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Full text of "A research bibliography in Christian ethics and Catholic moral theology"

Research Bibliograpby 



AND Catholic Moral Theology 



Compiled and Annotated by James T. Bretzke 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/researchbibliogrOObret 



A Research Bibliography 

IN Christian Ethics 

AND Catholic Moral Theology 



A Research Bibliography 

IN Christian Ethics 

AND Catholic Moral Theology 



Compiled and Annotated by 

James T. Bretzke 



The Edwin Mellen Press 
Lewiston*Queenston*Lampeter 



3Ll)b(o 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Bretzke, James T., 1952- 

A research bibliography in Christian ethics and Catholic moral theology / [compiled and 
annotated] by James T. Bretzke. 

p. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 



ISBN- 13 
ISBN- 10 



978-0-7734-5796-6 
0-7734-5796-8 



1. Christian ethics-Bibliography. I. Title. 

Z7771.5.E84B75 2006 

[BJ1251] 

016.241~dc22 

2006041986 

hors serie. 

A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. 

Copyright © 2006 James T. Bretzke 

AH rights reserved. For information contact 

The Edwin Mellen Press The Edwin Mellen Press 

Box 450 Box 67 

Lewiston, New York Queenston, Ontario 

USA 14092-0450 CANADA LOS ILO 

The Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd. 

Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales 

UNITED KINGDOM SA48 8LT 

Printed in the United States of America 



In Memory of My Two Greatest Teachers of Moral Theology 

Josef Fuchs, SJ. 
(1912-2005) 

and 

William Costelloe Spohn 
(1944-2005) 



Table of Contents 

Foreword by Richard M. Gula i 

Acknowledgements iii 

Introduction 1 

Casuistry 19 

Articles on Casuistry 19 

Books on Casuistry 21 

Church Authority and Tradition in Christian Ethics and Moral Theology 

25 

Statements/Documents of the Magisterium 25 

Documents from the Holy See (Vatican) 25 

Episcopal Documents 27 

Articles on the Magisterium, Authority, and/or Dissent 30 

Books on the Magisterium and/or Dissent 51 

Veritatis Splendor: John Paul II's Encyclical on Fundamental Moral 

Theology 57 

Articles on Veritatis Splendor 58 

Books on Veritatis Splendor 75 

The Common Good and Moral Community 79 

Articles on the Common Good 79 

Books on the Common Good r 82 

Articles on Moral Community 84 

Books on Moral Community 88 

Comparative and Cross-Cultural Ethics 99 

Articles on Comparative and/or Cross-Cultural Ethics 99 

Books on Comparative and/or Cross-Cultural Ethics 110 

Culture, Multiculturalism, andEthics 121 

Conscience and Moral Psychology 127 

Articles/Chapters on Conscience and Moral Development .127 

Books on Conscience and Moral Development 139 

Dealing with Evil to Achieve Good 149 

Theological/Philosophical Problem of Evil (Theodicy) 149 

Intrinsece Malum (Intrinsic Evil) and/or Ontic Evil 152 



Compromise, Cooperation, Minus Malum, Principle of Tolerance ... 157 
Proportionalism 161 

Discernment in Moral Living and Decision-Making 173 

Articles on Moral Discernment 173 

Books on Moral Discernment 174 

Distinctiveness {Proprium) of Christian Ethics 177 

Articles on the Specificity of Christian Ethics 177 

Books on the Specificity of Christian Ethics 188 

Ecumenical Ethics: Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox 193 

Articles on Ecumenical Ethics 193 

Books on Ecumenical Ethics 208 

Feminist Ethics 221 

Articles on General Feminist Ethics 221 

Books on General Feminist Ethics 230 

Feminist Ethics in Liberation Theology . 243 

Fundamental Christian Ethics and Moral Theology 245 

Post Vatican II Manuals of Moral Theology 245 

Articles on Fundamental Christian Ethics 250 

Books on Fundamental Christian Ethics 257 

General And/or Miscellaneous Christian Ethics 269 

Globalization and Ethics 289 

Articles on Global Ethics 289 

Books on Global Ethics 300 

History of Christian Ethics 311 

Traditional and/or Important Manuals of Moral Theology 311 

Articles on the History of Moral Theology 314 

Books on the History of Moral Theology 323 

Inculturation and Christian Ethics 333 

Articles on Inculturation of Ethics 333 

Books on Inculturation of Ethics 343 

Liberation Theology and Christian Ethics 351 

Christian Ethics and Liberation 351 

" Justice Theme in Liberation Ethics 356 

Moral Autonomy of the Human Person 359 



Articles on Moral Autonomy 359 

Books on Moral Autonomy 360 

Moral Norms 365 

Articles on Moral Norms 365 

Books on Moral Norms 373 

Narrative and Christian Ethics 379 

Articles on Narrative Theology 379 

Books on Narrative Theology 385 

Natural Law 395 

Articles on the Natural Law 395 

Books on the Natural Law 417 

Psychology, Heart, Emotions, and Moral Development 431 

Articles on Psychology and Moral Development 431 

Books on Psychology and Moral Development 435 

Articles on the Heart and/or Emotions in Moral Theology 443 

Books on the Heart and/or Emotions in Moral Theology/Philosophy . . 446 

Religion & Morality, Worship, Prayer, Sacraments & Ethics 451 

Articles on Religion and Morality 451 

Books on Religion and Morality 456 

Articles on Ethics, Prayer, Liturgy, Worship and Sacraments 466 

Books on Ethics, Prayer, Liturgy, Worship and Sacraments 474 

Sin, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation 479 

Articles on Sin and Reconciliation in Christian Ethics 479 

Books on Sin and Reconciliation in Christian Ethics 501 

Virtue, Vision, and Character 515 

Articles on Character, Vision and Virtue 515 

Books on Character, Vision and Virtue 533 

Research Aids, Dictionaries, and Bibliographies on Christian Ethics .... 549 

Bibliographic and Periodic Review of Moral Literature 549 

Dictionaries of Christian Ethics 551 

General Dictionaries on Christian Ethics 551 

Specialized Bibliographies and Dictionaries on Areas of Moral 

Theology 554 

Bibliographies and Dictionaries on Biblical Ethics ... 554 

Dictionaries on Medical Ethics 554 

Dictionaries on Social Ethics 555 



Bibliographies on Social Ethics, Peace, War, and Non- 
violence 555 

Other Bibliographical Aids 555 

Periodicals with Bibliography 555 

Specialized Bibliographies 556 

Index 561 



List of Abbreviations and Foreign Conventions 

AA.VV. Varied (various) authors (collective authorship of a work) 

A cura di Edited by (Italian) 

ARCIC Anglican-Roman Catholic Interfaith Commission 

CDF Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith 

CTSA Catholic Theological Society of America, professional organization 

DV Dei verbum (Vatican II Constitution on Revelation) 

FABC Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences (South Asia, East Asia, 

Micronesia) 

Festschrift Essays done in honor of an individual, usually by former students 
and/or professional colleagues. (German, though used in English) 



GS 



Gaudium et spes (Vatican II Constitution on the Church in the 
Modem World) 



Herausgegeben von Edited by (German) 

Hrsg. Herausgeber German for "editor") 

HV Humanae vitae 1968 Encyclical of Pope Paul VI on Regulation of 

Births 

JPIC Justice, Peace, and the Integrity of Creation (1 989 WCC theme) 

LG Lumen gentium (Vatican II document) 

Melanges French version of a Festschrift 

NCCB National Conference of Catholic Bishops (same organization as 

USCCB) 

NT New Testament 

OT Old Testament OR Vatican II's Optatam totius (decree on seminary 

training). The intended meaning should be obvious depending on the 
context. 



RCIA Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (by which an adult becomes a 

Catholic) 



Religious order initials: 



Initials following an individual's name indicate that 
person is a member of a Roman Catholic Religious 
Order of either men or women (i.e., priest, brother, or 
sister). Some of the more common examples found in 
this bibliography are C.Ss.R. (Congregation of the 
Most Holy Redeemer-Redemptorist); O.P. (Order of 
Preachers—Dominican); and S.J. (Society of Jesus- 
Jesuit). Often the initials stand for the Latin name of 
the Religious Order, and so are not always easily 
identifiable with its English equivalent, e.g. C.S.C. 
refers to the Latin name of the Holy Cross Fathers and 
Brothers. 



ST Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas 

S.T.D. Doctor of Sacred Theology (Catholic ecclesiastical equivalent of the 

PhD) 

USCCB United States Catholic Conference (same organization as NCCB) 

VS Veritatis splendor 1993 Encyclical of Pope John Paul n on moral 

theolog)' 



WCC 



World Council of Churches 



Foreword 

By Richard M. Gula, S.S. 

We have different ways to study the development of a discipline. A synthetic 
history of ideas is one; a bibliography is another. This nev/ encyclopedic bibliography 
of moral theology compiled by James Bretzke is a major contribution to 
understanding the development, scope, and interests of the discipline of moral 
theology. 

Moral theology knows very few studies that demonstrate its development and 
its diversity. This work helps us to appreciate how much has transpired to shape the 
complex world of Catholic moral theology in particular and Christian ethics generally 
since the Second Vatican Council. The state of moral theology at the time of the 
council had a lot to do with the intellectual and theological climate in the Church and 
the circumstances imder which the discipline was founded and nurtured. In the 
Church, moral theology was largely separated from the great mysteries of faith, from 
the bible, and from the intellectual world surrounding the Church. Moral theology 
was by and large law-related, magisterium-dominated, seminary-controlled, and 
confession-oriented. The texts inherited by the council were narrowly scholastic and 
remarkably uniform in the topics considered, the sequence in which they were 
treated, and even in the positions taken. That has changed. 

The council's call for renewal of moral theology has borne much fiiiit, thanks 
to the collaborative efforts of scholars from different disciplines, traditions, and 
cultures. If this bibliography shows anything at all, it shows that Catholic moral 
theology is not monolithic. A pluralism of approaches exists, and a number of factors 
have contributed to its development. Among the most influential factors are those of 
other disciplines in theology, especially biblical studies and systematic theology, as 
well as the influence of disciplines in the humanities and the social sciences. All of 
this has made Catholic moral theology diverse, ecumenical in spirit, and 
multi-cultural in its complexion. 



A quick glance over the table of contents to this volume discovers some of 
the perennial concerns of moral theology-casuistry, church authority, conscience, 
good and evil, moral norms, natural law, sin, and virtue. But one also notices some 
very new interests-comparative and cross-cultural ethics, ecumenical ethics, feminist 
ethics, globalization, inculturation, psychology and the emotions. Such a breadth of 
topics shows this discipline's desire to be open to the influences of a plurality of 
experiences, cultures, and disciplines that have produced new challenges to 
understanding and living the moral life. This openness means taking a fresh look at 
some old issues and trying to come to terras with new ones. This is especially evident 
in the entries that fill the section on conscience and moral psychology, narrative and 
Christian ethics, psychology, heart, emotions, and moral development, and religion 
and morality. As Karl Rahner pointed out some time ago, the postconciliar Church 
is a world Church. No wonder we find in this book sections on comparative ethics, 
globalization and inculturation. These sections combine disciplines that yield 
interests that fifty years ago would have been hard to imagine as concerns of moral 
theology. 

For some people, all of this development, dialogue, pluralism and diversity 
is nothing short of chaos, a wasteland of relativism. For others it represents tradition 
in the best sense of the word. The entries in this bibliography are the attempt of many 
theologians to be obedient to the call of the council to extend the insights of the 
Christian tradition into all facets of human life and to let human experience in all its 
diversity inform and expand the tradition of reflecting on the demands of Christian 
living in a morally complex world. 

RichardM. Gula, S.S. 
Professor of Moral Theology 
Franciscan School of Theology 
Graduate Theological Union/Berkeley, CA 



Acknowledgements 

Since most of the titles in this book are connected with ethics I should admit 
at that outset that if justice is to be served I should list in my Acknowledgements 
section each and every one of the authors whose works are contained in this 
bibliography. Hopefully the book itself can be read then in that light. However, I 
should like to acknowledge explicitly several others that have been very helpful to 
me in my ovm academic life in the teaching and research of fundamental Christian 
ethics and moral theology. 

As I note in my Introduction I came to the discipline of moral theology not 
so much out of a special desire to pursue this academic field as out of answering the 
call of religious obedience given my Jesuit superiors in Korea who were trying to 
prepare a faculty for a seminary which ultimately never opened. Thus, I was "sent" 
to Rome to study moral theology, and in a relatively short time I became personally 
very interested in the discipline and am grateful to all of those in the Korean Province 
of the Society of Jesus who have supported me along the way of my academic life. 
Many of the particular questions and issues that I have pursued in my own writings 
have their origin in my experiences in living, studying, teaching, and working 
pastorally in Korea. Because of my Korean experience I came later in my career to 
be a regular visiting professor of moral theology at the Loyola School of Theology 
(LST) in Manila, and there too those encounters have stimulated my teaching and 
research, and this current book can be seen as a large academic by-product of those 
experiences. I am particularly indebted to my students at LST and the administration 
there, including Victor Salanga, S.J., its president, and Herbert Schneider, S.J. and 
Fruto Ramirez, S.J. who served as deans. 

Working with graduate students and faculty colleagues, first at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome (where I also did my doctorate), and later for a decade 
at the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley (JSTB)/ Graduate Theological Union 
(GTU) in Berkeley, California continued to give me the encouragement to amplify 
the bibliographic materials I had originally assembled for my doctoral work. At the 



IV 

GTU I worked closely with both Catholic and Protestants and am particular grateful 
for the friendship and support of people such as Drs. Richard Gula, Martha Ellen 
Stortz, Karen Lebacqz, Carol Robb, Clare Fischer, and many others. Moving to the 
other side of the Bay Bridge to the University of San Francisco (USF) did not 
diminish my academic circle, but expanded it with new students and colleagues. I 
am particularly grateful to my Department Chair on my arrival at USF, Daniel 
Kendall, S. J., for his support and encouragement as I got settled here, and to Dr. Paul 
Murphy, the then Director of the St. Ignatius Institute, who assigned me to teach the 
Institute's Senior Seminar in moral theology. 

In addition to my various academic institutional homes a major support of my 
ongoing research in Christian ethics comes from the various adult education 
programs with which I have been associated in the dioceses of Northern California 
and Nevada. I am grateful the directors who have continued to call on my services 
for their various programs: Sr. Anita Minihane, R.S.M., Ms. Nancy Whipple, Md. 
Dottie Burdue, Sr. Paulina Hurtado, O.P., Sr. Gloria De Jesus, EFMS, and Ms. Anne 
Grycz and others. 

Finally, I must acknowledge my own teachers and mentors, without whom 
I certainly would never have developed a sustained interest in the field of Christian 
ethics and moral theology. Among this cloud of witnesses in particular I should like 
to name the two individuals I would count as my greatest teachers and models of 
what it means to be a committed Christian ethician today, and who both died in this 
past year. Therefore, it is with great gratitude that I dedicate this volume to the 
memory Josef Fuchs, S.J., long-time professor of moral theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome, and to William Costelloe Spohn, who taught me as 
a graduate student at the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley/GTU. Bill's move 
to the University of Santa Clara in 1993 ultimately led to my taking his position at 
JSTB. He remained my close friend and mentor right up to his untimely death firom 
a brain tumor this August. To botli of these men so many of us owe so much. 



Hopefully in some small way this book will help others to carry on their work, and 
the work of those others which they have point us towards. 

San Francisco, California 
1 November 2005 
Solemnity of All Saints 



Introduction 

Despite this book's size it neither claims nor desires to be an exhaustive list 
of every publication in the discipline of fundamental Christian ethics (the common 
Protestant term) or moral theology (the traditional Catholic term). What I have 
attempted instead is to provide a fairly extensive overview of this discipline from 
both an ecumenical and multi-cultural perspectives. These chosen perspectives 
obviously amplify the potential range of sources to be included and my primary 
hermeneutical key for the organization and selection of the materials here aims at 
presenting the materials gathered in such a way that they can meet the needs of both 
the serious scholar as well as the non-expert with a curiosity to explore a given issue, 
author, or theme. 

Certainly the discipline of ethics has been influenced by other disciplines in 
the humanities and social studies. My hope is that many of the contributions of these 
other disciplines have made their way sufficiently into the collection here. Perhaps 
one of the most helpful realizations offered by post-modernism and deconstructionist 
theory is that it is impossible to speak intelligently of any discipline, including ethics, 
in an acultural, timeless manner. Social location is critical to the enterprise of ethics, 
and so let me begin by briefly attempting a thumbnail sketch of my own academic 
context and how it may have influenced what I have included (and/or left aside) in 
this annotated research bibliography. First, I am a male Mid- Western American, 
Roman Catholic, Jesuit priest of the mid-Baby Boomer generation. I began though 
my theological education in a decidedly ecumenical environment of the Boston 
Theological Institute (BTI), matriculating in one of its members, the Weston Jesuit 
School of Theology, which shared its resources intimately with the Episcopal 
Divinity School and another somewhat larger institution just across the Cambridge 
Commons called Harvard. My next stop was the Graduate Theological Union (GTU) 
in Berkeley which was even more diverse than its sister consortium on the Atlantic. 
After my bi-coastal theological preparation I went to Korea for several years, learning 
the language, studying the culture, and working at Sogang, our Jesuit University in 



Seoul. This experience convinced me of the paradox that my own cultural ethical 
perspective was both very limited and very rich. I began to realize that cross- 
fertilization worked not only with edible produce, but also could enrich our moral 
discourse and give some helpful new perspectives to help resolve long-standing 
debates which seemed stuck in academic cul de sacs that had no egress. I was 
ultimately sent by my Korean Jesuit Superiors for my doctorate to the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome, to a city and an institution which at the time I thought 
ill-suited to facilitate my intended project of trying to study Confucian and Christian 
ethics so as to be better prepared for a return to teaching in our new seminary in 
Korea. That seminary never opened and so I ended up being taken on the faculty of 
the Gregorian upon my graduation. I suppose one of the most valuable things I 
learned in my years in Rome as a student, teacher, and ad hoc collaborator in various 
Vatican offices was how tradition could work both positively and negatively in 
confronting ethical issues. Tradition shows up not just in the History of Christian 
Ethics section, but makes its initial appearance in the first section of this 
bibliography. Casuistry, which gathers together a number of resources that treat 
these themes from a variety of perspectives. 

Casuistry rarely carries with it a positive nuance, yet in a basic sense everyone 
who accepts the discipline of ethics has to admit the practice of casuistry, since 
fundamentally this sub-discipline involves the application of moral principles to 
concrete situations. The key, though, is trying to settle on the right balance of what 
constitutes the morally relevant principle of a situation (or casus, which is Latin for 
moral case). Many of the pre- Vatican II manuals of moral theology focused on 
helping the priest in the Sacrament of Penance try to counsel and aid those penitents 
who came to him for confession and/or spiritual direction. There was a name given 
to this practice of casuistry, "case of conscience" (or casus conscientiae), and the 
goal here was to sort out all of the particulars of a given situation into the morally 
relevant features and then to try to find the appropriate moral principles that would 
help in coming to an ethical application or judgment in this individual case. The 



3 

rationale behind this operation was that if one could make a good moral judgment in 
this one case, then one ought to be able to transfer the application to similar cases. 
Casuistry, though, did become exaggerated as a "science" over the centuries and the 
moral reasoning resembled the application of geometrical theorems to solve a 
mathematical problem. If one wants to get a quick glimpse of this sort of casuistry 
I would recommend Heribert Jone's Moral Theology, (Westminster: The Newman 
Press, 1957). It was a classic "pocket-size" moral manual of confessional casuistry 
and canon law, translated into numerous languages, and even figures in Graham 
Greene's novel Monsignor Quixote. An excellent history of the whole movement of 
casuistry is found in Albert R. Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin, The Abuse of Casuistry: 
A History of Moral Reasoning, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988). As 
a practice casuistry has been much rehabilitated, especially in the area of bioethics, 
and even in the area of fundamental Christian ethics several scholars have sought to 
revitalize this ancient discipline. I try to outline a pastoral approach to casuistry in 
Chapter 6 "Casuistry with a Human Face" in my A Morally Complex World: 
Engaging Contemporary Moral Theology, (CoUegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2004). 
Also particularly helpful are the essays contained in James F. Keenan, S.J., and 
Thomas A. Shannon, eds., {The Context ofCasuistry), Washington, DC : Georgetown 
University Press, 1995. 

Roma locuta causa finita (Rome has spoken, the case is closed)' represents 
the attitude that many carry towards the Vatican, for good or for ill, and having lived 
and worked in the Eternal City I believe I know a bit of both the truth and the myth 
of that saying. Most caricatures have a grain of truth in them, but the Roman scene 
is far more diverse and complicated than is usually perceived outside of Italy, 
Nevertheless, certainly in the area of moral theology there is a strong centralizing 



For a translation and explanation of this and other commonly used Latin 
expressions found in theological writings see James T. Bretzke, Consecrated 
Phrases: A Latin Theological Dictionary, 2™* ed., (CoUegeville: Liturgical Press, 
1998,2003). 



tendency that stresses the universality of moral norms and the ability of properly 
educated individuals and especially Church authority as represented in the 
Magisterium to discover and apply these moral norms to concrete living. A religious 
"magisterium" is not just a Catholic peculiarity, as is seen in Paul Ramsey's Who 
Speaks for the Church? (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1967), which critiques the 
World Council of Churches 1966 Geneva Conference on Church and Society's 
pronouncements on political matters. While every religious denomination has its 
own particular institutionalizations of ecclesial authority the section on Church 
Authority & Tradition does focus primarily on the claims and counter-claims of the 
popes and bishops to speak authoritatively on matters not only of faith, but also moral 
practice. 

Two volumes in the series edited by Charles E. Curran and the late Richard 
A. McCormick, S.J. provide an excellent introduction to some of the controverted 
issues contained in this area: Readings in Moral Theology, No. 3: The Magisterium 
and Morality, (New York: Paulist Press, 1 982) and Readings in Moral Theology, No. 
6: Dissent in the Church, (New York: Paulist Press, 1988). These collections have 
the advantage of bringing together authors that one would not normally find sitting 
together at the same table or at least not in a carefree manner! Thus, Curran and 
McCormick model well in their editorial stance the laudable goal of struggling to 
find the truth, even if this means having to attend to argxraients and points of view 
one finds uncongenial. 

Also very helpfiil is the work of long-time Gregorian ecclesiologist and now 
professor emeritus at Boston College, Francis A. Sullivan, S.J. Sullivan's work is 
marked by a very good historical sense, the ability to "read" Vaticanese, and an irenic 
disposition that lifts him above the squabbling that often accompanies disputes 
regarding the Magisterium. See especially his Creative Fidelity: Weighing and 
Interpreting Documents of the Magisterium, (New York: Paulist Press, 1 996) which 
helps to interpret the various levels of teaching contained in Vatican documents, and 
his earlier Magisterium: Teaching Authority in the Catholic Church, (Dublin: Gill 



and Macmillan, 1 983), which gives a very carefully balanced look at the competence 
of Church officials in approaching concrete moral teachings. Pope John Paul IPs 
long reign (1978-2005) did much to increase the profile of the papacy as moral 
teacher and the bibliography concludes this section with a special sub-section 
devoted to Veritatis splendor his 1993 Encyclical on Fundamental Moral Theology. 

The first term in the bibliography's next section, The Common Good and 
Moral Community, usually appears in the area of social ethics (which this 
bibliography does not explicitly address). The notion of the common good should 
not be confused with a majority-rule utilitarianism, but rather points to the social 
nature of all human beings, and the fact that our individual destinies are always 
intertwined. This is our highest good which we hold in common, and as the English 
poet John Donne noted more than four centuries ago in this endeavor none of us is 
an island unto ourselves. Thus our moral flourishing has to be measured against not 
a personal barometer of success, but a more embracing standard of life, liberty, and 
the pursuit of happiness of all humankind. An interesting contemporary collection 
of essays on this topic is found in Religion, Ethics & the Common Good, ed. James 
A. Donahue and Theresa Moser, (Mystic CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1996). 
David HoUenbach, S.J. also has written extensively on this topic and some of his 
more important recent essays are found in his The Common Good and Christian 
Ethics, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). Because of the social nature 
of the common good I thought it opportune to include here the notion of moral 
community which has come into increasing discussion in the last couple of decades. 
While it is hard to find just one common thread or major opus which is a "must-read" 
for this theme, this sub-section offers a wide variety of topics and perspectives. 

While differences in how people view particular actions as right or wrong is 
hardly recent (as Thomas Aquinas noted this phenomenon in relation to private 
property in his observations on the Germanic tribes) as a separate academic discipline 
Comparative Ethics is still relatively new. As such it often occasions sharp debates 
not only in the content area, but in the methodology sector as well. Here is an area 



where the messiness and complexity of the larger discipline come to the fore. No 
ethical system exists in the abstract so when we begin to approach the comparison 
of one ethical view witli another so many other questions and aspects immediately 
crowd in. As I mentioned above, we have come to the hard- won realization that there 
is no acultural version of ethics existing "out there" somewhere which is waiting for 
us to download and engage as we might a computer operating system. "Culture," 
"acculturation," "enculturation," "inculturation," "multiculturalism," "ethos," 
"ethnocentrism," are just a few of the terms that must be engaged in any reasonable 
effort to compare one ethical system to another in the concrete, and so there is a sub- 
section here dealing with these concepts. Because of these inherent difficulties many 
scholars, including myself, are a bit skeptical about the real possibility of doing a 
genuine comparison since it is methodologically impossible for anyone short of God 
to find an all-encompassing "neutral" vantage point to undertake the comparison. 
Would it not be better to acknowledge up front our own cultural insights and blind- 
spots and work towards a collaborative methodology that builds on the former and 
tries to ameliorate the latter? In doing so we might be working towards what I term 
a cross-cultural investigation which hopes to yield a cross-fertilization of growth in 
moral discourse. 

I address this issue in a number of my own writings, and would suggest as an 
introduction to this approach my "Cultural Particularity and the Globalization of 
Ethics in the Light of Inculturation," Pacifica 9 (1996): 69-86; as well as my 
"Human Rights or Human Rites?: A Confiician Cross-Cultural Perspective" East 
Asian Pastoral Review 41/1 (2004): 44-67. Yet, I realize that other scholars take a 
considerably different tack on this voyage, and would point here to the work of 
Sumner Twiss and his collaborators, especially the book authored with David Little, 
Comparative Religious Ethics, (New York: Harper & Row, 1 978). Clearly this is an 
academic area whose bibliography will grow considerably in the years ahead. 

The late Swiss moral theologian Franz BOckle raised more than one eyebrow 
when he announced that he would not treat conscience in his post-Vatican II manual 



7 

of moral theology, Fundamentalmoral, (MUnchen: KSsel-Verlag, 1977; in English: 
Fundamental Moral Theology, [Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1980]). B5ckle 
maintained that he now believed conscience better viewed as a psychological 
category, and since he was no psychologist he thought it wise to omit the standard 
treatise entirely. While not many have followed B6ckle's lead, I do think he has an 
important insight and so I have brought together in the next section of my 
bibliography Conscience and Moral Psychology. An excellent history of the 
treatment of conscience in the moral tradition is given by Linda Hogan in her 
Confronting the Truth: Conscience in the Catholic Tradition, (New York: Paulist, 
2001). Charles E. Curran has collected a number of helpful essays in his edited 
volume Conscience: Readings in Moral Theology, 14, (New York: Paulist Press, 
2004). Sidney Callahan is a theologically trained psychologist whose masterful In 
Good Conscience: Reason and Emotion in Moral Decision-making, (San Francisco: 
Harper & Row, 1991) discusses the role and function of conscience and emotions in 
the context of American society, taking into account new psychological 
understandings of self, emotion, reason, intuition, problem-solving and 
developmental change. While many more works could be lifted up, in my view Josef 
Fuchs, S.J. (1912-2005) is one of the most important thinkers who sought to bridge 
the traditional scholastic and manualist approaches to conscience with the best of 
contemporary insights drawn from theolog>% philosophy and psychology. Many of 
Fuchs' own students (including myself) have tried to build on his work and to render 
his somewhat difficuU German mind-set into a vocabulary more accessible to a wider 
audience. Of his many essays on this subject I believe to be most seminal his "The 
Phenomenon of Conscience: Subject-Orientation and Object-Orientation," found as 
Chapter 8 in his Christian Morality: The Word Became Flesh, (Washington, D.C.; 
Georgetown University Press; Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1987). 

Dealing with Evil to Achieve Good is perhaps one of the most vexing 
problems confronting humans in the whole history of moral reasoning. Teimyson's 
oft-quoted lines "For why is all around us here, As if some lesser god had made the 



8 

world, But had not force to shape it as he would?"^ reflect the problem of evil in the 
world which we term theodicy. ^Tiile the general philosophical and theological 
question of evil is represented to some extent in this bibliography, traditionally in 
Christian ethics the issue has taken on a more practical bent. Just how are we to live 
in a world that is still shot through and through with evil and moral failure? 
Would that we could live as the angels, but alas our world seems ever so much more 
morally complex. Even given this moral complexity, are there certain actions which 
always and everywhere may never legitimately be done? In Catholic moral theology 
these sorts of actions are termed "intrinsically evil" {intrinsece malum in se) and this 
particular issue has been the source of a marked intramural debate in the years 
following the issuance of Pope Paul VI's 1968 Encyclical Humanae vitae^ which 
termed artificial contraception to be an intrinsice mhonestum (intrinsically 
"dishonest" or unworthy of humans), a sort of first cousin to an intrinsece malum. 
A first cousin-once-removed would include the general notion of "doing evil 
to achieve good," and foremost here is the moral principle of the double effect (in 
which a single action has two foreseen effects; one "good" and intended, and one 
"bad" and tolerated). Related to this principle are the principles of tolerance, 
compromise, minus malum (doing the lesser of two evils) and cooperatio in malum 
(cooperation in evil), concepts that occupied much of the casuistry and practical 



Alfred Lord Termyson, Idylls of the King: The Passing of Arthur, Line 13. 

3 

Pope Paul VI, Humanae vitae (Encyclical Letter on the Regulation of Births), 25 
July 1968. AAS 60 (1968): 481-503; in Vatican Council II. More Post-Conciliar 
Documents, ed. Austin Flannery, O.P., (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1982): 
397-416. Also online at 

http://www.vatican,va/holy_father/paul vi/encvclicals/documents/hf_p-vi enc 25 
071 968_humanae-vitae_en.html See especially Paragraph #14, but it is helpful to 
read Paragraphs #1 5-17 as well in order to get the fuller context of the Pope's 
understanding of the moral distinction between artificial contraception, which is 
always forbidden, and natural family planning, which is allowable under certain 
circumstances. 



moral discussions for centuries, and continues up to the present. One contemporary 
approach to deal with some of these vexing issues is the theory of proportionalism, 
which makes a key distinction between moral evil and non-moral evil (often called 
ontic, pre-moral, or physical evil). While one can never intentionally commit moral 
evil, one can allow or commit non-moral evil if their reasons for allowing this non- 
moral evil are proportionately greater than the situation which would result if the 
ontic evil were not allowed. The classic (and non-controversial) example is 
amputating a gangrenous limb to save a life. The loss of the limb is clearly not a 
good in itself and is an evil-but not a moral evil. There clearly is proportionate 
reason to allow this ontic evil since not performing the operation would result in a 
far greater evil, namely the loss of human life. The bibliography which treats these 
areas is vast, and grov^ng. A good set of essays that is both ecumenical and 
interdisciplinary is found in Richard A., McCormick, S.J., and Paul Ramsey, eds., 
Doing Evil to Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, (Chicago: Loyola 
University Press, 1 978). Also helpfiil is Curran and McCormick's Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic Tradition (New York: Paulist Press, 
1979), and Bernard Hoose's Proportionalism: The American Debate and its 
European Roots, (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987). 

Discernment in Moral Living and Decision-Making is an area that has 
taken on greater importance in recent years as ethicians have come to realize that 
morality is much more than simply making correct ethical choices. How do we 
choose between competing "goods" (or "evils")? What sorts of character traits and 
practices help us in growing to be morally wise individuals and communities? 
Closely related to this area in this bibliography are the areas of Narrative and 
Christian Ethics, Psychology, Heart, Emotions, and Moral Development, and 
Virtue, Vision, and Character. Texts that would be particularly helpful in opening 
up each of these areas include Richard M. Gula, S.S,, Moral Discernment, (New 
York: Paulist Press, 1997); Stanley M. Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., Why 
Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989); 



10 

Alasdair Maclntyre's contemporaiy classic, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 
2nd ed., (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981, 1984); Sidney 
Callahan, In Good Conscience: Reason and Emotion in Moral Decision-making, 
(San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991); Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The 
Making of Modern Identity, (Cambridge: Harvard Universit>' Press, 1 989); Joseph J. 
Kotva, Jr., The Christian Case for Virtue Ethics, (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
Universit}' Press, 1996); Jean Porter, The Recovery of Virtue: The Relevance of 
Aquinas for Christian Virtue, (Louisville: Westminster/ John Knox, 1 990); and finally 
for an excellent cross-cultiiral perspective Lee H. Yearley, Mencius and Aquinas: 
Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage, (Albany: SUNY Press, 1990). 

Is there such a thing as a "Christian Ethics" that is somehow different from 
morality which binds all humans? This is a debate which over the centuries has 
divided Protestants and Catholics, especially in the area of natural law theory, but 
more recently the notion of the Distinctiveness (Proprium) of Christian Ethics has 
split Roman Catholic moral theologians into two camps, the so-called Moral 
Autonomy School versus the Glaubensethik or "Faith Ethics" School. Curran and 
McCormick's Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian 
Ethics (New York: Paulist Press, 1980) contain helpful ecumenical essays on both 
sides of the debate, while the best single book in my opinion is still Vincent 
MacNamara's Faith and Ethics, (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan; and Washington, D.C: 
Georgetown University Press, 1985). 

Virtually the entire bibliography seeks to include authors across the various 
confessional and cultural divides, but the section on Ecumenical Ethics: Protestant, 
Catholic, Orthodox explicitly collects writings that highlight the ecumenical 
dimension of Christian ethics. Two Protestant classics in this area are James M. 
Gustafson's Protestant and Roman Catholic Ethics: Prospects for Rapprochement, 
(Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1978) and Roger Mehl's 
Catholic Ethics and Protestant Ethics, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971). A 
shorter, Catholic study that considers especially how the natural law tradition has 



11 

been viewed among Catholics and Protestants is Franz B6ckle, Gesetz undGewissen: 
Grundfragen theologischer Ethik in Okumenischer Sicht, which has been translated 
into various languages, including in English: Law and Conscience, (New York: 
Sheed and Ward, 1966). Finally, for a more extensive listing of sources than is 
contained in this bibliography see my Ecumenical Ethics Online Bibliography: 
htt p://www.usfca.edu/Tac-staff/bretzkesj/EcumemcaiEthicsBibliographv.pdf . 

If we can speak of ethics as being distinctive in a Christian sense, then it only 
follows that different particularities will likewise furnish different approaches and 
insights. While Thomas Aquinas may not have had a treatise on feminism even his 
work can be read from a feminist perspective if scholars such as Jean Porter, Cristina 
L.H. Traina and Pamela M. Hall are to be believed. The major contribution though 
of the sub-discipline of Feminist Ethics is obviously much greater and more 
important than offering a new perspective on even a figure such as Thomas. There 
is a considerable amoimt of diversity within this body of literature, and some internal 
disputes over what and who legitimately count as "feminist" authors. For example, 
someone like Mary Daly might be reluctant to share the label "feminist" with her 
former Boston College colleague Lisa Sowle Cahill, but here I have tried to follow 
how the individuals themselves self-identify. For a general introduction to the 
various typologies of feminist ethics I would recommend Margaret A. Farley, 
R.S.M.'s helpful essay "Feminism and Universal Morality" in Prospects for a 
Common Morality, 170-190, ed. Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr., (Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993). Though it has been subsequently critiqued by 
many, Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's 
Development, (Cambridge MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1982) remains 
a foundational classic which challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral 
development as being fundamentally skewed towards male-centered modes of 
reasoning. Beverly Wildung Harrison's Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist 
Social Ethics, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985) brought together a series of essays under 
the editorial guidance of Carol Robb which became a touchstone for much discourse. 



12 

Some helpful anthologies of feminist ethics are provided in a number of volumes, 
including Charles E. Curran, Margaret A. Farley, and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., 
eds. Readings in Moral Theology No. 9: Feminist Ethics and the Catholic Moral 
Tradition, (New York: Paulist Press, 1996) and Lois K. Daly, ed. Feminist 
Theological Ethics: A Reader, (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994). 
Finally, for a listing of biblically related feminist issues see the section "Sexual 
Ethics and/or Gender Issues" in James T. Bretzke, S.J., Bibliography on Scripture 
and Christian Ethics, (Lewiston NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1997). 

The next two sections in the bibliography Fundamental Christian Ethics 
and General and/or Miscellaneous Christian Ethics contain most of the core 
entries that deal with the methodological foundations of Christian ethics. A 
Protestant classic is Paul Ramsey, Basic Christian Ethics, (London: SCM Press, 
1950; Chicago: University of Chicago Press [Midway reprint], 1978). Historically 
in the Roman Catholic tradition fundamental moral theology referred primarily to the 
manuals used to teach seminarians in the era before Vatican 11. Most of these were 
written in Latin, and are found in the section of "Traditional Manuals of Moral 
Theology" in the History of Christian Ethics section, and a good English-language 
example is Henry Davis's Moral and Pastoral Theology, (London: Sheed and Ward, 
1935, 1958), Some other helpful histories of Christian ethics include in the 
Protestant tradition Waldo Beach and H. Richard Niebuhr, Christian Ethics: Sources 
of the Living Tradition, 2nd ed., (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1973) and J. 
Philip Wogaman, Christian Ethics: A Historical Introduction, (Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993). Catholic studies of note include John A. 
Gallagher, Time Past, Time Future: An Historical Study of Catholic Moral Theology, 
(New York: Paulist Press, 1990), John Mahoney, S.J. The Making of Moral 
Theology: A Study of the Roman Catholic Tradition, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 
1 987), and Judge John T. Noonan, Jr., A Church That Can and Cannot Change: The 
Development of Catholic Moral Teaching, (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 
Press, 2005). 



13 

Perhaps one of the best ways to get a sense of how the history of the 
discipline has developed is to read some of the established post-Vatican II moral 
manuals such as Richard Gula's Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic 
Morality, (New York: Paulist Press, 1 989), and Timothy E. O'Connell, Principles 
for a Catholic Morality, (Minneapolis: The Seabury Press, 1976, 1978; rev. ed., San 
Francisco: Harper and Row, 1990). A more recent work in this same vein is James 
T. Bretzke, S.J. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Moral 
Theology, (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2004). A helpful reader of ecumenical 
authors and themes is Ronald P. Hamel, and Kenneth R. Himes, O.F.M., eds. 
Introduction to Christian Ethics: A Reader, (New York: Paulist Press, 1989). For the 
"new natural law/basic goods" theory see Germain Grisez, The Way of the Lord 
Jesus, (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1983, 1993, 1997). Todd A. Salzman's 
What Are They Saying About Catholic Ethical Method? (Mahwah: Paulist Press, 
2003) is very helpful at deciphering the question of normative ethics in Post- Vatican 
n moral theolog>', especially in regards to the Basic Goods School (Grisez et al.) and 
the Revisionist school (Curran, Fuchs, McCormick, and the majority of post- Vatican 
II Catholic moralists). 

Globalization, Inculturation, and Liberation Theology and Christian 
Ethics combine critically important areas of the discipline that would have been 
difficult even to imagine half a century ago. These are areas in which taking proper 
account of personal and collective is especially important. To some extent the themes 
which come up in the Globalization and Inculturation sections are related to the 
Comparative Ethics section discussed above, but I believe they merit their separate 
sections here. The Parliament of the World's Religions 1993 meeting in Chicago 
issued its "The Declaration of a Global Ethic," a pet project of the Swiss theologian 
Hans Kting, which he had been pushing in a number of short publications both prior 
to and following this meeting. A number of ethicians do not share Kiing's optimism 
and enthusiasm for the possibility and/or practicality of the formulation of a global 
ethic that goes beyond glittering generalities. A more serious engagement with the 



14 

ethical ramifications of globalization can be found in the essays edited by Gene 
Outka and John P. Reeder in Prospects for a Common Morality, (Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993). 

Incultiiratioii is a relatively new term for a more ancient challenge, namely 
how to evangelize the Christian Gospel in individual cultures in a way that 
authentically speaks to that culture and its values without forcing adoption of the 
foreign evangelizers' own cultures. If there is a distinctively Christian ethics, then 
it follows that inculturation of Christian ethics will lead to some important 
differences across cultures as to how the Gospel is lived out in the concrete. Due to 
my own experiences of having lived, worked, studied, and taught on three continents, 
the whole challenge of inculturation and ethics is of particular interest to me. 1 have 
tried to address some of these issues in James T. Bretzke, S.J., "A New Pentecost for 
Moral Theology: The Challenge of Inculturation of Ethics," Josephinum 10:2 
(Summer/Fall 2003): 250-260. An excellent book which reflects critically on the 
challenges posed by globalization and inculturation is Robert J. Schreiter, The New 
Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the Local, (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1997). 

Liberation Theology I believe can be viewed as a forceful example of the 
inculturation of Christian ethics into a specific local context. The general 
bibliography on Liberation Theology is much too vast to include in this work, so I 
have concentrated on just those titles that deal more explicitly with the task of 
Christian ethics. A very helpful work that tries to bridge the tradition of Roman 
Catholic moral theology and the particular challenges posed by systemic injustice in 
Latin America is Antonio Moser and Bernardino Leers' Moral Theology: Dead Ends 
and Ways Forward, (Wellwood: Bums 8c Gates; and Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1990). Alfred T. Hennelly, S.J.'s Liberation Theologies: The Global Pursuit of 
Justice, (Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1 995) summarizes and critiques the 
ideas of liberation theology's chief proponents-Gustavo Gutierrez, Jon Sobrino, Juan 
Segundo, Ignacio Ellacuria~and many other theologians who have incorporated their 



15 

liberating ideas into writings on a broad range of topics, issues and concerns. A 
helpful article that gives an overview of some of the contributions liberation theology 
has made to Christian ethics, as well as noting some ongoing concerns and tensions 
is Thomas L. Schubeck, S.J., "Ethics and Liberation Theology," Theological Studies 
56(1995): 107-122. 

Moving along to the next areas of the bibliography, three important areas in 
fundamental Christian ethics involve our understandings of the human person as 
moral agent, moral norms, and their grounding in what Catholics usually call the 
natural law, i.e., an objective moral order which somehow stands outside of 
individuals and cultures and yet exerts a normative claim on them and their ethical 
behavior. The section Moral Autonomy of the Human Person highlights the 
theological anthropology of humans as responsible moral agents. Moral Norms 
moves to the lived aspect of the human moral agent in his or her moral choices. 
While most every Christian ethicist accepts the necessity of moral norms in the 
abstract, just what constitutes binding moral norms in the concrete is an area of 
considerable debate. Though long out of print, Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: 
Moral Norms and Catholic Tradition, edited Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J., (New York: Paulist Press, 1979) contains an excellent set of essays 
which map key aspects of this ongoing debate. The ecumenical aspect of this 
discussion is engaged well in the essays contained in Gene H. Outka, and Paul 
Ramsey, eds. Norm and Context in Christian Ethics, (London: SCM Press, 1968). 
The Natural Law often has been seen as some sort of shibboleth that separates the 
Catholics from the Protestants, but this section of the bibliography will show that this 
is not necessarily so. Certainly the work of Thomas Aquinas is foundational to both 
the tradition and contemporary reflection on the natural law, and there are ample 
titles here which engage the Angelic Doctor. Michael Betram Crowe's The 
Changing Profile of Natural Law, (The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977) remains a 
very helpful book on this tradition and once again the Curran and McCormick 
volimie Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, (Mahwah: 



16 

Paulist Press, 1991) provides an excellent selection of both contemporary and 
historical approaches to the natural law. 

The next two sections of the bibliography yet to be discussed involve 
intimately the intersection between Christian faith and moral living. The section on 
Religion & Morality centers primarily on how Christian religious practices 
embodied in Worship, Prayer and the Sacraments help to sustain and illumine the 
believers' concrete moral lives. Sin, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation situates moral 
failure in a faith perspective. The essays in Josef Fuchs, S.J. Christian Ethics in a 
Secular Arena, (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and Dublin: Gill 
and Macmillan, 1984) take up the challenge of trying to live out of a faith context in 
a pluralistic and secularist society. A quite different approach would be found in the 
work of someone like Stanley Hauerwas or the collection of essays he edited along 
with Nancy Murphy, and Mark Nation in Theology Without Foundations: Religious 
Practice and the Future of Theological Truth, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994). 
Though somewhat dated, the essays contained in Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr., eds., Religion and Morality: A Collection of Essays, (Garden City: Doubleday, 
Anchor Books, 1973) can be helpful to articulating aspects of this area. Two other 
theologians who have tried to focus on bringing into closer connection spirituality, 
the sacraments, and ethics are Mark O'Keefe, O.S.B., Becoming Good, Becoming 
Holy: On the Relationship of Christian Ethics and Spirituality, (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist 
Press, 1995); and Vigen Guroian, who writes out of the Orthodox tradition in his 
Ethics after Christendom: Toward an Ecclesial Christian Ethic, (Grand Rapids: 
William B. Eerdmans, 1994). 

Since in many ways a central part of the discipline of Christian ethics and 
moral theology historically has been focused on how to deal with the theological 
realities of Sin, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation it should come as no surprise that 
the bibliography in this area is fairly extensive. One of the giants of moral theology 
in the twentieth century was Bernard Haring, C.Ss.R. who wrote extensively in this 
area. See especially his chapter, "Sin and Conversion," Chapter 8 in his Free and 



17 

Faithfiil in Christ, Vol. 1, (Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978): 378- 
470. The classic work on the development of the Sacrament of Reconciliation is 
James Dallen, The Reconciling Community: The Rite of Penance, (New York: Pueblo 
Publishing, 1986). Patrick T. McCormick's Sin as Addiction, (^Q'w York: V&xxWsX 
Press, 1989), proposes a number of helpM models for looking at both sin and 
reconciliation, while an excellent treatment from a contemporar>' Protestant 
perspective is L. Gregory Jones, Embodying Forgiveness: A Theological Analysis, 
(Grand Rapids, Ml: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995). 

The final section of the bibliography brings together further Research Aids, 
Dictionaries and Bibliographies on Christian Ethics. Many, but not all, of the 
entries collected here are also found in their individual thematic areas as well. 
Hopefully some of these entries will provide resources for ongoing research in the 
ever-growing body of knowledge that this bibliography as a whole has endeavored 
to bring together. Regular contributions to the field are found in the "Notes on Moral 
Theology" published in the March issue of Theological Studies and the Spanish 
periodical Moralia has consistently published a "Panorama bibliogrdfico de moral." 
For years Studia Moralia, the periodical of the Alphonsianum in Rome, did the same, 
but they seemed to have stopped this practice in the last few years. 

No bibliography can ever hope to be exhaustive and this one is no exception. 
Obviously not even a dedicated full-time team of scholars could be aware of every 
title in the field, and I am all the more cognizant of the publications that have escaped 
my notice. Added to this limitation is the realization that I had to make selections of 
what to include, what to annotate, and what to leave aside. Nevertheless, despite 
these many limitations and deficiencies, it is my sincere hope that the selections 
found here will be of aid in furthering development in this most interesting and 
vitally important field. 



Casuistry 



N.B. See also the Traditional Moral Manuals listed in the History of Christian Ethics 
section of this bibliography for some excellent examples of how casuistry was 
applied in moral theology. 

Articles on Casuistry 

Almond, Brenda. "New Occasions Teach New Duties?: Seven Moral Myths." The 
Expository Times 105(1994): 104-167. 

One of several articles dealing with the theme of teaching new moral duties. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Casuistry with a Human Face." Chapter 6 in Id. A Morally 
Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Moral Theology. CoUegeville: 
The Liturgical Press, 2004. 

This chapter presents a methodology for a pastoral counseling approach to the 
application of moral principles to concrete ethical situations. Bretzke is 
Associate Professor and Chair of Theology and Religious Studies at the 
University of San Francisco. He has also lived and taught in Europe and East 
Asia. 

Brown, David. "New Occasions Teach New Duties?: Christian Ethics: The 
Contemporary Context." The Expository Times 105 (1994): 260-265. 

One of several articles dealing with the theme of teaching new moral duties. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M, "Reconciling the Practice of Reason: Casuistry in a Christian 
Context." Chapter 3 in Hauerwas's Christian Existence Today: Essays on 
Church, World and Living in Between, 67 -^S. Durham NC: The Labyrinth 
Press, 1988. 

Kaczor, Christopher. "The Tragic Case of Jodie and Mary: Questions about 
Separating Conjoined Twins." Linacre Quarterly 70 (May 2003): 159-170. 

Against Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Coimor and William May, Kaczor 
argues that the separation of Jodie and Mary was morally licit, though not 
morally obligatory. 



20 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "Applying the Seventeenth-Century Casuistry of 
Accommodation to HIV Prevention." Theological Studies 60 (September 
1999): 492-512. 

Keenan was professor of moral theology at the Weston Jesuit School of 
Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now teaches at Boston College. 

. "The Casuistry of John Major: Nominalist Professor of Paris (1506-1531). 

The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 205-221. 

_. "The Return of Casuistry." Theological Studies 57 (1996): 123-139. 

Part of the "Notes on Moral Theology 1995" 

Kennedy, Terence, C.Ss.R. "Casuistry and the Problem of Pragmatism." 
Australasian Catholic Record 69 (1992): 67-77. 

After considering some of the problems with casuistry as construed by the 
nominalist tradition, Kennedy discusses a secular revival of casuistry as 
"applied ethics," and critiques this approach by using Alasdair Maclntyre's 
arguments developed in the latter's essay, "Does Applied Ethics Rest on a 
Mistake?" TheMonist 67 (1984): 498-513. Along with Maclntyre, Kennedy 
concludes that casuistry makes sense only within "an ethical framework and 
a living tradition that embodies its normative rules and values." p. 75. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "The Meaning and Role of Duress in the Cooperation of 
Wrongdoing." Linacre Quarterly 70 (May 2003): 150-158. 

Considers the impact of "duress" in reference to provisions for sterilizations 
in Catholic health care partnerships. 

Kopfensteiner, who is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, taught at 
Fordham University and did his doctoral dissertation on paradigm shift theory 
in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University under Klaus 
Demmer. 

Mahoney, John, S.J. "The Challenge of Moral Distinctions." Theological Studies 
53 (1992): 663-682. 

Revised version of the First Armual Joseph B. Brennan Lecture in Applied 
Ethics, delivered at GeorgetOAvn University's Center for the Advanced Study 
of Ethics on 1 April 1992. Mahoney is Professor of Moral Theology at 
King's College, University of London. 



21 

Porter, Jean. "'Direct' and 'Indirect' in Grisez's Moral Theory." Theological 
Studies 57 (1996): 6U-632. 

Porter is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. 

SchlOgel, Herbert, O.P. "Tugend-Kasuistik-Biographie. Trends und Okumenische 
Perspektiven in der Moraltheologie der USA." Catholica (3/1 997): 1 87-200. 

Discusses authors, approaches and issues prominent in moral theology in the 
United States in the mid-1 990's. 

Schmitz, Philip, S.J. "Kasuistik. Ein wiederentdecktes Kapitel der Jesuitenmoral." 
Theologie und Philosophie 67 (1992): 29-59. 

Schmitz did his dissertation under Josef Fuchs, and taught moral theology at 
Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt, and is now on the faculty of the Gregorian in 
Rome. 



Books on Casuistry 

Boatright, John R. Cases in Ethics and The Conduct of Business. Englewood 
Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1995. 

This collection of 30 cases on major ethical issues in business covers the 
range of ethical issues in a standard business ethics course and include well- 
known cases that have become classics as well as some that are published 
here for the first time. 

Connell, Francis Jeremiah. More Answers to Today's Moral Problems. Edited by 
Eugene J. Weitzel. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 
1965. 

Grisez, Germain, with the help of Joseph Boyle et al. The Way of the Lord Jesus. 
Volume 3: Difficult Moral Questions. Quincy IL: Franciscan Press, 1997. 

Deals with a wide variety of moral cases using a method of description, 
analysis, and a suggested reply. 

Higgins, Gregory C. Where Do You Stand? Eight Moral Issues Confronting Today's 
Christians. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1995. 



22 

These crucial moral issues are: moral reasoning; reproductive technologies; 
abortion; sexual ethics; social justice; euthanasia; war; and capital 
punishment. For each of the issues the author presents several hypothetical 
human situations (your local high school board decides to distribute condoms 
at the high school, for example). Then he explores the principle moral issues 
to be decided, presenting pros and cons, vdthout trying to steer the reader 
either side. Following several questions for discussion is a list of books and 
documents for further reading that draws heavily on Catholic-Christian 
sources. 

Jonsen, Albert R., and Toulmin, Stephen. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of 
Moral Reasoning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. 

Critiqued by Terence Kennedy in his "Casuistry and the Problem of 
Pragmatism," Australasian Catholic Record 69 (1992): 67-77. 

Keenan, James F., S.J., and Thomas A. Shannon, eds. The Context of Casuistry. 
Washington, DC: Georgetovm University Press, 1995. 

Kirk, Kenneth E. Conscience and Its Problems: An Introduction to Casuistry. New 
ed. London and New York: Longmans, Green and Co. ltd., 1927, 1948. 

Kirk, who lived from 1886-1954, was Bishop of Oxford. 

Knight, George Thomson. The Praise of Hypocrisy: An Essay in Casuistry. Chicago: 
The Open Court Pub. Co., 1906; London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1906. 

Lamet, Adrien Augustin de Bussy de, et Germain Fromageau. Le dictionnaire de cas 
de conscience, decides suivant les principes de la morale, les usages de la 
discipline ecclesiastique, I'autorite des conciles et des canonistes, et la 
jurisprudence du royaume. Basle: J. L. Brandmuller, 1744. 

First published under this title in 1733. "Un echantillon de celui-ci ... fut 
imprime a Paris en 1714, sous le titre de Resolutions de plusieurs Cas de 
Conscience touchant la Morale & la Discipline de I'Eglise." 

Leites, Edmund, ed. Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modern Europe. Ideas in 
Context. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press; Paris: 
Editions de la Maison des sciences de I'homme, 1988. 

Reviewed by Thomas McCoog, S.J. in Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 276- 
277; reviewed by James Gustafson in Journal of Religion 69 (1989): 579- 
580. 



23 

Long, Edward LeRoy. Conscience and Compromise: An Approach to Protestant 
Casuistry. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1954. 

MacHeild, Alec. A Question of Casuistry, A Dialogue & A Denouement. London: 
Sonnenschein, 1894. 

Maurice, Frederick Denison. The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry Delivered in the 
University of Cambridge. London: Macmillan, 1868. 

. The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry Delivered in the University of 



Cambridge. 3d edition. London: Macmillan, 1883. 

Michaud-Quantin, Pierre. Sommes de casuistique et manuels de confession au Moyen 
Age (XII-XVI siecles) . Louvain, Nauwelaerts, 1962. 

Merrill, Thomas F.,ed. William Perkins, 1558-1602, English Puritanist; His Pioneer 
Works on Casuistry: "A Discourse of Conscience" and "The Whole Treatise 
of Cases of Conscience. " With an introduction by Thomas F. Merrill. 
Nieuwkoop: B. De Graaf, 1966. 

Miller, Richard B. Casuistry and Modern Ethics: A Poetics of Practical Reasoning. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. 

Reviewed by John P. Boyle in Theological Studies 59 (1998): 169-170; and 
by Christine Gudorf in Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66 
(Spring 1998): 185-187.. 

Morenas, Francois. Dictionnaire portatifdes cas de conscience. Latin. Dictionarium 
casuum conscientiae et controversiarum forensium ecclesiasticarum ... ex 
idiomate Gallico Latine redditum. Ed. Secimda, tertia parte auctior et 
emendatior quam curavit et retentis ex prima editione notis Eusebii Amort 
quandoque suas adjecit M.B. Augustae Vindelicorum, Sumptibus Fratrum 
Veith, 1784. 

Includes cases cited from the works of Pontas, De Lamet, Fromageau, and 
Lambertini. Translation of Dictionnaire portatifdes cas de conscience. 

Rodd, Cyril S., ed. New Occasions Teach New Duties?: Christian Ethics for Today. 
With a Foreword by Baroness Wamock. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1995. 

Cyril S. Rodd is the editor of the Expository Times. In this study scholars 
examine the changes which have occurred in ethical thinking since the time 
of Jesus. Discussing both the positive and negative aspects of these changes. 



24 

the authors show that basic Christian morality can and must be applied in 
new ways. The book argues that traditional Christian values and the thinking 
of the Church Fathers and Reformation leaders can and must be made 
relevant today if Christian ethics are not to lose their authentic and vital 
nature. 

Seiden, Meivin. Measure for Measure: Casuistry and Artistry. Washington, D.C.: 
Catholic University of America Press, 1990. 

Thomasma, David C. and Patricia A. Marshall. Clinical Medical Ethics: Cases and 
Readings. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995. 

Woywod, Stanislaus; with J. A. McHugh. The Casuist: A Collection of Cases in 
Moral and Pastoral Theology. 5 vols.; Vol. 5 prepared by J.A. McHugh. 
New York: J. F. Wagner, 1924-25. 

Woywod lived from 1880-1941, and McHugh from 1880-1950; both were 
priests. 

******** 



Church Authority and Tradition in Christian Ethics and Moral 
Theology 

Statements/Documents of the Magisterium 

Documents from the Holy See (Vatican) 

Since Pope John Paul IPs 1993 Encyclical on Fundamental Moral Theology 
Veritatis splendor occasioned considerable discussion among moral theologians this 
document and responses to it have been placed in a separate section at the end of this 
larger section on the Magisterium and moral theology. 

Abbott, Walter M., S.J. The Documents of Vatican II. New York: America Press, 
1966. 

Carlen, Claudia, IHM. The Papal Encyclicals. 5 vols. The Pierian Press, 1990. 

Papal encyclicals from 1740 (Benedict XIV) to 1990 (John Paul II). 

. Papal Pronouncements, a Guide: 1740-1978. 2 vols. Ann Arbor (MI): Perian 

Press, 1990. 

Catechism of the Catholic Church. See especially "Part Three: Life in Christ." 
Garden City: Doubleday Image, 1 995. ISBN 0-385-47967-0. OR available on 
the Internet at: 

http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/ccc_toc.htm 

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [CDF]. "Instruction on the Ecclesial 
Vocation of the Theologian." Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990. 

Flaimery, Austin P., O.P. ed. The Documents of Vatican 11 New York: Pillar Books, 
1975. 

. Vatican Council II: More Post Conciliar Documents. CoUegeville: The 

Liturgical Press, 1982. 

The Holy See. Http://vyww.vatican.va 

Web-site of the Vatican, available in several languages and with a 
considerable number of links to Church and papal documents, as well as 
current news briefings. 



26 

John Paul 11, Pope. Address of John Paul II to the Participants in the International 
Congress on "Life-sustaining Treatments and Vegetative State: Scientific 
Advances and Ethical Dilemmas." (20 March 2004). Ong7>w 33:43 (8 April 
2004): 737-740. Internet version found April 3, 2004 at the follo\\dng URL: 
http://v»ivw.vatican.va/holv_father/iohn_paul_ii/speeches/2004/march/doc 
uments/hf jp-ii_spe_2Q040320 congress-fiamc_en.html 

In this address the Pope asserts that artificial hydration and nutrition is not a 
medical treatment but a basic and natural means of preserving life, and thus 
is always morally obligatory. This address occasioned great debate among 
moral theologians, bioethicians, and health care professionals since it 
represented a substantial shift in the Church's understanding of the 
assessment of ordmary and extraordinary means, and would have a great 
number of practical ramifications for a host of other issues, such as allocation 
of scarce health care resources, advanced health care directives, and the like. 
Pope John Paul II reigned from October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 

, "Discourse to the International Congress of Moral Theology." Rome 10 April 

1986. In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di 
Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 11-14. Roma: Citta Nuova 
Editrice, 1987. 

In this discourse the Pope repeated the affirmation of immutable concrete 
moral norms, and gave as two examples the prohibition against contraception 
and direct killing of the innocent. The tone of the Pope's discourse is clearly 
that of the Caffarra-Grisez-Finnis line, and contains many thinly veiled 
negative references to the Proportionalist school. The Congress was 
sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for the Study of 
Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. Carlo Caffarra), 
and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the University of 
Navarra (Opus Dei). 

. Evangelium vitae. Encyclical Letter on the Gospel of Life. 25 March 1995. 

Origins 24 (6 April 1995): 689-730. 
http://www.vatican.va/lioly_father/iohn paulii/encvclicals/documents/hf 
jp-ii enc_2503 1 995_evangelium-vitae_en.html 

Deals with critical life issues such as abortion, capital punishment, war, 
euthanasia, and health care ethics. 

. Veritatis splendor. Encyclical Letter on the Fundamental Moral Theology. 6 

August 1993. 



27 

http://www.vatican.va/holv father/iohn_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_ 
jp-ii_enc_0608 1 993_veritatis-splendor en.html 

For discussion of Veritatis splendor see the special section at the end of this 
major section on the Magisterium and moral theology. 

Paul VI, Pope. Humanae vitae (Encyclical Letter on the Regulation of Births). 25 
July 1968. MS 60 (1968): 481-503; in Vatican Council II. More Post- 
Conciliar Documents, ed. Austin Flannery, O.P., (Collegeville: The Liturgical 
Press, 1982): 397-416. 

http://wvyw.vatican.va/holy_father/paul vi/encvclicals/documents/hf_p-vi 
_enc_2507 i 968_humanae-vitae_en.html 

Reaffirmed the Catholic Church's ban on artificial contraception. This 
Encyclical continues to be the source of considerable debate and acrimony in 
the field of moral theology. The Pope issued his Encyclical three years after 
the Pontifical Commission on Population, Family and Birth, a special papal 
commission entrusted with the study of this issue, voted overwhelmingly to 
change the Church's teaching in this area. For the text and discussion of the 
Pontifical Commission see the entry below. Pope Paul VI reigned from 1 963 
until August, 1978. 

Pontifical Commission on Population, Family and Birth. "Final Report." Found in 
Robert Blair Kaiser, The Encyclical That Never Was: The Story of the 
Pontifical Commission on Population, Family and Birth, 1 964-1 966, 1-18. 
London: Sheed & Ward, 1985, 1987. 

Tanner, Norman P., S.J., ed. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. 2 vols. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press; London: Sheed and Ward, 
1990. 

Vatican Council II Documents and Decrees. 

http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/index.htm 

See also the Abbott and/or Flarmery translations listed above. 



Episcopal Documents 

Baccani, Bishop Teodoro, D.D. The Church and Birth Control 2"'' rev. ed. np. 
1991, 1993. 



28 

Bishop Bacani, then an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Manila, 
Philippines, looks at the issue of birth control in the context of the 
population crisis in the Philippines, and also considers the possibility that a 
wife might legitimately use artificial contraception if her husband refused to 
cooperate with her in the practice of natural family planning. Bacani was 
installed in January, 2003 as the first bishop of the new diocese of 
Novaliches, in Metro Manila. He was forced to resign a little over a year 
later in a controversy regarding possible sexual harassment of a secretary. 

Mahoney, Most Rev. [later Cardinal] Roger. "The Magisterium and Theological 
Dissent," Origins 16: (6 November 1986). 

Speech given at the University of Southern California Seminar on Dissent 
(Charles Curran also present), 16 October 1986: "Even theologians in 
university situations are likely to be over-mfluenced by the reigning ethos of 
academic freedom. It therefore becomes more necessary than ever for the 
Church to have firm authority structures so as to preserve its rich and ancient 
heritage and to address new problems in the light of Christ." Mahoney is 
Cardinal Archbishop of Los Angeles, California. 

National Conference of [USA] Catholic Bishops. "The Teaching Ministry of the 
Diocesan Bishop: A Pastoral Reflection." Origins 2\ (2 January 1992): 474- 
492. 

Pilarczyk, Most Rev. Daniel. "Pastoral Letter on Dissent to the Cincinnati 
Archdiocese," 6 June 1986. Reported in Origins 16 (31 July 1986). Also 
found in Curran and McCormick, Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6, pp. 
152-163. 

The specific role of the theologians calls them to explore the implications of 
Church teachings, to investigate it, to refine it, to probe it, to push back its 
horizons. If not all Church teaching is guaranteed to be infallible, then some 
of it could be fallible, reformable, conceivably even incorrect. It is part of the 
theologian's responsibility to speak to Church teaching which he or she 
conscientiously believes to be inexact or erroneous. 

Quinn, Most Rev. John R. "The Exercise of the Primacy." Commonweal 123 (12 
July 1996): 11-20. 

Address on the role and some problems associated with the Roman Curia 
* given by Quinn, the former Archbishop of San Francisco, at Oxford. 



29 

. The Reform of the Papacy: The Costly Call to Christian Unity. Ut Unum 

Sint: Studies on Papal Primacy. New York: Crossroad, 1999. 

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal. "The Drama of Morality." In Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 307-314. Edited by Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the 
State of the Church. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1985. Ratzinger went on 
to be elected the successor to John Paul II on 19 April 2005, taking the name 
of Benedict XVI. 

. "Kirchliches Lehramt, Glaube, Moral." In Id., Hrsg. Primipien Christlicher 

Moral, 41-66. Einsiedeln, 1975. 

English translation: "The Church's Teaching Authority-Faith-Morals." In 
Principles of Christian Morality, Al-ll. Translated by Graham Harrison. 
San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986. Also found under the title, 
"Magisterium of the Church, Faith, Morality," in Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 2, 174-189. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1980. Initial English version 
appeared in Problems of the Church Today, 74-83, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. 
Catholic Conference). 

In French: In Joseph Ratzinger et Philippe Delhaye, ed., Principes d'ethique 
chretienne. Le Sycomore. Paris: Editions Lethielleux, 1979. 

Italian translation in Prospettive di morale cristiana. Contributi di teologia, 
3. Ed. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Roma: Citti Nuova Editrice, 1986. 

Sklba, Bishop Richard J. "Theological Diversity and Dissent within the Church." 
In Shepherds Speak: American Bishops Confront the Social and Moral Issues 
that Challenge Christians Today, 20-33. Edited by Dennis M. Corrado and 
James F. Hinchey. New York: Crossroad, 1986. 

Sklba has a degree in Scripture from the Biblicum in Rome, and is auxiliary 
bishop in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. 

Untener, Bishop Kenneth. "Humanae vitae: What Has It Done to Us?" 
Commonweal (18 June 1993). 

Critiques the polarizing effect of Humanae vitae, noting that "In the eyes of 
many people, the teaching Church has committed a teacher's cardinal sin: it 



30 



has become more concerned about itself than about the truth" (p. 12). 
Untener was Bishop of Saginaw, Michigan until his death in 2004. 

Articles on the Magisterium, Authority, and/or Dissent 

Albacete, Lorenzo. "Infallibility of the Magisterium in the Field of Morals." In 
Persona Veritd e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia 
Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 269-276. Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 
1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Barrett, Richard J. "Assent: Not a Compelling Problem—A Response to J.F. 
Keenan." Irish Theological Quarterly 59 (1993): 264-285. 

Makes extensive use of Bartholomew Kiely's writings and argues for a 
positive understanding of the Magisterium's imposition of the Oath of 
Fidelity on theologians. 

See James F. Keenan, S.J.'s "Compelling Assent; Magisterium, Conscience 
and Oaths." Irish Theological Quarterly 57 (1991): 209-227. 

Bennett, John C. "Ecumenical Dimensions of the Curran Case: The Vatican Moves 
to Repress Dissent." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the 
Church, 508-5 1 1 . Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Christianity and Crisis in 1986. 

Berbusse, Edward J. "The Catholic College Versus Academic Freedom." Homiletic 
and Pastoral Review. 87(1986). 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 276-289. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. 

Blank, Josef "The Concept of Power in the Church: New Testament." Concilium 
197 (3/1988): 3-12. 



31 

"The decisive factor in the New Testament understanding of the concepts of 
'power, sovereignty', etc., is that all exercise of power in Christ's Church is 
understood fundamentally as diakonia and not as arche." p. 8. 

Boyle, John P. "The Magisterium and the Natural Law." Catholic Theological 
Society of America (CTSA) Proceedings 34 (1979): 189-210. 

. "The Ordinary Magisterium: Towards a History of the Concept." Heythrop 

Journal 20 (1919): 3B0-39S. 

. "TeachingAuthorityinthe 1983 Code." Jwmr 45 (1985): 136-170. 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 1 9 1 -230. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. 

Burkhard, John. "Sensusfldei: Meaning, Role and Future of a Teaching of Vatican 
II." Louvain Studies 17(1992): 18-34. 

Burkhard is at the Washington Theological Union. 

. "Sensus Fidei: Theological Reflections since Vatican II: I. 1965-1984. The 

Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 41-59. 

Examines the vmtings of various theologians writing on this theme in the 
years 1965-1989. This article is part one. 

Chapman, Mark E. "The Spirit and the magisterium: authority in the community of 
freedom." Ecumenical Review 42 (1990): 268-278. 

Congar, Yves, O.P. "Pour une histoire s6mantique du terme 'magisterium'." Revue 
des sciences philosophiques et theologiques 60 (1976): 84-97. 

In English: "A Semantic History of the Term 'Magisterium'." In Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 3: The Magisterium and Morality, 297-313. Edited by 
CharlesE. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 
1982. 

. "Brief historique des formes du 'magist^re' et des ses relations avec les 

docteurs." Revue des sciences philosophiques et theologiques 60 (1 976): 98- 
112. 



32 

In English: "A Brief History of the Forms of the Magisterium and Its 
Relations with Scholars." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 3: The 
Magisterium and Morality, 314-331. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1982. 

, "Saint Thomas and the Infallibility of the Papal Magisterium (Summa 

Theologiae, II-II, a. 1, a. 1)." The Thomist 38 (1974): 81-105. 

Connery, Jolin R., S.J. "The Non-Infallible Moral Teaching of the Church." The 
Thomist 51 (1987): 1-16. 

Costanzo, Joseph F., S.J. "Academic Dissent: An Original Ecclesiology. A Review 
Article. [Charles Curran; John Hunt]." The Thomist 34 (1970): 636-653. 

Costigan, Richard F., S.J. "The Consensus of the Church: Differing Classic Views." 
Theological Studies 51 (1990): 25-48. 

Studies the historical background of Vatican I's doctrine of papal infallibility, 
especially in reference to positions of both Gallicanists and papalists. 

Cowdin, Daniel M. "Religious Liberty, Religious Dissent and the Catholic 
Tradition." The Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 26-60. 

Crosson, Frederick J. "Liberty and Authority in the Church." In Law for Liberty: 
The Role of Law in the Church Today, 147-155. Edited by James E. Biechler. 
Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1967. 

Essay written for the Canon Law Society of America's seminar on The Role 
of Law in the Church. 

Curran, Charles E. "Academic Freedom and Catholic Institutions of Higher 
Learning." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 
253-270. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in The Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 

. "A Place for Dissent: My Argument with Joseph Ratzinger." Commonweal 

132/9 (6 May 2005): 18-20. 

Curran's reflection on the election of Joseph Ratzinger as Pope Benedict 
XVI, in light of Curran's own difficulties with the then Cardinal Prefect of 



33 

the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on the possibility of dissent 
from noninfallibly defined Church teaching. 

. "Public Dissent in the Church." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: 

Dissent in the Church, 387-407. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Origins in 1986. 

. "A Teaching Moment Continues." America, 156 (25 April 1987): 336-340. 

Curran's own apologia for continuing to resist the stripping of his teaching 
post at Catholic University, after the Congregation of the Doctrine of the 
Fatih (CDF) declaration, on the grounds that this very process can be seen as 
a "teaching moment" for the Church. He is the teacher. 

Delhaye, Philippe. "Conscience and Church Authority." Louvain Studies 2 (1968- 
69): 355-375. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. "La competenza normativa del magistero ecclesiastico in 
morale." In Fede cristiana e agire morale, 144-170. A cura di Klaus 
Demmer, M.S.C. e Bruno Schiiller, S.J. Traduzione italiana di Giuliano Riva. 
Assisi: Cittadella, 1980. 

In German: In Christlich glauben undhandeln: Fragen einerfundamentalen 
Moraltheologies in der Diskussion. Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1977. 

DiNoia, J.A., O.P. "Authority, Public Dissent and the Nature of Theological 
Thinking." The Thomist 52 (19SS): 185-207. 

Dulles, [later Cardinal] Avery R., S.J. "Authority and Conscience." Church (Fall, 
1986): 8-15. 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 97-1 1 1 . 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. 

. "Conscience and Church Authority." In Conscience: Theological and 

Psychological Perspectives, 115-122. Edited by C.Ellis Nelson. New York: 
Newman Press [Paulist], 1973. 

. "Gender and Priesthood: Examining the Teaching." Origins 25 (2 May 1 996): 

778-784. 



34 

Dulles gives an overview of the basic reasons for and against the Roman 
Catholic Church's refusal to ordain women, and concludes that this teaching 
requires "firm assent," and that the teaching has been proposed as virtually 
deflde, though technically one cannot be condemned a heretic who does not 
hold the teaching. 

. "'Humanae Vitae': How the Dissent Affects the Church." Origins 22 (1993): 

774-777. 

Address given in a workshop on medical and moral issues sponsored by the 
Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, and held 
in Dallas from 1-5 February 1993. 

, _. "Magisterium and Theological Method." Seminarium 31 (1991): 289-299, 

Outlines the relation of theologians and theological method to the 
Magisterium from the 19th scholastic manuals, through the papacy of Pius 
Xn (and Humani Generis), through Vatican II and post-conciliar 
developments up to the present. 

. "The Magisterium, Theology and Dissent." Origins 20 (28 March 1991): 692- 

696. 

Dulles proposes five ground rules that the Magisterium itself might observe 
in its practical exercise of the teaching office. 

Fitch, David. "Curran and Dissent: The Case for the Holy See." America, 156 (25 
April 1987): 341-343; 349-350. 

Fitch refuses to allow for the possibility of legitimate public dissent on the 
grounds that it causes scandal. Careful exposition of pre- Vatican II 
understanding of theological speculation and dissent. Also in Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 435-441. Edited by Charles 
E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Fratellone, Raimondo. "Norma morale oggettiva, Magistero e coscienza soggettiva." 
In Problemi morali dei giovani oggi, 81-104. Edited by Guido Gatti and 
Gianfi-anco Coffele. Roma: LAS, 1990. 

"Freedom to Disagree" [unsigned editorial]. The Tablet (14 July 2001): 1007. 

Articulates a potential abuse of authority in these words: "There is a flawed 
circular argument behind much of the Vatican's efforts to police theological 



35 

discussion in the Catholic Church at present. Disciple is used to produce a 
spurious sense of consensus. Then the existence of the consensus is cited as 
evidence of the settled position of the Church. And thus those who speak 
against that settled position are accused of disagreeing with a teaching that 
has the Church's authority behind it. But tliis is just an exercise in tautology. 
It convinces nobody. The only consensus that matters is one that emerges 
after free and exhaustive debate, without any attempt to silence those holding 
different opinions. Only thus can the Holy Spirit be seen to have the time and 
space in which to work." 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Die Last moraltheologischer LehrautoritSt." Stimmen der Zeit 
120, #213 (April 1995): 219-232. 

English digest; "The Burden of Moral Theological Teaching Authority," 
Theology Digest 34, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 47-54. 

. "The Magisterium and Moral Theology." Theology Digest 38 (1991): 103- 

107. 

Critiques the maximalist position of Mucci, published in Civilta Cattolica in 
1988. Digest of Fuch's 1989 article, "Magisterium und Moraltheologie," in 
Freiburger Zeitschrift ftir Philosophie und Theologie. 

, "Magisterium und Moraltheologie." Freiburger Zeitschrift fur Philosophie 

und Theologie 36 (1989): 395-407. 

In English: "The Magisterium and Moral Theology." Chapter 9 in Idem. 
Moral Demands and Personal Obligations, 140-150. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University Press, 1993. English language digest as "The 
Magisterium and Moral Theology," Theology Digest 38 (1991): 103-107. 

___. "Teaching Morality: The Tension Between Bishops and Theologians Within 
the Church." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 
330-353. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena. Translated by 
Bernard Hoose and Brian McNeil. Washington, D.C. : Georgetown University 
Press, and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana in una societa secolorizzata. Casale 
Monferrato: Piemme, 1984. 



36 

. "'Whoever hears you hears me': episcopal moral instruction." Theology 

Digest 41 (1994): 3-7. 

English digest of "'Wer euch h5rt, der hOrt mich': Bisch6fliche 
Moralweisungen." Stimmen der Zeit 117 (1992): 723-731. 

Briefly highlights instances where both individual bishops and different 
bishops' conferences have issued position statements on a particular issue, 
such as Persistent Vegetative State (PVS), which are not in agreement with 
one another. Fuchs notes the difference between enunciation of principles 
(about which there is usually greater agreement) and application of these 
principles to concrete ethical issues (and concerning which there will 
necessarily be less agreement. Moreover, Fuchs stresses that while respect 
for such episcopal teaching is a value, it is not an absolute value, and the 
absolute value would be only to the moral truth (and the common search for 
that truth). 

Galvin, John P. "Papal Primacy in Contemporary Roman Catholic Theology." 
Theological Studies 47 (1986): 653-667. 

Summarizes and discusses the themes of the theology of papal primacy 
developed by Charles Joumet (1891-1 975) and notes some recent ecumenical 
proposals. 

Gres-Gayer, Jacques M. "The Magisterium of the Faculty of Theology of Paris in the 
Seventeenth Century." Theological Studies 53 (1992): 424-450. 

Historical account of the resistance to the transfer of ecclesiastical teaching 
authorit)' "from those who had acquired knowledge to those who received 
power." Gres-Gayer is associate professor of church history at The Catholic 
University of America. 

Grisez, Germain. "How to Deal wth Theological Dissent." Homiletic and Pastoral 
Review 87 (November 1986). 

Grisez maintains that theological dissent is like a cancer growing in the 
Church's organs and interfering with her vital functions and should be dealt 
with as one might deal surgically with a malignant tumor. Grisez is professor 
of moral theology/philosophy at Mt. St. Mary's in Emmitsburg, MD. Also 
in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 442-472. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. 



37 

. "Infallibility and Moral Norms: A Review Discussion." In Readings in Moral 

Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 58-96. Edited by Charles E. Curran 
and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in The Thomist. 

. "Magisterium's Responsibility and Public Dissent." In Teaching the Catholic 

Faith: Central Questions for the '90's, 155-160. Proceedings of the 
Thirteenth Convention of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, 1990. Edited by Msgr. Eugene V.Clark. NewYork: St. John's 
University Edition, with the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, 1991. 

Originally appeared in «Humanae vitae»: 20 anni dopo. Atti del II 
Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale, Roma, 9-12 novembre 1988. 
Milano: Edizioni Ares, 1989. 

The Fellowship of Catholic Scholars was founded in 1977 and includes, 
among others, JosephFessio, S.J., Germain Grisez, James Hitchcock, Donald 
Keefe, S.J., Msgr. George A. Kelly, Ronald Lawler, OFM, Cap., William E. 
May, Msgr. William B. Smith, et al.. 

Gudorf, Christine E. "The magisterium and the Bible: North American experience." 
In The Bible and its readers, 79-90. Edited by W. Beuken, et al. 1991. 

Gula, Richard, S.S. "The Right to Private and Public Dissent from Specific 
Pronouncements of the Ordinary Magisterium." Eglise etthiologie 9 (1978): 
3 f 9-343. 

Gula taught moral theology for many years at St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo 
Park, California, and now is professor of moral theology at the Franciscan 
School of Theology in Berkeley. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "The Curran Case: Conflict Between Rome and a Moral 
Theologian." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 
370-386. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally presented on West German radio in September 1986. Haring was 
one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of the twentieth 
century, and taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured 
throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus (expert 
consultant) at Vatican II. 



38 

_. "Magistero." In Dizionario Enciclopedio di Teologia Morale, 583-594. 

Edited by Ambrogio Valsecchi and Leandro Rossi. Roma: Edizioni Paoline, 
1974. 

Hoffmann, Paul. "Paul as a Witness to Dissent." Concilium 158 (1982): 75-80. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this issue. 

Hoose, Bernard. "Authority, Obedience and Dissent." Chapter 1 in Id. Received 
Wisdom?: Reviewing the Role of Tradition in Christian Ethics. 9-42. 
London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1994. 

Hoose did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, and is currently on the faculty of Heythrop College. 

. "Proportionalists, Deontologists and the Human Good." The Heythrop 

Journam {\992)\ 175-191. 

Discusses the theories of Germain Grisez in terms of the human good, and his 
extreme reluctance to accept even the hypothetical possibility of disagreeing 
with the Magisterium. Hoose goes on to clarify part of the problematic of the 
incommensurability of goods associated with the proportionalist school. 

Hughes, Gerard J., S.J. "Responding to Official Church Teaching." Priests & People 
8 (October 1994): 382-86. 

Htitter, Reinhard. "Ecclesial Ethics, the Church's Vocation and Paraclesis." Pro 
£:cc/ej/fl 2 (1993): 433-450. 

Janssens, Louis. "The Non-infallible Magisterium and Theologians." Louvain 
Studies 14 {\9S9): 195-259. 

Jordan, Mark D. "On Defending Catholic Higher Education in America." In 
Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 290-303. Edited 
by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Communio in 1986. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "Compelling Assent: Magisterium, Conscience and Oaths." 
Irish Theological Quarterly 57 (1991): 209-227. 



39 

Centers on the new oath of fidelity while giving an overview of some of the 
issues involved on magisterial competence, authority, and cooperation 
between theologians and Magisterium. See reply by Richard J. Barrett, 
"Assent: Not a Compelling Problem— A Response to J,F. Keenan." Irish 
Theological Quarterly 59 (1993): 264-285. Keenan did his doctorate in 
moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, and taught at 
Fordham University in New York before joining the faculty of the Weston 
Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now teaches at 
Boston College. 

. "Notes on Moral Theology: Ethics and the Crisis in the Church." Theological 

Studies 66 (2005): 117-136. 

Bibliographical essay on issues related to the sex-abuse crisis in the Church. 

Kelly, Kevin. "Do We Believe in a Church of Sinners?" The Way 33 (1993): 106- 
116. 

Kelly suggests that inasmuch as the Church is made up of sinners the Church 
itself (e.g., the Magisterium) will also reflect sin and sinfulness. A viable 
Christian spirituality needs to take account of this fact. Kelly is a priest of the 
Liverpool Archdiocese and former lecturer in Christian ethics at Heythrop 
College. 

Kirtland, Robert. "Authority and Academic Freedom." v4wmcfl, 156(25 April 1987): 
348-349. 

Author is a historian. States that theological questions should not be solved 
by administrative fiat, lest these institutions regress into "theological 
stodginess" of previous eras. Reference to the Curran case at The Catholic 
University of America. 

Kiing, Hans, and Moltmann, Jtirgen, eds. "The Right to Dissent." Concilium 158 
(1982). 

Series of articles on various aspects of this issue. 

Lakeland, Paul. "The Ethical Discourse of the Church." In Theology and Critical 
Theory: The Discourse of the Church, 174-207. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 
1990. 

Brings into dialogue the critical theory of Jiirgen Habermas with the 
ecclesiology of the Post- Vatican II Church. Lakeland's thesis is that the 



40 

Church's failure to enact the Conciliar vision is due to a lack of a critical 
theory of church and society which could have provided an intellectual 
context in which social teachings and praxis could give a consistent direction 
which in turn would welcome a reflexive critique of the internal dynamics of 
church life. 

Lawler, Ronald D,, OFM Cap. "The Magisterium and Catholic Moral Teaching." 
In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia 
Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 217-233. Roma: Citta Nuova Editrice, 
1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Mahoney, John, S.J. "On the Other Hand..." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: 
Dissent in the Church, 3 1 5-329. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in The New Blackfriars in 1985. 

May, William E. "Church Magisterium and Public Dissent." In Teaching the 
Catholic Faith: Central Questions for the '90's, 137-154. Proceedings of the 
Thirteenth Convention of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, 1990. Edited by Msgr. Eugene V.Clark. NewYork: St. John's 
University Edition, with the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, 1991. 

The Fellowship of Catholic Scholars was founded in 1977 and includes, 
among others, Joseph Fessio, S. J., Germain Grisez, James Hitchcock, Donald 
Keefe, S.J., Msgr. George A. Kelly, Ronald Lawler, OFM, Cap., William E. 
May, Msgr, William Smith, et al.. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J., and McBrien, Richard P. "L'Affaire Curran H." 
America i%-\5 September 1990): 127-132; 142-143. 

Also found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. Reviews the aftermath of the 
Curran affair in the light of the subject's difficulty in obtaining a position in 
a Catholic university. Some additional material discussed, such as the 
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document on the Ecclesial 
Vocation of the Theologian. 



41 

. "Theology as a Public Responsibility." America 165 (28 September 1991): 

184-189; 203-206. 

Basically a response to the 1990 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith 
(CDF) document on the "Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian." Excellent 
statement of the concerns of the middle-to-left sector of the Church in 
reference to the current policies of the Vatican in regards to dissent. Also 
found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral Theology. 
Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "U Affaire Curran." America (5 April 1986): 261-267. 

Also found in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the 
Church, 408-420. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. Written before 
Curran's definitive condemnation by the Congregation for the 
Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). Delineation of the issues and the "non- 
issues" of the case. Gives references to Curran's points of dissent, 
and discusses the necessity of theological dissent in the Church. 

. "Dissent in Moral Theology and Its Implications: Some Notes on the 

Literature." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 
5 17-539. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New 
York: PauUst Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Theological Studies in 1987. 

. "'Moral Considerations' 111 Considered." America 166 (14 March 1992): 210- 

214. 

Also found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. Critiques the statement issued 
on 12 December 1991 of the Pennsylvania bishops entitled "Nutrition and 
Hydration: Moral Considerations" (Origins 30 January 1992). McCormick 
argues that the bishops' statement disagrees with other episcopal statements 
and is an overly specific application of general moral principles of a 
controverted case, and therefore carniot enjoy the same magisterial authority 
as a more general statement. 

. "The Search for Truth in the Catholic Context." In Readings in Moral 

Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 421-434. Edited by Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 



42 

Also found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. Originally appeared in 
America in 1986. 

. "The Teaching Office as a Guarantor of Unity in Morality." Concilium 1 50 

(1981): 72-81. 

Interesting for delineating various views on the magisterium, authority, nature 
of legitimate dissent, and the role of sensus fidelium {sensus fidei). 

__. "Theologians and the Magisterioni." In Id. Corrective Vision: Explorations 

in Moral Theology, 82-99. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 

Melina, Livio. "Coscienza, liberta e Magistero." La Scuola Cattolica 120 (1992): 
152-171. 

Melina is professor of moral theology at the John Paul 11 Institute for Studies 
of Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

. "Moral conscience and 'communio': Toward a response to the challenge of 

ethical pluralism. Communio 20 (1993): 673-686. 

Melina holds that Christian conscience is a call to assume an internal, 
ecclesial form in conformity with a Marian disponability to the Spirit. This 
article does not discuss Veritatis Splendor. 

. "Moral theology and the ecclesial sense: Points for a theological 're- 
dimensioning' of morality." Communio 29 (1992): 67-93. 

In Spanish: "Consciencia, libertad y Magistero." Communio 14 (1992): 162- 
179. 

According to Melina, moral theology needs a re-dimensioning which would 
reestablish the bonds between moral theology and other key branches of 
theology, specifically Christology, theological anthropology, and 
ecclesiology. Melina argues that the Eucharist is the locus /jar excellence of 
the moral life, and that a strong trust in, and reliance on the Magisterium is 
the only sure guarantee of following the promptings of the Holy Spirit in the 
moral life. In terms of the specificity of Christian ethics Melina seems to 
recast the issue. No longer does the discussion revolve around the question 
"Is there a specific Christian ethics?" but implicitly, following Melina's view, 
one is led to the conclusion that there is no authentic morality which is not 
rooted in the Catholic Church, and especially in the Eucharist. 



43 

Metz, Johannes Baptist, and Schillebeeckx, Edward, eds. "The Teaching Authority 
of Believers." Concilium 180(1985). 

Series of articles on Sensus fidelium and the role of the people in relation to 
the Magisterium. 

MUller, Alois. "Authority and Obedience in the Church." Concilium 5 (2/1 966): 40- 
48. 

Murphy, Roland E. "Prophets and Wise Men as Provokers of Dissent." Concilium 
158 (1982): 61-66. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this issue. 

Nilson, Jon. "The Rights and Responsibilities of Theologians: A Theological 
Perspective." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 
5-34. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Cooperation Between Theologians and the 
Ecclesiastical Magisterium. A Report of the Joint Committee of the Canon 
Law Society of America and the Catholic Theology Society of America, 
1982. 

Noonan, John T., Jr. "Development in Moral Doctrine." Theological Studies 54 
(1993): 662-677. 

Looks at how moral doctrine has changed over the centuries in some concrete 
instances, such as marriage, taking of interest, slavery, and so on. Noonan 
notes that sometimes what had been permitted in the past was later 
proscribed, at other times what was proscribed was later permitted. 
Similarly, certain other practices which had been encouraged were later 
discouraged and vice versa. Noonan is a legal historian, professor of law at 
the University of California-Berkeley (Boalt Hall), and United States federal 
appellate court judge. 

. "On the Development of Doctrine." America 180 (3 April 1999): 6-8. 



Looks at changes and development in magisterial teaching in five areas: 
adultery, death penalty, religious liberty, slavery, and usury. 

Novak, Michael. "Dissent in the Church." Catholicism in Crisis 4 (January, 1986): 
8-13. 



44 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 1 1 2-126. 
Edited by Charles E. Cmran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. The author is often allied with the neo-conservative 
wing of the Catholic Church. 

O'Hanlon, Daniel J., S.J. "The Nature, Extent and Style of Authority in the Church." 
In Law for Liberty: The Role of Law in the Church Today, 109- 11 8. Edited 
by James E. Biechler. Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1967. 

Essay written for the Canon Law Society of America's seminar on The Role 
of Law in the Church. O'Hanlon taught systematic theology and spirituality 
at Alma College and the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

O'Riordan, Sedn, C.Ss.R. "The Teaching of the Papal Encyclicals as Source and 
Norm of Moral Theology." Studia Moralia 14 (1976): 135-157. 

Orsy, Ladislaus, S.J. "The Congregation's 'Response': Its Authority and Meaning." 
America 173 (9 December 1995): 4-5. 

Canonical analysis of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF)'s 
"Response" declaring John Paul II's Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (against the 
possibility of the ordination of women) to be infallible. See also the article 
by Francis A. Sullivan, S.J., "Guideposts from Catholic Tradition" in the 
same issue. 

. "Magisterium: Assent and Dissent." Theological Studies 48 (1987): 473-497. 

_. "Reflections on the Text of a Canon." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: 

Dissent in the Church, 23 1 -238. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared m. America in 1986. 

Padberg, John W., S.J. "Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence." Studies in the 
Spirituality of Jesuits 25, no. 3 (May 1993): 1-38. 

Padberg is a historian and director of the Institute of Jesuit Sources in St. 
Louis, MO. He was also president for many years of the Weston School of 
Theology in Cambridge, MA. 

Pesce, P.G. "Osservazioni sul dissenso ecclesiale in question! morali." Antonianum 
53 (1978): 574-604. 



45 
Has a large bibliography. 

Porter, Jean. "Natural Law, Moral Discernment, and Authority of the Church." 
Paper presented at the Catholic Theological Society of America Annual 
Convention, Miami, June 1999. 

Material taken from her book. Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Roots 
of Christian Ethics. Ontario: Novalis, and Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 
Porter is professor of theological ethics at the University of Notre Dame. 

Provost, James, and Waif, Knut, eds, "Power in the Church." Concilium 197 
(3/1988). 

Series of articles devoted to various factors involved in ecclesial authority 
and power. 

Quelquejeu, Bernard. "Acceptance of the Rights of Man, Disregard for the 'Rights 
ofChristians': The Inconsistency of Rome." ConciliumlOl (1989): 118-132. 

Critique of some aspects of the new Code of Canon Law and current 
procedural practices in the Roman Curia in respect to treatment of the 
"rights" of individuals, especially theologians. 

Rahner, Karl, S.J. "Theology and Magisteriimi: Self-Appraisals."In Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 35-41. Edited by Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Theology Digest 29 (1981): 257-261. 

. "Zur Situation der Jesuitenorden nach den Schwierigkeiten mit dem Vatikan," 

SchriftenXV. 

A talk to German Jesuits (14 April 1982) concerning Paolo Dezza, S.J.'s 
instruction of 25 March 1 982 which stated that all Jesuit theology be aligned 
strictly with the Pope's teaching: R. stated, "Jesuit theology would lose its 
credibility to the outside world, if it were to be judged as a simple megaphone 
[blesses Sprachrohr] of authoritarian teaching power" p.362. Dezza had 
been appointed by Pope John Paul 11 as acting head of the Society of Jesus 
when the Superior General, Pedro Arrupe, was incapacitated by a stroke in 
1 98 1 . In doing so the Pope removed the acting head that had been appointed 
by Arrupe himself and effectively superceded the normal autonomous 
governance of the religious order. Dezza belonged to the more conservative 
wing of the Jesuits and had very close coimections ynih the Vatican curia. 



46 

Control of the Society of Jesus was returned to the order two years later with 
the formal resignation of Armpe and the election of his successor, Peter Hans 
Kolvenbach. This incident though marked a certain high water mark of 
tension between the Jesuits and the Vatican, 

Rausch, Thomas P., S.J. "Who Speaks for the Church?" America, 156 (25 April 
1987): 344-346. 

Good balanced article, v/hich maintains the principle of the authoritative 
teaching office of the bishops while stressing that other voices must also be 
heard. Article points out that the touted "self-policing" among theologians 
does not always work in highly charged issues, such as women and gay gay, 
which instead become "advocacy" theology. Rausch is professor of theology 
at Loyola-Marymount University in Los Angeles. 

Rigali,NorbertJ.,S.J. "Moral Theology and the Magisterium." Horizons 15(1988): 
116-124. 

Rigali taught moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

Romelt, Josef, C.Ss.R. "Glaubende Kirche und Ethik." Theologie der Gegenwart 
31 (1988): 144-154. 

Ruggieri, Giuseppe. "Ecclesiologia ed etica." Cristianesimo nella Storia 9 (1988): 
1-22. 

Russo, Giuseppe, SDB. "Magistero cattolico, verita e metafisica. Analisi filosofica 
e teologica degli interessi ideologici nella bioetica." Palestra del Clero 70 
(1991): 853-885. 

Sala, Giovanni, "hisegnamenti «fallibili» e assistenza dello Spirito Santo." 
Rassegna di teologia. 34 (1993): 516-543. 

SchlQgel, Herbert, O.P. "Zur Kompetenz des Lehramts fiir das sittliche Handeln: 
Ekklesiologische Perspektiven." Trier Theologische Zeitschrift 92 (1983): 
22-31. 

SchlOgel did his Habilitation on Gerhard Ebeling: Nicht moralisch sonder 
theologisch. Zum Gewissensverstdndnis von Gerhard Ebeling. 

. "Kirchenbilder in der Moraltheologie." Stimmen der Ze it 111 (1992): 109- 

114. 



47 

Criticizes the lack of prominence given to the role of the Church in moral 
theology by a number of contemporary moralists. As negative examples 
SchlQgel cites Franz B6ckle and Klaus Demmer, and as a positive example 
uses Livio Melina. 

Selling, Joseph A. "Authority and Moral Teaching in a Catholic Christian Context." 
In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 57-71. Edited by Bernard Hoose. 
CoUegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

Selling teaches moral theology on the Faculty of Theology at the Catholic 
University of Louvain. 

. "Magisterial Authority and the Natural Law." Doctrine and Life 47 (August 

1997): 334-342. 

Very negative review of Frank Mobbs' Beyond Its Authority: The 
Magisterium and Matters of Natural Law (Sydney: E.J. Dwyer, 1997), and 
concludes with a thoughtful exposition of Selling's own positions in this area. 
Mobb's basic thesis is that inasmuch as the natural law is not part of 
revelation the authority of the Magisterium does not extend to authoritative 
pronouncements on the natural law. Selling' s views are much more nuanced. 

. "Magisterial Teaching on Marriage, 1880-1968. Historical Constancy or 

Radical Development? Studia Moralia 28 (1990): 439-490. 

Also found in Historia: Memoria Futuri. Melanges Louis Vereecke (70° 
anniversaire de naissance), 351-402. Edited by Real Tremblay, C.Ss.R. and 
Dermis J. Billy, C.Ss.R. Roma: Editiones Academiae Alphonsianae, 1991. 
By analyzing the teachings of Popes Leo XHI to Paul VI Humanae Vitae's 
claim of the existence of a clearly definable body of teaching v^th respect to 
marriage which has been "constantly" taught by the Magisterium is evaluated. 
Selling concludes that a new norm, "openness to procreation" emerged which 
went "considerably beyond what Pius XII had explicitly taught." Humanae 
vitae itself "can be better characterized either as a radical development in the 
line of teaching of Leo XIII, Pius XI and Pius XII, or a departure from the 
developing teaching of [these same popes] and the Second Vatican Council." 

Smith, William B., Msgr. "The Question of Dissent in Moral Theology." In Persona 
Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale 
(Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 235-254. Roma: Cittd Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

A very conservative treatment of the legitimate (im)possibility of theological 
dissent. Smith concludes that "The only way for genuine dissent in theory 



48 

and practice to be legitimate is to accept and adopt an illegitimate 
ecclesiology which not only changes but also contradicts the teachings of 
Vatican II about the nature of sacred and certain Catholic teaching and the 
very nature of the Church (Lumen gentium 25; Dei verbum 7-10)" p. 253. 
The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr, 
Carlo CafFarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Smith is Professor of Moral Theology at 
St. John's Seminary (Dunwoodie) in New York, and moral columnist for 
Homilectic and Pastoral Review. 

Spohn, William C. "Notes on Moral Theology: 1992. The Magisterium and 
Morality." Theological Studies 54 (1993): 95-1 11. 

Discusses primarily some of the issues and ramifications of the Congregation 
for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document on "The Ecclesial Vocation of 
the Theologian," the required Profession of Faith for theology professors, and 
the Catechism of the Catholic Church concerning the extension of the assent 
and limitation of dissent, from teachings of the ordinary, non-infallible 
magisterium, as well as the inherent competence and limitations of the 
magisterium to teach infallibly and/or "authoritatively" in moral matters. 
Spohn was a Professor of Theology at the University of Santa Clara until his 
death m 2005. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "The Authority of the Magisterium on Questions of 
Natural Moral Law." Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the 
Church, 42-57. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in Magisterium: Teaching Authority in the Catholic 
Church, 138-152. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983. 

Italian translation: // magistero nella chiesa cattolica. Teologi saggi. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1986. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "The Doctrinal Weight of Evangelium Vitae." Theological 
Studies 56 (September 1995): 560-65. 

Discusses the level(s) of magisterial authority which can, and cannot, be 
ascribed to Pope John Paul II's Encyclical on the Gospel of Life, Evangelium 
Vitae (which treats abortion, capital punishment, war, euthanasia, and health 
care ethics). 



49 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "Guideposts from Catholic Tradition," America 173 (9 
December 1995): 5-6. 

Theological analysis of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith 
(CDF)'s "Response" declaring John Paul II's Ordinatio Sacerdotalis to be 
infallible and belonging to the deposit of faith. See also the canonical 
analysis by Ladislaus Orsy, S.J., "The Congregation's 'Response': Its 
Authority and Meaning," in the same issue. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "Recent Theological Observations on Magisterial 
Documents and Public Dissent." Theological Studies 58 (1998): 509-515. 

Critiques an article of Archbishop Taricsio Bertone, Secretary of the 
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith , published in L 'Osservatore 
Romano on December 20, 1996 in which Bertone argues for papal 
infallibility for various positions taught in the ordinary magisterium, but 
which lack the usual traditional criteria for establishing the objective fact of 
their being so taught. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "The Theologian's Ecclesial Vocation and the 1990 CDF 
Instruction." Theological Studies 52 (1991): 51-68. 

A careful "exegesis" and interpretation of the Congregation for the Doctrine 
of the Faith's 1990 "Instruction on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian." 

Strynkowski, John. "Theological Pluralism and Canonical Mandate." In Readings 
in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 239-249. Edited by 
Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 
1988. 

Originally appeared in The Jurist. 

Thiel, John E. "Responsibility to the Spirit: Authority in the Catholic Tradition." 
New Theology Review 8 (1995): 53-68. 

Thiel is professor of theology at Fairfield University. 

. "Theological Responsibility: Beyond the Classical Paradigm." Theological 

Studies 47 (19S6): 573-59S. 

Historical background for the understanding of dissent. Suggests a paradigm, 
derived from Romanticism, for the assimiption that the theologian possesses 
individual creativity and therefore accountable to the ecclesial community at 



50 

large. This paradigm has received qualified acceptance from the official 
raagisterium, though this acceptance has not been constant. 

. "Tradition and Authoritative Reasoning." Theological Studies 56 (1995): 

627-651. 

Uses insights from nonfoundational epistemology to discuss some of the 
problematic relations between argument and authority in magisterial teaching. 
Teachings contained in Paul VFs Humanae vitae (against artificial 
contraception) and Inter Insigniores (against women's ordination) are used 
to illustrate the issue. 

Tineo, Luis. "Conciencia moral y Magistero de la Iglesia." Teologia lUSI 12 (1 994): 
43-76. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Pope John Paul 
n's 1993 Encyclical on Fundamental Moral Theology, Veritatis Splendor. 

Valadier, Paul, S.J. "L'autorite en morale." Etudes 379 (1993): 213-224. 

Concerns the problem of authority in general in moral theology. 

Venetz, Hermann-Josef "Dealing with Dissenters in the New Testament 
Communities." Concilium 158 (1982): 67-74. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this issue. 

Vertin, Michael. "The Doctrine of Infallibility and the Demands of Epistemology." 
The Thomist43 (1979): 637-652. 

See also Peter Chirico, S.S.'s "Infallibility: A Reply." The Thomist^A (1980): 
128-135. 

Wilson, George B., S.J. "'Dissent' or Conversation Among Adults?" America 180 
(13 March 1999): 8-10; 12. 

Wilson suggests that "dissent" is really the wrong concept to use in referring 
to contemporary, well-educated, adult Catholics in their attempts to dialogue 
and agree and/or disagree with magisterial teaching: "Adults don't 'dissent'; 
they discuss and deliberate and converse and dialogue." (P. 9). 



51 

Wogaman, J. Philip. "The Ecumenical Impact of the Curran Case." In Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 512-516. Edited by Charles 
E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Originally appeared in The Christian Century in 1987. 



Books on the Magisterium and/or Dissent 

AIlsopp, Michael, ed. Ethics and the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Scranton: 
University of Scranton Press, 1999. 

Contributions include from essays on teaching the Catechism (Mary Jo 
lozzio), the Catechism and conscience (Michael AIlsopp), the moral act and 
its moral evaluation in the Catechism (Todd Salzman), homosexuality and the 
Catechism (Robert Nugent), and a comparison of Catechisms in the Americas 
(Edward Sunshine). Others consider the political culture of the Catechism 
(Edward van Merrienboer) and the treatment of marriage (Ann Swaner), 
Catholic Social Teaching (John Pawlikowski), assisted suicide (B. Andrew 
Lustig), and Catholic health care (Gerard Magill) in the Catechism. 

Ashley, Benedict M., O.P. Justice in the Church: Gender and Participation. 
Baltimore, MD: The Catholic University of America Press, 1996. 

Confronting the controversial issue of women's ordination, this book provides 
a theological exploration of the definitive 1994 Vatican declaration, 
Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, which opposed the ordination of women. Ashley 
discusses the arguments of those in favor of changing the Church's practice 
of ordaining priests, and explains and defends the Church's reasoning for 
strictly denying women's participation in the priesthood. 

Biechler, James E., ed. Law for Liberty: The Role of Law in the Church Today. 
Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1967. 

Essays written for the Canon Law Society of America's seminar on The Role 
of Law in the Church. 

Boyle, John P. Church Teaching Authority: Historical and Theological Studies. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995 



52 

Cooney, G.L. "The Magisterium and the Moral Matters of Bishops' Conferences in 
the Light of the Document The Challenge of Peace'." S.T.D. Dissertation. 
Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University, 1990. 

Directed by Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

Clark, Msgr. Eugene V., ed. Teaching the Catholic Faith: Central Questions for the 
'90's. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Convention of the Fellowship of 
Catholic Scholars, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1990. New York: St. John's 
University Edition, with the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars, 1991. 

Articles deal mostly with condemnation of theological dissent and upholding 
absolute fidelity to the magisterium. 

The Fellowship of Catholic Scholars was founded in 1977 and includes, 
among others, Joseph Fessio, S. J., Germain Grisez, James Hitchcock, Donald 
Keefe, S.J., Msgr. George A. Kelly, Ronald Lawler, OFM, Cap., William E. 
May, Msgr. William Smith, et al.. 

Curran, Charles E., Hunt, Robert E., et al.. Dissent in and for the Church. New 
York: Sheed and Ward, 1969. 

Articles dealing with the fallout of theologians who opposed Pope Paul VI's 
1968 Encyclical Humanae Vitae which condemned artificial contraception. 

Curran, Charles E., Hunt, John F.., et al.. The Responsibility of Dissent: The Church 
and Academic Freedom. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1969. 

Curran, Charles E. and McCormick, Richard A., S.J., eds. Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 3: The Magisterium and Morality. New York: Paulist Press, 
1982. 

. Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church. New York: 

Paulist Press, 1988. 

Articles, representative of both ends of the theological spectrum, are grouped 
into five sections: 1) Theological Dissent in General; 2) Canonical Aspects; 
3) Academic Aspects; 4) Moral Theology in Particular; 5) The Curran Case 
and its Aftermath. 

Curran, Charles E. Faithful Dissent. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1987. 



53 

Details Curran's encounter with the Congregation for the Doctrine of the 
Faith which led to his being denied the claim to be a "Catholic" theologian 
in good-standing, and ultimately to his departure from the faculty of The 
Catholic University of America. Curran is Elizabeth Scurlock University 
Professor of Human Values at Southern Methodist University, 

. The Moral Theology of Pope John Paul II. Washington, D.C: Georgetown 

University Press, 2005. 

Focuses on the the fourteen papal encyclicals the Pope wrote over the course 
of his twenty-six year papacy. The book begins with a discussion of the 
theological presuppositions of John Paul II's moral teaching and subsequent 
chapters address his theological methodology, his ethical methodology, and 
his fundamental moral theology together with his understanding of human 
life. Finally, Curran deals with the specific issues of globalization, marriage, 
conscience, human acts, and the many issues involved in social and sexual 
ethics. 

Fagan, Gerald M., S.J. Fidelity in the Church-Then and Now. Studies in the 
Spirituality of Jesuits 31 (May 1999). 

Discusses fidelity to the Church, and what might be termed proper attitudes 
of discernment and religious submission of the will in the context of Jesuit 
spirituality, and in particular Ignatius' Rules for Thinking with the Church 
(which are found in the Spiritual Exercises). 

Fiedler, Maureen, and Rabben, Linda, eds. Rome Has Spoken: A Guide to Forgotten 
Papal Statements and How They Have Changed through the Centuries. New 
York: Crossroad, 1998. 

Individual chapters dealing with a range of theological and moral topics, from 
infallibility, biblical interpretation, ecumenism, religious freedom, usury, 
sexual ethics, and so on. The format of each chapter provides a historical 
sampling of various magisterial statements (papal, conciliar, and from various 
dicasteries [offices] of the Holy See) on the topic at hand, and concludes with 
a short essay on the Church's teaching in this area by a specialist in the field. 

Finucane, Daniel J. Sensus Fidelium: The Use of a Concept in the Post-Vatican II 
£:ra. Bethesda, MD: Catholic Scholars Press, 1996. 

Gaillardetz, Richard B. Witness to the Faith: Community, Infallibility and the 
Ordinary Magisterium of Bishops. New York: Paulist Press, 1992. 



54 

An historical and systematic examination of the ordinary teaching authority 
of the bishops, emphasizing Vatican IPs retrieval of the ecclesiology of 
communion. 

Gallagher, John, C.S.B. The Basis for Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 
1985. 

Gallagher divides his work into four sections: 1) The Criteria for Moral 
Judgment: Human Reason and Experience; 2) The Criteria for Moral 
Judgment: Sacred Scripture; 3) Practical Moral Judgment; and 4) Individual 
Conscience and the Church, In this last section Gallagher's final chapter (20) 
treats the question of the Magisterium and dissent on moral issues. 

Gonzalez Faus, Jose Ignacio, S.J. Libertad de palabra en la Iglesiay en la teologia: 
Antologia comentada. Santander: Editorial Sal Terrae, 1985. 

In English: Where the Spirit Breathes: Prophetic Dissent in the Church. 
Translated by Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1989. 

Collection of various quotable quotes supporting "prophetic dissent" from 
throughout the history of the Church, commented upon by this Spanish 
theologian. 

Greenleaf, Robert K. Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate 
Power and Greatness. New York: Paulist Press, 1 977. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. My Witness for the Church. Translated by Leonard 
Swidler. New York: Paulist Press, 1992. 

A memoir of one of the most important moral theologians in the Twentieth 
Century. This account narrates some of the struggles Haring had with the 
Vatican curia, leading ultimately to his exoneration during the early years of 
the pontificate of Pope John Paul 11. Haring taught moral theology in various 
places throughout the world, but was based mostly in Rome at the Pontifical 
Alphonsianum Academy. 

Hoose, Bernard. Received Wisdom?: Reviewing the Role of Tradition in Christian 
Ethics. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1994. 

Hoose did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, and is currently on the faculty of Heythrop College. 



55 

Kaufman, Philip S., O.S.B. Why You Can Disagree and Remain a Faithful Catholic. 
Bloomington IN: Myer Stone Books, 1989. 

Discusses probabilism, infallibility, divorce and remarriage, and many of the 
issues connected with the proclamation of the birth control teaching of the 
Church. 

Levada, William. Infallible Church Magisterium and the Natural Law. Excerpta ex 
dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificiae Universitatis 
Gregorianae. Rome: Pontifical Gregorian Press, 1971. 

Dissertation done under Francis A. Sullivan, S.J. at the Pontifical Gregorian 
Universit)' in Rome. Levada notes that while the Magisterium would have 
the authority to make infallible pronouncements on concrete moral norms, 
prudence would argue against trying to do so. This infallible competence is 
best seen "on the level of transcendental values; [but] when we turn to the 
level of categorical norms, on the other hand, we caimot ignore the essential 
autonomy of the rational process of human discovery of the natural moral 
law. And the nature of this moral autonomy, considered in all its aspects, 
gives us the ultimate reason why we should not understand it to fall within 
the traditional categories of primary or secondary object of infallibility" (P. 
79). Levada went on to become installed, on 22 September 1986, as 
archbishop of Portland, OR, and in 1 996 as archbishop of San Francisco, CA. 
On May 13, 2005 he was named by Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) 
to succeed the latter as the Prefect (head) of the Congregation for the 
Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 

Locht, Pierre de. Morale sexuelle et magistdre. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1992. 

Maguire, Daniel C. Moral Absolutes and the Magisterium. Washington, D.C.: 
Corpus Papers, 1970. 

In Spanish: "Absolutos morales y el magistero." In ^Principios Absolutos en 
Teologia Moral?, 57-106. Dirigido por Charles E. Curran. Traduccion de 
Jose Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal Terrae, 1970. 

Originally part of Absolutes in Moral Theology? Edited by Charles E. 
Curran. Washington, D.C.: Corpus Books, 1968. Maguire is professor of 
moral theology at Marquette University in Milwaiikee, Wisconsin. 

May, William E., ed. Vatican authority and American Catholic dissent. 1987. 



56 

Miller, Monica Migliorino. Sexuality and Authority in the Catholic Church. 
Scranton: University of Scranton Press, 1995. 

A rather neo-conservative anti-feminist treatment. 

Mobbs, Frank. Beyond Its Authority : The Magisterium and Matters of Natural Law. 
Sydney: E.J. Dwyer, 1997. 

Mobb's basic thesis is that inasmuch as the natural law is not part of 
revelation the authority of the Magisterium does not extend to authoritative 
pronouncements on the natural law. Very negatively reviewed by Joseph A. 
Selling in the latter' s article "Magisterial Authority and the Natural Law," 
Doctrine and Life 47 (August 1997): 334-342. 

The Pope John Center. Moral Theology Today: Certitudes and Doubts. St. Louis: 
The Pope John Center, 1984. 

Contents of 1984 workshop for North and Central American bishops, 
addressed by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger and various other theologians. 

Sanks, T. Howland, S.J. Authority in the Church: A Study in Changing Paradigms. 
Missoula: Scholars' Press, 1974. 

Sanks is former dean and professor of systematic theology at the Jesuit 
School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

Schlogel, Herbert, O.P. Kirche und sittliches Handeln: Zur Ekklesiologie in der 
Grundlagenddiscussion der deutschprachigen katholischen Moraltheologie 
seit der Jahrhundertwende. Mainz, 1981. 

Schlogel did his Habilitation on Gerhard Ebeling: Nicht moralisch sonder 
theologisch. Zum Gewissensverstdndnis von Gerhard Ebeling. 

Schuster, Josef. Ethos und kirchliches Lehramt. Zur Kompetenz des Lehramtes in 
Fragen der natiirlichen Sittlichkeit. Frankfurt, 1984. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. Creative Fidelity: Weighing and Interpreting Documents 
of the Magisterium. New York: Paulist Press, 1996. 

Very good for developing an understanding of how to exegete and interpret 
the various levels of teaching contained in Vatican documents. Helpful in 
dogmatic theology as well, and good historical examples are used to illustrate 
the various points. 



57 

. Magisterium: Teaching Authority in the Catholic Church. Dublin: Gill and 

Macmillan, 1983. 

Italian translation: Ilmagisteronellachiesacattolica. Teologi saggi. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1986. 

An excellent overview of the theology of the Magisterium and related 
questions. Includes chapters on the biblical and historical bases for episcopal 
Magisterium, infallibility, and a concluding chapter on the Magisterium and 
role of theologians in the Church. The last half of Chapter 6, "The 
Infallibility of the Universal Magisterium and the Limits of the Object of 
Infallibility," (pp. 132-152) is also found in Curran and McCormick, 
Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6, pp. 42-57. 

Tettamanzi, [later Cardinal] Dionigi. Temi di morale fondamentale. Milano: Ed. 
O.R., 1975. 

Tettamanzi did his doctoral work in moral theology under Josef Fuchs, S.J. 
at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, but later essentially 
repudiated most of Fuchs' approach to the discipline. 

Vosman, F., ed. Aiming at Happiness: The Moral Teaching in the Catechism of the 
Catholic Church. Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House, 
1996. 

Witham, Larry. Curran vs. Catholic University: A Study of Authority and Freedom 
in Conflict. Riverdale MD: Edington-Rand, 1991. 

Witham, a reporter for The Washington Times, covers the "Curran Affair" 
from 1986 to the 1989 court decision in favor of Catholic University. 
Background discussion of the ecclesial, moral and theological issues is also 
included. 

Veritatis Splendor: John Paul 11 's Encyclical on Fundamental Moral Theology 

John Paul II, Pope. Veritatis splendor ("Splendor of the Truth"). Encyclical Letter 
on Fundamental Moral Theology, 6 August 1993. 
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul ii/encvclicals/documents/hf_ 
jp-ii_enc_0608 1 993_veritatis-splendor_en.html 

Pope John Paul II reigned from October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 



58 

Articles on Veritatis Splendor 

Albacete, Lorenzo. "The Relevance of Christ orthe Sequela Christi," Communioll 
(1994): 252-264. 

Alisopp, Michael E. "Introduction." In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. 
Michael E. Alisopp and John J. O'Keefe, vii-x. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 
1995. 

Anderson, Carl A. " Veritatis Splendor and the Family: The Future of Christianity in 
the Postmodern Era." Commmio 21 (1994): 298-310. 

Astorga, Christina A. "A Critical Dialogue with Veritatis Splendor and a Proposed 
New Ground for Discussion." Budhi 3 (2-3, 1999): 29-50. 

Also found in Landas 1 3 (1/1 999): 78-99. Gives an overview of the teaching 
of the Encyclical regarding proportionalism, and discusses this in the context 
of what the proportionalists themselves say. Astorga is former chair of the 
Department of Theology at the Ateneo de Manila. 

Baker, Kenneth, S.J. "The Splendor of Truth." Homiletic and Pastoral Review 
(February 1994): 80. 

Editorial by the publisher of this ultraconservative Catholic periodical. 

Banner, Michael. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 8-10. 

Bastianel, Sergio, S.J. "La chiamata in Cristo come tema e principio 
dell'insegnamento dellateologia morale." Seminarium 34(1994): 52-71. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. Bastianel is former dean and professor of moral theology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University. 

. "L'enciclica sulla morale: Veritatis Splendor." Civilta Cattolica 3441 (1993): 

209-219. 

Biggar, Nigel. " Veritatis Splendor. Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in Christian 
Ethics 7 (1994): 11-13. 

Biord Castillo, Raul. "Los transcentales: Historia de una idea." Teologia lUSI 12 
(1994): lOOff. 



59 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Bldquez, Niceto, O.P. " Veritatis Splendor o codigo deontol6gico para moralistas." 
5m^/MW 33 (1993): 369-388. 

Boland, Vivian, O.P. "An Encouragement and a Challenge." Doctrine and Life 43 
(1993): 524-531. 

One of several articles in this issue on Veritatis Splendor. 

Burke, Ronald R. " Veritatis Splendor. Papal Authority and Sovereignty of Reason." 
In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John 
J. O'Keefe, 1 19-36. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Accent on the masculine." The Tablet 247 (11 December 
1993): 1618-19. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians cormnenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. Cahill, a married Roman Catholic mother. Past President 
of the Catholic Theological Society of America (CTSA) and the Society of 
Christian Ethics, and Professor of Theological Ethics at Boston College, 
studied under James Gustafson at the University of Chicago. 

Clague, Julie. "On Agreeing to Differ: Some Reflections on the ARCIC Statement 
on Morals in Light of Veritatis Splendor." Irish Theological Quarterly 62 
(1/1996): 70-74. 

Chapelle, Albert, S.J. "Les enjeux de Veritatis Splendor." Nouvelle Revue 
Theologique 115 (1993): 801-817. 

Coraposta, Dario, S.D.B. "L'enciclica Veritatis Splendor del Sommo Pontefice 
Giovanni Paolo II. Riflessioni suUa sua attualit^." Divinitas 38 (1 994): 9-22. 

Composta is Professor Emeritus of the Urbanianum in the philosophy of law. 

Cottier, George, O.P.. "Formes actuelles du relativisme moral." Seminarium 34 
(1994): 163-169. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. Cottier was papal theologian to Pope John Paul II. 



60 

Cozzoli, Mauro. "La verita principio noraiativo della morale nella 'Veritatis 
Splendor.'" Lateramm 60, no. 1 (1994): 67-97. 

Cunningham, Lawrence S., et al. "Veritatis Splendor." Commonweal (22 Octohtv 
1993): 11-18. 

Reflections on Veritatis Splendor by Lawrence Cunningham, Joseph A. 
Komonchak, Dennis M. Doyle, Charles E. Curran, Janet E. Smith, Lisa 
Sowle Cahiil, Stanley M. Hauerwas, and Anne E. Patrick. 

Curran, Charles E. "Veritatis Splendor. A Revisionist Perspective." In Veritatis 
Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Alisopp and John J. O'Keefe, 
224-43. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Daly, Gabriel, O.S.A. "Ecclesial Implications." Doctrine and Life 43 (1993): 532- 
537. 

One of several articles in this issue on Veritatis Splendor. 

Delgado, William. "Libertad humana y orden moral objetivo: eleccion fundamental." 
Teologia lUSI 12 (1 994): 33-42. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Derckx, Leon. "Index of Persons, Documents and Scriptural References in Veritatis 
Splendor." In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions 
Made by Veritatis Splendor. 169-181. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan 
Jans. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Duquoc, Christian. "Position: L'Encyclique Veritatis Splendor." Lumiere et vie 43 
(Fevrier 1994): 101-104. 

Elders, Leo J. "Veritatis Splendor et la doctrine de Saint Thomas d'Aquin." Doctor 
Communis 157 (1994): 121-146. 

Elsbemd, Mary, O.S.F. "The Reinterpretation of Gaudium et Spes in Veritatis 
Splendor" Horizons 29 (Fall 2002): 225-239. 

Argues against the position of many commentators on Veritatis Splendor that 
the Encyclical's frequent reference to Gaudium etspes represents a continuity 
of thought between the two docimients. Instead the Encyclical recasts the 
theological anthropology of the Pastoral Constitution into a more dualistic, 



61 

individualist mode, as seen from the contexts in which quotations from 
Gaudium et spes regarding change, conscience, human autonomy and human 
antliropology are used to support Veritatis Splendor's notions of law and 
precept in morality. Finally, selective quotations form Gaudium et spes are 
used in Veritatis Splendor to suggest that the proper role of the moral 
theologian is essentially a disseminator of magisterial teaching. Elsbemd is 
director of the Institute of Pastoral Studies at Loyola University, Chicago. 

Espeja, Jesus. "Veritatis Splendor. Valor de las normas en cuestiones morales." 
Ciencia Tomistica 120 (1993): 621-629. 

Espeja teaches at the Instituto Teologico S. Esteban in Salamanca. 

Finnis, John. "Beyond the encyclical." The Tablet 248 (8 January 1994): 9-10. 

One of a series of articles from a variet>' of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. John Finnis is Professor of Law at University College, 
Oxford. 

Frohlich, Mary. "Will the Church of the Twenty-First Century Be a Holy and 
Discerning People?" hi Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael 
E. AUsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 106-18. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Good acts and good persons." The Tablet 247 (6 November 
1993): 1444-1445. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. Fuchs addresses primarily the question of a proper 
understanding of fiindamental option theory. Josef Fuchs, S.J. (1912-2205) 
was Professor Emeritus of moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Gaffiiey, James. "The Pope on Proportionalism." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 60-71. Kansas City 
M.O.: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Gaffney is Professor of Christian Ethics at Loyola University, New Orleans. 

George, Cardinal Francis E. "Teaching Moral Theology in the Light of the 
Dialogical Framework of «Veritatis Splendor»." Seminarium 34 (1994): 43- 
51. 



62 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Gerardi, Renzo. "II bene morale per la vita della Chiesa e del mondo ('Veritatis 
Splendor; C. III)." Lateramm 60, no. 1 (1994): 99-123. 

Godoy, Jose, S.D.B. "La Veritatis Splendor en el marco de la teologia moral 
postconciliar." Teologia lUSI \2 {\99A): 19-32. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Grisez, Germain. "Revelation versus dissent." The Tablet 247 (16 October 1993): 
1329-1331. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. 

Grisez holds the Flynn Chair in Christian Ethics at Mount St. Mary's College 
in Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

. " Veritatis Splendor. Revealed Truth vs. Dissent." Homiletic and Pastoral 

Review (March 1994): 8-17. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. "Reflections on Veritatis Splendor." The Priest (October 
1994): 33-41. 

Gula was professor of moral theology at St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo 
Park, California at this writing, but now teaches at the Franciscan School of 
Theology in Berkeley, California. 

Hanigan, James P. "Veritatis Splendor and Sexual Ethics." In Veritatis Splendor: 
American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 208-24. 
Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Hanigan is professor of theology at Duquesnes Universitj' in Pittsburgh, PA. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "A distrust that wounds." The Tablet 247 (23 October 
1993): 1378-1379. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. Haring was bom 10 November 1912 in Bottingen, 



63 

Germany and was Professor of Moral Theology at the Pontifical 
Alphonsianum Academy in Rome. He died in 1998. 

Harvey, Nicholas Peter. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies 
in Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 14-15. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 16-18. 

Haughey, John C, S.J. "Veritatis Splendor and Our Cover Stories." In Veritatis 
Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 
269-77. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Hill, John. "The Methodology of Veritatis Splendor." The Australasian Catholic 
Record 71 (1994): 145-161. 

Hilpert, Konrad. "Glanz der Wahrheit: Licht und Schatten. Eine Analyse der neuen 
Moralenzyklika." Herder-Korrespondenz 47 (Dezember 1993): 623-630. 

Hittinger, Russell. "The Pope and the Theorists." Crisis 1 1 (December 1993): 31- 
36. 

Hittinger's reflections on Veritatis Splendor. The author is often identified 
with the neo-conservative wing of the Catholic Church. 

Honings, Bonifacio. "Rmnovamento conciliare e sviluppo postconciliare della 
teoolgia morale." Seminarium 34 (1994): 31-42. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Hoose, Bernard. "Circumstances, Intentions and Intrinsically Evil Acts." In The 
Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions Made by Veritatis 
Splendor. 136-152. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan Jans. Grand 
Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Hoose did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, and is currently on the faculty of Heythrop College. 

H6ver, Gerhard. "Freiheit und Wahrheit. Zur Moralenzyklika Papst Johannes Pauls 
II. Veritatis Splendor." Pastoralblatt 45 (1993): 354-362. 



64 

Imoda, Franco, S.J. "Aspetti del dialogo tra le scienze umane e pedagogiche e la 
dimensione teologica." Seminarium 34(1994): 89-108. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. Imoda teaches psychology at the Pontifical Gregorian University 
and was its Rector Magnificus (president). 

Jans, Jan. "Participation - Subordination: (The Image of) God in Veritatis 
Splendor," In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions 
Made by Veritatis Splendor. 1 53- 1 68. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan 
Jans. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Janssens, Louis. "Teleology and Proportionality: Thoughts about the Encyclical 
Veritatis Splendor." In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the 
Assertions Made by Veritatis Splendor. 99- 1 1 3 . Edited by Joseph A. Selling 
and Jan Jans. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 
1994. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "Erroneous Conscience in Veritatis Splendor and the 
Theological Tradition." In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of 
the Assertions Made by Veritatis Splendor. 114-135. Edited by Joseph A. 
Selling and Jan Jans. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing 
Company, 1994. 

Johnstone, an Australian, is Ordinary Professor of Moral Theology at the 
Alphonsianum. 

. "Personalist Morality for a Technological Age: The Catechism of the Catholic 

Church and Veritatis Splendor." Studio Moralia 32 (1994): 121-136. 

Discusses the paradigms of physicalism and personalism as they have 
developed in moral theology, and to the extent that they appear in the 
Catechism of the Catholic Church and Veritatis Splendor. 

Kaczynski, Edward, O.P. "Punti fermi nella formazione della coscienza cristiana." 
Seminarium 34(1994): 109-130. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Kerber, Walter. "Veritatis Splendor." Stimmen derZeit I IS (1993): 793-794. 



65 

Kerr, Fergus, O.P. "The Quarrel over Morals in the Catholic Church." New 
Blackfriars 75 (November 1994): 500-11. 

Examines conflicting Catholic moral theories in the light of a recent 
collection of essays on Veritatis Splendor. 

Knauer, Peter, S.J. "ZuGrundbegriffenderEnzyklika Veritatis Splendor " Stimmen 
der Zeit U9 (\994): 14-26. 

In Spanish: "Conceptos fimdamentales de la Enciclica Veritatis Splendor." 
RazdnyFe 229 (1994): 47-63. 

Knauer is professor of fundamental theology at Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt. 

Kuitert, Harry M. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 19-21. 

Laframcomi, Dante, "Educazione morale e nuova evangelizzazione." Seminarium 
34(1994): 170-180. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Laghi, Cardinal Pio. "The Impact of Veritatis Splendor on Catholic Education at the 
University and Secondary Levels," The Thomist Wol. 60, No. 1 (Jan. 1996): 
1-18. 

Laghi was the former Pro-Nuncio to the United States, and then served until 
his retirement as the Cardinal Prefect for the Congregation of Education. 

Lammers, Stephen E. "An Interpretation of Veritatis Splendor and the Discussion 
of War and Peace within the Roman Catholic Community." In Veritatis 
Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 
38-47. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Lash, Nicholas. "Teaching in crisis." The Tablet 247 (13 November 1993): 1480- 
1481. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. 

Lash is the Norris-Hulse Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University. 



66 

. " Veritatis Splendor. Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in Christian Ethics 

7 (1994): 22-28. 

Lucas, Ramon. "Presupposti antropologici dell'etica esistenzialistica e dell'etica 
noraiativa. Riflessioni suU'Enciclica « Veritatis SplendoD>." Doctor 
Communis 47(1994): 215-239. 

Lustig, B. Andrew. ''Veritatis Splendor. Some Implications for Bioethics." In 
Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John 
J. O'Keefe, 252-68. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Maclntyre, Alasdair. "The Splendor of the Truth." The Thomist 58 (1994): 171- 
195. 

Maclntyre is professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. 

de Margerie, Betrand, S.J. "L'agir pascal, commandement supreme de la Nouvelle 
Alliance. Reflexions dans le contexte de Veritatis Splendor." Studia Moralia 
32(1994): 163-168. 

Marko, Robert. "Early Protestant Readings of Veritatis Splendor: Implications for 
Christian Ethics." Josephinum Journal of Theology 3, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 
1996): 22-27. 

Martin, Francis. "The Integrity of Christian Moral Activity: The First Letter of John 
and Veritatis Splendor." Communio 21 (1994): 265-285. 

Matte, Marcello. "La verita come senso di vita." // Regno 38 (15 ottobre 1993): 

522-525. 

May, William E. "Los actos intrinsecamente malos y la enseilanza de la enciclica 
« Veritatis Splendor))." Scripta Theologica 26(1994): 199-219. 

. "The Splendor of Accuracy: How Accurate?" The Thomist 59: 3 (July 1995): 

465-483. 

. "Moral Theologians and Veritatis Splendor." Homiletic & Pastoral Review 95 

(December 1994): 7-16. 

. "Fer/Yafw^/j/eMtfor: An Overview of the Encyclical." Communio 2\ (1994): 

229-251. 



67 

McCabe, Herbert, O.P. "Manuals and rule books." The Tablet 247 (18 December 
1993): 1649-1650.. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. McCabe calls into question the Encyclical's reading of St. 
Thomas Aquinas. McCabe teaches theology at Oxford. 

McCarthy, David Matzko. "Veritatis Splendor: Conscience and Following Christ." 
Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (2/1995): 36-53. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "Killing the patient." The Tablet 247 (30 October 
1993): 1410-1411. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. McCormick was John A. O'Brien Professor of Christian 
Ethics at the University of Notre Dame at this writing. 

. "Veritatis Splendor and Moral Theology." America 169 (30 October 1993): 

8-11. 

Mclnemy, Ralph. "Locating Right and Wrong: Veritatis Splendor v. Muddled 
Moralizing. Crisis 11 (December 1993): 37-40. 

Reflections on Veritatis Splendor. Mclnemy is the Michael P. Grace 
Professor of Medieval Studies and director of the Jacques Maritain Center at 
the University of Notre Dame. 

Meehan, Anthony. "Some Reflections on 'Veritatis Splendor'." Catholic Medical 
Quarterly 45 (1994): 15-20. 

Melina, Livio. "Moral Questions and Evangelization Today." Communioll (1994): 
208-228. 

Melina is professor of moral theology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies 
of Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

Milbank, John. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 29-34. 

Milhaven, John Giles. "The Nature of Christian Love." In Veritatis Splendor: 
American Responses, ed. Michael E. AUsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 224-251. 
Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 



68 

Molina, Enrique, "La enciclica «Veritatis Splendor» y los intentos de renovacion de 
la tiologia moral en el presente siglo." Scripta Theologica. 26 (1994): 123- 
154. 

Montan, Agostino. "Morale e diritto alia luce dell'Enciclica 'Veritatis Splendor.'" 
Lateramm 60, no. 1 (1994): 125-35. 

Moore, Gareth. "Some Remarks on the Use of Scripture in Veritatis Splendor." In 
The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions Made by 
Veritatis Splendor. 71-98. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan Jans. Grand 
Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994, 

Moynihan, Robert. "John Paul Stands Firm." Inside the Vatican (November 1993): 
18-25. 

Conservative editorial on the Encyclical Veritatis Splendor. 

Neuhaus, Richard John, et al. "The Splendor of Truth: A Symposium." First Things 
39 (January 1994): 14-29. 

Reactions to the Encyclical Veritatis Splendor by Neuhaus, Russell Hittinger, 
L. Gregory Jones, David Burrell and Stanley Hauerwas, Robert P. George, 
and Hadley Arkes. The editorial stance of First Things is often described as 
neo-conservative . 

Neusner, Jacob. "Single Standard of Truth." Crisis 1 1 (December 1993): 41-42. 

A Jewish rabbi's reflections on Veritatis Splendor. 

Noboru, Yoshiyama, C.Ss.R. "First Thoughts on Reading the Encyclical Veritatis 
Splendor." Japan Mission Journal 47 (1993): 274-277. 

Novak, Michael. "Public Arguments: The Hope of Splendor." Cmw 1 1 (December 
1993): 4-8. 

Novak's editorial on Veritatis Splendor. The author is often allied with the 
neo-conservative wing of the Catholic Church. 

O'Donovan, Oliver. "A summons to reality." The Tablet 247 (27 November 1993): 
1550-1552. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. O'Donovan is an Evangelical Anglican ethician and 



69 

Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theolog)' and Canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

O'Keefe, John J. "No Place for Failure? Augustinian Reflections on Veritatis 
Splendor." In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. 
AUsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 16-37. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

O'Kelly, Kevin. "Addressing a New Age." Doctrine and Life 43 (1993): 538-542. 

One of several articles in this issue on Veritatis Splendor. 

Olaso, Luis, S.J. "Moral cristiana y renovaci6n de la vida social y politica." 
Teologia lUSI 12 (1994): 77-87. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Oppenheimer, Helen. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 35-37. 

Padron, Diego. "Romanos 2, 14-16: datos sobre la interpretacion del texto. Recto 
actuar moral y salvacion de Dios." Teologia lUSI 12 (1994): 88-100. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Pasco, Rowanne. "A View from the Pew." Doctrine and Life 43 (1993): 543-546. 

One of several articles in this issue on Veritatis Splendor. 

Pawlikowski, John T. "Judaism and Catholic Morality: The View of the Encyclical." 
In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John 
J. O'Keefe, 177-93. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "The New Law in Veritatis Splendor." Josephinum Journal 
of Theology 3 (2/1996): 47-63. 

Argues that the New Law, especially the Thomistic exposition of this, is at 
the cornerstone of Catholic moral theology outlined in Veritatis Splendor, 
and that the moral theory of proportionalism is incompatible with an ethics 
groimded in Scripture, and therefore ultimately inimical to Catholic moral 
theology. 



70 

Pla, Antonio Reig. "La formaciondeorientadores morales." Seminarium 34(1994): 
131-150. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
Universit>'. 

Porter, Jean. "The Moral Act in Veritatis Splendor and in Aquinas's Summa 
Theologiae: A Comparative Analysis." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 278-95. Kansas City: 
Sheed& Ward, 1995. 

Excellent article which carefully analyzes the exposition of the moral act in 
the Encyclical against the various pertinent texts of Thomas Aquinas. Porter 
concludes that in some critical areas the Encyclical is either misleading in its 
presumed interpretation of Thomas, or departs significantly from that 
tradition. The major area of difficulty concerns the interpretation given to 
"intrinsically evil acts" in the Encyclical. Porter is professor of Christian 
ethics at the University of Notre Dame. 

. "Moral Reasoning, Authority, and Community in Veritatis Splendor." The 

Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1995): 201-19. 

Preston, Ronald H.. "Veritatis Splendor: Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1994): 38-42. 

Que, Nemesio, S.J. 'TS^otes on and a Philosophical Discussion of Veritatis 
Splendor." Landas 8 (July 1994): 237-254. 

Que is professor of philosophy at the Ateneo de Manila. 

Quinn, Msgr. John R. "Perspectives on Veritatis Splendor." Origins 23 (11 
November 1993): 398-399. 

Quinn was Archbishop of San Francisco at the time he released this statement 
on 5 October 1993. 

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal. "Christian Faith as 'the Way': An Introduction to 
Veritatis Splendor." Communio 21 (1994): 199-207. 

Ratzinger was the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of 
the Faith (CDF) until his election as Pope Benedict XVI in April, 2005. 



71 

. "Presentation of the Encyclical Veritatis Splendor. ^^ Inside the Vatican 

(November 1993): 14-17. 

Ratzinger's press-conference speech given upon the presentation of the 
Encyclical at the Vatican. 

Rhonheimer, Martin. '"Intrinsically Evil Acts' and the Moral Viewpoint: Clarifying 
a Central Teaching of Veritatis Splendor." The Thomist 58 (1994): 1-39. 

The article's central purpose is to give an exposition of the notion of 
intrinsically evil acts in such a way as to deny theories of proportionalism. 
References to Veritatis Splendor are used in a rather proof-texting fashion. 
Rhonheimer teaches at the Roman Athenaeum of the Holy Cross (Opus Dei). 

. "Sittliche Autonomic und Theonomie gemafi der Enzyklika Veritatis 



splendor." Forum Katholische Theologie 10 (1994): 241-268. 

Rief, Josef. "Grundlinien und Grundanliegen kirchlicher Moralverktindigung in und 
nach der Enzyklika Veritatis Splendor." Forum Katholische Theologie 10 
(1994): 3-29. 

Rigobello, Armando. "Morale cattolica e morale laica a confronto." Lateranum 60, 
no. 1 (1994): 137-50. 

Rist, John. "The Challenge of Veritatis Splendor." Priests & People 8 (October 
1994): 390-95. 

Roche, Joseph L., S.J. '"Veritatis Splendor' and Current Catholic Moral Education 
in the Philippines." Landas 8 (July 1994): 255-276. 

Argues that the teaching of Veritatis Splendor on moral theories of 
fundamented option, intrinsic evil, and proportionalism should be used to 
"correct" deficiencies found in certain currents in Philippine Catholic moral 
education. The author, however, does not evaluate very well the nuanced 
position of moralists whose positions he and the Encyclical seem to attack. 
Roche is professor of dogmatic theology at the Loyola School of Theology, 
Ateneo de Manila. 

Rodriguez, Carlos. "El objecto de la Enclclica y su status teol6gico." Teologia lUSI 
12 (1994): 9-18. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 



72 

Ryan, Maura Anne. "'Then Who Can Be Saved?": Ethics and Ecclesiology in 
Veritatis Splendor "InVeritatis Splendor: American Responses, 1-15. Edited 
by Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 
1995. 

Ryan teaches Christian ethics at the University of Notre Dame. 

Schall, James V., S.J. "The Secular Meaning of Veritatis Splendor." Seminarium 
34(1994): 151-162. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Schockenhoff, Eberhard. "Die Bedeutung von Schrift, Tradition, und Lehramt fiir das 
Verstandnis des christlichen Ethos." Seminarium 34 (1994): 72-88. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Scola, Angelo. "FoUovvdng Christ: On John Paul II's Encyclical Veritatis Splendor.''^ 
Communio 20 (1993): 724-727. 

Selling, Joseph A. "The Context and the Arguments of Veritatis Splendor." InTTje 
Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions Made by Veritatis 
Splendor. 1 1 -70. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan Jans. Grand Rapids: 
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Selling is professor of moral theology at the Katholieke Universiteit in 
Leuven. 

. "Ideological differences: some background considerations for understanding 

Veritatis Splendor:' The Month 255 (January 1994): 12-14. 

. "Veritatis Splendor and the Sources of Morality." Louvain Studies 19 (1994): 

3-17. 

Silva, Alvaro de. "Martyrdom and Christian Morality." Cowmwwo 21 (1994): 286- 
297. 

Smith, Janet E. "Natural Law and Personalism in Veritatis Splendor" In Veritatis 
Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 
194-207. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 



73 

. "Veritatis Splendor, Proportionalism, and Contraception." Irish Theological 

Quarterly 63 (1998): 307-326. 

Smith, Msgr. William B. "No Truth, No Freedom." Crisis 1 1 (November 1993) 38- 
41. 

Smith, an Opus Dei moral theologian who teaches at Dunwoodie, proclaims 
Veritatis Splendor to be "a moral masterpiece." 

Spohn, William C. "The Moral Life." Santa Clara Magazine 36 (Fall 1993): 23-25. 

Reflections on Veritatis Splendor. Spohn was a Professor of Religious 
Studies at Santa Clara University until his death in 2005. He studied under 
James Gustafson at the University of Chicago and formerly taught moral 
theology at the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

. "Morality on the Way of Discipleship: The Use of Scripture in Veritatis 

Splendor." In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E, 
AUsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 83-105. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Stevens, Clifford. "A Matter of Credibility." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 72-82. Kansas City: 
Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Styczen, Tadeusz. "^Por qu^ la Enciclica sobre el esplendor de la verdad?" Scripta 
Theologica 26(1994): 171-177. 

Sunshine, Edward R. "Veritatis Splendor et Rhetorica Morum: 'The Slendor of 
Truth' and the Rhetoric of Morality." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 157-176. Kansas 
City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Tallon, Andrew. "The Role of the Connaturalized Heart in Veritatis Splendor." In 
Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John 
J. O'Keefe, 137-56. Kansas City: Sheed «& Ward, 1995. 

Talvacchia, Kathleen, and Walsh, Mary Elizabeth. "The Splendor of Truth: A 
Feminist Critique." In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael 
E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 296-3 1 0. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1 995. 

TePas, Katherine M. "'If You Wish to Be Perfect...': Images of Perfection in Veritatis 
Splendor." In Veritatis Splendor: American Responses, ed. Michael E. 
Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 48-59. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 



74 

Thomhili, John. "Veritatis Splendor. The Church Addresses the Uncertainties of an 
Age of Change." The Australasian Catholic Record 71 (1994): 131-144. 

Tineo, Luis. "Conciencia moral y Magistero de la Iglesia." TeologialUSI 12 (1 994): 
43-76. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Toniolo, Ermanno M. "La Vergine Maria nella 'Veritatis Splendor.'" Lateranum 60, 
no. 1(1994): 151-69. 

Traina, Cristina L.H. "Oh, Susanna: The New Absolutism and Natural Law." 
Journal of the American Academy of Religion 65 (1997): 371-401 . 

Taking up the ethical dilemma which faced Susanna in the Old Testament 
(Dn 1 3) which had been used by Pope John Paul II in his encyclical Veritatis 
Splendor to illustrate the notion of moral absolutes Traina critiques this a 
strong "absolutist" strain of natural law interpretation in the thought of Pope 
John Paul II, as well as moral philosophers such as Germain Grisez and John 
Finnis. Traina offers alternative solutions to the problem of relativism and 
consequentialism which so troubles moral absolutists by considering insights 
from the tradition of cooperation with evil and the epistemological nature of 
moral norms. 

Tremblay, Real, C.Ss.R. "Le Christ et la morale selon I'Encyclique de Jean-Paul II 
'Veritatis Splendor.'" Lateranum 60, no. 1 (1994): 29-66. 

Tremblay is Professor of Fundamental Moral Theology at the Alphonsianum 
Academy in Rome. 

. "Premier Regard sur la 'Reception' de Veritatis Splendor a propos du 

Rapport du Christ et de la Morale." Studia Moralia 34 (1996): 97-120. 

In this study the author takes a fwst sounding from within the reception of 
Veritatis Splendor under the aspect of the relationship of Christ to morality. 
Having presented the thought of some theologians who have treated the 
question in a serious way, he attempts an assessment of their research and 
indicates a number of lines of enquiry for moral theology in the coming years. 

. "Suggestions pour une reception de Veritatis Splendor." Studia Moralia Zl 

(1994): 157-161. 



75 

Tuck, Mary. "A message in season." The Tablet 247 (4 December 1993): 1583- 
1585. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. Tuck is a criminologist. 

Vereecke, Louis, C.Ss.R. "L'enseignement de la th^ologie morale du concile de 
Trente au concile Vatican IT." Seminarium 34 (1994): 22-30. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Weber, Helmut. "Zur Enzyklika'Veritatis Splendor' -Erinnerung an Fundamente 
Oder Stolpersteine?" Trier Theologische Zeitschrift 103(1994): 161-187. 

Woodhead, Linda. "Veritatis Splendor. Responses to the Encyclical." Studies in 
Christian Ethics 7 (1 994): 1 -7. 

Zieba, Maciej, O.P. "Truth and freedom in the thought of Pope John Paul." The 
Tablet 247 (20 November 1993): 1510-1512. 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. Zieba lectures at the Pontifical Academy of Theology in 
Krakow and at the University of Poznan. 

Zuccaro, Cataldo. "La. Veritatis Splendor: unatriplicechiavedilettura." Rivistadi 
Teologia_Morale 25 (1993): 567-581. 

Zuccaro teaches moral theology at the Pontificio CoUegio Leoniano in 
Anangi, Italy. 



Books on Veritatis Splendor 

Allsopp, Michael E., and John J. O'Keefe, eds. Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Curran, Charles E. The Moral Theology of Pope John Paul II. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University Press, 2005. 



76 

Focuses on the the fourteen papal encyclicals (including Veritatis Splendor) 
the Pope wrote over the course of his twenty-six year papacy. The book 
begins with a discussion of the theological presuppositions of Jolin Paul Il's 
moral teaching and subsequent chapters address his theological methodology, 
his ethical methodology, and his iundamental moral theology together with 
his understanding of human life. Finally, Curran deals with the specific issues 
of globalization, marriage, conscience, human acts, and the many issues 
involved in social and sexual ethics. Curran is Elizabeth Scurlock University 
Professor of Human Values at Southern Methodist University. 

DiNoia, J.A., O.P., and Cessario, Romanus, O.P. Veritatis Splendor and the 
Renewal of Moral Theology, Princeton: Scepter Publishers; Huntington ID: 
Our Sunday Visitor; Chicago: Midwest Theological Forum, 1999. 

Ten essays by the two editors joined by Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J., Russell 
Hittinger, Pio Cardinal Laghi, Alasdair Maclntyre, William E. May, Livio 
Melina, Servais Pinckaers, O.P., and Martin Rhonheimer. 

Hiltter, Reinhard, and Dieter, Theodor, eds. Ecumenical Ventures in Ethics: 
Protestants Engage Pope John Paul Il's Moral Encyclicals. Grand Rapids: 
Wm.B.Eerdmans, 1998. 

Response to John Paul IPs Veritatis Splendor and Evangelium Vitae written 
by ten Protestants and two Catholics. 

Maestri, William F. A Guide for the Study of Veritatis Splendor. Boston: St. Paul 
Books and Media, 1994. 

Designed as a study guide for the encyclical. 

Melina, Livio. Sharing in Christ 's Virtues: For the Renewal of Theology in the Light 
of Veritatis Splendor. Translated by William E. May. Washington, D.C.: 
Catholic University of America Press, 2001. 

Looks at the Christian moral life as a participation in the virtues of Christ by 
means of the grace of one's ecclesial incorporation in Christ. Melina is 
professor of moral theology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies of 
Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

Ramsey, Paul. Who Speaks for the Church? Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1967. 

Critique of the 1966 Geneva Conference on Church and Society sponsored 
by the World Council of Churches. Ramsey criticizes the self-understanding 



77 

the Conference exhibited, especially in its pronouncements on political 
matters. Paul Ramsey (1913-1988) was a major American Protestant 
ethician. 

Selling, Joseph, and Kok, Jan Jans, eds. The Splendour of Accuracy: An 
Examination of the Assertions Made by Veritatis Splendor. Grand Rapids: 
WilUam B. Eerdmans; Campen, The Netherlands: Pharos Publishing Co., 
1994. 

Reviewed Peter Hebblethwaite m The Tablet 248 (12 November 1994): 
1445-1446. See also the critical article of William E. May, "The Splendor of 
Accuracy: How Accurate?" The Thomist 59: 3 (July 1995): 465-483. 

Soede, N.Y. Une morale de la viriti un besoin majeur en Afrique. Essai d'une 
lecture africaine de "Veritatis splendor." Abidjan: Ed. de I'lnstitut 
Catholique de TAfrique de I'Ouest, 1994. 

Tettamanzi, Dionigi et al. Chiamati alia verita. Cristiani oggi alia luce della 
"Veritatis splendor. " Corso nazionale di agiornamento per missionari 
itineranti. Roma: Rogate, 1994. 

Veritatis (La) splendor e la morale della "constuzione di se. " Bologna: Ed. Studio 
Domenicano, 1994. 

Velasco, Muente and Miguel Angel. Los derechos de la verdad. Veritatis splendor: 
criticas y replicas. Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 1994. 

Wilkins, John, et al., ed. Understanding "Veritatis splendor. " The Encyclical Letter 
of Pope John Paul II and the Church's Moral Teaching. London: SPCK, 
1994. 

Same book as Considering Veritatis Splendor Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 
1994. Text of the Encyclical plus commentaries by a number of the 
theologians who published opinions in The Tablet. 

Yeats, Charles, ed. Veritatis Splendor— a response. Canterbury Press, 1994. 

12 Anglican responses to Veritatis Splendor, given in a series of addresses at 
Durham University. Favorably reviewed by Bernard HSring, C.Ss.R. in The 
Tablet 24S (17 September 1994): 1166-1167. 



The Common Good and Moral Community 

Articles on the Common Good 

Aagaard, Anna Marie. "The Common Good, Structures of Resistance, and the 
Politics of Greed; On Church and Economy," Studio Theologica 45, no. 1 
(1991): 3-17. 

Bartell, Ernest. "Private Goods, Public Goods and the Common Good: Another 
Look at Economics and Ethics in Catholic Social Teaching." In The Common 
Good and U.S. Capitalism, 179-212. Edited by Oliver F. Williams and John 
W. Houck. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1987. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "The Common Good in a Cross-Cultural Perspective: 
Insights from the Confucian Moral Community." In Religion, Ethics & the 
Common Good, 83-105. Annual Publication of the College Theology 
Society, 41. Edited by James Donahue and Theresa Moser. Mystic CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1996. 

Recent discussion concerning multiculturalism, pluralism, globalization of 
ethics and the prospects for a "common morality" all provide a challenging 
context for critical ethical reflection on the notions of the common good as 
these are found in various cultural and religious traditions. This article 
investigates the possibility of enriching our liberal Western notion of the 
common good from a cross-cultural perspective afforded by Confucianism 
and what might be called the Confucian notion of the "common good," even 
though the precise terminological equivalent is not found in the Confucian 
literature or philosophical tradition. An original exposition of the notion of 
the common good exegeted from the Confucian canon is presented and 
discussed in reference to the Confucian cardinal virtues, the notion of the 
chiin-tzu (paradigmatic moral individual); the four cardinal virtues of jen,yi, 
li, and chih; an understanding of community as fiduciary; and the moral force 
of the notion of the T'ien-ming or Mandate of Heaven. Bretzke is Associate 
Professor and Chair of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of 
San Francisco. He has also lived and taught in Europe and East Asia. 

Cavanaugh, Gerald F. "The Common Good as an Effective Moral Norm for the U.S. 
Businessperson." In The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, 328-343. 
Edited by Oliver F, Williams and John W. Houck, Lanham MD: University 
Press of America, 1987. 



80 

Collins, John J. "The Biblical Vision of the Common Good." In The Common Good 
and U.S. Capitalism, 50-69. Edited by Oliver F. Williams and John W. 
Houck. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1987. 

Curran, Charles E. "The Common Good and Official Catholic Social Teaching." In 
The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, 111-130. Edited by Oliver F. 
Williams and John W. Houck. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 
1987. 

Curran is a priest and professor of ethics at Southern Methodist University. 
He did his doctoral work under Bernard Haring at the Pontifical 
Alphonsianum Academy in Rome and taught for many years at the Catholic 
University in Washington, D.C., until being forced out under Vatican 
pressure for his dissent on certain aspects of Catholic Church' s contemporary 
teaching on sexual ethics. 

Duprd, Louis. "The Common Good and the Open Society." In Catholicism and 
Liberalism: Contributions to American Public Philosophy, 172-195. Edited 
by R. Bruce Douglass and David Hollenbach. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1994. 

Harrison, R.K., ed. "Common Good." In Encyclopedia of Biblical and Christian 
Ethics, 79. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1987. 

Hellwig, Monika. "The Quest for Common Ground in Human Rights~A Catholic 
Reflection." In Human Rights in the Americas: The Struggle for Consensus, 
159-166. Edited by Alfred Hennelly and John Langan. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University Press, 1982. 

Hollenbach, David, S.J. "The Catholic University and the Common Good." The 
Markoe-DePorres Social Justice Lecture given at Creigton University 
(Omaha, Nebraska), 27 October 1994. (Text obtained via Internet E-Mail). 

Hollenbach is Professor of Theological Ethics at Boston College, and 1995 
President of the Society of Christian Ethics. 

. "Common Good." In The New Dictionary of Catholic Social Thought, 192- 

197. Edited by Judith A. Dwyer. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1994. 

. "The Common Good Revisited." Theological Studies 50 (1989): 70-94. 

Considers whether the idea of the common good is meaningful and useful in 
today's business, culture, and moral and political philosophy. Outlines why 



81 

the question has re-emerged in serious moral argument, proposes a 
pluralistic-analogical understanding of the common good on theological 
grounds, and on this basis offers a communitarian interpretation of human 
rights. 

Hogan, Trevor. "The Social Imagination of Radical Christianity." [Reconstructing 
the Common Good by Gary Dorrien and Radical Christianity by C. 
Rowland.] Pacifica 5 (Fall 1992): 67-83. 

Langan, John, S.J. "Common Good." In The New Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 
102. Edited by James F. Childress and John Macquarrie. Philadelphia: 
Westminster Press, 1967, 1986. 

. "Personal Responsibility and the Common Good in John Paul 11." Chapter 

7 in Ethics, Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic 
World, 132-147 . Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 
1992. 

Lustig, B. Andrew. "Property, Justice, and the Common Good: A Response to Paul 
J. Weiihman" Journal of Religious Ethics 21 (Spring 1993): 181-87. 

McCaim, Dennis P. "The Good to be Pursued in Common." In The Common Good 
and U.S. Capitalism, 158-178. Edited by Oliver F. Williams and John W. 
Houck. Lanham: University Press of America, 1987. 

. "Politics, The Economy and the Common Good." Editorial in Christian 

Century 109 (26 August-2 September, 1992): 766-68. 

O'Neill, William, S.J. "Babel's Children: Reconstructing the Common Good." The 
Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1998). 

O'Neill did his doctorate under Louis Dupr^ at Yale and is currently 
Associate Professor of Christian Social Ethics at the Jesuit School of 
Theology-at-Berkeley. 

. "Public Reason and the Common Good" In Christian Spirituality and the 

Culture of Modernity: The Thought of Louis Dupre, Edited by by Peter J. 
Casarella and George P. Schner. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998. 

Persaud, Winston D. "A 'Third World' Look at the American Common Good." 
Word& World 12 (Fall 1992): 330-36. 



82 

Riordan, Patrick, S.J. "The Plausibility of Arguments for the Common Good." 
Milltown Studies 28 (1991): 78-101. 

Roach, Archbishop John. "Reviving the Common Good: A Pastoral Letter on Social 
Justice." Origins 20 (14 February 1991): 585; 587-595. 

Pastoral Letter released by Archbishop Roach of Minneapolis-St. Paul (USA) 
on 13 January 1991 in connection with the 100th anniversary year of Leo 
XIII's Rerum Novarum, and which concentrates on the issues of children in 
poverty and racism, arguing that a national consensus should be built so that 
no child in the nation would go without basic material needs for full human 
development. 

Ryan, Maura. "Particular Sorrows, Common Challenges: Specialized Infertility 
Treatment and the Common Good." The Annual of the Society of Christian 
Ethics (1994): 187-206. 

Ryan is Associate Professor of Theological Ethics at the University of Notre 
Dame. 

Vogel, David. "The International Economy and the Common Good." In The 
Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, 388-409. Edited by Oliver F. Williams 
and John W. Houck. Lanham: University Press of America, 1987. 

Wogaman, J. Philip. "The Common Good and Economic Life: A Protestant 
Perspective." ]n The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, S4-1 10. Edited by 
Oliver F. Williams and John W. Houck. Lanham: University Press of 
America, 1987. 



Books on the Common Good 

Bryk, Anthony S., Valerie E. Lee, and Peter B. Holland. Catholic Schools and the 
Common Good. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. 

Bryson, John M., and Crosby, Barbara C. Leadership for the Common Good: 
Tackling Public Problems in a Shared-power World. The Jossey-Bass Public 
Administration Series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992. 

Catholic Bishops of Australia. Towards Common Wealth and Common Good. North 
Blackburn, Victoria, Australia: Collins Dove, 1991. 



83 

Cobb, Jolin B., Jr. Sustaining the Common Good: A Christian Perspective on the 
Global Economy. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 1994. 

Dickie, Robert B., and Leroy S. Rouner, eds. Corporations and the Common Good. 
Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1986. 

Donahue, James, and Moser, Theresa, eds. Religion, Ethics & the Common Good. 
Annual Publication of the College Theology Society, 41. Mystic CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1996. 

Reviewed by Paul J. Waddell in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1998): 
276. 

Dorrien, Gary J. Reconstructing the Common Good: Theology and the Social Order. 
Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1990. 

Discusses Walter Rauschenbusch, Paul Tillich, JUrgen Moltmann, Gustavo 
Gutierrez, Juan Segundo, and Jos^ Miguez Bonino, 

HoUenbach, David, S.J. The Common Good and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 2002. 

Hyman, Sidney, ed. Law, Justice, and the Common Good: The Great Debate and a 
Search for Meaning. Lanham MD: University Press of America; Rowman 
and Littlefield, 1988. 

Jordan, Bill. The Common Good: Citizenship, Morality, and Self-interest. Oxford 
and New York: Blackwell, 1989. 

Kane, Brian M. Just War and the Common Good: Jus ad Bellum Principles in 
Twentieth Century Papal Thought. Bethesda MD: Catholic Scholars Press, 
1997. 

Lutz, Charles P., ed. God, Goods, and the Common Good: Eleven Perspectives on 
Economic Justice in Dialogue with the Roman Catholic Bishops' Pastoral 
Letter. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1987. 

Maritain, Jacques. The Person and the Common Good. Notre Dame: University of 
Notre Dame Press, 1966 [1946 original]. 

McCann, Dennis P., and Miller, Patrick, eds. In Search of the Common Good. New 
York: Continuum Publishing, 2005. 



84 

This collection focuses on the meaning of the common good and what 
resources Christian theology, biblical studies, and ethics might contribute to 
our understanding of it. 

Mooney, Christopher F., S.J. Boundaries Dimly Perceived: Law, Religion, 
Education, and the Common Good. Notre Dame Studies in Law and 
Contemporary Issues, 3. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990. 

The late Christopher Mooney held doctorates in both theology and law. 

Novak, Michael. Free Persons and the Common Good. Lanham MD: Madison 
Books, 1989. 

Raskin, Marcus G. The Common Good: Its Politics, Policies, and Philosophy. New 
York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986. 

Sherover, Charles M. Time, Freedom, and the Common Good: An Essay in Public 
Philosophy. SUNY Series in Systematic Philosophy. Albany: State 
University of New York Press, 1989. 

Sherwin, Michael S, "Charity as Friendship in the Promotion of the Common Good 
in the Thought ofSaint Thomas Aquinas." M.A. Thesis. Berkeley: Graduate 
Theological Union, 1991. 

Shuman, Michael, and Sweig, Julia, eds. Technology for the Common Good. 
Washington, DC: Institute for Policy Studies, 1993. 

Williams, O.F., and Houck, J.W., eds. The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism. 
Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1987. 

Articles on Moral Community 

Altner, Gunter. "The Community of Creation as a Community in Law. The New 
Contract between the Generations." Concilium (4/1991): 54-64. 

Atherton, John. "New Occasions Teach New Duties?: 9. The Individual and the 
Organization." The Expository Times 105(1994): 356-362. 

Boimds, Elizabeth M. "Conflicting Harmonies: Michael Walzer's Vision of 
Community." Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1994): 355-374. 



85 

One of several articles in this issue on Michael Walzer, 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "The New Testament and Ethics: Communities of Social 
Change." Interpretation 44 (1990): 383-395. 

Cahill discusses several leading theologians who use Scripture in their ethical 
analysis: Stanley Hauerwas, John Howard Yoder, Bruce Birch and Larry 
Rasmussen, Thomas Ogletree, Gustavo Gutierrez, Halvor Moxnes, Richard 
A. Horsley, Ched Myers, Michael Crosby, Dan 0. Via, Herman C. Waetjen, 
and Richard J. Cassidy. Her discussion centers on the role of an authoritative 
Scripture for contemporary ethical reflection, specifically on how the socially 
radical communities reflected in Scripture may propose authoritative patterns 
for today. Cahill concludes by posing a number of what she terms "veridical 
problems" in evaluating both the possibility and use of ethically normative 
biblical material. Cahill is professor of theological ethics at Boston College 
and past-president of both the Catholic Theological Society of America and 
the Society of Christian Ethics. 

Dinan, Stephen A. "Tradition, Friendship and Moral Knowledge." American 
Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 65 (1991): 445-464. 

Claims that without friendship the transmission of moral knowledge in 
tradition, as well as the continued development of such knowledge, would be 
impossible. Dinan teaches at Mount Mary College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

D'Isanto, Luca. "Bonhoeffer's Hermeneutical Model of Community." Union 
Seminary Quarterly Review 46 (1992): 135-148. 

One of a series of articles in this issue devoted to Dietrich Bonhoeffer. 

Dykstra, Craig R. "Communities of Conviction and the Liberal Arts." Council of 
Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin 19 (1990): 61-66. 

Fluker, Walter Earl. "They Looked for a City: A Comparison of the Ideal of 
Commimity in Howard Thurmann and Martin Luther King, Jr." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 18 (1990): 33-55. 

Howard Thurman ( 1 900- 1 98 1 ) and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1 929- 1 968) were 
both black Christian ministers and social prophets with important 
contributions in American life. Fluker compares these two men in terms of 
their thinking in three areas: 1) the experiential and intellectual sources of 
community; 2) the nature of the ideal community; and 3) the actualization of 
community. Fluker teaches Christian ethics at Vanderbilt. 



86 

Gaffhey, James, "The Moral Form of a Good Society." Irish Theological Quarterly 
54(1988): 107-119. 

Gafftiey is professor of theology at Loyola University, New Orleans. 

Gill, Robin. "Moral Communities and Christian Ethics." Studies in Christian Ethics 
8(1995): 1-13. 

See also the Response by Janet Martin Soskice in the same issue. 

Gill is Michael Ramsey Professor of Modem Theology at the University of 
Kent at Canterbury. 

Gustafson, James M. "The Church: A Community of Moral Discourse." In The 
Church as Moral Decision Maker, 83-95. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1970. 

Gustafson is one of the leading Protestant ethicians in America. He did his 
work under H. Richard Niebuhr at Yale, and taught there for some years 
before moving to the University of Chicago and fmaliy to Emory University 
in Atlanta. He has trained many of the leading Protestant and Catholic 
ethicians and his work has had a very wide influence throughout the world. 

. "Communities of Moral Discourse." In Ethics and Theology, 316-319. 

Volume 2 of Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1984. 

. "The University as a Community of Moral Discourse." Journal of Religion 

53 (1973): 397-409. 

Hays, Richard B. "Scripture—Shaped Community: The Problem of Method in New 
Testament Ethics." Interpretation 44 (1990): 42-55. 

Komonchak, Joseph. "Moral Pluralism and the Unity of the Church." Concilium 1 50 
(1981): 89-94. 

Lanza, Sergio. "La comunit^ cristiana come luogo di riconciliazione: struttura e 
prassi." Lateranum 58 (1992): 207-239. 

Melchin, Kenneth R. "Moral Knowledge and the Structure of Cooperative Living." 
Theological Studies 52 (1991): 495-523. 

Follows up on earlier article, "Revisionists, Deontologists, and the Structure 
of Moral Understanding," and presents Lonergan's concept of "recurrence 



87 

schemes" to indicate how an analysis of the social structure of cooperative 
living can provide a basis for the comprehension and evaluation of moral 
issues. An application of Lonergan's concept is then made to the case of 
drunk driving. Author teaches moral theology at St. Paul University in 
Ottawa. 

Mooney, Christopher F., S.J. "Individual, Community, and Cultural Change." 
Thought 67 (1992): 21-30. 

Considers the question of whether the American tradition of human rights can 
succeed "in expanding its original individualized and highly defensive 
framework into one that can affirm rights for humankind which are positive, 
comprehensive, commimal, and social" (p. 2 1 ). The late Christopher Mooney 
held doctorates in both theology and law. 

Paris, Peter J. "Expanding and Enhancing Moral Communities: The Task of 
Christian Social Ethics." In Issues of Justice: Social Sources and Religious 
Meanings, 1 1 1-124. Edited by Warren R. Copeland and Roger D. Hatch. 
Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1988. 

Rosato, Philip J., S.J. "Linee fondamentali e sistematiche per una teologia etica del 
culto." Capitolo Primo in Corso di Morale: Volume 5, Liturgia (Etica della 
religiosita), 11-70. Edited by TuUo Goffi and Giannino Plana. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1986. 

Rosato, who was a dogmatic theologian at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, describes a theology of sacraments emphasizing the 
connection between liturgy and practice, and proposes the anamnetic, 
epiclectic, and prophetic dimensions to the moral life of the Christians. 

Rossi, Philip J., S.J. "Conflict, Community, and Human Destiny: Religious Ethics 
and the Public Construction of Morality." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, and 
the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 1 14-125. Edited by 
Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Rossi, who is a philosopher by training, is professor of theology at Marquette 
University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His area of specialization is Kant. 

. "Moral Community, Imagination, and Human Rights: Philosophical 

Considerations on United Traditions." JnHuman Rights in the Americas: The 
Struggle for Consensus, 167-186. Edited by Alfred Hermelly and John 
Langan. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982. 



88 

Sacks, Jonathan. "A Community of Communities." Chapter 6 in The Persistence of 
Faith, Religion, Morality and Society in a Secular Age, 84-94. The Reith 
Lectures, 1990. London, 199L 

Sacks is Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British 
Commonwealth and former Principal of Jews' College, London. 

Schwartz, Benjamin L "Chinese Culture and the Concept of Community." JnOn 
Community, 117-129. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre Dame: University 
of Notre Dame Press, 1991. 

Soskice, Janet Martin. "Community and Morality 'After Modernity': A Response to 
Robin Gill." Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (1995): 14-19. 

A response to Gill's "Moral Communities and Christian Ethics," pp. 1-13 in 
the same issue. 

Toijesen, Karen J. "Public Ethics and Public Selfhood: The Hidden Problems." 
Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a 
Pluralistic World, 110-113. Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John 
Knox Press, 1992. 

Vacek, Edward, S.J. "Contemporary Ethics and Scheler's Phenomenology of 
Community." Philosophy Today 35 (1991): 161-174. 

Consider's Max Scheler's phenomenology of community to critique excessive 
individualism in contemporary ethics. Vacek teaches moral theology at the 
Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, MA. 

Yoder, John Howard. "The Hemeneutics of Peoplehood: A Protestant Perspective 
on Practical Moral Reasoning." Journal of Religious Ethics 10 (1982): 40- 
67. 

The late John Howard Yoder was a Meimonite ethician who taught for many 
years at the University of Notre Dame. 



Books on Moral Community 

Ahlers, Rolf The Community of Freedom: Barth and Presuppositionless Theology. 
American University Studies, Series 7, Theology and Religion, 40. New 
York: Peter Lang, 1989. 



89 

With attention to Hegel's influence on Barth, Ahlers advances of "natural 
theology" of rationality critical of all forms of thought which operate out of 
transcendental, hermeneutical, political or other presuppositions. Barth's 
natural theology mandates a reinvestigation of the relation of philosophy to 
theology, while culturally Ahlers holds for a notion of a democratic 
"community of freedom" and gives special attention to the relation of law and 
religion, and politically, a theological political ethics which is critical of any 
form of political theology on the left or right, and also of liberation theology. 

Allen, Joseph L. Love and Conflict: A Covenantal Model of Christian Ethics. 
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1984. 

Allen is professor of Christian ethics at the Perkins School of Theology, 
Southern Methodist University. 

Baier, Kurt. The Rational and the Moral Order: The Social Roots of Reason and 
Morality. The Paul Carcus Lectures, Series 18. Peru, IL: Open Court 
Publishing Company, 1995. 

Baier argues that our possession of reason and our ability to reason depend 
on our having grown up in a rational order: a social order which engages in 
the enterprise of reason and, through socialization, passes on from one 
generation to the next knowledge of the recognized general principles of 
reasoning, the ability to apply them to particular cases, and the methods for 
furthering improvements. Two kinds of practical reason can be 
distinguished, the "self-anchored" and the "society-anchored," the second 
being paramount over the first. Much of this is also true of morality because 
the moral enterprise is the same as that of society-anchored reason. 

Bellah, Robert, et al. The Good Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. 

A follow up on the autiiors' earlier book. Habits of the Heart, this book 
argues for taking greater communal responsibility for our economic and 
political institutions, which in turn will increase our shared understanding of 
the common good and therefore the subsequent enrichment of democratic 
institutions, etc. Reviewed by Stanley Hauerwas in First Things (January 
1992): 45-46. 

, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton. 

Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. 



90 

German translation; Gewohnheiten des Herzens. Individualismus und 
Gemeiminn in der amerikanischen GeseUschafi. KSln, 1987. 

, eds. Individualism and Commitment in American Life: Readings on the 

Themes of Habits of the Heart. New York: Harper and Row, 1987. 

Anthology of various readings, contemporary and historical, on the various 
themes treated in the editors' Habits of the Heart. 

Birch, Bruce, and Rasmussen, Larry. Christian Ethics as Community Ethics. 
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. The Notion of Moral Community in the Analects of 
Confucius and Matthew's Sermon on the Mount: A Hermeneutical Approach 
for the Inculturation of Moral Theology in Korea. Excerpta ex dissertatione 
ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae. 
Rome: Pontifical Gregorian Press, 1989. 

Doctoral dissertation done under Jacques Dupuis, S.J. Bretzke is Associate 
Professor and Chair of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of 
San Francisco. He has also lived and taught in Europe and East Asia. 

Buchanan, James M. The Economics and the Ethics of Constitutional Order. Ann 
Arbor: Universit>' of Michigan Press, 1991. 

Nobel Prize winner Buchanan explores questions of social organization and 
how societies can organize themselves in order to create commimities in 
which people live together in peace, prosperity, liberty and justice. 

Burtchaell, James Tunstead, C.S.C. The Giving and Taking of Life: Essays Ethical. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. 

Essays, initially published elsewhere, on a wide variety of issues, such as 
abortion, fetal tissue research, liberation theology, and terrorism. Burtchaell's 
two principal criteria are 1) the moral import of human actions resides in their 
capacity to develop or stunt the agent's character; and 2) the criterion for 
discerning moral character lies ultimately with the Christian community. 
Reviewed by Francis Kane in Theology Today 47 (1990): 346-348. 

Childs, James R., Jr. Faith, Formation, and Decision: Ethics in the Community of 
Promise. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992. 



91 

Constructs a model for decision-making in the Christian community in the 
face of modem dilemmas such as war, business ethics, abortion, and 
euthanasia. 

Connors, Russell B., Jr., and McCormick, Patrick T. Character, Choices and 
Community: The Three Faces of Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 
1998. 

Designed for undergraduate and/or adult education use as an introduction to 
Christian ethics. 

Dallen, James. The Reconciling Community: The Rite of Penance. Studies in the 
Reformed Rites of the Church. CoUegeville N4N: The Liturgical Press, 1986. 

An excellent historical account which studies the underlying mystery of the 
Church in relation to Christ and the sinner through the forms the sacrament 
of reconciliation has taken in the past in order to illustrate how the Church 
can better exercise this ministry in the present and future. 

Dawn, Marva J. The Hilarity ofCommunity: Romans 12 and How to Be the Church. 
Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1992. 

Driver, Tom F. The Magic of Ritual: Our Need for Liberating Rites that Transform 
Our Lives and Our Communities. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. 

Dunstan, Gordon R. The Artifice of Ethics. The Moorhouse Lectures 1973. 
London: SCM Press, 1974. 

Dunstan, an Anglican theologian, delivered these lectures in Australia in 
1 973 . The themes covered included community, church, the Bible, and moral 
conventions. 

Dussel, Enrique. Etica comunitaria. Coleccion Cristianismo y Sociedad. Madrid: 
Ediciones Paulinas, 1986. 

English translation: Ethics and Community. Translated from the Spanish by 
Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1988. 

German translation: Ethik der Gemeinschaft. Bibliotek Theologie der 
Befreiung. Diisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1988. 

Italian translation: Etica comunitaria. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 



92 

Portuguese translation: Etica comunitdria. Cole9ao Teologia e liberta9ao. 
Petr6polis: Vozes, 1987. 

Dussel argues for a sharp distinction between ethics and "social morality," the 
latter term designating legitimization and protection of the prevailing social 
order. Dussel chooses from the Bible the central injunction to liberate the 
poor. Somewhat over-simplified and severely confrontational economic 
analysis. Reviev/ed by Arthur McGovem, S.J. in Theological Studies 51 
(1989). 

Dyck, Arthur J. Rethinking Rights and Responsibilities: The Moral Bonds of 
Community. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1994, 

Reviews human rights theory from Thomas Hobbes through contemporary 
philosophers such as Alan Gewirth, and in the final section analyzes justice 
and national health care. Dyck is Mary B. Saltonstall Professor of Population 
Ethics in the School of Public Health and a member of the Faculty of the 
School of Divinity at Harvard University. 

Dykstra, Craig R. Vision and Character: A Christian Educator's Alternative to 
Kohlberg. New York: Paulist, 1981. 

Etizioni, Amitai. The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities and the 
Communitarian Agenda. New York: Crown, 1993. 

Rather negatively reviewed by John C. Haughey, S.J. in Theological Studies 
55(1994): 183. 

Fowl, Stephen E., and Jones, L. Gregory. Reading in Communion: Scripture and 
Ethics in Christian Life. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1991. 

The authors, an Anglican and a United Methodist, maintain that recent 
writing on the relevance of the Bible to contemporary ethical issues has 
placed too much emphasis on an agenda set by professional exegetes and 
ethicians. According to the authors, it is the vocation of all Christians to 
embody Scripture in their lives, and therefore believers need to develop the 
moral and theological judgment that will enable them to discern faithfiilly 
Scripture's claims on contemporary life. Fowl and Jones develop their 
argument in relation to the fiiendships and practices of Christian 
communities, analyzing "interpretive disputes" among Christians, and also 
by stressing the importance of listening to the voices of outsiders. A final 
chapter considers Dietrich Bonhoeffer as a model "performer" of Scripture. 
Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 74 (1993): 375-376. 



93 

French, Peter A. Collective and Corporate Responsibility. New York: Columbia 
University Press, 1984. 

Develops and applies a metaphysical theory of corporate personhood to 
which moral principles are applied, and distinguishes between collective and 
corporate responsibility. French holds that the notion of moral community 
must be applied to the corporation and collective responsibility in the 
business world. French is Lennox Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at 
Trinity University in San Antonio. 

Gelpi, Donald L., S.J., ed. Beyond Individualism: Toward a Retrieval of Moral 
Discourse in America, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. 

Gewirth, Alan. The Community of Rights. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 
1996. 

Gill, Robin. Moral Communities. The Prideaux Lectures for 1992. Exeter: 
University of Exeter Press, 1992. 

Grey, Mary. From Barriers to Community: The Challenge of the Gospel for a 
Divided Society. London: HarperCollins with the authority of the Department 
for Catholic Education and Formation, Bishops' Conference of England and 
Wales, 1991. 

Hanson, Paul D. The People Called: The Growth of Community in the Bible. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986. 

Reviewed by Walter Harrelson in Journal of the American Academy of 
Religion 58 (1990): 283-285. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive Christian 
Social Ethic. Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 
1981. 

. The Peaceable Kingdom: A Primer in Christian Ethics. Notre Dame and 

London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

. Vision and Virtue: Essays in Christian Ethical Reflection. Notre Dame: Fides 

Press, 1974. 

Haughton, Rosemary. The Transformation of Man: Conversion and Community. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1967. 



94 

Kellenberger, J. Relationship Morality. University Park PA: Penn State Press, 1 996. 

This book explores the extent to which human relationships are foundational 
in morality. Kellenberger seeks to discover how relationships between 
persons underlie the various traditional components of morality—obligation, 
virtue, justice, rights, and moral goods-and how relationship morality is 
more fully consonant with our moral experience than other forms of human 
morality. 

Kymlicka, Will. Liberalism, Community, and Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 
New York: Oxford University Press, 1 989. 

Macedo, Stephen. Liberal Virtues: Citizenship, Virtue, and Community in Liberal 
Constitutionalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. 

According to Macedo the liberal constitutional state promotes a particular set 
of "virtues," that accord with a commitment to the demands of public 
reasonableness. Reviewed by John Tomasi in Ethics 102 (January 1992): 
397-399. 

McDonagh, Enda. Gift and Call: Towards a Christian Theology of Morality. St. 
Meinrad: Abbey Press, 1975. 

. Invitation and Response: Essays in Christian Moral Theology. Dublin: Gill 

and Macmillan, 1972. 

Italian translation: Dio chiama, I'uomo risponde: Saggi di teologia morale 
cristiana. Torino: Leumann, 1976. 

McFayden, Alistair I. The Call to Personhood: A Christian Theory of the Individual 
in Social Relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Discusses the personal, social and political practices required to live as a 
human in community with others. 

Meilaender, Gilbert C. Friendship: A Study in Theological Ethics. Revisions. Notre 
Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1981. 

Investigates the significance for Christian ethics of the tension between 
philia, the bond of special preference, and agape, the notion of universal 
love, which in Christian thought is likened to the attitude of the Heavenly 
Father who makes his rain fall on the just and unjust. Meilaender is Professor 
of Religion at Oberlin College. 



95 

. The Limits of Love. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 

1987. 

Chapters divided in four sections; Ethics and Theology; The Beginning of 
Life (Abortion, In-vitro Fertilization, etc); The End of Life (Euthanasia, 
Withdrawal of Nutrition and Hydration, etc.); and Community (Marital and 
Political). 

Mitchell, Lynn E., Jr. The Vision of the New Community: Public Ethics in the Light 
of Christian Eschatology. American University Studies: Series 7, Theology 
and Religion, 29. Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, Nev^ York, Paris: Peter Lang, 
1988. 

Morgan, Elizabeth, et al. Global Poverty and Personal Responsibility: Integrity 
through Commitment. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Moser, Antonio and Leers, Bernardino. Teologia moral: Impasses e alternativas. 
Petr6polis: Editoria Vozes Ltda, 1987. 

English translation: Moral Theology: Dead Ends and Ways Forward. 
Translated by Paul Bums. Wellwood: Bums & Oates; and MaryknoU: Orbis 
Books, 1990. 

German translation: Moraltheologie: Engpcisse und Auswege. Bibliotek 
Theologie der Befreiung. Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1989. 

Italian translation: Teologia morale: conflitti e alternative. Ed. ital. a cura 
di G. Pompei. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 

Spanish translation: Teologia Moral. Conflictosy Alternativas. Cristianismo 
y Sociedad. Traducido por Alfonso Ortiz Garcia. Madrid: Ediciones 
Paulmas, 1987. 

Written in Brazil, this work deals with moral theology and theology of 
liberation. Italian edition reviewed by Giuseppe Mattai in Rassegna for 
Teologia, 31 (gennaio-febbraio, 1990): 99- 100; English edition reviewed by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 72 (1991). 

Niebuhr, H. Richard. The Responsible Self: An Essay in Christian Moral 
Philosophy. With an Introduction by James M. Gustafson. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1963. 



96 

Published posthumously, and based principally on the 1960 Robertson 
Lectures delivered at the University of Glasgow, with selected passages from 
the Earl Lectures delivered at the Pacific School of Religion (Berkeley, CA) 
and a series of addresses given at the Riverside Church in New York City. 
The book contains a preface by the author's son, R. Richard Niebuhr, plus a 
long introduction by James M. Gustafson, one of Niebuhr's most well-known 
former students. 

Rasmussen, Larry L. Moral Fragments and Moral Community: A Proposal for 
Church in Society. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 

Reviewed by Kenneth R. Himes, O.F.M. m Theological Studies 55 (1994): 
1 83-1 84. Rasmussen is Reinhold Niebuhr Professor Social Ethics at Union 
Theological Seminary in New York, 

Richard, Lucien, O.M.I. Is There a Christian Ethic?. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Succinctly rehearses positions taken by various Catholic and Protestant 
theologians. Richard taught systematic theology for many years at the 
Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Rouner,LeroyS.,ed. On Community. Boston University Studies in Philosophy and 
Religion, 12. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. 

Rupp, George. Commitment and Community. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989. 

Rupp is President of Rice University and former dean of Harvard Divinity 
School. 

Ryn, Claes G. Democracy and the Ethical Life: A Philosophy of Politics and 
Community. Baltimore: CatholicUniversity of America Press, 1989. 

Sampley, J. Paul. Pauline Partnership in Christ: Christian Community and 
Commitment in Light of Roman Law. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980. 

Discusses the presence and function of the Roman legal "partnership," the 
consensual societas, in several Pauline epistles: Galatians, Philippians, 
Corinthians, and Philemon. Paul adapted these legal traditions and 
terminology of societas {koinonia) for theological purposes. 

Schervish, Paul, and Virginia A. Hodgkinson, Margaret Gates, and Associates. Care 
and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to 
Future Generations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. 



97 

Contributors explore how individuals become involved in and dedicated to 
caring for others, and the role such care plays in providing a foundation for 
our civic, ethical, and spiritual traditions. 

Smiley, Marion. Moral Responsibility and the Boundaries of Community: Power 
and Accountability from a Pragmatic Point of View. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1992. 

Smiley holds that, contrary to common belief, the "facts" have little to do 
with how blame is assigned to various social problems. 

Smith, David H. Health and Medicine in the Anglican Tradition: Conscience, 
Community and Compromise. Health, Medicine, and the Faith Traditions. 
New York: Crossroad, 1986. 

Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa. The Moral Sense and Its Foundational Significance: 
Self, Person, Historicity, Community. Phenomenological Praxeology and 
Psychiatry. AnalectaHusserliana31. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer 
Academic Publishers, 1990. 

Wadell, Paul J., C.P. Friendship and the Moral Life. Notre Dame: University of 
Notre Dame Press, 1989. 

Wadell, a Passionist priest who taught ethics at the Chicago Catholic 
Theological Union, discusses the moral life in terms of seeking and growing 
in the good in the company of friends who also want to be good. Wadell uses 
six stages: 1) recollection of the formative friendships in his own life; 2) 
Aristotle's idea of friendship as the fundamental life activity of human 
wholeness; 3) Aristotle's understanding of different kinds of friendship, and 
our need for friendship in order to become good; 4) friendship and Christian 
agape; 5) Aquinas on charity as friendship with God, and the marks of 
friendship; and 6) friendship as a model for the everyday moral life. 
Reviewed by Lisa Sowle Cahill in America 3 February 1990. 

Winter, Gibson. Community and Spiritual Transformation: Religion and Politics in 
a Communal Age. New York: Crossroad, 1990. 

Winter, who teaches social ethics at Temple University, maintains that 
communal rebuilding is one of the central components of both the powerful 
religious and political forces now operative in the world. The book is 
organized into six chapters which treat: 1) communal quality of religious 
movements which now interact vAxh. political bodies; 2) the communal reality 
of personal and interpersonal life, with special reference to the abortion 



98 



debate; 3) moral aspects of the interpersonal life; 4) organization of work in 
institutions which either support or damage life; 5) movement from the 
minimal state of the market era to democratic communalism; and 6) radical 
transformations in beliefs and practices now emerging. 



^^ift^i^if** 



Comparative and Cross-Cultural Ethics 

Articles on Comparative and/or Cross-Cultural Ethics 

AA.VV. Philosophy East and West 37 (April, 1987). 

Issue on Environmental EtMcs, with cross-cultural and Eastern approaches, 
with articles by J. Baird Cailicott, Robert C. Neville, Kenneth K. Inada, 
Gerard James Larson, David L. Hall, and Holmes Ralston IE. 

Akira, Tsujimura. "Contrast in 'Way of Thinking' between East and West." In The 
World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics 
and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 159-167. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Beeman, William O. "Interculturalism: Cross-Cultural Understanding through the 
Performing Arts." In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 
4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible 
Approaches to Redefinitions, 229-243 . Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: 
Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Berkson, Mark A. "Conceptions of Self^o-Self and Modes of Coimection: 
Comparative Soteriological Structures in Classical Chinese Thought." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 33/2 (June 2005): 293-331. 

One of five essays in this issue which treat various aspects of comparative 
ethics in relation to notions of the human person. 

Bloom, A.H., "Two Dimensions of Moral Reasoning: Social Principledness and 
Social Humanism in Cross-Cultural Perspective.^^ Journal of Social 
Psychology 101 (1977): 29-44. 

Bosley, Richard. "Do Mencius and Hume Make the Same Ethical Mistake?" 
Philosophy East and West 38 (1988): 3-18. 

Bosley argues against confusing virtue with a natural property. Bosley is 
professor of philosophy at the University of Alberta. 

. "What Is a Mean? The Question Considered Comparatively and 



Systematically." Philosophy East and West 36 (1986): 3-12. 



100 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "The Common Good in a Cross-Cultural Perspective: 
Insights from the Confucian Moral Commmiit>'." In Religion, Ethics & the 
Common Good, 83-105. Annual Publication of the College Theology 
Society, 41. Edited by James Donahue and Theresa Moser. Mystic CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1996, 

Recent discussion concerning multiculturalism, pluralism, globalization of 
ethics and the prospects for a "common morality" all provide a challenging 
context for critical ethical reflection on the notions of the common good as 
these are found in various cultural and religious traditions. This article 
investigates the possibility of enriching our liberal Western notion of the 
common good from a cross-ciJtural perspective afforded by Confucianism 
and what might be called the Confucian notion of the "common good," even 
though the precise terminological equivalent is not found in the Confucian 
literature or philosophical tradition. An original exposition of the notion of 
the common good exegeted from the Confucian canon is presented and 
discussed in reference to the Confucian cardinal virtues, the notion of the 
chUn-tzu (paradigmatic moral individual); the four cardinal virtues of Jen, yi, 
U, and chih; an understanding of community as fiduciary; and tiie moral force 
of the notion of the T'ien-ming or Mandate of Heaven. 

. "Cultural Particularity and the Globalization of Ethics in the Light of 

Inculturation." Pacifica 9 (1996): 69-86. 

Increased interest in the so-called "globalization of ethics" has led to a 
number of studies which utilize various hermeneutical and communicative 
theories to sketch out viable paradigms for developing a fundamental 
Christian ethics as a whole, as well as its various components such as moral 
reasoning, which together would be capable of entering into and maintaining 
such discourse. The accent of most of these studies falls on the 
universalizability of ethical discourse and scant attention has been given to 
the cultural particularity of each and every ethos and ethical system. This 
article briefly rehearses the principal elements of the concerns raised by the 
globalization of ethics and then focuses on \k\Q particularity of culture using 
insights from both cultural anthropology and inculturation. The Confucian 
context of Korea is employed to illustrate some of the issues raised by greater 
attention to cultural particularity. 

. "Human Rights or Human Rites? A Challenge of Sacred Texts and Traditions 

to Global Moral Discourse" Conference Proceedings of Faithful/Fateful 
Encounters: Religion and Cultural Exchanges Between Asia and the West. 
Beijing and Berkeley (Forthcoming) 



101 

Recent discussion concerning the globalization of ethics and the prospects for 
a common morality, as well as related issues such as inculturation, pluralism, 
and multiculturalism all provide a challenging context for critical ethical 
reflection on the notions of human rights as these are found in various 
cultural and religious traditions. This article focuses on a cross-cultural 
discussion of human rights by considering the Confucian understanding of 
human rights as human rituals whose sacred claim is grounded in the notion 
of relationality based on the Confucian Five Relationships and the virtues of 
//■ (propriety) and hsin (fidelity). The article argues that Confucianism is a 
positive resource for both inter-religious dialogue and cross-cultural ethics 
and concludes by outlining some prospects for using the Confucian notion of 
human dignity, rights and the common good to further discussion on 
multiculturalism, inter-religious and cross-cultural dialogue. 

"Human Rights or Human Rites?: A Conftician Cross-Cultural Perspective." 
East Asian Pastoral Review 41/1 (2004): 44-67. Also available online at 
http://eapi.admu.edu.ph/eapr004/bretzke.htm 

This article is an expanded version of "Human Rights or Human Rites? A 
Challenge of Sacred Texts and Traditions to Global Moral Discourse" 
Conference Proceedings of Faithful/Fateful Encounters: Religion and 
Cultural Exchanges Between Asia and the West. Beijing and Berkeley 
(Forthcoming). 

"Moral Theology Out of East Asia." Theological Studies 61 (March 2000): 
106-121. 

Also digested version found in Tinig Loyola (Quezon City, Philippines) 2 
(September 2000): 11-14; 29-29. Review ofsomeofthe main issues, recent 
developments and contributions of Christian ethicians and others working in 
East Asia. Special attention is paid to the recent Synod on Asia. 

"The Tao of Confucian Virtue Ethics." International Philosophical Quarterly 
35 (1995): 25-41. 

Investigates the key aspects of the Confucian virtue ethics in relation to the 
notions of the chiin-tzu (Superior Person), the Five Relationships of society, 
the particular Confucian virtues of Jen (benevolence) and // (propriety), the 
moral vision of the tao (Way), and the understanding of the t'ien-ming 
(Mandate of Heaven). The thesis of the article is that the moral matrix 
provided by the web of social relationships is what allows the Confucian 
ethics ofvirtue to function well. 



102 

. "Through Thick And Thin: Teaching Ethics in a Cross-cultural Perspective" 

Horizons 27 (Spring 2000): 63-80. 

As the 20"' century closes our universities, theological centers and even 
seminary settings, can no longer presume a homogeneous religious and 
cultural academic community among either students or professors. This fact, 
coupled with recent discussion concerning the globalization of ethics and the 
prospects for a common morality, as well as related issues such as 
inculturation, pluralism, and multiculturalism all provide a challenging 
context for critical reflection on how religious ethics can and should be done 
in these universities, tlieological centers and seminaries. This article outlines 
both some of the major concerns raised in teaching ethics from cross-cultural, 
ecumenical, and inter-religious perspectives in the United States, as well as 
developing a coherent methodology which is grounded in the theological 
tradition of Christian ethics, but which seeks to integrate these different 
perspectives. As a practical example of how a concrete course might be 
developed for undergraduate, graduate, and seminary settings I utilize a 
course I have designed entitled "Cross-Cultural Christian Ethics" which I 
tauglit regularly at the Jesuit School of Theology/Graduate Theological Union 
in Berkeley. The participants in these courses reflect a diverse background 
both theological and culturally and thus may provide a reasonable microcosm 
of many of our contemporary academic institutions. Critical evaluation of the 
course's theological and pedagogical premises, as well as discussion on the 
students' participation and feedback on the course, hopefully will stimulate 
further reflection on both the theological issues connected with doing 
cross-cultural ethics in the Christian theological tradition as well as aiding 
concrete curricular development in this area. 

Cannon, Dale W. "Having Faith, Being Neutral, and Doing Justice: Toward a 
Paradigm of Responsibility in the Comparative Study of Religions." Method 
& Theology in the Study of Religion 5 (1993): 155-176. 

Cho, Francisca. "Leaping into the Boundless: A Daoist Reading of Comparative 
Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 26 {^pxmg 1998): 139-166. 

See also "responses" in the same issue by Robin Lovin, Ronald M. Green, 
and a "response" to the responses by Cho herself. Cho teaches Buddhist 
Studies at Georgetown University. 

Clasquin, Michel. "Contemporary Theravada and Zen Buddhist Attitudes to Human 
Sexuality: An Exercise in Comparative Ethics." Religion 22 (1992): 63-83. 



103 

Dallmayr, Fred. "'Asian Values' and Global Human Rights." Philosophy East and 
West 52 (April 2002): 173-189. 

Looks at the opposition between a so-called "foundational" universalism, 
which the author holds is articulated in modem natural law theories and 
rationalist universalism, and "antifoundational" skepticism and/or relativism 
(from Jeremy Bentham to Richard Rorty), the author tries to steer a middle 
course which will situate rights claims in a contextualized prudential 
judgment. He considers Henry Rosemont's notion of "concept clusters" 
which reflect different modes of human flourishing-clusters that are not 
completely incommensurable on the one hand, nor uniformly exchangeable 
on the other. The author concludes that this analysis suggests that globalism 
or universalism of human rights is not so much a starting premise as a 
challenging practical task which will require intensive inter-human and cross- 
cultural leaming-what Tu Wei-ming has called the ongoing "humanization" 
of humankind. 

Dy, Manuel B., Jr. "The Ideal Man: The Chinese Way and the American Perspective: 
A Filipino Impression." In Proceedings of the Conference on the 
Comparative Study of the Chinese Ideal and the American Dream in Taipei, 
Republic of China, October 6-8, 1978, by Institute of American Culture, 
Academia Sinica. Taipei, Republic of China: Institute of American Culture, 
Academia Sinica, 1980, 319-49. 

Dye, Wayne. "Toward a Cross-Cultural Definition of Sin." Missiology 4 (1 976): 27- 
41. 

Eisenstadt, Shuel N. "How do Cultures of the East and the West Meet the 
Challenges of Acculturation in Global Industrialization?." In The World 
Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and 
Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 
147-158. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 
1988. 

Fitzgerald, Timothy. "A Critique of 'Religion' as a Cross-Cultural Category." 
Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 9 (1997): 91-110. 

Argues that "religion" is an inadequate analytic concept for cross-cultural 
analysis due to its vagueness and the imprecision in which the term has been 
used in religious studies texts. Rather than using religion as an analytic 
concept Fitzgerald suggests it would be better understood "as a form of 
mystification generated by its disguised ideological function" (p. 91). 



104 

Fortosis, Steve. "A Model for Understanding Cross-Cultural Morality." Missiology 
18(1990): 163-176. 

Constructs a model integrating Lawrence Kohlberg's philosophy of moral 
reasoning, which is then applied to several case studies. 

Grelle, Bruce. "Comparative Religious Ethics As a Form of Critical Inquiry." The 
Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 271-281. 

Heelas.Paul. "Emotions Across Cultures: Objectivity and Cultural Divergence " In 
Objectivity and Cultural Divergence, 21-42. Edited by S.C. Brown. 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 

Hsiung, James Chieh. "Human Rights in an East Asian Perspective." Chapter 1 
Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 1-30. Edited by James 
Chieh Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985. 

Discusses conceptions and approaches to human rights in Japan, Taiwan, 
South Korea (which he calls a consensual model), and contrasts this to North 
Korea and mainland China (which he calls the Communist model). In turn 
these models are contrasted with a Western liberal model which Hsixmg terms 
as being essentially "adversarial" in its conception and practice. 

Hsu, Francis L.K. "The Self in Cross-Cultural Perspective." In Culture and Self: 
Asian and Western Perspectives, 24-55. Edited by Anthony J. Marsella, 
George DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

Jennings, William H. "Comparative Religious Ethics: Bibliographic Resources." 
The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 297-302. 

Johnson, Frank. "The Western Concept of Self" In Culture and Self: Asian and 
Western Perspectives, 91-138. Edited by Anthony J. Marsella, George 
DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

La Fleur, William R. "Contestation and Consensus: The Morality of Abortion in 
Japan" Philosophy East and West 40 (1990): 529-542. 

LaFleur is professor of Japanese in the Department of Oriental Studies at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 



105 

Lee, Peter K.H., and Hyun-Kyung Chung. "A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on the Yin- 
Yang Symbol." Ching Feng 33 (September 1990): 136-57. 

Lewis, Thomas A.; Jonathan Wyn Shofer, Aaron Stalnaker, and Mark A, Berkson. 
"Anthropos and Ethics: Categories of Inquiry and Procedures of 
Comparison." Journal of Religious Ethics 33/2 (June 2005): 177-185. 

Introductory overview essay to the individual essays by each author on 
various aspects of comparative ethics in relation to notions of the human 
person. 

Lewis, Thomas A. "Frames of Comparison: Anthropology and Inheriting Traditional 
Practices.'VoMr«fl/ of Religious Ethics 33/2 (June 2005): 225-253. 

One of five essays in this issue which treat various aspects of comparative 
ethics in relation to notions of the human person. 

Levine, Michael P. "Holism and Comparative Religious Ethics." Method & Theory 
in the Study of Religion 7, no. 2 (1995): 131-62. 

This article is devoted to an examination of Jeffrey Stout's holistic approach 
to comparative religious ethics. The author briefly explains what he takes the 
purpose of comparative ethics to be. He also sets out to show that how one 
imderstands the task of comparative religious ethics, and the way one 
undertakes comparative work in general, cannot be divorced from the type of 
concern with method and theory (e.g., a theory of religion) that Stout 
surprisingly sees as detrimental to comparative study. 

Littlejohn, Ronnie. "Comparative Moral Philosophy: Learning Ethics Through Other 
Cultures." The Council of Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin 30 
(February 2001): 9-11. 

Reflections on his attempts to teach cross-cultural ethics in a Baptist 
university. He articulates some helpful concepts about "moral grammar" and 
"moral culture" which can be used cross-culturally, but largely sidesteps the 
deeper issues of an objective moral order which might have valid cross- 
cultural, universalist claims. Instead, he suggests walking a line between 
"absolutism" and "relativism," though without explaining or describing what 
these terms might mean in the concrete. 

Maclntyre, Alasdair. "Individual and Social Morality in Japan and United States: 
Rival Conceptions of the Self" Philosophy East and West 40 (1990): 489- 
497. 



106 

Revised response to a 1987 lecture given at Arizona State University by 
Robert Bellah, entitled "Religion and Technological Revolution in Japan and 
the United States." 

Marks, Joel. "Emotion East and West: Introduction to Comparative Philosophy," 
Philosophy East and West 41 (1991): 1-30. 

Short essay (pp. 1-9), followed by endnotes (pp. 9-16), and a long 
bibliography (pp. 17-30). 

McKenry, Patrick C, and Sharon J. Price. "Divorce: A Comparative Perspective." 
In Families in Multicultural Perspective, ed. Bron B. Ingoldsby and Suzanna 
Smith, 187-212. New York: The Guilford Press, 1995. 

McLaren, Ronald. "Kawaiso, Justice and Reciprocity: Themes in Japanese and 
Western Ethics." Philosophy East and West 34 (1984): 53-66. 

Miller, Joan G, "A Cultural Perspective on the Morality of Beneficence and 
Interpersonal Responsibility." In Cross-Cultural Interpersonal 
Communication, 11-27. Edited by Stella Ting-Toomey, and Felipe 
Korzenny. London and Delhi: Sage Publications, 1991. 

Nairn, Thomas A. "The Use of Zairian Children in HIV Vaccine Experimentation: 
A Cross-Cultural Study in Medical Ethics." The Annual of the Society of 
Christian Ethics (1993): 223-243. 

Ott, Heinrich. "Ethics of Cultural Pluralism." In The World Community in Post- 
Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 13-25. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Perrett, Roy W., and Patterson, John. "Virtue Ethics and Maori Ethics." Philosophy 
East and West 41 (1991): 185-202. 

The authors contend that the New Zealand Maori ethics is essentially a virtue 
ethics. Perrett and Patterson are members of the philosophy 

department of Massey University, New Zealand. 

Ranly,EmestW. "Cross-CulturalPhilosophizing."P/iz7o5op/j;/7'o£/a);35(1991):63- 
72. 



107 

Ranly originally delivered this paper at Wadhams Hall Seminary College in 
Ogdensburg, New York on 8 March 1989. He has worked for the past 
sixteen years in Peru. 

Reding, Jean Paul. "Greek and Chinese Categories: A Re-examination of the 
problem of linguistic relativism." Philosophy East and West 36 (1986): 349- 
374. 

Shofer, Jonathan Wyn., "Self, Subject, and Chosen Subjection: Rabbinic Ethics and 
Comparative Possibilities." Journal of Religious Ethics 33/2 (June 2005): 
255-291. 

One of five essays in this issue which treat various aspects of comparative 
ethics in relation to notions of the human person. 

Singh, S.B.B.B. "How Cultures of East and West Meet the Challenge of 
Acculturation in Global Industrialization." In The World Community in 
Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 138-146. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Shweder, Richard A. Thinking through Cultures: Expeditions in Cultural 
Psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. 

Shweder, Richard A., and LeVine, Robert A., eds. Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, 
Self, and Emotion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 

Shweder, Richard A., Mahapatra, Manamohan, and Miller, Joan G. "Culture and 
Moral Development." In Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative 
Human Development, 130-204. Edited by James W. Stigler, Richard A. 
Sweder, and Gilbert Herdt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Essay on the results of a cross-cultural study involving children from India 
and Illinois, and aimed at assessing the separate theories of moral 
development proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg and E. Turiel. Also contains 
a basic reference bibliography. 

Smurl, James F. "Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Ethics: A Critical Response to 
Sally Wang." Journal of Religious Ethics 4 (1976): 47-56. 

See Sally A. Wang's article, "Can Man Go Beyond Ethics? The System of 
Padmasambhava." Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1975): 141-155. 



108 

Stalnaker, Aaron. "Comparative Religious Ethics and the Problem of 'Human 
Nature'." Journal of Religious Ethics 33/2 (Irnie 20Q5): 187-224. 

One of five essays in this issue which treat various aspects of comparative 
ethics in relation to notions of the human person. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B.. "Ethos." In Concise Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 87- 
88. Edited by Bemhard Stoeckle. New York: Seabury Press, 1979. 

Stout, Jeffrey. "Holism and Comparative Ethics: A Response to Little." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 11(1983)301-316. 

A response by David Little to Stout's earlier criticism of the former's 
Comparative Religious Ethics. 

Streng, Frederick J. "The Transcendental in a Comparative Context." In Culture 
and Modernity: East-West Perspectives, 367-384. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. 
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991. 

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers' 
Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu. 

Tan, Che-Bin. "Ethical Particularism as a Chinese Contextual Issue." In The Word 
Among Us: Contextualizing Theology for Mission Today, 262-281. Edited 
by Dean S. Gilliland and the Faculty of the School of World Mission of 
Fuller Theological Seminary. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1989. 

Thampu, Valson. "AIDS and the Heretical Imperative." Evangelical Review of 
Theology IS (1994): 60-69. 

Reprinted from Thampu's book, AIDS: Heresy and Prophecy. New Delhi, 
TRACI, 1993. Thampu critiques secular Western culture which he asserts 
has imposed biases which must be counteracted by the prophetic dimension 
of the Gospel, and which also neglect the cultural backgrounds of non- 
Western societies in developing strategies for confronting a global problem 
such as AIDS. Thampu is a member of the TRACI community and lecturer 
and Chaplain of St. Stephen's College in Delhi, India. 

Tsao, Jiun Han. "The Acceptability and Adaptability of American Democratic Ideas 
to the Chinese Political Mind: A Cross-cultural Analysis." In Proceedings of 
the Conference on the Comparative Study of the Chinese Ideal and the 
American Dream in Taipei, Republic of China, October 6-8, 1978, by 



109 

Institute of American Culture, Academia Sinica. Taipei, Republic of China: 
Institute of American Culture, Academia Sinica, 1980, 277-92. 

Twiss, Sumner B, and Bruce Grelle. "Human Rights and Comparative Religious 
Ethics: A New Venue." The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1995): 
21-48. 

Twiss, Sumner B. "Comparative Ethics and Intercultural Human-Rights Dialogues: 
A Programmatic Inquiry." In Christian Ethics: Problems and Prospects, 
357-378. Edited by Lisa Sowle Cahili and James F. Childress. Cleveland: 
Pilgrim Press, 1996. 

Article done for the Festschrift for James M. Gustafson made up of 
contributions from his former students. 

. "Curricular Perspectives in Comparative Religious Ethics: A Critical 

Examination of Four Paradigms." The Annual of the Society of Christian 
Ethics (1993): 249-269. 

Wang, Sally A. "Can Man Go Beyond Ethics? The System of Padmasambhava." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1975): 141-155. 

See reply by James F. Smurl, "Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Ethics: A 
Critical Response to Sally Wang," Journal of Religious Ethics 4 (1 976): 47- 
56. 

Whitehill, James. "Buddhist Ethics in Western Context: The 'Virtues' Approach." 
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 1 (1994): 1-22. 

Whiten, C.B. "Moral Development in Bahamian School Children: A Cross-Cultural 
Examination of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning." Developmental 
Psychology n (1975): 535-536. 

Wilfred, Felix. "The Language of Human Rights~An Ethical Esperanto?" 
Vidyajyoti 56(1 992): 1 94-2 14. 

Paper originally presented at a symposium organized by the Theologie 
Interkulturelle of the University of Frankfurt-am-Main. Wilfred, an Indian 
theologian, argues that the supposedly "universal" Western concept of 
"human rights" is a sterile ethical esperanto which is derived from an 
abstraction of the lowest common denominator, and which offers "no ethical 
panacea for the problems of conflict-ridden societies of the Third World." (p. 
214). Instead, many Third World perspectives on human rights would fmd 



110 

the "universal" only in terms of the particular context which can then express 
the fullness of the universal. 

Williams, Preston N. "Family, Culture and Ethics: Theu: Interaction and Impact 
upon African Americans and White Americans." In In All Things: Religious 
Faith and American Culture, 41-64. Papers of the Inaugural Conference of 
The Jesuit Institute at Boston College. Edited by Robert J. Daly, S.J. Kansas 
City: Sheed and Ward, 1990. 

Williams is Houghton Professor Theology and Contemporary Change at the 
Harvard Divinity School. 

Yearley, Lee H. "Conflicts among Ideals of Human Flourishing." In Prospects for 
a Common Morality, 233-253. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Yearley is professor of Religious Studies at Stanford University. 



Books on Comparative and/or Cross-Cultural Ethics 

Adams, Daniel J. Cross-Cultural Theology: Western Reflections in Asia. Atlanta: 
John Knox Press, 1987. 

Adeney, Bernard T. Strange Virtues: Ethics in a Multicultural World. Downers 
Grove BL: InterVarsity Press, 1995. 

Discussion of cross-cultural perceptions and how they may inform and 
misinform Christian ethics. Adeney grew up in Asia as a child of missionary 
parents, and currently teaches in Indonesia. 

Ames, Roger T., and Wimal Dissanayake, eds. Self and Deception: A Cross-Cultural 
Philosophical Enquiry. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 
1996. 

This volume contains essays by a range of distinguished philosophers on the 
problem of self-deception or, rather, self and deception. The work proceeds 
from the assumption that changing constructions of self within Western 
cultures, and alternative notions of self in other cultures requires that we 
rethink traditional strategies for explaining the phenomenon of self- 
deception. 



Ill 

An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed, ed. Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A 
Quest for Consensus. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: 
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. 

Angle, Stephen C. Human Rights and Chinese Thought. A Cross-Cultural Inquiry. 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 

Uses Robert Brandom's linguistic philosophy to establish a conceptual 
framework for analyzing and working through apparent differences on rights 
language which may block or detour real consensus. He offers an excellent 
treatment of the traditions of human rights discourse found through Chinese 
philosophy in the nineteenth and twentieth century (e.g., Liang Qichao, Liu 
Shipei and others), as well as engagement with Marxist thought in China, 
which is often neglected by modem Confucianists. The last two chapters 
return to central task of what might be called cross-fertilization of human 
rights discourse, namely to bring insights from both Western and Chinese 
traditions in such a way that each approach is enriched by the other. 
Reviewed by James T, Bretzke, S.J. in China Information 18 (3, 2004). 
Angle received his doctorate at the University of Michigan and is Associate 
Professor of Philosophy at Wesleyan University. 

Balslev, Anindita Niyogi, ed. Cross-Cultural Conversation (Initiation). American 
Academy of Religion, 1996. 

Eleven essays on cross-cultural studies from visiting scholars in 1994 at the 
Center for Cultural Research at Aarhus University, Denmark. 

Bamsley, John H. The Social Reality of Ethics: The Comparative Analysis of Moral 
Codes. International Library of Sociology. London and Boston: Routledge 
and Kegan Paul, 1972. 

Berti, Enrico, et al. Etica oggi. Comportamenti collettivi e modelli culturali. 
Progetti, 1. Padova: Gregoriana Libreria Editrice, 1989. 

Bloom, Irene, J. Paul Martin, and Wayne L. Proudfoot, eds. Religious Diversity and 
Human Rights New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 

Bori, Pier Cesare. From Hermeneutics to Ethical Consensus Among Cultures. 
Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994. 

Camenisch, Paul F., ed. Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics. Dordrecht: 
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. 



112 

Essays on a variety of topics and from a variety of religious and historical 
points of view (Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Taoist, Islamic, etc.) 

Carman, John, and Juergensmeyer, Mark, eds. A Bibliographic Guide to the 
Comparative Study of Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 

Reviewed by John Kelsay in Theological Studies 53 (1992): 576-578. 

Carmody, Denise Lardner, and Carmody, John Tully. How to Live Well: Ethics in 
the World Religions. Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 1988. 

Intended as an undergraduate textbook, the work is organized into two major 
sections, Western Religious Ethics and Eastern Religious Ethics. The former 
considers Jewish, Christian, and Islamic ethics, while the latter takes up 
Hindu, Buddhist, Chinese, and Japanese ethics. Carmody is Professor in the 
Department of Religious Studies and Provost at the University of Santa Clara. 
Her husband John is deceased. 

. Peace and Justice in the Scriptures of the World Religions: Reflections on 

Non-Christian Scriptures. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Claude, Richard P., ed. Comparative Human Rights. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 
University Press, 1976. 

Cohn-Sherbok, Rabbi Dan, ed. World Religions and Human Liberation. MaryknoU: 
Orbis Press, 1992. 

Contributions on the liberation theme from a Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, and 
an African-American. 

Cook, John W. Morality and Cultural Differences. Oxford: Oxford University 
Press, 1999. 

Argues that a discussion of moral relativism needs to investigate both the 
philosophical and anthropological aspects. Cook argues that both sides of the 
debate fail to prove their respective positions because their views of 
"morality" are artificial and unrealistic. 

Cortese, Anthony. Ethnic Ethics. Albany: SUNY Press, 1 990. 

Also considers Lawrence Kohlberg. 



113 

Coward, Harold G., Lipner, Julius J., and Young, Katherine K. Hindu Ethics: Purity, 
Abortion, and Euthanasia. Albany: SUNY Press, 1988. 

Coward, Harold, and Ratanakul, Pinit, eds. A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on Health 
Care Ethics. Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of 
Victoria. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1999. 

Crawford, S. Cromwell, ed. World Religions and Global Ethics. A New 
Economical Research Book. New York: Paragon House, 1988. 

Includes treatment of South and East Asia, Near East, Africa, and Western 
ethics. 

Dean, Thomas, ed. Religious Pluralism and Truth: Essays on Cross-Cultural 
Philosophy of Religion. New York: State University of New York Press, 
1995. 

Dymess, William A. Invitation to Cross-Cultural Theology: Case Studies in 
Vernacular Theologies. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992. 

EUingson, Stephen, and Green, M. Christian, eds. Religion and Sexuality in Cross- 
Cultural Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2002. 

Explores the diversity of religious rituals and mythologies pertaining to 
sexuality as a way of examining conventional notions of what is normative 
in our sexual lives. 

Elmer, Duane. Cross-Cultural Conflict: Building Relationships for Effective 
Ministry. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. 

Evans, Robert A. and Evans, Alice Frazer. Human Rights: A Dialogue between the 
First and Third Worlds. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1983. 

Two years of field research on six continents yielded data for eight case 
studies which illustrate issues of human rights in an international 
perspective. 

Evans, William A. Management Ethics: An Intercultural Perspective. Dimensions 
of International Business. Boston: M. Nijhoff Pub., 1981. 

Fasching, Darrell J., and Dechant, Dell. Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative 
Approach. Blackwell: 2000. 



114 

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. London: 
Hutchinson, 1973. 

Classic of contemporary cultural anthropology. 

Green, Ronald M. Religion and Moral Reason: A New Method for Comparative 
Study. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. 

Reviewed in Interpretation 44 (1990): p. 98-100. Discusses the Chinese 
concept of Mandate of Heaven. 

. Religious Reason: The Rational and Moral Basis of Religious Belief. Oxford: 
Oxford University Press, 1978. 

Gutto, Shadrack B. O. Human Rights from Humanitarian Perspectives: An 
International Comparative Appraisal of State Laws on and Practice of 
Abortion and Sterilization as Means of Family Planning. Nairobi, Kenya: 
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, 1980. 

Hatch, Elvin. Culture and Morality: The Relativity of Values in Anthropology. New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1983. 

Traces the development of cultural relativism in American anthropology and 
then considers a philosophical approach to evaluate the strengths and 
weaknesses of relativism, while concluding v/ith a suggestion as to how both 
Western and non- Western cultures can be viewed. 

Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues. Comparative Studies in Religion and 
Society, 2. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. 

Includes an essay by Tu Wei Ming on the Confucian sage, plus essays on 
Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Buddhist and Hindu conceptions of sainthood. 

Hoffinann, Johannes, ed. Begriindung von Menschenrechten aus der Sicht 
unterschiedlicher Kulturen. Vol. 1 : Das eine Menschenrechtfur alle und die 
vielen Lebensformen. Frankfurt: Verlag fur Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 
1990. 

Hoose, Jayne, ed. Conscience in the World Religion. Leominister UK: Gracewing 
and Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999. 

Hsiung, James Chieh, ed. Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective. New 
York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985. 



115 

Hunt, Arnold Dudley, Marie T. Crotty, and Robert B. Crotty. Ethics of World 
Religions. Rev. ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1991. 

Designed as an undergraduate text, treats Judaism, Christianity, Islam, 
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Australian Aboriginal Religions. 

Ingoldsby, Bron B., and Smith, Suzanna, eds. Families in Multicultural Perspective. 
New York: Guilford Publications, 1994. 

Geographical, historical and cross-cultural study of various family and 
kinship systems. 

Jung, Patricia Beattie; Hunt, Mary E., and Balakirshnan, Radhika, eds. Good Sex: 
Feminist Perspectives from the World's Religions. Picataway NJ: Rutgers 
University Press, 2001. 

Kekes, John. The Morality of Pluralism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 
1993. 

Argues for a middle position of legitimate plurality of moral and nonmoral 
values v^hich would fall between absolute moral dogmatism on the one hand, 
and total moral relativism on the other. Reviewed by John J. Conley, S.J. in 
Theological Studies 55 (1994): 169-171. 

Kieckhefer, Richard, and Bond, George, eds. Sainthood: Its Manifestations in 
World Religions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. 

Discusses sainthood in the various religious traditions: Christian, Jewish, 
Islamic, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. 

Kim, Young-il, ed. Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience: Ministry in the Cross- 
Cultural Context. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992. 

Kliever, Lonnie D., ed. The Terrible Meek: Religion and Revolution in 
Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1987. 

Kraft, Charles H. Christianity in Culture: A Study in Dynamic Biblical 

Theologizing in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1979. 

Kraft, Marguerite G. Understanding Spiritual Power: A Forgotten Dimension of 
Cross-Cultural Mission and Ministry. American Society of Missiology 
Series, no. 22. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1995. 



116 

Kting, Hans, and Moltmann, Jtirgen, eds. The Ethics of World Religions and Human 
Rights. Concilium. London: SCM Press; Philadelphia: Trinity Press 
International, 1990. 

Is an issue of Concilium devoted to this theme. 

Knitter, Paul F. One Faith Many Religions: Multifaith Dialogue and Global 
Responsibility. With a Preface by Hans Kitog. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1 995 . 

Leaman, Oliver, ed. Friendship East and West: Philosophical Perspectives, Curzon 
Studies in Asian Philosophy Series. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 
1996. 

Little, David, and Twiss, Sumner B. Comparative Religious Ethics. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1978. 

Contains five chapters on "Method" and three chapters on "Application." The 
latter chapters include treatment of Religion and Morality of the Navajo, in 
the Gospel of Matthew, and in Theravada Buddhism. See Jeffrey Stout's 
critique, "Holism and Comparative Ethics: A Response to Little." Journal 
of Religious Ethics 11 (1983) 301-316. 

Lincoln, Bruce, ed. Religion, Rebellion, Revolution: An Inter-Disciplinary and 
Cross-Cultural Collection of Essays. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985. 

Lovin, Robin W. and Reynolds, Frank E. Cosmogony and Ethical Order: New 
Studies in Comparative Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1 985. 

1 5 essays on the relation of comogonical and ethical beliefs. 1 3 of these 
originated as papers presented at conferences at the University of Chicago 
Divinity School in 1981 and 1982. 

Lum, Linda L., ed. Cross-cultural Aspects of Human Rights: Asia. Symposium 
Proceedings (Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs), 1 . Washington, D.C.: 
Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Dept. 
of State, 1988. 

Maguire, Daniel C. Sacred Choices: The Right to Contraception and Abortion in 
Ten World Religions. Sacred Energies Series. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 
2001. 

Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



117 

Maguire, Daniel C, ed. Sacred Rights: The Case for Contraception and Abortion 
in the World's Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. 

Essays around a common theme that argues that alternative views of the 
world's religions do in fact allow for both contraception and abortion. 

Markham, Ian S. Plurality and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. 
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 

Discusses key issues raised by plurality and secularism in complex modem 
societies and critiques some of the British attempts to come to terms with 
plurality-particularly the so-called Christendom Group. Contrasted with this 
group Markham then praises the "public philosophy" of Richard John 
Neuhaus as a better approach to meeting the challenges of pluralism in 
secular society. Markham's overall thesis is that "Christian ethics and 
theological vision have something distinctive and rational to say which goes 
beyond the contentions of secular plurality "(p. x). Reviewed by James T. 
Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 56 (1995): 805-807. 

Marks, Joel, and Roger T. Ames, eds. Emotions in Asian Thought: A Dialogue in 
Comparative Philosophy. With a Discussion by Robert C. Solomon. Albany, 
NY: State University of New York Press, 1994. 

Marsella, Anthony J., DeVos, George, and Hsu, Francis L.K., eds. Culture and Self: 
Asian and Western Perspectives. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

May, Larry and Sharratt, Shari Collins. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. 
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1994. 

Multicultural and international in emphasis, this text/anthology on applied 
ethics contains essays representing the global theoretical perspectives, 
including selections from Third World and American Indian women. A 
general introduction discusses the nature of morality and surveys the major 
global perspectives on ethics. 

McCance, Dawne C, ed. Life Ethics in World Religions. Winnipeg: University of 
Manitoba Press, 1998. 

McDonald, Henry. The Ethics of Comparative Religion. Lanham MD: University 
Press of America, 1984. 



118 

Michael, James. Privacy and Human Rights: An International and Comparative 
Study, with Special Reference to Developments in Information Technology. 
Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1994. 

Middleton, DeWight R. The Challenge of Human Diversity: Mirrors, Bridges, and 
Chasms. Prospect Heights IL: Waveland Press, 1997. 

. Exotics and Erotics: Human Cultural and Sexual Diversity. Prospect Heights 

IL: Waveland Press, 2001. 

Anthropological approach using case studies to illustrate the connection 
between universal human sexuality and its local manifestations in cultural 
contexts. 

Mol, Hans, ed. Identity and Religion: International, Cross-Cultural Approaches. 
SAGE Studies in International Sociology, 16. London: SAGE Publications, 
Ltd., 1978. 

12 papers from sociologists of religions from around the world, using the 
basic concept of identity, as rooted in social interaction and manifested in role 
performance, to analyze various aspects of religion in contemporary culture. 
Each paper is introduced by a brief critical abstract by Hans Mol. 

Parrinder, Geoffery, Sexual Morality in the World's Religions. Novato CA: 
Oneworld Publications, 1997. 

Pelikan, Jaroslav; Kitagawa, Joseph M.; and Nasr, Se>7ed Hossein. Comparative 
Work Ethics: Judeo-Christian, Islamic and Eastern. Washington, D.C.: 
Library of Congress, 1985. 

Raines, John S., and Maguire, Daniel C, eds. What Men Owe to Women: Men's 
Voices from World Religions. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001. 

Essays by contemporary male representatives from a variety of religious 
traditions. Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Roland, Alan. In Search of Self in India and Japan: Toward a Cross-Cultural 
Psychology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988, 

Study of the psychology of modem Indians and Japanese as they come to 
grips with Western values. 



119 

Rorty, Richard. Interpreting Across Boundaries: New Essays in Comparative 
Philosophy. Edited by Gerald James Larson and Eliot Deutsch. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1988. 

Ruland, Vernon, S.J. Conscience Across Borders: An Ethics of Global Rights and 
Religious Pluralism. San Francisco: University of San Francisco Press, 2002. 

Ruland teaches at the University of San Francisco. 

Schreiter, Robert J. The New Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the 
Local. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997. 

Sharma, Sukhdeo Singh. Ethics of [Joseph] Butler & the Philosophy of Action in 
Bhagavadgita according to Madhusudana Sarasvati: A Critical & 
Comparative Study, Varanasi: Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, 1967. 

Joseph Butler lived from 1 692- 1 752. 

Shweder, Richard A. Thinking Through Cultures: Expeditions in Cultural 
Psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. 

Examines the prospects for a reconciliation of rationality and relativism, and 
investigates cross-cultural similarities and differences in mind, self, emotion, 
and morality. 

Smart, Ninian. Worldviews: Crosscultural Explorations of Human Beliefs. New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983; 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 
1995.. 

Smart, Ninian, and Murthy, B. Srinivasa, eds. East— West Encounters in Philosophy 
and Religion. Long Beach: Long Beach Publications, 1996. 

Essays focus on issues concerning the human person in comparative and 
cross-cultural perspectives, including Indian, Chinese and Western thought. 

Stepaniants, Marietta, and Ron Bontekoe, eds. Justice and Democracy: Cross- 
Cultural Perspectives. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996. 

Sterba, James P. Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and 
Multiculturalism. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 



120 

Argues that ethics has not yet addressed adequately the reality that problems 
are ethically "resolved" in manners which favorably bias humans, men, and 
Western culture. 

Stewart, Edward C, and Bennett, Milton J. American Cultural Patterns: A 
Cross-Cultural Perspective. Rev. ed. Intercultural Press, 1991. 

Stigler, James W., Shweder, Richard A., and Herdt, Gilbert. Cultural Psychology: 
Essays on Comparative Human Development. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1990. 

Product of two symposia held at the University of Chicago in 1 986 and 1 987 
and sponsored by the University's Committee on Human Development. See 
especially Chapter 3, "Culture and moral development." 

Swidler, Arlene, ed. Homosexuality and World Religions. Valley Forge: Trinity 
Press International, 1993. 

Eight articles, each with accompanying bibliography, treat homosexuality in 
the light of the traditional religions of the Americas, Africa, Hinduism, 
Buddhism, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, and the 
Chinese and Japanese religions. 

Ting-Toomey, Stella, and Korzenny, Felipe, eds. Cross-Cultural Interpersonal 
Communication. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, 15. 
London and Delhi: Sage Publications, 1991. 

Includes a number of essays which consider the Orient. 

Twiss, Sumner B., and Grelle, Bruce, eds. Explorations in Global Ethics: 
Comparative Religious Ethics and Interreligious Dialogue. Boulder: 
Westview Press, 1998. 

Vaux, Kenneth L. Birth Ethics: Religious and Cultural Values in the Genesis of 
Life. New York: Crossroad, 1989. 

. Death Ethics: Religious and Cultural Values in Prolonging and Ending Life. 

Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1 992. 

Veatch, Robert. Cross Cultural Perspectives in Medical Ethics: Readings. Boston: 
Jones and Bartlett Press, 1989. 



121 

Vokey, Daniel. Moral Discourse in a Pluralistic World. Notre Dame: University of 
Notre Dame Press, 2001 . 

Argues that we can have meaningful cross-cultural dialogues on morality. 
Uses and critiques Alasdair MacInt>Te and also looks at Mahayana 
Buddhism. Reviewed by Bridget Burke Ravizza in Theological Studies 63 
(December 2002): 866-868. 

Ward, Keith. Religion and Revelation: A Theology of Revelation in the World's 
Religions. 1993-1 994 Gifford Lectures, and 1 993 Selwyn Lectures. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 

Wolfe, Regina Wentzel, and Gudorf, Christine E., eds. Ethics and World Religions: 
Cross-Cultural Case Studies. MaryknoU: Orbis, 1999. 

Presents a variety of case studies using a moral quandary and then gives 
responses by two or three authors who represent a variety of different 
religious and/or cultural backgrounds. 

Wong, David B. Moral Relativity. Berkeley, London and Los Angeles: University 
ofCalifomia Press, 1984. 

Yearley, Lee H. Facing Our Frailty: Comparative Religious Ethics and the 
Confucian Death Rituals. Gross Memorial Lecture 1995. Valparaiso, IN: 
Valparaiso University Press, 1996. 

Yearley is professor of Religious Studies at Stanford University. 

Ziegler, L.[uther] Harmon. Pluralism, Corporation, and Confucianism: Political 
Association and Conflict Regulation in the United States, Europe, and 
Taiwan. 



Culture, Multiculturalism, and Ethics 

Adeney, Bernard T. Strange Virtues: Ethics in a Multicultural World. Downers 
Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995. 

Discussion of cross-cultural perceptions and how they may inform and 
misinform Christian ethics. Adeney grew up in Asia as a child of missionary 
parents, and currently teaches in Indonesia. 



122 

Aerath, Chacko, O.I.C. "Cultural Paranesis and Christian Ethos: Christian Live in 
the Pluralistic Indian Society." VJTR 61 (1998): 824-830. 

. Liturgy and Ethos. Rome: Mar ThomaYogam, 1995. 



Apel, Karl Otto, et al. What Right Does Ethics Have?: Public Philosophy in a 
Pluralistic Culture. Edited by Sander Griffoen. Amsterdam : VU University 
Press, 1990. 

Bardach, Eugene. Ethics and Ethos: Managing through the Peer Culture. Working 
paper/ Graduate School of Public Policy, University of California Berkeley, 
170. Berkeley: Graduate School of Public Policy, University of California 
Berkeley, 1989. 

Bori, Pier Cesare. From Hermeneutics to Ethical Consensus Among Cultures. 
Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994. 

Brackley, Dean, S.J. "A Radical Ethos." Horizons 24 (Spring 1997): 7-36. 

Discusses the "traditional" ethos which is common to many of the agrarian 
cultures of Latin America, the "liberal" of the industrialized north, and then 
proposes of "radical" ethos which would address many of the problematic 
aspects of both of these ethoses. A helpful article for delineating what an 
ethos involves and how it functions in a given culture, though Brackley' s 
proposal for a "radical" ethos is a bit underdeveloped and rather too 
simplified. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Feminist Ethics and the Challenge of Cultures." CTSA 
Proceedings 48 (1993): 65-83. 

Cahill's Presidential Address given at the 1993 Catholic Theological Society 
of America (CTSA) Convention. 

Das, Somen. Christian Ethics and Indian Ethos. Delhi: ISPCK, 1989. 

Droogers, Andre F. "Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights?" In Human 
Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, ed. AbduUahi A. An- 
Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom, 78-90. 
Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, 1995. 

Dymess, William A. How Does America Hear the Gospel?. Grand Rapids: William 
B. Eerdmans, 1989. 



123 

Fleishacker, Samuel. The Ethics of Culture. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 
1994. 

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, ed. Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue 
for a New Era. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania 
Press, 1991. 

Fortman, Bas De Gaay. "Human Rights, Entitlement Systems and the Problem of 
Cultural Receptivity." In Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy 
Relationship?, ed. AbduUahi A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and 
Hendrik M. Vroom, 62-77. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand 
Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

Foster, Lawrence and Patricia Herzog, eds. Defending Diversity: Contemporary 
Philosophical Perspectives on Pluralism and Multiculturalism. Amherst: 
University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. 

Based on a conference sponsored by the Philosophy Department of the 
University of Massachusetts at Boston. 

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. London: 
Hutchinson, 1973. 

Classic of contemporary cultural anthropology, and though it does not deal 
explicitly with ethics, the essays here are referenced very often by those 
working in comparative and cross-cultural ethics. 

Guvence, Bozkurt. "Ethnocentrism: Roots and Prospects." In The World 
Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and 
Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 
82-88. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Hatch, Elvin. Culture and Morality: The Relativity of Values in Anthropology. New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1983. 

Traces the development of cultural relativism in American anthropology and 
then considers a philosophical approach to evaluate the strengths and 
weaknesses of relativism, while concluding with a suggestion as to how both 
Western and non- Western cultures can be viewed. 

Hopkins, D wight N. Being Human: Race, Culture, and Religion. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 2005. 



124 

Rather than focusing on one iinivocal understanding of human "nature," 
Hopkins suggests multiple notions can be articulated through the three 
variables of race, culture, and religion. Hopkins is Professor of Theology at 
the University of Chicago Divinity School. 

Kodera T. James. "The Reshaping of Conscience: Challenges and Promises of 
Muiticulturalism in American Education." The Japan Christian Review 60 
(1994): 49-63. 

May, Larry and Sharratt, Shari Collins. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. 
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1 994. 

Multicultural and international in emphasis, this text/anthology on applied 
ethics contains essays representing the global theoretical perspectives, 
including selections from Third World and American Indian women, A 
general introduction discusses the nature of morality and surveys the major 
global perspectives on ethics. 

Matilal, Bimal K. "Pluralism, Relativism, and Interaction between Cultures." In 
Culture and Modernity: East-West Perspectives, 141-160. Edited by Eliot 
Deutsch. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991. 

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers' 
Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu. 

Mayer, Adrian C, ed. Culture and Morality: Essays in Honour ofChristoph von 
FUrer-Haimendorf. Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "Value Variables in the Health-Care Reform Debate." 
America 168 (29 May 1993): 7-13. 

McCormick discusses ten cultural biases which impact negatively in 
American society in terms of a Christian moral appreciation of the real issues 
in various aspects of health care. This work is also reprinted in McCormick's 
book of collected essays, . Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology, (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994). 

McDonald, Henry. The Normative Basis of Culture: A Philosophical Inquiry. Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State Universit>' Press, 1986. 

Uses Wittgenstein's philosophical model on language and applied it to 
culture, i.e., meanings which are grounded not in empirical objects, but rather 



125 

in the norms and rules which govern their use in a particular social or cultural 
context. 

Ott, Heinrich. "Ethics of Cultural Pluralism." In The World Community in Post- 
Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 13-25. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Palmer, Frank, Literature and Moral Understanding: A Philosophical Essay on 
Ethics, Aesthetics, Education, and Culture. Oxford and New York: 
Clarendon Press, 1992. 

Schillebeeckx, Edward, O.P. Jesus in Our Western Culture: Mysticism, Ethics and 
Politics. London: SCM, 1987. 

Schillebeeckx is a very well-known European theologian, and who had some 
difficulty with the Vatican regarding his approach to Christology. 

Schreiter, Robert J. The New Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the 
Local. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1997. 

Though this work is not explicitly about ethics, it has become an important 
reference point in the discussion of cross-cultural ethics and inculturation of 
ethics. 

Singh, S.B.B.B. "How Cultures of East and West Meet the Challenge of 
Acculturation in Global Industrialization." In The World Community in 
Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 138-146. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Stewart, Edward C, and Bennett, Milton J. American Cultural Patterns: A 
Cross-Cultural Perspective. Rev. ed. Intercultural Press, 1991. 

Stivers, Richard. The Culture of Cynicism: American Morality in Decline. Oxford: 
Blackwell, 1994. 

Stivers argues American culture, is a culture of cynicism. The pursuit of the 
values of success, survival, happiness, and health has produced a corrosive 
and pervasive morality which is actually an "anti-morality". The results are 
norms without meaning, where everyday life is reduced to an empty struggle 
for power and satisfaction-leading to unhappiness, depression, addiction, 
susceptibility to religious cults, and damaged personal relationships. 



126 

Tanner, Kathryn, Theories of Culture: A New Agenda for Theology. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 1997. 

Important seminal work on theological understandings of culture which has 
been referenced by many in the fields of cross-cultural ethics and 
inculturation of ethics. 

Taylor, Charles. Muliiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, Edited 
and Introduced by Amy Gutman; with commentary by K. Anthony Appiah, 
Jtirgen Habermas, Steven C. Rockefeller, Michael Walzer, and Susan Wolf. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. 

This is an important seminal work in the field of multiculturalism and many 
of the essayists also have influence in the field of ethics. 

Van Den Toren, Benno. "God's Purposes for Creation as the Key to Understanding 
the Universality and Cultural Variety of Christian Ethics." Missiology 30 
(April 2002): 215-232. 

Suggests that ethics should be understood teleologically in relation to God's 
goal and purpose for creation. The universality of this goal then can be a way 
to analyze culturally varying ways of responding to God ' s purposes . Uses the 
Afi-ican example of exchange of bride price. 

Verma, Roop Rekha. "The Concept ofProgress and Cultural Identity." la. Culture 
and Modernity: East-West Perspectives, 526-534. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. 
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991. 

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East-West Philosophers' 
Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu. 

West, Cornel. Beyond Eurocentrism and Multiculturalism . Monroe ME: Common 
Courage Press, 1993. 

West is a key figure in Afiican- American studies and the politics of race. 

Yoder, John Howard. "Sacrament as Social Process: Christ the Transformer of 
Culture." Theology Today 4S (1991): 33-44. 

Yoder was a well-known ethicist in the Mennonite tradition who taught at the 
University of Notre Dame until his death. 

******** 



Conscience and Moral Psychology 

Articles/Chapters on Conscience and Moral Development 

Auer, Alfons. "Christianity's Dilemma: Freedom to Be Autonomous or Freedom to 
Obey?" Concilium 110 (1977): 47-55. 

Batumalai, S. "Malaysian Theology: An Understanding of Conversion from a 
Malaysian Perspective." Asia Journal of Theology 5 (1991): 119-129. 

Belamns, Thdo G. "Le paradoxe de la conscience erronee d'Abelard k Karl Rahner." 
Revue Thomiste 90 (1990): 570-586. 

Calls for a return to the realism of Aquinas and an abandonment of so-called 
Kantian transcendentalism which Belmans considers Karl Rahner to have 
appropriated. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "The Sanctuary of Conscience: Where the Axes Intersect." 
Chapter 4 in Id. ^ Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Moral 
Theology, 109-144. CoUegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2004. 

Bujo, B6nezet. "The Understanding of Conscience in African Ethics." Studies in 
Interreligious Dialogue 2 (1992): 5-30. 

Bujo is a diocesan priest from Zaire and ciirrently the Head of Department of 
Moral Theology at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. 

Callahan, Sidney. "Conscience." In Riding Time Like a River: The Catholic Moral 
Tradition Since Vatican II, 99-112. Edited by William J. O'Brien. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

Capone, Domenico, C.Ss.R. "La teologia della Coscienza Morale nel Concilio e 
dopo il Concilio." Studia Moralia 24 (1 986). 

Capone taught moral theology for many years at the Alphonsianum in Rome. 

Caffarra, Carlo. "Moral Conscience." Part 11, Chapter 3 in Living in Christ: 
Fundamental Principles of Catholic Moral Teaching, 107-127. Translated 
by Christopher Ruff. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1987. 

Italian original: Viventi in Cristo. Milano: Jaca, 1981. 



128 

Carpentier, Ren6. "Conscience." In Dictionnaire de spiritualite, 2/2, cols. 1548- 
1575. Paris: Beauchesne, 1953. 

Traditional, pre-Vatican II treatment of conscience as a faculty of right reason 
oriented to the proper judgment of moral norms. 

Chrostowski, Waldemar. "An examination of conscience by God's people as 
exemplified in Neh 9:6-37." Biblische Zeitschrift 34 (1990): 253-261. 

Conley, John J., S.J. "Retrieving Conscience." Faith & Reason 20 (1994): 273-280. 

Suggests an approach using the neo-scholastic tradition, and gives as an 
exemplar the classic philosophical ethics textbook of Austin Fagothey, Right 
and Reason: Ethics in Theory and Practice (St. Louis, Mosby, 1963). Conley 
teaches philosophy at Fordham University. 

Conn, Walter E. "The Desire for Authenticity: Conscience and Moral Conversion." 
In The Desires of the Human Heart: An Introduction to the Theology of 
Bernard Lonergan, 36-56, Edited by Vernon Gregson. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1988. 

. "Ethical Style for Creative Conscience." Louvain Studies 7 (1978): 183-194. 



Develops a theory of conscience based on Lonergan's study of the human 
subject, and then presents some observations on what such a theory might 
imply in terms of an ethical st>4e of creative, self-transcending subjectivity. 

.. "Moral Development as Self-Transcendence." Horizons 4 (1977): 189-205. 



Curran, Charles E. "The Christian Conscience Today." In Conscience: Theological 
and Psychological Perspectives, 132-142. Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New 
York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

From Christian Morality Today, 13-25. Notre Dame: Fides Publishers, Inc., 
1966. 

. "Law and Conscience in the Christian Context." In Law for Liberty: The Role 

of Law in the Church Today, 156-171. Edited by James E. Biechler. 
Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1967. 

Essay written for the Canon Law Society of America's seminar on The Role 
of Law in the Church. 



129 

. "Official Catholic social teaching and conscience." In Conscience: Studies 

in Honour of Sedn O'Riordan, C.&./J., 85-104. Edited by Raphael Gallagher, 
C.Ss.R., and Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 
1989. 

Delgado, William. "Libertadhumanayorden moral objetivo: elecci6nfijndamental." 
Teologia lUSI 12 (1994): 33-42. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 

Delhaye, Philippe. "Conscience and Church Authority." Louvain Studies 2 (1968- 
69): 355-375. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. "L'agire morale tra norma e coscienza." In La norma della 
vita morale del cristiano, 23-34. A cura di Silvio Ronco. Milano: Ed. Stud. 
Teol. Cappuccini, 1992. 

Demmer taught moral theology for most of his career at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome, 

. "Coscienza e norma morale." In Fondazione e interpretazione della norma, 

13-50. A cura di Armando Rigobello. Brescia: Morcellina, 1986. 

Dianich, S. "Opzione fondamentale." In Dizionario Enciclopedico di Teologia 
Morale, 694-705. A cura di Ambrogio Valsecchi e Leonardo Rossi. 3rded. 
Roma: Edizioni Paoline, 1974. 

Dulles, Avery Cardinal R., S.J. "Authority and Conscience." Church (Fall, 1986): 
8-15. 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the Church, 97-1 1 1 , 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Nev^ York: 
Paulist Press, 1988. 

_, "Conscience and Church Authority." In Conscience: Theological and 

Psychological Perspectives, 115-122. Edited by C.Ellis Nelson. New York: 
Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Originally published in Conscience: Its Freedom and Limitations, 251-257. 
Edited by William C. Bier, S.J. New York: Fordham University Press, 1971 . 



130 

Dwyer, Judith A., S.S.J. "Vatican 11 and the Dignity of Conscience." In Vatican II: 
The Unfinished Agenda, A Look to the Future ^ 160-173. Edited by Lucien 
Richard. New York: Paulist Press, 1987. 

Ernst, Wilhelm. "Gewissen in katholischer Sicht." Communio 22 (1982): 1 53-172. 

Fratellone, Raimondo. "Norma morale oggettiva, Magistero e coscienza soggettiva." 
In Problemi morali dei giovani oggi, 81-104. Edited by Guido Gatti and 
Gianfranco Coffele. Roma: LAS, 1990. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Conscience and Conscientious Fidelity." In Moral Theology: 
Challenges fi)r the Future. Essays in Honor of Richard A. McCormick, S.J., 
108-124. Edited by Charles E. Curran. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 

Also found as Chapter 10 in Idem. Moral Demands and Personal 
Obligations, 153-170. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press, 
1993. Fuchs (1912-2005) was one of the premier moral theologians of the 
twentieth century. He taught at the Pontifical Gregorian University and 
lectured widely abroad. 

German original: "Gewissen und Gefolgschaft." Stimmen der Zeit 207 
(1989): 308-320. 

. "Liberta fondamentale e morale." In AA.VV. Liberta-liberazione nella vita 

morale, 43.64. Brescia, 1968. 

__. "The Phenomenon of Conscience: Subject-Orientation and Object- 
Orientation." In Conscience: An Interdisciplinary View, 27-47. Salzburg 
Colloquium on Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities. Edited by Gerhard 
Zecha, and Paul Weingartner. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1987. 

Discussion following Fuchs' presentation is also printed: pp. 47-56. Fuchs' 
paper is also found as Chapter 8 in Christian Morality: The Word Became 
Flesh, 1 18-133. Translated by BrianMcNeil. Washington, D.C: Georgetown 
University Press; Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1987. 

Italian translation in // Verbo si fa carne: teologia morale. Casale 
Monferrato, Piemme, 1989. 

. "Was heifit 'hriges Gewissen'?" Stimmen der Zeit 118 (1993): 795-803. 



Gaffhey, James. "Conscience: The Evolution of Ambiguity." Chapter 9 in Matters 
of Faith and Morals, 1 15-133.. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1987. 



131 

Traces the major developments in the understanding of conscience from 
classical and biblical usage to the full range of significance it had acquired by 
the high Middle Ages. Originally presented to the Society of Christian Ethics 
in 1984. Gaffiiey is Professor of Christian Ethics at Loyola University, New 
Orleans. 

. "Rights of Conscience as Limits of Power," Chapter 7 in Matters of Faith and 

Morals, 87-101. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1987. 

Defends and defines freedom of conscience as a right derived from an 
obligation which is implied in the principle of the Golden Rule. Originally 
presented to the Catholic Theological Society of America in 1982 and found 
in the 1983 CTSA Proceedings. 

Glaser, John W. "Conscience and Super-Ego: A Key Distinction." Theological 
Studies 32 (\91\): 30-47. 

Also found in Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspectives, 1 67- 
188. Edited by C.Ellis Nelson. NewYork: Newman Press, 1973. Describes 
both moral conscience and the superego, their superficial similarities, and 
crucial differences, and concludes with some pastoral reflections on several 
areas where the recognition of the difference between genuine moral 
conscience and the functioning of the superego can be illuminating, and 
where a failure to make such a distinction can result in great harm. 

Gudorf, Christine E. "How will I recognize my conscience when I find it? [example 
of abortion]" Philosophy and Theology 1 (1986): 64-83. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. "Conscience." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 1 10- 
122. Edited by Bernard Hoose. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

Gula is Professor of Moral Theology at the Franciscan School of Theology 
in Berkeley, California. 

Hanigan, James P. "Conscience and the Holy Spirit." The Catholic Theological 
Society of America Proceedings of the Fifty-first Annual Convention 51 
(1996): 227-246. 

Hannon, Patrick. "The Conscience of the Voter and Law-maker." Doctrine and Life 
42 (1992): . 

One article of a special issue devoted to the larger question of whether a 
Christian law-maker (including a referendum in which every voter would be 



132 

a "law-maker") is obliged to insert Christian moral teaching into civil law. 
The specific context for this question is the abortion question in Ireland. 
Hannon is professor of moral theology at Maynooth. 

Hiring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Conscience: The Sanctuary of Creative Fidelity and 
Liberty." Chapter 6 in Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for 
Priests and Laity, 224-301. Volume I: General Moral Theology. 
Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978, 

Translations available in many other languages as well. 

Haring was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of 
the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but 
lectured throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus 
(expert consultant) at Vatican IL 

. "Reciprocity of consciences: a key concept in moral theology." In 

Conscience: Studies in Honour of Sean O'Riordan, C.Ss.R., 60-72. Edited 
by Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R., and Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: 
Gill and Macmillan, 1989. 

Jonsson, John N. "Freedom of conscience and social justice: Baptists and the 
demand of true religion." Review and Expositor 89 (Winter 1992): 23-34. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "Erroneous Conscience in Veritatis Splendor and the 
Theological Tradition." In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of 
the Assertions Made by Veritatis Splendor. 114-135. Edited by Joseph A. 
Selling and Jan Jans, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing 
Company, 1994. 

Johnstone, an Australian, is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum 
in Rome, 

. "Solidarity and Moral Conscience: Challenges for Our Theological and 

Pastoral Work." Studia Moralia 31 (1993): 65-85. 

Discusses the interrelationship between solidarity and conscience, and uses 
four paradigms of conscience to illustrate different ways in which the role and 
function of conscience can be seen. Johnstone discusses also "critical 
conscience" using the work of Bartolome de las Casas as an example to 
illustrate the ways in which authentic solidarity can ftmction along with 
critical conscience to uimiask forms of oppression and false solidarity. 



133 

Juros, Helmut. "Formation of Conscience and Ethics: Some Methodological 
Observations." Concilium 110 (1977): 39-46. 

In Italian: "Formazione della coscienza ed etica. Osservazioni 
metodologiche." Concilium 13 (10/1977): 69-81. 

Juros is a Polish theologian. 

Kaczynski, Edward, O.P. "La coscienza morale nella teologia catolica." " 68 
(1991): 65-94. 

Reviews the traditional Roman Catholic teaching on conscience from the 
perspective of traditional concepts on the conscience as application as well 
as current concepts from the creative conscience to conscience as decision, 
as well as integrated concepts. Kaczynski teaches at the Angelicum in Rome. 

. "La formazione morale cristiana. La coscienza, la responsibility e la virtu." 

Angelicum 69 (1992): 351-367. 

. "The Foundations of Christian Conscience in the Church." Angelicum 73 

(1996): 469-486. 

Discusses conscience in terms of subjectivity and objectivity, and asserts that 
these two elements are unified in the interiority and transcendence of 
conscience. Uses many references to The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 
Veritatis Splendor, the writings of Karol Wojtyla [later Pope John Paul H], 
and Thomas Aquinas. Critical of Kantian moral autonomy as being merely 
subjective. Stresses also the necessity of conscience formation in the light of 
faith. 

Kaufman, Philip S., O.S.B. "Probabilism: The Right to Know Moral Options." 
Chapter Two in Why You Can Disagree and Remain a Faithful Catholic, 17- 
25. Bloomington IN: Myer Stone Books, 1989. 

This chapter outlines the theory of probabilism, while the remainder of the 
book discusses infallibility, divorce and remarriage, and many of the issues 
connected with the proclamation of the birth control teaching of the Church. 

Keating, James. "Initiation & Moral Education: A Modest Proposal." Church 10 
(Summer, 1994): 14-17. 

Keating teaches moral theology at the Pontifical College Josephinum in Ohio. 



134 

Keenan, James F., S.J, "Can a Wrong Action Be Good? The Development of 
Theological Opinion on Erroneous Conscience." Eglise et theologie 24 
(1993): 205-219. 

Brief historical overview of the tradition of this issue. Keenan did his 
doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University m Rome, 
and taught at Fordham University in New York before joining the faculty of 
the Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now 
teaches at Boston College. 

Koch, T. "Autonomic des Gewissens als Prinzip der evangelischen Theologie." 
Zeitschrift fur Evangelishe Ethik 29 (1985): 306-332. 

Discusses some difficulties Protestant theology has with the concept of an 
"autonomous conscience." 

Kodera T. James. "The Reshaping of Conscience: Challenges and Promises of 
Multiculturalism in American Education." The Japan Christian Review 60 
(1994): 49-63. 

Kosnik, Anthony R. "Following Conscience." In^ Catholic Bill of Rights, 33-35. 
Edited by Leonard Swidler and Herbert O'Brien. Kansas City: Sheed and 
Ward, 1988. 

Kutz, Stanley, C.S.B. "Conscience and Contraception." In Contraception and 
Holiness: The Catholic Predicament, 23-60. Edited by Archbishop Thomas 
D. Roberts, S.J., ed. New York: Herder and Herder, 1964. 

Lehmann, Paul. "The Decline and Fall of Conscience." In Conscience: Theological 
and Psychological Perspectives, 28-45. Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New 
York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

From Ethics in a Christian Context, 327-343. The Library of Philosophy and 
Theology. London: SCM Press, 1963. 

Lewis, H.D. "The Voice of Conscience and the Voice of God." Chapter 10 in 
Christian Ethics and Contemporary Philosophy, 172-1 80. Edited by Ian T. 
Ramsey. London: SCM Press, 1966. 

Italian translation in Etica cristiana e filosofia contemporanea. Bologna: 
EDB, 1971. 



135 

Macquarrie, John. "The Struggle of Conscience for Authentic Selfhood." In 
Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspectives, 155-166. Edited 
by C. Ellis Nelson. New York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Also found in Three Issues in Ethics, 1 1 1-123. New York: Harper and Row, 
1978. 

Mahoney, John, S.J. "Conscience, Discernment, and Prophecy in Moral Decision 
Making." In Riding Time Like a River: The Catholic Moral Tradition Since 
Vatican II, 81-97. Edited by William J. O'Brien. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

McCarthy, David Matzko. "Conscience: A Richer Moral Language." Josephinum 
8 (Winter/Spring 2001): 43-53. 

Argues that contemporary personalist accounts of conscience are open to a 
psychology which is problematic in relating to the reality of the objective 
moral order. McCarthy is teaches at Mount Saint Mary's College in 
Emmitsburg, MD. 

Mclnemy, Ralph. "Fundamental Option." In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del 
Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 427- 
434. Roma: Citta Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Mclnemy is the Michael P. Grace 
Professor Medieval Studies at the University of Notre Dame. 

. "Prudence and Conscience." The Thomist 34 (1974): 291-305. 



Melina, Livio. "Coscienza, liberta e Magistero." La Scuola Cattolica 120 (1992): 
152-171. 

Melina is professor of moral theology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies 
of Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

. "Moral conscience and 'communio': Toward a response to the challenge of 

ethical pluralism. Communio 20 (1993): 673-686. 



136 

Melina holds that Christian conscience is a call to assume an internal, 
ecclesial form in conformity with a Marian disponabiiity to the Spirit. This 
article does not discuss Veritatis Splendor. 

Mobbs, Frank. "Newman's Doctrine of Conscience." Irish Theological Quarterly 
57 (1991): 311-316. 

Mortimer, R.C. "An Anglo-Catholic View of Conscience." In Conscience: 
Theological and Psychological Perspectives, 123-131. Edited by C. Ellis 
Nelson. New York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Also found in The Elements of Moral Theology, 75-83. London: A. & C. 
Black Ltd.; New York: Harper & Row. 

Navone, John, S.J. "Scripture for Christian Conversion," New Blackfriars 74 
(1993): 21-33. 

Navone is professor emeritus of biblical theology in the Institute of 
Spirituality of the Pontifical Gregorian University. 

Pell, George Cardinal. "The Inconvenient Conscience." First Things 153 (May 
2005): 22-26. 

Cardinal Pell, the Archbishop of Sydney, argues against the notion of the 
primacy of conscience, calling instead for the primacy of truth. He further 
maintains that it would be morally impossible for a Catholic in "good 
conscience" ever to fail to accept a settled position of the Church, though he 
does not address long-standing "settled positions" of the Church (such as 
slavery, torture, usury, etc.) that now have become less "settled." Pell 
references John Henry Newman extensively in this article. In Pell's view, the 
current malaise is due to asserting a primacy of conscience when this is a de 
facto argument for doing what one finds convenient. 

Philibert, Paul J., O.P. "Conscience: Developmental Perspectives fi^om Rogers and 
Kohlberg." Horizons 6 (\979): 1-26. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "La conception chr^tienne de la conscience morale." Nova 
et Vetera 66 (l99\y.S\-99. 

Conference held in Washington, D.C. 20 March 1990 at the John Paul II 
Institute. 



137 

Overview of various elements of the traditional Christian imderstanding of 
conscience. 

. "La question des actes intrins^quement mauvais et le proportionalisme." 

Revue Thomiste 84 (1984): 618-624. 

Poppi, Antonino. "L'educazione all'etica: problemi filosofici e orentamenti morali." 
In Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 259-296. Edited by 
Enrico Berti. Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Robinson, N.H.G. "How the Bible Speaks to Conscience." In Conscience: 
Theological and Psychological Perspectives, 72-78. Edited by C. Ellis 
Nelson. New York: Nevraian Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Also found in Robinson's own book, Christ and Conscience, 171-178. 
London: James Nisbet, 1956. Robinson develops the thesis that conscience 
is the area where the individual experiences the Spirit of God, and that the 
Bible is the means by which God addresses the human person today. This 
address is not so much a narrative as a confrontation v^th conscience which 
results in confession, repentance, restitution and change. Uses the story of 
David and Nathan, plus makes some remarks about Jesus' use of parables. 

Rudin, Josef "ACatholic View of Conscience." In Conscience: Theological and 
Psychological Perspectives, 95-1 14. Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New York: 
Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

From Conscience, 137-158. Edited by the Curatorium of the C.J. Jung 
Institute. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970. A rather traditional 
and largely pre- Vatican II treatment. 

Schar, Hans. "Protestant Problems with Conscience." In Conscience: Theological 
and Psychological Perspectives, 19-9 A. Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New 
York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

From Conscience, 113-130. Edited by the Curatorium of the C.J. Jung 
Institute. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970. 

Schindler, David L. "History, Objectivity, and Moral Conversion." The Thomist 37 
(1973): 569-588. 

Shannon, William H. "Christian Conscience and Modem Warfare." America 166 
(15 February 1992): 108-112. 



138 

Offers a summary and critique of the 6 July 1991 editorial in La Civilta 
Cattolica on this topic. 

Springer, Robert H. "Conscience, Behavioral Science and Absolutes." InAbsolutes 
in Moral Theology? ^19-56. Edited by Charles E.Curran. Washington, D.C.: 
Corpus Books, 1968. 

In Spanish: iPrincipios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Mundo 
Actual)), 24. Traduccion de Jos^ Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

Stafford, Archbishop (now Cardinal) J. Francis. "The Ecclesial Dimension of 
Conscience: Statement on the Doctrinal Congregation's Letter." Origins 24 
(October27, 1994): 345. 

Occasioned by the discussion raised by the Congregation for the Doctrine of 
the Faith. "Concerning the Reception of Communion by Divorced-and- 
Remarried Members of the Faithful: Letter to Bishops." Origins 24 
(October 27, 1994): 337-340. Stafford is former Archbishop of Denver, 
Colorado, and now works in the Vatican. 

Stock, Michael E., O.P. "Conscience and Super-Ego." The ThomistlA (1961): 554- 
579. 

Tillich, Paul. "A Conscience Above Moralism." In Conscience: Theological and 
Psychological Perspectives, 46-61 . Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New York: 
Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Originally published as "Conscience in Western Thought and the Idea of a 
Transmoral Conscience." Crozer Quarterly 22 (1945): 289-300. 

. "The Nature of a Liberating Conscience." Im Conscience: Theological and 

Psychological Perspectives, 46-61. Edited by C. Ellis Nelson. New York: 
Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

Originally published in Ministry and Medicine in Human Relations, 1 27- 1 40. 
Edited by lago Gladstone. New York: International Universities Press, 1 955. 

Tineo, Luis. "Conciencia moral y Magistero de la Iglesia." Teologia lUSI 12(1 994): 
43-76. 

One of several articles in this issue devoted to an analysis of Veritatis 
Splendor. 



139 

Trenti, Giuseppe. "Educazione all'etica: problemi teologici e orientamenti pastorali." 
In Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 297-321. Edited by 
Enrico Berti. Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Ziegler, Philip 0. '"Doing Conscience Over' : The Reformulation of the Doctrine of 
Conscience in the Theological Ethics of Karl Barth and Paul Lehmann." 
Toronto Journal of Philosophy 14 (Fall 1998): 213-238. 

Zukowski, Edward. "The ' Good Conscience' ofNazi Doctors. " In The Annual of the 
Society of Christian Ethics. 53-82. Edited by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The 
Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 



Books on Conscience and Moral Development 

AA.W. Cattolicesimo e liberta: La coscienza individuale criterio inviolabile. 
IDO-C Documentinuovi, 2. Verona: Amoldo Mondadori Editore, 1967. 

Primarily centered on Vatican II's understanding of religious freedom as 
developed in Dignitatis humanae. Contributions by Nazareno Fabbretti, 
Pietra Pavan, Jose-Maria Gonzalez-Ruiz, Edward Schillebeeckx, John 
Courtney Murray, and Michele Pellegrino, 

Abba, Giuseppe. Felicita, vita buona e virtu: Saggio difilosofia morale. Biblioteca 
di Scienze Religiose. Roma: LAS, 1989. 

. Lex et virtus. Studi sull'evoluzione della dottrina morale di San Tommaso 

d' Aquino. Roma: LAS, 1983. 

Ambrosio, Gianni; Paolo Nepi; and Mauro Cozzoli. La Formazione Della 
Conscienza Morale. Roma: Anonima Veritas Editrice, 1995. 

Bayne, David Cowan, S.J. Conscience, Obligation, and the Law: The Moral Binding 
Power of the Civil Law. Jesuit Studies. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1966. 

Author's training and primary' point of view is in jurisprudence, not moral 
philosophy or theology. Part I considers theories of law from Thomas 
Aquinas to Oliver Wendall Holmes. 

Bier, William C, S.J., ed. Conscience: Its Freedom and Limitations. New York: 
Fordham University Press, 1971. 



140 

Contains a number of articles treating of conscience from diverse 
perspectives, theological, psychological, philosophical, civil disobedience, 
Humanae vitae, etc. 

Billy, Dennis J., C.Ss.R., and Keating, James. Conscience and Prayer: the Spirit of 
Catholic Moral Theology^ Preface by Mark O'Keefe. CoUegeville: Liturgical 
Press, 2001. 

Billy is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome and 
Keating is associate professor of moral theology at the Pontifical College 
Josephinum in Ohio. 

Blasi, Anthony J. Moral Conflict and Christian Religion. New York: Peter Lang, 
1988. 

Phenomenological approach. Reviewed by Cynthia Eller in Journal of the 
American Academy of Religion 59 (1991): 394-396. 

Callahan, Sidney. In Good Conscience: Reason and Emotion in Moral Decision- 
making. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991. 

Discusses the role and function of conscience and emotions in the context of 
American society, taking into account new psychological understandings of 
self, emotion, reason, intuition, problem-solving and developmental change. 

Campbell, Dennis, et al. Theological Education and Moral Formation. Edited with 
a foreword by Richard John Neuhaus. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 
1992. 

Essays by Evangelical and mainline Protestants, as well as Roman Catholics 
on the relationship between theological education and moral formation. 
Contributions by Dennis M. Campbell, Rowan A. Greer, E. Brooks Holifield, 
John W. O'Malley, S.J., Merle D. Strege, and Paul T. Stallsworth. 

Carmody, John. Reexamining Conscience. New York: Seabury Press, 1982. 

Childress, James F. Moral Responsibility in Conflicts: Essays on Nonviolence, War 
and Conscience. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982. 

Reviewed by James Turner Johnson in Journal of Religion 66 (1 986): 88-89. 

Ciarrocchi, Joseph W. The Doubting Disease. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1995. 



141 

Well-done psychological treatment of the obsessive-compulsive disorder and 
moral scruples, which can also be very helpful in pastoral counseling and 
confession situations. 

Conn, Walter E., ed. Conversion: Perspectives on Personal and Social 
Transformation. New York: Alba House, 1978. 

Conn, Walter E. Christian Conversion: A Development Interpretation of Autonomy 
and Surrender. New York: Paulist Press, 1986. 

. Conscience: Development and Self-Transcendence. Birmingham AL: 



Religious Education Press, 1981. 

Treats conscience as the drive of the personal subject towards an authentic 
self-transcendence realized in each instance of creative comprehension, 
critical judgment, responsible decision, and genuine love. Conn bases his 
treatment of authenticity in the personality theories of Erik Erikson, Jean 
Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, as well as on the philosophical ttanscendental 
method of Bernard Lonergan, S.J. 

Connors, Russell B., Jr., and McCormick, Patrick T. Character, Choices and 
Community: The Three Faces of Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 
1998. 

Designed for undergraduate and/or adult education use. 

Crossin, John W., O.S.F.S. Walking in Virtue: Moral Decisions and Spiritual 
Growth in Daily Life. New York: Paulist Press, 1998. 

Looks at how daily moral decisions shape our lives and how these decisions 
m turn are shaped by the guidance of the Spirit, Scripture, interaction with 
community, and formation of conscience. 

Curatorium of the C.J. Jung Institute. Conscience. Evanston: Northwestern 
University Press, 1970. 

Considers conscience from Jewish, Catholic and Protestant perspectives, as 
well as treatment of economic and psychological aspects. 

Curran, Charles E., ed. Conscience: Readings in Moral Theology, 14. New York: 
Paulist Press, 2004. 

Delhaye, Philippe. The Christian Conscience. New York: Descl^e, 1968. 



142 

In French: La conscience morale du chretien. Toumai: Desclee, 1964. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. Deuten und handeln: Grundlagen und Grundfragen der 
Fundamentalmoral. Studien zur theologischen EtMk, no. 15. Freiburg: 
Verlag Herder, 1985. 

Italian translation by Mauro Pedrazzoli: Interpretare e agire. Fondamenti 
della morale cristiana. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1989. 

Theological ethics is a "science" only in an analogous sense, inasmuch as it 
does not have as its object static empirical data but rather a subjectivity open 
to transcendence in liberty. Conscience summons the person him/herself to 
his/her proper end in trying to realize moral rightness and moral good. 

. Sein und Gebot; die Bedeutsamkeit des transzendentalphilosophischen 

Denkamatzes in der Scholastik der Gegenwart fiir denformalenAufriss der 
Fundamentalmoral. Miinchen: Schoningh, 1971. 

Fucek, Ivan, S.J. Dio e I'uomo nella coscienza. Verita— norma— liberta. (Ad uso 
degli studenti [for the use of students]). Roma: PUG, 1991. 

Course notes assembled into what in Italian is called a dispense for the use 
of students. This genre is somewhat like a book, but its intended audience is 
rather more limited to the professor's own students. Fucek was professor of 
moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Gallagher, Raphael, C.Ss.R., and McConvery, Brendan, C.Ss.R., eds. Conscience: 
Studies in Honour of Sean O'Riordan, C.Ss.R. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 
1989. 

O'Riordan is professor emeritus at the Alphonsianimi in Rome. 

Garcia de Haro, Ramon. Legge, coscienza e liberta. Ragione & Fede. Milano: 
Edizioni Ares, 1984. 

Opus Dei theologian who teaches at the John Paul II Institute on the Family 
in Rome. 

Golser, Karl. Gewissen und objektive Sittenordnung. Zum Begriffdes Gewissens in 
der neuerenkatholishcne Moraltheologie. Wien: Wiener Dom Verlag, 1975. 

Grace, S.A. Conscience in Newman's Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
1989. 



143 
Gula, Richard M., S.S. Moral Discernment. New York: Paulist Press, 1997. 

Would be helpful and appropriate for use in adult education groups, RCIA, 
and as a good non-technical and quite readable introduction to conscience and 
moral decision-making in the Roman Catholic tradition. Gula is Professor 
of Moral Theology at the Franciscan School of Theology in Berkeley, 
California. 

, Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality, New York: 

Paulist Press, 1989. 

See especially chapters 9-11 entitled respectively: "Conscience," "The 
Formation of Conscience," and "Conscience and Church Authority." 

Haas, John M., ed. Crisis of Conscience: Catholic Theologians and Philosophers 
Shed Light on a Contemporary Moral Crisis. New York: Crossroads 
Publishing Company, 1996. 

Eight scholars from the U.S. and Europe reflect upon issues: Joseph Cardinal 
Ratzinger, Ralph Mclnemy, Robert Spamann, Servais Pinckaers, Wojciech 
Giertych, Ignacio Carrasco de Paula, Carlo Caffarra, and John M. Haas. 

Happel, Stephen and Walter, James J. Conversion and Discipleship: A Christian 
Foundation for Ethics and Doctrine. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986. 

Haughton, Rosemary. The Transformation of Man: Conversion and Community. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1967. 

Hodge, Robert. What's Conscience For? Personal Responsibility in Response to 
Conscience and Authority. Fort Scott, KS: St. Paul's Pub. CO., 1995. 

Hogan, Linda. Confronting the Truth: Conscience in the Catholic Tradition. New 
York: Paulist, 2001. 

Hoose, Jayne, ed. Conscience in the World Religion. Leominister UK: Gracewing 
and Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999. 

Hover, Gerhard. Sittlich handeln im Medium der Zeit. Ansdtze zur 
handlungstheoretischen Neuorientierung der Moraltheologie. Wiirzburg: 
Echter, 1988. 

Kellermaim, Bill Wylie. Seasons of Faith and Conscience: Kairos, Confession, 
Liturgy. Foreword by Jim Wallis, MaryknoU: Orbis, 1991. 



144 

Deals with the connection between faith and politics, and investigates the 
implications for worship and liturgy. 

Kilpatrick, William K. Why Johnny Can't Tell Right from Wrong. New York: 
Simon and Schuster, 1992. 

According to Kilpatrick, the basic problem with moral education in our 
schools is that traditional character education has been abandoned in favor of 
a "non-judgmental" value approach, which focuses on the student's own ego 
and feelings to the exclusion of moral principles. Kilpatrick is professor of 
education at Boston College. 

Langston, Douglas C. Conscience and Other Virtues: From Bonaventure to 
Maclntyre. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 2001. 

Reviewed by Linda Hogan in Theological Studies 63 (September 2002): 630- 
632. 

Marinelli, Anthony. Conscience and Catholic Faith: Love and Fidelity. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1991. 

Reflection on the role of Catholic teaching for the individual conscience. 
Treatment of a theological perspective of conscience, a psychological 
overview, as well as special themes related to conscience, such as freedom, 
grace, virtue, and sin, plus the teaching of Jesus and the role of the Church. 

McNamara, Patrick H. Conscience First, Tradition Second: A Study of American 
Catholics. New York: State University of New York Press, 1992. 

Mount, Eric, Jr. Conscience and Responsibility. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1969. 

A revised doctoral dissertation which investigates the meaning of conscience 
and its relationship to responsibility. Mount evaluates the contributions of 
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Gerhard Ebeling, Joseph Fletcher, James Gustafson, 
Bernard HSring, Paul Lehmann, H. Richard Niebuhr, Helmut Thielicke, Paul 
Tillich, and others. Mount earned a Masters at Yale, where he studied under 
H. Richard Niebuhr and James Gustafson, and a PhD from Duke, 

Nelson, C. Ellis, ed. Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspectives. New 
York: Newman Press (Paulist), 1973. 

An anthology of 1 3 articles by a number of noted contemporary theologians: 
Protestant, Catholic and Jewish. 



145 

Nelson, C. Ellis. Helping Teenagers Grow Morally: A Guide for Adults. Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox, 1992. 

Reviewed by Bradley Wigger in Princeton Seminary Bulletin 14 ns (1993): 
107-109. 

Neuhaus, Richard Jolin, ed. Theological Education and Moral Formation. 
Encounter Series, 15. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1992. 

Essays by Evangelical and mainline Protestants, as well as Roman Catholics 
on the relationship between theological education and moral formation. 
Contributions by Dennis M. Campbell, Rowan A. Greer, E. Brooks Holifield, 
John W. O'Mailey, S.J., Merie D. Strege, and Paul T. Stallsworth. 

Overberg, Kenneth R., S.J. Conscience in Conflict: How to Make Moral Choices. 
Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1991. 

Part One presents a basic outline of Catholic moral theology in terms of 
conscience and decision-making, while Part Two applies this in three main 
areas: sexual ethics, medical ethics, and social ethics. Book is suitable for the 
non-expert, parish study groups or a basic undergraduate course in theology. 
Overberg is professor of theology at Xavier University. 

Patrick, Anne E. Liberating Conscience: Feminist Explorations in Catholic Moral 
Theology. New York: Continuum, 1996. 

Feminist condemnation of patriarchy, especially as manifested in the Roman 
Catholic Magisterium, and often rather polemical. 

Robinson, 'N.H.G. Christ and Conscience. London: James Nisbet, 1956. 

Ruland, Vernon, S.J. Conscience Across Borders: An Ethics of Global Rights and 
Religious Pluralism. San Francisco : University of San Francisco Press, 2002. 

Ruland teaches at the University of San Francisco. 

Schockenhoff, Eberhard. Bonum Hominis. Die anthropologischen und 
theologischen Grundlagen der Tugendethik des Thomas von Aquin. Mainz: 
GrUnewald, 1987. 

Smith, Robert J. Conscience and Catholicism: The Nature and Function of 
Conscience in Contemporary Roman Catholic Moral Theology. Lanham 
MD: University Press of America, 1998. 



146 



Compares and contrasts the views of Germain Grisez and Bernard HSring as 
representatives to the "non-revisionist" and "revisionist" schools of moral 
theology. Smith is teaches at St. Mary's University of Minnesota in St. 



Smith, Russell, ed. Catholic Conscience: Foundation and Formation: Proceedings 
of The Tenth Bishops' Workshop, Dallas, Texas. Braintree MA: Pope John 
Center, 1991. 

Proceedings of the 10th Bishops' Workshop, held in Dallas, Texas from 4-8 
February 1991. Contents: Preface. Letter of greeting. Pope John Paul 11. 
Keynote address: Conscience and truth, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. Dialogue 
wdth Cardinal Ratzinger. Elements of a Catholic conscience, Benedict 
Ashley, O.P. Psychology and conscience, James Gill, S.J. Pastoral concerns. 
The search for an adequate theological method in formation of conscience, 
Paul Philibert, O.P. First response, Richard Gula, S.S. Second response, J. 
Haas. Pastoral concerns. The bishop, conscience and moral teaching, Msgr. 
Donald Wuerl. Furst response, Avery Dulles, S.J. Second response, J. 
Mulligan. Pastoral concerns. Psychic manipulation, indoctrination and the 
captive conscience, J. LeBar. Conscience, culpability and co-dependence, M. 
Garvey-O'Brien. Pastoral concerns. Conscience and the corporate person, 
M. Lyons. Conscience and the public person, Robert George. Pastoral 
concerns. The church and the media: panel presentations. A view from the 
Vatican, Msgr. John Foley. A view from the multi-media experience, J 
Catoir. A view from administration and government, [Former U.S. 
Ambassador to the Holy See] Frank Shakespeare. A view from Catholic 
youth, P Lauer. A view from in front of the camera, B. Plante. Postscript: 
dialogue with Cardinal Ratzinger. 

Stanke, Gerhard. Die Lehre von den 'Quellen der Moralitdt'. Darstellung und 
Diskussion der neuscholastischen Aussagen und neuerer Ansdtze, 
Regensburg, 1984. 

Svanera, O. Coscienza e norma morale nei catechismi italiani (1912-1982)^ 
Bologna: Edizione Dehoniane Bologna, 1991. 

Takeuchi, Osamu, S.J. Conscience and Personality: A New Understanding of 
Conscience in Its Inculturation in Japanese Moral Theology. Foreword by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. Chiba: Kyoyusha, 2003. 

Takeuchi carefully looks at this notion of conscience, ryoshin in Japanese, to 
see both its roots in Confucianism and Christianity. Though the Latin term 
conscientia and the Japanese term ryoshin do not correspond exactly. 



147 

Takeuchi demonstrates that ryoshin basically represents what conscience 
means. Yet, ryoshin is more than a translation for the Latin. Rather, in the 
Japanese tradition we discover that rydshin was regarded as a human 
disposition which transcends the intellectual faculty of rational choice of 
moral rightness or wrongness. Revised doctoral dissertation done under 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. at the Jesuit SchooI-of-Theology at Berkeley, 
California. Reviewed by Thomas John Hastings in Theology Today 62/1 
(April 2005): 145. Takeuchi teaches moral theology at Sophia University in 
Tokyo, Japan. 

Tirkey, Amrit, S.J. "Conscience in the Thought of M.K. Gandhi: A Study in the 
Light of Vatican II" S.T.D. Dissertation. Roma: Pontificia University 
Gregoriana, 1992. 

Dissertation done under Mariasusai Dhavamony, S.J. 

Trevisi, Enrico. "Coscienza morale e obbedienza civile. Linee dell'attuale dibattito 
teologico." Dissertatio ad Lauream apud Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana. 
Roma, 1991. 

Doctoral dissertation done under Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

Turrini, Miriam. La coscienza e le leggi. Morale e diritto nei testi per la 
confessione della prima eta moderna. Bologna: II Mulino, 1991. 

Weber, Helmut. Ed. Der ethische Kompromiss. Studien zur theologischen Ethik, 
11. Freiburg: Herder, 1984. 

Zachman, Randall C. The Assurance of Faith. Conscience in the Theology of 
Martin Luther and John Calvin. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 

Compares the two theologians' understanding conscience, and relates this to 
the testimonies of the Word and Spirit. While Luther and Calvin have 
different emphases, they fundamentally agree that the foundation of the 
peace, assurance, and certainty of conscience lies in the grace of God, as 
revealed to the conscience both by the external witness of the Word of God, 
and the internal witness of the Spirit. Zachman teaches reformation studies 
at Notre Dame. 

Zecha, Gerhard, and Weingartner, Paul, eds. Conscience: An Interdisciplinary View. 
Salzburg Colloquium on Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities. Theology 
and Decision Library. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1987. 



148 



9 papers, plus discussion, from Josef Fuchs, Lawrence Kohlberg, Paul 
Wiengartner, Gerhard Zecha and others on conscience in terms of various 
aspects: foundational, social, educational, and special topics. 



*,Hl**^!*t 



Dealing with Evil to Achieve Good 

Theological/Philosophical Problem of Evil (Theodicy) 

Adams, Marilyn McCord and Robert Merrihew Adams, eds. The Problem of Evil. 
New York: Oxford University Press, 1 990. 

Essays by J.L. Mackie, Nelson Pike, Roderick M. Chisholm, Terence 
Penelhum, Alvin Plantinga, William L. Rowe, Stephen J. Wykstra, John 
Hick, and Diogenes Alien. Reviewed by William Hasker in Ethics 103 
(1992): 206. 

Al-Ghazali, Muhammad. "The Problem of Evil From Islamic Perspective." 
Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 65-74. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Euthanasia: The Practical and Social Significance of Double 
Effect." In Method and Catholic Moral Theology: The Ongoing 
Reconstruction, 237-259. Edited by Todd A. Salzman. Omaha: Creighton 
University Press, 1 999. 

Cenkner, William. "The Understanding of Evil in Modem Hindu Thought." 
Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 26-35. 

Crenshaw, James L., ed. Theodicy in the Old Testament. Issues in Religion and 
Theology, 4. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; London: SPCK, 1983. 

An introduction plus 8 articles ranging from A.S. Peake's 1905 essay on Job 
to Crenshaw's own 1975 treatment on the problem of human bondage in 
Sirach. Other contributors include Walther Eichrodt, Ronald J. Williams, 
Klaus Koch, Gerhard von Rad, Martin Buber, and Harmut Gese. 

Dore, C. God, Suffering and Solipsim. Library of Philosophy and Religion. New 
York: Macmillan, 1989. 

D'Sa, Xavier Francis. "Trinitarian Evil: The Bhagavadgita's Understanding of Evil." 
Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 12-25. 

Elizondo, Virgilio. "Evil and the Experience of God." The Way 33 (1993): 34-43. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "The «Sin of the World» and Normative Morality." Gregorianum 
61 (1980): 51-76. 



150 

Also found as ch. 8, pp. 153-175, of Personal Responsibility and Christian 
Morality, trans. William Cleves, et al., (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983). 

In Italian: "II «Peccato del Mondo» e la morale normativa." In Sussidi 1980 
Per Lo Studio Delia Teologia Morale Fondamentale, 415-435. (Per I'uso 
privato degli studenti). Roma: Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, 1977, 1980. 

In German: «Siinde der Welt» und normative Moral," In Anspruch der 
Wirklichkeit und christlicher Glaube: Probleme und Wege theologischer 
Ethikheute, 135-154. Hrsg. Helmut Weber und DietmarMieth. Dusseldorf: 
PatmosVerlag, 1980. 

Josef Fuchs (1912-2005) was professor of moral theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome. 

Goldberg, David. "Divine Providence and The Problem of Evil in Jev^sh Thought." 
Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 36-46. 

Haas, Peter J. Morality After Auschwitz: The Radical Challenge of the Nazi Ethic. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988. 

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 74 (1993): 769-771. 

Haas is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Vanderbilt. 

Hallett, Garth L., S.J. "Evil and Human Understanding." The Heythrop Journal 32 
(1991): 467-476. 

Hallett is professor of philosophy at St. Louis University. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. Naming the Silences: God, Medicine, and the Problem of 
Suffering. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. 

Discusses religious aspects of suffering, the problem of evil, etc. 

Hebblethwaite, Brian. "MacKinnon and the problem of evil." In Christ, Ethics, and 
Tragedy: Essays in Honour of Donald Mackinnon, 131-145. Edited by 
Kenneth Surin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 

Paper presented at a conference on the work of Donald MacKinnon, held at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, on 22-25 July 1986. 



151 

Highfield, Ronald. Barth and Rahner in Dialogue: Toward an Ecumenical 
Understanding of Sin and Evil. American University Studies: Series 7, 
Theology and Religion, 62. Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, Paris: 
Peter Lang, 1989. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "Learning through Suffering: The Moral Meaning of 
Negative Experience." In Conscience: Studies in Honour of Sean 
O'Riordan, C.Ss.R., 144-160. Edited by Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R., and 
Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1989. 

Kekes, John. Facing Evil. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 

Arguing that the prevalence of evil presents a fundamental problem for our 
secular sensibility, Kekes develops a conception of character morality as a 
response. Kekes maintains that the main sources of evil are habitual, 
unchosen actions produced by our character defects and that we can increase 
our control over the evil we cause by cultivating a reflective temper. In 
addition to philosophical sources Kekes bases his arguments on the works of 
Sophocles, William Shakespeare and Joseph Conrad. 

MacDonald, Sebastian K. Moral Theology and Suffering. New York: Peter Lang 
Publishing, Inc, 1995. 

Metz, Johannes Baptist, ed. "Moral Evil Under Challenge." Concilium 6 (1970). 

Series of articles on various aspects of evil, guilt, psychology, sin, and ethics. 

Murphy, Nancy. "On the Priority of Personal to Structural Evil in Catholic Social 
Teaching: A Critique." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, and the Good Society: 
New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 148-154. Edited by Joseph Runzo. 
Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Parkin, David, ed. The Anthropology of Evil. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985. 

Phan, Peter C. "Overcoming Poverty and Injustice: The Response of Liberation 
Theology to Evil." Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 47-64. 

Phan is a Vietnamese missiologist who teaches at Georgetovm University. 

Piim, Anthony B. Why, Lord?: Suffering and Evil in Black Theology. New York: 
Continuum, 1995. 



152 

Piyaratana, Kongaswela. "The Concept of Evil In Buddhism." Dialogue & Alliance 
8(2/1994): 3-11. 

Kigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Evil and Models of Christian Ethics." Horizons 8 (1981): 

7-22. 

Kigali is professor emeritus of moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

Schulweis, Harold M. Evil and the Morality of God. New York: KTAV Publishing 
House, 1984. 

Reviewed by Charles M. Raffel in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 452-454. 

Tilley, Terrence. The Evils of Theodicy. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 1991 

Tilley is professor of theology at the University of Dayton.. 

. "The Use and Abuse of Theodicy." Horizons 1 1 (1984): 304-319. 



Vicchio, Stephen J. The Voice from the Whirlwind: The Problem of Evil and the 
Modern World. Westminster MD: Christian Classsics, 1989. 

A doctoral dissertation. Reviewed by Martin R. Tripole, S.J. in Theological 
Studies S\ (1990): 763-764. 

Whitney, Barry L. Evil and the Process God. Toronto Studies in Theology, 19. 
New York: E. Mellen Press, 1985. 

. Theodicy: An Annotated Bibliography on the Problem of Evil, 1960—1990. 

Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Volume 1111. New York: 
Garland, 1993. 

. What Are They Saying About God and Evil? New York: Paulist Press, 1 989. 



******** 



Intrinsece Malum (Intrinsic Evil) and/or Ontic Evil 

Billy, Denis J., C.Ss.R. "Ontic Evil and Equivocation: Revising the Terms of the 
Discussion." Studia Moralia 30 (1992): 321-329. 



153 

Proposes a threefold categorization of malum of evil as a way of avoiding the 
problem of equivocation in the proportionalist use of the term "ontic evil." 
Billy grounds his terminology in an analagous understanding of evil plus a 
recognition of the tension between certain Thomistic and Personalist 
categories. 

Bouscaren, T. Lincoln, SJ. Ethics of Ectopic Operations. 2"*^ ed, Milwaukee: 
Bruce, 1933, 1944. 

Boyle, Patrick J., S.J. Parvitas Materiae in Sexto in Contemporary Catholic 
Thought. Lanham: University Press of America, 1987. 

Doctoral dissertation which presents an historical overview of the traditional 
teaching, followed by a consideration of contemporary objections to the 
teaching as well as a critical evaluation of both traditional and contemporary 
teachings on the parvity of matter in sexual sins. Good rehearsal of the issues 
mvolved pro and con on the existence of objective morality and intrinsic evil. 
Boyle did his doctorate at Marquette University at teaches moral theology at 
Mundelein Seminary in Chicago. 

Dedek, John F. "Intrinsically Evil Acts: The Emergence of a Doctrine." Recherches 
de theologie ancienne et medievale 50 (1983): 191-226. 

. "Intrinsically Evil Acts: An Historical Study of the Mind of St. Thomas." The 

Thomist 43 (1979): 3%5-4\3. 

Drane, James F. "Condoms, AIDS & Catholic Ethics: Open to the Transmission of 
Death?" Commonweal 11% (22 March 1991): 188-192. 

Drane, a professor of clinical medical ethics at Edinboro University of 
Pennsylvania, shares difficulties on the application of the term "intrinsically 
evil" to any and all condom use. Drane suggests a more carefiil investigation 
of the moral issues involved, a full understanding of the natural law tradition, 
and the use of the principles of the double effect and counseling the lesser 
evil would all lead to a conclusion that in certain cases condom use in 
marriage would be morally licit. 

Foran, John E., M.D. "Ectopic Pregnancy: Current Treatment Options, deju vu 
Humanae Vitae." Linacre Quarterly 66 (February 1999): 21-28. 

Very critical of removal of the fetus in ectopic pregnancies-calling it a "direct 
abortion" and asking for a strong condemnation of this practice by the 
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). 



154 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Gibt es in sich schlechte Handlungen? Zum Problem des 
«Intrinsece malum»." Stimmen der Zeit 119 (1994): 291-304. 

Fuchs (1912-2005) was Professor of Moral Theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome, 

. "An Ongoing Discussion in Christian Ethics: «Intrinsically Evil Acts»?" 

Chapter 5 in Id. Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena, 71-90. Translated by 
Bernard Hoose and Brian McNeil. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. 

Report presented at an international study week for moral theologians on the 
universality and immutability of moral norms, held in Rome in 1981, and 
later presented as a public lecture at the University of California, Berkeley in 
1982. German text in iS'/////c/jeA^orme«. Zum Problem ihrer allgemeinenund 
unwandelbaren Geltung, 74-91. Edited by Walter Kerber. Diisseldorf: 
Patmos Verlag, 1982. 

Hoose, Bernard. "Circumstances, Intentions and Intrinsically Evil Acts." In The 
Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions Made by Veritatis 
Splendor. 136-152. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan Jans. Grand 
Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

Looks at the claims made in the Encyclical regarding the absolute prohibition 
of "intrinsically evil acts," and uses a number of historical examples to 
indicate how previous Popes either performed, ordered, or approved a whole 
range of actions which have subsequently been condemned by Gaudium et 
spes #27 (which passage is used to provide the list of "intrinsically evil acts" 
contained in Veritatis Splendor #80). Hoose also critiques the notion of 
"object" and intention and circumstances developed in the Encyclical as 
being too vaguely done, with the result that a simple reading of the text will 
lead to false conclusions about the nature of moral acts (at least in the 
Thomistic tradition). 

Janssens, Louis. "Ontic Evil and Moral Evil." Louvain Studies 4 (1972): 115-156. 

Also found in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and 
Catholic Tradition, 40-93. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. Presents a careful reading 
of St. Thomas before moving on to developing the distinction between ontic 
evil and moral evil. 



155 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "The Function of the Principle of Double Effect." 
Theological Studies 54 (1993): 293-315. 

Questions the legitimacy of the present understanding of the application of 
the principle of the double effect in complicated cases, and argues instead that 
the principle should be interpreted primarily as being heuristic and 
confirming of prudential decisions, rather than as providing a justification for 
difficult moral decisions. Keenan did his doctorate in moral theology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, and taught at Fordham University 
in New York before joining the faculty of the Weston Jesuit School of 
Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now teaches at Boston College. 

Knauer, Peter, S.J. "La determination du bien et du mal par le principe du double 
effet." Nouvelle Revue Theologique 87 (1965): 356-376. 

In English: "The Hermeneutic Function of the Principle of the Double 
Effect." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic 
Tradition, 1-39. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. 

Also found in English in Natural Law Forum 12 (1967): 132-162. 

In German: "Das rechverstandene Prinzip von der Doppeltwirkung als 
Grundnorm jeder Gewissensentscheidung." Theologie und Glaube 57 
(1967): 107-133. 

The German and English versions are a slightly reworked presentation of the 
French article, responding to certain criticisms the latter had evoked. In many 
ways this article can be taken as the beginning of the modem proportionalist 
debate. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J., and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Doing Evil to Achieve Good: 
Moral Choice in Conflict Situations. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1978. 

Includes essays by BaruchBrody, William K. Frankena, Bruno Schiiller, S.J., 
as well as contributions by Ramsey and McCormick, all of which deal in 
some way with McCormick's reformulation of the principle of the double 
effect, given as the 1973 Pere Marquette Lecture, delivered at Marquette 
University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (and which is included in this volume 
as well). 



156 

Melchin, Kenneth R, "Revisionists, Deontologists, and the Structure of Moral 
Understanding." Theological Studies 5 \ (1990): 389-416. 

Discusses the recent debate over premoral norms, the direct/indirect 
distinction, exceptionless norms, intrinsic evil, and moral authority in terms 
of procedural criteria for data selection, classification, and values- 
prioritization in the empirical methods of moral theology. Author teaches 
moral theology at St. Paul University in Ottawa. 

Murtagh, James. Intrinsic Evil: An Examination of This Concept and Its Place in 
Current Discussions on Absolute Moral Norms. Excerpta ex dissertatione ad 
Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificae Universitatis Gregorianae. 
Roma, 1973. 

Dissertation done under Josef Fuchs, S.J. Murtagh is a priest in Miami. 

Porter, Jean. "The Moral Act in Veritatis Splendor and in Aquinas's Summa 
Theologiae: A Comparative Analysis." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 278-95. Kansas City: 
Sheed& Ward, 1995. 

Excellent article which carefully analyzes the exposition of the moral act in 
the Encyclical against the various pertinent texts of Thomas Aquinas. Porter 
concludes that in some critical areas the Encyclical is either misleading in its 
presumed interpretation of Thomas, or departs significantly fi-om that 
tradition. The major area of difficulty concerns the interpretation given to 
"intrinsically evil acts" in the Encyclical. Porter is professor of theology at 
the University of Notre Dame. 

Quay, Paul, S.J. "The Disvalue of Ontic Evil." Theological Studies 46 (1 985): 262- 
286. 

Quay, who was trained as a professor of physics, was a particularly strong 
critic of revised moral theology and proportionalism in particular. 

Rhonheimer, Martin. "'Intrinsically Evil Acts' and the Moral Viewpoint: Clarifying 
a Central Teaching of Veritatis Splendor." The Thomist 58 (1994): 1-39. 

The article's central purpose is to give an exposition of the notion of 
intrinsically evil acts in such a way as to deny theories of proportionalism. 
References to Veritatis Splendor are used in a rather proof-texting fashion. 
Rhonheimer teaches at the Roman Athenaeum of the Holy Cross (Opus Dei). 



157 

Compromise, Cooperation, Minus Malum, Principle of Tolerance 

Amal, Jos6 Antonio. "^Tolerancia o permisividad fiscal? Actitudes sociales de los 
espafioles frente al fraude." Moralia 18, nos. 2-3 (abril-septiembre 1995): 
203-18. 

One of several articles in this issue dealing with the theme of tolerance. 

Attard, Mark, 0. Carm. Compromise in Morality. Rome, 1976. 

Curran, Charles E. "Cooperation: Toward a Revision of the Concept and Its 
Application." Linacre Quarterly A\ (1974): 152-167. 

Curran's position is critically discussed in Ronald Fabbro's PUG doctoral 
dissertation done under Klaus Demmer, Cooperation in Evil: A 
Consideration of the Traditional Doctrine from the Point of View of the 
Contemporary Discussion About the Moral Act. Excerpta ex dissertatione ad 
Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificae Universitatis Gregorianae. 
Roma, 1989. Gives an historical overview of the concept and its 
development in the manualist tradition, and then moves to address what 
Curran considers to be some missing elements in terms of the subjectivity and 
rights of conscience of the agent according to the traditional theory. Curran 
sets out his revision in terms of an understanding of the doctrine of religious 
freedom elaborated in Dignitatis humanae. The periodical also incorrectly 
lists Curran as being a Jesuit. 

Fabbro, Ronald, Cooperation in Evil: A Consideration of the Traditional Doctrine 
from the Point of View of the Contemporary Discussion About the Moral Act. 
Excerpta ex dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificae 
Universitatis Gregorianae. Roma, 1989. 

Dissertation done under Klaus Demmer. 

Fisher, Anthony, O.P. "Co-operation with Evil." Catholic Medical Quarterly 45 
(February 1994): 15-22. 

Rather conservative and manualistic presentation of various forms of 
cooperation with evil, using examples of cases involving workers in the 
health-care professions. Does include a good listing of some of the 
traditional examples given in the moral manuals for various types of 
"cooperation" with evil. Originally presented as a talk at the Catholic 



158 

Medical Guild's Seminar in Medical Ethics held in London. Fisher, an 
Australian bioethicist studying at Oxford, is a disciple of Finnis and Grisez. 

Fuller, Jon D., S.J., and Keenan, James F. "Tolerant Signals: The Vatican's New 
Insights on Condoms for H.I.V. Prevention," America 183 (23 September 
2000): 6-7. 

Argues that the Vatican now accepts the "lesser of two evils" principle as 
applying in some cases to reconmiendation of condom usage for purposes of 
AIDS prevention. Fuller is professor medicine at Boston University and 
Harvard, and Keenan was professor of moral theology at the Weston Jesuit 
School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now teaches at Boston 
College. 

Gonzdlez, Ignacio. "La tolerancia, razones y sinrazones." Moralia 1 8, nos. 2-3 (abril- 
septiembre 1995): 143-72. 

One of several articles in this issue dealing with the theme of tolerance. 

Grecco, Richard. A Theology of Compromise: A Study of Method in the Ethics of 
Charles E. Curran. American University Studies: Series, 7, Theology and 
Religion, 1 04. New York: Peter Lang, 1 991 . 

Grecco's 1982 doctoral dissertation from St. Michael's University (Toronto) 
in which he assesses Curran's four-step method in moral theology by applying 
it to Curran's "theology of compromise." Reviewed by Richard Gula, S.S. in 
Theological Studies 53 (1992): 788-789. 

Harding, Carol, ed. Moral Dilemmas. Chicago: Precedent Publishing Co., 1985. 

Healy, Gerald W., S.J. "Choosing the Lesser Evil: Use and Abuse." Landas 3 
(1989): 199-225. 

Excellent overview of the principle, as well as contemporary applications 
(though many of these are in the Philippine context). Healy (died 2004) 
taught moral theology and canon law at the Loyola School of Theology in 
Manila. 

Heyd, David, ed. Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Princeton NJ: Princeton University 
Press, 1996. 



159 

This collection contains original contributions to the ongoing debate on the 
nature of toleration, including its definition, historical development, 
justification, and limits. 

Higginson, R. Dilemmas: A Christian Approach to Moral Decision Making. 
Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989. 

Kaczor, Christopher. "The Tragic Case of Jodie and Mary: Questions about 
Separating Conjoined Twins." Linacre Quarterly 70 (May 2003): 159-170. 

Against Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor and William May, Kaczor 
argues that the separation of Jodie and Mary was morally licit, though not 
morally obligatory. Kaczor teaches philosophy at Loyola Marymount 
University in Los Angeles. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas. "The Meaning and Role of Duress in the Cooperation of 
Wrongdoing." Linacre Quarterly IQ (}A&y 2m2>)\ 150-158. 

Considers the impact of "duress" in reference to provisions for sterilizations 
in Catholic health care partnerships. Kopfensteiner, who is a priest of the 
Archdiocese of St. Louis, taught at Fordham University and did his doctoral 
dissertation on paradigm shift theory in moral theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University under Klaus Demmer. 

Long, Edward LeRoy. Conscience and Compromise: An Approach to Protestant 
Casuistry. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1954. 

Morlino, Robert C. "The Principles of the Lesser of Evils in Today's Conflict 
Situations: New Challenges to Moral Theology from a Pluralistic Society." 
S.T.D. Dissertation: Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1990. 

Directed by Ivan Fucek, S.J, Discusses 20th century manualists (such as 
Hiirth, Vermeersch, and Zalba), as well as papal and episcopal writings in 
areas of the principle of the lesser of evils, and makes some tentative 
illustrations in reference to contemporary moral issues such as condom 
education in the AIDS crisis and the acceptability of a national policy of 
nuclear deterrence. Morlino is now bishop of Madison, Wisconsin. 

Moya, Jos6, and Ana I. Cillemelo. "Raices psicosociales de la intolerancia." Moralia 
18, nos. 2-3 (abril-septiembre 1995): 173-88. 

One of several articles in this issue dealing with the theme of tolerance. 



160 

van Ouwerkerk, Conrad. "Gospel Morality and Human Compromise." Concilium 
5 (1965): 5-12. 

Palazzini, Cardinal Pietro. "Morale acculturata e compromesso etico." Studi 
Cattolici 21 (1977): %3-93. 

The major scope of the article is to condemn the work of the Congress of 
Italian Moralists held at Padua from 31 March to 4 April 1970, and the 
subsequent book, edited by TuUo Goffi, Problemi e Prospettive di Teologia 
Morale (Brescia: Queriniana, 1976). In particular Palazzini condemns Goffi's 
article on "acculturated [inculturated] morality" and Helmut Weber's article 
on ethical compromise. 

Quinn, Msgr. Francis. "The Church and AIDS Prevention." Origins 21 (5 March 
1992): 635-636. 

Argues against condom distribution in high schools, but does counsel 
condom use if one has the HIV virus and has already decided to engage in 
"sinful sexual activity." Quinn was at the time bishop of Sacramento, 
California. 

Kigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Evil and Models of Christian Ethics." Horizons 8 (1981): 
7-22. 

Kigali is professor emeritus of moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

Kenick, Timothy M. "Charity Lost: The Secularization of the Principle of Double 
Effect in the Just- War Tradition." The Thomist 58 (1994): 441-462. 

Smith, David H. Health and Medicine in the Anglican Tradition: Conscience, 
Community and Compromise. Health, Medicine, and the Faith Traditions. 
New York: Crossroad, 1986. 

Traina, Cristina L.H. "Oh, Susanna: The New Absolutism and Natural Law." 
Journal of the American Academy of Religion 65 (1997): 371-401 . 

Taking up the ethical dilemma which faced Susanna in the Old Testament 
(Dn 13) which had been used by Pope John Paul II in his encyclical Veritatis 
Splendor to illustrate the notion of moral absolutes Traina critiques this a 
strong "absolutist" strain of natural law interpretation in the thought of Pope 
John Paul II, as well as moral philosophers such as Germain Grisez and John 
Finnis. Traina offers alternative solutions to the problem of relativism and 
consequentialism which so troubles moral absolutists by considering insights 



161 

from the tradition of cooperation with evil and the epistemological nature of 
moral norms. 

Trevisi, Enrico. "Coscienza morale e obbedienza civile. Linee deU'attuale dibattito 
teologico." Dissertatio ad Lauream apud Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana. 
Roma, 1991. 

Doctoral dissertation done under Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

Velasco, Fernando. "La religion a prueba: tolerancia versus fanatismo." Moralia 1 8, 
nos. 2-3 (abril-septiembre 1995): 189-202. 

One of several articles in this issue dealing with the theme of tolerance. 

Weber, Helmut. "II Compromesso Etico." Parte Secunda, Capitolo 6 in Problemi 
eprospettive di teologia morale, 199-219. A cura di Tullo Goffi. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1976. 

You, Alain. La hi de gradualite: une nonveauti en morale? Fondements 
theologiques et applications. Paris: Editions P. Lethielleux, 1991. 

Analyzes the principle of gradualism in terms of the magisterial teaching as 
well as some of the debate around Humanae vitae and Familiaris consortia. 
Reviewed by Sabatino Majorano, C.Ss.R. in Studia Moralia 29 (1991): 488- 
492. 

Proportionalism 

Aquinas, Thomas. See Thomas Aquinas. 

Barry, R. "A Clarification of the Double Effect." Irish Theological Quarterly 48 
(1981). 

Billy, Denis J., C.Ss.R. "Ontic Evil and Equivocation: Revising the Terms of the 
Discussion." Studia Moralia 30 (1992): 321-329. 

Proposes a threefold categorization of malum of evil as a way of avoiding the 
problem of equivocation in the proportionalist use of the term "ontic evil." 
Billy grounds his terminology in an analogous understanding of evil plus a 
recognition of the tension between certain Thomistic and Personalist 
categories. 



162 



Bouscaren, T. Lincoln, S.J. Ethics of Ectopic Operations. 2"^ ed. Milwaukee: 
Bruce, 1933, 1944. 

Brody, Baruch. "The Problem of Exceptions in Medical Ethics." In Doing Evil to 
Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 54-68. Edited by 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola University 
Press, 1978. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Teleology, utilitarianism, and Christian ethics." Theological 
Studies 42 (19^1): 601-629. 

The article has for context a focus of the contemporary Catholic 
re-examination of moral norms: the principle of double effect, which some 
claim can be reduced to the criterion of proportion between an act's good and 
evil consequences. The article locates this claim within the teleological 
model of ethics, but distinguishes the theory from utilitarianism. 

Cavanaugh, Thomas A. "Aquinas's Account of Double Effect." The Thomist 61 
(1997): 107-121. 

Thomas's account substantially differs from contemporary double-effect 
reasoning (DER) insofar as Thomas considers the ethical status of risking an 
assailant's life while contemporary accounts of DER focus on actions causing 
harm foreseen as inevitable. 

. "Aquinas and the Historical Roots of Proportionalism." Aquinas Review 2 

(1/1995): 31-44. 



Clark, Peter A. S.J., To Treat or Not to Treat: The Ethical Methodology of Richard 
A. McCormick, S.J. as Applied to Treatment Decisions for Handicapped 
Newborns. Omaha, Creighton University, 2003. 

Clark holds the John McShain Chair in Ethics at St. Joseph's University, 
Philadelphia. 

Connery, John R., S.J, "Morality of Consequences: A Critical Appraisal." 
Theological Studies 34 (1973). 

Also in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic 
Tradition, 244-266. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. 



163 

. "The Teleology of Proportionate Reason." Theological Studies 44 (1983): 

489-596. 

Critiques the use of proportionate reason. 

Crosby, John F. "The Creaturehood of the Human Person and the Critique of 
Proportionalism." In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso 
Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 195-199. 
Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Crosby is professor of philosophy at the 
University of Dallas. 

Curran, Charles E. "Utilitarismo e teologia morale contemporanea. Per situare il 
dibattito." Concilium 12(10/1976): 150-175. 

Dilanni, Albert R., S.M. "The Direct/Indirect Distinction in Morals," The Thomist 
41 (1977): 150-180. 

Drane, James F. "Condoms, AIDS & Catholic Ethics: Open to the Transmission of 
Death?'' Commonweal 11% (22 March 1991): 188-192. 

Drane, a professor of clinical medical ethics at Edinboro University of 
Pennsylvania, shares difficulties on the application of the term "intrinsically 
evil" to any and all condom use. Drane suggests a more careful investigation 
of the moral issues involved, a full understanding of the natural law tradition, 
and the use of the principles of the double effect and counseling the lesser 
evil would all lead to a conclusion that in certain cases condom use in 
marriage would be morally licit. 

Foot, Philippa. "The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect." 
In Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy, 19-32. 
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1981. 

Besides essays on the virtues, moral arguments and values, Foot includes 
treatment of abortion and the double effect, euthanasia, plus essays on Hume, 
Nietzsche, and a "Reply" to Frankena. Reviewed by B. Vermazen in Nous 
17(1983): 117-121. 



164 

Frankena, William K. "McCormick and the Traditional Distinction." In Doing Evil 
to Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 145-164. Edited by 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola University 
Press, 1978. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J., "Christian Morality: Biblical Orientation and Human Evaluation." 
Gregorianum 67 (1986): 745-763. 

Also found as Chapter 1 in Christian Morality: The Word Became Flesh, 1- 
18. Translated by Brian McNeil Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press; Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1987. Towards the end of this article 
Fuchs addresses himself to some of the mistaken understandings of 
proportionalism, as well as indicating what a correct understanding involves. 

In Italian: "Etica cristiana: orientamento biblico e valutazione umana." 
Capitolo primo in // Verbo si fa came; teologia morale, 7-30. Casale 
Monferrato: Piemme, 1989. 

Gaffhey, James. "The Pope on Proportionalism." In Veritatis Splendor: American 
Responses, ed. Michael E. Allsopp and John J. O'Keefe, 60-71 . Kansas City, 
M.O.:Sheed& Ward, 1995. 

Gaffiiey is Professor of Christian Ethics at Loyola University, New Orleans. 

Gaillardetz, Richard B. "John Finnis and the Proportionalism Debate: A Critique of 
a Critique." Louvain Studies 14(1989): 125-142. 

George, Robert P. "Liberty under the Moral Law: On B. Hoose's Critique of the 
Grisez-Finnis Theory of Human Good." The Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 
175-182. 

Attacks Hoose's article, "Proportionalists, Deontologists and the Human 
Good," The Heythrop Journal 33 (1992): 175-191 . Hoose has a response to 
George under the title "Basic Goods: Continuing the Debate." The Heythrop 
Journal 35 (1994): 58-63. George is at Princeton University. 

Haber, Joram Graf, ed. Absolutism and its Consequentialist Critics. Lanham MD: 
University Press of America, 1994. 

Is the judicial execution of the innocent permissible to deter crime? Some 
advocates of consequentialism would respond yes, while moral absolutists 
argue that certain kinds of conduct, including this one, are absolutely 
prohibited, no matter what the consequences. The 17 essays selected for 



165 

inclusion represent the major contributions to its defense and criticism, and 
define the contemporary discussion. In addition, Haber contributes an 
extensive bibliographic essay in which he defends his own version of moral 
absolutism. 

Hallett, Garth L., S.J. Greater Good: The Case ofProportionalism. Washington, DC: 
Georgetown Universit}' Press, 1995. 

Hallett proposes judging acts using a norm he calls Value Maximization. He 
defines this norm and offers a full response to such critics of all forms of 
proportionalism as Firmis and Grisez. Hailet is professor of philosophy at St. 
Louis University. 

Hoose, Bernard. Proportionalism: The American Debate and its European Roots. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987. 

Revised doctoral dissertation done at the Pontifical Gregorian University 
under Josef Fuchs, S.J., tracing the development and theological issues 
contained in the moral theory of proportionalism, fi*om the initial publication 
of Peter Knauer, S.J.'s 1965 article on a revised approach to the Principle of 
the Double Effect through subsequent writings and debate primarily in 
Germany and North America. Also contains a good bibliography of the 
relevant literature. Hoose is currently on the faculty of Heythrop College. 

. "Proportionalism: A Right Relationship Among Values." Louvain Studies 

24 (Spring 1999): 40-56. 

. "Proportionalists, Deontologists and the Human Good." The Heythrop 

Journal 33 (1992): 175-191. 

Discusses the theories of Germain Grisez in terms of the human good, and his 
extreme reluctance to accept even the hypothetical possibility of disagreeing 
with the Magisterium. Hoose goes on to clarify part of the problematic of the 
incommensurability of goods associated with the proportionalist school. See 
also the response by Robert P. George, "Liberty under the Moral Law: On B. 
Hoose's Critique of the Grisez-Finnis Theory of Human Good." The 
Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 175-182. Hoose has a response to George 
under the title "Basic Goods: Continuing the Debate." The Heythrop Journal 
35 (1994): 58-63. 

Janssens, Louis. "Ontic Evil and Moral Evil." Louvain Studies 4 {1972): 115-156. 



166 

Also found in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and 
Catholic Tradition, 40-93. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCoraiick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. 

Presents a careful reading of St. Thomas before moving on to developing the 
distinction betv^een ontic evil and moral evil. 

. "Teleology and Proportionality: Thoughts about the Encyclical Veritatis 

Splendor." In The Splendor of Accuracy: An Examination of the Assertions 
Made by Veritatis Splendor. 99-1 13. Edited by Joseph A. Selling and Jan 
Jans. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. 

John Paul 11, Pope. "Discourse to the International Congress of Moral Theology." 
Rome 10 April 1986. In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso 
Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 1 1-14. Roma: 
Citta Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

In this discourse the Pope repeated the affirmation of immutable concrete 
moral norms, and gave as two examples the prohibition against contraception 
and direct killing of the innocent. The tone of the Pope's discourse is clearly 
that of the Caffarra-Grisez-Finnis line, and contains many thinly veiled 
negative references to the Proportionalist school. The Congress was 
sponsored jointly the John Paul 11 Pontifical Institute for the Study of 
Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. Carlo Caffarra), 
and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the University of 
Navarra (Opus Dei). Pope John Paul II reigned from October, 1978 imtil 
April 2, 2005. 

Johnson, Mark. "Proportionalism and a Text of the Young Aquinas: Quodlibetum 
IX, Q.7, A.2." Theological Studies 53 (1992): 683-699. 

Johnson teaches philosophy and religion at St. Joseph's College in 
Rermselaer, IN. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "The Meaning of Proportionate Reason in 
Contemporary Moral Theology." The Thomist 49 (1985): 223-247. 

Johnstone, an Australian, is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum 
in Rome. 

Kaczor, Christopher, ed. Proportionalism: For and Against. Marquette Studies in 
Philosophy, 19. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1999. 



167 

Reviewed by Edward Vacek, S.J. in Theological Studies 63 (September 
2002): 651. 

Kaczor, Christopher. "Double-Effect Reasoning from Jean Pierre Gury to Peter 
Knauer." Theological Studies 59 (1998): 297-316. 

Historical overview of the tradition of double effect reasoning from Thomas 
Aquinas to Peter Knauer, indicating important distinctions and developments 
made in this field. Kaczor teaches philosophy at Loyola Marymount 
University in Los Angeles. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "The Function of the Principle of Double Effect." 
Theological Studies 54 (1993): 293-315. 

Questions the legitimacy of the present understanding of the application of 
the principle of the double effect in complicated cases, and argues instead that 
the principle should be interpreted primarily as being heuristic and 
confirming of prudential decisions, rather than as providing a justification for 
difficult moral decisions. Keenan did his doctorate in moral theology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, and taught at Fordham University 
in New York before joining the faculty of the Weston Jesuit School of 
Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now teaches at Boston College. 

Kelly, James. "Is Consequentialist Reasoning Really Teleological?" In Persona 
Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale 
(Roma. 7-12aprile 1986), 813-822. Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Kelly is professor of ethics at the Holy 
Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome. 

Kiely, Bartholomew M., S.J. "The Impracticality of Proportionalism," Gregorianum 
66 (1985): 655-686. 

Negative view of proportionalism. Kiely is professor of psychology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, and consultor to the Congregation 
for the Doctrine of the Faith [CDF]. 

Knauer, Peter, S.J. "La determination du bien et du mal par le principe du double 
effet." Nouvelle Revue Theologique 87 (1965): 356-376. 



168 

In English: "The Hermeneutic Function of the Principle of the Double 
Effect." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic 
Tradition, 1-39. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McConnick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1 979. Also found in English in Natural Law 
Forum \2 (1967): 132-162. 

In German: "Das rechverstandene Prinzip von der Doppeltwirkung als 
Grundnorm jeder Gewissensentscheidung." Theologie und Glaube 57 
(1967): 107-133. 

The German and English versions are a slightly reworked presentation of the 
French article, responding to certain criticisms the latter had evoked. In many 
ways this article can be taken as the beginning of the modem proportionalist 
debate. 

Lowery, Mark. "A New Proposal for the Proportionalist/ Traditionalist Discussion." 
Irish Theological Quarterly 6\ (1995): 115-24. 

Argues that referring to the particular "specifications" of an act may be one 
way of resolving the impasse in the debate between the proportionalists and 
traditionalists concerning the concept of intrinsically evil acts. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J., and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Doing Evil to Achieve Good: 
Moral Choice in Conflict Situations. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1978. 

Includes essays by Baruch Brody, William K. Frankena, Bruno Schiiller, S. J., 
as well as contributions by Ramsey and McCormick, all of which deal in 
some way with McCormick's reformulation of the principle of the double 
effect, given as the 1973 Pere Marquette Lecture, delivered at Marquette 
University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (and which is included in this volume 
as well). 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "Ambiguity in Moral Choice." In Doing Evil to 
Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 7-53. Edited by Richard 
A. McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1978. 

McCormick's famous 1973 Pere Marquette Lecture, delivered at Marquette 
University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on a reformulation of the principle of 
the double effect. 



169 

. "A Commentary on the Commentaries." In Doing Evil to Achieve Good: 

Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 193-267. Edited by Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1978. 

McCormick's evaluation of the essays included in this volume, all of which 
relate in some way to his own seminal work, "Ambiguity in Moral Choice." 

. "II principio del duplice effetto." Concilium 12 (10/1976): 129-149. 

. "Proportionalism: Clarification Through Dialogue." In The Historical 

Development of Fundamental Moral Theology in the United States: Readings 
in Moral Theology, II, 181-199. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard 
A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1999. 

Appeared originally in Theological Studies 43 (1982) and 44 (1983). 

McKeever, Paul E. "Proportionalism As a Methodology in Catholic Moral 
Theology." In Human Sexuality and Personhood: Proceedings of the 
Workshop for the Hierarchies of the United States and Canada Sponsored by 
the Pope John Center through a Grant from the Knights of Columbus, 211- 
222. Rev. ed. St. Louis: Pope John Center, 1981, 1990. 

McKinney, Ronald H., S.J. "The Quest for an Adequate Proportionalist Theory of 
Value." The Thomist 53 (1989): 56-73. 

Melchin, Kenneth R. "Revisionists, Deontologists, and the Structure of Moral 
Understanding." Theological Studies 51 (1990): 389-416. 

Discusses the recent debate over premoral norms, the direct/indirect 
distinction, exceptionless norms, intrinsic evil, and moral authority in terms 
of procedural criteria for data selection, classification, and values- 
prioritization in the empirical methods of moral theology. Author teaches 
moral theology at St. Paul University in Ottawa. 

Montaldi, Daniel F. "A Defense of St. Thomas and the Principle of the Double 
Effect." Journal of Religious Ethics 14 (1986): 296-332. 

Murphy, Seamus, S.J. "Notes on Proportionality." Milltown Studies 39 (1997): 78- 
95. 

Discusses the Jus ad bellum criteria in terms of the moral theory of 
proportionality. Clearly written and helpful in articulating just war theory. 



170 

Odozor, Pauiinus Ikechukwu, C.S.Sp. Richard A. McCormick and the Renewal of 
Moral Theology. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995. 

Odozor is Nigerian and a Visiting Associate Professor of Christian Ethics at 
the University of Notre Dame. 

Outka, Gene H. and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Norm and Context in Christian Ethics. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Quite a good collection of articles by Protestant and Roman Catholic 
ethicians covering a number of topics related to the notion of moral norms 
and conflict situations. 

van Ouwerkerk, Conrad, C.Ss.R. Caritas et ratio: etude sur le double principe de 
la vie morale chritienne d'aprds S. Thomas D'Aquin. Nijmegen: Janssen, 
1956. 

From the author's doctoral dissertation completed in 1953 at the Angelicum 
in Rome. 

. "Gospel Morality and Human Compromise." Concilium 5 (1/1965): 5-12. 



Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "The New Law in Veritatis Splendor.'' Josephinum Journal 
of Theology 3 (2/1996): 47-63. 

Argues that the New Law, especially the Thomistic exposition of this, is at 
the cornerstone of Catholic moral theology outlined in Veritatis Splendor, 
and that the moral theory of proportionalism is incompatible with an ethics 
grounded in Scripture, and therefore ultimately inimical to Catholic moral 
theology. 

Porter, Jean. "'Direct' and 'Indirect' in Grisez's Moral Theory." Theological 
Studies 57 (1996): 6l\'632. 

Porter is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. 

Quirk, Michael J. "Why the Debate on Proportionalism Is Misconceived." Modern 
Theology 13 (October 1997): 501-524. 

Ramsey, Paul. "Incommensurability and Indeterminacy in Moral Choice." In Doing 
Evil to Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 69-144. Edited 
by Richard A. McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola 
University Press, 1978. 



171 

Here Ramsey develops his own position of indeterminacy and 
incommensurability in moral conflict situations. Primarily he dialogues with 
the positions of Richard McCormick and Bruno Schilller, though others are 
mentioned as well. 

Rhonheimer, Martin. "Intentional Actions and the Meaning of Object: A Reply to 
Richard McCormick." The Thomist 59 (April 1995): 279-31 1. 

Critiques McCormick's own critique of an earlier article by Rhonheimer, as 
well as proportionalist theory in regards to the disputed point over moral 
intentionality and intrinsically evil acts. 

Schiiller, Bruno, S.J. "The Double Effect in Catholic Thought: A Reevaluation." In 
Doing Evil to Achieve Good: Moral Choice in Conflict Situations, 165-192. 
Edited by Richard A. McCormick, S.J. and Paul Ramsey. Chicago: Loyola 
University Press, 1978. 

Selling, Joseph A. "The Problem of Reinterpreting the Principle of Double Effect." 
Louvain Studies 8 (1980): 47-62. 

Smith, Janet E. ''^Veritatis Splendor, Proportionalism, and Contraception." Irish 
Theological Quarterly 63 (1998): 307-326. 

Theron, Stephen. "Consequentialism and Natural Law." In Persona Verita e 
Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 
aprile 1986), 177-193. Roma: Citta Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

Critique of proportionalist theory, especially the distinction of moral and non- 
moral good/evil. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologiae II-II, q. 64, n. 7 

On killing the unjust aggressor Thomas maintains that one can never intend 
to kill the aggressor, rather the killing must always be indirect. 

Tuohey, John F. "The Principle of Totality: A Reassessment of the Content of //- 
IIq.65,a.l. and Its Role in Ethics." Irish Theological Quarterly 61 (1995): 
294-311. 



172 

Ugoqi, L.I. The Principle of Double Effect: A Critical Appraisal of its Traditional 
Understanding and its Modern Reinterpretation. Eur. Univ. Stud., 23. 
Frankfiirt-am-Main: Peter Lang, 1985. 

Uniacke, Suzanne M. "The Doctrine of the Double Effect." The Thomist 48 (1984): 
188-218. 

Vacek, Edward, S.J. "Proportionalism: One View of the Debate." Theological 
Studies 46 (l9S5y 287-314. 

Vacek is Professor of Moral Theology at the Weston Jesuit School of 
Theology. 

Van Der Poel, Cornelius J. "The Principle of Double Effect." In Absolutes in Moral 
Theology?, 186-210. Edited by Charles E. Curran. Washington, D.C.: 
Corpus Books, 1968. 

In Spanish: ^Principios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Mundo 
Actual)), 24. Traduccion de Jose Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

:): :jc :(: Ik * )|i lit 4: 



Discernment in Moral Living and Decision-Making 

Articles on Moral Discernment 

Brown, Alexandra. "The Cross and Moral Discemment~I." Doctrine and Life 47 
(1997): 196-205. 

Dussel, Enrique. "Discernment: A Question of Orthodoxy or Orthopraxis?" 
Concilium 1 19 (1978): 47-60. 

Floristdn, Casiano and Duquoc, Christian, O.P. "Discernment of the Spirit and of 
Spirits," Concilium 1 19 (1978). 

Gustafson, James M. "Moral Discernment in the Christian Life." In Norm and 
Context in Christian Ethics, 17-36. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul 
Ramsey. London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Also found as "Moral Discernment in the Christian Life," Chapter 5 in 
Gustafson's Theology and Christian Ethics. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 
1974. Gustafson is one of the leading Protestant ethicians in America. He 
did his work under H. Richard Niebuhr at Yale, and taught there for some 
years before moving to the University of Chicago and finally to Emory 
University in Atlanta. He has trained many of the leading Protestant and 
Catholic ethicians and his work has had a very wide influence throughout the 
world. 

Keane, Philip, S.S.. "Discernment of Spirits: A Theological Reflection." American 
Ecclesiastical Review 168 (1974): 43. 

Keane is professor of moral theology at St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore. 

Magill, Gerard. "Imaginative Moral Discernment: Newman on the Tension between 
Reason and Religion." The Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 493-512. 

Magill teaches theology at St. Louis University. 

Porter, Jean. "Moral Rules and Moral Actions: A Comparison of Aquinas and 
Modem Moral Theology." Journal of Religious Ethics 17(1989): 123-149. 

Compares Aquinas' understanding of the precepts of justice with various 
views on proportionalism held by contemporary moralists. Porter contends 
that both sides of this debate oversimplify Aquinas with the result that he is 
misread. Porter argues that Aquinas' account, which reflects a better sense 



174 

of the communal context for moral discernment is superior to both 
traditionalism and proportionalism. Porter is professor of theological ethics 
at the University of Notre Dame. 

. "Natural Law, Moral Discernment, and Authority of the Church." Paper 

presented at the Catholic Theological Society of America Annual 
Convention, Miami, June 1 999. 

Taken from her book, Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Roots of 
Christian Ethics. Ontario: Novalis, and Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 

Simon, Rene. "The Moral Law and Discernment." Concilium 1 19 (1978): 74-83. 

Spohn, William C. "The Reasoning Heart: An American Approach to Christian 
Discernment." Theological Studies 44 (1983): 30-52. 

Also found in The Reasoning Heart: Toward a North American Theology, ed. 
by Frank M. Oppenheim, S.J., (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 1986): 51-72. Approach to Christian discernment based on the 
thinking of some American theologians which stresses the normative 
contribution of biblical symbols and distinctive Christian affectivity m 
guiding moral evaluation. Spohn was Professor of Theological Ethics at 
Santa Clara University at his death in 2005. 



Books on Moral Discernment 

Dunstan, Gordon R., ed. Duty and Discernment. London: SCM Press, 1975. 

Collection of essays by an ecumenical group of scholars who attempt to 
discover a common good for a moral theology among different Christian 
religions. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. Moral Discernment. New York: Paulist Press, 1997. 

Would be helpful and appropriate for use in adult education groups, RCIA, 
and as a good non-technical and quite readable introduction to conscience and 
moral decision-making in the Roman Catholic tradition. 

Keane, Philip S., S.S. Christian Ethics and Imagination: A Theological Inquiry. 
New York and Ramsey: Paulist Press, 1984. 



175 

Kelsey, Morton. Discernment: A Study in Ecstasy and Evil. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1978. 

Lesnick, Howard. Listening for God: Religion and Moral Discernment. New York: 
Fordham U. Press, 1998. 

Reviewed, somewhat negatively, by Darlene Fozard Weaver in The Journal 
of Religion 80 (April 2000): 356-357. 

Loder, James E. The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional 
Experiences. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1981. 

Loder uses a near-death traffic accident he experienced to reflect on how key 
experiences can be transformative in one's life. 

McCarthy, Jeremiah. "A Discernment Model for the Ethics of Birth Control: An 
Application of a Narrative Method with Critical Observations." PhD 
Dissertation. Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, 1985. 

McCarthy was rector and professor of moral theology at St. John's Seminary 
in Camarillo, California (Archdiocese of Los Angeles). 

Poorman, Mark L., C.S.C. Interactional Morality: A Foundation for Moral 
Discernment in Catholic Pastoral Ministry. Washington, D.C, : Georgetown 
University Press, 1993. 

Revised version of Poorman's dissertation, "Pastoral Moral Discernment in 
the Roman Catholic Tradition," done under William C. Spohn at the 
Graduate Theological Union. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss.R. El discernimento etico. Hacia una estimativa moral 
cristiana. Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad, 1980. 

Vidal teaches moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at 
the Alfonsianum in Rome. 

i|ct*!)>Ht>|::!;>!i 



Distinctiveness (Proprium) of Christian Ethics 

Articles on the Specificity of Christian Ethics 

Angelini, Giuseppe. "Fede e morale. Riflessione in margine ai dibattiti recenti della 
teologia morale fondamentale." Teologia 8 (1983): 21 1-228. 

Anatolios, Khaled. "Christian ethics and Christian faith." Communio 22 (1995): 

242-264. 

Argues for a strong proprium of Christian ethics inasmuch that the 
fundamental content and essential character of each moral act is doxological. 

Aubert, Jean-Marie. "D^bats autour de la morale fondamentale." Studia Moralia 20 
(1982): 195-222. 

. "La morale catholique est-elle ^vangelique?" In La hi de la liberie: E'vangile 

et morale, 119-158. Christos Yannaras, Roger Mehl, and Jean-Marie Aubert. 
MaisonMame, 1972. 

Italian translation: La legge della liberta: evangelo e morale. Milano: Jaca 
Book, 1973. 

Aubert's contribution to this collaborative effort representing Orthodox, 
Protestant, and Roman Catholic theological points of view. 

Azpitarte, Eduardo Lopez, S.J. "Etica humana y moral cristiana." Studia Moralia 
15 (1977): 41-55. 

Published on the occasion of the Festschrift given to Hiring in this volume 
of Studia Moralia. 

Beemer, Theo. "The Interpretation of Moral Theology." Concilium 5 (5/1969): 62- 
72. 

Deals with the hermeneutical question of the relation between the language 
and categories of ethical awareness and those of Christian proclamation. 

Bockle, Franz. "Fede e azione." Concilium 12 (10/1976): 79-96. 

The late Franz B6ckle was a Swiss theologian who taught at the University 
of Bonn. 



178 

. "Was ist das Proprium einer christlichen Ethik?" Zeitschrift fiir evangelische 

Ethik n (1967): 148-159. 

Capaldi, Nicholas. "From the Profane to the Sacred: Why We Need to Retrieve 
Christian Bioethics." Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 65-83. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

Carney, Frederick S. "Accountability in Christian Morality." Journal of Religion 53 
(1973): 309-329. 

Investigates the conditions and justifications for holding someone 
accountable in Christian morality for his action and person. Carney 
delineates three levels of such accountability: "The first pertains to actions 
(including forbearances) that are ordinarily required of all persons in general, 
or of persons who assume socially defined roles (wife, doctor, club treasurer). 
The second refers to actions for which only those persons are held 
accountable who have voluntarily accepted a commitment (covenant, 
compact) to a way of life that requires them. The third level encompasses 
responsibility not for one's actions but for one's person (character, virtue, 
moral competency)" pp. 3 1 1 -3 1 2. Carney is professor of Christian ethics at 
Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University. 

Chadwick, Henry. "The Originality of Early Christian Ethics." James Bryce 
Memorial Lecture. Somerville College, Oxford, 1990. 

Chiavacci, Enrico. "La fondazione della norma morale nella riflessione teologica 
contemporanea." Rivista di Teologia Morale 37 (1978): 9-38. 

In English: "The Grounding for the Moral Norm in Contemporary 
Theological Reflection." In Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J., eds.. Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The Distinctiveness of 
Christian Ethics, 270-304. New York: Paulist Press, 1980. 

Congar, Yves, O.P. "Reflexion et propos sur I'originalite d'une dthique chr^tienne." 
Studia Moralia 15 (1977): 31-40. 

Argues for the specificity of a Christian ethics, based on an exegetical 
overview of relevant New Testament passages, coupled with a theological 
anthropology which sees Christian ethics as indicating more than Josef Fuchs' 
notion of "intentionality," but rather pointing to a Christian ontology. 



179 

Published on the occasion of the Festschrift given to Bernard Haring, C.Ss.R. 
in this volume of Studio Moralia. 

Curran, Charles E. "Is There a Catholic and/or Christian Ethic? Proceedings of the 
Catholic Theological Society of America 29 ( 1 974) : 1 25- 1 54. 

Originally given as an address to the 1974 CTSA convention, which had as 
its organizational theme the question, "Is There a Catholic Theology?" 
Curran's address is followed by two responses (found in the same volume of 
the CTSA Proceedings): the first by James Gustafson, pp. 155-160; and the 
second by Richard McCormick, S.J., pp. 161-164. Also found in Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., eds., Readings in Moral Theology, 
No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 60-89. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1980. 

Dautzenberg, G. "Neutestamentliche Ethik und autonome Moral." Tiibinger 
Theologische Quartelschrift 161 (1981): 43-55. 

Delhaye, Philippe. "La mise en cause de la specificity de la morale chr^tierme." 
Revue Theologique de Louvain 4 (1973): 308-339. 

In English: "Questioning the Specificity of Christian Morality." In Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., eds.. Readings in Moral Theology, 
No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 234-269. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1980. 

Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna. "Towards aNon-Ecumenical Interchange: Engelhardt, 
Hauerwas, and Ramsey on Christian Bioethics." Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 
(March 1995): 48-64. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. "II nuovo nell'attuale problematica intomo alio specifico 
dell'etica cristiana." In // Problema del nuovo nella teologia morale, 79-98. 
A cura di Lorenzo Alvarez-Verdes. Questiones Morales, 2. Roma: Editrice 
Rogate, e Editrice Accademia Alfonsiana, 1986. 

The term "newness" in Christian ethics is a complex discussion. Rather than 
referring to "new" moral norms, the "newness" relates to the faith dimension 
which brings one to fulfill what human moral reason discovers through its 
exercise. 



"II termine 'nuovo', in quanto collocato ed adoperato nel contesto dello 
specifico dell'etica cristiana, si caratterizzaper la sua immanente complessit^. 
Preclude la supposizione di esclusivita a livello di contenuti categoriali. 
Parte, invece, da una specie di precomprensione gi^ esistente ed operante nel 
fenomeno etico universale. Spetta consequentemente alia fede-ecco il 
signiflcato appropriate di novit^~di portare a compimento tale 
precomprensione universale tramite la summenzionata triplice funzione 
['esercitata dalla fede al riguardo della ragione morale: stimolante, criticante 
ed integrante'., p. 84]." p. 98. 

Engelhardt, H. Tristram, Jr. "Moral Content, Tradition, and Grace: Rethinking the 
Possibility of a Christian Bioethics." Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 
1995): 29-47. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

_. "Tov^ards a Christian Bioethics." Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 

1-10. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

Gaffhey, James. "On Paranesis and Fundamental Moral Theology." The Journal of 
Religious Ethics 11 (1983): 24-34. 

Also found as Chapter 1 in Gaffhey's Matters of Faith and Morals, 134-151. 
Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1987. A response and challenge to Bruno 
Schiiller's article "The Debate on the Specific Character of a Christian Ethics: 
Some Remarks" (listed separately in this bibliography). 

Gustafson, James M. "Can Ethics be Christian? Some Conclusions." In Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 20-59. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1980. 

Is also found as the concluding chapter, pp. 169-179 in Gustafson's own 
book. Can Ethics be Christian? Chicago and London: The University of 
Chicago Press, 1975. Gustafson is one of the leading Protestant ethicians in 
America. He did his work under H. Richard Niebuhr at Yale, and taught 
there for some years before moving to the University of Chicago and finally 
to Emory University in Atlanta. He has trained many of the leading 



181 

Protestant and Catholic ethicians and his work has had a very wide influence 
throughout the world. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Avenir de la th^ologie morale, avenir de la morale." 
Lumidre & vie 39 (d^cembre, 1990): 105-16. 

Argues for an adult morality of responsibility, while refuting "moralism." 
Also underscores pre-eminent place of grace in any understanding of the 
ethics of the New Testament, as well as the importance of the role of the Holy 
Spirit as Paraclete to encourage us, and therefore the importance of paraclesis 
over paranesis in our moral theology. 

Hauerwas, Stanley. "How Christian Ethics Became Medical Ethics: The Case of Paul 
Ramsey." Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 11-28. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

Herruzo, Antonio Quir6s. "La ley de Cristo, verdad del hombre." Scripta 
Theologica. 26 (1994): 155-169. 

Khushf, George. "Illness, the Problem of Evil, and the Analogical Structure of 
Healing: On the Difference Christianity Makes in Bioethics." Christian 
Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 102-120. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

Langan, John, S.J. "The Christian Difference in Ethics," Theological Studies 49 
(1988): 131-150. 

de Locht, Pierre. "The Role and Limits of Personal and Communal Ethical Practices 
in Establishing Christian Identity." Concilium 196 (1988):107-1 15, 

Macquarrie, John. "Rethinking Natural Law." In Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J., eds.. Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The 
Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 121-145, New York: Paulist Press, 1980, 

Also found in Three Issues in Ethics, 82-1 10, New York: Harper and Row, 
1978. Argues for a reformulated natural law theory which could "make a 
vital contribution toward solving three major problems-the linking of 
Christian and non-Christian morals, the shape of a contemporary Christian 
ethic, and the relation between faith and morals." (p, 121), Macquarrie 



182 

considers the proprium of Christian ethics to be the distinctive Christian 
context in which the moral life is perceived. 

McCoraiick, Richard A., S.J. "Does Christianity Make a Difference?" Christian 
Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 97-101. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

. "Does Religious Faith Add to Ethical Perception?" In Charles E. Curran and 

Richard A. McCormick, S.J., eds., Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The 
Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 1 56- 1 73 . New York: Paulist Press, 1 980. 

Originally appeared in his Per5o«a/ Values and Public Policy, 155-173. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1979. 

McGrath, Alister E. "In What Way Can Scripture Be a Moral Example for 
Christians?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34 (1991): 289- 
298. 

Failure to grasp Jesus Christ's gospel relevance results in the acceptance of 
worldly standards for human behavior. A proper Christian doctrine also will 
preserve Christian distinctiveness so that it not be lost in the liberal American 
culture. 

McKenny, Gerald P. "Whose Tradition? Which Enlightenment? What Content? 
Engelhardt, Hauerwas, Capaldi, and the Future of Christian Bioethics." 
Christian Bioethics 1, no. 1 (March 1995): 84-96. 

One of several articles on the theme of a specific Christian approach to 
bioethics. 

McMahon, Kevin A. "Josef Fuchs and the Question of a Distinctly Christian 
Morality." In Faith Seeking Understanding: Learning and the Catholic 
Tradition, 235-245. Edited by George C. Berthold. Manchester: St. Anselm 
College Press, 1991. 

One of a series of papers from a symposium held in April, 1989 to mark the 
centennial of St. Anselm College. McMahon teaches theology at St. Anselm 
College. 

Meilaender, Gilbert. "The Singularity of Christian Ethics." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 17 (1989): 95-120. 



183 

A revised version of this essay is found as Chapter 1 in Meilaender's Faith 
and Faithfulness: Basic Themes in Christian Ethics, (Notre Dame: University 
of Notre Dame, 1991): 1-34. After considering the particularity of Christian 
ethics, Meilaender argues for the importance of the Christian life as a 
tradition of conduct and vision in our culture. Meilaender teaches religion 
at Oberlin College in Ohio. 

Melina, Livio. "Moral theology and the ecclesial sense: Points for a theological 're- 
dimensioning' of morality," Communio 29 (1992): 67-93. 

According to Melina, moral theology needs a re-dimensioning which would 
reestablish the bonds between moral theology and other key branches of 
theology, specifically Christology, theological anthropology, and 
ecclesiology. Melina argues that the Eucharist is the locus par excellence of 
the moral life, and that a strong trust in, and reliance on the Magisterium is 
the only sure guarantee of following the promptings of the Holy Spirit in the 
moral life. In terms of the specificity of Christian ethics Melina seems to 
recast the issue. No longer does the discussion revolve around the question 
"Is there a specific Christian ethics?" but implicitly, following Melina's view, 
one is led to the conclusion that there is no authentic morality which is not 
rooted in the Catholic Church, and especially in the Eucharist. Melina is 
professor of moral theology at the John Paul II Institute for Studies of 
Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

Milbank, John "Can Morality Be Christian?" Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (1995): 
45-59. 

Milbank is a University Lecturer at the University of Cambridge. 

Moreno, M. "Moral autonoma y etica de la fe: conclusiones a proposito de un 
debate." Proyeccion 36 {\9%9y. 199-214. 

O'Neill, William, S.J. "The Distinctiveness of Christian Morality: A Dispute 
Revisited." Philosophy and Theology 7 (1994): 405-423. 

Discusses Barth, Fuchs, Schtiller, etc., in terms of linguistic analysis of the 
term "Christian intentionality." O'Neill teaches Christian social ethics at the 
Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

Ouellet, Marc, S.S., and Russell Hittinger, Edward T. Oakes, S.J., and Angelo Scola. 
"Discussion: The foundations of Christian ethics according to Hans Urs von 
Balthasar." Communio 17 (1990): 375-438. 



Papers presented at a small symposium held on the ethical thought of Hans 
Urs von Balthasar held at the University of Notre Dame in March, 1990. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. Les Sources de la Morale Chritienne: Sa methode, son 
contenu, son histoire. Etudes D'Ethique Chr^tienne, 14. Paris: Editions du 
Cerf, 1985, 1990, 1993. 

In English: The Sources of Christian Ethics. Translated by Sr. Mary Thomas 
Noble, O.P. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Univ. of America Press, 1995. 

In Spanish: Lasfuentes de la moral cristiana. Su metodo, su contenido, su 
historia. Colleccion Teologica, 60. Pamplona: Publ. de la Facultad de 
Navarra. 

In Italian: Le fonti delta moral cristiana. Metodo, contenuto, storia. 
Ragione e Fede, 14. Milano: Edizioni Ares, 1992. 

Ratzinger, Josef. "Kirchliches Lehramt, Glaube, Moral." In Id., Hrsg. Prinzipien 
Christlicher Moral, 41-66. Einsiedeln, 1975. 

In English: "The Church's Teaching Authority-Faith—Morals. " In Principles 
of Christian Morality, 47-73. Translated by Graham Harrison. San 
Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1 986. Also found under the title, "Magisterium of 
the Church, Faith, Morality," in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2, 1 74-1 89. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1980. Initial English version appeared in Problems of the 
Church Today, 74-83, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Catholic Conference). 

In Italian: In Prospettive di morale cristiana. Contributi di teologia, 3. Ed. 
Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Roma: Citta Nuova Editrice, 1986. 

In French: In Joseph Ratzinger et Philippe Delhaye, ed., Principes d'ethique 
chretienne. Le Sycomore. Paris: Editions Lethielleux, 1979. 

Rigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Christ and Morality." In Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J., eds.. Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The 
Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 111-120. New York: Paulist Press, 1 980. 

Originally appeared in Concilium 110 (1978). Rigali is professor emeritus 
of moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

. "Christian Morality and Universal Morality: The One and the Many." 



Louvain Studies 19(1994): 18-33. 



185 

Responds to Charles Currans' critique of Kigali's position, made in Currans' 
"Catholic Social Teaching and Human Morality" (in One Hundred Years of 
Catholic Social Thought: Celebration and Challenge, ed. John A. Coleman, 
S.J., MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1990) Kigali in turn further elaborates his 
original position on the relationship between universality and particularity in 
Christian morality, which position critiques that of Fuchs, Curran, and others 
of the moral autonomy school. 

. "The Uniqueness and the Distinctiveness of Christian Morality and Ethics." 

In Moral Theology: Challenges for the Future. Essays in Honor of Richard 
A. McCormick, S J., 74-93. Edited by Charles E. Cuiran. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1990. 

Following up on James Walter's distinction between "specific" and 
"distinctive" in regards to Christian ethics., Kigali gives a brief and useful 
history of the use of the terminology in recent literature, with special attention 
given to the positions of Josef Fuchs and Charles Curran. Kigali concludes 
that the debate ultimately rests on a classicist world view, and that from a 
world view of historical consciousness "the debate question is resolved by 
being dissolved." (p. 90). 

Riley, Lawrence T. "Is there Really a Christian Morality? -- A Response to Pierre de 
Locht" Eglise et Theologie 4 (1973): 105-109. 

Critiques the moral autonomy position expressed by de Locht in his Et 
pourtantj'e crois! (Toumai: Casterman, 1970). 

Schiiller, Bruno, S.J. "Zur Discussion iiber das Proprium einer christlichen Ethik." 
Theologie und Philosophie 51 (1976): 321-343. 

Also found in: Der menschliche Mensch. Aufsdtze zur Metaethik und zur 
Sprache der Moral. Diisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982. 

In English: "The Debate on the Specific Character of a Christian Ethics: 
Some Remarks." Chapter 1 of Wholly Human: Essays on the Theory and 
Language of Morality, 15-42. Translated by Peter Heinegg. Dublin: Gill and 
Macmillan; Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1986. Also 
found in Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., eds.. Readings 
in Moral Theology, No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 207-233. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1980. 

Italian translation: "II dibattito sullo specifico dell'etica cristiana," nel suo 
libro, L'uomo veramente uomo. La dimensione teologica dell'etica nella 



186 

dimensione etica deU'uomo, 161-191. Coilectio-Etica, 3. A cura di S. 
Privitera. Palermo: Edi Oftes, 1987. 

See also James Gaffhey's article, "On Paranesis and Fundamental Moral 
Theology," The Journal of Religious Ethics 1 1 (1 983): 24-34, for a response 
and challenge to Schiiller's article. (Also found as Chapter 10 in Gaffhey's 
Matters of Faith and Morals, 134-151. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1 987). 

Spohn, William C. "Jesus and Christian Ethics." Theological Studies 56 (1995): 
92-107. 

Part of the annual "Notes on Moral Theology" in which Spohn examines 
three themes which have had an important impact in recent theological 
literature: the shift from history to ethics, Jesus as subversive sage versus 
eschatological prophet debate, and the use of analogical reasoning in 
addressing the normativity of Jesus for Christian ethics. Spohn studied under 
James Gustafson at the University of Chicago, taught moral theology at the 
Jesuit School of Theology-Berkeley for many years, and taught at the 
University of Santa Clara at his death in 2005. 

. "Jesus and Ethics." Catholic Theological Society of America Proceedings 49 

(1994): 40-57. 

Presented as a Plenary Address at the 1994 CTSA Convention. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B.. "Evidence." hi Concise Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 
90-93. Edited by Bemhard Stoeckle. New York: Seabury Press, 1979. 

Good presentation of some of the major considerations for the philosophical 
presuppositions of the Faith-Ethic (Glaubensethik) position, and an indication 
of some of the weak premises of the moral autonomy position. 

Tettamanzi, Dionigi Cardinal. "Esiste un'etica cristiana?" Scuola Cattolica 99 
(1971): 163-193. 

In English: "Is There a Christian Ethics?" In Charles E. Curran and Richard 
A. McCormick, S.J., eds., Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: The 
Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 20-59. New York: Paulist Press, 1980. 

Cardinal Tettamanzi did his doctorate in moral theology under Josef Fuchs 
at the Pontifical Gregorian University and now is Archbishop of Milan and 
Secretary for the Conferenza Episcopale Italiana. 



187 

Torre, Joseph M. "Moral y Moral Cristiana." Scripta Theologica 26 (1994): 249- 
262. 

Tremblay, R^al, C.Ss.R. "Approche pour fonder la morale chr^tienne sur le myst6re 
de Jesus le Christ." Studia Moralia 19 (1981): 213-230. 

Within the context of a Christology ' from below', the author shows how Jesus 
unites, restores, and establishes human anthropology, by endowing it with an 
absolute value which, as such, is the foundation of human moral action. In 
this view, Jesus is seen as the ultimate foundation of the moral life of the 
believer. Tremblay teaches at the Alphonasianum in Rome. 

. "Par-dela la «Morale Autonome» et l«Ethique de la Foi». A la recherche d'une 

«Via media». Studia Moralia 20 (1982): 223-237. 

. "Pour un approfondissement de la loi naturelle." Studia Moralia 40 



(December 2002): 403-424. 

Discusses Christ's role in confirming the particular quality of the natural law 
and opens it to perspectives which would have been otherwise impossible to 
discover alone. 

Urs von Balthasar, Hans. "Neuen Satze zur christlichen Ethik." In Josef Ratzinger, 
Hrsg. Prinzipien Christlicher Moral, 67-93. Einsiedeln, 1975. 

In English: "The Church's Teaching Authority —Faith—Morals." ]n Principles 
of Christian Morality, 47-73. Translated by Graham Harrison. San 
Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986. 

Italian translation: In Prospettive di morale cristiana. Contributi di teologia, 
3. Ed. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Roma: Citt^NuovaEditrice, 1986. 

In French: In Joseph Ratzinger et Philippe Delhaye, ed., Principes d'ethique 
chritienne. Le Sycomore. Paris: Editions Lethielleux, 1979. 

See the four essays under the name of Marc Ouellet, et. al, in Communio 17 
(3:1990) for a discussion of Urs von Balthasar's Christian ethics. 

Walter, James J. "Christian Ethics: Distinctive and Specific?" In Charles E. Curran 
and Richard A, McCormick, S.J., eds., Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2: 
The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics, 90-1 10. New York: Paulist Press, 
1980. 



Originally appQarcdinAmerican Ecclesiastical Review 169 (197 5yA70-4S9. 
Employs a semantic distinction between the terms "specific" and "distinctive" 
to address the question on nature of the proprium of Christian ethics. 

"The Foundation of Christian Moral Experience." Eglise et Theologie 16 
(1985): 169-184. 



Books on the Specificity of Christian Ethics 

Banner, Michael. Christian Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1999. 

Treats euthanasia, environment, biotechnology, abortion, family, sexual 
ethics and argues for an approach based on the distinctiveness of Christian 
ethics. 

Bastianel, Sergio, S.J. // carattere speciftco della morale cristiana: una rijlessione 
dal dibattito italiano. Quademi di teologia morale. Assisi: Cittadella 
Editrice, 1975. 

Bastianel's S .T.L. tessina (thesis). He currently teaches moral theology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Curran, Charles E. and McCormick, Richard A., S.J., eds. Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 2: The Distinctiveness of Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1980. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C.; Fraling, Bemhard; Furger, Franz; Rotter, Hans. 
Heilsgeschichte und ethische Normen. Quaestiones Disputatae, no. 99. 
Freiburg: Herder, 1984. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C.; Schuller, Bruno, S.J. et al. Christlich glauben und 
handeln: Fragen einer fundamentalen Moraltheologies in der Diskussion. 
Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1 977. 

Italian translation by Giuliano Riva: Fede cristiana e agire morale. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1980. 

A Festschrift for Josef Fuchs' 65th birthday. 



189 

Dillmann, Rainer. Das Eigentliche der Ethik Jesu. Kin exegetischer Beitrag zur 
moraltheologischen Diskussion um das Proprium einer christlichen Ethik. 
Tubingen theologische Studien, 23. Mainz: Matthias-Grtinewald Verlag, 
1984. 

Gaziaux, Eric. Morale de la foi et morale autonome: Confrontation entre P. 
Delhaye et J. Fuchs. BIbliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicaum 
Lovaniensium. Leuven: Peeters, 1995. 

Reviewed by James Keenan in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 385. 

Gustafson, James M. Can Ethics Be Christian? Chicago and London: The 
University of Chicago Press, 1975. 

Gustafson is one of the leading Protestant ethicians in America. He did his 
work under H. Richard Niebuhr at Yale, and taught there for some years 
before moving to the University of Chicago and finally to Emory University 
in Atlanta. He has trained many of the leading Protestant and Catholic 
ethicians and his work has had a very wide influence throughout the world. 

. Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective. 2 vols. Chicago: University of 

Chicago Press, 1981 and 1984. 

Volume 1: Theology and Ethics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1981. 
Volume 2: Ethics and Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. 

Halter, Hans. Taufe und Ethos. Paulinische Kriterienfilr das Proprium Christlicher 
Moral. FreibThSt, 106. Freiburg i. B.: Herder, 1977. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Free and Faithfiil in Christ: Moral Theology fr)r Priests 
and Laity. Volume I: General Moral Theology. Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul 
Publications, 1978. 

See especially Introduction and Chapter 1, "Biblical Perspectives: Vision of 
Wholeness," pp. 1-27. HSring was one of the leading Catholic moral 
theologians of the last half of the twentieth century. He taught primarily in 
Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an 
important role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican II. 

Italian translation: Liberi efedeli in Crista. Teologia morale per preti e laid. 
Alba, 1981. 



190 

L0gstmp, Knud E. The Ethical Demand. Translated by Theodor I. Jensen. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971. 

Considers what the adjective "Christian" represents in two main aspects of 
ethics: first, the basic ethical stance, and second, judgments about particular 
moral actions which embody that stance. Reviewed by Joseph L. Allen in 
Journal of Religion 53 (1973): 239-246. 

MacNamara, Vincent. Faith and Ethics. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan; and 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985. 

Good theological discussion of the major developments in the renewal of 
Roman Catholic moral theolog>' from the end of the 19th century up to the 
present. Treats especially well the contemporary debate between the "Moral 
Autonomy School" (e.g. Alfons Auer, Josef Fuchs, Bruno Schiiller, etc.) and 
the "Faith Ethics School ([Glaubensethik], e.g. Joseph Ratzinger, Heinz 
Schiirmann, etc.). 

. Love, Law and Christian Life: Basic Attitudes of Christian Morality. 



Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1988. 

Same book as The Truth in Love: Reflections on Christian Morality. Dublin: 
Gill and Macmillan, 1988. 

Markham, Ian S. Plurality and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. 
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 

Discusses key issues raised by plurality and secularism in complex modem 
societies and critiques some of the British attempts to come to terms with 
plurality-particularly the so-called Christendom Group. Contrasted v^ath this 
group Markham then praises the "public philosophy" of Richard John 
Neuhaus as a better approach to meeting the challenges of pluralism in 
secular society. Markham's overall thesis is that "Christian ethics and 
theological vision have something distinctive and rational to say which goes 
beyond the contentions of secular plurality" (p. x). Reviewed by James T. 
Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 56 (1995): 805-807. Markham is 
Lecturer in Theology at the University of Exeter. This is his first book. 

Miller, Mark C, C.Ss.R. Living Ethically in Christ: Is Christian Ethics Unique? 
American University Studies, Series 7 Theology and Religion, vol. 173. 

A 1992 doctoral dissertation done under David Burrell at the University of 
Notre Dame. Miller argues for the distinctiveness of Christian ethics, 



191 

focusing on ethical activity (as opposed to ethical systems), and uses 
Lonergan's turn to the human subject as a foundational point for 
understanding ethical reasoning. 

Mitchell, Basil. How To Play Theological Ping-Pong: Essays on Faith and Reason. 
Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1991. 

Discusses theological argumentation, the possibility of a distinctive Christian 
ethics, the place of symbols in Christianity, and contemporary challenges to 
Christian apologetics. Mitchell teaches philosophy at Oxford. 

Richard, Lucien, O.M.I. Is There a Christian Ethicl. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Succinctly rehearses positions taken by various Catholic and Protestant 
theologians. Richard taught systematic theology for many years at the 
Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Schurmann, Heinz. Studien zur neutestamentlichen Ethik. Stuttgarter biblishche 
Aufsatzbaande, 7. Herausgegeben von Thomas Soding. Stuttgart; Verlag 
Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1990. 

See especially Part I: "Zur Frage nach dem Erkenntnisgrund und der 
Proprietat der neutestamentlichen Ethik." Reviewed (in Italian) by Giuseppe 
Segalla in Studia Patavina 37 (1990): 401-403. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B. Grenzen der autonomen Moral. Miinchen: Kosel 
Verlag, 1974. 

Stoeckle is a proponent of the Faith-Ethic (Glaubensethik) position (in 
opposition to the Moral Autonomy position), 

Wiemeyer-Faulde, Cornelia. Ethik und christlicher Glaube: Beitrdge zur Diskussion 
um das Proprium einer christlichen Ethikvon Basil Mitchell, Keith Ward und 
John Macquarrie. Mtinsteraner Theologische Abhandlungen, 11. 
Altenberge: Telos Verlag, 1990. 

Doctoral dissertation done under Bruno Schiiller. 

Wogaman, J. Philip. Christian Moral Judgment. Louisville: Westminster, John 
Knox Press, 1989. 

Revised and enlarged from his A Christian Method of Moral Judgment, SCM 
Press, 1976. Wogaman is professor of Christian Social Ethics at the Wesley 



192 



Theological Seminar)' in Washington, D.C. He is the author of The Great 
Economic Debate: An Ethical Analysis. 



>|!i(:4s**4<*« 



Ecumenical Ethics: Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox 

Articles on Ecumenical Ethics 

AA.VV. "Theology in a Pluralistic Setting: Report on Adolescent Pregnancy." 
Journal of Ecumenical Studies 27 (1990): 1-100. 

Series of reports, background, theological methodology, and current 
discussion by representatives from the Protestant, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, 
and Jewish traditions. 

Allik, Tiina. "Nature and Spirit: Agency and Concupiscence in Hauerwas and 
Rahner." Journal of Religious Ethics 15 (1987): 14-32. 

Allik taught theology at this time at Loyola Marymoimt in Los Angeles. 

Ansaldi, Jean. "Reactions d'un th^ologien r^form6: Ethique et ruptures" Le 
Supplement 147 (1983): 535-547. 

Reaction of Ansaldi a professor of theology at Montpelier, to the articles by 
the Catholics, Ren6 Simon and Pierre Remy, "Approche theologique de la 
morale: Point de vue catholique, " and the Protestants, Eric Fuchs, and Pierre 
Gisel, "Les Fondements theologiques de la morale: Point de vueprotestant," 
published in the same issue of Ze Supplement. 

Bayer, Oswald. "Freiheit im Konflikt: Evangelische Sozialethik als 
Verantwortungsethik." Evangelische Kommentare 24 (1991): 522-526. 

Bayer originally presented these remarks in the context of his analysis of the 
Roman Catholic natural law tradition at a conference on the 100th 
anniversary of Rerum novarum held by the Catholic Theological Faculty of 
Ttibingen. Bayer, a Protestant, is Professor of Theology at Tubingen. 

BeestermoUer, Gerhard. "Lex naturalis-Stolperstein einer Skumenischen Ethik?" 
Theologie und Philosophie 71 (1996): 47-62. 

. Okumensiche Sozialethik: Konfessionelle PluritSt in der Einheit einer 

Theologie derMenschenwUrde und rechte? EinProjektresUmee." Catholica 
76 (1992): 273-280. 

van der Bent, Ans. "The Concept of Conversion in the Ecumenical Movement: A 
Historical and Documentary Survey." The Ecumenical Review 44 (1992): 
380-390. 



Lead article in an issue devoted to various aspects of the theme of Christian 
conversion. 

Bertalot, Renzo, "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettiva protestante." 
In Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione 
diformazione ecumenica del Segreiariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE), 57-70. 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July- 4 
Augustl985. 

Birch, Charles. "The Scientific-Environmental Crisis: Where Do the Churches 
Stand?" The Ecumenical Review 40(1988): 185-193. 

Bonino, Jos^ Miguez. "Social Doctrine as a Locus for Ecumenical Encounter." The 
Ecumenical Review 43 (1991): 392-400. 

One of several articles in this issue evaluating, from various perspectives, the 
last hundred years of Roman Catholic Social thought. 

Braaten, Carl E. "The Two Kingdoms Principle." Chapter 7 in Principles of 
Lutheran Theology, 123-139. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983. 

Responding to Jiirgen Moltmann's challenge to Christian ethicians to develop 
an ecumenical theology of human rights, presented in the tatter's article 
"Christian Faith and Human Rights" in How Christian Are Human Rights?, 
ed. by Eckehart Lorenz, (Geneva: Lutheran World Federation, 1981), Braaten 
seeks to delineate such a theology in the context of the Lutheran Two 
Kingdoms Principle, interpreted in an ecumenical manner which would 
include both the Reformed and Roman Catholic traditions. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Ecumenical Ethics in the Historical Context of Vatican 11 
Moral Theology," Josephinum Journal of Theology 6 (Summer/Fall 1999): 
18-38. 

This article considers the historical context and continued prospects, 
principally from the Roman Catholic perspective, for the possibility of 
ecumenical collaboration in the field of Christian ethics. Vatican 11 is taken 
as a watershed period for a backward and forward look at such ecumenical 
efforts. Before Vatican II the atmosphere was marked among both Catholics 
and Protestants more by polemics and mutual misunderstanding. However, 
the Coimcil itself, as well as several of its key documents, indicate a 
paradigm shift in the whole attitude toward ecumenism in general, as well as 



195 

in the particular approaches Roman Catholic moralists take to their 
elaboration of fundamental Christian ethics. Several Conciliar documents are 
briefly analyzed, and a number of other key paradigm shifts in Roman 
Catholic moral theology are discussed in order to describe a more positive 
future agenda for continued efforts in ecumenical Christian ethics. 

Brosseder, Johannes. "In che modo il mondo cattolico recepisce Lutero?" Concilium 
12(8/1976): 124-140. 

Brown, Raymond E., S.S. "The Contribution of Historical Biblical Criticism to 
Ecumenical Church Discussion." In Biblical Interpretation in Crisis: The 
Ratzinger Conference on Bible and Church, 24-49. Encounter Series. Grand 
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989. 

In German: Schriftauslegung im Wider streit. Quaestiones Disputatae, 117. 
Hsgr. Joseph Ratzinger. Freiburg: Herder, 1989. 

Paper presented at an ecumenical conference sponsored by the Rockford 
Institute Center on Religion and Society held in New York in January 1988, 
and attended by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. For an extended analytic review 
of this Conference see Jared Wicks, S.J.'s article, "Biblical Criticism 
Criticized," in Gregorianum 72 (1991): 1 17-128. 

Bubmann, Peter. "Naturrecht und christliche Ethik." Zeitschrift fur Evangelische 
£rM 37 (1993): 267-280. 

Considers the position of two German Catholic moral theologians, Wilhelm 
Korff and Klaus Demmer, and contrasts this with Karl Barth. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Ethical issues in medicine: Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed 
perspectives." Second Opinion 2 (1986): 138-149. 

Cahill, a married Roman Catholic mother, 1993 President of the CTSA, and 
Professor of Theological Ethics at Boston College, studied under James 
Gustafson at the University of Chicago. 

Cereti, Giovanni. "La Teologia morale nel dialogo ecumenico attuale." Capitolo 5 
in Tullo Goffi—Giaimino Plana, edd., Corso di Morale. Vol. 5: Liturgia 
(Etica della religiositd), 515-535. Brescia: Queriniana, 1986. 

Brief overview of Protestant, Anglican, Orthodox and Roman Catholic moral 
theology. Indicates some theological premises for cooperation and 



196 

ecumenical, though this essay is rather sketchy and superficial from the point 
of view of moral theology. 

Clague, Julie. "On Agreeing to Differ: Some Reflections on the ARCIC Statement 
on Morals in Light of Veritatis Splendor.^" Irish Theological Quarterly 62 
(1/1996): 70-74. 

Cocks, Nancy L. "Ecumenical Social Thought: A Christian Feminist Voice." The 
Ecumenical Review 43 (1991): 341-348. 

Discusses the feminist theological method, as well as the impact and 
contributions of various feminist theologians and ethicians, such as Mary 
Daly, Carol Gilligan, Beverly Harrison, Margaret Farley, Karen Lebacqz, 
SalHe McFague, and Letty Russell. Cocks is associate general secretary of 
the Canadian Council of Churches, and was a member of the WCC Faith and 
Order Commission. 

Comite mixte catholique-protestant en France. Choix ethiques et communion 
ecclesiale, (Documents des Eglises). Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1992. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. "VemunftbegrUndung und biblishce Begriindung in der 
Ethik." Zeitschrift fur Evangelische Ethik 37 (1993): 10-21. 

One of several articles in this issue by Protestant and Catholic German 
theologians discussing various aspects of ecumenical Christian ethics. 
Demmer was Professor of Moral Theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome. 

Desseaux, Jacques-Elisee. "La theologie morale dans le dialogue oecumenique." Le 
Supplement 147 (1983): 459-471. 

Dillon, Michele. "Religion and Culture in Tension: The Abortion Discourse of the 
U.S. Catholic Bishops and the Southern Baptist Convention." Religion and 
American Culture 5 (Summer 1995): 159-180. 

Doring, Heinrich. "Lebensgefuhl und Weltverhaltnis bei Protestanten und 
Katholiken." In Zwei Kirchen--eine Moral?, 193-234. Oswald Bayer, et al. 
Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet Verlag, 1986. 

Dudley, Martin, and Pirmock, Jill. "Rites of Penance and Reconciliation." In 
Confession and Absolution, 181 -205 . Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 



197 

Compares different Christian liturgies of Penance. One of eleven essays 
covering aspects of the Christian tradition, contemporary pastoral practice, 
and the liturgies of penance. 

Dumas, Andr6. "A Chaud et a Froid: L 'accentuation de certaines de nos divergences 
morales" Le Supplement 147 (1983): 473-482. 

Dumas is professor on the Faculty of Protestant Theology at the University 
of Paris. 

Ede, Alfred J. "Revelation and Relativism in the Theology of H. Richard Niebuhr." 
Horizons A {\911)\ 21 -A2. 

Discusses Roman Catholic theology of Revelation, Dei verbum, etc. in light 
of H. Richard Niebuhr. 

. "The Social Theories of Walter Rauschenbusch and Vatican 11 in Dialogue." 

FoMnc/ar/o« 18 (1975): 198-208. 

While the Roman Catholic Church seemed wary of social reform during 
Rauschenbusch's life (1861-1918), Vatican H, and especially Gaudium et 
spes, indicate a shifl in the Catholic position tov^ards one which has definite 
parallels with the Baptist Rauschenbusch's thought, especially in its 
optimistic tone while recognizing of the need to overcome social justice. 

Eid, Volker. "Kirchenstrukturund«christlicheMoral»." Zeitschriftfiir Evangelische 
Ethik31 (1993): 59-69. 

One of several articles in this issue by Protestant and Catholic German 
theologians discussing various aspects of ecvmienical Christian ethics. Eid 
is Professor at the University of Bamberg. 

"Ethics and Ecumenism." Studies in Christian Ethics 1 (1988). 

Several articles on this theme. 

Fasching, Darrell J. "Faith and Ethics after the Holocaust: What Christians Can 
Learn from the Jewish Narrative Tradition of Hutzpah." Journal of 
Ecumenical Studies 27 (1990): 453-479. 

The dominant model of faith in Judaism has been based on the dialectic of 
trust and questioning (hutzpah), whereas in Christianity faith tended to be 
reduced to unquestioning obedience. These differences account in part for 



198 

the moral resistence of evil for Jews and the Christian propensity to 
compromise and accommodate Christian morality to political and social 
orders such as Nazi Germany. 

Forte, Bruno. "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettiva cattolica." In 
Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di 
formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE), 40-56. 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986, 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendoia (Trento) 27 July- 4 
Augustl985. 

Frey, Christofer. "Vemunftbegriindung in der Ethik. Eine protestantische Sicht. 
Zeitschriftfur Evangelische Ethik 37 (1993): 22-32. 

One of several articles in this issue by Protestant and Catholic German 
theologians discussing various aspects of ecumenical Christian ethics. 

Frey is Professor on the Evangelisch-Theologische Fakultat of the Ruhr- 
Universitat in Bochura. 

Fuchs, Eric, and Gisel, Pierre. "Les Fondements theologiques de la morale: Point de 
vne protestant." Le Supplement 147 (1983): 503-522. 

At the time of this article both authors were members of the theology faculty 
of the University of Lausanne. 

Fuchs, Eric. "Sociological and Theological Differences in 'Catholic' and 'Protestant' 
Morality as Seen in their Confrontation in a Denominationally Mixed 
Country (Switzerland)." Concilium 150 (1981): 23-29. 

Presents the author's (Protestant) perception of the main lines of approach to 
morality by Roman Catholics (authority and obedience to the Magisterium), 
and Protestants (individual obedience to conscience), and how this theology 
translates into politics in Switzerland. Catholics are allied more with 
Christian Democrats and conservatism, whereas Protestants support a 
diversity of non-denominational parties such as Radicals, Liberals or 
Socialists. Rather simplistic, but informative as to a Protestant perception of 
the Roman Catholic moral ethos. 

Gherardini, Bruneo, "L'uomo in San Tommaso ed in Martin Lutero: un confronto." 
Divinitas 37 (1993): 225-258. 



199 

Girault, R6ne. "La coUaborazione ecumenica in campo etico: alcuni esempi dalla 
Francia." In Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e 
sessione di formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche 
(SAE), 94-106. Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Paper given at a conference held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July-4 August 
1985. 

Gremmels, Christian. "BonhoefFer, the Churches and Jewdsh-Christian Relations." 
Union Seminary Quarterly Review 46 (1992): 295-306. 

One of a series of articles in this issue devoted to Dietrich Bonhoeffer. 

Grtindel, Johannes. "Zwei Kirchen—eine Moral? Akzentsetzungen katholischer 
Moral und ihre A uswirkungen aufdas sittliche Verhalten. " In Zwei Kirchen— 
eine Moral?, 77-103. Oswald Bayer, et al. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet 
Verlag, 1986. 

Gtinthor, Anselm, O.S.B. "Katholische Moral und protestantische Ethik." In 
Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia 
Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 763-778. Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 
1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Giinthor is Professor Emeritus of moral 
theology at San Anselmo in Rome. 

Gustafson, James M. "Christian Ethics." In Religion, 285-354. Edited by Paul 
Ramsey. The Princeton Studies. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1965. 

Essay is divided into four parts: 1) Background of the Contemporary Period, 
2) Issues in Theological Ethics in the Contemporary Period; 3) Christian 
Ethics in Relation to Other Fields; and 4) Christian Ethics and Moral 
Problems. Good overall discussion of the positions of a number of individual 
Protestant theologians, plus some mention of Roman Catholic trends in moral 
theology as well. Gustafson is an ordained minister in the United Church of 
Christ, and was Henry R. Luce Professor of Humanities and Comparative 
Studies at Emory University. Previously he taught at Yale and the University 
of Chicago. He has studied at the Chicago Theological Seminary, University 
of Chicago, and his Ph.D. is from Yale (1955), done under H. Richard 
Niebuhr. Gustafson has directed the doctoral work of a number of Roman 



200 

Catholic moral theologians, including Lisa Sowle Cahili and William C. 
Spohn. 

. "The Focus and Its Limitations: Reflections on Catholic Moral Theology." In 

Moral Theology: Challenges for the Future. Essays in Honor of Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J., 179-190. Edited by Charles E. Curran. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1990. 

Good overview of a Protestant's perceptions of Roman Catholic moral 
theology, including both positive and negative elements. 

. "A Protestant Ethical Approach [to Abortion]." In The Morality of Abortion: 

Legal and Historical Perspectives, 101-122. Edited by John T. Noonan, Jr. 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970. 

Gustafson first delineates what he calls the "salient features" of a traditional 
Roman Catholic approach to a moral issue like abortion, and then proposes 
what he considers to be a better alternative approach. 

. "Studies in Religious Ethics: Taking Human Life." Horizons 3 (1976): 65- 

74. 

Gustafson discusses how he presents a course on this issue from the 
perspective of Jewish, Protestant, abd Roman Catholic perspectives. 
Contains course readings and examination questions. 

Haight, Roger, S.J., and Langan, John, S.J. "Recent Catholic Social and Ethical 
Teaching in the Light of the Social Gospel." Journal of Religious Ethics 18 
(1990): 103-128. 

Authors argue that among the social of the U.S. Roman Catholic bishops, the 
Protestant social gospel tradition, and Latin American liberation theologies, 
in spite of differences, there is a common "theological logic" grounding 
conceptions of the church's role in social reconstruction. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Faith and Ecumenism." Chapter 6 in Free and Faithful 
in Christ: Moral Theology' for Priests and Laity. Volume 2: The Truth Will 
Set You Free, 275-333. Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1979. 

Good theological overview from a Roman Catholic point of view of some of 
the key issues cormected with ecumenical ethics. Hiring (1912-1998) was 
one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of the twentieth 
century. He taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured 



201 

throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus (expert 
consultant) at Vatican 11. 

Hasler, August. "Lutero nei testi scolastici di teologia cattolica." Concilium 12 
(8/1976): 143-152. 

Hauerwas, Stanley. "InVraisQ of Centesimus Annus " Theology95 (1992): 416-431. 

Ronald H. Preston, an Anglican, does a similar evaluation in the same issue. 

Hendrix, Scott. "Lutero e il papato." Concilium 12 (8/1976): 69-80. 

Honecker, Martin. "Die Zukunft der Okumene: Verbunden im Glaubengetrennt im 
Handeln?" In Zwei Kirchen--eine Moral?, 275-302. Oswald Bayer, et al. 
Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet Verlag, 1986. 

Johnson, James Turner. "Aquinas and Luther on War and Peace: Sovereign 
Authority and the Use of Armed Force." Journal of Religious Ethics 31 
(Spring 2003): 3-20. 

Kress, Robert. "Simul Justus et Peccator: Ecclesiological and Ecumenical 
Perspectives." Horizons U (1984): 255-275. 

Though this classic Lutheran formula is usually understood to apply to the 
individual Christian, Kress argues that it can also be applied to the ecclesial 
community of believers, and that this then Mill highlight certain ecumenical 
dimensions, which he investigates in light of some of the ecclesiological 
discussion arising from Vatican D. Kress teaches Religious Studies at the 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 

Kiing, Hans, and Moltmann, Jiirgen, eds. "The Ethics of World Religions and 
Human Rights." Concilium April, 1990. 

Entire April issue dedicated to this theme. Articles on the 1789 French 
Constitution, the 1948 United Nations Declaration of Universal Rights, 
Europe and the Gospel, The Torah, etc. 

Lindbeck, George. "Scripture, Consensus, and Community." In Biblical 
Interpretation in Crisis: The Ratzinger Conference on Bible and Church, 74- 
101. Encounter Series. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989. 

In German: Schriftauslegung im Widerstreit. Quaestiones Disputatae, 117. 
Hsgr. Joseph Ratzinger. Freiburg: Herder, 1989. 



202 

Paper presented at an ecumenical conference sponsored by the Rockford 
Institute Center on Religion and Society held in New York in January 1 988, 
and attended by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. For an extended analytic review 
of this Conference see Jared Wicks, S.J.'s article, "Biblical Criticism 
Criticized," in Gregoriamm 72 (1991): 1 17-128. 

Marko, Robert. "Early Protestant Readings of Veritatis Splendor. Implications for 
Christian Ethics." Josephinum Journal of Theology 3, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 
1996): 22-27. 

Mason, John R. "Seven Theses toward an Ecumenical Economic Ethic for the 
1990s." Pro Ecclesia 3 (1994): 68-88. 

Mason is a Washington, D.C. based attorney and consultant in religion, ethics 
and public policy. 

McSoriey, Harry, C.S.P. "Luther and Trent on the Faith needed for the Sacrament 
of Penance." In Sacramental Reconciliation, 89-98. Edited by Edward 
Schillebeeckx. Concilium, 61. New York: Herder and Herder, 1971. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "Norm und Erfarhung. DieRelevanzderErfahrungfurdieethische 
Theorie und die sittliche Praxis." Zeitschrift fur Evangelische Ethik 37 
(1993): 33-45. 

One of several articles in this issue by Protestant and Catholic German 
theologians discussing various aspects of ecumenical Christian ethics. Mieth 
is Professor of Catholic theological ethics at Ttibingen. 

Mouw, Richard J. and Yoder, John Howard. "Evangelical Ethics and the Anabaptist 
Reformed Dialogue." Journal of Religious Ethics 17(1989): 121-137. 

Argues against the "received wisdom" that there is a strict polarity between 
the Anabaptist and Reformed perspectives; the differences emerge instead out 
of "intra-family" commonalities, which need to be further explored. 

Murray, Donal. "Is Ecumenical Consensus Possible on Moral Questions?" Doctrine 
and Life 50 (March 2000): 132-143. 

Discusses the split between the churches in Ireland on socio-moral issues, e.g. 
bioethical issues, public policy and legislation issues and so on, and tries to 
offer some general comments about a guiding Christian moral vision. 
Murray is Bishop of Limerick, Ireland. 



203 

Mtitzenberg, Gabriel. L 'dthique sociale dans I'histoire du mouvement oecuminique. 
Gendve: Labor et Fides, 1992. 

Neuhaus, Richard John. "The Future of the Reformation." .(4mmca 164 (2 February 
1991): 78-82. 

Address originally delivered by Neuhaus, a former Lutheran minister and 
recent Roman Catholic convert, to a conference of Lutheran clergy and laity 
of the New York area, sponsored by the Lutheran Forum, on 3 November 
1990 in which he explains his theological journey from Lutheranism to 
Roman Catholicism. 

Niles, D. Preman. "How Ecumenical Must the Ecumenical Movement Be? The 
Challenge ofJPIC to the Ecumenical Movement" The Ecumenical Review 
43 (1991): 451-458 

Paper originally given at a faculty coUoquim at the Iliff School of Theology 
in Denver in November, 1990, Niles was former director of the WCC's 
"Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation" [JPIC] program, and currently 
is general secretary of the Council for World Mission in London. 

Nobuhara, Tokiyuki, "Toward a Global Hermeneutic of Justification in Process 
Perspective: Luther and Shinran Comparatively Considered." Buddhist- 
Christian Studies 12 (1992): 103-120. 

Noonan, John T., Jr., ed. The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical 
Perspectives. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970. 

Includes essays by Noonan, Paul Ramsey, James Gustafson, Bernard HSring, 
George Hunston Williams, John Finnis, and David Louisell. 

O'Donovan, Oliver. "A summons to reality." The Tablet 247 (27 November 1993). 

One of a series of articles from a variety of theologians commenting on 
Veritatis Splendor. O'Donovan is an Evangelical Anglican ethician and 
Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology and Canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

. "John Finnis on Moral Absolutes." Studies in Christian Ethics 6 (2/1993): 50- 

66. 



204 

An overall most sj-mpathetic consideration of Finnis' polemic against 
proportionaiist theory. John Finnis is a conservative Roman Catholic whose 
training is in law and who teaches at Oxford, 

Oliver, Daniel. "Perchd Lutero non e stato capito? Risposta cattolica." Concilium 
12 (8/1976): 29-38. 

Panagopulos, Johannes. "Lutero al di fuori del lutemesimo. Punto di vista 
ortodosso." Concilium 12 (8/1976): 81-90. 

Pesch, Otto Hermann. "Kontroverstheoiogische Ethik? Oberlegungen zur Zukunft 
der Okumene im Blick aufkirchliche Stellungnahmen zu ethischen Fragen." 
In Zwei Kirchen—eine Moral?, 235-273. Oswald Bayer, et al. Regensburg: 
Friedrich Pustet Verlag, 1986. 

Peters, Ted. "Feminist and Catholic: The Family Ethics of Lisa Sowle Cahill." 
D/fl/og 35 (1996): 269-277. 

Peters, a Lutheran who teaches at the Pacific Lutheran Theology School in 
Berkeley, California, assesses the family ethics of Lisa Sowle Cahill, a 
Roman Catholic who herself teaches theological ethics at Boston College. 
Peters draws primarily on Cahill' s work. Sex, Gender, and Christian Ethics 
( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). 

Petra, Basilo. "L'etica ortodossa: alcune fondamentali caratteristiche." Studia 
Moralia 43/1 (June 2005): 153-180. 

Gives a brief historical overview of the development of Christian ethics in the 
contemporary Orthodox tradition, including how the roles of Tradition 
(especially the Patristic sources) and the Magisterium are employed (using a 
discussion on marriage as an example). Petra also makes some comparative 
remarks to the Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions. Ample footnotes 
give references to many other helpful sources in Orthodox ethics. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "Morale catholique et ethique protestante." Nova et Vetera 
53 (1978): 81-95. 

English digested version: "Catholic moral and Protestant ethic." Theology 
Digest 21 (1979): 135-139. 

Poimdstone, Tom. "Ecumenical Ethics: Authoritative Catholic Teaching Confronts 
the Principles of Vatican II." In Theology: Expanding the Borders, 240-255. 
The Annual Publication of the College Theology Society, 43. Edited by 



205 

Maria Pilar Aquino and Roberto S. Goizueta. Mystic CT: Twenty-Third 
Publications, 1998. 

Preston, Ronald H. "Centesimus Annus: An Appraisal." Theology 95 (1992): 405- 
415. 

Stanley Hauerwas, a Methodist, does a similar evaluation in the same issue. 

Rahner, Karl, S.J. "Justification and World Development from a Catholic 
Viewpoint." In Theological Investigations, vol. !8, 259-273. New York: 
Crossroad, 1984. 

. "Justified and Sinner at the Same Time [Simul Justus et Peccator]." In 

Theological Investigations. Vol. 6: Concerning Vatican Council II,2lB-230. 
Translated by Karl-H. and Boniface Kruger. London: Darton, Longman and 
Todd; Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1969. 

Discusses the Reformation formula Simul Justus et peccator, the Catholic 
rejection of the formula as well as a properly understood positive acceptance 
of the formula. 

. "Law and Righteousness in the Catholic Understanding." In Theological 

Investigations, vol. 75,274-287. New York: Crossroad, 1984. 

. "Zur 'Situationsethik' aus okumenischer Sicht." In Schriften zur Theologie. 

Band IV. Einsiedeln: Benzinger Verlag, 1965. 

In English: "Situation Ethics in an Ecumenical Perspective." In The 
Christian of the Future, 39-48. Questiones Disputatae, 18. New York: 
Herder and Herder; London: Bums & Gates, 1967. 

Though Protestant and Roman Catholic moral theology have traditionally 
approached the role of moral norms in a different way, in the contemporary 
world which grows increasingly more complex both the individual and the 
church will have greater difficulty in deducing with certainty concrete 
applications from universal moral principles. As this is an historical 
challenge faces both Catholic and Protestant moral theology their traditional 
theoretical disputes over each other's theology will have diminishing practical 
value in responding to this common challenge. 

Raiser, Konrad. "Reflections about Social Justice within the Ecumenical 
Movement." In Justice and Righteousness: Biblical Themes and their 



206 

Influence, 1 54-1 62. Edited by Henning Graf Reventlow and Yair Hoffman. 
Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1992. 

Rausch, Thomas P., S.J. "Ethical Issues and Ecumenism." America 160 (21 
January 1989): 30-33. 

Rausch teaches theology at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. 

Reumami, John, and Fitzmeyer, Joseph A., S.J. "Scripture as Norm for Our 
Common Faith." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 30 (1993): 81-107. 

Discusses the function of Scripture in Lutheran-Roman Catholic Dialogue 
from 1965 to 1992. 

Rigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Models of the Person in Moral Theology." Chicago Studies 
32(1993): 177-185. 

Discusses Bonhoeffer, Kant, Situation Ethics, HSring, and Covenantal Ethics 
(using Joseph Allen). Rigali's thesis is that different models of the person 
make for important differences in the way moral problems are viewed and 
solved. Rigali is professor emeritus moral theology at the University of San 
Diego. 

Salmonsen, Peter J. "Ecumenical Dimensions of the JPIC Process: World and 
Pacific Responses from a Roman Catholic Perspective." The Ecumenical 
Review AA {1992): 350-362. 

Salamonsen, a New Zealander, is secretary for justice, peace and 
development with the Pacific Conference of Churches in Fiji. 

Sartori, Luigi. "La tematica etica nel cammino ecumenico." In Questione etica e 
impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di formazione 
ecumenica del Segretariato Attivitd Ecumeniche (SAE), 92-93, Napoli: 
Edizioni Dehoniane Napoii, 1986. 

Paper given at a congress held at La Mendola (Trent) 27 July- 4 Augustl 985. 

Schlogel, Herbert, O.P. "Okumenisches in der evangelischen Ethik. Eine 
Momentaufhahme." Catholica 76 (1992): 253-272. 

Shupack, Martin. "The Churches and Human Rights: Catholic and Protestant Human 
Rights Views as Reflected in Church Statements." Harvard Human Rights 
Journal 6(1993): 127-157. 



207 

Schwab, C. "Morale protestante et morale catholique d'apres Paul Tillich." Etudes 
Theologiques et Religieuses 64 (1989): 225-234. 

Examines the position of Paul Tillich on the natural law, bringing into the 
conversation some contemporary Catholic texts taken Humanae vitae. 

Simon, Rend, and R6my, Pierre. "Approche thdologique de la morale: Point de vue 
catholique" Le Supplement \A1 (1983): 483-501. 

Both authors are moralists at the Institute Catholique de Paris. See the article 
by Jean Ansaldi, "Reactions d'un theologien rdformd: Ethique et ruptures" 
Le Supplement 147 (1983): 535-547; and by Xavier Thevenot, S.D.B. 
"Reactions d'un theologien catholique: Loi rationelle et ecclesialite" Le 
SuppUment 147 (1983): 523-533. 

Stackhouse, Max L. "A Protestant Perspective on the Woodstock Human Rights 
Project." In Human Rights in the Americas: The Struggle for Consensus, 
142-158. Edited by Alfred Hermelly and John Langan. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University Press, 1982. 

Thevenot, Xavier, S.D.B. "Reactions d'un theologien catholique: Loi rationelle et 
ecclesialite." Le Supplement 147 (1983): 523-533. 

Reaction of Thevenot, a professor of moral at the Institut Catholique de 
Paris, to the articles by the Catholics, Rend Simon and Pierre Remy, 
"Approche thdologique de la morale: Point de vue catholique," and the 
Protestants, Eric Fuchs, and Pierre Gisel, "Les Fondements theologiques de 
la morale: Point de vue protestant" published in the same issue of Le 
Supplement. 

Valadier, Paul, S.J. and Collange, Jean-Fran9ois. "La morale dan le dialogue 
catholique-protestant: Terrain d'entente ou de division?" Etudes 360 (1 984): 
241-254. 

Valadier is editor of the French Jesuit periodical Etudes and Collange is a 
Protestant on the theological faculty of the University of Strasbourg. 

Valdman, Traian. "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettiva ortodossa." 
Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di 
formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE), 71-81. 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 



208 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July— 4 
Augustl985. 

Weber, Helmut. "II Compromesso Etico." Parte Secunda, Capitolo 6 in Problemi 
eprospettive di teologia morale, 199-219. A cura di Tullo GofFi. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1976. 

Discusses the concept of moral compromise in terms of both Protestant and 
Roman Catholic approaches and theological understandings. 

West, Charles C. "Ecumenical Social Ethic Beyond Socialism and Capitalism." The 
Ecumenical Review 43 (1991): 329-340. 

West's thesis is that ecumenical social ethics in the twentieth century has been 
formed by two interacting forces: the demands of Christian mission in 
response to the gospel, and the challenge of Marxism, especially seen in the 
so-called "hermeneutics of suspicion" brought to bear on class consciousness 
and conflict. West is professor of social ethics at Princeton Theological 
Seminary. 



Books on Ecumenical Ethics 

AA.VV. Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell lie sessione 
di formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE). 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Congress held at La Mendola (Trent) 27 July to 4 August 1985, with the 
emphasis on the use of Scripture in Christian ethics. 

Aheam, David Oki and Gathje, Peter R., eds. Doing Right and Being Good. Catholic 
and Protestant Readings in Christian Ethics. College ville: Liturgical Press, 
2005. 

Chapters are: "The Moral Person," "Sources of Christian Ethics," 
"Interpretations of Love and Justice," "Marriage, Family, and Sexuality," 
"Political Life and the Problem of Violence," "Stewardship: Work, Propert}', 
and the Environment," "Christian Love at the Margins of Life." 

Anderson, H. George, et al. Justification by Faith: Lutherans and Catholics in 
Dialogue. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1985. 



209 

Anderson, H. George, and Crumley, James R., Jr. Promoting Unity: Themes in 
Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1989. 

Essays, written in honor of Johannes Cardinal Willebrands, explore recent 
trends and progress in Lutheran-Catholic ecumenical dialogue. Themes 
treated include Luther as a theologian, justification in theology, and 
reflections on current dialogue. 

Bayer, Oswald, et al. Zwei Kirchen—eine Moral?. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet 
Verlag, 1986. 

Protestant and Roman Catholic theologians on various aspects of moral 
theology. Authors include Protestants Oswald Bayer, Martin Honecker, 
Manfred Jacobs, Hans-Richard Reuter, and Catholics Heinrich Doring, 
Antonellus Elsasser, Johannes Griindel, and Otto Hermann Pesch. 

Beck, Nestor. The Doctrine of Faith: A Study of the Augsburg Confession and 
Contemporary Ecumenical Documents. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing 
House, 1987. 

Beckley, Harlan. Passion for Justice: Retrieving the Legacies of Walter 
Rauschenhusch, John A. Ryan, and Reinhold Niebuhr. Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. 

Comparative analysis of the theological , ethical and policy components in 
the understanding of these three thinkers, all of whom were at one time 
seminary professors, concerned with the injustices in American capitalism, 
and yet considered themselves to be loyal U.S. citizens. Beckley is professor 
of religion at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. 

Bennett, John Coleman, ed. Christian Social Ethics in a Changing World: An 
Ecumenical Theological Inquiry. New York: Association Press, 1966. 

Working papers prepared under the sponsorship of the Department on Church 
and Society of the World Council of Churches for the 1 966 world conference. 

In French: L'ethique sociale chretienne dans un monde en transformation: 
une enquete theologique et oecumenique. Eglise et society. Geneve: Editions 
Labor et Fides, 1966. 

Bertalot, Renzo. "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettivaprotestante." 
In Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23 e sessione 



210 

diformazione ecumemcadelSegretariatoAttivitaEcumeniche (SAE), 57-70. 
Napoii: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July- 4 
Augustl985. 

. Per dialogare con la riforma. Biblioteca di «Studi Ecumenici», 2. Vicenza: 

L.I.E.F., 1989. 

Bockle, Franz. Gesetz und Gewissen: Grundfragen theologischer Ethik in 
okumenischer Sicht. Luzem imd Stuttgart: RSper Verlag. 

In English: Law and Conscience. Translated by M, James Donnelly. New 
York: Sheed and Ward, 1 966. 

Italian translation: Legge e Cosciema: Problemi fondamentali di etica 
teologica in prospettiva ecumenica. Giomale di teologia, no. 26. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1968. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. Ecumenical Ethics Online Bibliography. 
http://www.usfca.edu/fac-staf61)retzkesj/EcumemcalEthicsBibliography.pdf 

This bibliography of over 250 pages contains both classical and contemporary 
sources and authors from the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox traditions, 
arranged both by topic and by author. 

Chiba, Shin, George R. Hunsberger, and Lester Edwin J. Ruiz, eds. Christian Ethics 
in Ecumenical Context: Theology, Culture, and Politics in Dialogue. With 
a Foreword by Thomas W. Gillespie. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, 1995. 

Produced in honor of Charles C. West. The authors explore a wide range of 
topics: epistemological questions concerning Christian truth; Christianity and 
the eclipse of authority and morality in secular society; the ecological crisis; 
gender; social justice; and the peaceful coexistence among different religious, 
cultural, and political communities and traditions. 

Cleve, Walter Theodor. Evangelisch und Katholisch: Die wesentliche 
Unterscheidung zwischen romischem Katholizismus und evangelischem 
Christentum. Witten: Luther Verlag, 1960. 

Colsen, Charles, and Richard John Neuhaus, eds. Evangelicals & Catholics 
Together: Toward a Common Mission. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1995. 



211 

Curran, Charles E. The Church and Morality: An Ecumenical and Catholic 
Approach. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 

Originated as part of the Hein/Fry Lectures of 1991-1992. 

. Politics, Medicine, and Christian Ethics: A Dialogue with Paul Ramsey. 

Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1973. 

Curran, a well-imown Roman Catholic moral theologian, analyses the work 
of Protestant ethician Paul Ramsey on a wide range of issues in the political 
sphere and bioethics. 

Daiber, Karl-Fritz, ed. Religion und Konfession. Studien zu politischen, ethischen 
und religiosen Einstellungen von Katholiken, Protestanten und 
Konfessionslosen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und in den 
Niederlanden. Hannover: Lutherisches Verlagshaus, 1989. 

Davidson, James D., C. Lincoln Johnson, and Alan K. Mock. Faith and Social 
Ministry: Ten Christian Perspectives. Values and Ethics Series, 1. Chicago: 
Loyola University Press, 1990. 

Articles by a cross-section of Protestants and Roman Catholics on the theme 
of faith and social ministry. 

De Santa Ana, J. Ecumenismo e liberazione. Riflessioni sulla relazione tra unita 
cristiana e regno di Dio. Teologia e liberazione, Serie 4, vol. 14. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1989. 

Dominian, Jack, and Montefiore, Hugh. God, Sex, and Love: An Exercise in 
Ecumenical Ethics. London: SCM Press; Philadelphia: Trinity Press 
International, 1989. 

EUingsen, Mark. The Cutting Edge: How Churches Speak on Social Issues. Grand 
Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1993. 

Considers nine topics: apartheid and racisim; economic development and 
unemployment; ecology; nuclear armaments; divorce, remarriage and 
polygamy; abortion; genetic engineering; social justice; and socio-political 
ideologies. A 200 page appendix lists church statements and church 
organizations under these headings. EUingsen is a Lutheran pastor and 
teaches church history at the Interdenominational Theological Center in 
Atlanta. 



212 

Fahey, Michael A., S.J., comp. Ecumenism: A Bibliographical Overview, 
Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies, 23. Westport CT: 
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1992. 

Contains a discussion of ecumenical ethics, cf. especially pp. 23-26 and pp. 
315-326. 

Forte, Bruno. "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettiva cattolica" In 
Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di 
formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Atiiviia Ecumeniche (SAE), 40-56. 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July— 4 
Augustl985. 

Girault, Rend. "La collaborazione ecumenica in campo etico: Alcuni esempi dalla 
Francia" In Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 
23e sessione di formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche 
(SAE). Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Paper given at a conference held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July- 4 
Augustl985. 

Greenspahn, Frederick E., ed. Contemporary Ethical Issues in the Jewish and 
Christian Traditions. Hoboken: Ktav Publishing House, 1986. 

Contributions by Jewish, Protestant and Roman Catholic theologians on 
ethical issues grouped in three headmgs: Science and Technology, Sexuality, 
and Social Justice. Each heading contains one essay each from these three 
religious traditions. 

Greenspahn, Frederick E., ed. Scripture in the Jewish and Christian Traditions: 
Authority, Interpretation, i?e/eva«ce. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. 

Contributions by Jewish, Protestant and Roman Catholic theologians on the 
place of Scripture in their respective religious traditions. 

Gustafson, James M. Protestant and Roman Catholic Ethics: Prospects for 
Rapprochement. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 
1978. 

Gustafson is an ordained minister in the United Church of Christ, and was 
Henry R. Luce Professor of Humanities and Comparative Studies at Emory 



213 

University. Previouslyhetaughtat Yale and the University of Chicago. He 
has studied at the Chicago Theological Seminary, University of Chicago, and 
his Ph.D. is from Yale ( 1 955), done under H. Richard Niebuhr. Gustafson has 
directed the doctoral work of a number of Roman Catholic moral theologians, 
including Lisa Sowle Cahill and William C. Spohn, S.J. 

Hagen, Kenneth, Daniel J. Harrington, S. J., Grant Osborne, Joseph A. Burgress. The 
Bible in the Churches: How Different Christians Interpret the Scriptures. 

Biblical scholars from the Lutheran, Roman Catholic, and Evangelical 
Churhces discuss how Scripture is viewed in their respective traditions. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Prospettive e problemi ecumenici di teologia morale. 
Teologia Morale Oggi. Roma: Edizioni Paoline, 1973. 

Haring (1 912-1 998) was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the 
last half of the twentieth century. He taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican II. 

Highfield, Ronald. Barth and Rahner in Dialogue: Toward an Ecumenical 
Understanding of Sin and Evil. American University Studies: Series 7, 
Theology and Religion, 62. Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, Paris: 
Peter Lang, 1989. 

Hiitter, Reinhard, and Dieter, Theodor, eds. Ecumenical Ventures in Ethics: 
Protestants Engage Pope John Paul II's Moral Encyclicals. Grand Rapids: 
Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1998. 

Response to John Paul II's Veritatis splendor and Evangelium vitae written 
by ten Protestants and two Catholics. Reviewed by Charles E. Curran in 
Horizons 26 (Spring 1999): 164-165. 

Little, David, and Twiss, Sumner B. Comparative Religious Ethics. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1978. 

McDonnell, John J. The World Council of Churches and the Catholic Church. 
Toronto Studies in Theology, 21. New York: E. Mellen Press, 1985. 

Contains a twenty page bibliography. 

Mehl, Roger. Ethique catholique et ethique protestante. Cahiers theologique, 61. 
NeuchStel/Paris: Delachaux et Niestl6, 1970. 



214 

In English: Catholic Ethics and Protestant Ethics. The Warfield Lectures, 
Princeton Theological Seminary, 1968. Translated by James H. Farley. 
Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971. 

Italian translation: Morale cattolica e morale protestante. Sola Scriptura, 5. 
Torino: Editrice Claudiana, 1973. 

In Spanish: Etica catolica y etica protestante. Barcelona, 1973. 

Mehl, from the faculty of Protestant theolog}' of Strasbourg, presents three 
chapters: the first treats the theological-historical background of the 
Reformation and the Roman Catholic tradition; the second outlines 
"permanent" divergences; and the third discusses certain "convergences" such 
as the renewal of Scripture and its influence on ethics, and the renewal of 
social ethics. 

Melton, J. Gordon, ed. The Churches Speak On: Abortion. The Churches Speak 
Series. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. 

Contains statements and background notes from major churches: Roman 
Catholic, Orthodox, principal Protestant denominations, Jewish groups, etc. 

. The Churches Speak On: AIDS. The Churches Speak Series. Detroit: Gale 

Research, 1989. 

Contains an mtroductory essay on the historical background of AIDS, plus 
discussion of reasons for divergent religious positions on the issue, followed 
by a collection of unabridged statements and background notes from 45 major 
churches or religious groups: Roman Catholic, Orthodox, principal Protestant 
denominations, Jewish groups, etc. 

. The Churches Speak On: Capital Punishment. The Churches Speak Series. 

Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. 

. The Churches Speak On: Euthanasia. The Churches Speak Series. Detroit: 

Gale Research, 1991. 

. The Churches Speak On: Homosexuality. The Churches Speak Series. 

Detroit: Gale Research, 1991. 

. The Churches Speak On: Pornography. The Churches Speak Series. Detroit: 

Gale Research, 1989. 



215 

. The Churches Speak On: Sex and Family Life. The Churches Speak Series. 

Detroit: Gale Research, 1991. 

. The Churches Speak On: Women's Ordination. The Churches Speak Series. 

Detroit: Gale Research, 1 99 1 . 

Moran, John W. Catholic Faith and Modern Theologies: The Theology ofEmil 
Brunner. Worcester: Herreman Press, 1948. 

Neuhaus, Richard John, and Cromartie, Michael, eds. Piety and Politics: 
Evangelicals and Fundamentalists Confront the World. Washington, D.C.: 
Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1987. 

Essays by a wide range of religious leaders, theologians and others, ranging 
from William F. Buckley, Jr. and Jerry Falwell to Ronald J. Sider and Jim 
Wallis. 

Neuhaus, Richard John, ed. Biblical Interpretation in Crisis: The Ratzinger 
Conference on Bible and Church. Encounter Series. Grand Rapids: 
Eerdmans, 1989. 

In German: Schriftauslegung im Widerstreit. Quaestiones Disputatae, 117. 
Hsgr. Joseph Ratzinger. Freiburg: Herder, 1989. 

Essays by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Raymond E. Brown, S.S., William H. 
Lazareth, George Lindbeck, and Paul T. Stallsworth, based on an ecumenical 
conference sponsored by the Rockford Institute Center on Religion and 
Society held in New York in January 1988. For an extended analytic review 
of this Conference see Jared Wicks, S.J.'s article, "Biblical Criticism 
Criticized," in Gregorianum 72 (1991): 1 17-128. 

Neuhaus, Richard John. The Catholic Moment: The Paradox of the Church in the 
Postmodern World. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987, 1990. 

Neuhaus argues that the Catholic moment (kairos) is now: a critical turning 
point for all Christians. Neuhaus sees this especially in the "dangers" of 
Liberation and Feminist theology which face the Church. The 1990 
paperback edition contains some additional material on Neuhaus' discussion 
of post-liberalism. 

Reviewed by John C. Cooper in Journal of Ecumenical Studies 26 
(1989):395. 



216 

Outka, Gene H. and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Norm and Context in Christian Ethics. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Quite a good collection of articles by Protestant and Roman Catholic 
ethicians covering a number of topics related to the notion of moral norms. 

Palazzini, Msgr, [later Cardinal] Pietro. Morale cattolica e morale protestante. «Ut 
untmi sint», 14. Roma: Edizioni Paoline, 1961. 

Palazzini, who later went on to become a cardinal, was a well-known Italian 
manualist of the mid-twentieth century. He states his thesis in these terms: 
"The lack of solid morals and the inadequacy of [Protestant] moral teaching 
has one single cause: the perversion of dogma and the same fondamental 
bases of natural morality found in Protestantism." ("La carenza di una solida 
morale, Tinsufficienza deil'insegnamento morale ha una sola causa: il 
pervertimento del dogma e delle stessi basi fondamentali della morale 
naturale, attuata nel Protestantesimo"), pp. 1-2. 

Peschke, Karl Heinz. Naturrecht in der Kontroverse. Kritik evangelischer 
Theologie an der katholischen Lehre in Naturrecht und natiirlicher 
Sittlichkeit. Salzburg: Otto Muller, 1967. 

Preston, Ronald H. Confusions in Christian Social Ethics: Problems for Geneva and 
Rome. Grand Rapids MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

In the first part of the book, after a preliminary portrait of the World Council 
of Churches for those unfamiliar with its work, Preston gives a history of the 
WCC's activities in social ethics from the 1 925 Stockholm Conference to the 
present day. The second part examines responses in Christian social ethics 
to the collapse of the Soviet Union, discusses the possibility of sustaining 
economic growth in a global context, and considers the themes of technology, 
humanity ,and the environment. The final chapter looks at the future in 
ecumenical social ethics and outlines a new program for reform. 

Privitera, Salvatore. Temi etici di dialogo ecumenico. Sull 'universal itd dell'esigenza 
dialoga dell'etica. Collectio Moralis, 2. Palermo: EDI OFTES, 1992. 

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 75 (1994): 178-179. 

Reumann, John. Righteousness in the New Testament: "Justification" in the United 
States Lutheran-Roman Catholic Dialogue. With Responses by Joseph A. 
Fitzmeyer and Jerome D. Quinn. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, and New 
York: PauHst Press, 1982. 



217 

Reumann's essay is entitled '"Justification by Grace through Faith' as 
Expression of the Gospel: The Biblical Witness to the Reformation 
Emphasis." 

Russell, Letty M., ed. The Church with AIDS: Renewal in the Midst of Crisis. 
Louisville; Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990. 

Reflections from Catholic and Protestant participants in a National Council 
of Churches study group. 

Sartori, Luigi. "La tematica etica nel cammino ecumenico." In Questione etica e 
impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di formazione 
ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE), 82-93. Napoli: 
Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Paper give at a conference held at La Mendola (Trent) 27 July~4 August 
1985. 

Schlossberg, Terry, and Elizabeth Achtemeier. Not My Own: Abortion and the Marks 
of the Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm, B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 
1995. 

Written from an ecumenical perspective. Looks at the traditional "marks" of 
the church—the Word and sacraments—and asks what difference the church, 
living out its life in the world, can make in the lives of human beings affected 
by abortion. The authors argue that the church will minister most effectively 
by remembering and preserving its own distinctiveness. 

Strain, Charles R., ed. Prophetic Visions and Economic Realities: Protestants, Jews, 
and Catholics Confront the Bishops' Letter on the Economy. Grand Rapids: 
William B. Eerdmans, 1989. 

Strain, a Roman Catholic, teaches religious studies at De Paul University. 

Strickland, Wayne G., ed. The Law, the Gospel, and the Modern Christian: Five 
Views. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993. 

This volume seeks to present an objective and well-argued "presentation of 
major alternatives regarding the Mosaic Law, its relationship to the Gospel, 
and the role it plays in personal sanctification as well as in ethical systems." 
Willem A. VanGemeren presents a non-theonomic Reformed view of the use 
of the Law. Greg L. Bahnsen argues for a theonomic Reformed approach. 
Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., maintains that the weightier matters of the Law of 



218 

Moses are binding on believers today. Wayne G. Strickland treats the 
dispensational view of the Law-Gospel question. Douglas J. Moo proposes 
a modified Lutheran approach with a clear antithesis between Law and 
Gospel. Each author's presentation is followed by responses from the other 
four contributors. 

Subilia, Vittorio. La nuova cattoUcita del Cattolicesimo: Una valutazione 
protestante del Concilio Vaticano II. Sola Scriptura, 1. Torino: Claudiana. 

Tropman, John E. The Catholic Ethic in American Society: An Exploration of 
Values. With a Foreword by Rembert G. Weakland, O.S.B., Archbishop of 
Milwaukee. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. 

Tropman outlines the key features that distinguish the Catholic ethic from its 
Protestant counterpart, including perspectives of each ethic on the value of 
money and work, the importance of family and community, and the 
individual. The Protestant ethic-first articulated by sociologist Max Weber 
in the early 1900s-is rooted in the values of work, wealth, and achievement 
whereas the Catholic ethic is firmly based on longstanding traditions and 
beliefs of sharing. 

Valdman, Traian. "Fondazione biblico-teologica dell'etica: Prospettiva ortodossa." 
Questione etica e impegno ecumenico delle Chiese. Atti dell 23e sessione di 
formazione ecumenica del Segretariato Attivita Ecumeniche (SAE), 71-81 . 
Napoli: Edizioni Dehoniane Napoli, 1986. 

Speech give at a congress held at La Mendola (Trento) 27 July- 4 
Augustl985. 

Williams, Bruce, O.P. American Protestantism and Homosexuality: Recent Neo- 
Traditional Approaches. Dissertatio ad lauream in Facultate S, Theologiae 
apud Pontificiam Universitatem S. Thomae de Urbe. Romae, 1981. 

Williams teaches moral theology at the Angelicum in Rome. 

Yannaras, Christos; Mehl, Roger; Aubert, Jean-Marie. La hi de la liberte: E'vangile 
et morale. MaisonMame, 1972. 

Italian translation: La legge della liberta: evangelo e morale. Milano: Jaca 
Book, 1973. 

Contributions each from an Orthodox, Protestant, and Roman Catholic 
theologian. 



219 



****it:ilHt^ 



Feminist Ethics 

Articles on General Feminist Ethics 

Andolsen, Barbara Hilkert. "Selected Topics in Feminist and Womanist Ethics: 
Introduction." In The_Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 257-260. 
Edited by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

Baker-Fletcher, Karen. "Dusting Off the Texts: Historical Resources for Womanist 
Ethics." InThe Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 291-298. Edited 
by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

Bird, Phyllis A. "'Male and Female He Created Them': Gen. 1:27b in the Context 
of the Priestly Account of Creation." Harvard Theological Review lA 
(1981): 129-159. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Sexual Ethics and/or Gender Issues." In Id. Bibliography 
on Scripture and Christian Ethics. Studies in Religion and Society, 39. 
LewistonNY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1997. 

Listing of biblically-related writings on feminist issues. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Abortion, Sex and Gender: The Church's Public Voice." 
America 168 (22 May 1993): 6-11. 

Article adapted from Cahill's John Courtney Murray Forum lecture delivered 
at Fordham University Law School on 5 May 1 993. Good nuanced, pro-life, 
examination of the wide range of issues connected with the abortion debate. 
Argues that a simplistic "single-issue" approach to pro-life arguments vAW be 
ultimately counter-productive. Cahill is professor of theological ethics at 
Boston College. 

. "Feminist Ethics." Theological Studies 51 (1990): 49-64. 

Part of a four section offering for the annual "Notes on Moral Theology." 

. "Feminist Ethics and the Challenge of Cultures." CTSA Proceedings 48 

(1993): 65-83. 

Cahill's Presidential Address given at the 1993 Catholic Theological Society 
of America (CTSA) Convention. 



222 

. "Is Catholic Ethics Biblical? The Example of Sex and Gender." Warren 

Lecture Series in Catholic Studies 20 (1992). 

Using the example of sexual ethics, Cahill gives an overview of the 
traditional approaches of Roman Catholic moral theology, contrasts these 
with various Protestant usages of Scripture in ethics, and then concludes by 
outlining a revised approach to sexuality and gender issues which would be 
more sensitive to the creative use of the Bible. Lecture presented at the 
University of Tulsa on 15 March 1992. 

. "On Being A Catholic Feminist." Santa Clara Lectures 27 April 2003. 

Available online at: 

http://www.scu.edu/bannancenter/eventsandconferences/lectures/archives/ 
cahill.cfm [HTML] 

http://www.scu.edu/bannancenter/eventsandconferences/lectures/loader.cf 
m?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cftn&PageID=6449 [PDF] 

. "Sex and Gender: Catholic Teaching and the Signs of Our Times." Milltown 

Studies 34 (1994): 31-52. 

Discusses how Roman Catholic sexual ethics has, and has not, engaged the 
modem world with its teaching. Cahill delineates changes already made, and 
suggests further developments and ramifications which should flow from 
these changes, especially in more nuanced understanding of what constitutes 
a woman's proper gender-based roles. 

. "Sexual Ethics: A Feminist Biblical Perspective." Interpretation 49 (1995): 

5-16. 

Callahan, Sidney. "Abortion and the Sexual Agenda: A Case for Prolife Feminism." 
In Readings in Moral Theology No. 9: Feminist Ethics and the Catholic 
Moral Tradition, 422-433. Edited by Charles E. Curran, Margaret A. Farley, 
R.S.M., and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1996. 

Carr, Anne, and Elisabeth Schiissler-Fiorenza, eds. "Motherhood: Experience, 
Institution, Theology." Concilium 206 (1989). 

Clooney, Francis X., S.J. "Finding One's Place in the Text: A Look at the 
Theological Treatment of Caste in Traditional India." Journal of Religious 
Ethics n {\9S9): 1-29. 



223 

Consideration of various Hindu evaluations of caste are examined in an 
attempt to illuminate issues in the non-native observer's own culture, thus 
widening the scope and value of comparison. Also draws some parallels 
between the debate over caste in India and women's ordination in the Roman 
Catholic Church. Clooney teaches at Harvard University. 

Daly, Lois K. "Ecofeminism and Ethics." In The Annual of the Society of Christian 
Ethics. 285-290. Edited by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The Society of 
Christian Ethics, 1994. 

Daly, Mary. "Personal History: Sin Big." The New Yorker: Special Women's Issue, 
26 February and 4 March 1996, 76. 

General overview of Daly's development of her feminist ethics. 

Dowell, Susan. "A Feminist Critique." The Way Supplement 77 (1993): 76-86. 

One of several articles in the number of the issue devoted to the theme of 
celibacy. 

Farley, Margaret A., R.S.M. "Feminism and Universal Morality." In Prospects for 
a Common Morality, 170-190. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Farley is professor of Christian ethics at Yale. 

. "Feminist Ethics in the Christian Ethics Curriculum." Horizons 1 1 (1984): 

361-372. 

. "Sourcesof Sexual Inequality in the History of Christian Thought." Journal 

of Religion 56 (1976): 162-176. 

"Feminism and Christian Ethics." Studies in Christian Ethics 5 (1992). 

Several articles on this theme. 

Frazer, Elizabeth and Lacey, Nicola. "Maclntyre, Feminism and the Concept of 
Practice." In After Maclntyre: Critical Perspectives on the WorkofAlasdair 
Maclntyre, 265-282. Edited by John Horton and Susan Mendus. Notre 
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994. 



224 

Fulkerson, Maiy McClintock. "Sexism as Original Sin: Developing a Theacentric 
Discourse." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 39 (1991): 653- 
675. 

Furman, Frida Kemer. "Women, Aging, and Ethics: Reflections on Bodily 
Experience." In The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 229-256. 
Edited by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

Furnish, Victor Paul. "Women in the Church." Chapter 4 in idem. The Moral 
Teaching of Paul: Selected Issues, 83-114. 2nd ed. Nashville: Abingdon, 
1985. 

Gatens-Robinson, Eugenie. "A Defense of Women's Choice: Abortion and the 
Ethics of Care." Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (1992): 39-66. 

Argues that the usual way of forming the abortion debate in terms of "rights" 
of the woman vs. those of the fetus represents an inappropriate model. 
Gatens-Robinson argues for a "paradigm shift" to an ethics of care in which 
the emphasis is placed on responsibility rather than rights. In this paradigm, 
"the thinking is contextual or situated rather than universalizing. Such 
thinking involves a well-honed imaginative capacity to put oneself in the 
place of another, rather than an emphasis on a capacity to abstract from 
individual situations to unexceptional principles" (pp. 39-40). Gatens- 
Robinson teaches philosophy at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. 
She also holds a master's degree in cell biology. 

Giblin, Marie J. "The Prophetic Role of Feminist Bioethics." Horizons 24 (Spring 
1997): 37-49. 

Gilligan, Carol. "Moral Orientation and Moral Development." In Women and Moral 
Theory, 19-33. Edited by Eva Feder Kiilay and Diana T. Meyers. Savage 
MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987. 

Glendon, Mary Ann. "A Glimpse of the New Feminism," America Vol. 175, No. 1 
(July 6-13, 1996): 10-15. 

Glendon teaches law at Harvard University and is the first female president 
of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. 

Gonzalez, Michelle. "Hans Urs von Balthasar and Contemporary Feminist 
Theology." Theological Studies 65 (September 2004): 566-595. 



225 

Gottlieb, Roger S. "Ethics and Trauma: Levinas, Feminism, and Deep Escoiogy." 
Crosscurrents 44(1994): 222-240. 

Haney, Eleanor Humes. "What Is Feminist Ethics?" The Journal of Religious Ethics 
9 (1981): 69-83. 

Harding, Sandra. "The Curious Coincidence of Feminine and African Moralities: 
Challenges for Feminist Theory." In Women and Moral Theory, 296-315. 
Edited by Eva Feder Killay and Diana T. Meyers. Savage MD: Rowman & 
Littlefield, 1987. 

Article which came out of a conference on Women and Moral Theory 
held at The State University of New York, Stony Brook in March 
1985. The work of Carol Gilligan is the main reference point for 
most of the papers. Harding is professor of philosophy and Director 
of Women's Studies at the University of Delaware. 

Hogan, Linda. "A Woman's Right to Choose." Doctrine and Life 42 (1992): 410- 
416. 

Hunt, Mary E. "Shifting Spiritual Authorities for Feminist Ethics." In The Annual 
of the Society of Christian Ethics. 261 -21 A. Edited by Harlan Beckley. 
Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

. "Transforming Moral Theology: A Feminist Ethical Challenge." Concilium 

182 (1985): 84-90. 

One of a series of articles on feminist theology. 

Iyori,Naoko,MMB. "Testimonizadi SuorNaokoIyori." (Givenatthe WCC 1990 
Assembly in Seoul: 5-12 March 1990). U Regno 35 (1 giugno 1990): 358- 
359. 

A moving and graphic account of one Philippine girl's entrapment in the 
Asian sex industry in Japan and the Philippines. 

Lauritzen, Paul. "A Feminist Ethic and the New Romanticism-Mothering as a 
Model of Moral Relations." Hypatia 4 (2/1989): 29-44. 

Lauritzen is Associate Professor of Religious Ethics at John Carroll 
University. 



226 

. "Reflections on the Nether World: Some Problems for a Feminist Ethic of 

Care and Compassion." Soundings 75 (1992): 383-402. 

Lamoureux, Patricia A. "Deadly Vices and Redeeming Virtues: A Feminist 
Perspective." New Theology Review 8, no. 2 (May 1995): 6-20. 

Maguire, Daniel C. "The Feminist Turn in Ethics." Horizons 10 (1983): 341-347. 

Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

McGuire, Anne. "Equality and Subordination in Christ: Displacing the Powers of the 
Household Code in Colossians." In Religion and Economic Ethics, 65-86. 
The Annual Publication ofthe College Theology Society, 31 (1985). Lanham 
MD: University Press of America, 1990. 

McGuire teaches New Testament at Haverford College. 

McMillan, Elizabeth. "Voices speak out of fertile silence." In Where can we find 
her: searching for women's identity in the new church, 68-79. Edited by 
Marie-Eloise Rosenblatt. New York: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Discusses gendered moral reasoning effects on Roman Catholic women's 
dialogue with the Church. 

Meltzer, Tova. "Ethics and Dialogue Among the World Religions: Some 
Observations on Gender-Based Dialogue." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, 
and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 184-190. 
Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Mowrey, Merlyn E. "Feminist Ethics and the "Postmodernist Debates." In The 
Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 275-284. Edited by Harlan 
Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

National Council of Catholic Bishops, Committee on Marriage and Family Life, and 
Committee on Women in Society and in the Church. "When I Call for Help: 
A Pastoral Response to Domestic Violence against Women." Washington, 
DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1992. 

Okin, Susan MoUer. "Political Liberalism, Justice, and Gender." Ethics 105 
(1994): 23-43. 



227 

Parsons, Susan. "Feminist Ethics." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 135-148. 
Edited by Bernard Hoose. CoUegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

Parson is Principal of the East Midlands Ministry Training Course. 

. "Feminist Ethics after Modernity: Towards an Appropriate Universalism." 

Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (1995): 77-94. 

A chapter taken from Parsons' Feminism and Christian Ethics, (Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1996). 

_. "Feminist Reflections on Embodiment and Sexuality." Studies in Christian 

Ethics A {2l\99\yA6-2%. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the general theme of sexual ethics. 

Patrick, Anne E. "Inculturation, Catholicity, and Social Justice." Catholic 
Theological Society of America Proceedings 45 (1990): 41-55. 

This was Patrick's Presidential Address for the armual CTSA Convention. 
She focuses mainly on feminist issues, and treats a large portion of recent 
literature in that field. 

Pellauer, Mary. "Understanding Sexism." In Issues of Justice: Social Sources and 
Religious Meanings, 127-1 52. Edited by Warren R. Copeland and Roger D. 
Hatch. Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1988. 

Pellauer is from the Commission for Women, Evangelical Church in 
America. 

Porter, Jean. "At the Limits of Liberalism: Thomas Aquinas and the Prospects for 
a Catholic Feminism." Theology Digest 41 (1994): 315-330. 

Delivered as the 13th Annual Aquinas Lecture at the Aquinas Institute of 
Theology at St. Louis University, Porter presents a positive evaluation of 
Thomas Aquinas' thought in reference to many of the concerns of feminist 
theology. Porter is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. 

Powers, John, and Curtin, Deane. "Mothering: Moral Cultivation in Buddhist and 
Feminist Ethics." Philosophy East and West 44 (1994): 1-18. 

Purvis, Sally B. "Lines and Textures: Authoritative Sources for Contemporary 
Christian Feminist Ethics." In The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 



228 

261-266. Edited by Harlan Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian 
Ethics, 1994. 

Robb, Carol S, "A Framework for Feminist Ethics." In Women's Consciousness, 
Women's Conscience: A Reader in Feminist Ethics. Edited by Barbara 
Hilkert Andolsen; Christine E. Gudorf, and Mary D. Pellauer. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1985. 

Originally published in The Journal of Religious Ethics 9 (1981): 48-66. 
Robb teaches at San Francisco Theological Seminary in San Anselmo, 
California. 

Rooke, Margaret. "Beyond the Bible." Faith and Freedom 41 (1988): 73-82. 

Examines sexual ethics in biblical times and the double-standards that existed 
against women. Simple recourse to biblical injunctions will not solve the 
problems connected with sexual ethics, and in this sense the Christian 
community must go "beyond the Bible" for its norms and laws. 

Ross, Susan A. "Can God Be a Bride? Some Problems with an Ancient Metaphor." 
America {\ November 2004): 12-15. 

Ross is professor of theology at Loyola University, Chicago. 

. "Women, Beauty, and Justice: Moving Beyond von Balthasar." Journal of 

the Society of Christian Ethics 25/1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 79-98. 

Considers the possible contributions of feminist thought to theological 
aesthetics by comparing the work of the Swiss theologian Hans Urs von 
Balthasar (1905-1 988) with that of American feminist theologians Elisabeth 
Johnson and Saliie McFague. 

Rousseau, Mary F. "Pope John Paul II's Letter on the Dignity and Vocation of 
Women." Communio 16 (1989): 212-232. 

Ryan, Maura. "The Argument for Unlimited Procreative Liberty: A Feminist 
Critique." In Bioethics, 81-96. Edited by Thomas A. Shannon. 4th Edition. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1993. 

This article first appeared in Hastings Center Report 20 (July/August 1 990): 
6-12. 

Ryan teaches Christian ethics at the University of Notre Dame. 



229 

Sanders, Cheryl J. "Womanist Ethics: Contemporary Trends and Themes." In The 
Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics. 299-306. Edited by Harlan 
Beckley. Boston: The Society of Christian Ethics, 1994. 

Schneider, Laurel C. "From New Being to Meta-Being: A Critical Analysis of Paul 
Tillich's Influence on Mary Daly." Soundings 75 (1992): 421-439. 

Schtissler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. "Commitment and Critical Inquiry." Harvard 
Theological Review 82 (1989): 1-1 1. 

. "The Ethics of Decentering Biblical Scholarship." Journal of Biblical 

Literature 107 (1988): 3-17. 

. "Toward a Feminist Biblical Hermeneutics: Biblical Interpretation and 

Liberation Theology." in Readings in Moral Theology No. 4. pp. 354-382. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York and 
Ramsey: Paulist Press, 1984. 

Seeker, Susan L. "Human Experience and Women's Experience: Resources for 
Catholic Ethics." In Readings in Moral Theology No. 8: Dialogue About 
Catholic Sexual Teaching, 577-599. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1993. 

Seeker's essay first appeared in The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics 
in 1991. 

Segers, Mary C. "Feminism, liberalism, and Catholicism." In Catholicism and 
Liberalism: Contributions to American Public Philosophy, 242-268. Edited 
by R. Bruce Douglass and David HoUenbach. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1994. 

Sherwin, Susan. "Abortion Through a Feminist Ethics Lens." Dialogue 30 (1991): 

327-342. 

Sichol,Marcia,S.H.C.J. "Women and the New Casuistry." Thought 67 (1992): 148- 
157. 

One of several articles in this number devoted to the general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." 

Sinton, Vera. "Feminist Ethics: Bridging the Gap between Ethics and Pastoral 
Theology." Anvil 10 (1993): 225-232. 



230 

Smith, Ruth L. "Moral transcendence and moral space in the historical experiences 
of women." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 4 (Fall, 1988): 21-37. 

Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien. "Obstacles to the New Feminism: Look Before You 
Lea.p," America 175 (July 6-13, 1996): 16-21. 

Steinfels is the former editor of Commonweal. 

Thickstun, Margaret Olofson. "Writing the Spirit: Margaret Fell's Feminist Critique 
of Pauline Theology." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 63 
(Summer 1995): 269-79. 

Vacek, Edward Collins, S.J. "Feminism and the Vatican." Theological Studies 66 
(2005): 159-177. 

Reflections on the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's 2004 "Letter 
on the Collaboration of Men and Women." Vacek if professor of moral 
theology at the Weston Jesuit School of Theology. 

Welch, Sharon D. "Biblical Interpretation in Christian Feminist Ethics." Studia 
Theologica 51 (1997): 30-43. 

One of several articles in this issue on scriptural ethics. 



Books on General Feminist Ethics 

Addelson, Kathryn Pyne. Impure Thoughts: Essays on Philosophy, Feminism, and 
Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991. 

Throughout these interdisciplinary pieces, Addelson draws examples from the 
feminist, civil rights, and antiwar movements to offer a different way of 
approaching philosophical ethics. 

Andolsen, Barbara Hilkert; Gudorf, Christine E., and Pellauer, Mary D., eds. 
Women 's Consciousness, Women 's Conscience: A Reader in Feminist Ethics. 
New York: Harper & Row, 1985. 

Ashley, Benedict M., O.P. Justice in the Church: Gender and Participation. 
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1996. 



231 

Gives an apologia for the Vatican's policy of non-ordination of women and 
their continued exclusion from leadership roles in the Church. His basic 
thesis is that which "appears" as an "injustice" is a legitimate distinction 
between personal equality and functional difference. This distinction is 
grounded in the hierarchical nature of the order of creation, grounded in the 
natural law, and furthermore positively willed by Jesus himself. Critically 
reviewed by Mary Hines in Theological Studies 59 (June 1998): 354-355. 

Ballou, Patricia K. Women: A Bibliography of Bibliographies. Boston: O.K. Hall, 
1980. 

Baruch, Elaine Hoffman; D'Adamo, Amadeo F., Jr.; and Seager, Joni, eds. Embryos, 
Ethics, and Women's Rights: Exploring the New Reproductive Technologies. 
Binghamton NY: The Haworth Press, 1988. 

Also published as a monograph in Women and Health 13 (1/2 1988). 

Becher, Jearme, ed. Women, Religion and Sexuality: Studies on the Impact of 
Religious Teachings on Women. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 
1991. 

Twelve papers from the WCC multi-faith study on "Female Sexuality and 
Bodily Functions in Different Religions" which present Jewish, Hindu, 
Islamic, Akan, Buddhist, Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican 
perspectives. Becher is assistant to the director of the World Council of 
Churches' Subunit on Women. 

Bell, Linda A. Text! Rethinking Ethics in The Midst of Violence: A Feminist 
Approach to Freedom. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1993. 

Moving beyond the traditional feminist ethics of care, Linda A. Bell places 
an existentialist conception of liberation at the heart of ethics and argues that 
only an ethics of freedom sufficiently allows for feminist critique and 
opposition to a status quo imbued with violence. She offers a critique of 
Aristotelian, utilitarian, and Kantian ethics, analyzing each approach from 
feminist perspectives and showing how each fails women and others who 
resist oppression. Drawing upon Sartre's works. Bell also develops the ideas 
of freedom, love, and playfuhiess. She proposes a theory of ethics that 
affirms freedom and its value against claims concerning happiness, 
universalizability, and the determinism of nature, natures, and needs while 
postulating ideals in such a way that they do not easily become co-opted as 
supports for oppression. 



232 

Bell, Linda A. and Blumenfeld, David, eds. Overcoming Racism and Sexism. 
Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1995. 

This collection of new essays, by scholars from a multiplicity of intellectual 
perspectives and ethnic backgrounds, explores practical as well as theoretical 
aspects of racism and sexism while probing the connections and differences 
between them. Practical aspects examined include racism and sexism in the 
women's movement, hidden nature of privilege and the challenges feminists 
face for the 21st century. Theoretical issues addressed include the viability 
of the very concept of race and the significance of concepts like whiteness, 
ethnicity, and gender-identity. 

Benhabib, Seyla, and Cornell, Drucilla, eds. Feminism as Critique: On the Politics 
of Gender. Feminist Perspectives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1987. 

Brubaker, Pamela K., ed. Women Don't Count: The Challenge of Women's Poverty 
to Christian Ethics. American Academy of Religion Academy Series, 87. 
Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994. 

Bushnell, Dana E, ed. "Nagging" Questions: Feminist Ethics in Everyday Life. 
Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1995. 

In this anthology of new and classic articles, fifteen noted feminist 
philosophers explore contemporary ethical issues that uniquely affect the 
lives of women. These issues in applied ethics include autonomy, 
responsibility, sexual harassment, women in the military, new technologies 
for reproduction, surrogate motherhood, pornography, abortion, coerced buth 
control, cosmetic surgery, anorexia nervosa, in vitro fertilization, feminist 
masochism and nonfeminist women. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. Between the Sexes: Foundations for a Christian Ethics of 
Sexuality. New York: Paulist Press; and Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985. 

Cahill did her doctoral studies at the University of Chicago under the 
direction of James M. Gustafson. She professor of theological ethics at 
Boston College. 

. Sex, Gender and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. New 

York: Cambridge University Press, 1 996. 

. Women and Sexuality. New York: Paulist Press, 1992. 



233 

The 1992 Madeleva Lecture in Spirituality. Contains a chapter on the 
"Development of the Natural Law Approach" and "Biblical Sources of 
Ethics." 

Card, Claudia, ed. Feminist Ethics. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1991. 

Carmody, Denise Lardner. Caring for Marriage: Feminist and Biblical Reflections. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1985. 

Carmody is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies and Provost at 
the University of Santa Clara, 

. The Double Cross: Ordination, Abortion, and Catholic Feminism. New York 

: Crossroad, 1986. 

Clanton, Jarm Aldredge. In Whose Image? God and Gender. New York: Crossroad 
Publishing, 1990. 

Cooly, Paula M.; Eakin, William R.; and McDaniel, Jay B., eds. After Patriarchy: 
Feminist Transftyrmations of the World Religions. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1991. 

Cooper- White, Pamela. The Cry of Tamar: Violence against Women and the 
Church's Response. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1995. 

Curran, Charles E., Farley, Margaret A,, McCormick, Richard A., S. J., eds. Readings 
in Moral Theology No. 9: Feminist Ethics and the Catholic Moral Tradition. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1996. 

Daly, Lois K., ed. Feminist Theological Ethics: A Reader. Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994. 

Daly, Mary. Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women's Liberation. 
Boston, Beacon Press, 1973, 1977. 

Daly was Associate Professor of Theology at Boston College until her 
retirement. 

. The Church and the Second Sex. New York: Harper & Row, 1 968. 



_. The Church and the Second Sex. With a new feminist postchristian 
introduction by the author. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. 



234 



.. The Church and the Second Sex. With a new feminist postchristian 

introduction and new archaic afterwords by the author. Boston: Beacon 
Press, 1985. 

_. Gyn/ecology, The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Boston: Beacon Press, 
1978. 

.. Outercourse: The Bedazzling Voyage. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 
1992. 

.. Pure Lmt: Elemental Feminist Philosophy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984. 



Decrane, Susanne M.. Aquinas, Feminism, and the Common Good. Baltimore: 
Georgetown University Press, 2004. 

DeVitis, Joseph L.,ed. Women, Culture, and Morality: Selected Essays. American 
University Studies, Series 1 1 , Anthropology/sociology, 1 0. New York: Peter 
Lang, 1987. 

Donaldson, Laura E. Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender, and Empire-Building. 
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. 

By juxtaposing women's autobiographical narratives with film representations 
of women, Donaldson exposes the variable roles of gender in discourses 
conditioned by Western patriarchal and colonial conventions and argues that 
feminist interests often underplay the importance of race and class in 
structures of oppression. She attends to various forms by which women are 
opposed and ways in which women can become implicated in them. 
Donaldson particularly resists depictions of women as contraries of men 
because such depictions both obscure race and class in forming identity and 
relate gender to biology. 

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War. New York: Basic Books, 1987. 

Fabella, Virginia and Park, Sun-Ai. We Dare to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian 
Women. Hong Kong: Asian Women's Resource Center for Culture and 
Theology, 1989. 

Fabella, Virginia and Oduyoye, Mercy Amba, eds. With Passion and Compassion: 
Third World Women Doing Theology. Reflections from the Women's 
Commission of the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. 
Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988. 



235 

Farley, Margaret, R.S.M. . Just Love: A Framework for Christian Sexual Ethics. 
New York: Continuum Books, 2006. 

Looks at justice as the key criterion for all loving, Farley begins with a 
historical and cross-cultural overview before moving to questions of 
embodiment, gender, and sexuality. She also addresses issues of same-sex 
relationships, marriage, family, divorce, second marriage, celibacy, and the 
"negativities" of sex. Farley is a past-president of the Society of Christian 
Ethics, President of the Catholic Theological Society of America, and 
professor of ethics at Yale University. 

. Just Love: New Perspectives in Christian Sexual Ethics. New York : 

Crossroad, 1993. 

. Personal Commitments: Beginning, Keeping, Changing. San Francisco : 

Harper & Row, 1986. 

Fowler, Richard A., and House, H. Wayne. Civilization in Crisis: A Christian 
Response to Homosexuality, Feminism, Euthanasia, and Abortion. 2nd ed. 
Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988. 

Gilligan, Carol, Janie Victoria Ward, and Jill McLean Taylor, eds. Mapping the 
Moral Domain: A Contribution of Woman's Political Thinking to 
Psychological Theory and Education. Cambridge: Center for the Study of 
Gender, Education and Human Development (Harvard University Press), 
1988. 

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's 
Development. Cambridge MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1982. 

In German: Die andere Stimme. Miinchen-ZUrich, 1988. 

See Carol Nagy Jacklin, ed. "On In a different voice', an interdisciplinary 
forum" in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 11 (1986): 
304-333, for 4 review articles plus a reply by Carol Gilligan. 

Harrison, Beverly Wildung. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social 
Ethics. Edited by Carols S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press, 1985. 

Reviewed by Christine Firer Hinze in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 465- 
466. 



236 

. Justice in the Making: Feminist Social Ethics. Louisville: Westminster/John 

Knox Press, 2005. 

. Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. Boston: Beacon 

Press, 1983. 

Reviewed by Jean Lambert in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 90-91. 

Hartel, Joseph Francis. Femina ut imago Dei: In the Integral Feminism of St. 
Thomas Aquinas. Analecta Gregoriana, vol. 260. Roma: Ed. Pontificia 
UniversitaGregoriana, 1993. 

Femina Ut Imago Dei develops the positive philosophy of woman which 
Thomas held. This philosophy, seen as a specification of integral humanism, 
is termed integral feminism. The work dispels many misconceptions about 
Aquinas' view of women, including the idea that woman: is a mas 
occasionatus, has no equality with man, is a slave, and is not by nature an 
imago Dei. 

Hekman, Susan J. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral 
Theory. University Park PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. 

Argues that following Gilligan town a "discursive morality' involves 
affirming multiple moral voices, multiple moral selves, and multiple 
moralities. 

Held, Virginia, ed. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. 
Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. 

Held, Virginia. Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics. 
Women in Culture and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 

Hewitt, Marsha Aileen. Critical Theology of Religion: A Feminist Analysis. 
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1994. 

Heyward, Carter. Staying Power: Reflections on Gender, Justice, and Compassion. 
Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1995. 

Holmes, Helen Bequaert, and Purdy, Laxira M., eds. Feminist Perspectives in 
Medical Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. 

Most of the essays appeared in the 1 989 issues of Hypatia: A Journal of 
Feminist Philosophy. 



237 

Jaggar, Alison M. Living with Contradictions: Controversies in Feminist Social 
Ethics. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1994. 

Kelly, Gary. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary 
Wollstonecraft. NQVf York: St Martin's Vtqss, 1992. 

Mary Wollstonecraft's response to the cultural revolutions of the late 1 8th and 
early 1 9th centuries lead her to formulate a feminism for her time. This book 
examines Wollstonecraft's wTitings in terms of her evolving philosophy. 

King, Ursula, ed. Feminist Theology from the Third World: A Reader. Maryknoll: 
Orbis Books, 1994. 

Contributors include Chung Hyun Kyung, Ivone Gebara, Maria Clara 
Bingemer, Delores S. Williams, Mercy Amba Oduyoye, and Nobel-Prize- 
winner Rigoberta Menchu. 

Kittay, Eva Feder, and Meyers, Diana T., ed. Women and Moral Theory. Savage 
MD: Roman and Littlefield, 1987. 

Most of the articles come from papers delivered at a conference on Women 
and Moral Theory held at The State University of New York, Stony Brook in 
March 1 985. The work of Carol Gilligan is the main reference point for most 
of the papers. 

Kroker, Arthur and Kroker, Marilouise, eds. The Hysterical Male: New Feminist 
Theory. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. 

Feminist theorists from around the globe, including Diane Rubenstein and 
Lorraine Gauthier, explore the new feminism of the 1990s. 

Kroker, Arthur and Kroker, Marilouise, eds. The Last Sex: Feminism and Outlaw 
Bodies. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 

The Last Sex is a theoretical examination of the "new" feminism which aims 
to broaden the traditional feminist debate to include contributions from 
transsexuals writing about their transsexuality, as well as gay and lesbian 
reflections on the major shifts taking place in feminist theory. 

Larrabee, Mary Jeanne. An Ethic of Care: Feminist and Interdisciplinary 
Perspectives. London: Routledge, 1993. 



238 

Loades, Ann, ed. Feminist Theology: A Reader. Louisville: Westminster/John 
Knox, 1991. 

Long, Grace D. Gumming. Passion and Reason: Womenviews of Christian life. 
Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993. 

Manning, Rita C. Speaking From The Heart: A Feminist Perspective on Ethics. 
Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1992. 

Manning presents an original and ambitious study of the moral practice and 
moral intuitions which are infiised by a commitment to an ethic of care. In 
doing so, she challenges the received wisdom about moral philosophy-that to 
reason morally one must appeal to underlying principles rather than one's 
own experience. In its place, she sets out both a statement and a defense of 
an ethic of care taken as a morality and a normative ethic, and an ethic of care 
as meta-morality. Though women are arguably more often committed to this 
ethic than men, it is an ethic that has universal appeal. 

Murphy, Cornelius F., Jr. Beyond Feminism: Toward a Dialogue on Difference. 
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1995. 

Discussions feminism in light of a consideration of the ideal of manhood. 

Nothwehr, Dawn M. Mutuality: A Formal Norm for Christian Social Ethics. San 
Francisco: Catholic Scholars Press, 1998. 

Doctoral dissertation done at Marquette University which considers the 
notion of mutuality as a norm for Christian ethics, primarily within the 
feminist context, but also by using the work of H. Richard Niebuhr, Martin 
Buber, and work of moral normativity drawn from Josef Fuchs, Timothy 
O'Connell, and Lisa Sowle Cahill. 

Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex and SocialJustice. New York: Oxford University Press, 
1999. 

Series of essays on feminist ethics. 

Reviewed by Rosemarie E. Gorman in Religious Studies Review 26 (October 
2000): 362. 

. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. New York: 

Cambridge University Press, 2000. 



239 

Reviewed by Rosemarie E. Gorman in Religious Studies Review 26 (October 
2000): 363. 

Okin, Susan Molier. Justice, Gender, and the Family. New York: Basic Books, 
1989. 

Critiques current theories of distributive justice while arguing for a radical 
program for social change. 

Osiek, Carolyn, R.C.S.J. Beyond Anger: On Being a Feminist in the Church. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1986. 

A good analysis of causes and stages of feminist anger in and with the 
Church. Osiek also suggests some important pastoral considerations on 
dealing with and moving through this anger, as well as some strategies for 
continuing to live in a Church whose reality will continue to be very painful 
for committed feminists. 

Paglia, Camiile. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily 
Dickinson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990; New York : Vintage 
Books, 1991. 

Parsons, Susan Frank. Feminism and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian 
Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 

The author describes the diversity of moral thinking within contemporary 
feminism by giving an overview and analysis of the major themes of feminist 
ethics. Parson is Principal of the East Midlands Ministry Training Course. 
Somewhat critically reviewed by Marsha Aileen Hewitt in Theological 
Studies 5S (1997): 566-56S. 

Patrick, Arme E. Liberating Conscience: Feminist Explorations in Catholic Moral 
Theology. New York: Continuum, 1996. 

Feminist condemnation of patriarchy, especially as manifested in the Roman 
Catholic Magisterium, and often rather polemical. 

Praetorius, Ina. Anthropologie und Frauenbild: In der deutschsprachigen 
protestantischen Ethik seit 1949. Gutersloh: Gutersloher Verlagshaus Gerd 
Mohn, 1993. 

Originally presented as the author's doctoral thesis at the Universitat 
Heidelberg, 1992. 



240 

Purvis, Sally B. The Power of the Cross: Foundations for a Christian Feminist Ethic 
of Community. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993. 

Reardon, Bett>'. Sexism and the War System. Foreword by Patricia Schroeder, New 
York: Teachers College Press, 1985. 

. Women and Peace: Feminist Visions of Global Security. Albany: State 



University of New York Press, 1993. 

Riley, Maria, O.P. Transforming Feminism. Washington, D.C.: Center of Conem, 
1989. 

Investigates justice issues in feminism in light of Catholic social thought. 
Provides both history and analysis in terms of human liberation. 

Robb, Carol S. Equal Value: An Ethical Approach to Economics and Sex. Boston: 
Beacon Press, 1995. 

Discusses the connections among economics, gender, and sex, focusing on 
questions such as women's inferior treatment in the economic section, sexual 
harassment, domestic violence, and inequitable responsibility for child- 
bearing. Robb is Professor of Christian Ethics at the San Francisco 
Theological Seminary and the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, 
California. 

Rosenblatt, Marie-Eloise. Where Can We Find Her: Searchingfor Women's Identity 
in the New Church. New York: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Ruddick, Sara. Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. Boston: Beacon 
Press, 1989. 

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Crises and 
Challenges. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1987. 

. Gaia & God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing. San Francisco: 

HarperSanFrancisco, 1992. 

. Mary, the Feminine Face of the Church. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 

1977. 

. Sexism and God-talk: Toward a Feminist Theology. Boston: Beacon Press, 

1983, 1993. 



241 

. Womanguides: Readings toward a Feminist Theology. Boston: Beacon Press, 

1985. 

. Women-church: Theology and Practice of Feminist Liturgical Communities. 

San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985. 

Russell, Letty M. Church in the Round: Feminist Interpretation of the Church. 
Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1993. 

Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of 
Sexuality Inequality. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981. 

Discussed by Mar>' Douglas in her review essay "Morality and Culture" 
£rWc5 93 (1983): 786-791. 

Sanders, Cheryl J., ed. Living the Intersection: Womanism and Afrocentrism in 
Theology. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1 994. 

Schlaef, Anne Wilsoa Women's Reality: An Emerging Female System in a White 
Male Society. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1981. 

Schottroff, Luise. Let the Oppressed Go Free: Feminist Perspectives on the New 
Testament. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993. 

These exegetical studies are contributions to feminist liberation theology. 
They treat Freedom and Liberation According to Biblical Evidence; How 
Justified Is the Feminist Critique of Paul?; "Leaders of the Faith" or "Just 
Some Pious Women-folk"?; Women as Disciples of Jesus; Lydia: A New 
Quality of Power; The Woman Who Loved Much and the Pharisee Simon; 
The Virgin Birth; Mary Magdalene and the Women at Jesus' Tomb. 
Schottroff is a German Liberation theologian. 

Schiissler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. Bread Not Stone. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984. 

Briefly discussed by Lisa Sowle Cahill in her article "The New Testament 
and Ethics: Communities of Social Change," Interpretation 44 (1990): 383- 
395. 

. Discipleship of Equals: A Critical Feminist Ekklesia-Logy of Liberation. 

New York: Crossroad, 1993. 

. In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian 

Origins. New York: Crossroad, 1985. 



242 

Italian translation: In memoria di lei: Una recostruzione femminista delle 
origini cristiane. Edizione italiana a cura di M. Corsani Comba. Torino: 
Claudiana, 1990. 

Reviewed by Alessandra Deoriti in /? Regno: Attualita. 36 (15 febbraio 
1991): 123-125 

In French: En mimoire d'elle. Essai de Reconstruction des origines 
chretiennes selon la theologiefeministe. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1986. 

Stabile, Carol A. Feminism and the Technological Fix. New York: St. Martin's 
Press, 1994. 

Stabile argues that the traditional responses of technophobia or technomania 
are simply inadequate for the choices facing us today. She charts the 
development of these two responses to women and nature, discussing fetal 
imaging, struggles over women and the military, and the advent of cyborg 
politics. Stabile argues that feminism carmot turn away from technology but 
must harness its social and political potential. 

Staggenborg, Suzanne. The Pro-Choice Movement: Organization and Activism in 
the Abortion Conflict. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 

Steichen, Donna. Ungodly Rage: The Hidden Face of Catholic Feminism. San 
Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1991. 

Highly critical account of the feminist movement. 

Tetlow, Elisabeth M. Women and Ministry in the New Testament. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1980. 

Tong, Rosemarie. Feminine and Feminist Ethics. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Pub. 
Co., 1993. 

Traina, Cristina L.H. Feminist Ethics and Natural Law: The End of the Anathemas. 
Moral Traditions and Moral Arguments. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1999. 

Reviewed by Patricia Beattie Jung in Theological Studies 61 (December 
2000): 780-782. 

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 
1978. 



243 

. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. Overtures 

to Biblical Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. 

Welch, Sharon D. A Feminist Ethic of Risk. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1990. 

Uses American literature to present a picture of feminist resistence. Author 
is on the faculty of Harvard Divinity. Reviewed by Lisa Sowle Cahill in 
Theology Today 47 (1991): 458-460. 

Wollstonecraft, Mary, [1759-1797]. A Vindication of the Rights of Women: With 
Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects. London: Printed for J.Johnson, 
1792. 

See also A Critical Edition of Mary Wollstonecraft' s A Vindication of the 
Rights of Women: With Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects. Edited 
by Ulrich H. Hardt. Troy NY: Whitston Pub. Co., 1982. 

Young, Serinity, ed. An Anthology of Sacred Texts by and About Women. N.Y.: 
Crossroad, 1993. 

This sourcebook contains texts from the principal world religions and from 
the ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, Northern European paganism, 
shamanism, and contemporary movement such as neopaganism. 



Feminist Ethics in Liberation Theology 

Aquino, Maria Pilar. Our Cry for Life: Feminist Theology from Latin America. 
Mar>'knoll: Orbis Press, 1993. 

de Gruchy, John W. Liberating Reformed Theology: A South African Contribution 
to an Ecumenical Debate. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1991. 

Deals with the challenges of black, feminist, and Latin American liberation 
theologies. The author responds to those who believe that Calvinism is 
responsible for apartheid, and holds that "Reformed theology is best 
understood as a liberating theology that is catholic in its substance, 
evangelical in principle, and socially engaged and prophetic in its witness." 
Professor de Gruchy teaches Christian studies at the University of Cape 
Town. 



244 

King, Ursula, ed. Feminist Theology from the Third World: A Reader. Maryknoll: 
Orbis Books, 1994. 

Contributors include Chung Hyun Kyung, Ivone Gebara, Maria Clara 
Bingemer, Delores S. Williams, Mercy Amba Oduyoye, and Nobel-Prize- 
winner Rigoberta Menchu. 

Neuhaus, Richard John. The Catholic Moment: The Paradox of the Church in the 
Postmodern World. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987. 

Neuhaus argues that the Catholic moment (kairos) is now: a critical turning 
point for all Christians. Neuhaus sees this especially in the "dangers" of 
Liberation and Feminist theology which face the Church. Reviewed by John 
C. Cooper in Journal of Ecumenical Studies 26 (1989):395. 

Schottroff, Luise. Let the Oppressed Go Free: Feminist Perspectives on the New 
Testament. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993. 

These exegetical studies are contributions to feminist liberation theology. 
They treat Freedom and Liberation According to Biblical Evidence; How 
Justified Is the Feminist Critique of Paul?; "Leaders of the Faith" or "Just 
Some Pious Women-folk"?; Women as Disciples of Jesus; Lydia: A New 
Quality of Power; The Woman Who Loved Much and the Pharisee Simon; 
The Virgin Birth; Mary Magdalene and the Women at Jesus' Tomb. 
Schottroff is professor of New Testament at the University of Kassel in 
Germany. 

Schussler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. "Toward a Feminist Biblical Hermeneutics: Biblical 
Interpretation and Liberation Theology." In Readings in Moral Theology No. 
4, 354-382. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. 
New York and Ramsey: Paulist Press, 1984. 

Tamez, Elsa. The Amnesty of Grace: Justification by Faith from a Latin American 
Perspective. Translated by Sharon H. Ringe. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 
1993. 

Spanish original: Contra toda condena. 



Fundamental Christian Ethics and Moral Theology 

Post Vatican II Manuals of Moral Theology 

N.B. For Pre-Vatican II moral manuals see the History of Ethics section 

Aubert, Jean-Marie. Abrege de la morale catholique. Paris: Desclee, 1987. 

Italian translation: Compedio della Morale Cattolica. Traduzione dal 
francese di Geraiano Garatto. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1989. 

Portuguese translation: Manual da Moral Catolica, Lisboa: EdifSes 
Paulistas, 1991. 

B5ckle, Franz. Grundbegriffe der Moral. Aschaffenburg: Paul Pattloch Verlag. 

In English: Fundamental Concepts of Moral Theology. Translated by 
William Jerman. New York: Paulist Press Exploration Books, 1967, 

Italian translation: / Concetti Fondamentali della Morale. Guide di teologia, 
2. Traduzione di Liborio Asciutto. Brescia: Queriniana, 1968. 

French translation: Pour former la conscience chritienne; principes d'une 
morale. Gembloux: Duculot; Paris: Lethielleux, 1970. 

Also in Korean translation. 

. Fundamentalmoral. Mtinchen: Kosel-Verlag, 1977. 



In English: Fundamental Moral Theology. Translated by N.D. Smith. 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1980. 

Italian translation: Morale fondamentale. Biblioteca di Teologia 
Contemporanea, 35. Brescia: Queriniana, 1979. 

Bohr, David. Catholic Moral Tradition: In Christ a New Creation. Huntington IN: 
Our Sunday Visitor, 1990. 

Divides his work into three sections: biblical foundations and history of 
Catholic moral teaching; fundamental elements, such as the person, 
conversion, conscience, etc.; and special questions in ethics. Intended as a 
college or seminary text. Msgr. Bohr is rector of St. Pius X Seminary in 
Dalton, PA. 



246 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Moral 
Theology. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2004. 

This book on fundamental moral theology is comprised of an Introduction 
plus seven chapters. Chapter One deals with the methodology for moral 
theology, Chapter Two treats the natural law and moral norms, Chapter Three 
discusses the interplay between Scripture and Christian ethics, Chapter Four 
turns to a consideration of conscience, Chapter Five takes up evaluative 
criteria and various modes of moral discourse. Chapter Six outlines how to 
approach a pastoral application of the principles of moral theology to 
concrete moral cases, and Chapter Seven looks at the realities of sin and 
moral failure. The book also includes an extensive glossary of moral terms 
used as well as a bibliography and index. Reviewed by Russell Connors in 
America (June 21-28, 2004): 25-26; Benjamin G. Defensor in Business World 
(Two part review in "Weekender" section of this Manila newspaper) Part One 
(18-19 June 2004): 39; and Part Two (25-26 June 2004): 43; Pasquale T. 
Giordano, S.J. in Landas 18 (1, 2004): 174-177. 

Caffarra, Carlo. Living in Christ: Fundamental Principles of Catholic Moral 
Teaching. Translated by Christopher Ruff. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 
1987. 

Italian original: Viventi in Cristo. Milano: Jaca, 1981. 

Cahalan, Kathleen A. Formed in the Image of Christ: The Sacramental-Moral 
Theology of Bernard Hdring, C.Ss.R. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2004. 

Holds that Haring's basic moral theology is a sacramental theology which 
stresses that the Christian life is an imitation of Christ's own response to 
God's initiative and that we are called to make all of our own responses in 
both religious and moral acts as acts of worship and praise. Haring was one 
of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of the twentieth 
century. He taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured 
throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus (expert 
consultant) at Vatican II. Cahalan is assistant professor of pastoral theology 
and ministry at St. John's University, School of Theology Seminary in 
Collegeville, Minnesota. 

Cessario, Romanus, O.P. Introduction to Moral Theology. Washington, D.C.: 
Catholic University of America Press, 2001. 

Chiavacci, Enrico. Teologia morale. 3. vol. Assisi: Cittadella, 1983-85. 



247 

Chiodi, Maurizio. Morale fondamentale. Manual! di base Piemme, 28. Casale 
Monferrato: Piemme, 1991. 

Comiors, Russell B., Jr., and McCormick, Patrick T, Character, Choices and 
Community: The Three Faces of Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 
1998. 

Designed for undergraduate and/or adult education use. Reviewed by Walter 
Conn in Horizons 26 (Spring 1999): 160-161. 

Curran, Charles E. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today: A Synthesis. Moral 
Traditions and Moral Arguments Series. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1999. 

Gallagher, John, C.S.B. The Basis for Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 
1985. 

Gallagher divides his work into four sections: 1) The Criteria for Moral 
Judgment: Human Reason and Experience; 2) The Criteria for Moral 
Judgment: Sacred Scripture; 3) Practical Moral Judgment; and 4) hidividual 
Conscience and the Church. 

Garcia de Haro, Ram6n. Cristo. Fundamentos de la moral. Los conceptos basicos 
de la vida moral en la perspectiva cristiana. Barcelona: EIUNSA, 1990. 

Opus Dei theologian who teaches at the John Paul II Institute on the Family 
in Rome. 

. La vida cristiana. Curso de Teologia moral fundamental. Pamplona: 

EUNSA, 1992. 

Reviewed by Carla Rossi Espagnet in Divinitas 37 (1992): 203-204; and by 
Marcelino Zalba, S.J. in Gregorianum 74 (1993): 378-379. 

Gatti, Guido. Temi di morale fondamentale. Corsodi Teologia Morale/ L Leumann 
(Torino): Editrice Elle Di Ci, 1988. 

Goffi, TuUo, and Giarmino Plana, eds. Corso di Morale. 5 volumes. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1983-1986. 

Grisez, Germain. The Way of the Lord Jesus. Volume One: Christian Moral 
Principles; Volume Two: Living a Christian Life. Volume Three: Difficult 
Moral Questions. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1983, 1993, 1997. 



248 

First three volumes of a projected four- volume work. 

Grisez, Germain, and Shaw, Russell. Fulfillment in Christ: A Summary of Christian 
Moral Principles. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. 

Intended as a sort of summary and simpler exposition of the moral theology 
set forth in Grisez's The Way of the Lord Jesus. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic 
Morality. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Reviewed by Thomas R. Kopfensteiner in Theological Studies 51 (1990): 
768-770. 

Gula was professor of moral theology at St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo 
Park, and now teaches at the Franciscan School of Theology in Berkeley. 

Guzzetti, G.B. Morale generale. Nuova edizione. Leumann (Torino): EUe Di Ci, 
1990. 

Hamel, Ronald P. and Himes, Kenneth R., O.F.M., eds. Introduction to Christian 
Ethics: A Reader. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

An anthology of generally excellent articles arranged topically on the major 
themes of fundamental moral theology. Well-known Catholic and Protestant 
authors are represented, though mainly Anglophone from the North Atlantic 
region. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests 
and Laity. 3 Volumes. Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978, 1979, 1981. 

Italian translation: Liberi efedeli in Cristo. Teologia morale per preti e laid. 
Alba, 1981. 

In Spanish: Libertady fidelidad en Cristo. Teologia Moral para sacerdotes 
yseglares. Barcelona: Herder, 1981. 

Haring was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of 
the twentieth century. He taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but 
lectured throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus 
(expert consultant) at Vatican 11. 



249 

Lorenzetti, Luigi, ed. Trattato di etica teologica. 3 vol. Trattati di etica teologica. 
Bologna: Dehoniane, 1981, 1992. 

Specially written for the laity. 

May, William E. Principles of Catholic Moral Life. Chicago: Franciscan Herald 
Press, 1981. 

In Spanish: Principios devida moral. Barcelona: EIUNS A, 1990. 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Principles for a Catholic Morality. Minneapolis: The 
Seabiiry Press, 1976, 1978. Revisededition, San Francisco: Harper and Row, 
1990. 

O'Cormell is Director of the Institute of Pastoral Studies at Loyola University, 
Chicago. 

Peschke, Karl Heinz. Christian Ethics: Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican IL 2 
Volumes. Alcester and Dublin: C. Goodliffe Neale, 1985,1986. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana; teologia morale alia luce del Vaticano IL 

2 vol. Roma: Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1985-1986. 

In Korean: Volume 1 

Rinc6n Orduna, Raimundo, Mora Bartres, G., Lopez Azpitarte, E. Praxis Cristiana. 

3 vol. Madrid: Ediciones Paulinas, 1980. 

Also translated into Portuguese. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss.R. Moral de actitudes: 1, Moral fundamental. Madrid: 
EditorialPS, 1976, 1990. 

Italian translation: L'attegiamento morale: 1, moral fondamentale. Orizzonti 
nuovi. Assisi: Citadella Editrice, 1990. 

Vidal proposes as his organizing model or paradigm an ethics of autonomus 
theonomy reinterpreted by a theology of liberation. Vidal believes that this 
model best integrates two essential poles of morality, namely autonomy at the 
level of structure of human ethics, and that of theonomy at the level of the 
interpretation of the religious horizon through liberation theology. [From a 
review of the 6th edition (1990) by Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R. in Studia 



250 

Moralia 29 (1991): 455-461.] Vidal teaches moral theology at the 
Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at the Alfonsianum in Rome. 

Weber, Helmut. Allgemeine Moraltheologie. RufundAntwort. Graz: Verlag Styria, 
1991. 

Weber teaches at Trier. The work has a significant section on Scripture and 
ethics. 

Willems, Elizabeth, S.S.N.D. Understanding Catholic Morality. New York: 
Crossroad, 1997. 

Would be appropriate for adult education, and/or possibly an undergraduate 
text on fundamental moral theolog}'. Willems is Professor of Moral 
Theology, Director of Pastoral Field Education, and Director of the M. A. 
Program at Notre Dame Seminary in New Orleans. 



Articles on Fundamental Christian Ethics 

Beemer, Theo. "The Interpretation of Moral Theology." Concilium 5 (5/1969): 62- 

72. 

Deals with the hermeneutical question of the relation between the language 
and categories of ethical awareness and those of Christian proclamation. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Life Matters: 6 'C's' of Moral Discourse" New Theology 
Review 15 (May 2002): 48-59. 

One of the problems in establishing a common ground is the lack of 
evaluative criteria for moral discourse and dialogue for such hot-button 
issues. This article proposes six key evaluative criteria which can be applied 
to all of the various positions in the abortion debate, as well as other concrete 
moral issues. The article develops and tests each of these criteria, applying 
them to representative positions on both sides of the abortion debate and 
concludes by offering some concrete suggestions for better articulating a 
common ground position which must be used together in addressing concrete 
moral problems. 

. "Moral Theology Out of East Asia." Theological Studies 61 (March 2000): 

106-121. 



251 

Also digested version found in Tinig Loyola (Quezon City, Philippines) 2 
(September 2000): 11-14; 29-29 

Review of some of the main issues, recent developments and contributions 
of Christian ethicians and others working in East Asia. Special attention is 
paid to the recent Sjoiod on Asia. 

. "Scripture and Ethics: Core, Context, and Coherence" Chapter 5 in Moral 

Theology: New Directions and Fundamental Issues. Festschrift for James 
Hanigan, 88- 1 07. Edited by James Keating. New York: Paulist Press, 2004. 

Though much work has been done on the overall understanding of the 
interplay between the Bible and Christian ethics nevertheless, one of 
persistent issues in Scripture and ethics is how in the concrete one considers 
the Bible to be "normative" for applied Christian ethics. Addressing this 
problem necessarily will involve various understandings of what constitutes 
normativity on one hand, and on the other hand, developing a proper 
methodology for bringing the biblical material to illuminate and guide 
individuals' responses to concrete moral dilemmas or situations. This 
chapter proposes a tri-partite template of context, core, and coherence for 
approaching moral normativity and as an aid to the methodological process 
for bring Scripture to bear on concrete moral situations. Finally, this template 
and methodology is used to discuss two recent articles connected with dealing 
with aspects of homosexuality in the Christian community. 

"Scripture: the 'Soul' of Moral Theology? ~ The Second Staged Irish Theological 
Quarterly 60 (1 994): 259-271 . 

The initial response of Vatican II's call in Optatam totius for greater attention 
to Scripture in all moral theology, might be termed a "First Stage," in which 
both ethicians and exegetes tried to highlight better the ethical dimension of 
Scripture better in their respective disciplines and to allow Scripture as a 
whole to nourish theology more completely. However, now we need to move 
beyond this First Stage to a Second and Third Stage. This Second Stage, 
which is the focus of this article, suggests a reconsideration of some of the 
relevant documents from Vatican II, especially Optatam totius and Dei 
verbum, in order to ground better our reflections on the integration of 
Scripture with theology as whole, and moral theology in particular. The 
article concludes by outlining some of the issues, such as the authority of 
Scripture and the problematic of hermeneutics, which still need to be 
addressed if Scripture is truly to nourish our Roman Catholic moral theology. 
Finally, this Second Stage itself points to the necessity of a Third Stage in 



252 

which reflection will center development of a concrete and practical 
methodology for the use of Scripture in Christian ethics. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Moral Methodology: A Case Study." Chicago Studies 19 
(1980): 171-187. 

Callahan, Michael "The Changing of Catholic Moral Theology: From the 
Constitution De Ordine Morali to Gaudium et Spes." Louvain Studies 3 
(1970-71): 41-50. 

Discusses the changes from the pre-conciliar schema "De Ordine Morali" to 
the final version of Gaudium et spes, and thus evidences an important 
paradigm shift in the consideration of fundamental moral theology. Callahan 
was ordained in 1 969 for the Detroit Archdiocese. 

Curran, Charles. "Catholic Social and Sexual Teaching: A Methodological 
Comparison." Theology Today 45 (1988). 

Also found as chapter 5 in Curran's Tensions in Moral Theology, 87-109. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988. Contrasts the 
development, or lack thereof, of Roman Catholic social and sexual teaching 
by considering each in terms of three methodological issues: a shift from 
classicist to historical consciousness; a shift from abstract consideration of 
human nature to a personalist view, with concomitant stress on freedom, 
equality, and participation; and a shift from a legal ethical model to 
acceptance of a relationality-responsibility model. Curran's position is 
critiqued by John S. Grabowski and Michael J. Naughton in their article 
"Catholic Social and Sexual Ethics: Inconsistent or Organic?" The Thomist 
57 (1993): 555-578. 

Gallagher, Raphael, C.Ss.R. "Fundamental Moral Theology 1975-1979: A bulletin- 
analysis of some significant writings examined from a methodological 
stance r Studia Moralia IS {\9B0): 147-192. 

Looks at recent moral s>Titheses in terms of four basic and dominant 
methodologies for formulating moral theology, based on: 1) a consciously 
constructed system of adequately formulated material norms as the first and 
principle step; 2) an explicitly articulated system of a coherent Christian 
ethos; 3) giving coherence and continuity to moral analysis through a 
systematic reflection on morally relevant experiences; 4) searching for the 
historical continuity with past forms and placing a statement of contemporary 
moral theology in the context of present historical and cultural realities. 



253 

Harrington, Donal. "Moral Theology: A Critical Analysis." Irish Theological 
Quarterly 59 (1993): 1-21. 

Good overall discussion the current state of moral theology. 

Hollenbach, David, S.J. "Fundamental Theology and the Christian Moral Life." In 
Faithful Witness: Foundations ofTheology for Today's Church, 167-184. 
Edited by Leo J. O'Donovan, S.J. and T. Rowland Sanks, S.J. New York: 
Crossroad, 1989. 

Honings, Bonifacio. "Morale e scienze umane nella prospettiva della formazione 
sacerdotale." Lateranum, n.s. 56 (1990): 703-718. 

Janssens, Louis. "Artificial Insemination: Ethical Considerations." Louvain Studies 
5(1980): 3-29. 

This article became foundational in the articulation of the methodological 
approach to fundamental moral theology that later was called personalism. 
Janssens claims there are eight fundamental dimensions of the human person: 
(1) subject; (2) embodied subject; (3) part of the material world; (4) 
interrelational with other persons; (5) an interdependent social being; (6) 
historical; (7) equal but unique; (8) called to know and worship God. Classic 
article for the expression of the principle of totality in the personalist model. 
Janssens' personalist moral system though is critiqued by Brian Johnstone, 
C.Ss.R. in the latter's "From Physicalism to Personalism," Studia Moralia 
30(1 992): 7 1 -96. Janssens taught moral theology for many years at Louvain, 
was perhaps the moral theologian most clearly identified with the personalist 
model in the development of Post- Vatican II moral theology. 

. "Personalism in Moral Theology." In Moral Theology: Challenges for the 

Future. Essays in Honor of Richard A. McCormick, S.J., 94-107. Edited by 
Charles E. Curran. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 

Discusses four basic issues connected with personalist ethics: 1) the 
controlling totality; 2) the person's opeimess to God; 3) historicity; and 4) 
originality. 

. "Personalist Morals." Louvain Studies 3 {191 Q-l\)'.l>-\6. 

Translated from the French, "Morale Personaliste." 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "From Physicalism to Personalism." Studia Moralia 
30 (1992): 71-96. 



254 



Analyzes the "paradigm-shift" in Roman Catholic moral theology from a 
physicalist understanding of human nature and moral reasoning to a 
personalist version and then discusses the origins of physicalism, its 
problematic features, and solutions proposed by personalism. Finally, 
Johnstone identifies and evaluates 3 basic personalist models. Johnstone, an 
Australian, is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome. 

. "'Objectivism', 'Basic Human Goods', and 'Proportionalism', An 



Interpretation of the Contemporary History of Moral Theology." Studio 
M>w//G 43 (2005): 97-126. 

Looks at three contemporary moral theories in the context of Thomas 
Aquinas and the moral manuals, offering a balanced critique of both positive 
and negative elements in each. 

, "A Proposal for a Method in Moral Theology." Studia Moralia 22 (1984): 

189-212. 

Discusses methodologies of Franz BSckle (based on ethical theory), Bernard 
Haring (based on Revelation), and Rene Simon (based on the interpretation 
of human experience), and then proposes his own approach based on a 
structured way of learning from experience. 

Kaufinan, Philip S., O.S.B. "Probabilism: The Right to Know Moral Options." 
Chapter Two in Why You Can Disagree and Remain a Faithjul Catholic, 17- 
25. Bloomington (IN): Myer Stone Books, 1989. 

This chapter outlines the theory of probabilism, while the remainder of the 
book discusses infallibility, divorce and remarriage, and many of the issues 
connected with the proclamation of the birth control teaching of the Church. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "Globalization and the Autonomy of Moral Reasoning: 
An Essay in Fundamental Moral Theology." Theological Studies 54(1993): 
485-511. 

Builds on recent mterest in the globalization of ethics and Jtirgen Habermas' 
theory of universal discourse to propose a hermeneutical theory for 
approaching fimdamental moral theology. Refers considerably to the work 
of Klaus Demmer. Kopfensteiner, who is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. 
Louis, taught at Fordham University and did his doctoral dissertation on 
paradigm shift theory in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University under Klaus Demmer. 



255 

. "Historical Epistemology and Moral Progress." The Heythrop Journal 33 

(1992): 45-60. 

Uses the concept of paradigm shift of Thomas Kuhn to discuss the notion of 
moral progress in conception and application of moral norms and the natural 
law. Also refers considerably to the work of Klaus Demmer. 

Korff, Wilhelm. "Empirical Social Study and Ethics." Concilium 5 (4/1968): 5-13. 

Lepenies, Wolf, "Difficulties of Basing Ethics on Anthropology." Concilium 5 
(8/1972): 11-30. 

Mahoney, John, S.J. "The Challenge of Moral Distinctions." Theological Studies 
53 (1992): 663-682. 

Revised version of the First Aimual Joseph B. Brennan Lecture in Applied 
Ethics, delivered at Georgetown University's Center for the Advanced Study 
of Ethics on 1 April 1992. Mahoney is Professor of Moral Theology at 
King's College, University of London. 

. "Reflections on Experience as a Source of Moral Theology." In Personalist 

Morals: Essays in Honor of Professor Louis Janssens, 25-44. Edited by 
Joseph A. Selling. Louvain: University of Leuven Press, 1988. 

After considering the shift in various disciplines of theology from an 
approach "from above" to one "from below," Mahoney turns his attention to 
the significance of experience in moral theology. He contrasts a morality 
"from outside," based on external principles and/or authority, to a morality 
"from the inside," which, following the greater focus on the person (instead 
of "nature") will then accord greater importance to the relevance of 
experience. 

Marra, Bruno, S.J. "Esistenza ed etica." Rassegna di Teologia 32 (1991): 480-501. 

The tension between conflict and participation can help orient the individual 
towards his/her existence and aid in self-understanding in meeting his/her life 
project. 

La tensione fra conflittualit^ e partecipazione pud determinare un'assunzione 
partecipata delle conflittualit^, che presuppone un'integrazione, orientata al 
senso globale che I'individuo d^ alia sua esistenza. E' questa tensione che 
rende dinamico I'essere-al-mondo del singolo che si apre a nuove esperienze 
e nuovi interrogativi in un processo di crescita e di autoconsapevolezza. E' 



256 

necessario che I'individuo aderisca al proprio progetto, pur non negando il 
significato di altri modi possibili di esistere. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "Exchanges on fundamental moral theology," 
Theological Studies 47 (1986): 69-88. 

. "Tradition in Transition'." In Riding Time Like a River: The Catholic Moral 

Tradition Since Vatican II, 17-33. Edited by William J. O'Brien. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgeto^Ti Universit>' Press, 1993. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "II Significato deU'esperienza esistenziale dell'uomo. Perorazione 
per una teoria del modelio etico." Concilium 12 (10/1972): 34-62. 

. "What Is Experience?" Concilium 1 13 (1978): 40-53. 

Nolan, Martin. "The Principle of Totality in Moral Theology." In Absolutes in 
Moral Theology?, 232-24%. Edited by Charles E. Curran. Washington, D.C.: 
Corpus Books, 1968. 

In Spanish: ^Principios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Mundo 
Actual», 24. Traduccion de Jos6 Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

O'Connell, James. "The Sources of Morality : Function, Conformity and Aesthetics." 
The Heythrop Journal 19 (1994): 160-170. 

Reynolds, Charles. "A Proposal for Understanding the Place of Reason in Christian 
Ethics." Journal of Religion 5Q {1910)): 155-168. 

Investigates the differences in the place of reason in theological and 
philosophical ethics, and suggests that the philosophical theory based on the 
"ideal observer" may aid in sharpening the focus on the use of reason in 
theological ethics. 

Rigali, Norbert J., S.J. "New Horizons in Moral Theology." In New Horizons in 
Theology: College Theology Society Annual Volume 50 (2004), 40-55. 
Edited by Terrence W. Tilley. Mar>'knoll: Orbis Books, 2005. 

Article gives an overview of the development of recent Catholic moral 
theology from pre- Vatican II to the present. 

. "Models of the Person in Moral Theology." Chicago Studies 32 (1 993): 1 77- 

185. 



257 

Discusses Bonhoeffer, Kant, Situation Ethics, HSring, and Covenantal Ethics 
(using Joseph Allen). Kigali's thesis is that different models of the person 
make for important differences in the way moral problems are viewed and 
solved. Kigali taught moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

. "The Moral Act." Horizons 10 (1983): 252-266. 

Discusses the revision in the understanding of the moral act based on 
personalist and relational anthropology. Argues that for this revision to occur 
successfully a holistic material understanding of the moral life must replace 
the manualist tradition. 

Kiordan, Patrick, S.J. "Can We Not Discuss Morals?" Studies 80 (1991): 311-Z%1. 

Argues that disagreement which exists between basic moral positions consists 
in diverse views on what constitutes a good life, individual and 
communitarian. Moreover, the Christian vision of such a good life is "one 
which is radically at variance with many contemporary views, including 
popular opinion." 

Sala, Giovarmi. "L'evoluzione delle intelligenze morali." Concilium 12(10/1976): 
63-78. 

Selling, Joseph A. "The Fundamental Polarity of Moral Discourse." In Method and 
Catholic Moral Theology: The Ongoing Reconstruction, 21-43, Edited by 
Todd A. Salzman. Omaha: Creighton University Press, 1999. 

. "The Human Person." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 95-\Q9. Edited 

by Bernard Hoose. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss.K. "Bemhard Haring: Int^rprete y Acrecentador de la 
TradicionTeologico-Moral Alfonsiana." StudiaMoralia 43 (2005): 127-152. 

Vidal teaches moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at 
the Alfonsianum in Rome. 

Walgrave,JanH.,O.P. "Is Morality Static or Dynamic?" Concilium 5 (1/1965): 13- 
22. 



Books on Fundamental Christian Ethics 



258 

Allen, Joseph L. Love and Conflict: A Covenantal Model of Christian Ethics. 
LanhamMD: University Press of America, 1995. 

Auer, Alfons. Autonome Moral und christlicher Glaube. 2. Auflage. DUsseldorf: 
Patmos Verlag, 1971, 1984. 

Italian translation: Morale autonoma efede cristiana. Versione dal tedesco 
di Maria Cristina Laurenzi. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1991. 

Berti, Enrico, ed. Problemi di etica: fondazione, norma, orientamenti. Padova: 
Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Contributions by Giuseppe Angelini, Franceso Cavalla, Eugenio Lecaldano, 
Antonino Poppi, Giuseppe Trenti, and Carmelo Vigna. 

Bockle, Franz, Grundbegriffe der Moral. Aschaffenburg: Paul Pattloch Verlag. 

In English: Fundamental Concepts of Moral Theology. Translated by 
William Jerman. New York: Paulist Press Exploration Books, 1967. 

Italian translation: / Concetti Fondamentali della Morale . Guide di teologia, 
2, Traduzione di Liborio Asciutto. Brescia: Queriniana, 1968. 

In French: Pour former la conscience chretienne; principes d'une morale. 
Gembloux: Duculot; Paris: Lethielleux, 1970. 

Also available in Korean. 

The late Franz Bockle was a Swiss theologian who taught at the University 
of Bonn. 

Bresciani, Carlo. Personalismo e morale sessuale: Aspetti teologici e psicologici. 
Casale Monferrato: Piemme, 1983. 

Caffarra, Carlo. Living in Christ: Fundamental Principles of Catholic Moral 
Teaching. Translated by Christopher Ruff. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 
1987. 

Italian original: Viventi in Cristo. Milano: Jaca, 1981. 

Caron, Judith. Christian Ethics: Shaping Values, Vision, Decisions. Mystic, CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1995. 



259 

Caron details how contemporary Christian ethics and personal moral 
decision-making are affected and shaped by complex social, environmental, 
personal, physical, mental, emotional, and intellectual forces-as well as 
spiritual and religious beliefs. Caron focuses on understanding the 
relationship between one's ethical self, society's rules, and the consequences 
of one's actions. She operates from a Judeao-Christian perspective that also 
takes into account the ethical systems of the other major world religions. 

Christie, Dolores L. Adequately Considered: An American Perspective on Louis 
Janssens's Personalist Morals. Louvain: Peeters Press, 1990. 

Cowdell, Scott. Atheist Priest? Don Cupitt and Christianity. London: SCM, 1988. 

First critical study of Cupitt's writings. 

Cozzoli, Mauro. Etica teologale: Fede Carita Speranza. Cinisello Balsamo: 
Edizioni Paoline, 1991. 

This volume looks at the notion of conscience in light of being a person in 
Christ as a motivating source for action. In this sense a Christian personalism 
is marked by the virtues of faith, hope and charity which provide the 
foundation of the person's relationship with God. 

Questo volume e un contributo alia delineazione della coscienza assiologica 
deir«essere persona in Cristo» come fonte di motivazione per I'agire. Vi e 
disegnato il personalismo etico cristiano, come essere e dover-essere di fede, 
carita, speranza, virtu che costituiscono i modi fondamentali della relazione 
con Dio. Non tre obblighi di vita cristiana e neppure tre atteggiamenti 
settoriali o categoriali, ma le tre espressioni strutturali della vita teologale: 
riveiative e decisive dell'essere e agire cristiano. 

Crook, R.H. An Introduction to Christian Ethics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 
1990. 

Cupitt, Don. Long-legged Fly: The Theology of Longing and Desire. London: 
SCM, 1987. 

. The New Christian Ethics. London: SCM, 1988. 



Curran, Charles E., and McCormick, Richard A., S.J. The Historical Development 
of Fundamental Moral Theology in the United States. Readings in Moral 
Theology, 11. New York: Paulist Press, 1999. 



260 

Curran, Charles E., ed. Moral Theology: Challenges for the Future. Essays in 
Honor of Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 

1 7 essays by as many authors, both Protestant and Catholic, divided into three 
principal sections: Fundamental Moral Theology; Sexual and Medical 
Ethics; and Social and Political Ethics. 

Curran, Charles E. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today: A Synthesis. Moral 
Traditions and Moral Arguments Series. Washington, D.C.: Georgetov^rTi 
University Press, 1999. 

Reviewed by Christine Gudorf in Theological Studies 61 (December 2000): 
115-111 \ and Jean Porter in The Tablet (23 October 1999): 1432. 

. Directions in Fundamental Moral Theology. Notre Dame: University of 

Notre Dame Press, 1985. 

.. Themes in Fundamental Moral Theology. Notre Dame and London: 

University of Notre Dame Press, 1977. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C.; Schiiller, Bruno, S.J. et al. Christlich glauhen und 
handeln: Fragen einer fundamentalen Moraltheologies in der Diskussion. 
Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1977. 

Italian translation by Giuliano Riva: Fede cristiana e agire morale. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1980. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. Deuten und handeln: Grundlagen und Grundfragen der 
Fundamentalmoral. Studien zur theologischen Ethik, no. 15. Freiburg: 
Verlag Herder, 1985. 

Italian translation: Interpretare e agire. Fondamenti della morale cristiana. 
Traduzione di Mauro Pedrazzoli. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1 989. 

Theological ethics is a "science" in an analogical sense, which has its object 
not static data but subjectivity open in liberty to transcendence. Conscience 
helps to clarify both the end of the human person and the corresponding 
actions which aim at instantiating goodness and rightness. 

L'etica teologica e scienza per analogia. "Scienza del senso direttiva 
dell'azione," l'etica teologica ha per oggetto non un dato statico, ma la 
"soggettivit^ aperta alia trascendenza" nella liberty. Aiuta la coscienza a 
chiarire a se stessa il fme (il senso) e a elaborare il contenuto della norma 



261 

facendo divenire "correttezza" la "bonlA." Inserita nel conflitto storica fra 
bene e male, a volte ripercorre soluzioni gi^ collaudate (le norme), a volte 
rischia la soluzione nuova, sapendo che ogni scelta non solo accresce il bene 
il male della storia, ma si pone come possibility ermeneutica per il 
prossimo. Persona e natura, persona e atto, antropologia e cristologia, 
peccato e conversione sono il luoghi dell'analisi, condotta con linguaggio 
assai oscuro. [dalla rivista pubblicata da // Regno 35 (15 aprile 1990): 229- 
230.] 

. Moraltheologische Methodenlehre. Studien zur theologischen Ethik, 27. 

Freiburg: UniversitStsverlag, 1989. 

Dunn, Edmond J. What is Theology? Foundational and Moral. Mystic CT: Twenty- 
Third, 1997. 

A combination approach to both fundamental and moral theology, with an 
emphasis on methodology. Reviewed by Edward J. Peck in Horizons 26 
(Spring 1999): 145-146. 

Dwyer, John C. Foundations of Christian Ethics. New York: Paulist Press, 1987. 

Frame, J.M. Perspectives on the Word of God: An Introduction to Christian Ethics. 
Phillipsburgh NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1990. 

Garcia de Haro, Ramon. Cristo. Fundamentos de la moral. Los conceptos bdsicos 
de la vida moral en la perspectiva cristiana. Barcelona: EIUNSA, 1990. 

Opus Dei theologian who teaches at the John Paul II Institute on the Family 
in Rome. 

Gatti, Guido. Temi di morale fondamentale. Corso di Teologia Morale/ J . Leumann 
(Torino): Editrice Elle Di Ci, 1988. 

Gill, Robin. A Textbook of Christian Ethics. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1985. 

Gillemann, Gerard, S.J. Le primat de la charite en theogie morale. Brussels: 
Editions Descl^e, 1954. 

In English: The Primacy of Charity in Moral Theology. Translated by 
William F. Ryan, S.J. and Andr^ Vachon, S.J. from the second French 
edition. Westminster (MD): The Newman Press, 1959. 



262 

Hamel, Ronald P. and Himes, Kenneth R., O.F.M., eds. Introduction to Christian 
Ethics: A Reader. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

An anthology of generally excellent articles arranged topically on the major 
themes of fundamental moral theology. Well-known Catholic and Protestant 
authors are represented, though mainly Anglophone from the North Atlantic 
region. 

Hanigan, James P. As I Have Loved You: The Challenge of Christian Ethics. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1986. 

This is essentially an undergraduate textbook on fundamental moral theology. 
Hanigan includes both study questions and supplementary armotated 
bibliography at the end of each chapter. 

Hoose, Bernard, ed. Christian Ethics: An Introduction. Collegeville: Liturgical 
Press, 1998. 

Series of articles on both fundamental and applied issues in Roman Catholic 
ethics. 

Hughes, Gerard J., S.J. Authority in Morals: An Essay in Christian Ethics. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1978. 

Good treatment of overall moral methodology, though Hughes gives a rather 
unsympathetic treatment to the place of Scripture with moral theology. 
Hughes teaches moral theology at Heythrop College, University of London. 
Reviewed by Thomas A. Byrnes in Journal of Religion 68 (1988): 321-322. 

Keating, James, ed. Moral Theology: New Directions and Fundamental Issues. 
Festschrift for James Hanigan. New York: Paulist Press, 2004. 

Keating is associate professor of moral theology at the Pontifical College 
Josephinum in Ohio. Hanigan taught moral theology at Duquesne University 
in Pittsburgh. 

Kelly, Kevin. New Directions in Moral Theology: The Challenge of Being Human. 
London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1992. 

Kelly is a diocesan pastor of a working class parish in Liverpool as well as 
lecturer in Christian ethics at Heythrop College in London. Reviewed by 
Charles E. Curran in The Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 198-199. 



263 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas A, Paradigms and Hermeneutics: The Essential Tension 
between Person and Nature in the Priniciple of Totality. Excerpta ex 
dissertazione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificiae Universitatis 
Gregorianae. Roma: Pontificia University Gregoriana, 1988. 

Kopfensteiner is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and taught moral 
theology at Fordham University. He did his doctoral w^ork under Klaus 
Demmer, M.S.C. at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, of which 
this work is a published extract. 

Layman, C. Stephen. The Shape of the Good: Christian Reflections on the 
Foundation of Ethics. Library of Religious Philosophy, 7. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. 

Layman is Associate Professor of Philosophy in the School of Humanities at 
Seattle Pacific University. 

Le Masters, Philip. Discipleshipfor all Believers: Christian Ethics and the Kingdom 
of God. Scottdale PA: Herald, 1992. 

MacNamara, Vincent. The Truth in Love: Reflections on Christian Morality. Dublin: 
Gill and Macmillan, 1988. 

Same book as Love, Law and Christian Life: Basic Attitudes of Christian 
Morality. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1988. 

Maguire, Daniel C. The Moral Choice. Garden City: Doubleday, 1978. 

Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

. A Moral Creedfor All Christians. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005. 



Argues that Christianity's core moral convictions are critical for dealing with 
contemporary ethical issues and challenges. Discussion questions are 
included. 

. The Moral Revolution: A Christian Humanist Vision. San Francisco: Harper 

and Row, 1986. 

Maguire, Daniel and Fargnoli, A. Nicholas. On Moral Grounds: The Art/Science of 
Ethics. New York: Crossroad, 1991. 



264 

Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

May, William E. Becoming Human: An Invitation to Christian Ethics. Dayton: 
Pflaum, 1975. 

. Principles of Catholic Moral Life. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1981. 

In Spanish: Principios de vida moral. Barcelona: EIUNSA, 1990. 

Miller, Mark, C.Ss.R. Making Moral Choices: An Introduction. Mystic, CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1995. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. L'Evangile et la morale. Etudes d'^thique chrdtienne, 29. 
Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1990. 

Includes articles from a 20 year period which deal with three principal areas 
of renewal in moral theology: gospel-morality relationship, restoration of 
hope and love to a central place in moral methodology, and the correction of 
a false individualism. A key organizing theme in Pinckaers' work is bonheur, 
or beatitude and happiness. [From a review of the 6th edition (1990) by 
Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R. in Studia Moralia 29 (1991): 484-488.] 

. Morality: The Catholic View. Translated by Michael Sherwin, O.P. South 

Bend IN: St. Augustine's Press, 2001. 

Argues for his "freedom for excellence" grounded in a virtue ethic theory 
which Pinckaers avows is superior to a morality of obligation. 

. The Sources of Christian Ethics. Translated by Sr. Mary Thomas Noble, O.P. 

Washington, D.C.: Catholic Univ. of America Press, 1995. 

French original: Les Sources de la Morale Chritienne: Sa methode, son 
contenu, son histoire. Etudes D'Ethique Chretienne, 14. Paris: Editions du 
Cerf, 1985. 

In Spanish: Lasfuentes de la moral cristiana. Su metodo, su contenido, su 
historia. Colleccion Teologica, 60. Pamplona: Publ. de la Facultad de 
Navarra. 

In Italian: Le fonti della moral cristiana. Metodo, contenuto, storia. 
Ragione e Fede, 14. Milano: Edizioni Ares, 1992. 



265 

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 371- 
373. 

Privitera, Salvatore. // volto morale dell'uomo. Awio alio studio dell'eticafilosifica 
e teologica. Collectio Moralis, 1. Palermo: EDI OFTES, 1992. 

Rae, Scott B. Moral Choices: An Introduction to Ethics. Grand Rapids MI: 
Zondervan Publishing House, 1995. 

Ramsey, Paul. Basic Christian Ethics. London: SCM Press, 1950; Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press (Midway reprint): 1978. 

Regan, George M., CM., New Trends in Moral Theology: A Survey of Fundamental 
Moral Themes. New York: Newman Press, 1971. 

Rush, Vincent E. The Responsible Christian: A Popular Guide for Moral Decision 
Making according to Classical Tradition. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1984. 

Seeks to present a post- Vatican II understanding of Christian morality against 
the background of (and reaction to) the moral legalism which dominated 
American Catholic moral education in pre-conciliar times. Rush attempts to 
present a moral theology which is both rooted in an understanding of the 
person and the believing community, while using the rich tradition of the 
Church's moral teaching in a fresh way. Rush teaches at the College of St. 
Thomas in St. Paul, MN. 

Salzman, Todd. Method and Catholic Moral Theology: The Ongoing 
Reconstruction. Omaha: Creighton University Press, 1999. 

Salzman teaches at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. 

. What Are They Saying About Catholic Ethical Method? Mahwah: Paulist 

Press, 2003. 

Looks at the question of normative ethics in Post- Vatican 11 moral theology, 
concentrating on the Basic Goods School (Grisez et al.) and the Revisionist 
school. Reviewed by David P. Schultz in Religious Studies Review 30 
(April-July 2004): 170. 

Sanchez, Urbano. Moral Conflictiva: Entre la creatividad, el riesgoyla comunion. 
LexMundi, 67. Salamanca: Sfgueme, 1991. 



266 

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, SJ. in Gregorianum 75 (1994): 177-178. 
Sanchez teaches at the Universidad de Mejico. 

Selling, Joseph A., ed. Personalist Morals: Essays in Honor of Professor Louis 
Janssem. Biblioteca Ephemeridum Theologicanun Lovaniensium, 83. 
Louvain: University Leuven Press, 1988. 

Sloyan, Gerard S. Catholic Morality Revisted: Origins and Contemporary 
Challenges. Mystic CT: Twenty Third Publications and The Columbia Press, 
1990. 

Reviewed by Vivian Boland, O.P. in Doctrine and Life 41 (January 1991): 
47-48. 

Stivers, Robert L., Christine E. Gudorf, Alice Frazer Evans, and Robert A. Evans. 
Christian Ethics: A Case Method Approach. 3"* ed Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
2005. 

Tettamanzi, Dionigi, Cardinal. L'uomo immagine di Dio: Linee fondamentali di 
morale cristiana. Casale Monferrato: Piemme, 1992. 

Cardinal Tettamanzi did his doctorate in moral theology under Josef Fuchs 
at the Pontifical Gregorian University and now is Archbishop of Milan and 
Secretary for the Conferenza Episcopale Italiana. 

Trembath, Kern Robert. Divine Revelation: Our Moral Relation with God. Oxford: 
Oxford University Press, 1991. 

According to Trembath, the grounding of human nature itself in God 
constitutes the fundamental revelation of the self-transcending God, which 
accounts both for how we can hear God's word on the one hand, and how we 
are constituted as self-transcending beings on the other. Until this grounding 
is accounted for, all speculations about real or alleged divine revelations are 
critically presumptuous. Trembath locates the moralness of human beings 
particularly in their capacities for knowing, loving, and hoping (which he sees 
as the historical expression of the Triune God) and thus in the fundamental 
communitarianess of human beings, which he sees as the expression of the 
One God. Trembath worked at tlie University of Notre Dame and now is on 
the administrative staff of the University of San Francisco. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss.R. El camino de la etica cristiana. Estella (Navarra): 
Editorial Verbo Divino, 1989. 



267 

Italian translation // cammino delVetica cristiana. Universale Teologica, 25. 
Brescia: Queriniana, 1989. 

Vidal teaches moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at 
the Alfonsianum in Rome, 

Witschen, Dieter. Gerechtigkeit undteleologische Ethik. Studienzurtheologischen 
Ethik, 39. Freiburg- Wien: Herder; Freiburg-Schweiz: Universitatsverlag, 
1992. 

******** 



General And/or Miscellaneous Christian Ethics 

AA.W. La morale en catechese. Paris: Descled, 1988. 

Italian translation: La morale in catechesi. Problematiche e prospettive. 
Evangelizzazione oggi, 3. Milano: Edizioni Paoline, 1991. 

AA.W. Or dine morale e or dine giuridico. Rapporto e distinzione tra diritto e 
morale. Atti del X° Congresso Nazionale dei teologi moralisti. Roma, 24-27 
aprile 1984. Bologna: EDB, 1985. 

AA.W. Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Intemazionale di Teologia 
Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986). Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Alexander, Richard D. The Biology of Moral Systems. New York: Aldine De 
Gruyter, 1987. 

Allen, Joseph L. Love and Conflict: A Covenantal Model of Christian Ethics. 
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1984. 

Reviewed by Charles M. Swezey in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 219-220. 

AUsopp, Michael, ed. Ethics and the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Scranton: 
University of Scranton Press, 1999. 

Contributions include from essays on teaching the Catechism (Mary Jo 
lozzio), the Catechism and conscience (Michael Allsopp), the moral act and 
its moral evaluation in the Catechism (Todd Salzman), homosexuality and the 
Catechism (Robert Nugent), and a comparison of Catechisms in the Americas 
(Edward Sunshine). Others consider the political culture of the Catechism 
(Edward van Merrienboer) and the treatment of marriage (Ann Swaner), 
Catholic Social Teaching (John Pawlikowski), assisted suicide (B. Andrew 
Lustig), and Catholic health care (Gerard Magill) in the Catechism 

Aumack, Raymond D. "The Jesuits Are Too Liberal." America (24-31 May 2004): 
21-22. 



270 

A brief but excellent article which is written from a lay person's perspective, 
recounting a conversation with a fellow Jesuit high school alumnus in which 
the latter criticized the Jesuits for being too liberal and not following the 
Pope. Aumack looks at the broader issue of conscience formation, 
information, and moral complexity in a very balanced fashion. Aumack is 
vice-president of institutional advancement at Holy Name Academy in 
Bayonne, New Jersey. 

Bennahmias, Richard. "L'Ethique h La Grace de Dieu." Eludes Theologiques et 
Religieuses 70(1995): 15-29. 

Bentley, James and Audrey. Contemporary Issues: A Christian View. Harlow, 
Essex: Longman, 1988. 

Bemardin, Joseph Cardinal. A Moral Vision for America. Edited by John P. Langan, 
S.J. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1998. 

Bemardin' s essays over a twenty-year period, until the time shortly before for 
death in late 1996. 

Bohr, David. Catholic Moral Tradition: In Christ, A New Creation. Our Sunday 
Visitor, 1990. 

Develops a "theology of Christian living," using biblical foundations and 
historical perspectives of both Catholic moral and spiritual life. Discusses 
also questions dealing with justice and peace, sexual and bio-medical ethics. 

Bouchard, Charles E., O.P. "Recovering the Gifts of the Holy Spirit in Moral 
Theology." Theological Studies 63 (September 2002): 539-558. 

Braaten, Carl E. Eschatology and Ethics: Essays on the Theology and Ethics of the 
Kingdom of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1974. 

This book dialogues with many of the theological themes found in the work 
of Wolfhart Pannenberg, especially the importance of the notion of the 
Kingdom of God in contemporary theology. Braaten seeks to elaborate on 
the eschatological interpretation of that theology, and especially its relevance 
for both church renewal and Christian ethics— furnishing what Braaten terms 
"eschatopraxis." Braaten taught for many years at the Lutheran School of 
Theology in Chicago. 

Brown, Neil. "Experience as a Moral Source: A Literar>' Commentary on Official 
Catholic Ethics." Irish Theological Quarterly 61 (1995): 182-90. 



271 

Bube, Paul Custodio. Ethics in John Cobb's Process Theology. Atlanta: Scholars 
Press, 1988. 

Burggraeve, Roger. "Meaningful Living and Acting: An Ethical and Educational- 
Pastoral Model in Christian Perspective." Lonvain Studies 13 (1988): 3-26; 
137-160. 

Burtchaell, James Tunstead, C.S.C. The Giving and Taking of Life: Essays Ethical. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. 

Essays, initially published elsewhere, on a wide variety of issues, such as 
abortion, fetal tissue research, liberation theology, and terrorism. Burtchaell's 
two principal criteria are 1 ) the moral import of human actions resides in their 
capacity to develop or stunt the agent's character; and 2) the criterion for 
discerning moral character lies ultimately with the Christian community. 
Reviewed by Francis Kane in Theology Today 47 (1990): 346-348. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle and Childress, James F., eds. Christian Ethics: Problems and 
Perspectives. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1996. 

Festschrift for James Gustafson, 

Carney, Frederick S. "Accountability in Christian Morality." Journal of Religion 53 
(1973): 309-329. 

Investigates the conditions and justifications for holding someone 
accountable in Christian morality for his action and person. Carney 
delineates three levels of such accoimtability: "The first pertains to actions 
(including forbearances) that are ordinarily required of all persons in general, 
or of persons who assume socially defined roles (wife, doctor, club treasurer). 
The second refers to actions for which only those persons are held 
accountable who have voluntarily accepted a commitment (covenant, 
compact) to a way of life that requires them. The third level encompasses 
responsibility not for one's actions but for one's person (character, virtue, 
moral competency)" pp. 311-312. Carney is professor of Christian ethics at 
Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University. 

Caron, Judith. Christian Ethics: Shaping Values, Vision, Decisions. Mystic, CT: 
Twenty-Third Publications, 1995. 

Caron details how contemporary Christian ethics and personal moral 
decision-making are affected and shaped by complex social, environmental, 
personal, physical, mental, emotional, and intellectual forces—as well as 



272 

spiritual and religious beliefs. Caron focuses on understanding the 
relationship between one's ethical self, society's rules, and the consequences 
of one's actions. She operates from a Judeao-Christian perspective that also 
takes into account the ethical systems of the other major world religions. 

Chenu, M. D., O.P. "The Renewal of Moral Theology: The New Law." The Thomist 
34(1970): 1-12. 

Christians, Clifford G., et al. Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning. 3rd ed. 
New York: Longman, 1991. 

Clavel, Juan Masia. "^Moral De Dialogo O Moral De Recetas?" Estudios 
Ecsesidsticos 69 (1994): 225-253. 

Conley, John J., S.J., and Koterski, Joseph W., S.J. Prophecy and Diplomacy: The 
Moral Doctrine of John Paul II. New York: Fordham University Press, 
1999. 

The authors are philosophy professors at Fordham University. Pope John 
Paul n reigned from October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 

Connors, Russell B., Jr. "Thick and Thin: An Angle on Catholic Moral Teachings." 
Louvain Studies 21 (1996): 336-355. 

Uses Geertz's concepts of "thick" and "thin" description to describe and 
evaluate how Catholic social and sexual moral teachings are presented. 

Cronin, Kieran. Rights in Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 

Crysdale, Cynthia. "Heritage and Discovery: A Framework for Moral Theology." 
Theological Studies 63 (September 2002): 558-578. 

Crysdale teaches at the Catholic University of America. 

Dailey, Thomas F., O.S.F.S., ed. With Mind and Heart Renewed: Essays in Honor 
of Rev. John F. Harvey, O.S.F.S. . Lanham MD: University Press of America, 
2001. 

Harvey is the founder of Courage, a Catholic group which uses a 12-step 
approach to deal with homosexuality. 



273 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C., and Ducke, Karl-Heinz, eds. Moraltheologie im Dienst der 
Kirche. Festschrift fur Wilhelm Ernst zum 65. Geburtstag. Erfurter 
Theologische Studien, 64. Leipzig: Benno Verlag, 1992. 

A Festschrift for the German moral theologian Wilhelm Ernst. 

Desclos, Jean. Liberer la morale. Christocentrisme et dynamique flliale de la 
morale chritienne a I'epoque de Vatican II. Montreal et Paris: Editions 
Paulines et Mediaspaul, 1992. 

De Wachter, Maurits, S.J. "Change and Renewal in Moral Method," Louvain 
Studies 4 (1972-73): 255-264. 

Di Giacomo, James, S.J. Do the Right Thing: A Guide to Christian Morality. 
Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1991. 

Examines the cultural and philosophical roots of divisions over critical moral 
issues such as abortion, medical and sexual ethics, cap ital punishment, 
national defense, etc. Argues for a moral theory grounded in right reason and 
the values of Jesus Christ. 

Dobiosch, Hubert, ed. Natur und Gnade. Die christozentrisch-pneumatische 
Grundgestalt der christlichen Sittlichkeitslehre. Joachim Piegsa zum 
sechsigsten Geburtstag. Moraltheologishce Studien Systematische 
Abteilung, 16. Sankt Ottilien: EOS Veriag, 1990. 

Dominian, Jack. Proposals for a New Christian Ethic. London: Darton, Longman 
and Todd, 1977. 

Dorff, Elliot and Louis E. Newman. Contemporary Jewish Ethics and Morality: A 
Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 

Drinan, Robert, S.J. The Fractured Dream: America's Divisive Moral Choices. 
New York: Crossroad, 1 99 1 . 

Drinan is a professor of law at Georgetown University and a former member 
of the United States House of Representatives. 

Driver, Tom F. Christ in a Changing World: Toward an Ethical Christology. New 
York: Crossroad, 1981. 

Duffy, Michael K. "The Moral-Nonmoral Distinction in Catholic Ethics." The 
Thomist 49 (1985): 343-366. 



274 

Duffy teaches theology at Marquette University. 

Fagan, Sean, S.M. Does Morality Change? Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1997. 

Frigato, Sabino. "Antropologia cristologica e verity morale." Salesianum 54 (1 992): 
99-121. 

Furger, Franz, Ed. Ethische Theorie und Praktisch. Schrift d, Instituts f. christl. 
Sozialwiss., 23. Munster: Aschendorff, 1991, 

Festschrift for Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

GafBiey, James, ed. Essays in Morality and Ethics. The Annual Publication of the 
College Theology Society. New York: Paulist Press, 1980. 

Gafftiey, James. Matters of Faith and Morals. Kansas Cit}': Sheed and Ward, 1987. 

Essays previously published elsewhere which explore various fundamental 
aspects of ethics as these relate to social living. Gaffhey was Professor of 
Christian Ethics at Loyola University, New Orleans. 

. "Moral Views and Moral Viewpoints." America 158 (23 January 1988): 55- 

59;76. 

. Newness of Life: A Modern Introduction to Catholic Ethics. New York: 

Paulist Press, 1979. 

Introduction to Christian ethics, concentrating on the Catholic tradition. Each 
chapter concludes with a few study questions, and there is a good list of 
suggestions of books for further reading organized by topic at the end. 

Garcia de Haro, Ram6n. "II rapporto natura-grazia e il dinamismo dell'agire morale 
cristiano." Annales Theologici 5 (1991): 327-349 

Opus Dei theologian who teaches at the John Paul II Institute on the Family 
in Rome. 

Gardner, E. Clintoa Justice and Christian Ethics. New York: Cambridge University 
Press, 1995. 

Separate chapters are devoted to major philosophical and religious traditions 
that have shaped the idea and practice of justice in the West. These include 



275 

the classical tradition of virtue (Aristotle and Aquinas), biblical ideas of 
covenant and the righteousness of God, Puritanism, and John Locke. 

Gatti, Guido, and Coffele, Gianfranco, eds. Problemi morali dei giovani oggi. 
Biblioteca di Scienze Religiose, 90. Roma: LAS, 1990. 

Publication from the Pontifical Salesianum University. 

Geisler, Norman L. Christian Ethics: Options and Issues. Leicester: ApoUos, 1990. 

Outlines and critically analyses six major ethical models: Antinomianism, 
Situationism, Generalism, Unqualified Absolutism, Conflicting Absolutism, 
and Graded Absolutism. Geisler prefers this last model, which solves moral 
conflicts by doing what is required by the higher-order moral law when this 
conflicts mth a lower-order moral law. Thus, telling an untruth is justified 
to save a life since the moral demands of justice and mercy take precedence 
over those of truth in an unavoidable conflict situation. 

Goffi, TuUo, ed. Problemi e Prospettive di Teologia Morale. Brescia: Queriniana, 
1976. 

Follows up on the work of the Congress of Italian Moralists held at Padua 
from 3 1 March to 4 April 1 970. 

Gula, Richard M.,S.S. Ethics in Pastoral Ministry . New York: Paulist Press, 1996. 

. Moral Discernment. New York: Paulist Press, 1997. 

Good readable non-technical introduction to conscience and moral decision- 
making. This book would be excellent for adult education, RCIA, and 
possibly as an upper-division high school theology text. 

Gustafson, James M, An Examined Faith: The Grace of Self-Doubt. Minneapolis: 
Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2003. 

Gustafson strongly urges Christians to take a hard look at their religious 
discourses- scientific, secular, philosophical- -that inform our world views. 
Gustafson sets out a typology of relationships, from complete religious 
rejection of secular discourse in full accommodation. Reviewed by Charles 
E. Curran in Theological Studies 66/2 (June 2005): 472-474. 

Habermas, JUrgen. Etica del discorso. Bari: Laterza, 1989. 



276 

Hannon, Patrick. Church, State, Morality and Law. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 
1992. 

Guiding question is how a Catholic should vote on issues relating to morality. 
General principle used is that in Catholic teaching there is no obligation to 
translate the moral law into civil law, and thus each is allowed to vote 
according to his or her own Judgment on the issue in question. Reviewed by 
Patrick Riordan, S.J. in Studies 8 1 (1 992): 336-339. Hannon is professor of 
moral theology at Maynooth. 

Hanson, Richard A. "The Development of Moral Reasoning: Some Obser\'ations 
About Christian Fundamentalism." Journal of Psychology and Theology 19 
(1991): 249-256. 

Hanson teaches Child Development and Family Science at North Dakota 
State University in Fargo. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. Performing the Faith. Bonhoeffer and the Practice of 
Nonviolence. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2005. 

Looks at forgiveness, truthfulness and non-violence after 9/1 1 in the light of 
Bonhoeffer. 

Howell, Leon, and Lindermayer, Vivian, eds. Ethics in the Present Tense: Readings 
from Christianity and Crisis 1966-1991. Friendship Press, 1991. 

Hoose, Bernard. Received Wisdom?: Reviewing the Role of Tradition in Christian 
Ethics. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1994. 

Hoy, Terry. Praxis, Truth, and Liberation. Lanham MD: University Press of 
America, 1988. 

Hannon, Patrick. Church, State, Morality, and Law. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 
1992. 

Guiding question is how a Catholic should vote on issues relating to morality. 
General principle used is that in Catholic teaching there is no obligation to 
translate the moral law into civil law, and thus each is allowed to vote 
according to his or her own judgment on the issue in question. Reviewed by 
Patrick Riordan, S.J. in Studies 81 (1992): 336-339. Hannon is professor of 
moral theology at Maynooth. 

Jacobelli, J., ed. Scienze e etica. Quali limiti?. Bari: Laterza, 1990. 



277 
Jensen, Steven J. "A Defense of Physicalism." The Thomist 61 (1997): 377-404. 

Jones, L. Gregory. Transformed Judgement: Toward a Trinitarian Account of the 
Moral Life. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990. 

Argues that the most superior form of moral judgement is one grounded in 
and lived in the presence of the mystery of the Triune God. Jones avers that 
the primary friendship a person should have is with God. Discusses and 
critiques the work of Alasdair Maclntyre, Stanley Hauerwas, and others. 
Favorably reviewed by Paul J. Philibert, O.P. in America (18 April 1992): 
326-329. 

Keane, Philip S., S.S. Christian Ethics and Imagination: A Theological Inquiry. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1984. 

Keane is professor of moral theology at St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore. 

Keenan, James F., S.J., and Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "Moral Theology Out of 
Western Europe." Theological Studies 59 (1998):107-135. 

Review of the moral theological literature in Western Europe. Keenan and 
Kopfensteiner both did their doctorates in moral theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian in Rome. 

Keenan, James F., S.J., and Kotva, Joseph, Jr., eds. Practice What You Preach: 
Virtues, Ethics, and Power in the Lives of Pastoral Ministers and Their 
Congregations. Franklin WI: Sheed & Ward, 1999. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "Moral Theology Today." Priests & People 8 (October 1 994): 
372-76. 

Keenan did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, and taught at Fordham University in New York before 
joining the faculty of the Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. He now teaches at Boston College. 

. Moral Wisdom: Lessons and Texts from the Catholic Tradition. Lanham MD: 

Sheed and Ward, 2004. 

. The Works of Mercy: The Heart of Catholicism. Lanham MD: Rowman & 

Littlefield , 2005. 



278 

Kelly, Kevin. "Moral Theology in the Parish." Priests & People 8 (October 1994): 
367-72. 

Langan, John P., S.J. "Catholic Moral Rationalism and the Philosophical Bases of 
Moral Theology." Theological Studies 50 (1989): 25-43. 

Langan begins with an overview of the uneasy relationship between 
Catholicism and modem philosophy back in 1940, then outlines the major 
features which had traditionally given Catholic moral theology a sense of 
confidence in its own rationality and objectivity, and finally concludes with 
a consideration of various aspects of post-Vatican II theology which have 
strained the position of Catholic rationalism. Langan is Rose F. Kennedy 
Professor of Christian Ethics at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute 
of Ethics. 

Laun, Andreas. Fragen der Moraltheologie. Freiburg: Herder, 1991. 

. Fragen der Moraltheologie Heute. Freiburg: Herder, 1992. 

Lawrence, Fred, ed. Communicating a Dangerous Memory: Soundings in Political 
Theology. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. 

Lebacqz, Karen. Professional Ethics: Power and Paradox. Nashville: Abingdon 
Press, 1985. 

Lebacqz, Karen, and Driskill, Joseph Ethics and Spiritual Care: A Guide for 
Pastors, Chaplains, and Spiritual Directors. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 
2000. 

de Locht, Pierre. "The Role and Limits of Personal and Communal Ethical Practices 
in Establishing Christian Identity." Concilium 196 (1988): 107-1 15. 

Machiocha, Waclaw. Top Moral Norms: A Response to the Errors of Ultramodern 
Moralists. London: Veritas Foundation Publication Centre, 1988. 

Conservative denimciation of post-Vatican II moral theology. 

Mackey, James P. Power and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University 
Press, 1994. 

Mackey understands power broadly as the ability to bring about states of 
affairs; its forms can be located on a continuum between authority and force 
depending on the relative presence or lack of morality. Morality in turn is 



279 

located in human freedom and creativity; moral values are actual states of 
affairs brought about by people. There is thus a reciprocal relation; moral 
value needs power no less than power requires morality. 

Maguire, Daniel C. The Moral Revolution: A Christian Humanist Vision. San 
Francisco: Harper and Row, 1 986. 

Maguire is professor of moral theology at Marquette University in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 

Majorano, Sabatino. "IIteologomoralistaoggi."5'?w<i/aMora//a33 (June 1995):21- 
44. 

Markham, Ian S. Plurality and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. 
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 

Discusses key issues raised by plurality and secularism in complex modem 
societies and critiques some of the British attempts to come to terms with 
plurality-particularly the so-called Christendom Group. Contrasted with this 
group Markham then praises the "public philosophy" of Richard John 
Neuhaus as a better approach to meeting the challenges of pluralism in 
secular society. Markham's overall thesis is that "Christian ethics and 
theological vision have something distinctive and rational to say which goes 
beyond the contentions of secular plurality" (p. x). Reviewed by James T. 
Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 56 (1995): 805-807. Markham is 
Lecturer in Theology at the University of Exeter. This is his first book. 

Mattison, William C, HI, ed. New Wine, New Wineskins: A New Generation 
Reflects on Key Issues in Catholic Moral Theology. Blue Ridge Summit PA: 
Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. 

Essays by a group of junior professors on various issues in contemporary 
Roman Catholic moral theology. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. The Critical Calling: Reflections on Moral Dilemmas 
Since Vatican II. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989. 

A series of essays, many previously published elsewhere, treating a wide 
range of many of the critical issues in moral theology, such as pluralism, 
dissent, sexual ethics, bioethics, etc., since the close of the Second Vatican 
Council. 



280 

. Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & 

Ward, 1994. 

. "Moral Theology in the Year 2000: Tradition in Transition." America 166 (1 8 

April 1992): 312-318. 

Also found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994. 

McCormick outlines 10 characteristics of moral theology as he would like to 
envision it at the turn of the century. Originally delivered at Georgetown 
University on 6 February 1992 as the opening address in the Distinguished 
Lectures series on the Catholic Moral Tradition. 

McCoy, Alban. Intelligent Person's Guide to Christian Ethics. New York: 
Continuum, 2006. 

Meant as a non-specialist's introduction to the fundamentals of Christian 
morality. McCoy is a Franciscan and chaplain at the University of 
Cambridge. 

McDonagh, Enda, ed. Moral Theology Renewed: Papers of the Maynooth Union 
Summer School, J 964. Dublin: Gill and Son, 1965. 

McDonagh, Enda. Between Chaos and New Creation: Doing Theology at the Fringe. 
Theology and Life Series, 19. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1986. 

McDonagh is Professor Moral Theology at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. 

. Doing the Truth: The Quest for Moral Theology. Notre Dame: University of 

Notre Dame Press, 1979, 



_. Gift and Call: Towards a Christian Theology of Morality. St. Meinrad: 
Abbey Press, 1975. Translation in Italian. 

.. The Gracing of Society. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1989. 



.. Invitation and Response: Essays in Christian Moral Theology. Dublin: Gill 
and Macmillan, 1 972. Translation in Italian, 

_. The Making of Disciples. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1 982. 



281 

McDonald, J. Ian H. Christian Values: Theory and Practice in Christian Ethics 
Today. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1995. 

McDonald is a reader in Christian Ethics and New Testament Studies at the 
University of Edinburgh. He uses case studies and the shared insights of a 
team of researchers to examine core studies on Person—conscience, virtue, 
character, motive; Relationships; Family values; Sexual orientation; Political 
reconciliation; Community care and development; Communication; and 
Integrity in business. 

MacKinnon, Donald. [Festschrift]. See Surin, Kenneth. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "Autonomy or Liberation—Tw^o Paradigms of Christian Ethics?" 
Concilium 172 (1984): 87-93. 

. "Moral Doctrine at the Cost of Morality? The Roman Documents of Recent 

Decades and the Lived Convictions of Christians." In The Church In 
Anguish: Has the Vatican Betrayed Vatican 11?, 125-143. Edited by Hans 
Kting and Leonard Swidier. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1987. 

Milhaven, John Giles. Toward a New Catholic Morality. Garden City: Doubleday 
Image Books, 1970. 

Miller, Mark, C.Ss.R. Making Moral Choices: An Introduction. Mystic CT: Twenty- 
Third Publications, 1995. 

Mtiller, Alois, and Greinacher, Norbert, eds. "The Church and the Rights of Man." 
Concilium 124(1979). 

Series of articles on various aspects of the theological meaning and 
significance of human rights. 

Murphy, S^amus, S.J. "Utopianism, Advocacy and Consequentialism." Milltown 
Studies 2% il99\): 5-23. 

O'Brien, William J., ed. Riding Time Like a River: The Catholic Moral Tradition 
Since Vatican IL Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

Contributions by Leo O'Donovan, Richard McCormick, John Noonan, Louis 
Dupr6, John Donahue, John Mahoney, and Sidney Callahan. 

O'Connell, James. "The Sources of Morality: Function, Conformity and Aesthetics." 
The Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 160-170. 



282 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Making Disciples: A Handbook of Christian Moral 
Formation. New York: Crossroad, 1998. 

Addresses from theological, psychological, and sociological perspectives the 
question of how people come to embody Christian values and the 
implications for the Church and its ministry. O'Connell devotes special 
attention to the role of narrative and imagination in the moral formation of 
the Christian disciple. O'Cormell is Professor of Christian Ethics in the 
Institute of Pastoral Studies at Loyola University, Chicago. 

O'Riordan, Sean. "II teologo moralista nelFAccademia Alfonsiana." Studia Moralia 
33 (June 1995): 45-56. 

Orsy, Ladislaus, S.J. "Moral Theology and Canon Law: The Quest for a Sound 
Relationship." Theological Studies 50 (1 989): 1 5 1 -1 67. 

Orsy is a well-knowTi canon lawyer who has taught both in Europe at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University and in the United States, at The Catholic 
University of America. 

Outka, Gene, and Reeder, John, eds. Prospects for a Common Morality. 1992. 

Excellent collection of essays which examine universal morality and 
globalization of ethics from a number of perspectives. 

Park, Andrew Sung. Racial Conflict and Healing. MaryknoU, NY: Orbis Books, 
1996. 

The author, a Korean theologian, approaches the issue of racial conflict- 
including discrimination between minority communities-and constructs a 
"theology of seeing" that aims to heal the ruptures of racism. 

Patey, E. For the Common Good. Christian Studies Series. Mowbray, 1988. 

Questions the eagerness of political leaders to divide private conscience from 
public policy. 

Petra, B., "Le sfide del moralista, oggi." Studia Moralia 33 (June 1995): 5-20. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "La methode theologique et la morale contemporaine." 
Seminarium 31 (1991): 313-327. 



283 

. Morality: The Catholic View. Translated by Michael Sherwin, O.P. 

Introduction by Alasdair Maclntrye. South Bend IN: St. Augustine's Press, 
2001. 

Pinto de Oliveira, Carlos- Josaphat, ^d. Novitas et Veritas vitce: aux sources du 
renouveau de la morale chritienne. Ethique Chr^tienne. Paris: Editions du 
Cerf, 1992. 

Place, Michael D. "Book Three: Life in Christ." Chicago Studies 33(1994): 38-47. 

Gives a summary overview of the new Catechism of the Catholic Church's 
treatment of morality. 

Pie, Albert, O.P. Par Devoir oupar Plaisir?. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1980. 

In English: Duty or Pleasure? A New Appraisal of Christian Ethics. 
Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell. Paragon House, 1987. 

Italian translation: Per dovere operpiacere? Da una morale colpevolizzante 
a una morale liberatrice. Torino: Piero Gribaudi, 1984. 

P16 "rejects the "traditional" morality, which, he thinks, seeks security in an 
immutable order and prefers the tidy realm of the mind to the messy world 
of reality. He calls for a morality that is even more traditional, more Gospel- 
based-namely, a morality based on happiness and an evangelized pleasure. 
According to V\i, the Gospel proclaimed blessings and woes more than duties 
and permissions:..." p. 113. Reviewed by Ed Vacek,SJ in America (5 
September 1987) 

The Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center. Moral 
Theology Today: Certitudes and Doubts. St. Louis: The Pope John Center, 
1984. 

Pope, Stephen J. The Evolution of Altruism and the Ordering of Love. Washington, 
D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1994. 

Pope is professor of theological ethics at Boston College. 

. "The Evolutionary Roots of Morality in Theological Perspective." Zygon 

33/4 (December 1998): 545-556. 

Post, Stephen G. "The Moral Meaning of Relinquishing an Infant: Reflections on 
Adoption." Thought 61 {1992): 201 -1 



284 

One of several articles in this number devoted to the general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." 

Preston, Ronald H. The Future of Christian Ethics. London: SCM Press, 1987. 

Raponi, S. "II cristocentrismo deila vita cristiana negli insegnamenti dei Padri 
Apostolici." Studia Moralia 33 (1995): 21 1-34. 

Rigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Reimaging Morality: A Matter of Metaphors." The 
Heythrop Journal 35 (1994): 1-14. 

Rigali is emeritus professor of moral theology at the University of San 
Diego. 

Riordan, Patrick, S.J. "The Plausibility of Arguments for the Common Good." 
Milltown Studies 28 (1991): 78-101. 

Rodd, Cyril S., ed. New Occasions Teach New Duties?: Christian Ethics for Today. 
With a Foreword by Baroness Wamock. Hemdon, VA: T&T Clark, 1995. 

Cyril S. Rodd is the editor of the Expository Times. In this study scholars 
examine the changes which have occurred in ethical thinking since the time 
of Jesus. Discussing both the positive and negative aspects of these changes, 
the authors show that basic Christian morality can and must be applied in 
new ways. The book argues that traditional Christian values and the thinking 
of the Church Fathers and Reformation leaders can and must be made 
relevant today if Christian ethics are not to lose their authentic and vital 
nature. 

Rossi, Philip J., S.J. Together Toward Hope: A Journay to Moral Theology. Notre 
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

Uses Kant's philosophy as a foundation for contemporary moral theology. 
Reviewed by John A. Gallagher in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 220-221 . 
Rossi teaches at Marquette University. 

Ruiz Millan, Francisco. "Micro^tica en el actual contexto juvenil." Proyeccion 39 
(1992): 143-157. 

Salzman, Todd. "B. Schiiller's hermeneutic of CD. Broad's deontology and 
teleology: a critical analysis." Studia Moralia 34 (1/1996): 63-96. 



285 

Santurri, Edmund N. Perplexity in the Moral Life. Richmond (?): University Press 
of Virginia, 1987. 

Reviewed by L. Gregory Jones in Modern Theology 7 (1991): 202-204. 

Schindler, Thomas F., S.S. Ethics: The Social Dimension, Individualism and the 
Catholic Tradition. Theology and Life Series, 27. Wilmington: Michael 
Glazier, 1989. 

Schlogel, Herbert, O.P. "Tugend-Kasuistik-Biographie. Trends und dkumenische 
Perspektiven in der Moraltheologie der USA." Catholica (3/1 997): 1 87-200. 

Discusses authors, approaches and issues prominent in moral theology in the 
United States in the mid-1990's. 

Schwarzwaller, Klaus. "Literatur zum Thema «Verantwortung». Theologische 
Rundschau 57 (1992): 141-179. 

Schv^eiker, William. Responsibility and Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1995. 

Simon, Ren6. "The Moral Law and Discernment." Concilium 1 19 (1978): 74-83. 

Sloyan, Gerard S. Catholic Morality Revisted: Origins and Contemporary 
Challenges. Mystic CT: Twenty Third Publications and The Columbia Press, 
1990. 

Sparks, Richard C, C.S.P. Contemporary Christian Morality: Real Questions, 
Candid Responses. New York: Crossroads Publishing Company, 1996. 

100 answers to frequently asked moral questions. 

. "Morality and the Next Generation: Amoral, Immoral, or Morally Different?" 

New Theology Review 11 (February 1998): 53-66. 

Looks at five key traits of "Generation X": ") bright, though not necessarily 
wise; 2) instinctively respectful of authority figures, but not of their advice; 
3) focused on short-term goals and immediate satisfaction; 4) morally 
inconsistent; and 5) spiritually hungry, altruistic, and seeking to 'belong', 
though somewhat naively so." (P. 56). 

Staes, Paul E., C.I.C.M. Positive Self-Regard and Authentic Morality. Logos 
Studies, 7. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University, 19?. 



286 

Stortz, Martha Ellen. Pastorpower. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993. 

Stortz is professor of historical theology and Christian ethics at the Pacific 
Lutheran Theological School in Berkeley, California. 

Surin, Kenneth, ed. Christ, Ethics and Tragedy: Essays in Honour of Donald 
MacKinnon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 

Teichtweier, Georg, and Wilhelm Dreier, eds. Herausforderung und Kritik der 
Moraltheologie. Wiirzburg: Echter Verlag, 1971. 

Thevenot, Xavier, S.D.B. Une ethique au risque de VEvangile. Paris: Descl^e De 
Brouvv'er, 1993. 

Valadier, Paul. Inevitable morale, Paris: Esprit/Seuill, 1990. 

Reviewed by Hubert Doucet in Eglise et theologie 23 (1991): 389-391. 

van den Beid, Antonie. "Eschatology and ethics." Theology Digest 27 (1979): 21- 
24. 

van der Ven, Johannes. "Moral Formation in the Church." Concilium 191 (1987): 
117-127. 

Walsh, Brian J., and J. Richard Middleton. The Transforming Vision: Shaping a 
Christian World View. Downers Grove, IL: hiterVarsity Press, 1984. 

The authors show how a Christian worldview can transform the structures of 
society: science, technology, economics, politics. 

Webster, John. "Eschatology, Ontology and Human Action." Toronto Journal of 
Theology l{\99\):A-n. 

Explication of Christian eschatological convictions demands that theology 
fashion a set of ontological categories about created being which is oriented 
towards the 'new creation' which comes about by virtue of the regenerative 
action of God in Christ, through the power of the Spirit. Webster is associate 
professor of systematic theology at Wycliffe College. 

Welch, D. Don. Conflicting Agendas: Personal Morality in Institutional Settings. 
Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1994. 

Yoder, John Howard. "Ethics and Eschatology." Ex Auditu 6 (1990): 1 19-128. 



287 

Yoder was a well-known ethicist in the Mennonite tradition who taught at the 
University of Notre Dame until his death. 

i|<*i|ii|e*«>|E% 



Globalization and Ethics 

Articles on Global Ethics 

AA.VV. "Symposium on Pluralism and Ethical Theory." Ethics 102 (1992): 707- 
834. 

Several articles on various aspects of pluralism in ethical theory. 

Adams, Robert Merrihew. "Religious Ethics in a Pluralistic Society." In Prospects 
for a Common Morality, 93-113. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Apel, Karl-Otto. "A Planetary Macroethics for Humankind: The Need, the Apparent 
Difficulty, and the Eventual Possibility." In Culture and Modernity: East- 
West Perspectives, 26 1 -278. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. Honolulu: University 
of Hawaii Press, 1991. 

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers' 
Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu. 

Appadurai, Arjun. "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy." 
In Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, 295-310. 
Edited by Mike Featherstone. London: Sage Publications, 1990. 

Baier, Annette C. "Claims, Rights, Responsibilities." In Prospects for a Common 
Morality, 1 49- 1 69. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993. 

de Bary, William Theodore. "Encounter between East and West and the Creation of 
a Global Culture." InThe World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 
4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible 
Approaches to Redefinitions, \2)-2\. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: 
Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Bird, Frederick. "Moral Universals." Journal of Religious Pluralism 3 (1993): 29- 
83. 

Recognizing that social scientific study has done much to highlight the 
cultural diversity and historical relativity of moral ideas, Bird investigates 
what can be concluded with respect to moral universals from a similar 
perspective afforded by comparative, historically informed social scientific 
observation. Bird teaches at Concordia University. 



290 

Braybrooke, Marcus. "Toward a Global Ethic." Faith and Freedom 47 (1994): 91- 
102. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Cultural Particularity and the Globalization of Ethics in the 
Light of Inculturation." Pacifwa 9 (1996): 69-86. 

Increased interest in the so-called "globalization of ethics" has led to a 
number of studies which utilize various hermeneutical and communicative 
theories to sketch out viable paradigms for developing a fundamental 
Christian ethics as a whole, as well as its various components such as moral 
reasoning, which together would be capable of entering into and maintaining 
such discourse. The accent of most of these studies falls on the 
universalizability of ethical discourse and scant attention has been given to 
the cvXXmdX particularity of each and every ethos and ethical system. This 
article briefly rehearses the principal elements of the concerns raised by the 
globalization of ethics and then focuses on ihs particularity of culture using 
insights from both cultural anthropology and inculturation. The Confucian 
context of Korea is employed to illustrate some of the issues raised by greater 
attention to cultural particularity. 

Chethimattam, J.B. "Towards a World Morality." Journal ofDharma 16 (1991): 
317-336. 

Author teaches at Fordham University. 

Chung, Bom-Mo. "Encounter between the East and West and the Creation of a 
Global Culture." In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 
4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible 
Approaches to Redefinitions, 2-\2. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: 
Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Chung, Chai-Sik. "Beyond Turning West and Turning East: The Problem of 
Meaning in the Modem World. " In The World Community in Post-Industrial 
Society. Vol. 4 The Confitsion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society 
and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 168-175. Edited by Christian 
Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Civic, Melanne Andromecca. "A Comparative Analysis of International and Chinese 
Human Rights Law—Universality versus Cultural Relativism." The Buffalo 
Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 285-322. 

Claes, Tom. "Culture and Morality Revisited." Cultural Dynamics 3 (1990): 349- 
386. 



291 

Coleman, John, S.J. "Globalization as a Challenge to Catholic Social Thought." 
Origins 34:20 (28 October 2004): 322-328. 

Delivered as the inaugural lecture of the Joan and Ralph Lane, Jr. Center for 
Catholic Studies and Catholic Social Thought at the University of San 
Francisco on 12 October 2004. Coleman is the Cassassa Professor of Social 
Values at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles and former professor 
of sociology of religion at the Graduate Theological Union and Jesuit School 
of Theology in Berkeley. He did his own doctoral work imder Robert Bellah 
at the University of California-Berkeley. 

Dallmayr, Fred. '"Asian Values' and Global Human Rights." Philosophy East and 
West 52 (April 2002): 173-189. 

Looks at the opposition between a so-called "foundational" universalism, 
which the author holds is articulated in modem natural law theories and 
rationalist universalism, and "antifoundational" skepticism and/or relativism 
(from Jeremy Bentham to Richard Rorty), the author tries to steer a middle 
course which will situate rights claims in a contextualized prudential 
judgment. He considers Henry Rosemont's notion of "concept clusters" 
which reflect different modes of human flourishing-clusters that are not 
completely incommensurable on the one hand, nor uniformly exchangeable 
on the other. The author concludes that this analysis suggests that globalism 
or universalism of human rights is not so much a starting premise as a 
challenging practical task which will require intensive inter-human and cross- 
cultural leaming-what Tu Wei-ming has called the ongoing "humanization" 
of humankind. 

Das, Somen. "Globalisation, From a Biblical-Theological Perspective." Religion and 
Society 41, no. 2 (June 1994): 2-15. 

Dennehy, Raymond. "The Ontological Basis of Human Rights." The Thomist 42 
(1978): 434-463. 

Argues that human rights is a universal concept common to all human 
persons, and that is therefore independent of any particular nation, race, 
language, or culture. Dennehy is an associate professor of philosophy at the 
University of San Francisco, California. 

Donagan, Alan. "Common Morality and Kant's Enlightenment Project." In 
Prospects for a Common Morality, 53-72. Edited by Gene Outka and John 
P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 



292 

Douglas, Mary. "Morality and Culture." Ethics 93 (1983): 786-791. 

A review essay of four books: Adrian Mayer, ed., Culture and Morality: 
Essays in Honor ofChristoph von Furer-Haimendorf, Mary Midgeley, Heart 
and Mind, the Varieties of Moral Experience, Rodney Needham, 
Circumstantial Deliveries, and Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and 
Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexuality Inequality. 

Droogers, Andre F. "Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights?" In Human 
Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, ed. Abdullah! A. An- 
Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Hemy Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom, 78-90. 
Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, 1995. 

Dussel, Enrique. "One Ethic and Many Moralities?" Concilium 150 (1981): 54-61. 

Dy, Manuel B., Jr. "Globalization: An Issue for Ethics." Budhi 5 (1/2001): 1-20. 

Uses insights from Max Scheler's value ethics and Jtirgen Habermas' theor>' 
of universal moral discourse to discuss both positive and negative aspects of 
the moral evaluation of globalization and suggests some avenues for future 
development. Positively globalization does seem to be supportive of the 
values of democracy and human rights, and events such as the Philippine 
People's Power Revolution can inspire and give hope to peoples around the 
world, due to the widespread dissemination enabled by modem means of 
communication. Negatively, globalization can increase massive poverty and 
exacerbate the deleterious effects of international capitalism, as well as a 
certain homogenization of cultures and the loss of genuine social diversity 
and pluralism. To combat some of these negative effects the author suggests 
the development of a new economic theory which he terms "responsible 
capitalism" and the fostering of efforts to cultural preservation through 
Habermas' notion of critical interrogation of tradition and to utilize 
technology to preserve and document a culture's tradition. Finally the author 
suggests fostering an attitude of cultural rootedness and cosmpolitan outlook. 
He defines cultural rootedness as "becoming life-centered" [not by] rejecting 
modem technology or returning to pre-modem living but restoring the social, 
spiritual and economic connections of the individual to nature, place, and 
community that global development as disrupted" (p. 19). "Cosmopolitan 
outlook, on the other hand, is a necessity for survival in the global order. . . one 
whose mental and emotional horizon is the planet. It means intemalizing 
universal values, especially human rights and fundamental freedoms, having 
a sense of active solidarity with the achievements or problems and suffering 
of people of different regions and cultures, and believing in the common 



293 

heritage and common good of humankind" (pp. 19-20). The challenge of 
course is to strike and healthy and efficacious balance and integration of these 
two. 

Eisenstadt, Shuel N. "How do Cultures of the East and the West Meet the 
Challenges of Acculturation in Global Industrialization?." In The World 
Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol 4 The Confusion in Ethics and 
Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 
147-158. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 
1988. 

Farley, Margaret A., R.S.M. "Feminism and Universal Morality." In Prospects for 
a Common Morality, 170-190. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Gewirth, Alan. "Common Moralit>' and the Community of Rights." In Prospects for 
a Common Morality, 29-52. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Hall, Bruce C. "The Virtues of Listening: Some Buddhist Perspectives on the Role 
of Ethics in the Dialogue Among World Religions." Chapter 7 in Ethics, 
Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 172- 
177. Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Hick, John. "The Universality of the Golden Rule." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, 
and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 155-166. 
Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Ho, Huang Po. "Globalization-A Challenge to the Church: A Case Study on 
Migrant Worker and Church's Responsibility in Taiwan." Voices From The 
Third World 23 (June 2000): 126-139. 

Ho is Professor of Theology at the Tianan Theological Seminary in Taiwan. 

Hollenbach, David. "Global Hiraian Rights: An Interpretation of the Contemporary 
Catholic Understanding." In Human Rights in the Americas: The Struggle 
for Consensus, 9-24. Edited by Alfred Hermelly and John Langan. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982. 

Hughes, Gerard J., S.J. "Relativismus und Wahrheit." Theologie und Philosophic 62 
(1987): 176-195. 



294 

Jespers, Frans P.M. "Reflections on the Declaration of a Global Ethic," Studies in 
Interreligious Dialogue 8 (1/1998): 60-73. 

Jiwei, Ci. "Freedoms and Realms of Living." Philosophy East and West 4\ (1991): 
303-326. 

Looks at how different cultures and individuals value freedom differently. 

King, Sallie B, "It's a Long Way to a Global Ethic: A Response to Leonard 
Swidler." Buddhist-Christian Studies 15 (1995): 213-220. 

Knitter, Paul F. "World Religions: A Cause and Cure of Global Ethical Confusion." 
In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion 
in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 258-274. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "Globalization and the Autonomy of Moral Reasoning: 
An Essay in Fundamental Moral Theology." Theological Studies 54 (1 993): 
485-511. 

Builds on recent interest in the globalization of ethics and Habermas' theory 
of universal discourse to propose a hermeneutical theory for approaching 
fundamental moral theology. Refers considerably to the work of Klaus 
Demmer. Kopfensteiner, who is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and 
taught at Fordham University, did his doctoral dissertation on paradigm shift 
theory in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University under Klaus 
Demmer. 

Korff, Wilhelm. "Nature or Reason as the Criterion for the Universality of Moral 
Judgments?" Concilium 150 (1981): 82-88. 

Krieger, David J. "Conversion: On the Possibility of Global Thinking in an Age of 
Particularism." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 58 (1990): 
223-243. 

Kucuradi, loanna. " 'Cultural' Morals and 'Global' Morality in the Light of Ethics." 
In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion 
in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 176-185. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 



295 

Kting, Hans, and Moltmann, Jilrgen, eds. "The Ethics of World Religions and 
Human Rights." Concilium April, 1990. 

Entire April issue dedicated to this theme. Articles on the 1789 French 
Constitution, the 1948 United Nations Declaration of Universal Rights, 
Europe and the Gospel, The Torah, etc. 

Kting, Hans. "Towards a World Ethic of World Religions: Fundamental Questions 
ofPresent-Day Ethics in a Global Context:' Concilium (2/1990): 102-119. 

A rather discursive and wide-ranging article, loosely organized around the 
concept of a potential contribution world religions can make to a global ethic 
based on an understanding of the ethical demands of fostering a true 
humanitas. 

Lawrence, Bruce. "Toward a History of Global Religion(s) in the Twentieth Century: 
Parachristian Sightings from an Interdisciplinary Asianist." Sixteenth Annual 
University Lecture in Religion at Arizona State University on March 23, 
1995. Arizona State University Department of Religious Studies. 

Lee, Chung Ok. "Unity Beyond Religious and Ethnic Conflict Based on a Universal 
Declaration of a Global Ethic: A Buddhist Perspective." Buddhist-Christian 
Studies 15 (1995): 191-198. 

Lee, Jung Young. "Multicultural and Global Theological Scholarship: An Asian 
American Perspective." Theological Education yi (Autumn 1995): 43-56. 

Little, David. "The Nature and Basis of Human Rights." In Prospects for a Common 
Morality, 73-92. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993. 

McCann, Dennis P. "The World's Parliament of Religion, Then and Now: From 
Social Gospel to Multiculturalism." The Annual of the Society of Christian 
£rWc5 (1993): 291-296. 

McClain, James L. "Cultural Chauvinism and the Olympiads of East Asia." In The 
World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics 
and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 89-107. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Meltzer, Tova. "Ethics and Dialogue Among the World Religions: Some 
Observations on Gender-Based Dialogue." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, 



296 

and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 184-190. 
Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Menamparampil, T. "Ethics for a Globalized World." Mission Today 2 (April-June 
2000): 192-202. 

Discusses the effects of globalization and economics in India. 

Moore, Thomas H. "Human Rights and Christian Missions in the Emerging Global 
Culture." Missiology: An International Review 24 (1996): 201-21 1 . 

Briefly traces the development of human rights through three historical 
movements centering respectively on liberty, equality, and fraternity 
(solidarity), and notes that in each era anthropologists, ethicians, and 
missionaries have developed a particular rhetoric for human rights. In the 
current era of post-modem globalization human rights rhetoric grapples with 
legitimate ethnic and cultural sovereignty on one hand, and universal ethical 
concerns which ought to be enshrined in human rights common to all 
peoples. 

Nedeljkovic, Dragoljub D. "European East- West Encounters and Conflicts And The 
Problem of the Creation of a Global Culture." In The World Community in 
Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 186-195. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

O'Connor, June. "Does a Global Village Warrant a Global Ethic? (An Analysis of 
A Global Ethic, the Declaration of the 1993 Parliament of the World's 
Religions)." Religion 24(1994): 155-164. 

Raises some questions and concerns about the so-called "globalization of 
ethics" project. O'Connor is Professor of Religious Studies at the University 
of California—Riverside and past-president of the Society of Christian Ethics. 

O'Neill, William, S.J. "Ethics and Inculturation: The Scope and Limits of Rights' 
Discourse." The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 73-92. 

Despite its title, this article really deals with the enculturation or culturality 
of human rights discourse, and not the Christian inculturation of human 
rights. O'Neill argues that human rights language is best understood 
rhetorically, "as a family of related claims and duties that delimit the 
boundaries of practical consensus" (p. 92). O'Neill, who did his doctorate at 



297 

Yale under Louis Dupr6, is Associate Professor of Christian Ethics at the 
Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

Oommen, T.K. "Globalisation and Structural Change: Historicity and Implication." 
Religion and Society 41, no. 2 (June 1994): 16-22. 

Outka.Gene. "Augustinianism and Common Morality." \n Prospects for a Common 
Morality, \\A-\A%. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Outka, Gene, and Reeder, John P. "Introduction." In Prospects for a Common 
Morality, 3-28. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Parliament of the World's Religions. "The Declaration of a Global Ethic." Studies 
in Interreligious Dialogue 3 (1993): 101-113. 

Declaration following the Parliament's meeting in Chicago from 28 August 
to 5 September 1993. 

Parsons, Susan. "Feminist Ethics after Modernity: Towards an Appropriate 
Universalism." Studies in Christian Ethics 8 (1995): 77-94. 

A chapter taken from Parsons' Feminism and Christian Ethics, (Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1 995). Parson is Principal of the East Midlands 
Ministry Training Course. 

Quelquejeu, Bernard, O.P. "Diversity in Historical Moral Systems and a Criterion 
for Universality in Moral Judgment." Concilium 150 (1981): 47-53. 

Reeder, John P., Jr. "Foundations without Foundationalism." In Prospects for a 
Common Morality, 191-214. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Rigali, Norbert J. "Moral Pluralism and Christian Ethics." Louvain Studies 13 
(1988): 305-321. 

Rigali is emeritus professor of moral theology at the University of San 
Diego. 

Robertson, Roland. "Mapping the Global Conditions: Globalization as the Central 
Concept." In Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, 15- 
30. Edited by Mike Featherstone. London: Sage Publications, 1990. 



298 

Rorty, Richard. "The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy." In. Prospects for a 
Common Morality, 254-278. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

. "Truth and Freedom: A Reply to Thomas McCarthy." hi Prospects for a 
Common Morality, 279-289. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Rosenbaum, Aian S., ed. The Philosophy of Human Rights: International 
Perspectives. Contributions in Philosophy, 15. Westport CT: Greenwood 
Press, 1980. 

Thirteen essays representing inter-religious and inter-cultural approaches to 
the foundation, meaning, and application of human rights. 

Schreiter, Robert J. "Christian Theology between the Global and the Local." 
Theological Education 29 (1993): 1 13-126. 

One of several articles dealing with how globalization can and should impact 
on the teaching of various theological disciplmes. 

Singh, S.B.B.B. "How Cultures of East and West Meet the Challenge of 
Acculturation in Global Industrialization." In The World Community in 
Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in 
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 138-146. 
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988. 

Shweder, Richard A., Mahapatra, Manamohan, and Miller, Joan G. "Culture and 
Moral Development." In Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative 
Human Development, 130-204. Edited by James W. Stigler, Richard A. 
Sweder, and Gilbert Herdt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Essay on the results of a cross-cultural study involving children from India 
and Illinois, and aimed at assessing the separate theories of moral 
development proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg and E. Turiel. Also contains 
a basic reference bibliography. 

Siddiqi, Muzammil H. "Global Ethics and Dialogue Among World Religions: An 
Islamic Viewpoint." Chapter 7 in Ethics, Religion, and the Good Society: 
New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 178-183. Edited by Joseph Runzo. 
Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 



299 

Smith, J.E. "The Concept of The Moral, Moral Relativism, the Nature of Moral and 
the Sources of Moral Authority." Religious Education, 57 (1962): 445-448. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B.. "Ethos." In Concise Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 87- 
88. Edited by Bemhard Stoeckle. New York: Seabury Press, 1979. 

Stout, Jeffrey. "On Having a Morality in Common." In Prospects for a Common 
Morality, 2 1 5-232. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Princeton; 
Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Straus, Virginia. "Peace, Culture, and Education Activities: A Buddhist Response 
to the Global Ethic." Buddhist-Christian Studies 15 (1995): 199-21 1. 

Tan, Che-Bin. "Ethical Particularism as a Chinese Contextual Issue." In The Word 
Among Us: Contextualizing Theology for Mission Today, 262-281. Edited 
by Dean S. Gilliland and the Faculty of the School of World Mission of 
Fuller Theological Seminary. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1989. 

Traina, Cristina L.J. "Creating a Global Discourse in a Pluralist World: Strategies 
from Envirormiental Ethics." In Christian Ethics: Problems and Prospects, 
250-264. Edited by Lisa Sowle Cahill and James F. Childress. Cleveland: 
Pilgrim Press, 1996. 

Article done for the Festschrift for James M. Gustafson made up of 
contributions from his former students. 

Waldeu, Paul. "Beyond Praise of 'The Declaration of the Parliament of World 
Religions'." Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 5 (1/1995): 76-89. 

Critiques the Declaration for being overly anthroprocentric and not taking 
seriously enough animal rights. 

Walzer, Michael. "Shared Meanings in a Poly-Ethnic Democratic Setting: A 
Response." Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1994): 401-408. 

See the same issue for several other articles by other authors on Walzer's 
ethics. 

Wilfred, Felix. "The Language of Human Rights~An Ethical Esperanto?" 
Vidyajyoti 56 (1992): 194-214. 

Wilfred, an Indian theologian, argues that the supposedly "universal" Western 
concept of "human rights" is a sterile ethical esperanto which is derived from 



300 

an abstraction of the lowest common denominator, and which offers "no 
ethical panacea for the problems of conflict-ridden societies of the Third 
World," (p. 214). Instead, many Third World perspectives on human rights 
would find the "universal" only in terms of the particular context vMch can 
then express the fullness of the universal. Paper originally presented at a 
S3anposium organized by the Theologie Interkulturelle of the University of 
Frankfurt-am-Main. 

Yearley, Lee H. "Conflicts among Ideals of Human Flourishing." In Prospects for 
a Common Morality, 233-253. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, 
Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Yearly teaches at Stanford. 



Books on Global Ethics 

Audinet, Jacques. The Human Faces of Globalization: From Multicultural to 
Mestizaje. Lanham MD: Sheed and Ward; Rowman & Littlefield , 2004. 

Proposes a model of mestizaje, the interpenetration and mixing of cultures, 
as a superior model for change which critiques the models of monovisions, 
cultural purists and natavists. Audinet is Professor Emeritus in Anthropology 
at the University of Metz and I'lnstitut Catholique de Paris. 

Bori, Pier Cesare. From Hermeneutics to Ethical Consensus Among Cultures. 
Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994. 

Braybrooke, Marcus, ed. Stepping Stones to a Global Ethic. London: SCM Press 
1992. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Toward Global Ethics." Theological Studies 63 (June 2002): 
324-344. 

Argues that a revised concept of the common good, especially as articulated 
in the tradition of Aquinas, can be useful at approaching a practically-based 
network of core values which would help articulate and refine a genuine 
global ethic. Alternative approaches, e.g., post-modem deconstructionism, 
would be less fruitful in this project. The author is somewhat acquainted 
with the writings of non- Westerners in this area, but her approach is still very 
tied to a Western Thomistic account (in both primary and secondary 
literature) of the natural law, moral reason and the virtues. Largely 



301 

unaddressed are some of the complex issues that would arise out of doing a 
cross-cultural or even a comparative ethics. Cahill is the J. Donald Moonan, 
SJ. Professor of Theology at Boston College. She did her doctoral work 
under James Gustafson at the University of Chicago. 

Coleman, John A., S.J., and Ryan, William R., eds. Globalization and Catholic 
Social Thought. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 2005. 

Cooper, Thomas W., et al. Communication Ethics and Global Challenge. New 
York: Longman, Inc., 1989. 

Includes essays from different cultural settings. 

Cousins, Ewert H. Global Spirituality toward the Meeting of Mystical Paths. 
Madras [India] : Radhakrishnan Institute for Advanced Study in Philosophy, 
Universit}' of Madras, 1985. 

Crawford, S. Cromwell, ed. World Religions and Global Ethics. God, the 
Contemporary Discussion Series, New York: Paragon House Publishers, 
1989. 

Defois, Gerard. Pour une ethique de la culture. Coll. "Eglise et Societe." Paris: 
Editions du Centurion, 1988. 

Evans, Robert A. and Evans, Alice Frazer. Human Rights: A Dialogue between the 
First and Third Worlds. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1983. 

Two years of field research on six continents yielded data for eight case 
studies which illustrate issues of human rights in an international 
perspective. 

Featherstone, Mike, ed. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. 
London: Sage Publications, 1990. 

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. London: 
Hutchinson, 1973. 

Classic of contemporary cultural anthropology. 

Gioseffi, Daniel, ed. On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. New York: Anchor 
books, 1993. 



302 

Green, Ronald M. Religious Reason: The Rational and Moral Basis of Religious 
Belief. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. 

Hoffman, Johannes, ed. Begrundung von Menschenrechten aus der Sicht 
Unterschiedlicher Kulturen. Frankfurt-am-Main: Verlag fiir Interkulturelie 
Kommunikation, 1991. 

Argues that even in spite of cultural diversit}', each culture does have a 
foundation of human rights in its particular philosophical and/or religious 
traditions. 

Hollenbach, David, S.J. The Global Face of Public Faith, Politics, Human Rights, 
and Christian Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 
2003. 

Essays previously published over the last fifteen j^ears. Reviewed by Mary 
Elsbemd, O.S.F. in in Theological Studies 66/2 (June 2005): 479-481. 

Ikeda, Daisaku and Wilson, Bryan. Human Values In A Changing World: A 
Dialogue on the Social Role of Religion. Seacaucus NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1984, 
1987. 

Khoury, Adel, ed. Das Ethos der Weltreligionen. Freiburg: Herder, 1993. 

Kipnis, Kenneth, and Meyers, Diana T., eds. Political Realism and International 
Morality: Ethics in the Nuclear Age. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 
1987. 

Knitter, Paul F. Jesus and the Other Names: Christian Mission and Global 
Responsibility. With a Foreword by Harvey Cox. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis 
Books, 1996. 

. One Faith Many Religions: Multifaith Dialogue and Global Responsibility. 

With a Preface by Hans Kiing. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1995. 

Kting, Hans. A Global Ethic for Global Politics and Economics. Translated by John 
Bowden. London: SCM Press, 1997. 

Reviewed by Herman-Emil Mertens in Louvain Studies 23 (1998): 274-279. 

. Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethic. London: SCM, 1991. 

German Original: Projekt Weltethos. Mtinchen/Ziirich: Piper, 1990. 



303 
In Italian: Progettoper un'etica mondiale. Milano: Rizzoli, 1991. 

In French: Projet d'ithique planetaire. La Paix mondiale par lapaix entre 
les religions. Traduitdel'allemand par Joseph Feisthauer. Paris: Seuil, 1991. 

KOng, Hans, and Kuschel, Karl- Josef, eds. A Global Ethic: The Declaration of the 
Parliament of the World's Religions. With Commentaries by Hans Kiing and 
Karl- Josef Kuschel. Translated by Jown Bowden. New York: Continuum, 
1993. 

German original: Erkldrung zum Weltethos. Die Deklaration des 
Parlamentes der Weltreligionen. Mtinchen: R. Piper GmbH & Co, KG, 
1993. 

Kung, Hans, ed. Yes to a Global Ethic: Voices from Religion and Politics. New 
York: Continuum, 1996. 

German original: Ja zum Weltethos. 

Loos, Amandus William, ed. Religious Faith and World Culture. New York: Books 
for Libraries Press, 1951, 1970. 

Contents: Introduction, by A. W. Loos.~What do we mean by religion? By 
H. E. Fosdick.~The situation we face: a sociological analysis, by K. G. 
Collier." The situation we face: a psychological analysis, by G. W. 
AUport.—Religion and reality, by Martin Buber, translated by N. 
Guterman.-Individualism reconsidered, by D. Riesman.— The individual and 
authority, D. J. Bradley.-Technology and personality, by J. E. 
Burchard.-Faith and freedom, by N. F. S. Ferre.-Prophetic religion and 
world culture, by A. H. Silver.~The world impact of the Russian Revolution, 
by P. E. Mosely.-The whole world in revolt, by M. S. Bates.~The unity of 
interdependence: a case study in international economics, by J. P. 
Condliffe.— Religious faith and human brotherhood, by A. Paton.-Ideal 
democracy and global anarchy, by M. B. Lucas.—World organization and 
world culture, by E. D. Canham. —Individual ethics and world culture, by W. 
R. Mattliews." World faith for world peace, by A. Chakravarty.— Is there a 
nascent world culture? By M. C. D'Arcy. —Cathedral lamp, translated by F. 
Mousseau. 

May, Larry and Sharratt, Shari Collins. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. 
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1994. 



304 

Multicultural and international in emphasis, this text/anthology on applied 
ethics contains essays representing the global theoretical perspectives, 
including selections from Third World and American Indian women. A 
general introduction discusses the nature of morality and surveys the major 
global perspectives on ethics. 

Mayer, Adrian, ed. Culture and Morality: Essays in Honor ofChristoph von Furer- 
Haimendorf. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981. 

Discussed by Mary Douglas in her review essay "Morality and Culture" 
£rWcj 93 (1983): 786-791. 

Mofid, Kamran. Globalisation for the Common Good. Shepheard-Walwyn Ltd., 
2003. 

Placing much of the blame for world poverty on neoclassical economics, this 
text argues against modem economic theory. Economists are derided for a 
lack of a moral vision of society and for their misguided attempts to make 
economics a science devoid of value judgments-cluttered with jargon and 
math and deliberately inaccessible to the average person. Called for is a 
return to the ideas of classical economists such as Adam Smith and Henr>' 
George. Offered is a vision of harmonizing economic efficiency with 
environmental responsibility and an equitable distribution of wealth based on 
Catholic social teaching. Kamran Mofid, Ph.D., has taught economics, 
business studies, international business, energy economics, and Japanese and 
Middle Eastern economics at various universities in the United Kingdom and 
Canada. He is the author of Development Planning in Iran and The Economic 
Consequences of the Gulf War. 

Oglesby, Enoch H. Born in the Fire: Case Studies in Christian Ethics and 
Globalization. New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1990. 

Uses folk parables and ethical case studies from Africa and African- 
American culture to argue for and illustrate an approach to Christian ethics 
which will make greater use of folk wisdom and narrative tradition in its 
approach to ethics. Despite the use of "Globalization" in the book's title, 
Oglesby argues for greater attention to cultural particularity as a constitutive 
element of any viable contextualized Christian ethics. Oglesby is Professor 
of Theology and Social Ethics and Director of Black Church Studies at Eden 
Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. 

Ossowska, Maria. Social Determinants of Moral Ideas. London: Routledge & Kegan 
Paul, 1970. 



305 

Outka, Gene, and Reeder, John P., eds. Prospects for a Common Morality. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Contributions from Robert Merrihew Adams, Annette C. Baier, Alan 
Donagan, Margaret Farley, Alan Gewirth, David Little, Gene Outka, John P. 
Reeder, Jr., Richard Rorty, Jeffrey Stout, and Lee H. Yearley. 

Outka, Gene and Reeder, John P., Jr., eds. Religion and Morality: A Collection of 
Essays. Garden Cit>': Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1973. 

Contributions from Robert Merrihew Adams, K.O.L. Burridge, Eric D'Arcy, 
Donald Evans, William K. Frankena, James M. Gustafson, R.M. Hare, Louis 
Jacobs, Godfrey Lienhardt, David Little, Gene Outka, John P. Reeder, Jr., and 
Sumner B. Twiss, Jr. 

Paige, Glenn D., Gilliatt, Sarah, eds. Buddhism and Nonviolent Global 
Problem-solving: Ulan Bator Explorations. Honolulu: Center for Global 
Nonviolence Planning Project, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, 
University of Hawaii, 1 99 1 . 

Seminar on Buddhism and Leadership for Peace held in Ulan Bator, 
Mongolia, Aug. 15-20, 1989. 

Peters, Rebecca T. In Search of the Good Life: The Ethics of Globalization. New 
York: Continuum Publishing, 2004. 

Pittman, Don A., Ruben L. F. Habito, and Terry C. Muck, eds. Ministry and 
Theology in Global Perspective: Contemporary Challenges for the Church. 
Grand Rapids MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996. 

The three main sections of this book: (1) options for a Christian theology of 
religions, (2) the nature of Christian mission, and (3) interreligious dialogue 
as a Christian task. Each section begins with an introductory essay that 
explores the respective issue and raises questions for discussion, and is 
followed by an extensive collection of readings presenting various viewpoints 
from different traditions intended to elicit open dialogue. 

The Project on Religion and Human Rights. Religion and Human Rights. Edited by 
John Kelsay and Sumner B. Twiss. New York: The Project on Religion and 
Human Rights, 1994. 

Contains five papers: 1) Religion and the Roots of Conflict; 2) Religious 
Militancy or "Fimdamentalism"; 3) Universality vs. Relativism in Human 



306 

Rights; 4) Positive Resources of Religion for Human Rights; and 5) The 
Dialogue on Religion and Human Rights, May 22-24, 1994. 

Ruland, Vernon, S.J. Conscience Across Borders: An Ethics of Global Rights and 
Religious Pluralism. San Francisco: University of San Francisco Press, 2002. 

Ruland teaches at the University of San Francisco. 

Ryan, Maura, and Wliitmore, Todd David, eds. The Challenge of Global 
Stewardship: Roman Catholic Responses. Notre Dame: University of Notre 
Dame Press, 1997. 

Collection of papers delivered at spring 1995 Notre Dame symposium 
sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trusts. 

Schreiter, Robert J, The New Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the 
Local. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997. 

Schweiker, William. Theological Ethics and Global Dynamics: In The Time of 
Many Worlds. Maiden MA: Blackewell, 2004. 

Reviewed by Mark J. AUman in in Theological Studies 66/2 (June 2005): 
478-479. 

Segall, Marshall H., and Pierre R. Dasen, John W. Berry, and Ype H. Poortinga. 
Human Behavior in Global Perspective: An Introduction to Cross-Cultural 
Psychology. Pergamon General Psychology Series, 160. New York: 
Pergamon Press, 1990. 

Shweder, Richard A., and LeVine, Robert A., eds. Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, 
Self, and Emotion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 

Shweder, Richard A. Thinking Through Cultures: Expeditions in Cultural 
Psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. 

Examines the prospects for a reconciliation of rationality and relativism, and 
investigates cross-cultural similarities and differences in mind, self, emotion, 
and morality. 

Singer, Peter. The Ethics of Globalization. New Haven: Yale University Press, 
2002. 



307 

Reviewed by Andres Martinez in The New York Times Book Review (1 
December 2002): 27. 

Stackhouse, Max L., Peter Berger, Dennis P. McCann, and M. Douglas Meeks. 
Christian Social Ethics in a Global Era. Abingdon Press Studies in Christian 
Ethics and Economic Life. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995. 

Stackhouse, Max L., with Peter Paris, eds. God and Globalization: Religion and the 
Powers of the Common Life. Volume 1: God and Globalization, Theology for 
the Twenty-first Century, Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press international, 2000. 

First of a projected four- volume series, which looks at the role(s) of religion 
in the context of globalization. 

Stackhouse, Max L., with Don S. Browning. God and Globalization: Religion and 
the Powers of the Common Life. Volume 2: The Spirit and the Modern 
Authorities. Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press International, 2000. 

Second of a projected four-volume series, which looks at the role(s) of 
religion in the context of globalization, 

Stackhouse, Max L., with Diane B. Obenchain. God and Globalization: Religion 
and the Powers of the Common Life. Volume 3: Christ and the Dominions 
of Civilization. Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press International, 2002. 

Third of a projected four-volume series, which looks at the role(s) of religion 
in the context of globalization. 

Twiss, Simmer B., and Grelle, Bruce, eds. Explorations in Global Ethics: 
Comparative Religious Ethics and Interreligious Dialogue. Boulder: 
Westview Press, 1998. 

Van Den Toren, Benno. "God's Purposes for Creation as the Key to Understanding 
the Universality and Cultural Variety of Christian Ethics." Missiology 30 
(April 2002): 215-232. 

Suggests that ethics should be understood teleologically in relation to God's 
goal and purpose for creation. The universality of this goal then can be a way 
to analyze culturally varying ways of responding to God's purposes. Uses the 
African example of exchange of bride price. 

Will, James E. The Universal God: Justice, Love, and Peace in the Global Village. 
Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994. 



308 

Williams, Oliver F., ed. Global Codes of Conduct: An Ideal Whose Time Has Come. 
The John W. Houck Notre Dame Series in Business Ethics, Notre Dame: 
Universit)' of Notre Dame Press, 2000. 

Argues that multinational corporations have ethical obligations in societies 
in which they operate. Contains nineteen essays which analyze codes of 
conduct and also contains twenty-seven different codes from various 
businesses. Reviewed by John R. Williams in Heythrop Journal 43 (April 
2002): 242-243. 

Wilson, H.S., Takatso Mofokeng, Judo Poerwowidagdo, Alice Evans, and Robert 
Evans. Pastoral Theology From a Global Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: 
Orbis Books, 1996. 

The approach to pastoral theology suggested by the authors is designed to 
hone pastoral skills in five central areas identified as key themes by an 
international and interdenominational group of theologians. These themes 
include: 1) the role of women in church and society, 2) empowering 
marginalized peoples, 3) economic justice and ecology, 4) reconciliation and 
peacemaking, and 5) caring for human needs. The book includes fifteen case 
studies, accompanied by teaching notes and commentaries, that illustrate the 
diversity and communalities of pastoral care in different parts of the world. 

Wilson, James Q. The Moral Sense. New York: The Free Press, 1993. 

Wilson is a social scientist who defends the thesis advanced by the 18th 
century Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson that humans share a "moral 
sense" which relates to moral judgements much in the same way that the 
physical senses, like sight and hearing, relate to perceptual judgments. 
Despite acknowledged differences of apparent moral disagreements among 
various cultures Wilson argues that empirical findings do indicate a core of 
universal or nearly universal fundamental moral attitudes and beliefs. Wilson 
then goes on to explore the ways in which these shared moral beliefs and 
attitudes are grounded in and molded by shared social structures and 
experiences. Ultimately Wilson refers to an Aristotelian concept of moral 
character and virtue, which in turn are best nurtured and sustained in a variety 
of local practices and relationships such as among families, friends and close 
groupings. Reviewed quite favorably by Alasdair Maclntyre in New York 
Times Book Review (29 August 1993): 13. 

Wolfe, Regina Wentzel, and Gudorf, Christine E., eds. Ethics and World Religions: 
Cross-Cultural Case Studies. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1999. 



309 

Presents a variety of case studies using a moral quandary and then gives 
responses by two or three authors who represent a variety of different 
religious and/or cultural backgrounds. 

Wong, David B. Moral Relativity. Berkeley, London and Los Angeles; University 
of California Press, 1984. 

iti iic)|i i|i ^ ijt ^ 4t 



History of Christian Ethics 

Traditional and/or Important Manuals of Moral Theology 

N.B. For Post-Vatican II moral manuals see the Fundamental Ethics section 

Arregui, Antonio M., S.J. Summarium Theologiae Moralis. Ad recentem codicem 
iuris canonici accommodatum. Editio tertia decima iuxta recentissimas 
deciarationes Pontificiae Commissionis ad Codicis canones authentice 
interpretandos. Westminister MD: The Newman Bookshop, 1944. 

Arregui held the moral chair at the University of Deusto in Bilbao from 1 904- 
1915;1918-1919. This moral manual of his went through 1 4 editions by the 
time of his death in 1942, and a further ten posthumously, as revised by his 
successor at Deusto, Marcelino Zalba, S.J. 

Davis, Henry, S.J. Moral and Pastoral Theology. 4 volumes. London: Sheed and 
Ward, 1935, 1958. 

Davis lived from 1866 to 1952 and his manual of moral theology became a 
classic in English-speaking seminaries (especially in the United States). 

, Moral and Pastoral Theology: A Summary. New York: Sheed and Ward, 

1952. 

A one-volume summary of Davis' multi-volume treatment of moral and 
pastoral theology. Davis begins with "treatises" on human acts, conscience, 
law, sin, virtue, the theological virtues, and then proceeds to treat the Ten 
Commandments and precepts of the Church (such as fasting, censorship of 
books, etc.). Follovdng these treatises Davis then considers the various 
"states" of life (clerical, religious, lay), and then moves to a treatment of the 
individual sacraments. Davis' treatment is highly influenced by the canon- 
law approach to moral theology and the administration of the sacraments 
which predominated in the typical moral manual prior to Vatican II. 

Ford, John C, S.J., and Kelly, Gerald, S.J. Contemporary Moral Theology. 
Westminster MD: The Newman Press, 1958. 

Ford and Kelly were two of the principal pre- Vatican 11 moral theologians, 
and Ford was an important contributor to the drafting of Paul VI's encyclical 
Humanae vitae on birth control. 



312 

Gillemann, Gerard, S.J. Le primat de la charite en theologie morale. Brussels: 
Editions Desclee, 1954. 

In English: The Primacy of Charity in Moral Theology. Translated by 
William F. Ryan, S.J. and Andre Vachon, S.J. from the second French 
edition. Westminster MD: The Newman Press, 1959. 

Hagmaier, George, C.S.P., and Gleason, Robert W., S.J. Moral Problems Now: 
Modern Techniques and Emotional Conflicts. London: Sheed and Ward, 
1960. 

Not really a manual of moral theology, but the book addresses psychological 
and moral perspectives on counseling, including chapters on masturbation, 
homosexuality, alcoholism, mental illness, etc. Is of interest as an example 
of pre- Vatican 11 pastoral moral counseling 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Das Gesetz Christi. Moraltheologie fiir Priester und 
Laien. Freiburg: Erich Wewel Verlag, 1954. 

In English: The Law of Christ: Volume 1, General Moral Theology. 
Westminster MD: Newman Press, 1963. 

See especially pp. 3-33 for Haring's overview of the development of moral 
theology prior to Vatican II. 

Haring was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of 
the twentieth century, and this work marked a major turning point from the 
older manualist tradition to a more biblically nourished and personalist 
approach to moral theology. HSring taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican 11. 

Healy, Edwin F., S.J. Moral Guidance. Revised by James F. Meara, S.J. Chicago: 
Loyola University Press, 1942, 1960. 

Revised edition of Healy's 1942 moral manual. This would be typical of the 
type of moral textbook used in Catholic undergraduate religion courses. 
Healy taught at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Jone, Heribert, O.F.M. Cap. Moral Theology. Englished [sic] and adapted to the 
laws and customs of the United States of America by Rev. Urban Adelman, 
O.F.M. Cap. Westminster: The Newman Press, 1957. 



313 

Classic "pocket-size" moral manual of confessional casuistry and canon law, 
translated into numerous languages. 

Koch, Antony. A Handbook of Moral Theology, Revised by Arthur Preuss. 5 vols. 
London: B. Herder, 1919, 1926. 

Lanza, Msgr. Antonio, and Palazzini, Msgr. [later Cardinal] Pietro. Principi di 
Teologia Morali, Vol. 1 Teologia Morale Generale. Roma: Editrice 
Studium, 1957, 1965. 

In English: Principles of Moral Theology, Vol. 1, General Moral Theology. 
Translated by W.J. Collins, M.M. Boston: Daughters of St. Paul, 1 961 . 

A traditional manual of the Pre- Vatican II genre. 

Palazzini, Pietro, Dictionarium morale et canonicum. 4 vols. Rome: Officium Libri 
Catholici, 1962-68. 

Priimmer, Dominic M., O.P. Vademecum Theologiae Moralis. Freiburg: Verlag 
Herder, 1949. 

In English: Handbook of Moral Theology. Translated from the Latin by Rev. 
Gerald W. Shelton. Edited for American Usage by Rev. John Gavin Nolan. 
New York: P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1957. 

Regatillo, E.F. and Zalba, Marcelino. Theologiae moralis summa; iuxta 
ConstitutionemApostolicam, "Deus scientarum Dominus. " Matriti: Editorial 
Cat61ica, 1952-54. 

Classic pre-Vatican 11 moral manual in Latin. 

Roberti, Francesco Cardinal; and Palazzini, Msgr, Pietro, eds. Dizionario di teologia 
morale. 2° ed, Roma: Editrice Studium, 1955, 1957, 

A classic dictionary of moral theology which is an excellent resource for 
definitions and short encyclopedic articles of a wide variety of moral terms, 
though obviously in the spirit of the pre-Vatican II manualist tradition. 

In English: eds. Dictionary of Moral Theology. Translated from the Second 
Italian Edition Under the Direction of Henry J. Yannone. London: Bums & 
Gates, 1962. 



314 

Articles on the History of Moral Theology 

Amtz, Joseph, O.P. "Natural Law and Its History." Concilium 5 (1/1965): 23-32. 

Baker, Robert, Dorothy Porter, and Ray Porter, eds. The Codification of Medical 
Morality: Historical and Philosophical Studies of the Formalization of 
Western Medical Morality in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Vol. 
I, Medical Ethics and Etiquette in the Eighteenth Century. Dordrecht, 
Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993. 

Papers delivered at a conference on the history of medical ethics held at the 
Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine 1989. The three sections 
treat: 1) medical propriety prior to the formalization of medical ethics in the 
lectures of John Gregory and the Code of Thomas Percival; 2) the 
philosophical framework which formed the background of Gregory and 
Percival's studies at Leiden and Edinburgh; 3) the lives and writings of 
Gregory and Percival. 

Boyle, John P. "The Ordinary Magisterium: Towards a History of the Concept," 
Heythrop Journal 20 (1979): 380-398; 21 (1980): 14-29. 

Critiques, in light of contemporary theological reflection, the received notion 
of the concept of the ordinary magisterium from the work of 19th century 
Jesuit theologian, Joseph Kleutgen through Tuas Libenter. 

Caffarra, Carlo. "Storia della teologia morale." In Amrogio Valsecchi and Leonardo 
Rossi, eds. Dizionario Enciclopedico di Teologia Morale, 1093-1112. 3rd 
ed. Roma: Edizioni Paoline, 1974. 

Callahan, Michael. "The Changing of Catholic Moral Theology: From the 
Constitution De Ordine Morali to Gaudium et Spes." Louvain Studies 3 
(1970-71): 41-50. 

Discusses the changes from the pre-conciliar schema "De Ordine Morali" to 
the fmal version of Gaudium et spes, and thus evidences an important 
paradigm shift in the consideration of fimdamental moral theology. Callahan 
was ordained in 1969 for the Detroit Archdiocese. 

Citterio, F. "Appunti per un capitolo di Storia della Teologia Morale. Dal 
Tridentino al Secondo Concilio Vaticano." LaScuola Cattolica 1 15 (1987): 
495-539. 



315 

Clark, Elizabeth A. "Sex, Shame, and Rhetoric: En-gendering Early Christian 
Ethics." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 59 (1991): 221-245, 

1990 Presidential Address of the American Academy of Religion. Clark is 
Professor of Religion at Duke University. 

Congar, Yves, O.P. "Pour une histoire s^mantique du terme 'magisterium'." Revue 
des sciences philosophiques et theologiques 60 (1976): 84-97. 

_______ "Brief historique des formes du 'magistere' et des ses relations avec les 

docteurs." Revue des sciences philosophiques et theologiques 60 (1 976): 98- 
112. 

Cosgrave, William, "How Celtic Penance Gave Us Personal Confession." Doctrine 
and Life 41 (1991): 412-422 

Delhaye, Philippe. "The Contribution of Vatican II to Moral Theology." Concilium 
5 (8/1972): 58-67. 

Ernst, Wilhelm. "The 'Classical' and 'Modem' Foundation of Ethics in the Middle 

Ages." 

Firth, Francis, C.S.B. "Catholic Sexual Morality in the Patristic and Medieval 
Periods," In Human Sexuality and Personhood: Proceedings of the 
Workshop for the Hierarchies of the United States and Canada Sponsored by 
the Pope John Center through a Grant from the Knights of Columbus, 36-52. 
Rev. ed. St. Louis: Pope John Center, 1981, 1990. 

Fuchs, Eric. "50 ans de th^ologie morale, un essai d'evaluation." Le Supplement 
200 (1997): 61-76. 

English digest under the title "50 years of moral theology." Theology Digest 
45 (Spring 1998): 7-11. Fuchs is on the Protestant faculty at the University 
of Geneva. 

Gallagher, John, C.S.B. "Magisterial Teaching from 191 8 to the Present." In Human 
Sexuality and Personhood: Proceedings of the Workshop for the Hierarchies 
of the United States and Canada Sponsored by the Pope John Center through 
a Grant from the Knights of Columbus, 191-210. Rev. ed. St. Louis: Pope 
John Center, 1981,1990. 



316 

Gallagher, Raphael, C.Ss.R. "Fundamental Moral Theology 1975-1979: A bulletin- 
analysis of some significant writings examined from a methodological 
stance." Studia Moralia IS {mQ): 147-192. 

Looks at recent moral syntheses in terms of four basic and dominant 
methodologies for formulating moral theology, based on: 1) a consciously 
constructed system of adequately formulated material norms as the first and 
principle step; 2) an explicitly articulated system of a coherent Christian 
ethos; 3) giving coherence and continuity to moral analysis through a 
systematic reflection on morally relevant experiences; 4) searching for the 
historical continuity with past forms and placing a statement of contemporary 
moral theology in the context of present historical and cultural realities, 

Galvin, John P. "Papal Primacy in Contemporary Roman Catholic Theology." 
Theological Studies 47 (1986): 653-667. 

Summarizes and discusses the themes of the theology of papal primacy 
developed by Charles Joumet (1 891-1 975) and notes some recent ecumenical 
proposals. 

Gould, Graham. "New Occasions Teach New Duties?: The Contribution of the 
Church Fathers." The Expository Times 105 (1994): 228-232. 

One of several articles dealing with the theme of teaching new moral duties. 

Halliburton, John. "'A Godly Discipline': Penance and Penitence in the Early 
Church. " In Confession and Absolution, 40-5 5 . Edited by Martin Dudley and 
Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "How Free and Creative Was and Is Moral Theology?" 
Chapter Two in Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and 
Laity: Volume 1, General Moral Theology, 28-58. Slough: St. Paul 
Publications, 1978. 

Gives a good basic overview of the history of moral theology in the light of 
HSring's organizing themes of creative freedom and fidelity. HMring was one 
of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of the twentieth 
century, and taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured 
throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus (expert 
consultant) at Vatican H. 



317 

Hitchcock, James F. "The Development of Catholic Doctrine Concerning Sexiial 
Morality 1300-1918." In Human Sexuality and Personhood: Proceedings of 
the Workshop for the Hierarchies of the United States and Canada Sponsored 
by the Pope John Center through a Grant from the Knights of Columbus, 53- 
66. Rev. ed. St. Louis: Pope John Center, 1981, 1990. 

Honnefelder, Ludger. "Naturrecht und Geschichte. Historisch-systematische Cber 
legungen zum mitelalterlichen Naturrechtsdenken." In Naturrecht im 
ethischen Diskurs. Herausgegeben von Marianne Heimbach-Steins. Mtoster: 
Aschendorff, 1990. 

Hoose, Bernard. "Building on the Past." Chapter 5 in Received Wisdom?: 
Reviewing the Role of Tradition in Christian Ethics. 151-183. London: 
Geoffrey Chapman, 1994. 

Hoose did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome. 

Johnson, James Turner. "Just War, As It Was and Is." First Things (January 2005): 
14-24. 

Looks at a brief history of just war theory in Christian ethics before turning 
to developments in the Catholic tradition from the U.S. Bishops' 1983 
Pastoral Letter The Challenge of Peace through the Catechism of the 
Catholic Church and reflections on the United Nations and the Iraq wars. 
Johnson concludes by identifying four challenges to be met in recovering the 
classic just war tradition for use in contemporary moral reflection. Johnson 
is Professor of Religion at Rutgers University. 

__. "Historical Tradition and Moral Judgment: The Case of Just War Tradition." 

Journal of Religion 64 (1984): 299-317. 

Originally given as the 1 982 Sharpe Memorial Lecture at the Divinity School 
of the University of Chicago. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "From Physicalism to Personalism." Studia Moralia 
30 (1992): 71-96. 

Analyzes the "paradigm-shift" in Roman Catholic moral theology from a 
physicalist understanding of human nature and moral reasoning to a 
personalist version and then discusses the origins of physicalism, its 
problematic features, and solutions proposed by personalism. Finally, 



318 

Johnstone identifies and evaluates 3 basic personaiist models. Johnstone, an 
Australian, is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome. 

Jones, David Albert, O.P. "The Radical Renewal of Moral Theology: A Response 
to Fr. Kevin Kelly." Catholic Medical Quarterly 10 (November 1999): 14- 
18. 

See Kelly' s "The Changing Face of Moral Theology at the Dawn of the New 
Millennium" in the same issue, pp. 5-13. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "Can a Wrong Action Be Good? The Development of 
Theological Opinion on Erroneous Conscience." Eglise et thiologie 24 
(1993): 205-219. 

Brief historical overview of the tradition of this issue. Keenan did his 
doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, 
and taught at Fordham University in New York before joining the faculty of 
the Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now 
teaches at Boston College. 

. "The Casuistry of John Major: Nominalist Professor of Paris (1506-1531). 

The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 205-221 . 

. "Moral Theology and History." Theological Studies 62 (March 2001): 86- 

104. 

Part of the annual "Notes on Moral Theology Section." 

_. "Theological Trends: Christian Ethics: The Last Ten Years." The Way 32 

(1992): 215-223. 

Gives an overview of the principal debates in moral theology in the 1970s, 
as well as some of the new trends in the discipline which developed in the 
1980s. 

Kelly, Kevin T. "The Changing Face of Moral Theology at the Dawn of the New 
Millennium." Catholic Medical Quarterly 10 (November 1999): 5-13. 

See the critical response by David Albert Jones, O.P., in the same issue, pp. 
14-18: "The Radical Renewal of Moral Theology: A Response to Fr. Kevin 
Kelly." 



319 

Langan, John P., S.J. "Catholic Moral Rationalism and the Philosophical Bases of 
Moral Theology." Theological Studies 50 (1989): 25-43. 

Langan begins with an overview of the uneasy relationship between 
Catholicism and modem philosophy back in 1940, then outlines the major 
features which had traditionally given Catholic moral theology a sense of 
confidence in its o\m rationality and objectivity, and finally concludes with 
a consideration of various aspects of post- Vatican II theology which have 
strained the position of Catholic rationalism. Langan is Rose F. Kennedy 
Professor of Christian Ethics at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute 
of Ethics. 

Leies, John A., S.M. "Magisterial Teaching on Human Sexuality and Marriage: 
1980-1990." In Human Sexuality and Personhood: Proceedings of the 
Workshop for the Hierarchies of the United States and Canada Sponsored by 
the Pope John Center through a Grant from the Knights of Columbus, 253- 
265. Rev. ed. St. Louis: Pope John Center, 1981, 1990. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "Moral Theology 1940-1989: An Overview." 
Theological Studies 50 (1989): 3-24. 

Also found in McCormick's Corrective Vision: Explorations in Moral 
Theology. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1994; and in The Historical 
Development of Fundamental Moral Theology in the United States: Readings 
in Moral Theology, 11, 46-72. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1999. 

Presents a thematic overview of the last fifty years of moral theology, 
especially as its development was reflected in various articles published in 
Theological Studies. 

Medevielle, Genevieve. "Arrives apr^s la bataille." Le Supplement 200 (1997): 107- 
123. 

English digest under the title "Changes in moral: student views." Theology 
Digest 45 (Spring 1998): 13-18. 

Considers the history of moral theology of the last 50 years from the 
perspective of concerns and impressions given by students at the Institut 
Catholique de Paris look on these changes. The author is a professor at the 
Institut Catholique de Paris. 



320 

Moore, Eduardo, S.J. "Los Jesuitas en la historia de la teologia moral" Studia 
Moralia 28 (1990): 223-245. 

Also found in Historia: Memoria Futuri. Melanges Louis Vereecke (70° 
anniversaire de naissancel, 227-249. Edited by R6al Tremblay, C.Ss.R. and 
Dennis J. Billy, C.Ss.R. Roma: Editiones Academiae Alphonsianae, 1991. 

Treats the contribution of Jesuits to moral theology from the founding of the 
order until the Suppression in 1773. 

Murphy, Francis. "Concupiscence (Epithumia): A Key to Moral Pluralism in the 
Early Church." Concilium 150 (1981): 3-8. 

Noonan, John T., Jr. "Development in Moral Doctrine." Theological Studies 54 
(1993): 662-677. 

Looks at how moral doctrine has changed over the centuries in some concrete 
instances, such as marriage, taking of interest, slavery, and so on. Noonan 
notes that sometimes what had been permitted in the past was later 
proscribed, at other times what was proscribed was later permitted. 
Similarly, certain other practices which had been encouraged were later 
discouraged and vice versa. Noonan is a legal historian, professor of law at 
the University of California-Berkeley (Boalt Hall), and United States federal 
appellate court judge. 

. "On the Development of Doctrine." America 180 (3 April 1999): 6-8. 



Brief article which considers how the Church has developed its moral 
doctrine in five key areas: adultery, the death penalty, religious liberty, 
slavery, and usury. 

Kigali, Norbert J., S.J. "After the Moral Catechism." Chicago Studies 20 (1981): 
151-162. 

Using the publication of the "Moral Catechism" as a thematic issue in 
Chicago Studies in 1974 as a reference point, Rigali argues that the reform 
of moral theology in the past thirty years is but a prelude to a still more 
profound reformulation. Gives an overview of the contemporary discussion 
on moral themes such as Sin and Reconcilation, Moral Norms, Models of 
Morality, and the Specificity of Christian Ethics. 



321 

SchlOgel, Herbert, O.P. Kirche und sittliches Handeln: Zur Ekklesiologie in der 
Grundlagenddiscmsion der deutschprachigen katholischen Moraltheologie 
seit der Jahrhundertwende. Mainz: Matthias-Grilnewald Verlag, 1981 . 

Schmitz, Philip, S.J. "Kasuistik. Bin wiederentdecktes Kapitel der Jesuitenmoral." 
Theologie und Philosophie 67 (1992): 29-59. 

Schmitz did his dissertation under Josef Fuchs, and taught moral theology at 
Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt before moving to the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome. 

Schockenhoff, Eberhard. "Wozu gut sien? Eine historisch-systematischen Studie 
zum Ursprung des moralischen SoUens. I. Thomas und Kant. " Studia Moralia 
33 (June 1995): 87-120. 

. "Wozu gut sein? Eine historisch-systematischen Studie zum Ursprung des 

moralischen SoUens. II. Fichte und die gegenwartige Ethik." Studia Moralia 
33 (1995): 265-87. 

Selling, Joseph A. "Magisterial Teaching on Marriage, 1880-1968. Historical 
Constancy or Radical Development? Studia Moralia 28 (1990): 439-490. 

Also found in Historia: Memoria Futuri. Melanges Louis Vereecke (70° 
anniversaire de naissance), 35 1 -402. Edited by Real Tremblay, C.Ss.R. and 
Dennis J. Billy, C.Ss.R. Roma: Editiones Academiae Alphonsianae, 1991. 

By analyzing the teachings of Popes Leo XIII to Paul VI Humanae Vitae's 
claim of the existence of a clearly definable body of teaching with respect to 
marriage which has been "constantly" taught by the Magisterium is evaluated. 
Selling concludes that a new norm, "openness to procreation" emerged which 
went "considerably beyond what Pius XII had explicitly taught." Humanae 
vitae itself "can be better characterized either as a radical development in the 
line of teaching of Leo XIII, Pius XI and Pius XII, or a departure &om the 
developing teaching of [these same popes] and the Second Vatican Council." 
Selling teaches moral theology on the Faculty of Theology at the Catholic 
University of Louvain. 

Spohn, William C. "The Moral Vision of the Catechism: Thirty Years That Did Not 
Happen." America 162 (3 March 1989): 189-192. 

Critique of the first draft of the Universal Catechism's overall approach to 
moral theology. Spohn did his doctorate imder James Gustafson at the 
University of Chicago and taught for many years at the Jesuit School of 



322 

Theology-at-Berkeley before taking a chair at Santa Clara University, where 
he taught until his death in 2005. 

V61ez, Juan, S.J. "Hacia una moral fundamental bibiico-cristolgica, religioso- 
personalista y dialogico-responsorial (OT 1 6). (Apuntes para una historia de 
la moral fundamental personalista). Estudios Eclesidsticos 56 (1981): 1 177- 
1236. 

Velez is professor of moral theology at the Universidad de Deusto in Bilbao. 

. "Pluralismo y convergencias en la moral postconciliar." Estudios 

Eclesidsticos 56 (1 98 1 ): 1 253- 1 3 1 7. 

Overview of principal post-conciliar Western European moral theologians. 

Vermeersch, Arthur, S.J. "Soixante ans de th^ologie morale." Nomelle Revue 
Theologique 56 (1929): 863-884. 

1929 article reviewing the previous sixty years of developments in moral 
theology. Vermeersch taught for many years at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome, and was instrumental in the drafting of Pius XI's 1930 
Encyclical Casti Connubii condemning artificial contraception. 

Vereecke, Louis, C.Ss.R. "L'enseignement de la theologie morale du concile de 
Trente au concile Vatican II." Seminarium 34 (1994): 22-30. 

Part of a symposium on Veritatis Splendor held at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Zalba, Marcelino, S.J. "Un siglo de Teologia Moral (1880-1980)." Estudios 
Eclesidsticos 56 (1981): 1 133-1 175. 

Zalba taught moral theology for many years in his native Spain, and at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. He was involved in the Pontifical 
Birth Control Commission, and allied strongly with the conservative 
minority. 

Ziegler, J.G. "Moraltheologie und christliche Gesellschafstlehre im 20. 
Jahrhundert." In Herbert Vorgrimler and R. van der Gucht, eds. Bilanz der 
Theologie im 20. Jahrhundert. Freiburg: Herder, 1970. 



323 
Books on the History of Moral Theology 

Beach, Waldo, and Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christian Ethics: Sources of the Living 
Tradition. 2nd Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1973. 

History of Christian ethics from the Protestant perspective. 

Boyle, John P. Church Teaching Authority: Historical and Theological Studies. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995 

Boyle, Patrick J., S.J. Parvitas Materiae in Sexto in Contemporary Catholic 
Thought. Lanham: University Press of America, 1987. 

Presents an historical overview of the traditional teaching, followed by a 
consideration of contemporary objections to the teaching as well as a critical 
evaluation of both traditional and contemporary teachings on the parvity of 
matter in sexual sins. Good rehearsal of the issues involved pro and con on 
the existence of objective morality and intrinsic evil. Boyle did his doctorate 
at Marquette University at teaches moral theology at Mundelein Seminary in 
Chicago. 

Brooke, Christopher N.L. Marriage in Christian History. Cambridge: Cambrid 
University Press, 1978. 

. The Medieval Idea of Marriage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. 



Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in 
Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988. 

Reviewed by Charles Kannengiesser in Religious Studies Review 19 (1993): 
126-129. 

Bruch, R. Moralia varia. Lehrgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu 
moraltheologischen Fragen. Dilsseldorf: Patmos, 1981. 

Brundage, James A. Law, Sex and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1987. 

Buckle, Stephen. Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 



324 

Curran, Charles E., and McComaick, Richard A,, S.J. The Historical Development 
of Fundamental Moral Theology in the United States. Readings in Moral 
Theology. 11. New York: Paulist Press, 1999. 

Curran, Charles E. Catholic Social Teaching, 1891-Present: A Historical, 
Theological, and Ethical Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 2002. 

. The Origins of Moral Theology in the United States: Three Different 

Approaches. Moral Traditions and Moral Arguments Series. Washington 
D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1997. 

Elliott, Dyan. Spiritual Marriage: Sexual Abstinence in Medieval Wedlock. 
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 

Reviewed by Margaret R. Miles in Theological Studies 55 (1994): 148-150, 

Forell, George Wolfgang. History of Christian Ethics. Volume 1: From the New 
Testament to Augustine. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1979. 

Forell is Carver Distinguished Professor of Religion at the University of 
Iowa. 

Freppert, Lucan. The Basis of Morality According to William Ockham. Chicago: 
Franciscan Herald Press, 1988. 

Gallagher, John A. Time Past, Time Future: An Historical Study of Catholic Moral 
Theology. New York: PauUst Press, 1990. 

Treats particularly the history of moral theology as it moved from the neo- 
Scholasticism and neo-Thomism of the manualist tradition through Conciliar 
and post-Conciliar developments. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Fede, storia, morale: Intervista di Gianni Licheri. 
Concilio aperto. Roma: Edizione Borla, 1989. 

Extended interview with Hfiring covering the theologian's whole life, with 
particular emphasis in the form of documentation given to his difficulties 
with the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Licheri offers a long 
introduction in the beginning, filling in the context of the Italian church of the 
transition from Paul VI to John Paul H. Haring was one of the leading 
Catholic moral theologians of the last half of the twentieth century, and 
taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the 



325 

world, and played an important role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican 
II. 

In English: My Witness for the Church. Translated by Leonard Swidler. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1992. Reviewed by Sean Fagan, S.M. in Doctrine 
and Life 41 (January 1991): 45-47; and by Richard A. McCormick, S.J. in 
Theological Studies 53 (1992): 788. 

Translated from the German. This text is not identical with the Italian 
original, which contains more material. 

In German: Meine Erfahrung mit der Kirche. Einleitung und Fragen von 
Giarmi Licheri. Freiburg: Herder, 1989. 

. Das Gesetz Christi. Moraltheologie fUr Priester und Laien. Freiburg: Erich 

WewelVerlag, 1954. 

In English'. The Law of Christ: Volume 1, General Moral Theology. 
Westminster: Newman Press, 1963. 

See especially pp. 3-33 for Haring's overview of the development of moral 
theology prior to Vatican II. 

Hoose, Bernard. Proportionalism: The American Debate and its European Roots. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1987. 

Revised doctoral dissertation done at the Pontifical Gregorian University 
under Josef Fuchs, S.J., tracing the development and theological issues 
contained in the moral theory of proportionalism, from the initial publication 
of Peter Knauer, S.J.'s 1965 article on a revised approach to the Principle of 
the Double Effect through subsequent writings and debate primarily in 
Germany and North America. 

Jonsen, Albert R., and Toulmin, Stephen. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of 
Moral Reasoning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. 

Critiqued by Terence Kennedy in his "Casuistry and the Problem of 
Pragmatism," Australasian Catholic Record 69 (1992): 67-77. 

Kaiser, Robert Blair. The Encyclical That Never Was: The Story of the Pontifical 
Commission on Population, Family and Birth, 1964-1966. London: Sheed 
& Ward, 1985, 1987. 



326 

Initially published in the U.S.A. in 1985 under the title The Politics of Sex 
and Religion. Journalistic style account of the origin and history of the work 
of the Pontifical Commission on Birth, first established by John XXIII and 
then augmented by Paul VI. Includes the so-called "majority report" which 
was presented to Paul VI, and discusses some of the reasons for the rejection 
of this report, and the drafting of the encyclical Humane vitae which took an 
opposite tack. 

Kaufman, Philip S., O.S.B. Why You Can Disagree and Remain a Faithful Catholic. 
Bloomington IN: Meyer Stone Books, 1989. 

Discusses probabilism, infallibility and many of the issues connected with the 
proclamation of the birth control teaching of the Church. 

Kelly, David F. The Emergence of Roman Catholic Medical Ethics in North 
America. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1979. 

Kent, Bonnie. Virtues of the Will: The Transfoimation of Ethics in the Late 
Thirteenth Century. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America 
Press, 1995. 

Leites, Edmund, ed. Conscience and Casuistry in Early Modem Europe. 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des 
sciences de I'homme, 1988. 

Reviewed by Thomas McCoog, S.J. in Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 276- 
277; reviewed by James M. Gustafson m Journal of Religion 69 (1989): 579- 
580. 

Long, Edward LeRoy, Jr. Academic Bonding and Social Concern: The Society of 
Christian Ethics 1959-1983. Religious Ethics, Inc., 1984. 

MacNamara, Vincent. Faith and Ethics. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan; and 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985. 

Good theological discussion of the major developments in the renewal of 
Roman Catholic moral theology from the end of the 19th century up to the 
present. Treats especially well the contemporary debate between the "Moral 
Autonomy School" (e.g. Alfons Auer, Josef Fuchs, Bruno Schiiller, etc.) and 
the "Faith Ethic School ([Glaubensethik], e.g. Joseph Ratzinger, Heinz 
Schilrmann, etc.). 



327 

Mahoney, John, S.J. The Making of Moral Theology: A Study of the Roman Catholic 
Tradition. The Martin D'Arcy Memorial Lectures, 1981-2. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1987. 

Treats the development of moral theology from a thematic perspective. 

For an extremely critical and rather narrow-minded review of this book see 
Germain Grisez's article, "History as Argument for Revision in Moral 
Theology," The Thomist 55 (1991): 103-116. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. The Critical Calling: Reflections on Moral Dilemmas 
Since Vatican II. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989. 

A series of essays, many previously published elsewhere, treating a wide 
range of many of the critical issues in moral theology, such as pluralism, 
dissent, sexual ethics, bioethics, etc., since the close of the Second Vatican 
Council. 

. Notes on Moral Theology: 1965 through 1980. Boston: University Press of 

America, 1981. 

Collection of McCormick's "Notes on Moral Theology" published annually 
in the March issue of Theological Studies. 

. Notes on Moral Theology: 1981 through 1984. Boston: University Press of 

America, 1984. 

Continuation of the collection of McCormick's "Notes on Moral Theology" 
published annually in the March issue of Theological Studies. 

Meeks, Wayne A. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. 
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993, 

Noonan, John T., Jr. A Church That Can and Cannot Change: The Development of 
Catholic Moral Teaching. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 
2005. 

Considers how moral doctrine has changed over the centuries in a number of 
key areas such as slavery, usury, religious freedom, and marriage. Reviewed 
by Peter Steinfels in The New York Times Book Review (22 May 2005): 26; 
by Msgr. Harry J. Byrne in America (25 April 2005): 25-27; and by Ann S.F. 
Swaner in Catholic Studies: An Online Journal 
http://catholicbookreviews.org . Noonan is a legal historian, professor of law 



328 

at the University of California-Berkeley (Boalt Hall), and United States 
federal appellate court judge for the Ninth District. 

. Contraception: A History of Its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and 

Canonists. Enlarged edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, 
1986. 

, Power to Dissolve; Lawyers and Marriages in the Courts of the Roman 

Curia. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972. 

. The Scholastic Analysis of Usury. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 

1957. 

Odozor, Paulinus Ikechukwu, C.S.Sp. Moral Theology in an Age of Renewal: A 
Study of the Catholic Tradition since Vatican II. Notre Dame, IN: University 
of Notre Dame Press, 2003. 

Most of the debates and much of the sources are Euro-centric, with 
revisionist theologians (many of whom work in the United States) being cast 
against either the Vatican or those others in particular favor in Rome (such 
as the Grisez school). Part One looks at the historical, ecclesial and 
theological contexts for moral theology, concentrating on Vatican II and 
Humanae vitae. Part Two turns to the nature of Christian ethics, with 
chapters on the distinctiveness (proprium) of Christian ethics. Scripture and 
ethics, natural law, and the role of the Magisterium. Part Three focuses on 
the debates over moral norms and includes recent work in virtue ethics and 
a renewed casuistry and Part Four sums up the discussion and concludes with 
an appreciative summary of Veritatis splendor. Odozor is Nigerian and a 
Visiting Associate Professor of Christian Ethics at the University of Notre 
Dame. Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies, 66 
(March 2005): 210-212; Ki Joo Choi in Religious Studies Review 30 
(April-July 2004): 170; and Richard Gula, S.S. in America. 

. Richard A. McCormick and the Renewal of Moral Theology. Notre Dame, IN: 

University of Notre Dame Press, 1995. 

Payer, Pierre J. Sex and the Penitentials: The Development of A Sexual Code 550- 
1150. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984. 

Payer is Professor of Philosophy at Mount Saint Vincent University. 



329 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. Les Sources de la Morale Chretienne: So mithode, son 
contenu, son histoire. Etudes D'Ethique Chretienne, 14. Paris: Editions du 
Cerf, 1985. 

In English: The Sources of Christian Ethics. Translated by Sr. Mary Thomas 
Noble, O.P. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Univ. of America Press, 1995. 

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 371- 
373. 

Rey-Mermet, Theodule. La Morale selon saint Alphonse de Liguori. Histoire de la 
Morale. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1987. 

Rohls, Jan. Geschichte der Ethik. Tiibingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1991. 

Svanera, O. Coscienza e norma morale nei catechismi italiani (1912-1982). 
Bologna: Edizione Dehoniane Bologna, 1991. 

Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. Catholics and Contraception: An American History. 
Cushwah Center Studies of Catholicism in Twentieth-Century America. 
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004. 

Tentler concentrates on the lay people in the American pews and the priests 
in the pulpits and confessionals from a period which commences with the 
nearly unanimous opposition to birth control by religious leaders in the late 
nineteenth century and concludes with the period of the initial reaction, and 
large-scale rejection which the American Catholic laity accorded to Paul VI's 
1968 Encyclical Humanae vitae which reaffirmed the unconditional ban on 
artificial contraception. Along the way Tentler shows the larger forces of 
cultural change and the development of mores which would impact views of 
sex and sexuality beyond simply the contraception question/issue. Her work 
brings together an incredible amount of research into the archives of dioceses 
and religious orders, especially those who preached the once popular parish 
missions which were a bulwark of support for the Church's position on birth 
control. This archival research is augmented by a considerable number of 
interviews conducted with American clergy who were ordained prior to 1 960. 
The book concludes with a riveting account of the role played by John Ford, 
S.J. as aperitus at Vatican 11, and his behind-the-scenes efforts to thwart the 
Pontifical Commission on Population, Family and Birth's majority report 
which had called for a change in the Church's absolute opposition to birth 
control. Tentler shows, though, that Ford's victor^' with the publication of 
Humanae vitae had the opposite effect of what he expected, since the 
resulting fallout did not prevent American Catholics' practice of birth control 



330 

from mirroring that of the general population and exacerbated a significant 
decline in the obedience and respect given to the Church's hier^chical 
authority. Tentler is professor of history at The Catholic University of 
America. Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J, in Catholic Studies: An Online 
Journal http://CatholicBooksRevue.org : and by Charles R. Morris in 
Commonweal 132/9 (6 May 2005): 30-31. 

Tremblay, Real, C.Ss.R. and Billy, Dennis J., C.Ss.R., eds. Historia: Memoria 
Futuri. Milanges Louis Vereecke (70° anniversaire de naissance). 
Questiones Morales, 5. Roma: Editiones Academiae Alphonsianae, 1991. 

A Festschrift for Louis Vereecke, C.Ss.R. of articles previously published in 
Studia Moralia 28 (1990). Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in 
Gregorianum 73(1992): 159-160. 

Vereecke, Louis, C.Ss.R. Da Guglielmo d'Ockam a Sant'Alfonso de Liguori. Saggi 
di storia della teologia morale moderna (1300-1787). Teologia Morale, 
Studi e Testi, 1. Cinsello Balsamo: Ediozioni Paoline, 1990. 

Vereecke taught historical moral theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome. 

White, R.E.O. The Changing Continuity of Christian Ethics. Volume 2: The 
Insights of History. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1981. 

Volume 1, published in 1979, is on Biblical Ethics. The Second Volume is 
a history of Christian ethics, in the Protestant perspective, from the time of 
Christ up to the present. 

Wogaman, J. Philip. Christian Ethics: A Historical Introduction. Louisville: 
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993. 

Womer, Jan L., trans, and ed. Morality and Ethics in Early Christianity. 
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Selections from the first five centuries of Christendom, 

Woods, Waher J. Walking With Faith: New Perspectives on the Sources and 
Shaping of the Catholic Moral Life. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

Woods, who taught moral theology for nearly two decades in the Boston 
Archdiocesan St. John's Seminary, has sought to write a text on the history 
and formative influences on Catholic morality from the period of the Hebrew 
Scriptures to Post-Vatican II. Too much, frankly, is undertaken and the 



331 

overall result lacks a clear sense of organizing and/or interconnecting themes 
which might have better guided the reader through the centuries covered. 
The author is at his best in his concise thumbnail sketches of figures like 
William of Ockham and Duns Scotus, but other major figures and themes are 
missing altogether while still others make only the briefest of appearances. 
However, the author does include a wealth of material in his copious 
footnotes which would be of value to those who would wish to pursue a 
given topic fiirther, though many of the works cited are somewhat dated and 
very few references are given to either feminist and/or contemporary non- 
Anglo-European authors. 



Inculturation and Christian Ethics 

Articles on Inculturation of Ethics 

Arokiasamy, Soosai. "The Challenges of a Divided India to the Social Teaching of 
the Church." Indian Theological Studies 28 (1991): 234-258. 

One of several articles devoted to the special theme of the social teaching of 
the Church in the Indian context. 

. "Sarvodaya through Antyodaya: 77?^ Liberation of the Poor in the 



Contextualisation of Morals." Vidyajyoti 51 (1987): 11; 545-564. 

The first part of the article deals vAih the consciousness of the poor in history 
to show that the commitment to the dignity of every human person 
(sarvodaya) is mediated by the critical option for the last and least 
(antyodaya). The second part develops the commitment to the poor in 
different areas of ethics by taking up virtues occurring in Hindu, Buddhist 
and Jain texts. A's aim is to show that they can be contextuaiized if situated 
in historical contexts, 

Batumalai, S. "Malaysian Theology: An Understanding of Conversion from a 
Malaysian Perspective." Asia Journal of Theology 5 (1991): 119-129. 

Biematzki, William E., S.J. "Symbol and Root Paradigm: The Locus of Effective 
Inculturation." In Effective Inculturation and Ethnic Identity. Inculturation: 
Working Papers on Living Faith and Cultures, no. 9, edited by Ary A. Roest 
CroUius, S.J., 49-68. Rome: Centre "Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical 
Gregorian University, 1987. 

Biematzki is a cultural anthropologist who also has a theological background, 
and who lived and taught in Korea for many years and is now director of the 
Center for Communication and Culture at St. Louis University. 

Blank, Josef "Unity and Plurality in New Testament Ethics." Concilium 150 (1981): 
65-71. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Cultural Particularity and the Globalization of Ethics in the 
Light of hiculturation." Pacifica 9 (1996): 69-86. 

Increased interest in the so-called "globalization of ethics" has led to a 
number of studies which utilize various hermeneutical and commimicative 
theories to sketch out viable paradigms for developing a fundamental 



334 



Christian ethics as a whole, as well as its various components such as moral 
reasoning, which together would be capable of entering into and maintaining 
such discourse. The accent of most of these studies falls on the 
universal izability of ethical discourse and scant attention has been given to 
the cviltural particularity of each and every ethos and ethical system. This 
article briefly rehearses the principal elements of the concerns raised by the 
globalization of ethics and then focuses on the particularity of culture using 
insights from both cultural anthropology and inculturation. The Confucian 
context of Korea is employed to illustrate some of the issues raised by greater 
attention to cultural particularity. 

"Moral Theology Out of East Asia." Theological Studies 61 (March 2000): 
106-121. 

Review of some of the main issues, recent developments and contributions 
of Christian ethicians and others working in East Asia. Special attention is 
paid to the recent Synod on Asia. 

"A New Pentecost for Moral Theology: The Challenge of hiculturation of 
Ethics." Josephinum 10:2 (Summer/Fall 2003): 250-260. 

Suggests that a principal task for the discipline of moral theology at the 
beginning of the twenty-first century will be to engage the challenge of 
developing a cross-cultural ethics which will recognize first that a certain 
plurality of views on important moral concepts such as virtue, duty, the 
common good, the natural law, etc. is a positive value in itself, rather than an 
obstacle to be overcome, side-stepped, or obliterated, and second, that a 
process of cross-cultural dialogue based on mutual respect for the various 
cultures will facilitate the cultivation of the richness of this moral pluralism. 
If such an approach is adopted and followed then ethical pluralism itself can 
be transformed and we shall be able to move from a pluralism of "co- 
existence" in which several moral outlooks exist along-side one another, and 
whose primary moral claim is for mutual tolerance, to a healthier pluralism 
whose central value is better expressed by the metaphor of "cross- 
fertilization." Through ethical cross-fertilization a fiiller understanding of the 
richness and complexity of the moral world would develop both within 
individual cultures as well as across cultures as well as to help correct some 
persistent and tenacious problems connected with the darker side of any 
culture's moral world-view and ethical values and practices. Contribution to 
a special issue dedicated to the developments of Roman Catholic moral 
theology in the 2P' century. 



335 

. "The Three Bonds and Five Relationships: A Korean Root Paradigm." 

Inculturation 5 (Summer, 1990): 16-18. 

Discusses the possibility of identifying the Confucian Three Bonds and Five 
Relationships as a cultural root paradigm in Korean society. 

Bujo, B^n^zet. "Can Morality Be Christian m Africa?" Theology Digest 36 (1989): 
211-215. 

Argues for a contextualization of the gospel message with pre-existing black 
African values in order to reach Africans. Condensed from African Christian 
Studies 41 (1988): 5-39. Bujo is a diocesan priest from Zaire and currently 
the Head of Department of Moral Theology at the University of Fribourg in 
Switzerland. 

. "Die christologischen Grundlagen einer afrikanischer Ethik." Freiburger 
ZeitschriftfurPhilosophie und Theologie 29 (1982): 223-238. 

. "A christocentric ethic for black Africa." Theology Digest 30 (Summer, 

1982): 143-146. 

Digest of "Pour une ethique africano-christocentrique." Bulletin de Theologie 
Africaine 3 il9Sl): 41-52. 

. "Ethics and Aging in Africa." Co/id/mw (3/1991): 106-113. 

. "Gibt es eine spezifisch afrikanische Ethik? Eine Anfrage an westliches 

Denken" Stimmen der Zeit 1 14 (1989): 591-606. 

In regards to the premise of absolute exclusivity of the forms of Christianity 
characterized in the West during the colonial period, the independence 
movements in Africa and Vatican II have reaffirmed the particular value of 
an African cultural understanding of conscience. In this context Bujo 
reexamines certain African ethical traditions which had usually been 
considered incompatible with Christianity, raising also the possibility of a 
principle of communication with other cultures in this same respect. 

. "Die pastoral-ethische Beurteilimg der Polygamic in Afrika." Freiburger 

ZeitschriftfurPhilosophie und Theologie 31 (1984): 177-189. 

. "Pour une ethique africano-christocentrique." Bulletin de Theologie Ajricaine 

3 (1981): 41-52. 



336 



English Digest: "A christocentric ethic for black Africa." Theology Digest 
30 (Summer, 1982): 143-146. Considers Christ as proto-ancestor. 

"La remise en question du discours traditiormel en morale face a un monde 
polycentrique." In Novitas et Veritas Vitae: Aux sources du renouveau de la 
morale chretienne, 161-173. Edited by Carlos- Josaphat Pinto de Oliveira. 
Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1991. 

. "The Understanding of Conscience in African Ethics." Studies in 



Interreligious Dialogue 2 (1992): 5-30. 

Butterworth, Charles. "Islamic Philosophy and Religious Ethics." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 11 (1983): 224-239. 

Concentrates on three Islamic philosophers: Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Moral Theology and the World Church." Catholic Theological 
Society of America Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Annual Convention. 
(1984): 35-51. 

Clooney, Francis X., S.J. "Finding One's Place in the Text: A Look at the 
Theological Treatment of Caste in Traditional India." Journal of Religious 
Ethics n {\9S9): 1-29. 

Consideration of various Hindu evaluations of caste are examined in an 
attempt to illuminate issues in the non-native observer's own culture, thus 
widening the scope and value of comparison. Also draws some parallels 
between the debate over caste in India and women's ordination in the Roman 
Catholic Church, Clooney teaches at Harvard University. 

Curran, Charles E. "The Gospel and Culture: Christian Marriage and Divorce 
Today." In Ministering to the Divorced Catholic, 1 5-36. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1979. 

One of a series of articles on canonical, theological, pastoral, and sociological 
issues cormected with the issues concerning the divorced in the Church. 

Dye, Wayne. "Toward a Cross-Cultural Definition of Sin." Missiology 4 (1 976): 27- 
41. 

Working on a decade of missionary experience in Papua New Guinea the 
author argues that though basic biblical standards are absolute, their 
application will vary according to culture. 



337 

Elias, J[ohn]. L. "A Cultural Approach to Religious Moral Education." Living Light 
17 (1980): 234-241. 

Etienne, Jacques. "Nature et culture selon la thdologie morale." Le Supplement 1 82- 
183 (Octobre-Decembre 1992): 253-270. 

One of several articles on the general theme of "Nature et Culture." This 
article is followed by a Discussion, pp. 271-282. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Moral Aspects of Human Progress." In Theology Meets 
Progress: Human Implications of Development, 145-169. Edited by Philip 
Land, S.J. Rome: Gregorian University Press, 1971. 

Spanish translation in La Teologia al encuentro del progresso. Nueva 
Biblioteca de Teologia. Bilbao: Descl^e de Brouwer, 1973. 

Fuch's lecture from an interdisciplinary course on the theology of human 
progress given at the Pontifical Gregorian University in January, 1969. 

Furger, Franz. "Christliche Ethik zwischen Inkulturation und Einheit." Studia 
Moralia 20 (1982): 259-275. 

. "Hilfe sur Freiheit, Ethische Verkundigung in einer pluralistischen 

Gesellschaft." Studia Moralia 15 (1977): 713-730. 

."Inkulturation — eine Herausforderung an die Moraltheologie: 



Bestandesaufnahme und methodologische Riick/ragen." Neue Zeitschriftfiir 
Missionswissenschaft. 40 (1984): 177-258. 

. "Natur und Kultur ~ die sozialethische Perspective." In Natur im ethischen 

Argument, %1-\QA. Hrsg. vonBemhardFraling. Freiburg i.B.: Herder, 1990. 

Garcia, Vicente. "La inculturacion de la moral cristiana. Aplicaci6n a la cultura 
negro-africana." A/bra/ia 22 (1/1999): 57-76. 

Gebara, Ivone. "Religion, Culture and Aging: A Latin American Viewpoint." 
Concilium (3/1991): 93-105. 

Gesch, Patrick. "1 am Saved'-The Ethical Dimension: A Rejoinder in Melanesia," 
Catalyst 2\{\99\)\ 171-174. 

See article by Laurenti Megaesa in same issue. 



338 

Goffi, Tullo. "Etica cristiana acculturata." Parte Prima, Cap. 3 in Problemi e 
Prospettive di Teologia Morale, 75-92. A cura di Tullo Goffi. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1976. 

See also the critique of this article by Cardinal Pietro Palazzini, "Morale 
acculturata e compromesso etico." Studi Cattolici 21 (1977): 83-93. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Das Evangelium, das uns heilt," Ordenskorrespondenz 
32 (1991): 55-61. 

Haring was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of 
the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but 
lectured throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus 
(expert consultant) at Vatican U. 

Irarrazaval, Diego, C.S.C, "Mision latinoamericana: liberacion inculturada." 
Medellin 18 (Marzo, 1992): 108-125. 

Joblin, Joseph, S.J. "La doctrine social de I'Eglise est-elle universelle?" 
Gregorianum 74 (1993): 659-687. 

The question is answered in the affirmative by distinguishing various levels 
of universality. Joblin admits that since practical orientations or principles 
might have a certain historico-cultural determinedness, these nevertheless do 
present an experience of the human condition which can be shared with 
others, and therefore do have a certain universal value. Christians, moreover, 
based on the faith's assertion that all men and women are brothers and sisters 
in Christ, can, with the aid of the Church's social doctrine, take part in this 
sort of universal dialogue. 

Komonchak, Joseph. "Moral Pluralism and the Unity of the Church." Concilium 1 50 
(1981): 89-94. 

Koyama, Kosuke. "Participation of Culture in the Transfiguration of Humanity." 
Asia Journal of Theology 1 (1 993): 214-230. 

La Fleur, William R. "Contestation and Consensus: The Morality of Abortion in 
Japan:' Philosophy East and West 40 (1990): 529-542. 

LaFleur is professor of Japanese in the Department of Oriental Studies at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 



339 

Lambino, Antonio, S.J. "Dialogue, Discernment, Deeds: An Approach to Asian 
Challenges Today." Landas 4 (1990): 147-160. 

Originally a position paper read at the Fifth Plenary Session of the FABC 
(Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences) held from 17 to 27 July 1990 in 
Bandung, Indonesia, Lambino traces the thematic triad of dialogue, 
discernment and deeds in FABC documents over the past twenty years. 
Lambino argues that genuine discernment requires both openness and 
"silence," and that "A rigid doctrinal and moral framework posted at the 
forefront of the discernment process can, therefore, be a major obstacle in the 
search for the divine intention in human affairs" (p. 155). Lambino has a 
S.T.D. in moral theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University and taught 
moral theology for many years at the Loyola School of Theology in Quezon 
City, Philippines. 

Lobo, George V. "Teachings of the Church on Human Rights from an Indian 
Perspective." Indian Theological Studies 28 (1991): 209-233. 

One of several articles devoted to the special theme of the social teaching of 
the Church in the Indian context. 

Mananzan, Mary John, O.S.B. "Religion, Culture and Aging: An Asian Viewpoint." 
Co«d//MW (3/1991): 83-92. 

Mananzan is a well-knovm Philippine theologian. 

Mantovani, Ennio. "Christian Dialogue with Melanesian Values and Ethics." 
Catalyst 20 (1990): 97-115. 

. "The Melanesian and the Christian Ideal of Marriage." Catalyst 21 (1991): 

13-26. 

. "Traditional and Present Day Melanesian Values and Ethics." Catalyst 21 

(1991): 65-81. 

McCormick, Richard, S.J. "The Teaching Office as a Guarantor of Unity in 
Morality." Concilium 150 (1981): 72-81. 

Interesting for delineating various views on the magisterium, authority, nature 
of legitimate dissent, and the role of sensusjidelium. 

Megaesa, Laurenti. "1 am Saved'~The Ethical Dimension." Catalyst 21 (1991): 
161-170. 



340 

See rejoinder in same issue by Patrick Gesch, 

Misfud, Tony, S.J. "Ethos, cultura y evangelic." Medellin 18 (Marzo, 1992): 91- 
107. 

Mongillo, Dalmazio. "Esigenze morali dell'evangelo e culture." InEvangelizzazione 
e cultura: atti del congresso internazionale scientific di missiologia, vol. 1, 
ed, BedaRigaux, etal, 209-26. Rome: PontificiaUniversitaUrbaniana, 1976. 

Mooney, Christopher, S.J. "The Claim of the Church to be Guardian of a Universal 
Natural and Moral Law," Concilium 135 (1980): 23-32. 

Odi Assamoi, Georgette. "The Family in African Tradition and Christian Moral 
Teaching: Contact and Conflict." Concilium 150 (1981): 36-43. 

O'Donovan, Leo J., S.J. "Christ, Culture, and the Foundations of Authority." In 
Riding Time Like a River: The Catholic Moral Tradition Since Vatican II, 1- 
16. Edited by William J. O'Brien. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1993. 

O'Neill, William, S.J. "Ethics and Inculturation: The Scope and Limits of Rights' 
Discourse." The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1993): 73-92. 

Despite its title, this article really deals with the enculturation or culturality 
of human rights discourse, and not the Christian inculturation of human 
rights. O'Neill argues that human rights language is best understood 
rhetorically, "as a family of related claims and duties that delimit the 
boundaries of practical consensus" (p. 92). O'Neill is Associate Professor of 
Christian Social Ethics at the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley. 

Palazzini, Cardinal Pietro. "Morale acculturata e compromesso etico." Studi 
Cattolici 21 (1971): S3-93. 

The major scope of the article is to condemn the work of the Congress of 
Italian Moralists held at Padua from 31 March to 4 April 1970, and the 
subsequent book, edited by TuUo Goffi, Problemi e Prospettive di Teologia 
M?ra/e (Brescia: Queriniana, 1976). In particular Palazzini condemns Goffi's 
article on "acculturated [inculturated] morality" and Helmut Weber's article 
on ethical compromise. 

Peri, Calogero. "Inculturazione della fede e dell'etica: mediazione del linguaggio 
religioso." Laurentianum 33 (1992): 335-373. 



341 

Perrett, Roy W., and Patterson, John. "Virtue Ethics and Maori Ethics." Philosophy 
East and West 4\ (1991): 185-202. 

The authors contend that the New Zealand Maori ethics is essentially a virtue 
ethics. Perrett and Patterson are members of the philosophy department of 
Massey University, New Zealand. 

Pieris, Aloysius, S.J. "A Theology of Liberation in Asian Churches?" The Month 
19:9 (September, 1986) 231-239; 247. 

This same article also appeared in East Asian Pastoral Review and Vidyayoti. 

. "Towards an Asian Theology of Liberation: Some Religio-cultural 



Guidelines." The Month (May, 1979): 148-159. 

Pohier, Jacques and Mieth, Dietmar, eds. "Christian Ethics: Uniformity, Universality, 
Pluralism." Concilium 150(1981). 

Kigali, Norbert J., SJ. "Moral Pluralism and Christian Ethics." Louvain Studies 13 
(1988): 305-321. 

Kigali taught moral theology at the University of San Diego. 

Sicari, Antonio. "Evangelizzazione delle culture o cultura della evangelizzazione?" 
Communio 118 (lugio-agosto 1991): 75-83. 

Argues that the terms evangelization and culture coincide with a theologically 
correct understanding of mission in the Catholic Church ("II tema 
«evangelizzazione e cultura», dunque, nella sua unita piu profonda, coincide 
con una corretta teologia della missione della Chiesa cattolica" p. 76). Sicari 
is rather negative about much of the effort towards so-called "inculturation," 
because he avers that it is used to negate the concept of mission in the 
Church, replacing it with a universal religious anthropology project ( "negare 
los stesso concetto di «missione» e sostituirlo col progetto di una religione 
imiversale antropologicamente centrata." p. 77). Sicari, (b. 1943) teaches 
dogamtic theology at the Carmelite Institute of Theology in Brescia. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B.. "Ethos." In Concise Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 87- 
88. Edited by Bemhard Stoeckle. New York: Seabury Press, 1979. 

Svkiecicki, Andrzej. "Moral Polarization of Cultures." in Cultural Change and 
Liberation in a Christian Perspective. Inculturation: Working Papers on 
Living Faith and Cultures, no. 10, edited by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J., 47- 



342 

63. Rome: Centre "Cultures and Religions" ~ Pontifical Gregorian 
University, 1987. 

Tamez, Elsa. "The Indigenous Peoples Are Envangelizing Us." Ecumenical Review 
44 (1992): 458-466. 

Ucko, Hans. "Culture and Religion or Culture and Faith: Which Way for the Inner- 
Church Dialogue and the Dialogue with Other Religions and Ideologies?" 
Current Dialogue 22 (June 1992): 32-39. 

Paper presented to a German Lay Academies Seminar held in Geneva on 24 
March 1992. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss-R. "Inculturacion." lnDicEtTeo,305-30S. Estella: Verbo 
Divino, 1991. 

Vidal teaches moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at 
the Alfonsianum in Rome. 

Wachege, P.N. "African Inculturation, Liberation Theology." African Christian 
Studies 8 (1992): 43-56. 

Discusses the question of the nature of an African version of liberation 
theology. 

Wachege is a lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the 
University of Nairobi and a visiting lecturer at CHIEA (Catholic Higher 
Institute of Eastern Africa). 

Wilfred, Felix. "The Language of Human Rights- An Ethical Esperanto?" 
Vidyajyoti 56 (1992): 194-214. 

Suggests that "the human rights factor is no ethical panacea for the problems 
of conflict-ridden societies of the Third World. The madequacy and limits 
of this universal human rights system, which in a way appears like an ethical 
Esperanto, are evident when confronted with other approaches to the 
universal." p. 214. 

Williams, Preston N. "Family, Culture and Ethics: Their Interaction and Impact 
upon African Americans and White Americans." In. In All Things: Religious 
Faith and American Culture, 41-64. Papers of the Inaugural Conference of 
The Jesuit Institute at Boston College. EditedbyRobertJ. Daly, S.J. Kansas 
City: Sheed and Ward, 1990. 



343 

Williams is Houghton Professor Theology and Contemporary Change at the 
Harvard Divinity School. 

Yoshiyama, Noboru, C.Ss.R. "Tasks for Moral Theology in Japan Today." Studio 
A/om//fl 22 (1984): 89-108. 

Yoshiyama teaches moral theology at Sophia University in Tokyo. 



Books on Inculturation of Ethics 

Battin, Margaret P. Ethics in the Sanctuary: Examining the Practices of Organized 
Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. 

Discusses several issues of vihsX Battin terms "Ecclesioethics," namely, 
confidentiality (connected v^dth the confession of sin), informed consent 
(connected with faith healing, avoidance of medical care, etc.), and 
paternalism (which arises in the search for converts). Battin teaches 
philosophy at the University of Utah. Reviewed by Meredith B. Handspicker 
in Theology Today 48 (1991): 228-232. 

Becher, Jeaime, ed. Women, Religion and Sexuality: Studies on the Impact of 
Religious Teachings on Women. Philadelphia: Trinity Press Litemational, 
1991. 

Twelve papers from the WCC multi-faith study on "Female Sexuality and 
Bodily Functions in Different Religions" which present Jev^sh, Hindu, 
Islamic, Akan, Buddhist, Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican 
perspectives. Becher is assistant to the director of the World Council of 
Churches' Subunit on Women. 

Bevans, Stephen B., S.V.D. Models of Contextual Theology: The Struggle for 
Cultural Relevance. Faith and Culture Series. MaryknolhOrbis Press, 1991. 

Biematzki, William E., S.J. Roots of Acceptance: The Intercultural Communication 
of Religious Meanings. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith and 
Cultures, no. 13, edited by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J. Rome: Centre 
"Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical Gregorian University, 1991. 

Biematzki is a cultural anthropologist who also has a theological background, 
and who lived and taught in Korea for many years and is now director of the 
Center for Communication and Culture at St. Louis University. 



344 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. The Notion of Moral Community in the Analects of 
Confucius and Matthew's Sermon on the Mount: A Hermeneutical Approach 
for the Inculturation of Moral Theology in Korea. Excerpta ex dissertatione 
ad Doctoratum in Facilitate Theologiae Pontificiae Universitatis Gregorianae. 
Rome: Pontifical Gregorian Press, 1989. 

Dissertation done under Jacques Dupuis, S.J. 

Bujo, Bdn^zet. African Christian Morality at the Age of Inculturation. Nairobi: 
Daughters of St. Paul, 1989-1990. 

Collection of articles which have already appeared elsewhere, mostly in 
French or German. 

Bujo is a diocesan priest from Zaire and currently the Head of Department of 
Moral Theology at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. 

. African Theology in Its Social Context. Translated by John O'Donahue. 

MaryknoU: Orbis Press, 1992. 

German original: Afrikanische Theologie in ihrem gesellscaftlichen Kontext. 
Theoloige Interkulturell, 1 . Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1 986. 

Camenisch, Paul F., ed. Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics. Dordrecht: 
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. 

Essays on a variety of topics and from a variety of religious and historical 
points of view (Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, Taoist, Islamic, etc.) 

Carmody, Denise Lardner, and Carmody, John Tully. The Republic of Many 
Mansions: Foundations of American Religious Thought. New York: 
Paragon, 1990. 

The authors identify three key ideas of American religious thought: the 
Puritan concept of human nature, the Enlightenment notion of religious 
freedom, and American philosophical pragmatism which emphasizes 
pluralism of human experience, practical reason, secular ethics, and 
aesthetics. In this context one figure for each key idea is presented, 
respectively Jonathan Edwards, Thomas Jefferson, and William James. 
Reviewed by Phyllis H. Kaminski in Horizons 19 (1992): 316-317. 

Carmody is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies and Provost at 
the University of Santa Clara. Her husband John is deceased. 



345 

Darmaputera, Eka. Pancasila and the Search for Identity and Modernity in 
IndonesianSociety: A Cultural and Ethical Analysis. Leiden, New York: E.J. 
Brill, 1988. 

Das, Somen. Christian Ethics and Indian Ethos. Delhi: ISPCK, 1989. 

Fowler, James W. Weaving the New Creation: Stages of Faith and the Public 
Church. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991. 

Looking to the next century, Fowler relates his research in faith development 
to the present North American cultural context and emerging understandings 
of the public church. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Evangelization Today. Revised edition. Middlegreen, 
Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1990. 

Italian translation of the first edition: Morale ed evangelizzazione del mondo 
di oggi: La morale dell'evangelizzazione e V evangelizzazione della morale. 
Teologia Morale, Oggi. Ban: Edizioni Paoline, 1974. 

Haring was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the last half of 
the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the Alphonsianum, but 
lectured throughout the world, and played an important role as a peritus 
(expert consultant) at Vatican IL 

. Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity. Volume 

I: General Moral Theology. Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 
1978. 

Italian translation: Liberi efedeli in Crista. Teologia morale per preti e 
/a/d. Alba, 1981. 

See especially Chapter 7: "Traditions, Laws, Norms and Context," pp. 302- 
377, and most especially pp. 321-324. 

Haselbarth, Hans. Christian Ethics in the African Context. Ibadan: Daystar Press, 
1976. 

Text which comes out of author's courses given at the Theological College 
of Northern Nigeria, Bukuru. 

Hillman, Eugene, C.S.Sp. Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the 
Christian Churches. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1975. 



346 

Hiinermann, Peter et al. Evangelizacion de la culturay inculturacion del Evangelio. 
Buenos Aires: Guadalupe, 1988. 

Translated from the German. 

Jesudasan, Ignatius, S.J. A Gandhian Theology of Liberation. Maryknoll: Orbis 
Books, 1984. 

Italian translation: La teologia della liberazione in Gandhi. Teologia/Saggi. 
Assisi: Cittadella, 1986. 

In German: Mahatmas Gandhis Weg zur Freiheit. Freiburg-Olten: Walter, 
1987. 

Revised doctoral dissertation done at Marquette University under Matthew 
Lamb. 

Magesa, Laurenti. Anatomy of Inculturation: Transforming the Church in Africa. 
Maryknoll: Orbis Academic Books, 2004. 

Mayer, Adrian C, ed. Culture and Morality: Essays in Honour ofChristoph von 
Furer-Haimendorf. Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. 

Miranda, Dionisio M., S.V.D. Loot: The Filipino Within. A Preliminary 
Investigation into a Pre-theological Moral Anthropology. Manila: Divine 
Word Publications, 1989. 

Miranda has an STD in moral theology from the Alphonsianum in Rome 
(1 984), has worked in Paraguay, and is now professor of Moral and Pastoral 
Theology at Tagaytay. 

Montefiore, Hugh, ed. The Gospel and Contemporary Culture. London: Mowbray, 
1992. 

Moser, AntSnio and Leers, Bernardino. Teologia moral: Impasses e alternativas. 
Petr6polis: Editoria Vozes Ltda, 1987. 

English translation: Moral Theology: Dead Ends and Ways Forward. 
Translated by Paul Bums. Wellwood: Bums & Oates; and Maryknoll: Orbis 
Books, 1990. 

German translation: Moraltheologie: Engpdsse und Auswege. Bibliotek 
Theologie der Befreiung. Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1 989. 



347 

Italian ti'anslation: Teologia morale: conflitti e alternative. Ed. ital. a cura 
di G. Pompei. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 

Spanish translation: Teologia Moral. ConflictosyAlternativas. Cristianismo 
y Sociedad. Traducido por Alfonso Ortiz Garcia. Madrid: Ediciones 
Paulinas, 1987. 

Written in Brazil, this work deals with moral theology and theology of 
liberation. Italian edition reviewed by Giuseppe Mattai in Rassegna for 
Teologia,3\ (gennaio-febbraio, 1990): 99-100; English edition reviewed by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 72 (1991). 

Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture. New York: Harper and Row, 195 1 . 

Classic presentation ofNiebuhr's five models for considering the relationship 
of Jesus Christ to human culture. 

Oglesby, Enoch H. Born in the Fire: Case Studies in Christian Ethics and 
Globalization. New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1990. 

Uses folk parables and ethical case studies from Africa and African- 
American culture to argue for and illustrate an approach to Christian ethics 
which will make greater use of folk wisdom and narrative tradition in its 
approach to ethics. Despite the use of "Globalization" in the book's title, 
Oglesby argues for greater attention to cultural particularity as a constitutive 
element of any viable contextualized Christian ethics. Oglesby is Professor 
of Theology and Social Ethics and Director of Black Church Studies at Eden 
Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. 

Oppenheim, Frank M., S.J., ed. The Reasoning Heart: Toward A North American 
Theology. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1986. 

Essays, five of which appeared originally in Theological Studies, which come 
from the John Courtney Murray Writers' Group, whose aim is to develop a 
theology which is distinctively North American by using, among other 
aspects, resources from American philosophy and philosophical theology in 
order to contribute an indigenous perspective on the interpretation of 
religious experience and religious feelings within American culture. 

Padipurackal, John. "Development and Culture: A Moral Theological Analysis of 
the Theological Approaches in India Since the Second Vatican Council." 
Dissertatio ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificae Universitatis 
Gregorianae. Roma, 1993. 



348 

Unpublished S.T.D. dissertation done under Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

Pieris, Aloysius, SJ. An Asian Theology of Liberation. Faith Meets Faith Series. 
Maiyknoll: Orbis Books; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988. 

German original: Theologie der Befreiung inAsien: Christentum im Kontext 
derArmut und der Religonen. Freiburg: Herder, 1986. 

In French: Une theologie asiatique de la liberation. Paris: Centurion, 1990. 

Reviewed by James Haire in Pacifica 3 (1990): 359-361. Pieris is a Sri 
Lankan Jesuit, and has a doctorate in Buddhist studies. This book is a 
collection of several previously published essays. 

_. El rostro asiatico de Cristo. Notas para una teologia asidtica. Trad. Juan 

M. Sanchez-Rivera. Salamanca: SIgueme, 1991. 

An anthology of varous articles and chapters by Pieris, translated into 
Spanish. 

. Love Meets Wisdom. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988. 



Quarello, Eraldo. Morale cristiana e culture. Biblioteca di Scienze Religiose, 28. 
Rome: LAS, 1979. 

Rader, Dick Allen. Christian Ethics in an African Context: A Focus on Urban 
Zambia. American University Studies Series 7, Theology and Religion, 128. 
New York: Peter Lang, 1991 . 

Rader was a Baptist missionary for eleven years in Africa and is currently 
dean of the School of Christian Service and Professor of Missions at 
Oklahoma Baptist University. 

Rossano, Pietro, Msgr. Vangelo e Cultura: note per un incontro tra il Vangelo e la 
cultura contemporanea. Rome: Edizioni Paoline, 1985. 

The late Msgr. Rossano was an auxiliary bishop of Rome, professor of 
missiology and rector of the Lateran University. 

Smart, Ninian, and Konstantine, Steven. Christian Systematic Theology in a World 
Context. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991. 



349 

Takenaka, Masao. God is Rice: Asian Culture and Christian Faith. The Risk Book 
Series. Geneva: Worid Council of Churches, 1986. 

Dr. Takenaka is a well-known ecumenical Asian theologian who teaches at 
Doshisha University in Kyoto. Book contains an Introduction and four 
essays: "God is Rice," "Christ and Culture in Asia," "Tlie Ethics of 
Betweenness," (a case study of Shozo Tanaka who was a pioneer of the 
ecological and people's movement in Japan); and "Christ of Wabi" (a 
Christian reflection on beauty in the Japanese cultural context). 

Takeuchi, Osamu, S.J. Conscience and Personality: A New Understanding of 
Conscience in Its Inculturation in Japanese Moral Theology. Foreword by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. Chiba: Kyoyusha, 2003. 

Takeuchi carefiiUy looks at this notion of conscience, ryoshin in Japanese, to 
see both its roots in Confucianism and Christianity. Though the Latin term 
conscientia and the Japanese term ryoshin do not correspond exactly, 
Takeuchi demonstrates that ryoshin basically represents what conscience 
means. Yet, ryoshin is more than a translation for the Latin, Rather, in the 
Japanese tradition we discover that ryoshin was regarded as a human 
disposition which transcends the intellectual faculty of rational choice of 
moral rightness or wrongness. Revised doctoral dissertation done under 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. at the Jesuit School-of-Theology at Berkeley, 
California. Reviewed by Thomas John Hastings in Theology Today 621 \ 
(April 2005): 145. Takeuchi teaches moral theology at Sophia University in 
Tokyo, Japan. 

Tirkey, Amrit, S.J. "Conscience in the Thought of M.K. Gandhi: A Study in the 
Light of Vatican II." S.T.D. Dissertation. Roma: Pontificia Universita 
Gregoriana, 1992. 

Dissertation done under Mariasusai Dhavamony, S.J. 

Van Nieuwenhove, Jacques, and Goldewijk, Berma Klein, eds. Popular Religion, 
Liberation and Contextual Theology. Papers from a Congress (January 3-7, 
1 990, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) dedicated to Amulf Camps OFM. Kerk en 
Theologie in Context, 8. Kampen: Uitgeversmaatschappij J.H. Kok, 1991. 

Papers divided into areas of Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe, plus a 
concluding section on "Assessments." 

Villa- Vicencio, C, and DeGruchy, John W., eds. Doing Ethics in Context: South 
African Perspectives. Cape Tovm: Philip, 1994. 



350 



%!|:*<::!t:f::i!:)i 



Liberation Theology and Christian Ethics 

Christian Ethics and Liberation 

Bonino, Jos6 Miguez. Toward a Christian Political Ethics. Philadelphia: Fortress 
Press, 1983. 

Brackley, Dean, S.J. "A Radical Ethos." Horizons 24 (Spring 1997): 7-36. 

Discusses the "traditional" ethos which is common to many of the agrarian 
cultures of Latin America, the "liberal" of the industrialized north, and then 
proposes of "radical" ethos which would address many of the problematic 
aspects of both of these ethoses. A helpful article for delineating what an 
ethos involves and how it flmctions in a given culture, though Brackley' s 
proposal for a "radical" ethos is a bit underdeveloped and rather too 
simplified. 

Dussel, Enrique. "Discernment: A Question of Orthodoxy or Orthopraxis?" 
Concilium 119 (1978): 47-60. 

. "An Ethic of Liberation: Fundamental Hypotheses." Concilium 172 (1984): 

54-63. 

One of a series of articles in this issue devoted to the ethics of liberation. 

. Etica comunitaria. Coleccion Cristianismo y Sociedad, Madrid: Ediciones 

Paulinas, 1986. 

English translation: Ethics and Community. Translated from the Spanish by 
Robert R. Barr. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1988. 

German translation: Ethik der Gemeinschaft. Bibliotek Theologie der 
Befreiung. DUsseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1988. 

Italian translation: Etica comunitaria. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 

Portuguese translation: Etica comunitaria. Cole9ao Teologia e liberta9ao. 
Petropolis: Vozes, 1987. 

Reviewed by Arthur McGovem, S.J. in Theological Studies 51 (1989). 
Dussel argues for a sharp distinction between ethics and "social morality," the 
latter term designating legitimization and protection of the prevailing social 
order. Dussel chooses from the Bible the central injunction to liberate the 



352 

poor. Somewhat over-simplified and severely confrontational economic 
analysis, 

_. Philosophy of Liberation. Translated by Aquilina Martinez and Christine 

Morkovsky. Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1985. 

Spanish original: Filosofla de la liberacion. Bogota: Universidad Santo 
Tomds, 1980. 

. Teologia de la liberacion y etica. 

English translation: Ethics and the Theology of Liberation. Translated by 
Bernard F. Mc Williams. Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1978. 

Origmally delivered as lectures ar a course organized by the Justice and Peace 
Study Center, Buenos Aires, in 1972. 

EUacurla, Ignacio. "Human Rights in a Divided Society." In Human Rights in the 
Americas: The Struggle for Consensus, 52-68. Edited by Alfred Hennelly 
and John Langan. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Moral Aspects of Human Progress." In Theology Meets 
Progress: Human Implications of Development, 145-169. Edited by Philip 
Land, S.J. Rome: Gregorian University Press, 1971. 

In Spanish: La Teologia al encuentro del progresso. Nueva Biblioteca de 
Teologia. Bilbao: Desclee de Brouwer, 1973. 

Gudorf, Christine E. Catholic Social Teaching on Liberation Themes. Washington, 
D.C.: University Press of America, 1981. 

Hennelly, Alfred. "Human Rights and Latin American Theology." In Human Rights 
in the Americas: The Struggle for Consensus, 25-51. Edited by Alfred 
Hennelly and John Langan. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 1982. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "Solidarity and Moral Conscience: Challenges for Our 
Theological and Pastoral Work." Studia Moralia 31 (1993): 65-85. 

Discusses the interrelationship between solidarity and conscience, and uses 
four paradigms of conscience to illustrate different ways in which the role and 
function of conscience can be seen. Johnstone discusses also "critical 
conscience" using the work of Bartolome de Las Casas as an example to 



353 

illustrate the ways in which authentic solidarity can function along with 
critical conscience to unmask forms of oppression and false solidarity. 
Johnstone, an Australian, is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum 
in Rome. 

Kammer, Charles L., III. Ethics and Liberation: An Introduction. MaryknoU: Orbis 
Books, 1988. 

Stresses the socio-political dimension of ethics, while tracing the Christian 
tradition that focused on personal salvation to the neglect of social issues. In 
his proposed ethics of Christian liberation Kammer discusses two test cases: 
distribution of health care, and nuclear disarmament. Kammer is a Lutheran 
minister, who teaches ethics and theology at St. Olaf College in Minnesota. 

Keeling, Michael. The Foundations of Christian Ethics. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 
1990. 

Concentrating on three themes: sexuality, property, and political power. 
Keeling examines the foimdations of Christian ethics in the Bible and their 
embodiment in the Church. Follows a chronological structure and considers 
the influence of liberation theology on perceptions of social justice. 

Long, Edward LeRoy, Jr. "Liberation Theology as a Source of Ethics." Chapter 1 1 
in A Survey of Recent Christian Ethics, 156-174, New York and Oxford: 
Oxford University Press, 1982. 

Long was professor of Christian Ethics and Theology of Culture at Drew 
University when this book was published. 

McAuliffe, Patricia. Fundamental Ethics: A Liberationist Approach. Washington, 
D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

Mieth, Dietmar and Pohier, Jacques, eds. "The Ethics of Liberation-The Liberation 
of Ethics." Concilium 172 (1984). 

Issue devoted to various issues connected with Christian ethics and the 
concepts of autonomy and liberation. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "Autonomy or Liberation-Two Paradigms of Christian Ethics?" 
Concilium 172 (1984): 87-93. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. 



354 

Misflid, Tony, S.J,. "The Development of a Liberation Ethic in the Documents of the 
Church since Vatican 11." Concilium 172 (1984): 48-53. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. 

Moreno Rej6n, Francisco, C.Ss.R, "Seeking the Kingdom and its Justice: the 
Development of the Ethic of Liberation." Concilium 111 (1984): 35-41. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. 

Morkovsky, Mary-Christine, C.D.P. "Bibliography for LiberationEthics." Concilium 
172 (1984): 105-108. 

Brief bibliographic essay. 

Moser, Antonio and Leers, Bernardino. Teologia moral: Impasses e alternativas. 
Petropolis: Editoria Vozes Ltda, 1987. 

English translation: Moral Theology: Dead Ends and Ways Forward. 
Translated by Paul Bums. Wellwood: Bums & Oates; and MaryknoU: Orbis 
Books, 1990. 

German translation: Moraltheologie: Engpdsse und Auswege. Bibliotek 
Theologie der Befreiung. DUsseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1989. 

Italian translation: Teologia morale: conflitti e alternative. Ed. ital. a cura 
di G. Pompei. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 

Spanish translation: Teologia Moral. Conflictosy Alternativas. Cristianismo 
y Sociedad. Traducido por Alfonso Ortiz Garcia. Madrid: Ediciones 
Paulinas, 1987. 

Written in Brazil, this v^ork deals with moral theology and theology of 
liberation. Italian edition reviewed by Giuseppe Mattai in Rassegna for 
Teologia,3\ (gennaio—febbraio, 1990): 99-100; English edition reviewed by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 72 (1991). 

Moser, Antonio. "The Representation of God in the Ethic of Liberation." Concilium 
172 (1984): 42-47. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. 



355 

O'Connor, June. "Process Theology and Liberation Theology; Theological and 
Ethical Reflections." Horizons 7 (1980): 231. 

O'Connor is Professor of Religion at the University of California, Riverside 
and past-president of the Society of Christian Ethics. 

Oraa, Jos^ Maria Aguirre. "Etica y liberacion." Lumen 4\ (1992): 113-\S9. 

Parent, Remi, C.Ss.R. "Solidarite, Communion, Parti-Pris. Pour une th^ologie de 
la pratique de solidarite." Studia Moralia 31 (1993): 103-131. 

Parent argues that there can be no Christian solidarity without a genuine 
prejudice, and that this in turn moves solidarity to orthopraxy. Parent holds 
a chair of dogmatic theology at the University of Montreal. 

Peter, A. Befreiungstheologie und Transzendentaltheologie Enrique Dussel und 
Karl Rahner im Vergleich. Freiburger Theologischen Studien, 137. 
Freiburg: Herder, 1988. 

Pope, Stephen J. "The 'Preferential Option for the Poor': An Ethic for 'Saints and 
Heroes'?" Irish Theological Quarterly 59 (1994): 161-176. 

Using some concepts on supererogation and moral duties from the 
philosopher J.O. Urmson, Pope critiques some aspects of the popular 
formulation of the preferential option for the poor, especially as found in the 
writings of Gutierrez. Pope teaches theology at Boston College. 

Ridley-Thomas, M. "Toward and Ethics of Liberation: Sources, Norms, and Praxis." 
Journal of Religious Thought 47 (2/1990-91): 30-41. 

Schubeck, Thomas L., S.J. "Ethics and Liberation Theology." Theological Studies 
56(1995): 107-122. 

Part of the annual "Notes on Moral Theology." Gives an overview of some 
of the contributions liberation theology has made to Christian ethics, as well 
as noting some ongoing concerns and tensions. 

. Liberation Ethics: Sources, Models, and Norms. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 

1993. 

Vidal Garcia, Marciano, C.Ss.R. "Is Morality based on Autonomy Compatible with 
the Ethics of Liberation." Concilium 172 (1984): 80-86. 



356 



One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. Vidal teaches 
moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at the 
Alfonsianum in Rome. 

"La preferencia por el pobre, criterio de moral." Studia Moralia 20 (1982): 
277-305. 

Discusses the notion of the poor as an "ethical locus" and as a criterion of 
moral teaching, and then moves on to outline an ethics of liberation and key 
concepts which emerge in an ethic of the preferential option in favor of the 
poor. 

_. Structural Sin: A New Category in Moral Theology?" In Conscience: 
Studies in Honour ofSedn O'Riordan, C.Ss.R., 181-199. Edited by Raphael 
Gallagher, C.Ss.R., and Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: Gill and 
Macmillan, 1989. 

"«Teologia de la Liberaci6m> y etica social cristiana. Interrogantes sobre el 
metodo de la Teologia moral." Studia Moralia 15 (1977): 207-218. 

Published on the occasion of the Festschrift given to Bernard HSring in this 
volume of Studia Moralia. 



Justice Theme in Liberation Ethics 

Antoncich, Ricardo, S.J. Los cristianos ante la injusticia: Hacia una lectura 
latinoamericana de la doctrina social de la Iglesia. Bogota: Ediciones 
Grupo Social, 1980. 

In English: Christians in the Face of Injustice: A Latin American Reading 
of Cathoic Social Teaching. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell. 
Marj'knoU: Orbis Press, 1987. 

Arias, Mortimer. "Conversion and Justice Issues: A Latin-American Perspective." 
Ecumenical Review 44 (1992): 410-418. 

Ateek, Nairn Stifan. Justice, and only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. 
Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1989. 



357 

Donahue, John R., S.J. "Biblical Perspectives on Justice." In The Faith That Does 
Justice: Examining the Christian Sources for Social Change. Edited by John 
C. Haughey, S.J., 68-1 12. New York: Paulist Press, 1977. 

Dulles, Avery Cardinal, S.J. "The Meaning of Faith Considered in Relationship to 
Justice." In The Faith That Does Justice: Examining the Christian Sources 
for Social Change. Edited by John C. Haughey, S.J., 10-46. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1977. 

Presents three different approaches to faith with relation to justice: 
intellectualist, leading to assent and illumination; fiducial, leading to 
surrender and trust in God; and performative, adding moral commitment to 
these first two notions. 

Garcia, Ismael. Justice in Latin American Theology of Liberation. Atlanta: John 
Knox Press, 1987. 

Analyzes the concept of justice in the works of Hugo Assmann, Jos^ Miguez 
Bonino, Gustavo Gutierrez, and Jose Porfirio Miranda. 

Haughey, John C, S.J. "Jesus as the Justice of God." In The Faith That Does 
Justice: Examining the Christian Sources for Social Change. Edited by John 
C. Haughey, S. J., 264-290. New York: Paulist Press, 1 977. 

Heimelly, Alfred T., S.J. Liberation Theologies: The Global Pursuit of Justice. 
Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1995. 

Summarizes and critiques the ideas of liberation theology's chief proponents- 
Gustavo Gutierrez, Jon Sobrino, Juan Segundo, Ignacio EUacuria—and many 
other theologians who have incorporated their liberating ideas into writings 
on a broad range of topics, issues and concerns. 

Hollenbach, David, S.J. "Modem Catholic Teachings Concerning Justice." In The 
Faith That Does Justice: Examining the Christian Sources for Social 
Change. Edited by John C. Haughey, S.J., 207-231. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1977. 

Ivem, Francisco, S.J. "The Future of Faith and Justice: A Critical Review of Decree 
Four." Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 14 (November, 1982). 

Lebacqz, Karen. Justice in an Unjust World: Foundations for a Christian Approach 
to Justice. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1987. 



358 

In Spanish; Justicia en un mundo injusto. Bases para unproyecto cristiano. 
Barcelona: Herder, 1991. 

Using biblical images and models the author portrays divine justice and God's 
call for us to heed the cry of suffering and to work for justice in an unjust 
world. Lebacqz is professor emerita of Christian ethics at the Pacific School 
of Religion in Berkeley, California. 

. Six Theories of Justice: Perspectives from Philosophical and Theological 

Ethics. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1986. 

Examines John Stuart Mill's utilitarianism, John Rawls' "contract" system, 
Robert Nozick's entitlement view, the NCCB's understanding of justice as 
participation, Reinhold Niebuhr's political realism, and justice from the 
perspective of liberation theology, using Jos^ Porfirio Miranda. 

Moreno Rejon, Francisco. "Seeking the Kingdom and its Justice: the Development 
of the Ethic of Liberation." Concilium 172 (1984): 35-41. 

One of a series of articles devoted to the ethics of liberation. 

Nichols, Alan. "Ethical Issues in Evangelism and Justice Among the Poor." 
Evangelical Review of Theology 18 (1994): 137-151. 

O'Keefe, Mark, O.S.B. What Are They Saying About Social Sin? New York: Paulist 
Press, 1990. 

Phan, Peter C. "Overcoming Poverty and Injustice: The Response of Liberation 
Theology to Evil." Dialogue & Alliance 8(2/1994): 47-64. 

Phan is a Vietnamese missiologist who teaches at Georgetown University. 

Steidl-Meier, Paul. SocialJustice Ministry: Foundations and Concerns. New York: 
LeJacq, 1984. 



Moral Autonomy of the Human Person 

Articles on Moral Autonomy 

Auer, Alfons. "Christianity's Dilemma: Freedom to Be Autonomous or Freedom to 
Obey?" Concilium 110 (1977): 47-55. 

Bujo, Ben^zet. "Le probleme th^ologique de I'autonomie de la morale." Bulletin de 
Thiologie Africaine 2 (1980): 219-245. 

In English: "A General Moral Problem in Today's World." In African 
Christian Morality at the Age oflnculturation, 13-38. Nairobi: Daughters of 
St. Paul, 1989-1990. 

Abstract: The problem of autonomy is at the center of discussions concerning 
modem Catholic ethics. It is linked with questions regarding the specificity 
of Christian ethics and the authority of the ecclesiastical Magisterium. Man, 
created in the image of God, received from the Creator the mission of 
determining himself and taking care of the cosmos. In doing this, man 
achieves himself and achieves the world. The ecclesiastical Magisterium 
must take this reality into consideration. Holy Scripture and tradition do not 
contain well-determined material norms for human activity, but deal mostly 
with the human experience in history. The ecclesiastical authority must stay 
in permanent dialogue with the whole ecclesiastical community, while paying 
heed to the truth as discovered by the whole of mankind. In as much as the 
ecclesiastical Magisteriimi takes seriously into account these prerequisites, 
positive attention may be paid to ancestral customs, provided they do not 
contradict revelation (and tradition). At the same time, it will be possible to 
build local churches enjoying "traditions" that may be different but no less 
enriching for the Universal Church. Bujo is a diocesan priest from Zaire and 
currently the Head of Department of Moral Theology at the University of 
Fribourg in Switzerland. 

Citterio, F. "Morale autonoma e fede cristiana: II dibattito continua." La Scuola 
Cattolica 108 (1980): 509-561; 109 (1981): 3-29. 

Dautzenberg, G. "Neutestamentliche Ethik und autonome Moral." Tiibinger 
Theologische Quartelschrift 161 (1981): 43-55. 

Gruber, Hans-Gunter. "Autonome Moral oder Moral der Autonomic? Zur 
Diskussion um das Proprium einer theologischen Ethik." Stimmen der Zeit 
118 (1993): 691-699. 



360 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R, "Globalization and the Autonomy of Moral Reasoning: 
An Essay in Fundamental Moral Theology." Theological Studies 54(1993): 
485-511. 

Builds on interest in the globalization of ethics and Habermas' theory of 
universal discourse to propose a henneneutical theory for approaching 
fundamental moral theology. Refers considerably to the work of Klaus 
Demmer. Kopfensteiner is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis and did 
his doctoral dissertation on paradigm shift theory in moral theology at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University under Klaus Demmer. 

Moreno, M. "Moral autonoma y etica de la fe: conclusiones a proposito de un 
debate." Proyeccion 36 {l9S9y. 199-214. 

Privitera, Salvatore. "Per una interpretazione del dibattito su «L'autonomia morale». 
Rivista di Teologia Morale 12 (1980): 565-586. 

Schtiller, Bruno, S.J. "Autonomous Ethics Revisited." In Personalist Morals: 
Essays in Honor of Professor Louis Janssens, 61-70. Edited by Joseph A. 
Selling. Louvain: University Leuven Press, 1988. 

Schtiller begins by recounting his personal intellectual journey, from his 
initial disappointment with the moral theology of Htirth and Zalba, to his 
doctoral dissertation on Karl Barth, to his rejection of Barth, and ultimate 
identification with the so-called "moral autonomy" school, and then proceeds 
to summarize the main tenets of this position, by criticizing some (Vincent 
MacNamara and Hans Rotter) who seem to have misunderstood 
autotonomous ethics in their critiques of the same. 

Tremblay, Real, C.Ss.R. "Par-dela la «Morale Autonome» et l«Ethique de la Foi». 
A la recherche d'une «Via media». Studia Moralia 20 (1982): 223-237. 

Tremblay is Professor of Fundamental Moral Theology at the Alphonsianum 
Academy in Rome. 



Books on Moral Autonomy 

Auer, Alfons. Autonome Moral und christlicher Glaube. Dtisseldorf: Patmos 
Verlag, 1971. 



361 

In Italian: Morale autonoma efede cristiana. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni 
Paoline, 1991. 

Bastianel, Sergio, S.J. Autonomia morale del credente: Senso e motivazioni di 
un'attuale tendenza teologica. Alosiana, 14, Brescia: Morcelliana, 1980. 

Bastianel's S.T.D. thesis done under Josef Fuchs. Concentrates on the moral 
autonomy ethicians writing in French, German, and Italian. Bastianel is 
professor of moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. Deuten und handeln: Grundlagen und Grundfragen der 
Fundamentalmoral. Studien zur theologischen Ethik, no. 15. Freiburg: 
Verlag Herder, 1985. 

Italian translation: Interpretare e agire: Fondamenti della morale cristiana. 
Cinisello Balsamo: Paoline, 1989. 

Theological ethics is a "science" in an analogical sense, which has its object 
not static data but subjectivity open in liberty to transcendence. Conscience 
helps to clarify both the end of the human person and the corresponding 
actions which aim at instantiating goodness and rightness. Demmer spent his 
teaching career as professor of moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University in Rome. 

L'etica teologica e scienza per analogia. "Scienza del senso direttiva 
dell'azione," l'etica teologica ha per oggetto non un dato statico, ma la 
"soggettivita aperta alia trascendenza" nella liberta. Aiuta la coscienza a 
chiarire a se stessa il fine (il senso) e a elaborare il contenuto della norma 
facendo divenire "correttezza" la "bonta." Inserita nel conflitto storica fra 
bene e male, a volte ripercorre soluzioni gia coUaudate (le norme), a volte 
rischia la soluzione nuova, sapendo che ogni scelta non solo accresce il bene 
il male della storia, ma si pone come possibilita ermeneutica per il 
prossimo. Persona e natura, persona e atto, antropologia e cristologia, 
peccato e conversione sono il luoghi dell'analisi, condotta con linguaggio 
assai oscuro. [dalla rivista pubblicata da // Regno 35 (15 aprile 1990): 229- 
230.] 

. Sittlich handeln aus Verstehen, Strukturen hermeneuticsch orientierter 

Fundamentalmoral. Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1980, 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena. Translated by Bernard Hoose 
and Brian McNeil, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984, 



362 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana in una societa secolorizzata. Casale 
Monferrato: Piemme, 1984. 

Like most of Fuchs' books this is a collection of previously published essays 
organized around this general theme. Fuchs (191 2-2005) spent his teaching 
career as professor of moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University 
in Rome. 

. Christian Morality: The Word Became Flesh. Translated by Brian McNeil. 

Washington, D.C.: Geo^geto^^'n University Press; Dublin: Gill and 
Macmillan, 1987. 

Italian translation: II Verbosifacarne: teologia morale. Casale Monferrato: 
Piemme, 1989. 

Collection of previously published essays organized around this general 
theme. 

. Personal Responsibility and Christian Morality. Translated by William 

Cleves and others. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983. 

Collection of previously published essays organized around this general 
theme. 

Gillen, E. Wie Christen ethisch handeln unddenken. Zur Debatte um die Autonomic 
der sittlichkeit im Kontext katholischer Theologie. Wtirzburg: Echter, 1 989. 

Hilpert, Konrad. Ethik und Rationalitat. Untersuchungen zum Autonomieproblem 
un zu einer Bedeutung ftir die theologische Ethik. Diisseldorf: Patmos 
Verlag, 1980. 

MacNamara, Vincent. Faith and Ethics. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan; and 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985. 

Good theological discussion of the major developments in the renewal of 
Roman Catholic moral theology from the end of the 19th century up to the 
present. Treats especially well the contemporary debate between the "Moral 
Autonomy School" (e.g. Alfons Auer, Josef Fuchs, Bruno Schiiller, etc.) and 
the "Faith Ethics School" ([Glaubensethik], e.g. Joseph Ratzinger, Heinz 
SchUrmann, etc.). 



363 

Mieth, Dietmar, and Compagnoni, Francesco, eds. Ethik im Kontext des Glaubens. 
Freiburg: Herder, 1978, 

Oliveira, Carlos J. Pinto de. Autonomie, Dimensions ithique de la liberti. Paiis: 
Editions de Cerf, 1978. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B. Grenzen der autonomen Moral. Miinchen: KOsel 
Verlag, 1974. 

Stoeckle is a proponent of the Faith Ethics School (in opposition to the Moral 
Autonomy position). 

Weber, Helmut und Mieth, Dietmar, eds. Anspruch der WirMichkeit undchristUcher 
Glaube: Probleme und Wege theologischer Ethik keute. Diisseldorf: Patinos 
Verlag, 1980. 

Articles by a number of German theologians on various aspects of 
fundamental moral theology, divided into four major headings: Fundamentale 
Aspekte; Normative Probleme; Christlicher Sinnhorizont; and Schopferische 
Wirklichkeit in Kunst und Theologie. 

******** 



Moral Norms 

Articles on Moral Norms 

Angelini, Giuseppe. "Individuazione delle noraie e loro significato teologico- 
morale." In Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 203-255. 
A cura di Enrico Berti. Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

. "La norma morale e il senso vero della liberta." Theologia 18 (1993): 323- 

330. 

Ashley, Benedict M., O.P. "Scriptural Grounds for Concrete Moral Norms." The 
TTiomwr 52 (1988): 1-22. 

Aubert, Jean-Marie. " Y-a-t-il des normes morales universelles?" Revue des Sciences 
Religieuses 55 (1981): 170-188. 

Blackburn, Simon, "Wise Feelings, Apt Reading" [Review of Allan Gibbard's Wise 
Choices, Apt Feelings]. Ethics 102 (January 1992): 342-356. 

Bockle, Franz, and Pohier, Jacques-Marie. "Valori e norme etiche." Concilium 12 
(10/1976). 

Series of articles on various aspects of moral norms in the context of 
Christian ethics. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "Contemporary challenges to exceptionless moral norms." In 
Moral Theology Today, 121-135. Edited by D. McCarthy. 1984. 

Capone, Domenico. "Per la norma morale: ragione, coscienza, leggi." Studia 
Moralia 2% (1990): 195-221. 

This essay treats the difficult question of the relation between ethics and 
historicity, and considers in this regard the contributions of Thomas Aquinas 
and scholastic though in 16* though IS"* centuries and concludes with an 
analysis of the thought of St. Alphonsus Liguori. 

Cavalla, Francesco. "Sul fondamento delle norme etiche." In Problemi di etica: 
fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 141-202. A cura di Enrico Berti. Padova: 
Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Cavanaugh, Gerald, S.J. "The Common Good as an Effective Moral Norm for the 
U.S.Businessperson." In The Common Good and U.S. Capitalism, 32%-343. 



366 

Edited by Oliver F. Williams and John W. Houck. Lanham MD: University 
Press of America, 1987. 

Charlton, William. "Moral Absolutes." New Blackfriars 75 (1994): 149-154. 

Childress, James F. "Moral Norms in Practical Ethical Reflection." In Christian 
Ethics: Problems and Prospects, 1 96-2 1 7, Edited by Lisa Sowle Cahill and 
James F. Childress, Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1996. 

Article done for the Festschrift for James M. Gustafson made up of 
contributions from his former students. 

Compagnoni, Francesco. "Esiste una verity morale oggetiva?" In Problemi morali 
del giovani oggi, 59-64. Edited by Guido Gatti and Gianfranco Coffele. 
Roma: LAS, 1990. 

Curran, Charles E. "Absolute Moral Norms." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 
72-83. Edited by Bernard Hoose. CoUegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

. "Absolute Norms and Medical Ethics." In Absolutes in Moral Theology?, 

108-153. Edited by Charles E. Curran. Washington, D.C.: Corpus Books, 
1968. 

In Spanish: ^Principios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Mundo 
Actual)), 24. Traduccion de Jose Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

. "Absolute Norms in Moral Theology." In Norm and Context in Christian 

Ethics, 139-173. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. London: SCM 
Press, 1968. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. "L'agire morale tra norma e coscienza." In La norma della 
vita morale del cristiano, 23-34. A cura di Silvio Ronco. Milano: Ed. Stud. 
Teol. Cappuccini, 1992. 

Elders, Leo J. "Normes ethiques et faits pre-moraux." Doctor Communis 42 (1 989): 
167-174. 

Evans, Donald. "Love, Situations, and Rules." In Norm and Context in Christian 
Ethics, 367-414. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. London: SCM 
Press, 1968. 



367 

. "Paul Ramsey on Exceptionless Moral Rules." In Love and Society: Essays 

in the Ethics of Paul Ramsey, 19-46. Edited by James Johnson and David 
Smith. JRE Studies in Religious Ethics, 1. Missoula: American Academy 
of Religion and Scholars Press, 1974. 

Evan's contribution to a Festschrift with essays by Protestant and Roman 
Catholic authors meant both to criticize as well as embody the principles of 
Ramsey's ethics. 

Fletcher, Joseph. "What's in a Rule?: A Situationist's View" In Norm and Context 
in Christian Ethics, 325-349. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Fratellone, Raimondo. "Norma morale oggettiva, Magistero e coscienza soggettiva." 
In Problemi morali dei giovani oggi, 81-104. Edited by Guido Gatti and 
Gianfranco Coffele. Roma: LAS, 1990. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Das Absolut in der Moral." Stimmen der Zeit 209 (1991): 773- 
781. 

In English: "The Absolute in Moral Theology." Chapter 1 in Idem, Moral 
Demands and Personal Obligations, 15-29. Washington, D.C.:Georgetovra 
University Press, 1993. 

Josef Fuchs (1912-2005) was professor of moral theology at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome. 

. "The Absoluteness of Moral Terms." Gregorianum 52 (1971): 697-711. 



Also found in Fuchs' own Personal Responsibility and Christian Morality, 
trans. William Cleves, et al., (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983), 115-152. Also found in 
Readings in Moral Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic Tradition, 
ed. Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., (New York: Paulist 
Press, 1979), 94-137; as well as in Introduction to Christian Ethics: A 
Reader, ed. Ronald P. Hamel and Kenneth R. Himes, O.F.M. (New York: 
Paulist Press, 1989), 487-512. 

Italian translation: "II carattere assoluto delle norme morali operative." In 
Josef Fuchs, S.J. Responsibilita personale e norma morale, 77-125. 
Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane Bologna, 1978. 



368 



Addresses 2 questions: 1) "What is so absolute and universally valid in 
morality that moral theology and the Church's magisterium are able to declare 
it was binding for all peoples and times, for every individual and for every 
situation?" and 2) "What conduct is to be expected of the individual in his 
conscience and of the Church's magisterium~and in their relationship to one 
another? 

. Chapter 12 in Idem. Moral Demands and Personal Obligations, 181-188. 
Washington, D.C.: Georgeto^Mi University Press, 1993. 

English digest also found in Theology Digest 'i9{\992):'iA2-3iAl. Inregards 
to moral norms, both individuals as well as the Magisterium are enjoined to 
continue in the on-going process of the discover}' of ethical truth, a process 
which Fuchs terms "ethical self-direction." 

German original: "Sittliche Selbsteuerung." Stimmen derZeit 111 (1992): 
553-559. 

., "Innovative morality." Thirty-Fourth Annual Robert Cardinal Bellarmine 
Lecture, St. Louis University, 1990. Theology Digest 37 (1990): 303-312. 

In German: "Innovative Moral." Stimmen der Zeit 116 (1991): 181-191. 

The basic principle of every moral system is to do good and avoid evil. But 
even this basic ethical principle requires innovation, such as in a concrete 
situation where we must give an already existing norm the meaning and 
content it does not have it its abstract formulation. 

"The «Sin of the World» and Normative Morality." Gregorianum 61 (1980): 
51-76. 

Also found as ch. 8, pp. 153-175, of Personal Responsibility and Christian 
Morality, trans. William Cleves, et al., (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983). 

Italian translation: "II «Peccato del Mondo» e la morale normativa." In 
Sussidi 1980 Per Lo Studio Delia Teologia Morale Fondamentale, 41 5-435. 
(Per I'uso private degli studenti). Roma: Pontificia University Gregoriana, 
1977, 1980. 

In German: «Sunde der Welt» und normative Moral." In Anspruch der 
Wirklichkeit und christlicher Glaube: Probleme und Wege theologischer 
Ethikheute, \35-\54. Hrsg. Helmut Weber und Dietmar Mieth. Diisseldorf: 
Patmos Verlag, 1980. 



369 

. "Storicit^ e norma morale." In Morale e coscienza storica in dialogo con 

Josef Fuchs. Edited by Sergio Ferraro. Roma: Ave, 1988. 

In English: "Historicity and Moral Norm." Chapter 6 in Idem. Moral 
Demands and Personal Obligations, 9\-\0%. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1993. 

In German: "Geschichtlichkeit und sittliche Norm." Stimmen der Zeit 207 
(1989): 15-31. 

Grisez, Germain, "Moral Absolutes: A Critique of the View of Joseph Fuchs, SJ." 
Anthropos2{\9%5)\ 155-201. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R.."Traditions, Laws, Norms and Context," Ch. 7 in Idem, 
Free and Faithful in Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity. Volume 
1. Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978. 

Haring (1912-1 998) was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the 
last half of the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican H. 

Janssens, Louis. "Norm and Priorities in Love Ethics." Louvain Studies 9 (1977): 
115-156. 

John Paul II, Pope. "Discourse to the International Congress of Moral Theology." 
Rome 10 April 1986. In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso 
Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 11-14. Roma: 
Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

In this discourse the Pope repeated the affirmation of immutable concrete 
moral norms, and gave as two examples the prohibition against contraception 
and direct killing of the innocent. The tone of the Pope's discourse is clearly 
that of the Caffarra-Grisez-Finnis line, and contains many thinly veiled 
negative references to the Proportionalist school. The Congress was 
sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for the Study of 
Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. Carlo Caffarra), 
and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the University of 
Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Pope John Paul II reigned from October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 



370 

Kennedy, Terence, C.Ss.R. "Casuistry and the Problem of Pragmatism." 
Australasian Catholic Record 69 (1992): 67-77. 

After considering some of the problems with casuistry as construed by the 
nominalist tradition, Kennedy discusses a secular revival of casuistry as 
"applied ethics," and critiques this approach by using Alasdair Maclntyre's 
arguments developed in the latter's essay, "Does Applied Ethics Rest on a 
Mistake?" 77?eM?ww? 67(1984): 498-513. Along with Maclntyre, Kennedy 
concludes that casuistry makes sense only within "an ethical framework and 
a living tradition that embodies its normative rules and values." p. 75. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "Historical Epistemology and Moral Progress." The 
Heythrop Journal 33 (1992): 45-60. 

Uses the concept of paradigm shift of Thomas Kuhn to discuss the notion of 
moral progress in conception and application of moral norms and the natural 
law. Also refers considerably to the work of Klaus Demmer. Kopfensteiner 
did his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in 
Rome under Klaus Demmer, and taught theological ethics at Fordham 
University. 

. "The Metaphorical Structure of Normativity." Theological Studies 58 (1997): 

331-346. 

de Locht, Pierre. "The Role and Limits of Personal and Communal Ethical Practices 
in Establishing Christian Identity." Concilium 196 (1988): 107-115. 

Details some of the problems of giving overly detailed specific, concrete 
moral norms; then considers the place and contribution of Christian ethics in 
the universal human family. 

Melchin, Kenneth R. "Revisionists, Deontologists, and the Structure of Moral 
Understanding." Theological Studies 5\ (1990): 389-416. 

Discusses the recent debate over premoral norms, the direct/indirect 
distinction, exceptionless norms, intrinsic evil, and moral authority in terms 
of procedural criteria for data selection, classification, and values- 
prioritization in the empirical methods of moral theology. Author teaches 
moral theology at St. Paul University in Ottawa. 

Milhaven, John Giles. "Moral Absolutes and Thomas Aquinas." In Absolutes in 
Moral Theology?, 1 54-\S5. Edited by Charles E.Curran. Washington, D.C.: 
Corpus Books, 1968. 



371 

In Spanish: ^Principios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Miindo 
Actual», 24. Traducci6n de Jose Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

Mitchell, Basil. "Ideals, Roles, and Rules." In Norm and Context in Christian 
Ethics, 351-365. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. London: SCM 
Press, 1968. 

O'Donovan, Oliver. "John Finnis on Moral Absolutes." Studies in Christian Ethics 
6 (2/1993): 50-66. 

Overall a mostly sympathetic consideration of Finnis' polemic against 
proportionalist theory. O'Donovan is an Evangelical Anglican ethician and 
Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology and Canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford; John Firmis is a conservative Roman Catholic whose 
training is in law and who also teaches at Oxford. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "Christ, Moral Absolutes, and the Good: Recent Moral 
Theology." The Thomist 55 (1991): 117-140. 

Discusses Carlo Caffarra, William E. May, Eberhard Schockenhoff. 

Porter, Jean. "Moral Rules and Moral Actions: A Comparison of Aquinas and 
Modern Moral Theology." Journal of Religious Ethics 17(1989): 123-149. 

Compares Aquinas' understanding of the precepts of justice with various 
views on proportionalism held by contemporary moralists. Porter contends 
that both sides of this debate oversimplify Aquinas with the result that he is 
misread. Porter argues that Aquinas' account, which reflects a better sense 
of the communal context for moral discernment is superior to both 
traditionalism and proportionalism. Porter is professor of theology at the 
University of Notre Dame. 

Ramsey, Paul. "The Case of the Curious Exception." In Norm and Context in 
Christian Ethics, 67-135. Edited by Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Ramsey (1 9 1 3- 1 988), a major American Protestant ethician, taught for many 
years at Princeton. 

Richard, Edward J., M.S. "Law and Morality: Taking a Theoretical Break from the 
Norm." Studia Moralia 35 (1 997): 427-444; 36 (1 998): 239-265. 



372 

Discusses the relationship between Anglo-American law and morality. 
Richard teaches moral theology at Kenrick School of Theology in St. Louis. 

Ringeling, H. "Ethische Normativitat und Urteilsfmdung." Zeitschrift fur 
Evangelische EthiklS (1984): 402-425. 

Rotter, Hans. "Zw6lf Thesen zur heilsgechichtlichen Begrtindung der Moral." In 
Heilsgeschichte und ethische Normen. Herausgegeben von Klam Demmer, 
M.S.C., Bernard FraJing, Franz Furger, und Hans Rotter. Freiburg: Herder, 
1984. 

Schneewind, J.B. "Moral Knowledge and Moral Principles." In Revisions: 
Changing Perspectives in Moral Philosophy, 113-126. Edited by Stanley M. 
Hauerwas and Alasdair Maclntyre. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 
Press, 1983. 

Originally appeared in Knowledge and Necessity^ vol. 3, 249-262. Royal 
Institute of Philosophy Lectures, 1968-1969. 

SchockenhofF, Eberhard. "Normative Ethik. Eine Problemskizze." Studia Moralia 
35 (1997): 445-473. 

Looks at three models: theological, philosophical, and hermeneutical, and 
argues for a model which combines all three. Schockenhoff is professor of 
moral theology at the University of Freiburg in Br. 

. "Wozu gut sien? Eine historisch-systematischen Studie zum Ursprung des 

moralischen SoUens. I. Thomas und Kant." Studia Moralia 33 (June 1995): 
87-120. 

. "Wozu gut sein? Eine historisch-systematischen Studie zum Ursprung des 

moralischen Sollens. 11. Fichte und die gegenwSrtige Ethik." Studia Moralia 
33 (1995): 265-87. 

Schiiller, Bruno. "Tipidifondazionedellenormemorali." Concilium 12(10/1976): 
97-112. 

Simon, Rene. "Criteri di moralita e norme etiche." Concilium 12 (10/1976): 113- 
128. 

Vigna, Carmelo. "La verita del desiderio come fondazione della norma morale." In 
Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 69-135. A cura di 
Enrico Berti. Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 



373 

Walter, James J. "The Foundation and Formulation of Norms." In Moral Theology: 
Challenges for the Future. Essays in Honor of Richard A. McCormick, S.J., 
125-154. Edited by Charles E. Curran. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 

Zecchinato, Paolo. "La normativa della natura nella piu recente filosofia italiana." 
In Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 325-427. A cura di 
Enrico Berti, Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 



Books on Moral Norms 

Berti, Enrico, ed. Problemi di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti. Padova: 
Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Contributions by Giuseppe Angelini, Franceso Cavalla, Eugenio Lecaldano, 
Antonino Poppi, Giuseppe Trenti and Carmelo Vigna. 

Curran, Charles E, and McCormick Richard A., S.J., eds. Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 1: Moral Norms and Catholic Tradition. New York: Paulist 
Press, 1979. 

Curran, Charles E., ed. Absolutes in Moral Theology? Washington, D.C.: Corpus 
Books, 1968. 

In Spanish: ^Principios Absolutos en Teologia Moral? «Teologia y Mundo 
Actual)), 24. Traducci6n de Jose Maria Ruiz, S.J. Santander: Editorial Sal 
Terrae, 1970. 

Contributions by Robert H. Springer, Daniel C. Maguire, John C. Milhaven, 
Cornelius J. Van der Poel, Dennis Doherty, Martin Nolan, Kieren Nolan, and 
Charles Curran. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C.; Fraling, Bemhard; Furger, Franz; Rotter, Hans. 
Heilsgeschichte und ethische Normen. Quaestiones Disputatae, no. 99. 
Freiburg: Herder, 1984. 

Finnis, John. Moral Absolutes: Tradition, Revision, and Truth. The 1988 Michael 
J. McGivney Lectures of the John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage 
and Family. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 
1991. 



374 

Argues strongly for the existence of moral absolutes, and discusses the 
problem of contraception, which historically gave rise to the current formal 
attack on moral absolutes. Favorably reviewed overall by Alasdair 
Maclntyre in Ethics 103 (1993): 811-812; reviewed negatively by Bernard 
Hoose in Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 463-464. 

Fletcher, Joseph. Situation Ethics. Philadelphia, 1966. 

In German: Moral ohne Normen? Gtitersloh, 1967. 

Gert, Bernard. Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules. New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1988. 

Gert teaches at Dartmouth. 

Gibbard, Allan. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings. Cambridge: Har\'ard University Press, 
1990. 

Gibbard aims to present a naturalistic picture of human normative life, i.e., 
humans are natural animals which acknowledge norms of action, thought, and 
feeling, and thus, Gibbard's position is basically "norm expressivist" analysis. 
Positively reviewed by Simon Blackburn in Ethics 102 (January 1992): 342- 
356. 

Ginters, Rudolf Werte und Normen. Einfuhrung in die philosophische und 
theologische Ethik. Gdttingen and Dusseldorf: Wandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 
Patmos, 1982. 

Italian translation: Valori, norme e fede cristiana. Introduzione all'etica 
fllosoflca e teologica. Casale Monferrato: Marietti, 1982. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. What Are They Saying About Moral Norms?. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1982. 

Good overview of the issue, as well as major current opinions. Gula is now 
professor of moral theology at the Franciscan School of Theology in 
Berkeley, California 

Haber, Jorara Graf, ed. Absolutism and its Consequentialist Critics. Lanham MD: 
University Press of America, 1994. 

Is the judicial execution of the innocent permissible to deter crime? Some 
advocates of consequentialism would respond yes, while moral absolutists 



375 

argue that certain kinds of conduct, including this one, are absolutely 
prohibited, no matter what the consequences. The 17 essays selected for 
inclusion represent the major contributions to its defense and criticism, and 
define the contemporary discussion. In addition, Haber contributes an 
extensive bibliographic essay in which he defends his own version of moral 
absolutism. 

Keeling, Michael. The Mandate of Heaven: The Divine Command and the Natural 
Order. Hemdon, VA: T&T Clark, 1995. 

Keeling tackles the concept of law in Christian ethics and argues that 
although for Christians the primary gift of God to human beings may be 
fi-eedom, there are also laws, or mandates, which can be defined. These 
mandates are true to Christian belief and to the realities described in the 
natural and social sciences. Mandates regarding political institutions, 
sexuality and personal love, justice in economic activity, and medical control 
over human life are the focus of Keeling's book. He also explores how 
communities are formed and maintained in which these moral obligations can 
be defined and pursued. 

Kerber, Walter, ed. Sittliche Normen. Zum Problem ihrer allgemeinen und 
unwandelbaren Geltung. Diisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982. 

Contains an article by Josef Fuchs, S.J. found in English as "An Ongoing 
Discussuion in Christian Ethics: «Intrinsically Evil Acts»?" Chapter 5 in 
Fuchs' Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena, 71-90. Translated by Bernard 
Hoose and Brian McNeil. Washington, D.C.: Georgetovm Universit}' Press, 
and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. Fuchs' article was first presented at 
an international study week for moral theologians on the universality and 
immutability of moral norms, held in Rome in 1981, and later presented as 
a public lecture at the Universit>' of California, Berkeley in 1982. 

May, William E. Moral Absolutes, Catholic Traditions, Current Trends, and Truth. 
1 989 Pere Marquette Lecture. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1989. 

Negatively reviewed by Thomas R. Kopfensteiner in Thought. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J., and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Doing Evil to Achieve Good: 
Moral Choice in Conflict Situations. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 
1978. 

Includes essays by Baruch Brody, William K. Frankena, Bruno Schtiller, S.J., 
as well as contributions by Ramsey and McCormick, all of which deal in 



376 

some way with McCormick's reformulation of the principle of the double 
effect, given as the 1973 Pere Marquette Lecture, delivered at Marquette 
University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (and which is included in this volume 
as well). 

Nothwehr, Dawn M. Mutuality: A Formal Norm for Christian Social Ethics. San 
Francisco: Catholic Scholars Press, 1998. 

Doctoral dissertation done at Marquette University which considers the 
notion of mutuality as a norm for Christian ethics, primarily within the 
feminist context, but also by using the work of H. Richard Niebuhr, Martin 
Buber, and work of moral normativity drawn from Josef Fuchs, Timothy 
O'Connell, and Lisa Sowle Cahill. 

Outka, Gene H. and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Norm and Context in Christian Ethics. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Quite a good collection of articles by Protestant and Roman Catholic 
ethicians covering a number of topics related to the notion of moral norms. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. et Pinto de Oliveira, C.J. Universalite et permanence des 
his morales. Fribourg: Editions Universitaires Fribourg Suisse; Paris: 
Editions duCerf, 1986. 

Piva, Pompeo. Persona umana e norma morale. Esperienza e Analisi, 4. Vicenza: 
Ed. L.I.E.F., 1986. 

Also discusses the ethics of Karl Barth, Karl Rahner, and "situation ethics". 

Robinson, J[ohn]. A. T. Christian Morals Today. London: SCM, 1964. 

In French: Morale chretienne aujord'hui. Paris, 1968. 

Ronco, Silvio, a cura di. La norma delta vita morale del cristiano. Milano: Ed. 
Stud. Teol. Cappuccini, 1992. 

Includes two contributions by Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 

Salzman, Todd A. Deontology and Teleology: An Investigation of the Normative 
Debate in Roman Catholic Moral Theology. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum 120. 
Leuven: University Press, Uitgeverij Peeters, 1995. 



377 

Looks at CD. Broad, deontology, teleology, the fontes moralitatis, and 
directions for the concrete normative discussion. Salzman teaches at 
Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. 

SchtUler, Bruno, S.J. Die Begrundung sittlicher Urteile. Typen ethischer 
Argumentation in der Moraltheologie. 2nd ed. Diisseldorf: Patmos, 1980. 

Italian translation of the first edition: La fondazone dei giudizi morali. 
Assisi, 1975. 

Italian translation also found in L'uomo veramente uomo. La dimensione 
teologica dell'etica nella dimensione etica deU'uomo. Collectio-Etica, 3. A 
cura di S. Privitera. Palermo: Edi Oftes, 1987. Italian translation of two 
books by Schiiller: Die Begriindung sitlicher Urteile. Typen ethischer 
Argumentation in der Moraltheologie, and Der menschliche Mensch. 
Aufsdtze zur Metaethik und zur Sprache der Moral, (Diisseldorf: Patmos 
Verlag, 1982). Reviewed by Domenico Capone, C.Ss.R. in Studia Moralia 
28 (1990): 648-652. 

. Pluralismus in der Ethik. Zum Stil wissenschaftlicher Kontroversen. 



Miinster: Aschendorff, 1988. 

Selling, Joseph A., ed. Personalist Morals: Essays in Honor of Professor Louis 
Janssens. Biblioteca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium, 83. 
Louvain: University Leuven Press, 1988. 

Sim, May, ed. The Crossroads of Norm and Nature: Essays on Aristotle's Ethics 
and Metaphysics. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1994. 

Wolbert, Werner. Der Mensch als Mittel undZweck. Miinster: Aschendorff, 1987. 



Narrative and Christian Ethics 

Articles on Narrative Theology 

AA.VV, "A Symposium on Story in Narrative Theology." Theology Today 32 
(1975). 

July Issue largely dedicated to this theme; articles by George Stroup, James 
Cone, James Wiggins, Sallie McFague, and Robert McAfee Brown. 

AUsopp, Michael E. "G.M. Hopkins, Narrative, and the Heart of Morality: 
Exposition and Critique." Irish Theological Quarterly 60 (1994): 287-307. 

Barbour, John D. "Tragedy and Ethical Reflection." Journal of Religion 63 (1983): 
1-25. 

Barbour teaches at St. Olaf College. 

Beaumont, Daniel. "The Modality of Narrative: A Critique of Some Recent Views 
of Narrative in Theology." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 45 
(1997): 125-139. 

Bohlen, Reinhold. "Die Rutrolle~Ein aktuelles Beispiel narrativer Ethik im Alten 
Testament." Trier Theologische Zeitschrift 101 (1992): 1-19. 

Bondi, Richard. "The Elements of Character." Journal of Religious Ethics 12 
(1984). 

Bradley, James. "Alasdair Maclntyre on the Good Life and the 'Narrative Model'." 
The Heythrop Journal 31 (1990): 324-326. 

Critiques an exaggerated understanding and use of "narrative" in Maclntyre's 
After Virtue and Whose Justice? Which Rationality?. 

Brown, Robert McAfee. "My Story and The Story'." Theology Today 32 (1975): 
166-173. 

Part of "A Symposium on Story in Narrative Theology." 

Comstock, Gary. "Telling the Whole Story? American Narrative Theology after H. 
Richard Niebuhr." In Religion and Philosophy in the United States of 
America,No\. 1, 129-152. Proceedings ofthe German- American Conference 



380 

at Paderbom, 29 July - 1 August 1986. Edited by Peter Freese. Essen: Die 
Blaue Eule Verlag, 1987. 

_. "Truth and Meaning: Ricoeur Versus Frei on Biblical Narrative." Journal of 

Religion 66 (1986): 117-140. 

Cone, James H. "The Story Context of Black Theology." Theology Today 32 
(1975): 144-150. 

Part of "A Symposium on Story in Narrative Theology." 

Crites, Stephen, "A Respectful Reply to the Assertorical Theologian." Journal of 
the American Academy of Religion 52 (1984): 131-140. 

Is a response to Julian Harrt's article in the same issue, "Theological 
Investments in Stor>': Some Comments on Recent Developments and Some 
Proposals^ Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 (1984): 117- 
130. Hartt has a rebuttal to both Stephen Crites and Stanley Hauerw^as, 
another responder, on pp. 149-156. 

.. "The Spatial Dimensions of Narrative Truthtelling." In Scriptural Authority 

and Narrative Interpretation, 97- 118. Edited by Garrett Green. Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1987. 

Dillistone, F.W. "Narrative Theology." Modern Churchman 3\ (1989): 40-42. 

Gives a brief summary of narrative theology. 

Endres, Josef, C.Ss.R. "Narrative Theologie. Narrative Ethik." Studia Moralia \5 
(1977): 155-169. 

Published on the occasion of the Festschrift given to Bernard HSring in this 
volume of Studia Moralia. 

Fischer, James A., CM. "Story and Image." In Christian Biblical Ethics: From 
Biblical Revelation to Contemporary Christian Praxis: Method and Content, 
156-169. New York: Paulist Press, 1984. 

Includes treatment of "Human Life as Story" and "The Bible as Ethical 
Story." 

Fowl, Stephen. "Some Uses of Story in Moral Discourse: Reflections on Paul's 
Moral Discourse and Our Own." Modern Theology 5 (1988): 293-308. 



381 

Frei, Hans W. "The 'Literal Reading' of Biblical Narrative in the Christian Tradition: 
Does It Stretch or Will It Break?" In The Bible and Narrative Tradition, 36- 
77. Edited by Frank McConnell. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. 

Gasciogne, Robert. "Christian Narrative, Ethics and Public Forum." The 
Australasian Catholic Record 71 (1994): 208-218. 

. "The Relation between Text and Experience in Narrative Theology of 

Revelation." Pacifica 5 (1992): 43-58. 

Critiques the narrative theology of revelation developed by Ronald Thiemann 
in his Revelation and Theology and George Lindbeck in the tatter's The 
Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Post-Liberal Age. Both of 
these writers are critical of any theological method that employs a correlation 
between Scripture and human experience, because such a correlation assumes 
either a foundation of knowledge in experience or the possibility of 
meaningful experience independent of concrete narrative. Gascoigne argues 
that only a dialectical concept of the relationship between experience, text, 
and tradition can do justice to the character of biblical revelation. 

Green, Garrett. "'The Bible As...' Fictional Narrative and Scriptural Truth." In 
Scriptural Authority and Narrative Interpretation, 79-96. Edited by Garrett 
Green. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Guevin, Benedict M. "The Moral Imagination and the Shaping Power of the 
Parables." Journal of Religious Ethics 1 7 (1 989): 63-79. 

Discusses how the literary impact of the parable story can affect the shaping 
of character. Much of Guevin's essay is done in light of the work of Stanley 
Hauerwas. 

Hall, Pamela M. Narrative and the Natural Law: An Interpretation of Thomistic 
Ethics. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994. 

The author claims that natural law is known narratively, meaning that natural 
law is discovered, "progressively over time and through a process of 
reasoning engaged by the material of experience." Thus, we learn the natural 
law not by deduction, but narratively as we search for what the good is for us, 
both individually and commimally. 

Hartt, Julian. "Story as the Art of Historical Truth." In Theological Method and 
Imagination. New York: Seabury Press, 1977. 



382 

. "Theological Investments in Story: Some Comments on Recent Developments 

and Some Proposals." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 
(1984): 117-130. 

See responses by Stanley Hauerwas and Stephen Crites in the same issue. 
Hartt also has a rebuttal to both Hauerwas and another responder, Stephen 
Crites, on pp. 149-156. 

Hauerwas, Stanley. "The Gesture of a Truthful Story: the Church and Christian 
Education." Theology Today 43 il9S5): 181-189. 

__. "Stor}': Ethics and the Pastoral Task." Chicago Studies 21 (1982): 59-71. 



. "Why the Truth Demands Truthfulness: An Imperious Engagement with 

Hartt." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 (1984): 141-148. 

Is a response to Julian Harrt's article in the same issue, "Theological 
Investments in Story: Some Comments on Recent Developments and Some 
Proposals." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 (1984): 117- 
130. Hartt has a rebuttal to both Hauerwas and another responder, Stephen 
Crites, on pp. 149-156. 

Hyde, James, and Stassen, Glen Harold. "Story and Spirituality." In Becoming 
Christian: Dimensions of Spiritual Formation, 73-89. Edited by Bill J. 
Leonard. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990. 

Both authors teach at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

Jones, L. Gregory. "Alasdair Maclntyre on Narrative, Communit}', and the Moral 
Life." Modern Theology 4 (1987): 53-69. 

Kelsey, David H. "Biblical Narrative and Theological Anthropology." In Scriptural 
Authority and Narrative Interpretation, 121-143. Edited by Garrett Green. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Lamoureux, Patricia A. "Emotion, Imagination, and the Role of the Spirit: A 
Response to Aime Patrick." New Theology Review 1 1 (May 1998): 57-62. 

Is a response to Anne Patrick's "Imaginative Literature and the Renewal of 
Moral Theology." New Theology Review 11 (May 1998): 43-57. 

Lauritzen, Paul. "Is 'Narrative' Really a Panacea? The Use of 'Narrative' in the 
Work of Metz and Hauerwas." Journal of Religion 67 (1987): 322-339. 



383 

McClendon, James William, Jr. "Why Narrative Ethics?" Chapter 12 in his 
Systematic Theology: Ethics, 329-356. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1986. 

The late McClendon was a Baptist, who nevertheless taught for many years 
at the Church Divinity School of the Pacific (Episcopalian) at the Graduate 
Theological Union (GTU) of Berkeley, California. 

McFague TeSelle, Sallie. "The Experience of Coming to Belief" Theology Today 
32(1975): 159-165. 

Part of "A Symposium on Story in Narrative Theology." 

Metz, Johannes Baptist. "A Short Apology of Narrative." Concilium 84 (1973): 84- 
96. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "Narrative Ethik." Freiburger Zeitschrift fur Philosophic und 
Theologie 22 (1975): 297-328. 

Oakes, Edward T., S.J. "Apologetics and the Pathos of Narrative Theology." 
Journal of Religion 72 (1992): 37-58. 

Ortega, Resty Moreno. "Teologia narrativa (resefia bibliografica: 1970-1990)." 
Moralia 13 (1991): 413-430. 

Outka, Gene H. "Character, Vision, and Narrative." Religious Studies Review 6/2 
(April, 1980): 10-18. 

Discusses the way these terms function in the work of Stanley Hauerwas. 

Patrick, Anne, SNJM. "Imaginative Literature and the Renewal of Moral Theology." 
New Theology Review 11 (May 1998): 43-57. 

See also the response by Patricia A. Lamoureux, "Emotion, Imagination, and 
the Role of the Spirit: A Response to Anne Patrick." New Theology Review 
11 (May 1998): 57-62. 

. "Narrative and the Social Dynamics of Virtue." Concilium 191 (1987): 69-80. 

Pellauer, David. "Limming the Liminal: Carr and Ricoeur on Tune and Narrative." 
Philosophy Today 35 (1991): 51-62. 

Considers David Carr and Paul Ricoeur. 



384 

Pellegrino, Edmund, "Rationality, the Normative, and Narrative in the Philosophy 
of Morals." In Knowledge, Value and Belief. Edited by H. Tristram 
Engelhardt and Daniel Callahan. New York: Institute of Society, Ethics and 
the Life Sciences, 1977. 

Placher, W.C. "Hans Frei and the Meaning of Biblical Narrative." Christian 
Century 106 (1989): 556-559. 

Gives a good overview of Frei's life and work. 

Ricoeur, Paul. "Narrative Identity." Philosophy Today 35 (1991): 73-81. 

Article originally published as "L'identite narrative" in Esprit 7-8 (1988): 
295-304. 

. "Narrative Time." In On Narrative, 165-186. Edited by W.J.T. Mitchell. 

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. 

Robbins, J. Wesley. "Narrative, Morality, and Religion." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 8 (1980): 161-176. 

Rochhetta, Carlo. "Teologia narrativa. Una nuova figura di teologia?" Richerche 
Teologiche 2 (1991): 153-180. 

Considers the contribution of H. Weinrich, J.B. Metz, G. Lohfink, H. Zahmt, 
L. Wachinger, H. Halfas, E. Jilngel, and outlines narrative theology in terms 
of christology, sacramentology, and biblical exegesis. 

SchlSgel, Herbert, O.P. "Tugend-Kasuistik-Biographie. Trends und Skumenische 
Perspektiven in der Moraltheologie der USA." Catholica (3/1 997): 1 87-200. 

Discusses authors, approaches and issues prominent in moral theology in the 
United States in the mid-1990's. 

Schussler-Fiorenza, Elisabeth. "The Ethics of Interpretation: De-Centering Biblical 
Scholarship." Journal of Biblical Literature 107 (1988): 3-17. 

Stroup, George W. "A Bibliographical Critique." [From "A Symposium on Story 
in Narrative Theology."] Theology Today 32 (1975): 133-143. 

. "Theology of Narrative or Narrative Theology?: A Response to Why 



Narrative?" Theology Today 47 (1991): 424-432. 



385 

Discusses narrative theology in the light of Hauerwas and Jones' recent 
anthology, Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology (Grand Rapids, 
1989). 

TeSelle, Sallie McFague. See McFague, Sallie. 

Thiemann, Ronald E. "Radiance and Obscurity in Biblical Narrative." In Scriptural 
Authority and Narrative Interpretation, 21-41. Edited by Garrett Green. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Vitz, Paul C. "The Use of Stories in Moral Development: New Psychological 
Reasons for an Old Education Method." American Psychologist 45 (1990): 
709-720. 

Vroom, Hendrik M. "Religious Hermeneutics, Culture and Narratives." Studies in 
Interreligious Dialogue 4 (1994): 189-213. 

Discussion of how religious narratives function from a hermeneutical 
viewpoint in various cultures. 

Wiggins, James B. "Re-Imaging Psycho-History. Theology Today 32 {1915): \5\- 
158. 

Part of "A Symposium on Story in Narrative Theology." 

Wiles, Maurice. "Scriptural Authority and Theological Construction: The 
Limitations of Narrative Interpretation." In Scriptural Authority and 
Narrative Interpretation, 42-58. Edited by Garrett Green. Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1987. 



Books on Narrative Theology 

Bal, Mieke. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: 
University of Toronto Press, 1985. 

Barbour, John. Tragedy as a Critique of Virtue: The Novel and Ethical Reflection, 
Chico CA: Scholars Press, 1985. 

Reviewed by David Hesla in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 471-472. 



386 

BerthofT, Warner. Literature and Continuances of Virtue. Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1986. 

Berthoff proposes a conception of virtue, in the word's generative and root 
sense, as the essential subject matter of imaginative literature. He uses the 
term, virtue, to connote the integrity of the force which comes from persons, 
societies, or texts in consequence of their accomplishing their distinctive 
ends. Berthoff also outlines the notion of virtue from classical times to the 
present, and examines it as a formative presence in such major literary works 
as Hamlet, All's Well That Ends Well, The Charterhouse of Parma, plus 
Robert Musil's The Man Without Qualities as well as the lyric poetry of 
Shelley, Yeats, and Frank O'Hara. Berthoff is the Cabot Professor of English 
and American Literature at Harvard University. 

Betsworth, Roger G. Social Ethics: An Examination of American Moral Traditions. 
Louisville: Westminster, John Knox Press, 1990. 

Focuses on four cultural narratives that have shaped the American ethical 
images of itself and the world: the biblical story, the American gospel of 
success, the idea of well-being, and the global mission of America. 
Discussed as a course text in James T. Bretzke, S.J.'s "Through Thick And 
Thin: Teaching Ethics in a Cross-cultural Perspective" Horizons 27 (Spring 
2000): 63-80. 

Bryant, David J. Faith and the Play of Imagination. Macon GA: Mercer University 
Press, 1989. 

Carr, David. Time, Narrative, and History. Bloomington IN: hidiana University 
Press, 1986. 

Coles, Robert. The Call of Stories: Teaching and the Moral Imagination. Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1989. 

Dennis, Trevor. Lo and Behold! The Power of Old Testament Storytelling. London: 
SPCK, 1991. 

Donahue, John R., S.J. The Gospel in Parable: Metaphor, Narrative, and Theology 
in the Synoptic Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988. 

hicludes a good bibliography of material published in the last twenty years. 
Probably the best recent book on this topic. 



387 

Eldridge, Richard. On Moral Personhood: Philosophy, Literature, Criticism, and 
Self-Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. 

Defends a revised version of Kantian universalism, and then investigates 
some of the novels of Conrad and Austen, as well as the poetry of 
Wordsworth and Coleridge, in which the protagonists are involved with the 
struggle with moral conflicts and/or self-understanding as moral persons. 
Reviewed by Philip C. Rule, S.J. m Theological Studies 5\ (1990): 111-119. 

EUingsen, Mark. The Integrity of Biblical Narrative: Story in Theology and 
Proclamation. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990. 

EUingsen is a pastor in North Carolina and formerly a research professor at 
the Institute for Ecumenical Research in Strasbourg. 

Fasching, Darrell J. Narrative Theology: From Alienation to Ethics. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 1992. 

Ford, David. Barth and God's Story: Biblical Narrative and the Theological Method 
of Karl Barth in the "Church Dogmatics" . Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag, 
1985. 

Frei, Hans W. The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974. 

See especially the last chapter, 16, "'Understanding' and Narrative 
Community," pp. 307-324. 

Gardner, John. On Moral Fiction. New York: Basic Books, 1978. 

Genette, Gerard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Ithaca: Cornell 
University Press, 1980. 

Goldberg, Michael. Jews and Christians, Getting Our Stories Straight: The Exodus 
and the Passion-Resurrection. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. 

. Narrative and Theology: A Critical Introduction. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. 

Green, Garrett, ed. Scriptural Authority and Narrative Interpretation. Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1987. 

Discussion of the work of Hans Frei (died 1988). 



388 

Green, Garrett. Imagining God: Theology and the Religious Imagination. San 
Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. 

Haring, Hermann, Junker-Kenny, Maureen, and Mieth, Dietmar, eds. Creating 
Identity. Concilium 2/2000. 

Articles on identity and narrative, with several treating this theme in relation 
to moral philosophy and/or theology. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M., and Jones, L. Gregory, eds. Why Narrative? Readings in 
Narrative Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989. 

Anthology of seventeen essays on narrative theology. Critically reviewed by 
George Stroup in Theology Today Al (1991): 424-432. 

Hauerwas, Stanley, with Bondi, Richard and Burrell, David B. Truthfulness and 
Tragedy: Further Investigations in Christian Ethics. Notre Dame and 
London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977. 

See especially chapter 1 , "From System to Story: An Alternative Pattern for 
Rationality in Ethics" [also found in Hauerwas' and Jones' Why Narrative? 
Readings in Narrative Theology]; and chapter 4, "Story and Theology." 

Hauerwas, Stanley. A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive Christian 
Social Ethic. Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 
1981. 

See especially Part One: The Narrative Character of Christian Social Ethics, 
chapters 1-4; and chapter 5, "The Church in a Divided World: The 
Interpretative Power of the Christian Story, and chapter 7, "Character, 
Narrative, and Growth in the Christian Life." 

. Vision and Virtue: Essays in Christian Ethical Reflection. Notre Dame: Fides 

Press, 1974. 

See especially chapter 4, "The Self as Story: A Reconsideration of the 
Relation of Religion and Morality from the Agent's Perspective," pp. 68-89. 
This chapter originally appeared as an article in the Journal of Religious 
Ethics. 

Holbert, John C. Preaching Old Testament: Proclamation and Narrative in the 
Hebrew Bible. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991. 



389 

Hopewell, J.F. Congregation: Stories and Structures. London: SCM Press, 1988. 

Argues that church congregations can only be understood on the basis of the 
stories members tell of themselves and their community. 

Keane, Philip S., S.S. Christian Ethics and Imagination: A Theological Inquiry. 
New York: Pauiist Press, 1984. 

Keane is professor of moral theology at St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore. 

Kort, Wesley. Story, Text, and Scripture: Literary Interests in Biblical Narrative. 
University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988. 

Reviewed by David Rhoads m Modern Theology 7 (1991): 488-490 

Lash, Nicholas. Theology on the Way to Emmaeus. London: SCM Press, 1986. 

Lash is the Norris-Hulse Professor of Divinity at Cambridge University. 

Ledbetter, Mark. Virtuous Intentions: The Religious Dimension of Narrative. 
American Academy of Religion Academy Series. Ithaca: Scholars Press, 
1989. 

The author argues that narrative does not just simply tell a story, but also has 
the capacity to reveal the virtuous life. To this end he examines three texts: 
James Agee's A Death in the Family, Walker Percy's Love in the Ruins, and 
Robert Penn Warren's A Place to Come To, in order to demonstrate how a 
study of narrative structure, and particularly the narrative element character 
explores and reveals the life of virtue. The work concludes with a discussion 
of how moral criticism has a place in post-modem literary reflection. 
Reviewed by Ann-Janine Morey in Journal of the American Academy of 
Religion 59 (1991): 409-410. 

Long, Edward LeRoy, Jr. To Liberate and Redeem: Moral Reflections on the 
Biblical Narrative. Foreword by J. Philip Wogaman. Cleveland: Pilgrim 
Press, 1997. 

Takes a contrasting approach to that of Stanley Hauerwas, Long discusses 
how contemporary moral decisions can be enlightened by considering the 
biblical stories of persons and groups who confronted similar concerns. 

Maclntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 2nd ed. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1981, 1984. 



390 

In Italian: Dopo la virtu: Saggio di teoria morale. A cura di P. Capriolo. 
Milano: Feltrinelli, 1988. 

In Spanish: Traslavirtud. Critica Filosofia. Barcelona: Ed. Critica, 1987. 

In Gennan: Der Verlust der Tugend. Zur moralischen Krise der Moderne. 
Theorie imd Gesellschaft, 5. Frankftirt-am-Main: Campus Verlag, 1987, 

See especially Chapter 15, The Virtues, the Unity of a Human Life and the 
Concept of a Tradition. 

McConnell, Frank, ed. The Bible and Narrative Tradition. New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1986. 

Essays by Harold Bloom, Hans Frei, Frank Kermode, James Robinson, 
Donald Foster, and Herbert Schneidau. 

McClendon, James William, Jr. Biography as Theology: How Life Stories Can 
Remake Today's Theology. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. 

The late McClendon was a Baptist, who nevertheless taught at the Church 
Divinity School of the Pacific (Episcopalian) at the Graduate Theological 
Union (GTU) of Berkeley, California. 

McClure, John S. The Four Codes of Preaching: Rhetorical Strategies. 
MinneapoUs: Fortress Press, 1991. 

According to McClure four codes form each preacher's homiletic profile and 
are used to inform the various rhetorical strategies. These four codes are: 1) 
Scripture, which promotes sacred memory; 2) Semantics, which vouches for 
the theological truth; 3) Symbolic, which sponsors the congregation's 
theological worldview; and 4) Cultural, which articulates the congregation's 
religious experience. McClure teaches at Louisville Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary. 

McFague, Sallie. Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Language. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982. 

. Models of God: Theology for an Ecological, Nuclear Age. Philadelphia: 

Fortress Press, 1987. 

Mieth, Dietmar. Dichtung, Glaube und Moral. Studien zur Begriindigung einer 
narrative Ethik mit einer Interpretation zum Tristanroman Gottfrieds von 



391 

Strassburg. Tubinger theologische Studien, 7. Mainz: Matthias Grtinewald 
Verlag, 1976. 

Mitchell, W.J.T., ed. On Narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. 

Mount, Eric, Jr. Professional Ethics in Context: Institutions, Images, and Empathy. 
Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990. 

Using images, myths, and metaphors was ways to comprehend the moral life. 
Mount proposes the covenant as the normative principle for institutional and 
professional relationships. Reviewed by Thomas L. Shaffer in Theology 
Today 49 (1992): 260-261; 264. Mount is Professor of Religion at Centre 
College in Danville, KY. 

Navone, John, S.J., and Cooper, Thomas. Tellers of The Word. New York: Le Jacq, 
1981. 

Navone, John, S.J. Gospel Love: A Narrative Theology. Good News Studies, 12. 
Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1984. 

Italian translation: L'amore evangelico: Una teologia narrativa. Roma: 
Borla, 1986. 

. The Jesus Story: Our Life as Story in Christ. Collegeville: The Liturgical 

Press, 1979. 

. Seeking God in Story. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1990. 

. Towards a Theology of Story. Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1977. 



Nelson, Paul. Narrative and Morality: A Theological Inquiry. University Park: 
Pennsylvania State University, 1987. 

Revised version of a 1984 doctoral dissertation done at Yale. Reviewed by 
John D. Barbour in Journal of Religion 69 (1989): 298-299. 

Niebuhr, H. Richard. The Meaning of Revelation. New York: Macmillan, 1941 and 
1960. 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Making Disciples: A Handbook of Christian Moral 
Formation. New York: Crossroad, 1998. 



392 

Addresses from theological, psychological, and sociological perspectives the 
question of how people come to embody Christian values and the 
implications for the Church and its ministry. O'Connell devotes special 
attention to the role of narrative and imagination in the moral formation of 
the Christian disciple. O'Connell is Professor of Christian Ethics in the 
Institute of Pastoral Studies at Loyola University, Chicago. 

Ricoeur, Paul. Essays on Biblical Interpretation. Edited by Lewis M. Mudge. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980. 

Stroup, George. Promise of Narrative Theology: Rediscovering Gospel in the 
Church. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1981. 

Thiemann, Ronald. Revelation and Theology: The Gospel as Narrated Promise. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985. 

Tilley, Terrence. Story Theology. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1985. 

Tilley is professor of theology at the University of Dayton.. 

Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. 

Vanhoozer, Kevin J. Biblical Narrative in the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur: A Study 
in Hermeneutics and Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 
1990. 

Also relates Ricoeur's narrative theory to the theological problem of the 
dichotomy between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith. Reference in 
this regard is made to the work of other theologians such as Barth, Bultmann, 
Tillich, Pannenberg, Frei and Tracy. 

Via, Dan O. The Ethics of Mark's Gospel: In the Middle of Time. Philadelphia: 
Fortress Press, 1985. 

Via uses a hermeneutical approach to analyze the Gospel of Mark in order to 
inform both New Testament and "constructive" ethics. Via focuses on 
narrative method and considers a number of significant Gospel motifs, such 
as eschatology, revelation, faith, and the messianic secret. The "Middle of 
Time" refers both to Mark 10 and to the paradoxical position of the disciple 
who is placed in the period of the overlapping of the Kingdom of God and the 
age of the hardness of heart. See especially Ch. 1 : "An Approach to the New 
Testament Ethics and Narrative." Briefly discussed by Lisa Sowle Cahill in 



393 

her article "The New Testament and Ethics: Communities of Social Change," 
Interpretation 44 ( 1 990): 3 83-395 . Via is Professor of New Testament at The 
Divinit)' School of Duke University. 

Witherell, Carol, and Noddings, Nel, eds. Stories Lives Tell: Narrative and 
Dialogue in Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 1991. 

Zuckert, Catherine H. Natural Right and the American Imagination: Political 
Philosophy in Novel Form. Savage MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990. 



Natural Law 

Articles on the Natural Law 

Aquinas, Thomas. See Thomas Aquinas. 

Arkes, Hadley; Russell Hittinger; William Bentley Ball; and Robert H. Bork. 
"Natural Law and the Law." First Things (1992): 45-54. 

Responses to criticism by Robert Bork given Bork's essay, "Natural Law and 
the Constitution," published in the March issue of the same periodical. 

Amtz, Joseph, O.P. "Natural Law and Its History." Concilium 5 (1/1965): 23-32. 

Barton, John. "Natural Law and Poetic Justice in the Old Testament." Journal of 
Theological Studies 39 (1979): 1-14. 

Beestermoller, Gerhard. "Lex naturalis—Stolperstein einer Okumenischen Ethik?" 
Theologie und Philosophic 71 (1996): 47-62. 

Billy, Dennis, C.Ss.R. "Grace and Natural Law in the Super Epistolam adRomanos 
Lectura: A Study of Thomas' Commentary on Romans 2:14-16." Studia 
Mom//a 26 (1988): 15-37. 

Bockle, Franz. "La legge naturale e la legge cristiana." In AA. VV. La legge 
naturale, 197-217. Studi e ricerche, 4, Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane 
Bologna, 1970. 

The late Franz Bockle was a Swiss theologian who taught at the University 
of Bonn. 

. "Nature as the Basis of Morality." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: 

Natural Law and Theology, 392-412. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared in Personalist Morals: Essays in Honor of Professor 
Louis Janssens, 45-60. Edited by Joseph A. Selling. Louvain: University 
Leuven Press, 1988. 

. "La validity dell'ordine della creazione." In Legge e Coscienza: Problemi 

fondamentali di etica teologica in prospettiva ecumenica, 44-75. Giomale 
di teologia, no. 26. Brescia: Queriniana, 1968. 



396 

In German: In Gesetz und Gewissen: Grundfragen theologischer Ethik in 
okumenischer Sicht. Luzem und Stuttgart: RSper Verlag. 

In English: In Law and Conscience. Translated by M. James Donnelly. New 
York: Sheed and Ward, 1966. 

Boyle, John P. "The Magisterium and the Natural Law." Catholic Theological 
Society of America (CTSA) Proceedings 34 (1979): 189-210. 

Braaten, Carl E. "Protestants and the Natural Law." F/>^/ r/?mg5 (January 1992): 
20-26. 

Reviews the Roman Catholic position on the natural law, and the traditional 
Protestant objections to its use. However, in light of secularism, pluralism 
and the general breakdown of moral standards in the contemporary world 
Braaten argues that a reformulated natural law theory can be of crucial 
importance. Braaten taught Systematic Theology at the Lutheran School of 
Theology at Chicago, and is Director of the Center for Catholic and 
Evangelical Theology in Northfield, Minnesota. 

Bresnahan, James F., S.J. "Rahner's Ethics: Critical Natural Law in Relation to 
Contemporary Ethical Methodology." Journal of Religion 56 (1 976): 36-60. 

Treats Karl Rahner's approach to the natural law, and focusses on the nature 
of obligation in this approach. 

Bubmaim, Peter. "Naturrecht und christiiche Ethik." Zeitschrift fur Evangelische 
Ethik 37 (1993): 267-2S0. 

Considers the position of two German Catholic moral theologians, Wilhelm 
Korff and Klaus Demmer, and contrasts this with Karl Barth. 

Caffarra, Carlo. "L'alleanza colla Sapienza creatice." Parte seconda, capitolo 
secondo in Viventi in Cristo, 75-93. Milano: Jaca, 1981. 

In English: "The Covenant with Creative Wisdom." Part II, Chapter 2 in 
Living in Christ: Fundamental Principles of Catholic Moral Teaching, 83- 
106. Translated by Christopher Ruff. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1987. 

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. "The Development of the Natural Law Approach." In Women 
and Sexuality, 8-14. New York: Paulist Press, 1992. 



397 

Part of the 1992 Madeleva Lecture in Spirituality. Cahill did her doctoral 
studies at the University of Chicago under the direction of James M. 
Gustafson. She teaches at Boston College. 

_. "A 'Natural Law' Reconsideration of Euthanasia." Linacre Quarterly 



(February, 1977): 47-63. 

. . "Thomas Aquinas: Marriage, Procreation, and the Law of Nature." Ch. 6in 

id. Between the Sexes: Foundations for a Christian Ethics of Sexuality, 105- 
122. New York: Paulist Press; and Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985. 

Capone, Domenico, C.Ss.R. "Pensieri leggendo io studio del Prof. W. McDonough 
in questa rivista." Studia Moralia 29 (1991): 345-369. 

First part of an article regatively negatively to William McDonough's doctoral 
dissertation and subsequent article published in this same number of Studia 
Moralia. 

Carney, Frederick S. "Outline of a Natural Law Procedure for Christian Ethics." 
Journal of Religion 47 (1967): 26-38. 

Carney, a Protestant ethician, first presents eight philosophical and 
theological objections against the natural law in Christian ethics, and then 
draws an outline based on three conditions which may meet these objections 
and be plausibly affirmed in Christian ethics. These conditions are 1) the 
concept of law must take into account human historicity, yet v^thout 
sacrificing the objective character of moral norms; 2) the concept of nature 
must take into account the full dimension of humanity, e.g. freedom, 
transcendence, anxiety and guilt, as well as the biological features of human 
beings; and 3) the relationship of human nature to moral law must be 
construed in such a way that the moral "ought" embodied in the law is already 
present in the facts of the human nature. This last condition means that 
natural law statements are "mixed," i.e., statements that are both descriptive 
and normative. These statements are not only "factual" but also point to the 
morally "valuable" aspects. Carney is professor of Christian ethics at Perkins 
School of Theology, Southern Methodist University. 

Caspar, Ruth, O.P. "Natural Law: Before and Beyond Bifurcation." Thought 60 
(1985): 58-72. 

Caspar argues that natural law should better inform the bioethics debates. 
She gives a good description of natural law characteristics, though does not 
go into much depth on the bioethical ramificaitons. 



398 

Chiavacci, Enrico. "Legge naturale." In Nuovo Dizionario di Teologia Morale, 634- 
647. A cura di Francesco Compagnoni, Giannino Piana, e Salvatore 
Privitera. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1 990. 

Gives historical, biblical, philosophical and theological treatment, though 
without any real speculative innovation, or attention to some of the 
ramifications of more recent approaches. Basic bibliography in Italian, 
French, and German is given for each major section of the article. See review 
by Paolo Valori, S.J., "Recenti pubblicazioni italiane di teologia morale." 
Filosofia e Teologia 5 (1991): 285-288. 

Chirico, Peter, S.S. "Revelation and Natural Law." Theological Studies 52 {\99\): 
539-540. 

A short note responding to a point raised by Francis A, Sullivan's earlier 
article on "The Theologian's Ecclesial Vocation." Chirico argues that if we 
accept the Vatican II position that the fiilhiess of revelation is contained in the 
hiraianity of Christ, this would then mean that we could not speak of any 
aspects of the natural law as not being contained in revelation. 

Composta, Dario, S.D.B. "Gnoseologia del diritto naturale." Doctor Communis 41 
(1988): 224-243. 

Composta is Professor Emeritus of the Urbanianum in the philosophy of law. 

Connor, Robert A. "Natural Law versus the 'Contralife Will'." Divus Thomas 93 
(1990): 32-57. 

Examines the position of John C. Ford, S.J., Germain Grisez, John Boyle, 
John Finnis, and William May on Humanae vitae (i.e., that contraception is 
evil because it is "contra-life"), and argues that the moral theory of the 
encyclical would be better served by considering its grounding in the 
objectivity of the Thomistic esse of the person. 

Couture, Roger A., O.M.I. "The Use of Epikeia in Natural Law: The Early 
Developments." Eglise et Theologie 4 (1973): 71-103. 

Primarily traces the use of epikeia by medieval theologians and notes that a 
number of theologians, beginning in the late thirteenth century, "were willing 
to subscribe to the notion that moral norms, even when grounded in the 
nature of man, demand constant reevaluation and can tolerate exceptions. 
The theory of epikeia provided a rationale for dealing with these exceptions." 
(p. 101). 



399 

Crowe, Michael Betram. "Aquinas Faces the Natural Law Tradition." In The 
Changing Profile of Natural Law, 136-165. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 
1977. 

Discusses Thomas Aquinas' position on syndersis, the definitions of the 
natural law, and the natiiral law and its relation to the principles of morality. 

. "Aquinas Makes Up His Mind." In The Changing Profile of Natural Law, 

166-191. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses Aquinas' notion of law, the eternal law, the natural law and its 
precepts (primary and secondary), and the variability of the natural law. 

. "Beginnings." In The Changing Profile of Natural Law, 1-27. The Hague: 

Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses the begiimings of the natural law tradition in the Pre-Socratics, 
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. 

. "The Break of the Profile and Its Remaking." In The Changing Profile of 

Natural Law, 192-222. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses Duns Scotus, the Nominalists, the Reformation, and late 
Scholasticism. 

. "The Christian Face ofthe Natural Law." In. The Changing Profile of Natural 

Law, 52-71. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses the natural law in St. Paul, the early Church Fathers, St. Augustine, 
and St Isidore of Seville. 

. "The False Face ofthe Natural Law." In The Changing Profile of Natural 

Law, 223-245. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses Hugo Grotius, the Age of Reason, and Human Rights. 

. "Fresh Lineaments ofthe Natural Law." In The Changing Profile of Natural 

Law, 1 1 1-122. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses the early Scholastics, the Franciscan School and Albert the Great. 

. "Medieval Canonists and Civilians." In The Changing Profile of Natural 

Law, 72- 110. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1 977. 



400 

Discusses the natural law in Gratian, the Medieval Civilians, and the 
Decretists, 

. "Natural Law Theory Today." In TTie Future of Ethics and Moral Theology. 

Edited by Richard McCormick, S.J. Chicago: Argus Communications, 1968. 

. "Natural Law: A Twentieth-Century Profile?" In The Changing Profile of 

Natural Law, 246-290. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses biological and evolutionary aspects of human nature, moral 
absolutes, and the possibility of a rehabilitated natural law. 

. "The Profile Emerges." hiThe Changing Profile of Natural Law,2%-5\. The 

Hague: Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Discusses the development of the natural law tradition in the Stoics, Cicero, 
the Roman jurisconsults and Ulpian. 

_. "The Pursuit of Natural Law." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural 

Law and Theology, 296-332. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared in 1977 in Irish Theological Quarterly. 

Crysdale, Cynthia S.W. "Revisioning Natural Law: From the Classicist Paradigm to 
Emergent Probability." Theological Studies 56 (1995): 464-484. 

Uses Lonergan's thought to delineate two aspects of nature in the created 
order: classical "laws" of causality and statistical "laws" of probability. From 
this discussion Crysdale then outlines some ramifications and conditions for 
a more nuanced understanding of the natural law. Crysdale teaches at the 
Catholic University of America. 

Curran, Charles E. "Natural Law." Chapter 5 in Directions in Fundamental Moral 
Theology, 1 19-172. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985. 

This chapter originally appeared in Curran's 1970 Contemporary Probelms 
in Moral Theology, (Notre Dame: Fides, 1970), and is essentially identical 
wdth Curran's "Natural Law," chapter 2 in his Themes in Fundamental Moral 
Theology, 27-80, (Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 
1977). It has been most recently republished under the title "Natural Law in 
Moral Theology" in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and 



401 

Theology, 247-295, ed, Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J., 
(Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991). 

. "Official Catholic Social and Sexual Teachings: A Methodological 



Comparison." Chapter 5 in Tensions in Moral Theology, 87-109. Notre 
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988. 

Also found under the title, "Catholic Social and Sexual Teaching: A 
Methodological Comparison," in Theology Today 44 (1988): 425-440. 
Compares and contrasts the ethical models, including the interpretation of the 
natural law, used in magisterial teaching on social and sexual ethics in the last 
century, with particular emphasis on the last half of the twentieth century. 

. "Paul Ramsey and Traditional Roman Catholic Natural Law Theory." In Love 

and Society: Essays in the Ethics of Paul Ramsey, 47-65. Edited by James 
Johnson and David Smith. JRE Studies in Religious Ethics, 1 . Missoula: 
American Academy of Religion and Scholars Press, 1974. 

Curran's contribution to a Festschrift with essays by Protestant and Roman 
Catholic authors meant both to criticize as well as embody the principles of 
Ramsey's ethics. 

Fay, Thomas A. "La teoria della legge naturale di San Tommaso: Alcune recenti 
interpretazioni." Divus Thomas 97, no. 2 (Maggio-Agosto 1994): 209-16. 

. "Maritain on Rights and Natural Law." The Thomist 55 (1991): 439-448. 



Fumis, John, and Grisez, Germain. "The Basic Principles of Natural Law: A Reply 
to Ralph Mclnemy." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law 
and Theology, 157-170. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. 
McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared American Journal of Jurisprudence in 1981; See 
Mclnemys earlier article in the same periodical (1980), or the version 
published in the same volume of Readings. 

Finnis, John. "The Natural Law, Objective Morality and Vatican 11." In Principles 
of Catholic Moral Life. Edited by William E. May. Chicago: Franciscan 
Herald Press, 1981. 

Fletcher, Joseph. "Anglican Theology and the Ethics of Natural Law." In Christian 
Social Ethics in a Changing World. Edited by John C. Bennett. New York, 
1966. 



402 

Also found in Fletcher's Mom/ i?e5po««*6////>'. Philadelphia, 1967. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Epikeia Applied to Natural Law?" Chapter 10 in Personal 
Responsibility and Christian Morality, 185-199. Translated by William 
Cleves and others. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983. 

Translation of "Epikeia circa legem moralem naturalem?" Periodica 69 
(1980). 

. "Faith, Ethics and Law," Chapter 8 in Id. Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena, 

114-127. Translated by Bernard Hoose and Brian McNeil. Washington, 
D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. 

Originally presented in a 1983? German symposium on natural law, 1983. 
Fuchs presents his understanding of natural law in terms of contemporary 
langauge of human rights. 

. "Legge Naturale." In Essere del Signore. Un corso di teologia morale 

fondamentale, 205-213. Trascirzioni per glistudenti 1981. Roma: Pontificia 
Universita Gregoriana, 1981. 

. "The Natural Law in the Testimony of the Church." In Readings in Moral 

Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 5-16, Edited by Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J, Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991, 

This chapter originally appeared in Fuch's Lex naturae. Zur Theologie des 
Naturrechts. Diisseldorf, 1955. 

In English: Natural Law: A Theological Investigation. Translated by Helmut 
Reckter, S.J. and John A. Dowling. Dublin: Gill and Son, 1965. 

In French: La droit naturel, essai thiologique. Paris: Toumai, 1960. 

, "Naturrecht Oder naturalisticher Fehlschluss?" Stimmen der Zeit 206(1988): 

407-423. 

In English: "Natural Law or Naturalistic Fallacy?." Chapter 2 in Idem. Moral 
Demands and Personal Obligations, 30-5 1 . Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1993. 



403 

. "II «Peccato del Mondo» e la morale normativa." In Sussidi 1980 Per Lo 

Studio Delia Teologia Morale Fondamentale, 415-435. (Per I'uso private 
degli studenti). Roma: Pontificia University Gregoriana, 1977, 1980. 

Gehman, H.S. "Natural Law and the Old Testament." In Biblical Studies in Memory 
of H.C. Alleman, 109-122. Edited by J.M. Myers, et al. New York: 
Augustin, 1960. 

Grisez, Germain. "A New Formulation of a Natural-Law Argument against 
Contraception." The Thomist 30 (1966): 343-361. 

. "Natural Law and the Fundamental Principles of Morality." Chapter 7 in The 

Way of the Lord Jesus. Volume One: Christian Moral Principles, 173-204. 
Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1983. 

Grisez follows a manualistic format in organizing his material into 
"Questions" followed by point-by-point responses. This volume is the first 
of a three volume work. 

Gula, Richard. "Natural Law Today." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: 
Natural Law and Theology, 333-368. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared as Chapter 16, "Natural Law Today," in Gula's Reason 
Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality, 23 1 -249. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1989. 

Hamel, Edouard, S.J. "L'usage de I'^pikie." Studia Moralia 3 (1965): 48-81. 

Hamel taught moral theology for many years at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

. "Lavertud'epikie." Sciences ecclesiastiques 13 (1961): 35-56. 



Hamilton, Bemice. "Some Arguments Against Natural Law Theories." In Light on 
Natural Law, 38-56. Edited by Illtud Evans, O.P. Baltimore: Helicon Press, 
1965; and London: Bums and Oates, 1967. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Dynamism and Continuity in a Personalistic Approach to 
Natural Law." InNorm and Context in Christian Ethics, 199-218. Edited by 
Gene H. Outka and Paul Ramsey. London: SCM Press, 1968. 



404 

HMring (1 912-1 998) was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the 
last half of the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican II. 

. "Traditions, Laws, Norms and Context." Chapter 7 of Free and Faithful in 

Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity. Volume I: General Moral 
Theology. Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978. 

Italian translation: "Tradizioni, leggi, norme e contesto." Capitolo 7 in Liberi 
efedeli in Cristo. Teologia morale per preti e laid, 357-444. Alba, 1981. 

Translations in many other languages as well. 

Hauerwas, Stanley. "Natural Law, Tragedy and Theological Ethics." American 
Journal of Jurisprudence 20 (1975). 

. "Nature, Reason, and the Task of Theological Ethics." In Readings in Moral 

Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 43-71. Edited by Charles E. 
Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991 . 

Originally appeared Chapter Four in Hauerwas' The Peaceable Kingdom: A 
Primer in Christian Ethics, 50-71. Notre Dame and London: University of 
Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

Heaney, Robert P., M.D. "Sex, Natural Law and Bread Crumbs." America (26 
February 1994): 12-16. 

Argues from a scientific stand-point that the Church's traditional teaching on 
marriage as derived from its interpretation of natural law is flawed, being 
based on both bad biology and poor reductionistic analysis. See response by 
Janet Smith, "Barnyard Morality." America (13 August 1994): 12-14. 

Herdt, Jennifer A. "Free Choice, Self-Referential Arguments, and the New Natural 
Law." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (4/1998): 581-600. 

Critiques the "new natural law theory" of Grisez, Finnis, Boyle, et al. as 
being flawed in its presentation of free choice in reference to the 
commensurability issue of weighing options amongst the so-called basic 
goods. The theorists argue that no one may ever legitimately choose an 
action which would ever, regardless of any other consideration, be judged as 
"acting against" any of the basic goods. Herdt argues that this position 
seriously attacks the essential understanding of the inter-relation between 



405 

freedom and choice, since "free choice" means, among other things, being 
able to weigh options amongst goods and evils in the concrete and making 
one's choice in conformity as to which is the greater realizable good (to 
choose), or the worse evil (which is to be avoided). 

Henry, Carl F. H. "Natural Law and a Nihilistic Culture." First Things 49 (January 
1995): 54-60. 

Henry is an evangelical theologian, and provides a critique of all natural law 
traditions, including recent efforts of some theologians, such as the Lutheran 
Carl Braaten, to recover what might be a legitimate "Protestant" 
understanding of the natural law. For Henry all such efforts are wrong- 
headed as they divert the proper understanding of Christian ethics from its 
necessary dependence on biblical revelation, 

Hittinger, Russell. "Theology andNatural Law Theory." Communio 17 (1990): 402- 
408. 

Delivered as a response to Marc Ouellet's "The Foundations of Ethics 
According to Hans Urs von Balthasar," Hittinger concentrates on presenting 
Thomas' concept of nature and the natural law in relation to Urs von 
Balthasar's theology of Christian ethics. 

Hoimefelder, Ludger. "Naturrecht und Geschichte. Historisch-systematische Ober 
legimgen zum mitelalterlichen Naturrechtsdenken." In Naturrecht im 
ethischen Diskurs. Herausgegeben von Marianne Heimbach-Steins. Munster: 
Aschendorff, 1990. 

. "Rationalization and Natural Law: Max Weber's and Ernst Troeltsch's 

Interpretation of the Medieval Doctrine of Natural Law," The Review of 
Metaphysics 49 (1995): 275-294. 

Hughes, Gerard, S.J. "The Authority of Christian Tradition and of Natural Law." In 
Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 17-42. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: 
Paulist Press, 1991. 

This article originally appeared as Chapter One of Hughes' Authority in 
Morals: An Essay in Christian Ethics, 1-25. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1978. 

. "Natural Law." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 47-56. Edited by 

Bernard Hoose. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 



406 

Irrgang, Bernard. Naturrecht als Entscheidimgshilfe? Am Beispiel der Bewertung 
gentechnischer Verfahren aus ethisch-theologischer Perspecktive." In 
Naturrecht im ethischen Diskurs. Herausgegeben von Marianne Heimbach- 
Steins. MUnster: AschendorfF, 1990. 

Johnson, James Turner. "Natural Law as a Language for the Ethics of War." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1975): 217-242. 

Considers three exampl^ of appeals to the natural law in just war theor>': 
contemporary international lawyers Myres McDougal and Florentine 
Feliciano, American Protestant ethician Paul Ramsey, and 16th century 
Spanish theorist, Franciscus de Victoria. 

Keane, Philip S., S.S. "The Objective Moral Order: Reflections on Recent 
Research." Theological Studies 43 (1982): 260-278. 

Keane is professor of moral theology at St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore. 

Kekes, John. "Human Nature and Moral Theories." Inquiry 28 (1985): 231-245. 

Kennedy, Terence, C.Ss.R. "The Originality of John Finnis' Conception of Natural 
Law." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 
124-138. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. 
Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991, 

Originally appeared in Euntes Docete 40 (1987): 87-101. 

Kopfensteiner, Thomas R. "Historical Epistemology and Moral Progress." The 
Heythrop Journal 33 (1992): 45-60. 

Uses the concept of paradigm shift of Thomas Kuhn to discuss the notion of 
moral progress in conception and application of moral norms and the natural 
law. Also refers considerably to the work of Klaus Demmer. Kopfensteiner, 
who is a priest of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, taught at Fordham University 
and did his doctoral dissertation on paradigm shift theory in moral theology 
at the Pontifical Gregorian University under Klaus Demmer. 

Kroh, Werner. "AufklSrung imd katholische Soziallehre. Kritische Anfragen an eine 
naturrechtlich argumentierende Sozialethik." In Naturrecht im ethischen 
Diskurs. Herausgegeben von Marianne Heimbach-Steins. Miinster: 
Aschendorff, 1990. 



407 

Liermann, Hans. "Zur Geschichte des Naturrechts in der evangelischem Kirche." 
In Festschrift Alfred Bertholetgewidmet, 294-324.. Ttibingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 
1950. 

Little, David. "Calvin and the Prospects for a Christian Theory of Natural Law." In 
Norm and Context in Christian Ethics, 175-197. Edited by Gene H. Outka 
and Paul Ramsey. London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Examines John Calvin's approach to some of the problems inherent in 
developing a "rehabilitated" Christian natural law theory. 

Long, Kevin G. "The Nine Commandments: The Decalogue and the Natural Law." 
Aquinas Review 3 (1/1996): 137-152. 

Long, Steven A, "Yves Simon's Approach to Natural Law," The Thomist 59: 1 (Jan. 
1995): 125-135. 

Lustig, B. Andrew. "Natural Law, Property, and Justice: The General Justification 
of Property in Aquinas and Locke." Journal of Religious Ethics 19 (1991): 
119-150. 

MacNamara, Vincent. "Theories: The Greatest Good: Natural Law." Chapter 5 in 
The Truth in Love: Reflections on Christian Morality, 86-109. Dublin: Gill 
and Macmillan, 1988. 

Same book as Love, Law and Christian Life: Basic Attitudes of Christian 
Morality. Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1988. 

Macquarrie, John. "Rethinking Natural Law." In Three Issues in Ethics, 82-1 10. 
New York: Harper and Row, 1970. 

Also foimd in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 2, 121-145. Edited by 
Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 
1980; as well as in Curran and McCormick's Readings in Moral Theology, 
No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 221-246. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 
Macquarrie, an Anglican theologian, argues for a reformulated natural law 
theory which could help solve the problems of linking of Christian and non- 
Christian morals, shaping of a contemporary Christian ethic, and describing 
the relation between faith and morals. Macquarrie considers iheproprium of 
Christian ethics to be the distinctive Christian context in which the moral life 
is perceived. Also includes a brief historical overview of the concept of the 
natural law in the Western tradition. 



408 

Mahoney, John, S.J. "Nature and Supemature." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 
7: Natural Law and Theology, 413-463. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared as Chapter Three in Mahoney's The Making of Moral 
Theology: A Study of the Roman Catholic Tradition,12-\\5. The Martin 
D'Arcy Memorial Lectures, 1981-2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987. 
Mahoney is Professor of Moral Theology at King's College, University of 
London. 

Malloy, Edward A. "Natural Law Theory and Catholic Moral Theology." American 
Ecclesiastical Review 1 69 (1 975): 456-469. 

Discusses various criticisms of the physicalist approach to the natural law. 

Maritain, Jacques. "Natural Law in Aquinas." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 
7: Natural Law and Theology, 1 14-123. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared in Maritain's Man and the State. Chicago: Phoenix 
Books and the University of Chicago Press, 1951. 

_. "Quelques remarques sur la loi naturelle." Nova et Vetera 53 (1978): 1-12. 



French version of an article which appeared originally in English as "Natural 
Law and Moral Law" in Moral Principles of Actions (New York and London: 
Harper and Brothers, 1951). The French manuscript is based on the first two 
of Maritain's "Neuf lefons sur la loi naturelle" given in 1950 at Soisy. 

May, William E. "Humanae vitae. Natural Law and Catholic Moral Thought." In 
«Humanae vitae»: 20 anni dopo. Atti del II Congresso Intemazionale di 
Teologia Morale, Roma, 9-12 novembre 1988, 43-72. Milano: Edizioni Ares, 
1989. 

Paper read at a congress supporting Humanae vitae sponsored by the John 
Paul II Pontifical Institute for the Study of Marriage and the Family (Lateran 
University) and two institutions of Opus Dei: Centro Accademico Romano 
della Santa Croce and the University di Navarra. 

. "The Natural Law and Objective Morality: A Thomistic Perspective." In 

Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 333-368. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: 
Paulist Press, 1991. 



409 

Originally appeared in May's Principles of Catholic Moral Life. Chicago: 
Franciscan Herald Press, 1981. 

McCormick, Richard A., S.J. "The Natural Law: Recent Literature." In Readings in 
Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 173-183. Edited by 
Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 
1991. 

Originally appeared in Theological Studies in 1967. 

McDonagh, Enda. "The Natural Law and the Law of Christ." Chapter 2 in Invitation 
and Response: Essays in Christian Moral Theology, 22-37. Dublin: Gill and 
Macmillan, 1972. 

Also found in Duty and Discernment, 51-63. Edited by G.R. Dunstan. 
London: SCM Press, 1975. 

Italian translation: Dio chiama, I'uomo risponde: Saggi di teologia morale 
cristiana. Torino: Leumann, 1976. 

McDonough, William. "Domenico Capone's Distinction between Operatio and 
Operatum: Help for a Renewed Natural Law Morality?" Studia Moralia 29 
(1991): 323-344. 

Article derived from McDonough's Alphonsianum doctoral dissertation. See 
the negative reaction by Capone himself, "Pensieri leggendo lo studio del 
Prof W. McDonough in questa rivista," published in the same number of 
Studia Moralia. 

Mclnemy, Ralph. "The Principles of Natural Law." In Readings in Moral Theology, 
No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 139-156. Edited by Charles E. Curran and 
Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared inAmerican Journal of Jurisprudence in 1 980. See reply 
by John Fiimis and Germain Grisez. 

McNeill, J.T. "Natural Law in the Teaching of the Reformers." Journal of Religion 
26(1946): 168-182. 

Historical overview of natural law teaching in the early Protestant reformers 
such as Luther, Calvin, Melancthon, and Zwingli. 



410 

Mejia, Jorge. "La legge naturale nelia Scrittura," L'Osservatore Romano 30 
dicembre 1990. 

Keynote address given by Bishop Mejia at the 5th Seminar on the Gospel and 
Society at the Institute Catholique in Paris. 

Merks, Karl-Wilhelm. "Natmrecht als Personrecht? Oberlegxmgen zu einer 
Relektiire der Naturrechtslehre des Thomas von Aquin." In Naturrecht im 
ethischen Diskurs. Herausgegeben von Marianne Heimbach-Steins. Munster: 
Aschendorff, 1990. 

Mobbs, Frank. "Is Natural Law Fart of Revelation? The Answers of the Manualists, 
Germain Grisez and Timothy O'Cormell." Irish Theological Quarterly 59 
(1993): 188-203. 

Holds that Grisez and O'Conneli are using different concepts of the natural 
law, and so the claims made about the relationship of Revelation and natural 
law will necessarily be different claims. 

Mooney, Christopher, S.J. "The Claim of the Church to be Guardian of a Universal 
Natural and Moral Law," Concilium 135 (May, 1980): 23-32. 

. "Natural Law: A Case Study." In Public Virtue: Law and the Social 

Character of Religion, 140-150. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame 
Press, 1986. 

Compares the natural law approaches developed in magisterial documents in 
sexual and social ethics. 

Murphy, Mark C. "Natural Law, Impartialism, and Others' Good." The Thomist 60 
(January 1996): 53-80. 

. "Self-Evidence, Human Nature and Natural Law." American Catholic 



Philosophical Quarterly 69 (1995): 471-484. 

Discusses the natural law theory of John Finnis. 

Murray, John Courtney, S.J. "The Doctrine Lives: The Eternal Retiun of Natural 
Law." In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 
184-220. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. 
Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 



411 

Originally appeared Murray's We Hold These Truths. New York: Sheed, 
1960. 

Nielsen, Kai. "The Myth of Natural Law." InLaw and Philosophy, 122-143. Edited 
by Sidney Hook. New York: New York University Press, 1964. 

Argues that it is impossible to discover any essential definition of human 
nature, and therefore a natural law. Man does not have "some essential 
nature, some function that he was cut out or made to achieve." p. 1 32. Thus, 
Nielsen avers that natural law theories make "unverifiable statements" about 
ultimate human ends, and that despite the possible theological persuasiveness 
of theological assertions about human destiny, there would be no logical way 
to move from these descriptive statements to prescriptive judgments. 

Pavlischek, Keith J. "Questioning the New Natural Law Theory: The Case of 
Religious Liberty as Defended by Robert P. George in Making Men Moral." 
Studies in Christian Ethicsll (2/1999): 17-30. 

Peerenboom, R.P. "Natural Law in the Huang-Lao Boshu." Philosophy East and 
re^MO (1990): 309-329. 

Discusses a Confucian approach to natural law, based on the Huang-Lao 
Boshu. 

Peschke, Karl Heinz. "Natural moral law." Part II, Chapter 2:C in Christian Ethics: 
Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican U: Volume I: General Moral 
Theology, 133-167. Alcester and Dublin: C. Goodliffe Neale, 1985. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana; teologia morale alia luce del Vaticano IL 
2 vol. Roma: Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1985-1986. 

Korean Translation of Volume I is also available. 

Pope, Stephen J. "Scientific and Natural Law Analyses of Homosexuality: A 
Methodological Study." Journal of Religious Ethics 25l\ (1997): 89-126. 

Porter, Jean. "Contested Categories: Reason, Nature, and Natural Order in Medieval 
Accounts of the Natural Law." Journal of Religious Ethics 24 (Fall 1996): 
207-232. 

Porter is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. 



412 

. "Natural Law as a Scriptural Concept: Theological Reflections on a Medieval 

Theme." Theology Today 59 (July 2002): 226-243. 

While contemporary moral theologians tend to look at biblical and natural 
law ethics as distinct approaches, for medieval theologians the natural law 
was seen as a scriptural doctrine since Scripture attested to the existence of 
a natural law. Aims also to explore the implications for the interpretation of 
Scripture itself. Much of this material is also presented in the last chapter of 
Porter's Nature as Reason: A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law. Grand 
Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005. 

. "Natural Law, Moral Discernment, and Authority of the Church." Paper 

presented at the Catholic Theological Society of America Annual 
Convention, Miami, June 1999. 

Taken from her book, Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Roots of 
Christian Ethics. Ontario: Novalis, and Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. 

. "A Tradition of Civility: The Natural Law as a Tradition of Moral Inquiry." 

Scottish Journal of Theology 56 (2003): 27-48. 

Much of this article is also contained in the first chapter o Porter's Nature as 
Reason: A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 
2005. 

. "What the Wise Person Knows: Natural Law and Virtue in Aquinas' Summa 

Theologiae." Studies in Christian Ethics 12 (1/1999): 57-69. 

Ramsay, Hayden. "Natural Law: A Reply to Brian Scarlett." Pacifica 7(1994): 

347-352. 

Disputes Scarlett's reading of Thomas Aquinas in the article the latter wrote 
about the use of the natural law argumentation in Veritatis Splendor. 

Ramsey, Ian T. "Towards a Rehabilitation of Natural Law." Chapter 20 in Christian 
Ethics and Contemporary Philosophy, 382-396. Edited by Ian T. Ramsey. 
London: SCM Press, 1966. 

Italian translation in Etica cristiana e filosofia contemporanea. Bologna: 
EDB, 1971. 

Rhonheimer, Martin. "Contraception, Sexual Behavior, and Natural Law. 
Philosophical Foundations of the Norm of Humanae vitae." In «Humanae 



413 

vitae»: 20 anni dopo. Atti del II Congresso Internazionale di Teologia 
Morale, Roma. 9-12 novembre 1988, 73-1 14. Milano: Edizioni Ares, 1989. 

Paper read at a congress supporting Humanae vitae sponsored by the John 
Paul n Pontifical Institute for the Study of Marriage and the Family (Lateran 
University) and two institutions of Opus Dei: Centro Accademico Romano 
della Santa Croce and the Universita di Navarra. 

Rogers, Eugene F., Jr. "Aquinas on Natural Law and the Virtues in Biblical Context: 
Homosexuality as a Test Case." Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (Spring 
1999): 29-56. 

. "The Narrative of Natural Law in Aquinas's Commentary on Romans 1." 

Theological Studies 59 (June 1998): 254-276. 

Discusses how for a full and correct understanding of Thomas Aquinas' 
teaching on the natural law one must study his Commentary on Romans 1 
since Thomas' treatment of the natural law refers to a Pauline context. This 
Commentary fleshes out Thomas' understanding of the relation of the New 
Law to the natural law, and how reason is influenced by God's grace. 

Romelt, Josef, C.Ss.R. "Der neue Streit um den Naturbegriff " Theologie der 
Gegenwart 3 1 (1 988): 1 87-1 92. 

Rooney, Paul. "Divine Commands, Natural Law, and Aquinas." Scottish Journal 
of Religious Studies 16(1995): 117-140. 

Ryan, Columba, O.P. "The Traditional Concept of Natural Law: An Interpretation'^ 
In Introduction to Christian Ethics: A Reader, 4 1 3-427. Edited by Ronald P. 
Hamel and Kenneth R. Hunes, O.F.M. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Appeared originally in I/gftrowA^a/wra/Imv, 13-37. Edited by Illtud Evans, 
O.P. Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1965; and London: Bums and Oates, 1967. 

Sacchi, Alessandro. "La legge naturale nella bibbia." In AA. VV. La legge naturale, 
17-59. Studi e ricerche, 4. Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane Bologna, 1970. 

Sala, Giovanni B., S.J. "L'imperativo morale e la legge naturale." Civilta Cattolica 
124 (4-18 agosto 1973): 220-235. 

Looks at human conscience in various senses, from an essential characteristic 
of the human individual, as an aspect of intelligence, reason, and as moral 
imperative. 



414 

Schneewind, J.B. "Natural Law, Skepticism, and Methods of Ethics." Journal of the 
History of Ideas 52 (1991): 289-308. 

A rather historical over\'iew of positions on the natural law of various 
ethicians from the time of Kant onwards. Schneewind is at Johns Hopkins 
University. 

Schrey, Hienz-Horst. "Diskussion um das Naturrecht 1950-1975." Theologische 
Rundschau n.f. 41 (976) 59-93. 

Schrey is a Protestant. 

Schubeck, Thomas L., S.J. "The Reconstruction of Natural Law Reasoning: 
Liberation Theology as a Case Study." Journal of Religious Ethics 20 
(1992): 149-178. 

Treats the work of Gutierrez and EUacuria in reference to the natural law 
tradition. Schubeck maintains that the criticisms raised by these two against 
the neo-Thomistic perspectives of the natural law are essentially the same 
views held by Karl Rahner and Josef Fuchs. Schubeck teaches at John 
Carroll University. 

Schtiller, Bruno, S.J. "A Contribution to the Theological Discussion of Natural Law." 
In Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 72-98. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. Mahwah: 
Paulist Press, 1991. 

Originally appeared in Theologie und Philosophic, Herder & Herder, 
apparently around 1967 or 1968. 

. "Wieweit kann die Moraltheologie das Naturrecht entbehren?" Lebendiges 

Zeugnis 1/2(1965): 41-65. 

A digested version of this article was published in English in Theology Digest 
1 5 (1967): 94-99. This same version is also foimd under the title "Can Moral 
Theology Ignore Natural Law" in Introduction to Christian Ethics: A Reader, 
407-412. Edited by Ronald P. Hamel and Kenneth R. Himes, O.F.M. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Selling, Joseph A. "Magisterial Authority and the Natural Law." Doctrine and Life 
47 (August 1997): 334-342. 



415 

Very negative review of Frank Mobbs' Beyond Its Authority: The 
Magisterium and Matters of Natural Law (Sydney: E.J. Dwyer, 1997), and 
concludes with a thoughtfiil exposition of Selling' s own positions in this area. 
Mobb's basic thesis is that inasmuch as the natural law is not part of 
revelation the authority of the Magisterium does not extend to authoritative 
pronouncements on the natural law. Selling' s views are much more nuanced. 

Selznick, Philip. "Natural Law and Sociology." In Natural Law and Modern 
Society, 154-193. Edited by John Cogley, et al. Cleveland and New York: 
The World Publishing Co., 1962. 

Selznick's article first appeared in Natural Law Forum 6 (1961): 84-108. 

Smith, Harmon L. "Contraception and Natural Law: A Half-Century of Anglican 
Moral Reflection." In The Anglican Moral Choice, 180-200. Edited by Paul 
Ehnen. Wilton CT: Morehouse-Barlow Co., Inc. 1983. 

Begins with a brief historical overview of traditional Anglican moral theology 
with reference to the Thomistic natural law tradition. Smith then summarizes 
statements firom the Lambeth Conferences of 1930, 1958, and 1968 to show 
the development of Anglican thinking on contraception. Finally the positions 
of 5 representative theologians are summarized: R.C. Mortimer, Kenneth 
Kirk, Joseph Fletcher, John Macquarrie, and Herbert Waddams. Smith is 
professor of moral theology and community health science at Duke 
University. 

Smith, Janet E. "Natural Law and Personalism in Veritatis Splendor." In Veritatis 
Splendor: American Responses, 1 94-207. Edited by Michael E. AUsopp and 
John J. O'Keefe. Kansas City, M.O.: Sheed & Ward, 1995. 

Also foimd in Readings in Moral Theology No. 10: John Paul II and Moral 
Theology, 67-84. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1998. 

Sturm, Douglas. "Natural Law, Liberal Religion, and Freedom of Association: 
James Luther Adams on the Problem of Jurisprudence." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 20 (1992): 119-207. 

Sullivan, Francis A., S.J. "The Authority of the Magisterium on Questions of 
Natural Moral Law." Readings in Moral Theology, No. 6: Dissent in the 
Church, 42-57. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, 
S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 



416 

Originally appeared in Magisterium: Teaching Authority in the Catholic 
Church, 138-152. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983. 

Italian translation: Ilmagisteronellachiesacattolica. Teologi saggi. Assisi: 
Cittadella, 1986. 

Theron, Stephen. "Natural Law in Humanae vitae." In «Humanae vitae»: 20 anni 
dopo. Atti del 11 Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale, Roma, 9-12 
novembre 1988, 487-496. Milano: Edizioni Ares, 1989. 

Paper read at a congress supporting Humanae vitae sponsored by the John 
Paul II Pontifical Institute for the Study of Marriage and the Family (Lateran 
University) and two institutions of Opus Dei: Centro Accademico Romano 
della Santa Croce and the Universita di Navarra. 

Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 90-97. [On the Natural Law]. 

Traina, Cristina L.H. "Oh, Susanna: The New Absolutism and Natural Law." 
Journal of the American Academy of Religion 65 (1997): 371-401. 

Taking up the ethical dilemma which faced Susaima in the Old Testament 
(Dn 13) which had been used by Pope John Paul n in his encyclical Veritatis 
Splendor to illustrate the notion of moral absolutes Traina critiques this a 
strong "absolutist" strain of natural law interpretation in the thought of Pope 
John Paul II, as well as moral philosophers such as Germain Grisez and John 
Firmis. Traina offers alternative solutions to the problem of relativism and 
consequentialism which so troubles moral absolutists by considering insights 
from the tradition of cooperation with evil and the epistemological nature of 
moral norms. 

Tremblay, Real, C.Ss.R. "Pour un approfondissement de la loi naturelle." Studia 
Moralia 40 (December 2002): 403-424. 

Discusses Christ's role in confirming the particular quality of the natural law 
and opens it to perspectives which would have been otherwise impossible to 
discover alone. Tremblay teaches at the Alphonasianum in Rome. 

Vacek, Edward Collins, S.J. "Divine-Command, Natural-Law, and Mutual-Love 
Ethics." Theological Studies 57 (1996): 633-653. 

Vacek argues that Divine-command ethics is himianistically inadequate and 
the natural law ethics is religiously inadequate. Instead, Vacek argues for a 
"mutual love" ethics which he believes overcomes the deficiencies of the 



417 

other two systems. Vacek is professor of moral theology at the Weston Jesuit 
School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Weithman, Paul J. "McDowell, Hypothetical Imperatives and Natural Law." 
American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 65 (1991): 177-187. 

Discusses John McDowell's "Are Moral Requirements Hypothetical 
Imperatives?" Proceedings ofthe Aristotelian Society _{\91%)\ 13-29, as well 
as other philosophers (e.g. Philippa Foot). Weithman holds McDowell's 
claim that "the motivational force of requirements of virtue can be adequately 
accounted for without appeal to inclinations of the virtuous person" is untrue 
for at least one claim of imperatives of virtue, i.e., imperatives which 
"express requirements of virtue arrived at through deliberation." p. 178. 

Woods, George F. "Natural Law and Christian Ethics." In Duty and Discernment, 
35-41. Edited by G.R. Dunstan. London: SCM Press, 1975. 



Books on the Natural Law 

AA. W. La legge naturale. Studi e ricerche, 4. Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane 
Bologna, 1970. 

Includes essays from the 1969 conference, "Convegno dei Teologi Moralisti 
dell'Italia Settentrionale," held at Gazzada. Contributions by A. Sacchi, C. 
Caffarra, D. Monglio, S. Vanni Rovighi, A. Zarri, F. BQckle, L. Sartori, and 
T. Goffi. 

Bagnulo, Roberto. II concetto di diritto naturale in San Tommaso d'Aquino. 
Milano:A. Giuffre, 1983. 

Battaglia, Anthony. Toward a Reformulation of Natural Law. Foreword by James 
P. Mackey. New York: Seabury Press, 1981. 

Using St. Thomas, Battaglia argues for a reformulation of the natural law 
theory which focuses on the communal nature of moral consensus, and which 
accommodates an understanding of the historical development of morality. 
Battaglia teaches in the Department of Religious Studies at California State 
University at Long Beach. Reviewed by William C. Spohn in Journal of 
i?e%/o« 63 (1983): 87-88. 



418 

Biggar, Nigei, and Black, Ruflis, eds. The Revival of Natural Law: Philosophical 
and Theological Essays on the Finnis-Grisez School. Brookfield VT: 
Ashgate, 2000. 

Black, Ruftis. Christian Moral Realism: Natural Law, Narrative, Virtue and the 
Gospel. Oxford Theological Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
2001. 

B6ckle, Franz, ed. Dibattito suldiritto naturale. Brescia: Queriniana, 1970. 

In German: Das Naturrecht im Disput. Diisseldorf, 1966. 

Buckle, Stephen. Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 

Budziszewski, J. Written on the Heart: The Case for Natural Law. Downers Grove 
IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997. 

Looks at Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, as well as contemporary 
philosophy, theology, and political science. 

Budziszewski is associate professor in the departments of government and 
philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin. 

Cogley, John., et al. Natural Law and Modern Society. Cleveland and New York: 
The World Publishing Co., 1962. 

Contributions form Cogley, Robert M. Hutchins, John Courtney Murray, S . J., 
Scott Buchanan, Philip Selznick, Harvey Wheeler, and Robert Gordis. 

Cromartie, Michael, ed. A Preserving Grace: Protestants, Catholics, and the 
Natural Law. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1996. 

Essays by Russell Hittinger, Susan E. Schreiner, Daniel Westberg, Joan 
Lockwood O'Donovan, Carl E. Braaten, Timothy George, William Edgar, 
and Robert P. George. 

Crowe, Michael Betram. The Changing Profile of Natural Law. The Hague: 
Martinus Nihoff, 1977. 

Presents a history of the occidental concept of the natural law, beginning with 
the Pre-Socratic philosophers and concluding with a tentative twentieth 
century profile of the natural law. Contains a particularly good analysis of St. 



419 

Thomas' treatment of the natural law, plus a good bibliography. All the 
individual chapters are found listed under the "Articles on the Natural Law" 
section. 

Curran, Charles E., and McCormick, Richard A., S.J., eds. Readings in Moral 
Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Anthology of tradition and recent literature on the topic. The 4 articles 
(Fuchs, Hughes, Hauerwas, and SchtlUer) in Part One treat revelation and 
natural law; Part Two contains Thomas' Question 94 of the Summa 
Theologiae and articles by Maritain, Terence Kennedy, Ralph Mclnerny, plus 
a response to the latter by Finnis and Grisez; Part Three deals with 
contemporary reflections on the natural law, and includes articles by Curran 
and McCormick, plus John Courtney Murray, John Macquarrie, Michael 
Crowe, William E. May, Richard Gula, Franz BSckle and John Mahoney. 

Curran, Charles E. Moral Theology: A Continuing Journey. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1982. 

Volume of previously published essays, many of which treat of Curran's 
critique of the classical Catholic natural law tradition. Reviewed by Lisa 
Sowle Cahill m Journal of Religion 64 (1984): 403-404. 

Delhaye, Philippe. Permanence du Droit Naturel. 2nd ed. Louvain et Lille: 
Editions Nauwelaerts, 1960. 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. Deuten und handeln: Grundlagen und Grundfragen der 
Fundamentalmoral. Studien zur theologischen Ethik, no, 15. Freiburg: 
Verlag Herder, 1985. 

Italian translation by Mauro Pedrazzoli: Interpretare e agire. Fondamenti 
della morale cristiana. Cinisello Balsamo: Edizioni Paoline, 1989. 

Theological ethics is a "science" in an analogical sense, which has its object 
not static data but subjectivity open in liberty to transcendence. Conscience 
helps to clarify both the end of the human person and the corresponding 
actions which aim at instantiating goodness and rightness. 

L'etica teologica e scienza per analogia. "Scienza del senso direttiva 
dell'azione," l'etica teologica ha per oggetto non un dato statico, ma la 
"soggettivit^ aperta alia trascendenza" nella liberty. Aiuta la coscienza a 
chiarire a se stessa il fine (il senso) e a elaborare il contenuto della norma 
facendo divenire "correttezza" la "bonta." hiserita nel conflitto storica fra 



420 

bene e male, a volte ripercorre soluzioni gia collaudate (le noraie), a volte 
rischia la soluzione nuova, sapendo che ogni scelta non solo accresce 11 bene 
o il male della storia, ma si pone come possibilita ermeneutica per il 
prossimo. Persona e natura, persona e atto, antropologia e cristologia, 
peccato e conversione sono il luoghi deH'analisi, condotta con linguaggio 
assai oscuro. [dalla rivista pubblicata da // Regno 35 (15 aprile 1990): 229- 
230.] 

Di Blasi, Fulvio. God and the Natural Law: A Rereading of Thomas Aquinas. 
Translated by David Thunder. Foreword by Raplph Mclnemy; Preface by 
Mario A. Cattaneo. South Bend IN: St. Augustine's Press, 2001. 

Evans, Illtud, O.P., ed. Light on Natural Law . Baltimore: Helicon Press, 1965; and 
London: Bums and Gates, 1967. 

Fiimis, John, ed. Natural Law. 2 vols. The International Library of Essays in Law 
and Legal Theory, Schools 1.1 and 1.2. Aldershot et al.: Dartmouth, 1991. 

Collection of several articles on various aspects of natural law and legal 
theory, though mostly v^ithin the Grisez-Finnis school of thought. 

Finnis, John. Aquinas, Moral, Political, and Legal Theory. Oxford: Oxford 
University Press, 1998. 

. Natural Law and Natural Rights. Clarendon Law Series. Oxford: Clarendon 

Press, 1980. 

Flannery, Kevin L., S.J. Acts Amid Precepts: The Aristotelian Logical Structure of 
Thomas Aquinas ' Moral Theory. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of 
America Press, 2001. 

Flannery is dean of the faculty of philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Forte, David F., ed. Natural Law and Contemporary Public Policy. Washington, 
D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1998. 

Focus on philosophy, political science and legal theory. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. Lex naturae. Zur Theologie des Naturrechts. Diisseldorf, 1955. 

In English: Natural Law: A Theological Investigation. Translated by Helmut 
Reckter, S.J. and John A. Dowling. Dublin: Gill and Son, 1965. 



421 
In French: La droit naturel, essai theologique. Paris: Toumai, 1960. 

George, Robert P., and Wolfe, Christopher, eds. Natural Law and Public Reason. 
Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2000. 

Contributions by John Finnis, Robert George, Stephen Macedo, Patrick Neal, 
Jeffrey Reiman, Paul Weithman, and Christopher Wolfe. 

George, Robert P., ed. Natural Law and Moral Inquiry: Ethics, Metaphysics, and 
Politics in the Work of Germain Grisez. With a Response by Germain Grisez 
and Joseph Boyle, Jr. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 
1998. 

George, Robert P., ed. Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays. Oxford: Oxford 
University Press, 1992. 

12 original essays by leading natural law theorists and their critics, including 
Hadley Arkes, Joseph M. Boyle, Jr., John Finnis, Robert P. George, Russell 
Hittinger, Neil MacCormick, Michael Moore, Jeffrey Stout, Joseph Raz, 
Jeremy Waldron, Lloyd Weinreb, and Ernest Weinreb. 

George, Robert P. In Defense of Natural Law. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999. 

Reviewed by Edward Vacek, S.J. in Theological Studies 61 (December 
2000): 794. 

Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso. Morality and the Human Good: An Introduction to Natural 
Law Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2002. 

Introductory text which links morality to the protection of basic human 
goods: life, family, friendship, work and play, the experience of beauty, 
knowledge, and integrity. Discussion conducted in reference to an overview 
of Western philosophy from Plato onwards and makes an application to a 
discussion of abortion and euthanasia. The author is Ryan Professor of 
Metaphysics and Moral Philosophy at Georgetown University. 

Grisez, Germain G. Contraception and the Natural Law. Milwaukee: The Bruce 
Publishing Co., 1964. 

Grisez's thesis is that "For one who engages in sexual intercourse directly to 
will any positive deed by which conception is thought to be prevented, or 
even rendered less probable, is intrinsically and seriously immoral" (p. 12). 



422 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic 
Morality. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

See especially Chapter 15, "The Natural Law in Tradition," pp. 220-230; and 
Chapter 16, "Natural Law Today," pp. 231-249. This later chapter is also 
contained in Readings in Moral Theology, No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, 
369-391. Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. 
Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1991. 

Haag, Erich. Die Entwicklung der neueren katholischen Naturrechtslehre. Ziirich: 
Juris- Verlag, 1962. 

Hall, Pamela M. Narrative and the Natural Law: An Interpretation of Thomistic 
Ethics. Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994. 

The author claims that natural law is known narratively, meaning that natural 
law is discovered, "progressively over time and through a process of 
reasoning engaged by the material of experience." Thus, we learn the natural 
law not by deduction, but narratively as we search for what the good is for us, 
both individually and communally. 

Hamel, Eduoard, S.J. Loi naturelle et loi du Christ. Studia Recherches de 
Philosophic et de Theologie, 17. Bruges: Desclee de Brouwer, 1964. 

Hamel taught moral theology for many years at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

Hanigan, James P. As I Have Loved You: The Challenge of Christian Ethics. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1986. 

This is essentially an undergraduate textbook on ftmdamental moral theology. 
Chapter 8, pp. 166-189, deals with the natural law, both in the context of 
Scripture and philosophy. Hanigan includes both study questions and 
supplementary annotated bibliography at the end of each chapter. 

Heimbach-Steins, Mariane, Ed. Naturrecht im ethischen Diskurs. Schriften des 
Instituts fUr christliche Sozialwissenschaften, 21. Miinster: Aschendorff, 
1990. 

Looks at the natural law in the larger context of ethical discourse. 
Contributions from Ludger Honnefelder, Bemhard Irrgang, Werner Kroh, 
Karl-Wilhelm Merks und Guido Vagedes. 



423 

Zur Frage nach der Tauglichkeit des Naturrechts als 
Argumentationsgrundlage und Bereufungsinstanz fur eine theologische Ethik. 
Bedeutsame StoMchtungen derNaturrechtsdiskussion in der gegenwartigen 
katholischen Moraltheologie und Sozialethik warden in ihren Ansatzen und 
Voraussetzungen exemplarisch dargestellt und miteinander ins Gesprach 
gebracht. Zentrale Elemente der Tradition werden dabei deutend 
vergegenwartigt und konkret problembezogen mit den aktuellen 
Herausforderungen theologischer Ethik konfrontiert. 

Herr, Theodor. Naturrecht aus der kritischen Sicht des Neuen Testamentes. 
Abhandlungen zur Sozialethik, Band 11. Paderbora— Miinchen-Wien, 1976. 

. Zur Frage nach dem Naturrecht im deutschen Protestantismus der 



Gegenwart. Abhandlungen zur Sozialethik, Band 4. Miinchen— Paderbom— 
Wien: Verlag Ferdinand Schoningh, 1972. 

Hervada, Javier. Introduccion critica al derecho natural. 4a ed. corregida. 
Pampolona: Ed. Universidad de Navarra, 1986. 

In French: Introduction critique au droit naturel. Bordeaux: Editions Biere, 
1991. 

Hittinger, Russell. A Critique of the New Natural Law Theory. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1987. 

Critique of the natural law theories of Germain Grisez and John Firmis. 
Negatively reviewed by William E. May inLinacre Quarterly 55 (November, 
1988): 85-87. 

. The First Grace: Rediscovering the Natural Law in a Post-Christian World. 

Wilmington: ISI Books, 2003. 

Hittinger holds that the natural law can be reliably established on the basis of 
revelation as interpreted authoritatively by the Magisterium of the Church. 

Kelly, David F. The Emergence of Roman Catholic Medical Ethics in North 
America. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1979. 

Kelly traces the physicalist interpretation of the natural law through Catholic 
medical ethics in North America. 



424 

Levada, Archbishop William. Infallible Church Magisterium and the Natural Law. 
Excerpta ex dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facilitate Theologiae Pontificiae 
Universitatis Gregorianae. Rome: Pontifical Gregorian Press, 1971. 

Dissertation done under Francis Sullivan, S.J. Levada notes that while the 
Magisterium would have the authority to make infallible pronouncements on 
concrete moral norms, prudence would argue against trying to do so. This 
infallible competence is best seen "on the level of transcendental values; [but] 
when we turn to the level of categorical norms, on the other hand, we cannot 
ignore the essential autonomy of the rational process of human discovery of 
the natural moral law. And the nature of this moral autonomy, considered in 
all its aspects, gives us the ultimate reason why we should not understand it 
to fall within the traditional categories of primary or secondaiy object of 
infallibility" (P. 79). Levada worked for the Congregation of the Doctrine of 
the Faith under Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger and then went on to become on 22 
September 1986, as archbishop of Portland, OR, and archbishop of San 
Francisco in 1995 where he served until be named as the Prefect of the 
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by Pope Benedict XVI (Ratzinger) 
on 13 May 2005. 

Liska, Anthony J. Aquinas's Theory of Natural Law: An Analytical Reconstruction. 
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 

The author discusses the Aristotelian elements of Aquinas's natural law 
theory and reinterprets contemporary legal issues which hark back to 
Aquinas. 

Maritain, Jacques. Neuflegons sur les notions premieres de la philosophie morah. 
Paris: Tecqui, 1951. 

Mayer-Maly, D. and Simons, P. Naturrechtsdenken heute und morgen. Berlin, 
1983. 

Papers from the Symposium "Das Naturrechtsdenken heute und morgen" held 
at Salzburg, 5-8 October 1982. Contains an essay by Josef Fuchs, S.J. which 
is published in English as "Faith, Ethics and Law" Chapter 8 in Fuchs' 
Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena, 1 14-127. Translated by Bernard Hoose 
and Brian McNeil. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. 

McLean, Edward B., ed. Common Truths: New Perspectives on Natural Law. 
Goodrich Lecture Series. Wilmington DE: ISI Books, 2000. 



425 

15 essays on the knowability of the natural law, the natural law in Greece, 
Rome, Aquinas, Locke, modem writers, natural law and dignity, positive law, 
natural rights, sexual ethics, and natural law and civil and criminal law. 

McMahon, Kevin A. "On the Authority of the Magisterium to Teach Natural Law: 
A Comparison of the Thought of Thomas Aquinas and Josef Fuchs." PhD 
Thesis from Marquette University. Ann Arbor MI: University Microfilms, 
1985. 

Mobbs, Frank. Beyond Its Authority: The Magisterium and Matters of Natural Law. 
Sydney: E.J. Dv^o^er, 1997. 

Mobb's basic thesis is that inasmuch as the natural law is not part of 
revelation the authority of the Magisterium does not extend to authoritative 
pronouncements on the natural law. Very negatively reviewed by Joseph 
Selling in the latter' s article "Magisterial Authority and the Natural Law," 
Doctrine and Life 47 (August 1997): 334-342. 

Nelson, Daniel Mark. The Priority of Prudence: Virtue and Natural Law in Thomas 
Aquinas and the Implications for Modern Ethics, University Park: 
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992. 

Argues that Thomas holds that prudence and the virtues have priority over 
natural law in moral understanding and decision-making. This is a revision 
of Nelson's doctoral dissertation done under Jeffrey Stout at Princeton. 
Nelson is dean of upperclass students at Dartmouth College. 

Novak, David. Natural Law in Judaism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 
1998. 

Argues that the natural law is part of Judaism and consistent with both its 
tradition and the biblical revelation of the Torah, and continues to be valuable 
today for conveying Judaism's meaning for life. Thus the natural law should 
not be viewed as a uniquely Christian theory, but rather as a theistic doctrine. 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Principles for a Catholic Morality. Minneapolis: The 
Seabury Press, 1976, 1978. Revised edition. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 
1990. 

This is a revised version of O'Connell's 1976 work of the same name. 
Overall it is a quite successfiil attempt to offer a textbook in moral theology 
for seminarians which could replace the old moral manuals, without falling 



426 

into the legalistic approach which characterized that genre. See especially 
Chapters 12-18. 

Outka, Gene H. and Ramsey, Paul, eds. Norm and Context in Christian Ethics. 
London: SCM Press, 1968. 

Quite a good collection of articles by Protestant and Roman Catholic 
ethicians covering a number of topics related to the notion of moral norms, 
and including an entire section devoted to a re-assessment of the natural law 
tradition. 

Peschke, Karl Heinz. Naturrecht in der Kontroverse. Kritik evangelischer 
Theologie an der katholischen Lehre in Naturrecht und natiirlicher 
SittUchkeit. Salzburg: OttoMtiller, 1967. 

Porter, Jean. Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Tradition for Christian 
Ethics. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999. 

Porter argues that the scholastics' understanding and application of human 
"nature" was far more nuanced than most have realized. , rather than using the 
Bible in a superficial or proof-texting maimer, Scripture groimds not only 
their basic approach to the overall conceptualization of the natural law, but 
also guides the identification of concrete moral content of natural law norms. 
Turning to a practical application Porter appropriates "scholastic insights into 
the human and theological significance of sexuality while also allowing for 
subsequent developments in our understanding of what counts as natural and 
appropriate in sexual relations" (p. 190) and finally looks at the issues of 
slavery and social persecution in the scholastics. Reviewed by James T. 
Bretzke, S.J. in Zygon, by Susan Parsons in New Blackfriars 8 1 (July/August 
2000):350-353; by James Keenan in Theological Studies 61 (December 
2000): 777-779; and by Cristina L.H. Traina in Religious Studies Review 26 
(October 2000): 365. Porter is John A. O'Brien Professor of Moral Theology 
at the University of Notre Dame. 

. Nature as Reason: A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law. Grand Rapids: 

Eerdmans, 2005. 

Building on her 1 999 Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Tradition for 
Christian Ethics Porter looks at the scholastic account of nature, happiness, 
and the claim that reason can generate moral norms. Porter believes that the 
Thomistic account of the natural law can help develop a more nuanced 
account of the relationship between specific beliefs and practices. The 
primary value of the Thomistic approach may not be so much of a complete 



427 

system of universal ethical nonns as a way to reflect theologically about 
human morality. The book also contains an excellent bibliography on 
modem and contemporary sources for natural law reflection. Reviewed by 
James T. Bretzke, S.J. for Catholic Studies: An Online Journal 
http://www.adelphi.edu/cst/Reviews/ 

Rhonheimer, Martin. Natur als Grundlage der Moral. Die personate Struktur des 
Naturgesetzes bei Thomas von Aquin: eine Auseinandersetzung mit 
autonomer und teologischer Ethik. Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 1987. 

English Translation: Natural Law and Practical Reason: A Thomist View of 
Moral Autonomy. Translated by Gerald Malsbary. Moral Philosophy and 
Theology, 1 . New York; Fordham University Press, 2000. 

Rice, C. 50 Questions on the Natural Law. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1993. 

Riley, Lawrence J. The History, Nature and Use ofEpikeia in Moral Theology. The 
Catholic University of American Studies in Sacred Theology, 2nd Series, 1 7. 
Washington, D.C.: CathoHc University of America Press, 1948. 

Schockenhoff, Eberhard. Natural Law & Human Dignity. Universal Ethics in an 
Historical World. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 
2005. 

German original: Naturrecht und Menschenwiirde: Universale Ethik in einer 
geschichtlichen Welt. Mainz: Matthias-Griinewald-Verlag, 1996. 

Deals with the question of universal norms for human existence at a time of 
ethical relativism. 

Schiiller, Bruno, S.J. Der menschliche Mensch. Aufsdtze zur Metaethik und zur 
Sprache der Moral. DUsseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982. 

Italian translation: L'uomo veramente uomo. La dimensione teologica 
dell'etica nella dimensione etica dell'uomo. CoUectio-Etica, 3. A cura di S. 
Privitera. Palermo: Edi Oftes, 1987. Italian translation of two books of 
Schiiller: Die Begriindung sitlicher Urteile. Typen ethischer Argumentation 
in der Moraltheologie, (Diisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1980), and Der 
menschliche Mensch. Aufsdtze zur Metaethik und zur Sprache der Moral, 
(Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982). 

In English: The Wholly Human: Essays on the Theory and Language of 
Morality. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985. Collection 



428 

of several essays, many previously published elsewhere in German and/or 
English. 

Scola, S. La fondazione teologica della legge naturale nello "Scriptum super 
Sententis" di san Tommaso d' Aquino. Freiburg: Freiburg University Press, 
1982. 

Elaborates a theological foundation of the natural law on the "imago Dei" 
concept as employed by Thomas. 

Seriaux, A. Le Droit Nature!. Paris: Presses Universitairesde France, 1993. 

Simon, Yves R. The Tradition of Natural Law: A Philosopher's Reflections. Edited 
by Vukan Kuic. Introduction by Russell Hittinger. New York: Fordham 
University Press, 1992. 

New edition of Simon's 1965 study on natural law, which in turn were 
originally presented as a series of lectures at the University of Chicago given 
in 1958. 

Reviewed by Thomas A. Fay in American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 
66 (1992): 517-520. 

Spurrier, William Atwell. Natural Law and the Ethics of Love: A New Synthesis. 
Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1974. 

Syse, Henrik. Natural Law, Religion and Rights. South Bend IN: St. Augustine's 
Press, 2001. 

Looks primarily at the relationship between law and rights in Hobbes and 
Locke, though in the context of the larger tradition of natural law in Western 
philosophy. 

Thomasma, David C. Human Life in the Balance. Louisville: Westminster/John 
Knox Press, 1990. 

Centers on an important task for Roman Catholic natural law ethics: to affirm 
a universal community of moral discourse, while recognizing moral pluralism 
and the historicity of belief and practice. Reviewed, rather negatively, by 
Lisa Sowle Cahill in Theological Studies 52 (1991): 765-767. 



429 

Tiemey, Brian. The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law 
and Church Law, 1150-1625. Emory University Studies in Law and 
Religion, 5. Atlanta: Emory University Press, 1997. 

Reviewed by Keimeth Pennington in Emory Law Journal 47 (Winter 1 998): 
93- 1 05. Tiemey is the Bowmar Professor in Humanistic Studies, Emeritus, 
at Cornell University. 

Traina, Cristina L.H. Feminist Ethics and Natural Law: The End of the Anathemas. 
Moral Traditions and Moral Arguments. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, 1999. 

Reviewed by Patricia Beattie Jung in Theological Studies 61 (December 
2000): 780-782. 

Trigeaud, Jean-Marc. Metaphysique et Ethique au Fondement du Droit. Bordeaux: 
Editions Biere, 1995. 

Usska, Anthony J. Aquinas 's Theory of Natural Law: An Analytic Reconstruction. 
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 

Vendemiati, Aldo. La Legge Naturale Nella Summa Theologiae di San Tommaso 
d'Aquino. Roma: Ed. Dehoniane, 1995. 

Weinreb, Lloyd L. Natural Law and Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 
1987. 

Reviewed by Gerard J. Hughes in The Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 99. 

Wu, Ching-hsiung, John. Fountain of Justice: A Study in the Natural Law. New 
York: Sheed and Ward, 1955; London: Sheed and Ward, 1959. 



Psychology, Heart, Emotions, and Moral Development 

Articles on Psychology and Moral Development 

Bharati, Agehananda. "The Self in Hindu Thought and Action." In Culture and Self: 
Asian and Western Perspectives, 185-230. Edited by Anthony J. Marsella, 
George DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

Gates, Diana Fritz. "The Religious Dimension of Ordinary Human Emotions." 
Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 25/1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 35- 

53. 

Looks at some forms of cognition that enter into the composition of some 
emotional states, showing how the religious dimension of such thoughts can 
condition the ways in which people construe objects and events in their lives. 
Uses some of the work of James M. Gustafson and Martha C. Nussbaum. 
Gates is a professor of religious studies at the University of Iowa. 

Composta, Dario, S.D.B. "II neo-freudismo e la dissoluzione della morale." 
Divinitas 37 (1993): 259-277. 

Compasta is Professor Emeritus at the Urbanianum. 

Goim, Walter E, "Affective Conversion: The Transformation of Desire." In Religion 
and Culture: Essays in Honor of Bernard Lonergan, S.J., 261-276. Edited 
by Timothy P. Fallon, S. J., and Philip Boo Riley. Albany: SUNY Press, 1 987. 

Essay from a March, 1984 symposium on Religion and Gulture held at the 
University of Santa Glara. 

. "Gognitive and Affective Foundations of Moral Development: Jean Piaget's 

Analysis of the Emergence of Concrete Operations and Will in Middle 
Childhood." Lumen Vitae 37 (1982): 367-382. 

. "Moral Development: Is Conversion Necessary?" In Creativity and Method: 

Essays in Honor of Bernard Lonergan, 307-324. Edited by Matthew Lamb. 
Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1981. 

Paper from a symposium held in April 1980 in honor of Bernard Lonergan 
at Marquette University, 



432 

Gilligan, Carol. "Moral Orientation and Moral Development." In Women and Moral 
Theory, 19-33. Edited by Eva Feder Killay and Diana T. Meyers. Savage, 
MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987. 

Glaser, John W., S.J. "Conscience and Super-Ego: A Key Distinction." Theological 
Studies 32 (197 1): 30 A7. 

Also found in Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspectives, 167- 
188. Edited by C.Ellis Nelson. New York: Newman Press, 1973. Describes 
both mora! conscience and the superego, their superficial similarities, and 
crucial differences, and concludes with some pastoral reflections on several 
areas where the recognition of the difference between genuine moral 
conscience and the functioning of the superego can be illuminating, and 
where a failure to make such a distinction can result in great harm. 

Hsu, Francis L.K. "The Self in Cross-Cultural Perspective." In Culture and Self: 
Asian and Western Perspectives, 24-55. Edited by Anthony J. Marsella, 
George DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

Johnson, Frank. "The Western Concept of Self" In Culture and Self: Asian and 
Western Perspectives, 91-138. Edited by Anthony J. Marsella, George 
DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

Lauritzen, Paul. "Emotions and Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 16 
(1988): 307-324. 

Argues that the traditional dichotomy between reason and emotion should be 
abandoned, and that developing an account of emotions that attends to their 
cognitive structure can pave the way for a reassessment of the role emotions 
play in efforts to live morally. 

Maxwell, Mary. "Moral Inertia." Zygon 27 (1992): 51-64. 

Discusses the variety of causes of the phenomenon of moral inertia. Maxwell 
identifies fourteen cognitive and linguistic factors which may contribute to 
this problem. Also considers ideology's role in inhibiting action against 
social evil. 

McLean, Julienne. "The Role of the Confessional Process in Psychotherapy." In 
Confession and Absolution, 168-178. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 



433 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Miller, Edward Jeremy. "The Roles of Moral Dispositions in the Cognitional 
Theories of Newman and Lonergan." Thought 67 (1992): 128-137. 

Narramore, S. Bruce. "Psychoanalytic contributions to the Christian view of guilt." 
In Counseling And The Human Predicament, 11 7-126. Edited by L. Aden. 
1989. 

Prechti, Peter, and Sch6pf, Alfred. "Das VerhSltnis von Moralentv/icklung und 
Geltung." Philosophische Rundschau 39 (1992): 29-51. 

Review of several books on moral formation, all in German, though some of 
these are translations of other works (e.g. Carol Gilligan). 

Philibert, Paul J., O.P. "Conscience: Developmental Perspectives from Rogers and 
Kohlberg." Horizons 6 (Spring, 1979). 

Richards, P. Scott, and Davison, Mark L. "Religious Bias in Moral Development 
Research: A Psychometric Investigation." Journal for the Scientific Study of 
Religion 31 (1992): 467-485. 

Ryan, Kevin. "Moral Formation: The American Scene." Concilium 1 10 (1977): 95- 
107. 

Italian translation: "Formazione morale: la situazione americana." Concilium 
13 (10/1977): 149-166. 

Gives a brief overview and critical analysis of two recent strategies used in 
moral education: values clarification and cognitive developmental theory 
(Kohlberg). An appendix includes Kohlberg's own summary of his six stages 
of moral development. 

Shelton, Charles, S.J. "Helping College Students Make Moral Decisions." 
Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education 2 (Fall, 1992): 6-21 . 

Discusses some of the psychological issues and problems involved in helping 
college students along the path to moral maturity. See also responses to this 
article by Mary M. Brabeck, Sue D. Weitz, and Marvin W. Berkov^tz on pp. 
22-25. Shelton is a clinical psychologist and professor of psychology at 
Regis University in Denver. 



434 

Siegel, Harvey. "On using psychology to justify judgments of moral adequacy." In 
Lawrence Kohlberg, Consensus And Controversy, 65-78. Edited by Sohan 
Modgil and Celia Modgil. Philadelphia: Falmer Press, 1986. 

Shweder, Richard A., Mahapatra, Manamohan, and Miller, Joan G. "Culture and 
moral development." In Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative 
Human Development, 130-204. Edited by James W. Stigler, Richard A. 
Sweder, and Gilbert Herdt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Essay on the results of a cross-cultural study involving children from India 
and Illinois, and aimed at assessing the separate theories of moral 
development proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg and E. Turiel. Also contains 
a basic reference bibliography. 

Sichel, Betty A. "Virtue and Character: Moral Languages and Moral Education." 
The Clearing House 64 (1991): 297-300. 

Spohn, William C, S.J. "Passions and Principles." Theological Studies 52 (1991): 
69-87. 

As part of the "Notes in Moral Theology: 1 990" Spohn reviews and discusses 
recent moral literature that stress aspects of the emotions and their 
involvement in morality. Two key concepts used in reference to the 
emotions are the criterion of "appropriateness" for moral assessments and 
strategies and the "education" of the emotions. Ample reference to related 
literature on psycholog>' and morality. Spohn did his doctoral dissertation in 
Christian ethics under James M Gustafson at the University of Chicago on 
Jonathan Edwards' "Reasons of the Heart." After several years of teaching 
moral theology at the Jesuit School of Theology in Berkeley, Spohn moved 
to Santa Clara University where he taught at his death in 2005. 

Stock, Michael E., O.P. "Conscience and Super-Ego." The ThomistlA (1961): 554- 
579. 

. "Some Moral Issues in Psychoanalysis." The Thomist 23 (1960): 143-188. 



Tjeltveit, Alan C. "The Psychotherapist as Christian Ethicist: Theology Applied to 
Practice." Journal of Psychology and Theology 20 (1992): 89-98. 



435 
Books on Psychology and Moral Development 

Bridgeman, Diane L., ed. The Nature ofProsocial Development: Interdisciplinary 
Theories and Strategies. New York; Academic Press, 1983. 

Callahan, Sidney. In Good Conscience: Reason and Emotion in Moral Decision- 
making. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991. 

Discusses the role and function of conscience and emotions in the context of 
American society, taking into account new psychological understandings of 
self, emotion, reason, intuition, problem-solving and developmental change. 

Capps, Donald. Deadly Sins and Saving Virtues. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Capps uses Erik Erikson's life-cyle theory, as well as biblical narratives and 
the Beatitudes to indicate how the so-called "deadly sins" can be combated 
by cultivating what Capps terms the "saving virtues." Capps links each of the 
traditional deadly sins with a particular stage of personality development, 
such as gluttony with infancy. Capps is professor of pastoral theology at 
Princeton Theological Seminary. 

Ciarrocchi, Joseph W. The Doubting Disease. Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1995. 

Well-done psychological treatment of the obsessive-compulsive disorder and 
moral scruples, which can also be very helpful in pastoral counseling and 
confession situations. 

Clouse, Bonnidell. Moral Development: Perspectives in Psychology and Christian 
Belief. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1985. 

Clouse, an educational psychologist, discusses and evaluates from a Christian 
perspective four major psychological theories on moral development: 1) the 
learning approach, which sees morality as moral behavior; 2) the cognitive 
approach, which sees morality in terms of reasoning; 3) the humanistic 
approach, which views morality in reference to potential; and 4) the 
psychoanalytic approach, which views morality in terms of moral conflict. 

Carroll, Malachy Gerard, ed. and trans. The Treatment of Scruples. Cork: Mercier 
Press, 1964. 

Individual essays: "The scrupulous and the obsessed: a psychiatric study," by 
A. Lauras; "Doctrinal history," by Father Tesson; "Pastoral behaviour towards 
the scrupulous," by Father Larere. 



436 

Coles, Robert. The Moral Life of Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1986. 

Conn, Walter E., ed. Conversion: Perspectives on Personal and Social 
Transformation. New York: Alba House, 1978. 

Conn, Walter E. Christian Conversion: A Developmental Interpretation of 
Autonomy and Surrender. New York: Paulist Press, 1986. 

. Conscience: Development and Self-Transcendence. Birmingham (AL): 

Religious Education Press, 1981. 

Deigh, John, ed. Ethics and Personality: Essays in Moral Psychology. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1992. 

Thirteen essays which focus on emotions and motives that relate to the status 
of moral agents, capacity for moral judgment, and the practices which help 
define social lives. 

Dent, N.J.J. The Moral Psychology of the Virtues. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1 984. 

Di Giacomo, James, S.J. Morality and Youth: Fostering Christian Identity. Kansas 
City: Sheed & Ward, 1993. 

Dykstra, Craig R. Vision and Character: A Christian Educator's Alternative to 
Kohlberg. New York: Paulist, 1 98 1 . 

Elias, John L. Moral Education: Secular and Religious. Malabar FL: Robert E. 
Krieger, 1989. 

Erikson, Erik. Insight and Responsibility: Lectures on the Ethical Implications of 
Psychoanalytic Insight. New York: W. W. Norton, 1964. 

Flanagan, Owen, and Rorty, Amelie Oksenberg, eds. Identity, Character, and 
Morality: Essays in Moral Psychology. London: MIT Press, 1 990. 

20 essays divided into an introduction and 5 parts: 1) Identity, Commitment, 
and Agency; 2) Character, Temperament, and Emotion; 3) Moral Psychology 
and the Virtues; 4) Rationality, Responsibility, and Morality; and 5) Virtue 
Theory. Many of the essays are concerned with aspects or critiques of 
Kantian morality. 



437 

Flanagan, Owen. Varieties of Moral Personality: Ethics and Psychological Realism. 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. 

Reviewed by Laurence Thomas under the title, "Morality and Human 
Diversity," in Ethics 103 (1992): 117-134. 

Fowler, James W.; Nipkow, Karl Ernst, and Schweitzer, Friedrich, eds. Stages of 
Faith and Religious Development. New York: Crossroad, 1 99 1. 

Focuses on two theories of faith development proposed by Fowler and Fritz 
Oser, both of which come out of the cognitive development tradition of 
Piaget. 

Fowler, James W. Becoming Adult, Becoming Christian. San Francisco: Harper & 
Row, 1984. 

. Weaving the New Creation: Stages of Faith and the Public Church. San 

Francisco: Harper & Row, 1991. 

Looking to the next century, Fowler relates his research in faith development 
to the present North American cultural context and emerging understandings 
of the public church. 

Frank, Robert H. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New 
York: Norton, 1988. 

Gilligan, Carol, Janie Victoria Ward, and Jill McLean Taylor, eds. Mapping the 
Moral Domain: A Contribution of Woman's Political Thinking to 
Psychological Theory and Education. Cambridge: Center for the Study of 
Gender, Education and Human Development (Harvard University Press), 
1988. 

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's 
Development. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1982. 

In German: Die andere Stimme. Miinchen-Ztirich, 1988. 

Groome, Thomas H. Christian Religious Education. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 
1980. 

Guindon, Andre. Le developpement moral. Coll. «L'horizon du croyant», 9. Paris: 
Desclee; Ottawa: Novalis, 1989. 



438 

Largely based on analysis of the work of Lawrence Kohlberg. Reviewed by 
Bernard Keating in Science et Esprit 43 (1991): 260-262. 

Haan, Norma; Aerts, Eliane; and Cooper, Bruce A.B. On Moral Grounds: The 
Searchfor Practical Morality. New York: New York University Press, 1985. 

Based on a series of studies designed to measure people's moral actions the 
book aims to clarify the complex environmental, cognitive, and emotional 
processes which help to determine these choices. The authors dispute many 
of the current psychological theories, including that of Lawrence Kohlberg. 

Hagmaier, George, C.S.P., and Gleason, Robert W., S.J. Moral Problems Now: 
Modern Techniques and Emotional Conflicts. London: Sheed and Ward, 
1960. 

The book addresses psychological and moral perspectives on counseling, 
including chapters on masturbation, homosexuality, alcoholism, mental 
illness, etc. Is of interest as an example of pre-Vatican II pastoral moral 
counseling. 

Harding, Carol Gibb. Moral Dilemmas: Philosophical and Psychological Issues in 
the Development of Moral Reasoning. Precedent Studies in Ethics and Moral 
Sciences. Chicago: Precedent Publishing, Inc., 1985. 

Contains an essay by Kohlberg, plus eight others by various authors treating 
Kohlberg, and especially the "Heinz Dilemma." 

Hoffman, John C. Ethical Confrontation in Counseling. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1979. 

Hoffinan is professor of religious studies and principal of lona College at the 
University of Windsor, 

Reviewed by Clyde J. Steckel in Journal of Religion 62 (1982): 332-333. 

Hurley, S.L. Natural Reasons: Personality and Polity. New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1989. 

Jacobs, Jonathan A. Practical Realism and Moral Psychology. Washington, D.C.: 
Georgetown University, 1995. 

Reviewed by James Keating in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 385-386. 



439 
Kagan, Jerome. The Nature of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1984. 

Kagan, Jerome, and Lamb, Sharon, eds. The Emergence Of Morality In Young 
Children. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1987. 

Papers presented at a conference sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation's 
Health Sciences Program held at Harvard University in 1985. 

Kegan, Robert. The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development. 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982. 

Kiely, Bartholomew M., S.J. Psychology and Moral Theology: Lines of 
Convergence. Rome: Gregorian University Press, 1980. 

Kiely's STD dissertation done under the direction of Klaus Demmer, M.S.C. 
Kiely is professor of psychology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in 
Rome, and consultor to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [CDF] . 
Reviewed by John Michael McDermott, S.J. in Theological Studies 43 
(1982): 169-170. 

Killay, Eva, and Meyers, Diana T., eds. Women and Moral Theory. Savage, MD: 
Rowman & Littlefield, 1989. 

Killen, Melanie, and Daniel Hart. Morality in Everyday Life: Developmental 
Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 

Kittay, Eva Feder, and Meyers, Diana T., ed. Women and Moral Theory. Savage 
MD: Roman and Littlefield, 1987. 

Most of the articles come from papers delivered at a conference on Women 
and Moral Theory held at The State University of New York, Stony Brook in 
March 1985. The work of Carol Gilligan is the main reference point for most 
of the papers. 

Kohlberg, Lawrence. Essays on Moral Development. Vol. 1 : The Philosophy of 
Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice. Vol. 2: The 
Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. 
San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1981 and 1984. 

Koocher, Gerald P., and Keith-Spiegal, Patricia C. Children, Ethics, and the Law. 
University of Nebraska Press, 1990. 



440 

From a Piagetian perspective, the authors discuss the cognitive limitations of 
children as moral subjects in psychotherapy, research, the court system and 
social work. The authors spell out the implications of this cognitive 
incapacity of children as they must confront dysfunctional family situations. 
Favorably reviewed by Paul J. Philibert, O.P. in America (18 April 1992): 
326-329. 

Loder, James E. The Transforming Moment: Understanding Convictional 
Experiences. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1981. 

Loder uses a near-death traffic accident he experienced to reflect on how key 
experiences can be transformative in one's life. 

Marseila, Anthony J., DeVos, George, and Hsu, Francis L.K., eds. Culture and Self: 
Asian and Western Perspectives. New York and London: Tavistock 
Publications, 1985. 

McClendon, James. Understanding Religious Convictions. Notre Dame: University 
of Notre Dame Press, 1975, 

McFayden, Alistair I. The Call to Personhood: A Christian Theory of the Individual 
in Social Relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Discusses the personal, social and political practices required to live as a 
human in community with others. 

Reviewed by Jean Porter in Theological Studies 53 (1992): 365-366. 

Nelson, C. Ellis, ed. Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspectives. New 
York: Newman Press [Paulist], 1973. 

An anthology of articles by a number of noted contemporary theologians: 
Protestant, Catholic and Jewish. 

O'Flaherty, Vincent M. How to Cure Scruples. Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. Co. ,1966. 

Pattison, Stephen. Pastoral Care and Liberation Theology. Cambridge Studies in 
Ideology and Religion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 

Pritchard, Michael S. On Becoming Responsible. Lawrence: University of Kansas 
Press, 1991. 

Reviewed by Owen Flanagan in Ethics 102 (January 1992): 390-392. 



441 

Reimer, Joseph; Diana Pritchard Paolitto, and Richard H. Hersch. Promoting Moral 
Growth: From Piaget to Kohlberg. Foreword by Lawrence Kohlberg. 2nd 
ed. Prospect Heights IL: Waveiand Press, 1979, 1983. 

Rest, James R. Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: 
Praeger, 1986. 

Presents the results of the Defining Issues Tests (DIT) developed by Rest and 
his associates in the 1970's. Interprets research on the relationships between 
moral development and various biological, cultural, and environmental 
factors. Work of Carol Gilligan is strongly criticized as being unsystematic 
and unsupported by research. 

Scott, G.E. Moral Personhood: An Essay in the Philosophy of Moral Psychology. 
Albany: SUNY Press, 1990. 

Shelton, Charles M., S.J. Morality and the Adolescent: A Pastoral Psychology 
Approach. New York: Crossroad, 1989. 

Addresses questions of morality from the point of view of developmental 
psychology and outlines an approach for assisting adolescents on the path 
toward moral maturity by focusing on the tasks and struggles of the 
adolescent, as well as those environmental features which may foster or 
inhibit growth. Special attention is also given to the development of 
conscience and its dynamics in adolescence. Shelton is a clinical 
psychologist and professor of psychology at Regis University in Denver. 

. Morality of the Heart: A Psychology for the Christian Moral Life. New York: 

Crossroads, 1990. 

Presents the thinking of leading developmental psychologists such as 
Hoffman, Kohlberg, Hann, and Gilligan, along with aspects of psychoanalytic 
theory, the cognitive sciences, theology and the arts. The "heart" is used as 
the central and unifying metaphor for morality. Shelton develops his theory, 
first from psychology and analyses of Melville's Billy Budd and the recent 
movie, Rainman, and secondly from Christian experience such as the Parable 
of the Good Samaritan, Paul, and the description of Jesus in Hebrews. 

Stigler, James W., Shweder, Richard A., and Herdt, Gilbert. Cultural Psychology: 
Essays on Comparative Human Development. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1990. 



442 

Product of two symposia held at the University of Chicago in 1986 and 1987 
and sponsored by the University's Committee on Human Development. See 
especially Chapter 3, "Culture and moral development." 

Taylor, Charles. Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity. Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1989. 

Rather more a philosophical than psychological approach to moral identity. 
Reviewed by Stemley Hauerwas and David Matzko McCarthy in Religious 
Studies Review 18 (1992): 286-289. 

Thomas, Laurence. Living Morally: A Psychology of Moral Character. 
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. 

Focuses on why people are motivated to act altruistically. Emphasis given 
to the role of firiendship in the development and maintenance of a virtuous 
moral character. Thomas' approach draws heavily on the social sciences. 

van der Ven, Johannes A. Formation of the Moral Self Studies in Practical 
Theology. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1998. 

Considers the process of moral development and the structures of education 
which facilitate this formation. Looks at two modes of informal moral 
education, discipline and socialization, and five modes of formal education: 
transmission, development, clarification, emotional formation, and character 
formation. Moral communication, which is defined as the ongoing process of 
moral exchange and understanding in the search for truth, is the common 
denominator of all seven modes of development, van der Ven is professor of 
practical theology at the Divinity School of Nijmegen University, the 
Netherlands. 

Wallwork, Ernest. Psychoanalysis and Ethics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 
1991. 

Wren, Thomas E. Caring About Morality: Philosophical Perspectives in Moral 
Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. 

Reviewed by Charles M. Shelton, S.J. in Theological Studies 53 (1992): 789- 
790. 

Zecha, Gerhard, and Weingartner, Paul, eds. Conscience: An Interdisciplinary View. 
Salzburg Colloquium on Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities. Theology 
and Decision Library. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1987. 



443 

9 papers, plus discussion, from Josef Fuchs, Lawrence Kohlberg, Paul 
Wiengartner, Gerhard Zecha and others on conscience in terms of various 
aspects: foundational, social, educational, and special topics. 



Articles on the Heart and/or Emotions in Moral Theology 

Barad, Judith. "Aquinas on the Role of Emotion in Moral Judgment and Activity." 
The Thomist 55 (1991): 397-413. 

Barad locates Aquinas as operating between the extremes of Hume, who 
insists that emotion and not reason is the foundation of moral philosophy, and 
Kant, who insists that reason must be the sole detenninant of morality. For 
Aquinas, emotions in themselves are neither morally good nor bad; they 
become so only when considered by will and reason. Barad considers the 
implications of this distinction in reference to antecedent emotions, which 
one experiences prior to judgment, and for consequent emotions, which 
follow upon judgment. 

Calhoun, Cheshire. "Changing One's Heart." Ethics 103 (1992): 70-96. 

Deals v^th forgiveness. 

Drost, Mark P. "Intentionality in Aquinas' Theory of Emotions." International 
Philosophical Quarterly ?>\ (1991): 449-460. 

Drost argues that in "Aquinas's theory (a) the object of an emotion is an 
intentional object of experience as distinguished from the material object 
(when there is one) and (b) this claim is supported by other aspects of 
Aquinas's saliently intentional account of the emotions." p. 449 

Kelly, Justin J. "Knowing by Heart: The Symbolic Structure of Revelation and 
Fatih." In Faithful Witness: Foundations of Theology for Today's Church, 
85-98. Edited by Leo J. O'Donovan, S.J. and T. Howland Sanks, S.J. New 
York: Crossroad, 1989. 

Kosman, L.A. "Being Properly Affected: Virtues and Feelings in Aristotle's Ethics." 
In Essays on Aristotle 's Ethics, 1 03 -11 6. Edited by Am^lie Oksenberg Rorty. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. 



444 

Lauritzen, Paul. "Emotions and Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 16 
(1988): 307-324. 

Argues that the traditional dichotomy between reason and emotion should be 
abandoned, and that developing an account of emotions that attends to their 
cognitive structure can pave the way for a reassessment of the role emotions 
play in efforts to live morally. Lauritzen is Associate Professor of Religious 
Ethics at John Carroll University. 

. "Errors of an Ill-reasoning Reason: The Disparagement of Emotions in the 

Moral Life." The Journal of Value Inquiry 25 (1991): 5-21. 

Marks, Joel. "Emotion East and West: Introduction to Comparative Philosophy." 
Philosophy East and West A\ (1991): 1-30. 

Short essay (pp. 1-9), followed by endnotes (pp. 9-16), and a long 
bibliography (pp. 17-30). 

McVeigh, Brian. "Learning Morality Through Sentiment and the Senses: The Role 
of Emotional Experience in Sukyo Mahikari." Japanese Religions 20 
(1995): 56-76. 

Patrick, Anne, SNJM. "Imaginative Literature and the Renewal of Moral Theology." 
New Theology Review 11 (May 1998): 43-57. 

See also the response by Patricia A. Lamoureux, "Emotion, Imagination, and 
the Role of the Spirit: A Response to Anne Patrick." New Theology Review 
11 (May 1998): 57-62. 

Pope, Stephen J. "The Order of Love and Recent Catholic Ethics: A Constructive 
Proposal." Theological Studies 52 (1991): 255-288. 

Pope's thesis is that "recent insights into the evolution and natural ordering 
of altruism provided by contemporary behavioral biology, and especially 
human sociobiology, can act as correctives to certain deficiencies that 
characterize recent Catholic ethics, particularly those regarding its neglect of 
the traditional notion of the 'order of love' {ordo amoris). In particular I 
argue that contemporary behavioral biology enagles us to perceive better the 
limits to human love, the biological basis of human sociality, and the natural 
basis of the ordering of love" (p. 256). Examines the positions of Karl 
Rahner and Thomas Aquinas, insights from contemporary behavioral biology, 
and concludes with a proposal to reestablish the traditional ordo amoris in 
Catholic ethics. 



445 

Roberts, Robert C. "Emotions among the Virtues of the Christian Life." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 20 (1992): 37-68 

Roberts holds that emotions enter into the structure of Christian virtues in 
especially central ways because of special features of the Christian virtues- 
system. He delineates four kinds of virtues: emotion virtues, behavioral 
virtues, virtues of will power, and attitudinal virtues. Roberts examines in 
depth an example of each of the last three virtues to indicate the structural 
dependency of these virtues on the Christian emotions. Roberts is Professor 
in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology at Wheaton College. 

SchOpf, Alfred. "Emotion und Ethik." In SchuldStrafe—Versohnung. Ein 
interdisziplinares GespMch, 54-63. Herausgegeben von Arnold KSpcke- 
Duttler. Mainz: GrOnewald, 1991. 

Spohn, William C, S.J. "Passions and Principles." Theological Studies 52 (1991): 
69-87. 

As part of the "Notes in Moral Theology: 1 990" Spohn reviews and discusses 
recent moral literature that stress aspects of the emotions and their 
involvement in morality. Two key concepts used in reference to the 
emotions are the criterion of "appropriateness" for moral assessments and 
strategies and the "education" of the emotions. Spohn did his doctoral 
dissertation in Christian ethics under James M Gustafson at the University of 
Chicago on Jonathan Edwards' "Reasons of the Heart. " Spohn was teaching 
at Santa Clara University at the time of his death in 2005. 

. "The Reasoning Heart: An American Approach to Christian Discernment." 

Theological Studies 44 (1983): 30-52. 

Also found in The Reasoning Heart: Toward a North American Theology, ed. 
by Frank M. Oppenheim, S.J., (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 1986): 51-72. Approach to Christian discernment based on the 
thinking of some American theologians which stresses the normative 
contribution of biblical symbols and distinctive Christian affectivity in 
guiding moral evaluation. 

Tallon, Andrew. "Affectivity and Praxis in Lonergan, Rahner and Others in the 
Heart Tradition." In Religion and Economic Ethics, 87-122. The Aimual 
Publication of the College Theology Society, 3 1 (1 985). Edited by Joseph F. 
Glower. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1990. 

Tallon is professor of philosophy at Marquette University. 



446 



"The Heart in Rahner's Philosophy of Mysticism." Theological Studies 53 
(1992): 700-728. 



Books on the Heart and/or Emotions in Moral Theology/Philosophy 

Au, Wiikie. By Way of the Heart: Toward a Holistic Christian Spirituality. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

Seeks to integrate psychology, morality, and spirituality. 

Bovenmars, Jan G., M.S.C. Biblical Spirituality of the Heart. New York: Alba 
House, 1991. 

Callahan, Annice, R.S.C.J., ed. Spiritualities of the Heart: Approaches to Personal 
Wholeness in Christian Tradition. New York: Paulist, 1990. 

Contains 14 essays which consider various ways that spiritual writers have 
viewed and incorporated the heart into their work. Authors treated include 
Irenaeus, Augustine, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Catherine of Sienna, 
Martin Luther, Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross, Francis 
de Sales, Jane de Chantal, Madeline Sophie Barat, Teilhard de Chardin, Jean 
Vanier (and L'Arche), and Henri Nouwen. Callahan was professor of 
spiritual theology at Regis College, Toronto and is now an adjunct at the 
University of San Diego. 

Callahan, Sidney. In Good Conscience: Reason and Emotion in Moral Decision 
Making. San Francisco: Harper &. Row, 1991. 

Discusses the role and function of conscience and emotions in the context of 
American society, taking into account new psychological understandings of 
self, emotion, reason, intuition, problem-solving and developmental change. 

Cates, Diana Fritz. Choosing to Feel: Virtue, Friendship, and Compassion for 
Friends. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. 

Reviewed by Stephen J. Pope in Theological Studies 59 (1998): 167-169. 

Frank, Robert H. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New 
York: Norton, 1988. 



447 

Gibbard, Allan. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 
1990. 

Gibbard aims to present a naturalistic picture of human normative life, i.e., 
humans are natural animals which acknowledge norms of action, thought, and 
feeling, and thus, Gibbard's position is basically "norm expressivist" analysis. 
Positively reviewed by Simon Blackburn in Ethics 1 02 (January 1 992): 342- 
356. 

Gregson, Vernon, ed. The Desires of the Human Heart: An Introduction to the 
Theology of Bernard Lonergan. New York: Pauiist Press, 1988. 

Harak, G. Simon, S.J. Virtuous Passions: The Formation of Christian Character. 
New York: Pauiist Press, 1993. 

In a twist on the virtue ethics debate Harak suggests that morality is best 
approached through a discussion of human passions which move the person 
toward God and life's joys. According to the author this approach requires 
a new model of human agency which can better take account of, and manage 
the passions. Thomas Aquinas and Ignatius of Loyola provide two dialogue 
partners for Harak's discussion. 

Lauritzen, Paul. Religious Belief and Emotional Transformation: A Light in the 
Heart. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1992. 

"This work is premised on the belief that we must recover the theoretical 
significance of emotions in moral life and that this task is especially 
important for religious ethicists who wish to understand how religious faith 
can transform moral experience. One of the fundamental convictions 
informing this work is that a carefiil examination of our emotions and of their 
relation to religious faith helps to account for the power of a religious vision 
of the world to bring out dramatic moral transformations." p. 13. Lauritzen 
is Professor of Religious Ethics at John Carroll University. 

Milhaven, J. Giles. Good Anger: We Love More Than We Think We Do. Kansas 
City: Sheed and Ward, 1989. 

Midgeley, Mary. Heart and Mind, the Varieties of Moral Experience. New York: 
St. Martin's Press, 1981. 

Discussed by Mary Douglas in her review essay "Morality and Culture" 
Ethics 93 i\9S3):7S6-79l. 



448 

Moore, Mary Elizabeth. Teaching from the Heart: Theology and Educational 
Method. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991. 

Argues for an organic approach to religious, moral, and theological 
education. 

O'Connell, Timothy E. Making Disciples: A Handbook of Christian Moral 
Formation. New York: Crossroad, 1998. 

Addresses from theological, psychological, and sociological perspectives the 
question of how people come to embody Christian values and the 
implications for the Church and its ministry. O'Connell devotes special 
attention to the role of narrative and imagination in the moral formation of 
the Christian disciple. O'Connell is Professor of Christian Ethics in the 
Institute of Pastoral Studies at Loyola University, Chicago, 

Oppenheim, Frank M., S.J., ed. The Reasoning Heart: Toward A North American 
Theology. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1986. 

Essays, five of which appeared originally in Theological Studies, which come 
from the John Courtney Murray Writers' Group, whose aim is to develop a 
theology which is distinctively North American by using, among other 
aspects, resources from American philosophy and philosophical theology in 
order to contribute an indigenous perspective on the interpretation of 
religious experience and religious feelings within American culture. 

Shelton, Charles M., S.J. Morality of the Heart: A Psychology for the Christian 
Moral Life. New York: Crossroads, 1990. 

Presents the thinking of leading developmental psychologists such as 
Hoffinan, Kohlberg, Hann, and Gilligan, along with aspects of psychoanalytic 
theory, the cognitive sciences, theology and the arts. The "heart" is used as 
the central and unifying metaphor for morality. Shelton develops his theory, 
first from psychology and analyses of Melville's Billy Budd and the recent 
movie, Rainman, and secondly from Christian experience such as the Parable 
of the Good Samaritan, Paul, and the description of Jesus in Hebrews. 

Walsh, Michael J. The Heart of Christ in the Writings in Karl Rahner: An 
Investigation of Its Christological Foundation as an Example of the 
Relationship between Theology and Spirituality. Analecta Gregoriana, 209. 
Roma: University Gregoriana Editrice, 1977. 

Doctoral dissertation done under Robert Faricy, S.J. 



449 

Webster, Douglas D. Choices of the Heart: Christian Ethics for Today. Grand 
Rapids: Zondervan, 1990. 

Modem America has lost its ability to relate ethics to everyday life. Extreme 
individualism has led to a lack of moral structures. According to Webster, 
the solution is to educate the heart. 



Religion & Morality, Worship, Prayer, Sacraments & Ethics 

Articles on Religion and Morality 

Carney, Frederick S. "On Frankena and Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 3 (1975): 7-26. 

One of three articles focusing on the religious ethics of William Frankena. 

Christiansen, Drew, S.J. "Faith's Adventure: An Ovendew." In The Reasoning 
Heart: Toward a North American Theology, 1-21. Edited by Frank M. 
Oppenheim, S.J. Washington, D.C.: GeorgetowTi University Press, 1986. 

Synoptic introduction to a group of essays, five of which appeared originally 
in Theological Studies, which come from the John Courtney Murray Writers' 
Group, whose aim is to develop a theology which is distinctively North 
American by using, among other aspects, resources from American 
philosophy and philosophical theology in order to contribute an indigenous 
perspective on the interpretation of religious experience and religious feelings 
within American culture. 

Clayton, John. "Religions and Rights: Local Values and Universal Declarations." In 
Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, ed. 
AbduUahi A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. 
Vroom, 259-66. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1 995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm 
B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

Dupre, Louis. "Secular Morality and Sacred Obligation." In Riding Time Like a 
River: The Catholic Moral Tradition Since Vatican II, 47-57. Edited by 
William J. O'Brien. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

Evans, Donald. "Does Religious Faith Conflict with Moral Freedom?" In Religion 
and Morality: A Collection of Essays, 348-392. Edited by Gene Outka and 
John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1973. 

Fowl, Stephen E. "Could Horace Talk with the Hebrews? Translatability and Moral 
Disagreement in Maclntyre and Stout." Journal of Religious Ethics 19 
(1991): 1-20. 

Frank, Richard. "Moral Obligation in Classical Muslim Theology." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 11 (1983): 204-223. 



452 

Discusses what might be termed the "specificity" of Muslim ethics, in that 
according to the theology of the Basrian Mu'tazilites, God "created mankind 
as autonomous moral agents precisely with the purpose of rewarding them in 
a future life in a way that proportionately exceeds whatever in strict justice 
they might deserve because of their having done, either entirely or on 
balance, what is good and avoided what is bad. It is for this end, indeed, that 
God has sent prophets: in order to inform us of the conditions of the life to 
come and to impose upon us certain additional obligations not specifically 
deducible Irom the basic ethical principles by autonomous reason. 
Revelation, that is, gives men further incentives to do what is fundamentally 
right and imposes duties the fulfillment of which fosters the habit of right 
action." p. 207. 

Frankena, William K. "Is Morality Logically Dependent on Religion?" In Religion 
and Morality: A Collection of Essays, 295-317. Edited by Gene Outka and 
John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1973. 

Gamwell, Franklin I. "Moral Realism and Religion." The Journal of Religion 73 
(1993): 475-495. 

One of the articles coming out of the D.R. Sharpe Centeimial Conference on 
Realism and Responsibility in Contemporary Ethics. Gamwell teaches at the 
University of Chicago Divinity School. 

. "Theism and Public Ideals." In Issues of Justice: Social Sources and 



Religious Meanings, 75-90. Edited by Warren R, Copeland and Roger D. 
Hatch. Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1988. 

Gort, Jerald D. "The Christian Ecumenical Reception of Human Rights." In Human 
Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, ed. AbduUahi A. An- 
Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom, 203-28. 
Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans 
Publishing Company, 1995. 

Gustafson, James M. "Religion and Morality from the Perspective of Theology." In 
Religion and Morality: A Collection of Essays, 125-154. Edited by Gene 
Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 
1973. 

Gustafson is an ordained minister in the United Church of Christ, and retired 
as the Henry R. Luce Professor of Humanities and Comparative Studies at 
Emory University. Previously he taught at Yale and the University of 



453 

Chicago. He has studied at the Chicago Theological Seminary, University of 
Chicago, and his Ph.D. is from Yale (1955), done under H. Richard Niebuhr, 

Hare, R.M. "The Simple Believer." In Religion and Morality: A Collection of 
Essays, 393-427. Edited by Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden 
City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1973. 

John Paul II, Pope. Fides et Ratio. Encyclical Letter on Faith and Reason. 1998. 
http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG02 1 6/ INDEX.HTM 

Pope John Paul IPs 1998 Encyclical on the relation between faith and reason 
as it is treated in philosophy and theology in the context of Christian faith. 
Pope John Paul II reigned from October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 

Johnstone, Brian V., C.Ss.R. "Faith and Reason in Morals: A Polyphony of 
Traditions." Studia Moralia 35 (1997): 261-282. 

Knitter, Paul F. "World Religions: A Cause and Cure of Global Ethical Confusion." 
In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion 
in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 258-274. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Lauritzen, Paul. "Emotions and Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 15 
(1988): 307-324. 

Argues that the traditional dichotomy between reason and emotion should be 
abandoned, and that developing an account of emotions that attends to their 
cognitive structure can pave the way for a reassessment of the role emotions 
play in efforts to live morally. Lauritzen is Professor of Religious Ethics at 
John Carroll University. 

Lecaldano, Eugenio. "Principi e basi razionali di un'etica non-religiosa." In Problemi 
di etica: fondazione, norme, orientamenti, 21-68. A cura di Enrico Berti. 
Padova: Fondazione Lanza-Gregoriana, 1990. 

Little, David, and Tvtdss, Sumner B, Jr. "Basic Terms in the Study of Religious 
Ethics." In Religion and Morality: A Collection of Essays, 35-77. Edited by 
Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 
1973. 



454 

Mackey, James P. "Moral Values as Religious Absolutes." In Philosophy, Religion 
and the Spiritual Life, 145-160. Edited by Michael McGhee. New York: 
Cambridge University Press, 1992. 

Magill, Gerard. "Imaginative Moral Discernment: Newman on the Tension between 
Reason and Religion." The Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 493-512. 

Magill teaches theology at St. Louis University. 

McCarthy, Gerald. "Meaning, Morals and the Existence of God." Horizons 9 
(1982): 288-301. 

Examines the arguments of Schubert Ogden and Hans Kting for the existence 
of God and the relation of such a belief to moral choices. This argument is 
then evaluated in light of some analytic philosophers, such as Baier, Nielsen, 
and Ayer. 

McFarland, H. Neill. "Religion and Ethnicity." Shingaku-Kenkyu AQ QAzxch. 1993): 
1-9. 

McFarland is Professor Emeritus of the History of Religions at Southern 
Methodist University. 

McGhee, Michael. "Facing Truths: Ethics and the Spiritual Life." In Philosophy, 
Religion and the Spiritual Life, 229-246. Edited by Michael McGhee. New 
York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 

Menzel, Paul T. "Divine Grace and Love: Continuing Trouble for a Logically Non- 
dependent Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1 975): 255-270. 

Mouw, Richard J. "Religious Conviction and Public Civility." Chapter 7 in Ethics, 
Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 95- 
109. Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992. 

Murdoch, Iris. "On 'God' and 'Good'. In The Anatomy of Knowledge. Edited by 
Marjorie Grene. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press; London: 
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969. 

Also foimd in Revisions: Changing Perspectives in Moral Philosophy, 68-91. 
Edited by Stanley M. Hauen\'as and Alasdair Maclntyre. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 



455 

O'Donovan, Oliver. "How Can Theology Be Moral?" Journal of Religious Ethics 
17(1989): 81-94. 

Discusses the dialectic between theology and moral thought. O'Donovan is 
an Evangelical Anglican ethician and Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral 
Theology and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. 

Reinders, Johannes S. "Human Rights from the Perspective of a Narrow Conception 
of Religious Morality." In Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy 
Relationship?, ed. Abdullahi A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and 
Hendrik M. Vroom, 3-23 . Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1 995 ; Grand Rapids, 
MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

Sagi, Avi, and Daniel Statman. "Divine Command Morality and Jewish Tradition." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 23, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 39-67. 

Tinder, Glenn. "Can We Be Good Without God?: On the political meaning of 
Christianity." The Atlantic (December, 1989): 68-85. 

Tinder is professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts- 
Boston. 

Vroom, Hendrik M. "Religious Ways of Life and Human Rights." In Human Rights 
and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship? , ed. Abdullahi A. An-Na'im, 
Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom, 24-42. Amsterdam: 
Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 
Company, 1995. 

Walter, James J. "The Relation between Faith and Morality: Sources for Christian 
Ethics." Horizons 9 (1982): 251-270. 

Outlines a a spectrum of six ways of relating faith and morality used by 
various theologians, and follows this with the author's own proposal. Walter 
was at this writing Professor of Christian Ethics at Loyola University, 
Chicago and now is professor of bioethics at Loyola Marymount University 
in Los Angeles. 

Weithman, Paul J. "Rawlsian Liberalism and the Privatization of Religion: Three 
Theological Objections Considered." Journal of Religious Ethics 22 ( 1 994): 
3-28. 

See also the following responses: Timothy P. Jackson, "Love in a Liberal 
Society: A Response to Paul J. Weithman," Journal of Religious Ethics 22 



456 

(1 994): 29-38; David Hollenbach, S.J., "Public Reason/Private Religion?: A 
Response to Paul J. Weithman," Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1994): 39- 
46; and John Langan, S.J., "Overcoming the Divisiveness of Religion: A 
Response to Paul J. Weithman," Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1994): 47- 
52. 

. "Taking Rites Seriously." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 75 (1 994): 272-94. 

Discusses Ravi^ls' theory and the role of religion in arguments of public 
reason. 

Yoon, Ho- Jin. "The Role of Religion in the Redefinition of Ethics." In The World 
Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics and 
Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 
208-215. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 
1988, 



Books on Religion and Morality 

Audi, Robert, and Wainwright, William J., eds. Rationality, Religious Belief, and 
Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion. Ithaca: 
Cornell University Press, 1986. 

Reviewed by Charles W. Allen in Journal of Religion 69 (1989): 569-570. 

Battin, Margaret P. Ethics in the Sanctuary: Examining the Practices of Organized 
Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. 

Discusses several issues of what Battin terms "Ecclesioethics," namely, 
confidentiality (connected with the confession of sin), informed consent 
(cormected with faith healing, avoidance of medical care, etc.), and 
paternalism (which arises in the search for converts). Battin teaches 
philosophy at the University of Utah. Reviewed by Meredith B. Handspicker 
in Theology Today 48 (1991): 228-232. 

Beaty, Michael, Fisher, Carlton, and Nelson, Mark, eds. Christian Theism and 
Moral Philosophy Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1998. 

Essays which address the role of Christian faith in moral philosophy, grouped 
in three sections: The Metaphysics of Morals; The Epistemology of Ethics; 
and The Ethics of Love. Contributors include Ralph Mclnemy, Marilyn 



457 

McCord Adams, John Howard Yoder, and Stanley Hauerwas and Charles 
Pinches. 

Bellah, Robert, et al. The Good Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 . 

A follow up on the authors' earlier book. Habits of the Heart, this book 
argues for taking greater communal responsibility for our economic and 
political institutions, which in turn will increase our shared understanding of 
the common good and therefore the subsequent enrichment of democratic 
institutions, etc. 

. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. 

Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. 

In German: Gewohnheiten des Herzens. Individualismus und Gemeinsinn 
in der amerikanischen Gesellschaft. Koln, 1987. 

Blasi, Anthony J. Moral Conflict and Christian Religion. New York: Peter Lang, 
1988. 

Phenomenological approach. Reviewed by Cynthia EUer in Journal of the 
American Academy of Religion 59 (1991): 394-396. 

Brown, Robert McAfee. Spirituality and Liberation: Faith, Social Issues and the 
Christian. Hodder, 1989. 

Analyses the reasons for the separation of religious and political concerns, 
and discusses different ways of holding them in balance. 

Chamberlain, Paul. Can We Be Good Without God?: A Conversation About Truth, 
Morality, Culture and a Few Other Things That Matter. Downers Grove, IL: 
InterVarsity Press, 1996. 

Cochran, Thomas C. Challenges to American Values: Society, Business and 
Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. 

Dore, C. Moral Scepticism. Library of Philosophy and Religion. New York: 
Macmillan, 1991. 

Argues that God exists, that he has pro and con attitudes towards human 
behavior and that these attitudes are constitutive of moral goodness and 
badness. 



458 

Elias, John L. Moral Education: Secular and Religious. Malabar FL: Robert E. 
Krieger, 1989. 

Fallon, Timothy P. S.J., and Riley, Philip Boo, eds. Religion and Culture: Essays in 
Honor of Bernard Lonergan, SJ.. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987. 

Essays from a March, 1984 symposium on Religion and Culture held at the 
University of Santa Clara. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. Christian Ethics in a Secular Arena. Translated by Bernard Hoose 
and Brian McNeil. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, and 
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana in una societa secolorizzata. Casale 
Monferrato: Piemme, 1984. 

. Christian Morality: The Word Became Flesh. Translated by Brian McNeil. 

Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press; Dublin: Gill and 
Macmillan, 1987. 

Italian translation: // Verbosifacarne; teologia morale. Casale Monferrato: 
Piemme, 1989. 

Gamwell, Franklin. The Divine Good: Modern Moral Theory and the Necessity of 
God. Foreword by David Tracy. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990. 

Gamwell's basic thesis is that a theistic conviction, in the form of necessary 
belief in a religious metaphysical telos or 'divine good' is needed to ground 
moral theory. Gamwell admits that this claim runs counter to the dominant 
Kantian consensus that ethics cannot be theistic. Includes a chapter critiquing 
the "Empirical Teleology" of Alasdair Maclntyre. Reviewed by Anthony 
Battaglia in Horizons 20 (1993): 372-374; by Ronald M. Green in 
Theological Studies 52 (1991): 763-765; and by Paul J. Philibert, O.P. in 
America (18 April 1992): 326-329. Gamwell teaches at the University of 
Chicago Divinity School. 

Gelpi, Donald L., S.J., ed. Beyond Individualism: Toward a Retrieval of Moral 
Discourse in America. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. 

Graham, Gordon. The Idea of Christian Charity: A Critique of Contemporary 
Conceptions. Library of Religious Philosophy, 3. Notre Dame: University 
of Notre Dame Press, 1990. 



459 

According to Graham no code of values in society can survive without the 
support of a religious context. He establishes a case for liberalism and the 
concomitant separation of Church and State, and argues that modem 
civilization cannot prosper witliout Christianity. Graham is Reader in Moral 
Philosophy at the University of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. 

. Living the Good Life: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy. New York: 

Paragon House, 1990. 

Discusses the dialectical development of moral philosophy through a series 
of ethical theories seen as "stages": egoism, hedonism, eudaimonism, 
existentialism, Kantianism, utilitarianism. Each theory is presented as a foil 
for the next, and the concluding chapter considers religion as a possible final 
answer. 

Green, Ronald M. Religion and Moral Reason: A New Method for Comparative 
Study. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. 

Reviewed by Philip E. Devenish in Journal of Religion 69 (1 989): 580-581 . 

, Religious Reason: The Rational and Moral Basis of Religious Belief. Oxford: 

Oxford University Press, 1978. 

Greenawalt, Kent. Conflicts of Law and Morality. Clarendon Law Series. Oxford: 
Oxofrd University Press, 1987. 

. Religious Convictions and Political Choice. Oxford: Oxford University 

Press, 1987. 

Considers the question of the extent to which Americans properly rely on 
their religious beliefs when they make and defend their political positions, 
and also treats the issue of the compatibility of those religious convictions 
with the processes of a liberal democracy. Concrete issues such as abortion 
and animal rights are treated to illustrate the religious and secular bases for 
decisions. Greenawalt teaches at Columbia. 

Hallett, Garth L., S.J. Christian Moral Reasoning: An Analytic Guide. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

Hallett seeks to answer the question that if Christians wish to be both 
consistent and true to their past, then what criterion of right and wrong should 
they adopt? Uses both theological and analytic currents of thought. Hallet 
is professor of philosophy at St. Louis University. 



460 

Hartt, Julian N., Hart, Ray L., and Scharlemann, Robert P. The Critique of 
Modernity: Theological Reflections on Contemporary Culture. 
Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986. 

Hauerwas, Stanley; Nancy Murphy, and Mark Nation, eds. Theology Without 
Foundations: Religious Practice and the Future of Theological Truth, 
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994. 

Essays develop the notion of theological and ethical claims as emerging 
naturally out of specific worship communities, while calling into question the 
foundationalist assumption that all knowledge needs to be founded on 
universally acceptable categories of reason and experience. 

Hebblethwaite, Brian. Ethics and Religion in a Pluralistic Age. Hemdon VA: T&T 
Clark, 1997. 

Hebblethwaite addresses two major themes: the interconnection of 
Christian ethics and doctrine, and the interconnection of Christian 
ethics and the wider history of religions. In both cases, Brian 
Hebblethwaite contends that the distinctiveness of Christian ethics 
can only be understood and appreciated against a wider background. 
He explores the strengths and weaknesses of the different religions' 
contributions to the overcoming of evil, and reveals the 
distinctiveness of the pluriform and complex nature of Christian 
ethics in its relationships with both the major world faiths and 
contemporary humanism. 

Helm, Paul, ed. Divine Commands and Morality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
1981. 

Kenny, Anthony. Reason and Religion: Essays in Philosophical Theology. Oxford: 
Basil Blackwell, 1987. 

Reviewed by David Burrell in Journal of Religion 69 (1989): 570-571 . 

Lauritzen, Paul. Religious Belief and Emotional Transformation. Lewisburg: 
Bucknell University Press, 1992. 

Lauritzen is Professor of Religious Ethics at John Carroll University. 

Little, David, and Twiss, Sumner B, Jr. Comparative Religious Ethics. New York: 
Harper & Row, 1978. 



461 

Maclagen, W.G. The Theological Frontier of Ethics: An Essay based on the Edward 
Cadbury Lectures in the University of Birmingham, 1955-1956. London: 
Allen &Unwin, 1961. 

MacNamara, Vincent. Faith and Ethics. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan; and 
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985. 

Good theological discussion of the major developments in the renewal of 
Roman Catholic moral theology from the end of the 19th century up to the 
present. Treats especially well the contemporary debate between the "Moral 
Autonomy School" (e.g. Alfons Auer, Josef Fuchs, Bruno Schiiiler, etc.) and 
the "Faith Ethic School ([Glaubensethik], e.g. Joseph Ratzinger, Heinz 
Schurmarm, etc.). 

Markham, Ian S. Plurality and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics. 
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 

Discusses key issues raised by plurality and secularism in complex modem 
societies and critiques some of the British attempts to come to terms with 
plurality-particularly the so-called Christendom Group. Contrasted with this 
group Markham then praises the "public philosophy" of Richard John 
Neuhaus as a better approach to meeting the challenges of pluralism in 
secular society. Markham's overall thesis is that "Christian ethics and 
theological vision have something distinctive and rational to say which goes 
beyond the contentions of secular plurality" (p. x). Reviewed by James T. 
Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 56 (1995): 805-807. Markham is 
Lecturer in Theology at the University of Exeter. This is his first book. 

McCarthy, Gerald D., ed. The Ethics of Belief Debate. American Academy of 
Religion Academy Series, 41. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986. 

McGhee, Michael, ed. Philosophy, Religion and the Spiritual Life. Royal Institute 
of Philosophy Supplement, 32. New York: Cambridge University Press, 
1992. 

Meilaender, Gilbert C. Faith and Faithfulness: Basic Themes in Christian Ethics. 
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1991. 

Meilaender focuses on the particular shape of the Christian life as it pertains 
to the commitments of believers and to the way in which those commitments 
form moral vision. Reviewed by Edward Vacek, S.J. in Theological Studies 
53 (1992): 789. Meilaender is Professor of Religion at Oberlin College. 



462 

, Friendship: A Study in Theological Ethics. Revisions. Notre Dame: 

University of Notre Dame, 1981. 

Investigates the significance for Christian ethics of the tension between 
philia, the bond of special preference, and agape, the notion of universal 
love, which in Christian thought is likened to the attitude of the Heavenly 
Father who makes his rain fall on the just and unjust. 

. The Limits of Love. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 

1987. 

Chapters divided in four sections: Ethics and Theology; The Beginning of 
Life (Abortion, In-vitro Fertilization, etc.); The End of Life (Euthanasia, 
Withdrawal of Nutrition and Hydration, etc.); and Community (Marital and 
Political). Reviewed by Kevin Kelly in Heythrop Journal 32 (1991): 274- 
276. 

Milbank, John. Theology and Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason. Oxford: Basil 
Biackwell, 1990. 

Claims to be a post-modem Christian ethician. Milbank treats Alasdair 
Maclntyre in Chapter 12, "Difference of Virtue, Virtue of Difference." 
Reviewed by Ian Markham in First Things (January 1992): 46-48. 

Mitchell, Basil. How To Play Theological Ping-Pong: Essays on Faith and Reason. 
Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1991. 

Discusses theological argumentation, the possibility of a distinctive Christian 
ethics, the place of symbols in Christianity, and contemporary challenges to 
Christian apologetics. Mitchell teaches philosophy at Oxford. 

. The Justification of Religious Belief. London: Macmillan, 1973; reprinted.. 

New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. 

. Law, Morality, and Religion in a Secular Society. Oxford: Oxford University 

Press, 1967, 1970. 

. Morality: Religious and Secular: The Dilemma of Traditional Conscience. 

Oxford: Clarendon, 1989. 

. The Philosophy of Religion. Oxford Readings In Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford 

University Press, 1971. 



463 

Mooney, Christopher, S.J. Boundaries Dimly Perceived: Law, Religion, Education 
and the Common Good. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1 990. 

. Public Virtue: Law and the Social Character of Religion. Notre Dame: 

University of Notre Dame Press, 1986. 

Murdoch, fris. The Sovereignty of Good. New York: Schocken Books, 1971. 

Musschenga, Bert, ed. Does Religion Matter Morally?: A Critical Reappraisal of the 
Thesis of Morality's Independence from Religion. Kampen, The Netherlands: 
Kok Pharos Publishing House, 1996. 

Nielsen, Kai. Ethics Without God. London: Pemberton Books, 1973. 

Nielsen is professor of philosophy at the University of Calgary, Alberta. 

Oppenheim, Frank M., S.J., ed. The Reasoning Heart: Toward A North American 
Theology. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1986. 

Essays, five of which appeared originally in Theological Studies, which come 
from the John Courtney Murray Writers' Group, whose aim is to develop a 
theology which is distinctively North American by using, among other 
aspects, resources from American philosophy and philosophical theology in 
order to contribute an indigenous perspective on the interpretation of 
religious experience and religious feelings v^thin American culture. 

Outka, Gene and Reeder, John P., Jr., eds. Religion and Morality: A Collection of 
Essays. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1973. 

Contributions from Robert Merrihew Adams, K.O.L. Burridge, Eric D'Arcy, 
Donald Evans, William K. Frankena, James M. Gustafson, R.M. Hare, Louis 
Jacobs, Godfrey Lienhardt, David Little, Gene Outka, John P. Reeder, Jr., and 
Sumner B. Twiss, Jr. 

Perry, Michael J. Love and Power: The Role of Religion and Morality in American 
Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. 

Perry argues that religiously grounded moral conviction does have a 
legitimate role to play public deliberation on contested issues. Conceived as 
a sequel to Perry's Morality, Politics and Law. Perry teaches at the 
Northwestern University School of Law. 

. Morality, Politics, and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. 



464 

Addresses the proper relation of moral and religious belief to politics and 
law, especially constitutional law. Perry discusses whether a common moral 
foundation exists that is capable of providing, in a diverse social system, 
consistent guidelines for handling divisive political, policy, religious and 
constitutional disputes. 

Plantinga, Alvin, and Wolterstorfif, Nicholas, eds. Faith and Rationality: Reason 
and Belief in God. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

Post, Stephen G. A Theory of Agape: On the Meaning of Christian Love. Cranbiuy 
NJ: Bucknell University Press, 1990. 

Quinn, Philip L. Divine Commands and Moral Requirements. Clarendon Library of 
Logic and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. 

Ramsey, Ian T., ed. Christian Ethics and Contemporary Philosophy. London: SCM 
Press, 1966. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana efilosqfia contemporanea. Bologna: EDB, 
1971. 

Runzo, Joseph, ed. Ethics, Religion, and the Good Society: New Directions in a 
Pluralistic World. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992? 

Sacks, Jonathan. The Persistence of Faith, Religion, Morality and Society in a 
Secular Age. The Reith Lectures, 1990. London, 1991. 

Sacks is Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British 
Commonwealth and former Principal of Jews' College, London. 

Schuller, Bruno, S.J. Der menschliche Mensch. Aufsdtze zur Metaethik und zur 
Sprache der Moral. Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982. 

In English: The Wholly Human. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University 
Press, 1985. 

Italian translation: L'uomo veramente uomo. La dimensione teologica 
dell'etica nella dimensione etica dell'uomo. CoUectio-Etica, 3. A cura di S. 
Privitera. Palermo: Edi Oftes, 1987. 

Italian translation of two books by Schtiller: Die Begriindung sitlicher 
Urteile. Typen ethischer Argumentation in der Moraltheologie, (Diisseldorf: 
Patmos Verlag, 1 980), and Der menschliche Mensch. Aufsdtze zur Metaethik 



465 

und zur Sprache der Moral, (Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982). Reviewed 
by Domenico Capone, C.Ss.R. in Studia Moralia 28 (1990): 648-652. 

Stout, Jeffrey. Ethics After Babel: The Languages of Morals and Their Discontents. 
Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 1988. 

Stout is critiqued by Alasdair Maclntyre in the latter's article, "The 
Privatization of Good: An Inaugural Lecture" The Review of Politics 52 
(1990): 344-361. 

See a "Review Symposium on Ethics After Babel" in Theology Today 66 
(1 989). See also a review by Allen D. Verhey which covers The Flight from 
Authority &s well, Calvin TheologicalJournal 25 (1990): 262-266. 

. The Flight from Authority: Religion, Morality and the Quest for Autonomy. 

Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981. 

Reviewed by Robin Lovin in Journal of Religion 65 (1985): 244-249. See 
also a review by Allen D. Verhey which covers Ethics after Babel as well, 
Calvin TheologicalJournal 25 (1990): 262-266. 

Tinder, Glenn. The Political Meaning of Christianity: An Interpretation. Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989. 

Tinder, a professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts- 
Boston, treats what he calls the "prophetic stance" of Christianity as it faces 
faith issues which have a public dimension. Tinder seeks to define a 
normative Christian stance, as well as to delineate some practical 
implications which would flow from such a position. Tinder's work has a 
strong Calvinist resonance, with echoes of Reinhold Niebuhr. Negatively 
reviewed by Walter Brueggemann in Theology Today 47 (1991): 436-440. 
Brueggemann, besides disagreeing with Tinder's conclusions, holds that 
Tinder presents an argument "at every turn based in a misreading of Scripture 
and tradition." (p. 436). Brueggemann concludes that Tinder's book "may be 
simply a thinly disguised ideological statement on behalf of political 
reactionism. Tinder is dismissive of almost any thinking or action that 
affirms social possibility." (p. 440). Positively reviewed by John Navone, 
S.J., "Glenn Tinder's Prophetic Spirituality." Milltown Studies 28 (1991): 
132-150. 

Trembath, Kern Robert. Divine Revelation: Our Moral Relation with God. Oxford: 
Oxford University Press, 1 99 1 . 



466 

According to Trembath, the grounding of human nature itself in God 
constitutes the fundamental revelation of the self-transcending God, which 
accounts both for how we can hear God's word on the one hand, and how we 
are constituted as self-transcending beings on the other. Until this grounding 
is accounted for, all speculations about real or alleged divine revelations are 
critically presumptuous. Trembath locates the moralness of human beings 
particularly in their capacities for knowing, loving, and hoping (which he sees 
as the historical expression of the Triune God) and thus in the fundamental 
communitarianess of human beings, which he sees as the expression of the 
One God. Trembath worked at the University of Notre Dame and now is on 
the administrative staff of the University of San Francisco. 

Ward, Keith. Ethics and Christianity. Muirhead Library of Philosophy. London: 
Allen & Unwin; New York: Humanities Press, 1970. 

Winter, Gibson. Community and Spiritual Transformation: Religion and Politics in 
a Communal Age. New York: Crossroad, 1990. 

Winter, who teaches social ethics at Temple University, maintains that 
communal rebuilding is one of the central components of both the powerful 
religious and political forces now operative in the world. The book is 
organized into six chapters which treat: 1) communal quality of religious 
movements which now interact with political bodies; 2) the communal reality 
of personal and interpersonal life, with special reference to the abortion 
debate; 3) moral aspects of the interpersonal life; 4) organization of work in 
institutions which either support or damage life; 5) movement from the 
minimal state of the market era to democratic communalism; and 6) radical 
transformations in beliefs and practices now emerging. 

Articles on Ethics, Prayer, Liturgy, Worship and Sacraments 

AA.VV. "Symposium: The Revisioning of Worship." Theology Today 48 (1991): 
6-55. 

Three articles by Nicholas Wolterstorff, John Howard Yoder, and Geoffrey 
Wainvmght, plus three responses to WolterstorfFs article. 

Bergant,Dianne, C.S.A. "Liturgy and Scripture: Creating a New World." ]n Liturgy 
andSocialJustice: Celebrating Rites, Proclaiming Rights, 12-26. Edited by 
Edward M. Grosz. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 



467 

Paper given at the 1988 National Meeting of the Federation of Diocesan 
Liturgical Commissions held in San Diego, California. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Spirituality USA: Surveying the Scene." In Living 
Theology: the Intersection of Culture, Spirituality, and Theology in Asia and 
the Pacific, 4-12. Edited by Jose Mario C. Francisco, S.J. Manila: Jesuit 
Conference of East Asia and Oceania, 2001. 

Originally given as a paper presented to the JCEAO Theological Study Week, 
July 23-27, 2001, East Asian Pastoral Institute (EAPI),Quezon City, 
Philippines. 

Clark, Peter A., S.J. "The Transition betw^een Ending Medical Treatment and 
Beginning Palliative Care: The Need for a Ritual Response," Worship 72 
(July 1998): 345-354. 

Proposes a "Rite of Christian Commitment to the Terminally 111." Clark 
holds the John McShain Chair in Ethics at St. Joseph's University, 
Philadelphia. 

Dallen, James. "Liturgy and Justice for All." Worship 65 (1991): 290-306. 

Dallen's thesis is the "the church must seek both liturgy and justice for all. 
Until the instances of discrimination and injustice are removed and until the 
eucharist is celebrated by the whole church, the correlation of liturgy and 
justice vAW not be apparent nor will the liturgy moves us to work for justice." 
p. 303. 

Dudley, Martin, and Pinnock, Jill. "Rites of Penance and Reconciliation." In 
Confession and Absolution, 181-205. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

Compares different Christian liturgies of Penance. One of eleven essays 
covering aspects of the Christian tradition, contemporary pastoral practice, 
and the liturgies of penance. 

Eid, Volker. "Sakramente imd christliches Ethos. Skizze zu einem Thema des 
Problems Glaube und Moral." Studia Moralia 15 (1977): 139-153. 

Published on the occasion of the Festschrift given to Haring in this volume 
of Studia Moralia. 



468 

Farreil, Derraot. "The Dogmatic Foundations of Bernard HSring's Thought on 
Christian Morality as a Sacramental Way of Life." STD Dissertation at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1988. 

Dissertation directed by Philip Rosato, S.J. 

Furnish, Victor Paul. "A Paradigm for Ethics in First Corinthians." Interpretation 
44 (1990): 145-157. 

See especially the section on / Corinthians 11:17-34: "When the more 
prosperous ignore and demean their poorer sisters and brothers, they are 
violating 'the body and blood of the Lord' (vs. 27), since their conduct does 
not in fact manifest the gracious, saving powder of the cross. Moreover, they 
are violating their own identity as 'the body' of Christ (v. 29; note v. 22, 'Or 
do you despise God's church?')." p. 153. 

Guroian, 'V^igen. "Bible and Ethics: An Ecclesial and Liturgical hiterpretation." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 18 (1990): 129-157. 

Focuses on the uses of the Bible in the Orthodox tradition and analyzes the 
use of the beatitudes in the Byzantine liturgy, John Chrysostom's homiletic 
presentation of the story of Lazarus and the Rich Man, and Paul's use of 
Scripture for ethical instruction in the contexts of Christian baptism and 
eucharist. A revised version of this article appears under the title "The Bible 
in Orthodox Ethics" as chapter 3 in Guroian's Ethics after Christendom: 
Toward an Ecclesial Christian Ethic, 53-80. Grand Rapids: William B. 
Eerdmans, 1994. Guroian teaches theology and ethics at Loyola College in 
Baltimore. 

_. "Toward Ecology as an Ecclesial Event: Orthodox Theology and Ecological 

Ethics." Communio 18 (1991): 89-110. 

A revised version of this article appears under the title "Ecological Ethics: An 
Ecclesial Event" as chapter 7 in Guroian's Ethics after Christendom: Toward 
an Ecclesial Christian Ethic, 155-174. GrandRapids: William B. Eerdmans, 
1994. 

. "Tradition and Ethics: Prospects in a Liberal Society." Modern Theology 7 

(1991): 205-224. 

The post-modem crisis involves a crisis in Christian ethics as well. 
Considers the link between ritual (as seen in Faulkner's stories) and liturgy 
(as in the Orthodox tradition and New Testament teaching in Colossians), 



469 

tradition and ethics. Guroian holds that Christian ethics must have ecclesial 
locations or else it cannot exist in an integral fashion. A revised version of 
this article appears as chapter 2 in Guroian's Ethics after Christendom: 
Toward an Ecclesial Christian Ethic, 29-52. Grand Rapids: William B. 
Eerdmans, 1994. 

, "Seeing Worship as Ethics: An Orthodox Perspective." Journal of Religious 

Ethics 13 (195): 332-359. 

Also in Guroian's Incarnate Love: Essays in Orthodox Ethics, 51-78. Notre 
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1987. 

Katz, Stephen. "Mysticism and Ethics in the Western Mystical Tradition." Religious 
Studies 28(1992): 401-423. 

Keating, James. "Listening to Christ's Heart: Moral Theology and Spirituality in 
Dialogue." Milltown Studies 39 (1997): 48-65. 

Discusses the theme of devotion to the heart of Christ in relation to formation 
of conscience and character. Keating is associate professor of moral theology 
at the Pontifical College Josephinum in Ohio. 

. "Prayer and Ethics in the Thought of Hans Urs von Balthasar." Irish 

Theological Quarterly 62 (1/1996): 29-37. 

Kilmartin, Edward J., S.J. "The Sacrifice of Thanksgiving and Social Justice." In 
Liturgy and SocialJustice, 53-71. Edited by Mark Searle. Collegeviile: The 
Liturgical Press, 1980. 

Koemke, Theresa F. "Toward an Ethics of Liturgical Behavior." Worship 66 (1 992): 
25-38. 

Sr. Koemke teaches theology at Notre Dame. 

La Barge, Joseph. "Economic Systems and the Sacramental Imagination." In 
Religion and Economic Ethics, 151-171. The Armual Publication of the 
College Theology Society, 31 (1985). Edited by Joseph F. Glower. Lanham 
MD: University Press of America, 1990. 

1 985 meeting, under the theme of Religion, Economics and the Social Order, 
was held at Salve Regina College in Newport, RI. 



470 

Lamb, Matthew L. "Christian Spirituality and Social Justice." Horizons 10 (1983): 
32-49. 

LeClerq, Jean. "The Divine Office and lecfio D/vma," Concilium 158 (1982): 31- 
37. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this issue. 

Martinez-Morales, Victor, S.J. "Accesso a una lectura etico-social del mistero 
eucaristico en la teologia post-conciliar." S.T.D. Disseration, Pontificia 
Universita Gregoriana. Roma, 1991. 

Dissertation done under Philip Rosato. 

McDonagh, Enda. "Morality and Prayer." In Creation and Culture. Studies in 
honour ofT.F. Torrance. Edited by Richard W.A. McKinney. Edinburgh, 
1976. 

. "Morality and Spirituality." Studia Moralia 15 (1977): 121-137. 



Relates morality as human experience to some of the traditional concepts of 
Ascetical and Mystical Theology. Published on the occasion of the 
Festschrift given to Bernard Hiring, C.Ss.R. in this volume of Studia 
Moralia. 

Melina, Livio. "Moral theology and the ecclesial sense: Points for a theological 're- 
dimensioning' of morality." Communio 29 (1992): 67-93. 

According to Melina, moral theology needs a re-dimensioning which would 
reestablish the bonds between moral theology and other key branches of 
theology, specifically Christology, theological anthropology, and 
ecclesiology. Melina argues that the Eucharist is the locus par excellence of 
the moral life, and that a strong trust in, and reliance on the Magisterium is 
the only sure guarantee of following the promptings of the Holy Spirit in the 
moral life. In terms of the specificity of Christian ethics Melina seems to 
recast the issue. No longer does the discussion revolve around the question 
"Is there a specific Christian ethics?" but implicitly, following Melina's view, 
one is led to the conclusion that there is no authentic morality which is not 
rooted in the Catholic Church, and especially in the Eucharist. Melina is 
professor of moral theologyat the John Paul II Institute for Studies of 
Marriage and the Family in Rome. 



471 

O'Keefe, Mark. O.S.B. "Authentic Relationships: Justice, Love and Spirituality." 
New Blackfriars 76 (January 1995): 30-45. 

Offers a reflection on the relational aspects of justice and spirituality with 
regard to a contemporary understanding of Christian love. O'Keefe teaches 
moral theology at the St. Meinrad School of Theology. 

. "Catholic Moral Theology and Christian Spirituality." New Theology Review 

7 (1994): 60-73. 

Argues that "the disciplines of moral theology and spirituality must ground 
their future development in explicit interaction with one another. Failure to 
attend to their relationship will cut them off from their own traditions and fail 
to provide the most authentic guidance to holistic grov^h in Christian living. 
The present study examines the historical relationship of the two disciplines 
up to their current state in the effort to identify useful insights from the past 
and to suggest some challenges for the future [p. 61]." 

. "Fundamental Option and the Three Ways." Studies in Formative Spirituality 

13 (1992): 73-83. 

Discusses the positive contribution the fundamental option theory can make 
to Christian living when presented in relationship to the Three Ways 
(purgative, illuminative, and unitive. 

. "Theosis and the Christian Life: Toward Integrating Roman Catholic Ethics 

and Spirituality." Eglise et Theologie 25(1994): 47-63. 

Peterson, David. "Worship and Ethics in Romans 12." Tyndale Bulletin 44(1993): 
271-288. 

Working against KSsemann's thesis that the mystical tradition of Hellenism 
is the principal inspiration for Paul's thinking, Peterson fleshes out Paul's 
thinking in reference to its theological background in the Hebrew Scriptures 
and development within the body of the Letter itself According to Peterson, 
"the function of the worship terminology in Romans 12:1 is to proclaim the 
possibility of a new kind of service to God and to summon believers to 
respond to God's gracious initiative by the daily offering of themselves, in a 
whole-person commitment" (p. 281). 

Plana, Giannino. "Preghiera sorgente di decisione morale." Parte Terza, Capitolo 
6 in Problemi e prospettive di teologia morale, 245-288. A cura di Tullo 
Goffi. Brescia: Queriniana, 1976. 



472 

Rosato, Philip J., S.J. "Linee fondamentali e sistematiche per una teologia etica del 
culto." Capitolo Primo in Corso di Morale: Volume 5, Liturgia (Etica della 
religiosita), 11-70. A cura di Tulio Goffi e Giannino Piana. Brescia: 
Queriniana, 1986. 

Rosato, who is a dogmatic theologian, describes a theology of sacraments 
emphasizing the connection between liturgy and practice, and proposes the 
anamnetic, epiclectic, and prophetic dimensions to the moral life of the 
Christians. 

Ruffini, Eliseo. "Simbolismo, sacramentalita e stile di vita cristiano." Parte Terza, 
Capitolo 2 in Problemi e prospettive di teologia morale, 289-3 14. A cura di 
Tullo Goffi. Brescia: Queriniana, 1976. 

Russo, Giovanni, S.D.B. "Morale cristiana come liturgia della vita. Spunti di 
teologia sistematica circa il trattato di morale fondamentale." Ephemerides 
Liturgicae 105 (1991): 449-467. 

Russo teaches at the Istituto Teologico S. Tommaso in Messina. 

Searle, Mark, "Liturgy and Social Ethics: An Annotated Bibliography." Studia 
Liturgical! (1991): 220-335. 

Seasoltz, R. Kevin. "Justice and the Eucharist." In Living Bread, Saving Cup: 
Readings on the Eucharist, 305-323. 2nd edition. Edited by R. Kevin 
Seasoltz. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1982. 

Spohn, William C. "The Need for Roots and Wings: Spirituality and Christian 
Ethics." Theology Digest 47 (Winter 2000): 327-340. 

Fifth annual Hemi de Lubac Lecture in Historical Theology delivered at St. 
Louis University 21 March 2000. Christians cannot be spiritual without 
being religious. To be spiritual one needs the roots of religious tradition and 
community, while to be religious in a Christian way one needs the wings of 
committed spiritual practices. Spohn was professor of Christian ethics at 
Santa Clara University at his death in 2005. 

. "Spirituality and Ethics: Exploring the Connections." Theological Studies 

58(1997): 109-123. 

Stortz, Martha Ellen. "Discerning the Spirits, Practicing the Faiths." 1998 Graduate 
Theological Union (GTU ) Distinguished Faculty Lecture. Berkeley, CA. 



473 

Stortz is professor of historical theology and Christian ethics at the Pacific 
Lutheran Theological Seminary and the Graduate Theological Union (GTU) 
in Berkeley, California. 

Sullivan, Thomas F. "Prayer and Moral Freedom." Chicago Studies 3 1 (1992): 59- 
65. 

Sullivan is pastor of St. Emily Church in Mount Prospect, IL, and formerly 
taught Christian ethics at the Catholic University of America. 

Thdvenot, Xavier, S.D.B. "Liturgie et morale." Etudes 356 (1982): 829-844. 

Tremblay, R. "L"Eucharistie et le fondement christologique de la morale chretierme. " 
Studia Moralia 33 (June 1995): 57-85. 

Tremblay is Professor of Fundamental Moral Theology at the Alphonsianum 
Academy in Rome. 

Wainwright, Geoffrey. "Eucharist And/As Ethics." Worship 62 {\9Uy.\22>-n%. 

Wolterstorff, Nicholas. "Justice as a Condition of Authentic Liturgy." Theology 
Today A%{\99\)\6-2\. 

Part of a Symposium of articles which appear in the April issue of Theology 
Today under the general title of "The Revisioning of Worship." See in the 
same issue three replies to Wolterstorff: Dennis T. Olson's "Which Comes 
First, Justice or Worship?: A Response to Nicholas Wolterstorff," pp. 22-25; 
Lawrence Cunningham's "And Their Eyes Were Opened: A Response to 
Nicholas Wolterstorff," pp. 26-28; and Janet F. Fishbum's "Moving Out of 
Complacency: A Response to Nicholas Wolterstorff," pp. 29-32. 
Wolterstorff taught philosophy at Calvin College and at the Free University 
of Amsterdam and is now professor of Philosophical Theology at the Yale 
Divinity School. 

Yoder, John Howard. "Sacrament as Social Process: Christ the Transformer of 
Culture." Theology Today 48 (1991): 33-44. 

Part of a Symposium of articles which appear in the April issue of Theology 
Today under the general title of "The Revisioning of Worship," Yoder was 
a well-known ethicist in the Mennonite tradition who taught at the University 
of Notre Dame until his death. 



474 

Books on Ethics, Prayer, Liturgy, Worship and Sacraments 

AA.VV. Liturgie, ethique et peuple de Dieu. Conferences Saint-Serge XXXVIP 
Semaine d'Etudes Liturgiques, Paris 1990. A cura di Achille Triacca e A. 
Pistoia. Roma: Edizioni Liturgiche, 1991. 

Bastianel, Sergio, SJ. Lapreghiera nella vita morale critiana. Casale Monferrato: 
Piemme, 1986. 

In English: Prayer in Christian Moral Life. Translated by Bernard Hoose. 
Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1988. Bastianel is former dean and professor 
of moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Billy, Dennis J. C.Ss.R., and Donna L. Orsuto, eds. Spirituality and Morality: 
Integrating Prayer and Action. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1995. 

Billy is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome and Orsuto 
directs the lay center "Foyer Unitas" and teaches spirituality at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University. 

Billy, Dennis J., C.Ss.R., and Keating, James. Conscience and Prayer: the Spirit of 
Catholic Moral Theology^FiQfacQhyMsakO'KQQfQ. Collegeville: Liturgical 
Press, 2001. 

Billy is professor of moral theology at the Alphonsianum m Rome and 
Keating is associate professor of moral theology at the Pontifical College 
Josephinum in Ohio. 

Corriveau, R. The Liturgy of Life: A Study of the Ethical Thought of St. Paul in his 
Letters to the Early Christian Communities. Studia, 25. Bruxelles, Paris, 
Montreal: Descl^e de Brouwer, 1970. 

Driver, Tom F. The Magic of Ritual: Our Need for Liberating Rites that Transform 
Our Lives and Our Communities. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1 99 1 . 

Duffy, Michael K. Be Blessed in What You Do: The Unity of Christian Ethics and 
Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. 

Duffy teaches theology at Marquette University. 

Empereur, James E., S.J., and Kiesling, Christopher G., O.P. The Liturgy That Does 
Justice. Theology and Life Series, 33. Collegeville: Liturgical Press/Michael 
Glazier, 1990. 



475 

Goffi, TuUo e Plana, Giannino, edd. Corso di Morale: Volume 5, Liturgia (Etica 
dellareligiosita). Brescia: Queriniana, 1986. 

Grosz, Edward M., ed. Liturgy and SocialJustice: Celebrating Rites, Proclaiming 
Rights. CoIIegeville: Liturgical Press, 1990. 

Three papers and two homilies given at the 1988 National Meeting of the 
Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions held in San Diego, 
California. 

Gula, Richard M., S.S. The Good Life: Where Morality and Spirituality Converge. 
New York: Paulist Press, 1999. 

Hiis is an excellent book for a variety of possible uses, e.g., as a companion 
text in moral, spirituality, and/or pastoral theology courses, in adult 
education, RCIA, and/or general enrichment reading on how one could 
consider and grow in the life of a committed Christian disciple. Gula grounds 
and develops his work m Scripture and the rich tradition of moral theology, 
and draws as well on the best of contemporary work in the field. Gula is 
professor of Moral Theology at the Franciscan School of Theology/Graduate 
Theological Union. 

Guroian, Vigen. Ethics after Christendom: Toward an Ecclesial Christian Ethic. 
Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1994. 

Contains several essays, most of which have appeared elsewhere in print. 
Guroian teaches theology and ethics at Loyola College m Baltimore. 

HSring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Gabe undAuftragderSakramente. Salzburg: Otto MuUer 
Verlag, 1962. 

In French: Message et Don des Sacrements. Translated by Adrien Sandrin. 
Paris: Editions Saint Paul, 1964. 

Haring (1912-1998) was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the 
last half of the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican 11. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. and Wells, Samuel, eds. The Blackwell Companion to 
Christian Ethics. Maiden MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. 



476 

Looks at Christian ethics through the lens of worship, contending that this is 
what should shape the moral life of Christians. 

Henderson, J. Frank; Quinn, Kathleen; and Larson, Stephen. Liturgy, Justice and the 
Reign of God: Integrating Vision and Practice. New York: Paulist Press, 
1989. 

Hughes, Kathleen, R.S.C.J., and Francis, Mark R., C.S.V., eds. Living No Longer 
For Ourselves: Liturgy and Justice in the Nineties. CoUegeville: The 
Liturgical Press, 1991. 

Eleven essays by members of the faculty of the Catholic Theological Union 
of Chicago on various issues connected with liturgy and social justice. 
Contents'. Introduction. The personal synthesis of liturgy and justice: five 
portraits, T. Ross. Liturgy and justice: an intrinsic relationship, Hughes. 
Worship after the Holocaust: an ethician's reflections, John T. Pawlikowski. 
Liturgy and ethics: some unresolved dilemmas, R. Keifer. Liturgical 
inculturation in the United States and the call to justice, M. Francis. The 
voice of the church at prayer, Hughes. Liturgy and Economic justice for all, 
E.Foley. Liturgy, scripture, and the challenge of feminism, B.Reid. Liturgy, 
inclusive language, and canon law, John Huels. What do all those masses 
do for us? reflections on the Christian moral life and the eucharist, Paul 
Wadell. Liturgical catechesis and justice, G. Ostdiek. The dance of life: 
liturgy and ethics in cross-cultural perspective, A. Gittins. 

Kellermann, Bill Wylie. Seasons of Faith and Conscience: Kairos, Confession, 
Liturgy. Foreword by Jim Wallis. MaryknoU: Orbis, 1991. 

Deals with the connection between faith and politics, and investigates the 
implications for worship and liturgy. 

Lebacqz, Karen. Word, Worship, World and Wonder: Reflections on Christian 
Living. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997. 

Lebacqz did her doctoral work in ethics at Harvard and spent her teaching 
career at the Pacific School of Religion and the Graduate Theological Union 
in Berkeley, California. 

Lebacqz, Karen, and Driskill, Joseph D. Ethics and Spiritual Care: A Guide for 
Pastoral and Spiritual Directors. Nashville: Abingdon, 2001 . 

Lebacqz and Driskill are on the faculty of the Pacific School of Religion in 
Berkeley, California. 



477 

Madigan, Patrick, S.J. Penance, Contemplation, and Service: Pivotal Experiences of 
Christian Spirituality. CoUegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, A Michael 
Glazier Book, 1994 

The author argues "that there are three essential elements to an authentic 
spirituality: penance or conversion, contemplation or adoration, and service 
or response." He develops this thesis using contemporary development 
theories, the A A recovery program, scripture, and the writings of the church 
fathers and classical spirituality. 

McClain, George D. Claiming All Things for God: Prayer, Discernment, and Ritual 
for Social Change. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1998. 

McKenna, Megan. Rites of Justice: The Sacraments and Liturgy as Ethical 
Imperatives. MaryknoU: Orbis, 1997. 

Nichols, Aidan, O.P. The Service of Glory: The Catechism of the Catholic Church 
on Worship, Ethics, Spirituality. Hemdon VA: T&T Clark, 1997. 

O'Keefe, Mark, O.S.B. Becoming Good, Becoming Holy: On the Relationship of 
Christian Ethics and Spirituality. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1995 

Most of the essays in this book have been previously published as articles in 
various journals. Reviewed by James Keating in Theological Studies 57 
(1 996): 784-785. O'Keefe teaches moral theology at the St. Meinrad School 
of Theology. 

Searle, Mark, ed. Liturgy and SocialJustice. CoUegeville: The Liturgical Press, 
1980. 

Sedgwick, Timothy F. Sacramental Ethics: Paschal Identity and the Christian Life. 
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Working within the Anglican tradition, Sedgwick examines the relation 
among language, worship, and the moral life. 

Smith, Harmon L. Where Two or Three Are Gathered: Liturgy and the Moral Life. 
Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1995. 

Christians are a people whose moral lives have been formed, and continue to 
be formed, by gathering together for worship. This gathering is itself a moral 
act, reminding believers that they are called out of this world in order to 
receive the provisioning that equips them to return to it. There is, then, a 



478 

profoundly moral character to the church's liturgy - one that has deep 
implications for how Christians think about contemporary social issues. 
Reviewed by Mark O'Keefe in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 785. 

Stamps, Mary E., ed. To Do Justice and Right Upon the Earth: Papers from the 
Virgil Michel Symposium on Liturgy and Social Justice. CoUegeville MN: 
Liturgical Press, 1993. 



Sin, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation 

Articles on Sin and Reconciliation in Christian Ethics 

AA.VV. Journal of Religious Ethics 15 (1987). 

"Focus" section devoted to three articles on the "Ethics of Forgiveness." 

AA.VV. "Original Sin." Communio IS (1991). 

__. "El pecado original." Communio 13 (1991). 

. "II peccato originale." CommunioJlS (luglio-agosto, 1991). 

Series of articles on various aspects of this theme; same articles contained in 
the Spanish edition for November-December. 

AA.W. "Peccato e peccati alia luce del Nuovo Testamento." La Scuola Cattolica 
3-4 106 (1978). 

Adams, Marilyn McCord. "Forgiveness: A Christian Model." In Christian Theism 
and Moral Philosophy, 11- 1 06. Edited by Michael Beaty, Carlton Fisher, and 
Mark Nelson, Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1998. 

von Allmen, Jean-Jacques. "The Forgiveness of Sins as a Sacrament in the 
Reformed Tradition." \xi Sacramental Reconciliation, 112-119. Edited by 
Edward Schillebeeckx. Conciliimi,61. NewYork: Herder and Herder, 1971. 

Bastianel, Sergio, S.J. "Strutture di peccato. Riflessione teologico-morale." Civilta 
Cattolica 3328 (1989): 325-338. 

Paper given at the 1988 Atto Academico of the Gregorian University, where 
Bastianel is professor of moral theology. In reference to Sollicitudo rei 
socialis Bastianel examines the structure of sin, in both its narrow and larger 
senses. Individual conversion would embrace both the personal and 
structural (social) dimensions at the same time. Also found in Strutture di 
peccato: Una sfida teologica e pastorale, 15-38. Edited by Sergio Bastianel, 
S.J., et al. Casale Monferrato: Piemme, 1989. 

Batule, Robert J. "The Psychology of Reconciliation." The Priest 53 (February 
1997): 8-12. 



480 

Warns against the tendency to blend Christianity, especially in the areas of sin 
and forgiveness, with psychology. Genuine forgiveness, as celebrated in the 
Sacrament of Reconciliation, will be more healing and of greater long-term 
value than many psychological approaches. One of several articles in this 
issue dealing with pastoral aspects of the Sacrament of Reconciliation. 
Batule is a parish priest and adjunct professor at St. John's University in 
Jamaica, N.Y. 

Baxter, Anthony. "Holiness and Sin." New Blackfriars 70 (1989): 506-517. 

Boyle, Joseph. "Objective and Subjective Sin: Reflections on Full Consent." In 
Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia 
Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 453-460. Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 
1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul 11 Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Boyle is professor of philosophy at St. 
Michael's College at the University of Toronto. 

Brady, Jude, O.S.B. "Off the Record?" The Priest 53 (July 1997): 32-33. 

Discusses confidentiality in professional ministry, primarily in psychological 
covmseling, though with some remarks on the sacramental seal of confession. 
This work though contains some serious misunderstandings regarding the 
seal of confession. 

Brague, Remi. Ad ogni peccato, misericordia." Communio 118 (lugio-agosto, 
1991): 46-54. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

Brown, Neil. "The Communal Nature of Reconciliation-Moral and Pastoral 
Reflections." Australasian Catholic Record 11 (January 2000): 3-9. 

One of several articles in this issue on the Sacrament of Reconciliation. 

Burke, Margaret Ellen. "Social Sin and Social Grace." The Way Supplement 85 
(January 1996): 40-54. 

Discusses how the reality of social sin can be used in spiritual direction and 
pEistoral action in discerning and responding to unjust structural situations. 



481 

Biirkle, Horst, "Guilt and its resolution outside the Christian tradition." Communio 
16(1989): 172-185. 

Butler, Perry. "Introduction: Confession Today." In Confession and Absolution, 1- 
12. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. Based on some 
sociological type of inquiry, Butler discusses the situation in Anglican 
parishes. 

Caffarra, Carlo, Msgr. "II peccato e le sue forme." In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti 
del Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12 aprile 1986), 
435-440. Roma: Citta Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul II Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Caffarra is Director of the Pontifical John 
Paul II Institute of Studies on Marriage and the Family in Rome. 

Calhoun, Cheshire. "Changing One's Heart." Ethics 103 (1992): 70-96. 

Deals vdth forgiveness. 

Cassola, Ovidio. "Crime and Sin in Canon Law." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A 
Historical Survey, 181-189. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by 
Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Catholic Theological Association of Great Britain. "1989 Conference Theme: Sin." 
New Blackfriars 70 (1989): 467-528. 

Entire issue devoted to this theme. 

Cessario, Romanus, O.P. "Christian satisfaction and sacramental reconciliation." 
Communio 16(1989): 186-196. 

Collins, Mary, and Power, David, eds.. "The Fate of Confession." Concilium 190 
(1987). 

Entire issue devoted to this theme. 



482 

Conlin, Daniel C. "General Absolution Diminishes the Priest." Homiletic and 
Pastoral Review 97 (January 1997): 7-12. 

Suggests that the rite of communal reconciliation is theologically very 
problematic inasmuch as it counters the role of the priest who in persona 
Christi is to take on the sins of the penitent which are confessed in individual 
confession. Thus, if no sins are individually confessed the priest cannot 
really be a priest, and the rite of communal reconciliation logically might not 
require a priest at all. 

Conrad, Richard, O.P. "Making Sense of Original Sin." Priests and People 6 
(1992): 109-113. 

Overview of the traditional teaching on original sin. 

Cooper, Eugene J. "A Newer Look at the Theology of Sin." Louvain Studies 3 
(1971): 259-307. 

. "The Notion ofSm in Light of the Theory of Fundamental Option." Louvain 

Studies 9 (\9S3):363-3S3. 

Cooper, Howard. "Sin in Biblical and Rabbinical Thought." The Month 254 
(September/October 1993): 348-354. 

One of a series of articles on various theological aspects of sin. Cooper looks 
at the various ways "sin" is presented in the Hebrew Scriptures and rabbinic 
interpretation. Cooper is a rabbi and psychotherapist. 

Cosgrave, William, "How Celtic Penance Gave Us Personal Confession." Doctrine 
and Life 4\ (1991): 412-422 

. "What Theologians Are Now Saying about Sin." Doctrine and Life 50 
(May/June 2000): 287-295. 

A brief overview which might be helpful for an adult education audience. 

Courtier, David B., O.F.M. Cap. "Structural Sin, Structural Conversion, and 
Religious Formation." Review for Religious 50 (1991): 406-417. 

Craghan, John F. "Sin, Cleansing and Restoration." The Bible Today 3 1 (1 993): 68- 

72. 



483 

Focuses on Psalm 5 1 , and is one of several articles in this issue on the theme 
of'The Bible on Sin." 

Cronin, Kieran, O.F.M. "Illness, Sin and Metaphor." Irish Theological Quarterly 61 
(1995): 191-204. 

Cummings, Owen F. "Reconciliation and Penance: Some Needed Distinctions." 
Chicago Studies 34 (August 1995): 145-157. 

One of several articles in this issue on the communal rite of reconciliation. 
Suggests that even if communal penance and absolution were allowed and 
widely available, not all the problems associated with the sacrament would 
disappear. One still needs to confess wholly and honestly one's sinfulness to 
another person in order to find real forgiveness. 

Curran, Charles E. "The Sacrament of Penance Today." In Id. Contemporary 
Problems in Moral Theology, 1-96. Notre Dame: Fides, 1970. 

Dahnasso, Gianfranco. "II male anonimo. Dialogo fra Pelagic e un militante." 
Communio 118 (lugio-agosto, 1991): 69-74. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

Daniel-Rops, Henri. "Sin in Our World." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical 
Survey, 205-211. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by Brendan Devlin. 
Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Dudley, Martin, and Pinnock, Jill. "Rites of Penance and Reconciliation." In 
Confession and Absolution, 1 8 1 -205. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

Compares different Christian liturgies of Penance. One of eleven essays 
covering aspects of the Christian tradition, contemporary pastoral practice, 
and the liturgies of penance. 

Dudley, Martin. "The Sacrament of Penance in Catholic Teaching and Practice." In 
Confession and Absolution, 56-90. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 



484 

Dye, Wayne. "Toward a Cross-Cultural Definition of Sin." MissiologyA (1976): 27- 
41. 

Floristdn, Casiano and Duquoc, Christian, O.P. "Forgiveness." Concilium 184 
(1986). 

Entire issue devoted to this theme. 

Fuchs, Josef, S.J. "Peccato e conversione." In Sussidi 1980 Per Lo Studio Delia 
Teologia Morale Fondamentale. Per I'uso privato degli studenti. Roma: 
Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, 1977, 1980. 

In English in Theology Digest 14 (1966): 46-53. 

. "The «Sin of the World» and Normative Morality." Gregorianum 61 (1980): 

51-76. 

Also found diS ch. 8, pp. 153-175, of Personal Responsibility and Christian 
Morality, trans. William Cleves, et al., (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown 
University Press, and Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1983). 

Italian translation: "II «Peccato del Mondo» e la morale normativa." In 
Sussidi 1980 Per Lo Studio Delia Teologia Morale Fondamentale, 41 5-435. 
(Per I'uso privato degli studenti). Roma: Pontificia University Gregoriana, 
1977, 1980. 

In German: «Sunde der Welt» und normative Moral." In Anspruch der 
Wirklichkeit und christlicher Glaube: Probleme und Wege theologischer 
Ethikheute, 135-154. Hrsg. Helmut Weber und Dietmar Mieth. Diisseldorf: 
Patmos Veriag, 1980. 

_. "Structures of Sin." Chapter 4 in Idem. Moral Demands and Personal 

Obligations, 62-73. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993. 

German original: "Strukturen der Siinde." Stimmen der Zeit 206 (1988): 
613-622. 

Fulkerson, Mary McClintock. "Sexism as Original Sin: Developing a Theacentric 
Discourse." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 39 (1991): 653- 
675. 

Gaffhey, Leo. "Reconciliation." America 111 (29 November 1997): 25-27. 



485 

Discusses the contemporary celebration of the sacrament of reconciliation, 
using a communal ritual done in a local parish in which penitents wrote 
letters confessing their sins, which in turn were given to an individual priest 
and then burned. This ritual was subsequently discontinued under the orders 
of the local bishop. Gafftiey is the director of religious education at St. 
Mary's Parish in Lakeville, CT. 

Gaskell, John. "Not as Judge but as Pastor." In Confession and Absolution, 147- 
159. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Getty, Mary Ann. "Sin and Salvation in Romans." The Bible Today 31 (1993): 89- 
93. 

One of several articles in this issue on the theme of "The Bible on Sin." 

Glaser, John W. "Transition between Grace and Sin: Fresh Perspectives." 
Theological Studies 29 (1968): 260-274. 

Gleeson, Gerald. "The Future of the 'Third Rite' of Reconciliation." Australasian 
Catholic Record 11 (January 2000): 20-31 . 

Good overview of some of the theological, canonical, and pastoral tensions 
present in the contemporary conflict regarding the use (and non-use) of the 
Third Rite. One of several articles in this issue on the Sacrament of 
Reconciliation. 

GSrres, Albert. "Aimotazioni psicologiche sul peccato originale." Communio 118 
(lugio-agosto, 1991): 55-68. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

Graneris, Giuseppe. "Concept of Sin in Comparative Religion." In Sin: Its Reality 
and Nature: A Historical Survey, 11-27. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. 
Translated by Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

. "Sin (Actual)." JnDictionary of Moral Theology, 1134-1135. Compiled and 

edited by Francesco Cardinal Roberti and Msgr. Pietro Palazzini. Translated 
from the Second Italian Edition Under the Direction of Henry J. Yannone. 
London: Bums & Oates. 1962. 



486 

Greany, Andrew. "Social Joys: Renewal in Preparing for Confession." In 
Confession and Absolution, 160-167. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Grey, Mary. "Augustine and the Legacy of Guilt." New Blackfriars 70 (1989): 476- 
488. 

Gritsch, Eric W. and Jenson, Robert W. "Christian Life-Brave Sinning." Chapter 
10 in Luther anism: The Theological Movement and Its Confessional 
Writings, 137-152. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976. 

Grondelski, John M. "Confession of Sins as an Essential Element of the Sacrament 
of Penance." Angelicum 78 (1/2000): 49-67. 

Argues that the individual confession of sins in penance is dogmatically and 
not just disciplinarily required by the Sacrament, and thus holds that general 
absolution would be invalid. This view is grounded in a consideration of the 
nature of the Sacrament and its place in relation to the other sacraments, the 
role of the confessor as judge, the phenomenon of guilt, and an integral role 
of the human person, including his or her social nature and the communal 
effects of sin. Grondelski teaches at the School of Theology at Seton Hall 
University in South Orange, New Jersey. 

Griindel, Johannes. "Schuld~Strafe~Vers6hnung aus theologischer Sicht." In 
SchuldStrafe—Versohnung. Ein interdisziplindres Gesprdch, 93-116. 
Herausgegeben von Arnold Kopcke-Duttler. Mainz: Grtinewald, 1991. 

Hall, Christine. "A View from the Foothills: Some Observations on Orthodox 
Practice of the Sacrament of Confession." In Confession and Absolution, 
120-132. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 
1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Halliburton, John. "'A Godly Discipline': Penance and Penitence in the Early 
Church." In Confession and Absolution, 40-55. Edited by Martin Dudley and 
Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 



487 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. "Sin and Conversion." Chapter 8 in Free and Faithful in 
Christ: Moral Theology for Priests and Laity, 378-470. Volume I: General 
Moral Theology. Middlegreen, Slough: St. Paul Publications, 1978. 

Haring's treatment on sin in his revised manual of moral theology. Haring 
( 1 9 1 2- 1 998), was a German theologian who has taught all over the world and 
well-known for his efforts to update Roman Catholic moral theology in the 
spirit of Vatican II. 

. "Sin in Post- Vatican 11 Theology." In Personalist Morals: Essays in Honor 

of Professor Louis Janssens, 87-107. Edited by Joseph A. Selling. Louvain: 
University Leuven Press, 1988. 

Traces briefly the manualistic heritage, the development of the theology of 
sin in Vatican II (especially in Gaudium et spes), the theology of fundamental 
option, new developments and challenges posed to a theology of sin (e.g., 
from Marxism and liberation theology), then next Haring examines the 1983 
Bishops' Synod on sin and the subsequent Apostolic Exhortation, 
Reconcilatio et Paenitentia, before concluding with a brief overview of 
shortcomings which need to be overcome in a renovated theology of sin. 

Harriott, John. "New Insights, New Rites." The Tablet (3 March 1990): 272-273. 

First of a series of articles published in The Tablet during Lent, 1 990. Argues 
for the expanded use and development of the communal rite of reconciliation. 
Similar content to the longer article in New Blaclrfriars. 

. "Rites of Reconciliation." New Blackfriars 10 {\9%9):5\%-52Z. 



H. maintains that a cultural shift has occurred which makes private auricular 
confession less normative, and argues instead for expanded use of Rite III. 

Headley, Donald. "Sin and Reconciliation in the Consciousness of Christians." 
Chicago Studies 34 (August 1995): 158-171. 

One of several articles in the issue on the theme of communal reconci! i ition. 
Headley looks at biblical texts of mercy and forgiveness in Matthew and 
Luke and then moves to a theological consideration of sin and reconciliation, 
and ways in which this has been, and is being, celebrated in the Church 
throughout the centuries. 



488 

Henrici, Peter, S.J. "The Philosophers and Original Sin." Communio 18 (1991): 
489-501. 

In Spanish "Los fil6sofos y el pecado original." Communio 13 (1991): 497- 
507. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. After teaching 
philosophy for several years at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, 
Henrici was appointed auxiliary bishop in 1993 to the diocese of Chur, 
Switzerland. 

Henriot, Peter, S.J. "TheConceptof Social Sin." Catholic Mind 7 1 (1973): 38-53. 

Henriot is a well-known social ethician who has worked for many years in 
Africa. 

Hidber, Bruno, C.Ss.R. "From Anguish to Refound Freedom: Penance in the 
Tension between Sacraments and Ethics." Worship 68 (1994): 98-116. 

Hidber is professor of theology at the Alphonsianum in Rome. 

Highfield, Ronald C. "The Freedom to Say 'No'? Kari Rahner's Doctrine of Sin." 
Theological Studies 56 (September 1995): 485-505. 

Hoose, Bernard. "Sm, Power and the Church." The Month 254 (September/October 
1993): 408-411. 

One of a series of articles on various theological aspects of sin. Hoose is 
currently on the faculty of Heythrop College. 

Home, Brian. "What Has Been Lost? Penance and Reconciliation Reconsidered." 
In Confession and Absolution, 135-146. Edited by Martin Dudley and 
Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Hug, James, S.J. "Social Sin, Cultural Healing." Chicago Studies 23 (1984): 333- 
351. 

Hug is a social ethician who works in the Washington-based Center for 
Concern. 



489 

Hughes, Joseph A. "A Second Look at Penance Services." The Priest 53 (February 
1997):13-16. 

Criticizes the widespread use of the communal penance service in American 
parishes. Often this article caricatures the communal penance service, though 
some of his concerns may be genuine. One of several articles on the theme 
related to pastoral aspects of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in this issue. 
Hughes is a retired priest of the diocese of Duluth, Minnesota. 

Kaufman, Peter Ivan. "Augustine, Evil, and Donatism: Sin and Sanctity before the 
Pelagian Controversy." Theological Studies 51 (1990): 115-126. 

Claims that Augustine's anti-Donatist treatises reveal much about his 
developing sense of sin and evil. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "The Problem with Thomas Aquinas's Concept of Sin." 
Heythrop Journal 35 (1994): 401-420. 

Keenan, who did his doctoral work under Josef Fuchs at the Pontifical 
Gregorian University in Rome, is Associate Professor of Christian Ethics at 
the Weston Jesuit School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He now 
teaches at Boston College. 

Kelly, Kevin T. "The Changing Paradigms of Sin." New Blackfriars 70 (1 989): 489- 
497. 

Discusses various paradigms of sin such as "disobedience," "Person- 
injuring," "Heart Condition" [Fundamental Option], "Disease," "Systematic 
Dehumanization," "Historical-Cultural Realism," and "Anti-creational." 
Kelly is a priest of the Liverpool Archdiocese and former lecturer in Christian 
ethics at Heythrop College. 

. "Do We Believe in a Church of Sinners?" The Way 33 (1993): 106-1 16. 



Kelly suggests that inasmuch as the Church is made up of sinners the Church 
itself (e.g., the Magisterium) will also reflect sin and sinfiilness. A viable 
Christian spirituality needs to take account of this fact. 

.. "Sin, Spirituality and the Secular." The Way 32 (1992): 13-22. 

Looks at Christian spirituality in terms of a lifelong growth-process out of 
being 'victims of sin' and 'agents of sin', while grappling with the objection 



490 

that the notion of growth out of sin' implies a too negative starting point for 
Christian spirituality. 

Kertelge, Karl. "The Sin of Adam in the Light of Christ's Redemptive Act according 
to Romans 5: 12-21." Commmio 18 (1991): 502-513. 

In Spanish; "El pecado de Adan a la luz de la obra redentora de Cristo segiin 
Rm 5, 12-21." Commmio 13 (1991): 508-517. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

KSpcke-Duttler, Arnold. "Schuld, Strafe, Versohnung. Eine InterdisziplinSre 
HinfUhrung." In Schuld-Strafe--Versdhnung. Ein interdisziplindres 
Gesprach, 9-33. Herausgegeben von Arnold KQpcke-Duttler. Mainz: 
Griinewald, 1991. 

. "Schuld, Strafe, VersShnung in pSdagogischer Sicht." In SchuldStrafe— 

Versohnung. Ein interdisziplindres Gesprach, 64-92. Herausgegeben von 
Arnold Kopcke-Duttler. Mainz: GrUnewald, 1991. 

Kottackal, Joseph. "The Biblical Understanding of Original Sin." Bible Bhashyam 
20 (1994): 5-15. 

Lang, Berel. "Forgiveness." American Philosophical Quarterly 31 (1994): 105- 
118. 

Argues that forgiveness should be understood not as a supererogatory act, but 
integral to a person's moral being, and therefore, morally obligatory. 

Lanza, Sergio. "La comunita cristiana come luogo di riconciliazione: struttura e 
prassi." Lateranum 58 (1992): 207-239. 

Lauritzen, Paul. "Forgiveness: Moral Prerogative or Religious Duty?" Journal of 
Religious Ethics 15 (1987): 141-154. 

One of three articles devoted to articles on the "Ethics of Forgiveness." 

Lipp, Wolfgang. "Schuld imd Gesellschaft. Mechanismen der sozialen 
Zuschreibung, BewSltigimg und Wandlung von Schuld." In SchuldStrafe— 
Versohnung. Ein interdisziplindres Gesprach, 117-155. Herausgegeben von 
Arnold KOpcke-Duttler. Mainz: GrUnewald, 1991. 



491 

Martinez de Pis6n, Ramon, O.M.I. "Devons-nous encore parler du peche?" Pastoral 
Services 10 (1991): 47-59. 

Discovery of a sense of sin is conditioned by another more fundamental 
discovery, namely, the "original" love of God. The article considers certain 
positive aspects of the loss of the sense of personal sin, and refers to biblical 
revelation on sin as a refusal to say "yes" to God's original love. The article 
concludes with certain pastoral consequences of this discovery of sin. 
Martinez de Pis6n is on the Faculty of Theology at the University of Saint 
Paul, Ottawa. 

Mattam, Joseph. "The Sacrament of Reconciliation." African Ecclesial Review 34 
(1992): 293-322. 

McAreavey, John. "Abortion and the Sacrament of Penance." The Furrow 44 
(1993): 230-235. 

Discusses the canonical discipline related to a procured abortion. 

McCarrick, Archbishop [now Cardinal] Theodore. "Pardon and Peace." Origins 25 
(14 March 1996): 637-643. 

Pastoral letter released at the begirming of Lent, 1 996. Outlines a traditional 
theology of the sacrament of penance. McCarrick was Archbishop of Newark 
at this writing and is currently Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, D.C. 

McCormick, Patrick, CM. "Human Sinfulness: Models for a Developing Moral 
Theology." Studia Moralia 26 (1988): 61-100. 

In recent centuries individualistic and juridical models of sin have dominated 
Catholic moral theology, and McCormick proposes two alternative models: 
sin as a disease, and sinful community. The last is particularly helpful in 
approaching social sin, 

McDade, John. "The Death of Jesus and Sin." The Month 254 (September/October 
1993): 340-347. 

One of a series of articles on various theological aspects of sin. 

McGreal, Wilfrid, O.Carm. "Guilt: Burden or Challenge?" Priests and People 6 
(1992): 91-95. 



492 

In the modern complex society the sacrament of reconciliation can be a 
resource for creatively dealing with guilt in terms of personal growth and 
hope. 

McKenna, Joseph H. "The Possibility of Social Sin." Irish Theological Quarterly 
60 (1994): 125-140. 

McLaughlin, Robert E. "Forgive Us Our Sins: But How?" Commonweal (6 
December 2002): 13-15. 

Argues for the pastoral appropriateness of General Absolution. 

McLaughlin is a priest of the Archdiocese of Chicago and pastor of Mary 
Seat of Wisdom Parish in Park Ridge, Illinois. 

McLean, Julienne. "The Role of the Confessional Process in Psychotherapy." In 
Confession and Absolution, 168-178. Edited by Martin Dudley and Geoffrey 
Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

McMahon, Michael. "Paralysis of the Heart." The Bible Today 31 (1993): 85-88. 

Focuses on the cure of the paralytic in Matthew 9:2-8 to show Jesus' attitude 
toward sin. One of several articles in this issue on the theme of "The Bible 
on Sin." 

McSorley, Harry, C.S.P. "Luther and Trent on the Faith needed for the Sacrament 
of Penance." In Sacramental Reconciliation, 89-98. Edited by Edward 
Schillebeeckx. Concilium, 61. New York: Herder and Herder, 1971. 

Meredith, Anthony. "Augustine on Sin." The Month 254 (September/October 1993): 
367-371. 

One of a series of articles on various theological aspects of sin. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "The Ethic of Failure and Beginning Again: A Forgotten 
Perspective in Theological Ethics." Concilium (5/1990): 45-57. 

Reflection based partially on a conference at the Paulus Academy in Zurich 
in 1987, attended by a majority of women who had experienced failed 
marriages. 



493 

Mohan, Terry. "Counselling: Confession without Absolution?" Priests and People 
6(1992): 101-103. 

Not very profound. 

Moore, Gerard. "The Forgiveness of Sins: A Ritual History." Australasian Catholic 
Record 77 (January 2000): 10-19. 

One of several articles in this issue on the Sacrament of Reconciliation. 

Moschetti, Stefano, S.J. "Una nuova teoria sul peccato originale." Civilta Cattolica 
145 (5 febbraio 1994): 260-269. 

Critique of the excessive stress placed on the role of the devil in original sin 
as presented in J.A. Sayes' Antropologia del hombre caido. El pecado 
original, (Madrid: Editorial Catolica, 1991). 

Mynatty, Hormis. "The Concept of Social Sin." Louvain Studies 16 (1991): 3-26. 

Newman, Louis E. "The Quality of Mercy: On the Duty to Forgive in the Judaic 
Tradition." Journal of Religious Ethics 15 (1987): 155-172. 

One of three articles devoted to articles on the "Ethics of Forgiveness." 

Novak, Michael. "Structures of Virtue, Structures of Sin: A Theology of Natural 
Liberty." America 160 (28 January 1989): 54-60. 

Orsy, Ladislaus, S.J. "The Revival of the Sacrament of Penance: A Proposal." 
Chicago Studies 34 (August 1995): 136-144. 

One of several articles in this issue on the communal rite of reconciliation. 
Highlights the role of the sensus fldelium over the centuries in fashioning a 
grass-roots reception (and/or non-reception) of various approaches to the 
sacrament of penance. Orsy goes on to suggest various pastoral situations in 
which a communal celebration of penance may be a more appropriate form. 

O'Shea, Kevin, C.Ss.R. "The Function and Disfunctions of the Idea of Sin." In 
Conscience: Studies in Honour of Sean O'Riordan, C.Ss.R. , 1 99-2 1 1 . Edited 
by Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R., and Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: 
Gill and Macmillan, 1989. 



494 

O'Shea looks at sin in a broader perspective than just focusing on a "wrong" 
act. His thesis is that our "sin-language" both has the capacity to distort the 
meaning of the Jesus event, as well as the power to convey its meaning. 

Osborne, Kenan B., O.F.M. "The Ambiguity of Communal Penance." Chicago 
Studies 34 (August 1995): 123-135. 

One of several articles in this issue on the communal rite of reconciliation. 
Osborne notes that all sacraments are "communal" and the privatization of 
liturgical and sacramental ritual results in increasing ambiguity. Contains a 
good theological overview of some of the issues regarding the internal 
contradictions involved in secret confessions and the restrictions placed on 
the usage of the communal rite of reconciliation. Osborne is professor 
emeritus of dogmatic theology at the Franciscan School of Theology in 
Berkeley, California. 

Palazzini, Giuseppe. "Sin in the Apostolic Fathers." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: 
A Historical Survey, 101-104, Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by 
Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Palazzini, Cardinal Pietro. "La Perdita del Senso del Peccato." Palestra del Clero 
72 (1993): 9-28. 

Speech given by Cardinal Cardinale Pietro Palazzini 31 May 1992 at 
Pordenone during the XXV Convegno dei Gruppi di Preghiera di Padre Pio 
del Triveneto, 

. "Sin. " In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical Survey, 1 5 1 - 1 79. Edited 

by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter 
Publishers, 1964. 

. "Sin in the Greek Apologists." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical 

5'Mrve>', 105-109. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by Brendan Devlin. 
Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Peschke, Karl Heinz. "The Morally Bad Action: Sin." Chapter 5 in Christian Ethics: 
Moral Theology in the Light of Vatican II, 286-324. Alcester and Dublin: C. 
Goodliffe Neale, 1985,1986. 

Italian translation: Etica cristiana; teologia morale alia luce del Vaticano II. 
2 vol. Roma: Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1985-1986. 



495 

Rather conservative, and very much tied to a manualistic scholastic 
framework, but good for an overview of the traditional teaching on sin. 
Peschke was a missionary in the Philippines and professor of moral theology 
at the Urbanianum in Rome. 

Peter, Carl. "Integral Confession and the Council of Trent." In Sacramental 
Reconciliation, 99-109. Edited by Edward Schillebeeckx. Concilium, 61. 
New York: Herder and Herder, 1971. 

Petrosino, Silvano. "L'intenzionalita di Satana e I'autocondanna della sguardo." 
Communio 118 (lugio-agosto, 1991): 84-98. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

Piolanti, Antonio. "Original Sin." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical 
Survey, \29-\5Q. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by Brendan Devlin. 
Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Pontifical Council for the Family. "Vade Mecum for Confessors Concerning Some 
Aspects of the Morality of Conjugal Life." Origins 26 ( 1 3 March 1 997): 6 1 7; 
619-235. 

Pr^at, Marie-Paule, R.S.C.J. "Actuality d'une th6ologie de la reconciliation." 
Nouvelle Revue Theologique 122 (2000): 238-259. 

Suggests that the Pauline notion of reconciliation, viewed in light of the 
contemporary socio-cultural context, is particularly relevant today. 

Rahner, Karl, S.J. "Forgotten Truths Concerning the Sacrament of Penance." In 
Theological Investigations Vol. 2, 135-174. Translated by Karl-H. Kruger. 
New York: Seabury, 1963. 

. "The Status of the Sacrament of Reconciliation." In Theological 

Investigations. Vol 23: Final Writings, 205-218. Translated by Joseph 
Donceel, S.J. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1992. 

Rahner investigates the current situation of the sacrament in light of both 
historical and theological perspectives. 

Ravasi, Gianfranco. "All'ombra dell'albero della conoscenza del bene e del male. 
Note ermeneutiche su Genesis 2-3." Communio 118 (lugio-agosto, 1991): 
25-35. 



496 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme. 

Reeder, John P., Jr. "Focus Introduction: Forgiveness: Tradition and Appropriation." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 15 (1987): 136-140. 

Introduction to the "Focus" section which is devoted to articles on the "Ethics 
of Forgiveness." 

Kigali, Norbert J., S.J. "Sin in a Relational Worid." Chicago Studies 23 (1984): 
321-332. 

Kigali argues for an understanding of the morality of human acts in terms of 
"the difference between constructive and destructive ways of relating to the 
world. Sin then appears as destructive or alienating ways of relating to the 
world," and to God. In this light, "when sin is understood as alienation or 
destructive modes of relating ones to the world, it is apparent that the defeat 
of sin involves healing in oneself and in the encompassing world—individual, 
interpersonal, communal, social, international, global, and environmental 
healings" (p. 328). Kigali is emeritus professor of moral theology at the 
University of San Diego. 

Roll, Susan K. "Reconciliation in 12 (not so easy) Steps." Doctrine and Life 43 
(1993): 69-76. 

Discusses how the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Twelve Step program deals 
with guilt in persons with addictive behavior, and what the Church might 
learn from this program in the sacrament of reconciliation. 

Rowell, Geoffrey. "The Anglican Tradition from the Reformation to the Oxford 
Movement." In Confession and Absolution, 91-119. Edited by Martin 
Dudley and Geoffrey Rowell. London: SPCK, 1990. 

One of eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, 
contemporary pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Rymer, Joseph. "Jewish and Christian Understandings of Sin." New BlackfriarslO 
(1989): 467-475. 

Sachs, John R., S.J. "Sin." Chapter 6 in The Christian Vision of Humanity: Basic 
Christian Anthropology, 59-66. Zaccheus Studies inTheolog}'. CoUegeville: 
Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press, 1991. 



497 

Gives a brief overview of biblical perspectives on sin, as well as some 
dimensions of social sin. Sachs teaches systematic theology at Weston Jesuit 
School of Theology. 

Sage, Athanase. "Sin in St. Augustine." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical 
Survey, 111-127. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by Brendan Devlin. 
Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Sarmiento, Augusto. "El 'Pecado Social'." In Persona Verita e Morale: Atti del 
Congresso Internazionale di Teologia Morale (Roma, 7-12aprile 1986), 441- 
45 1 . Roma: Citt^ Nuova Editrice, 1987. 

The Congress was sponsored jointly the John Paul 11 Pontifical Institute for 
the Study of Matrimony and the Family of the Lateran University (Msgr. 
Carlo Caffarra), and the Holy Cross (Santa Croce) Center in Rome of the 
University of Navarra (Opus Dei). Sarmiento is professor of moral theology 
at the University of Navarra (Opus Dei). 

Schaedel, Joseph F. "Children and Reconciliation." The Priest 53 (February 1997): 
18-20. 

Schaedel outlines what he considers to be the necessary components in a 
catechesis for young people who celebrate the Sacrament of Reconciliation. 
Not an especially helpful article. Schaedel is the vicar general of the curia for 
the Archdiocese of Indianapolis. 

Schreiter, Robert J., CPPS. "Reconciliation as a Missionary Task." Missiology 20 
(1992): 3-10. 

Senn, Frank. "The Confession ofSin in the Reformation Churches." Concilium 190 
(2/1987): 105-116. 

Sievemich, Michael. "Social Sm and its Acknowledgment." Concilium 190 
(2/1987): 52-63. 

Sobrino, Jon, S.J. "First Worid, Third Worid: Sin and Grace." The Tablet 246 (28 
March 1992): 419-421. 

Edited version of the Pope Paul VI Memorial Lecture given in March 1992 
in Salford Cathedral. 

. "Latin America: Place Of Sin and Place of Forgiveness." Concilium 184 

(1986). 



498 

. "Liberation from sin." Theology Digest 37 (1990): 141-145. 

Spiazzi, Raimondo. "The Social Evil of Sin." In Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A 
Historical Survey, 191-203. Edited by Pietro Palazzini. Translated by 
Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Spilly, Aiphonse. "Sin and Alienation in the Old Testament: The Personalist 
Approach." Chicago Studies 21 (Fall, 1982): 21 1-225. 

Stasiak, Kurt, O.S.B. "The Dialogue between Confessor and Penitent, Part I." The 
Priest 47 (March 1 99 1): 1 0- 1 4. 

. "The Dialogue between Confessor and Penitent, Parti." The Priest 47 (April 

1991): 31-39. 

Both articles deal with some helpful insights in hearing confessions. 

Stuhhnueller, Carroll, C.P. "The Search for Original Sin." The Bible Today 31 
(1993): 73-78. 

Conducts a "biblical search" on the doctrine of original sin. One of several 
articles in this issue on the theme of "The Bible on Sin." 

Tambasco, Anthony J. "Prophetic Teaching on Sin." The Bible Today 31 (1993): 
79-84. 

Considers especially the prophetic teaching of sin in the aspects of idolatry, 
extemalism and injustice. One of several articles in this issue on the theme 
of"The Bible on Sin." 

Tanner, Norman, S.J. "Sin in the Middle Ages." The Month 254 
(September/October 1993): 372-375. 

One of a series of articles on various theological aspects of sin. Tanner 
critiques contemporary culture's efforts to abolish the idea of sin and contrasts 
this view v^th a consideration of sin in the Middle Ages in which there was 
a greater sense of personal sin, which in turn opened one up better to the 
possibility and necessity of divine forgiveness. 

Uzukvsoi, Eugene Elochukwu. "Reconciliation and Inculturation: a Nigerian (Igbo) 
Orientation." AFER 25 (October 1983): 275-79. 



499 

Bearing in mind the 1983 Roman Catholic synod on reconciliation, this 
article reflects on reconciliation and the Igbo (Nigerian) context. Taking off 
from an experience of a traditional reconciliation ritual organized by a 
Catholic priest, the article underlines that for Christian reconciliation to be 
deeply rooted in the Igbo heart there must be emphasis on community 
(implicated throughout the ritual process), word (killing-healing), 
participation (no involvement by proxy), and celebration (sharing meal shows 
concrete reconciliation accomplished). 

Van der Vloet, Johan. "II potere del ricordo. L'utopia negata." Communio 118 
(lugio-agosto, 1991): 36-45. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme; same article 
contained in the Spanish edition for November-December. 

In Spanish: "El poder del recuerdo. La Utopia en cuesti6n." Communio 13 
(1991): 518-527. 

Ventura, Thomas. "Old Wine in New Wineskins." Chicago Studies 34 (August 
1995): 111-122. 

One of several articles in this issue on the communal rite of reconciliation. 
Ventura discusses the 1994 process of dialogue among Cardinal Joseph 
Bemardin with the priests of his archdiocese of Chicago regarding the various 
pastoral practices of the communal rite of reconciliation. The article reports 
a good range of both practical and theoretical issues connected with the 
communal rite of reconciliation, as well as some of the wider tensions with 
some bishops and the Vatican over the usage of this rite. 

Vergote, Antoine. "The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation." Theology 
Digest 43 (1996): 323-328. 

Verkamp, Bernard J. "Recovering a Sense of Sin." America 149 (1983): 305-307. 

Vidal, Marciano, C.Ss.R. "Structural Sin: A New Category in Moral Theology?" In 
Conscience: Studies in Honour of Sean O'Riordan, C.&.i?., 181-199. Edited 
by Raphael Gallagher, C.Ss.R., and Brendan McConvery, C.Ss.R. Dublin: 
Gill and Macmillan, 1989. 

Vidal teaches moral theology at the Universidad Comillas in Madrid and at 
the Alfonsianum in Rome. 



500 

Weaver, Darlene Fozard. "Taking Sin Seriously." Journal of Religious Ethics 31 
(Spring 2003): 45-74. 

Looks at the Roman Catholic theology of sin through the theology of Charles 
Curran and Jean Porter. Weaver teaches at Villanova, 

Wetzel, James. "Moral Personality, Perversity, and Original Sin." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 23, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 3-25. 

See reply by Giblert Meilaender, "The First and the Second Adam: 
Reflections on James Wetzel's Reformulation of a Doctrine." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 23, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 27-33. Also see Wetzel's owti 
response: James Wetzel, "The Missing Adam: A Reply to Gilbert 
Meilaender." Journal of Religious Ethics 23, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 35-38. 

. "Some Thoughts on the Anachronism in Forgiveness." Journal of Religious 

Ethics 27 (Spring 1999): 83-104. 

Wiedenhofer, Siegfried. "The Main Forms of Contemporary Theology of Original 
Sin." Communio 18 (1991): 514-529. 

In Italian: "Forme principal! dell'attuale teologia del peccato originale." 
Communio 118 (lugio-agosto, 1991): 8-24. 

In Spanish: "Principales formas de la teologia actual sobre el pecado 
original." Communio 13 (1991): 528-542. 

One of a series of articles on various aspects of this theme; same article 
contained in the Spanish edition for November-December. 

Williams, Cornelius, O.P. "Sin and Repentance." In Moral Theology Renewed: 
Papers of the Maynooth Union Summer School, 1964, 173-193. Edited by 
Enda McDonagh. Dublin: Gill and Son, 1965. 

Williams, Michael E. "Sin in the Cinema." New Blackfriars 70 (1989): 498-506. 

Williamson, David. "Penance: a Sacrament in Crisis?" Priests and People 6 (1992): 
96-100. 

Considers the question of the "crisis" of Penance today in the light of its 
history, theology and current pastoral practice. Williamson is a priest of the 
Westminster Diocese and teaches moral theology at Allen Hall. 



501 



Books on Sin and Reconciliation in Christian Ethics 

Alison, James. The Joy of Being Wrong: Original Sin through Easter Eyes. 
Foreword by Sebastian Moore. New York: Crossroad, 1998. 

Ambe, John B. Meaningful Celebration of the Sacrament of Reconciliation in 
Africa. AMECEA Gaba Publications Spearhead 123-124. Eldoret, Kenya 
:AMECEAGaba, 1992. 

Arnold, Johann Christoph. Seventy Times Seven: The Power of Forgiveness. 
Farmington PA: Plough Publishing, 1997. 

Uses personal stories to emphasize the necessity and power of forgiveness in 
everyday lives. 

Arnold, John. Confession is Good for Your Soul: Receiving the Mercy of a Forgiving 
God. Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Publications, 1995. 

Belton, Francis George. A Manual for Confessors: Being a Guide to the 
Administration of the Sacrament of Penance for the Use of Priests of the 
English Church. Milwaukee: Young Churchman, 1916. ATLA monograph 
preservation program ; ATLA fiche 1 990-5 118. 

Biller, Peter, and Minnis, A.J., eds. Handling Sin: Confession in the Middle Ages. 
York Studies m Medieval Theology, 2. Rochester NY: York Medieval Press, 
1998. 

Papers from a symposium held at the University of York in March 1996. 

Reviewed by Natalie Molineaux in Religious Studies Review 26 (October 
2000): 387-388. 

Boggs, William. Sin Bodly, but Trust God More Boldly Still. Nashville: Abingdon, 
1990. 

Bowman, Peg. At Home with the Sacraments: Reconciliation. Mystic CT: Twenty- 
Third Publications, 1 99 1 . 

Short catechetical work (41 pages) suitable for workshop, RCIA usage, 
parents with children approaching the first celebration of the sacrament of 
reconciliation, etc. 



502 

Buckley, Thomas W. Seventy Times Seven: Sin, Judgment, and Forgiveness in 
Matthew. Zacchaeus Studies: New Testament. Collegeville: Michael 
Glazier/Liturgical Press, 1991. 

Capps, Donald. Deadly Sins and Saving Virtues. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987. 

Capps uses Erik Erikson's life-cyle theory, as well as biblical narratives and 
the Beatitudes to indicate how the so-called "deadly sins" can be combatted 
by cultivating what Capps terms the "saving virtues." Capps links each of the 
traditional deadly sins with a particular stage of personality development, 
such as gluttony with infancy. Capps is professor of pastoral theology at 
Princeton Theological Seminary. 

Catholic Theological Society of America. [CTS A] Committee on the Renewal of the 
Sacrament of Penance. Committee Report : The Renewal of the Sacrament 
of Penance. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Theological Society of America, 
1975. 

Coate, Mary Anne. Sin, Guilt, and Forgiveness. The Hidden Dimension of a 
Pastoral Press. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1994. 

Coffey, David. The Sacrament of Reconciliation. Lex Orandi Series. Collegeville: 
Liturgical Press, 2001. 

A somewhat densely-written and uneven work intending to outline the 
theology of the Sacrament of Reconciliation found in the revised Rite of 
Penance, the 1983 Code of Canon Law, recent Vatican legislation (especially 
in regards to the tight constraints placed on the use of Rite 3 [General 
Absolution]. The primary values of the book are found in its concise 
treatment of the history of the development of the Sacrament (Chapter 2) and 
its articulation of the theology of Sacrament in scholastic thought (especially 
Thomas Aquinas), the Council of Trent, and to a lesser extent Vatican 11 itself 
and contemporary theologians such as Rahner. Less successful is the author' s 
engagement with the actual practices and experiences of the faithful in the 
celebration of the Vatican 11 rites. He relies on many general assumptions, 
which may be partially true, but certainly do not reflect the whole range of 
attempts to celebrate the Sacrament faithfully in accord vsdth both the 
theology and ritual of Vatican II. Surprisingly little attention is paid to the 
voice of Scripture and the public ministry of Jesus Christ as the norma 
normans (norming norm) of both the theology and practice of the Sacrament 
as well as engagement with the notions of social sin and structural evil, which 
certainly would have a key role to play in both the theology and practice of 
Rites Two and Three. One wonders, in fact, about the extent of Coffey's own 



503 

pastoral experience in celebrating the Vatican 11 rite in a variety of different 
milieux, as he provides virtually no personal references to his own 
experiences in celebrating the Sacrament, whether as priest or penitent. As 
the stated editorial intention of the Lex orandi series from the publisher is to 
"derive a theology of the seven sacraments primarily, though not exclusively, 
from the typical celebrations of the reformed Roman Rite" it seems at least 
to this reader that Coffey's book might be faulted precisely for its weaknesses 
in teasing out the implications of the ancient axiom lex orandi, lex credendi 
(which I would render in the sense "as the Church prays so the Church 
believes"). In Coffey's view it seems that lex orandi is not tied as much to 
lex credendi of the People of God (in the sense of a genuine lex [law] being 
grounded and verified in its acceptance and appropriation through the 
consensus fidelium [consensus of the faithftil] of actual practice of the rite), 
as much as it primarily equated to lex in the sense of its articulation in the 
prescriptions of the Rite of Penance itself, the 1983 Code of Canon Law, and 
subsequent enforcement efforts of the Vatican to privilege Rite One 
(individual confession) while virtually excluding Rite Three. Thus, instead 
of lex orandi lex credendi, a more apt sub-title for this book might be ecclesia 
docens (the teaching Church) instructing the ecclesia discens (the learning 
Church), While Coffey's work has its own merits, it would not supplant the 
earlier work of other authors on this Sacrament such as Dallen, Osborne, 
HSring, Gula, etc., and its mode of presentation will make it difficult for a 
generalized readership to follow closely. 

Community of St. Severin. Confession: The Meaning and Practice of the Sacrament 
of Penance. Translated by A. V. Littledale. Chicago: Fides, 1959. 

Originally published in French as La Confession. Desclee de Brouwer et Cie, 
1958. 

Connolly, Hugh. The Irish Penitentials and Their Significance for the Sacrament of 
Penance Today. Blackrock, Co. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995. 

Based on his doctoral dissertation done at the Pontifical Gregorian 
University. 

. Sin. New Century Theology. New York and London: Continuum, 2002. 



Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. for Catholic Studies: An Online Journal 

http://www.adelphi.edu/cst/Reviews/ 

Cuschieri, Andrew. The Sacrament of Reconciliation: A Theological and Canonical 
Treatise. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992. 



504 

Of some value to the specialist interested in developments in the theology and 
canon law of penance. Reviewed by Robert Ombres, O.P. mNew Blackfriars 
74 (1993): 222-223. 

Dallen, James. The Reconciling Community: The Rite of Penance. Studies in the 
Reformed Rites of the Church. New York: Pueblo Publishing, 1986. 

Studies the underlying mystery of the Church in relation to Christ and the 
sinner through the forms the sacrament of reconciliation has taken in the past 
in order to illustrate how the Church can better exercise this ministry m the 
present and future. 

Delhaye, Ph., ed. Pastoral Treatment of Sin. Toumai: Desclee, 1968, 

Demmer, Klaus, M.S.C. Entscheidung und Verhangnis. Die moraltheologische 
Lehre von der Siinde im Licht christologisher Anthropologie. 
Konfessionskundliche und kontroverstheologische Studien, 38. Paderbom: 
Verlag Bonifacius Druckerei, 1976. 

Doran, Kevin. More Joy in Heaven! : Confession, the Sacrament of Reconciliation. 
Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1988. 

Appropriate for adult education and parish lectures, or for the average adult 
Catholic. 

Dudley, Martin, and Rowell, Geoffrey, eds. Confession and Absolution. London: 
SPCK, 1990. 

Eleven essays covering aspects of the Christian tradition, contemporary 
pastoral practice, and the liturgies of penance. 

Pagan, Sedn, S.M. Has Sin Changed? Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1977. 

. Has Sin Changed? A Book on Forgiveness. Collegeville: Michael 



Glazier/Liturgical Press, 1988. 

Favazza, J. A. The Order of Penitents: Historical Roots and Pastoral Future. 
Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1989. 

Fenn, Richard K. The Secularization of Sin: An Investigation of the Daedulus 
Complex. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991. 



505 

Discusses how the experience of sin has changed with the secularization of 
American society. Fenn uses the Daedulus myth as a metaphor to argue that 
the church frequently manipulates people for its own purposes by redirecting 
rather than resolving their guilt and iimer conflicts. 

Fernandez, Domiciano. The Father's Forgiveness: Rethinking the Sacrament of 
Reconciliation. CoUegeville: Liturgical Press, 1991. 

Fleming, Terrance L. The Second Vatican Council's Teaching on the Sacrament of 
Penance and the Communal Nature of the Sacrament. Dissertatio ad lauream 
in Facultate S. Theologiae apud Pontificiam Universitatem S. Thomae de 
Urbe. Romae, 1981. 

Ford, S.D. Sins of Omission: A Primer on Moral Indifference. Minneapolis: 
Fortress Press, 1990. 

Forest, Jim. Confession: Doorway to Forgiveness. New York: Orbis Books, 2002. 

Fucek, Ivan, S.J. H Peccato Oggi: Riflessione teologico-morale. Roma: PUG, 1991. 

Course notes assembled into what in Italian is called a dispense for the use 
of students. This genre is somewhat like a book, but its intended audience is 
rather more limited to the professor's own students. Fucek was professor of 
moral theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. 

Gaffhey, James. Sin Reconsidered. New York: Paulist Press, 1983. 

Gaffhey is Professor of Christian Ethics at Loyola University, New Orleans. 

Gelin, Albert, and Descamps, Albert. Sin in the Bible. Translated by Charles 
Schaldenbrand. New York: Desclee, 1965. 

Originally appeared in French as part of Theologie dupeche. 

Gestrich, Christoph. The Return of Splendor in the World: The Christian Doctrine 
of Sin and Forgiveness. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1998. 

Gives a historical treatment of the doctrine of sin from Augustine to 
contemporary thinkers. Emphasizes the role of sacraments as means for 
forgiveness and treats contemporary difficulties in dealing with the message 
of forgiveness. Gestrich is professor of theology at Humboldt University in 
Berlin. 



506 

Green, Robin. A Step Too Far: Exploration into Reconciliation. London: Darton, 
Longman & Todd, 1990. 

Gula, Richard M. To Walk Together Again: The Sacrament of Reconciliation. New 
York: Paulist Press, 1984. 

Gula is professor of Moral Theology at the Franciscan School of 
Theology/Graduate Theological Union. 

Haber, Joram Graf. Forgiveness. LanhamMD:UniversityPressof America, 1991, 



In this book, Joram Graf Haber presents the first systematic philosophical 
exploration of the nature and value of forgiveness, and argues convincingly 
that it should be elevated to a proper status among other important virtues. 
Haber considers those concepts with which forgiveness is related but from 
which it is distinct, such as condonation, pardon, and mercy. Haber argues 
that we ought to resent wrongdoers when they have caused us injury and that 
failure to do so betrays a lack of self-respect. This being so, we ought not to 
forgive those who have wronged us, unless a wrongdoer has repented the 
wrong he has caused. 

Haring, Bernard, C.Ss.R. Shalom: Peace. The Sacrament of Reconciliation. Rev. 
ed. Garden City: Doubleday Image Book, 1967, 1969. 

This book grew out of courses given at the Pastoral Institute in Conception, 
Missouri in 1964 and 1966, and at the University of San Francisco in 1966. 
Haring ( 1 9 1 2- 1 998) was one of the leading Catholic moral theologians of the 
last half of the twentieth century, and taught primarily in Rome at the 
Alphonsianum, but lectured throughout the world, and played an important 
role as aperitus (expert consultant) at Vatican 11. 

Hamelin, Leonce. Reconciliation in the Church : a theological and pastoral essay 
on the sacrament of penance. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell. 
Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1980. 

Translation of Za reconciliation en Eglise. 

Heggen, F.J. Confession and the Service of Penance. London: Sheed and Ward, 
1967. 



507 

Hellwig, Monika. Sign of Reconciliation and Conversion: The Sacrament of 
Penance for Our Time. Message of the Sacraments 4. Revised Edition. 
Williamsburg: Michael Glazier, 1982, 1984. 

Highfield, Ronald. Barth and Rahner in Dialogue: Toward an Ecumenical 
Understanding of Sin and Evi\. American University Studies: Series 7, 
Theology and Religion, 62. Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, Paris: 
Peter Lang, 1989. 

Jean-Nesmy, Dom Claude. Conscience and Confession. Translated by Malachy 
Carroll. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1965. 

French original: Pratique de la Confession. Les Editiones Desclee de 
Brouwer, 1962. 

Intended as an instruction in the sacrament for educated adult Catholics. 

Jegen, Carol Frances, B.V.M. Restoring Our Friendship with God: The Mystery of 
Redemption from Suffering and Sin. Zaccheus Studies: Theology. 
Wihnington: Michael Glazier, 1989 

John Paul H, Pope. Reconciliatio et Paenitentia. On Reonciliation and Penance in 
the Mission of the Church Today. Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation. 
Vatican City: 1984. 

Post-synodal Apostolic Exhortation on the Sacrament of Reconciliation and 
its underlying theology in the Church today. Pope John Paul II reigned from 
October, 1978 until April 2, 2005. 

Jones, L. Gregory. Embodying Forgiveness: A Theological Analysis. Grand Rapids, 
MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

Forgiveness is a way of life that carries with it distinctive concepts of love, 
community, confession, power, repentance, justice, punishment, 
remembrance, and forgetfiilness. In Part I, Jones first recounts Dietrich 
Bonhoeffer's own struggle against the temptation to make forgiveness either 
too easy or too difficult in his thought and, even more, in his life and death 
at the hands of the Nazis. Jones then considers each of these temptations, 
focusing on the problem of "therapeutic" forgiveness and then forgiveness's 
'eclipse' by violence. Part 2 shows why a trinitarian identification of God is 
crucial for an adequate account of forgiveness. In Part 3 Jones describes 
forgiveness as a craft and analyzes the difficulty of loving enemies. He deals 



508 

particularly with the problems of disparities in power, impenitent offenders, 
and the relations between forgiveness, accountability, and punishment. 

Keams, Patrick. Sinful Social Structures. New York: Paulist Press, 1974. 

Kelly, George Anthony. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation. Synthesis 
series. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1975. 

Kelly, Gerald, S.J. The Good Confessor. New York: The Sentinel Press, 1951. 

Intended as a short pastoral handbook, or overview, for priests in the exercise 
of the Sacrament of Penance. A chapter ofKelly's book is reprinted as "The 
Good Confessor" in The Historical Development of Fundamental Moral 
Theology in the United States: Readings in Moral Theology, 11, 155-166. 
Edited by Charles E. Curran and Richard A. McCormick, S.J. New York: 
Paulist Press, 1999. Kelly was a well-known American moral theologian in 
the period immediately prior to Vatican II. 

Kennedy, Robert J., ed. Reconciliation: The Continuing Agenda. CoUegeville: 
Liturgical Press, 1987. 

Papers from the Fifteenth Annual conference of the Notre Dame Center for 
Pastoral Liturgy held in 1986. 

. Reconciling Embrace: Foundations for the Future of Sacramental 



Reconciliation. LTP, 1998. 

Seven papers and responses from the 1995 Symposium on Reconciliation 
sponsored by the North American Forum on the Catechumenate. 

KOpcke-Duttler, Arnold, Ed. SchuldStrafe—Versohnung. Ein interdisziplindres 
Gesprdch. Mainz: Griinewald, 1991. 

Kurtscheid, Bertrand, O.F.M. A History of the Seal of Confession. Translated by 
F.A. Marks. St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1927. 

Original version appeared in 1912. 

Lauer, Werner. Schuld—das komplexe Phdnomen. Ecihstatter Studien, 6. Kevelaer, 
1972. 

Lopresti, James, S.J. Penance: A Reform Proposal for the Rite. American Essays 
in Liturgy, 6. Washington, D.C: The Pastoral Press, 1987. 



509 
Luini, Edoardo. II Sacramento della penitenza. Casale Monferatto: Piemme, 1990. 

Madigan, Patrick, S.J. Penance, Contemplation, and Service: Pivotal Experiences of 
Christian Spirituality. Collegeville MN: The Liturgical Press, A Michael 
Glazier Book, 1994 

The author argues "that there are three essential elements to an authentic 
spirituality: penance or conversion, contemplation or adoration, and service 
or response." He develops this thesis using contemporary development 
theories, the A A recovery program, scripture, and the writings of the church 
fathers and classical spirituality. 

Massingale, Brian N. "The Social Dimensions of Sin and Reconciliation in the 
Theologies of James H. Cone and Gustavo Gutierrez: A Critical Comparative 
Examination." S.T.D. Dissertation. Rome: AcademiaAlphonsiana, 1991. 

Dissertation done under Brian V. Johnstone, C.Ss.R. Massingale is a Black 
priest of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee and teaches moral theology at St. 
Francis Seminary and Marquette University in Milwaukee. 

McCormick, Patrick, T. Sin as Addiction. New York: Paulist Press, 1989. 

An elaboration of the basic insights included in McCormick's article mStudia 
Moralia. 

Menninger, Karl, M.D. Whatever Became of Sin? New York: Hawthorn Books, 
1973. 

Menninger, William A. The Process of Forgiveness. New York: Continuimi, 1996. 

Miller, Patrick D., Jr. Sin and Judgment in the Prophets: A Stylistic and Theological 
Analysis. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series, 27. Chico(CA): 
Scholars Press, 1982. 

Treats the question of the correspondence of sin and judgment in the 
prophetic writings, concentrating on Hosea, Amos, Micah and Isaiah. 

O'Keefe, Mark, O.S.B. What Are They Saying About Social Sin? New York: Paulist 
Press, 1990. 

Orsy, Ladislas, S.J. The Evolving Church and the Sacrament of Penance. Denville 
NJ: Dimension Books, 1978. 



510 

Orsy is a well-known canonist who teaches at The Catholic University in 
Washington, D.C, 

Osborne, Kenan, O.F.M. Reconciliation and Justification: The Sacraments and Its 
Theology. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. 

Palazzini, [later Cardinal] Pietro. Sin: Its Reality and Nature: A Historical Survey. 
Translated by Brendan Devlin. Dublin: Scepter Publishers, 1964. 

Italian orignal II Peccato. Roma: Edizioni Ares. 

Encyclopedic-type articles covering mainly historical and manualist 
understandings of sin. At the time of this book's appearance Palazzini was 
Secretary to the Sacred Congregation of the Second Vatican Council. He 
later was named cardinal. 

Patton, John. Is Human Forgiveness Possible?: A Pastoral Care Perspective. 
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1985. 

Patton presents case studies from his pastoral counseling practice that 
illustrate the difficulty of forgiving and demonstrate his new solution to the 
problem of forgiveness. Offers practical suggestions. 

Perrin, David B. The Sacrament of Reconciliation: An Existential Approach. 
Roman Catholic Studies 1 1 . Levdston NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998. 

Uses the work of Mircea Eliade on symbols to look at how the traditional 
symbols of stole, words, hands, cross and place function in the ceremony of 
the sacrament of reconciliation. 

Pieper, Josef. The Concept of Sin. Translated by Edward T. Oakes, S.J. South Bend 
IN: St. Augustine's Press, 2001. 

Plantinga, Cornelius, Jr. Not the Way It's Supposed to be: A Breviary of Sin. Grand 
Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 

Plantinga, who writes out of the Reformed tradition, defines sm as "culpable 
disturbance of shalom" (1 6), a disruption of the harmonious order of creation 
in the blurring of distinctions, the rupturing of covenantal bonds, the 
perversion of loyalties and energies, the corruption of bodies and 
relationships, addictive behaviors, attacks on hiraian life and truth, and flights 
from responsibility. His work includes a lot of cultural critique, but his 
treatment of sin is highly individualistic (very little acknowledgment of social 



511 

sin and structural evil) and most of his examples speak to middle-class life 
experiences. 

Poschmann, Bemhard. Penance and the Anointing of the Sick. London: Bums and 
Gates, 1964. 

Poulin, Calvin H., S.J, Preparing Pastoral Confessors: Moral and Practical 
Guidelines. Loyola School of Theology Textbook Series. Quezon City: 
Loyola School of Theology, 1990. 

Guidebook for preparing for the Jesuit confessional examination {Ad 
audiendas), and contains some helpful material for hearing confessions, as 
a well as some contrived case studies meant to illustrate key canonical and/or 
moral points. However, the book is of limited value, and shows little overall 
appreciation for the historical, sacramental and theological dimensions of the 
Sacrament of Reconciliation. 

Reid, Scott M.P. General Sacramental Absolution: An Historical, Canonical and 
Pastoral Perspective. St. Austin's Press. 

Argues that contemporary usage of general absolution in parishes, e.g. during 
Lent or Advent, is illicit if not invalid. 

RIC Supplement. Penance and Reconciliation: International Bibliography 1975- 
1983. RIC Supplement 86-87. Strasbourg: Cerdric Publications, 1984. 

Computer generated and not annotated. However a code for an analytic index 
is provided. 

Roos, JohnR. The Seal of Confession. The Catholic University of America Canon 
Law Studies, 413. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America 
Press, 1960. 

Presented as the author's dissertation in canon law at the Catholic University 
of America. Includes as an appendix the 1 9 1 5 Instruction of the Holy Gffice 
on the seal of confession. 

Schillebeeckx, Edward, ed. Sacramental Reconciliation. Concilium,6\. New York: 
Herder and Herder, 1971 . 

Contains a series of articles on various aspects of the history, dogma, and 
practice of sacramental reconciliation. 



512 

Schoonenberg, Piet J. A. M. Man and Sin: A Theological View. Translated by 
Joseph Donceel. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. 

Schoot, H.J.M. Tibi Soli Peccavi: Thomas Aquinas on Guilt and Forgiveness. 
Utrecht: Peters, 1996. 

[Tibi Soli Peccavi: Against You Alone Have I Sinned] Studies presented at 
the 1995 Congress of the Thomas Institute at Utrecht. 

Shriver, Donald W., Jr. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1995. 

Reviewed by Joseph J. Kotva, Jr. in Theological Studies 57 (1996): 386. 

Sievemich, Michael. Schuld und Sunde in der Theologie der Gegenwart. 
Frankfurter theologische Studien, 29. Frankfurt: Knecht, 1982. 

Stasiak, Kurt, O.S.B. The Confessor's Handbook. New York: Paulist Press, 2000. 

Suchocki, Marjorie Hewitt. The Fall to Violence: Original Sin in Relational 
Theology. New York: Continuum, 1994. 

Suchocki argues that the underlying root of "sin" is not what has been 
traditionally denominated as pride, but is human involvement in the triadic 
structure of our tendency toward aggression and violence, our sense of 
solidarity with each other and the world, and the social structures that mediate 
our consciences and consciousness. This book offers an interpretation of 
forgiveness as the active willing of the well-being of victim and violator. In 
this way, both-enmeshed in the web of contingent creation— can break the 
chain of violence, and thus answer the sinfulness of sin with the graciousness 
of Grace. 

Swinburne, Richard. Responsibility and Atonement. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. 

Considers how the moral concepts of merit and guilt, praise and blame, 
reward and punishment, atonement, forgiveness, mercy, etc. apply to human 
dealings. Then in the light of this discussion Swinburne discusses the 
traditional Christian doctrines of sin, redemption, satisfaction, heaven and 
hell. Swinburne is Nolloth Professor of Philosophy of the Christian Religion 
at Oxford. 

Tambling, Jeremy. Confession: Sexuality, Sin, The Subject. Manchester and New 
York: Manchester Unviersity Press/St. Martin's Press, 1990. 



513 
Reviewed by Jamie S. Scott in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 315. 

Tiemey, Clement. The Sacrament of Repentance and Reconciliation. Dublin: 
Dominican Publications; Sydney: E.J. Dwyer; New York: Costello 
Publishing, 1983. 

Tiemey is a priest of the Archdiocese of Sydney and professor at the Catholic 
Institute of Sydney. 

Turrini, Miriam. La coscienza e le leggi. Morale e diritto nei testi per la 
confessione della prima eta moderna. Bologna: II Mulino, 1991. 

Upton, Julia, R.S.M. A Time for Embracing: Reclaiming Reconciliation. 
CoUegeviile: Liturgical Press, 1999. 

Discusses the Sacrament of Reconciliation, arguing that the sacrament is 
neither well understood nor well celebrated, and that this accounts for the 
relatively low nimibers of people who frequent the sacrament. 

Williams, Watkin Wynn. The Moral Theology of the Sacrament of Penance. 
London, A. R. Mowbray; Milwaukee: Young Churchman, 1917. 

Deals with Penance in the Church of England. 



Virtue, Vision, and Character 

Articles on Character, Vision and Virtue 

AA.VV. "Virtue Ethics." Studies in Christian Ethics 12 (1/1999). 

Entire issue devoted to virtue ethics. 

Abba, Giuseppe. "L'apporto dell'etica tomista aH'odiemo dibattito sulle virtu," 
Salesianum 52 (1990): 799-818. 

Discusses how the Thomistic concept of virtue has been developed in modem 
ethics. 

______ "L'etica aristotelica e tomista delle virtii a confronto con I'etica modema." 

Filosofla ed insegnamento 23 (1991): 27-39. 

. "II soggetto e la virtu. Dall'etica prudenziale di Tommaso all'etica norraativa 

di Duns Scoto e di Ockham." Filosofia e Teologia 5 (1991): 185-206. 

. "Virtu e dovere: valutazione di un recente dibattito." Salesianum 49 (1987): 

421-484. 

Also found in his Felicita vita buona e virtu. Saggio di filosofia morale, 76- 
132. BibliotecadiScienze Religiose, 83. Roma: LAS, 1989. 

Alderman,H. "By Virtue of a Virtue." Review of Metaphysics 36 {\9%2): 127-153. 

Annas, Julia. "Prudence and Morality in Ancient and Modem Ethics." Ethics 105 
(1995): 241-257. 

Audi, Robert. "Acting From Virtue." Mind 104, no. 415 (July 1995): 449-471. 

. "Responsible Action and Virtuous Character." Ethics 101 (1991): 304-321. 

Baron, M. "Varieties of Ethics of Virtue." American Philosophical Quarterly 21 
(1984): 47-53. 

Barton, John. "Virtue in the Bible." Studies in Christian Ethics 12(1/1999): 12-22. 

Beauchamp, Thomas L. "What's So Special about the Virtues." In Virtue and 
Medicine. Explorations in the Character of Medicine, 307-327. Edited by 
Earl E. Shelp. Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster: D. Reidel Publishing, 1 985. 



516 

Becker, L.C. "The Neglect of Virtue." Ethics 85 (1975): 1 10-122. 

Beehler, R. "Critical Notice of Philippa Foot, Virtues and Vices, and James D. 
Wallace, Virtues and Vices. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1983): 
262-264. 

Bevere, Allan R. "Virtuous Liberals: An Essay on Virtue, the Liberal State and the 
Church as Alternative." Ashland TheologicalJournal 25 (1993): 55-67. 

Bondi, Richard. "The Elements of Character." Journal of Religious Ethics 11 
(1984): 201-218. 

Bosley, Richard. "Do Mencius and Hume Make the Same Ethical Mistake?" 
Philosophy East and West 38 (1988): 3-18. 

Bosley argues against confusing virtue with a natural property. Bosley is 
professor of philosophy at the University of Alberta. 

Brandt, R.B. "W.B. [5/c]Frankena and the Ethics of Virtue." The Monist eA {\9%\y. 
271-292. 

Treatment of William K. Frankena's ethics of virtue. 

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "The Tao of Confucian Virtue Ethics." International 
Philosophical Quarterly 35 (1995): 25-41. 

Investigates the key aspects of the Confucian virtue ethics in relation to the 
notions of the chiin-tzu (Superior Person), the Five Relationships of society, 
the particular Confiician virtues of Jen (benevolence) and /; (propriety), the 
moral vision of the tao (Way), and the understanding of the t'ien-ming 
(Mandate of Heaven). The thesis of the article is that the moral matrix 
provided by the web of social relationships is what allows the Confucian 
ethics of virtue to function well. 

Brower, B.W. "Virtue Concepts and Ethical Realism." Journal of Philosophy 85 
(1988): 679-683. 

Carl, Maria. "Law, Virtue, and Happiness in Aquinas's Moral Theory." The 
Thomist 61 (1997): 425-44S. 

Carney, Frederick. "On Frankena and Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 
3 (1975): 18-22. 



517 

. "The Virtue-Obligation Controversy." Journal of Religious Ethics \ (1973): 

5-19. 

Carr, David "Two Kinds of Virtue." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 84 
(1984-1985): 47-61. 

Cessario, Romanus, O.P. "The Meaning of Virtue in the Christian Moral Life; Its 
Significance for Human Life Issues." The Thomist 53 (1989): 173-196. 

"The Christian Virtue of Solidarity." Catholic International 4 (1993): 557-578. 

Dossier of several ecclesial statements covering various instances of pastoral 
application of the idea of Christian solidarity. 

Clowney, D. "Virtues, Rules and the Foundations of Ethics." Philosophia 20 
(1990): 49-68. 

Coetzee, P. "Principles and Virtues— Or Principles Or Virtues." South African 
Journal of Philosophy 4 (1985): 25-28. 

Collins, C. "Before Virtue: A Critique of the New Essentialism in Ethics and 
Education." Proceedings in Philosophy of Education 40 (1984): 209-218. 

Coleman, John, S.J. "Values and Virtues in Advanced Modem Societies." Concilium 
191 (1987): 3-13. 

Coleman is currently the Cassassa Professor of Social Values at Loyola 
Marymount University in Los Angeles, though at the time of this article's 
publication he was professor of sociology of religion at the Graduate 
Theological Union and Jesuit School of Theology in Berkeley. He did his 
own doctoral work imder Robert Bellah at the University of 
California-Berkeley. 

Compagnoni, Francesco. "Virtu cardinali e teologali." In Corso di morale, 553-573. 
Vol. 1. A cura di Tullo Goffi e Giannino Plana. Brescia: Queriniana, 1983. 

Da Re, A. "Virtu, valore, razionalita pratica." In La razionalita pratica. Modelli e 
problemi, \53-l66. Edited by Enrico Berti. Torino: Marietti, 1989. 

Daubercies, P. "Les avatars de la vertu." Melanges de Sciences Religiueses 44 
(1987): 89-107. 



518 

Donahue, James A. "Jesuit Education and the Cultivation of Virtue." Thought 67 
(1992): 192-206. 

One of several articles in this number devoted to the general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." At this writing Donahue was at Georgetown 
University, but now he is the president of the Graduate Theological Union in 
Berkeley, California. 

. "The Use of Virtue and Character in Applied Ethics." Horizons 17 (1990): 

228-243. 

Discusses the criticism made against "virtue ethics" that it is insufficiently 
normative, and therefore unable to assist practical decision making. Donahue 
claims that "virtue ethics" does yield some central moral norms, and also 
provides a compelling framework for moral choice. A case study is also used 
to illustrate the author's position. * *N.B. the pagination is out of order in this 
article: p. 235 should be followed by pp. 238-241 , and then p. 241 should be 
followed by pp. 236-237, which in turn should be followed by pp. 242-243. 

Dy, Manuel B., Jr. "Social Justice, Virtue and Value in Contemporary Society." In 
The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in 
Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redeflnitions, 109-1\^. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Dyck, Arthur J. "A Unified Theory of Virtue and Obligation." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 1 (1973): 37-52. 

Dykstra, Craig R. "Communities of Conviction and the Liberal Arts." Council of 
Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin 19 (1990): 61-66. 

Address presented on 16 March 1990 at the Annual Meeting of the Indiana 
Academy of Religion at DePaul University, Greencastle, Indiana. Dykstra 
describes his concept of a community of conviction, and applies it to the role 
of the university, 

Eisele, Thomas D. "Must Virtue Be Taught?" Modern Age 33 (1990): 235-248. 

Endres, Josef "Tugend im Widerspruch." Theologie der Gegenwart 26 (1983): 
116-126. 

Fleming, A. "Reviving the Virtues." Ethics 90 (1980): 587-595. 



519 

Fletcher, Joseph. "Virtue Is a Predicate." The Monist 54 (1970): 66-85. 

Foot, Philippa. "Utilitarianism and the Virtues." MW 94 (1985): 196-209. 

Frankena, William. "The Ethics of Love Conceived as an Ethics of Virtue." Journal 
of Religious Ethics 1 (1973): 21-36. 

. "Pritchard and the Ethics of Virtue." The Monist 54 (1971): 1-17. 



Furger, Franz. "Prudence and Moral Change." Concilium 5 (4/1968): 62-68. 

Argues for a renewed understanding of prudence as an important guiding 
principle for application of ethics in our modem world and discusses the 
contribution of Rahner's existential ethics. 

Gaita,R. "Virtues, Human Good, and the Unity of a Life." /«^Mjry 26 (1983): 407- 
424. 

Garcia, A.M. "Sobre las virtudes morales." Sapientia 35 (1980): 455-472. 

Garcia, J. "The Primacy of the Virtuous." Philosophia 20 (199): 69-91. 

Gert, Bernard. "Virtue and Vice." Chapter 9 in Morality: A New Justification of the 
Moral Rules, 179-201 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. 

Gert teaches at Dartmouth. 

Gewirth, Alan. "Rights and Virtues." Review of Metaphysics 38 (1985): 739-762. 

Guariglia, O.N. "Moral del Debero Moral de la Virtud?" Critica 18 (1986): 95-1 10. 

Guevin, Benedict M. "The Moral Imagination and the Shaping Power of the 
Parables." Journal of Religious Ethics 17 (1989): 63-79. 

Discusses how the literary impact of the parable stor>' can affect the shaping 
of character. Much of Guevin's essay is done in light of the work of Stanley 
Hauerwas. 

Hauerwas, Stanley M., and Pinches, Charles. "Virtue Christianity Considered." In 
Christian Theism and Moral Philosophy, 287-304. Edited by Michael Beaty, 
Carlton Fisher, and Mark Nelson. Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 
1998. 



520 

Hauerwas, Stanley M. "Character, Narrative, and Growth in the Christian Life," 
Chapter 7 in Id. A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive 
Christian Social Ethic, 129-152. Notre Dame and London; University of 
Notre Dame Press, 1981. 

. "Obligation and Virtue Once More. Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1975): 27- 



"Virtue." In The New Dictionary of Christian Ethics, 648-650. Edited by 
James F. Childress and John Macquarrie. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 
1967, 1986. 

"Virtue." In Powers That Make Us Human. The Foundations of Medical 
Ethics, 1 17-140. Edited by Kenneth L. Vaux. Urbana: University of Illinois 
Press, 1985. 



. "On Medicine and Virtue: A Response." In Virtue and Medicine. 
Explorations in the Character of Medicine, 347-355. Edited by Earl E. 
Shelp. Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster: D. Reidel Publishing, 1985. 

Hawkesworth, M.E. "Freedom and Virtue. The Covert Connection." Cogito 2 
(1984): 73-106. 

Heil, J. "Thoughts on the Virtues." The Journal of Value Inquiry 19 (1985): 27-34. 

Hepburn, R.W. "Vision and Choice in Morality." In Christian Ethics and 
Contemporary Philosophy, 181-195. Edited by Ian T. Ramsey. London: 
SCM Press, 1966. 

Italian translation: in Etica cristiana efilosofia contemporanea. Bologna: 
EDP, 1971. 

Herms, E. "Virtue: A Neglected Concept in Protestant Ethics." Scottish Journal of 
Theology 35 (1983): 481-495. 

Home, James R. "Saintliness and Moral Perfection." Religious Studies 27 (1991): 
463-471. 

Discusses recent literature on the issue of moral perfection and "saints" as 
moral paradigms (which position Home refutes). Article has a certain 
bibliographic value. 

Hudson, S.D. "Character Traits and Desires." Ethics 90 (1980): 539-549. 



521 

. "Taking Virtues Seriously." Australian Journal of Philosophy 59 (1981): 

189-202. 

Hunt, L.H. "Quandaries and Virtues: Against Reductivism in Ethics." Philosophical 
i?ev/ew 98 (1989): 396-398. 

. "Character aiid Thought." American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (197S): 177- 

186. 

Hwang, Kyung-Sig. "Complementarity of Duty Ethics and Virtue Ethics." In The 
World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics 
and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to 
Redefinitions, 78-90. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok 
Publishing Co., 1988. 

Inglis, John. "Aquinas's Replication of the Acquired Moral Virtues: Rethinking the 
Standard Philosophical Interpretation of Moral Virtue in Aquinas." Journal 
of Religious Ethics 27 (Spring 1999): 3-28. 

In\in,T.H. "Prudence and Morality in Greek Ethics." Ethics 105(1995): 284-295. 

Jacobs, Jonathan, and Zeis, John. "The Unity of the Vices." The Thomist 54 (1 990): 
641-653. 

Just as a case can be made for the fact that the virtues are united, inasmuch 
as the moral virtues complement and complete one another, so in the same 
way vices can be viewed in terms of multiple failure and/or lack. 

Jacobs, Jonathan. "Moral Imagination, Objectivity, and Practical Wisdom." 
International Philosophical Quarterly 31 (1991): 23-37. 

Moral imagination is both a central issue in moral psychology and crucial to 
understanding virtue and vice. Discusses David's encounter with the prophet 
Nathan as evidence for a failure in David's own moral imagination. 

Kaczynski, Edward, O.P. "La formazione morale cristiana. La coscienza, la 
responsibilita e la virtu." Angelicum 69 (1992): 351-367. 

Kaczynski teaches at the Angelicum in Rome. 

Keenan, James F., S.J. "Parenting and the Virtue of Prudence." Church (Spring 
1994): 40-42. 



522 

Keenan did his dissertation on the Thomistic distinction between good and 
right under Josef Fuchs at the Pontifical Gregorian University. Currently 
Keenan teaches moral theology at the Weston Jesuit School of Theology in 
Cambridge, MA. He now teaches at Boston College. 

. "Proposing Cardinal Virtues." Theological Studies 56 (December 1995): 709- 

29. 

_. "Virtue and Identity." Concilium (2/2000): 67-77. 

One of several articles on identity and narrative which treat this theme in 
relation to moral philosophy and/or theology. 

. "Virtue Ethics." In Christian Ethics: An Introduction, 84-94. Edited by 
Bernard Hoose. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998. 

. "Virtue Ethics: Making a Case as It Comes of Age." Thought 67 (1992): 1 1 5- 

127. 

One of several articles in this number devoted to tlie general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." Keenan gives an overview of the development of 
the ethics of virtue theories in the English-speaking world (primarily the 
USA) from 1973 to present, highlighting some of the differences between 
these theories and those centered on deontological normative ethics. 

. "The Virtue of Prudence." C/iwrc/i Fall (1994): 38-40. 

Discusses temperance, using as a contextual example undergraduates and 
drinking. 

Kilcullen, John. "Utilitarianism and Virtue." Ethics 93 (1983): 451-466. 

Kosman, L.A. "Being Properly Affected: Virtues and Feelings in Aristotle's Ethics." 
In Essays on Aristotle's Ethics, 103-116. Edited by Amelie 0. Rorty. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. 

Kotva, Joseph J., Jr. "An Appeal for a Christian Virtue Ethic." Thought 67 (1992): 
158-180. 

One of several articles in this number devoted to the general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." Kotva gives a good overview of the basic elements 
of an ethics of virtue theory, and shows the affinity of this sort of theory to 



523 

Christian ethics. Kotva also shows how rules can and do flinction in a 
teleological theory. 

. "Christian Virtue Ethics and the 'Sectarian Temptation'." The Heythrop 

Jbwwa/ 35 (1994): 35-52. 

Lamoureux, Patricia A. "Deadly Vices and Redeeming Virtues: A Feminist 
Perspective." New Theology Review 8, no. 2 (May 1995): 6-20. 

Langan, John, S.J. "Augustine on the Unity and Interconnection of the Virtues." 
Harvard Theological Review 72 (1979): 81-95. 

Livezey, Lois Gehr. "Goods, Rights, and Virtues: Toward an Interpretation of 
Justice in Process Thought." In Issues of Justice: Social Sources and 
Religious Meanings, 91-110. Edited by Warren R. Copeland and Roger D. 
Hatch. Macon (GA): Mercer University Press, 1988. 

Livezey teaches at Princeton Theological Semmary. 

Lobkowicz, N. "La filosofia pratica come dottrina della virtu. Tentativo per una 
riabilitazione." La Nottola 2 (1983): 5-22. 

Lombardi, L.G. "Character versus Codes: Models for Research Ethics." 
InternationalJournal of Applied Philosophy 5 (1990): 21-28. 

Louden, R.B. "On Some Vices of Virtue Ethics." American Philosophical 
Quarterly 21 (1984): 227-236. 

Magill, Gerald. "Moral Imagination in Theological Method and Church Tradition: 
John Henry Newman." Theological Studies 53 (1992): 451-475. 

Discusses how Newman integrated three characteristics of discernment in the 
moral imagination: dynamic, holistic, and subjective. Magill teaches 
theology at St. Louis University. 

Mauri Alvarez, Margarita. "Perspectivas actuales sobre la virtud. Estudio 
bibliografico." Pensamiento 48 (1992): 459-480. 

Composed in April 1992. 

McClendon, James William, Jr. "In Search of an Ethics of Character." In his 
Biography as Theology: How Life Stories Can Remake Today's Theology, 13- 
38. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1974. 



524 

McClendon was a Baptist, who nevertheless taught at the Church Divinity 
School of the Pacific (Episcopalian) at the Graduate Theological Union 
(GTU) of Berkeley, California. 

McDowell, John. "Virtues and Reason." The Monist 62 (1979): 331-350. 

Meilaender, Gilbert. "Josef Pieper: Explorations in the Thought of a Philosopher of 
Vhlue." The Journal of Religious Ethics 11 (1983): 114-134. 

Meilaender is Professor of Religion at Oberlin College. 

. "Virtue in Contemporary Religious Thought." In Virtue. Public and Private, 

7-29. Edited by Richard John Neuhaus. Grand Rapids: William B. 
Eerdmans, 1986. 

_. "The Virtues. A Theological Analysis." In Virtue and Medicine. 



Explorations in the Character of Medicine, 133-150. Edited by Earl E. 
Shelp. Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster: D. Reidel Publishing, 1985. 

Mieth, Dietmar and Pohier, Jacques, eds. "Changing Values and Virtues." Concilium 
191 (1987). 

Several articles on this general theme. 

Mieth, Dietmar. "Continuity and Change in Value-Orientations." Concilium 191 
(1987): 47-59. 

Miller, David. "Virtues, Practices and Justice." In After Maclntyre: Critical 
Perspectives on the Work ofAlasdair Maclntyre, 245-264. Edited by John 
Horton and Susan Mendus. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 
1994. 

Montague, Phillip. "Virtue Ethics: A Qualified Success Story." American 
Philosophical Quarterly 29 (1992): 53-62. 

Argues that Virtue Ethics fails to provide a comprehensive account of the 
respective roles of act-appraisal and person-appraisal in moral theory, and 
goes on to suggest how this relation should be understood. Montague teaches 
at Western Washington University. 

Moravcsik, J.M. "The Role of Virtues in Alternatives to Kantian and Utilitarian 
Ethics." Philosophia 20 (1990): 33-48. 



525 

Moser, AiitSnio and Leers, Bernardino. "God's Virtue and Human Virtues." Chapter 
8 in Moral Theology: Dead Ends and Ways Forward, 153-174. Translated 
by Paul Bums. Wellwood: Bums & Oates; and Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 
1990. 

Translation from the Portuguese: Teologia moral: Impasses e alternativas. 
Petrdpolis: Editoria Vozes Ltda, 1987. 

Italian translation: Teologia morale: Conflitti e alternative. A cura di G. 
Pompei. Assisi: Citadella, 1988. 

Spanish translation: Teologia Moral. Conflictosy Alternativas. Cristianismo 
y Sociedad. Traducido por Alfonso Ortiz Garcia. Madrid: Ediciones 
Paulinas, 1987. 

In German: Moraltheologie: Engpasse undAuswege. Bibliotek Theologie 
der Befreiung. Diisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1989. 

Written in Brazil, this work deals with moral theology and theology of 
liberation. This chapter considers virtue especially within the context of 
social ethics, particularly in the Latin American situation of systemic 
oppression. 

Mounce, H.O. "Virtue and Understanding." ^«a/;^5/5 27 (1967): 11-17. 

Murdoch, Iris. "Vision and Choice in Morality." In Christian Ethics and 
Contemporary Philosophy, 195-218. Edited by Ian T. Ramsey. London: 
SCM Press, 1966. 

Italian translation in Etica cristiana e filosofia contemporanea. Bologna: 
EDB, 1971. 

Nash, James A. "Toward the Revival and Reform of the Subversive Virtue: 
Frugality." The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics (1995): 137-60. 

Nielsen, Kai. "Critique of Pure Virtue: Animadversions on a Virtue-Based Ethics." 
In Virtue and Medicine. Explorations in the Character of Medicine, 133-150. 
Edited by Earl E. Shelp. Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster: D. Reidel 
Publishing, 1985. 

Also found as Chapter 1 1 in Nielsen's own book, Why Be Moral?, 229-244. 
Buffalo: Prometheus, 1989. Nielsen is professor of philosophy at the 
University of Calgary, Alberta. 



526 

Novak, Michael. "Structures of Virtue, Structures of Sin: A Theology of Natural 
Libert>'." America 160 (28 January 1989): 54-60. 

O'Donahue, J.A. "A Return to Virtue." C/jw/r/? 5 (1987): 48-54. 

Ogletree, Thomas W. "Values, Obligations, and Virtues: Approaches to Bio-medical 
Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics A {1916}'. 105-130. 

O'Meara, Thomas F., O.P. "Virtues in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas." 
Theological Studies 58 (1997): 254-285. 

Argues that much of the contemporary work on the ethics of virtue in Thomas 
Aquinas is deficient since it neglects or insufficiently considers the relation 
of Thomas' virtue theory to his larger theological project. O'Meara seeks to 
give an exposition of Thomas' thought which situates the treatment of the 
virtues in the context of God, God's grace, and the relationships these have 
with human nature. 

Outka, Gene H. "Character, Conduct, and the Love Commandment." In Norm and 
Context in Christian Ethics, 37-66. Edited by Gene H, Outka and Paul 
Ramsey. London: SCM Press, 1968. 

. "Character, Vision, and Narrative." Religious Studies Review 6/2 (April, 

1980): 110-118. 

Discusses the way these terms function in the work of Stanley Hauerwas. 

Palazzani, L. "Bioetica dei principi e bioetica delle virtu. II dibattito attuale negli 
Stati Uniti." Medicina e morale 42 (1992): 59-85. 

Patrick, Anne. "Narrative and the Social Dynamics of Virtue." Concilium 191 
(1987): 69-80. 

Peerenboom, R.P. "Confucian Justice: Achieving a Human Society." International 
Philosophical Quarterly 30(1990): 17-32. 

Discusses Confucian notion of a just society in contrast to John Rawls' well- 
known concept of "justice as fairness." Suggests that the Confucian concept 
might be both a challenge and a corrective to Rawls'. Good exposition of the 
importance of an ethics of virtue. 

Pence, E. Gregory. "Recent Works on Virtues." American Philosophical Quarterly 
21 (1984): 281-297. 



527 
Perotto, L. "La virtu della gratitudine." Sacra Doctrina 35 (1990): 58-70. 

Analyzes the Thomistic doctrine of gratitude, with references also Cicero and 
Seneca. 

Perrett, Roy W., and Patterson, John. "Virtue Ethics and Maori Ethics." Philosophy 
East and West A\ (1991): 185-202. 

The authors contend that the New Zealand Maori ethics is essentially a virtue 
ethics. Perrett and Patterson are members of the philosophy department of 
Massey University, New Zealand. 

Peterson, John. "The Interdependence of Intellectual and Moral Virtue in Aquinas." 
The Thomist 61 (1997): 449-454. 

Pesch, Otto Hermann. "The Theology of Virtue and the Theological Virtues." 
Concilium 191 (1987): 81-100. 

Philibert, Paul J., O.P. "Lawrence Kohlberg's Use of Virtue in His Theory of Moral 
Development." International Philosophical Quarterly 15 (1975): 455-479. 

Pinches, Charles. "Pagan Virtue and Christian Prudence." Journal of Religious 
Ethics 23, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 93-115. 

Pinckaers, Servais, O.P. "Habitude et Habitus." Dictionnaire de Spiritualite. Vol. 
7,2-11. Paris, 1969. 

. "La vertu est toute autre chose qu'ime habitude." Nouvelle Revue Theologique 

82 (1960): 387-403. 

Also found in Le renouveau de la morale, 144-164. Toumai: Casterman, 
1964. 

Italian translation: "La virtu e tutt'altra cosa che un abitudine." In II 
rinnovamento della morale. Torino: Borla, 193-214. 

Pincoffs, Edmund. "Quandary Ethics." MW 80 (1971): 552-571. 

Also found in Revisions: Changing Perspectives in Moral Philosophy, 92- 
1 12. Edited by Stanley M. Hauerwas and Alasdair Maclntyre. Notre Dame: 
University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 



528 

Porter, Jean. "Perennial and Timely Virtues: Practical Wisdom, Courage and 
Temperance." Concilium 191 (1987): 60-68. 

Porter is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. 

. "Recent Studies in Aquinas' Virtue Ethic: A Review Essay." Journal of 

Religious Ethics 26 (Spring 1998): 191-215. 

. "What the Wise Person Knows: Natural Law and Virtue in Aquinas' Summa 

Theologiae." Studies in Christian Ethics 12 (1/1999): 57-69. 

Putrill, R.L. "Alpha and Beta Virtues and Vices." Faith and Philosophy 4 (1987): 
319-329. 

Ray, A. Chadwick "A Fact About the Virtues." The Thomist 54 (1990): 429-451. 

Robbins, J. Wesley. "Frankena on the Difference between an Ethic of Virtue and an 
Ethic of Duty." Journal of Religious Ethics 4 (1976): 57-62. 

. "On the Role of Vision in Morality." Journal of the American Academy of 

Religion 45 (1977): 643-655. 

Roberts, Robert C. "Emotions among the Virtues of the Christian Life." Journal of 
Religious Ethics 20 (1992): 37-68 

Roberts holds that emotions enter into the structure of Christian virtues in 
especially central ways because of special features of the Christian virtues- 
system. He delineates four kinds of virtues: emotion virtues, behavioral 
virtues, virtues of will power, and attitudinal virtues. Roberts examines in 
depth an example of each of the last three virtues to indicate the structural 
dependency of these virtues on the Christian emotions. Roberts is Professor 
in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology at Wheaton College. 

Rodes,R.E. "On Law and Virtue." In Virtue. Public and Private, 30-42. Edited by 
Richard J. Neuhaus. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1986. 

Rogers, Eugene F., Jr. "Aquinas on Natural Law and the Virtues in Biblical Context: 
Homosexuality as a Test Case." Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (Spring 
1999): 29-56. 

Schaller, W.E. "Are Virtues No More Than Dispositions To Obey Moral Rules?" 
Philosophy 20 (1990): 195-207. 



529 

Schenck, David, Jr. "Re-casting the 'Ethics of Virtue/Ethics of Duty Debate'." 
Journal of Religious Ethics 4 (1976): 269-286. 

Contends that this debate involves more than a disagreement about normative 
ethics. Using an outline of William Frankena's understanding of the 
conditions of moral reasoning, Schenk indicates where and why the disputed 
points in the debate naturally arise. Would be of some help in distinguishing 
characteristics of this debate, especially in terras of Frankena and Hauerwas. 

Schlogel, Herbert, O.P. "Tugend-Kasuistik-Biographie. Trends und okumenische 
Perspektiven in der Moraltheologie der USA." Catholica (3/1 997): 1 87-200. 

Discusses authors, approaches and issues prominent in moral theology in the 
United States in the mid-1990's. 

Schmitz, Philip, S.J. "Tugend der alte und der neue Weg zur inhaltlichen 
Bestimmung des sittlich richtigen Verhaltens." Theologie und Philosophie 
54 (1979): 161-182. 

Also found in Menschsein und sittliches Handeln. Vernachldssigte Begriffe 
in der Moraltheologie, 107-132. Wiirzburg: Echter Verlag, 1980. 

Schneewind, J.B. "The Misfortunes of Virtue." Ethics 101 (October, 1990): 42-63. 

Schottlaender, R. "Die Tugendpragmatik im ethischen RelationsgefUge," 
Philosophisches Jahrbuch 90 (1983): 246-257. 

Schiiller, Bruno, S.J. "Die vermissten Tugenden." In Die Begrundung sittlicher 
Urteile. Typen ethischer Argumentation in der Moraltheologie, 299-305. 
2nd ed. Dusseldorf: Patmos, 1980. 

Italian translation of the first edition: La fondazione dei giudizi morali. 
Assisi, 1975. Also found in L'uomo veramente uomo. La dimensione 
teologica dell'etica nella dimensione etica dell'uomo. CoUectio-Etica, 3. A 
cura di S. Privitera. Palermo: Edi Oftes, 1987. Italian translation of two 
books of Schiiller; Die Begrundung sittlicher Urteile. Typen ethischer 
Argumentation in der Moraltheologie, (Dtisseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1980), 
and Der menschliche Mensch. Aufsatze zur Metaethik und zur Sprache der 
Moral, (Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1982). 

. "Zu den Schwierigkeiten, die Tugend zu rehabilitieren." Theologie und 

Philosophie 58 (1983): 535-555. 



530 

Semmel, Bernard. "Democracy, Virtue, and Religion: A Historical Perspective," In 
Virtue. Public and Private, 43-52. Edited by Richard J. Neuhaus. Grand 
Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1986. 

Sichel, Betty A. "Virtue and Character: Moral Languages and Moral Education." 
The Clearing House 64 (1991): 297-300. 

Slote, Michael. "Is Virtue Possible?" Analysis 42 (1982): 70-76. 

Slote is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Maryland, College Park. 

____. "Some Advantages of Virtue Ethics." In Identity, Character, and Morality: 
Essays in Moral Psychology, 429-448. Edited by Owen Flanagan and Amelie 
Oksenberg Rorty. London: MIT Press, 1990. 

According to Slote a virtue ethics can help correct the lack of attention to the 
moral agent's own self, which "moral asymmetry" Slote maintains is found 
in Kantian moral theory. 

Smith, J. "Can Virtue Be in the Service of Bad Acts? A Response to Philippa Foot." 
New Scholasticism 58 (1984): 357-373. 

Smith, Joanmarie. "The Need for "Rule" Ethics and the Practice of Virtue." 
Religious Education 80 (1985): 255-264. 

Fearing an anti-intellectual strain m the current ethics of virtue, the author 
questions, in particular, assumptions in the work of Stanley Hauerwas. She 
criticizes his assumption that science claims to be value free, ahistorical or 
have access to a universal and certain truth. The author also takes issue with 
Hauerwas' contention that Christianity has a unique ethics. The article draws 
parallels between medical education, the study of ethics, health education, 
and education in virtue, concluding that as medical education is not to be 
confused with health education but feeds into it, so the study of ethics cannot 
be replaced by education in virtue. 

Spohn, WilUam C. "Passions and Principles." Theological Studies 52 (1991): 69-87. 

As part of the "Notes in Moral Theology: 1 990" Spohn reviews and discusses 
recent moral literature that stress aspects of the emotions, character, and 
virtue, and their involvement in morality. Two key concepts used in 
reference to the emotions are the criterion of "appropriateness" for moral 
assessments and strategies and the "education" of the emotions. Spohn did 
his doctoral dissertation in Christian ethics under James M Gustafson at the 



531 

University of Chicago on Jonathan Edwards' "Reasons of the Heart" and 
taught for many years at the Jesuit School of Theology-at-Berkeley, before 
taking a chair at Santa Clara University where he taught until his death in 
2005. 

Stoeckle, Bemhard, O.S.B. "Rechtfertigung der Tugend Heute." Stimmen der Zeit 
192 (1974): 291-305. 

. "Tugend." In Worterhuch der Christlichen Ethik, lAZ-lAl. Herausgegeben 

vonB. Stoeckle, O.S.B. Freiburg: Herder, 1975, 1983. 

Italian translation: "Virtii." In Dizionario di etica cristiana, 461-467. 
Edizione italiana a cura di Tullo Goffi. Assisi: Cittadella, 1978. 

Strasser, M. "The Virtues of Utilitarianism." Philosophy 208 (1990): 209-226. 

Swanton, Christine. "Profiles of the Virtues." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 
(1995): 47-72. 

Torchia, N. Joseph. "The Significance of the Moral Concept of Virtue in St. 
Augustine's Ethics." The Modern Schoolman 68 (1990): 1-17. 

At this writing Torchia was a postdoctoral fellow at Catholic University in 
Washington, D.C. 

Treloar, John L., S.J. "Moral Virtue and the Demise of Prudence in the Thought of 
Francis Suarez." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 65 (1991): 387- 
405. 

One of several articles in this number which treat Suarez. 

Trianosky, G. W. "Natural Affection and Responsibility for Character: A Critique for 
Kantian View of the Virtues." In Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays 
in Moral Psychology, 93-109. Edited by Owen Flanagan and Am^lie 
Oksenberg Rorty. London: MIT Press, 1990. 

. "Supererogation, Wrongdoing, and Vice: On the Autonomy of the Ethics of 

Virtue." The Journal of Philosophy 83 (1986): 26-40. 

. "Virtue, Action, and the Good Life: Toward a Theory of the Virtues." Pacific 

Philosophical Quarterly 68 (1987): 124-147. 



532 

van der Ven, Johannes. "Moral Formation in the Church." Concilium 191 (1987): 
117-127. 

Waide, J. "Virtues and Principles." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research A% 
(1987-1988): 455-472. 

Waller, B.N. "The Virtues of Contemporary Emotivism." ErkenntnislS (1986): 61- 
75. 

Walsh, J.J. "Buridan on the Connection of the Virtues." Journal of the History of 
Philosophy 24 (1986): 453-482. 

John Buridan was a philosopher at tiie University of Paris in the Middle 

Ages. 

Watson, Gary. "On the Primacy of Character." In Identity, Character, and Morality: 
Essays in Moral Psychology, 449-469. Edited by Owen Flanagan and Ara^lie 
Oksenberg Rorty. London: MIT Press, 1990. 

In contra-distinction to John Rawls' formulation of two types of moral 
theories, those which define "right" in terms of good, and those which do not, 
Watson seeks to elaborate a fuller moral theory by retrieving the role and 
distinctive character of an ethics of virtue. Watson is a philosophy professor 
at the University of California, Irvine. 

Weithman, Paul J. "McDowell, Hypothetical Imperatives and Natural Law." 
American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 65 (1991): 177-187. 

Discusses John McDowell's "Are Moral Requirements Hypothetical 
Imperatives?" Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (1978): 13-29, as well 
as other philosophers (e.g. Philippa Foot). Weithman holds McDowell's 
claim that "the motivational force of requirements of virtue can be adequately 
accounted for without appeal to inclinations of the virtuous person" is untrue 
for at least one claim of imperatives of virtue, i.e., imperatives which 
"express requirements of virtue arrived at through deliberation." p. 178. 

Werpehowski, William. "Weeping at the Death of Dido: Sorrow, Virtue, and 
Augustine's Confessions" Journal of Religious Ethics 19 (1991): 175-192. 

Christian ethics which consider the character of Jesus' disciples must also be 
concerned with both virtues and v^th the feelings or affections appropriate 
to such a character. Explores the affection of sorrow in its cormection with 
the virtue of charity, using Augustine, Kierkegaard, Calvin. Concentrates on 



533 

Augustine's Confessions to show how one may come to sorrow well, and 
points out a significant sort of failure in discrimination in how one should 
feel. 

Whitehill, James. "Buddhist Ethics in Western Context: The 'Virtues' Approach." 
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 1 (1994): 1-22. 

Wogaman, J. Philip. "Christian Character and the Virtuous Life." Chapter 2 in his 
Christian Mar alJudgment. Louisville: Westminster, John Knox Press, 1989. 

This is a revised edition of the author's 1976 work, A Christian Method of 
Moral Judgment, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976). Wogaman is 
Professor of Christian Social Ethics at Wesley Theological Seminary in 
Washington, D.C. 

Wolf, Jean-Claude. "A Bibliography on the Virtues." Concilium 191 (1987): 131- 
134. 

Wolf, Susan. "Moral Saints." \n Moral Philosophy: Selected Readings. Edited by 
George Sher. Toronto: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1987. 

Woodill, Joseph. "Virtue Ethics: An Orthodox Appreciation." Thought 67 (1992): 
181-191. 

One of several articles in this number devoted to the general theme, "Virtues 
and the New Casuistry." 

Yearley, Lee H. "New Religious Virtues and the Study of Religion." Fifteenth 
Annual University Lecture in Religion at Arizona State University. (February 
10, 1994). 

Suggests the possibility of discerning "new" virtues, such as the virtue of 
regret, as an important development in virtue ethics theory. 



Books on Character, Vision and Virtue 

Abb^, Giuseppe. Felicita vita buonae virtu. Saggio difilosofia morale. «Biblioteca 
di Scienze Religiose, 83». Roma: LAS, 1989. 

Reviewed by Giuseppe Razzino in Filosofia e Teologia 5 (1991): 315-318; 
review by Terence Kennedy, C.Ss.R. in Studia Moralia 29 (1991): 498-501 . 



534 

Adams, Robert M. The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology. 
New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. 

Arnold, Barry. The Pursuit of Virtue: The Union of Moral Psychology and Ethics. 
American University Studies, Series V, Philosophy. New York: Peter Lang, 
1989. 

Barbour, John D. Tragedy as a Critique of Virtue: The Novel and Ethical Reflection. 
Scholars Press Studies in the Humanities Series. Chico: Scholars Press, 
1984. 

Berthoff, Warner. Literature and Continuances of Virtue. Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1986. 

Berthoff proposes a conception of virtue, in the word's generative and root 
sense, as the essential subject matter of imaginative literature. He uses the 
term, virtue, to cormote the integrity of the force which comes from persons, 
societies, or texts in consequence of their accomplishing their distinctive 
ends. Berthoff also outlines the notion of virtue from classical times to the 
present, and examines it as a formative presence in such major literary works 
as Hamlet, All's Well That Ends Well, The Charterhouse of Parma, plus 
Robert Musil's The Man Without Qualities as well as the lyric poetry of 
Shelley, Yeats, and Frank CHara. Berthoff is the Cabot Professor of English 
and American Literatu