Vincent is prepar- 
ing to publish the Greek Text of 
Arrian's Indicaaod the Periplus ; 

with a translation, to accompany 
omroents on those works. 
The Rev. Dr. Rees, editor of the 
New Cyclopedia, has in the press 

two volumes of Sermons, on practi- 
cal and interesting subjects, which 

■will be published early in the Spring. 

Mr. C. Sylvester, of Derby, has 
in the press an Elementary Treatise 
on Chemistry, the plan of which is 
said to be in many respects original. 

The Rev. John Robinson, oi 
Ravenstondale, is engaged on a ili- 
blicul. Tin ologicalj and Ecclesiasti- 
cal Dictionary ; a work of consider- 
able interest, being intended to com- 
prise whatever is known concerning 
the antiquities of the Hebrews, and 
\o form a body of .scripture history, 
geography, chronology, divinity, 
end ecclesiastical opinions. 



The Rev. W. 1-. Howies will 
shortly publish a third volume of 
Poi ms. 

Mr. Francis Lathora is engaged 

on a fiction, entitled th< Romance 
of the //( brides. 

Mr. Polwhele is employed in col- 
lecting the correspondence and pa- 
pers of his late friend and neigh- 
bour, Mr. Whitaker, with a view 
to the publication of his Memoirs 
in a quarto volume. 

Mr. Bigland's Fit w of the World' 
is in a state of great forwardness at 
press, and Will extend to five octavo 
volumes. 

Mr. Donovan is preparing for 
publication a Continuation of his 
History of British Birds. 

Mr. Oulton lias in the press a 
Collection of Poems, chiefly comic, 
containing burlesque translations of 
Ovid and Horace, dramatic and 
miscellaneous pieces. — Also, Lit- 
ters from a Father to a Daughter 
on Female Education, with appro- 
priate directions for instructing 
young ladii s. 

Mr. Taunton, surgeon to the City 
and I'insbury Dispensaries, will 
shortly publish a small work on 
Pathology, illustrated by engrav- 
ings. 

Mr. Thomas Green, of Liver- 
pool, a youth of 17, has in the press 
a volume of Poems, which will ap- 
pear early in tins month. 

The Musis' Bozcer, a selection 
of the most favourite poetical pieces, 
in four small volumes, is on the eve 
of publication. 

Mr. Molineux, of Macclesfield, 
has in the press, in post quarto, the 
Shorthand Instructor, or Stenogra* 
phical Copy-book ; designed as a 
companion to his Introduction to 
Mr. Uyrou's Shorthand. 



l.t mka n Y INTELLIOI 



I 



A new edition, very much im- 

provedandcorrected,ofLangborne's 
Plutarch^ by the Rev. Francii 
Wrangbani, will appear this month. 
A new edition of Mr. Thornton'a 
Present State of Turkey, with very 
considerable additions and altera- 
tions, including a map of the Turk- 
ish empire and a plan of Constanti- 
nople, is expected to appear (hi* 
month. 

The Rev. J. Gordon's History of 
Ireland lias been translated into 
French, and published a( Paris in 
three octavo volumes. 

'/'//(• History of Chili, natural, 
civil, and political, translated from 
the Italian of Abbe* Molina, u ith 
notes from the Spanish and In nch 
versions, is in the press ;;t \ew- 

^ ork, in two octavo volumes. This 
work will be reprinted in London. 



The second pari of the Philoso- 
phical Transact ions contains, 

xii. Observations of a comet, 
made with a view to investigate its 
magnitude and the nature of its 



;m i e from theif being formed in 
different parts of the urinary | 

sages, and on (he e||. , f^ f i i i f ;,|.- 

produced on them by the internal 
H e dI solvent medicines, from Mr. 
W illiara Brande to Edward Home) 
Esq. F. U.S.... P . 923. 

\ \ i. Some observations on 
Brande'a paper on catcall, by Eve- 
rard Home, Esq. c. if. s....p. fA j. 

\ \ n. On the changes predc I 
in atmospheric air and o is by 

respiration, by William All. ,.. | 
F. R.S. and W. If. Pepys, ] 
F. U.S. ...p. 049. 

KVIII. Description of an appara- 
tus for the analysis of the compound 
inflammable gases by slow combus- 
tion, with experiments on the 
from coal, explaining its apj I 
tion, by William II mry, M . I). 
vice-president of the Lit. and Phil. 
Society, and physician to the infirm- 
arv at Manchester, communh 
by Humphry Davy, V. \. 
R. S....p.282. 

xix. An account of some pecu- 
liarities in the anatomical structure 
of the womb, with observations on 



illumination : to which is added an 

account ofa new irregularity lately the female organs of generation, by 

perceived in the apparent figure of Everard Home, Esq. F. \{.^ p. 

the planet Saturn, by William Her- JO-i. 

xx. On the origin and office 
the alburnum of trees, in a 
from T. A. Knight, Esq. F. R. S. 

to Sir . Joseph Banks, Bait. K. 1J. 

P.R.S....p. SIS. 
xxi. Eclipses of the satellite - 
xiv. A letter on the alterations Jupiter, observed by John Gol '- 
that have taken place in the struc- ingham, Esq. I". R.S. and un r 
ture of rocks on the surface of the his superintendence at Hadra 
basaltic country in the counties of 
Derry and Antrim, addressed to 
Humphry Davy, Esq. Sec. R. S. by es on the decomposition of t!i * 
William Richardson, D.I). p. Ibl . > earths, with observations on the me* 
xv. A letter on the differences tals obtained from the alkaline 
in the structure o( calculi, which ' earths, and on the amalgam procur- 

G 2 



schel, LL. I). F.R.S....p. li.">. 

xm. Hydraulic investigations 

subservient to an intended Croonian 
Lecture on the motion of the blood, 
by Thomas Voung, M. I). For. Si c. 
R.S. ...p. 164. 



the Fast Indies.... p. . 

xxii. Electro-chemical research- 



M 



LITERARY IVTELLIG EN'CE, 



eel from ammonia, by Humphry 
| R.S. M.B.I.A. 

.p. 



account of thelnnrer and lesser spe- 
ciesof horseshoe bats, proving them 
lo be distinct, together with n de- 



Presents received by the Royal script ion of vespertilio barbastellus^ 
Society from November 1807, to taken in the south of Devonshire, by 



Jui . ...p. 371. 

Index — p. X 



The ninth volume of the Transac 
tions of the Linnean Society is pub- 
lished, and the following are the 
contents: — 1. The genus apion of 
Herbst'a Natursystem considered, 
its character laid down, and many or 
the species described, by the Rev. 
William Kirby, F. L. S. 2. De- 
scription of several marine animals 
found on the south coast of Devon- 
shire, by George Montagu, Esq. 
F. L. S. — 3. An account of the In- 
dian badger, the ursus Indicus oi 
Shaw's Zoology, by Lieut. -Colo- 
nel Thomas Hardwick, F.L.S. — 4. 
A botanical sketch of the genus 
eonchium 9 bj James Edward Smith, 
M. D. F. R. S. P. L. S ,— .3, An in- 
quiry into the genus of the tree call- 
ed by Pona Abiicea cretica, by 
James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. 
P. L. S. — 6. An inquiry into tin- 
real cfaucus <:'■ n of Linnaeus, 
by James Edward Smith, M.D. 
F. R. S. P. L. S.— 7. Descriptions 
of eight new British lichens, by 
Dawson Turner, Esq. F.R.S. A, S. 
and L. S. — S. An illustration of the 
species of /j/cii/m, which grow wild 
at the Cape of Good Hope, by Sir 
Charles Peter Thunberg, Knight of 
the Order of VVasa, professor of 
botany at Qpsal, F. M. L.S. — 9. 
Some observations on an insect that 
destroys the wheat, supposed to be 
the wire-worm, by Thou. as Wat- 
ford, Esq.F. A. S. and L.S. with 
an additional note by Thomas Mar- 
sham, Esq. Treas. L. S. — 10. An 



George Montagu, Esq. F. R. S. 
— 11. Descriptions of two new spe- 
cies of didelphis, from Van Diemen's 
Land, by G. P. Harris, Esq. com- 
municated by the Right ii<>r. Sir 
Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. Pits. 
R. S. 11. M. L. S.— 12. Descrip- 
tion of a species of dimorpha, by 
Edward Rudge, Ksq. F. R. S. and 
L. S. — 13. Some interest inn addi- 
tions to the natural history of fh 
cyaneus&ndpygarguSfiagether with 
remarks on some other British birds, 
by George Montagu, Esq. I . R. S. 
— 14. An account of some n i 
cies of piper, with a few cursory 
observations on the genus, by Mr. 
.John Vaughan Thompson, commu- 
nicated by the Right Hon. Lord 
Sea forth, F. R. S. and L. S. — 15, 
An inquiry into the structure of 
seeds, and especially into the true 
nature of that part called by (tart- 
ner the vitellus, by .Junes Edward 
Smith, M.D. F. R.S. P. L.S.— l(j. 
Observations on nauciea garnbir. 
the plant producing the drug called 
gutla gambeer, with characters of 
twoothcr species, by William Hun- 
ter, Esq. secretary to the Asiatic 
Society, communicated by the presi- 
dent. — 17. Observations respecting 
m \ eral British species of hit i actum, 
bv James Edward Smith, M. D. 
F. R.S. P. r,.S.— is. Specified*, 
racters of the decandrous papilio- 
naceous plants of New Holland, by 
James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. 
P. L.S. — 19. On Hie variegation of 
plants, in a letter to Richard Antho- 
ny Salisbury, Esq. F.R.S. and L.S. 
by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq. 



r.nr.n mm- i s tit mc i 



15 



F. R.S. and L. S. — i J(). Characters II ation of the author's former ] 



of lloi)l.( /'it, a new genu ill' mosses, 
with descriptions often species, by 
James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.8. 
1*. I i.S. — l 2l . Descript ionofwo/or/< <i, 
;i new '•' •' i s of col< opterous 
from New Holland, by Th 
Marsha n, Esq. Tr. L.S.— 22.8ome 
remarl - on the plants now referred 
I • p/rora, with characters of the 
genus Edwardita, by ft. A. ' 
bury, Esq.— 28. Characters of pfa* 
tj/lobium, bossicea, and of a nev 
nus named poireta, l>\ James Ed- 
ward Smith, M. I>. F. R.S. P.L.S. 
— l 2\. Musci nepali nscs, or desci ip- 
tions of several new mosses from 
Nepal, bj \V. Jackson Hooker, Esq. 
F. L. S.— 2."). Extracts from the 
minute-book of the Linnean Society 
of London — catalogue of the library 
of the Linnean Society — list of do- 
nors to the library of I lie Limn m 
Society. 



"ii the inn! ion of lluids in . 

flexible tubes. Dr. N . too 

; of (lie nature of fev<:r, and 

on (In blood. Ilea! 

f mortification, w hich the Gfer- 
mans call a " cold burning." 

A pap r by Mr. Childers was 
nad, containing some observations 
ii the m. 
: means of constructing very 
powerful galvanic batteries. 



nOYAL BOCIETV. 
This society assembled after the 
summer vacation on Thursday, Nov. 
10,1808, the Right Hon. Sir Joseph 
Banks, president, in the chair. The 
secretary read a summary ofM. de 
Luc's paper on the action of elec- 
tricity and galvanism, or the elec- 
troscopical agency of electric and 
galvanic matter. In thispaper M. 
de Luc proved, that the galvanic 
and electric fluid are essentially (he 
same: he also stated, thai ii passes 
through bodies without producing 
any chemical changes, unless the 
bodies were previouslyprepared and 
the electricity highly concentrated. 
November 17 — 24. The Croon ian 
lecture on the muscles of the heart 
and the motion of the blood, by Dr. 
Young (Foreign Sec. R. S.) was 
read. This lecture was a continu- 



WERNBaiAM NATURAL 11 1^ Forty 
i I 1 . 1 Y . 

\' the me ting of the Wernerian 

\ ilural History Society, 1st \\\>*. 
Dr. .limes Ogilby of Dublin, 
\ a very interesting account of the 
mineralogy of East Lothian, which 
appeared to have been drawn up 

from a series of <>!> r\ ati 
with great skill, and was illustrated 
bya suite of 350 specimens laid u a 
the table. It is only by investiga- 
tions like those of Dr. Ogilby, that 
we obtain any certainty respecting 
the mineral treasures i f a country ; 
and such alone can afford us data 
for a legitimate theory of the forma- 
tion of the globe. 

At the same meeting a communi- 
cation from Colonel Montagu was 
read, describing a new species of 
fasciola, ofa red colour, and about 
an inch long, which sometimes 
lodges in the trachea of chickens, 
and which the colonel found to be 
the occasion of the distemper called 
the gap\ . so fatal to these useful 
tenants of the poultry-yard. The 
knowledge of the true cause of this 
malady will, it is hoped, soon be 
followed by the discovery i fa spe- 
cific cure ; in the mean time, a v< ry 
pic, popular remedy is employ- 
ivonshire: the meal of the 



46 



r.iTEn vnv intelligence. 



chicks (barley or oatmeal) is mere I j 
mixed up w iili urine, in place of 
water : and this prescription is very 
generally attended with the best 
effects. 

Ai the meeting of this society on 
the 1-th of November, the Rev. 
Andrew Jameson, minister of St. 
Ifungo, Dumfriesshire, read obser- 
vations on meteorological tables, 
with a description of a new ane- 
mometer. The anemometer which 
he described, Mill, by a very sim- 
ple and ingenious arrangement of 
parts, enable the most common ob- 
server to ascertain the velocity of 
the wind with perfect accuracy. 

At the Mine meeting, the Rev. 
John Fleming, F. R. S. Ed. mi- 
nister of Bressay in Shetland, 
communicated an interesting ac- ! 
count of the geoguosfic relations of II 
the rocks in the islands of Inst 
and Papa Stour. As Mr. Fleming 
announced his intention of again 
examining the whole of the Shet- 
land Islanls. aad of constructing 
i a logical maps of them, in 
which the rocks should be laid 1 
down according to their relative 
antiquity and extent, much va- | 
Inable information may be ex- 
pected. 

At the meeting of the society on 
the 19th of November, Mr. Mack- 
enzie, jun. of Applccross, read a 
short account of the coal-formation 
in the vicinity of Durham. 

At the same meeting, Dr. Ogilby 
of Dublin, read the continuation ol 
his mineralogical description ofl 
i f Lothian, describing the differ- 
ent veins which he observed in that 
tract of country. 

At this meeting, also, Mr. I\ 

V ill read an account of a great se;i 
. '. lately cast ashore in Orkney. 



This curious animal it appears, was 
stranded in Rothesholm bay, in the 
island of Stronsa : the body was un- 
luckily knocked to pieces by a 

tempest, but the fragments have 
been collected by Mr. Laing, and 

are to be transmitted to the museum 
at Edinburgh. Mr. Neill conclud- 
ed with remarking, (hat no doubt, 
could be entertained, that this was 
the kind ofanimal described by Ra« 

inns, Egede, and Pontoppidan, but 

which scientific and systematic na- 
turalists have hitherto rejected a* 
spurious ami ideal. 



DUBLIN SOCIETY. 

A letter, dated Manchester, and 
signed John Bradbury, was laid 
before the society at their late meet- 
ing, stating, that the proprietors of 
the Liverpool botanic garden had 
resolved on forming an establish- 
ment at .New Orleans, America, 
with a view to collect the plants of 
Kentucky and Louisiana, and to 
transmit to England living dupli- 
cates of the plants which should lie 
so collected and multiplied on such 
establishment : and desiring to be 
informed if the Dublin Society 
would, in consideration of green 
specimens of the same, contribute 
to the expence, their quota not to 
exceed lot)/, per annum. 

The secretary laid before the so- 
ciety a list of several valuable 
West Indian plants, presented to 
the society by Captain Burgh. 



LECTUB BS. 

Royal Institution. — The follow- 
in"- arrangement is made for t he lee- 
lure;, of the ensuing season; they 
commenced on Saturday the liili 
of December, with an introductory 
lecture by Mr. Davy. 



i.n i.it \ it v i ■, i i r .i.ic ; ••( i . 



47 



Experimental chemistry andelec- 
tro-cbemical science, by Humphry 
Davy, Esq. Bee. R. 8. 

Botany, by James Eld ward Smith, 
M.I). F.R.8. P.L.8. 

Astronomy , l>\ John Pond, I. '). 
F.R.S. 

Grecian history and historians, 
by the Rev. W illiam < 'rowe, pub- 
lic orator at the university of Ox- 
ford. 

Perspective, l>\ Mr. John Geo. 
Wood. 

Music, by Mr. Samuel Wesley. 



We cannot close this article of 
Literary Intelligence, without giv- 
ing a brief retrospect of the perio* 
d'uul publications which relate lo 
natural history that have lately ap- 



ing : not to mention the nod of 
cotemporary minor pablicatioi i 
this departmenf of tciem <•, w bu h 
are unworthy of support, hi / 
lai I, the promote! • of natural bis* 
tory a] j) ar lo ifdcut 01 leu 

numerous, if we ma} judge from the 
number of publications thataredarly 
commenced, and, after linger in 
a short time, discontinued for want 
of encouragement \ witness Bawer*i 
incomparable work, the " /. • 
Plants" in the three publi 
numbers of which the most remark* 
able heaths are depicted in s 
of i ccellence eclip ing all stmil tr 
works that have preceded in thii 
or in any other country. Pel ' 
the price of this work was deemed 
too high ; and indeed half-a-goiaea 
a plate may be a consideration la 



peared in this country. .Natural 
history is a plant, which, even in a many. But Roxburgh's u Plants 
soil the most congenial to its growth, oft oromandel," a work than w hick 
refuses to thrive, if unassisted by (atleastas totheuncoiouredco] 
the fostering hand of power and nothing has ever been sold at a 
wealth: there is no country more cheaper rate, is likewise discontinue 
favourably situated tor its cultiva- 
tion than ours ; none that can boast 
of greater resources, and of men 
better qualified for promoting it — 
but still England doe- not appear to 
be the soil in which it exhibits its 
most luxuriant growth. 

On taking a view of the nume- 
rous, splendid, and costly periodical 

publications in this science, with 



cd. Dr. Smith's " Exotic Botany'* 

jj'.it to give a list of all the 

monthly and other periodical publi* 
cations on natural history that have 
met with an untimely fate within 
the last ten year>. would o< 
more space than we are willii 
devote to such a melancholy 
ject : suffice it there: - iy a 



word or two of the li 
which the presses of a neighbouring II Dr. Shaw continues to make in 
nation (our rivals both in arms and acquainted with many int 



science) are incessantly teeming — , 
Vaillant'sOift auxdCAfrique^h ude- 
bert's Singes, Oiseaux Dorej,Ven- 
tenat's Jardin de Malmaison, Jar- 
din (lc ( els, Redoi te's Liliat \ . & c. 
Ave- cannot conceal our astonish- 
ment at seeing soch a multiplicity of 
the most sumptuous works go on 



subjects of natural history in ins 
"• Naturalist's Miscellany," a work 
particularly interesting, on account 
of the great variety of objects it 
comprehends, the materials of n hicli 
are partly original and partly taken 
from works not accessible u> the 
I generalitv ^i the students in 



at the same time without inter fer- 1 logy. The figures are by the able 



48 



R \ il V I.N ill LIG1 



hand of Mr. Nodder. I'he text i nous botany appears io possess n 

greater numb r of votaries in this 



npanying Ihem, i( must be oc- 
knowledged, Lsmuchtothepurj 
but the author appears at present to 
be more brief and laconic inhisdc* 
script ions than he originally propos* 
ed. Both Mr. Sowcrby and Mr. 
Donovan continue their laudable 
ex< rtions to render tin ir 
men familiar with indigenous natu- 
ral productions ; the former in his 
" British Miscellany t " the latter in 
his " Birds and Insects of Great 
Britain" The figures they 
are of various and unequal merit. 

Botany has of late offered a ri< her 
harvest than the other branches of 
natural science. Not half a cen- 
tury ago, when the knowledge of ofthis kind we possess 2 the figures, 
the vegetable world was thought to , by Mr. Edwards, though small, arc 
possess no charms beyond those dc- I uncommonly characteristic ; and Dr. 



than in an\ other country, and pub' 
lications relating to it are for the 
most part favourably received. Hut 
none, we suppo e, n er met \\ ith 
greater success than '* /. 'ish Jlo- 
ta»y," the result of the joint labours 
of Dr. Smith and Dr. Sowerbv : and 
deservedly too, for we know of no 
work on the Continent that can be 
compared with it: when completed, 
this work will be indispensable to 
the student of indigenous botany. 
Curtis's li Botanical Magazine,'* 
continued, ever since the death of 
the original author, by Dr. Johrt 
Sims, is the best conducted work 



rived from converting herbs into 
nauseous medicines, this lovely sci- 
ence was almost exclusively culti- 
vated by the physician and druggist ; 
ami "what is it good for?" was the 
first question suggested by the sight 



Sims's text, though often very con- 
cise, is amusing and instructive. 
Mr. Gawler, a gentleman who has 

1 made the liliaceous plants his par- 
ticular study, likew rse furnishes ma- 
terials for this work, which appears 



of a new or unknown plant. But to have a greater sale than any other 



when a less selfish philosophy taught 

us that vegetables, as well as other 
objects, are capable of creating in- 
terest, and of affording rational plea- 
sure, by the beauty of their form 
alone, and by the various relations 
in which we see them ; and when 



publication of this kind, either in 
this country or abroad. A compa- 
ratively new periodical work is Mr. 
Hooker's " Paradisus tjondinen* 
sis," written by .Mr. Salisbui . I 
profound botanist, though too much 
addicted to paradoxes. Mr. Hook* 



thus the idea of physic merged in er's figures are elegant, and upon 
one far more pleasing, botany gra- I the whole, botanical!;, correct. \\ e 
dually became the general and fa- [wish this publication may not be 
vourite pursuit of the cultivated part discontinued. Mr. Andrews's" Ho* 
of society, and proved a ^\m\\ '' tanist Repository" is taken upagaiu, 



equally well adapted io the turn of 
mind of the gra v< -t philosopher, and 
to the task of the gayest among the 
fair, provided her heart be still open 
to those softer emotions which the 



and continues to make the lovi 
exotic botany acquainted with many 
curious productions of our hot- 
houses and gardens. Mr. Andrews's 
sty le of painting is peculiar to him- 



contemplation of blooming nature: self: the " Heaths 11 and " Roses 
seldom fails to produce. Indige* ' of this artist are well known to ama« 



. 






tears. We must not forg ■( a 
work relating («> indigenoui bol mj , 
Mr. Dawson Turner*! elaborate and 
elegant publication, " The Briti h 
Fiici,'* Whoever is acquainted with 
the difficulties attending the exami- 
nation and slml y of the < i J | ' 
mouf marine plants, the most intri- 
cate of all the vegetable tribes, will 
readily join us in our wishes, that 
such a meritorious undertaking may 
be crowned w iili all the succet i it 
deserves. Mr. Dilwyr's * 4 British 



- 

lined. 

In iiii.-i' rs e have to n i 

a pei iodical publii at ion <>t th< 
defatigable Mr. Soweity . entitli d 

•• British 1/ /," in w I 

, (!< ;i\ui!i ' ill their 

n.it iii ii colours, the i si ioui m 

rals willi which llns island a- 

bounds. The idea is nen . 

in this country, and exe< nted w Ufa 

;is much iu< 1 1 - as can be 

ably expected from so difficult 

undertaking. 



MEDICAL 

FoR the hist twelve month-, Lon- 
don has no! been visited by any epi- 
demic disease, or universally pre- 
vailing complaint. Typhus fever, 
at one time so much and BO justly 
dreaded, is now scarcely known ; 
nol because a fever-house has been 
established to receive cases of this 

nature, ami thus secure ihe poor 

from exposure to the contagion : 

however laudable and excellent (his 
institution may be, we know that 
very few patients are admitted with- 
in its walls, because there are very 
few affected with the complaint. 
Wc must rather attribute the 
came of this happy truce from the | 
attack of contagious fever, to the 
plentiful and comparatively cheap 
supply of food : whilst the wages of 
labour are high, the industrious poor 
are able to obtain every net 
ry, and many of the comforts <^t the 
allluent. This induces a desire to 
improve their condition, they have 
a greater respect for thema 
they take more pains to keep their 
habitations clean ; and where tem- 
perance, cleanliness, and plenty are 
combined. Ave need not fear the pre- 
\ •• 7. Vol. I. 



REPORT. 

valence ofcontagion. Itwonldnot 

be difficult to lay down certain rules 
by which typhus fevers might I E 

engendered. In corroboration of the 
opinion that scarcity essenti illj | 
motes fevers of this description, 

may remark, (hat some years 
when pro and particularly 

bread, were extremely scarce and 
dear in London, and (he pnblic 
mind was desponding, tj ; 
were both frequent and fatal. 

Scarlet fev< i les( former- 

ly we might have added, and the 
small-pox,) are seldom al sent. In 
the spring of last year, mi 
spread throughout the metropolis 
and its environs ; i"ir. though it ne- 
ver occur ime indi- 
vidual, yet ( children constantly 
coming into the world) the in 
tion is readily continued, ami pro- 
bably there is also a cert;.! 
atmosphere conducive to its pi 
Ration. In this climate, when 
disposition to pull :inns 
is strong, the accession « i 
must always be i 
eye of jealousy, and it ^ progress 
watched with unremitt. 
H 






mi. oic \r. report. 



Tho child r »n go through 

the complaint \\\\l\ safety, and 
scarcely art- subject to one unplea- 
sant r .it not unfrequently 
happens, that from some peculiari- 
ty of constitution, want of care and 
proper management, they are lost, 
or become the victims of a lingering 
complaint, from which they nevei 
perfectly recover. It is not too 
much ti> say, that three fourths of 
those who die in measles might be 
saved by proper treatment in the 
fust instance; and where this is not 
( mployed sufficiently early, some 
of the worst consequences may still 
be prevented. If this complaint 
sometimes baffles the skill and 
judgment of the most practised and 
experienced physicians, what must 
be the result of feeble, inert prac- 
tice, or mistaken opinion ? 

From the beginning of the year 
till late in the spring, the wind blew 
almost constantly from E. & N.E. : 
We have uniformly observed, that 
■when the easterly winds have pre- 
vailed for a length of time with lit- 
tle variation, nervous people and 
those subject to lowness of spirits 
;irr considerably affected; and about 
this time many such deplorable cases 
claimed our attention. The long 
continuance of cold is in itself de- 
pressing, and when combined with 
a cloudy foggy atmosphere, materi- 
ally assists any moral cause in pro- 
ducing li[ 3 ochondriasis and melan- 
choly. These again are often dis- 
persed by the cheering influence of 
i fine spring day, or the grateful 
warmth ofa summer's gun. The state 
of the weather not (infrequently ar- 

- the arm ofthe intended stiieide, 

or impels the fatal stroke: hopeless 

indeed is that stale which r< sisls 

e the consolation of friendship, 



the balm o( the physician, and the 
joys of Ihi opt Iling summer. 

Catarrh, or what is vulgarly term- 
ed a cold in the head, was also fre- 

qut nt in the beginning ofthe year, 
• he summer and autumn pro- 
ceeded, gavt w 13 tosynochus, bili- 
ous and bowel complaints: none of 
, however, presented any un- 
usual appearances. 

The following is an enumeration 
of the diseases which the writer of 
this article has attended from the 
20th of November to the 20th of 
December, 1808: 

Acute diseases. — Scarlet fever, 6. 

Scarlet fever and sore-throat, 8. 

..j. Inflammatory sore-throat, 3 

Intermittent fever, 2.... Typhus fe- 
ver, 1.... Catarrhal fever, 10.... Pu- 
erperal fever, 2 — Acute rheuma- 
tism, 6 Pleurisy, 1 ... IVripncu- 

mony, 3.... Measles, 4....IIoo])in«-- 
COUgh, 5 Small-pox, 3 — Peri- 
toneal inflammation, 2 — (.'out, 2... 
Acute diseases of infants, 6. 

Chronic diseases. — Pulmonary 
consumption, 3.. .Cough and dys- 
pnoea, IS.... Marasmus, 2....Pleu- 

rodyne, I Lumbagoand sciatica, 

3 Chronic rheumatism, S — As- 

' ih'.ii::. (>.... Palsy, 2.... Dolor fa( iei, 
3.... Cephalalgia, 4.... Gastrodynk^ 

7 Enterodynia, 3 — Dyspepsia. 

3 Diarrhoea, 5.. ..Bilious vomit- 

;....I>\n< ntery, 4.. ..Dropsy, 
.*).... I i oemorrboids, 2. ... I ! ccmate- 
i .. 2 Epilepsy, 1 — Cutane- 
ous diseases, 5... Menorrhagia, 3... 
Amenorrhosa, 4....Leucorrhosa, 2. 

Of the acute diseases it appears, 
from the above list, that scarlet fe- 
ver and sore-throat were the most 
\ prominent ; they were the most frc- 
I quent in November, and arc now 
on the decline, no new case having 
occurred within the last week. la 



A<; K n i i. i i HAL id ['mi I . 



M 



inn or three instance* the throat was 
ulcerated) and the fever assu 
malignant form: they all, however, 
recovered) though some of (hem 
were in (lie moat unfavourable cir- 
cumstances. Fifty \ eai ago Ihia 
disease wai much more fetal than if 

has been of late limes : so mild in- 
deed is iis present type, that some 
practitioners recover their patients 
without using bail, or wine, adopt* 



ing the evacuating antiphlogistic 
plan) w liieh formei l\ rial. 

I idess in r;ises of immiiH rit 

all extremes are to 

•• medio tutittitnut ibis: 1 ' in thei 

case, one Mian would pi 

bottle of wine and other stimuli 
d uU : w hilst an 

awa\ a pound oi blood, and admi- 
nister drastic pui 
i' '.'( al tool . ,.i it. 



AtiliH I LTURAL REPORT. 



A.v agricultural report at this 
season, can neither embrace a great 
variety of objei ts, or those of much 

interest ; and we are not di posed 

to supply the appetite of our read- 
ers with novelty at the expence of 
accuracy. The information we 

ha\ e collected from our correspond- 
ents, enables us to state, that the 

wheat crop does not rise to the 6 til 

so well as it generally does ; but 
although it is not so defective in 
produce as was at first suppo d. 
the price of that article has increas- 
ed about six shillings per quarter, 
during the month of December. 
Oats have continued much the same, 
but the ten samples are light. 
There lias been little variation in 
the price of barley. Beans and 
peas have been a defective crop. 
and will probably bring still greater 
pro es when the demand for seed 
begins. The young wheats 
very promising, and the ground is 
Well covered; a considerable breadth 
has been sown this year, and the 
season has been generally so favour- 
able, that little laud has been left 
lor spring wheat : upon early dry 
soils this plant is too luxuriant. 
Rye, cabbages, cole, ami winter 
green crops in general, are very 



good, e> cept turnips, whu h ai 
i I, from different qu n 

ru rallj Ji lent, and likelj to 
disappoint those « bo depend i 
this article for the spring ; in 
should the an inter pi 
sheep food will ci rtainly b< scarce. 
The operations usually carried on 
at this season of th re repre- 

sented asprocec ding n ith g 
notwithstanding the high price of 
agricultural ! the 

present rent of land, as well as the 
price of its produce, conti ibul 
urge the farmer to the best • 
tion of his knowledge and abili 
Whatever is worth doing ;:' :■ ! 
worth doing well, and the app 
ance of a form will very 

cover whether the work is done slo- 
venly or effectually. .\t the Late 
fairs, cows and calves ene- 

rally sold well : for lean «. alt b 

store sheepthe sales have been dull ; 
fresh horses sell well. There 
great disproportion in the 
small pork and bacon hogs; lat- 
ter must necessarily continue 
fetch great prices, it the farmer is 
to be reimbursed the expence of 
feeding them at the present prices 
ofgrain. It must likewise be rem 
bered, that a want of the usual gi 
11 2 






r.vMiioNs ron LADin and gentlemen, 



supplies at this Beas >n of the year 
and the spring, from the distilleries, 
will sensibly am cl the market fortius 
article, and may probably encou- 
i the farmer to consume li is 

ted barley at home. Pol 
although a deficient crop, prove 
\civ ■;; d : butthedemand lor this 
as well as other articles of grain and 
provision for the supply of our own 
tro >p> and those of our allies in 



Spain, will probably exhaust our 
markets at an early season; and it is 
verv probable tliis country alone 
can be depended upon for that pur- 
pose, a supply from the Mediter- 
ranean being uncertain, the ports 

of the Baltic shut against us, and 
the prospect of a removal of the 
American embargo distant and 
problematical. 



FASHIONS FOB LADIES AND GENTLEMAN. 



PLATE 1. — WALKING I)IM~>. 
A Polish bonnet, and mantle of 
gold-coloured velvet, with an invi- 
sible hood trimmed with ermine: 

an antique collar fastened with a 

goW ornament in front, in form of 
a shell. Morning dress, white 
muslin Brussels spot, with a worked 
stomacher, and trimmed down the 
front and at the bottom; worked long 
hanging sleeves, twisted and fasten- 
ed at the wristband with a small 
I ornament, of the same form as 
(hat which fastens the mantle and 
cincture of the dress; sandals ofgold- 
COloured cloth, laced with brown 
cords and tassels ; York tan gloves. 

EVENING I l I.I- DBE 3 
A white satin Spanish hat, with a 
diamond loop and Spanish plume ; 
diamond ear-rings and necklace: the 
hair full, in ringlets; a white satin 
dress, fuil-trimmed with blue vel\ < t, 
with a lace medic is round the back 
and shoulders; an antique stomacher 
ornamented with diamonds mounted 
in gold; white satin shoes with 
gold bows ; white gloves and fan. 

• \ i;it.\ I, OBIE i:\ ATIONS. 

Nacaratt royal purple and gold 
are the most prevailing colours for 
pelisses and mantles, which are made 

various material-, cloth, velvet, 



brocade, sarsenet, and satin, accord- 
ing to the fancy of the wearer. 
Head ornaments — Spanish hats, and 

caps decorated with feathers, flow- 
ers, pearls, or diamonds, according 
as I he occasion requires. Morning 
dress, cloth, sarsenet, Brussels spot- 
ted muslin, trimmed with embroide- 
ry . Evening dress, satin, velvet, bro- 
cade, sarsenet, with gold or silver 
ornaments, and trimmings. 

It is almost unnecessary to add, 
that the design and description of 
the ladies' fashions in this month, 
are under the direction of Madame 
Lanchester, whose taste in the de- 
partment of ladies' dress and female 
ornaments, is so well known as to 
render any eulogium unnecessary. 

FASHIONS FOB GENTLEMEN. 

The prevailing colours are dark 
brown and bottle green. The eoat 
for evening dress is cut rather long 
in the waist, and short in the skirts, 
double breasted, with pointed lap- 
pels, corresponding in length to the 
hip button ; (he lappels are padded 
to fall back with the collar, which 
is made pretty high and stitched 
narrow, the collar to fall back about 
an inch and half: deep pockets un- 
der the cross flaps ; the cutis round. 



Ju 




*•»,.»»' 




" i 



REPOSITORY OP A II T*. 






Thetnorningdre i is made in near- 
ly the same manner, only the pock- 
ets are iii lli<' plaitl of the skirl, 

and the cuffs arc either round «>r 
with a Rap and three butt( 

The buttons are either gill basket] 
or moulds covered w ith cloth. 

\\ aistcoatsare made single breast- 
ed, frith a small flap about t\\<> 



inches Iowa than the coal lappet. 
Breeches are not made m Ii igh by 

two or three inches as they were, 

and the knee-band extendi almott 
in (he calf of the leg, withfoui but- 
tons ai the knee j they .'in- made 
\ 1 1 \ tight : and pantaloon 
pretty generally ornamented nptbe 
sides w iid brade. 



Plati 2.— REPOSITORY OF ART8. 



Tins plate is a representation of 
Mr. Aru br m \ \ n's Shop, No. 101 . 
Strand, and is (lie commencement of 
a scries of plates intended to exhibit 
the principal shops of this great me- 
tropolis, in (lie same manner as the 

Microcosm of LiOfldon represents 

the interior of the public buildings. 
Ii will afford the opportunity of en- 
tering into a partial detail of the 
different manufactures that are ex- 
posed in them lor sale; and we (hit- 
ter ourselves will form an useful, as 
well as interesting, part of our work. 
This shop stands upon part of the 
court-yard in front of which was 
Beaufort-House, formerly a town 
residence of (he noble family w ' 
name it bore, and was one of the 
great number of mansions which, at 
no very distant period, lined the ! 
bank of the Thames from Temple- 
bar to the city of Westminster. 
The noble and lofty apartments of 
the bouse, which commences at the 
back put of the shop, and a line 
oak stairease of considerable dimen- 
sions, hear a testimony of its former 
magnificence. After it had ceased 
to he the residence of the Beaufort 
family, it was converted into the 
Fountain Tavern, a bouse of great 
celebrity in former days, and was 
remarkable from the circumstance 
of Lord Lovat stopping there to 



lake n iVeshmi ni ( ,n his way from 
Westminster-Hall to ilicTower,and 

Writing with his diamond ririir the 

following couplet upon a pane of 

jdass in (he great loom ■ 

oli ' tkreoghwbmtwtoi - -< • act of Iii *»o un, 
\i. u ieked tobc'greai,anil being jieat un<!o >> •' 
SlMOfl I'mm. 

This room, which is 63 feet in 
length, .'JO in width, and t!l in 
height, was formerly occupied by 
Mr. Shipley, brother to the bishop 
of that name; he kept a moM n- 
spectable drawing academy here.- 
among his pupils were, Mr. W« 
Parr, who died at Rome, C. 
i, Esq. and the celebrated EL 
Cosway, Esq. R.A.: the latter had in 
bis possession the pane of _ 
fore- mentioned. A curious, hut 
well-authenticated anecdote i- 1 
ted of Henry Parr's wile (II. Pan 
succeeded Shipley in this acade- 
. \.) who had been confined to the 
bouse upwards of nine years bj ■ 
paralytic affection, which daring 
that period entirely deprived her of 
speech. One day, in the absence of 
her husband, the servant-maid ab- 
ruptly entering her apartment, told 
her that the adjoining house 
on lire, which had such an effect 
upon her system, that her powers of 
Mice returned instantaneously, 
and she continued to enjoy them 






[0NABL1 i ' : I 



i <o the day of her death, which 
diil not happen foi soma yean after- 
wards. 
This room is famous on another 
mi, ha\ ing been the icene of 
Mr. Thelwall's early political lec- 
Inre8. When the interposition of 
government put a slop to this ex- 
hibition, Mr. A. purchased the 
Keasej and it became once more 
the peaceful academy of drawing, 
upon a very extended Bcale, em- 
ploying three masters in the sepa- 
rate branches of (his art, our for 
figures, a second for landscape, and 
a third tor architecture. Hut the 
increase of Mr. Ackermann's busi- 
ness as a publisher, printseller, and 
manufacturer of fancy articles, ren- 
dered the convenience of this room 
a> a warehouse a more desirable ob- 
ject than the profit to he derived 
from it as an academy. For eight 
or ten years previous to entering so 
largely in the fancy business, Mr. 
A. had been employed in furnish- 
ing the principal coachniakers with 
designs and models for new and im- 
proved carriages. Among manj 
instances of his taste and abilities in 
this line, the stale coach built for 
the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in 
1790, which cost oear 7000/. and 
one for the Lord Mayor of Dublin 
in the following year, were design- 
ed and modelled by him. It has been 
I, that Philip Godsal, Esq. who 
lias the model of the Lord Lieute- 
nant's coach, has actually refused 
one hundred guineas for it, and it 



is more than probable, he would 
Dot sell it for t \\ ice iliat sum. 

During the period when the 
l'r< ncli emigrants were so numerous 
in tbis country, Mr. A. iras among 
the fit '• ik ' "ui :i liberal and 

: i mploying them, and 
he had seldom le^s than fiftv noble*, 

priests, and ladies of distinction, 
at work upon screens, card-racks, 
flower-stands, and other ornamental 

fancy-works of a similar nature. 
Since the decree permitting the re- 
turn of the emigrants to France, 
this manufacture has been continu- 
ed by native artists, who execute 
the work in a very superior sty le : 
but it is impossible in this place to 
notice the great variety of artn les 
which it embraces. The public 
are referred to a catalogue of near 
100 pages, which conveys every 
information that can be necessary, 
and will be our apology for omit- 
ting any further observations; we 
shall therefore onlj add, that since 
Mr. A. has given up the academy, 
he has substituted a port-folio of 
prints and drawings for the use of 
pupils and dilitanti, upon the plan 
of a circulating library of books, 
the terms of which areas follow : 

rly subscription . 1- Guineas, 
Half-yearly ditto . . J ditto. 
Quarterly ditto . . . l ditto. 
The money paid at the time of sub- 
scribing. The subscribers are allowed 
to take the value of their subscription 
money in prints or drawings, and may 
change them as often as they please. 



FASHIONABLE FURNITURE. 



PLATE 3. CHAISE I.ONGUE. 

Tnc design of the chaise longyt 
is Grecian, and should be executed 



as to its frame- work wholly in mat 
and burnished gold, when chaste* 
ness of execution is desired j the or- 



('/h/t..' ' 




1 1 ■ i 1 1 I ' ' ■ ' ■ ^ 



Window 










I AMMONAKT-f. I IT II NIT I II I . 



\ r J 



naments maj be fiuit bed in bronze 
metal, when a sirailai (• le bai been 
tdopted in theother furniture of the 
apartment. The covering here 
■hewn ii wppo ed (<» be of azure 
blue velvet, (In: ornament! being 
worked op in gold colour and 
bronze. Each end baa a ( Irecian 
mantle, to correspond with the co- 
vering, fringed w ith h gold-< oloui 
silk fringe. One side of this design 
being geometrical, a scale is added, 
from which evcrj dimension may 
be obtained, observing thai 28 inch. 
is its intended width. 

\\ i \ dow-scat. 
This design would have ;i very 
good effect executed in bronze, with 
(he rosettes, fillets, ami other orna- 
mentfl ofthe frame, in mat gold. It 
might be covered '.villi green velvet, 
with stripes of rose colour. Thede- 
sign of this window-scat was fur- 
nished by Messrs. Morgan and 
Saunders, Catherine-street, Strand. 
GF.M'.UAL OBSEU1 ITIONS. 

Fashion is ever creating change 
and variety in furniture. We ob- 
serve with pleasure a more tasteful 
arrangement daily taking place; 
the gaudy colours of the chintz and 
calico furniture have given place to 
a more chaste style, in which two 
colours only are employed to pro- 
duce the appearance of damask. 
The same style is adopting in ear- 
pets, giving apartmeuts an uniform 
and pleasing appearance. Bronze 
»till prevails as ;i ground-work for 
chairs, sofas, cabinets, &C and will 
always be classic when delicately 
and sparing assisted with gold or- 
naments. A great deal o{ black 
has been used in chairs, &c. but the 
appearance is harsh, and the ( on- 
trast too violent to be approved by 
genuine and correct taste; itscheap- 



I hi alone make its ate tole- 
rable. Manchester coloured vel- 
vets, used for furniture and curtaintf 
produce a rich < fleet. Poles fu lily 
decorated form the best and most i >- 

shionable siipp< >i f « - ■ 1 foi dr l| erieSj 

and in all probability will contiatM 
throughout the present \ ear. ( Kin i 
improveroenti a ill be noticed in om 
succeeding numb' i . 

In fitting up dining-rooms it has 

been d, that a new system 

is about to be adopted, in which the 

architecture and the furniture aft- 
rendered subservient to domestic 
comfort, as well ;• I arrange- 

ment. In the Morning Post, a few 
days since, is noticed a design now 
executing for the eating-room of a 
noble duke : it comprehends I spsu t 
of sixty (cvt in length, from which 
twenty feet arc taken by a colonnade 

often feet at each i".u\. Ten feet 
forms the breast of the chim: 

the remaining spaces on each side 

become recesses, three feet ami a 
half deep, in which are placed ar- 
chitectural pedestals, supporting 
imitative granite columns. These 
pedestals are so contrived as to con- 
tain every necessary requisite, usu- 
ally placed in what are called saiCO* 
phagUS cellarets, with other conve- 
niences, rendering the ingress anil 
egress of domestics less troubles 
than iscustomory. The remaining 
spaces are appropriated to the side- 
boards : they are suppi eight 

beautiful and strictly ( lassi v • 
female Caryatides, under a frieze 
embellished by a Greek ornament of 

(he present taste, executed in 1 I 
metal. The vacuum under: 
each side-board is *. . . i ret :>•>: b; 
piscine of elegant sarcophag 
adapted to the purpose of heating 
plates, &C. by contrivances from 



9 



BRl riSM MiltTJ. 



the flue of clip chimney. Tin* w hole 
of these embellishm >nts are intended 
to be executed in t !i«* most beautiful 
■ahoganj . relieved by ormolu inlay 
of ornaments and lines. Over each 
sideboard will be placed glasses ol 



frames of bronze and gold ; in the 
ses and center of each glass 
are to be suspended cut-glass Gre- 
cian lamps of an unique design and 
execution. The carpet for (ho room 
is making at Axminster, front a de- 



the most superb dimensions, in sign given by the architect. 



Plate I.— BRITISH SPORTS. 
The forest laws, which arc the [ rupted, from their native forests; 
foundation of our game laws, may | and after a struggle of two centuries, 

easily be (raced to a Saxon Of Da- the Britons were driven (o the WCSt- 

nish origin. The creation of the em extremities, and this island, in 



New Forest by the first of the Nor- 
man kings, shews (he indefinite an- 
tiquity of other forests belonging to : 

the crown. The very names of the : 
inferior courts are Saxon : whoever 
will attentively consider the institu- 



possession of the conquerors, be- 
came truly German ; for in (heir new 
situation they receded no farther 
from their institutions than was 
merely necessary for their establish- 
ment. It would dcroirate from the 



(ions of our Saxon ancestors, will ij glory of the Saxon institutions, if 
discover in them not only a perfect these laws could be considered as a 



regard <<> equality of rights, con- 
nected with an anxious attention to 
order and good government in a 
wild and uncultivated country, but 
(hat the influence of these institutions 
continues to pervade the whole sys- 
tem of our constitution. We un- 
gratefully deny to our German pro- 
genitors the acknowledgment, that 
to their plain good sense, their love I 
of liberty, of order, and of justice, 
weowe almost all the bleesings of the 
government we enjoy; whilst a fo- 
reigner ( Montesquieu det Esprit des 
Loir) accurately tracing our hap- : 
pinesa to its real source, justly ej - 
claims, " Cc beau tystlme a iti 
" trouxc dans ies hot*. " The 
struggles successively made in this 
country have been to preserve and i 
restore, rather than to improve our j 
constitution. To this country the 



system of slavery; indeed, an im- 
partial and unprejudiced inquiry 
into their history and origin, will 
induce us to believe, that a( the ear- 
ly period when their foundation was 
laid, the forest laws were part of a 
political system for the internal be- 
nefit and security of the country at 
large, mixed indeed with the indul- 
gence of royal pleasures, but in 
which the public peace and the 
preservation of the growth of tim- 
ber, were considerations of no less 
importance. Canute, to whose mild- 
ness of government the submission 
of (he Saxons is attributed, establish- 
ed regulations similar to those of his 
own country : what they were can- 
not be accurately oi perfectly given 
now, but they are stated to have 
I) -•< ii framed with the advice of his 
ureal men, for the ends of peace and 



•ns brought the institutions of justice; but it appears, that for kill- 
their forefathers, pure and uncor- ing a stag, a gentleman lost his rank, 



BB1T18H • POB PI. 






n. yeoman his liberty, end ■ slave II 
I, is life. The severity oftheselaws 
was considerably abated in practice 
by his successors, and under Ed- 
ward the Confessor they were almost 
entirely neglected : it was this 
which mad.- the revival of them, 
under William the Conqueror, to 
l n . f e ]| as a greater hardship, which 
certainly was not lessened by his 
adding to their penalties — the 1" s 
of an eye as a punishment for kill- 
injrastag. The reservation bfcon- 
fcroul in the crown over the officers 
ofthe forest, is the briginof the office 
of chief justice in eyre of the pre- 
senl day. Both the Williams were 
fond ofthe chase, which led them 
to oppress their subjects mosl inor- 
dinately. Henry commenced his 
reign by promising relief, w hich be 
never granted ; on the contrary, it is 
evident, from the charter of his suc- 
cessor, that his extending the abuses 
of the forest laws occasioned great 
discontent. During the reign of 
Henry [I. amilder system prevailed; || 
and in Richard l.'s time the severe 
punishments enacted by the fori I 
laws, were usually redeemed by a 
fine. John had stretched the fores! 
law to the utmost, and was compel- 
led to submit to an explicit declara- 
tion of the rights of the crown in 
this as well as in other respects ; for 
that purpose a commission issued to 
ascertain boundaries, &c. Thei - 
gulations then made were repeated 
in the reign of Henry III. and con- 
firmed bv Edward I. The Ordina- 
te Foresta made in the 34th of this 
reign, contained many ben, 
No. 1. Vol. 1. 



regulations. Thi 

m the i .! of Edward III. from the 

latter of Which, i< ; 'P!' 

very distant time i the law had ; 
\ ill. il for persons charged witi 
fences ofthe forest a particnlai 

incilv, similar to thfl Wlit ot H 

( lorpus, sodes !i 1 1 dly com i 

, at bulwadi of our liberties ; 
., itatute wai likewise made in this 
reign, for keeping the pel 
lions of Edward I . In the 
of Richard I. tb< 

forest appear to R Mpt.d to 

influence the juries, an ofl'em 
which n remedy was pvot id. d in the 
Tih vear ofhis reign : here the re- 
gulations of the forest appear to 
have n nained for Bcveral year*. 
( To be continued.) 



COTJ ItsiNf;. 

All the meetings in the south dif- 
fer from the Malton meeting, in run- 
ning fol the prize cup. In the 
south, each member subscribes to it, 
and, if pn irts a dog, which 

are drawn by hits to run against 
each other, two and two. The next 
day the winners ofthe preceding 
day run against each other, till all 
the dogs are runoff; and lastly, 
the two winner^ of the whole start 
for the cup. An interest is thus 
kept alive through the whole meet* 

Ing, The best dot: is fairly I 
lamed, and not more than :i 1 
of dogs are started at once, which 
renders the course a proper trial : 
this cannot be the case when five or 
sin greyhounds are running 
after one unfortunate hare. 
I 



58 



ALLEGORICAL WOOD-CCT, WITH PATTERNS OF BRITISH 

MANUFACTURE. 



Pattehns afford the manufac- 
turer an opportunity of circulating 
a new article more extensively in 
one day, than can be done by Bend- 
ing a dozen rulers with it through 
tin country. It will likewise afford 
persons at a distance from the me- 
tropolis the means of examining and 
estimating the merit of the fabric, 
and of being made acquainted with 
the tradesman from whom it may be 
purchased. 

Among the fashionable articles 
for gentlemen's wear, we have given 
one of plush, manufactured from 
mohair, some of which are made in 
imitation of fur,others rival an article 
of the same nature made with silk. 

The present cold weather has in- 
duced our young men of fashion to 
introduce this article pretty general- 
ly. The appearance is genteel and 
comfortable. The utility of this fa-*t 
brie for ve>l> is sanctioned by sport- 
ing gentlemen, who have the lower 
part of the vest for six or seven 
inches lined with the same. After 
a hard chase, the loins do not ex- 
perience that chill and cold which 
is often fell in the ride homo, owing 
to the gentle irritation and warmth 
of the plush, Avhich absorbs the 
perspiration. 

At Coventry, the silk and ribbon 
manufactures are very much decli- 
ned, but the introduction of this ar- 



ticle, (at present mail" only by 
Messrs. Harris's) if ii ! comes ge- 
nre il, bids fair to employ the pool 
of that place during tin- winter sea- 
son. The pattern No. 1, is one 
among a great variety of colours of 
thisarticle which we have observed 
in the shops of Mr. Smith, Prince's- 
Street, Soho ; Messrs, Maunds* 
Cornhill ; and at the principal men* 
mercers. It is sold considerably 
under the silk plush, and looks as 
well. 

No, 2 i.. the gold-coloured velvet 
described in the mantle of themOrn* 
ing dress, plate J, and may be had 
of 1). and P.Cooper, Pall-Mail. 

No. 3 is a pattern of brocade or 
tissue, very much worn for per 
lisses, from Robarts, Plowman, and 
Snuggs, Chandos-Street, Covent- 
Garden. 

No. 4 is an entire new flowered 
satin, for evening dresses, furnished 
by Harris, Moody, and Co. Pall- 
Mall. 

The three last patterns are the 
manufacture of Spitalfields. The 
introduction of silks among our la- 
dies of fashion, has revived the al- 
most declining employment of the 
silk-weavers, and if it has the effect 
of excluding the fine fabrics of In- 
dian manufacture, to the increase of 
our artizans at home, we shall feel 
very happy in the exchange. 




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Of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions, and Politics. 

Manufacturers, Factors, and Wholesale Dealers in Fancy Goods that 
come within the scope of this Plan, are requested to send Patterns of such new 
Articles as they come out, and if the requisites of Novelty, Fashion, and 
Elegance are united, the quantity necessary for this Magazine will be ordere 

R. Ackermann, 101, Strand, London. 



59 

$oetrp. 

TO THE mi 8E8. 

Mv lirsi fair hope, and now my last retiett 

From empty pride and insolent deceit. 

On,-.- more, ye Muses, at yoorholy shrine, 

Life's bus\ scenes I willingly resig 

Prom jarring politics, and Faithless man, 

From fools thai execute, and knaves thai plan; 

From men that use you for their private ends. 

And those, once answer'd, are no more row friends; 

With whom e'en gratitude is found a sin, 

All pomp without, and littleness within ! 

Whose ruling passion is, in selfish views, 

To change their Friendships as they change their shoes j 

Set ev'ry feeling of the heart at strife, 

And dry up all the charities of life ; 

From all these strange artificers of words, 

That rule a senate which no truth a (lords, 

Merc coruscations, d uszliag, as thev pass, 

Some titled idiot, or some pension'd ass I 

From men, whose riches are their sole support, 

Whose vast ambition is to shine at court ; 

To shew their weakness in embroidered arms. 

The secret laughter of the thing that charms: 

From dames of'fashion who are vastly kind, 

And Lull our senses to Beduce our mind : 

From things like these, ye Muses, I retire, 

To act as Keason and a> you inspire ; 

To move, unshaken in the midst of strife, 

Prepat'd for death, and not too fond of life! 

In actions honest, and in thought sincere, 

The voice of nature and of God to hear ! 

With you to meditate that awful home, 

Whose entrance opens on a world to come. 



* * * 



THE LOVERS' QUARREL 

ON THE SHORTEST DAY IN THE YEAR- 

From Major James's Poems. 

Wf. qunrrclled on the shortest day ; 

The consequence was this : 
Throughout the longest night we lay 

In scenes of mutual bliss. 
Oh ! may it thus for ever prove 

Willi hearts that own no jjuile ; 
An instant be the frown oi love, 

A century the smile ! 
12 



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1 

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 

Ktpih.y /?. /;/\as. Mathematical Instrument-Maker, Strand, London. 







THERMOMETER. 


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— 













• During the night f Heavy rain in the night. 1 Stars brilliaal at <> 1'. M. Snow 

at 9. High wind all night § Snow at 5 P.M. Btara brilliaul in (he evening. At 19, 

appearance of change. 



PRICES 

Of Firc-OJJicc. Mine. Doc/:, Canal, Water-Works, Breztery, if Public 
Institution Shares, o}c. 6}c. for Dec. 1808. 



Albion l'ire& Life Aasurancc £2 \>r. ct prem. 

Eagle ditto- - - - - Par. 

1 ditto 11110 per a] 

Hope ditto 1 1 per prera. 

Imperial < i it to 40 ditto 

Kork ilitto -...50 ditto 

' India Dock Stock - 1 _• , pt , . 

ditto ----- 1(17 ditto 

London ditto 191 ditto 

> icial ditto 140 o ditto 



Grand Junction Canal £195 prr5h::re 

. Sum y ditto - - - - 60 ditto 
Eaat London Water Worka 40 ditto prem 
'\ . 1 Middli m \ ditto - - - 19 a ditto 
South London ditto - - - - 40 o ditto 
Kennett It. Avon Canal - - 40 ditto 
London Institution ----840 perahare 

Surrej ditto 35 o <litt<> 

Commercial Road Stock - Il6 percent 
Baaiugal I anal she. pdnp t6 to 38 per aba e 



EDWAIil) F. T. FORTUNE, 
Stock Broker and General Agent, No. 13, Cornhill. 



Printed, for R. Ac kchm. y.N.n, by Harrison $ Rutter, 373, Strand. 



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OP 



ARTS, LITERATURE. COMMER4 

Manufactures, Fashions^ and Politu , 



lor ITJiKUARY, ]su<>. 



Cfje ©eroiiD /mnibrr. 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 






whok-lcngfk Figures of London Fashions, for the M 
7. Wi- i Baoj v ' | , Square. 

i, I. .■!'■• . i frs, by Hoxoitt. 

''. Pateni Landau. — * _ 

10. Allbcoricaj, Woon-CUT, with real Fatten* of British Mamufacl rf.««r > 

( VNTENTS. 



P m;f 

Chsxist&y continued <. . 

The line Arts 

Answer to Crito 7_ 

History ot" CofiEec 74 

Case of the West India Planters . 70 

Letters from Italy 7 7 

A Description of Montreal ... 81 
Lord Stanhope on Candles . . 
Improvement of Beauty ... 

Learned Spaniel yi 

Chinese Imperial Edict .... 

British Spurts 95 

Law Report 97 

Wedgwood's Rooms 10j 

Retrospect of Politics 107 

Literary Notices and Intelligence .113 



fAGt 

Medical Publications 114. 

Review "t Music 117 

Medical Report 119 

The Homed Heifer i_i 

dtural Report ]'j'2 

Fashions , . . 

Pateni Landau 

Pattern! ib. 

Ode to the New Year 124 

To a B md Myrtle . . . 

Marriages and Deaths ... 
Bankrupts and Dividends ... 

Markets 

Prices of Stocks 

Meteorological Table 

Price of Shares 



TO CORRESPONDENT - 

THE Communications of some of our most valued Corrsrpondents, have been 
unavoidably postponed till the ensuing Month, because we were unwilling to abridge 
what we had not room to print. 

We have to acknowledge the receipt of The Man of Fashion and The Seducer. 
The limits we have prescribed to the Poetical Department, oblige us to delay some 
very elegant Trifles, of which we take this opportunity to acknowledge the receipt ; 
they shall appear in our future Numbers. 






3&epo£ttorj> 



or 



ARTS, LITERATURE* COMMKU' 
Manufactures^ Fashions, and 1 } <>/Ifi> , 



Tor FEBRUARY, 1900. 



£T'if fefccnlj /iunilur. 



-Tlic ruffrare of tin' mae. 



The praise (hat's worth rabitioo, is attainM 
I!) g< ,,... alone, ami dignity of iuin.1. 



A KM TROSC. 



INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE USEFUL AND 

POLITE AKTS. 

(Continued from poge 11J 
Hor.r.R R\cov was excommuni- i' the times, are mystical and 
cated kf ,m> l*°P'N an ^ imprisoned . score, 

t . ■ i pears, for supposed dealings In the yrar l c ?."3, lived / 
with the devil. He was celebrated Lulty, bprn at Barcelona, He wrote 
foe many ingenious inventions and on strong waters and metals i his 
discoveries in chemistry and me- y last will, one of the most cclebi 
chanics ; among others, are mention- 1 of his writings, is remarkable for 
edthc cq^mtraokscura^ tilt telescope^ obscurity. 
and gunpowder. His works dis- About 1840, Kved Ar t 

Villa Soxu, a native of Lai 
doc in Fiance, In 1 
Imd a clear account of the mineral 
acids, and he hai united to his I 
mical skill a considerable >harc of 
knowledge in medicine: his writ 
ue. however, obscured y aU the 
bombast of alchemical folly. 

He was born in tl>e county of Somer- | About the end of the lourtt • 
set, in the year 121*, and died in 1294. ) century, Basil 

No. II. Vol. I. K 



play astonishing sagacity and ex- 
actness, and, considering the age 
in -which he lived*, are composed 
with no small degree of elegance a> 

well as conciseness; some of them, 
however, bearing the characters o\ 



66 



IN I noniTTION TO THE 



Benedictine monk, arduously ap- for, after an almost uninterrupted 
pUcd himself to chemistry and me- course of extravagancies, haying 
dicii lie discovered many of wandered a great part of his life 



the brst antimonial medicines \ and 
it must be confessed, that id his ccle- 
brated treatise on antimony, we find 
a variety of preparations which 
hare been since announced to the 
world as '-.tw discoveries. 

In t' c beginning of the sixteenth 



from place to place, bis premature 
death, which happened 1541, ex- 
posed his vanity and blasted all 

their hopes: he died at an inn in 
Saltzbourg, in the iSth year of his 
age. This man closed the list of 
the distinguished alchemists, and 



eentitry, arose Paracelsus, one of hit leath completed the disgrace of 
the most extraortiiriarj men that the universal medicine. The cha- 
rver exi-tcd. lie asoornin 1493, || racter of Paracelsus is universally 
near Zurich in Switzerland: of a |] known: he stole many opinions and 
bold and enterprising spirit, be to- II even facts from others; his arm- 
tally despised the common rules of gance was insupportable, his inflat- 
conduct by which men are usually i ed pretensions ridiculous, and his 
guided in civilized society. This whofo life a continued tissue of 
impetuoas roan, who, in ostentation, absurdity, extravagance, and vice: 
mystery, and palpable falshood, at the same time it must be acknow- 
■ ded all preceding alchemists, [edged, that his talents were great, 



Wis supposed to have an evil spirit 

routined in the pommel of his 



and his labours not entirely useless; 
by carrying his speculations con- 



sword. After having raised his re- cerning the philosopher's stone to 



putatimi to a great height, lie Wis 
appointed by the magistrates of 

I, tn give a course (.»•' lectures 
in that city, and thus he became the 
first public professor of chemistry 
in El&opc: but iiis ri si!es> spirit did 
not permit him to remain long in 
this situation, lie soon quarrelled 



the utmost verge of folly, he < onlri- 
buted more than any other to the 
disgrace and banishment of alche- 
mical pretensions. 

It would surpass the limits of our 
present enquiry, to pursue the de- 
tail of chemical science at this pe- 
riod to any considerable length. A 



with the magistrates from whom lie ! great number of medical practitio- 
liad received his appointment, and ner , in the course of the sixteenth 
I< fi the cii v. Despising the most jj century, adopted and propagated 



salutary principles of the art of 
healing, after having, by the liberal 
BSe of opium and mercury, been 
successful in the treatment of sere- 1 
ral serious maladies, he assumed 
(lie merit of having discovered the- 
universal medicine, and deceived 
his followers with the hope of b< - 
mg immortal. Hut while he made 



the principles of Paracelsus. Among 

the most distinguished of these, was 
I'lin ffelmotit, a man of consider- 
able genius, who was born I.j77. 
Jt may be readily conjectured, 

that owing to the great variety of 
experiments which were performed 
by the alchemists, many valuable 
discoveries must have been rriade. 



Mich flattering promrses, his own The alchemists actually collected a 

fate was a sad proof of theprtsump- | rich store of facts, and if they did 
fuous absurdity of his pretentious ; ti not succeed in drawing gold from 



i SF.rt'L \ m> imii.i n. ar.v 



C7 



tli« I r furnaces, thej produced thotc 
material! upon w bi< h th< ti ue 'I" - 
trine of ihis science was afu , 
erected . for as yel il did nol ex- 
ist. M uy of the follower! oi Para- 
celsui \. [\y devoted to the 

study of chemistry ; bul tiie al»- 
siLnl, ridiculous, and unprincipled 
conduct of their master, tended ma- 
terially to bring the views and spe- 
culatiomi of the alchemists into <!<•- 
served ami general disrepute. 

At the end <>f the seventeenth cen- 
tury, chemistry began to assume a 
scientific form. The scattered nets 
which the alchemists bad discoi ar- 
id, were collected, arranged, and 
reduced to principles, so thai the 
knowledge of them might be im- 
plied to useful purposes. The 
ta.sk was accomplished by Becker. 
This man collected all the discove- 
ries which were noticed before him, 
ami pointed out many important I 
objects to which the researches of 
chemists o'.iiclit to be directed. Il 
was tin* lust dawn of chemical 
science,' and the publii siion ol* Ins 
Pkysica Sublcrranea, in the year 
1()()'), Conns a very important sera 
in the history of chemical phil 

Al this period chemistry escaped 
for e\w from the toils of alcl* 
and the" rudiments of the sc 
Which we find it at present were 
developed. Becher distinguished 
himself so highly by his chemical 
knowledge, tliat the names of all 
tor iner theorists seem to be forgotten : 
after having laid the foundatio i 
the famous system of phlogiston, 
he died in the year l( ! 

The tacts which had been accu- 
mulated by the Labours of the alche- 
mists, and to which Becher had 
given a systematic form, were scon 



He i method d I ■ 

his pupil Stahl. Indeed, tins mau 
siiapliiir.l and in proved tht dot - 

H iih-s of his ma i> r so mm h, that he 
made it almost wholly Ins own; 

.in I hence it baa bo n known ■ 
Mm -■ bj the ii une oi the ! 

'/'/iron/. 

Hi- was tin- fir-f w ho ha 

potion of chemical union, ind ■_ 
i taiij instajM ei of complu 
micaJ pr>' i luteiy scien- 

tific, .'lis wri ive made him 

Lmmofftal, and place him among 
the /ii t chara ten of th 
which he lived. Nis th 
universally ijec i i ed I •. < ben 
and mn tinner! to flourish for more 

than half a century. He die I I 
Since this p i iod, 

been cuitivated with still 
success. Men of emine ap« 

p -an-d every a here, and d 

■ ii multiplied, a bit h hay < led to 
important events. 

Towards the middle of the eigh« 
teentfa century became 

general, and even I isbii as ile, par- 
ticularly in France and G 
The nam. i of Beaume, " 
Afargraafj Schcde, Berwtrar, &e. 
will long remain, distinguished in 
the annals of chemical 

The spirit of < lirj 

■ 
irs to have ran 

of the i 
learned men b 
ime Ihe 

,\as r 

discoveries were daily mu 

v pi lit •. . the 

study burst forth, and was diff 

tar an I end oi' the 

- which are of so 

much importance in the econo»v 

nature, were d c 
K 9 



TNTHontc rios 10 tnr. 



yeai 1771, Dr. Priestley, who had 
rmploj ed in chemical pursuits, 
detected various at rial fluids total- 
ly tin known before* Dr. ttlack 
I raced tile laws of latent hear, and 
discovered (he carbonic acid. The 
seiem e of electricity was a> it were 
created, and thunder was drawn from 
the clouds; in short, the properties ol 
the atmosphere were examined with 
accuntcv and ascertaiuad. 



many of tlie new facts proved 
hostile to the acknowledged doc- 
trines of the science; and lite con- 
clusions to which they led, wereof 
such a. nature as to puzzle and con- 
tradict the most important chemi- 
cal laws: there was, therefore, 
neithei system nor connection be- 
tween the chemical Tacts, the mul- 
tiplicity of which actually over- 
whelmed iis theory ■ A man of an 



[n the year 1781, Mi* Cavendish extraordinary mind was wanting, 

proved that water is not a simple Who might profit by this stale 
element, but is composed of the of uncertainty and indecision, to 



bases of two gases. 



i arrest the vacillations of this sci- 



All these new discoveries embar- ence. A revolution was prepared 
>d the votaries of the doctrine of in every quarter, but no one had 
Stahl, and the conclusions to which yet felt bold enough to regulate 
they led, were of such a nature as its motion: it was therefore requi- 
to contradict many of ihe acknow- site to proceed one step further, 
lodged laws of the science. A [that the imperfect system ofchemis- 
crowd of new and extraordinary J try then prevailing might be cx- 
chemical tacts succeeded each o- ploded for ever. This was effected 
therwitb astonishing rapidity; aca- by the genius of a foreign chemist. 



demical memoirs and periodical 

publications were scarcely suffi- 
cient to publish all the new disco- 



j whose name was Lavoisier/ a 
man endued with ihe most profound 
talents for science: enabled by meat ■ 



veries that were made. The che- of his own princely fortune, and 

mical laws of nature were submit- the liberal bounty of the French 

ted to the test of Weight, measure, government, he instituted a series of 

and vision* The totality of the ex- ingenious experiments, tin- results 

periments of different kinds, and of which proved to demonstration, 

instituted for various purposes, ' that the theory of phlogiston was 

laid before the public by indivi- founded in error. His experiments 

duals at that time, forms B mass were repeated by all the philoso- 

ef immense extent, and presents pliers of Europe; his reusouings 

one of the most prominent features and inferences were attacked by the 

of the age: the science of chemis- defenders of the phlogistic theory : 

try engaged general attention ; and a kind of chemical war was thus 

yet, whilst it became enriched with kindled in tin* republic of letters, 

such great and important facts, its which was carried on with great 

theory proceeded but slowly. Jt violence and animosity; and pos- 

even appeared to acquire a retro- } terity will view with regret, men u.' 

grade motion, or to lose ground, undoubted genius at times divesf- 

aud become embarrassed among I ing themselves of the armour of 

these immense acquisitions, livery truth and candour, and endeavour* 
list hud his own theory ; lor ; ing to stub their advene icllow-la- 



i i i r i. a \ ii »oi! i r. a mn. ' 9 

no^rcTs with weapons dipped in the (1 position <-i tli ince* which 

poison <>i calumny Mini fnlshood. arc represented. It is to ihis im- 
J{ii in another point «>i* view the provement in ik Is 
canted bun ba n pi Kl ■■ I ii t pi ef- m to istribe the facility and pre- 
fects, l>v which science li.is been cfaion with which the knowl 
materially benefited; if has ooca- chemistry can be comma 
sionedastill greater accumulation and which has undoubtedly contri- 
of facts, a rigid examination of buted greatly to its general diffusion 
tli "Dries mihI opinions, an I has given and cultivation : ami il there be any 
that tone and \ igour (<> the culti- 
vators of chemistry, which have 
ultimately elii ited the most lublime 
and uulooked-fof truths. 

'J'he principles of Fiavoisicr 
have triumphed, and arc now taught 
in all the chemical schools of Eu- 
rope; his opponents have become 
Jiis disciples; and, in fact, a sin- 
gle man erected the present sys- 
tem. A revolution so great and 



ground forhopeas to its future pro- 

from distinguished tal 
ardi nt teal, and unceasing indus- 
try, those « ho are now engaged in 
ihestn.lv of this science, give mil 
promise of a rich harvest. The 
late <li^< o Mi. Davj as t.> 

the raetalleiation of the earth and 
alcalies, and which is undoubtedly 
(lie most important discovery made 
in modern chemistry, give reason 
fortunate for the progress of the to believe, that this science will 



human mind, demands the res 



soon acquire a still more dignified 



and admiration of the present, and and more honourable situation. 

wiil surely obtain tha( of future Chemistry, in its present state, is 

ages. Lavoisier deserved an altar do longer confined to the labors- 

in the temple of science; but the lory of the arts; it has i 

French revolution shortened the | its investigations to the sublimes! 

bright career of this philosopher: heights ol physical enqutr 

.Lavoisier perished, in the reign of pursues a path formerly regar 

the monster Robespierre, under the as at best mysterious, it' not 

axe of the guillotine. The his- II penetrable. From the atrr/W we pro- 

tori ins of ihis science will COnse* eeed to 
crate his name to posterity. me n\c aaTt. 

Such has been the rise and pro- A love of the ornamental and igii- 

grcss of chemistry. 'The barba- tattve arts is so interwoven with 

rous, unmeaning, and arbitrary Ian- the moral existence of man, that 

guage of the old chemists, which scarcely any part of the World but 

rendered the science extremely is more or less cheered by their 

difficult to be acquired or under- uial influence, and scarcely a | 

stood, has given, way to a more sci- of history but is enlightened by 

entitic phrasiology. The French their rays. It is art ia every con n- 

chemists have furnished a rational try which s, ennobles, 

nomenclature of the science, so sustains intellects 

constructed that every word and aiit which speaks of man i 

every combination has an appro- ages, and proudly proclaim 

priate meaning, and is intend- here he has existed; i; is hen 

rd to express the nature and cam- benevolent affections have been aid- 



ro 



1 \ 1 UOOl CTTON TO TUP 



tivated : and pleasure has gone 
hand in band with philosophy." 

Pron pted by an amiable sentiment 
of gratitude toward* the pasl bene- 
factors of the human race, we in- 
dulge with pleasing anxiety in such 
enquiries: at U ad to dwrolope the 
sources of the advantages that wc 
enjoy; and m we hope to live our- 
selves in the me natty of the good, 
we willingly grant the sublunary 
immortality that mortals tan be- 
stow to the discoverers ami bivea- 

tors of those arts and sciences, to 

which we are indebted for the com- 

fortsand the innocent luxuriesoflife. 
Which then (we may laudably 

enquire) was the Srst-bom of the 

imitative arts? and what country 
had the honour of giving birl 
these chaste and charming sisters? 
Diil they trayel from i ia to 
pi ? or. vice versa, from Esrypd 
to the peninsula ofHindostan? or 
from the plains of Shinaar to both ? 
These an- quostions upon which 
much learned ingenuity lias been 
expended; not fruitlessly, sob* many 
,1 discoveries and much plea- 
sure has attended the research ; hut, 
perhaps, too generally by mere men 
of letters, and without sufficient 
advertence to the works of genius 
and of persevering industry, which 
those distant au; ■ and countries 
have transmitted to modern obser- 
vation. If critical historians have 
not looked too much at the records 
of antiquity, they may possibly 
have looked too little at the means 
of recording; and hence battles and 
m:;~sacres may have stained some 
pages on which science and art 
might have shed a fairer renown, 
and a lustre more worthy of perpe- 
tuity, if not more brilliant. 

In prosecuting the enquiries 



h.r e sketched out, fre- 
quent reference will be had to such 
of the existing remains of the arts 
oi antiquity ;h may now be ac- 
cessible to our view; but much will 
still be involved in obscurity, for 
much is unfortunately lost of (he 
early arts, which the historians of 
Rome and of the middle ages might 
have examined; and much more 
will be dimly seen by the glimmer- 
ings i^i' failles and tualogy | yet 
some interesting truths will doubt- 
less arise to view, with which the 
less learned part of our readers ma j 
be pleased to be mad'* acquainted. 
Indigenous to every soil, the imi- 
tative arts have expanded with su- 
perior vigour in the more genial 
i limates, »i;'i the expanding facul* 
ties of man. We are not to suppose 
that the several modes of art migrat- 
ed, like man himself (according to 
the Mosaic accounts), from coun- 
try to country. The imperishable 
nature of the substances on which 
some of them were anciently exer- 
cised, concurs with the testimony of 
history, the discordant pretensions 
of the ureal nations of antiquity, and 
the observations of modem disco- 
verers, to persuade us that more na- 
tions than one may justly claim the 
honour of having invented the arts 

oi Mo J) il, 1. 1 S(, ,KNf, RA\ i\<; .-( I 1.1'- 
rtTBEj and PAINTING. The first 
of these, as we shall shew, was 
practised in Assyria many centu- 
ries before it una umenled in 

GrREECl ; and perhaps A--VH1A, 
Hinoostax„ and Egypt, may 
with equal Justin assert their claims 
to the spontaneous production of 
engraving and scw/ptwre; and i hi n * 
may contend with them all for the 
palm of early painting. 
The human, mind, under similar 



C M IT. %ND i I i i i A nTs. 



J 



circumstances, will be impelled to 
similar pursuit*! II in the new 
world (whose parts are remote from 
en ii otoei , separated b\ *dan 
mis seas, ;irn! without means of 
intercourse with each other, 01 
■with the continents of Europe of 
A tin '. ' ■'! criland engraved < amx - 
and >\;u implci te i • were found at 
ih' Friendly au< Society islands, 
picture-writing at Mexico, :i n<l 
sculptured idols both at Ne* Z 
laud ami the Sandwich Islands, 
there is little r< ason to < ?« »i i f >i the 
double invention of plastic art in 
the work! <it" antiquity ; and the 
poetical and interesting story \\ hie!, 
Pliny nnd Athcnagoras agree ia 
telling of the Corinthian m iid, the 
daughter of Dibutades, may b 
lieved, even though if Bhould ap- 
; esurfkun history and indisputable 
facts, that modelling andengnr 
ami perhaps sculpture in rel 
were practised in the more eastern 
countries forages before, and white 
the Greeks were yet- in a state of 
barbarism. 

Even the scriptural accounts of 
imitative art, though of very re- 
note antiquity, do not carry us' back 
to the origin of cither modelling, 
engraving, sculpture, embroidery, 
or pointing. That the latter art is 
of' subsequent invention to the for- 
mer, appears highly probable both 
from the testimony nnd the silence 
of Moses and of Homer. Thede- 
oaiogue, which forbad the Hebrews 
io worship craven images, says 
nothing of the far more fascinating 
art (to the senses of the multitude) 
Of painting — so much more likely 

had it existed, to have seduc ".I 
them^from the worship of the tine. 
but unseen Con! ; and in the term 
idolatry, so often repeated in holy 



writ, as v, II • !i of 

i, we trace tli 
though not i be irrvrntin o( Lhs * h r 
of the Mom i '.i!< . fron 

Isili chapter of G 
fhat signets (of en; n > d - • .l-i 

• ommon, s ' i be worn by 

i - they 

info flic 

I i.nl of Egypt : ..a* 

we learn froi > f 1 " i of 

the von" bo I : raoh loos 

.ill'his hand, and put it on 
the hand ui Joseph.** 

When Labnn pursues, and over- 
hikes Jacob, he reproach folly 
U\ him, " Wherefore | i gtc* 

len away my < ■ hr\ 

i the imagrs and put them 
in the cam< Ps furnrtn 

FVom Inis \ »ssage it appears, that 
the worship of the feraphfm, larei y 
or household 
. 
practice of modelling, may be trac- 
ed up to an ;"i.i which preceded 
the birth of Mbs 
( ledrerrus further assei I 
ham burn; the idols of Terafj hi: 
and that Serog, e pro. 
for of Abraham, ni . rh in de- 

scent from Slu'in r h ), 

as well as I < rah, was a modeller of 
imag* 

It is therefore probable that 
same plastic material of which the 
Babylonian bricks 
and With which. 
Pentateuch, B;d 
invited the hand, and called | 
the ingenuity of ihe modeller: 
if \\i - atety relj au- 

thority of Ceen*entnt for the * 

rtie Assyrian ai f A- 

braham were fabricators of idols, 
we might listen < - surprise 

to the occasional backsliding* and 



ANSWER TO C'tTTO. 



apdstaey of <?ir Jews, and that 
pronenees to idolise the godfl of 
(heir Chaldean progenitors, which 
called forth the repeated censun 



and severe prohibition of their legis. 
lator, ami which is snbsequeiuiy la- 
mented by their prophets. 
( To be continued.) 



TO THE EDITOR OF Till; REPOSITORY, fro. 

Sia,— The information requested ! So far from describing the eagle 

bjCmxro, in \ our las! number, with ruffled plumes, or with ariv cir- 

.:n- expression in the first Py- cumatance truly pictnresqte, Pindar 

tbian ode of Pindar, translated In has, on the contrary, avoided every 

Vv ,k, < and imitated by Mr. Idea that might disturb the repose 

I .-. waa given some years since and majestic beauty of hit ima »•<■--. 

try Mr. Price, in his Essay on : yi „ , UT t* tihpt, is so opposite to 

the Picturesque; but previous to raffled, that it seems to signify that 

availing! • observations, perfect smoothness and sleekness 

I shall notice that the vemes allml- given by moisture, that oily sup* 

cd to by your correspondent, are plcness so different from anything 

in decade ii. of the first Pythian crisped or rumpled; as uy ( df ia*.». 

Ode by Mr. West, am! in the Pro- express the smooth, suppling, U u- 



Poesy by Mr. Grey, from 
which it "will appear that the " ruf- 



drying quality of oil. 

The learned Christ ianus Da mm, 



tied plumes" belong to Mr. f.'rey, I in bis Lexicon, interprets kmkakt 

and are an imitation of Mr. West's |] typ, yaT<m a im^u, dormiens incurva- 
w ruffling leathers. " |' turn (vel potius la re) tcrgits Bttol- 

Mr. Gilpin having quoted Pin- |j lit ; and the action is that of a gen- 
de» i iption of the eagle as 
equally poetical and picturesque, 
Mr. Price observes, that Mr. G. 
has put the ruffled plumage in Ha 



fie*, as the circumstance which 
nest strongly marks that character; 
and that Mr. West and Mr. Grey 
have used the same expression, al- 
though there is not the least trace 
of it in the original: and he thinks 
that Mr. West and Mr. Grey might 
probably have been impressed with 
the same idea as Mr. Gilpin, that 
the imagery in this paasage was 
highlj picturesque, but might have 
felt that smooth feathers could not 

id with that character: and 
therefore perhaps (as Sir Joshua 

inhls observes on Algatotti's 

ill-founded eulogium of a picture 

of Titian}*, " they (hose to find in 

l v li.it they thought they 

I to ha\e found." 



tie heaving, from respiration, dur- 
ing a quiet repose, [q another 
place Daium interprets ly^m;, mol- 
lities ; all equally opposite ro ruffed. 
Indeed we might almost suppose 
that Pindar, having intended 4o 
represent an image both sublime 
and beautiful, had avoided every 
thing that might disturb its still 
and solemn grandeur; for he has 
thrown as it were into shade, the 
most marked and picturesque fea- 
ture of thai noble bird ; fuAjwikrii 

a'nri 01 ts<J9:Xa» asyxvAw xj«ti, (ihitya-^oiv Lou 

**.x^T{ov, y.ccTix^'-m ', a feature which 
Homer, in a simile full of action 
and picturesque imagery, has placed 

in its fullest light : 

0» o uo~t* ettyvmct yctfj-^utv^K;, ayy,i}.c~ 
I J T ■ p" il>r,}.r'ij.<ya.?.x >.KxK r ^Ti /xa^enTai, 



7:* 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY, A 

Observing in your first ii u in - tcr than a loaf of bread or a piece 

ber an account of the method of meat. 

making coffee in Germany, and The use of coffee appears 01 

sensible thai the use of it in tin's nally to have been introduced by 

epuntrv lias surprisingly increased the prior of an Arabian monastery, 

since the reduction of duty took v. ho being informed of its cfl 

place, I .un induced to send you on the goats thai browned the 

some account of the history of that young trees, gave an infusion of 

article; from which it will appear, the berries to his monks, in order to 

that in the course of less than four prevent an inclination fot steep, 

centuries a berry lias made its way which interfered with their noctur« 

almost through the whole civilised nal devotions. The author of aa 

world, which was before known Arabian manuscript now in the Bi* 

only as an article of luxury, or biiotkeque National*, ascribes the 

food to a few savage tribes on the introduction of this beverage into 

borders of Abyssinia. The Greeks Arabia to Megaleddin, mufti of 
and the Romans were entirely un- 1| Aden, about the middle of the fif- 



acquainted with coffee. It is not 
mentioned in anj of the European 
Writers who were engaged iu the 
crusades, from which (although it 
is said to have been found both in 



[ teenth century. From A din, this 
new luxury rapidly extended it- 
self to Mecca, Medina, and Grand 
Cairo, and was received with equal 
avidity even at Constantinople; 



a wild and cultivated state in Syria but here it had to encounter political 

iVom time immemorial) it is evident as well as religious obstacles, and 
that it could not have been used coffee-houses were prohibited : but 
during the twelfth or thirteenth the enthusiasm of religion gave way 
centuries, either in medicine or do- j to the seductive influence of sensi- 
niestie economy. That the quali- , live enjoyment: and if political 
tics of it were known in Africa, is sagacity had not discovered the pos- 

conteiuled for by the Abbe Kaynal sibilitj of coffee-houses becoming 

and Bruce; the latter of whom tells the nurseries of sedition and the 
us, thai the Gallse, a wandering na- rendezvous of the disaffected, they 
lion ol Africa, being obliged to would not have been again sup- 
traverse immense deserts in their pressed from motives of religions 
incursions on Abyssinia, carry no consideration. 
provision but coffee roasted till it The\ wereat length suffered to ei-. 
can be pulverized, and then mixed ^ 1st rather ealousy than 
with butter to a consistency that 1 encouragement, not withstanding the 
-will sutler it tobe rolled up in balls. ' great revenue whi< h they yield 
one of which, about the size <A a Making coffee for the public- is now 
billiard-ball, is said to be sufficient > considered of so much importance, 
to keep them in health and spirits that it is under the inspection of seven 
during a whole day's fatigue, bet- principal officers, who have each oi 
No. If Vol 1. L 



XATURAL HISTORY OF COFrnn. 



them about thirty subordinates em- 
ployed under them, in preparing 
this favourite beverage; and it is 
laid, that a refusal to supply a wife 
with coffee, is among the legal 
grounds for obtaining a divprce. 
The first mention of coffee in the 
west of Europe is bjf Kauw'ff, in 
157 I. The tree was accurately de- 
scribed in 1591, by Prosper Alpi- 
nus. Its u^o as a beverage is no- 
ticed bv two relish travellers, 
fiiddulpfa i» l§63, and William 
Finch in 1607. In IblJ, PetiodeUa 
Valle writes from Constantinople, 
that he should bring some coffee, 
which he believed was a thing un- 
lcnown in this comitri/. In France 
it was Hist introduced at Marseilles 
in 1644. In 1660, several bales 
were imported from Egypt, and in 
1671 a coffee-house was opened at 
Marseilles, ft was fust brought to 
Paris in 1657, by that celebrated 
traveller Thcvenot, but was very 
little known. lu 1669, it was more 
generally introduced by Soliman 

. ambassador from Sultan Ma- 
homet IV". and in 1672 a co 
house was opened by an Armenian 
named Pascal, who afterwards re- 
moved to London. But the mm' 
of coffee as a beverage had !:< i n 
known in England from the year 

', when a Turkish merchant, 
named Daniel Edwards, brought 
home with him a Greek servant, 
named Pasqua, who understood Ihe 
method of roasting and preparing 
it. This man n is the first who pub- 
licly sold coffee; and kept a house 

for thai purpose in George-yard, 

Lombard-street, The first mention 
of coffee in our statute books occurs 
in IbGO (lit!. Charles II. c. 21), 
and a duty of Id. per gallon was 
levied upon the maker. In 1663, 



it was enacted, that all coffee-houses 
should be licensed at the quarter 
sessions for the county. In 1675, 
(hey were shut up by proclamation 
for a shor' period, as seminaries of 
sedition. Since this period, they 
are frequ< ntly mentioned in our sta- 
tute books, but merely with a view 
to the regulation of the duties upon 
the article of coffee. In France and 
( fesmany, coffee is usually made 
stronger than in England: a lively 
French writer has observed, that 
the English care little about the 
quality, if they <*et but enough 
of it. Dr. FothergiU was of opi- 
nion, that if the poor and middling 
classes could procure it reasonable, 
and be sufficiently supplied, it 
would be much more nourishing and 
beneficial than the wretched beve- 
rage of ordinary tea, in which they 
now indulge. On the other hand, 
the thesis, entitled Potus Caffieasy 
delivered by a Swedish student at 
Upsal, and published \\\\\\cAmc- 
mtates Academicce, under the direc- 
tion of Linnaeus himself, is a sar- 
castic, en ten a in in g invective against 
the introduction of this novel lux- 

j ury : he gives a ludicrous list of 

| the expensive utensils required for 
its use in (he fashionable style, which 

, the vanity of his country-women 
would not suffer them to forego; 
and enumerates, with triumphant 
satisfaction, the long train of bodily 
(ii orders which it was likely to ge- 
nerate. Hut if we are to credit Dn 
Tour, if banishes languor and anx- 
iety, gives those who drink if a 
pleasing sensation of their own well- 

! being, ami diffuses through the 
whole frame a vivifying delightful 
warmth. It is also, according to 
(his writer, highly favourable to 
the social virtue^ promotes cheer- 



CAST OF THE Wl .« I INDIA PIANTI " c . 



75 



ful conversation, sharpens (In- ca- 
pacity for wit, smooths the wrink- 
led brow, and is tometimes able to 
ro/ir. •' enemies into friends. As ii 
produces or aggravates hysterical 
and bypocondriacal affections, Tis- 
toi cautions literary and sedentary 
people against its use: buttothotc 
who are inclined to trim the mid- 
night lamp, if cannot but prove ac- 
ceptable ; but Mm V \ 'lid do well 

to use it rather .is an occasional re- 
freshment, than as a constant be- 
verage. Dr. FothergiO thought 

w 1st i \ i>i \ (oiTii: ivrnii i in. 
17f)3 cwt()o,M7 J7!)<>, c«l ;i,;n 17' 

1794, 130,341 I; 17, li". ,474 

1793, 199,370 1798, in. 1801, 1 



the I r<ni li pr ti in '■ of drinking 
coffee immediately after dinner, 
imieii better than our plan ol | 
porting ii to 1 later bow : thai, ^<- 

any lit'', it DTtlfi prove a de irable 

substitute for the bottle, which, in 
England and the northern pai I 
Europe, detains (he gentlemen at 
the dinner-table so long after the 

clotfi is withdrawn, to the injury af 

their fortunes, and too often to the 

still greater injury of their health 
and happiness. 



1802, cwt 
lb 'J J, 



WERT INDIA AM) POBEIGN PLANTATION. 

1805, cwt.jo9,9ia ibid, cwt 815,710 li"7, Mrt.4 10,943 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY OF ARTS, fee. 

for October w ere calculated to make 



Tnr. distresses of the West India i 
colonies have been so fully sub- 
stantiated and proved, that it may 
be assumed as a fact, respecting 
which there can be no difference of 



on the public mind. 

In th" account of M A short Ap- 
peal to the Landed Interest of this 
Country?* after quoting an o 
opinion. The causes which have vation from thepamphlet," that the 
produced this situation of things, West India interest hare a right 
and the remedies which have been to relief from government, ** the 
adopted for the relief of the West writer of the lleview boh!.. 
India planters, are subjects which "that the embarrassments of that 



have occasioned considerable dis- 
cussions both in and out of doors : 



both/, however, it has Oca most 
\ clearly shewn, have arisen front 
but 1 cannot help remarking, that in shortsighted and erroneous 
defiance of fact, and almost in con- lotions;** and then asks, "on what 
tempt of conviction, there are per- principle is a government to relieve 
sons who, with an obstinacy more pi rsons ;.'..., fall into difficul 
wilful than error, impute these dis- / f u 



tresses to cver\ cause but that v. 
reason and common sense point 
as the (rue one. The letter wl 



After a very weak, illogical, an ' ir- 
rant illustration of this argu- 

nce to the losses 



1 had written with a view to its v . Inch a merchant o\ the utmost 

insertion m the first number o\ ability and W. ment 

your Repository, was intended to & t inpr** 

remove the impressions which some f which he ha no 

observations in the Monthly Review . . ^ver 



re 



CAT or Tnc WEST I\m.\ PLAXTEE8, 



•fain asis, "can (he trader, whom ' the distresses which the West India 



ruin threatens in consequence of his 
own speculations, prefer the petition 

h« re MAiir rnn him? and have 
bodies of men any right in this re- 
spect which the individuals have 
not ? " 

Siilldealing out interrogatories, he 



planters have felt, and stdl continue 
to feel, and I may at another oppor- 
tunity send you some remarks upon 
that subject ; ! shall at present only 
trespass upon your patience a little 
longer, by opposing the arguments 
of the monthly reviewer in Deccni- 



asks, " if the West India d bales , ber, to the arguments (if they can be 
has speculated wildly, why is the \ called arguments) of the monthly 
economy of the husbandman to In reviewer in October. 
disturbed suddenly, and at an urn- \ [n reviewing An Inquiry into the 
seasonable moment, his arm to In Policy and Justice. of the Prohfti* 
paralyzed, and his profits diminish-' tion of the Use of Grain in the 



" '"Had it been simply pro. 
posed," he adds, '"to leave the 
distilh r- to make use of grain or 



Distilleries, by A. Hell, Esq. advo- 
cate, the reviewer observes, Wv That 
the natural effect of excess in curing 



sugar at their own discretion, this! itself, although the proposition is in- 
would have been to restore the au- ! controvertible, it has so happened, 



thority of an important principle 
which reason and experience join 
in establishing; to such an enact- 
ment no objection could hate been 
modi ! " 

If these observations convey any 
distinct idea, it is simply this : That 
want of skill and foresight have be- 
trayed the West India planters and 
"dealers" into "erroneous" and 
\U" " speculations," and that 
they have no right to ask, or govern- 
ment to grant them, relief'. 

That men who have not the 
means of information should fall 
into common errors upon this 04 



that the addition to our imports by 
the capture of the Danish islands 
has prevented any perception of 
its operation. It. is but justice, 
however, to the West India body 
to state, that the advocates for the 
discouraging plan of decreasing the 
produce, have looked only to one 
side of the question. They have fel( 
the excess of our import, and ascribed 
that excess to the planter, without 
considering that, were the planter 
left at Liberty, the excess would not 
exist. 1 1 is not the magnitude of 
our crops which gluts our sugar 



market, it is the law, which enacts, 

Ml, is not al all to be wonder- ! that the whole of these crops shall 
cd at : but that men, not only pos- be sent to that market. Not only 
sessing all the means of information, must the crops of the old British 
but professing to direct the judg- j colonies be sent to the mother coun- 
ment of others, should restate these ; try, but all our conquests are sub- 
calumnies, which have been BUD-jjject to the same regulation. No 
Manually disproved before the J allowance is made for the increased 
House of Commons, and which they jj quantity, nor any deduction for the 



do not themselves credit, is (to say 

the least) indecorous and improper. 
It was my intention to have en- I 



difficulty of export during- a state of 
war. 

"Under such a system as this, 



lered fully into the real causes of the remedy which is proposed. 



TIM 1. 113 FROM ITALY. 



77 



progressive re [action, cannot ope- 
I no sooner hfl 1 a dimi- 

mitioii to a given extent 1 iken |»I ta 
hv the abandonment of t i • « - leu fcf- 
tile estates, than the void thui pnin- 
fully created is filled upbj tho in- 
troduction of ingan from a new 
conquest. 



(fir Slli!lir market 1 

its real cause —tin- compul 

pdrt but fa Mil dive <ii - 

lion <>i 1 1 
In page 40 > the H 
Mr. Hell," with falling into I 

the distress's 
of the Rugar* planter! to tln-ir 



" Such Ikjs been the unjust open- , ipeculatiom , without considering, 
tion of oar colonial system of late thatspcculationwouldbe more hurt- 



years, that, while with one hand 
we have been compelling the plant- 



1 Jul in this than in other bi 1 
trade, were the pi inters at liberty to 
en toredace the amount of (heir, sell their sugar us they thought fit.'-' 
produce, we have been depriving! [ahull not lake up^ more of yonj: 



them with the otherof the benefit of 
that redaction.' 1 Again, 

" li" by such conquests we alter 
the situation of our colonics, it is 
incumbent on us, in justice and in 
policy, to alter our system towards 
these colonies. 

Wain the reviewer says, li They 
(the West India body ) have been 
praying relief when they ought to 
have been demanding justice : an 
idea lias consequently been diffused, 
that they are the sole authors of 
their own distress, and the glut of 



paper than merely to express mv 
surprise, thai sentiments so entirely 
inconsistent with each (»ther, should 
find a place in the same public ition. 
You cannot doubt my acquiescence 
, with a considerable part of what is 
advanced in these latter esti 
but pray assist me. if yon can, to 
reconcile principles and tssertiouf 
so totally and diametrically opp It 
!i other. 

OcCIDEMALIS. 

Jan. '20, 1S09. 



^Vr. have great pleasure in presenting to our readers a series of lett. : 1 
Italy, to ■ friend in London, during the year 1802. W 
den have been able to explore the scenes to which they relate, since tie 
our traveller's return. These letters claim the merit of having been •'• die 

places which they describe, or to which they refer, a m< rit at least un< 
the present age of " manufacturing tours." But their pretensions to pul 
are of a higher nature, and if the editor is not biassed in h :i by the indis- 

creet partiality of friendship, he ventures to assure his that lhe\ 

be found to contain the enlightened observations and scientific details 1 I 
judgment and refined taste, exercised upon the most ig objects to b< 

with amid the varied scenes of classic ground. 

LETTER I. 



Naples, April — , IS02. 

Deab T. 

My last was dated at Mes- 



beautiful bay of Naple hip 

has almost removed my strong aver- 
sion to mat itime conveyances; th- 



jiiki, from whence I Bailed a week weather was delightful, the wind 

ago in the — ; and in less than | fair, the accommodations 

three days we cast anchor in the | comfortable, and the attention and 



T T. ITERS moM 1TAT.T. 



hospitality of our worthy captain 
kind In the extranet 

We passed during the night thro' 
the Faro of Messina, and the oner 
formidable Straits of Scylla and 
C harvbdis, with all the uncenceru 
■Bid sang froid of true I>ritish sail- 
ors. Mv classic fears had prompt- 
ed me to read to the captain the 
speech of Helenus to ^Eneas in the 



the raging element; and T think i(. 
rery probable, that by theas means 

the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily 
arc in some decree preserved from 
lestrui tion. Thai they are net en- 
tirely sufficient for this salutary 
purpose, we have reason to con- 
t hide from the calamitous earth- 
quakes to whicb Messina and Oa- 
I a 1 > i i a have at various prriods been 



third ! :ok of Virgil, which he II exposed. On the other hand, it is 



treated with sovereign contempt, 
declaring the venerable seer to be 
no better than an old woman, and 

the whole story a d d h g, 

The event, certainly, was by ne 
means calculated to raise the Maro- 
nian nautics in my estimation, and 
in some measure justified the cup- 
tain's blunt and severe sentence. 

Jiut my fears were .soon after- 
wards more sensibly affected by a 
strong sulphureous vapour, which 
pervaded every part of the vessel, 
and induced me to believe it was on 
fire: 1 instantly hurried from my 
cot, but on enquiry, learned, to in y 
great relief, that the smell which 
had alarmed me proceeded from 
Mount Stromboli, a burning vol- 
cano, then about six miles distant. 
1 did not regret the interruption of 
my sleep, and all my fears were 
suspended in contemplating the 
truly sublime spectacle from the 



but fair to acknowledge, that these 
convulsions of nature have some- 
times 1 n attended with beneficial 
consequences ; since the Lipari 
Islands evidently, and probably a!- 
so the Straits ol Messina, owe their 
. uce to volcanic revolutions 
anterior to the records of history. 

On the — th, early in the morn- 
ing, A\e sailed through the straits 
between the island of Capri a&dthe 
territory of Sorrento. The former, 
once the theatre of the beastly re- 
vels of the crafty tyrant Tiberius, 
is now inhabited by a few humble 
monks and poor fishermen : se m e 
of its ancient and ///venerable ruins 
were distinctly visible from our 
ship, and their sequestered site in- 
d:i( ed a recollection of the nefari- 
ous and brutish scenes transacted 
w ithtn their walls, so faithfully and 
con amove depicted by Suetonius: 
with these, however, I took (are 
not to acquaint our good captain, 



quarter-deck, which the Bamcsex 
hibited: this you will easily credit • Ie4 I should experience a similar 
when I inform you, that even at so \ rebuff to the one J received between 
great a distance the objects onboard Scyllaand Cbarybdis. 
were so illumined as to cause a very The disgusting train of ideas eli- 
perceptible shadow. It is more cited by the view of Capri, was 
than probable, that the whole space 
between Mounts .T'.tnn and Vesu- 
vius forms connected receptacles of 
materials for subterraneous fire, and 
that those mountains ami Stromboli 
serve as occasional vomitories of 



soon wiped away by a contrast of 

scene, infinitely more pleasing. On 
leaving the strait, we at once en- 
tered the bay of Naples, and be- 
held the city with its beautiful 
mole, castles, and churches; Misc- 



LKifEiit I rom i r At.r . 



79 



num, BajflS, I'o/zuoli, and Mount 
Pesilipe on the l* it ; vesuviu 
Portici on the i i ,r h< ; St. Fhnoand 
Capo di Monte in the rear i a pro- 
spect celebrated by i \ < i > traveller 
for its grandeur and sublimity, yet 
far exceeding an} description I bad 
read of it i in m \ estimation) i' i> 
indeed beyond the power of lan- 
guage to describe. A panorama of 

Naples would be a ho-di treat lo our 

London loungers, I'M I the materials 
tor its execution might be procured 

at :i trifling expence f. some 

of the skilful scene-painters in this 
place. 

Having coma from Messina, the 
quarantine formalities were brief. 

.As soon as I once more fell myself on 
terra /ir/mi, ray enquiries were tor ;i 
French inn, in conformity to the ad- 
vice 1 received at Messina from a 
British merchant, who having seve- 
ral times travelled over Italy, ob- 
served, that to travellers who were 
not rich, the inns kept by French- 
men proved a desirable medium be- 
tween the expensive cleanliness of 
English hotels abroad, and the cheap 
tilth of native accommodations. The 
house of Madame Gasse, on Mount 
Olivete, being recommended to me, 
I enquired tor a porter to carry my 
small portmanteau, pistols, &c. In 
an instant tour (more than half- 
naked) Lazzaroni grasped the tour 
separate parcels ot* my baggage, 
and were ready to start with me to 
the city. I remonstrated in vain 
that the whole was hut a moderate 
load tor a lad of fifteen : a simulta- 
neous and unintelligible [argon of 
the four savages v\as all the answer 
I received, and to which I had no 
alternative but that of submission, 
fully expecting to see my property 
travel in as many diiicrent diiec- 



' lions. In thii mi picion, bon 

I \\:i* fortUTl il< I v mistaken ■ bag lad 

baggage arrived sale with theirown* 
er.ii Madame Gasee't. The w w at d 
of their labour was the next point, 
to be adjusted, and there, »s th« 
\ id- ir phrase is, I was a mat* h fi r 
them. To the one that carried the 

portmanteau, as chief of tin 

pedition, I banded thtee nrlins 
(about r><1.), with 111 ■ liberty of re- 
compensing his associatei according 
I to their respective merits. This 
suggestion he obeyed moat literally, 

for he set oil' in an instant with all 
', the money in hi-, pocket, leaving the 
other three on my hands, clamor- 
ously insisii:,^ upon immediafepav - 
meni. Seeing no other way to ml 
myself of their importunities, 1 a- 
droitly shitted the scene ot action 
: to the passage, slipt into my room 
again, and bolted the door. Their 
cries were now converted into a 
complete war-whoop, which brought 
up some persons belonging to the 
house, who, on my explaining to 
them from within the matter at is- 
sue, fairly turned the whole of their 
Lazzaroniships out of doors. 

A rencontre like this, you may 
well suppose, dear '1'. was not cal- 
culated to bias my first impressi 
in favour ofa people, with whom f 
intended to make some stay. The 
succeeding adventure, however, al- 
though another — but gentler — spe- 
cies of imposition, most seaso tably 
corrected the irritated state of my 
I feelings. A Franciscan friar, with 
i a charming nosegay and a b 
' containing three oranges, m 
' stepped in : H The prior and bro- 
thers of our congregation hav 
voured me with the grateful ta 
j offering to you, illustrious Srr, our 
j congratulations on your safe arrival 



! 



LEI ri:m rnoM 11 \t.v . 



in this capital, with our best wishes (I ing to be permitted now and then 
and pray ers foi your speedy reoo- ' to enquire after my health, respect- 



very. We entreat your accept- 
ance of (his produce of our garden, 
uch beneath the m rits of tfom 
exalted person, as the only token of 
sincerity which the poverty of St. 
Francis enables us 10 present to 
\ou." This address, you' will al- 
low, contained no indifferent spe- 
cimen of monastic rhetoric; it was 



fully withdrew. 

This was not the only visit I re* 
oeived of the same kind, although 
the only one that had to boast of 
any other return than my best 
thanks. 

Having sent for a lacquah dr 
place*) a being with a cocked hat, 
silk stockings, and silver shoe- 



eloquent, kind, and, above all. flat- buckles (which, if flattened, might 
iering. But for the " speedy re- have served as frames to a moderate* 
coyery," I should have felt highly sired cabinet picture),— soon made 
pleased. What! do way very looks U his appearance. His daily w 



betray inward disease to one who 
never saw me before ? With civi- 
lity and, I dare say, with a trem- 
bling accent, I requested an expla- 
nation on this delicate point,. u If 
I have erred, sir, it was from hav- 
ing espied that vial before 1 Looked 
at voui countenance/' Neither St. 



I being settled at five carinas, I in- 
quired his name, to which he re- 
plied with gnat gravity, " 1 am 
called Don Giuseppe Filiberti, or 

( briefly Don ( . or, if your 

excellency pleases, Giuseppe vrilh~ 

out ceremorrj ." I preferred the 

ceremonious appellation, and 



Francis nor your humble servant indeed, for his pride, should have 
were the losers by this eclaircisse* abbreviated Don Giuseppe Filibcrti 
incut. ! into simple doe, if the Neapolitan 

Substituting a dollar for the half- idiom would have sanctioned such 
crown which I had already destined a degradation. Von must know, 



to give to this adroit, but good-na- 



every body here is a Don. This 



tnred monk, and kindly thanking epithet is one of the many remains 
him for all the pretty things he had f the language and manners of the 
said, 1 observed to him, that he j Spaniards, who for a considerable 
appeared 10 be perfectly correct, time, and not very long since, were 
although he had drawn a false con- I in possession of the kingdom of 



elusion,— that illness had brought 



Naples. Nor is Don alone sulli- 



me to Naples; but that, whatever cient, when they mean to be very 
rny countenance might indicate, the Vly \\ ( (1 y OU . (hey will address you 
contents of the vial in the window Signor Don Tommaso, give yon 
wesf rather intended to re-establish eccelenza, illusirissimo, and other 
the looks of my boot-lops than those inflated titles, which they are at DO 
of my fate. The \ enerable father | ()v , | 1()U | () vary, as the ca>e, or 
paid a neat compliment to English rather their ideas of courtesy, may 
ingenuity, bowed affectionately for require. 
the small donation, assured me that | Although in the month of April, 

the mineral waters with which the 

environs of the city abound, would « A mnn-*eront hired by the flay to 
in effect my cure, and, request-; direct strangers through the town. 



I.l I . i ii 1 PROM i 






We bare had a transient shower of 
•-non since m\ ai rival; j on ihdnld 
have seen the poor Neapolitans 
hurrying through the streets*, muf- 
fled up to their chins in cloaks and 
it-coats. I verily believe an 
eruption of their neighbour Vesu- 
vius could not have affected them 
more sensibly. Indeed, my ideas of 
an Italian spring have more than 
once required modificationi The 
sun ( when unobstructed ) is already , 
without doubt, much warmer than 

in England, but since my arrival 
this h:is seldom been the ease: we 

have had an almost constant succes- 
sion of showers and bleak winds. I 
have often longed lor an English 

fireside, bid am under the neces- 
sity of contenting myself with a 
charcoal fire, brought into the 
apartment in a large brass pan made 
tor the purpose. This mode of 
warming the rooms, although per- 
fectly conformable to the customs 

of antiquity, very soon occasions 

the bead-ach to persons who are 
not accustomed to it : between this 
however, and the alternative of sit- 
ting in a. cold damp room with a 
atone or .stucco floor, you areobHg- : 
ed io elect. Trav< Hers, neverthe- 
less, have extolled the charms of an 
Italian spring ; to which I can only 
say, that I perceive very little dif- 
fi rence between the vernal appear- 
ance of Campania Felice and the,; 



couutj of Mid I ition 

: . .-ii this time v< •■ little 1 rth i 
\ am ed in the formei . and, n ith the 
pt ion of the oral and 

i be rest of 'he e\ i i 
dure in both is much il 

Poplars are but just bud. I 

the fruit Lrei push out. 

their bloatoms. Hyacinths, ..dips, 

and violets, are the only flov. I 
ha\ e yel seen in llie open air. ' 

inn! cotntne < Ik i >> 
J [ere, you will say, a l 

tie, and not a word ab iut CUriosil 

antiquities, opei '-, and other in- 
teresting particular! , of which Na- 
ples furnishes sudfa inexhaustible 
store. Pazienttti my dear fellow- ! 
if, according to the p • i. I wei 
have led you at on< 

retj*' you would not have had i 
this letter, and for a very BUDS 
tial reason — that of ;d! those tine 
things I have as v-t not h id a 
glimpse. 1 am preparing in my 
fifth-story apartment (an elevation 

•fly fashi 
every t hie. - 

to e con amove : and, what ! 
ter, during these prolegomen 
time is Lost : f<>r tl I r is fill 

from encouraging either antiqu 
or pleasurable excursions. In my 
next 1 shall probably have it in 
power to gratify, in 
ardour. 
1 an:, dear T. 



•\ DESCRIPTION OF MO? Tl 



ffTREAL, the second 
British America, is situated on an 
island oC the same aame, in the 

i of the River St. 
rence, in latitude 45. :;S. north 
longitude 7 J. west from Greenwich, 
II. Vol. L 



ales (by : 

the • 

ing villages', 

M 



?• 



»Pt£ftTFTTO: ' " smtAt, 



I for 

A mount.: in of sidetable 

bo;h and town med, 

ter. It i 



of the rarliesf *rffTc- 
rrients of the French in Ninth Ame- 
rica. It. may claim an antiquity 
prior to i on (he continent 

north of Hie < Mexi< o, Qu< - 

bec <> ' . The place \sa-* 



•rent from the south- d with n work of 

: but tint being 



: prcci 
iirhtain, which < \- 

'fiil>its urrequ :rks of a 

v belted with 
of B great \ariety 

mit being crowned with lofty pines, 
whilst the base is ' 

:r!ried with neat farm- 
houses and gent!- eats. As 



insufficient to defend it from tlir in- 
cursions of the warlike Fndian confe- 
deracy, called the Five Nations, by 
whom it w :is more than onoe de- 
stroyed, I [ ] V. ordered it to 
be fortified with a stone waH, de- 
dl.v redoubts and abroad dry 
ditch. These work*, since the 
town came into the possession of the 

English, have been Buffered to <;o fo- 



il stands •• proudly eminent, "over- | decay. They are at present in a 

looking an illimitable extent of : state of dilapidation, yet still they 



waters and level country, it presents 
a noble object of view, on wha 
side the approach is made. A 
branch of the St. Lawrence, three 
mil< - ilh, washes the south- 

east foot of this mountain, on 



circumscribe bounds to I he city, and 
prevent the extension of buildings, 
except in the suburbs, which bran* 1; 
out from the three gates. 

Montreal has been a great sufferer 
by /ires ; the last, in llie year I 



the margin of which the city of jj laid the principal part of the 
Montreal is built. j,t ruins, and destroyed several pub- 

Montreal , at first called Ville- I lie edifices, amongWhich was the 

Jesuit's College. Like most other 

places which have suffered in li\e 

manner, it has derived benefit from 

the calami not in so great a 

degree • be ekpected : for. 

on repairing the damage, the streets, 

originally laid down on too narrow 

a scale, tunc not been improved 

with regard to their breadth. 

The town, from the commence- 

Quebec suburbs fo iJc 

new - ;,s about one 

and a cj i i g the banks 

of the St. Lawrence, Its breadth, 

beaTs no proportion to if* 

h, being composed of only 

three paralh ! rtn : - ■ h arein- 

t rsectcd af right . y several 



mannavi 

>m StMaloes inApril 

I.331-, and though the country had been 

prei - i by the Spaniards, 

'■ r was the first who sailed up the 

■ . v. Inch hi i ntered on the 

.. being the 

nt after whom he nam* .1 

He penetrated as tar ai Mon- 

r In* mountain*, 

Ihey i ii!i retain. 

i . . ai in 

after, 

althou i- hot known : 

r, bad :.. 

'inrr. 1. mila- 

. r, Bv 



Rll'TlO.N OF MOX1 RE W.. 






other short Greets nscendj ncnitothepl intof 



tin- river, h h i 
squares: one lorn] ket-placc; 

the other, called Hie Place cFsli 
contains the |>i incipal llomnn ( 'a- 
tholic church : besides which there 
are two others ; also three convents 
and ;i leminary, nil belong ing to the 
uch inhabitants of that commu- 
nion. The seminary or colle 
;i i. ii hi {•:< ction, buill out < f the 
fundsofthe Jesuit's College, which 
i i ; i < 1 been bin ni dow ri Lu the last fire, 
This cch brated order became very 
lately < \!iiHi in < anada. It l.i'i 

which devolved to the < i 



I lie b uar- 

I 'i ■ I'i bj tc i m I 
Anab rtin r -ii i » 

ii •!■ tares, 'i 
tcstanl < ■ 

ice alternately ^ith the ■ 
sentci in the former, u 
church is finished. U 
cs! ornament oft] i 

edifice Cot the < 
well situated, in i 
of architecture) extr< mcl \ 
dious, containing a well r< 
and n en publii 

! be considered ai 
build in r in i ry. 

.All the priv tte b 



but a great portion has been libe 

rally consigned by government to (real, i-vcn the iilu ... 

the uses for which it was inteiulcd. exception of Sir J 



The building tonus a large plain 
quadrangle of four stories; it con- 
tain a chapel, hall, and library, 
m itli suitable offices, and . 
dations itudcnl ; but the 

site is \ erv indifferent. 

The general hospital, called the 
Grey Nunnery, is <>.'i an extensive 
scale : it receives the sick ami indi- 
gent, not only of the city, but of all 



\\ Inch is a spacious, m I 
are buill in the old Fren 
frith thick stone wall • 
ng roofs covered with 

•incut 9 indows, with 
dow-shutters cased ^ \ i t ! * Bheet iron, 
These peculiai pre- 

servatives against lire, • 
a heavy and sombre ap] 
which by no an b the 



the surrounding country. The sick I chara< tnts. 

are tended with the utmost care and I There is a well executed mamo* 

'.iiily by the nuns : who, altho' leum ami pillar raised on 
they have taken the veil, maybe mountain of Montreal, to 

idcred as lay sisters, for they awry of Mr. Jff'Tavisb, wi 
are employed in offices and works be seen from the i 
of the most active benevolence, and ide a large fortni 

by no means confined to the walls of north- wtst traffic, with fte fairest 
their pon\ ents. 

There are also a few respectabji - of the prosjperhj an leufi 

looking, ii'noi handsome, buildings of the pi 



erected by the English. The new 
Episcopal church, owing to a failure 
of the kinds and subscriptions, a 



The inhabitants of this city were 
araoi 



siill unfinished : it is [fed in one 

a fine trout of hewn ston 

ler, but can scarce: 



Si 



DESCRIPTION OF MONTREAL, 



tion of Nelson, h consists of an 
Ionic pillar, of th.- beig b1 of 72 fed. 
support in a pedestrian statue of the 
hero, 8 fret high. Its base is em- 
bellish i with alto-relievo r< 
sentations ofthe battles of the Nile, 
Copenhagen, and I ir, occu- 

.: three ^ : ' les, H ith an inscrip- 
tion on the fourth. The monument 
vh finished, but not set up, in 1806, 
asthe place wai a subject ofdis] 
li ; - supposed, however, that it will 
be en cted in a new square, laid out 
on the site of the Jesuit's College, 



ami began to be built in the yeaf 
above-mentioned. 
The hotels deserve to be mention* 

ed, asthe) are noted all over the 

continent for their excellent fare 
ami superior accommodation. There 
are many other impro\ Booing 

on and projected, which will soon 
render Montreal one ^( the hand* 
sonnst, ;\s it i-> rdread\ one of the 
niost agreeable, -pine., in America. 

\ d estimate ofthe population, &c, 
of tin's city, may be made from the 
following table, extracted from I <•■ 

parish registers for the year Im)4: 



Districts. 
R. Catholic parish church, ^c. 

Protestant church 

Dissenters church 

General hospital 

Totals 



Marri 


H.i| 
niali . 


tlMIIS. 


Bu 


rials. 


Totals. 




female, male 


Bap. 


Cm 


M 


270 


239 179 


158 






37 


'27 


28 


29 


55 




90 


II 




16 


II 


70 


27 


— 


9 


8 


M 


18 


17 




Ml 


.M!7 


304 


Wb 


66 1 





The great superiority of births I 
over I may be accounted for 

fjrom the salubrity of the air, the 
abundance and goodness of provir 
, and the custom of marrying 
early in life. The proportion of 
male births over female, is also re- 
markable, and, perhaps, may he a- 
scribed to the same causes. The 
number of inhabited houses in the 

city and suburbs the same ;, ear, was 

found to be 2132. 

The annual deaths in London, 
where the christenings and burials 
of late years h \ •• on an avej 

nearly balanced each other, is cal- 
culated atqnc in thirty-Hire.- ; but 
very healthy a place as Mon- 
- ill-- proportion can scarce! \ be 
less Mem one in forty. If stated at 
cue in thirty-six, it will give a po- 1 



Births more than deaths — 220. 
pulation of 15,516 souls, which is 
allowing more than seven per$< 
each house ; but this appears I 

real an average, at least with 
I to the English inhabitants 
It may be reconciled, however, by 
taking into the calculation the nou- 
residents ; namely, the troops in 
barracks, a considerable number of 
whom get married and have fam 
the ere ,\:- of ships, &C. in the river, 

and travellers sojourningfroniUpper 
and Lower Canada, and ihe United 
States. All these certainly contri- 
bute to swell the parish registers; 

The climate of Montreal fag reck- 
oned to be milder than those places 
in America situated under the same 
p n alhlof latitude, but more easterly. 
The summer is six weeks longei 
than at Quebec : namely, a fortnight 



rtipTlOD "i M '«Tit RAL. 



m 



in thl "" ,l ' '" ,l|( ' I 

fell of the year ; rt< 
monreter, in win* ill k <> low 

ae frost, 

as in the foi i< r. I'li'.'> re 

anon four, or I ' ;i ,r '" 

month oi h ird ; I 

is netei ■ ''' P 1 

pi «,■ ^ inter u 

in. i the 

and 

roads resound with Ihejin 

rioh • ' ,,,r 

now, On the 

t band, the beat is wmet 
excei - ■- in Bummer, the ther- 
momi h r, in the months of July and 
r i ;ing above 90. even 
. i„ the shade. At this 
■ n, the thunder-storms are Bre- 
nt and (i raendous : the light, 
s the glittering 
turrets and >f the public 

buil ■ already ob- 

served, aT nil < wit* 1 {i,! - 

The ■ of weather arc not 

proi '" are 

mostly acute, tjje offspring of im- 
Icncc and intemperance. J-pi- 
deniics air scan m, whilst 

great longevity is by no mums un- 
common : vel it is remarkable, that 
the siirns of premature age, such as 
oavly grey hairs ami the loss of 
teeth j arc almost universal. 

Horticulture is well understood 
at Montreal; the town is sur- 
rounded wiih gardens, whose pro- 
ductions arrive at great perfection, 
Five or six sorts of apph ^ m parti- 
cular, arc esteemed equal, if not su- 
perior to those of ah) oilier . 
try. 

The excellence and comparative 
cheapness of the markets can scarce- 
ly he over-rated : they are abun- 
dantly supplied with butphcr*. 



■ !. !■ h. I 
I 

,. d 1" ■ iil< 
I. .11. p 

■ 
' 

I, . ' ■ : 

were pel it i- on the land- 

lurrounded I 
iiuint ! imc ground 
town, 

sudden attack. The strong uum. 
try between Lake Champlain aid 
the right bank of the St. L 
must 1m- liiit conquered, and a <h»- 
tilla constructed on the river of the 
lakes, which a I 

Montreal 

be taken. 

But it is in a commercial point 
ot'\ iew that Montreal must be con- 
sidered as highly Lmpottant. It 
lies at the • 

tion of the ii: » r -. i 
There arc ra] ti» 

town,over which m 

i an can be navi ited ; 
ships of no less lb bur* 

then lie a! mg the whari 

large vessels, I rer, I '. " 

balf their - whi< i are after- 

wards completed at Quebec. '1 
is qo other river. 

world, th 

- 

bottchure. T 

is pi:.. he juncture of two im- 

mense St. 1 

the forrin i 

from its 

south. n a north-east CO 

to the ocean, connei 
chain, five inland I 

'the other, with 
[y inferior, runs 
A union, through 



M 



i.onD sTAMiorr on n i : 



1 for the i:i-c -irri With all (! it {$■ 

iplor* J. Both receive the . : turpri: . „ ( 



tributary >i many fine ri\crs, 

ed, and not a 

i than the Thames : what 
re, w hat i:cw 
of commerce, a> h:»t abundant 
•;mri of an i 
population, may not these bou 
disclose, cv< 
ration ! For their pi 
and future productions, Montreal is 
5nd must be the prim 
well for distribu ihem the 

manufactures and commodities of 
f the world. Ii is, more- 
over, connected with the northern 
states of the Union by Lake Cham- 
■ and the River Sore] ; and with 
the west parts of New- York and 



ic before uow, o( Bou- 

nce than we find it. Th< 

son aeons !;> be, thai the inhabitants 
'ry other specula* 

lion to ii 

, led d to corap< tencj , by an 

road. The French 
leed; never posscss< ti any 
commercial enterprise, but jived 
; and happy on the pro- 
of the soil. 
Allium. . Montreal 

ran only I • se- 

cond rank of Americi . yet 

the period is appi when it 

will acquire an importance, to 
which, from its local situation, and 
natural advantages, it is so deser* 
Pensylvania, and the nes ol vedly entitled, and it willinall pro- 

the Ohio and Western Territory, Inability become the chief emporium 
*by the riven and lakes of Canada, of the north-nest c 
which form their northern limits, 

by which only they can find a 11. W t 

:-it tor their productions. 



TO THE EDITOR OF 1 

Jli Tin i V ti< i I, 'an. 12, 18(19. '■» 
' n -> 

1 s answer 10 your enquiry re- 
■ ".\ simple, hut useful me- 
' of procuring a more economi- 
st light, I can give you, in a very 
'^ tin fullest information, 
b will enable any chandler to 
it. The increasing price 
is certain]} a subject 
"hi. ea consideration ; and 

if the war should continue, the evil 

I <>me serious, BUS SO much of 

the tallow consumed in this country 

>m abroad. Of all the spe- 

■ ■ carcity, that which would 

production of artificial 

the 1 



111: REPOSITORY, &c. 
distressing to the community. P,y 
the plan which I have conceived, 
and executed, iJnrt' candles of any 

given length and thickness, last as 
long as four of the same si/.einauu- 
factured in the common way. The 

light, which is as strong (if the can- 
dle be not snuffed too close.) is tar 
more st< ady, and the flame is of a 
better colour. The candle, whe- 
ther il be of wax, spermaceti, or 
tallow, does not require to be snuffed 

so often, it [lares much less, il vj, 

considerably better for writing, 
reading, working, and drawing, 
and it runs Less when carried about 
the house. These are obvious ad- 
vantages ; and I do not know of any 



T.ORD MANHOI'E 






disadvantage t" bt bem, 

itlthotij li I h ive died this lmpr< 
method for several montli 

The three principle hh h 

flic new candles nre lo b< n i le, are 
the following : First, the new wick 
1ms onlv three quarters «»t the i 
number of cotton lhr< ad ii the 
candle be of was or spermaceti ; 
ami «'iil_> two thirds <>l the a 
number, if the candle bcof (allow. 
Secondly, flic wick must, in all 
cases, be perfectlj free from damp, 
h essential circi • si mcc i i fre- : 
fjucnilv not attended to. And, third- 
ly . with respect to the manufacture | 



of u:i\-. uidle i, th • it be 

i I 
in null. d \. r. till the 

conn 

wickj 

full of froth. 

[f 1 
nil, we should no ' 
get of running short of f If 
material ; but, at all events, th 
dividuals who adopt i1 ive 

■ 

1 am, Sir, 

Voui rrf, 



The following tabic will ei bh ai 

I'm n Lonl Stanhope's plan, 

racni u i bv hi? lordship. It shews tlie result ol 

tain •'* ol burning ( Iran 

.A taper lamp, wi i i ;hl threads of cotton, will coi n '.of 

spermaceti <>il : at *i\ shillh 

is I *.7 1 rarthin 
* co shillin( farthings. 

Jit shillings, it. is i $.'280 farthii 
\. T>. This gi v( ight as the candl< 

lamp seldom warn ..... and ca . ht. 

I taper, chamber, or watch lamp, with foui ordin i 

wick, consumes 1.664 oz. of spermaceti oil in one hour: thi oil at 

per gallon, the i xpence of burning twelve b 
At eight shilling I irthings, 

At nine shillings, it is 9,0'J '- farthings. 

Lxpi rmine the real and comparative expen< •■ of burning car,.': 

-. 















The > xp 




r ofcau- 


Wi .glit of oin 


The tiipi on* 


1 


tweWe lion: i 




dits in one 


■•He. 


candle lasted 


on • 




1 


pe 








will 


also ibcwa the pro- 
per do 






Dr. 


Hr 


>!iu. 


Hi. Min. 


Farthiogi 

ilUlit!l> •ill 


A small « icl; . 


is J 


14 


3 


13 


id 




J« W IvU. 


19 


J3* 


B 


40 


5'.' 








1 5«r 


j 


40 


4i •: 






I .' 


1 


3 


17 


4t C4 


1 




1,-v 


1 W 


o 


3d 








: 


1 


4 


9 


ii 






s 





4 


15 


ol 






H 


1 1J 


S 


19 


30 15 


Moul 




Mould . 


Each. 












, 


I ■ 1 


7 


so 


39 






4 


4 


9 


3 


3d . 




VTithwax'd wick 


3 


5 . 


17 


30 


5J 


l 



Tlie tim.3 <;ach candle lasted, wa» token from an averafj - • - - 






i\ii»no\ ement or I 



Tur idea which mankind has 
formed of beauty, baa varied bo 
much, thai ao precise standard seems 
to be acknowledged, by which its 
pretensions can be truly appreciat- 
ed. Painters and Bculptors have 
resortu d to an ideal standar I i 
their own minds, which they form 
according to the degree ol 
ami p rception with which they 
arc indivklnally endowed. The 
nnlearne acknow [edge its : Bucnce 
as they are impelled, either bv sen- 
timent, or those natural feelings 
■which ar > antecedent '.» the arts, 
and independent of - Bat 

in whatever it has been supposed 
to exist, howevrr varied its form 
or appearance, the desire to im- 
prove it bas been universal, ami 
this desire is shewn no less in the 
fantastic ornann ts with which the 
earlj Britons used to paint their 
bodies, than in the delicate tint 
•which suffuse the livclj i 

f their more accomplished 
ndants. The works <>!' Shaw, 
Gabriel Sionita, and Marvieux, 
aboui 1 .•. it h curious accounts ol 
the manner in which painting has 
been empl d by diffi rent nations 
with a v lll ty, 

: Illiancy, <>r to re- 
pair the outrages which it hi 

1 natural enemy- 

Cleopatra, n- ho captivated 
Pompey, Caesar, and Antoninc, 
employed all the treasures of art in 
ting her natural charms. The 

Greek, ;is well as the K<>!i>:iii Indies, 

indebted to the more luxuri- 

for their knowledge ol 

this accomplishment ; and it would 

appear that tlicy had made con- 



siderable in the art, I 

two paints (t!ie whip and red) w hicfa 
we derive from them, fl ?nce t rir* 
poets have attributed the whi;. 
ol" the Europeans to some paint 
i from Juno by one of the 
-! in liters of that goddess, and 
presented by her to the daughter of 
lie- wealth and bi\- 
iii \ »f R i e incn ased, gallantry 
introducing iku refinements, e\- 

•i 1 | liligent researches 

to promote the art of improving 
b u'\ ; which, as if became more 
general, acquired sweater perfec- 
tion. The Greek and Roman la- 
di( - made us- 1,1' a white metallic 
preparation, which was nothing 
than ceruse, or white lead. 
which still maintains its situation at 
toilet, although pernicious in 
the highest degree to health, and 
producing effects contrary to the 
purpose for which it is employed; 
and (he exchange was not much 
better when they substituted in ii. 
place a species of argentine talc. 
For red, they used a sort of ver- 
milion called purpurjssMS, a beau- 
tiful cohmr approaching to purple, 
and whose composition and appear- 
ance resembles carnation red, or 

■ pink. It was made with 

of white talc, pulve- 
rized, ami coloured with a strong 
tincture, taken when hot from the 
scum of a fish (called purpura t or 
man > I foui d ; .m I ; "- Mediterranean 
Sea. This liquor is supposed to 
be the same as that used by the an- 
for dyi ig I beii celebrated 
purple. We will not attempt to de- 
cide whether the paints employed 
at prcbcut arc more or less pcrni* 



IMT-Knvi v I,-, r OP iii.M'TV, 






rious ; we sliall content i ' to !>■ I who b 

with oowrving, that ill'- perfection been accustomed lo pAint, and i 

of lln' art con ists in using them nol therefore entirely rclinq 

with it discreet moderation. The use of it, will find, upon trial, I 

iijic of white lead in any shape, 01 this i neitbei 

indeed oil of talc, is not only dan- • injure the health nor the skin, 

ig to the health, 1»<i( so for thai il iiiiilai«*K the natural 

from [)itmt\ ing, they spoil and more perfectly than an j oil 

wrinkle tike skin. Vermilion too, position to whi tentionoftht 

which commonly enters into the British I ri at] 



composition of modern cosmetics, 
\> ill ultimately turn the com.pl 'X- 



In order to make this orti 
i omplete^ we inse r t some exl 



ion of an unnatural yellow. A fim fi a a report made to the K 
and beautiful red is frequently made I Academj al Paris, by M • L 

};\ c ih - i ; 1 i 1 1 ;_r : i species of tal< , called 
of />' 'iancon. When re* 



roisier and Jussicu. It may ap- 
singular, that a preparation 



duced <o an impalpable pon ler f it used by ladies to colour ; 
is mixed with carmine, in proper- ' cheeks, considered merely as an 
tion to the tone of colour intended • article of <1 r« - on, or ci. 

to be produced; but talc, or any H lishment, and belonging excln 
mineral or metallic substance, is to Iv to the fair sex, should haw: 



i\ oided, as highly d i 
ami ultimately prejudicial. 

Cine carmine, properly pulveriz- 
ed and prepared for the purpo e, is 



traded the attention of i li • \\ 

A< ademy of Scieui i i in l'aris j yet 

ill is l »arn aderiug 

universally used, and 



beyond all Question the i - that ladies of the highest rank < 

position that tan be employed with not \\ til dispense with it, did not 
safety and effect. It gives the most ler it beneath their dignttj Uj 



natural tu^:' to the complexion, 
and imparts a brilliancy to th. eyes, 
without detracting from r h. oi 
of the .skin. In order to use it eco- 
nomically^ procure some of the 
li::rst pomatum (without scent,) in 
vthioh there is a small proportion 



.iu< all the sp thai 

could I- M- Co|in pre- 

sented a preparation, which the 
academy did not hesitate to ap- 
pro! . Sio e which, aootlu i 
fumer, M. Pupont, offered to the 
i prepared solely 



of white of this pomatum ( from which ; 

take abouttl . and demy considered not at all in* 

Batten it upon a piece of white inferior to the preparation of M. 
paper; then take, on a pointed pen- I Colin. This ras prepared 

knife, or the end of a tooth-pick.; in the presence of Messrs. Layo 
about the quantity or sia oi ... Ju sieUj the i - ap- 

pin's head oi' the carmine, mix it . pointed In tin' academy ; ami. 
sreutly with your finger, c:ml when • cording to then a| Lhe aci- 

baye produced the desired tint, li demj determine^, that M. I 
mb it in a little compressed cotton, pout i M. 

pass n over tl till the CO- Colin, to claim its appr 

lour is entirely spread, and it ceases It being observed, that all the IV 



No. II. Vol.L 



.N 



00 



IMPBOVEMF.VT OF nr.ATTV. 



risian perfumers extracted their 
■wage from the vegetable kingdom, 

and that they would all apply to 
the academy fin certificate*. i( w*i 
thought proper not to pronounce 
upon M. Dnpont's rouge till all 
the other sorts of rouge sold in Pa- 
ris.we.rclikewiseevamined i \], 
Lavoisier and .hissieu, jun. were 
therefore appointed to make the 
necessary experiments, to ascertain 
the constituent parts of them all. 
From their report it appears, that 
the art of preparing- red paint from 
the vegetable kingdom, is not a 



the colour is extracted. It is thil 
precipitate which ii mixed with 
very fine pulverized talc, and made 
with lemon-juice into a paste, with 
which small pots are filled for sale. 
Though this sort ofroage is very 
common in commerce, yet flit re is 
another, less fine and brilliant, but 
cheaper: this is generally sold in 
small parcels. This rouge is made 
of carmine, which i> extracted, a^- 
is well known, front cochineal : 
here also the colouring matter is 
mixed with the talc ;nid some 
lemon-juice, and afterwards dried. 



newdiscovery, but had been known i There is no (U>ubt but that the hiffh 



long ago to the ancients. Theo , 
phrast mentions a root, from which 
■ red colour was extracted, to rouge : 
the cheeks. Pliny also notices a ' 
certain root (the produce of Syria), 
thai was used for the same purpose, 
and also for staining wool. Those 
roots were probably similar to our 
Ider and alcanna (ligistrum), 
When the Italians, during the 
reign of Catharine de Medicis, 
brought the use of rouge into 
France, they at the same time 
taught the mode ol' preparing it : 
this -was similar to what is now 



price of the colouring matter ex 
traded from the wild sail'ron and 
the carmine, has induced some 
people to substitute cinnabar (ver- 
milion:) and there exist some old 
recipes, in which cinnabar, either 
wholly or in part, is recommended • 
but rouge of this sort may produce 
ver\ serious consequences, ;md its 
use cannot be too carefully avoided. 

• It will not be amiss if we indicate 

; the means how to discover if rouge 

• contains any mineral substance. 
The colouring matter extracted 

i from the. wild saffron, possesses, like 
practised. Well-dried wild saf- ' almost all vegetable colours, the 
fron is put into a linen bag. and laid property of being soluble in spirit 
in a running stream of soft water. '', of wine: if {therefore spirit of wine 
or in standing water, often changed |s> poured twice or three times oyer 
a person with wooden shoes treads rouge of this description, the colour 

-.ill be dissolved, and the talc will 
remain white. This single experi- 
ment will ascertain whether the 
rouge i', extracted from vegetables 



the bag, till the water passes thro' 

it quite clear, and not the least ves- 

Kge of a yellow tinge is perceived ; 

after this, a sixteenth or twentieth 

part of sola, or potash, is added, only, ppchineaj and carmine ate 

and soft, pure, cold water is poured not acted ppon by spirit of wine, 
... ...... i. ii . i • i. „♦ <i...* iii. 



upon it, which will obtain a yellow- 



and this shews at once that the 
rouge is not of the vegetable king- 



s ex- 



ist] liquor: the colouring matter rouge is not of the vegetable 

being precipitated with lemon- 1 dom. lint cochineal and it 

juice, produces a red sediment : 'racf arc soluble in alealine liquors ; 

..i • .• a 1 j:ii ii if ilinnifnrad Tf>r\r \ucnL LiillllwifV l\{ 



this operation is repeated, till all 



: if therefore a very weak solution of 



A LEARNED q-AMH. 



91 



is mi Kfd with the rouge, and 
the talc becomes discoloured, the 
colouring matter was extracted from 
the anim lorn. If the < o- 

louring matter is neither soluble in 
spirit of v< ine nor in ;i diluted al- 
cali, then ii maj be nspected to be 
a mineral colour, eithci cinnabar or 
red precipitate of mercury, >\ 
However, Messrs. Lavoisier and 



Jussien ucre iini satisfied with these 
experiments; and tone fully con- 

\ meed, dial tWeWe dill'-P- 

rouge which thej examined, di 
contain any mineral particle, they 
employed cal< [nation, acid .. 
lc alkali ; but it does not 
pear that they ootaM ascertain the 
presence of mineral substance many 

of them. 



ACCOUNTS! I LEARNED SPANIEL. 

A i,r:Ait\i:n spaniel, which main- Toprovetfc t the epithet learned 
tinned philosophical theses in Eng- given to this animal, was not aha 
lish, FVench, and Latin, 'was ex- 
hibited some yeaTs ago at York. It 
may readily be conceived that the 
animal did not speak these Ian- 



r misapplied, we shall re! 
Kind of conversation which 
place between the spaniel and two 

or three learned persons in com- 



guages : but he seemed, at least, to pany. 

Understand them ; sine.-, if asked | A sailor first asked M °w man\ 



any questibn in them, he always re- 
plied by Bigns, either shaking his 
head to express yes or no; or paw- 
ing with his foot to indicate num- 
bers or letters, which when joined 
together formed the required answer. 
Three circumstances occurred to 
excite the astonishment of the spec- 
tators, who were attracted in great 
numbers by the celebrity of this 
animal. 1. tie continued to give 
pertinent ami proper answers, even 
when his master retired from the ex- 
hibition-room, or desired all those 
to retire who were suspected of 
making signs to the dog to indicate 
the answer. 2. lie returned an-! 
BWers equally proper when blind- ! 
folded, to prevent him from obscrv- 
Ing any signs. 3. lie generally 
advanced the most singular para- 
doxes: at first no person in com- 
pany agreed with him in opinion. 



arches there were in "Westminster 
bridge. The spaniel replied bv 
drawing his foot over the nun 
fifteen. He was theq, asked how 
many arches then' were in the Pon- 
tus Euxinus. Here tin: deg paused, 
as if he had conceived himself in- 
sulted by such a question, and ts it 
desirous of applying the proverb, 
" a foolish question deserves no an- 
swer.'' Being commanded, how- 
ever, by his master, to satisfy the 
person who had interrogated him, he 
replied, that the Pontus Euxinus 
had no arches, and he expr 
this very clearly by placing his foot 
on a cypher. The sailor then said, 
that the preceding year he had 
made a very happy Voyage in 
weeks from the Pontus Euxinus to 
London btidge. The spaniel find- 
ing nothing very wonderful in such 
a voyage, placed his foot on dit- 



yct f alter a variety of objections, , ferent letters forming a very laconic 
answers, and replies, he was always answer, which signified, when ex> 



allowed in the k-ik\ to be riirht. 



plained by his master, that some aa« 



32 



* 1.1 8P l.MI'L 



dorehndmadea voyagtof 000 there I hours.?" " In what 
»«■ in half a day. "Thai is climate?" said thesailor, much sur- 
irapoasibif," s;l i t i thesailorj "no prised, and beginning to perceive 
air-balloon has ever yel been able the truth of his reply. 'Mu- 
se such a apace in so short a aiel mentioned the frigid eone. 
time." '• I do nol say,*' returned " In that ion< I bit master, 
the spaniel, bythe help of his in- "the days indeed are ofdiffe 
(erpreter, " that an air-balloon was lengths, from 24 hoursfo 6 months. 
cd for that purpose: [speak ffCaptain Cook," added he,"when 
°' ■ j by sea." The sailor he sailed beyond the polar circle, 
then said, " That by sea it was still had followed a parallel where the 
more impossible; because, as the day was only a month long, he 



I st sailing vessel went ; < f tw 
af uo more than about five 

tea an hour, it could never 
make a voyage of 600 leagues in 
half a day-" 



might, in half a day consisting of 

360 hours, have traversed the space 
of GOO leaguei 

The sailor being desirous to sur- 
prise the spaniel and Iris master in 



The annual persisted In main- his turn, asked them if they knew 
laininghis assertion, and the sail- a place where the sun and moon 
or was going to lav a considerable might rise at the same hour, and 

bet, when Uw spaniel and Ids mas- even at the same instant, when tl 
<< r added, that they liad performed two luminaries are in opposition, 
igcia a country where thej that is to say, at full moon? The 
nulled fire with ice. " If you arc animal and Ids master replied, that 

it was the pole ; adding, that in the 
, same place the sun was always in 
the meridian, because every point. 
1 of the horizon was south to the in- 
habitants, if any at the pql( . 

A lawyer, who was present, dis- 
puted a long time against the spa- 
niel, because the latter pretended 
that a man w ho died at noon, might 



rous of shewing your erudi 
tion," replied the baUor, " do not, 

I beg of you, utter so many absur- 
dities." 

The master of the spaniel then ad- 
ring the animal, said, " Tell us. 
my friend, is it nol true that a tire 
be kindled with a piece of ice, 

II it be cut into the form of a lens. 



- to 'collect the sun's rays into II sometimes be the heir of another 
U focus, and to project them on H , who died the same day at half an 



smallheap of gunpowder." The 
animal, which was blind-folded, 
nodded with his h.m], to saj 



hour after twelve. Though vari- 
ous laws were quoted from the Di- 
rest and the Justinian Code, which 



' ,s *f- hi : d fully comprehended declare 1 that the heir must survive 



proposed to him. 
The dog on this point is right, 



( the testator ; _\ et the spaniel proved, 
that the assertion was perfectly 



..'or; kl but it does not agreeable to these laws, because the 

r ' journeyof 600 leagues person who died at half after twelve 

can I- | d in half a day." died before 'he other : this wouh 

not, replied the dog, by the case if the first died at London, 

in of hism;:ster, " if it be and the other at Vienna, 

in a count,!,)- wherein half a c^> ; A third person proposed the fbl- 



cm vf>)- i mi": ii mi, run r . 



low log problem : lt A country-wo« witbont killil 

man lci\ in j pone lo mai ; 

ber chickens, met with ft cook f who and half a chicken n third 

bought the half of what she uok, still w • 1 1 1 < »i 1 1 killing .my. 

ami the half of one more, without kill p country-woman 

my of them; she (hen sold to I all her chickens: how many had 



^ second cook i he half of tli" 
maiaing, and half a chicken more, 



/ 



CHINESE IMPE 

Ir i> well known thai the Romans I 
seldom employed generals who had ' 
been once unfortunate, and the Car- 1| 
lhaginians usually punished them 
without enquiring whether the mis- , 
fortunes which happened to them 
norance, misconduct, 
or cc I udoubtcdly, the 

|ni!i!ic opinion has completely set- 
tled the decree of i stimation in 
which some of Our generals con*fl 
cerned in a recent i vent oughl to be 
held ; but we think thai " thosi 
whom it belongs 1 ' maj receive a le - 
son of no slight importance from 
the conduct of the Chinese govern- 
ment, upon an occasion which 
might almost justify our saying — : 
'• Midato nomine de te fabula nar- 
ratur." We shall therefore make 
no apology for laying before oui 
readers an extract from the Pckin 
gazette, 5th and 6th of the khmoon, 
or 2Sth and 29th of April, 1300. 

imim: ui a L EDICT. 

\\ hercas in the preceding year, 
. n hen at court, and in 
our presence, very earnestly re- 
ed that a i - w u d ■ '■ hi be ' 
given him to fight against the re- 
bels, as (having formerly been em- 
pi >yed in the province ofSe-chuen) 
he possessed much local knowledge 
and experience in that part oi' the 
country, and boasted very much ol' 



RIAL EDK T. 

Iiis capacity oingand 

duing the rebellion. 

Though we placi .1 little c 
dence in (hi 
ranees, yet as we were at thai time 

in want of an officer pro; 

I to til! ill'- vacant i 
of Sc-t httetij we granted to bin the 
temporary possession of thai office. 
\i first he discharged the duti 
his office with some Bhow of abili- 
ty : and latterly, if he had found 
himself really incompetent to the 
task of carrying on the rear, he 
<u/g/it to have given up the com- 
mand of the army lo the 
(/, -l, -ft <i:-]ui-o, or h ;i us 

timely notice to a] itbcr 

officer to that sci \ ice. ( >u 
trary, after intimation had been re- 
1 of the passage of the rebels 
. the boundaries of the pro- 
vinci - of s < -churn and A 
remained eiidii d i\s with the a 

in inaction at the city of T 
in which interval the rebel* cr 

Kia-lin-kiang, and com- 
mined considerable dan 

•;t to 
proceed against them under the 
command of an inferior oftccrj and 

. but 
remained with the rest of the 
at Taches). This 

i by 



N 



tHivisi iMPrniAL rnrrr, 



the remaining force>, was unsuc- 
cessful, and (he oflicei if its beftd 
unfortunately cut oil by the enemy. 
After these effects of his negligence 
and t inutf/tf/y all thai remained in 
power wai t i I. : rid .nul secure 
mi hanks Of At 7V ./■•'. Thr re- 
bels having effected a passage across 
the Kio-lin-kiangi had laid the way 
open for their march to the capita] 
of tli«" province, and which thej 
Blight at that time have easily 
reached, had they not fortunately 

been diverted from that object by 
the Approaching Mfth-day of one 
oftlieir leaders which they resolved 
to celebrate with great festivity. 

It was also a fortunate circum- 
sfance at this juncture, that We had is- 
sued orders to the general Te-lin-ta// 
to pass over -with his army from 
Sheasyto Sc-chutn, <o assist in the 
defence of the latter province. — ' 



ther examination of his conduct: 
£ivin«^ him notice, however, fhat 
on the activity and diligence with 
which he should defend the banks 
ol the Tintgho, his life and fortune 
must ultimately depend. 

Notwithstanding all these cir- 
Cum stances, we now receive ac- 
counts of the rebels having reached 
the city of T<u/-pin; and posses • d 
themselves of the district of V.fMg- 
chii'trnij, in consequence of their 
having effected tin* passage of the 
river Tit ugh o 9 above-mentioned. 

From this grievous intelligence 
we were somewhat relieved by sa- 
tisfactory accounts from the gene- 
ral Te-lin-tay, who, having niixht 
and day exerted his utmost endea- 
vours in our service, had, since his 
entry into the province, taken aboi e 
1300 prisoners, put an equal num- 
ber to the sword, and liberated 



Te-tm-tay lost no time in obeying above 20,000 of the country people 

our commands, and a succession off from the oppression of the rebels. 



victories, as well as the capture of 
two of the most considerable rebel 
leaders, Tsay-litt-nucu and ty- 
pin y were the consequence of his 
entry into the province of Se-chuen. 
The former neglect and misconduct, 
of Quay-lung was very unpardoti* 
able y but might in some mCasuri 
been retrieved by an able d<- 
r Tungho ; for the 
\ must inevitably have surrefr 
dcrcd, had theit progress been op- 
posed from that quarter while they 
driven Join cud by the arm a 
o/Te-lin-tay on the other. 

Coil I ' g also the services for- 
merly rendered by Quay-lung, We 
did not entirely disgrace him on 
this occasion, but merely changed 
his rank from the first to the third 
decree, and left him in possess!, m of 
his oflice, and spared him any fur- 



Four considerable stations of the 
rebels surrendered to his army : so 
that avc may now look forward with 
confidence to a speedy restoration 
of peace in that province. Hut 
since that, Qi(ay-lurig 9 hy his un- 
paralleled remissness and neglect, 
suffered the rebels in the fust place 
to gain a passage across the Kian- 
I'm- Kiting, and afterward across 
the Tungho, whereby the damage 
and injury which arose to the peo- 
ple, was like poison infused in 
their tea ; and to leave if unpunisht d 
or unrevenged, would be a manifest 
violation of public justice* 

We direct, that Quay 'lung he, 
' td of all dignities and employ- 
Is whatsoever; that Le-pao sha\\ 
be substituted as the temporary 
viceroy of Se-ehuen, and who shall 
examine into the offence of Quay- 



BRITISH IPORTl. 



95 



'•, and give us notice t€ the re- rropofii of ><.-///"^, i three 

ami (he said Qnayilung shall, ' of 'h ||r r< ^] )( ' 

meanwhile, be uti aAned in ■ digniti al#. 

the priMOQ of ( 'hing"tU"fOQ i the w- 



I'i.ATf. I.— BRITISH SIMM!; 

( f 'mil in K<il from / 

i b the Tudor* many Bovcre give effect to the statutes of Ed wanj 

i. :uul 1M\\ ud ill. re>])ectijiy the 
bounds of the fore 

lit. m this perfod we cannot trace 



statu! ' 'inch (I, among oth< r , 

punting in the in. is by ni^hl 
v.iili painted vigors, was made fe- 
lony by the 1st of I l-ni \ VII,; and 
Under Henry VIII. it was made fe- 
lony to c'nter a forest witij intent to 
stcil deer. This was repealed by 



■in j attempt to employ this branch 
of the roj tl prej i 

. The preservati m of 
. --I and timber In- not 00I7 been 



bis successor Maryj and Elizabeth little attended tn, but the country 



shewed no disposition to tyrannize 

throuirh the means of forest law. 



has actually suffered from a want of 
proper attention to 12m The 



All the tyrannies of the Norman eyres have been totally ■■';■■ 



rind Angevin princes were put in 
practice by Charles I. and were en- 
forced by the strength of thai arhU 
trary jurisdiction which theTudors 
had drawn from their submissive 
parliaments. It is true, they had 
not en. for, ed the forest law by means 
of this great engine; because Henry 
VII. had not, perhaps, consid 
it as an efficient mode of extorting 
money, nnd Henry VIII. had no 
passion which it could stimulate or 
gratify. But the eyres made in the 
reign of Charles I. shew in what 
manner the powers of our law may 



nued, and the punishment < . cleer- 
ing and wood-sti pro- 

vided for by the ordinary jurisdic- 
tion of the country, 

The forest law, consisting of the 
an act modified by ihe 
Norman and early Angei in princes, 
and finally by Edward I. Edward 
III. and Richard II. i- collected 
in Manwood's elaborate Treatise. 
There is likewise a short account of 

: the forest law in Blackstone's ( 
mentariesj vol. 3. c. 6. upon which 
his late editor has made some very 

I ingenious remarks, which we shall 



be oppressively executed, not with notice in the progress of our lab 
a view to punish crimes, but to liuiii be readily observed that pro- 
raise money independent ofparlia- ceedings in the forest court- have 
merit. The patience of the coun- fallen into disuse, because they 



try was at length exhausted, and 
Charles I. was obliged to call the 
memorable assembly, which at 



were found to be in themselves 
less and ineffectual — k 'a rod more 
mocked than feared." y were 



length usurped all the powers of easily evaded, like a 
government, and put the king to too mutilated to catch their game. 
death. This parliament passed a In the Saxon times (i W. 

law, the object bf which was to' Blackstonc) though no' nan was ah 



P6 



nnmsn <.rnRT.i. 



lowed fa Mil or ch&se the kind's 
dirr. yet he might Mart any g aim-. 

pursue, and kill it upon his own 
te. But the rigour of these new 
constitutions vested the sole pro- 
perty of all the game in I 
jn the king alone ; and no roan was 
entitled to disturb any fowl oi the 
air, or any beast ofthe field, of such 
kinds as were specially reserved for 
the royal amusement of the sove- 
reign, without express licence from 
(he king, by a grant of a cha 
free warren; and thbse franchises 
were granted as much with a view 
to preserve the breed of animals, as 
to indulge the subject. From a si- 
milar principle to which, though 
the laws arc now mitigated, and, 
by degrees, grown entirely obso- 
lete : yet from this root has sprung 
a bastard slip, known by the name 
of game law 9 now arrived to, and 
wantoning in its highest vigour, both 
founded upon the same unreasonable 
notions ot permanent property in 
wild creatures, and both produc- 
tive of the same tyranny to ihe com- 
mons : but with this difference, thai 
the forest laws established only one 
mighty hunter throughout the land: 
tiie game laws have raised a little 
rod in ' very manor : and in one 
respect the ancient Liu wasmuchless 
unreasonable than the modern, for 
the king's grantee of a chase or Wrv 
warren might kill game in every 
part of his franchise ; but now. 
(hough a freeholder of less than 
100/. a year is forbidden to kill ;i 

partridge upon his own estate, yet 

nobody elsi ( noj even the lord of 
(he manor, unless he hath m grant 

of free warrm.) can do it without 
committing a trespass, and subje< t- 

an action. — 1. Black. 



It will not here be improper to 
say something as to the propertv 
which ma) be had ill beasts and 

, animals. 

Animals have in law one general 
division: I. Tame animals. 2, 
Wild animals.- — 1 . Tame animals. 
— These are horvs, oxen, sheep, 
& C. \ . . : and they are 
considered in evcrj point of View 
as part of a man's personal proper- 

j iy^ and an action of trespass may be 

, brought for injuries donv them. > c o 

domestic fowls, as hens, chickens. 

I e icocks, turkeys, and the like, arc 

sideted as personal property. 

\—RoL A by. 5. is. II. s. 

And so are dogs ; and a man 
may justify an assault in defence of 
his do<r, Rast. Ent. 611. — And by 
Uiestat 10 Geo. 111. c is. s. 1. 2. 
if a person shall Meal any dog what- 
soever, or sell, buy, receive, har- 

| hour, detain, or keep any suclu he. 
shall he subject to certain pecuhiai y 
penalties. 

£. Wild animal^. — These nr^ 

■ deer, hares, foxes, &C &C. ; all 
sorts of wild birds: and in these, by 

' reason of their fero< ittes. 

and aptness to fly the immedi- 
ate dominion o( man. no property 

can be hadatcommor) law: unless, 

; I . a\ here they are taken and killed ; 
or, 2. where they are taken and 

I tamed : and then whilst they are 
po ' ssed by him, they arc bis ab- 
solute properly: but as- soon as 
they escape, and whilst they enjoy 

,' their natural liberty, the property 

ceases. And, 'J. where they are 

inclosed : for by the indosufe a 

• property is trained in them, so that 

. ilicy can be no more taken and car- 

, ried away than any oilier profits of 

the land : and he both an independ- 

II cnt right in every animal: but in this 



law iinr-orm. 



or 



case, also, flic property Is gone when 
tfcereeoape. 7 Co. lb - . 9 Li .. 287. 
March 49.— And with respect !<» 
the jt/rrsnil of ti/iiinti/w, ;it common 

law. these observations are i<» be 
taadci I . That it' n man pni nei 

deer, hares, or conies, out of his 

land, or the lands of another, into 
mine, and there takes them, they 

ire the hunter's, and not mine; be- 
cause I never had any original pro- 
perty by inclosing them. 2 Bac. 

Ahr. 613. — Hut it is said, if a man 

Met his hawk at a pheasant in his 

own ground, and the hawk pur • ues 

the pheasant into another's warren, 
the owner of the hawk cannH jus- 
tify entering the warren, and taking 
the pheasant. — Id. 

k 2. If I man hunts conies in my 
ground, and kills them there, I may 
seize them, because they are indeed 



m\ prop i'\ by til) i'i' 1"' nre; but 

If lie hunts them out of my ground; 
they an- in the condition of natal il 
liberty.— Id. 

But where a man hunt* c<> 
out of a warren, ot deet out ot ■ 
pari- , and the nrai i n n oi parked 

puisnes them, Ik may retake thciS ; 
for the p II '. and warren ne le al 

establishments, erected fin the pur- 
pose of keeping game within their 
respective boundaries, so that the 

property is hot altered by driving 

them out of the tin losures, ablest it 

be also out of the pursuit of the 
officers. — Id. 

4. Abo the common law wnfrant? 
the hunting Of ravenous beasts of 
prey on another's ground, Mich as 
foxes, wolves, badgers, &c. but 
Will not justify the digging for 

thrin. — Id. 



3La\u l\tpoit£. 



L'bi ingenio non crat locus, cure testimonium promciuisse coutcntua. 

Court of King s Bench, Dec. '2iih. 

BOYBEI.Ii V. DHl M.MO.ND. 

Tins cause, of the utmost im- 1 This case was opened by bil 

portance to the arts and artists, and ! majesty's Attorney-General, in a. 

to the liberal patrons of both in this speech deservedly admired for 

country, came on to be heard at strength and perspicuity of ariru- 

(iuildhall, before Lord Kllenbo- incut. The action was brought by 
rough and a special jury of me-r- !j Josiah Boydell, Ksq. the worthy 

chants. The consequences which I representative and. partner of the 

may result from it, whether the late Alderman Boydell, against the 

plaintiff ultimately succeeds upon defendant, John Urummond, Esq. 

the merits, or be defeated by tech- banker at Charing-' 'ross, to recover 

frical objections, without the merits the value of a number of prints 

being fairly tried, are of sufficient which he had refused to take agree* 

magnitude to make any apology ably to his contract for that purpose, 



unnecessary for our giving a full 
and, we hope, impartial and accu- 
rate view of what passed on this in- 
teresting occasion. 
No. II. Vol. I. 



as a subscriber to the ShakspevTS 
Gallery. The Attorney -General 
observed, that nothing perhaps had 

contributed to rai^e tu<r countrv in 
O 



OS 



law RFronT«. 



which Kr live to the degree of emi- 
nence v <■ enjoy, more than the li- 
beral encouragement which had 
been given by persona in the most 
elevated stations in society, to men 
engaged in the various branches of 
trade, manufacture, or in the culti- 
vation of the arts and sciences, 
whose genius, industry, or skill 
marked tlu-ni out as lit objects of 
patronage and attention. The gentle- 
men of the* jury knew by experience 
that great and extensive transactions 
could seldom be carried on without 
the assistance of others ; and they 
knew likeu ise. that the skill and ta- 
lents of men eminent in their re- 
spective professions, could be ob- 
tained only by liberal encourage- 
ment and ample remuneration. — 
The effect which this obvious sys- 
tem produced upon genius and in- 
dustry, was evinced by the thriv- 
ing state ol the arts and sciences, 
the trade, eommercc, and manu- 
factures dt' the country— in short, 
every thing which surrounded us in 
ill is mighty capital, afforded abund- 
ant proofs of it. The jury, he 
hoped, would pardon him these 
preliminar) observations, which na- 
turally arose out of the case he was 
about to lay before (hem. Jt was 
unnecessary for him to state, be- 
cause every one knew, how bene- 
ficial a patron the late Alderman 
Bbydell had been to the professors 
of the fine arts, particularly paint- 
ing and engraving. Previous to 
the Shakspcare Gallery, historical 
painting, whence the art of engrav- 
ing arose, was at a very low ebb in 
this country ; and whatever prists 
of this description were wanted, we 
were under the necessity of import- 
ing t'lom aboad : but so much hail 
the liberal encouragement of the 



late alderman and his partner al- 
tered the nature of this business, 

thai during the existence of trade 

and of communication with the con- 
tinent, this country exported con- 
siderably to our ncighbouts. By 
this means oilier nations were made 
to contribute to the wealth and en? 
couragement of our artists, and ul- 
timately to the improvement of the 
arts themselves in this country. 

The late alderman had always 
maintained, that there was not, 
wanting genius in this country to 
produce either line, historical paint- 
ings, or good artists who might do 
theiu justice in the engraving : he 
thought ingenuity only wanted en- 
couragement, to bring it into action; 
and, by extending that, encourage- 
ment with a munificent and dis- 
creet Liberality, he accomplished, 
in a great degree, his object. The 
alderman, he said, was one of those 
valuable men to whom society owes 
the most, because they enrich them- 
selves by enriching others, and their 
labours arc at once a profit and an ho- 
nour to the country that gave them 
birth. It occurred to Alderman Boy- 
dell, that, nothing could further the 
plan he had in view, or so effectu- 
ally answer the purpose, as that of 
illustrating by prints the enchant? 
ing text of our immortal poet. Jt 
was almost needless to add, that 
this was Shakspcare. For this pur- 
pose, he entered upon a plan with 
.Mr. George Nicol, the king's book- 
seller, to produce a splendid edition 
of the plays of our poet ; (he letter- 
press to be under the direction of 
Mr. Nicol, and prints illustrative of 
the various texts from that work, 
were to be produced under the su- 
perintendence of Mr. Alderman 
Uoydell, and the undertaking was 



T.MV REPORTS. 



00 



Agreed upon ; but a', if required al- 
most ;m immnnse capital, m* well as 
prodigious labour, it could only be 
undertaken by subscription, it being 



lie were admitted ;it Is. e^ch pcr- 
son. — The defendant »i for two of 
the plates, and paid I be u inal • am 
nl two guineas ; the fii 



necessary to raise •1(),()()()/. in the waj «: inscription, hni ng b en 



first instance. A prospectus was 
therefore published, and a sub- 
scription opened in the year 1786, 
by which they proposed to bring 

out this splendid work in numbers, 
and in which the subscribers were 
to have seventy-' wo plates of en- 
graving! illustrative of the most in- 
teresting scenes in flic Plays of 
Shakspeare ; the subscribers to have 
their plates precisely in the order in 

which they filtered tie ir names on 
the list of subscribers, so that pri- 
ority of subscription should se- 
cure priority of impressions. This 
ride Was observed rigidly. There i 
were to he 150 copies first taken 
Off by way of proofs, and the rest 
came in their order. The proofs 
were all subscribed for within six 
weeks after the subscription was 
opened, our illustrious monarch 
himself setting the example to his 
subjects for the improvement of taste I 
and encouragement of the arts. In 
the progress of the work, Mr. 
Drummond, the bunker, became 
one of the subscribers, and stood at j 
No. 110J. The plates were all j 
laid by for him exactly On the ' 
1103d number. The only notice; 
which the subscribers had of the j 



paid at the time of entering the 
same : but Mr. Drummond took re. 
more of the numbers, but th< y were 
all laid by for him in the ordei iq 
which they were pulled off: they 
Were not indeed s"iit to Mr. Dnim- 
mond, for it was not the pi 
send any of (hem : lor the subscribers 

either came themselves, or sent for 

them — those who lived at the east 
end of the town came to the shop 
in Cheapside ; those at the west end, 
at Pail-Mall. The subscribers had 
an opportunity of seeing the sp< i- 
mens of the work, so thai there was 
no reason to complain on that score. 
What the defence \rm, he could 

not well guess ( He maintained, 

that the works were (taken gene- 
rally) perfectly equal to the pro- 
spectus — some of them were super- 
latively excellent : but if it were to 
be said that others were not so. he 
admitted it, for he lost nothing by 
that admission ; no objection could 
be successfully made to it on that 
account, because thai would be to 
object to the nature nf things'. 
While human genius remained un- 
equal, human labours WOukl hue 
their different degrees of excellence 
and he maintained, that if these en 



plates eoming out, was by means of Igravings were (upon an average 



advertisement in the public news- ' 
papers, and they sent for them a*-- | 
cotdingly. The Shakspeare- Gallery 
Was opened in Pall-Mall on the 
first of May 1789, with thirty-four ; 
of the paintings, and in March 17 ( *0, 
there were iiftv-six of them : to 
which gallery every subscriber had 
d ticket of admission, aud the pub- ! 



taken of them all) a lair execution 
ot the contract, there could be no 
doubt ot the plaintiff's ritrht to re- 
cover by this action, whieh w:.s 
for the value ot the remainder o( 

pktea; That tach of them 
had not been tendered to (he defend- 
ant was true, but that I is bei 
the plaintiff did not wish to be 

2 



100 



LAW REPORTS. 



gioufj because he Bright, if ha hail 
chosen, have brought his action 

upon each. And here he nasi ob- 
serve upon the hardship to which 
the plaintiff would be exposed) it 
this action could be resitted with 

success. Then were I.jOO subs vib- 
crs for these works, 700 only 01 
whom hid taken all their numbers, 
and if the remaining (>(>) were i . r, - 
fn- taking theirs, tin- loss to the 
plaintiff would be prodigioas (for 
upwards of loi-.ooo/. had been Mink 

in this undertaking) ; besides the 
dre:i 1 fill blow which the arts would 
nscoive bv the discouragement of 
such a splendid work as this ; an 
e\il which he would not anticipate 
f»v supposing that the jury would not 
find a verdict for the plaintiff, altho 1 
the defendant had thought tit to 
plead the statute of Limitations. 

Mr. ('lay and Mr. Harrison, who 
had been many years clerks to the 
late Mr. Alderman Boydell, cor- 
roborated most of the tacts stated by 
the Attorney-General, and particu- 
larly that the plates were kept in 
succession for the subscribers ac- 
cording to the order in which they 
stood in the subscription-book, and 
that 1904 were struck oil' before they 
were sold to non-subscribers : that 
to the subscribers each plate would 
only be at the rate of 1.3s. (id. where- 
as they had been sold to non-sub- 
scribers at a guinea and a guinea 
and a half ear h. They gave an 
account of the difference between 
f!".e two modes of engraving; that 
of the line, which is the superior, 
and that of the dotting and chalk 
»sf ylc, which is the inferior style — 
tha line taking twice the time, was 
attended with twice the ex pence. 
That out o! J7, there were 2J of the 



chalk style in these plates. But 
estimating the future by the past, it 
would take between 40 and :A) years 
to complete the work, if all done in 
the line style, §5C. That two of the 
| dec had heen taken away for the 
u Irndanf, but he hail not sent for 
the rest. 

Mr. Parke and the other gentle- 
men who were counsel for Mr. 
Drummond, displayed great abili- 
liesand acuteness in taking every 
technical objection to the plaintiff's 
claim, which the law furnished 
them with. 

When the prospectus which con- 
tained the contract between Mr. 
Boydell and the public, was pre- 
sented on the part of the plaintiff to 
be read, Mr. llolroyd contended, 
that it could not be read — 1st, Be- 
cause it was not stamped ; and, 
2d ly, Because it was within one of 
the clauses of the statute of Frauds. 

Mr. Attorney-General answered 
this objection, and the cause was 
permitted to go on, his lordship 
saving the point. 

There was a difficulty on the part 
of the plaintiff to shew that the de- 
fendant was a subscriber, and that 
he had notice when the different 
numbers of the work were ready for 
delivery. This notice, when the 
subscribers were sonumerous, where 
many of their habitations were un- 
known and often changed, could 
only be given by public advertise- 
ment, and a number of different 
newspapers were produced in which 
these advertisements had been in- 
serted, lint they could not make 
out that any of these papers had 
come into the hands of the defend- 
ant ; but they shewed, that when the 
two first numbers were ready he had 



LAW JIF.P0IU9. 



101 



seat for them only from that notice, 
and therefore it might be presumed 
he was acquainted ;is to all f I * < - rest 
when (hey were ready for d< liverv . 
His lordship said, ho was afraid to 
admit newspapers as general evi- \ 

denoe. In the ease of carrier! who 

refilled to be responsible above ;>/. 
there was notice pu( up lo thai el- 
feet in large biters in (lie oliiee. 
which ("very man that had goods to j 
carry, and who brought them tliere. 
must see. At last, a letter was read 
from the defendant himself, stating 
the reason why he did not continue 
to take the prints. 

In one stage of the cause then- 
was a doubt entertained by the coun- 
sel for the defendant, as to what was 
his age at the time he became a sub- 
scriber. That point was dropped, 
on Mr. Parke stating that they did 
Dot mean to plead his nonage. 

Two of the prists were then ex- 
hibited in court, and most beautiful 
they were — the one in the dot ling 
and chalk style, which was the 
scene in " Much Ado About Xo- 
thingy" betw ecu Ursula and her com- 
panion talking about Benedict, and 
Beatrice listening in the bower; the 
other, The Smothering of the Babes 
zchi/c asleep in the Toiccr, in ! 
" Richard the Third" in the line \ 
style, engraved by Legat. 

Here Mr. Parke, Mr. Ilolroyd, j 
and Mr. Dampier, took a number 
of objections on behalf of the de- 
fendant : — First, that this pro- I 
spectus was void, for want of being 
stamped ; which Lord Lllenho- 
rough felt inclined to over-rule, be- j 
cause it related to trade and com- i 
merce, for which agreements were 
exempted from the duty. JNe.vt , 
they objected, because, upon the 
.Hatute of Frauds, the engagement J 



to pay on behalf of the defendant 
should be iii wriling, beCMIM the 
thing lo be perloimed l> v il lr plain- 
till was more than one year in do 

This his lordship was inclined lo 

over-rnle, beeau-e il talher went to 

the commencement of the thin?, 
which was within the'year, than to 

the COB! bision Of Lfc Hut as to the 
Statute of Limitations, his lonbhip 
did not see how the plaintiff could 
get over it ; for nothing had been 

done on behalf of the defendant 

since the year 1790. The sta- 
tute of Limitation! was sometimes 
said to be an ungracious plea. He 
had nothing to do with the un- 
graciousness of it; he must dispone 
of it according to law : and so rigid 
was it, that il had been pleaded by 
a defendant to an action of criminal 
conversation; who admitted he had 
committed the adultery, but plead- 
ed that he had not done it within 
six years; and he succeeded in his 
plea. 

The Attorney-General said, thai 

the defendant had lately said that 
he was not bound to take the re- 
mainder of these prints, because 
they were not agreeable to the pro- 
spectus; and this was proved by 
the clerk of Messrs. Crowther. Li- 
vie,and Garth, the plaintill "s atlor- 
nies. lint 

Lord Eilenborough held, that 
this did not take the case out of the 
statuteof Limitations: but he>hould 
save the point, if the Attorney -d'e- 
neral could make any thing of it 
be tore the court, as well as the 
others for the defendant. — M And 
(said his lordship to the Attorney- 
(ieneral) I wish you may succeed ; 
for I have every wish for the en- 
couragement of the artsand science** 
although unfortunately ignorant of 



!!")_• 



wrnr; wood's ro.*»m?. 



mnnv. Mo not pretend to be ajiof the statute of Limitations." 
competent fthi meritsofthe Plaintiff nonsuit 

prints which have been exhibited, V B. We understand that tin? 
but they appear to me tn be most cause is to be tried gain next term, 
ntiful. Hut I am compelled to with additional evidence. To this 
:>i the plaintiff upon the plea | wc shall particularly attend* 



Pr.^r. 7.— WEDGWOOD'S ROOMS, 
ubjed of this plate is a wards of industry. The most strife- 



Tr 

representation of the principal room 
of a suite forming the magazine 
which belonged to (iic late Mr. ./<<- 
$iah Wcdg&ood) and is now the 
property of his successor iii the ma- 
nufactory. This establishment has 
existed nearly 50 years ; ami, dur- 
ing that long period, the public at- 
tention lias been kept alive by the 
extraordinary discoveries ami im- 
provements, both in art and taste, 
which the fertile genius of rts pro- 
prietor was constantly introducing. 

The potteries are so truly British 
manufactures, are of so much im- 
portance to commerce, ami add a 
lustre even to the arts of the coun- 
try, that we feel inclined tO£,ive a 
brief sketch of their history from 
the earliest time to which they can 
he traced, down to the period when 
they began to assume a respectable 
rank among the manufactures) and 
to excite ti:i attention of commercial 
and scientific men 

If, in the progress of our publica- 
tion, we shall be able in a similar \ 
manner to shew the origin and gra- ' 
of othei manufactures 



ing a- well as general features of 
such histories, will be the important 
effects which have resulted from 
very inconsiderable beginnings, im! 
the gradual devclopement of hu- 
man talent, proceeding from the 
attainment of one object, to another 
still higher and more extensively 

Useful. 

We have no knowledge of the 

existence of potteries in England 
before the time of the Horn tins. 
In many parts of the kingdom, 
fragments and vessels of Rinnan 
pottery have been found, but most 
of these have been the utensils of 
their armies, and were not made 
upon the spot. However, at some 
of their stations they certainly had 
potteries, and the appropriate curi- 
osity of the late Mr. Wedgwood 
on this subject, led him to the dis- 
covery of one at Chesterton, neai 
Newcastle-under-Line, and in the 
neighbourhood likewise of the pre- 
sent potteries. Jt was formerly a 
Roman station, and the site of flu- 
old castle. .About thirty years ago, 
he caused a spot in this village to 



alle to perfection, we be opened to a considerable depth, 

rive that our Jiabours will con- and there found the same appear- 
tribute to the amusement, as well as Lancet as will be exhibited in our 
the instruction of our readers, and do i present potteries a thousand years 
an acceptable s< rvi< e tothe COinrau- heme, if they should be uncovered ; 
nityathvrge, by stimulating the ex- the foundations and other remains 
ertions of ingenuity, and adding the ofovens rynd workshops, tnd large 
..Me to tiic oiher re- | massci ol pitchers accumulated by 



r.ncw o(»i» 






the effects of the fire on Vessels in led with painting in rnnmcl, 



baking. No district could be more 
favourable to pottcrj before that art 
attained sufficient mei i( i" become 
an object of distant commerce, tV.r 
it abounds with a variety of colour- 



ii , to pa them d third 
Lh rough the Urc < )ne <>f '!:• in 
(Innis of iliis glass being 
lead, f 1m- workman; v. ii » e hand 
!.mil\ immci :n : inthi mixture. 



ed clays and of coal. Chesterton, i^ subject i<» paralisi . unless due 

pre* •mi ion be i then. To prei ml 
ii, the manufacturers bay* -<i I . * r - - 

v< ars assign* tl to such men a \ f 



which i< onlv two miles distant 
from Burslem, has not nou onj p->i- 
terics, the latter having (m i \ eral 



centuries been known to in- (In- Employment about their ovcus, 
principal seat of them, furnish them with a dress toweai 

Tor mukyig pottery, or earthen at Hie glazing tab, ami throw otr 
ware, (In' claj is beaten in water, when they leave it, and a \* 

by which the fine parts are suspend* ' cistern, soap, and towels near them, 



4-d in the fluid, \. hile the coarser 
sink t«» the bottom of the vessel. 
The thick liquid is further purified 
by passing ii through hair and 



that ilny may be more certain, 
when employed in glaring, t<> wash 
their hands before they go to their 
meals. If is feared, however, that 



lawn sieves of different degrees of i an unhappy opinion of theelficacy 

fineness; and is afterwards mixed of spirituous liquors does more mi>- 

with another liquor of about the chief to this class of workmen than 

same density, consisting of ground any other circumstance, for attri- 

fiintst This was the composition buting to the effect of lead whatever 

of theivhite stone ware about forty slight disorder occurs, they have 

years ago, the staple manufacture recourse in the first instance to them, 

of tin* potteries of this kingdom : as specifics in such cases; and thus 

and it is also that of liner earthen ; acquire the habit of an immoderate 

wares at present in use, though in \ use of what probably affords thena 

different proportions, and av itli va- J a temporary relief, hut does not fail 

rions improvements introduced by to produce a permanent and d 

the ingenuity of succeeding menu- tive disease. This is we heli 



facturers. This mixture is then 
dried in a kiln, and after being beat* 



the sole opprobrium which att i 
to the potter's art ; j et even (his may 



en to a proper consistence, becomes be greatly diminished, it not en- 
fit for being formed hy the work- , tirely removed, by the precautions 



men into dishes, plates, howls, &c. 
The line white and cream-colour- 
ed earthen wares now mode in Eng- 



above-roentioned : h is it 

is desirable to preclude the 11 
lead altogether, the Society for the 



land, are fired twice; the first time Promotion of the Arts lias offered 
to give them the requisite hardness, ;1 premium for a substitute for this 
and in that state they are called gla*e, or for a mode of u>i;i_ 
biscuit; they are then dipped in a which would not subject the 1 
vitreous composition, and being • to these dangers. 
subjected to a second burning, ac- I The white and the* brov 
quire a coating of true glass, thence wares are passed only once tlir 
called a glaze. If they are imish- the tire; for, at a i of 



104 



wrncwooD s noov*. 



the heat) fhey are made to undergo 
A partial vitrification of the surface, 

by the funics of muriate of soda, 
this salt being thrown into tin- oven, 
anil the ])irr<-s of ware so disposed 
lis to receive the fumes of it oncve- 
\\ | .tit ol their Mil faces. Thisme- 
thod of glaring earthen ware with 
salt, wat iaAtsdnocd into England 
by two brothen from Holland, of 
the Dame of Elcrs, about the year 
J70U: they settled in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Staffordshire potte- 
ries ; and it is remarkable, that the 
alarm occasioned by the fumes 
(which spread over the country) 
obliged them to leave it. The son 
of one of these artists was afterwards 
an active magistrate of the county 
of Oxford, and his son is at prevent 
a very respectable English barrister. 
A similar manufactory was, how- 
ever, soon after established at Shel- 
ton, in the potteries, by one of their 
Workmen named Astbury, who pos- 
sessed himself of their secret ; and 
as it became of great utility, it was 
readily tolerated by the inhabitants; 
and at length, on the common day 
of glazing (Saturday), the thick 
offensive fumes from fifty or sixty 
manufactories, filled the valleys, 
and covered the hills of a district 
of country extending many miles. 
There is no doubt that potteries 
have been established for many 
centuries in this part of Stafford- 
shire, which abounds with coal at 
some depth indeed below the sur- 
face : strong indications have been 
found of asiteof Roman potteries; 
but, down to the epoch I have been 
speaking of, the productions, and 
the condition of the potters, were in 
much the same rude state as when 
Plott made his survey of the coun- 
ty. Messrs.. idlers had also the merit 



of introducing into this country a 
red onglatad porcelain, which they 
made from a clay found in the es- 
tate they had settled upon in Staf- 
fordshire, called Broadwall ; but it 
was only the brown stone ware, of 
tlw same kind as that now made by 
the Lambeth potters, in the compo- 
sition of which no Hint is used, 
which they glazed in the manner 
above described : the white stone 
ware, and the use of ground flints 
in pottery, are discoveries of later 
jean, and owe their origin to the 
following curious incident : About 
the year 1720, a potter (believed to 
be the Astbury above-mentioned) 
travelling to London on horseback, 
had occasion at Dunstable to seek 
a remedy for a disorder in his 
horse's eyes, and the hostler of the 
inn, by burning a flint-stone, reduc- 
ed it to a fine powder, which he blew 
into them. It sufficiently appears 
from history, literary, natural, and 
civil, and this anecdote among a 
thousand others confirms the truth 
of the observation, that the useful 
arts, and almost all the hints that 
have chiefly contributed to the 
promotion of science, have been 
furnished more from accident than 
design; not so much from the natu- 
ral vigour and celestial fire of the 
soul, as from particular facts ob- 
truded by chance at different times 
on different persons. 

The potter observing the beau- 
tiful white colour of the flint after 
calcination, instantly conceived the 
uses to which it might be applied 
in his manufacture ; and then intro- 
ducing into use the white pipe clays 
found on the north side of Devon- 
shire, instead of the irony clays of 
his own country, he readily produc- 
ed a white stone ware. At iirst the 



w rr. 



10c 



flints were reduced to powdei l>v 
manual labour, fo the great injury 
<>i' the 1 1 » mI ; but the 

immortal Brindley. in theearly part 
of bis I'l- . < led the rnilln 



of London, f 

p 

propel fof ■ - t'ii'- 1:1 iip • 
\v;r no in dl fep in fh 

he found <ini the i I titing 



that ;irc at present used I 



ing them In a moist state, 
tew of the present day liave dis- 
i ■■•(!, that the pipe clays of the 
south side of the county of Devon, 
are superior to those of the north 
side, which are consequently aban- 
doned ; and they are now supplied 
from the south, and from the Isle of 
Porbcck in Dorsetshire. 

The late Mi. \S edgwood was ;i 
native of Burslem, where his fore- 
fathers for several generations had 
been (letters, fn the stage of the 
manufactory we have described, 
and about the year I7.">0, lie had 
completed an apprenticeship with 

his rider brother, who w as a potter 

in Burslem, and distinguished him- 
self by man} ingenious deviations 

from the usual practice of the pot 



ferent colour I i form n 

aded with that of the surface. 
When lie at i the 

i iea to making \ 
of greater hulk, he contrived I 
the colouring combin it inns upon the 
-in face only, with nearly 
lei t. Tims was product d a 
variety of coloured earthi 

and these have been since i. 

and may be so ad infinitum, by ra- 
rying the proportions of the sub- 
stances, used. These were soon fol- 
lowed by new patterns of t<"i equi- 
pages, modelled and coloured i i 
resemble owe-opp/er, //.•■ Ions, ap- 
ples, caufi/toz ertj St. Sr. all of 
which in their day We recollect to 



flpTS in (hove days, and by several have seen the shops abound with, 



striking marks of youthful genius. 
We profess not to be the biogra- 



and immense numbers were sent to 
the Continent, but now they are no 



phers of this eminent man, nor are longer known. To these sue 



>\e possessed o\' materials which 

would enable us fo be SO : but as 



ed an invention, which has eventu- 
ally been of the greatest advantage 



almost every species of earthen ware to the commerce of the countrv. 
now produced in this country, In the year 17b3, Mr. W 

bis original invention, and has only wood produced a new species of 

received embellishments from sue- earthen ware for the table, cove r ed 

ceeding manufacturers, together with a rich and brilliant glaze, bear* 

with some alterations to suit it to mg sudden alternations of heat add 

the varied fashions of the day. bo it cold, manufactured with ease and 

is hardly possible but the history of expedition, and consequent] ycheap. 

himself must in some degree go To this new manufacture the 

hand in hand with the history of his queen was pleased to give her name 

art. and patronage, commanding it to 

Among his first works, were the be called {) .and honour- 

imitations of precious stones, and ing the inventor by appointing hi:n 

in this branch he carried on a » on- her majesty's potter. The intro- 

siderablc trade with the travellers duction of this cream-coloured arti- 

Xo. II. Vol. I. P 



l(Xj 



\v UK. W Ooh « Ho. MS. 



< ' , verj soon put a stop to the im- ; of antiquity to \\ Inch ho could «rtin 

ition of French and Dutch access at home. Others he sent to 

lien ware; and since that period Home, to make copies and cists of 

*cr\ considerable quantities of the the most celebrated medallions ami 



new ware have been exported to 
those verj countries, and to every 
part of the world. To Mr. Wedg- 
wood weare likewise indebted foi 
i he iu\< ution of the following kinds 
of earthen ware and porcelain, viz. 

I. A terra potta ; resembling por- 
phyry, granite, Egyptian pebbles, 
;tnd other beautiful stones of the si- 
licious or chrystalline order. 

9. Bosaltes; a fine blaek porce- 
lain bisque, of nearly the same pro- 
perties \\ iili the natural stone ; it re- 
ceives a high polish, serves as a 
touch -stone lor metals, strikes fire 



entablatures, which he afterwards 
e\. ■< oted in this material, ami 

; chiefly by artists whom he had 
reared under his own eve, the chil- 

( dren of his workmen selected by him 
(br the marks <>r geuius they dis- 
played. Had not his health de- 
clined a G'ood deal for a lew of the 
last years of his lite, owing to the 
labours of youth in the progress of 

; his manufactory, he had intended 
to prosecute this branch to all (he 
excellence of which it is suscep- 
tible. 

1 1 is much admired copy of the 



With steel, resists all the acids, and Barberini, or Portland iv/.vr, was 



bears w ithont injury a stronger fire 
than the bosaltes itself. 

.'■»'. \ white porcelain bisque, of 
a smooth wax-like surface, of tin* 
same properties with the preceding, 
except in what depends upon 
colour. 

•1. Jasper; a white porcelain 

bisque, of exquisite beauty and de- 
licacy . possessing (he general pro- 
perties of the basaltcs, together with 
that of receiving colours through its 
whole sub • in a manner w Inch 

no other body, ancient or modern, 
lu:s been known to do : this renders 
ii peculiarly lii for cameos, por- 
traits, and all subjects in bass-relief, 
as the ground may be coloured 
throughout, without paintorenamel, 



his chef (f<r/'\rc in (his way. 

A new a ra in pottery, and indeed 
in (In* arts of the country, was 
formed by (he publication of Sir 
William Hamilton's book of Etrus- 
can Vases. This might have lain 
in (iie libraries and cabinets of (he 
< urious, and not have produced any 
general effect, without the aid of * 
man of genius in (he situation of 
Mr. Wedgwood. He was ;it once 
charmed with the beautiful simpli- 
city of the forms, and placed him- 
self for days at the bench with his 
workmen, till he had succeeded in 
making correct copies of them. 
By these models, he revised and re- 
novated the forms of his manufac- 
tory ; and being introduced to uni- 



whilsl the raised figures are of a versa! notice, they soon engaged 



pure white. This beautiful material 

enabled him to lay the foundation 
of a school for modelling in basso- 
relievo, which our arlisN had before 
rfaid very little attention (o. This 
was a favourite object with him, 

liplo} ed the best artists oi 

thai i copying the works 



the attention of artists in other ways, 
and brought about, a revolution 
very favourable to the taste of the 
. for before this time, scarcely 
;in\ forms were to be seen among 
our works of ail, but the old, heavy, 
disgusting French forms. 

The ail of pottery in litis king- 



I! I Tlt.'^ITf I o I i'. I I I If « 



107 



idem is no less indebted to ihis in •<■- 
nious in in lor various Mi icovcries, 

,mi. I ihe taste which In" displaced, 

than lor (he arrangement and me- 
chnnical contrivances which be in- 
troduced, in which the manul ic- 
turers were almost entirely defici- 
ent before lie began liis career. One 
of liis p rc;ii( i improvenu uls in litis 
way, was, the application of the »•//- 
gine lot he to the purposes of pottery, 
about the year 1767. This has 
given (he meansof such extensive I3 
varied embellishments, as may well 
entitle it i<> be considered :i new ana. 
'I'lic principal improvements which 
have been made in pottery by other 
manufacturers within the last twen- 
ty years, have been in the blue 
printed ware, in imitation of the 
blue and white oriental porcelain. 
This has been carried 10 a degree of 
excellence by sonic of them, sur- 
passing what we have ever received 
from CAittOy in respect to the art of 
design and beauty of colouring, and 
has nearly, it not altogether, stop- 
ped the importation of this kind of 
porcelain. Even to this, we recol- 
lect, the ingenuity of Mr. Wedg- 
wood pointed out the way: for he 
Mas the first among the potters who 
practised tin' art of displaying this 



tine blue colo M Ml lei /'• of 

a while ware he had 
made immense quant iii< n ol i» in 
table 1, h I'h a moni led or 

1 • s< ill ii, 

though noi in 1 liat mi w liich 

ii enjoj >il on ii> first introdw 
( Hher manufacture 
his impri»\ eiiienl. I>\ calling 
aid oft he d< lignernnd - 1 and 

have gr< ai met it, by giving tot limt 
country n new soun e of ben< . 
commerce. Some beautiful s] 
mens of this ware are exhibited in 
these rooms, produced bj th 
proprietors. This, however, 
not preclude us from expressin 
sentiment with which we hai •• all 
along intended to conclude ihis ar- 
ticle, that in walking throog-h 
rooms of Mr. Wedgwood, wei 
surprised that such mult it 
tich a could Ik- the productio 
one manufactory. Our surprise was 
perhaps in; some degree 

by the information we 1 

that this concern alone i 

more than live hundred p • 
, this rather increased than dtminish- 

ed die respect and admiration v 
I for the powers of that mind in w 

all these important discoveries 

irinated. 



retrospj'k r 

I\ our last number we presented 
a general retrospect of the principal 
events which marked the history of 
the year 1 808, We are sorry to 
stale, that the present year has com- 
menced under circumstances the 
most inauspicious. The informa- 
tion which we have received in the 
course of the last month, gives us 
no reason to expect that the present 
arduous contest vail toon be tcinii- 



OF POLITICS. 

I nated. The sanguine hopes wl 
during the year 1808, tilled and in- 
spired every generous breast, are 

, now considerably depress d. :>-id 
those bright prospects which Spas- 
nidi loyalty and patriotism 
opened to the world, are much o!v- 
scured. An awful cloud, fraught 
with all the elements of inl- 
and ruin, hangs over that country, 
to which the hopes 01 ail 
P 2 



JOS 



Tsrr.r? or rouncs. 



were lately directed; and Napoleon 

Bonaparte, like the nonius of evil, 

or the destroying angel, •• 1 1*. 1 s in 

whirlwind, and directs the 

storm. " Tin 1 armies of Spain have 
been Rcattered before hhn, ami the 
British army lias retreated without 
waiting 6k the contest. Although 
the hopes ami feelings of the I 
I till fondly cling to 

f portion of the Spanish penin- 
sula which li i. not \< t submitted 
to flip tyrant, those hopes arc much 
nine than they lately were, 

those feelings are sickened in 
tiie eontem plat ion of the great cala- 
mities which have recently befallen 
the Spanish nation, whose cause 
was, and still is, so justly dear to 

v British bosom. 
When in our last number ivc 
mentioned the arrival of Bonaparte 
at .Madrid, we were not aware of 
t!ie extent of the calamity which 
Spain had suffered, but still relied 
on the wisdom am! patriotism of 
her generals, and the spirit and 
unanimity of the people; we still 
hoped that the Spaniards would op- 
pose a determined resistance to the 
enemy, and that our brave army 
would be able to second their gene- 
rous efforts, and gain immortal ho- 
nour for themselves and their coun- 
try. We little expected to hear the 
charges of treason or cross incapa- 
city applied (and perhaps justly ap- 
plied) to 8 u oh nanifs as Mnrla and 

After; and still less did v, 
p^rt to hear the inhabitants of the 
noith of Spain reproached by Ge- 
neral Rom an n for apathy and bid if- 
f T<ncc to the public cause. We 
did entertain the hope, which every 

Lishman indulged in, that our 
prand army in Spain should mea- 
sure its strength with the enemy in 



equal combat; and we certainly did 
feel confident, that the valour and 
prowess of our troops would have 
borne them nobly through the con- 
test. We flattered ourselves with 
the hope of recording our own 
triumphs and those of our allies. 
The scene, alas ! is changed, ami 
tin faithful historian of the calami- 
tous times in which we li\<\ id 
obliged to direct his principal atten- 
tion to the operations of the great 
actor and prime cause of all the po- 
litical evils which the theatre of 
Spam and of Europe now exhibits. 
Bonaparte had well digested his 
plans before he entered Spain. He 

perceived that the Spaniards had 
lost a considerable portion of time, 
and that their preparations for de- 
fence were insufficient and incom- 
plete. There was no connection 
between Blake's army, which bare- 
ly exceeded '20,000 fighting men, 
and the central army commanded 
by Qastanos. As to the army of 
l.stremadura (which, in conjunc- 
tion with the British, was to have 
formed the army of reserve,) it was 
contemptible, and the British troops 
which were to have supported it, 
were near a month's march behind 
them. Under these circumstances, 
Bonaparte found it an easy task to 
conquer and disperse the armies of 
Spain separately. Blake's army 
was the only one which gave him 
any serious resistance, and which 
appears to have fully discharged 
i(s duty to (he country. The army 
of Estreraadura were most shame- 
fully beaten out of Burgos, with 
great loss, and were afterwards beat- 
en out of what had been considered 

1 an impregnable position, the pass 

ofSomo-Sierra. The central army, 
also ; experienced a complete defeat, 



RETROSPECT OF POLITIC*. 



109 



the c?nse of which is distim ll\ al- 
ii i!)nii(l l>\ iikiii v persons in Spain, 
to i Ik- incapacity "i '<• u few rj of 

(icrici.il ( aslanos. ( ii'iiri il < )\\ci!l, 
who commanded the lell pjrjypg <>' 
;> mi !i ; 1 1 1 1 1 v ;it Tud| I i- 

in liis official .ir, mill of thai pari <>f 
Hie battle thai he was rng iged in, 

.( would h a\e b«*n a ronijil I.- 
\irfory if lie had bei n ->i |«|» u U \ hv 
the (enter. Whether f Jit* ch 

against Castanos are well founded 

or not, still the evil has Lapp 

the armies ofSpaiu have been beat* 

en ;uid dispersed, half of that coun- 
try already conquered, and we fear, 
the British army is rather in a si- 
tuation to consult iK own safety. 
than ono in which it can retrieve it. 
The system which Bonaparte has 
frithciip pursued in Spain, is ;i 
mixture of farce and conciliation. 
Helms entered Spain, not for the 
purpose ot" revenging any injury or 
affront, bul for the avowed purpose 
of conquering the country, pla< ing 
ihe Spanish crown on his own head, 
or that of his brother, and retaining 
the conquests that he expects to 
make. It would, therefore, be bad 
policy iu hiin to add to the hated 
which the Spaniards feel against 
him, his family, and Jus nation] 
on the contrary, he offers general 
pardons, except to about ten or 
twelve of the principal men in 
Spain, whom lie denounces as trai- 
tors to France and Spain, and de- 
crees that their properly shall be 
confiscated, and themselves shot as 
soon as taken. Among- the pro- 
scribed are, the Dukes de L'lrdan* 
tado and Medina Cceli, Don Pe- 
dro Cevallos, and the Bishop of St. 
Andero. The capitulation of Ma- 
drid appears to be a shameful trans- 
pjction, and to rix the charge of 



■ n upon M * . r J i . rid other* by 

w bom if was iii i".( i it.d. Tin y 

agreed thai th | the 

inhabitants should be disarmed; and 

i bej bad tin w to --tip 

for Hi' . that 1 1, | re- 

tain their places md appointmc 

iii. therefore, by BO means sur- 
y, thai the popuhlOB of 

drid should coaeei e they h id 
sold to slavery -by the treachery sf 

Morla and 1 1 | rib. When 

the new.; was fiflst d of the 

surrender of Midi id, I hose who 
were meet tag uin in the 6 mist 

cau-e. < (Nil Sld< J that thl 

siou of the capital did not ad\ 
the eneraj in obtaining )■ i 

of the country. The juntos, | 
<\er. in Spain, .seemed to a ' I 

the matter in a d liferent poi 
view, and took every possible 
caution to prevent the news of its 
surrender from spreading, and to 
report that Madrid was making- an 
obstinate defence. 

In consequence of this report, 
Sir John Moore, who had remained 
ibraconsider dilef ime at S dnmanca, 
and who bad given orders to s ir 
David Baird to retreat, revoked 
thoscotders, and n mpt 

■ movement! as a diver-ion. II av- 
ing effected a junction with Sir Da- 
vid Baird and Lord P . id- 
ranced wuh one of the lao 
derable British armies thatnver w.<» 
tbled on the Continent, to the 
attack of a French sarat of about 
!S,000 men, onasasandad by Mar* 
slial Souii. who arera pasted at 
Soldannah. On nil march be * n 
joined by a strong detachment from 
Komana's army, and his entire 
force could not be much less than 
40. IKK) men. On his arrival, upon 
the 23d oi December, almost with- 



110 



RF.TIH - rol.lTK «. 



in sight of the enenrj he came to at- Whetherthe British airoy collective** 

tack, he iiifucil information, thai ly, or i In* British nation altogether, 

Marshal Soult had received n con- can, by any possible exertion, save 

siderablc reinforcement from Polen- the world from thai ruin and de- 

oia, and that Bonaparte, at the head gradation with which it is now 

of hie Whole army, had lefl Madrid threatened. Wo cannot pretend, 

to cut oil* his retreat. Upon this at present, to pronounce any opinion 

information, Sir' John Mooreresolv" respecting the propriety of (lie re« 

a\ upon an immediate retreat, treat of the British army, as very 

Whcthefthis information was wor- little information on the subject had 

thy of credence, or whether it was been received at the time that the 

possible for Bonaparte to have cat materials of which this work is com - 

oil his retreat, if he had waited to posed, were, necessarily, sent to 

attack Soldi, cannot be ascertained I press. We have, only heard, that 

from the information now before government hare sent, and are 

the pnblic, as extracts onl\ of Sir sending more troops to Spain, and 

John Moore's official letter have been that it is 1>\ no means certain that 

printed. It appears, however, cer- Sir JohnMoore intends tore-embark. 

tain, (as far as we can rely upon We ardently wish there may be no 

thcYrcnch bulletins) that Bonaparte necessity for such a measure, that 

knew nothingof this movement of the British army may still be able 

Sir John Moore On the 19th, and to perform the task i'oi which it was 

that he had not then detached a originalh sent out, and noblv an- 

I . • 

man from his grand army at Madrid, swer tlie high expectations: which 

ft is evident, therefore, that either! Europe, has formed from its irelN 
the French bulletin of the If'tli is known valour and discipline, it 
totally untrue, or else that this in- will give us tin- most sincere plea- 
formation which determined the sure to be able, in our succeeding 
sudden retreat of the British army,! number, to record some bright a- 



wns merely a false alarm, in the 
march, as well as in the retreat, 
many corps of the British cavalry 

were engaged with the enemy's 

horse, and were always successful. 
The superiority of the British ca- 

-\alry to that of the French, has 



enlevements, which may rcllect ho- 
nour upon this country, and allow 
us to entertain more sanguine hopes 
of the ulterior success of the Spa- 
nish cause. 

Jn our last number we stated, that 
the Convention of (.'intra wad then 



been completely ascertained, and under examination before the Hoard 

this circumstance would have been, of Inquiry at Chelsea. That 

in any other period of our history, board has since presented its re- 



,'i great Bubject of national triumph: 
the times are, however, now Kong 

pas? as lien nations fought merely 

for honour. They are now fighting 

for their existence : and t he question 
is not so much, whether the British 



port, in which the members were 
unanimous in recommending that 
no court-martial should l>e resorted 
to, and in bearing testimony to the 
-(ill ami firmness of all the Ihne 
generals* Three ol them, however. 



troops are, or are not, superior to Lords Moira and Pembroke, and 
the French at equal numbers, as ■ General Nichols, disapproved of 



r i i rtospr.f i of poi.rTica* 



III 



the COn^ ention ; but all ol lliein. < \- 

cept l.onl Moira, approved of the 
armistice which preceded it. Thii 
report has, however, in m> d< 
changed Ihe opinion which the 
public had previously formed. The} 
still continue to think, thai the result 
of the campaign in Portugal bad 
disappointed the |ns( and reasonable 
expectations of the country. Thej 
stillremaiu impressed with the idea, 
that blame attaches somewhere. 
They cannot understand bow Ihe 
v une measure <>/' pi (Use and the 
same terms can be applied t. 
Arthur VVclleslcy and to Sir II. 
Burrard. If the board thought that 
Sir Arthur YYellesley was right in 
wishing to follow up the victory 
of Vera icra to the utmost, and march- 
ing to Torres- Vedaos, ii is difficult) 
indeed very difficult, to conceive 
thai Sir Harry Burrard was entitled 
to the praise of firmness for n-sisi- 
tng that plan ; inasmuch as firmness 
in error, and in opposing what is 
right, has not been hitherto consi- 
dered a praiseworthy quality : but, 
on the other hand, if the board con- 
ctived that Sir Arthur was wrong, 
and that Sir II. Burrard was right, 
U would have been more satisfacto- 
ry to the public, if they had expi 
•d that opinion unequivocally and 
distinctly. All the members (with 
the exception of Lord Moira) ap- 
proved of the armistice concluded 
on the 33d, conceiving, thatas the 
French bad retired to a strong de- 
fensive position, it was prudent to 
sign an armistice, that would give 
time to Sir John Moore's division to 
land and form a junction with the 
army. Lord Pembroke and Gene- 
ral Nichols coincided in this opi- 
nion, but disapproved of the final 
convention as unnecessary. Lord 



Moira dm stated with great ability 

his reasons for disapprot ing both of 
ii,.- .11 m*i < <• and Ihe convention* 
As to ill' 1 armistii >■. bis "'';■ ction 

: bat i' was not t<» be consid 
mi relj as a suspension of arm-, bat 
as an ai ranj • ment a hich formed the 

of the convention. lie con* 
ceived the convention altogether. 
iiiiik < . ary, as the retreat of Ju> 
not's army nv .» - compleu \y cut oil". 

Siip|n army had crossed lh« 

-. tin v would b ive found the 
pro\ ince of Ah ntt ja in coropl t<; 
insurrection against tlicii < onquer- 

ors, and a retreat til 
was impracticable after the surren- 
der »i Dupont in Andalnsia, which 
set the Spanish army of Andalusia 
at full liberty to oppose the retreat 
of Juuot in that direction. 

If the wisdom of a measure is to 
be estimated from its result, the 
Convention of ('intra must appeal 
fully a * objectionable i I did 

when the country was first afflii I 
w ith the new-, of its h iving 
signed. The principal argument 
in favour of it vt as, that it would 
liberate the British army in Portu- 
gal, and enable it to come to lllC 
nice of the Sp miaids b (fore 
Junot's army could come > l > tin* 
We find, !. . in point 

of tact, that on the very fir-t at- 
tempt made by the British ar: 
effect a diversion in favour of S, 

lung Mai » 

found his army supported bj 
identical army commanded I v 
oeral Junot : it tb 
appear that any thing material in 
p.'iut <>\ time was gained on 
part of i ish. Tin re has; 

hardly ever been a subje I 

chgeneralinf . 
out this country* n - : the C 



112 



vrTunrrre r or roLTTit*. 



of Cintr*. Sir Arthur Wetteftlev 
V i well known to the public from 
his splendid achievements in India, 
and hi high connections with the 
state. Sir Hew Dalrympfe and Sir 
Ff . Do rr a rd were comparativery un- 
.n. The high opinion which 
the country formed of the military 
talents of Sir Arthur AWllesley 
Were confirmed by the account of 
his victory at Vemiera, and •when 
they found no better fruit from that 
glorious victory than the Conven- 
tion of Cintra, they naturally felt 
the keenest disappointment, and 
w< r« divided in their opinions BB to 
the party on whom the blame ought 
to fall. Those -who most admired 
tlie talents of Sir Arthur WeWesley 
were at lirsf disposed to throw the 
whole blame upon Sir Hew Dal- 
rymple, who (not being much 
known) was represented ;i» a super- 
annuated general, who threw away 
the fruits of Sir Arthur's victory. 
Sir Hew, however, appeared in a 
vrrv different light beforethe Hoard 
of Inquiry, lie is a man of very 
soldier-like appearance, and in his 
manner a perfect gentleman. He 
displayed considerable abilities in 
his answ< -II as in the ques- 

tions he put; and as he had not 
landed till theS9d, when the French 
had taken such a defensive position 
as made an armistice advisable in 
tlie opinion of Sir Arthur \\ ellesley 
himself, Sir Hew Dalrymple was 
evidently responsible merely for tlie 
terms of the convention. The 
most violent attacks were directed 
igailist Sir Arthur Wcllesley in the 
public prints, but they were prin- 
cipally founded on the mistaken 
opinion, that the armistice was al- 
together negotiated by him, and 
that Sir Hew Dalrymple merely fol- 



lowed the track which he had laid 
down. This mistake arose from an 
equivocal expression in the dispatch 

of Sir Hew, when he stated the ar- 
mistice to have been w negotiated 
and signed by Sir Arthur Welles- 
ley.* 1 Sir Hew, however, in his 
evidence, declared that he had not 
iiit( nded to attribute the negociating 
to Sir Arthur, but merely the sign- 
ing. Sir Arthur Wcllesley display- 
»d. during the examination before 
the board, very superior military 
talents and knowledge of the sub- 
ject under discussion, insomuch that 
it is now a very universal subject of 
regret, that he was superseded by 
others, and not allowed to carry his 
own plans into execution. Tin- 
characters of the different generals 
have been appreciated by the opi- 
nion of the country, and We do not 
find it necessary to say any thing 
more on that subject. As to the 
conduct of government in this bu- 
siness, it is not objected to them 
even by their opponents, that they 
were indifferent to the fate of the ex- 
pedition, or that they spared anyVv- 
ertion which could have been made 
to reinforce the army, or that they 
neglected any means which might 
have contributed towards its success. 
The accounts lately received from 
Atnerica, have been very different 
from what might reasonably have 
been expected. "When the com- 
merce oi' America had been nearly 
ruined by tlie embargo acts, from 
the operations of which Mr. Jef- 
ferson vainly thought that, he could 
starve this country into compliance 
with: his demands, it was reason- 
able to expect the American legis- 
lature, listening to the wishes of 
their merchants, would have repeal- 
ed those acts which injured America 



UTFRAriY iroTHB! A n !> I N i I I .' 



III 



more than any other country i on the 

«-(Mili, ii v, llicy h < n Ol ved, nol 

only to continui those acts, but en- 
tirely to stop the iu tor course between 
their own country and the belli ■• - 
mil powers of Europe, li does not 
appear likely that their non-inter- 
con isc act will be of mote avail than 
their embargo acts. The Amcric m 
government recommends (ho. ( mea- 
sures as the only alternative between 
absolute war with England and 
.Trance, ami submission to their 
decrees. The event of the elec- 
tions proves, that the American go- 
vernineiit is more popular in that 
country than was supposed, as their 
candidate, Mr. Maddigon (who 
will certainlj follow the steps of 
,K d'erson) has had a great majority 
in almost all (he states, for his elec- 
tion <o t lie presidem :y. The .state 
or' tyfcseachussets i.s the only one 
which appears dec u led I \ hostile to 
the meaMires of I li ; ■ i r government. 
Among tlie documents which were 

laid before the legislature by the go- 
vernment, (here is an answer, by Mr. 
Secretary Canning, to the proposi- 
tion of Mr. Pinkney, on the part 

ot' America, to do away the embar- 
go with respect tons, it this coun- 
try would rescind its orders in couii- 
cij as iar as respected America. 



This proposition w \y 1 

. the UriiMi govern 

.d were n I 

to limerit i. bat for the pu 

retaliating in iora< 

for llw iuj 

upon tj try, by 

•tion of I ting 

and that, 
liis ii ouid not 

give up his j'!-t right of retali 

on hi j in consideration oi 

the repeal 0/ an embargo act, 

measu/C of internal regulation, 
with which lie had nothing to do, 

and of which he h id never « 

plained. Mr. Canning's letter is 
undoubtedly a very masterly and 
spirited state paper, and places the 
matters in issue between (/'real Uri- 
tain and America upon t boscgronnds 
which we believe will be Very gene- 
rally approwd ol* in this country. 
This, as well as (lie many important 
events ol' the last si\ mouths, will 
soon be the subject of parliamentary 
discussion, and the nation looks 

forward with no common degree < I 
anxiety to the opinions which will 
bedelivered by their representatives, 
upon .subjects rendered more inte- 
resting by the momentou ■ 
which they are agitated. 



LITERARY NOTICES AND INTELLIGENCE. 



Tor Rev. Tdward Davies, au- 
thor of Celtic Researches* ! 
work in continuation of the subject. 

in the press, and will short !y ap- 
pear. 

Dr. Kidd's Outlines of Wi/nra- 
/<>!>i/, in two octavo volumes, will 
be published in the course of a 
fortnight. 

No. II. Vol.1. 



Mr. I lay ley's Life of Romnet/, 
in a quarto volume, illustrated by 
engravings, ■ nearly ready for pab- 
, beat ion. 

Mr. Johnes 1 translation of 

Chronicles of ftfonxi 

... 
: continuation of i roi-- oi.i- 

ties, will appear in Mae conn 

next s pring, in four quarto volunies- 



m 



LITERARV NOTICES AND INTELUGtXI E. 



Mr. Thomas Mortimer, vice- 
eonsul at ( h t< ,.il forty \ 
js preparing a new Dictionary of 
Trade, Comnierce, and AI ami fac- 
tini ?. 

Dr. Hnles' firs! volume of a 
Analysis of Chronology is expect- 
ed to appeal this month. Jt \\ili 
make three quarto volumes. 

Dr. Nott's edition of the P 
of Henry // . Earl of Surry, 

will shortly be published. 

Mr. Todd's new edition of Mil' 
ton wlllappearin a few weeks; and 
he has sent to press, Observations 
on Goxcer and Chaucer. 



of arms, and dismay waves heir 
banner over prostrate millions, i( is 
ing to find a class of men de- 
voting themselves to alleviate tin* 
sufferings of humanity, and exert- 
ing thi IT talents to devise new modes 

verting the ravages of disease, 
or tempering tlie inevitable ap- 

■•■.■ of d :ath. From every ac- 
count which \\c have been able to 
procure, the practice of medicine 
in tins country has attained a higher 
degree of perfection than in any 
other. This chiefly consists in the 
strici attention which is now given 
to the appearances of disease as 



Mr. James Elme's is engaged on they actually occur; in accounting 

ft Dictionary of the Fine Arts, to for them upon rational principles ; 

include accounts of the arts in theo- r when unable to explain them by 

ry and practice, and of their pro- any known laws of the animal eco- 

rs in all ages. noray, in a candid acknowledg- 

!■ ment of incap icity, which necessa- 

Tn considering the present state rily induces a more minute investt- 
of medicine in Great Britain, the gat ion. The philosophy of the 
philanthropist will be gratified by immortal Verulam is admirably 
observing the distinguished and ho- 'adapted to medical enquiries, and 
nourable characters of its various the induction from tacts (the only 
professors, most pf whom aim ra- legitimate mode of forming a sys- 
therat securing a fair reputation, tcra> has done more for medicine in 
by unremitting diligence, and un- the space of one century, than all 
wearied efforts to improve the sci- the hypothetical notions and frige- 
rnce. than by meanly practising on • „j,,„ s S j )( . ( illations of all the would- 
tl.e ignorance and prejudices of be-philosophers that ever existed, 
mankind. Quacks indeed there are, h is not ih.u physicians in Tie pre- 



c w ho are dr. med 

I educate <i, and legal I3 au- 

; z d to pra< tisc ; but these are 

known to the | Ion, if not to 

the world, ;,in\ though they may 

tten on the follies of 
tin- multitude, they can never ob- 
tain the < '• « in of tin table 

portion of theil brethren, nor meet 

the approving smiles of an honest 
| endent man. 
Whilst i .. the din 



sent age are more Learned, or pos» 
greater talents than those of 
former times : but they have a bet- 
ter way of applying them: instead 
of torturing their invention with the 
formation of new hypotheses, they 
are content to collect and arrange 
facts. Besides all this, the facility 

of acquiring anatomical knowledge 
is now greater, and morbid anato- 
my is more investigated : physio- 
logy is pursued with increasing ar« 



LITER A HI NOTICES AND I '■ i i.; I U I 



115 



dour, and lias highly rewarded its 
culth ators l>\ \ ii iou . impoi tanl 
discovei ics ; w hilst the <! aily \ >>•- 
gressive advance of chemistry, 
throws new Ii' lii upon li\ ing as 
will ;i S inanimate matten ; all 
spiring to divest theory t»i erroneous 
principli i, and teuding to simplify 
practice! 



pretender to medicine, blindl) fol- 
low ing thin master in practice, 
out hi*, discrimination oj j 

lllClll ? 

Since the !•' i on <»J l)i . 

I lamiliuii, demon (rating the ut 
<ii purg .up, pjj, tin < lasa <•! mcdii 
lias been more cx1 employ - 

cm I, and with decided a<i 



The last year has not been pro- mam complaints, especially I 



ductive of any great or marked 
changes in medical opinion, nor, in 
Us present maturity, could much 
deviation be rationally expected. 

\\ e lliinlv if our duly, however, 

to notice the increasing practice of 
using mercurial preparations. If 
might seem fruitless to insist on the 
necessity of exercising extreme 
caution in the administration of a 
medicine with such powers as 
<ur\ is known to possess; ycl the 
most ignorant apothecary, who 
ought merely to prepare the reme- 
dy, will give i( freely in the mos* 



the stomach and bo ... ' t which re- 
sisted stimulating remedi 
been effectually relies ed by tho s 
of an aperient nature; and • 

of f>^-« »|>lc- have been 
from the \<t\ pus of death, I 
well-timed exhibition of a purga- 
tive; though their friends objected, 
because they contended^ that no i 
rishinent had been taken into ill 
tent. Ii is a very fatal source of error 
to imagine, thatrbeeause little nutri- 
ment is taken, there is therefore 
no necessity for evacuents ; by emp- 
tying the intestinal canal, we i 



trifling indisposition ; anil fhephy- at once remove the cause of t 
sician is actually called into check and various other severe compl 
the excess of salivation, or rescue apparently unconnected with the 
the unfortunate sufferer from some state of the bowels, Very many 
of the more fatal consequences ol . which in the hands of some. 
mercurial action ; from locked jaw, men would be dosed with calo 
from rheumatism, from palsy, from will yield to the simplest purgatives; 
consumption. Who would put a and many sucking babes we are < 
loaded musket into the hands of an fident might thus be saved from de- 
idiot? Why are unskilful men suf- , struction. 



lered to play with a medicine e- 
qually dangerous in such hands : 



We have already extended this 
article so much, that \>c can give but 



A physician, of eminence in this me- very brief noti teofthi | 

tropolis ma j have performed Avon- cipal medical works i 

ders with mercury : if, however, hi from the press during the ii>i year, 
connect almost every disease with indeed few ofthem require any com* 
morbid action of the liver, we arc meats; they arc sufficiently d 
not to be surprised, that, with all his f to sink without our t ■. From 

acuteness, he is sometimes mistaken, their sarily lil ral cducal 

and his patient suffer: what then most men who till the higher de- 
must be the consequence of ever} parlmehts of medicine, a< pure 

Q - 1 



116 



I.I i rv ARV NOttcM 



art of composition ; and though firw 
of them write well, nfanj are can- 
didates tor tame, and numb< 

become authors, as miiih' 84- 
snme tie office ofh cturerS, thai they 
may advertise themselves in the 
newspapers without incurring the 
odium of quacking. Many of the 
modern books on medicine are there- 
fore mere compilations; those who 
are the most capable of writing ori- 
; I, nsefdl, and practical works, 
havi mIIv the [east time and 

opportunity. — Another shameful 
abuse is, that of advertising the se- 
cond, third, and even fifth edition 
df books, of which not a single im- 
pression has been disposed of; if this 
practice continue, it will become 
necessary to point Out the particular 
works to which we allude. 

The subject which has been most 
discussed, and has called forth a va- 
riety df publications, chiefly from 
the pens of Dr. Bancroft, Mr. Kcnto, 
and Dr. Robert Jackson, istfre fifth 
report tit the commissioners of mili- 
tary enquiry, upon the abuses which 
were obliged to exist in the medical 
department of the army. As this, 
however, implicates the characters 
of some gentlemen of high reputa- 
tion, and involves Some interesting 
topics of medical enquiry, v\c must 
defer our remarks upon it to a 
future opportunity, when our limits 
may permit us to present onr read- 
ers with some important information 
on the subject. 

Dr. Beddoes* " dont la fertile 



* Since thi5 article wa ; ; written, medi- 

■ h;is bcr-n deprived of one of 

. unenU, by the death oi' 

Dr. 1 • : .-.. 



AND INTTT-T ICrNCE. 

' ptttme prut ions Irs mois sttfH pd/ie 
etffanier mi tofamc!" has address- 
ed a letter to Sir Joseph Hanks, on 
.iits ;md removal of the pre- 
vailing discontents-, imperfections, 

and abuses in medicine. This also 
We prriposeto notice more particu- 
larly in a future number. 

\\ e are happy to announce, thai 
vaccine inoculation flourishes, and 
jjfnins strength with time. The af- 
tacks Upon it in the f> w work* which 
lately appeared, are. feeble in- 
deed; and evidently are the faint 
efforts df an expiring enemy. No 
publication worth naming, has 
proceeded from the anti-vaecinists 
during the last year: they have 
long substituted violence, abuse, 
and invective for argument; and if 
the advocates for vaccination would 
allow it to make its own way, its 
opposers would sink into their Ori- 
ginal obscurity. A good cause 
w ill sometimes suffer from the in- 
capacity <>r the intemperance of its 
defenders. J( is also stratifying' to 
us to be able to Mate, that the Small- 
pox Hospital no longer continues to 
diffuse its pestilence through every 
street and alley in London \ the 
gOod effects of which will presently 
be ascertained from the bills of mor- 
tality. Small-pox inoculation is 
now confined within the walls of the 

hospital; till v< ly latel\ a stream of 
infection was circulated by the out- 
patients, through every pari of the 
'metropolis. \\ c are informed, how- 
ever, that some worthy members of 
th< community, affecting a simple 
sort of philanthropy, deprecate this; 
" because," say they, " the poor 
will no longer be eased of the bur- 
tin n of their surplus children ! one 
third of which WCTC formerly swept 



T.ITF.RAIIY HOflOtl AND INTELLi 



117 



oflT l.v Hi" small-pox: and they 
must now come to the parish!" 



Tin: Ut . m Tim •! Pi »' r "- : " 

Stlrrlion «/' f<m,imtr 9o*gt, 

ift . from the afferent >'• 

I* it, cell, />// John Clarke, Maw. 

DoC. ('(linhritl: 

ThentasricalworW are principally 
Indebted to Mr. Bart le man, the ce- 

Icbraied VOCE] perionnci ', for the 

revival of a tafte for the exquisite 

compositions of Henry Pureed. 

These unrLvaUedpMdaclioni(froiB 

a scarcity of copies, and from 

the (liiluultv of performing them) 

had bet n seldom b< ard, and still 

more rarely heard to advantage, 
when Mr. Bartleman, by his jost 

conception and masterly execution, 
i tod them from the obscurity 
towards Which they were Gist D - 
tiring, and established their merit 
in the estimation of the public, Oh 
disputable Btronfet thanevex. The 
few copies that exist, are lull of 
inaccuracies in the music, and are 
likewise incumbered with several 
songs, the words of which were un- 
lit to meet the eye of delicacy: a 
new edition, therefore, or Father s 
selection of the more beautiful com- 
positions, emitting the objection- 
able pieces, was epiite a desidera- 
tum among musical amateurs. This 
teak has been undertaken by Dr. 
Clarke, and it has been performed 
in a manner highly creditable to his 



(when IheM an nnj in the original 

i are careful!;, pi Ifl 

one «>c i no In Dr. ( !h 

has ventured lo iltei lb ' B efPof* 
(•ell, and to 1 1 different 

fa*, and 

nkony Of his own. Hut tli.se al- 

terations are in reality <-i i i 
trh ial nature, otherwise they n 
!iav< met "ur most decided disnp' 
probation; h>i isonnof thenambtf 
of tboes who think, that (in 

.) tanker PnrceU, into motThraa, 
We wish Dr. Clarke, bartend of mm 
ticing these deviations from the ori- 
ginal text in his pi had 
pointed them out in :i note at the 
bottom of the page where they uj- 

cur. 

Attbcbeirinnincrofthe re. dative, 

page 16, there is the chord of t lie 
j in the accompaniment, instead of 

the ' •- it cannot be the chord oi 

the I as the resolution takes place 
in the b:i . 

\\ . ne surprised th il Dr. C. has 
omitted the beautiful movement, 
" So ready and quick h a spirit of 

air V' at tl)C l ' Iul <)l lur <1,ir, » 
• tfmrk, mm Darufcorf "—41 is 
always performed at the K i 
Concert of Ancient M i hew 

wis style of composition Is better 
understood and pesfbrsned wan af 
any other in the kingdom, llyomit- 
ting it. the duel is unfinished, and 
its termination is both abrupt and 
anaatiafiu :l1 ■ 

not long, the WOl ■ *od the 

anisic equally delightful with Ihc 
of the dnets, 



taste and judgment. 

In order to facilitate the perform- 
ance tO thoe accompnuiisis who are 
not competent toplay from a figured ceive any reason for rappresswg II. 
bass, or score, a separate part for We are all ■ W* M 

the piano-forte is added, in which , 

the. harmonies are written at full 

length, and the principal features ; * Vide "Orpheus Britamiiau, 

of the instrumental accompaniments cond edition, page 119, be 



Us 



I : ID \;: V VH [I ■ I\ I FT.! 



should not have included among 

•• The He /<•/,, \ of Parccll? the 
bass song, « Return, . 

." — 'i his song de- 
es to be better known : i( j, ; i S 
infinitely more merit than the air 
Dr. ('. baa inserted from the Birth- 
fhty Ode, 

Ureal praise is due to the person 

mIo k\ ised the plates s they arc 

omraonly correct. One slight 

error only lias fallen ninlcr out ob- 

serration 3 it is the third bar«i 

• \\ii« re there is a .sharp wanting 
««) flu- (, in the vocal pari. 

The best pieces in this fine collec- 
tion, are the following: — The whole 
ofthe free! scene from King Arthur, 
but particularly tin- bass solo, 

*\ What pair,- art thou ,8" Also the 

songs, •■ /../ die dreadful en- 
girtes"-*" ), twice ten hundred 
deities?— « Thy genius, to/" the 
cantata, " ^Voan silent shades/' 
the twoduets," /A///-, w// /;,/,-/>/- 
»'*— " W ere I to cfioose," and 
songs, '• I attempt from love's 
ness," — « F*Ve»< w/e," and 
•• Come unto these yellow sands" 
The former pieces are principal- 
inarkable for their hold origi- 
K, their scientific, yei natural 
modulation; the taller for (heii un- 
affected expression, their sin. pie. 
yei elegant melodies; and the whole 
of them for the wonderful adapta- 
tion of the music (o the words. Jt 
is this last characteristic that con- 
Btitutes the principal charm of Pur- 
cell's compositions 5 ii is (his which 
placet him so for above the epbe- ' 
mrral composers of the presestditr, 
whose trifling, unmeaning melod'n s 



[are cquallj adapted to one set of 

, word-, ,is to-aoothei ' . 
I pon the whole, 
the admirers of Pureed upon 1 he 
acquisition of thi 1 purified edition 
of their favourite author. The de- 
fects we have pointed out iikiv Iv 
easily rectified in tin- second edi- 
tion; and we sincerely wish Or. 

Clarke may meet the encourage- 
ment he so well deserves, tor the 
care, assiduity, and skill he has 

If manifested in the completion of so 
arduous an undertaking. 
•• M \ .1 \i \ m 1 a :"a favourite Ita- 
lian Air, with twelve variations 
for the piano-forte, by T. Latonr, 

PlAtflSTEfo I I. J 1. 11. I he Prince 

of Wales. 

We have heard that, Mr. Latonr 
is a brilliant, shewy performer on 
the piano- forte, but he has very 
slender pretensions to the name of 

composer. We should have been 
surprised :i t meeting with tiie foU 
I lowing passage (which occurs ve- 
peatedly in the fifth variation)} even 
in the first production of an amateur, 
much less in the work of a professor 
who styles himself pianiste to N. 
11. H. the Prince of Wales. 




fi=3 



J 



# 



1 



Vide Orjt. second edition, pa 
ii. 



* It is ,\ fact, that a great part of the 
music of "The Travellers" was written 
by Mr. Com, and afterwards given to 
Mr. Cherry to adapt to such words us 
would correspond to the accent and rythm 
of the different mm todies. 

When operas arc thus manufactured, 
what can the public expect, but fersea 
without poetry, and music without mean- 
ing ? 



i.i i p.b \ u , mm n i ■■• a mj i\t? Lticei 






Mr. Latout • rnn, un< ommonl) 
fluid of this original method <>i i. - 
solving the discord <>f the seventh, 
Ii>r ili<- same Ki/nl of harmonious 
succession is repeated in 1 ff tenth 
variation. We recommend u \fon* 
siti/r l.t Pianiste" to peruse i)r. 
Calicott's little Musical Grammar) 
or t«i submit liis prbductiom (<> the 
correction of some friend w ho un- 
derstands tlic first rules of composi- 
tion! 
The favourite Dunn- in Tbki li, 

arranged an a Rondo for the 

pianO'fortc'm 

From this unassuming first essay, 
we attgurvcry favourably of the fu- 
ture productions of Mr. Stokes. 
We think, however, there is ra- 
ther i')<) much harpeggio, and the 
first episode is too long. We think, 
also, there is a want of variety in 
the harmonies, where the mottivo is 
repeated. The last bars are uncom- 
monly pood, and discover evident 
marks of a classic taste. Upon the 
whole, if is a very pleasing arrange- 
ment of a popular little dance ; and 
we entertain no doubt, that Mr. 
Stokes' future productions will prove 
worthy the pupil of so great a mas- 
ter, as the celebrated Mr. Samuel 
Wesley. 



Lord Viscount Valencia is pre- 
paring his Travels for the press. 
They will be accompanied by en- 
gravings by Landscer, Warren. 
Siorer, Angus, ami Greig, consist- 



flj 61 views i" Ub 

\,.,l,i:,. and Hindi. Ian. frOI I 

* 01 iglnal drnwin ot I 
dr. Salt. 
VVc are ,; " more 

| of the Laridst i 
land, from ii. 

of Castle-Comb* . Ire the 
libhei . "ii i! i 
Scrope himself, lo be bis n< I I n 

r the non-app< • < ! ' 

! s ( apes from Mr. \\ . I 
of (he Lay oftht In t Winsttel 9 
The \l<-\ . \\ . Daniel, author oi 

, Rural Sports, is proi 

| understand, with his J/ is ton/ < 
Horse, to I-' embellished with en- 
gravings, and dedicated to 

, al Highness the Prince 6f Wal 
Mi. Cardon is also proccedii \ 
with Ids usual profession d su< 
iu his engnu in : of the BatUi 
Maidai afterde Loutherboufg y i\sst 
veteran in battU r. 

The Renew* rs of Art have com- 
pleted their first annual volume of 
lour quarterly number*. — What- 
ever may be the degree of sei 
which, in some instances, ha* I 
imputed id these strictures] we i 
not but applaud the spirit of in- 
dependence and impartiality tU 
which they are written* If similar 
feelings were more genej&l at 

reviewers we think the republic of 

letters, as. well as the arts, would 
experience a slow :un\ gradu d, per- 
haps, but ultimately a I 
result. 



MEDICAL REPORT. 

An account of the diseases which Acute dist .. 



have occurred in the reporter's ov>\\ 
practice, from the 20th of Decem- 
ber, 1808, to the 40th of January. 
1S09. 



-Pleurisy 



Peripneumonj , &. .Acute rb 

tism, <> Catarrhal 

fuflammatory sore-throat, i ■ .. 
laiinaangcuosa.u*. . ..Sj -*•••• 



120 



MtDICAT, RtrORf. 



Intermittent fever, 2 Remittent 

fever, 1.... Small-pox, 1 — Erysi- 
pelas, 1 — Hepatitis, 1 — Hydro- 
cephalus, 1.... Acute diseases of in- 
fants, 8. 

diseases.-— Cough and 

46 Pulmonary eoil- 

i — Tabes and maras- 
Pleurodyne, 'J....Hce- 



Chronic 
djspnoca, 
sumption, 
mus, 2... 



Diarrhoea, 
pepsia, 4.. 



moptoe, 3 — H(f Kiicmrsis, i.,.. 
Lumbago and sciatica, 8 Chro- 
nic rheumatism, 9 Cephalalgia, 

4.... Asthenia, 6 Taundice, 2 — 

G'ast rodynia,3 E«tcrodynia,2 — 

4....Dysure, 2 — Dys- 
.. Dysentery, 4 Chro- 
nic opthalmia, 3 Hypochondria- 
sis, S. .. . Menorrhagia, 2. . . . Amenor- 
rhcea ,3. . . C 1 lorosis,2. . . . Dysmenor- 
rhea, 3 — Dropsy, 2. 

This is the season when we arc to 
expect pulmonic complaints to a- 
bound. The inhabitants of this is- 
land are part icularly subject to them ; 
they generally prevail from the end 
of November to the beginning of 
May ; and after resisting the utmost 
efforts of medical aid, about that 
period cease, not from the benefi- 
cial effects of medicines, but because 
the agent which excited them no 
longer acts. When we consider 
the admirable structure and delicate 
organization of the lungs; the ex- 
quisite fineness and sensibility of the 
air-cells upon which such an infinite 
number of minute vessels ramify ; 
the astonishing changes which the 
blood undergoes in them, and their 
vast importance to the system ; whilst 
they are particularly exposed to 
every vicissitude of temperature — 
we must rather admire that so many 
people escape, than that so many 
are affected with complaints in these 
organs. It is not a cough alone, or 



cold," which occasions pulmonary 
consumption, a disease which an- 
nually carries off thousands of the ■ 
finest of our youth. People oon- 
tinueto cough, almost to suffoc jtion, 
from childhood to old age: who ha* 
not witnessed the convulsive efforts 
of tlie asthmatic, or the struggles of 
old men with their winter compa- 
nion? yet these attain a comfortable 
series of years, quitting their obsti- 
nate coughswhen the.summer months 
approach, as regularly as they 
i cast off their great-coats. Nothing 
! is more absurd and erroneous than 
; the supposition that cough is the 
| cause of consumption; it is indeed 
} one of its mostdistressing symptoms, . 
: but the philosophical enquirer docs 
; not mistake a symptom of a disease 
| for its cause : for this we must search 
| deeper into the arcana of nature, 
and probably we may find it in a 
peculiar state of constitution. What 
this state is, how it is generated, and 
what may be the likeliest means of 
counteracting it, I shall possibly of- 
fer some opinions upon in the course 
of these reports : it is sufficient at 
present to declare my conviction, 
that the alarm sounded through the 
I country by certain individuals, is 
carried to a ridiculous extent, is 
calculated to excite dismay in per- 
sons of delicate feelings, and actu- 
ally to produce the complaint which 
its propagators affect to be so anx- 
ious to remove. 

The case of small-pox inserted in 
the list, terminated fatally on tlie 
J2th day of eruption. It occurred 
in a stout young man of middle age, 
and was of the confluent sort, from 
which very few adults who arc 
seized with it escape. It affords 
another melancholy instance of the 



what is vulgarly termed M catching jj prejudice and folly of men, in re- 



the HOFiM i) in irrrt. 



\H\ 



\ ig the introduction oft ipeciei 
of Inoculation which must and will 
eventually extirpate thai icourge of 
the human rate, the small-pox. 

Hut there is ;i conspiracy of a few 

interested Individual! against the 

good sense and rcspe< tiiblc portion 
of I lie profession : they are obvious- 
ly men of little professional emi- 

ncnce,and their obscuritywas friend- 
ly U) them ; the instant they lefl ils 

protecting shade, their views jrere 
manifested. They are known and 

properly appreciated in the medical 
World ; but, unfortunately for the 
cause of humanity, many good and 
amiable individuals have been mis- 
led by their false statements and 
sophistical arguments, and have ac- 
tually, under the belief that they 
were conferring a benefit upon their 
neighbours, introduced the small- 
pox contagion into cottages and 



bamlets, where it was before un- 
known. I allude to the table 

ladies and country < lergymen, w bo 
imagine they are beneficially em- 
ployed when they are info ' 

poor neighbours v> Ufa the foulest and 
most fatal plague winch is permit- 
U d t<» afflict suffering mentals. I 

beseech .such | ll, y awhile 

their work of dealli, .ind to reflect 
apOO what they are about : they 

perhaps do not immediate^ de- 

StTOy the helpless wretches i/i whom 
they emit the ]>oison, but the , 
answerable fur the deaths of all who 

tall the victims of the contagion iu 

the adjacent country, and it is im- 
possible to calculate its extreme 

subtlety, and the facility with which 
it is conveyed, by the ait and by 
people's (lothes, to u very great 
distance. 




THE HORNED HEIFER. 

Tins extraordinary animal was • nowthe p rop e rty of Mr. Matron, of 

bred by a Mr. Sharp, near Melton- Compton-.trret, Cleikenv.rll -. it is 
Mowbray, Leicestershire, and i> j about three yean old, ao:J L> per- 
Xo.ll. Vol.!. R 



I 

122 



FASHION'S FOR LADIES AND ^ENTLEMEff. 



feetly healthy, and in good condi- 
tion. It has boon viewed by mam 
gentlemen, members of the Hoyal 
Society, and who appear to consi- 
der it as a great natural curiosity : 
from the head to the shoulders and 
the neck, it is covered with innu- 
merable horns, from the size of a 
large pin, to the length of eight 
inches ; and the horns are as per- 
fect as those projecting from its 
head: the dewlap, which hangs 
down very low, has also a great 
number of small projections, resem- 
bling those of a hedge-hog. The 
body has a small quantity, as well 
as the legs and tail; the eyelids, 
nostrils, and ears, have several pro- 
jecting horns ; the two former are 



nearly covered with them. On t]i<* 
rump there was a complete excre- 
scence, resembling a fowl's claw in- 
verted (as in the annexed wood-cut }, 
but is at present nearly rubbed on; 
the roots or these horny substances 
are only skin-deep, and the animal 
docs not seem affected by their being 
handled ; they e; me oiit in various 
parts of the body and limbs, first 
With a scrophulous protuberance, 
which by degrees becomes a hard 
horny substance, and produces at 
first an irritation, wlucfi causes the 
beast to rub them till they bleed ; 
but in every other respect, except 
as to those wonderful excrescences, 
the beast is well shaped, and enjoys 
a good appetite and health. 



AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



The operations of husbandry for 
the last month, have been so much 
confined to -the barn, the feeding- 
sheds, and straw-yard, that the' de- 
tail would neither afford instruction 
t»r entertainment ; we shall not there- 



fore fill our paper, nor occupy the 
attention of our readers, with ima- 
ginary accounts or fanciful specula- 
tions. When the season of activi- 
ty and interest in this department 
returns, w e shall be found at our post . 



Plates 5 and 6.— FASHIONS FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 



HALF DRESS*. 

An Egyptian head-dress of silver 
and pearls, one point falling on the 
left shoulder, finished with a tassel; 
the hair in loose ringlets ; pearl 
<»ar-rings, bracelets, and necklace; 
a train dress of brocaded sarsenet, 
rfrimmed with silver and vandyked ; 
lace round the neck in form of a 
tucker, long sleeves of Mecklin or 
Erusscls lace ; white gloves and 
fan ; shoes the same as the dress, of 
brocaded silk, with silver bows. 
dancing dress. 

The head ornamented with ban- 



deans of frosted gold ; gold neck- 
lace, ear-rings, and armlets ; whiter 
satin opera dress, trimmed all round 
with gold, tied in front with a gold 
cord and tassel ; white satin shoes, 
trimmed with gold, and gold button 
in front ; white gloves, and fair 
edged with gold. 

n r, N E r a L observations. 
The prevailing colours for man- 
tles and pelisses are gold, orange, 
and Bishop's blue ; for ball and full 
dress, satins, tissues, brocaded silks, 
and velvets are generally worn, 
trimmed wilk gold and silver;-— 




P 

1 






• 






TA I I. NT t.AVBAt*, &C. 



) > 



Henry VIII. bats, trinmed or em- i!.<- prevailing colour, dark, | 
btoMered with beads, gold, iflver, pi. , <>i Bistaop*! blue. 



or chenille, arc becoming and fa- 
shionable ; fcathen of rariom < <>- 
lours (it correspond arc likewise 
much worn. For morning dresses, 
bomba/eens are coming intoliuhion: 



In gcntlcmcn'i drew there i . little 

\ ii Ultiail since our IftfJ number. 

Madame Lam battel < Bt. Jean 
street > baa furnished the desigi 
die fashions w ii!i her u>u U i.'.ie. 



Pl.ATF. f). — PATE 
The plate is a representation of 



a landau built by Messrs. Birch 
and Son, Great Queen-street, ivin- 
roln\-Inn-lields. Mr. ('. L. Birch 
has obtained a patent for iinprme- 
roenfs in the construction of flu- 
roofs and upper quarters, not only 
of landaus, but of all other carriages 
which arc made to fall down. By 
these improvements the objections 
against landaus upon the old plan, 
either as town) pleasure, or travel- 
frag carriages, are entirely removed. 
The head or roof, and upper parts, 
by the new invention, have an even 
smooth surface, like a well built 
town coach, shew no outward joints 
on the top of the windows, or locks 
on the roof; yet are so completely 



secured as to prevent any possibility 
of being opened from the outside i it 
removes (he inoonveniencea ari 

from the leather contractiiiL r , or 
drawing the fore-lights out <>f theit 
perpendicular position, it causing 

the shutters and :_ o act pro- 

perly, and renders it impossible for 
water to penetrate the leather Off to 
lie on the roof. A <ari i;iir«- con- 
structed upon these principles will 
admit two imperials upon the top, 
without at all interfering w if h open- 
ing it, and the spring curtains re- 
main, which in landaus constructed 
upon the old plan it was necessary 
to remove, before there was a possi- 
bility of their being opened. 



ALLEGORICAL AYOOD-CLT, WITH PATTERNS OF BRITISH 

MANUFACTURE. 

Among the very elegant dresses |' and gossamers, which are so much 
worn at court on her majesty's birth- j admired tor evening dresses. 
day, rich figured satins were the) No. 9 is the pattern of agold- 
most prevalent. The pattern No. I coloured figured satin, which was 
was worn by the Duchess of Chan- worn at courton bar majesty's birth- 
dos upon that occasion: it has a d.iv by the Countess Rotbsay, bv 
very beautiful appearance in full the Viscountess Sudley, ami many 
dress. This was supplied bp Messrs. other ladies of distinction: this co- 
Hobarts, Plowman, and Snuggs, lour was among the most prevalent. 
No. I, Chandos-street j who are also It was furnished by Messrs. I), and 
preparing (for the next month) an P. Cooper, Pall-Mall. 
extensive assortment of the most No. 3 is a pattern of Bishop*s- 
elegant patterns in figured gauzes blue bonibeneen: this article, in a 



J^j, TOETRY. 

variety of shades, principally dark, 
is become fashionable for morning 
drVsses. K unites economy with 
elegance, and, together with Irish 
poplins, bids fair to maintain its 
ground in the higher circles during 
the winter. It was furnished by 
Messrs. Archer and Houghton, 
Henrietta-street, Co vent-garden. 



No. 4 is a pattern of silk-striped 
shawl, a fashionable article for gen- 
tlemen's waistcoats. It is manufac- 
tured in Yorkshire, Wiltshire, and 
Spitalfields, but the two latter pro- 
duce a better manufactured article : 
it is made with silk and wool. It 
was furnished by Messrs. James, 
Thomas, and Joseph Kesteven. 



ODE FOR THE NEW YEAR, 1809. 
By H. J. Pye, Esq. P. L. 



FetL-ORB'n in equinoctial skies, 
When the pale moon malignant rides, 
And bids the howling tempest rise, 
And swells the ocean's briny tides, 
Dreadful against the sounding shore 
The winds and waves tumultuous roar, 
The torrent-braving mound in vain 
The stormy inroad would restrain, 
The surges with resistless sway 
Force, o'er the labour'd mole their way, 
Scorn every weak resource of human toil, 
Overwhelm the peopled town, and waste 

the cultur'd soil. 
But when, by native fences barr'd 
From billowy rage, the happier land, 
And rocky chit's for ever stand 
To the wide-water'd coast a guard, 
Such as on Vecta's southern steep 
took down defiance on the raging deep, 
Such as on Dover's "breezy down 
On Gallia's hostile border.-, frown, 
Tho' billows urging billows roar, 
And idly beat against the shore, 
While from the heights sublime, the swain 
Mocks the vain efforts of the foaming 

main, 
Till nature bids the deluged surge subside, 
Hoeh'd is the tempest's voice, and reflu- 
ent rolls the tide. 
So o'er Europa's ravaged plain 
We saw the torrent wild of war 
Resistless spread its iron reign, 
And scatter ruin wide and iar ; 



The embattled wall, the warlike band, . 
Vainly the Tyrant's course withstand ; 
Before the impious sons of Gaul 
The legions fly, the bulwarks fall : 
Yet Britain's floating castles sweep 
Invasion from her subject deep ; 
Yet by her rocks secure from harm, 
Securer by her patriot arm, 
Iberia turns the battle's tide, 
Resists the injurious Tyrant's pride, 
While, freely floating in the ambient sky* 
j Sacred to Freedom's cause, their mingled 
ensigns fly. 



TO A ROSE-TREE AND A MYRTLE, 

Sent to a Lady. 

Go, little blooming, fragrant rose, 
Go to my love and take thy place; 

Unfold thy leaves, thy sweets disclose, 
And be an emblem of her face. 

And thou, my myrtle, ever green, 
Go with the rose, and there impart, 

By thy unchanging, humble mien, 
An emblem of thy master's heart. 

' Then if, Eliza, we should twine 
The myrtle and the rose together, 

; Would not the myrtle's leaves combine 
To guard the rose from stormy wea^ 

1 ther ? 




Cfte Beposttorj? 



Of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Mamtfacturee, Fashions, and Pontic*, 

Manufacturers, Factors, and Wholesale Dealers in Fancy Goods, that come 
within the scope of tin- Plan, are requested to send Patterns of such new Articles, 
as they come out; and if the requisites of Novelty, Fashion, and Elegance, are 
united", the quantity necessary for this Magazine will be ordered. 

R. Acktrmann, 101, Strand, London. I 



I 






MAI i) DEATHS, 

, the Alphabetical 0> <Ui ft • 



\ , mil) nun Mi ' • I' n.li, 

i Mi I i Krttilby, of Hutton Mi 
James Pry or, to M. . l-.lizabrth tiutti ridge - 
\i i land, esq. to 

Mis Mar) <>ui n 

/» , i w ( .. ■ i , ' ry, in the 6vtd y< r ot 
Gi it Temj 

Hi< I, ii-l New m m H ''II.. 

!<• | l)i Sin ^ in i.l. 

I he 
I'.. . I I. ...... i . 

ksiuiu-. - i'i ■■ rrf.j Al Re iding, Ihi 
::. i [rein J, A. M to Mn 1 areil Al 
i ' man, l\ T '■■ M I ^ til 

Ml V, .11 V. \;.l! \\ in I 
At l.lfllo r':iriili"il.,u. n 

'.i \-. i Hariney, Mr. John .Smith, a 
•II - . i'v • iiclti, 

Mm 1 81. 

Jin HIRE — 1; . • i 

■ 
Mr John J< I 

Poole. Mr. .' Tyk . It • 

/;.?</.] At v 'liai ■ Rei J. l*. J 

1.1. D. — .Mi. Win Thorpe, of lylesbury. 

CAMBRIDGE ih mi- - ;/,. • < ,' Hi 
Malth< v g, in M 

J)i(.d.\ Lately) * 
-Mr : Bun - M !•• 1)k unv, 

aey.l 7-i .-i' i Prince, late ol Bakd) 
Mrs. Clay, af Si Jeha's, 

Mr i 

Cm i Hr. M. BarWir, to 

M i^s s, Hammond. 

I | John BnTseloe, of! ' ; - 

Mi Btindli \ , mi Dutton, in h 

rlrs, Hall, of llu How- 

ell, of Bunbuiy , aged lot. 

CORNWALL.- Married.] "Mr vYnV l'n«n- 
mg, of Peary n, to Miss s. \\ Nickel — VTm 
I', ler, - Frances ThoRtaa, of (Jlii- 

>. it. mi — H ieherd Kuckall, i vj. to .Miss Brum- 
veil 

I Trei issejn, Mr. M alter BIHot, 
ajfuln;..- A i St, Mawes, Mr. Cory. 

Ct Bai it vm) — Warnerf] John Pensonby, 
esq to Miss Eliza Browue, of TaUentire. — 
Captain Joseph Scott, to Mi>s [sabella Kirk- 
biiili. — Wm. Priestley, esq. to (Kija Peley, of 
Carlisle. 

] At Ha'l Thwsitca, Mis Derrick, 
i — Mr. Jacob Fletcher, aged 77 — Mi-. 
Ann Wilkinson, late Of -The Re* 

John Tethana, of Tatham, aged 99 — At Car- 
lisle. Jaha Soottowe, . -.J 

l;i 'kuyshirf. — Married-] At St. Werbergli, 

J. M. 11. Pisrot, M. D. to .Miss Luciads Boyeo. 

'i. John Wilkinson, to Mirs Bncabcth 

Frith, of the Woodteate. — John Webb, esq. of 

BartOCl Park, to .Miss F Bkuton. 

Died] Mr. Thomas Sererne, of Pub; 
Repton, Mrs 1 enisa Sleath; sr.mc plac 
Rcr. \Vm. Boultber Sleath, D D. aged 
iMr Goedall, of NormantOB. 

Dfvon-'hirl'.- Ma tried.] At Barnstaple, 
Mr. W. Alfred, ta 

abaca.— Joha Wiln&nts, tsq Co Misa Sophia 
jiiiH-lia Coic, of the Fark. 



Plyasoutb, 1 .1 

A 1 Bai 1 t ipd .Mi w in Jul. 

w 

•..It, i.f M 

. Littl .... ' ..• 1 

))i. u 1 1 -turn u. 

• II, «if Plymouth, to Mi 1 Phillips. 

I I.. 1: • 1 

*bei 1 • 

1 1 1 - ■ \i Get al Be Idew, Ike 

I. I l ' I 'i I', ill. ,i, In '»li ■ 

< in III in - ■ . ii.ui • . ii.r I'i met de 

■ be 1 

1 
: I 

oi Mai low, to Miss Eli* 
/ulietli Chs so to 

Miss Harris, • ' I 1 t ! I 

b —The I 1 1 Hells i M I late of 
; 1 . ag 

1 I : 

■ • 
El 

(■in 

P. J. Pi . 
DM I At< II)-- 

. • 
If ami* mi 

iC 1 

l'lt yi'uil Bom ty.- John 

D ! At TichfieJd, J. 
Fanlkner. — James Taylor, « ij.ofl 
Southampton.— Al S mtham I 

- helley. — Lieetenaol C. B. h 
At!'..! tsmouth, Lieut nut (.Hi. uel ArchbefaL 
— At Whitcfanrch, same 

place, W \!ir.i 

II.Vr.TI ORP-I1IRK. Mo" 

ilbelmina 1 
T. Check, to Miss Marj Stuarl -Captj 1 H. 
M Samson, I Cftt 

M Miss c 1m at, of (fatesrd. 

H tit rron;)- in; 
I'oMiin mc!.-- 

At Bircher, M.s V ard, so 
horttl, tkeftcr. J Jones — James , 

esm 

III \Tt\ (.nOX-lt'KK — /< < 

, of the ro. al nar\ .- At « 
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II, 1 

Nailer, esq to M 

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Alien G 

son. — Al 

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126 



MARRIAGES AXD DEATH. 1 ;. 



Miss Lydia Gill, both of Manchester.— At 
Gretna Green, Mr. Baynes, to Miss Parker, of 
Whittingham Hall, in (his county — Mr. J. 
Wright^ of Manchester, to Miss F. Wright, of 
■ftmworm. 

Died.} Captain George Gellard, Liverpool.— 
I ieutenant-Oolonel Hutchinson. — Dr. Corne- 
lius Chertham, of Preston. 

LEICESTERSHIRE. — Married.] Mr. Ralph 
Oldacres, of Arnsby, to Misi Ward. — Mr. 
Carter, to Miss Marttoa Smith, of Harborough. 
— Mr. W. Wright, to Miss Bm well. 

Died.] At Melton-Mowbray, aged gi, Mrs. 
Reeve. — At Loughborough, Robert Stevens, 
gent, aged p,o. — Mr. Carrick, of Leicester. 

Lincolnshire — Married. j The Rev. Mr. 
Jowitt, to Miss Wilcox. 

J)iea.] At Clifi'e Lodge, Mr. Royston, aged 
78. — At Cley, aged H;, T. Jones, esq. — Aged 
63, Mr. Gibson, of Oakham. — Mrs. Ann Bur- 
ditt, aged 80. 

Middles? x. — M*rried,~\ The Rev. Wra. 
Harrison, to Miss Hunt. — It. T. Favquhar, esq. 
to Miss Maria Saniour. — The Rev. Henry 
Hunter, of Hammersmith, to Miss Graham. 

Died.} In London, the Most Noble the Mar- 
quis of Sligo, aged 63. — In Grosvenor-place, 
the Hon. Henry Peiry. — Captain .John Bon- 
chier, of Greenwich. — The Hon. Mm. Corn- 
wallis. — At CainberwcU Grove, aged 88, P. 
Pope, esq. — Josiah Barnard, esq. banker. 

Norfolk. — Married.'] The Rev. T. Watson, 
to Miss Lucy Elwin. — William Larke, esq. to 
Mrs. Worship. — The Rev. P. L. Parfit, of 
Wells, to Miss E. Griffith.— M. C. Horsley, 
esq. of King's Lynn, to Miss Isabel Milton. 

Died.] John Montague Poare, esq. of West 
Brandenham Hall. — At Taesborongh, Sorners 
Clarke, esq. — At Norwich, Mrs. Ann Gordon. 
— Mrs. Warner, aged 101. 

Northamptonshire. — Married.] At Clip- 
Ston, Mr. T. Rollard, to Miss Gorman. — The 
Rev. E. C. Wright, to Miss White. 

Died.] Mr. Ibbs Wm. Hodges, at Old, aged 
81. — In her 87th year, Mrs. Eliz. Bliss. — T. 
Towers, esq. of Bilton Hall. 

Nottinghamshire. — Married.] Charles 
Arinand Dashwood. esq. of Stanford Hall, to 
Miss Anna Maria Shipley. 

Dicd.\ J. Swaim, esq. of Hoandsgate, Not- 
titigham. 

Oxfordshire, — Married.] John Henry 
Ti Ison, esq. of Watlington Park, to Mrs. S. 
Langtord. 

I.] Mr.R Slatter, one of the proprietors 
of the Oxford Herald. 

Shropshire.' — Married.] Thomas Jay, esq. 
to Miss Ellen Elizabeth Smith, of Bridge- 
Berth. — James Roden, esq. to Miss Hughes 
— Charles Bage, esq, to Miss Ann Hauling. 

Died.] William Wilson, esq. of Gonsal Cot- 
tage. — Mr. Thomas Price, of Dorrington. — At 
Whittington, Mrs. Tryphena, in her 04th year. 
— Mr. Coburn, near loo years of age. — Thus. 
Smith, cnq. at Trippington House. 
Somersetshire. — Married.] In June last, 

at Bombay, Andrew Moore Daw, fsq. son of 
Hill Dawe, esq. of Ditcheat, in this county, to 
Miss Hare, bfBath.— TheRev.M. Mapletoft, 
to Miss F.ste. 

1 At Bath, Lord Gardner, in his 60th 
year.— General Edward Smith. — Aged 08, the 



Rev. John Duncan. — At Bath, the Rev. Sarol, 
Abraham, A.M.— The Rev. Mat. Mapletoft, 
B. I> 
Staffordshire. — Married.] Mr. Owen 

Owen, ofCovely, to Mrs Amelia Meredith. — 
The Rev. T. Theodosios, ofGamall, to Miss 
Catherine Fletcher. 

D/ed.] Mrs Fenton, late of Newcastle-unih r- 
Lin«>. — Mi'. Robert Gibson. — At West Brom* 
wich, Mrs. Kenrick. — Thomas Smith, esq. of 
Tihbington House. 

SUFFOLK. — Married.] Sir T.Gage, of Hen- 
grave Hal!, to Lady Mary- Ann Brown. — Mr.. 
Wm, Partridge, of Lavenham, to Miss L. 
Cutmington, of Springfield. 

Died.] AtWetherden, aged 73, the Rev. R. 
Shepherd, D.D. — Aged 51, the Rev. J. Stcg- 
aall, rector of Hessett. — The Rev. John Brand, 
M.A.of Wickam-Skeith.— The Rev. H. Daw- 
son, of Great Waddiiigfiold. — At Critingfh ItL 
Dr. Rodbard, aged 85— Aged 59, T. Nash, esq. 

StJRRY. — Married.] John Carr, esq. to Miss 
John Ann Farmer, of Dippen Hall. — Win. 
Seudaihare, esq. to Miss Davies, ofMortlake. 

Died.] At Michain, at the advanced age of 
104, Mr. Thomas Clee. — At Dorking, Thos. 
Boweu, esq. post captain in the royal navy. 

Sussex. — Married.] Captain Prescott, to 
Miss Faulkiner.— Mr.Pew tress, to M.ssWilms- 
hurst, of Lewes. 

Died.] At Alfriston, Mrs. Virgoe, in her 
70th year. — Mrs. Bethune, of Rowfant. — Mrs 
Ann Beck, at Piddinghoe, in her 96th year. 

Warwickshire. — Married.] T. Corlrin, 
esq. of Eraore, to Miss Taylour. — Mr. C. 
Thompson, of Birmingham, to Miss M. Mur- 
cott. — Ml*. John Underwood, to Miss M. Ca- 
meron. 

Died.] Thomas Malik, eeq. of Coleshill.— 
At Birmingham, aged 96, Mr. W. Airport. — . 
Mr. J. Ireland, author of several works. 

Wiltshire. — Married.] Mr. Rich. Marsh, 
to Miss Ann Daran. 

Died-] Thomas Saunders, esq. of Poole. — 
James Seager, esq. aged 71 years. — J. Baird, 
esq. aged 86. — At West Grimstead, Mrs. Row- 
den, aged (36. 

Worcestershire. — Married!] G Wigley 
Perrott, esq. of Craypombe House, to .Miss 
Yates, of Liverpool. — Mr. Edward Smith, to 
Miss Cowell, ofStourpoit. — Lieut. Pilcher, t<} 
Miss L. W. Ehiugton, of Low Hill. 

Died.] Mr. Woodyat, of Ledbury, iij his 
75th year.— Lately, the Rev. Mr. willctjs. 

Yorkshire. — Married!] The Rev. Mr. In- 
man, of York, to Miss Imnan, ofBedale, — J. 
Lambert, esq. of Hull, to Miss Au» Hvldcu. 
— .Captain Madrah, to Miss Sarah Turpin. 

Died.] At Wakefield, David Parkhill, aged 
70. — At York, Win. Burgh, esq. L. C. I). 

Miscellaneous — Mawed-] At Maghera, 
in Ireland, J. M'lllmyili, aged 97, to the Wi- 
dow M'Inespey, aged ag. 

Died.] In Portugal, E. Moore, esq. brigade. 
major. — At Malta, Thomas Dales Mallison, 
esq. — At Bombay, Lieut. Thomas Dickenson. 
At Belfast, the Rev. W m. Bristow, — In Ire. 
land, General Orlands Manly. — Lately, at Fort 
William, Calcutta, Captain Pi 1<t Henry. — In 
France, the Hon, Dame Isabella Style, widow 
of Sir Charks Style, bait, in K«nt 



l'J7 



ALP1IABETH \I. LlSt] OF bXjNKROPT< fl \M> DIVIDEND 

'Uhvkslock, 



BANKR1 M« ii. 

77,.- Rflt) ■ ■ 'arm them. 

Amuimiv i Stockport, Cheshire, drapei 
'I: Ufi.fi -,i , ( 'Iimiiii i \ i 

Blown i' N W « ithnry upon Trim, Glo 
tershfre, timber mi I'cbaul i l u Id aud 
good, • i<M ird's mo 

|:. li low \v. Stockport, Cheshire, timber met 

I I • inple 

BircballJ, Liverpool, butcher (Blacketock, 
>i Miiiiniis, DoCfors commons 

Buddeu H. Little Chapel street, Westmnv 
■ter, carpenter (LatkoW, Wardrobe place 

Bertou •"' S Liverpool, incrchanl (< >■■>}>• t 
and Lowe, Soul n'amptou buil 

Browne Elizabeth, Liverpool, tea dealer 

Davis Samuel aud Peter Davis, Drayton in 
Uulis, Shropshire, bankers 

DuwsOti J Tottington, I ancashire, innkeep- 
er (WiglAwovth,* Gray's inn iqu 

Douglas T. Loughborough, Leicestershire, 
merchant (Bleordale, Alexander, and Elolme, 
Njw inn 

Davis liistcr, Warminster, Wiltshire, i 

liiy Simeon, Oxford, wine merchant 

FrostT. Leadeuliall street, stationer Evitl 
aud Nixon, Hayddh square 

FriserT. Will shut, Itfary-le-bone, coach 
sprint manufacturer i^l'ii: to, < bat'lea street, 

< a> eirdish square 

Gfatier I'. Lei bridge, publicau (Tcbhutt 
ami SImttleworth, Gray*s inn square 

Jefrerys 11. Meleomb H. ..I-, Dorsetshire, 
Hnendraper (Sy tidal I, Aldertgate street 

Johnson John, (. lil'ion, Gh>. teenier, coaeh 
maker 

Jacob Michael, Beirut street; Commercial 
mad, dealer 

Jenkins Edmund, Bath, victualler 

Kinder S. Manchester, clothier (Jackson 
andJudd, Stamford, Lincolnshire 

LochwoodG. rluduersfield, Vorkshire, wool- 
len draper (T. Taylor, Exchange street, Man- 
Chester 

Marriott Janta, Burnley, Lancashire, cot- 
ton spinaei (P. Hurd, King's Beach walk, 

Temple 

PooreJ, .Mill lane, Southwark, lighterman 
(Lee, Three crown court, Southwark 

Pi traoa T. South Shields, Durham, ship- 
wright (Bell and Broderick, Bow-lam 

Pickwood G. Cloak lane, wine BKtchant 

(Godmond, New Bridge street, Blackfriars 

Rogers S Cbeopstow, Monmouth, stationer 
(Swain, Stevens, and Maples, Old Jewry 

trick S. Idle, Yorkshire, clothier — 
s, II alien garden 

Smith J. Nottingham, inercci (Baxters, and 
Martin, t ninivai's inn 

Stone T. \\iltuTi, Herefordshire, corn factor 
(James, Gray's inn 

Sampsons and Chipchase, Bread street, silk 
lne.eri-. (Carpenter and B.iiU, Basiiighall st 

Tamlinson W. Toxteetb Park, Lancashire, 
merchant (Shepherd and Adlmgtuu, Bed- 
ion! row 

tanner T. Barnstable, T\> on, money scri- 
vener (Bremridge, common pleas office, Inner 
Temple 

Talbot Cbjistopher, Edgwarc road, tailor 



Wooll .1 I i\ 1 1 pool, in' 1 1 haal 

si Mildred ■ « , Poultry 

.... R It v. 
, Southamptiou buil ■ 

DP ! : . 

At)A I I, -^ 

Belts B UaamghoJf street, factor, r'eb it 

1 

I > I. tl>— B 

drapl i, .Ian :it — n i B U 

i Bartli ii < < mho i 

load, itOOV m i Hill, 1 • I) J ». 

• Mitigate, Sen rtirh, an ii b mt, : 
— BridgcrJ M 

i Bulgin v> Bi i ■• i, printi a. March 17 
Banks K Elltbem, Kent, virtgTallcr, 1.1,7— 

< "« pert h wait e W Dan ,,.., rn uiu 
Cowperthwaitc W QtiO rsh rocer, 
Jan ; < nvi pet thwaite, Old 

cer and tea d< aler, P< b in — 1 

ningtow, Stafford, brewers, | 

W. N. Tabernacle fcuare, Finsbhry, di 

Man h 1 — Dai u -> ("^ St. Jobi 

ter, February 25 -FanneisT (ami 

< bants, Jan. . — PiU 

< h. si, . < \||„ 
nalestr Hanover square, upholsterer, F< 

— Hope IV. Manchester, grocer, Feb 
Hurry, V Liverpool, merchant^ Jan. 
Hope W. Brampt 

finer, l.!> > Horner, Framwsllgate, Dur- 
ham, tanner, Jan. in. — Hartb s, Ivi ndal, .' 
moicland, shoe maker, I i-h 10. — Harvey It 

Tnkt nhonse yard, hint 

High street, Shon dit< !i. 
earthenware, Jan, 24. — Jullhw J. Blacl 
.street, linen draper, ;'• '.> 18— Ives < I 
hall, Norfolk, brewer, Feb 18; — Kidd h. 
Berwick upon Tweed, linen di iper, I ' 
Krinnan '1'. Gray's inn square, money scri- 
vener, Feb. 4. — Loat K 
gernnd brazier, Feb 25— I • I •■• H "> < 
sh 1 1 1, Leicester squait , 
Lawson T. LsJicaster, ■. m — l.or*». 

mood .1. Ih 1 ston, V 
Matthews \V . Maiden b 
and builder, Jan . :il — A, 
cer, Feb. 4 — Morgan L. Noble stt 
houseman, 1 "eh. )tt — MiddletonT ; 
cotton maiiutactnrer, March 9 — M 
dleworth; Vorkshire, dyer, Jan : 

Fenchurch street, merchant, 

\oi nand L. Kent 10. iJ, s X , : . 
Jan. .!! — Pate J. Burj St Edmunds, ■ 
scrivi ner, Feb 1 : mi » 

chureh yard, Southwark, ho^ factor, Feb 7 — 
Popplewoll J Kingston upon Ilnl. a-aete- 

PrestonJ, Barton union Hi. 
colnshire, tanner, Feb. 9 — I'm 
block maker, 1". b. 13.— =1 
Surry, dealer in eosna, Feb. 4;- H H. 

Halifax, merchant, Feb. 1 — Smith l ^l 
Chester, cotton mat 

I . l"i>;isl: i:n, , 
Feb. 4 — StaCey <i Cb>apsid*, vard 
Feb. 14 — Whittle id 1 Ma^chest 
wsdner, Jan. 23' — -Wright \- le-la- 

Zbnch, diaper, Jan. 31 — White 
buildings, t_it\ road, merchant .March 7 — 
WUsou J Oxford, leal I.. 



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ISO 
METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 

Kept h</ 72. Banks, Mathematical Instrument-Maker, Strand, Londo/t* 



1808 

DEC, 
D» 5 of 


BAROME- 
TER. 

g \ M. 


Tl 


lERMOMETER. 


WEATHER. 


1 \ M 


iP.M. 


est. 


est 


Day. 


rXight. 




_H 


28 


38 


as 


26 


Snow 


Snow 






-7 


32 


a 


27 


Dilto 


FHto 


2 I 


»9*7 


28 


28 


33 


26 


C'louily 


Cloudy 


2 5 


29.56 


29 


30 


:)0 


24 


Ditto 


Ditto 


26 


x;y-49 


26 


31 


32 


30 


Ditto 


Ditto 


B7 


eg 4.1 


32 


33 


84 


30 


]{ai-i 


Ditto 


38 




34 


37 


39 


35 


Ditto 


Rain 


eg 


29.50 


36 


39 


40 


37 


Ditto 


Ditto 


:)o 


-'■I lM 


38 


39 


43 


33 


Cloudy 


Ditto 


8] 


29.59 


34 


3a 


40 


35 


Rain 


Ditto 


I8«g 
















JAN. 
















1 


29.60 


36 


37 


40 


35 


Rain 


Rain 


2 


2917 


37 


30 


39 


30 


Ditio 


Dittot 


3 


2933 


31 


30 


32 


28 


Snow 


Ditto 


A 


09.63 


30 


32 


33 


32 


Rain 


Ditto 


5 


29-67 


37 


43 


44 


42 


Ditto 


Fair} 


6 


29 50 


42 


42 


44 


38 


Cloudy 


Ditto 


7 




4" 


39 


41 


BG 


Rain 


Ditto 


B 


oS.32 


40 


40 


42 


;i6 


Ditto 


Rain 


9 


29-37 


40 


40 


44 


34 


Ditto 


Faii- 


10 


gg.30 


38 


39 


43 


s6 


Ditto 


Cloudy 


I 1 


29-38 


3* 


38 


40 


33 


Fair 


Ditto 


12 


2949 


35 


32 


36 


31 


Ditto 


Ditto 


13 


2 g 6g 


33 


34 


38 


28 


Rain 


Ditto 


14 


39 : s 


30 


32 


36 


28 


Cloudy 


Ditto 


15 


29-75 


30- 


28 


30 


26 


Snow 


Ditto 


16 


30. 3 


28 


27 


30 


27 


Cloudy 


Ditto 


17 


30. 6 


38 


37 


- 28 


2] 


Ditto 


Fair 


18 


29.88 


63 


23 


27 


SO 


Fail- 


Ditto 


10 


2973 


24 


29 


30* 


29 


Snow 


Snow 




•9.4b 


28 


3<> 


32 


35 


Fog 


Ditto 


21 


29*46 


32 


33 


33 


29 


Cloudy 


Ditto} 


32 


29.12 


82 


31 


33 


21 


Snow 


Ditto 



* 4.1 1 P.'M. appearance cf char. 
minutes curiously covered with ice, 
1 Snov at 10 F. M. Ueav\ .-now 
<; Heavy 



gc. Rain freezing as 
succeeded by rain ami 

all night. % ^ 

snow all night. 



it fell. The thermometers in a 
snow all the night. 
he constellation Orion brilliant. 
Very black in the north. 



few 



P R I C E S 

Of Fire-Ojffice, Mine, Dork, Canal, JVaier-lVorks, Br every, $ Public 
Instftuttoh Shares, 8fc. ftc. for January 1809. 

Albion Fire & Life Assurance 12 pr. ct. preru. 
Atlas 1 ne and Life ... } j or. 
Fagle ditto ------ /',,-. 



Globe ditto - - - - ,t'ii2 percent 
Hope ditto - - 17s. a 1 2 ditto pa-en. 
Imperial dilto - - - - 40 ditto 
Kent Fire Office - - - 47 5 per share 
Londen Assurance Shipping j| per share 
Reck Fire & Life Ass. 4s. a o 5 premium 
Commercial Dock Stock - 1 !,-> percent. 
Fast India ditto - - - - fes percent. 
Wist India/ditto - - - 164 ditto 
London ditto - - - - 118 o ditto 
Grand Junction Canal no poi cent. 

Grand Surrey ditto - - 00 ditto 
Kennett & Avon Canal - 4 per sh. pin. 



Thames & Medw.do. old sb. jf45 per share 

New share.", ditto - - - 6 ditto pm. 
British Ale Brewery - sgs. a 2'gs. premium. 
Golden-Lane ditto - 77gs. a 7*gs. ditto 
Ditto new shares - loigs. a 102gs. ditto 
Weston-Street ditto 13gs. a 15gs. ditto 
Fast London Water-Works 46 prem. 
South London ditto - - 40 ditto 
West Middlesex ditto - - 20 ditto 
London Institution - - 84 o per share 

Surrey ditto 33 ditto 

Commercial -Road Stock - 116 percent. 
River Lea Bonds - 70 a 72 ditto 
L'run-Lai.e Theatre r>ool. 

Renter's share - - - - 300 
Vauxhall or Prince's Bridge sh. 10s. a 14s. pw. 



EDWAKD F. T. FORTUNE, 

Stock Broker and General Agent, No.-U, CornhilL 



pr •/..', ,',. }>. At k'tv \n\, by L. Harrison, 37s, Strand. 



THE 



lleposttorp 



or 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures^ Fashions, mid Politics^ 

For MARCH. 1800 



*~\)t Etjiro /dumber. 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 

FACE 

1. Two Sir ii.:: , by Hov.ut .... 

J. PrBOPNEUMATic Apparatus (a Wood-cut) 

3. FfC-SlMlLB of a Latin I'okm iku.m Bbbci l\neim 

4. Pbttsfl Walking Dhbss \hi 

■ ( >rnt\ D;:i s S iH'i 

<>. Habdinc, Howell, & Co.'s Magazine, Pail-Mall 181 

7. Fashionable Fuenitubb M< 

* Alleookicai. Wuod-ci r. xtritk Potter** 

CONTENTS 



I'AGF 

HisTonY of Architecture . : . 131 

Architecture of India .... 132 

Architecture of Egypt .... 13+ 

Chinese Imperial Edict . . . . ISO 

Account of the learned Spaniel . 138 

Inquiry on the Origin of drinking 

Healths ib. 

Account of the Merino Sheep . . 13'.' 

Anecdotes of European Manners 

anl Custom-. 14-5 

Second Letter from Italy ... 14-3 

British Sports — The Pointer and 

Setter 15 5 

F.arl Stanhope's Composition fur 

healing Wounds in Trees . 157 

On the Waste of Agricultural Pro- 
duce 159 

Instrument for procuring Fire in- 

stantaneouly 160 

Account of a new Pedometer . . lo3 
Projected Emigration of the Spa- 
nish Patriots l'j." 

History, Manufactures, and Pro- 
perties of Sugar 107 



'j Comparison of the r.i-,t!:<ms of the 

present and past Times 
I Retrospect of Politics . . . . 

Medical Report 

!! Agricultural Report 

Fao-Simile of a Line of a Latin 
Poem found at Herculaneum 

Literary Intelligence . . . . 
i Review of New Publications 

Review of New Music 

Theatrical Observations . . 

Fasatooi for Ladies . . . 

CJentiemen 

Harding, Howell, and Co.'s Grand 
Fashionable Magazine 

Fashionable Furniture 

Descriptions of Patterns of British 
Manufacture . . 

Poetry 

Marriages and Deaths 

Bankrupts and Dividends 
i I/ondon Markets . 

Priced of Sti da 

Meteorological Table 

Prices of Companies 



170 
17 J 
178 

178 

180 
J S I 

1- | 

185 

188 

- 

- 



TO CORRESPONDENT. 

He earnestly solicit communications {post naid\ f 
gene^l, as veil as authors, respecting' J ™> /™ m P r °S*'*>rs of the Arts ,„ 
cedent advantages vhich musta^rtfo to h f rim I ^ ""* *** fc h(md ' ™" 
mU be given to the* productions *£^£^J£j> er '™ ive *"«* ^ 

be mentioned, ue conceive, to induce the, If /<^ Repository, needs only to 

'halt al Wll ys meet wkk the Jt^^Z^ V ""* ""* formation, did 

« ***** His proposed Imtnu^atiL LS/^T^ burgeons 

«*i2S&7^a±irJC **• *«* *- ten i. 

D. O/a two later, m ree,;~.j 7 ' s ' ad ,0 hear ^<"" '»'»<• 

possible be coJptolKM ' — * rf *"«< "**"« *■ *• shall as far as 

•fag; ?ri£;«L£E»£«w * «** ,vw 

i-SSSS" " ,£ ""* * "" **» °" Gas «*- *'" *i» „«, ^ rt, 

n. r w« rt „ /,.„„ fc*^ ,,,.„ s/M „ wmr fc ^^ ^ 

I%e Remarks of an Admirer on r n we, i , - 



THE 



a&eposttorp 



OP 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures, Fashions, and Politics, 
For MARC 1 1, 1S09. 



SEfjc Ojiro j^umbrr. 



-The laflrigC of tlir wise, 



Tlir praise that's worth ambition, is attainM 
By sense alone, and dignity of nnml. 



ARMCTIIOXG. 



HISTORY OF TFIi: USEFUL AND POLITE ARTS. 

( Continued from page 1*2.) 

Proceeding with our general | to inspire them WfUl elevated sen- 
view of the history of the fine arts, ; timents, architecture was made the 
ire shall commence with that which means of diffusing respect for the 
has Undoubtedly to boast of the ! customs and regulations of tlie state, 
highest antiquity. love of glory, enthusiasm for patri- 

Akchitf.ctuhf,, considered as Otic virtue, and a relish for the 
a tine art, was, among various pow- purer pleasures of existence, 
erful nations of the ancient world. Among all the nationsof the earth 
as also at the foundation of the IV- which have attained a certaiu de- 
ruvian empire, the medium which ^ree of civili/ati<m and greatness, 
wise legislators employed to form the cultivation of architecture was 
several tribes into a well-regulated ' indispensably necessary : it was the 
state, to giye this associated nation • medium by which the state distin- 
a visible point of union, and to se- guished, in a manner worthy of it- 
cure to religion and the laws per- j self, the public buildings, and the 
inanent respect and obedience. , objects and purposes for which they 

In the republics of Greece, where were designed. The works ofarchi- 
the legislature was more particularly lecture are, therefore, monuments, 
desirous to civilize the citizens, and in which every nation and every 

Xo. III. Vol. I. S 



J 52 



HISTORY OF TIIF. tfSEFU'L AND POLTTH ART*. 



age displays to postcril y, not only 
its power and its wealth, but I ike- 
wise its genius, its understand iog, 
and, above all, its ideas of gran- 
deur and beauty. 

The invention and iTi /fusion of 
the Gfothic style of architecture at I 
the time of the Crusades, mark the ! 



and invariable object of architec- 
ture ; its connection with the way 
of thinking of various nations; its 
origin, progress, and decline among 
the ancients, cannot therefore prove 
destitute of interest. 
I . Origin of 'Architecture in India. 
The first idea of combining an 



epoch at which ihc modern Euro- ' a-sthetie object witli architecture, 



pean nations began to turn their at- 
tention to the arts, and to aspire to 
a higher degree of civilization, ft 
was the first expression of that re- ' 
lish for the arts which was just then | 
excited, and the stock from which 
a great part of the mechanical, and 
the spirit of the imitative arts, have 
sprung up among them. 

By the discovery and the attcn- 
five examination of the remains of 
Grecian architecture, the modern 
European nations first acquired rto- j 
tions of the sublimer beauties of de- i 
sign and decoration ; it was only by 
these that their skill and taste at- ! 
tained so- striking a superiority over i 
those of the more civilised Asiatic { 
nations ; and since that period, the ! 
excellence of the different nations ' 
of Europe in the productions of ar- j 
chitceture, has invariably been pro- > 
portionate to their knowledge of the j 
principles of (Grecian art, and the 
degree of skill with which they have 
applied them. 

The history of architecture is, 
therefore, an important portion of 
the history of human knowledge. 
It is a subject that justly deserves 
the attention of the philosophic 
statesman ; who discovers in the 
arts, not only the means of increas- 
ing the power and the opulence of 
the state, but also of instilling into 
mankind nobler sentiments, and in- 
spiring a relish for higher pleasures. 
A concise account of tUe history 



could not have originated in the 
earh ages of the world, in which 
we find traces of it, except in a na- 
tion abundantly supplied with the 
gifts of nature, and endowed wkii 
a fertile imagination. None but a 
fruitful country, blessed with ma- 
nifold natural productions, could, 
in the infancy of the world, have 
afforded materials and leisure for 
the construction of edifices, which 
in those days were phenomena truly 
extraordinary io mankind ; and 
none but a race endued with genius 
could have invented the elements of 
an art which had no original in 
nature. 

The peninsula of India on tin's 
side of the Ganges, was probably 
the cradle of architecture, consi- 
dered as an art. In that country, 
where the developement of the hu- 
man mind, favoured by the physi- 
cal advantages of soil and climate. 
and the extraordinary talents of 
individuals, commenced at a very 
early period, we find not only every 
I thing that could awaken, earlier 
! than elsewhere, the idea of operat- 
j ing, by means of superb edifices, 
| on the feelings of men ; but archi- 
! tectural monuments are still in ex* 
; isterice there, which at the same 
time bear the stamp of the highest 
i antiquity, and exhibit all the signs 
j of primeval skill and invention. 

The notion of a superior power 
; inculcated by the laws* was, front 



insmitv or u/i rsEFUI/ AND POLITE 'iin, 



133 



the remotest antiquity, lite means 
by which benevolent sages succeed- 
ed in reducing savage hordes undci 
the yoke of social union and ch il 
laws. To give this lotion a visible 
medium and permanent influence, 
il was natural and necessarj (bat 



in rcjievo. The iaterioi of the tem- 
ple i . :i quadrangle, with thirty- i \ 
osluri il n i\ ii i § 1 1 _r « -d in 

rows. ( )n either side, in ihe interior 
of (In' temple| is i porti< o, timilar 
to the principal entrance, le iding 
(o distinct apartments ; the ba< k 



t)u- place w Inure (he laws emanated ground of the temple iUcll i> adorn* 
should, bj if- exterior majesty, cd with a colossal representation of 
produce an impression upon the the chief deity of the Indians and 



minds of uncultivated men. Prior 
ii) the invention of the arts, nothing 

could be heller adapted lo this end 

than forests and caverns. In India, 
where the mechanical arts, encou* 



oilier tlgUrCS Ul relievo. The i 

between the columns i* invariably 
equal t « » their height. The lower 

pari of them Consists, as in (lie mo- 
dern Indian temples, of a polished 



raged by the patient industry of its II quadrangular pedestal, as high as 

inhabitants, wire likely (<> make a a man ; hul the upper is round, 

very rapid progress, caverns were fl very short, and growing rapidly 
soon imitated by*art, and thus trans- | smaller to the top, where thej ler- 
formed into subterraneous temples, minate in a large cushion, nearly 

resembling, in form, the turbans 



ihe roofs pf which were supported 
by several rows of hewn columns. 
A temple of this Kind, united with 
the awful gloom of a natural cavern, 
die appearance of a hold and gveal 
undertaking, and when the interior 
was lighted up, il Mould afford a 



still commonly worn hy the Hin- 
doos. A!>o\eJlie columns is a kind 
of architrave, composed of three 
small h a\ es and a modilh.n. 

The skilful arrangement, and the 
curious ornaments of this structure, 



spectacle which could not tail to hul more particularly the grand 

operate with equal force upon the works with which its walls are em- 
senses and imagination of a savage hdli died, forbid us, uolwklkstand- 
jieople, by ils variety, its rarity, ing h.s high antiquity, to consider 



and its solemnity 

Some of these .subterraneous tern? 



it as one of the most ancient mo- 
numents of Indian architecture : 



plcsstill exist, and have excited the but it is impossible not to perceive 
curiosity of modern travellers : Mi"- in it the spirit of primitive, and 

buhr, in particular, has described a jj even of invented art. In like man- 
remarkable monument of tiiis kind, ner we observe, in its embellish- 
in the little island of Elephanta, near ments, that which in\ariabl\ dis- 
Bombay. This temple is situated [tinguishes the first attempts>oici 
on the declivity of a mountain, and people in the art of decora 1 i 
the entrance into it is formed by a namely, ornaments which are not 



portico of tour columns, which, like 
all Ihe others, are hewn out uf the 



imitations of any objects in nature, 
but merely represent regular ideal 



rock. The deptii of the portico is figures 
equal to the height of the columns. \ arious descriptions of snbtcrrn- 
nnd the sides are decorated with neous Indian temples may be found 
scenes irom the Indian mythology] j| in the seventh volume a£tkcArchtt m 



134 



HISTORY OF THE USEFUL AND POLITE ARTS. 



ologia, or Miscellaneous Tracts re- 
lating to Antiquity, No. 32, 34, 
35 ; and also in the Comparative 
View of the Ancient Monuments of 
India (4to. 178G). The authors of 
those performances, indeed, assume 
that the monuments of Indian ar- 
chitecture are of far more recent 
date than those of Egyptian and 
Grecian art, and that India was un- 
acquainted with the arts till after 
the expedition of Alexander. But, 
on the one hand, the ancient his- 
tory of India is not, by far, suffi- 
ciently elucidated to enable us to 
determine, with any certainty, the 
epochs of its monuments ; and on 
the other, the character of these pro- 
ductions is so different from that of 
Grecian art, it is so perfectly ori- 
ginal, that we have no hesitation to 
ascribe the invention of this species 
of architecture exclusively to the 
Indians. 

II. On the Introduction of Archi- 
tecture into Egypt, and its Pro- 
gress in that Country. 
Respecting the introduction of 
architecture from India into Egypt 
and Hither Asia, history has indeed 
preserved but few particulars ; but 
the numerous traces of the com- 
merce of those regions in the pro- 
ductions of India, and the popular 
traditions relative to the expedi- 
tions of ancient Egyptian and Asi- 
atic heroes to that country, render 
it extremely probable, that it was 
Iviiown to the inhabitants of the 
shores of the Nile and Euphrates 
long before the time when the arts 
flourished among thein, and that 
it was considered as the source of 
the riches of the arts and sciences. 
The power, wealth, and popu- 
lation of Egypt depended on agri- 
culture : it was not till after the 



longconflict by which Upper Egypt 
was rescued from the encroachments 
of the Nile, and its industry and fer- 
tility were secured, till the comple- 
tion of the works of the lake Moeris 
and the great canals, that Egypt was 
distinguished by that grandeur and 
boldness of style in architecture, for 
which she makes such a figure in 
the history of the art. 

The peculiar nature of this coun- 
try obliged its inhabitants to quit 
their mountains and dispersed dwel- 
lings at an earlier period than those 
of India, and to collect in towns, 
in the plain on the banks of the 
Nile. This gave occasion to vari- 
ous changes in the primitive system 
of architecture, and to some remark- 
able improvements in the art. 

The art of hewing stones must 
have become known on the first 
cultivation of the soil in Upper 
Egypt ? because that country is co- 
vered with mountains of granite, 
which in some places advance to 
the very banks of the Nile. No 
sooner, then, was Lower Egypt in- 
habited, and the conveyance of 
stone facilitated by the construction 
of canals, than the natives conceiv- 
ed the idea of building their temples 
and other public edifices of that 
material, and that with a splendour 
corresponding with its superiority 
over Upper Egypt in the arts and 
in opulence. In the architecture 
of these structures, the model of 
the Indian temples was so far re- 
tained, that the body of the edifice 
resembled, like them, a cavern of 
stone, the roof of which was sup- 
ported by columns : but as this roof 
was composed of a variety of pieces, 
it was necessary to augment the 
number of the columns, and to 
place them nearer to each other, 



HISTORY Of Till. USEFUL ANfl POLITE ARTS 



1 15 



thill in the Indian temples. In or- 
der, howeyer, to leave as much 
■pace as possible between (hem, the 
pedestal was rounded off to the 
ground, excepting a low plinth a< 
the base. 

From Ibe great population of the 
Egj ptian cities, ami (In* disposition 

Of llu- nation to superstition and 

religious pomp, the number, di- 
mensions, and magnificence <>f tin 1 
temples in die cities, were increased 
loan almost Incredible degree • For 
the convenience of the people, large 

court* were erected before them, 

■which were Burrounded ami inter- 
sected bv colonnades, and separated 

from each oilier by magnificent 
gateways ami avenues. 

As various uses were made of 
columns in the Egyptian temples, 
so also their disposition and figure 
were improved in various ways. 
The omission of the pedestal, and 
the rounding oil' of the capital to 
the base, gave the columns a more 
elegant form, and better propor- 
tions ; the architrave, which in the 
Indian temples is extremely low, 
was made higher iu these, because 
the roof, covering the interior of 
the temple and the porticos, rested 
upon them. The front of the pieces 
composing the roof, which appear- 
ed externally, formed a new part of 
the structure, on which the signs 
of the zodiac were commonly paint- 
ed or hewn; on which account, this 
part iu the sequel was denominated 

zop/torus. The Egyptians likewi.se 
made improvements in the capital; 
and by gradually enlarging it. from 



improved the architectural etnbcl« 
lishments. The} invented many 

new ideal figures, and Inst intio- 

duced decorations from tin- \ 
table and animal kingdoms ; but 

most of the ornament , especially 
those of the I ist mentioned < 
generally had some aUegorh al al- 
lusion to the structure in which 
(hey were emplo\ ed. 

As the power and the ( i vibVit ion 
of the Egyptians advanced, their 

architecture was uot confined to 
their temples, but was extended tt> 
other public edifices and monu- 
ments ; and as this nation was so- 
licitous in transmit its history ami 
memorable discoveries in the sci- 
ences to posterity, the Egyptians 
invented, tor this purpose, v arioui 
modes of building, But what this 
nation sought more particularly to 
eternize by indestructible monu- 
ments, was its important discover* ■ 
in astronomy; and for this reason, 
the Egyptians not only adorned 
many of their edifices with symbo- 
lical figures of the constellations! 
but, in all probability, they intend- 
ed to exhibit the whole system sf 
the zodiac, and the course of the 
sun, in the const ruction of the La- 
byrinth ; an edifice whose solidity 
has already withstood the ravages 
of three thousand years. 

But this very disposition to perpe- 
tuate their memory by durable mo- 
numents, was, in the sequel, the oc- 
casion that monarchs, whose genius 
was not fit for the discovery of great 
truths, and whose minds were not 
capable of impelling them to under* 



its commencement at the extremity , takings of public Utility* nevertheless 
of the column, to its end below the sought to eternise themselves by ar« 



arehitrave, gave it a handsomer 
form, and an appearance of greater 



chitectural monuments, in whichthe 

philosopher certainly admires the 



strength. In like manner they also greatness of human powers, but la 



136 



CHINESE IMPERIAL EDICT. 



ments their misapplication, and the 
misery which the vanity of a single; 
despot diffused, on this occasion, 
over^a numerous class of man-kind. 
Magnificence and solicitude for 
everlasting duration, originating in 
the influence of the sciences, and 
supported by extensive mechanical 
knowledge and experience in the 
practice of the art, were the cha- 
racter of Egyptian architecture : the 
object of the inventors and promo- 
ters of it, was evidently to leave 
behind them durable monuments -of 



great power and skill ; and this ob- 
ject they have attained. But in 
none of their works do we discover 
traces, either of a pleasing fancy, 
or of indulgence and respect for the 
softer emotions of humanity. The 
intelligence of the Egyptian artists 
is displayed in their works, merely 
in the mechanical parts of the art ; 
in their skill to raise prodigious 
weights with facility, and to fashion 
their materials with accuracy and 
invincible perseverance. 

(To be continued.) 



CHINESE IMPERIAL EDICT. 

Xn our last number we presented our readers with an edict of the Emperor of China, 
extracted from the Pekin Gazette. As we understand that this curious article has 
excited considerable interest in this quarter of the globe, we shall introduce 
another of the same stamp, and derived from the same source, which, we have no 
doubt, will aflbrd equal gratification. . 



We have respectfully examined 
the records of our imperial ancestor 
tCamhiy in which is contained the 
following edict addressed to the tri- 
bunal of arms : 

li When this empire was first es- 
tablished on its present foundations, 
martial laws and military discipline 
were observed with rigour and pre- 
cision. The enemies of the state 
were attacked with unanimity and 
driven from their fortresses. The ope- 
rations of each campaign, together 
with the merits and demerits oft he re- 
spective commanders, were faithful- 
ly and exactly reported, without 
■any disgraccfulevasions, or credit to 
themselves unworthily assumed. But 
t»1 present, when an army is sent on 
any military service, every report 
that is made of their operations con- 
tains an account of a victory, of re- 
bels dispersed at the first encounter, 
driven from their stations, killed and 



the amount of some thousands, or in 
short, that the rebels slain were in- 
numerable. 

" These and similiar reports are 
made to us by the commanders, in 
the hopes of extending the fame of 
their own achievments, and procur- 
ing presents and promotion. We 
thcrefirre hereby issue our strict in- 
junctions to all general ofiicers, vice- 
roys, governors, and colonels, to re- 
port to us with sincerity and a scru- 
pulous attention to truth and preclu- 
sion, the accounts of their future 
military ope rat ions; and we further 
declare, that should this corrupt 
custom above described, or claims of 
undeserved credit, recur in their fu- 
ture reports, the utmost rigour of 
military law shall be exerted in pu- 
nishing the offence.** 

In consequence of the desire of 
our imperial ancestor Cam/ii, to re- 
store the vigour and promptitude 



wounded to a great amount, or to ij of military discipline, we indeed 



CHIXEIE 11 ii. i' I I i. EDICT. 



w 



find, lince the establishment ofoui 
empire, (Ik- moil respectable in- 
stances of \ alour, sincerity , and di- 
ligence among cur Tartar officers. 
Hv these the three foreign tribes 
were subdued, and the pacification 
of the seven pun inc< i accomplish- 
ed (alluding probably to the sub- 
iucation of Chinn l»v the. Tartars). 
Tit Uajf, ;«'»<' (hang lung, ;ui<l 



arc left so far behind by the offcen 
who established on r empire; and with 
reaped to the faith Ic ae is "I t h >- i f 
representation . ind i 
ricsand capturi <, mi n !>• witfia riew 
<>!' acquiring credit and re* irds, 
the difference is still more remark- 
able. \\ e have frequently issued 
our order and admonitions, that ric- 
fiuics or defeats ihould be resorted 



ether generals manifested an unsbak- , to us with equal /itl«-l i r_> ; notwith- 
fn fidelity and determined valour, II standing which this corrupt cuatosn 
which, when accompanied by acti- still prevails, and it only remaiM 
vityaad diligence, can scarcely fail \ lor us to oppose the en il by str<» 
to accomplish the designs it under- prohibitions and severer penaltii 



takes. Military operations were at 
that time fait 1 1 lull y rcpoi ted. a ml all 
attempts at extenuation or amplifi- 
cation strictly prohibited. 

At present the Pe I in Kian arc 



1m future therefore a strict enqui- 
ry will be made into the military 
operations of c.icli department, and 

if the most trifling circumstance in 
their reports is found i«> be la! 



merely ;i turbulent portion of our | misrepresented, if they follow the 
own people, the facility of restoring \ steps of their predecessors, tlu-ir of- 
order among whom, compared with \ femes will be referred to theexami- 



Ihe difficult v of SUbduing the three 
foreign tribes, are as wide asunder 
us heaven and earth. 

Had we at the head of our troops 
generals equal to Tu Hay and 
Chang Yungy the present contest 



nation oftherrfbnnal of arms, whoae 
sentence pronounced against tbesu 
w ill be presented for <>ur approba- 
tion. .And though there may be of- 
fences which the tribunal is not 
competent to investigate, yet as the 



Would not long remain undecided, events of a campaign cannot easily 



Five years are now elapsed siiicc 
our troops have been employed on 
this service, and they have not yet 
been able to accomplish the object 
of their enterprise. 



be concealed from the eyes and 

of individuals, the generals may rest 

assured, that we shall proceed with 

equal rigOUK against them wlh-u we 

become acquainted with their mis- 



Were the present leaders of our i ! conduct by private hands. 



armies scut against the three foreign 
tribes, how would they be able to 
complete the conquest by a given 
day ? They indeed make a great 
shew and ostentation of their strength 
and activity, in all of which they: 



These general orders are more 
particularly addressed to the gene- 
ral officers commanding our ai 
in Shen ry, Kg* too, ami lloo 
Quango as well as to the riceroys 
■ 'ud toojj uens of the said piovj; 



138 



ACCOUNT OF A LEARNED SPANIEL. 
(Continued from page 93.) 



The spaniel replied, that she had 
seven : that the first purchaser took 



he moved round the circle as soon 
as any question was proposed ; and 



four; that is to say, three and a half that levers, concealed under the car- 



plus one half, without killing any : 
that the second had taken two ; that 
is to say, one and a htdfplus a half : 
and in the last place, that the third 
had taken one; that is to say, one- 
half plus a half. It now remains 
for us to explain how the animal, 
without any visible sign being made 
to him, could return answers to the 
questions proposed to him. The 
reader must know, that the letters 
and figures were placed on so many 
pieces of card, arranged in a circu- 
lar manner round the animal; that [j 



pet on which he walked, and which 
were made to move under his feet 
by means of ropes, indicated to him 
the exact moment when he ought to 
stop, to place his foot on the nearest 
card. He was so well habituated to 
hit the card next to him when he 
felt the levers move, and to give an 
affirmative or negative answer by 
the motion of his head, according 
as his master or any confederate al- 
tered the tone of his voice, that he 
never once erred. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY, &c. 



Sin, 

I have frequently revolved in 
Bay mind the custom of drinking 
healths, and endeavoured to trace 
its origin. To judge of the causes 
of its first institution, we should 
consider the dispositions of the in- 
stitutors of this fashion ; but as these 
seem to be hidden in the labyrinth 
of antiquity, we are reduced, in our 
enquiry, to the consideration of its 
present use, or, rather, abuse. It 
is certain that the ancient Romans 
introduced this custom in their fes- 
tivals; and that, in honour of Au- 
gustus, the senate ordered his health 
to be drunk at all great repasts : but 
a ridiculous fashion, though sane- 



does not alter its nature, or render 
it more rational. 

Some modern writers arc of opi- 
nion, that it was introduced into 
England by the Danes, on their first 
invasion here, as a pledge of their 
sincerity ; but it is assuredly of 
more remote origin. 

Ii\ through the medium of your 
instructive and entertaining Jiepo- 
silory of ArlS) any of your corre- 
spondents can throw any further 
light on this subject, it would oblige 
many of your readers by communi- 
cating them ; and in particular, 
Sir, 

Your's, &c 
King-street, P. L. 



tioned by ancient Roman examples, |] January 1CW/, 1S09. 



I ,M 



ACCOl NT OF THE MERINO SHEEP, AND OF THEIR 
TREATMENT in SPAIN. 

Tin: following observation! <"> ' Thewo 

flu- management of Merino beep, signifies ■ pro* 

the breeding of which has, within vincc, and likewise him 

those few pears, occupied the at- thei ire of the p 

tent ion of the must distinguished general. The Merino 

agriculturists in the British empire, ways a person ot rank, and appoint* 

were originally written in Spanish, ed by the kin i th< Duke of ! 

by an English gentleman many years tado ii the prei nt Merino rru 

resident in Spain, for bisownpri- The mayon bavi 

rate use. Having recently returned diction over the il 



to his native country, he translated 
them, in compliance with the wishes 
of some of his friends, and they .in- 
here presented i<> the public in his 
own language. The value of such 
a communication, derived from so 
authentic a source, will be duly ap- 
preciated by every practical farmer. 
There are two soils of sheep in 

Spain : some have COarse wool, and 

are never removed out of the pro- 
vince to which they belong ; the 
others, after spending the summer 
in the northern mountains, descend 

in winter to the milder regions of 
Estremadura and Andalusia, and 
arc distributed into districts therein. 
These arc the Merino sheep, of 
which there arc computed to !>.■ 
about tour or five millions, as stated 
underneath : 

Tin Dukt of [nfantado's flocks con- 
tain tbout 40,000 

Tlir Countess del C anion de .Mouse 
Negretti 

Tlie Paular Coin cut 

The l'.MMiiial Com. nl 10,000 

Tin- ( ouvt lit of Gnndalope ... 30,000 

The Marqui> '.'< 1 ales 

The Duke of B. jar 30,000 

Ton (lock*, containing aboul 20^DOO 
each, belonging to Bundrj persoua 200,000 

All the other thu'ks in the kingdOBB 

taken eolkemcly, uhout . 3£00,«*Q 



dura, which is called the 1/' ta ; 

and there the !>. i 1 1 ^ i^ the Me 
mayor. Each (lock generally i 
of 10,000 sheep, \\ iili a ra . 
or head shepherd, who must be an 
active man, well versed in the na- 
turc of pasture, as well as in the dis- 
eases incident to his flock. I mh-r 
this person there are 50 inferior shep- 
herds, w ilh 60 dogs -, five of each to 
u tribe. The principal shepherd 
receives about 767. English money 
tor his annual wages, and has ■ 
fresh horse everj year: the inferior 
ser\ ants are paidsmallannualw 
| with an allowance of two pounds <«t 
good bread per day for each dog. 

The. places where these sheep 1 1 

be seen in the great st numbers, arc 
in the Montana and in the Molina 
de Arrogan, in the summer: and in 
the province o\ Estremadura in the 
winter. The Molina is to tin- 
am! the Montana to the north oi 
tremadura, the moat elevated p irt of 
Spain. Estremadura abounds with 
aromatic plains, but the Montana 
is entirely without them. The 
care of the shepherd in coming to 
the spot where the Bheeparc to i\ 
the summer, is to give the ew 
much salt as they will cat : for this 
i purpose they are provided a 



No. 111. Vol I. 



140 



accoi NT or THE Mr.niNO siiF.rr. 



quintals of salt (a Spanish quintal 
contains 110 pounds weight Spa- 
nish, 104 Spanish pounds are equal 
to i! l 2 English) for every thousand 
sheep, which is all consumed in less 
than five months ; but they do not 
eat any sail whilst on their journey, 
or during the winter. The method 
of eivins the salt to them is as fol- 
lows : the shepherd places fifty or 
sixty flat stones, about five steps 
distant from each other ; he strews 
some salt on each stone, then leads 
his flock slowly by them, and every 
sheep cats at pleasure : this practice 
i> frequently repeated, observing 
not to let them \'v^\ : on those day-,, 
on any spot where there is lime- 
stone. When they hare eaten up 
all the salt, then they are led to 
some argillaceous spots, where, 
from the craving they haveacquired 
by eating the salt, they devour every 
thinsrthev meet with, and return to 
the salt with redoubled ardour. At 
the end of July, each shepherd dis- 
tributes the lambs amongst the ewes, 
five or six rams being sufficient 
for one hundred ewes: these rams 
arc taken from the flocks and kepi 
apart, and after a proper time are 
ui^ain separated from the ewes. The 
jams give a greater quantity of wool, 
though not so fine as the ewes ; for 
the fleeces of the rams will weigh 
25 pounds, and it requires five 
fleeces of the ewes to produce the 
same. The disproportion of their 
a«-e is known by their teeth ; those 
vf the rams not falling before their 
eighth year, whilst the ewes, from 
delicacy of frame, or other causes, 
lose their teeth after five years. 
About the middle of September they 
are marked, which is done by rub- 
bing their loins with ochre (these 
earths are of various colours, such 



as red, yellow, blue, green, and 
black). Jt is said that the earth 
incorporates with the grease of the 
wool, and forms a kind of varnish, 
which protects the sheep from the 
inclemency of the weather : others 
pretend that the pressure of the 
ochre keeps the wool short, and pre- 
vents its being of an ordinary qua- 
lily : others again imagine that the 
ochre acts as an absorbent, and sucks 
up the excess of transpiration, which 
would render the wool ordinary and 
short. 

Towards the end of September 
these Merino flocks begin their 
march to a warmer climate ; the 
whole of their route has been regu- 
lated by laws and customs from 
time immemorial : they have a free 
passage through pastures and com- 
mons belonging to villages ; but as 
they must go over such cultivated 
lands as lie in their way, the inha- 
bitants are obliged to leave them 
an opening ninety paces wide,. 
through which these flocks must 
pass rapidly, going sometimes six 
or seven Leagues a day, in order to 
reach open and less inconvenient 
places, where they may find good 
pasture, and enjoy some repose. In 
such open places they seldom ex* 
j ceetl two leagues a day, following 
; the shepherd, and grazing as they 
! go along. Their whole journey, 
\ from the Montana to the interior 
; parts of Estremadura, may be about 
155 leagues, which they perform in 
about forty days, being equal to 
eleven or twelve English miles per 
day. 

The first care of the shepherd is 
to lead them to the same pasture in 
which they have lived the winter 
before, and in which the greatest 
part of them were brought forth : 



A( ( Ot N I 01 MM M i 'M NO Mil I P 



141 



tins is no difficult task foi if thcj 

were ik»( (o Conduct ihem. Ifn\ 

would disco\ (»i the b rounds exai l • 
\y, by the sensibility of their olfac- 
tory organs, to be different from 
the contiguous plai >■ ; or, were the 
shepherds so inclined, t in v would 

find it in) easy mailer to make lli< 111 

£o farther. 

Tin' next but ine is to order and 
regulate the folds, which are made 
by fixing stakes, fastened with ropes 
one to the other, i<> prevent their 
escape ami being devoured by the 
wolves, for which also the dogs are 
stationed without ^ guards. The 
shepherds build themselves huts 
willi stakes and boughs ; for the 
raising of which huts, as well as to 
supply them with fuel, thej are al- 
lowed to lop <>r cut offa branch from 
every tree that grows convenient to 
them: this law in their favour, is 
the real cause of so inau\ trees being 
rotten and hollow in the places fre- 
quented by these Hocks of sheep. 

A little before the ewes arrive 
at their winter quarters, is the time 
of their yeaning or bringing forth 
jheir young, when the shepherd 
must be particularly careful of 

them. The barren ewes are sepa- 
rated from breeders, ami placed in 
a less advantageous spot, reserving 
(he best pasture for the most fruit- 
ful, removing them in proportion to 
their forwardness ; the last lambs are 
put into the richest pasture, that 
they may improve the sooner, and 
acquire sufficieul strength to per* 
form their journey along with the 
early lambs. 

In March, th.- shepherds have 
four different operations to perform 
with the lambs that were yeaned in 
the winter : the lirst is. to cut off 
their tails, live fingers breadth be- 



ll low the romp, for < leanlii 
id i . to mai k them on th 
w illi d hot iron i .the third is, to 
saw off the tip "i tbeii 
del thai thej ma \ not hurt on< 
thci in ili-ir frolii - : fourthly , and 
j fi nail j , i Irate iw b lain 

I are doomed foi bell-wi then to walk 
at the head of the tribe \ w h i< fi op. - 
ration is not executed bv in< i ion, 
but mirelv by squeezing the 
linn until the spei matic rcsa ;1* are 

I w istcd and de ( a\ ed. 

In April, the time comes for lln : r 
return to the Montana, which the 

flock expresses wild ,, 

and shewn by various movement I 
restlessness j for which reasons the 

shepherds must be scry watchful, 
lest they make their escape, whole 

Hocks ha\ ing sometimes strayed two 
or three leagues whilst the shepherd 
was asleep ; and mi these occasions 
they generally lake the straightest 
road back to the place from whence 
they came. 

On the 1st of May thej begin to. 
shear, unless the weather is unfa- 
vourable ; for the fleeces being 
usually piled one above the other, 
would ferment in case of dam] 
and rot ; to a\ oid which in 
the sheep are kept in covered pi i 
in order to shear them the more 
veniently : for this purpose they 
have buildings that will hold v J". I 
sheep at one and the same time ; 
w hicb is the more n "cessarj . as the 
ewes ares,. \ery delicate, that if, 
immediately after shearing, they 
were exposed to the chilling air of 

the night, the\ would mast c Ttainly 

perish. 

One hundred and fifty men are 
employed to shear Khmi sheep : < i 
man is computed to shear eight per 
da v : but it' ram-, on I J five : not 

* T2 



I 



J - * 2 ACCOUNT OF THE MERINO SHEEP. 

merely on account of their bulk, and 



the greater quantity of wool on them, 
but from their extreme fickleness 
of temper and the great difficulty 
to keep them quiet ; the ram being 
so exasperated, that he is ready to 
strangle himself when he finds that 
he is tied fast. To prevent his hurt- 
ing himself, they endeavour, by fair 
means and caresses, to keep hint in 
temper; and with much soothing, 
and having ewes placed near him so 
that he can plainly see them, they 
at last engage him to stand quiet, 
and voluntarily suffer them to pro- 
ceed and shear him. On the shear- 
ing day, the ewes are shut up in a 
large court, and from thence con- 
ducted into a sudatory, which is a 
narrow place constructed for the 
purpose, where they are kept as 
close as possible, to make them per- 
spire freely, in order to soften their 
wool and make it yield with more 
case to the shears. This manajre- 
ment is peculiarly useful with re- 
spect to the ram, whose wool is 
more stubborn and more difficult to 
be cut. The fleece is divided into 
three sorts and qualities : 

The back and belly produce su- 
perfine wool. 

The neck and sides produce fine 
wool. 

Thebreasts, shoulders, and thighs, 
produce the coarse wool. 

The sheep are then brought info 
another place and marked ; those 
sheep which are without teeth being 
destined for the slaughter-house, 
and the healthy sheep are led out 
to feed and graze, if the weather 
permit ; if not, they are kept within 
doors until they are gradually ac- 
customed to the open a-ir. When 
they are permitted to graze quietly, 
without being hurried or disturbed, 



(hey select and prefer the finest 
grass, never touching the aromatic 
plants, although fhey may find 
them in great plenty; and in case 
the wild thyme is entangled with 
the grass, they separate if with great 
dexterity, moving on eagerly to 
such spots as they find to be without 
it. When the shepherd thinks there 
is a likelihood of rain, he makes 
proper signals to the dogs to collect 
the flock and lead them to a place 
of shelter ; on these occasions the 
sheep (not having time given them 
fo chuse their pasture) pick up 
every herb indiscriminately : were 
they, in feeding, to give a prefe- 
rence to aromatic plants, it would 
be a great misfortune to the owners 
of beehives, as they would destroy 
the food of the bees, and occasion 
a decrease and disappointment in 
the honey and in the crops. The 
sheep are never suffered to move 
out of their folds until the beams 
of the sun have exhaled and eva- 
porated the night-dews ; nor do 
the shepherds suffer them to drink 
out of brooks, or out of standing 
waters, wherein hail has fallen, ex- 
perience having taught them, that 
on such occasions they are in dan- 
ger of losing them all. The wool 
of Andalusia is coarse, because the 
sheep never change their place, as 
is practised by the Merino flocks, 
whose wool would likewise dege- 
nerate if they were always kept on 
the same spot ; and the wool of An- 
dalusia would improve in quality, 
were their sheep accustomed to emi- 
grate as the Merino sheep do. 

Between CO and 70,000 bags of 
washed wool are exported annually 
out of Spain. 

A bag generally weighs eight Spa- 
nish anobas, of 25 Spanish pounds 



r.irnorr.AN ma wins ami h roMS. 



W) 



enrh arrobft, which are equal to 
vl 1 English pounds. 

I pwards of 90,000 bags of Spa- 



uljr-rr the belt RrooUefl f lofhs made 

iii Spoiii are all irnmuractuned. 
The crown "i Spain an- 



nish wool are sent annually to Lon- nually, by -ill f 1 1 < - duties, whrm 

don and to Bristol, which are worth added together, paid on wool <\- 

:)')! to BO/, each bag i so thai Bng- ported, upwards "t sixty mill] 

land purchases and mannfactnrei rentes de ;<//"//, nhjch are equal to 

into goods, about one-half the quan- 000,000/. iterling (Engli hmoi 
tity of this produce of Spanish wool, - rtemeut of Spaaiafa nool inl- 
and her imports in general arc of ported into London and into lu i 
thebest and of the finest quality. II during the years 1804, 1806, IS 

This wool, when warehoused in isoT. averaging the fear from S 

England, is worth from .'is. per tember to September In each rc- 

pound to 6V. 9<l. per pound, ready spectiveyear: 
money ; and from \bl. to 551. per Imported fete Dagt. 

Jj; l(r< London — fiom Sep. ISO* tfl 

The wool ofPaular, which is the 
largest fl<-<'< es, though not the 



, Dristol — fiom — 1804 to — j 



1 Total number of bags imported in one 



year 






London — from Sep. lb ►! )'>, H \7 

Liiitol — fioiu — i*u5 to — ) 



in quality, is reserved tor tin- royal 
manufactures which belong to the 

King of Spain. 

The common dresses, as well as 

the shooting dresses of the royal fa- year 

mily of Spain, and the dresses of;! 

., . | , , .. . London — fi< : - luSt-p. b07, 

their attendants, are made ot the ., . , ' _ 

1 Brutol — trom — looo to — ] 

cloth of Segovia, which is an an- 

Cient populous City ill Old Castile, i Total number of bags imported ,n one 

r r J year 3J.917 



HISTORICAL FACTS RELATH E TO EI ROPEAN MANNERS 

AND CUSTOMS. 



The history of European manners 
and customs is so rich in anecdote, 
and so fertile in contrasts and conse- 
quences, that we have no occasion 
to visit the nations of Asia, Africa, 
and America, and to examine their 
customs, in order to find abundant 
subjects tor entertainment and also 
for rr^TJfWv. In ihe mean time. 
till some person, who is conscious 
that he possesses powers edequate to 



ers with a few detached fragments, 

which seem likely to prove in- 
teresting. 

In the remotest ages, our at 
tors lived upon acorns and wild 

fruits. Bread was an invention o( 
the Greeks, and from them the Ro- 
mans 1<- irned the use of it. Hand- 
mills were long the only machines 
for grinding e<>rn with which the 
Europeans were acquainted, till, 
the Herculean task of writing their amongothei inventionsandimprove- 
bistorv from their earliest origin, ments which they learned ot tin- S - 
shall arise, we will present our read- nicens. they brought back on their 



X 



Hi 



r.ritorr.AN manners and customs. 



return from f lie first crusade, the 
nrt of constructing windmills. For 
many centuries a round slice of 
bread >upplied tlie place of a plate 
at entertainments; in France it was 
called pain tram hoi r, w hence origi- 
nates our English word trencher. 
After meals, these bread-plates were 
distributed among the poor. As ear- 
ly as the time of Pliny the natural- 
ist, the Gauls made use of yeast to 
raise their bread ; but in the seven- 
teenth century, the medical faculty 
condemned this practice as poison- 
ous, and an open war between the 
physicians and the bilkers ensued. 
On this subject opinions are still di- 
vided. The most inveterate adver- 
sary of bread in modern times was 
Linguef, but among its defenders 
we find Tissot. 

Brocoli was not only held in high 
estimation, but even worshipped by 
the Egyptians. The Romans in- 
troduced it into Europe. The peach 
was sent us by Persia ; transplanted 
into our climate, it is considered a 
delicacy, but in its native country it 
is reckoned a poison, on account of 
its coldness. The plumb was im- 
ported by the crusaders from Syria. 
In several parts of Europe, a kind of 
plumb is still denominated Heine 
Claude, after the queen of Francis I. 
of France, as another species goes 
by the name of Monsieur, because 
the brother of Louis XIV. was ex- 
tremely fond of it. 

Salt pork was formerly a dainty 
for the rich. Rabbets, a fashionable 
dish, multiplied in Spayi to such 
a degree, that, according to report, 
they so undermined the walls and 
houses of Tarragona that a great 
part of them fell down. » 

The Gauls were accustomed to 
rbi\c large flocks of geese across the 



| Alps, by short stages, to Rome. In- 
stead of these we meet in modern 
times in France with numerous flocks 
of turkies, with which their owners 
travel from province to province. 

At the time of the Troubadours, 
whales and dolphins were caught in 
the Mediterranean sea, and their 
flesh was used for food. 

Oysters were considered a delica- 
cy by the Romans, and Ausonius 
even sung their praises ; but after 
the time of that poet, they all at 
once lost their character, and conti- 
nued unnoticed till the seventeenth 
century, when they again came in 
vogue. 

The permission to eat eggs in 
Lent, was obtained of the Catholic 
clergy with greater difficulty than 
the permission to use milk, butter, 
and cheese. From this rigid ab- 
stinence from eggs originated the 
practice of consecrating on Maun- 
dy-Thursday a great numberofeggs, 
which people distributed after Eas- 
ter among their friends. Fifty years 
ago it was customary at Versailles, 
to pile up in the king's cabinet on 
Easter Sunday after the grand mass, 
lofty pyramids of such eggs paint- 
ed and gilt, which his majesty pre- 
sented to his courtiers. 

Whoever would wish to possess 
a list of the different kinds of French 
cheese, may find it in a place where 
he would not expect to meet with it, 
namely, in a note to the French 
translation of Martial's Epigrams, 
The translator, the celebrated Abbe 
Marolles, has introduced it on occa- 
sion of a single verse in which his 
author alludes to that subject. Par- 
mesan first appeared in France dur- 
ing the reign of Charles VIII.; that 
prince, in passing through Placenza, 
on his expedition against Naples, 



II ROPE IN MAffNCI LMO < 



U 



WAS prCB6n<Ctl 0) ill" mi i:' ish;il( s i*| 

the city u nli i the prodigious 

size of w hich astonished him. He 
sent them .is curiosities («> the Queen 
mid the Duke <>f Bourbon i tbej 
tasted iIh in, thought them excellent, 
ami iIk i? reputation was established. 

Among their sallads, our forefa- 
thers reckoned a dish of the feet, 
livo >, heads, &c. of birds, boiled 
and prepared with parsley, rini 
pepper, and cinnamon. 

The word fori, derived from the 
French fotfrce, originally signified 
a common round loaf; but was af- 
terwards applied lo t he liner sorts of 
pastrj. 

Among ili»- cold pasties, those in 
the highest repute are the ham-pas- 
ties of Versailles ; the duck-pasties 
of Amiens (the crust of which, I 
ever, is not verj good); tin* lark - 
pasties of Pithiviers; the goose-li- 
ver pasties of Toulouse and Stras- 
burg; the pullet-pasties of Ant- 
werp; the tunny-pasties of Pro- 
vence : the salmon-pasties of Ah 
In the medical faculty at Paris, it 
prat formerly customary tor the li- 
centiate, on receiving his doctor's 
degree, to give the doctors and pro- 
fessors, after the last thesis, a break- 
fust, the principal part ofwhich con- 
sisted of pasties made of minced beef 
and raisins. The celebrated Chan- 
cellor de l'Hopital prohibited the 
crying of these little pasties in the 
Streets of Paris, where incredible 
numbers of them were consumed as 
a luxury ; the faculty followed the 
example, and a sum of money was 
given instead of the breakfast. The 
thesis, however, retained the former 
name, and continued till the revo- 
lution to be denominatedpaffil/oria. 

The use of the cakes called puffs 
is of sacred origin, being derived 



1 1 run those de i ined foi 

crament. In they 

were presented, on certain d 

•In- \.;ir, tO ll' . : whene r 

the) I (he name "i << 

The laity likewise determined f<» 
have them, a ted tl > 

debt ii \ : nsjj . in some • 
they even became a tax, w hicfa the 
lord demanded of liis rassafa ; . 
instance, in France, where it tu 
termed droit (Toublirtgi t. In P 
these pulls w.i | < died plat- 

tbr ii' , ami were carried 

about th" streets for s de by women. 
lu the seventeenth century they 
sold at night in the same metropolis 

by men, who bad upon the lid <>t 

their ba>kels a kind tit a di d-plate, 

with a movable index, which beinrr 
turned round by au\ person, pointed 
when ii stood still to the mini' 
pulls which he had gained. This 
became by degrees a verj common 
game ; people laid considerable 
gers with each other respecting the 

number of pull's which they should 
win, and were continually calling 
the puff-sellers with (heir baskets t » 
decide them. \\\\\ Cartouche's irnnir 
having murdi i men, 

and disguised themselves in their 
clothes in oreler lo commit depreda- 
tions, the police prohibited th 
of these puna at night, under se 
penalties; and from tint time th.' 
number of the dealers in them 
dually diminished. 

In countries fertile in wine, that 
liquor was formerly put 
into casks, but also . 
carefully construe :in , 

from which I 

- filled the canter 
that they carried with the; 
ed t immel of I le. 

Bonbons were i: 



116 



EUROPEAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



France an alloAvcd medium of brib- 
ing judges and people of rank, of 
whom a favour was solicited. This 
practice was carried so far, that 
Louis IX. by a decree, forbade 
judges to take more than ten sous 
worth of bonbons in a week ; and 
Philip the Fair limited the quanti- 
ty to as much as they could use in 
their housekeeping in a day. Soon 
afterwards these sweetmeats Avere 
converted into money, and a M. dc 
Tournon y instead of ten boxes of 
bonbons, paid ten gold francs. 

As early as the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, good manners re- 
quired that guests should be seated 
in pairs of different sexes, and that 
a dish should be brought for each 
pair. At home the whole family 
made use of one single bowl or gob- 
let ; and St. Berland was disinhe- 
rited by her father, because, upon 
the pretext that he had the leprosy, 
she wiped his bowl before she drank 
out of it. 

Among the Romans, the drinking 
of healths at table was a religious 
custom. It formerly prevailed very 
generally in Europe ; but the prac- 
tice of drinking to the health of the 
company has for some years been 
relinquished on the Continent. About 
thirty years ago, when it was still 
common in Germany, people drank 
not only to the persons present, but 
likewise to all their worthy families, 
their uncles, aunts, cousins, &c. and 
even to their deceased relatives, so 
that a stranger was almost obliged 
to make himself pre viously acquaint- 
ed with the whole genealogy of 
those with whom he. was to dine. 
In the works of Pasquier we find an 
afFecting anecdote of the unfortunate 
Mary, Queenof Scots, who perished 
upon the scaffold. The evening 



before her death, she drank, after 
supper, to all her attendants, and 
commanded them to pledge her in 
return. They obeyed and drank to 
the health of their mistress, at the 
same time weeping bitterly, so that 
their tears trickled into the wine. 

The nations of antiquity thought 
it necessary to introduce dramatic 
and other exhibitions by way of 
diversion, during repasts. The 
Romans and Greeks amused their 
guests with pantomimes, and often 
with the bloody combats of gladia- 
tors and wrestlers. The Christian 
princes of the early ages were like- 
wise fond of pantomimic dances at 
table ; in the interludes the minstrels 
and troubadours, with their harps 
and songs, acted a conspicuous part. 
In the refectories of the monks, or at 
! the fables of pious prelates, edify- 
ing books or learned works were 
read : singing was likewise com- 
mon ; and the first organ that France 
possessed, was intended for the ta- 
ble music of Charlemagne. But the 
most remarkable of the amusements 
with which the guests of the great 
were entertained and surprised, 
were the different kinds of specta- 
cles to which the French gave the; 
name of cnlremels : these consisted 
either of the combats of knights, the 
mechanical tricks of automata, or 
of theatrical or pantomimical repre- 
sentations of celebrated events and 
achievements. At an entertainment 
given to the ladies by Charles VI. 
of France, two knights, Rnjnaud 
de Jloj/c and Jlcssire Boucicaut 
rode, during the repast, round the 
hall, and broke a lance with each 
other. Having finished their com- 
bat, they were followed by several 
other knights, who did the same. 
At a banquet given by Charles V. 



EUROPEAN MANNER* AND CUi rOMS. 



\\1 



in [978, I lie departure of Godfrey 
dc Bevi/lon fot th<- Holj Land, and 
the lacing <>i Jerusalem) were n - 
presented during the entertainment. 
.\i die feast giveri bj ChorloB V I. 
on the ari Lyal "I liif consort, I 
of Bavaria, the Biege ofTroj m 
hibited. A prodigious fortress was 
seen, with four towers <»n iIk' - desj 
and a fifth in the middle. The coats 
oferaas and shields affixed to the 
Avi» 1 K shewed that tins fortress was 
the tif.v «»i Troj , and ili.it the tower 
in tin- eentet «;i> the cil idol of Ili- 
nm. Nfci tai from if was • rcoived 
n spacious tent) die anna pf which 
denoted the Greek besiegers, Be- 
side this tent was a ship capable of 

containingat least one hundred war- 
riors. Both the fortress, the ieni, 
and the sli i p were moved by a heels, 
bud the springs and the persons who 
directed them, were concealed. A 
violent conflict took place between 

the (I'reeiaii heroes in the tent and 
.ship, and Hie Trojans ill the fortress : 
hut it was not tfsatlg duration : for 
the crowd and the heat occasioned 
by it were so irreat, that several per- 
sons were suffocated, and still more 
crushed and otherwise hurt. 

The Burgundian court manifested 
a decided preference for the exhi- 
bitions of automata and the repre- 
sentations of 'animals. At the enter* 
tainment given on occasion of the 
nuptials of Charles the Hold , with 
tfee Eaglidi Princess Margaret, 
three < >i tret n't s made their appear*' 

ante. A irreat unicorn first eaten d, 
>\ ;th a leopard on his hack. In one 
paw the leopard held the amis of 
England, and in the other a daisy 
( mBrgmriie I, in allusion tothename 
of flic princess. Having paraded 
round all the tables, the unicorn at 
length stood still opposite to lite 
Ac. 111. Vol 1. 



duke, and a maitrt ii'/i<'>t<f, lakinq 

the dais> from tin- Imp ml, pn ■ ■;.'- 
ed i! with i <omplniM'!i!ary spcedl 

to thai pi in< <•. The uni 
followed bj .i huge gilded \\*>< 
whose back i < ». !« ■ the I 
oft he Princes* oi Burgnndj ,rvpera* 
K dressed as a shepl ^ 1 1 h. 

tin.- arm- of Burgund} . < '" •»' 
trance into ih<- hall, m e lion op ' 

and shut his month, a- though he 

had been alive This representative 
of brute majesty did more than the 
living original could have done; 
he sung a complimentary air to the 
ducal bride. The Uan wen su< i 

ed In a dromedary, with a rider in 
tin- divss and armour of a Sarac n. 
Afl In- roae round the hall, tin- Sara- 
cen took out of a basket all sort.-, of 
foreign birds, which he distribui <1 
about him, and e\ en thnw upon the 
table. At supper, on die third day 
of these nuptial festii ities, appeared 
five u;l,tiin'l<. four Mild boars 
blew trumpets; and lour goats ev- 
ented a concert on as many difi'ereut, 
instrument^. lour wolves exhibit- 
ed a specimen of tboir skill on the 
flute : and lour Bates rang a rondeau 
which ma\ be found in Olivier dt 
In Marchc. Lastly, four monkies 
played a mischievous trick to a 
i tacksman w ho was asleep, and then 
shewed theit agility in dancing. 

All these d/lrcm/ls, however, 
were eclipsed by those exhibited, at 
the entertainment of the first 
i>n which the liasiard i^{ Burgundy 
opened his tournament as knight 
of tin- golden tree. Or this eccas 
two prodigious giants first entered, 
superbly habited and accoutred. 
They were followed by a whale, 
which, as Qtizier dc In Marc/ 
sores us, was the largest ru-r exli> 
bijlcd by way of rftfranWfr. This 
U 



H8 



LETTERS FROM ITALY. 



sta-monsleruas sixty feet in length, 
and so high, that two knights riding \ 
one on cither side upon the tallest 
horses, could not have seen each 
other. The eyes of the whale were 
formed by two of the largest look- 
ing-glasses that could be procured. 
He moved his fins, his tail, and the 
rest of his body as if he had been 
alive. After he had made the cir- 
cuit of the hall, the whale opened 
his enormous jaws, and disgorged 
two Syrens and twelve Tritons. The 
Syrens began to sing, but were soon 
interrupted by the sound of a drum 
which was heard in the whale's 



belly. When it had ceased the Tri* 
tons struck up a dance with the Sy- 
ren*,. The Tritons soon became 
jealous of each other, and commenc- 
ed a furious eambat, which was ter- 
minated by the two giants, who 
drove back the Tritons and Syrens 
into the belly of the whale. " It was 
certainly a most beautiful erttte* 
w?(V," observes the historian, " for 
there were more than forty persons 
concealed in the body of this marine 
monster. 

Entremets fell into disuse about 
the middle of the fifteenth century. 
(To be continued.) 



LETTERS FROM ITALY. 

LETTER It. 



Naples, April — , isoa. f 

Do not envy my lot, dear T. 
when I tell you, that an hour ago I 
visited the antique mausoleum of, 
the divine Maro. I had purposely ' 
denied myself this exquisite plea- 
sure until the season should be more 
advanced, and the weather more 1 
improved. When we wait on a i 
great man, we are desirous to ap- j 
pear in our best attire; ought not 
then nature to be clad in her most 
brilliant garb, for me to approach 
the tomb of her poet ? A heavenly 
morning had cheered my spirits in- 
to the most pleasing harmony, wben 
I resolved, without waiting for 
breakfast, to enter on this clastic 
pilgrimage. — " Your Excellency 
is early this morning," exclaimed 
Signor Don Giuseppe on entering 
the room ; aud when I acquainted 
him with the cause, he- added, in 
perfect astonishment : " You will 
miss your breakfast, Sir, by the time 
.you get there ; and what is more, 
you will never ikd it unless I go 



with you." — Giving him to under* 
stand, that this was my business, I 
left, him muttering some observa- 
tions on the singular whims dei Sig- 
nori Ingles?, and hastened down 
the Infrescata and the street of To- 
ledo towards the sea-beach. On 
the way, I called at my physician's, 
whom I found very busy in the 
preparation of his breakfast. u You 
are just in time to taste a dish of 
coffee, such as you will probably not 
meet with any where else in this 
city." Notwithstanding the inter- 
dict which this guardian of my con- 
stitution had, on his first visit, pro- 
nounced against that favourite be- 
verage of mine, such was the aro- 
matic odour attending the process, 
and the keenness of my desire, that 
I felt little hesitation in infringing 
the Law, on the temptation of the le- 
gislator. This observation, how- 
ever, I kept to myself till I had 
made an excellent breakfast on the 
forbidden fruit - r and then even Dr. 
— saved his credit by assur* 



I.Li l l lis FROM ITALV. 



119 



in^ mr, thai it was (In- deleterious ret the spot were fruitless; I 

ingied 'iili which coffee wis compelled to call one of them to mv 

universally adulterated at the houses assistance. He immediately led nag 

in iliis city, thai had induced bin up b pretty iteep < met nay, lamed 

to prohibit it -. use to me, but thai into a private garden, and bi aa 

coffee us hit could never hart easyanddelightfulpath, ushered me 



institution. How ing to iliis ex- 

ition, I once more ict out on 

my journey, and walked along the 



into the awful precini t. 

" Voui ex4 eUesM y must ana 
exclaimed the oflcaoiit guide, after. 



beautiful shore of Chiaia towards mj baring cleared lm vociferating or- 

destination, till, from my map, I con* gam for action, k * I know ererf 

eluded that I was within fifty yards of thing." " Then I am silent " 

the spot. Four or five Ciceroni in rain Indeed tin- beauty of this solemn 

offered their serrices ; I was deter- retreat, the lovely shade of the over- 



mined to see with m\ owneyesalone. 



arching trees, tin- soothing stillness 



Whether this < -lass of men derive scarcely interrupted by the rustling 

their generic appellation from the of the leaves gently fanned bv vernal 
eloquent manner will) which they zephyrs, or disturbed by thr plain- 
explain the antiquarian curiosities, I tive strains of the poet of birds — 
or from the innumerable villas need no commentator. Ifethought 
which their fanciful ignorance I heard the shade of the bard whis- 
nscribes to the Roman orator, lam [perhis" Procwl 9 ! proculcstr.prc 
at a loss to decide. That Cicero's /am*/" and, obeying the warning, 
philosophy was not of so austere a I dismissed the guide with hi» I 



Kind as io induce him to renounce 



Here J bow to tradition. This 



the sweets of this world and the im- surely was a favourite retreat of the 

prorement of his fortune, we learn poet, and as such selected by liis 

from his own confession in his Of. patron .\ agastni or his friend Pollio, 

JiceSf and his vanity may have Io contain his mortal leiuains. As to 

prompted him to endeavour to dis- those of his genius, the thtti known 

guises mean descent under external world could not suilicc ; thev are read 

.splendour : but BO great is the mini- with equal admiration on the banks 

her of ruins which bear the name of of the Delaware, Wolga, and (iau- 

Tulliaa villas, that, were we to con- ges, although their author had not, 

fide m such tradition, we might not like Ovid in hist/oai opus i 

only justly accuse him of clown- the vanity of insuring their eternity . 

right extravagance, but perhaps be Jt is not the situation alone of this 

inclined to think that a qussstOiahip elegant little mausoleum which pro- 

in Sicily, and a proconsulate in Ci- claims it to be Virgil's ; nature her- 

licia, were two very goedtkmgs. self has, by a miraculous effort, 

\\ hat a shocking tailing, this un- ; serted its authenticity : the ruinous 

conquerable loquacity ! — Sure of walls are girt and strengthened with 

your pardon, I return to Virgil. ivy and myrtle, and the top of the 

The I'ic ronian gentlemen were fabric is crowned with vigorous 

highly offended at my declining branches of laurel, new shoots of 

their aid, but they triumphed at which have tor centuries replaced 

last. All mv endeavours to disco- the sacriLetjLous.robben.es oi profa ,e 

I 8 



150 



LETT E If S FROM ITALY. 



hands. And yet, with such inter- 
nal evidence before them, the learn- 
ed, who question every thing but 
their own knowledge, hare dared 
to utter doubts ! One of the Nea- 
politan literati, I am told, has va- 
liantly combated the received tra- 
dition ; probably envying a hea- 
then the laurel, which oh the tomb 
of his saint (St. JanuariusJ, he 
would have addicd with superstiti- 
ous devotion. 

The natural beauties of this de- 
lightful spot far exceed the presnii 
appearance of the building itself, 
although, to judge from what re- 
mains, its design proclaims the 
chaste style of architecture preva- 
lent in the Augustan age. It is a 
square little temple, not much larg- 
er than one of our turnpike-lodges ; 
the outside has suffered t>o much 
from the ravages of time, as barely 
to indicate its former figure. The 
interior is rather in abetter condi- 
tion. Round its four walls, are sunk 
various niches, evidently destined to 
contain cinerary urns; audit is said, 
that in the middle of this columba- 
rium, the ashes of Virgil himself 
were deposited in a marble vase, with 
the following inscription written by 
himself: 

*< Mantua me genuit 5 Calabri rajuiere ; tenet 

nunc 
V Parthenope : crcini pascua, rnia, duces." | 

I should be inclined to doubt the 
authenticity of these lines, were it 
not, that possibly the poet may have 1 
sacrificed the usual harmony of his j 
numbers to the desire of compress- 
ing in one distich a most laconic ' 
notice of the places of his birth, | 
death, and interment, as well as of 
his principal works. After all it 
is an Odd corn position, if it is his 
own; for what can be more super- 



fluous than to record the place yott 
are buried in, on your very tomb- 
stone ? But I can easily fancy that 
a man is not in the best of humours 
when he is composing his own epi- 
taph, notwithstanding the absolute 
c 1 t.iinfy he must be under, that, in 
(his instance he is writing for pos- 
terity alone. 

Naples was the favourite resi- 
dence of our poet. Augustus had 
granted him some respectable post 
there, exempted from the toils of offi- 
cial lalvour — " otium cum digni« 
tatc." Who knows but what it 
might have been some prebend/ 
deanery, or living connected with 
the temples of Jupiter or Scrapis 
at Pozzuoli, although the writers of 
his life have not thought proper to 
descend to such particulars : a sine- 
cure it certainly was, and there we 
have at once classic authority in 
favour of sinecure places, for lite- 
rary characters at least ; and to those 
exclusively they ought to be grant- 
ed : don't you think so, T. ? This 
is a serious subject, which, on my re- 
turn to England, shall be brought 
before the public in an express pub- 
lication, wherein I shall prove, that 
the productions of the greatest ge- 
niuses, such as Horace, Virgil, Aris- 
I totle, Newton, Swift, and hundreds 
I of others, ancient as well as modern, 
owe their existence to sinecure 
places. 

But to return to Naples: — what 
other country could so well furnish 
our poet with the subject of his 
Georgics, as Campania, now even 
called la Terra di Laxoro (the land 
of culture, not labour, as some haver 
mischievously translated it) ? 1 have 
seenseveralofthe masserie, or farms, 
in the neighbourhood, and been sur- 
prised at the high state of cultiva- 



1 I ! i i i: - PROM I l I T.V. 



151 



lion they arc in, Biid ;ii ill'- industry 
with which everj inch of this supei - 
l;iti\cl> fertile sod ii brought '" m - 

count. 

,\ot onl\ Iho ( i«M»riri< v are inch bl- 
ed for their instructive merit i<» the 
industrious example* ■>(' Campari i i 
the ASnetd also owes some <>< its 
most beautiful passages to the ismlf- 
nuiic knowledge which V irgil must 

hu\e had S>f the Mil round in ir COUH- 
iry. In (lie sixth book (Ins ui.isi.i- 

piece in my judgment) the whole 

of the horribly sublime seenerv . I h<* 

eavetn of the Sibyl, lake Avernusj 

Acheron, &C. is borrowed from the 

environs of Gunuo and Poznuoli, I 

the volcanic regions of which are. 

with characteristic propriety and 
infinite skill, marked out by the 
poet as the glomy purlieus to the 
entrance into the internal kingdom. 

lint I am again, dear T. running 
on at a wUd rale. I am, you ma\ 
well see, mounted on my hobby, j 
sssd a \\ild hobbj it is, prancing i" 
the Left and right, seldom disposed 
to follow a straight forward course: 
too much of the Shandy breed) unlit 
lor sober travelling. 

An overanxious desire to impress , 
vou with a correct idea of this clas- 
sic jewel, and of the train offoelings 
which rushed upon my fancy at the 
time, has made me prolix. I shall 
atone for the Ian It by a more steady , 
narrative of antecedent occurrence-.. 

The day alter my arrival, I look- 
ed out lor a good physician : Cv- 
iil!o, the Hippocrates o\ Italy, the 
pride of his country, was no more. 
His unhappy late must ever remain 
an indelible stain in the revolution- 
ary annals of this country ; it will 
form a set-olf on the credit side of 
the account o\ blood against the 
Jacobin butchers of Paris. The <rc- 



nius of Dm id (the p i intesj 
sufficient san< tuai \ lo ive him 
from a Well-dcsei \ ed puntshtn 

but in ( '\ i iflo'i sentence, the b •- 

lance of justice h«d om se.de oniy 
io wt ,■■ li his errors, a hen hi, tran* 

BCCndent talents OUght snrelv l.» 

have been thiouii into the ottser. 

1'iit let ns draw a \eil OVCI the 
ii lion ; postcrit v OAC d i\ a ill 

remove it*— The skill of Dr. *** in 
chronic diseases, was highly recom- 
mended to mc : he conceii i d fre- 
quent exert ise on horseback, ■ 

purer air than that which prevails 
at Mad. Gasse's, to be essential to 

my reooverj ; and pronounced the 
mineral waters, which had been 

my chief inducement for coming to 

Naples, unlit to be drunk fal fcWO 
or three months. However disajH 
pOinted at this information, and IttV 

pleased with the idea of quitting my 

inn, where I was comfortably ac- 
commodated with a good lodging 
and table tor litth- more thin live 
shillings a day, I obeyed every 

oik- of his decrees | hired a Imrse 

by the week, and mowed to the 
summit of the Jnfrescata. a hill of 
the suburbs, which derives ii> np- 
pellation from the salubrity of the 

atmosphere. 

in my rambles after DOW quar- 
ters, tedious any where, but morr 
so here, where no bills in the win- 
dows guide \our enquiries, I was 
shewn to the houv. <>r. as they 
called it. palace o\ a private gen- 
tleman. To yon, as a geometrician, 
it will not be* matter of surprise to 
find every house with a trr< at gate, 
Styled palace, in a cit\ where, as 
I have already informed yon", our 
humble Sir is translated into Ec- 
cciii nza ■• for 

As Sil to tm.llcnza, j» House t> Palace. 

Elclid. 



152 



Lr.TTr.ns from italy. 



Indeed Euclid was perfectly at 
home in this palace, as you shall 
sec presently. The private gentle* 
wan received me with Neapolitan 
politeness (e'est tout dit), regretted 
infinitely that his apartments were 
still in the occupancy of a Signore 
j\foseovita ; but assured me, that 
such was his partiality to the Bri- 
tish nation, and his knozc ledge of 
their generosity and noble manner 
of acting, that he should contrive 
to put me in possession of the apart- 
ments in a week or ten days, the 
time necessary to give warning to 
the Russian gentleman. This most 
generous offcrbeing civilly declined 
on my side, he added that, at all 
events, in less than three weeks, 
the gentleman would set off for 
Rome, when I might without scru- 
ple become his inmate. During this 
conversation, a lady, of about 17 or 
18, was occupied at another table 
in executing an academical draw* 
ing. On admiring her proficiency, 
Donna Nicolctta was introduced as 
the daughter of the owner of the 
house. It was a copy of the Farne- 
sinn Hercules, the original of which 
I have since seen in the Regit 
Studii ; and the young artist had 
faithfully copied rude .antiquity in 
all its parts, owing probably to her 
having taken the design previously 
to the visit which a person of au- 
thority lately paid to the gallery of 
antiques now deposited in that mu- 
seum ; on which occasion, I. have 
been told, an immediate and co- 
pious supply of braacn foliage, of 
various dimensions, was ordered to 
be attached, without regard to rank 
or distinction, whether dii majo- 
rum or minorum gentium ^ to all 
the inhabitants of Olympus, that 



were found too fashionable in their 
attire : even poor Kul lip i/ get was 
forced to submit to the dire com- 
mands of decorum ; although, in 
her case, the admiration of the be- 
holder would most probably be at- 
tracted in an antipodean direction. 

" Here," you will exclaim, " is 
the hobby again capering from 
Donna Nicoletta to Venus Kallipy- 
ga ! What a salt urn mortale !" Do 
not, dear T. wrong your valetudi- 
narian friend by suspecting too phy- 
sical an association of ideas. 

" The trifles on which you are 
good enough to lavish your praise," 

observed Sig. , " arc the fruits 

of my daughter's leisure hours : 
she shall shew you something more 
worthy of your attention." A Latin 
translation of the first canto of the 
Oierusalemma JJbcrata^ and an 
Italian one of two or three books of 
Euclid, enriched with Nicolettian 
notes, were now produced as the 
work of the philosophical damsel. 
Unfortunately, a rooted prejudice 
against very learned females not 
only rendered me totally insensible 
to the merits of her lucubrations, 
but even gave in my opinion to the 
very features of her countenance, 
which before had appeared attrac- 
tive, an. air of pedantry, that ex- 
erted its repellent power with such 
accumulated force, that I began to 
look for an opportunity of extricat- 
ing myself from a society which I 
had not grace enough to appreciate. 

What, in the name of good- 
ness, thought, I when I found my- 
self without the walls of this place, 
will a man do with such a wife ! 
if ever mortal has courage or sim- 
plicity enough to covet the posses- 
sion of a woman, who will be do 



1 :.T I Lrit PRO m 1T4LY. 



13.5 



monstrating the binomial theorem 

when sin- OUghl (o be cooking a 

comfortable dish of maccafooi foi 
Ins dinner, <>r couril dactyls im lead 
of plaiting the radii of bia ihirt- 
frills into prismatic parallels. A 
limplcton he mutt be forsooth ! ind 
indeed none bul »u< l> a one will she 
elect, if we trust the Livian para- 
dox, according to which, the most 
diametrically opposite qualifica- 
tions, moral or physical, arc soon- 
est united in wedlock. 

When you read this tetter to 

MUs , yon had better skip the 

above ; tell her it contains private 

matter; or, ifyou are under an ab- 
solute necessity to read it, 1 depend 
en your friendship lor such an ex- 
planation of my sentiments as will 
convince her, that I intend by no 
means io exclude the lovely part- 
ners of our fortunes from the bene- 
fits of an enlightened education : 
'tis a professedly literary career, 
an initiation in the more abstruse 
sciences, which 1 conceive utterly 
incompatible with (he fulfilment of 
the important duties they owe to 
society. 

The abode of this female sa^e 
being at no very great distance from 
the castle of St. Elmo, and more 
than half way up the mountain on 
which it is situated, I desired Don 
Giuseppe to lead the way. " In- 
deed the ascent is too steep for von, 
Sir : you will be exhausted, and 
your curiosity ill repaid. What 
will you see there ? the sea, sonic 
ships, the town, a few pieces of brass 
cannon, all of which you have seen 
before : besides, I doubt whether 
the sentry will admit you." When 
all these objections were over-ruled, 
I learned the true cause ol poor 
Joe's demur : he had eJteu nothing 



ttnee bis scanty brcali I 

. under . 
would nave prov< d rcry ineffec- 
tual i I therefore di ipensed w ith his 
guidance, ami r< u bed Lbs fortress 
i l>\ m> on ii enqui i 

The auri sacra fames t which ere 
iiou has opened the gates of many 
an impregnable stronghold ; or. m 
plain English, three c u tins deli- 
cately introduced into Mm- palm of 
the corporal, procured me free 
cess to the interim j irhere, however, 

I juct with nothing Which could in- 
terest my curiosity : my attention 

was totally absorbed by the view of 
one of the most delightful prospects 
I had ever beheld. All Naples lay 
extended, like a map, at my feet ; 
the splendid mansion of the Carthu- 
sian monks of St. Martin, with the 
beautiful gardens belonging to it, 
directly under the walls of the cas- 
tle; the port crowded with masts • 
at a distance, in the bay, two Bri- 
tish frigates riding at anchor, 
disdaining to seek, greater security 
from a more sheltered recess ; the 
marine skirts of the town lined with 
the mole and lighthouse ; the Castel 
Nuovo, Castel d'Uovo, Puao&lco-' 
ne, and the public gardens ofCbt- 
aia : in the rear, old Vesuvius. d» - 
(ached from its parent, the mountain 
o( Somma, or rather ri^>iii_r out of 
its bosom. But the scene bathes all 
description ; anil to save myself a 
more minute detail, I enclose ;» 
hasty sketch, which I base since 
pencilled from the same point of 
view. 

I have been told a curious circum- 
stance which occurred when recent- 
ly a detachment of our troops, in 
conjunction with the Neapolitans, 
besieged the French in this castle. 
The British had do sooner built 



151 



I.T.TTF.RS FROM ITAT.V 



their huts at .') convenient distance 
from tlic fortress, than many of the 
men were suddenly seized with vio- 
lent vomiting's, others with head- 
ache and languor, which rendered 
them unfit for duty. At first it 
was suspected that the French had 
poisoned the wells ; but when it 
was found that other corps, which 
had used the same water, were in 
perfect health, it was feared that the 
plague, or some other epidemic 
disease, had infected the camp : 
the more so, as medicine, although 
administered immediately, produced 
no abatement in the symptoms. A 
sensible and skilful st a ft- surgeon, 
however, was fortunate enough to 
discover the true cause of the evil : 
the encampment being in the vici- 
nity of a hemp field, the men had 
formed their huts with the stalks 
and leaves of that plant, the effluvia 
of which had exerted their intoxi- 
cating and stuporilic qualities to the 
alarming degree above described. 
As soon therefore as the cause was 
removed, the evil ceased, without 
any further serious consequence. 

f could have feasted my eyes for 
hours on the sublime scene before 
me. had not grosser organs reminded 
me of the humiliating truth, that 
man is not all mind. My stomach 
began to be in the same predicament 
as that of Don Giuseppe, an hour 
ago : hunger hurried me down to 
the city, where I had nearly re- 
pented of the indulgence 1 had 
granted him. I totally lost my way, 
and became bewildered in a maze of 
small narrow lanes, the poor inha- 
bitants of which answered my re- 
peated enquiries with a good-na- 
tured, but to me unintelligible, 
Neapolitan patois. Fortunately, I 
met at last a Neapolitan officer, who 



con/cl speak Italian, and who was 
kind enough to conduct, me to my 
inn, where, for the first time these 
four months, 1 dined with real ap- 
petite on the cold relics of the table 
(Flint p. 

Before I close this long letter, I 
must give you a short description 
of a curious theatrical representa- 
tion, at which I was present some 
days ago. The title of Said induced 
me to expect a sacred oratorio ; in- 
stead of which, I found the whole 
of fhc biblical narrative dramatized 
info a complete opera, not even 
omitting the incantations of the 
Avitch of Endor. The Neapolitans 
are more unreasonable than the an- 
cient Romans ; they would have 
carnem el circenses even in Lent- 
time : the former, I understand, they 
have been indulged with by a spe- 
cial, but by no means gratuitous, 
dispensation from the Holy See ; 
and their eagerness for the latter 
has been gratified by the sacred 
kind of opera just mentioned, in 
Avhich Signora P. made her first 
dtbt'd as a singer, in the character 
of David, and, lam told, attracted 
the particular notice of a British 
officer of rank. She is not yet a 
great singer, but bids fair to be 
one ; her intonation is full and sweet, 
and her compass great : science, 
and an action more degagee, and 
adapted to the stage, is all she 
wants; and which, at her age, she 
has time to acquire, for she docs 
not appear to be more than sixteen. 
Add to this, a lovely face and figure, 
much resembling our Miss D.'s, and 
you will not fax me with unreason- 
able partiality. Mombelli, the first 
tenor, acted King Saul admirably : 
although he is tfun certain age, his 
voice penetrated every part of the 



N 




nnm-n SPORTS; 



i > 



house ; but it is in the recitativos 

lie is most noble and impress! \ e : 
Ins figure, step, ;iiid in ■lion, lie- 

quentlv put mc in mind of Kemble. 
The music, Gugliclmi's as I am 
fold, has great merit : and n bai p- 
:tir, iii particular, <»• David's (not 

B |> ilm ) in a minor lt< \ . (TBI e\- 

trcmcly affecting. I pon the whole, 
justice wis noi done to the compo- 
ier by the orchestra, which was sen- 
sibly inferior to our's at < li *• King's 
Theatre. 



\ in r one of the I m jest V 
which Ii' wj pen, 

I frnsi J in;i\ take leai •• oi \ on with 

some i\r<: I III : lll<- mop 1 so, 

as the pleasure I derive from writ- 
ing i<» \<»n has made me U 
the directions of the pbytu ian, who 
riousty cautioned me 
against sedentary occupation. M i 
health, however, improves j at lea I 
m\ spirits are better, as 3 on saaj 
bave perceived yourself, from the 
preceding rhapsodies of 

\ Oill ' 



BRITISH SPORTS. 

( Continued from pagi 97. ) 

Having briefly adverted to the which are never known to tire, and 
laws respecting animals, both wild 



and lame, we shall now proceed to 

describe thediffereni kinds of dogs 
employed in the spoils of the field, 
commencing with 

PL 1 li S — THE POINTER. 

The accurate representation of 



have frequentlj speed enough to 
catch a half-grow n leveret, it it hap- 
pens to start np before them. 

It is not above thirty or fortj 
veers since the breed of pointers 

, were ncarU while, or mostl) varie- 
gated with liver-coloured spots, 1 \- 



the pointer which accompanies our cept the celebrated stock of the Duke 
last number, renders it unnecessary to of Kingston, whose blacks were con- 



enlarge on the peculiarities of shape 
or colour of this species of dogs. 



sidered superior to any in the king- 
dom, and sold for very large sums 



It is supposed, and a variety of CUT- after his death. Hut such has been 



cumstances tend to confirm the con- 
jecture, that this breed was for- 
merly unknown in Britain : that it 
was tirst introduced into this COUII- 
11 \ from Spain, not much more than 
two centuries since; and that the 
heavy awkward appearance of the 
Spanish pointer has been corrected 
by judicious crosses. These are so 
numerous that pointers are now to 
be seen oi all sizes, colours, and qua- 
lifications ; from the slow, short- 



the constantly increasing attach- 
ment to the sports of the field, that 
they have since been bred of every 
description, from a pure white, and 
a flea-bitten blue, or grey, toa com- 
plete liver-colour, or perfect black. 
After all the experiments that I 
been made by the best judu r e-, and 
the most zealous amateurs, in n spe< r 
to size, it seem- a; Length 1 • 
cided opinion with the majority, 
that when bred for ev< . 



muzzled, heavy-shouldered remains j; game, and diversity of countrj . it is 
of the perfect Spanish- pointer, in- advisable to avoid extremes; 
capable of a second day's work, to II over-grown, Fat, and heavy 

the in-and-in cross with a fox-hound, ! verv soon grow weary, in the hjt 



No. 111. Vet. J. 



X 



IJL) 



BRITISH SPORTS. 



and early part of the season » and 
the smaller sort are attended with in- 
convenience is bunting high tur- 
nips, heath, ling, ami broom fields. 

Pointers, however well they may 
have been bred, arc never consider- 
ed complete, unless they arc per- 
fectly staunch to bird, dog, and gun, 
which implies, first, standing singly 
to a bird, or covey ; secondly, back- 
ing, or pointing instantly likewise, 
the moment one dog perceives ano- 
ther stand ; and lastly, not stirring 
from his own point at the rising of 
any bird, or the firing of any gun 
in tiie field, provided the game at 
which he made his original point is 
neither sprung nor started. 

The natural disposition of the 
pointer, from its pliability and mild- 
ness, is admirably adapted to acquire 
these degrees of perfection ; for, in- 
dependent of the attracting sym- 
metry of his form, his unceasing 
attention and unwearied attachment, 
he possesses all those inexplicable 
qualities which arc calculated to 
command the confidence of man. 

The art of breaking pointers was 
formerly considered so difficult, that 
it was relinquished to a particular 
class of persons;, who called them- 
selves dog-breakers: but the sim- 
plicity of the method is now gene- 
rally understood by sportsmen, who 
know that a tolerably well-bred 
pointer puppy may have the ground- 
work of all his future perfections 
laid in the parlour, or kitchen, be- 
fore he once makes his appearance 
in the field. The instinct of this 
breed i- frequently seen to display 
itself in subjects not more than 
three or four months old; and in 
still and uninterrupted situations, 
puppies may be observed most ear- 
nestly standing at thickens, pigeons, 



and even sparrows upon the ground 
by sight, before the olfactory pow- 
ers can be supposed to have attained 
maturity to prompt a point by scent. 
The education of a pointer may 
commenceabout the sixth or seventh 
month, but he should not be brought 
regularly info the field till full a 
year old. Pointers, though ade- 
quate to various kinds of sport, arc 
principally employed in partridge, 
grouse, and snipe-shooting, in which 
their merits are more strikingly con- 
spicuous, and can be more pleasing- 
ly enjoyed than in pheasant or cock- 
shooting, where the spirit of the 
pursuit is lost in the obscurity of 
the remote and wooded situation. 



PLATE 13. THE SETTER. 

The dog passing under this de- 
nomination is a species of pointer, 
originally produced by a mixture 
between the Spanish pointer and 
the larger breed of the English 
spaniel, which, by careful cultiva- 
tion, has attained a considerable 
degree of estimation and celebrity, 
as well for its figure as its qualifica- 
tions. In regard to figure, the set- 
ter is equally beautiful and attract- 
ing with any variety of the canine 
species. It possesses an elegant 
symmetry of shape, a pleasing va- 
riegation of colour, a diffidence, hu- 
mility, and solicitation of notice, 
far beyond the power of the pen to 
express, or of the pencil to de- 
lineate. 

The sporting department of the 
setter in the field, precisely corre- 
sponds with the pursuits and pro- 
pensities of the pointer, but with 
this single variation : that, admit- 
ting their olfactory organs to be 
equally exquisite, and that the one 
can d isco vcr, and us ex peditiously re.- 



COMPOSITION koh in IL1JT0 v,r,\;s[>- i 



1 7 



teive the particle <>t cent ■• the 

oilier, il it m I'M llr<- one lo 

effect u|)(ni h;< l. _s, v.liai the other 
does l>\ prostration <»u the ground. 
This different e ii neither iron "..r 
l< ill. 111 the purr effect <>l -|i"i ting 
education ; for ns in shooting with 
the pointer, the game is always ex- 
pected (<» rise, so in the use of a set- 
ting-dog .iinl net, the game is in- 
quired to lie. It must be obvious 
to all, how much the properties of 
animali depend on their education, 
ami in confirmation of this, ire mai 
observe, that ii is well known, that 
the gamekeeper of .i gentleman neai 
Odiham, in Hampshire, actually 
taught a full-grown pig to hunt 
the stubhlcs, quarter hi> ground, 
and point tin- birds in so high a • 
style, as to obtain considerable emo- 
lument by repeated displays of his 
ingenuity, patience, and perseve- 
raner. 

Although sett inff-d off s are in are- 
neral used merely for the purpose 
of taking partridges with the draw- 
net, they are brought into occa- 



sional it-.- i itfa the r ' ? ", n ' 

equally ad iptcd to < b I 

spoi '. except in turnip* . 

n Ik at, * tandii 

<ir othei cot • 

drop and point m 

I \ oli rr\ i I. Thcj rn ■ 

into the field about thi i 

the pointer, and broken in bj the 

same means. 

To ilns account "<■ shall subjoin 
the lines in n hn h Somen d<- n 
curatelj dew ribes the nae end qsnv 
lifications of the setter: — 

U In n antnma mill ■ all l" •• ■ 

Anil | * :i 1 1 1 1 -> larli ili.-j ■ inout 

Ian s, 

My aettei ranges in the new-shorn fi 
His nose in . from iul£<- lo 1 1 

Panting Im l.ouinN, lus <|n:ii ti id pi ou lid «livi«Jo* 
In ci|u:il intii\;iU, iiui i :u< l> s . I. ai i s 

One inch nntry'd. At Ii dated jalcs 

His nostrils wide inhale } qaick JO] < laU » 

His beating hurt, which, nw'dh] discipline 

s. mi.. In .!.in , not own, but cautions ■ 
Lot cow eri ng st< p by -t»|>, at last attains 

His proper distance ; then be stoj 
And points «itli his instrnctiTi none npon 
The trembling pn > On wings of wiadnpboraM 
The Boating net unfold* .1 tin ? j tin ■ mwpa, 
And ilic poor Scattering enptiea use m rain, 



COMPOSITION FOR HEALING WOUNDS IX TREES. 

Wi. have gn .it satisfaction in submitting n> <>ur readi ra ili<- fallowing communis I 
from Earl Stanhope, a nobleman whose studies have invariably been din 
towards the advancement <>t those branches of useful science, which tend . 
particularly to promote the welfare of mankind in g< 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOStTO 

BemerVstreet, Fefa . toss of large branches, occasioned 

Sin, l, v wind, or otherwise, 1- much 

The subject mentioned in your greater than people in general 

letter to me of yesterday 's date, re- aware of. Everj attentive person 

lativc to the healing of wounded may easily perceive the local injury 

tiers, is certainly very interesting; which takes place at and near the 

I vwll therefore (agreeably to your wound where the tree becomes e\ i- 

wish) inform yon of my success, dently rotten; but there is, in ad- 

and in what manner I have obtain- dition thereto, a general injury to 

ed it. ' the tree, which i- produced in the 

The injury which is done to tim- following manner. W hi 

ber trees, and other trees, from the , in at the wounded part, it finds 

X 8 



158 



COMPOSITION FOR healing wounds in trees#* 



way downwards, between the solid 
wood and the bark, through the 
capillary intervals where the s;ip 
rises. As the wet, so introduced, 
cannot get out, it frequently tends 
to eaase the bark to decay at the 
bottom of the tree, just above, or 
at ihe top of the ground. The ca- 
pillary attraction, which causes the 
Bap to rise, grows gradually weak- 
er ; the tree gets sickly ; the tips of 
its upper boughs become rotten; 
and that fresh injury lets in more 
wet, which hastens the general 
decay : so that timber trees of the 
first size sometimes become hollow, 
or otherwise unsound, though the 
-whole injury originated, perhaps, 
from the loss of a single large branch. 
To remedy these evils, I have 
applied to the wounds a composi- 
tion that I discovered many years 
ago, and which, when properly 
used, has succeeded even beyond 
my expectation ; for not only the 
bark grows over the wounds, gra- 
dually pushing oil' the composition, 
but even the vhile zcood, as it is 
commonly called, grows under the 
new bark, so as to produce a radical 
and a complete local cure. Whe- 
ther the local cure thus accom- 
plished, will, or will not, stop the 
gencraU\ccn\\ which proceeds from 
the united causes 1 have alluded to, 
will depend upon the degree of 
general injury that the tree had 
received previously to the com- 
position having been applied, and 
likewise on the number of small 
branches, or boughs, broken off; 
inasmuch as a tree can receive, in 
the manner I have described, the 
same degree of general injury from 
several broken boughs, as it may 
from the loss of one branch of the 
largest dimensions. Wounds of an 



uncommon size in the bark of the 
trunk of the tree itself, have been 
completely healed by the same 
means. I have tried this plan on 
a great number of different sorts of 
trees, and I have alwa}-s succeeded, 
if the composition was properly ap- 
plied, and in due time : one appli- 
cation of the composition will fre- 
quently be quite sufficient, but some 
trees require it to be applied more 
than once. The elm, when very 
vigorous, is, generally speaking, 
of the latter description, on account 
of the great quantity of sap which 
weeps from its wounds, especially 
when the wounds are of a consider- 
able size. 

Oak, beech, chesnut, walnut, 
ash, elm, cedar, fir, asp, lime, sy- 
camore, and birch trees, are, by 
an act of parliament of the 6th year 
of his present majesty, deemed and 
taken to be timber trees ; and by 
an act of the 13th of the king, pop- 
lar, alder, larch, maple, and horn- 
beam, are also deemed and taken 
to be timber trees. The trial has 
been made on the greater number of 
these seventeen sorts, as well as on 
yew, hcrse-chesnut, and apple-trees, 
on various fruit and other trees, 
laurels, and shrubs. 

K it be wished to saw the limb 
off, either close to the body of the 
tree, or near to it, great care should 
be taken that the separated limb, in 
falling, does not tear off the bark 
from the tree itself. This may be 
accomplished by first separating 
from the tree the greater part of 
the limb, and then taking off the 
remaining stump, and also by saw- 
ing the bark of the limb completely 
all around before the wood itself is 
divided. If the limb be a very large 
one, a rope properly tied to it may 



ON 'iiir. w IS1 E OF 40 mi i i M it \ '• P»ODU< i . 



I & 



he advani i " sou ly ust d, to prevent 
iis injui in " the tree at the moment 
of its being separated from if. 

After ill.- broken limb baa ; 
aawed off, the a hole of the tan -< ut 
must be rerj carefully pared awaj ■ 
by meam of a spoke- ha 1 1 1 , i hisel, 
i other \< ' \ iharp tool j and the 
rough e Iges of the bark must, in 
partieulai - be made quite imooth i 
i in- doing of this properly is of 
great consequence. 

When the raa -cut is complen Ij 
pared off, the composition hereafter 
mentioned must be laid on, not, 
about the thickness of balf-a-i rown, 
over (he wounded place, and ova 
the edges of the surrounding bark : 
it should be spread with a hot 
trowel* The most convenient tool 
ibr this purpose, is a trowel aome- 



uli.it similar in form to i! I 

bj p 

(sim Ii as of 1 .jii.ni. 1 
inch), in ord 1 to retain the I 
the longei ■ 

The hi aiin -■ ition is to 

made ai follows i I aki , ot dry 
I x mi nt It (I chalk, thret met area ; 
ami of comm 'ii * egctable tar, one 
ire : mil them thoroughly, 
and boil them, a ith 1 low heat, nil 
the composition becora 
bu tencj of • • " '" ' 

preaen ed for u* , in this 
;ui\ lengtb "i timet It < Ii < y >^ can* 

cnicntly !«• got, di 
.In ;. v,lti< h has passed through a 
fine sieve, may be substituted. 
I am, Si a, 
Your obedient servant, 
- 



TO THE EDITOR 01 THE REPOSITORY, & - 

g|H of all the various op.-r itions bcl 

Observing, on the 'cover of ing to agriculture. A.s I have not 

your Magazine, your liberal oiler pent much time i;« the study, you 

of gold and silver medals for the must not expect any florid periods 

best essays on different subjects re- or elegance of style : my only am* 

lating to the arts, manufactures, \ bition is, to communicate my ideas 

and commerce of this country, I in a plain intelligible way, 

•was happy to see, among them, one impress my subject oa the minds ot 

for the best essay on agriculture; those readers who may haves 

on which subject I shall take the for forming. If any ot tin m -I. 1 



liberty of offering you B tew re- 
marks, queries, and observations, 
not as a candidate tor your medal. 
but as an occasional correspondent, 
as 1 very much approve of the new 
and very useful plan of your Repo- 
sitory. 

If the following lines should be 
found worthy of your notice, I may 
in future be induced to renew the 



receive one useful hint from my ob- 
sei \ ations, I shall be bighlj com- 
pensated in doing say duty ^s a 

member oi' that comratmitj . which 

must ever be inter* stod in all that 

concerns the improvement oi 

culture. 

The ameliorations that haw 
dually taken plai e m all the BO 
of cultivating the various soils of 



subject ; not as a closet fanner, but tj u . British Isles, within the la>i half 
as one who has for ma:i\ years re- century, have been almost innumc- 
peatedly gone through all the toils rablc. The increase oi produce has 



160 



OX INSTRUMENTS FOR P ItOCl'KIXCT 



hitherto more particularly engaged |j 
the pen of the theorist, as well as the 
practical exertions of tbe fanner; 
but the preservation of that aceu- 

undated produce, from the time of 
ils maturity to the period of i(s con- 
sumption, has nof yet sufficiently 
engaged either the pen of the for- 
mer, or the practice of the latter. 

Whether it be that the appear- 
ance of great produce, when seen 
in the bulk, and, consequently, 
more conspicuous to tlie eye, fasci- 
nates men's minds, and induces 
them to pay more attention to in- 
crease than preservation ; or that 
the various and imperceptible kinds 
of waste to which agricultural pro- 
duce is incident, after arriving at 
maturity, are so gradual, so diver- 
sified and divided, as to appear but 
trilling in the aggregate, and not 



sufficient to rouse their attention, I 
shall not presume to determine. 
Experience, however, seems to fa- 
vour the adoption of the latter hy- 
pothesis. 

If all the waste to which the pro- 
duce of a farm is liable, could be 
seen at once, its measure and value 
would surprise the farmer, and its 
aggregate astonish the agricultural 
world : perhaps it might not be too 
much to assert, that it would far 
exceed the amount of our greatest 
importation in any one year. 

I shall endeavour, in a future 
communication, to point out the 
different species of waste, and sug- 
gest some modes that may proba- 
bly prevent some of the most in- 
jurious. 

Ax Economist* 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY, &c. 



Sin, 
Among the various articles that 
are daily obtruded on the public as 
new inventions, two instruments 
have lately been ushered into no- 
tice with much parade, professedly 
under the protection of his majesty's 
royal letters patent, on which I wish 
to be permitted to make a few re- 
marks in your valuable Repository. 

The instruments to which I allude 
are announced for sale by the pa- 
tentees, under the firm of the " In- 
stantaneous Fire and Light Com- 
pany," who claim an exclusive 
right to their sale ; and presume 
to tell the public, that " these in- 
struments are of the latest invention, 
and pronounced, by the most emi- 
nent philosophers and chemists of 
the present day, to be highly use- 
ful, and a truly scientific curiosi- 



ty ;*' and farther, " that the advan- 
tage of the machines consists in an 
instantaneous production of fire and 
light, without risk or danger, there 
being no combustible substance em- 
ployed." Fire and light produced 
without the employment of any 
combustible substance ! Excellent 
chemists ! 1 suppose we shall next 
have them taking out a patent for 
transmuting, not brass, but zcood, 
into gold. 

The first of these wonderful in- 
struments, 1 have no hesitation in 
saying, is nothing more than Vol- 
ta's lamp disguised in a wooden 
box ; an instrument as old as the 
writer of these remarks, and in- 
vented by the celebrated philoso- 
pher from whom it takes its name: 
many, indeed, call it the philoso- 
phical plaything ; perhaps not a 



VI m: INS LIGHT I! TXS1A ■ 



IG1 



\ ery innppropi iatc terra. Tliis in- 
itrumen( i.^ better known on (In- 
continent thnn in this country, tho' 
numbers huvc been made 3 eai 
even here. If-uny gentleman doubts 
this, I can easilj satisfy him of the 
factj if he will call at my hou ■• 
where Volta's lamp, 01 instantane- 
ous light-machine, maj be seen ; 
lis construction fully cxpluincd, and 
the most indubitable proof given of 
its having been many years 
made by an artist, whose name was 
ranked with those of eminence in 
fi is day, and whose scientific papers 
merited ;i place in the Transactions 
of the Royal Society: the artist I 
mean, is Mr. Nairne. The instru- 
ment thus constructed, is rally as 

pood as the patent one, and the 

principle is the same. 

To the natural philosopher it is 
unnecessary to sty any thing on the 
merits of this machine ; but io those 
gentlemen who have had no oppor- 
tunity of devoting their time to sci- 
ence, a few remarks, by way of 
caution, may not be improper. — 



inflammal emploj ••'!,'' 

I would (ake the liberty i<» 
whether thej lia 1 been 

known to explode in a terrible man- 
ner : and w bet her lij di i><: 
aai one of the must inflammable, 
and one "I the mo 1 dangerous of 
inflammable 

tliis ^-.is in ili«- machine that is tired 
liv the electi 1 . w lien it 

b • procured. I - ij w ben it can be 

procured j for (hi- e!, elrir d pb< - 

noroenon is extremely capriciou 
fact but too w< II known to all 
turcrs on natural philosophy, when 
ilny have attempts d I 
rimental proofs ol Ttion -. 

Enough bai ing been said to shew 
tliatt!:is instrument is neither new 
imr certain in its effects, J shall 
proceed to make si. me remarks oa 
another instrument included in 1!"* 
same patent, and called w \n In- 
stantaneous Fire-cane." Prom the 
words of tli'- patent, it will be sen 
that this, as well as the other, was 
communicated by a foreigner (<• 
Mr. Lorentz, the person who * 



They may be assured, then, that no j out the patent for the supposed in- 



absolute dependence can be placed 
on the machines producing tire "by 
turning B key," since the excita- 
tion, or electricity, of the electro- 

phorus, is very often destroyed in 
n few hours by the humidity of the 
atmosphere, or other meteorological 

causes ; so that a person having 
occasion for instantaneous light in 
a moment of peril, may be as often 
disappointed as assisted, and thus 
be plunged into inextricable dis- 
tress by his credulity. 

And when the patentees have the 
boldness to assert, lt that there is 



ventions. 

Now it has been v. ell known 1 » 

men ofsciencc for \<;irs. that con- 
densation of air raises its tempera- 
ture, and that ihis may be carried 
so far as to ignite combustible sub- 
stances ; an experiment which has 
been frequently exhibited to public 
auditories, as an Instrument appli- 
cable to this purpose I 
in common sale. The anni \ I 
figure represents that which I have 
usually made and sold ; and 1 
•rive a brief description of its 
struction. with the mo 



no danger in the machine, nor any for the production ol I 



J62 ON INSTRUMENTS FOR rnOCUIUN'C FIRE AND LIGHT, &C. 




Dcscriptio?i of the I*ijropncumalk 
Apparatus. 

The cylinder a, fig. 1, is about 
nine inches long, and half an inch 
in diameter : it terminates in a 
screw at b, on which screws the 
magazine c, intended to hold match- 
es, a bougie, and some fungus. A 
steel rod, a, is attached to a solid 
piston, or plunger, not shewn in 
the tigure, it being within the tube. 
This rod has a milled head, b ; and 
at g there is a small hole in the 
tube to admit the air, when the pis- 
ton is drawn up to the top, where 
a piece unscrews, for the purpose 
of applying oil or grease to the 
piston. I have found lard to an- 
swer the end best. 

Method of using it. 

Take from the magazine a small 
piece of fungus, and place it in the 
chamber at b : screw the piece c 
tight on n, and draw the piston up 
Ivy the end &, till it stops at a. Hold 
the instrument with both hands in 
the manner represented in fig. 2 ; 
place the end b on a table, or against 
any firm body, cither in a perpen- 
dicular, horizontal, or vertical di- 
rection, and force the piston down 
to b with as much rapidity as pos- 
sible. This rapid compression of 



(he air will cause the fungus to take 
fire. Instantly after the stroke of 
the piston, unscrew the magazine 
C, when the air will rush in, and 
keep up the combustion till the fun- 
gus is consumed. Observe, in light- 
ing a match, the fungus must be 
lifted up a little from the chamber, 
so as to allow the match to be in- 
troduced beneath it, otherwise it 
will not kindle. 

Here it may be remarked, the in- 
strument thus constructed, has a 
decided advantage over the fire- 
cane, where the fungus is inserted 
at such a depth as not easily to be 
got at : it is only about half the 
price, and it is very portable, so 
that a gentleman may easily carry 
it in his pocket, without the in- 
cumbrance of a stick, that has more 
resemblance to the club of Hercules, 
than to a fashionable or ordinary 
walking stick. 

I am, Sin, 
Your obedient humble servant, 
R. Bancks. 
No. 441, Strand. 

N. B. Common tinder might be 
used instead of the fungus ; and 
various other bodies may be ignited 
by this apparatus. 



163 



ACCOl M OF A SEM I 
TO THE 

Sin, 

A QOOD pedometer, that ma> 

l)c depended upon foi accuracy ol 
performance, %% ill not inconveni- 
ence the wearer, and is pot liable 
in be |>ni Out of ordci . appears to 
be ■ desideratum to various de- 
scriptions of persons, cither as i 
matter of curiosity «>r of real uti- 
lity. 

Many sportsman, after lia\ Wig 
been out tor hours in pursuit of 
game, would be highly gratified in 
Know i n i: , with accuracy , llOW mncli 

ground In- had actually traversed. 
To the scientific traveller it would 

often he an advantage, to know the 
distance from one place to another, 
fa here he cannot take an actual mea- 
surement -for w ant of l ii-.ie or proper 

Instruments, and has no resource 

but a random gUCSS, or (lie time he 
lias spent on the road : which nuist 
rieCessafily be liable to much un- 
certainty, from difference of ground 
and occasional delays. 

Of the pleasantness and salubrity 
of the exercise of walking, there 
can be no question ; and to all who 
are fond of it, a good pedometer is 
ai least an agreeable companion : 
but to the valetudinarian il :- more : 
it is ;i;i important monitor. Though 
this kind o( exercise is extremely 
salutary in nervous affections in 
particular, and to convalescents ii 
requires regulation, it must not In' 
any means exceed due limits: these 

limits, it may he said, con always 
be ascertained by the feelings of the 
patient, who may desist from walk- 
ing the moment he begins to he sen- 
sible of fatigue : but this is not true, 
-as I, a valetudinarian myself, have 
often found by experience. The 
No. 111. Vol. L 



NVBNTED PEDOMETER. 
EDITOR 

mo i elig ibh- plo< <• for taking tht 
exen i e of walking, at \> a I in a 
medicinal iriew, is in the fields : but 
here the exhilarating effects of the 
air and situation entice the pedes' 

i Irian on, lill hi le'nrii boll / 

much for his strength ; and, as no 

Coach is at hand, he is more 4 \- 

hausted by mtigue than i 

[by exercise. Agftrntt tbil C icijni- 

stauce, the effects oi which I have 

felt severely more than on<v , i 

pedometer would be perhaps the 

most effectual guard. 

I have been led. Sir. to these re- 
lh clions, by the in.8pC4 tton of a pe- 

I dometer invented by Mr. Gout, for 

; which that gentleman has a patent, 

and which has lately fallen in my 

way. As he Ii is an exclusive right 

to it. a minute description of its 

mechanism WOUld be sup' | ■ 

, but it appears to me to be construct- 
ed on as simple and a ;.rin- 
ciples as such an instrument will 

admit. It is about the size of a 
large pocket watch, or rather more 
than twO inches in diameter only, 
worn like it in Q fob : and „> lh« re 
is no chain to affix it to any part, 
and a common watch i led in 

the sai . .' ers ike pur- 

pose of a watch, and is not ih< 
additional incumbrance, lis i 

of action is by a lever, of no 

length, which is affixed to tht 
of the pendant, am! moves with the 
great every time a step is 

taken with the foot on that side on 
which ii is worn: a circle on the 
dial-plate notes ev< ry step . i 
is ten : another do steps 

as far as a hundred ; and a third 
Dotes every hundl - as far as 

I ten thousand. The wheel-work 9 



164 



PROJECTED SPANISH EMIGRATION'. 



very simple, and so contrived, that 
the hands may be set to ° with as 
little trouble as a watch is set to any 
'given hour ; so that, when you have 
reached the end of your walk, or 
arc in any part of it, you can tell at 
once the number of paces you have 
gone, "without the trouble of sub- 
tracting 

An objection has been made to 
pedometers, which militates equally 
against every contrivance of the 
sort, however perfect in its con- 
struction. This it is proper to no- 
tice, as it has had great weight with 
many to decline their use, though 
in fact it is of trifling import. Jt 
has been said, a pedometer must 
be of no utility, because different 
people walk at very different rates. 
They do so; but the intention of 
the instrument is to measure dis- 
stanccs, not directly, but indirectly, 
by the number of steps taken. Thus, 
one person may make a thousand 
and fifty paces in the distance of a 



mile, at his common rate o£ walk- 
ing: another may make twelve hun- 
dred, and a third may not make 
above a thousand. This each must 
ascertain for himself; which, when 
once done, he will easily compute 
the distance walked, as the instru- 
ment registers with accuracy the 
number of paces taken. It ha? 
been further said, that no man walks 
! at all times alike: this is in some 
1 respects true, particularly when a 
j man is in company with others ; 
; but I believe it will be found to be 
i the fact, that a man, from mere 
, habit, will walk pretty nearly at 
an average rale, especially for any 
distance; and any one who wishes 
to measure ground with some nicety 
by the instrument, a little practice 
will enable to do so with far greater 
accuracy than most people would 
suppose. 

I am, Sir, 
Your very obedient servant, 
Teciinophilos. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE REPOSITORY, &c. 



Sir, 

The interest which the British 
nation in general has taken in the 
contest so nobly maintained by the 
Spaniards against the infamous ag- 
gressions of Bonaparte, will natu- 
rally make it solicitous respecting 
the final result ; and however car- 
nest its wishes may be for their suc-i 
cess, yet recent events catmotbul; 
impress upon the minds of those 
who reflect, the fears that he may 
in the end triumph over all the ob- 
stacles which a brave and loyal 
people can throw in his way. 

It may then become an enquiry; 
of the greatest moment, iu what 



way to dispose of those who, rather 
than reside under the sway of an 
usurper, chusc to quit their coun- 
try, and doubtless there will be 
many of this description. To con- 
vey them to South America, may, 
from t ho length of the voyage and 
other circumstances, be impracti- 
cable ; but it perhaps may be pas- 
sible to point out countries which, 
af the same time that they might 
afford them an asylum, avouUI pro- 
cure Britain allies and advantages of 
i lie greatest importance to her fu- 
ture interests. 

It is evident that new settlers will 
require new habitations, food, and 



Min.ii :ii) :\M^li /.MlGTlATlox, 



I . > 



^lolhin'f and they must eithci take 

With them a siiHi' k-im \ of (lie Ittii 
last, or depend upon im pt »i (ut i«>ns 
tor the in sii])|il\ . 

To do this, J.ol only requires 
time, hul is attended Willi .111 im- 
mense ex peace, if t n*- number (<> 

he pros kled for is great : .tncJ in 

this instance, of a people quitting 
their country, the number cannot 
he asonrtakicd-i ol themselves^ the} 

( im not he supposed to have the 

means, .ind must therefore depend 
upon their friends. Ji becomes, 
then, ;i consideration of no little 

moment wheiefo place ihcm, so B8 
to oh\ iate these difficulties. The 
situation, climate, and produce of 
the Delia and the Crimea, seem pe- 
culiarly adapted to receive tiiein. 
The Delta produces, with little or 

no cultivation, grata and units of 
all kinds necessary for the suste- 
nance of man ; and a small portion 
of labour cultivates a large tract of 
ground. 

Habitations, where little or no 
rain falls, are easily erected, and 
clothing is not the greatest Of hu- 
man wanis- The Spaniards, habi- 
luated to a warm climate, would i 
not find themselves incommoded by 
a heat that scarcely exceeds that of 
the northern provinces of their own 
kingdom more than two or three 
degrees, except at the period oftbe 

scirocco, and then for only a feu 
hours. Indolence, to which, as in 

common with all the natives of hot 
climates, they are more or loss in- 
clined, would here still meet with 
its usual indulgence. Pood could 



afford pasture for their favourite 
sheep, and probably increase the 
pioduee of llj.it vahiabh- animal. 
\s a place ol residence, therefore, 
for the Spaniard*;, j,, || w . eVOJBt of 
their abandoning t!i 

Egypt appease to hold out in '■ 

ineuts not possessed by any oilier, 
«\< cp( the Crimea, the pnad 
ancient (.reece. The prod* lions 

of this country and iK climate aft 
also Millar to those <»i Spain : he- 
sides which, it eii|o\ 1 manj other 

advantages all conducive to the 
comforts of its inhabitants. ( lonsj- 

dered in a political point of view, 
they both possess advantages tint 
cannot lie 01 i'i loo\ej. e\ m b\ l he 
most superficial o!)>,T\<r. Egypt, 
colonized by the fi ic;i.!> of ( ,ieat 
Britain, would form an impenetra- 
ble barrier to tin- hi, -in h in their 

toMgwprojcctod invasion of our EafC 

Indian territories j and would, at 
t!ie same time, afford an opining 
for the di- poSBJ of a great quantity 
of our manufactures: in e.\< haSkje 
for which they would give us s.if- 
(lovver, imtron, rice, dates, cotton, 
coffee, drugs, Mc 

The occupation of Egypt would 
naturally be followed by that of the 
islands of Cyprus, Crete, Who 

SVR* all productive, nlabltOUS, and 

easily defensible : offering not only 
the productions of warmer climali -. 
but also inexhaustible forests of 
valuable timber. 

The Crimea, and the coasts of 
the Klack Sea, present also, 1 
pendenUy of their pa \ due, 

Bourc is ■<( comnn 1 



l>e readily obtained) the produc- consideration to Great Britain, as a 



tions of their native clime all flou- 
rish here with, perhaps, incn 
luxuriance : and the rich and pro- 
ductive plains of the Delta would 



point from which hci mauufai 

with ease 
all Persia, Georgia, I 

which would return rawailk, dru^*, 
Y 2 



166 



PnOJrCTHD PPAXISH EMIGRATION-. 



At. ; and, above all, as affording ! 
the best ship timber perhaps in the 
•world, with the easiest means of' 
obtaining it, together with all the 
other requisites for forming a navy, j 
To this may be added, the finest 
corn in the -world, and in the great- ' 
est abundance. In the event, there- j 
fore, of these two countries being j 
occupied by the Spaniards, Great 
Britain might find it her interest to 
declare Malta a free port, and make 
it a general dcp6t for her manufac- 
tures. The productions of Egypt, 
the Levant, Crimea, and the Black 
Sea, would then be brought thither 
to barter and form a mart of the 
greatest consequence : she would 
also, from the facility of procuring 
the requisites of forming a navy, 
find it her interest to establish, in 
that island, dock -yards for the 
building of ships of war, the cost of 
which would probably not exceed 
one half of the present expence. 

Another consideration of import- 
ance is, that the adoption of this 
measure would prevent France from 
procuring the necessary supplies 
for her dock-yards at Toulon, ex- 
cept at an enormous expence, and 
at a very great distance. J would 
also propose that corn should be 
stored in Malta, where it would 
keep good for any number of years, 
and prove of particular utility to 
Britain in a time of scarcity. The 
local advantages of the Crimea arc 
many : it possesses one of the most 
productive gold mines of the old 
• world, called Tehedia Dagua, and 
v, hich v>as worked by the Genoese 
rvhrii they were masters of the coun- 
try'. Ks fields produce spontane- 
ously, asparagus, grapes, melons, 
walnuts, and filberts of remarkable 
?L/,e. Seasons gradually succeeding 



each other, unite with the e:tee"V 
lence of the soil to favour the most 
luxuriant vegetation. The soil con- 
sists of a black virgin mould, mixed 
with sand, and the heat of the sun 
brings to perfection all sorts of 
grain with very little cultivation. 

The Crimea seems to be the na- 
tive country of quails, which, to- 
wards the end of August, collect, 
and making choice of one of those 
serene days when the northerly 
wind, blowing at sunset, promises 
a fine night, begin their flight, 
and complete their passage by day- 
break to the northern shores of the 
Black Sea. They thence proceed into 
a warmer elimate ; and, in their pro- 
gress, afford food for the inhabi- 
tants of the countries through which 
they pass, who take them in nets in 
large quantities. 

Caini, a large and sale harbour, 
is situated in the most northern 
part of the Crimea, at the junction 
of the Black Sea with the Sea of 
Asoph. This port, besides its ex- 
tent and security, is in the neigh- 
bourhood of vast forests, which 
Would furnish excellent ship tim- 
ber. Many other safe and commo- 
dious harbours arc situated upon 
its shores, and the general face of 
the country, except towards tlie 
isthmus, is beautiful and produc- 
tive. Jn the event, therefore, of 
Bonaparte obtaining complete pos- 
session of Spain, I think the ad- 
vantages that would arise to Great 
Britain from having these two coun- 
tries, or one of them, occupied by 
her friends, is so apparent as t* 
render it a matter of serious consi- 
deration whether preparations for 
that event should not be immedi- 
ately made by our ministers.-"* 
Egypt would, without dillicnlty, 



puiTo&r, m .\ m i At 1 1 ki , am. rftoriBTiM ui ivqaa. 167 



receive the emigrant*, if, In the 
fust instance, protected by ■ Mri- 
ti.h force ; iind flit- Cl imij. if pre- 
ferred, would mOit probably r. n - 

sjei t lie Turks our real aud firm 



friend*, inaamiM li ai the 
Lion ui it in ili.it v> . i v would plant 
.i barrier between then and Hie 
Russians, to whom n now beloi 



HISTORY, MANUFACTURE, AND PROPERTIES OF SUGAR, 



II \ \ i so in our preceding num- 
bers introduced some communica- 
tions relative to the bistorj and mode 
of prepai ing coffee, om readers « ill 
not think u few particulars respect- 
ing its usual concomitant, *HeT ar j '"" 
appropriate. 

The ancients were incontestiblj 
acquainted w itli die sugar-cane, ami 
the sweet juice which it yields j for 
Strabo observes, that in India, the 
cane produces honey without bees. 
Plihy informs us thill Arabia \ iclds 
sugar, but of inferior qualit j to that 
ef India. Lu can also mentions it 
as a juice, and says, 

Biirant tenerA dulcet abarandiBC stucos. 

\ ar.ro likewise tells us r thata juice 
resembling honey is expressed from 
the roots of the Indian eane. The 
fust writer, however, who makes 
mention of sugar, is Dioscorides, 
who describes it as concrete honey., 
prepared from certain canes in In- 
dia, ami breaks to pieces between 
the teeth like s;dt. We may there- 
ton- safely conclude, that this tirst 
sugar was nothing but the juice 
Which had eviuled from the canes, 
anil W&fi drieil by the sun to the 
consistence of a gum. Neverthe- 
less, no much is certain that the ex- 
traction ot' sugar from the cane in 
the manner in which it is now prac- 
tised, is a modern invention, and 
was w holly unknown to the ancients, 
its Saumai&e has demonstrated. 

There is reason to believe that the I 



sugar-ram- r u introduced into I - 

rope during the crusadi - .- exp 
tions which, however romantic in 
their plan, and unsuccessful in the it 
execution, were productive of many 
advantages to the nations ol Europe. 

Albertns Aqucnjis, a monkish wri- 
ter, observes, that ihe Christian M ,l- 

diers in the Hob, Land frequently 
derived refreshment and support 
during a scarcity of provisions, by 
sucking the canes. This plant flou- 
rished also in the Aforea, and in the 
islands of Rhodes and Malta, 

which ii was transported to Sicily 
and Spain. Jn Sicily, where the 
sugar-cane still flourishes on th* 
sides ot Mount Hfybla, it appears to 
have been cultivated previous to 

: for LafitaU, the Jesuit. . 
wrote a hi.story of the , 
the Portuguese, meuti • 
made iu that year to the mon s:, l Y 
of St. Benedict, by William If. 
king of Sicily, of a ra i iud- 

ing sugar-canes, with all . 
and appurtenan 

Though the dal I inven- 

tion cannot now be ascertained, yet 
we know, that for many centuri 
little sugar was made, thai it cannot 
be considered Lcle ot com- 

merce, till the Spani u Por- 

luguese made themselves masters of 
this art, and transplanted it to Ma- 
deira and the YVestlndi s. Madeira 
received its aameirom its impenetra- 
ble lort>ts. These oein^ burned by 



168 ni«Tonr. -viAxrrArTrTiF, and rnoprcnTtr:*: or srr.An. 



accident, the Portuguese planted 
the island with vinos and sugar- 
cancs, which they brought from 
Malvasia and Sicily. 

Among the articles which Colum- 
bus carried out to the colonies of 
the New Worldwas the sugar-cane : 
nevertheless, we are told that it was 
first conveyed to Hispaniola from 
the Canary Islands, by Agtiiltdif, a 
Spaniard, in 150G. Some assert, that 
it grew in America long before it 
was employed for making sugar. 
Thus it was found in abundance, in | 
1555, nearBahiaini!rasil; and even 
of late years, the Portuguese have 
been supplied with canes by the sa- 
Tages of that country, to stock new 
plantations. 

About the year 15S0, the culti- 
vation of the sugar-cane was gene- 
ral in the West Indies, and the use 
of su<rar i^rew very common all over 
Europe. Previously to that period, 
it was much used in Germany and 
Sweden . The art of refining it was 
taught the English chiefly by Ger- 
mans; and indeed, even at the pre- 
sent day, almost all the men em- 
ployed in sugar-houses in London, 
and called sugar-bakers, belong to 
that nation. 

As early as the reign of Edward 
IV. who died in I IS.'J. sweet- meats, 
in the language of that day call sut- 
telties, were served up by way of 
dessert at the cnthronizat ion of the 
Archbishop George Neville. They 
not only represented dolphins and 
other animals, but whole hosts of 
saints, prophets, patriarchs, and an- 
gels appeared on the table in honour 
of the day, as sutt cities of sugar. 
That article, however, was still too 
rare and too costly to be generally 
employed for culinary purposes. 
It was only used at table, for sprink- 



ling certain dishes, and sweetening 
wine. N> late as the sixteenth cen- 
tury it was classed among the spi- 
ces. The Turks at an early period 
used an amazing quantity of sugar 
with their sherbet ; and though 
they might not at that time have re- 
ceived the whole of it from the 
West Indies, they could with great- 
er facility procure it from the East, 
from Bengal, the native country of 
the sugar-cane. 

Various substances have at differ- 
ent periods, and in different coun- 
tries, been employed for the same 
pii rposes as sugar. — The sweet plea- 
sant juice which distils from a spe- 
cies of cocoa-tree when the blossoms 
are cut oft', is baked by means of hot 
stones, till it assumes the consist- 
ence of honey ; and at length, by 
repeating this process, it is converted 
into a kind of sugar. The saguer 
palm yields black sugar, and the 
jagara red. The juice of the grape, 
boiled to the thickness of honey, is 
called by the Turks pelmrs, and by 
thePktsfansidUschap. Both kinds are 
very commonly used in the East; 
but the latter is a mixture of the sy- 
rup of grapes with cream or butter. 
Of this grape-syrup, which is the 
honey that we are told Jacob's sons 
took with them to Mgypf , many ca- 
mel loads are still carried annually 
from Palestine to that country, in 
Mexico and New .Spain, a juice is 
obtained from the American aloe, 
by cutting or breaking oll'ibe leaves 
near the root, from which honey, 
and by a further process, sugar, may 
also be manufactured. In Arabia, 
the natives make from all the species 
of (kites, what they term dibs or 
date-h«ney, which is eaten with 
bread. In Canada, a similar syrup 
is extracted Irani the maple, fnci} 






MA M I U I I I It i N * ' I6d 

smris are made intlietrunk-ofthet I into < bjdi ide, I i <! <») 

cam - h'hI ail i.it'» 

v. Iiii< . 01 refined and doubli 

ilif- 

f.-n i.l v.:ty | ni : tic pr< p i •' « o£ 
\ari<n ;n f n lei Ol food, it ma y not 

he inn ibjoin 1 1' v. weed n - 

ipecting the properties which thai 
beat-informed phj ticiaa - lia 1 1 

! to ii : though ontbia , 

II M on loo n 1 < i . . tiio 

• i < -.i i . • i discordance >>i opinion pn> 

Sn^ar promotes digestioo, I 
clears (he stomach and Lnteatineaot f 
i afters and other crudities. 
!: expels worms, ami by preventing 
I he secretion ol parth lea from 

the blood, it checks a disp tsition (<> 
oorpumnoe. h acts as a geal I as* 
fie, and cleanses wounds irheo it is 
finely pulverized and sprinkled np- 



the juice which de.< diem 

is received m vr* i*l» placed fol lli« 
I > 1 1 1 puse, :ii.'| boiled Ui ih< - < onaist- 

riiee of BJ I Up. I'iumi ill' • v rup, 

sugar w made in such abundance in 
North America, tfint consideiabk 
quantities of ii are ei ported i<> I hi- 

ropc. \n \ ei-vlable, however, dial 
W6 >.ihi\\ of, lias \el hecii found U) 

yield Basrai bo neuely resembling 
dial of the < ane in overj respect, as 
Hie beet-root. Tins Ii is been demon- 
strated by the experiments of 
Achard, a celebrated German che- 
misi : but we are of opinion that the 
heavy expence attending the process 
of manufacturing sugar from Flint 
substance, will prevent it from ever 
being of general utility. 

The method of making bu 
from the sugar-cane, is as follows: 



The juice is expressed by means ol on them J and in the same -tale, if 



rollers,, in mills constructed lor the 

purpose, and received into a leaden 
bed, whence i( is conveyed into a 

vessel called tin" receivi r. .\s the 
juice has a strong disposition !-> fer- 
nieulation, if must be boiled within 
twenty-four hours. This cuperat ion 
is performed in coppers, out of 
which the liquor is removed into 
shallow wooden vest died cool- 

< re. As the liquor cools, the sugar 
grains, thai is, collects into an ir- 
regular mass of imperfect cjrysl rls, 
separating itself from the molasses 
or treacle. The contents of the cool- 
er are then put into hogsheads, the 
bottoms of which are pierced with 
ci^ht or ton holes, to allow the mo- 
lasses to drain oil' into a cistern be- 
neath. The sugar after ih.'s opera- 
tion becomes pretty fair, and is call- 
ed muscovado, or raw sugar. By 
means of repeated solution, boiling, 



blown into the eye, it removes 
specks and film from that organ. 
Bui by far the most important pro- 
d by SUgar, is the an- 
tiseptic quality, which is particular- 
ly manifested in the pi D of 

animal and \ ces, 

and Which mus! render it extremely 
serviceable in correcting the tenden- 
cy to putrefaction, inherent in the 
juices of the human bod v. 

Previously to the measures recent- 
ly adopted by the pres ;nt ruler of 
Prance for the purpose of destroy- 
ing the commerce of Britain, this 
country supplied the g p-irt 

of continental Europe with si 
The prohibition of the introduction 
ofBritish commodities into the porta 
of every country under French con- 
troul, or influence, occasioned our 
markets io be o ver-stocked with co- 
lonial produce, to the no small em- 



s k i mmin gi &c. this is, iii^t convert- fl barrassment of the proprietors of 



170 FASHIONS OF THE PBBBBXl AND PAST TIMKfl COMPARE*. 



West India estates. At the same 
time, there was every reason to ap- 
prehend, that Ave should be cut oil 
from those supplies of corn, which, 
of late years, Great Britain has re- 
ceived from foreign countries, to the 
amount of one eighth of her annual f 
consumption. The legislature hav- 
ing taken these circumstances into 
consideration, wisely resolved to af- 
ford some relief to the West India 
planters, by authorizing the use of 
sugar and molasses in the breweries 
and distilleries, and prohibiting that 



of corn in the latter. This substi- 
tution has consequently permitted 
large quantities of grain before con- 
sumed in those establishments to be 
applied to other purposes, and 
obviated the necessity of importing 
to an equal amount ; while, on the 
other hand, it has produced a con- 
siderable rise in sugars, and thus in 
this respect also, accomplished the 
end for which it was designed. 

Subjoined is a statement of sugar 
in the warehouses on the 1st of 
February, 1809: 



17,776 hlids. 11,596 trs. 1,830 bis. and 9,585 chests of sugar. 



FASHIONS OF THE PRESENT AND PAST TIMES COMPARED, 



TO THE EDITOR. 



Sin, 

Permit an amateur of the fine 
arts, to offer his tribute of admira- 
tion at the superior taste and sci- 
ence with which that department of 
the Repository devoted to the ex- 
isting costume, is executed. 

It is in the contemplation of ideal 
beauty, that our taste improves and 
refines ; and although we cannot 
form a conception of the perfection 
of the mtde, beyond what the cold 
contours of the sculptured Apollos 
and Venuses convey to us (for with 
these the most perfect living human 
form cannot stand the test of compa- 
rison) ; yet a beautiful female figure, 
set off in an elegant dress, which 
conceals blemishes, and displays 
only attractions, by giving a full 
scope to the busy power of the ima- 
gination, leaves us nothing more 
beautiful to admire or wish for. 

The present revolution in female 



dress, is not of long date ; it is de* 
rived immediately from our hostile 
neighbours, who, having laid all 
Europe under contribution (with the 
exception of the British Isles), made 
a judicious selection, and a truly 
scientific arrangement of all the pre- 
cious relics of antiquity, and then 
threw open the superb collection for 
the inspection of the public. A 
people less acute and sensible than 
the French, could not fail of improv- 
ing their taste by the frequent ex- 
amination of such treasures ; but 
our lively neighbours fancied that 
they could improve even on perfec- 
tion. The exposure of a fine arm 
in some of the draped statues, led 
them to suppose that the Grecian 
belles always exposed their arms 
and shoulders, which was by no 
means the case. A Grecian lady 
sometimes suffered her right arm to 
escape from its cincture, uhich wM 



FASHION'; OF Tin i! i fl COMPAfiEB. l~l 



formed of tlic i leere, oi rather fold 
of i lie tunic, and confined ju tbeio* 
the shouldei bj the fibula or clasp ; 
but this wiis done occasionally, and 
in private only j as when playin 

till- l\IC 

By rbtlotrirfg the Btyle of dress, 
nud the arrangement <>f drapery In 
these fine remains of antiquity, the 
present taste lias happily emanci- 
pated the ladies from all the ridicu- 
lous lumber of the late fashions; 
from systems and powder, whale- 
bone and cork, flounces and furbe- 
lows, and pockets and pincushions ; 

and our British fair, reverting to 

(heir unlive good sense, begin also 

to perceive, that it is quite natural 
to cover bosoms, shoulders, and el- 
bows, in cold weather. 

It is surprising, during the frenzy 
of revolutionising, that the French, 
with the Brutuses and Catos con- 
stantly before them, made no efforts 
to effect a similar revolution in the 
male costume. The dress ofthemen, 
among the ancients, when the pal' 
Itirm, or Grecian cloak, and the I 
or Roman robe, were put oil", differ- 
ed in nothing from that of the wo- 
men, except that the tunics or inner 
garments were shorter. How ridi- 
culous would a Paris, an Alcibiades, 
or a Cicero in the act of pleading, 
appear, even in idea, braced and 
bandaged up to the ears in buck- 
ram and buckskin? Indeed, our 
Gothic apparel is so absurd, unbe- 
coming, and inconvenient, imped- 
ing the circulation and con 
the joints by ligatures and com- 
presses, that our painters and sculp- 
tors do not dare to represent a mo- 
dem hero in his modern clothe 
if the former do so, they generally 
strip him to his shirt, or conceal his 
awkward skirts in a robe. The fat 

Ac. 111. Vol J. 



ovel, 

which rcpo - in \\ itin ., i 
be) , has bc< n transmitted by I' 
to the 1 1 licule "i all p 
his tull - bottomed p i bo e 

" Eternal buck.li i ir»v< in P u • 

I have been led into thi ' 
lion, by having met, En an old and 
scarce book, an account of the . 
of our ancestors, during the gloomy 
period of the commonwealth. I sub- 
join the extract ; by which it ap- 
pears, thai the fashions were then to 
the full as capricious, and infii . 

more ridiculous, than they aie at 
present. 

*• Men (exclaims my authoi 
become absolute ap a ! ( >ne • 
in a narrow-brimmed hat, and a long 
waist, his bi 
boots with boo; - 
great gingling spurs ; their feci us 
long as their legs, or at 
again as their foot natural! . 
ihe years 1645 and 1646. In 1648 
and 1019, a broad-brimmed hat, and 
no other mu>' eches 

must be hum-, even down to our an- 
cles; bio's wiih tops trailing on 
the ground, little spurs tint musf 
not gingle in the least. In : 
and !().")! , we twin! horf 

breeches again. In 1652, and the 
at year, r65S, we think it ridi- 
culous to wear boots, butaltogether 
shoes <\u{\ stockings, turning down 
with a top, as the French lakies have 

US( d to i^o tin se many \ e ir^. One 

while we have two long curling 

locks on b tli e '■ - : heads : 

anon all the whole side must be 
of a length, and short behinde. 
Thus verify ir rb: — 

That ice 1 • 

•• ft were vain in me thus to recite 






jir.rRospncT or politics. 



the several alterations and imita- 
tions in the garbs of women, since 
every day produceth a new toy ; 
wherefore I shall only name sonic 
of tin ir darling trifles, viz. their 
embroidered, curled, and powder- 
ed hair; their washings, paintings, 
Maters, and pomatees to their laces ; 
and when they have done all, their 
several sorts of patches, half-moons, 
stars, round, trianglcd, quadran- 
gled, pointed, little, great, long, and 
short: vainly and foolishly hereby 
imagining to make themselves hand- 
somer than Ci'od has created them, 
or is willing they should be ; and 
choosing rather to please them- 
selves than him. Nay, though i' 
be to the displeasing of him, they 
must and will do it : what care they? 
their face is their god, they look no 
further, they believe no other, they 
care for no more !" 

Fifty years after, fashions be- 
came more gaudy and cumbersome, 



but not more cleanly ; as appears 
from Swift's " Description of a 
Lady's Dressing-room.' 1 '' The uni- 
versal applause w hich this poem re- 
ceived, is of itself a proof, however 
just and lively the satire, of the 
coarseness of the prevailing taste ; 
like some of the satires of Juvenal, 
it was written with the best inten- 
tions, and no doubt contributed to 
effect a reform. Uut to the credit 
of the present day, the remedy 
would now be too disgusting to be 
endured. 

The deterioration of the species of 
which Horace complains, might be 
made applicable to ourselves by a 
morose moralist ; but the reverse is 
perhaps true of our manners and 
taste : 

/Ltas paicntum, pejor avis, tulit 
>'os nequiores. — 

Hor. c. vi. 1. 3 

1 am, &c. 



RETROSPECT OF POLITICS. 



In our last number, the retro- 
spect of politics went no further than 
the time when it was known in Eng- 
land, that the British army under 
Sir John Moore had commenced its 
retreat. We are sure that all our 
readers can easily recal to their re- 
collection the pleasing hopes which 
they indulged, when they heard of 
the movement of Sir John Moore 
against Marshal Soult, and of the 
junction. formed between the armies 
of Sir John Moore, Sir David Baird, 
and General Romana. Relying 
much upon the military talents of 
these generals, on the number and 
bravery of the united army under 
their command, and on the just and 



glorious cause which was then at is- 
sue, we felt, in common with all 
our countrymen, a strong wish and 
confident expectation that this army 
of Marshal Soult would have been 
attacked and defeated, and that the 
British army would have thus made 
a powerful diversion in aid of the 
cause of Spain, and of the civilized 
world. Our hopes were, however, 
disappointed ; and in our la^t num- 
ber we stated with sincere affliction, 
that the British army, which, after a 
long march, had come so close to the 
enemy against whom they advanc- 
ed , that their out posts w ere absolute- 
ly touching those of Soult's army, 
thought it prudent to commence 



n t.t n " • i- 1 'i 01 i ii ric«. 






fhrir retreat, in consequence of In- 
formation reccivi d b\ ' 
mana, thai Bonaparte had set out 



independence of their < The 

Briti .ii - 

covernnj of th 



from Madrid, at the head of ii i -> ofSpain through which their march 



u hole army, fof I In- purpose of cut- 
ting <>ir the retro if <>f 'Ii'* Bi 
This Afflicting news was firs! com- 
municated to the < ounl i . by the in- 
sertion in (Ik- London Gazette of 
an abstract ^\ Sir .Film Moon's of. 
ficial dispatches, s<;iiiiu r tin- retreat 
of i lie British ;ii i ii v to hnvebeen de- 
termined on in consequence of that 
information. Ii has been since ex- 
plained in parliament, thai the rea- 
gon why the dispatches of Sir John 
Moore were not published fnllv, 
was, that he was no extremely hur- 
ried at the time In* w rote them, as 
to he conscious that they were not 
fit to meet tin* public eye, and that 
he therefore let! it to his majesty's 
ministers to publish what parti of 
them they should think proper. He 
sent an intelligent and gallant of- 
ficer, General Stewart, to give the 
government every possible informa- 
tion as to the actual state of afiairs 
in Spain. .\t the same time he 



pi in tin- 1 .»-.• n oi < lornnna. 
Ii ia therefore con l«*retl pi 

ble, and it || believ e I. (hat tin- dis- 

patchei of Sir John Mooi 
a fair account of the actu il situa- 
tion of things, mentioned the apathy 
and indifiereni •• to tin- public i 
which prevailed in the north of 
Spain. These things, though very 
proper for government to be inform- 
ed of, urn- not, how* •. erj prop -i I » 
be published to a II the world through 
tlx- medium ofthc London ( iai 
This country is still bound by all 

the ties of honour, and by «\ < i I 
sacred obligation ot treaty, to sup- 
port the cause of Spaifl as long as 
it can lie supported : and, hou 

ministers might regret the want of 
leal in the northern parts of Spain, 
it would not have become them to 
have published reproaches against 

their allies in the official paper, of 
this country. Great all nerc 

also due to the Spanish nation tor 



thought, that the public would also , not completely answering llie high 
Very naturally expect ilia! the ims- expectations which had been Jorm- 
senger would bringwith him official ed of them from their glorious tit - 
dispatches, to inform the nation of lories at Bayten, Saragosaa, and \ a- 
the situation of thcii army in Spain : lencia. Although the higher orders 
he therefore wrote a long detailed ot' die Spanish nation carried their 



account, confiding it to the discre- 
tion of ministers to publish what 
the} should think proper. 



notions of honour even to a roman- 
tic excess, yd the great muss of the 
people were much debased in moral 



It is-strongi) believed, that minis- character by the effects of poverty 

ters had another ami a better reason and ignorance. They were united, 

for not publishing the whole of Sir not so much by the love ot national 

John Moore's dispatches. It had independence, as by a hatred to the 

been gHierally supposed in this coun. ' French, and an obed ienc e to their 

try, that all the provinces of Spain priests. The juntas ncverappeared 

were actuated by one enthusiastic to have confidence enough in the 

spirit in the defence of the king people so taast In an actual levy ( i 



>vhom they bad chosen, and of the I Mots* for the defence oi the country, 

Z8 



174 



ItETROSPECT OF POLITICS. 



nor did the people of Spain feel a 
greater desire (hen they shew in 

other countries, for joining the rcgu- 
I;ir armies as soldiers by trade. 
This w;is manifested on many occa- 
sions. The army of Gallicia, whieh 
was beaten early in July at Bio Sc- 
co, did not appear to have gained 
any additional Strength in the next 
three months, and (."-asianos (ex- 
cept for the junction with Palaibx) 
Was hardly stronger at Tudeln, than 
lie was at Baylen. The (iallician 
and Andalusian armies took the 
field at first with a considerable pro- 
portion of regular troops among 
them, but the recruiting went on 
slowly. Although the proclama- 
tions of the different provincial jun- 
tas and other state papers, breath- 
ed the most pure and enlightened 
patriotism, yet we fear that those 
exalted sentiments were not gene- 
rally felt throughout that country. 
We have sufficient proof, that the 
leading men of Spain were men of 
great abilities ; and yet it appears 
that a considerable time was lost, 
and that no sufficient preparation 
had been made for the defence 
of the country. We fear that the 
cause has not been the want of abi- 
lities in the leaders, but that the apa- 
thy which General Romana and the 
British army found in the northern 
provinces, too generally per vailed 
that country. We shall be happy 
indeed if the future events of the 
■war should aWow us to change our 
opinion in this respect. 

In our last, we expressed some 
doubts of the necessity of the Bri- 
tish army commencing their retreat 
so early as they did. It was not 
that we ever supposed that the Bri- 
tish army, even with the addition 
of Boinaua's force, could contend 



with any chance of success against 
Bonaparte's grand army ; but that 
we imagined that if the army of 
Sottlt (now called Duke of Dal- 
matia) was attacked and defeated, 
the retreat of the British army af- 
terwards would have been more ho- 
nourable and secure. We thought 
it impossible, that any very consi- 
derable body of infantry could have 
arrived from Madrid in time to in- 
tercept the retreat ; and we still be- 
lieve, that almost the whole of the 
great loss which the British army 
sustained, was owing to this very ar- 
my of the Duke of Dabnatia, who 
became our pursuers as soon as they 
found the British army in full re- 
treat. The enemy had indeed push- 
ed forward some of his cavalry from 
this main army, but it does not ap- 
pear that any considerable body of 
infantry from Madrid had arrived, 
or could have arrived, near enough 
to endanger the retreat of the Bri- 
tish army, supposing they had at- 
tacked Soult's before the retreat 
commenced. This opinion is, how- 
ever, only formed from the few do- 
cuments which are now before the 
public. We are very loth to give 
credit to the accounts of the enemy, 
and they cannot be received with- 
out making an allowance for exag- 
geration ; but as to what relates to 
the mere disposition of their armies 
in a country which they occupy, 
their official statements must be the 
most authentic documents. By 
those statements at appears, that 
when Bonaparte left Madrid for the 
north of Spain, he not only left an 
adequate force to garrison the capi- 
tal, but he also left, under the com- 
mand of the Duke of Belluno, a 
force not only sufficient to prevent 
the advance of the Spanish army 



POM l I" >. 



irt 



from Cueru .1 1«> Madrid, but even to 
attack a i on iderable bodj ol (hero, 
upon the IStli, in the neighbour- 
hood of < !uen< a, and tbove 
Il ; , ()()(> prisoners. No othor force 
is meotioned as marchin fro n Ma- 
drid against Ihe I !ng i b, i \< i pi the 
Duke of Elcbiagcn's (Nej *) and 
the im|)cri;il guards. The French 
bulletins say, that ii was to the 
Duke of Dalmatia that i!i< I 
emperor confided (lit pnis.iil of the 
English, or, ;is they tci m it, the ho- 
nourable mission of driving the 

English into the sea. \\ <• -iron./. 

Iv suspect that the reason why this 
honourable mission was confided 
solely to the Duke of Dalmatia, \\a>. 
that there was no other bodj of 
French infantry within at least three 
days 1 march. At Astorga, Bona- 
parte afterwards reviewed the divi- 
sions of Laborde&nd Loison t which, 
as the bulletin states, are to form 
the army of Portugal. This agrees 
perfectly with our last account, foi 
those were the very divisions which 
before formed Junot's army, al- 
though we do not now hear that.fu- 
not himself is with them. Jt is pos- 
sible that that genera] may have 
fallen into disgrace with his impe- 
rial master. 

The British army suffered most 
extremely on the retreat. In their 
forced marches, they had to con- 
tend with the inclemency of the 
sea->>n, the badness of the roads, 
and the want oi' provisions, as well 
as against an enemy that pursued 
them most closely. It is said, that 
for many days together the British 
troops had been without any other 
food than turnips, which they had 
not even the means of dressing. 
This want of proper \ooi\, combined 
with the fatigue of the luarcb, and 



the hardship of Ij inn out in 

Ik Ids in the depl Ii ol v, :n 

duced a groat 

and '!"■ -" • I 

not follon ' i, it - t 

treat, w< re Id •< v of the 

enemy. 

that the S] i h p rj 

i considerable i of them \ but 

although out ■ • t with nv 

I lint i -ally 

reception in Spnin> yet we hope i 1 

believe that tin- I ' rf ion of the 

enemy is i c dnmny. 'I be i> itish 

army commenced its retreat 

order, and its cavalry gained, as 

we mentioned before, some mat 1 

advantages over the enemj 

as Villa Franca Ike retire! conti* 

nued in good order, and the army 
suffered little. It was on ii ! 

march from Villa Franca to Logo 
(a distance of about sixty English 
miles) that t: . limr became 

excessive, and threatened the ab- 
solute dispersion of the army. I "n- 
der Chose circttnastasM J >hn 

Moore found it necessary to halt 
tlu- army at Lege, when- he look* 
position, and remained a feu 
in mce of the enemy, who did not 

feel themselves strong enough to 

veuturcabatile. On th< ; the 

Sth the army again commenced its 
retreat to ("oruuna, and upon this 
march also the straggling was ex- 
cessive : the stragglers, of course, 
fell into the hands of th 

who boast of having 

ners, b esi de s the number of 
those who died from fatigue or by 

the sword. On our pa:!, wc Ij ivr 
no means of stating wlmf was our 
actual loss in the expedition until 
the returns are r< _-:ilarlv before par- 
liament. The i»i itish troops at 
; li reached Corunna, where they 



176 



RKTllOSPI-.C'r OF POLITICS. 



were obliged to wait for several days || has erected public monuments to 
before- thetransports had come from i their memory ; their names arc al- 
Vigotoreccive them. On the morn-' ways mentioned with veneration, 
mg of the 16th of January, the and their career is held out as an 



•jreatrst part of the army and the 
artillery were embarked, and it was 
not until that day that the French 
conceived themselves in sufficient 
force to attack the British. Our 



example to soldiers. Sir John 
Moore had certainly arrived to the 
highest military reputation which 
any British general of the present 
time enjoyed. We hope we shall 



rearguard, consisting of ton or II not be thought to be speaking at all 



twelve thousand men, were posted 
above a mile from the town of Co 
runna. The Duke of Dalmatia at- 
tacked them furiously with a force 
considerably superior in number : 
the British troops maintained their 
high reputation, and not only re- 
pulsed the enemy, but advanced 
above half a league in pursuit of 
them. The French attempted no 
farther interruption to the embarka- 
tion, which was completely effected 
during- the night of the I6th and 
the morning of the 17th. In this 
battle, which completely secured 
the retreat of the remains of our 
army, the country suffered a severe 
loss by the death of Sir John Moore, 
who was killed by a cannon ball, 
which struck him early in the ac- 
tion, and tore off his left arm. Sir 
David Baird, the second in com- 
mand, also lost an arm upon this 
occasion. 

It has been the fate of many of 
the mosf illustrious warriors which 
this country has produced, to die 
in the field of battle and in the arms 
of victory. It was thus that Wolfe, 
Abercrombie, Nelson, and Sir John 
Moore, have fallen. There has 
been this singular coincidence in 
the manner of their deaths, that 
every one of them lived long enough 
after their mortal wound, to hear 
that the English had gained the 
victory. Their grateful country 



invidiously to the military talents of 
other gallant officers, if we say that 
| there was no general who enjoyed a 
higher, or perhaps an equal, de- 
gree of the confidence of his coun- 
I try. In the loss of Sir John Moore, 
j the country has lost the man who 
was deemed its best general — 
\V hpn we consider, however, the 
generals that we have still left ; 
when we recollect the conduct of 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, or General 
Ferguson, the heroes of Vimeira, 
we are confident that the country 
will never want brave or skilful 
officers to command its armies ; and 
the only fear we entertain is, that 
too rigid an adherence to military 
etiquette and seniority may keep 
out of command those officers in 
whom the country has most confi- 
dence. In this manner we have 
seen, during the last administra- 
tion, the gallant Sir John Stuart, 
the hero of Maida, superseded by 
General Fox ; and, lately, we have 
seen Sir Arthur Wellesley super- 
seded immediately after a victory 
that ought to have produced the 
most important advantages. It 
would not be very difficult to point 
out modes by which the country 
might have the services of its best 
generals, without wounding the 
pride of senior officers : this is 
done, in fact, in every army upon 
the Continent ; and Lord Nckon 



>] poLn 






would never have added so much 
renown to our naval history, ii 
every admiral who was older than 
In- conceived that h<- had a bet- 
ter i iulit to command, If Sii A I 
t (in r Wellcslcy was superseded in 
Portugul, it waa from tins point oi 
military ttiquetle alone; for there 
is no officer that <ii|<>\ s nit i if highly 
the confidence of (lie government, 

as well as of the country : but it 

hat been the custom, thai an army 
<>! i given Dumber ihould have so 
many lieutenant-generals in it ; and 

sir \iilnir's name is so low on the 
list of lieutenant-generals, that go- 
vernment would not know bow t<> 
give him the command without vio- 
lating the custom of the army. It 
was in this manner that Mr. \\ mil- 
ium justified the appointment ol 
General Whitelopke in theexpedi- 
tion to Buenos Ayres : he said if 
was the custom to give the com- 
maud of an expedition of that mag- 
nitude to a lieutenant-general : and 
that, looking over tin* list ol lieu- 
tenant-generals who wore unem- 
ployed, lie dill not see any name 
particularly distinguished above the 
rest. We apprehend, that the cus- 
tom is one of those u more honour- 
ed in the breach than in the obser- 
vance ;" and we hope that no cus- 
tom will ever be set up in future to 
deprive our brave army of those 
leaders who are the tiltest to com- 
mand them. 

The victory at Corunna, and the 
safe embarkation of the greater part 
pf the British army, were dearly 
bought. In addition to the loss of Sir 
J. Moore, the second in command. 
Sir D. Baird, was se\ ercly wounded, 
and lost an arm. It would be an 
injustice to that distinguished officer 
not to say that the country felt this 



wound, and l< i 

ol his <■! r\ i< - 

In- was the general who< on 

at ile* itornifl 

at the capture of the ( ape ol t 

nope, and enjoys the repul ition of 

one of the I* if jew rali u 

tish s« ■ r v i . >■. \ • iter muni 
men also perished in this rapid re- 
in- il than we < Ould I 

to lose in the ra >-t di 
\\ bile these »< cne 

in the north 

tiou under ( Jen ral Sherbn 

listing of about four or five thoo- 

sand men, and destined (l 

posed) for the south of Spain, was 
dispersed by the storms, which wo 

mayexpi'i tat this season of the ;. 

Here thru we may pause, and 
consider a Little the causes of the 
total failure of the expedition 
to the relief of Spain. Il is now 
most unquestionable that t.'ie public 
spirit in Spain was by no mea 
general as it had been supposed in 
this country. From Jul) to No- 
vember, the Spaniards could not 
bring an army into the field able to 
drive out i^' Biscay and Nayari 
thirty or forty thousand 
men who occupied that provi 
and as soon as this small Fi 
army was reinforced in the h- 
ningof November, and Bonap 
had assumed the command, all the 
Spanish armies were disp 
fore it, and never were able to rally. 
[f Madrid had been as well defend- 
ed as Saragossa, it might I 
stopped Bonaparte's an 
considerable time ; for it 
appear that the cooq 
greater part of i al- 

I s,. much by an ovo » I 
ing superiority of nu u by 

a judicious disposition oi U 



J78 



MEDICAL REPORT. 



nrmics, ami their attacking the Spa- 
nish armies separately. Marshal 
Ney's division, which was the one 
principally engaged at the defeat 
of Blake, was afterwards brought 
Against Casta nos at Tudela ; and, 
at a later period, this was (he divi- 
sion which was sent from Madrid 
Bgainst the English. This division, 
together with the imperial guards, 
appeared -the whole disposable force 
which Bonaparte then had to -march 



against them. The actual number 
Of Bonaparte's arm}- in Spain can- 
not easily be ascertained : no more 
reliance is to be placed upon there- 
ports of the Spaniards than upon his 
own ; the former would magnify it, 
in order to account for his successes, 
and he would exaggerate it, with a 
view to strike the world with dis- 
may, and to be considered irresist- 
ible and invincible. 



MEDICAL REPORT. 



An account of the diseases which 
have occurred in the reporter's own 
practice, from the 20lh of January 
to the 15th of February, 1S09. 

Acute diseases. — Pleurisy, 1 — 
Catarrhal fever, S.... Acute rheu- 
matism, G.... Continued fever, 4 

Puerperal fever, 1 Remittent fe- 
ver, l...!Eresypelas, 1 — Gout, 2 
.... Hooding cough 2 — Acute dis- 
eases of infants, 9. 

Chronic diseases. — Cough and 
dyspnoea, 36... .Spitting of blood, 

2.... Pulmonary consumption, 3 

Pleurodyne, 2 Asthenia, 6 

Chronic rheumatism, 5 — Cepha- 
lalgia, 7. ..Scirrhous liver, I...E11- 

terodvnia, 3 Gastrodynia, 5.... 

Dropsy, 4. . . . Jaundice,3. . . .Dysure, 
2...Eneuiysis, 1.... Dysentery, 2... 

Dyspepsia, 4 — H cemorrhoids,2 

Hypochondriasis, 1 ....Scrophula, 
2 — Cutaneous diseases, 7. ...Chlo- 
rosis, 2 Amenorrhoea, 4. 

To avoid delay in the publication, 
these reports in future will be con- 
tinued from the loih of one month 
to the 15th of the succeeding one. 
Since my last account, the weather, 
though extremely moist, has been 
unusually mild for the season, and 
to this may partly be attributed the 
present favourable state of health 



in the metropolis. The number of 
inflammatory complaints have di- 
minished ; their violence has been 
mitigated ; and, as far as my obser- 
vation has extended, pulmonary 
affections of every kind have as- 
sumed a milder character, and have 
been more easily relieved, than is 
usual in seasons of greater severity. 
Not one of the acute diseases in the 
preceding list, presented any ap- 
pearance worthy of being recorded, 
or occasioned much anxiety re- 
specting their termination : the 
prognosis was favourable, and the 
event corresponded with it, for the j 
are all convalescent or recovering. 
The case of hypochondriasis will 
probably terminate in insanity : so 
complete is the mental hallucina- 
tion, that no argument has yet con- 
vinced the patient that her bones 
are not piercing through the skin j 
and sometimes she is tortured with 
the horrid sensation of falling to 
pieces. Whatever cause has ge- 
nerated this monster of the imagi- 
nation, the effect is truly serious. 
A young woman in the prime of 
life, with a fine form and prepos- 
sessing appearance, has lost the rosy 
hue of health ; her countenance no 
longer beams with joy j her eyes 



AC. UK II. II HAL 11! po ltT. 



m 



no longer sparkle with Iflfc 1 1 i l" ■ 1 1 c - < • : 

lur wontc I animation baa fori 
1 1 ( • i ; all that combined (<> fascinate 
>ne, ind nothing remaini l>m 
the Bodi icprcssion of woe, the fixed 
I oi despair, [n these cases ii 
is ;i nice point to determine whether 
the complaint Ins been induced by 
physical or by moral agent ; f<>i 
where the malad) originate! in the 
mind, it is in vain to administer 
dni^s; whilst the physician, who 



\<i Mint with the m : i f m r f ■ of hu- 
man passions, who ba I the 
con equeni rs of disapp* inted hope 
upon ;i delicate li ime, "i w ho Ii is 
attended to the \ i< ii iitudea <»t for- 
tune and changes "i < in nmsl u 
in the < beckered s< enc oi life, may 
often administer to i mind • 
.ind afford consolation and healing 
balm, where before, til was 
forties! and desponding. 



AGRICl LTUB 

The Inclemency of the weather 
for the la«.t month, has impeded 

those early operations in (hr field 

that would have taken place if the 

■eason had suited. The violent and 

continued succession of snow and 

rains, has inundated the country in 
some places, to a decree never re- 
membered by the oldest man. In 

the Isle of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, 

it is estimated, that the inundation 

has extended more than fifteen miles 
in length, and that above 150,000 

lien's of land are completely under 
Water'; the distress ;uid injury to 
the inhabitants is almost beyond 
calculation, and the calamity would 
have extended much farther, but for 
the exertions made in stopping the 
breaches with bags filled with sand. 

The arable lauds are become so 
saturated with wafer, as to be total- 'I 
lv unlit to receive the seed, until 
the return of dry weather. 

Nearly all the turnip* are de- 
stroyed, except the Swedes, whose 
hardy nature enables them to bear 
a redundancy of wet and cold. 
They will be a valuable resource to 
those farmers who are the fortunate 
possessors of them. 

The wheat, tares, and vouns: clo- 'i 

No* III. Vol. I. 



\\, REPORT. 

vers look much better than could 
be expected, after such severe wea- 
ther; a lew dry davs arc only want- 
ed to cause them to rally. 

We have lately seen proposals 

for the establishment of a company 

for the purpose of insuring the lives 
of cattle. Many gentlemen of rank 
and consequence usher the pj 

sals to the public, under the sanc- 
tion of their names; we therefore 
cannot doubt that the plan has lie. ■ 
well considered and digested. 

We regret that the outlines only 
are published, because an entire de- 
velopeinent of the plan, must neces- 
sarily be connected with many cir- 
cumstances highly important to the 
agriculturist and breeder of cattle. 
We can, however, anticipate many 
beneficial effects from such an es- 
tablishment. It is obvious that an 
additional security to the owner of 
livestock, mu*t tend to the encou- 
ragement of the breeding of cattle. 
But a greater ajdhrant ige lathe pub- 
lic, will, in our opinion, be derived 
from the diffusion oi a^n, ullural 
information, which must necessarily 
take place when the various coun- 
ties of Great IJritain are interested ia 
a company of this nature. 
A a * 






5 



180 

FACSIMILE OF A LTNE OF A LATIN POEM FOUND AT 

HERCULANEUM. 

We have the satisfaction to pre- 
sent our readers with a fac-simile 
018 line of a Latin poem, found 
unongsl the papyri, and unrolled 
under the direction of a learned 
gentleman now at Palermo, under 
the patronage of an illustrious per- 
sonage. For its authenticity we 
pledge our credit with the public, 
which we think cannot be doubted, 
when we subjoin to this great lite- 
rary curiosity the comment of the 
learned gentleman himself. 

" It is part of an epic poem in 
Litin. There are only nine verses 
in a page : in the verses a few let- 
ters are wanting : each verse is writ- 
ten at its full length ; and as it is 
hexameter, and in a large charac- 
ter, forms an extensive line, espe- 
cially as there is a full-stop after 
each word : the manuscript itself is 
very imperfect, and furnishes the 
latter part only of the respective 
pages. From this circumstance, 
and from the number of lost verses 
which appear necessary to supply 
the sense between the last verse of 
one page and the beginning of a se- 
cond, I conjecture that two-thirds 
of a page are wanting : these, per- 
haps, may be found afterwards ; 
and indeed it may not seem unrea- 
sonable to expect such an instance 
of good fortune, after having dis- 
covered, in a similar case, the two 
parts of Polystratus, as I mentioned 
in a former letter. The verses are 
about seventy : that of which the 
fac-simile is given is the last. This 
verse proves that the poem is not 
ended here. The cross under the 
first word seems to denote the num- 
ber of the book. The name of the 
writer may be in that part of the 



x 

-*> 

fa- 
's 



i 

> 

2 



MTPllARV NOTICFS AM) ! N Tf 1AAC. H SC t . 



181 



inoirripl which is wanting, and. 
ns is usual in the othei ,, ii tome 
little distance from the last p.ijr*-. 
The subject oflhe poem is Augustus 

ill Egypt. The verses express the 

Mule of Egypt, ofCresar, of Mex- 
andria, which is represented to be 
besieged : if mentions also the 
queen, and speaks of the battle nc tr 
Aotimn ;ts ■ past <-\ eat. The style 
of Hie poetry is excellent : the merit 
of the composition, and the nature 
of Hie subject, persuades me that 
the poem may with great probabi- 
lity be attributed to Varius as its au- 
thor. I need not here repeal nil 
those passages of ancient writers. 
which may be seen altogether in 
Lilius Gi raid us, on this poet : he 

celebrated, it is well known, the 
deeds of Augustus. This fact, added 

to the lines of 1 1 m ice, - fin our ible 
to my hypothesis. I most also add, 
that ■ gentleman, extremely well 
versed in literature and the fine arts, 

the Chevalier Scratti, one of the 
Neapolitan secretaries of state, ap- ; 



proves in\' id'-t. The authentic 

alphabet of the and '■ itfa i h.i- 
racter and orthography, whli h is 
acquired from tins saenu ( ript, lea- 
ders, in the opinion oferei ■ 

man, e\< |ui lT( -l> Of oth'-r Intei 
ing considerations ; rend rrs, J 
this discovery invaloal 

" This is (he object which tfc 

tbillon ti 
<i mil iei to hud. What a I 
Montfaucon and « < « i r Chisholra I 

I'm- Mich a tt« II - 

fore the appe irana of this poem, 
existed, on tl I iuIh 

, 1 of Latin autography, not ■ 
single criterion of classical anti- 
quity, nor, therefore, of indisputa- 
ble authority. Thfb treasure alone 
more than compensates the inuni- 
lieenceof the . iu:.\ r PBIlfl I who is 
the patron of mis illustrious under* 
taking, and makes his royal name 
dear and venerable to all those who 

can justly value ancient Learning, 

or appreciate the loss which this 
treasure has amply retrieved." 



LITERARY NOTICES 

Mn. Tayt.or, the Platonist, an- 
nounces that he has made some very 
important discoveries in that branch 
of mathematics which relates to in- 
finitesimals and infinite series. One 
of these discoveries consists in the 
ability to ascertain the last term of 
a great variety of infinite series, 
whether sueh series are Composed 
of whole numbers or f ractions, lie 
likewise asserts that, in consequence 
of these discoveries, he can demon- 
strate that all (he leading proposi- 
tions in Dr. WalKs's Arithmetic of 
Infinites are false; that (he Doc* 
trine of Fluxions is founded on fdsc 
principles ; ami, as well a* lUe 



AND INTELLIGENCE. 
Arithmetic bf In/lnit '•••>-. i« a most 
remarkable instance of the possibi- 
lity of deducing true conclusions 
from erroneous principles. Mr. 
Taylor is composing a treatise on 
(his subject, which will be pub- 
lished in the course of next year. 

The Rev. Ro!>ert Bland, author 
of the Popvl* I and 

ElghOf and Sir Everardj has in tlte 
press 8 poetical romance, in ten can- 
to-, entitled Tkt Four Sieves of 
Cylhcra. 

Mr. C. Macartney is preparing 
for publication. A Set of . 
ascertaining the situation and 

. \\o\.c iu the Living body, at" the priu- 



183 



LITERARY NOTICES AND INTELLIGENCE. 



eipal blood-vessels, nerves, &c. 
concerned in surgical operations ; 
to be illustrated with plates. 

Mr. J. Roland, fencing-master 
at the royal military academy at 
Woolwich, intends to publish, by 
subscription, A Treatise on the Art 
of Fencings theoretically and expe- 
rimentally explained upon princi- 
ples entirely new. 

The Rev. J. Girdlestone is about 
to publish, by subscription, all the 
Odes of Pindar , translated into 
English verse, with notes, expla- 
natory and critical. 

It is expected that, in a few days, 
a volume, entitled Memoirs of Bri* 
fish Quadrupeds, by the Rev. Mr. 
Bingley, will be ready for publica- 
tion. This work, which claims the 
merit of being original, and not 
merely a compilation from the writ- 
ings of other naturalists, will be 
illustrated with seventy engravings 
from original drawings, chiefly by 
Ilowitt. The anecdotes of the ha- 
bits, instinct, and sagacity, arc 
kept, quite distinct from the de- 
scriptions : the latter are thrown 
into the fOrm of a synopsis, and in- 
serted with the synonyms at the end 
of the volume, which it is intended 
to follow iip with two volumes of 
Memoirs of British Whales, illus- 
trated also with a great number of 
figures ; and afterwards by others 
of the birds, amphibious insects, 
&c. till an entire system of British 
Zoology, occupying about seven 
volumes, is completed. 

Mr. 8. Ware will soon publish 
the first part of a Treatise of Arches, 
Bridges, Domes, Abutment and 
Embankment Walls. The author 
professes to shew a simple method 
of describing, geometrically, the 
eatenaria, and to deduce his theory 



principally from that line. Sections 
of Trinity Church, Ely ; King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge; Salis- 
bury Cathedral, and Westminster 
.Abbey, will be given in corrobora- 
tion of the principles advanced in 
the work. 

Mr. Smith, of Dublin, has nearly 
finished his History of the Ger- 
manic Empire, in two octavo vo- 
lumes, which will speedily be pub- 
lished. 

Mr. Jerningham will shortly pub- 
lish a work, entitled The Alexan- 
drian School, being a narrative of 
the character and writings of the 
first Christian professors in that 
city, with observations on the in- 
fluence which they still maintain 
over tin; established church. 

Mr. Edgeworth's work on Pro- 
fessional Education, which will soon 
form a quarto volume, is far ad- 
vanced at the press, and may soon 
be expected. 

A small volume, embellished with 
engravings, entitled The Stranger's 
Guide through Boston audits En- 
virons, will soon be published by 
Mr. P. Thompson, of that town. 

Mr. Southey has in preparation, 
a romance in rhyme, founded on 
the mythology of the Hindoos, to 
be entitled The Curse of Kehama. 
A Life of the late Dr. Beddoes 
has been undertaken, with the ap- 
probation of his family and friends, 
by Dr. Stock, of Bristol. 

The long-expected Reports of 
the Preventive Medical Institution 
at Bristol have been left by Dr. 
Beddoes in some degree of forward- 
ness : they will be completed and 
' published as speedily as possible 
t by Mr. Konig and Dr. Stock. 

Mr. William Richards has issued 
) proposals for publishing, by sub- 



LITER A Al JfOTl 






scription, a History of l.i/>m. ■ 
til, cct\i -svisi i< ,:l. commercial, bio- 
grnntiictil, political, and militai j . 
from iK foundation, about t\u- lir-t 
:ll--i' pf the < Christian .111. to the 

n( Hum . 

The Rev. Dr. Vincent is pre- 
paring <<>r the pre is, tfu ' 
'/'. t of Arrian's Indicaandthi /*>- 
riplus, wuli i translation, to accom- 
pany his comments on those works. 

The Rev. Dr. Beloe is proceed- 
ing with the fourth and fifth vo- 
lumes of Anecdotes of Literature 
mud scarce Books. At the end of 
the fifth will l>< given a general in- 
dex to the work. 

A new, much-improved, and en- 
larged edition of Dr. Mayor's /<-//- 
ages and Travels, in twenty-eight 
volumes, royal eighteen*, is in the 

press. Tlu' plates will he copied 
from the prints published in the 

original works, ami the maps will 

he numerous, and on a huge stale. 
The text of the principal works, aa 
(lie v.>\ kges of Anson, Byron, W'al- 
lis, Carteret, Cook, and Macart- 
ney, will he printed, without va- 
riation, from the original editions ; 
and many valuable works which 
have appeared within the present 
century, will he included. 



C a r.r.no n i a N Skktch bs ; or, a Tour 
through Scotland in 1807 ; to 
which is prefixed an explanatory 
Address upon a recent Trial. By 
Sir John Carr. — Uo. Published 
by Matthew and Leigh, Strand. 
The character of Sir John Carr as 
a writer is so well known to the pub- 
lic from the various specimens of his 
Ulents which he has submitted to its 
judgment, thai it would he a waste 
of time and space, were we here to 
attempt a. delineation of it. We 



shall 

if the ( 'aledonim , 

nothing p ulicularly new, 

or profound, still the reput 

whi. h Sir John im\ I 

by his pre ( eding perform 

not lib \\ to Miller \>y the pi 

publication. 

\\ ithoul adi erting to the ]>t 
ed observations on a recent iri d. \*<: 
Una with pleasure to the more in- 
teresting Subject of Sir John'-. I 
(Ionian Sketches. — I .in.; 

London, our tourist makej the I"!- 
lowing just remark upon the bappj 

state of our country, and the pro- 
gress o| | he common enemy — <■ - 

ed in an island favoured by heaven, 
and fortified by nature against the 

political storms that ra_re around u«, 

we view their angry pi - the 

astronomer, in the calmBessof the 

night, contemplates tlicerraticM-ou rsc 
of the flaming meteor, in 
Solemn meditation." He (!< •. 
the objects that mo 

tention at Cambridge, and thence 
on his road through \orthumber-' 
land into Scotland, which he enter- 
ed by Jedburgh. The most 
ing objects in the i .nn capi- 

tal, its recent improvements, ami 
the surrounding scenery, ably 

delineated : and the description- are 
enlivened w ith so many a 

that the reader is led on wiUlOV 
ing fatigued. — From Edinburgh 

| Sir John proceeded f> Stirling 1 , 
Kinross, and Perth (of which, 
the adjoining country, there i* a 
charming description )alon:rtl 
era coast to Aberdeen, to Peterl 

, and thence to Port George and 
verness, — Hire the work becomes 
more particularly interesting. The 
sublimity of Highland soenerj . 

. the cliaraoter and hubi'? of the 



m 



LITERARY NOTICES AND INTELLIGENCE. 



Highlander are fully entered into. 
Several pages are devoted to the 
plan and progress of that peat na- 
tional undertaking, the Caledonian 
/•anal, which Sir John describes as 
a work of Roman magnificence. 

Our author embarked from Oban 
and visited thellebridean islands of 
Mull, Ulva, and Staffa, with the 
account of which we have been 
much gratified : he afterwards pro- 
ceeded to the lochs Ketterine, Lain, 
Tay, to Dunkeld, and thence to 
Glasgow* 

Every well-wisher to his country 
will be gratitied with the proofs of 
the increasing prosperity of the 
northern division of our island, ex- 
hibited in the spirited improvements 
going forward, not only in the ca- 
pital, but in various parts of the 
country. We were also much pleas* 
ed with the temperate observations 
of our traveller on the errors into 
which Dr. Johnson seems to have 
been led in his Tour to the Hebrides, 
when he suffered spleen to get the 
better of the sound judgment and 
strong sense with which nature had 
endowed him. 

The volume contains twelve en- 
gravings in aquatinta, from draw- 
ings by the author. — All those who 
are fond of what is denominated 
tight reading, will, we doubt not, 
derive considerable entertainment 
from the Caledonian Sketches, and 
fo such as are urged by pleasure or 
curiosity to extend their summer ex- 
cursions beyond the Tweed, it may 
be recommended as an agreeable 
companion. 



MUSICAL REVIEW. 

Three Sonatas for the Piano-forte, 
in which are introduced six fa- 
vourite Irish Airs, with Accom- 



paniments for the German Flute 
and Violoncello ; composed and 
dedicated to Mr. E. Bunting. 
By J. Woclfl. Op. 48. London, 
printed and sold by Preston, 97, 
Strand. 

We regret that oar limits will not 
allow us to enter into an analysis of 
t lie merits of (lie above threcsonatas, 
which will be found extremely bril- 
liant, and written with the usual 
taste and judgment of their cele- 
brated author, without being diffi- 
cult as to execution. We were 
much pleased with the manner in 
which the Irish airs are introduced, 
the simple but beautiful melody of 
which has lost nothing by being 
transplanted into a foreign soil ; a 
commendation which we have not at 
all times had it in our power to be- 
stow upon some other foreign com- 
posers, under whose hands the ori- 
ginality of national song has been 
sacrificed by too studied and artifi- 
cial accompaniments. The flute 
part, in which the character of the 
instrument is happily preserved^ 
may be executed by a moderate 
performer : and the whole of thi3 
work is well calculated fo afford an 
evening's treat to a musical family. 

J. WoeljVs Cuckoo Concerto for 
the Piano-forte, zcith the Accom- 
paniments of a full Band. Print.- 
and sold by Goulding. Op. 49. 
Mr. Woelfl's Piano-forte Con- 
certos are deservedly ranked among 
the first compositions of the present 
day for that instrument, both in 
point of musical science and origi- 
nality ; and the present work cer- 
tainly does not detract in either re- 
spect from the author's fame : on 
the contrary, if we were inclined 
to form a comparison, we should 




Wa: 





OPERA DR 

'.Aj^Yart* j/A) ML .>'«W UMBOS. 



IHI.ATRr.. — FASHIONS POll LADIES, 8cc. 



185 



avow our partiality to the Cuckoo 
ConctrfOy in preference to most <>i 
Mr. W*'t anterior vrorks, as parti- 
cularly abounding in marks of the 

aQthor*i harmonic genius : nor is 
ili»- pittenl woik s<» difficult of ex« 
ecuiion m other concertos of ( !•«• 
sumo author, the Culm, Military 
Coma i ia y 6cc. since the most intri- 
cate passages arc written in a two- 
fold maimer, so as to bring (lit in 



within tin- n n !i of a moderately 
skilled pcrloriini . 



A setof Violin Quartett composed 

by Mr. \Vo< III, will ap|. si in a fefV 

days, m Layenu's, in Bond-street, 
dedicated to Hii Royal Higl 
the Pi incc of Wales, '.i'ln y Invc 

Im-cii plaj ed >i some priv.it.- pal 
and report speak* highly of their 
merit. 



THEATRE. 



Bishop's music (o the forthcom- 
ing opera at Drury-lane Theatre, 
has been frequently rehearsed. It 
possesses considerable Variety ; the 
overture is elegant and sprightly; the 
chorusscs are sublimely grand and 
impressive ; and the rest of the mu- 
sic, which consists of Stage, duets, 
trios, quartets, quintets, Sec. is a 
combination of excellence which we 
anticipate will furnish a delicious 
musical banquet for (he cognoscenti. 

Much of the effect which is to be 
produced will depend uponthe wind- 
instruments ; and we are sorry to 
state, that the managers have, per- 
haps from a principle of economy, 
refused to engage those performers 
on whose exertions the interest of 
Mr. Bishop's production so essen- 
tially depends. We must, however, 
confess, that we are not without 
anxiety for the success of this mu- 
sic. The public seem to hare an 
Utter distaste for whatever assumes 



the form of scientific elegance : and 
to relish nothing but aoieeapd bustle, 

to which they havr been so Ion 
customed, as substitutes for har- 
mony. Indeed we have often been 
surprised, that in addition to the 
melodious notcj of drums, triangles, 
cymbals, &c. w hare net been in- 
dulged also with the introduction 
into the bands of the theatres, of the 
sweet symphonies of the bagpipe or 
watchman's rattle, or of that deli- 
cious vocal performer w ho is record- 
ed by the poet Cow per, on a certain 
memorable occasion, to have*' sung 
most loud and clear." 

A revolution can only be effected 
by degrees, and it w ill probably be 
a considerable time before the pre- 
sent vitiated taste of theatrical au- 
diences, will be supplanted by that 
judicious discrimination, which cha- 
racterized them iu the time of Lin* 
ley and Storace. 



FASHIONS FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 



PLATE 10. LADIES' WALKING 

DRESS. 

A Polish cap, and pelisse of silver 
grey cloth, trimmed with gold or 
silver, buttoned down the front with 



small round buttons, a high collar, 
with a lace rufT; boots of same co- 
lour as the pelis>e, and both embroi- 
dered with gold or siUer. York tan 
gloves. 



18b 



FA9HION9 FOR LADtES AND GENTLEMEN. 



This dr.^ss was transmitted to a 
lady of high rank from Warsaw, 
and would alone evince the taste 
and elegance of the ladies of (hat 
country, were they not already 
sullicienlly known 

PLATE 11. — OPERA Dlinss. 
Henry the Eighth hat of purple 
velvet trimmed with pearls, a dress 
of the same colour, with a white sa- 
tin front trimmed with pearls, and 
fastened down the front with large 
white round pearls; a while satin 
Spanish mantle (rimmed with swan- 
down ; white shoes and gloves, 
pearl ear-rings and necklaces, white 
and silver fans, 

G EN ERAL OBSEBV AT IONS . 

The prevailing colours th is month, 
are rose, green, and purple of vari- 
ous materials, silk, satins, and plain 
velvets, ornamented with gold and 
silver, pearls, or embroidery. Satin 
caps and hats, with short white fea- 
thers are generally worn. Small 
morning or walking hats, trimmed 
with silk frivolity, are an entire new 
and very elegant article. Mantles 
and pelisses of various forms are 
still much worn for morning dresses. 
White is again become the favourite 
colour, and great variety is display- 
ed in the materials and form. Flow- 
ers are now beginning to appear 
again in morning and evening caps. 
The most fashionable style of wear- 
ing the hair is in ringlets d la Ninons 
the shoes are embroidered in gold 
or silver for dress, and for undress 
in sdk, chenille, or ribbon. 

We have the pleasure to inform 
our fair readers, that the fashions 
for the present month have been 
again furnished by Madame Lan- 
chester, whose taste and elegance 



stand so high in the estimation of 
(he fashionable world. 

FASHIONS FOR GENTLEMEN. 

Evening Dress. 
The reigning colours for this 
month are claret and eorbcau, with 
plain, flat, silk buttons; the coat 
rather long in the waist, and short 
in the skirts, double-breasted, with 
lappels, high collar, (Jii'n padding, 
and to fallback full three inches ; 
the pockets under the cross-tlaps, 
cuffs five inches and a half long, 
with three buttons a( top, 

Wais(coa( s arc made of \vh i(e mar* 
seilles and fancy silks, single-breast- 
ed, with narrow ilaps, rather long. 
Breeches of drab silk hose, not made 
very high: the knee-band low, with 
four or live buttons at the knee. 
They are made rather tight. 

Morning Dress. 

The coats worn for morning dress 
are generally of dark colours and 
sage mixed, single-breasted, with 
short regimental skirts, no ilaps, 
pockets in (he plaits of the skirts, 
high collars, stitched narrow, and to 
fall back about three inches. Out- 
tons either gilt, or silver basket, or 
moulds covered with cloth. 

\Yaistcoats double-breasted, made 
of silk striped Valentia, 

In consequence of the excessive 
advance in the price of superfine 
cloths and kerseymeres, the leaders 
of the haut ton have resolved to 
revive the fashion of wearing lea- 
ther breeches and boots, which some 
years since so particularly distin- 
guished English gentlemen from 
mechanics and servants. 

The preceding observations were 
communicated to us by Messrs. Au- 
stey and Saxe, South Molton-street. 



. 



PhAt 1 12.— HARDING, HOWELL, &Co. (GRAND FASH1 
ABLE MAGAZINE, No.80, PALL-MALL. 



These premises, togethcrwith the 
two adjoining houses, formed, up- 
wards of I century ago, the 
dence of the Duke of Schomh i 
Dutch general, who, at 1 1» r- revolu- 
tion which placed the crown on the 
head of William the Third, accom- 
panied that monarch t<> England, 
and fell l>\ tbefireof his own troops 
at the battle of the Boyne. 

The house is our hundred and 
fifty fvrt ill length from front to 
hack, and of proportionate width. 
It is fitted n j) with great taste, and 
is divided by glazed partitions into 
four departments, for the various 
branches of the extensive business 
which is there carried on. 

Immediately at the entrance is 
the first department, which is ex- 
clusively appropriated to the sale 
of furs and fans. The second con- 
tains articles of haberdashery of 
every description, silks, muslins, 
lace, gloves, &c. In the third shop, 
on the right, you meet with a rich 
assortment of jewellery, ornamental 
articles in or moitln, French clocks, 
&C, ; and on the left, with all the 
different kinds of perfumery neces- 
sary for the toilette. The fourth is 
set apart for millinery and dr.- 
so that there is no article of female 
attire or decoration, but what may 
be here procured in the first style of 
elegance and fashion. 



Tin 

five yean since, by Me n . I ] 
and Scribe, and hat I" en condui 
tin the last twelt «• j ears by the pit - 
sent proprietors, who have spared 
neither trouble nor eXpenCC to en- 
sure theestablishmenl a superi 

user every other in Europe, and to 

render it perfectly unique in its 
kind. 

Forty persons are regularly em- 
ployed on the premises in making 
up the various articles offered for 
sale, and in attendance 00 the dif- 
ferent departments : while the num. 
bcr of artisans engaged in supply* 
Ing the concern with novelties, al- 
most exceeds belief. Their i 
tions arc rewarded by a successful 
introduction of all articles of merit 
among the first circles, by which 
they receive a certain stamp of fa- 
shion, and a consequent wide and ge- 
neral circulation through the coun- 
try, to the great advantage of the 
manufacturer. 

There is. scarcely a manufacturing 
town in the kingdom but what it is 
laid under contribution by this es- 
tablishment, the attention of whose 
spirited proprietors is not confined 
to native productions, but extends 
to every article of foreign manufac- 
ture which ihere is any possibility 
I of obtaining. 



No. 1/7. Vol. I. 



V. E 



m 



FASHIONABLE FURNITURE. 



PLATE 14. — LADIES' SECRETAIRE. 

This elegant appendage to the 
drawing-room or boudoir, should be 
made of rosewood, rich and varied 
in its grain. The female figures 
supporting the secretaire, and the 
lyres on the upper part, may be 
carved in wood, and finished in 
burnish and matt gold, to imitate 
or moulu. The ornaments on the 
drawers may be of metal, water gilt. 
The bottom part, has a mirror on 
the back, placed on a shelf, carv- 
ed in the front, and ornamented with 
or moulu mouldings, supported on 
vase feci. The front of the secre- 
taire drawer is decorated with or 
moulu handles, formed as wreaths 
of foliage; a star in the center, 
concealing the key-hole of the lock. 

PARLOUR C1IAIUS. 

This pattern, of Grecian form, 
is supposed to be of mahogany ; the 
ornaments and the frame are made 
out in an inlay of ebony. The con- 
tinned line from the top of the back, 
to the gilt ornaments on the front 
feet, should be panneUed out be- 
twixt two beads. The ornament in 
center of the back may in part be 
carved, and the rest in ebony. The 
seat and back of the chair are stuff- 
ed and covered with red morocco 
leather, on which are printed Gre- 
cian ornaments in black. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

A considerable alteration has ta- j 
ken place in the style of fittino- U p i 
apartments within these few months. ! 
Instead of a gaudy display in co- \ 
louring, a more pleasing and chaste ! 
effect is produced in the union of 
two tints. This has been happily 



managed in calicoes, producing an 
appearance eqnal to silk, particular- 
ly in the richer and more brilliant 
colours. "We have witnessed this 
effect in a full crimson damask pat- 
tern, lined with a bine embossed ca- 
lico, the manufacture of Messrs. 
Dudding and Nelson. A similar 
taste has been followed with some 
success in paper-hanging^ exhibit- 
ing a rich appearance, when finish- 
ed with gold, or black and gold 
mouldings. Carpets, especially for 
principal apartments, have partial- 
ly fallen into the same good taste. 
This mode of furnishing, produc- 
ing in the predominant features a 
composed and uniform effect, aids 
greatly the meubles of grand rooms, 
especially where gilding isintroduc- 
ed. Should silk become objectionable 
from its expence, we strongly re- 
commend the use of these new pat- 
terns. They need only be seen to 
become approved, and are particu- 
larly calculated for candle-light ef- 
fect. 

DINING PARLOUR. 

In this apartment morone conti- 
nues still in use, and the more so 
where economy is requisite ; which 
article also has experienced an im- 
provement by being embossed in a 
variety of patterns. This process, 
however, renders it less appropriate 
for drapery, uidess there should be 
sufficient extent to form it with 
boldness. The coverings for floors 
are of crimson drugget, milled to 
a proper substance, and pannelled 
with a border of black furniture 
cloth; producing a warm and rich 
appearance. The same arrange- 







LAD1KS .Ik IK RTAIB B 



a » ('hah 




T 

■» I 1 I I I I I I 1 



I 



tmm 



•s ] 



fiifllfllfflliHff' 1 m r* 



J^sr 



#SA 



» 



Cf)e ^Repository 



Of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashion, and Politics. 

Manufacturers, Factors, and Wholesale Dealers in Fancy Goods that come 
within the scope of this Plan, are requested to send Patterns of such new 
Articles as they come out, and if the requisites of Novelty, Fashion, and 
Elegance are united, the quantity necessary for this Magazine 
■will be ordered. li. Ackermann, 101, Strand, London. 



No. 



REPOSITORY OF ART S. SCIENCE, &c. 



ALLEGORIC HL W< 






ivienl is to be seen in (lie di;i 
rooms of man v of Hie haul f<u/, in 

various colours. Chandeliers of < il 

i: lass, on a metal framework, with 
Ornaments of '■/ moulu and DTODZe, 

arc generall y used for illuminating 
rooms, affording a brilliant and dif- 
fused light from the center of the 
ceiling. 



J'or (lie preecd 
we acknowlcfl 

io Mr. (,. Smith, wli '■ i 






taste in iln's Inn- is <•. Lncrd ii 
splendid work on furnitun 
coration. 



ALLEGORICAL WOOD.C) T, Willi PATTERN HIITISII 

M INUFACTl RE. 



Tar. four patterns of British ma- 
nufactures lor ladies' attire for flu's 
month, have been furnished by 
Messrs. Harding, Howell, ami Co. 
of Pall-Mall, of whose extensive 
establishment we have introduced 



genuity, and industry of the manu- 
facturer, Mr. Smith, i i b. 

No. 2. This is a new and rich 
article, called Queen's silk", much 

worn for dresses and pelisses; it 

may be had of all colours, and pro- 



a representation and description in If duces a very good effecf. It is 
a preceding part of this number. ' t the manufacture of the Spital fields 
No. 1. Anglo-Merino doth. This weavers; and WC have graft satis* 
article, five quarters and seven quar- faction In observing, that our 1; i 
ten wide, nearly as fiifc as muslin of fashion vie with each other in 
in iis texture, and highly elegant affording encouragement to tl 
in its appearance for full dress or | industrious. and ingenious artis 



evening wear, is manufact ured from 
the fleeces of the Merino ilock of 
1 1 is Majesty, to whom the nation is 
not only under the greatest obliga- 
tion for the original introduction of 
these useful animals, but whose 
unwearied and patriotic efforts for 
their increase anddiffusion, are like- 
ly to be productive of the most be- 
neficial results. IIL- illustrious ex- 
ample hasbecn successfully followed 
by the Duke of Bedford, Lord So- 
merville, Dr. Parry, Messrs. Coke. 
Toilet, and many other public-spi- of the shawls made in that country, 
jrited agriculturists. on the principle of which if is ma* 

This new and curious article, nufectu red. Our pattern, yellow and 
Which may be had of various co- |j purple, is extremely lashionable 
lours, is the closest imitation of the ; tor mantles and pelisses : it is, J 
leal India shawl fabrique ever pro- ' evcrj mar Je of many other colours. 
d need in this country, and reflects \ These three silks' arc, as usual, 
the highest credit on the skill, in- 1 half vard wide. 

^ It 



who for some years past have been 
very much neglected. 

No. 3. A new satin twilled 
This beautiful article, verj 
for dresses and pelisses, displa 
variety of shades according tu the 
reflections of the light, and p >-- 
considerable advantage, in respect 
durability, over common silk. It 
is manufactured ol' a great variety 
of colours. 

Xo. 1. The Persian double silk 
derives its name from its imitation 



190 



3Poetrjn 



ADDRESS 

To Alexander Dun das C. an Infant 

apparently near Dissolution. 

Go, lovely babe, in meekness rob'd, 
Go, ere thy feelings have been prob'd 
By falsehood's stings, or keen regret, 
Go from a world with ills beset; 
Go from the pure maternal breast, 
To which thou art so fondly prest; 
Go from thy father's dear embrace, 
Go to thy better biding-placc; 
Go from this restless speck below, 
This scene of perfidy and woe ! 
Go from this sin- fraught, mad'ning earth, 
And burst into immortal birth ; 
Go wash'd in thy Redeemer's blood, 
Go and partake with him the good, 
Which, ere this globe's foundation, he 
Prepar'd in heaven, sweet boy, for thee. 

Such counsel reason strives to give — 
But, oh ! thy sire would have thee live ! 
If there be in Lavater's rules 
More than the baseless dreams of schools, 
The grand formation of thy head 
Would have thy steps to glory sped ; 
Thy tow'ring front, thy marking eye, 
Express a mind, a courage high, 
Supreme in council or command, 
A blessing to thy native land. 
Thou might'st have liv'd like Pitt to rule, 
Like him disinterested, cool, 
Decisive, firm, serenely great, 
Stay and preserver of the state; 
Or else, like Rosslyn, dealt our laws, 
And justly judg'd the righteous cause, 
All eloquent, like him, have mov'd 
Thy hearers' souls, and truth approv'd ; 
Or, like thy other namesake*, shone, 
Th' unshaken bulwark of the throne, 
Devoting with a patriot's zeal, 
Time, talent, to the public weal, 
Diftuiing good on all around, 
The friend of worth wherever found. 

♦ Lord ST, 



Or had dread war thy service claim'd, 
Thou might'st in tight have foremost 

flarn'd, 
Perhaps some act sublimely bold, 
Had down the tide of ages roll'd 
'Mongst Britain's bravest sons thy name, 
Emblazon 'd by the hand of fame, 
Thou might'st like them have France 

defied — 
Like Wolfe, like Abercrombie, died ! 
Like Nelson, or like Moore, their grate- 
ful country's pride. 
Delusive visions ! — but last night 
These fancies fill'd me with delight ! 
Now — sad reverse ! — convulsive paini 
Rack thee, and writhe thy tortur'd veins; 
Thy life and death are in the scale, 
And who can say which will prevail ? 
God, God alone ! — Here let me rest — . 
Whatever lie ordains is best. 



THE HEAVY HEART. 

Go, lie thee down, old man, and die ! 

For fate prepares th' unerring dart : 
Come then, thou last expiring sigh, 

And prove the warning of my heart ! 

My heart is such a changeling grown, 
It weighs so heavy in my breast, 

I scarce can think it is my own — 
Some other is my bosom's guest. 

But whose it is I do not know : 
Mary, I'm sure it is not thine ; 

For not one joy does it bestow, 
To no one good does it incline. 

No, 'tis not thine — I would it were, 
For then I never should complain ; 

Then I should all those virtues share, 
Which in thy gentle bosom reign. 

Then I the tender thought should know, 
The wish from sordid int'rest free, 

The sigh that heaves for others' woe, 
And friendship's faithful sympathy. 



POI THY. 



101 



MCI MN mine, hut fef away 

Prom in\ poor boion they are A 
la tins cold beaxl they will not stay ; — 

Tins heart can never DC my own. 

It doc • not throb n ith anxious f! 
Not has it itrengtb to beavc ■ moan; 

It d i iu>t till tbc eye with toon i 

It surely cannot be m) ownj 

M\ hearl was evw itoul and bold, 

Whatever demon croet'd my way; 
Hut now, alas! 'tis i< :y cold, 

Nor t lu i ir imu hit throughout the day. 

Not a gay thought finds entrance there ; 

Noi .1 warm feeling malcei it glow ; 
Nor is it vet o'erwhelm'd with care — 

But in m v breaet it sinks so low, — 

So low — it makes my life-blood creep 
in chilling current through my veins; 

Till night cornea on, und friendly sleep 
Throws its dark mantle o'er iny pains. 

But when I wake from busy rest 

(For dreams unceasing round mc fly), 
1 hear the echo of my breast — 

" Lie down, old man. lie down and die!" 

Could I that kind command ohev, 
It would my drooping spirits cheer; 

How should 1 haste to tlee away, 
For I am sick of being here ! 

Thou sad. desponding, dreary gUOSt, 
Leave me with all thy gloomy train ! 

Oh ! quit the mansion of my breast — 
Let my own heart come back again. 

But if, malignant, thou wilt stay, 

Oh! may thy currents freeze and dry ! 

O Time, arrest them on their way — 
" Let the old man lie down, and die !" 



To the Memory of Sir J. Moore, K. B. 

While Fr«ncc her plund'iing Myrmidons 
disgorg'd, 
And deluged Europe with her blood- 
stain'd hordes ; 
Britain, to b urst t he chains a tyrant forged, 
To guard the rights of Spain — her aid 
a'dords. 



Hei Patriot King, t" cheer the tanddie- 
'd, 
Sent his brave w.n riot ito It" i 
To save a prince by ty rami ' 1, — 

To giM- them victory,- 
Mooai • 

Led by their gallant chief, the troops aoV 

\ nice, 

Till unsu tain'd by those th< y fought t« 
save ; 

Alike the friend of Spain and SCO! I 

I ran* ••, 
The gallant Mooai ri I i bis 

re. 

Poremost tolcad hisdanger (coming I 
The budding (oared o'er bis temples 

w ;i\ c ; 
(When the bold chieftain, on the 
nish strand, 
'Mid^t victory fell !) those laurels deck 
his grave. 

The marbled column and the sculptur'd 
bust 
May give to infamy a dcatl. 
But nobler trophies shade the hero' 

And nobler feelings consecrate bis fame. 

Tis not the title royalty impart-., 

'Tis not the monument a Senate rears; 
But 'tis those " sacred shrines," the peo- 
ple's hearts, 
Whose grateful incense it a nation's 
tears. 

As when the forest's pride fierce light- 
ning rends, 
Struck by the sacred fire of Heaven it 
lies ; 
Yet from its root a kindred oak ascends. 
With native grandeur tow'ring to the 
skies. 

Thus shall " his spirit," hov'ring o'er our 
shores, 
Inspire compatriot youths like him to 
bleed; 
While future ages boast their vct'ran 
Moo 
And future Moor.Es to future Moores 
succeed. 

S. B. Fr. 



192 



MARRIAGES AND DEATHS, 
Arranged in the Alphabetical Order of the Counties. 



BFDroRDStURE. — Died.} Miss M. Odell, 
of Bedford.— Mr. Mawbv, of Bedford.— The 
Rev. J. Dcvy, D I). 

Berkshire. — Married.'] George Keylock 
Rasden, B. A.to Miss \. Townsend.— M. B. 
H Beach, esq. to Miss C. •'. Mount. 

Died.] At West Hanney, Miss E.A.Godfrey. 

BUCK IN OH IMBHIRE. — Married.] AtAylcs- 
Lui v, T, Tindul, esq. to Mis* Anne Chaplin. 

Died.] The Rev. P. Stanhope Smelt, M A. 
of Aston Abbotts— At Aylesbury, Mr; T.Beit: 

— \t Walton, the Right lion. Lady Augusta 
Bennett. 

C a m im i dg esh i n r — Married] T.Lindscll, 
esq. of St. Ives, to Mis; Margaret Hurt. 

Died.] Mr. Win Dayly, of Cambridge, aged 
76. — At St. Ives, Mr. Robert A mas. 

Cheshire. — Married.'] 3. Price, esq. of 
Mona Lodge, to Miss Lloyd. — Mr. Joseph 
Howell, to Miss E. Billington.— Mr. J.Okell, 
of Stutton, to Mis» Stanley. 

Died.] W. Maekey, esq. of Hamlbridge, 
■ged 70. — Mr. H.Gregory, oftheWoodhouses. 

— Thomas Cash, of Morlcy. — Aged 83, Mr. T. 
Spcnce, of Chester. — Aged tf:j, Mr. T. Nailor. 

Cornwall. — Married.] Captain Hamilton, 
of Falmouth, to Miss j\ Duckworth. 

Died.] The Rev. C. Powlett, aged 8 1, rector 
rf St. Martin's, near Looe. — At Bodmin, the 
Rev. John Lake, M. A.— At Falmouth, Mr. B. 
Incledon, aged <J2. — At Redruth, Serjeant T. 
Broad. — At St. Tudy, Lieut. Barnsley. 

Cumberland. — Married.] The Rev. J. 
Waller, to Bliss Wade, of Appleby. — Thos. 
Parker, esq to Mis s Spcdding, of Whitehaven. 
—Mr. J.Beattie, to Miss M. Holuihead. 

Died.] At Coatham Hall, Garth, Mr. Thos. 
Poilhouse. — At Penrith, Mrs. J. Relph, 
aged 81. 

DEVONSHIRE. — Married.] At Woodbury, 
Captain A. R. Hughes, to Miss Jane Huckell 
Lee. 

Died.] At Bishops-Lidyeard, Miss S. Yea. — 
The Rev. W Kitson, aged o«, of Exeter.— At 
Barnstaple, H. Grihlcs, esq. — S. Stevens, esq. 
of Beerferris, — At Saltash, R. Hickes, esq. 
aged 90. — At Plymouth, Major A. A. Camp- 
bell of the 42d Royal Highlanders; — Lieut. 
Parkins, of the 1st West York militia. 

Essex — Married.] W. Nolan, esq. to Miss 
M.C.Brimwin, of Bradwell Hall.— C. Bon- 
ner, esq. to Miss A. Colthrop. 

Died.] At Belchamp Hall, the Right Hon. 
the Countess of JJundonald. — The Rev. Wm. 
Henry Reynell, vicar of Honehureh. — At 
Great Ilrord, E. Goudhart, esq. — Wm. Cole- 
man, esq. ofMaldon, aged 81. 

GEO L' ( est krs ii 1 ee. — War/ -ied.] Sir Edward 
Synge, Bart. 1o Miss Welch, of Gloucester. 

Died.] At Nailsworth, in consequence of a 
fall on the ice, .Mrs. Hay, relict of Haniel 
Hay, esq. 

HAMPSHIRE. — Married.] J. Moore, esq. 
Of Newport, to Miss Isles. 

Died.] At Tangier Park, Thomas Limbrey 
Sclater Matthew, esq. —•Lieutenant-General 
fciMxvt, formerly commander in chief of the 



East India Company's forces in Bengal.— H. 
Harmood, esq. justice of the peace for this 
county. 

Hertfordshire — Died.] Wm. Milward, 
of Hoddesdon, in his soth year. — At Tring, 
Mr. G.CIaydon. 

Hi reiordshire. — Died.] At Hereford, 
James Woodhouse, esq. 

hr.\T. — Married.] At Maidstone, W. Scu- 
damore, esq. to Miss Uavies, of Mortlake, 
Sum— H Willmott, esq. to MissG. H. Gre- 
gory. — At Littlebourne, Mr. Franklin, aged 
88, to Miss .Mary Dewcl, aged 17. 

Died.] J. Anderson, esq. surgeon R. M. 
Woolwich. — At Barton, Allen Grebell, esq — 
At Beckeubnm, G. W. Hickes, esq. — At Ey- 
thorn, the Rev. Philip Papillon, rector of that 
parish and vicar of Tunbridge. — At Troy- 
Tcwn, the lady of Captain Alexander Ander- 
son, of the Royal Marines. 

Lancashire; — Died.] Mr. W. Dansoa, of 
Sunderland, aged 70. — The Rev. Mr. Baldwin, 
justice of the peace for this county.— Mrs. 
Vanbriigb, aged 83. — The Rev. J. Griffith, 
M. A. — At llulme, Mrs. Leaiherbarrow, aged 
J06 years — At Liverpool, Mrs Stanley. 

Leicestershire. — 2Wed.]AtSeagrave, the 
Rev. R. A. Ingram. — At Stapleford, Miss 
Waddiugton, aged aa. 

Lincolnshire. — Died.] At Broughton, 
Mrs. Radcliffe.— At Uccby, Mrs. Field. 

M inui.E. i:x — Married.] Captain Pulteney 
Malcolm, R.N to Miss Elphinstone. — A, 
Hawkes, esq. to Miss Barradaile. — Captain J. 
G. Peters, to Miss Read. — Captain P. Parker, 
to Miss M. Dallas. — George Wills, esq. to 
Miss Sophia GrifKn. — B. T. Claxton, eso. to 
Miss L. A. Anderson.— The Rev. H. H. Bar- 
ber, of the Bristol Museum, to Miss Smith. 

J)ied.] In Old Burlington-street, aged 70, 
his Excellency Count Rruhl, many years mi- 
nister of the Elector of Saxony to his Britan- 
nic Majesty, knight of the order of the W bite 
Eagle. — At his house in Whitehall, aged 80, 
James Duff, Earl of Fife, Viscount Macduff, 
Baron Biaco, of Kilbry.de, in Ireland — John 
Seaiy, esq. aged 7'i. — John Francis Moore, 
esq. — In Argyle- street, Lady Lumin. — Lieut - 
Colonel Botiiwell. — Wm. Montague, esq. of 
the Grave, Camber well. — Mrs. E. Hervey. — 
Dr. John Hunter, F.R.S — Miss Langhain. — 
L. D Campbell, esq. — The infant daughter of 
Lord Milton. 

Norfolk. — Married] At Feltwell, the Rev. 
Wm. Newcome, to Miss Catherine Clongb. — 
M. C. Horslcy, esq. to Miss Isabel Philps. 

Died] At Lynn, Captain Baxter. — Arthur 
Brantbayt, esq of Stiffkey. 

North a m ptq s s h 1 re — Married.] At Carl- 
ton, Brio-General Montresor, to the Right 
Hon. Lady Sondes. 

Nottinghamshire. — Married.] The Rev. 
J. Robinson, to Miss Maria Stanser, of Bul- 
welL — At Nottingham, the Rev. J. Grundy, 
to Miss Ann Hanooek. 

Oxfordshire. — At Headington, the Rtv 
Win. Perry, to Miss Harriet Finch. 



I Mi DIV1D1 



; 



SiiHoviiiui \Jani( < bs 
esq. of afhn ■• Xi • Hardlno, — 

•1 !„• Hi x (. V\ Sim «, i" i 8. < Hirl 

SO .11 II I I ■ II I It I '/'■ ■■' ' , 1 1" 

Rev. 1 ttart, i" Hlsi Ann 5|i 

At ( lift) • . in .1. Liu lol, Hi« H.\. '< U 
lb) 
/>„*.■ i i ,i,,,i, il,. II. .n. Sir Jacob 
Wolff, Burl -At lt.<t li, H II Jeffn | •. . q 

Rn li < Sii .1 .r — \t 

irougb Hou r, Wi ton, uu I! ith 

liiov.n 

si \ i i uu i> in 1. 1 i.' on i ' T. Ilianuill, 
< M .i ,.i i.i. infield, to Mill S Robins 

si i ! oi i, /)...; \i Beech , 'I.. R< \ Dr 
Temple. — Al Linstead, Mr. R. 1>< no; 

HCUTCt'l) ii I lou. .1 liiiilM'lf tin n. > < 5 

I he .In .1 «<n ill I3,00of 

Si nuv /'. d i \i Broad Green, A Cal 

il.l. n ; li, . i.| VI Uu liiimu.l, III. Visa 
dr < 'ambit. 
Ki . > -Afarried.] The Ren Mi Baldwyn, 

\ Rig ■-, ol I iitboui in < a 
J>ml | At VToedbidiiig, Sn Francis Vincent, 
M i Pi j i hi, i<( \\ akebural pi 

.\l \ i uu. I. I, .Mi s Sh inli.nun. 

\\ mi» n nsHini - Died | J. Barnard, esq 

bauki i , "I' • oi nliill. 

\\ 1 1 i >hiiil — Harried.] \t Heytesbury, 
tin- Hon w m Eliot, to Mi-s \. Court 

/»«./.] Mrs Baken iiii-, oi I'l'uiinii House, 
in ;n Marlborough. 

Won. i'ii mhike — • kfi n i d 1 The Rot. 
Mi Mm (in, to Mist Dm kwoith. 



^ mi Kintal 

1 1 i! i. i I, . .| i \t 

A si. in, John < n. 1 1 ltd, • 
..i 
1 1 \t foi k, Hi ! 

aldt-rm 
nilif ■■ ..I lord inoyoi mi,... mil . 

Sl I.II.IMI \JoT\ r: ill 

\\ . ni». n th Si. ii .. 

Sk. ii. 

Uu,/ I ,\i Monti i 

limy, ..;• 'I • I 

\ s i > - - I ' -• Air 

< .i. \, to M , 

iii. Ri \ v\ Bm 

nf ill.- Bishop ol K ill ii;i 

D U -I. ■■ • , ^ .il. rl.nl, th II. .n. 

Mi. DM 

At Stonyl 
I . B, B 

ii (Hi. uu I lloiij man —1 lie 
I in < !ool< ■ 
jade ii m< Ji i 1 .01 'I I'agi t. — In 

• < ...i '. dI>ui ., \ i ilmr 
Branthwuit, esq On board the IVlurj 
port, on ln< pa l » 

< III. S\ III* -, l.t I . . HIM III. 1 

lOdor 10 ill' king 

of an nit i ■ iting occoant ><i tbat count i 

Corunnn, of ■ t 

fatigue, Captain F.J, Uarly, .. i.ght 

dl BgOOUS 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BANKRUPTCY ! AND DIVIDE! 

liAMvlU PTCISS 



■ tlieti s Namei urt 6ctloe -i Parent httei. 

Ai.i.kn Daniel, Newgate street, ihoemaker I 
'I., in- and Roche, Church yard, Corent caul. a. 

Allen William, t'h.-uulu* street, shoemaker 
(Pitches and Sampson, Swithin's lane 

Aspland William, Kensington, cheesemon- 
km Popkin, Dean street, Soho, and Knight, 
Ki naingtou 

Atkinson James, Clevely Mill, Lancashire, 
miller and com dea r, Lancaster, and 

( aimi ami Ilninu-ll, Aldersg itc stret t 

Baumer George, Cambridge Heath, Mid- 
dlesex, stockbroker (AspitiaJI, Quality court, 
Chancer^ lone 

Brntlej Peter, College Hill, Thames street, 
stone manna (Locket, Wilson street, Fmsburv 
square 

Billing John, Raveuthorp, Northampton, 
voolcomber (Baucott, Long Buekby, North- 
ampton 

Bnardman Thomas, the younger, late of 
Manchester, but now a prisoner in Lancaster 
castle, liquor merchant (loulkes and< > 
Manchester, aud FouUtea and Longdill, Gru>'» 
inn 

Brown John, Little East Cheap, choetcanon- 
%<"t (Gn u:oi \ . ( i. -ii. ui's mn 

Brown William, Wormwuod street, l.oudon 
wall, victuallii (Taylor, < raven street 

Browne Joseph, Liverpool, merchant Grif 
fifth and Hiude, Liverpool, ami \\iudie, John 
street, Bcdj'oid iu\v> Louden. 



Carter John, Bishops , inrichaut 

Palmer, '1 ■ , Cop- 

tliulj court, 1 broKmoi U 

» uttrll Henry, Duke street^ Worship ffjiiBrr, 
silk manufacturer Coote,Auntin Priara 

Cbeldren Gio.g.. Duv r, naddter iBarura, 
Clifford's inn, and Sliipdwn, I 

t'ho\ri- \\ illiaiu, (hihi r'a I. oton, U'arwick- 
shire, innkeeper ami molt la Tebbutt and 
Shuttles in ih, (ji ..v's in n ><jua. • . sasd t ioppcr, 
Marlu t Bosmoi th, l.< .. 

Claj Ralph, Hackney, merchant 
I ■ .nit, Budg 

Coanop Jo-, j li. and Colem in I. 
Ui-d Lion sl lycn 

ton, l'u en I (.onihill 

l oj \\ il i.au, H. \ti>u, Hertr or d, L . 
(Townsend, Sl ipk - isai 

Davenport Joseph, and John Finney, A r 
maahury, mn r boots Warraad,4 
Biulgi- row 

Davenport Thomas, Derby, linen v. 
(Warraad, l . . Budge row 

1 tat - i •. i id, ' en, ironme 

i, Gray's inn square, and M 
Uvett, Bristol 

re. King '.mJ read, co* k 
I 

Dean Joseph, IJirmingham, Wtrwid 
paaner Kinderley, Long, ami Inee, ' 
mn, and Ber w ick, Birssingham 

l)e Prauo.lobiie, J.uii street, lead -.ntichant, 
[Pcarce and Son, Swithin's lane 

Dewor Andrew 
(Gibbs, Rv< . . 



m 



BANKRUPTCIES AND DlVir>E\Dr. 



Eastwood Jonas and John, Saddlcworth, 
York, dyers (Ingham, Dobcross, York, and 
Meredith and Rohhins, New square, Lincoln's 
tun 

Fdmonds Elias, Monument yard, wine mer- 
chant (Savcl, Surry street, Strand 

FJe Stephen, Cannon street road, St. George, 
Middlesex, mason (Burt, Gould square, 
Ciutched Friars 

Klstob Henry, Sunderland, Durham (Black- 
teton, Synioiurs inn, London, and Thompson, 
Bishopw f a> mou t h 

Eustace William, Little Carter lane, Doc 
tors' Commons, cabinet maker (Sweet, King's 
Bi nch walk, Temple 

Evans Sarah, Wolverhampton, carpenter 
(•Sn.ni t and Thomas, Staple's inn 

Fairbridge William, Gough square, Fleet 
street, dealer and chapman ^ Brace, New Bos- 
well court 

Fisher Benjamin, Dudley, Worcester, wine 
and spirit merchant (Kinderloy, Loug, and 
lnee, Gray's inn, aud Smith and Arnold, Bir- 
mingham 

Fox Richard, Rugby, Warwick, scrivener 
(Kinderley, Long, and luce, Gray's inn, and 
Palmer, Coieshill, Warwick 

FrowThoma6, Mablcthorpe, Lincoln, inn- 
holder (Baldwin, Lincoln, and Spencer, 
Lamb's Conduit street, London 

Ganc Job, Trowbridge, Wilts, carpenter 
(Tinibrell, Trowbridge, and Debary and Der. 
by, F.mer Temple, Loudon 

Gillam John, Cambridge, merchant (Gee, 
Cambridge, and Sundys and Horton, Crane 
court, Fleet street 

Glover William and John, Poultry, haber- 
dashers (Mason, St. Michael's Church yard, 
Cornhill 

Gorton Richard, Pendleton, Lancaster, cot- 
ton sizcr (Edge, Manchester, and Ellis, Cur- 
fcitor street, London 

Grater Robert, Stoke Damarell, Devon, 
scrivener (Santer, Chancery lane, and Hurley, 
Gaddon, near Cullumptou, Devon 

Greenwell John, South Shields, Durham, 
butcher (Bambridge, South Shields, and Bell 
and Brodcriek, Bow lane, Cheapside. 

Hand, Joseph, Wormwood street, London, 
warehouseman (Marson, Church row, New- 
ir.gton Butts 

Heckford William, London street, RatclifTe 
Cioss, victualler (Lingard, Lower Chapman 
street, St. George's East 

Hetheringtoit David, Low Crosby, Cumber- 
land, drover (Birkett, Bond court, Walbrook, 
and Bond, Carlisle 

Hickson Thomas, Leicester square, hoot- 
maker (Jones and Roche, Covent Garden 
church yard 

Hoare Thomas, and William Allen, Wal- 
tham Lane, Herts, calico printers (Bond, East 
Imiia Chambers, Leadenhall stiect 

Hoaie Thomas, Waltham Lane, Herts, vic- 
tualler (Bond, East India Chambers, Lea- 
denhall street 

Horsfall William, Hampstead road, victual- 
ler (Wavue, Old Broad street 

Howe J. Waleot, Somerset, grocer (Shep- 
bard ana Adlinpton, Bedford row, London, 
and Shephard, Bath 

Hunter James, Whitehaven, Cumberland, 



I mercer and draper (Adamson, WhiteJlavenj 
and Cicunell, Staple's inn, London 

Irclan<l John, Romford, Burr street, East 
Smithfuld, and Lower Thaines street, coal 
factor (Mayhew, Symond's inn 

James John, Bristol, cooper (Stephens, Bris- 
tol, and Sweet, King's Bench w alk, Temple 

Jenkins David, Llantrissent, Glamorgan, 
linen draper (James, Gray's inn square, and 
Cook, Bristol 

Jones Jane, Dolyddbyrion, Carnarvon, tan- 
ner (Edmunds, Exchequer othce of pleas, 
Lincoln's inn, and Williams, Carnarvon 

Jones William, Reading, nurseryman (Saun- 
ders, Reading, and Holmes, Great James's 
stmt, Bedfoidrow 

Knight Samuel, Whitecross street, cloth- 
factor aud woollen diaper (Vizard, Lincoln's 
inn 

Lancaster Benjamin, Scarborough, ship 
owner (Barber, Chancery lane 

Lewis Thos. Bedminster, Somerset, bacon 
factor (Frowd and Blandford, Mitre Court 
buildings, Temple 

Lloyd Thomas Hughes, Poultry, London, 
and Walworth Common, Surry, slate mer- 
chant (Rippon, Bermondscy str. Southwark 

Machall Thomas, Criggleston, York, but- 
cher ( Batty e, Chancery lane, aud Brooke, 
Wakefield 

Mackenzie Roderic, King's Arms yard, 
London, merchant and factor (Blunt and 
Bowman. Old Pay office. Broad-street 

Mawson William, Kendal, cotton spinner, 
(Chambre, Chapel street, Bedford row, Ri- 
chardson and Fall, Kendal 

Merry Jonathan Hatfield, West Smithhcld, 
London, oilman (Russen, Crown Court, Al- 
dersgate street 

Miall Samuel, Wapping, brewer (Cooper 
and Lowe, Southampton buildings, Chancery 
lane 

Morris John, Greenwich, builder and car- 
penter (Aliens, Clifford's inn, and Parker, 
Greenwich 

Morton Richard, Manchester, drysalter 
(Johnson and Bailey, Manchester 

Murton Joseph, Hull, dealer and chapman 
(Cottsworth, Hull, and Exley aud Stocker, 
Furnival's inn, London 

Parker William Rigg, Hchdon, York, cot- 
ton twist spinner (Scofield, Skiptou, York, 
and Swale and Heel is, Great Ormond street, 
or Staple's inn, London 

Payler Thomas, Greenwich, merchant 
(Pearson, Temple 

Phillips John Coates, Bank house, Keigh- 
ley, York, cotton spinner (Hardacre, Coluc, 
Lancaster, and Wriglesworth, Gray's inn 

Powell Henry John, Ixbridge, builder and 
carpenter (Mills, Ely place 

Proctor William, Great Ealing, Middlesex, 
dealer in hay and straw (Gale and Son, Bed- 
ford street, Bedford row 

Richards George, Cornhill, bookseller (Bol- 
ton, Lane, and Lane, Lawrence Poultney Hill 

Riddelstorftcr George Augustus, White- 
chapel, haberdasher (Hurd, Temple 

Row William, St. Peter's Quay, Northum- 
berland, ship builder (Atkinson, Chancery 
lane, and Bainbridge, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Salter John, Beimondsey New road, Surry, 






BANKRUPTCIES' a.nu jui vii>i n f.« . 



)' > 



carpenter (Heymott, Barrow*! buildings, 

Ulael.f. ISI a i "I 

Scott i Gray'a inn lane, buildci (Winck> 
ley, I. Iim . oiu i,i, mule 

Scot I Thomas, Manington, Kmi, victual- 
Ur | Bin \ ii, ( 'anti i bui \ , sud Dynt 
inn, Ii. it itrei i 

Soot I I limn i , the elder, Thomas Scott, the 
younger, und Dowson Scott, Carthorpe, \ ork, 
grocers end merchanti Riff, North Allerton, 

ami Lodingl mil 11,11, I • nipli 

Sbapson William, Sheffield, inuki 1 1" i Pai 
Iter Mid Brown, Sheffield, and Blagrave tod 
Matter, Symond , i inn, London 

Skyring laobarieh, Bucklenbury, carpen- 
i' ' Bond, I i.i India i bambi rs, I i a lenhall 

Oil • I 

Staalej s. ii. ill, Derby, p. i Warrand, 

Caatle com i, Buil^t row 

Stennei Thomas, Briatol, carpenter and join* 
n Boah and Pi .'ii sua, Briatol, and I 
dale, Alexander, aad Holme, .\n> inn, Loudon 

Symonda John, Ramadon, Oxford, borac 
dealer (Attwood, Enaham, Oxford, end Ed- 
munda, Exchequer office of pleas, Linen inn 

Taylor Michael, John Latham, and Elijah 
Belcher, Liverpool, merchant a (Reigbley m- 
Orred, Liverpool, and Cooper and Lowe, 
Chaucer] lane 

I'o'i.kin:. Saurad Mather, Stanton St .lobn, 
Oxfordshire, dealer and chapman (Walah, Ox- 
ford, and Townsend, Staple's iun, London 

Tucker John, and Richard Rothwcll, Maa- 
cheater, cotton manufacturer! (Redheads, ' 
Manchester, ^ud Mi|ue and Pony, Temple, 

1 ondon 

Wataon William, Tothill atreet, Westmin- 
ster, linen draper (Hurd, Temple 

Watts William, Briatol, hoeier (Bin, 
Hatton Garden, and Beaver, Wallefield 

Webater Michael, Witharu, Vork, builder 
(Prickett, Hull, and Wntkius and C e wn ci, 
Li in olu's inn 

Wilkinaoa John Henry, late of Bend court 
Wallbreok, (actor, but now in the Kii.g's 
bench (Brown, Pudding lane 

Wiltia George, Bath, cabinet maker Ed- 
uiiiiul. Chancer] lane, and Miller and Micp- 
{' trd, Hath 

Wiunard Janus, < Irrnskirk, Lancaater, brew- 
er (Blackstock, St. M ildved's court, Poultry, 
ami Wright and Palmer, Ormskirk 

Wood Thotuaa and George, Kirkby, Mai- 
aeard, York, butchera (Coatee, Ripon, ami 
Lodington & Hall, Secondariea oilier, Temple 

DIVIDENDS. 

Althaea W, Tokeahouae yard, London, bro- 
ki i, March ,~ — Ballantyne W. Savage gardens, 
Tower hill, merchant, Feb 85 — Burton 11 ma- 
to, Manchester, dyer, March 7 — Bcetaon H. 
G. Gray's inn square, mone] scrivener, Feb. M 
It— Bird H. Briatol, tea dealer, March M — 
Bishop, Mulliner, Robert and W illiain, Caaa- 
bridge, woollen drapers, Ma] 8 — Bland, J, ami 
.1 Satterthwaite, Fen court, Loudon, broken, 
Feb. 35 — 31and J Feu court, insurance hi»- 
ker, Feb. ^5 — Bowers \V. Cannon street, comb 
maker, March 20 — Bowers N. W. Cannon st 
comb maker, March go — Bowers N. W. and 1 
W, B. Cannon street, comb makers, March 
m — Bowanuit J. Water lane, brand] anerchant, |l 

No. 111. Vol. 1. 



May y < 1; tt.n J 1 . 1 I, < 

warehouseman, March ', Child G I 1 

scrivener, Feb. I I r J I 
Mam hi Feb. 

I I iv. ij,....l, an 

M. Craves treat, M 1, 1 . M 

( ollip J Great F 

Man ho— Croft M 1 

Maaks, HunsU 1, uw n hanta, Feb 

! [aliraa, 1 mk and King itreet, 1 oadea, 
mi k beat, Feb •— -Curtis J. 1 
linen draper, Feb Di • P I 

•jj — Davieavl Holborn, linen draper, 

a- Dai - 8 Bur] atreet, St Ipril 

Dearie r. and M. 1 ' • '■■■■ ■' 
Soho, tan in 1.. ■ p. 1 , Feb 7 - Di I 

■ J, ili.ipir, 1 

Robinson, w '""l itn 1 1, Londea, I I 

1 .. ,, . 1 _. 1: pai igon plae , Kent 
timber merchant, Man I B Sal- 

ford, Mam I" 1. 1 , 1 i.tt.iii n. 
1 1 — Gill .' Browm bill, Gli 
Apr. 7— Goods in W. a ri ami 

w . atminati 1 bt idge road. I 
Feb. 9— Greenwood J, and W Grimaldi, Old 
Bond stu-it, auctioned , March 7 — Hait H. 
Qn .11 ( oram itn 1 1, Bruusu m broker, 

l<l'.; —Hilton W , and J J. Oxford road, 
ilia|.i 1 -, l. ii is— llubl.i raty J L. Lii 
inn, barrister, March 11 Hnoej C. sad II 

Newgate street, linen drapers, Jum -'7 — Jo» I 
M. High kin i t. Slum .lili D, d * and 

earthen v. are, Man Ii 1 I — Jolinbiui 1.. Btr od in g 
hart yd < liaili s >t Haltmi | ink ii, I alum t 

makca Jan n — Kennioi J the i Idt t , N irholai 
lam, broken, Feb. jb — King J. sad H l 
King, Cereal garth u, silk saercets, Feb 1 — 
King J Con at g mien, silk nn in i, I < l> ta — 
Mylue G. Jeffrey 'a aquare, anerc beat, Feb i- 
— Nantes H. Warnford eoart, Thragsaertea 
strut, merchaat, 1 '< b. !•— OfjUrj H '■ 

Mylne, ami J Caalmi i-, J<t'V< > 'simian , in. I 

chants, Feb. is — Pan J () Sullolk hwe, 

Loiulon, insurance broker, Mai eh ] i 

cock R. Turnnilt at Cl uk e s jwcU, carrier, Fab 
84 — Price G. Tottenham Ct. rd liquersaenht. 
Feb. .'." — ShepheaidW. Boswell comt, 
rener, Feb. is — Senna R. Mark lane, Lo nde a , 
and Neu ( roes, Deptford, prnvision saerchant, 
Mai eli 7 — Bpotthrwoode Robert, Austin 1 
scrivener, Feb. 10 Btainhnak C. t>ld Bond 
street, print seller, March ii — Sutton J 
Cheapakle, goldasnkh, Feb M — Tmnant J. 

Oxford atreet, wine and brandy merchant, 
March 14 — Tbmni.^mi \\ Dean street, Sontb- 
wark, mi reliant, lib at— Tutlar G. Hounds- 
il tch, alopseller, April It — Vina T. ClesneuCa 
inn, Lasabard street, dealer, 1 < b. i — u anl J 
Bcisaeadaty, b re w er, Feb. ji— ^'. vl 

GrentCambridgestn < t, Ha« knej read, bsulder, 

. -\\. ttoe J Tall- Mall, \ 
l.s— \\ ilki!.>ou J.R. Thite I'ak la 
down, cooper, May 9 — ^ ilson, J. and w v t 
Martin's le Grand, wan 1>^' 14 — 

Winwood I'.. bbmj s. Tbodey, Poultry,8 
tacton ami ghweis, Apr. Id — Weed J. Mid- 
tiibl, Sussex, victualler, Feb it— Wright C 
AhJgate, robacconiat, Apt - WrigleyJ Pitt 

-t,< t. I' d, iiat ■ I 

IMi •_ : — Zaclserj 11. 1 
sieV , Irish RMter, Feb. is. 

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METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 

Kept by ft. B.ixks, Mathematical Instrument-Maker, Strand, London. 







THERMOMETER. 


WE^TUIMJ 


1809 


BAROME- 






1- -■ -. 

I 






JAN. 


TER. 


1 




1 t:~i. » 






Ugli- 


L.OW- 






Day of 


9 A:M. 


g A.M 


jP-M 


est. 


est. 


Day. 


Night. 


23 


29.67 


22 


31 


33 


30 


Fair 


Sleet 


24 


29.40 


32 


33 


40 


33* 


Rain 


Rain 


25 


89-43 


d6 


33 


39 


32 


Cloudy 


Ditto 


C6 


29.28 


44 


44 


40 


40 


1 air 


Ditto 


27 


29-51 


48 


48 


40 


46 


Rain 


Close 


28 


2959 


48 


58 


50 


46 


Fair 


Ditto 


29 


2920" 


46 


47 


48 


45 


Rain 


Fine 


30 


29-32 


45 


4b 


48 


43 


Ditto 


Raiuf 


31 


2976 


42 


42 


44 


40 


Fair 


Close 


FEB. 
















l 


29-77 


46 


SO 


53 


48 


Fair 


Ditto 


2 


29-52 


48 


49 


51 


47 


Rain 


Rain 


3 


29-91 


50 


45 


52 


42 


Ditto 


FairJ 


A • 


29.45 


44 


43 


46 


42 


Ditto 


Ditto 


5 


29-38 


43 


43 


46 


42 


J)it!o 


Ditto 


c 


29-42 


44 


46 


48 


36 


Ditto 


Rain§ 


7 


29-89 


38 


35 


40 


31 


Uitfo 


Close 


s 


29.9O 


32 


33 


34 


33 


Cloudy 


Rain|| 


9 


29.39 


42 


48 


50 


41 


Rain 


Ditto 


10 


29.28 


47 


47 


50 


44 


Ditto 


Close 


11 


29.21 


44 


46 


48 


11 


Ditto 


Ditto 


12 


28.83 


-1 1 


48 


■i'J 


40 


Ditto 


Ditto 


)3 


28,81 


44 


46 


4.0 


42 


Ditto 


Ditto 


14 


29.36 


45 


47 


49 


42 


Ditto 


Ditto 


15 


29.70 


46 


46 


51 


41 


Ditto 


^ Rain 


l6 


2().83 


44 


47 


49 


45 


Fair 


Ditto 


17 


29.58 


46 


49 


53 


44 


Ditto 


Close 


1H 


29.80 


48 


4l> 


55 


38 


Rain 


Fair 


If) 


30.46 


42 


40 


48 


44 


Fair 


Closed 


2° 


30.27 


46 


4<> 


50 


34 


Cloudy 


Fair 



* At eleven heavy snow. 
^ At eleven fine, inclining 



■f Tremendous wind, 
to frost. || And hail. 
the moon, indicati 



J At eleven Orion and the moon brilliant. 
•Jf Fine till eight. Halo circumscribing 

nsr moisture. 



PR I 

Of Fire-OJice, Mine, Doe/:, Can a 

Institution Shares, c\c. 

Albion Fire & Life Assurance £60 per sh pm. 
Atlas Fire and L:fe - «. - Par. 

Eagle ditto Par. 

Globe ditto £l 13 O per rent. 

Hope ditto , - - - . 18s. per !sh. pra. 
Imperial ditto - - - - £4 per ct. pm. 
Rock Life Ass. - - - 4s. to 5s. persfc. pm. 
Commercial Read Stock - - 114 o percent. 
Fust India ditto ----- 1250 percent- 
West India ditto - - - - 170 ditto 

London ditto 118^0 ditto 

Grand Junction C:>r.al Shares 1330 per sh. 
Grand Surrey ditto - - - jf60 ditto 
Kennett & Avon ditto - 4 Opersh. pm. 

Thames & Medw. do. new sh. jt'io pm. 



CES 

/, Water-Works, Br ewerv^ Sf Public 
<$r. for Februjry 1809. 

Golden-Lane Brewery - - so o per sh. 
I Lancaster Canal - - - - 170 ditto 
Fast London Water- Works 46(1 pirsh. pm. 
South London do- - - - - 30gs. to 31gs. pm. 
West Middlesex ditto - - 20 ditto 
River Lea Bonds ----- £-3 a 75 per cent. 
Loudon Institution - - si o per share 

Surrey ditto 32 ditto 

Commercial-Road Stock - 114 o percent. 
Vnuxhall Bridge Shares - Par. 
Kent Fire Office - - - - 56 Opersh. pm. 
Hope Cattle Insurance - - - - Par. 
Drui y-!ane Theatre .£"500 renters sh £'300 
Covent Garden m w Theatre £'500 sub- 
scription share ----- 3ogs to 37 gs pm. 

LEWIS, WOLFE, and Co. 
Change Alley. 



Printed, fur R. AcKxnai-iNN, by Uarruson and Ruittr, .37 3, Strand. 



REPOSITORY OF JUTS, LITER I'TURE, S'c. Xc. 



fltrtjcTtisrmrnttf 
For M A U< II I, IMk 

[Th l>r confirms* 1 W« "My.] 



Bond frsaf, ' 

PIN! LR1 

'. Aki> < IB Mi. i> it gnat pit Mare in 
I, ton lotincr to tbe Public, that tbe First 

/,!/• . i" ". ..;, irtng* from 1 1 ■• - Kiv > VIED ( Dl 
i i ok Pictures, i is read] I n di livei > 

■ ct of this Workis to give, inaSelccI 

of , . .vi ■ . r the ttw i Ictun -, correel rep 

• r . ,ii in < loloure, of the cbai m 
tii :^in i c I nci - which distinguish tin- beat 
\ of Titian, Carraoci, Bromoafc, tht ttea 

y ; . Ouido, Dominickina, 

i Wuritlo, and Claude It Lorraint. 

■ he Hngrai ing« a ill all be executi >i (> o o faithful 
Copies made l>\ Mr. W. H. Ca>Aio, and will each 
In i, inches in its larger dimensions ; Mas to form 
ao elegant Set of Cabinet Pictures. 

The Work will be divided iota Six Camber*, dim 
to lie published, if possible, every third Month i 
each Number will eontain two engravings, aocean- 
panied with ■ concise History of each Picture, and 
a Sketch of 1 1 ■* - I *.i i : » t « r's Life 

Tlw list Najobei «iil present to the Public the 

celebrated ParrratJ of R< nbrandt, from the < orsini 

Palace, and a beautiful handscapi i>\ I . L Lor- 

. from tlir Collection <if the lata Doc de Choi- 

BJ ill 

A more enlarged Pros pectus is ready for circula- 
tion. 

CIRC! i kTING LIBRARY, 

19b. ii, Tavistoci-street, Covent-Garden, 

Jamfs CasicuTOa most respectfully informs 
hi> I "iic mis :i ml the Public, that he continues in aug- 
ment his Circulating Library, by the daily addition 
of valuable ami expensive Hooks in every class of 
Lit* rature. 

Subscribers to this Library ma] he assured of be- 
ing liberally supplied with the nu^i modern Publi- 
cations, condncirt to information, amusement, and 
useful instruction. 

Grateful tea discerning public, for the patronage 
In has hitherto experienced, J. Creighton will per- 
severe in the ntmost exertioni to aserit a contiua- 
aaee of favours. 

Catalogues and cards of the term- may he had on 

application at the Ulnars 

QJRDO 

Net, Pur.tr, and Twist Manufactory. 

Tiif NoMlity and Gentry, are respectfully in- 
Ibrmed, tbe above Business is removed from St. 
Jameses-street, to No 34, Golden-Square Having 
for man) years exp« rienced the approbetioa and pa- 
trouage of tbe Nobility, T. (;. hatters himself they 
will continue to honour him » ith th ii Comm 

N. B. 1. a. lies' own work made ap in a superior 
manner. A great variety of Plain and Varies 
Purse Twist, to form Patterns < lu mile, Gold, 
and Silver Tassels and Sliders, ami every other Arti- 
cle iu the Netting Branch. 

Nettasg meaded auJ cleam J 



Ft \ I M \ 1 I ' i M P 

i HorrMAN, Statioat r i Duks 

of Kcut s i ' and, six < • lied- 

i d 



i.,, ,i .lull, oppoi lie tin .\ili IpbJ 



Qiiin 
I. d 

77, in - - - 1 D 
/ -14 

Large t) 
I thick I 



,. |d. 

I'. 



Quire 

M. d 

l ngiH i 
i t 1 fl 

/ i i 

• 4 do 



Willi all Kind* »f Paj -turu t 

and Station' ■ equally moderate. 



SP INISH DH i 5S1 5, 

In , an- on Sliou at M • Bl ' 

i in-, No u, Blenheim-street. Bowd atrccl The 
Winter Stock of Millinery, P « linals, 

6cc. will be sold considerably undei Primi 

I - Thirteen Yrart 
Tlir. IRISH I.l\i v < OMPANY 
Have opposed the injurious Plan of whitening 
■ nh Muriatic Ami ; ami foi tax 
t Im y have kepi s Houai opi n in London foi I 
riusiv. salt of their Manufacture and Bh 
are ta be bad in this I . -t tm i I 

house, No. 4, Btaomsbury Square, near Jiouthamp- 

l on -In i 1, U sding to (> ollxx :i 

No Auieli -ol. I Imt Iiu-ii Liken — . 

than ■ ^n is. 

One Piece at Wholi -ul- Pi ice, ami n- 

eter made. — Each Phw ts warranted a- t" Fatsrat, 
and tu be bleached on th* G . ""i tla Moacj re- 
turned if a fault appears. — Orda I *iih 
nnnctualit] - 

Cash -ii mmal for Rank of !■• ' md N 

.1. O'Hrii n. Agent to the ( O'ipanw. 
Ko. 4. Bloomsbury-SqHare, is their only House in 
London. 



A Nl\> AM> Ml'llUIIR I'ltU'ARATION for 

Cleansing and Improving the Skia.— -The Jklmmd 

andRpi I -t fh a-ant clesms- 

• t of tie sk ii, |>o--. -.inc all th 
\ i. im v ,.|" the mjn 

derives its name. It readers tan Pace, Neck, 

Anns il. beati hj fin, soft, aad am 
kf ever so coarse, hard, or red; and prevents their 
being chapped in the - the*. It has the 

he alaaeassj ^e. ami ret nm 
its virtaea for any length of time, in everj climate, 
which renins it valu.ilili for exportation — l'r. par- 
ed onlv b] MaXHBV, Piri'iHiur to their Koyal 
Highnesses the Princem af Walea, l>uke and 
DuchcsS of York, aad aosd whaaesali aad retail at 
bis warehoo -. No. '. Portmaa- 

aanare, at is. the piece, "- 6<1. tht indfshmea, and 

108. the . o/en. A literal Allo«.ine< lothelrado, 

Country Dealers, and Meav&amts hi expo 

- - «." whicb 

in a biH sigaied with his name, and am 
the puucii'.il Pertuuuxs in towu »nj countiy. 



ADVERTISEMENTS TOR MARCH, 1809. 



/T the PATENT SOFA BED and CHAIU 
BED MANUFACTORY, Nos. l&and 17, Catha- 

rinc Strut, Strand, a new-invented patent Side- 

Board and Dining Table Morgan and 

Sanders having at a very considerable expence 
established a large manufactory, and also built < \ 
tcnsiv.- wan-rooms, for tli • purpose of exhibiting 
for Bale a great variety of Upholstery and Cabinet 
Furniture, for the furnishing of bouses; a great 
part of which art articles perfectly new in princi- 
ple, extremely fashionable, and universally ap- 
proved of. 

It is presumed a generous public will pardon the 
liberty taken of advertising such desirable improve- 
ments and new inventions, so much needed in the 
various articles wanted for the accommodation of 
the Nobility and the public in general; in parti- 
cular the i itent Sideboards and Dining Tables, 
combined in one piece of furniture ; the Imperial 
Dining Tables and the portable Chairs; the Patent 
Four-Post and Tent Bedsteads, and especially the 
much-admired Sofa Beds and Chair Beds /with 
every other species of Cabinet and Upholstery Fur- 
niture in the first style of modern elegance and 
fashion, and on terms the most advantageous for 
prompt payment. 

East and West India articles manufactured on 
purpose for those climates, and upon entire new 
principles; very portable. 

Morgan and Sanders have no connection whatever 
with any other Manufactory in London. 



NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

This day was Published, 
Price os. sewed, containing 07 sheets of letter-press, 
handsomely printed by Ballantyne and Co. in 
quarto, on a fine wove-demy paper, with u new- 
type, and numerous plates engraved in a superior 
manner from original drawings, made exclusively 
for this work, Volume I. Part I. of 
THE EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPEDIA. 
Conducted by David Brewster, LL. D. 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the 
Society of the Antiquaries of Scotland; assisted 
b<i many of the most eminent Literary and Scien- 
tific Characters in the United Kingdom. 
Being a New and Complete Dictionary of 
Arts and Sciences; in which every Article is en- 
tirely Original, and written expressly for the pre- 
sent undertaking ; by which means, it is presumed, 
this work will be rendered one of. the most valuable 
productions that has been submitted to the Public. 
To attempt a recommendation of works of this 
description seems wholly unnecessary, the great es- 
timation in which similar publications have been 
held by the Public being an evident proof of their 
utility. The extraordinary core ami acknowledged 
ability employed in the compilation of the EDIN- 
BURGH Encyclopedia, it is hoped, will render 
it peculiarly worthy of the public attention. 

*** The Work will be published in parts ; one 
of which will appear t very six weeks, price Os. 
but, for the convenience of Subscribers, it may also 
be had in half volumes, consisting of two parts, 
price 18s. i • beards. 

Printed for J. M. Richardson, No. S3, Comhill, 
opposite the Ftoytsj Exchange, London; Oliphant 
and Brown, Edinburgh ; and the other Proprietors 1 
sold also by Stcddart and Craggs, Hull; N. Mahon, 
Dublin; S.Archer, Belfast; Edwards and Savage, 
Couk;and all respectable Booksellers iu the United 
K ingdom. 

t+t Prospectuses of the Edinburgh Encyclopae- 
dia may be had gratis, «F ail the above Booksellers. 



No. 34, Rathbone-place, Or/oid-tlrect.. 

S. & J. FULLER, manj years with Mr. En- 
ward Obme, New Bond-street, respectfully beg 
leave to inform the Nobility and Gentry that they 
have just opened an elegant Shop, at No. 84, Rath- 
bone-plaec, where they have on Sale a most choice 
collection of ! in -Vrccns, elegant Poles for ditto, 
V ork Tables, Face Screens, Card Racks, Flower 
Ornament?, Dessert ditto, Hyacinth Stands, Ridi* 
cules, Work Bag.-, Baskets, &c. .xc. with every de- 
scription of Fane) Papers, Borders, and Medallions, 
for polite and useful amusement, — S. & J. F. like- 
wise beg leave to Fer for their inspection and use, 
n superior sort of Playing Card, which they manu- 
facture, of the finest texture. — Windows fitted up in 
imitation of Stained Glass, and the most beautiful 
specimens of Transparent Spring Blinds to be seen. 



N. Middleton, Pocket-Booh and Black Lead 
Pencil Maker to the King and Prince of Wales, at' 
the original Manufactory, No. IDS, Strand, oppo- 
site Newcastle-street, begs leave to recommend t» 
the Public his genuine Black Lead Pencils, 
whose superior excellence has been for more than 
fifty years universally acknowledged; and Pencils 
for drawing in colours (of a late invention). To tlis- 
tinguish bis Pencils from counterfeits, the mark, 
which was formerly only Middleton, is now changed 
to N. .Middleton, and the direction, No. 169, Strand, 
London, stamped en each Pencil. An extensive as- 
sortment of pocket-books and thread-cases, elegant- 
ly mounted in gold, silver, and plain; a compute 
assortment of travelling, writing, ami dressing-cases ; 
Gentlemen's packet commode, containing every ar- 
ticle for shaving and dressing; portable writing- 
and dressing desks and boxes, in mahogany, satin 
wood, leather, Js. c. Writing paper, extra fine cut 
large pens, fine Irish and Dutch sealing-wax, and 
ull kinds of stationery; portable and counting- 
house letter-copying machines. These machines, 
by which writing may be expeditiously and clearly 
copied, are brought by N. .Middleton to the utmost 
perfection, and comprised in a mahogany case, 
which forms a complete desk; some so small as to 
be of the greatest convenience to those who travel ; 
others of a size and form to answer the purpose of a 
complete secretaire. A large assortment of razors,- 
and all kinds of line cutlery. 



TO THE LADIES. 

Til F present Fashionable Costume is particularly 

calculated t>> display to advantage the exquisite 
fairness which is almost peculiar to the Ladies of 
this country ; and she who has the fairest Skin, way 
Ih' considered the most t>cautifiil woman. — It is 
therefore no wonder THE SICILIAN Bloom ok 

Youth and Beauty, is an appendage to the 
Toilet of every fashionable belle; for this impalpa- 
ble Powder, while it communicates to the Skin the 
most brilliant Fairings, is so natural in its appear- 
ance, that it cannot be detected by the most scrn- 
tiuous observer; at the same time it is as innocent 
as milk, and so permanent, that it cannot be re- 
moved without washing — Sold by W. Green, 308, 
Oxford-street, near Dean-street; Harding and Co. 
no, Pall-Ma!l ; Bay ley and Blew, Cockspur- street; 
Bowman, 10_>, B»cw Bond-street ; Bell and Co. J4Q, 
Strand, near the Lyceum ; and by most respectable 
Perfumers, in packets at 2s.6d. each. Observe, 
none can be genuine, unless signed by the Pro- 
prietor's Afeitt, " W. Green," in his baud-writing. 



Ab\ ERTIIEMENTI Hill MARCH, I " 



1)n JAM! ■ INA1 I PI IC PILLS' 

M \ ^ I/, li id ;. ii 11 km , as ii it J, it 'i'i llu I 
• I It I'i i . 111, • i, Southampton -ii 1 1 i, I ovi it-Gai 

<li n, London , il ilj |"i -">ii who rvci |»i 

the tnalcptit Pill ■ foi ln< lat< Di lAMCS, from 

till \'U I , , J, VI III II III III it ■ iilll|l« ■• 'I I ill III, lllllll 

the Doctoi i iiii i.i i P »ili iihi.Iv iiii.in.i, in 
prt'pan i them from tin best Drugi I" < in procun 
from iIh Druggists, exactly in the Mine iiianuri 
bo prepared them foi Dr, Jaonci Tin I i vie. 
Fowdih, ii Mil ths Packetj with liberal allot 

•nC< li> I'i :u I il nun i . .Hid \ null i i 

MR HANS SLOAN E'a RESTORAT1VJ kND 
1:1 INIMAT1 NG PILLS, 
For those ill .in ilng Debililici which prevent 
01 render unhappy the niarringi itatt long experi 
c in ■■ haa proved Sit Hani Sloan i RJ rORA- 
Til I and i;i anhiai i\<; PILLS, to be tha 

aaoat certain and sovereign I! ly. A pamphlet 

limn' particular I j descriptive of theii virtm 
eontuining nnch useful kuforraalion foi (In Nei 
roua, Debilitated, Relaxed, fee, kc. to be had 
(I'i hi il.) al Mi Perrin'i, 23, Southampton-street, 
Cum ni Garth n, Loudon ; where the) are iold, price 
i « ir (>il and • < )3i. tin larger Boxes, containing; the 
gjuantitj of four imall ones. To persona in the 
country. Inclosing payment anil postage to Mr. 
Perrin, be will iinmediatelj forward them, 



^ii£ai7 



ARTIFICIAL TEETH, made from a Substance 
with Enamel, which does not change cokmr, and 
appeari eonal to Nature, ikilfullj placed from one 
to :i whole let. — Natural To. t > » placed from ;i tingle 
to a complete Set, with Gold or Artificial Gums, 
on reasonable terms Mr. PRINCE, Dentist, at- 
tends dailj from Ten till Pour, al bia bouse, No 
;», .iiilin itreet, Oxford street, where he performs 
all Operations on the Teeth and Gums with i .. t 
and safety — Mi I' fixes the above Teeth no 
enact, thai thej can be worn without tying. 

THE TEETH AND GUMS. 
Patron IBKD and naed by their Royal High- 
aesses the Dukes of Clarence and Kent, nud Gen- 
tlemen in the Navj and Army, who have found the 
good effects in long Voyages — Thotti it'- Omi n- 
t\i Dentifrice, or Asiatic Tooth Powder, 
haa been for twenty yeara recommended : a single 
1m>\ is a sufficient quantity to ascertain its efficacj 
and virtues, being acknowledged by the moat re- 
spectable Medical authorities; used by raanj ami 
recommended. The Powder cli ansi i and beat 1 1 :iii ■ 
the Teeth, Bweeteni the breath, possesses no acid 
that can corrode the enamel, and puts a beautiful 
polish on the Teeth. From it • ncy it 

strengthens the Gums, eradicates thescun y,(u hich 
often proves the destruction of a whole set ofteeth , 
preserves sound Teeth from decay.— But wh 
enhanced it in the estimation of those who have 
been in the habit of using it is, that it prevent! the 
return of the tooth-ache, with which before they 
had been violently artlieted. Likewise a Tincture, 
which possesses the power of easing the most vio- 
lent tooth-ache, and is a wash with the Powder. 

A Caution.— Any Asiatic Tooth Powder, without 

" M Trotter" on the Stamp, an counterfeits. — 
Sold, Wholesale and Retail, at her W an boose, No 
3, Beaufort-buildings, Strand; by Mr Smyth Pi r 
t 'niiier to his'Majesty, Mr. Rigge. and Mr.Gattie, 
New Ho, ul-street ; Baviey and Blew, CoCkspor- 
stveet ; Mr Hendrie, Titcb b w n c -s tr e et ; Mr Da- 
vidsou, Fleet-street; and Rigge, Cheapahik}, 



/..Hi,. . *•! Il I' l I I hi. • II f I r 

. 

i.i iii< i i in ii. I ... , truss, 4u I i • i << i I M i 
tobi iniiiii ill ii. u rrniovi them, and 
■bin m>I" i nil i rcr than il 
i in i I Pit t circli ■ i i 

Haul. , ind I 'mi ii'i died in ml 11- I 

Il m •••III Mrboleaab sod retail b) Ii Perri 
Southampton - 1 ■ • • <.'o 
all tin pi in' ui'l Mi I.' 

n i I I • • I ' i o n k i n I 

|i ij mi ni and | • tag< to Hi l' 
a ill iiniii' diatel) foi w srd il - Pi < 

I ii i / . , I 

• •I I'i i mi i urn and I i I < >! I , 

for moistening I be Hair when tin - •• : i . _; . wlmli is 

■i .i iniiii i ib< i to 1 1, ll.ii. ■ i" pi ■ 
tin iiin . grej !•• ill pel iod • j pi ana 
and m.iUi m tin- hair gi ow t h 

ing "il | and i • ton • ' 
the i' Several l that 

v. ■ ii- bald, hai e d< clan A, -i 1 1 . i 
< hi i egulai l\ for - > . iiimitlis, thi 
came in :n l\ i 01 ' i • 'I ii i'Ii bail j proraoti - 1 y< '•m»i ) 
w biskers, and prevents them tnrni 

The Pro mnseudi Ladies and ' 

tlemen who wl Ii to preaerve their bail 
thenseof different perfumed Oils, ai 
tin perfume causes dryness to the hair, aml< 
lions it ;-i change colowr, and be i 

rarly age. T In Russia Oil i 
ranted innocent, and ■ 

i r of tin- liair. 

Thi high reputation thf Russia Oil 
for preserving and promoting tin 
great demand for it, has indn< 
■om t" advi 1 1 .*-■ articles foi t • • milai • i 
is therefore particular!] recommended to i 
the label on tl outside wr ipp rol 
signed, in Russian gold ink, " Mcm bri 
I'riini- :'' any without that lignature 

It is particularlj lerviceablc to persons wt 
m tincial hair, as it ;iu ■ it a n 
renders it sut'i ami beautiful. It is g 
marked bj persons using artifii 
a short time wearing it becomes dr) and 
cosily discovered that it h artificial: by using 
Oil, it mi * entl it from li> il 

it keeps the hair soft, and renderi 

natural. 

Ptrlce 7s. per bottle, or one I 
four small, at one guinea, 01 
tii e pounds. 

Sold wholesale and retail by the Propriel * 
Prince, No 9, John-sti 
appointment, by Mr. Smith, I 

Neu Bond-stro t . Hi ndri< 
fitmers to her Majesty, Titchborm 
and Blew, Perfumers to the Prince i;.-i 
Wall s, and I m 1 .'- and Dui )•■ 
■pur-ati set; Harding • ■■-. I ; ■ 
Mall; Newberry a id S ss, 
yard; Dicey and Sntto ' I 

md Son, Fie* t Mark< I 
siiU-: sh.-.u and Edwards, 66, St i'i -• 
yard; Berry, Johnson, ( 
Strand j I ■ 

and Son, ' , Fleet-street; Rig I 

Baeou, ISO, Oxford -tr«.. t -. Wbithi 
Ward, ,;'v, Holbom; Tun, RoyaJ 
Bull, Dublin; Raebum, Edinburgh 
Salisbury; Crotwell, Bath; and by icon r- 
pal Pu f ai w hu or Medtci a e Venders 
Ireland, and Scotland.— Country Shoy-> • 
a liberal allowance 



ADVERTISEMENTS TOR MARCH, 1809. 



CORRECT LIKENESSES 
T.akf.v at Two Shillings ami Sixpence, and Fire 
Shillings each) in Mick, and Ten Shillings and Six- 
i'i,.<t in colours. The outline takeninone minute by 
a Patent Machine, the property of G. Cryeu, No. 
68, Coruhili, and No. 98, Fleet-street; where the 
most accurate Portraits are taken in Oil and Minia- 
ture by Artists of tlie first eminence. 

FASHIONABLE ORNAMENTS at his established 
Gold and Silver Lace Shop, No. 30, Southampton- 
sir* et, Covnit Garden. — GEOR6E Grifi KNHOOFE 
respectfully informs tho Ladies, and the Public in 
general, he has a very great assortment of the most 
Fashionable Ornaments for Ladies' Head 

Dresses, with all other kinds of G old and Silver 
Trimmings for Evening Dresses; also very hand- 
some Gold Laces, plain and mixed with chenille, for 
cloth and velvet Pelisses, Mantles, Shawls, &e. with 
Tassels for the same. The advcitist :• Batters him- 
self, by the very great encouragement he meets n ith 
from the first families in London, no one can sur- 
pass him in the Gold and Silver Artificial Flowers 
for elegance, and of the greatest variety. 



PATENT SHAVING FLUID, 
PATRONIZED by the Royal Family, is strongly 
recommended for its ease and convenience, as it 
is calculati d to soften the heard, nourish the 
skin, and render the operation of Shaving extremely 
easy, leaving the face free from that irritation oc- 
casioned by the use of ordinary Soaps. The Shaving 
Fluid is iu its nature purely saponacious, and a 
few drops afford a fine permanent and fragrant 
lather. It will preserve its quality any length of 
time, and in any climate, and is strongly recom- 
mended to merchants and captains, to whom a 
liberal allowance will he made. 

Manufactured and sold wholesale by the pro- 
prietor, W. LF.r.,.7, Oxford-street, and J Burton, 
5, West-street, Soho, price 2s. 6d. each Bottle; 
and sold 'i\ all the Perfumers in the united kingdom. 



TRUE CHELTENHAM SALTS. 
The superior efficacy of these Salts is too well 
known to render a laboured encomium on their vir- 
tues necessary ; having for many years had the 
sanction of the fust .Medical Men in tbe kingdom, 
by whom they are justly recommended to those af- 
flicted with Scurvy, Scrofula, or Bilious Affections, 
Habitual Costivcmse, and complaints in the Head, 
owing to impaired digestion, or want of tone in 
the stomach; and. in ail cutaneous eruptions, so 
prevalent 1 al the present and approaching season of 
1!:. year. These Salts are sold genuine by Chap- 
man and Pearson, Chemists, 235, Strand, Temple- 
Par, in bottles ai 2s. yd. each, or 30s. per dozen, 
Duty included. 

BEAUTIFUL WOMEN. 

The greatest, blemish to Beauty is superfluous 
Hairs on the Face, Neck, and Arms; Hubert's 
ROSEATE Pom DEB immediately removes them, is 
on elegant article, perfectly innocent and pleasant 
to use. Price as. and 7s. Sold by the proprietor, 
2", RuEscll-stvcet, Coven i Garden; Overton, 47, 
Bond-street; Davison, 5Q, Fleet-street; Thorne, 
45, Oxford-street ; Dunuelt, 3, Cheapside; Baxter, 
Ed'Hibm 1 ; Lancaster; Portsmouth; Gould, Bath; 
Hopkins, Hull; Cattle, York; Searle, Leeds; 
\Ybitt • . < ■' t : Trcuman, Fx ter; Prosser, 
Bristol ; Brodie, Salisbury; Swinney, Birmingham, 
Sheardown, Doncaster; Wood, Shrewsbury; and 
in ivt.j town. — Good allowance to Dealers, 



PATENT STOVES. 

ALLAN POLLOCK bigs leave to inform the 
noblity, gentry, and pubic in general, that he has 
received Hit Majdfty's Royal Letters Potent for some 
important improvements iu warming rooms, and 
has now some Stores, constructed with those im- 
provrnients, ready for sale; two of which may be 
seen at No. 13, Newman-street, and one at No. 10, 
New Bond-street, every day from twelve o'clock 
till five. 

The following are a few of the advantages which 
his improved Stoves possess : 

They produce a complete circulation of air in 
eve rj part of the room, without those currents of 
cold air which always exist in rooms warmed in the 
usual manner : 

They produce, throughout the apartment, nearly 
an equal temperature, which is easily regulated 1 

Part of the front of the Store being made of 
transparent materials, renders the fin visible, al- 
lows both light and heat to pass into the room, and 
preserves the cheerful appearance of an open fire: 
One form of the stoves is constructed, so as to be 
nsed either as a close or open fire-place at pleasure. 
The external surface of these Stoves being pre- 
vented from becoming over-heated, tbey are per- 
fectly secure from all danger of fire, and may be 
used with safety in places where combustible mate- 
rials are 1<' pt : 

They have, in every instance, prevented smoke ; 
and are also free from dust, to which most fire- 
places are subject : 

They save a large proportion of fuel : 
Thej can be made in a variety of elegant forms, 
and the cxpence of the ornaments may be suited to 
the wish of the purchaser. 

From their diffusing an equal warmth, and pro- 
moting a free circulation of pure air, they will be 
found both useful and agreeable in every situation. 



ROYAL BRITISH ARCANUM, 
Or Hair Wash. 

Patronized by several Illustrious Branches of the 
Royal Family- 

MACDONALD, Humbert, and Co. (late Mao 
donald and Saigon!) beg leave to acquaint the No- 
bility, Gentry, and Public, that in future the Royal 
British Arcanum will be sold in bottles, with tin ir 
nanus cast on (lie sides, at 3s. 6d. and 6s. — This 
Hair Wash, from its truly appreciated worth, has 
found its way to the Toilets of a large circle of the 
most elevated and fashionable Characters in the 
kingdom, and will be found on a single trial to ex- 
ceed in effect any preparation ever offered to a dis- 
cerning Public for the Hair, and must ultimately 
supersede all Oils, Spirits, &c. or at least limit their 
use to alternate application : it is a well known fact, 
that ardent spirits burn up the Hair, and oily and 
unctuous substances loosen the roots, which causes 
a weakness in the hair and makes it fall olV. The 
Arcanum will be found wonderfully efficacious to 
the heads and hair of young children, as well as 
adults, by removing every particle of dust, scuif, 
grease, dander, &e. rendering the hair beautifully 
glossy, and the head wonderfully refreshed, being a 
perfectly innocent distillation, free from all oily, 
unctuous, and spirituous matters, differing in every 
respect from all other preparations, and is exclu- 
sively the only truly denominated Hair Wash in 
England. 

Sold by the Proprietors, at their Gowland Lotion 
Warehouse, 53, Fong Acre, and by every respecta- 
ble Perfumer and Medicine Vendur in the United 
Kingdom. 



THE 



Beposttorp 



01 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures, Fashions, und Politics, 

For APRIL, 1S09. 



hZ\)t J?ottrtt) JpiiMfcflr. 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 

I. M vr of mr. Cimir \ 

•_'. Two Spaniels, by Howiti 

.'>. l'i 1.1. Dbbss 

k Walking Dbbss 

.">. Lacrinoton, Ali.f.n, & (n.'s Tf.mi-lf. of Tin. Mises, Finsbury-Squarc 2'>1 
<>. Fashionable Window-Cwbtains 

7. AlLBGOBIOAL WoOD-CWT, nit/i Patterns 

COXTENTS. 



PAOl 

History of the Useful and Polite An- i I I 

Introduction to some Observations on 

the Arts, |)\ ■ Juninus . . . 20J- 
Musical Query, by Phikphonus . 205 

Letters from Italy ib. 

Amelia's Letters 211 

Methodof bleaching Straw . . 21(3 
Experiment on Candies . • . . 217 
On the late Discoveries in Electro- 
chemical Science ... 218 
On the Waste of Agricultural 

Produce 220 

Sympathy, by Homo .... 

On Gas Light 

Historical Account of the Crimea, 

liith a Map 233 

British Sports 

Retrospect of Polities .... .'H 
Medical Report 245 



rxi.r 

Agricultural Report 

Literary Notices and Intelligence -H7 
Review of New Music . . . . _'tH 
Fashions for Ladies and fifnllflBI 

Temple of the Moses, Finsbury- 
s(|uare 

Miscellaneous Fragments and Am i - 

dotes I 

Fashionable Furniture .... 254 

Allegorical Wood-Cut, with Patterns 
of British Manufacture . . 

Poetry 

Marriages and Deaths .... 

Bankrupts and Dividends . . . 

London Markets 

Prices of Stocks 

Meteorological Table .... 

Prices of Companies' Shares . . ib. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Wc earnestly solicit communications (post paid) from professors of the Arts in 
general, as well as authors, respecting wtrks iv/tich they /nay have in hand. The 
evident advantages which must accrue to both from the more extensive publicity that 
will be given to their productions through the medium of t he Repository, needs only to 
be mentioned, we conceive, to induce them to favour us ivith such information, which 
shall alivays meet with the most prompt attention. 

The Answer to the Enquiry on the Origin of drinking Healths, arrived too late for 
the present Number. 

The Letter from a Painter to an eminent Physician, could not be admitted this 
month for want of room. 

The projected Titles for New Musical Compositions, arc received, and shall be in- 
serted in our next. 

We regret that, from the press of matter, we were under the necessity of deferring 
the interesting letter of J. H. R. dated Halifax. 

The figure and description of the Canadian Mus Bursarius, are likewise omitted 
this month for the same reason, but shall have a place in our next. 

Juninus ha* our best thanks for his numerous and ingenious communications on the 
Arts, which, we assure him, we appreciate very highly. 

Hints respecting Women's and Children's Clotftts catching fire, are reserved for a 
future Number. 

The author of Canadian Incidents is informed, that we cannot pledge ourselves for 
the insertion of his story, till he favours us with the continuation. 

Orlando's lines shall appear in our next, and we request his further favours. 

The Unfortunate Mother shall also find a place in the ensuing Number. 

S. B. Vrome's favours are received, and shall be duly noticed. 

Angelica's beautiful lines on the faded Pensee unfortunately arrived too late for the 
present month, but shall be given without fail in our next publication. 

Homo is informed that the Intellectual Compass shall have an early place. 
Mr. Cramer's new work, Studio per il Piano-forte, reached us too late to have a 
place in the Musical Review for this month, but shall be noticed in our next. 

We acknowledge the receipt of J. Harriott's poem, and of many other valuable 
pieces, which shall all appear on the 1st May, either in the Repository, or in Me Poetical 
Magazine, the prospectus of which accompanies this Number. 



Till'. 



depository 



OF 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures j Fashions, and Politics, 

For APRIL, 1809. 



i-Jir f:ow.t\) /itimbrr. 



-Tbc suffrage of tin mi ., 



'llic (ii.usi tli.il's uoilli a ml ii t i<> ii, it .ill.iiu'd 
lt\ sciiM' alone, ami dignity of muni. 



An u -Tit una 



HISTORY OF THE USEFUL AND POLITE ARTS. 

(Continued from page 136.) 



ARCHITECTURE of Tin: itviiVLO- 
n i \ ss A\n PERSIANS. 

Taste and the arts were known 

in Egypt before they penetrated in- 
to the regions bordering on the Eu- 
phratesj where Babylon was the 

source and center of civilization. 
The ancient historians speak with 
admiration of several monuments of 
Babylonian architeeture : Herodo- 
tus, in particular, extols, as an eye- 
witness, the prodigious si/e and 
magnificence of the temple of Belus. 
According to his account, it was 
built in the form of a pyramid of 
very <rreai extent and height, con- 
taining a lari, r e temple below, and a 
smaller in the upper part. This 
form and disposition perfectly cor- 
respond with the style of architec- 
ture which was introduced subse- 
No. IV. Vol. 1. 



quent to the period of subterraneoui 

temples, for Indian pagodas, and 
which still prevails in those coun- 
tries. 

.\s the country round Babylon, 
toa great distance, has neither tim- 
ber, limestone, nor quarries of any 
kind, the Babylonian edifices were 
constructed only < » r 1 >r i< k- cemented 
with bitumen, and therefore were 
tar inferior in durability and skill 
to those of the I |gj |>ti;ui> ■ (he 
columns too, in the former, w . r • 
I nothing but the trunksofpalm-treea. 

lint it was this vcrv want of large 

stones for building that occasioned 
the invention, by the Bain Ion 
of the art of turning arches, w 

was unknown to the Egypt) 
The principal decorations of the 

Babylonian edifices were cist of 



21 ii 



HISTORY OF TI1F. USEFUL AND POLITE ARTS. 



brass and other metals; and accord- 
ing to the testimony of the ancients, 
that nation was extremely skilful in 
the art of making those ornaments, 
is time has destroyed all the mo- 
numents of Babylonian art, we are 
unable to form any opinion of the 
taste and style of that nation in ar- 
chitecture, except from such vesti- 
ges as are yet left in the ruins of 
Persepolis. Diodorus Siculus in- 
forms us, that the palaces which 
Cambyses erected at Susa and Per- 
sepolis, were constructed by Egyp- 
tian workmen, whom that monarch 
carried with him to Persia. As, 
however, the remains of Persepolis 
exhibit not the slightest resemblance 
to the Egyptian taste and style, as 
it is, moreover, extremely probable 
that the arrangement and decoration 
of the Egyptian edifices were the 
province of the priests, it is but 
reasonable to suppose, that the plan 
of the buildings at Persepolis, as 
well as the taste and composition 
of their decorations, were the inven- 
tion of the Babylonians, though 
Egyptian workmen might have 
been employed in the construction. 
This conjecture is so much the more 
probable, since the former were un- 
acquainted with the art of hew- 
ing hard stones and raising great 
Weights ; but, on the contrary, (heir 
skill in designing and in the luxury 
of decoration, had, in the opinion 
oft heir contemporaries, attained the 
very acme of perfection. 

The ruins of Persepolis display a j 
grand and, in the highest degree, 
magnificent plan, which consists of 
several well adapted divisions. The j 
columns in this edifice are all, after j 
the manner of the Babylonians, of I 
extraordinary height, and very) 
richly ornamented, and the pedes.- ! 



tal is surrounded with leaves. The 
upper extremity of the shaft termi- 
nates in a kind of calyx, on which 
rests an entablature of a round form : 
upon this lies a camel, whose back 
probably supported the roof of the 
structure. 

A high spirit, the consciousness 
of power and wealth, a love of mag- 
nificence, which manifests itself in 
boundless ex pence, a fertile fancy, 
and skilful execution, are as evi- 
dent in the remains of Persepolis, 
as the character of tasteless pro- 
fusion, and the want of all relish for 
that art which, though it strives to 
enhance the value of objects by 
richness, seeks at the same time to 
gratify, by its ornaments, either the 
understanding or some noble sen- 
timent. 

IV. Of the Architecture of the 
Phoenicians and Israelites. 
The arts, sciences, and civiliza- 
tion, had penetrated to several na- 
tions seated on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, long before the pe- 
riod of the Persian conquests. At 
the eastern extremity of that sea, 
in the neighbourhood of Egypt, in 
a barren country, but admirably 
situated for navigation, arose the 
small commercial state of the Phoe- 
nicians, whose citizens not only pro- 
moted the introduction of the arts 
and sciences among the contiguous 
nations of Asia, but likewise paved 
the way to their subsequent flou- 
rishing state in Greece and Italy. 
That this people had made a great 
progress in the arts, and especially 
in agriculture, is sufficiently at- 
tested by the works of the ancients: 
but of the monuments of their ar- 
chitecture, nothing has been trans- 
mitted to us but the imperfect dc- 



HiSTo n v or i ii r i i\ i I r Atn POLITI a it i «, 






■cription given in holy w ril of ih<- 
temple and Solomon's palace. 

Solomon's temple vrai i bold and 
arduous undertaking In ordei to 
lay iis foundation, ii was necessary 

to cany ;i w.iy the summit of a lull, 

and io encompass the whole hill 
with a wall 3,200 trci iii circumfe- 
rence, of w hich, after bo manj de- 
vastations, some ruins still remain. 
The temple itself consisted, after 
(he manner "i the Egj ptian tem- 
ples, of a double edifice, w ith a 
hall ami courts in front, the latter 
of which were surrounded wiih 
buildings. All these buildings, 
cording to the account given in the 
Bible, were verj richlj ornamented, 
w iih respect both to (he materials 
ami (he workmanship. In (he tem- 
ple, as well as in the palate, the 
columns and coverings of the beams 
wen- of i edar, and decorated with 
ornaments of brass gilt, among 
winch the palm branch and pome- 
granate arc particularly mentioned. 

The Structures circled by Solo- 
mon were incontestiblj the most 
important works i^f Phoenician and 

EgJ ptian art : lor Solomon main- 
tained a connection w ith the latter 
kingdom also. They indisputably 
surpassed the Egyptian edifices in 
splendour and profusion of curious 
ornaments, as well as in richness <>i 
invention, and were inferior to very 
few in magnitude and solidity. In 
them, too, was combined all that 
a love of magnificence and the fer- 
tile imagination of the East, se- 
conded by the skill of an ingenious 
people, and a people expert in the 
mechanical and line arts, are capa- 
ble of producing. lint the time 
had not yet arrived in which t he 
art uas to attain its high destina- 
tion, that oi' affording pleasure to 
the polished mind. 



\. (iiiuiill ( Inn ill hi ii/ I In I ■ 

i l,i! i 1 1 in i n J I In I in n at . 
In all tin- i . w huh the 

arts had hitherto pent man 

"in.iinil beneath the iron 

(1( «pot ism, and I In' fat n!' : "I his 
mind were bound in I In- | bail 
despotism. The aul 111 I 

dei potisin were all, ii is m ue, phi- 
losophers and bene I ii l-ii s of I lie 

hum.M •. but m ho, from lb 

cull ies, mental and corpoi d. <•! 
the ' >i ienlal nations, had no milder 

method left to reduce Iheir ancii i- 

li/.ed conlenipoiii n s mn!- r the be- 
neln enl yoke of ci\ il inst tlui ioi.s 
and laws, than by endeavouring to 

avail themselves of their weakness 
and ignorance for that purp 

Kut the \«i y laws of nature decreed 
that all these stales should fall short 

of the great object of social union, 
the ennobling of the human i 
by means of a legislation which can 
only subsist by delusion, and whose 
primary maxim it i^, to cramp the 
intellectual powers of Ihe people by 
the shackles of superstition, 
to paralyze all the energies oi 
soul, in order to procure the i 
tity of the altar and the splendour of 
the throne that blind and unlimited 
i spe< t. w ithout w hich the \ 
fabric*of( Oriental government would 

crumble to pieces in an instant. 

Such being the general character 
ot the sentiments of these nations, 

i he arts among them could i. 
have any other object than that of 
operating by an OStentatiou 
of power and opulence, on the i 
feelings of an ignorant people, 
oi exciting its astonishment, 
ther had genius and indui 
more noble scope than to obej 
caprice of ambition, vanity, an 

bauchery. ( To It aon tu i tu 

D d 2 



202 






INTRODUCTION TO SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE ARTS. 



Thursday, Feb. 2, I809. 

Mr. EniTon, 

1 peel an awe on my mind 
now (hat 1 take up my pen for (lie 
first time, (he chance being so much 
against untried individuals having 
the requisite^ and the knowledge 
for challenging success, in so ar- 
duous a (;isk as (hat 1 have proposed, 
of communicating interesting and 
Correct intelligence in the various 
arts. I fool like a performer on the 
stage just after the music has played 
three times, the hell rung, and the 
curtain drawn up, amidst the daz- 
zling of lights, surrounded by an 
awful silence, and before well in- 
formed minds and enquiring eyes, 
when first appearing to personify a 
principal character. If the God of 
nature has been pleased to endow 
me with a sufficient portion of ge- 
nius, to sustain the part of a public 
writer with credit, if that great be- 
ing has given me a heart to speak to 
the heart, and a soul desirous not (o 
wound or give offence, I shall be 
able (o go on with success. But (o 
be eminently gifted with abilities 
and goodness, falls to the lot of but 
very few ; and, as I observed, Mr. 
Ed itor, the chance is so much against 
an untried individual, that i( is al- 
most like adventuring for (he 1000 
tickets in (he present lo((ery ; but 
if I should prove a blank, I shall 
bear no more ill will to any one on 
this account, than is generally borne 
to the clerk at the office, who, from 
his book of numbers, first conveys 
doleful intelligence. I will depart 
to my obscurity, as I observed, 
without any ill will ; and as (he se- 
cre( (ha( I have attempted to write 
is entirely in my own mind (it is a 
whim now not (wo days old), my real 



name, on (his account, shall never 
be known. 

I will not degrade my virgin 
pen (an appellation which I am 
justified in using, as it is the first 
time 1 have tried it) with the very 
commonplace compliment to my 
country and the presen( age, of their 
being superior to other countries, 
and to o(her ages, in (he polite and 
impolite arts, because I know it is 
not true. On the contrary, we are 
inferior to many other ages, and (o 
some other countries, in almost every 
art that is practised, and in every 
department of almost every art. As 
you profess, in your plan, to give 
intelligence and instruction to un- 
informed minds, it would much con- 
(ributeto that end, if we were to take 
a view of (he claims of former and 
present professors of general arts, by 
which at (he same time what I have 
advanced may be proved, and stu- 
dents informed, in a very little time, 
what names have thebes( pre(ensions 
(o pre-eminence. Here I would ob- 
serve, (hat i( is very far from my 
wish (o degrade my coun(ry, or (o 
wound the feelings of (hose whose 
situations in life have made (hem 
candidates for public favour, or of 
o(hcr individuals. Were I gifted 
with an inexhaustible fund of hu- 
mour, I would rather conceal my ta- 
len( entirely, (han bring names be- 
fore the public eye for sport orcon- 
tempt. I am (he more inclined to 
(his general review, because, as I 
observed before, we are so continu- 
ally flattered by writers of (he pre- 
sent day, wi(h our pre-eminence in 
almos( every ar(. Perhaps some 
reason for (heir doing it is, because 
they are more eager to praise than 
to examine. 



0BSBE1 ITIOKI OM THE aiii -. 



JOI 



Now to beglOi fit i our 

mental view, Shakespi \nr. - tliou 
iMieducated child of nature, what 
an- our dramatic powei when com- 
pared with thy exertions 2 like walk- 
ing-sticks to the Monument. <M 
learned Ben, w h ;i t are we to thee ? 
Which of us can charm the mind, 
or extract the tear, I i K t - ( )iu;i\ , Lee, 
Southern, Rowe, Lillo ? or hold the 
mirror up to nature, like Congreve, 
Dryden, Farquhar, Wj cherlj , 
Ramsay, or old ( lollej I libbei . ; I 
know I have not mentioned Beau- 
moot, Fletcher, Massinger, D'Ave- 
nant, Addison, Steele, \ anbrugh, 

and many others w it h w horn w B i an- 
no! contend ; because 1 mean to 
J)r vci \ general, and to omit many. 
Ami to lite honour of the fair sea 
of former limes, we cannot Contend 
with some dames whose cms have 
been kmg shut ; Bucfa are, Mrs. 

Behn, Mrs. Centlivre, Mrs. Sheri- 
dan, ami old Mrs. Kitty Cockburn. 

The most potent competitor We have 

against t be former, seems to be M rs. 
Sheridan's son, Richard Brinslej 
Sheridan ; of the latter. Mi-. Cow- 
Icy and Mis. inehhald. On the 
stage, what are we to Betterton, 
Booth, Wilks, Garrick, Harry, or 

Henderson? or in the comic line. 
tO Quin, Shuter, Weston, Kdwin, 

and Parsona, not forgetting Tom 
King, tho' last, not least? Among 

our present theatrical heroines in 

tragedy and comedy, it is haul to 
give a decision : perhaps to Sarah 
Siddonsand DollyJordan the crowns 
must be awarded, as queens in these 

departments. The most powerful 
rivals of tin 1 former, were Mis. Bet- 
terton, Mrs. Bracegirdle, the first 
Mrs. Barry, Mrs. Old field. Mrs. 

Clive, Mrs. Cibber, and Miss Bel- j 
lamy ; of the latter. Nell Gwynae, t 



Mrs. Mount! P |J W I f- 

fington, and Nan ( Wi have 

n.ov no Milton, Cowley, Prior, 
Pope, Swift, kddison, I hon | 

Shcii. lour [ Wfl tO v\ r I f • " , 

iH»r a ( roldamith noi anknown lad, 

like voiir unfortunate inn 
( 'hallei Ion, al the ;i/e <>| . ;•- 
\ iii ., by an uiiliim ly deal I 

early l<>si. I will not pass 3 ou, ill- 
fated youth, without introdt 

Some lines that I have some.'. ' 

seen : 

" Hi hold, \. Mil -<>n 

" V pi . \ t.. m ,uit ere n >" • 

•' I I1.1I boMW >'hi b«fl HUM, hiiIi anguiih 

lorn, 
" I I1.1i iiiiinl you <ln 1 , li'il, desert an<l forlorn'*' 

N 1 n — Falconer (>o feeling to the 

tugfl]8Jld pangs of love}, nor thy tin- 
timely death ! 

In noVel writing we cannot eojiial 

Defoe, Fielding, or Richardson: 
u ho nowaday 1 brings to oui 
quaintance such girls as darissi 

Marlowe, Pamela, or Sophia West- 
ern? And Mis. Sheridan's Sidney 
IJiddulph is above our reach. 

But. Mr. Editor, we ought not to 
he disheartened, because 001 
and country are overpowered by a 

great many ages ami countries. W e 

have the chance of' genius in com- 
mon with past and future ages and 

other countries Hut so it is — it 

does not happen that the most siir- 
priaing geniuses are at present pass- 
ing on the Stage of lite, or that the 
great Father of us all has placed the 
greatest proportion of choice spi- 
rits on our foggy island. Some per- 
sons are so selfish and inconsiderate, 
that if they had lour tickets in the 
state lottery. the\ would anticipate 
the possession of most of the capital 

prises. 

lint to proceeil to painting;, sculp* 
tint, and architecture. In the 



204 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ARTS. 



higlicnlepartments of painting, what 
have we at present in this country 
to compare to the groat works of the 
sublime Buoitardtti, the poetic Ju- 
lio Romano, the graceful Raphael, 
Corregio, and Parrnegiano, the ele- 
gant taste or the learning of Annibnl 
Carrachi and Poussiu? In speak- 
ing of painters, 1 might mention the 
glowing tints of Titian, the silvery 
tints of Gtiido, the hi»h-finishin<r 
of Gerard Douw, Vander Hey- 
(len, Denner, John Van Iluy.sum, 
and Vandor Werf; the lightness of 
Rubens, the effects of Carravaggio 
and Rembrandt. In portrait, how 
inferior are we to Titian, Giorgi- 
one, H. Miers, Rubens, Vandyke, 
Velasquez, More, Frank Hall, Rem- 
brandt, Lely, Kneller, or our late 
countryman, Reynolds! In land- 
scapes, to Claude, and along list of 
the Dutch and Flemish painters ! In 
comic painting, how very far behind 
are our living artists, when com- 
pared with Hogarth ! The Caledo- 
nian youth* bids fair to be the next 
in rank tohim, though their styles are 
not quite alike. Some of Bunburv's 
efforts, though only sketches, class 
htm next, but at a great distance. 

In sculpture, we can produce no- 
thing equal to Le Sueur, Cibber 
(father to Colley Cibber), Gibbons, 
Roubillac, Schumaker, Rysbrack, 
or even to Read and the elder Ba- 
con ; nor to Bernini, or many other 
names on the Continent. 

In architecture, what are we to 
Palladio and a long &c. &c. in 
Italy, France, and other countries; 
or to our own Inigo Jones, Chris- 
topher Wren, or even Vanhrtigh. 



* Wilkie. 
We are sorry that we have not been able 
eccentric author of these observations, 
his letters in our possession. 



In engraving, can our prints gain 
the palm from Andran, Edelinck, 
Drevet, Maroon, or even Balechou 
Beauvarlet, Le Bas, or Volpato ? 
Can our engravers cut the copper as 
clean as \V ille, or his pupil Bervic ? 
or for neatness and delicacy, make 
portraits like Fiquet, or equal what 
has lately been engraved by Mor- 
ghen or Schmid ? 



I would here take a crown of lau- 
rel and bind it on thy brows, Ra- 
phael Morghen, as the best engra- 
ver that now practises the art. Bar- 
tolozzi is the most powerful con- 
tender with the great master for 
that honour ; but he is now very 
old (this year 81), and, it is said, 
is following the fortunes of his 
friend, the Prince of Brazil, in 
South America. As I aim at bre- 
vity, I was going to omit the names 
of Woollett, Ravcnct, Ryland, 
Strange, and the great landscape 
engraver, who is no longer to be 
equalled in that department, Fran- 
cis Vivarez ; and also Sherwin, who, 
a few years ago, died in the prime 
of life; who, for drawing, was al- 
most equal to Bartolozzi, his master, 
and for freedom, is one of the best 
engravers that ever existed. 

Mr. Editor, I can't go on for want 
of paper; I have not got another 
sheet in the house : when I go out 
to itct some, I will put this sketch 
in your box. If you approve of the 
idea, as conveying instruction in the 
arts, it may be easily connected 
and enlarged, so as to bring in a va- 
riety of names, which being very 
general and short, may furnish a 
paper interesting and beneficial to 
students. 1 propose to sign what I 
wr itc J un in us. 

to allow more ri om for the ingenious and 
as ive have already upwards of twenty of 



1.1 I I I I! < nt'.NJ I | V i.-. . 



2 i 



Ml SICAJ 
TO 'I'll I- EDITOR OP 

Sib, 

I'i ii m it me to avail myself <»i 
(he respectable channel of your 
Magazine, <<> obtain some informa- 
tion respecting an interi ;il of our 
diatonic scale, from any of your 
musical readers, \\ ho may be com- 
petent and kind enough k to satisfy 
my enquiry. M\ hopes of meet- 
ing with attention to my request, 
nrc the greater from perceiving 
your Repository honoured with 
contributions fromaqnartcrto which 
not only the theory of music, I > 1 1 1 
almost every department of human 
knowledge are infinitely indebted. 

M \ question is simply llii.s ■ 

What proof is there for the as- 
nrf ion in teverai theoretical works 

on music. Unit four fifths of u >nu- 



, QUERY. 

mi. 1:1 POS1TOR1 . Ire. 
tirat ill toundthe third ma- 

jor of iln tamt ttri i openP 

I am aware oi Tartini'n < \ i 
men! : l»ni since, i»v i al< ulating 
the third majoi , by means of the 
intervals of as many filths from tin: 
primary sound, as \> ill lead to it, 
the fraction ol : is obtained, whii Ii 
is l.ss. i.\ j than j ; it may be 
questioned whether ;i monochord, 
am! its apparatus i"i stopping the 
string, may be of so ni< e i construc- 
tion as t<> indicate truly the distance 
from Jt to | ort ) and further, sup- 
posing that t<> be practicable, whe- 
ther the ear can be sensible of the 
difference. 

Yoni's, Sec. 

I'jIILOl'HO 

March 8, 1809. 



LETTERS FliOM IT.W.V 



LETTER 111 
Ifaplet, April — , isos. 

Dear T. 

Tu is delightful city, w itli its 
heavenly environs, so strongly gains 
every day on my favour, that, not- 
withstanding my anient \\ isli to re- 
turn toold England, and to all that 
is dearest to me, I fear I shall never 
be able t<) quit Naples without sin- 
cere regret. Miss Parthenope must 
indeed have been a lady of great 
judgment and refined taste, to se- 
lect so eligible a situation for set- 
tling her colony in, after she had 
eloped from the rigorous treatment 
of her Thessalian papa ; her choice 
is even superior to that of Madam 
Dido, another run-away princess, 
who contented herself with the 



parched sands of IJ.uluiv. How 
different the elopements of thus* 

heroic ages from the amorous 

flights of our times ! The breach of 
the social compact would then be 
atoned for, l>\ the establishment of 
rising colonies; whereas, nowa- 
days, the aggregate results of all 
the love-trips upon record, from 
the origin of the functions of the 
c\ clopean priest to the pn -cut time, 
would scarcely furnish the numeri- 
cal complement of our colonial set- 
tlement. 

1 have often wondered how 
gallant a man as /Eneas could pass 
within Bight of this place, without 
giving even a call ti) the fair Parthe- 
nope; or why, if he did such a 



20G 



LETTERS FROM ITALY". 



thing, our friend Virgil should be 
silent on the subject ; and I shrewd- 
ly suspect the latter to be the feet. 
The pious hero, no doubt, paid his 
respects en passant to that princess, 
and perhaps took French leave of 
her, as he did of the Tyrian lady : 
not at the instigation of a Cupid 
ai masque, but because his pru- 
dence suggested him, that if he lis- 
tened to the pressing invitations of 
those lovesick maids, and married 
one or the other, he might indeed 
become the husband of a queen, a 
kind of appendix kept for posteri- 
ty 's sake, but not king in his own 
right; a wish which had been the 
p rim u in mobile of all his peregri- 
nations, lie therefore declined all 
connection, or at least all matri- 
monial connection, with these pet- 
ticoat governments, and steered fur- 
ther northward, in order to . 

But no! let him steer on, I know 
you will think 1 have steered long 
enough out of course for the sake 
of this classic digression, or rather 
rhapsody : for to give it the former 
appellation, at the very outset of 
the epistle, would be as bad as be- 
ginning a letter with a postscript. 

How you will envy me, dear T. 
when you read the description of 
my head-quarters. If it is true, 
that a Frenchman once exclaimed, 
" Paris is the capital of Europe, and 
the Palais lloyul the capital of Pa- 
ris," I may well say, Naples is the 
loveliest city in Europe, and the ha- 
bitation of your humble servant, on 
the top of the Infrescata, the loveli- 
est spot in all Naples. In front an 
extensive garden, in the gayest ver- 
nal attire, with several stately 
orange trees just ready to blossom ; 
and backwards, a panoramic view, 
far surpassing the magic scenery 



of (Maude's poetic pencil. From 
my pillow 1 often behold, in the cool 
of the morning, the thin aerial fume 
issuing from the crater of Vesuvius; 
and the varied and extensive pro- 
spect from my window, of the city, 
the bay, villas, gardens, and a 
wide tract of a fertile and well cul- 
tivated country, bordered by a dis- 
tant chain of mountains, surpasses 
the powers of description. Add to 
these local advantages the kind of- 
fices of one of the most good-na- 
tured families upon earth, who 
seem to make it their particular 
study to anticipate my wants and 
wishes, and you will agree with me, 
that I have been fortunate in pro- 
curing all these excellencies at the 
moderate price often ducats (about 
two guineas) per month, the rent 
which I have agreed to pay them. 

This family may be called truly 
patriarchal, in as much as it is com- 
posed of four successive generations 
under the same roof : the great- 
grandfather and great-grandmother, 
the grandfather and grandmother, 
the father and mother, and the 
children of the latter, the eldest of 
whom is five years old, and both 
mother and grandmother in a fa- 
mily way. I had almost forgotten 
the pretty Donna Luisa, though 
last, not least in our estimation ; 
for she cooks my dinner and pre- 
pares her maccaroni as exquisitely 
as any you can eat at Brunet's. 

Don Michele, the grandfather, is 
the leader of this numerous band ; 
a man of formal address and pom- 
pous civility, one of those sententi- 
ous characters that delight in the 
harmony of their own talk. 

He daily renounces his siesta, in 
order to keep me company at din- 
ner, where it is in vain to beg him 



LETTER J! PROM 1TAL1 






|0 join : kv S !<■'■ "> U mi" <!"> ' " • 

I or into, t(.(. 10 jn an uIk' ," is 

generally liis rcplj i" any in\ ita- 
tion of thai kind. He is perfectly 
contented \\ hen h«' set n mcenjo) mj 
dinner, and the Ic ail want of appe- 
tite causes him real uneasiness. On 
such an occasion, which unforlu* 

nalcly occurs more often than I 

could wish, he generally launches 
out into a violent philippic against 
pli\ sicians : the burden of which 
is. •• Believe me, good Sir, you'll 
nei ei be well (ill \ on throw j oui 
bottles and pills oui of the window. 

I low can 1 man of 3 our sens,- and 

understanding doubl for ;i moment 
thai it is all a farce and imposi- 
tion?" To contradict him on this, 

or indeed any other subject, would 
only elicit an endless train of tedi- 
ous argumentation; whereas a u lei 
diet hem, )n<i " and shrugging 

Up my shoulders | a favourite Italian 

gesticulation) persuades his self- 
complacenc) , that 1 be superiority of 
his reasoning is unanswerable, lie 

then enters upon ihe news of the 
day, and there his communications 
are doubly entertaining in a city 
where onewretched newspaper only 
is printed twice or thrice a week, 
and that containing but a tew in- 
different extracts from other foreign 
journals. Through my friend Don 
Michele, therefore, I obtain the 
earliest notice of oratorios to be 
performed in any of the numerous 
churches, of a nun's taking the veil, 
of the plays or operas to be repre- 
sented, of the arrival of any of our 
ships ot' war, &c. 

In this place, a lover of harmony 
need b<> at no expence to hear 1 \- 
cellent music very often. Scarce- 



• 1 leuow m\ duty, dear Sir; I bai • 

yo. ir. Vol, 1. 



is a da 1 p 1 ,,- s but one church or 
othei hai to < elebt ' I v:i '> 

saint's annn ei inry, 01 other im] 

ant hol\ rite, w I" "• mUSU i I 

estcnti il r< quisite ; and fond I 
am of sacred mo ic In J 

have hitherto missed feti opp< rtu« 

nilies of that kind. In almo I ' \. r y 
instance the perfoiinei |, bol b 
and in-fi iiuienlal, were ot the fil '- 
rate abilities, and the compo ition, 
whether ancient or modem, truly 

sublime : but frequently also the 

pleasure I experienced was all" 

or rather destroyed, by sensations ot 

disgust, felt at the sight of eunuchs 
employed in the ex« ntion of these 
sacred concerts. Among all the po- 
tent engines which the (ail, olio 

church has called in aid of theado- 

rationof the Supreme Being, music, 
from its powerful and direct influ- 
ence on our hearts and feelings, and 
the sublimity of its nature, deserved- 
ly claims ihe first rank. Uut, sure- 
ly, the shrill and unnatural strains 
of these unfortunate beings, (in add 
nothing to the solemn harmony of 
divine song ; ontliecontr ry, their 

employment debases that heavenly 
science, their presence cou'ami 
the hallowed temples of the Al- 
mighty, and their introduction into 
a place of worship, bespeaks ■ most 
blasphemous and preposterous re- 
finement of modern taste. The truth 
of this observation was ful j 
know led ged bj th ; wofl^iy pontiff, 
Clement VIII. when he issued the 
most positive prohibition of -1) in- 
human ami impious a custom : but 
such is the ingenuity of vie. ihat 
means wei and are 

still practised, to elude the injunc- 
tions of his philanthropic de. i 
without iufringii g the lett< r of the 
law. To name them would o dy 



208 



LETTEIIS FROM ITALV. 



sully my pen, which has already 
dwell too long on a subject displeas- 
ing enough to every friend of man- 
kind, without any further addition 
of colouring. 

Let us at once, dear T. turn to 
the verdant groves, the smiling gar- 
dens, and the rocky recesses of the 
lovely mountain of Posilipo, the 
beauties of which have so justly 
been celebrated by many writers of 
antiquity. It forms in a manner 
a natural wall of defence to the 
whole of the north-western and 
western parts of the city, and ter- 
minates in an abrupt promontory, 
fronting the south. The tranquil- 
lity and pleasantness of its situa- 
tion had rendered it to the wealthy 
Romans a place of resort, no less 
fashionable than the barren and san- 
dy shores of Bajae. Caesar, Lucul- 
lus, Pollio, Virgil, Cicero of course, 
and many other great public cha- 
racters, possessed here magnificent 
villas, of which some scattered frag- 
ments still remain. No wonder, 
then, if Posilipo, from its classic 
celebrity and the beauty of its situ- 
ation and prospects, has become a 
favourite haunt of mine ; so much 
so, that my horse, when left to its 
free agency, regularly carries me 
from the lnfrescata, through Uome- 
ro 3 over the charming path which 
winds along the broad spine of the 
mountain, to the romantic village 
near the cape. The Uomero, in 
fact, forms part of Posilipo, and on 
its summit rises the splendid palace 
of Prince Belvedere, with its noble 
gardens. The latter are particular- 
ly interesting, on account of the 
i:.;iiy exotic and tropical plants 
which here thrive in the open air. 
It is in these gardens I saw a few 
days ;igo, for the first time in my 



life, the bull-rush papyrus, not in- 
deed in such abundance as it once 
grew on the marshy banks of the 
Syracusan Anapus, or on the bor- 
ders of the lake Menzaleb in Egypt, 
but sufficient to gratify my curiosi- 
ty. Some of the stalks being near 
decay, 1 begged and obtained one 
of them ; and the inclosed letter 

for Miss conveys to her 

some anaplastics (as tender as they 
would How), written with a reed and 
atr amentum, in antique characters, 
on papyrus-paper of my own ma- 
nufacture* Make her truly sensi- 
ble of the value of this classic trea- 
sure ; tell her it is a,fac simile of one 
of Marc Anthony's love-letters to 
the Egyptian queen ; assure her 
that the Royal Society would glad- 
ly have received it, that the British 
Museum would have hung it up in 
a frame in the library window. 
Small as the specimen is, it has oc- 
casioned me infinite trouble and 
vexation to produce thus much. Jn 
order to prepare it as nearly as pos- 
sible according to the directions of 
Pliny, I was, in the first instance, 
under the necessity of going down 
to the city, to consult, in the public 
library of one of the convents, the 
natural history of that writer. 1 then 
set to work, divided with my ra- 
zor the pith of the rush into small 
slips, and having placed them close 
to each other, in two layers, longi- 
tudinally and transversely, put the 
tender fabric between the yEneid 
and a breviary of my landlord's, 
and for the sake of stronger com- 
pression, consigned the whole to the 

gravitating power of But 

here my pen refuses its office! How 
shall I describe the agony I felt, 
when, on my return from a long 
ride, 1 missed my treasure, and 



f.i i i I ii>- FROM it \ r.v. 






learned its woeful faff. !J ;n • !.((«», 
Hie micces or Jo Hie infatuated Don 
Giuseppe, had arrived from town 

with mi v medicine jnsi in tj to 

saddle m \ boi r r 'i i In . hiiIui lunate 
ride, and I wis Bcarrcly out ui 
inn lie and Doiinn Lui - 1 • e( about 
cleaning the rooms, making the bed. 
&c. \\ In llici if was owing to thai 
instinct of female regularity w liicli 
considers books and pn pers i • 
any \\ here but under lock and key, 
;is mere litter ; or whether the pi- 
ous pair felt indignant at the Bight 
of their manual of daily devotion 
being subjected by o heretic to the 
action of a Ixil pi>-.i : or w bal 
else may ha\ e been their motive, 
tlic\ had separated and remo^ ed i,.\ 
a\ hole apparatus, and consigned the 
papyrus literally to the dust. 

Benedetto had my hearty male- 
dictions for his stupidity, and I am 
afraid poor Luisa felt some of the 
effects of mj first irritation : forthis 

I begged her pardon, when my pas- 
sion had given way to sober re- 
flection, and I considered that the 
remnant of the stalk, which I had 
intended to bring with me to Eng- 
land, was sufficient toproducease- 
cond specimen. I forthwith made 
another attempt, and succeeded to 
the full extent of my wishes. lis 
colour, as you will perceive, is of 
a light brown : but this, I appre- 
hend, is rather the fault of the sub- 
stance itself than of the manufac- 
ture : at le;is( an Arabian manu- 
script on papyrus, which I have 
aeen in the Regit Studii, is full as 
dark in line; and. except a greater 
degree of smoothness, probably aris- 
ing from a more perfect mode of 
pressure, in no respect superior to 
m.v preparation. 

But to return to Posilipo : many 



of i/s gardens are still in* 

in. nut 1 1 1 . i < » 1 1 r \ , .mil al 

road from the I omero, I have n ith 
pleasure and surpi isc di i 
• "i, id rable extent ot ant 
den walls, which evidently 
built foi the amc purpo e Ihe 
answer. ;\ gara\ >>-.. ill of < 
teen centuriet standing sureh i 
be deemed a con> im ing p 
the superiority of ancient building s 
nor can there be a mistaki 

the reticular junction of the 
stones being a sure criterion ot 
tiquit) . This mode of placing tin- 
stones, not in parallel rows. |,.\.. 
the moderns, but in a diaj 
direction, with one of the four an- 
gles downwards, like the ace of 

diamonds, ha>> probabi . 1 the 

durability of the fain 

The sight of a large square of 

while marble at a trifling disl 

from the main road on this mountain, 

excited my curiosity some d.i\ s 

ft contained a modern Latin in- 
scription of great length, which for 
iis singularity I would send you, but 

i w ish to save postage. The tra- 

veller is desired to p mse, in order 

to behold an ocular demonstration 
of the cruelty ami impiety of the 

ancient pagans, exhibited in I 

fish-ponds oi \. Pollio, Esq, wfco, 
says the marble, was particularly 

fond of lampreys \\-\ vrith human 
blood ; and who, to gratify 
inhuman sort of gluttony^ had t' 
ponds built at an immei 
and caused the wretched rictimi 
his corrupt palate to be thrown into 
them. Accepting the pious invi- 
tation, 1 entered the farm pointed 
at by the inscription, and actually 
round the farm-house to consist of 
some modern masonr\ . _ ifted 
upon a solid stock of ancient rctt- 
E e 2 



210 



LETTERS FUOAf ITALY. 



ciliated architecture. At the back 
of the building a small door opened 
into the ponds, which even now ap- 
peared to be abundantly supplied 
•with water, rising to the height of 
about eight or ten fi'd, from tin- 
door downwards, and covered b\ 
an arched vault nearly as high from 
the top of the door: the sides were 
lined with a stucco, as hard, if not 
harder, than stone. The whole fa- 
bric was in perfect preservation, 
and well worth the attention of an 
antiquary; but my conductor was 
unable lo add any tiling to the in- 
formation given by the inscription, 
■which, I confess, appeared to me 
very problematical. The neat and 
impenetrable covering of stucco 
would rather induce me to take it 
for a reservoir, or large cistern for 
water, than a pond for lampreys: 
and supposing it to have been the 
latter, where is the evidence of hu- 
man bodies having supplied their 
food ? Supposing the Roman laws 
to have been lax enough to allow 
such a diabolical practice, what 
stomach could relish such a dainty ? 
On descending from the mountain 
of Posilipo towards the city, by a 
steep causeway of many zig-zag 
windings cut out of the solid rock, 
the ear is usually struck with a loud 
and hollow rumbling, resembling 
the subterraneous bombilations of 
Vesuvius ; but the temporary alarm 
of the stranger is removed as soon 
as he learns that the noise, however 
violent, solely proceeds from the 
rolling of carriages passing through 
hi Grotta di Pixi'iro immediately 
under his feet. This unquestionably 
is one of t lie most stupendous works 
of antiquity; and the benefit which 
the city of Naples derives from it 
to this day, is inappreciable ; inas- 



much as it affords, in a straight line, 
a level and easy communication 
with the country on the other side 
of Mount Posilipo, to which then 1 
was before no access by land but 
by circuitous and almost impracti- 
cably steep roads ncross the moun- 
tain. To have pierced this rock by 
the chisel at its very base, must 
have been a work of prodigious la- 
bour and time : for although I have 
not yet been able to ascertain the 
length of the excavation, owing to 
the constant pissing and repassing 
of vehicles of every description, yet, 
upon a rough guess, its extent ap- 
pears to equal that of the Mall in 
St. James's Park. Two carriages 
may go abreast, and its lowest 
height is certainly not less than 
twenty feet; but at the extremities, 
and particularly at that facing Na- 
ples, upwards of sixty. 

It is by no means certain w ho was 
the author of this great undertaking, 
or from what period of time its per- 
foration is to be dated. The com- 
mon opinion is in favour of Augus- 
tus, who is said to have entrusted 
its execution to Coccejus, an archi- 
tect of great repute in that age : 
others, not without strong argu- 
ments on their side, contend for a 
much more remote origin, ascribing 
its formation to the early inhabi- 
tants of the Greek Parthenope, 
with whom, they assert, it went 
under the name of the Ecmcan ca- 
vern : and the lower class of the 
modern Neapolitans believe it to be 
the work of the devil; or, rather, 
the sorcerer Virgil, who, flying from 
the pursuit of St. Januarius, and 
being at a nonplus how to escape, 
by a stroke of his wand created this 
passage for himself through the 
midst of the rock, To this, hpw= 



\Mir,i \ - 'ii ?.nn. 






ever, I feel Borne hesitation of sub- 
scribing • for, supposing (he \\ izard 

possessed Ol III'' powers of aehie\ - 

in<r so rare a dectl, he snr< lj would 
have had sense enough to make the 
rock close again after biro, to pre- 
vent the saint's availing himself ol 
the new thorou 1 hfarc in his pur- 
suit : hill pel Imps poor V i r ii' i I Ii id 

lnsi his w iis in the embarrassment in 
which he may be supposed to h tve 
been on an occasion of such immi- 
nent danger. 

Disclaiming, however, any wish 
to influence sour choice among 
these various Ii , p ttheses, I ought to 
mention, tli it the existence of this 
cavern, at the time of Seneca, rests 
on indubitable authority. Speak- 
ing of a trip of his from Bajae to 
Naples, this author himself adds, 
that niter passing through .1 swampy 
road, which made him fancy him- 
self once more at sea, he arriyed in 
tli is c ive, '\ here he felt an ex< 

sive heat : that he never saw any 
thing more tedious a ul dismal than 
this subterraneous prison, rendered 
doubly frightful by the total ob- 
scurity which prevailed in it, there 
being no opening of any kind for 
tin- admission of air or light ; so 
that he was forced to grope his way 
through volumes of dust, which 

alone would have darkened the 



road, had evei 
P001 Seneca, it 1 

I ; hut mm ' in- 

convenient e he 1 oin 1 I .' in of n 'it. 
lily have 1 

mirelj . w oil an immense foi 

ins, the third man in I lie Ko- 
1 empire might h 
hdf a dozen torches 
s\,\ y. At the present day, ' he 

■ 's not quite so nn< ible : 

1 lamp 1 on I intlj bui nin 

a chapel, situated just h llf- 

scrves for a beacon : both entra 

have at dill. rent times In en -really 

enlarged, and two diagonal aper- 
tures were, in Charles the I 
time, cut through the rock, whu Ii 
not only illumine the interior 1 
tiiderably, '"it in some de ree per- 
Ihc ii • of \ entilators. 
The above, my dear T., together 
with \ irgil's mausoleu d>c<l 

in my last, are some of the most 
interesting obj< 1 Is to be aet with on 
(his classic mountain : hers 

of minor note I shall omit for tho 
present, lest 1 exhaust your 

tience, which I fear has alr< I . 
been put to the test. If 1 have 
sinned against the virtue of brevity! 
your own injunctions, to be ini 
in mj communications, will plead 
die apology of 

Youi'-. 



AMEL1 L'S LETTERS, 

We have the pleasure to submit to our female readers the letter of Amelia, 1 
came ton late for our last number. It is tin first of a aeries, and the specimen 
which it exhibits of the talents and sentiments of the writer, will render an) 
commendation on our part totally anm c« ssary. 

LETTER T. 

At length, my dear and ever ho- II rived, when 1 have for the 6rs< H n$ 
poured Madam, the period is ax- | quitted your maternal care : foi the 



212 



AMELIA 8 LETTERS. 



first time I find myself at a distance 
from you: — the day passes, alas! 
and I see you not ! The sensation 
oppresses me, and the novelty of 
the scenes around roe, so striking 
and extraordinary as they must ap- 
pear, though they may, at times, 
suspend, do not lessen the impres- 
sion, that so large a space lies be- 
tween my mother, and such a mo- 
ther, and me. 

I am truly sensible of the affec- 
tionate and ever-watchful care to 
which you have entrusted me. I 
well know that she, who is not on- 
ly your sister by birth, but the sis- 
ter of your heart, will fully supply 
the presence of a parent to your 
Amelia; that she deserves, in the 
highest degree, the confidence you 
place in her, and the respectful re- 
gard I entertain for her, and that 
she will fulfil all you expect, in her 
cave of inc. All this you had well 
weighed. — It was full time, you 
thought, for me to become more 
intimately acquainted with that 
sphere of life, in which it would be 
my allotment to move, and, prevent- 
ed by a long- and afflicting inability 
to attend me thither yourself, you 
have at length executed your plan 
of introducing me, as it is called, 
to the world, under such auspices, 
as leave not the least sensation of 
doubt or reluctance in your mind ; 
and thus I am become an inhabi- 
tant of a square in London, 

I may probably tell you no new 
thing-; I certainly shall not sur- 
prise you, when 1 mem ion, that no 
small degree of astonishment has 
I . sed by relations as well j 
as acquaintance, that, with my for- 
tune. :\n<\ in my situation in life, I 
should have consented to beso long . 
in the retirement of the coun- ! 



try : and there have been those (for 
mischievous spirits, as it appears, 
are by no means confined to the gay, 
the busy, and crowded scenes of 
life), who have endeavoured to 
make me discontented at the com- 
parative seclusion in which I lived 
with you, at a time when other 
young women of my age and con- 
dition, have long been initiated into 
the higher circles of life, and en- 
joyed all the pleasures ot them. 
1 have been told, that I might stay 
in the old family mansion, to nurse 
a sick mother, till I should be tit 
for no other occupation. I was not, 
you will believe me, without an 
answer for these and similar sar- 
casms, and it was equally that of 
my understanding and my heart, 
of an understanding cultivated by 
your care, and an heart formed by 
your precepts and example. My 
reply, on these mortifying occa- 
sions, for they certainly did morti- 
fy me, was uniformly to the same 
effect:—" That I felt it not only 
an essential duty, but an inexpres- 
sible pleasure, to attend to the com- 
forts of a parent who was prevented 
by bodily infirmity from quitting 
her home ; that she had long been 
bereaved of the kindest husband 
woman ever possessed, as they all 
knew, and was left with no other 
child but me, to whose education 
she had devoted the many years of 
her widowhood, and that 1 owed 
her more than tongue could ex* 
press. I never tailed to argue on 
the advantages I received by re- 
maining continually and so long 
with her, from the superior instruc- 
tion conveyed to me from her en- 
larged and enlightened understand-, 
ing, and the improvement which 
I must derive from the continual 



AMII.IA s I 



213 



virw ill lici \ ti tui • and Ihe i 
siblu communication "I her exct I- 
l,n< r ; and that if 1 bad remain* il 
two yean beyond tbi hat ii 

usual, a< i "i I m- lo the fa bionable 
etiquette of introducing \ oun/ 
men into what iscalled life, I doubt- 
ed iiui hut I sli.Hilil derive propor- 
tionable advantages from that un- 
fashionable circumstance." 

I would onlj reason, m\ deare 
mother, as 3 <m have taught me ; 
hui where could I have found such 
an instructor, so qualified, from 
experience, knowledge, manners, 
and affe< tion, t<> direct mv under- 
standing in it -^ best obje< ts, to form 
my manners (<> mj condition, and 
to mould my beat 1 (o the purpose s 
of virtue? — 1 have been (old, that 
I was ;t romantic girl ; — my replj 
was, — v> Change the expression, if 
you please, and call me a romantic 
daughter ; a character w liich, il' ii 

is so, I shall ne\ er desire lo lose." 
I did not disclose iliis uuiuense at 
tin- time ; because it made no im- 
pression on me, there was no occa- 
sion to mention it to you : and .is I. 
heaven Knows, had no cause of 
complaint, 1 would not give these 
impertinent discontents of oth< rs, 
tin- importance of being offered to 
_\ our attention. 

There i^ something surely more 
than ridiculous in the notion, that 
ai a certain age, -iris of birth, "t 
fortune, must peremptorily breathe 
tin- air and appear in the circles of 
fashionable life; as it' they were 
to be disposed of. according to tin- 
custom which necessity imposes on 
the inferior classes, of putting out 
the boys apprentices, and sending 
the --iris to service. The days of 
chivalry are certainly past and 
-one; lor instead of basing our 



>slu» 
left theii to 

tend for (be prize oi the 

I hem eh 
issue from il eii ca ii . the 

dvea 

. lo 

11 .-•• nl our modern chc\ . 

.. ill not 1 1 111 

theii Ii is impotsibl I 

am told, Tor a young woman to 
quire an elegance of behaviou 1 
any thin-- like a fashionable deport- 
ment, without having | .1 one 
winter at lent 1 in the west end of 
London; and that any our who has 
been absent from ii a 
sons, must inn ssaril • e an 

antiquated creature, i maj . nil 

. (<t' m\ self, • mo- 

ther, without reserve to you, and I 
do not hesitate to assure you ; that, 
.it the only party, not a very large 
one indeed, where i hi 
making an allowance for 
anion-- si 1 
much at m\ ease, a 
onal festivities in our •' 1 

at |/trk : 

that ih> accidental 
your mansion, 
to fashion 

disi "\ er .. -i inj ! 

sec or bear there, that th< 
of it hid been iis constant in! 
taut during the last I 
and. of c * . 1 an ope- 

r:i. «' drawing-room in 

tine i id. 

TI it I shall . and 

1 will add. a r.n . 

ment from my \ bit to 
there can be, I ho| . 

ain that . and f 

you Mill not 

mind will he enl 



211 



AMELl \'s LETTERS. 



mv understanding will be strength- 
ened by what I shall hear and see, 

amid the busy hum of mankind ; 
my imagination will be corrected by 



has taken very kindly to me. f 
need not fell yon, who are so well 
versed in the genealogy of our no- 
bility, the rank and titles of her 



a more intimate association with the family : she w;is bom, and has been 



world : and I shall obtain that ex- 
perience, nor can I desire any 
other, which will be derived from 



bred up, in Grosvcuor-square, and 
is so devotedly attached to a town 
life, as, in my poor opinion, to 



discovering the practical truths of make herself perfectly ridiculous 



those theories which I learned in 
your chamber at home. 

My aunt, with her quaint and 
peculiar humour, tells me, that J 
am very popular with the elderly 
ladies. Some of the misses, how- 
ever, while tiny acknowledge thai 
lam astonishing well for one who 
has been brought up in the country, 
have sagaciously discovered thai 
1 am, as might be expected, some- 
what deficient in the manieres du 
monde. l*\ one tonish youth it has 
been observed, that what I say is 
sensible enough, but (hat I deliver 
myself with such precision, as if 



when she speaks on that subject. 
She appears to have naturally a 
good understanding, if she would 
but make a right use of if, and a 
large portion of accomplishments, 
with a vivacity that is pleasant 
enough in its way ; but the least 
interruption of her pleasures will 
effectually damp it. The not being 
invited to a ball ; the disappoint- 
ment of n partner in a country 
dance ; the omission of an opera ; 
a rainy Sunday in the spring ; in 
short, the not having engagements 
for a fortnight to come, are treated 
as real misfortunes. Her happiness 



my sentiments were repeated from n depends upon the state of her card- 



a book : while another of the same 
class, who has the character of a 
wit, after paying some compliments 
to my general appearance, vows it 
is a pity that 1 should employ words 
a foot long, when those of half 
an inch would issue from my pretty 
mouth with much superior effect. 
My dearest mother little thought 
what a pedant she had made of her 
daughter. I am, nevertheless, con- 
soled by the opinion, that a lew 
months of town life will correct all jl occasionally regaled with the de- 



rack : and, according to the contents 
of that machine, she is lively or lan- 
guishing. She detests the country, 
and represents her father's fine place 
in the North as a dreary desert, 
where she hears nothing but owls, 
and sees nothing but stags' horns : 
(he only prospect, she says, it pos- 
sesses worth looking at, is from a 
high ground in the park, which 
gives a view of the high-road to 
London, and where you may be 



my inaccuracies, and advance me 
into a charming creature. You 
may depend upon being regularly 
informed of the progressive state of I 
my improvements. 

I must tell you, dear mother, ra- 
ther as a matter of fact than of 
vanity, that Lady Elizabeth 



ligbtful sound of the horn of a mail- 
coach. She never wishes to hear the 
warbling of a nightingale out of Ken- 
sington-gardens, and will not allow 
the Thames to possess a beautiful 
feature beyond Vauxhall. The only 
country-seat she could bear to in- 
habit is Wimbledon Park, a very 



AMI. I I \ - I 






fine place belonging to Lord Spcn- '"i that, my deai 



( ci ii'ii indeed <>n account "f i 
ten! <»i ita be tuties, though i' 

sesses liolli ill ;i BUDC1 i"i degH e. I >n I 

because if is onl) six milea from 
(own. •• () what ;i pla< <■." the ex- 
claims, "' i"i a /' >< ' hampili < '" 

\\ lien I was d<^< i ibilMj yoUl I ■'- 

nerablc mansion (<> liei . she b 
lutely shrieked, und desired me to 
slop, for she \\ ;is sine some horrid 
ghost, clanking his chains, would 
conclude my historj . < >n m\ men- 
tioning that we were one hundred 
;uhI si\i\ miles from London, she 
said ii was ten miles worse than their 
frightful castle, by being that Bpace 
more remote from the only Bcene of 
real pleasure and rational enjoy- 
ment* When I represented the 
state of j ''iif health, and w Ufa those 
sensations which I do not affect <•> 

conceal w lienev er 1 advert to that 

afflicting subject, " No wonder," 

she >aid : " for what kind of ad- 
vice or medical assistance is to be 
expected from tin- bungling prac- 
titioners who are called doctors in 

the country ; where, ii you want a 
saline draught iii the dog-days, yon 
are obliged to send half a dozen 

miles for il ?" Tims does she in- 
dulge herself when she is in spirits, 

and with on use and application of 
terms which I do not always com- 
prehend. I diil not Know before 



I in, is you. It is love, I 
\ ou an- think 

well emu 

who look al \ 

brooks, saunter through 

and lead VCI ilii a lj 

i ree ; but it i >i not Ii 

tow ii but to make you look pal I 
cure \ <>n oi ! lughing : and a 
youi sighing swains, thej are per- 
fectly detestable. Aftei all, what 
should I gain by matrimonj . : I 
hai '• rank and title, and ^ti.i I ! 
fortune. My fatbi r. w ho ia 
dear* -> creature alive, i» all indul- 
gence, and my mother I". 

-me a- well a> her daUghtei 

that I do not perceive how I should 
mend my situation at present by 
becoming a married woman. I 
called the other dai on my friend, 

Lady l> , and found her 

mining her child l she was 1 

a perfect quiz, and fit only I 
represented a> a figure in i senti- 
mental print, w ith matt rnal i 
lion written under it. and -tin 
in a shop window.' 1 Lady bUizabetfa 

has made a dead get, sin 
my rural philosophy ; and 1 am, 
it seems, from her tuition, to return 
into the country transformed in;.> a 

rational creature, when I am to Ix; 

so enlightened a> to prefer an opera 

to a rookery, and to persuade you 



that the world of fashion had al to change provincial breezes for the 
but so it is : salubrious air of Portland-p] 

Such is the rodomontade ol i 
fashionable friend ; and as it helps 
. to enliven society, and at i 
] people about her, 1 am fearful it 
w ill l>e encouraged into a h i 

and when that period arri\ 

which \ ivacity ia 



gibberish of its own 

and I shall request my new friend 

to i;-i \ c me the vocabulary of it. 

which 1 w ill send you, to enl 

your knowledge of languages. On 

my hinting that, as she had given 
so much of her heart to dear Lon- 
don, I was fearful she hail been •><> 



cruel as not to reserve a corner of it ., ful, ii will become ring 

for any one of its inhabitants. "As talkativeness that no on 
\ II . Vol. 1. Y f 



216 



METHOD OF BLEACHING STRAW. 



I am iii no danger, you will per- 
ceive, of becoming a convert, either 
(o her manners or opinions. Tho' 
her frolic gaiety will sometimes, 
forcibly as it were, excite my mirth, 
it leaves not a sentiment that my 
mind retains for five minutes. I 
consider her as I do the characters 
of a modern comedy, who may 
amazeand make me laugh while they 
are on the scene, but leave no im- 
pression io survive the fall of the 
curtain. — But where, I may surely 
nsl<, and the question will not dis- 
please — where, I say, will this fol- 
ly terminate? For folly it is, and 
all these sprightly graces are but 
the bells which gingle on the cap, 
and render the figure that wears it 
more conspicuous. — How admira- 
bly does Pope describe these vota- 
ries of fashion! The description 
would not, I think, be exaggerated, 
if I were to say, the victims of it : 

See how the world its veterans rewards, 
A youth of frolic, an old age of cards : 
Fair to no purpose, artful to no end ; 
Young w ithout lovers, old without a friend. 

I am proud of having extended 
rny letter to such a length, because 
1 well know that it will be gratify- 
ing to your heart. You shall know 
how I have proceeded in it. — When 
the day is past, and 1 retire to my 
chamber, I sit down to my table, 
and write some portion of a letter, 



before I recommend my sleeping 
hours to the protection of Heaven : 
and thus I associate the duties I 
jowc to my earthly parent and my 
celestial Father. 

While I continue in the constant 
practice of these duties, and never 
will I cease to practise them, there 
can be no apprehensions, and I trust 
you do not entertain any, that the 
contagion of the world will affect 
me. Your last words were, "Con- 
tinue, my dearest child, to cherish 
that affection which is the native 
inmate of your heart, and it will 
prove a talisman now, and at all 
times, to protect you from the dan- 
gers of the world, where pleasure 
assumes so many shapes, disguises 
itself with such flattering appear- 
ances, and practises such seducing 
arts, that innocence is too often 
caught in its snares, and virtue sus- 
pects not the charm by which it is 
betrayed." — You added, with your 
last embrace, " If ever you should 
feel your affection disposed to droop, 
delay not a moment to hasten to 
your native home, that it may re- 
vive in a parent's arms." 

I am confident, my ever dear and 
honoured mother, that as I left you, 
so I shall return to you, 
The same dutiful 

and affectionate 

Amelia. 



METHOD OF BLEACHING STRAW. 



Sin, 

As what relates to the arts can- 
not find a more appropriate place 
than in your useful Repository, I 
transmit you the following observa- 
tions. 



TO THE EDITOR. 

The common mode of whitening 
straw, which has been for some 
time the basis of an elegant manu- 
facture, is by stoving it with sul- 
phur ; in other words, exposing it 
| to sulphurous acid in the nascent 



r.xrr. iiimt nt nv < dvplrr. 



?]? 



pffalr. I do not know that Bet- I muriatic acid, silnrafi d « ith pot 



thollet'i improvement in the ;ui <>i 
bleaching hascvei been applied to 

ittftW in lliis < oiinlrv j but I am 

Informed thai Mr. Fischer, of \ i- 
enna, has a\ ailed himself of ii n iili 
<1m* greatest success: his method is, 
to dip the straw in b solution ol 



ash. Tli is ilms rend 

rei v a bite, and ii Ltd not I 
liable i<» ^^ «-.*»r yellow 
time, thai iis flcxibilit j 
I am, Ace. 

c.o r. 



EXPERIMENT on CANDL1 

In the following letter, onasubjei I considerable importance in do* 

mastic economy, the author alludes to ;• communu ition from Lord Stanl 
iatrodoced into No. II. of our Repoui I "i the information of <»nr 

correspondent, we shall beg leave lo observe, th it thi m!y w.is tranam 

to us b\ hU lordship, the table having been annexed by inothei hand, and thai 
Lord Stanhope makes ao mention whatever of candles with waxed a - 

TO THE EDITOR. 

Seeing tallow candles with waxeoj 



Purl sin i i, Is'. 
7H1 I 

Sir, 

M \ n s <>f your readers, no 
doubt, like me, will feel themselves 
much obliged by the letter on an 
object of such general importance, 
;is the bes( means of procuring arti- 
ficial light, from the pen <»f ;i pa- 
triotic nobleman, (<» whom the pub- 
lic arc highly indebted for various 
improvements. 1 must observe, 
however, I do not perceive in it 
any instruction thai A\ill enable a 

person to make tallow or sperma- 

ceti candles on Lord Stanhope's 

plan : though 1 conceive, from the 

last line of Ids table, that the can- 
dles to which he alludes, are those 
v>ith waxed wicks. If I be right 

in litis, I made trial of a pound 
above a Iwel vemontlt ago, the re- 
sult of which was very different 
from that of his lordship's experi- 
ments. Whether this was the fault 
of the principle itself, or of the ar- 
ticle I used not being properly ma- 
nufactured, 1 cannot pretend to - >\ : 
but the following is an accurate 
statement of the fact : 



w icks advertised to be sold at No, 
Fleet-street, whi4 h were I 
to have the advantages of seldom, 
if i \er, being subject to what is 
called a thief in the candle : of ne- 
ver guttering, unless from bad snuff- 
ing or carrying about ; and of burn- 
ing longer, and giving .1 brighter 
light than the usual mould candles ; 
I bought a pound of them, of the 

si/e called short sixes : tin | ■ \ 
burned, with a pound of common 
short six moulds, one of each at <t 
time, on a table in my study, in 

candlesticks of equal heights, pay- 
ing great attention to the snuffing 
both ; lighting both at the same in- 
stant from the same candle, and ex- 
tinguishing both at tin' same instant 
w Ufa an extinguisher in either hand. 
Farther, that the distance from the 
fire, and the difference of anj cur- 
rent of air, might have no effi 
the prejudice or ad\ antage of cither, 
I changed their places alternately, 
burning first a waxed wick candle 
on the right, and a common candle 
on the left, and then the reverse. 
The result was, that the common 

FfS 



SIS 



late m>rovr.Rir.s in* galvanism. 



moulds burned rather longer than 
the waxed wick candles, cacli gain- 
ing a little on its antagonist : though 
1 must observe that, on comparing 
the shadows cast by both, the waxed 
•\\ icks appeared to give a somewhat 
stronger light: this should naturally 
be the result of a greater consump- 
tion of similar inflammable matter. 

A few -words on the subject of 
oil : I have now before me a lamp 
with a flat wick, that gives a light 
about equal to the average of a 
short mould six tallow candle : it 
Mas scut me for my examination by 
a friend, who has used it the gre iter 
part of the winter, and he says that 
it consumes a pint of oil in forty- 
nine hours. The wick, which is 
just half an inch wide, costs two- 
pence a yard ; and a quarter of a 
yard, which is put in at once, 
serves for a pint of oil. The lamp 



holds half a gill : and if it be full 
when lit, it Mill burn four hours 
before it needs to be replenished 
with oil : once in two hours it re- 
quires to have the wick raised alit- 
\ tie, and fresh trimmed. The oil 
he uses is Is. 4d. a gallon : I will 
not say it is perfectly void of smell; 
but it is to be observed, that the re- 
finement of oil beyond a certain de- 
gree, diminishes its capacity for 
affording light. The expence of 
the light produced by this lamp, 
therefore, is at the rate of seven- 
pence for forty-nine hours, or seven 
farthings for twelve hours. If oil 
at six shillings a gallon were used, 
the expence for twelve hours might 
be estimated at about 9'7 farthings. 
I am, 

Sir, 
An admirer of your useful and 
instructive Repository. 



OX THE LATE DISCOVERIES IN ELECTRO-CHEMICAL 

SCIENCE. 



The genius of Franklin gave, in 
the middle of the last century, ar- 
rangement and form to the scatter- 
ed facts of electricity ; Epinus had 
adorned it with a mathematical the- 
ory, and Cavendish had illustrated 
this theory with all his sagacity and 
profound analytical powers, when 
a step, as unexpected as important, 
was made in the science, by the 
discovery of those new electrical 
and chemical facts which have been 
improperly comprehended under 
the name of Galvanism. 

Gal vani discovered, that the mus- 
cles of frogs contracted by the ap- 
plication of metals, and conceived 
that he had ascertained a new law 
in nature; but V olta soon shewed 



that the effect was electrical, and 
that Galvani had merely made 
known a new electrometor. Volta 
is the great early discoverer in this 
path of enquiry, and we owe to him 
the most important electrical instru- 
ment ever constructed, the eleetri- 
cul pile, of which he published the 
first account in 1S00. 

As soon as this wonderful appa- 
ratus was made known, the philoso- 
phers, in every part of Europe, em- 
ployed themselves in examining its 
agencies ; and the consequence was, 
the discovery of various new facts. 
Messrs. Van Troostwyck and Dei- 
man had ascertained some years be- 
fore, that when electrical shocks 
were passed through water, oxy- 



\.\ I l DIBC0VEM1 I ' . I \ \ M«M. 



VIM 



gen and hydro < were <■'. oh - 

,,l. 

This procesi wis much more ea- 
*,i 1 v pci formed bj i he in -i rum 
\ nil.., l>\ Messrs Nicholson and 
Carlisle ; and these ingenious gen- 
tlemen, and Mr. Cruickshank, as- 
certained that acid matter appeared 
;il din' pole, ;iihI alkaline matter ;it 
(he oilier. Soon after this, M i . Da- 
\ \ a i ertained, that the L r :' s <> were 
produced separate from each other, 
u the !i\ drogen al the negatii e pole, 
and the oj j gen ;it the posith e 
pol 

Tin' \.ii ioua physical researches 
on the pile gave a clear demonstra- 
tion, that Voltaic ele< tricity was 
identical with common ele< U u itj , 
and that they depended upon the 
tame agent. Various speculations 
were formed upon the chemical 
phenomena presented bj the action 
of the pile upon water. Some phi- 
losophers conceived that the sepa- 
rate production of the two gases 
militated against the idea of the de- 
composition of water. Mr. I :uiek- 
shanh supposed the acid matter 
which appeared, to be nitrous acid, 
and the alkaline matter) ammonia; 
M. Desormes conceived the acid 
to he the muriatic acid; and M. 
Pacchioniand Mr. Charles Sylves- 
ter asserted] that muriatic acid and 
fixed alkali were produced by the 
operation of the pile upon pure 
water. 

It w;is the investigation of these 
results with respect to the agency 
of electricity upon water, tluit led 
to those experiments of Mr. Davy, 
which have tended to produce so 
great an advance in physical know- 
ledge, and which form the subject 
of the present communication. 

A sketch of discoveries, which, 



in the works of the author, arc de- 
tailed in the 

and n iili the most ^im i lo ■ . il i< - 
curacy, must nei c irilj 
impei fei t ; but il 
nei il id( i «>i the 

n ho bai ■• it not in ilnir powi i ta 
pel use the original documents pub- 
lished in the Philotophit at Trai 
//ri//v, or t" attend the eloquent and 
profound lectures deli i ered by the 
professor at the Roj al Institution. 

In per form i expei iments upon 
water, Mr. I) ivj found, that when 
the water was entirely free from 
line matter, and other impurities, 
neither acid nor alkali was gem i it- 

ed in it by electru li \ : I mi r when- 
ever il contain) d ueutr il sal) 
was in contact with matei ials con- 
taining alkali and acid, the I 
alwaj s si parated ;it the positive 
pole, and the ;d kali ai the negative: 
and in consequence of tliis princi- 
ple, not only soluble salts 
composable, but likewise insoluble 
compounds, Buch .is glass, - 

Containing lime or alkali, heavy 
spar, and fluor spar. In pursuing 
this subject, he found that sui h 
wore the tendencies of alkaline mat- 
ters to be attracted by the negative 
pole, that the\ even passed through 

acid solutions towards it ; and such 

was the tendency ol acids toi 

the positive pole, that tin \ ; I 

through alkaline solutions. 

lie found that the same principle*; 

applied to metallic oxides, and thai 
it is a compreheusii i met, thai acids 
in general, oxj gen, and bodies that 
contain oxygen in excess, are at- 
tracted by the positive p<>le ; and 
alkalies, inflammable Bubstai 

metals, ami metallic oxides in ge- 
neral, are attracted by the negative 
pole. 



220 



ON THE WASTE OF AGRICU LTl R AL PRODtJCE. 



In endeavouring to discover the 
cause of these extraordinary phe- 
nomena, he found, that acids arc 
naturally negative with respect to 
alkalies ; that if these bodies be 
brought into contact and separated, 
tlic acid is found negative, the al- 
kali positive. He likewise found, 
that acids are negative with regard 
to metals ; and he asks, therefore, 
whether the attraction of the acid 
to the positive pole, and the alkali, 
oxides, or metal to the negative 
pole, is not a mere law of electrical 
attraction, the electrified surface 
attracting the body which is in the 
opposite state ? 

In examining the electricity, or 
electrical energy,of different bodies 
w it li respect to each other, he found, 
that those which enter into chemi- 
cal union, are in opposite states: 
that if the opposite states are exalt- 
ed, they more readily combine ; 
but that if they are brought into 



the same state, they refuse to com- 
bine and repel each other; and he 
puts the query, " whether chemi- 
cal attraction, and electrical energy 
or attraction, may not be identi- 
cal, and the same property of 
matter?" 

In the Bakerian lecture for 1806, 
and in his popular courses of lec- 
tures 1807, 1808, and 1809, he has 
illustrated these principles by many 
beautiful experiments, and applied 
them to many phenomena of nature : 
at the same time, with that rational 
caution which always accompanies 
the truly philosophical character, 
he refrains from dogmatizing on the 
subject; and though the splendid 
discoveries which have followed 
the pursuit of the principle, might 
have led to some confidence in it, 
yet his object evidently is, rather to 
multiply facts, than to support opi- 
nions. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE WASTE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE. 
TO THE EDITOR. 



Letter ii. 



Sin, 

As you had the goodness to in- 
sert my introductory letter on the 
waste of agricultural produce in 
the last number of your valuable 
Repository, 1 shall endeavour to 
point out some of the species of 
waste as tkey occur in progression, 
beginning with the feeding or graz- 
ing of cattle on pastures of green 
food, whether they are turned out 
to range at liberty over the whole, 
or confined to a certain portion. I 
shall then follow the animal into the 
farm-yard, and into the stall, point- 



ing out the waste that he makes of 
his various food, by drawing it un- 
der his feet from the crib; from 
which it is imperceptibly mixed 
with his litter, and thrown to the 
dung-heap. After this I shall make 
some observations on the diffe- 
rent wastes of the farinaceous pro- 
duce, either in the seed from the 
mode in which it is put into the 
ground, or in the field after it has 
arrived at maturity, before it is de- 
posited in the barn ; in its separa- 
tion from the straw and chaff; and 
lastly, in the granary and the mill. 



OH i ii i IfASTE nr ac;ii ic i 1.1 ' HAL Pno D 



,,,, 



In the first place, cattle, collect* 
big their food in ;i "inn or dry Btate, 
do unavoidably make much wa te 
\fthcy are tui ncd i > ■ i < > pasture, the} 
injure the gra s \\ iili their feet, ;> m< I 
■oil i( with their dung. \ V( 
ble bruited in iti growing itate, 
either by pressure, or any othci 
cause, ii rendered unhealthy, till 
the time that nature liaa forced off 
the injured pari ; and ihis w ill take 
many dayi even in the most grow- 
ing season, all which time ii ii un- 
fit lor food. 

Man a \ oil Is eating the bruised <>r 
injured parti of fruit <>r vegetables, 
from their disagreeable taste; if is 
therefore l»ut reasonable t<> infer, 
that animali refuse them for the same 
cause* That the feet of animals in- 
jure the grass by bruising if at the 
time they arc collecting their food, 
is very obvioua to the eye of a per- 
son passing through a pasture where 
cattle have been grazing in a frosty 
morning, the print of their feet be- 
ing so visible as to be seen at a con- 
siderable distance for many days .li- 
ter. \\ here animals drop their dung 
the grass is destroyed for many 
months, nearly the whole of a sum- 
mer, w hich isa ureal waste, alt hough 
Dot \ ery conspicuous,from being dis- 
persed over the field; but were all 

those spots united, they would exhi- 
bit \o the eye of the grazier a loss 
Jar beyond liis conception. 

In the early pari of summer, 
when t Ik' grass is very succulent, 
the dung, from the lax state of the 
animal, is more spread over the 
land, and is sooner washed in by 
the rains, than when it is dropped 
more in a heap ; hut as there is more 
grass soiled by its being more spread, 
the' waste is nearly (he same. 

It is a query whether grass, the 



pi oducc "i i ' < ui and i of* 

I tec ted by mat en '" the ani- 

mal in the stall), would not produce 
as much nutriment ai three o r<-s 
razed l»\ the < attle i >i li- 

berty about theii pastun 
saving would by in overj \ the 
labour ami attcn lark <•, exrlusii e 
of the advantage "I the enlai I 
dung-heap, which may be expend- 
ed either on tin- arable <»i laov ing 
grounda : ami as all lands arc i- i- 
tilized by being shaded in the ram- 
mer montha from the sun ami atmo- 
spheric ail , i Ilia I (fed would he 

more fully produ< ed, .1- but a small 

poi tion would he e\ DO ed :il a tone, 
and that only for a l<-w day s, till 

the young shoot h is < 01 . red the 
ground. 

The profit and ad vantage of keep* 
ing more stock upon a farm, has i>,-- 

eoine so obvious to some improv- 
ing farmers, that they hai e adopted 
the economical practice ol Boiling 
their eat tie in the farm-yard through- 
out the summer, either from the 
crib or the manger. The latti 1 is 
by far the most profitable; if they 
have plenty of sweet straw to cut 
up with their green food, three 
fourths grass, clover, sainfoin, or 
tares, with one fourth straw, cut 
about an inch l<>ni. r , and shaken up 
with a* six-pronged fork, by which 
it becomes bo effectually mixed as 
to prevent the animal from making 
a separation. The dry and binding 
quality of the straw counteracts the 
relaxing tendency "t the succulent 
grass, \r. I know several farmers 
that have most successfully ad< 
this praefiee lor the last tour or five 
. and w ho are all s,» fully con- 
vinced of its utility, that they con- 
tinue to pursue it to the utmost < si- 
lent ol their produce, li\ iht..« 






ON THE WASTE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE. 



means they find the produce of two 
acres go as far as three fed upon 
the ground ; which enables them to 

keep one third more stock than they 

did before they adopted this prac- 
tice. 

That the food of animals is much 

injured in its dry state, by their 

standing and trampling upon it, is 

obvious to every intelligent farmer; 

and that much waste occurs from 

their pulling it out of the crib while 

they arc feeding, by the motion of 

the mouth in mastication, isequally 

evident. Many of those bents and 

stems of hay, &c. that are not taken 

up parallel with the tongue, fall 

to the ground, and the aptitude 

they have to keep their heads in 

motion when they are feeding, 

causes the hay to fall as wide as the 

range of their mouths, by which 

it is soon drawn under their icei, and 

by that means becomes tainted to 

such a degree as to be very lothsome 

when again presented to the mouth. 
This waste does not amount to much 

less than one sixth of all the food 
that is taken from the crib, either by 

horses, neat cattle, or sheep ; near- 
ly the whole of which may be sav- 
ed by reducing it so short as to 
prevent the animal taking up more 
at amouthfulthan is contained with- 
in the lips. It would then come in 
contact with the saliva, whose ad- 
hesive nature would prevent such 
small parts from falling to the ground 
at the time of mastication. 

Sheep, when fed with hay, select 
all the finer parts, not for their su- 

Since we received tins letter from our valuable correspondent, we have seen a pro- 
spectus, issued by the Board of Agriculture, offering several premiums for sub- 
jects of rural economy connected with the above communication. 



perior taste, but because they are 
easier masticated, what the. refuse 
containing as much nutriment as 
what they prefer. This is fully 
proved by reducing the hay so 
short as to prevent that selection, 
by which they consume the whole, 
and thrive much better than they 
do on long food. If we view the 
fields at the spring of the year, 
where they have been fed with hay 
through the winter, we can then 
form some idea of the waste they 
have made of produce, the whole 
of which might have been converted 
into the best of food by the simple 
process of cutting. 

The waste of the larger animals 
is not quite so conspicuous, as a 
considerable portion of it is drawn 
under them by way of litter ; it is 
then thrown to the dung-heap, and 
becomes almost invisible. Although 
this waste may appear less singly, 
it is much greater in the aggregate 
than that from sheep. 

After I have enumerated the dif- 
ferent species of waste that occur 
upon a farm, I shall endeavour to 
give descriptions (in the same order 
of succession) of the newest and 
most approved implements, machi- 
nery, buildings, and other arrange- 
ments, necessary for the preserva- 
tion of the different products of the 
field; by which I hope to be of 
some service to the public, and ren- 
der myself worthy the name of 

An Economist. 

March 2, 1809. 






M MIWTIIV. 
TO 'JUL IJ>ll< i: 



Sir, || Minerva bai i 

Passing yonr door in the Strand, door to petition foi intl 

an fuJ ' ■ i human 

flnv.li. i,( (i ... <ili .i milii ir? I- • 



which I regard os (hat of the temple 
nl tin- fine arts, and obsei ving the 
bird of M inei i .1 in (he attitude of 
demanding aliment, I put into iti 
mouth a subject of the most nutri- 
tious kind ; w hicli, (hough not ap« 
pertaining to the fine ai I -. foi ma t h«* 
first ;ui(l most important of all know- 
ledge, that of man himself, in his 
relations (<» all cxislenl 11 iture, de- 
veloped in 'li«' element <>r first piiii- 
ciplc of the mora] woi Id, c died 

PATHY . 

[nthe phj >« i < - : 1 1 world. Newton has 
discovered the first element of the 
laws of motion, and i's harmonious 



1 lhal ti itl ing but the hi 
efforts of n i do n 1 m 1 
the pit ilized world. 
The phenomena of nature • 

s<'ii( to "in .\ n. 1 ;. m , 

modes of a< lion i th< 

ing a barmonioti 

called \;-i< ii ,• and the oth< 1 an 

ii n j ular action, with no a] 

ance <it' barmonj in ends ai 

and is therci . Ilt-cl 

( ontingi a 

Everj mode or substance in 
istence belongs to some 



course of action, which he has called that is. an 01 lion in which 

gravity ; though I iliink ii would I rules predomL 
have been more consistent with his but though each belongs :<» a 
professions of experimental, and not cific system, yet these 



hypothetical, knowledge, to have 
called if influence) which would 



(ems, in their actions towar Is 1 ach 
other, produce a contrary action, 



not have been liable to contrary called co / ,• :i-, when 

hypotheses of repulsion, buoyant tricity, that c uses fertility, 
luids, virtues, &c. &c. | stroysthe harvest in a storm; the 

The discoveries of Newton have earth thai establis 
made us better acquainted with the citj . the foundation ofa cil . 
relations of our globe to its fellow turns it by an earthquals • ; th«- air, 
planets in the solar system, and the that procures respirati ties 
discoveries which I have put into ^^ i;c*i mephitic ; and in th 
the mouth of Minerva's bird (cry- world, all the systems of 1 j - 
ing for food, though standing in ciety, which lead topi . li- 
the Magazine, and daily stuffed berty, and happiness, carry in 
with all the aliment of the fine themlatent< tus - discord, which 
art>), is to make man acquainted terminate in destructive conl 
with the more important relations and dissolution of system, 
of his fellow-creatures, and procure These two principles syi 
that peace, happiness, and im- and contingency, which chanu 
provability, ot all sensitive life, ize the two disti . fall the 
the great end. of his existence, and, pheno n 'i!<m or 
is I conceive, the real aliment which have ever been pei 

Vb. //'. Vol. I Gg 



9-2 i 



rfVMPATHV. 



ancients and moderns, and forms of 
worship have been instituted to pro- 
pitiate the genius of good, synoni- 
mous with system, to defend man- 
kind against the genius of evil, sy- 
nonimous with contingency. 

I shall treat these opinions with 
respectful silence, because they have 
been used in all countries as the in* 
dispensible clues of social order, to 
conciliate the harmony of human 
opinion, till reason shall be able to 
discover and establish the intelli- 
gible and irresistible truths of na- 
ture, in the unity of self-interest 
with universal good in time and fu* 
turity. 

My purpose in this important 
essay on sympathy, is to analyze 
U* powers, and prove experimen- 
tally what are its laws to keep the 
moral world in system, and enable 
rule to predominate over contin- 
gency, or the sum of happiness over 
that of misery* 

I w ill first explain the nature of 
sympathy ; and then illustrate, on 
the characters of nations or indivi- 
duals, its experimental laws of cause 
and effect, to diminish contingency 
and augment system, synonimous 
with good and evil in the moral 
world, when directed by sense or 
reason, disciplined according to the 
laws of intellectual power. 

Sympathy is the result of a seri- 
ous and thoughtful disposition, 
which procures the highest state of 
mental sensibility (opposed to ani- 
mal irritability, which proceeds 
from the will, uninfluenced by 
thought), to feel the relations we 
stand in to the pains, pleasures, and 
powers of our fellow-beings, which 
enables individuals who possess it 
to combine their powers into a focus 
or union of multiplied force, moral 



and physical, which carries human 
energy to its acme. 

This quality is possessed, in a 
peculiar and characteristic manner, 
by the British people alone, as I 
shall prove by various instances of 
national and individual conduct. — 
The youth of both sexes are pre- 
vented, by an exquisiteness of sen- 
sibility, from speaking, singing, or 
performing any act by which they 
are to become objects of general 
attention. Adults shew the same 
sensibility in all public assemblies ; 
and generals, who have been re- 
markable for their courage and suc- 
cess in the field, have found it dif- 
ficult to approach their sovereign 
at his court without an embarrass- 
ment of their sensibility, betrayed 
by blushes and much awkward de- 
portment. 

Their humanity to the brute spe- 
cies is a most honourable and cha- 
racteristic trait of sensibility ; and 
many battles have been fought in 
the streets of London, out of pure 
sympathy with their fellow-beings, 
the brutes ill treated by cruel coach- 
men and drivers. 

The numberless charitable insti- 
tutions in England both testify and 
reward this inestimable quality of 
sensibility ; and it is strikingly il- 
lustrated in the old horses pension- 
ers in many gentlemen's parks. 

I will now exemplify it even in 
the vices of the people, among 
whom, when a quarrel ensues, the 
mob will suffer no injustice of 
strength, but are vigilant to see 
all the rules of boxing punctually 
followed, without any partiality to 
the parties, whatever may be their 
rank ; and though these battles are 
attended with much bloodshed, and 
sometimes death, yet these very 



- r M P \ i in . 






peo| 



>le hold murder in r<> much 



sympathetic sensibility, testified by 
the Liberal rewardi offered for de- 
tection) unknown in any other conn* 
try. To shew thai thii quality of 
sympathy is not lost, but operate! 
with great energy, even among the 
most abandoned pick-pockets, i( 
will be sufficient to observe, thai ■ 
gang of tea <>r twelve of these ruf- 
iani will POb at noon-day, in (lie 

aaott public streets, leveral indivi* 
duals, one after the other, by the 
combination of their action in com* 
radeship or sympathetic union ol 

lone, which no people in the world 

but the English would dare to at- 
tempt, or could possibly succeed in. 

In the vice ofboxing, which h;i- 
some appearance of apology in the 

extreme sensibility of the people 
when their character or person is 
injured, even in this barbarous cus- 
tom ■ degree of magnanimity and 
sympathy is displayed in temper 
and force which is hardly credible 
to foreigners. The parties lay aside 
all anger, and the mind seems oc- 
cupied wholly with the triumph ol 
skill; and many have been known 
to i-\i hum, " I won't take the ad- 
vantage of your situation I" when, 
i( they had struck the blow, they 

must have gained the battle, on the 

termination of which the parties 
shake hands, and no malice after- 
wards is ever known. 

It is impossible to contemplate . 
the printed figures of the Uiiti^h 
prize-fighters without Learning the 
distinct natures of animal anil men- 
tal sensibility : the first having the 
reason controuled by the will, loses 
all moral force by the ferocity and 



angei <>i the tempei \ while mental 
sensibility or sympathi . i ontrouling 
the will aril h iln res on, riewi and 



horror, that the assassination ol •• 

•ingle individual will throw the 

whole city into consternation and ealculate, di pai LOfiaU'lj tll( 

and ends of • t « J ■ di e and i 
;nid [i nre to triumph 01 1 
cious and irritable antagonist. 

The Boon h t lans, 1 1 ! ■• bite 
b<>\ -, and I .:i'; lish gan , 
a sympathy unknewn (<• sll tl 
lions of the nroi Id | and i be i igo- 
r(tus charge ol the f ' r 1 1 i - 1 1 
united by sympathy (which no 
discipline or tactics can produce) 
into trusses or bundles, no \> >i 
troops ( bowei ra i up* i ioi then num- 
bers) w ill eVCf be able to r< I 

throughout the present n ar, have 

never dared f>r a moment t<> i 
tend with, bnl always fled in the 
utmost consternation, as the bat- 
tles it Landrccj . Icre, M . I 
meira, and Corunna, can lestif) . 
Whencvei the British genci Is dial! 
have genius and heroism sufficient 
to lay aside their parade manoeuvres 
and close w ith the baj onet, the Bi i- 
tish army v\ill conquer European 
enemies with more inequality ^nd 

facility than they do those ol I 
whose troop.s. ha\ imr no dis t ipline, 
are liable to no panic, and are ac- 
customed to manual conflict; I 
if beaten, to retreat with their 
in their hands, but never to throw 
them down or capitulate as Euro- 
pean nations do. 

I shall now contemplate the in- 
fluence of the quality of sympathy 
(the universal principle of the I 
world, as hi >.t or fire is that of the 
physical world) in the national 
duct of the l>iii heir 

complex system ofmonan .v . ari- 
stocracj , and democracj . i > sub- 
stitute a government >>f Is 
caprice of personal will, i» pro- 

G : 






SYMPATHY. 



duced entirely by the quality of| 
sympathy in tin' individual cha- 
racter, which, exhibiting and feel- 
ing the personal interest in close re- 
lation with that of the community, 
enables them, with thoughtful and 
serious deliberation, to adjust the 
equilibrium in the contentions of 
(he threeestates, to prevent any dan- 
gerous preponderance that might 
destroy the system, -which must 
inevitably happen if riot upheld by 
the singular j thoughtful, moral, and 
sympathetic temperament of the 
people. 

Their foreign Avars have been nil 
conducted with the quality of sym- 
pathy, and the balance of power 
among the continental nations of 
Europe was regarded, in a national 
view, as necessary to political self- 
interest, as the relations which con- 
nect the individual with the com- 
munity of a whole people ; while 
all other nations have been over- 
whelmed in the present revolution- 
ary war, one after the other, in the 
full evidence of experience, be- 
cause the quality of sympathy was 
totally unknown both to nations 
and individuals. 

The most consummate instance of 
British sympathy is displayed in 
their laws in favour of their poor, 
which carries civilization to its cli- 
max of protection. They do not, 
however, stop here ; but following 
the developement of sympathy in 
Pope's beautiful allegory of the 
Lake of Self-love, their laws ex- 
tend perfection to their brute fel- 
lowrbeings ; and in this single act 
of universal benevolence, they have 
surpassed all nations, and may well 
be called the chosen people of na- 
ture. 

Great and transcendent people, 



nature has placed you on an island, 
to guard both your persons and 
moral temperament from the dan- 
gerous intercourse of envious and 
barbarous nations ; to make you the 
protectors of the world, by securing 
the organization of social life amidst 
the deluge of revolutionary barba- 
rism, as the ark of Noah protected 
animal life. 

To effect this momentous object, 
and to co-operate with the univer- 
sal energies of nature, to augment 
system and diminish contingency, 
nothing is wanting but the improve- 
ment of the human understand- 
ing, by advancing knowledge into 
thought, and science into sense. 

1 will explain this important 
statement by the citation of a work 
written by an author of great talent 
and great information, aided by the. 
experience of travels, and criticised 
by the Edinburgh Review, a peri- 
odical work, which unites a great 
deal of thought with a great deal 
of knowledge, far beyond any work 
that has hitherto appeared in the 
whole domain of science ; and yet 
both these works have shewn a com- 
plete and total ignorance, as well 
as violation of sense, which is a 
strong argument (hat the essential 
quality of intellect docs not yet ex- 
ist among any people. 

The Edinburgh JZexiew, on Mr. 
Leekic's faithful picture of the go- 
vernment of Sicily, concludes with 
an observation, violating the laws 
of sense. It says, that in censur- 
ing the deplorable despotism of that 
country, other countries (meaning, 
no doubt, Great Britain among the 
rest) differ nothing in quality, but 
only in the degree. 

The two distinct characters of 
sense and science are formed by 






IVMPATIIV. 






disiiiM lion and definition i •< ience ml , which 

demandi definite quality and defl- culatc thaftmodifu ition «>i |j 



nite quantit y ; sense calculates only 
distinguishable quality and probt 
ble degrees <>f quantity : and sm li 
is the moral evidence <>t sense, dis- 
tinguished from ili«" positive *lc- 
monstration of Bcience : I novt 1 
truth, of more consequence to lm- 
man interest than all the boasted 
discoi cries hi science. 

In this instance, the reviewers. 
tike all oilier authors, hat ing their 
judgment under the influence of 
science in its gross and fixed rela- 
tions, are incapacitated to estimate 
the doubtful characters of things, 
and their probable conclusions of 
more and less, which constitutes 

the moral science, and which 

can alone lake cognizance of: and 

though (here may be some shades 

of despotism in the constitution of 
Uriiish liberty, yet the deg rees ol 
difference with that of Sicily, arc 
so enormous, thai the most cun- 
ning logician that ever emerged 
from the science of the schools, 
could not impose the sopli ism used 
by the reviewers on the word only, 
on ■ mind possessed of any share of 
sense, or essential intellect, as dis- 
tinguished from the technical in- 
tellect of science. 

The reviewers furnish a much 
stronger instance of the total ab- 
sence of si nse in the following ob- 
servation : they say there are many 



and restraint which ml 

to w ill, and . with the 

s.( 111 1 1 v "i propei i . 

medium of so< ial ortl 

tinguish, as much as po bio, (ho 
character of the tl> ! its 

doubtful and rariabl 
quantity and dirl 

\<ry. 

These solemn ju 
habituated to gross and 
terms of quality and quantit j . 
totally incapacitated to esti 
those doubtful and laborious ave- 
calculationi of the maximum 
and minimum in nun d qualities and 
quantities, or degi a I modi- 

fied by their contraries ; as, how 
much liberty and how mm h re- 
straint will procure civil n 
how much peace and how much wai 

will procure national security ; how 
much practical and how much im- 
provable good will form the predi- 
cament of happiness in time pn sent, 
its developement in futurity, I 
the high characteristic ofhuman na- 
ture, perfectability, w hi. h distin- 
guishes man from the brute 

These reviewers or consummate 
doctors of science, the m<>st 

evident defect ol si ase in I 
metaphysical studies. They 
and have often Baid, they ha\ 
distinct idea of matter: : ; ..- is a 



luxurious men who would be dis- downright solecism in sera 

posed to tolerate a gentle servitude, function is to give b distinct, but 



in order to preserve their property. , 

These men oi' high and j 
tensions to scientific criticism, in 
this observation shew a total detect 
of sense : for they imply a censure 
in gentle servitude, when ir is the 
veal desideratum of sense in the mo- 



no! a di finite idea of things, an I 
tween matter and it- 
power-. We h ive as mud 

is is iic ■■. ssary for human in- 
telligence to know, and conduct 
things to iheir uses through s 
bej ond w hich km % i 



SYMPATHY. 



is of no avail, and becomes mere 
lunar light of science, according to 
Young, shining without heat, when 
compared with the fructifying heat 
or fire of solar sense. 

There is another individual whose 
weekly speculations, conducted 
with uncommon powers of techni- 
cal intellect, are, however, totally 
devoid of essential intellect, or 
sense. Tie tells us the constitution 
of England is not worth preserving 
while it is accompanied with any 
evils of pensions, taxes, despotism, 
or corruption ; and that the suc- 
cesses of an enemy, whose object is 
the destruction of this country, and 
extirpation of its inhabitants, is not 
worthy of the attention of the peo- 
ple till they have removed these 
evils. He might as well say to a 
man whose house is infested with 
rats within, and house-breakers 
without, " Never mind the assas- 
sins, send for the rat-catcher ; ne- 
ver mind your life, or property, 
but saveyour cheese!" Reason, un- 
der the guidance of sense, is no- 
thing but the comparison of things, 
and their relations in their distin- 
guishable qualities, and degrees of 
quality in moral evidence, not sci- 
entific definition and demonstration; 
und the examples I have cited of the 
dangerous and imbecile errors of 
the strongest powers of technical 
intellects, produced by knowledge 
and sagacity, prove that the high 
quality of essential intellect, or 
sense, is totally unpractised and un- 
known among mankind. 

i will attempt a description or 
character [not definition] of the 
quality of sense, or essential intel- 
lect, distinguished from the techni- 
cal intellect of science. 

Sense is that exquisite tact or 



discernment produced by the ener- 
gies of imagination to multiply 
ideas into the complete evidence of 
a subject, judgment to discriminate, 
and reason to compare the differ- 
ences : and its function is moral evi- 
dence, or science ; to mark the dis- 
tinction of ideas and the relations 
of qualities, and to calculate the 
more and less of probability in their 
quantities of cause and effect ; as 
what quantity or quality of stature 
or virtues makes a tall man, or a 
good man ; what degrees of proba- 
bility make peace preferable to war 
in any given predicament ; what 
constitutes a good government ; 
and what reasoning of relative and 
comparative circumstances forms 
the index of the golden rules of 
Epicurus, to suiter or enjoy present 
good or evil, to avoid or procure a 
greater in futurity. 

The discovery of this high qua- 
lity of sense, as distinguished from 
science, is the great desideratum of 
all human energy, and if united to 
British sympathy, would save the 
country, and the whole civilized 
world, from the menacing empire 
of military barbarism ; and what 
is of still more importance, reduce 
the contingencies of the moral 
world into system, by giving per- 
manence to practical good, and ac- 
commodating it to the slow, safe, 
and sure progress of human perfec- 
tability, the vis xilos of the moral 
world. 

Homo. 

N. B. I recommend to every man 
1 who may have sense enough to un- 
i derstand this essay, to give it as 
much publicity and circulation as 
their property will enable them, and 
their important interest must excite 
them to cifect. 



Rl 



on G \s LIGHT, 

Or on (In application of ili< Gat front Co »/ to economical part 
when compared with thi Liout afforded by Lampior Cut. 

i en 1 1 or. 



1 1 we distribute the catalogue of ' 
human wants in the order of the ne- 
cessity of each } food will occupj 
the first place, and nexl to this, the 
articles of fuel and clothing ii 
diately present themseh < s. The to- 
tal want of any of th< >.-, necessa- 
rily implies extreme distress ; and it 
mkIi i privation be applied, even in 
fancy, to men united into ch il socie- 
ty, everj notion of comfort and 
civilisation at once disappears be- 
fore us. 

Inferior onlj to these in its ur- 
gency, is the necessity of artificial 
light during the absence of the sun. 

To procure light for the ordinary 
purposes of life, we are acquainted 



■mi. have in- 
troduced the judicious application 
laceous or oil) n »l the 

ible or animal kingdom, t<» 
pitM nre light in a more < legant man* 
ner. The former are usually burnt 
in lamps, the latter < onstitnte t In* 

most essential part of candles. W illi- 

out attempting t<> trace the history 
of the invention of the instruments 

of illumination, (ailed caudles or 

lamps, it is certain, that movable 

lights were first introduced in the 

churches, and among the persecut- 
ed Christians, in the year l J7 1 ; and 

what is remarkable; they were soon 
afterwards forbidden, as dangerous. 
With regard to the lantern^ King 



with no other ready means than Alfred is said to he the inventor of 



the process of combustion* We 
might indeed exist without light, 
but how targe a portion of our lives 

Would in thai case be condemned to 
■ state 1 of existence little superior 
in efficacy to that of the animals 
around us. Common lire's form 
the most rude means of illumination 
that have been applied; ami these 
actually are used in some places 
for this purpose, in the apartments 
of dwellings, and in some light- 
houses. Small pieces o( resinous 
wood, and the bituminous f<>~si'. 
Balled cannel coal, are now still 
used in some countries, for the pur- 
pose of illumination. 

The numerous wants which a ei- 



this instrument. The mode of ear- 
rying light from place to place by 
means of this apparatus, oc4 tskmed 
great murmurs in the year 890, and 
was deemed dangerous and extrava- 
gant. With respect to tallow can 
they were known in the year l- ,( '> : 
at least, at that time they were con- 
sidered as a great luxury; bee 
splinters of resinous wood, or fl 

f tar, pitch, and oil. were 
ased in common life, and lam; 
lv adorned the palaces of the prince. 
A • - .. mode of pro. uring light 
from (he applic it 
fluid, obtained during the distilla- 
tion of pit is lately much en- 

a ot the public. 
The daily prints, every body ki. 



vilized state oi' existence 

sarily created among men, aud which i have present. 

has given exercise to the powers of ' blish a company for the ; ntrod':. 



230 



ON GAS Main 



of a process to obtain light from 
coal at a cheap rate, so as to secure 
;ni enormous profit to the subscri- 
bers from a trifling deposit. The 
plan of this establishment professes 
to increase the wealth of the nation 
by adding to the number of its in- 
ternal resources. The views that j 
are held out as objects of gain, con- 
nected with the application of light 
from coal gas, by this establish- 
ment, are so much beyond the i 
usual terms of speculations which j 
men are accustomed to calculate in 
the ordinary way of commerce, that 
the proposals naturally challenge 
the consideration of the most tran- 
quil enquiries"'. To this may be 
added, that the late extended and 
successful application of the gas 
from coal on a large scale, sufiici- 
cntly enables us to enquire into the 
merits of (his discovery, and which 
could not be done until lately, for 
want of experience and observa- 
tion. The experiments that have 
been made on this subject, and 
have been laid before the public 
within these six months, by men of 
eminence in the field of chemical 
science, are more than suflicienl to 
enable us to calculate the quantity 
of coal that is necessary for the pro- 
duction of a given quantity of light, 
when compared with the light of 
lamps or candles, as well as the 
necessary and most probable cx- 
pences that must attend the applica- 
tion of this mode of procuring light 
for the illumination of public build- 
ings, and other establishments where 
a great number of candles or lamps 
are required. 

In considering the nature of the 

* A deposit of 51. is stated to secure 
to the subscriber 5701. per annum !!! 



so-called gas light (of which a dis- 
play has been made for some time, 
and still is publicly exhibited in 
Pall-Mail), it is not my intention to 
enquire into the legal rights of pri- 
ority as connected with the disco- 
very of this mode of obtaining arti- 
ficial light, however much the sub- 
ject may be connected with the in- 
terest of others. As a mere looker- 
on, or as an amateur of the useful 
arts, and cultivator of the physical 
sciences, I shall endeavour to sketch 
the nature of the discovery of the 
gas light, as it appears before me ; 
together with other facts relating to 
this mode of obtaining light for 
economical purposes. It is on these 
grounds that 1 flatter myself the 
subject is entitled to a candid ex- 
amination, and that it may claim a 
corner in the Repository, which 
professes to be open to whatever is 
interesting and useful in the arts and 
manufactures, and in the common 
atfairs of life : for the time appears 
to be near at hand when discove- 
ries, whatever their nature may be, 
will fairly claim the protection of 
the philosopher, as well as the en- 
couragement and candid examina- 
tion of a great and enlightened com- 
mercial nation. 

The process of procuring light 
from coal gas, it must be confessed, 
isyet in its infancy, and indeed it has 
until lately been applied only as a 
subject of philosophical amusement. 
It isdiilicult to believe that things can 
exist separately, which we have al- 
ways been accustomed to find unit- 
ed. Coal fires are as well known 
to us by the light, as by the heat 
which they afford ; and few people 
j not within the walk of science, are 
prepared to conceive, that these two 
; agents, which exist in the same ma- 



ON (.AS Lion I 



I 



4rri.il, may possibly be separated 
ami exhibited in a distinct state. It 
is chic/ly ii|)(in the arrangment for 
doing tliis. with convenience ami 
cheapness, that the defenders of gat 
tight found their speculative < hums. 
They fell us that the uascons pro- 
duel capable »>f giving both heat 
and light, which is developed dur- 
ing the combustion of cool, as ii 
usually takes place, is now turned 
to very little advantage ; that it is 
not only confined to one place, as is 
the ease in oar grate, where a glow- 
ing heat is more wanted than a bril- 
liant flame, but that it is also ob- 
scured, and generally almost entirely 
rendered useless by a quanlitv of 
aqueous vapou and carbonaceous 
matter, which ascend along with it, 
and pollute the atmosphere. That 
much inflammable matter is thus 
lost, is evident from tacts that dai- 
ly take place before us. We often 
see a flame suddenly burst forth 
ftom the densest smoke, and as sud- 
denly disappear; audita lighted 
body be applied to the little jets 
that issue from the melted bitumi- 
nous matter of coal, it will catch 
lire and burn with a bright flame: 
and when it is considered how many 
establishments have already been 
formed lor public ami private be- 
nefit, which, on their lirst outset, 
seemed extremely difficult and ob- 
jectionable, there is reason tosup- 
pose, that this new mode of pro- 
curing light, whatever its merits 
may be, will likewise meet with 
many objections. The slowncsj with 
which improvements of every kind, 
make their waj into common use, 
and especially such discoveries as 
are most calculated to be of an ex- 
tended or general utility, is very 
Vo. // Vol. I. 



remarkable, and Col 

contrast to the extreme avidity with 

w Inch those unme initi 

adopted, \\ hit Ii foil \ and i aprii 

continually en ling forth into tie 

world i inde i the auspices ot fashion* 

On the flrst \ ien ol (In 
it appears \ ei \ ex I rod ■ ry< that 

any prison should neglt I ■ or refute 
to a\ all hiinsi It of a propot ed in- 
vention, ot Improvement, which is 
c\ idently < alculated to facilitate his 
lal>oiir, or to i m i. ise hia i om forts 
and his luxuries; but when w<- I-- 
flect on tin- power of habit, •nu\ 
consider how difficult it is for a per- 
son even to perceive the imperfec- 
tion of former mode, to which 
In- has been accustomed from his 
early youth, our surprise will be 
very much diminished, or perhaps 
vanish altogether! Before the in- 
troduction of pins into common use, 

ladies fastened their garments with 
strings and skewers; and when this 
small instrument was first brought 
over from Germany, and recom- 
mended to their consideration, in the 
year 156G, the whole sex consider- 
ed them as highly dangerous, i < - 

cause many pricked and scratched 
their iin<rers in attempting to OSC 
them at their toilet . 

When engines to raise wafer from 
wells were first invented, the car- 
riers of this fluid, with their friends 
and protectors, exclaimed loudly 
against the innovation of raising 
water by machinery. And when 
the first newspaper ( The Public 
Inteiligenci r) made its app aranc •. 
in the year lot) J, the critics of the 
day ridiculed ii. as totally Useless, 
and as an idle vehicle ot" nonsense 
and slander. 

( To be covtini'cd.) 
II h 




-Ov 



2.W 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CRIMEA 

( W I Til A MAI'.) 

7'0 THE EDITOR OF Till. REPOSITORY, 



Sin, 

THE proposal, in your last 

number, respecting the settlement 
of (he Spaniard! in the Crimea, in 
the event of their emigrating from 
their native country, naturally ex - 
cites the curiosity of your readers, 
and renders them desirous of a more 
minute description of thai country, 
than the n riser of u was able to 
give in his very interesting paper. 
Al I have passed .some lime in the 
Crimea, and traversed the whole of 

if, I can vouch tor the authenticity 
of the following particulars, which, 

if you think them worthy insertion 
in your valuable Repository, are at 

your service. The Taurida, or 
Crimea, lies between 41. 17. and 
46. north latitude, according to 
the best Russian maps made since 
the peninsula became a part of that 
empire, ami is about 100 English 
miles long, from Precop, in a right 
line south, to l'orus, on the Eux- 
ine Sea ; and 800 miles broad, from 
Dendaia, on the Black Sea, on the 
•west, to Tenikal, a city on the 
Cimmerian Bosphorus, or straits 
which divide the Crimea from the 
island of Taman. The river Salgir 
di\ides the peninsula into nearly 
two equal parts, and .separates the 
Salene dressy plain on the north, 
from the line mountainous country 
to the south ; which, tor upwards 

of 2,000 years, was the abode of 
polished commercial people, who, 
till the Turks shut up tin- Thrncian 
Bosphorus, tilled its ports with the 
ships and merchandize of ull na- 
tions. It is a fact no less surprising 



than trija, that these two disfn, r 

thus separated by tin- river Salgir, 

arc as diflerent in climate, soil, and 

productions, as any two countrici 

the most widely distant from < 
other. A Bold bleak winter lie 

quently prevails in this place, w here, 

without a tree or hillock to break 
its force, the N. E. wind sweeps 

with Irresistible violence; whil t, 

at the same time, the weather on 
the south side is mild and agreeable, 
and the vallies are covered with 
(lowers. 

The northern part, from {he Sal- 
gir up to I'rccop. is a level uni- 
form plain, without a tree or hil- 
lock, and appears formerly to have 
been covered with the sea, which, 
on retiring, left its hollows full of 
salt water, now turned into salt 
lakes, and which at this time are 
its principal riches ; and it is by 
no means improbable that they still 
communicate with the sea. Inde- 
pendent of the quantity of salt con- 
tained in these lakes, the sea ii is 
left so strong an impregnation of it 
in all the plain, that nothing but 
plants which delight in salt will 
>;row in it : these afford most ex- 
cellent pasturage for horses, sheep, 
dromedaries, and camels. In some 
parts, h o w e v e r , of (his plain, the 
rains and Hoods have in a irreat man- 
ner washed out the salt ; anil, if I 
may be allowed the expression, have 
formed islands capable of cultiva- 
tion : and which, when the Tan- 
rida was peopled, gieu OOfU and 
other jrrain ; and indeed, in such 



abundance, 
II li 9 



that, till the wars be- 



234 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CRIMEA. 



twecn the Turks and Russians do- '| themselves of the remainder of the 
strayed its inhabitants} it was the ]] peninsula, the complete possession 

of which they retained for many 
ages, rendering themselves famous 
for their commerce and riches. — 
When the other colonies, founded 
by the Greeks on the Euxine, 
changed their masters, the Taurida 



granary of the empire. This part 
of the Crimea is as sultry in sum- 
mer as it is bleak and cold in win- 
ter, occasioned probably by the 
same cause, being so totally des- 
titute of shelter. 

The souther ;>art begins gra- 
dually to rise li the Salgir, into 
a ridge of calcareous mountains, 
forming a broad screen for the Cri- 
mea, and running easterly 10 the 
Cimmerian Bosphorus. Between 
these and a high ridge of slaty 
mountains that border the south- 
ern shore, lie some of the most 
beautiful and temperate v allies to 
be found in any country : and be- 
yond them, that is, between the 
slaty mou itains <nd the shore, lie 
another range of rallies still wanner, 
enjoj the climate and fruits oi 
Asia Minor. 

Thes singular varieties of cli- 
mate and soil in so short a distance, 
may serve to teach geographers, 
who judge of climate in their stu- 
dies merely from latitude and lon- 
gitude, that nature is sometimes 
acted upon by local causes. 

In describing a country so cele- 
brated in antiquity, it will perhaps 
be agreeable to your readers if 1 
give a short sketch of its former 
possessors, before I say any thing 
of its present situation. 

The first mention we have of the 
Taurida in ancient writers, is the 
expedition of, Orestes, who, at the 
head of a colony from the Greek 
settlement ofHeraclea, in Bythinia, 
first founded the city of Cherson. 
These people then extended them- 
selves along the Tauric coast, build- 
ing the cities of Theodosia and Pan- 
ticapoes, and gradually possessed 



dso followed their fortunes, and 
submit led, 124 years before the 
Christian era, to Mithridates, king 
ofPontus; who, with the rapidity 
of an Alexander, not only con- 
quered all Asia Minor, but drove 
the Romans out of Greece, Mace- 
Ion, Thrace, &c. ; and having ta- 
ken prisoners two of tieir generals, 
Quintus Appius and Maurices Aqui- 
lius, punished the latter for the ex- 
tortions and rapine he had com- 
mitted upon his subjects, by order- 
ing melted gold to be poured down 
his throat ; thus endeavouring to 
satiate him with his favourite metal. 
Upon the death of Mithridates, the 
Romans reduced all his extensive 
dominions, and governed them, as 
provinces, either by praetors or tri- 
butary princes ; among which num- 
ber was the traitor Pharnaces (who 
betrayed his father, Mithridates), 
who was left for a time in the go- 
vernment of the Taurida, till, in 
an unsuccessful attempt to recover 
the remainder of his father's domi- 
nions, he met the just punishment 
of his unnatural crime in the well- 
known battle when Julius Caesar 
related his victory to the senate in 
the celebrated line, Veni, xidi, xici ; 
I came, saw, and conquered. The 
possession of the Taurida remained 
with the Romans till the decline of 
that empire, when the emperor of 
Constantinople called to his aid the 
Venetians, who, with their nume- 
rous ships, soon rode triumphant 



ii i- ion k \ r. or mi ( i: i \n \ 






both in tin- BU< b Vi i and Set ■ '! 

y\ /of]'. The latter began, without 
Ion of time, to form settlements on 
their shores, and • " < ioi lin Ij took 

possession of Theodosi i, &C ; till a 

M-, ond .<• . olution thn s the com- 
merce ami c ilonies "t the Euj ine 
into the pon r ol theii rivds, the 
Genoese, who restored tin- Greek 
dynasty to the throne or < lonstan- 
tinople, and, in < onsequence, be- 
come the favoured nation. This 
possession, however, was not easily 
yielded by tin- Venetians, who 
fought s<-\ ri'l buttles for die em- 
pire of the laixine : but ( rcnoa, ft • 
toured by die grateful Michael 
Palaeologus, remained triumphant, 
and Rounded a kind of empire in the 
Taurida, choosing die ancient city 
ofTheodosiu tor is capital, uivim;- 
it the name ol' ('alia, in imitation 
of the Roman name of Cafura. I n- 
der its new name it soon became a 
more lourishing citj thin it had 
ever been under either the Greeks 

or Romans. The possession of the 
Crimea remained with the d'enoese 
till the year I 17."), when it was con- 
quered by Mahomet II. Sultan of 
the Turks, who transported all the 
Genoese to Constantinople, giving 
them one of the suburbs to inhabit. 
Since that time, it remained with 
(lie 'Turks, till conquered by the 
Russians} who now possess it. 

In giving a description of the 
present state of the Crimea, [shall 

begin w/itll its ancient capital, The- 
odosia, or ( 'atfa, which is beauti- 
fully Situated on the brow of a hill, 

forming a semicircle round the port. 

and was formerly sin rounded by a 
wall, fortified by turrets, whose 
ruins shew its former strength to 
have been great. The principal 
entrance into the city was from the 



harbour, sot nred by thi< 

lowers, one within the Other. ( bi 

the top of tin- lull i . ,i \ , r v I 

on lo '•<! ipai <•, filled u uli m.i 
in ent mm- : in the w ill of u hi< h, 
jref standing, are inserted m 

pieces of marble, with I. n-re- 

li \ ns, hi\ [ng I ,:itm ins< ripti 
though much mutilate d by the 

'I'm ks. w ho have used iln:r u( 
endeavours to de>tri>\ tin in, ;md 

also to metamorphose the prin< 
church, situated in the center of 

the city, into a mosque, but without 
BUCCesS I its w indows and other 
parts still shew that it was 01 
n.ill\ dedicated to Christian wor- 
ship. Another object woithy of 
attention is, the remains of a large 
old fort on t!ie sea-shore, probably 
the work of the (ienoese, now com- 
pletely in ruins : those parts of the 
walls, however, which are still 
standing, arc covered with Latin 
inscriptions ; though so greatly de- 
faced, that they would require th^ 
attentive inspection of an antiquary 
to read them. 

Jt would not be tight to omit 
mentioning what appears to have 
once been one of the most ma<_ r ni- 
iicent buildings of the ancient cit v ; 
and, from its remnins, was proba- 
bly a Roman bason. The inside, the 
seals, the b;isii)s, fee. are entirely 
of marble : great destruction has, 
however, been made amongst them, 
by their being caiied ofl by the 
present inhabitants, to burn into 
lime, though the mountains in the 
peninsula are principally COTOp 
of limestone ; and no doubt this 
mode of destruction has amnio 
many valuable monuments 
former possessors. The pr 
state of Cad holds out little in- 
induccment to a stranger ; its houses 



236 



nmourcAi, AfcocxT ot the cjumea. 



arc poor and mean, and its inha- 
bitants a composition of all the dif- 
ferent nations — I had almost said, of 
the earth, but most certainly of the 

majority. Like all cities of warm 
climates, it has nothing to boast 
of in point of cleanliness or conve- 
nience : it is, however, a rising 
city, and is so -well situated for 
commerce, that it must flourish 
under any government, though the 
present holds out every possible in- 
ducement to tempt new settlers, and 
will, 1 ^oubt not, ultimately suc- 
ceed in restoring the Crimea to some 
part of its ancient importance. 

The exports from Caffa princi- 
pally consist of Tauric lamb-skins, 
bine, black, and spotted, Russia 
and Morocco leather, wax, furs, 
horses, staves, &rc. : the imports 
consist principally of gold and sil- 
ver stuff, velvet, woollen cloths, 
silk, damask, linen, muslin, worked 
and block copper, all kinds of dy- 
ing drugs, particularly indigo, co- 
chineal, alum, Brazil, and log- 
wood ; gum lac, rice, coffee, sugar, 
opium, sulphur, mastic, sarsapa- 
rilla, paper, spices, fir, &c. ; in- 
deed almost every thing that other 
countries manufacture. I doubt 
not that your readers will be a lit- 
tle curious to know more respecting 
one article of their exports which I 
have enumerated, viz. slaves: these 
arc the far-famed Circassian beau- 
ties, that, for ages past, have regu- 
larly been brought to the market of 
Caffa, and from which the seraglios 
of the Grand Signiorand his viziers 
arc supplied. A commerce of this 
nature is a truly singular one ; but 
what makes it more particularly 
so here is, that these beauties are 
bought and sold by their own pa- 
rents, and produce from j£100 to 



j£800 sterling each, according to 
their charms. The best descrip- 
tion of the manner in which this 
traffic is carried on, is given in the 
words of a gentleman, who, under 
the pretence of wanting to make a 
purchase of some of them, applied 
to the merchants who had them for 
sale. 

M TheTair Circassians, of whom 
three were offered for sale, were 
brought from their own chamber 
into mine, one after another, by 
the Armenian merchant who had to 
dispose of them. The first was 
very well dressed, and had her face 
covered with a veil : she kissed my 
hand, by order of her master, and 
then walked backward and forward 
in the room to shew me her fine 
shape, her small foot, and her ele- 
gant carriage. She next lifted up 
her veil, and absolutely surprised 
me by her extreme beauty : her 
hair was fair, with fine large blue 
eyes ; her nose a little aquiline, 
with fine pouting red lips. Her 
features Avere regular, her complex- 
ion fair and delicate, and her checks 
covered with a fine natural vermi- 
lion, of which she took care to con- 
vince me by rubbing them hard 
with a cloth : her bosom and teeth, 
the finest in the world, set off the 
other charms of this beautiful slave, 
for whom the Armenian asked j£S00. 
He permitted me to feel her pulse, 
to convince myself that she was in 
perfect health. She was then or- 
dered away, the Armenian assur- 
ing me that she was a pure virgin, 
eighteen years of age. The two 
others he had for sale were older 
and less handsome : for them he 
asked .£600 for the two, and ap- 
peared much astonished that I de- 
clined to purchase fcucb rare and 



>!!• I oil H A 1. A<r«>t\r (\Y Till' 'IlIMIA 






precioui articles."— -The imlifie- 

rciici' wiih which the inhabitanti 

of ('alia VlCW this traffic, ma \ W 

some measure be accounted for from 
habit, :iih1 also (Ik* knowledge of 
(he affluence and ease in which Ibej 
arc deatined t<> live i<»r the rest of 
their Uvea, in ;• atetc by ao meani 
degrading in Mahometan countries, 
where their prophet hai permitted 
the seraglio. As ("or the objects oi 
(his traffic, they consider themseh ei 
fortunate indeed, to have escaped 
the harems of the proud ami barba- 



poor and miserable in the extreme -, 

hare walls, mo furniture ol any kind, 

if we except ■ bent h, i mat, or Tur- 
key carpet, and i Pen disht at 
eommon earthen a ire. Even the 
rich put up wiih very miserable nc* 
couunodations, and live \<-r\ much 
in the oriental stj !<• i ■ ome fi a . 
however, endeavour to follow the 
European modei , snd all mil 
evidently abandoning their old i u>- 

toms, and adopting lli" -• "t their 

new conquerors. 

The environs of CafFa possess na- 



rous lords of their own country, to ! fnral beauties and romantic scenes, 
become the companions of those which, to an Englishman, power* 

who prize them as earthly nouns, fully recal his native country to his 

convinced that their success willi recollection. i*ou here find rocks, 

the houris of paradise depends ruins, mountains, cascades, woods, 

upon their behaviour to the sister" (lumps, rills, rivers, torrents, llow- 

hood on earth; w ho. in case oi ill [ering shrubs, slopes, hills, dales, 
usage, will heir testimony againsl sea, fruit tree-, (lowers, the i 
(hem. In this trade, therefore, beautiful verdure; in short, every 
there does not appear to be much beauty and ever) arrangement ol 
of violence towards its victims: nature on a grand scale, which our 
perhaps quite the contrary, as nei- ; , rich individuals have endeavoured 
thcr their education nor their reli- to imitate in their pleasure»srrou 
gion lias taught them to expect an , on a small one. The fields exhibit 
exemption from what has always even tint of the carpets of Persia 
been (lie common lot of their sex and in a greater variety than tluir 
in their native country. Indeed this looms ever produced, whether \\e 



kind of traffic appears to ha\e ex- 
tended formerly over the whole 
earth, our own country not except- 
ed : for so late as in the year I0J5, 
an express law was made in Eng- 
land to prevent parents selling their 
own children, with which thej used 
to furnish the French market. 



consider the richness of the ground, 
or the variety of fine flowers with 
which i lie hand of nature has em* 
broidered it. Here may be fo 
also, growing wild in tin 
the wild and uncultivated vine, 
running up the highest trees, : 
bending down again, laden with its 



In (his city, every thing that C ID ripe and delicious fruit, forming 

render a residence delightful to a most enchanting bowers; to wl 

Granger is combined ; that is, so also the flowering viorna, or tra- 

tar as depends upon the climate and seller's joy, not a little contribute.; 



the productions of the earth : but 
as to accommodation, and what we 
English call " comforts," they are 



the caper tree also lends iis aid. 
With these arc mixed the walnut 
tree, aud all sorts of fruit trees : 



Utterly unknown. The houses are \ the piclarssia, the bladder senna. 



<23$ 



BRITISH SPOUTS. 



the manna free, the shumack, the 
date, the plumb, the roek rose, ai c! 
the scorpion senna, which blow, 
twice a year. Tlie oriental straw- 
berry tree renders itself conspicu- 
ous by its large trunk, red bark, and 
green leaves, springing out and flou- 
rishing on the most barren rocks. 
To this list many others might 
with ease be added. The woods 
give the spectator more the idea ot 
orchards and pleasure-grounds, ra- 
ther more neglected indeed than 
what we usually call by that name : 
nor can I but be persuaded, that 
they were ori<rinallv the orchards 



of the ancient inhabitants, run wild 
for want of cultivation, and now 

; flourishing with nil the vigour of un- 
restrained luxuriance. Here, where 

i winter is scarcely felt, the flowers 
blow all the year round, and con- 
tribute to render this peninsula one 
of the most delightful spots perhaps 
in the world. I shall now take my 
leave of Caft'a, and proceed along 
Mie south-western coast towards Se- 
vastopol, but must defer giving you 
a description of this part of the 
Crimea till my next letter. 

J. H. M„ 



Plate 18.— BRITISH SPORTS. 

(Continued from page 157. ) 



The race of dogs known by the 
denomination of spaniels, consists 
of two varieties, one of which is 
considerably larger than the other, 
and is called the springing spaniel, 
as being applicable to every kind of 
game in any country : the smaller 
goes by the name of the cocker, or 
cocking spaniel, and is more adapt- 
ed to covert or woodcock shooting. 

The true English-bred springing 
spaniel differs but little in figure 
from the setter, described in our 
last number, except in size, vary- 
ing only in a small degree, if any, 
from a red to a yellow, or liver- 
colour and white, which seems to 
be the invariable external standard 
of this breed. They are considera- 
bly less than the setter, delicately 
formed ; ears long, soft, and plia- 
ble ; coat, waving and silky ; eyes 
and nose red or black ; the tail 
somewhat bushy and pendulous, 
and always in motion when the ani- 
mal is actively employed. 



From this description the cocker 
differs, in having a shorter, more 
compact form ; a rounder head, 
shorter nose, long ears, and the lon- 
ger the more admired ; limbs short 
and strong ; the coat more inclined 
to curl than the springer ; colour, 
liver and white, red, red and white, 
black and white, all liver-colour, 
and not unfrequently black, with 
tanned legs and muzzles. From the 
great similarity between some of 
these cockers and the small water- 
dog, both in figure and disposition, 
there is little doubt that they may 
have been originally produced by 
a cross between the springing-spa- 
niel and the latter. Some of the 
largest and strongest of this descrip- 
tion are very common in most parts 
of Sussex, and are called Sussex 
spaniels. The smallest spaniels pass- 
ing under the denomination of 
cockers, is the peculiar breed in 
the possession of the Duke of Marl- 
borough and his friends, which are 



rutin*-!/ fioius. 






hwarinbly red and white, with very 
long ears, short nose, .Hid black 

Cyi's : fin \ arc im l( 1,1 1 ignblc, and 
arc held in high estimation. 

TIh* (wo different kinds of spa- 
niels which we have described, 
though they vary in si/.e, diffei but 
little in their qualifications, except 
that 'In- former is inferior to the 
lattei in rapidity of action, and docs 

ftot seem lo catch the scent so sud- 
denly, or to enjoy il with the same 
Enthusiasm when found. Spaniels 

of both descriptions arc used as 

finders in coursing with greyhounds, 
and are indefatigable in their exer- 
tions to find and pursue a hare, as 
Ihey arc in pursuit of winged game 

•with the gun. From the time they 

(re thrown off in a field, they de- 
note the pleasure which they feel in 
being employed, by the perpetual 

motion of the tail, termed feather- 
ing, by the increasing velocity of 
which the experienced spoilsman 
well knows when he is approaching 
his game. The nearer the spaniel 

comes to the object, the more ener- 
getic are his endeavours lo suc- 
ceed ; tremulous whimpers, denot- 
ing doubt, escape him ; bu( the 
moment that doubt is dispelled, 
and the game found, his clamours 
signify the gratification he receives. 
As noisy as is the spaniel in ex- 
pressing hi> satisfaction on finding, 
or even Coming upon the scent, foot, 

or haunt of game : so persevering 
is he also, till he has brought it to 
view. 

Though spaniels may be occa- 
sionally engaged in other sports, 
they are in general considered much 
fitter for shooting in covert, than 
for those pursuits in which the 
pointer and setter are more pro- 
perly engaged. Pheasant and cock- 
Ac IV. Vol, I. 



i hooting are, then tore, tin- < port 

to which the i paniel is more parti- 
cularly appropriate. 

I'Ih' crosses <»i this i < e of dogi 
are so infinitely varied, that but 
\< i.\ fen <>f the pure and unmixed 

breed are now lo b<- obtained. Ill 

their dome ii« >< i ricefe they an- un- 
matched ; in their attachment, un- 
changeable ; in their attentions and 
assiduities, unwearied : and in the 
office of nocturnal protei i<. ( > ,,i |„. r . 
s .n and property, their fidelity is 
above corruption, or even suspi- 
cion. Of their sagacity, faithful- 
ness, gratitude, and the wonderful 
extent of their retentive faculties 
innumerable instances might be ad- 
duced. 

The docility of the spaniel is 
Mich, that he may be taught to 

practise, with considerable dexte- 
rity, a variety of actions, in imi- 
lation of man ; such as to open a 
door fastened by a latch, or to ring 
•i bell when desirous of admission. 
We are informed by 1'aber, that a 
dog of this kind, belonging to one 
Of the Medici family, always at- 
tended at his master's table* took 
the plates from him, and brou 
him others. The same animal would 
also hold (he stirrup between his 
teeth while his master was mount- 
in- his horse. Mr. Daniel, in his 
Rural Sport s y mentions his having 
formerly possessed a spaniel, which 
tve to the Hfon. Mr. GrevUle, 
and which, besides the common 
tricks perform, J by dogs trained to 
fetch and carry, would brii^r the 
bottles of wine from the corner uf 
the room to the table, by the neck, 
with such care as never to break 
one ; and was, in fact, the boot* of 
the mess-room. The dancing dogs 
which were originally exhibited al 
Ii 



240 



BRITISH SPORTS. 



Sadler's Wells, and afterwards in 

various pails of (he kingdom, were 
most curiously instructed ; for, after 
storming a fort amidst the firing of 
guns, and the suffocating smoke of 
gunpowder, they introduced a de- 
serter, -who was shot for the offence, 
and carried oft' as dead by his com- 
panions : another feigned extreme 
lameness, and shewed symptoms of 
extreme pain ; but alter a variety 
of well-affected distortions, lie gra- 
dually recovered, and sported about 
among his companions with every 
demonstration of joy. 

From among the numerous in- 
stances recorded of the sagacity 
and intelligence of the spaniel, we 
shall select the following : — In Oc- 
tober 1800, a young man going into 
a place of public entertainment al 
Paris, was told that his dog could 
not be admitted, and was accord- 
ingly left with the guard at the 
door. The young man had scarcely 
entered the lobln r , when his watch 
was stolen : he returned to the 
guard, and begged that his do<z 
might be permitted to follow him, 
as he should, through his means, be 
enabled to discover the thief. His 
request was complied with ; on 
which he intimated to the dog what 
he had lost. The animal immedi- 
ately set out in quest of the stray- 
ed article, and soon fastened on 
the thief, whose guilt, on being 
searched, was but too apparent. 
The fellow proved to be an old of- 
fender : six watches were found in 
his pockets, which being laid be- 
fore the dog, he selected his mas- 
ter's, took it in his mouth by the 



ribbon, and carried it in safety to 
the owner. 

In a communication to the Royal 
Academy of France, Leibnitz, the 

celebrated German philosopher, af- 
firms, that he had heard a dog call 
in an intelligible manner for tea, 
coffee, chocolate, and other arti- 
cles. The French academicians 
admit, that unless the circumstance 
had been attested by a man of such 
high character as Leibnitz, they 
should scarcely have dared to re- 
cord it. The dog was rather above 
the middle size, bore the appear- 
ance of a cross-bred large spaniel, 
and was the property of a Saxon 
peasant ; whose son, a little boy, 
imagined that he perceived, in the 
voice of the dog, an indistinct re- 
semblance to certain words, and 
therefore absolutely undertook the 
(ask of teaching him to speak. He 
spared neither time nor pains with 
his pupil, who was about three 
years old when this course of edu- 
cation commenced, and who, at 
length, made such progress as to 
be able to articulate thirty words. 
It appeared, however, that the 
scholar was something of a truant, 
and did not very willingly exert 
his talents ; it was necessary that 
the words should be repeatedly pro- 
nounced to him during the lessons, 
on which he echoed them after his 
preceptor. Such is the account 
given by Leibnitz of this wonder- 
ful dog, which was brought forth 
near Zeitz, in Saxony. We doubt. 
whether any parallel instance is to 
be found upon record. 

(To be continued.) 



211 



RETROSPECT OF POLITK S. 



The retreat of the British armj 
from S|);iin was followed bythedis- 
astrous consequences which mighl 
ii;iiiir;ill \ be expected from i(. The 
people of the (own <»i Corunnn (not* 
withstanding the departure of our 
troops) defended themselves for se- 
veral days, and <li<l not but render 
without having received an honour- 
able capitulation. After the sur- 
render of Corunnn, there remained 
in Gallicia one town of considerable 
strength and importance, \\lii< h was 
capable of being defended ,but w hich 

was hcl ra\ ed and sold to the menu . 

Ferrol was in e\ ery point of \ mw 
the most important military position 

in Gallicia, and might have opposed 

a long resistance to the utmost ef- 
forts of Soult's array, if it had had 

for ils comma. idant a PalafoXy Of 

any man n\ill\ attached to the in- 
dependence of Spain, ami deter- 
mined to do his duty to his country. 
Tim people there, as at Madrid. 

were desirous to spill their blood in 
(lie defence of their country, but 
their honest and generous feelings 
were rendered unavailing by the 
treachery of their leaders. The 

French account of (lie capture of 

Ferrol states, thai 8000 armed men 
had been collected in the town 
from the neighbouring districts : but 

thai the ci\ il, military, and naval 
authorities, not only agreed to the 
surrender of the town, but had ac- 
tually in\ ited the French army to 
march against if. Ferrol was aeon- 
quest ot the utmost importance to 
Trance in a maritime point ot' view : 
its dockyards are among the best in 
Spain, and there was a considerable 
fleel of men ot' war in it? harbour. 



amounting to no less than s< ' 

of the line, among n I i< h were ' wo 

' of ] 12 "-nils, besidei I 
This capture completely I 
the loss of the squadron which the 
Spaniards had taken fromtheFrench 

in the h.n hour ol ( \idi/. Nothing 

could more decided I j prove the 
i rea< hery w hich ga i e I enrol up to 
France, than this squadron being 
allowed to remain in the harbour, 
when ii might have been used as the 
means of conveying the <i\il and 
military authorities, the pi in< ipal 

inhabitants, and all their effects, to 

( ladiz. It may be answered, that 
they were not in a condition to put 

to sea : hut then it must be recollect- 
ed, that there was a British Beet 

neai . to take care of ihem ai:d take 
them in tow . The principal men of 

Ferrol, however, chose to give up 
their town and fleet to France, and 
after this remarkable treachery to 

their Country and to their allies, ue 
must own we cannot entertain the 
same sent iments as we formerly did, 
of the spirit that exists in those ; 
of Spain w hich are not alread . 
cupied by French troops. 

From the conduct of the different 

classes of inhabitants at Madrid and 

Ferrol, very important considera- 
tions naturally arise. We see that 
the middling and lower orders were 
unanimous for making an honourable 
n sistance, and defendingtheir coun- 
try to the last : but their governors, 
Don Thomas Morla, and those who 
were at the head of the civil and mi- 
litary authorities, preferred ■ capi- 
tulation, which saved their proper- 
ty, and secured, under the new 
vernment, the emoluments attached 
I i2 



242 



retrospect of politics. 



to (heir places. It has also appear- 
ed in (he course of (he campaigns 
in Spain, that (he large (owns were 
the principal depositories of the na- 
tional strength and the national spi- 
rit, and that whoever was master of 
the towns was soon master of the 
Country. Many of the towns in 
Spain, such asSaragossa, Valencia, 
Gerona, and Rosas, were defended 
with great obstinacy, and occasion- 
ed a great loss to the enemy. The 
peasantry, however, of the open 
country, opposed no such resistance; 
not only the French armies, but the 
smallest detachments from their ar- 
mies, traversed the champaign coun- 
try (according- to a strong- expres- 
sion used in Parliament), as if they 
had been passing- through an unre- 
sisting medium. The reason of this 
is not difficult (o discover. The fate 
of battles, and the fortune of em- 
pires, do not depend upon the phy- 
sical force which is scattered over 
an extended surface, but upon (he 
quantity of force which can be 
brought to act upon certain given 
points. It is upon this principle 
that Bonaparte appears to gain all 
his victories: he always comes down 
in full force to that point which he 
selects as the point of attack, while 
his enemies have constantly divided 
their armies in such a manner, that 
he has been able todes'roy them one 
after the other. At (he beginning 
of November, Spain had numerous 
armies in the field, and reckoned 
not only her own population, but 
the armies of England and Portugal 
as her armies of reserve; and yet 
-withinthe last four months, the Spa- 
nish armies have disappeared from 
the field, the greater part of (he 
towns of Spain have sworn allegi- 
ance (o their new king, Joseph, the 



British army has returned to Eng- 
land, and there does not appear the 
slightest chance for Spain, unless in 
the events of the approaching war 
between France and Austria. 

As soon as Bonaparte was assured 
(hat the British army had left (he 
peninsula, the war in Spain appear- 
ed (o him a secondary object, which 
did not require his presence, and 
which might be followed up by his 
generals ; he therefore immediately 
returned (o Paris, and his return 
was considered as the signal that he 
meditated war against Austria. That 
power had taken advantage of the 
withdrawing of part of his armies 
from Germany, to put its forces in 
the best condition, and to organize 
all its means of defence. It was im- 
possible (hat any statesman in the 
Austrian empire should not see, tha 
the ruin of that empire was abso- 
lutely determined on, and (hat its 
best chance was to make the best 
possible preparation for defence, in 
the only time when such prepara- 
tion could have been permitted. It 
is idle (o suppose, that (hose prepa- 
rations on the part of Austria were 
the cause of the war ; for there can 
be no doubt, that whether they 
had taken place or not, Austria 
would have been attacked as soon 
as Spain was finally subjugated. 
And here, when we are consider- 
ing the system which Bonaparte 
has uniformly pursued on the Con- 
tinent, we cannot but express the 
greatest surprise, that there should 
be in this country public men, who 
in other respects appear enlightened, 
but who still endeavour to persuade 
i his country, that peace can and 
ought to be made with Bonaparte. 
There can be no doubt, that as long 
as he would conceive that the sub- 



RETROSPECT OF PO! ITlCf. 



tl3 



jogation of the world to bit absolute 
power, would goon more rapidly bj 
■ peace n ith I." l ind, so long, but 
noi ;i moment longer, would he be 

inclined to keep thai pen e. In 

peat e Ins navy and Ilia meam ot at- 
tacking in would increase mu< h 
more rnpidlj than they cm do in 

war ; and in this state of non.inal 

1 1 ice \nc should have all tbeburthi ns 
of war without any ofits security, 01 
any of its chances. What will be 
the ultimate issue of the great con- 
test in n liich the woi II is now en- 
gaged, is only known to thl I 
mighty Disposer of events; hut lliis 
we know perfectly, that, in the opi- 
nion of all mankind, it has ever been 
held mean, base, and dishonourable 
tor a great nation to submit to the 
haughty dictates of a foreign sove- 
reign, before the fortune ot war has 

been tried to the utmost : and that 

even when war has poured all its ca- 
lamities upon a people or a town, 
which bravely contends for its in- 
dependent e, tiiii people or that 
tow ii is immortalized in thi 
history, and m the best feeliii 
all good men. to the latest period of 

time. Thousands of years have 
•-lapsed since A umanlia immortaliz- 
ed itself in its fall. Its name is still 

pronounced with reverence, and its 

ruins are shewn by the nei^hbourin, r 
peasants with pride. Arragon has 

now to boast a second Xumantia, 
and the towers of SaragOSSa will 

i be seen w ithout stirring up 
every generous and manly feeling. 

The tall ot' SaragOSSa has been 
by far the most important event 
which his incurred since the pub- 
lication of our last number. It was 
to SaragOSSa that every Spaniard 
looked, as the great bulwark of his 
country. It owed its strength, not 



to il . forti it to a immr. 

ions g irrison <>i r> ll II troi 

io the n itive coui igc of tin 
<< u u ho defended it. • 
do- dm i linn and animating ipiril 
"i ( rem id P d ifox, who may I e 
consul, red 11 the hero ami treat dc- 
fendei of the cause of Sp in. U b< n 
the insurrection first took pi u 

ill it COUntry, the province (.1 I 

gOfl was absolutely without 

troops ; and yd the inhabitants of 

the city, and the neighbouring 
s ants, soon acquired sufficient •! 
pline to beat oil many large armies 
of the enemy tfa .1 attacked that citv. 

\\ hen we consider the many <! 
rate attacks which were made ly 

General Lefebvre with armiea per- 
petually reinforced, and that tl. ..- 
attacks were always repulsed with 
immense slaughter, we cannot but 
believe that Sa 1 has cost 

French more trouble and mOfl 
than all the rest of Bp tin. 1 
hopes of the war appeared so much 
io (enter in Palafbx and hisdefl 
of Baragossa, that at present the 
prospect ot' v|| ( . . s^ j s 1 in f gloomy ; 
and the objei I "t the hopes am! 
cul iiions of this oountrjr, are 1: 
much, whether it is possible that 
Spain can still recover from 
blow, that she has I 
(her the licet at Cadiz will be 
trayet! and sold to the enemy as that 
at lii rol was. 

The following is the account 
which has been given in the lr 
; ip rs, from time to tim< • 
circumstance s which led to the fall 

\\ hen l> MM] 

had entered Spain, and had beaten 
the Spanish armies out of the field, 
he preferred marching dit 
Madrid, and postponing the at 
on Sara" -'.-\i until he > 



244 



Itr.TROSPECT OF POLITICS. 



the capital, and until the British 
army was driven out of Spain: he 
knew well the obstinate and despe- 
rate resistance which he would meet 
at Saragossa, and therefore thought 
it better to wait for a short time, 
until the events of the war should 
convince the Arragonese that there 
was no chance of success, and that 
resistance would befruitless. When 
the surrender of Madrid was an- 
nounced to Palafox, and he was 
summoned to surrender, he replied, 
" that if Madrid had surrendered, 
it must have been sold, but that was 
no reason for his surrendering." — 
The French bulletin slates (and in 
this the Spanish accounts agree) 
that General Palafox had assem- 
bled 50,000 armed men at Sara- 
gossa : to this force the French op- 
posed about an equal number of re- 
gular troops, an immense train of 
heavy artillery, well managed, and 
all the other advantages which the 
art of war and the whole military 
means of a great empire, directed 
against one point, gives a regular 
army well provided, over the mere 
population of a city or a district, 
be they ever so valiant. The re- 
sistance, however, was more obsti- 
nate and more glorious to the brave 
garrison, than is recorded in the 
page of history of any town in si- 
milar circumstances, since the in- 
vention of gunpowder and the mo- 
dern art of war. On the 26th of 
January, the numerous batteries of 
heavy artillery which had been 
playing for many days on the walls 
of Saragossa (which were by no 
means strong), made several prac- 
ticable breaches, and the town was 
entered. Here, however, a new 
scene of warfare presented itself : 
t he Spaniards defended ever?/ liousc. 



The French emperor being perfectly 
aware, from past experience, what 
sort of a defence was to he expect- 
ed, had collected a number of mi- 
ners, who, by blowing U p different 
houses at different times, allowed 
the French troops to make some 
progress, and get possession of some 
houses and monasteries. The Spa- 
niards endeavoured to oppose them 
by counter-mines ; but in this they 
were unsuccessful, as being novices 
at that kind of warfare, and opposed 
to the most expert miners and en- 
gineers of the armies of France. 

It docs not appear, by fhe account 
given in the 33d bulletin of the 
French army, that they would have 
been able to overcome the re- 
sistance of the inhabitants of Sara- 
gossa, if it had not been for the 
expert ness of their miners. The 
French calculate the loss of the in- 
surgents (as they call them) in the 
last sie» - e, to be 20,000, besides 
13,000 wounded and sick in the hos- 
pitals. Upon this occasion they do 
not make the least mention of their 
own loss, which must be supposed 
to have been at least as great, when 
it is considered that they actually 
entered the town of Saragossa on 
the 27th of January ; and that, 
from that day to the 2 1st of Febru- 
ary, there was an incessant battle, 
in which they only gained ground 
house by house, and inch by inch. 
This is the circumstance which leads 
us to think, that, since the fall of 
\nin<ntlia, or at least since the in- 
vention of gunpowder and the mo- 
dern modes of destruction, no city 
ever made so gallant a resistance as 
Saragossa. If Madrid had been de- 
fended with the same spirit, Spain 
would, in all human probability) 
have been saved. Saragossa will, 



M f l)K \ I. It I If) It I . 






l<> the lat< i pel iod "I lime, be t be 
pride <>f Spain ; and ihc bare men* 
lion of its name w ill for evei til 
up, in the breast of every h uc Spa* 
niard, the sentiment of genuine pa* 
(riot ism. 

Since our hisi number, a peace 
has been concluded between ' 
land and Turkej . IT thisei ent had 
taken place before the calamities 
which hare befallen Spain, it would 
have given rise to the most sanguine 
hopes for the success of the common 
cause. The wounds which Spain 
has received appear so deadly, thai 
we can scared} suppose that the 
force of Turkey can weigh much 
in the scale against the fortunes, 
ni ii v, and power of Bonaparte. — 
There was n time when it would 
have caused universal pleasure in 
this count r j , to hear that A 
was making serious preparations for 
war w ith Fram e ; l>ut now . instead 



of hope <>i pl< ure, I lie n ■• •■ . ap- 
peal to produce no othei el 
i id' la ti li< ■' . forcbo ling, thai 
stria i on t lie bi ink ofi uin, and that 
the ancient throne of the < 
about to di >nppcar from the earth. 
It often I that when t!i 

litii d horizon i- quite cloud . 
unexpe< t « * I events take pla< e,whu b, 
like the sun bursting through (he 

Is, checi <»i anin 
Bpects. We he ir that i ' pre- 

paring with the small army which 
is lilt Imt, to take the pari of 
\ ustria, and (hat the attachment of 
lu;vsi.i to I r nice is much weaken- 
ed. It is -till possible (hat a union 
might be formed which would ^till 
a balam . but «c 

in the 
• will be broken & 
re any other power can con 
nice. 



MEDIt 

An account of the diseases which 
have occurred in the reporter*s own 
practice, from the I5th of February 
to the l.")th of March, 1809. 

/. uif disea&t s. — Inflammatory 
sore throat, % — Catarrhal fever, 

5 Scarlet fever and sore throat. 

9 Continued fever, u Wute 

rheumatism, G Puerperal fever. 

i? Hooping cough, 3 leute 

diseases of infants, 7. 

Chronic diseases. — Cough and 

Dyspnoea, 40 — Pulmonary con- 
sumption, 5 — Scrofula, 2 Pleu- 

rodyne, 2 — Chronic rheumatism, 

4 — Lumbago and sciatica, 3 

Chronic pains of the stomach and 



bowels, 9....Diarrhsea, 



.Con- 



stipation, 3. ...Bilious vomiting, 2 
....Spitting of blood, ?....Dyspep- 



REPORT. 

sia, J l)i> ... Water in 

ad, ! — < epb ila a, 5 I - j > i - 

lepsy, 1 Istbenia, II Rheu- 
matic gout, I — \\ Onus, 1 M.i- 

rasmus, I — Abortus and Menor- 
rhagia, \ — Vmenorrho' i. 6 I,eu- 

corrh aneousdu 

Pulmonary complaints continue 
to be prettj general. Rheumatic 
affections, also, from the severe, 
acute form of tl to the 

milder species, affecting only a 
joint or a muscle, hai e ; 
quent. The case of water in the 
head occurred in an infant only 
t three weeks old : the complaint did 
not appear to originate from 
accidental or adventitious i 
but was probably thee 
originally imperfect organiiat 



248 



AGRIfTLTURAL RITORT. 



The favourable slate of the wea- 
ther, and the time lor depositing the 
seed in the earth, lias produced 

great activity in all the various sea- 
sonable occupations of agriculture. 

The bean lands (from the heavy 
rains in the last month) do not fall 
away from the plough so kindly as 
could be wished ; but the dry wea- 
ther has much improved the bar- 
ley lands, particularly those of the 
summer fallows. The land after 
turnips will be rather rough on te- 
nacious soils. 

The wheats are much improved 
by the dry weather ; the early sown 
look extremely well. Rye and tares 
are very forward, and promise an 
early and luxuriant crop for soiling. 
We flatter ourselves that our agri- 
cultural readers will derive some in- 
teresting information on this sub- 
ject, from the second letter of the 
Economist, on the preservation of 
agricultural produce, inserted in our 
present number. 

The young clovers, and the re- 
maining Swedish turnips, consider- 



March, was well attended : the ent- 
ile were in a high state of fatness, 
and did credit to the candidates. 
His lordship's Merino sheep sold at 
high prices. 

The implements and machines 
were very numerous, and some of 
them highly interesting, particu- 
larly a set of machines invented by 
Mr. Lester, engineer, of Padding- 
ton (ireen, for an entirely new mode 
of separating corn and seeds, of 
every description, from straw and 
chaff. The completion of machi- 
nery for this purpose is certainly 
one of the most important discove- 
ries that have yet been made for the 
benefit of mankind. The waste that 
occurs from the various ineffectual 
modes of separation at present used 
in the different corn countries in the 
world, would furnish food in abun- 
dance to all its hungry inhabitants. 

Mr. Lester has spent more time 
and money in pursuit of this ob- 
ject, than perhaps any other indi- 
vidual ; and we are happy to in- 
form our readers, that, from the spe- 



imz; the severity of the winter, look II cimens we saw exhibited, he has 



well. The introduction of the 
Swedes is one of the greatest im- 
provements of modern agriculture ; 
it provides food so effectually for 
that interval betwixt hay and grass, 
that was so distressing in this cli- 
mate after severe w inters. Its su- 
perior nutritive quality, in com- 
parison of the common turnip, is 
obvious to every farmer ; and its 
weight is equal, if the pure seed be 
sown. A gentleman of Worcester 
has, this year, grown thirty-two 
tons per acre. 

Lord Sotnerv die's Spring Cattle 
Shew, held at Mr. Sadler's reposi- 
tory, Cos well-street, on the 7th of 



most fully accomplished the desired 
purpose, and will undoubtedly re- 
ceive the reward due to such per- 
severing and meritorious exertion. 

Some excellent specimens of cloth, 
of various descriptions, made from 
Merino wool grown in this country, 
were exhibited by Mr. Joyce. 

The company retired to Free- 
Masons' Tavern, where Lord So- 
merville treated upwards of 400 of 
the amateurs in agriculture with an 
excellent dinner. Nothing could 
excel the flavour of the Anglo- 
Merino mutton, bred and fed by 
his lordship. 






LITERARY NOTH ES \\l) INTELLIGENT E. 



Mn. .). M. I, a. * \ b m i rotameoi 

1*01111* in (lie |>r< t , which will be 

published as early 111 April §J DOS- 
Bible. It i^ lo ( onsist of tin- F.mn- 
House, a tale ; \n ith areata \ . pas- 
toral, elegiac, ami miscellaneous 

pieces. 

Mr. Park's edition of Warton'i 
7/ istoi v "/ English Poetry is in a 
lUte of ir r i . 1 1 forwardness. The 
editors plan is not only to rei ise 

l)dlli text and notes, and tree the 

r i • i u ts from the charge of inaccu- 
racy to which they have hitherto 
been subjected, hut also to supply 
n continuation in furtherance of M r. 
Walton's plan. The rery copious 
annotations on Walton's history by 
the late learned antiquary, the Re?. 
George Ashley, together with va- 
rious IIS. observations left by thai 
acute critic. Mr. Ritson, arc in the 
hands of the pn -"lit editor ; and so 
far as the purpose- of correction and 
illustration can be sci red, will he ap- 
pended to the notes of Mr. Watton. 

The Rev. Joseph Wilkinson i^ 
■bout to publish, by subscription, 
Sc/at \'u ws in Cumberland^ IV< -t- 
monland, and Pari of Scotland; 
exhibiting the most picturesque si- 
tuations in those countries, with 
letter-press descriptions. 

Mr. Murlitt, of Trinity Col- 
. Cambridge, i^ about to pub- 
lish an Essay mi tin Li fe and CM a- 
trncter of AgtsilamSy sou of Archi- 
damus. 

A member of the university of 
Oxford has announced an intended 
publication, entitled, 1 .indloj Mur- 
ray examined, or an Addrt - 
Classical French and English 
Teachers; in which the aaniina- 
tical errors in Murray's grammar 

No. IV. Vol. I. 



are pointed out ; shewing, at the 

same I iine, I lie n- i ! 

I i -h irramniar that will had lo the 

grammar of any other laniru 
without riotating the purity of the 
English. 
Proposals have been iaraed by 

Mr. John Lloyd, ol (efn-1 H . M - 

rionethshire,for publishing, by sub* 
script ion, in t\*o octavo volume*, 
The Records of North H con- 

s»stiiiL r of all the state papers relat* 
ini: to that part of the principality ; 
the coirespondence between the 
Welch princes and the English 
court ; grants lo the different bo- 

rough towns ; ancient letters plat- 

I the alfiirs of the principality, 

or respecting some conspicuous part 

of it : as its Castles, and the arti- 
( les of capitulation of CUftleS in the 
civil wan; grants of hind to any 
public bodiesj usousateiics, dtc. ; 

and, in short, every doeument that 
can throw li^ht on the history of 
former times, ;h lo North Wale?, 
or any public part of it : withtiou-, 

historical and explanatory. 

Mr. Renouard, of Trinity Col- 
. Cambridge, Will speedily pub- 
lish A Tr cut ise on Spherical Tri* 
, gone nu try. 

Twn volumes of Seniwn* y by the 
late Bishop Ilorsley, are intended 
to be published, by subscription, 
early in June. 

Mr. Enfield, author of the pro- 
nouncing dictionary of the English. 
language, has nearly ready for the 
press, the tirst volume of a new 
Encycio] r Circle 8 f A 

N U in r ; *t o( 

twenty-five volumes 12mo. each 
containing a complete treatise on 
some important branch of science. 

Kk 



248 



LITERARY NOTICES AND INTELLIGENCE. 



A new edition of the Works of 
the Poets, from Chaucer to Cow- 
per, including; the best translations 
of the classics, is in the press. Il 
will form twenty volumes, royal oc- 
tavo, printed in two columns, and 
will, in every respect, constitute 
one of the handsomest library books 
that has appeared for several years. 

Mr. George Rose has announced 
some observations on the historical 
fragment of Mr. Fox, and an ori- 
ginal narrative of the Duke of Ar- 
gyle's insurrection in 1685. 

Mr. Bewick, of Newcastle, so 
deservedly celebrated for his skill 
in engraving on wood, his for a 
considerable time been engaged on 
A System of Economical and Use- 
ful Botany, which will include 
about 450 plants, the most useful 
in the materia medica, in diet and 
manufactures. The text has been 
prepared by Dr. Thornton, and 
will contain a body of valuable 
information relative to the history 
and uses of the several plants. 
There will be two editions ; one on 
royal paper, of which only a small 
number will be printed ; and the 
other on demy : neither oft hem in- 
ferior in beauty to Mr. Bewick's 
former productions. 

A society of physcians in London 
has been, for some time past, en- 
gaged in collecting materials for a 
new work, to be entitled The An- 
nual Medical Register. They pro- 
pose to comprise, in one volume, a 
complete account of the medical 
literature of the preceding year, to- 
gether with an historical sketch of 
the discoveries and improvements 
in medicine and the collateral sci- 
ences ; a report of the general state 
of health and disease in the metro- 
poiisj and a brief detail of such mis- 



cellaneous occurrences within the 
same period as may be deemed wor- 
thy of record. 

Mr. Adam's new work on Epi- 
demics is nearly through the press. 
It is an address to the public, par- 
ticularly the legislative body, on 
the laws which govern those dis- 
eases, and on the late proposals for 
extirpating the small-pox. 



MUSICAL REVIEW. 

A Military Concerto for the Piano- 
Forte, ic it h Accompaniments, com- 
posed for 11 . R. II. the Prince 
of Wales, by T. Latour, price 
8s. 6d. 

In giving our opinion on the pre- 
sent work, we are well aware, that 
concertos arc not so much intended 
to exhibit the science of the com- 
poser, as the skill and agility of 
the performer ; and in this instance 
it is evident, that the principal aim 
of the author was that of giving to 
amateurs an opportunity of display- 
ing moderate abilities to the greatest 
advantage ; the composition is bril- 
liant, and yet the passages lie per- 
fectly under the hand. 

The three movements of this con- 
certo, consisting of a larghctto of a 
few bars, an allegro and rondo, are 
in C major. 

The larghctto, although short, is 
expressive and solemn, and the re- 
sponses introduced into the accom- 
paniments cannot fail to add to the 
effect of the whole. In the allegro 
the character of martial music is 
preserved throughout, although in 
tlie different ideas little of origina- 
lity is to be met with. We have 
been much pleased with some of 
Mr. L.'s mod illations and transitions, 
particularly page 9 and 10. The 
| subject, or rather the beginning of 



it 



ai 





D B . 



I ^ill" I oil r. ADI I . AM) (. I '. I I 1 



249 



the rondo, is neat ; l»nl 'I i 

abandoned , foi w bat app< 1 1 •" a - 
the principal ubji ci <»f thii bun - - 
Mini, \ i/. iln- < elebrated air, \">/ 
pin mnli in I'm fallone amoroso i in 
Mozart's \ <> ■ dt 1 • of which 

several clevei \ it iationi are in< oi - 
porated n iili tin- rondo. \\ «• are far 
front objecting to the introduction oi 

inch a masterpiece of military c - 

position in Mr. L.'i military con- 
certo; Mozart himself has borrowed 
ii again in bii Don Juan: on the 
contrarj , the selection docs credit 
to Mr. li.'s judgment. The whole 
of the concerto appears to us rather 
longer than what we know from ex- 
perience to be a quantum tujjicit 



i i the usual i''i|i A ,i public 

nidi' i ; which 

cause o sensation ol • n< 

ihei cfore bf \ e been omitted ot cur- 
tailed, without endangering the tex* 
furr of the whold 

We trust the mi it i \ (••> ,,| thy ,. hi- 

did statement of our opinion will 
not be misconceived bj the authoc 

of the military CODCeftO, wlm li ifl 

many rcsp cts merits our commen- 
dation as ■ brilliant performance, 
well adapted for theamusement and 
improvement of musi< .il students ; 
.it the same time, that ii entitl 
to hope for further efforts of hi > 
promising pen. 



Fashions FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 



PLATE 15. — PULL onut. 

\V ii ii i s.iiin dress, w ith purple 
hotly, and long sleeves slashed at 
the top ; bows of purple ribbon 
down the front. Mantle of purple, 
lined with white silk, bordered a ith 
gold, and edged with swansdown. 
Gold net cap with white feathers. 

White shoes, gloves, and tan. 

Necklace, ear-rings, and other or- 
naments, of gold. 

PLATE 1(3. — WALKING DEE8S. 

A tunic of lilac silk, clasped 
down t Ins front with gold orna- 
ments; a cloak of the same coloui 
attached, so as to unite closely be- 
hind, but to fall loose over the 
shoulders ; fixed on the shoulders 
with golden ornaments : the cloak 
is lined with white or straw-colour d 
silk, and ornamented with a border 
of gold. Bonnet and boots o( the 
same colour. Raised spotted mus- 
lin under-dress, with loosi 
bound at the arms and \\ rist, Gold 
necklace, and Voik tan iilo\ 



0B1TBBAL OBSB if \ ITIOBf, 

Red cloaks are at length com- 
pletely abandoned, and are congnr> 

dilate our lovely readers on theil 
emancipation from the mostdespotuj 
dn - that evi rwas introduced by the 
whimsical and arbitrary irodd. 
fashion. The writer of this article 
[Midi' ted, on their first appearance, 

at a colour s.i dis:nl n .i;;r ;:;eous to 
beauty, could never become preva- 
lent. " Let them," said he, " en- 
wi ip themselves with an imn 
blaze of red, it will come to nothing 
at last." .\nd so it ha • turned out : 
our promenades presented uswitb. 
an assemblage ofpalli I and ghastly 
spectn-s, who, though u forbidden 
to fell (L ts of their prison- 

house,'' cat; ,t with them 

the risible signs of torture, and ap- 
peared ht( d in flame. 

Pea-green is a peneraHj 

introduced in s:,rir_r. for what rea- 
son we know not. except it be in- 
tended to luu:iiK>uizc wnU tu; 
K k 8 



250 



FASHIONS FOR LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. 



dure with which, at this season, all 
nature is beginning to be clothed, 
though some may doubt whether a 
notion of harmony ever entered the 
inventive brain of a fashionable 
dress-maker. However this may be, 
we must enter our decided protest 
against it ; and we entreat our fair 
readers not to adopt a colour so di- 
rectly in opposition to good taste, 
and in which no face or form, be it 
majestic as Juno, or beautiful as 
Hebe, can ever appear with advan- 
tage and effect. Lilac, purple, all 
the varieties of blue, with the still 
greater varieties of grey, are open 
to their choice. If green must be 
selected, let it be the deep and rich 
hue of the Spanish fly, rather than 
that worst and vilest of all colours, 
pea-green. 

Mr. Adair's treaty with Vac Su- 
blime Porte will doubtless introduce 
amongst our spring fashions a pro- 
fusion of Turkish turbans, Janizary 
jackets, mosque slippers, and a thou- 
sand similar whimsicalities; all of 
which (provided a northern coali- 
tion be accomplished) must speed- 
ily give way to Russian cloaks, hus- 
sar caps, Cossack mantles, Danish 
robes, &c. &c. so that by the setting 
in of the dog-days, our ladies will 
stand a chance of being arrayed in 
the complete costume of all the shi- 
vering nations of the north. Such 
is the capricious system introduced 
and acted upon in the empire of the 
despotic goddess of fashion ! When 
shall the dress of the British fair be 
established upon the simple and 
unerring principles of nature ? and 



when shall those principles be adopt- 
ed as the barometer of good taste ? 
We have not the vanity to promise 
ourselves the complete accomplish- 
ment of these objects, but to that end 
all our endeavours shall be directed. 
Nothing shall appear in our page* 
but what is strictly compatible with 
good taste, so that while we disco- 
ver and expose errors, we will not 
be wanting in our endeavours to 
point out the remedy. 



FASHIONS FOR GENTLEMEN. 

The prevailing colours for both 
dress and morning coats, are dark 
blue, olive, and bottle green, with 
silver and gilt basket buttons ; long 
waist and short skirt : but upon the 
whole, the fashionable coat is very 
short, and must not come lower 
than within four inches of the knee. 
The lappels are rather long, and 
come even with the hip buttons. 
The collar is made high, thinly- 
padded, and to fall backtwo inches. 
The dress coat has round cuffs 
without buttons, with pockets un- 
der flaps : the morning coat, sleeves 
with slits, and three large buttons. 
The sleeves are worn very long. 

The waistcoat is single-breasted ; 
flaps, with small regimental skirts ; 
the collar within that of the coat : 
it is made of striped marcella, of 
various shades, but buff colours are 
the most fashionable. Breeches, of 
a light drab colour, made rather 
long and tight. For pantaloons, the 
stuffs generally worn are double- 
milled stocking and Prince of 
Wales's striped kerseymere. 



251 



I'..Air. 17, TEMPLE OP THE Ml SE8, I ,N8B1 Rl -SQI \l:i 



Tun magnificent structure is si- 
tuated <ii iIm 8. w . corner of Fins- 
bury-square, and \\ ;t^ fitted up tor 
the reception oi books in the year 
J7fM. The dimensions of its front 
in <■ I lo leei in li ngth, ;ii)d the depth 
4o feett The internal arrangement 
of the building is perfectly novel, 
containing on the bate a ware-room, 
die capaciousness of \\ hicti ma} be 
read ill conceived from die < ircum- 
itanceofthe Weymouth mail, with 
four horses, ha\ Lng actually been 
driven round i( al the time of its 
first opening. This room, which 
is 15 feet in height, is supported by 

pillars of iron. On one sidl 

distinct offices f<»r counting-house 

business, wholesale COUnt rj trade, 

and a department for binding, ter- 
minating with two spacious and 
cheerful apartments looking towards 
rinsbury-square, which are ele- 
gantly fitted ap with glass i 
inclosing books in superb bindings, 
as well as others of ancient printing, 

but of great variety and value. — 
These lounging rooms, as they are 
termed, are intended merely for the 

accommodation of ladies and gen- 

tlemen. to whom the bustle of the 
ware-room may be an interruption. 
Solicitations have been strongly and 
frequently made to confine these 
rooms io the purposes of a sub- 
scription library, a plan which 
would no doubt be highly lucra- 
tive to the proprietors ; but the dis- 
appointment it must necessarily oc- 
casion to s very large portion of the 
public, has determined them to 
continue the establishment precisely 
on that free plan on which it was at 
first formed. In the center of the ' 
ware-room is a dome terminating 



by a raised cupola, thro* 

into the gallerii - beneath, four in 

number, whic h are filled U ith ' 
DOtfa within and without, the I 

being classed according to Lheii I i- 

rious subjects, and alphabetic ally 

a i ranged. 

It is computed that not less than 

a million of volumes are displ I 
to view in this immense bui Id 
and w hen it is observed w ith w hat fa- 
cility the demands of each enquirer 
are satisfied, it is matter of astonish* 
menf that so large a collection i in 
be so simplified and regulated. — 
The book elling business fa ■ 
carried on in its most extended and 
varied branches. \ ]/. the pun base 

and publication of m urn icrij 
the purchase of libraries — and the 

sale of all Kinds of new arid old 
books, both wholes de and retail — ■ 
printing, bookbinding, &c. — The 
number of persons employed on this 
lishment as clerks, printers, and 
binders, always exceed an hundred ; 

and in times of a free continental 

:n neai i\ d >uble, 
the slock having been formed on an 

ted SC de. with a view to the 
supply of the American and other 
foreign markets. 

The vast quantity of books cir- 
culated by means of this emporium, 
and the dissemination of literature 
promoted thereby, may be judged 
fromthe cirenmstanceof no 1> m i 
quantity than six thousand CO] 
of the Spectator, and the like num- 
ber of the works of ° iksj eat ad 
ot Sterne, forming in the whole 

150,000 Volumes, hai in_r been print- 
ed by this bouse in one uniform im- 
>n, and a dually rid within 
. it the ave- 



252 



MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS AND ANECDOTES. 



rage low price to the public of lit- 
tle more thao one shilling per vo- 
lume, independent of a variety of 

oilier editions of (he same works. 

it may be in the recollection of 
many of our readers, that this 
establishment owes its origin to its 
former proprietor, Mr. James Lack- 
ing-ton, a man of singular character, 
who, without (he aid of a regular 
education, by the mere force of na- 
tural talents, strict principles of 
honour, and indefatigable industry, 
raised himself from a station of 
obscurity to that of independence. 
He retired some years since, leav- 
ing the business to his relative and 
assistants, who had for many years 
materially assisted in bringing it to 
its present state of perfection, and 
who are too well assured of the va- 
lue of his precepts to depart from a 
system which has raised them to so 
enviable a distinction. 

The circumstances attending the 
origin and progressive increase of 
this establishment, have been de- 
tailed by Mr. James Lackington, 
with no less interest than fidelity, in 
the Memoirs of his own Life, a 
work which has passed through 
many editions, and which certainly 
contains much interesting inform- 
ation on literary subjects, com- 
bined with a full account of the 
author's singularly fortunate career. 



The annual sale of books at this 
repository almost exceeds calcula- 
tion: which indeed cannot at all be 
wondered at, when the infinite va- 
riety of the collection is considered, 
combining, as it does, books in 
every language and department of 
literature and of science, both new 
and second-hand, from the unique 
article of costly value to the lowest 
priced school-book. Hither all 
classes of persons resort to make 
their purchases — the merchant for 
his exports — the learned for the 
object of their several studies — the 
collector of rare books to obtain ar- 
ticles which cannot elsewhere be 
found — the country trader with his 
wholesale orders — the schoolmaster 
for the half-yearly supply of his 
seminary — and the public at large 
for the casual purchase of whatever 
may arrest their attention, or inte- 
rest their curiosity. 

The annual publication and ex- 
tended circulation of catalogues, 
has tended to make the establish- 
ment known throughout the civi- 
lized world ; and the spaciousness 
of the premises invites (he observa- 
tion of all strangers and foreigners, 
who seldom fail to regard the Tem- 
ple of the Muses as one of those 
objects which grace and distinguish 
the British metropolis. 



■UMlULBlBWaUt 



the cows, Rachael the dairy-maid 

having scalded her hands in so bad 



MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

Extract from the Diary of the 
celebrated Elizabeth Woode- 
ville, before her marriage to 
Sir John (iuAV, of Groby ; 
preserved in MS. in Drum- 
mond Castle*. 
Monday morning — Rose at foui 



* Lady 



-, who favoured us with 



this extract, omitted the date ; but it must 

have been in the middle of the fifteenth 

century, and probably about the year 

o'clock, helped Catharine to milk |l I t50. The John Cray here mentioned 



HIIOELLAHBOUI PnAGMBNTf! I N i> INECDOTES. 



3 



I manner the night before. Wade 
; , poultice for Rachael, and 
Robin a penn) to el net something 
comfortable from the apothecai j . 

Six o'clock— The buttock of beef 
rather too much boiled] and the 
beer ;i Little of the stalest.— Mem. 
To talk i" the cook about the first 
fault, and (omend Ihc second m; 
by tapping a fresh l> trrcl directlj . 

Seven o'clock — Went to ^ > 1 1- 
a iili the lad) my mother into the 
eourt-yard \ fi 'I five-and-twentj 
i ien and women — chid Roger se- 
verely, for expressing some ill-will 
;ii attending us w iili broken meat. 

Eifht o'clock — Went ini<» the 
paddock behind the house, with 
my maid Dorothy; canght Thump 
the little policy m\ self, and ro le a 
matter of si\ miles without bridle 

and s;idillr. 

Ten o'clock-— Went to dinner — 
John Gray, a most comely youth, 
but a hat is that to me ? A virtuous 
maiden should be ent in l\ under 
the direction of her parents. John 
eat but Little, and stole ;i great many 

no doubl her future husband, who 
fell .it the battle of St. Al ban's, In I 10 ] . 
where the Lancastrian party, on whose 
side Ik; fought, was victorious. At that 
period she bad been a wife long enough 
to have had several children. Her -ul>- 

1 nt history, from her marriage with 
lvlwanl IV . while Warwick was abroad 

mat < \\ betwei n that m< 
inn li and Bona ol Savoj , sisn r of th< 
1 of France ; an affront which in- 
duced that high spirited nobleman to re- 
kindle the fl tm< - of civil war, 1- wel 

■ 1; and the le of her two sons In 
Edward, who are o mm< nly supposed t«> 
have been smothered in the Tower 1>\ 
order of Richard 111. will never cease to 
eacite pity, a- lo tg ... S .. ;speare shall 
continue to be ua I. 



tc nd< 1 looks at me 1 said women 
would ik\ 1 1 be h 01 Itomo in I 
iiIdii, h h'» wei .d tempen d ! 

I hope raj tempei is not intolerable ! 
d\ finds 1 1 >ili w iih it lint R •- 
■mi, and he ia the most di 
sen ing man in the family . John 

likes w hiic teeth • in\ t< 
are of a pretty good colour. 1 1 
my hair is black as jet, though I 
ii : and John, if I mistake not, 
(In- same opinion. 

/.'', . 1 a u\ '■< ' Rote from ta!>le, 
the company all desirous ol lal 
b walk in the fields. John f I 
would lift me over every stile, I 
tw ice he squeezed mj hand a itb \ 1 - 
heraence. I cannot say I have any 
objection lo John Gray. Me phus 

at prison ban as well as an\ ol 

country gentlemen, is remarkably 
dutiful to his parents, my lord and 
lady, ami never misses 1 lunch of 1 
Sundaj . 

Three o'clock — Poor firmer !{ )- 

binson's house burned down by an 

accidental Gre. John Gray pro] 

a subscription among the company 

for the relief of the fanner, and 
no le^s than four pounds himself 
with this benevolent intent. — Mem. 
Never saw him look so come' . 

at thai moment. 

I'onr <•'< Jock — Went to praj 
Six o'clock — Fed the hogs and 

poultry. 

v 1 1 n o'ch >ck — Supper on the ta- 
ble : del i\ ed lo that late hour on 

account ol' firmer Robinson's mis- 
fortune. — Vr m. The goose-pie too 

much baked, and the pork ro I 

to rags. 

.\/'//< o'clock — The company half 

asleep: these late hours verj disa- 

able. S i;d mj praj ets a second 

time, John Gray distracting my 

{thoughts too much the first time. 



554 



FASHIONABLE FURNITURE. 



Fell asleep, and dreamed of John 
Gray. 

MADAME VILLARS. 

"When the husband of Madame 
de Yillars, mother of the celebrated 
general, was ambassador in Spain, 
the marchioness observes, in a letter 
to her friend, Madame deCoulanges, 
that no one Mho had ever been in 
Spain would build castles there*. 

In another letter she tells her, that 
she had been making an excursion 
on the river, the Man^anares, but 
found it so dusty> she was obliged 
to quit it. In explanation of this 
apparent hyperbole, she adds, that 
the river consists of a lew little 
streams of water here and there, but 
not sufficient to moisten the fine sand 
on the borders, which is raised in 
clouds by the feet of the horses, that 
draw the barges along. A wit ad- 
vised one of the kings of Spain, who 
had built a long and fine bridge over 
it, either to sell his bridge, or pur- 
chase a river for it. 

REGNIER. 

James Regnier, a physician of 
Beaune in France, who flourished 
in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was celebrated not only for 
his professional skill, but for his ta- 
lents as a poet, which he displayed 

* In Fiench, building caslles in Spain 
is equivalent to our expression of build- 
ing castles in the air. 



chiefly in the Latin language. He 
composed many little pieces in verse, 
in praise of the king, Lewis XIII. 
and among the rest a couplet, that 
was placed under a portrait of him. 
As the pencil of the artist did not do 
him much credit, a wit of the court 
observed, that " the poet was the 
best painter." 

FATHER AISEMENT. 

Father Aisement, of the order of 
Minims, having the office of Lent 
preacher.'some of his doctrines did 
not please a bachelor in divinity, of 
the name of Thibault. In conse- 
quence of thisthe young divine com- 
posed a few indifferent verses, in 
which he attempted to ridicule the 
preacher by playing on his name; 
and employed a person to hand them 
to him just as he was mounting the 
pulpit. The reverend father took 
the paper, read it, and said, " It is 
from a poor man who has lost his 
wits, and for whom the prayers of 
this congregation are desired." 

BODONI. 

Bodoni, the celebrated printer of 
Parma, told M. de Creuze, that one 
day a captain in the Austrian ser- 
vice came into his shop, and asked 
to see one of his best books. Bo- 
doni put a Horace into his hands, 
which the officer had the patience to 
examine very composedly, leaf after 
leaf, from the beginning to the end, 
and then said, " Who is Horace V 



FASHIONABLE 

PLATE 19 

Is a representation of a window- 
curtain, the design of Mr. Allen of 
Pall-Mail, who has lately submitted 
•to the public some of the most 
chaste and elegant patterns of ca- 
licoes we have ever seen. 

The taste displayed by him^ in 



FURNITURE. 

the manner of forming the drapery, 
his connection of the most vivid 
with the serenest colours, and the 
tout-ensemble of the production, are 
equally admirable. We are happy 
to see the classic elegance of the 
ancients revived amongst us. 
This curtain is intended as anap- 




C|)e 3&eposttorp 

Of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions, and Politics. 

Manufacturers, Factors, and Wholesale Dealers in Fancy Goods that 
come within the scope of this Plan, are requested to send Patterns or such new 
Articles as they come out, and if the requisites of Novelty, Fash .on, and 
Elegance are united, the quantity necessary for tins Magaz.ne w.ll be ord ered^ 

R. Ackermann, 101, Strand, London. JF" - ™" 






a L] i 001 w AL WO 



propriation to a boudoir. Itiicom- justice to 1 1 



poecd of i ruby-< olourcd < alico, 
enriched Willi .1 slur-like figure "I 
various black hue • li ii lined w ith 
a newly invented print of an aznre 
colour, Btrictlj re tcmbling i 8| ur- 
ilk. The drapei j lias a Pci lian 
silk fringe of the colour of gold, 

united (it ;i imaU portion of .sable. 
The pole I s - suspended by silken 

cords attachid to fashionable metal 
pins. i( is scarcely necessarj I" 
mention, that if theapartment to be 

llins decollated has several windows, 

the intervals (, i the curtains 

be Idled up by ;i continuation of the 
blue silk mantle. 

Ails would sillier nilieli in public 

esteem it unconnected with a pro- 
per display of their perfections. — 
Curtains, though originally invent' 

ed for Use only, bet anie, wilh the 
improvements <>f Iiteratuie, emblems 
of representations of military tents 
and religious veils. The former is 

partly intended in (he present in- 
stance. The implements of uar 
nre judiciously placed, and shew 
that the interior is the residence of! 
a chieftain. It is impossible, how- 
ever, that a print should do perfect 



p'»\ . \ 
thai I 

tat ion. 

In no (I 

Ins the • . rer of 1 

been moi e • - liduonslj emplo . 

th:m in the di posit i m ot dra] 

forwindo other 

suitable objei Is. I: i 

and the light m ss oi di \» ry that 

have puts! ion I 

mows scnlptoi s : and ind< ed their 

works are all but humble imitations 

of nature, w ho 

scale, todispo 

ease almost appiorichin r to n 

gence. It ison the 'ions 

that the heavy and cumbrous objects 
offurniture are L r i\ inj pi. a e to airy 
and light designs. The largccornice, 
the ponderous mantle-piei e, i n I 
ma-s\ chair*. \ ield the palm to mo- 
dem inventions founded on the tirui 
• of observation of nature. — 
Those who stud j ihis unerring mo- 
del, will find their reputation in- 
creased in proportion as they p 1- 
vance. 



ALLEG01IK AI, WOOD-CUT, WITH PATTERNS OF 

BRITISH \1 \\i FACT! RE. 



Thc pattern Not I. and 9. is a 

new description of furniture cali- 
coes, anil the scarlet colour is equal- 



ously i intrasti .1 w i;ii blue 

design, which not only gives it 

When made up into curtains orbed- 



ly novel ami striking, lor many ' furniture) an extremely rich and 
years genius and ingenuity have noble appearance, but also produoes 

been employed in devising the best ; a most desirable relief to the malt 



means of producing a scarlet dye for 
calicoes ; ami with the aid of p 
verance, they have at length tri- 
umphed in achieving SO valuable a 
discovery. 

In this stuff the scarlet is judici- 
No. IV. Vol. I. 



and burnished gold ornaments which 
generally accompany them. 

This splendid article i- the 
nufacturc oi Mr. \11 n. wl pri- 
vate ware-rooms No. 61, Pall-Mali, 

contain a great va:iet\ of the most 
LI 



- 



rOETHV. 



beautiful furniture cottons ever 
shewn in this country, after new 
ami chaste designs of his own ; and, 
as we understand, at very reason- 
able prices. 

The new and elegant article, No. 
5. is denominated Scotia silk, from 
being manufactured in Scotland. 
It is a mixture of cotton and silk. 
The extravagantly high price of the j 
latter, which still continues on the ! 
advance, must render an economi- I 
cal article like that before us, a most 
desirable object, as it exhibits all 
the appearance and face of silk, at 
very little more than half the price. 
It is half-yard wide, and is in great 
request for pelisses and dresses. It 



has been introduced by Mrs." James, 
inventor of fashions for ladies, 
15, New Bridge-street, Fleet-street, 
where it may be had of a variety 
of colours. 

No. 4. a spotted muslin, is a 
very fashionable article ; it is either 
worked by the hand, which of 
course must render it very .ex pen- 
sive ; or, like the pattern exhibited 
in our work, is the produce of the 
loom ; in which case, it comes very 
little higher than plain muslin of 
the same quality. It is furnished 
us by Messrs. T. and J. Smith and 
Co. No. 34, Tavistock-strcet, Co- 
vent-garden. 



INSCRIPTION 

Written for the House of Northumber- 
land. 
By the Author of" The Address to an Infant." 

Dread ministers of him whose will re- 
strains 
The mad'ning whirlwind, or lets loose its 

rage, 
To tear the vexed billows from their beds, 
And dash them furious with their foam to 

heav'n, 
To drown the muttering clouds, and with 

their roar 
To outbrave the thunder in its wrath pro- 

vok'd ; 
Or who, submiss at his almighty word, 
L'nchain the earthquake, that convulsive- 
heaves 
Some sin-devoted land, and ruin drear 
Spreads o'er its surface ; or if greater ends 
Fngage you, and at his behest you come 
To urge the fall of empires, and the globe 
To revolutionize and mould anew, 
Producing general change — ye angels, 

say, 
Shall nature's conflicts, or the wilder war 



Of human passions, crush the hallow'd 

dome 
That lifts its tow'rs illumin'd with the 

beams 
Of hearts rejoicing ! with the widow's 

prayer ! 
The orphan's playful laugh ! the old 

man's smile ! 
And all the wealth of Charity ! — Oh ! no ! 
Commission'd sure to spare, well pleas'd 

you'll stop 
To mark the favour'd spot, and then sub- 
lime 
Pass on to execute your awful charge. 
Northumberland, such the eternal 

strength 
Of thy God-guarded race, while they, 

like you, 
Protect, and love, and venerate the poor. 



SENSIBILITY, 

Whether conducive to Happiness. 
The heart can ne'er a transport knovr 

That never knew a pain: 
The point thus settled long ago, 

The present question 's vain, 









Who'd wi ii to trav« I lift '■ dull roandj 

I 'mn<>\ 'd |i\ p. mi 01 pll I 'H ' 

Ti reasoi task to Ml the bound, 
And keep thera both in measun • 

I In hue, \\ ho M illi fill 6 |>ii h n< I 

I .ii Ii i! • 
Thinks wan* o( Feeling proi e hi 

Yet fi el ind fume ai ti ifli ; 
And he who t iinlj \»< > il - the h-.ni 

I'ihk liM bj i m ii tale "i uni , 
Forb( i the friendly pai i. 

Thai tendi i bear! to shew . 
'I'll' unfeeling h< irl can nei er km i 

B] cold indifference guarded, 
The joy, the transport, which will flow 

Prom 1"^ e and ti uth rewarded. 
True sensibility we find 

Sharee in another's grief, 
Ami pity yield* the generous mind 

Prom sympathy relief. 
Yei there an ilU the feeling In ai I 

Can never, never b< 

I nable to lupporl the smart, 

' \'\- driven to despair. 
Tlie point discuss'd, we find this rule, 

A rule both true and sad, — 
Who feels too little is a fool, 

Who feels too much is mad. 

Sigma Tau. 



\\ i ill. n l.y I 

Ii i.l ..I I id] III UMim 

Dull 

I » todust tfa 

lies, 

I 

lOOUj ti I > I i, . mo|e III \\\ . 

be h 
In spri II . 

••ri" 
Thn i er-G 
I \inl each diw overs ill th ii I > 

Thus N' . » t ■ 1 1 r* lend-, 

lie. | 

Surviving worth, tocomforl and to | •'■ 



LINES 

ON Till I OP MRS. Dl FF. 

Strangsb, or friend, in tins faint sketch 

behold 
An angel's figure in a mortal mould ! 
In human beauty though the form ex- 

eelPd, 
Each feature yielded to the mind it held. 

Heav'n claim'd the spark of its ethereal 

flame, 
And earth return'd it spotless BS it came. 
So die the good, the beauteous, and the 

kind. 
And. dying, leave a l( SSOn to mankind. 

C.J, 



I l.K.l \< STANZAS, 

Writ I, j, ut'l.r the D'lH I s i, 

l)< I to (lie Mr \ .,' ill. I ,|. | 

Gen ill Sti Jobs Moo! I 

\\ hi \ wi Tied soldiei i ink to sleep, 
How swe< tly soft their slumbers I • 

And -vw it is death to those u bo u« 
To tho-e w bo WI ep and long to die. 

Saw you the hero'- hapless bed ? 
.\<> marble decks his bleeding bn 

'Tis there I wish to lav m\ he id. 

And with iln> martyr sleep at n 

No tears embalm his | • mb. 

Savi the soA d< ws by twilight gr 
N ighs disturb the silent gloom, 

Hut in the u bisp'ring u inde of hi av*n. 
And shall we thus our Mootl disn 

\\ ho for bis country bravelv bled ? 
And tell to ages nought bul 

That " Hi i- number'd with thedi 
No ! let the sculptur'd marble tell, 

The patient tods, and battles won, 
That he in freedom'- conflict fell, 

When England lost a fav'rite -on ! 
Siulbmy. .!. H II. 

♦ Dstekess of St ... ot c , 

au«J Mi* Dalrymplr 



i?5S 



MARRIAGES AND DEATHS, 
Arranged in the Alphabetical Order of the Counties. 



Bedfordshire — Died.] At Cockayne 
Hutley, Airs. Peel e.— At Sandy Place, Sir 
Philip Monoux, Bart. 

Berkshire. — Married.] The Row T. G. 
Tyndale, to Miss Earle, of Swallowfield 
Place. 

Died] At Abingdon, Miss Hannah Tom- 
kins. 

Cambridgeshire. — Died.) At Weston 
Coh'illc, Michael Houghton, esq 

Cheshire.— Mat-rial.] .At Astbury, John 
Antrobus, Esq. of Cbeani, Surrey, to .Mrs. 
Bence, of London 

Died.] At Tarvin, Cheshire, Mr. John 
Knott, aged 1 _• 

Cornwall. — Died.] At Pendennis Castle, 
Mr. Brailsford, assistant-surgeon of the 
North II;. i. is Militia. — At Antron Lodge, near 
Helston, Mrs Rogers, wif< of Capt. Rogers. 
— At Truro, Serjt. M'Crow, ofthe 13th Light 
Dragoons— The R. :v. W. H. Reynell, vicar of 
St. Anthony, Mene: ge. 

Cumberland. — Carried] At St. Bees, 
C. Williamson, Esq. t<> Llizabeth, only daugh- 
ter of the late John Tiiss-.H, Esq. 

Died.] At Carlisle, Mrs. Eliz Jackson, 86. 

Devonshire. — Married.'] At Prince Town, 
Dartmoor, W. Dorey, Esq. to Miss E. Smith. 

Died.] At Exeter, MissWoolmar. — At Brad- 
niucb, H. Bowdtn, esq. aged 75. — At Ply- 
mouth, Mr.T.G. Williams, assistant surgeon 
to the second royal veteran battalion — Lieut. 
T. Shaw, of his majesty's ship Mediator. — 
At Uptime, the Rev. N. Vere, rector of that 
place. — At Exmouth, Henry Chohnley, esq. 
of Howsham, Yorkshire, aged 6l. 

Dorset. — Married.] At Ormington, near 
Weymouth, T. P. Luscombe, esq. to Aliss 
Wood.— At Cranbonrne, W. White, esq. to 
Miss Stilliugfleet. 

Died.] At Poole, Airs. Dowland, in her 
100th year. 

Essex. — Died.] At Colchester, Mrs. Anne 
C Dudley, aged 07.— At Hadleigh, A. Her- 
ring, esq. 

Gloucestershire. — Married."] At Chel- 
tenham, Fred. Whalley, esq. to Miss Buxton. 

Died.) Al Cheltenham, Mrs. Bos well, re- 
lict of J. BosweU, esq. and sister of the late 
Karl of Bellamont.— At Berkley, S. Trueman, 
esq. — Miss Marklove — At Stone, near Berk- 
ley, Mrs. Taylor. — At Tewkesbury, Miss Mires. 
Hampshire. — Married] At Huckfield 
Place, Sir Arthur Paget, K.B. to Lady Au- 
gusta (lat< ) Boriu 

Died.] Al Winchester, at the house ofthe 
Rev Dr Rennell, .Miss Scott— At Andover, 
Dr. John Hemming — At Portsmouth, Mrs. 
Smith, wife of G. Smith, esq, clerk of the 
a of the dock-yard.— At Newport, Isle 
of Wight, .Airs Dennett. 

Hertfordshire.— Married^ At East Bar- 
net, .!. Smith, to the second daughter of J. 
s, esq of Batti 1 
Died.] AtHitchin, Wm. Carter, esq. — At 

indri Ige Lodge, the lady of G. Sullivan, esq. 
lefordshire.— Married.] At Dillwyn, 
Mr. Ban-ow, of Leominster, to Miss Bowcn' 



S 



Died.] At the rectory of Donington, Mrs. 
Jenkins. — At Leominster, Mrs. Duppa, 78. 

Kent. — Died.] At Ramsgate, Miss Thorpe, 

only daughter of Lady Susan Drew, aged 17. 

The Earl of Dunmore : he is succeeded in his 
titles and estates by Viscount Fincastle. — At 
Chatham, Lieut Halifax, of the Royal Artil- 
lery Drivers — At Canterbury, B. Kelly, esq. 
— At New Romney, the Rev. Mr. W. Fowle, 
rector of Ivy church and Burmarch. — At El- 
tham, F. Lawrence, LL. D. M. P. for Pe- 
terborough, and King's Professor of Civil Law 
in the University of Oxford. — At Harbledown, 
T. Benson, Esq. 

Lancashire. — Died.] At Manchester, 
Lieut. Hibbert, ofthe 40th regiment. — At Li- 
verpool, R.N. Dah, esq.— Mr. W. Rathhone, 
—At Rochdale, G. T. B. Drake, esq. — The 
Rev. Thos. Messenger, of Overton. He was 
drowned id the river Lnne. — At Lancaster, R. 
Parkinson, AL D. 

Leicesterrshire.— Died.] At Hinckley, 
Mr. F. Slapleton, second son of Major-Gen. 
Stapleton. 

Lincolnshire. — Married.] At Louth, Air. 
T. West, to Aliss Diana Uvedale. — At Brad- 
ley, near Grimsby, Tbeophilus Harneis, jun. 
esq. to Aliss Nicholson. 

Died.] At Louth, Mrs Catherine Reynolds, 
aged 81. — Mrs. Eliz. Sissons, aged 72. — Airs. 
Hodgson, aged 79. — At Boston, Miss Mew- 
burn, eldest daughter of F. Mew burn, esq. of 
Whitby, Yorkshire. 

Middlesex — Married.] In London, T. E. 
March, esq. of the Ordnance Office, Tower, 
to Miss Jordan, second daughter ofthe cele- 
brated Mrs. Jordan— At Chelsea, the Rev. 
Charles Augustus North, third son of the Bi- 
shop of Winchester, to Miss Rachel Jarvis. — 
Reader Clarke, esq. of Rider, Isle of Wight, 
to Miss Martha Douglas Pinkern, youngest 
daughter of Sir J. Pinkern. — At Mary "-!«•- bone, 
Captain Woodley Losack, R. N. to Miss Gor- 
don. — The Hon and Rev. James St. Leger, to 
Miss Catherine Williams. — Captain Gosselin, 
R. N. to Miss Hadsley. — Captain Francis F. 
Staunton, of the Bombay Military Establish- 
ment, to Aliss Neeld. 

Died.] In St. James's square, London, Capt . 
Carrutbers, Brigade Major to General Crau- 
fu d, aged 35. — In Cadogan place, the Dow- 
ager Lady Ashburton. — At the Clarendon ho- 
tel, Bond street, Mrs. Jaequier. — Mrs. Fou- 
quier, sister to Lady Vernon. — Airs. Delaval, 
aged 79. — In Upper Wimpole street, Lady Do- 
rothy Fitzwilliam, sister to Earl E. — InGower 
street, Mrs. Eleanor Aickin, wife of Francis 
Aickin, esq. — In Grosvenor street, Mrs. Eliz. 
Baker. — In Little street, James's street, Thos. 
Harrison, esq. of Wolverhampton, Bucks, 
aged 75. — In Berner's street, Airs. Pleston. — 
In Great Russell street, W. Lynch, esq. of 
the island of Madeira. — In St. James's place, 
Lieut. Gen. AI01 daunt, aged 78. — Mrs. Corne- 
wall, relict of the late C. Wolfran Cornewall, 
Speaker of the House of Commons. — In St. 
James's place, Arthur Ornisby, esq. a Lieut. - 
General in the army, and Lieut. Colonel of 



.M Mlftl \',l> ASH 111 \ I It-. 






tin t.ili Dragoon ' I in Bi aton street, 

iIh- BariofOrford in Dcvonehire place, >< 

i on i qxu in '■ "i i a ound ■ • •! i ' ■ 'Iim l, 

I I \ iscount PaJkland At Enfli Id, Ki< bard 

Gough, < 'I a gentleman well known In the 
literary and antiquarian world, and who 

teniae erudition "■ il) excelled ii\ tbi 

irorthof hisprirato cbaractei — AtBrompton, 
Mrs Rolleston 

Nun in k Died M Rolleabj Hall, Mi 
Mapea -At Norwich, Hi Mar) Hennaat, 

HN il Ml 

Noi i in m 111 it i * ■ i) Worried It Hough 
ton u- Spring, W Maude, eaq i» Miaa II J 
\\ ilkinaon 

Died | At Benton, Mite Jemima B jge, aged 
21. — At Newcaatle, Miaa .1 9 M'Murdo 
■\Ii Dixon, aged 80 -At Alnwick, Nathaniel 
I )..v mi, 1 i| .i_-. 'I 7 1 

Northampton imiii — Died.] \i Daven- 
ti \ , ( larke W atkin, 1 -'i 

( >\ 1 ouiimi 1 III Ih, ■/ 1 At \< ithoi ;i. in 1 

Banbury, Richard Williams, « - ■ 1 At Bit 
t.i. Mi r Weetear, late an eminent farmer 
ami grasier, aged Si \i Hill House, near 
Souldern, Mr. T. Weatcar, first conain to the 
preceding, aged 54 \i Williamacot, John 
LoTcday, D C L aged ■<< 

Shropshire — Married.] At Shrewsbnry, 
<i Chadwick, eaq. to Harriet, daughtei <ii 
IV ('oo|icr, esq. 

Dull] At < . 1 1 1 u 1 1 1 1 ■ \ , near Bridgnorth, T 
Turner, esq one of the just ic 1 of the peace 
for the county — At Biahop'a Castle, Mi 
Gwilliam, aged n-i — -At Lydbnrj North, Mr. 
\\ ilson, aged 107. 

Somsrsxtshiri.— Married.] At Bath, J. 

Ormabj Vaadelenr, < --'i Colonel »>t" tin- 19th 

1 his, to .Miss Catharine Glasse.— Thos. 

Brooks, eaq of Lowdon, to Mrs West. — At 

Bvercreech, John Bradshaw, eaq. to Miaa C 

Smith 

Dirti.} At Bath, P M.i";., esq late one of 
tin- Baruni of the Irish Court of Exchequer, 
aged 86.— At \\ ireliscombe, Martha \N . bber, 
ajf<il 169 — At Briatol, E .loins, eaq. — At 
Clifton, \v. Vni, esq aged 48. 

Staffordshire. — /• At Newcaatle 

ander Lyne, R. Griffin, 1 .| 

m iini.lv. — Died.] At Bury, tin Rei 1' 
BarnwetV.— At (11111112:. Mr. Richard Kecble, 
aged 83 it Parhani, Mra I". Bewer, aged 9s 

Mint's — -JVarrii At Lambeth Palace, 
Lieut. (HI Townaend, to Miss Scott, only 
daughter of the Right Hon Sir w Scol 
Putney, c. Hammersley, . -.| to Mi a Emih 
Thompson. — At Camber* 1 II, T. Sindrei , esq. 
to Miaa I". Rowley. 

Ai Kennington, Dr .1 Andrews, a^ed 
7- — At Prior House, Richmond, I" 
esq. — At Clapham, Mary Anne, eldest (laugh 
ter of R. Dewar, esq -Mrs E. Thorn-, 
nil, aged 79.- Vi StockweU, Bryan Barrett, 
« s<| — Ai Croydon, .1 Partridge, esq a* 

Si rai \ />. I At the barracks, neai I 
Adjutant Walker, of i hi Bad Foot — At Beau- . 
port, Mrs Read, wife of J. R Hi 
sister to Sir J. B. Barges. — At Brighton, Mr 



1 

"I < •■1011 \ 1 • I 

li < • 1 1 ■_■ , ill'. ni.l 

\\ ^ it WICRSHIEI /' 

■ li 11, M ' . 

w 1 1 1 -11 1 it 1 Ti \ M \ 

Rothwell -At A In 

\\ .mi 1 1 
linn .li |i on, to Mi M • 

Died. J At On I \ 1 

• \ H , !'•:. 1 Dal • 1, < 'i AM 

ley, the Re* 1 ( • ■■< ■ 

IORRSHJRI • '. ' H 

It. x 1 Grab im, 

I., ..I id. 1 .1, n, Pa 

im, eaq. toM I VI 

Tin m 1 , < >| to Sophia, 1 im '1 .1 1" 

I. it. .1 I oljambt . - 'i Vi II. :o ».., 1 ii, 

w Mm , mi, 1 •( : . Jsjw i.nl;. daaghl 

: In Rt v 1 Simp 

/ . - \\ \\ adwoi , i., \| Dixon, a 
1I1. It. v IIP ..... -At \ oik, M 1 
aged i'i — At l< ipon, S I 
alderman of that corp , — * t 

1 tii, S irah 1 On t!i« 

■ame day, and at the same 
ton, aged 105 \i B Afi 
aged li 1 — \i Buebj Hall, H Marwoed,* .| 

St " 1 1 \ l i> t Men button 

Hall, C, Campbell, esq jun <>f Com 
Mi^ C. G Napii _lit. 1 of thr 

Hon. C. Napier. 

1 1. ids, on board II. M I 

.1 '. lllllllr 

Ireland- it I Hi. 

count) of i ' , ;, H Dod .| of 

Dublin, to I. J. French, 

i'-i| ol < .11. 

ria, si cond dangbtci Of the I.' • •■ ; • 

of Castli ' : ougla . Northamptonshire 

< ork, < apt W Serte, Misi 1: Morerll — 

In Pi' M r- 

garel Dexter — Tbi i; » .1 1 tylor, 1 

E 1 urran, youngi -( d uigbti 1 • •, tm • 

of the 1 

Died.] At Rufl 
Rei < > Flood — A t >1 

Cork, .' T. S. Bleaiub 1 . , Ur. 

I 

Journal — A hi 

\! , - < Bettcsa orth » 

of Pulilin, A. Ha 
il. county, a^ed 

^ u.n — ' ; ; \l I 

marthenshire, J. .' \ . ,1\, eaq !■• 

' 1 At Card ton Lloyd — At 

— \t 
., < apt. W. Men* ', R ^ 

id I On his p ,1 < o- 

l ol the 1 ".tii 

poona 

- 
I i ! a !, a firee !•: ■ . 1 

■ S 



260 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BANKRUPTCIES AND DIVIDENDS. 



BANKRUPTCIES. 

Tlir Solicitors' Names arc between Parent lines. 

Atkinson S Newcastle upon Tyne, insu- 
rance broker (Atkinson, Chancery lane 

Ball J. Now Sarum, Wilts, victualler (Amor 
and Nichols, Southampton 

Baxter. I. Sheffield, edge-tool manufacturer 
(Wilson, Hatton garden 

Bayley W. Burnham, Essex, l>ont builder 
(Mawley, Dorael street, Salishury square 

Bayley S. and T. Bayley, Hanwell Heath, 
Middlesex, chandlers (Benton, Union street, 
Soutba ark 

Bird W. Stone, Stafford, and E. Holloway, 
Broad6eld, late of Stourport, Worcester, boai 
builder (Begg, 1 1 a Hon Garden 

Brace .las. Deptford, dealer and chapman 
(Searle, Child's place, Temple Bar 

Bradley Edw. the cider, Bromley, Middle- 
sex, Baker (Nceld and Flodgate, Norfolk 
street, Strand 

Breakspear John, Oxford street, silversmith 
(Batchelor and Potts, Serjeant's inn, Fleet st. 

Broadfield Edw. Holloway, Stourport, Wor- 
cester, boat builder (Begg, Hatton garden 

Bromley Win. Garnaham, and R. Smith, 
Bisbopsgate street, auctioneers (Adams, Old 
Jewry 

Brooks J. late of Sheffield, but now, or late 
of St. John street, West Smithfield, hardware- 
man (Batty, Chancery lane 

Brown J. Manchester, innkeeper (John- 
ston and Bayley, Manchester 

Burt W. Colyton, Devon, money scrivener 
(Sampson, Colyton, and Warry, New inn 

Butcher Win. Chicksand street, Mile-end 
New-town, builder (Burt, John st. Cmtched 
Friars 

Charles John, Tregare, Monmouth, timber 
dealer (Harris, Monmouth 

Clancy J. Tottenham Court road, provision 
merchant (Shearman, Hartst. Bloomsbury 

Clarke A. Newport, Isle of Wight, dealer 
and chapman (Catty and Haddon, Angel ct. 
Throgmorton street 

Cooper D. Stockport, Chester, hat manufac- 
turer (Baxter and INI artin, Furnival's inn 

Cotton J. Coventry, builder (Inge and Car- 
ter, Coventry 

Cowlell Wiiliam, Manchester, stonemason 
(31iliie and Parry, Temple 

Crane T. Preston, Lancaster, ironmonger 
(Avison, Liverpool 

Dalton T. Mitchara, Surrey, shopkeeper 
(Fisher, Belt square, Foster lane, Cheapside 

Dempsey W. and J. Acraman, Bristol, tai- 
lors (Edmunde, Exchequer office of Pleas, 
Lincoln's inn 

Dobson P. Claughton, Lancaster, cotton 
spinner (Dewhurst, Preston, and Barrett-, 
Holhorn court, Gray's inn 

Draper T. City road, Shorcditch, surgeon 
(Wilson, Devonshire street, Bishopsgate St. 

Finch J. C. Russell court, Drury lane, tavern 
keeper (Bowes, Clifford's inn 

Firroin Peter, Deedham, Essex, money scri- 
vener (Woodgate, Golden square 



■ r R. High street, Bloomsbury, cheese' 
moug r (Wilde, Warwick square, Newgate st 

Garner Joseph, Thetford, Norfolk, hatter 
Bonsfield, Boui ei ie street 

George •' ( arburton street, Fitzroy square, 
horse dealer (Ellis, James's street, Bucking- 
ham p;aie 

Gibson !{. II. Windsor place, city road, and 
Wolf Benjamin, late of the same place, but 
now at Gibraltar, or in parts beyond the seas, 
jewellers (Coote, Austin Friars 

Gilpin J. Eist Tcignmoutb, Devon, vic- 
tualler (Boutilowcr, Devonshire street, Queen 
square 

Gregory J. Haverhill, Suffolk, baker (Cut- 
ting, Bartlet's buildings, Holboru 

Grew G. Waltham Cross, Hertford, tailor 
(Thomas, Fen court, Fenchurch street 

Guerney John, Acre lane, Brixton Casway, 
Surrey, carpenter (Godmond, New Bridge 
slier:, Blackfriars 

Haity L. Watford, Herts, silk throwster 
(Fairley, New square, Lincoln's inn 

Harwood William, Tiverton, Devon, black- 
smith (Blake and Son, Cooke' s-court, Carey- 
street 

Hatton T. Colford, Gloucestershire, mercer 
(James, Colford 

Heslop W. Long-acre, man's mercer (Sweet, 
Furnival's Inn-court 

Hilliar II. Haymarket, umbrella - maker 
(Bngby, Symond's Inn 

Hodsol A. Sheerness, linen-draper (Bour- 
dillon and Hewitt, Little Friday street 

Hodson, W. Manchester, cottou-manufac- 
turer (Cooper and Low, Southampton-build- 
in gs 

Holt J. Salford, Lancaster, dyer (Ellis, 
Cursitor-strect 

Hunt S. J. Norwich, Dufficld, manufacturer 
S igers, Great St. Helen's 

Ingram J. Great Leaver, Lancashire, inn- 
keeper (Cooper and Low, Southampton- 
buildings 

Jackson J. Leicester, hosier (Burbridge, 
Leic< ster 

Jackson J. Farnham, Surrey, surgeon (Pal- 
let, ironmonger-hall, Fenehureh-street 

Jennings J. Wendlebury, Oxford, brewer 
(Walford, Bicester 

Jones J. Gloucester, cyder-merchant (Jen- 
kin<, J.iques, Abbot and Co. New inn 

Jones T. Liverpool, builder (Shepherd and 
Adlington, Bedford-row 

Knott R. Wyndenham, Norfolk, shopkeeper 
( P res land, Brunswick-square 

Knowlton C. Bristol, linen-draper (Syddall, 
Aldersgate-street 

Lamb W. Dudley, Worcester, victualler 
(Gabell, Lincoln's inn 

Laxton, J. Exeter, linen-draper (Bennet, 
Dean's-court, Doctors' Commons 

Lord L. Longsight, Manchester, cotton* 
manufacturer (Partington, Manchester 

Lord H. Mam luster, dealer in cotton twist 
(Milue and Parry, Temple 

Lyon Wolfe, Denzell-strcet, Clare-market, 
glass-merchant (Henson, Dorset-street, Salis- 
bury-square 



B \ N, K •• ! PI I) D! VII. I. s Dl. 






,M.i. bride \ I i ■• ' i pool, i" rfi ■>■ i N 
Jobn street, Bed 

M in- ' Bl 

■ in 1 1, Bloom bin \ 
iM;ul. Philip, Plymouth Do ' 

Marl II H- h »ti i ' ' 
I I 

, ii \ 
i Bourilillon 
1 iilr 

M.i.-i i . i Bii im, • orda B 

h.I M.u im, I livul 
\l • thewi M D ! 
tin qui i ( Mln • o Km 

Mawdsle) •' ' ' kirk, I 

.. ii 
.Mill. inn, W. I 
dington and H cc, T< mple 

.Mil; ii<. 
I! \". ...ii . VVuiufoi ri 

Nea port B Gill itrct, L'u 

(l I I .1. -I , . i , I t'lUOl -In > i, < 

.x « n t ■ : > '. I Bal- 

i I. .dl 

P ,i ..■ i i I " 
1 id Hope, Stoue buiUlii I 'ainn 

I'ln, 
plumber (West, Charteibouai •( 

Polack B< nj. .--In tin i.', ^ ork, wuti 
( Batty, Cham 

Preutii .' < ii 

|ay< i W ■ StOOS, I rlii inn < Ii 

Raynei B. ami. I. Medley, Newport, lata of 
Wight, corndealera (Worsley, Newport 

Ki . -, II P ', im ii ' i, I 

dale, Ah \ hi ii i . nd Holm , New inn 

Rid I Sti oud, <• loi • iterahire, i lothier 

(Coustable, Sj mi. mi's inn 

Roe l . \\ ..;» . i bi on, • 1 ustice 

K I! nch m ulk, i • 

Roll i Red Lio ..-• I S ■ Bond, 

I -I I niha ( 'lian.i . , -, '.i • ■'.■ nil. ill Btl°« I 

Rotherj T. Leeds, York, woolstaplei I 
l.crt. Bat ton- garden 

Rounaon J. Fleet street, linen-draper Fop, 
l ex-atrcet, Strand 

Rush] .i NewiniUs, Derbyshire, cotton- 
spinner (Ellis, ( ursitor street 

Samuel R. His I . linen- 

draper (Frond and Blandford, Temple, and 
c.iti aton-street 

Scott ■' ■ Gumecester, otherwise Godman- 
cheater, Huntington, blacksmith Mauleand 
s« • etinga, Huntington 

SchafS r .1 . London-road, Surrey, floor-eloth 
manufacturer (Godmond, N 
Blackfriara 

Smith Win. Portsea, Hints, linen 

son and Dickson, Angel court, Throg- 
morton-atreet 

Smll J and J Pinkbam, Pl\ mouth ' 
i ronmongera (Bleasdale, A. Holme, 

Hi •" inn] 

Sontherton F. Tiverton, Deron, dealer and 
chapman Bly-plai e 

Taylor Geo. Bristol, nun hunt (Fi 
Hart-street, Bloomsbary 

Todhunter J. Preston, 1 er, linen ur.J 

»oui!<.u draper [Barretts, Gray's baa 



Uai J Bristol, grorei I i 

i 

I , bill), W. Okfnn . ■ 
(Wood, I I 

i i 
I 

Willioi 

! 
I 

I I 
'I 

\N illiam J I • • I ' 

.. i Ii ott, 

\\ ill 
Old Ji 

Woo 

Pike, 

\\ Mine W Ml ' 

■ intner | \\ 

I 
| ,, ; i i ad J. 

W . J '• 

i 
. \|u il :. — A oawot ill T indh . 
April S— And* i son .1 R 

mi nli I 

i — I ! ' a 

plan , im I 
Km E > 

rmingham, butto ii — 

Beake J I 
Badford W and x 
drapers, Man Ii 

— IU ! I .1 i 
iliicr, April II— H ill W hi. 

pney , bal i 
28 — B Uinories, . 

Bin 1. J U I.- r, 

.Man Ii 28 - Bl idgi r J. Mori 
low-chandler, March 18 — !'■ 
wick, Cumberland, dealer and 
Man b 14— Brj on 1> i 
tnary, April B — BaDen R Weymoath 
Mill om i Regis, U ' — 

Bury John, Clifton- upon-Teame, ' 
luiti In r, April l I 

ton, Surrey, cmrj»enter, M bus 

w < draper, March I! 

draper, kpi - CI 

High-street, St. M 

Man li 25— Ci I I 

W in'-, 1 i 

.; — (' on ■• 1' Great Hi rm 

i i . A — 

i 
. I 
reaport .i. anil 1> ' I 

limn -i 

5 



2C l 2 



IJA.NK III 1MCIES AND DlVlDr.XD'!. 



and T. Bainhridge, Manchester, warehouse- 
men, March 20 — Dicks W. Tronic, Somerset, 
clothier, April 10 — Dudfield C.Tewkesbury, 
Gloucester, ii uholder, April l — Dunn, Tlios. 
Trowbridge, Wilts, clothier, April 11 — Dunn 
J. and ('. Robinson, Wood-street, London, 
factors, March j* — Earner J.Preston, Somer- 
set, cotton- spinner, April 7 — Easton AY. apd 
Easton, jun. Bucklersbnry, warehouse 1 en, 
May g — Elliot <J. Liverpool, merchant, March 
22 — Fearou J. Deausea)ies,Cumberland, factor, 
March 14 — Fox J. and \Y. Fox, Pavement, 
Finsbury, merchant, April is — Garret Win. 
Rood-lane, 1'ciH hurch-street, merchant, April 
8 — Godden, T. Maidstone, carpenter, May 16 
— Gough P. Birmingham, butcher, April s — 
GrievesoD J. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vintner, 
March so, — Graver R. Town Mailing, Kent, 
grocer, May 9 — Hancock Jos. Sheffield, mer- 
chant, April 5 — Harrison S. Manchester, hat- 
ter, April 4 — Hart S. Swaffham Prior, Cam- 
bridge, dealer and chapman, March 29 — Hc- 
thrington A. and J. Mackie, Drary-lane, per- 
fumers, 'May :in — Hilton W. and .1. Jackson, 
Oxford-street, linen-drapers, A])ril 17 — Hoff- 
man D. Bolt on- street, Long-Acre, cheese- 
monger, March 25 — Holden J. the elder, 
and Holden J. Salford, Lancaster, junior, 
March 2<J — Jackson K. and J. Hanken, Oxford- 
street, rectifiers, April 22 — lbbetsou S. Lud- 
gate-hill, mercer, April 6 — Johnson W, C'atlin 
and J. Wiltshire, Huntington, drapers, May 2 
— Johnson J. Holborn-hill, linen-draper, April 
S5 — Ki ni E. Bicester, Oxford, draper, March 
28 — Kirkman J. Gower-street, Bedford-square, 
builder, April 1 — Langshaw R.Chester, linen- 
draper, April 4 — Lawrence E. Huddersfield, 
York, druggist, March 29 — Leykauff W. Lisle- 
street, Lcic< ster-square, engraver, March 28 — 
Lindky J. Sheffield, cutler, April 7 — Macnight 
N. S. Macnight, and J. Macneill, Liverpool, 
merchants, April 21 — Maclawrin D. Watling- 
street, warehouseman, April 13 — Magee J. and 
D. Mac Nully, Oxford-street, linen-drapers, 
April 1 1 — Man A, Mark-lane, oilman, June 3 — 
MarrR. Lancaster, merchant, April 12 — Mar- 
shall W.Ncwark-upon-Trent, draper, April 25 
— Matthews D. Basingstoke, Southampton, 
grocer, March 20 — Medhurst Win. Ross, He- 
reford, innholder, March 27 — Nichols W.Min- 
chinhampton, Gloucester, clothier, Mar. 28 — 
Pander 1. C. Manchester, merchant, April 10 



—Parry M. Pontypool, Monmouth, shopkeep- 
er, March iti — Payne S. L. Change-alley, hat- 
ter, April 11 — Pearson J. P. York, clothier, 
April 7 — Pipe r J. and Know Its Windes, Rich- 
mond, Surrey, grocers, April 4 — Pitkcthley J. 
Wood-street, Cheapside, druggist, March 31 
— Popplestone W. Plymouth, grocer, April 
19 — Price Dan. Whitcomb-street, carpenter, 
April 1 1 — PriorJ. Princess-street, Spitalfields, 
drysalter, March 21. — RadsallJ. Leeds, York, 
grocer, March 27 — Randall J. Birmingham, 
manufacturer, March 13 — Read R. Caroline 
Mews, Bedford-square, stable-keeper, April 
4 — Reynell H. Bristol, linen draper, March 
30 — Rickinau W. Northampton, linen-draper, 
April 15 — Rodwell T. Piccadilly, boot-maker, 
March 2* — Schindler C. Bartlet's-buildings, 
merchant, April IS — Scott G. Upper Thames- 
street, grocer, April 11 — Singer N. P. West- 
bury, \Yilts, common-brewer, April 10 — Smith 
T. E. Great Trinity-lane, leather-seller, April 
11 — Smith T. Mawdesley, Lancaster, tanner, 
Ap.iil 15 — Smith R. Cross-street, Wilderness- 
row, dealer, April 8 — Somerville J. Chancery- 
lane, cabinet maker, March 15 — Spratt S. 
Mendham, Suffolk, miller, April 7 — Surmau 
W. and li. Ford, Cheltenham, Gloucester, 
linen-drapers, April 3 — Swallow R. Attercliffe 
Forge, Sheffield, iron-master, March 29 and 
30 — Tennant J. Oxford-street, wine and bran- 
dy merchant, May 9 — Tiinmings J. Steward- 
street, Spital- fields, silk-broker, April 15— 
Troutbeck C. Rathbone-place, upholsterer, 
March 13 — Tylhnrst J. Milton, Kent, dealer 
and chapman, March 18 — Turner J. SweflT- 
ling, Suffolk, draper, April 1 — Tyrrel J. 
Maidstone, Kent, ironmger, April 15 — Wat- 
son W. Great Cambridge. street, Hackney- 
road, builder, March 2S — Watson J. John 
Watson the younger, and J. Watson, all of 
Preston, Lancaster, cotton- manufacturers, 
April fj — Watts J. Whitecross-strcet, grocer, 
April 8 — Weruiuck J. Plymouth-dock, mer- 
chant, April 19 — West W. aud T. Hughes, 
Paternoster-row, booksellers, April 22 — Wig- 
glesworth J. N. B. Bradford, York, cotton- 
manufacturer, April 4 — Williams W. Swines- 
head, Lincoln, grocer, April 18 — Williams T. 
Caerphilly, Glamorgan, manufacturer, Mar. 
15 — Wright J. Snuthy Brook, Lancaster, car- 
rier, April 7 — Young T. Rippon, York, gro- 
cer, April 3. 



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* At eleven beautiful halo surrounding the moon. 






PR I ( ES 



Of fire-Office, Mine, Dock, Canal, Water-Works, B dm . 4 Publk 
institution Shares, Sfc, <s< . for March 1809. 



Albion 1 ii' ^ Lift tssai i ■. a6l p >h pm. 

.Alias | in .mil Lift --- I',:r. 

Eaale ditto 



Globe ditto .... 

Hope ditto - - - - .1- 

Inperial ditto - - - 

Rock Lift Asa. - - - 

Commercial Dock Stock 

1. i^t India ditto - - - 

^\.>l India .Into - - 

London ditto - - . 

< ! Junction ("anal Shares 

Grand Surrey ditto 

K Lt ci Avon ditto 

T h a w k Alt- m . do.orig. sh. £77 pin. 

FORTUNES Co. Stock-Broken and 
General Agents, IS, Cornhill, 



i'll.'a 114] 

1 .s |.i r -h pin 

. |.t r rt pin. 

- p. r -li. pui 
1 33 a 135 i" 
- - 1 . S 

1 170 ditto 

1 17\ a 1 10 ditto 
139 per ^li 
£60 • 
4 Operant, pa. 



Golden-Lane Brew ry ■ - p m . 

• ■ Shan ■ -hare 

W . si,,,, -vti, , t ditto ua 14; 

' Bmn i> | a .ids. pra. 

"■ « rka 44 a tog* pm 
West Middlesex ditto - . 9 a i.'.ps. pm 

Hiv.r LeaB ft cent. 

•11 In-t.tution - - 14 o pa 

Sorti j ditto 99 a U 

Coma - eft • H4nli6p 

^ au\". - Par a 4- pm 

Kent In. < HBce - - - 47 a SO ■ per >h. pin 
ranee - - - - Par. 

< uii'i,: ' 

sciiplion >ii m - - - pm 

LI. WI<. WOLFE, and Co. 

1 



Pr.r.tcd, for R. AcKlRUiKX, by Harriet* aum Bolter, . ' . I 



FROSPJECTtrs 

OF 

A NEW MONTHLY WORK, 



OF 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

MANUFACTURES, FASHIONS, # POLITICS. 

N°- I. 

Was published on the 2d Day of January, 1809, and is continued on or 
before the first ot every succeeding Month, 

By R. ACKERMANN, JOJ, STRAND, 
Where Communications (Post paid) will be thankfully received. 
This Work may be had of all the Print and Book-sellers, Postmasters 
Clerks oj the Roads, Newsmen, Stationer*, fa. in the United Kingdom' 
— 1 rice 4s. * 



CONDITIONS. 

The Work shall be printed on a fine large wore Royal Paper; and br. 
ready tor Delivery the first Dav of every Month 

Each Number shall contain sixty-four Pages of Letler-Pres;, printed 
with a new Type, cast on Purpose ; — also, 

Four elegant, coloured Plates, designed and executed by Artists of the 
first Eminence; and one Wood-Cut, by Charles Nesbitt 

In order to induce the Public to examine this Work, and to enable them 
fairly to appreciate whatever Claims it may have to their Patronage 
the I abhsher respectfully invites them to become Purchasers of the 
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second. 



LIST OF PLATES IN EACH NUMBER. 

I. Sr 2. Wies'pashionable Dresses, designed, engraved, and 
coloured by thefirst Artists. 

3. Fashionable Furniture, or fashionable Carriages 

or new Implements of Husbandry, Manufacture, &c. 

4. Inside View of a fashionable Magazine or Shop 

with figures, drawn by Rowlandson and Pug in. 

5. Sporting Subject, Game, Dogs, Horses &c 

6. A beautiful Wood-Cut, with real Patterns of the most fa- 

Jhionable Articles, such as Velvets, Silks, Cloths, Printed 
Kerseymeres, Muslins, Cambrics, and evrey new and fancy 
Article of British Manufacture employed in Ladies' or Gen- 
tlemen s Dresses, or in fashionable Furniture. 



I 1 1 E 



aatposttorp 



or 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures, Fashions, and Politics, 



For WAV, 1800. 



fftyt jriftlj p.umbcr. 



EMBELLISHMENTS. 



I. Water Srasiel, tyflotw'tt, coloured 

5 Fashionable F»bhchSopa Bed 

ft. Allegorical Wood-Cut, with Pattern* ■ • • 



CONTENTS, 



ry of the Useful and Polite \ - 
ObeervstkMM on the Arts, by ./.<- 

rmnm • • 

Directions for acquiring Knowledge 
Letters from North America . • 

Third Letter from Italy . • • 
Amelia's second Letter . • • • 
historical Account of the Crimen, 

second Letter 

Letter prom an Artist t.. a Fashion- 
able Physician • • • • • 
Concealment ofaBankrupft Effects 
On the Waste of Agricultural Pro- 
duce (third Letter) . . • 
Fashionable Titles tor Musical Com- 
position 

On the late. Discoveries in H 

Chemie.il Science .... 
Historical Facts relative to European 

Mannen and Customs 
Remarkable Property of boiling Tar 
British Sportj 



\ C R 

267 



270 

287 
201 

> 
ib. ' 

20 S 
500 
502 

: 



Retrospa I of Polities .... 308 
Medical Report 

iltoral Report 313 

Literary Noticesand Intelligence 
Intelligence relating totlw ti 315 

i , t \. m Publications . . 316 

Musical Review **1 

Miscellaneous Fragments and Anec- 

dotes 

Theatrical Report 

Fashions I 

Messrs. P< llatl ... d G Sbew- 

; mi en-Yard 330 

Fashionable Furniture .... 
Allegorical Wood-Cut, frith Pat 
terns i Manufacture 

Marriages and Deaths . 

Bankrupts and Dividends 
London Markets . • • 
Price- of Stocks • . • 

1 able 
Prices of Cor S h ares 



532 
I 



TO OUR READERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

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amateurs of the arts, from the copious stores in our possession. 

The Medical Query arrived too late for insertion this month, bvt shall appear in 
our next. 

G. S. on the Drinking of Healths, is also deferred. 
G. W. is inadmissible, from want of decorum. 
Quiz is in the same predicament, from want of wit. 



Tin-: 



depositor}) 



(<! 



ARTS, LITERATURE, COMMERCE, 

Manufactures^ Fashions, and Politi 



For MAY, I 9 



SElje irifili f.umbcr. 



-The mffi age of tl 



The | 

i -.J dignitj of ■ 



A r. \i - 1 



rORY OF ill FUL AND POI. ; 

(Continm 

OF THT. 1 ... il I i ECTUBE Thi 

ORBEKI IND ROMANS, who i ■; ! ious 

To no nation that e~\ formerly used, and were to 

architecture been indebted for* flveord rsoi 

njr in to the Gi 

What furnished th< ra with the n of 

hints for these improvem tbe t\ I by Vitru- 

have no(. a( this remote p. riod, the vius; in . to whose ace 

means ol ining. Thenation itmay be observed, that the 

a we have already menti -• hich arc the r ornamei 

I of the method ofc >n- the Ionic i 
itructing arches; the root's of all to represen tnralcurlii 

t!u-lr halls were flat, and coven 1 of a piece < of a. 

with stones of such prod igi 

that a single one was often sufficient b en the first kind of i The 

to cover a whole room. Tbeirman- Corinthian oi 
■er of building was also destitute of 

what we call taste; the columns wen the. 

ill proportioned, and their capital 

executed in themost wretched man" been set upon the : co- 

ner imaginable, d with a square tile. A 

AV 1'. Vol I. N n 



26S 



HISTORY OF THE USEFUL AND POLITE ARTS, 



of acanthus, or bear's brooch, grew i 
tip close to it ,- the leaves shot up 
and covered the outer surface of the 
basket, and as the stalks rose up 
among them, thej' soon reached the 
tile which overhung the edges of the 
basket at the top, and as this im- 
peded their course upwards, they 
curled and twisted themselves into 
a kind of volutes. In this situation 
it was seen by Callimachus, the 
sculptor ; in the twisted part of the 
stalk he perceived a resemblance to 
the volutes of the Ionic capital, 
■which, as they were here smaller and 
more numerous, appeared in a new 
form. lie was sensible of the beauty 
of raising- them among leaves, and 
was struck with the representation 
of a noble and lofty capital, which 
being afterwards put into execution, 
was universally admired. 

The Greeks reserved the use of 
their grandest architecture for their 
temples and public buildings ; but 
though their houses exhibited less 
magnificence, they had greater con- 
venience than those of the Romans. 
The entrance to their private houses, 
however large they might be, was 
always small, plain, and narrow. 
The whole edifice usually consisted 
of two courts, and several ranges of 
buildings. The porter's lodge, if 
that term may be allowed, was usu- 
ally on the right hand of this nar- 
row entrance, and opposite to it 
were the stables. This entrance 
conducted into the first or smaller 
court, which had piazzas on three 
sides ; and on the fourth, which was 
usually the south side, there were 
butments of pilasters, which sup- 
ported the more internal parts of 
the ceiling. A space being thus 
left between the one and the other, 
they had plaees for the lodging of 



men and maid-servants, and such as 
had the principal care of the house. 
Upon the same floor with these but- 
ments were several regular apart- 
ments, consisting of an anticharaber, 
a chamber, and closets ; and about 
the piazzas, rooms for eating and 
other common purposes. Opposite 
to the entrance was a lobby or vesti- 
bule, through which lay the passage 
into the several rooms ; and beyond 
this a large passage led into the 
principal square. Round the latter 
were four piazzas, which in the com- 
mon way of building were all of one 
height; but in more magnificent 
houses, that which Faced the great 
entrance was more lofty and in every 
respect more noble than the other 
three. In this division of the build- 
ing were the apartments of the fa- 
mily. These were adorned with lof- 
ty galleries, and here were the best 
rooms, which were called the men's 
apartments r for in rude times the 
Greeks lodged their wives and fe- 
male relations in the best rooms of 
the first court, where they had also 
their separate and detached place. 
The two sides of this larger court 
were kept for the reception of visi- 
tors, and servants were appointed to 
wait upon them. The master of 
the house entertained his guests the 
first day in his own apartments ; but 
afterwards, how long soever they 
might stay, they lived without re- 
straint in one of those separate pi- 
azzas, and joined the family only 
when they chose. The upper end 
and two sides of the great court be- 
ing thus disposed of, the lower end, 
being the same range of building 
that formed the upper end of the 
first court, was appropriated to the 
use of the mistress of the house and 
her female friends. 



HTfiTon V Of llll IM'FII, Allirnllll UT 1 -. 



I'lie Romans borrowed their w- I all tbete annoyance wen tfc 
chitecture from the Greeks, f>ut tli<l ' spartments, destined for the n 
not Imitate them in the modesty <>f the master of the family. 



their private dwellings. The prin- 
cipal front they placed Inwards the 
BOUth, and on ihis ihey bestowed all 

the decoration of expensive orna- 



The irr;i ticl.-nr and magnW 

(In- temples and public buildings of 
(he Romans arc \<i ittested bj the 
remains thai itill exist, which not 



ment. They bad lien- loin galle- . only serve for models toall modeni 
i irs and epa< ions moms, and ever) architects, I nil have sever been mv- 

thinjr carried an air of ^realness and 

.show. In their country •booses thej 
preserved the tame situation and the 

same front, hut (he innerdi.Mrihution 

was different. At the entrance they 

placed the meaner and more offen- 
sive offices, after the manner of the 

Greeks. The first gallery had on 
one side a passage to the kitchen, 

and on the other to Ihe stalls for the 
cattle, that, while (hey were in rea- 
diness for all services, (he noise <>r 
smell might not he offensive within. 
These stalls were placed on the left, 
as in the Greek houses; on the right 
was the kitchen, which had itslighl 
from above, and its chimney in the 

middle. Farther within (he build- 
ing, were placed on one side hath- 
ing-rooms, and on the other, family 

conveniences, in the manner of our 
butteries and store-rooms. Hack- 
wards, and full (o (he north, were 
placed (he cellars, for (ear of (he I 
sun, and over these were other store- 
rooms. From this part of the struc- 
ture you came to the court; for in 
the dwellings of the Romans there 
was generally hut one court. This 
was occupied by the servants and 
those who had the (are oi' the cattle, 



passed, or even equalled, to '!,!>. 
day. Bu( though the art ( out i ii ii • d 
almost at ils highest pitch among 

the Kumars I'm two centuries, U 
declined rapidlj when the empire 
began to fail. VYe are informed by 
Tacitus, dial after the battle of \« - 

t i u in no men of genius appeared ; 
and after Hie reign of Alexander 
SeverUS, a manner of building al- 
together irregular and confused was 
introduced, in which nothing of the 

grace and majesty of (he former 
style was retained. 

When (ho empire was entirely 
overrun by the Goths, the conquer- 
ors naturally introduced llnir own 
method of building. Like the an- 
cient Egyptians, tin- Goths seem to 

have been more studious to amass 

people with the greatness of then 

buildings, than to please the eye 
with the regularity oftheiratructure, 

or the propriety of their ornam 
They corrected themselves, bow- 
ever, a little by the models of the 
Roman edifices which they sen be- 
fore them: hut these mod-Is them- 
selves were faulty; and thed 

being totally destitute of genius, 

neither architecture nor any other 



for which there were stalls on either ; art could be improved 



snlc. In front, from the entrance. 
but at a considerable distance from • 



(To be contim i 
N n I 






OBSERVATIONS 

Letter I. — (Con tin 
Mr. Editor, Feb. 3. 

I beg ax yesterday to write on 

the arts (a sheet of paper dated 
February 2d), and d an 

idea which, if properly executed, 
might much contribute, in a little 
time, to furnish the minds of young 
students with leading traits of va- 
rious knowledge in the arts and sci- 
ences. It is an excellent, method 
of study, at first to be very gene- 
ral, like an artist who, when he 
makes a drawing, first sketches 01 ly 
the largest forms, makes a square 
in his mind, observes "what parts 
are perpendicular to others, and 
v, hat parallel : in his smaller di- 
rections, he observes, where a ruler 
laid in imagination along the parts 
would strike in its progress. By 
this excellent method of proceeding, 
he finds it almost as easy to make 
an outline correct, as if he was trac- 
ing on transparent paper : he can 
afterwards detail with pleasure. 

But, as I was observing, if pro- 
perly executed, the above plan 
might be so extended as to embrace 
jive very useful hints and in- 
formations on every art. 

For instance : suppose we were 
writing on physicians, or any other 
class of anatomists, those who are in 
ihe habit of reading, frequently find 
a character expressed in a word, 
as thus — the ingenious Monroe, the 
elegant Mead, theaccurateHuxham, 
the philosophical Pringlc. So cor- 
rect words might easily be found 
to describe Harvey, Sydenham. 
Friend, Cheselden, Fothergill, 
Ward, James, Hill, Jebb, the two 
Hunters, Cruikshank, Sheldon, 
Lettsom, Sharp, de Valangin. — 



OX THE ARTS. 

tied from page 202. ) 

II Even the bare names of those who 
have excelled, teach desirable know- 
ledge. These we might oppose to 
those who have succeeded on the 
Continent, by comparison or some 
other method ; as Albinus, Vesa- 
lius, Bloombart, Santolini, Win- 
slow, Palfyn. The same observation 
may be applied to astronomers, phi- 
losophers, botanists, and a variety of 
other classes. In speaking, for in- 
stance, of theatrical performers, we 
might convey interesting informa- 
tion, by saying — -the amiable Miss 
Lavinia Fenton (the first Polly in 
Gay's Beggar's Opera, which was 
first performed in 1727), who mar- 
ried the Duke of Bolton. She was 
not less lovely than the excellent ac- 
tress whose name began and ended 
with the same letter, the elegant 
Miss Farren, who a few years ago 
married the Earl of Derby ; or the 
no less accomplished Miss Louisa 
Brunton, who lately married the 
Earl of Craven. So we might say 
Dicky Norris, the celebrated co- 
median (though his real name was 
Henry), so called, because he per- 
formed Dick in the Jubilee, about 
one hundred vcars ajro. 

Those who are called Dielj/, 

Charles, Will, Ned, Tom, Bill, 

Joe, Jim, &c. are generally social 

and good-natured ; such as Ned 

Sh uter, Tom Weston, Tom King, 

Jack Bannister, and Shuter's com- 

i panion, Nancy Dawson, Peg Wof- 

. fington, Nan Catley, and many 

others, of which every one finds 

! some among their acquaintance. — 

j But those who arc always dignified 

I with Mr. and Mrs. are not social 

I in a great degree ; though such may 



RVATIO 






be i' yet, lilvc ili<- ol 

thej arc not \<>\ cd, they are rathei 
horne \\ itL than enjoj ed. I men- 
tion these cir< urn I in* • . (<> shew 
that this plan, ii judi< iouslj rami- 
fied, might be extended ad infini- 
tum, and convey a deal of amuse- 
ment and useful know ledge. 
It cannot be supposed that such 

;i one ;is I can be e<pial to such ;iu 

undertaking, whose firsl production 
in w riting was but of \ esterdaj 
whose views in life have been con- 
fined i<> . This plan of writ- 

ingmaj embrace the happiest efforts 
of the best productions of the bei I 
authors: thus, if an inexperienced 
writer was bewailing the difficulties 
that la\ in the waj to the temple of 
Fame, he might make Beattie take 
off, in liis Winstn /, the labour of 
expressing the thought, and enrich 
his work by writing, 

" Ah ' «lm . .in ti II hou bard ii is in < limf> 
" I hi i * p u bere Fame's proud temple shines 

a l*;i r ! 
" Ah! who can till how many :t smil sublime 
" HaafcH ilif influence of maliguanl 
" And waged witb Fortuoi and rnal war; 
" Check'd 1>> the scoff of Pride, !>\ Envy's 

frown, 
" A nil Pov erty 's unconquerable l>;:r ! 
" In life's low vale remote h;i^ pined alone, 
"Thin dropt into fctai grave unpitied and n 

k OK .1." 

The sublime, the elegant, and 
the pathetic, might Deselected (Voir. 
the best authors ; and thi> general 
idea ol selection is the great lead- 
ing principle that confers superi- 
ority in every art and sciei 

J will now go on, in continuation 
from sheet I . 

I slial! here only observe on en- 
gravers, that some of those now in 
this country, who have produced 
us the best specimens in that art, 
are Sharp, Hollow. \ . Heath, Brom- 
ley, Legat, Schiavonetti, Cordon, 
Agar, and Anker Smith : besides 



I have mi ationed, i 
i with us, and arc bow no 
more ; Hollar, Fairthorne, Li jht- 
foot, II.ii low , ( i.i \ ivood V il- 

( Hoi < i . I) i I: . 3trN. Do- 
rignj . I'm art, Sturt, \ ertu •. BrowB, 
Sestin, A . \\ alker, IM. Roker, 
( .Mini, Peake, ( Ihatel tin, IfUUer, 
'J'lims ( the master <-i old John I 
dell), ( ihambei - . M ■ >r Hall, 
Byrne, Vander Gucht, Park r 9 Isaac 
Taj lor, Bai ire, Brown, £ 
Pouncey, should not be omiU i 
nor thou, though almosl burii 
oblivion, careless, indolent, good- 
natured Harr\ I toward ! 

I i | Oil should happen to app. 

of w hat I \\ rite, 1 w ill her.- iftei 
mj opinion of the various ; 
in the several manners of engraving, 
of which the line manner is the . 
meritoi ious. 

In drawing for designs in this 
country, ii must be allowed 
have signalized themselves in an 
eminent degree. .Mr. Editor, it the 
lady who, t am persuaded, i i 
the shield that is painted under the 
roll on your letter-box, i ould be 
called from her celestial dwelling 
for a moment, and asked bet opi- 
nion who should receive the crown 
in this department, she would hind 
the laurel round the brows ofTho- 

Itard, and exprea 
somev bat in this way (as B 
obsci • 

'• knd s • 

'• \tiil bound the laurel round bis \. 

■ pa ;. d ■ 

I rustling play i 

!, 

After him approach Westall, 
Fusel i, and Smil 
( '/" / lurers in the Arts. 

The palm should be divided be- 
tween Sophonisba Angusciola, of 



272 



ON THE STUDY OF PAINTING AND DRAWING. 



Cremona, and Camera Rosalba, of 
Chiaggia, near Venice : Sophonis- 
ba's three sisters, Lucia, Europa, 
nnd Anna-Maria Angusciola, bad 
also much merit : also Rachacl van 
Pool, or Ruisch, of Amsterdam, the 
celebrated flower-painter ; Eliza- 
beth Sophia Cheron, of Paris, and 
the present Madame Lc Brun, of 
the same city. Miss Cheron, at the 
age of 84, in 1672, was elected a 
royal academician of the academy 
of painting at Paris ; and in full 
assembly, this young lady, who 
was also very beautiful, received 
her diploma from the hands of 
Charles Le Brun, who was their 
president. 

Angelica KaufTman, so long re- 
sident here, it is said, died at Rome, 
November 7th, 1807. 

When speaking of ladies who 
have resided in this country, and 
had most merit after Angelica, was 
Mrs. Mary Beale, Anne Killigrew, 
so elegantly celebrated by Dry den, 
and who was buried in the Savoy 
chapel in the Strand ; she died of the 
small-pox in June 16S5, aged 25 : 
Miss Ann Carlisle, to whom King 
Charles I. presented *£5Q0 worth of 
ultramanna, which he held in his 
hand when he gave it ; Miss De- 
ryke, Mrs. Susannah Penelope Rose, 
daughter to King Charles the First's 
dwarf; Miss Read, Miss Benwcll, 
Mrs. Maria Cosway, Mary Lloyd, 
Miss Bctham, Mrs. Bell, Mrs. 
Buckcy, Miss Flaxman, and Maria 
Denman, sister in law to Mr. Flax- 
man ; also Miss Sophia Metz, Miss 
Hay, Miss Jackson, and Miss Em- 
ma Smith. 

Among our dames of fashion, 
whose chance in the lottery of life 
presented them with titles, the for- 
warder is Princess Elizabeth, third 



daughter to their present majesties ; 
Lady Diana Beauclerc ; nextCount- 
ess Spencer, mother to the late 
Duchess of Devonshire ; Lady Be- 
dingfield, and Emma Crewe. 

The lady (I forget her name) who 
lately drew Fidelity and the star 
Varus, should not be forgotten : 
she seems to have had a touch of 
that promethean fire which we all 
wish for, but which is rarely be- 
stowed. Juninus. 



LETTER II. 

February 6th, 130Q. 

Mr. Editor, 

I have been thinking of seve- 
ral subjects to write a letter upon for 
your box, some of which I have 
half finished ; such as comparisons 
between the ancient and modern 
writers on Genius, Taste, Humour, 
Architecture, &c. &c. which you 
will soon see, such as they are. I 
am unacquainted, I believe, with 
any artists that know you, and have 
at last concluded to give you some 
thoughts on the study of the arts of 
Painting and Drawing. 

Many books that are published 
on the arts are extremely superficial, 
containing only the most trifling ob- 
servations, and w hich are not cal- 
culated to advance the student to 
any considerable height in the arts 
they profess to teach. Thus they 
tell us to be sure to get hard Italian 
black chalk, soft French black 
chalk, pinky red chalk, white 
chalk made of an equal proportion 
of whiting, tobacco-pipe clay, and 
charcoal made from the willow : 
to be sure the camels' bair pencils 
are not made from squirrels' tails ; 
the black-lead pencils with their 
name on them, and the crayons the 
real Swiss j and that the Indian ink 



ON lid iTUDT OJ PAINTINQ ^m niIA\»|I»0. 



(which ihould marl free when fib- 
bed on the nail) li the real India, 
;hhI that thai it < sommoaly the best 
which imeHsol perfume i that white 
peperj washed w iili bistre, «>r stained 
with liquor made of tobacco and 
Im! water ("i iome brewers' clay 
boiled in beei | r* i)< 1 w 1 1 i*ii should be 
shuck on the paper with ;i sponge 
as imooth as possible), is preferable 
to the blue paper, or ycllon silk 
paper, which arc sold at the shops 
tor drawing in black end white 
chalk: that we should be sure tin- 
light comes oi ei the lefl thoulder, 
to prevent any shadows obstructing 
our sight ; to work on our paper 

from lop to bottom, mid from lefl 
to right, and to worll hi ■ room (hat 



some ainusensent, I propo e \u 

introduce somrw d J 

will snppo ■• ill if Mi . \ . student in 

draw in;:, has I iiirn- 

sdf as to Ik- permitted to di 
the Royal Academy ,• and. under 
til ,i idea, / will mention some rales 
in drawing and painting, that not 
c\ erj artist is a< auainted with. 

Mr. \ with swe to the 

(7 recton and Roman rcAoo/, todrau 
after the ancient ^ itaes. J 'of ■ time 
heteebtimid,keepstn>hUwoffk,and 
answers with great obligingness to 
every question from his feBo w si n * 
dents. Al length comes the kt 

— u () ii. urn must mind better, 
and consider vour outline;" and 
would take him from hi-, pi 



lias a north-east Ii<, r ht : to draw c;i- statue, to view it nearer. " I thank 



me Is' hair pencils through our lips, 
and to be sure to chose bushj ones, 

and to obserre that they come to a 

point when tried on the nail : that 
an equal quantity of spirits of tur- 
pentine and linseed oil, rubbed w it Ii 
a clean rag on tun-paper, and hung 
in the sun, in a room free from dust, 
makes excellent transparent 'paper. 
These, ami a thousand suck triiles, 
advance the student but in a sm;ill 
degree. If a prise w;is offered for 
a composition of figures, or an aca- 



jou, sir— jesj sir," secretly glaJ 
when he is gone. 

Here, Mr. Editor, if.be is not 
endowed with genius, with a good 
portion of that quality your a 

mistr. lid to possess, be will 

never be a first-rate artist. 

Nicholas Poussin, in oontemp 
the generality of students that di • I 
at academies, made a design of a 
number of moisJbeshiboiioosly draw- 
ing in an academy, from an antique 
statue (of which there is a print es> 



demy figure, either Michael Angclo ; tant ) ; by which he meant to shew, 
Huonarotti, or Raphael I'rhino [that unless B • the 

(could they be reanimated) if they | great poetic or scientific principles, 
drew on paper smeared over with Hon which the statue is constructed, 
rotten egg, and made the drawing they make bat a small pr o gre ss in 
with burnt cork, horse-dung and , the art ; at least, they only learn to 
water, mud. moistened clay, or any copy or imitate — the result ofa little 



other the most humble material. 
could easily Win it from any artist 
now existing, with every advantage 
OS* chalk. 

Mr. Editor, to simplify this com- 
plex subject, take from the dryness 
of a long string of rides, and atlbrd 



practice, with the knowledge of a 
few mechanical rales — they only 
( reach to individual nature. If 
drawing after I'lcomericV Venus de 
Medicis, they do not enter into the 
idea of her shrinking as it were from 
observation with a timid mod.- 



274 



OS I 111'. STUDY Ol' PAINTING AND DRAWING. 



of what great use is it to talk to such 
people about the gentle serpentine 
line that causes beauty, or about 
gradual variation, if they do not 
enter into the idea of the poet, who 
says, 

"The nymph retired that did charm the world:" 

ami the same of other statues, each 
according to their character ? What 

signifies the work of such people, 
whether they stump with shamoy 
leather, cork, a bit of rag, or do it 
with their finger ? They will never 
give satisfaction like a man of ge- 
nius : they A\ili draw Juno without 
dignity — Venus without beauty — 
and Minerva, w ith the owl perhaps, 
but without wisdom. You may see 
a whole row of them sitting with 
their plummets in their hands, con- 
sidering the perpendicular — taking- 
advantage of upright lines in the 
wainscot, also the parallel ones — 
observing the shape of the vacancies 
between the limbs — with a grave air 
considering the center of gravity — 
comparing lengths and breadths, 
that their limbs might not be out of 
proportion — comparing the lights 
arid shades with one another to ob- 
tain harmony, 1,2, 3, &c. of the 
lights, 1, 2, 3, &c. of the darks, 
more accurately to judge of the de- 
grees of each. If a light rises on a 
bone near a mass of shadow (or on 
uny other part), to be on their guard 
that this circumstance do not de- 
ceive them, and make them think it 
lighter than it really is ; nor a shade 
of darker near light. To keep the 
white chalk towards the upper part 
of the figure, and but little at the 
lower extremities — to handle chalk, 
especially in the lights, with short 
sketchy strokes, lozenged — to give 
freedom and transparency — to work 
here and there, about and about, for 



balancing and freedom — and to re- 
member light half-tint shadow — and 
relax, like a ball, to give roundness, 
Ion e, and fulness. 

Alter .some practice of these prin- 
cipl :s, a figure, better than several 
he had done, is completed, and 
shewn to Mr. F. for the life acade- 
my, lie is told that a council will 
meet next week, and his perform- 
ance will then be considered. The 
R.-ASs meet in the council-cham- 
ber, and decide that Mr. A. has at- 
tained to the ability of drawing after 
nature, and a ticket is ordered to be 
made out for him. lie receives the 
ticket, signed R. A. with transport, 
his imagination tired with the idea 
of studying after nature. At length 
the evening arrives — he is there too 
soon — he must wait in the hall — the 
model is not ready. As she is a 
selection, we may suppose, with 
Milton, that when she mounts the 
pedestal, 

" Grace is in all her steps — heaven in her eyes, 
" In every gesture dignity and love." 

At length the students are admitted 
— Mr. A. among them, not the last. 
She surveys them — observes a new- 
comer ; conscious of her charms, she 
assumes dignity and grace — she 
stands, like her grandame Eve, in a 
state of innocence, with nothing but 
a rosy or blue ribbon to fillet up 
her hair. Figure set by Mr. W. 
the visitor, gently varied or con- 
tracted. Our novice takes his seat. 
She considers him — likes him — 
thinks him a very interesting young 
man ; views him with attentive eyes 
— not like a widow, with a tear in 
one eye, and a leer in the other, but 
with a leer in both. She assumes 
all the simplicity, gcod-naturc, and 
winning ways, that she can think of, 
and imitates the true spirit of the 



ON Till; STUDY f)l PAINTING AND jihamim 






tu/iii/nr productionsbettertban moit 

<>f lliosclli.il surioiind licr, and (lie 

true spirit <»l the sex, though the 
docs not w / her cop at him. 

After about an boorj Mr. IV* con* 
shirrs Mr. A.'s drawing) and 
" Sir, you'll excuse in<— I think 
you've made the legi rather too 
long. We should always remem- 
ber) n hen we begin a iketch) and 
have got to the middle of the figure, 

to make ii mark for the half: this 

regulates the proportions: and ire 
should try to correct all defects. 

Make the female head small and in 

the shape of an egg) with the small 
pari of the oral downwards— a long 

neck — narrow shoulders--! he breasts 

rather large and well separated — 

very wide about the hips and the 

upper part of the lower extn mities. 

\\ 6 should aKo make the limbs, 

both arms and legs, taper very much, 

with a Small hand and Ion;!; slender 
fingers; and as tor the feet) they 

should be small too : the second toe 

should be longer than the great toe, 

and at a little distance from it, the 
next toe getting gradually smaller, 

and the little toe very much retired. 
We must consider the antique for 
good feet ; shoes spoil the feet of all 
who wear them. Von should di- 
shevel the hair in beautiful play ing 
ringlets, and make long winding 
lines, like a drawing I will shew yon 
by and by, which I have in my port- 
folio, made by Mr. Cipriani. Keep 
the mass of lii^ht verv broad in the 



middle, where should In ( 1m- : 
detail : and you maj take the Il- 
licit \ of IMllotllM ill ' \ c| V d 

dows, pm\ ided you b Bern 

about, to make them w 
it were ; which balance should also 
be ii M i \ cis illy obsei re I, and the 

should be of ■ beautifullj 
i el form.*' 

Anoihci night) the figure, a ro- 
bust marij is set by Mr. F. in a, 

violent attitude and frowning, 

if dealing destruction about him, 

and in the manner of Michael An- 

gelo Buonarotti) leaning upon a 
massy club. The drawing is ad* 
tranced — Mr. F. appears— *' Now, 

sir, I s< e you mind \ our outlines and 

the structure of the bones. Yon 

should make the skeleton 
through the mnsdes. Draw convex 
and square) with but fen parts, like 
the audi tit Greeks — broad, bold, 

varied, and crispy. Tak . 
opportunity of making long lines, 
the deltoide swlnding with the bi- 
ceps — the abdominal muscle the 

oblique descending with the sarto- 
rius — making long lines and I 

scrolls. Mind the brows, that great 
seat of expression — make the prin- 
cipal bones, such as the elavieule, 
scapula, ulna, patella, and the ' 
extremities of the fibula, very ap- 
parent. Make the ball of the great 

toe and every thing convex, 

and massy, Like Michael Angelo and 

Goltzius." 

J -v I N US« 



Kq. V. Vol. I. 



Do 



276 



DIRECTIONS FOR ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE. 

Some of our readers may perhaps be disposed to object, that the following paper is 
better adapted to a work designed expressly lor youth, than to the plan of the 
Repository. Such tno, we confess, was oar own feeling on the first perusal ; but 
as our publication professes to embrace communications on every useful and in- 
teresting subject, we trust that the parents, and heads of families in general, 
whose patronage we enjoy, will not be displeased at the introduction of these pre- 
cepts, which cannot be too deeply impressed upon the mind of every young 
person ; and which, from their excellence, are indeed well worth being commit- 
ted to memory. 

TO THE EDITOR. 



Having, when a boy, accident* 
ally met with the Introductio ad 
Sapiential)}, by that celebrated Spa- 
nish scholar, Ludoxicus Vivea, I 
perused it with eagerness; but no 
part of it pleased me so much as the 
following " directions respecting 
the method of acquiring know- 
ledge," (qua ratione comparari 
possit cruditio). In the early part 
of my life I derived great benefit 
from acting upon them ; and seve- 
ral of my young friends, to whom 
1 communicated them, have expe- 
rienced the same good effect. If 
you do not think my translation of 
them undeserving a place in your 
Jicposiioiy, they may probably be- 
come more extensively useful, par- 
ticularly as their learned author has 
observed Horace's excellent rule — 
" f/i/icquid prcccipies eslo brexis." 

J. II. 

1. Erudition is produced, as it 
were, by means of three instru- 
ments, genius, memory, and study. 

2. Genius is improved by ex- 
ercise. 

3. Memory increases by practice. 

4. Both are weakened by luxury, 
strengthened by health, enervated 
by sloth and long intermission, and 
by continual use, are rendered obe- 
dient, to the call. 

5. Whether you read yourself, 
or hear any tiling read, be attentive ; 



do not suffer your mind to wander, 
but force it to be on the spot, and 
to engage in what you lay before 
it, not in any thing else. 

6. If your mind begins to swerve, 
recal it by means of a short whisper : 
put off till another time all thoughts 
extraneous to the subject of your 
studies. 

7. Know that you lose both pains 
and time if you do not attend to 
what you either hear or read. 

8. Be not ashamed to ask con- 
cerning what you are ignorant of. 
Blush not to be taught by any per- 
son, for the greatest men have not 
been ashamed of it ; rather blush 
for your ignorance and unwilling- 
ness to learn. 

9. Boast not of knowing what 
you arc ignorant of; on the con- 
trary, appty for it to those who are 
supposed to know it. 

10. If you wish to appear learned, 
endeavour to be so, there is no 
shorter method : in the same man- 
ner you will find no better expedi- 
ent to be thought good, than to 
be so. 

11. In fine, whatever you desire 
to seem, strive actually to be ; other- 
wise your desire will be vain. 

12. Time impairs what is false, 
while it strengthens what is true. 

J 3. No deception is of long con- 
tinuance. 



niRPXTIONS FOR ACQliniNC KMOW I i 



177 



M. Follow your master, that is 

sln-w no inclination to outrun bin °, 

and yield to, do nol oppose, him. 

15. Love him, and J« »• » iv op to 
li h it as to i parant, and believe what 

lie says to lie most true ami certain. 

IG. Take can that, after being 
once reproved for ■ fault, you tin 

nol commit it a second <>r third timt : 
rndcavour to bnprovc by reprehen- 
sion. 

17. Try particularly to remem- 
ber those point s in which you arc 
UPTOng, lest you fall into the same 
error again. 

18. Bfery man is apt to err, hut 
only the real persevere in error. 

19. Kemember that there il no 
sense through which we imbibe 

knowledge more speedily than thro' 
that of hearing. 

20. Nothing i* easier, and DO- 

thingmoreasefal,thanto hear much. 

21. And yon ought to shew BO 
disposition to listen to what is tri- 
fling, absurd, and ridiculous, ra- 
ther than to what is grave, praise- 
worthy, and prudent. 

22. Both require equal pains in 
attaining ; but in the advantage re- 
sulting from them, there is a great 
disparity indeed. 

2J. Let your endeavours be, not 
to answer much, but to answer to 
the purpose, and in proper time. 

21. Turn not only your eyes from 
what is shameful, but your ears. 
which are in a manner the windows 
of the mind. Remember the 

asying, quoted by tin* Apostle, that 
evil communications corrupt good 

manners. 

23. Whether at table or at any 
other place, listen attentively to 
what every one says. 

26. From the wise you may learn 
what will improve your morula. 



I rom the foolish how to be 
more guarded . 

2 1 -*. Adopt what is approved by 

the u | 

\\ li :l I 
80. \\ Ihii \ on find am 

ration commende I by ien lible 
sous lor wit, de< orum, M 
dition, genius, or urbanity, 

it up in your mind, w ilh . 

employ it yourself when opportu- 
nity offei i. 
SI* Keep i memorandum-boot 

for the purpose of entering anj r< - 
mark or expression, occurring ei- 
ther in the course ofyoui reading 
or in c on v e r sation, and that may 
appear to you excellent or 
this will enable \ on to refresh j our 

memory when 3011 have • 
for a similar remark or expresi 
3%, Strive not only to uoderi ' 

the words, but enter into the spirit 
of what you read. 

S3. "W ben you have read \our- 
ielf, or heard any thing n id, it is 
1 good e xe r cis e to repeal it to 3 our 
schoolfellows in Latin, and 
in your mother tongue; and 
Ottght to endeavour to UBS, as much 

as possible, tin 1 same elegant and 
w itt v expressions employ ed bj 
author : tlni- you will at ouc ! ren- 
der your memory retentive, ani 
quire a command of words. 

34. You ought also to 
frequently, than which tin re » 
better exercise for those wh • 
to -pi ak well. 

3d. Write, re-write, and 1 
extracts frequently ; read with a 
pen in 3 onr hand : compi 
second, or at least every tl 

a letter to some fl tend, ■ h > may an- 
swer it : and shew your Ien 
your master, th. I you ma\ ; 
bj his observatic 
OoS 



27S 



LETTERS FROM NORTH AMERICA. 



36. Suffer not your memory to 
rest. 

37. There is no faculty that likes 
so much to be employed, and that 
improves more by exercise. 

38. Entrust to it something every 
day. 

39. The more you commit to its 
care, the more faithfully it ay ill re- 
tain every thing ; but the less you 
trust it with, so much the more re- 
laxed will its retentive power be- 
come. 

40. When you have learnt any 
thing by heart, allow your memory 
a little respite ; and some time after, 
demand back what you have in a 
manner deposited. 

41. Whenever you wish to get 
any thing by heart, read it over 
three or four times with the greatest 
attention before going to bed : in 
the morning, call your memory to 
account for what you over nio-ht 
committed to its custody. 

42. Beware of intoxication, in- 
digestion, and catching cold, es- 
pecially in the back part of your 
head. 

43. Wine is the death of memory. 



44. Allow not a day to pass with- 
out reading, hearing, or writing 
something that may increase your 
stock of information, improve your 
judgment, or strengthen your love 
of virtue. ' 

43. When about to retire to rest, 
read, or cause something to be read 
to you, that is worthy to be re- 
membered, and of which it maybe 
both useful and agreeable to dream, 
in order that even your nocturnal 
visions may benefit you. 

46. The study of wisdom is to 
continue while we live ; it can only 
end with life itsqlf. 

47. No pleasure can be found 
superior to that of knowing many 
things ; and nothing can possibly 
be more beneficial than proficiency 
in virtue. 

48. Study seasons prosperity, 
alleviates adversity, restrains the 
heediess impetuosity of youth, and 
lightens the burdens of old age : it 
accompanies, nay, it even protects, 
assists, and delights us at home, 
abroad, in public, in private, in 
solitude, and in. the busy scenes of 
life. 



LETTERS FROM NORTH AMERICA. 



Mr. Editor, 
I beg leave to inclose you the 
first of a series of letters written by 
an officer in North America to his 
friend in England, during a resi- 
dence there in the years 1806-7. 
They will be found generally de- 
scriptive of the principal cities, 
towns, harbours, forts, edifices, 
garrisons, &c. &c. now in pos- 
session of the British government 
in the northern provinces of that 



great continent ; and should they 
(from the specimens now sent) 
prove worthy of insertion in your 
excellent Repository, the remain- 
der shall be regularly forwarded for 
that purpose. 

I am, Sir, 
Your's obediently, 

J. H. R. 

Sudbury, March 6, 1809. 



LETTBHI PROM IfOi rn AMRRI i 






i.r.i r i. it i. 

II \ mi x K, EfoTA-flCOTIAj 

Jum 3j I '«'l< 

Dear .1/. 
\Vn in M ist addressed you I 
had Deal \y bidden adieu to Bi itain's 
while (lid's ;is I sealed 1 1 1 \ letter ; 
for the boat which conveyed a pari 
of ni\ baggage (lefl at St. Helen's 
in the bustle of embarkation) did 
ni)i arrive along-side our transport 
till we were <>ir i!i • silly Islands, 
and the boatman would but just 
take charge of nay letter, and give 
the usual hast) assurance of Bend- 
ing it by the post, when he tacked 
for the Land's End, and we lost 
sight of it. 

A sudden gloom overspread my 
senses at the moment I lost sight 
of my native island, and a recollec- 
tion of the many happy days I en- 
joyed at your hospitable mansion, 
together with my parting interview 
with Si when leaving Suffolk, 
caused my involuntarily exclaiming 
to myself at the unhappy period, 

" Ye fairy prospect*, then, 
Yi beck of r a e eDj ami ye boweri of joy, 

Fan »»'ll !" 

As the monotony of a sea voyage 
cannot afford much amusement, I 
shall pass it over, and stale m\ ar- 
rival in this city on the Itli blatant. 
Jt was the birth-day of our vene- 
rable Monarch, and observed in 
this place with all the gaiety and 
demonstrations of joy peculiar to 

the dispositions of a people in 
■whose hearts n E lives. 

I attended the parade soon after 
my landing, and witnessed the 
different regiments composing the 
garrison, pass the general in re- 
viewing order, after which they 
find afcu (lc jii//c in honour of the 



In the evening ihr tow n 
hibitcd b very brill ia it illurrrmat 
and the regimental bands of I 
cians paraded the stn 

national and martial air • ,' until 

sound of the 1 1 1 1 nanded 

them to rest | w Inn ihe happv iiiiim- 
< ianS r. In. .1 also to Lheif home-, 

and your b lend to enjoy r ni rht*s 

repose upon t> rra I'n ' inn, after a six 

weeks \ oyage on the 

lantio." 

The \ iew of this b.'iufiful city 

that presented itself in all dm-, 

ti I entered the harbour from I 'he- 

bukto Head, and the in ignil 

buildings which displayed their ar- 
chitectural elegance on a nearer ap- 
proach, in\ iled my attention to an 

early inspection of the town and its 
suburbs. The remainder of m\ 

ter w ill tin r -fore be occupied in 

Btating to you Bome of the particu- 
lars ofw liat I have obs rrved. 
Situated on the left bank of the 

harbour, is the city of Hal 
about twenty miles distant from 
Chcbulvto Head, m latitude !l. 
I.';, north, and longitude 
west, from London; '>\ miles by 
land from Windsor, and 102 ; 
from Annapolis Royal ; to., rts 
aled on the north side of the b 
Fundy, and in ihe pc 

\o\ a Sootisf. 

A mountain of very inconside- 
rable height, but of great magni- 
tude, bounds the south-west pro- 
spect of Halifax : while the north- 
east is sheltered by the small, but 
fertile island of Saint ( i 
ated in the center of the harl 
and opposite to the city in that di- 
rection. 

The first object that attracted my 

attention in my tour of ob- 



day, mid returned to their bar- was the government-house, an clc- 



580 



LETTEK8 FROM NORTH AMERICA. 



gant stone building, the only one 
of that description in the province : 
it is situated in a south-west direc- 
tion, near the water-side (the aspect 
being south), surrounded by a 
choice collection of valuable shrubs, 
evergreen trees, and a small park, 
with a court-yard, and was built at 
an immense expence during the pe- 
riod of the Wcntworth government 
in North America. A guard from 
the garrison mounts every morning 
in the court-yard, and observes, 
while on duty, all the ceremonies 
and the etiquette of the body guard 
at St. James's Palace. 

The dock-yards and the arsenal, 
with the admiralty building, next. 
claimed my attention ; nor could I 
resist fancying, at the moment I 
entered the g;ite of these extensive 
and elegant premises, that I was 
visiting the naval yards at Ply- 
mouth : the number of workmen 
employed, the regular system of 
discipline adopted by the overseers, 
and the general plan of executing 
all the different branches of work- 
manship, claimed a tribute of just 
admiration. The Cambrian frigate 
had just gone out of one dock, re- 
fitted , as a line of battle ship entered 
another to receive new masts : in- 
deed, the celerity practised, toge- 
ther with the excellence of the out- 
tits from this grand arsenal, reflect 
the highest degree of honour upon 
the officer at the head of the naval 
department here ; and, no doubt, 
Jus exertions are duly appreciated 
by the wise, vigilant, and indefa- 
tigable commissioners of his majes- 
ty's admiralty at home. 

The building is a superb piece of 
architecture, composed of wood, 
covered with shingles, having a 
center with two wings ; the entire 



is painted a dark-shaded red colour. 
The admiral occupies an elegant 
range of apartments, and the re- 
mainder is fitted up and divided 
into a board-room, offices, &c. — 
On the top is erected a telegraph, 
which communicates with a signal- 
house and fort, situated on the sum- 
mit of Chebukto Head ; and the 
whole may be justly considered a 
structure of the greatest utility, 
combined with perfect elegance and 
a judicious taste. 

An excellent mansion, rising to 
the southward, on the ascent of a 
hill, caused me to direct my obser- 
vation that way. On enquir}', I 
learned that this great piece of mo- 
dern architecture had originally 
been the town residence of the Duke 
of Kent, who expended (while com- 
mander in chief and governor of the 
province) an immense sum in rais- 
ing it ; but whether tired of the 
expences in finishing, or the situ- 
ation of the place, his Royal High- 
ness determined upon disposing of 
the premises to the government for 
military purposes ; and it is now 
literally occupied by a regiment of 
infantry, and of course appears mu- 
tilated and despoiled of its former 
elegance and grandeur. 

The shrill sound of a fife coming 
from a range of buildings on a level 
with that just mentioned, brought 
me to the spot from which it is- 
sued, when I soon discovered that 
I had entered the great depository 
of the military strength of the pro- 
vince ; and a more airy and excel- 
lent situation I never observed for 
barracks, where elegance and con- 
venience were united with cleanli- 
ness and health. 

I next viewed the city hospital, 
which is an excellent receptacle, 



LEI r LK-i l itOM ion r H \ : it I • 



and tmilt on in ext ii' ive soak i i' 
receives the lick and indigent <>f 
all < l.i net, both in the city and 

bboui lux. .I of it, and dm 
jii 1 1 v deemed an excellent institu- 
tion in « - \ ei \ re p< c( . The chun bet 
an- mtv commodious, and n« m' 
within : there ire <l<\ en in the < ity, 
ami the mperstructure of them can 
in mi instance disgrace the taste «)t 
the architect, <>i the judgment of 
the builder. There is, bowevi i . 
but one church or steeple < l<>< '.. 
ami iliis has nothing to boast of for 
regularity ;is a time-piece. 

The Roman Catholic < bapel is a 
m-ai elegant building, with a large 

bwjiog-ground) which renders it 

lingular in Mi is respect, as ii is the 
only place of Roman Catholic wor- 
ship I have observed with the like 
appendage. The inside of i be cha- 
pel is elegantlj superb, and or- 
namented in a st} le of superior neat- 
ness. The premises are situated 
on a very pleasant ipot of ground, 
adjacent to the government-house. 
On passing from the chapel in an 
eastern direction, i observed the 
grand masonic hall or' Nova So©- 
ii;i, which claimed my minute at- 
tention, on account of its Light 

elegant structure, and the chaste 
style of architecture displayed in 
every part of this building, which 

was raised at a great expence by the 

brotherhood of tin 1 province, and 
reflects adegree of credit upon them, 
surpassed by none of the four lodges 

or halls even in the metropol 
Uritish empire. 

The principal market-place is in 
<he Dtalef of the town, and for 
cleanliness and utility it cannot be 
excelled : it is abundantly supplied 
with butchers' meat, tow Is. tiv.li, ami 
some game ; the latter u> brought to 



market by the J l the 

snpplu in gi 

dered < be ;> sod ex< lien! in their 
kind. There are but two col 

houses 01 

lilil v in I I do i\ ( the .' 

ami the Union) i bat this t] 
rent want of public a< < ommod 
mi \ I)-- account) d i i b > | he i \- 
treme hospitality of the inhabitant! 
io all tranj rrs. 
There are many other building! 

of eminem e in lh:^ < it f that claim 

the notice of those ■ bo i is;t it. 
Tlnse coniiat chiefly of the man* 
lioni occupied by the general i 
maadiag the the attot » 

and solicitor-generals, judges, pro- 
vincial secretai ies, £ c. <\ 
several othcn of smaller note. — 

The private hovses »re mostly lmilt 
in the modern English style, exhi- 
biting grt .' and neat- 
ness, the : b ■. ■ i 1 1 ir wood, 
painted to im k and stone. 

Halifax, consid i military 

post, ii alto r'ther impregnable to 
an i nemj , rhe Duke of K 
while governor, erected a round 
battery and extensive works to the 
south a ard of tin" tow n, on the sum- 
mit of a hill, which command 

out ai d > ' : ; , as we! 
country in all directions : and it is 

nerallj ed that this posi- 

tion : jest in h's 

m ijestj 'a American colonv s. It \* j.> 
planned and executed, with the 
other fortilieatio: ' r the im- 

mediate inspection and superintend* 
ence of his royal highness. There 
are also,-: heavy battery and a n i- 
cine ere c ted upon Saint George*! 
Island, which CO I the har- 

bour in an >ther d 
the shor- e rising grounds 

rrom Cbebukto Head to th 



282 



LETTERS EIIOM ITALY. 



are lined mid covered with -works, 
exhibiting a chain of offensive and 
defensive military posts, and such 
as could alone emanate, in plan and 
execution, from the scicntilic head 
of a profound general. 

The city of Halifax, from the 
commencement of the suburbs (at 
the government-house) to the ad- 
miralty, extends nearly three miles 
in length along the side of the har- 
bour ; but its breadth bears no pro- 
portion, being composed of paral- 
lel streets, intersected by others, 
ascending from the water-side. The 
streets, however, are built with re- 
gularity, and the situation in gene- 
ral is considered healthy by the in- 
habitants and visitants. 

.And now, my dear M. I must 
inform you, that the packet which 
delivers the letters from England at 
this place (for the British colonies), 



on its way to New-York, has just 
returned to take the homeward mail ; 
I must consequently close this long 
epistle, in which 1 have given you 
the outlines of my observations dur- 
ing a very short residence at Hali- 
fax : and as I mean to continue 
them, I hope to be enabled, in my 
next, to inform you of the state of 
the culture and horticulture of the 
province, the commercial relations 
of the city with, the different pro- 
vinces, the manners and customs 
of its inhabitants, &c. &c. ; toge- 
ther with some hints on the excel- 
lence of the plans of the different 
institutions for the relief of distressed 
strangers at Halifax. I will there- 
fore claim a respite for the present, 
by assuring you how very sincerely 
I remain your's, 

R. 



LETTERS FROM ITALY. 



LETTER IV. 



Dear T. 
Tin: - 



Naples, May — , ls>Oi 



frigate arrived 



here yesterday from Malta ; and 
by her I received your kind letter 
of the 1st March, and the parcel of 
newspapers you had the goodness 

to save for me, as also the 

Accept my warmest thanks for your 
friendly attention to my little wants, 
and for the comprehensive and in- 
teresting narrative of our domestic 
affairs. This I may, without flat- 
ter}', affirm to be a model of histo- 
rical writing ; and I am well aware 
that, before such a judge, my let- 
ters need the greatest indulgence. 
Transplanted, as it were, into a 



new world, replete with innumera- 
ble objects of curiosity and admi- 
ration, and desirous of making the 
best use of my stay, I do not study 
my expressions : I have, as Pliny 
says, no time to write a short letter ; 
and your friendship, I am convin- 
ced, will make every allowance I 
can wish for. 

AYe have known here of the 
peace of Amiens these several weeks 

past 

At all events I trust it will last dur- 
ing my journey home ; for I have 
now determined to return north- 
wards by the way of Rome, Flo- 
rence, Turin, Lyons, Paris, and 
Calais, as soon as the hot season. 



i i r | 



which ii approaching, 

render an . I y in this lati- 

tude unad \ isablc lo t raletndina- 
ri.m like me. In i 1 ; 
iii'mm td 'I lei til 

not (o be fatigued, and to I 
proper time to make whatever ob- 
■ei vatiom i ountries iting 

at th Of all thai 

is worthy of notice, or at least tl i 
is noticed bj 

usual, ea , < t < onstanl and faithful 
reports. 
1 am no \ <• \ on an ae- 

on *i mine to 
P suoli, I! l M isei ■mi, and 

i places in that direction, 
which, !■ rwei er dis igreeabl 
rather ridiculous i:i its termination, 
aflbr led mc the highest delight and 
instruction. 

Some days ago Don Afichele bad, 
as aaual, placed himself b si le 

mv dinner-table, and proceeded. 

for some time, in his eloquent dis- 
course, when I asked if he bad any 
commands for Pozxuoli, as I should 
take a nip thither the next dai . 
and not return before dark. •• If 
too would grant me, dear sir, the 
liberty of putting in ray humble 
advice. I would, under due cor- 



l.t him on 
• ) my fri 
c >mo, lo 

the calcftRo f hhall ! m>- 

ihall be sen I l 

Pozxuoli ' 
| 
On i"-. re| 

— , 
to confine 
.could prevenl 
obligi 

on the port oi D 
nounced, bk< the irhizi 

to burst not only i 

tor, but on all the buc< essoi 

Hippocrates and Galen. 
o\ ii lor hre\ ity'a 
humble servant capitulating for the 
two-wheeled vehicle being l 
the door at six the day after th I 
mediately following. Four bottles 
of porter, and two of old rum, in- 
t to the unknown 
Don Giacomo, being carefully 
stowed in the seat, I waited the ap- 
pearance of my fcllow-lravelh . 

Call to your aid, dearT. ail the 
powers of your fertile imagination, 
to depict to your mu the 

figure of my companion arrayed iu 



rection, presume to propose a little i striped silk coat, orang i and pur- 
alteration in the plan of your jour- pie, cut steel buttons of the lai 
ney, which, if it met the honour of possible diameter, white satin 
your judicious concurrence, might waistcoat, profusely embroidered 
probably tend to make the trip more with rosea and passion -floi 
agreeable to yourself. Where will breeches like the coat, white silk. 

yon dine there; Pozxuoli has no E >ldovan - - 

inns to accommodate a person of huge silver buckles, la 



your merit ; but 1 have a friend re- 
siding at that place, who would be 
happy to see you in his house, and 
lo shew you every thing worthy of 
your attention. Your horse, be- 
fore you hired it, was used to 
No. Y. Vol. I. 



frills, and the h lir fri; sc I in \ 
number of le curb. Bui 

for the p mderous - 

* Single -horse chain - g te 

hackney-coaches in Xai 
Pp 



28 1 



LETTERS FROM ITALY. 



and the queue, Don Michelc might 

have gone to St. James's on the 
king's birth-day. 

I stared ; but my surprise w;is 
taken fol admiration, and the rea- 
son assigned for this eflbrt of self- 
decoration, " per far onorc alia 
di lei persona*." 

Not to expose the contrast be- 
tween this gay attire, and my ve- 
teran black coat and blue panta- 
loons, to the sarcastic observations 
of my English friends in town, I 
proposed to go the more unfre- 
quented road across the Uomero 
down into the Pianura: still we 
met several of my fellow-traveller's 
acquaintances, who seemed in their 
salutations to envy either his coat 
or his place. After descending a 
very steep road, we travelled thro' 
a most fertile plain of about four 
miles, till we arrived at another 
rocky ridge, round the extremity 
of which a road appears to have 
been cut, immediately overhanging 
the sea, and winding along the 
mountain to the gate of Pozzuoli, 
■which, on this side, forms a most 
picturesque appearance. Before 
eight o'clock we halted at the gate 
of Don Gi&como's palace, who had 
already stepped down to receive 
ns, and by way of hearty welcome, 
imprinted three savoury kisses al- 
ternately on my cheeks and lips***. 
A British ambassador could not 
have been received with greater ho- 
nours, and more cordial hospita- 
lity, than were here bestowed up- 
on me. We were ushered into the 
best room, and a breakfast of cho- 
colate, cold meal, &c. was immedi- 
ately served up. During this re- 

* To do honour to your person. 



past, it was settled, that the fore- 
noon should be employed in visit- 
ing the antiquities along the bay of 
Bajae, as far as the promontory of 
Misenum, whence we were to return 
to dinner to Pozzuoli ; and that, in 
the afternoon, the curiosities in or 
about that town should be inspected. 
u And," continued our kind host, 
M as I have learnt from Don Mi- 
chele's letter, that our amico Inglese 
believes himself to be in an indif- 
ferent state of health (which, by 
the bye, his looks contradict), I 
have taken care to provide, besides 
a good cicerone, a clean and decent 
jack-ass, lest the long walk in the 
heat of the day be too fatiguing for 
him." — Such a mark of the most 
delicate attention from an utter 
stranger, I confess, quite overpow- 
ered my feelings ; I was at a loss 
how to express my sense of grati- 
tude. — And this, dear T. is the 
people whom the spleen, or rather 
the depraved heart of some travel- 
lers, has represented as an unprin- 
cipled set of rogues, ready to com- 
mit every act of moral turpitude for 
the sake of their own interest. 

Fie upon the retailers of such 
falsehoods, who think themselves 
competent to decry the character of 
a nation, whose language they ge- 
nerally do not understand ; and 
who, puffed up with their own pre- 
judices, liberally bestow their curses 
on whatever does not come within 
the contracted sphere of their home- 
spun ideas ! Let them stay at home, 
if they can't eat roast-beef and pud- 
dings with the English, maccaroni 
with the Italians, olla podrida with 
the Spaniards, ragouts with the 
French, and sour-crout with the in- 
habitants; of Germany ! 



T.r.iTr us rnoM i r \ r r 



' 



Rut I liavc waxed wroth, instead 
ofbeginning die recital ofoui peace* 
tbli antiquarian pilgrimage. 



Mounted <>n Balaam's < harger, \v m h 
one of m\ Italian friends <>m tm U 
tide, ;iimI the cicerone in front, we 
■trolled along the shores of the bey. 

" The ruins \<>u see on (lie decli- 

aii\ of yon mountain," exclaimed 

the latter, kt air the r< mains of the 

famous villa of Cicero, called by 
him (lie Academy, where In - wrote 
his Academical Question!*' 1 

To question ihis information 
Mould have been \<i\ unacademi- 

en/; since, from more than one an- 
cient author) it may be proved that 

tli is counlrv -scat oft he orator's must 
have been situated at, or at least 
Very near to, (lie spot pointed out 

by our guide. 

The next object that excited our 
astonishment, was themonieitsfoeo, 
a mountain of considerable height, 

formed in the space of one night 

(19th September, 1538). A terrible 
earthquake, accompanied with vio- 
lent volcanic eruptions, gave birth 

to this mountain ; at the same time, 
(hat it dest roved or defaced the 
whole of the surrounding country 
from Poouoli to Misenum : rich 
vineyards and fertile fields were in 
an instant converted into deserts, to 
this day incapable of cultivation. 
The Roman buildings, which be- 
fore had stood nearly entire, altho 1 

not completely annihilated by the 
sad catastrophe, were yet much 
ruined and dilapidated. 

Close to tin' monte nuovo is the 

Lucrine lake, reduced, by the same 
convulsion of nature, from a fine 
expanse of water, to an insignificant 
puddle a few yards in diameter. I 
need not call to your recollect ion 
that its former name was Co< 



Of infernal memory ; ind thai tie 

lin i ath > rei enue which am ient 
Home drew from its fish 
shell-fish in partii alar, - - • I its 
change of appellation. J u renal, 
Martial, and llo r ice, i (he 

highcsl terms of the exquisite fla* 
\ oui oi the Lucrine oysters. This 
circumstance alone prov< 

iniinication with the tea j and. | 
different authors of antiquity, ii 

is e\ ident that an inland ni\ igation 

formerly exi rted bi I ween th< «aj oi 

POXZUOU, and the port oft 'in; 

the other side of ihis peninsula, by 

means of a ( anal w hu h COniH 
the bay Willi the Lucrine lake, thr* 
latter with lake Avertnis. and lake 
\ vermis fl jlh (he sea a( ( iima . ( )n 

ihis point, the following lines of 

Virgil are decisive, at least half- 
wax : 

Locii— qne 

.\iqnr iodignanun mag ■ itridcri 

J ill 11 <1 o:i pernio lin^i ■ gul g 
I )llln UU-c|UI lolls lllllilllllllll .l-ill- \v 

Immediately behind the Lucrine 
lake, and separated from it 

rocky mountain only, is lakeAver- 

nus (x .r -., dr. birdless). T ho r 

itself is indicative of iis former in- 
salubrity. The pestilential i | 
once rising out of its bo • re- 
ported to have been fatal to such 
of the feathered race ;h dared t-> 

approach it j and no lis!:, ofcoUTSC, 
could tenant its infected element. 

Principta) qaod Ath 

id tin N 

iii)[u>-itum CSt| 'jina Mini Kvibw cr.r( r .-,,ij 
CWM I.- I l ■ .:i : l i - 

Xo wonder then, dear T. if thr 
ancient poi t -. w hose powers of ima- 
gination are often of Munch htu 
compass, have marked Lh is unhal- 
lowed spot as the site of the infi 
kingdoms, Our cicerone bad 
P p 2 



2S6 



LETTER8 FROM ITALY 



trim to expatiate very prettily on 
this topic, Avlien Don Giacomo sig- 
nificantly shook his head, observ- 
ing how ridiculous it was to sup- 
pose that a space so confined as this, 
should be able to contain the accu- 
mulating influx of the impious souls 
of the whole world, when it was 
evident that it would not hold the 
one-hundredth part of the wicked 
of the little kingdom of Naples, 
even excluding its lawyers. lie 
therefore rather believed it to have 
been a kind of purgatory, where, 
upon an average, the number of ar- 
rivals would not exceed the propor- 
tion of departures, and where, con- 
sequently, a moderate extent of 
ground might well suffice. 

Don Michele tacitly waited the 
end of his friend's learned disqui- 
sition before he declared his senti- 
ments on this knotty point. " My 
opinion is," exclaimed he, with 
his usual gravity, " that the whole 
is a parcel of lies, purposely in- 
vented by those gentlemen of anti- 
quity, to make posterity believe 
that the number of pagan rascals 
Avas so inconsiderable as to require 
no more elbow-room than the space 
in which zee find ourselves at pre- 
sent would afford." 

Hut whatever foundation, dear 
T. there may be in this poetical 
tradition, it is certain that the pre- 
sent aspect of lake Avernus is such 
as to give rise to any other than 
gloomy ideas. Its unruffled waters, 
now abounding with good fish, arc 
closely surrounded by romantic 
groupes of rocks, studded with 
stately trees and shrubs, ihc luxu- 
riant foliage of which casts a sombre, 
but pleasing, shade over its sur- 
face. The mind partakes of the si- 
repose of nature, and the solem- 



nity of the scene is heightened by 
the ruins of two venerable temples, 
close to the a\^c of the lake, and 
the vicinity of the entrance to the 
cavern of the Sibyl. One of the 
former, which the omniscience of 
our guide dedicated to Apollo, is 
sufficiently entire to allow you to 
perceive the beauty of the architec- 
ture and the fineness of its propor- 
tions : the outside is octangular, 
the interior round ; several niches 
decorate the walls, and various 
shrubs seem to supply its sunken 
dome. The other edifice, which, 
with the same Ciceronian facility, 
was consecrated to Mercury, has 
suffered much more, and altogether 
appears to have been of inferior 
workmanship and materials. Both, 
however, from their contiguity to 
the lake, may, for ought we know, 
have been baths. 

We now proceed to the cele- 
brated cave of the Sibyl, likewise 
situated on the borders of lake 
Avernus, at a few score yards dis- 
tance from the temple of Apollo. 
Here my expectations were greatly 
disappointed : tradition has been 
guilty of an egregious misnomer in 
proclaiming this excavation to have 
been the residence of the Cumacan 
gipsy : but you shall judge for 
yourself. What bears the name of 
the Sibyl's cave, is nothing but a 
level subterraneous passage, cut 
in a straight line through the rocky 
mountain. Where it ended, cannot 
at present be ascertained ; since, 
after proceeding for about a hun- 
dred yards, the tunnel is choked 
up by earth and stones : but before 
you come to this termination, and 
at about forty paces from it, there 
is an aperture leading to some ex- 
cavated apartments, into which our 



AM I I I \ > I.M I . 






cicerone carried me oh bis ihoul- 
decs, the watei on the ground being 

upwards of ;i fool liijli. ( '0111111 ' 
from R hoi sun into thil (lamp .mil 

cold grotto, o shivering fit in an in- 

slanl seized my whole frame to III h 

i degree, that I felt no inclination 
to c\ plore the dreary rc< eui ol 
iliis aquatic labj rinth at the peril of 
in\ life, I instantly sounded a 
retreat, and presently joined mj 
friendi, who, more pi udent, or less 
(in ioui than 1 1 had stnj ed at the 
outside w iili m\ donkey . I have 

eTCT since been aii'jr\ with tnvsell 
al this piece ol folly | and at (his 

moment am not free from dread, 
lest m\ inconsiderate antiquari in 
zeal be rewarded bj an ague 01 some 

feverish illness, which might, ill 

earnest, introduce me to the regions 

Of the depaited. 

This soi'disant cave of the Sibyl 
is, in my humble opinion, nothing 
else hut the identical canal of com- 



munication bet weru lil' \ \ 1 
and I ,ik 1 iuus: it is pr< ■ in the 

din 1 tionol both ; and it i ;i h i 
nal ex i tod, ol n liicli ma 
boratire tesl imonic i li .1 . v. no 
Dei of doubt, it can have 

existed in anj othci pi u 

lake A vermis lies ma deep |u)lloW, 

on all sidi s surrounded 

rocks and moiiu! U 

lei ol » I oh ano. The c,i. Iimsl 

of the main | the COVC be* 

ing dr\ al present, is (o be i< l ount- 

ed foi bj tliee.uili and rnlili di m It i< h 

ha\ e raised i's lei ,1. ,ind bi di. 
can ic concussions which have tot illy 
altered the face of e, .-is thing in 

l!iis little peninsula. Til 

apartments were probablj I 
s<a - baths, il thej < imrannu itcd 
w ith the wad 1 ; mi- 

neral baths, ii thei • 
nection !> twecn both. 
( The com his ion of this h ttei <■ 

)U .1 1 . j 



AM Kid \'S LETTERS. 



LETTER II. 



Mi/ dear it evt r honour* d !/.///< r, 

Tn.\ [ you are so perfectly sa- 
tisfied with ray last letter, gives 
me additional spirits to begin an- 
other ; and though I have waited 
for your short, but delightful an- 
swer, to write in form, J have nol 
passed a day, or rather a nighl (for 
it is ■ part of the lattei - isou 
w Inch I ever dedicate toyou ), w ii.'i- 

oul preparing materials for the pa- 
per a\ hie is no •• f >re me. 

I must confess that I have nol 
been so surprised, delighted, or 
instructed, .is 1 expected to be, on 
my entering upon the novel scene 
of B town life : and here 1 cannot 



bul 1 ■ i a .1 sure I Ii ive 

everj rea m to bless that ant-. 
ting skill, bj which yon prepared 
me for the gaieties, the pleas 
and the splendour of the world, 
\ on certainly employed all j 

icity t > instil inl » my 
mind, bul without m\ p 1 
it, thai preparatory knowl* 
which, though il : lay have ii< 
ved me of such pettj . transient 
pleasures as arise from m 1 i d 
ty,has greatly lessened the number 
ol those dangers 10 which i.ie v 
rience, and particularly fcmal 
exp< rience, is s { > liable, 
entrance into the world | foi J must 



2S8 



AMELIA t T.r.TTLR*. 



use the fashionable expression) as 

mine. 

I am like a person who, before 
lie sets out on his travels, has stu- 
died the geography of the conn- 
tries through which he is to pass, 
and made himself acquainted with 
the language, manners, and cus- 
toms of their inhabitants. The ad- 
vantages of such previous know- | 
ledge must be obvious to the least 
reflection on the subject : and if it 
is so useful to a man who is, in 
some measure, already prepared, 
by the structure of his frame, the 
natural condition of his mind, the 
ordinary cour.se of his education, 
and the early habits of his life, to 
pass into other regions and to seek 
other climes, how much must the 
utility be increased, if 1 may pro- 
ceed in my comparison, when the 
youthful female is about to leave 
the fostering tenderness of maternal 
care, and to pass the guiltless li- 
mits of a native home for the other 
hemisphere of life, into which so 
many appear to enter without any 
preparation but the exterior accom- 
plishments of the rank to which 
they belong, or any other notion of 
it but such as is derived from the 
fall icious representations of a foreign 
governess or an artful waiting-maid! 
Hence it is, that, with a baby sort of 
eagerness and curiosity, they fly to 
glare and glitter ; catch at every 
toy in the shew -glass of dissipation; 
scarce weigh any thing as a good or 
an evil but in the balances of the 
ton ; marry merely for a title or a 
fortune ; and, to make worse of it, 
become miserable for life. But while 
the young may be reasonably pitied 
who are brought up, as it were, in 
error, and are taught to amble along 
the flowery path without being told 



whither it may lead, or, td least, 
so told, as to leave no salutary im- 
pression, what sentiments are to be 
entertained of their conduct, whom 
experience and long usage of the 
world should have taught better ; 
who should not only feel it a plea- 
Mire, but consider it as a duty, to 
guide the young adventurers in the 
right way, or point out. the evils 
which so often lurk and hide their 
serpent trains beneath the flowers on 
which they tread ; what, I say, is 
to be said of those fashionable vete- 
rans, who are so often seen to smile 
at follies while they are growing 
into faulty habits, and, as it were, 
countenancing errors to the very 
moment that they are becoming 
vices ? and then the reflection is 
dismissed at once with a significant 
shrug, and an exclamation of — 
" Who would have thought it !" 
Von, my dear mother, were I by 
your side, would, I doubt not, ren- 
der the conduct of such persons in- 
telligible to me ; but I can only 
attribute it to a depravity of the 
mind, to an insensibility of the 
heart, or having themselves, from 
accidental circumstances, passed 
down the stream of time without en- 
countering the shoals, they are con- 
tent to leave those who come after 
them, to pursue the same course, 
and to the chance of the same lucky 
fortune. 

You will be pleased not to ima- 
gine that these remarks are a sam- 
ple of my natural sagacity and un- 
assisted spirit of observation ; for 
though you taught me caution, you 
guarded me against suspicion : they 
were absolutely forced upon me, 
and you shall have the history of 
them. 

On Wednesday morning Iaccom- 



a m i: i.i \ I i r n luw, 



panied my .unit ;uiil Mi>. W 

to an exhibition of pictures, \\ here 

>vc met Mr. T , who has railed 

two 01 three times in Square 

since I have been on inhabitant <>i 
it. He is I man of very nmiable 
manners, and is in high estimation 
for his learning and know led ■<■ ol 
the tine aits: In* bad the goodness 
to point out to roe some «»i the l> is t 
pictures; and was explaining their 
particular beauties, and the cha- 
racters of their respective masters, 
when the room became so crowded 
as to put an end to Ids \ erj pleas- 
ing and profitable lecture, in the 
evening we met him again at La Ij 

li 'i. party, when be drew a 

chair behind mine, and renewed the 
subject of the morning, which lie 
rendered extremely interestin 
onlv by the perspicuous and in- 
structive manner in which he treat- 
ed it, but by a most animated at- 
tack on Bonaparte, which he con- 
nected with it. lie accused him of 

having torn down the finest pic- 
tures of the first masters from the 
rerj situations in the churches, and 
other public edifices, in Rome and 
other place's, for which those cele- 
brated artists bad expressly painted 
and adapted them, in Order i(^ mis- 
place diem in that abominable de- 
pository of Btolen goods, the gal- 
lery ofthe Louvre, w here, headded. 
they arc so disposed, that, besides 
the injtfry which many ot them 
have sustained from their removal, 
they aii- seen in such unfavourable 
lights, as to lose a very large por- 
tion of their beauties. 1 cannot re- 
collect the names, hut Mr. T 

mentioned, with uncommon feeling, 
the rate of a very favourite picture 
ol his. m\ which he had so often 

faced with little less (ban rapture, 



in SOme chun B, I think it . i i 

I lorence. Tins dii inc | i 

he called it, re pre* nting the 1 1 ••! v 

ii and c hild, before M hi. 

man} pious knees h id. foi n 
succession of j eai -. bt e i daily I 
whi< h so mani artists bad itu 
and none could rival ; a h 
received, ii an the foi 
oi all < ounti ir>. the tribute ot 
miration ; naj . a bich the 
master himself had painted for thai 
particul n thai . and had pi i 

as a git) lo the < liurch ot Ins p ,. 
Iron saint. ;is an offering of his pi- 

ei\ ; tins picture bas actual I j I 
ii msfei red to the profane put 
ol decorating the dressing-room of 
Madame Bonap u i«-. \ ou will 
readily imagine, my dearest 
i her. the energetic manner in whii h 
Mr. '1'— — delivered himself on ll • 
occasion ; nor will you l>" at a 
I >>■< to « onceive with w hat atten- 
tive silence your da, t (o 
hear him. And now lor ti;. 
elusion : — The gent] man had no 
Sooner left me than I Jell the tap 
ofa Ian on my shoul ler ; an I on 
turning round, !.-rlv 

I id\ , one o:' (hat -.per:.-- w lio.n 

Lady Elizabeth calls i 

was there, (osay, in a half win 

•' I have been obscrviugyou, J 

. foi Some time, unci 1 c 

you will not encourage I 

same" Mr. T to ma!. 

you : for though he ! | very 

sensible and clever kind of a man, 

he Ins not. lo my know 1 -J 

twelve or fifteen bundn d pom 

year ; and that you know, my 
will not i\o for \ ou." And I 
I could explain mj 
bled. The poor old lady had I ■ 

that all Mr. T *^ lament 

over a forlorn picture, was a pi 



2S0 



AMELIA s LHTTEIIS. 



live love-tale to jour happy daugb- I 
tor. I could not help smiling at 
this intermeddling mistake ; and I I 
verily believe, if Lady Elizabeth 
IiHvl been thereto have received the j 
communication, I should have made 
an hearty laugh of it. But this is 
noi all. 

I had scarcely recovered from my 
surprise, when I found another beau 
had taken possession of the chair 
which Mr. T had so lately oc- 
cupied : i( was no less a person- 
age, I assure you, than the fashion- 
able Mr. X . .After suppress- 
ing a yawn, he made some very ge- 
neral, common-place, unmeaning 
observations on the opera : glanced 
an opinion of some of the perform- 
ers ; hinted an admiration at the 
dancing of Vcstris ; and after com- 
plaining of the dire length of win- 
ter, and declaring he languished 
for a vernal squeeze in Kcnsington- 
gardens, he condescended to make 
a few observations on the company : 
with all of which J chimed in with 
a complaisant yes or no, as respec- 
tively suited them : when, after 
at least live minutes of silence, and 
a solemn contemplation, as it ap- 
peared to me, of his feet, asked, me 
if I did not think his shoes possess- 
ed an uncommon brilliance ? The 
question was rather unexpected, I 
must own ; but fortunately for my 
credit and character, I answered 
that they had so fine a gloss, I 
could almost suppose they were 
sal in. This reply of mine operated 
on the gentleman like an electrical 
stroke, and seemed to rouse him at 
on< e into an active consciousness of 
existence : his eyes brightened, his 
countenance glowed, his voice as- 
turned a new tone, and he proceeded 
to explain to me the lustre of his 



feet. It was produced — by "what, 
think yon, my dearest mother? I 
think you will laugh till you cry 
again, — why, by the curious com- 
position of his blacking; which in- 
stead of being compounded of com- 
mon ingredients and vulgar oils, is 
indebted, for its consistency and su- 
perior polish, to the jellies and jams 
of the finest fruits. I literally re- 
peat his very words. He added, that 
half the young men of fashion in 
town had striven in vain to equal 
him in this essentialarticle of dress ; 
nay, that some of them had offered 
very high bribes to his servant to 
betray the receipt ; but that he still 
walked the streets of London in 
boots, and trod every fashionable 
carpet in shoes of unrivalled lustre. 
With this proud piece of informa- 
tion he left me, looking at his feet 
as he walked off, till the crowd of 
the room prevented him from in- 
dulging in the gaze of those inte- 
resting objects. 1 have gained, also, 
some additional lustre on the occa- 
sion ; for, in the course of the even- 
ing, he observed to several people, 
some of whom communicated the 
flattering unction to me, that I was 
a very tine, elegant, sensible girl. 
In a very few minutes, however, 1 
had another tap on my shoulder 
from the same fan as before ; and 
the same kind old lady whispered 
to me, that I might let that young 
man make love to me as long as I 
pleased, for that he had twelve 
thousand pounds a year. 

Thus, my dearest mother, wai 
your Amelia supposed to be seri- 
ously admired by one gentleman, 
who was in love with the picture of 
a Madonna, and by another who was 
enamoured of his boots and shoes ; 
but you will believe me, when I as- 



lltBTO i( n A I. \- ' .,i s i ..[ rilE i 11 1 M 






sun- \ 'in. id ii were I compelK <! I 

lii.i i iv one or the "'In i . I liould i<> be adutiluh 

pi fer «j,<x>i! & use w ith twelve hun- ra 

drcd ;i-\r.u. !.» i. >iii Ii l<»ll\ with Bll< 

twelve ill"., mi! : the fbrrocrj at mark a with whicl I i I 

l : . might bappilj i in* \ that I 

bore some resemblam t to I fa \ i ui - d< 

ite picture) and become fond of me; with the thai I 

a\ lulr the latti want to jap in j 

ui.'. or be disposed to unalti re I 

^Iih.I of me : and that i- i submi \ 



HISTORICAL ACCOl NT OF THE CRIMEA. 



rr.n n. 



Mr. Edi I o tr , in. T 

Bi for] I proceed to prive yon thii event is b n by JV.' 



some account of the southern part 



I' •!! is, \\ ho has 



of the Crimea^ ii maj not be unin- ins for t! i 

teresting to \<>ur readers to call iliis hind of Volcano*. I 

their attention, for a moment) to "On tin ;i<t 

the opposite direction toi ' 11 ; heard at sut 



Kertch and Ti aikal, rendered n - 
markable for the eruptions of mud 
ili.it li.ur ,m\ eral tim< a occurred 
in their neighbourhood. I hoc 
eruptions are attended witli all ih<- 
usual appearances of volcanoa, and 



ol . pposite 

and one hundred and . 

from the shore, a subterrai 

rumbling, 

mendous thunder, the sui 

Bud alarm of tin* special 



in travelling between Kertch and I considerably a 



Tenikal, manj <>l the opening 
fori ler eruptions may be si en, with 
many deep gulphs, which fre- 
quently in summer throw out mud 
and bubbles of air. Around these 
gulphs the ground is elastic, and. 
if jumped upon, shakes and (rem- 
l>l n for some minutes ; it is also full 
of crevices, and has man) chasms, 



In"-, aft r an i a similar 

cannons hot, an isle ; 
pulchral hillock, rising from ihe 
bottom of tin- se i, n hicl 

This isle 
level of 1 1 I 

to be nearly a hundred mthoi 

- 



through which a hot vapour is I split and < ect 1 d and st< 

emitted, that sensibly affects the an eruption of fire and sm 

surrounding atmosphere. The most covered the 

remarkable of these eruptions hap- time required bj aatnre for el 
pened on the 5tb of Sept. nig this chart 



tin' sea of Asoph, about four i 
distance from Tenikal, opposite to 



was so impetuous, tint 
ao one could tnM li , • ibe 



ihe town of Temurk, on the isle ol element) in a vei the pur- 

Xo. I . Vol. I. Q q 



OOj 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF TIIF, CltlMF.A. 



pose of risiting the island, which 
appeared to have an elevation of 
two fathoms above the waves, ami i 
was quite black from the disgorge- 
ment of mud t licit had taken place. 
The same day, at seven o'clock in 
the evening, two strong shocks of 
an earthquake were felt at Ekater- 
inodar, which is two hundred 
wersts distance from hence. Sub- 
sequent accounts respecting this 
isle concur in describing it to be 
seventy-two fathoms in length by 
forty-eight in breadth, with an ele- 
vation of seven (cot above the level 
of the sea. The following year I 
learned (hat this isle had been either 
dissolved by the waves, or had 
again sunk, no traces being then 
perceptible at the surface." 

lie accounts for these eruptions 
in the following manner: " It ap- 
pears to me probable that a stratum 
of stone-coal, or bituminous schis- 
tus, bums at a considerable depth 
beneath the isle of Tainan, as well 
as under a part of the peninsula of 
Kertch ; that the sea, or the water 
of its gulph, having found the 
means of penetrating the cavities 
occasioned in many parts from the 
eruptions of this concentrated fo- 
cus, there must have resulted a 
mass of vapours, or gas, of several 
kinds, which, being once introdu- 
ced, have passed, by their elasti- 
city, through the clefts of the up- 
per layers, the old gulphs, and, 
in short, every part at which they 
found the least resistance, and ef- 
fected an outlet at the top, with a 
cracking, occasioned at the period 
of fresh muddy eruptions : the 
result of which I have treated, as 
well as the combustion of inflam- 
D al \( gas, a\ liich was of short du- 
>n, from it* being speedily 



condensed by the external air. As 
soon as the force of the vapours of 
the fiery stratum ceased loact upon 
that above it, because the vapours 
themselves had found an outlet, 
the torn and perforated beds of this 
stratum would naturally sink, and 
by their pressure would afford, by 
means of the new opening, at first 
a rapid, and afterwards a slower 
passage to the mud originating 
from the ashes of the burned strata 
and the sea-water that had gained 
admission. Hence arises that sa- 
line principle which is found in this 
swoln mud ; and the same argu- 
ments will account for the appear- 
ance of the roots of reeds, or rush- 
es, which the sea, on introducing 
itself in the subterraneous space, 
had brought with it, and mixed 
with the mud ; and lastly, we may 
thus account for those fragments of 
several species of stones, the strata 
of which were probably lying one 
upon another, and were perforated 
and broken by the vapours. The 
singularity of meeting with these 
rents or fractures several times on 
the hillocks where the resistance 
naturally appeared more consider- 
j able than on the plain, may be at- 
I tributed to the probability that 
these hillocks, having perhaps been 
! entirely formed by more ancient 
1 eruptions, and, in consequence, 
having still internally the focus of a 
gulph, the vapours could there 
more easily find an outlet. 

" At least it appears that this is 
the case, beyond a doubt, with re- 
spect to the gulph of Kukuobo, and 
that of Kull-tepe ; and, perhaps, 
even the insensible sinking of the 
isle of Taman, is only owing to the 
gulphs and the interior eruptions 
caused by tueaea^ which have thus 



niRTbmcAL account of 1 1. 1 cm mi: a. 



: 



fill* (I the v\ hole island » ilh fra< - 
ture . and <li v isions." 

The cleat nesi and soli litj <>l (Ik- 
i. i mi-> ^ i \ < • n by flic professor in 
(liis account of i In- < m ics of these 
em pi ion-., i at is fie* the mind ai to 
t Inn o! i • in, .mil ; bat their action 
is siill kept up, i he e nlpli and fi - 
sures near l\< i tch sufficieuf l\ 



(•I any Kind. The views a ' 
<>i liii h ise i !i< - elevation vk oul I 
one to ex | illy excl 

li\ the ti< - .in' 

yet it i impl • i 

bj the shade they afford, ind liie 
r< fret lung brt eze that < oust mtly 
hidw s amongst then . . the 

next i allej , w here lh< 



evince. Earthquakes, however, derable village j it extends towards 
seldom happen in the Crimea, and the sea nearly two miles and a I 
when thej do, ili<\ appear nc4 to and from its being so mm h shelter- 
extend beyond a certain circum- ed by tin- high mountains which 
-. ribed district, which we m i\ well run towards tlie south-east, i ■ i 
suppose is that occupied by the sub- oued one of the hottest iu the 
terranean fire about i'" 1 isthmus "i Crimea. Gra] . pom 
Kertch and the isle ol Tainan. Bates, ■ i ow bet in the 
The singularity of this phenome- greatest luxuriance, and Iheinha- 
non having withdrawn me from the bitants have many vineyards well 
intended purport of iliis letter, I walled in with hVee-stone, i I arhich 
shall imw return to it, and proceed also their bouses are built ; thai 
A>iili m\ intended tour from Cuffa neighbouring mounts 
to Sebastopol. them an abundant supplj of it. 

The view of Caffa is soon ^Imi NcarSousice, orSoudak, in 

out by the cape behind which it is aids adjoining tin 

Bituated, the road leading you ovei traveller i-* delighted \v it fi one 

a ridge of mountains into theval- the greatest luxuries a hot clii 

ley of Ot us, one of the most beau- can offer him; a cooling 

liful of the Crimea, and where the offering its crystal waters to !ii-> 

traveller, wearied with the heat, parched tongue, and, as it were, to 

fi;i<U shasle from the most luxuriant invite him to repose here, the \ r<>- 

trees, and refresh men) from foun- prietor has erected a cotl 

tains of the coolest water. In tin- his accommodation : of this, Im>\*- 

valley there is also a beautiful ri\u- ever, few avail themsei 

let, which, meandering through it, rather to enjoy the luxury of as if 



fertilises the soil, and renders it D upon the enamelled grass, bei 

favourable fur the culture of the the shade of two i poplars, 

vine, fruit trees, and corn. Two that grow upon the edgi o 

villages, situated near to each fountain. From hence you 

other, oc .; y this favour L spot ; diatety enter the vallej <-i S 

ami their inhabitants, uninterrupted vhich is about three miles 

by the agitations and anxi< tit sol the and i\w> wide, and is I 

lest of the world, here enjoy, in excellent wines, the of 

tranquillity, a pari lise that is trulj vineyards having an incluiation to 

enviable. From lliis valley tli. the south, from which the .. 

road soon ascends again into naoun- re a rich 

tains, which are covered with i - ■ c in more* 

lad is impracticable for carriages situations. Itiswatei reral 

Q q 



294 



historical accocxt of the Crimea. 



rivulets, which, being conveyed 
by canals, give fertility to every 

part. 

At the entrance of* this valley 
stands the ancient c ry <•!' Sondak, 
once so considerable as to give iis 
name to the whole Crimea, which 
it retained till it was taken ii ! • 5 
by the Genoese; it then lost its 
trade and consequence in ;he pre- 
ponderating opulence and security 
offered by its rival, Caffa, the s rat 
of tin* Genoese government. Al- 
though theGenoese wished to en- 
courage the trade of Caffa in pre- 
ference to every oilier port of the 
Crimea, they were fully sensible 
of the eligible situation of Soudak, 
and fortified it with great care, as 
the ruins of the walls, at (his day, 
ciently evince ; and the re- 
mains of a strong fort, upon a 
mountain close to the sea, embrace 
a large space, running quite up to 
its top, and form a very picturesque 
appearance, especially a square 
tower bound round with iron, 
which is situated on the very top 



inscriptions ; but all, as is the cus- 
tom with the Turks, more or less 
mutilated, particularly the human 
fi rures, which have invariably their 
- broken olF. Their mosques, 
no doubt, were originally Christian 
churclu s, an-l afterwards converted 
by h( M hon . ans into places of 
worship for tb< inselves. From hence 
there is a most commanding \ : .ew of 
iiir pi rt and harbour, capable of 
v outaining all the ships ot the Black 
Sea, and which once was filled v. ith 
them, am! enlivened by the busy 
hum of man ; affording now, by its 
contrast, a melancholy picture of 
the revolutions of the work:, andojf 
the stat< 10 which cities that now 
proudly raise their heads may be 
reduced. The only advantage de- 
rived from this ancient port, and 
for which alone it is valued by its 
present possessors, is the excellent 
fish and oysters it produces, and 
which are not only in the greatest 
abundance, but of the most exqui- 
site flavour. 

The city itself affords no parti- 



of the rock, hanging immediately i cular object worthy of attention, 
over the edge of a dreadful prcci- but its environs are strikingly ro- 
pice. This lower is apparently of mantic ; and to a genius !ikr Salva- 
much higher antiquity than the tor Rosa, would, from tie- av iltl 
other fortifications ; and what lends I and picturesque forms which the 



probability lo this conjecture, is, 
the tradition which .lie inhabitants 
retain of ifs having been the prison 
of a Greek princess, whose merci- 
less ravisher detained her in it till 
she ended her melancholy days; 
and superstition asserts that she re- 
gularly appears and bemoans her 

The ruins of the citadel also de- 

i ::■!; :;li<nr, in the wails of 

which, as also in those of two 

Turkish mosques, are still to be 

seen many pieces of seuipture and 



rocks assume, be invaluable ; for 
here, from their destruetable na- 
ture (being- chiefly a compound of 
sand-stone), they have assumed 
forms more various than possibly 
any of the greatest masters of paint- 
ing ever beheld. In the midst of 
this scene of desolation you sud- 
denly find yourself in a grove of de- 
licious fruit-trees, sloping down 
from the side of a hid, winch, as if 
in fairy land, present I heir tempt- 
ing fruits lo your hand, and irre- 
sistibly impress your mind with 



liiMit pilOM IN MM I I TO \ l \ r llln\ \ l:i. I PIIVMriAN 






the idea flint, from some such scenes In .1 hall < 

u these, M iliomet rnu have foi lion of tbi 



ril his description of I ■■ \y 

abode ) < » r (hose thought worthy <>t 
liis paradise. 






J. II. M 



LETTER FROM \ N . LRTISTTO A FASHION IBLE PHI 5If I w. 

/)< ar ' v < " /hi . or other, |><- iple i ii a 

Vol begin in become n ce- i i<> be without one. Su|>- 

lebrated character, which I conclude posing, I 1 

from certain sign thai seldom de- crooked, never mind that; 1 shall 

ceive. People are even where en- contrive to im.--.-ui the best side of 

quiring what kind ol ;■ mnn you are it to the spectator. If you squint, 

,\ hat ••ii ■". ul irities \ on li;i\ <• —and 
how you look l>c»ili when you are 
pic ise I Hid out <»f temper. ( me 



I shall be heartilj .1 I i the cir- 
cumstance; for in that case we may 
i : one <\ e to the i ' 1 the 

who excites the public curi isit) to other to the practice of ph 

such a degree, cannot fail to become | you have written on both: 

a great man, that is to say, his por- ind ed it would almost be a pil K 

trait u ill infallibly I e < ngraved ; and 

as it can make m> diffe ence to von 

v I cili' r I or an j othei irl ist engrave 

\ ours, I hope yi u » ill not refui 

(lie honour of doing it. As I have 



\ -mi did nol squint. II this .is it 
m ill, 3 mi m ij safely trust me m iih 
\ our person, for I >lo assun you it 
will fall into i ds. Ma 

learned (!<>> tor ha\ e I 
a knack at sketching portraits, be- II even among thoae who are i 

iver, I shall ; preaching, thai vanity is a 
call j • \ soon to look at you and deadly disease than th- 
if you have anj visible deform- have adorned them with so many 
in . you ma) relj upon my dis- beauties and perfect in lure 

crction. A good designer is a re >m lavishes upon a philosopher, 

doctor, who cures in (I: • best man- ' I understand the art of ' 
nei alli he del i :elebrate<l pe - fi ■< ilea and | imples from 

pie. I hive made drawings of a to restore to the aged the 

least lift \ hump-backed men of let- ch rms ol youth, and to ii 
ters, init ha vc never y el delineated ■■ dullest pedant with vanity. ! . 
single hump. In the engraving the) »onl to the face and geniu 
allappearasstitf, straight, and slim , 
as rushlights. It \ ou h ipp< n to 
have hui one eye, I should taki 
your portrait from the favourable 
side. I>ui In i\ i ,i e "ini that \ ou 
may have a good nose ! Mo cure in 
the \\ hole 1. 1 of j ortrait-pain 
is m> ditticull is to in ike a i 
ed nose straight ; an ! unluckily 
the nost- must not !>■ omitted, be- 
cause, from some ridi prcju- 



s\ i ^. I .i I a man be I VCl so stll 
it he h.:s lull writfc a B 

he is transformed by my art ii 

tie author. I mi 
- vi Inch no judge, n t i ren the 
< ellor himself, need bt 
i : and • i m a | erson i 
to subjom a mo; I • . I 

over his head the I 
e with two trump* ts and 

| drof 



996 



n\ urn waste or agrici'Ltchal produce. 



kettle-drums; while ali the iraple- || her eggs. I earnestly recommend 
incuts am 1 materials of the sciences you i<> make trial of my skill, and 
are poured forth at !>is feet, ih &c. &c. 

may brood over them like a hen o\er jl Hog aim iiulus. 



CONCEALMENT OF A BANKRUPTS EFFECTS. 



Mr. Editor, 

You will much oblige me by 
procuring, through the medium of 
some of the co i ial correspond- 

ents to your valuable Repository, 
information on the following points, 
as they concern commercial men 
and others, and to insert them as 
they are here add need . 

J. What degree of guilt can be 
attached to a mercantile dealer, who 
will know ingly Buffer the goods and 
effects of a bankrupt to be secreted 
in his house, cellars, and store,, 
for the purpose of assisting the 
bankrupt to defraud his creditors 
under his commission ? 

iJ. Are the goods of a bankrupt 



| so concealed, considered by mer- 
! cantile men as fit for legal purchase 
by the dealer wiio assists in secret- 
ing them ? 

3. What punishment the law- 
inflicts upon commercial men or 
others, who will secret the person 
or property of a bankrupt, knowing 
that he has absented himself from 
I his meetings, and absconded from 
j his creditors ; and who will assist 
personally, by aid and design, the 
final escape of the bankrupt from 
j his majesty's dominions ? 
Your's, &c. 

Straight Forward. 
Little Present-street, 
April 7/7*. 



ON THE WASTE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE. 

LETTER III. 

TO THE EDITOR. 
Sir, || the side of the road, where it is to- 

In pursuance of the plan which tally lost to the purposes of agri- 
I have proposed to myself 1 shall culture, either as food for animals 
now make some observations on tin- or manure for the kind. 



waste of hay upon the public roa Is, 
which is so consid rable in this 
country, that the quantity, if pre- 
served, would feed several thou- 
sand head of cattle fi'. lor the slaugh- 
ter-house. 

A traveller may observe, upon 
all roads that are much used by 
,o"s, a quantity of bay sc it- 
tered upon them. In situations ex- 
posed to the wind, it is generally 
blown into the grips or cinches on 



Of all the species of waste that 
agriculture is liable to, tins is, in 
proportion to the quantity, the most 
injurious; for, in other cases, where 
the nutriment is Lost as food for man 
or beast, the grosser paits are pre- 
served for manure ; but the scrap- 
es of public roads being the pro- 
, of the commissioners, are 
rarely, if ever, converted to the 
purposes of agriculture : they are, 
in some places, piled in heaps by 



ii oi \ i' rr rr.rni at. produce. 






the aide '>( the road, where Ihr) 
have I Liti .:• . umulatii f fi i nwni\ 
years, < (infracting tl r i • , and 
obsti in Mi 

The finj i ' ittercd by the s 
ful custom of feeding the Ii 
from the hand of the 
liis cadd( e, while vvalkim n the 
road. The teams <ii m in j -.( .1 -r«- 
wagj | fed in this 

w ;i v between theii > med h i- 

lea of c ill : and the farraei 'a aer- 
> .-1 nt . w hen li<* goes w ith 
born to market, ii ii ia at some dia- 
tance, generally takes ;i bundle of 
ti:i\ to feed his hoi 8< s on the road : 
;i considerable portion of this hay 
la trampled under-fool at the wa 1 - 
ing-houscs, the vicinitj of which 
is always .shewed w ith if. 

This waste, though ii nay ippcar 
trifling to indii iduala, ia of 
amounl in the ite, and .1 se- 

rious loss to the o . tunil j indi- 
vidually ; it ia enough to en« 
the attention of everj man that haa 
a team of cattle upon the road. 

In the city of London, where 
everj article of animal food finds a 
market and its value, soi te propri- 
etors of horses, considering the dif- 
ference between profit and loss, have 
adopted an economical bog, made 
of hair, iulo which the hay, after 
being reduced into short particles 
by the chaff-knife, is put, and is 
10 limes mixed with cut straw 

and corn. This bag ia fas 
the head-stall af the bridle or 
ler, after ii is drawn on the muzxle 
of mouth of the horse. It is more 
effectual than a manger, as he can- 
atotblow out his food by snorting, 
and the open work of : 
clot li, of which the bags are made. 



id nit ; 

and u lien linn- cannot 

the animal to take his food fron 

B mO«1 ell. .'111! 

stitul I 

\( I the ro id, and Iraw- 

1 1 I n canal hey w >uld 
the whole of 

■ r. 

h I m ii>e. Ti 
feeding from 1 h ($e nefa 
I- e mm h h j . ! . is droj . 
from the mouth in the acl ot masti- 

n, but a •:!■ if d< 1 1- di 
out by the hedges as thej pass along. 
The hair bag haa a gr< at advan- 
tage over the net, from its contain- 
ing cut food, w liu h treat I3 a« 
mastic at ion, and rendera ii 

••■ mixing of bruised 
corn w ith the chaff. 

: te is suffered by feeding 

animals \, , ', coi n ihal is not ci unit- 
ed or bi uised, aa many of thern 

swallow it w bole, and void it M ith 

the germen and all the farina 
parts com pic qua- 

lities are n rt io the least ii 
l>\ passing through the body, and 
consequently if cannot Inn 
. d 1 null nufriment to the animal. 

The great consumption and de- 
mand for hone com renders this aa 
important consideration to all the 
keepers of horses, as the loss. h\ 
incomplete mastu at ion, amounl 
many : housand Io 1 I- pel annum ; 
the w hole of w hid) n ay be 
d by bruising, cracl ing, 
mixing with cut haj ,stra ,& 
1 am voiir *, & . 

An J a 1ST. 



208 



FASHIONABLE TITLES FOR MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 



Monsieur le Redacteur, 

Yoi r Repository being, pout 
ainsi dire, a bee-hive placed by the 
Delian god among the sacred myr- 
tles overhanging the limpid and 
silvery waters of Hippocrene, pour 
inxiter the tenants of Helicon and 
Parnassus, to deposit therein all 
and every thing which concerns 
Vempire immense of the Pierian 
Nine, I humbly approach the bird 
of night*, to consign to its wide 
and never-closing jaw, the follow- 
ing notice to the votaries of Erato 
and Terpsichore, commonly called 
professors of music. 

Having, by this little bit of my- 
thological trumpeting, like the ex- 
hibitor of ;m ambulant punch's 
shew, roused the attention and cu- 
riosity of the benevolent and scien- 
tific reader, I shall begin tout uni- 
ment. 

It is, sans contredit, universally 
admitted, that, within these few 
years, the arts and sciences have 
reached to the mosi exuberant 
height, au comble, of perfection : 
and music, above all, has, il faut 
favoucr, outstripped or devance 
all her sisters in the beaux oris : 
et cela cVune maniere, to ^v.vli a 
degree, that the poverty of the 
English language is, pour parler 
franchement, no longer adequate 
to express its modern excellencies. 
I have, en moti particulier, found 
myself repeatedly, e'est a 
fois, in the greatest perpli 
dans un embarras le phis per 



* Mens. T. probably alludes to the 
oh 1 over thu letter-box of the Repository. 



to convey to my scholars my ideas, 
ou, si vous voulez, vies sentimens, 
in tin' English language ; and that 
assurement not for want of knowing 
it de fond s au contraire t I have 
studied it, fen ai fait men elude, 
and I may say, sans vie flatter, I 
speak it better than most English- 
men do, surtout quand je suis en 
colere. No, the reason is, because 
the ideas of musical genius are not 
to be expressed in a language, ou 
plutot unjargon, corrupted by the 
savages of the north, such as, par 
exemple, the Picts, Danes, and 
Anglo-Saxons. Quels noms bar- 
bares ! Hu ! 

But never was the insufficiency 
of the English idiom more severely, 
plus grievement, felt, than since 
the elegant custom arose of prefix- 
ing some pretty title or other, out • /- 
ques wots charmants et bien trouves, 
to a rondo, march, symphony, &c. 
posers are absolument forces, 
on such occasions, to have recourse 
to other languages, plus nobles, 
plus rajffinees ; sans cela no person 
de gout et cfesprit will purchase or 
play their works. The French, 
from its superiority over all other 
languages, is par consequent the 
most favourite at present for such 
a purpose ; although any other, 
provided il be not the English, 
will, sans doute, do as well, e'est 
a dire, will have nearly as good an 

Being a man of business, and 
having, ce qu'on appelle, a smat- 
tering of most languages, modern 
as well as ancient, il me semble, 
that I can do no better service to 
my brethren or confreres of the bow, 



(ONABLE IltLEI FOB HI ' 0MPO81 I 






tli mm to offer them , '/' tontmon caur, 
my assistance in mpplj ing lliem 
wiili titles <>r head-pi< cei for their 
musical compositions, de quelqui 
genre que ce y >"^ it ; > rite com- 
parative!) trifling, considering flu 
zest which theif \\"i ks rau I i 
gairetnt ni del h e from s few pn*t I3 
words put ;ii the top. If m p( ut // 
tFooir qu'une opinion Id >'< ws, — 
\\ iih K sped tn in , abilities in this 
line, I shall v i \ e h fi n specimens 



pro* 

; 1 ; 

mi the Oi I 

l.l | / / 1 1 of • i' '■ I ' 1 ' 

and 1 man ii, / r /' im- 

• 1 1 many 

other in! I 

novel. 

/.'///■'.'. Monsii in !<■ /.'< dm U 
need t h ere m o re be • i I • 
which requin I pencti a 

to perceive the utilil \ of ii ? Pu> 



at the foot of this; deplusl have blicitv is all that is wanting to i 



the permission it» refer to Beveral 
composers, whose productions, al- 
though insipides et fades, bavc, par 
Ii m ul tnoyen de mon talisman ^ 
quired universal celebrity* Pour 
en venir au point t my terms are 
shortly these, scavoir : 
1 lai ii single title, in \\ bataoever 

I inguace £ 2 6 

( )ih dozen taken at ;i time . . . l l u 
Subscribers tor as main titles as 

they may aai 1 occa lion for, 

per annum 2 2i 

W 11I1 .1 lihcr. il ailowam •■ to music-shoj 
ami the trade in general. 

II is by no means necessary, in 
applying for s title, to describe the 
nature of the composition ; au con- 
tYofre, theeflect would be spoiled, 
were the title any ways adapted to 
the subject | the more /. 
incongruous, the greater the beau- 



irojt /, ('m/ ■ 'in' d 

. mid 1 ba( •'■ fail tt» 

plished, ii \ -I m ill I 

i he g iin'in-s l«. j i v<- lo this letter 
a place, //// petti COfff, in your /'-- 

pository, I shall therefore 1 
elude by giving, r< (on ma 
ci dessut 1 nom <V, the follow m^ 
specimens of 

PA8MIONABLE Tl I !t MLbl- 

( \ l, COM KOS III 

Concert spi I del ( !ai ards. 
lisie lloiti nto 

1 i de 1 lenri 

Le Songe d*un Pa pi II 
I e I'ot pourri de 
Grande M uche Milita 

lids de Jupiter* 
\\ tlze favori du Grand Ifouftida 

Constantinople. 
! .' \ m< uf , que* par une Puce. 
I ,e fombeau du ! imun am- 



ty ; *nd pour parvenir d a sicaL 

to attain this end, as well as to 5 apiri di una Chio 



il Miagol ento amoroso dun 
( • itto vecchio 

II fazzoletto iii Wnere. 



avoid all suspicions o\' undue par- 
tiality) fai at soin to provide a 
large bag, made of supei fine 1 -iot h 01 
various colours, patched together 
in the manner of a harlequin's dress, IV I 2 ftrocil \r 

out of which the title is drawn an II 
hazard, like a lottery ticket, from Tci . 
a number considerably exceeding b.i. 
three thousand. By this method £)i< 
n nil/ nc et r mi ruse, 1 happened lo ; (§CCw% 
No. V. Vol. I.' [i Hr 



*00 



LATE DISCOVERIES IN EECTRO-CHE51ICAL SCIENCE. 



Sfacftten unb Scftwdrma far 3fctfu& 

licbtu&cv. 
3D* tfch mimicwtt fcjmd&eftiben Tumi 
taubchciu 



Los Suspiros do uu Corazon affiicto. 
La Armenia de los Santos. 



JTct Schcirs van Mynheer Hercules. 
Gevoclig Lied van een Padde. 
De Liefile gestraelt door een Vloo. 



RaniuiGulorum harmoniosa Croci- 

tatio. 
Gratiarum odoralissimac Perisce- 

lides. 






J\d Vhonneur d'etre trig 
parfaitement, 
Monsieur le Rcdacteur 9 

Your humble servant, 
Francois Marie dk la 

TlTULLIERRE, 

Guimbardistet, Titriste, et 

Professeur de Musique. 

No. 31, Harp-street, 
Soininers-Towii, 24tli March, 18og. 



* The want of appropriate types pre- 
vents us from inserting four or five other 
of Mons. T.'s titles in Arabic and Chinese 
characters. 

f Guimbarde, a Jew's harp. 



ON THE LATE DISCOVERIES IN ELECTRO-CHEMICAL 

SCIENCE. 

(Continued from page 220. ) 



Finding that all bodies of known 
composition were decomposed by 
electricity, Mr. Davy ventured to 
predict, that the same agency must 
necessarily have the power of de- 
compounding substances whicli were 
incapable of being separated into 
their elements by common chemical 
means, on the idea that the natural 
electrical energies must be limited ; 
whereas the powers of artificial 
electricity are capable of an inde- 
finite increase. 

This remarkable prediction he 
verified himself in less than twelve 
months, by decomposing the fixed 
alkalies, and shewing that they were 
metallic oxides, having bases which, 
agreeing with metals in all other 
properties, differ from them in an 
astonishing degree in specific gra- 
vity and combustibility, being the 



most inflammable, and amongst the 
lightest bodies in nature. 

The earths, and particularly ba- 
rytes, had been suspected to be 
metallic ; but there were no analo- 
gies to lead to such an opinion re- 
specting the true alkalies : when 
these, however, were shewn to be 
metallic, it was scarcely possible to 
doubt that the alkaline earths were 
of a similar nature ; and this Mr. 
Davy soon proved, shewing that 
their metals constituted, as it were, 
the links between the common me- 
tals and the metals of the fixed al- 
kalies. 

Since the first aera of philosophi- 
cal chemistry, never perhaps were 
so many important truths developed 
in so short a time : the metals of the 
alkalies were soon made instruments 
of analysis ; and by a combination 



LATE DIICOVBEIEI IN ELECTBO-CHEMlCAL fCIEl 






their powci a iili thote of the 
voltaic apparatus, Mi. Dayi has 
succeeded in decomposing phos- 
pborm and lulphui : hie has shewn 
that these bodies arc analogous to 
oils, being combinations ol peculiai 
ii.isi s with small quantities of oxj m 
gen and hydrogen. 

lie has Btade a aumbet of expe* 
riments upon the combinations of 
carbon, from which we understand 
lir infers, thai the pure carboua- 
ceous element is analogous (<• i me- 
tal in Us essence ■ thai ii exists in 
charcoal, combined with a little 
hydrogen ; and in the diamond, 
united to a minute proportion <>i 
earj gen. 

None of the bodies formerly con- 
sidered as simple, have escaped the 
powerful attacks of this indefatiga- 
ble genius without being decom- 
posed or exhibited in a new form. 

Prom the boracic acid lie has 
procured a new substance, which 
he denominates boracium, which is 
highly combustible, and which 
produces boracic acid by burning. 
He has likewise decomposed the 
lluoric acid, and obtained muriatic 
acid, in a state in which it exhibits 
no acid properties, and in which it 
produces effect! that appear to in- 
dicate its decomposition. 

A more remarkable result than 
any of these, is that which he has 
obtained from nitrogen. By the 
action of potassium upon ammonia, 
this bod\ seems to be decomposed ; 
and mhIi are the phenomena ol the 
experiment, thai he conceives they 
cannot be explained on any other 
suppositions, than that nitrogen con- 
sists of oxygen and hydrogen, or 
that water in different electrical 
states maj constitute oxygen, hy- 
drogen, and nitrogen. 



Bach arc the bulb. mi and exti i« 
ordinal \ I ■ ries * hi< h I 
ii. in dei ' loped a itliin ! 
space "i two yeai i uul 1 1 '■ 
which have been accomplished by 
one philosophci . In p just 

tribute to his mei iti . we most not, 
however, p ss <»\ <r, 01 neglei ttl 
hi other labourei i in (he same fi< Id 
ni res ea n h, b ho bai i been itimu- 
I ited by lbs success. \I. M. !!■ r- 
selius and Pontin, of Stockholm, 
have procured an amalgam from 
the volatile alkali ; ■ I ■ at 

wonderful kind, and wlr- 

to shew that metals maj ■ « om« 
pounded. If. If. Gay Luasacand 
Thenard, uwi Frem h cbern 
have produced the metal of potash 
in large quantities by chemical 
means; and it doesDot seen impro- 
bable that similar methods v. ill 
ply to the production of the n* 
of the earths upon s large - 

which might then be applied to 

mani purposes of manumctun i and 

useful arts. 

Notwithstanding this great ad- 
vancement in science, Acre secma 
still ample room lor further re- 
larches : new facts must n I 
rily lead to new arrangements : — 
there is e\ <■< y reOSOfl to hi | I that 
chemical philosophy will be i ill 
more simplified, the number ol de- 
naents reduced, and some laws* -m- 
blished in harmony \\ ith th is ■ i - 
longing to the general sj stem of the 
planetary worlds, It is 8 
consideration to u», in R nati I 
point of \ iew, to see this gl ni B> 
teiision ol SCI O irising in 
eountiv : we shad watch ii^ 

gresa with strong patriotic 

and shall have real] 

municating the result !«• >ur n 

ers, convinced that the) all will con- 
R r2 



502 



EUROPEAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



sider knowfedge'as power, and in- II most noble and dignified pursuits 
(ellectual acquisitions and a do- II of the human mind. 

minion over nature, as amongst the 



HISTORICAL FACTS RELATIVE TO EUROPEAN MANNERS 

AND CUSTOMS. 



^(Continued fro 

In the most ancient times it was 
customary to drink wine before 

dinner, or at the beginning of the 
repast, to strengthen the stomach, 
and it was common to cat eggs with 
the same view. On ordinary days 
Charlemagne's dinner consisted of 
four covers or entries^ and one sin- 
gle dish of roast venison. 

People ate formerly on wooden 
tables without any kind of covering; 
but it wis usual to polish them. 
This practice was succeeded by co- 
verings of leather, and these were 
supplanted by linen and cotton ta- 
ble-cloths. The luxury of napkins 
was not common, anions: private 
persons, till the time of Charles V. 
of France. The first were made at 
Rheims, which city made a present 
to the above-mentioned monarch, 
of table linen of this kind, esti- 
mated at a thousand guilders. \\ 
was an ancient practice for the ta- 
ble-cloth to be cut with great solem- 
nity, by a herald at arms, before 
the seat of a knight who had incur- 
red any disgrace, and to reverse 
his plate. The knight was then 
obliged either to wipe away the 
stain, or to prove that injustice was 
clone him. Tin's was the case with 
William of Hainault, Count of 
Ostrevan, who, being at the table 
of Charles VI. of France, a herald 
cut the table-cloth in two before 
him, saying, that a prince who did 
not bear arms, was unworthy to 



m page US.) 

dine at the king's table. William 
replied in astonishment, that he 
carried a shield and a lance as well 
as any of the other knights. " That 
cannot be," answered the herald, 
" otherwise you would have re- 
venged the death of your great un- 
cle." History adds that this em- 
phatic lesson produced the intended 
effect on the count. 

Knives and spoons were common 
in the most remote antiquity. Am- 
niianus Marcellinus makes mention 
of the former. Forks were not 
known till a later period. The 
most ancient were of iron, and had 
two or three prongs. Slices of 
crust of bread serveil for the first 
plates ; they were next made of 
wood, afterwards of baked and 
glazed earths, and lastly of all 
kinds of metals. 

The ancients understood the art 
of making g-lass. By the moderns 
it was at first employed for the win- 
dows of churches, then for those of 
other magnificent buildings, till at 
Length its use became as common as 
it is at present. 

It is difficult to fix the epoch of 
the first chimney, but the invention 
of stoves belongs to the Germans 
and other northern nations. As 
early as 13S8 there were stoves in 
the royal residences at Paris, and 
in the galleries. Some of these 
were denominated chajfe-doux. 
Benches and stools were formerly 



EUROPE \v MAM \i:ns wn 



501 



the most common seat i ei en in the 
palaces of princei. ( ! hairs were 
\n \ rare. The bed) s, » essential 
;ni article in 8 house, thai even 
among the lowest classes the wnnl 
of one is the most unequivocal 
of extreme indigence, was an ob- 
ject of the ntmosl luxury with the 
Greeks and Romans, after they had 
r\< li tnged tin- couches of lea i es 
mid skins on which 'heir heroic an- 
cestors reposed, for mattresses, fea- 
thers, ;i iwl beds of down. The bed- 
stead was made of ivorj . silver, 
ebony, or Cedar. Of the prodigious 
beds in which <>ur forefathers used 



!. In the fifteenth c fitarj the 
hunt < .in' l ha < ' 
m\ i nted in the Netherlands, and 
thence inti It 

i that pei 
in middli 

obliged to put up a iili i< ; 
\'i i lino or tfir points </' 1 1 
The manufacture of the ( • 
established under Henrj I \ . and 
broil lit to pet feet ion by ( 
.Mid Hie celebrated paintei Le Brun, 
has eclipsed the pro of 

r\ cry othei d < ountry. Da- 

mask (so c died from D imascua, 
in S\ ria, a here the first stuffs of 



to sleep with their wives, their this Kind were made), admii 
children, and often their favourite adapted to thepurposcs of tapes 
dogs, scarcely anj specimen, we is manufactured at Tours and Lyona 
presume, is now in existence. Per- in Prance. The Venetian 6r< 
sons, of the highest rank, made no | telle; the printed linens of P 
scruple to lie in the same bed with and India: the ta tontissc, 



their wives and acqu lintance, and 
this was considered the Btrongesl 
proof of friendship and confidence 
thai could possiblj l>e given. Ad- 
miral Bonnivef often shared his bed 
with his sovereign, Francis I. of 
France. 

Rush and straw mats were the 
earliest tapestry With which the 
Walls of rooms were hung. The co- 
lours of the straw were chosen with 
such skill, and blended with so 

much taste, that these mats produ- 
ced an uncommonly pleasing effect. 
Mats of this description, of ver\ 

delicate workmanship, are still to 

be procured in the Levant. They 

letch B high price, and are held in 

great estimation for the vivacitj of 

the colours and the beauty of the 
figures. The use of tapestry, ol 

linen and silks, in which whole his- 
tories are woven, dates hack far- 
ther than six hundred years. \i 
that time, however, it was not uni- 



corn posed of the cuttinga of colour- 
ed woollen cloths, attached to can- 
vas by means ol gum : painted anil 

gilt leather, a very ancient ii 

tion, ascribed to the Spaniards ; 

and paper, now so universally em- 
ployed, should not be omitted in 
this place. 

The lirst milTOfS were of metal. 
Cicero attributes the inventia 
Escuhvpius, the god of pbj sici ms ■ 
and we find mention made of them 
'i\ Mosrs. The lirst minor- of 
silver were made at Rome i . 

of Pompey. Pliny likewise 
speaks of a shining stone (proh 

I talc) which may be sepai 

I thin lamina', and when laid upon 

a metal ground, reflects ob 

fei tly well. Glass mil rots . 

introduced into Euro] e towards the 

conclusion of the Crusades ; to the 

\ enetians, the first poss 

the secret, they were s very 1 

the branch ol Hade, arid their ma- 



SfH 



EUROPEAN MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



nufacturrs of looking-gHsscs gave 
birth lo ali those with which Europe 
now bounds. 

The simplicity of manners pre- 
vailing at no very remote jioriod in 
England, and the extraordinary 
change which took place herein the 
sixteenth century, in respect to 
many of the articles of domestic 
convenience enumerated above, is 
admirably illustrated by one of our 
old writers, in the following quaint 
observations, which can scarcely 
fail to amuse the reader : — 

" There are old men yet dwell- 
ing in the village where I remain, 
who have noted three things that 
lire marvellously altered in England 
within their sound remembrances. 
One is the multitude of chimnies 
lately erected ; whereas in their 
young d;iys there were not above 
two or three, if so many, in many 
upland ish towns of the realm (the 
religions houses and manor places 
of their lords always excepted, and 
perad vent are, some great person- 
als), hut each one made his fire 
against a rrrr (fosse, in the hall 
where he dined and dressed his 
meat. The second is the great 
amendment of lodging ; for, said 
they, ourfathers, and we ourselves, 
have lain full oft upon straw pal- 
lets, covered only with a sheet, un- 
der coverlets made of dogsvain or 
hop harlots (I use their own terms), 
and a good round log under their 
heads, instead of a bolster. If it 
were so that our fathers or the^ood 
man of the house had a mattress or 
flock-bed, and thereto a sack ot 
chafF to rest his head upon, he 
thought himself tobe as well lodged 
as the lord of the town, so well 
were they contented. Pillows, said 



they, were thought meet onlv for 
women in child-bed. As for ser- 
vants, if they had any sheet above 
them it was well, for seldom had 
they any under their bodies to keep 
them from the pricking straws that 
ran through the canvas, and raised 
their hardened hides. 

" The third thing they fell of is 
the exchange of wooden platters in- 
to pewter, and wooden spoons into 
silver or tin. For so common were 
all sorts of wooden vessels, in old 
time, that a man should hardly find 
four pieces of pewter (of which 
one was peradventure a salt-seller) 
in a good farmer's house; and yet 
for all this frugality, if it may so 
be justly called, they were scarce 
able to live and pay their rents at 
their da \s, without selling of a cow, 
or a horse, or more, although they 
paid but four pounds at the utter- 
most by the year. Such also was 
their poverty, that if a farmer or 
husbandman had been at the ale- 
house, a thing greatly used in those 
days, amongst six or seven of his 
neighbours, and there, in a bravery, 
to show what store he had, did cast 
down his purse, and therein a noble 
or six shillings in silver, unto them, 
it is very likely that all the rest 
could not lay down so much against 
it ; whereas in my time, although 
peradventure four pounds of old 
rent be improved to forty or fifty 
pounds, yet will the farmer think 
his gains very small toward the 
midst of his term, if he have not 
six orseven years rent lying by him, 
wherewith to purchase a new lease ; 
besides a fair garnish of pewter on 
his cupboard, three or four feather 
beds, as many coverlids and car- 
pets of tapestry, a silver salt-seller, 



I i: i M 






h howl fofwinc, if not fl wbolenest, 

Mid i dozen of ipoont to furnish up 
the raft." 

The mum author ;iIm» exclaimi 
loudly sgainsl (he luxury "I attire 
which accompanied this remarkable 
change in the othei branchei oi do- 
mestic econora \ . "I hai •• met," 
mji he, M wild some in London to 
disguised, thai ii lint li pnssnl m\ 
skill (o discern whether they iren 
men or women.* 1 He adds: " nei- 
iIk i w;is ii erer merrier with Eng- 
land, than when an Englishman 

>\as kDOWn l>> hil own cloth, and 



contented himself u ii!> 
tit hose ;hkI i mean ilo| 
his ( o.it , gown, an <>i brown, 

blue, "i pin e, » th imc | * r « ny 
farnitore <■! relvot <u t .1 r . ■■ l .1 
doublet <>t sad-tawnej . <>r black 
eetaet, ii< ( on 1 I > -ilk : without 
such parish colours i-. an- 

in these daj 1, and nerei brought 
in but by the consent <>i the Fren< h, 
a ho think themseh es th 
men, when thej b are most direr* 
sit v ;iinl change of colours ■boss] 
them." 

( Th hr coHtimn if. ) 



REMARKABLE PROPERTY OF BOILING TAR. 



p.uiMiimitii, April 7, 1 309. 
Mr. I'd 1 to it, 
Not being at all acquainted 
with the properties of tar, boiling 
or colli, 1 should wish much to be 
informed, through the Repository) 
how it is accounted for, that Un- 
bare hand or arm of a man can be 
thrust into a boiling cauldron of 
tar, and receive no injury : but il 
a i^Iovp or iiiiv covering is put 
on cither, it is immediately com- 



tumea\ and the pa rt 1-, .is I am 
told, ;is much affected as it" put 
into boiling water. In the hemp- 
bouse at Portsmouth -jard, the 

oilier daj, I saw one of the men 

put his hand and arm, uncovered, 
into boiling t;ir, ami dabble in it .»» 

if in cold water. 
I am, 

Sin, 
Your numb 

W. A. M 



THE WATCH SPANIEL. 

Tin: race of the canine species 
Which paases under this denomina- 
tion, is supposed to have originated 
in a cross between the large water- 
dog and the springing spaniel, and 

is so universally known, that it 

would be almost superfluous to en- 
ter into a minute description of its 
appearance. It is more particularly 

useful in those counties » liicb i 



Plate 20.— BRITISH SPOR 
ntinucd from page '210.) 

abound with swamps, 



. and 

ri\ers. w ith rushi 

Amidst the infinite variety i" 
and colour observable in tl 
those dogs 1 hich are rath 

mediocrity in suture and strength 

are entitled to tl e p . a^ 

they experience less 
finding their game in willow I 
anil bush) water 

sportsmen pretend 



snr» 



Eiirrisii spci'TH. 



grees of perfection depend on the I 
different Colours of the different | 

animals. They assert . for instance, j 
thai the black are the best and har- 
diest ; the spotted, or pied, the 
qnickot of scent ; the liver-colour- 
ed the most rapid in swimming, I 
ami the most eager in pursuit : but 
these notions are rather the fabri- 
cations of fancy than the result of 
judicious investigation * Colour 
may justly be deemed a matter of 
mere taste or caprice ; for, as far 
as the qualifications of dogs in the 
field are concerned, good and bad 
of all colours arc to be found. In 
respect to shape and figure, the 
body of the water-spaniel should 
not be too large, or the frame too 
heavy : the head should be round, 
iht' ears long-, broad, soft, and pen- 
dulous, the eyes prominent and 
lively, the neck short and thick, the 
shoulders broad, the legs straight, 
the chine square, the buttocks round 
and linn, the thighs muscular, the 
pastern-joints strong and dew-claw- 
ed, the fore-feet long and round, 
7 lie hair long and naturally curled, 
not loose and shaggy; for the first 
indicates constitutional hardiness 
and strength, and the latter a bo- 
dily tenderness which disqualiiies 
the animal to bear the water. 

The instruction of the water- 
spaniel is not a task of great trouble 
or difficulty. The exclamations ne- 
cessary in breaking and hunting 
him are very concise and expres- 
sive. " Down !"— " hie on !"— 
" back !"— -and l ' hie lost !" are all 
that is. required in shooting wild 
fowl. These terms he soon becomes 
perfectly accustomed to, and rea- 
dily obcj r s : the first implying to 
couch or lie close ; the second, to 
try for the gam^ \ the third, to 



come behind ; and the last, to try 
hard for the recovery of the bird 
when killed or wounded, and some- 
times lost in the sedges, rushes, or 
covert. 

The chief point in the instruction, 
of the water-spaniel is to teach him 
to fetch and carry at the word of 
command. Care should be taken, 
in the beginnin<r, to make him use 
a tender mouth, lest the birds should 
be torn and rendered unfit for the 
table. When once completely broke 
and expert in the business, he is in- 
defatigable in the pursuit and dis- 
covery of every kind of fowl whose 
place of nativity or residence is in 
or near aqueous situations. By at- 
tentive observation he arrives at 
such a degree of excellence, as al- 
most exceeds belief; for, upon flush- 
ing a bird, the eye is fixed so inva- 
riably on the object, that, imme- 
diately on the discharge of the gun, 
if the game is struck, he sets off 

I with the utmost speed to bring it to 
his master, and to seize it, if pos- 
sible, even before it reaches the 
ground. 

Exclusive of the services render- 

l ed by this dog in the field, there 
are other occasions on which his 
assistance is almost indispensable, 
particularly in taking wild fowl by 
means of decoj's, into the details of 
which our limits forbid us to enter. 
As the rough and awkward ap- 
pearance, together with the strong 

' and unpleasant effluvia issuing from 

I the shaggy coat of the water-spa- 
niel, procure him a less favourable 
reception than those species of dogs 
whose exterior is more pleasing, 
his tenderness, fidelity, sagacity, 
and other qualities, are more liable 
to escape the notice of man. But 
though he is deprived of opportu- 



nniTi^ir <=r RTs. 



907 



niiirs of shewing thai he is not 
ficient iii the \ i : tics which so • - 1 • i i - 
nehtly distingui h irai iom br inches 
of hii ipeciti , v el proofs are n<>i 
wanting tha( he p in an 

equal degree, the atti ibuti i thai 
belong to the oilier kinds of spa- 
niels. ( H this we shall introduce 
one affecting instance, which is thus 
related bj ■ writei oi rcspet tabilitj . 

,\ lew d;;\ I ii. lore the *<'\\ Thcr- 

midor (the day <»n w hich R< 
pierre was overthrown ), n revoJu- 
tio:i;i' \ i : ' anal iii <nic of the 
partracnts in the north of Krani e, 

condemned I » death M. de« K , 

formerly a magistrate, and a moat 
amiable man, under the pretext ol 
his being implicated in a conspi- 
racy. This gentleman had a water- 
spaniel, ten or eleven yean old, 
which had been brought up by him 
from ;•• puppy, and had nevei quit- 
ted him. During liis imprisonment, 
lie heard thai his familj had been 
dispersed by the system of terror : 
some ol its members had e>< aped by 
(light ; others wire apprehended, 
■dad confined in distant gaols; his 
servants were discharged; his house 
was forsaken ; liis friends either 
abandoned him or secreted them- 
selves; every thing on earth was 
lost id him, except his dog. This 
faithful animal had been repeatedly 
refused admittance into tin- prison ; 
he hail as repeatedly returned to 

the house { A' his m.ister, and ;is often 

found ii shut. Under this mortifi- 
cation he look refuge beneath tin- 
roof of a neighbour, who. know- 
ing the i\o£, and commiserating his 
distress, received ami caressed him. 
But what a dreadful picture of the 
state of societj atthat time in France, 
must be presented to the mind o( the 
reader, when he is informed that; 
Y . / . I . /. 



this humane 

in secret, and with )• ap- 

prehension, lest his la 1 1 iii ... for. 

(he harmless, inoffensive urii il 

should I 

condm i<-d to the 
( )n. e da ted « Ufa 

ml, be i 
riably at the 

house, and i. ■;. | j i ,1 f.» th 

the | » r i on : here 

denied admittance, he i 

I I an hour b 

returned. His invincible lid. hi . 

unalterable atl ichmcnt, at l< 

ited s<, powerfully upon the 
hitherto unaffected feeling 
porter, that h<- permitted ■ 
fering appln mi ; 
beheld his master, and the meeting 

may lie conceived much iieti i th in 

ii i .a be d i ibed. \ ftei 
tual gratification of this temp 
union, it was difficult lo 
them : hut the gaoler was peremp- 
tory in taking him away, and the 
discarded visitant returned to fa 
treat . He came ba< k the next morn- 
ing and each sin ceeding d iy, 
regularly admitted, and exch u I 
caresses with his master. In I 
scenes of complii stow he 

i tin- hand of hi- d . [end, 

wistfully examined his if to 

discover e\ erj 

licked his hand again a I 

then, ol his own accord, r. -tired 
without a prompter to urge hil 
partnre. 

W hen the d iy of trial arri - 
Betting < •• iv • bstack at ded 
anil in . pite < 

his way into the court, and I 

between the h its o\ hi 
master, whom 
• r i \er. The ju 
him : C( and," says the writer of this 



JOS 



RETROSPECT OF POLITICS. 



narrative, " may my tears bo par- 
doned (lie expression which issues 
from them, they condemned him in 
the presence of his dog." He was 
conveyed back to prison with awful 
solemnity ; hut the dog being no 
more admitted, never quitted the 
door. The fatal hour at length 
arrived ; the prison door slowly 
opens — the unhappy victim ad- 
vances, and upon the threshold his 
faithful dog is ready to receive him. 
lie clings to his hand — that hand 
which, in a few moments, can never , 
be again extended to caress the af- 
fectionate brute. He follows his 
master in silent sorrow, and, at the 
place of execution, maj- truly be 
said to have looked aghast at the 
dreadful note of preparation. The 
axe falls — the master dies, and no- 
thing can sooth the grief of the 
afflicted animal. The lifeless trunk 
is borne away — he walks by its 
side — the earth receives it — the tear 
of sensibility starts from his eye: 
and as the last tribute of affection 
to the memory of his friend, he 
makes his seat of sorrow upon the 
grave. 

lli'vc this animal, whose tender 
attachment has rarely been exceed- 
ed even by the human species, 
passed the first night, the next day, 
the second night ; when the bene- 
volent neighbour, unhappy at not 
seeing him, and guessing, from the 
ardour of his affection, the retreat 
be had chosen, determined once 
more to risk his safety, sought, and 



found him — caressed him — brought 
him back, and, by patient perse- 
verance, induced him to eat. In 
less than an hour the dog escaped, 
and again repaired to his favourite 
place. Three months passed away ; 
and during this time, he went every 
morning to receive some sustenance, 
and tlun returned to the ashes of 
his master. Each succeeding day 
he grew more sad, more emaciated, 
nunc depressed, and it was evident 
that he was gradually approaching 
the conclusion of his life. An at- 
tempt was made, by chaining him 
up, to wean him from this fruitless 
affection, but in vain ; it was im- 
possible to conquer the predominant 
propensities of nature : he broke, 
or gnawed asunder, the bonds in- 
tended to restrain him ; escaped — 
returned to the grave, and never 
quitted it more. In vain (hey en- 
deavoured to bring him back; food 
was carried to him, but he would 
eat no longer. For twenty-four 
hours he was seen exerting his ema- 
ciated limbs in digging up the earth 
which parted him from the remains 
of the master he had so ardently 
loved. The force of his attachment 
prolonged his strength, and he gra- 
dually approached the body ; he 
then redoubled his labours ; his ef- 
forts became convulsive — he shriek- 
ed in his struggles — his faithful 
heart gave way, and he breathed 
out his last gasp, as if in conscious 
exultation that he had found his 
master. 



RETROSPECT OF POLITICS. 

In our last number we concluded 
our observations upon the political 
events which had occurred, by ex- 



prospects for this country and for 
Europe. We rejoice now to state, 
that the cause of the Continent ap- 



pressing a strong hope of brighter » pears to have suiiered nothing by 



i: i i tOI PI ' I "l POI l I l< «. 






the events of the last month] while, II 
mi the othei band) < Ireat Bi itain 
und li<! .'Hies li.i\ c made impot lanl 
conquests fi oni I rancc in I he colo- 
nies. 

The war wiili Prance nit I al* 
ways be-considercd in two points of 
\ irw , colonial and < outincntal. Bo- 
naparte lias lusi none of that desire 
which he expressed at Ultn h>r 
*■• ships, colonies, and commerce.' 1 
No sooner did be declare bit bro- 
ther king of Spain, than he confer- 
red upon him the addil ional title <»i 
king of '* lis*' two Amcri 
This was i"'i tin' ancient title of 
(lie kings <>i Spain, nor was ii se- 
lected without an object. As soon 
as Bonaparte had entered Madrid, 
he declared that several contribu- 
tions, which had been levied^ should 
he repaid outof the revenues of his 
brother from Spanish America. 
Ili> object is most palpably to grasp 

al South America as well as Spain : 
I > ■ 1 1 this is an object which the loy- 
alty and courage of the people of 

that country, as well as the power 
of (he liritish nav\ . put >, for the 

present, out of his reach. It is the 

most evident and unquestionable 

policy of this country never to al- 
low him \o obtain that object) and 

to defend the colonial world against 
his power and his intrigues. In 
this point of \ iew we attach the ut- 
most importance fo (lie capture of 
the valuable island of Martinique 
by the British, to the capture of 
Cayenne 1\\ Ihe British and Portu- 
guese, and also to the efforts of 
the Spanish patriots in the south of 
St. Domingo, which will probably 
rescue that is! md < ntirelj from 
Prance. We now anticipate the 
capture of Guarialoupe, and the 
complete eradication of the French 



i ii. ii \ I,. i 

Indies. 'I'll, 

conquc is mn i be 

\V hen all these nests <»i pi i 
mi rathei "t i i it< ate in 
band it ll 

w ill he almost in pel '< I ' »C< mih . 

There i i anothei < on • -Jill 

more imp ulant : tin- II nil d 

nial force w Inch Engl m< ' - 

and I'm tugal | • ■ I in I 

w ill be at all times an 01 i 

for any power which I i 

send to that part of th 

w ill be sufficient to mike the I 

States of A incrica hesitate I i 

they rush into a war with tin. 

country. While the em 

the Spanish people were kept d 

te corrupt goi em 
Prince of the Pet ce, :■• of 

the I fnited States entertained 
most so\ , reign contempt for • 
South American neighbours. I 

Burr, or any bold ad v . c on- 

sidered the conquest of !l 
he an enterprise of little d 
or danger. The conques 

nada and New l»rui>s\ 
also mentioned in Congi 
necessary consequence ol a war 
with Great Hi" tin. 1 

ed situation oi" the I 

affairs, may. howei er, che< 
some degree the ambition < 
American government, as while die 

alliance continues I 

i Britain, Spain, ami P 

they might ] ' tiiat it 

would be eas I 

than to conquer ( 

Jn a military point of view 
res of Martinique and I 
enne have been m< si nil 
reflect the highest honour oa the 
conquerors. 
in bis official dispi 
fi i 



$10 



rtCTIlOSPECT OF TOLITICP. 



twenty-setfen days after the expedi- 
tion left Barbadoes, the whole of 
the island, including the tort of 
Bourbon, were in the possession of 
the British. The French com- 
mander, Villaret Joyeuse, who had 
threatened to hur}' himself and his 
garrison in the ruins of the fort, 
was glad to capitulate at the end ot 
a three weeks siege. It was not for 
want of provisions that the fort 
surrendered, hut because it could 
no longer withstand the superior 
fire of the British. The capture of 
Cayenne was perhaps equally bril- 
liant and important. Its governor 
was the celebrated Victor Hugues, 
who had been for a long time go- 
vernor of Guadaloupe, and was 
considered a man of the most de- 
termined courage. The expedition 
which captured it was but a small 
one, and consisted of a mixed force 
of British and Portuguese. The 
British part of the force was com- 
manded by the brave Captain Yeo, 
who is second in command to Sir 
Sidney Smith, and who treads 
closely in the steps of that distin- 
guished officer. Like Sir Sidney 
Smith, he shews as much talent 
in fighting on shore as upon his 
own element. It was to his con- 
duct and spirit in storming the dif- 
ferent forts and batteries, that this 
important conquest was principally 
owing. 

In stating the events which have 
lately taken place in the colonial 
world, it is necessary to mention 
that the rival chiefs who govern the 
French pnrt of the island of Hayti, 
Christop-ie and Petion, are both of 
them friendly to the exertions of the 
Spanish patriots in the south, and 
appear to acknowledge that that 
part of the island belongs to Spain. 



If the patriots should there succeed: 
in their objects, we should have 
another friendly power in the West 
Indies, whose influence would pro- 
bably be felt by the black leaders of 
Hayti, and prevent those mischiefs 
which were once apprehended from 
them by the European settlers in 
the West Indies. 

Upon the Continent, the French 
do not appear to have gained any 
important advantages in the course 
of the last month. Although their 
forces in Spain still maintain a su- 
periority over the Spanish armies 
commanded by Reding, Cuesta, 
and Albuquerque, yet they have 
now to encounter a very serious op- 
position ; and when it is considered 
(hit the Spanish nation is recover- 
ing fast from the panic which the 
successes of Bonaparte had inspir- 
ed, that their armies are improv- 
ing in number and discipline, while 
the ruler of France, instead of re- 
inforcing his army in Spain, has 
been obliged to Avithdraw from it 
several divisions, of which he is in 
need in other parts, it appears to 
us that the cause of the patriots in 
Spain is much more promising now 
than it was last month. In Galli- 
cia, and tho northern provinces, 
where once it was said that the uf" 
most apathy and indifference to the 
public cause prevailed, we now 
perceive a considerable display of 
spirit. 

The capture of Vigo, in which 
two British frigates co-operated, 
was a most brilliant and daring en- 
terprize. In this affair we find 1500 
Spanish veterans, who had been dis- 
charged from the service, coming 
forward as volunteers among a nu- 
merous and brave peasantry. We 
take some credit to ourselves for the 



n i i K oipb< r of i'ii 1 1 






opinions Mr- have given in a former 
.\ umber, respecting the peasant* of 
Gallicia. When the I n ncfa Wo- 
niteur gravely stated that thej 
murdered all the I !n 
that came into their pow< i , and 
when no journalist in this country 
stepped forward to n cue our brave 
from fliis. foul and ungenerous 
imputation, «c stated that the as- 
set ' ion must be a base and \\ icked 
calumnj . The opinion we then 
g&\ i w ill now be found coi rect. 
Instead ol murdering the unfor- 
ti Btragglers from our army, 
they sheltered them, and as soon as 
the French had passed, thej s< nl 
them off (•) join theii countrymen 
in Portugal, [nstead of she^ ii 
total apathy to the cause of their 
country, they are now fighting lor 
ii with considerable spirit and bu< - 
cess. The conduct of the ( Jalli- 
ciana at this moment should teach 
the journalists of this country not 
to be too ready in future to think 
ill of a brave and generous people, 

with whom we arc now in strict al- 
liance. On the side of Portugal, 
Marshal Soult lias invaded that 
country) and Beized Oporto, after a 
alight resistance. This enterprise 
can be of little other service to the 
French than giving a booty to the 
general of the army that captured 
it, tor it is impossible that Soult 
can maintain his ground in Portu- 
gal, having a superior British arm j 
in trout, and the Marquis de R«>- 
niana and the (ialliciaas in his rear. 
When the reinforcements under Sir 
Arthur Welle&ley shall arrive in 
IheTagus, we think Portugal will 
have nothing to tear either from 
Marshal Soult, or from any French 
force that can be spared from L'stre- 
saadura. 

Since our last, a revolution has 



taken place in Sweden, Etod the king 

has been deposed. I lie present m- 
Iris e\ pr< to 

peace « ith liu ia and I 'ram <■, and 
at the s Hue time t'> preserve [ 
w ith I land. We I a 

'it siiiin i.ni mat 
ns to allow n . in indulge in sj 
lationa as to the pr< 
objects being obtained) We bava 

Only simply U) slate tin- Int. lliul 

the Emperor of Russia has. m . 

lent e of those evei 
armistice with I that lii» 

ler, Alopeus, bad \ iaiit S 

holm. 

\\ hat may be the final dec' i 
of the Emperor Mexander, or how 

be will adhere to his all 
with Bonaparte, is i qm itioa of 
great political importance, but which 
we have n<> means of determining. 

\\ e know, however, that the al- 
liance was not formed from friend- 
ship, or from any common \i< 
policj . but that it was formed from 
fear, and dictated immediately al- 
ter the unfortunate bal • ieaV 
land. We know little of the mind 
oi' the Emperor Alexander, or <>f 
those who influence his conduct, 
but Are know that in the common 
calculation of human feelings and 
human actions, the man 
friend or an ally merely through 
fear, is likely to be a deadly enemy 
when that fe.tr is removed. Such 
may be the condm i of Alexan 

We rejoice to state that Austria 
still continues her formidable de- 
fensive preparations, and that 
napartc still hesit strike a 

blow. This hesitation can only 
proceed from a diffidence of his 
strength ; and by his being obi 
to rival several of his divisions t'i"iu 
Spain to increase his armies against 
Austria, it is evident they arc. not 



113 



MEbTCATi UF.PORT. 



so numerous as he would wish Eu- 
rope to suppose, If the Austrians ; 
defend themselves ;is well (consi- j 
dcritfg their superior resources) as 
the Spanish nation has done lor the 
last ten months, it appears that A us- 
tri;i, supported by Spain, Portugal, 
and Great Britain, might balance 
the power of Bonaparte ; and if a 
balance were once found to that 
power which has so long kept the 
world in awe, there would be very 
little don!)! that li is present allies 
would soon become his enemies, 
and France would be again obliged 
to return to her natural limits. 

We shall conclude these obser- 
vations, by repeating that, in the 
course of the last month, France ap- 
pears to have gained nothing on the 
Continent, but that she* has lost 
considerably in the colonies. 



After the preceding observations 
had been sent to the press, the joy- 
ful news has been received of the 
dest nut ion of a considerable part 
of the French fleet in Basque roads. 
We have the most sincere pleasure 
in congratulating our country on 
an event so pleasing and so im- 
portant, in its consequences. We 
see that, notwithstanding the suc- 
cesses which Bonaparte lias hither- 
to had on th*e Continent, every year 
that he perseveres in the war with 
this country, establishes more and 
more firmly our maritime superio- 
rity ; while every year removes 
him still farther from his favourite 
object of " ships, colonies, and 
commerce. ' ' We arc happy to have 
this victory to add to the successes 
which have marked the present 
month. 



MEDICAL REPORT. 



As account of the diseases which 
ha\e occurred in the reporter's own 
practice, from the 15th of March to 
the 15th of April, 1809. 

Jcidc diseases. — Scarlet fever and 
gore throat, 8.... Continued fever, 
£.... Inflammatory sore throat, 4 — 
Catarrh, 11... A cute rheumatism, G 

Inflammation of the lungs, 2 — 

Small-pox, 3.... Hooping cough, 2 
....Acute diseases of infants, 8. 

( hronie diseases. — Pulmonary 
consumption, 1 1 ....Scrofula, 2 — 
Marasmus, 1.... Cough and Dys- 
pnoea, 4S Cough and spitting of 

blood, I Pleurodync, 6 — Chro- 
mic rheumatism, 7 Lumbago, 2 

....Head-ache and Vertigo, 5'.... 
Gaslrodjniia, 8 — Dyspepsia, 7 — 
Asthenia, ll....Palsy, 2. ...Drop- 
sy, 8 Diarrhea, 6'. ...Bilious vo- 
miting, 3,... Colic, l....Dyi>ure, 2 



....Ilamiatemesis, 3 .... Hypochon- 
driasis, 2 Cutaneous diseases, 3 

....Morbi Muliebrium, 5. 

The severe weather, during the 
whole of this month, has been very 
productiye of disease : scarlet fever 
; and sore throat, rheumatic, catar- 
rhal, and continued fevers, have pre- 
vailed to a considerable extent. 
The most frequent and obstinate 
complaints, however, have been 
affections of the lungs and chest. 
Invalids who had struggled through 
the winter with dilliculty, have suf- 
fered relapses ; and many who had 
hitherto escaped altogether, h